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In presenting this histoiy of Adams County I wish to acknowledge 
my indebtedness to many who have kindly and competently assisted. 
To the supervising editor, Judge William R. Burton, I am indebted 
for frequent helpful suggestions as well as his own contribution, that 
portion of Chapter X that deals with the bench and the portion of 
Chapter XXI that deals with the homesteader and the homestead 

In Chapter XVIII are the contributions of INIrs. John H. Slaker 
and ]Mrs. William H. Fuller. Mrs. Slaker's contribution is a faith- 
ful and detailed record of the Woman's Club, an organization of 
ever growing importance in Hastings. INIrs. Slaker has also sketched 
the earlier cultm-al clubs of which it is the outgrowth. INIrs. Fuller 
has here preserved the record of Niobrara Chapter of the Daughters 
of The American Revolution. 

JNIr. A. H. Cramer's intin\ate acquaintance with early affairs and 
his clear recollections of them have proven of inestimable value in this 
compilation. If this volume shall in any measure enhance the appreci- 
ation of its readers of the community described, its growth and institu- 
tions, its possibilities, and of the men and women who have made it 
what it is. and will stimulate in them a desire to preserve the records 
of future developments — then the work shall not entirely have failed 
of its purpose. 


Hastings, Nebraska, December 15, 1916. 



Nebraskaland, Nebraskaland, 

The state of Sixty-Seven, 
Xo other place at man's command. 

Comes nearer being heav'n. 
It's rich beyond one's fondest dream, 

Has wealth beyond compare, 
There's untold gold in field and stream. 

There's wealth most anywhere. 


Xebraskaland, Xebraskaland, 

I love your waving fields; 
Nebraskaland, Xebraskaland 

I love your golden yields. 
It matters not where I may be, 

What foreign fields I roam. 
You'll always be most dear to me 

I love you, 'cause you're home. 

How fertile are the fields today. 

What grandeur decks the home. 
Where buffalo did sport and play. 

And red men free did roam. 
There's golden rod on hill and dale 

The flower of o>ir state* 
In days gone by it marked the "trail," 

The pioneers relate. 

The house of sod has had its day. 

It served its purpose well, 
Prosperity now holds full sway. 

As one can quickly tell. 
In education there's no flaw 

Nebraska's hard to beat. 
Equality before the law 

Deals justice that is meet. 

No fairer skies in all the land, 

X^o softer zephyrs blow, 
X'o greener fields on ev'ry hand. 

Can any country show. 
That's why X^ebraska stands out free. 

That's why I love her so 
And home to me 'twill always be. 

No matter where I go. 






























chaptp:r XIV 









^vomen's clubs 288 


























Past and Present of Adams County 


The history of the Adams County we know spans but a brief 
i:)eriod of time, and is cliaracterized by activities we can understand 
witli a fair degree of comprehension. While the progress of develop- 
ment has been rapid and of a kind that may well awaken pride, yet 
it would seem abrupt and imconnected with the story of man Avere 
we not upon occasion to recall that this very territory uj^on which 
we stand has been linked with the destinies of men and nations beyond 
the sea ; its fate indeed has hung upon the issues of battles and there- 
fore upon the cause of battles. 

In common with the remainder of the soil embraced within the 
boundaries in Nebraska, Adams County was a portion of the Louisi- 
ana Territory and therefore was successively under the dominion of 
Spain and France. It was in the spring of 1541 that Ferdinand de 
Soto is said to have first seen the jMississijjpi River. He crossed the 
river far to the south of the latitude of Nebraska and carried his 
explorations northwestwards. That he penetrated the unknown 
country as far as Nebraska is doubtful; some writers, however, con- 
tend that he did. It is true that portions of old Spanish armor and 
equipment have been found within the state and this probably is the 
foundation for the belief that De Soto's expedition reached this 

Whether or not this expedition reached Nebraska it is certain 
that it was fruitful of practically no result, else a definite impression 
Mould have been left upon the history of the region. By right of 
discovery, however, Spain laid claim to this territory, but it did 
nothing towards its development. 


In April, 1682, La Salle completed the exploration of the ] 
sippi River and at its mouth erected a column, inscribed: Louis le 
Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre." The Frenchman took pos- 
session of the territory through which he had passed for his country 
and named it Louisiana in honor of his king, under whose authority 
he carried on the exi)loration. 

LTnlike Spain nearly a century and a half previous, the govern- 
ment of France at once took steps to hold the vast territory added 
to her dominions by the explorations of La Salle. This territory, 
comprising about one million square miles, remained in the posses- 
sion of France until following the conclusion of the Seven Years' 
War in Europe, when Louisiana Territory was ceded to Sjiain. This 
was in 1762. 

Spain's retention of the inland empire was short lived. By 1800 
Napoleon Bonaparte at the head of the French army had placed the 
monarchies of Europe in danger, and in that year Spain was com- 
pelled to yield to the conqueror and the Louisiana Territory once 
more came into the possession of France. 

Napoleon was fully alive to the value of the great American 
possession and actually began the fortifying of the mouth of the 
INIississippi. While as yet the Monroe Doctrine had not been pro- 
mulgated, yet the United States protested vigorously the action of 
Napoleon, foreseeing the endangering of the right of navigation of 
the river. The circumstances of Napoleon at that time were favor- 
able to his heeding the protest of the Jefferson administration. The 
conqueror's treasury was low and he undoubtedly sensed that the supe- 
riority of the English navy would eventually overcome the French 
sea forces, in which event the territory would become the proj)erty 
of England through conquest. 

To avert this eventuality was desirable from Napoleon's point of 
view, hence the cession of the territory to the United States was 
negotiated with comparative ease. On April 30, 1803, the arrange- 
ments for the transfer were completed by the agents of the two coun- 
tries. The price paid by the United States for the important terri- 
tory was $11,250,000. In addition, by a separate convention, the 
United States agreed to pay a sum not to exceed, inclusive of interest, 
$3,7i)0,000 which was owed by France to American citizens. Con- 
gress ratified the treaty, sealing the transaction between the two 
countries ^Nlarch 9, 1804. Bonaparte received in payment 6' , bonds, 
payable fifteen years after date, and with the stipulation that he 
would not dispose of the bonds at a price degrading to the credit of 
tlie American Government. 


It is not without interest to note what distant events had to do 
with the disposition of the soil of Adams Connty, and to speculate 
what might have happened had settlements heen otherwise than as 
they were. Napoleon might have failed to see the destruction of his 
sea power and the territorj- might have hecome a part of the English 
dominions. Another war with the British concerning this territory 
might have resulted, and inasmuch as the following period afforded 
times when England was unoccupied with continental enemies, she 
might have been able to contest this territory with greater vigor than 
that characterizing other contests with the United States. At any rate 
the territory of which Adams County formed a part passed through 
some momentous and precarious stages. 

During this remote period of its history it may be recalled that 
the rulers of Adams County, in common with the great territory, 
bore strange names. Under France were the following viceroys: 

Robert, Cavalier de La Salle 1682-1688 

^Nlanjuis de Sanville 1689-1700 

Bienville 1701-1712 

Lamothe Catlillar 1713-1715 

De L'Epinay 1716-1717 

Bienville 1718-1723 

Boisbriant 1724 

Bienville 1732-1741 

Baron de Kelerec 1753-1762 

D'Abbadie 1763-1766 

Tender Spain are recorded the following semi-military governors: 

Antonio de Ulloa 1767-1768 

Alexander O'Reilly 1768-1769 

Louis de Unzago 1770-1776 

Bernardo de Galbez 1777-1784 

Estevar ]\Iiro 1785-1787 

Francisco Luis Hortu, Baron of Carondelet. 1789-1792 

Gayoso de Lemos 1793-1798 

Sebastian de Casa, Calvo y O'Farrel 1798-1799 

Jean Manual de Salcedo 1800-1803 

Are they not queer sounding names to have had authority over 
the soil of Adams County? 

As historians delve more deeply into the early history of the 
United States it is being discovered that the western plains figured 


much more in the activities of the early explorers than was for a time 
realized. This information is heing dug out from the lumber rooms 
of wealthy Spanish and French families. Letters, journals and 
reports found in the national libraries of Paris, Madrid and JNIexico 
are revealing that the location and character of the region of which 
Adams County was a jjart was known with a fair degree of accuracy 
before settlements were made along the Atlantic coast. 

In the library of St. Mary's College in Montreal only a few years 
ago was found a map executed by Father INIarquette in 1673. Schol- 
ars who have examined it believe that the map is authentic. Upon 
this map Nebraska is delineated with remarkable accuracy. The 
general course of the INIissouri is given to a point north of the north- 
ern boundary of Nebraska; the course of the Platte River is shown 
witli but little deviation from accuracy and among the Indian tribes 
mentioned are Panasac Panas, jNIahas and Otontantes. whicli differ 
but little from the Pawnees, Omahas and Otoes that A\e know. 

Inasmuch as it is believed that Coronado in his march from 
]\Iexico to the Platte River entered Nebraska at a point somewhere 
between the western boundary of Gage County and the western 
boundary of Furnas County, it follows as a possibility of consider- 
able interest that he traversed Adams County. At all events the 
course of the cavalier's march on his quest for the land of Quivera 
was so near the county that there is strong relation of interest and 
the traditions rightfully belong to the region. 

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was appointed governor of a 
province of northern Mexico by the Spanish viceroy, Don Antonio 
de JMendoco. He was born in Salamanca, Spain, and belonged to 
the aristocracy. His education was comprehensive, such as became 
a Spaniard of noble birth. 

Although a well educated man Coronado was actuated to make 
the long journey from ^Mexico to the Platte River by reasons whicli 
seem in this day chimerical in the extreme, but which none the less 
enrich our history and yield a pleasing background of tradition. 
Coronado set out on the expedition early in the spring of lo-iO. His 
force was composed of 300 Sjianiards and about eight hundred 
Indians. The object of the expedition was not exploration but the 
finding of the cities of Cibola — the seven cities of the buffalo, which 
Avere reported to exist far to the north and to be fabulously wealthy. 
Each of the seven cities was described as rivaling the City of INIexico 
in ]5opulation and magnificence. In these cities gold and silver Avere 
said to be in such enormous quantities that the natives did not regard 
them highlv, although whole streets blazed with the shops of gold- 


sniitlis and silversmiths who wrought the shining metals into orna- 
ments and utensils of common use. 

The rumor of tliese cities had been brought first to the Spaniards 
by a Texas Indian, a slave of the governor of New Gallia preceding 
Coronado. In search of them Stephen the ]Moor had lost his life in 
Indian towns to the northward. Whether the Indian played upon 
the credulity of the Spaniards, knowing their love of gold, hoi)ing to 
gain favors himself, or whether Indian towns visited in his youth had 
grown in his imagination can not be known. Coronado, at least, 
believed the story of the Indian and hoped to gain gold and honor 
through the discovery of the cities of Cibola. 

It was not very long before it dawned upon the expedition that 
the wealth of the cities of Cibola was a dream. They concluded that 
it was very probable that the simple Indian villages they encountered 
from time to time were the foundation for the rumor of the wealthy 
and popidous cities. Nevertheless they persisted with their inquiries 
among the natives. The latter desiring Coronado and his host to be 
well out of their country were not slow to tell of another jH-o\ince, 
where the population and wealth were great and the inhabitants 
peaceable. This land, according to the natives, lay 250 miles to 
the eastward and thither Coronado led his force. The territory he 
reached is now identified as the eastern portion of New JNIexico, the 
region which had been previously visited by Stephen the Moor and 
where he was killed by the Indians who resented his treatment of them 
in return for the kindness with which they had received him. 

Coronado and his forces were no more acceptable to the natives 
of these regions of New JNIexieo than had been Stephen the JNIoor, 
and it is believed by latter day students that the relating to Coronado 
by a native of a description of the great kingdom of Quiver a was a 
ruse perpetrated to induce the Spaniards to move on. Although so 
many of the rimiors had proven to be false, yet Coronado was 
impressed by the great minuteness with Mhich the native described 
Quivera. The native said that he had visited this kingdom, which 
lay far to the northeast. The ruler of the kingdom was said to be the 
long bearded, gray haired Tatarrax who "took his noon day slee}) in 
a garden of roses, under a huge spreading tree, to the branches of 
which were suspended innumerable golden bells, which soimded in 
exquisite harmony when shaken by the wind." 

The description of the land of Quivera so minutely described by 
the native narrator convinced Coronado that there must be some 
foundation in fact. Accordingly, on ]May i5, 1.541, the expedition 
crossed the Pecos River and after a short march emerged from the 


hills and came out upon the vast uncharted prairies occupying the 
area now known as Oklahoma and Kansas. In all jjrobability, these 
were the first white men to look upon the vast extending western 
plains. They continued on their northeastward journey for about 
eight hundred miles, or until they came to a great river now believed 
to have been the Arkansas. 

On this long journey the Indian who had told the Spanish cava- 
lier of the land of Quivera acted as guide. Long before the river 
^^•as reached, however, Coronado had grown suspicious as to the truth- 
fulness of the narrative of the guide. It had been noticed that if 
bands of Indians encountered on the way had first been in conference 
with the guide, invariably they corroborated his story, but if they 
were seen first by other members of the party they appeared to know 
nothing of a kingdom to the eastward. Generally they spoke of a 
land to the northward. 

By the time he reached the Arkansas Coronado had become con- 
vinced that he had been deceived by the Indian guide and he resolved 
to continue the journey north. The diminishing of the stock of pro- 
visions determined the explorer to turn back the greater number of 
his party toward the Pecos River. This was done and the northern 
journey across the Kansas prairies was begim Avith thirty moimted 
men and six foot soldiers. The small party crossed Kansas in July 
and eventually crossed the southern boundary of Xebraska. This 
was in 1541, in the same year that De Soto discovered the 

Coronado spent twenty-five days exploring the land of Quivera. 
It has been noted by the students of these early days that the reports 
of this expedition made to the viceroy of Mexico tally so well with 
the descriptions of X^ebraska that they might serve as a catalogue of 
the natural resources of the state. Other places far distant claim the 
distinction of having been the location of the land of Quivera, but the 
claims of X^ebraska have been fairly well authenticated. In his report 
to the viceroy Coronado says: "I have reached the fortieth pai-allel 
of latitude." The flora and fauna described in the explorer's report 
correspond to those afterward foinid to be characteristic of X^ebraska. 
One of the chroniclers of the expedition says: "Quivera is on the 
fortieth parallel of latitude. It is a temperate country and hath very 
good waters and much grass, plums, mulberries, nuts, melons and 
grapes, which rij^en very well. There is no cotton and they aj^parel 
themselves with bison hides and deer skins." 

It is on this expedition that the white man first became acquainted 
with the prairie dog and the buffalo. The buffalo were described as 


"Oxen of the bigness and color of our bulls. They have a great bunch 
on their foreshoulders, and more hair on their fore part than on their 
hinder part, and it is like wool. They push with their horns, they run, 
tliey overtake and kill a horse when they are in their rage and anger." 

It is jjleasing to reflect sometimes that om- Adams County is so 
closely related to the ancient kingdom of Quivera and the discoveries 
of the renowned cavalier Coronado. Our history is more ancient 
than we are prone to realize. Summing up the investigations that 
have been made of the records of Coronado, Hon. James W. Savage, 
when judge of the Third Judicial District, addressing the State His- 
torical Society on Ajjril 10, 1880. said: "I purpose to collect and 
[H-esent a few of the reasons we have for believing that, fourscore 
years before the Pilgrims landed on the' venerable shores of INIassa- 
chusetts; sixty-eight years before Hudson discovered the ancient and 
beautiful river which still bears his name; sixty-six years before John 
Smith, with his cockney colonists, sailed up a summer stream which 
they named after James the First of England, and commenced the 
settlement which was afterward to be Virginia; twenty-three years 
before Shakespeare was born, when Queen Elizabeth was a little 
girl, and Charles the Fifth sat upon the united throne of Germany 
and Spain, Nebraska was discovered; the peculiarities of her soil and 
climate noted, her fruits and productions described, and her inhab- 
itants and animals depicted." 

The facts of Coronado's expeditions rest upon his own reports 
and have been brought into jjrominence through the compilation of 
Ternaux Compans. The account is independently corroborated in 
several works on jMexico and the Indians of the Southwest. 


Adams County was established as a coimty by an act of the State 
Legislature approved February 16, 1867. The boundaries as fixed 
by that act were as follows: "From the point where the east line of 
range 9, west, crosses tlie Platte; thence up the river channel to the 
intersection of the river with the west line of range 12; thence south 
to the southwest corner of township ,5, range 12; thence east to the 
southeast corner of township 5, range 9; thence north to place of 
lieginning. The location outlined in the foregoing description is the 
same as the present boundary lines except upon the north. Instead 
of the Platte River being the boundary, that line is now the north 
line of township 8, north. 

Tlie field notes of the siu'veyors, which are preserved in the office 


of the county surveyor, show that the county was surveyed before 
there were any settlers. The survej^ors were Charles W. Pierce and 
Nathan P. Cooke. These two survej'ors, however, established the 
township lines only; that is, they established the lines that divide the 
county into sixteen squares, the sides of each square being six miles 
in length. It was not the business of tlie surveyors as they 
worked to locate a particular county. Thej' established the lines 
with which counties might be designated as they were formed by acts 
of the Legislature. The field notes show that the toAvnshi]5 lines of 
Adams County were surveyed beginning July 16, 1859, and were 
eomiJleted September 10, 1860. 

Surveyors obtained contracts from the National Government to 
survey certain designated districts, and their work was under tlie 
supervision of the surveyor-general. The contracts for surveying the 
territory in which Adams County lies were obtained by Pierce and 
Cooke on April 29, 1859, and August 6, 1860, and were numbers 
270 and 280. 

The surveying into sections was not done at the time that the 
township lines were laid. Sectionizing was a separate survey, 
although in Adams County it was done at about the same time that 
the township lines were established. This work too was let by con- 
tract and the field notes show that several had contracts for work in 
Adams County. The greater part of the section lines were laid in 
1860. Those in Denver Township, in which Hastings was located, 
were surveyed in 1860, the work being done between September 2Tth 
and October 3d. Henry James was the name of the surveyor. The 
laying of section lines in Cottonwood Township was not completed 
until 1867. In this township William Hardin established the section 
lines. Tlie surveyors lived in camjjs, camp being established at some 
spot that would be central to the work for a while. Their appearance 
was the beginning of the county life that we know. 

Adams County, like all the public lands of Nebraska, was sur- 
vej'ed after the system which is generally credited to have been 
devised by General William Henry Harrison. The basis of this 
system is a plan of imaginary lines, definitely located, and called base 
lines and meridians. First the meridians are established. These run 
due nortli from a fixed geographic landmark and are intersected ])y 
base lines miming east and went. 

In the land sun^eys of the West there are six principal meridians. 
The first runs from the mouth of the JNIiami River, in Ohio; the 
second, from the mouth of the Little Blue River, in Indiana; the 
third, from the mouth of the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois; tlie fourth. 


from the mouth of the Illinois River; the fifth, from the mouth of 
the Arkansas River. Ujjon the sixth jirincipal meridian, with its 
base line the fortieth parallel of latitude, is arranged the system of 
surveys for public lands in Nebraska and Kansas. 

Begiiming with the fortieth i^arallel of latitude, that is, running 
east and west, standard parallels are run at intervals of twenty-four 
miles, the width of four townships, on the north side of the base line; 
that is, the fortieth parallel. On the south side of this base the inter- 
vals are thirty miles, or the width of five townships. 

Guide meridians are next established at distances of eight town- 
shijis, or forty-eight miles, east and west of the i^rincipal meridian. 
By this plan parallelograms, 48 miles by 24 miles, are formed, whose 
limits are the base line, principal meridian, standard parallel and 
guide meridian, and these lines are the basis of the land surveys. In 
numbering the townshijis, east or west from a given meridian, they 
are called ranges; in numbering north or south from a base line they 
are called townshijis. Townships are divided into tracts called sec- 
tions, Avhich are a mile square, and these are the units of land surveys. 

The sixteen townships of Adams County are the following, the 
first four named being the eastern tier and the following groups of 
four being the successive tiers west, beginning with tlie northern 
townships: West Blue, Blaine, Hanover, Little Blue; Highland, 
Denver, Ayr, Zero; Verona, Juniata, Roseland, Silver Lake; Kene- 
saw, Wanda, Cottonwood and Logan. 

Adams County, being 24 miles square, contains .576 square miles, 
embracing 368,646 acres. There is a gradual rise of height above sea 
level as one travels from east to west across the county. The eleva- 
tion at Hastings is 1,934 feet; at Hansen if is 1,949 feet; at Pauline. 
1,777; at Roseland. 1,969; at Holstein, 2,011; at Leroy, 1,860. 

In the southern part of Adams County the Little Blue River 
with a number of tributary creeks which form its headwaters flows 
in a general easterly direction looping north, however, at a point 
about directly south of Hastings. The Platte River cuts off a very 
small corner of the northwest jiart of the county in Kenesaw Town- 
shi]). These two are the only rivers in the county. The Little Blue 
is formed from its creeks at a point about twelve miles southwest of 
tlie Village of Ayr. It flows in a general northeast direction imtil to 
nearly the east side of Ayr Township when it takes a southeast direc- 
tion through Hanover and Little Blue townships. After leaving 
Adams County it continues its southeast course, crossing portions of 
Clay and Nuckolls counties and then crosses Thayer County from 
west to east, after which it increases its southern swerve in Jefferson 


County, finally- entering the Blue River near Blue Rapids in ]\Iar- 
.shall County. Kansas, some ten miles below ISIarysville. 

While the Little Blue is a small stream, often in dry weather no 
more than a few inches deep, it is the principal stream in the county 
from the point of attraction. Natural timber grows upon its banks 
and therefore it affords opportunities for picnics and is used consid- 
erably for that purpose. It also affords some fishing, channel cat 
being the species most sought. In dry weather the road which in 
many places winds among the timber affords a picturesque drive for 
automobiles. When iiood conditions prevail in seasons of much rain- 
fall or following the thaw of much snow the Little Blue attains to a 
mile or more in width. Sharp hills border the stream for a mile or 
so on both sides of the river. 

The creeks which give rise to the Little Blue for the most part 
flow into it from the north side. These creeks are generally dry, but 
after heavy rains and thaws a large volume of water is carried by 
them into the river. Thirty-two INIile Creek enters the Blue on the 
north side. This creek rises in the south central part of Verona 
Township and flows in a general southeast direction passing about a 
half mile west of Juniata. It enters Denver Township on the west 
side of section 30, and shortly afterwards it makes a sharp looping 
turn flowing northeast before turning sharply south. It enters the 
Blue on section 26 in Ayr Township. 

Pawnee Creek rises in Verona Township and flows northeast. It 
enters Denver near the northwest corner, cuts off the southwest 
corner of Blaine and then flows south to about the center of Hanover, 
where it turns to the east and flows across the latter township. 

Cottonwood Creek enters Wanda Townshi}) near the northwest 
corner; it flows east about two miles and then takes a southeasterly 
direction across Wanda and Cottonwood townships, reaching the 
Blue on the west side of section 10 in Silver Lake Township, about 
a mile north and a little west of Silver Lake. 

Sand Creek rises near the western side of the county in Cotton- 
wood Township and runs along the northeast corner of Logan enter- 
ing Silver Lake Township about a mile and there entering the Blue. 
Crooked Creek, Ash Creek and Oak Creek enter the Blue from the 
south side in Little Blue Township. West Blue Creek rises near 
Hastings and flows in a noi-theasterly direction across West Blue 
Township. It ultimately reaches the Big Blue River near Crete. 

Silver Lake lies near the center of the township that bears the 
same name. This body of water is shajjcd much like a horseshoe with 
the opening to the north. The greater part of the lake lies in the 


noithwest and northeast quarters of section 15, though both tips of 
the liorseshoe extend across the road into the respective quarters of 
section 10. At its closest point to the Blue, which is on section 10, 
the lake is within about ten rods of the river. It does not flow into 
the I'iver, however, except at periods of very high water. The inhabi- 
tants of the vicinitjf say that the water in the lake is not as high now, 
191G, as it was generally some twenty years ago. At that time there 
was considerable boating on the lake, but it has diminished in recent 

At the present time the lake is usually only about three feet deep 
in the deepest places and of course much shallower over a good deal 
of the surface. It is fed by rains and thaws, although in the south- 
west corner there is a spring. A peculiarity of this spring is that it 
is not observable unless the sunmier should be a dry one. In that 
event the spring is seen to begin to flow early in September, and pre- 
vents the lake from becoming dry. If the lake were laid out in a 
straight line it \\ould be about a mile and one-half in length. Ordi- 
narily it is about fifteen rods in width but when there is great rainfall 
it swells to some one hundred and twenty rods in width. In season 
there are numbei's of wild ducks on this water, but they do not fre- 
quent it in anything like the numbers that were foimd here twenty 
years ago. This lake is the only natural lake- in the county. It never 
becomes entirely dry, although when the drought is prolonged a few 
puddles, due to the spring, are all that save the reputation of the lake. 

Following the course of the Platte in Kenesaw Township a low 
range of sandliills extends. The sandhills follow at a distance of a 
mile or so from the Platte. In the west central part of Wanda town- 
ship, too, sandhills are found, embracing an area of perhaps four 
sections. Some more sandhills are found in the western part of 
Cottonwood Township. 

The following is a general topographical description of the county 
by townships. liittle Blue, rough along Blue River and creeks; rest 
smooth and rolling. Hanover, mostly rolling and fertile; south part 
somewhat rough. Blaine, generally level, smooth and fertile; very 
little low land. West Blue, about two-thirds rolling, smooth land; 
rest rather rough along creeks. 

Zero, south half, rolling fine land; north half some rough; all 
fertile. Ayr, rough along Blue River and creeks; balance rolling; 
all fertile. Denver, southern part some rough; balance rolling; all 
very fertile. Highland, smooth, gently rolling; very little low land 
and very little rough. 

Silver Lake, rough and some sand along the Blue River; balance 


rolling and fertile. Roseland, nearly all rich, smooth land; some 
rough in south part. Juniata, some rough along creeks; balance all 
smooth, good land. Verona, gently rolling, all rich and fertile: no 
waste land. 

Logan, rough along the creeks; balance, fine rolling land. Cot- 
tonwood, about one-third rough and sandy; rest fine, fertile land. 
Wanda, Avest third rough with some sandy spots; balance smooth 
and rolling. Kenesaw, north half rough and sandy in places; south 
half rolling, fine land. 

The rapid development of Adams County since its organization 
in 1871 suggests that there was behind this movement a strong pres- 
sure of pojiulation that urged the people to look for homes in the new 
and undeveloped jjrairie country. And such was the case. JNIany 
of the newcomers were from Illinois, INIichigan, Wisconsin and Indi- 
ana. The resources of these states had caused them to be quickly 
populated from the old Atlantic seaboard and neighboring states. 
For this reason emigration was in the traditions of the peojjle so that 
they did not shrink, at least to no forbidding extent, from seeking 
their fortunes in the prairie land. .Vt home the price of land had 
increased to a jjoint that made its acquisition a very difficult matter 
to those who had little more than youth and ambition Avith Avhich to 
attack the i^roblem, and these heard gladly the call of the new land. 

Adams County, then, Avas in the path of the stream of people 
floAving AvestAvard from the East, crossing the INIissouri River and 
poiu'ing into Nebraska and Kansas. Toavus tAvinkled into being here 
and there on the vast domain of the prairie Avilderness Avith a regu- 
larity that presaged of the future. Isolated, indeed, Avere the sod 
shanties of the early pioneers but from time to time they felt the 
consciousness of the country groAving and felt something of the sus- 
taining force that comes of the knoAvledge that one is not alone, that 
his hardships, experiences and hopes are those common to others. 

The act creating Nebraska a territory became a laAV seventeen 
years before Adams County Avas established. This Avas ^lay 30, 
1854. The territorial officers appointed by President Pierce, Avith 
Governor Burt as chief executive, did not arrive at BelleA'ue, then the 
only toAvn of pretension in the territory, until October 7th of that 
year. Thirteen years later. February, 1867, Nebraska Avas admitted 
into the Union as a state, during the presidency of AndrcAv Johnson. 
Four years after this, in 1871, Adams County Avas organized; very 
nearly then does the history of the comity date as far back as the 
history of Nebraska as a state. At the time of the organization of 
the county. Secretary of State W. H. James Avas acting gOA-ernor in 


the place of David Butler, the first state governor who, earlier in the 
year, had been removed from office following impeachment upon the 
charge of misapprojiriating state funds. 

At this time tliere was for the encouragement of the early settlers 
the ever coming stream of eastern immigrants. A territorial census 
taken in 18.55 showed the population of Nebraska to be 4,491. In 
1870 it had increased to 122,993. By the time that Adams County 
was organized a school system had been established in thirty-one 
Nebraska counties, and signs of pioneer settlers' activities were visi- 
ble in the immediately surrounding territory. To the northward 
Hall Count J' had officers by appointment as earlj^ as 1858; eastward, 
the jjostoffice in Harvard, Clay County, was established in Decem- 
ber. 1871. while the population of that county the previous year was 
54. Webster Countv. to the south, was organized in 1871. 


Bv Prof. Walter J. Kent, Hastings College 

To get a correct understanding of the nature and kinds of soils 
it will be necessary to go back somewhat into the geological history 
of the earth. This land upon which we are producing our wheat and 
corn has had a history which extends far back when the world was in 
l^rocess of formation. Xo one knows or can scarcely form a concep- 
tion of the vast extent of time which has been required to make a 
fertile soil out of what was first solid rocks. We say rocks, leaving 
out of the consideration possible times of a gaseous or a liquid condi- 
tion of the earth. ^Ve might say in just a sentence in passing that 
this earth is supposed to have begun its existence as a body of gas 
thrown off from the sun, then to have gradually cooled down into a 
liquid and afterward a solid body or a body with a solid crust over 
the surface. The condition of the interior of the earth is still an open 
(juestion, but there is a probability that it is an intensely heated but 
solid mass of matter. 

In the cooling of this mass of gas there was formed a spherical 
body covered over with water and surrounded by an envelope of air. 
LTnder the water there was a solid crust of matter in the form of 
rocks, or a layer of granite rock to be exact. When this body of gas 
cooled, three distinct forms of matter separated — air, Avater, and 
solid rock. Difference in density caused these to take the positions 
mentioned before, the rock below, then the water, and the air still 
above the water. 

The interior of the earth is known to be intensely heated and 
violent disturbances causing elevations and subsidences in the crust 
of the earth have at times occiu-red. In this way the land in places 
arose from the sea. But this land was in all cases solid rock of a 
granite formation. From this granite rock all oin- soil has been 
formed. At first mostly sand but afterward changing into clay and 
all stages between sand and clay. A granite rock is composed of 


several distinct kinds of matter. There are particles of quartz, of 
feldspar, and of mica, and sometimes of other mineral matter. Now 
when a granite rock decomposes, due to the action of the atmosphere, 
the quartz jiarticles form grains of sand, feldspar forms clay directly. 
Sand will also decay under some conditions and form clay. ^Nluch of 
our Adams County soil is j-ellow clay from decayed sandstone. This 
stone once formed the surface of the land but percolating water has 
caused it to decay to a depth of more than one hundred feet in many 
places. That is, we have a hundred feet of yellow clay before we 
reach the rock. This sandstone was once granite but dissolved under 
the erosion of the atmosphere into sand. This sand was then buried 
under rivers and beds of water. Here under pressure it was com- 
piessed into sandstone, then an elevation of the earth's crust occurred 
and the sandstone was brought to the surface. Since that time there 
has been tliis slow decay by the water until the present when we may 
find many feet of yellow clay before we come to the more solid rock 

It will ])e understood that this is a very brief outline of the geologi- 
cal history of our soil. More extended discussion will not belong to 
this work. A survey of the whole State of Nebraska shows four dis- 
tinct regions each with a different type of soil. The eastern portion 
has a layer or covering that is called glacial drift. Then to the west 
and south, which includes Adams Count}', windblown soil. To the 
southwest there is a layer of volcanic ashes, commonly called alkali 
soil. Then in the northern and northwestern part we find the sand- 
liills. A\hich were either carried there by water or possibh^ were in part 

This soil east of Adams County which we call glacial drift was 
brought there from the country lying to the northeast of the state. 
It was carried there by immense fields of moving ice which at one 
time in the history of the earth came do^vn from the north. This 
movement of glaciers or ice fields carried great masses of rocks which 
were left when the ice afterward melted because of a change in the 
conditions upon this jDortion of the earth. ]Many rocks in the form 
of boulders not yet decayed into soil are still to be seen in this portion 
of the state. 

The history of the alkali soil is quite peculiar. A long time l)ack 
in the formation of the world the mountains to the west contained 
many volcanoes that Avere constantly sending off smoke and cindei-s 
of lava. The prevailing winds were then as now from the west. This 
carried all the smoke and lava to the east where it was deposited over 
the land. The immense amount of time when these processes con- 


tinned may be inferred from the depth of the deposits. These vary 
from a few feet to more than thirty feet in some places on the west- 
ern boundary of the state. This volcanic ash has been much wind- 
blown and has undergone many changes due to the action of the 
atmosphere. As a result of all these agencies we have our alkali 

The nortliwestern sandhills, which are the result of granite rocks 
eroded by water, also carried by water or by the winds, and our Adams 
County soil, much windblown, will need no further explanation. The 
many changing causes of all these different kinds of Nebraska soils 
may be understood from this brief description. INIention should also 
be made of recent soil formation along some of our rivers. These 
alluvial dejiosits result from overflows at times of floods and are 
seen especially in the valley of the Platte River. 

Din-ing the long inten'als of time many changes in temperature 
have occurred. At first intensely heated, the earth has cooled until 
all jjarts are habitable though the equatorial regions are still tropical 
in climate. This cooling of the earth's surface began in the polar 
localities and gradually spread to the south. All our present animals 
and jilants came down to us from the north where their ancestors are 
now to be found buried under the ice and snow and preserved in the 
locks in the form of fossils. This region itself was at one time trop- 
ical in temperature. The coal beds of Kansas and of Wyoming are 
formed of palms and other trees now found only to the Far South. 
This type of vegetation once grew luxuriantly in this state in former 
ages of its history. Buried by the upheavals and subsidences of the 
crust of the earth, we now find it in places partially petrified in the 
form which we call coal. 

The native animals themselves have changed much. At one time 
the mastodon and the mammoth, which are supposed to be the ances- 
tors of the present day elepliant, lived in this county. These liuge 
animals Avhich resembled the elephant of today were larger than any 
land animals Avhich we now know. Their skeletons are found in sand 
beds which may have been ancient river courses. INIany bones from 
the skeletons of these animals have been found near Brickton in 
^Vdams County. There can be no doubt that these very old 
types of the elephant family with long trunks and immense tusks 
once roamed over this county as well as the entire state. Nebraska 
has been also the home of many other curious but now extinct ani- 
mals. Among these are the ancestors of the horse Avhich we now use 
as a domestic working animal. The horse Avhich we now know came 
to us with our European ancestors. But in times back an animal 


soniewliat resembling the horse lived in Nebraska. The skeletons of 
the horselike animals have been found in several places. 

In the ages past this part of the country has been at times above 
the sea and at other times covered with water. All this has been 
determined by examining the fossil forms of animal life preserved in 
the rocks. Not far from us in the State of Kansas many skeletons 
of very large fish have been found. Some of these bones would indi- 
cate a fish ten or more feet in length. This wovdd imply deep water. 
The geological history of the earth has been that of a slowly cooling 
body of matter. The oldest part of the land surface in the arctics 
is now almost uninhabitable because of the cold. In the long distant 
future the whole earth will become cold and all plant and animal life 
will disapjjear. 

One of the most important (questions concerning soils is that of 
the supply of ground water or rather it might be called the under- 
ground Avater. The dejjth of this ground water surface below the 
genei-al land level is also a very important question in every agricul- 
tuial community. The supply of Adams County water is quite 
largely from the west and is at some depth in ])laces. At other jjlaces 
this ground water is near the surface. The importance of this will be 
understood when Ave consider the extensive irrigation projects now 
being carried on in the State of Nebraska. ]\Iany farmers now own 
and operate small irrigation plants upon their farms. The under- 
ground water is pumped by means of steam or gas propelled pumps 
into reservoirs and then run over the land. This question of irriga- 
tion is far from settled in all its phases at present and is beyond the 
scope of this paper. But there is no reason to doubt that in the futin-e 
we shall make much use of the water that now goes largely to waste 
as it makes its Avay sloAvly back to the rivers in the lowlands by this 
underground route. 

A vital question in the jjroduction of farm crops in all places is 
this water content of the soil. After every shower of rain a large 
part of the Avaterfall sinks into the ground. Some of this Avater is 
retained by the soil near the surface and comes back again by capil- 
lary attraction and by roots of groAving plants. Still more Avater 
sinks deep hito the earth and in a large part becomes lost so far as 
farming operations are concerned. The amount of underground 
Avater at all places seems almost incredulous, but veiy careful esti- 
mates have been made by geologists. In Nebraska it is estimated 
that if all the Avater beloAv the surface could be brought back it Avould 
cover the ground Avith a layer more than one hundred feet in depth. 
There is an abundance of this Avater beloAv the surface to irrigate the 


land for many generations to come. The question is the cost of 
IJumi^ing. In some jiarts of this covmty there are places where the 
underground water ajjproaches the surface. This is true in all locali- 
ties where there are streams of water or even low land where there is 
running water. It is a rule that in the beds of rivers the underground 
water lies not more than a few feet below the surface and it may even 
approach to the surface, so that the running water of the river may 
be in actual contact jvith this water underground. Irrigation in these 
low i)laces is only a matter of the small expense to bring back this 
water from below. In many districts of Adams County where there 
is high land the ground water sinks to a considerable depth. It would 
be necessary to go a hundred feet or more in many places to obtain 
sufficient water for irrigation, and here of course would come in the 
matter of heavy expense. Just how nuich land we have in this county 
that can be easily irrigated and how much where the cost might be 
excessive has never been determined and Ave have no waj" of knowing 
at present. But it still remains for the experiment of irrigating to be 
tried in Adams County on any extended scale. There are plenty of 
these irrigation plants in other and especially western parts of the 
state. The lack of need of water during many seasons has acted to 
deter anyone from expending any time or money to make use of this 
great amount of water below ground. 

But if we leave out of the consideration the need of water for 
irrigation, the presence of the water imderground has much to do 
with the productiveness of the land. The roots of all plants extend 
far deeper into the soil than generally is sujiposed. A depth of several 
feet in the roots of corn and wheat is quite common, while many 
plants, and especially the alfalfa, send their roots very much deeper. 
When we come to the forest shade-trees of course a depth of manv 
feet is common, though there are some trees whose roots are in most 
part close to the surface. In general, however, the groAAih of the 
tree is largely a question of the water supply of the soil. JNIany trees 
send their roots down to where the ground is always moist, and any 
change such as might be caused by the digging of a ditch for drain- 
age of the land will cause the death of trees standing near. This 
death of the tree under these circumstances is to be explained by the 
absence of the usual water supply. The presence of many trees 
in Nebraska along the water courses and in low ground and their 
absence on high ground is a fact of very common observation. This 
whole matter is merely a question of water supply. With more 
abundant rainfall and groundwater there would never have been any 
prairie land in the West. Whenever in any virgin country there is 


a lack of vegetation the cause must be sought in one of two ways, 
either poor soil or lack of moisture. Here in X^ebraska where the 
early settlers found the country covered only with grasses of the very 
hardy varieties, unfavorable climatic conditions could be and were 
by many discerned at once. But to come back again to the subject 
of our soil water supj^ly, here we nmst look for means to change 
natural conditions, and in this respect we are exceeduigly fortunate. 
Tlie supply of underground water is sufficient for all time to come 
since the total amount is constantly increasing by additional rains. 
But very little of the water from any shower of rain, no matter how 
iieavy, runs off into the rivers and reaches the sea again in this way. 
It all or nearlj' all goes into the ground and only after many years 
does it seep back through underground channels to the seashore. The 
different laj'ers of clay, sand and rock for a depth of several hundred 
feet below ground are completely saturated with water. This great 
volume of water is slowly moving back again to the sea whence 
it came in the form of vajior in clouds and rain. The importance of 
the work of this water in soilmaking can scarcely be overestimated. 
The unfortunate part about it is that it lies so far below ground that 
roots of ordinary plants can not reach down and bring any of this 
moisture back again. The flow of water underground has caused the 
decay of rocks and in this way a soil many feet deep has been formed. 
Tlie top layer has been mixed with humus from the decayed plants 
imtil there is now one or more feet of black soil very rich in chemicals 
and with many bacteria, especially the nitrogen-fixing kinds. Upon 
this black humus soil farmers are now raising crops. The chemical 
content of this soil is more or less depleted with each crop. There is 
a question of how long will the original supply of chemicals last with- 
out fertilization by artificial means. So far in the history of X^ebraska 
farming everything has been taken out of the soil and nothing put 
back except in the case of the alfalfa culture. This crop is peculiar 
in that it fertilizes the soil in the supply of nitrogen. There are cer- 
tain microscojiic bacteria upon the roots of this plant, also on clovers 
of all kinds, which take nitrogen from the air and transfer it to the 
soil. This is a chemical change which takes place and the soil is 
enriched by the growing of this plant, at least in the nitrogen supply. 
It may be worth while to note in passing that the air we breathe 
consists in the main part of two chemicals, oxygen and nitrogen. 
There is also water vapor and other elements in small amounts. This 
nitrogen, so abundant in the atmosphei-e that it forms almost four- 
fifths by volume, is one of the most important of all land fertilizers. 
One large class of plants called legumes, of whicli alfalfa is one, have 


played a very important part in the formation of a fertile soil. They 
have by means of the bacteria upon their roots transferred much 
nitrogen from the air to the soil. But the work of plants is not all 
destructive so far as the atmosphere is concerned. Plants fiu-nish 
much oxygen to the air. The crust or covering of the earth is almost 
one-half oxygen, in the form of comiJounds with other elements. 
Water is also in part oxygen. The leaves of the green plants in their 
physiological processes give off great quantities of oxygen and in 
this way the oxygen content of the air is maintained. 

Another important work of plants in the formation of soil is 
performed by the roots. The way in wliich a plant gets its food is 
some^vhat peculiar. The roots secrete and give off in the presence 
of moisture chemical solutions that will dissolve particles of soil or 
even rocks. These solutions are then absorbed again by the cells of 
the plant by a process called osmosis and ascend to the leaves. Here 
other chemical changes are produced by the action of the green 
matter of the leaf and the sunlight. These green leaves of the plant 
are its digestive system. Here the food is prepared for all parts. 
The roots themselves get their food from the leaves. There are 
certain kinds of plants that will live upon rocks. Such food as they 
will need they get by the roots dissolving the rock and from the air. 
For long periods of time after outflows of lava from volcanoes and 
in other rocky places the only plant growth will be these mosslike 
forms which will in time and with the aid of water redvice the solid 
rock to small particles. Other plants Avill then obtain a foothold and 
dissolve the rocks still more, and, mixed with the humus from the 
dead plants themselves, a fertile soil is gradually built up. 

In the geological history of soil formation these two factors are 
of first importance, running water and the roots of growing plants. 
Certain kinds of rocks of the limestone and sandstone varieties read- 
ily dissolve in water into clay and sand. But the granite rocks are 
much more stable. They are generally considered quite indestruc- 
tible so far as natural agencies are concerned. There is, however, no 
rock that these chemical secretions of plant roots will not dissolve, 
and the erosions of rocks by the agency of water is much aided by 
the roots of plants in many cases. 

Should we wish to begin the history of the soil with the rise of 
the crust of the earth out of the sea, it will be at first all solid rock. 
Then by the action of the atmosphere and the rain partially dissolved 
on the upper surface. This was followed by the appearance of plants 
and more rock dissolution, also the formation of the humus layer, as 
mixture of dissolved rocks and decaved vegetation. The final result 


has been the fertile soil which now supports all plant and animal life. 
But in this process of development plant life has preceded animal 

The climate of Nebraska presents many peculiar phases. This 
may be explained in part by the geographical location. The state is 
close to the mountains on the west. The wide expanse from the west 
to the east also gives room for a considerable variation in conditions; 
then there is the imjiortant facf of the general movement of storms 
across the state, and the changes due to topography. The eastern 
end of the state is not high above the sea level, but the rise is rapid 
in crossing the state to the west. There is a rise of about seven feet 
to the mile in Adams County going from the eastern line to the west- 
ern. The City of Hastings stands at an elevation of about one thou- 
sand nine hundred and twenty feet. Toward the western end of the 
state there is a more rapid increase in elevation above the sea. 

The climatic conditions of any place will depend largely upon a 
number of factors. The general elevation above the sea is one, dis- 
tance from the sea is another. Proximity to mountain ranges, pres- 
ence of forest trees, and still other factors might be mentioned. The 
climate of any part of the country is in reality the result of natural 
agencies. 3Ian himself has little to do with this question. It is quite 
probable that cutting down the forests has increased the velocity of 
the wind in these sections once heavily wooded. Cultivating the once 
pi-airie and grass covered sections may affect the amount of water 
A\hich runs off after a rain. There is little reason to doubt that some 
considerable changes in climate are to be noticed in short periods of 
time for reasons mentioned above. But passing these rather small 
factors there remains still the general rule that climatic conditions 
are fixed and unchanging. The causes which produce all our weather 
changes are constant and have been since time first began. We shall 
discuss just briefly what these causes are, but since this work is largely 
historical we shall compare conditions of the present with those of 
the past. Half a century back when the pioneers Avere pre-empting 
th.e land they found the soil covered only with hardy kinds of grasses 
and plants acclimated to semi-arid conditions. This fact tells the 
Avhole story of climatic conditions for centuries. There is the proba- 
bility of periods of wet and of dry years, or of seasons with consid- 
erable rain during summer and of others with a drouth and crop 
failures. But in the long expanse of time there could have been little 
change in the climate of Nebraska. 

The causes of climatic changes are to be found in the daily rota- 
tion of the earth upon its axis, and in the yearly revolution of earth 


around the sun. Two main causes and then several minor ones which 
should not be overlooked. This daily rotation of the earth causes the 
atmosiihere which surrounds it to move from the west toward the 
east. Since the movement of the earth is constant and fixed by 
astronomical laws, this west to east motion in the atmosphere is also 
constant. The distance passed over each day varies somewhat but 
will average from five hundred to seven hundred miles. That is in 
general — storms in Wyoming today will pass Nebraska tomorrow; 
they will reach Chicago in another day and New York in a second day 
after passing here. Some variations are to be exi^ected. Not all 
storm movements travel so rapidly, others more so. But a regular 
movement in this direction is always apparent, not only across the 
United States but also around the world. Our weather changes come 
to us across the Pacific Ocean and with almost perfect regularity. 
About every third or fourth day a new atmospheric disturbance 
arrives on the western coast and moves eastward. Some of these 
disturbances or changes bring storms, others fair weather. Fre- 
quently a stormy period is followed by one of fair weather. At 
other times several storm periods follow in succession and there 
results a Aveek or more of storms. Then again fair weather condi- 
tions follow one after another and for a considerable time there will 
be an absence of rain. This latter condition is more usual, or at 
least more noticeable in summer when crops are maturing and much 
financially is at stake. A period of dry weather at any other season 
than summer will usually pass quite unnoticed. One of the most 
interesting features in connection with the weather observations is 
this constant movement of storms towards the east. Tliese take the 
form of large areas of high or low barometric pressure. The barome- 
ter is the instrument which measures the weight or pressure of 
tlie atmosphere. The weight varies depending on the amount of 
water vapor present. This water vapor is lighter than air. When 
much moisture is in the air the weight is less than when the air is 
dry. The barometer is so constructed mechanically that when the 
air is light it reads low and when the air is heavy the instrument reads 
high. Consequently, a low barometer indicates a light atmospliere 
or one with much moisture, in other words, stormy or cloudy weather. 
^V high barometer indicates fair weather. 

Another peculiar feature of these storm areas is the circulation of 
the winds. In an area of low barometer tlie winds circulate in a 
spiral formation and counter-clockwise in direction. In an area 
where the barometer is high the winds are circulating in the opposite 
direction or clockwise. The air at the center of a counter-clockwise 


movement is always rising to higher elevations where the moisture 
condenses into clouds due to lower temperature. For this reason 
clouds will generally form when the barometer runs low. The air 
at the center of a cloekwase movement of the winds is descending, 
consequently expanding due to a higher temperature, and clouds will 
have a tendency to disappear. 

The frequent periods of dry weather are caused by mountains to 
the west. This general movement of the atmosphere from the west 
toward the east will exjjlain the absence of rain. Any storm 
approaching from the west crosses the high mountain ranges before 
reaching Nebraska. At the high elevations moisture is precipitated. 
This is the result of a fall in temperature in ascending above the land 
surface of the earth. The average fall in temperature is one degree 
for about every two-hundred feet of elevation. An ascent of ten 
thousand feet would mean a fall of fifty degrees in the temperature. 
The actual figures might vary sliglitly from these, but they will 
probably answer for an apj^roximation. \Vhen any clouds contain- 
ing moisture rise to pass over the mountains, this cooling in 
teni))eratvu"e causes a condensation of the vapor pai'ticles and they 
fall liecause of their own weight. There is always much snow and 
rain in mountainous places. Once the clouds cross an elevation and 
descend, there is a rise in temperature and their capacity for carry- 
ing moisture increases since the warmer the air the more moisture it 
\^i]l carry. This is a physical law in science. The result of this is 
that the storms coming in from the Pacific Coast lose all their mois- 
ture in the high regions to the west and descend the eastern slope of 
the mountains as dry atmosphere or dry winds which even absorb 
moisture from the soil at times. At other times some of the moisture 
is retained by the storm clouds after passmg the mountains and some 
rainfall occurs on the eastern side. But a region of dry climate 
must necessarily follow for the reasons given. It is true of all desert 
localities in every country that they are on the side of mountain 
ranges opposite from the general directions from which the winds 
blow. The western part of the state is seriously affected by lack 
of rain. The amount of rainfall increases considerable toward the 
eastern end. The winds gather much moisture from the soil also 
fi-om winds which blow from the east and south and soon become 
satm-ated again after leaving the mountains. 

In writing of the winds mention has been made only of the 
general kinds which are caused by the rotation of the earth and 
wliich are moving across the country from west to east. But there 
are also what are called local winds, and this kind is very conspicuous 


in Nebraska. They can be recognized at once. These winds come 
up with the sun in the morning and cease at night. The cause of this 
class of winds is difference of temperature in various locahties over 
the earth's surface. They may blow from any direction and fre- 
quently shift about during the day. When these local winds come 
from the east or south, they usually bring much moisture that may 
cause clouds or even storms at times. For this reason east and 
south winds are aften called storm winds. North and west winds 
are quite likely to be fair weather Avinds. 

A law of meteorological science also helps to explain the -wind 
directions. When storms are approaching from the west, the winds 
shift to the east. After the storm passes and fair weather is com- 
ing, they change to the west or northwest. To put it in a single 
sentence, when storms approach from the west, they come up against 
the winds, and fair weather comes from the west with the winds. 
Here in Nebraska a storm frequently comes down from the north- 
west. In this case, the winds will be southeast, directly opposite the 
storm. The direction of the winds is the result of all these causes 
mentioned. The frequent changes are only what might be expected. 

There is every probability that climatic conditions in Nebraska 
have remained unchanged for a long time back. The causes of our 
weather changes are fixed natural laws which never vary, while the 
api)earance of the soil and vegetation at the beginning of historic 
time would indicate no change of marked inqjortance since man first 
has any knowledge of the country. One exception to the above state- 
ment must be made. The earth is gradually cooling and here in 
Adams County, where once tropical plants grew, Ave now have those 
of the temperate kind. Other conditions have remained unchanged 
since the mountains to the Avest arose from the sea. 

The great question concerning the future of agriculture in 
Nebraska is connected Avith the Avater supply. This may be solved 
jiossibly by the conservation of Avhat noAv runs to Avaste through the 
river courses, or that Avhich sinks into the ground and in this Avay 
becomes lost. The surface drainage of Adams County is largely 
through small branches of the Blue River system. A very small 
section of. the county is drained by the Platte River. Only a small 
percentage of the annual rainfall is lost by this surface OAerfloAv. 
The construction of dams and a system of reservoirs AA'herever pos- 
sible Avould be of nuich benefit to the Avhole country. A supply of 
water could easily be saved for irrigation purposes. Then the 
presence of surface Avater ahvays tends toAvard a humid atmosphere. 
Exj^eriments have shoAvn that air in passing over a Avater surface 


soon becomes saturated with humidity. The dry winds of summer 
are a very serious menace to the farm crops of this state. The con- 
servation of water in the river beds and other lowlands would do 
something towards increasing the moisture in the atmosphere and 
directly benefit all concerned. The large part of this work will 
necessarily have to be carried on by other portions of the state, since 
the surface run off in this county is quite small. But even in Adams 
County something could be done, and no doubt will be in the future 
to conserve our natural water supply. We have sufHcient rainfall 
for all needs. The trouble has always been in the distribution. It 
remains for man himself to partially correct this by proper conserva- 
tion of this water supply for use in times of drouth. We must 
remember in this connection that agriculture in Nebraska is even yet 
in a state of infancy so far as time may be considered. The chief 
object has been to get the most out of the virgin soil with the least 
exjjenditure of labor. This method of farming has about come to an 
end. Two problems now confront the farmer. One of these is the 
conservation of the fertility of the soil. But another and still inore 
pressing is the question of irrigation. Some ways and means must 
be devised whereby the lands can be watered when the natural 
sup])ly fails. 

The whole subject of farming in every branch is rapidly becoming 
a matter of scientific study. The high price of land and the unfavor- 
able climatic conditions make it imperative that the most skillful 
means shall be used to bring financial returns, and to overcome the 
frequent causes of crop failures. That this result shall be the history 
of the future goes without question. All that we need is the proper 
conservation of resources to make this county for all time the garden 
spot of Nebraska. 



In October, 1871, the inhabitants of the unorganized County of 
Adams jietitioned acting Governor AVilliam H. James, of Nebraska, 
asking that an election be held in the county, and the following month 
the governor granted the petition bj- issuing the following jiroclama- 


Whereas, a large number of the citizens of the unorganized 
County of Adams have united in a petition asking that an election 
be held for the purpose of choosing county officers preliminary to 
the organization of the county. 

Therefore, I, William H. James, acting governor of the State of 
Nebraska, by virtue of the authority in me vested, do hereby order 
that an election be held at the dwelling house of Titus Babcock, in 
said county, on the 12th day of December, 1871, for the purpose of 
choosing three county conmiissioners, one county clerk, one county 
treasurer, one sheriff, one probate judge, one county sun^eyor, one 
county sujJcrintendent of schools, one coroner, three jvidges of elec- 
tion and two clerks of election, and I do hereby designate and appoint 
Simeon Johnston, E. S. Knapp, and Volney Janes as judges; JNIilton 
F. Brown and William I. Janes as clerks, to conduct said election in 
accordance with "an act for the organization of counties," approved 
June 24, 1867, and the election laws of this state. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and cause to 
be affixed the great seal of the State of Nebraska, this 7th day of 
November. A. D. 1871. 

[Seal] WiLLiAii H. James, 

By the Acting Governor of the State, W. H. James. 

At the election held in accordance with the proclamation twenty- 
nine votes were cast at the home of Titus Babcock in Juniata and 


thirteen officials were elected as follows: Commissioners, S. L. Brass, 
Edwin jNI. Allen, W. W. Selleck; probate judge, Titus Babcock; 
county clerk, D. R. Babcock; sherift\ I. W. Stark; justices of the 
peace, W. W. Selleck and Harmon H. Ballou; treasurer, J. S. 
Chandler; assessor, W. W. Camp; superintendent of schools, A. H. 
Bowen; sun'eyor, George Henderson; coroner, Isaiah Sluj'ter. 

While the election was held on December 12, the real work of 
the organized county did not begin until January 2, 1872. Upon 
that date the board of commissioners called a meeting to be held in 
tlie office of the county clerk. No quorum assembled, however, and 
the meeting was adjourned to January 16, and upon that date the 
first official business of Adams Comity was transacted. 

The first act of the board was to divide the county into three com- 
missioners' districts. District number 1 comprised township 5 in 
ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 and the two sonthern tiers of sections in town- 
ship 6. Mr. Selleck represented this district. District number 2 was 
defined as that portion of the county lying north of district number 
1 and west of the line between ranges 10 and 11. This district was 
represented by INIr. Allen. District number 3 comprised all the ter- 
ritory of the county lying north of district number 1 and east of the 
line between ranges 10 and 11. Air. Brass was the representative 
of this district. 

On the same day the commissioners created seven road districts 
and aj^ijointed the following road supervisors: Eben Wright, Volney 
Janes. U. G. King. John M. JNIyer, R. K. Daily, Pliny Allen and 
James H. Sweeting. Road supervisorship came as an unexpected 
honor to the greater number of the appointees. Later they were to 
learn that no inconsiderable part of their work was to be done "with- 
out exjiense to the county." The location of the roads with the as- 
sistance of the county surveyor ^vas the greater part of their duties 
and also to report to the commissioners where bridges and culvei'ts 
were needed in their several districts. 

Upon the first day of their meeting the commissioners fixed their 
own salary at $3.00 per day for the time actually employed and legal 
mileage. The salary of the county clerk was fixed as $loO per year 
and tliat of the probate judge at seventy-five dollars. No fixed salary 
was at first accorded the county superintendent except a compensa- 
tion of $4.00 per day for the time actually served. This rate of com- 
pensation was reduced to $3.00 per day by an amended motion before 
tlie close of the year. Some two weeks after fixing the original salaries 
the commissioners amended their action raising the salary of the 
county clerk to $300 per year. 


Salaries in the county offices have increased with the develoiJnient 
of the county. At j^resent the county clerk receives $1,650 per year; 
the county judge, $1,050; county superintendent, $1,600; county, 
treasin-er, $2,000; clerk of the district court, $1,600; register of 
deeds, $1,500; county attorney, $1,300; sheriff, $1,800; county as- 
sessor, $700. The county supervisors are now paid $4.00 per day 
with the provision that no supervisor shall receive more than $650 in 
one year. 

On the second day of their activities the county commissioners 
ordered that a building for the county offices be put up within ten 
days. The dimensions specified were: length, 20 feet; breadth, 16 
feet; height between joists, 8 feet, and the rafters to come down to 
the ujjper joists. This building they ordered to be constructed of 
l^ine lumber; boarded and battened on the outside; shingle roof; four 
windows; one door; one matched floor and to be ceiled overhead with 
building paper. The sheriff was ordered to notify the contractors 
to file their bids for the work "before 5 o'clock this day." x\t that 
hour bids were opened and it was foimd that the bid of Joseph Stuhl, 
$30.00, was the lowest and he was awarded the contract. The com- 
missioners furnished the material which they ordered George Hender- 
son to supply under the direction of Commissioner Brass, who was 
also the superintendent of construction. 

This little building brought thus hurriedly into being was the home 
of the county offices until about 6 o'clock in the evening of Sei^tember 
27, 1878, when the seat of county government was removed from 
Juniata to Hastings. The building was paid for by county order, issued 
when it was completed and accepted and to draw 10 per cent interest 
until paid. The building was insured for $250 with an additional 
$500 on the contents. 

July 13, 1872, the commissioners levied the first taxes, declaring 
the total valuation of the taxable propei'ty of the county to be 
$957,153. For county purposes they levied for the general fund in- 
cluding the support of the poor, 5 mills; road and land fund, $4.00 
on each quarter section; bridge fund, 5 mills; poll tax, $2.00 on each 
poll. The levy for state purposes was 5-'4 mills. At the same time 
school taxes were levied as follows: on district number one, $905.75; 
two, $144.00; nine, $300.00; twelve, $870.00; sixteen, $650.00: seven- 
teen, $175.00. The next year, February 25, 1873. personal property 
was graded for taxation as follows: 

Horses— Extra grade, $150.00; first, $75.00; second, $50.00; 
third. $30.00. 

JMules— First. $100.00: second, $50.00. 


Working Cattle, Yoke— First, $100.00; second, $60.00. 

Cows— First, $30.00; second, $20.00. 

Wagons— First, $7.5.00; second, $40.00; third, $20.00. 

Buggies— First, $.50.00; second, $2.5.00. 

Double Harness— First, $30.00; second, $15.00. 

It was the duty of the county conunissioners to divide the county 
into such divisions as were authorized by law for the carrying on of the 
local government. On ]March 14, 1872, they divided Adams County 
into two precincts. All the territorj^ north of an east and west line 
from the southeast corner of section 12, township 6 north, range 9 
west, to the northwest corner of section 7, township 6, range 12, was 
called Precinct 1. Precinct 2 comprised all the territory south of such 
line. April 2, 1872, the commissioners named Precinct 1, Juniata, 
and Precinct 2, Little Blue. By this arrangement Little Blue Pre- 
cinct comprised all of the present townships of Logan, Silver I^ake, 
Zero and Little Blue and the south two-thirds of Cottonwood, Rose- 
land. Ayr and Hanover. Juniata Precinct contained all the remainder 
of the county. On the day that the division was made the commission- 
ers appointed Charles H. Chapman assessor of Juniata Precinct, and 
Bigger H. Scott assessor of Little Blue. 

October 9, 1872, the conmiissioners canned additional precincts out 
of Juniata and Little Blue. The territory of Juniata Precinct was 
subdivided into Kenesaw, Denver and Juniata precincts and Silver 
Lake was formed out of Little Blue. Kenesaw Precinct as formed at 
that time comprised all of the territory now Kenesaw and Wanda 
townships, the west tier of sections of the present Verona and Juniata 
townships and the north tier of sections of the present Cottonwood. 

Denver Precinct as formed in 1872 comprised all of the present 
Blaine and West Blue to^\iiships, the north tier of sections in Han- 
over, sections 1 and 2 in Ayr and the two eastern tiers of the present 
Denver and Highland townships. The original Silver Lake Precinct 
comprised the west half of the present Zero and Ayr to^mships, ex- 
cept the north tier of sections in xVyr, all of the present Logan and 
Silver Lake townships and all of Roseland and Cottonwood except 
the north tier of sections. The residue in Juniata after the formation 
of the new precincts was Juniata Precinct and Little Blue was the 
remainder south of the original dividing line of the county. Cotton- 
wood was formed out of Silver Lake September 7, 1874. In 1876 
Pawnee Precinct was formed out of territory which in 1878 was 
absorbed by Denver Precinct and abutting divisions. West Blue, 
though not with the boundaries of the present West Blue township, 
was also created at this time. 


The first commissioners encountered something of a tangle aris- 
ing from the collection of taxes in one county by another county. 
When counties were originally formed by the legislature they often 
embraced territory lying outside the counties as they were composed 
when actually organized. Thus when Adams County was first formed 
its northern boundary was the Platte River. February 16, 1872, 
Commissioner Selleck announced that Hamilton Covuity had collected 
in Adams County in taxes $3,370.11. The taxes were said to have 
been collected in the years 1867 to 1870, inclusive. A. H. Bo wen, 
on some sort of agreement with the commissioners had talked the 
matter over with the Hamilton County officials and on February 16 
the commissioners directed the sheriff to notify Hamilton County that 
Adams County "holds it responsible for a deficiency of $883.43 that 
A. H. Bowen refuses to pay over." Subsequently it was decided that 
Mr. Bowen had been authorized by Deputy Clerk Babcock to collect 
from Hamilton County. 

Isaac W. Stark now brought a charge of embezzlement against 
iNIr. Bowen and Mr. Bowen contributed an article to the Adams 
County Gazette roundly criticising the commissioners as intriguers 
and incompetents. Shortly afterward the commissioners adopted the 
motion of INIr. Brass that no further steps should be taken in the prose- 
cution of ]\Ir. Bowen. Thus ended the first disturbance in the internal 
l^ohtics of Adams County. 

In the report that Commissioner Selleck made on the tax situation 
he declared that at least $8,000.00 was due Adams County from 
Saline County. By the next motion the commissioners resolved them- 
selves into a committee to collect and it was ordered that an attorney 
be emjjloyed to collect from Saline. At about the same time O. A. 
Abbott, agent of Hall County, presented the claims of his county to 
the money received by Adams County from Hamilton. This claim 
was ])ut u])on the ground that this money represented taxes collected 
by Hamilton from that part of Adams County lately set off to Hall 
County. The board immediately carried the motion of Mr. Brass 
that the commissioners get the best counsel in the state to look into 
Hall County's claims. On April 2, 1872, the commissioners ordered 
the clerk to notify Hall County that Adams was not indebted to it 
and therefore would not pay. In tiu'n Adams County levied some 
taxes in the unorganized County of Kearney. The tax tangle lasted 
a number of years, but collections were trifling on these early claims. 

February 1.5, 1872, Justice of the Peace H. H. Ballon, who was 
also overseer of the poor, reported to the board that Peter Fowhe 
was a charge. INIr. Fowlie had frozen his foot and the foot had been 


amputated by Dr. J. R. Laine. Doctor Laine presented a claim of 
$1 jO to the commissioners for his service. Commissioner Allen moved 
that the claim be allowed at $50.00. JMn Brass amended the motion 
to allow $75.00, and the amended motion carried. The next day it 
was ordered that each of the commissioners resolve himself into a 
committee to select a site for a poor farm, and February 17th, the 
motion of INIr. Brass that $25.00 be set aside for assistance to the poor 
was carried. 

The commissioners charged themselves with locating a poor farm 
and ascertaining whether a quarter section might be i^reempted for 
that i^urpose. They traveled over the county on several different 
occasions and on April 4th, selected section 2, lying immediately west 
of the jjresent jjoor farm. On July 13th they reconsidered the selection 
and ordered the pin-chase of the present poor farm from the Burling- 
ton Railroad. The farm comprises 320 acres, which is the soutli lialf 
of section 1. township 6, range 11. The amount paid for it was 
$3,173.86 with the taxes accruing from 1872 to July 9, 1883, upon 
which date the railroad executed a deed to Adams County. 

The first house erected upon the jjoor farm was built in the fall 
of 1872. Ira G. Dillon was the contractor and the price was $1,400. 
The building Avas 16 feet by 24 feet and a story and one-half high. 
In August, Peter Fowlie had been appointed overseer of the poor at a 
salary of $25.00 per month. On November 1st, the overseer reported 
tliat there were six county charges and on November 4th he assembled 
tliem in the new poorhouse. The following rules were imposed by 
the commissioners upon the poor- farm dwellers : rise at 6 ; breakfast 
at 7; dinner at 12; supper at 6. No smoking in sitting rooms or bed- 
rooms or near haystacks. No profane language or card playing. 

Peter Fowlie continued to be poormaster until February 11, 1874, 
wlien the farm was rented to ^I. B. Kelley for $2.25 an acre for fifty 
acres, Mr. Kelley to receive $4.00 ])er week each for caring for the 
))oor. In the meantime Mr. Fowlie had ajjplied to the commissioners 
for an artificial foot and the subject was discussed in many meetings 
in 1872 until early in 1873 when accepting the counsel of James Laird, 
who had been appointed county attorney, the board were dissuaded 
from their good intentions. Peter Fowlie became deputy county 
treasurer under ISIr. Thorne. 

In 1885 the county supervisors submitted to the electors a propo- 
sition to sell the poor farm. The vote resulted in 744 for selling and 
705 against. The proposition failed, not getting the legally necessary 
two-thirds majority. At the same election it was voted to purchase 
a building for the farm. At present the house on the poor farm con- 


tains fourteen rooms. Furnace heat and a water pressure system 
were installed in 1913 and this year, 1916, a new barn, 44 feet by 64 
feet is being built. The average niumber of dependents at the farm 
is about six. The present overseer of the poor farm is J. Riley Baugh. 
Others who have served in that capacity are Frank Crozier, A. K. 
Deffenbaugh and Charles W. Hall. ]Mr. Hall was the overseer for 
twelve years. 

The office of county treasurer did not seem alluring in 1872. John 
S. Chandler who was elected December 12, 1871, resigned January 
29, 1872, the day set for the approval of his bond. Commissioner 
Brass acted as temporary treasurer until George Henderson qualified 
February 1.5th, receiving into his custody $1,222.49. Henderson re- 
signed July 3d, and Ira G. Dillon was appointed the same day, his 
bond being fixed at $8,000.00. October 22d. the treasui-er's bond was 
fixed at $1.>,000.00. At present it is $100,000. 

Until Hastings was incorjiorated April 21, 1874, licpior licenses 
in the county were issued by the commissioners. February 29, 1872, 
license was fixed at $200.00 per year; JNIay 21st it was raised to $400.00. 
JNIarch 15, 1873, license Avas issued to Charles Kohl to operate a 
sample room in Hastings, tlie license fee being $200.00 for six months. 
This was the first license issued for Hastings, but two had pi-eviously 
been issued for Juniata. 

July 23. 1872, the commissioners took steps towards the develop- 
ment of industries in the young county. This was by granting the 
petition of S. L. Brass, A. H. Bowen and others to submit to the 
voters of Juniata Precinct the i^roposition of voting $6,000.00 in 
precinct bonds for the erection of a steam grist mill in Juniata. On 
November 26th, fiftj'-seven votes were cast for the bonds and ten 
against. The provisions were that the mill was to be located in 
Juniata and completed by October 1, 1873. The mill to have three 
runs of stone and to cost not less than $12,000.00. The operator must 
give bond in the sum of $10,000.00 to grind all the grain delivered to 
the extent of cajjacity for a term of twenty years at a toll not to 
exceed one-sixth of a bushel for each bushel groimd. It was provided 
that the bonds operate as lien for twenty years to insure faithful com- 

On October 11th George W. INIoore, of Illinois, acce2)ted the prop- 
osition. He was not able to complete the mill in the required time and 
the ]:)recinct voted to extend the time one year. The mill was even- 
tually built. Litigation grew out of the venture, but milling was estab- 
lished in Juniata and continues to this day. 

The building and repair of bridges is one of the problems tliat 


the supervisors contend witli at the present time. It was also a part 
of the perjilexities confronting the early commissioners. The first 
movement toward bridge construction in Adams County was made 
October 11, 1872, when the commissioners let the contract to H. T. 
Clark for two bridges; one across Thirty-two IVlile Creek and the other 
across the Little Blue River. On October 22d, the location of the 
Thirty-two ]Mile Bridge was determined as the point where the quarter 
line running north and south through section 1, township 6, range 11, 
crosses the creek. On November 8th, the Little Blue Bridge was 
ordered to be built on the line between sections 25 and 26, township 6, 
range 10, at the point where the line crosses the river. This bridge was 
to have a span of fifty feet. The contract for both bridges was let for 

The commissioners fixed bounties for the killing of wolves and 
wild cats in 1872 and for the first several years they recorded paying- 
such bounties. 

The making of road districts the records of the commissioners 
show was iJushed rapidly. Twenty-three districts were defined at one 
meeting earlj^ in 1873, which brought the total in the county up to 
thirty-five districts. Of the sixty-four districts in the county at the 
present time only four retain their original number; these are districts 
5.) to 58, inclusive, in Logan Township. There are 1,152 miles of 
road in Adams County. The aggregate tax levy for roads and bridges 
in 1913. reduced to the basis of dollars raised per mile in that year 
and comprehending both the county levy and the township special 
levy was $43.10. Of this sum $19.30 was for bridges. The aggregate 
amount contemplated by the levy for that year was $49,651.20. The 
average per mile levied in Nebraska that year Avas $40.20. 

Adams County Avas under the commissioner form of government 
from December 12. 1871. to November 21, 1883. A statute passed 
by the Nebraska Legislatm-e in 1877 provided for township organiza- 
tion in counties. The proposition was voted in Adams County in 
the November election, 1877; there were 732 votes for to^^^lship organ- 
ization and 56 against. Late in 1877 the Supreme Court held in a case 
coming up from Lancaster County that the law was unconstitutional. 
In 1883 the Legislature again provided for township organization and 
in the November election, Adams County adopted township organiza- 
tion by a vote of 1,523 for and 146 against. Under the law providing 
for the change in county government there was one supervisor for 
each precinct, but precincts having more than 3,000 inhabitants were 
entitled to one additional supervisor; more than 5,000, two additonal 
and thereafter one additional supervisor for every additional 2,000 


inhabitants. For a time Adams County had twenty-three supervisors. 
In 1891 tliis law was amended to provide tliat each city or village of 
1,000 or over should be entitled to one supervisor and one additional 
supervisor for each additional 4,000 inhabitants. 

January 11. 1884, the county was divided by the supervisors into 
eight townships. West Blue was defined within the boundaries now 
containing Highland and West Blue; Denver contained the present 
Denver and Blaine, except Hastings; Ayr, Ayr and Zero; Silver 
Lake, Silver Lake and Logan; Cottonwood, Cottonwood and Rose- 
land ; Juniata, Verona and Juniata ; Kenesaw, Kenesaw and Wanda. 
June 6, 1884, the eight precincts were each divided into two, forming 
the present townships. 

During 189.3 the county was divided into seven supervisor districts 
which now exist. The law provided that if at that time there were 
more than one supervisor in a district they sliould determine by lot 
who should be the sujiervisor. At the November, 189.5, election, one 
supervisor was elected in each district. Those elected in odd num- 
bered districts held office one year: those in even numbered, two years. 
The law now in force provided that those elected in odd numbered 
districts in 1914 shall hold office for foin- years and those elected in 
even nmnbered districts in 1916 shall hold office for four years. 

The districts as formed in 189;5 with regard to territory are made 
up as follows: District No. 1 — West Blue, Highland, Denver and 
Blaine. District 2 — Juniata, Hanover and Ayr. District 3 — Verona, 
Kenesaw, Wanda and Cottonwood. District 4 — Roseland, Logan, 
Silver Lake, Zero and Little Blue. Districts .3. 6 and 7, the City of 

When the tliree commissioners were first elected one was elected 
for one year; one for two years and one for three years. Thereafter 
each commissioner was elected for three years. The following were 
elected : 


Wellington W. Selleck 1871 

Edwin M. Allen 1871 

Samuel L. Brass 1871 

Russell S. Langley 1873 

A. D. Yocum 1874 

John R. Ratcliff 187.5 

Edward M. JMoore 1870 

A. D. Yocum 1877 


C. G. Wilson 1878 

A. V. Cole 1879 

W. W. Hopper 1880 

Gordon H. Edgerton 1881 

A. V. Cole 188-2 

H. Armstrong 1882 

Mr. Armstrong was elected in 1882 to fill the vacancy in the third 
district caused by the resignation of INIr. Hopi^er. 


J. H. Spicer, William Z. Parmenter, W. R. McCully, George 
Ciane, James E. Reed, H. P. Rowe, Henry Stammer, M. A. Harg- 
leroad, H. C. ^Nlinnix and S. M. Frink. 



James E. Reed, John P. Duncan, H. P. Rowe, Samuel Arnold, 
A. T. Shattuck, Amos Shattuck, Henry SchnuUe, William R. 
]McCully, R. M. Boyd and S. :M. Frink. 


James E. Reed, Walter Stebbins, L. L. :Mills, H. C. .Alinnix, W. 
H. Waldron, George CrafFord, E. L. Dutton, Davis Lowman. A. H. 
Cramer, William A. Jones. 


jNIyron Van Fleet, Charles Kohl, A. H. Cramer, S. G. Johnson, 
S. L. Heaps, L. B. Partridge, Adam Reader, Jacob Wooster, W. H. 
Waldron, Davis Lowman, H. P. Rowe. R. ]M. Boyd, J. P. Duncan. 
James E. Reed, H. C. INIinnix, W. P. Brown, Henry Stannner, D. 
:\I. Ball, S. C. Dilley. S. M. Frink, Amos Shattuck, *F. J. Benedict 
and T. B. Burns. 


Amos Shattuck. H. B. McGaw. Tliomas B. Burns, W. H. Wald- 
ron, A. T. Shattuck. J. S. Way, Thomas T. Jones. E. L. Dutton. 
Walter Theisen, J. P. Duncan, A. S. Thompson, J. H. Spicer, F. 
J. Benedict, A. H. Cramer, James JNIcKelvev, Thomas W. Carter, 


W. W. JNIiles, Leopold Hahn, Jacob Wooster, JNIj'ron Van Fleet, 
E. D. Jones, S. M. Frink, W. B. Brown and L. Blumenthal. 


William ]M. Vastine, A. C. JNIoore, J. C. Kay, Jacob Wooster, 
W. M. Lownian, F. M. Alexander, A. H. Cramer, Henry Stammer, 
B. F. :Munson, A. A. Sayre, F. C. Phillips, W. B. Browii, B. B. 
Snodgrass, S. G. Johnson, J. F. Fernow, Aaron F. Powers, W. H. 
Waldron, Edward Creager, Thomas Carter, J. C. Woodworth, Frank 
P. Harmon and Adam Reader. 


E. F. Gettle, T. J. Burns, JNIichael INIcKenna, B. B. Snodgrass, 
H. Fred Einspahr, W. E. Houston, W. J. WiUars, C. R. Hohlfeld, 
Aaron F. Powers, Charles Grebe, W. C. Hodges, D. C. Kerr, J. F. 
Fernow, J. H. Clute, Adam Reader, Ed Burton, F. J. Benedict, 
D. H. Ballard, J. C. Kay, W. M. Vastine, A. H. Cramer and W. 
A. Dilworth. 


R. V. Shockey. U. H. Ballard. D. ^L :McElhinney. Ed Burton, 

A. F. Powers, F. J. Benedict, M. J. ]McKenna, W. H. Waldron, 
H. F. Einspahr, John Gordon. W. A. Dilworth, C. R. Hohlfeld, 

B. B. Snodgrass, J. P. Duncan, Ed F. Gettle, H. C. Minnix, W. 
P. Clawson, Thomas T. Jones, W. J. Willars, Lester Wormuth, 
W. ]M. Vastine and L. C. Ijukins. 


J. C. Woodworth, C. D. Jones, Fred Warner, Frank P. Harmon, 
J. W. Thornton. William Huxtable, Peter H. Stewart, C. B. 
Hemple, J. H. Walker. B. F. Kernan, Jacob Bernhard, L. C. Lukins, 
Jesse Doty and Ephraim Fowler. 


A. C. ]Moore, James Rooney, R. V. Shockey, E. Johnson, Lester 
Wormuth. W. J. Willars, Harvey E. Rose, C. H. Shufflebarger. 
John Gordon, S. JM. Da^is, F. J. Taylor, Thomas J. Cooperrider and 
D. H. Ballard. 



^y. II. ^^^aldron, John H. Walker, E. T. Winter, W. T. John- 
son, PI. E. Kose, P. J. Schmitz, Fred Wagner, A. R. Pearson, George 
W. 31axwell, John Evans and A. T. Shattuck. The two latter were 


W. H. Waldron, Dayton H. Ballard, H. G. Knights, R. V. 
Shockey, F. C. Kruger, E. Johnson, A. T. Shattuck, E. L. Dutton, 
Jacob Wooster, John Gordon, Thomas J. Cooperrider, JM. A. Cruse 
and C. B. Bigelow. 


W. H. Stephens, B. F. Schlegel, Jolin Evans, George W. Max- 
well. Elijah T. Winter, W. B. Brown, P. J. Schmitz, W. T. John- 
son and C. L. Alexander. 


District No. 1, E. T. Winter; No. 2, W. H. Stephens; No. 3, 
M. A. Cruse; No. 4, E. L. Dutton; No. ,5, Jacob Wooster; No. 6, 
R. V. Shockey; No. 7, C. L. Alexander. 


District No. 1, W. H. Waldron; No. 2, Albert N. Hall; No. 3, 
B. F. Schlegel; No. 4, W. T. Johnson; No. .3, C. J. Button; No. 6, R. 
V. Shockey; No. 7, C. L. Alexander. 


Thomas J. Cooj^errider, District No. 1 ; Francis Phillips. Disti'ict 
No. 3; C. J. Button, District No. 5; C. L. Alexander, District No. 7- 


Will Brookley, District No. 2; W. T. Johnson, District No. 4; 
Charles W. Wilson, District No. 6. 



G. H. La Monte, Francis Phillips, W. W. Miles and T. J. 


John Evans, W. H. Palmer and Charles W. Wilson. 


W. W. Miles, Francis Phillips, G. H. La oNlonte and M. H. 


District No. 2, A. P. Slack; District No. 4, John Evans; District 
No. G. \Villiain ]M. Vastine. 


District No. .5, Jacob Wooster; District No. 7, George H. La 
Monte; District No. 1. M. H. Drollinger; District No. 3, J. C. 


District No. 2, W. E. Shaver; District No. 4, John V. Beardsley; 
District No. 6, ^Villianl M. Vastine. 


District No. 1, Charles E. Hill; District No. 5, Jacob Wooster; 
District No. (>, R. V. Shockey: District No. 7, H. C. Kerr: District 
No. 3, J. C. Gihnore. 


District No. 6, D. H. Wentworth: District No. 2, W. E. Shaver; 
District No. 4, John V. Beardsley. 


District No. 5. R. B. Williams: District No. 7. Henry C. Kerr; 
District No. 1, C. A. Huxtable; District No. 3. W. H. Long. 



District No. 2, Thomas G. Whiting; District No. 4, Frank Ver- 
saw; District No. 6. D. H. Wentworth: District No. 5, Luther 


District No. 5, Luther Eglehoff; District No. 7, H. C. Kerr; 
District No. 1, T. S. Hampton; District No. .3. W. H. Long. 


District No. •>. T. G. Whiting; District No. 4, F. E. Versaw; 
District No. 6, A. K. DefFenbaugh. 


District No. 1, C. E. Hill; District No. 3, W. H. Long; District 
No. .). J. F. Heiler: District No. 7, N. D. Kidder. 


District No. 2, John Heye (resigned September 1, 191.3, and 
E. N. George aj^pointed) ; District No. 4, J. L. Hynes; District 
No. 6. F. J. Benedict. 


District No. 1, D. M. Bitner; District No. 3, B. F. Schlegel; 
District No. .). J. F. Heiler; District No. 7, N. D. Kidder. 


Odd numbered districts for four years. District No. .5, J. F. 
Heiler: District No. 7, N. D. Kidder; District No. 1, D. M. Bitner; 
District No. 3, B. F. Schlegel. 


Even numbered districts for four years. District No. 2, Thomas 
G. Whiting; District No. 4, J. L. Hynes; District No. 6, F. J. 


Benedict. In the 1916 election J. L. Hynes and P. H. Gartner 
tied in the fourth district, each receiving 229 votes. JNIr. Hynes 
won in the drawing. 

In the cases in the foregoing table where even numbered districts 
elect supervisors in the same years as the odd numbered, or vice 
versa, it is to fill a vacancy caused by the death or resignation of a 


Juniata became the seat of government of Adams County by the 
vote of tlie people cast at the first election held in the county. The 
date of this election was December 12, 1871, and the home of Titus 
Babcock at Juniata was the polling place. Of the twenty-nine votes 
cast, Juniata received twenty-eight. One vote was cast for Kings- 
ton. Kingston was a homestead near the Little Blue and the inhab- 
itants of the southern part of the county entertained hope of 
establishing a to\m there. Kingston did not develop beyond the 
small general merchandise store which flourished for a number of 
years. It is possible, however, that it would have received more 
votes at the first election were it not that a number of voters from 
that section were not allowed to cast their ballot, on the ground that 
they had failed to register. There is no doubt, however, that in any 
event Jimiata would have polled the larger vote. 

It should be remembered that at the time of this election there 
Avas no railroad in Adams County. The Burlington was extending 
its line westward from Plattsmouth, but for the moment it was not 
at all preposterous for any community or homestead to hope for a 
location favorable to a townsite. The vote for Kingston shows that 
at even so early a date as that of the first election there was lack 
of mianimity as to the location of the county seat, and this only 
augm-ed the long and in some respects bitter stniggle that was to 
follow. The contenders in that struggle were Hastings and Jimiata. 

There is nothing to indicate that when Walter ]Mickleni, on Octo- 
ber 1, 1872, began surveying his homestead into a townsite that 
composed the original Town of Hastings, he had any thought that 
the town that might develop from the nucleus composed of the three 
or four business houses then in operation would one day contend 
against Juniata for the already established coimty seat. INIr. INIick- 
lem's reason for surveying a townsite is to be found in the building 
of the St. Joseph & Denver, now St. Joseph & Grand Island, Rail- 
road, into Hastings. ]Mr. INIicklem might reasonably expect that at 


the junction of this road with the Burlington a thriving town might 
gro^v. The St. Josej^h & Denver was completed into Hastings during 
September, 1872. 

It was the intention of the builders of the latter road to extend 
their line to Denver. It was lack of funds to carry out that project 
that led them to abandon it. It was on April 17, 1872, that E. E. 
Brown, representing the St. Joseph & Denver road, appeared before 
tlie Adams Coxmty commissioners at Juniata and asked them to pro- 
vide $75,000 in county bonds for the assistance of his railroad. He 
l^romised that if the bonds asked for should carry, the road would 
complete twenty-five miles of its line in Adams County by January 
1, 1873. The commissioners, S. L. Brass, Edwin M. Allen and 
Wellington W. Selleck, responded by ordering a special election for 
jMay 27th. At the election the bonds did not carry, and it is probable 
that the failure of the bonds to carry was the principal reason why 
Juniata ultimately lost the county seat; at least the issue of the elec- 
tif)n was one of the prime factors. But a munber of the leaders in 
Juniata argued, and with seeming plausibility, that the St. Joseph & 
Denver woidd come to the county without the voting of bonds, inas- 
much as Adams County lay in tlie })ath of the proposed route, and 
there was no doubt in their minds that it would clioose for business 
reasons to cross the Bin-lington at Juniata, which was already a 
promising village and the county seat. Without bonds the new road 
did entei- Adams County, but it crossed the Biu'lington not at Juniata 
liut at Hastings. No doubt the activity of Jmiiata pioneers in 
defeating the bonds influenced the St. Joseph to avoid the young- 
county seat and to enter Hastings. Having acquired two railroads, 
Hastings naturally felt the stirrings of ambition. To foster this 
feeling there Avas also the fact that voters in the southern and central 
portions of the county had not been favorable to Juniata in the first 

This feeling was crystallized in many conversations on the streets 
of Hastings and in the few business houses. On the of INIay, 
1873, the Hastings Journal was issued from the press, and thence- 
forth the ambition of Hastings was assisted by the printed word. 
This paper was published by "SI. K. Lewis and A. 1j. Wigton and 
was active in seeking the submission of the question of tlie removal 
of the county seat to a vote of the people. 

IjCss than a month after the founding of the Hastings Joiu-nal, 
on June 3, 1873, a mass meeting was held in Hastings to consider 
plans for the removal of the county seat. This meeting resulted in 
the formulating of a machine well organized to carry out the work 


in prospect. The motion of Samuel Alexander providing for a com- 
mittee of ten to canvass each precinct in behalf of Hastings was 
carried. The workers were assigned as follows: For Denver Pre- 
cinct, Thomas E. Farrell and R. V. Shockey; for Little Blue, G. W. 
Donahey and A. Berg; for Silver Lake, C. K. Lawson and Charles 
Kohl; for Kenesaw, A. D. Yocum and Charles H. Paul; for Juniata, 
B. H. Brown and S. S. Dow. The committee named at this meeting 
worked with a will. They visited the homesteaders at their homes, 
buttonholed them when they came to town and industriously labored 
setting forth the advantages of Hastings, with its two railroads, as 
the location for the county seat. ISIeanwhile the inhabitants of 
Juniata were just as zealous. Among the leaders of Juniata's 
defenders were the county commissioners, James Laird, A. H. Bowen, 
B. F. Smith, A. V. Cole, W. B. Thorne and several others. The 
spirit of wai- was rife among the contenders and sometimes disputes 
became so heated that blows resulted. 

I^ess than a month following the mass meeting which had been 
held at Hastings and which was presided over by j\L K. Lewis, with 
J. 31. Abliott secretary, the work of the committee of ten showed 
results, for on July 1st a petition praying for the submission of the 
question of the removal of the county seat from Juniata was filed 
with the county commissioners. This petition was filed by Simon 
Rankins, a business man of Hastings, and was signed by him and 
a large nmnber of other citizens. For the time being the petition 
was laid upon the table and the defenders of Juniata planned their 
next moves against the assaults of an enemy which showed all the 
signs of persistence and determination. 

The petition remained upon the table until August 'iOth, when it 
was taken up and a remonstrance against the submission of the 
removal question to a ballot was filed by William Gardner, C. H. 
Chapman and 200 others. On the afternoon of that day, while the 
August sun shone in real Nebraska streng-th upon the little public 
l)uilding in the prairie towni, arguments were heard by the commis- 
sioners for the petition and for the remonstrance. A large number 
of Hastings residents and partisans were present, and the Juniata 
synqjathizers were out in force, so that the little room where the 
commissioners deliberated could not begin to accommodate the crowd, 
many of whom braved the blazing rays and congregated about the 
door. Hastings was represented in the argument chiefly liy R. A. 
Batty and A. W. Wheeler. The principal spokesmen for Juniata 
were James Laird and A. H. Bowen. Not all the arguments, how- 
ever, were witliin the building. Outside the contending partisans kept 


up a running fire of language that every now and then reached a crisis 
of intensity. 

Tlie arguments hefore the commissioners began at 2 o'clock and 
were kept up continuously until 6.30, when the meeting adjourned 
for an hour. After suj^i^er the discussion was resumed. Immedi- 
ately after sui^per JMr. Batty requested that the commissioners post- 
pone their decision until the following Friday and that in the 
meantime they should receive further petitions for and against. This 
was on Wednesday evening. The commissioners, however, refused 
]Mr. Batty's request and ordered that the time for receiving and filing 
jjetitions be declared closed, and that the board take until August 
28th to decide the question. On that date the commissioners rendered 
their decision in favor of the remonstrance and did not order an 
election. The ground upon which they rendered their decision was 
that the statute required that the petition be signed by two-thirds of 
the legal voters of the county. The remonstrance showed, it was 
contended, that the i:)etition did not have the required nmnber of 
voters. Thus did Hastings lose the first skirmish before the Adams 
County commissioners. 

This defeat, however, by no means lessened the ardor of the 
Hastings partisans, and the work systematically begim by the com- 
mittee of ten was jjressed on with vigor. In the fall election of 1873 
A. H. Cramer was elected county clerk and in the subsequent develop- 
ments this election of ]\Ir. Cramer proved to be an important factor. 

The next activity of moment in the removal contest began in the 
forenoon of June 19, 1874. The county commissioners were in ses- 
sion and A. H. Bowen appeared before the board and presented 
a resolution for their consideration. ]Mr. Bowen was asked to read 
the resolution, which was signed by E. M. Allen, B. F. Smith and 
A. H. Bowen. The resolution set forth that a large number of 
taxpayers had met at Jimiata ^Monday, June l.jth, and decided that 
the time was ripe for the erection of a courthouse at Juniata. The 
resolution asked that the $13,000 as shown by the levy of 1873 should 
be transferred by the commissioners from the sinking fund to the 
courthouse fund and that they should at once let the contract for the 
erection of the building. The resolution also stipulated that the pro- 
posed courthouse was to cost not less than $1.5,000 nor more than 
$25,000. This sudden move for the erection of the courthouse was 
the plan developed and adopted by the leaders of the Juniata parti- 
sans for the securing of the county seat already theirs, and for quelling 
the agitation for removal. This plan was developed without the 
knowledge of the Hastings partisans. It was Juniata's answer to 


the attempt made by Hastings the preceding year to have the ques- 
tion of removal submitted to a vote. 

^Vhen the resolution was presented by JNIr. Bowen no Hastings 
jjartisan was present excej^t the county clerk, Mr. A. H. Cramer. 
Before deliberations had proceeded very far, however, the county 
clerk espied Charles H. Paul, who happened to come to Juniata that 
day. ]Mr. Pavd had ridden a horse to town. JNIr. Cramer succeeded 
in slipping the Avord to jMr. Paul that something direful to the hopes 
of Hastings was pending before the board, and he urged him to 
return at once to Hastings to warn the people as to what was about 
to transpiie. ]Mr. Paul at once turned the head of his steed and 
raced I)ack to Hastings with a speed and a sj^irit somewhat akin to 
those of Paul Revere upon a previous momentous occasion. For a 
time the commissioners discussed the feasibility of the plan set forth 
by the resolution : that is, to transfer $13,000 from the sinking fund 
to the courthouse fund. The county clerk protested, declaring that 
the commissioners were not warranted by law to make the transfer. 

Commissioner Langley then moved that the commissioners hold 
tliemselves in readiness to receive plans, specifications and bids for 
a courthouse to cost not more than $1.5,000. When this motion had 
been carried, Conmiissioner Brass moved that the sheriff notify 
ai-chitects, contractors and builders to prepare their plans, specifica- 
tions and bids "by 10 o'clock this day." 

Shortly after this action was taken, hoofbeats were heard upon 
the ])rairie road to the east. Hastings had rallied her forces upon 
receipt of the message carried by INIr. Paul. They came in wagons, 
on horses, ou whatever conveyances they could muster, and if mem- 
ories may be relied upon through the forty-two years elapsed since 
that event, some brought shotguns, revolvei's and other weapons with 
which to defend Avhat they considered to be their rights. Fortunately, 
these weajDons were not brought into play and no crime mars the 
intense feelings which the occasion engendered. 

Throughout the presentation of the arg\iments and the threats 
of tlie folks from Hastings, the commissioners remained unswerved 
f]'om tlieir determination. In the afternoon, however, they extended 
the time for the bids, plans and specifications to be filed by 10 o'clock 
the following day. Hastings lost no time in preparing a remonstrance 
against the erection of the courthouse. When the commissioners met 
the next day the remonstrance, signed by Frank Sears and eighty- 
eight Qthers, was filed. It was evident that the commissioners did 
not propose that much time should be lost in parleying. Chairman 
Selleck kept the machinery of deliberation moving rapidly. A time 


limit of ten minutes was placed upon the speakers for each side. The 
dehate was acrimonious, led largely bj^ JNlr. Batty for Hastings and 
James Laird for Juniata. It was quite evident, too, that the speaking 
was not going to convince anyone not already convinced. 

On the motion of JMr. Brass the commissioners jiroceeded to open 
the bids. The bid of R. D. Babcock was for $18,000, for which he 
proposed to erect a courthouse "similar to the one at Lowell, county 
seat of Kearney County." The bid was rejected. 

E. M. Allen's bid of $22,000 was rejected. 

The bid of D. H. Freeman of Juniata was accej^ted. The speci- 
fications filed with ]\Ir. Freeman's bid designated a building 40 by 46. 
It was to be erected for $14,000. ]Mr. Freeman asked that he should 
be paid in cash, or he would agree to take county warrants at 7-5 cents 
on the dollar. He also agreed to add an approved belfry. 

Following the acceptance of Freeman's bid. Commissioner Brass 
made a motion that the levy in the sinking fund should be borrowed 
for the use of the general fund to apply to tlie contract witli Freeman. 
The motion was carried. The next motion carried ordered that tlie 
clerk draw warrants on the general fund in the amount of $10,000 
in favor of D. H. Freeman. 

A. H. Cramer, who it will l)e remembered was the county clerk, 
again protested that the action just taken by the board of commis- 
sioners was irregular and unlawful. The board reminded Mr. Cramer 
tliat his duty was merely clerical. The debate between Mr. Cramer 
and the commissioners was heated, ]Mr. Cramer, however, steadfastly 
refusing to place the official seal of Adams County upon the warrants, 
feeling the while that probably he was exceeding his legal authority, 
but also quite sure that the action of the commissioners was irregular. 
Finally, exasperated by the obstinacy of the clerk, the commissioners 
carried a motion declaring the office of county clerk of Adams County 
to be vacant. 

Mr. Cramer again contended that the latter action, too, was irreg- 
idar, and that his office could not be thus vacated on the grounds 
taken by the commissioners. In consequence he refused to give up 
the keys or the official seal of the county. The commissioners then 
carried a motion providing that the matter of the authority of the 
commissioners for the letting of a contract for the purpose of erecting 
a courthouse be referred to Judge Gantt in chambers at Nebraska 
City, June 30, 1874. Tlie judge's action was to issue a restraining 
order forbidding the erection of the courthouse under the Freeman 
contract. No further effort was made to oust ]Mr. Cramer from office. 

Feeling reached a high pitch at this stage of the county seat 


removal contest. While the legality of the action of the coniniis- 
sioners in letting the Freeman contract was still in doubt, reposing 
in the hands of Judge Gantt in Nebraska City, a mass meeting, or 
more correctly, an indignation meeting of Hastings partisans was 
held at Juniata. This was on June 24, 1874. A rejjort emphatically 
condemning the commissioners and heartily endorsing the action of 
Mr. Cramer in refusing to issue the warrants was adopted with an 
overwhelming majority. The resolutions of condemnation and com- 
mendation were drafted by J. M. Ragan, W. M. West, Oliver ^Vhit- 
son, A. C. Moore and J. C. Wilson. R. A. Batty was the presiding 
officer at this meeting. 

For a few weeks following the close of the phase of the county 
seat war just narrated aff'airs remained in status quo so far as overt 
activities were concerned. The jjot was still simmering, however, and 
the Hastings workers felt that tlie failure of the Freeman courthouse 
contract project had won sympathy for their side and they were 
doubly desirous that the question of removal be submitted to a vote. 
Conmiittees were active in securing signers for a petition looking to 
that end. The result of this activity was the filing of a petition with 
the board of commissioners by A. D. Yocum and others asking 
that the matter of relocation be submitted to a vote at the forthcom- 
ing fall election. The commissioners were in no hurry to act. ]Mr. 
Yocum had filed the petition August 17, 1874. No action had been 
taken by the conunissioners on September 7th, and on that day the 
^vorkers for Hastings filed the names of thirty-three additional signers 
to the petition and urged the board to take some action. A remon- 
strance was also filed that day, signed by 392 remonstrators. There 
were 584 signers of the petition for submission of the question. 

Next day, September 8th, the commissioners took action, denying 
the petition and refusing to order that the question be voted upon. 
The statute go^'erning the submission of the question of removal pro- 
vided that two-thirds of the qualified voters at the last general election 
must sign tlie petition before the commissioners should order a vote 
to be taken. The officials explained that the petition filed by iMr. 
Yocum did not contain the required number of signers. They said 
that to the best of their belief there were in the comity 978 persons 
who claimed to be legal voters. While it was true that the total 
signers of the petition and the remonstrance amounted to 976, two 
fewer than the number of qiialified voters in the county, yet there 
had been presented to them the names of forty-six jJersons who had 
signed neither the petition nor the remonstrance. The addition of 
these names to tliose already filed would bring the total of the qualified 


voters in tlie county up to 1,022, a number wliich the officials contended 
was absurdly high. JNIoreover, they declared that forty-four of those 
who had signed the petition for submission had subsequently peti- 
tioned to have their names erased. Under these circumstances, the 
board declared that the jietition could not be rightfully granted. 

The following year, 187.>, however, from the very outset seemed 
more hopeful to Hastings. In the November election, 1874, Hastings 
gained a friend on the board, in the jierson of A. D. Yocum, who was 
an energetic worker. Mr. Yocum succeeded Mr. Brass Januar}' 1, 
1875, and in the passing of the latter from the board Juniata lost a 
strong and enthusiastic advocate. By an act of the Nebraska Legis- 
lature approved February 24, 1875, it was provided that "Whenever 
the inhabitants of a county are desirous of changing the county seat 
an election must be ordered if the petitioners number three-fifths of 
all tlie votes cast at the last general election." Before this act was 
passed it was necessary that three-fourths of tlie electors should 

Once more the Hastings partisans began their struggle to get the 
question of relocation submitted, and on JNIarch 5th, J. L. Parrott 
filed a i^etition signed by himself and 491 otliers. The petition was 
granted and the board ordered that a special election should be held 
on the first Tuesday in April, 1875. Tlie pi'oclamations posted jiro- 
vided for the following polling places: Juniata Precinct, courthouse, 
Juniata; Denver Precinct, office of L. C. Gould, Hastings; Little 
Blue Precinct, schoolhouse, District No. 19; Kenesaw Precinct, school- 
house, District No. 3; Cottonwood Precinct, house of E. C. Sheel- 

On A])ril 8th the ballots were canvassed by a canvassing board 
composed of A. H. Cramer, M. K. Lewis and jNIyron Van Fleet. 
The canvassers declared that Hastings had won the election. The 
county clerk, A. H. Cramer, directed by the canvassers, so entered 
the result uiJon the record. The canvassers of the votes by this board 
sliowed the result to be as folloAvs: 


Juniata Kenesaw Denver Silver Lake Little Blue Cottonwood 

Preeinet Precinet rreeinet I*recinct Precinct Precinct 

For Juniata 201 66 7 67 11 28 

For Hastings .53 9 296 49 144 10 

For Lenata . . 1 

The canvassing board, liowever, did not admit the vote as shown 
in the foregoing table. Tliey rejected tlie returns from Cottonwood 


Precinct because affidavits were filed by two Adams County electors 
stating that the polls in Cottonwood Precinct were declared open 
before a full election board was organized, and ad j omened the 
same to place other than the place designated by the j)roclamation of 
election, and further that the election board did not qualify before 
the proj^er officer as provided by law. After throwing out the Cot- 
tonwood returns the vote stood: For Jimiata, 352; for Hastings, 
ool; for Lenata, 1. By this reckoning 904 ballots were cast at the 
election. Three-fifths of tliat total would equal .5-12 2-5 votes. So that 
Hastings, having received 551 votes, was entitled to tlie county seat, 
the law requiring for the removal a majority of three-fifths of the 
votes cast. This is the reasoning underlying the entry in the record 
of elections which gives Hastings the victory in the contest of 1875. 
The ^■ote recorded for Lenata, was probably intended for Juniata, but 
tlie writing was almost illegible and under the stress of opposition it 
was agreed as a compromise that the vote was for Lenata, though no 
one knew of a place by that name. 

Juniata, however, did not remain quiescent following the finding 
of the canvassing board. Affidavit after affidavit was filed. It was 
charged that there was an irregularity in the organization of the county 
and that many of the election officials and a few of tlie county officials 
were not citizens of the United States. It was alleged further that 
thirty legal voters had been disfranchised because they would not vote 
for Juniata. This latter charge, of course, was made by Hastings 
]:)artisans. Juniata supporters charged tliat in the southern townships 
of the county the only notices of election had been posted in S])ring 
Ranch in Clay County. Juniata, however, exercised the greatest 
effort to have the vote recanvassed and to secure the including of the 
returns from Cottonwood Township. 

And in this Juniata was successful. The Supreme Court issued 
an order compelling the board of canvassers to count the votes from 
Cottonwood. On ]May 19th the vote was recanvassed, the board at 
this time being comjiosed of A. H. Cramer, George W. Wolcott and 
W. H. Burr. Cottonwood gave Juniata twenty-eight additional votes 
and only ten to Hastings. One vote from Silver Lake previously 
counted for Hastings was now counted for Juniata, and one less for 
Hastings was counted in Denver Precinct. According to this canvass, 
Juniata had received 381 votes and Hastings 559. The commissioners 
declared that Juniata had received more than two-fifths of all the votes 
cast, and was therefore the county seat, and the result was so recorded 
in the records. 

While Hastings was much disappointed with the outcome of the 


election of 1875, there was no disposition on the part of the workers 
to give u]) the contest. The Hastings Jonrnal continued to agitate 
the question and plans for the next campaign were considered with- 
out diminution of enthusiasm. Upon IVIarch 5, 1877, Hastings began 
what proved to be the final assault upon Juniata. On that date there 
was filed with the county commissioners a petition containing 635 
signers, comijosed of the resident electors of Adams County, praying 
that the question of removal of the county seat be again submitted 
to a vote. Tliis time the board took immediate action, and on the 
same date Commissioner Moore moved that the petition be granted. 
The motion was seconded by Commissioner John R. Ratcliff and was 
carried. A special election was ordered to be held INIonday, April 9, 
1877. The following were designated as the polling places: West 
Blue Precinct, schoolhouse. District No. 33; Denver Precinct, office 
of George F. Work, Hastings; Pawnee Precinct, schoolhouse. Dis- 
trict No. 22; Little Blue Precinct, schoolhouse. District No. 9: Silver 
Lake Pi'ecinct, residence of W. B. Thorne; Cottonwood Precinct, 
schoolhouse. District No. 39; Kenesaw Precinct, schoolhouse. District 
N^o. 3; Juniata Precinct, courthouse, Juniata. 

On Ajjril 14th the county clerk, A. H. Cramer, selected Thomas 
R. Lee and Thomas D. Scofield to act with himself as a canvassing 
board to canvass the votes. The canvassers foimd that 844 votes had 
been cast for Hastings and 535 for Juniata. The votes for Hastings 
numbering more than three-fifths of all the votes cast, it was declared 
to be the county seat. The abstract of the canvassers shows the vote 
by precincts to have been as follows : 




























Jimiata 231 

Hastings 4 13 491 

Though the report of the canvassing board showed that Hastings 
had won the county seat by the ballot, Juniata was not disposed to 
yield thus easily, and there followed a period of litigation which 
extended until the autumn of 1878. 

On the day that the canvassing board announced their finding, 
April 14, 1877, Adna H. Bowen, "for himself and others similarly 
interested," filed a petition, affidavit and undertaking in the District 
Court asking the court to issue an injimction to prevent the removal 
of the countv offices to Hastings. The countv commissioners, A. D. 


Yocuni, Edward jMoore and John RatclifF, and the county clerk, A. 
H. Cramer, were made the defendants. A temporary injunction was 
granted, and Jiniiata was saved from immediate loss of the county 
offices. The plaintiffs charged that frauds had been perpetrated in 
the election, that votes had been illegally coimted for Hastings, and 
that the partisans of the latter town had used intimidation to prevent 
voters from expressing their wishes at the jjolls. 

On June 8th the defendants moved the court for the dissolution 
of the injunction. T. D. Scolield and E. E. Brown represented 
Hastings, while James Laird and Oliver P. INIason, defending Jimi- 
ata, argued against defendants' motion. Judge Gas! in ovenided the 
motion of the defendants and the injunction continued in force. On 
the same date the plaintiffs were allowed to file an amended petition. 

On July 6, 1877, Judge Gaslin, with the consent of both imrties 
to the controversy, ajjpointed C. E. Calkins, an attorney from Kear- 
ney, as referee to take proofs and report issues of law and fact and 
to report without unnecessary delay. July 18th, the referee filed 
his oath and forthwith began his inquiry into the fact of the election 
held the previous April. These sessions of inquiry were begun in 
the courthouse at Juniata. In form the inquiry was much like a court 
])roceeding. A long list of witnesses Avere examined and the testi- 
mony was a conflicting maze of charges and counter-charges. Several 
hearings were had by the referee in Hastings, in iSIillet Hall, vvhicli 
was located on First Street, on the north side of the street and a little 
east of the corner of Hastings Avenue and First Street. The referee 
did not finish his investigation, begun in July, until the following 
December. On the .3d of that month he filed his report, and the next 
day the defendants filed a motion for judgment on the report of the 
referee and the court set the motion for hearing on the morning of 
Friday, December 7th. The compensation asked by the referee for 
his services was $320 and $77 for expenses, and he asked for the 
stenographer, John W. Brewster, for the transcript furnished by him, 
the sum of $400. By consent of both parties later, the reporter, ISIr. 
Brewster, was allowed $203 additional and per diem attendance before 
the referee. 

On the morning of December 7th, Judge Gaslin took uji the 
motion for judgment on the report of the referee and took the report 
under advisement. On the daj^ before, Mr. Bowen filed a motion 
for a new trial. 

In order to more thoroughly familiarize himself with the merits 
of the controversy. Judge Gaslin took with him to Kearney the papers 
filed in the case and the report of the referee. On the night of 


February 26, 1878, the office in which these jmpers were stored at 
Kearney was destroyed by fire, and with it the papers concerning the 
momentous issue in Adams County. Among the papers lost was 
the ]-eport of the referee. It is the recollection, however, of some of 
those who took part in the controversy that the lead of Hastings over 
Juniata was increased by the rej^ort, and that it was found that ballots 
were cast illegally in both places, but that a greater number were so 
cast in Juniata than in Hastings. 

The loss of the records of the hearings before Referee Calkins 
threw a degree of consternation into both camps. On July 10th, 
however. Judge Gaslin overruled the motion of Oliver P. Mason, 
acting for Juniata, for a new trial before a referee. He, however, 
allowed the jjlaintiff's motion asking leave to supply all such papers 
as were of record in the case and which could be had from the notes 
and records of the shorthand rej^orter, and to retake certain deposi- 
tions. Among the depositions to be taken were those of A. W. 
Devore, M. B. Noel, William Stine, David Sisk, Frank Blodgett, 
D. F. Brown, A. S. Hill, William Linton, J. B. Dinsmore, 
Art Davidson, Hiram Carpenter, J. W. Carpenter, John Wallichs, 
Conrad Benzel, Philip Bergeron, Sr., the minister of the Russian 
settlement at AVilliamsburg, in Franklin County, and those of twenty- 
one others. Plaintiffs were ordered by the court to file all depositions 
and other papers "with the clerk of the court on or before September 
16th. The following day argTiments were heard on the motion of the 
defendants to dissolve the injunction and the motion was overruled. 
At this time the defendants, the Adams County commissioners and 
A. H. Cramer, were represented by Ash & Scofield. 

On Sejjtember 27, 1878, the county seat contest came uj) for the 
last time in the District Court. The motion of the defendants to 
substitute copies for the original pajiers which had been destroyed by 
fire was allowed. These papers were copies of the affidavit for injvmc- 
tion, the original petition, the order allowing the injunction, the 
undertaking upon which the injunction was allowed, the amended 
petition, the answer and reply and the report of the referee. In the 
ruling. Judge Gaslin said that tlie plaintiffs had neglected to file 
copies of original papers as the court had ordered them on July 10th. 

The court then passed upon the motion of the defendants to con- 
firm the report of tlie referee, filed December 3d of the previous year. 
The next words of Judge Gaslin announced the final victory of 
Hastings in the legal contest which had lasted from April 14, 1877, 
to September 27, 1878. These were the momentous words: "It 
appearing to the court that all the papers herein and all the evidence 


taken and jjroceedings had before the referee have been consumed by 
fire, and that they cannot all be supplied by copies or otherwise, and 
the coin-t being fully advised in the premises, it is ordered that the 
injunction heretofore issued in this cause be and the same is hereby 
dissolved without prejudice, and that each party pay their own costs." 
It was about 3 o'clock in the afternoon when Judge Gaslin dis- 
solved the injunction. A little after, 4 o'clock the news was received 
in Hastings. R. A. Batty and his partner, ]Mr. Ash, lost no time in 
looking up C. L. Alexander (Curt) and to him was entrusted the 
mission of transferring the county records to Hastings from Juniata. 
At that time Mr. Alexander was engaged in the livery stable and 
horse selling business. He had in his employ a coAvboy by the name 
of Smith, a thorough westerner and an excellent shot with the revolver. 
]\Ir. Alexander pressed Smith into the service for the enterprise at 
hand. "Sir. Batty and other Hastings men were anxious lest some 
new legal move made by Juniata would result in another court order 
retarding the movement of the officers to Hastings; accordingly 
]Mr. Alexander Avas instructed to act as rapidly and quietly as possible. 

I\Ir. Alexander and his man arrived in Jimiata at about dusk. 
They had brought with them two teams and two lumber wagons with 
sideboards. Lamp lights flickered from the windows of the Juniata 
residences as they entered. The inhabitants were eating their evening 
meal. Immediately upon the arrival of the wagons there was great 
activity in the office of the county clerk, A. H. Cramer. Mr. Cramer 
hastily piled the records upon the desk and JNIr. Alexander and Smith 
industriously deposited them in the wagons. An air of apprehensive 
excitement pervaded the place, for feeling in Juniata was high, and 
though they had lost the legal fight, it would be an exasperating sight 
to see the records thus loaded ujDon the wagons. 

It is just as well that no Juniata residents witnessed these last 
activities. In a few minutes the wagons Avere rumbling across the 
prairie towards Hastings, where they arrived about 8 o'clock. A large 
delegation from town met the returning wagons at about the vicinity 
of the present Burlington roundhouse. The remainder of the journey 
was a noisy triumphal progress. The records were deposited in a 
little frame building, 20 feet long by 20 feet wide, belonging to 
Mr. Cramer and located at about .509 West Second Street, the present 
location of the water commissioner's office. 

April 9. 1877, the election day, was a day of great excitement 
throughout Adams County. The conflict raged with great fury at 
both Hastings and Juniata, perhaps reaching the greater turbulence 
at the latter point. A considerable number of Hastings people were 


at Juniata throughout the day. Mr. Cramer was delegated by the 
Hastings contingent to watch the polls and challenge the votes he 
thought to be illegal. For Juniata a similar service was performed 
at the polls at Hastings by A. H. Bowen, assisted by a number of 
others. Towards noon a large crowd gathered in Juniata and the 
rising babel of voices grew ominous. JNIr. Cramer felt that something 
was brewing and he surmised that an effort would be made to rush 
the i^olls for the casting of illegal votes. 

Consi^icuous among those arguing loudly upon the streets during 
the morning was a fiery Irishman by the name of Tom Mm-phy. He 
was eager for a fist fight in behalf of Plastings. Opposed to Murphy 
was Sam Saulisbmy of Juniata. Saulisbury was more or less of a 
l^rofessional boxer, and how Murphy and Saulisbury managed to 
refrain from combat during tlie first few hoiu's of voting is inex- 

It was just before noon that matters assumed a serious aspect. 
A force of Juniata men approached the polls in a body. At the head 
of the column marched Saulisbury, the boxer, but near him marched 
"Jim Laird." the generalissimo of the affair at hand. Other .Juniata 
men that had been standing close to ]Mr. Cramer near the polls now 
crowded closer and closer as their reinforcements approaclied. Closer 
and closer they crowded until at length JNIr. Cramer could only stay 
at his jiost by bracing himself against the pressure. 

IMeanwhile Hastings men formed to oppose the advancing line. 
One featm-e of the Hastings lines was the "Committee of Toms"; 
Toni Farrell, Tom Kernan, Tom Pardue, Tom Murphy and one 
other. The Hastings line was there to protect the polls, because the 
word had gone out that Jvniiata was planning to cast a number of 
illegal votes. The lines met and then the fight was on. At last 
Murphy and Saulisbury closed in combat, but their encounter failed 
to hold attention because of a general charge all along the Hastings 
line. Heads and bodies were made sore that day. Tom Farrell used 
to relate that while in the midst of tlie battle, he found before him an 
old. white-headed Juniata man. Tom Farrell had drawn back liis 
fist to strike the foeman. but the white hairs of his opponent gave 
him pause. "This won't do, county seat or no coimty seat," thought 
Tom. But the white-haired man thought, too, but differently. With 
a (juick movement lie suddenly ])roduced and swung a club and Tom 
Farrell fell, stunned, to tlie ground. 

In a moment more the crowd behind Mr. Cramer surged forward 
with a yell and the Hastings challenger was forced to retreat and 
the polls Avere in the hands of Juniata. 


yiv. Cramer suav that the Hastings partisans were not numerous 
enough to enable them to keep anj- further watch over tlie voting. 
The scene resembled a riot. Some Hastings men were drawing away 
wounded. Tom ^Murphy's hat was off and he was just stooping to 
recover it. A man approached, api^arently with the intention of 
kicking Murphy on the head. But the Irishman was not to be caught. 
He spiang like a panther and with a well-directed blow laid his assail- 
ant full length u^Don the ground. 

]Mr. Cramer now sought his horse and mounted, rode to Hastings 
on the galloj) to apprise the citizens of the state of things. Arriving, 
he found that Hastings already had the information. Oswald Oliver 
had telegraphed from Juniata. A moment later Tom Dodd arrived, 
also upon a foaming horse, and by these messages Hastings was 
thoroughly wrought. The first care of the men of Hastings was to 
drive ]Mr. Bowen and the Juniata watchers of the polls away from 
their post and out of town. 

Then a force assembled and e\'ery vehicle was pressed into service 
to furnish transportation to Juniata. The county seat army carried 
toward the western village a motley equipment of weapons — whips, 
clubs, scythes, whatever could be first found. The Hastings men 
came in such numbers that they were able to overwhelm Juniata, and 
JMr. Cramer was reinstated at his post as challenger. That evening 
another disturbance threatened to develop to dangerous proportions, 
for Hastings insisted that ^Ir. Cramer and Tom Lee should sit within 
the enclosure and watch the election officials count the ballots, and in 
this they were finally successful. 

The ballot was a small piece of jjaper, bearing the words, "For 
Relocating the County Seat of Adams County," and the names of 
the contending towns. The ballots had been prepared on rolls per- 
forated, so that each one could be readily torn off. Mr. Cramer and 
]Mr. Lee objected frequently to the counting of certain ballots. One 
notable instance was where a number of ballots had been cast into 
the box without taking the trouble to separate them. This probably 
happened in the excitement about the noon hour. The report of 
Refei-ee Calkins, however, later indicated that Juniata was not alone 
in this overzealousness. 

The little frame building on Second Street which was the first 
home of the county offices in Hastings was not a very pretentious 
affair. It was a square building measuring about 20 feet long by 
20 feet wide. This building was occupied by the county for about 
sixty days. After the expiration of about that time the offices were 
moved to the present Courthouse Square and housed in a frame build- 


ing about ll/o stories in height. This building stood a little southeast 
of the southeast corner of the present courthouse. It was the property 
of the Paine Lumber ComiJany, who, upon its completion, leased it 
to Adams Comity. 

This building was subsequently sold to Harrison Bost^^■ick, who 
remodeled it and disjiosed of it to James INladgett, father of William 
jNIadgett, who at present is mayor of Hastings. It was removed from 
the Courthouse Square and at present is located at 203 West Seventh 
Street and is the property and residence of JNIrs. S. C. Johnston. It 
was in the fall of 1880 that the building was removed from the Court- 
house Square, and at that time the county offices were once more moved 
and installed in the Stone Block, on the second floor. Here they 
remained mitil during the week of Sei)tember 5 and September 12, 
1890, when they were once more moved, this time to be established 
in the Adams County courthouse that stands on the Courthouse 

For some time after the removal from Juniata. Mr. Cramer at 
times carried on the business of the county clerk in his private office 
at different locations. Also when the records were moved, SeiJfem- 
lier 27, 1878, there was not included the office of the county treasurer, 
W. B. Thorne Avas the county treasiu'er and a strong friend of Juniata. 
]Mr. Thorne did not transfer his office to Hastings until late in tlie fall 
of 1878. 

