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HO\. I,. T„ TAVI.Oli 

Past and Present 


Appanoose County 


A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress 
and Achievement 

if L. TAYLOR, Editor 



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ETC 155 










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AWAY SLAVES — Armstrong's mow full of black "chattels" — money 



































CllAl'Tl'.R XXIll 








Iowa, ill the symbolical and expressive langua,s,'e of the original inhabitants, 
is said to signify "The l!eautifiil Land," and was applied to this magniticent and 
fruitful region by its ancient owners, to express their appreciation of its superior- 
ity of climate, soil and location. Prior to 1803, the Mississippi river was the 
extreme western boundary of the L'nited States. .-\11 the great empire lying west 
of the "Fathers of Waters," from the Gulf of Mexico on the south to British 
America on the north, and westward to the Pacific Ocean, was a Spanish prov- 
ince. A brief historical sketch of the discovery and occupation of this grand 
empire by the Spanish and French governments will be a fitting introduction to 
tlie historv of the young and thriving state of Iowa, which, until the commence- 
ment of the present century, was a part of the Spanish possessions in America. 

Early in the spring of 1542, fifty years after C'olunil)Us discovered the new 
world, and one hundred and thirty years before the French missionaries dis- 
covered its upper waters, l-'crdiiiaiid De Soto discovered the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi river at the mouth of the Washita. After the sudden death of De Soto, 
in ^Iav of the same year, his followers built a small vessel, and in July, I543. 
• iescended the great river to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In accordance with the usage of nations, under which title to the soil was 
claimed bv right of discovery. Spain, having con<|uered Florida and discovered 
the Mississipiii. claimed all the territory bordering on that river and the Gulf of 
Mexico. Piut it was also held by the European nations that, while discovery 
gave title, that title must be perfected by actual possession and occui)ation. 
.Mthough Sjjain claimed the territory by right of first discovery, she made no elTort 
to occupy it: by no permanent settlement had she perfected and held Ikt title, 
and therefore had forfeited it when, at a later iieriod. the Lower Mississippi 
valley was rediscovered and occupied by brance. 

The un])aralleled labors of the zealous French Jesuits of Canada in pene- 
trating the unknown region of the west, commencing in 161 1. form a history 
of no ordinary interest, but have no particular connection with the scope of the 
jtresent work, until in the fall of 1665. Pierre Claude Allouez. who had entered 
Lake Superior in September, and sailed along the southern coast in search of 
copper, had arrived at the great village of the Chii)pewas at Chegoinccgon. Merc 
a great council of some ten or twelve of the principal Indian nations was held. 
The Pottawatomies of Lake Michigan, the S.ics and Foxes of the west, the 


Hurons from the north, the Illinois from the south, and the Sioux from the land 
of the prairie and wild rice, were all assembled there. The Illinois told the story 
of their ancient glory and about the noble river on the banks of which they dwelt. 
The Sioux also told their white brother of the same great river, and Allouez 
promised to the assembled tribe the protection of the French nation against all 
their enemies, native or foreign. The purpose of discovering the great river 
about which the Indian nations had given such glowing accounts appears to have 
originated with Marquette in 1669. In the year previous, he and Claude Dablon 
had established the Mission of St. Mary's, the oldest white settlement within 
the present limits of the state of Michigan. Marquette was delayed in the execu- 
tion of his great undertaking, and spent the interval in studying the language 
and habits of the Illinois Indians, among whom he expected to travel. 

About this time, the French government had determined to extend the domin- 
ion of France to the extreme western borders of Canada. Nicholas Perrot was 
sent as the agent of the government to propose a grand council of the Indian 
nations, at St. Mary's. When Perrot reached Green Bay, he extended the 
invitation far and near and, escorted by Pottawatomies. repaired on a mission of 
peace and friendship to the Miamis, who occupied the region about the present 
location of Chicago. 