As soon as Judge Gaslin decided in favor of Hastings in the elec- 
tion contest of 1877 steps were taken, at the urgent suggestion of 
iMr. Cramer, to secure to Adams County the block of ground which 
had been offered as an inducement for the removal of the county 
seat. This was block 15 in the original town, the j^resent Courtliouse 
Scjuare. Litigation resulted from this move. 

Prior to the election of 1875 The Hastings Town Company had 
been i^revailed upon to set apart block 15 for the use of the county 
and to be occupied for the purpose of erecting a courthouse and other 
county buildings. The company entered into an agreement, with 
bond, with the county commissioners to deed or release all their 
right, title or interest in the stated block upon the removal of the 
county seat to Hastings. The election was held April 6. 1875. and 
Hastings lost. By its articles of incorporation, the Hastings Town 
Company Avould dissolve JMay 18, 1875. Having lost the election, 
the friends of Hastings were desirous that the inducement of a public 
square should be available for the next contest. Before another elec- 
tion could be held, however, the Hastings Town Company would be 
dissolved. P ^eion '^as made for this contingency when <m April 


30, ] 873, the Hastings Town Company, by a vote of all its members, 
instructed and authorized the president and secretary of the company 
to make a deed or deeds to parties entitled thereto by reason of any 
prior contract, ^^^len shortly afterward the company wound up its 
affairs and prorated their interest in property undisposed of, block 
1.5 was not prorated, because it had been set aside to be given to the 
county ui)on the condition that the county seat should be removed. 

Therefore, when the county seat had been removed the president 
of the company before its dissolution, Charles K. Lawson, and the 
secretary, Thomas E. Farrell, executed a quit claim deed to Adams 
County. This instrument was executed October 8, 1878. Follow- 
ing the dissolution of the Hastings Town Company, jNIay 18, 1875, 
however, a member of the company, James D. Carl, disposed of 
certain of his interests to his nephew, John O. Barada, of St. Joseph, 
Mo. Employing as his attorneys R. A. Batty and Joiin M. 
Ragan, Barada commenced ejectment proceedings against Adams 
County on the ground that his uncle had conveyed to him Carl's 
interest in block 1.3. At that time two trials were had in all ejectment 
])roceedings, decision in the first trial formally being made in favor 
of the plaintiff. The first hearing was held in this case ]May 17, 1880. 
and a finding was made for Barada. The attorneys for Adams 
County were Hewett, Yocum and A. T. Ash. December 9, 1880, 
attorneys for the jdaintiff annoimced the death of Barada, and the 
following INIarch ISlv. Batty appeared in court as administrator of 
the estate and party plaintiff with Deliaha Barada, mother, and JNIar- 
garet Barada, sister of John O. Barada. On March 17, 1881, Judge 
Gaslin delivered judgment in favor of Adams County. The court 
reviewed the history of the Hastings To^vTi ComiDany from its organi- 
ation and pointed out that block 15 had been set apart to be turned 
over to the county upon condition that such was the purpose of all 
members of the comjDany, including Carl. The court also found no 
evidence that the sale by Carl to Barada had involved any considera- 
tion. Plaintiffs were ordered to make a quit claim deed to Adams 
Comity within sixty days. 

The plaintiffs, however, were determined to contest the case to 
the end and appealed from Judge Gaslin's decision to the Supreme 
Court. The case was submitted and argued in the higher court in 
the January term, 1882. In July of that year the court, of its own 
motion, ordered a reargument. Not until January, 188-i, was a deci- 
sion rendered. Judge Gaslin's decision was affirmed. The question 
raised in the case was : Did the deeds from the president and secretary 
of the Hastings Town Company convey the title to the land in ques- 


tion? The Supreme Court decided that they did, Judge Maxwell 
remarking in the ruling that the dedication originally made would 
have been sufficient, although that matter was not gone into. 

It was in 1876 that Carl conveyed the lots assigned to him, and 
also a one-fourth interest in block 1.5 and other property, to Barada, 
and in 1879 the latter instituted his proceedings. 

Almost immediately after the settlement of the controversy con- 
cerning the Courthouse Square, steps were taken for the erection 
of a suitable courthouse. On April 30, 1889, bonds in the sum of 
$7.3,000 were voted for the erection of a courthouse. The votes 
resulted as follows: For the bonds Kenesaw gave 11, Highland 10, 
West Blue 22, Juniata 5, Denver 14., Blaine 20, Roseland 8, Ayr 6, 
Hanover 8, Logan 2, Zero 9, Little Blue 7, Hastings 1,301; total 
for tlie bonds, 1,416. Against the bonds Kenesaw gave 108, Verona 
60, Highland 51, West Blue 20, Wanda 73, Juniata 239, Denver 3.5, 
Blaine 12, Cottonwood 69, Roseland 94, Ayr 73, Hanover 34, Logan 
.54, Silver Lake 33, Zero 27. Little Blue 49, Hastings 7; total against 
the bonds, 1,040. 

On July 9, 1889 the bonds were sold for $77..500, and shortly 
afterwards the conti-act to furnish the material and build the court- 
house was let to J. R. Sims of Hastings for $.59,900. It was stipu- 
lated that the building should be finished and ready for occujjancy 
on or before September 1, 1890. Owing to litigation concerning 
tlie validity of courthouse bonds in Gage and Cass coimties, the buyers 
of the Adams County bonds refused to receive or pay for the bonds 
until the litigation in the other counties was settled, which was several 
months after the bonds were sold. 

Tlie contractor, however, proceeded with the work forthwith, 
and tlie building was completed near the time stipulated, and the 
county offices were housed in the new structure during the week elaps- 
ing between September 7 and September 12, 1890. The building 
was constructed under the direction of a committee from the board 
of supervisors, with Aaron Powers chairman. The other members 
of tlie committee were F. J. Benedict. William Vastine, B. B. Snod- 
grass and T. T. Jones. C. C. Rittenhouse of Hastings was the 

Undei- the direction of the committee a number of changes were 
made in the original specifications for tlie building. The total cost, 
as shown by the report of tlie committee, was $77,81.5.86. That 
figiu'e includes furniture and sidewalks. The ground dimensions of 
the building are 9.5 by 11.5 feet. The height to the roof deck is 60 
feet and to the top of tlie statue 133 feet. The foundation is of 


Colorado sandstone, the walls of St. Louis pressed brick with Wichita 
stone trimmings. The roof is of slate and the cupola has a covering 
of metal. The jail, located in the basement, has eight cells, one of 
which is for women. In the basement, too, are the apartments of 
the sheriff". The District Court room is on the second floor. Its 
auditorium is equipj^ed with 240 opera chairs. 

Keverting to the long, bitter struggle attending the removal of 
the county seat, it is pleasing to note that at last the feeling aroused 
by that contest has subsided. This can be shown in no better way than 
by quoting from a paper written by INIrs. A. V. Cole for a meeting 
of Adams County jjeople living in California, in ]March, 1915. Mr. 
and ]Mrs. Cole were pioneers in Adams County and settled in Jmiiata. 
Speaking of the days of the contest, INIrs. Cole says: "Hastings, 
with her rapid growth, soon took from Juniata the county seat, and 
with it the only building that in any way suggested that we were 
the honest, legitimate county seat of Adams County. It was the 
Adams County jail. Such an addition to our towii! About as large 
as a good-sized dry goods box. But our hopes were built on nothing 
less tlian that every man, woman and child in Hastings would find 
in it an abiding place. So with wrath in our hearts and tears in our 
eyes we watched it disai)pear toward the east, and poor Juniata was 
no more tlie metropolis of Adams County. Todaj', with loyal hearts 
we point with pride to Hastings, the queen city, and her beautiful 
little subiu'b, Jvmiata. where most of us here spent our hard days, 
along with many haj^py ones." 

The county commissioners held their last meeting in Jimiata Sep- 
tember 27. 1878. Something of the triumph felt by those who had 
liattled for Hastings is evident in the bold flourish of letters with 
which County Clerk A. H. Cramer wrote in the record the date upon 
Miiich the deliberations of the board began in Hastings, October 
10. 1878. 


Tlie location of a settlement upon the land on which the City of 
Hastings stands was due to the oiJeration of American hnmigration 
agencies in Great Britain. These agencies, through the means of 
advertisements inserted in the British newspapers and through per- 
sonal interviews with prosjDective colonists, set forth in glowing terms 
the inducements offered in the middle western section and other parts 
of the United States not already jjopidated. 

There assembled in Liverpool one day a little company of colo- 
nists bound for America, who eventually settled in Hastings, 
Xeb. They embarked upon passenger vessel Scandinavia of the 
Allan Line, and in due time arrived in Portland, INIe. From Port- 
land they continued Avestward, as directed by the immigration agents, 
until they reached Lincoln. Here they bought horses and wagons, 
a few simple agricultural implements and provisions and continued 
their journey overland. In the spring of 1871. in either April or 
JMay, this little company halted at Thirty-Two Mile Creek. 

A number of these colonists had had no experience in farming 
before coming to the prairie country, some others had had a little 
experience with farming as it was carried on in the British Isles. On 
the whole, it was a dreary outlook, but as George Wilkes remarked: 
"We couldn't walk back, so there was nothing to do but stay." Among 
these colonists were Joseph Hopkins, John G. JNIoore, Tliomas Watts, 
William Wallace and famil}', Walter IMicklen, Thomas Johnson, 
jNIr. Binfield and family, George Wilkes, Thomas B. Wilkes, James 
KemiJ, the Rev. J. F. Clarkson and Will Roberts. The women of 
the colony were INIrs. Wallace, IMrs. Watts and ^Irs. Binfield. 

The greater number of these British inmiigrants took homesteads 
in the vicinity of Hastings, the land upon which jNIicklen settled after- 
ward becoming the site of the original to^ni. INIicklen's homestead 
is described as the west half of the southeast quarter of section 12, 
townsliip 7. range 10. The boundaries of the original town are as fol- 


lows: Oil the north. Seventh Street; on the south, South Street; on 
the west, l?urhngton Avenue; on the east, St. Joseph Avenue. 

The eighty acres adjoining the original town on the west was the 
lioniestead of John Gillespie Moore; out of a portion of this holding 
^Moore's addition was platted. James ^Vatts took for his homestead 
the eighty acres immediately west of that taken hy Moore. Thomas 
Johnson homesteaded the eighty acres to the east of IMicklen's land, 
the eastern boundarj' being Wabash Avenue. The addition w'hen 
platted was therefore called Johnson's addition. The half section 
tluis described became the possession of members of the British colony 
in 1871. They were located on their places by Surveyor Babcock 
of Jimiata. Of the remainder of section 12, Samuel Alexander home- 
steaded the northeast quarter in the spring of 1872. The east half 
of the northwest quarter was the homestead of James Haire, who 
came to Nebraska from Michigan. The west half of the northwest 
quarter was filed upon by George Grosse. The locations of these 
homesteads may be identified today by the additions which bear the 
names of the original settlers. 

The first dwelling house was built of sod by Walter Micklen on 
his homestead in 1871. It was located near the corner of Third 
Street and Burlington Avenue. About the same time. Watts and 
Johnson put up sod houses on their claims. Watts' sod shantj' stood 
near the pi-esent location of the residence of Emil Polenske, 1235 
West Second Street. In the same year John G. INIoore erected a 
small frame shack, which was the first frame building to be erected 
in the town. This building stood between Second and Third streets, 
not far from Saunders Avenue. The lumber to build this shack was 
hauled from Grand Island. The activities of these British colonists 
constituted all the life in Hastings during 1871. 

The following year showed a very considerable growth. On Ajiril 
22d Samuel Alexander arrived. He came to Hastings on the recom- 
mendation of Thomas Kennard, Nebraska's first secretary of state, 
by whom he was employed. Mr. Alexander when he came did not 
intend to remain. His plan was to file upon a quarter section of 
land, live upon it the one year required by law, and then return to 
Lincoln. Instead, he was caught in the whirl of new town develop- 
ment, and it is interesting to note that he did not again see INIr. Ken- 
nard until after the lapse of twenty years. Indeed, he continued to 
reside in Hastings until his death, April 19, 1908, and upon the day 
of his funeral the business houses of Hastings remained closed for 
one hour as a mark of respect for the pioneer. 

Almost immediately upon his arrival, ]Mr. Alexander was con- 


vinced that the little settlement had a very fair show to become a 
considerable town. Upon his homestead he erected a frame dwelling 
liouse, the second to be built in the town. This structure was 20 feet 
long b}^ 10 feet wide. It stood immediately west of the present 
Alexander residence at the northwest corner of Seventh Street and 
Lincoln Avenue. Towards the end of the spring he also erected a 
frame store building of about the same dimensions as the house, and 
installed a small general merchandise stock. This was the begin- 
ning of the mercantile business in Hastings. The store faced south 
on the south side of First Street, at about 15 North Hastings Avenue, 
the present location of the Hastings Fuel Company. Lumber for 
this building was hauled from Inland, afterward known as "Old 
Inland," and "Halloran," which was located on the southwest quarter 
of section 12 in Blaine Township, four miles east of Hastings. 

Mrs. Alexander joined her husband the IMay following his arri\al 
and at once encountered the difficulties of housekeeping in a pioneer 
western town. A new three-ply carpet served to divide the little 
house on Seventh Street into two rooms. Small as the house was, 
it was necessary to supply board and lodging to many who were 
joining in the struggle to make a town upon the prairie. Among 
those who from time to time or for certain periods found entertain- 
ment in the Alexander home were F. J. Benedict, C. Ct. Ingalls, 
C. K. Lawson, G. H. Pratt, Tom Farrell and many others. Mrs. 
Alexander arrived before the small house was completed and found 
her first night's lodging in Hastings in the frame shack of John G. 
]Moore, the latter generously yielding his own apartments to JNIrs. 
Alexander and JNIrs. Schryer, the latter also seeing the first of the 
new country, where she came to join her husband on his homestead. 

The Alexanders were jjrovided with foodstuff enough to last one 
year, among the provisions being a barrel of hams, and a like quantity 
of shoulders; dried meats, bacon and cookies were also of the stock. 
Corn meal and flour of an excellent quality were procured from Crete. 
Sometimes it was necessary to resort to the use of grease from the 
bacon for shortening, but those, it must be remembered, were days 
of vigorous apjietites. At first water was hauled to the Alexander 
liome from the Hudson farm, about two miles west; later a well was 
sunk and ]\Irs. Alexander enjoyed the luxury of drawing water 110 

S. S. Dow arrived in Hastings from Wisconsin ]May 28, 1872, 
and established a land office. During the ensuing year ]\Ir. Dow 
located 270 homesteads, from which it can be seen that at this date 
tlie growth in population was distinctly encouraging to the settlers. 


In June, about the 17th of the month, C. G. Ingalls, accompanied 
liy liis nejihew, F. J. Benedict, arrived. ]\Ir. Ingalls had been located 
in Galesburg, 111., but JMr. Benedict came from the State of New- 
York. The two first visited York, and in a hotel there heard about 
tlie advantages offered by Adams County, and especially of the 
vicinity around Hastings. Acting upon this information, they came 
to Juniata and the next day procured a team and wagon from John J. 
Jacobson and drove to the settlement of Plastings. It was a distress- 
ingly hot day when they arrived, but accompanied by ]Mr. Dow, they 
immediately set out to view the prospect. About four miles north- 
east of Hastings, in the vicinity of the "Bob Norton farm," they 
bioke the lynch pin and were stranded on the prairie. Benedict 
leported that he had seen a wagon in Hastings and he was delegated 
to negotiate a loan so that the land seekers might load the broken 
wagon upon another and retiu'n it to Juniata. In this Benedict suc- 
ceeded. He borrowed also a bucket from INIrs. Alexander, and with 
the pail in one hand and guiding the team with the other, he made 
liis way back to Dow and Ingalls. The prairie was an unbroken 
expanse and the young Mr. Benedict experienced some difficulty in 
finding his companions. He could only keep his direction straight 
liy observing the poles of the telegraph line along the Biu'lington 
track. jNIr. Ingalls was so thirsty and tlie sun was so relentless that 
liis impression of Adams County was far from being the best. The 
following day, however, they again visited Hastings and both were 
located on homesteads. Mr. Benedict secured employment to haul 
lumber with which to build the Alexander store, and thus he won 
the distinction of hauling from Inland the material for the first busi- 
ness house. ]Mr. Ingalls' homestead was located in what is now the 
northeast section of Hastings and the frame house that he built upon 
it was the third frame dwelling to be built in the town. During the 
summer of 1872, John Jung established the first butcher shop. 

So encouraging was the outlook for a town, owing to the develop- 
ment in the earlier months of 1872, that Thomas Farrell and Walter 
Micklen took tlie first definite steps for its formation. They employed 
Charles W. Colt of Lowell to survey and plat INIicklen's eighty acres. 
This work was completed by JMr. Colt and the plat filed with the 
county clerk, R. D. Babcock, at Juniata, at 11 o'clock A. ]M., October 
1.), 1872. On the plat the northern boundary of the town. Seventh 
Street, is called North Street, and the St. Joseph & Denver is shown 
as crossing the town diagonally from southeast to northwest, cross- 
ing the Burlington between Hastings and Lincoln avenues. While 
the road was graded through the city in this direction, a considerable 


jjortion of the ilistance toward Kearney, rails were never laid, on 
account of lack of funds. Streets were platted on each side of this 
grade; the street south of the grade was called South Railroad Street 
and the street north North Railroad Street. On September 27, 1872, 
Walter JNIicklen disposed of the west half of his holding to Thomas 
Farrell for $500. 

It Avas on July 13, 1872, that Charles K. Lawson arrived in 
Hastings, coming from Galesburg, 111., where he was in business 
with George H. Pratt as his jjartner. ]Mr. Lawson at once grew 
enthusiastic at the prospects he beheld in the new country from Crete 
to Hastings. He at once wrote to INIr. Pratt, advising that he sell 
their store in Illinois and open business in Hastings. ISlr. Pratt 
visited Hastings early in August, remaining in the settlement about 
ten days. A buffalo hunt was arranged for during this visit, and 
]Mr. Lawson saw to it that his partner saw a great deal of the sin-- 
rounding country, and the result was that JNIr. Pratt was convinced 
that ^Ii-. Lawson's estimate of the country was correct. He returned 
to Illinois in a few days to dispose of their interests there. From 
Rock Island lumber was ordered shijjped for the erection of a store 
at Hastings. Later, Mr. Pratt sent A. H. Cramer to Hastings to 
assist ]Mr. Lawson in building the store and getting ready for busi- 
ness. Mr. Cramer was in the employ of Pratt & Lawson in Illinois. 
He arrived in Hastings October 1, 1872. 

The store erected by Pratt & Lawson stood on the northeast corner 
of Hastings Avenue and First Street. It was called "The Head- 
quarters Store," and fronted south on First Street, and a large stock 
of general supplies was carried. In addition, the firm dealt in horses 
and mules, for which there was a growing demand from the large 
number of incoming homesteaders. Bacon, corn meal and flour were 
the great staples of those days. Cornbread and pork were a large 
part of the diet upon which the pioneer work was carried on. The 
establishing of a second store on the scale of the "Headquarters" 
was one of the most important events of 1872, outside of the begin- 
ning of railway transportation. 

Shortly after the town was ])latted, Samuel Alexander formed 
a business partnership with A. W. Wheeler, a homesteader, and the 
firm of Alexander & Wheeler late in 1872 erected a new store at 
the corner of Hastings Avenue and Second Street. W. H. Stock, 
who, with his wife and his brother, Theodore Stock, arrived in Hast- 
ings in the fall of 1872 from Illinois, purchased the first store occupied 
by jNIr. Alexander and moved it to the east side of Hastings Avenue. 
In its new location on tlie south side of First Street the store faced 


north on about the second lot east of the Hastings Avenue corner. 
On the first lot Pratt & Lawson had sunk a well, which was used pub- 
licly. ]Mr. Stock used the store as a meat market and residence. It 
might be noted here that the son born to JNIr. and Mrs. W. H. Stock 
in the spring of 1873 was the first child to be born in Hastings. In 
honor of that fact, the Hastings Town Company deeded two lots 
in Johnson's addition to the newcomer, who was named Claudius 
Hastings Stock. A few months following the birth of the boy 
Mrs. Stock died, and this death was probably the first to take place 
in the new town. In the nineteenth year of his age, Claudius Hast- 
ings Stock Avas drowned in Illinois by breaking through the ice while 
skating. The lots deeded to him are now in the possession of his 
sister, Mrs. Harl ]M. Alexander. The Alexander home at 31.) West 
Third Street stands upon one of the lots. 

The Roaring Gimlet, Hastings' first hotel, was erected bj^ Morris 
and Eugene Alexander in the winter of 1872-3. It was located on 
Plastings Avenue, a short distance south of the Burlington track. At 
almost the same time the Inter-Ocean, another hostelry, was erected 
by Capt. E. S. Wells. This old landmark still survives ujion its 
oiiginal location south of the Burlington track and immediately east 
of the plant of tlie Central Nebraska JNIillwork Company. Captain 
Wells was a sea cajitain, and is remembered as a jolly old tar, fond 
of spinning yarns of varying degrees of credibility. He remained 
in Hastings for a number of years and then moved farther west, his 
wife remaining in Hastings. The old house at the southeast corner 
of St. Joseph Avenue and South Street is still the property of INIrs. 
Wells. Avlio resides in Lincoln. 

Late in the fall of 1872 E. Steineau opened a clothing and dry 
goods store on the north side of First Street, between Hastings and 
Denver avenues. During this year, also, C. G. Ingalls and F. J. 
Benedict established an implement and lumber business. Afterwards 
Mr. Benedict was employed at the Headquarters Store for Pratt &: 
Lawson, eventually bm'ing an interest and continuing in the grocery 
business for many years. The events narrated outline the principal 
developnlents of Hastings during 1871 and 1872. 


The development of Hastings, which had got well under way 
by the end of 1872, continued throughout 1873 with rapidity that 
augured well for the new town. With two railroads in operation 
and liomesteaders arriving in large numbers every week, there was a 


quickening of spirit and the fostering of enterprise which only the 
pioneer town can know. 

April 17, 1873, the Hastings Town Company was incorporated 
as a joint stock company. The purpose of this company was to sell 
lots in the townsite of Hastings. The capital stock was $4.,000, in 
shares of $100 each, to be paid on organization. Shares Avere divided 
as follows among the members: William B. Slosson for Slosson Bros., 
ten shares; James D. Carl and William L. Smith, ten shares each; 
Thomas E. P^'arrell and Walter ^I. INIicklen, five shares each. Certifi- 
cates of stock signed by the president and the secretary were issued 
for the respective subscribers and the certificates were received by 
the members of the corporation as pay for their interest in the land 
of the townsite of Hastings. By their cliarter, the corporation was 
to expire one year from April 20, 1873. On April 9, 1874, the 
company was reorganized with new members. These were Henry 
Beitel, Rudoliih Beitel, George H. Pratt, Charles K. Lawson and 
Samuel Slosson. At the expiration of the renewed charter, ]May 
18, 187-5, the company made partition of the lots of the townsite 
remaining imsold. For this piu'pose they divided the lots pro rata 
according to the amount of stock of each member, after an appraisal 
had been made of the value of the lots divided, and tliey were assigned 
in proportion to the interest of each stockholdei'. 

Of the original organizers of the Hastings Town Company, only 
two are liAing, Walter JMicklen and William B. Slosson. It was 
early in, the '70s that Mr. INIicklen sold his interest in Hastings. He 
now lives in Guntersville, Ala. William B. Slosson lives in Houston, 
Tex. Thomas E. Farrell remained in Hastings for many years and 
was prominently identified with its development. He died in Cripjjle 
Creek. William L. Smith died in California. Rudolph and Henry 
Beitel. who became members of the company at its reorganization, 
came to Hastings from Texas. Relatives of the family still own 
interests in the city. The Slossons came to Hastings fi'om Sabetlia, 
Kan. Charles K. I^awson and George H. Pratt are still in Inisiness- 
in the town which they assisted to organize. 

The Hastings Town Comjjany built a small ofl^ice on Second 
Street, about midway between Denver and Hastings avenues, and at 
once pushed vigorously the sale of town lots and the general interests 
of the village. On July 19th they stinudated the sale of lots bv 
announcing a general sale and offering to refund the price of railroad 
tickets bought Avithin a radius of 100 miles. The sale, or more par- 
ticidarly the announcement of it, did a great deal to advertise Hast- 
ings, and it was at this time that its re])utation spread throughout 


the south central and southwestern parts of Nebraska. It was 
known as the town of live business and its future was ahiiost uni- 
versally believed in. By the close of this year, C. H. Paul had an 
exclusive boot and shoe store on Second Street, about where the 
Barnes clothing store is now located. Charles Cameron, who resided 
in Lincoln, had erected a large mercantile establishment at the corner 
of Hastings Avenue and First Street, at about the present location 
of the Exchange National Bank. This store was operated for Mr. 
Cameron by a man by the name of Smith. On the north side of 
Second Street, about half way between Denver and Hastings ave- 
nues, Andreas Vieth had a furniture store. On the southwest corner 
of Hastings Avenue and Second Street stood the hardware store of 
Forcht liros., while a short distance east, R. V. Shockey was the 
projjrietor of another hardware establishment. Oswald Oliver opened 
a lumber yard in this year, the location being not far from the present 
site of the Oliver establishment on the southwest corner of Burlington 
Avenue and First Street. B. H. Brown & Son had an implement 
and lumber business, having bought out Ingalls & Benedict. 

It was in 1873 that Hastings held the first Fourth of July cele- 
bration. A mass meeting to consider the proposition was called for 
June 17th. T. E. Farrell was the presiding officer and W. F. J. 
Comley was the secretary. It was the motion of JM. K. Lewis that 
the Foiu-th be celebrated that started the first definite action. The 
celebration included a paiade, speaking and literary program and 
fireworks at night. There was an accident with the firewo -ks and 
they were all fired at once, captious critics afterward saying that this 
was a jjlot on the part of the committee to enable them to conceal 
the fact that they had pocketed the funds raised for the pyrotechnical 
displa,y. Capt. A. D. Yocum led the procession. The invocation was 
])ronounced by Rev. I. D. Newell, and the next in order was the 
reading of the Declaration of Independence by W. A. Smith. In 
the afternoon, W. L. Smith spoke on the subject, "Hastings, the 
Future Metropolis of Nebraska," and R. V. Shockey discussed "The 
Ladies of Nebraska, Their IMission and ^Merits." Others who spoke 
were J. M. Abbott, R. A. Batty, M. K. Lewis and A. D. Rust. 

stor:\i of 1873 

April 13. 1873. was the date of the beginning of the most remark- 
able storm that ever swept over Adams County. The morning dawned 
bright and clear and was hailed as the first day of spring. Towards 
noon the sky became clouded and a slow rain drizzled. By the middle 


of the afternoon the rain changed to sleet. So heavy was the sleet 
that it soon became almost impossible for pedestrians to make their 
way about the streets of the Adams County villages. In Hastings 
a rope was tied to the Headquarters Store and running to the well 
at the southeast corner of Hastings Avenue and First Street, and 
by means of this the people guided themselves in that section of the 
town. Business became impracticable, and only the most daring would 
venture out, and homesteaders who were in town had to remain until 
the storm ceased^ thereby causing no end of worry to the folks who 
had been left at home. The storm lasted for three days, and much 
damage to stock resulted throughout the county. Four new arrivals 
in Hastings at the time were the INIartin boys, Lou JNIartin being one, 
John Sherman, and Dr. A. D. Buckworth. These j^laced themselves 
under the care of Charles Kohl, who was one of the few who ven- 
tured to move about the streets, and thus were able twice a day to 
make their way from their sleeping quarters to one of the hotels. In 
the hostelries were a nmnber of women who, with their husbands, had 
come to the new country to make their home. As there seemed to 
be no abatement to the storm, not a few of these gave way to tears, 
menaced by the thought that tliey had come out upon the prairie to 

A farmer by the name of JNlarshall was found after the storm 
frozen to death at his farm on Pawnee Creek. Apparently he had 
gone out to the stable to feed his horses and had been unable to find 
his way back to the house. More fortunate was Bob Norton, though 
he underwent a trying experience on his homestead four miles north- 
east of Hastings. Upon the second daj^ Mr. Norton managed to 
make his way to his stable to feed his team. Having his bearings 
when he left the house, he experienced no particular difficulty in find- 
ing the stable, but when he was ready to go back he was unable to 
tell one direction from another. The world was nothing more than a 
whirling M'hite fury. JNIr. Norton remained in the stable two days 
and a night without food, and had become quite weakened from the 
exposure. After tlie storm many tales of hardship were narrated by 
those who had felt the fury of tlie elements. In Hastings the snow- 
drifts were fully 12 feet higli. It was the dampness of tlie sleet that 
made the cold of that storm so deadly. P. A. Boyd, who was located 
•on a homestead near Roseland, says that when a man first went out 
of doors it did not seem as cold as it has in subsequent storms, but 
before one was exposed more than a few minutes one felt the cold 
as though he had been drenched in ice water. Adams County has 
had several severe storms of various kinds, but no storm has left so 


strong an impression as the blizzard of 1873. In the vocabulary of 
the jjioneers it is referred to as the year of the "Great Storm." 


AVhile the activities of Hastings in 1872 and 1873 were satisfac- 
tory and promising, it was not until 1874 that what had hitherto 
been the settlement of Hastings was incorporated. It was declared 
an incorporated town by the board of commissioners on April 20th 
of that yea)'. The board of tmstees named by the board were INI. K. 
Lewis, A. U. Buckworth, J. G. B. Smith, A. W. Cox and H. A. 
Forcht. On INIay 4th the trustees held their first meeting in the office 
of the Town Company. ]M. K. Lewis was made chairman of the 
board. At their first meeting the trustees elected city officers as fol- 
lows: W. F. J. Comley, city clerk; W. A. Smith, treasurer; T. E. 
Farrell, collector; G. W. Mowrey, marshal; G. D. Pierce, attorney; 
L. E. Gould, police judge; C. H. Paul, assessor; C. K. Lawson and 
R. V. Shockey, flue inspectors. The position of flue inspector, no 
longer a city office, reminds us that at that date all buildings were 
of wood and it was the pvn-pose of the trustees to guard against fire. 

The first ordinance enacted by the trustees was at the meeting 
held May 30, 1874. This ordinance required that sidewalks be built 
6 feet wide, of 1-inch boards, with four stringers running length- 
wise with the street. The first financial enactment came up for dis- 
cussion June 2.5, 1874, when a resolution was adopted providing that 
a tax of 10 mills be levied on all personal property. The ordinance 
finally resulting from that resolution authorized the raising of $500 
for general revenue purposes. A short time afterward the levy was 
reduced to 5 mills. It was on June 25th, also, that Hastings was 
organized into a city of the second class. It was divided into three 
wards. All of the city lying south of the Burlington track was 
designated the First Ward; all west of Hastings Avenue and north 
of the Burlington track was the Second Ward, and all east of Hast- 
ings Avenue and north of the Burlington track was the Third AVard. 
These ward divisions remained vmtil 1886, when the Fourth Ward 
was created and the boundary lines changed. Since 188(5 the ward 
divisions have been as follows: First Ward, south of the Burlington 
main line tracks ; Second Ward, north of the Burlington and west of 
the center line of Burlington Avenue; Third Ward, north of the 
Bm'lington and between the center lines of Burlington and St. Joseph 
avenues; Fourth Ward, north of the Burlington and west of the center 
line of St. Joseph Avenue. In the spring of 1916 the First, Second 


and Fourtli wards were each divided into two voting precincts. The 
east and west division hne of the city has always been Wabash Avenue. 

The bond of the early city treasurer was fixed at $.500, and the 
mayor's at the same figiu-e. The marshal gave bond for $200. At 
jn-esent the bond of the city treasurer is $25,000, and the city clerk's 
$.5,000. The trustees called an election for the selection of city oiRcers 
to be held August 8, 187-t. When the trustees canvassed the returns 
on August 10th, they threw out the returns from the First and Third 
wards on account of irregularities. The returns from the Second 
Ward also were irregular. Thej^ were not thrown out, however, the 
committee postponing action upon them until the following evening. 
When the next night the committee reported, they declared the returns 
from the Second Ward were "regular and jjroper, but diff"erent from 
what they Avere at the last meeting." The trustees then canvassed 
the vote from the Second Ward and declared the following officials 
had been elected: JNIayor, H. A. Forcht; clerk, G. D. Pierce; police 
judge, L. C. Gould: treasurer, J. G. B. Smith: marshal. Alfred Berg: 
councilmen, J. INI. Smith and John E. Wood. 

A good deal of feeling had been aroused, howe\'er, wlien the 
returns from two of the wards had been thrown out, with the result 
that no sooner had the first officials been declared elected than they 
resigned. A. D. Buckworth was notably active in the first city 
politics, and lie and M. K. Lewis, also active, were all but sworn 

^^^hen the officers resigned, Mr. Buckworth urged that another 
election be called for August 27th. The trustees, however, were not 
precipitate and did not order an election vuitil September 22, 1874. 
The officials who have served the city since the first election have been 
as follows: 

H. A. Forcht. elected August 8, 1874; John E. Wood, September 
22, 1874; Charles H. Paul, April 6, 187.5; M. K. Lewis, May 7. 187.5; 
A. D. Yocum, April 4, 1876; J. S. Mclntyre, April 3, 1877; R. A. 
Batty, April 2, 1878; Fred Forcht, April 1, 1879; D. M. INIcElhinney, 
April .5, 1881; W. H. Lanning. April 4, 1882; J. E. Gant, April 1. 
1884; Henry Shedd, April 7. 188.5; Samuel Alexander, April 6, 188G; 
A. D. Yocum, April 3, 1888; A. L. Clarke, April 1, 1890; C. C. Rit- 
tenhouse, April .5, 1892; D. U. INIcElhinney. April 3, 1894; G. J. 
Evans, April 7, 1896; Jacob Fisher. A])ril .5. 1898; R. V. Shockey, 
July 1.5. 1901: C. J. Miles, April 1. 1902; C. G. Ingraham, April 1, 
1913: William INIadgett, April 6, 191.5. 


In 187> iMi". Paul failed to qualify and M. Iv. Lewis was elected 
at a special election to fill the vacancy. July 15, 1901, Jacob Fisher 
resigned and R. V. S hockey became acting mayor, serving until the 
next regular election. JNIayor INIiles served as mayor continuously 
for eleven years and was not a candidate for office when succeeded 
by JNIayor Ingraham. 


A. T. Bratton, city clerk, is an institution of the city; almost as 
much so as tlie city council itself, or the city schools. Mr. Bratton 
has occui)ied the position continuously for fifteen years. Successive 
councils have learned to look upon the city clerk as authority upon 
the records of his office and the procedure of the municipal body. 

\y. F. J. Comley was the first clerk and acted in that capacity 
witli the trustees governing Hastings as a village until G. D. Pierce 
qualified following the election of September 22, 1874. Mr. Bratton 
Avas acting clerk from the resignation of E. A. Francis, September 2, 
1001. until his election April 1. 1902. The following have been the 
elections to the office of city clerk: 

G. D. Pierce, August 8, 1874; G. D. Pierce, September 22, 1874; 
John E. Wood. April 4, 1876; G. D. Pierce, April 3, 1877; J. IT. 
Fleming. April 1, 1879; C. J. Evans, April 4, 1882; E. A. Boalich, 
April 1, 1884; J. D. Klines, April 6, 1886; H. C. Haverly, April 3, 
1888: W. W. ]\Iiles, April 5, 1892; Ed L. Francis, April 7, 1896; 
A. T. Bratton, September 2. 1901. 


J. G. Smith, August 8. 1874; Samuel Alexander, September 22. 
1874; E. Steinau, April 1, 1879; James B. Heartwell, April .5, 1881; 
J. S. Allison, April 4, 1882; G. J. Evans, April 1, 1884; Emanuel 
Fist, April 6, 1886; J. D. Mines, April 3, 1888; G. J. Evans, April 
5, 1892: W. L. Yetter, April 3, 1894; J. D. Mines, April 7, 1896; 
A. H. Cramer, April 1. 1902; Ernest Hoeppner, April 1, 1913. Mr. 
Ci-amer served continuously as city treasurer for eleven years. 
JNIr. Hoeppner is the present incumbent. 


The office of police judge in Hastings is characterized by the long 
service of Judge Benjamin Reynolds and the number of election 


contests that developed. Judge Reynolds filled this office for twelve 
years, serving continuously from his election April 2, 1895, until the 
election of David Bryson, April 2, 1907. At the spring election of 
1886 Najioleon B. Vineyard and John F. Ballinger were the candi- 
dates, and after the election both claimed to have been elected. 
Ballinger had occupied the position since 1882 and refused to yield. 
For a number of months both judges held court, until the election 
was finally decided by the District Coiu't and Judge Vineyard was 
declared to be police judge. 

The next disjHite about this office was in 1911, between Joseph 
Myer and James A. Benson. Judge jMjer was first elected April 6, 
1909. Before the next election, state legislation changed the office 
to that of police magistrate. Under this provision it ceased to be a 
city office. Acting on the advice of counsel, however, Judge INIyer 
ran for reelection April i, 1911, at the time of the election of city 
officers. At the next general election, November 7, 1911, James A. 
Benson ran for the office of police magistrate, and upon the vote of 
that claimed the office. Judge ]Myer declared that there was no 
vacancy and refused to yield. The matter was in dispute until JNIay 
1, 1912, when Judge INIyer yielded to Judge Benson upon a com- 
promise agreement. 

At the November election in 1914 Judge Benson was opposed 
by Karl D. Beghtol. Judge Beglitol claimed the office by one vote. 
Judge Benson refused to yield the office, on the gTound of the ille- 
gality of some of the votes cast by mail for Beghtol. Not until April 
1, 1915, did Judge Beghtol receive the order from the District Court 
giving him jjossession of the office. Judge Beghtol is the present 
police magistrate. Elections to this office have been as follows : 


L. C. Ciould, Augiist 8, 187-i: A. L. Wigton, September 22. 187-1: 
John E. Wood, April 6, 1875; J. H. Darnell, April 4, 1876: George 
F. Work, April 2, 1878; J. A. Vanatta. April 1, 1879; John F. Bal- 
linger, January 23, 1882; Napoleon B. Vineyard, April 6. 1886; 
W. R. Burton, April 5, 1887; Napoleon B. Vineyard, April 3, 1889; 
U. S. Rohrer, Ajiril 4, 1893; Benjamin Reynolds, April 2, 1895; 
David Bryson, April 2. 1907; Joseph ]Myer, April 6. 1909. 


Joseph Myer, April 4, 1911; served until JNIay 1, 1912. James A. 
Benson, elected November 7, 1911 ; served from May 1, 1912, to April 


1, 191;). Karl D. Beghtol, the present incumbent, elected Xovember 
3, 1914; took office April 1, 1915. James A. Benson was again elected 
November 7, 1916, defeating "Sir. Beghtol for reelection. 


Alfred Berg was elected the first marshal, or chief of police, in 
the two elections of August 27 and September '22, 1874. After that 
the office was filled by William Brown and Joseph C. Williams suc- 
cessively. William H. Stock was appointed chief by Mayor Alexander 
in 1886, but resigned and J. C. Williams was appointed tem])orarily. 
George Crane was the next chief and filled the office until he resigned 
to take the office of sheriff. 

Charles H. Wanzer was appointed by ]Mayor Yocum to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of ]\Ir. Crane and assumed the 
office January 1, 1890. Mr. Wanzer was the chief until 1896. G. J. 
Evans was elected mayor in the spring of 1896 but did not appoint a 
chief for about two months after the resignation of Chief Wanzer. 
Sir. I^ivans appointed Andrew Lepinski who resigned toward the close 
of Mr. Evans' administration to take a position as policeman at the 
then new Biu'lington station at Omaha. JNIayor Fisher appointed Lew 
Martin who resigned before the close of the administration and Chief 
Wanzer was again appointed by ]Mayor Fisher, and continued chief 
until he resigned in October, 1908. JMayor Miles then appointed Wil- 
liam Widmier, who had been acting chief for some time because of the 
illness of Chief Wanzer and who had been a patrolman since about 
1897. Chief Widmier was succeeded in the spring of 1913 by George 
Harm, who served until Chief Raymond Crosson was appointed by 
]Mayor William JMadgett in the spring of 191,5. Chief Crosson is a 
major of the third batallion, national giiard, and was given leave of 
absence while with his regiment on patrol duty on the Mexican border 
in 1916. Since the dei^arture of Chief Crosson, Bob Carter has been 
acting chief. Patrolman Joseph Budnek, now on the force, has been in 
the service since about 1900. 

As related in the chapter devoted to trials Officer Balcom lost his 
life while on duty. 

Closely related to this subject is the account of the action of Sheriff 
W. A. Cole who was severely wounded while discharging his duty on 
the afternoon of June 12, 1916. Sheriff Cole, accompanied by his 
deputy, Charles W. Wilson, went to the farm residence of Bert Whit- 
comb which is located on the east half of the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 24. in Little Blue township, to serve a writ of ejectment upon 


Wliitconib. ^Vhen ^Vhitconib, who had been informed by the deputy 
of the i)urpose of the visit of the officers, caught sight of the sheriff 
he immediately opened tire with a revolver. The officer took shelter 
behind a self-binder and began to return the fire. A number of shots 
were exchanged. Sheriff Cole received three wounds and ^^^hitcomb 
four Avounds. ^^^hitcomb was brought to Hastings by the sheriff and 
his deputies. 

As a result of a wound received in this action it was necessary 
to amputate the right leg of Sheriff Cole about three inches below the 
knee. Whitcomb was in the hospital for many months and his trial 
is pending. 


The city councilmen have been elected as follows: 

Septeml)er 22. 1874— A. W. Cox, J. L. Parrott (Parrott failed 
to qualify and Oswald Oliver was elected in his place, beginning serv- 
ice October 26, 1874). J. G. Smith, H. A. Forcht (T. J. Pardoe 
elected December 29th to fill vacancy caused by removal of IVIr. 
Forcht from the ward), J. M. Smith," T. E. Farrell. 

April 6, 187.5— George F. Work. J. L. Parrott (Parrott failed 
to qualify and the records do not show that anybody was elected in 
his place, although special elections were called October 8, 187^3, and 
Januarv 10. 1876). Robert INIorledge, Fred Forcht, J. INI. Smith and 
T. E. Farrell. 

April 4, 1876— J. Countryman. Fred Forcht. J. Stabler. Held 
over under two-year term. Work, INIorledge, Smith. 

April 3, 1877— Isaac LeDioyt, F. J. Benethct, T. D. Scofield. 
Held over. Countryman, Forcht, Stabler. 

April 2, 1878— J. G. B. Smith, J. Wemple. W. W. Dungan, Sam- 
uel Saddler, A. D. Yocuni. Held over, Scofield. William Breede was 
elected January 14, 1879, succeeding J. G. B. Smith, resigned. 

April 1. 1879— D. M. IMcElhinney. William Breede. C. H. Paul, 
A. H. Sowers. Held over, Dungan. Yocum. 

April 6, 1880— William Breede. PI. A. Forcht, O. Oliver. Held 
over, Paul, Sowers, JMcElhinney. 

April .5, 1881 — C. K. Lawson, C. E. Stone, William Breede. I. 
W. Cramer, W. A. Camp, O. Oliver. 

April 4, 1882— D. C. Browni. L. H. Tower, F. J. Benedict. Held 
over. Stone, Camp, Cramer. 

AiH-il 3, 1883—1. W. Cramer, C. L. Stone, J. E. Gant. Held 
over. Brown, Tower, Benedict. 


April 1, 1884 — Jacob Wooster, E. C. Webster, C. K. Lawson. 
AVilliam Breede was elected in the Third Ward to succeed Gant, who 
became mayor. Held over, Cramer, Stone. 

April 7, 1885 — William Vastine, Charles Cameron, O. Oliver, 
I. \V. Cramer was appointed July 13th to succeed JNIr. Vastine, 
resigned. Held over, ^\''ooster, Webster, Lawson. 

April 6, 1886— Ezra Langevin, ^V. H. Stock, C. C. Kittenhouse, 
O. Oliver. T. E. Farrell. E. L. Lewis, R. Covert. Held over, 

April .5. 1887— W. H. Stock, Charles Cameron, T. E. Farrell, 
J. E. Gant. Held over, Langevin, Rittenhouse, Oliver, Lewis. 

x\pril 3, 1888— Ezra Langevin, C. C. Rittenhouse, C. L. Stone, 
J. J. Lyon. Held over. Stock, Cameron, Farrell, Gant. 

April 3. 1889— J. A. Rose. W. INI. Vastine, T. J. Creeth, G. A. 
Kent. Held over, Langevin, Rittenhouse, Stone, Lyons. 

April 1, 1890— Jacob Heiler. C. C. Rittenhouse, Jacob Fisher, 
W. H. Fuller. Held over, Rose, Vastine, Creeth, Kent. 

April 7, 1891— A. C. JNIoore, Charles Cameron, T. J. Creeth 
(Creeth left in office on account of a tie vote), Mark Levy. D. M. 
McElhinney was appointed July 13, 1891, to succeed Jacob Heiler, 
resigned. Held over. Rittenhouse, Fisher. Fuller. 

April .5. 1892— H. B. Borley. J. Thomas, William Brach, C. J. 
Hamot. J. Fisher. E. S. Fowler was api)ointed September 12, 1892, 
to succeed Jacob Fisher, resigned. J. ¥j. Bruce was appointed Feb- 
ruary 18, 1893, to succeed Charles Cameron, deceased. Held over, 
JNIoore, Levy. 

April 4, 1893— Sven Johnson, J. E. Bruce, E. S. Fowler, :Mark 
Levy. Held over, Borley, Brach, Hamot, Thomas. 

April 3, 1894— H. B. Borley, William Kerr, J. Thomas, E. C. 
Webster. Held over, Johnson, Bruce, Levy, Fowler. 

April 2, 189o— George JNIiller, C. C. Rittenhouse, E. J. Pease, 
]Mark Levy. Held over, Borley, Kerr. Thomas, Webster. JNIr. Rit- 
tenhouse resigned INIarch 23, 1896. 

April 7, 1896— B. Button, H. W. INIain, J. R. Sims, J. H. Spicer, 
W. H. Ferguson. Held over. Levy, Miller, Pease. 

A])ril 6, 1897 — J. H. Eigenberg, W. H. Ferguson, E. J. Pease, 
Robert Brown. Held over. Button, JMain, Sims, Spicer. 

April .5. 1898— J. H. Spicer, H. W. INIain, J. R. Sims, E. P. 
Nellis. Held over. Brown, Eigenberg, Ferguson, Pease. 

Ai)ril 4. 1899— J. H. Eigenberg, H. C. Kerr, C. K. Lawson, R. 
V. Shockey. Held over, Spicer, INIain, Nellis, Sims. 

April 3, 1900— J. H. Heiler, J. A. Campbell, W. H. Main, J^Iark 
Levy. Held over, Eigenberg, Kerr, Lawson, Shockey. 


April 2, 1901— S. J. Owens, H. C. Kerr, S. S. Snyder, R. V. 
Shockey. Held over, JNlain, Levy, Heiler, Campbell. 

April 1, 1902— R. B. Williams, J. C. Campbell, O. C. Zinn, 
M. M. Haynes. Held over, Owens, Shockey, Snyder, Kerr. 

April 7, 1903 — Sven Johnson, Ezra Langevin, S. S. Snyder, R. 
V. Shockey. Held over, Williams, Campbell, Zinn, Haynes. ]Mr. 
Shockey resigned January 25, 1904. 

April .5, 1904— R. B. Williams, E. L. Gauvreaii. O. C. Zinn, 
j\I. M. Haynes. D. JNI. Ball was elected from the Fourtli AVard to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of R. V. Shockey. Held 
over, Langevin, Snyder, Johnson. 

April 4, 1905— Sven Johnson, A. V. Cole, S. S. Snyder, D. M. 
Ball. Held over, Williams, Gauvreau, Zinn, Haynes. 

April 3, 1906— R. B, AVillianis, E. L. Gauvreau, O. C. Zinn, 

C. G. Ingraham. Held over, Johnson, Cole. Snyder, Ball. 

April 1907— E. T. Bowers. R. B. Williams. A. V. Cole, E. L. 
Gauvreau, C. L. Alexander, O. C. Zinn. D. ]M. Ball, Charles 

April. 1908— E. T. Bowers, Sven Johnson. A. V. Cole. C. I. Van 
Patten, C. L. Alexander, O. C. Zinn, D. ^I. Ball, A. E. Allyn. 

April, 1909— W. S. Dieken, Sven Johnson, A. J. Frantz. C. I. 
Van Patten, C. L. Alexander, O. C. Zinn. A. E. Allyn. A. H. 

April, 1910— W. S. Dieken, Sven Johnson, A. J. Frantz. C. L. 
Ellis, C. L. Alexander. O. C. Zinn, INLirk Levy, A. H. Farrens. 

April, 1911— W. S. Dieken, Sven Johnson, A. J. Frantz, C. L. 
Ellis, C. L. Alexander, O. C. Zinn, JNIark Levy, A. H. Farrens. 

A])ril, 1912— W. S. Dieken, Ernest Butzirus, A. J. Frantz, C. 
L. Ellis, C. L. Alexander, O. C. Zinn, C. G. Ingraham. A. H. 

April, 1913— Ernest Butzirus, William Harm, C. L. Ellis. Wil- 
liam Westering, O. C. Zinn, Percival B. Renner, Walter Livingston, 

D. B. ]Marti, Ernest Hoeppner. 

April, 1914— William Harm, Ernest Butzirus, William Wester- 
ing. Joseph A. Gardiner, P. R. Renner, O. C. Zinn, A. J. Van Every, 
Walter Livingston. 

A])ril, 1915 — Ernest Butzirus, William Harm, Joseph A. Gardi- 
ner. E. INIiller, O. C. Zinn, P. R. Renner, Walter Livingston, A. J. 
Van Every. 

April, 1916— William Harm, Ernest Butzirus, E. ]Miller, Joseph 
A. Gardiner, P. R. Renner, O. C. Zinn, A. J. Van Every, Walter 


There has never been wanting in Hastuigs from its earliest history 
an element that furnishes expectation of the future and furnishes it in 
a more marked degree than would characterize simple growth. Before 
the county seat was won, the possibility of obtaining it yielded a 
stimidus that would not be found in the j^roblems of simple growth — 
there was added the sjiirit of rivalry and struggle. When at last 
the seat of county government was secured in 1878, it left the people 
of the town suddenly deprived of the old bone of contention but with 
a sjjirit develojied by the old struggle that could not be satisfied with 
small conceptions and simjile accomplishments. With a rather vague 
sense of plan l)ut with unlimited ambitions they set to work to build 
a city. 

They had a considerable town to begin with, and excellent railroad 
facilities. Perhaps it will be of some assistance in glimpsing the Hast- 
ings that existed when the county seat was obtained to take an inventory 
of tlie business as it was represented by the advertisers. In its issue 
of October 3, 1878, the leading editorial of the Hastings Journal is 
under the cut of a triumphant, crowing rooster. "Oin- Bird Sings!" 
scream the headlines, "For the County Capital Is at Hastings! — And 
Don't You Forget It." 

In that issue the following attorneys had their cards: J. JNI. 
Abbott, J. H. Fleming, J. James, G. D. Pierce, Loui F. Page, J. A. 
Vanatta, Ash & Scofield, Batty & Nelson. The following physicians 
had printed announcements: Drs. T. H. Urquhart, A. H. Sowers, 
S. Saddler, J. Oscar Garmon, J. B. Nagelvoort. Other physicians of 
that day were Dr. Francis Naulteus and Dr. John Cooke. 

Among the announcements of merchants and other business men 
are those of Wigton Bros., job printer and publishers; George F. 
Work, justice of the peace; L. B. Palmer, notary public, insurance 
and collections; H. G. Newson & Co., barbers; J. P. Farr, city dray 
and expressman; John G. INIoore, draying and exjiressman; Star 
Clothing House of Simon Daum, First Street, between Hastings 


and Denver avenues; George W. Epsey, drugs and groceries; Hast- 
ings Molasses and Broom Factory, established in 1876 by L. C. 
Gould; ]\Irs. Fleming, dressmaker, millinery and fancy goods; Hast- 
ings Marble Works, Shea & Stanley; H. & A. Andrus, groceries, 
provisions and produce; JNIrs. E. S. Parenteau, dressmaking, millinery 
and fancy goods; Caspar Fischer, manufacturer of tine boots and 
shoes ;,J. P. Green, manufacturer of harness, saddles, etc.; C. C. Rit- 
tenhouse, architect; cheaj) town lots, T. E. Farrell; W. E. Barnes, 
Boston Clothing Store; Stabler & Deisher, wholesale and retail deal- 
ers in farm imiilements; eating house, bakery and confectionery, 
H. P. Tonner proprietor; feed mill, grinds all kinds of grain. B. 
Buswell; Denver House, hotel, J. ISl. Smith, proprietor; INI. Nevil, 
manufacturer of boots and shoes; E. K. Wemple, groceries; J. H. 
Vandemark, coal; Reynolds & Bills, carriage shop; Wolbach Bros., 
dry goods; Phillips & Hamot. grocers; Chicago Store, dry goods; 
N. V. Cole, jeweler and o})tician; Bridges tV Johnston. Updike ware- 
house; E. Clarke's bakery and confectionery; Paul & Dodd. dry 
goods; W. C. Cassell, sewing machines; C. W. Staley, confectionery; 
^Nlowery & Farrell, hardware; Henry & Frahm, drugs ;i Jacob Fisher, 
New Bakery; J. S. Allison, paints and oils; Aaron May, dry goods; 
Alexander Bros. (M. I^. and E. O. Alexander), livery stable; George 
Carter, meat market; T. Sanders, blacksmithing; Badger Lumber 
Yard; A. S. Hill, City IMeat JNIarket; Burford & Acheson, harness 
shop; Knodle Bros., commercial nurseries; J. Wingart & Bro., dry 
goods, groceries, queensware, etc.; Oswald Oliver, lumber yard; 
Cherry Bros., implement store; Morledge & ]Mc^Vade. dry goods and 
groceries; H. A. Forcht, hardware and queensware; T. ]M. Jones, 
pianos and organs; Steinau. Abbott & Co., agricultural implements; 
E. Stout, harness and saddles. C. E. Forgey, blacksmith; ^Vork & 
Dungan, real estate; money to loan. J. S. Mclntyre; horses and 
mules for sale, C. K. Lawson. 

The grain buying business in the Hastings of this period ])re- 
sented many features that do not characterize the business today. 
The princi])al grain buyers in Hastings at that time were Nelson I>. 
Thatcher and Isaac Norton. The Thatcher elevator was located on 
the Burlington Railroad and the Norton elevator on the St. Joseph & 
Denver. Between the two elevators keen competition existed. 
Farmers hauled the grain to Hastings from long distances, many 
coming from Kansas, making a trip of 100 miles. Sometimes the 
wagons came in trains with as many as seventy-five wagons in the 
train. Upon such occasions it came to be noticed that the grain men 
did not compete. Apprised that the wagons were approaching the 


city, they apparently agreed to bury the hatchet for the time being, 
for the jHU-pose of harvesting a sure thing. 

For the greater part of the time, liowever, the two grain buyers, 
each backed by his raih'oad, competed keenly, and in those days a 
farmer did not sell his load of wheat until after the buyers had finished 
raising each other's bid. Some of the farmers declare that at times 
they received more for their grain in Hastings than it would bring on 
the Chicago market, and here was visible the hand of the railroads 
operating through rebates. With all the competition, however, wheat 
sometimes sold as low as 60 cents per bushel and barley for 25 and 
even 20 cents. Shortly after this i:)eriod the element of competition 
disappeared from grain buying and was no more apparent than it 
is at present. 

Among the Hastings mercliants nametl at this time should be 
A. J. ^lillett, who conducted a popular grocery store on First Street. 
There Avere, of course, other business men in Hastings at the time, 
but those mentioned serve very well to give an idea of the business 
activity of the town at the time the county seat was removed. In 
this connection it is of interest to note the comparison between 
Hastings and the defeated town, Juniata, at tlie same period. An 
inventory of the business at Juniata as it existed January 1, 1879, 
reveals the following business establishments: C. R. Jones & Co.. 
general merchandise; also in the same business, Dillon & Cole, Stadel- 
man & Bodein and W. H. Burr; G. W. Carter, stoves and tinware; 
Carter & Harsough, hardware; B. E. Swift, farm implements; E. 
M. Allen, lumber; G. S. Guild, publisher Juniata Herald; H. E. 
Wells, druggist; S. B. Webb, confectionery; JM. Scudder & Sons, 
nursery; Mrs. A. A. White, millinery; Carlock & Clark, millers; J. N. 
Stark, jeweler; Clough & Watkins, meat market; William Twidale, 
meat market; B. F. Smith, attorney; James Laird, attorney; Cliarles 
Kilburn, attorney; Ben Hayden, attorney; Winfield Ackley. physi- 
cian; H. M. Crone, jiainter; G. W. JMontgomery, barber; W. D. 
Belding, livery stable; George Walker, livery stable; A. J. Peterson, 
Union Hotel; L. F. Pickard, hardware; Swift & Angell, agricultural 
implements; John Chandler, coal dealer; George Stocker, coal dealer; 
S. L. Brass, bakery and restaurant; Walker & Van Houten, livery 
stable; ]\Ir. Lapp, proprietor, Jiniiata House; J. A. Robertson, 
deputy sheriff and collector; O. Stearer, expressman and justice of 
the peace; F. M. Webb, groceries; O. H. Verber, boarding house; 
Mr. Angell, restaurant; Titus Babcock, postmaster; F. H. Hole, 
blacksmith; G. S. Gitchel. Sheirmerhorn & Co., wagon makers; O. A. 
Buzzell, pastor Baptist church; Rev. Mr. Camp, pastor Congrega- 


tional church; Rev. JNIr. Love, pastor Episcopal church; Frank 
Kellogg, station agent; Miss L. A. JNIcFadden, principal of the 
schools, and Miss Anna Pruyn, assistant; John T. Hill, saloon. 


In 1879 the iirst brick buildings were erected in Hastings. One 
of these stood at the southwest corner of Second Street and Hastings 
Avenue, where the First National Bank Building now stands. It 
was erected for A. L. Clarke and George Pratt, and was the original 
First National Bank Building. This bank building was built of red 
brick and its dimensions were 22xl2;5 feet; it was two stories high. 
The other brick building stood on the west side of Hastings Avenue, 
a little soutli of the location of the Clarke Hotel. This building, 
wliicli stood initil torn down in recent years, was known as the "]\Ia- 
sonic Building." It was erected by the Paine Lumber Company. 

Before the First National Bank Building was completed Hast- 
ings was swept with what was j^erhaps the most important fire in its 
history, and the next few years witnessed the erection of a large 
number of brick buildings in the business section. It has come to be 
believed, therefore, that the fire of 1879 was a main factor in ushering 
the brick building era. 

On the night of January 1, 1878, the Thompson Hotel, a very 
creditable structure that stood on the east side of Kansas Avenue 
between First and Second streets, was destroyed by fire. This loss 
awakened the inhabitants of the new town to the fact that they were 
without means to protect themselves from fire. In the spring following 
a volunteer fire company was organized with nearly all the young men 
in the town as members, and with John D. Crans as chief. Ed Ken- 
nard was foreman of the hose company and Caspar Fisher foreman 
of the liook and ladder trucks. This organization followed the failure 
to vote bonds in the amount of $6,000 for the purpose of providing 
fire jn-otection. The bonds having failed, the city council made an 
appropriation with which a hand engine was purchased at an expendi- 
ture of $680, also a hook and ladder outfit and fourteen Babcock 
extinguisliers. On the southwest corner of the courthouse square a 
two-story frame building was erected. In the lower part the fire- 
fighting apparatus was installed. The upper story was used as a 
council cliamber until 1890, when the present city hall and engine 
liouse was erected on Burlington Avenue, between First and Second 
streets. It may be remarked tliat previous to this time the city council 
liad met in tlie office of the Hastings Town Company on Second Street ; 


at times, however, sessions were held in the stores. The problem of 
fire protection was by no means solved with the purchase of the fire 
engine, for the apparatus Avas no good without a water supply. The 
council, therefore, decided to erect a tank centrally located, and with 
a cajiacity of a thousand barrels, and to build a windmill to draw the 
\\ater. Bids were advertised for; the lowest received was for $1,250 
and the highest $1,500. The council advertised again, and Mr. Isaac 
LeDioyt, representing C. X. Paine & Company, the proprietors of 
the Badger lumberyard offered in behalf of his firm to furnish the 
material and do the work for $950. The offer was accejited. 

The tank and windmill were erected between First and Second 
streets, in the rear of the present location of the Masonic Hall. The 
tank was set upon a heavy frame twelve feet above the ground, and 
the frame supporting it lay upon a heavy stone foundation, which 
extended from below the frost line. Describing the course of the 
water pipes radiating from the tank, JNIr. Isaac LeDioyt wrote as 
follows: "From the tank a six-inch pipe carried the water to another 
six-inch pipe laid four feet below the surface of the ground and ex- 
tending through the alley from Hastings Avenue to Denver Avenue, 
and from the ends of this pipe a four-inch pipe extended to the four 
corners of the block, where the water was brought to the surface 
through a two-inch pipe. Still, with all this preparation, there was no 
connection between the water works and the engine. 

So, once more, the city appropriated money for the digging of 
cisterns at the intersections of the streets in the business center of the 
cit}'. One was dug at the intersection of Hastings Avenue and Second 
Street, another at the intersection of Second Street and Lincoln Ave- 
nue, near where the St. Joseph & Grand Island tracks end. One or 
two others were dug at other locations. The scheme was to fill the 
cisterns nearest the corners where the water was brought to the surface, 
and fi'om these cisterns the engine and hose were made to fill the 
others. Once a week the fire company would be called out and the 
firemen and bystanders would work upon the engine mitil all the 
water that could be spared from a cistern had been sent to a neighbor- 
ing cistern." The engine had two long handles, wliich a dozen or more 
men could seize. The movement of the handle was a good deal like 
that used to propel handcars on the railroads before the advent of the 
gasoline engine. 

FIRE OF 1879 

It was in the forenoon of September 14, 1879, that the epochal 
fire in the history of Hastings broke forth and gave the Hastings 
fire department its first severe test. The fire was discovered in the 


drug store of J. S. Allison, which was located in a building on the 
west side of Hastings Avenue, south of the alley ruiming through 
the block from Hastings Avenue to Lincoln Avenue. The tire engine 
was brought out and worked first from the cistern at the intersection 
of Hastizigs Avenue and Second Street, and then from the cistern 
at the intersection of the same street with Lincoln Avenue. In the 
basement of the drug store, which was a frame structure, paints and 
oils were stored, and these inflammables soon caused the fire to reach 
formidable strength. Just when it seemed that the firemen had the 
flames under control, the engine broke. After this the citizens and 
firemen were compelled to fight with bucket brigades. They were 
unable to check the flames, and the main business section was wiped 
out. Every building in the block bomid by First and Second streets 
and Hastings and Lincoln avenues was destroyed, excejit the First 
National Bank Building and one small frame structure. On the 
south side of First Street, and between Hastings and Lincoln avenues, 
every building was burned as far south as the Burlington track. The 
loss by this fire is estimated to have been $100,000. Individual losses 
were reported by the newspapers of the time as follows: J. S. Alli- 
son, stock, $.5,000: J. W. Davis, building and stock, $6,000; H. 
Lepin, hotel aild fixtures, $8,000; Charles Cameron, stock and build- 
ing, $13,000; Thomas Scale, building, $800; A. W. Cox, stock and 
two buildings, $2,300; J. ^Veingart & Bros., elevator and 2.000 
bushels of wheat, $2,200; Kelly & Hahn, building and contents, 
$2,300; Dr. F. Naulteus, building and stock, $3,000; Wolbach Bros., 
building and stock, $15,000; N. F. Damron, hotel and furniture, 
$6,000; D. H. Ballard, building and stock, $4,000; G. F. Work, ofiice, 
$125; Exchange Bank, furniture, $200; Oswald Oliver, lumber, $100; 
Wigton Bros., oflfice and type, $600; ]\Iillett &: ]Mulford, stone works, 
$1,000; C. H. Manker, carpenter shop, $200: Prindle & Burke, tailor 
shop, $50; ]Mrs. JNIow, two buildings, $250; JNIrs. Higgins, building, 
$300; Langevin & Plamondon, two buildings, $1,500; J. B. Seridge, 
building, $800; W. A. Smith, stock, $900; George Volland, livery 
stable, $1,200; J. Kohl, building and fixtures, $1,500; E. Stout, build- 
ing and stock, $800; A. J. Nowlan, stock, $300; Forch & Co., damage 
to building, $100; Lowman & Fisher, office furniture, $150; Charles 
Carmichael, personal jn-operty, $300; Frank Coy's drug store. In all 
tliirty-thi-ee buildings were destroyed. 


A period of building followed the great fire, and the business activi- 
ties of Hastings increased in volume and ambitions until the climax was 


reached in tlie boom of 1887. On the northeast corner of Second 
Street and Lincohi Avenue, the present location of the 10-cent store, 
Morris and Eugene Alexander erected a brick building two stories 
high in 1881 at a cost of $10,000. In the corner building was located 
the grocery store of M. J. Lunibard. For many years this store was 
one of the important stores of the city. The rooms above this store 
were occupied as the offices of the Benevolent Union, an early 
Hastings mutual life insurance company, which by 1887 had written 
$2,,)00,000 of life insurance for 1,400 members. 

During the same year, 1881, F. J. Benedict & Co., erected a brick 
building adjoining the Alexander Building on the east. This, too, 
was two stories high, 4>i by 110 feet, and cost -$10,000. It was in the 
west store room of this building that the Benedict grocery store was 

In 1881 also was erected the brick building adjoining the Bene(Hct 
Building on the east. This was known in the early days as the Reed 
Building. One of the store rooms was occupied by Burger Brothers, 
who conducted a wholesale and retail hardware store and in the other 
store room was the delicatessen dining hall of iNIessrs. Noyes & Baird, 
a very popular restaurant of that period. The building was erected 
by a Mr. Reed at a cost of $.5,000. 

The Kerr Opera House was not erected until 1884. For several 
years it was the most imposing building in Hastings. The building 
was erected l)y the Hastings Opera House Company at a cost of 
$61,000. Tlie board of directors of this corporation elected, in 1884, 
were D. F. Naulteus, James B. Heartwell, ]M. L. Alexander, 
William Kerr, T. J. Dowd, George H. Pratt, L. B. Palmer, R. A. 
Anderson and C. E. W. Struve. A long list of citizens in addition 
to those named were stockholders. The house was named in honor of 
William Kerr, one of the principal stockholders, and who eventually 
became the sole owner of the building. The stage is 66 feet wide by 
38 feet deep and the procenium 32 feet wide and 28 feet high. The 
original curtain, scenery and decorations were by Noxen, Albert & 
Toomey, of St. Louis. The Kerr was first under the management of 
F. D. Taggart. William Shellack was manager for a time. Subse- 
quently Manager Stevens conducted the affairs of the Kerr and was 
succeeded by Thomas Kerr, son of William Kerr. William Lowman 
came after Thomas Kerr, and is the present manager. 

October 18, 188.5, Miss Nellie Boyd appeared in a dramatic pro- 
duction at the Kerr, and was very enthusiastic over the new oj^era 
house. Miss Boyd first appeared in Hastings in 1874. She was the 
first actress to appear in Hastings, and she was much impressed with 


the change that had been wrought in eleven years. In 1874 she ap- 
peared in ]\Iillett Hall. There were neither stage nor seats. For 
ojjera chairs the citizens supplied benches made of rough pine jjlanks 
laid across nail kegs. The stage was constnicted in a similar manner. 
For the drop curtain two patchwork qiults were kindly lent, and 
candles did service for footlights. 

Prof. John Rees was the director of the first Opera House orches- 
tra. Will Rees, first violin; Ben Urquhart, second violin; Gus Bind- 
evuY), viola; Elgin Gilbert, bass viola; C. F. Royce, clarinet; Walter 
Chapman, first cornet: Al Boyd, second cornet; ]\I. L. Averill, 
trombone; William Bates, drums. Alex JNIurray was the first stage 
director. Ajnong the notable actors and actresses who have appeared 
at the Kerr are Mr. and INIrs. J. W. Florence, Thomas W. Keene, 
Mile. Rhea, Sol Smith Russell, INIaggie ]Mitchell. Patti Rosa, Louis 
James, Lewis JMorrison, Robert JNIantell, Blanche Walsh, INIrs. Fiske 
and Walker Whiteside. 

The Kerr Oj^era House was greatly improved in 1913, a new 
fireproof curtain was installed and the interior completely redecorated, 
new boxes built and the stage was greatly improved. 

Tlie Bostwick Hotel block was built in 1884-85 by a corporation, 
the princi])al members of whom were Harrison Bostwick, A. H. 
Cramer. T. E. Farrell, George M. JNIowery, John Ballinger, G. J. 
Evans, Dr. J. N. Lyman and J. C. Kay. The block was erected at 
a cost of $0.5,000. W. H. Dildine was the first manager of the Bost- 
wick Hotel, and from 1889 to September 1, 1904, W. H. Dillon was 
in charge. He was succeeded by J. D. INIines, who remained in charge 
for a few years. Mr. INIines was followed by H. C. Haverly. who 
was manager to within a short time of the opening of the Clarke 
Hotel, in 1913. C. H. Dietrich has been the owner of the block, except 
the store room on the west side, for a number of years. In 1916 the 
Bostwick Hotel was extensively improved and the name clianged to 
the American House. It was originally named in honor of Harrison 
Bostwick. The Lindell Hotel was built four years before the erection 
of the Bostwick, by N. F. Damron. For about the first ten years this 
liotel Avas called the Commercial. 

In 1883 Charles H. Dietrich erected two brick business buildings 
on the northeast corner of Hastings Avenue and Second Street at a 
cost of '$21,000. In 190.5 the corner building, occupied by the German 
National Bank, was completely remodeled and brought to its present 
form. The corner building was the home of the dry goods house of 
Pickens & Hanna, of which the firm of Pickens & Bratton are the 
descendants. The same vear in Avhich Mr. Dietrich built these two 


buildings, 1883, saw the erection of a two-story brick building by 
J. ^V. Davis adjoining INIr. Dietrich's building on the east. This 
structure cost $12,000. In the same year Charles Cameron erected 
the Exchange National Bank Building, including the store room 
immediately north of the bank, at a cost of $2.5,000. For many years 
]Mr. Cameron conducted a large dr\' goods and clothing store, the 
store fronting on both Hastings Avenue and First Street. 

The "Stone Block" standing on the south side of Second Street 
between Denver and St. Josejih avenues was erected in 1881 by T. E. 
Farrell and George JM. ]\Iowery. The stone for this building were 
broughf from ]Mr. Farrell's stone quarries in Colorado. The corner 
store room of tliis block was the early home of the J. H. Haney 
harness and saddle business. 

In 1884 Claus Frahm erected the building now occupied by the 
A. H. Brooke drug store, on the southeast corner of Hastings Avenue 
and Second Street. For several years it was occupied by the drug- 
store of Frahm Bros., and later bj^ Kay C. Roberts. The building 
immediately south of the Frahm Building is called the Curtis Block, 
after the original owner. It was erected in 188(5. At about the same 
time the building adjoining the Curtis Building was erected by 
George Tyler. 

The ^Masonic Temple was erected in 1886-87. The Imilding as 
originally built was 66x12.5 feet and three stories high. It cost $26,000 
to build. This building was remodeled in 1013 at a cost of nearly 

A brick building has stood on the southwest corner of Second 
Street and Denver Avenue since 1881. In this building the City 
National Bank was located. 

The building adjoining the old City National Bank on the west 
was erected by M. Stern in 1883 at a cost of $.5,000. and in the same 
year Jacob Fisher erected a brick building immediately ^\est of ]\Ir. 
Stern's. It should have been stated also that in the store )'oom 
immediately west of the City National Bank, between the latter and 
the Stern Building, the meat market of Charles Doyen was located 
for many years. In 1886, Jacob Fisher completed the erection of 
his second brick store room at 609 West Second Street. The third 
brick business building to be erected in the city was by Wolbach Bros., 
at the same locatioji as that of the present site of the store of Wolbach 
& Bracli. Wolbach Bros, commenced the erection of their building' 
in 1870, but not quite so early in the year as the First National Bank. 
About the same time A. W. Cox erected a building facing on Hastings 
Avenue and immediately south of the First National Bank. Mv. Cox 


had come to Hastings in 1873 and at the time of the erection of 
this building was in partnership with M. Reed in the furniture 

In 1883 C. K. Lawson and Carson J. Hamot erected the store 
room at 704 and 706 West Second Street, now occuijied by the J. H. 
McGrath Harchvare Company. The builders occupied the room at 
704 for their hardware store, which was conducted under the firm 
name of Lawson & Hamot. The building on the northwest corner 
of Hastings Avenue and Second Street was built in 1884 by R. R. 
Morledge and J. H. McWade. For many years the firm of IMorledge 
& McWade was one of the important general merchandise establisli- 
nients of the city. The firm occupied the corner store room. In 1885 
this store became the location of an important dry goods store, "The 
Bee Hive." of which A. J. Unna was the proprietor. It might also 
be noted that 706 North Hastings Avenue, was the original location 
of the New Yoi-k & Boston Clothing Company, of which JNIr. JNIark 
Le\y was the proprietor. Tlie building at 702 West Second Street, 
adjoining the INIorledge & JNIcWade Building on the west, was erected 
by Moses Stern; the building is now occupied by the Barnes Clothing 
Comjjaiiy. In 1886 JNIr. Stern also erected tlie building which is now 
the location of the A. F. INIeyer Hardware Company, at 61.5 West 
Second Street. At about the same time Henry Gross erected the 
building immediately east. 613 West Second Street, now occupied by 
Kauf & Rinderspacher. The building was bought by Kauf & Rinder- 
spacher from INIessrs. Stern and Gross in 1894 and completely remod- 
eled by them in 1910. The meat market of Kauf & Rinderspacher 
Mas established by Karl Kauf and George Rinderspacher, in 1887- 
their first location being 216 North Hastings Avenue, the present 
location of tlie Hastings Bakery. 

The meat market now called Blake & Son has borne the name of 
Blake since 1874. Fred Blake and wife arrived in Hastings from 
Oxfordshire. England, in 1873. Mr. Blake became associated the 
following year in the meat business with William H. Stock, whom he 
soon bought out. This business was located at the present site of the 
James A. Benson barber shop. 621 West Second Street. In 1886 
Mr. Blake erected the brick building standing at tlie nortliwest corner 
of Lincoln Avenue and First Street, and at the same time the store 
room adjoining on the north was erected by Charles Plamondon, who 
was engaged in the grocery business in Hastings for many years. 

Cliarles Kohl and John Yager erected the building containing the 
store rooms 212 and 214 North Hastings Avenue in 188;). ]\Ir. Yager 
was a homesteader and a veteran of the Civil War. He conducted 


tlie G. A. R. sample room in the Kohl & Yager Building for a nmiiber 
of years. Mr. Yager always maintained that his child was the first 
to be born in Adams County. That honor is also claimed for John 
Eabcock, the son of ]Mr. and Mrs. Titus Babcock of Juniata. ]\lr. 
Yager arrived in the vicinity of Hastings some time during 1871. 
He died at the Soldiers' home in Burkett (Grand Island), in 1915. 

The Central Block comprising 713, 71j and 717 West Second 
Street, or the present location of A. M. Clark's drug store and the 
diy goods establishment of Pickens & Bratton, was completed in 1886. 
The building at 713 was erected by Samuel Alexander and J. B. 
Heartwell, while the remaining store rooms were built largely by 
eastern capital under the management of E. C. Webster. Dr. Francis 
Naulteus, L. i\I. Campbell and others, however, were joint owners in 
the building. It was in this building that the important dry goods 
house of Fyler & Wing, afterwards H. A. Fyler & Company, was 
located. This establishment continued from 1886 to 1890. In July 
of the latter year the Fyler stock was destroyed by fire entailing a 
loss estimated at the time as amounting to between $90,000 and 

The Nebraska Loan & Trust Company Building was erected in 
188J^ at a cost of about $35,000. This building is three stories in height 
and has a frontage on Second Street of 44 feet and upon Lincoln 
Avemie of 125 feet. The trust company was the outgrowth of a 
partnership formed January 1, 1881, by James B. Heartwell and 
E. C. Webster. The original firm name was J. B. Heartwell & Com- 
])any. By ]May 1, the following year other capitalists became inter- 
ested in the business, and the Nebraska Loan & Trust Company was 
incorporated, with a capital stock of $100,000; this was increased 
INIay 1. 1883, to $250,000, and in August, 1885, to $500,000. The 
business of the company consisted largely in loaning money on mort- 
gages : they also dealt in school bonds and municipal securities. Of the 
early organization, James B. Heartwell was the j^resident; A. L. 
Clarke, vice president; E. C. Webster, treasurer; C. P. Webster, 
cashier. These with Samuel Alexander, Oswald Oliver, George H. 
Pratt, D. M. IMcElhinney and J. J. Wemple comprised the board 
of directors in 1887. Feliruary 1. 1906, the Nebraska Loan & Trust 
Company made a voluntary liquidation, an action which was brought 
about through the placing of loans on western Nebraska and Kansas 
lands situated in the arid regions which became a burden. In 1907 the 
Clarke. Buchanan Company was formed with J. N. Clarke and W. F. 
Buchanan of Hastings at the head. This firm does the same character 
of business as the Nebraska Loan & Trust Company and occupies the 


same building. W. F. Buchanan is now a resident of Huntington, 
West Virginia. In 1882 the Gazette- Journal ComiJany erected a 
building on the soutliwest corner of Lincoln Avenue and Second 
Street which the following spi'ing was occupied by their newspaper 
and job printing plant. In 188G the publishing company built an 
additional building joining the first on the west and wliich gave them 
a frontage of sixty-six feet on Second Street. The entire building- 
was occupied bj' the Gazette-Journal plant. During the same year 
Oswald Oliver erected the building which bears his name and which 
adjoins the building erected by the Gazette- Journal on the west. 

The building oi^erations narrated indicates something of the strides 
taken by Hastings in the period between 1879 and 1887. In tliis 
period the whole aspect of the business section was changed. The 
western town nath its frame business buildings was transformed into a 
city of brick blocks. C. C. Rittenhouse was the architect that prepared 
the jjlans and specifications for a great number of these buildings, 
Avhile D. M. INIcElhinney and Sven Johnson under the firm name of 
jMcElhinney & Johnson were the contractors that erected the majority 
of the business buildings. 

It is interesting to note that when the city was built in brick it was 
from brick manufactured in Hastings, and thus the foundation was 
laid for the extensive brick industry which yet characterizes the town. 
The contractors jNIcElhinney & Johnson were incorjiorated as brick 
manufactiu-ers July 28. 1880. Their brick j^ard was located on ten 
aci-es. which they owned in the southwest jiortion of the city immedi- 
ately west of the present residence of Mr. Johnson, 623 South Bur- 
lington Avenue. The same firm established brickyards in Holdrege 
and St. Francis, Kansas. Their jiayroll reached a total of $1,000 per 
week for labor, and their output of red brick reached 2,000,000 a year. 

The years 188.5 and 1886 were the great building years of that 
period. During 1886 over 300 residences were erected. Among the 
notable dwellings erected that year were those of James B. Heartwell, 
E. S. Fowler, W. H. Lanning, C. K. Lawson, George W. Kirby, and 
H. jAI. Oliver. The house erected by James B. Heartwell was an 
extraordinarily emphatic mark of belief in the city's future. Its 
dimensions are 40 by 70 feet, and the interior of the principal apart- 
ments are finished in bird's-eye maple, red oak, cherry and other elegant 
woods in natural color. The house is upon the most elevated site in the 
city limits. This residence was erected at a cost of about $30,000. It 
is now the property of Clarence J. JNIiles. 

Among the principal residences erected in 188.) Avere those of 
Eugene Alexander, James Laird, E. C. Webster, A. L. Clarke and 


Alexander Pickens. The residence of James Laird was located at 
123,5 West Second Street. It is now the property and residence of 
Eniil Polenske. The Gazette-Journal estimated that the total expen- 
diture for new residences in Hastings in 1886 was $395,875, while 
business buildings the same year had been built at a cost of -fllSj-jOO. 
The same paper estimated that all the building operations and general 
improvements made by the railroads, etc., reached a total for 1886 of 
$857,375. While these figures are perhajis high, still it is the opinion 
of business men who were residents of Hastings at the time that they 
are not far off. 


Tlie building o2)erations narrated connotes a corresjDonding busi- 
ness activity of the city. A summary of Hastings in 1886 shows in 
addition to the brick factory of JNIcElhinney & Johnson a similar 
enterprise conducted by John and Henry Puis, who during the year 
manufactured about 500,000 brick. Near the corner of JNlinnesota 
Avenue and Second Street stood the extensive foundry and Header 
works of ]M. K. Lewis & Sons. This firm was incorporated July 10. 
1885, and was composed of Frank S. Lewis and Edgar L. Lewis. In 
addition to headers the firm manufactured well boring and drilling 
tools and horsepowers. The header known as the "Lewis Header" 
was patented by ]M. K. Lewis and was one of the important harvesting- 
machines of its type for many years. The firm employed about twenty 
men. Cigar manufacturing was already on a substantial basis. There 
were at this time four factories with thirty-two employes. Those 
engaged in this industry were Snyder & Brewer, Berry & Sons, C. A. 
Dunn and ]McTaggart & IMcKeehan. The firm of Snyder & Brewer 
was comprised of S. S. Snyder and Harry Brewer. Their output 
was from 20,000 to 25,000 cigars per month, while the output of 
Berry & Sons was about the same. The newspapers of the period 
placed the output of all the factories to be 2,500,000 cigars per year. 
An industry that seemed to promise at the time was the manufacture 
of the Hot Air and Hot Water Heating Furnace. This was the 
I^roduct of the Hastings Manufacturing Company. INI. K. Lewis 
Avas the president of this company; C. K. Lawson, vice president: 
li. B. Palme)-, secretary, and William Kerr, treasurer. The Hastings 
Cornice Works, of which JNIr. Louis Fricke was the proprietor, em- 
ployed ten men in the manufacture of cornice. There were two sash 
and door manufacturers that did an extensive business. These were 
B. Button and F. L. Pade. ]Mr. Pade's planing mill was for years 


tlie most iniijortant jjlant of its kind in a large territory surrounding- 
Hastings. He continued to work in wood in the city until his death in 
1914. There were in operation at the time two firms that manufactured 
buggies and wagons. Anstroni & Anderson conducted one of these 
jjlants, and the other was a joint stock company who were the i^roprie- 
tors of the Novelty Carriage Works. In all lines of manufacture 
including printing and book binding about 450 men were employed 
in the city. 

The general dry goods trade was represented by Fyler & Wing, 
Charles Cameron, Pickens & Hanna, Wolbach Brothers, A. J. Unna 
& Company and George E. Brown. Exclusive clothing stores were 
operated by Barnes Bros., the New York & Boston Clothing Company 
and Stone & Son. Clothing was also carried by "Wolbach Bros. There 
were fifteen retail grocery stores in 1886, and a statement made by 
them placed the retail grocery trade of the year at $321,000. A sim- 
ilar statement made by proprietors of thirty different lines in the 
retail trade placed the entire retail trade of Hastings for 1886 at 

Hastings has had a telephone system since 1881. On January 
17th of that year the Hastings Telephone Exchange was incorporated. 
The men forming the corporation were Lyman H. Tower, Allison B. 
Ideson, Abraham Yeazel. John J. Wemple and John INI. Ragan. This 
system had about forty subscribers. In 1886 the local company sold 
the exchange to the Bell telephone interests operating in Nebraska as 
the Nebraska Telephone Company. Hy this sale to the larger com- 
pany Hastings acc^uired trunk connections, and in a short time several 
liundred telephones were installed. On September 1, 1916, there were 
2,952 subscribers on the Hastings exchange, while in the county the 
number of subscribers of the Lincoln Telejjhone & Telegraph Com- 
pany totaled 4,170. 

April 15, 1886, the citizens of Hastings voted bonds in the sum 
of $85,000 for the erection of a waterw^orks system, and on Septeml)er 
6th of the same year, the Aurora branch of the Burlington was com- 
pleted to Hastings. At this period the railroad anticipations of 
Hastings were almost unlimited. The Fremont. Elkhorn & JNIissouri 
Valley as was the early designation of the Chicago & Northwestern 
operating in Nebraska, was expected to reach Hastings not later than 
1887, and it was hoped that it would extend its line westward to 
Denver. It was about a certainty that the Missouri Pacific would 
extend its line from Superior to Hastings. The Chicago & Rock 
Island in 1886 extended its line from St. Joseph, Mo., to Nelson, 
and its articles of incorporation stated the purpose of the road to be 


to build through Adams County. That the hue would reach Hastings 
was generally believed by the citizens. Not less certain was tlie belief 
that tlie Kansas City & Northwestern would build into Hastings. 
Charles H. Dietrich and A. D. Yocuni were members of the board 
of directors of the latter road. It was the expectation of great rail- 
roads that woidd open new fields for commerce coupled with the great 
building activities that had prevailed since 1881 that brought on the 
boom that reached its height between February and June, 1887. City 
lots advanced steadily from 1882, and there was produced an eagerness 
on the part of investors. The abstractors Cramer, Rohrer & Robinson 
compiled the record of city transfers made between ^Nlarch 1, 1886, 
and February 22, 1887. and found the aggregate to be $1,. 565, 616. 

BOOM OF 1887 

The business men's organization which had been organized Decem- 
ber 9. 1870, was supplanted by tlie Hastings Board of Trade, which 
was organized JNIarch 8, 1887, with lo3 members. The 1879 organi- 
zation was called the Business JNIen's Association. A. D. Yocum was 
president; D. H. Ballard, vice president; A. B. Ideson, secretary, and 
C. K. Lawson, treasurer. G. F. Work, J. JNI. Abbott, A. L. Wigton, 
Samuel Alexander and W. A. Camp comprised the executive com- 
mittee. Of the new organization, Charles H. Dietrich was president ; 
A. F. Clarke, vice j^resident; A. D. Yocum, secretary; D. JNI. jNIcEI- 
hinney, treasurer, and J. A. Casto, attorney. The committees estab- 
lished indicate the scope in prospect at this time. Besides the standing- 
committee there was a railroad committee, a committee on commerce 
and manufacturing and a committee on advertising. 

Attending the honest effort of many to build a substantial town, 
there came in a large number of real estate boomers and buying and 
selling became a craze. The spirit of the time is well embodied in a 
motion made by Councilman Charles Cameron in March, which pro- 
vided that "the city attorney be instructed to prepare an ordinance to 
extend the city limits as far as the law will allow us." At a meeting 
of the council held within the same month an area embracing 1.120 
acres was annexed to the city. Dvn-ing the few months of the boom 
between 1,500 and 1,600 acres were added to the municipal area of 
Hastings. Among the additions made in rapid succession at that 
time on the north side of the city were Campbell's Addition, Lowman's 
North Side, Cottage Home, Volland's Second, Dawes & Foss and 
Pleasant Hill; on the east side there were Shockey's Ash Grove, JNIiles' 
Pleasant Hill, East Lawn, Pleasant View, Pleasant View Second. 


East Park, Bostwick's Second, Berlin, Spencer Bros. Park, South 
Park; on the south side were Woods &; JMcCloud's, J. W. Davis', 
H. C. Dean's, Paul's, South Side, Heller's, A. H. Cramer's, Vieth's 
Park, Hamj)shire's South Side, Hastings Syndicate's First, Neill's, 
Kerr & Palmer's; on the west side were Catalpa Grove, West Side 
Improvement Company's First, Pollards and Pleasant Home. Be- 
sides these additions several others Avere platted, while considerable 
of the annexed area failed to be platted before the bottom fell out of 
the boom. The postoffice at that time was located near the corner of 
Hastings Avenue and First Street, and the nearest point of the Ca- 
taljia Grove Addition was two miles from the postoffice, while the 
most distant point of the addition was two and one-half miles. 

An interesting development of the boom days was the construction 
of two street railway systems in Hastings. As early as December, 
1885, the Hastings Street Railway Company was formed, JMorris li. 
Alexander and C. L. Alexander being the incorporators. This com- 
pany asked the council for a franchise, and although the council con- 
sented to call a sjjecial election the matter was dropped without any 
additional develoi^ments. In December, 1886, the Hastings Improve- 
ment Company was incorporated by James B. Heartwell, James 
Laird, J. J. Wemple, E. C. Webster, C. P. Webster, Harrison Bost- 
wick, Charles P. Heartwell, Angus McDonald and L. JNI. Campbell. 
At a special election held February 10, 1887, the Hastings Improve- 
ment Company were granted a franchise, not exclusive, to construct 
and operate a street railwaj'. The vote at the election resulted in 656 
votes being cast for the franchise and 207 against. Before the Hast- 
ings Improvement Company had more than begun the construction of 
their lines, the Citizens' Street Railway Comjiany was formed by the 
Alexander brothers and others, and at special election lield June 17, 
1887. tliey, too, were granted a franchise, the vote this time resulting 
in 1,100 ballots being cast for the franchise and 143 against. The 
Hastings Improvement Company constructed in all about sixteen 
miles of street railway and operated ten horse cars furnishing a twenty- 
minute service on some lines and a thirty-minute service on others. 
The Citizens' Company constructed between four and five miles of 

The Improvement Company operated a line on Second Street 
from St. Joseph Avenue west, and when tlie Citizens' ComiJany sought 
to build a second line upon the chief thoroughfare legal and other 
warfare followed. Jacob Fisher finally obtained a court order that 
prevented the construction of the second line. There was an exciting 
race in constructing the lines to Cole's Park in tlie southeastern part 


of tlie city and during these strenuous days bodies of workmen tore 
ujj during- the night what workmen of the o^jposing lines had built 
dm-ing the day. Street car lines extended as far as the Academy of 
the Immaculate Conception, the Fair grounds in the northwest part 
of the city and Cole's Park in the southeast, and as far west on Fifth 
Street as Briggs Avenue. The car barns of the Improvement Com- 
pany were located at the corner of Bellevue Avenue and C Street. 

In 1889 the Improvement Company's lines were taken over by 
Jonas F. Proffitt and F. B. Thompson, who after operating them 
for about four months turned them back to the Improvement com- 
pany. The line struggled along until September, 1890. It was at 
midnight in that month that ^Nlr. Proffitt stopjjed in front of the Lepin 
Hotel to discharge his last fares, and Avhen he drove his car to the barn 
the career of the street car line terminated. The Citizens' Company 
continued to opei-ate a little more than two years longer. It was 
reincorporated, in 1892, with R. A. Batty, as president, and ISIrs. 
Rose E. Shedd, as vice president. Shortly afterward the enterprise 
was abandoned. Of the street car drivers, J. F. Proffitt and F. B. 
Thompson still reside in Hastings. Another driver was John Hall, 
now a Bm-lington engineer running between Hastings and Lincoln. 

'While conditions making for the boom had been shaping them- 
selves for a mmiber of years, the boom proper lasted from the early 
spring of 1887 until about the first of the following July. The price 
of city lots soared to unreasonable heig'hts, and finally the holders 
reahzed that the values were fictitious. The reaction was rapid. 
Transfers which some days had totaled a hundred, suddenly ceased. 
There was no market for city lots. Several efforts were made to keep 
the Avheels moving, but it was to no avail. Shortly afterward prop- 
erties which during the boom had sold for upwards of $2,000, were 
offered for less than $.500, and found no buyers. Manj' houses were 
sold to farmers in the years following and removed to the country. 
The recovery from the boom as reflected in the price of city lots did 
not l)egin until 1904. In some instances the purchasers of boom price 
lots who held them during the reaction have in recent years disi^osed 
of their holdings at a profit. 

City lots that were offered for sale in February, 1887, for prices 
ranging from $300 to $.500, advanced, before July, to from $1,200 to 
$1,800 each, and suburban property increased from a price of $100 
per acre to $.500. Hastings was filled with sj^eculators from the East, 
and when the collapse came many of them returned home richer only 
in experience. One Hastings business man, who now resides in the 
city, possessed a forty-acre tract, for which he was offered $20,000, 


$0,000 casli down. He refused the offer, and after the boom disposed 
of the tract for $2,400. His is only one instance of many. This 
particular tract is not located where it will advance as rapidly as some 
other parts of tlie city. Init for the last two or three years it would 
sell easily for $12,000. 

Generally, during the boom property advanced from 300 to 500 
per cent, but when the collapse came, in July, 1887, the decrease in 
value ranged from 300 to 700 per cent. jNIany creditors accepted a 
deed to j^roperty in lieu of a settlement of mortgages by borrowers. 
Still others foreclosed and took a deficiency judgment for fi'om 2.) to 
75 per cent, which in most cases was never collected. 

The recovery dates to 1904, when values began to rise, not rapidly, 
but with a steady movement. At the present time lots in the business 
section, many of them, are worth a higher price than was reached 
during the boom, but the fact does not cause a single flutter of excite- 
ment, because the values now reached are normal, in the judgment of 
business men. One lot in Bostwick's Addition well reflects the recovery 
from the boom. It was bought in 1904 for $300, sold in 1906 for 
$600. and sold again in 1916 for $1,700. 



The activities of Hastings today as we are familiar with them may 
he said to have hegiin with the administration of Clarence J. iMiles 
who was elected mayor April 1, 1902. A large portion of the time 
between the middle of July, 1887, and 1902 was characterized by the 
depression due to the stagnation of real estate values that persisted 
long after the boom. Beginning with the IMiles administration the 
businessmen, reinvigorated by new blood, and assisted materially by 
good crops and advancing prices for farm products, set about to 
make use of the possibilities that were clearly confronting the city. 
Early in this administration "Twenty thousand inhabitants by 1910!" 
became the rallying cry of the business forces. The mark set Avas 
not reached but the effort made contributed not a little to the ushering 
in of a period of substantial growth in industrial and commercial lines. 

The Legislature of Nebraska in 1903 provided for the location of 
a new normal school in the western part of the state and Hastings 
entered the contest with several Western Nebraska towns to secure the 
location. This concerted effort was the first team work that the 
business men of Hastings had engaged in since the boom. At this 
time the Commercial Club was formed at the instigation of the mayor. 
The mayor was the j^resident of this organization and City Clerk 
Bratton the secretary during the eight years of the club's existence. 
Among the accomplishments of the Commercial Club may be men- 
tioned the reopening of the Catholic educational institution, the 
Academy of the Immaculate Conception which had ])een closed and 
the building vacant for years, and the bringing to Hastings of the 
Nebraska Sanitarium. The Adventists had decided to remove their 
headquarters from Lincoln and the committee was undecided as 
whether to locate in Grand Island, Kearney or Hastings. It was the 
effort made by the Commercial Club to show the advantages of 
Hastings that was largely responsible for their choice. 

In 1904 the Commercial Club induced the Emerick Bros., who 


were conducting a foundry in Blue Hill, to move their plant to 
Hastings, and that was the inception of the present Hastings Foun- 
dry & Iron Works. The Eniericks had invented a trij) hammer which 
they wished to manufacture and they desired a location more favor- 
able than Blue Hill for distribution. They filed articles of incorpora- 
tion in Hastings December 15, 1906, and about that time commenced 
their foundry and manufacturing business. 

The Emericks conducted their business for about a year and tlien 
were bought out by A. H. Farrens and C. B. Hutton. The Hastings 
Foundry & Iron Works was incorjiorated with a capital stock of 
$30,000. The hicoi-jjorators were A. L. Clarke, C. B. Hutton, C. G. 
Wallace, George Wilkes and A. H. Farrens. In 1909 the first of 
the grouiD of six brick buildings which the plant now occupies Avas 
erected. The other buildings were erected in rapid succession the 
greater number of them within the first eighteen months. In 1910 
the Western Land Roller Company began the manufacture of their 
land packer which has grown steadily, the sales in 1916 having reached 
2,000 rollers, four of which were shipi^ed to Buenos Aires. The 
plant Avas established by ]Mads Anderson and sons Avho are the 

The manufacture of flour began in Hastings in the early '70s 
AA'hen C. G. Ingalls and some others operated a biu'r mill. Not, how- 
ever, until 1887 Avas the business established in a large Avay. In that 
year Humphrey & Bird built a mill on South Denver Avenue at 
the present location of the Hastings Milling Company. The mill 
had a capacity of 100 barrels of flour per day. In 1889 ]\Ir. Bird. 
Avho still resides in Hastings, spld his interest to Gordon H. Edgei'- 
ton. In the summer of 1894 the mill Avas destroyed by fire and Avas 
not rebuilt by Humphrey & Edgerton. JNIr. Humphrey is noAv in 
the Klondike. In 1895 The Hastings JNIilliug Company Avas formed, 
the princii)al stockholders being J. C. Hedge, C. E. Dinsmoor and 
J. S. Hamilton. They erected a plant that year Avith a capacity of 
125 barrels of flour per day and ten years later increased the capacity 
by 25 barrels per day. January 19, 1904, the plant came imder the 
control of the Lincoln ^Milling Company but only for a short time 
Avhen control Avas reassumed l)y the Hastings INIilling Company. The 
principal stockholders continued the same until 1915 Avhen ^Ir. Ham- 
ilton AvithdreAv. August 18, 1916, the Hastings mill Avas completely 
destroyed by fire and is being noAv rebuilt. 

Reference has been made in another chapter to the brick business 
of early days and the manufacture of brick continues to be one of the 
most important industries of Hastings. The connecting link betAveen 


1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 



the early brick j)lants and the present is Peter Hempel, now a firm 
member of Polensl^e Eros., Schellak & Company. JNIr. Hempel 
as a boy worked in the yard of INIcElhinney & Johnson, beginning at 
a wage of 50 cents a day, which after awhile became 75 then $1 and 
so on until ^Ir. Hempel became an emijloyer of brickmakers himself. 

In 1885 a man by the name of Cooper operated a small test plant 
at the location of the east yard of the Polenske Bros. & Schellak 
Company's yard on the St. Josej^h & Grand Island and at about 
that time the plant was bought by A. S. Hurley. In 1886 Samuel 
Collins and P. A. Stewart came from Illinois and started a plant 
just beside that of ^Ir. Hurley. Through changing ownerships both 
l^lants became merged in what is now the Polenske Bros. & Schellak 
yard. ]Mr. Hurley oiJerated his plant about one year. 

Samuel Collins of the firm of Stewart & Collins died about 1892. 
It is probable that he made the first experiments looking to the manu- 
facture of paving brick in Hastings with a small kiln which he built 
for that i^urpose. But ]Mr. Collins did not live to see the result of his 
experiment. Just a few hours before he died he asked that the brick 
be brought from the kiln to his bedside. Peter Hempel brought two 
of the bricks to the dying man. 

"How are tliey?" he asked. "I want to hear how thej' sound." 
]\Ir. Hempel knocked them together. Mr. Collins shook his head in 
disapproval. They had been removed, JMr. Hempel says, too soon 
fi'om the kiln and also the hearing of the sick man was blunted. They 
Mere better than he thought. 

After the death of JNIr. Collins, P. A. Stewart continued the 
business about a year alone and then took in as his partner Robert 
Klose of Doniphan. JMr. Stewart died after taking in Mr. Klose, 
and shortly afterward W. H. Ferguson became a partner in the 
business. In 1895 Emil Polenske bought out Mr. Ferguson. The 
firm of Klose & Polenske continued until 1900 when INIr. Klose sold 
to Emil Polenske, Doede Smith and William Schellak. In 1899 
what is now the south yard of the Polenske Bros., Schellak & Com- 
pany, was bought by the Hastings Brick Company which was 
composed of Hugo Polenske, Emil G. Polenske, John Puis and 
Fred Butzirus. This yard was started some ten years previously, 
and is now merged in the larger firm. In the winter of 1915 William 
Schellak died suddenly of heart failure and in January, 1916, the 
firm was reorganized with the present name. The incorporators at 
the reorganization were Hugo and Emil Polenske, INIrs. William S. 
Schellak. A. A. Lembach and Peter Hempel. 

The Western Brick & Supply Company was organized in 1900 by 


A. L. Clarke, C. B. Hutton, W. H. Ferguson, George Burehard, 
George ^Vilkes, Peter Hempel, A. H. Farrens and others. In 1910 
this firm bought out tlie Hempel yard which had been organized by 
Peter Hempel in 1904. This company operates also plants in 
Nebraska City and Holdrege. The two Hastings plants employ 120 
men when the season is in full blast and the total output, both tile and 
brick, is 30,000,000 annually. The Western Brick & Supply Com- 
l)any has two plants in Hastings. 


The cigar industry which was inaugurated in an early day as 
previously narrated received a new impetus in 1900 when the factory 
of Sink (Sc Bloom was instituted by John Sink and Frank Bloom. 
G. J. Evans who has pushed the cigar business with unusual vigor 
came into this firm in 1902, though the name of Sink & Bloom was 
retained until 1905. John Sink disposed of his interest in the factory 
in 1904 and went to Grand Island where he is still engaged in the 
manufacturing of cigars. In 190.5 the name was changed to the 
]M-esent firm name of the Evans-Bloom Cigar Company. 

The firm of Snyder & Brewer, one of the earliest factories to 
be established in Hastings, was purchased by L. A. Kinney in recent 
years and is now the Kimiey Cigar Company. For the last se^■eral 
years Harry Brewer has been a resident of LaJolla, Cal. His 
business partner, S. S. Snyder, died about two years ago in Chicago. 
W. E. Riggs was an extensive manufacturer of cigars from 1911 to 
May. 191B. when he disposed of liis plant to the Kip]) Cigar Com- 

John H. Kipp, head of the Kipp Cigar Company, conducts one 
of the largest cigar manufacturing establishments in Nebraska. This 
factory was established in 1909. Other cigar factories operating at 
present are those of William Gay & Sons, George Bauer and John 
Hart. The industry in its various branches employs about two hun- 
dred workers, many of whom are women and girls. The total output 
for the year ending June 1. 1916. was 7,014,28.5 cigars. 


The J. H. Haney harness and leather goods manufacturing estab- 
lishment is of interest because it has gi-own to be one of the largest 
plants of its kind in the United States but it also serves as an index 
of the comnuinity's possibilities in manufacturing. The plant origi- 


iiated in 1886 at the present location on the corner of Second Street 
and Denver Avenue. William ^l. Dutton was engaged in the manu- 
facture of harness in Iowa at that time. JNIr. Dutton sent J. H. 
Haney and W. A. ]McKay to Hastings to establish the plant. At 
that time he did not intend himself to come to Hastings but the success 
of the venture changed his plans. The output of the plant in 1880 
amounted to $17,800. The growth of the plant is indicated by the 
output of 1916 which was slightly more than $600,000 in value. The 
plant started wtih six employes; they are now more than one himdred 
in number. 

In 189.5 a branch was estal)lishe(I in Omaha, with Mr. Haney in 
charge. The output of the Omaha plant is about one-half that of 
the Hastings establishment. The total of the output of the Hastings 
jilant in 1916 was slightly more than that of the first twelve years 
combined. The output of the first fifteen days of 1916 was greater 
than the total output of the first year in the firm's history. 

With the coming into use of the automobile this firm began tlic 
manufacture of accessories and there has been an enormous increase 
in this line necessitating the establishment of a warehouse in New 
York. Branches are maintained in Canada for the distribution of 
tliis line, and incjuiries have been made this year from Spain and other 
Evu-opean ])laces. In 1914 the firm took over the manufacture of the 
Rose air ])ump, the invention of Frank E. Rose of Hastings, also the 
inventor of the Rose gasket cutter. The output of the air pump has 
increased 1,000 per cent since 191-4 and at the close of 1916 the firm 
was behind .50,000 pumps with its orders. In 191.5 the firm manu- 
factured and delivered a large order of six-horse-team harness for 
the use of the English artillery. In December, 1916, the factory 
commenced to operate twenty-four houi's in the day. 


The Hastings Grain Bin ^lanufacturing Company is one of 
the present important manufacturing ]ilants. Grain bins and many 
aiticles of sheet metal are manufactured and widely distributed. The 
company was incor^iorated February 7, 1910, with a capital stock of 
$25,000. The following were the incorporators: John McKenzie, 
E. Chambers, A. E. Williams, T. L. Gibson, H. N. ]\Iartin, H. F. 
Carson, Thomas R. Varah, INI. N. Bair, C. G. Lane, C. C. Kieth, IT. 
S. Rohrer, R. R. Morledge, C. C. Christopher, W. D. Devereaux 
and Fred Blake, Jr. 

The Blue Valley Creamery plant was established in Hastings in 


1911 and within two years had doubled its output. Bulletin No. 31 
of the Nebraska State Department of Labor places the outjiut of 
butter of the Blue Valley Creamery Company for 1915 at 1,000,000 


]Much interest in local manufacturing was stimulated in Hastings 
in 1909 by The Hastings Tribune Home Products Exposition which 
was held at the Auditorium on the corner of Denver Avenue and 
Third Street JNIay 4th to 7th, inclusive. At that time thirty-three 
makers of local products had their wares on exhibition and many of 
them had improvised miniature plants to exemijlify the process of 
manufacture. The exposition was conceived by Henry G. Smith of 
the staff of The Tribune and managed by him. 

Bulletin No. 30, issued by the Nebraska Department of Labor in 
December, 1915, gives the following information about the industries 
of Hastings at that time: 


"The census excludes the hand trades, the building trades, and the 
neighborhood industries, and takes account only of establishments 
conducted luider the factory system. Statistics are not included for 
establishments having products for the census year valued at less than 
$500. except that reports were taken for establishments idle during a 
])ortion of the census year, or which began operation during that 
year, and whose products for such reason were valued at less than 

"It is estimated that the population of Hastings on July 1. Idli. 
was 10.252. There were forty-six establishments reported located 
within the corporate limits of the city during the year. 

"The capital invested was $1,384,000. In this connection it should 
be stated that the inquiry contained in the census schedule calls for 
the total amount of capital, both owned and borrowed, invested in 
the business, but excludes the value of rented property, plant or 
equipment which was employed in the conduct of mamifacturing 

"The cost of materials used Avas $954,000. In addition to the 
component materials which enter into the products of the establish- 
ment for the census year, there are included the cost of fuel, mill suj)- 
])lies, and rent of power and heat. The cost of materials, however. 


does not include unused materials and supplies bought eitlier for 
speculation or for use during a subsequent j^eriod. 

"The census inquirj' does not include amounts paid for miscel- 
laneous expenses, such as rent of offices, royalties, insurance, ordinary 
repairs, advertising, traveling exj^enses, or allowance for depreciation. 

"The value of products, which amounted to $1,610,000, repre- 
sents their selling value or price at the plants as actually turned out 
by the factories during the census year and does not necessarily have 
any relation to the amount of sales for that year. The values under 
tliis head also include amounts received for work done on materials 
furnished by others. 


"Number of establishments 46 

Persons engaged in manufactures 544 

Proprietors and firm members 52 

Salaried employes 76 

Wage earners (average number) 416 

Primary horsepower 958 

Capital $1,384,000 

Senices 315.000 

Salaries 80,000 

Wages 235,000 

Materials 954,000 

Value of products 1,610,000 

Value added by manufacture (value of pro- 
ducts less cost of materials) 656,000" 


Since 1902 hundreds of new residences have been erected in Hast- 
ings, the last ten years having seen the erection of a greater number 
of dwelling houses than any other period. In 1902 Clarence J. ]Miles 
built the "]Miles Terrace," between Fifth and Sixth streets on St. 
Joseph Avenue. This may be reckoned as the beginning of the mod- 
ei-n building period. These flats were built with modern conven- 
iences and subsequently w^ere purchased by E. L. Gauvreau. The St. 
Joseph Avenue flats were the first of their kind to be erected in Hast- 
ings. They were built in 1887 by John E. Gant. Something of tlie 
advance made in building site properties may be gleaned from the 
fact that when Mr. Miles purchased the lots upon which the Miles 


flats stand, the purchase price was $2,000 for the three lots with a 
dwelling house upon one of them. 

The increase in tlie assessed valuation of the city for the last sev- 
eral years are of interest in the matter of advancing values. The 
figures represent one-fifth of the actual total valuation and all were 
made under the same legal provisions and, hence, are pertinent. The 
valuation in 1905 was $1,433,344; 1906, $1,. 323,3.59; 1907, $1,60.5,- 
412; 1908, $1,831,000; 1909, $1,816,000; 1910. $1,878,902; 1911. 
$1,967,942; 1912, $2,108,449; 1913, $2,147,400; 1914. $2,177,38.5; 
191.5, $2,204,218; 1916, $2,233,288. The total vahiation of taxable 
property in Hastings is therefore $11,166,440. 

The Fraternity building was erected in 1909 at a cost of $30,000. 
The builders were C. C. Kieth, E. J. Herring, O. R. Palmer, J. H. 
Vastine, J. F. Heiler, U. S. Rohrer and M. B. North, E. A. Brandes 
purchased the property in 1913. The Madgett Building was erected 
in 1907. 


The Hastings Indejiendent Telejjhone Comjjany was incorporated 
June 13, 1904, by Dr. J. N. Lyman, R. A. Batty, H. H. Hender- 
son, George F. Keefer and George H. Pratt. Other prominent 
stockholders were W. A. Taylor, G. J. Evans, Herman Stein and 
William S. Schellak. The authorized capital stock was 6,000 shares 
of $50 each, the company to commence doing business when 400 
shares had been subscribed. The company did much to promote the 
use of the telephone among the farmers of Adams County. Until 
this period the number of farm subscribers was very small. The 
telephone })uilding at the corner of Denver Avenue and Third Street 
was erected Ijy this company. The automatic service was used. 

The Independent Telephone Company was purchased by the 
Lincoln Telegraph & Telephone Company February 6, 1913, at 
which time the subscribers of the Independent had increased to 3,200. 
The purchasing company had for years had their office in the Clarke- 
Buchanan Building. When the independent plant was acquired the 
purcliaser remodeled and enlarged the building. 


Tlie Chamber of Commerce which filed articles of incorjjoration 
April 15, 1911, is the successor of a long line of organizations, prom- 
inent among which was the immediate predecessor the Commercial 
Club. Before that there was the Union Club and at an earlier date. 



1887. the Board of Trade. Tlie i)resent incorporated organization 
ein-olled the greater number of Hastings' business men. J. N. Clarke 
is the i)i-esent president. Former presidents are Herman Stein and 
C Ct. Wallace. It is the first organization to maintain a paid secre- 
tary which it has done almost from the beginning. The secretaries 
have been C. H. Disbrow, H. B. Howell, George Middleton and 
the present secretary, R. A. Blake. Will S. Trites was acting secre- 
tary between the terms of Mv. Disbrow and Mr. Howell. 

In a summary of Hastings in 1916 the Chamber of Commerce 
enumerated among others three wholesale grocery houses, two whole- 
sale fruit houses, two wholesale poultry, butter and egg houses, one 
wholesale hide and tallow house, three wholesale bakeries, one whole- 
sale paint, glass and Avail paper house, three wholesale lumber com- 
l)anies, two wholesale coal companies; one horse collar factory, three 
harness manufacturing establishments, six cigar factories, four brick 
yards, foundry and iron works, brass and aluminum factory, one 
bioom factory, three sheet metal works, one lightning rod factory, 
two auto and bicycle tire jiump factories, one windmill factory, one ice 
cream factory, three large candy factories, four cement block manu- 
facturing i^lants, one corrugated culvert factory, one artificial ice 
plant, two transfer houses, one brewery. The Hastings Brewing 
Company was incorporated January 30, 1907. There had been an 
earlier brewery in Hastings or near Hastings, oj^erated by INIartin S. 
Shellak and L. Bauersacks. The firm incorporated June 19, 1889. 
The plant was operated on section 23 in Denver Townsliii) and ran 
for about two years when it was destroyed by fire and not rebuilt. 

Continuing the list of present day industries there are one canning 
factory, one large flour and feed mill, eight automobile distributing- 
agencies, three tire and rubber distributing agencies, one furniture 
polish factory, one packing house, one cold storage plant, three grain 
elevators, one planing mill, two steam laundries, three monument and 
granite works, one daily and two weekly newspapers, one business 
college, one music conservatory, two resident building and loan asso- 
ciations, four photograph houses, four green houses, four moving 
picture theaters, one blank book manufacturing plant. In the retail 
business Hastings has unexcelled grocery stores, exclusive ladies' 
tailoring stores, men's clothing, boots and shoes, hardware, lumber 
yard, coal yards, meat markets, drug stores and many other lines. 


One of the notable institutions of Hastings in the matter of ap- 
pointment and beauty of structure is the Mary Lanning IVIemorial 


Hospital which was oi^ened January 21, 1915. It was erected by 
Wilham H. Lanning in memory of his only child, Mary Lanning, 
who died at the home of Mr. and ]Mrs. Lanning in Hastings, January 
21, 1910. Before erecting the hospital Mr. Lanning visited all the 
notable hospitals in the United States and embodied his observations 
in the plans. For the excellency of its adaption to its purpose the 
JNIary Lanning ^Memorial Plospital is unexcelled. 

At the time of her death jNIiss Lanning was a student at Smith 
College, Northampton, ]\Iass. 

The management of the institution is vested in a board of seven 
trustees. The first board began to serve March 24, 1914. They Avere 
George H. Pratt, James N. Clarke, Charles G. Lane, Charles F. 
INIorey, William H. Lanning, Thomas Frahm, Christian Koehler. 
The trustees selected by lot who should serve for one year, who for 
two and so on the longest term to be for seven years. The articles 
of incorporation provide that the trustees are to serve Avithout emolu- 
ment and that no two shall at any one time be members of the same 
church or religious organization. The officers are a president, vice 
president, secretary and treasurer. 


The Clarke Hotel, which was opened for service February 1, 
1914, was the solution of the hotel problem that had confronted Has- 
tings in an important way for a dozen years. The building was erected 
by an organization of local business men, the Citizens Hotel Com- 
pany. The oflficers elected for the first year were : President, A. L. 
Clarke; vice president, C. E. Higinbotham; secretary, James N. 
Clarke; treasurer, George H. Pratt. 

The committee chosen for the organization of the hotel company 
were elected December 12, 1911, and were A. L. Clarke. Karl Kauf, 
Herman E. Stein, J. N. Clarke, W. M. Dutton, C. E. Higinbotham 
and A. H. Farrens. The plans for the hotel were made by the C. W. 
Way company assisted l)y Westcott, Ronneburg & Co., of Chicago, 
consulting engineers. The building committee was A. L. Clarke, 
George B. Tyler, C. E. Higinbotham, A. H. Farrens, Karl Kauf 
and H. E. Stein. The general contract for the erection of the build- 
ing was let to John Hempel of Hastings. When opened the hotel 
contained 120 rooms and had been built at a cost of $182,000. ex- 
clusive of furnishing. In 1910 a fifty room addition was constructed 
on the west end which brought the total cost of the structure to $275,- 
000. The addition was opened November 1, 1916. The proprietor. 


John M. Teeling, came from Watertown, South Dakota, to conduct 
the hotel at a rental that would pay 6 per cent net to the stockholders. 
The hotel was named in honor of A. L. Clarke. The appointments, 
decorations and accommodations of the Clarke place it in the ranks of 
the best hotels in the West. There are many stockholders of the Clarke 
Hotel, some holding only a single share of $100. 


The first moving pictures exhibited in Hastings was during the 
street fair of 1899. The first moving picture theater was opened at 
21-i North Hastings Avenue, the present location of the clothing- 
store of Harrj' Proffitt, by Fred Haj'ter, associated with ]Mrs. C. S. 
Epley, the present proprietor of the New Edison. This theater was 
called The Nickel and the ojiening date was June 3, 1907. ]Mr. Hay- 
ter continued in the business about two years and then went to Cali- 
fornia where he was engaged in the same business. In the fall of 
1916, he jjurchased the Plaza, which is the continuation of his original 

The Brach Theater was erected by William Brach and is the first 
elaborate, exclusive moving picture theater to be erected in Hastings. 
The house was opened October 8. 1916. Charles A. Beghtol is the 

Next to the Plaza, the Wonderland is the oldest moving picture 
house in Hastings. It was opened at the present location on Second 
Street about a year and a half after the opening of the Nickel, by 
B. F. Livengood who managed the house for an Omaha man. For 
about two years the Gay Brothers, Stanley C. Gay and Sidney F. 
Gay were the j^roprietors. It was bought from the Gay brothers by 
W. A. AValden who was the owner for several years. Since the 
spring of 1916 ]Mrs. Walden has been the owner of the Wonderland. 


In 1908 U. S. Rohrer inaugiu-ated a campaign for the non-licens- 
ing of saloons in Hastings. A civic federation was formed headed 
by ]Mr. Rohrer and closely associated with him were the pastors of 
the English speaking churches. In the spring of 1908 the vote in the 
council was a tie, the mayor casting the deciding vote in favor of 
license. The non-license forces questioned the mayor's authority and 
the question was carried to the Supreme Court which sustained the 
mayor's action. 


The following- year the non-license forces nominated John ]Mc- 
Kenzie for mayor. He. however, was defeated by Mayor C. J. Miles. 
For several j'ears following the subject was alive and there was much 
litigation. In the spring of 1915 the question of license was voted 
upon under the initiative and the referendum. Those in favor of 
license won the election. 

As narrated previously the first great fire in Hastings was on 
September 14, 1879. The next large fire was on July 2, 1881. This fire 
destroyed every building in the block in which the German National 
Bank is located except the Forgy building on the east corner where 
the J. H. Haney harness factory stands and a little building adjoin- 
ing it on the west and a livery barn on the north. Cole Bros.' circus 
was exhibiting in Hastings that day on a lot south of the Burlington 
tracks. There was great excitement at the circus when the fire alarm 
spread, and to avoid accident the management ordered the circus 
hands to drop the canvass and so no one was injured. The circus men 
then gave good assistance in fighting the flames. The postoffice 
burned in this fire. The postoffice was again burned in 1886 in a fire 
that burned a large part of the east side of Hastings Avenue between 
First and Second streets. 

In July, 1890, the dry goods store of H. A. Fyler & Co.. located 
at 715-717 West Second Street, was destroyed by fire. The Gazette- 
Journal plant suffered a disastrous fire, July 29, 1889. The fire that 
originated in the basement of Stein Bros.' store, 606-614 West Sec- 
ond Street, on the night of November 3, 1905, probably caused the 
greatest property loss of any fire in the history of Hastings. The 
total damage was estimated at $140,000. Besides the Stein Bros., 
J. H. Spotts, who conducted a clothing store, and the millinery store 
of JMiss Stewart were badly damaged. The stores occupied by JMiss 
Stewart and Stein Bros, were the property of Charles H. Dietrich 
and the store occupied by Mr. Spotts belonged to Dennis Cormier. 
The present buildings were erected as soon as the debris could be 
cleared away and preparations made. 

INIarch 3, 1911, a large sale barn belonging to Ed Tanner was 
destroyed by fire on the south side of Second Street between Colorado 
and Kansas avenues. The barn was full of horses iji readiness for 
a large sale to be held the next day. Forty-eight of the animals were 
burned to death. Early in 1913 the livery barn of Will Heff'ron on 
the north side of Second Street and between the same avenues as the 



Tanner barn, burned to the ground and nearly sixty horses were 
burned to death. 

On December 26, 1913, tlie Gaston music store on the southwest 
corner of Second Street and St. Josepli Avenue was destroyed by 
fire and has not been rebuilt. This building was the property of Mrs. 
Herl)ert Knox Smith, daughter of Senator Dietrich, and contained 
t\\o store rooms with the Knights of Pythias hall upstairs. INIany 
Hastings lodges suffered loss in this fire. 

The Hastings ^Milling plant was destroyed by fire August 18. 
1910. The mill of Hum])hrey & Edgerton at the same location had 
been burned to the ground in the summer of 1894. 

Tlie first Hre whicji caused any considerable loss in Hastings was 
on January 1, 1878, when the Thomi)son Hotel, a very creditable 
structure that stood on the east side of Kansas Avenue between First 
and Second streets, was destroyed. 


Liberal Hall, called after January 1, 1886, Germania Hall, was 
a large frame structure that stood on the southeast corner of St. 
Joseph Avenue and Third Street, from the fall of 1878 to Decem- 
ber, 1916, when it was purchased by Fred Schouburg and wrecked for 
the lumber. The hall was built by the contractor, Tom Scales, for 
the Hastings Free Religious Society, the leaders of whom were R. 
A. Batty, Dr. J. N. Lyman, M. K. Lewis, and H. C. Renfrew. All 
of those named are dead. Doctor Lyman died late in the fall of 1916 
in California. 

The founders were liberal thinkers in religious matters and for 
a i:)eriod of about eight years from the erection of the hall, brought 
many lecturers on educational and philosophical subjects to the city. 
The hall became historic, however, because of the many purposes for 
which it was used. On December .5, 1886, Judge Pound ojjened a 
term of the district court in the hall and it was used as a court room 
tmtil quarters were obtained in the Stone Block. 

It was here that the notable trial of I. P. Olive was held. It was 
here also that Senator Dietrich was in attendance upon a dance upon 
the night that he heard tliat the slayers of Cassius INIillett were to be 
lynched. Later that night he saved the life of John Babcock by cut- 
ting the rope around the man's neck just as the lynchers were about 
to jmsh him off the railroad bridge. 

For years the hall was the social center where dances and other 
functions were held. It also served as a theater. Once it was fitted 


as a gymnasium, and boxing exhibitions were given. In 1892 it Avas 
leased by the board of education and used as a school room. It was 
used for the same jnu-pose at a later period both by the public schools 
and the parochial school of the Catholic church. Seven times it was 
the Salvation Arn)y Hall. It was purchased by the United Brethren 
Church of Hastings at one j^eriod and used by them as a house of 
worship. The church sold it to the Knights of Columbus, who used 
it for a lodge room for a time and it was this organization that sold 
it to ^Ir. Schouburg, the building having become unsafe. It served at 
one time as the lodge room of many lodges and was for a time the 
home of the G. A. R. Post. 

It was leased in 1886 b}' the Germania Society, an organization 
devoted to mutual benefit among the Germans of the community. 
William Breede was the president of this organization. It was at 
this time that the name was changed from Liberal Hall to Germania 


The first president of the United States to visit Hastings was 
Benjamin Harrison, who made a speech from the rear platform of 
his private car at the Burlington Station on Bellevue Avenue at 6:30 
in the morning, May 13, 1891. The G. A. R. headed the procession 
of about two hundred men who stood in line to greet the chief execu- 

James N. Clarke and William R. Burton stepped upon the plat- 
form and greeted the President when the train stopped and JSIr. 
Clarke presented him to the assemblage. The president made a 
speech of ten minutes' length. In the presidential party wei-e ^Nlrs. 
Harrison, Postmaster General John Wanamaker and Secretary 
Rusk of the department of agriculture. Secretary Rusk had not yet 
arisen so the speech for which he was scheduled was not given. 

President Roosevelt stopped in Hastings April 27, 1903, and 
delivered a speech and later turned the first spadeful of dirt for the 
laying of the foundation of the Carnegie Library. President Wil- 
liam Howard Taft visited Hastings in the fall of 1911 and delivered 
a speech of two hours' length, beginning at 4 o'clock, at the Kerr 
Opera House. Later in the evening the president was tendered a 
banquet at Brandes Hall. William JNIcKinley delivered a speech in 
Hastings while campaigning for President Harrison's last term. 


The idea of forming a Country Club in Hastings originated with 
George Kirby in 1889, when he called a meeting to discuss the feasi- 


bility of instituting golf as a regiilar feature of Hastings' outdoor 
life. Not very much enthusiasm was manifested and only three at- 
tended the meeting, ]Mr. Kirby, Charles G. Lane and George W. 
Tibetts. Nothing daunted by the lack of interest, the three went 
ahead with the business and elected Mi\ Kirby president, ]Mr. Lane 
treasurer, and Mr. Tibetts secretary of the Hastings Country Club. 
Mr. Tibetts has been secretary and JNIr. Lane treasurer ever since. 
That year golf was instituted by the three officers. 

The original golfers were soon joined by several others, among 
whom were George H. Pratt, C. K. Lawson, C. F. INIorey, John 
Ilees, R. B. Wahlquist and C. B. Wahlquist. Some time later came 
S. L. Stichter, who was an enthusiastic golfer until the time of his 
death. About 1905 G. J. Evans took the clubs. These are the old 
players around whom the present golf players, nearly fifty in num- 
ber, gathered, and the original members are still in almost daily 
evidence on the links. 

The game was first played vipon groimds leased at about the same 
location as is now used, and upon a six-hole course. For several years 
a nine-hole course has been used. The Country Club was incorijorated 
INIarch 1, 1902, for a jjeriod of twenty-five years, with a capital stock 
of .$.5,000, divided into shares of ten dollars each. The incorporators 
were George H. Pratt, Charles G. Lane and George W. Tibetts. 
Immediately thereafter the club purchased forty acres of land border- 
ing Heartwell Lake and three lots from Senator Dietrich. The club 
house stands upon one of these lots. 

The first club house was a small affair erected at a cost of seventy- 
five dollars and stood on the east side of California Avenue across 
the street from the present club house, Avhich was erected in the spring 
of 1902 at a cost of one thousand dollars. C. D. Richey drew the 
plans and A. J. Kammerlohr was the builder. Since 1902 dances have 
been given on Friday evenings throughout the summer, and Tuesday, 
evenings have been ladies' reception evenings. The membership at 
present is one hundred ten. John Rees is president. Golf was played 
in Hastings as early as anywhere in Nebraska. An interesting side- 
light upon the price of land in Hastings is found in the fact that the 
forty acres owned by the Country Club was acquired and the club 
house built, all from a capital stock of five thousand dollars. 

November 27, 1916, the stockholders of the club voted to pur- 
chase fifty acres lying east of the present grounds and to erect in the 
summer of 1917 a new club house at a cost of about ten thousand dol- 
lars. It was also decided to raise the capital stock to $.50,000 and to 
increase the shares from ten dollars to fiftv. 


The following is the roll of nieaibers during 1902, the year of 
incorporation : 

W. D. Abbott, F. G. Babcock, F. C. Babcock, A. M. Bernhardt, 

A. J. Binderup, D. P. Blankenbiller. H. A. Blenkiron. William 
Brach, Adam Breede, William Brookley, A. L. Clarke. J. J. Con- 
oughly. Dr. John Cooke, A. H. Cramer, "w. H. Davis, F. C. Day, F. 

B. Dauchy, W. H. Dillon, F. C. Drummond, H. S. Dmigan, W. M. 
Dutton, jVI. D. Fames, W. J. Falk, W. H. Ferguson. Georgia 
Fowler, C. H. Hansell, George S. Hays, W. J. Hynes, L. A. Kin- 
ney, C. H. Kipp, C. G. Lane. W. H. I^anniug. C. K. Lawson, J. S. 
Logan, W. jNI. Lowman. W. H. Lynn. Rev. William McDonald, 

F. A. ]McElhinney, D. B. Marti. George H. JNIead, C. O. Metzler, 
A. F. Meyers, C. J. IMiles, C. F. Moery, H. B. Norris. J. N. Norton, 
Oswald Oliver, C. A. Philliiis. Fred Pickard. A. Pickens. George 
I*inneo, Rev. John Power, John T. Powers, G. H. Pratt, John Rees, 

C. W. Schmitz, J. M. Sewell. L. J. Siekn)an. Sewell Slueman. Wil- 
liam Smith. S. S. Snyder. J. H. Spotte. E. IL Steni. S. L. Sitchter, 

G. W. Tibetts, A. r". VanSickle, C. B. Wahlquist, R. B. Wahlquist, 
Mrs. F. C. Wood. 


Politics has been a subject of interest in Adams Countj^ through 
its entire history. The poHtical movements that have been felt in 
Nebraska and the United States are duly reflected in the votes of the 
county. Prohibition, populism, the free silver theorj, woman suf- 
frage, socialism and other labor theories, all these have been jjassed 
ujjon and the judgment of the electors is preserved in the record of 

Ill addition to the vote for president of the Ignited States shown in 
table at end of chapter, other candidates have lieen voted for. In the 
election of 1888 230 votes were cast for Alson J. Streeter, the Union 
Labor candidate. Charles H. oNIatchett, the candidate of the Socialist 
Labor i^arty, received four votes in 1896. These were the first 
socialist votes to be cast in the county. Eugene V. Debs was the social- 
ist candidate in 1900 and received tive votes in Adams County. In .1912 
the Adams County vote for Debs had increased to 187, but it dropped 
to 101 for Benson in 1916. 

The political revolution of Nebraska in 1890 was felt in full force 
in Adams County, which had hitherto been strongly republican. It 
was in 1890 that the farmers of Nebraska broke away from the old 
parties and at one SAvoop elected a majority in both houses of the 
Nebraska Legislature. John H. Powers, Avho lived on a farm a few 
miles north of Hastings, was one of the leaders in the organization 
of the Populist or Peoples' Independent party in Nebraska. Mr. 
Powers had come to Nebraska from Illinois and was a wide reader 
and close student of political subjects. 

The Farmers' Alliance, which had been organized in Adams 
County February 26, 1882, had prepared the way for a farmers' 
political party. While the alliance was organized primarily to give 
to the members the advantage of co-operative marketing and buying, 
it also discussed such subjects as monopoly and the oppression of 
railroads. In 1882 there were twenty-five subordinate alliances in 
Adams County with an aggregate of 600 members. A. M. Hall was 


tlie first i^resident of the county organization, and William Van Allen, 
secretary. By 1890 the membership of the alliance was greatly 
increased. Each subordinate alliance was entitled to one delegate to 
the county organization to each ten members, and one delegate at 
large. The alliance was well organized. 

In 1890 came the great drought that prostrated Western Nebraska 
until about 1900. The hard straits in which the farmers found them- 
selves assisted in bringing them under the banner of the populist . 
l^arty, which represented the jDolitical action that resulted from the 
political study made by the alliance. The first populist convention 
to be held in Adams County was called to order at 10:30 in the fore- 
noon, July 26, 1890. The convention was held at the Kerr Opera 
House. H. J. Straight, of Verona Township, presided, and H. B. 
JMcGaw of Blaine, and F. J. Taylor of Denver, served as secretary 
and assistant secretary. 

It was a determined convention, and many of the demands there 
made have since been enacted into law. It was the day that marked 
the beginning of much f)olitieal imrest in Adams County. Resolutions 
were adojited pledging the populists to sujjport no candidate that was 
not sqviarely ojjjjosed to monopoly. The Government ownership of 
railroads and the loaning of money directly by the Government to 
farmers at a low rate of interest were further demands. The delegates 
to this momentous convention were the following: 

West Blue, W. J. Huxtable, H. M. Palmer, I. W. Payne, C. W. 
Bi-own, and George Le Barron; Highland. I^. W. Short, John S. 
O'Brien. W. B. Fox, INIartin Perkins and D. A. Chriswell; Verona, 
J. L. Blue, D. R. Bigelow, W. J. Wellars, T. L. Gibson, H. J. 
Straight; Kenesaw, John Nelson, ]M. L. Eastwood, Lee Willis, John 
Dilley and Thomas Cain; Wanda, Francis Phillips. Gotlieb Lahr, 
S. JNI. Davis, Israel S])indler and S. ]Miller; Juniata. J. W. Robinson, 
Ed P. Hubbard. William H. Robinson, Ed Creiger and J. W. Harris; 
Denver, D. C. Kerr, F. J. Taylor, J. Doty, M. F. Wallace and C. JNI. 
Ijumphear; Blaine, B. B. Snodgrass, Charles Painter, J. W. Coulter, 
J. P. Hoagland and E. T. Winter; Hanover, Henry Miles, George 
Colling, W. M. White, J. W. Crissman and C. Neissen; Ayr, J. S. 
Way, J. F. Hill, William Hubbard, W. E. Hart and M. B. Foote; 
Roseland, J. F. Merrill, P. L. Boyd, Alfred Johnson, S. Isabell, T. J. 
Hoffman; Cottonwood, C. A. Larsen, G. Fischer, Fred Wagner, 
Samuel Peterson and George Slay; Logan, G. W. Parks, ]M. Stoetzel, 
G. W. Maxwell, INIartin Lawler and E. S. Minnix; Silver Lake, L. C. 
Kieth, G. W. IMunson, W. P. Clawson, William Johnson, and James 
Hines; Zero, L. Blumenthal, R. :M. RatclifF, Ed JNIevers, L. War- 


muth and William Kelley; Little Blue, F. C. ]McCorniick, George 
Estep, Martin Best, G. Evans and Parker Anderson; Hastings, R. J. 
Arnold, C. L. Kincaid, S. J. Williams, Oscar Dilley, C. W. Pease, 
J. M. Houser, I. W. Tobie, Joseph Story, Clarence Shumway, Joseph 
Marian, J. L. Cline, A. H. Bowen, Jr., Ernest Hoeppner, J. W. 
JNIcReynolds, J. B. Ingraham, J. B. Koch, George Lynn, Rev. T. W. 
Sample, Fred Van Horn and S. L. INIilner. 

At the state convention of the populists, in 1890, John H. Powers 
received the nomination for governor. In Adams County, 1,527 votes 
were polled for Mr. Powers; 861 for James E. Boyd, the democratic 
nominee; 1,331 for the republican candidate, Lucius D. Richards, 
and 6.5 for B. L. Paine, prohibitionist. Mr. Powers was not elected, 
but polled 70,187 votes; the official count gave James E. Boj'd 71,331 
votes. ]Mr. Powers went from Adams Coimty to Hitchcock County, 
where he still resides. 

In the campaign of 1892, W. E. Andrews, who previously for 
some time had been a professor of Latin in Hastings College, was 
the republican nominee for Congress from the Fifth District. Before 
tliis date, Adams County had been in the Second Congressional Dis- 
trict, and when Mr. Andrews entered the race, W. A. JNIcKeighan of 
Red Cloud was the representative in Congress. ISlr. jNIcKeighan had 
been elected in 1890 by a combination of the democrats and populists, 
and the congressman was a fluent and able exponent of populism. 
He had been elected to succeed Gilbert L. Laws, who filled the vacancy 
caused bj' the death of Congressman James Laird, in 1889. Mr. IMc- 
Iveighan was reelected in 1892. Adams County gave Mr. Andrews 
1,68.5 votes, and oMcKeighan, 1,591. The same year, Adams County 
gave the republican candidate for governor, Lorenzo Crounse, 1,507 
votes. The congressional race was both' contested that year. A joint 
debate between the candidates at Hastings drew many thousands of 

In 1894, jNIr. Andrews and ]Mr. JMcKeighan were again pitted 
against each other in the fight for Congress, and this time INIr. Andrews 
was victorious. Adams County polled 1,915 votes for Andrews, and 
1,604 for JNIcKeighan. IMr. Andrews' race for re-election came in 
1896. Fusion of the democrats and peoples' independent party was 
at its height, and Mr. Andrews lost in the contest to his opponent, 
R. D. Sutherland. Adams County gave 1,757 votes to Mr. Andrews, 
and 2,050 to JNIr. Sutherland. Following his service in Congress, 
Mr. Andrews was appointed auditor of the United States Treasury, 
at Washington. He filled that post for fourteen years. In the 1916 
primary he was defeated in the race for the congressional candidacy, 


losing to Silas R. Barton, who died upon election day, November 7, 

While tlie rise of ijopulisni gave new interest to politics in 1890, 
the issues were further comj^licated by the submission of the prohibi- 
tory amendment. The vote in Adams County, upon the amendment 
to pi'ohibit the liquor traffic, resulted in 1,708 votes being cast for the 
amendment, and 1,777 against. The proliibitoiy amendment was 
again submitted in 1916, and the vote resulted in 2,5.55 for the amend- 
ment, and 2,033 against. The "wet" majority of 69 in 1890 became, 
in 1916, a "dry" majority of 522. 

The climax of jjolitical excitement in Adams County was reached 
in 1896. For weeks before the election Hastings was the scene of 
almost nightly parades. Torchlight processions, witli long lines of 
torch-bearers, bands and negro choirs, and other musical organizations, 
were of almost nightly occurrence. On Lincoln Avenue, near Third 
Street, was a grandstand and jjlatform, where night meetings were 
held. Here Roswell G. Horr of the New York Tribune spoke, ex- 
pounding the folly of free silver; John V. Farwell also spoke to the 
same end, and the "Five Generals," headed by General Sickles. On 
the afternoon before election, AVilliam J. Bryan spoke on the old 
East Ward school groimds to the largest jjolitical audience ever as- 
sembled in Hastings or Adams County. 

Forerunners of the political upheaval, which began in 1890, were 
the earlier Foiu'th of July celebrations. The celebration of 1886 may 
be recited as an instance in point. That year there were celebrations 
at Hastings, Juniata and Ayr. Hastings was crowded, and hundreds 
were in attendance at Juniata and Ayr. 

At Hastings the celebration was under tlie auspices of the Kniglits 
of Labor, and the trend of the political thought of the times was 
observable in the way the day was celebrated. A long procession 
formed at 10 o'clock and marched through the principal streets, headed 
by the Hastings Cornet Band. After the band came a large decorated 
wagon drawn by four white horses. Upon the wagon, which had been 
made into a float, sat thirty-eight girls in costume, each girl symbol- 
izing a state. 

Here and there in the long procession banners fluttered in the 
breeze, and in addition to tlie usual ])atriotic inscriptions the eye en- 
countered these legends: 

"In The Sweat of Thy Face Shalt Thou Eat Bread." "We Are 
Opposed To Child Labor." "Labor And Capital ]Must Be Friends!" 
In the evening an address was delivered by the Honorable W. A. 
JMcKeighau. of Red Cloud. The dance, too, was well attended, and a 


committee awarded the silver cup, which was oiFered to the most 
graceful waltzer by JNIrs. Fensler. The day's program was well filled 
with sports. A cane for popularity was offered to the newspaper 
men, and was awarded to William Breede, who received sixty-seven 
votes. ]Mr. Breede's rival, Dick Thompson, got four votes. 

While Hastings was celebrating, hundreds gathered at Juniata 
and Ayr for the festivities. At the former place a large pavilion had 
been erected, and tliither came the i^rocession led by the Juniata band, 
arriving at the pavilion shortly after 10 o'clock. Hon. Albert Wat- 
kins, of Lincoln, and A. V. Cole, of Hastings, were the speakers. 
Mr. Watkins, in his address, took a democratic anti-monopoly view- 
point. In the evening fireworks completed an enthusiastic Independ- 
ence Day celebration. 

Ayr, too, had a procession on that day, and hundreds assembled at 
the village near the Blue. A pavilion had been erected' at Scott 
Philleo's grove, and here the celebration was held. Frank D. Tag- 
gart, founder of Tlie Independent, from which the present Hastings 
Daily Tribune developed, delivered the patriotic address. This cele- 
bi'ation is also memorable in the annals of Ayr celebrations because 
of the ])resence of JNIr. Jack Wilson, one of the earliest residents and 
largest property owners, but who at that time was living at Oberlin, 
Kan. ]Mr. Wilson gave a history of the early days of Adams County, 
particularly the portions most remote from the railroads, and con- 
trasted tlie pioneer days and improvements with the great growth 
evidenced by the country in 1880. 

The Fourth of July that year had fallen on Simday. and the cele- 
brations were held on ^Monday. Throughout the county, on Sunday, 
sermons suitable for Independence Day were preached in the churches. 
At the same time that the celebrations were in progress, July 5, a 
meeting of importance to the prohibition movement in Adams County 
M'as held at Cole's Park, in the southeast quarter of Hastings. The 
anti-liquor forces held a picnic of their own, and organized their work 
for the campaign for submitting the constitutional amendment to a 
vote of the people, which was done four years later. The speakers at 
this meeting of Adams Countjr i^rohibitionists were Judge Obadiah 
Hewitt, the Rev. JNIr. Aitchison, Lewis Blank. The picnic finally 
resolved itself into a mass meeting with Dr. H. P. Fitch, pastor of 
the Ba])tist Cliurcji at Hastings, as chairman, and C. T. Rawalt, as 
secretary. Resolutions were adopted stating that inasmuch as the 
state representatives of Adams County had voted against the sub- 
mission of a constitutional amendment providing for state-wide pro- 
hibition to a vote of the people, "That we tender the issue of submission 


or non-submission of a prohibitoiy amendment as the leading question 
in this canvass for the election of state senators and reiJresentatives." 
Stejjs were also taken to secure an attendance of delegates from the 
various townsliips wlien the county convention should be called. The 
delegates selected to attend the state convention for the fornmlation 
of a plan of campaign to secure the necessary legislative and senatorial 
candidates favorable to the submission of the amendment to a vote 
were: J. j\I. Patterson, S. M. Hoagland, James E. Reed, Robert Ash, 
L. W. Parmenter, S. H. Smith, A. N. Hall, Dr. H. P. Fitch, L. B. 
Palmer, C. T. Rawalt, Judge Hewtt, Nat Brass, J. G. Hayslett 
and J. W. Shaw. This picnic marks the beginning of active political 
work on the part of the prohibitionists of the county, which continued 
with more or less activity and at intervals until the j^rohibitory amend- 
ment was carried in 1916. 

At an election held October 12, 187.3, upon the question of the 
adoption of the present constitution of Nebraska, Adams County 
cast 729 votes for the constitution and 21 against. In 1882 the amend- 
ment to extend the suffrage to women was voted upon in Nebraska, 
Adams County easting 643 votes for the amendment and 9j2 votes 
against. In 1914 woman suffrage was again voted on in Nebraska, 
being submitted under the princijjle of the initiative and the refer- 
endum. The vote on suffrage tied in Adams Comity, 1,650 being 
cast for the amendment and the same number against. The vote in 
the Citv of Hastings, too, was just 1,6,50, suffrage gaining a decided 
majority in the city. At the state convention of the Nebraska Equal 
Suffrage Association, held in Hastings in the fall of 1916 and at 
which INIrs. Carrie Chapman Catt was present, it was decided to 
petition to have the subject again voted in 1918. Among the leaders 
of the suffrage movement in Adams County, INIiss Lucy Williams 
of Kenesaw is a pioneer. INIrs. Charles H. Dietrich of Hastings is 
the ])resent president of the county equal suffrage association. ]Mrs. 
Charles W. Brown, ]Mrs. John H. Slaker and INIrs. A. H. Brown 
are other active workers. 

Charles H. Dietrich of Hastings was elected governor of Nebraska 
by the republicans in November, 1900, and served as chief executive 
of the state from January 3. 1901, to May 1, 1901. On the sixty- 
fourth legislative day of the Legislature of 1901 ]Mr. Dietrich was 
elected United States senator to fill the unexpired term of 31. L. 
Hayward. A deadlock had resulted in the vote for senator between 
Edward Rosewater and D. E. Tliompson. jMr. Dietrich was elected 
on the fifty-foxu'th ballot, seventy votes being cast for him. He served 
as senator until 190.). Adams County polled 1,914 votes for ]Mr. 


Dietrich for governor and 2,139 for his opponent, WiUiam A. 

At the first election held in the count}% in 1871, twenty-nine votes 
wei'e cast. The growth in the vote as cast in presidential years has 
been as follows: 1872, 133; 1876, 1,071; 1880, 1,997; 1884, 3,076; 
1888, 3,386; 1892, 2,.525; 1896, 3,918; 1900, 4,174; 1904, 3,918; 1908, 
4,532; 1912, 4,166; 1916, 5,205. 

The first direct primarj' election held in Adams County was Sep- 
tember 3, 1907, at which time 1,644 votes were cast; at the general 
election following there were 3,607 votes. In the 1908 primary there 
were 1,299 votes cast, and 4,597 at the general; in 1909, 2,160 at the 
primary and 3,720 in the general; in 1910, 1,636 at the primary and 
4,225 in the general; in 1911, 2,164 in the primary and 3,975 at the 
general; in 1912, 2,359 in the primary and 4,245 in the general; in 
1916. 3,372 in the primary and 5,205 in the general. 

The elections for coimty officers have resulted as follows: 


Russell D. Babcock 1871 

A. H. Cramer 1873 

A. H. Cramer 1875 

A. H. Cramer 1877 

Rol)ert B. Tussey 1879 

Robert B. Tussey 1881 

George Spicknall 1883 

George Spicknall 1885 

L. B. Partridge 1887 

L. B. Partridge 1889 

C. B. Bigelow 1891 

C. B. Bigelow 1893 

D. R. Bigelow 1895 

D. R. Bigelow 1897 

W. J. Ohllieiser 1899 

W. H. Davis 1901 

W. H. Davis 1903 

George E. JNIizen 1905 

George E. ^Nlizen 1907 

George E. Mizen 1909 

Charles H. Hudson 1911 

Charles H. Hudson 1914 

Charles H. Hudson 1916 



John S. Chandler 1871 

William B. Thorne 1873 

William B. Thorne 1875 

William B. Thorne 1877 

William B. Thorne 1879 

W. S. Crow 1881 

J. B. .AlcCleery 1883 

J. B. McCleery 188.5 

Charles H. Paul 1887 

Charles H. Paul 1889 

J. H. Fleming 1891 

J. H. Fleming 1893 

John N. Lyman 189.5 

John N. Lyman 1897 

AVill Brookley 1899 

Will Brookley 1901 

F. C. Babcock 1903 

F. C. Babcock 190.5 

Ernest Hoeppner 1907 

Ernest Hoeppner 1909 

P. W. JMcIntosh 1911 

P. W. Mcintosh 1914 

Harry C. Haverly 1916 


Isaac W. Stark 1871 

James B. JNIcCleery 1873 

James B. :McCleery 187.5 

S. L. JNIartin 1877 

S. L. Martin 1879 

S. L. Martin 1881 

David L. Barlass 1883 

David L. Barlass 188.5 

David L. Barlass 1887 

George Crane 1889 

George Crane 1891 

John W. Harris 1893 

Otto Otten 189.5 

John J. Simmering 1897 

John J. Simmering 1899 


John T. Hill 1901 

John T. Hill 1903 

J. Clinton ]McCleery 1905 

J. Clinton McCleery 1907 

J. Clinton McCleeiy 1909 

W. A. Cole '. 1911 

W. A. Cole 1914 

W. A. Cole 1916 


Titus Babcock 1871 

Benjamin F. Smith 1873 

Benjamin F. Smith 1875 

Benjamin F. Smith 1877 

Benjamin F. Smith 1879 

George F. ^Vork 1881 

J. H. Fleming 1883 

J. H. Fleming 1885 

J. H. Fleming 1887 

William H. Burton 1889 

\Villiam K. Burton 1891 

Jacob Baily 1893 

Jacob Baily 1895 

Adna H. Bowen 1897 

Adna H. Bowen 1899 

Harry S. Dungan 1901 

Harry S. Dungan 1903 

Harry S. Dungan 1905 

William F. Button 1907 

William F. Button 1909 

William F. Button 1911 

William F. Button 1914 

John Snider (appointed) 1915 

John Snider (elected) 1916 


George Henderson 1871 

William Scott 1873 

William Van Allen 1875 

William Van Allen 1877 


Jasper N. Smith 1879 

Thomas E. Fairell 1881 

Thomas E. Farrell 1883 

Thomas E. Farrell 1885 

Thomas E. Farrell 1887 

G. W. Woodward 1889 

G. ^V. Woodward 1891 

C. A. Heartwell 1893 

C. A. Heartwell 1895 

C. A. Heartwell 1897 

C. A. Heartwell 1899 

C. A. Heartwell 1901 

C. A. Heartwell 1903 

C. A. Heartwell 1905 

C. A. Heartwell 1907 

C. A. Heartwell 1909 

W. H. Fuller 1911 

C. A. Heartwell 1914 

C. A. Heartwell 1916 


Adna H. Bowen 1871 

Adna H. Bowen 1873 

A. L. Wigton 1875 

L. Darling 1877 

Lucy A. ]McFadden 1879 

Eucy A. ^NIcFadden 1881 

A. E. Allyn 1883 

A. E. Allyn 1885 

A. E. Allyn 1887 

F. M. Betteys 1889 

F. M. Betteys 1891 

D. M. Ball." 1893 

D. M. Ball 1895 

Richard D. Moritz 1897 

Richard D. ]Moritz 1899 

W. A. Julian 1901 

W. A. Julian 1903 

I. A. Downey 1905 

L. R. Willis . " 1907 

L. R. Willis 1909 


L.R.Willis 1911 

Carrie Sullivan 1914 

]\Iary Dungan 1916 


Charles H. Tanner 1886 

John A. Casto 1888 

Chris Hoeppner 1890 

\y. p. .McCreary 1892 

W. P. .AleCreary 1894 

Harry S. Dungan 1896 

W. P. McCreary 1898 

John Snider 1900 

John Snider 1902 

Fred P. Ohnstead 1904 

John Snider 1906 

M. A. Ilartigan 1908 

M. A. Hartigan 1910 

Don C. Fonts 1912 

Don C. Fonts 1914 

Don C. Fonts 1916 


J. W. BreMster 1885 

F. C. Mastin 1887 

C. W. Wilson 1889 

William M. Vastine 1893 

M. W. Burgess 1897 

M. W. Burgess 1901 

Charles W. Foote 190.5 

John H. Ureling 1909 

Charles C. Larsen 1914 


A. H. Cramer 1879 

R. B. Tussey 1883 

J. H. Spicer 1887 

J. H. Spicer 1891 

Lloyd Lynn 189.5 


August Binderini 1899 

Charles E. Eriickinan 1903 

Charles E. Bruckziian 1907 

Lem Tibbets 1911 

Lem Tibbets 1916 


Griffith Evans 1907 

W. J. Bobbitt 1912 

Robert Zohner 1916 


Isaiah Sluyter 1871 

Hiram C. Humbert 1873 

Dr. C. M. Wright 1875 

Winfield S. Ackley 1877 

Dr. W. H. L>nin 1879 

Josephus Williams 1881 

George B. Lloyd 1883 

F. L. Brown 188.5 

F. L. Brown 1887 

Dr. Ralph J. Irwin 1889 

Dr. Ralph J. Irwin 1891 

Dr. Ralph J. Irwin 1893 

Dr. John Cooke 189.5 

Dr. John Cooke 1897 

Dr. Ralph J. Irwin 1899 

Thomas J." Pearsoll 1901 

Dr. :M. y. Perkins 1903 

Dr. M. W. Baxter 190.5 

Dr. M. W. Baxter 1907 

Dr. J. V. Beghtol 1909 

Dr. J. V. Beghtol 1911 

George A. Volland 1914 


N. K. Griggs 1874 

J. S. Mclntyre 1876 

A. L. Wigton 1878 


C. B. Coon 1880 

A. H. Sowers 1882 

A. H. Sowers 1884 

James B. Heartwell 1886 

Frank U. Taggart 1888 

J.F.Hill 1890 

Leopald Hahn 1892 

Leopald Hahn 1894 

Tracv P. Sykes 1896 

C. L. Alexander 1898 

J. N. Lyman 1900 

J. C. Hedge 1902 

David Hart 1904 

A. L. Clarke 1906 

George W. Tibbets 1908 

George W. Tibbets 1910 

Wilf Brookley 1912 

^Vill Brooklev 1914 

Walter E. Hager 1916 


A. Nance 1874 

S. Sadler 1876 

R. A. Battv 1878 

C. R. Jones 1880 

H. G. Armitage 1882 

F. P. Olmstead 1884 

A. V. Cole 1886 

F. P. Olmstead 1888 

W. H. Waldron 1890 

Peter Griffith 1892 

Peter Griffith 1894 

:Mart Fernow 1896 

I. D. Evans 1898 

Herman Redman 1900 

W. G. Saddler 1902 

W. G. Saddler 1904 

A. S. Howard 1906 

T. J. Cooperrider 1908 

I. D. Evans 1910 

William L. Weesner 1910 



E. P. Hubbard 1912 

J. C. Snyder 1912 

J. C. Snyder 1914 

Albert B. Tibbets 1914 

Erick Johnson 1916 

Fred G. Johnson 1916 


1872 — Grant, republican, 124; Greeley, democratic, 9. 

1876 — Hayes, republican, 767; Tilden, democratic, 204. 

1880 — Garfield, republican, 1,447: Hancock, democratic, .350. 

1884— Blaine, republican, 1,853; Cleveland, democratic, 1,109; St. 
John, prohibition, 114. 

1888 — Harrison, republican, 1,929; Cleveland, democratic. 1,282; 
Fisk. prohibition, 375. 

1892 — Harrison, republican, 623; Cleveland, democratic. 323; 
Weaver, people's independent, 1.425; Bidwell, prohibition, 154. 

1896 — INIcKinley, republican. 1,768; Bryan, democratic. 2.042: 
Bentley, prohibition, 49. 

1900 — ^McKinley, republican. 2.108; Bryan, democratic, 1.991; 
Woolley, prohibition, 70. 

1904 — Roosevelt, republican, 2.315; Parker, democratic. 902; 
Swallow, prohibition, 119. 

1908— Taft. republican, 1.982; Bryan, democratic, 2,337: Chafin, 
prohibition, 120. 

1912 — Taft, republican, 196; Roosevelt, progressive, 942; Wilson, 
democratic, 2,117; Chafin, prohibition, 124. 

1916 — Hughes, republican, 2,041; Wilson, democratic. 2,668; 
Hanly, prohibition, 64. 



The history of the pul)lic schools in Adams County begins with 
the formation of District No. 1, the Juniata district, December 16, 

1871. The first school district Avas thus formed just four days after 
the organization of Adams County. The first school oflficers were 
Harmon H. Ballon, moderator; Titus Babcock, director; Samuel Ij. 
Brass, treasurer. A. H. Bowen had been elected county superin- 
tendent at the election of December 12th. While there were no 
schools in the county at the time of the election, the superintendent's 
position was far from a sineciu'c, for in the next few months a large 
number of school districts were to be formed under his direction. 
The board of commissioners fixed the compensation of the superin- 
tendent at $4 per day for each day actually occupied with the duties 
of tlie office. 

The officers of District Xo. 1 did not hold a meeting until January 
;). 1872, when it was ascertained that it was necessary to secure school 
facilities for about thirty-one scholars. Miss Lizzie Scott was 
emj^loyed as a teacher, and soon thereafter a contract was let to I. G. 
Dillon and E. M. Allen to construct a schoolhouse, and a small room 
was rented from them, to be occupied for school purposes until the 
new building should be completed. The new schoolhouse was com- 
pleted before the end of the year and is described by an early writer 
as a "two-story frame from the main part, being 30 feet wide by 40 
feet long, with one large recitation room below and two in the second 
story, with study rooms attached. The cost of the building was 
about $3,;500." 

By April 1, 1872, thirteen districts had been organized, and by 
October 1, 1873, the organized districts numbered thirty-eight. A 
large jjercentage of the schoolhouses built in the early years were of 
sod, and one district reported the construction of a log building. 

District 18, the Hastings district, was not formed until July 13, 

1872. and one week later the school officers held their first meeting. 
School was not opened in Hastings, hoAvever, until the spring of 1873. 



The Hastings school officers leased a little room which had been built 
for a store room. This room, 14 by 16 feet in size, was the beginning 
of the Hastings school system. ^Nliss Phoebe Denstoe ^\as the first 
teacher engaged. 

In JMay, 1873, the erection of the first schoolhouse in Hastings 
was begmi. It was completed dvu'ing the same year, and cost $5,000. 
This building was located on the block of ground bounded on the west 
by Colorado Avenue, on the east by JVIinnesota Avenue, on the north 
by Third Street, and on the south by Second Street. This school- 
house was a frame building two stories high and would accommodate 
about three hundred and fifty pupils. The building was used until 
1892, when it was sold by the school district. 

In April, 1882, the Hastings district voted $12,000 in bonds for 
the erection of a high scliool building. The vote resulted in 293 
ballots being cast i'or the bonds and 67 against. The plans of C. F. 
Driscoll were accepted and the contract let to ^Villiam Van Allstyne 
to erect the building. This was the second building to be erected 
in Hastings. Fire of unascertained origin destroyed the first high 
school building in October. 1886. The insurance carried on this struc- 
ture was $10,000. On Febniary 21, 1887, Scales & Clark, of Omalia, 
were awarded the contract to erect a new high school at a cost of 
$22,998, the work to be finished by September 1, 1887. This building, 
at jjresent the Longfellow School, served as a high school until 1905, 
when the present structure became ready for occupancy. Steam heat 
was not installed in the old high scliool until 1893. 

The ]Morton School, known until 1914 as the "West Ward School," 
was built in 1886. Samuel Chaney was awarded the contract for its 
erection upon his bid of $10,995. The original building contained 
six rooms. It was enlarged and remodeled in 1912. 

The oldest school building in Hastings at this tiuie is the Lincoln 
School, before 1914 known as the First Ward School. This was 
erected in 1880 by J. R. Sims. Six years later, the same contractor 
built a two-wing addition to the building at a cost of $2,875. and in 
1912 a foiu'-room building was constructed near the old structiu-e and 
Avas intended to form the nucleus around which additional rooms may 
be constructed. 

The Plawthorne School, known, before the names in all the wards 
were changed in 1914, as the South Ward, was erected in 1888 at a 
cost of $9,150. It was completed about August 20, 1888. J. R. Sims 
was the builder of this building. 

The East Ward, or Alcott School, was erected in 1891. In June 

'i// J 


; -sr 

I Ms 



Alcott School 

iloituii Sclioo 



of that year the contract for this building was let to O. W. Staley 
for $15,000. School was opened in the building January 11, 1892. 

In 1873 the school census of Adams County shows that there were 
407 between the ages of five and twenty-one; by 1880 the number 
had increased to 3,275. The census of 1916 shows a school population 
of 6,311 and an enrolment of 4,756, and the average daily attendance 
was 3,664. In 1880 the school buildings of the county were valued 
by the district officers at $31,492.20. In 1916 the eighty-five school- 
houses of Adams County have an estimated value of $318,065. In 
1880 the sites belonging to the district were estimated to be worth 
$911 : in 1916 the estimated value of the sites is $100,093. In 1880 
the salaries of the seventy-three teachers of the county amounted to 
$12,505.01. In 1916, meaning the year closing in June of that year, 
178 teachers were employed and $107,946.26 was jJaid in salaries; 
$19,361.85 was paid to men and $88,584.41 to women. The total 
expenditures of the Adams County schools for the year ending in 
June, 1916, was $198,308.00, of which sum $12,313.25 was spent for 
text books. The contract for the erection of the present high school 
building, located on Fifth Street, between Hastings and Lincoln 
avenues, was let to Robert Butke of Omaha, September 14, 1903, for 
$47,740. This was for the building only; plumbing, heating and 
ventilating and all fiu'nishings were let by additional contracts, the 
total cost, including site, being well towards $80,000. On July 5, 
1904, a special election to vote bonds for the high school building- 
was held, resulting in 417 votes being cast for the bonds and 50 
against. Jacob Baily, now of Spokane, Wash., Avas president of the 
board of education when the building was erected. The other board 
members were D. JM. Ball, E. N. Hamen, M. A. Hartigan, C. D. Nel- 
lis, C. H. I'aulick, J. A. Rose, John Slaker and J. C. Hedge. The 
amount of the bonds voted for the high school building was $40,000. 

In the spring of 1912 the Hastings school district voted bonds 
in the sum of $50,000, and that year rooms were built at the Lincoln 
School so planned as to form the nucleus for extension at a later 
period, and the Alcott and Morton schools were remodeled and 
enlarged. The school levy of the Hastings school district for 1916 
Avas 34 mills, producing a revenue of $76,486.36, and an additional 
levy of 3.5 mills for school bonds and producing $7,714.75. 

The following have served as superintendents of the Hastings city 
schools: O. C. Hubble, 1881 to 1884; J. B. Monlux, 1885 to 1891; 
E. N. Brown, 1892 to 1898; J. D. French, 1899 to 1908; S. H. 
Thompson, 1908 to 1911 ; C. M. Barr, 1911 to 1915. T. W. B. Ever- 
hardt was elected city superintendent in the summer of 1915 and is 


the sujjerintendent at present. JManual training and domestic science 
courses have been offered in the Hastings High School since 1908 
and in the grades since 1911. Normal training, with state aid, has 
been offered in the high school since 1907; millinery instruction was 
added in 1915; agi-iculture, with state aid, was placed in the high 
school in 1914, and gardennig was placed in the gi-ades in 1915, and 
pliysical training in the grades and high school was inaugurated 
in 1914. 

Among the teacliers who have served in the Hastings schools for 
long jjeriods of time are the JMisses Nina Carpenter and Emma 
Parker, each thirty years; JNIiss Alice A. JMason, twenty-nine years; 
the jNIisses jNIatilda McClelland and Georgia Holmes, each sixteen 
years. The name of JNIrs. F. F. Carruthers, formerly JNIiss Hattie 
Snodgrass, aj^jjears in the record of the elections of teachers as early 
as 1886. All of the teachers mentioned are still on the teacliing staff 
of the Hastings schools, although ]Mrs. Carruthers lias not served con- 
tinuously since the date mentioned. 

Adams County towns outside of Hastings are equipped with cred- 
itable brick school Iniildings. The Kenesaw School was erected at 
a cost of $35,000, the Juniata High School cost $7,000, and the Hol- 
stein School cost cost $8,000 to build. District No. 20, southeast of 
Pauline, is the only country school district in the county equipped 
with a brick school building. This building was erected at a cost of 
$1,000. In his report made December 31, 1888, County Superin- 
tendent A. E. Allyn credited Adams County with five brick school- 
houses, seventy-seven frame buildings and two sod school houses, and 
placed the value of the school jiropert}' at $173,014. The first flag 
raised over a schoolhouse in Adams County was hoisted over the 
school building in the Wallace district January G, 1890, by W. E. 
Nute. One of the early uses to which the schoolhouses were put was 
for the holding of literary meetings, known as the "Lyceum." 
Debates and readings were features of these assemblies. 

At the present time only nine of the school districts of Adams 
County are carrying bonded indebtedness, and these are districts 
that have recently erected new buildings. These districts are Juniata, 
KenesaAV, Holstein, Hastings, Ayr. and rural districts fourteen, 
thirty- four, sixty-nine and seventy-five. In 1916 tlie standardization 
of rural schools after the model of Illinois and Iowa was adopted by 
Nebraska. Districts fourteen and thirty-one, teachers Blanche Young 
and Tecal [McKeone, were the first in Adams County to score 
as standard. Scoring is made with regard to teacher, grounds and 



"u 11 







buildings, organization of school, building, equipment, results and 
country life agencies. 

Eighty-tAvo teachers are employed in the schools of Hastings: 
Ivenesaw, nine; Juniata, seven; Holstein, six; Roseland, five; Pauline, 
three; and Ayr, three. 

In the fall of 1916 Hastings voted $200,000 in bonds for the erec- 
tion of a junior high school and a new schoolhouse in the southeast 
portion of the city. 

Tiie rapidity with which schools were established in the county 
will appear in the following, where dates of the organization of dis- 
tricts is i>'iven: 

District No. 2 was organized January 30th, first meeting of the 
board, JNIarch 15th; No. 4, January 6th, first meeting of the board, 
January 20th; No. 5, January 6th, first meeting of the board, Janu- 
ary 20th; No. 9, INIarch 18th, first board meeting, March 25th; No. 10, 
March 25th, officers of the board, Henry B. ]\Iunson, John Duncan 
and John Woods; No. 12, INIarch 1st, first board meeting, ^Vlarch 9th: 
No. 13, jNIarch 14th, first board meeting, March 20th; No. 14, April 
2d; No. 15, organized 1872; No. 16, June 1, 1872; No. 17, 1872; No. 
18 (Hastings) July 13th, first board meeting, July 20th; No. 19, 
August 10th, first board meeting, August 24th; No. 20, September 
23d, first board meeting, October 5th; No. 21, September 23d, first 
board meeting, October 5th; No. 22, September 28th, first board 
meeting, October 6th; No. 24, October 10th, first board meeting, 
October 15th; No. 25, October 26th, first board meeting, November 
2(1; No. 26, September 23d, first board meeting, November 12th; No. 
28, December 2d, first board meeting, December 7th ; No. 29, Decem- 
ber 18th, first board meethig. December 26th; No. 30, December 30th, 
first board meeting, January 4th. 


District No. 6 was organized August 21st, first board meeting, 
August 28th; No. 31, January 2d, first board meeting, January 11th; 
No. 32, January 7th, first board meeting, January 14th; No. 33, 
February 3d, first board meeting, February 10th; No. 34, IMarch 
6th. first board meeting, March 12th; No. 35, INIarch 10th, first board 
meeting. ]March 15th; No. 36, April 8th, first board meeting, Ajjril 
16th: No. 37, July 14th, first board meeting, July 30th; No. 39, 
October 2d, first board meeting, October llth; No. 41, December 31st. 



District No. 7 was organized jMay 18tli, first board meeting, Jan- 
uary 6th; No. 27, November 2.5th, first board meeting, December 
2.5th; No. 40, December, first board meeting, January 26th; No. 42, 
January 30th, first board meeting, February 25th; No. 43, January 
30th, first board meeting, February 25th; No. 44, February 3d, first 
board meeting, February 28th; No. 45, ]March 17th, first board meet- 
ing, JNIarch 30th; No. 46, February 17th, first board meeting, April 1st; 
No. 47, JMarch 17th, first board meeting, March 31st; No. 48, ]March 
27th, first board meeting, April 2d; No. 49, February 5th, first board 
meeting February 28th; No. 50, September 5th, first board meeting 
September 14th; No. 51, September 17th, first board meeting, Sep- 
tember 26th; No. 52, November 16th, first board meeting, November 
25th: No. 53, December 15th, first board meeting, December 2 1st. 


District No. 54 was organized January 4th, first board meeting, 
January 5th; No. oo, January 20th; first board meeting, January 
30th; No. 56, February 22d, first board meeting, February 25th; 
No. 57, February, first board meeting, February 3d; No. 58; No. 59, 
April 3d, first board meeting, April 10th; No. 60, organized ^Vpril 
16th; No. 61, April 14th, first board meeting, April 25th. 


District No. 63 was organized January 5th, first board meeting, 
January 15th; No. 64, January 31st, first board meeting, February 


District No. 62 was organized April 18th. and the first meeting 
of the board was on May 2d. 


District No. 65 was organized February 18th; No. 66, February 
15th: No. 67, June 9th. 



Children of school age in 1876 and 1916: 







































t No. 1 

tNo. 2 

tNo. 3 

tNo. 4 

t No. 5 

t No. 6 

tNo. 7 

tNo. 8 

tNo. 9 

tNo. 10 

tNo. 11 

tNo. 12 

t No. 13 

tNo. 14 

t No. 15 

tNo. 16 

tNo. 17 

tNo. 18 1 

tNo. 19 

tNo. 20 

t No. 21 

t No. 22 

t No. 23 

t No. 24 

t No. 2.5 

t No. 26 

t No. 27 

tNo. 28 

t No. 29 

t No. 30 

t No. 31 

t No. 32 

tNo. 33 

tNo. 34 

t No. 35 

tNo. 36 

tNo. 37 

t No. 38 












Children of school age m 1876 and 1916 : 1876 1916 

District No. 39 20 20 

District No. 40 11 36 

District No. 41 12 55 

District No. 42 14 126 

District No. 43 59 26 

District No. 44 16 16 

District No. 45 21 22 

District No. 46 5 39 

District No. 47 16 36 

District No. 48 22 32 

District No. 49 5 35 

District No. 50 17 32 

District No. 51 17 38 

District No. 52 15 51 

District No. 53 83 

District No. 54 10 31 

District No. 55 31 29 

District No. 56 21 29 

District No. 57 11 42 

District No. 58 1 

District No. 59 4 

District No. 60 18 53 

District No. 61 7 21 

District No. 62 44 

District No. 63 53 

District No. 64 48 

District No. 65 31 

District No. 66 38 

District No. 67 57 

District No. 68 21 

District No. 69 27 

District No. 70 20 

District No. 71 41 

District No. 72 9 

District No. 73 23 

District No. 74 36 

District No. 75 37 

District No. 76 29 

District No. 77 39 


Children of school age in 1870 and 1910: 1870 1910 

District No. 78 20 

District No. 80 13 

District No. 81 70 

District No. 101 30 


Clara Green, Leta Plorlocker, Carrie Kimball. 


Edwin Crane, Bertha Green, William Jones, Edward Fowlie. 
Fannie Green and Olga Jorgensen. 


Will E. Adams, Mabel I. Brobst, Lulu E. Burbank, Anna Cham- 
berlin, Kate E. Crane, Aaron W. Croft, Will H. Wigton, ]\Iaud H. 
Jorgensen, Emma M. Nowlan and Fannie E. Shedd. 


Jennie Carpenter, Emma Chamberlin, Alonzo INI. Crisman, jNIame 
W. Dungan, Lenore J. Fountain. Bertha F. Kent, Julia E. Noyes, 
Grace Phillips, Florence B. Work. 


Clyde B. Aitchison, Effie Albright, Fay G. Babcock, INIay Bern- 
hard, Sarah J. Bushnell, Alma J. Chapman, Lena A. Cramer, Frank 
C. Doty, Edith Hayzlett, Josie M. Hoeppner, Sherman G. Miller, 
George E. Payne, Rose E. Stine, Jennie L. Walker, Lila H. Weeks. 

Birdie Atwood, Frank Kennan, INIaggie jNIonroe, Willard Tobie. 


Hattie Burke, Belle Caldwell, Will Dungan, Ella Dust, Bessie 
Nowlan, Fred Shurb, Elsa Tedrow and Cora Woods. 



Helen Allen. jNIary Adams, Florence Jones, Silas B. Lyman, 
Addie Morrill, MyrtlePease, Mara Sill. Hal B. Tedrow and Milton 
P. Yocum. 

In 1893 ^liss Bertha Horlocker was the only member of the senior 
class. JNIiss Horlocker chose to be graduated with the class of the 
following year. 


Myrtle ]M. Brown. John D. Fuller, Phillip Hart Fuller, Luc\ 
Hakes, Bertha Horlocker, Edith Lamson, Etta Lamson, Arthur 
Palmer, Roy Stone. JNIay Wanzer and Ruth Wilson. 


Grace xVll)right, ^label Baily. INIaud E. Bowman, James B. 
Brown, Louise Carnahan, Will Clarke. Paul B. Dungan, Ida E. 
Gilbreth, Rose Hynes, Frank P. Newmyer, Alfred PettygTove. Alma 
Radinski, Bert W. Serf, Ethel Shumway, Charles Stein, Wilson 
Stichter, Edwin L. Tobie, Arthur W. Walker, Fannie B. Williams. 


EfRe I. Eckles. Elizabeth E. Fisher. Merton L. Francis, Aleck 
Groenewold, Ella Groenewold, Julia Heartwell, Fenton P. Kelsey. 
Marie Kinnan. Arthur J. Niles, ]Margaret Pickens and Eva Stewart. 


Henry B. Allen, Waldorf A. Baker, W. Bechtelheimer, Edward 
A. Beck. Nellie Bratney, Earle Casto, E. Lulu Coleman, JNIay E. 
Comley. Grace F. Fonts, Julia M. Jones, Florence Letson, Carrie 
J. ]\Iansfield. IMarie P. McCreary. Adna H. IMcDonald, Lulu M. 
Moeller, Julia M. Palmer, Jessie B. Pease, Marion Stichter, Smith 
W. Stoddard, Edna L. Webster, Gertnide Weingart, Zelma Wil- 


Earle T. Arnold, Ira E. Campbell, Jessie F. Cramer, Viola Croft, 
Christine B. Deines, Arthur F. Douglas, IMelvina D. Eckels, Ralph 


K. Ferguson, JNlabel JNIcGaw, Vera A. INIann, Edyth Payne, Pearl 
Pettygrove, Mae E. Rees, Zetta Rowe, Faye P. Shumway, Lulah 
E. Taylor, Charles Vastine. 


Grace Bigelow, Ralpli Deets, Luella Douglas, Goldie Edgerton, 
Grace Edwards, James Ferguson, Ola Ladd, Laura IVIann, ]\Iary 
Mead, June Xewmyer, JNIarjorie Russell, Lawrence Scott, Robert 
Scott and Sainuel Steward. 


Ren Baily, Hardy Cloyd, Esse Hamot, Grace Noyes, Corinne 
Altlien, Lunian E. Morgan, Lydia H. jMorgan, Laura Payne, Mary 
Kelley. 3Liry D. Baker, Lillo A. Bratton, Archie B. Hopper, Miriam 
Alberta klaxon, Xellie Sherman, Gertrude E. Winter, Bertha A. 
Yost, flattie E. Hedge, Walter Lamoreaux, Wallace Phillips. 


Daisy Carnalian. Belle Chambers. Lylle Coleman, JNlabel Croft, 
Alex Dunlap. Clara Fisher, James Fisher, Ada Garver, Albert Goe- 
bel, Guy Kress, Harry Kidder, Jessie Lamoreaux, 'S^'ictor Langevin, 
Hattie Ogg, William Pickens, Tracy Rapp, Lillian Shellak, Helen 
Stein, Emma Stichter, JNlabel E. Stone, Florence Sherman, Roy Shuf- 
fleberger, JNlabel D. Stone, Bessie Stone, Bertha Stout, Flossie Stout, 
Henrietta Weymouth, Grace Winter, Harriet Pearson. 


Ena Brach. Grace Bunce. Estella Craig, John Carnahan, JNlabel 
Cramer, Rena Deets. Charles Duer, JNIargaret Dunlaji, Edna Dunbar, 
Fred Fairman, Bertha Groenewold, Blanch Hoagland, Teresa Kelley, 
JNIinnie Larsen, Arthur Lockwood, Anna JNIcDonald, JNIattie Noyes, 
Beatrice Oliver, Ona Reed, Laura Stark, Paul Stark. 


JNLidge Baily, Ruth Bates, Blanche JNI. Cantwell, Naomi Chap- 
man, Bessie L. Duer, Nellie Edith French, Abbie Mabel Hallock, 
Hale JNI. Hunt, JNIarv Alice Jordan, Thomas B. Kerr, Helen INIeston, 


Hem-}' R. Sewell, Bernice Aldrich, James E. Boehne, Edwin C. 
Boyd, Eugene Star Cole, JNIildied Dunn, Pearl Edna Farney, Lulu 
E. Funk, Cora E. Hutchinson, Ira S. Mansfield, Lauren O. Millildn, 
Lydia A. 'W^'oodbury. Thomas A. Atkinson, ]Mary Amelia Fawthrop, 
Harvey Howard Jones, H. Grace Lamoreaux, Kathryn Stichter. 


Inez Bratney, Florence Benedict, Edna Johnson, Francis Doug- 
las, Kate L. Lijjpert, Alice Batty, Vida Ferguson, Veva Russell, 
Grace Phillips, INIaude Johnson, Edith Lehr, Bessie Crites, Kate 
Lenhart, Lou Howland, Ross Sexson, Sigfried Jacks, Helen Dillen- 
bach, Minnie Durkee, Elsie Moore, Ethel Doyen, Edward Barrett, 
Stella Trimble, iNIyrtle Fisher, Agnes Langevin, Anna Barrett. 


Louise Baehr, ]Mabel Bates, Rose E. Bowles, Kurt Boyd, Latta 
Devereaux, Clara JM. Drollinger. Shepherd i\I. Dunlap. Sidney 
Evans, John A. Ferguson, Ena M. Hamot, Ethel Baker, Etheloyn 
Willey, Carrie Woodbury, Plenry Blomenkamp, William Coleman, 
Irene Conoughy, Xelly Daly, Milford Deets, Robert L. Hitch. Al- 
bert L. JNIay, Effie Peabody, Elwood INI. Pinkerton, Harry Proffitt. 


Flora Cantwell, Erma Spicer, JNIinnie R. Spicer, JNIabel Richey, 
Florence M. ^Nliles, Doris Toedter, ]Mary Koehler, F. W. Blomen- 
kamp, Bessie Hammonds, Erlem Bratney, George Panzer, [Malcom 
Sewell, Charles Wicker, Grace Wicker, G. L. Greenfield, Latta 
Snider, Willard JNIann, Elizabeth Bowlus, Lulu Hoppe, Forrest Sims, 
Harold Snyder, Ruth C. Fahrney, Gertrude Crowley, Daisy Hall. 


Marguerite M. Alexander, Theodore H. Bierman, Harry R. Ball, 
Helen M. Barrett, Elgin F. Bratney, E. Gertrude Croft, Julia E. 
Cass, Florence Dutton, Faye E. Edgerton, John L. Hamsher, Jennie 
M. Jordan. Olive jNI. Jones, Grace E. Knicely, Charles ]M. IMatliews, 
Walter L. INIeyer, Florence Xewmyer, Clara jNI. Panzer, William F. 
Raney, Carl O. Rinderspacher, Helen L. Stein, Howai-d JNI. Sheaff, 
and Hazel L. Wheeler. 



Elvira Balfanz, Venia ]M. Barrett. Majorie A. Blackman, Ilva 
Boiler, Pearl Boyd, Gretchen Campbell, Ernest Cornelius, Leo E. 
Crowley, Joseph D. Dallas, Grace O. Dick, Ida Drollinger, Bessie 
Dunlap, Stella A. Eggers, Nora Fonts, George Flowerday, Dorothy 
D. ]McCreary, Bedford Johnson, JNIarie Kauf, Marie Keal, Irene A. 
Xernan, Pauline Lynn, JNIabel Hansen, Lillian Mason, Hattie ]M. 
]Miller, I^awrence Nance, Doris E. Roelse, Elizabeth K. Slaker, 
L. Birdie Sleuman, Albert B. Tibbets, :M. Ruth Tibbets, Garet 
Vreeland, and Blanch E. Weeks. 


]Mabel D. Alexander, Elsie Behrens. Luella Balfanz, Pavd Bam- 
ford, Ella Batty, August Blonienkamp, Charles C. Benedict, Edward 
L. Baugh, Lorene J. Barlass. Raymond Brown, Hazel Catterson, 
Delevan J. Cole, Francis P. Dameron, Ethel E. Decker, ]Marie I. 
Dillow, Reuben G. Dunlap, Edgar C. Dykeman, ]Mae B. Edwards. 
Oliver C. Forrester. Orpha O. Funk, Lillis J. Tennant, Lilia I. 
Fleming, Elnora N. Foster, Guy C. Gossard, Perly E. Hansen, Ethel 
H. Greenfield, Grace H. Hoppe, Effie L. Hocking, Clyde H. Kinsey, 
^Marguerite ]M. Levy, J. Frank Mead. Ida H. Panzer, Effie M. Rapp, 
Una Reed, ]Mabelle Riffe, Raymond ]M. Roelse, Jennie B. Rozelle, 
INIarion B. Slater, Louis H. Stein, Clara INI. Schaff. 


James Everett Allison, Arthur Ernest Allyn, Bessie Irene Barr, 
Wilhelmene Berdine, Winfield Grant Boyd, Clarence Frederick 
Brownell, Carl William Cooke, Edna ]\Iay Davis, Ella Sarah Decker, 
Hannah iMaines Dunlap, Carl Andrew Funk, JMartha ]Marie Guef- 
froy, Clarissa Ella Hall, Lura Ellen Haskin, Julia Holm, Alberta 
Hosier, Howard Homer Huxtable, Gertnide Kathryn Johnston, 
Hazel Eleanor Klein, Beryl Anna Laird, Ruth Elizabeth ]Martin, 
]Merle INIerritt, Rufus Glenn McCue, Lorena Elizabeth ]McKeone, 
Carl Herman Panzer, Edith Victoria Patterson, Augiista Amia 
Schlick, Walter Scott Spicer, Helen Henrietta Taedter, Nellie PLmma 
Tondinson, Leah Eveline Tresenriter, Irma Louise Vance, Grace 
JNIarie Weiler, Erma Fyetta Wheeler, Forest Greenfield Wheeler. 


Nell Pierce. Albert Edgar Raney, Harold V. Roelse, Hazel Rob- 
inson, Paul Schissler, Jr., Hazel E. Shouse, Helen O. Jones, Ruth 


Levy, Beatrice Langevin, Elsie Jean ^lartin, Lorenzo INIann, Clare 
Joseph JNIeyer, Uretta JNIiller, Orpha Tresenriter, Louis E. Uden, 
Viola E. Uerling, Arthur C. Vance, ]M. ]Marie Vastine, Bessie Wat- 
kins, Clarence Yager, JNIartha Butzirus. Norma Carst)n, Beulah E. 
Davidson, Winnie Davy, Esther Dreitzler, Donald Duane Duncan, 
Bessie B. ]Moore, Hattie ]Moore, Vera McCroskey, Antonie JNI. Otto, 
Florence L. Parks, Hazel E. Parks, Luke Parker, Eloise ]M. Barlass, 
Ralph G. Batty, Alvina Blonienkanip, Ida Blonienkamp, INIary 
Virginia Bowles, JNIae Brennan, Donovan A. Brooke, Julia Guil- 
mette, Harr}- Forrest Hayward, Ruth Holmes, Hester ^Nlarie Hoon, 
Clarke J. Johnston, Daisy Anita Joynt. Rodney Samuel DunlajD, 
George R. Dutton, Delia Hyacinth Fuehrer, Emma Fuehrer, Theo- 
dore L. Frank, Alice Gowdy and Gertrude E. Greenfield. 


Lee Elliott Browne, ^Marguerite Adams, Waldorf H. Brach, Vera 
Ij. Brown, Josephine Laura Blue, Vern Elber Christo^jher, Viretta 
V. Deets, Erma Doty, Yale H. Cavett, Beulah Grace Erwin, ^Mabel 
M. Eastwood, Clifford Carl Fink, Pauline Anna Felzein, Ermil J. E. 
Forrester, James Gibson, Gladys Beatrice Garratt, Ralph Aj-thur 
Gossard, Olive ]\Iarie Graham, Wayne Hayward, JNIae Gaines, 
William A. Hardin, Elsie Winifred Gildea, George Ebert Kline, 
Louise O. Hamel, Carl F. Kohl, Allie D. Harrenstein, George B. 
Kindig, Hazel R. Holder. Walter INIcCarty, Lucile Helms. John E. 
]\Iatheny, Leta Frances Itzen, William Ward JNIartin, AVanda J. 
Kimmel, James Reed IVIcCreary, Selma L. Kauf, Carl E. Pratt, 
Sadie E. Knopf, Ijaverne A. Pope. Elizabeth Lehr. Clarke L. Ryan, 
Nina A. JNIontague, Rolland L. Ritchey, Elizabeth Gladys JNIorgan, 
Joseph Spellman, Elsie R. Patterson, Joseph Hugh Steele. Viola I. 
Pielstick, Winfield Stein, Neva B. Rhiner, Henrietta M. Raney, 
Sadie Rosenau, IMildred Stein, Tracy Ferris Tyler, Nelton H. Baker, 
Mabel JNIae Stiner, Rilla E. Scherrich, Ruby Leon Smith, Zelma G.. 
Shore, Paul Spurgeon Walters, Clara Swanson, Clara R. Suchland, 
Wanda lona Strong, Esther F. Schultz, Bruce Foster Whitney, 
Marjorie L. Simpson, Daisy O. Tompkins, Vi Eva Vastine, Vera 
Williams, INI. Jean Laird. Elsie JNIay Hibbard, JNIary E. Higin- 
botham. Ella INI. Tresem-iter, Nora E. Brown, JNIae E. Christopher. 
Alice Emma Hibbard. 


Joe Davis. Renata Otto. Paul ISIann, Bert Barr. Ruth JNIann, 
Ruth Bracken, Florence Holder, Everett Newkirk, Beth Tomilson, 


Hazel ^Villianl.s. Harold Rosenau, ^Margaret Lay, Ada Kee, Fred 
Johnson, P^uniee Taylor, Vida Coulter, Vance Hewitt, Bessie Reese, 
Hazel Hawthorne. \N'ilbin- Smith, Ellzola Banta, Florence Squires, 
Grover Hehnann. Katherine Parker, Cecil Howard, Edgar Huxtable, 
JNIareta Lepinski. ^larguerite Hughes, Roy Phelps, Flossie Bute, 
JNIildred Foster, Herman Biskie. Eva Smiley, Ruby JMarion, Gayle 
Foster, Helen Keith, Robert ^McLaughlin, Gleah Brown, Allosius 
Siren, Earl Paik, Glenn Crafford, Tay U. Chung, Ina Owens, Fred 
Pagenkhoff, ^Marian Egelhoff, Julia Bushee, Lawrence Van Sickle, 
Esther Stein, Addie Spangler, Harry Walters, Blanche Westering. 
Ethel Sheaff, Lawrence Hines. Frida Stulken, Ida Anderson, Roy 
Ramsey, Carolyn Kimball, Ada Hatfield, Ernest Swanson, Elsie 
^Vay, Alfreda Clark, Sylvester Siren, JMadge Ranch, Nettie Lorentz, 
"N'irgil Stuart, Ethel Vance, Vera jNIaunder, Walker Sleuman, ]Melva 
Vance, Marie Strouse, Lloyd Williams, JNIildred Van Avery, Ida 
Ijindsay, JNlaynard Edwards, Howard Turpit, ]Merville Vance, Will 
Lowman, Henry Kim, Blanche Whisnand. 

Elmer Scott, Elizabeth Simpson, Edna M. Siekman, Helen 
Sheaff. Gladys Sutter, Florence Sliger, Albert Theobald, Gordon 
Taft, Ray Trowbridge, INIiniva Tomlinson, Henry Taedter, Aiuia 
Tj'aut, Lois Tooley, Don Webster, Rose Waldron, JMarion Catherine 
A\'ood, Helen Weiler, Kenneth Westering, Frances V\''yckoff , Helen 
AVilliams. William AVheeler, IMinona Winter, Howard A. Arasmith, 
Howard Barlass, Guy Bonham, Frances M. H. Baniford, Fern 
Beigh. Paula Brennen, Eloise Boiler, IMarguerite Bracken, Burgess 
Creeth. LeRoy Cook. JMelvin Cramer. Nellie Cook. Ruth Deveraux. 
Kathryn Dunlap. Irene Doty. Gertrude Dreitzler. Viola Drollinger, 
Artha Englebright, Ruby Eversman, Harriet Greenfield, Kathryn 
Gildea, Edna Gartner, Louis Goldenstein, Frank Gaston, Ruby B. 
Gra])ill, Edgar Huxtable, Helen Hallock, Gertrude Horn, Samuel 
Hong, Oscar Hansen, Oneta Hollister. Isadore Johnson, Lenore 
Johnson, Joseph Kealy, Julia Keal, Lucile Kieth, Merle J. Likeley, 
Catherine Lynn, JMary Lovell. Sadie JMitchelmore, Ellen JMaunder, 
Hazel JMessick, Ruth McWhirter, Tecal IMcKeone, J. H. Neu. Clar- 
ence Orton, IMerle ]M. Peterson, Grace Patterson, Rant Peters, Wini- 
fred Paden, Helen Pyle, Gertrude Rees, Clarence H. Scherrick, 
William Schaufelberger, Vernon Slueman, Earl Smiley, and Riley 


Harry W. R. Anderson, Edith Helen Ashley, E. Janet Benedict, 
Carl W. F. Blomenkamp, Chester D. Bobbitt, Carter Allen Cannon, 


Polly Cannon, Bessie I. Clark, Laurence Palmer Clark, Ruth Daugh- 
ert_y, Esther Laura P^isher, ^^''illianl Hugo Flynn, Diantha J. Fran- 
sisco, Walter L. Good, Norma Lee Graham, Ivan ]M. Hall, ^Myrtle 
Lillian Harrell, Hazel L. Harter, Gilbert U. Haynes, Hazel Eliza- 
beth Hitch, Wilhelmena JNL Janssen, Bessie S. Kaser, Louise L. 
Kinsey, Frederick D. Klein, Katherine C. Kohl, Viola J. Lange,. 
JNIarion L. Lawler, Howard Choo Lee, James Lee, ]Margery D. 
Likely, T. Darwin JMcCarl, Erla Thelma JNIcCarl, Pearl :\Iagner, 
Vern INIanahan, Helen M. Nance, Anna INIarie Pagenkopf, Willard 
Holcomb Parks, JNIaceo M. Richardson, Glenn Rife, INIargie R. Riley, 
Harry A. Rinderspacher, Russell L. Rohrer, Esther E. Scherick, 
W. Russell Sheets, JNIertice JNIar jorie Shreve, Grace Simmering, Susan 
jNIay Simpson, JMary Armilda Steele, Gladys M. Stephenson, Luther 
E. Stein, Ruth Elizabeth Straight, Hattie Van Boening, John J. Van 
Boening, ]Mabelle B. Vance, Verna Leigh Vance, jNIarion Van Every, 
Lela E. Van JNIatre, Lloyd J. Whitehouse, Frieda Wiegman. Com- 
mercial Course — JNIargret E. Bramble, Lester R. Coulter, Henry 
E. Davidson, Edith L. Fairbanks, Nevada Almeda Winter. 


Genevieve C. Addleman, Nellie E. Aikman. Ruth Arasmith, Dora 
Ashby, Sigred B. Benson, Anna L. Binfield, Bess Ruth Binfield, 
Irene Brannagan, Gertrude IMarie Brown, Veda B. Chancy, JMabel 
E. Clark, INIary Helen Coon, ]Marjorie ]May Cornelius, Ruth Eleanor 
Doty, Mabel Alto Doty, Armilda Dutton, Ida ]Mae Elliott, Audrey 
H. .Farrell, Helen Esther Fawthrop, Grace Olive Gibson, Nita Pau- 
line Grubb, Dorothy M. Hansen, Pauline L. Hardt. Irene ^lyrtle 
Hawthorne, Hazel Holmes, Julia Starr Jordan. Bernice Keith, "Slu- 
riel R. Lee, Frances Eugenie Lorentz, Allegra Edith ]Maunder, Ruth 
Paulene JNIotter, Crystal Leonell INIunroe, jNIary Helen ]Murray, Ruth 
Clorinne Nellis, Ethyle JNIarie Parry, Laura Belle Poulson. Pauline 
Price, Retta IMarian Rainforth, Agnes INIae Siren, Esther C. Sopher, 
Ruth Stein, Ada Anetta Terhune, Esther Tresenriter, Hedwig Clara 
Way, Florence Guc-da Woerner, IMarie Elizabeth Weyenberg, Lola 
S. Smith, Virginia Ruth Kindig. Adison Adams, C. Howard Aikman, 
W. INIercer Alexander, Robert B. Ash, Jr., Elbert A. Baugh. Loyd 
A. Behrends, Charles Burton Brown. Ellsworth Clayton Brown, 
INIorris D. Cramer, Wayne H. Denning, Sarah INIartha Hollister, 
Fred M. Deutsch, Howard M. Doty, Ward D. Dunlap, Floyd p:iler, 
George J. Fisk, Charles E. Francis. Glenn INIcLean Geyer, Charles 
Lamont Gever, George E. Hall. DufF S. Hansen, Carroll D. Hilde- 


brand. Charles William Keal, Harry Kreiger, Clyde S. W. JNIartin, 
Alexander JMeiiiinger, Kay W. Meserall, Elwood JNIurray, Clifford 
Poulson, Jim P. lligg, Henry Herman Schleuning, Sylvester Leo 
Schlick, Harold H. Schultz, Lloyd Slife, Bryan W. Stromer, Fred 
J. AVhitaker, Fred C. ^Veigman, JNIarguerite Beatrice ISIcIntosh, 
Edna Elizabeth Knapp, Elsie M. Needham, Ojjal Rosamond Nich- 
olas, Rose Katherine Polenske, Grace Roth, Hazel M. Shore, Paul L. 
Yundt, Yerna Celesta Stover, Helen E. Suchland. 


Describing the beginning of Hastings College in a commencement 
address delivered June 3, 1907, the first president of the institution, 
Di-. \y. F. Ringland, said: "In August, 1873, in a frame store on the 
northwest corner of Hastings Avenue and Second Street, about half 
way back in the store on the east side, there stood, inside the counter, 
JMr. Sanmel Alexander and Cajjtain A. D. Yocum, and on the outside 
of the counter, Mr. A. L. Wigton. The latter gentleman said to the 
other two, 'AMiy not have a Presbyterian college in Hastings T The 
idea of Hastings College thus sprang into existence." 

]Mr. ^Vigton was the editor of the Hastings Journal and a short 
time thereafter gave expression to the idea in his newspajjer. The 
result of this expression of an idea is noticed in the record of the first 
meeting of the Kearney presbytery which then included all the terri- 
tory covered by Hastings and Kearney presbyteries. This meeting 
was held in November, 1873, and the question of founding a college 
at Hastings was discussed. The Synod of Nebraska was not yet 
formed, but it was anticipated that it would be at the next general 
assembly. At this meeting of the presbytery a committee composed 
of the Rev. James A. Griff es, Rev. Nahum Gould and A. L. Wigton, 
was appointed to receive propositions for donations of lands and 
funds to be used for the founding of a college. When the Synod was 
formed in May, 1874, it extended its moral support to the project 
of founding a college at Hastings, but declined to take the financial 
responsibility of the enterprise. 

The jiromoters, however, were by no means discouraged, and in 
November, the board of trustees elected the following officers : Pres- 
ident. .Tames A. Griff es; vice president, J. S. IMcIntyre; secretary, 
J. Balangee; treasurer, Samuel Alexander. The board itself had been 
formed some time in 1873, and was composed of the following: Sam- 
uel Alexander, A. L. Wigton, Samuel Reed, M. K. Lewis, A. W. 
Cox, George W. Dade and the Rev. James A. Griff es. In 187J<, the 


grasshoppers desti'oj'ed the crojjs in Adams County, and there resulted 
a spirit of dejjression not calculated to further new enterprises involv- 
ing the hazard of a new college. Not until 1879 did the movement 
take on an encouraging aspect. 

In September, 1882, the college was organized and opened for the 
work of insti-uction. It was located in apartments over the postoffice, 
which was then located at the corner of First Street and Hastings 
Avenue. There were forty-four students and three instructors in the 
literary department of the work. In addition were nmsic and art 
departments. The instructors in the literary deijartment were Prof. 
George E. White, Prof. J. INI. Wilson and JNIiss Abbie Brewer. In 
tlie music and art departments were Prof. John Rees and JNIiss Lou 
^^ance. The college did not come imder the care of the synod until 
1884. and until that time was controlled by trustees selected from 
the Hastings and Kearney presbyteries, which, meanwhile, had been 

April 1, 1883, Dr. W. F. Ringland, pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church, became the president of Hastings College. Dr. Ring- 
land leai'ned that the Presbyterians Avere contemplating the creation 
of a board of aid for colleges and academies. Accordingly, he for- 
warded to Dr. Herrick Johnson, chairman of the committee charged 
with the duty of reporting to the general assembly concerning the 
advisability of creating the board of aid for colleges, a report on 
Hastings College, its needs and its outlook. With this report was 
sent a communication to be given to Cyrus H. JNIcCormick of Chicago, 
and soliciting $5,000 for the erection of the first building, to be given 
through the new board, subject to its a])proval. and to constitute the 
beginning of the work of that board. The j^rivilege was also asked of 
Mr. McCormick of naming the first building McCormick Hall. Both 
requests were granted. 

The corner stone of McCormick Hall was laid by James B. Heart- 
well, president of the board of trustees, July 12, 1883. The cere- 
mom'es were elaborate. The principal speaker was Dr. Gregory, 
president of Lake Forest University. From the city a procession 
nearly a mile in length, led by the Gazette Journal band, made its 
way to the college camjjus. After the ceremonies the out-of-town 
guests Avere given an eight-mile drive in the country, and that evening 
a banquet was partaken of, at which covers were laid for 400 guests. 

The walls of JNIcCormick Hall went up rapidly, and it was ready 
for the fall term of 1884. The dedicatory address was delivered by 
Dr. Herrick Johnson. The total cost of this building was $14,703.00. 
Ringland Hall was erected the following year at a cost of $lG,709.o4. 


James B. Heartwell gave $10,000 for the erection of the .second build- 
ing, and citizens of Hastings gave the remainder. At about this time 
another Presbyterian college located at Bellevue, Neb., was seeking 
recognition by the synod, and it is likely that this furnished added 
zest to the zeal that hurried the second building to completion. 

The college campus contains twenty-nine acres. Twenty acres 
were donated by Joe Hanson, of Hastings, as an inducement for the 
erection of a college at its founding. Nine acres have subsequently 
been acquired by purchase. In 1884, the trustees purchased eighty 
acres lying Avest of the college grounds, this was platted as College 
Addition, and it was at this time that University Avenue was laid out. 
The jjroceeds from the sale of lots in College Addition were used for 
benefit of the college. 

One of the most trying periods in the history of the college was 
in 1888. On November 9, of that year, the executive committee can- 
vassed the situation for some hours, considering the accumulated debt, 
resulting from securing buildings and grounds, and meeting running 
expenses for six years without endowment. The debt amounted to 
about $37,000. Dr. Ganse, secretary of the board of aid for colleges, 
met with the trustees at this time, and said that he believed if the 
citizens of Hastings could lift the debt then accumulated, it would 
be possible afterwards to secm-e some endowment. The trustees at 
this time were seriously considering closing the doors of the college; 
instead, however, a strong effort was made to lift the debt. The 
widow of Cyrus H. IVIcCormick announced that she would contribute 
$1.),000 for endowment, if the debt were paid. This was eventually 
done, and the gift of JNIrs. INIcCormick became the foundation of the 

A vast amount of labor has been expended in securing endowment. 
Friends of education in the East helped liberally, and Hastings has 
contributed again and again. The endowment at this time amounts 
to $220,000. This amount was raised through several active cam- 
paigns. The first $.50,000 was completed in 1904; the next $.50,000 
in 1909; the next $100,000 in 1913; $20,000 was raised between 
1913 and 1916. 

Hastings College had only the two buildings, jMcCormick Hall 
and Ringland Hall, until 1907, Avhen Alexander Hall, a dormitory 
for young women, was completed at a cost of $16,011.68. The prin- 
cipal gift for this building was made by A. L. Clarke; it was named 
in honor of Samuel Alexander. 

Carnegie Science Hall and Library was completed in 1909 at a 
cost of $23,000. Andrew Carnegie contributed $20^000 for the erec- 


tion of this building, and it was named in liis honor. Shortlj^ after- 
M^ard, Johnson Gymnasium was built, and named in honor of P. L. 
Johnson, Avho was one of the jjrincipal workers in the raising of the 
endowment, and who for many years has been an active helper of the 
college in many ways. Tlie athletic grounds were called Hanson 
Field, in honor of the donor of the original twenty acres — Joe Hanson, 
who still lives in Hastings. 

All the buildings of the institution are heated from a central heat- 
ingvplant, which was constructed in 1912, the greater part of the labor 
being done by the students under the direction of P. L. Johnson. 

Since 1912, Hastings College has been classified as a Class A 
institution by tlie College Board of the Presbyterian Church. It is 
the only Presbyterian institution of that class for nearly three hundred 
miles in any direction, and the only one in this latitude from Eastern 
Iowa to the Pacific Coast. It is also a member of the North Central 

The library of the college contains 7.000 volumes; the laboratories 
Jiave been equipped at a cost of $9,000, and the museum has an equip- 
ment valued at about $15,000. Prof. Walter J. Kent is largely 
resjionsible for the development of the nuiseum. In 1908, Professor 
Kent secured the installation of the weather dej^artment. which has 
since been furnishing the community with daily forecasts. 

Tlie first graduate of Hastings College was J. H. H. Hewitt, 
who is now a practicing attorney at Alliance, Neb. Mr. Hewitt was 
the sole member of the class of 1887. In all, 183 have been graduated 
by the institution. The class of 1916 immbered eighteen, which was 
the largest class to be graduated by the college. The faculty and 
assistants number twenty-three. 

In 1914, a chair fund was created to endow the chair of biblical 
instruction in memoriam of ]Mrs. C. L. Jones, of Hastings, who, in 
that year, lost her life through accident. iNIrs. Jones occupied the 
chair of biblical instruction at the time. The endowment, when com- 
pleted, will be $2.5,000, $18,000 of ^^•hich have been subscribed. 

Dr. W. F. Ringland, the first president of the college, served in 
that capacity from April 1, 1883, to his resignation in June, 189.5. 
Prof. W. N. Filson then acted as president until June, 1896, when 
Salem G. Pattison assumed the executive position, which he held 
until his resignation in the early part of 1900. Professor Filson was 
then elected j^resident and continued in ofl^ce until June, 1902, when 
he was succeeded by Rev. E. Van Dyke Wight. President Wight 
resigned in 1907- In that year. Dr. A. E. Tin-ner was elected jjiesi- 
dent and continued the work until his resignation, in Februarv. 1912. 


The office was then vacant until the meeting of the trustees, in June, 
1912, \\lien President R. D. Crone was elected. President Crone has 
occupied the chair from that time. 

Among the early workers for Hastings College was Rev. Nahum 
Gould, at whose home, in Kearney, the first meeting of the presbytery 
was held, and Hastings College was first discussed in an official meet- 
ing. Reverend Gould favored locating the institution at Kearney. 
A. L. Wigton, a charter member of the board of trustees, continued 
to be a friend of the college until his death, which took place in Omaha 
in recent years. His son. Dr. Harrison A. \Vigton, of Omaha, was 
gi'aduated from the institution in 1!)00. 

Samuel Alexander, the pioneer merchant of Hastings, was sec- 
retary and treasurer of the board of trustees for twenty j^ears. He 
died in Hastings on Easter Sunday, 1908. Robert Brown was a loyal 
supporter of the Cf)llege through the years of its adversity. He was 
a member of the board of trustees for nineteen years, and for many 
years prior to his death, ]\Iarch 20, 1905, was j^resident of the board. 
The Rev. David S. SchafF, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church from 1887 to 1891, and at j^resent professor of ecclesiastical 
history in ^Vestern Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh, is a life con- 
tributor to the college. He is the founder of the endowment for the 
Junior prize essay. 

The classes graduating from Hastings College have been as 
follows : 


J. H. H. Hewitt. 


JNIrs. Edith Haynes ]Maunder, ]Mrs. Alice Nowlan Clouser, Robert 
N. Powers, ]Mrs. Alice Yocum Bondessen, JNIrs. Carrie Kimball, and 
Francis I. Cunningham. 


Henrv R. Corbett, INIary Crissman, D. W. ISIontgomerv, Elizabeth 
M. Stine". 


D. C. ]Montgomery, Mrs. Eva Frankenburger Fresher, Ira INIc- 
Conaughv, and ]Mrs. Maud Wotring-Ravmond. 



Frederick Goble, ^Nlaud H. Jorgenson, JNIrs. Emma Nowlan Filson 
and Ida I. JNIyers. 


Robert E. Moritz, Mrs. Kathleen Hartigan Goble, Janet L. Car- 
penter, Charles C. Caton, and jNIrs. Lida Powell Hoeppner. 

]Mrs. Jennie Stuckey Barrett, Royal B. Stuckey, Alma Chapman, 
Mrs. Rosanna Stine Clawson, Clyde B. Aitchison, Hallie Hood, 
George Norlin. 


jMrs. Laiu'a Baily Brown, Harriet Mj^ers, Mrs. Bertha Green 
Connells, William L. Little, Harry B. Allen, Etta Caton, Grace 


]Mrs. Lillian Brown Steele, INIrs. INIartha Cunningham Brown, 
Mrs. Trangueline Andrews Taylor, and JMrs. Lettie Shepherd 

Robert A. Patterson, Charles A. Arnold. William O. Bunce. 

J. Edgar Jones, William E. Kunz, Alfred E. Barrows. 

Wilham H. Chapman, and Benjamin L. Brittin. 


Ernest M. Bronillette, James B. Brown, Edward R. Bushnell, 
Clarence INI. Cook, Urdell ]Montgoniery, Richard D. Moritz, Charles 
Stein, and Wilson F. Stichter. 



Joseph Eaily, Margaret E. Haughawout, Mrs. Julia Heartwell 
Payne, Mrs. JNIargaret Jones Smith, David J. Lewis, R. JNIelvin 
Smith, JNIrs. M. Aberdeen Webber Ketelle, Roy A. White, Harrison 
A. Wigton, and John Brown. 


Mrs. Edna Ball Davis, Allen Carpenter, Chris Christensen, Henry 
S. G. Hiu'lburt, George U. Ingalsbe, ]Mrs. Julia Jones Osborne, 
Hugh T. INIitciielmore, Thomas C. Osborne, Annie L. Richards- 
Letson, Gertrude Weingart, and Grace Ingalsbe. 


Grace A. Boyd, JMrs. Anna Halberg- Anderson, and Rev. Henry 
C. Millard. 


]Mrs. Esther Alexander Young, William H. Cassell. Mrs. Goldie 
Edgerton Ferguson, INIrs. Aileen Kress IMax, Cecil Phillips, Charles 
P. Russell. 


Bernard J. Brinkema and John Skinner. 


Elmer T. Peters, Alexander J. Dunlap, William Roy Hull. 

Lawrence R. Wright. 


Marmaduke F. Forrester, Magdelena Gueck-EUer. Francis R. 
Striker, and Robert C. Theobald. ^ 

Margaret Agnes Brinkema Smith, Henry W. Funk, John Mohl- 
man, Allison Henyan Gaymon, Carl Everett Hull, Frank Charles 
Humphrey, INIrs. Jeanette Johnson Phillips, George F. JNIcDougall, 
and Mrs. Elizabetli Phillips Johnson. 



Helen Ingalls Turner, Adam Lichtenburg, Carlton O. Ranney, 
Byron G. Sager, Norvel H. Smith, Ellen A. Tompkins, and Herman 
C! Welker. 


Shepherd M. 'Dunlap, Flora F. Fisher, Mrs. Jennie Haner Schell- 
ing, ^Villard T. ]Mann. ]Mrs. Lois Owen Barbour, Harrison F. Rus- 
sell, Alice K. SajTe-Reynolds, Erma E. Spicer, INIinnie R. Spicer, 
Ruth A. Warner, and Raymond L. Welker. 


Howard O. Coale, George E. Crawford, ]\Iillard B. Scherich, 
Carl V. Theobald, and Frank E. Weyer. 


Anna Crawford, Gretchen Campbell, Marie Keal, Doris Roelse, 
Dorothy McCrearj^ Blanche Weeks, Vera Russell, and Archy D. 


Ruth ^Marguerite Capps-jMarvel. ]Mabelle Clare Carey-Weyer, 
INIrs. Frances Pearl Damron Brown, ^Valter Bedford Johnson, Wil- 
liam A. Julian, Susie Elizabeth Bailey-Moore, INIattie Antoinette 
Theobald, Benjamin Harrison Bracken, Theodore Ray Crawford, 
Anna Lavina Kelley, Jennie Belle Rozell, and Lillis June Tennant. 


Chris U. Bitner, Juha Holm, Leonard Doolittle Sims, Stephen 
INIorris Weyer, Louis E. Uden, Lorena Elizabeth INIcKeone, IMuriel 
Claire Shepperd, Charles H. Velte, and William F. Raney. 


Wan-en Davidson, Ethel Decker, Leland Hall, Robert H. Likeley, 
and Harold Roelse. 


Reuben G. Dunlaj), William Ward INIartin, Bernice ]\I. New- 
becker. Hazel E. Parks. Carl E. Pratt. Frank C. Prince, Edward 




G. Punke, Henrietta jM. Raney, George W. Rosenlof, Roland Scott, 
Eglantine Skillnian Velte, Perry Leon Byrani, Daniel J. Gretzinger, 
Helen O. Jones, Julia Philbrick, Howard G. Pratt, ^lildred Stein, 
and Daisy C. Tompkins. 


The Immaculate Conception Academj' is located in Hastings, on 
Fourteenth Street and Pine Avenue, and is conducted by the Sisters 
of Saint Dominic. The building is a magnificent structure of brick, 
standing upon a foundation ten feet high, built of Colorado red 
sandstone, from the quarries of Thomas E. Farrell. Mr. Farrell was 
lai'gely instrumental in the locating of the academy in Hastings, and 
donated the original ten acres of the campus. The ground dimensions 
of the building are 60 by 184 feet, and it is three stories high. The 
east wing is the monastery and is especially set apart for the sisters 
in charge. The west wing is the academy for the accommodation of 
students and the reception of visitors. The plans and specifications 
of the stnicture were prepared by C. C. Rittenhouse, a Hastings 
architect, after designs by Kiely of New York, and the contract for 
building was let to ]M. Trich of Hastings. 

The construction of the building was begun in the spring of 1889, 
and the buildings were opened January 6, 1890, and on February .5 
the first reception of novices was solenuiized by Bishop Heimessy. 
The school at that time was conducted by the Sisters of The Visitation, 
and the school was known as the Academy of The Visitation. The 
crop failures of the next few years made the existence of the new 
academy most precarious, and in 1896 it was forced to close its doors. 
The sisters retiu'ned to Chicago, and the property passed into the 
hands of creditors. 

From 1896 to 1908 the building was unoccupied save by wandering- 
domestic animals, and it was threatened with ruin. The creditors were 
Tuiable to dispose of the property. In 1908 through the efforts of 
Rev. William INIacDonald, of Hastings, interest was aroused in Hast- 
ings, and the debt of $8,000 was paid. The Commercial Club of 
Hastings raised $.5,000 of this amount, and the Catholics of the city 
raised $3,000. The property ^vas then given in fee simple to the 
Sisters of Saint Dominic. At the solicitation of the Right Reverend 
Bisho]) Bonacum and Rev. William MacDonald the Sisters of Saint 
Dominic of the Sienna Convent of Kentucky came to Hastings and 
reopened the school, September 13, 1909. Those in charge at that 
time were Sister ]Mary Louis, Superior; and Sisters Aloysius, Teresa, 


Margret, Loiiis Bertrand, JMaiy Pius, Anastacia, and Rose. The 
curriculum at the opening inckided ten grades, each successive year 
a grade was added, luitil twelve grades were offered. In 1911, the 
institution was accredited to tlie state university as a high school, and 
the following year the course offered was apjiroved by state board of 
education to grant the bachelor of education degree, normal school 
diploma and professional life certificate. JNIusic, art, dramatic art 
and domestic science are offered. The teachers at ^Jresent are Sisters 
Columba. Teresa, ISIargret. A^irginia, jNIatthew, Catherine, Frances, 
Alvarez, Emily. Rose Marie. Bernardine and Benignus. Nineteen 
were graduated from the institution in 1916. Fourteen of the class 
were granted elementary certificates; three, life certificates, and two 
degrees in music. 

The value of the Immaculate Conception Academy propert)^ is 
now estimated at $100,000. The caminis comprises thirty acres. Five 
thousand dollars were expended in finishing the building before it was 
reopened, and $2.5,000 in furnishing. A primary school was estab- 
lished by the Catholics in 1912. The old church, which stands on the 
west side of Colorado Avenue, between Seventh and Sixth streets, is 
used as a school l)uilding. and has an attendance of about seventy-five. 


The ]Mid-West Business School was founded in 1888 by J. H. 
Schoonover, who died several years ago. A Professor Wilson pui'- 
chased it from JNIr. Schoonover and operated the school for a number 
of years and then sold it to Professor H. S. ]VIiller, now of Wichita, 
Kansas. In 1903 G. E. Boggs purchased a half interest in the school 
from JNIr. INIiller who went to Wichita at that time. i\Ir. Boggs 
bought the remaining interest from Mr. Miller in 190.5 and con- 
ducted tlie school until 1910 when it was purchased by W. A. Julian 
and Charles W. Foot. In 1912 the school was bought by tlie ])resent 
proprietors. F. L. Groom and H. L. Renick. 

It was first called the Queen City Business College and afterwards 
the Hastings Business College. For many years the school was located 
in quarters over A. M. Clark's drug store, and it removed to its present 
quarters in the Madgett Block sliortly after the completion of that 
building in 1907. 



The constitution of 1866, written for the oncoming statehood 
of Nebraska, contains the first provision for courts and judges to 
succeed those disaj^pearing under territorial regime. This document 
was constnicted and adopted by a convention of able men of the 
territory, and on February 9, 1866 it was approved by the proper 
officers and submitted to a vote of tlie jjeople June 2d of the same 
year. The returns of the election showed a ratification of the instru- 
ment and on February 9, 1867 the Congress of the United States 
passed an act admitting the territory into the Union as a state, the 
terms of which act were accepted on the "2 1st day of the same month 
and year by tlie governor, president of the Senate and speaker of the 
House, wliereupon the proclamation of President Johnson was issued 
on the first day of INIarch. 1867. formally admitting Nebraska into 
tl]e Union. 

The first section of article four of the constitution of 1866 pro- 
vides that: "The judicial powers of the state shall be vested in a 
Supreme Court, District Courts, Probate Courts, Justices of the 
Peace, and such other inferior courts as the Legislature may from 
time to time establish. The Supreme Court shall consist of a chief 
justice and two associate justices, any two of whom shall constitute 
a quorum, and shall hold a term of the Supreme Court at the seat 
of government annually." 

The second section of the same article provides that the state shall 
be divided into three judicial districts and the several District 
Courts thereof shall be presided over by one of the supreme justices. 
Tliis practice obtained until the adoption of a new constitution for 
the state in 1875: hence, from the date of the organization of Adams 
County up to the time of the going into effect of the provisions of 
the new constitution, the District Court was presided over in turn by 
Oliver P. ^Nlason and Daniel Gantt, members of the supreme bench. 


Justice JNIason occiij)ied the trial bench of the county until 1873 and 
Justice Gantt until 1870, when this arrangement was superseded by 
the jirovisions of the new constitution. 

In the line of judicial officers no change was made in the constitu- 
tion of 187.5 from those in the prior constitution except the addition 
of police magistrates for towns and cities. 

Under ajjpropriate legislation based upon the constitution of 
1875 Adams County became a constituent part of the Fifth Judicial 
District, and at the election in 1876 William Gaslin of Buffalo 
County, then a part of the district, was chosen as the judge of the 
district and served as such continually, barring a short period when 
Adams County was attached to the Fourth District under Judge 
Morris, until he was succeeded by Fred B. Beale of Harlan County. 
INIr. Beale was elected in November, 1891, and held his first term of 
court in Adams County the following INIarch. 

In the meantime, the number of the district had been changed in 
1880 to the Eighth District and carried that number by legislative 
action until 189'2, when by another change in number and territory, 
it became the Tenth District and so rema-ns to this time, 191.3. 

^Villiam Gaslin, strictly speaking, the first district judge of the 
county, was of the sturdy New England stock and was, by educa- 
tion and exi)erience, well equipped for the serious and arduous 
service upon the bench in a border state. He was of an exception- 
ally strong personality, skillfid in the application of any or all the 
resources at his command. Probably his most valuable and lasting 
service upon the district bench was his courageous holding of a firm 
hand over the lawless elements of frontier life. At the close of his 
long service the affairs of the several counties comprising the district 
were as peaceable and orderly as in the New England whence he 
came, and at his death, coupled with deep regret there was a gener- 
ous expression of gratitude for the public service he had so well 

In 1891 Fred B. Beale was county attorney of Harlan County, 
Nebraska, and resided at Alma, looking after the pleas of the 
commonwealth under Judge Gaslin. At the hustings that fall 
]Mr. Beale became the candidate of the independent voters for the 
district bench and defeated Judge Gaslin at the ensuing election. 
Pie changed his residence to Hastings and resided there during his 
two terms upon the bench. He was a just man of many refinements, 
well suited to the improved conditions of society made possible by the 
rugged methods of his predecessor. It is no disparagement of either 
to remark that Beale could not have done the work of Gaslin's time; 


neither would Gaslin have maintained his prestige in Beak's time. 

Edwin L, Adams of Kearney County succeeded Judge Beale 
in 1900. He brought to the district bench all the good acquirements 
of both Gaslin and Beale. further embellished by native ability little 
short of the marvelous. He served t^o terms and retired. With 
better health, he was destined to rank still higher as a jurist and as 
a leader of his fellowmen. 

The Tenth Judicial District consists of six large and populous 
counties: Adams, Kearney, Phelps, Harlan, Franklin and ^^'^ebster. 
Hariy S. Dungan, of Hastings, was elected to succeed Edwin Ij. 
x\dams and in January, 1908, entered upon the duties of the presid- 
ing judge of the Tenth Judicial District. The growth in population, 
commerce, education and retinement, called for enhanced equipment 
of the incumbent of this important office. His excellent training 
at the fireside of his parents, and in the public schools, rounded out 
with a full course in college, supplemented bj^ years of reading under 
the tutorship of an able practitioner, linked with diligence eveiy 
day in the year, put JNIr. Dungan forward in the ranks of the legal 
profession clothed Avith the essential })reliminary attainments that 
pave the way for a successful and honorable career among men. He 
has brought to the bench in the discharge of its burdensome duties 
the skill of an Adams, the energy of a Gaslin and the refinement of 
a Beale, and is now reaching the close of his second term, carrying 
M'ith him the confidence of the district in his integrity and ability. 

The Probate or County Court is, in some resi^ects, the most 
important tribimal in the commonwealth, because of its original and 
exclusive jurisdiction at first hand over the settlement of the estates 
of decedents, and also as the conservator of the estates of minors, 
incompetents and spendthrifts, together Avith certain jiowers and 
duties touching the personal custody and welfare of juvenile delin- 
quents, and has lodged with it the sole power to issue marriage 
licenses and concurrent authority to perform the marriage ceremony. 
It also possesses a limited concurrent jurisdiction with the District 
Cf)urt in certain criminal and civil actions. 

Upon the organization of the coimty Titus Babcock of Juniata 
was chosen as the judge of this court, and by re-election continued to 
serve until succeeded by Benjamin F. Smith of the same town. INIr. 
Smith was followed by George F. Work of Hastings, who in turn 
was re])laced by James H. Fleming. jNIr. Fleming occupied the 
bench from January, 1884., to January, 1890. He was then suc- 
ceeded by William R. Burton, of Hastings, who held the office for 
four years and was followed by Jacob Baily of Hastings, who occu- 


pied tliis bench during the ensuing four years. Adna H. Bowen 
was elected next and assumed the duties of the office in January, 
1899, and retired at the close of his second term to be followed by 
Harry S. Dungan who presided over this court vintil the exj^iration 
of his third term in 1908. William F. Button suceeded Judge Dun- 
gan and was elected for four successive terms. In the summer of 
1915 Judge Button resigned, his resignation to take effect at the 
expiration of the first year of his third term, January 1, 1916. The 
county board of supervisors elected John Snider to fill the unexpired 
term of JNIr. Button. INIr. Snider was Judge Button's opjjonent in 
the campaign of 1914. 

The several townships have kept in office competent men as 
justices of the peace and the towns entitled thereto have been served 
with police judges or magistrates. 

In the territorial days, the pleas of the commonwealth were 
looked after by the attorney-general, but upon the adoption of state- 
hood the attorney-general was replaced in this duty by a prosecuting 
officer, legally designated as district attorney. The latter rode the 
circuit with the judge and had charge of the important prosecutions 
in all of the counties of the district. In addition to this office, the 
several county boards were empowered to employ an attorney to 
assist in the conduct of the civil affairs of the county. The office 
of district attorney was abolished in 1885 and the election of a county 
attorney provided for whose duties embrace both tlie civil and 
criminal affairs of the county. Prior to 1885 criminal proceedings 
could be begun only upon an indictment against the accused being 
returned by a grand jury; since that time, however, proceedings can 
be begun ujjon the filing of an information by the county attorney. 
The last grand jury called in Adams County was in INIay. 1915, 
when Judge Dungan ordered an investigation of the bribery charges 
made in court by W. P. Davis of Hastings against John T. Culavin 
of Omaha in the John O'Connor Avill case. Davis testified that Cula- 
^ in had offered him and his wife $2,000 each to witness a will in 
favor of Culavin. No indictments were returned by the grand jur^^ 

The United States District and Circuit Court for the district of 
Nebraska consists of eight divisions. The City of Hastings in 
Adams County is one of these divisions and one regular session of 
court is held each year in the well appointed and commodious court 
room in the Federal Building. This term begins on the first INIonday 
in JMai'ch and continues until the business of the term is disposed. 
Hon. T. C. Hunger, of Lincoln, is the present United States district 
judge and George F. AVork, Esq.. is tlie de])uty clerk. The territory 


comprising this branch of the Federal Court is identical with that of 
the Tenth Judicial District of the State Court with the addition of 
the Counties of Clay and Nuckolls. The Federal District Court of 
Nebraska is entitled under the law to two judges. The death of the 
Hon. William H. ]Munger on August 11, 1915, one of the incum- 
bents, left a vacancy on the bench. P>deral judges are appointed by 
the President of the United States and serve during good behavior 
but with the privilege of retiring after reaching the age of 
seventy years. 


Oliver P. JMason was appointed to the supreme bench in 1867 
and was elected in 1868. He served as chief justice from 1867 to 
1873 and died at Lincoln August 18, 1890. 

Daniel Gantt went upon the supreme bench January 16, 1873, 
and served until iNlay 29, 1878. He was chief justice from January 
3. 1878, to ]May 29th f)f that year upon which date he departed this 
life at Nebraska City. 

Judge William Gaslin died at Alma, in Harlan County, June 14. 
1910, and by his dying request his funeral oration was delivered by 
the Hon. James P. A. Black, of Hastings. 

.Judge Edwin L. Adams died in California, whither he had gone 
for the benefit of his health. 

.Judge Beale removed to Oklahoma to engage in professional and 
other business affairs. 

All the judges of the County Court are still living except Judge 
Eabcock and Judge Fleming. Of the incumbents of this office Bab- 
cock. Smith, Work, Burton and Bowen were veteran Union soldiers 
in tlie Civil war. and Judge Dungan was an officer in the Spanish- 
American war. 


"NVlien the first term of tlie district court in Adams County was 
o]jened ]May 6, 1873, in a schoolhouse in Jiuiiata, there were only 
four cases on the docket, and there were only seven attorneys in the 
county. At this term James Laird, Benjamin F. Smith, Titus l^ab- 
cock. Harrison H. Blodgett, Guvera ^I. Blodgett and John ]M. 
Al)l)ott were admitted to ])ractice at the Nebraska bar. Judge IDaniel 
Gantt presided at this term. James Laird, C. J. Dilworth and John 
D. Hays were appointed the committee to examine the applications 
foi- admission to the bar. 


Benjamin F. Smith is the only member of the original bar still 
residing in Adams Comity. His home is in Juniata. Adna H. Bowen 
continued to practice Jaw in the county until shortly after completing 
a term of office as county judge, in 1901, when he removed to his 
IH'esent location, Fayette, Idaho. That ]Mr. Bowen's capabilities were 
versatile may be inferred from the fact that he was a physician as well 
as an attorney, and upon his arrival in the county he practiced medicine 
to some extent. Mr. Bowen was the attending physician at the first 
accouchement in Adams County. He was also the first superintendent 
of schools and served in that capacity for two terms. The first case 
to be tried in the district court was the case brought by JNIr. Bowen 
for himself against the Challenge Windmill Company. He was one 
of the JMichigan colony that settled at Juniata in 1871. 

It is generally conceded that James Laird, also from ^Michigan, 
though he was born at Fowlerville, N. Y., June 20, 1849, was 
the most distinguished member that ever graced the Adams County 
bar. This is largely due to the fact that ]Mr. Laird was eminently 
successful in jjublic life as well as a keen and able lawyer. After the 
apportionment based upon the census of 1880, when Nebraska was 
divided into three districts, JNIr. Laird was elected by the republicans 
as the member to Congress of the then Second District. He was a 
member of the Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth. Fiftieth, and Fifty-first 
congresses, his majority being increased with each election. He was 
an active member of the committees on military affairs and on pen- 
sions. In his efforts in behalf of the old soldiers he was tireless. One 
of his most notable contests in Congress was in repudiation of the 
charge that a great majority of the entries of the public lands were 
fraudulent, and that the West was mostly made up of land thieves 
and ])erjurers. 

Although Laird was only twelve years old when the Civil war 
broke out, by virtue of a good bodily growth he succeeded in enlisting 
for service in Company K, Sixteenth Regiment, INIichigan Infantry, 
and though but a lad through the term of the war he was promoted 
to file positions of sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, captain 
and brevet major. He received four gunshot wounds and one saber 
cut, and was imprisoned in Libby prison for six weeks. Laird fought 
at Hanover Court House, Gaines' Mills, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, and in the struggles about Richmond. The captain of Laird's 
regiment wrote General ^Nlanderson of the lad's conduct at a critical 
moment at Dabney's INIills, when the enemy had turned the Federal 

"Under a galling fire. Laird rode along the line encouraging the 


Avavering and cursing tlie cowardly. His long hair fluttering and 
eye lit with enthusiasm, he appeared the personification of war's 
fiery madness. The enthusiasm of the boy awoke a steady deter- 
mination in the men. The impending stampede stopped, and under 
his inspiring leadership the regiment took a new position with 
unbroken ranks." 

]\Ir. Laird came to Juniata in 1871. and prior to his election to 
Congress took a leading part in the county's affairs. He was a 
strong i^artisan for Jimiata in the county seat fight, but after the 
affair was settled he announced shortly afterward in a political meet- 
ing held in Liberal Hall that though he was disappointed, he was 
sure that the county seat had passed into good hands and that, there- 
fore, he would change his residence to Hastings. Thereafter he was 
second to none in loyalty to the new county seat. 

The legal and oratorical abilities of INIr. Laii'd were never dis- 
played to better advantage than during the thirty days occupied by 
the Olive trial. JNIr. Laird Avas one of the ])rincipal attorneys for the 
defense, and his address to the jury at that time is probably the 
climax of court oratory in Adams County. 

]Mr. Laird was never married, and after his death. General INIan- 
derson, addressing Congress, said: "To me there is something pitiful 
in the loneliness of the last few years of his short life. He had no 
near relative living at the time of his death. He was the last of his 
race. His father, the strong preacher, died in his youth. His two 
brothers were killed on the field of honor, near his side, in the earlj' 
days of the war. His younger brother died of a distressing accident 
some years ago." Until her death, his mother had made her home 
Avith Mr. Laird. 

While he was elected to the Fifty-first Congress, JNIr. Laird did not 
actively particijiate in its Avorkings. He had made a very strenuous 
campaign the j^receding November, and a fcAv days before the election 
he Avas suddenly prostrated. He rallied sufficiently to return to 
^Vashington folloAving his election, but the rally Avas only temjjorary. 
On the morning of August 7, 1889, ]Mr. Laird died at his home in 
Hastings, at 123.5 West Second Street. A number of years later, 
Avitli fitting ceremony, his resting place in ParkvicAv Cemetery Avas 
marked Avith a giant Colorado boulder and a cannon that had seen 
service in the Civil war. 

R. A. Batty was a notable member of the Adams County bar. 
Lie practiced laAV in Hastings continuously from his arrival in June, 
1873. to Avithin about a year of his death in June, 1911. INIr. Batty 
Avas Avidelv read outside of the laAv and Avas a keen thinker and 


observer, brusque of manner, but much beloved by many intimate 
friends. In jiolitics he was a democrat and in 1878 was elected to the 
lower house of the State Legislature. The question of prohibition 
was before the Legislature that session and it had been understood 
that Mr. Batty would support a prohibitory measure. He, however, 
did not do so, and the incident probably had something to do with 
keejjing him more out of political life than otherwise Avould have been 
the case. In 1883 he was defeated in the race for district judge by 
Judge INIorris. He subse(juently took part in city campaigns against 
licensing saloons and at the time of his death was a strong supporter 
of the "drys." 

]Mr. Batty had pronounced independent views in religion and it 
was largely through his influence in the early '70s there was organized 
the Free Religious Church Society. Other members were John N. 
Lyman, George W. ]Mowry, E. Steinau, A. D. Yocum and ]M. K. 
Lewis. In 1878 the society erected Liberal Hall, which still stands 
on the southeast corner of Third Street and St. Joseph Avenue. For 
a number of years the free religious thinkers of the community met 
in the hall and from time to time lecturers on jjhilosophical and 
kindred subjects were listened to in the hall. The building has had 
a varied career, having been used as a gymnasium, public school, 
theater, church, and now as a vulcanizing and bicycle repair shop. 

"Honest Bob Batty" was a sobriquet often used by his friends. 
"He was a formidable opponent in a case," said a prominent member 
of the Adams County bar. "^Vhen he was thoroughly aroused, which 
happened every year oi- tAvo, we had to get out from under." jNIr. 
Batty was variously associated as follows: Batty, Abbott & Dow; 
Batty & Ragan; Batty & Casto; Batty. Casto & Dungan. and Batty, 
Dungan & Burton. 

Caleb J. Dilworth was a prominent member of the Nebraska bar, 
beginning his practice in Lincoln in 1870. He came to Nebraska 
from I^ewiston. 111. In 1874 he was elected district attorney for the 
Second Nebraska District, which then embraced the two tiers of coun- 
ties from the IMissouri River to the Colorado line. He served two 
terms as district attorney, and in 1878 was elected attorney-general 
of the State of Nebraska and filled that office for two terms. 

In 1883 he came to Hastings and formed a law partnership with 
Benjamin F. Smith and his son, William A. Dilworth. who had been 
admitted to the bar at Sidney in 1880. From Hastings JNIr. Dil- 
worth removed to Omaha, Avhere he died a number of years ago. Will 
Dilworth was a member of the first Nebraska State Railway Commis- 
sion, and subsequently was for several years a member of the legal 


department of the Burlington Railroad. He is now in private prac- 
tice in Holdrege. 

John A. Casto was for many years a prominent attorney of 
Hastings, beginning his practice in 1883 and continuing his residence 
in the city until his death in the middle '90s. JNIr. Casto was a grad- 
uate of Union Law College. He was a classmate and roonmiate of 
William Jennings Bryan. In 1884 Mr. Casto was joined in Hastings 
by a college classmate, INIorris Cliggitt, and they were law partners 
until 1887, when ]\Ir. Cliggitt left Hastings and Mr. Casto formed 
a partnership with R. A. Batty. 

In the spring of 1877 Bedford Brown was graduated from the 
Columbian University Law School at Washington D. C, and shortly 
afterAvards came to Hastings. He was in the office of Dilworth, 
Smith & Dilworth for about three months and then formed a partner- 
ship with W. L. jNIarshall, who came to Hastings from Leadville, 
Colo. The partnership formed in April, 1888, continued until Janu- 
ary 2.5, 1890, when ^Mr. Marshall left Hastings. Mr. Brown was 
married to ^liss Laura Baily, daughter of Judge Jacob Baily of 
Hastings, and in the later '90s removed to Spokane, Wash., where he 
is now practicing his profession. 

James H. Fleming was admitted to the bar at Springfield, 111., 
in 1876, and in 1878 came to Hastings and entered upon the practice 
of his profession. ]Mr. Fleming was a republican and manifested con- 
siderable interest in politics. In 1883 he was elected county judge 
of Adams County and was elected to the office three times. For the 
last several years of his life he did not engage in active practice. He 
died in Hastings in the simimer of 1911. 

Chris Hoeppner began practicing law in Hastings in 1886, coming 
from Fremont County, Iowa. In 1890 he was elected county attor- 
ney. In 1887 ^Ir. Hoe])pner formed a law partnership with his 
brother, Ernest Hoeppner, who came to Hastings that year. He was 
for a time associated with A. H. Bowen. iNIr. Hoeppner left Hast- 
ings in 1893, going first to Omaha and subsequently to St. Louis. He 
is now practicing his profession in Los Angeles. 

Jacob Baily began practicing law in Hastings in 1886, coming 
from Richardson County. He was a republican and took an active 
interest in politics. He was elected county judge in 1893 and served 
in tliat capacity for two terms. ]Mr. Baily formed a law partnership 
M'ith A. ]M. Cunningham, who came to Hastings the same year as 
jNlr. Baily. Judge Baily removed with his family to Spokane, Wash., 
in 190.J, where he still resides. 

J. B. Cessna was a well-known member of the Adams Countv 


bar from 1885 to the early years of the present century. He was 
a(hiiitted to the bar at Bedford, Pa. JNlr. Cessna was a rei^ubhcan and 
frequently took the stump for his party. He was much interested 
and one of the chief jjromoters of the Nebraska & Gulf Railroad, 
Avhich contemplated building a railroad from a point in Dakota to 
the Gulf of Mexico. INIr. Cessna was an impulsive gentleman with 
a quite distinct personality. He contributed some articles to the North 
American Review. Since leaving Hastings his home has been at 
Erie, Pa. 

I^ucius Junius Capps was a member of the Adams County bar 
^^ho in many ways displayed unusual strength. Speaking of him. 
years after his death, an Adams County attorney said: "In his cases 
jNIr. Capps ^as quick to recognize the strong positions, and to dis- 
lodge him was practically impossible. He was perhaps the most 
tenacious, in this regard, of any member of the bar." 

]Mr. Capps was a graduate of Ann Arbor, graduating with the 
class of 187.5. Following his graduation he practiced in Paris, 111., 
until he came to Hastings, in December, 1878. For a time he was 
associated with W. P. ]McCreary. Mr. CapjJs took a keen interest in 
politics, and especially in the campaign of 1896 he did a good deal 
of speaking for the republicans. For some time prior to his death, 
which took place March 21, 1907, he Mas a United States deputy 
internal revenue collector. 

Angus B. IMcDonald was a graduate of the Yale Law School and 
had practiced for many j'ears in New York State before coming to 
Hastings in 1885. He Avas a quiet, studious attorney and had served 
in the constitutional convention of New York in 1867. He was an 
attorney for fifteen years in Geneva, N. Y., and thirteen years in 
Rochester. In Hastings he was the attorney for the Nebraska Loan &: 
Trust Company, but did not live in Hastings for long. 

Charles H. Tanner was the first county attorney of Adams Comity 
to be elected by a general vote in Adams County. This was in 1886, 
and he served one term. Previously the county attorney had been 
employed by the commissioners as the occasion required. ]Mr. Tanner 
is recalled as a man of versatility and a gift of ready speech, with 
erratic habits. His greatest streng-th was in conducting the defense 
and addressing the jury. He was born in New York State in 1853, 
and was admitted to the bar in Lancaster County in 1877. He settled 
in Hastings in 1879 and continued to practice there until the latter 
years of the 90's. He died at Eustis, Neb., about 1901. He had 
practiced his profession in Eustis since leaving Hastings. 

J. INI. Hester came to Hastings from New Albany, Ind., about 


the latter part of 1884. He purchased a farm a short distance south 
of the city and for a time lived upon it, at the same time practicing 
law in town. He was associated with W. P. McCreary for a time, 
but was in Hastings only a few years. An incident occurred in the 
life of Judge Hester Avhich lends itself to romance more readily than 
the usual tenor of the legal life affords. Some years before coming 
to Hastings, JNIr. Hester defended a woman under indictment for 
murder in the court at New Albany, Ind. INIrs. JNIelissa Morton was 
the woman. Mrs. Morton related that she shot a young man upon 
the doorstep of her home because he had persisted in forcing his atten- 
tions vii3on her. Some time after her acquittal her husband died, and 
subsequently she was married to the attorney who defended her case. 
Judge Hester, and whom she then met for the first time. 

Frank D. Taggart, a graduate of Wooster University, was 
admitted to the bar in Adams County in December, 1881. He was 
the founder of the Hastings Independent, out of which the Hastings 
Daily Tribune eventually developed. 

Charles D. Taylor was an attorney who came to Hastings from 
Marshalltown, Iowa, in 1885. After a short time he removed to Wash- 
ington State, where he died about twelve years ago. I. E. Pierce is 
another attorney who practiced in Adams Coimty only a short time, 
coming to Hastings in 1887. George I^ynn came also in 1887. He 
was an ardent populist and contributed to the local press on political 
subjects. A. D. Yocvim was admitted to the bar in Hastings in 1878, 
and William S. ]McKinney in September, 1883, when he came from 
Kalamazoo, JNIich., and near which place he was killed in an automo- 
bile accident in 1914. 

T. D. Scofield was active in the practice of his profession in the 
early days of the coimty. He was frequently employed as county 
attorney by the early commissioners. He was one of the prosecutors 
in tlie Olive trial. From Hastings he Avent West. A. T. Ash was 
another of the well-known early Adams County lawyers. INIr. Ash 
died in Hastings in the early '80s. 

.lohn Finley practiced law in Adams County for about ten years, 
coming about 1880. Subsequently INIr. Finley has attained promi- 
nence in the politics of Western Kansas. 

Elmer E. Ferris is remembered as one of the distinguished mem- 
bers of the Adams Coimty bar. JNIr. Ferris was born in Wisconsin 
and was graduated from the Chicago University and the Chicago 
Union Law College. He came to Hastings and began practicing law 
in 1888. and two years later became the junior member of the firm 
of Tibbets, Morev & Ferris. The firm of Tibbets & IMorev was estab- 


lished in April, 188G. After about ten years with the law tirni. 
Mr., Ferris gave up the law and became a minister, removing his resi- 
dence east. He has since become a novelist and short story writer, 
contributing to the best fiction magazines. 