In May, 1671, a great council of Indians gathered at the Falls of St. Mary, 
from all parts of the northwest, from the head waters of the St. Lawrence, from 
the valley of the Mississippi and from the Red river of the north. Perrot met 
with them and after grave consultation, formally announced to the assembled 
nations that their good French Father felt an abiding interest in their welfare 
and had placed them all under the powerful protection of the French government. 

Marquette, during the same year, had gathered at Point St. Ignace the rem- 
nants of one branch of the Hurons. This station for a long series of years was 
considered the key to the unknown west. The time was now auspicious for the 
consummation of Marquette's grand project. The successful termination of 
Perrot's mission, and the general friendliness of the native tribes, rendered the 
contemplated expedition much less perilous. But it was not until 1673 that the 
intrepid and enthusiastic priest was finally ready to depart on his daring and 
perilous journey to lands never trod by white men. 

The Indians, who had gathered in large numbers to witness his departure, 
were astounded at the boldness of the proposed undertaking, and tried to dis- 
courage him, representing that the Indians of the Mississippi valley were cruel 
and bloodthirsty, and would resent the intrusion of strangers upon their domain. 
The great river itself, they said, was the abode of terrible monsters who could 
swallow both canoes and men. 

But Marquette was not to be diverted from his purpose by those fearful 
reports. He assured his dusky friends that he was ready to make any sacrifice, 
even to lay down his life for the sacred cause in which he was engaged. He 
prayed with them; and having implored the blessing of God upon his under- 
taking, on the 13th of May, 1673, with Joliet and five Canadian-French voy- 
ageurs, or boatmen, he left the mission on his daring journey. Ascending Green 
Bay and Fox river, these bold and enthusiastic pioneers of religion and dis- 
covery proceeded until they reached a Miami and Kickapoo village, where Mar- 
quette was delighted to find "a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the town, 


ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, which these good 
people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to thank Him for the pity He 
had bestowed on them during the winter in having given them abundant chase." 

This was the extreme point beyond which the explorations of the French 
missionaries had not then extended. Here Alarquette was instructed by his 
Indian hosts in the secret of a root that cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake, 
drank mineral water with them and was entertained with generous hospitality. 
He called together the principal men of the village and informed them that his 
companion, Joliet, had been sent by the French governor of Canada to discover 
new countries, to be added to the dominion of France; but that he, himself, had 
been sent by the Most High God, to carry the glorious religion of the Cross; 
and assured his wondering hearers that on this mission he had no fear of death, 
to which he knew he would be exposed on his perilous journeys. 

Obtaining the services of two Miami guides to conduct his little band to the 
Wisconsin river, he left the hospitable Indians on the loth of June. Conducting 
them across the portage, their Indian guides returned to their village and the 
little party descended the Wisconsin to the great river which had so long been 
so anxiously looked for. and boldly floated down its unknown waters. 

On the 25th of June the explorers discovered indications of Indians on the 
west bank of the river and landed a little above the mouth of the river now 
known as Des Moines, and for the first time Europeans trod the soil of Iowa. 
Leaving the Canadians to guard the canoes, Marquette and Joliet boldly followed 
the trail into the interior for fourteen miles (some authorities say six), to an 
Indian village situated on the banks of a river and discovered two other villages, 
on the rising ground about half a league distant. Their visit, while it created 
much astonishment, did not seem to be entirely unexpected, for there was a 
tradition or prophecy among the Indians that white visitors were to come to 
them. They were, therefore, received with great respect and hospitality, ?nd 
were cordially tendered the calumet, or pipe of peace. They were informed that 
this band was a part of the Illini nation and that their village was called Mon- 
in-gou-ma, or Moingona, which was the name of the river on which it stood. 
This, from its similarity of sound, Marquette corrupted into Des Moines 
(Monk's river), its present name. 