Obadiah Hewitt was a much respected member of the Adams 
County bar for a period of about a dozen years centering around 1889, 
in which year he ran for county judge on an independent ticket. 
jMr. Hewitt's son, who is now an attorney at Alliance, Neb., was the 
first student graduated from Hastings College. ]\Ir. Hewitt served 
as city attorney of Hastings for a time. He formed a law jjartner- 
shiji with F. P. Olmstead. JMr. Hewitt was an independent candidate 
for county judge in 1889, though normally a republican in politics. 

John C. Stevens attained notalile distinction in the Adams County 
bar through his success in influencing juries. He enjoyed a remark- 
ably wide ac(|uaintance throughout Adams County and easily won 
the confidence of those he met. He took an active interest in politics 
and was a candidate for county judge vipon the democratic ticket. 
Before studying law, JMr. Stevens taught school in Blaine Township 
and took up the study of law in the ofl^ce of Capps & JMcCreary. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1887 and continued in active practice 
until his death, January 23, 1914. In December, 1913, he formed a 
law partnership with John A. Lawler. Walter JM. Crow, the present 
deputy county attorney,, studied law in the office of John Ste^'ens. 
JMr. Stevens was born in Okanee, 111. 

As mentioned before, Benjamin F. Smith has been longer in the 
county than any other member of the bar. Judge W. R. Burton 
began practicing in Hastings in 1884. George W. Tibbets and 
Charles F. JMorey have been members of the Adams County bar since 
1886, and JM. A. Hartigan since 1888, coming from Plattsmouth. 
John JM. Ragan first came to Hastings in 1874, at that time remaining 
for only a short time. JMr. Ragan returned in 1878, and in October 
of that year formed a partnership with R. A. Batty, buying the 
interest of J. F. Nelson, who went to Kansas. JMr. Ragan has served 
as city attorney and was six years on the Nebraska Supreme Bench. 

F. P. Olmstead was admitted to the bar in Adams County in 1888. 
He was elected to the State Legislature in 1884 and in 1888. and intro- 
duced the bill providing for the locating of the State Hospital for 
the Insane at Hastings. W. P. JMcCreary has practiced law in Hast- 
ings since 1884. He was three times elected county attorney, and for 
several years was prominently identified with politics, with the repub- 
licans. With the exception of those mentioned, the Adams County 
bar is lai'gely made up of younger men who have become members 


within the last ten years. The bar is now composed of James E. 
Addie, J. P. A. Black, A. T. Bratton, W. R. Burton, W. F. Button, 
P. E. Boslauoji, W. H. Baugh, C. E. Bruckman, J. J. Buchanan, 
Karl D. Beghtol, W. ]M. Crow, James Crowley, R. R. Damerell, 
E. E. Danly, II. S. Dungan, Phillip H. Fuller, H. F. Favinger. Don 
C. Fonts, Joseph A. Gardiner, C. E. Higinbotham, C. K. Hart, 
Ernest Hoeppner, JNI. A. Hartigan, J. W. James, F. J. Johnson, 
W. H. Lanning, John A. Lawler, Charles F. IMorey, W. P. 
INIcCreary, F. P. Olmstead, John INI. Ragan, B. F. Smith, John 
Snider, George W. Tibbets, Raymond Tibbets, George F. Work and 
J. E. Willits. The present law firms are IMcCreary & Danly: Tib- 
bets, INIorey, Fuller & Tibbets; P'outs & Crow; Stiner & Boslaugh, 
and Bruckman & Johnson. 

John ^I. Abbott opened the first law office in Hastings June 1, 
1873. For several years Mr. Abbott was the law partner of R. A. 
Batty. When the Adams County bar was formed there was only 
one term of the District Court a year, and the first year there were 
only foiu" cases on the docket. Now there are forty resident attorney's, 
four terms of court a year, with the cases each term reaching well 
toward two hundred. 


In point of intense dramatic interest no case brought to trial in 
Adams County rivals that of I. P. Olive who with eight others was 
arraigned before Judge William Gaslin in the District Court at 
Hastings, in the sj^ring of 1879. These men were charged with the 
murder of Luther JNIitchell and Ami W. Kitchem in Custer County, 
December 10, 1878. The interest was not alone in the outcome of the 
trial itself but it was surrounded with an atmosphere that was tense 
and charged with suspense. 

All Western Nebraska was rife %\'ith tales depicting the desperate 
character of the men on trial. The brutality with which it was under- 
stood that the murder had been committed caused the central 
characters to be regarded with a sense of disconcerting awe. ]\Iore- 
over, tliere were rumors that in the wilds of the unorganized West 
the friends of the men charged, lawless desperadoes like themselves, 
wei-e organizing an armed band to rusli the jail, overpower the offi- 
ce]"s of the law, and rescue the prisoners. This feature alone lent 
an excitement to the times which it is difficult at this period to realize. 
At any moment of the day or night the peaceful citizens more than 
half expected to hear the thunder of the hoofs of the horses of the 
invaders, their ringing shouts of challenge and the sharp cracks of 
t!ie Winchesters heralding the fray. 

To guard against this eventuality soldiei's were liin-riedly sum- 
moned from Fort Omaha to ward off the gang. Three companies 
arrived, coming in a special train over the Burlington that made the 
trijD from Omaha in three hours. The soldiers brought with them 
to the citizens a sense of greater secvn'ity but the excitement was not 
abated one whit; indeed, the presence of the military added zest to the 
pros])ect. A patrol guarded the jail, a small wooden affair stand- 
ing on the southwest corner of the present Court House Square, and 
M'lien the prisoners were taken to and from the court room they were 
escorted by a military guard. 



The case was tried in Liberal Hall, which still stands on the 
corner of St. Joseph Avenue and Third Street. When marching 
to or from the court the prisoners were marched handcuffed, tv,-o 
and two. Spectators lined the way, many of them women, and 
remarked upon the appearance and character of the men being tried. 
At intervals the bugle of the military might be heard all over the 
town as the giiard was changed, and its clear tones was a constant 
reminder of the unusual event that was transpiring. 

The trial lasted nearly four weeks and the court room was 
crowded, very many of them being women. One interested specta- 
tor was a small boy, who sold peanuts to the hungrj^ visitors to the 
coin-t. He was stationed near the entrance in a little room on the 
north side of the building, and while he plied his business with energy 
and much satisfaction with the generous patronage, he enjoyed the 
dime novel features of the case to the utmost and kept his eyes upon 
the ])risoners and the lawyers whenever the stress of business per- 
mitted. Then and there he resolved to become a lawyer when he 
should become a man. He never changed liis mind and in due time 
came to preside as judge over the very same court in which his 
ambition was first awakened. The boy is now Judge Harrj' S. 
Dungan, judge of the Tenth Judicial District. 

JNIrs. Olive, wife of the chief prisoner, was in constant attendance 
at the trial. She wore throughout a look of anxiety but admitted 
no appearance of lack of confidence that her husband would be 
cleared. With JNIrs. Olive was their son, a lad of about ten, who was 
envied by the small boys of the town because of the inexhaustible 
supply of marbles which he seemed to have at all times. 

Olive and those brought with him here for trial as well as the 
miu-dered men, INIitchell and Kitchem, were cattle men operating 
their business in the western jjart of Nebraska, chiefly in Custer 
County. Custer County at that time was not organized for judicial 
purposes, nor had it been joined to any organized territory for that 
purpose and that is the reason that the case was tried in Adams 
County, which at that time was a part of the Fifth Judicial District. 

Late in the autumn of 1878 a warrant had been issued for the 
arrest of jNIitchell and Kitchem on the charge of cattle stealing and 
on November •27th of that year a party of men set out to arrest them. 
They proceeded to the house of JNIitchell who i-esided on Clear Creek 
and here they found the two men. JNIitchell and Kitchem resisted 
with a brisk gunfire which is said to have been in return of volleys 
fired at them by the deputies. The two men declared that thev were 


willing to be arrested and tried by the proper authorities but they 
feared the cowboys of Custer County. 

After the exchange of a number of shots, Kitcheni was wounded 
in the arm. Immediately following his wounding he shot and killed 
a deputy by the name of Stephens. In the confusion that followed 
the killing of Stephens, INIitchell and Kitchem escaped. 

The deputy Stephens, it transj^ired, was a brother of I. P. Olive, 
the rich cattleman of the South Loup country. The name, 
"Stei^hens," was an alias. Stephens is described as a rough character 
with proclivities of a desperado. It is also reasonably certain that 
there was a woman in the case, for it is known that both Kitchem 
and Stephens had been paying court to a handsome widow and resi- 
dents of that country declared that Stephens as well as Olive had been 
active in securing the warrant for the arrest of JNIitchell and Kit- 
chem in order to dispose of the latter as a rival for the affection of 
the widow. 

At all events Olive offered a reward of $1,000 for the capture, 
dead or alive, of both INIitchell and Kitchem. They were soon caj)- 
tured and arrested and several sheriffs and dejjuties of the adjoining 
counties received their proportions of the reward offered by Olive. 

While the two men were being taken from Kearney County to 
Custer County for their preliminary examination, in the custody of 
Sheriff Gillan of Keith County, Phil Dufrand of Custer County 
and others, the party was set upon by a band of armed men and 
the prisoners were taken away. 

The following afternoon the bodies of INIitchell and Kitchem 
were found in a canyon near the south line of Custer County, north 
of the present Town of Lexington, but in Custer County. The body 
of Kitchem was still hanging to the limb of a tree by a rope which 
had been fastened about his neck. The rope with which Mitchell had 
been hung to the same limb had broken and the man's body lay in 
ashes still smouldering at the foot of the tree. The body, however, 
was slightly supported by the left arm the wrist of which was hand- 
cuffed to the right wrist of Kitchem as he hung from the limb. 

In the indictments brought against Olive and his party it was 
charged that the two men had been shot as well as hung, several shots 
having been fii-ed into each body, and that their clothes had been 
saturated with oil and set on fire. The testimony of the prosecution 
sought to establish that the men had been burned alive after being 
tortured with knives. 

The state attorney general. Gen. C. J. Dilworth, set about at 
once to gather information that would lead to the ending of these 


deetls of violence which were terrorizing the homesteaders of western 
Nebraska and in a short time was able to inform the authorities at 
Kearney tliat everything was ready for the making of arrests. A num- 
ber of deputies were sworn in at Kearney and the party proceeded to 
Plum Creek, now Lexington, where the arrests were made. The cap- 
ture was arranged so that the men were taken unawares and singly. 
1. 1'. Olive, who had declared that there were not enough inhabitants 
in the state to capture him, was taken without trouble in the post- 
office. A brother of the murdered Kitchem was one of the deputies 
that arrested Olive, and it was he that placed the handcuffs upon his 
^vrist. When Olive was introduced to him, the former merely smiled 
and remarked, "That's all right, boys." 

The State of Nebraska appropriated $10,000 for the pi-osecution 
of tlie case and retained John ]M. Thurston of Omaha and others to 
assist General Dilvvorth. 

At a special term of the court for the Fifth Judicial District held 
at Hastings in February, 1879, Judge Gaslin designated Adams 
County as the county where the crime should be investigated by the 
gi-and jury and tried if an indictment should be found. On Febru- 
ary 27th District Attorney T. D. Scofield filed three indictments 
charging I. P. Olive, William H. Green, John Baldwin, Fredrick 
Fisher, Bion Brown, Barney J. Gillan, Pedro Dominicus, Dennis 
Gartrell and an unnamed man with murder in the first degree in the 
killing of ^Mitchell and Kitchem. 

The defendants retained as their attorneys James Laird of 
Hastings, Beach I. Hinman of North Platte and General Connor of 
Kearney; associated with these in the defense were Attorneys 
Neville, Hamen and Warrington. 

The case was set for trial April 1, 1879, and the defense began a 
stubborn resistance which was kept up unceasingly throughout the 
month that the trial lasted. Motions to quash the indictment and 
asking for change of venue were overruled by the court in rapid 
succession. In sujjport of the motion asking for change of venue 
hundreds of affidavits were signed by citizens of Adams and other 
counties declaring that on account of the stories that had been printed 
by the newsjiapers throughout western Nebraska concerning the 
defendants and the rumors that were constantly repeated it would be 
imi)ossible to find an open minded jury in Adams County, and the 
same was declared of Buffalo, Furnas, Custer and other counties. 

The motion to quash was on the ground the grand jury had not 
l)een called in the manner required by law and that the grand jury 
had been called from one county while the alleged crime had been 


coiiiinitted in another. It was also urged that the grand jury had 
been called at a special term of the court and it was claimed that that 
procedure was illegal; also that Custer County was properly organ- 
ized but did not belong to the Fifth Judicial District and that 
therefore Judge Gaslin did not have jurisdiction to try the case. 

All the objections of the defense having been overruled on April 
7th all the defendants except Fredrick Fisher and I. P. Olive 
demanded separate trials. This the court granted and the case pro- 
ceeded to trial. The brilliance of James Laird was never more in 
evidence than at this trial, though his especial duty seemed to be to 
arouse the anger and disturb the judicial serenity of the court, 
evidently for the purpose of endeavoring to lead Judge Gaslin to 
commit judicial errors. Laird's address to the jury was talked about 
for years and no doubt the reputation won at this trial was a factor 
in securing for him later the nomination and election to Congress. 

John M. Thurston, too, had his reputation to make at this time 
and from the time of the trial on he was known throughout the ^Vest 
as the silver tongued orator. In later years he became a senator of 
the United States and attained a high place in the national council 
of the republican party. 

It is probable that the attorneys decided to try Olive and Fisher 
together that the former might benefit from whatever sympathy the 
youth of the latter might win from the jurors. Fisher was scarcely 
twenty years old and very youthful in appearance. Olive and Fisher 
wei'e found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to the penitentiary. 

The case Avas appealed and the Supreme Court held that the 
indictment and trial in Adams County was an error and that the 
proceedings should have been brought in Custer County. Although 
a new trial was ordered the grand jury of Custer County took no 
action, and the prisoners, released on their own recognizance, did not 
face the charge a second time. Several years later Olive was fatally 
shot in a quarrel over a poker game in a town in Kansas. 

Sheriff Gillan and three other men implicated in allowing iSIit- 
cliell and Kitchem to be taken from them by the band that killed the 
two, were arrested and lodged in the Buffalo County jail. 

John W. Lyman was the foreman of the grand jury that indicted 
Olive and his friends. 

Because of fear of vengeance from the friends of Olive, it was 
difficult to find men willing to take the risk of sitting on the jury in 
this trial. The selecting of the twelve men was completed on April 
10th. The following comprised the jury: James Slote. W. ]M. West. 
A. J. INIillett, Thomas Carroll, Connor Knopf, C. O. Henry, A. R. 


Pierson, H. M. Palmer, J. C. Davis, H. L. Pratt and William Bailey. 

It was the influence of Thomas Carroll that saved Olive from 
being- found guilty of murder in the first degree. The strong resist- 
ance of Carroll to his fellow jurors resulted in the verdict of man- 

Diu'ing the trial. Bion Brown turned state's evidence and narrated 
the story of the crime in detail. Brown was released. 

The trial of Baldwin and Green was begam April 24, 1879, In 
this case Pedro Dominicus, as well as Bion Brown, testified for the 
state. The jury disagreed, however, and the men were taken to the 
Kearney Covnitj^ jail to await a second trial. There they succeeded 
in breaking jail and making their escape. 

Xext to Olive and Fisher of the men tried here the ]Mexican, 
Pedro Dominicius and the negro are best remembered. The JNIexican 
was a one-eyed man and peculiarly vicious in appearance. The negro 
insisted on singing in a loud voice whenever there was an opportunity, 
and it Avas his habit to clamber up to the high windows of the jail 
from where his strong voice in song could be heard for many blocks. 


The first murder proven to have been committed in Adams 
County was in February, 1879, when ^Villiam John ^NIcElvoy, alias 
John Brown, was convicted of the murder of Hem-y Stutzman at his 
home about foin- miles southwest of Hastings. McElvoy was a young 
man who usually made his home with a relative in Red Cloud. Dur- 
ing the year or two preceding the nmrder of Stutzman jMcElvoy had 
worked for a number of farmers in Adams County, and at the time 
of the murder was employed as a printer in the office of the Hastings 

On the evening of February 7th ]McElvoy left Hastings afoot, 
starting south. He was armed with a rifle and a revolver and said 
he was going to Red Cloud. 

The next morning Cameron Belliel, a neighbor, while passing the 
house of Stutzman noticed that the latter's nudes were gone and the 
atmosphere siu-rounding the jilace suggested to him that something 
was wrong. Belliel went up to the house and called Stutzman by 
name several times. He got no reply and now about convinced that 
there had been foul play he went to the home of Joseph Wolf and 
informed him of his suspicions. The two returned to the home of 
Stutzman and broke through the door. 

Thev found Stutzman dead. The body was still on the chair 


with the head bent over the table. Under the head of the dead man 
a tin pan had been placed to receive the blood which had flown from 
two wounds, one from a rifle bullet and the other from a revolver. 

The news of the murder spread rapidly and the people of the 
community gatliered in numbers to search for the slayer. A new 
snow lay ujjon the ground and the tracking of the mules was easy. 
The tracks led south and thither went the posse. Clark, a Burlington 
engineer, while on the way from Red Cloud had noticed a man 
traveling south with some mules. Upon reaching Hastings and 
hearing of the murder he concluded that the man he had seen was 
the murderer. Following the receipt of this new^s another group, 
Clark among them, left Hastings to join the jjosse. INIcElvoy was by 
this time generally suspected. 

About a mile south of the Blue River INIcElvoy Avas caught with 
tlie nmles in his possession. He made no resistance nor did he 
attempt to escape but maintained that he had killed Stutzman in 
self defense and unintentionally at that. He explained that seeing 
he had killed the man it occurred to him that he might just as well 
take the mules. The party with their prisoner reached Ayr a few 
minutes before the arrival of the northbound train upon which 
]\IcElvoy was brought to Hastings. 

Meanwhile the news of the captin-e of JNIcElvoy had been brought 
to town by those who had tin-ned back when he was first captured, 
and the recital of his story greatly incensed the populace. A 
great crowd gathered near the jail on the jn-esent Court House 
Square and lynching Avas freely talked of. Lynching, indeed, seemed 

That JMcElvoy was not hanged immediately upon his arrival in 
Hastings is probably due to the effort of the Rev. D. Schley Schaff 
Avho was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. From a buggy 
the minister addressed the angry crowd and besought them to allow 
the law to take its course and save the credit of Adams County. He 
succeeded in allaying the feeling for the time. Schaff, by tlie way 
was the son of Doctor SchafF, the Bible scholar of international repu- 
tation; he was also a relative of Admiral Schley. 

Later tliat evening, however, the populace assembled a second 
time and lynching was again imminent. By a ruse Sheriff ]Martin 
led the mob to believe that INIcElvoy was on the south side of the jail 
and wliile tliey sought to reacli him from that side the officer and his 
deputies got the prisoner out through a window on the north side. 
He was hurried to a waiting wagon and driven rapidly to the Burling- 
ton track and put aboard a west bound train at a point near the present 
roundhouse. He was taken to Kearny and lodged in jail. 


The grand jury soon indicted ]McEIvoy on two counts; first, mur- 
der in the first degree by shooting Stutzman with a rifle. The second 
count charged the same ofl^ense witli a pistol. 

Judge Gaslin immediately convened the court and McElvoy was 
airaigned. The case for the state was conducted by the district attor- 
ney, T. D. Scofield, who was assisted by A. H. Bowen, .John M. 
]{agan and A. T. Ash were retained by the defense. JNIcElvoy 
entered a plea of "Not Guilty." 

The following were the jurors in the case: A. J. Adams, R. H. 
\'anatta, C. A. Lane, E. W. Hall, T. L. Orton, M. L. Cook, J. W. 
Sheffield, \y. T. Pomeroy, J. H. Spencer, D. Bigelow, S. G. John- 
son and George Beatte. 

The defense maintained that INIcElvoy and Stutzman had quar- 
reled and that the latter had seized the former's rifle and that ]McE]\oy 
then seized the gun and that a struggle ensued during which the fatal 
shots were fired. The prosecution sought to show that the prisoner 
shot Stutzman when the latter returned to the house from outside and 
upbraided the young man whom he found ransacking his pockets. 
Stutzman was a bachelor and there was nobody in the house but the 

The trial lasted only one day and about 10 o'clock the following 
day tlie jury brought in a verdict of "Guilty" and Judge Gaslin 
sentenced the prisoner to hang INIay 29, 1879. Sentence was pro- 
nounced in a little less than eight days after the commission of the 

McElvoy. however, was not hanged. On appeal the Supei'ior 
Court remanded the case back for new trial. At the second trial he 
was allowed to plead guilty to murder in the second degree, and was 
sentenced to life imprisonment. Ten years later he was iiardoned by 
Governor Thayer. 

I. P. Olive and his friends were in the Hastings jail at the time 
that JNIcElvoy was confined there awaiting removal to the peniten- 
tiary. When Olive received his ten-j^ear sentence he fumed and 
raged angrily, declaring that he would rather be hanged than put in 
ten years in the penitentiary. This view did not appeal to INIcElvoy 
who stoutly maintained that after experiencing a death sentence and 
a life term sentence he was prepared to testify that the latter looked 
a good deal the better to a fellow. 


On the afternoon of February 22, 1892, Capt. A. D. Yocum. 
prominently identified with Hastings and the development of Adams 


Countj', having served on the board of county commissioners and as 
mayor of Hastings from April, 1876. to April, 1877, shot and killed 
Myron Van Fleet, also a resident of Hastings. The shooting took 
place in front of the cigar store located at 512 West Second Street. 
A revolver was the weapon used. The shooting resulted from the 
bad feeling aroused because of reports circulated by "Sir. Yan Fleet 
concerning INIr. Yocum's daughter, and which he declared were slan- 
derous. JefF Teenier was arrested with Captain Yocum as an accom- 
plice in the killing. The trial of Yocum was held in the District Coiu't 
in iNTarch. 1892. The jury returned a verdict of manslaughter on the 
24th of iNIarch. The case against Teenier was dismissed on the motion 
of the county attorney. The release of Yocum was procured and he 
did not serve any of his sentence. 

In the prosecution of Captain Yocum, County Attorney Chris 
Hoeppner. a brother of Ernest Hoeppner, was assisted by Batty, 
Casto & Dungan, C. H. Tanner and W. P. ^IcCreary. The defense 
was conducted by A. H. Bowen, JNI. A. Hartigan, C. J. Dilworth, 
Jesse B. Strode and J. G. Tate. In the dispatches of General Vodges, 
commander of the federal forces before Charlestown, S. C. while 
complimenting his staff officers. Corporal A. D. Yocum is mentioned 
as having disjilayed conspicuous bravery and efficiency in furnishing 
information of the enemy, for Avhicli he was promoted to adjutant of 
his regiment, the Sixty-second Ohio. From Hastings, Captain 
Yocum went West and took up land in a colony south of Yuma, on 
the Arizona side of the Colorado River. At 9 o'clock on a June 
morning, 1902, he committed suicide on the grave of his wife in 
Mountainview Cemetery at Pasadena, Cal. In a letter he left 
explaining his suicide he said: "Sixty years of relentless conflict 
with adversity have rendered me incapable of further usefulness in 
the world, mentally and physically." 


On the night of August 1, 1892, Delavan S. Cole was shot and 
killed in a little vacant building in the extreme southeastern portion 
of Hastings. IMr. Cole had come to Hastings in an early day. and 
the park that he laid out in the southeast part of the town was for 
many years the principal recreation grounds of the city. January 
19, 1893, ]Mrs. Anna B. IMason, who lived near IMr. Cole, was 
arraigned in the District Court, charged with the murder of Mr. Cole. 
The accused woman pleaded guilty to the charge and was sentenced 
to four years in the penitentiary. She was pardoned by Governor 


Crounse on December 15, 1893. Her husband, Edward W. JNIason, 
\\as arrested and charged as an accomplice of his wife in the crime. 
On April 1.5, 1893, he was acquitted by the jury. County Attorney 
W. P. ]McCreary was the prosecutor in these cases. Tibbets, ]SIorey 
& Ferris conducted the defense. 


September 2.5, 1899. an information was filed in the District Court 
charging" JNIiss Viola Horlocker with administering arsenic to iNIrs. 
Anna R. ^lorey \\ith the intent to kill. JNliss Horlocker was released 
on $.5,000 bail and the case came for trial in the JMarch term, 1900. 
For many days the District Covu't room was crowded. The prosecu- 
tion charged that jNIiss Horlocker had concealed the poison in candy 
and then left the package at the home of Mrs. Morey, the package 
bearing the label, "Sweets for ]\Irs. Morey." This package was left 
at the home of INIrs. Morey April 10, 1899, and severe illness, almost 
resulting in the death of the recipient, had followed the eating of the 
candy. ]Miss Horlocker bore a high local reputation as a singer. She 
was employed as a stenographer in the law firm of which INIrs. Morey's 
husband was a member. She was acquitted of the charge by the jury 
March 30, 1900. She left Hastings and subsequently was married 
in New York, where she resides. County Attorney W. P. INIcCreary 
conducted the prosecution; John INI. Ragan, R. A. Batty and John 
C. Stevens were the attorneys for the defense. Temporary insanity 
was the basis of the defense. 


On May 10, 1907. Bonde R. Pearson of Hastings was arraigned 
in the District Court, charged with the killing of Walter R. ]\IcCulla 
of Kenesaw. As narrated by the prosecution, JNIcCulla Avas shot while 
standing at the telephone talking, in the Pearson home at 109 East 
Fifth Street. The accused stood outside the house and shot through 
the window. The Aveapon used Avas a shotgim. The shot struck 
McCulla on the left side of the back. He died from the Avounds early 
July 30. 1906. The shooting Avas done about midnight, and AA'as 
caused by the objection of Pearson to McCulla as a visitor to his 
home and an associate of his Avife. The prosecutor AA^as County Attor- 
ney John Snider, assisted by R. A. Batty. John C. Stevens and 
William F. Button defended. The defense contended that Pearson 
had been subjected to great and unusual provocation that had ren- 


dered him temporarily unaccountable. On May 10, 1907, the defend- 
ant was acquitted by the jury. 


Arthur Anderson, a colored boy about twenty years old, killed 
Arthur Newell, a white young man of about the same age, on Feb- 
ruary 16, 1910, by striking him on the head with a billiard cue. The 
killing was done in a pool room on Hastings Avenue, near the First 
Street corner and on the east side of the avenue. Anderson resented 
being bandied about his bad luck at pool and a remark made about 
his color. After striking Newell, who died instantly, Anderson fled. 
He was not captin-ed for several days, but A\hen found not far from 
(Jlenville, his feet were so badly frozen that it was necessary to ampu- 
tate them at the Nebraska Sanitarium. He was arraigned in District 
Court JNIarch 24, 1910, and pleaded guilty to manslaughter. He was 
sentenced to live years in the jjcnitentiary by Judge H. S. Dungan, 
and committed the following day. Newell, the young man killed, 
was also a resident of Hastings. 


Sunday afternoon, April 2, 1911, Harry Palmer, aged twenty- 
six, shot and killed his wife, Odessa Palmer, aged twenty-two, at the 
home of her mother in the west side of Hastings. JNIrs. Palmer died 
at the Nebraska Sanitarium about four hours later. After shooting 
his wife in the right breast with a revolver, the young man attempted 
to kill himself and inflicted severe wounds in the attempt. JNIrs. 
Palmer had left her husband and gone to live with her mother. On 
the fatal Sunday the young man came with a buggy and asked her 
to return to their home in another part of the city. Upon her refus- 
ing, he drew the revolver and immediately shot her. On May 9, 1911, 
lie ])leaded guilty to miu'der in the second degree and was sentenced 
l)v Judge Dungan to serve twenty-two years in the penitentiary at 
Lincoln. He was later removed to the hospital for the insane at 


The police at Hastings were notified August 5, 1885. that a negro 
boy by the name of Lish Nelson had stolen a lady's watch and chain 
at Holdrege and was believed to have boarded a train bound east- 


ward. J. jNI. Tennant was a member of the police force at that time, 
and on that particular night was in charge of the force. Officer Ten- 
nant ordered the poHce at the Burhngton Station, C. J. Balcom, to 
he on the lookout. The latter officer about midnight observed a 
young negro clamber off a freight train coming from the west. When 
lie ordered him to halt, the negro opened fire with a revolver, one of 
the liullets striking the policeman in the abdomen. Two days later 
the officer died from the woimd. 

After firing, the negro fled, followed by a posse headed by Officer 
'JVnnant. The negro made for the southeastern part of the city and 
at length came to a clump of tall grass and weeds in the vicinity of 
Polenske Schellac & Co.'s east brick yard. Here he secreted himself 
and Avhen the jjosse, which meanwhile had been reinforced by Sheriff 
Dave Barlass and others, came up, opened fire. There was a lively 
exchange of shots, and the negro was badly wounded in the cheek. 
He would not surrender, however, and Officer Tennant decided that 
he could not be taken with i-evolvers \\ithout unnecessarily exposing 
the i)ursuers to danger. Accordingly, deputies were sent back to the 
city to secure shotguns. ]Members of the jjosse had ridden horses, 
\vhich were tethered close by. The j^oung negro was so near to liis 
])ursuers that he heard their plan to get shotguns, and while they 
were waiting for the return of the deputies he stealthily stole from 
the grass and succeeded in reaching the horses. Rapid hoofbeats 
making southward apprised the pursuers that their quariy had fled. 

Officer Tennajit now hurried back to the city, and a large number 
of the i)osse boarded a train that was just ready to start south. They 
got off" at Ayr and were joined by a large number from that village 
and they began scouring the country toward Hastings. Not far from 
.\yr they encountered young Lish. He was still full of fight and 
kept up a lively fire. Several of the posse were hit by the bullets, 
but none were seriously wounded. The negro finally surrendered. 
Fearing that he would be lynched in Hastings, the officers took I^isli 
to Fairfield and later transferred him to the jail in Kearney. He 
was brought for trial in the District Court at Hastings in the Decem- 
ber term, 188.5. County Attorney C. H. Tanner prosecuted, and 
the court appointed Capps & jNIcCreary of Hastings and Hon. W. 
E. Green of Kearney to conduct the defense. On December 11th, 
he was found guilty of murder in the second degree and sentenced 
to the penitentiary. The sentence was commuted by Governor 
Crounse JNIay 2.5, 1894, and on June 1 he was discharged. According 
to his confession to his attorneys, Lish planned to become a desperado, 
and had ]n-acticed with a revolver until he became very expert with 


the weapon. He later became insane and was confined in Ingleside. 
At the time that he shot Balcom, Lish was about seventeen years old. 


About midnight, November 24, 1879, fire was discovered shooting 
from the windows of the Burlington passenger station. The station 
and a considerable portion of the freight depot were burned to the 
ground. No definite information has been gained about just what 
took i^lace on that night. In the morning the dead body of a young- 
man, Allen J. Yocum, was discovered in the ruins. It was ascertained 
that a number of men had been playing cards in the station that night, 
and that Yocum was a party in the game. The theory developed was 
that the jjlayers had quarreled and that one of them shot and killed 
Yocum and set fire to the station to conceal the crime. Yocimi had 
been shot through the heart. Warrants were issued for the arrest of 
William ]M. Baldwin and Ralph jM. Taylor, whom evidence showed 
to have been among the j^arty and who were not seen after the night 
of the murder. Considerable difficulty was encountered in capturing 
them, for they had fled the county. On INIay 6, 1880, Baldwin was 
arraigned in the District Court, charged witli the murder of Yocum 
and burning the railroad property, and on jNIay 18th he was found 
guilty of manslaughter by the jury and sentenced to ten years in the 
jjenitentiary. T. D. Scofield was the prosecuting attorney and John 
^I. Ragan and R. A. Batty were appointed by the court to defend. 
An appeal to the Supreme Court resulted in granting a new trial 
to Baldwin and he was released upon the motion of the county attor- 
ney. The jury that convicted Baldwin were A. D. Briggs, W. Gra- 
bill, J. C. Ball, J. D. Evans, John Exelby, Hiram Gardner, W. C. 
Robinson, A. F. Powers, John Van Houten, Simon Sanger, Benja- 
min Van Sickle and H. 31. Sage. Yocum was an employee at the 
Burlington station. 

In the December term Taylor was brought to trial and found not 


One of the most sensational incidents in the history of Adams 
County took place in the latter part of ]\Iarch, 1883, but only a frag- 
ment of it is narrated in the records of the court. This was the 
murder of Cassius INI. INIillett and the lynching of two men for the 
crime. Mr. ^Nlillett was the proprietor of a grocery store on the north 


side of Second Street, between Hastings and Denver avenues. Dur- 
ing tlie afternoon jireceding the evening when he was shot, INIr. jNIillett 
liad observed three men pass and repass his store several times. When 
he closed the store they were not in sight, but he soon became aware 
that they were following him. When he was only a short distance 
east of his liome, which was located on the north side of First Street, 
a short way west of that street's intersection with Bellevue Avenue, 
he was held up by three masked men, whose purpose, as they after- 
ward confessed, was to lead him to a cave west of the city and there 
compel him to deliver his money. 

The three men started off westward witli their victim, threatening 
to kill him if he made an outcry. When in front of the gate opening 
upon the lawn surrounding the residence of Aaron INIay, a merchant, 
]Mr. JNIillett broke away from his captors, and just as he entered the 
gate one of them shot, the bullet striking Mv. Millett. The wounded 
man was able to reach the back door of his residence. There he was 
met by JMrs. INIillett and fell unconscious into her arms. He died a 
short time later, ]March 27, but before death came was able to make 
a statement of the affair to Isaac Le Dioyt, notary public. The 
funeral services for Mr. Millett were conducted April 1 under the 
auspices of the Grand Army of the Repulilic. of whicli organization 
he was a member. 

When fleeing from the scene of the murder, one of the highway- 
men dropped his mask, which was found a day or so later by Miss 
Hall, a daughter of W. A. Hall. The mask was turned over to Chief 
of Police J. C. Williams, who found that it was of the same material 
as a table cover that had disappeared from the St. Louis Boarding 
House on South Street, between Hastings and Lincoln avenues. 
This caused suspicion to fall upon one of the boarders, James Green, 
and two men who were known to associate with him, Fred Ingraham 
and John Babcoek. The three were arrested while digging a well 
upon the farm of Charles Kohl, a few miles south of Hastings. When 
the news of the arrest spread around, indignation was worked up to 
a high pitcli, and there was general talk of lynching them. 

A few nights after their arrest there was a dance in Liberal Hall 
and almost at the outset of the program Charles H. Dietrich, after- 
wards LTnited States Senator Dietrich, who heard the talk about 
lynching but who was not yet fully convinced of the guilt of the men, 
left the hall and undertook an investigation on his own account. 
Babcoek was confined in a room in the Commercial Hotel, now the 
Lindell. and tlie other two were under guard in another portion of 
the city. 'Mr. Dietrich secured a permit from [Mayor W. H. Lan- 


ning to interview Babcock, and from him he secured a complete con- 
fession. ]Mr. Dietrich was convinced by the straightforward story 
told by the prisoner, who was about eighteen years old. Ingraham 
and Green Avere much older, and it appeared to INIr. Dietrich that 
the young man had been drawn into the jjlot by the older men. He 
determined to save him from the lynchers if possible. The next day 
Babcock made a written confession, but when this was noised about, 
it only heightened the determination of some of the citizens to take 
the law into their own hands and avenge the crime. 

That evening a meeting was held in a lumber yard south of the 
Burlington track, at which thirty-three men were present. They are 
now referred to as the "Thirty-threes." Before starting on their 
expedition they were numbered and each responded in order as the 
roll was called. All were masked, and taking from the lumber yard 
a heavy timber to use as a battering ram, they started toward the 
Stone Block where the prisoners were confined. 

The jirisoners were guarded l)y Edward Burton, Hi Farr. J. E. 
Hutchinson, W. C. Cutler and Charles Dietrich. ISIr. Dietrich had 
asked to be apjjointed because he anticipated that there would be an 
attempt to lynch. The lynchers put in an appearance about 10 
o'clock. Their approach was heralded by a great noise on the stairs. 
A few moments later the door of the room in which the prisoners 
were confined was dealt a terrific blow with the battering ram. It 
required a second blow to smash the door, and then the thirty-three 
entered the room with revolvers drawn. The determination mani- 
fested by the masked men in the outset had convinced the guards that 
resistance would be useless. The lynchers took immediate possession 
of the prisoners and marched them to a bridge on the St. Joseph & 
Grand Island Railroad, where they were placed side by side on the 
bridge. A rope was immediately tied about each man's neck and 
fastened to a tie. ]Mr. Dietrich had not yet given up the hope of 
saving Babcock, although as yet no opportunity to do so had pi'e- 
sented itself. Ingraham and Green were pushed off. Babcock \\as 
next in order. Just as he was slipping off the bank, ]Mr. Dietrich 
seized the rope and cut it with his knife. Babcock fell to the ground 
unhurt. The lynchers gathered angrily about INIr. Dietrich and 
demanded an explanation. It was the psychological moment for him 
to make an impression favorable to the man he would save. At no 
other moment could he so well have obtained the concentrated atten- 
tion of the croAvd. With a voice carrying authority, he recited the 
storv of Babcock's confession. He told the listening lynchers that 


he had promised the young man he would save his life, and declared 
that he would make that promise good. 

After a short consultation, the lynchers decided to let the young- 
man go. A few M-eeks later he was sentenced by the court to ten 
years' imprisonment in the penitentiary, where he was taught the 
trade of stone-cutting. He was released in seven years, and nothing 
has been heard of him in recent years. 


In the ]May term of the District Court, 1889, ]Mrs. Lizzie Aldrieh 
was arraigned, charged with the killing of her husband, Jolm Aldrieh, 
a farmer who lived in the southern part of the county. He had died 
suddenly and neighbors caused the body to be exhumed and the con- 
tents of the stomach were sent to Rush INIedical College, Chicago, 
for analysis. Arsenic was discovered in the stomach and soon after 
]Mrs. Aldrieh was arrested. She was acquitted, hoAvever, many believ- 
ing that the farmer had administered the poison to himself. 


The body of James Quinn, a bachelor and a farmer, was found 
in a field near his house, jNIarch 26, 1886. The body had been 
buried in a shallow grave, from which it had been dug out by the 
hogs and jiartly eaten. Wilhelm Sproetz Mas arrested and charged 
with this crime. His attorney, Charles H. Tanner, obtained the dis- 
charge of the defendant at the preliminary trial. Following this an 
inquest was held and Sproetz gave evidence before the coroner. 
Immediately afterwards he fled, and has not been seen in the comity 
since, although the coroner's jury on December 7th found him guilty 
of wilful murder. 


In the spring of 1886 Dr. G. W. Randall was bound over in the 
County Court to await trial in the District Court on the charge of 
criminal assault upon Lora May Hart, the eleven-year-old daughter 
of jNIr. and Mrs. INIarion Hart of Edgar. The little girl had been 
brought to Hastings and left there to be treated by Doctor Randall for 
eye trouble. While the papers fixing his $.5,000 bail were being signed 
in County Judge Fleming's office in the Stone Block, a shot reverb- 
erated through the courtroom and Randall fell to the floor. He 


expired almost immediately. The shot had been fired by a brother 
of the little girl. No attempt was made to capture the avenger of his 
small sister's wrong. Doctor Randall was buried in the jjotter's field. 
Mrs. Randall was brought to trial as an accomplice of her husband, 
but the case was dismissed. 


Adams County has had two defaulting county treasurers, William 
B. Thorne and Charles H. Paul. The Thorne defalcation afl'airs were 
first in the court in 1881, and the case against Treasurer Paul was 
brought in 1892. 

AVilliam B. Thorne was a homesteader and was first elected treas- 
urer in the fall of 1873. He was exceedingly active in the early 
political afl'airs of Adams County and took a leading part in the 
county seat removal contest. It is probable that the expenditures 
made by the county treasurer in these years of political storm were 
largely accoimtable for the subsequent shortage in his accounts. 
Rumors that affairs were not as they should be in his office were 
current long before disclosures were made. ]Mr. Thorne was a strong 
Juniata partisan in the covmty government removal contest and in 
consequence had incurred i)olitical enmities which did not allow the 
rumors to rest. According to the reports of early settlers, it was 
noised about at one time that the treasurer's shortage was $105,000, 
and that only the friendly offices of a banker friend in Lincoln saved 
the treasurer from exposm-e at that time. Arriving from Lincoln, 
the story goes, the treasurer brought with him a valise full of money 
and opened it before the investigators. "You say I am short $105,- 
000," he said. "Well, there's the money. Count it." They counted 
the money and found the foregoing sum. But when they would take 
over tlie money, the treasurer halted them. "I am the county treas- 
urer." he said; "I'll take charge of the money." Next day the valise 
and its contents were returned to the Lincoln banker. 

Several investigations by the county commissioners had failed to 
discover a shortage until February 1, 1881. The county treasurer 
had been in office continuously since 1873. On February 1st the com- 
missioners began an investigation, which ended IMarch 12th. They 
reported that Thorne was a defaulter in a sum exceeding $50,000, 
and on that day the county treasurer resigned. It was discovered 
that before resigning he had conveyed his proiJerty to Abraham Yea- 
zel, one of his sureties as treasurer. These properties were located 
in AVebster and Adams counties and were estimated by attornevs 


opposing Thorne to have a value of $62,886.93. On the same date, 
jNIarch 12, 1881, the county commissioners entered into an agreement 
with Thorne and Yeazel that the Thorne jiroperties should he con- 
veyed by them to A. L. Clarke of Hastings and C. R. Jones of 
Juniata, to be held in trust for Adams County. In consideration for 
this conveyance, the sureties upon the treasurer's bond, which was for 
$2.5,000, were released. The conuuissioners at that time were A. C. 
]Moore, A. D. Yocum and C. G. Wilson. On March 18, 1881, Messrs. 
Clarke and Jones entered into agreement with the county to admin- 
ister the trust, and the properties were deeded to them by Thorne 
and Yeazel. The trustees gave bond in the sum of $30,000. 

According to the agreement, INIessrs. Clarke and Jones were to 
dispose of all the properties thus turned over to them, converting 
them into cash, and file a statement with the commissioners. The 
trustees were unable to dispose of all the properties within the required 
time, and on August 13, 1883, Thorne brought suit in the District 
Court against Clarke and Jones, claiming that the defalcation had 
lieen paid out of the sales already made, and asking the court to order 
the return of the remaining property. October 29, 1883, Thome's 
case was dismissed. Thorne then appealed to the Supreme Court. 

Awaiting the decision of the higher court, the trustees, Clarke 
and Jones, ceased making fiu'ther payment to Adams County, but 
Avere ordered by the District Court to pay to Harrison Bostwick, on 
a claim against the properties, $ll,3o.>.72. Bostwick giving bond to 
turn the siuii over to the county should the court later so decide. 
Time went on and the trustees, not knowing what the court would 
order, upon the advice of counsel made no further payment to the 
county. On April 29, 1886, County Attorney L. J. Capps brought 
suit in the District Court to compel a settlement between Adams 
County and the trustees, A. L. Clarke and C. R. Jones. This suit, 
liowever, was acquiesced in by the trustees, who were desirous to obtain 
their discharge, but because of the appeal of Thorne to the higher 
court they did not feel justified in making the final settlement. On 
July 22, 1886, the trustees filed their report, in which it was shown 
that they had paid into the treasury of Adams County $21,411.04. 
"Other disbursements" were given at $239.3.5. These sums, together 
with $11,3.'5.>.72 paid to Harrison Bostwick, brought the total realized 
from the Thorne properties to $39,2.54.16. In December, 1886, the 
court oi'dered Bostwick to pay the amount that had been paid to him 
by the trustees, $11,, into the treasury of Adams County, and 
five days later Mr. Bostwick complied with the order. Adams County 
received from the Thorne property $32,766.76, and lost through the 


defalcation something in excess of $20,000. In discharging the trus- 
tees, Judge ]\Iorris, who occujiied the bench, complimented INIr. Clarke 
and jVIr. Jones for the faithful administering of their tnisteeship. 

Thorne was sentenced to one year in the jjcnitentiarj', but served 
no time. He ajjpealed to the Supreme Court, and within two years 
that body had taken no action, nor had it been urged to do so by 
Adams County. At about the expiration of that time Thorne was 
accidentally killed by falling from a load of hay while working upon 
his farm in the southwest part of the county. !Many good words are 
heard of Mr. Thorne, for he was always sympathetic of the needy 
among the settlers, and many of them were spared from want through 
his generosity. The Thorne bondsmen diu-ing his last term were 
Abraham Yeazel, William Graybill, W. E. Thorne, Ira Dillon, C. 
R. Jones k Co., James Sewell, J. S. Chandler and William West. 


Charles H. Paul, the second Adams County treasurer who was 
found short in his accounts, was one of the earliest business men of 
Hastings, having established a shoe business in the town in 1873. He 
was of a retiring disposition and well thought of among his townsmen. 
He served as postmaster of the Hastings postoffice for one term. 

I\Ir. Paul was first elected county treasurer in the November 
election, 1887, and he was reelected two years later. As in the case 
of Treasurer Thorne, rumors Avere current that there were irregulari- 
ties in the office for some time before disclosures were made. On Jan- 
uary 7. 1892, the settlement committee of the board of supervisors 
reported to the board that there was a balance due from the treasurer 
to the county of $9.5,947.68 and that Mr. Paul had on hand and had 
paid in $7-5, .574.08. The report, made in the forenoon, indicated a 
shortage of $21,770.25, which sum was immediately paid in by the 
following sureties, G. J. Evans, O. G. Smith, William Kerr, A. L. 
Clarke, Sewell Slueman, J. R. Pentield. Abraham Loeb, H. E. Nor- 
ton. P. E. Hatch, Alex Pickens, John ]M. Ragan, George E. Douglas, 
John N. Lyman, Mark Levy, George J. Volland, George ^V. JMowery 
and Leopald Hahn. By an unanimous vote the board of supervisors 
the next day, January 8, 1892, agreed to settle with Paul in full for 
the sum already paid in by the sureties, $21,770.2.). In the meantime, 
however, the deputy treasurer, Emanuel Fist, a man of unusual alert- 
ness, made a statement to the bondsmen that the shortage was con- 
siderable more than the investigation of the supervisors had yet 
revealed, and as a result the bondsmen proposed to the board to make 


up a deficiency totaling $30,749. They oif ered to give their individual 
notes for that amount, payable in five annual payments, or to pay 
$10,000 in cash in addition to the smn already paid. In consideration, 
the bondsmen asked to be released from further obligation in the 
deficiency. It was a strenuous moment for the board of supervisors 
tile tenseness of which had been increased by the discovery of the addi- 
tional shortage, which it now became known was in excess of $.50,000. 
Considerable debate followed the two proposals of the bondsmen, and 
at length Sujjervisor E. S. Fowler moved the acceptance of the five- 
year payment plan. This motion was tabled and F. J. Benedict 
moved the acceptance of $10,000 in cash offered by the sureties in 
addition to the sum previously paid by them. R. A. Batty made a 
memorable sj^eech, j^rotesting in behalf of several taxpayers that no 
settlement be made except upon payment by the sureties of the full 
amount of the shortage. When the roll was called, Mr. Benedict's 
motion carried by a vote of 14 to 12. Those who voted for the motion 
were L. C. Lukins, H. F. Einspahr, John Gordon, F. J. Benedict, 
D. H. Ballard, Ed Burton, R. V. Shockey, D. M. INIcElhinney, P. 
A. Stewart, A. C. ]Moore, William Huxtable, Ed S. Fowler and 
Fred Wagner. Those voting against the motion were Bart F. Ker- 
nan. W. J. Willars. J. H. Walker, Jesse Doty, J. W. Thornton, 
J. C. Woodworth, H. C. INIinnix, T. T. Jones, Lester Wornmth, 
Frank P. Harman, C. B. Kemple and Jacob Barnhardt. 

There was much discussion among the siu"eties about taking legal 
action against JNIr. Paul. This resulted in the issuing by County 
Judge Burton, upon the complaint of the county attorney, Chris 
Hoejjpner. a warrant for the arrest of Charles H. Paul upon the 
charge of embezzling $.54,909.88. The defendant waived the right 
to ])reliminary examination and was released on $10,000 bail. 

The case came up for trial in the June term of the District Court, 
1892. June 20th, on the application of the county attorney, A. H. 
Bowen and R. A. Batty were appointed by the court to assist in the 
prosecution, and the case was set for trial on June 27th. On the 
a]j]3lication of the defendant. W. P. McCreary and B. F. Smith were 
a])])ointed counsel for the defense, and on June 29 the jury was 
ini])anelled and sworn. The following were the jurors. J. H. Pope, 
S. A. Nash, Joseph Stormer, Richard Spicknall, Jacob Stein, W. .1. 
Clark, J. B. Johnson, J. C. Daugherty, J. R. Steele, B. F. Evans, 
and W. F. Wilson. The jury retired on July 6th, and on July 8th 
returned a verdict of "Guilty as charged," and that Charles H. Paul 
had. converted $7-50 of the county's money to his own use. The de- 
fendant Avas sentenced to three years in the penitentiary. ^Ir. Paul, 


however, was not removed to the penitentiary, but remained confined 
in the county jail at Hastings until September 19, 1892, when he was 
pardoned by Governor James E. Boyd. Mr. Paul continued to live 
in Hastings imtil 1915, when he removed to Lincoln. He made no 
attemj)t to mingle hi the affairs of the city, but quietlj^ followed the 
occupation of a traveling salesman. 

On the complaint of Levi L. Lukins, the deputy treasurer, Eman- 
uel Fist, was arrested, charged with embezzlement in the same sum 
as his in-incij^al. The trial of Fist was had in the September, 1892, 
term of the district court. M. A. Hartigan and George Tibbets were 
the attorneys for the defense, while A. H. Bowen assisted Count}' 
Attorney Chris Hoeppner in the prosecution. The jury in the Fist 
case were H. B. Talbert, W. P. jNIay, Lee Willis, L. W. Parmenter, 
JNI. W. Burgess, Fred Faecknitz, William Kelsey, Samuel Lap^j, B. 
]\Iorgan, Charles T. Garries, J. Gearhart, and J. F. Craig. On Sep- 
tember 11, 1892, they returned a verdict of "Not Guilty." The record 
indicates that through the defalcation of Charles H. Paul, Adams 
County lost about $23,140. His jiroperties, which were rather exten- 
sive, were assigned to sureties on his treasurer's bond, and by them 
disposed of. 

THE $100,000 MYSTERY 

Next to tlie Olive case the John OConnor case aroused the most 
widespread interest of any case tried in the district court of Adams 
County. O'Connor died at the Nebraska Sanitarium, in Hastings, 
August 17, 191.3. Although he had lived in Hastings since the early 
seventies, and for a number of years had conducted a shoe store on 
First Street, it developed at the time of his death that nobody knew 
anything about his life before he came to Hastings. It was reported 
that he had walked into the town in the early days with 2.3 cents in his 
pocket, and had opened a cobbler's shop on First Street, which later 
grcAV into a shoe store. 

At the time of his deatli lie was possessed of property and money 
valued at about $100,000. His property consisted of the southwest 
quarter of Section 27 and the northwest quarter of Section 34 in Blaine 
TownshijD, and lots 3, 4, and 5, in Block 26, in the original town of 
Hastings. Store buildings stood upon the town lots, and he left about 
$10,000 in cash. Nothing was left, at least nothing that became com- 
mon knowledge, or was revealed in court, among his belongings to 
identify relatives nor to hidicate what disposition should be made of 
the propertv. The body of O'Connor was kept in tlie Livingston 


uijdertaking rooms until February 10, 1916, when burial was made in 
Parkview Cemetery. The Rev. A. A. Brooks condueted the funeral 
service at the Livingston chapel. 

Shortly after the death of O'Connor, a will pin-porting to be that 
of John O'Connor, was received at the countj' court by registered 
mail, from an unknown man by the name of Smith. This instrument 
came from Grand Island, and bequeathed the entire estate to John T. 
Cuknin, of Omaha. The will was thrown out of court because it was 
unwitnessed. Some time afterwards, another will, making John T. 
Culavin the beneficiary, was received in the county coiu't from Dimcan 
]M. A^insonhaler, an attorney of Omaha. Culavin had been found 
tln-ough advertisements inserted in newsj^apers by Nelson H. Tunni- 
cliif, a New York attorney. This will was signed February 25, 1887, 
and the two witnesses, J. H. Culavin and T. K. Scott, were dead long 
before tlie will came for probate. John T. Culavin also claimed to be 
a ne])hew of John O'Coiinor. It was about the genuineness of this 
A^ill tliat a legal battle raged. 

The will came for probate before Judge William F. Button in 
the county court, July 8, 1914. Several hearings were had, and many 
witnesses examined. On November 18, 1914, Judge Button held that 
the will was genuine. Meanwhile, many other claimants appeared, 
and an appeal was taken to tlie district court. The trial opened before 
Judge Harry S. Dungan ]M:ircli 1, 191.), and the taking of testimony 
continued until 11a. m., JNIarch 12. At 9.30 the following morning, 
the jury returned a verdict declaring the will to be fraudulent. 
Twenty-one witnesses had testified for the j^roponent, and fifty for 
the contestants. The contestants were in seven groups, representing 
136, wlio claimed to be heirs. Seventeen attorneys represented the 
contestants, and Duncan JNI. Vinsonlialer represented Mr. Culavin. 
The following were the jurymen: Henry Bentert, R. J. Ashmore, 
Ira Graham, John Rowe, William Parsons, George CrafFord, Ed 
George, A. U. Kay, JNIark Campbell, R. B. Smith, E. D. Pratt and 
Chris Christensen. The Hastings attorneys participating were INIc- 
Creary & Danly, Ragan & Addie, F. P. Olmstead and C^ E. Bruck- 
man; other attorneys were Daniel L. Johnston, Omaha; JNIinihan & 
INIinihan, Green Bay, Wis.; P. E. McGray, St. Paul, IMiim.: INIcDon- 
nough & IMcDonnough, Denver; Atty. Gen. Willis E. Reed, Dexter 
T. Barrett. W. T. Thompson and Don C. Fonts for the state. 

Tlie j)ropouent appealed from the district coiu't. and tlie case is 
now pending in the Supreme Court of Nebraska. 

January 3, 191(), the state of Nebraska brought the case up in 
the district court to quiet title. Seventy-two witnesses were heard. 


and the case was not concluded until March 12. This case was tried 
by Judge Corcoran, of York, who found in favor of the state of 
Nebraska, Avhich by the decision holds the estate in trust pending the 
apjjearance of a claimant who can prove heirship. John Slaker, of 
Hastings, was appointed administrator by Judge Snider, judge of 
the county court. 

The attorneys in the last trial were the same for the contestants 
as in the will case, except that there were added M. A. Hartigan, 
Tibbets, ^Nforey, Fuller & Tibbets. James B. O'Connor, Roscoe F. 
Kirkman and Judge Sutton. 

During the trial of the will case the witness, William F. Davis, 
for the contestants, charged on the stand that Culavin had offered 
him $2,000, and his wife a like sum, to witness the will falsely. This 
charge led to an investigation by the grand jury, which began May 11, 
1915, and ended INIay 20th. No indictments were returned. 

My. Culavin's narrative of the life of John O'Connor before he 
came to Hastings, as told on the stand, was to the effect that O'Connor 
had participated in Kiel's Rebellion, in Canada, and subsequently had 
killed two of the mounted police. He then fled to the United States. 
In Canada he was married to an Indian woman, and went by the name 
of Olaf Olsen. In 1887. he had commissioned his nephew, the pro- 
ponent, to go to Canada, and spread the report that Olaf Olsen was 
dead. This was to lead the authorities to cease in their attempts to 
find the slayer of the moimted police. For successfully spreading this 
report, John T. Culavin was made the beneficiary of the will. 


Tlie liealtliful climate characterizing the oiJen, prairie country out 
of which Adams County was carved does not tend to bring the med- 
ical profession into as much prominence as might pertain to it under 
different climatic conditions. Nevertheless, there has been in the 
natural course of affairs a demand for medical attention, and in the 
forty-five years of its history, a large number of physicians have settled 
in the county for greater or longer periods. Nearly five hundred 
j)hy.siciaiis at one time or another have practiced their profession in 
Adams County. 

There was very little regulation of the profession in the early days. 
Doctors could practice in the western country with scarcely any previ- 
ous preparation. The early settlers, of course, were of Hmited means, 
and also they were of a hardy stock, and they lived nuich in the open 
and lived on simple food. The prospect was not alluring to young- 
men from reputable medical schools. 

A. H. Bowen was probably the first doctor to settle in the county, 
and he did not have the intention to follow that calling, but finding 
a demand for the service of a physician, and no one to supply the 
demand, Mr. Bowen practiced intermittently in the couple of years 
following his settlement in Juniata in 1871. Probably the first doctor 
to ])ractice in Hastings was Dr. C. M. Wright. Doctor Wright located 
in Hastings in the spring of 1873, coming from Malcolm, la. He was 
joined by his wife the following December. The Wrights erected a 
frame house, about where the store of Wolbach & Brach is now located, 
and the office was in the residence. 

It is ])ossible that Doctor Morgan settled in Juniata a little prior 
to tlie arrival of Doctor Wright. Doctor JNIorgan i)racticed several 
years. In 1872, Dr. .7. R. Laine presented a bill to the county com- 
missioners for amputating the foot of Peter Fowlie, but no one now 
living in the county a])pears to remember Doctor Laine as a resident 
of the county. 

Dr. A. D. Buckworth also settled in Hastings about the same 


time that Doctor Wright arrived. He i^urchased some lots near the 
corner of St. Josei:)h Avenue and Second Street and erected a house 
there. Doctor Buckworth did not come to Hastings especially to prac- 
tice medicine. He was in the coal business for a time, and then opened 
a drug store. He was active in the affairs of the young town, and 
when it became incorporated was soon elected to the city council. 
Upon leaving Hastings, Doctor Buckworth went to North Platte and 
Avas employed in the United States land office. 

Before the end of 1873, Doctor Sadler located in Hastings, and 
soon acquired a good jn-actice. He was interested in political affairs as 
well as medicine, and in 1876 was elected a state rei^resentative. He 
left Hastings soon after serving his term in the Legislature. 

Doctor 'Wright preempted a quarter section of land a short distance 
east of Hastings and became possessed of 240 acres in all. By 1881 
he was able to dispose of his land for $12. .30 per acre. He then went 
to Ann Arbor and was graduated from the medical dej)artment of 
that university. He now operates a drug store and practices his 
profession at Rock Island, Tex. 

The early doctors of Hastings practiced over a wide territory, 
nortli to the Platte River, and south as far as Red Cloud. Returning 
from Red Cloud one niglit, Doctor Wright was caught in a violent rain 
storm in the valley of the Little Blue, and was unable to find his way 
out of the hills imtil the morning came. There was mucli exposiu'e to 
the early practice. As payment for his service one time. Doctor Wright 
was given a turkey hen by a farmer. JNIrs. Wright succeeded in raising 
fifty young turkeys from the mother hen. and so they felt that there 
were ways of beating the game. 

Dr. T. A. Urquhart came to Hastings about 1874i and became one 
of the best known doctors in the country surrounding Hastings. He 
came originally from Virginia, and retained a warm sympathy for 
the lost cause in the Civil war. For many years Doctors Urquhart, 
Cooke and Ackley were the lioard of examiners for pensions. These 
examinations of tlie old soldiers were usually conducted in the office 
of Doctor Cooke, which was then located in the second story above 
the store l)uildings on tlie west side of Hastings Avenue, south of 
the alley. These offices are now for the most part occupied by attor- 
neys, but in the early 80's, and for a time afterward, they were tlie 
strongholds of the doctors. Besides Doctor Cooke. Dr. Ralph J. 
Trwin and Doctor Urquhart had tlieir offices here. Doctor Irwin for 
manv years was one of the well-known doctors of Hastings. He came 
from Illinois, where lie received his medical education. He was unusu- 
allv well read, and served for some time on the Hastings Board of Edu- 


cation. In 1898 lie went as an armj' surgeon with a Nebraskan regiment 
to Cuba. While in the army he lost liis health, and upon his return 
was unable to practice with the old-time vigor, and finally, several 
years afterward, left for jNIissouri, where at latest accounts he still 

In 1877 there arrived in the county a number of doctoj-s who 
remained and who left a dee}} impression ujion the county from the 
medical side. Among the physicians arriving that year were Doctors 
John Cooke, Francis A. Naulteus and Winfield S. Ackley. Some time 
• prior, but not long, Dr. T. H. Urquhart had located in Hastings. 
Doctor Urquhart had graduated from JeiFerson College, Philadel- 
pliia. in 1848, and continued to practice successfully in Hastings until 
his death in the early 90's. 

(^f the doctors Avho came in 1877 and attained a lasting prominence, 
only Doctor Ackley and Doctor Naulteus remain. Doctor Ackley 
settled in Juniata, where he still practices, and is the only physician 
in the town. Doctor Ackley was graduated from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk, la., in 1876. He later attended 
lectures at Rush 3Iedical College, Chicago, and was graduated from 
that institution in 1 880. He ]:)receded Doctor Naulteus to the covmty 
a short time, and therefore has practiced longer in the county than 
any other physician. 

Dr. John Cooke was a remarkable man and took a wide interest 
in matters outside of his profession, especially along governmental 
and industrial lines. He was a large man physically and spoke with a 
rich Scotch brogue, and had a remarkable way of inspiring confidence 
in his ])atients. Years after his death, a doctor who knew him well 
said: "If a patient died under Doctor Cooke, the relatives generally 
felt all right. They felt that all that could be done had been done." 
His son. Dr. Neil Cooke, died at the outset of his medical career, 
June 19, 1902. From this blow Doctor Cooke never recovered his 
spirits, and on February 13, 1903, he, too, died, after a short illness. 
Doctor Cooke received his medical education in Glasgow, Scotland, 
and before coming to Hastings practiced in Braidwood, 111., and other 
places in the East. 

Doctor Cooke, though at times brusque of manner, was of quick 
sympathy. Once, returning from seeing a patient in the country, he 
observed a cow lying in a pasture in great distress and about to die. 
The doctor felt at once the physician's impulse to save, and succeeded 
in his veterinary adventure to such a degree that the life of the animal 
was spared. When the farmer learned of the incident, he insisted 


upon paying the doctor for his service. "Oh, I did that more partic- 
ularly for the cow," jirotested the physician. 

Dr. W. A. Chapman came to Hastings in 1886, and soon acquired 
a large and lucrative practice. He was surgeon for the Burlington 
railroad for years. Doctor Chapman was a very affable man and 
won hosts of friends. His interests were wide and" he read much 
outside of his specialty. Doctor Chapman's two children, a son and 
a daughter, are physicians. The daughter. Dr. Alma J. Chapman, 
is located at Hastings; the son. Dr. William A. Chapman, is located 
in California. Doctor Chajaman died in Hastings in December, 1898. 

Dr. W. H. Lynn came to Hastings in the early 80's and 
acquired a large practice. For the last several years of his life ill 
health prevented Doctor Lynn from practicing his profession. He 
died in Hastings March 21, 1907. 

Dr. Francis Naulteus, who came to Hastings in 1877. holds the 
seniority among the doctors now practicing in the city. Doctor Xaul- 
teus was active in the building up of Hastings, taking an especial 
interest in building operations, and helloing along development by 
making investments with local building organizations. He received 
his medical education in Germany. Next to Doctor Naulteus in point 
of seniority among Hastings doctors, is Dr. Joseph T. Steele, who 
came to Hastings in 1884. Dr. F. J. Schaufelberger has a penchant 
for botany, and has familiarized himself very largely with the botan- 
ical life of Adams County. His brother, Franklin Schaufelberger, 
has been associated with Doctor Schaufelberger in the practice since 
1894. Dr. F. J. Schaufelberger came to Hastings in 1886 and is third 
in point of seniority. 

Dr. A. R. Van Sickle came to Hastings in 1881 and became well 
known throughout the county. In the latter years, Doctor ^''an Sickle 
became interested in land in Garden City, Kan., and was not actively 
in practice in Hastings, although maintaining his residence here. He 
died in Hastings June 19, 1913. Dr. E. T. Cassell was associated 
with Doctor Van Sickle for several years. Doctor Cassell was inter- 
ested in church work. He was the prime mover in establishing the 
south side Baptist mission. He was a singer and, with IMrs. Cassell. 
composed a number of hymns which are in general use throughout 
the country. Doctor Cassell now resides in Denver and is engaged 
in church work. 

The registration of physicians in Adams County dates back to 
1881. On June 1st of that year the state laws of Nebraska for the 
first time required registration of physicians with the county clerk. 
The law. however, did not ])rovide that the ai)plicants must furnish 


credentials. They merely presented diplomas without reference to 
the standing of the institutions granting them. In 1891 the state 
hoard of health came into heing charged to raise the standards neces- 
sary for medical practice. The board then as now consisted of the 
governor of the state, the state superintendent of public instruction, 
tlie attorney general and four physicians appointed by the governor 
and called secretaries of the board. The secretaries represent two 
of the regular scliool, allopaths; one homeopath and one eclectic 

Dr. J. V. Beghtol, of Hastings, was the first jiresident of the 
secretaries of the state board. Tlie others were Dr. F. D. Haldeman, 
of Ord; Dr. C. F. Stewart, of Auburn, and Dr. E. T. Allen, of 
Omaha. Through county organizations of physicians tlie state board 
in the first year of its existence enforced the requirement that appli- 
cants for license to practice must furnish evidence of having been 
graduated from rei)utable institutions. If not graduated they may 
lie allowed to practice, provided they had been practicing in Nebraska 
for five years pi'ior to the enactment of the law, which became opera- 
tive in 1891. They are known as licensed physicians as distinguished 
from graduates. ^Vith the enforcement of the new law, some 400 
])hysicians removed from Nebraska. Doctor Beghtol, who located in 
Hastings, in 1903, was president of the secretaries of the board for 
seven years. 

The sanitation and general health conditions of Adams County 
are in the care of the county board of health, which, is composed of 
the board of supervisors and one physician designated by them. In 
Hastings tlie board of health comprises the mayor, one councilman 
appointed by him, the chief of police and one physician appointed 
by the mayor and approved by the council. While Hastings and 
Adams County have been gratifyingly free from conditions making 
for ill health, there have been epidemics of contagious disease. In the 
late summer of 1879, many children in Hastings died of diphtheria, 
and at times between then and 1896, and in that year the disease 
reached epidemic proportions. Since the latter year, while there have 
been occasional cases, there is no sense of impending danger. In the 
early 80's and until the erection of the municipal water plant, 
typhoid fever was distressingly prevalent in Hastings. Since that 
time and the installation of the sewer system in 1889, there have been 
only scattering cases of typhoid. Investigation has revealed that no 
contagious disease is indigenous to Adams County. JNIicroscopic in- 
spection of the water of the municipal water plant at Hastings, which 
is made by the railroads twice yearly, shows the water from the plant 


to be free from disease germs at the wells. There have been sporadic 
outbreaks of a mild form of smallpox in the county. A number in 
Hastings were quarantined for this disease in the winter of 1914-1.5, 
but no deaths from smallpox were reported. A small hospital for 
the isolation of those suffering with contagious disease Avas built bj^ 
the city on the sewer farm in 1915. 

In a bulletin issued by the state board of health in January, 1916, 
it is recorded that there were 335 deaths in Adams County in 1915. 
The number of births were 518; 273 male and 245 female. Of the 
births of 1915, 452 were Americans, 35 Germans, 28 Scandinavians, 
2 British and 1 unclassified. During 1912 the number of births in 
the county were exactly the same as in 1915, 518. Of the births in 
1912. 285 were male and 233 female. 

In 1911 there were 264 marriages in Adams County, and in 1914 
there were 259. In 1911 there were 48 api)lications for divorce in 
the county, and in 1914 there were 42. Of the 1914 applications for 
divorce, eighteen were by those who had been married two years. In 
fourteen cases of the 1914 applications, cruelty was given as the cause, 
drunkenness was alleged in 1 case, non-support in 7, desertion in 18, 
and adultery in 2. 

The Adams County Medical Society was organized in 1886. 
Among the charter members were Doctors Sowers, W. H. Lynn, F. A. 
Naulteus, J. T. Steele, R. J. Irwin and T. A. Urquhart. The society 
did little more than formally organize. After the creation of the state 
board of health, in 1901, the Adams County IMedical Society was 
formed and tb.e greater number of Adams County physicians are 
members. The county societies are affiliated with the Nebraska State 
Medical Association, and this in turn is a unit of the American 
^Medical Association. 

Tlie resident, registered physicians of Adams County at the pres- 
ent time are: Charles V. Artz, James V. Beghtol, Julian Raymond 
Blackman, Claude Bernard Calbreath, Alma J. Chapman, Charles 
Lloyd Egbert, Eugene Foote. Oscar Herman Hahn. Eli Barton 
Hamel, Elam Dolphus Haysmer, S. R. Hopkins, Sherman J. Jones. 
Wellington W. Kietli. Theodore Lightner, Russell Ross INIarble. 
James B. INIcPherson. Francis Naulteus, Warren James O'Hara, 
Amy B. Robinson, Frederick J. Schaufelberger, Franklin Schaufel- 
berger, Arthur Andrew Smith, Charles R. Spicer, Joseph Turner 
Steele, John W. Straight, W. L. Sucha, James E. Warrick, S. J. 
Stewart and W. T. Carson, all of Hastings. In the towns outside 
of Hastings are the following physicians: 

Ingleside — Superintendent, W. S. Fast, and assistants, Drs. J. S. 


Leisure, Clara M. Hayden, C. A. Oaks, W. H. Crutcher, W. W. 

Ayr — Oscar Sylvester and O. S. Grey. 

Pauline — Charles N. JMerriwether. 

Roseland — John S. Mace. 

Holstein— C. E. Kidder. 

Kenesaw — Elbert Johnson Latta, Walter E. Nowers and Liberty 
jMarion Robinson. 

The fourteenth annual session of the Nebraska State IMedical 
Association was held in Hastings in May, 1881, and the forty-eighth 
in :\ray, 1915. 

Dr. Charles K. Struble was the first osteopath to locate perma- 
nently in Adams County. He became established in Hastings in 
1903, and still practices his profession. Other osteopaths are Drs. 
Floyd Pierce, W. J. Black and George Jones. 


William H. Lynn. J. O. Garmon, Hogan J. Ring, T. H. Urqu- 
hart. S. A. Bookwalter, W. W. Phar, Winfield Ackley, Sarah E. 
Young. A. H. Sowers, C. O. Arnold, Francis Naulteus, John Cooke, 
E. H. Gale. B. M. Shockey, Emma Watkins, J. Williams, A. R. Van 
Sickle, J. Alonzo Greene. INIary Breed. John N. Lyman, ]\Liry A. 


A. S. Fishblatt, C. T. Lawrence, George F. Loyd, L. J. Forney, 
Samuel E. Furry, JMary M. Michail, L. K. INIarkley, H. P. Fitch. 


L. R. ]\Lirkley, Ralph J. Irwin, Sol C. Warren, James W. Wood, 
John W. Smith, Henry J. Smith, George H. Chaffee, T. J. Eaton, 
E. L. Yarletz. Louis Lodd, J. O. Mote. F. C. Brosius. 


Sheldon E. Cook, William Tanner, L. N. Howard, C. W. Selick, 
H. S. Rogers, C. M. Williams, Albert S. Pierce, C. U. Ullrich, A. F. 



M. O. B. McKinney, W. A. Chapman, Jos. T. Steele, Laura A. 
Edwards. J. S. Curtiss, J. E. Anderson, F. J. Schaufelberger, Cieorge 
W. Randall. 


K. E. Blair, Edward D. Barrett, John JM. France, Rufus C. 
Corey, George B. M. Free, L. J. Rogers, E. T. Cassell, Alvm H. 
Keller, Louis Turner, A. E. Wessell, A. M. Rickett, Luther L. Ames, 
Charles J. Carrick. 


Arthur PL Brownell, C. A. Bassett, C. G. A. Hullhorst, J. M. F. 
Cooper, Milo S. Kensington, J. C. Solomon, A. Lee Sabin. 


A. J. Bacon, Jacob B. Iloshaw. E. H. Waters. C. J. Yates. A. J. 
Rogers. William ISIcGregor, Ed R. Holmes. H. S. Aley and P. James. 


T. AV. Rose, W. A. Chapman, F. C. Brozius. Josephus Williams, 
Fiederick J. Bricker, Laura A. Edwards, W. S. Kern, E. L. Dagley, 
E. T. Cassell, INIary A. Howard, J. M. Jennings, Albert S. Pierce, 
John W. Smith. 


William T. Pubt. Orville ]\Iastin, Grant Cullimore, H. Hartwig, 
IT. ISr. Bailey, INIary ^Michael. 


C. V. Artz. G. A. Weirick, W. T. Carson, Seymour Putman. 
H. B. Gwin. C. C. Stivers, M. W. Baxter, Henry" Swigart, F. L. 
King, J. J. INIoreland. 


]\r. T. INTozee, Franklin Schaufelberger, Charles Bruce. 



E. J. Latta, G. M. Johnson, INI. V. Perkins. 


Luke Fox, W. A. Franklin. 


Alma Chapman. W. M. Follett, Thomas Barr, W. L. Downing. 


T. J. Piersol, A. Disbrow, J. Fleckinger. 


B. Rea, Louis Turner, W. F. Tin-ner, Charles Sprague, Aimer 
Sahin, J. Roberts, H. H. Ewing, S. Scrugs, Anna M. Pott. 


C. S. Shepard, Sarah E. Green, C. S. Hubbard. 


Charles Lucas, A. J. Shimp, William Wegman, Charles C. Cor- 
bin, I. M. Voorluis, James C. Warrick. 


F. ]M. Cooke. J. Capelka, Theo Lightner. R. R. Marble, James 
Davies. W. H. Chapman. C. K. Struble. 


F. L. Taylor. Joseph O. Riddle, A. C. Sabin. C. A. Rydberg, 
E. B. Grubs. Emma E. Robbins. Owen D. Piatt. O. S. Talbot. 
J. O. Bruce. 


O. jNI. Caldwell, J. V. Beghtol. 


A. ]Morefield, F. Pierce, J. R. Sample, G. E. Spear, C. M. Head- 
wick, J. F. .AIcNulty, E. C. Foote, J. W. Straight, A. C. Sabin, A. A. 
Pottei-f, J. H. Fargher. 



F. W. Buck, George Jones, Doctor Wier, Doctor Chamberlain. 


F. p. Simms, W. W. Kieth, S. E. Bamford, R. H. Foster, J. M'. 
Kent, F. A. Kriegle, L. H. Howland, F. A. Wells, Amy Robinson, 
B. W. Kinsey, J. W. Greemnan. 


C. H. Davies, C. W. Meriwether, D. M. Judkins, L. L. James, 
E. B. Hamel, R. S. Stuckey, A. A. Blair, M. L. Wilson. T. J. Van- 
derhoof, L. B. Simms, K. J. Hohlen. 


W. J. Black, S. J. Stewart. W. "SI. Bair, J. P. Riddle, J. W. 
Doran, Allan M. Lafferty, W. E. ]\Iowers. O. S. Gray. K. S. J. 
Hohlen, J. S. Leisure, C. L. Egbert. 


Samuel Hopkins, Emanuel Kaufman, Sadie Doran, H. L. Hub- 
bard. S. J. Jones, Hugh Hover, H. A. Green, Herman Hahn, W. J. 
O'Hara. Guy BriUhart, C. D. IMoran. 


C. B. Cal])reath. J. L. ^Mace. S. F. Jones, H. S. Brevoort, Margery 


A. Galloway, M. S. Rich. R. D. INIartin, Q. E. INIathewy, W. B. 
Kern, Frank Uray, J. R. Blackman. 


G. M. White, Henry C. Williams, Albert C. Colman, W. B. 
Hudson, Glenn C. Harper, C. M. Hayden. 



W. L. Sucha, Clarence E. Kidder, S. J. Jones, E. D. Haysmer. 


A. Smith, C. M. Schunk, Harlan Foster, F. C. Townley, C. S. 


C. R. Spicer, Henry S. Munro. Robert C. ]\Iiller, E. A. Somnier, 
J. W. BroMTi, J. L. Hull. 


Early banking in Adams County was conducted through private 
enterprises. Probably the first institution was that of A. H. Bowen 
and James Laird who began banking operations in connection with 
their law business in Juniata. This was in 1873. A section of the 
law ofiice was jjartitioned off for banking purposes and the equip- 
ment was one of extreme simplicity. This enterprise was conducted 
by the two lawyers for only a few months. 

During the latter part of 1873 or early in 1874 J. J. Worswick 
associated with a man by the name of Wells launched a banking 
enterjirise at Hastings. The firm of J. J. Worswick & Company was 
the first banking institution to operate in Hastings. The St. Joseph 
& Grand Island Railroad, then called the St. Joseph & Denver City, 
terminated in Hastings and Mr. Worswick opened his bank for the 
purpose of financing the extending of the railroad to Grand Island. 
The firm failed in its enterprise in about a year after its opening. This 
bank Avas located on First Street at the rear of the lot which is now 
101 North Denver Avenue. Worswick was an Englishman, jovial, 
and a lover of hunting. He returned to England following the 
collapse of his prairie venture, and his partner returned to Omaha. 

During this year, however, 1873, there was established a bank 
destined to survive the inicertainties of tlie new country and to con- 
tinue its life unbrokenly until the affairs of the county reached a 
state of stability. This was the Adams County Bank, which was the 
beginning of the present First National Bank. Tliis bank was 
organized late in the year 1873 by J. S. ^Iclntyre who came to 
Hastings from Clarinda, Iowa. 

The vicissitudes of the early banks only reflected the inicer- 
tainties of the earlier settlers. There was a demand for loans to 
develop the young comity but the nature of the securities and the 
problematical state of the future tended to send interest rates soar- 
ing, and this condition continued more or less until after the drought 


of 1894. and the jjartia] droughts of other years. Not until after the 
introduction of winter wlieat as one of the i^rincipal crops of the 
community did affairs become stable. In the jieriod extending from 
about 1878 to about 1885 interest on farm loans ran as high as 12 
per cent per annum, while interest on chattel mortgages ranged from 
one to four per cent per month. 

On more than one occasion bankers were at tlieir wit's ends 
in grappling witli the problems confronting them. The low prices 
and crop failures prevailing around 1894 and 1896 caused some of 
tlie i'armers so much discouragement that they were disj)osed to yield 
their farms to meet the mortgages which they bore, and in some 
instances bankers of the county purchased supplies for their cus- 
tomers in order to tide them over to the better times which the more 
courageous felt sure were lying just ahead. When the Adams 
County Bank, the forerunner of the First National, was purchased 
by A. L. Clarke and George H. Pratt, some five years after its 
o])ening in 1873, the deposits in the institution aggregated between 
seven and eight thousand dollars. In the statement issued by the 
First National INIay 1, 1916, the deposits are given as $1,7'27,'236.18. 
This growth in deposits marks the development of the country in 
wealth and the consequent establishment of business confidence. 

The deposits of the three national banks of Hastings — the First 
National, the German National and the Exchange National — as 
shown by their statements made February 28, 1896, aggregated 
$381,88.5.42. Ten years later, November 12, 1906, the statements of 
the same three banks show aggregate deposits of $2,101,217.76, 
while the total of the deposits in the four banks oiierating in Hast- 
ings at that time amounted to $2,307,141.49. On ]May 1. 1916, 
deposits in the four banks of Hastings — the First National, German 
National, Exchange National and the Bank of Commerce — totalled 
$3,484,038.20. On the same date about three thousand two hundred 
dollars was on deposit in the Postal Savings Bank. The Bank 
Register of the Credit Company of New York gave the total 
deposits in the ten Adams County banks operating in towns outside 
of Hastings at $790,000 in June, 1915. From the insignificant 
deposits of the private banks of the county established in 1873 the 
aggregate in 1916 is considerable in excess of four and one-quarter 
millions of dollars, distributed among fourteen banks all of which 
bear evidence of being upon a thoroughly stable basis. Taking the 
1915 statements of the banks outside of Hastings, and the May 1, 
1916, statements of the latter, the aggregate of the deposits is 
$4,274,038.20. to which must be added about three thousand two 


hundred dollars representing the deposits in the Postal Savings Bank. 

The Adams County Bank which was organized in the latter part 
of 1873 by J. S. JNIcIntyre was located in a small frame building in 
Hastings. It fronted east on Hastings Avenue at about the loca- 
tion of the present First National Bank Building. In the early 
daj^s two men were able to attend to the business of the bank. 
Mr. Mclntyre sold the bank to George Hazzard and in 1877 it was 
converted into a stock companJ^ The principal stockholders were 
George Wilkins, Samuel Alexander and Oswald Oliver. Soon after- 
ward it was purchased by A. L. Clarke and George H. Pratt and in 
1881 it was reincorporated as the First National Bank with a caj^ital 
of $25,000. In 1879 the frame building w^as supplanted by a two- 
story building built of red brick and erected at a cost of about eight 
thousand dollars. The red brick building was torn down in 1903 and 
the present building was erected at a cost of $40,000. 

It was in 1902 that the First National Bank purchased the 
Adams Count}' Bank which had been opened Ajsril 2, 1886, with 
William Kerr, president; J. M. Sewell, vice president and O. G. 
Smith, cashier. This bank was located at the southeast corner of 
Lincoln Avenue and Second Street, the present location of the Bank 
of Commerce. ^Vhile bearing the same name as the bank preceding 
the First National and out of which the latter grew, ]Mr. Kerr's bank 
was an entirely different organization. The capital stock of the 
Adams County Bank was $60,000. 

Tlie capital stock of the First National Bank is now $200,000. 
Its officers are A. L. Clarke, president; W. A. Taylor, vice president; 
Fred Pease, cashier; W. B. Remer and O. A. Riley, assistant cash- 
iers. The directors are A. L. Clarke, G. J. Evans, Ernest 
Hoeppner, W. M. Lowman, C. J. Miles, Fred Pease, G. H. Pratt 
and W. A. Taylor. 

The Exchange National Bank has existed as a national bank 
since January 8, 1884. The beginning of the institution, however, 
dates back to October 14, 1877, when I. M. Raymond, A. S. Ray- 
mond and A. Yeazel opened the Excliange Bank, a private 
institution with a paid up capital of $10,000. These men were resi- 
dents of Lincoln, in which city the Raymonds Avere wholesale 
grocers. I. M. Raymond Avas the president of the institution, and 
Mr. Yeazel came to Hastings to manage the business, and was a 
resident of the city for many years. INIr. Yeazel died early in the 

In 1884 the Exchange Bank Avas reorganized as the Excliange 
National Bank and its capital stock increased to $100,000, at Avhich 


figure it now stands. In 1891 W. H. Lanning became president of 
the bank, Charles G. Lane becoming casliier at the same time. JNIr. 
Lanning continued as president until 1909 when he retired and 
31 r. Lane became the jj resident and David P. Jones the cashier. 
The Raymonds still continue their interest in the institution. 

This bank began its business in a frame building near the site 
of its present location. It continued in the frame building mitil 
188.3 when the Cameron Block was built. Upon the completion of 
that block the bank moved into the location which it now occupies. 
The present officers of the bank are: president, C. G. Lane; vice 
president, V. B. Trmible; cashier, D. P. Jones. 

The Bank of Commerce is a state bank. It Avas opened for 
business August 1, 190.5, with a capital stock of $50,000. This bank 
is located at the southeast corner of Hastings Avenue and Second 
Street, and began business in the rooms occupied by the Adams 
County Bank of which William Kerr was the jiresident. At the time 
of organization the officers of this bank were: president, William 
Lowman; vice president, O. C. Zinn; cashier, F. E. Garratt. In 
April, 1915, the management changed and the controlling interest 
of the bank was purchased by J. S. INIarvel and J. W. JNIarvel, who 
came to Hastings from Hamilton County. The capital stock at 
present remains as it was originally, $50,000. The building occu- 
pied by the Bank of Commerce was remodeled during 1914 and 1915 
at a cost of about $10,000. At this time a safety deposit vault was 
installed and modern conveniences for bank customers. 

The officers of this bank are: president, J. S. Marvel: vice presi- 
dent, Emil Polenske; cashier, J. W. ^larvel. The directors are 
J. S. :Marvel, C. B. Wahlquist, Emil Polenske and J. W. ]Marvel. 

The German National Bank was organized June 24, 1887, with 
a capital stock of $50,000. Senator Charles H. Dietrich was presi- 
dent, W. ]\I. Lowman, vice president; W. H. Fuller, cashier, and 
John Slaker, assistant cashier. A nvmiber of years after organiza- 
tion ]Mr. Lowman sold his interest in the bank to Jacob Bernhardt, 
who became vice president. INIr. Bernhardt disposed of his interest 
to William JNIadgett who in turn sold to J. P. A. Black. Henry 
Siekmann succeeded Mr. Bernhardt as vice president. A few years 
afterward ]Mr. Bernhardt died at Depue, Illinois. In July, 1905, 
Senator Dietrich retired from the l)ank and \\'as succeeded in the 
presidency by J. P. A. Black Avho still retains the ]5osition. In 
October 1911, ]\Ir. Slaker. the cashier, who had been with the bank 
for twenty-four years retired. A. R. Thompson became vice presi- 
dent and J. H. Lohmann cashier. The i)resent officers are: J. P. 


A. Black, president; A. R. Thompson, vice president; L. J. Siek- 
mann, vice president; J. H. Lohmann, cashier and H. Welch, 
assistant cashier. In 1906 the deposits in this bank were $38.>,760 
while in the statement of May 1, 1916, they aggregate !i>797, 117.83. 

The German National Bank first opened its doors at 108 North 
Hastings Avenue, where it remained until 1889 when it removed 
to the present location in the building owned by ]Mr. Dietrich. At 
that time the building was a store building and before the installa- 
tion of the bank was occupied by the dry goods store of Pickens & 
Hanna. In 190.5 the building was completely remodeled and new 
fixtures costing $.5,500 installed. In 1912 the furniture was further 
im^Jroved at a cost of about $4,000. 

The Postal Savings Bank was opened in the Hastings Post 
Office July 13, 1911. ]Mrs. J. S. Spriggle and C. Harrison Fergus, 
R. F. D. carrier No. 3, tossed a coin to determine who should be the 
first depositor. Mr. Fergus won and opened his account with a 
deposit of $1.25. By the end of the month the savings bank had 
thirteen dejiositors aggregating $235. When the bank was opened 
each dej^ositor was limited to $500 per year and not to exceed $100 
in one month. In July 1916 the limit was raised to $1,000 with no 
restriction as to the amount ])er montli, provided the yearly aggre- 
gate does not exceed one thousand dollars. By January 1, 1912, the 
dei)osits amounted to $1,400; in 1914 at the same period they had 
climbed to about four thousand eight Hundred dollars. During 1914 
there were many withdrawals for homebuilding so that January 1, 
1915, the deposits amounted to about two thousand dollars. At the 
beginning of 1916 about three thousand one hundred dollars was on 
deposit in the postoffice. At this time the number of depositors are 
about forty-five. Several of the depositors have converted Itheir 
deposits into bonds which pay them interest at the rate of 2io', 
per annum. Regular deposits draw 2',. 

In November 1881 two banks were established which were later 
consolidated, and the consolidated institution resulted in the only 
failure in the banking annals of Adams County. The Farmers & 
INIerchants Bank was organized by A. H. Cramer and Harrison 
Bostwick. The firm erected a Ijuilding at the southwest corner of 
Denver Avenue and Second Street. About the same time the City 
Bank was organized and was located in the stone block. L. II. 
Tower was the president and E. S. Fowler the cashier of the City 
Bank. Its ca])ital stock was $20,000. In October, 1883, the City 
Bank was reorganized as a national bank and became the City 
National Bank. Its capital stock was raised to $50,000. A. H. 


Craiuer disposed of his interest in the Farmers & Merchants Bank 
to his partner, Harrison Bostwick in 1884 and the following year 
JNIr. Bostwick and Walter G. Clark of Omaha secured a controlling- 
interest in the Citj^ National Bank by purchasing the interests of 
L. II. Tower and E. S. Fowler. After the consolidation which 
came as a surprise to the remaining stockholders of the City National 
Bank, the institution continued vmder the latter name. Its officers 
were: president, Harrison Bostwick; vice president, C. J. Dilworth; 
cashier, W. G. Clark; assistant cashier, J. M. Ferguson. The direc- 
tors were Harrison Bostwick, J. ]M. Ferguson, W. G. Clark, C. J. 
Dilworth, John Slaker, John JSI. I^'man and G. J. Evans. 

Harrison Bostwick was prominently identified Avith politics and 
is said to have been a dispenser of railroad patronage. Rumors of 
indiscreet loans became rife, particularly regarding a brick manufac- 
turing plant which was being developed at Brickton, and these 
resulted in a run on the bank August 12, 1890. Its doors Avere 
closed, but ui)on the recommendation of Bank Examiner Griffith 
the bank was reopened in the latter part of September after an 
assessment of 1.5 per cent had been levied on the capital stock. By the 
reorganization effected at this time E. ]M. Morseman of Omaha 
became president: G. J. Evans, vice president and A. W. Jones, 
cashier. Among the directors of this organization was William 
Neville of North Platte, father of the present democratic candidate 
for governor. Before the year Avas over, however. Doctor Lymer 
of Iowa was apjjointed receiver to Avind up the affairs of the institu- 
tion. The deposits in the City National Bank were in excess of 
$3.50.000 and the failure resulted in much litigation. Some loss was 
entailed by depositors and the stockholders Avere heavy losers. Harri- 
son BostAvick, the president, Avas a lawyer. At present he i-esides in 
Seattle, Wash., and is reported to have amassed a fortune. 

In August, 1879, C R. Jones and J. M. SeAvell opened a bank in 
.Timiata. This Avas a private bank and after a number of years it 
Avas bought by George T. BroAvn noAv a resident of California. 
This bank became the Bank of Juniata in 1900 Avith A. L. Clarke 
president, George T. BroAvn, vice president, and C. J. Van Houten, 
cashier. These remain the officers of the bank except that the ])resent 
casliier is Mr. W. A. Taylor. The frame building in Avhich the bank 
ojierated for many years Avas destroyed by fire in the winter of 
1908. The present brick building Avas erected soon afterAvards and 
was occupied by the bank in September, 1909. In June, 191.5, the 
Bank of Juniata had on deposit $9.5,000. 


The remaining banks may be summarized as follows, the officers 
named being those serving in 1916: 

The First State Bank of Highland was established in 1913, 
M. JMoritz cashier; J. F. Ernstmeyer, president. 

Tlie Hansen State Bank was established in 1912, H. A. Red- 
man, president; C. jM. Redman, vice president; J. J. ^Slohlman, 

The Prosser State Bank was establislied in 1904, Charles K. 
Hart, president; C. J. Hart, vice president; R. A. AValker. cashier. 

The First State Bank of Kenesaw was established in 1908, B. 
J. Hilsaback, president; William Bernhard, vice jjresident. 

The Kenesaw Excliange Bank was established in 1884, A. L. 
Clarke, president: S. A. Westing, vice president; H. R. Coplin, 

The Farmers State Bank of Ayr was established in 1912, ]M. 
Bonham, president; C. S. Woodworth. vice president; C. L. Bon- 
ham, cashier. 

The Roseland State Bank Avas established in 1904, W. F. Dun- 
can, president; Erick Johnson, vice president; Ed Hall, cashier. 

The First State Bank of Holstein was established in 1902, A. 
L. Clarke, president; W. B. Hargleroad, cashier. 

The Bank of Pauline was established in 1906, A. L. Clarke, 
president; W. A. Taylor, vice president; F. N. Ferry, cashier. 


The Hastings Building and Loan Association was organized in 
1896 and incorporated Mav 2 of that vear bv Henrv Siekmann, A. L. 
Clarke, E. C. Webster. David B. l". Breede, J. H. Fleming, S. C. 
Heacox, G. H. Pratt, John Rees. S. E. Howard, H. C. Haverly and 
J. M. Tennant. Before the organization of the present association 
another similar organization was carried on for a time. The first 
organization was called the Hastings Land, Loan and Building Asso- 
ciation. It had no connection at any time with the present association. 

The association has an authorized capital stock of $1,000,000 di- 
vided into shares of $100 eacli. The assets on October 1. 1896. were 
$l,062.o0; at the present time tliey have increased to $22.3.000: while 
in 1906 they Avere $9.5,000. The present officers are H. C. Haverly, 
president; F. L. Pease, vice president; .John Snider, attorney; J. O. 
Rohrer, treasin-er and secretarv. 



The history of organized INIasonry in Adams County begins with 
the organization at Juniata in June, 1873, of Juniata Lodge No. 42. 
A few months later, August 14, 1873, a call was issued to all JNIasons 
in good standing to attend a meeting at the store of E. Steinau in 
Plastings. This call was signed by G. W. IMowery, James Corbin, 
Sam Sadler, E. Steinau, L. D. Reynolds, L. W. Spier, R. V. Shockey, 
F. S. Wells, W. M. West, William L. Smith and L. C. Gould. At 
this meeting a lodge was organized, but a charter was not granted 
until June 26, 1874. The number given the lodge was No. .50. 

The first officers were : L. C. Gould, W. :M. ; C. E. Forgy, S. W. ; 
J. li. Parrott, J. W. The lodge held its first meetings in the school 
house or in the I. O. O. F. Hall; in fact, many temporary quarters 
were used until the fall of 1879, when it moved into the second story 
of the first brick building to be built in Hastings. This was located 
on North Hastings Avenue and is generally referred to as the "old 
Masonic Building." This lodge room served its purpose until 1887, 
when the various jNIasonic lodges moved into the Masonic Temple, at 
6I9I0 West Second Street. This building was remodeled in 1913 at 
a cost of about $65,000. The Temple Craft Building is one of the 
best in the City of Hastings, and the lodge rooms are commodious and 
elegant. The property of the ^Masonic organization in Hastings is 
estimated to be worth $100,000. The masters of the Blue Lodge for 
some few years were selected from the charter members. The follow- 
ing are the names of the Past JNIasters: Alexander D. Buckworth. 
]874: Lucius C. Gould, 1874; Thomas M. Abbott, 187o: Emanuel 
Steinau. 1876; G. W. Mowery, 1877-8-82; John J. Wemple. 1879; 
Fred J. Benedict, 1880; George H. Pratt, 1881 ; David INI. JNIcElHin- 
ney, 1883-.5-90; Joseph JNIeyer, 1884; Edwin C. Webster. 1886; C. C. 
Rittenhouse, 1887; William S. McKinney. 1888; ^Villiam F. Buchan- 
an, 1889; A. R. Van Sickle, 1891-2-3; Charles K. Lawson, 1894; 


Perry H. Sherrard, 189.5; Tracy P. Sykes, 1896; John Raynard, 
1897; John J. Buchanan, 1898; J. F. Beardsley, 1899-1900; Frank 
C. Babcock, 1901-02; JNI. W. Burgess, 1903-04; John D. French, 1905; 
W. A. Reynolds, 1906-7-8; W. R. Alexander, 1909-10; Curtis L. 
Walters, 1911; W. J. Rmderspacher, 1912-13; Fred B. Remer, 1914; 
Harry Proffitt, 191.5; Gordon L. Hammonds, 1916. 

The Past Grand blasters are: John J. Wemple and James P. 
A. Black. 

Hastings ChajJter No. 21, R. A. ]M., was chartered January 14, 
1881, A. I. 2,411, with the following officers: J. J. Wemple, H. P.; 
Emanuel Fist, K.; J. S. Allison, S.; R. W. Oliver, treasurer; William 
Cline, secretary; J. J. Raymaker, C. of H.; G. J. Evans, P. Sojr. ; 
Joseph JNIeyer", R. A. C.;' Jacob Fisher, G. M. 3V.: B. F. Rawalt, 
G. M. 2V. ; J. Vandemark, G. M. iV. ; and M. L. Alexander, S. 

The Past High Priests are: John J. Wemple, 1879-81 ; Emanuel 
Fist, 1882; Joseph S. Allison, 1883; John J. Raymaker, 1884; Ben- 
jamin F. Rawalt, 188.5-86; D. :M. McElHhmey, 1887: Edwin C. 
Webster, 1888; C. C. Rittenhouse. 1889-90; Fred J. Benedict. 1891; 
William M. Cline, 1892: William S. JNlcKinney, 1893; A. R. Van 
Sickle, 1894; William H. .Alarshall, 189.5-06; William F. Buchanan, 
1897: Edward P. Nellis, 1898-99; John D. French, 1900; John J. 
Buchanan, 1901; Fredrick J. Schaufelberger. 1902; M. W. Burgess, 
1903; ^^'illiam O. Wing, 1904-0.5-06-07-08; Jacob Fisher, 1909-10; 
Volney B. Trimble, 1911-12; G. N. R. Brown, 1913-14-1.5; John J. 
Stanley, 1916. 

The Past Grand High Priest, Charles C. Rittenhouse. 

Hastings Council No. 8, R. and S. INI., was chartered by the Grand 
Council, December 13, 1887, w'ith twenty-seven members, namely: 
C. L. Alexander, M. L. Alexander, W. F. Buchanan, F. J. Benedict, 
W. M. Cline, Emanuel Fist, Jacob Fisher, C. K. Lavvson, B. S. INIor- 
rill, D. M. [McElHinney, W. S. JNIcKinney, James C. McNaughton, 
Francis Naulteus, R. W. Oliver, G. H. Pratt, B. F. Rawalt, C. C. 
Rittenhouse, E. H. Reed, F. J. Schaufelberger, Eevi Stone, J. R. 
Sims, J. H. Scales, J. J. Wemple, E. C. Webster, J. B. Webster, 

E. H. Bartlett and E. C. Sawyer. 

The Past INIasters are: Edwin C. Webster, 1887-88; Chai-les C. 
Rittenhouse, 1889; Fredrick J. Schaufelberger. 1890-91; William 

F. Buchanan, 1892; William S. McKiimey, 1893-94; Edgar J. Pease, 
189.5-01; ]Martin L. McWhinney, 1902-03; Fred J. Benedict, 1904- 
12-13-14-1.5; Volney B. Trimble, 1916; Past M. I. Grand ^Masters: 
Charles C. Rittenhouse. and Fred'k J. Schaufelberger. 

]Mount Nebo Commanderv No. 11, K. T., was organized February 


22, A. D., 1881, with the following Sir Knights as officers and mem- 
bers; John J. Wemple, E. C; John J. Raymaker, G. ; Joseph S. 
Alhson, C. G.; Benjamin F. Rawalt, P.; J. W. Small, S. W.; T. F. 
Pardee, J. W.; Oswald Oliver, Rec.; Robert W. Oliver, Treas.; INIor- 
ris E. Alexander, S. B.; E. H. Bartlett, S. B., and Jacob Fisher, W. 

A charter was granted April 27, 1881, to the following named 
members (the officers named were elected June 14) : John J. Wem- 
ple, E. C; Joseph S. Allison, C. of G. ; John J. Raymaker, G. ; Ben- 
jamin F. Rawalt, P.; J. W. Small, S. W.; W. H."Lanning, J. W.: 
R. W. Oliver, T.: Oswald Oliver, Rec; M. L. Alexander, St. B.; 

E. H. Bartlett. S. B.; Jacob Fisher, ^V.; J. G. Hayzlett, George 
H. Bott. W. U. Cline, Jacob ]\Iiller, J. A. Tulleys, Fred J. Bene- 
dict, J. J. Wagen, Charles Cameron, C. K. Lawson, A. L. \Vebb, 
and Henry Gibbon, Paul Kidmuck, R. Vj. Borney. 

The Past Commanders are John J. ^Vemple, 1881-2-3-4-.5; Ben- 
jamin F. Rawalt. 1890; Jacob Fisher, 1887; Fred J. Benedict, 1888- 
8!l; Edwin C. \Vebstcr. 1890; .Alorris E. Alexander. 1891; ^Villiam 

F. Buchanan, 1892; David M. :McElHinney, 1893; William M. Cline, 
1894: Charles C. Rittenhouse, 189.J: P:dgar J. Pease, 1896; ]Martin E. 
IMcWhinney, 1897; William S. ]\IcKinney, 1898; F. J. Schaufel- 
berger, 1899; William H. ^Marshall, 1900; George W. Tibbets, 1901- 
02; William O. Wing. 1903; INIyron W. Burgess, 1904-0.5; Herman 
E. Stein, 1900; Volney B. Trimble, 1907; John W. Houseman, 1908; 
George W. Tibbets, 1909; Edward P. Nellis, 1910; George W. Tib- 
bets, 1911-12-13; Claude B. Calbreath, 1914; C. G. Lane, 1915-10. 
Past Grand Commanders: John J. Wemple, Edwin C. Webster. 
Fredrick J. Schaufelberger. 

Fiducia Lodge of Perfection No. 3. A. and A. S. R.. was founded 
October 0, 1883, and chartered December 20, that year, with the fol- 
lowing charter members: 

b! F. Rawalt. 32 ; W. H. Lanning. 32 ; H. C. Thatcher, 32 : 
R. W. Oliver. 32 ;.J. D. Hayes, 32°; W. F. Schulthies, 32=; S. E. 
Furry, 32 ; W. W. Miles, 32°; C. L. Alexander, 32°; E. D. Davis, 
32°; Charles D. Moore, 32°; Arthur Williams, 32°; Henry Drum, 
32° ; W. J. Thompson, 32° ; J. S. Walbach, 32° ; N. B. Vinyard. 32 : 
E. S. Post. 32 ; R. H. Wilson, 32° ; L. P. INIunger, 14 . 

The Past Venerable blasters are: Benjamin F. Rawalt, 33, Hon.. 
1883-4-.5-0; Jolm J. ^^^emple. 32. 1887; Francis Naulteus, 32. 1888- 
89; David M. McElHinney, 33, Hon., 1890; JNIelville W. Stone, 32, 
1891; Edwin C. Webster. 33. Hon., 1892; Charles W. Bronson, 32, 
1893; William F. Buchanan, 32, K. C. C. H., 1894-.3-6; INIark Levy. 
32, 1897; Fredrick J. Schaufelberger. 33. Hon.. 1898-99-1900; Edgar 


J. Pease, 18, 1901; Frank C. Babcock, 33, Hon., 1902; George W. 
James, 33, Hon., 1903; ^Vill Brookley, 32, 1904; Myron W. Burgess, 
32, 190.): John F. Beardsley, 32, K. C. C. H., 1900-07; Ernest 
Hoeppner, 32, 1908; C. C. Keith, 32, 1909-10; A. M. Clark, 32, 1911; 
J. H. Vastine, 32, 1912; C. L. Walters, 32, 1913-14; J. P. A. Black, 
32, 191.5; John D. Fuller, 32, 1916. 

Constans Chapter No. 3, of Knights Rose Croix, A. & A. S. R., 
was chartered October 20, 1893, with the following charter members: 
James A. Tulleys, 33 ; D. M. :McElHinney, 32 ; R. E. French, 32° ; 
W. H. Eanning, 32" ; E. C. Webster, 33° ; M. W. Stone, 32° ; R. W. 
Oliver, 32 ; C. L. Alexander, 32°; C. W. Bronson, 18°; W. F. 
Buchanan, 18° ; C. H. Dietrich, 32° ; G. E. Douglas, 32° ; J. F. Gan- 
shaw, 32° ; J. W. Harris, 18° ; J. F. Heiler, 18° ; G. R. Johnson, 32° ; 
Mark Levy, 18° ; B. S. Mori-ill, 18° ; C. H. Roberts, 18° ; F. J. Schau- 
felberger, 18° ; Harry Stern, 32° ; Artman Snyder, 32°. 

The Past Wise Masters are: James A. Tuileys, 33, 1892; William 
H. Lanning. 32, 1893-4-5-6-7; William F. Buchanan, 32, K. C. C. H., 
1898-9-0; Fredrick J. Schaufelberger, 33, 1901; ]Mark Levy, 32, 
1902-3; Frank C. Babcock, 33. 1904-5; George W. James, 33, 1906- 
7; Jolm M. Hiner, 32, 1908; W. R. Alexander, 32, 1909; Peter Hem- 
pel, 32. 1910-11; C. L. Walters. 32, 1912; J. A. Riddle, 32, 1913-14; 
Gordon Hammonds, 32. 1915; Harry Proffitt, 32, 1916. 

Frederick Webber Council of Kadosh No. 3, A. & A. S. R., was 
chartered October 20, 1909, with the following members: 

Fredrick J. Schaufelberger, 33°: Frank C. Babcock, 33°; Wil- 
liam F. Buchanan, 32°, K. C. C. H.; John F. Beardsley, 32°, K. C. 
C. H.; George W. James, 32°, K. C. C. H.; M. W. Burgess, 32°; 
Mark Levy, 32° ; J. J. Buchanan, 32° ; Will Brookley. 32° ; William 
Brach, 32°; A. M. Clark, 32°; J. P. A. Black, 32°; M. L. McQuin- 
nev, 32°; J. F. Heiler, 32°; C. H. Dietrich, 32°; J. M. Hiner, 32°; 
S.'S. Snyder, 32°; A. E. Stitt, 32°; H. C. Haverly, 32°; G. B. 
Loucks, 32°; E. Hoeppner, 32°; M. Pressler, 32°; M. W. Baxter, 
32 ; J. H. Rothwell, 32° ; L. B. Stiner, 32° ; W. B. Kern. 32° : L. F. 
Fryar, 32° ; J. E. Cunningham, 32° ; W. G. Saddler. 32°. 

The Past Commanders are: F. C. Babcock. 33 Hon., 1910-11; 
C. C. Keith, 32, 1912-13; W. J. Rinderspacher. 32, 1914; Jacob F. 
Heiler, 32, 1915-16. 

Plastings Consistory No. 3, A. & A. S. R., was chartered October 
16, 1911, with a charter membership of thirty-three members. The 
Masters of Kadosli liave been: George W. James, 32° ; K. C. C. H., 
1911: George W. James, 33°, 1912; George B. Loucks, 32°; 1913- 


1914, Fredrick J. Schaufelberger, 33% 191.5: Robert R. Danierell, 
32% 191G. 

The charter members are: 

Fredrick J. Schaufelberger, 33° ; Frank C. Babcock, 33" ; George 
W. James, 33% John F. Beardsley, 32% K. C% C. H.; William F. 
Buchanan, 32% K. C. C. H.; W. G. Saddler, 32^ ; M. L. IMcWhinney, 
32 : Charles Moritz, 32°; H. C. Haverly, 32°; J. J. Buchanan, 32°; 
M. W. Baxter, 32° : C. L. Alexander, 32° ; J. P. A. Black, 32° ; H. T. 
Broer, 32 ; J. F. Heiler, 32 ; W. B. Kern, 32°; M. Pressler, 32°; 
S. S. Snyder, 32°; H. M. Bailey, 32°; William Brach, 32°; M. W. 
Burgess, 32°; J. M. Hiner, 32°; Mark Levy, 32°; J. H. Rothwell, 
32°; L. B. Stiner, 32°; G. W. Maxwell, 32°; Will Brookley, 32°; 
A. M. Clark, 32° ; E. Hoeppner, 32° ; G. B. Loucks, 32° ; A. E. Stitt, 
32°: A\% II. Wigton, 32 % J. Ritterbush, 32°. 


Acacia Chapter No. 39, O. E. S., was organized June 17, 1891, 
with thirty-six members. JNIeetings were held once a month in the 
jMasonic Temple. The first officer was Mrs. Hartigan, Worthy 
Matron, and the charter members were: Hattie Alexander, Clara 
Barnes, INIay Buchanan, Ella Cramer, Ellen Cramer, Fannie Crane, 
Sarah Cline, Alice Collins, Kittie Creeth, Alice Dilworth, Clara Har- 
ris, jNIartha Hartigan, Jennie Hayzlett, INIinnie Howard, Alice Hurst, 
Caroline Kay, ]Mrs. LalNIonte, Anna Marshall, Addie JNIorrill, Sarah 
JMcWhinney, ]Maud IMcWhinney, Eliza Nellis, Lucy Nellis, Lucy 
Partridge, Clara Pease, Pet Reed, Elvina Rittenhouse, Eva Schau- 
felberger, Eva Sherrard, INIaria Sims, Ida E. Stewart, Eva Van 
Sickle. Rose Webster, Phoebe Williams, and Verna Yetter. 

The present officers are: W. M., Mrs. Ray Damerell; W. P., 
Harry Proffitt; A. iNI., INIrs. Grace Sims; secretary, Mrs. Ed Francis; 
treasurer. Elizabeth Alford. The membership now numbers 215. 

The Grand Lodge have had two reunions, or conventions, at the 
JMasonic Temple, one in May, 1900, and the last one May, 1915. 


Hastings has two lodges of Odd Fellows, Lodge No. 50 and 
Lodge No. 350. Lodge No. 50 was organized August 13, 1874, with 
Fred Forcht, Noble Grand: Alfred Berg, V. G.; Benjann'n E. Boyer, 
recording secretary; C. M. Wright, treasurer: Melville Griffith, W.; 
D. W. Dalton, C; G. E. Grant, R. S. N. G.; J. T. Ross, R. S. V. G., 


and C. B. Sperry, O. G. Among the charter members was R. A. 
Batty, and within a short time the names of James B. Heartwell, 
James JNIcWade, J. H. Fleming, N. L. Jorgensen, J. F. Heiler, D. 
M. JMcElHinney, E. C. Webster, W. W. Brown, A. L. Wigton, 
S. jM. Clark, c' C. Rittenhouse, L. A. Royce and E. C. O'Donald 
appeared on the roll. 

The first meetings were held in the schoolhonse, which was located 
between JNIinnesota and Colorado avenues, near Second Street. After- 
wards, the lodge met in a frame building on Second Street, between 
Hastings and Denver avenues. In 1880. the lodge occupied rooms 
in the old jMasonic Building, on North Hastings Avenue. In 1884, 
the Odd Fellows of No. 50 built and occuiJied a brick two-story build- 
ing of its own at 216 North Lincoln Avenue, which is still the home of 
the lodge. In 191G the lodge purchased the adjoining building and 
comijletely remodeled the lodge rooms. It is in a flourishing condi- 
tion and has about 12.5 members. 

Lodge No. 3.50, I. O. O. F., was organized February 21, 1910, 
at Fraternity Hall, now Brandeis Hall, on the corner of Burlington 
Avenue and Second Street. The greater number of the charter mem- 
bers were drawn from Lodge No. 50. These members were J. F. 
Heiler, U. S. Rohrer, J. H. Vastine, Adam Grass, Henry B. Huck- 
feldt, Arthur C. Kanatzar, A. K. DefFenbaugh, C. C. Keith. Dr. 
James V. Beghtol, G. P. Eastwood, E. A. Francis, JNIilton B. North, 
W. O. Vastine, D. M. NefF, Ed M. Dorwart, H. M. Vastine, C. I. 
Van Patten, Eugene Battan, J. H. RifFe, J. H. Hoagland, J. M. 
Dailey, M. L. IMcBride, D. B. Parsill. Jr., J. E. Dennis. George W. 
INIaxwell, Herman Kohlbry. ]\Iulford M. Haynes. O. R. Palmer. A. 
V. Cole, G. A. Wheeler, E. J. Herring, Fred D. James, David Bry- 
son, C. A. Doj^en, A. I. Battan, Adam Breede, C. A. Heartwell, 
David J. Lewis, J. B. Pizer and W. B. Hartigan. 

The first officers of No. 350 were: James V. Beghtol. noble 
grand: D. B. Parsill. Jr.. vice grand; E. A. Francis, secretary, and 
C. C. Keith, treasurer. The present officers (1916) are: B. F. 
Rohrer, noble grand; John D. Goudy, vice grand; H. F. Favinger, 
secretary, and D. ]M. NefF. treasurer. The membership of I^odge 
No. 350 is about one hundred. 

Enterjirise Encampment No. 29 was organized INIarch 22. 1888. 
The charter members were D. INI. INIcElHinney, D. M. IMorris, O. F. 
Heartwell, J. C. Kay, A. J. Neimeyer. H. C. Hansen and J. F. 
Heiler. The first ofl^cers were: H. C. Hansen. C. P.; J. C. Kav, 
H. P.; J. F. Heiler, S. W.; O. F. Heartwell, J. W.; D. M. 3IcEl- 


Hinne3% scribe; A. J. Neinieyer, treasurer; D. M. Morris, I. S. The 
encaniijment now has a membership of about twenty. 


Schuyler Rebekah liodge, No. 52, was organized July 14, 1890. 
Tlie charter members Avere Jennie Dalby, Anna JMarshall, Catherine 
Heiler, Addie L. Brown, Teana Doyen. Elizabeth Kempel, INIary 
C. jMarian, Frances L. Kimball, Kathleen Hartigan, Delia I. Brown, 
Ada C. Michael, Fannie A. Schilling, Lulu B. Upton, ^Nlaiy C. 
Goodin, Annie C. demons, Lizzie F. Coons, Harriet M. Hickman, 
C. I^illis Tennant, Amelia Lustig, Jennie Furstenau, Eliza A. Bates, 
Sophronia M. Ferguson, Martha C. Hartigan, Belle Rhodes, Caro- 
line Kay, Phoebe J. Morledge and ^Martha E. "White. The first 
officers Avere: Addie L. Brown, noble grand; Jennie Dalby, vice 
grand; Lulu B. Upton, recording secretary; Catherine Heiler, finan- 
cial secretary, and Ada JNIichael, treasurer. The present officers are: 
]Mrs. Elsie Haubrock, noble grand; ]Mrs. Anna Bohnet, vice grand; 
U. S. Rohrer, secretary; Mrs. Catherine Heiler, treasurer. The pres- 
ent membership of the lodge is 56. 

Rebekah Lodge No. 312 was organized August 26, 1914. jMeet- 
ings are held in the I. O. O. F. lodge rooms at 216 North Lincoln 
Avenue. The charter members were Elsie Haubrock, Anna Camp- 
bell, P. J. Greuter, Harry Smith, L. L. DufFord, F. D. Campbell, 
Lilly Hibbard, Blanch C. Lavine, Pauline Smith, Ed Livingston. 
Lou Lavine, T. J. Ralston, Alice Hibbard, Leah Rosenberg, Eva 
Derricks, Dave Rosenberg, P. J. Peterson, Henry Congers, Ella 
Jacks, Sarah Greuter, Hattie Garratt, Albert E. Williams, H. A. 
Kelley, A. F. Copeyon, Emma Jacks, Amanda Orton, Ethel Keith, 
Fern Reider, INI. J. Plnmmer, C. S. Woodworth, IVIyrrel Legler. 
The officers from the time of organization are: 

AtTGUST 26, 1913, TO JAXUARY 1, 1914 

JMrs. Lilly Hibbard, noble grand; ISIrs. Sarah Greuter. vice gi-and; 
Miss Elsie Hibbard, secretary; ]Mrs. Blanche Levine, treasurer, and 
]Mrs. I^eah Rosenberg, chaplain. 

DECEMBER 31, 1913, TO JUNE 30, 1914 

Mrs. Sarah Greuter, noble grand; INIrs. Anna Campbell, vice 
grand ; INIiss Ella Peterson, secretary ; ]\Irs. Blanche Levine, treasurer, 
and ]\Iiss Hattie Garratt, chaplain. 


JUNE 30, 1914 TO DECEMBER 31, 1914 

Mrs. Anna Camjibell, noble grand; jNIrs. Blanche Levine, vice 
grand; ]Miss Ella Peterson, secretary; ]Mrs. Leah Rosenberg, treas- 
urer, and ]\Irs. Edith Sinclair, chaplain. 

JANUARY 1, 1915, TO JULY 1, 1915 

Mrs. Blanche Levine, noble grand; ]Miss Alice Hibbard, vice 
grand; ]Mrs. ]\Iinnie AVillianis, secretary; JNIrs. Leah Rosenberg, treas- 
urer, and JNIrs. Edith Sinclair, chaplain. 

JULY 1, 1915 TO JANUARY 1, 1916 

JNIiss Alice Hibbard, noble grand; JNIrs. Edith Sinclair, vice grand; 
Miss Ella Peterson, secretary; JNIrs. JNIartha White, treasurer, and 
JNIrs. Lottie Dufford, chaplain. 

JANUARY 1, 1916, TO JULY 1, 1916 

Mrs. Edith Sinclair, noble grand; Mrs. JNIartha White, vice grand; 
JNIrs. Fern Rider, secretary; JNIrs. Leah Rosenberg, treasurer, and 
JNIrs. Belle Goudy, chaplain. 

JULY 1, 1916, TO JANUARY 1, 1917 

Mrs. JNIartha White, noble grand; JNIrs. Belle Goudy, vice grand; 
JNIrs. Xeonia Hutchinson, secretary; Miss Lena Olson, treasurer, and 
JNIrs. Blanche Levine, chaplain. 


The JNIodern Woodmen of America maintain two lodges in Hast- 
ings and have witnessed stirring scenes, particularly during the great 
fight that was made in 1912 against the action of the head camp in 
raising the rates. Queen City Cam]), Xo. 4201, took a leading part in 
that memorable movement and furnished in the person of Dr. James 
V. Beghtol a national president of the insurgent movement. 

Hastings Camp, Xo. 277, JNIodern Woodmen of America, how- 
ever, is the elder of the two lodges and was chartered June 6, 1887. 
The first officers were: J. F. Ballinger, venerable consul; Wes 
JNIontffomerv, wortliv adviser; J. H. Hanev, excellent banker; A. J. 


Nowlan, clerk; Fred Reimer, escort. The present officers are: J. 
A. Rose, venerable consul; Dr. F. J. Schaufelberger, worthy adviser; 
H. C. Kerr, banker; W. A. Pielstick, clerk. The membership of this 
camp at present is thirty-seven. 

Queen City Camp, No. 4201, was chartered in 1896. Officers have 
served as follows: Venerable consul — 1896, J. J. Simmering; 1897, 
Z. B. Shreve; 1898 and 1899, G. L. Macfarlane; 1900, M. W. Bur- 
gess; 1901, I. A. Downey; 1902, D. A. Jones; 1903, G. L. Macfar- 
lane; 1904, Amos Sutton; 190.5, J. V. Beghtol; 1906, D. H. Went- 
worth; 1907, G. L. Macfarlane; 1908, C. M. Stephens; 1909 to 1915, 
Walter Livingston; 1915, C. E. Coblentz; 1916, A. J. Sliger. Excel- 
lent liankers have been as follows: 1896, E. JM. ]\Iarquis; 1897, Carl 
J. Miller; 1898 to 1901, Z. B. Shreve; 1901 to 1904, Carl J. JNIiller; 
1904, Jacob Wooster; 1905 to 1916, Z. B. Shreve; 1916, E. D. Bruce. 
The following have been clerks: 1896 to 1904, S. L. Stichter; 1904 
and 1905, D. H. Wentworth; 1906, D. A. Jones; 1907 to 1910, 
L. A. Daily; T. H. Wilhams assumed tlie clerkship June 1, 1909, and 
served through 1910: 1911 to 1915, L. A. Daily; 1915, L. J. Moore; 
1916, Earl Benson. 

Queen City Camp, No. 4201, of Hastings, took a leading part in 
tlie insiu'gency movement in Nebraska to protest against the raising 
of tlie insurance rates of the ]Modern Woodmen as pro2:)osed by the 
head camp officials in Chicago in 1911. It was contended by the offi- 
cials that unless the rates should be increased the order would encounter 
a crisis in 1917, because of the increase in the death roll that might 
])e expected by that time. Among the leaders to protest against the 
raise from the Hastings camp were Dr. J. V. Beghtol, Walter I^iv- 
ingston and Z. B. Shreve. The movement, which can be said to have 
started in Hastings so far as Nebraska was concerned, soon became 

On ^March 20, 1912, a state meeting of the insurgents was held 
at the Kerr Opera House. The meeting was attended by 376 dele- 
gates, representing 219 Nebraska camps. A^enerable Counsel Walter 
Livingston presided throughout the convention, and the keynote of 
insurgency was sounded by Dr. J. V. Beghtol in a notable speech, in 
which he charged that Woodmen were face to face with the problem 
of taxation without representation. 

The following resolutions committee was chosen: M. L. Corey, 
Clay Center; R. D. Sutherland, Nelson; F. A. Anderson, Holdrege; 
Alexander JNIcFarland, Friend, and A. J. Van Every, Hastings. The 
resolutions drafted by this committee became the foundation of 
insurgency throughout the state. The resolutions demanded the sub- 


mission of the rate question to the entire membership for a referendum 
vote. If the J' should fail in tliis, it was resolved to endeavor to secure 
a meeting of a nevvlj^ elected head camp for the reconsideration of the 
rate question, and if this, too, should fail, it was resolved to institute 
legal i^roceedings to prevent the enforcement of the new rates pend- 
ing consideration of the question by the next regular head camp. 
Failing in all these, it was determined to call another meeting to take 
such action as the circumstances warranted. 

An executive committee of nine, with Doctor Beghtol as chair- 
man, was chosen to put in operation the resolutions of the convention. 
Doctor Beghtol later became national president of the insurgents and 
had the latter gained control of the national convention at Toledo, 
Ohio, in 1914, it was generally understood by insurgent Woodmen 
throughout the United States that Doctor Beghtol would be elected 
head consul. Delegates sent from insurgent camps, however, were 
in many instances contested, and the old guard controlled the 

The rates have not been raised. Injunctions obtained from the 
courts of Des JMoines, la., Springfield, 111., and Hastings, Neb., pre- 
vented the Chicago rates from going into effect as scheduled for Jan- 
uary 1, 1913, and by the time of the Toledo convention in 1914 the 
officers had receded from their position and advocated the mainte- 
nance of the old rates. 

Head Consul A. R. Talbot, of Lincoln, was himself present at 
the convention held in Hastings in 1912. and led the bolting delegates 
out of the convention hall to the Bostwick Hotel, now the American 
House, M'here they held a convention and elected delegates. The 
increase in assessments as proposed by the Chicago rates would have 
raised the obligation of Nebraska Woodmen a million dollars. The 
activities of the insurgents in Hastings were probably the most 
momentous that ever came liefore a fraternal order in Adams County. 


The Royal Neighbors, Queen City Local No. 6.59, was granted 
a charter April 30, 1897. 

The charter members were John Coffey, Kate Coffey, Hattie 
Hadden. Louis Hadden, W. H. Lynn, C. J. 3Iiller, ISIarie ]\Iiller, 
Alma INIorgan, Abbie Seagraves, B. I. Seagraves, J. W. Shaw, 
3Iartha Shaw, Jennie Shreve, Z. B. Shreve, Emma K. Stichter. 
S. L. Stichter, A. R. Van Sickle, Lavina Werrick, E. Q. Winter, 


Arabella Winter, Jacob Wooster, J. A. WycofF, Lula Wycoff and 
John Simmering. 

The officers, from time of organization, have been: 


Mrs. Werrick, oracle; Hattie Hadden, vice oracle; Ennna Stich- 
ter, recorder; Mrs. Carl Miller, receiver. 


Hattie Hadden, oracle; Arabella Winters, vice oracle; Kate Cof- 
fey, recorder; Mrs. Carl Miller, receiver. 


Hattie Hadden. oracle; Arabella Winter, vice oracle; Kate Cof- 
fey, recorder; Abbie Seagraves, receiver. 


Nolia Burgess, oracle; Kate Coffey, vice oracle; Jennie Shreve, 
recorder: Abbie Seagraves, receiver. 


Kate CoiFey, oracle; Mrs. Beck, vice oracle; Jennie Shreve, 
recorder: Abbie Seagraves, receiver. 


Kate Coffey, oracle; INIrs. Beck, vice oracle; Jennie Shreve, 
recorder; Abbie Seagraves, receiver. 


Arabella Winters, oracle; Mrs. Beck, vice oracle; Jennie Shreve, 
recorder; Abbie Seagraves, receiver. 


]Mollie Schaff er, oracle ; Sarah Owens, vice oracle ; Jennie Shreve, 
recorder; Kate Coffey, receiver. 


]Mollie SchafFer, oracle; Caroline Vance, vice oracle; Jennie 
Shreve. recorder; Kate CofFev, receiver. 



Ida Brown, oracle; Grace Gauvreau, vice oracle; Jennie Slireve, 
recorder ; Lucy Guthrie, receiver. 


Grace Gauvreau, oracle: 3Iollie SchafFer, vice oracle; Florence 
Straight, recorder; Caroline Vance, receiver. 


Jennie Shreve, oracle; Hattie Coblentz, vice oracle; Clara Jones, 
recorder; Caroline Vance, receiver. 


Jennie Shreve. oracle; Ida Coblentz, vice oracle; Kate Coffey, 
recorder; Ida Brown, receiver. 


Jennie Shi'eve, oracle; Ida Brown, vice oracle; Kate Coffey, 
recorder; Abbie Seagraves. receiver. 


Jennie Shreve, oracle; Arabella Winters, vice oracle; Kate Cof- 
fey, recorder; IVIollie Scliaffer, receiver. 


Jennie Shreve, oracle; Ennna Pielstick, vice oracle; jNIae Snyder, 
recorder; j\Irs. Saucernian, receiver. 


Emma Pielstick, oi'acle; Ida Brown, vice oracle; INIae Snyder, 
recorder; Nella Nichols, receiver. 


Emma Pielstick, oracle; Annie Foster, vice oracle; Kate Coffey, 
recorder; Nella Nichols, receiver. 



Editli ]Moore, oracle; Anna Foster, vice oracle; Kate Coffey, 
recorder; Nella Nichols, receiver. 


Edith ]Moore, oracle; Anna J^oster, vice oracle; Ivy Labrie, 
recorder; Nella Nichols, receiver. 


Hastings Lodge, No. 28, Knights of Pythias, is the j^ioneer of 
Pythianisni in ^^^estern Nebraska and was organized in Hastings 
May 7, 1883. This lodge is still in a flourishing condition and has a 
nienibershi]) of 136. Since May 10, 1907. a purely social organization 
of Pythianisni, the Dramatic Order Knights of Khorassan, with a 
present niembershii) of 31.5, has been maintained. 

July 1, 1886, a number of the German members of No. 28, seeing 
that there was a sufficient number, organized an exclusively German 
organization, which was given the name Teutonia Lodge, No. .59. 
This lodge existed for a number of years, but finally disbanded. 

May 21, 188.5, Uniform Rank, No. 4, Knights of Pythias, was 
instituted with thirty-six members. The first commander was John 
M. Dungan. W. A. Dilworth succeeded him, and subsequently 
Stephen Schwaibold and Ed N. Thacker occupied that position. This 
division of Pythianisni disbanded about six years ago, some retaining 
their membership, but there are no meetings of the rank held. 

The charter members of the Pioneer Lodge, No. 28, are: James 
Walling, John Dungan, O. H. McNeil, C. Paulich, S. J. Weigel. 
Sam Hirsch, P. C. Westover, H. C. Haverly, B. F. Lied, George 
W. Green, J. C. Williams, A. Loeb, L. Hahn and S. Johnson. The 
first officers were: A. Yeazel, chancellor commander; A. B. Ideson. 
vice chancellor: A. J. Anderson, prelate; W. F. Schultheir, keeper of 
records and seals; jNL L. Alexander, master of finance; A. H. Cramer, 
master of excheqvier; J. F. Ballinger, master of arms; A. S. Camp- 
bell, inside guard; F. Naulteus, outside guard. 

The present officers are: Tom ]\Ladgett, commander; G. A. Olson, 
vice chancellor; O. D. Bolster, prelate; H. H. Holt, keeper of records 
and seals; C. J. Sherman, master of finance; A. H. Binderup, master 
of exchequer; O. L. Plum, master of arms; L. A. Lacalli, inside 
guard; I. L. Anderson, outside guard; W. R. Alexander, master of 


The Dramatic Order Knights of Khorassan, Delhi Teniiile No. 
109, the Shrine of the Knights of Pythias, was organized IMay 10, 
1907. It is a state organization, and has only one temple in the state. 
A meeting is held twice a year. The first officers and charter members 
were: G. A. Weirick, royal vizier; F. A. Pemiall, mahdi; Welley 
Williams, satrap; Peter Hempel, grand emir; J. JNI. Tennant, secre- 
tary; J. jNI. Conoughy, sahib; C. A. Phillijis, sheik; L. Hoagland, 

The i^resent officers are: W. R. Alexander, royal vizier; Harry 
S. Dungan, mahdi; L. C. Erwin, satrap; C. A. Phillij)s, grand 
emir; C. J. Sherman, secretaiy; A. H. Binderup, treasurer; H. C. 
Haverly, sahib; L. B. Steiner, sheik; C. A. Olson, mokanna; J. M. 
Tennant and C. I. Roush, escorts; H. H. Holt, saruk; J. P. Mad- 
gett. imjjerial nabob. 


Pythian Sisters, Queen City Temple, No. 25, Hastings, then 
called the Voung Assembly. No. 1, Pythian Sisterhood, of Hastings, 
was organized April 30, 1889. The first officers were: Mrs. John 
Harris. JMrs. W. A. Dilworth, JNIrs. George Tyler, Mrs. Curt Alex- 
ander, Mrs. J. C. Williams, Mrs. A. E. Allen, Mrs. D. A. Guldin, 
^Irs. Saddler, Mrs. S. S. Schwaibold, Mrs. D. Barlass, INIrs. J. M. 
Tennant and jNIiss Anna Breed. The charter members, fifteen in 
number, were: INIrs. W. Breed, INIiss Louise Engle, ]Mrs. H. H. Gil- 
breth, ]Mrs. J. E. Gant, JNIrs. G. Heitkemper, IMrs. C. Hoeppner, 
Mrs. T. Hoeppner, IMrs. S. S. Johnson, Mrs. J. L. Kent. JMrs. Jim 
JNIoore, JMrs. Otto Otten, Mrs. Jack Mines, JMrs. J. J. Raymaker, 
JMrs. G. Tyler and JMrs. William Saunders. 

Tlie clubroonis were located at what was then called the K. P. 
Hall, above the Gastons' JMusic Store, then located at the corner of 
Second Street and St. Joseph Avenue. This building was destroyed 
by fire and all records of the organization were bm-ned. The club- 
rooms were then moved to Brandeis Hall, on the corner of Second 
Street and Burlington Avenue. The membership now numbers 
thirty ladies, and the present officers are: Past cliief, JMrs. JMay B. 
JMadgett; most excellent chief, JMrs. Francis Holt; excellent senior, 
Mrs. JMinnie Hoffman; excellent junior, Mrs. Erdine Elinor; man- 
ager, JMrs. Lou Harrington; mistress of records and correspondence, 
Beulali Erwin; mistress of finance, Mrs. Clara Manning; protector, 
JMrs. Sadie Erwin; guard. JMrs. Cynthia Anderson; musician. Miss 
JMaude Cravens. 


K. O. T. M. 

Knights of JMaccabees, South Platte Tent, No. 18, have a member- 
ship iji Hastings of thirty-six. Authority to form and institute a 
lodge was received JNIay 2, 1896. 

The first officers were: A. T. Kennedy, Sr. Kt. Commander; 
Thomas Hainar, Sr. Kt. Light Commander; Thomas Rowe, Sr. Kt. 
R. K.; John H. Hardt, Sr. Kt.; Gust Larson, Sr. Kt. Chaplain; 
John Stack, Sr. Kt. Sergeant; R. J. Erwin, Sr. Kt. Physician; J. R. 
Koch, Sr. Kt. Mat.; Charles McMillan, Sr. Kt. First M. of G.; 
H. G. Wheeler, Sr. Kt. Secretary; J. C. Stanley, Sr. Kt. Sentinel; 
Ferdinand Panzer, Sr. Kt. Picket. 

The present officers are: P. C, Gust Kistler; C, James Peter- 
son: R. K., Lemuel Tihbets. 

T. w. B. A. o. T. M. 

The Woman's Benefit Association of the INIaccabees was organ- 
ized in the G. A. R. Hall, Hastings, February 15, 1894, under the 
name of Hari'ison Hive. No. 4, which in recent years was changed to 
the present name. ]Mrs. ]NLiggie McKain was the instituting officer 
and appointed ]\Irs. May Wheeler to act as record keeper pro tern. 
The lodge was organized with tlie following charter members : ]Mrs. 
Alice Thompson, INIaud Thompson, Mrs. JNIary Hart, Mrs. Hannah 
Kammelohr, Miss Belle Humphrey, Mrs. Jane A. Wheeler, ]Mrs. 
]\Iay Wheeler, Mrs. Elizabeth JVIorrow, Mrs. Rachel Reinhart and 
jNIrs. Laura A. Edwards. The first officers were: P. L. C. I\Irs. 
Elizabeth Morrow; L. C, ]Mrs. Alice Thompson; Lt. C, Mrs. Rachel 
Reinhart; R. K., Miss Belle Humphrey; F. K., Mrs. JNIay Wheeler; 
physician. Dr. Laura A. Edwards; chaplain, Mrs. Jane A. Wheeler; 
sergeant, ]Mrs. Hannah Kammelohr; ]Mat. A., Miss Maud Thompson; 
sentry, JNIrs. Mary Hart: picket, Miss Caroline Hammil. 

The present officers are: JNIrs. Sarah Cramer, Lieut. Com.; JNIrs. 
Louise Proffitt, record keeper; JVIiss Elizabeth Croushorn, finance 
creditor; JNIrs. Nellie Cantwell, official prompter. 

A large nimiber of former members have moved away, leaving 
the membership at present at about thirty. 


Ancient Order of United Workmen, Hastings Lodge, No. 43, 
was granted a charter December 31, 1884. The first officers were: 


B. F. Rawalt, P. M. W.; Jacob Wooster, M. W.; S. C. Heacox, F.; 
F. C. Mastin, O. ; W. F. Bybee, recorder; A. H. Brown, financier; 
J. B. Webster, treasurer; Charles Kelsey, G. ; F. E. Watkins, inside 
watclinian, and S. ]\I. Wright, outside watchman. 

Tlie charter members of the organization were Dr. John Gorman, 
L. B. Pahner, E. C. Rittenhouse, J. W. Wigton, Jacob Wooster, 
J. A. Wigton, E. C. Webster and A. R. Van Sickle. 

Present officers are: G. A. VoUand, P. M. W.; E. E. Lindley, 
yi. W. ; H. J. Brown, foreman; Ed Igou, overseer; George Ander- 
son, guide; Earl D. Bruce, recorder; A. J. Van Every, O. W. ; John 
]Mordhorst, I. W. ; P. W. Yager, treasurer; W. B. Remer, financier; 
and W. A. Pielstick, J. JNI. Tennant and H. B. Huckfeldt, trustees. 
The jjresent membership is 440. 

In 1913 there was a state gathering of the Workmen in Hastings. 


Degree of Honor, Butler Lodge, Xo. 6, was organized August 
7, 1891, and the charter was granted to Carrie I. Butler, P. C. of H.; 
Georgia E. ^Marquis, L. of H.; Alma Chapman, recorder; Amanda 
Rose, I. W.; iNIinnie E. ]Moran, C. of H.; Emma Scherick, C. of C; 
Elizabeth E. Foote, financier; Eva E. Work, L. U. 

The charter members are ]Mrs. W. H. Dilworth, JNIrs. J. C. Wil- 
liams, j\Irs. Emma Scharard, Mrs. Ogden, JNIrs. Amia Rogers, INIrs. 
Dora Train. JNIrs. Emma Pielstick, ]Mrs. James Fawthrop, JNIrs. Car- 
rie Butler, Mrs. JNIinnie INIoran, JNIrs. Georgia JNIarquis, Mrs. E. C. 
Schuck, JNIrs. Eva Work, JNIrs. S. E. Foote, JNIrs. Amanda Rose, JNIrs. 
Gregorie, JNIrs. Ora Ford, JNIrs. F. W. Rose, JNIrs. Dora Heggett, JNIrs. 
Williams and Alma Chapman. 

The i^resent officers are Mrs. Anna Gay, P. C. H.; JNIrs. Sarah 
Gruther, C. H.; Mrs. Anna Herring, L. of H.; JNIrs. Spath, C. of 
C; X'^ina Robare, recorder; Albina Hempel, financier; JNIary Beach, 

On December 26. 1913, the K. of P. Hall was destroyed by fire, 
and all the records and the cliarter of Butler Lodge were burned. 

On August 23, 1892, the first grand lodge was held in Hastings, 
and the twelve lodges represented were Hebron. South Omaha, 
JNIcCook, Plattsmouth, St. Edward. Hastings, Holdrege, Geneva, 
Lincoln, Chester, Bloomington and Republican City. The present 
membership is 128. 

Degree of Honor, Hastings Lodge, X'^o. 275, was organized 
X'^ovember 20, 1913. The charter was granted to Agnes Whitsell, 


P. C. of H.; Ali^ha Haines, L. of H.: Lucy C. Guthrie, recorder; 
Nina Ramsey, receiver: Warren Brennenian, I. W.; Emma Battan, 
C. of IT.; Sarah High, C. of C; Cora Smith, financier; Louisa 
Schatz, U. ; Cornelia Geyer, O. W. 

The charter members were JNIinnie JNI. WilHams, Lila A. Drol- 
linger, Ada Van Every, Ahce Dorwort, Grace A. Remer, ]\I. ]McRey- 
nolds, Grace N. Gauvreau, Hannah LaBrie, Emma Bayly, Alma 
Chapman. ]\Iai'y A. Stevens, Jennie F. Often, Florence Arvenette, 
Sarah High, Lizzie Rose, Clarence Schatz, Warren Brenneman, 
Howard High, Roy E. Guthrie, C. J. Geyer, Emma Battan, A. J. 
Battan, Christina Yager, P. W. Yager, Dora Kohl, Sylvia Saunders, 
Katherine Lee, Christina Lee, Nannie Wicker, C. H. Dinsmore, 
Lucy C. Guthrie, Ida Tilger, Cora Smith, A. J. Smith, Louisa A. 
Schatz. Sarah L. Davey, Winnie Davey, Charles C. Davey, Nana 
Arnold, digues Whitsell, Grace Rathbun, Francis Paris, Florence 
Fogel, Aljjha Haines, ^Minnie West, Louise Shaaf. Clara Shaaf, 
Mina Ramsey, Ida Brenneman, Ida Panzer, Cornelia Geyer, Rebecca 
]M. Richardson and Christina Knapp. 

Hastings Lodge, No. 27.), now has 147 members. The present 
officers are Louisa Schatz, C. of PL; Ivy LaBrie, P. C. of H.; Anna 
Ray, L. of H.; Grace Rathbun, C. of C; Clara Shaaf, U.; Lucy 
Guthrie, recorder; Fannie Wanzer, financier; Clara LaBrie, treas- 
urer: ^Martha Bremser, I. W. 

January 22, 1889, W. H. Lynn, O. H. Gordon and George B. 
Tyler received a dispensation to organize a lodge of Elks. Hastings 
Lodge. No. 1.39, was organized February 22, 1890, and the charter 
was granted July 10th of the same year. The charter members were 
Dr. W. H. Lynn, O. H. Gordon, George B. Tyler, A. H. PhiUips, 
W. II. Elledge, C. L. Alexander, Richard Thompson, Nat JM. JNIiller. 
J. B. Patterson, Harry Brewer, F. C. Babcock, R. A. Barr, J. A. 
Casto, G. J. Evans, C. A. Diamond, John Musselman. William 
Snyder, A. H. Farrens, R. B. Wahlquist, Charles H. Kipp. C. L. 
Rose, L. B. Partridge, W. H. Dillon, George Wood, S. V. B. Holla- 
way, J. B. Dallas, C. A. Turner, F. E. Hewitt, Charles Schaufel- 
berger, H. C. Haverly, L. H. Gurnsey. D. B. Welpton. F. M. Crow, 
and C. D. Thurman. 

The following have been the exalted rulers : W. H. I^ynn, 1890-1 ; 
John A. Casto, 1891-2; Nat INI. Miller, 1892-3; Thomas Frahm, 
1894-,); C. B. Wahlquist, 189o-6; W. H. Ljmn, 1896-7; John W. 


Pickens, 1897-8; O. C. Ziiin, 1898-9; S. S. Snyder, 1899-1900; H. 
C. Haverly, 1900-01; W. P. JNIcCreary, 1901-02; J. H. Spotts, 
1902-03; James Galway, 1903-04; James Galway, 1904-05; F. C. 
Babcock, 1905-06; F. C. Babcock, 1906-07; F. C. Babcock, 1907-08; 
H. E. INIoss, 1908-09; H. E. Moss, 1909-10; Dr. James V. Beghtol, 
1910-11; Dr. James V. Beghtol, 1911-12; A. W. Borden, 1912-13; 
A. W. Borden, 1913-14; Raymond M. Tibbets, 1914-15; Raymond 
jM. Tibbets, 1915-16; Harry C. Haverly, 1916-17. 

The present officers are: Exalted ruler, H. C. Haverly: leading' 
knight, Thornton Thornberg; loyal knight, W. F. Norris; lecturing 
knight, JM. A. Hartigan; esquire, Louis Stein; inner guard, Ross 
Sexson; secretary, Roy E. Churchill; treasurer, Bowne S. Koehler. 
The membership at the present time is 240. In connection with the 
lodge rooms the Elks maintain clubrooms, which have been finely 
furnished, at an expenditure of $2,500. Among the furnishings are 
pool and billiard tables, Victrola and piano. During the winter many 
social functions are given. 

Tlie first lodge room of the Elks was in the G. A. R. Hall. They 
remained there a short time and afterward secured quarters of their 
own in the Stone Block. The next move was to rooms above Wol- 
bach & Bi-ach's, before the present store was built. In 1905 the order 
secured the commodious rooms which they still occupy, on the third 
floor of the First National Bank Building. In 1908 the Elks bought 
a lot with a 75-foot frontage on the east side of St. Joseph Avenue, 
between Second and Third Streets, and upon this they plan some time 
in the future to erect a building. 


Hastings Aerie, Xf). 592. Fraternal Order of Eagles, was organ- 
ized January 8, 1904, with the following charter members: F. J. 
Eindeman, John Tweedy, F. B. I^epinski. J. W. Neylon, W. E. ]Mc- 
Fadden, L. B. Iloagland, A. T. Varter. J. B. Couper. H. W. Gease, 
A. J. Lepinski, W. L. Eves, Emil Polenski, John Hempel. H. C. 
Hansen, J. J. Gettman, W. H. Bertwell, O. C. Zinn, W. E. St. 
John, C. W. Jacobs, L. E. Shaulis, F. J. Neylon, H. C. Thompson, 
F. C. Babcock, J. Corey, H. E. Stein, O. E. Serf, W. L. Hoagland, 
W. H. Bierman, W. S. Schellak, F. A. Rau, W. J. Falk, E. C. 
Scherck, Lee Golden, C. D. Nellis, C. Moessner, R. B. Jacobs, C. 
J. Giuthner, F. Naidteus. Peter Barrie. A. H. Chabot, George Lovell, 
John Lichtenberg. W. J. Legg, M. 0. Bishop, T. A. INIcDonald, 
H. A. Blenkiron, T. Hostler, S. S. Snyder, L. Zimmer, Hugo Polen- 
ski, J. Shalda, Charles Adams, Frank Bloom, W. A. Bnier, J. B. 


Wallace, W. H. Edwards, Phil Hempel, J. C. Saucerman, Percy 
Renner, E. A. Shaffer, A. L. Twidale, C. J. Miles, J. W. Turpit, J. 
Tilger, J. H. Spotts, R. L. Sabin, W. S. JMcAuley, W. A. Young, 
Fred Biitzirus, Mark Levy, C. P. Rhodes, W. J. Biles, A. J. Town- 
send, L. G. McKnight, H. M. Eves, C. W. Nelson, George E. Keller, 
A. Rinderspacher, Julian Lumbard, Andrew Pederson, F. Schaufel- 
berger, A. J. Kanimerlohr. The present membership is 231. 

The first officers were W. E. St. John, W. P.; W. H. Bertwell, 
W. V. P.; W. L. Eves, worthy chaplain; L. B. Hoagland, worthy 
secretary: H. C. Hansen, worthy treasiu'er; R. B. Jacobs, W. Cond.: 
F. liindeman, inside guard; A. Kanimerlohr, outside guard; trustees. 
S. S. Snyder, W. S. Schellak, O. C. Zinn; physician, Frank Schaufel- 
berger. The princijial officers subsequently have been as follows: 

1905— W. H. Bertwell, W. P.; L. B. Hoagland, W. S.; H. C. 
Hansen, treasurer: trustees, O. C. Zinn, Emil Polenski, John Hem- 
pel. 1906— W. S. Schellak, W. P.; L. B. Hoagland, secretary: H. C. 
Hansen, treasurer; trustees. S. S. Snyder. W. S. Schellak. O. C. Ziim. 
1907— O. E. Serf, W. P.; L. B. Hoagland, secretary; J. Thomas, 
treasurer; trustees, Emil Polenski, Mark Levy, Charles Jacobs. 
1908— H. C. Hansen, W. P.; L. B. Hoagland, secretary; Jacob 
Thomas, treasurer: trustees, C. W. Jacobs, William Schellak, jNIark 
Levy. 1909— J. H. Hart, W. P.; L. B. Hoagland, secretary; Jacob 
Thomas, treasurer; trustees, William Schellak, Emil Polenski, W. H. 
Bertwell. 1910— George Lovell, W. P.; W. H. Bertwell, secretary: 
J. H. Uerling, treasurer; trustees, O. E. Serf, F. J. Lindeman. 
Charles Zeigler. 1911 — L. B. Hoagland, W. P.; John Schafer, sec- 
retary; J. H. Hart, treasurer; trustees, C. J. JNIiller, Frank Burger. 
Charles Zeigler. 1912 — J. A. Benson, W. P.; John Schafer, secre- 
tary; J. H. Hart, treasurer; trustees, Frank Burger, Ernest Butzirus. 
C. J. ^Miller. 1913— J. H. Hart. W. P.; John Schafer, secretary; 
J. H. Lohmann, treasurer: trustees, E. Hartmann, Louis White, 
Ernest Butzirus. Sei^tember 1.5, 1913. O. E. Serf was elected secre- 
tary and has filled the office since that time until the present. 1914 — 
William Harm, W. P.; J. H. I^ohmann, treasurer; trustees, E. Hart- 
mann. Ernest Butzirus, Louis White. 191.5 — Jacob White, W. P.: 
J. H. Hart, treasurer; trustees, E. Hartmann, Ernest Butzirus, Emil 
Polenski. 1916— A. L. Hibbard. W. P.; J. H. Hart, treasurer; 
trustees, E. Polenski, E. Hartmann. Ernest Butzirus. 


Hastings Council, No. 1123, Hastings Knights of Columbus, was 
organized INIay 18, 1906. Fitzgerald Council, of Lincoln, came to 


Hastings on a special train upon that day and was in charge of the 
ceremony. The organization was perfected at Germania Hall, corner 
of St. Josejih Avenue and Third Street. In the evening a notable 
banquet was jjartaken of at the Bostwick Hotel. The council pur- 
chased Germania Hall and for a number of years met at that place. 
In 1914 the lodge rooms were removed to 111 North Hastings Ave- 
nue, where the council still meets. Germania Hall still remains the 
property of the order. The membership at present is 4.00. 

The charter members of the order were: J. H. Uerling, John 
Donlon, William P. Waters. C. E. Simon, W. H. La Brie, M. J. 
HefFron, George F. Ashton, D. C. Plamondon. Rev. J. Cronin, E. 
N. Hamen, J. V. Harrison, C. E. Crouch, John Hobon, W. H. 
Cushing, John R. Hobon, J. ]M. Connoughy, James INIullen, J. J. 
Hobon, C. L. Feeney, B. B. Cronin, C. Cronin, E. D. Buttell, Percy 
M. Jones, John KiefFe, A. Langevin, Rev. J. C. Caraher, Rev. C. 
A. Becker, Rev. Walter INIcDonald. Rev. L. A. Duni)hy, Frank 
Kendlen, J. M. Norton, J, J. Connoughy, Rev. William JNIcDonald, 

D. A. Jones, J. F. Kealy, Rudolph Lippert, T. J. Brennan, J. F. 
Crowley, Charles Lippert, W. B. Cushing, E. Connoughy, Phillip 
Lippert, E. L. Gauvreau, J. V. Helmann, John Gore, James L. 
Hyres. Julian Bassett, Owen F. Simon, Albert V. Laughlin, George 
S. Helmann, George V. Helmann, Stephen Swigle, Rev. J. F. 
Gilroy, John ]\IcKenna, Thomas Donlon. Phillip C. Willy, John 
Waters, Harry V. Summers, Thomas Hoban, Peter W. Smith, Edgar 
jNIcBride, Bert Corbett, John J. Donahue, T. J. Hoye, F. B. Simon, 
]\Ir. Gaudreault, P. J. INIullen, J. B. ^McCarthy. Thomas F. Duffy, 

E. Langevin. Rev. William Crane, Rev. INI. W. Nemer and Rev. E. 


O. D. H. S., No. 44, Gemutlichkeit Lodge, was granted a charter 
December 13, 1905. JNIeetings were held in the Germania Hall until 
the lodge rooms were moved to the G. A. R. Hall, the present 
meeting place. 

The first officers were: Karl Kauf, president; Emil Polenske, 
vice president, and A. A. Lembach, secretary. The charter mem- 
bers were Andrew J. lA'])inski, Henry Gartner, A. J. Kamnierlohi", 
William J. Falk, Anthony A. Lembach, Peter Erwin, Fred Day, 
Ernest Butzirus, Herman Stein, Fred Butzirus, Philip W. Yager, 
William S. Schellak, Anthony TTreling, Karl Kauf, Leo Brobt, 
George A. ]Mann, Jr., Emil Polenske, George H. Brandt, George W. 


I^ehr, Fred Jasiier, Hugo Polenske, John J. Froscheuser, George 
Riiiderspacher, James V. Beghtol. 

There are now 103 members, witli ten social members. The present 
officers are: Emil Polenske, president; Jacob Schatz, vice presi- 
dent, and E. Hartmann, secretary. 


Danish Erotlierhood. Frederich d: 7de Lodge No. 93, was organ- 
ized 3Iarch 27, 1896, for the purjiose of keeping in touch with the 
life in Denmark. 

The first officers and charter members were: P. P., Christen 
Neilsen; P., Christien M. Christansen ; N. P., Jeus Peter Larsen; 
Soren B. Sorensen; T., Carl Jensen Coordt; G., William Bindenip; 
I. G., Jeus Peter Peterson; O. G., John G. Coordt; T. B., Andreas 

The present officers are S. B. Sorensen, treasurer; Christ Neilson, 
secretary. The lodae now has thirty members. 

Tlie Loyal Mystic Legion of America is a national beneficiary 
order organized by Hastings men and maintaining the head office 
in Hastings. The articles of incorporation were filed February 24, 
1892. The incorporators were George O. Churchill, G. A. Wigton, 
James T. Ogden, Dr. F. J. Schaufelberger and James B. Heartwell. 

The by-laws of the society provide for a supreme or governing 
body called the supreme council, and subordinate councils to be organ- 
ized in different localities. The first supreme officers elected were: 
James B. Heartwell, supreme councilor; James T. Ogden, supreme 
vice councilor; George O. Churchill, supreme secretary; G. A. Wig- 
ton, supreme treasurer; Dr. F. J. Schaufelberger, supreme medical 
director. Since 1910, Doctor Schaufelberger has been supreme coun- 
cilor and J. E. Watkins supreme vice councilor. The other officers 
are the same as at the beginning. 

In 1900 the order erected its own brick office building upon the 
southeast corner of Second Street and Burlington Avenue. The 
building and the site are valued at $40,000. In insurance the stand- 
ard rate is maintained. The order has paid to the beneficiaries of 
deceased members more than $1,000,000 and has invested in farm and 
other securities more than $100,000. Subordinate councils exist in 
Nebraska, New York, Pennsylvania, INIichigan, Indiana, Iowa, i\Iin- 


nesota, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado and California. Pioneer Coun- 
cil, No. 1, of Hastings, was the first subordinate council to be estab- 


Camp 46.5, W. O. W. was organized in Hastings March .5, 1914. 
This order occupied the same hall with the Eagles for some time, but 
in the last few months the order has had no lodge rooms, though an 
organization is maintained with a membership of about fifty. The 
present officers are: Counsel commander, George A. Volland: vice 
counsel commander, Boyd Hensman; clerk, G. O. Schellenberger ; 
banker, C. H. Fergus; escort, Julius Hartmann; watchman, S. P. 

Y. M. c. A. 

The Voung Glen's Christian Association of Hastings was 
organized JNlay 1, 1881, with a membership of thirty- four. The rooms 
first occupied were located upstairs at 7'20 West Second Street. 
After a few months the association removed its location to somewhat 
larger quarters in the basement of the building now occupied by the 
German National Bank. In 1885 the growth of tlie organization 
is indicated by its activity in erecting a building costing $5,000, at 
214 North Lincoln Avenue. This building was tlie first in the state 
to be erected for the exclusive use of the Y. M. C. A. November 
20, 1885, the importance of Hastings as an association center is 
shown by its selection as the location for the state convention of the 
organization, which met upon that date. One week before the assem- 
bling of the convention, the new building had -been dedicated to its 
purjioses. The building was built under the direction of Samuel 
Alexander, George F. ^Vork and I>. INI. Campbell. 

The first Iniilding erected was in 1889. exchanged for pro])erty 
in the disposal of the board of trustees of the Presbyterian Churcli, 
and in this transaction tlie association acquired the site upon which 
the present building stands and the Presbyterian Churcli l)uilding 
which was the home of the Y. ]M. C. A. until the present building 
was erected. 

The contract for erecting the present building was let in ]March, 
1906. Building and lot is estimated to be worth between $30,000 and 
$40,000. Money for raising the present building was derived largely 
through subscriptions. The features of the building are natatorium, 
"vmnasium. reading room and men's aj^artments in the second story. 






The charter members of the Y. JM. C. A were: J. B. Heartwell, 
L. M. Campbell, Rev. D. S. Schaff, Olb Hewitt, John Reese, J. W. 
Wigtoii, George Wigton, W. Snook, L. A. Royce, Davis Lowman, 

A. P. Green, L. B. Palmer, Rev. J. D. Stewart, George F. Work, 
W. E. Ullmer, E. C. Webster, Frank Haynes, N. V. Stine, E. B. 
Stevenson, A. L. Work, J. J. Wemple, W. F. J. Comley, D. P. 
Grew, C. J. ^Vork, O. C. Hubble, L. H. Felt, Samuel Alexander, 
C. J. Doris, A. Anderson, C. F. Royce, Rev. J. H. Nise, W. Bates, 
George B. Johnson and William Brach. 

Officers of the association have been as follows: President — J. 

B. Heartwell, 1881; O. C. Hubble, 1882-83; George F. Work, 1884- 
H.j; E. B. Palmer, 1886-87; G. M. Gillan, 1888, succeeded shortly 
by D. W. Palmer in 1889. The general secretary serving in 1885 
for six months was JMr. Baker; O. F. Purdy and C. L. Kirk, in 1886, 
each for six months; Charles Kelsey, for a short time. In February, 
1887, J. T. Ogden was elected. The directors in 1887 were: L. B, 
Palmer, S. W. Campbell, J. W. ^Vigton. H. B. Gil)bert, Frank Doty, 
A. M. Cunningham, Frank Haynes, Charles Kelsey, G. F. ^Vork 
and C. K. Powell. 


President, L. B. Palmer; general secretary, J. T. Ogden; 
directors. P. L. Johnson, John P. Harding, L. W. Campbell, F. W. 
Place, George F. Work. D. W. Palmer, J. B. Heartwell, J. \V. 
Rodgen and Dr. H. P. Fitch. 


President, D. ^V. Palmer; general secretary, J. T. Ogden; direc- 
tors. R. P. Falkner, D. W. Palmer, L. M. Campbell, L. B. Palmer, 
F. W. Place. Dr. E. T. Cassell. W. W. Dungan and George F. 


President, J. T. Ogden; general secretary, D. C. ^Montgomery; 
directors, J. F. Sturgess, E. T. Cassell, L. W. Campbell. L. B. 
Palmer, W. W. Dungan, G. F. Work, R. P. Falkner. C. K. Powell. 

C. G. Lane and A. W. Jones. 


President, J. N. Clarke: general secretary. William Franklin: 
dii-ectors, J. A. Ferguson. W. W. Dungan, J. M. Gillen. George F. 


Work, J. W. Place, A. P. Falkner, F. F. Sturgess, C. K. Powell, 

E. A. Waldron, A. W. Jones and J. H. Flemming. 


President, J. N. Clarke; general secretary, William Franklin; 
directors, J. N. Clarke, P. L. Johnson, H. P. Fitch, A. W. Jones, 
J. A. Ferguson, L. G. Giles, H. B. Cornelius, G. W. Woodward, 
J. D. Henry, W. W. Dungan and J. H. Flemming. 


President, E. E. Ferris; general secretary, F. F. Carrvithers; 
directors, J. N. Clarke, P. L. Jolmson, G. W. Woodward, George 

F. Work, J. R. Sims, E. E. Ferris and L. G. Giles. 


President, E. E. Ferris; general secretary, F. F. Carruthers; 
directors, J. N. Clarke, P. L. Johnson, G. W. Woodward, George 
F. Work, J. R. Sims, J. D. Henry, H. B. Cornelius, J. A. Fergu- 
son, L. J. Gilles and L. J. Seikman. 


President, George F. Work; general secretary, F. F. Carruthers; 
directors, J. S. Winey, L. J. Gilles. H. B. Cornelius, P. W. Haskins, 
F. L. Griffing, J. N. Clarke, P. L. Johnson. G. W. Woodward, E. E. 
Ferris, D. C. Palmer, W. A. Pielstick, George Work, Samuel Alex- 
ander, Oswald Oliver, J. R. Sims and J. H. CofFman. 


President, George F. Work; genei'al secretary. F. F. Carruthers; 
directors, Samuel Alexander, Oswald Oliver, J. R. Sims, J. H. 
CofFman, J. S. Winey, P. L. Johnson, D. C. Palmer, F. L. Knapp, 
J. T. Powers, J. Brown, and C. P. Sheaf. 



President. George F. Work; general secretary, F. F. Carruthers; 
directors, P. L. Johnson, D. C. Palmer, F. L. Knapp, J. T. Powers, 
J. Brown, C. P. Sheaf, J. S. Winey, D. Barr, G. H. La INIonte, 
J. R. Sims. 



President, George F. Work; general secretary, F. F. Carrutliers; 
directors, P. L. Johnson, D. C. Palmer, F. L. Knapp, J. T. Powers, 
J. Brown, C. P. Sheaf, George F. Work, J. S. Winey, G. H. Edger- 
ton, G. H. La ]Monte, Mr. iMarshall, J. C. Hedge. 


President, C. E. Dinsniore; general secretary, F. F. Carruthers; 
directors, C. P. Sheaf, E. P. Webster, D. C. Palmer, ]Mr. :Marshall, 
J. S. Winey, G. H. Edgerton, A. R. A^an Sickle, C. E. Dinsniore, 
Mr. Ferguson, O. M. Barr, and J. C. Hedge. 


President, H. S. Dungan; general secretary, A. J. Scott; direc- 
tors, Harry Fellman, C. E. Dinsniore, D. C. Palmer, ]Mr. Ferguson, 
Adam Rutherford, C. P. Sheaf, P. L. Johnson, G. H. Edgerton, 
J. C. Hedge, Mr. Mellicke, C. P. Webster, William Rapp, and J. S. 


President, H. S. Dungan; general secretary, G. M. Pineo; direc- 
tors, C. P. Webster, AVilliam Rapp, J. S. Winey, C. P. Sheaf, D. C. 
Palmer, P. L. Jolmson, C. E. Van Patten, Adam Rutherford, 
Mr. Mellicke, H. S. Dungan, George Miller, G. H. Edgerton, C. E. 
Dinsniore, M. M. Haynes, and Al Giffin. 


President, H. S. Dungan; general secretary, G. N. Hogue; direc- 
tors, C. P. Webster. Wilhani Rapp, J. S. Winey, C. P. Sheaf, D. C. 
Palmer, P. L. Johnson, C. E. Van Patten, Adam Rutherford, iM. 
]\rellicke, H. S. Dungan, George JNIiller, G. H. Edgerton, C. E. Dins- 
more, M. M. Haynes, Al Giffin, F. C. Day. Lilo Bratton. 


President, H. S. Dungan; secretary, J. W. Hogue; directors, 
P. L. Johnson, Adam Rutherford, M. jMellicke, W. W. Dungan, 
C. E. Van Patten, Al Giffin. G. H. Edgerton. C. E. Dinsniore, 
M. M. Havnes, F. C. Dav, C. P. Sheaf, and J. S. Winev. 



President, H. S. Duiigan; secretary, J. W. Hog\ie; directors, 
George JNIiller, J. H. Edgerton, C. E. Dinsinore, M. M. Haynes, 
Al Giffin, F. C. Day, C. P. Sheaf, J. S. Winev, S. H. Pratt," and 
F. I.. Taylor. 


President. H. S. Dungan: secretary, J. W. Hogue; directors, 
Hans Hansen. C. P. Sheaf. J. S. Winev, S. H. Pratt, and George 


President. H. S. Dungan: secretary, J. W. Hogue; directors, 
H. S. Dungan, C. P. Sheaf. J. S. Winey, J. N. Clarke, Hans Han- 
sen, C. M. Barr. C. E. Dinsniore, F. L. Taylor, C. H. Edgerton, Lilo 
Eratton. S. FI. Pratt, and C. E. Iliginbothani. 


President. H. S. Dungan; secretary, G. A. INIclNIicheal; direc- 
tors, F. L. Taylor. C. E. Higinbotham, G. H. Edgerton, Lawrence 


President, H. S. Dungan; secretary, G. A. INIcMicheal; direc- 
tors, F. L. Taylor, Ren Hueller, J. H. Riife, Lawrence Daily, G. H. 
Edgerton, W. H. Adams, Hans Hansen, and R. P. Falkner. 


President, C. P. Sheaf; secretary. G. A. IMclMicheal; directors, 
C. E. Higinbotham. Lawrence Daily, G. H. Edgerton, J. H. RifFe, 
R. P. Falkner. Lilo Bratton. F. L. Taylor, and W. H. Adams. 

President, John Snider; secretary. William Parker; directors, 
C. E. Higinbotham, Lawrence Daily, G. H. Edgerton, Thomas 
Varah, R. P. Falkner, Dr. J. W. Straight, Lilo Bratton, J. H. Slaker, 
W. H. Adams. Dr. E. A. Wier. and Hans Hansen. 


President, John Snider; secretary, J. S. Daniels; directors, 

C. E. Higinbothani, Lawrence Daily, G. H. Edgerton, Thomas 
Varah, R. P. Falkner, Dr. J. W. Straight, Lilo Bratton, J. H. Slaker, 
\y. H. Adams. Dr. E. A. Wier, and Hans Hansen. 


President John Snider; secretary, J. S. Daniels; dii'ectors, 
Thomas ^^arah, M. M. Haynes, W. H. Adams. Dr. E. A. Wier, 
John Snider, Hans Hansen, Dr. JVI. Thomas, R. A. Bawder, and 

D. P. Jones. 


President. J. N. Clarke: secretary. S. J. jNIcCracken; direc- 
tors. C. E. Higinbotham. D. P. Jones, Ira Battan, J. H. Slaker, 
Jolm Snider, E. A. Wier, W. H. Adams, R. A. Bawder. J. N. Clarke, 
C. C. Christopher, and ^y. B. Remer. 


I'resident, J. N. Clarke; secretary. S. J. JNIcCracken; directors, 
J. II. Riffe, P. L. Johnson, W. B. Remer, W. H. Adams, R. A. 
Bawder, C. C. Christopher, Thomas Varah, C. INI. Barr, Doctor 
Thomas, and C. E. Higinbotham. 


President, Dr. E. A. Thomas: secretary. E. JNI. Eobb; directors. 
Dr. E. A. Tliomas. J. II. Rifle. Roy Carter. E. C. Ilnxtable, 
W. II. Adams. C. C. Christopher. Thomas Varah. C. W. Foote, 
Dr. C. K. Strnble. J. E. Addie. Raymond Bawder. and O. A. Riley. 


President, Dr. E. A. Thomas; secretary. M. M. Lobb; directors, 
J. H. RifFe. O. A. Riley. Roy Carter. Raymond Bawder, C. W. 
Foote, C. C. Christopher, Dr. C. K. Struble,"and J. E. Addie. 


In 1887. a Young Women's Christian Association was organized 
in Hastings, but owing to lack of support, and a failure to impress 


their society on the minds of the puhlic, the organization soon died out. 
Not until February, 1916, was the question again agitated, and the 
result was the establishing of a Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, on February 25, of that year, under the direction of ^Nliss ]Mar- 
guerite O'Connel, field secretary from Minneajiolis. 

The first officers were Dr. JNIabel Dixon, president; INIiss Latta 
Snider, vice jiresident; Miss JNIary Dungan, recording secretary; JNIiss 
Nellie Harrinstein, treasurer; ]\Irs. Mayme Logsdon, corresponding 
secretary; directors— Mrs. E. C. Foote, Mrs. G. C. Still, INIrs. T. W. 
B. Everhart, INIrs. M. M. Haynes, JNIrs. Charles Kohl, ]Mrs. Harry 
Bohnet, ]Mrs. Donald JNIcKay, Mrs. G. W. Lehr, JNIrs. A. L. Twidale, 
JMrs. H. J. Lantz, Mrs. F. D. Greene, Mrs. G. H. Booker, and the 
jMisses Edna Work, INIay Christojiher, Zelna Brown, Marie Keal, 
Ethel JMcDannel, and Ada Garver. 

The first meeting was held in the clubrooms, at 213 North Denver 
Avenue, with a pledged membershij) of .509, of these 77 were sustain- 
ing members. Within six months the membership reached 543, with 
the same number of sustaining members. The clubrooms were fur- 
nished a little at a time; some of the articles were donated, and others 
purchased with money earned by different activities among the 

A cafeteria was opened in connection with the Young Women's 
Christian Association, on JNIay -1, 1916, meals being served in the 
basement of the club rooms. 

The Hastings High School girls at once became enthusiastic in 
their support of the society, and a branch was organized for them 
about the same time as the main association, with a membership of 
seventy-two. Miss Latta Snider, a member of the high school faculty, 
was jolaced in general charge, and JNIiss Glades Smith was elected first 
president. The high school girls have had various entertainments for 
the raising of funds. 

A tennis club was started INIay 1, 1916, in connection with the 
high school Young Women's Christian Association, with a total mem- 
bershi]) of sixty-five. JNIiss Ena Hamot Avas elected president, Eloise 
Barlass, secretary, and JNIrs. A. D. JNIarvel, treasvu-er. The tennis 
court is located at the northeast corner of Denver Avenue and Third 
Street. Each girl is required to pay 10 cents a month toward tlie 
keeping up of the court. 

A Star Gazing Class was organized, with JNIiss JNIayme Logsdon 
as teacher. Lectiu'es are given on astronomy every week. 

An Eight Weeks Club was formed in June, 1916, for high school 
girls, with Octavia Jones and JMrs. William Dutton in cliarge. ^Meet- 


ings are held once a week for a period of eight weeks. Different sub- 
jects are taken up for study, and if tlie chib comes up to standard in 
its work, a certificate of commendation is received from the National 
Young Women's Christian Association headquarters, which is signed 
by ]\Irs. Jessie Wilson Sayres, who is a member of the National Board, 
and especially interested in Young Women's Christian Association 

A Ladies' Band was organized February 18, 1916, by Mr. J. S. 
I^eick. The instrumentation was as follows: Clarinets — Latta Snider, 
Viola Grounds, Clara Tompkins, and Mrs. IMay Henkins ; cornets — 
Irene Wieckleman, Ketha Barth, oNIrs. Joe Hershey, Lula Anderson, 
iMrs. Zimmer and jNIrs. Charles Snider; altos — Alta Carson, Dora 
Carriker, and Emma Carriker; trombones — Marjorie Shreve, Jessie 
Reinders, IMrs. Ira Herring, Florence Sliger; baritones — JNIrs. Clara 
Allison and Bonna Luick; bass — JMrs. H. J. Lantz. 

The band made its first public appearance July 14, 1916. 

Hastings Castle No. 69, Royal Highlander Lodge of Hastings, 
Neb., was organized December 2*3, 1897. At that time there were no 
ladies connected with it. Their meetings were held in the G. A. R. 

Isabella Castle, the Women's Highlander Lodge, was organized 
about the same time as the men's lodge, the meetings being held in 
the rooms above Clark's Drug Store, located at 713 West Second 

The two lodges consolidated on December 26, 1901, and the G. A. 
R. Hall was kejjt for the lodge rooms. The lodge rooms were after- 
ward moved to the K. of P. Hall, and later to the Brandeis Hall, 
904 West Second Street, the present meeting place. 

The charter members of the Hastings Castle No. 69, Royal Higli- 
lander Lodge, are as follows : 

W. H. Lynn, M. D., Frank A. Watkins, John P. IVIadgett, B. T. 
Walton, George D. INIyers, Peter Scheuerman. Benj. G. Urquhart, 
Samuel J. IMattocks, Percy A. Wells, John C. Power, W. S. IMcKin- 
ney, Jas. A. Kennedy, George Wheeler, Henry A. Reader. Henry 
Hammerand, Theo. INIiller, INIiles D. Garver, S. S. Snyder, Joseph 
IMaxes, Edwin V. D. Wight, John C. Crissman, Alonzo Stanner, 
Frank M. Hogan, George II. I^rquhart. Henry H. Brungard. John 
J. Simmering, Warren JefFers, Albert Kadolph, A. B. Tenvilliger, 
Frank L. King, M. D., Elmer E. Cole, A. E. Wildinsen, Le Roy 
Royce, Chas. F. MaclNIillen, George W. Tibbets, Robert W. Oliver, 
Turner W. Power, Thos. A. Seifken, Fred Springer, William H. 
Young, Henry Dungan, Harry Haverly, Shadrack \Vinholtz, Henry 


K. ]Mervin, II. A. Blenkiron, 31. ]M. Abbott, John W. Kipp, Jasper 
E. Butte, J. A. Campbell, Clarence E. Holmes, Elmer C. Johnson, 
O. Lejiley, Robert Falkner, O. H. Koehler, Charles G. Larson, 
Charles I.. Watkins, C. A. Kendall, W. T. Johnson, John JNI. Busby, 
Percival R. Renner, John T. Powers, Edward Watkins, O. V. Booul, 
Utica; F. S. Chnton, Lincoln; A. M. B_ernhard, Rudolph Lippart. 

The first officers were: Illustrious jjrotector, Samuel J. JNIat- 
tocks; chief comiseler, William S. jVIcKinney; worthy evangel. Rev. 
John G. Power; secretary, Jolm P. JNIadgett; treasurer, Percy A. 
Wells; valiant guide, George Wheeler; valiant herald, George 
Myers; first worthy censor, Jasper A. Kennedy; second worthy 
censor, Albert E. Wildenson; chief of archers, Turner Power; chief 
of spearsmen, Le Roy Royce; warden, Charles F. iMacJMillen; sen- 
trj% Thomas A. Seifken; first prudential chief, Frank Watkins; 
second prudential chief, John A. Simmering; third prudential 
chief, Benjamin G. Urquhart; physical examiner. ^Villiam H. 
Lynn; physical examiner. Frank L. King. 

The officers, in the following order, past illustrious protector, 
illustrious protector, chief counselor, worthy evangel and secretary, 
were elected as follows: January 2, 1899, A. E. Wilkinson, E. C. 
Johnson, Lem Tibetts, E. Van Dyke Wight, M. M. Abbott: January 
1.",, 1900, E. C. Johnson, W. T. Johnson, Lem Tibetts, H. C. Pagen- 
koph, jNI. :M. Abbott; January 10, 1901. W. T. Johnson, T. A. Seif- 
ken, J. E. Elinor. H. C. Pagenkoph. Omar Lepley; December 26, 
1901. A. P. Brown, Aurelia Tibetts, Sue Falkner, Lola Holmes, 
Laura A. Alibott : December 9, 1903, A. P. Brown, ]Mrs. Gaines, Mrs. 
Fisher, ]Mrs. V. B. RoUins, Miss Alma Chapman; December 27, 1905, 
Lem Tibetts, Mrs. A. P. Brown, JNIrs. C. E. Holmes, Dr. Alma 
Chapman; December 12. 1906, ]Mr. Lem Tibetts, "Sirs. S. A. Gaines, 
]Mrs. J. E. Elinor. 3Irs. Lem Tibetts; January 9, 1907, jNIr. Lem 
Til)etts, Mv. S. A. Gaines. INfrs. C. E. Holmes", Mrs. Lem Tibetts; 
December 11, 1907. A. P. Brown. Mrs. D. L. Barlass, Mrs. Lem 
Tibetts, ]Mrs. V. P. Rollins; December 8. 1909, Harry Shultz, INIrs. 
C. E. Holmes, Mrs. S. A. Gaines, and I\I. :M. Abbott; March 9, 1910, 
Harry Shultz, Mrs. C. E. Holmes, ]Mrs. S. A. Gaines, Mrs. L. A. 
Abbott; June 8, 1910, J. E. Elinor, ]Mrs. C. E. Holmes, Mrs. S. A. 
Gaines, Mrs. L. A. Abbott; June 10, 1911, Ed Igao, JNIrs. C. E. 
Holmes, ]\Irs. S. A. Gaines, ]Mrs. L. A. Abbott; June 14, 1911, T. H. 
Williams, Mrs. C. E. Holmes, :Mrs. S. A. Gaines, ]Mrs. L. A. Abbott; 
December 13, 1911, T. H. Williams, Mrs. C. E. Holmes, Mrs. S. A. 
Gaines, ]\Irs. L. A. Abbott; June 11. 1913, Dr. Alma Chapman, INIrs. 
C. E. Holmes, IMrs. Gaines, Mrs. L. A. Abbott. Present officers. 


Dr. Alma Chapman, Mrs. C. E. Holmes, JNIrs. R. E. Current, and 
3Irs. S. A. Gaines. 

The present memhership is 168. 


The Farnieis' Alliance was organized in Adams County, as indi- 
cated in the chapter dealing with politics in Adams County, in 1882. 
This was two years after the organization of the first alliance in 
Nebraska, in York County. August 31, 1889, the Adams County 
Alliance was reorganized with Francis Phillii^s, of Kenesaw, pres- 
ident: AV. I. Huxtable, West Blue, vice president; H. B. McGaw, 
Blaine, treasurer; John Shea, West Blue, sergeant-at-arms ; A. C. 
Tompkins, ^^'^est Blue, lecturer, and John Brechmer, Ayr, chaplain. 

Interest in politics following the formation of the populist party 
tended to divert interest from the original objects of the Alliance, 
cooperative marketing and buying of farmers' supplies and products. 
The organization ceased to be about 1898. 

Before the organization of the Alliance the Grange flourished 
in Adams County, but was eventually supplanted by the Alliance 
in prominence. 

The Hastings Grange was established in February. 1874. by D. D. 
Organizer R. S. Langley, assisted by S. I^. Brass. J. W. Holt was 
elected master, with G. W. Lazenby, J. W. Coulter, J. H. Hanson, 
S. Sadler. ]M. B. Holly and Secretary Blake filling the other offices. 

Blue A^alley Grange was organized at Kingston in February, 
1874, with E."d. Jones, A. W. Waldeck, W. H. Coultrin, J. B. 
McCleery, W. S. INIoote, C. G. Wilson, C. H. Edgerton, John Gray, 
]Mary J. Heaps, x\da Snodgrass, Enmia Wilson and JMiss ]Martin 
tilling the offices in the order of rank. 

Silver Lake Grange was organized in February, 1874', with J. P. 
Duncan. J. C. Wilson, R. K. Daily, J. J. Hoyleman. John Woods, 
Patrick Dimcan, J. B. Roscoe, INIrs. Woods, H. Humphrey. INLiss 
Mary Duncan, IMrs. Roscoe, ]Mrs. Blackledge and INIrs. Hoyleman 

Lone Star Grange was organized at the Hawley school house in 
INfarch. 1874. with I>. P. Hawley, I. Yocum, J. A. Innis, M. Van 
Fleet, H. Houghtaling, T. Boice.JMrs. L. P. Hawley. D. H. Holmes, 
S. E. Gardener. Mrs. T. R. Boice. Mrs. Innis and Mrs. C. L. Aldridge 
officers in the order of rank. 

Rose Hill Grange (three miles southeast of Hastings) was organ- 
ized in ]March, 1877, with B. F. Brower, master, and N. R. Pratt, 


secretary. The charter members were the officers named, T. Wisdom, 
Josepli Bland, S. and N. Schoonover, John Connor, Robert "NVilhams, 
T. N. White, A. J. OrendorfF, James Kemp, James Purdy. "Sirs. 
Orendorff, E. Bower, Rhoda and Hannali Schoonover, Bertha Kemp, 
Jessie J. Connor, Sopliia White, Sue A. Pardee, Sarah Williams and 
]Mrs. Pratt. 

A County Council of Patrons of Husbandry was organized Feb- 
ruary 24, 18T4, with A. H. Brown, master; M. B. Kelley, O.; J. W. 
Holt, lectin-er ; James INIcCleary, steward : J. H. Vandemark, assistant 
steward; James McKelvey, chaplain; R. K. Daily, treasurer; A. D. 
Rust, secretary; J. ]\I. Cole, gate keeper; Miss Rose Kelley, ceres; 
Miss Edna Lowry, flora; Miss Ada Snodgrass, pomona: Julia A. 
Rust, lady assistant steward, and D. H. Freeman, agent. 

The Central Horticultural Society was organized in September, 
1878, Avith ]M. K. Lewis, of Adams, jjresident; J. W. Small, secretary; 
A. D. Williams, assistant secretary, and J. M. Flynn, treasurer. The 
vice presidents chosen were H. S. Kaley, of Webster; George F. 
Warner, of Clay: R. D. Granger, of Kearney; JNI. S. Budlong, of 
Franklin; A. X. Hall, of Adams; H. H. Williams, of Xuckolls; 
M. Creason. of Hall ; and O. P. Duncan, of Hamilton. 

ST. Andrew's society 

The Republican Valley and Central X'^ebraska St. Andrew's So- 
ciety held the third annual meeting at the Lepin Hotel in December, 
188S. H. Stevenson, of Inavale, was chosen president; John Allan, 
of Grand Island, vice president; Peter Fowlie, of Hastings, secretary; 
A. Richmond, treasurer; Dr. John Cooke, physician; Andrew Cosh, 
Grand Island; G. A. Kent, Hastings; James Ewing. Wood River, 
and John JNIitchell, of Riverton, directors. 

bachelor's club 

The Bachelor's Club of Hastings was organized in X'^ovember, 
1881. with fort}' members. "Carpe Diem" was the motto adopted. 
W. H. Lamiing was president; R. A. Batty, vice president; G. J. 
Evans, secretary, and E. Steinau, treasurer. The organization Avas 
abandoned through matrimony. 

germania society 

The Germania Club was organized in September, 188.5. with ^Vil- 
liam Breed, president; A. S. Yetter. vice president: .John G. Burk- 


liardt. secretary; Leopold Hahn, treasurer, and IMessrs. Pade, Schwai- 
bold and Landman, trustees. Liberal Hall was leased by the Ger- 
niania Society in January, 188G, and named Germania Hall. 

The Germania Society was formed by the Germans as a mutual 
benefit society. Social gatherings and dances were enjoyed. The 
society grew until the membershij) became about fifty. It existed 
for seven years. 


The question of organizing a post of the G. A. R. was considered 
at a soldiers' meeting held at Millett's Hall, April 18, 1878. C. H. 
Paul presided, with E. Steinau, secretary. A committee, comprising 
.r. X. Lyman, F. S. Wells and the officers named, was appointed to 
obtain a charter. The charter was duly granted, and on ]May 13, 
1878. Strickland Post, Xo. 13, was organized, with T. D. Scofield, 
commander; C. H. Paul, S. V. C; W. H. Brown, J. V. C: J. X. 
Lyman. Q. jNI.; A. H. Sowers, surgeon; F. S. Wells, chaplain: L. C. 
Palmer, adjutant; John D. Crane, S. M.; E. Steinau. Q. JNI. S. 

Post Xo. 13, G. A. R., met October .5, 1880, for reorganization. 
A. D. Yocum was elected P. C; A. H. Bowen, S. V. C. ; James 
\Valling, J. V. C; A. H. Sowers, surgeon; W. H. Stock, Q. M.; 
I^. B. Palmer, adjutant; George F. Work, chaplain; A. Poole. O. 
G.; W. W. Dung^n, O. D.; R. R. :\Iorledge. Q. M. S.; A. S. Hill, 
S. M., and A. L. Wigton, A. A. JNI. O., and four unofficial members. 

The roster of the post in 1890 was as follows, the eighteen first 
named being charter members: S. Alexander, 1st Xeb. Inf.; A. Ij. 
Wigton. 88th O. Inf.; W. W. Dungan. .>th la. Inf.; E. M. Abbott, 
84th 111. Inf.; A. I). 'S'ocum. 62d O. Inf.: George INIiller, 1.5th I^. 
S. Inf.; J. D. Crane, .3th X. V. Art.; L. B. Palmer, 62d 111. Inf.; 
A. F. Benjamin, lo7th X. Y. Inf.; W. S. JNIartin. 83d O. Inf.; Alex 
Rogers, .54th 111. Inf.; A. H. Sowers, 14th O. Inf.; David Koch. •23d 
Mo. Inf.; J. X. Lyman; J. F. Ileiler, 2Gth 111. Inf.; J. F. Ross, 
U. S. Xavy; F. S. VVells. U. S. Xavy; C. L. Stone, Chicago M. Bat.; 
H. Shedd, 117th X. Y. Inf.; A. Poole, 11th Wis. Vol.; James Wall- 
ing, 141)th X. Y. Inf.; J. Wooster. 36th O. Inf.; R. R. ^Nlorledge, 
4th la. Inf.; A. S. FLill, 3d Wis. Inf.: E. H. Bartlett, 1st la. Cav.; 
W. II. II. Coulter, 8th Mo. Inf.; X. C. Barlow, 9.5th 111. Inf.; 
C. L. Kinkaid, 1st la. Cav.; S. Rhinhardt. 2d INIich. Inf.; A. J. ]Mil- 
let, 12th la. Inf.; John M. Boyd, (51st Pa. Inf.: F. M. Clark. 8th 
O. Inf.; J. A. Snyder. 7th Wis. Inf.; C. B. Sperry, 4th Wis. Art.: 
Joseph S. Land, 16th INIich. Inf.; R. D. Babcock, 11th Mich. Cav.: 


Edward Orton, 7th 111. Inf.; W. H. Colton, 45th 111. Inf.; Hart 
Livingstone. 99th Ind. Inf.; F. C. Mastin, 1.53d 111. Inf.; Fred Rinker, 
64th 111. Inf.; L. H. Tate, 8th ISIass. Art.; J. E. McCleary, 1st Col. 
Cav.; T. D. Scofield, 27th M. S. S.; H. B. Tanner, 17th Mo. Inf.: 
Henry Williams, 78th N. Y. Inf.; H. A. Forcht, JMerriU's Horse; 
J. E. Hutchinson, 4th la. Batt.; W. H. Stock, 17th 111. Cav.; A. 
H. Bowen, 4th ^Mich. Inf.; Carl Clark, 83d 111. Inf.; J. T. Ross, 14th 
Ind. Inf.: J. Stebbler; A. G. Willis, 2d la. Cav.; J. R. Hursh, 19.5th 
Pa. Inf.: II. B. ]McGaw, 97th O. Inf.; William Callahan, 28th Pa. 
Inf.: Charles H. Paul: W. C. Beal, 9th Mich. Inf.; S. H. Henderson, 
24th la. Inf.: J. L. Chne, oth Pa.. H. A.; J. P. Hoagland, 132d 
Pa. Inf.; W. II. Griffith, 1st JNIich. Inf.; L. S. Gould, 73d 111. Inf.; 
I. W. Cramer, 30th Wis. Inf.; J. Hodges, 14th O. Inf.; George ]\I. 
Rogers, 18th Wis. Inf.; F. S. Browning, 1st 111. Art.; Jonathan 
Carter, 17th Mich. Inf.; W. C. Ridley, 118th O. Inf.; Nicholas Cor- 
hin, 7th :\Io. Cav.; G. A. Whitman, 72d 111. Inf.; C. M. Millett, 65th 
X. Y. Inf.; C. H. Hurd, 2d Pa. Inf.; James Corliss, 42d Mo. Inf.; 
C. B. Nelson. 1st N. Y. Eng.; D. :M. Leland, 24th la. Inf.; George 
P. Alford. 27th O. Inf.; Byron S. INIorrell. <i4th N. Y. Inf.: William 
Ilorlocker, 20th Wis. Inf. : C. J. Delnitt, 3.5th 111.. Inf. : M. W. Peters, 
1st Wis. Inf.; O. B. Hewett, 2d Neb. Cav.: William Croft, 6th Mich. 
Inf.: John Yeager, 12th 111. Inf.; J. H. Darnell, 48th 111. Inf.: John 
Weytman. 13th Kan. Inf.; D. S. Wilkinson, 7th Wis. Inf.: James 
T. Farrer. 10th la. Inf.; Henry Jewett. 47th 111. Inf.; James Ross. 
2d la. Inf.; William INIonroe, i3th Wis. Inf.; D. II. Holmes, .Aler- 
rill's Horse; H. G. Wetherill, 96th N. Y. Inf.; D. B. Wirt, 46th 
Ind. Inf.: J. AV. Coulter. 33d 111. Inf.; N. A. Nash, 42d Wis. Inf.: 
P. Allender. .58t]i 111. Inf.: G. W. Dade, 19th Mass. Inf.; Henry 
Yan Fleet, 27th :\Iich. Inf.: F. L. Stock, 142d 111. Inf.; George V. 
Cope. 10th ]Mich. Inf.: T. F. Pearl, 21st N. Y. Cav.: IMyron Van 
Fleet, 30th :Mich. Inf.: Thomas F. Coy, 26th Ky. Inf.; Edwin Bur- 
roughs, 42d 111. Inf.: M. H. Batty. SdN. Y. H." A.: Fred Stoelting. 
20th Wis. Inf.; J. J. Bassett, 160th N. Y. Inf.: Nick Zimmer, 36th 
111. Inf.: H. L. Grisell. 7.5th Ind. Inf.: L. V. Albershardt, 72d O. 
Inf.: T. J. Dowd, 3d Wis. Inf.; G. K. Douglass, 1.57th N. Y. Inf.: 
Isaac A. Hall. 101st N. Y. Inf.; H. E. Houghtaling, 10th Wis. Inf.: 
Alfred ^Martinis, 202d Pa. Inf.; W. R. Saine. 17th O. Inf.; H. 
Bromley, 92d N. Y. Inf.: H. G. Nights, 36th la. Inf.; George H. 
Hurd, 37th 111. Inf.: W. H. Scott, 60th O. Inf.: W. A. Snu'th, 16th 
Ky. Inf.; J. D. Van Houten, 5th 111. Cav.; J. R. Sims. 203d Pa. 
Inf.: Peter Zobel. 32d Ind. Inf.: J. O. Garmon. 19tli ^Nlich. Inf.: 
A. A. Adams, 22d Y. R. C: S. C. Dillev, V. S. Art.: Richard Con- 


quest, 1st Col. Cav.; A. M. Eager, 124th N. Y. Inf.; Peter New- 
eonib, 129tli Ind. Inf.; F. M. Alexander, 26th Ind. Inf.; William 
Worline; Lewis D. Reynolds; Robert B. Williams; J. T. Briggs, 
77tli 111. Inf.; John G.*Bm-gerofF, 49th 111. Inf.; Charles Dominic, 
20th Pa. Cav.; H. M. Carpenter, 1.3th JVIass. Inf.; West JMontgomery, 
1st Neb. Inf.; H. S. Rogers, 14th la. Inf.; J, J. Buchanan, 3d Mo. 
Cav.; James K. Sample: Albert S. Pierce, 17th V. R. C; A. C. 
Moore, 5th la. Inf.; H. G. Mills, 102d 111. Inf.; Joseph JMarion, 
46th 111. Inf.; A. Benedict, 6.5th 111. Inf.; B. F. Ranall, 8th aSfinn. 
Inf.; George N. Waller, 61st 111. Inf.; S. B. Whitman, 2d U. S. S.; 
W. H. Marshall, 140th 111. Inf.; Samuel Long, 20th Wis. Inf.; John 
R. ^Yinter, 186th O. Inf.; J. P. Sackrison, 40th 111. Inf.; Milton 
C. Ross, 3d la. Inf.; Griffin Yeatman, 1st Del. Inf.; William H. 
Reed, 80th 111. Inf.; B. F. Noll, 20th 111. Inf.; Anson Forbes, 1st 
Mich. Eng.; A. H. Brown, 13th la. Inf.; James Steffins, loth 111. 
Inf.; Henry P. Klinger, 47th 111. Inf.; Frank Dalbry, 2d O. Inf.; 
Stephen Mason, 104th 111. Inf.; William C. Hodges, 41st O. Inf.; 
U. K. Brown, .53d Pa. Inf.; Joseph A. Palmer, 54th Mass. Inf.; 
Jo Beebe, 1st R. I. L. A.; Jolui D. Hayes, Berdine's S. S.; John 
Stabler; Isaac E. Dorsey, 30th O. Inf.; s". H. Snively, 1st Pa. Cav.; 
J. H. Knight, 3d Ind. Cav.; Seth Lewis, 6th N. Y. H. D.; N. R. 
Burton; James Meadows, 51st Mo. Inf.; G. S. jNIorgan, 2d Ky. 
Cav.; James Bence, 67th O. Inf.; Alfred Burge, 42d 111. Inf.; Josiah 
Lee, 40th la. Inf.; Frank Kearney, 106th N. Y. Inf.; James Gibson, 
Art.; Calvin Sowers, 6th O. Inf.;"Charles Nute, 2d D. C. Inf.; C. B. 
Kemple, 86th 111. Inf.; W. S. Reeser, 151st O. Inf.; G. W. Spay, 
38th 111. Inf.; W. H. Akenum, 186th N. Y.; H. E. W. Deremus, 
2d Col. Cav.; James JMilman, 5th Wis. Inf.; James T. Reuther, 
8th 111. Inf.; George Stratton, 3d N. Y. Inf.; Jacob B. Boyer. 84th 
111. Inf.; F. M. Hickok, 11th la. Inf.; Jesse Doty, 54th "o. Inf.; 
Frank Ilartman, 1st 111. Art.; W. H. Chadwick, 20th INIich. Eng.; 
C. W. De Rocher, 3d INIe. Inf.; W. C. Beale. 9th N. Y. Inf.: George 
R. Wolfe, 175th O. Inf.; L. C. Shields. 2d Kan. Inf.; J. W. Forbes, 
142d 111. Inf.; James T. Johnson. 17th 111. Inf.; Oliver Wright, 
106th N. Y. Inf. 

In January, 1888, James Gibson was adjutant and W. R. Burton 
commander. In December of that year H. G. Knight was elected 
commander; H. M. Carpenter, S. V. C. ; Frank Kearney, J. V. C; 
Jacob Wooster, Q. M.; I. W. Cramer, O. of D.; Byron" S. JNIorrell, 
surgeon: W. S. Beale, I. G.; S. PI. Snively, O. G.; T. F. Pearle, and 
J. R. Hursh, delegates, with J. L. Kline and J. E. Bruce, alternates; 
John Winters, O. of G. Byron S. INIorrell was subsequently appointed 



adjutant, and Dr. Pierce appointed surgeon to fill vacancy, J. R. 
^Vriglit, chaplain; George Stratton, S. M.; J. M. Boyd, Q. M. S.; 
and W. C Beale, sentinel. 

The following officers were elected in December, 1889: A. H. 
Brown, B. S. ^Morrell, G. M. Rogers, W. R. Burton, D. :M. Leland, 
F. :M. Alexander, Mr. Snively, J. M. Boyd, Mr. Real, John Winter, 
T. F. Pearle and J. R. Hursh, delegates, and A. C. ^Nloore and I. W. 
Cramer, alternates. George Stratton was appointed adjutant. 

In 1884 the G. A. R. Post acquired the lot upon which their build- 
ing is located, at .509 West Second Street, and on October 8, 1885, 
the building was formally opened. A dance was one of the pleasing- 
social numbers of the program. Upon the same evening the Bostwick 
Hotel across the street was also being opened with a ball. In recent 
years there has been talk of arranging to tm-n the property of the 
Post over to the city upon mutually satisfactory terms, but no action 
has l)een taken by the Post. 

Tlie following are the past post commanders: T. D. Scofield, 
A. D. Yocum, James Walling, Jacob Wooster, J. E. Hutchinson, 
William R. Burton, H. ]M. Carpenter, D. M. McKnight, William 
Croft, Aaron Nash, A. S. Pierce, John Howard, R. R. JMorledge, 
Josepli Yocum, L. A. Payne, R. B. Williams, J. F. Heiler, David 
Bryson, Joseph Meyer, Jacob Smith, J. R. Wright, J. JM. Ferguson, 
J. F. Schell, John Farner. Ed Smitli. H. ]M. Carpenter is the com- 
mander in 1916. 

The roster for 1913 contained the following: C. L. Alexander, 
Company C, iSth Iowa, Hastings; L. W. Albershardt, Company K, 
72d Ohio. Hastings; A. S. Arnold, Company C, 3.)th Pennsylvania 
Militia, Hastings; A. C. Albright, Company K, Ohio, Hastings; 
J. J. Buchanan, Comi^any A, 3d ^Missouri, Hastings; W. R. Burton, 
Company E, 23d Indiana, Hastings; Nelson Briley, Company K, 
118th U. S. Col., Hastings; S. B. Bierce, Company F. 13th ^Michigan, 
Hastings; J. A. Bowles, Company K, 21st Pennsylvania Cavaliy, 
Hastings; David Bryson, Company I, 75th Illinois, Hastings; W. C. 
Baker, Company H, 179th Ohio Infantry, Pauline; Thomas M. 
Clark, Company G, 8th Wisconsin Cavalry, Kansas City; William 
Croft, Company I, 6th INIichigan, Hastings; H. JM. Carpenter, Com- 
pany B, 1.5th INIassachusetts, Hastings; Frank Carrier, Company K, 
31st Illinois, Hastings; A. V. Cole, Company G, 6th Michigan Cav- 
alry, and Company C, 4th ^Michigan Infantry, Hastings; W. H. 
Chadwick. Company C, 20th JMichigau Engineers Corps, Hastings: 
J. W. Carmichael, Company C, 97th Indiana Regiment, Hastings; 
George Colling, Company A, i52d Illinois, Hastings; A. J. Dake, 


Compauj' I, 27th New York Dragoons, Hastings; T. E. Davis, Com- 
pany C, 19th United States Infantry, Hastings; J. K. Dooley, Com- 
pany G, 30th Indiana, Hastings; W. W. Dungan, Company B, oth 
Iowa, Hastings; L. M. Doughis, Company F, 51st Wisconsin, Hast- 
ings; B. A. Dean, Company H, .53d Indiana, Hastings; Cx. H. Edger- 
ton, Company E. 112th Illinois, Hastings; C. J. Egbert, Company C, 
33d jNIissouri Infantry, Hastings; B. F. Evans, Company D, 69th 
Ohio, Hastings; Joseph Ferguson, Signal Corps, United States 
Army, Hastings; F. J. Ferguson, Company H. 4th Illinois Cavalry, 
Hastings; John Earner, Company B, 13th Ohio Inf., Hastings; A. J. 
Frantz, Company I, 3d ]\Iaryland, Hastings; R. H. Gilmore, Com- 
pany C, 36th Illinois, Hastings: J. A. Howard, Company C, .52d 
Pennsylvania, Eagle Point, Ore.; J. P. Hoagland, Company H, 132d 
Pennsylvania, Hastings; J. F. Heiler, Company B, 101st New York, 
Hastings; I. A. Flail, Comjiany B, 26th Illinois Infantry, Hastings; 
J. E. Hutchison, 4th Iowa Battery, Eagle Point, Ore.; G. W. Houck. 
Company C, 1st Michigan Artillery, Yuma, Col.; W. H. Hoblit. 
Company H. 12th Illinois, Florida; J. jNI. Houser, Company H, 29th 
Iowa, Hastings; J. B. Ingram, Company H, 37th Illinois, Hastings: 
E. D. Jones, Company A, 23d Indiana, Flastings; H. C. Kerr, Com- 
I>any B, 168th Ohio National Guard, Hastings: George S. Kilgore, 
Company H, 102d Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Hastings; Samuel 
Long, Company I, 20th Wisconsin, Hastings; J. N. Lyman, Surgeon, 
United States Army, Hastings: Jason Lyons, Company I, 73d Illi- 
nois Infantry, Hastings; ]\I. Liebhart, Company H, 26th Illinois. 
Hastings; A. M. Lathrop, Company E, 18th Connecticut, Inland; 
R. R. Morledge, Company K, 4th Iowa, Hastings; AYilliam INIonroe, 
Company A, 13th Wisconsin, Hastings; Joseph INIarion, Comjjany 
E, 46th Illinois, Hastings; J. C. IMiller, Company G. 113th Illinois, 
Hastings; G. H. JMills. Company K, 102d Illinois, Hastings: D. M. 
McKnight, Company B, 138th Pennsylvania, South Dakota; H. B. 
McGaw, Company C, 97th Ohio, Hastings; Joseph INIyer, Company 
I, 26th Pennsylvania Vohmteer Infantry, Hastings; Nicholas INIetzer, 
Company I, 9th Wisconsin Infantry, Hastings; O. T. McConnell, 
Company C, 1.5th Pennsylvania Cavalry, Hastings; J. ]M. IMiller, 
Company M, 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, Hastings: M. L. Mc- 
Whinney, Company B, .57th Indiana Infantry, Hastings; J. F. IMer- 
rell, Company G, 7-5th New York. Hastings; J. F. Moon, Company 
B, 40th Iowa, Hastings; Aaron Nash, Company K, 12th Wisconsin, 
Hastings; I. D. Newell, Com])any F, 7th Illinois, Glenville; J. F. 
Nyce. Company A, 44th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Hastings: Pat- 
rick O'Brian. Company E, 48th Peimsylvania Volunteers, Hastings; 


Edward Ortoii, Company A, 7th Illinois, Hastings; A. S. Pierce, 
Company C, 27th JNIissouri, Omaha; C. H. Paul, Company A, 7th 
New Hampshire, Hastings; L. A. Payne, Company A, 34th Illinois 
Volunteers, Sutherlin, Ore.; H. H. Partlow, Company F, 57th Illi- 
nois, Hastings; J. S. Peebles, Company H, 1.50th Indiana, Hastings; 
Thomas L. Patterson, Company H, 1st Nebraska Cavalry, Hastings; 
John Peterson, Company E, 47th Pennsylvania Infantry, Hastings; 
George S. Parks, Company D, '26th Illinois Infantry, Hastings: 
John Regan, Comjiany A, 23d Wisconsin, Hastings; James Richeson, 
Company K, Ith Iowa Cavahy, Hastings; G. Rickerson, Company 
M, .5th New York Artillery, Hastings; J. O. Riley, Company E, 28th 
Iowa, Hastings; J. F. Schell, Company F, 2d United States Volun- 
teers, Hastings; T. F. Stock, Company E, I42d Illinois, Hastings; 
A. D. Stoddard, Company F, 77th Illinois, Hastings; A. Shannon, 
Company A, 16th Illinois, Hastings; W. M. Stewart, Company E, 
4.5th Ohio, Hastings; J. D. Smith, Company H, 12th Ohio Cavalry, 
Hastings; Jacob Smith, Company H, 30th Indiana. Hastings; Edwin 
Smith, Company G, 139th Illinois, Hastings; W. G. Saddler, Com- 
pany G. 13th Kentucky Cavalry, Company D. 32d N. Y. Infantry, 
Hastings; H. S. Siefkin. Company G, 10th Illinois, Hastings: D. B. 
S. Tatroe, Company G, 142d New York, Omaha; George B. Tyler, 
Company B, 6th Iowa Cavalry, Hastings; H. B. Talbert. 3d Indiana 
Artillery, Trumbull; Elias Tatman, Company E, 10th Iowa. Hast- 
ings; Chesley Taylor, Company H, 7th Iowa Cavalry, Giltner; John 
Unger, Company K, 7-5th Ilhnois, Hastings; J. R. Vance, Company 
I, 39th Ohio, Hastings; Jacob Wooster, Company A, 36th Ohio. 
Hastings; A. J. Williams, Company C, 3d Iowa Cavalry, Kansas 
City: J. R. Wright, 8th Ohio, Hastings; S. S. Welch, Company C, 
4.5th Indiana, Hastings; J. R. Winter, Company II, 186th Ohio, 
Iowa; R. B. Williams, Company E, 111th Pennsylvania, Hastings: 
James Walling, Company F, 149th New York, Hastings; J. C. 
^Vilson, Company B, 117th Indiana, Trumbull; George F. Work. 
Company B, .5th Iowa, Hastings; John Yager, Company D. 12th 
Illinois, Burkett; Joseph Yocum, Company E, 62d Ohio, Omaha. 

A list of soldiers buried in Hastings Cemetery, given in the record 
of this post, is as follows : G. AV. Howe, Colonel Burke, Otto Ai-noux. 
Keating, Levi W. IMiller, Riggs, Alex- 

ander, Stephen Carson, C. M. JNIillet, N. A. Nash, J. W. Hansel. 
James IMcCleary, James Riley. J. H. Scott, Aug. Poole. Ca])tain 
Wicks, George Brennan, Palmer, Cope, Pearson. Joseph 

Howe, and Willis Campbell. 

Other deaths recorded on the records of the Post are: A. S. 


Arnold, April 6, 191.5; J. M. Boyd, February 13, 1909; A. F. Ben- 
jamin, December, 1904; Jacob Boyer, June 7, 1910; W. H. Cutler, 
Ajjril 16, 190.3; W. E. Cox, October 1.5, 1911; W. H. Chadwick, 
January 7, 1916; Silas Clark, August 23, 1912; W. A. Coon, July 4, 
1911; A. J. Dake, October 17, 1914; C. J. Egbert, October 16, 1914; 
I. A. Hall, October 5, 1915; J. Hoagland, April 6, 1916; W. H. 
Hess, October 22, 1911; W. H. Hoblet, September, 1913; John 
Holmes, December 28, 1911; John Larkins, July 15, 1913; Samuel 
Long, October 4, 1915; Seth Lewis, September 28, 1912; Jason 
Lyons, April 17, 1914; Hart Martin, December, 1916; Lewis T. 
Meyers, December 7, 1912; I. D. Newell, 1914; L. A. Payne, March 
20, 1915; John H. Oatnian, May 15, 1912; Patrick O'Bryan, Novem- 
ber 28, 1915; Charles Tinsley, January 17, 1913; Jacob Smith, De- 
cember 3, 1913; John F. Schell, April 15, 1916; Samuel S. Welsh. 
February 20, 1915; James Walling, April 8, 1914. 

woman's belief corps 

Woman's Relief Corps No. 9, auxiliary to Silas A. Strickland 
Post No. 13, was organized February 23, 1884, with ]Mrs. E. O. 
Dilworth, president; JNIrs. Julia S. Bowen, Y. P.; INIrs. Mary L. 
Garison, J. Y. P.; iSIrs. Jane Horlocker, secretary: JNIrs. Agnes A. 
Hurd, treasurer; JNIrs. Katie Judd. chajjlain; JNIrs. Emily Stoelting, 
conductor; and JNIrs. JNIary Gould, G. 

The past presidents have been Alice C. Dilworth, Jennie Dalby, 
JNIary Dowd, Clara Andrews, Sadie INIarquis, JNIrs. A. D. Taggart, 
Julia Bowen, Kate Boyd, Elizabeth Croft, Elizabeth Bacon, JNIartha 
Hutchinson, Ada Hess, Ellen Cox, Lenora Cutler, Anna Boyd, JNIary 
C. JNIarion, Nannie Kilgore, Florence Rainsforth. Edna J. Hill, 
Jennie Goudy, Leanora Bowles, . JNIjii'y JNIyer, JNIinnie Kolb, Floye 
Dake, Rodie JNIeyer, and JNIrs. Florinda Partlow, the present 

The present members are: Sophia Albershardt, JNIyra Anders, 
Eliza Baker, Bettie Berg, Mary Bierce, Leanora Bowles, JNIary L. 
Bryson, Mrs. Collins, Elizabeth Croft, Winifred A. Cutler, Leonora 
Cutler, E. Floye Dake, Grace Decker, Azalia DroUinger. JNIrs. Eddie. 
JNI. C. Eldrige, JNIary Earner, JNIrs. L. C. Frantz. .Jennie Goudy, 
Eliza Hamium, J. H. Hanshaw, Ada Hess, JNIartha Hutcliinson, 
JNIinnie Iloff'man. Estella Ingram, Hannah Kammerlohr, Nannie 
Kilgore, JNIinnie Hoffman. JNIinnie Kolb. Emma Lockhart. Jennie 
I^ivingood, JNIary Marion, Ruby JNIarion, Alice JNIaster, JNIillie JNIa- 
theny, Mary JNIattock. Rebecca JNIerrill, Ruth JNIiller, Hope JNIills, 


]Mary ^loeuk, ]Mrs. JNIoon, JNIarv JNIyer, Rodie JMyer, Amanda Orton, 
Susan Olijjhant, jNIatilda Palmer, Florinda Partlow, JNlrs. Parsons, 
Florence Rainsforth, Jennie Ray, jMartha Shaw, Emma Stock, Sarah 
Smith, Anna Snyder, Edith Sinclair, Rachael Walling, Nancy 


Juniata Post of the G. A. R. was instituted Octoher 24, 1881, 
\mder the title of Geary Post No. 82, with B. F. Smith, commander; 
S. L. Salishury, S. V."c.; A. H. Brown, J. V. C; J. W. Livering- 
house, adjutant; G. T. Brown, Q. ]M.; O. Steever. surgeon; W. Spade, 
chaplain; A. V. Cole, O. of D.; H. H. Ballon, O. of G.; G. S. Guild, 
S. 31.: and M. Van Buskirk, Q. M. S. Philip Hoover, R. H. Nolan, 
S. J. Shirley, S. L. Brass, G. Avery, F. M. Thompson, B. W. Jam- 
mond, G. T. Brown, W. Twidale and James Newell, unofficial mem- 
hers. The position of commander has heen filled by the following 
named members: B. F. Smith, A. V. Cole. S. L. Brass, James 
Newell, J. Burwell, O. Steever, James L. Kelvey and I. R. Ball. 
S. L. Brass was the adjutant. 

The roll of members in 1890 comprises the following names: B. F. 
Smith, 1st ]Mich. S. S.; O. Stevers, 96th N. Y. Inf.; Wm. Spade, 
147th Pa. Inf.; A. V. Cole, 4th Mich. Inf.; H. H. Ballon, 13th Vt. 
Inf.; R. H. Nolan, U. S. Navy; G. Avery, 23d JNIich. Inf.; B. W. 
Plammond, Wm. Twidale, 9th ]Mich. Cav. ; J. W. Liveringhouse, 30th 
Ind. Inf.: D. H. Freeman, 13th ]Mich. Inf.: ]M. K. Hutchinson, 47th 
O. Inf.; G. G. Vreeland, 36th 111. Inf.; H. Schick, 3d Pa. Art.: A. H. 
Brown, 13th la. Inf.; G. S. Guild, ]Mass. Inf.; S. L. Salisbury. 139th 
Pa. Inf.; P. Hoover, 104th O. Inf.; S. L. Brass, 1st Mich. Cav.; S. J. 
Shirley, 83d 111. Inf.; F. M. Thompson, 6th P. R. V. C; :M. Van 
Buskirk, 109th N. Y. Inf.; G. T. Brown, 47th la. Inf.; J. Newell, 
30th Ind. Inf.; J. Burwell, 14th O. Inf.; R. S. Langley, 122d 111. 
Inf.; A. Borden. J. S. Price, James ]McKelvey, 16th N. Y. Inf.; 
Jacob Swift. N. Y. Inf.; C. H. Chapman. 18th" ]Mich. Inf.; Henry 
Vinear, 12th Md. Inf.; D. Morgan, 13th Wis. Inf.; O. A. Buzzell, 
33d Mass.; John E. Adams, 30th Ind. Inf.; James Beach. 2d IMich. 
Art.; N. L. Brass. 1st ]Mich. Cav.; Alex. Rogers, 1st and .>4th 111. 
Cav.; Adam Land, 123d 111. Cav.; Benj. Davis, 38th la. Cav.; Jacob 
Silvers, l.->th U. S. Cav.; F. Kieser, 34th Ind. Inf.; Wilson S. Rich- 
ards, 68th O. Inf.; Jacob Hammer, 47th Ind. Inf.; I. Vanderwort, 
140th 111. Inf.; Jacob ^Morgan. 31st O. Inf.; Peter Anderson, 2d U. S. 
Art.; Rilev D. Burton. 67th Ind. Inf.; Simeon Johnson. 14th Pa.. 


Cav. ; Joseph Basey, 1st O. H. Art.; Absalom O. Overman, 9i5th Ind. 
Inf.; John F. JNIerrill; James JMcFerren, 21st Pa. Cav.; Wm. Champ- 
lin, 1st JNIich. Inf.; Geo. JMizen, Sr.. 4-2d Wis. Inf.; Jesse ^Nlillikan, 
139th Ind. Inf.; G. P. Alford; Alvin Wells, 1st Mich. Cav.; W. P. 
Davis, III. Inf.; G. S. Dwight, Gottleib Laher, 68th O. Inf.; John 
Young, JSIexican War; E. J. Hanchett, N. Y. Cav.; C. F. Onis, 
14.-)th 111. Inf.; Amos Wilson, 36th O. Cav.; B. E. Swift, 117th N. Y. 
Cav.: II. E. Drake, 30th Ind. Cav.; J. G. Mahler, 20th Ind. Cav.; 
James .M. Miller, 1st Ind. Art.; Nick Gordon, 2d la. Inf.; O. F. 
Foote, 7th Pa. Cav.; W. F. Kellar, D. R. Ball. 46th Ind. Inf.; Rich- 
ard Van Buskirk, 21st N. J. Inf.; Henry Winkley, 27th Wis. Inf.; 
Joseph Lilly, 172d Pa. Inf.; Lewis Alvers, 58th 111. Inf.; B. F. 
Baker; Wm. Martin, 83d O. Inf.; Charles Collins, 7th Mo. Inf.; 
Darius C. Kerr, 14th Ind. Inf.; W. J. Barger, 15th la. Inf.; Samuel 
Wright, 5th JNIass. Inf.; Isaac Smith, 128th Pa. Inf.; C. Hohlfelt, nth 
Wis. Inf.; Elias Knowles, 26th 111. Inf.; Norman G. Gibson, 29th 
Ind. Inf.; W. B. Hamilton, 53d 111. Inf.; Henry Jewett, 47th 111. 
Inf.: John Konkright. 155th Ind. Inf.; John D. Ball. 2d Mo. Cav.; 
Chas. S. James, 27th Mich. Inf.; L. D. Sergeant, 32d Wis. Inf.; 
Jacob II. Gates, 40th Wis. Inf.; R. J. Worthington, 13th Mich. Inf.; 
O. E. Woods, 21st N. Y. Cav.; D. M. Griswold. 129th 111. Inf.: Al M. 
Clay, 97th Ind. Inf.; Logan Sarrison, 17th Ind. Inf.; David Bruck- 
man. 99th Ind. Inf.; N. K. jNIetser, 9th Wis. Inf.; Samuel P. How- 
land, 4th JNIich. Inf.; W. S. Webster, 8th INIich. Cav.; M. D. Ovitt, 
17th Vt. Inf.; Wm. H. Stephens, 11th Ind. Cav.; D. V. Stevens, 
118th Ind. Inf.; N. H. Kathorn, 12th 111. Cav.: John R. Van Houten, 
151st 111. Inf.: Calvin Ball, 26th Ind. Inf.; Geo. S. Parks, 26th 111. 
Inf.: W. D. Burroughs. 9th INIich. Inf.: T. M. Battrell, 26th 111. Inf.; 
Lafayette L. Anger, 1st N. Y.; Henry W. Crone, 13th Ind. Inf.; 
Samuel Nicholas, 18th 111. Inf.; James Powell, 87th Ind. Inf.; C. B. 
Booth. 7th Ind. Inf.; Edward JNIorgan, 1st 111. Cav.; J. S. Robesy, 
1st :Md. Cav.; Peter Griffith, 102d 111. Inf.; John W. IMcCracken, 
38th Wis. Inf.; Sanford Webster. 2d Minn. Cav. 

The Juniata Post is still maintained, though many of the early 
nienibevs have died, and others have moved away. 

."Mii.rn.'v t():\ii'AXv 

On jNIay 21. 1880, Company K. afterward F. was reorganized, 
and the following officers were elected: A. V. Cole, captain; S. J. 
Shirley, first lieutenant: E. L. Dutton, second lieutenant. The mem- 
bers presented a list of names for non-commissioned officers, from 


wliich Captain Cole selected the following: Sergeants, William 
Spade, James Kent, ]M. K. Hutchinson, Josiah Hodges and George 
W'atkins; corporals, F. C. Erosius, D. Conger, P. Nash, R. Crawford, 
George ]Mizen, O. Button, ^V. Bahcoek and \V. \Vinter. 

In 1882 the company was represented in the State Encanipmenl 
at Omaha by the following named members: A. V. Cole, E. L. But- 
ton, J. 31. Kent, JNI. K. Hutchinson, S. J. Sliirley, William Spade, 
Josiali Hodges, George \Vatkins, Bamon Conger, A. Bordon, Way- 
land Babcock, Robert Crawford, INIarshal Ash, W. G. Beal, H. G. 
Armitage, G. S. Guild, W. H. Payne, William A. Ballou, E. R. 
Farrabee, Byron H. Button, William Ellington, Bavid Houts, R. W. 
Crone, Irwin Farrabee, AVilliam Knickerbocker, Francis Ballou, J. J. 
Flemming, E. F. Walker, J. B. Osier, Charles Signor, FTenry Ho- 
man, Charles F. Boty, William Winter, Ed A. Buzzell, C. R. Bige- 
low, Frampt Brosius, Frank Rosencrans, H. W. JNIitchell. 

'J'he company under the command of A. V. Cole took the gov- 
ernor's challenge cup at the encampment at Crete, in 1883. They 
held the cup until 1885, when Company C, of Beatrice, took it. The 
strength at that time was about forty-one. The conunissioned officers 
are: L. A. Ballou, captain; W. A. Ballou, first lieutenant; T. H. 
Ellis, second lieutenant, with four sergeants, three corporals, one 
musician, and twenty privates. In 1890, Company F of Juniata par- 
took in the Indian disturbances of which tlie battle of Wounded Knee 
was the most important event. 


Hansen Post, G. A. R., was instituted June 23, 1883. with A. F. 
Powers, commander; J. jNI. Bearse, S. V. C; J. F. Nyce, J. V. C. ; 
M. B. Holley, surgeon; F. H. Calder, chaplain; Fred Albright, Q. 
M.: J. Countryman, O. of B.; J. G. Honeywell, O. of G.; J. Smith, 
Adjt. : T. M. Beatreall, S. M. ; and George Mills, sergeant. The post 
^\as not then in active work. In fact it was alleged that beyond the 
formal organization nothing was accomplished. 


The G. A. R. Post at Ayr was established at about the same time 
as t]]e Hastings Post; for the last ten years, however, this ])ost has 
not been active, due to the death of many of tlie veterans, and others 
moving away. An organization still exists. An organization is also 


maintained at Kenesaw. The Kenesaw jjost was among the earhest 
to be organized in Adams County. 


Strickland Camp No. 20, Sons of Veterans, was organized at 
Hastings, January 8, 1887, with L. C. Bartlett, captain; C. Burggraf 
and C. A. Gardner, Heutenants; R. A. Bruce and A. H. Bowen, Jr., 
sergeants; Ross Dalby, chaplain; W. Yager, color sergeant: J. B. 
Koch, Joe Alexander, H. K. Snively, J. M. Boyd, J. Y. Snively, 
E. Carkins and F. C. Bassett, junior officers. This organization was 
active for a number of years; interest, however, dwindled with the 
moving away of members, so that the organization virtually ceased 
to exist a mnnber of years ago. 


It is probable that the first public religious service conducted in 
Adams County was that held on the third Sunday in January, 1871, 
at the home of William Kress in Little Blue Township. About 
twenty pioneers assembled for this meeting, notice of which had been 
passed from mouth to mouth for several days. The service was 
conducted by the Rev. J. W. Warwick, a Baptist minister. All 
around the little shantj' stretched the desolate prairie, and not a few 
shed tears as the first hymn was sung. "The ever mindful care of 
God" was the appropriate theme of the minister. 

Some of the difficulties attending spiritual ministration in the early 
days appears in the records of the county commissioners, where it is 
recorded that in 1872, the Rev. Mr. Warwick applied to the commis- 
sioners for aid, stating that he and his family were in dire need. 

The first religious service held in Hastings was conducted in the 
sample room of Charles Kohl, early in 1873. The Rev. J. F. Clark- 
son, who had come to Hastings with the English colony in the spring 
of 1871, conducted the service. JNIr. Kohl laid aside all glasses and 
concealed the distinguishing features of the sample room. The pro- 
prietor did this voluntarily to contribute to the success of the first 

The churches of the county have grown with the community. In 
1891 there were sixty-four Sunday schools with a membership of 
4, .51 4. The growth of the religious life of the comminiity will be 
indicated in the history of the churches that follows. 


The Presbyterian Church began its activities in Adams County 
almost as soon as the county was organized, and the growth of the 
movement has kept pace with the develo])ment of the county. Fires 
and other discouragements have served only to strengthen the faith 
and stimulate the work of the denomination. 


It was on August 1, 1873, that the Rev. James A. GrifRs visited 
Hastings and found here a number of Presbyterians who were with- 
out a church liome. The Rev. Gritiis lost no time in complying with 
their wishes, and ten days later a church was organized. The first 
services were held in the building then being erected for the Methodist 
Church. A bundle of shingles laid across the top of an empty barrel 
served as a pulpit, and in these unfavorable surroundings, the churcli 
was organized. The charter members were Mr. A. L. Wigton and 
wife, Samuel Alexander, H. M. Robinson, H. M. Palmer and wife, 
and W. jM. Snodgrass, and the first officers of the church w^ere Sam- 
uel Alexander and A. L. Wigton, elected elders. On September 3, 
1873, the church was received under the care of the Nebraska City 
Presbytery, and, in connection with the church at Kearney, Rev. 
James A. Griffis was engaged as supply. 

As soon as the church became firmly established, and had a suf- 
ficient membership, steps were taken toward the building of their first 
church. TJie building was located on the southeast corner of Third 
Street and Lincoln Avenue, and was dedicated entirely free from 
debt, the total cost being approximately $3,000. The church was 
erected under the supervision of Samuel Alexander, A. L. Wigton. 
and Ij. B. Palmer. The congregation held their services in this build- 
ing until 1888, when the lot on the corner of Seventh Street and 
Lincoln Avenue was purchased at a cost of $2, .500. ^Vork was begun 
on this building in the sjjring of that year. The building committee 
were Samuel Alexander. Rev. George T. Crissman, D. D.. C. P. 
Webster, L. B. Palmer. A. J. Neimeyer, and L. M. Campbell. The 
Rev. George T. Crissman held the first services in the new church in 
.January. 1889. The building was planned by the famous Presby- 
terian architect, L. B. Valk, of Los Ajigeles, and followed the usual 
Presbyterian style, being more or less irregular in outline and having 
a large tower room. The total cost of the liuilding. pipe organ, and 
furniture inclusive, was $49,982.24. 

On September 2.5, 1910. this beautiful edifice was com])letely 
destroyed by fire. W. F. Raney, at that time a deacon of the chui-ch. 
was killed while assisting in removing some records from the study. 
A large stone on the corner of the building became loosened by the 
lieat. and fell on him, killing him instantly. 

Plans were made inmiediately for the rebuilding of the church, and 
tlie result is the present building, also designed by INIr. Valk, which 
was erected at a cost of about $.52,000, exclusive of the salvage from 
the old building. The building committee were W. F. Buchanan. 
F. L. Pease. A. H. Jones. J. H. RifFe, C. A. Heartwell. and W. T. 


Blackmail. The design of the new church follows that of the old one 
as nearly as possible. 

The dedication services lasted all day, and in the evening, the 
sacred cantata, "The Nazarene," by William JNladoc, was given under 
the direction of Prof. John Rees. The dedication was on Sunday, 
January 14, 1912. 

The following ministers have served the church: Rev. James A. 
Griffis, Rev. John Rutherford, Rev. D. S. Schaff, Rev. E. S. Wil- 
liams. Rev. W. F. Ringland, Rev. G. T. Crissman, Rev. Harry O. 
Scott, Rev. E. A^an Dyke Wight, Rev. C. W. AA'eyer, and the Rev. J. 
W. Eean, who is the present pastor. 


September 23, 1872, the first ^Nletliodist Episcopal church was 
organized in Hastings in the section house of the St. Joe k Denver 
City Railroad, by the Rev. R. PI. Crane, who continued for some time 
to minister to the little flock. Of the flrst ^Methodist class the follow- 
ing were members: William Hudson, JNlaria Hudson, Benjamin 
Blown. Rebecca Brown, Richard Rainforth, Lizzie Rainforth, and 
IMarv E. Rose. After the organization of the class, services were 
held in different homes, and in business houses, which were kindly 
opened for the preaching service. The cottage of John Gillespie 
IMoore, 1122 West Second Street (exact location not agreed u])on 
by the early settlers still living in Hastings), was the principal house 
of worship until the erection of a church became possible. 

Shortly after its organization, the Hastings Town Company, in 
1873 donated three lots to the JMethodists at the corner of Kansas 
Avenue and Second Street, and on July 13 of that year a site for a 
church was selected by Presiding Elder White. Funds had been 
collected for the building of a church, and August 10, 1873, the par- 
tially completed building was formally dedicated. The Rev. James 
GrifRs. pastor of the Presbyterian Church, officiated. The dedication 
of the ^Methodist Church by the Presbyterian pastor came about 
tlirough a misunderstanding. This, however, has not proven to be 
nnpropitious, for the church has enjoyed remarkable growth. In 1880 
the church property was sold to the German Evangelical Association, 
and the ^Methodists acquired a site on the northeast corner of Burling- 
ton Avenue and Third Street. August 12, 1880, the corner stone of 
a new church was laid. Rev. A. C. Crosthwaite officiating. The build- 
ing was completed at a cost of $6,000. During the process of con- 
struction, the services were held in Germania Hall, then known as 


Liberal Hall. During the pastorate of Rev. G. W. Isham the church 
was practically rebuilt. The remodeled church served its j^urpose 
satisfactorily for a number of years, but eventually the growth in 
membership forced upon the JNIethodists the necessity for erecting 
a new church. On INIarch 5, 1912, the official board authorized the 
l^astor, Rev. A. A. Brooks, to appoint a plan committee to begin 
preparing jilans for the erection of a new church to be erected upon 
lots acquired at the southeast corner of Seventh Street and Hastings 
Avenue. The committee appointed was: D. P. Jones, A. J. Gay- 
mon. Dr. J. W. Straight, John Snider, J. W. Plummer, ^Nliss Grace 
Sylla and JNIrs. George Kimball, Sr. Of this committee, ]Mr. Jones 
was the chairman and Doctor Straight the secretary. The committee 
held fifty meetings and consulted with many achitects, and after 
three years of consideration i)resented plans which ^^ere unanimously 
ado])ted by the board. These plans were prepared by Fulton & Butler 
of Uniontown, Pa. The finance committee was: C. G. Lane, U. S. 
Rohrer, W. A. Taylor, H. B. Cornelius, J. C. Hedge, W. A. :Martin 
and N. H. Jones. The campaign for raising the money was begun 
Januaiy .31st, under the leadership of Dr. T. C. Iliff of Denver, and 
within forty-eight hours $37,000 had been pledged. The total cost 
of the church, including chime, lot, furnishings and parsonage, is 
about $80,000. The j^arsonage and church are under one roof. 

The chime of ten bells was presented to the community by ]Mr. 
W. H. Lanning and installed in the church building with the jNIeth- 
odist organization as trustee. The bells have a total weight of 9,200 
pounds, and were presented by Mr. Lanning as a memorial of his 
mother, Mrs. jNIary Lanning. The bells were first rung upon the 
morning of June 23, 1916, about 7 o'clock, upon the occasion of the 
dejiarture of Company G of the National Guard, of Hastings, for 
Lincoln, to mobilize in response to the call of President Wilson for 
guardsmen for service on the ^Mexican border. 

The auditorium of this church is 56 by 66 feet. Other rooms on 
the main floor are pastor's study, choir room, choir loft, large Sunday 
school room with large and small classrooms, mothers' rest room, etc. 
The church was dedicated with a series of exercises beginning at 
10 o'clock, July 30, 1916, and ending with a pipe organ recital by 
William JNI. Jenkin of St. Louis, assisted by Rollin INI. Pease of St. 
Paul, on the evening of August 4th. Bishop Homer C. Stuntz was 
among those who delivered addresses, also a former pastor, Dr. 
George W. Isham. The following pastors have served the church: 
R. H. Crane, 1872; Hiram Hersey, 1873; E. J. Willis, 1874-75; 
Richard Pearson, 1876-77: Edward Thompson. 1878; A. C. Cros- 


:\\ -\Li;iijui)i.^T lulklU. ham 


thwaite, 1879-81; S. H. Henderson, 1882-83; John Galligar, 1884; 
\V. R. Jones, 188.5-86; L. F. Britt, 1887-1891; R. G. Adams, 1892; 
G. S. W. Dean, 1893-94; George W. Ishani, 1895-98; G. W. Abbott, 
1898-1903; E. M. Evans, 1904; M. Bamford, 1905-07; George P. 
Trites, 1908-11; A. A. Brooks, the present pastor since 1911. 


The First Baptist Church of Hastings was organized April 29, 
1873, by the Rev. I. D. Newell, who was the first general missionary 
of the denomination to carry on work in this section of Nebraska. 
The Rev. ]Mr. Newell, who died in Glenville in 191.5, organized in 
pioneer days, and subsequently, a large number of Sunday schools in 
Adams and Clay counties. At the organization of the Hastings 
chiu'ch there was present the Rev. J. N. Webb, general state mission- 
ary, who assisted Reverend Newell. The members present at the 
organization were D. S. Cole, J. W. Holt, James Purdy, Hiram 
Starr, Mrs. Purdy, Lulu Purdy and Christine Starr. Mrs. I. D. 
Newell was also present. Among the very early members of the 
Hastings chiu'ch were Jacob Wooster, J. H. Vandemark, N. T. 
Eckles, Frank Talmadge and J. R. Sims, ]Mrs. Talmadge, ]\Irs. Alli- 
son and ]\Irs. Vandemark. For a number of years the congregation 
met for worship at the residences of different members. On Jime 
7, 1879, the congregation worshiped in the Congregational Church, 
which edifice they used for about a year. At this time the membership 
was thirty-four. The next year they leased the hall of the Good 
Templars and subsequently arranged with one of the German 
churches for the use of their building. 

January 21, 1880, the congregation decided to buy lots upon which 
to erect a church, and upon February 7th they acquired three lots 
adjacent to the southwest corner of Lincoln Avenue and Fifth Street. 
July 7, 1881, a committee composed of Jacob Wooster, J. H. Van- 
demark, C. H. Felt, ]Mrs. Allison and ]\Irs. Vandemark was appointed 
to receive funds for the erection of a church. The Home INIission 
Society promised to advance $.500 if the committee could raise $1,000. 
The building committee was: J. R. Sims, Jacob Wooster, Frank 
Talmadge and L. C. Gould. 

September 22, 1881, the contract to erect the new church upon 
the site already purchased was let to J. R. Sims for $1,66.5. The 
record shows that a business meeting was held in the wing of the new 
church December 18, 1881. but the church was not dedicated until 
January 31, 1882. Upon January 23, 189.5, the Baptist Church 


acquired a lot on South Lincoln Avenue and erected thereon, subse- 
quently, the South Side Chapel. Successful missionary work was 
carried on in the chapel for a number of years, but of late the work 
has been discontinued, though the iJroperty is still held by the church. 
The names of Dr. E. T. Cassell and wife should be associated with 
the work of the chapel. 

It was upon December 7, 1900, that the Kev. ^Mr. Cloyd began 
securing subscrijitions for the erection of the present church, and on 
March 20, 1901, the contract was let to C. D. Ricliey to erect a church 
after the jjlans and specifications prepared by Turnbull & Jones of 
Elgin, 111. Some changes and additions were made, so that the total 
cost of the building was about $12,000. C. P. SheafF was chairman 
of the building committee and W. S. French secretarj'. The church 
was dedicated in December, 1901, by Dr. H. O. Rowlands, then 
pastor of the First Baptist Church at Lincoln. The church has a 
total seating capacity of about five hundred, and is free of encum- 
brance. The site of the old church was sold in 1900 and the present 
site acquired in July of that year. The church owns, altogether, five 
lots. The membership at present is 409. Among the active workers 
of the Bajitist Church in Hastings may be enumerated Jacob Woos- 
ter. J. R. Sims, William Huxtable. John Owen, Dr. E. T. Cassell 
and wife. C. P. SheafF, W. L. SheafF, Samuel Roger, J. H. Rodgers 
and Uvs. H. J. Prather. 

Doctor Cassell and wife are the composers of many hymns, words 
and music. Two hynms are widely sung throughout the United 
States — "Loyalty to Christ" and "The King's Business." A sermon 
by the Rev. INIr. Cloyd preached in the Hastings churcli was the 
inspiration for one of these hymns. Doctor Cassell removed to Colo- 
rado in 1902, and while thei-e "Sirs. Cassell came to her death by 

The following have been the pastors who have served the Baptist 
Church in Hastings: I. D. Newell. April 29, 1873, to JNIarch, 187.>; 
H. A. Guild, IVIarch 2.5, 1876, to JNIarch, 1877: J. E. Rockwood. June 
3, 1879, to July. 1880: J. H. INIize. February 24, 1881. to June W, 
188.'}: II. P. Fitch. December, 1883, to January 10, 188G; J. Y. 
Aitchison ]May 1,5. 1886. to April 1. 1887: C. H. Holden, June. 1887. 
to May, 1889- H. P. Fitch, August, 1889, to April, 1891: J. E. R. 
Folsom, September 1, 1891, to June 4. 1898; L. L. Cloyd. 3Iarch 1, 
1900. to IMay 1, 1903; C. R. Welden. June 20, 1903. to October 18, 
1904; Birney S. Hudson. April. 190.5. to November 1, 1908; William 
J. Coulston. February 18. 1909. to October 29, 1911; George W. 
Taft. January 1.5, 1912, to December 1, 1913: AV. T. Richardson, 


December 7, 1913, to October 1, 1914; C. H. Holden, January IT, 
1915, to Seiitember 1, 191,5; B. P. Richardson, the present pastor, 
began his jiastorate October 24, 1915. 

The present deacons of the churcli are: A. V. Brown, chairman; 
D. INI. Tinder, secretary; C. P. Sheaff, treasurer; J. W. Crissman, 
Henry Groth, G. W. Koon, W. L. Newkirk, Ed Baker, Dr. C. K. 
Struble, Enno Uden, Dr. E. E. INIarr. Church clerk, W. A. Piel- 


The Congregationalists of Adams County enjoy the distinction 
of perfecting the first church organization in the county and of 
liohling tlie first rehgious services in Hastings. The Rev. J. F. 
Chirkson, \vlio reached this vicinity in 1871 with the British colony, 
was a Congregationalist, and upon the arrival of the wagons he con- 
ducted services the first Sunday, standing in a wagon while he spoke, 
and using a spring seat for his pulpit. When sod houses were built, 
services were held in them by the Rev. INIr. Clarkson. 

Services M^ere conducted in the residences of members until the 
completion of the first school building, which served until 1875, when 
the congregation moved their church home to JMillet Hall, located 
on the corner of First Street and Hastings AAcnue. They remained 
here for about three years, and in the fall of 1878 once more trans- 
ferred their church home to the Presbyterian Church, which in the 
meantime had been erected and dedicated. Through these years the 
congregation grew slowly, but had increased from thirteen to a few 
more than twenty. In 1888 the membership had grown to 110. 

]March 29, 1879, is a red letter day in the history of the Congrega- 
tionalists in Hastings, for on this date the first church building was 
dedicated. This w-as a frame structure and was located at the corner 
of I^incoln Avenue and Third Street. The cost of the building was 
$2,100. In the steeple of this church a bell was hung, and its tones 
were those of the first church bell to be rung in the town. In 1887 
a site was secured on the northeast corner of Sixth Street and Lincoln 
Avenue, and on September 27th of that year the church building was 
moved to what is still the site of the Congregational house of worship. 
The first frame edifice was 56 feet long by 34 feet wide and had a 
A^n'ng addition 22 feet long by 18 feet wide. This chvu'ch building was 
used until the dedication of the present brick edifice. 

The building now occupied was dedicated with elaborate services, 
extending from ^Nlav 10 to JNIav 15, 1910, and Avas erected at a cost 


of $20,000. The building committee was: A. H. Brooke, Hans 
Hansen and E. L. Vance. The total seating cajjacity of the present 
church is .500. The membership is 200. The following pastors have 
served the congregation: Rev. John F. Clarkson, 1872 to 1873; Rev. 
W. Haviland, 1873 to 1874; Rev. M. F. Piatt, 1874 to 1870: Rev. 
Jacob Winslow, 1876 to 1877; Rev. A. W. Curtis, 1878 to 1870; 
Rev. J. D. Stewart, 1879 to 1883; Rev. Henry Wilson, 1883 to 
1885; Rev. George R. Milton, 188.5 to 1886; Rev. William Walters, 
1886 to 1892; Rev. S. F. Powell, 1892 to 1894; Rev. S. S. Healy, 
1894 to 189,5; Rev. L. P. Rose, 1895 to 1898; Rev. J. W. Nelson, 
1898 to 1901; Rev. Theo C. Hunt, 1901 to 1904; Rev. H. B. Har- 
rison, 1905 to 1910; Rev. Grant B. Wilder, 1910 to 1911; Rev. 
Wilham A. Tyler, 1911 to 1913; Rev. Fred J. Clark, 1914 to 1916. 
The present pastor, Joseph Toms, assumed the pastorate October 8, 


The First Christian Church of Hastings ^\'as organized imder the 
auspices of the Nebraska Christian ]Missionary Society by R. C. 
Barrows, a pioneer evangelist, in 1885. Until 1887 the denomination 
had no pastor. During these two years, a few months of each year 
tlie church was served by the Rev. Mr. Elliot, a student at the Chris- 
tian college at Fairfield, Nebraska-Fairfield College. The Rev. Mr. 
Tucker followed ]Mr. Elliot, preaching for a few months. The first 
regular pastor was Rev. W. T. ^Nlaupin, the father of the well-known 
Nebraska newspaper man. Will jMaujjin. ]Mr. jNIaupin's pastorate 
continued through the winter of 1888-9. At this time services were 
held in the Presbyterian Church. H. J. Kirchstein was pastor for 
two i^eriods, the first extending from 1891 to 1893, and the second 
from 1901 to 1902. Short pastorates were held by H. J. ]\IcSparren 
and N. A. Stull. H. G. Wilkinson was the pastor in 1898, and 
Rev, H. S. Gilliam served from 1903 to 1906. The Rev. INIr. Gilliam 
did much to organize the Sunday school upon modern lines, giving 
it a place among the leading schools of the state, which place it still 
maintains. During the pastorate of Rev. Robert A. Schell, 1906 to 
1912. the church increased very largely in menibershi]). Following 
a very successful evangelistic meeting by Dr. Charles Reign Scoville 
of Chicago, the old frame building became entirely inadequate and 
a l)uilding project was launched which resulted in the erection of the 
present splendid brick edifice upon the site of the old frame church. 
The cornerstone of the present building was laid in 1910, and in June, 

First rix-sl.yttTian Church 1 ii 



1911 it was dedicated by Chancellor William Oeschger of Cotner 
Universit}'. The cost of the chui'ch was $30,000. The church now 
has a membership of 596 and a Bible school enrollment of 475. 

J. E. Holly was called to the postorate in December, 1913, but 
on account of ill health was forced to resign the following spring. 
The jjresent jjastor, Clarence E. Lemmon, has been in charge since 
September, 1914. 

The present elders of the church are M. M. Haynes, A. B. Craw- 
ford, R. T. Eller and Lee H. Haggard. The trustees are M. JNI. 
Haynes, J. W. Turpit and F. N. Addleman. The deaconesses are 
Edith Hart, Rhoda Scott and jNIargaret Caton. Ira Scott is chair- 
man of the following board of deacons : L. W. Belknap, E. J. Spieth, 
Elmer Corbin, E. H. Lange, Sam Stewart, J. W. Turpit, F. N. 
Goudy, C. E. Chadwick, L. P. Mills, Charles Dyer, Frank Long, 
G. L. Straight, R. C. Carter, F. O. Steward, Charles Smiley and 
C. L. Egbert. 


The Grace United Evangelical Church is located on the south- 
west corner of Denver Avenue and Sixth Street. It is a neat frame 
building, that in its architectural i)lan does not follow the strictly 
modern type, but has tjie pleasing outlines of the spiral church of 
an earlier style. 

This church was organized in 1894. It had at that time a mem- 
bership of about twenty. It enjoyed a satisfactory growth and by 
1906 the membership had increased to 120. The first house of wor- 
ship was a small frame edifice moved in from the country, and valued 
at not to exceed $200. This building was located at the southeast 
corner of Kansas Avenue and Seventh Street. The congregation 
continued to worship in this church vmtil 1904, when the present 
chinch was erected at a cost of $9,500. It was dedicated in the same 

^\ loss of membersliip to the number of about forty Avas sustained 
by this church in 1911, when there was a withdrawal folloAving a 
revival in which the doctrine of holiness was emphasized. It was from 
the members who withdrew that the Pentecostal Church of the 
Nazarene Avas organized. 

While this reverse imposed unlooked for hardships upon the con- 
gregation, it has survived and services have been held continuously in 
the chin-ch. The first pastor. Rev. T. W. Serf, in whose pastorate 
the chiu'ch was organized, remained with his congregation through 


the trying times attending the drought, removing to Aurora shortly 
before the erection of the building. He is still located in Aurora. 
The i^resent membership is seventy-five. 

The following pastors have served this congregation: Rev. E. S. 
Smith, 1903-04; Rev. A. Lemkau, 1904-06; Rev. T. ]M. Evans, 
1907-08; W. C. Brewer, 1908-10; Rev. Q. A. Deck, 1910-11; Rev. 
Arthur P. Layton, 1911-14; Rev. S. B. Dillow, the present pastor, 
since 1914. 


The United Brethren Church in Hastings was organized during 
IMarch, 1892, with a class of thirty-five members, by the Rev. ^^''illiam 
Thompson, who had come to Hastings in December, 1891. At that 
time there were only a few United Brethren families, among whom 
were Mr. and Mrs. C. Austin, ]\Ir. and JNIrs. J. S. Winey, INIrs. Anna 
Garver, IMrs. J. H. CofFman and some others. The organization of 
the church followed a revival meeting conducted by tlie Re^'. JNlr. 
Thompson. The first building used by the denomination was a small 
building wliich they rented at the corner of Second Street and INIinne- 
sota Avenue. The cliiu'cli rented was the property of the "Come- 
Outers," a denomination who carried on services for about two years, 
but finally disbanded. The church was originally moved upon the 
location at the coi-ner of Second Street and JNIinnesota Avenue. 
Before the close of 1892 the United Brethren bought this church 
propert_y for $200. In 1894 this property was sold by the church, and 
Germania Hall, at the corner of St. Joseph Avenue and Third Street, 
was purchased for $1,000. October 1.5, 1908, the property on St. 
Joseph Avenue was sold for $3,000 to the Knights of Columbus, and 
the United Brethren purchased the site for the present building upon 
the southeast corner of St. Joseph Avenue and Sixth Street for 
$1,.5.50. The contract for the erection of the present church, a hand- 
some brick structure with a seating capacity of 300, was let to C. E. 
Coblentz of Hastings, November 19, 1908. upon liis bid of $7,875. 
This bid did not include the heating plant, windows or furnishings. 
The plans were drawn by INI. X. Bair of Hastings, and tlie brick work 
was done ])y Lou Ellis. The church was dedicated July 25, 1909, 
by Bishop W. M. Weekly. The building committee was: The pas- 
tor. Rev. L. O. Sanderson, W. F. Dunbar and J. S. Winey. The 
trustees were W. F. Dunbar, X. W. Coleman, J. V. Hess, J. S. 
Winey, C. E. Smith, V. A. Palm, Ira Hickman. The following 
ministers have served the church: W. H. Thompson, 1892 to 1896; 


A. Boyd, 1896 to 1898; A. Gile, 1898 to 1899; W. O. Harper, 1899 
to 1902; S. Hobson, 1902 to 1903; S. M. Zike, 1903 to 1906; E. F. 
Wriggle, 1906 to 1907; L. W. Nine, 1907 to 1908; L. O. Sanderson, 
1908 to 1910; S. E. Kasey, 1910 to 1911; J. F. Mower, 1911 to 1912; 
J. E. Edwards, 1912 to 1914; I. A. Chivington, November, 1914, 
to February 1, 191o; C. M. Fuller, February 1, 1915, to September, 
191.3; J. J. Ramsey served about six Aveeks, and tlie present pastor, 
O. S. Long, assumed tbe pastorate in JNIarch, 1916. 

The official name of the church in Hastings is "West Nebraska 
Memorial United Brethren Chiu-ch." 

In 1892, at about the time that he organized the church in Hast- 
ings, tlie Rev. INIr. Thompson conducted a series of revival meetings 
in a sclioolhouse three miles south of Hastings, and as a result of these 
meetings the Bethel class was formed, with a membership of fifty. 
In the pastorate of the Rev. S. ]M. Zike a frame church was erected 
at Bethel at a cost of $2,044. Bethel Church now has a membership 
of about thirty, and "West Nebraska jNIemorial," at Hastings, eighty- 
five. Before the erection of their chiu'ch, the class at Bethel worshiped 
in the Wallace schoolhouse, in District No. 60. 

Tlie present officers of the church at Hastings are : Trustees, li. 
W. Smith. C. E. Smith, C. M. Fuller, Ira Hickman, Earl Hickman, 
Mavy Thompson and Ada Garver. 

The trustees at Bethel are: Julius AVallace, Pearl Daugherty and 
Ed Foster. 


The Pentecostal Chui'ch of the Nazarene was organized in Hast- 
ings March 14, 1911. The first members, for the most part, withdrew 
in that year from the United Evangelical Church following a revival 
meeting held in that church Avhich laid particular emphasis on sancti- 
fication, Avhicli is a cardinal doctrine of the Pentecostal Church. 

The first meetings were held in the home of Thomas Varah. The 
fii'st organization was a missionary one, but on the 23d of jNIay of 
the same year, encouraged by the growth in numbers, a church organ- 
ization was formed. JNIeetings were held thereafter in the hall occu- 
jDied'by the Salvation Army until the conflict in the times of services 
of the two organizations determined the new congregation to erect 
their own church home. Dm'ing 1912 the present church building was 
erected at the southeast corner of Lexington Avenue and Fifth 
Street, at a cost of $4,100. A parsonage was also erected adjacent 
to the churcli u])on the east. 


The church was organized bj' the Rev. Q. A. Deck, who before 
the formation of this church was the pastor of the United Evangelical 
Church in Hastings. The pastors who have served this church have 
been the following: Rev. Q. A. Deck, 1911-13; Edward Silverbrand, 
completed 1913; J. E. Wigfield, came in 1914 and is still the i^astor. 
The first trustees were Thomas Varah, H. X. jNlartin, Frank Frink, 
John Lans, Jack Reynolds and O. N. Kemiedy. 

AMien the cliurch was organized the membership was twentj'- 
seven. The jjresent membershii) is sixty, and the seating cajjacity of 
the building is 300. 


The Seventh Day Adventists of Nebraska have had their state 
lieadquarters at Hastings since 1907- For many years previous to 
that date the headquarters had been maintained at Lincoln, the change 
to Hastings being made in order to locate headquarters more cen- 
trally, and the excellent railroad facilities was a factor in making 
the selection. Elder Robinson was one of the prime movers in 
making this change. 

The denomination purchased nine 100-foot lots in 1907 in the 
northeast quarter of Hastings and at once began to erect buildings. 
In the fall of 1907-08 the Nebraska Sanitarium, the church building, 
conference office and Bible supply house were ready for occupancy. 
Subsequently intermediate school dormitories were erected, and in 
191.3 an annex to the sanitarium was built. The sanitarium is con- 
nected Avith a similar institution conducted by the denomination at 
College View, near Lincoln. The building is of brick and was erected 
at a cost of $30,000. INIuch surgery is done at the sanitarium, which 
also emphasizes hydriatic treatment. The sanitarium is properly one 
of the church activities. 

A colony of Seventh Day Adventists followed the headquarters 
to Hastings, and at the present time there are about forty families 
who live in the vicinity of the denomination's property. A school 
is maintained independent of the Hastings public schools. Classes 
are conducted in the church, and the enrollment in the school this 
year is .50. 


St. ^Mark's Episcopal Church was established in Hastings on ]May 
3, 1880, and the first service was conducted on April 18t]i of that year 


in a public liall. Among the principal members concerned in the 
movement of establishing this church were Charles Cameron, L. H. 
Tower, I. M. Norton, Oswald Oliver, J. C. Ideson, F. J. Benedict, 
A. R. Ideson, H. ]M. Ohver. A church edifice, 28 by 60, was erected 
in 1881, iqjon the southeast corner of Burlington Avenue and Fifth 
Street, at a cost of $3,000. The church was dedicated March 26, 1881, 
by Rishop Clarkson of Omaha. The parish house was added during 
the rectorshi^J of Rev. Edward D. Irvine, and tlie rectory was bought 
in 1909. 

The bishop of the diocese changed his residence from Kearney 
to Hastings in 1913, and since that time Hastings is the "See City," 
the bishop being in residence, and is the center of the Hastings Dean- 
ery, that portion of the Diocese of Western Nebraska lying south of 
the Platte River, and over which the rector is the dean. The Rt. Rev. 
George Allen Reecher lives in the Episcopal residence located at 
920 North St. Joseph Avenue. Tlie rectory is located at 820 West 
Fifth Street. The first rector was the Rev. John W. Greenwood, 
who divided his time between Hastings and Grand Island. The suc- 
ceeding i-ectors were: Rev. Henry C. Sliaw, 1883; J. W. Gillman, 
1886 to 1890; William Lucas, 1891 to 1895; Edward D. Irvine, 189.5 
to 1897; John Power, 1898 to 1904-; Lee H. Young, 1904. to 1916. 
In 1882 the membership was about seventy-two. The communicant 
list at the present time contains 114 names. Rev. J. S. Rudlong 
became the rector in the summer of 1916. 


Interest in Christian Science became active in Hastings in 1893. 
The first services were held in various residences and later in the 
rooms of the public library. A Christian Science Society was formed 
in 1898 and a room rented and furnished in which services were held. 
This society grew and in 1900 a church was formed. The church was 
incorporated in jNIay of that year, the signers of the articles being 
Frank C. Woolley, Florence I. Woolley, ]Mrs. Nellie I. Zinn. Rertie 
M. Parmenter, ]Mrs. Emma Parmenter, J. R. ^McLaughlin, ]Mrs. 
Marie IMiller, JNIrs. Amelia Scanlan, INIrs. ]\Iary Adalin Rruce, 
Mrs. Susan M. Oliphant. Francis A. Smith. William INIaurice Rruce, 
Eva Clara Heartwell, Russell S. Rruce, INIrs. Fred Renner, JNIrs. 
Rosa INIcLaughlin and INIrs. Angie H. Raney. After the formation 
of the church a children's Sunday school, was formed and regular 
Sunday services and Wednesday evening testimonial services were 


A few years ago, anticij^ating their future growth, the church 
purchased two building lots on the northwest corner of Lincoln Ave- 
nue and Fifth Street, which they now hold for the time when they 
shall decide to erect a church building. For several years services 
have been held in the Carnegie library, where they maintain a free 
reading room and loan library which are ojien to the public every 
afternoon. The ])resent officers are R. A. Blake president, M. H. 
Baker, clerk, Arthur JMuchow treasurer, Mrs. Nellie I. Zinn and 
Mrs. Georgiana Brownell directors. The five named constitute the 
lioard of trustees. 


Tliere are four Catholic churches in Adams County. One, St. 
Cecelia's Catholic Church, is located at Hastings; St. Patrick's stands 
on the southwest quarter of section 5 in Highland Township, and the 
Church of the Assumj^tion of the Blessed Virgin is located on the 
southwest quarter of section 4 in Roseland Township, and the Sacred 
Heart Catholic Church is in Kenesaw. St. Cecelia's and Assumption 
are mucli older parishes than St. Patrick's, and tlie Sacred Heart 
Churcli is the youngest of the four. 

In ]March, 1878, Rt. Rev. John O'Coimor, bishop of Omaha, 
made Hastings the residence of a priest and Rev. G. Glauber was 
appointed rector- of Hastings and the sin-rounding country. There 
were, however, a mimber of Catholics resident in Hastings and in the 
German settlement near Assumption, at that time called Roseland. 
TJntil 1878, the nearest priest resided at Crete. Before churches were 
organized. Rev. Lechleitner and Rev. B. Kuppenbender of Liberty 
Creek, Nuckolls County, Ansited the settlers several times and cele- 
brated mass and administered the sacraments. The first records of 
the missions in tliis part of the state form a part of the parish records 
of Crete. 

In the years between 1872 and the comijletion of the first Cath- 
olic chiu-ch in Hastings, in the spring of 1879, services were held in 
tlie residence of Thomas E. Farrell. Among the first Catholic fam- 
ilies to settle in and aroimd Hastings were those of Thomas Farrell, 
John ^Nlalone, Peter Horrigan, George Brannon, Thomas ^Nlonahan. 
P. Z. Gauvreau, Michael M. INIcKenna, B. J. Kernan, Thohias Ker- 
nan. Tliomas Keimedy. Dol])hus INIitchell, Ezra Langevin, E. Paris, 
and a number of Frencli Catliolics who settled here in 1873. 

The building of the first Catholic chiu'ch in Hastings was begim 
in October 1878, and completed in the spring of the following year. 

Ill l;i II 111- llli: ASSIMI'TIOX. KdSKLAXn 


It stood on Second Street, at about the location of the present gas 
plant. It was a frame structure, the main part 32 feet by 50 feet, and 
with an extension in the rear 12 feet by 18 feet. This church was 
moved to the location of the present church, on the corner of Kansas 
Avenue and Seventh Street, early in the postorate of Reverend Eng- 
lish. It was enlarged at that time to a seating capacity of 500, and 
ser\ed as a house of worship until its removal to Colorado Avenue 
to make room for the present structure. It is now used as a parochial 
school building. The present house for the jjriest was acquired, with 
the six lots which now form the church property, at the time the church 
was moved. 

The ]n-esent church is among the beautiful churches of Nebraska. 
It was erected at a cost of $70,000, including the price of the organ. 
It occupies a space 148 feet by 72 feet. The nave is 95 by 58 feet 
and the transept in front of the sanctuary is 74 by 30 feet. The 
apex of the ceiling is 42 feet. The sanctuary is 30 feet by 30 feet in 
front of the main altar and 11 by 12 feet in front of the side altars. 
The apex of the roof is 65 feet from the grade, the corner tower 
95 feet and the smaller tower 75 feet. 

The church has a framework of steel and the exterior facing is 
brown Persian tapestry brick, the first to be used in Adams County. 
All windows and lower traceries are of American art stone. The 
roof is red tile. The design is Gothic throughout. The feature that 
distinguishes it from most buildings of its type is the absence of 
obstructing columns between the nave and the side aisles. From the 
vaulted ceiling at the places where columns ordinarily are used, hang 
pendants which form a part of the indirect lighting system. 

The church was dedicated December 22, 1912. The dedication 
mass was said by the Rt. Rev. J. Henry Tihen, bishop of Lincoln; 
the sermon was by His Grace, J. J. Keane, archbishop of Dubuque. 
Tlie singers were: Sopranos, INIay Brennen, Alice Goodwin, Stella 
Kernan, Philomena Stevens; altos, Kathryn Farrell. Alice Fisher, 
Aimee Kealy, Gertrude Kealy, Agnes Uerling; tenors, Frank Cant- 
well. Howard Helms, Frank Hoffman. Joseph Kealy, Leo Hissen- 
baugh: basses, Frank Kealy, Charles Kroutwick, A. Siren and 
Director Father Patrick, O. S. B. Organist. Dorsey D. Baird. 

Plans and specifications were made by Architect C. W. Way. 
and the contractor was John Hemple. Rev. William INIcDonald, 
John V. Helmann and John D. iMcKenna were the building com- 
mittee. jNIr. Helmann was overseer of the work. 

The priests that have served the church began their work upon 
tlie following dates: Rev. George Glauber, ^Nlarch 25. 1878; Rev. 


James Simeon, August, 1881, remaining until July 2, 1888. Father 
English succeeded Rev. Simeon and remained until the appointment 
of Rev. William ^McDonald, September 1, 1894. With the appoint- 
ment of Father English, the Hastings priest was designated as the 
dean of the Hastings Deanery. The deanery embraces that part of 
the Diocese of Lincoln lying M'est of Hastings, as far as the Colorado 
line. There are about fifteen priests in the deanery. Hastings is 
in the Diocese of Lincoln and the Province of Dubuque. The Hast- 
ings church has about one thousand communicants. 


About 1873 several Catholic families of German descent settled 
in the southwestern part of Adams County. Among these were John 
Baech, Theodore ShifFerence, JNl. Widert, Thomas Trausch, John 
Gerten and John Scholl. A little later came John Lorang. P. Schnei- 
der, John Gussenberger, X^. Goedert, JNL Diedrech and others. When 
Rev. George Glauber became the resident priest of Hastings, iNIarch 
2.5, 1878, he soon afterward made arrangements for holding a 
monthly service in a schoolhouse in the settlement. 

The building of a church for the mission was in contemplation 
for a number of years, but the settlers were unable to agree among 
themselves as to the location. At length, upon the advice of the 
bishop, five acres were purchased at the present location for $2.5. A 
building committee composed of ]M. Beiringer, John Scholl, Theo- 
dore Weber and X^ick Lorentz solicited funds and a little church, 
24 by 36 feet, was erected. Shortly afterward an addition, 10 by 20 
feet, was built for sanctuary and sacristy. In 1889 the church was 
again enlarged. The church was named the Church of the Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin JMary, the fourth Siniday in October, 1883. 

The services were administered l)y the priests from the Hastings 
parish until April 27, 1888, when Rev. F. Schraffle was made resident 
rector, continuing until August 1, 1888, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. X^. Stoltz. The successor of Reverend Stoltz was Reverend 
Petrasch, who came in December, 1889, and remained until ]May, 
1891. Rev. A. C. Rausch followed Reverend Petrasch. l)ut remained 
only a few months before being succeeded by Rev. B. Sproll. The 
next rector was the Rev. B. Kuppenbender, who assumed charge in 
April, 1892. It was in this rectorship that the parochial school was 
erected. For several months following Reverend Kuppenbender's 
rectorship the parish was attended by Rev. J. J. I^oughran of ]Minden, 
until July, 1900, when Rev. E. Boll was appointed rector. 



Reverend Boll was the rector for many years being succeeded in 
1913 by Rev. Anthony Lutz, ^\ho was succeeded in the summer 
of 1916 by the present priest, Rev. Joseph Fleckinger. 

The cornerstone of the present church M-as laid by the Rt. Rev. 
Thomas Bonaciim, bishoj) of Lincoln, and dedicated bj' him October 
28, 1903. The edifice is of brick, the extreme length being II7I/2 
feet and the width 48 feet. The tower is 100 feet high. The cost of 
the building is $1.5,000. The plans were drawn by James Craddock 
of Lincoln, and the contract for building was let to Fred Butzirus 
and John Saucerman of Hastings. The building committee was: 
Nick Streff. IMatt Scholl. Christ Loskill, Peter Bohr, Gust Bourg 
and 3Iath Plein. The general merchandise store of Matt Scholl 
opposite the church was erected by him in the fall of 1899. Assump- 
tion has now about seven hundred and fifty communicants. 

ST. Patrick's catholic church 

The Catholic Church in Highland Township, St. Patrick's, is an 
outgrowth of the Hastings parish and Avas for a time attended by 
jiriests from Hastings. The church was organized in 1890 and a 
house of worship was erected in that year. The building, enlarged 
several times, is still in use. The church and furnishings cost about 
$3,000. The building committee was: Tom Winne, Bart Kernan, 
Thomas Kennedy and ^Michael ]McKenna. At the time of organiza- 
tion there were about seventy-five communicants ; at present there are 
about three, hundred. The resident priests have been the following: 
Reverends Carriher, Fitzgerald, Dumphy, Gilroy, Luhno, Higgins 
and the present rector, Reverend Bernard. 


This church was organized in 1909 with about thirty-five charter 
members. A house of worship was erected that year at a cost of about 
four hundred dollars. Among the charter members were John ]Mar- 
tin, James Robinson, INIrs. John Ramsey. G. R. Gale, John Cain, 
Mr. and INIrs. N. Schunk, Peter ^Martin. Thomas Cain, INIrs. ]Mary 
Davis and Timothy Quinn. The building committee of the church 
was the Reverend ]Mr. Cronin, John Cain and John INIartin. Fol- 
lowing Reverend Cronin the church has been in the charge of Rev- 
erends Luhnot, O'Brien, Hunt, Gilroy and the present pastor. Rev. 
R. J. Dowd of Minden. The church is operated as a mission, there 
being no priest in residence. Reverend Gilrov attended the church 


about five years from Heartvvell and Reverend Dowd is from INIin- 

Gerjian Churches 

first german congregational church 

This church was organized on ]\Iarch 15, 1890, by a council of 
Congregational churches called for that purpose. The church is 
located at the corner of New York Avenue and B Street. The church 
property is valued at $12,000, including a parsonage located at 324 
South Baltimore Avenue. The first church building Avas erected in 
the year the church was organized. In 1904 this building was enlarged 
and in 1909 the enlarged church was torn doA\n and the present 
church building erected, which seats about 750 people. The first 
pastor of the church was Rev. John Lich. After him the following 
ministers served tlie church : Treiber, Grob. Quarder, Gelletz, Wur- 
schmidt, Thiel, SuflPa and Anient. Since October 1, 1914, Rev. John 
D. Crrosz has been pastor of tlie church. The congregation now has 
350 members. Two hundred and fifty children belong to the Sunday 
school. The Christian Endeavor Society consists of fifty members. 


The Second German Congregational Churcli was organized by 
the Rev. A. SufFa. then pastor of the First German Congregational 
Church, in 1908. During the summer of that year a house of worship 
was erected under the leadership of ]Mr. J. H. Eckhardt, a theological 
student of the Chicago Seminary. Mr. Eckhardt served as pastor 
dui'ing that summer. Rev. Ernst Grams was really the first pastor 
of the church and served from October, 1908, to October, 1909. He 
was followed by Rev. August Wiska, who served as pastor for two 
years. He was followed by Rev. Herman Eiserer, whose pastorate 
continued for three years. Dining this pastorate a beautiful parson- 
age was erected, at a cost of $3,000. The church propertj^ is now 
valued at $0,000, and the membership is about one hundred ; the mem- 
bersliip of the Sunday-school is about one hundred and twenty. The 
]iresent pastor, Rev. Peter J. Thiel, was called to the Hastings charge 
May 1, 1915. 


This church is located in Hastings on South Denver Avenue and 
B Street. In 1900 a number of men who had been connected with 




tile Lutheran congregation then already existing in the city separated 
from that body and together with a few others who had as yet found 
no cliurch home effected a preliminary organization and called the 
Rev. H. W. ]Meyer, then of Prosser, to supply them with regular 
service. Shortly afterwards the Rev. W. F. Schmidt, who had 
recently been graduated from the Lutheran Theological Seminary at 
St. I^ouis, was assigned to the charge, and succeeded in bringing about 
a formal organization September 4, 1900. 

In the following year the congregation bought the house of wor- 
ship which had been formerly used by the German Baptists and stood 
on South ^Minnesota Avenue and B Street. As soon as possible the 
l^iesent more favorable location was purchased and the church build- 
ing moved upon it. In 1903 the Rev. ]Mr. Schmidt resigned because 
of ill health and was followed by the Rev. L. W. Plehu, who contin- 
ued as pastor for nearly three years. In 1907 the Rev. K. Kretzsch- 
mar was called and is still the pastor in 1916. 

It was in 1913 that the splendid brick edifice which is now the 
church home of the congregation was built. It was dedicated October 
2(5tli of that year. The membership in 1915 was upward of two hun- 
dred. This church maintains a parish school, the spiritual training- 
quarters of the children. Besides the usual school studies courses are 
given in the doctrines of the Lutheran Church and in German. Tiie 
children become members of the congregation through confirmation. 
For several years the school was in the charge of the pastor; since 1909, 
however, a special teacher has been employed. In 1915 the enrollment 
of the school was forty pupils and it is situated in a well located 
property on St. Joseph Avenue and D Street. 

The congregation is a member of the Lutheran Synod of j\Iis- 
soui-i. It stands for the jH'inciple of salvation by grace through faith 
in the vicarious suffering and death of Jesus Christ; of church union 
only on the basis of a mutual agreement in the essentials of Christian- 
ity: of complete and unequivocal separation of church and state, and 
of the admission of new members into fellowship not by sudden reso- 
lution, but thorough instruction. 


The German Presbyterian Church of Hastings was organized 
INIay 8, 1887, under the leadership of the Rev. I. Grissman and A. C. 
Stark. The Rev. INIr. Stark was the pastor until ^Nlarch, 1895. In 
April of that year the Rev. J. Schaedel assumed the ]>astorate which 
he retained until 1900. The Rev. A. C. Kruse followed IMr. Schaedel, 


and continued in charge until 1906, when the Rev. J. W. Rosenau 
was called. JNIr. Rosenau continued the pastorate until 1913. Fol- 
lowing his resignation in that year the pulpit was supplied hy Christ 
Walter, a student of Duhuque College, for four months. In Decem- 
ber, 191-1, the Rev. C. A. ]Maerz, of Iowa, accepted the call, and is the 
pastor in 1916. 

This chuix'h was organized largely through the efforts of Christian 
Paulick, Jacob Gease, George Bauer and jNIr. Frocheuser. For tlie 
first few months services were held in the First Ward School Build- 
ing. In 1888 a site was purcliased at South Lincoln Avenue and B 
Street, and a church building was purchased from the German Evan- 
gelical Association and moved upon the site. This building was 
formerly the INIethodist Ej^iscopal Church building and stood at the 
corner of Second Street and Kansas Avenue. In 1903 the congi'e- 
gation purchased a half block at the present site at the corner of 
St. Joseph Avenue and B Street and moved their churcli, which still 
stands in 191.5. In the same year they erected the parsonage which 
stands beside the church. The church plant is estimated at $4,000. 
The church has a membership of about fifty, and dedicated a new 
church November 26, 1916. At the time of organization the mem- 
bership was about twenty, and reached 1.50 before the establishment 
of other German congregations caused some to withdraw. The Ger- 
man Presbyterian Church is a pavt of the general organization of the 
English Presl)vterian body. The new frame building was erected at 
a cost of $3,.500. The dimensions of the main building are 30 feet by 
40 feet with a wing addition 14 feet by 16 feet and a steeple 10 feet 
by 10 feet. 


The St. Paul's German Lutheran Clmrch. of South Hastings, 
was oi-ganized in 1904 as the result of the missionary work of the 
Rev. Henry Sielanan. It began with a membership of fourteen fam- 
ilies. The first meetings were held in a private dwelling house rented 
for church purposes. In the same year that it was organized the 
congregation erected a church building at a cost of $1,200. Four 
years later a new churcli home was built, church and parsonage costing 
$.5,000. In 191.5 the church is in a thrifty condition and has a mem- 
bership of fifty-one families. The pastors of this church have been 
as follows: From 1904 to October, 1907, Rev. Henry Siekman: from 
October, 1907. to April, 1911, Rev. F. Eichorn; from June, 1911, to 
April, 1913. Rev. H. Techaus; from April, 1913, to April. 191.5, 
Rev, F. Wiegmann. Following tlie resignation of the Rev. INIr. 


Wiegniann in 1915, the Rev. E. Wendt accepted the call and is now 
the pastor. 


Emanuel Church was organized in April, 1879. Among the 
members at that time were jNIr. and INIrs. Jacob Weingart, ]Mr. and 
]Mrs. John Weingart and j\Ir. and INIrs. George Marks. The entire 
membership at the time of organization was eighteen. The church 
belongs to the Hastings Mission of the Nebraska Conference. 

At first services were conducted in the ]\Iethodist Episcopal 
Church which stood at the corner of Second Street and Kansas Ave- 
nue. In 1880 tliis building was bought from the JMethodists. In 
1888 it was sold to the German Presbyterians and a new church and 
parsonage were erected on Fifth Street and Saunders Avenue, where 
the congregation worshiped until 1904, when the church was moved 
to its present location on Fourth Street and Colorado Avenue, and 
vvliere it was enlarged. In 1906 the parsonage on Saunders Avenue 
was sold and a new one built at the present location, 731 North ^lin- 
nesota Avenue. The parsonage for the presiding elder is located at 
749 North Colorado Avenue. The churcli property, including the 
parsonage, is valued at $12,.500. The Rev. Julius Scherbacher is 
the presiding elder of the Hastings District in 191a. The member- 
shij) of the Hastings church is about sixty and the enrollment of the 
Sunday school one hundred. The senior young peoples' alliance has 
twenty-four members and the junior alliance twenty members. 

In 1902 Canaan Church was built by the denomination three miles 
north of Holstein. This church was organized with about a dozen 
families as members, and the pulpit was supplied by the jiastors from 
Hastings. In 191i5 this church was sold, the members uniting with 
the United Evangelical Church of Holstein. Other charges supplied 
by the pastors from Hastings for a number of years were located 
three miles southwest of Ayr and five miles north of Juniata. ]Mect- 
ings were held in school houses. These charges have been discon- 
tinued. The first pastor to serve was Rev. G. Zellhoefer. In 1880 
Rev. ]M. Inlielter assumed the pastorate, and in tlie next year was 
assisted by the Reverend Althouse. Reverend Inhelter remained until 
Rev. F. ^V. Schuelzky was sent to the mission in 1883. Mi: Schuelzky 
served three years and the membership was eighty-six. Rev. J. 
Schafle came in 1886 and was the pastor for one year; he was fol- 
lowed by Rev. H. Illian, who served until 1889. Since that time the 
congregation has been served by the following: A. Wichmann, 1889- 


1891; O. Radinsky, 1891-1893; A. Brauchle, 1893-1894; F. H. 
Doescher, 1894-1898; H. G. Goetz, 1898-1900; A. Wichmaiin, 1900- 
1904; E. Mehl, 1904-1900; F. W. Schuelzky, 1906-1910; C. Fuehrer, 
1910 to April 15, 191.5. At the latter date the Rev. Mr. Schuelzky 
returned to the pastorate which position he now holds. 


The St. Paul German Lutheran Church, located at the corner 
of Fifth Street and Burlington Avenue, Hastings, was organized by 
the Rev. Henry Sieknian in 1879. This was the first church organ- 
ized by JNIr. Siekman in Hastings. The first trustees of the church 
were August Forcht, Henry Stannner, Sr., Andrew Vieth and H. 

The first house of worship was a small frame building. The pres- 
ent brick structiu'e was erected at a cost, completed, of $20,000 and 
was dedicated July 23, 1916. The organizer, the Rev. JNIr. Siekman, 
])artook in tlie dedicatory service of the new church. Others partici- 
pating in the service were the pastor. Rev. F. E. jMotzkus and Rev. 
C. Goede, of Glenville. The dedicatory procession was led by ^V. S. 
Dieken, Karl Kauf and Henry Damkroeger. 

The exterior of the new church is of matt faced brick and the roof 
of tile. The main body of the church is 63 feet by 38 feet. The 
auditorium has a seating capacity of 3.50 and the balcony will accom- 
modate 1.50 additional. Following Rev. Siekman the church has 
been served by the Reverends Fritze, Bieger, Kronsbaen. Frank, 
Kar]3enstein and the present j^astor. Rev. F. E. ]Motzkus. At pres- 
ent the church has 110 members. 


The Dunkards and the ^lennonites are represented in Adams 
County by prosperous communities located for the most part in the 
northern portion of Silver Lake Townshij) and the southern part of 
Roseland Township. The first of the denomination to settle in the 
county were ]Mrs. AVeidler Grabill and jNIrs. Hargleroad who came 
in the spring of 1875. JNIrs. Grabill came from Illinois and JMrs. 
Hargleroad from Pennsylvania, and it is from these two states that 
botli Dunkards and IMennonites came to Adams County. JMrs. 
Hargleroad died in 1882 and JMrs. Grabill in 1913. Mr. Grabill, 
who joined the church at a later period, and was one of the large 
landowners of Silver Lake Township, died in 1897. 


The first ineeting held by the Dunkards in the county was conducted 
in a tent on the farm of Weidler Grabill on the shore of Silver Lake. 
This was in Sejiteniber, 1879. Diu'ing this meeting, which began 
Saturday afternoon and ended the following Sunday night, the first 
love feast of the denomination was celebrated. The love feast in- 
cludes the Lord's suijper followed by the taking of bread and wine 
and the ceremony of the washing of the feet. Between thirty and 
forty were present at this first public meeting of the denomination, 
commimicants having come from Kansas, Kearnej' and the western 
part of Nebraska. 

About 1884 the Duukard community was considerably strength- 
ened in numbers by the coming in of new families. Among those 
settling in the community about this time were Mr. and Mrs. Dan 
Kindig, JNIr. and ^Irs. Bazzle JNIcCue, J. J. Kindig, Tommy Evans 
and wife, Peter Evans and wife, the Blankenbillers, George Kistler 
and wife and ]\Irs. JefF Huffman. 

It was the increased number of communicants that led to the 
building of the present church on what is now, in 191:5, the Christ 
Hargleroad farm southeast of Roseland, but which then belonged to 
John Evans who had settled in the community in 1877. It was in the 
'9()s that the district was divided and a church estal)lished in Juniata 
which still continues in a flourishing condition. 

The Dunkards do not maintain a salaried minister. Instead mem- 
bers of the congregation who feel the call to preach prepare them- 
selves foi- the duties of the minister through prayer, study and medi- 
tation. The minister is known as an elder and is elected by the con- 
gregation. The present elders in Adams County are Christ Hargle- 
road and Peter Gi-abill. J. J. Kindig was an elder for a number of 
years and befoi-e Mr. Kindig Elder Fahrney served for many j'ears. 

The Dunkards maintain a plain standard of living, and wear no 
jewelry, even the wedding ring is not used. The women wear plain 
black bonnets, but when they attend chiu'ch service these are sup- 
planted Ijy plain white caps. Baptism is by immersion, the body being 
dipped forward and not backward as with most other denominations 
that immerse. There is an annual meeting of national scope held in 
various cities and to this Adams County Dunkards always send a dele- 
gate. The greater number of the conununicants are of Pennsyl- 
vania German descent though there are members of other nationali- 
ties. There are about forty families of Dunkards now in Adams 

The Mennonite Churcli is located on section 3.3 in Roseland Town- 
shi]) and has a membership well along towards one hundred. Tlie first 


church was huilt on the j^resent location in 1887. Tlie first church was 
su])i)Linted by tlie present building in the '90s. The church is in a 
flourishing condition. The general belief of the Mennonites is verj' sim- 
ilar to that of the Dunkards. Plain dress and living are characteristic 
and the women wear plain black bonnets and no jewelry. jNIennonites, 
however, do not immerse, the sacrament of bajjtism being administered 
by sjirinkling. They do not celebrate the Lord's supper in the same 
manner as the Dunkards. The latter partake of a meal upon that 
occasion which is followed by the bread and wine. The JNIennonites 
omit the meal feature. 

Dunkards and JNIennonites live on terms of friendship with each 
other and their large well tilled fields and substantial improvements 
mark them as among the county's best farmers and citizens. 


The first action taken by the Hastings City Council looking toward 
the establishment of tlie present municipal waterworks was on ]\Iarch 
8, 1886, when it was decided to submit to the voters on April loth the 
jjroposition of issuing $8.5,000 in bonds for the construction of the 
plant. Previous to this time the council had investigated various 
waterworks systems and there was considerable difference of opinion. 
M. K. Lewis favored the installation of a hydraulic well, which J. E. 
Coates, representing a Kalamazoo, ]Mich., company, proposed to con- 
.struct ff)r $1.),000. This well was to be 25 feet in diameter. On 
several occasions the general public met Avith the covmcil for con- 
sultation. Through the Avinter of 188.J-G the new project was the 
subject of much discussion. 

At the special election of April 15, 1886, 629 votes were cast, 
the waterworks bonds carrying by a majority of 301. On JNIay 18, 
1886, the contract for the construction of the waterworks was let to 
A. L. Strang & Co. of Omaha, for $75,775. Tlie plans and specifica- 
tions for the plant were formulated by the city engineer, T. E. Far- 
rell, and the assistant engineer, A. A. Richardson. The original plant 
was designated as the "Cook System." It comprised a group of eight 
deep wells with a combined capacity of 60,000 gallons per hour. In 
1888 an "air-lift" well was installed. Three other air-lift wells were 
installed from time to time; one in 1896, anotlier in 1906 and the 
last in 1910. In July, 1916, the plant was equipped with an elec- 
trically driven deep well with a capacity of 1,000 gallons per minute. 
This well, together with the four air-lifts, compose tlie pumping equip- 
ment at present, which has a cai^acity of 160,000 gallons per hour. 
The average amount of water pumped is 1,000,000 gallons per day. 
One of the air-lifts is 300 feet deep and three have a depth of 360 
feet. The electric well is equipped witli a centrifugal pump located 
in the water strata, 158 feet deep. 

In addition to the original $85,000 bonds, $15,000 additional were 
issued September 15, 1888, and this sum was augmented by $10,000 

Vol. I— IS 


in the issue of jMay 21, 1894. Tlie rejiort of Water Commissioner 
W. S. Watson sliowed that on JNIarch 31, 1916, the plant had 2.494 
customers and that the average cost to the consumers the year ending 
with that date Avas 17.61 cents per 1,000 gallons. The amount reg- 
istered hy the customers' meters for the same jieriod was 132,686,250 

At the time of the installation of the waterworks there AVere 
members of the council who favored locating the plant downtown. 
Particularly strong in this advocacv was Councilman E. C. Webster. 
In 1873, however, the city had contracted with the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Companj^ to purchase forty acres described as the southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 7, range 10, 
and in 1883 had received a deed for that forty acres. The sentiment 
prevailed that the waterworks should be located upon the property 
already bought by the city. The forty acres were bought for $.520. 
The committee that located the exact spot where the waterworks 
stand was: T. E. Farrell, W. H. Stock and C. C. Rittenhouse. T. 
M. Clark was the first engineer at the waterworks. For twenty years 
Henry Gauvreau has been connected with the plant, beginning as 
fireman and serving as assistant engineer and chief engineer at the 

Before the installation of tlie present plant, water was delivered 
to customers in barrels and the business was a private enterprise. 


The next imjiortant public improvement in Hastings following 
the erection of the waterworks Avas the installation of a sewerage 
system, in 1890. At a special election held July 16, 1889, a proposi- 
tion to issue bonds in the sum of $75,000 for the construction of 
sewerage was lost. There Avere 46.5 votes for the bonds at this election 
and 494 against. The proposition to construct a sewer system had 
been received from Andrew RoscAvater of Omaha, and on .Time 10th 
the council ordered a A'ote upon the subject July 16th. 

The seAverage bonds had lost in the election of 1889 by only 
tAventy-nine votes. Accordingly, the promoters of this improvement 
hastened to have the question of bonds submitted a second time. The 
council set the date of tlie second special election April 30, 1890. The 
voting public manifested less interest than they had in the first cam- 
paign. The amount asked for in the second election Avas $60,000. 
Of the 78.5 votes cast. 631 Avere for the bonds and 1.54 against. The 
plans for the seAver Avere made by T. E. Farrell, aaIio also Avas aAvarded 


the general contract for the work. The original provision was for 
iiistalhng sewerage in an area ll/^ miles square. 

In July, 1890, the City of Hastings purchased seventy acres of 
land northeast of town for the recejjtion of sewage. The "sewer 
farm" comprises thirty acres, purchased from Louis Hadden July 
21st, for $1,500, and forty acres bought from Mary A. INIcSparen 
and Frank ]McSparen July 10th, for $1,600. 


Hastings has had electric light and power since 1885. A franchise 
for operating the plant was granted by the council September 22, 
1884, to a man named Reynolds. At that time the city entered into 
a contract agreeing to take forty-five lights for street illumination 
at a rate not to exceed $15 per month per light. A small plant was 
erected at 215 South Denver Avenue. The plant was not conspicu- 
ously successful, either in service or financially. The collaj^se of the 
l)oom in 1887 was discouraging and the original owners decided to sell 
the plant, and in that year it was bought by George B. Johnson of 
Hastings. Financially interested with INIr. Johnson was Adam Cook 
of New York. 

The new owners greatly enlarged the plant and it was installed the 
same year in a new brick building erected cm the southeast corner of 
St. Joseph Avenue and First Street, a location now forming the west 
end of the park west of the Burlington Station. The business was 
pushed with considerable vigor and grew satisfactorily. It was not 
destined, however, to be financially successful i^ermanently. 

JMarch 4, 1891, the Hastings Electric Light & Power Company 
filed articles of incorporation, which show the following members: 
Adam Cook, Adam Cook, Jr., George B. Johnson and M. A. Harti- 
gan. About two years afterwards Charles G. Lane came into pos- 
session of the enterprise through the foreclosure of mortgages on the 
machinery and tax mortgages. jNIr. Lane overhauled the plant, made 
improvements and bought some new equipment and was manager of 
the business. Scarcely had Mr. Lane finished making tlie improve- 
ments when the plant was badly damaged by fire. The owner then 
reequipped, purchasing new machinery, and the enterprise continued 
on its career. 

]Mr. Lane was on the point of selling the business early in 1898; 
the negotiations were practically completed, when the jiurchaser met 
with discouragement from the city council. It was in JNIayor Fislier's 
administration and the purchaser thought there were signs of an 


awakening desire for municipal o\\iiership and decided to delay the 
jHu-chase of the plant. JNIr. Lane, not satisfied with the conditions 
surrounding the business, gave notice in the press that on August 1st 
the service would be discontinued. When the first of Augtist came, 
JNIr. Lane shut down the plant and the privately owned light and 
jiower enterprise passed into history. A part of the machinery was 
bought by the York plant. 

June 26, 1899, the council ordered a special election upon the 
l)roposition to issue $20,000 in bonds for the installation of an electric 
light and power plant in conjunction with the municipal waterworks. 
The bonds carried by a vote of 377 for and 194 against. Upon its 
being found that the election had been held without sufficient notice 
as required by law, another election was ordered to be held November 
6, 1899. At the second election the bonds carried by a vote of 525 
for and 194 against. The lights were turned on under the auspices 
of the city in February, 1901. 

The growth and operation of the municipal lighting and jjower 
systems is one of the most interesting phases of the development of 
Hastings as a city. No bonds have been issued against the municipal 
plant since the original $20,000 was voted in 1899. The record in 
the office of the city clerk shows that when the city began the opera- 
tion of the plant the investment was $24,678.41. On March 31, 
1913, the plant had grown until it represented an investment of 
$159,991.11. The additional investment was made wholly from the 
earnings of the plant, and includes the distribution and street light- 
ing systems. In the administration of JNlayor Charles Ingraham, who 
assumed the office in April, 1913, a levy of two mills was made for 
street lighting and the levy has been continued. In this administra- 
tion, also, a reduction in rate Avas made of more than 33 1/3 per cent. 
The report of the water and light commissioner, W. S. Watson, shows 
that the plant, lighting and distribution systems on March 31, 1916, 
represented an investment of $189,442.23. The increase since 1901, 
amounting to $164,763.92, has come out of the earnings, with the 
exception of the amount produced by the levy of 2 mills made in 1913. 

The total revenue from current sold during eleven months in 1901 
was $4,851.17. The revenue from current during the month of 
December, 1912, was $6,328, or $1,476.83 more than the receipts for 
the first eleven months that the plant was ojierated. The total 
receipts for 1912. the last year imder the old rates, were $60,315.90, 
or almost three times the amount of the original investment. The 
total re\enue from cm-rent sold during the year ending ^Nlarch 31, 
1916, was $61,489.79. On the same date there were in Hastings a 


total of 2,2G9 active services, distributed as follows : Residence con- 
sumers, 1,8.53; commercial users, 323; jjower consumers, 76; cooking- 
consumers, 17. These figxu'es represent a K. AV. H. output increase 
over 1915 of 17-77 per cent. 

Previous to 188-1 Hastings had no street lighting system. During 
that year, when the first electric light and gas plants were established, 
contracts were made with both the gas company and the electric light 
l)lant for street lighting and the two systems were in use most of the 
time until the discontinuance of the electric light plant by JNIr. Lane. 
Gas lighting for streets was discontinued with the opening of the 
nuHiicipal electric light plant Febiaiary 1, 1901. 

Arc hghts were used for street lighting mitil 1912, when the elec- 
trolier sj'stem, with underground conduits, was installed in the busi- 
ness district. The electrolier sj'stem has been extended continuously. 
Tliere are now in service 186 five-light, 200-candlepower electroliers; 
228 bracket-system, 60-candlepower lights. The plant is at present 
equipped with two Westinghouse generators and one Corliss-engine- 
driven generator. The plant cajiacity is 1,.500 kilowatt hours daily, 
and the output, based upon the current used during the first four 
months in 1916, is 1,769,720 kilowatt hours per year. 

The City of Hastings has, finished and under contract, about 
seventeen miles of paved streets. The first paving movement was in 
1891. On November 2d of that year intersection paving bonds were 
voted in the sum of $5,000. The bonds that year carried by a majority 
of 365 ; 647 votes were cast. On July 5th of the following year, addi- 
tional intersection bonds of .$25,000 were voted by a majority of 288 
out of 334 votes cast. Not until 1910 was there another paving- 
movement. On JNIarch 8th of that year $50,000 in bonds were voted. 
The majority was 511 out of 1,027 votes cast. On Jime 29, 1915, 
by a vote of 932 for and 278 against, $50,000 bonds were voted, and 
a like sum was voted August 22, 1916, the vote being 690 for and 
242 against. The total intersection bonds voted in twenty-five years 
amount to $185,000 and the interest. The first paving district was 
created by the city council September 28, 1891, and comprised Second 
Street from the east line of Burling-ton Avemie to the east line of 
St. Joseph Avenue. At about this period First Street was paved 
from the west side of Denver Avenue to the west side of Belleviie 
Avenue, and Bellevue Avenue from the south side of First Street 
to the Burlington right of way. Lincoln, Hastings and Denver ave- 


nues also were paved from the south side of Third Street to the 
Burlington right of way. All the paving of this period was of com- 
mon hrick, of Hastings manufacture, laid edgewise. 

In the paving jjeriod of 1910, districts 8 to 21, inclusive, were 
paved. District 8, which is Lincoln Avenue from Third Street to 
Twelfth Street, was the first street to be paved with asphalt, and 
this was in 1910. The second paving period, inaugurated in 1910, 
brought the paving of the city to a little more than six miles and 
included such important residence avenues as Lincoln, Hastings, St. 
Joseph and Denver to the south side of Twelfth Street, and Seventh 
Street from Lincoln to Wabash avenues. Second Street paving was 
also extended west to Briggs and east to Wabash. 

Tlie third paving period was in 1916. In ]\Iarch of that year a 
conti-act was let by the city council for a little more than ten miles 
of asphalt paving, aggregating in cost approximately $300,000. 
This contract was let to Watts & Ammerman of Concordia, Kan. 
The plans and specifications for the 1916 paving were made by City 
Engineer W. H. Fuller of Hastings, who died in the spring of 1916. 
W. L. Collier was then appointed engineer. Mr. Collier completed 
the plans and sujjcrintended the work. Among the streets paved in 
the 1916 contract were South Hastings and South Lincoln avenues. 
These were the first streets to be paved on the south side. Other dis- 
tricts have been formed since the letting of the contract, and city 
officials estimate that the total paving by the close of 1917 will be 
twenty-five miles. 


The gas business in Hastings has always been a privately owned 
enterprise. The first franchise was granted by the city council to 
C. R. JMiller, June 22, 1885. November 10, 188.5. the Hastings Gas 
Light Company was organized and built the j^lant which was oper- 
ated under the franchise. The incorporators were: President, L. 
Patterson, Mankato, JNIinn. ; vice president, John Van Liew, Van 
Wert, Ohio; treasurer, Sidney Patterson, Hartford City, Ind.; sec- 
retary, H. B. Knowlton, Hastings. Mr. Knowlton is now a resident 
of Chicago. 

By the latter part of 1886 the gas plant had about five miles of 
street mains. For some years the gas business proved hazardous, and 
in 1890 tlic business was assigned to its creditors, who were composed 
largely of the present corporation. The Hastings Gas Company is 
now formed as follows: James C. Fox, Portland, INIe., president; 

I _j^<r*'«^ml j 

f ^3fe.>^^. 



Echvaid Woodman, Portland, JNIe., secretary and treasiu-er; A. W. 
Borden, Hastings, vice president. Carson J. Haniot of Hastings 
and ^Nliss Botter of ]Maine are members of the board of directors. 
Mr. Woodman is the principal owner. 

The twenty-five year franchise of the gas company expired in 
191.5 and at the time of renewal there was agitation for mmiicipal 
ownershij). At an election held in 1913 the projjosition to grant a 
franchise was lost. In 1915 the comjiany was granted a virtual 
twenty-five year franchise, although it was provided that the city 
might i^urchase the franchise at any time after the expiration of ten 
years. In the new franchise the city fixed a maximum rate for gas 
of $1..50 per thousand cubic feet, Avhich was a reduction of 50 cents 
per thousand from the maximum in vogue previously. 

The plant now operates twenty-five miles of street mains, and the 
annual sale of gas totals about 30,000,000 cubic feet. Since 1908 
gas has been manufactured from oil instead of coal. The change 
^^'as made partly because of the uncertainty of the coal supply in the 
winter and partly because the labor cost of tlie oil product is less. 
Between 1908 and 1912 the plant was modernized and largely recon- 
structed. The manufacture of gas has always been at the present 
location on North ^Minnesota Avenue. 


Tlie Hastings postofiice was established October 8, 1872, and was 
first located in the store of Alexander & Wheeler at the corner of 
Hastings Avenue and Second Street, opposite the present First 
National Bank Building. JMr. Alexander's salary was fixed at first 
at $1 ])er month. He continued to be the postmaster for ten years. 

Charles H. Paul was the second postmaster, receiving the appoint- 
ment in 1881. G. J. Evans was appointed in 1886; James B. Pleart- 
M-ell in 1889; R. B. Wahlquist in 1894; Leopald Hahn in 1897; Jacob 
Fisher. June 24. 1901; and tlie present postmaster, R. B. Wahlquist, 
in 1913. 

For several months in the early part of 1881 the postoffice was 
located between Hastings and Denver avenues, on the north side of 
Second Street, and was bvu'ned in the fire of July 2, 1881. It was 
tlien removed to the corner of Hastings Avenue and First Street, 
the ]M-esent location of the Arvanette candy store. Here again it 
was burned late in 1886, the fire happening on the night before the 
water was available from the new waterworks. It was then removed 
to a store room in the Stone Block, afterwai'ds to the G. A. R. Build- 


ing. About 1897 it was removed to the corner of St. Joseph Avenue 
and Second Street, where it occui^ied the "Dietricli Building," subse- 
quently destroyed by fire. In November, 1905, the postoffice became 
quartered in its jjermanent home in the Federal Building. 

Daily delivery ol' mail was inaugurated September 1, 1887. Four 
routes were established and the first carriers were James D. Campbell, 
Isaac A. Hall, George Van Houten and AVilliam Jaynes. Of these, 
James D. Campbell only remains a city carrier. There are now nine 
carriers: James D. Campbell, Eugene Hammonds, Carl F. Hau- 
brock, Henry H. Heiler, George ]McAtee, Jacob Roelse, Ira Scott, 
D. W. P. Sinclair and Henry H. Holt. The corporation of Hast- 
ings comprises 6l/> square miles. It is esthnated that 1.5,500 persons, 
occupying 3'>4 square miles, are served by the office. 

Rural service was inaugurated October 1, 1900, when Route 1 was 
established, with Jess Stevens as carrier. Routes 2 and 3 were com- 
missioned April 1, 1902, with Frank W. Wheeler carrier on Route 2 
and B. Frank Hill on Route 3. Routes 4 and 5 were commissioned 
INIay 16, 1904, with J. C. jMiller carrier on Route 4 and J. C. Fergiis 
on Route 5. Since 1901 N. W. Coleman has been the carrier on 
Route 1. Frank Wheeler and J. C. Fergus are still the carriers on 
their respective routes. 

At present II. W. Snyder is assistant postmaster; Elizabeth 
Alford, stamp clerk; C. W. Heartwell, G. P. O'lNIera and A. L. 
Rickel, mailing clerks; Charles A. Nelson and R. H. Rickel. city 
distributors, and Joseph Spriggle, money order clerk. The Hast- 
ings postoffice was declared an office of the first class July 1, 1914. 
The postmaster's salary, which began at $12 per year with JMr. Alex-. 
ander's jjostmastership, had advanced to $2,400 before 1896 and at 
present is $3,100. 

Postal receipts for the year ending June 30, 1897, were $14,60.5; 
for the year ending on the same date in 1907, $27,299.94, and the year 
ending June 30, 1916, $.53,839.22. Receipts for stamps sold during 
the j'ear ending June 30, 1899, were $17,69.5.12, and newspaper post- 
age amounted to $229.49; for the year ending June 30, 1916, the 
receipts for stamps had increased to $, and newspaper post- 
age to $1,690.31. The outgoing letters diu-ing October, 1907. were 
103.000: during July, 1916, they were 202..500. The incoming letters 
during October, 1907, were 111,000: during July, 191(). they were 
220,000. Outgoing second, third and fourth class mail during October, 
1907, numbered 97.500, and in July, 1916. they numbered 200.000. 
Incoming mail of the same three classes during October, 1907, num- 
l)ere(l 299,000 jjieces; in July, 1916. there were 500.000 i)ieces. Dm-- 


ing- the year ending June 30, 1899, 9,652 money orders were sold, 
amounting to $-1.9,47-).72; in tlie year ending- on the same date in 1916 
the orders numbered 16,297, amounting to $90,722.34; the orders paid 
during the same time in 1899 were 12,868, amounting to $111,323.0.5, 
and in 1916 they numbered 16,076, amounting to $94,539.27. 

The Hastings postofRce is the depository for eighty-two post- 
otHces. The remittances in 1902 were $395,163 and for the year 
endijig June 30, 1916, they were $372,952. In the number of regis- 
trys made Hastings takes rank as the third city in Nebraska and also 
as the sender of insured parcels. In tol)acco shipments the Hastings 
postoffice ranks second in Nebraska. In 1901 the total registries were 
2,007. During the year ending June 30, 1916, they were 5,533; 
insured parcels, 5.012, with a value of $49,923.35; c. o. d. parcels, 
3.084. with a value of $9,588.79. 

Early Country Postoffices 

This was a country postoffice, located about eleven miles northeast 
of Hastings. The office was established in January, 1880, with G. Ij. 
Huff as postmaster. The mail Avas taken from the Hastings office 
to Ludlow twice a week until the Aurora branch of the Burlington 
was completed in 1886, when the office was abandoned. 


Hazel Dell — Postoffice situated eight miles south of Juniata. 
IMostly German settlers. Postoffice was established on April 7, 1879, 
and F. M. Thompson was appointed postmaster. A congregation 
was organized bj^ the Congregationalists, in 1879, at Hazel Dell 
Schoolhouse, but owing to a lack of means to carry forward the work, 
the attempt soon proved a failure. Rev. M. F. Piatt was the chief 
interest in its establishment. 


Kingston — Postoffice was located about five miles east of Ayr, and 
liittle Elue, also a post station, lays about the same distance south of 
Ayr, while to the west of Little Blue, a distance of about three miles, 
was Silver Lake, also a country postoffice. 


Mayflower — Post station in the western part of the county and 
about seven miles south of Kenesaw. It was christened in honor of 
the historic vessel, the Mayflower. 



iNIorseville and Rosedale — These were postoffices situated in the 
soutliwest corner of the county, and about four miles distant from 
each other. 

These early postoffices Avere served by carrier from Hastings, 
usually tM'ice a week. They disa^ipeared with the coming of the rail- 
roads througii the southern section of tlie county. 


At an early date movements looking toward the establishment of 
a circulating library were on foot in Hastings. One of the early 
organizations, The Red Ribbon Club, ojjened a reading-room on the 
second floor of the Forgy Building, corner of Denver Avenue and 
Second Street, JNIay 14, 1878. The club met weekly and programs of 
readings, music and book reviews were rendered. Among the mem- 
bers A\'ere A. L. Clarke. J. J. Wemple, the Renfrews, the Staleys, 
.J. Y. Acheson, James Cline, ]Mrs. Curtis and Miss Gertie Ingalls, 
afterward Mrs. A. L. Clarke. In the programs printed in the Hast- 
ings Journal, in 1878, appear the names of A. L. Clarke and Harry 
S. Dungan. the former scheduled to sing solos and the latter for reci- 
tations. In that year the club discussed the feasibility of instituting a 
circulating library. 

In the following year, 1879, the Adams County Teachers' Library 
Association was formed to provide a circulating library among the 
teacliers. B)^ the articles adopted the county superintendent was to 
act as president of the association and librarian. Uiion the payment 
of $.5.00 a teacher obtained a life membership, but could become a 
member upon the payment of $1, and 2,5 cents quarterly dues. This 
organization was formed in the superintendency of L. Darling. This 
library movement did not accomijlish much and was short lived. 

In 1887, however, a movement was started which resulted in the 
estal)lisliing of a permanent library in Hastings. ^Ir. William H. 
I^anning called a meeting in that year and an organization was formed 
with Mr. Lanning as jn-esident and W. H. Lichty secretary and 
treasurer. Tlie following library board was elected: JNIesdames 
H. M. Oliver, J. M. Ragan, George Tibbets, C. F. IMorey, Robert 
Oliver and Oswald Oliver. INIr. Lanning donated two cases of books, 
standard works of fiction and some reference books. Books were 
added from time to time by gifts and purchased with money raised by 
giving entertainments. The library room was located in the Oliver 


Block oil West Second Street, on the second floor. No reading-room 
was maintained. JNIrs. Robert Oliver was the first librarian. A niem- 
ber.'^hip fee of $1.00 per year was charged. ]\Ir. Lanning continued 
his interest in the library mitil it was taken over by the city in 1903, 
although for the last few years previous to that date INIrs. J. N. Clarke 
was the president of the organization. During the presidency of 
]Mrs. Clarke, while the project was wholly in the hands of the women, 
the library was moved to the ground floor in the Lincoln Avenue 
Flats, where it remained until September, 1903, when it was removed 
to the oflice of the water commissioner, 509 West Second Street, where 
it remained until its removal into the Carnegie Librarj^ Building, it.« 
present home. oVIiss Schaffer followed ]\Irs. Oliver as librarian and 
then the following served in succession, JNIiss Katherine Bierce, now 
Mrs. L. A. Bratton, ]\[iss Grace Dillon, now Mrs. A. E. Stitt. 


On New Year's Day, 1903, IMayor C. J. Miles, of Hastings, 
received an offer from Andrew Carnegie to donate $1.5,000 for a 
library Iniilding on the condition that a site should be provided and 
that an annual tax of not less than $1,500 be levied for the support 
of tile institution. The proposition provoked much discussion, many 
objected to receiving the donation, and many were favorable. Janu- 
ary 20, 1903, a mass meeting to discuss the subject was held at the 
coiu'thouse, ^Nlayor INIiles presiding. Speakers favoring the accep- 
tance were Dr. J. N. Lyman, A. L. Clarke, J. B. Cessna, Claus 
Frahm, Judge H. S. Dungan, L. J. Capps, Jacob Wooster, 'William 
INIadgett, Dr. A. R. Van Sickle, M. J. Tennant, Prof. W. A. Julian 
and Rev. Cloyd, pastor of the Baptist Church. C. R. Barnes gave 
tlie mayor a long petition praying for acceptance. 

]March 16, 1903, the city council passed an ordinance establishing 
the Carnegie Library upon the condition imposed by the donor. At 
tlie same meeting the council accepted the site upon which the library 
stands, three lots at the corner of Fourth Street and Denver Avenue. 
The corner lot was presented by Dr. J. N. Lyman and tlie other two, 
a ]iortion of the Beitel estate, were purchased and donated to the city 
by John Slaker. Jacob Bernliardt, Dr. George Douglas, ^V. H. Dillon 
and Senator Charles H. Dietrich. William Kerr liad offered to 
donate a site at the corner of Fourth Street and Ijincoln Avenue and 
considerable feeling was manifested between the partisans of the 
com])eting sites. 

The contract for the erection of the building, after j^lans and speci- 


fications by Latenser, of Omaha, was let to C. D. Riche}% of Hast- 
ings, upon his bid of $11,-189 and $390 for extra bricks for the rear of 
the building', which he agreed to complete by February 1, 1904. 
D. H. ^^'■entworth, of Hastings, was the superintendent of construc- 
tion. The total cost of the building was $1.5,6.58.63. The furniture 
cost $900. The site was dedicated and the first spadeful of dirt turned 
by President Theodore Roosevelt, April 27, 1903. The spade used 
by the President, suitably inscribed, is preserved as a relic. 

The first board of directors elected by the citj^ council were the 
following: Lucy ]M. Nellis (JNIrs. W. F. Button), Agnes Ferguson, 
Mary C. Tibbets, V. B. Trimble, L. A. Kinney, Dr. J. N. Lyman, 
Jacob Wooster, L. J. Capps and Captain Saxton. The directors met 
on April 11, 1903, and organized with V. B. Trimble, president; 
J. N. Lyman, vice president; Lucy M. Nellis, secretary. April 14, 
1903, Miss Grace Dillon was elected librarian. All librarians have 
served until their resignations, and have been elected at the follo^\^ng 
dates: Miss Vida Ferguson, January 19. 1907; INIiss ^Nlabel Stone, 
February 2,5. 1904: JNIiss Emma Nowlan. September 2, 1907; 
Mrs. Ida E. Capps, March 7, 1910. 

Tlie librai-y was opened to the public December 7, 1904, and was 
a free library from the first. At the time of opening, it contained 
about 2, .500 volumes, exclusive of government publications. With 
the same exclusion there are now about 6,.533 vohmies. The average 
circulation of books per month is 2,747 and the average visitors to the 
reading-rooms, actual readers, number 1,2.50. 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the Nebraska State Library 
Association was held in Hastings, October 21, 1908, and 3Iiss Emma 
Nowlan was elected vice president of the association. Representa- 
tives of twent_y-five Nebraska libraries were present. 

The city council increased the levy for the library at a meeting in 
August, 191.5, aiid tlie appropriation is now $200 per month. 


Parkview Cemetery is one of tlie most beautiful burying grovmds 
in Nebraska. Its name was suggested by the commanding view its 
site affords of the parks in College and Parkgrove additions and the 
more distant City Park; in fact this excellent view determined the 
selection of this location for a cemetery. 

The cliief mover in the establishing of tliis cemetery was Davis 
I^owman, the father of William M. Lowman and, curiously enough, 
the burial of INIr. Lowman was the first to be made in the new ceme- 
terv; this was on October 20, 1880. 



On April 27, 188.5, 200 citizens petitioned the city council to pur- 
chase suitable grounds for a new cemetery and to discontinue the sale 
of lots in the old cemetery. December 26, 1885, the council passed 
an ordinance forbidding the further sale of lots in the old cemeterj*. 
The city government declined to assume financial responsibility in the 
conteniijlated cemetery, and as a result a corporation of citizens was 
formed. January 19, 1886, a meeting was held in the office of James 
B. Heartwell for the purpose of forming a cemetery association. 
There were present James B. Heartwell, A. L. Clarke, Samuel Alex- 
ander, O. B. Hewett, ^Villiam T. Putt, Oswald Oliver, F. H. Firmin, 
Davis Lowman, William Lowman, Jacob Fisher, T. E. Farrell, Har- 
rison Bostwick and D. jNI. JNIcElHinney. IMr. Hewett was chosen 
cliairman and Samuel Alexander clerk. It was voted to form a ceme- 
tery association and nine trustees were elected, as follows: O. B. 
Hewett, A. L. Clarke, Samuel Alexander, Davis Lowman, F. H. 
Firmin, T. E. Farrell, Jacob Fisher, D. M. McElHinney and James 
B. Heartwell. On the same day the Hastings Cemetery Association 
was incorporated. Eighty acres of ground, which is described as the 
south one-half of the southwest one-quarter of section 5, town 7, 
range 9, were jjurchased for $6,000; the plan of the association was to 
pay for the cemetery from the sale of lots. 

The cemetery was laid out and i^latted by A. X. Carpenter, a 
landscape architect of (xalesburg, Illinois. The ground as platted 
contains 1,952 lots; about 30,000 burials may be made in the cemetery. 
There are four acres of ornamental grove and lawns, besides the 
avenues and small lakes. One block has been set ajDart as a potter's 
field and a tract containing 157 lots was sold to the INlount Sinai Ceme- 
tery Association, to be used as a Jewish cemetery. This sale was made 
for $480, the actual cost of the tract. 


In the city records the "Old Cemetery" is called Highland Ceme- 
tery, as the park in which it is located is called Highland Park in the 
records.^ The entire tract was acquired by contract with the Union 
Pacific Railroad at an early date, probably 1873, although the city 
did not receive a deed until 1883. 

George F. Work was the chairman of the committee named by 
tlie City Council to plat the cemetery and most of the work ^\•as done 
by the chairman. The cemetery contains ten acres. 

There does not appear to be a clear record as to -who was first 
buried in Iligliland Cemetery nor what tlie date was. Some of the 


old settlers believe that iMrs. Thomas R. Boyce was the fii-st to tind 
a resting- place here, early in 1873. Others say that a Colonel Burke 
who claimed to have been a soldier in the Confederate army was the 
first to be buried in the "Old Cemetery." A fe\Y say that the first 
l)urials were made at some point just south of Hastings and that 
after the cemetery was laid out they were removed. 

The original potter's field was located in the northeast corner of 
the forty acre tract owned by the city and several burials were made 
at this point. The greater number of the bodies were removed, but 
a few graves remain as evidence of the first potter's field. Among 
the very early undertakers were Andrew Vieth and William H. 
Stock. " 


Hastings has three beautiful parks within easy walking distance 
of the business section of the city and reached by good streets and 

Highland Park, commonly called the City Park, and sometimes 
the AVaterworks Park, is the oldest park with respect to ownership 
by the city. It is a part of the forty acre tract purchased from the 
L^nion Pacific Railroad by contract some time prior to 1876 and for 
which the city received a deed May 11, 1883. Upon the same tract 
the water works were located, and Highland Cemetery, conunonly 
called the "Old Cemetery," was platted. 

No move was made by the city to develop Highland Park as a 
park until 1886. During the administration of JSIayor Yocum the 
council ordered that trees be purchased and planted. It is probable 
that Councilman C. C. Rittenhouse was the first to urge the council 
to develop the park, and Mr. Rittenhouse was made chairman of the 
committee to pui-chase and sujjcrintend the planting of the trees. 
Highland Park lies immediately north of the postofRce and the tract 
of which it is a part lies between Burlington and St. Joseph avenues 
and Twelfth and Fourteenth streets. 

During the year that Highland Park was laid out, 1886. Hast- 
ings received Prospect Park, commonly called Chautauqua Park, as 
a Christmas gift from Dewitt C. Palmer and Daniel C. Crane. This 
park was transferred to the city by deed December 24, 1886. It 
comprises twenty-four acres of which ]Mr. Palmer donated eighteen 
acres and INIr. Crane six. It was at this time that INIr. Palmer, who 
had come to Hastings from the State of New York, was platting 
Palmer's Prospect Park Addition. 


The terms iijjon which the jjark was donated jirovide that it shall 
lie used for park pin-poses forever and that intoxicating liquors 
shall not be sold Avithin its limits. It was also specified that the 
park should be immediately fenced and that trees should be planted 
in 1887 and that the jjark should be kept in good condition. The 
conditions have been well complied with by the city, except the one 
specifying that a lake should be formed within the park. There is 
a fine growth of trees, and the comfort with which the many thou- 
sands have enjoj^ed the Chautauqua and other entertainments well 
fulfills any anticipations that the donors may have had. JNIr. Palmer 
returned to New York many years ago, but he has visited Hastings 
while Chautauquas have been in j)rogTess and has been well pleased 
with the use that the city is making- of his gift. 

Heartwell Park lies in the northeastern part of the city and com- 
prises blocks 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the Heartwell Park Addition. It 
is an irregular strijj lying between ^^'^abash and Elm avenues and 
Forest Street and Park Avenue. A dam across the ravine at Cali- 
fornia Avenue forms a lake by storing the water from the city drain- 
age sewers. During the winter months Heartwell Lake affords good 
skating for hundreds of children and in summer there is some boating. 
Heartwell Park is well supplied with grass and trees and is a favorite 
resort for jJicnics, band concerts and similar recreations. In the 
summer of 1916, and once before, the state convention of the Seventh 
Day Adventists was held in Heartwell Park, the white tents with 
the great canvas pavilion completely filling the park. This park 
was acquired by the city during JNIayor Jacob Fisher's administration, 
or between April .5, 1898, and July 1.5, 1901. 



Just when the first woman's club was organized in Hastings is 
not known; certain it is that it was in a verj' early day. Something- 
like thirty years ago, about 188.5, a Chautauqua reading circle existed 
that was greatly enjoyed by the fortunate few who comi^osed it. This 
circle disbanded long ago, and the greater number of its members 
have moved away from Hastings. Among the membership the names 
of Mrs. John Ideson, Mrs. O. G. Smith, ]Mrs. II. B. Knowlton and 
Mrs. Lou Vance Phillips are recalled. 


The George Eliot Club claims the honor of being the mother of 
clubs in Hastings. It was organized in December, 1889, with a mem- 
bership of twelve, to which number the membership is limited. The 
first year's work was devoted to the studj^ of the Avorks of George 
Eliot. The first members were: JMrs. John iNI. Ragan, JNIrs. J. N. 
Clarke, Mrs. C. L. Stone, JMrs. J. M. Ferguson, ]Mrs. Claus Frahm, 
Miss Katherine Graydon, INIiss Carrie Renfrew, Miss Ella Royce, 
Mrs. H. Bostwick, JNIrs. O. G. Smith, ]Mrs. H. B. Knowlton and Miss 
]Margaret Jones. The personnel of the club has changed greatly from 
time to time ; some members have been lost by death, some have moved 
to otiier j)laces, and a few have dro])ped out, so that only four of the 
original mnnber remain. The Eliot has remained purely a cultural 
club and it has done some excellent work along its chosen lines. 

On the anniversary of George Eliot's birthday in the fall of 1897 
this club gave a reception to all the other women's clubs in town ; it was 
given in the old Elks' club rooms in the Stern Block and was a most 
delightful affair. This Avas the beginning of a number of recijn-ocal 
social afi^airs between the clubs and it was probably due to these inter- 
changes of courtesies that the idea of one large club developed in later 



The P. E. O. is a sorority chapter rather than a club proper. In 
Hastings, however, it has always followed some line of literary work 
and in addition has done its share of philanthropic and educational 
work as directed by its central organization. The Hasting chapter 
was formed in October, 1889, thus antedating the George Eliot Club 
by a few months. Its original membership was jNIiss Helen Officer, 
Mrs. W. M. Button, Miss jMinnie Button (now INIrs. John Pickens), 
Mrs. ]Mollie Campbell, Mrs. Florence Lowman, JNIrs. Grace IvipjD, 
Mrs. Lillian ]Main, iNIrs. Flora Pearl, ]Miss Carrie Brown, JNIiss Estelle 
Ryan, ]Miss Elizabeth Jones, JNIiss ]Mary Jones, Miss Ada Nolan, Miss 
Laura Billey (now JNIrs. Rainard Wahlquist), JNIiss INIay Billey (now 
Mrs. Graham) . Unlike the Eliot, the P. E. O. is not a limited organi- 
zation, but only three of the original ehai)ter remain. 

A small reading circle of neighbors, started in 1894, developed 
in 189(5, into a club called the Carlyle. Eight delightful and profitable 
years Mere spent in a comi^rehensive study of German, English, 
French and Russian history, followed by five devoted to English liter- 
atiu'e. The membership was limited to twelve. The social aft'airs of 
this club were few, the most notable one being the bringing of Prof. 
I'aul iNI. Pearson to interpret the writings of Rudyard Kipling. The 
memliers were INIrs. S. V. B. HoUoway, Mrs. W. H. Fuller, JNIrs. 
I>amson. JNIiss Bella Cooke, JNIrs. L. J. Capps, Mrs. Robert Moritz, 
JNIis. W. N. Filson, Mrs. Rose Sliedd, JNIrs. Mary Michael, JNIiss JNIary 
Forsythe, JNIiss JNIargaret Lynn and JNIrs. JNIary Isham. Beath of 
members and the removal of others from the city caused the club to 
disl)and in 1910. 

The JNIiss JNIargaret I^ynn mentioned was the professor of English 
literature at Hastings College during her stay in the city, and is now a 
teacher of English in the University of Kansas. She has done some 
excellent work for publication; among other things are a number of 
delightful essays with story elements contributed to the Atlantic 
Monthly. These were recently compiled in a ])ook. "A Half-sister to 
the Prairie." 


The Round Table Avas organized in 1893 with the following mem- 
bers: JNIrs. F. JNI. Crowe, Mrs. W. H. Holland. JNIrs. L. B. Terrill, 
Mrs. Thomas JNIcIntosh, JNIrs. N. R. Hamilton, JNIrs. N. F. Bamron, 


Mrs. Bertha Jefferson, [Mrs. C. B. Hutton, ]Miss Harriet FyiFe, Mis!> 
Ella Koyce, Miss Edith Damron, ^Nlrs. W. H. Dillon. Miss Fyft'e 
was the president for a number of years. 

Tliis club has followed a varied program, which has included his- 
tory, biograi^hy, fiction, poetry, the drama, and mythology; the year 
1914 was devoted to the historj' of Nebraska. Thoroughness and en- 
thusiasm have characterized all the work. Current events have been 
discussed informally at nearlj' all the meetings. The membershij) has 
greatly changed but the number has always remained the same, twelve 
being the limit. Mrs. W. H. Dillon is the only charter member re- 
maining in the club. The early members were j\Irs. ]M. A. Hartigan, 
Mrs. S. S. Snyder, Mrs. Will Duer, ]Miss Grace Dillon. ^Nlrs. William 
Sheldon, Mrs. C. J. INIiles, Miss Clara Miles, Mrs. Russell, 3Irs. 
D. W. Palmer, JNIrs. ]McKee St. John, ]Miss Diantha St. John. :Miss 
Pearl Tomlinson. 


Because the Fortnightly was the only one of the culture clubs to 
federate and also the only one to disband when the larger democratic 
club was formed, it seems to merit the distinction of having been the 
direct forerurmer of the present Woman's Club. The Fortnightly 
Club was formed among the little group that gathered for study 
around a very remarkable man, the Rev. John Power, who was the 
]"ector of St. JNIark's Episcopal Church at the opening of the present 
century. ]Mr. Power was a most accomplished Shakespearean scholar 
and drew around him a group of friends who met to study the works of 
the great dramatist under his instruction and guidance. Later, when 
]Mr. Power left the city to go to Brownwood, Texas, where he now 
resides, the little study club organized itself into the Fortnightly Club 
and began the study of the American novel; later, it took up varied 
programs. The members were ]Mrs. R. P. Falkner, ]\Irs. Lem Tib- 
bets, ]Mrs. S. E. Howard. ]Mrs. W. H. Fergiison, ^Irs. M. Reed. ]Miss 
Grace Dillon, IMiss Clara JMiles, jMiss Agnes Power, ]\Iiss Julia Vine- 
yard, IMrs. F. C. Wood, Miss INIaude Faxon, JNIrs. Louise Kimball, 
Miss Stella Payne, INIiss Laura Payne, ]Mrs. L. H. Young, Mrs. 
William Dutton. 

'J'lie Fortnightly was the only one of the small clubs that e\er 
joined the state federation; it did so in the same year that it was 
organized and IMrs. S. E. Howard and IMrs. Lem Tibbets were sent as 
delegates to the meeting of the state federation in the fall of 1903. 
The club continued to do good work along literary lines until the 
Woman's Club was formed in 1906, when it disbanded. 



The American Literature Club was organized in 189.5 with the fol- 
lowing membership : President, IMrs. Nellie S. Willard; vice president, 
Mrs. JNIay Weeks JMattocks: secretary, JMrs. M. E. Averill; critic, 
Miss Elizabeth Pease; Mrs. Isabel Work, ]Mrs. Nettie M. Scott, JMrs. 
Lulu J. Pease, ]Mrs. JNIinnieL. Ferris, ]Mrs. E. M. Schaufelberger, 
Mrs. Susette E. Pease, Miss Emma Parker, Miss ]\Iatie D. Kelley. 
As indicated by the name, this club was organized to study American 
literature, which course it pursued for some three years, after that fol- 
lowed a period of art study, then English, French and German history 
and literature; also two years each to the study of Shakespeare and 
Browning. The club continues to flourish at the present writing. 


A history of Hastings clubs would indeed be incomplete without 
mention of Uvo junior clubs that met with INIrs. John M. Ragan and 
enjoyed the jjrivilege of her instruction and guidance. The first was 
called the Odd Number Club, the latter was the INIargaret Fuller Club, 
^^arious subjects were taken up from time to time. Among others 
was a comprehensive consideration of Dante's Inferno. Many of the 
brightest among the young women of Hastings look back with pleas- 
ure and gratitude to the time when they enjoyed the rare privilege of 
Mrs. Ragan's scholarly leadership and her influence is felt in many 
distant states through the altruistic service of these young women 
\vhose characters she helped to mould. 

The Odd Number Club was composed of the following young 
girls: Ruth Wilson, Mary INIcCreary, Carrie Jones, Eugenie Hayden, 
Margaret Pickens, Gertrude Yocum, and the members of the JMar- 
garet Fuller Club were Essie Hamot, Luella Brach, Sadie Bailey, 
^^ida Ferguson. Ona Reed, Grace McClelland. 


The iVIatinee ]Musical or INIusical Culture Club, as it was called 
later, was organized in 1908 at the home of 3Irs. W. E.' Barnes. The 
following officers were elected: President, Mrs. R. B. Wahlquist; 
vice president, JNIiss Clara JNIiles; secretary. Miss Lillian Brown; exec- 
utive committee, ]Mrs. John INI. Ragan, INIrs. John Slaker, IMrs. Fred 
J. wSchaufelberger, Mrs. Beall, JMrs. Townsend, JMrs. Van Sickle, 
Mrs. H. A. Blenkiron; program committee, JMrs. O. C. Zinn. JMrs. 


O. Oliver, JNIrs. W. E. Barnes; musical director, Mrs. W. E. Barnes. 
Sixty-five active members signed the constitution at the first meeting ; 
subsequently the number reached eighty-five with twenty-five asso- 
ciate members. 

This organization was active for ten years, giving a number of 
delightful programs. In 1908 this society ceased to be as a separate 
unit and became merged in the Woman's Club as the musical depart- 
ment, and has been a very valuable addition to the club, supplying 
musical numbers for general programs and rendering efficient assist- 
ance in many ways. Shortly after its fusion with the Woman's Club 
a series of reciprocal programs was arranged with Grand Island, 
Fairburj' and Kearney. This department maintains a high standard 
of culture. In 1914 it gave its members two rare artistic treats in the 
form of two illustrated lectures, one on "Italian ]Music" by ]\Irs. C. F. 
Morey and one on "Parsifal" by INIiss Grace Sylla. Both were accom- 
panied with appropriate music. 


AVith such an array of small culture clubs already in existence it 
would seem that tliere was no place in Hastings for the larger demo- 
cratic club. But when it is considered that these clubs were all limited 
in membership and were ijurely self-culture circles it Avill be seen that 
their existence only emphasized the need for the general club. The 
small clubs, like the women's colleges, had been teaching women to 
think. The study of literature inevitably leads the student to the con- 
sideration of life in its various phases, and then comes the call to 

The history of the Hastings Woman's Club, or rather, the history 
of the causes which led to its organization, is precisely the history of 
every club of its kind — north, south, east and west, England, the con- 
tinent and the islands of the sea. It is one chapter of the great social 
phenomenon of the age — the awakening of woman. As the small 
clubs, exclusive and aristocratic in their tendencies, outgrew their spirit 
of mere mental acquisition, there arose a desire to do and to be; then 
came the call to act their ])art, to bear their share in the woi-ld's work. 

On the afternoon of February 10, 1906, a group of women met liy 
invitation at the home of ]Mrs. William Dutton, 1200 West Third 
Street. ]Mrs. Alice Whitney was called to the chair and ]Mrs. W. B. 
Snyder stated the purpose of the meeting, which was the organization 
of a woman's club on broad, democratic lines, whose object should be 
"individual development, a united effort toward harmony, charity and 


that broad culture which comes through service to others." A com- 
mittee composed of ]Mrs. John Pickens, Mrs. J. D. French and ]Mrs. 
S. E. Howard was ajjpointed to draft a suitable constitution and by- 
laws. Later, the committee reported and the proposed constitution 
was adopted, after which the following names were affixed: 

]Mesdames Ida ]\I. Rowland, Gilliam, Will Snyder, Robert Falk- 
ner, J. D. French, P. E. IMcCoy, John Pope, A. INIeston, F. P. 
Olmstead, F. G. Endelman, C. L. Alexander, John Pickens, H. S. 
Rollins, R. H. iMeyer, William Button, Laura M. Gaines, Effie C. 
AVilber, James Sewell, Frank Nance. William JNLadgett, M. J. Law- 
ler, F. C. Babcock, George Kimball. P. G. Cunningham, S. L. Stich- 
ter. Earnett. Percy Renner. William J. Falk, F. A. Watkins, H. E. 
Reaghler. Z. H. Hughes, Oliver Whitney, George JNI. Hoerner, T. B. 
Parker, O. E. von Oven, J. R. Corey, Pauline Ragan, J. T. Steele, 
M. E. Barnes, J. E. Warrick, Heartwell, F. A. Boiler, J. V. Beghtol, 
George Churchill, Frank Schaufelberger, B. F. Barr, Herman E. 
Stein, Charles Kohl. Elizal)etli Babcock, Harry Brewer. Harry 
Haverly, W. B. Kern; JNIisses Bertha Hope Lee. E. Virginia Reed, 
Annie L. Richards, Beatrice Walling, ^latilda jMcClelland, Richards, 
Dorr,. :Mildred 3Ic]Millan, Birdsell. Gertrude Dietrich and Edna 

Temporary officers were then elected as follows: President, ]Mrs. 
Ida ]M. Howland; vice president, JNIrs. Gilliam; recording secretary, 
]\Irs. W. R. Snyder; corresjsonding secretary, Mrs. Robert Falkner; 
treasurer, INIrs. J. D. French. JNIeetings were held every two weeks 
at different places but considerable difficulty was encountered in find- 
ing a suitable club home; finally, the auditorium of the Carnegie 
Library was secured and regular meetings were held there until the 
s])ring of 1910 when the club moved into its present comfortable quar- 
ters in Brandes Hall, on Second Sti-eet and Burlington Avenue. 

In jNIarch, 1906. the following dejiartments were formed: Parlia- 
mentary law, civics, cm-rent topics, household economics and physical 
cultin-e. Excej^ting the last, these departments are all actively at 
work at the present time, and they have been re-enforccd by literature, 
art, music and dramatic art departments. 

]May 12, 1906, the following permanent officers were elected: Pres- 
ident, ]Mrs. J. D. French; vice president, IMrs. W. R. Snyder; record- 
ing secretary, JNIiss Gertrude Dietrich; corresponding secretarj-, Mrs. 
J. IM. Sewell; treasurer, IMrs. JNI. E. Barnes. These officers were re- 
elected in 1907. 

In February, 1906, the club became affiliated with the state fed- 
eration and the following December it became a member of the gen- 


eral federation. At the annual meeting of the state federation held 
in Kearney in 1906 the club was represented by JMrs. French and JNIrs. 
W. M. Dutton. jVlrs. French as president of tlie Hastings Club ex- 
tended an invitation to the federation to hold its next meeting at 
Hastings. The invitation was accepted and the convention met in 
Hastings in the JNIethodist Cliurch during October, 1907. It was a 
courageous thing for so young a club to attempt to entertain the 
whole state federation, but the meeting was a great success from start 
to finish and placed the Hastings Club in the front rank of the Ne- 
braska clubs that are "doing things," which rank has been maintained. 
Among the notable social events of the convention were a rare musical 
treat provided by local talent and a banquet at the JMasonic Temple at 
which 150 guests were seated. 

The officers elected in 1908, while meetings were still being held in 
the library auditorium, were: President, iNIrs. W. E. St. John; vice 
jiresident, JMrs. A. H. Brooke; recording secretary, IMrs. R. P. Falk- 
ner; corresponding secretary, JMrs. John M. Ragan; treasurer, Mrs. 
E. A. St. John. These officers were re-elected in 1909. 

Among the things accomplished during JMrs. St. John's presidency 
was the furnishing of a room at the Young JMen's Christian Associa- 
tion for the use of that association at a cost of $100; also the tajving up 
of tlie club's abode in tlie new Fraternity Hall (Brandes Hall) , where 
there is ample accommodation in tlie parlors for general club meetings, 
also department meetings, with the free use of a well equipped kitchen 
and of the large auditorium for the pliysical culture class, and large 
social gatherings, including the annual club banquet. 

In January, 1910, the officers elected were: President, JMrs. John 
JM. Ragan; vice president, Mrs. U. S. Roherer; corresjionding secre- 
tary, JMiss Louise Lepin ; recording secretary, Mrs. Hurst ; treasiu'cr. 
JMiss Ella St. John; Mrs. Ragan was elected delegate to the biennial 
convention to the general federation to be held in Cincinnati in June 
of that year. This was the first time that the Hastings Club was 
represented in the general federation. 

The most notable event of this administration was the establish- 
ment of that organization known as the Civics Board of Charities. 
As early as 1907 the club had a charity committee. It sought to relieve 
suffering whenever possible, especially among women and children. 
A number of orphans and neglected children have been cared for; 
some placed in homes, others in the various state institutions such as 
the Institute for the Feeble JMinded, at Beatrice, the Girls' Industrial 
School at Geneva and the Boys' Industrial School at Kearney. The 
club feels particularly hapjjy over the fact that one of its proteges, a 


crijjpled boy, whom it was able to place in the Orthopedic Hospital 
at Lincoln, is greatly improved and is learning a trade, so that he bids 
fair to become a self-supporting and useful citizen. Among other activ- 
ities this committee collects cast off clothing from the citizens and dis- 
tributes them in different ways according to the need. In winter 
a room is open once a week where people, especially mothers, can come 
and replenish the family wardrobe. JMrs. Alice Brooke and JNlrs. 
F. C. Wood are the leading spirits in this part of the club's activities. 

Early in their work the club found that there was danger of con- 
fusion and positive harm from the duplication and overlapping of the 
work of different organizations, all seeking to alleviate suffering, so 
the plan of the civics board of charities was devised. It is composed 
of the Charity Committee of the Woman's Club, the three members 
of the board of county sujiervisors who reside in Hastings, the super- 
intendent of the Hastings schools, the truant officer and the editors 
of the daily newspaper. The plan has worked out admiral)ly and has 
resulted in a much more intelligent and efficient method of dealing 
with cases of destitution. 

Mrs. W. H. Dillon was elected president in 1912, with JMrs. J. M. 
Sewell vice president; Mrs. A. E. Allyn, recording secretary; JMrs. 
(ieorge Kimball, corresponding secretary; and Mrs. W. E. Painter, 
treasurer. In June of that year the general federation met at San 
Francisco and Hastings was represented by Mrs. John M. Ragan, 
JMrs. F. C. Babcock, Mrs. Charles F. Morey and JMrs. John Slaker. 
In the fall of that year the convention of the clubs of the Fifth Con- 
gressional District met in Hastings. 

In 1913, according to the club's established precedent, JMrs. Dillon 
was reelected president, but because of removal and other changes 
her fellow officers were changed to JMrs. F. C. Babcock, vice i^resi- 
dent: JMrs. Sexson, recording secretary; JMrs. Slaker, corresponding- 
secretary, and JMrs. George Kimball, treasurer. These were suc- 
ceeded in 1914- by JMrs. John Slaker, president; J\Irs. George Kim- 
ball, vice president; JMrs. Silas Ljaiian, recording secretary; JMrs. 
George Churchill, corresponding secretary; and Mrs. E. A. Francis, 
treasurer. All of these ladies are now filling their respective offices, 
having been reelected January, 1915, with the exception of Mrs. 
George Kimball, Avho declined reelection and was succeeded by JMrs. 
Agnes JMeston. 

It was during JMrs. Dillon's administration that the club ventured 
upon the most imjiortant undertaking of its career, tlie thing by 
Avhich it will be remembered when all of its other activities have been 
forgotten — the establishment of Sunnyside. For a long time the 


civics board of charities, and especially the women of the charitv 
committee of the club, had been realizing the need of some place 
where those in need of temporarj' shelter might find a safe place, 
where a sick, tired woman could go for a time, where a neglected 
or abandoned child could find a loving, friendly welcome and where 
old people of limited means could be cared for. From the first 
suggestion of its possibilities the enterprise met with enthusiastic 
suiJjJort from the club women. Several entertainments were given 
to raise funds and finally, on February 27, 1914, a resolution was in- 
troduced providing for the apjjointment of a committee to take the 
necessary stejis for the establishment and maintenance of such a 
home. The resolution was passed with one dissenting vote. 

The Sunnyside Home was opened April 1, 1914, upon the site and 
building purcliased at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and Fourteenth 
Street. The building was destroyed by fire on the night of January 6, 
1916. Steps were taken at once for rebuilding and the present Home 
was erected and opened in September, 1916. The cost of the build- 
ing was $12,000. Sunnyside has thirty rooms and at present has 
twenty guests. It has awakened interest in its work among the 
woman's clubs in many states. jNIiss ]Margaret Kealy has been the 
matron since the oiJening of the institution and at the time of the fire 
saved the life of two of her wards at the risk of her own. 

In June, 1914, the biennial convention of the general federation 
was held in Chicago. At this meeting Hastings was represented by 
its i^resident, Mrs. Slaker, and its ex-president, IMrs. Dillon, also 
]Mrs. A. H. Brooke, Mrs. Will Lowman, JNIrs. William Dutton and 
Mrs. C. F. Morey. It was at this meeting that the general federa- 
tion took its stand as being unequivocally in favor of equal suffrage 
for men and women. One of the Hastings delegates described it as 
one of the most dramatic episodes she had ever witnessed. This was 
the moment for which many of those women had striven for years; 
whichever way it Avent it was fraught with consequences of deep 
significance, and yet the spirit manifested was one of most kindly 

It took less than ten minutes from the time that the resolution 
was introduced until it was passed, the cheering over and that vast 
assembly, which completely filled the ^Vuditorium Theater, settled 
back to the order of the day. Some had feared that the southern 
women would balk at it but it was found that some of its Avarmest 
supporters were among the southern delegates. 

Jt was because of the action of its central body that the Hastings 
club threw itself so enthusiastically into tlie campaign for woman 


suffrage in the fall of 1914. The City of Hastings was carried for 
suffrage, but the total vote for Adams County resulted in a tie. 

While engaging freely in civic affairs the club strongly empha- 
sizes its jjosition as a conserver of culture in the community and its 
influence is always to be felt in any undertaking which tends to 
advance the intellectual status of Hastings, also as a social center it 
is a valuable asset. Each year several dehghtful social affairs find 
place on the club calendar and the annual birthday jjarty which is 
celebrated on or about the first of February is always an event of 
delightful importance. At first it took the form of a club breakfast, 
but in more recent years it has been the occasion for a formal evening 
banquet, at which toasts are responded to in a manner quite up to the 
liigh standard which the club has set in every other branch of its 

The real work of the club is done chiefly in the departments, the 
general meeting being a kind of clearing house for department and 
committee work, and so the annual banquet is almost the only occa- 
sion when all the members are together. 

During the spring of 191.5 the club gave an entertainment at the 
Kerr Oj^era House which was unique in many ways. This was the 
presentation of a morality play. "Everymatron," modeled after the 
old morality plays of the dawn of English literature and written by 
]Mr. R. D. Scott of the state university. The play was beautifully 
staged under the direction of JNIrs. Frank Babcock, the cast was 
unusually strong, there were no evidences of amateurishness and alto- 
gether the performance left nothing to be desired. Admission was by 
invitation only; each club member being given a certain number of 
tickets, which she was free to distribute among her friends. 

Among the notable achievements of the club was the historical 
parade which formed a part of the Fourth of Jidy celebration in 
191.5. It was a panorama of American history by periods from the 
landing of Columbus down to the present time. Some of the floats 
were remarkably beautiful, others were humorous; the whole parade 
was an object lesson in om- liistory not easily forgotten. The difficult 
undertaking was carried to its successful issue by a committee com- 
posed of Mrs. C. H. Dietrich, chairman; ]Mrs. Alice Dudley, ^Nlrs. 
Silas I>yman and ]Mrs. A. E. Stiff. 

In September, 191.5. when the state federation met at Norfolk 
]Mrs. Slakei-, the president, unanimously endorsed by the chamber 
of commerce and the city council, asked for tlie federation to meet 
in Hastings in 1916. This invitation has been accepted and the fed- 
eration will meet here in October, 1916. 


Among the recent acts of generositj- are a gift of $35 to the 
civics board of charity to be used for the jjoor at Thanksgiving time 
and a box of some two hundred books and magazines to a small club 
in the western jxirt of the state that is making heroic eiForts to start 
a public library. 

The club is hojjing that at some time in the future it may possess 
its o«n club house for there are many things that it would be able 
to do that are impossible while occupying rented qviarters. A few 
years ago a fund was started for this purpose, but for the past few 
years club energies have been expended in other ways. Its mission 
is to do the thing at hand, to fulfill the duty of today and, adapting 
itself to Avhatever condition may arise, the Hastings Woman's Club 
is proving its value to the communit^^ 

The scope of the work carried on by the woman's club necessitates 
the division of the workers, hence there are the following depart- 
ments: Parliamentary law, civics, physical culture, household 
economies, literature, art, current events and dramatic art. New 
departments are added from time to time as the need appears. 


Niobrara Chapter of Hastings was organized October 12, lOlO, 
and chartered ]March 23, 1911, with nineteen members, JNIrs. Charles 
G. Lane charter regent. 

The chajjter has had enrolled one real daughter. A real daughter 
is one whose father rendered Revolutionary service. JNIrs. Caroline 
Herrick Johnson was born in Towanda, Pennsylvania. Her father 
when a mere boy was enrolled in the Eighth regiment, state militia, 
and was soon called into active service. These poorly equipped, 
young and undisciplined troops were quickly discharged. Hence- 
forth Ebenezer Herrick's service was that of the camp. The 
national society pays a small monthly pension to each real "daughter." 

The chapter is open to any woman proving her eligibility under 
conditions of article 3, section 1, constitution and by-laws of the 
national society: "Any woman may be eligible for membership who 
is of the age of eighteen and who is descended from a man or a woman 
who with unfailing loyalty rendered material aid to the cause of inde- 
pendence, ])rovided the applicant be acceptable to the society." 

The jjurpose of the organization is, "To foster true patriotism, 
love of country and love of God; to perpetuate the memory of men 
and women, who by self-denial, sacrifice and heroic endeavor achieved 
American independence; and to uphold the blessings and responsi- 
bilities of liberty; to hold hands and hearts ever ready to aid the 
needy and succor the distressed." 


The monthly meetings are devoted to general business, study and 
discussion of history and topics of interest and importance at the 
present day. A beautiful silk flag is displayed by request of the late 
Mrs. S. T. Riordan. The flag was presented to the chapter by Mrs. 
Riordan, mother of ]Mrs. Charles F. jMorey. 

A few examples will illustrate the activities of the chapter. 
October, 1911, a committee composed of JMrs. J. M. Dailey, JNIrs. A. 
II Allyn and Mrs. W. H. Fuller was appointed to take charge Of 
raising money for a marker to be placed on the Oregon Trail at the 
point nearest Hastings. The fund was started by voluntary con- 
tributions from chapter members. In February, 1912, JMrs. C. F. 
JMorey. with the consent and approval of the proper authorities, gave 
an entertaining and instructive lecture on "JHistoric Spots in Amer- 
ica" at the Hastings High School. Pupils who wished to do so con- 
tributed their mites to the cause. In April, 1912, Mrs. F. C. Bab- 
cock gave a reading from Dickens at Fraternity Hall. Her highly 
cultivated natural talent and sympathetic delineation of character 
assured a large audience and crowned the eff'ort with success. The 
Oregon Trail State Commission added $2o. The granite marker, 
engraved : 


Erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution 


The State of X^ebraska 


was placed on the LeRoy Road, seven miles south of Hastings. 

A moving picture show was given by the chapter, X^ovember, 
1913, for the purpose of assisting the pupils of Longfellow School, 
to secure a silk flag for the assembly room and similar flags for the 
other rooms. They were presented February, 1914. 

During' February, 1915, woolen scarfs, caps, and socks were 
knitted by chapter members and their friends and sent to the Belgian 
suft'erers. Enough clothing, non-perishable food and toys for little 
children to fill three large boxes, was collected and sent to the war 
stricken countries of Europe on the Christmas ship of 1913. 

The chajiter was invited to take charge of a patriotic program 
before the patrons' league of the Alcott School, JMay 20, 1915. 
Pu])ils furnished the music. JMrs. E. B. Hamel real a paper on "How 
to Teach Patriotism in the Home," and JMrs. William JMadgett pre- 
sented a paper on "How to Teach Patriotism in the School." 

The Liberty Bell, en route to the San Francisco Exposition, 
arrived in Hastings at 6:30 P. JM. July 9, 1915. The program was 


in the charge of Niobrara Chapter, ]Mrs. A. E. Allyn, regent. An 
automobile parade, in wliich the cars were beautifully decorated in 
the national colors, started at 3 o'clock in the afternoon and at -t the 
school children assembled on the court house lawn and with Civil war 
veterans and a large concourse of citizens listened to a program of 
music and speaking. The music was in the charge of ]Mrs. W. E. 
Barnes and the sjjeakers were J. N. Clarke, ]Mayor William ^Nladgett 
and Rev. A. A. Brooks, pastor of the JNIethodist Church. ]Miss 
Lucia Dillenback gave a reading, and at intervals the JNlonroe Drum 
Corjjs rendered stirring music. At the conclusion of the i^rogram 
the children under the escort of the teachers and Company G, state 
militia, marched to the train to greet the Liberty Bell. The car 
stojijied immediately east of the Burlington Station, where a plat- 
form had been built that enabled pedestrians to view the old bell 
Avith comfort and despatch. 

On the occasional social affairs mention may be made of one, 
a garden party given on Flag Day, 1912, on the lawn of Mrs. A. E. 
Stitt. Chapter members wore colonial costumes and a varied pro- 
gram realizing the spirit of the colonial era and the work of its leaders 
was enjoyed. Fortunes were told in a wigwam and the Treble ClefF 
Society of Hastings College sang patriotic songs. A display of 
relics of colonial and revolutionary days was made on the veranda, 
which was beautifully decorated with flags, flowers, and the colonial 
colors, buff and blue. Among the articles were a family tree and 
rare books and samplers. ]Mrs. Lucy E. Gutherie exhibited a rolling- 
pin 12.5 years old; ]Mrs. E. B. Hamel displayed embroidery 12 j years 
old and Mrs. A. E. Allyn contributed for the occasion solid silver 
monogramed spoons of an equally early date. An interesting ex- 
hibit Avas a hand embroidered dress that had been worn at a party 
honored with the presence of George and JNIartha Washing-ton. 
This dress is the possession of JNIrs. A. E. Stitt and is an heirloom 
from the family of JMrs. W. H. Dillon. 

The charter members of Niobrara Chapter are jNIesdames Charles 
G. Lane. C. E. Pratt. L. C. Gutherie, A. E. Allyn, M. Sims. W. H. 
Waldron. E. F. Yarndley, A. R. Van Sickle. M. Stewart. G. W. 
Tibbets, E. B. Hamel, W. T. Blackman, J. A. Loudermilch, S. T. 
Riordan, Chicago, G. H. Pratt. W. H. Fuller. Oswald Oliver. J. M. 
Dailey and A. E. Stitt. INIrs. Riordan lost her life August 17, 1013. 
in the wreck of the S. S. California off the coast of Alaska. The 
real daughter, Mrs. Carolina Herrick Johnson, died at Hastings. Jan- 
uary 23, 191.'). She would have been ninety j^ears old the follow- 
ing IMarch. 



Adams County and Hastings displayed a thorough American spirit 
from tlieir earliest days in many ways, but by perhaps nothing more 
characteristic than the manifestation of enthusiasm for the great 
national game. It is to be noted that many of the names identified 
with the early development of business in Hastings and the county 
were also the ones who promoted baseball, not merely as fans but in 
the early days as players, too. 

Hastings had very good amateur baseball as far back as 1878, 
when the ball ground was located a little south of the Burlington track 
on Lincoln Avenue. In 1879 H. S. ]Mulford, ''Sandy INIulford," as he 
was familiarly known, arrived in Hastings. "Sandy" was the first 
"curve" pitcher to make his home in Nebraska, and his ability to fool 
the batter gave Hastings baseball a zest that it had never known 
before. There were many in those days who did not believe that it 
was possible to pitch a ball so that it would curve, and as the prowess 
of ]Mulford became noised about be came to be regarded as a won- 
der and a hero. In the summer of 1879 G. J. Evans was the catcher 
for Hastings, and with "Sandy" in the box they were able to admin- 
ister defeat to the West Blue team which heretofore had proven a 
foi-midable opponent. William INIonroe and the Tompkins brothers 
were important members of the West Blue aggTcgation. The Hast- 
ings team at this time was composed of "Sandy" Mulford, G. J. 
Evans. Johnnie Crosthwaite, S. J. Weigel, H. G. Newsom, Frank 
Stine, J. B. Dallas, Harry Haverly and, when the opponents were 
particularly strong, William JMonroe. Games were played in the 
early days Avitli Grand Island, Central City, Fairbmy, Harvard, Sut- 
ton, Juniata and Red Cloud. George IMizen is a survivor of the 
Juniata players. J. B. Dallas figured as an important pitcher for the 
early Hastings team as well as Mulford. 

Baseball activities in Adams County have naturally centered prin- 


cipally in Hastings where it has been characterized by periods reach- 
ing a high pitch of enthusiasm and achievement alternating with 
periods of ahnost total dormancy. The chief activities may be said 
to have commenced June 23, 1880, when the Hastings Baseball Asso- 
ciation was organized with Charles H. Paul, president; John Stabler, 
vice president; George T. Williams, secretary; R. D. Tussey, treas- 
urer; J. D. Crosthwaite, captain; Edwin Boelich, umpire and John 
Ballard, scorer. The players comiJosing the team under this organiza- 
tion were G. J. Evans, H. S. Mulford, J. D. Crosthwaite, Frank 
Stine, O. F. Lambertson, J. J. Cline, J. A. Dallas, E. Hersey and 
Frank Miner. The game at this time was on a non-jjrofessional basis. 

In 1884 there was a reorganization of the association and the 
Hastings Athletic Association came into being and took steps to place 
the game ujjon a permanent footing. During this year the association 
purchased block 3 in St. Joseph Addition. This ground was located 
on the south side between Colorado and Kansas avenues and D and E 
streets. A grandstand and bleachers were erected and the block 
fenced. It was upon these grounds that the game was jilayed until 
about 1890, when the fence was presented to Hastings College and 
removed to the college campus. The college grounds were used for 
about two years. 

In 1892 D. S. Cole prepared a ball ground immediately east of 
Cole's park in the southeast portion of Hastings. A bicycle track was 
also constructed around the diamond and for a few years following 
1892 bicycle racing was a prominent sj^ort. Among those who 
attained good reputations as bicyclists were L. C. Landis, H. C. 
Wanzer, Curt Clark, Henrj' Jacobson and others. These athletic 
grounds were used for bicycle races, baseball and football until about 
1895. Then grounds were fitted up south of the fair grounds in the 
extreme northwest part of the citv. In 1897 the locus of athletics 
again moved, this time to the old east ward school grounds, located 
between Second and Third streets and JNIinnesota and Colorado ave- 
nues. This ground was fenced and in the course of time serious objec- 
tion to the location of tlie grounds was raised by nearby residents. 
Following the sale of the ground by the board of education in the 
winter of 1907-8 the complaining residents detei'mined to settle the 
matter by tearing down the fence and with this purpose a considerable 
body of men went to work with their hammers. Alarmed, baseball 
supjjorters rushed to the courthouse to secure an order to prevent the 
demolition of the fence. The court hastily granted a temporary 
injunction but before the papers coidd be served the fence was down. 

In 1908 grounds were leased from the Y. ]M. C. A., who held it 


under lease from the Burlington railroad and since that time the 
games have been jjlayed on that ground, which is located between First 
and Second streets and Baltimore and Briggs avenues. 

During the season of 1884 the Hastings team was made up partly 
of professionals and parti}' of amateurs. It served to determine the 
supporters of the game to assemble such a team as would advertise 
the city to be one of the most progressive in this section of the west. 
The 1885 team was wholly professional. The team, known as the 
"Hastings Reds," made two notable trips dining the season. On the 
first trij) games were played Avith Atchison, Leavenworth and St. 
Joseph. The second trip was to the west and games were played 
with Denver, Pueblo and LeadA^ille. This trij) was managed and 
finanoially guaranteed by Charles H. Dietrich. Hastings won about 
one-half of the games played on the two trips. It was in this year 
that "Dad" Rohrer came to Hastings from Illinois upon an invita- 
tion to join the Hastings Reds. After that time, JNIr. Rohrer was 
actively one of the chief sujjporters of baseball in various capacities 
until the formation of the state league, and still is one of the keenest 
of the fans. 

Diu'ing this trip Hastings won a notable game from the 
Omaha Union Pacific team. The score was 2 to 1 and the game went 
twelve innings. It was in this year that Hastings played its first 
game with Fremont. During the itineraries of the team G. J. Evans 
was the umpire, and during the game with St. Joseph seemed for a 
time to be in imminent danger of losing his life at the hands of St. 
Joseph patrons who resented his decisions. 

During the season of 1886 the Reds played as an independent club 
which was organized by Amasa G. Smith, the Reds' pitcher, in 188.5. 
Games were played with the clubs of the Western Leagiie. Toward 
the close of the season Hastings challenged Lincoln and the challenge 
was accepted for Lincoln by Dave Rowe. Three games were played 
with Lincoln at Hastings and Hastings won all three and by that 
winning claimed the championship of Nebraska in baseball. 

February 1. 188.5, the Hastings Reds were admitted into the mem- 
bership of the Western League, the certificate being signed by E. E. 
JMurphy. The other cities composing the league were Lincoln, 
Omaha, St. Joseph, Leavenworth, Denver, Kansas City and Topeka. 

The year 1887 was the year of the boom in Hastings and that year 
Hastings was a member of the Western League. That year INI. L. 
Elsemore was president of the Hastings Baseball Association and 
H. B. Knowlton, secretary. Fred Corey, of the Athletics, was 
secured for manager at a salary of $.500 per month. He held that 


position only a short time and was succeeded by U. S. Rohrer. The 
2)itcliers for Hastings in the season of 1887 were Wehrle, who after- 
wards Mon distinction on the Pacific Coast, and Nicholson, afterwards 
with Chicago. Topeka won the j^ennant for 1887 and Hastings fin- 
ished about the middle. By the next year the boom liad collapsed and 
with it went Hastings baseball for a season. The next year there was 
no Hastings club. 

The first period of professional baseball in Hastings was 188.5 to 
1887. inclusive, with the team of 1884 partly on a professional basis. 
Among the financial sujiporters of the game at that time may be men- 
tioned Jay Cherry, G. J. Evans, J. B. Dallas, Durley Dent, A. H. 
Cramer, C. K. Lawson, J. F. Ballinger, A. L. Clarke, C. K. Lawson, 
C. H. Dietrich and F. J. Benedict. Pay of the players ranged from 
$7-5 per month to $2.50. Of the team of 1885 Brimblecom, fielder, 
subsequently won distinction in the Western League and the Three I. 
Avhile A. G. Smith, pitcher, became prominent in the Southern 
League. Ebright, Reds catcher in 1886, won subsequent laurels in 
the Western League. 

Following the collapse of professional liaseball in 1887 there was 
not much baseball activity in Hastings until 1891 when U. S. Rohrer 
organized a team known as "Rohrer's Rustlers," and composed of 
local players. Tliis team was run on the cooperative plan and lasted 
practically through the season. The team fared successfully finan- 
cially imtil the last game, which was played with Fremont. The 
adversity sustained in this game caused the team to disband. 

In 1892 Hastings joined the state league for the first time. The 
league was composed of the clubs from Grand Island, Fremont, 
Plattsmouth, Lincoln. Beatrice and Hastings. One after another the 
clubs dropped out and the league disbanded July 4. Hastings was 
the last club to drop out. 

In 189.-3 F. F. Carruthers organized a Y. M. C. A. team on the 
cooperative plan and baseball was kept alive. The Y. M. C. A. team 
ke])t the baseball fire smoiddering for about two years. Subsequently 
independent teams were organized by U. S. Rohrer, Will IMace, H. C. 
Schauble and William Hoagland and a semblance of baseball life was 
maintained until tlie tearing down of the baseball fence on the East 
AVard school grounds in the spring of 1908. 

Hastings again became a member of the state league in 1910. 
Baseball supporters were incorporated February 25 of that year and 
the following were elected directors: F. C. Babcock, C. G. Lane, 
H. E. Stein, P. R. Renner and Will Neimeyer. Herman E. Stein 
was elected president and C. G. Lane vice president. Sul)sequent 


presidents of the organization were C. J. ^Miles, Ed. Deines and John 
U. Teeling. 

About $2, .500 was subscribed in the spring of 1910 and a chib 
was assembled under the management of George Harm. The team 
was christened "The Brickmakers." In addition to The Brickmakers 
the state league comjirised tlie clubs of Fremont, Grand Island, Supe- 
rior, Seward, Kearney, Columbus and Red Cloud. The league con- 
tinued until about the middle of the season of 191.5, although in the 
meantime there were a number of changes in its makeup. York pur- 
cliased the franchise of Red Cloud, Seward sold to Beatrice, Fremont 
to Norfolk and Superior to Fairbury. The state league pennant was 
won by Fremont in 1910 and then sviccessively by Superior, Kearney, 
Hastings and Grand Island. No pennant was awarded in 1915, when 
the league disbanded. 

C. J. ]Miles, of Hastings, was a strong suj^porter of the game and 
became known as one of the i^rincipal fans in Nebraska. He was 
jiresident of the state league in 191-4 and 191.5. 

An interesting incident of baseball in Hastings was the visit of 
the Chicago and All- American clubs. These teams stopped en route 
u])on their toin- around the world. Being guaranteed $.500 they 
stopped in Hastings and played a game October "26, 1888. The gate 
receipts upon that day totalled about $1,300. The score Mas 8 to 4 
in favor of Chicago. The players were, for Chicago: Ryan. Pettit. 
Sullivan, Anson, Pfeffer, Williamson, Burns, Tener and Baldwin. 
Tener is now jjresident of the National League and one time gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania. The All-Anierican team were Hanlon, 
Wood, Hengle, Carroll, Van Haltren, Long, Brown, Flint and 
Fogarty. Some of the Hastings fans are positive that Billy Sunday 
was with the aggregation. His name, however, does not ap])ear upon 
the score book. 

Several baseball players who began their careers in the game at 
Hastings or became known in Adams County through being members 
of clubs of the state league have gone up in the game for longer or 
shorter periods. Besides those mentioned as having played in Hast- 
ings prior to 1888, there was Byron IMcKibben, playing in Hastings 
in 1892. who was subsequently with the Western Leagaie; outfielder 
and catclier. ]McFarland, played afterwards with the Eastern League 
and the American Association; Fred Clark, once a fielder for Hast- 
ings, became distinguished in the Southern League and the National 
and was the manager of the Pittsburgh club for years. Jake Gett- 
man began his career in Hastings and stayed in baseball for many 
years. ])laying in the Texas, American and Eastern leagues. Retir- 


ing from baseball, Gettinan now operates a cigar factory in Nortli 

Of the last state league jilayers mention might be made of ]Mitch- 
ell, Red Cloud pitcher, afterwards with Detroit and Cincinnati; 
Agnew, catcher for Colmiibus, afterwards with St. Louis and Boston ; 
Dazzy Vance, of Hastings, jjitcher for Superior, afterwards with 
the New York Americans; Norton, pitcher for Hastings, subse- 
quently with Indianapolis; Riley and Hershey, both pitchers for 
Hastings, the former was afterwards with the St. Louis Browns and 
the latter with Boston; Piercy, another Hastings pitcher, climbed to 
the New York Americans; JNIapel, a Hastings fielder, was bought by 
Cleveland; Lotz, pitcher for Kearney, became enrolled with the Car- 
dinals, while Noyes, another Kearney pitcher, was taken on by the 
Athletics. Will Johnson and W. U. Rohrer are other Hastings boys 
who made good in the game. Johnson was a center fielder. After 
leaving the Nebraska State League he played with INIonmouth. Illi- 
nois, in the Central Illinois League. He played later Avith San Fran- 
cisco, going from there to the Southern League and the Texas League. 
Rohrer played Avith Oakland and other western clubs. 

The managers of the Hastings club jilaying in the state leagiie 
following George Harm were John Kling, Bert Shaner and L. D. 


The holding of a county fair in Adams County dates back to the 
beginning of farming in the county. On ]\Iay 6, 1872, an organization 
was formed for the purpose of establishing a fair. Of this organiza- 
tion W. W. Selleck was chosen president; Charles Bird and Walter 
West, vice presidents; John Bauchman, secretary and Gordon Edger- 
ton, treasurer. G. I. Selleck, L. G. King, W. F. Selleck, J. L. John- 
son and H. B. Munson were the directors. With the officers there 
were thirtj'-nine members of this organization. 

No fair was held that year, but the next year, largely through the 
efforts of Charles K. Lawson, Samuel Alexander, C. C. Ingalls and 
others of Hastings, a fair was held at Kingston on the Blue about due 
south from Hastings, October 10th and 11th. This fair was so well 
attended and so much enthusiasm was displayed that it was seen that 
the county fair had possibilities in Adams County, a fact which not a 
few had doubted when the project Avas being- jjromoted. A large num- 
ber of Juniata peo])le now joined the organization and desired that 
the fair should be held in their town and on IMarch 9, 1874. the Adams 
County Agricultural Society perfected organization at Juniata. 


E. M. Allen was i^resident ; H. C. Humbert and W. W. Selleck, vice 
presidents; D. H. Freeman, of Juniata and Dr. A. D. Buckworth, 
of Hastings, secretaries; W. B. Thorne, treasurer. The directors 
were Samuel J. Shirley, E. N. Noyce, A. D. Williams, D. S. Cole 
and C. G. Wilson. The other members were: R. S. Langley, Charles 
Kilbourn, William Caller, C. C. Babcock, John Stark, W.H. Burr, 
H. J. Savery, E. Warn, W. H. Gardner, W. B. Cushing, T. Bab- 
cock, W. L. Van Alstyne, Pliny Allen, H. H. Ballon, C. JNIorrison, 

C. H. Chapman, N. J. Smith, R. D. Babcock, Joseph Carr, A. C. 
Wright, J. JNIcKelvey, Judson Burwell, George Brown, John Dun- 
can, A. C. ]Moore, George Kuder, D. H. Babcock, George W. Wol- 
cott, Abram Park, Ira G. Dillon, S. L. Brass, Lewis Keith, Robert 

. Ash, Peter Fowlie, AVilliam L. Kemp, M. C. Lindsey, John ]M. Cole, 
M. B. Kelley, Henry Shedd, Adna H. Bowen, Nathan Piatt, A. H. 
Brown, J. jM. Jacobson, James Laird, Charles R. Jones, J. S. Chan- 
dler, B. F. Smith, Nathan L. Brass, A. Clute, William B. Kelly, 
A. V. Cole, J. W. Stark and Conrad House. On the completion of 
this organization $.50 was subscribed. By a somewhat later organiza- 
tion of the plan five vice presidents were chosen, the first elected to 
have seniority in office. The first group of vice presidents were ]M. K. 
Lewis, of Hastings: Robert Ash, of Juniata; A. C. Moore, of Silver 
Lake; G. H. Edgerton, of Little Blue: and Y. Darling, of Kenesaw. 
This provided one vice president from each of the voting precincts. 

D. H. Freeman, of Juniata, was the first recording and financial secre- 
tary, and W. A. Smith, of Hastings, was the corresponding secre- 
tary. W. B. Thorne was treasurer and O. H. Wright, of Kenesaw, 
was elected general superintendent. The board of directors were com- 
posed of one from each of the congressional townships, sixteen in num- 
ber. The first board were the following: W. S. INIoote, AVilliam 
AVilloughby, J. H. Yandemark, L. B. Palmer, John Waldeck. W. M. 
West, Wiiliam B. Cushing, Henry Shedd, J. P. Duncan. :NL B. 
Kelley, William L. Kemp, E. J. Hanchett, E. C. Shellhammer, 
Jacob Spindler, F. Phillips and W. V. INIiller. S. J. ^Marshall was 
appointed marshal. 

Within this board of officials there was a difference of opinion as 
to where the fair should be held. There were partisans of Kingston 
and ])artisans of Juniata. As a compromise the fair was twice held 
on the ])rairie midway between Juniata and Hastings. Then the fair 
grounds were located in Jimiata. By 1878 Hastings, confident that 
the county seat contest then ])ending in the court would be decided in 
its favor, was desirous of having the fair in Hastings, but the Adams 
County Agricultural Society still clung to Jimiata. Accordingly 


there was organized in Hastings the Hastings Fair Grounds Associa- 
tion. This association was incorporated Augiist 6, 1878, with the fol- 
lowing members: R. A. Batty, A. D. Yocum, A. L. Clarke, Samuel 
Alexander, J. N. Smith, C. H. Paul, B. JMartin, W. A. Camp, G. W. 
Warren, Oswald Oliver, J. D. Crans, A. L. Wigton, O. V. Weir and 
A. J. Millett. This corporation issued 300 shares at $10 per share. 
A fort_y-acre tract, now Thompson's Addition, was jnu'chased by the 
association and fitted up as a fair gTomids. This tract lay between 
Third and Seventh streets and California and Elm avenues. A pavil- 
ion for the exhibition of agricultural and horticultural products was 
erected and provision made for the exhibition of live stock. Around 
the grounds a racetrack was built and races were a feature of the 
annual show. 

This fair was calculated to be of wider scope than a county fair : 
it was a district fair j)lanned to draw from all Central Nebraska. A 
county fair was carried on at Juniata for a part of the time that the 
district fair was maintained. On April 1.5, 1884, the association sold 
tlie fair grounds to George Pratt for $3,000 and the area was platted 
by him. \\^ith the j^assing of the district fair steps were taken at once 
to reorganize the Adams County Agricultural Association. A numbei- 
of the Hastings people who had been the i^romoters of the district 
fair joined in the reorganization which retained many who had been 
members of the first organization. Davis Lowman and William jNI. 
Lowman were active supporters of the reorganized association. 

Acting for the agricultural society C. K. Lawson bought from 
James H. Knight a tract of forty acres in the northwest part of Hast- 
ings; that is the northeast quarter of the southwest (juarter of section 
1, township 7, range 10. This transaction was on Augiist 1, 188.). and 
on June 7, 1887, Mr. Lawson transferred this property to the agricul- 
tural society. The society sold ten acres that year and uiJon the 
remaining thirty acres the fair grounds was established and a fair held 
until the dry years in the early '90s forced the project to be aban- 
doned. In an effort to tide over the enterprise the property of the 
agricultural society was mortgaged and eventually there was a fore- 

The fair grounds had a very good racetrack and for several years 
considerable interest was manifested in trotting horses. The trotting 
association was a separate organization from the Adams County 
Agricultin-al Society and was formed about the time that the lattei- 
was reoi'ganized in 1885. Among the members of the trotting asso- 
ciation were C. K. Lawson, A. L. Clarke, M. L. Alexander, E. C. 
Webster, Fred Benedict, A. H. Farrens and Oswald Oliver. Racing 


tournaments were revived after the county fair had been abandoned 
largely through the eft'orts of A. H. Farrens who also became for a 
time a breeder of trotting animals. Last-At-Law, a horse that made 
fast trotting records in Illinois and other eastern circuits, was raised 
by ]\Ir. Farrens. The last trotting tournament held in Hastings was 
in the summer of 1910. 


After the abandoning of the county fair there was a lull for several 
years in the matter of county entertainment and no jJermanent insti- 
tution has been since established, though several kinds of entertain- 
ments have drawn large attendance from time to time. The Hastings 
Street Fair was held September 18-23, 1899, and drew many thou- 
sands of peojile from far and near. Adam Breede, the editor of 
the Hastings Tribune, was a prime mover in this fair project. The 
streets were closed and lined with midway attractions. The fair 
was opened with a grand ball, at which JNIrs. William Lowman was 
crowned queen. The maids were Georgia Fowler, Effie ]McIntyre, 
Eleanor Kirby, Flora Fisher, Rachel Alexander, Edna Cramer, 
Jessie Pease, Eugenia Hudson. B. M. Parmenter was prime minister. 
The fair was notable in that the window decorations were the most 
elaborate that Hastings merchants had yet attempted, and the impetus 
in that direction given then is yet felt. Prizes were given for the 
best-decorated carriages, single and double turnouts, and nearly iifty 
carriages were in the floral parade. They were followed by a hundi'cd 
bicycle riders with decorated cycles. ]Mrs. Biles and INIiss Stewart 
won first prize for double turnouts, and JNIiss ]Mary ^NlcCreary second 
])rize. In single turnouts, Mrs. Fred Renner and JMiss Laura 
Buchanan won first and the Misses Pickens second. 


In the fall of 1907 and 1908 a frontier festival was held at the 
fair gromids in the northwest part of the city. The festival was 
patterned after the frontier festival of Cheyenne. A. W. Borden 
headed a large number of Hastings business men in promoting this 
enterprise. Roping and riding contests were participated in by 
famous riders among the cowboys of the western ranges, attracted to 
Hastings by large cash and other prizes. One of the j^rizes offered 
for riding was a $,500 saddle given by the J. H. Haney Company. 
Among the outlaw horses at tlie exhi])ition was "Steamboat." who 


remained luiconquered by the most skillful cowboys. The frontier 
festival drew visitors from all Central Nebraska, the number of vis- 
itors aggregating, it was estimated, fifty thousand for the week. 


In 1910 the fall festival Avas projected by a large organization 
of Hastings business men. Of this organization Herman E. Stein 
was the first president and Will S. Trites secretary. A large number 
of committees were formed, all the townships in the county being 
rej^resented. The festival was held in the business section of Hast- 
ings. It combined street fair and agricultural fair features. The 
first festival was held in October, 1910, and in the next two succeeding 
autumns. The festival was designed to interest entire Central 

The cliief social event of these festivals was the Yt-Nuoc-Smada 
ball, held at Ingleside, where the king and queen were crowned. None 
but the court officers knew the identity of the king and queen until 
they were crowned. The monarch Avas crowned King Lartnec. The 
name of the realm, Lartnec, is formed by reversing the word "central," 
and signified that the king's domain extended over Central Nebraska. 
Yt-Nuoc-Smada is Adams County reversed. Clarence J. jNIiles was 
croAvned King Lartnec I, October 14, 1910; Miss Helen Stein 
was croAvned queen with him. The next year A. W. Borden and 
INIiss Beatrice LangcA'in Avere crowned, and Judge Harry S. Dungan 
and INIiss Florence Dutton the last year of the festiA^al. This social 
event was brilliant and Avitnessed by large nmnbers. In addition 
to the king and queen, there were ambassadors, ladies in Avaiting, and 
a host of courtiers in costume. The fall festival, hoAvcA'er, Avas aban- 
doned as, on the whole, not satisfactory, chiefly because of the incon- 
venience attending the closing of the streets and the difficulty of 
obtaining street shoAvs that met with the approval of the patrons. 

The first fall festival was notable for the large number of deco- 
rated automobiles that partook in the floral parade. Nearly one 
hiuidred machines Avere in line. The farmers' parade also won general 
commendation, especially toAvnship floats, such as West Blue and 
some others entered. The festivals lasted a Aveek each. 


No exhibit ever made in Adams County, perhaps, Avas accorded 
sudi breathless attention as Avas tlie aviation meet held in tlie summer 


of 1911. The college grounds were fenced in for tliis meet, and seats 
for several thousand were erected. The meet lasted three days. 
"Jimmy Ward" of Chicago was the aviator. The flights were made 
in a Curtiss biplane, the aviator encircling the college campus in 
circles several miles in diameter and at an altitude of about three 
thousand feet. On one flight Ward soared to 5,000 feet, amid thun- 
derous apjilause. This was the first time that the majority of the 
sjJectators had witnessed a flight. Three years later the aeroj)lane 
figured in the daily news dispatches and was the eyes of the armies 
engaged in the greatest war in history. The meet was held on the 
Hastings College campus. 


The annual show of the Nebraska State Poultry Association has 
been held in Hastings twice. First during the week beginning Janu- 
ary 17, 1910, and again in January, 1915. The first show was held 
in tlie Auditorium, now a garage, located on the southeast corner of 
Denver Avenue and Third Street. The second show was held in the 
Stephen Schultz garage on Second Street, between Burlington and 
I^exington avenues. Al^out three thousand birds were exhibited at 
eacli show. 


The first state reunion of the G. A. R. was held in Hastings in 
September, 1883. It was the first reunion to be held in Central 
Nebraska and the attendance was very large, veterans assembling not 
only from Nebraska, but from Kansas and states bordering on the 
west. The reunion was held about a mile southwest of Hastings, along 
the Red Cloud branch of the Burlington. Tents were erected, sham 
battles fought, and the soldiers recalled in many ways the days of the 
Civil war. Prominent speakers addi'essed the veterans daily at the 
cani])fii'e. The enjoyment of the occasion was marred, however, by an 
accident by which N. A. Nash lost his life. The prematvn-e exjjlosion 
of powder to be iised in a sham battle caused the death. 

The reunion was held again in Hastings, beginning August 10, 
189.), and lasting for one week. This time the encamjiment was placed 
north of tlie Burlington track in the northwest part of Hastings. The 
last state reunion of the veterans of the Civil war was held in Hast- 
ings in September, 1898. The state reimion was abandoned because 
tlie weiglit of years borne by the veterans rendered attendance too 
onerous, notwithstanding the j^leasure of meeting old comrades. 



Between the years 1880 and 190-i the Hastings Gun Club was a 
nuich lieard of organization. Among the members of the first chib, 
formed about 1886, were Capt. \ViUiani Harden, Col. Curt Alex- 
ander, "Poker" Bill Duer, L. A. Khniey, Sr., Judge J. H. Fleming, 
G. A. Gardner, William Beach and ^V. P. ]McCreary. This club 
maintained its organization for about ten years and staged many 
shooting events of great interest. Both target and live bird shooting 
events were frequent. 

About 1896 the club was reorganized and to the list of shooters 
were added George W. jNlaxwell of Holstein; Charley Holsworth 
of Juniata; Al INIiller, Prosser; Lou Zobel, Albert Bernhardt. Andy 
]\Iann, Cieorge E. Isaman, Ed Greenwold, Ran Yost, Carl Tinsley, 
Fred Binderup, W. P. Borden, Bob Carter (now chief of police of 
Hastings), Walt Fisher and F. A. McElhinney. ]\Iany big shoots 
Avere jjulled off by this club, and tlie greater number of the member- 
ship could score 90 per cent. A clubhouse was built in the nortliwest 
part of Hastings, upon property of Andy jNIann. 

In 1903 the state shooting tournament was held in Hastings, and 
the following year the club disbanded. Among the members of this 
club was George W. INIaxwell, who, althougli handicapiJed by the loss 
of one hand, has made some of the best scores in the United States 
with a shotgun. JMr. INIaxwell resides in Hastings at present. For 
a numlier of years he lias shot professionally. 


Among the far-reaching results following the visit of Lincoln 
]McConnell, the Georgia evangelist, to Hastings was the organization 
of the Hastings Chautauqua Association. In the winter of 190.> 
INIr. ]McConnell conducted a series of revival meetings in Hastings, 
and through his influence and the activities of Rev. Hiram B. Har- 
rison, pastor of the First Congregational Church, the association was 
formed and the following summer the first assembly was held. 

The organization was formed February 13, 1906. Mr. Harrison 
was successful in interesting the business men and in securing their 
suppoi't. Stock subscriptions w^ere secured to the amount of about 
$2,000, and the follo\\ing officers were elected : President. James N. 
Clarke: vice president, William INI. Lowman. These two, with W. 
T. Blackman, O. E. Von Oven, H. B. Harrison. J. C. Hedge and 
O. H. Barr, constituted the board of directors. Subsequently Mr. 


Harrison was elected secretary and W. A. Taylor treasurer, and 
C. E. Higinbothani succeeded ^Ir. Von Oven on the board of direc- 
tors, the latter removing to Chicago. 

The first assembly Avas held in a tent in Chautauqua Park and 
tlie attendance was very satisfactory. The first sjieaker was the Rev. 
Sam Jones, and when Senator La Follette spoke, upon the second 
Sunday, the attendance was given out by the officials as 8,000. Before 
tlie next assembly was held, a pavilion was erected at a cost of $5,000. 
The Chautauqua continued as an independent institution, with J. N. 
Clarke as president, until 1913, when the local management yielded 
to the circuit system, under which assemblies are still held yearly. 
While it continued independent, the Hastings association was classed 
as one of the "big fifteen" independent chautauquas in the United 
States. A gradual falling off in attendance and some rainy days 
finally led to financial deficiencies at the close of assemblies, which 
i;esulted in its abandonment by the local stockholders. The indebted- 
ness against the pavilion led to its being sold to the city in 191.5. 

There have been many nmsical organizations in Hastings. The 
Red Ribbon Club, organized in 1878, was partly musical. The Hast- 
ings papers prior to that date refer to a cornet band. In November, 
1889, the Ladies' Quartet was organized. The members were ]Mrs. 
^^'i]liam M. Lowman, and the INIisses ^NLimie Kerr, Freda Wahl- 
(|uist and Zora Horlocker. Miss Helen Officer was the pianist. 

It was in 1889, also, that the Apollo Club was organized, with 
sixteen members, to promote musical education and to bring good 
music to Hastings. Doctor Waters was president of this organiza- 
tion: bushiess manager, O. H. Gordon; O. F. Farnham, secretary 
and treasiu'er. T. I^. Burger was the musical director, and INIiss 
Maria Kerr pianist, viith ^Nliss Floy Work as assistant pianist. The 
first clul) concert was given December 30, 1889. 

Prof. John Rees has been a leading figure in Adams County 
musical circles since his arrival in Hastings in the winter of 1878. 
Professor Rees was first introduced to a Hastings audience the sec- 
ond night after his arrival in Hastings, at a nuisical program under 
the direction of Professor Love at Liberal Hall. Tliat evening ^Nlr. 
Rees played the violin and also sang a solo. 

Professor Rees organized his first orchestra that winter, playing 
fii'st violin himself. Other members of the orchestra were Jacoli 
Bohnet, bass: Will Clarke, son of A. L. Clarke, clarinet: Cliarles 


H. Paul, cornet: H. II. Cheriy, trombone, and Charles Ingalls, 
jjiano. Professor Rees had charge of the music for many years — 
from 1889 to 1915. Mrs. Fred J. Schaufelberger played the pipe 
organ at the Presbyterian Church for some time after its installation. 
This was the first pipe organ to be installed in Hastings. 

In 1888 a band was organized by ^Valter Chapman, who was also 
the leader of the band. Among the member of this band were Adam 
Breede, Adoljih Binderui^, Roy Royce, Bill Albertshardt, Harry 
Snively, Arlie Gardner, Hemming Binderup, Ben Boyd, John 
Snively, Bert JNIorledge, David B. L. Breede, JNIartin Boqett, Al 
Kennedy and some others. 

The Gazette- Journal Band, as constituted in 1889, was under 
the leadership of Prof. F. W. White. J. W. Wigton was treasurer; 
J. H. Bassett, secretary; Messrs. McElroy, Wigton and Thacker, 
executive committee. The members of the band were G. B. ]Mc- 
Elroy, Al Boyd, F. W. Cooley, John Beardsley, C. F. Royce, S. 
W. McAtee, J. H. Bassett, T. F. Sturgess, George C. Hensman. 
Fred Taggart, J. W. Wig-ton, Ed N. Thacker, B. H. Bowen, D. T. 
Evans, Samuel Payne and C. H. Taylor. 

The members of Bandmaster Miller's band as constituted at the 
time of the S})anish- American war can be found in the roster of 
Company K. in Chapter XX. For several years prior to 1915 Will 
Bohnet was the leader of the Hastings Band. The Hastings jMunici- 
pal Band, the present band, was organized in the summer of 1915. 
John S. Leick Avas in Hastings on his wedding journey, having mar- 
ried ]Miss jMabel Kieth, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. G. L. Kieth 
of Hastings. Miss Kieth had made several tours of Europe ami 
had won international reputation as a cornetist. JNIr. Leick had been 
with Sousa's Band and Avas the leader of the Kilties Band of Canada 
for two years, during Avhich he with the Kilties toured Europe. iNIr. 
and ]Mrs. Leick were married at the factory of musical instrument 
makers at Elkhart, Ind. 

Mr. Leick directed the Hastings Band at the Fourth of July 
celebration in 1915, and this led to the organization of the municipal 
band, Avith INIr. Leick as leader. JNIr. Leick has organized a boys' 
band, Avhich made its first appearance in the spring of 1916. The 
account of the formation of the ladies' band will be found in the 
sketch of the Hastings Y. W. C. A. Under the arrangement made 
the salai'y of IVIr. Leick is paid by the Chamber of Commerce and 
tlie other band members are paid by the city. During the summer 
of 1916 a series of fifty free concerts Avas given by the band. 



'I'o Williaui ]M. Lownian, manager of the Kerr Opera House 
goes the honor of bringing grand opera to Hastings for the first time. 
The San Carlo Grand Opera Company, Fortune Gallo, impresario, 
jjresented Verdi's Rigoletto at the ojjera house on the evening of 
November 29, 1916. At the matinee the following day the company 
jiresented Cavalieria Rusticana and I Pagliacci, and in the evening 
II Trovatore was presented. In the cast of these presentations wece 
Pietro Corallo, Angelo Antola, Evidge Vaccari, Pietro Dibiasi, 
Stella Demette, Natale Cervi, A. Canova, Alice Homer, Luciano 
Rossni, ]\Iadelena Carreno, Anna Haase, Salvatore Sciaretti, David 
Silva, Luigi Dellemole, Lucia Darclee, Emanuel Salazar, Giuseppe 
Battistini, Ada Paggi, Luciano Dossini. 


When on April 23, 1898, President IMcKinley called for volun- 
teers to enforce the resolution of Congress that it was the duty of the 
United States to demand that the Government of Spain relinquish its 
authority and government of the Island of Cuba and that the people 
of the island are, "and of right ought to be, free and independent," 
Adams County for the first time in its history experienced the thrill 
of excitement attendant upon a peojjle whose country faces war. As 
we look back and recall the comparative ease with which the enemy 
country was overcome, and remember that the once proud kingdom of 
Spain had at this time dwindled to a point where it was the most tot- 
tering old grandma of Evn'0])e, it is difficult to understand how the 
])rospect of war with her could arouse even a ripple of excitement. 
Tliere was no doubt of course in the mind of anybody in the county 
concerning the outcome, but the situation was new and it Avas not 
known that the victory would be so easily won. 

On Aj^ril 6th Governor Holcomb. anticipating hostilities, had 
tendered to the President the organized military forces of Nebraska, 
and on April 2.5th the chief executive through the secretary of war, 
Russel A. Alger, called on Nebraska to furnish two regiments. This 
quota, 2,114 men, represented 1.6909 per cent of the 12.5,000 volun- 
teers called" for. In accordance with General Order No. 9 the First 
and Second regiments I'eported for duty on April 27th. 

At that time there were no organizations of the national guai'd 
or the state militia in Adams County. There were many, however, 
who exi^ressed a desire to assist in the impending struggle and the 
Hastings Band were successful in being enlisted with the Second 
Regiment on INIay lOtls. Later there was a second call, this time for 
1.268 men. and it was directed that 600 of that quota should be enlisted 
and mustered into the First and Second Nebraska regiments, raising 
them from the minimvim to the maximum formation. After deduct- 
ing that number, it left practically about two battalions to be fur- 


iiished by the state. Instead of furnishing two battalions to make 
iij) the quota Nebraska was granted the privilege of furnishing an 
entire regiment, and over 1,800 men reported for enlistment. Out of 
this number 1,326 were mustered in and the command became the 
Third Kegiment under Col. William J. Bryan. 

AVhen the second call for men was made the spirit which had 
been apparent in Adams County from the beginning was given an 
ojjportunity to exjiress itself in action. Harry S. Dungan, then a 
young practicing attorney at Hastings, and now judge of the Tenth 
Judicial District, lost no time in getting the permission of the gov- 
ernor to raise a company of volunteers. In this work he was assisted 
by AVilliam J. Ohlheiser, of Hastings, and Carl L. ShufF, of Lincoln. 
Dungan and Ohlheiser kept a sharp lookout as to the jjhysical con- 
dition of the applicants, and as a result the company had the lowest 
jxicentage of rejected men of any in the Third Regiment. 

The earliest enlistments were made on INIay 27th. The recruiting 
cam]) was locited on the old East Ward school ground, between Sec- 
o)id and Third streets and ^Minnesota and Kansas avenues, at Hast- 
ings. The company was known as Company K. The officers elected 
were: Captain, Harry S. Dungan; first lieutenant, Carl L. ShufF. 
I^iiK'oln: second lieutenant, William J. Ohlheiser; first sergeant, 
Carl Ij. Jacobson; quartermaster sergeant, Walter G. Garver; ser- 
geants, 3Ierl E. Palmer, Adam Rutherford and Fredrick Gundel, 
the latter from Sjiring Ranch, and Jay L. Benedict; corporals, 
Guy 31. Brown, Lincoln, Walter JM. Burr, Juniata, Edward ^Nle- 
Cartney. Juniata, David W. P. Sinclair, Hastings, Francis N. Foun- 
tain. Hastijigs, George B. Roberts, Hastings, Charles Criswell, Hast- 
ings. Robert M. Decker, Prosser, Cyiiis A. Abbott, Algiei-s, Indiana, 
Lloyd Cline, Juniata, Bartholomew W. Parks, Holstein, and Frank 
E. Dickson, Clay Center; wagoner, Peter C. Werner, Hastings; 
nuisicians. John D. Honser, Hastings, and George T. Israel, Juniata; 
artificer. George Frisch, Glenville. These elected officers were sub- 
sequently ajipointed by the governor, and the company was mustered 
into the service at Fort Omaha July 13, 1898. The company had left 
Hastings the latter part of June and recruiting was completed after 
they reached Omaha. Captain Dungan and Lieutenant Ohlheiser 
returning to Adams County for that purpose. 

Following the signing of the peace protocol on August 12th 
Colonel Bryan resigned at Savannah, Ga., Lieut. -Col. ^'ietor 
Vif(|uain lieing promoted to his position. Capt. Harry Dungan 
of Company K was promoted to major of the Third Battalion 
to rank from December 12, 1898. First Lieutenant ShufF became 


captain of Company K ui^on the j^i'oniotion of Dungan, and later 
was raised to regimental quartermaster ; Walter Garver was raised to 
regimental quartermaster sergeant. Following the promotion of 
Ohlheiser First Lieut. Oscar H. Allen of Company B was promoted 
to the cai:)taincy of Company K and Second Lieut. ]\Iills of Com- 
pany jM was made first lieutenant. R. R. Damerell, who had mustered 
as a private, but had from the first been at headquarters at the adju- 
tant's ofiice, was promoted first to sergeant and then to second lieuten- 
ant of Conqjany K. The latter position had become vacant when 
Ohlheiser was promoted to first lieutenant, vice Carl L. ShufF, 

^Mobilization of the Third Regiment having been completed they 
were ordered to Jacksonville, Florida, and entrained at Omaha on 
the 19th of July, and arrived in Jacksonville five days later. The 
train carrying the regiment was in three sections, the section bearing 
Company K being the one upon which the headquarters officers 

All along the route throngs gathered at tlie stations to indicate 
their good wishes to the soldiers, and upon several occasions they 
experienced material demonstrations of the hosjiitality of the South. 
The train carrying the Adams County company arrived at Nashville, 
Tennessee, at noon, Jidy 21st, and the men were gratified to find that 
the ladies of that city had 2)ro\'ided a substantial dinner for every man 
in the battalion. Not only that, but every man was given a neat lunch- 
box containing an ample supply of delicacies for the next meal, and 
to make the items complete a large number of the baskets contained 
the name of the .young woman responsible for that particular basket. 
It was of course incumbent upon every young soldier to acknowledge 
the courtesy of the fair donor. JNIany friendships Avere thus begun 
and in due time a number of marriages were solemnized as a residt of 
this incident. ComjDany K demonstrated its appreciation of the 
women of Nashville when later Max W. Hadden married the young 
lady whose name graced his basket. For several years ]Mr. and 3Irs. 
Hadden made their home in Nashville. 

The battalion was again the recipient of marked courtesy at 
Atlanta, Georgia, on the 23d of July. Here the Veterans of the 
Confederacy were holding their annual reunion and lined the streets 
to salute the men on the way to the seat of war. The officers were 
conveyed, amid a cheering throng, to the Kimball Hotel, where they 
Avere entertained at lunch. The dining room was on the thii'd floor 
of the hostelry and here before the lunch was finished came the sound 
of great cheering. The crowd below was caUing for Bryan. Colonel 


Bryan at once arose and going to a window acknowledged the cheers 
of the assemblage that packed nian_v squares. Thej- were largely 
the confederate veterans. 

After Innch the officers were presented to the sponsors of the 
Sonthern States. This was a gronp of young women, each one chosen 
to represent her state at the reunion, and the group representing the 
flower of Southern beauty. General Longstreet also was presented 
to the officers and JMrs. Pickett, the widow of the leader of the famous 
charge at Gettysburg, came and graciously greeted the officers. AVhen 
it was time to leave the hotel so great was the pressure of the throng 
that it was necessary for the police to clear the lobbies. 

The next daj% July 24th, Company K and their fellow soldiers 
readied Jacksonville and after inspection by Inspector-Gen. Cur- 
tis Guild, afterwards governor of INIassachusetts, were made a j^art 
of the Seventh Army Corps under Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, and quar- 
tered at Camp Cuba Libre in Panama Park. The red, white and blue 
seven-])ointed star was the insignia of the corps. 

Panama Park was a sandy plain A^ith no shelter from the sun, 
and under the sweltering rays drill and camp life took on the rigors 
of war. "It's 120 in the shade," was the desperate remark of a per- 
spiring private of Companj^ K as he threw off his hat. 

"Yes," returned "Count" Lepinski, "and no shade." "Count's" 
fame for aptness at repartee and ability at vaudeville spread through- 
out the regiment and his sense of humor was regarded as a regimental 
asset. The Adams County men were located in this camp at a dis- 
tance of about seven miles from Jacksonville and for that reason 
were dejirived of the j^leasure of social intercourse with the city -which 
a nearer position would have supplied. INIany suffered from dysen- 
tery and tlie illness incident to torrid heat, but none was lost. 

Near tlie camji stood the pavilion in which the Mitchell-Corbett 
championship battle had been fought disastrously for the former 
not long before. Near by was the St. John's River in which the men 
found great comfort in bathing until one day a huge alligator four- 
teen feet in length was caught in the stream. The river at once lost 
its attraction and would not be used for bathing again, not if the men 
were forced to use a sliaving mug for a bathtub. 

At Panama Park the Third Regiment was brigaded with the 
Second INIississippi and the One Plundred and Sixty-first Indiana. 

The men welcomed the change when on September 9th they were 
ordered from Panama Park to Pablo Beach, a small summer resort 
about twenty miles from Jacksonville and on the Atlantic Coast. 
Camps were pitched here near one of the best beaches in the country. 


It was, however, the season for the severe storms of the equinox, and 
one of these furnished excitement with some actual danger foi" the 

The camp Avas behind high sand dunes and also close to a small 
creek. When a terrific wind and rain storm broke in the night the 
creek soon swelled to river proportions with a strong current. ^lany 
of the tents were blown away and a dangerous confusion impended 
for a time. The executive ability of Ohlheiser was at this time 
marked. He was acting regimental quartermaster and with great 
coolness and ability assisted in getting the men out of the danger zone 
and into the town without loss of life, althougli they waded in A\ater 
to the waist. 

On October -ith tliey moved to Fairfield, Florida, where they 
remained until October '24^th, when the_y were ordered to Camp 
Onward near Savannah, Georgia. This time Company K Avas fortu- 
nate in being located near the city. The people of Savannah were 
most hospitable and men and officers were provided by them with 
many social pleasures, not the least appreciated of wliich was a turkey 
dinner Avliich was served to men and officers on Thanksgiving Day. 
At Savannali tlie Third Regiment was brigaded with the First iSlis- 
sissi])pi and the Second Louisiana. Here, too, a review of the force 
was made by President IMcKinley and Secretary Alger. It was at 
tliis camp that Colonel Bryan resigned and n)any of tlie promotions 
were made. After the signing of the peace protocol the War Depart- 
ment reduced tlie force and twenty men of Company K were dis- 
charged, being mostly those on sick furlough. 

On December 31st the men embarked on the United States trans- 
port Michigan and sailed for Havana. Morro Castle was sighted, 
according to the diary of Lieutenant Damerell, on the morning of 
January 3, 1899, and the transport entered the harbor of Havana at 
9 o'clock A. JNI. The regiment went ashore January 4th and marched 
through the city to Camp Columbia near Ceibia. The location was 
an elevated place overlooking the sea. 

April 7. 1899, at 5 P. INI. the regiment left the harbor of Havana 
homeward bound and tlie next day arrived at the Dry Tortugas off" 
the Florida coast. Here the facilities for landing were poor and a higli 
sea was rolling so that a landing could not be made without danger. 
Accordingly they were ordered to the detention camp on Daufaus- 
kie Island off the coast of South Carolina, where a landing was made 
on April r2th. On the 18th, after medical inspection on the island, 
tlie men embarked on the river steamer, Santie, and reached Gordon 
Wharf, at Savannah, tliat evening. JNIany were looking forAvard to 


a renewal of the acquaintances they had made at Savannah, where 
they expected to be mustered out, and were disappointed when ordered 
tu proceed to Augusta, where they arrived the next day. They were 
here quartered in Camp jNIacKenzie, where they were mustered out 
May 11, 1899. 

It was while at Savannah that an incident occurred illustrating while the Southern people received their fellow countrymen from 
the North ^vith the greatest cordiality, yet underneath remained some 
feelings reminiscent of the great civil struggle. Captain Underwood, 
of Company I, once connected witli the English army and very 
sociable in nature, had become acquainted with a family in the city, 
and was entertained in their home. The captain was fond of singing 
and tlie family, too, was nuisical. Captain Underwood was invited 
by them to bring some of his friends who could sing, and acting upon 
tliis invitation he brought with him among others Captain Dungan 
of Company K and ]Major Scharmann of North Platte. 

When the major was presented to the family the visitors noticed 
that the social atmosphere cooled perceptibly, in fact, the evening- 
threatened to become a social failure, and the guests were at a loss to 
account for it. In the course of the evening Captain Dungan found 
an ojjportunity to speak j^rivately with one of the gentlemen of the 
house and frankly communicated to him that something had gone 
Avrong and that the guests were very desirous to be put right. At first 
the young man insisted that all was well, but presently made an 

"The ladies of the house." he explained, "consider that it is a little 
inoonsiderate to bring here a nephew of General Sherman's. You 
see," lie went on, "the estate belonging to the grandparents of these 
young ladies suft'ered at the time of Sherman's marcli through the 

It was Cai)tain Dungan's pleasure to explain away the error that 
had arisen because of the similarity of the names, the clouds were at 
once banished and the social ])leasures were from then on unmarred. 

While the Third Regiment was entraining at Pablo, Florida, 
just before moving to Fairfield a little incident happened which serves 
to .show some of the qualities of William Ohlheiser that led to his 
])i-omotion from second lieutenant of Company K to regimental quar- 

As the conductor was al)out to signal the train to go aliead he was 
accosted by Ohlheiser. 

"On whose authority are you going to move this train?" 

"On the orders of the railroad company." 


"We are not ready to move. Hold the train until you get oi'ders 
from me." 

"Can't do it," persisted the railway official. 

"Sergeant," said Ohlheiser, addressing Walter Garver, "with 
your squad arrest this man if he attempts to move this train without 
my order." Similar instructions were given relative to the engineer. 
The train men attempted to carry out the railroad's order and were 
jjromjjtly arrested. 

The railroad complained of this conduct to the War Depart- 
ment and subsequently Ohlheiser was called upon to explain to Colo- 
nel Vitquain. His explanation was that no provisions nor camp 
equipment had yet been put aboard and he did not purpose to land 
the men in Fairfield without provender. 

The \Var Department endorsed Ohlheiser's action. The men of 
the Third still speak of the efficiency with which their quartermaster 
saw to it that they were properly looked after in the matter of food 
and clothing and camji equipment. 

Sergeant Jay L. Benedict, of Company K, continued his uiili- 
tary career, seeing service in the Philippine Islands. He received 
appointment to West Point and was graduated from that institu- 
tion in 190-1. Subsequently he was instructor at West Point and 
now, 191.5, is a first lieutenant in the regular army. 

The Hastings ^Military Band enlisted ^Nlay 10, 1898, and were 
assigned to the Second Regiment. The members were as follows: 
Chief musician, Theodore A. JNIiller; principal musician, Bert L. 
Brown, Theodore Y. Knapp; regimental band musicians, Waldorf A. 
Baker, Pkld. F. Barnhouse, Harry Bohnet, ^Villiam Bohnet, Walter 
F. Boyd, Florus H. Cassel, Ed Cushing, Edward Chaloupka, R. 
Ralph Ferguson, Alfred R. Giffin, Fred Grass, Otto Grass, William 
B. Hartigan, Frank Herman, Boyd C. Littlefield, William S. :\rc- 
Gintie, Newton Pratt, Roy S. Work, Charles R. Yocum, Ernest E. 

The following is the roster of privates in Company K, as given 
in the adjutant general's report of 1897-98: 

Oliver Anderson, Hastings: Otto H. Arnold, Denver, Colorado; 
Ray A. Baratt, Ashland: Samuel L. Bowling, Hastings; Charles F. 
Behr, Wood River; Alfred F. Brookhoven, Hastings: Frank Butler, 
Juniata; Daniel P. Carrol, A^erona; Charles A. Cockrall, Red Cloud; 
Chester A. Cofield, Juniata; Charles R. Colford, ]Maryville, Cali- 
fornia; William A. Coj)ley, Goudy; George F. Clawson, Bladen; 
Louis D. Culy, Oak; Ray R. Damerell, Hastings; William H. Dean, 
Pauline; Charles F. Dodd, Hastings; Hays C. H. Dool, Aledo. Illi- 
nois; Lawrence M. Douglas, Hastings; Arthur J. Edgerton, Hast- 


ings; C. Charles Eppler, Centerville, I. T.; Stephen L. Fitzgibbons, 
Fairfield; Charles A. Galer, Clay Center; Lyman Gray, Hastings; 
Henry C. Gress, Bladen; INlax W. Hadden, Trumbull; Jesse A. 
Hansen, Hampton: Glenn H. Hanna, Juniata; Howard W. Hare, 
Prosser; Edward H. Hanbrock, Hastings; John Herberg, Hastings; 
Harry A. Hightower, Omaha; Herbert Hunt, Georgetown; Fredrick 
L. Huford, West Liberty; Robert E. Jessup, Clay Center; Frank J. 
Jordan, ^^'^aterloo; John F. Kealy, Hastings; James H. Kendall, 
Hastings; George H. Kennedy, Ranch City, Mo.; Clinton D. Kank- 
right, Juniata; Jacob F. Kostmii, Hastings; William Kruger, 
^Vabash; Frank J. Lampman, Culbertson; William Llewellyn, Glen- 
ville; Frank B. Lepenski, Hastings; Casper E. Liston, Hastings; 
P^red jNIagne)-, Grundy Center, Iowa; Harry E. JNIarian, Hastings; 
Francis W. INIasters, Springgreen; Fredrick E. JNIasters, Spring- 
green; Stanley JNIatthews, Fairbury; Donald G. ]VIcCarty, Juniata; 
^Villiam G. JMcCaulley, Seward, Iowa: Philip S. McCormick, How- 
ard: AVilliam B. ]Meade, Dawn, INIo. ; James S. ^Nlines, Hastings: Bert 
M. IMinnix, Stamford: Wilbur E. JMorse, Juniata; Joseph E. jNIax- 
well, Valentine: Troy Nicholson, Omaha; William C. Painter; James 
R. Porterfield, Fairfield; Patrick J. Reardon, Omaha; Charles C. 
Reynolds, Hastings; James W. Roberts, Hastings; John L. RofF, 
Hastings; Fred Sands, Wagner; William S. Sidwell, Juniata; Edgar 
F. Siegner, Juniata; William Small, Hastings; Albert I. Smith, 
Prairie View, Kan.: Charles Snider, Nebraska City; JNIitchel Soulig- 
ney, Hastings; Samuel Stamp, Hastings; Daniel O. Stockton, Grant; 
Abram W. Thomas, Cowles; James B. Thompson, Kearney; Harry 
W. Vance, Glenville; Orpha A. Van jNIater, Hastings; Cyrus Van 
Sickle, Gothenburg; Clarence F. Ward, Kansas City; William M. 
Williams, Gothenburg. 

Walter W. Weierschmidt, of Hastings, enlisted in the second 
Nebraska Regiment. 

The roster of the First Regiment contains the names of the follow- 
ing fi'om Adams County; Salem J. Hammond, Clarence A. Belknap, 
Roy O. Sutton, Thomas C. North, Joseph Edgar Jones and George 
W." Work. 

In Jime, 101.5, an organization of the Spanish-American and 
Philijipine war veterans was organized at Hastings with Dr. C. K. 
Struble as president and Frank Kealy, secretary. 


Hastings lias maintained a company of the National Guard since 
the summer of 1906, when Company D was formed. The company 


was later designated as Company G. John P. Madgett was the lirst 
captain of the eonijiany. Others who have served a period in that 
capacity are G. E. Boggs, J. H. RifFe, Raymond Crosson, Leonard 
Brown, Will Crosson, and John G. L. Hanlen, the present captain. 
Raymond Crosson was particularly energetic in stimulating interest 
in the company, and in the sin-ing of 1915 was promoted to major of 
the Th.ird Battalion, Fifth Infantry, National Guard. The com- 
pany's armory is located in Brandes Hall on the northwest corner of 
Second Street and Burlington Avenue. 

When the National Guard was called out hy President Wilson in 
June, 1916, Company G entrained at Hastings for the mobilization 
grounds at Lincoln, June 23. They were escorted to the train by 
about l,oOO citizens, although the hour of departure was 7 o'clock 
A. jNI. All the steam whistles in the city loudly screeched their good 
wishes to the company who were soon to depart for the INIexican 
l)order. War with JNIexico seemed to be impending. Bishop Beecher, 
bishoj) of the EiMscoiialian diocese of Western Nebraska, Avas chap- 
lain of the Fifth Regiment and took his departure with the company. 
One of the impressive scenes enacted in Hastings was witnessed that 
morning when the bishop addressed the silent throng and the attentive 
soldier boys. "Remember this, friends," closed the bishop, "so long as 
we have a God in heaven and a man on earth our Hag will remain tlie 
sym])ol of liberty, truth and justice." 

The following officers of the Third Battalion, Fifth Infantry. 
National Guard departed with Company G: ]\Iajor, Raymond L. 
Crosson; First Lieutenant, John P. jNIadgett; Second Lieutenant, 
INIarcus L. Evans. The latter was disqualified because of physical 
disabilities. Company G and officers were as follows: 

Captain — John G. I^. Hanlen, Hastings. 

First Lieutenant — James Allison, Hastings. 

Second Lieutenant — Floyd E. Eller, Hastings. 

First Sergeant — Flavins Wood, Hastings. 

Quartermaster Sergeant — Harry B. Fry, Hastings. 

Sergeants — Oscar Dykeman, Hastings; Elbert A. Dailey, Hast- 
ings: Paul Pottorf. Jimiata; Clayton Gibson, Hastings. 

Cor]5orals — Worley Daugherty, Hastings; Paul Waltei-s, 
Omaha: William J. Sliger, Hastings; Lloyd Petro, Hastings. 

Artificer — George H. Helmick, Hastings. 

]Musicians— Harry E. Kahl. Ralpli ^Viese. Hastings. 

Cooks — Harry Haines, Ed Duncan, Hastings. 

Company Clerk — Ward E. Simpson. 


Privates — William Arvanette, Hastings; Earl S. Adair, Spring- 
field; Roy Aiken, Hastings; Henry Burns, Hastings; Henry Brem- 
ser, Hastings; Ralph Butler, Juniata; Edward Brown, Hastings; 
Fred L. Bailey, Plastings; Fred G. Crawford, Hastings; Frank 
Dixon, Hastings; ^Nlike Diedrick, Hastings; Ivan L. Gaddis, Omaha; 
Arthur Holbert, ]Mc^Iinnville, Ore.; John C. Hedge, Hastings; 
Harold Hess, Harvard; Raymond J. King, Lowell; A. A. Lewis, 
Grand Island; Max Lepinske, Hastings; Nick JNIeges, Hastings; 
David Masters, Hastings; Jesse S. Mauley, Oklahoma City, Okla- 
homa; Joseph L. MclNIinn, Exeter; Walter B. Nation, Wallace; 
Claire F. Newby, Hastings; Constantine P. Papageorge, Hastings; 
Linn Potts, Harvard; Glenn C. Pope, Gretna; Charles Quick, Hast- 
ings; George W. Stout, Beatrice; Ernest Smith, West Frankfort, 
Illinois; Chester A. Taylor, Exeter; Bert Van Meter, Hastings; 
Ralph Versch, Roseland; Albert AVingert, Hastings; Percy C. Win- 
ters, Hastings; Ralph M. Wells. Fargo, N. D.; Brandon G. Wheeler. 



The first bill passed by the Congress of the United States pro- 
viding for homestead entries was j^resented to James Buchanan, 
President of the United States, for his signature and approval, in 
.Time. 1860, and upon the 22d day of that month was by him vetoed 
in a vigorous message denying the jjower of Congress to disjjose of 
the ])ul)lic lands in that way. The closing sentence of the message 
was that "This bill, which proposes to give away land at an almost 
nominal price out of the j^roperty of the Government, will go far 
to demoralize the people and repress the noble spirit of independence. 
It may introduce among us those pernicious social theories which 
have proved so disastrous in other countries." 

On ]May 20, 1862, the Homestead Bill was presented to President 
Lincoln for his signature and approval, the same having passed both 
houses of Congress. The bill was promptly signed and approved. 
This became the original homestead law, and under its provisions 
every person who is the head of a family or who has arrived at the 
age of twenty-one years and is a citizen of the United States, or has 
filed his declaration of intention to become such, as required by the 
naturalization laws, shall be entitled to one quarter section or a less 
quantity of unapj^ropriated public land. 

Under the law as passed, anyone filing upon public lands within 
the limit of a railroad grant could only acquire title to one-half of 
tlie quarter section. These homestead filings carried with them the 
right on the part of the entryman of commutation after one year's 
occupancy and improvements. That is to say, he could pay to the 
Government at the rate of $2.a0 per acre for land within the limits 
of any railroad grant, and upon payment and j^roof of compliance 
with the terms of the law in other respects, receive his patent for 
the quantity of land filed upon. In like manner, with entryman who 
had filed upon land beyond the limits of any railroad grants, except 
in his connnutation he would only be required to pay $1.2.5 per acre 


for the quantity of land filed upon to entitle him to the issuance of 
a jjatent upon the same. As a badge of title in the interim between 
the acts of commutation and the issuance of a patent, the entryman 
received from the receiver of the local land office a receiver's final 
receipt, which was a valid basis for subsequent transfers. 

In the absence of commutation, entrymen were required to 
occujjy, cultivate and improve their claims as sjjecified in the law for 
the i^eriod of five years at least. Public lands were also acquired 
through complying with the preemption and timber culture laws. 
By means of the three methods, homestead, preemption and timber 
culture, one jjerson could acquire title to three tracts, not exceeding 
in the aggregate 480 acres. From experience it was found that as 
a means of securing the permanent settlement and improvement of 
the public domain, the homestead method was the preferred one, 
and the j^reemption and timber culture acts were repealed and wise 
amendments were adopted for the homestead law. Chief among 
tliese amendments was that allowing the entryman Avithin railroad 
land grant limits to take additional lands sufficient to make the total 
of each holding a quarter section. In the semi-arid lands the home- 
stead entry may cover an entire section. While there are none of 
the semi-arid lands near Adams County, yet many of her citizens 
have taken advantage of the teftipting provisions of this amended 
law and emigrated to parts where these lands are found, and under 
the stimulus of pioneer pluck have prospered. 

It is conceded that a great body of the men who have acquired 
land titles by virtue of these generous land laws were soldiers of the 
United States Army in the Civil war. Their number and influence 
were such that from the early '70s until overtaken by age and infirm- 
ity this soldier element dominated in the offices of school, church and 
state. Having been faithful soldiers, they readilj' became good citi- 
zens, and by patient industry have transformed the wild and raw 
prairie into the richest and best farm lands in the world. 

All have moved out of the sod house or dugout into well- 
ajjpointed modern homes. Their sons and daughters return home 
from the State University and other colleges each year in large num- 
bers, carrying back to father and mother well-earned di2:)lomas. The 
father and mother foimd their way to their claim forty years ago in 
an ox cart. They niee'i their sons and daughters now at the railroad 
station with an elegant motor car that conveys them to a beautiful 
home ujion a farm valued from twelve thousand dollars uj^wards. 

The prairie farmer, now a gentleman, bids fair to become a prince 
under the rapid imj^rovement of the methods of tillage and the con- 


version of products into cash. In this county now, in the year of 
our Lord 1916, the average homestead of 160 acres, whose entry 
fee was the trifling sum of a few dollars, is now readily sold in some 
instances for $20,000 and always at a veiy satisfactory price. To 
si^eculate as to the futin'e advance in the price of these farm lands 
would only be a leap into the midst of uncertainties. Prices are 
now beyond the reach of the man of moderate means, and with 
enhanced yields resulting from a more intensive culture, they will 
go higher. 


A very considerable number of the homesteaders who settled in 
Adams County in accordance with the provisions of the laws outlined 
in the foregoing jiortion of this chapter by Judge WiUiam R. Burton 
lived in sod houses very similar in appearance to that of INIr. Dean's, 
a photograph of which is among the illustrations of this history. 
William Croft, who now resides in Hastings, at 803 North Burling- 
ton Avenue, has had a good deal of experience in the building of 
sod houses. Many of the homesteaders had had no experience in 
constructing these houses and so they sought the assistance of those 
who had built them before. 

INIr. Croft was among those who assisted many in the erection of 
their houses. "To build a sod house," said ]Mr. Croft, "would require 
about three weeks' work for a man and team. The first tiling done 
was to clear a place the size of the house, which would usually be 
about 16 by 24' feet. The walls would then be built inside the 
clearing and would be about two feet thick. The door and the front 
window were made in one opening. The best place to get sod was 
from lagoons, where furrows would be plowed that would make strips 
of sod about a foot wide. The strips would be about two feet long 
and in building the wall would be laid on top of one another. The 
ridge pole at the top was generally about ten inches in diameter and 
quite often brush would be used in place of rafters, and then the 
sod laid over them. Many of the sod houses were papered with 
newspapers, and a well-made sod house was cool in summer and warm 
in winter. 

"Where a side hill was available, dugouts were often made, and 
there were a few log cabins. The last man to live in this kind of a 
house that I remember was Jacob Yocum, who lived in his dugout in 
the southwest pai't of the county until about 190.5." 

Tlie Ho.iu. of .Ta.ncs M. |),.an. at I'anlinr, in IS 

\ ii:\\ III iiAsi 



Wlien the first county commissioners, E. j\I. Allen, S. L. Brass 
and Wellington W. Selleck, ordered the first taxes to be levied in 
Adams County they declared the number of acres subject to taxation 
to be 182,043, and the valuation they placed averaged a little more 
than $.5.00 per acre, making an aggregate of $921,235. The aggre- 
gate value of the personal property in the county that year was 
jjlaced at $20,003. The value of the town lots in Juniata was placed 
at $1.5,94'.5. These were the valuations in 1872. The total valuation 
of the taxable proj^erty the first year was $957,183. 

In 187.5 the total valuation of taxable property in the county had 
increased to $1, 117,328.-50; in 1876 it was $1,048,913.60; in 1880 it 
had grown to $1,943,060, and in 1881 it was $2,234,,579. In 1881 
the number of city lots was 902, with an assessed valuation of 

The assessor's record shows that in 1904 the total acres of taxable 
land in Adams County was 34.5,826, with an aggregate actual value 
of $10,467,-511. Of the total acreage, 316,625 acres were under cul- 
tivation and 29,201 not under cultivation. The actual value of the 
cultivated lands is recorded as $9,097,776 and of the uncultivated as 

In 1916 the cultivated acreage is recorded as 350,244, with an 
actual value of $18,274,225. The improvements on the farms are 
recorded with a valuation of $1,370,675, bringing the total of tax- 
able lands and improvements, actual value, to $19,644,900. In so 
far as the assessor's records indicate the total increase in the value 
of farm lands in the twelve years intervening between 1904 and 1916 
amounts to $9,067,399. 

In 1904 there were in Adams County 5,529 improved city lots, 
with an aggregate actual value of $4,030,657, and 7,791 unimproved 
lots, with an actual value of $353,563. Total value improved and 
unimproved lots, $4,384,220. 

In 1916 there are recorded 6,390 improved lots, the lots having 
a valuation of $2,819,825 and the improvements $4,349,505. The 
unimj)roved lots are recorded as numbering 7.737. with an actual 
value of $813,300. Total value of lots, improved and unimproved, 
$7,982,630. In 1916 there are 1,177 more lots than there were in 
1904, and there was an increase of $3,638,410 in the total actual value 
of city lots throughout the county. This includes improvements. 

The total assessed value of all taxable property in Adams County 
as equalized and corrected by the county board since 1912 is recorded 


as follows: 1912, $7,638,237; 1913, $7,601,957; 1914, $7,682,885; 
1915, $7,847,559; 1916, $7,924,659. These figures represent one-fifth 
of the actual value and include lands, personal jjroperty and rail- 
roads. The assessed valuation in 1916 is apportioned as follows: 
Personal property, $1,277,960; lands, $3,924,383; lots, $1,599,381; 
railroads and car companies, $1,122,935. According to these figures, 
the total wealth of Adams County in 1916 is $39,623,295. It is the 
consensus of opinion of many versed in land values that the figures 
on the assessment books rejiresenting actual values as a matter of fact 
represent about 80 per cent of actual values. 

Some of the items in the i^ersonal schedules of 1904 and 1916 
afford an oj^portunity for some interesting comparisons. In 1904 
there were scheduled for Adams County 494 pianos, 906 organs and 
other instruments, 70 threshing machines, 63 corn shellers, 2,084 dogs, 
467 automobiles, tricycles, \elociiJedes, bicycles, motorcycles, and like 
vehicles, 4,822 carriages, 10,745 horses of all ages, 765 mules of all 
ages, 20,374 cattle of all ages, 28,006 hogs of all ages, and 81,485 

Personal schedules for 1916 show 1,502 pianos, 549 organs and 
other musical instruments, 124 threshing machines and power corn 
shellers, 1,172 automobiles, 1,011 cream separators, 3,732 carriages, 
M'agons, coaches, hacks, drays and other like vehicles. 9,948 horses 
of all ages, 1,850 mules of all ages, and 13.713 cattle of all ages. 

In 1880 there were 4,219 horses, 744 mules and asses, and 4,938 


In 1904 automobiles were not considered of enough importance 
to schedule separately, but were listed with bicycles, tricycles and 
other similar vehicles. Charles Jacobs of Hastings brought the first 
automobile into Adams County in the spring of 1901 and the 
first motorcycle in 1894. The automobile was a Mobile Steam, made 
by the ])resent manufacturers of the IMaxwell. One of the first trips 
made by JNIr. Jacobs took him past the Presbyterian Church at Han- 
sen, where a great commotion was caused among the horses and some 
very hard things were said about the automobile by their owners who 
were worshiping in the church. The car had neitlier Avindshield nor 
horn nor scarcely any of tlie equipment with which the automobile 
of today is identified. It could travel about twelve miles per hour 
and it consumed about a gallon of gasoline per mile, but gasoline 


sold at 8 cents per gallon. Dr. C. V. Artz and Rev. William INIc- 
Donald were the first in Adams Comity to ride in the first ear with 
]Mr. Jacobs. The growth in the ownership of cars is indicated as 
follows in the ofHce records of tlie assessor: 1914, (346; 191,), 876; 
1916. 1,172. 


Probably the first farming done in Adams County was by "Wild 
Bill Kress" and his partner, Jerome Fonts, or "California Joe," in 
1870, upon their homesteads in Little Blue Township. That year 
they i^lanted a few acres of sod corn, which yielded fairly well and 
indicated something of the future of the county agriculturally. In 
1880 there M'ere cultivated 57,809 acres of wheat, 31,276 acres of 
corn, .5,793 acres of oats, 4,443 acres of barley, 571 acres of broom- 
corn. 295 acres of rye, 58 acres of potatoes, and there were 353 acres 
of tame hay. 

How the county where JNI. X. Kress planted a few acres of sod 
corn developed as a farming country can be sensed by reflection 
upon the report made by the Nebraska State Department of 
Labor upon the ])roducts of Adams County in an average year like 
1914. In that year there were planted 60,089 acres of corn, yielding 
1,448,145 bushels; 134.253 acres of winter wheat, yielding 3,060,968 
bushels: 42 acres of spring wheat, 378 bushels; 13,714 acres of oats, 
479.990 bushels; 862|/o acres of rye, 21,131 bushels; 570 acres of bar- 
ley. 15, 390 bushels; 13,940 acres of alfalfa, 30,668 tons; 1,465 acres 
of sorghum; 54 acres of speltz; 191 acres of speltz and Hungarian; 
1,247 acres of Irish potatoes, 121,030 bushels. There were also 9,100 
acres of wild hay, yielding 14,560 tons: 946 acres of timber; 78,740 


The surplus shipments of farm products made by Adams County 
in 1914 is thus summarized by the state board of agriculture: 

Products Plead 

Cattle 2,994 

Hogs 13,533 

Horses and mules 1,776 

Sheep 5,235 


Products Bushels 

Ajjples 4.,220 

Barley 14 

Corn 23,524 

Oats .5,075 

Onions .342 

Popcorn 3,003 

Potatoes 14,.590 

Rye 2,589 

Wheat 4.817,344 

Products Tons 

Alfalfa 100 

Cement blocks 18 

Hay 557 

Ice 144,274 

Sand and gravel 1.100 


Straw 231 

Sugar beets 

Products Number 

Brick 19.873,087 

Products Gallons 


Cream 40,592 

Ice cream 7.935 

Products Crates 

Blackberries 977 

Raspberries 1,084 

Strawberries 3,715 

Products Cases 

Canned goods 7 

Products Pounds 

Alfalfa seed 22.764 

Butter 693,975 

Broomcorn 350 


Products Pounds 

Cane seed 1,200 

Celery 5,700 

Cheese 2,980 

Clover seed 

Dressed meat 43,512 

Dressed poultry 427,619 

Dried fruit 7 

Flour 3,615,163 

Fresh fruit 253,655 

Furs 815 

Garden seeds 456 

Hides and pelts 295,571 

Honev 500 

Lard 4,392 

Live poultry 2,845,175 

Melons ... 16.000 

]Mill feed 941,022 

:\Iillet seed 14,564 

Niu'sery stock 3:3 

Nuts . ." 6,300 

Tallow 37.092 


Timothy seed 

Vegetables 60,635 

Wool 11,909 

Products Baskets 

Grapes 13,700 

Peaches 4,300 

Plums 2,900 

Products Dozens 

Brooms 194 

Eggs 536,562 

In 1914. 817 Adams County farms were occupied by the owners and 
690 bv tenants: in 191.5, 778 were occupied by oAvners and 947 by ten- 
ants. In 1914, the first year that income tax was collected, tax was 
paid by fifty-one Adams County individuals; of these forty-four 
resided in Hastings and the remainder outside. 


ai)a:\is county's populatiox 

The United States Governineiit census report gives the following 
among other facts concerning the pojjulation of Adams County: The 
population in 1870 was 19; 1880, 10,23.5; 1890, 24,303; 1900, 18,840; 
1910, 20,900. State census taken in the earlier years show that the 
ingress of settlers into the county was at the rate of about one thou- 
sand a year. The poiHilation given for 1874 was 2,694; 1875, 3,093; 
1876, 3,940; 1878, ,5,.j83; 1879, 8,162. 

The decrease between 1890 and 1900 was .5,463, or 22.5 per cent; 
the increase from 1900 to 1910 was 2,060, or 10.9 per cent. In 1910 
the population per square mile was 37; rural population, 20. .5 per 
square mile. 

The population of Juniata was 528 in 1890, 543 in 1900 and 
471 in 1910. The jjopulation of Juniata Township, including the 
town, was 1,231 in 1890, 1,233 in 1900 and 1,056 in 1910. 

The Town of Kenesaw liad a population of .5'04 in 1900 and 657 
in 1910. Kenesaw Township, including the Town of Kenesaw, had 
a population of 668 in 1890, 913 in 1900 and 1.082 in 1910. 

The population of Highland Township was 603 in 1890. 600 in 
1900 and 520 in 1910. 

The Village of Ayr lies partly in xVyr Township and partly in 
Zero. The total population of Ayr Village in 1890 was 173, 141 in 
1900 and 142 in 1910. The part of the village in Ayr Township had 
107 inhabitants in 1890, 70 in 1900 and 87 in 1910. The part of Ayr 
Village lying in Zero Township had a population of 66 in 1890. 71 in 
1900 and .'^o in 1910. Ayr Township, including a part of the village, 
had 792 inhabitants in 1890, 715 in 1900 and 702 in 1910. Zero Town- 
ship, including a part of the Village of Ayr, had a jjopulation of 712 
in 1890, 709 in 1900 and 603 in 1910. 

Elaine Township had a population of 622 in 1890. 554 in 1900 
and 560 in 1910. Cottonwood Township, including Holstein, had a 
population of 548 in 1890, 552 in 1900 and 564 in 1910. The poini- 
lation of the Village of Holstein in 1910 was 323. 

The population of Denver Township in 1890 was 756, 1,360 in 
1900 and 1,729 in 1910. Hanover's population in 1890 was 655. 593 
in 1900 and 551 in 1910. Little Blue Township's population was 517 
in 1890, 503 in 1900 and 546 in 1910. Logan Township Avas 324 in 
1890, 501 in 1900 and 501 in 1910. 

Roseland Townsliip, including the Town of Roseland, had a pop- 
ulation of 782 in 1890, 847 in 1900 and 857 in 1910. The Town of 
Roseland had n population of 227 in 1900 and 249 in 1910. Silver 


Lake Township had a population of 518 in 1890, 550 in 1900 and 4.79 
in 1910. Verona, inchiding Prosser, had a population of 789 in 1890, 
773 in 1900 and 714 in 1910. Prosser was incor^jorated in 1907 and 
in 1910 had a population of 163. 

The population of Wanda Township was (502 in 1890, 621 in 1900 
and .523 in 1910. West Blue Townshijj's population was 600 in 
1890, 628 in 1900 and 575 in 1910. 

The population of Hastings for 1890 is given as 13,584; 1900, 
7,188; 1910, 9',338. At a special census taken in 1915 and announced 
upon December 18th, that year, the population of Hastings was 
announced as 10,843. The population of the First Ward in 1910 
was 2,970; Second Ward, 2,404; Third Ward, 1,470; Fourth Ward, 
2.494. The population as given for Hastings in 1890 is an indication 
of the padding tlnoughout Nebraska that year and should not be 
taken as a measure of decrease, as the census figures of subsequent 
years seem to indicate. 

The population of Hansen in 1910 was 72; Pauline, 250; Leroy, 
76: Hayland, 33. 

The 1910 census shows that those of foreign birtli. white, resident 
in Adams County when the census was taken were apportioned among 
the nations as follows: From Austria 124. Canada (French 21, other 
110), Denmark 150, England 160, France 12, Germany, 1,227. 
Greece 8. Holland 9, Hungary 2, Ireland 133, Italy 13, Norway 17, 
Russia 768, Scotland 28, Sweden 161, Switzerland 15, Wales 22, other 
foreign countries 28. In 1890 there were 327 negroes, 63 in 1900, 
97 in 1910. Of the negro population of 1910, 83 were black and 14 


Adams County now lia.s 1.50.97 miles of railroad lines belonging lo 
the Union Pacific, Chicago & Northwestern, jNIissouri Pacific and 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy systems and enjoys the advantages 
afforded by these great transcontinental trade and j^assenger routes. 
Not all these roads were built by the systems now owning them, some 
of them have been acquired by purchase from the original companies. 

The Burlington was the first railroad to traverse Adams County. 
The Burlington & JNIissouri River Railroad in Nebraska was organ- 
ized in 1869, though it was not completed through Adams Count v 
until the summer of 1872. It was a part of the main line of the Bvir- 
lington system, but the portion built at this jjarticular period extended 
from Plattsmouth by way of Lincoln to Kearney Junction. In a com- 
numication to the iniblisher of "The Book of Hastings," under date 
of November 12, 1906, PI Bignell, superintendent of the Lincoln 
division of the Burlington, wrote: "I ran an engine, hauling con- 
struction material for the line west of Hastings, before there was a 
house in Hastings, except one sod house, but I don't remember the 
date of the first train being put on. I remember my first trip very well 
I)ecause, on arrival at Juniata, where there Avas a water tank and a 
station building, I asked the agent if it was Hastings. He replied in 
the negative, saying Hastings was seven miles east. This was in Jime, 
1872." In the letter of jMrs. A. V. Cole, printed in the chapter on 
Juniata, the date of the ai'rival of the first train in Juniata is given as 
June 8th. 1872. 

In JMay. 1882, tlie Burlington was completed to Denver, building 
from Kenesaw by way of Holdrege. The completion of this line 
greatly impi-oved the railway facilities afforded by the Burlington in 
Adams County and had a general stinudating effect. The connection 
with the Burlington's main line with its southern system, the Red 
Cloud branch, was built towards the close of 1878. The last spike in 
the construction of the Aurora branch of the Burlington was driven at 


7 o'clock P. M:, September 7, 1886, and the tirst regular train departed 
for Auroi-a at ll:Oo A. IM., September 13. Jolly "Pap" Willis was 
tlie conductor in charge. This was the last line constructed by the 
Ihnlington in Adams County. 

It was the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad, now with the 
extension to Grand Island called the St. Joseph & Grand Island Rail- 
road, that brought Hastings into existence. As has been written pre- 
viously. Juniata was the official town of the Burlington and Hastings 
was an incident of the building of the St. Joseph & Denver City to 
the line of the Burlington at the point where Hastings stands. A 
fitting monument to the indebtedness of Hastings to the St. Joseph & 
Denver City Railroad, is the name of the city. A man by the name of 
Hastings was a member of the firm that had the grading of the last 
section of the road into the city and the name was given to the town 
in his honor. Train service did not begin on the St. Joseph & Western 
until the fall of 1872. 

A deficiency of funds frustrated the plans of the St. Joseph & 
Denver City Railroad Company to extend the line from Hastings to 
Denver as was the original plan although the road was once graded 
ff)r a considerable distance toward Kearney, the grade passing near 
the present location of the Lepin Hotel. About a year after the com- 
pleting of the road to Hastings a movement was inaugvn-ated in Hast- 
ings to complete the road to Grand Island. The prime movers were 
\y . Ij. Smith, who was connected with the St. Joseph & Denver, and 
.T. .T. ^Vorswick, an Englishman, who was to finance the project. Asso- 
ciated with these were George H. Pratt, T. E. Farrell, C. K. Lawson 
and some others. A comj:)any of men were also associated in Grand 
Island for the same purpose, the plan being for the Grand Island men 
to look after the building of the road in Hall County and the Hastings 
men in Adams County. Grading was done north up what is now Bur- 
lington Avenue and northwards almost to the countj^ line, while from 
Grand Island a grade was made almost to the Adams County line. 
When the project had proceeded thus far INIr. Worswick departed for 
England and did not return, and the enterprise was abandoned. If no 
rails were laid upon the grade for some time afterwards it was used as 
a track upon which to give trotting horses their practice bouts, and 
thus it was regarded as not having been wholly useless. 

Hastings was the terminus of the St. Joseph & Denver City until 
1 87n when a connection was formed between the Union Pacific Com- 
pany and the St. Jose])h & Denver Company. The twenty-five miles 
of road were constructed that year and soon thereafter the two com- 
panies were consolidated and the road was called the St. Joseph & 


Grand Island Railroad. Litigation grew out of the joint ownership 
of this line, minority stockholders complaining that the road was man- 
aged in the interest of the Union Pacific regardless of the rights of 
minority holders. Through a decision of the Supreme Coin-t in 1916 
the control of the road jiassed wholly into the control of the Union 

The ^Missouri Pacific Railroad with its western terminus in Prosser 
affords connection with the Bui'lington at Superior and the ]Missouri 
Pacific's connections in Kansas. It was formerly called the Pacific 
Railroad. It was built into Hastings in the winter of 1887-8 and 
extended to Prosser the following spring. 

Hastings is the western terminus of the Chicago & Northwestern 
in Adams County. The original purpose was to build the line through 
to Denver and the idea is still rumored from time to time. 

The Northwestern aflFords connection with Omaha by way of Fre- 
mont. For many years it was called the Fremont, Elkhorn & ^Missouri 
Valley Railroad; it has always been, however, a part of the 

The branch of the Burlington in the southern part of Adams 
County, at the building of which Holstein, Roseland, Pauline and 
I^eroy came into existence, was built in 1887, though not by the Bur- 
lington. It was the result of the acquiring of the St. Joseph & Denver 
City by the Union Pacific interests. The St. Joseph & Grand Island 
Railroad lies rather across the stream of commerce and travel than 
with it. It was to act as feeder for the St. Josejjh & Grand Island that 
the line in the south part of Adams County was built by the Union 
Pacific. Its original name Avas the Kansas City & Omaha, better 
remembered as the K. C. & O. This line of feeders began to be con- 
structed in 1885, building first from Fairfield to York through Sutton 
and later extending from York to Stromsburg. The line through 
Adams County was built from Fairfield to Alma. 

The original plan, for this road too was to extend to Denver, but 
a total of 190 miles was all that was finished. The road was bonded 
to the amount of $1,000 per mile and its earnings became insufficient 
to paj' the interest. About 1890 its condition as a business enterprise 
became so hopeless that it was sold at aviction and bought by the Bur- 
lington, of which, since that time, it has been a part. 

John M. Ragan of Hastings was at this period general attorney 
for the St. Joseph & Grand Island and had charge of the ac(]uiring 
of right of way for the feeders. Pauline was named in honor of 
Mr. Ragan's wife, Pauline S. Ragan, and Leroy in honor of Leroy 
Stone, son of C. L. Stone, of Hastings. It was the poor crops inci- 


dent to a period of shortage of rain that caused the downfall of the 
Kansas City & Omaha. 

The Hastings & Northwestern is the newest line in Adams County. 
It constitutes the "Gibbon cutoff," and extends from Hastings to 
Gibbon. The Hastings & Northwestern is a Union Pacific road. 
Regular service was established between Hastings and Gibbon during 
the first few days of June. This cutoff is twenty-eight miles long and 
was constructed with gTeat rapidity; negotiations for right of way 
were not begun until the fall of 1912 and the rails were laid by 
April 1, 1913. 

The new station on Third Street is located within 100 feet of the 
oi'iginal location of the station of the St. Joseph & Denver City. The 
passenger station of the St. Joseph & Grand Island which was located 
south of the Burlington tracks, between Denver and Hastings ave- 
nues, was removed to East Twelfth Street after the present station 
came into use and is now used as a freight and yard office. The Third 
.Street station was erected at a cost of $60,000. The railroad has 
bought the property lying between JNIinnesota Avenue and their tracks 
from Second Street to Seventh Street. 

The East Side Boulevard was opened on property jjurchased by 
the City of Hastings in 1912. In granting the right to the Hastings 
& Northwestern Railroad the city council closed Third, Fourth, Sixth, 
Tenth and Eleventh streets at their jjoint of intersection with ^Vabash 
Avenue and the P^ast Side Boulevard was opened to relieve the condi- 
tion thus produced. 

Tiie first station agent of the St. Joseph & Denver City was John 
.1. Wemple. A. A. Sweet followed, and then came Sam Heacox, who 
was the jDredecessor of INIr. Conoughy. J. J. Conoughy has been the 
agent since September 5, 1885. 

The Burlington station in Hastings was located on Bellevue Ave- 
nue from 1873 to 1902. At the time that the first station was located, 
in 1873, there was a lively rivalry among the residents. The Hastings 
Townsite Company exerted all its efforts to have the station located 
within the boundaries of the original town, while John G. INIoore, 
whose holding lay immediately Avest, endeavored to influence the rail- 
road to ]}lace the station in the vicinity of his land. To clinch his 
argument Mr. ]Moore donated thirteen acres of land and some building- 
lots to the railroad, with the residt that the station was built in the 
west end. The first station was destroyed by fire in 1879, and a new 
one built. For several years a hmch room was maintained near the 

The present Burlington station was completed in 1902 at a cost of 


about .$75,000. ^Vhen the location was changed from Bellevue Avenue 
to St. Joseph, the west side objected as strenuously as had the east 
side in 1873. Tliey argued that the location had been determined upon 
for a consideration and that the railroad had no moral right to change. 
Julius C. Swartz lias been the station agent at the Burlington con- 
tinuously since 188J-, returning that year from a period in Denver. 
Before going to the latter j^lace he was in Hastings for some time. 

For the aid of the construction of railroads in Adams Count)' 
$211,000 in bonds were voted. Of this sum $6,000 were townshij) 
bonds voted by Ayr and Little Blue for tlie aid of the Kansas City & 
Omaha. Upon the same date, JNIarch 20, 1887, the Kansas City & 
Omaha bonds were defeated in Roseland and Cottonwood townships. 
For the aid of the Pacific Railroad, now the ]\Iissouri Pacific, Adams 
County voted $12rj,000 and the City of Hastings $20,000. For the 
aid of the Chicago & Northwestern, Hastings voted $60,000. All 
these bonds have been j)aid and the county has no bonded indebtedness. 
The assessed valuation of railroads and car companies in Adams 
County in 1916 was $1,277,960, making a total valuation of $6,389,800. 

Adams County towns are located as follows, with respect to rail- 
roads: On the main line of the Burlington — Hastings, Juniata, 
Kenesaw. On the St. Joseph & Grand Island — Hastings and 
Hansen. On the Chicago & Northwestern — Hastings. On the INIis- 
souri Pacific — Prosser, Juniata, Hastings, Pauline. On Red Cloud 
branch of the Burlingtozi — Ayr. On the Burlington's south county 
line — Holstein, Roseland, Leroy, Pauline. On the Hastings & North- 
western — Hastings, Newmarch, Hayland. Charles ^Nloritz, of Pros- 
ser, operates the elevators at Newmarch and Hayland. 


The first newspaper in Adams County was the Adams County 
Gazette, established at Juniata in January. 1872, by C. C. Babcock 
and R. D. Babcock. The Babcock brothers published the weekly at 
Juniata until 1876 and then moved the plant to Hastings. In 1880 
it was purchased by J. W. Short and Charles Kelley and that year 
was purchased by the Wigton brothers, who had establisijed and weri' 
publishing the Hastings Journal. After the consolidation the Journal 
was called the Gazette- Journal. The Wigton brothers interested in 
the business were A. L. Wigton, J. W. Wigton and George A. Wig- 
ton. A. L. Wigton resided in Omaha for the last several years of his 
life and died at Omaha in December. 1914. J. W. Wigton now 


resides in Denver, and George A. Wigton lives in Hastings and is an 
official in the Loyal Mystic Legion. 

The Hastings Journal, which was the first paper to be established 
in Hastings, was founded by A. L. Wigton and jNI. K. Lewis. The 
hrst office was oj^ened on Second Street, next to Hastings Avenue. 
The first paper was issued from the jjress, i\Iay 24, 1873. The initial 
number was received with great enthusiasm and it was decided to sell 
it at auction. It was knocked dowii to S. S. Dow, who had ])id five 
dollars. JMr. Dow thought the paper cheap at the price. 

In the fall of 1882 the Gazette-Journal Company was organized 
as a joint stock company and incorporated, with an authorized capital 
of $100,000. The erection of a fine two-story brick office at the south- 
M'est corner of Lincoln Avenue and Second Street was commenced at 
once and was finished and occupied in the s^Jring of 1883. The jnib- 
lication of the Gazette- Journal as a daily was commenced in August. 

In September. 188.5. the company was reorganized. J. O. Fisher 
succeeded J. W. AVigton in the business management, while A. Lj. 
Wigton was succeeded as editor in chief by C. F. Royce. Other 
clianges were made in the executive offices of the company. E. C. 
AVebster became president, J. B. Heartwell vice president. J. J. 
Wemple treasurer, J. W. Wigton secretary, J. O. Fisher manager. 
These constituted the board of directors. In the spring of 1886, an 
addition double the size of the original building was built adjoining- 
it on the west. The new building was completed in September of that 
yeai-. The Gazette-Join-nal conducted, besides the newspaper plant, a 
large job and lithographing department and carried the largest pay- 
roll of am' establishment in town. The paper was jJublished imtil the 
])lant was practically destroyed by fire July 29, 1889. 

February 8, 1878, A. D. Williams, who had established a weekly 
])aper in Kenesaw, the Kenesaw Times, removed the plant to Hast- 
ings and changed the name of the paper to the Central Nebraskan. 
In 1879 INIr. I. D. Evans, now of Kenesaw, was associated with 
IMr. Williams in the publication of the paper. After the Central 
Nel)raskan had been jiublished about two years the name Mas changed 
to the Hastings Central Nebraskan. At about the same time that the 
name was changed, the weekly was converted into a daily. Following 
Mr. Williams the paper was owned successively by Bratton & Renner. 
Professor ^Vebster and 3Ierritt & Creeth. The firm of Bratton v«v: 
Renner was composed of the present city clerk, A. T. Bratton and 
Fled Renner. The firm of ]Merritt & Creeth were John A. Creeth 
and E. E. ^fenitt. ^Fr. Creeth died in Los Angeles in 191.). The 


detailed ownershii) and sale of the Nebraskan was as follows: 
Mr. Williams sold to ]\Ir. Bratton, INIr. Bratton to Professor Webster, 
Mr. Webster to Dr. H. P. Fitch and Doctor Fitch to JNIerritt & 
Creeth. On the susi^ension of the Nebraskan, the plant w^as absorbed 
by the Daily Republican. 

In November, 1889, the Daily Press was established by J. W. 
Ivinsella, W. B. Palmer and Walt JNIason. The three were news- 
papermen from Omaha, where Kinsella and Palmer had been con- 
nected with the Omaha Republican. The financial backing and adver- 
tising patronage did not prove sustaining and after publishing sixteen 
issues, the paper suspended. The printing of the Daily Press was 
done by Mr. Rounds, son of S. P. Rounds, who was one time a govern- 
ment printer. Mr. Rounds had purchased what was left of the 
Gazette-Journal plant after the fire. 

About this same period a paper called the "Daily Times" was pub- 
lished for a short time by a JNIr. Thornton. 

]March 2-i, 1894., John S. Williams began publishing a daily paper, 
the Hastings News. It was published for about a year as a daily and 
then was changed into a weekly. After publishing it two years as a 
weekly JNIr. ^^''illiams again started it as a daily, finally changing it 
back into a weekly. After running the paper for nine years INIr. Wil- 
liams sold the Hastings News to William JMadgett, who continued it 
for a few weeks and then the paper suspended. 

During the boom period a fine daily paper was established in Hast- 
ings by a so-called Boston syndicate. This was an eight-page papei', 
carrying telegraphic news. Failing to get advertising patronage, the 
jjaper suspended publication and type and material was sold to the 
Omaha Republican. 

The Hastings Daily Republican was published from January 12, 
1889. to September 4, 191.5, when it was purchased by Adam Breede, 
publisher of the Hastings Daily Tribune. The Republican was 
founded by Charles L. Watkins and Frank A. Watkins. For the first 
two years the Daily Republican was published as a morning paper 
with an eight-page Sunday edition. After absorbing the Daily 
Nebraskan the Republican was changed into an evening paper and so 
continued to the time of its sale. 

F. A. AVatkins bought the interest of his brother, Charles, and 
associated with himself his younger brother, Ed. Watkins, who for a 
nuniber of years before had been engaged in the job printing and 
bookbindery business. Several years later Frank Watkins bought the 
bookbindery and job ])rinting departments and assumed the sole direc- 
ti(m of the plant. On January 1, 1912. Sidney G. Evans, son of G. J. 


Evans, purchased a half interest in the entire plant and was associated 
with ]Mr. Watkins until a few days before the newspaper was sold 
to Adam Breede. Mr. Watkins retained the job department and 

The first linotype machine to be used in Hastings was installed in 
the office of the Republican by Charles H. Palmer in ]May, 1904. The 
machine belonged to JNIr. Palmer and his association with the Repub- 
lican was bj' contract. 

Other papers founded by ^Messrs. Watkins were the Ayr Times, 
the Blue Hill Times and the Red Willow County Times at Indianola. 

Sidney G. Evans is now assistant editor of The Searchlight on 
Congress, published at Washington, D. C. 

The Hastings Evening Record was established in Hastings early 
in 1899 by Harry ]Mock and Ed. JNIock, who came from Alma, where 
they had sold the Alma Record to E. H. Batty. The Record was 
puldislied for about two years by the Mock brothers and then sold to 
J. S. Ramsey, wlio published it for a short time before the paper 

Oui- Own Opinion was a paper established by George Lynn 
during the time of populism. About the same time George E. Brown 
establislied tlie Peojjles' Joiu-nal. also a i)opulist weekly, which later 
absorbed Our Own Opinion. The Peoples' Journal was discontinued 
in 1907. 

The Nebraska A'olksfreund was a German weekly newspaper 
Avhich was established in 1883 in Hastings and continued j^ublication 
under various ownerships imtil 1890, when it suspended. It was edited 
by William Breede and P. N. Carson. 

The Adams County Democrat, supporting the democratic ])arty, 
was founded July 10, 1880, by Richard (Dick) Thompson and Durley 
Dent. It was purchased by the present owners, R. B. Walilquist and 
C. B. Wahlquist. ]March 1, 1888. 

'J'he Hastings Daily Tribune is the outgrowth of two newspapers 
and the absorption of a third. The Hastings Indei^endent was estab- 
lished as a weekly ncAvspaper, July 3, 1886. by Frank D. Taggart. 
Mv. Taggart was a republican and establislied the paper mainly as a 
political organ. Isaac I^eDioyt was the managing editor of the Inde- 
pendent. At about the same time another weekly newspaper, the 
Tribune, was established by A. P. Brown and Dick Thompson. 

Tlie Independent was purchased by A. L. Wigton and his son, 
Will Wigton. A. L. Wigton did not act as editor very long, but 
turned the management over to his son. A. H. Brown ])urchased the 
Inde]iendent and later the Tribune. The name was then changed to 


the Hastings Independent-Tribune. Adam Breede purchased the 
Indej^endent-Tribune from A. H. Brown in 1894- and changed tlie 
name to the Hastings Tribune. ]Mr. Breede published the Hastings 
Tribune as a weekly until October 2, 190.5, when the Hastings Daily 
Tribune was established. The weekly Tribune has been continued. 

The Hastings Daily Tribune was set by hand composition until 
1907, since which time linotypes have been in use. A perfecting press 
was installed in 1910. August 1.3, 1914, the Daily Tribune began 
using full United Press telegraphic news service received by leased 
wire. Henry G. Smith has been associated with the Tribune since the 
founding of the daily. The subscription list of the Hastings Daily 
Republican was purchased by Adam Breede, the owner and editor of 
the Tribune. September' 4, 1915. When the Independent-Tribune 
was purchased by ]Mr. Breede the paper had no printing plant, not 
even a proof jiress. For many years the paper was printed by the 
Adams County Democrat. 

The first paper published by the students of Hastings College was 
the Vidette. which was iirst issued in 188.5. The present college paper 
was first issued in 189.5. 

The AVholesaler was a trade journal founded and published by 
R. D. 3IcFadden in 1910. It suspended pul)licatic)n after aliout a 

The Juniata Herald was first issued October 2.5, 1870, by the Citi- 
zens Comiiany; A. H. Brown was the editor. September 1.5, 1877, 
it was piu'chased bj' G. S. Guild, and then was owned successively by 
William Knickerbocker, J. W. Liveringhouse and F. W. Francis. 
Upon the death of JNIr. Francis in JMarch, 1884, the Herald was pur- 
chased by the present editor and owner. I. H. Rickel, who has issued 
the paper continuously. 

Following the removal of the Kenesaw Times from Kenesaw in 
1878 a paper has been issued in the town by various publishers. The 
Kenesaw Citizen was published for a time. Dr. E. J. Latta was the 
editor of this paper for a period. The Kenesaw Sunbeam is the ])aper 
published at this time; it was ])urchased by W. W. ]Malman. the jn-es- 
ent owner and editor, November 1, 1913, from J. A. Gardner, who now 
publishes the Holstein Herald. jNIr. Malman installed a linotype in 
the office of the Sunbeam in 191.5. 


The Ingleside H()s])ital for the Insane, located a little more than 
a mile west of Hastings, is the largest institution in Adams County, 
and one of continuous interest. The bill locating the hospital was 
passed by the Legislature of Nebraska in 1887, and $7.5,000 was 
aj)])ropriated for the erection of buildings. The appropriation was 
made on the condition that KiO acres of land should be donated at 
Hastings for the use of the hosj)ital. Forty acres were given by 
Adams County and 120 acres additional by A. L. Clarke, Samuel 
Alexander, James B. Heartwell and a ninnber of other citizens. 

The first bill for the location of the hospital at Hastings was 
introduced in the Legislature of 1885 by Fred P. Olmstead, repre- 
sentative from Adams County. JNIr. jNIatthewson of Xorfolk was 
the speaker of the Plouse in that session, and favorable to Xorfolk; 
the net result of the legislation was the substituting of the name of 
Xoi-folk into ^Iv. Olmstead's bill in place of Hastings. One of the 
weaknesses in the proposition for Hastings which jNIr. Olmstead was 
authoi'ized to make was the offer of forty acres of land, while Xorfolk 
offered S-iO. 

The contract for the erection of the original building, the admin- 
istration building, was let to Ellis Reynolds & Sprecher. C. C. Rit- 
tenhouse was the architect and S. J. Weigel the superintendent of 
construction. The cornerstone of this building was laid Jidy '25, 1888. 
By subsequent appropriations the land area of the institution has 
been increased to an aggregate of 0291/. acres, less the rights of way 
of the ]Missoin-i Pacific and the Burlington railroads, which leaves a 
net of approximately 620 acres. The lands are located as follows: 
120 acres on section 9, 40 on section 10, 320 on section 16 and^ 
on section 1."). all in Denver Township. 

Tn 1891 the north and south wings were added to the original 
building, and in 1897 the South Annex was built. In 1902 the North 
Annex was erected. The cornerstone of the newest building, the 


Cowles Euilding, was laid April 26, 1910. In 1904. and 1905 Amuse- 
ment Hall, where the patients' dances and various entertaimiients are 
given, Avas built. The hall is 60 by 100 feet. During the same two- 
year period, the farm cottage on the northeast quarter of section 16 
was built, and two new greenliouses were constructed. The dairy barn 
on the northeast quarter of section 16 was built in 191J<. It is a 
modern, sanitary barn, equipped with James steel stanchions, and will 
accommodate sixty-six cows. A large herd of Holstein cows is main- 
tained at Ingleside. About seventy-five are milked at the present 
time, the milk and cream being used by the dwellers at the hospital. 
The cost of the dairy barn was $.5,500, in cash, but the patients 
]3erformed a great deal of the labor and the barn is valued at $10,000. 
The hospital has its own electric light and power plant and water- 
works system. 


Dr. ]M. W. Stone was the first superintendent of the institution. 
Doctor Stone came from Wahoo and was appointed ]May 1, 1889. 
J. W. Liveringhouse of Grand Island was the first steward. 

Nebraska jjolitics was convulsed in 1891 by the struggle of John JNI. 
Thayer and James E. Boyd for the governorship, and the struggle is 
reflected in the records of Ingleside. Governor Boyd served first from 
January 15, 1891, to jNIay 5, 1891. On April 20th Governor Boyd ap- 
pointed Dr. G. W. Johnston sui^erintendent. On jNIay 5th Governor 
Thayer resumed his seat as governor and on the same date removed 
Superintendent .Johnston, who had sei'ved only twenty-four houi-s. 
Governor Thayer then, 3Iay 5th, reappointed Dr. F. G. Test, Avhom 
he had first appointed ]\Iay 31st and who had served until his removal 
by Governor Boyd. On September 15, 1891, Doctor Test was 
removed and Dr. F. J. Bricker appointed. February 15, 1892, Doc- 
tor Bricker was removed and Dr. G. W. Johnston reappointed. 
Doctor Johnston assumed control of the institution February 15, 
1892, and served until Dr. Robert Damerell, of Red Cloud, appointed 
by Governor Holcomb, ^Nlarch 28, 1895, assumed charge April 10, 
1895. Dr. J. T. Steele, of Hastings, was appointed assistant by 
Doctor Damerell. succeeding Dr. W, B. Kern, who had filled the 
position under Doctor Bricker. Doctor Kern had come from Wood 
River, and this was his first connection with the hospital. 

Dr. J. T. Steele was appointed superintendent by Governor 
Poynter and assumed control ]May 16. 1899. Dr. W. B. Kern was 
appointed superintendent by Governor Charles H. Dietrich, Feb- 


ruarv 1, 1901, and S. Woodard, of Aurora, was assistant physician. 
Doctor ^Voodard was later appointed superintendent of the Lincohi 
Hosjjital by Governor Shallenberger. Harry C Haverly, of Has- 
tings, became steward with the superintendency of Doctor Kern, and 
Alma J. Chapman second assistant. Mr. Haverly continued as 
steward until December 1, 1907, when he resigned to become landlord 
of the Bostwick Hotel. He was succeeded as steward by GeOrge 

Doctor Kern was superintendent continuously from February 1, 
1901, to February 1, 1909, when he was succeeded by Dr. M. W. 
Baxter, who was appointed by Governor Shallenberger. Doctor 
Baxter served until February 1, 1911, when Doctor Kern again 
assumed charge, having been appointed by Governor Aldrich. 
When Governor INIorehead was elected, he again appointed Doctor 
Baxter, Avho served from February 20, 1913, until his resignation, 
which took effect January 31, 1916. Upon that date the present 
superintendent. Dr. W. S. Fast, assumed charge. Doctor Fast was 
a])pointed by the board of commissioners of state institutions, and 
M as formerly superintendent of the school for the feeble-minded, at 


T!ie purpose of the institution, originally, was to relieve the insti- 
tutions at I.,incoln and Norfolk of those cases believed to be incur- 
able, and the legal name was "Hospital for the Incurable Insane." 
A'ery emphatic objections were made by suiierintendents, in their 
reports, to this name. Doctor Johnston argiied that it was unfair 
to those individuals confined and who were able to comprehend their 
situation, to force upon them through the name the realization that 
they w^ere in an institution from Avhich they would not be released. It 
was also urged that the name was a misnomer, because in many 
instances patients recovered their mental normality of their own 
accord. Doctor Kern also urged this matter upon the Legislature. 
After 1895 the name appearing in the reports of the superintendents 
is "Asylum for the Chronic Insane." It was the Legislature of 190.3 
that changed the name and character of the institution. The name 
was changed to the "Nebraska State Hospital," and instead of being 
an institution for the chronic insane of the state, it was made the 
hospital for all classes of insane in a district comprising fifty-three 
counties. The Legislature of 191;) gave the institution its present 
designation, "Ingleside Hospital for the Insane." 



June 26, 1905, the United States Government established a post- 
office in the institution, designating it as Ingleside. This was the 
origin of the present name, Ingleside. The superintendents were the 
IJostinasters until JNIarch, 1913, when Ingleside, together with all other 
fourth-class offices, came under the civil service. Percy ^I. Jones, 
tlie bookkeeper of the institution, became the first postmaster under 
the civil service and served until his resignation in the spring of 
1914. At that time, jNIrs. Una Norris, wife of the present supervisor, 
assumed charge of the office. JNIrs. Xorris died in JMarch, 1915, and 
Miss ]Mae Baxter was acting postmistress until the present post- 
mistress, ]\Irs. Golda V. Crutcher, qualified, August 26, 1915. 

Until the Legislature of 1913 established the "Board of Commis- 
sioners of State Institutions," which organized July 1st of that year, 
Ingleside was in the care of a board of control composed of the gov- 
ernor, secretary of state and the commissioner of public lands and 
buildings. The institution, having its management strictly a matter 
of political patronage, has always been the object of a great deal of 
political maneuvering, and at intervals the newspapers of the two 
political parties have found much to say, sometimes sensational mat- 
ter, about Ingleside. 


The first disturbance came early in the history of the institution. 
T. H. Leavitt, a state accountant, having been assigned to investigate 
the accounts of the hospital, rejjorted August 5, 1891, for the previous 
twenty-five months. The report was made to the president of the 
Board of Public Lands and Buildings, A. R. Humphrey. The report 
charged lax methods generally for tlie ])eriod, and declared that it 
was impossible to trace where some of tlie public money had gone 
to. It could be seen, for instance, that on jNIay 25, 1889, J. V. Smith 
had been paid $300 for a team of horses, but to whom had been j^aid 
$106.35 for a barn, harness and wagon could not be ascertained from 
the record. After enumerating some of the obscurities, the report 
said: "Tliere are probably irregularities in the accounts in sight, cov- 
ering from $12,000 to $20,000, which neither tlie papers in my hands 
nor the time to which you have limited me have made it possible to 
examine into." "liills have been paid in duplicate or in excess of 
what was due." "It is noticeable concerning the cliecks given to par- 
ties named in the payroll that some of them are far less tlian the sums 






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named in the vouchers to the state treasurer." It was also charged 
that sj^urious names had been entered ui^on the payroll and money 
drawn to pay their salaries. Such is a sketch of early irregularities 
reported at Ingleside. 


The theory underlying the legislative enactment of 1913, which 
created the board of commissioners of public institutions, was to 
improve the checking and accounting systems and to lessen the political 
patronage feature. Since its creation, this board has appointed the 
superintendent. Superintendent Fast being the first. If the theory 
works out, superintendents will not hereafter be necessarily changed 
as the fortunes of political parties change. The board is appointed 
by the governor, the members having six-year terms, except the first 
board, which gave Henry Gerdes, of Falls City, six years. Judge 
Howard Kennedy, of Omaha, four years, and Silas A. Holcomb, of 
Broken Bow, two years. At the expiration of his first term, jNIr. 
Holcomb was reappointed. 


When Superintendent M. W. Stone assumed his duties in 1889 
the ])roperty put in his charge was valued at $80,.598.G(j. This included 
land and all other jiroperty. The last inventory made Avas February 
20. 191.3, when the value of the Ingleside property was listed at 
$1,26.>.99.5.91. The estimated value at present is $1,. 500.000. 


Patients Avere first received at the hospital August 1, 1889. Forty- 
four were brought from Lincoln on that date. The first of these to 
be taken, becoming Number One, was IMelvin JNIeals, who remained 
an inmate until his death, October 7, 1895. Of the party that came 
that day, Peter Hedstrum is the only one that remains. There had 
been received up to December 18, 1916, 4,115 patients in all, and the 
inmates ujion that day numbered 4<05 women and 7-17 men. 


Among the notable patients at Ingleside at i^resent is Hans Albert, 
a violinist of distinction and who still plays his instrument with much 


skill and feeling. Hans Albert relates that he was born in Austria 
and was brought to this country by JNIrs. Grover Cleveland. Another 
musician of much ability is George JMcPherson. He is a colored man 
and was graduated from several musical conservatories. He is a 
skilled i^ianist and sj^ends many hours at the piano, and has played 
at concerts. Another notable inmate, though with a different talent, 
is Bertha Liebbecke. She is known throughout the United States as 
"Fainting Bertha." She gained this name through her habit of fall- 
ing in a faint into the arms of pedesti-ians on city streets. Generally, 
when the pedestrians had disengaged themselves and provided care 
for the fainting woman, they found afterwards that they had been 
relieved by Bertha of their pocketbooks, Matches, jewelry or other 
valuables. "Fainting Bertha" has escaped from Ingleside on some 
occasions and afforded opportunities for sensational captures. 


There were at Ingleside on December 18, 1916, 1.55 employees, 
with an aggregate payroll of $6,000 per month. The staff at present 
is: Superintendent, Dr. W. S. Fast; assistant physician. Dr. W. H. 
Crutclier; second physician. Dr. C. A. Oaks; third physician. Dr. 
W. W. Hedlund; fourth, physician. Dr. Clara M. Hayden; patholo- 
gist, Dr. J. S. Leisure. Percy INI. Jones has been bookkeeper and 
JNTichael 0']\lera steward since February 20, 1913. INIrs. Fibbie Thors- 
den is the matron. 

Ingleside is a world to itself, a comminiity full of human interest. 
Cheerfulness and optimism among the employees is brought into 
strong relief because of its nearness to the great tragedy enacted by 
the unfortunates who find their home here. Among the employees 
there exists a bright social life. By them the institution is often 
referred to as the "matrimonial bureau." Many marriages have 
resulted from acquaintances made at Ingleside. The care bestowed 
upon the buildings and grounds makes Ingleside, in spite of the nature 
of the place, an object of pride to the i^eople of Hastings and Adams 



Juniata, with a population according to the census of 1910 of 471, 
is located around the center of section 12, township 7, range 11. 'It 
lies four miles west of the western extremity of Hastings and the 
Burlington station at Juniata is seven miles west of the Burlington 
station in Hastings. 

Juniata is the oldest town in Adams County and was the county 
seat imtil September, 1878, although the electors had voted fo]- the 
removal of the county seat to Hastings the year before. 

The first settlers around Juniata were a colony from IMichigan, 
at the head of whom Mere Adna H. Bowen, now residing in Idaho, 
and Samuel L. Brass. The exact location was determined by two 
representatives of the Burlington Railroad, D. X. Smith and another 
man who some of the early settlers recall by the name of Wylsie. The 
foiu- quarters of section 12 were preempted by Titus Babcock, 
R. D. Babcock, Isaac Stark and John Stark. The Babcocks were 
brothers and Isaac Stark was the father of John Stark. These four 
took their preemiJtions in Febi-uary, 1871. 

Under each of the four inside corners of the quarters of section 
12 the preempt ors erected houses which were ready for occupancy 
about the middle of ]March, 1871, and these formed the nucleus 
aroimd which Juniata Avas built. The houses were built of lumber 
hauled from Grand Island, and each was 14 by 16 feet and lV> stories 
high. These first settlers came to Grand Island over the Union 
Pacific and then came overland to Juniata bringing their supplies 
with them. The greatest drawback upon reaching the place was the 
lack of water, and it was about a month after their arrival before the 
railroad bored a well for their use at about the present location of tlie 
G. A. R. Hall. Until the well Mas bored, drinking water Mas hauled 
from Martin's Ranch on the Platte, a distance of about tMcnty-five 


miles. jNlrs. A. H. Bowen arrived in Juniata February 22, 1871, 
following her mother, JNIrs. Titus Babcock, by only a few days. 

The four preemptors of section 12, after receiving their patents 
from the government, disposed of their holdings to the Burlington 
Railroad and took up homesteads. The colonists, as stated, were 
brought from JNlichigan through the efforts of INIr. Bowen and INIr. 
Brass, and when the preemptors sold to the railroad every other lot 
within the town site became the property of JNIr. Brass and Mr. 
Bowen; that is one-half of the lots belonged to the railroad, one- 
fourth to j\Ir. Bowen and one-fourth to Mr. Brass. 

John and Isaac Stark lived upon their homesteads some four or 
five years and then returned to Michigan, where John died. Titus 
Babcock who was Hhe first postmaster of Juniata and also the first 
judge elected for Adams County, died at the home of his daughter, 
Mrs. A. H. Bowen, in Hastings, Febmary, 1892, and was buried 
in tlie Juniata cemetery. His wife had died in Juniata, INIay 16, 
1877. R. D. Babcock is now a resident of San Francisco. 

FKOil :mRS. cole's SCRAT'BOOK 

In a letter to the Adams County Old Settlers' Association from 
Long Beach, Cal., ]March 6. 191.5, contributed from "scraps from a 
scrapbook and reminiscences of early days in Adams County," that 
throws light interestinglv upon earlv affairs in the county, writes 
I\Irs. Cole: 

"I never shall forget tlie black prairie as I saw it in 1872. just 
after a prairie fire had swept over it. To me, coming from Southern 
Michigan with her clover fields, large houses and larger barns, trees, 
hills, and running streams, the vast stretches of black jjrairie, never 
ending — no north, south, east, or west — dotted over with tiny un- 
painted houses and — no, I can't say barns — but shacks for a cow, and 
perhaps a yoke of oxen — that picture struck such a homesick feeling 
in my soul it took years to efface. I still see that picture. But it is 
only in my mind, for time has changed the lilack prairie into green 
fields of alfalfa and grain; the tiny dots of houses and outside' sheds 
are gone like the jjrairie fires, and in their stead stand large com- 
fortable farm houses, and real barns, where not only the spotted cow, 
called 'Speck,' lives but, in more stately style than oxen or horse, 
stands the big motor car. Who would have believed it, Avhen in 
December, 1871. the little town of Juniata was located as the County 
Seat of Adams County! 

"In November, 1871, the Adams County Gazette was first pub- 



lished by R. D. Babcock and C. C. Babcock. The town site contained 
3(J0 acres. The first birth in Juniata was John Babcock, 1871. The 
first sermon preached was in November, 1871, by Rev. J. F. Clark- 
son, a Congregational minister, in S. L. Brass' home, in April, 1872. 
The first Sunday school was organized with S. L. Brass as its super- 
intendent. The first school teacher in Juniata was ]Miss Lizzie Scott. 
The schoolhouse was built in 1872, by E. M. Allen and Ira G. Dil- 
lon. Titus Babcock was the first j^ostmaster, holding the office from 
1872 until October, 1881. He was succeeded by William Knicker- 
bocker, who held it one month, when he was succeeded by li. J. Shir- 

"The first railroad train i3ulled into Juniata the eighth day of 
June. 1872. It was a joyful occasion, and celebrated by a public 
dinner. Before this the mail was carried by a carrier from Grand 
Island and Sutton. 

"The very first stock of merchandise brought into Juniata Avas by 
John Jacobson, who kept the first hotel; also the first livery stable. 
In 1872 Frank ^litchel, C. R. Jones and W. H. Burr put in large 
stocks of goods. The first grain buyers were D. H. Freeman and 
R. S. Langley. The first clerk employed was Ed Jones. ]Mrs. Forgy 
ke])t the first millinery store. The first meat market was kept by Wil- 
liam Twidale; the first drug store by Nathan Platte. The first physi- 
cian was Dr. INIorgan. The first death was a young man who died 
from being badly frozen while out hunting. 

"In 187-5 we held our first donation party at the residence of 
Thomas Peatt, Thursday, October 21, for the benefit of Elder Charles 
Reilley. the JNIethodist minister. The committee on invitations was 
I). H. Freeman, S. L. Brass and Mrs. A. V. Cole. I find an account 
of an entertainment given by Geary G. A. R. Post in 1885. and the 
first thing on the program was a peek-a-boo song by little Edna 
Bi-ass, daughter of S. L. Brass. A pan of beans was voted to the larg- 
est man i)resent, 17.5 votes cast at ten cents a vote: R. S. Eangley 
getting ninety votes and D. R. Ball eighty-five. The item says three 
of the finest looking men in town were voted a cake for being the 
homeliest, and that ^Ir. Lockwood got the cake; the defeated men 
being John T. Hill and L. F. Pickerd. 

"But the greatest excitement of the evening was in disposing of 
a large doll to be voted to the prettiest little girl present. The three- 
year-old daughter, Lottie, of Rev. and INIrs. Borger, and a three- 
year-old daughter, Bessie, of Mr. and Mrs. George T. Brown, Avere 
the contestants. J. INI. Sewell had charge of the Borger tickets. E. 
^I. Allen the Brown tickets. Excitement ran high until 2.9fi0 votes 


were cast, the little Borger girl getting a few votes the more and hav- 
ing a doll costing $296. The entertainment netted the Post $400. 
The proceeds went toward paying for the new G. A. R. Hall. 

"I have said a great deal about Juniata, but I know more about 
her. Those were our days. I chronicle no more of Juniata, for Has- 
tings, the Queen City of the plains, sprang into existence in 1872, 
when the St. Joseph & Denver Railroad formed a junction Mith the 
Burlington. Her rapid growth soon took from Juniata the county 
seat, and along with it the only building we had that in any way sug- 
gested that we were the honest, legitimate county seat of Adams 
County. It was tlie Adams County jail. Such an addition to our 
town! About as large as a good sized dry goods box, bvit our hopes 
were built on nothing less than that every man, woman and child in 
Hastings would find in it an abiding place. So with wrath in our 
hearts, and tears in our ej'es, we Avatched it disappear toward tlie east, 
and poor Juniata was no more the metrojiolis of Adams County. 

"Today, with loyal hearts, we point with pride to Hastings, the 
Queen City, and her beautifid little suburb, Juniata, where most of 
us have spent our hard days, along with many happy ones." 

Tlie jail which JNIrs. Cole writes of as being hauled away to Has- 
tings still stands in that city, though not as a jail. It is located at 
1028 Nortli Saunders Avenue and is an outbuilding on the property 
of Anthony Holloran. The jail is built of 2 by 6 timbers and is 
remarkably well spiked. 

In 1872 the first lumber yard was establislied by Henry Van 
Allstyn and the first livery barn by Ira G. Dillon. By the begimiing 
of November, 1872, Juniata had fifty residents and about fifteen 
houses. A. V. Cole arrived in Juniata October 24, 1871. Mr. Cole 
walked from Sutton. Early in 1873 he established a grocery business 
and in August of that jear Ira G. Dillon opened a general merchan- 
dise store and in November S. J. Shirley opened a restaurant. In 
1878 Ira G. Dillon erected a grain elevator. 


Although Juniata had definitely lost the county seat the year lie- 
fore, 1879 was a year of great business and building activity. AVil- 
liam B. Thorne erected a business block at a cost of $15,000. and 
among those erecting residences were P. B. Ilungerford, P. W. 
Warner, Ray L. Pomeroy, R. S. Langley, II. Barth, Samuel Dodge, 
Rev. J. W. bobbs, Rev.H. A. Guild, Ira G. Dillon, William Twi- 
dale. D. H. Freeman, Edward Moore, James I^aird. A. V. Cole and 


others. It was estimated that the building operations aggregated 

January 29, 1883, is the date of the great fire in Juniata when 
])roperty with an estimated vahie of $2.5,000 was destroyed. The 
fire wiped out the business block south of Tenth Street and facing 
Juniata Avenue. Among the losers by that fire were A. V. Cole, H. 
E. Wells, W. D. Sewell, John T. Hill,'Adams & Miles, A. T. Showen, 
William Twidale & Company and Company F, Militia. There was 
at that time a brickyard in Juniata and the burned area was rebuilt 
largely from brick of Juniata manufacture. Not long after that the 
brick business suspended. At present there are nine brick business 
buildings in the town. 

^Vlthough the oldest town in the county, .Juniata was not incorpor- 
ated until June 15, 1880, upon the petition of sixty-four taxpayers. 
Ira G. Dillon, S. L. Brass, H. E. Wells, E. M. Allen and L. F. 
I'icard were the first trustees, appointed by the county commissioners. 
The present tnistees are E. P. Hubbard, J. L. Whitesell, L. F. 
]\[cFerren. J. W. ^IcHarry and Theodore Trauseh. 


In common with all of Adams County, and in fact all western 
Nebraska, the settlers around Juniata suffered complete loss of crojis 
by the grasshopjjers in 187-i. An excellent crojJ was pi'omising M'hen 
the grasshoi)pei\s descended about 3 o'clock in the afternoon of July 
4th. S. P. Ilowland, who at that time was located on his homestead on 
the southeast quarter of section 4, township 7. range 11. says that 
he observed the grasshoppers eai-ly in the forenoon but did not 
lealize what they were. They appeared like a peculiar cloud drifting 
from the northwest and some declared that it Avas smoke from trains 
on the Union Pacific. 

The grasshoppers alighted about 3 o'clock and by sunset the corn- 
fields were stripped of their blades. The hoppers tarried for three 
days and left no vestige of a crop. JNIr. and ]Mrs. Rowland made a 
desperate effort to save an eighth of an acre of onions that thev had 
])lanted by driving away the hoppers, but off the entire three-eighths 
of an acre they han-ested only six bushels of onions. "That fall," 
nai-rates Mr. Howland, "all the corn that we gathered from twenty 
acres was not more than enough to fatten one pig and in addition 
there would be fodder enough for one cow." All Adams Countv 
suffered that year in like degree and it was necessary to disti'ibute 


relief among the settlers. A. H. Bowen and S. L. Brass were the 
committee in charge of this work at Juniata. 


3Iany of the settlers around Juniata suffered hardships during the 
great blizzard of 1873. In this vicinit_y the storm came driving down 
from the north about 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the 13th of April. 
It seemed to be about one hundred yards high and obscured the land- 
scape so that it was practically impossible to get about. On the 
farms men could not see the outbuildings from the house and had the 
greatest difficulty in keeping their direction in traveling only a few 
rods. Indeed, they could not always do so as the instance of George 
Sanger shows. 

jNIr. Sanger had paid $1.50 for a yoke of oxen and they were in 
his barn eight miles northeast of Juniata. The storm which had 
begun Sunday afternoon had not abated on INIonday morning, and 
Mr. Sanger resolved to make his way out to the barn to feed the 
oxen. The barn was about twenty rods east of the house. When he 
I'eached the barn he found that one of the oxen was dead, smothered 
by the snow. When he had cared for the remaining ox JNIr. Sanger 
started to return to the house. After taking a dozen steps, he could 
see neither house nor barn. There was nothing but the swirling, 
white snow and the unbroken roar of the wind. In a short time he Mas 
bewildered, lost all conception of direction and wandered helplessly 
in the srt:orm. He went with the wind and by chance came to the 
school yard of District Fourteen. He did not know where he was 
but happened to stumble against an outhouse that stood in the school 
yard. All but exhausted and with nothing to eat jMr. Sanger stumbled 
into the outbuilding. Here he stood up until Wednesday evening 
M-hen tlie storm abated and he was rescued, more dead than alive. 
This is but one of many cases of endurance resulting from the great 


From the earliest days of Adams County's history Juniata has 
been prominent as a milling toAMi. The first mill A\as built in 1874 by 
R. S. Langley and D. H. Freeman & Company. Juniata ])recinct 
voted $0,000 in bonds almost as soon as the county was organized to 
oid in the building of a flour mill. The bonds were not paid, however, 
and tlie matter was taken to the district court where it was held that 


the bonds were illegal becavise the district had superseded its authority 
when it issued bonds in aid of a private enteri^rise. The cost of the 
mill was about $12,000. 

WHien the mill was completed it was placed under a mortgage of 
$8,000 which was held bj^ Xordyke, Marmon & Company, of Indian- 
apolis. The mortgage Avas foreclosed and the projierty sold at 
sheriff's sale and bought by S. W. Clarke. Later, in the settlement 
of William B. Thorne, the mill, as a part of the Thorne estate, was 
turned over to Adams County and in January, 1890, it was jjurchased 
by Oliver E. Palmer for $2,100. In 1892 the mill was destroyed by 
fire. It was rebuilt by George Collins but afterwards was taken over 
by ^Ir. Palmer who operated the nn'U until it was purchased by the 
present owner, W. H. DeSanno, in 1901. Mr. DeSanno Mas an 
experienced miller before coming to Juniata from Beemer, Nebraska. 
' In 1907 the Juniata, flour mill was destroyed by lightning and 
the present plant was at once erected. When the mill was rebuilt 
during 1908, ]Mr. DeSanno's son, H. C. DeSanno, installed an electric 
light and ])ower plant in connection with the mill. The electric light 
plant has flourished until at present there are about one hundred con- 
sumers, and the village streets are well lighted with about twenty-five 
street lights. The Juniata roller mills have a grinding capacity of 
sixtj' barrels of flour per day. 


The Juniata Grain & Livestock Association is an important 
farmers' cooperative institution that operates both grain elevators and 
the stockyards at Juniata. It was originally incorporated January 
25, 1897, with the following incorporators: J. A. Cates, W. J. 
Cotes, O. Rutler, Ephraim Weeks, Albert JNIecham, W. H. Stephens. 
John Parr, George W. Hall and George Pratt. At this time the 
capital stock authorized was not less than $2.50 nor more than $2,000. 
At first the association operated only one elevator, but for a number 
of years it has handled all the grain and livestock shipped from 

Some time after the first incorporation the association was reorgan- 
ized with a capital stock of $10,000. This time the incorporators were 
R. J. Ashmore, E. J. Hanchett, A. P. Slack. W. H. Waldron, T. G. 
Whiting, Ephraim Weeks and J. L. Blue. E. P. Hubbard is the 
present manager of the association. 

Juniata was surveyed by Anselmo B. Smith and by that survey, 
made in November, 1871, South Street forms the south line of the 


town with the streets numbered from First to Tenth running parallel 
to South Street. South and North Depot streets run on their respect- 
ive sides of the Burlington Railroad track. Eleventh, Twelfth and 
Thirteenth streets run east and west north of the Burlington track. 
The avenues running north and south, beginning 160 feet east of 
the west line of sm-vey, are named Platte, Blue, Juniata, Adams, 
Bowen and Brass. 


Titus Babcock was the first postmaster in Juniata, receiving the 
appointment in April, 1872, at a salary of one dollar per month. In 
1881 William Knickerbocker was appointed, but only occupied the 
office one month before being succeeded by S. J. Shirley. Samuel L. 
Brass succeeded IMr. Shirley and in December, 1889, D. V. Stephens 
succeeded JNIr. Brass. W. E. Shaver received the next appointment 
and was succeeded by I. H. Rickel who was postmaster for nearly 
seventeen years. Mr. Rickel was succeeded by the present post- 
master. Henry L. Sergeant, who received his commission October 
1, 1914. 


The Juniata cemetery, located on section 11, about one mile 
west of Juniata, is the oldest cemetery in Adams County and a 
number of the very earliest settlers rest in this ground. The first 
cemetery association was organized in 1873 and was comjjosed of 
Titus Babcock, Daniel V. Stephens, J. H. Freeman and B. F. Smith. 
William B. Thorne, originally donated the ground, but it afterwards 
passed out of JNIr. Thome's hands and the association was comi^elled 
to pay forty dollars jjer acre for the cemetery to successors of Mr. 
Thorne, getting a deed for the property in 1884. The cemetery com- 
prises tAventy acres and is well kept. INIrs. David Bigelow was the 
first to be buried in Juniata cemetery; this was early in 1873. 


In the early days because the schoolhouses were the social centers 
of the communities it was common to name them and they were 
known by these names rather than by the district numbers as at 
present. District 16 was Pleasant Hill, district 36, Liberty, and dis- 
trict 49 was Hazel Dell. ]Mrs. S. D. Marsh of Juniata has written 
a sketch of the Hazel Dell District which reveals much of the circum- 
stances surrounding the formation of the earlv schools. 



"The Hazel Uell School District," writes oVIrs. Marsh, "was organ- 
ized ill 1873. It was a part of what was at that time the 'Watkins 
district.' ]My father, F. M. Thompson, was elected director; Tole 
Morehouse, moderator, and a jNIr. Bonebrake, treasurer. These 
otticei-s were elected temporarily, or until the regular annual meeting 
was held. 

"In April, 1874, a special meeting was called to vote bonds to build 
the schoolhouse and the next summer agents for school furniture 
were numerous all over the state, saying 'Build good schoolhouses. 
The railroad company will have them paid for before the home- 
steaders' land becomes taxable.' 

"But my father opposed extravagance. Some districts built 
before there were any children to send to school and used the school 
houses for dance halls. IMr. A. A. White deeded a plot of land to 
the Hazel Dell School District on section 31, town 7, range 11, to be 
theirs as long as it would be used for school purposes. The first pro- 
posal for bonds was for $2,500, and the bonds failed to carry. Next 
$2,000 were voted only for it to be found later that they were illegal, 
only fifteen days' notice having been given while the law called for 

"The matter was voted upon again in April. 1874, and $1,000 was 
voted to build the schoolhouse and pay the teacher who was to get a 
salary of twenty dollars per month. I believe that my father built the 
schoolhouse, and I remember the grasshoppers came and ate all the 
corners off as the paint was green. Don't laugh, for this is true, and 
thev also ate great holes in the worknien's shirts as they worked one 

"3Iiss Pine, of Iowa, was hired as teacher to teach the first three 
months, beginning September, 1874. There were four boys and one 
girl em-olled, myself being the girl. The other children in the district 
were without shoes to attend. 

"The first regular school meeting elected F. ]M. Thompson 
director, INIr. Bonebrake moderator and Jake Gates treasurer. The 
schoolhouse sensed as church and Sunday school building and social 
meeting place for years, and with a little added on stands today as a 
schoolhouse for the children and the grandchildren of some of its 
earliest pupils." Hazel Dell is now district 41. 


It was near the Liberty schoolhouse, district 3G, that a tragedy 
took place in the winter of 1884 when Harrison Young, a young 


man of the district, was killed. Irvin Faribee, another young- 
man of the district, was paying court to Young's sister. Belle Young, 
and bad feeling was aroused between the two young men at a charivari 
held in the neighborhood and Young forbade Faribee to keep company 
with his sister. All the parties concerned were high spirited Ken- 
tuckians and young Faribee paid no heed to Young's warning. One 
evening, a short time after, Faribee escorted Belle home from a social 
meeting held in the Liberty schoolhouse and upon leaving the school- 
house encountered Harrison Young. 

In the quarrel that followed Young made a movement which 
Faribee took to be a reaching for a gun or knife, and quickly clenching 
his fist struck Young upon the jaw. Young fell and did not arise. 
Others with Faribee then carried him to the nearby homestead of 
Benjamin Armitage. It was found that Young was dead. Faribee 
gave himself up and in the ensuing trial was acquitted. Belle Young 
now lives in Kansas and Faribee in the west. 

Juniata Lodge, No. 79, I. O. O. F., was organized by charter from 
the Grand Lodge of the state February 11, 1880, with the following 
charter members: George T. Brown, S. L. Brass, Horace Golile, 
Benjamin F. Smith, Josiah Hodges, Hugh A. JNIoreland, William 
Spade, John E. Adams, James F. Kelley and N. H. JManzee. B. F. 
Smith was the first noble gi-and and S. L. Brass the first secretary. 
Officers-elect are E. P. Hubbard, noble grand: George W. Long, 
vice grand; W. H. DeSanno, treasurer, and Charles L. Ziegler, sec- 
retary. The present membership is fifty-five. 

Rebekah Lodge, No. 43, which was chartered January 1, 1880, 
gave up its charter in 1913. 


Corinthian Lodge No. 71, Knights of Pythias, was transferred by 
charter from Kenesaw to Juniata, November 28, 1898, and reoigan- 
ized with the following as charter members by installation : 

E. C. Rickel, J. M. Parrott, W. A. Morse, D. E. Flowers. A. H. 
Langjahr, W. J. Coats, C. H. Partridge, E. G. Angell, W. C. Frew, 
L. A. Spriggle, George T. Brown, Seth D. ]\Iarsh, R. A. Wall, R. A. 
Cullen, F. C. Lancaster, Ed Willett, W. M. Beebe, L. D. Swiss, W. 
A. Julian, I. H. Rickel. The last four by card. George W. Bivens is 


the jn-esent chancellor coniniander and I. H. Rickel keeiier of records 
and seals. 


The following extract from a manuscript left by Rev. O. A. 
Buzzell sketches the early history of the Baptist Church in Juniata: 

"On July 2(), 1872," JMr. Buzzell wrote, "in the office of the Adams 
County Gazette, a building which stood on the lot now occupied by 
J. T. Hill's grocery — the building having some years later been 
removed' to Hastings, several persons of Juniata with seven others 
living southeasterly from Juniata, assembled for the purpose of form- 
ing a Baptist Church, there being then no such church in Adams 

"Dr. J. N. Webb, state missionary of the BajJtist Home ^Mission 
Society, was present and acted as moderator of the meeting. After 
due consideration an organization was effected and officers chosen as 
follows: Titus Babcock, moderator; Dr. Charles M. ^Morgan, clerk. 
Articles of religion and church covenant were adopted. But the 
brethren from the southeast had not brought their letters ^ith them. 
Their membership, therefore, was to be perfected by depositing their 
letters with the clerk, which they failed to do, or even to come any 
more to the meeting of the church. Over a year passed without any 
additions, and the failure of those from the southeast left the church 
with only three members. Dr. C. M. INIorgan, and JNIr. and INIrs. Titus 

"During that first year we were occasionally favored with j^reach- 
ing by JNIr. Weaver, who lived at the Platte river, and others. On 
September 7, 1873, Rev. D. H. Babcock and wife united with the 
church, and on November 2d, following, Caroline Clute became a 
member by letter from Dundee, JNIichigan. July .5, 1874, Eliza T. 
Howland, from Hudson, Michigan, and Addie L. Brown, from 
Vinton, low^a, united by letter. So we closed the second year with 
eight members. 

"Rev. D. H. Babcock commenced preaching services with the 
church at this time each alternate week. November 29, 1874, D. M. 
Griswold and wife, and Clarence, Lettia and Permelia Griswold, were 
received by letter from the church in Gardner, Illinois. January 24, 
187;3, Jessie A^liet united on letter from St. Louis Church, ^Michigan. 
J. R. Van Houten and wife united on letter from Crown Point. 
Indiana. The third year closed with sixteen members. September 5, 
1875, the church joined the Grand Island Association at their session 
at Hastings. Number of members, fifteen. 


"February 27, 1876, A. H. Brown was received into the church by 
baptism. In the fall of 187.5, Re\'. D. H. Babcock went to Iowa and 
the church was without regular preaching until ]May 1, 1876, Avhen 
Rev. A. H. Guild came under appointment of the Home JNIission 
Society for one year. On April 12, 1876, Brother Griswold and 
family, five in number, were dismissed to aid in forming the jNIay- 
flower Church. The year closed with fifteen members. September 
8, 1876, the church was represented at the Grand Island Association 
at Gibbon. Number of members, foiu'teen. 

"May 16. 1877, Thankful M. Babcock one of the constituent 
members of the chvn-ch, departed this life. June 10, 1877, Isaac W. 
Stark, Laura Stark and Mrs. Simeon Johnston were received into 
the church by baptism. Rev. O. A. Buzzell was called to the pastorate 
of the church to commence October 1, 1877, to preach one-half of the 
time in Juniata. February 11, 1878, the church decided to build a 
house of worship with the dimensions 24 by 40 feet, and elected 
trustees and building committee to carry out the arrangement. This 
church was dedicated December 1.5, 1878. October 8, 1878, Rev. O. 
A. Buzzell was called to the pastorate for another year and November 
30, 1878, James C. Van Houten was elected deacon. During Feb- 
ruary and jNIarch, 1879, Rev. Buzzell, assisted by Rev. I. Carson, 
conducted a revival service. 

"Grand Island Association met with the Juniata Church, Septem- 
ber 12, 1879, and on December 6th, the Rev. Mr. Rockwcod was 
employed as pastor for six months, to serve each alternate Sunday. 
September .5, 1880, the church selected delegates to attend the associa- 
tion at Edgar. 

"In June, 1881, the Rev. Mr. Bradt of jNIorgan Park Seminary 
was engaged as supjjly during the summer vacation. In November. 

1881, the church was represented in a convention at Glenville in which 
a new association, the South Platte, was formed, and on February 22, 

1882, the quarterly meeting of the South Platte Association met with 
the Juniata Church. 

"June 4, 1882, Rev. O. A. Buzzell and wife on their request were 
granted a letter of dismissal for the pin-pose of organizing the Baptist 
Church at Bladen and Rev. E. Carson of Gibbon, preached for the 
congregation at .Iimiata during the summer." 

The Rev. IVIr. Buzzell sunuiiarized the growth of membership in 
the first ten years of the history of the church as follows : First year, 
three; second, eight; third, sixteen; fourth, fifteen; fifth, twenty-one; 
sixth, twenty-eight; seventh, forty-tw^o; eighth, thirty -eight ; ninth, 
thirtv-eiffht ; tenth, forty. 


In the fall of 1916 the Baptists of Juniata began the erection of a 
new church house wliich is one of the best appointed of the smaller 
churches of the county. In the basement provision is made for cook- 
iny and attending to the social needs in other respects. ]Much of the 
work was done by the congregation. The church will cost, when 
completed, about $6,000. 

In addition to the ministers mentioned in the account of the Rev. 
]Mi'. Buzzell the folloAving have served the church: Revs. Tinkham, 
Hands. AV. H. Brodt, Armstrong, T. Hill, I. D. Newell, Anios Shat- 
tuck. Laslette, Hill, O. W. Davis, McCullough, Snyder, S. ^Miller, 
J. A. Leonard, Baker, and the present pastor. Rev. T. O. Mc^NIinn. 


The ]Methodist Episcopal Church of Juniata was organized April 
14. 1872, by the Rev. R. H. Crane who was a pioneer of INIethodism 
throughout the new western country. The first services were held in 
the temporary school building erected by Ira G. Dillon and E. M. 
Allen. A movement looking toward the erection of a church building- 
was inaugurated in the latter part of 1873, but progress was not 
rapid and the church was not completed until 187o. July, 187.5, the 
ciiurch was dedicated, the dedicatory sermon was preached by Profes- 
sor E. Thompson, afterwards the ])rincipal of an educational institu- 
tion at York. 

The church, which has been remodeled and enlarged, is still in 
use. The original building was one story high and its dimensions were 
30 by 60 feet. The cost was $3,000. The auditorium was furnished 
with comfortable chairs and these with the altar and well designed 
platform and stained glass windows made a very encouraging begin- 
ning for ^Methodism in the new country. An addition was built to 
the church in 1907. and the church is being remodeled at the present 
time. 1916. An addition was built to the parsonage in 1913 and it has 
been again greatly improved since the conference in September, 1916. 

Among the charter members were John Grove. M. D. Hammond. 
William Ring, Francis Chapman, George ]M. IMcIntyre, Alice Sluy- 
ter. Ida Garlick, Orrin Balcom, Phoebe Balcom, A. C. Wright. ^Nlaria 
Wright. Owen Adams, Samuel Saulsbury, Ellen Saulsbury, Frank 
Hall, with John Musser as exhorter. 

Mr. C. Balcom was ajjpointed the first class leader in July, 1873. 
At the time of organization the membership was about fifty and has 
grown until it now numbers 148. The Ladies Aid Society has thirty- 
five members. The Sunday School was instituted in 1877 with fifty 


members. T. J. Adams was the first superintendent. Tlie present 
trustees of the church projierty are George Long, Henry Sergeant, 
C. Newell, H. C. Hoover, C. *G. Craven and Fred Lancaster. The 
stewards are ]Mrs. C. G. Craven, jNIrs. E. Bolton, INIrs. Ida Lancaster, 
George Long, Charles Craven. 

Tlie following pastors have served the church: R. H. Crane. A. 
H. Summers. J. W. Dobbs, W. J. Barger, George M. Jones, George 
S. Burbank. 1894 to 189.5; E. J. Bird, 189.5 to 1897: E. F. Wolff, 
1897 to 1900; A. W. CofFman, 1900 to 1901 ; G. M. Andrews, 1901 to 
1903; J. E. Rippetoe, 1903 to 1905; T. M. C. Birmingham, 1905 to 
1906; B. L. Story, 1900 to 1907; K. P. Kilbourn, 1907 to 1908: O. C. 
Carson, 1908 to 1909; J. E. Gains, 1911; J. S. Mercer, 1911 to 1912; 
John T. Rowen, 1912 to 1913; M. S. Foutch, 1914 to 1916. The 
present pastor, H. A. Laeger. has served since September. 1916. 


The Church Of The Brethren of Juniata was organized under the 
general name of The Gei-man Baptist Brethren. But the name Avas 
changed to the present designation a few years ago at one of the 
international conferences. A church house of the denomination was 
built at a cost of $1,200 early in the summer of 1893 and dedicated 
tliat season. 

The Juniata church was organi/.ed December 17. 1892, with David 
Bechtelheimer as first elder, and William A. Gish, J. D. Lemon and 
Robert Ashmore as trustees. William A. Gish was the first treasurer 
and Belle Lemon the first clerk. 

The charter members were: "Slv. and ^Nlrs. David Bechtelheimer, 
Polly Bechtelheimer, INIr. and Mrs. A. P. Kindig. "Slary Kindig, 
JVIichael Liveringhouse, Lydia I^iveringhouse, Susan Smith, JNIr. and 
Mrs. J. D. Lemon, S. Belle Lemon, Mr. and JNIrs. Robert Ashmore, 
Dora Ashmore, Sarah McFerrin, Emma Liveringhouse, Thomas 
Liveringhouse, Cora Liveringhouse, Jacob Dague, Ella Dague, 
William A. Gish, Sarah Gish, Lillie Panzer, Ida N. Gish, Francis 
Gisli, Bertie Gish, John Gish and Charles Statler. 

Tlie following have been the elders in charge of the clun-ch : David 
Bechtelheimer. 1892-93: G. W. Stambaugh. 1893-97; J. J. Kindig. 
1897-98; Charles Smith. 1898-1900; J. B. JMoore. 1900-08; George 
Mishler, 1908-09; C. Hargleroad, 1909-12; P. F. Grabill. 1912-13: C. 
Hargleroad, 1913-14; J. J. Panzer, 1914-16. 

During these years the ministerial work has fallen to others as 
pastors a part of the time, even while some of the foregoing have lieen 


elder or Ijishop of the church. The ministers who have been pastors 
in such instances have been: J. D. Lemon, A. J. Nickey, C. E. 
Lemon, Noah Fisher, C. Fager. H. D. INIichael is the present 
pastor and has served the church since June, 1915. 

The present trustees are Louie McFerrin, J. D. Lemon and 
George Blankenbiller; Louie JNIcFerrin, treasurer; Belle Lemon, 
clerk. The jiresent membership is thirty. 

During the latter part of 1916, the church was moved to a more 
convenient location, and was repaired and remodeled at an approxi- 
mate cost of $500. 



Tlie Kenesaw site was located June 9, 1871, l)y S. P. How- 
land, now living in Juniata, Milton F. Brown, Charles Colt and J. 
D. Butler, Jr. The foiu- original settlers preempted the fom* quarters 
of section 34, town 8, range 12. ^Recalling the circumstances ]Mr. 
Howland said: "I sent teams to Grand Island for lumber to build 
the shack and it was built that month, June. The first five nights I 
spent upon the site of Kenesaw it rained everj- night and I slept imder 
an inverted wagon box. Our drinking water at first had to be hauled 
from Lowell, ten miles to the west, b>it a ^^•eII was boi-ed about the 
third day after we arrived. 

"Antelopes and coyotes used to come close to our cabins and we 
could shoot them from our doors. That fall, two families came to 
live near our houses. Napoleon Bonaparte Hamp Avas on the farm 
now occupied by the jNIisses Norton and Jim Sweeting was on a quar- 
ter adjoining town. In January, 1 872. all four of us who Avere located 
on the town site sold to the Burlington Railroad." 

In June, 187*2, Kenesaw was surveyed by Anselmo B. Smith for 
Charles F. ]\Iorse. The system of streets and avenues was designated 
as follows : The southern boundary is Spruce Street and then parallel- 
ing Spruce in order are Pine and Poplar streets, south of South 
Depot Street; north of North Depot Street are JNIaple, Elm and 
Ash streets. The avenues run north and south. On the west is 
Bi'obks Avenue and then comes Forbes, Dennison, Smith, Perkins 
and Doane avenues. The avennes bear the names of members of the 
South Platte Land Company, who laid out many towns in this section 
of the West. The town was platted by J. H. Cummings. 

The greater part of the plat south of the railroad was subse- 

(juently vacated and the extremes of the north side also. Following 

the building of the railroad from Kenesaw to Denver along the 

jjresent route Kenesaw took on something of the nature of a boom 



and its most substantial groA\i:h has been made since that time. Ad- 
(iitions to the town have been made from time to time. Cook's 
addition was surveyed by T. E. Farrell in JNIarch, 1885. Parmenter's 
second addition was surveyed by C. A. Heartwell, October 4, 1909, 
fnr L. W. Parmenter, and Powers' subdivision of block four of 
Thompson's addition was surveyed by Mr. Heartwell October 13, 

It is fortunate for the annals of Kenesaw that the first actual 
settler in that vicinity, Dr. A. D. Williams, was a man who wielded a 
facile pen and also had a penchant for making accurate records. "The 
i-ailroad was laid out across this section and finished," wrote Doctor 
A^'^illiams, "in June, 1872, through to Kearney. The Kenesaw town- 
site was laid out a little before but the depot was not built imtil along 
in the fall — I believe the latter part of October or the first of Novem- 

"After the preemptors left, the four houses were not occupied and 
no one lived on the townsite until about the first of December, when 
Mrs. INI. S. Norton moved into one of them and acted as deputy post- 
master, a postoffice having in the meantime been established, and A. 
D. Williams appointed postmaster. For a brief period before JMrs. 
Norton moved onto the townsite ]Mr. Williams' house on the south- 
east quarter of section 26, 8, 12, was designated by the Gov- 
ernment as the location of the postoffice." Three of the original 
houses built upon the townsite were blown down and destroyed in the 
Easter storm of 1873. 

The following quotation from Doctor AVilliams gives a detailed 
account of the earliest settlers in the vicinity of Kenesaw: "INIr. Fred 
Einst settled on the Platte River, nearly six miles north of Kenesaw. 
in the spring of 1872, and he and his sons became not only the oldest 
but among the most substantial citizens of that section of the country. 
The first permanent settler anywhere near Kenesaw was A. D. 
"Williams on the southwest quarter of section 26, 8, 12, August 16. 
1872. He came thither in a 'prairie schooner,' and he with Mrs. 
"Williams, Katie and George lived three weeks in the covered wagon 
box, setting up the cook stove outside of it. in a kitchen bounded only 
by tlie liorizon. 

"Their first visitors were Pawnee Indians returning from a hunt 
over on the u])per Republican. Seeing the schooner deployed from 
I lie trail, wliich was along the sand hills near where INIr. JMoon lives, 
they came and plied their begging art so successfully tliat a trip had 
to be made next day to Juniata to replenish tlie larder. They, as well 


as the Omahas, frequently called afterward, but were never again 
so successful. 

"Soon after, a ISlr. Chenowith appeared and entered the south- 
east quarter of section 28, 8, 12, where Bert IMoore later lived, and 
returned to Iowa for his family. Almost at the same time Ed ]Moore. 
Captain Knapp (not JNIiles Knapp), William ^Miller and another 
gentleman arrived and located on section 20 — ]Moore on the south- 
\vest, Knapp on the southeast, JNIiller on the northeast and the other 
man on the northwest quarter. INIoore, Knapj) and ^Miller afterward 
returned and settled. The other never did. 

"The second actual settler was Reverend Willis, who located south- 
west of where JNlr. Wolcott later lived. He was accompanied by his 
wife and sister-in-law, and brought with him carpenters and a donkey 
fiom Lincoln. His first building, and for a time his home, was what 
he afterwards used for a granary, and which Bert ]\Ioore used later 
for a stable. On or about November 25, 1872, "SIjs. INIary S. Norton 
and her four children arrived from JNIinnesota. James Cline settled 
on what was in a later period known as the 'Shattuck farm.' Several 
other entries were made, but so far as I can remember, these were all 
of the actual settlers during 1872. 

"Early in 1873 there was quite an influx of settlers. Among 
them were E. A. Loomis, Anson Looniis, L. W. Parmenter, Edward 
Moore, Captain Knajjp. Rockfeller, F. Phillips, Robert and John 
Harter and two Stonehockers «ho settled on the south half of sec- 
tion 2-i and on the southeast quarter of section 26, on what is now 
^Ir. Schlegel's farm, and the two Shattuck brothers. '\V. Z. Par- 
menter had arrived from Ohio in November, 1871. and located on a 
homestead on section 20, 7, 11." 


INIrs. M. S. Norton, who occupied one of the four houses first built 
:i) Kenesaw and who was the deputy postmaster under A. D. AVil- 
liams. died in Kenesaw July 9, 1894. Doctor Williams died in Kene- 
saw December 31st, of the same year. 

Delmar D. Norton, the son of INIrs. M. S. Norton, was the first 
station agent in Kenesaw. He remained in the position until Kene- 
saw was made a telegraph station when, not having learned teleg- 
raphy, he resigned and afterward became a prominent business man 
of Kenesaw. 

The first general merchandise store in Kenesaw was built liy 
.Josiah Hodges, who had his ])lace ojien for business by August, 1873. 



In the winter of 1873-74 IMr. Hodges sold his business to Edward 
]Moore, Avho was the next settler in tlie town. The next business to 
be established was an iiniilement house. This was managed l)y S. S. 
I3ow, who conducted tlie business for E. Steinau, who lived in Has- 
tings and was one of the first business men of that town. J. G. Hayz- 
lett opened a grocery and hardware store in the spring of 1878 and 
the following year G. B. Crandall began business with a general 
stock of goods. G. W. Baldwin opened the first blacksmith shop in 
1877. In 1878 Edward INIoore sold his store to A. S. Thompson and 
later in the fall J. H. Roberts started a general store. 

In the summer of 1884 Kenesaw was incorporated as a village. 
Tlie year before an attempt had been made to incorporate but the 
county commissioners had refused on the ground that the petition 
did not contain the names of a majority of the taxpayers. 

The first death in the town was that of Jessie Hodges, a child of 
.Fosiah Hodges, in the winter of 1873. The first adult to die was JMrs. 
Maria ]Moore, the wife of Edward INIoore, in 1875. The first birth 
also was in 187-5, when a child was born to JNIr. and Mrs. S. S. Dow. 

An inkling of the satisfactory growth which the village of Kene- 
saw has enjoyed can be gained when the value of the original four 
shacks erected in 1871 ujion the bare town site is compared with the 
valuation of the village as it stands upon the record of the county 
assessoi- in 1910. The record shows that there are in the village 383 
im])roved lots with an actual value, with the improvements, of $233,- 
440, and 202 unimproved lots with an actual value of $19,28.5. The 
average actual value of the improved lots is given as $609.50 each, 
and of the unimproved lots, $94.47. The value of the improvements 
is iilaced at $180,100. 

In January. 1884, among the business men of Kenesaw were E. 
X. Crane, M. F. White and A. Barton, general merchants; J. G. 
Hayzlett. proprietor of a then new hotel, the IMetropolitan ; J. A. 
Lindsey, manager of Sewell & Co.'s grain business; Cook & Cooley. 
lumber dealers; Barton & Collins, grain dealers; A. S. Thompson, 
(hugs; H. W. INIitchell and W. F. Manspeaker, hardware dealers; 
A. S. ]Martin, agricultural implements; R. B. Grounds, furniture; 
George Bechtelheimer, manager of Neimeyer & Co.'s lumber yard; D. 
A. Kennedy, restaurant; Smith & Schafer, dealers in meat; John 
Xickerson, billiard hall; L. C. White, barber; J. Williams, physician; 
the ]Misses Osier, milliners; Cook Bros., blacksmiths; G. W. Hodges, 
laundry; B. F. Armitage, insurance agent; Horace Armitage, builder, 
and George T. Williams, publisher of the Kenesaw Times. In INIay, 
1884, Kemp & Hope moved into their new hardware store and the 
Gillette Bank Building was opened. 


Nick Scunk's restaurant is the oldest business in Kenesaw in con- 
tinuous operation. 

Among the very earliest 2)ioneers who still reside in the vicinity of 
Kenesaw, are: Charles, Fred, William and Henry Ernst, sons of 
Fred Ernst, who settled in the Platte Valley in 1872; Mrs. I. D. 
Evans and ]Mary H. Williams, daughters of Mr. and jMrs. A. D. 
Williams; JNIisses ]Marilla and ]Melena Norton, daughters of ]Mr. and 
Mrs. ^I. S. Norton. W. Z. Parmenter is probably the earliest settler 
now residing in the township. 


The first brick building was erected in Kenesaw in 1902 by F. S. 
Cary at the corner of Smith Avenue and North Railroad Street. 
This building was one story in height and was erected at a cost of 
about $16,000. Since that time there has been a good deal of build- 
ing with brick and at present Kenesaw has eleven brick buildings and 
three cement stone business buildings. 

Among the business men of Kenesaw at the pi-esent time are 
J. G. Jones, W. A. CaufFman and the Stanley ]Mercantile Co.; 
C. G. Schlegel, hardware; ^Mikkelsen Drug Company, and Kenesa^v 
Drug Company (Cameron & Schunk), drugs; Rollo Pade. jewelry; 
Thomas Ramsey and Stephen Schultz, harness shops; Fischer Bros., 
Bert Harpham and I. E. Hershey, three blacksmith shops: H. Eins- 
pahr and R. Beal. pumps, wells and plumbing: Li])erty ^I. Rol)in- 
son, manager Lininger Imiilement Company; Walter Schultz, man- 
ager Stephen Schultz Implement Company; L. L. Weaver,- man- 
ager Kenesaw ]\Iill & Elevator Company, also sell farm implements; 
E. M. Jenkins, manager Empire Lumber Company; L. L. Weaver, 
manager Kenesaw INIill & Elevator Comj^any, also sell coal and lum- 
ber; D. R. INIikesell and H. D. Billesbach, barber shops; Dr. W. E. 
Nowers and Dr. F. A. Townley, physicians; C. H. Hartwig, dentist; 
Mrs. Jennie Powers, millinery; G. F. Whitesell. landlord Cottage 
Hotel; W. G. Hawes, F. C. Armitage and Sipple Bros., garage pro- 
prietors, the latter firm from Hastings; William Hines and S. AVertz, 
veterinarians; W. F. Davis, furniture store; F. I. Parker & Sons, 
meat market. In addition to those named Kenesaw has two restau- 
rants, one shoe repairing business, two real estate offices, two pool 
halls, three dray lines, one livery, feed and sale barn. 

The Cottage Hotel Avas erected in 1887 by T. F. Cain and oj^er- 
ated by him until it was purchased in 1907 by G. F. Whitesell. The 
Kenesaw Opera House was erected by Dr. E. J. Latta in 1910 and 


destroj-ed by fire in 1912. It was not rebuilt. E. E. Ragsdale was 
a pioneer druggist. His building was destroyed by fire in 1911 after 
be had quit business. 

F. S. Carey was a prominent business man of Kenesaw about six 
years. He now resides at Long Beach, Cal., having left Kene- 
saw about 1904. K. J. \Vhite, who left Kenesaw about twenty years 
ago, after conducting a general store for ten years, is now located in 

Kenesaw has two banks. The Kenesaw Exchange Bank, opened 
in 1883, has been a sound and reliable institution dvu'ing the thirty- 
three years of its existence. The present officers are: A. L. Clark, 
president; S. A. Westing, vice president; and H. R. Caplin, cashier. 
It has a paid-up capital of $20,000. 

The First State Bank was started by Herman Redman and asso- 
ciates. It has had a very successful career and a steady growth. It 
has a fine brick banking house, has $15,000 capital and enjoys the 
confidence of the community. B. J. Hilsabeck is president and the 
main factor in its management. 


Kenesaw has had a municipally owned electric light plant since 
1910 and nmnicipally owned waterworks since 1911. July 1.5, 1910, 
bonds for an electric light plant Avere voted in the sum of $4,500, the 
vote being 89 for the bonds and 58 against. The plant was erected 
at a cost of about $8,000. Electric street ligliting is maintained and 
tlie plant has 100 light customers. There is a sliding scale for rates, 
the price for commercial current being from fifteen cents to six cents 
per kilowatt hour and for residence lighting from twenty cents to 
eight cents with a minimum of one dollar per month. 

It required two attempts to carry the bonds for waterworks. The 
first proposition was for $20,000 and the vote was 109 for the bonds 
and 4-2 against. The bonds were declared by the canvassers to have 
carried, but later upon a legal techirfcality they were declared lost. 
The next vote was on February 28, 1911, when 123 votes were cast 
for the bonds and 42 against. The amount voted was $18,500 and 
tlie plant was constructed that year. The water plant has 125 cus- 
tomers and the rate is 15 cents per 1,000 gallons, witli a minimum of 
$2 per quarter. 

Kenesaw has two flour nu'lls. The Kenesaw ]Mill & Elevator 
Company, and the Whiteley IMilling Company's plant. Each of the 
mills has a capacity of upwards of fifty barrels per day. The Kene- 


saw ^Nlill & Elevator Company was incorporated February lo, 1916, 
with a capital stock of $20,000 divided into 200 shares, and the pur- 
pose of the corporation is stated to be the buying of grain and the 
manufacture of flour. The incorporators were J. H. Augustin, 
L. L. Weaver, Peter Augustin and Charles ]Moritz. 

The Whiteley JNIilling Company was incorporated April 21, 1916. 
the incorporators being Owen Whiteley, William Coulter, Liberty 
M. Roljinson, John Shurigar, John Cain, Vic Trueman and Frank 
Harpham. The authorized capital stock is $6,000, divided into 100 
shares. New machinery recently bought has doubled the capacity of 
the mills. 

The forming of the Kenesaw Telephone Company was a direct 
result oi' the Farmers' Institute which was maintained for about 
fourteen years. One of the lecturers suggested the telephone as an 
utility that tlie farmers might maintain for themselves. W. Z. Par- 
menter was struck with the idea and mentioned it to Dr. E. J. I^atta, 
who conducted a paper in Kenesaw at that time. The editor dis- 
cussed the subject editorially and a meeting Mas called. In INIarch, 
1904, a corporation was formed with eight members, each subscrib- 
ing for $2.50 worth of stock. 

Of this organization F. S. Carey was the president, W. Z. Par- 
menter, vice president, and Dr. E. J. Latta, secretary. These, with 
the following, composed the board of directors: S. A. Westing, A. S. 
Howard, Stephen Schultz. George Wolcott and D. D. Norton. The 
first year about twenty miles of line was constructed and at the end 
of the first year a dividend of 10 per cent was voted through the 
issuance and sale of stock. The following year the lines were con- 
siderably extended. S. A. Westing was the president the second 
year. A dividend of 8 per cent was declared to again be paid 
by the issuance of stock. Each year subsequently a dividend of 8 
per cent has been paid in cash. Free service is maintained with 
Prosser, Juniata. Heartwell and Holstein. The monthly rate for 
residence phone is $1.2.5 per month and $2 for business phones. 
The company has about five hundred subscribers. 

The present officers of the telephone company are A. S. Howard, 
president: Herman Coplin, secretary, and the remainder of the 
directors. H. E. Rose, S. A. Westing. E. Wicks, E. E. Weaver. W. 
Z. Parmenter and Cal Osier. 


The narrative of the establishing of the Kenesaw school district 
is of interest hot only because the institution has flourished with com- 


iiiendable success but because the question of location divided the 
early settlers sharijly. Dr. A. D. ^Villianis has left a very interest- 
ing account of the struggle. "Early in 1873," wrote Doctor Williams, 
"it was found that there were twenty-seven children of school age in 
the district, in which there was a large amount of taxable railroad 
land and property, while the settlers were nearly all homesteaders, and 
paid very little taxes. So A. D. Williams proposed that $4,000 of 
lionds be issued, running for only five years, so that the burden would 
rest largely on the two railroads — most of the land being l^nion 
Pacific land — before the settlers would pay much taxes. 

"Strange to relate there was opposition to the jiroposition, most 
of it from people who had a good supply of children and next to no 
taxes. But the bonds were issued, the house built in 187-1, and both 
tlie railroads and some of the homesteaders kicked. The question of 
location proved a bone of contention. The settlers north and south 
of the railroad were about equal in numbers and generally voted ac- 
cording to location. At the first meeting the vote was for a south 
side location. The railroad refused to deed the site and the question 
!iad to be reconsidered. At the second meeting the present site, on the 
north side, was selected, some of those south of the road voting for it. 
Eut the south siders opposed to the north side site commenced a war 
ujion the erection of the building. A suit was commenced and an in- 
junction secured. Tlie court, however, dissolved the injunction and 
dismissed the suit and the work of building the house went on. The 
only sharp practice — if such it be called — which I as agent of the 
town site company practiced during the whole matter, was to se- 
cure through the county superintendent such a readjustment of the 
lioundary of the district, by strictly legal process, as left Reverend 
'\^''illis outside, and before he knew it. 

"Then came a struggle to prevent paying the bonds in the five 
years, led on by the railroads, and favored by some persons having 
considerable taxable property. The object of the railroads was ob- 
vious — to prevent paj'ment until they had disposed of their lands in 
\\hich they secured manifest advantage to the equally obvious disad- 
vantage of the settlers. But as most of the parties to this arrange- 
ment remained in the district until the bonds Avere paid, it is not so 
easy to see where the benefit to them came in, for relieving the rail- 
roads and throwing the amount of their relief upon the old settlers 
who had proved up on their lands in the meantime, and on the new 
settlers that liad come in." Connected with the early years of the 
scliool was a weekly literary society which held the interest not only of 
tlie pu])ils but of tlie whole community, and freciuently presented fine 


public programs. "The Literary" met the social as well as the intel- 
lectual needs of the time. 

The schoolhouse erected in 1874 was a two-story frame building 
which, with a north extension and other improvements, served as the 
schoolhouse until the erection of the present brick building in 1912. 
Bonds for the new schoolhouse in the sum of $25,800 were voted 
November 11, 1911. The plans and specifications were made by W. 
F. Germandt of Fairbury and the general contract was let to Philly 
& JMcHale of Deshler and Fairbury upon their bid of $19,035. The 
contract for plumbing and the installation of the steam heating plant 
was let to Peter N. Kjar of Holdrege for $5,255. 

The Kenesaw High School is on the accredited list and has twelve 
grades. The class of 191(3 numbered twenty-three, the largest in the 
history of the school. Domestic science, normal training, commercial 
and agricultural dejDartments are maintained as well as playground 
apparatus. About $1,500 was received in 1915 in tuition from out- 
of-the-district pupils. 

The board serving when the new schoolhouse was built were: T. 
C. Branson, chairman; F. C. Armitage, B. F. Schlegel, I. D. Evans, 
S. A. Westing and C. H. Combs. The present board are B. J. Hil- 
sabeck, F. C. Armitage, B. F. Schlegel, JMrs. Lucy K. Partridge, T. 
C. Branson and Dr. Walter E. Nowers. B. F. Schlegel has served 
continuously on the board for thirty-five years. The superintend- 
ent of the Kenesaw schools at present is Reuben G. Dunlap; principal 
of the high school, Edna C. Baker; other teachers, Marie Hollister, 
Harriet Oxer. L. M. Lattin. Alta Bentz. Katherine Smith and Ruth 


Kenesaw is not lacking in religious and worshii^ing facilities. 
There are in the village at present seven church organizations. The 
INfethodist Episcopal was the first organized church in Kenesaw, but 
after the downfall of the Rev. Royal H. Crane and the moving away 
of some of its members there was no Methodist preaching for awhile. 

Largely through the efforts of J. G. Hayzlett and the Joneses, 
Presbyterian preaching and eventually a Presbyterian Church was 
established. Until 1883 all denominations worshiped in the school- 
house, dividing the time between them, although tliis arrangement 
led to considerable friction. 


The records of the Kenesaw Methodist Church indicate that fol- 
lowing the collapse of the first organization made in the early '70s 


by Rev. R. A. Crane the denomination did not have a pastor of 
their own until 1884.. The Free Will Baptists erected a house of 
worship in June^of that year and the Methodists worshiped in this 
church. After the erection of the Presbyterian Church they some- 
times met in that church alternating with the use of the Baptist house. 
Sometimes, service was held in Crane's Hall. 

In the spring of 1893 the denomination erected their own church 
huihling. In the early fall of that year the building was destroyed 
by lightning. Services were conducted by the pastor, Rev. F. A. 
Colony, and a subscription started for a new church. The present 
edifice was completed that fall at a cost of $3,500. A parsonage was 
subsequently built which the church records show to be valued at $900 
in 1900, $1,550 in 1910 and $1,800 in 1916. At about the time that 
the church was built in Kenesaw the ^Nlount Zion Cliurch, midway be- 
tueen Juniata and Kenesaw was erected, but in 1915 this church was 
moved into Kenesaw where it is now used as a hall by the Epworth 
Ijeague and the Ladies' Aid Society. When tlie Kenesaw church 
was first organized it was on the Juniata circuit of the Beatrice dis- 
trict of which Rev. J. B. JNIaxfield was the presiding elder. In 1880 
it came within the Hastings district. Among the early members 
were E. B. ^Nloore. L. B. Partridge, E. N. Crane, Mr. and Mrs. 
George Kidd and H. E. Rose. The membership of the church at 
]iresent is 135. The following pastors have served the churcli: 
J. G. Walker, 1884; T. J. Fink, 1885; Isaac New, 1886; 
K.M. Hardman, 1887 to 1889, inchisive; M. DeMott, 1890 to 1892. 
inclusive; F. A. Colony, 1893 to 1897, inclusive; J. P. Badgeley. 
1898: :\I. A. Wimberly, 1899; E. D. Gideon, 1900, served year and 
a half: S. W. Gamble, three months in 1901; Howard P. Young, last 
tliree months of 1901 to 1904. inclusive; A. V. Grossman, 1905 and 
1906; E. M. Reed, 1907 and 1908; Paul B. Wright, 1909 to 191), 
inclusive; R. B. E. Hill, 1912 and 1913; M. S. Foutch, 1914; R. B. 
Barr. 1915 to September, 1916. The present pastor, T. H. Worley. 
has served since September. 1916. 


This chin-ch was organized November 13. 1883. The cliarter mem- 
bers were Rev. A. D. Williams, D. D., and wife, Sarah Harn Williams, 
James R. Currier, Lewis Currier, Lydia Currier, Kate Boley, Sarah 
J. Needham, Perry Hodges and Annie Currier. The church was 
dedicated July 13, 1884, by Prof. Ransom Dunn. Dr. A. D. 
^Villiams, tlie clerk of tlie church, superintended the building, and 


raised the money to pay for the church with the exception of $200 
which was appropriated for the purpose of assistance by the general 
conference at iSIinneapohs. This jjhase of co-operation in the Baptist 
denomination Doctor Williams took great interest in promoting, and 
he wrote a history of the movement in a volume entitled, "Four Years 
of Co-oi^eration." This was the first church to be erected in Kenesaw. 

Doctor Williams was the first pastor and the following named 
pastors (not, however, in exact order) have served the church: R. N. 
Bonk, J. D. Fry, George W. KnapjJ, Edward Chace, Howard R. 
jMurphy, now a missionary to India. Rev. Frank Tilton, Rev. Lock- 
wood, Harry C. Wolsot, W. F. Davis, ]Miss Wilmette JNIarks, Rev. 
H. M. Burns, who served only a month or two and was succeeded by 
Rev. Louise Dewey, Rev. N. C. Powers, who became pastor in 1900 
and served two years, Rev. M. F. Sturdevant, who took charge in 
1911, Mrs. Lizzie JNIcAdams, who was chosen in 1913, and Rev. W. F. 
Davis, who served the church from 1904 to 1907, and has been serving 
a second term since 1914. Edward Chace was succeeded by a lady 
Avhose name has been forgotten. Joseph Westley, W. H. Edger 
and J. C. Dazey did successful work for the church in its early days 
as evangelists. 

Dr. Alvin D. AVillianis and his wife, Sarah Harn Williams, filled 
a very large place in the religious and intellectual life of the com- 
munity. Mrs. Williams was l)orn in ^Maryland in 182.5 and died in 
Kenesaw February 4, 1900. Before her marriage in 18.50 ]Mrs. Wil- 
liams was Sarah Harn. She was a woman of wide reading and at a 
period when it was unusual for girls to acquire more than the rudiments 
of an education jMiss Harn was a student at Cedar Hill Seminary 
in Southern Pennsylvania and afterwards a teacher. 

Doctor Williams was a graduate of Hamilton College, New ^"ork, 
and at different times held pastorates with the Free Baptist Church 
at Carolina Mills, R. I.; Pawtucket, R. I.; Lawrence, INIass. : JMinne- 
apolis and Fairport, JMinn. He served as the head of several schools 
among others, principal of the Nebraska State Normal at Peru 
and Oakland City College, Oakland, Ind. Among his literary 
productions are "History of the Free Baptists in Rhode Island." 
"History of the Free Communion Baptists," "Four Years of Co- 
operation in Nebraska." "Tlie Church and Its Institutions" and a 
biogra])hy of Rev. Benoni Stinson, the originator of tlie General 
Baptist denomination in the United States. 


The Presbyterian Church at Kenesaw was organized January 7 6. 
1879. The following were the charter members: Mr. and jNIrs. J. 


G. Hayzlett, J. B. Elwood, Mrs. L. M. Ellrod, G. C. Giffin, Mrs. 
P. N. Giffin, JNIr. and Mrs. Joseph L. Frank, Mrs. Henrietta INIoon 
and jNIr. and Mrs. Samuel Jones. The first ruling elders were J. G. 
Hayzlett and Joseph L. Frank. The first new members received 
were Mr. and JNIrs. T. Bolton Burns, who united with the Kenesaw 
Church the September following organization. The church Mas 
organized by Rev. George L. Little, Synodical missionary for 

The congregation worshiped in the Kenesaw schoolhouse until 
the present church was erected in the summer of 1883. It has a seat- 
ing cajjacity of about one hundred fifty and the present membership 
is eighty. The parsonage was built about 190G and has a present 
valuation of about $2,500. The present ruling elders are F. M. Den- 
man, Charles K. Bm-ling, W. U. Nichol and Orville Caldwell. The 
trustees are ]Mrs. A. Cauffman, Mrs. J. L. Templeton, E. S. Jones, 
B. J. Hilsabeck, William Coulter and Albert Nelson. 

The following have been the pastors: George C. GifFen. Janu- 
ary. 1879, to November, 1883; A. Folson, November, 1883, to Novem- 
ber, 1884; J. L. Lawler, November, 1884, to jNIay, 188.5; J. P. Black. 
September, 1885, to August, 1887: James S. Young, JNIay 20. 1888. 
to September 2, 1888: ]M. L. JNIilford, December 8, 1889. to November 
0. 1890; W. E. Andrews, February 25, 1891. to Jmie 1, 1893; Sam- 
uel B. JMoyer, June 1, 1893. to December 3, 1894.; Charles H. Brouil- 
lette, JNIarch 1, 1895, to July. 1898; T. H. Dry, January, 1899, to 
December, 1900; W. J. Brooks, March, 1901. to JMarch, 1903; A. 
M. Shepherd, May, 1903, to December, 1904; Joel Warner, Ain-il, 
1905, to September, 1907; Oscar Bostrom, JSIarch, 1909, to Septem- 
ber, 1909; H. W. Evart, November, 1909, to JMarch, 1910; R. J. 
Bethower, May, 1910; John J. G. Graham, 1911 and 1912. The 
present j^astor, John W. Hill, assumed charge, January 1, 1913. 


An effort to organize this denomination in the early '80s did not 
])rove successful. The present church was organized Novemlier 22, 
1909, by Dr. Charles Reign Scoville, the evangelist. The charter 
members were Mr. and JNIrs. W. Z. Parmenter, Mr. and JNIrs. E. J. 
Eatta, JNIrs. Dillon, Ethel Dillon, O. JNIikesell, J. T. Aker, Harley 
Parmenter, JNIrs. E. E. Alshouse, JNIrs. Thomas Jones. JNIrs. O. JNIike- 
sell, Bess and JNIildred Latta. The congregation worshiped before 
the erection of the church sometimes in the First State Bank and in 
Eatta Hall. The erection of the church was begun in the s])ring of 


1912 and on November 10th of that year it was dedicated. The build- 
ing committee was W. Z. Parmenter, Thomas Ramsey, E. J. Latta 
and A. S. Howard. The present membership is sixty-five. 

The following have been the pastors: Charles Cobbey, until 1911 ; 
R. A. Batie, 1911; Chancellor Oeschager, a short time in 1912; J. H. 
Bieknell completed 1912; E. H. ^Nlurry, seven months in 1913; Miss 
Lizzie ]McAdams, three months in 1914; L. A. Bronbaugh, seven or 
eight months in 1915; Frank INIajors, two months in 1916. At pres- 
ent the church is without a pastor. 


The Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene was organized INIay 23, 
1911, by Rev. Q. A. Deck with thirty-one charter members. The 
first stewards were Nelson Jaco, Harry Peck. Frank Bahlke. 

The present stewards are Nelson Jaco, jNIrs. Olive Peck, Evert 
Peck. JMrs. JNIartha Baugh, ]Mrs. Emma JNIcFerren, JNIrs. Lore Dick 
and ]Mrs. Frank Bahlke; treasurer, Mrs. Lily Anderson; secretary, 
Eldora Baugh; trustees. Harry Peck, Frank Bahlke and Will Mc- 
Ferren. The house of worship which was dedicated November 12, 
1911. has a seating capacity of 175. There are at present thirty mem- 

Rev. Q. A. Deck ministered to the congregation for a time and 
has been followed by INIiss Louise Dewey, JNIay 1 to July 1, 1912; 
Theodore and Minnie E. Ludwig, October 1, 1912, to September 14. 
1913; Rev. N. D. Essley, September 28, 1913, to September, 1914; 
A. C. Holland, September 14, 1914. to September 1, 191.3: H. C. 
Williams, September 1, 191.5, to July 16, 1916. The present pastor 
Rev. .Tames J. Brady, has been in charge since October 1, 1916. 


The Evangelical Cluu'ch was organized in 1878 and has enjoyed 
a satisfactory growth, being now one of the strong churches of Kene- 
saw. Among the charter members were Ernest Budy, Green Cullop, 
Charles Oliver, J. W. Bobbitt, Reuben Budy. IMrs. JNIary Jones. 
Charles Schlehouf, O. A. Bentz and B. Young. 


Kenesaw Lodge, No. 144, A. F. & A. M., was organized January 
28, 1885. The charter members were Henry E. Norton, John G. 
Havzlett, George W. Wolcott, John B. Brown, Robert B. Brown. 


Luther B. Partridge, Eli N. Crane, Truman P. Booth, John W. 
Bobbitt and JNIilton Young. The lodge now has sixtj- members. 
The present officers are Raj^ Fulmer, master; John Ramsey, senior 
warden; Dr. Walter E. Nowers, junior warden; L, M. Robinson, 
secretary, and B. F. Schlegel, treasurer. 

A. o. u. w. 

Kenesaw Lodge, A. O. U. W., No. 188, was organized March 
•2(i, 1891. The first officers were ^NIcKendrey DeJNIott, past master 
workman; Harry ]M. Russell, master workman; Eugene B. Moore, 
foreman; Clarence Powell, overseer; Philander E. Hatch, recorder; 
John Patterson, overseer; Josephus Williams, receiver. This lodge 
now has a membership of 100. The present officers are "W. C. Hines, 
master workman; D. R. jNIikesell, foreman; R. A. Fulmer, overseer; 
O. A. Armitage, financier; C. L. Schunk, secretary; Dr. W. E. 
Nowers, receiver; Arthur jMavis, guide. 


Help Lodge, No. 86, was organized June 8, 1898. The first 
ofKcers were ]\Iargret Coulter, past chief; Ella Hofi^man, lady of 
honor: Emma Fonger, chief of honor; Lam'a E. Andrews, chief of 
ceremony; L. JNI. Robinson, recorder; Lavina Williamson, receiver: 
Amy Robinson, financier; Mary JNIartin, L. of LT.; John Clark, in- 
side watch; Charles Ramsey, outside watch. The present officers are 
]Mrs. Henry Huffman, chief of honor; ]Mrs. Alma Groff, lady of 
honor; Mrs. Dan Martin, past chief; INIrs. Charles Pritchard, chief 
of ceiemony; Myh. Grant Ruby, recorder. 


I. O. O. F. Lodge, No. 231, was organized August 18. 1898. Tlie 
first officers were E. J. Latta, N. G.; Zenas Smith, V. G.; C. L. Ben- 
son, secretary; John Gearhart, treasurer. The lodge now has 120 
members. The present officers are Dr. Walter E. Nowers, N. G.: 
Seth Lippincott, V. G.; Asa Phillips, secretary; Reuben Bowers, 

Enterprise Lodge, No. 29, Knights of Pythias, was organized 
INIarch 7, 1912, with the following charter members: J. L. Temple- 
ton. W. E. Latta, Frank Bernhard, W. H. Long, B. F. Schlegel. 


Jerry Liijpincott, A. S. Howard, B. C. Hutchinson, Dr. S. J. Stew- 
art, Dr. E. J. Latta, G. F. Whitesell, S. S. Wertz, Ed Alshouse, H. 
G. Larsen and L. M. Robinson. The lodge now has thirty-six mem- 
bers with the following officers: Chancellor commander. Dr. W. E. 
Nowers; vice commander, Ed Dry; master of work, W. C. Hines; 
master of arms, Bruce Temjileton ; keeper of records and seals, Jesse 
Temiileton: treasurer, B. F. Schlegel; prelate, T. F. AVilson. 


Ben Aljjine Castle, No. 74, Royal Highlanders, was organized 
.Tanuarj' 1, 1898. The first officers were A. S. Howard, past illus- 
trious protector; Luther B. Partridge, protector; J. L. Landis, chief 
counsellor; Nelson Jaco, worthy evangel; Fred P. Piccard, secretary; 
Fi'ed S. Gary, treasurer. 

Ambrose Camp, No. 1818, was organized October 31, 1802. The 
charter members were Robert J. Boyd, "Winfield S. Evans, William 
E. Latta. H. L. ]Martin, Clarence Hall, S. H. Smith, Jay Williams 
and Ricliard J. White. 


The first woman suffrage oi-ganization in Adams County was at 
Kenesaw, the first organization being made June 2, 1882, by ]Mrs. 
M. A. Brass. D. D. Norton was the first president of this organi- 
zation, Mrs. J. G. Haj-zlett, vice president; ^Irs. J. H. Cooley, 
secretary; and Mrs. J. H. Roberts, treasurer. 

The present organization was formed in 1903 by Gail Lauglilin 
of Elaine. Ellen D. Harn has been the president since the begin- 
ning. The other officers are JNIrs. F. L. Haller, vice president; jNIrs. 
John Osier, recording secretary; Miss JNIary Williams, correspond- 
ing secretary ; Mrs. Nels INIikkelsen, treasurer; and JNIrs. L. N. Rowers, 
auditor. The organization is active and has a membership of twenty- 
one at present — at times the membership has been as high as fifty. 
Monthly meetings are held and in former years public meetings Avith 
programs were frequently given. Lecturers have been brought to 
Kenesaw by the organization and a generous amount of money has 
been raised for the suffrage cause and delegates have been sent regii- 
larlv to the county and state conventions. 



Tlie Kenesaw Cemetery Association was formed April 26, 1880. 
The first trustees were G. W. Baldwin, ^V. Z. Parmenter and G. C. 
Gitlin. D. D. Norton was the first secretary and J. G. Hayzlett 


A. D. Williams was the first postmaster ajipointed and Mrs. M. S. 
Norton, the deputy, was the acting postmaster with D. D. Norton, 
her son. doing the actual handling of the greater part of the mail. 
The succeeding postmasters have been A. S. Thompson, S. S. Bechtel- 
heimer, T. A. Templeton, Herman D. Einspahr, Luther B. Part- 
ridge, Lucy K. Partridge and the present postmaster, John Cain, who 
was appointed in 1912. Kenesaw has two rural routes that were 
established at about the time the Juniata routes were begun. 


At present W. C. Hines is chairman of the board of town trustees. 
The other members are B. J. Hilsabeck, F. C. Armitage, L. M. Rob- 
inson, Reuben Bowers and E. C. Dry, who is the clerk. The officials 
are elected for a term of two years. 


The west end of the county has fin-nished as representatives in the 
I..egislature Horace G. Armitage, now deceased, Herman Redman 
and A. S. Howard, long prominent in business in Kenesaw. I. D. 
Evans was twice a member of the Legislatvu'e and won a prominent 
place in the House, and through contributions to newspapers has 
attained a state-wide reputation. 


Kenesaw has seen the rise and fall of a number of publications. 
First on the list, while Kenesaw was a mere way station, George and 
Mary Williams started the publication of the Desert Home Times. 
The office of publication Avas on their father's farm, just outside the 
prospective town site. The senior member of the firm was eleven 
years old. It was one of those juvenile iniblications that were (piite 


a fad at that time. The number for September, 187J^, had this item: 
"Peanuts, sweet jDotatoes, limiipkins, bumpkins and various other 
vegetable conmiodities are now plenty at the Desert Home; so says 
Pa." The paper was two columns wide and about eight inches long. 
The first numbers were written, but later it was printed on their 
father's army press. 

In 187.5, A. D. Williams began the publication of the Kenesaw 
Times, at his home joining the town site. Kenesaw was still only a 
few scattered houses with no business to speak of, but ]Mr. ^Villiams 
continued the publication of the Times until January, 1878, when he 
transferred his business and began the publication of the Central 
Nebraskan at Hastings. Thereafter there was no paper at Kenesaw 
until the boom jjeriod of 1883, when the B. & M. Railroad began 
building the Denver cut-off, starting from Kenesaw. From that 
event began the real building of the town and business of Kenesaw. 
It was in that year George T. Williams, the pioneer publisher of 
Kenesaw as proprietor of the Desert Home Times, started a real 
newspaper, the Kenesaw Times. In 1888 he sold the Times and 
3'emoved to Denver, where he has ever since been engaged in news- 
paper work, as printer, j)roof reader, reporter, city editor and editorial 

For a time there were two papers in Kenesaw, Horace Ct. Armi- 
tage starting the Free Press about 188.5. In 1889, G. Del. Coleman 
and H. G. Armitage published the Kenesaw Cyclone. 

The successor to the Times had many editors, the name being 
changed several times. S. H. Smith, lawyer, editor and liveryman, 
edited the paper for many years. He changed the name to Citizen. 
Mr. Smith was prominent in the village for many years, being a 
member of the school board for more than twenty years. He is now 
a resident of Basin, Wyoming.. Dr. E. J. Latta, prominent as 
physician and citizen, edited the paper for a time. J. A. Gardner, 
now of the Holstein Herald, ran the paper about three years, chang- 
ing the name to Kaleidoscope. In 1913, he sold to the present owner 
and editor, Mr. W. W. ISIaltman, who calls it the Kenesaw Sunbeam. 
The Sunbeam has an equipment that would do credit to a larger 
town; a linotype, three job presses and everything else necessary to 
turn out a handsome paper and to do good job work. 


Holstein, situated in the southeast portion of Cottonwood Town- 
ship, is the westernmost town of Adams County, and is the local mar- 
ket accommodating the southwest section of the county. The progress 
of the community siu'rounding the town is reflected in its modern store 
buildings and comfortable residences. The census of 1910 gave 
Holstein a pojndation of 323. The town was named in honor of 
Schleswig Holstein, the northern jjeninsula of the German Empire 
which was the original home of a large proportion of the earliest 
settlers in this section of Adams County. Many of the early settlers 
were Danes and Germans. 

While the pioneers of the neighborhool among whom would be 
Xicholas oNIetzer, August Hohlfeld. INIichael Hargleroad. Christian 
P. Hargleroad, Joseph Huckfeldt and many others whose names are 
well known in Adams County, had filed on their claims at dates rang- 
ing from 1873 to 187o, the Town of Holstein did not exist until the 
coming of the Kansas City & Omaha Railroad, now the Burlington, 
in 1887. Joseph Huckfeldt was the owner of the northeast quarter 
of section 27 and John Golgert the owner of the northwest corner of 
section 26, in township 6 north, range 12 west. In order to establish 
a town at this point the owners of these quarter sections entered into 
an agreement with John ]M. Ragan and INIorris Alexander of Hast- 
ings, and Michael A. Hargleroad by which they jointly were to ac- 
quire title to the land to dispose of for town purposes. The Huckfeldt 
land was conveyed to John jM. Ragan as trustee for himself, Julia 
Sweet and Joseph Huckfeldt and the Golgert land was conveyed to 
jNIorris Alexander as trustee for himself, ^Michael A. Hargleroad and 
John M. Ragan. In June, 191.5, a decree was granted by the Dis- 
trict Court upon the petition of the Village of Holstein, ]\Iichael A. 
Hargleroad, Christ Christensen and Joseph Huckfeldt quitting all 
claims that might arise through the original ownership agreement 
save the claims of those named in the petition as indicated., 

July 22, 1887, the surveyor, E. G. Groff, acting for the trustees, 


John ]M. Ragaii and jMorris Alexander, platted the Town of Hol- 
stein. The survej^or's description of the area platted shows it to 
embrace the north sixty acres of the north half of the northeast quar- 
ter of section 27; ivecisely, 60.1.5 acres and 40.13 acres, which is the 
northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 20. Avenues 
\vere jjlatted north and south and streets east and west. The avenues 
were named West, Brown, James, Claud, Depot, Helen, Clarence, 
Maine, Garfield, Cleveland and Lincoln; the streets were designated 
Adams, Fillmore, Monroe, Jackson, Franklin and Short. Depot 
avenue soon came to be and so continues the principal business thor- 
oughfare. The greater number of the streets were platted sixtj^ feet 
wide but one or more are seventy feet. 

Acting ujDon the jietition of citizens Holstein was incor])orated 
June 6, 1889, two years following its platting. The boundaries of the 
incorjwrated area were defined as follows: Commencing at the north- 
east corner of section 24, running west to the northwest corner of sec- 
tion 19, then south to the southwest corner of section 31, then east to 
the southeast corner of section 36, then north to the northeast corner 
of section 24. This area embraced eighteen sections, one-half of Cot- 
tonwood Township, a tract six miles long and three miles wide, and 
containing 11, .520 acres. Holstein became known as the "Six by Three 
town." Some explain that the village contemi^lated a vigorous growth 
that would demand these proportions while others have it that it was 
necessary to include this great area in order to secure a sufficient num- 
ber of freeholders to meet the requirement of law in petitioning for 
liquor licenses. The population was sparse, hence the necessity of 
incorporating a large area. Tlie movement for detaching a large por- 
tion of the original town resulted in the consent of the village board to 
such detachment July 13, 1913, and on June 14, 191.5, the District 
Coiu't, acting upon the petition of P. C. Larsen and others, declared 
the corporation to be contained in the northeast quarter of section 27, 
the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 26, the south- 
west quarter of the southwest quarter of section 23 and the south one- 
half of the south one-half of the southeast quarter of section 22. At 
the time of incorporation in 1889 the board of supervisors granted 
the petition asking for the appointment of ]M. A. Hargleroad, W. S. 
^NfcCauley, William Hope. C. A. Sipple and George A. Reutley as 
village trustees. 

A postofRce was established in Holstein in 1887 with A. S. 
Thompson as postmaster. Mr. Thompson came to the new town from 
Kenesaw and established the first drug store, in which the postoffice 
was located at the corner of Depot Avenue and Fillmore. He con- 


tinned to be jjostmaster until 1889 when he was succeeded bj^ C. P. 
Hargleroad who served until 1891. Dr. W. T. Carson followed Mr. 
Hargleroad, serving until 1897 when I^ouis Schellenberger assumed 
chai-ge and remained postmaster until 1900. Since then George W. 
JMaxwell, John H. ^loehl, Jolm JNIaxwell and the present incumbent, 
Henry jNI. Carson, brother of Doctor Carson, have served in succession. 

Early in 1888 a grain elevator was built and C. J. Purer was the 
first dealer in grain. In tlie same year J. H. Freeman, of Juniata, 
established a general merchandise store and Hope Bros, opened a 
hardware store. William and Andy Hope were the proprietors of 
this store and continued its operation until 1890 when it was pur- 
chased by the present owner, M. A. Hargleroad. From time to time 
Mr. Hargleroad has improved and enlarged the store. Then Hope 
Bros, came to Holstein from Iowa and upon leaving the town returned 
to that state. 

In 1888 a ]\Ir. McPeak came from Fairfield and established a 
drug store. Scarcely, however, was the proprietor located when the 
place was destroyed by fire and the business discontinued. It was in 
189.5 that the general merchandise store of C. F. Keutzer, who had 
been in business for several years, was destroyed by fire. Another 
file in 190.5 destroyed a restaurant. These losses embrace the fire 
damage to Holstehi uj) to the present time. 

Tlie fii'st hotel in Holstein was conducted by Elijah INIinnix. This 
was an ordinary dwelling house and oiJened for business in about 1889. 
The first meat market was conducted by Herman Feis who opened 
his shop in 1903. 

Sliortly after the establisliing of the town a general merchandise 
store Mas opened by Will and John Young on the southeast corner of 
Depot Avenue and Fillmore Street. The firm name was Young Bros. 
John Fisher i)in"chased this store in 1901, and the firm later became 
Fisher i^ Son. This business was conducted in a frame store building 
until 1911 when the brick establishment in wliich Fisher & Son are now 
located was built. 

In 1893 Louis Schellenberger opened a general merchandise store. 
This luisiness was later sold to Gilbert Maxwell who in turn sold it to 
Will)er Colfman. ]Mr. CofFnian after operating the store a short 
time removed the stock to Kenesaw in 1900. 

Thomas JNIullady opened a general store in abovit 1891, a new 
frame store building being erected for him. This business was pur- 
chased in 1899 by William Westering and George H. Van Antwer]). 
Tlie following year INIr. Westering built a store building opjjosite the 
ijresent location of the Holstein State Bank. This was the first brick 


building to be erected in tlie town and cost about $4,000. The fii'm 
moved into this building and used it for the conduct of their business. 
In 1904 Mr. Westering purchased the interest of his partner who 
removed to California where he still resides. Mr. Westering dis- 
posed of the store in 1911 to Hargleroad & Nelson who two years 
later sold to C. K. Giddings & Son. Since then it has been purchased 
by Laird & ^NlcCauley and the firm name is the Holstein ]Mercantile 
Comjjan}'. The store has a frontage of seventy-five feet. Mr. ]Mul- 
lady who established the business is a partner in the firm of Reed &: 
]Mullady that conducts a general merchandise business in Trumbull in 
Clay County. ]Mr. ^Vestering is in the real estate business at Hastings. 

Two flour mills ^veve established in Holstein. The earlier was 
operated by Schellenberger & Clark and the later by Nicholas JNIetzer. 
Mr. Metzer's mill stood about 200 yards west of the railway station. 
It was a steam roller mill with a capacity of about forty barrels of 
flour i^er day. This enterprise was abandoned in 1892 and the plant 
was removed to Alma. 

In 1900 Holstein got its first telephone service when a line was 
built connecting the town with Bladen. Those instrumental in secur- 
ing this service were George Broil, Dr. W. T. Carson, W. B. Hargle- 
road, Dan Essinger, John Fisher, John JNIoehl, ]M. A. Hargleroad 
and George L. Fisher. A line already existed running north from 
Bladen so that it was only necessary to build six miles more to connect 
with Holstein. Two-by-fom- scantlings were spiked to fence posts 
and over these the wire was strung. In the course of a few years more 
than a dozen of these "Two-by-four" lines came into use in the locality. 

JNIayflower was the name given a postoffice that was established on 
the farm of John Burling, six miles northwest of Holstein. Henry 
Trier carried the mail to and from Holstein, making the trip three 
times each week. This was called the Star route and was abandoned 
when the rural route was established in 1900. The rural route is 
thirty-two miles in length and Frank I^ukow is the present carrier. 

W. S. INIcCaidey established the second newspaper in Holstein. 
This was the Holstein Record. It was discontinued in 1890, a year 
after its establishment. In 1890 a joint stock company was formed 
and the Holstein Nonpareil was founded. Doctor Carson was presi- 
dent of the company and was the editor during the paper's career of 
three years. Both of these papers were four-page weeklies. The 
first paper was established in 1897 by H. G. Woods, who removed his 
I^lant from Ragan and established the Adams County Independent. 
After publishing the paper about a year, the editor removed to Omaha. 
This was the only ])rinting ])laiit to be established in Holstein. The 


Xonpareil was printed by the Watkiiis Publishing House in Hastings 
and the Record was printed in Minden. 

In 1893 a hardware store was established by P. N. Carson. This 
business ^vas carried on for about three years and was then discon- 
tinued. In an early day F. C. Van Veghten established a furniture 
and inidertaking store which is still carried on by the same proprietor. 
For a time Mr. Van Veghten Mas the manager of the lumber yard 
which he operated for the Cooley Lumber Company of Kenesaw. 

In 191.5 W. B. G. Hargleroad erected on Depot Avenue a modern, 
two-stoiy brick business building at a cost of $1.5,000. The upper 
story is furnished as a hall and here the lodges have their headquarters 
and public assemblages are held. The lower floor is occupied by a 
modern drug store of which H. ]M. Carson is the proprietor, and a 
moving picture theater. This building is thoroughly modern in the 
matter of equipment. Another modern brick building is that occupied 
by the First State Bank of Holstein. This was completed in 1914 and 
cost $5,000. 

The first schoolhouse in use in Holstein, dated back to about the 
beginning of the town, was a small frame building standing in the 
extreme eastern part of the town. Lincoln Ambler was the first 
teacher. The first school building was used about three years when a 
two-story building was erected upon a location about two blocks west 
of the first site. In 1908 the district voted $.5,000 for school purposes 
and the ])resent brick school building was erected. This schoolhouse 
has four rooms and four teachers are employed. ^Vork is done through 
the tenth grade, and playground ajiparatus was installed in 191.5. A 
kindergarten is also conducted. The old schoolhouse was purchased by 
AVilliam Westering and Andy Lorentzen and moved south of the 
track where for several years it was used as an opera house on Depot 
Avenue. Finally it was purchased by Will Hargleroad and torn 

In 191.5 a new town hall, costing $2,000 was erected. 

At this time there are in Holstein in addition to the business estab- 
lishments mentioned two implement houses, one operated by A. E. 
iMellinger for Stephen Schultz of Hastings and one belonging to 
L. Vj. Clark: two garages operated by S. S. Hershep and Dan Essin- 
ger; a ■5'and 10 cent store and restaurant, operated by I^. E. Clark & 
Son; a hotel moved into town in about 190.5 and of which H. H. 
Kennedy is the landlord ; meat market of J. M. Xelson, a millinery 
store, lumber yard, blacksmith shop, billiard and pool hall and a 

There are about fifty residences in the town and fully half of 


tliese are modern in construction and equipment, having private light- 
ing plants and water under pressure. Sidewalks in the business sec- 
tion and a considerable proportion of the residence district are of 
cement. The latter improvement has been made within the last five 

In January, 1890, the Holstein board of trade was organized with 
Dr. W. T. Carson, president, C. A. Sipple, vice president, John Har- 
gleroad, secretary, and William Shellheimer, treasurer. This organi- 
zation continued active for a number of years and was instrumental in 
developing the business interests. At about the same time a lyceum 
was organized and contributed to the literary and debating side of the 
social life. Among the active members were A. S. Thompson, A. L. 
Boyd, J. S. Fernow, Jennie Larsen, Versa Larsen, the JNIecham 
brothers, the Holstein band, ]Mrs, F. J. Hurst, Joe McCowan, Dr. 
W. T. Carson, Ruby and Lottie JNIecham, Fred Hurst, Anna Larsen, 
A. E. Troyer and Eva jNIcPeak. 

In the early '90s a dramatic club contributed its quota to the amuse- 
ment and education of the town. The club presented a number of 
plays the casts being formed from the local histronic talent. Among 
these plays were "A Yankee Detective" and "Three Nights in a Bar 
Room." Dr. W. T. Carson was manager of this club and A. L. 
Boyd was secretary. Among the members were C. A. Sipple, A. E. 
Troyer, T. L. Ambler. J. M. Heckler. E. L. Hannaford, Jennie 
Larsen and Eva JNIcPeak. 

The Royal Neighbors Lodge of Holstein was organized JNIarch 8, 
1908, by Laura Holt, of Omaha, Avith a charter membership of twenty, 
as follows: Elizabeth Trier, Octavia Fischer, JNIaggie Hargleroad, 
Hannah Kennedy, Anna Richards, JNIattie Roeder, Sine Johnson, 
Jennie E. Carson, Stella Churchill, Ethel Kennedy, JNIinnie INIcCulla, 
Delia Clark, Lena JNIoehl, Lena Young, Hazel Starkey, Clara 
Cookus, Anna Wagner, Susie Broil, George Churchill and F. C. Van 
Veghten. The present officers are: Oracle, Octavia Fischer; Rec- 
order. Stella Sanford; Receiver, Jennie Carson. 

The Holstein Ladies Aid Society of the Evangelical Church was 
organized August 8, 1915, with the following officers: President, 
INIrs. Reverend Hewitt; vice president. INIrs. INIorse Nelson; secretary, 
JNIrs. W. T. Carson: treasurer, JNIrs. Ed. Peterson. 


The grain elevator operated by the Farmers Grain & Supph^ Com- 
]3any, on the northwest corner of the southAvest quarter of section 12 
in Blaine Township, is all that remains of the first attempt to build a 
town in Adams Coimty along the line of the Burlington. The town 
was called Inland and was laid out by the South Platte Town Com- 
])any in 1871. Previously, George Sluyter, William Janes, Volney 
Janes and George Knajip settled upon the townsite. 

A number of stores were built at Inland, that of Tom Shea among 
others. A tAvo story frame schoolhouse was built and other signs of 
a future town marked the spot. The development of Hastings ]Hit 
an end to the career of Inland, and about 1878 the railroad station was 
removed three miles east to tlie present town of Inland in Clay County. 
In the plan of the Burlington, Inland followed Harvard in alpha- 
betical order, and until the development of Hastings Avas assured, the 
railroad favored Inland Avhile it ignored Hastings. For many years 
the elcA^ator Avas oi^erated by JNIichael Halloran on Avhose farm it Avas 
located, and the place Avas referred to as either "Old Inland" or 


Brickton, 6I/2 miles south of Hastings, on the road forming the 
Avestern boundary of the city, was ne\'er a real town, although at one 
time there were there a group of about a dozen houses. This i)eriod 
Avas between 1886 and 1890. Hastings capitalists had started 
a brick yard in Brickton and had equipped their place Avith rather 
elaborate steam-driven machinery for the manufacture of brick. 
BetAveen thirty and forty men were employed and lived in the group 
of houses. There Avas also a store. Parts of the machinery remained 


at the location for several years after the brick plant was abandoned. 
The finances of the brick jjlant were involved in the aifairs of the City 
National Bank, and when that institution failed, the brick business 
failed with it. One of the stirring events recalled in the early days of 
Erickton is a prize fight between "Lou" Carroll and Billy "Tweester." 
In 1906 W. H. Ferguson began operating in sand at Erickton. 
]Mr. Ferguson disposed of the sand business to the E. Stockhana Grain 
Company, who still carry it on. About a carload of sand ])er dav is 
removed from the pits. A. H. Farrens also operated Erickton sand 
l^its for a time. 

Leroy is located on the south side of tlie Blue River on the south- 
west (juarter of section 2,5 in Hanover Township. It is 3l/o miles 
northeast of Ayr and nine miles south of Hastings. Before the build- 
ing of the Kansas City & Omaha Railroad the point was known as INIil- 
lington, because it Avas here that Dyer's INIill was located. John Dyer 
began the erection of the mill in 1872 and by 1874^ it was completed 
and in operation. Jolm Dyer associated with him in this milling 
business his nejihews, Elbridge and True Dyer. 

The mill was a large wooden structure operated by water power 
and having three runs of burrs. For many years it was kejjt very busy, 
farmers from miles around bringing their wheat to be made into flour. 
A store was operated a short time, but in 1880 was moved to Ayr by 
Kieth and Kress. 

When the railroad was built in 1887, the single store that Leroy 
still has was built by John ^larsliall and Jolm A. Frank, both of whom 
now live in Ayr. The i)ostoffice was established in this store and John 
Marshall was the first postmaster. 

INIr. Frank sold his interest in the store to his partner in about six 
months. Mr. JNIarshall conducted the store until about 1900 and tlieu 
sold it to his son, Robert. It came back into the possession of INIr. JNIar- 
shall, who finally sold it to Cal Dreibilbis of Hastings. INIr. Dreibilbis 
sold it to tlie present proprietor, INIr. Liesveldt. 

Because of its location near the river, which afforded shade trees, 
Leroy has been quite well known throughout the county as a pleasure 
resort. The Dyers kept a lialf dozen boats on the river, and built a 
dance hall. The place was patronized from Hastings and all sur- 
rounding- points for many years, ending about 1903 or 1904. In tlie 
summer of 1898 vaudeville was an attraction offered. The large sta- 
tion which was first built by the Kansas City & Omaha was removed 
to Pauline about 1902. 



Hansen is the first station nortli of Hastings on the St. Joseph & 
Grand Island Raih-oad, and had its origin when the line was built 
from Hastings to Grand Island. The first house built in the town 
was the railway station in the fall of 1879. That fall, J. L. Evans 
erected a store building and put in a stock of general merchandise, and 
B. F. P^ord put up a store and engaged in the groceiy and hardware 
business. S. L. Loucks built a hotel at about the same time, which 
was called the Hansen House. The next business established was the 
lumber yard of Paine Brothers, of Wisconsin, Avhich was under the 
charge of James IVIcGregor. 

From the earliest days, Hansen has been a good grain and live- 
stock shipi^ing station, because it is the market place for a very pro- 
ductive area of farming land. A grain station was erected by Hansen, 
Gregg & Company in August, 1879, and another was put in by Oswald 
Oliver at about the same time. These early stations were not elevators, 
but were known as "shovel stations." Inclined approaches attaining 
a height of about twenty-five feet Avere built, and upon these farmers 
hauled their wagons filled with grain to the bins at the top, where they 
were unloaded with scoop shovels. 

In 1880, W. L. Baker took the management of the Oliver grain 
business and some time later became manager of the business of 
Hansen, Gregg & Comjjany. jNIr. Baker conducted a coal business 
of his own and erected a building in which he opened a hardware store, 
carrying on the grain business at the same time. The shovel house of 
Hansen, Gregg & Company was the forebear of the present north ele- 
vator, jMr. Oliver's of the south. For many years John Wilson was the 
owner and operator of the north elevator. About 188i5, the original 
lumber yard was combined with the Doniphan yard and removed to 
that ])oint. The present lumber yard was started by the Barr Lumber 
Company of Plastings in 1904 and passed to the Yost Lumber Com- 
pany when the latter bought out the Barr Lumber Company in 

In 1881. the store erected by J. L. Evans was purchased by Jacob 
Smith. It subsequently changed hands many times. Smith was fol- 
lowed by ]Mr. I^amb who in turn sold to Lucius Ware, who eventually 
sold to Ed Ileminover. After JMr. Heminover went out of business 
the store building was vacant for a considerable time and then was 
rented by the Ancient Order United Workmen, who used it as a hall 
until it was destroyed by fire on Easter Sunday, 1901. 

In 1884, a store building was erected bv a ]\Iethodist minister, the 


Rev. Mr. Calvert, who operated the store about a year and then sold 
it to Elmer Sims, now of Hastings. jNIr. Sims conducted the stoi'e 
about two years and then sold. The store was then purchased suc- 
cessively by Z. Stone, ]Margaret Stone and John Stratton. ^Ir. Strat- 
ton was the proprietor when the store was burned on Easter Sunday, 
1901. Following- the destruction of the two stores the Ancient Order 
United Workmen at once erected a brick building, using the up])er 
story for their hall and renting the store below. ]Mr. Stratton 
reopened in the new store room but eventually sold his business to 
Nellie Vandling and her father. George Hatch, who came from Har- 
vard, was the next proprietor until he sold to O. A. Cain. In 1914 
a corporation composed of John Kieth, Tom Wimi, Homer Loucks, 
George Durkee, Theo. Stock, Lem Clark, O. B. Shafer, H. C. Red- 
man, W. O. Cain, Moses Price, Charles Dominy and George SheafF 
built a store, building across the street west from the Ancient Order 
TTnited Workmen Building, and IMr. Cain moved his store into the 
new building. The store is of brick and was erected at a cost of 
$7,000. W. V. Gauvreau, son of E. L. Gauvreau of Hastings, piu'- 
chased the business of JMr. Cain in 1914 and is the present proprietor 
of the store. 

At about the same time that the store was built H. C. Redman, of 
Doniphan, erected the bank building at a cost of about $3,300. The 
hotel built by S. L. Loucks in 1879 Avas moved from the west side of 
the street to the east side in about 1896 and converted into a store 
building, now the location of the mercantile l)usiness of Kennedy Bros., 
with the Independent Order Odd Fellows Hall up stairs. S. ]M. 
Fi-ink conducted the first store in this building, the business afterwards 
being bought by Silas Price and at a later time by Charles F. ]\Iatheny, 
now proprietor of a store in Ayr. After ]Mr. ]Matheny left, the store 
was vacant and was used as a store room by W. O. Cain. At another 
time, Henry Keller's meat market was located here. 

I. A. Carriker, now of Hastings, erected an eight-room hotel in 
Hansen in 1885, and added a six-room addition in 1904. ]Mr. Car- 
riker conducted the hotel until 1908, and then rented it. It was not run 
as a hotel from 1913 to 1916, when ]Mr. Carriker sold it to :Mr. Zim- 
merman of Grand Island. 

Hansen was siu'veyed in 1879 for A. B. Ideson and J. J. Wemple 
on the entry of Charles and William Haines. The postoffice was 
established in 1879 with James ^McGregor, the first postmaster. While 
some matters relative to the mail were being adjusted between the i-ail- 
road and the Government, JMr. iVIcGregor transported the mail 
between Hastings and Hansen on his back. J. F. Evans was 


ajipointed in 1881 and was succeeded in 1882 by Jacob Smith. Other 
postmasters have been Walter Stone, S. ]M. Frink, F. ]M. Frink, 
Charles F. ^Nlatheny, Charles IMatheny and W. O. Cain. 

The first movements that resulted in the organization of the Pres- 
byterian Church at Hansen were made in the early '70s by John 
Powers and his brother, Aaron Powers. The Powers brothers organ- 
ized Sunday schools in their respective districts. These two Sunday 
schools were combined in what is known as the IMunroe schoolhouse, 
which is centrally located between the two former districts. 

At this place the Presbyterian Society was organized, September 
7, 1879, the Rev. G. L. Little acting as moderator and Rev. D. S. 
SchafF as clei'k of the meeting for organizing. After the coming of 
the railroad and the establishing of the Town of Hansen, plans were 
made to erect a house of worship in the village. The church was 
erected in 1884 under the direction of a building committee composed 
of L. A. Dominy, John Powers and A. A. Stone. The church, which 
is still in use, was erected at a cost of about $2,000. 

The charter members were INIr. Alanson Baker and wife, J. I^. 
Rrockover and wife, Ryneas Covert and wife, Lafayette Dominy and 
wife, Jonathan Oldfield and wife, the families of John, Charles A. 
and Aaron F. Powers, William Palmerton and wife, William H. 
Reese and wife, James W. Smith and family, Augustus A. Stone and 
famil}', Letas W. Stone and wife, Henry E. Ware and wife, JNIrs. 
Isabella Carpenter, jMrs. Elizabeth Gregg, Philopena Huf, JNIrs. 
Xaney JMowei's, Laura INIowers, and Ella ^Mowers. The first elders 
M'ere Aaron F. Powers, John H. Powers, and William Palmerton. 
The Hastings and Hansen Presbyterian Church were combined in a 
double charge for many years, the pastors of the Hastings church 
lieing in charge of the service in the country. Among the early pas- 
tors of the Hastings church were the Revs. Mr. GrifRs, D. S. Schaff , 
Peter Wessels, E. A. JNIcCullum, H. K. Bushnell and F. M. Hickok 
and Reverend Howie. Rev. W. H. Steele served from 1893 to 1898; 
A. M. Hendee, 1898 to 1900; W. E. Reed, 1901; Reverend Howie, 
1902 to 1904; D. S. Brown, 1904 to 1906; W. H. ScofReld, 1906 to 
1909; A. B. Byrani, 1909 to 1913; James B. Kelso, 1913 to 191.5. 
Rev. Samuel Linn has been the pastor since 191.5. The church now 
has 72 active members and the Sundaj' school a membership of about 
120. The present officers are: Elders, S. O. Cooper, George JSIunroe, 
Orville Smith. R. L. Boehne. Trustees, S. O. Cooper, C. G. Briggs, 
AV. C. Harrell, A. H. Bauman, J. J. ]\Iohlman. 

The United Evangelical Church at Hansen was organized early 
in 1901 by Rev. Arthur E. Miller, pastor of the church at Hastings. 


The same year the church was built, with a seating capacity of 200. 
Tlie church was jjaid for partly by subscrii^tion and partly by appro- 
priation from the general conference. The complete list of the char- 
ter members has been lost, but among them were Eugene, Lloyd, 
Clifford and Cora jMcWhirter, Cora, Crissie and Nora ]Montague, 
JMrs. Nellie Price, Jane Trembly and Frank White. The Rev. Mr. 
Beebe, ]Mr. ^liller's successor at Hastings, had charge of the pastorate 
until ]March, 1904. At that time Rev. W. J. Ely took this charge in 
connection with the Columbia cliurch, seven miles northwest of Hast- 
ings, and the Zion church, thirteen miles northwest of Hastings, in 
Hall County. The latter church is now called the Rosedale churcli. 
The pastors serving the church following Reverend Ely have been the 
following: Arthur P. Layton, 1905 to 1908; C. F, Hein, 1908 to 
1910; W. W. Urdenkoffler, 1910 to 1912; H. C. Farley, 1912 to 1913; 
W. W. Phantz, 1913 to 1914; J. L. Lobaugh, 1914 to 1916; F. M. P. 
Bayles has been the pastor since the beginning of 1916. The Colum- 
bia church has disbanded. 

Congress Lodge No. 173, I. O. O. F., was instituted at Hansen 
December 6, 1889. The charter members were D. M. JMorris, S. jNI. 
Frink, John ^Vilson, B. F. Barr, J. H. Allen, Winthi-op Jones. 
Howard Stire, W. B. Brown, F. J. Taylor, H. E. Ashley, and Fred 
Albright. The first officers were: S. M. Frink, N. G.: J. H. Allen, 
V. G.; D. ISl. Warden, W.; B. F. Barr, Con.; Howard Stire, R. S.; 
Winthrop Jones, P. S.; John Wilson, treasurer; W. B. Brown, R. S. 
N. G.; H. E. Ashley, L. S. V. G.; F. J. Taylor, I. G. The lodge 
was instituted by W. H. Barger, state grand master. 

Congress Lodge now has forty-nine members, who meet in their 
well-appointed lodge rooms ujjstairs in the brick building occupied by 
the Kennedy Bros, mercantile establishment. The present officers are 
H. A. Hubbard, N. G.; F. C. Grimm, Y. G.; F. A. Stock, secretary, 
and Walter Rhodes, treasurer. 

Hansen Rebekah Lodge, No. 120, was organized June 21, 191.5, 
and has a membership of thirty-eight. The first officers were IMrs. 
]Minnie Frink, N. G. ; ]\Irs. Christina Darling, V. G. ; JNIaude Briggs, 
secretary; Ruth MeWhirter, treasurer. Tlie officers at present are 
Mrs. Lulu Rhodes, N. G. ; INIaude Briggs, Y. G. : Ruth JMcWhirter, 
secretary; JNliss Marjorie MeWhirter, treasurer. 

Hansen A. O. U. W. Lodge, No. 190, has a membership of thirty- 
six. It was organized in 1894, and in 1901 erected a building at a 
cost of about $1,850. The present officers are JNIartin Crosson, mas- 
ter workman; overseer, L. Dominy; foreman, Frank Lanfear: finan- 
cier, C. G. Briggs; recorder, A. A. Stone. 


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Hansen Camp, Xo. 7620, INI. W. A., was organized February .5, 
1900, by Deputy Head Consul G. H. Shelley. The officers elected 
were Charles ]M. Doniiny, consul; David J. Binfield, worthy adviser; 
Augustus Albright, banker; Alvin JVl. Hendee, clerk; managers, 
Lorenzo Lewis, Cliarles J. Silver and G. S. Robertson. 

The charter members were Charles M. Dominy, D. J. Binfield, 
Lorenzo Lewis, Charles J. Silver, G. S. Robertson, Harry Tompkins, 
.Tames Trembly and F. JNI. Frink. Deaths have been as follows: 
JNfercey E. Williams, March 16, 1913; Peter Lorenson, September 
1, 1914; Arthur C. Hart, November 3, 1916. 

The i^resent officers are: Benjanain F. IMcWhirter, consul; D. J. 
Binfield, worthy adviser; Thomas Wynn, banker; Fenton M. Frink, 
clerk; managers, George A. IMunroe, George E. Devereaux and 
Albert H. Bauman. 

Tlie lodge now has thirty-seven members. 


On September 23, 1872. a little caravan of se\'en covered wagons 
started from Allen's Grove, Wis., to seek their home in Nebraska. 
One month later, October 22d, the seven families of William IMunroe, 
Del Snyder, Andrew ^Vheeler, Jehial Farr, C. B. Sperry. Ed 
Guernesy and Levi Eddy arrived at the home of Simon Dow, just 
south of where Hastings College now stands. 

Just as they neared Hastings, which was only a few straggling- 
houses. Mr. Sperry called to Mr. JNIunroe to play the drum in welcome 
to their new home. It was the first time that the Munroe drums were 
heard in Adams County. Hastings took to Mr. Munroe's drum from 
the fiist. and on July 4, 1873, the drum corps played at the celebra- 
tion. This Avas the first time that the fife and drum were heard in 

Among the early players were Jacob Smith, record of whose death, 
will be found in the G. A. R. chapter; Ezra Dominy, now living in 
Canada; A'. J. Kindig, of Doniphan; S. O. Cooper, of Hansen, and 
Mr. Poole, of Hastings. Charles Bigelow played with the corps 
from the beginning. Among the later members have been Roy Van 
Fleet, Frank Swigart and Arthur Dominy. 

The drum corps is almost as old as Adams County, and many a 
political meeting and celebration has been enlivened by its stirring- 

Of the seven families that arrived in the county with INIr. IMunroe 
and settled on homesteads near Hastings, IMr. IMunroe alone still 


liolds the original entry. Del Snyder lives in the Soldiers' Home at 
Burkett. All the others are dead. 


The snrvey of the Village of Roseland was completed by E. G. 
GrofF AjH-il 20, 1887. It was located by the surveyor on the south- 
west quarter of section 21, town 6, range 11, the townsite containing 
89.25 acres, less twelve acres wliich were the right of way of the K. 
C. & O. Railroad. ]May 27, 1889, the town was incorporated, the 
boundary lines being fixed as follows : Commencing at the northeast 
corner of section 22 in Roseland Township, thence west to the north- 
east corner of section 20, thence west to the half-section stake in 
section 20, thence south one mile to the center of section 29, thence 
east to tlie northwest corner of section 28, thence south to the south- 
west corner of section 28, thence east to the southeast corner of section 
27, thence north to the southeast corner of section 22, thence north 
to the place of beginning. 

The first trustees of the village were ^V. C. Davis. J. S. Richards, 
C. W. Gentsch and J. H. Pope. 

In an action brought by W. P. Davis shortly after the incorpora- 
tion of the town, the court decreed that sections 22, 27, 28. the east 
half of section 20, the north half of section 21 and the southwest 
quarter of section 21 be disconnected. The large area included in 
the original corj^oration was included in order to have within the limits 
of the village the requisite number of signers for the granting of 
saloon license. 

B. F. Evans, who arrived in Adams County ]March 26, 187'3. and 
who now resides at 409 Saunders Avenue, Hastings, selected the name 
of Roseland. which is the name of both township and town. A post- 
office was established in the home of Mr. Evans on the northeast 
quarter of section 22 a few years before there was a town at Roseland. 
Mr. Evans was appointed postmaster August 19, 1875, and was given 
the privilege of naming the postoffice. A great many wild roses grew 
in the vicinity at that time and ]\Ir. Evans thought that it would be 
fitting that the word "rose" should form a part of the name of the 
postoffice. He consulted the United States Directory of Postoffices 
and found that there were a number of offices in which the name 
"rose" appeared. There were only three Roselands, however, and 
this led to his selecting the name. So the Roseland postoffice was the 
fourth postoffice in the United States to bear thai name. INIr. Evans 
retained his homestead until 1914, when he disposed of it for $15,000. 


The first child to be born in the vicinity of Roseland was Frances 
Boyd, a daughter of Mr. and INlrs. R. JNI. Boyd, February 18, 187.3. 
The first death was that of William Dieter, July 4, 1873. 

It is the recollection of Mr. B. F. Evans that a child born to 
JNIr. and JMrs. Peter Shade was the first child to be born in Hastings. 
The Shades were -of a party of Illinois folks who arrived in Hast- 
ings in 1873, early in the spring, and went to Roseland Townshij) 
to settle upon their homesteads. The child was born in the section 
house of the St. Joseph k Denver City Railroad, JNIarch 29, 1873. 

J. S. Richards opened the first general store in Roseland, in 1887- 
31 r. Richards moved the store building from Aja*. J. H. Schmitz, 
now of Clay Centei', .but who is well known in Hastings as a car- 
penter, established the second business house in the town. ]Mr. 
Schmitz built a new store building, shortly after ]Mr. Richards had 
estalilished his business, and stocked it with hardware. Dui'ing 1 887, 
also, W. F. Duncan and J. P. Dvuican put up an elevator. 

In 1888 an elevator was put up by Schwab & Pope. This firm 
was afterward Pope & Kapser, and later J. H. Pope conducted tlie 
business alone. jNIr. Pope sold the elevator in 1902 to the corporation 
of i'armers that still operates the elevator. This corporation is 
another farmers' organization which has achieved notable success in 
Adams County. The original organizers were Erick Johnson, Erick 
I^arsen, B. F. Evans, Charles Johnson, Gottlieb Fischer, A. W. 
Evans, and others. JNI. J. Stotzel has been the manager of this busi- 
ness for many years. Some years this organization has paid a dividend 
of 10 per cent on the stock. ' In addition to grain, hogs are bouglit. 
Among* the earliest raisers of winter Avheat in the vicinity of Rose- 
land were A. W. Evans, J. S. Kendall and P. W. Warner. The 
first wheat of this variety was sown about 1889. 

J. S. Richards, M^ho opened the first store, sold his general mer- 
chandise stock to E. F. Miller and F. A. JNIiller about 1893. The 
liusiness alone was sold and the JNIiller Bros, operated the store in 
the Richards Building. F. A. JNIiller later disposed of his interest 
to Harve Walters. In after years JNIr. Walters was a barber in 
Hastings, where he died a few years ago. Harve Walters sold his 
interest in the business to Louis Eversman, who eventually sold it to 
Ti'vin JNIartin, the present jiartner in the firm of JNIiller & JNIartin. 

.1. .S. Richards, who had removed from Roseland uj^on selling his 
business to the JNIiller Bros., returned and reengaged in business in 
his building. After conducting the business about a year, JNIr. Rich- 
ards sold it to his son-in-law, Ed Joynt, selling the real estate with 
the business. JNIr. Joynt then moved his own store building, in which 


he had carried on business for some time, to the location he had 
acquired upon buying the Richards property. The Richards store 
was then moved back, INIr. Joynt's original store becoming the front. 
It was about 1907 that Mr. Joynt sold the business to Frank Hogg. 
Recently Ernest ]McCue has become tlie business partner of ]Mr. 

Frank ^Vaugli erected a building and engaged in the confectionery 
business about 189.3, and after conducting the business a year or more, 
sold to Eugene Duncan, who operated the little store imtil his death 
early in 1894. In February, 1905, Solomon Favinger purchased 
the confectionery and restaurant business originated by Waugh, and 
shortly afterward W. F. Duncan erected a store building on the 
second lot south of Mr. Favinger's location. ]\Ir. Favinger moved 
into the new building and opened a general merchandise business, 
which he conducted for nine years, Avhen he sold the business to 
Miller & Walters. Before the return of Mr. Richards to Roseland 
the firm of JNIiller & Walters had moved their stock of goods into 
the building erected by U. Engleman in 1888 for a saloon building. 

The first hotel in Roseland was erected by Thomas Carter, wlio 
conducted it for many years. This building, wliich was built shoi-tly 
after the town was started, still stands. 

H. H. Cheny conducted a general store in Roseland for a time, 
and Avas burned out in the eaily '90s. 

The first postmaster, B. F. Evans, was succeeded by Alexander 
Rogers. JNIr. Rogers was followed by U. Engleman, who erected a 
small building in which he conducted a hardware store in connection 
with the postolfice. Thomas Carter was the next postmaster, and 
was followed by Rufus W. Lull. Mr. Lidl put in a small stock of 
groceries and ran the store as well as the postoffice. The grocery 
developed eventually into a general merchandise store which JNIr. liull 
conducted until his death in December, 1894. Mrs. Delila Lull 
became postmistress after the death of her husband, and was suc- 
ceeded by Alfred W. Evans, the son of B. F. Evans. Mr. Evans 
died in December, 1905, and was succeeded in the postoffice by liis 
wife. The next postmasters were O. D. Barras, followed by Charles 
M. Caton, who served until the appointment of the present post- 
master, Robert G. Lynch. 

A. H. Brooke, now of Hastings, conducted the first drug store 
in Roseland. opening in 1891. JMr. Brooke was in the business 
througli 1891 and 1892 and tlien disposed of the business to D. S. 
Phelps, now of Bladen. 

School was opened for tlie first time in the A'illage of Roseland 


December 24, 1888. The completion of the school building had 
delayed the opening so late in the year that it opened at the first 
opportunity, regardless of the fact that the next day would he Christ- 
mas. The present county judge, John Snider, was principal of the 
school, and INIrs. A. H. Brooke, of Hastings now, then Alice Baugh, 
was the ]jrimary teacher. 

The JNIethodists and the United Brethren of the vicinity of Rose- 
land united to build a church about 1883 on Solomon Favinger's 
farm, li^. miles southwest of Roseland. Not very long after the 
town was established they moved the church house into the village. 
In about ten years the Methodists secured a building from a disbanded 
Methodist congregation in the country and moved the building to 
Roseland. This building is the present church home of the denomi- 
nation. The United Brethren disbanded and the church which they 
had pre^'iously owned jointly with the INIethodists was bought by 
J. y. Beardsley and wrecked in /191.5. 

Will ]Maupin conducted a newspaper for about six months in 
the early days of Roseland. For several years jirior to his death the 
Roseland Gazette was conducted by Alfred W. Evans. 

August 2.5, 1913, the stores of Miller & ]Martin, Roth Bros., and 
Frank ^Miller were destroyed by fire. In that year brick buildings 
were erected to replace the loss by Roth Bros., who conduct a hard- 
ware, furniture and undertaking Inisiness, INIiller & iNIartin, and 
Dr. J. L. JNIace. 

The town hall, a brick structure, was completed in December, 
1912. It was built by the corporation of Roseland. 

Roseland has electric lights, a privately owned plant. The Rose- 
land Electric Light Company was incorporated December 1.5, 1913, 
with a capital stock of $10,000, the corporation to terminate Decem- 
l^er 1.5, 1938. The incorporators were Gus Bourg, William F. Dun- 
can, John B. Roth and Irvin INIartin. 

A. S. Richards, who started the first mercantile business in Rose- 
land. died at Avr, Februarv 20, 190,5. 

Pauline is located on the IMissouri Pacific and the Burlington rail- 
roads, in Little Blue Township. It came into being with the K. C. 
& O. Railroad in 1887. It was named in honor of Pauline S. Ragan, 
of Hastings, wife of John jNI. Ragan, who was general attorney for 
the railroad. The town was built on the farm of James B. IMcCleerv 


on the east half of the northwest quarter of section 9. Pauhne has not 
been incorporated. 

The store now occupied by M. "SI. Abbott was the first to be built 
in the town and was erected in 1887. It was built by Duncan & 
Jeffries, who conducted a general store for about three years and 
then sold to Phineas Townsend. ]Mr. Townsend ran the store about 
four yeai's and then removed his stock to Iowa. John JNIoran, who 
li^■ed on a farm south of Pauline, was the next man to operate this 
store. About this time the building Avas moved east to its present 
location. John McCleerj^ and Cash Fairman followed JMr. jNIoraii 
in the business, and they were followed successively by Bert Port 
and S. True. After JNIr. True went out of business the store was 
\aeant for about six months, and then Harvey Abbott opened a store 
which was bought by the present proprietor, M. M. Abbott, who con- 
ducted a grocery in Hastings for several years. 

The second store to be erected in Pauline was built in 1887 by 
S. I^. Heaps, who lived on a farm about three miles south of the 
town. Pat Cronin operated a general store in this building for many 
years, until he built his own building about 1891. During the next 
year the building erected by INIr. Heaps was destroyed by fire. 

Pat Cronin disposed of his stock to C. H. ]McCulloc]i about 1895. 
and in about two years iSlv. ]\IcCulloch sold to R. O. Slater, noM 
of Sutherlin, Ore. At about the time that JMr. Slater purchased the 
business from JMr. JMcCuUoch, T. T. Jones purchased the store build- 
ing from Pat Cronin for his daughter, JNIrs. R. O. Slater, who stiil 
owns the building. Mr. Slater eventually sold his business and stock 
to R. Abel and later JMr. Abel moved the stock to another town. It 
was in Mrs. Slater's building that Carl JNIcCleery opened the first 
drug store in Pauline, about 1907. Mr. JNIcCleery soon sold the drug 
business to Ernest Harrett, who sold it to the present proprietor. 
Clarence Taylor, of Guide Rock. 

In the fall of 1891 JMiss Nellie Jones, now JNIrs. Isaac Franklin, 
built the brick store building in which the general store of Carl 
JNIcCleery is now located. JNIiss Jones conducted the store about five 
years before JNIr. JNIcCleery ])urchased the business. The stoi-e in 
wliich JNIay & JNIay are located was erected by JNIr. Purdy about six 
years ago. Some three years ago JNIr. Piu'dy sold to Ernest JNIay. 
wliose son, Arthur, is associated with him in the business. 

The first hardware store in Pauline was opened by B. K. ^Vest 
in 1888. This store was destroyed by fire at the same time that the 
store erected by Mr. Heaps was burned. The JNIarquis Brothers, of 
Hastings, conducted a hardware store for a time in Pauline in a 


building that had been erected for a butcher shop by S. L. Heaps at 
the time that he built his store. 

It was in the early days of Pauline that F. C. Glazier came from 
Edgar and engaged in the implement business in Pauline. In about 
1901 ]Mr. Glazier built the hardware store he now occupies. ]\Ir. 
Glazier has associated with him his son, C. F. Glazier, and besides 
tlie hardware business, carries implements, windmills and pumps, auto- 
mobiles, and o^ierates a large general business. 

The first livery barn in Pauline was built by ]M. JNI. Parkins in 
1888. It was afterwards run by John Petit and Bert Foy. It was 
eventually destroyed by fire. A year or so after the burning of the 
first barn the present livery stable, owned by John Crandall, was built 
by Ileiny Johnson. 

The Farmers Grain & Sujjply Company's elevator started in 1888, 
when Clyde Gaunt erected a shovel house on the JNIissouri Pacific. 
Dow Black purchased the business from Gaunt and ran it until he 
sold to T. T. Jones and Ben Sherman, who in turn sold to the Farm- 
ers Grain &: Supply Company. Elmer Jones is the i^resent manager. 

The elevator now owned and operated by John ^IcCleery was the 
first elevator to be built in Pauline. It was erected by Charles Furrer. 
It was owned successively by William Townsend and W. H. Fergii- 
son and the Updike Bros. John jMeCleery managed the business 
under the Updikes and bought it in 1908. 

The postmasters who have served in Pauline are ^Vill Jeffries, 
the first postmaster, followed by Samuel Bechtelheimer, Pat Cronin. 
Charles ]McCulloch. R. O. Slater, Dan iMcCleery. Nellie Jones and 
the j)resent postmaster, Carl ]McCleery. 

DiH'ing the drought years, from 1893 to 1897, both the railway 
stations at Pauline were closed because of the almost total falling off 
of business. The K. C. & O. depot at this time was moved from 
Pauline to the K. C. & O. junction with the Red Cloud line of the 
Burlington, where it later was destroyed by fire. The present Bur- 
lington station at Pauline was moved from Leroy to its present 

The first blacksmith shop in Pauline was built by James B. JNIc- 
Cleery and rented to Jerry xVllen. 

James B. IMcCleery died in 1889. 

There is only one church in Pauline, the Methodist Episcopal, 
wliich was organized in 1884. Among the first members were JNIr. and 
INIrs. Sherman, Mr. and ]Mrs. Bander. Mr. and Mrs. Carter, Mr. 
and ]Mrs. T. T. Jones. The first church house was erected the same 
yeai- that the class was organized. The new church, Avithin the village. 


was built in 1907, at a cost of $6,000. A partial list of the pastors 
who have served the church is as follows: R. jNI. Hardnian, ISS-i to 
1887; Almon Gore, E. L. Wolff, J. M. Correll, each one year suc- 
cessively after Mr. Hardnian; T. W. Bean, 1890; W. C. S^vartz, from 
1897 to 1900; A. G. Blackwell, 1900 to 1902; L. F. Harman. 1902 
to 1904; W. M. Brooks, 1901. to 190.5; E. N. Tompkins, 190.5 to 1908; 
W. H. Shoaf, 1908 to 1911; T. C. Priestly, 1911 to 1912; J. W. Bair, 
1912 to 1913; R. B. E. Hill, 1913 to 1915; Alfred Chamberlain, 191.5 
to 1916. The present i)astor, the Rev. JNIr. Thomas, has been the 
pastor in 1916. 

The Village of Ayr, situated about twelve miles south of Hastings, 
in the valley of the Little Blue River, was established in September. 
1878. It was named in honor of Doctor Ayr, of Iowa, who was then 
one of the directors of the Burlington & JNIissouri River Railroad. 

The land at that time was the property of private parties, and 
portions of it had previously been obtained from the railroad com- 
pany, having been included in the land grant. Those owning the 
land were John Ratcliffe, who owned section 33 of the railroad land: 
east of this a quarter section, j^roperty of A. C. Moore; one quartei- 
section on the east belonging to Ayers Goble ; while south of Goble's 
land and west of INIoore's joines the quarters owned by Professoi- 

The town started after the building of the railroad in 1878. in 
consideration that the parties owning the land were to donate every 
other lot, or half of the townsite. to the company, providing they locate 
a station at that j^oint. 

O. D. Barras built the first house on the village site, a small 
frame dwelling, in October, 1878. The next improvement Avas the 
erection in November of the same year of a two-story frame hotel, 
by R. C. Fleming. The same fall, T. C. Fleming and A. L. 'West 
built a storeroom and opened a business house with a general stock 
of merchandise. Immediately following, R. C. Gregg also built a 
storehouse and opened the first dnig store, which he afterward sold 
to Koehler & Pahr. Pahr later bought the interest of his partner 
and had control of the business. Late in the fall of 1878, John S. 
Richards opened a grocery store, IMclMillan & Hull a general store, 
and M. S. & T. J. Edgington started a business, dealing in hardware. 
In the summer of 1879, Henry Gund & Company built a large grain 
elevator, and John Robinson opened a livery barn. 


In 1878, A. Peck and Henry Howe put up a building, which was 
used for a saloon for a time, but, as the business did not flourish, the 
saloon was closed and the building later used as a schoolhouse. In 
the fall of 1879, Isaac Vanderwart built a blacksmith shop, and the 
same fall the Commercial Hotel was built by A. J. Pate and Rev. J. 
Fleming erected a building known as Church Hall, to be utilized for 
religious ijurjioses, in the building of which he used his own capital. 

The educational facilities of Ayr were about equal to those of 
tlie average country district, and the school was kept in a building 
situated about half a mile north of town. The first school was taught 
in tlie winter of 1878-79, by John Gainor, a true son of the Emerald 
Isle. Gainor was generally considered an excellent teacher, having 
had a splendid education, and, with that amusing manner so charac- 
teristic of his race, he won the good will and admiration of all his 
]MH3ils, his onlj^ crime being an excessive love for the intoxicating 
bowl. He was employed by the school board to teach a second term, 
but at the close of school, in the spring of 1879, he "went on a big 
spree," which lasted several days. Chagrined and mortified by his 
conduct, he secretly left the place and did not return. 

A postofRce was established at Ayr in 1879. Previous to this 
date it was kept at a place called Gilson, about two miles north of 
the townsite. E. H. Scott was postmaster, and it Avas through his 
efforts and influence that the office was moved from Gilson to Ayr. 
Scott held the position of postmaster up to the spring of 1881, and 
was succeeded in office by James Bovard. 

The first religious services Avere held by the Rev. J. Fleming, a 
Presbyterian missionary laboring under the auspices of that denomi- 
nation. The church was organized in the winter of 1878-79. with a 
membership of thirty. The services were held in Church Hall, a 
building erected by Mr. Fleming. 

In the spring of 1879 a JMethodist congregation was organized 
under tlie direction of Elder Lemons, then presiding elder of the 
district. The Rev. John Holland was their first regular pastor, 
]-emaining with the congregation one year. 

Dr. S. A. Bookwalter was the first practicing physician to locate 
in the village, having made his advent in the summer of 1879. 

A lumber and coal yard was started in 1879 by William Laugh- 
lin and Cyrus jMcjNIillan. In 1880 IMortimer Kress and W. S. Moot 
moved a large two-story building from ^Nlillington to Ayr, using the 
first story for a storeroom and fitting the upper floor for a town hall. 

The first deaths were those of Henrv Harm's twin infants, in 


October, 1881. The first child born was Harvey Fleming, son of 
T. C. and Esther J. Fleming. 

Notwithstanding the excellent location of the village, its growth, 
although promising at first, declined rapidly. 

Only one attempt was made at journalism at Ayr. A pajier 
called the Ayr Times was established in January, 1882, the first issue 
of which was made on the 14th of that month. In size, the sheet 
was a six-column quarto, was republican in politics, and had a regular 
issue of 360 co^Dies. The jjaper was edited and published by Watkins 
Brothers, the firm being composed of three brothers — C. L.. G. IM. 
and F. A. Watkins. The journal was of patent inside. Besides the 
editorial work, the firm did consideralile job work. 

Ayr was incorporated 3Iay 1, 1883, the corporation embracing the 
following territory: The southeast quarter of the southeast quarter 
of section 33, the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 34, the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 3. 
and the east half of the northeast quarter of section 4. The portions 
in sections 33 and 34 are in Aj'r Township and the remainder in Zero. 

The first trustees were H. P. Rowe, A. C. Moore, W. W. Phar. 
S. E. I\Ic3Iurry and J. S. Richards. 

The grain elevator which Henry Gund & Co. built in 1879 was 
destroyed by fire in 1902. The building moved by ]\Iortimer N. 
Kress and W. S. ]Moot still stands in the town and is the property of 
the A. O. U. W., who have their hall in the upper story. 

The I. O. O. F. have a well-appointed hall in the upper room of 
the brick building in which the general store of C. F. Matheny is 

Previously ]\Ir. E. H. Scott and James Bovard have been men- 
tioned as being the postmasters. Subsequently ^Mortimer N. Kress 
was postmaster from 1889 to 1883, Henry Howe from 1893 to 1897, 
Robert RatclifFe from 1897 to 1913. The present postmistress, IVIrs. 
Roliert Zachary, has served since 1913. 

Ayr now has two general stores, one conducted by Henry Howe, 
who has been in business in the village since its founding, and the 
other by C. F. INIatheny, who was in business in Hansen at one time. 
INIr. 3Iatheny purchased the business from George Overstreet in the 
summer of 1916. IMathew Ureling conducts a hardware store and 
Harley JefFers has a restaurant and confectionery store. Frank 
Fehringer has a barber shop and IMr. Ratcliffe a blacksmith shop. 
John Helmann manages the lumber yard for the Coon Lumber 
Company, and Eon Davis has a livery barn. The implement business 
is conducted bv H. Roeder, with whom is associated his son, Arthur 


Roeder. The elevator is owned by the Fanners Grain & Snpjily 
Company and is managed by Guy Bonham. 

The Methodist Eijiscopal Church erected a house of worsliip in 
1893 at a cost of about $1,200. George Moore was the contractor. 
The present church, which was erected at a cost of about $2,200, was 
conii)leted in June, 1910, Jay Gobel being the contractor. Among 
the earliest members of the Methodist Church in Ayr were Adam 
Reader, George Eastwood, George Parks, W. W. Pliilleo, JNIrs. Josie 
Scott, ]Mrs. Laura Easter, John Giddings and A. ]M. JefFers. Rev. 
Rex Ban- is the present pastor. 

The brick store building in which the general store of C. F. 
Matheny is located was built in 1910 by the I. O. O. F., but came into 
the jjossession of Sherman Woodworth about two years ago, the lodge 
retaining a 99-year lease upon the lodge room on the upper floor. 

That Prosser, located eight miles west and six miles north of 
Hastings, turned out to be a town and not a sheep ranch was a sur- 
prise. At least it was a surprise to George S. Parks, who was among 
tlie first to be interviewed by agents of the Pacific Railroad looking- 
for a townsite. The railroad was built into Hastings in 1^87, but 
was not puslied tln-ougli to Prosser until the following spring. Before 
the grading of tlie road liad reached Adams County, even before the 
$12.1,000 bonds had been voted, Cameron Yeazel was looking for a 
townsite in the vicinity of Prosser. 

INIr. Yeazel left jNIr. Parks under the impression that he was rep- 
resenting some eastern capitalists who desired to start a sheep ranch 
in that part of the country if they could find some cheap land. It 
was after a survey had been made that ^Ir. Parks learned that at a 
point where a white post had been set on the southeast quarter of 
section .5, Verona Township, a town was to be established, Juniata 
was considerably disturbed about the location of Prosser, and Juniata 
Iiad to be satisfied that the new town would be located at a safe dis- 
t;mce from their town before they would support tlie bonds in aid of 
the Pacific Railroad. 

In the spring of 1888, L. J. Ware built the first general store 
in tlie new town. At about the same time B. F. Barr opened a lum- 
ber yard and E. G. Collins built an elevator. The second grocerv 
store was built by E. L. Price. The hotel which was built early in 
tlie history of the town by a ^Nlr. Dietricli and whidi was called for 
manv vears the Pacific Hotel, still stands near the station. 


A second hotel, a very creditable hostelry, was built by Fred 
Stoelting a few years before a fire destroyed the hotel. J. G. Heart- 
well's drug store and the store which had been erected by E. L. Price, 
but which at the time of the fire was occupied by JNIorledge & Blake, 
and the first blacksmith shop, which had been erected bj- Joseph 
Philbrick, were destroyed in the same fire about 1902. 

Shortly after the fii'c a general merchandise store was built by the 
brothers, J. G. and M. R. Jones. The Jones Bros, sold to F. R. 
Daggett and Charles W. ]Manahan. ]Mr. Daggett bought the interest 
of his partner and now operates the store alone. Mr. Manahan resides 
in Hastings. 

The general merchandise business which G. W. Pratt now con- 
ducts had its origin when S. W. Smith purchased the first school- 
house built in Prosser and converted it into a store. INIr. Smith sold 
to Charles A. Porter, of Heartwell, and Mr. Porter disposed of the 
business to. Mr. Pratt. The first store was started by Mr. Ware, and 
James Bacon later purchased the interest of Mr. Ware, who went to 
Illinois. The business was successively ojierated by Charles IMcCul- 
loch and John Stoner. ]Mr. Stoner managed the business for Trimble, 
Blackman & Alexander, of Hastings, until the grocery was discon- 
tinued, when B. J. Symonds moved into the store and there conducted 
his drug business. 

For several years before he became superintendent of the Ingle- 
side Hospital for the Insane, Dr. M. W. Baxter was located at 
Prosser, succeeding Dr. C. J. Yates. 

Prosser was not incorporated until August 1*3, 1907. Those peti- 
tioning for incorjioration were F. R. Daggett, P. J. Robinson, T. E. 
Bowlin, F. H. Schafer, Charles :Moritz, L. Katzberg, \V. H. Schu- 
mann, L. P. Burnham, T. J. Killion, H. F. Moore, August Katzberg. 
J. W. Benge, J. C. Pratt, G. W. Pratt, D. L. Hare, William Flower- 
dew, George F. Miller, A. L. Gilmore, J. G. Kent, S. W. Smith, 
D. C. Hinds, C. C. Robinson, S. G. Moore, D. W. Miles, R. O. 
Wirfel, C. H. Hudson, Charles Stanley, Frank A. Kuehn, J. B. 
Symonds, D. M. JNIcMakin, INI. W. Baxter, M. P. Creager. The 
first trustees were M. W. Baxter, Charles INIoritz, F. R. Daggett, 
F. H. JNIoore and T. J. Killion. The incorporated area embraced 210 
acres on parts of sections 5, 8 and 9. 

The administration of the second board of trustees is notable for 
initiating the building of cement sidewalks in Prosser against a spir- 
ited opposition. But though received at first with much disfavor, this 
improvement has been extended until Prosser has as good sidewalks 
as any town of its size. The trustees when this movement was begun 


Mere G. W. Pratt, Charles IMoritz, C. H. Hudson, M. W. Baxter 
and H. F. ]Moore. E. H. Grounds was the village clerk. 

S. W. Smith was the first postmaster at Prosser. He was suc- 
ceeded by George S. JNIoore, who in turn was succeeded by James 
Crow, who also conducted the first hardware store. After Mr. Crow, 
Henry ]Moore became jjostziiaster, holding the office until his death. 
JMrs. ]Moore was then jjostmistress until succeeded by the present 
postmaster, R. L. Woods. 

The hall which is used for a lodge room and general social center 
was erected by the A. O. U. W. 

The elevator now operated by the Verona Grain & Lumber Com- 
pany was originally ojierated by W. H. I'erguson, Avho sold it to the 
Farmers Grain & Stock Companj'. Charles Moritz was the man- 
agei- under this company. The Farmers Grain & Stock Company 
sold the business to the present owners, the Verona Grain & Lumber 
Company. Earl Grounds is the manager. This company was incor- 
porated 3Iarch 28, 1911, with a capital stock of $10,000. The 
incorporators Avere E. E. Binfield, G. H. Geddes, Bert IMott, William 
Conroy and G. C. Gilmore. In the early days of the grain business 
in Prosser, Simon Bechtelheimer bought grain on the track. 

Prosser was named in honor of T. J. Prosser, of Concordia, Kan., 
who was superintendent of the construction force that built the Pacific 
road into the town. 

There is only one church in Prosser, the ISIethodist Episcopal. 
The first Sunday school was conducted in the Pacific Station, with 
L. J. Ware acting as suiJerintendent. Within a year the church had 
organized and erected a church house at a cost of about five hundred 
dollars. That church, with additions and improvements, is still in 
use. Among the first members were J. JMorgan, L. J. Ware, George 
S. Parks, Dow Steadman and JNIiles W. Knapp. 



There are many stories current about the "Easter Bhzzard." the 
great storm of 1873 that caused great loss of jjroperty and of lives 
particularly in rather more than half of Nebraska. The narratives 
of the storm selected are by Dr. A. I). Williams of Kenesaw and 
George Huling of Bromlield, now (iiltner. in Clay County. Doctor 
Williams was a national figure in religious affairs and was also an 
author and publisher. Both narratives were written while the inci- 
dents were fresh in the minds of the writers and may be relied u])on 
as portraying with accm-acy the details of the great storm. 

"The winter 1872-3," writes Doctor Williams, "was very open and 
mild. Plowing Avas done in this vicinity (Kenesaw) in each of its 
months. There Avas not only no rain during the winter, but none of 
any account from October to April. The ground was very dry and 
hard, and settlers began to ask each other if it ever would rain again. 
Sowing, Avhat little there Avas, began in February, and was mostly 
OA'er before April. But it did not come up, except as birds — mostly 
snowbirds — picked it up. 

"Sunday, April 13, Easter day. was a very bright, beautiful day 
until a little after 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Then, all at once, every- 
one began listening to the stillness. Xot a breath moved. Xot a soimd 
was heard, but the stillness was both audible and impressive. In- 
stinctively everyone felt, he knew not why, that something was the 
mattei'. But Avhat? Avhence? Presently, rapidly rolling clouds ap- 
peared low in the northeast, but hurried up and on, like billows on a 
stoi-my sea. Then an appai-ently onmoving darkness appeared in 
the southwest, like an inky curtain, that at length was discoA ered to 
be ra])idly coming on Avithout internal movement. 

"Still more impressive became the silence — until, suddenly, a 
roar filled the Avhole heavens. Almost simultaneously, the tAvo storms- 


approaching from opposite directions, came togetlier, apparently just 
over head, and then the tempest struck us with terrific force from 
the northwest. Everything movable hurried away most unceremo- 
niously. The air became immediately filled with dust, so thick and 
whirling and blinding, that sight could not penetrate half a rod away, 
and persons in the house could not see each other even before the 
windows, while the roar of the elements was well nigh deafening. 

"People felt their way to their north windows to keep them from 
lijowing in, the family sometimes keeping them in place by their 
hands and bodies, and in some instances they were not kept in, and 
the house filled with wind. The roof, and sometimes the whole struc- 
ture, went before the storm like so many feathers. In a short time 
Ed ]Moore's house was moved from its foundation, turned partly 
around and unroofed, and was probably kept from all going before 
the gale by reason of a lot of hardware and grain being stored in it. 
The roof of JNIrs. Norton's house, just finished, went kiting towards 
Florida, and not much except sjilinters was afterwards found of it. 

"^Vhen the storm began Cajitain and INIrs. Knapp, living where 
3Ir. Long now lives, were sitting by the stove, on the tool chest. The 
next they remembered they were sitting imharmed on the reversed 
un.ler side of a piece of their roof — stove, tool chest, and house alto- 
getlier having deserted them. Chairs, bedstead, clothing, everything 
suddenly started on a journey, much of which was never found, and 
most of what was found, was in rags and splinters. One bed-quilt 
s'rack the west side of our house, and George Williams slipped around 
the south side and arrested it at the southwest corner. A pair of ])ants 
\\as afterward found in our woodpile, and a feather bed in the ditch 
on the south side of the railroad, a quarter of a mile east of the resi- 
dence of L. W. Parmenter. A large quantity of splinters of shingles 
and boards from the wreck struck our house and one piece of 2x4 
scantling struck our north Avindow amidship, but fortunately sidewise. 
or our house would have been added to the ruins. 

"D. R. Rockfeller's house, near Mrs. Osier's homestead, was 
blown to smithereens. He was at our house when the storm began 
and during the subsequent lull, tried to reach his own. But he had 
not proceeded far before the returning violence of the storm, ac- 
com]janied by the last 'sand storm' of the vicinity, stinging and cut- 
ting every exposed portion of his skin, until he Avas compelled to lie 
down flat on the ground, with his face to it, and hold on to the tufts 
of sod and grass with his hands and fingers. 

"Mrs. Norton was still living in one of the conipany's houses at 
the station, but was out of fuel, and the family kept warm by going 


to bed, and stajang there. The three other houses (the four were the 
first houses to be built in Kenesaw), only a few rods distant, blew 
down and into kindling wood, but Mrs, Norton knew nothing of it 
until the next Wednesday. She was the deputy postmistress, but 
there wasn't much postoffice business done on those days. Her house 
was probably saved by being sodded up on the north and west sides. 

"In a little less than an hour the storm abated a little and our 
pony, 'Puss,' carried us pretty lively to Captain Knapp's. Finding 
nothing there, we went to Mr. Moore's, where jNIr. Coplin afterward 
lived. No one was there. On we went to Mr. Chenowith's (Bert 
]Moore's) and found that the Knapps and ]\Ir. jNIiller must have been 
;n the sod hen house. jNIr. and jNIrs. JNIoore were at Mr. Chenowith's. 
But by this time the heavens had gathered blackness again, and Puss' 
best paces availed to land her rider at home before the storm was upon 
us again, with apparently increaesd fury. This time, it began to snow 
fiu'iously, and it was as blinding and bewildering as the dust had 
Iieen, rendering it impossible to follow any direction unless it had 
been blindly before the storm. 

"At the beginning of the storm, two Stonehocker families, seven- 
teen in number, were camped beside our house. At the first approach 
of the storm, they fortunately staked down their 'prairie schooner' 
'vith log chains, and hurried into the house. And there they all stayed 
the storm out. Early in the storm INIr. Rockfeller had returned, 
filling up a complement of twenty-three persons in the three small 
rooms of the house. 

"In order to reach the stable, less than a hundred feet distant, the 
svell rope Avas draAvn, and with it in hand the stable could be found — 
we could not see the stable at one-quarter of the distance. W. Z. Par- 
menter and A. C. Parmenter came in from Thirty-two INIile Creek on 
AVednesday near night to see Avhat had become of vis. 

"It was Wednesday that the storm abated. Immediately after 
noon, traveling when I could see and remaining still when I could 
not, and following a well defined track from my house to the dejiot. 
it was found that INIrs. Norton and her children were safe. Return- 
ing, a relief party was formed to see what had become of the Knapps. 
]Mr. Rockefeller and one of the Stonehockers accompanied me, taking 
along a shovel and some food and coffee. We at length reached the 
place and found Captain and INIrs. Knapp and ]Mr. JNIiller banked u]) 
in the sod hen house Avith the hens. They had come here when the liouse 
blew down. So cramped were the quarters that they could neither 
stand erect nor recline at length. During their stav there, from Sun- 


day afternoon to Wednesday afternoon, they had had a two-pound 
can of peaches, a raw potato and what eggs the hens laid. 

"When dug out, neither of the party could stand alone. But two 
of the rescuers formed a seat with their clasped hands for Mrs. Knapp 
on which she jjartly rode and partly walked, while after a little. Cap- 
tain Knapp and Mr. Miller walked by leaning on each shoulder of 
the other man. One of the Stonehockers' teams was cut loose and 
drifted before the storm towards Red Cloud, but fortunately was 
found alive on Thursday. 

"The train passed the Kenesaw station without the trainmen ob- 
serving it. It had gone to Kearney on Saturday the 12th and stayed 
in Kearney until the next Saturday, when it dug its way with difficulty 
through the hardened drifts in the cuts. As the train passed the sta- 
tion witliout observing it. Puss was again brought to the rescue and 
overhauled the train in a cut below, and the mail was delivered, the 
conductor remarking that it was the first time he ever knew of an 
express being overhauled by an Indian pony. 

"At no time did the thermometer fall more than two degrees be- 
low freezing, and most of the time it was above. Yet so rapidly did 
the wind absorb the heat of the body that only a fcAv hours' exposure 
would i^roduce death, and quite a number did perish at different 
places, though none in the inmiediate vicinity of Kenesaw. The snow 
completely filled tlie air through constant blowing, though the fall 
itself was probably considerably less than a foot. There has been no 
storm lilvc it since those who experienced the 'Easter Storm,' did 
not hanker after any more of the same sort." 

George W. Huling's version : 

"We left our Missouri home some time in March, 1873, and ar- 
rived at oin* new home six miles northwest of Harvard, on the West 
Blue in Clay County, on the 10th of April. At our destination we 
found everything as the Creator had made it, save the timber along 
the stream, which had been culled off by settlers who had come the 
year before. 

"We lived in our wagon a day or two till we put up a light frame 
structure 12x16 feet, for a temporary shelter; we moved into it Sat- 
urday, April 12. It had no floor and the frame was two by four 
scantling, running horizontally. Boards were nailed on perpendicu- 
larly and battened by one-inch stuff. The roof was made in the same 
way, only it was two-sided or a peaked roof, not a shanty. The next 
day Mas Easter Sunday. 

"About 4 o'clock in the afternoon Ave noticed a very dark cloud 
coming up rapidly from the northwest. We saw plainly that a ter- 


rible storm was coming and we got our wagon behind a steep bank 
fifteen or twenty feet high, that gave good jirotection from a north- 
west wind. We tied our four horses to the wagon, two on a side, and 
awaited the storm. 

"It came about 5 o'clock. We greatly feared when it first struck 
us that our frail shelter would not withstand the hurricane that ac- 
companied the rain, but it withstood the first onset better than Ave 
hojied and we Avent to bed and slept .the first night undisturbed. When 
we awoke the next morning it was snowing at a fearful rate, and so 
blinding that it Avas impossible to face it and breathe. We made two 
attemjits before Ave succeeded in getting to our horses. We found 
them in a fearful condition Avith the snoAv poring upon them in blind- 
ing sheets, driven Avith the Avind over a burnt-ofF prairie for over a 
mile Avith no draAv or obstruction intervening. 

"To leave them there Avas certain death in a feAv more hours, and 
Avhat to do in the circumstances Avas the question. We had besides 
oiu" family tAvo men Avho had been our companions a portion of the 
Avay. Our bed Avas in one corner and there Avere seven of us in the 
house. But Ave decided that room must be made for the horses, so 
AA'e tied our bedstead up to the collar beams — it Avas a Ioav one — and 
Ave got it out of the Avay. We then brought up the horses, and as soon 
as the door Avas ojDened thej^ Avent in Avith a rush, one at a time. AVe 
got three horses in line Avith the bed, the fourth horse standing behind 
them, giving barely room for passage betAveen him and the stove. 

"I never saAv such suffering as the poor horses exhibited Avhen Ave 
first got them in. Their tails Avere a foot in diameter, filled Avith snoAv 
so firmly jjacked that it Avas a difficult task to remove it. Every muscle 
in their bodies quivered like a man shaking Avith the ague. They Avere 
so hungry that they soon began gnaAving at the tAvo by four scantling 
in front of them. To prevent this we had to fill the scantlings Avith 
shingle nails. 'We had nothing but flour to feed the animals, but this 
seemed to satisfy their appetite in a measure, till my son and one of 
the men stopping Avith us (Phillips by name) took one of the horses 
and made a triji to our nearest neighbor, a little ove