Here the voyageurs remained six days, learning much of the manners and 
customs of their new friends. The new religion they boldly preached and the 
authority of the King of France they proclaimed were received without hostility 
or remonstrance by their savage entertainers. On their departure they were 
accompanied to their canoes by the chiefs and hundreds of warriors. Marquette 
received from them the sacred calumet, the emblem of peace and safeguard 
among the nations, and reembarked for the rest of his journey. 

It is needless to follow him further, as his explorations beyond his discovery 
of Iowa more properly belong to the history of another state. 

In 1682 La Salle descended the r^tississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in 
the name of the King of France, took formal possession of all the immense 
region watered by the great river and its tributaries from its source to its mouth, 
and named it Louisiana, in honor of his master, Louis yHV. The river he called 
"Colbert," after the French minister, and at its mouth erected a column and 
cross bearing the inscription, in the French language. 



At the close of the seventeenth century, France claimed, by right of discovery 
and occupancy, the whole valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, including 
Texas, as far as the Rio del Norte. 

In 1719, Philipe Francis Renault arrived in Illinois with two hundred miners 
and artisans. The war between I-Vance and Spain at this time rendered it 
extrcmelv probable that the Mississippi valley might become the theater of Spanish 
hostilities against the French settlements. To prevent this, as well as to extend 
French claims, a chain of forts was begun to keep open the connection between 
the mouth and the sources of the Mississippi. Fort Orleans, high up the Mis- 
sissippi river, was erected as an outpost in 1720. 

The Mississippi scheme was at the zenith of its power and glory in January, 
1720, Init the gigantic bubble collapsed more suddenly than it had been inflated, 
and the company was declared hopelessly bankrupt in May following. France 
was impoverished by it, both ])rivate and public credit were overthrown, cap- 
italists suddenly found themselves ])aupers, and labor was left without employ- 
nu'iit. The effect on the colony of Louisiana was disastrous. 

While this was going on in Lower Louisiana, the region about the lakes was 
the theater of Indian hostilities, rendering the pas.sage from Canada to Louisiana 
extremely dangerous for many years. The English had not only extended their 
Indian trade into the vicinity of the French settlements, but through their friends, 
the Iroquois, had gained a marked ascendency over the Foxes, a fierce and 
powerful tribe, of Iroquois descent, whom they incited to hostilities against the 
French. The Foxes began their hostilities with the siege of Detroit in 17 12, a 
siege which they continued for nineteen consecutive days, and although the 
expedition resulted in diminishing their numbers and huml)ling their pride, yet it 
was not until after several successive campaigns, embodying the best military 
resources of New France, had been directed against them, that they were finally 
defeated at the great battles of lUitte des Morts, and on the Wisconsin river, and 
driven west in 1746. 

The company, having found that the cost of defending Louisiana exceeded 
the returns from its commerce, solicited leave to surrender the Mississippi wilder- 
ness to the home government, .\ccordingly, on the loth of April, 1732, the juris- 
diction and control over the commerce reverted to the crown of France. The 
company had held possession of Louisiana fourteen years. In 1735 P>ienville 
returned to assume command for the king. 

A glance at a few of the old French settlements will show the progress made 
in portions of Louisiana during the early part of the eighteenth century. As 
early as 1705. traders and hunters had penetrated the fertile regions of tlie 
Wabash, and from this region, at that early date, fifteen thousand hides and 
skins had been collected and sent to Mobile for the Eu;-opean market. 

In the year 171^1. the French pojiulalion on the Wabash kept up a lucrative 
commerce with Mobile by means of traders and voyageurs. The Ohio river 
was comparatively unknown. 

In 1746. agriculture on the Wabash had attained to greater i>rosperity than 
in anv of the French settlements besides, and in that vear six hundred I)arrels 


of flour were manufactured and shipped to Xew Orleans, together with con- 
siderable <|uantities of hides, peltry, tallow and beeswax. 

In the Illinois country, also, considerable settlements had been made, so that 
in 1730 they embraced one hundred and forty French families, about si.x hundred 
"converted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. 

In 1753 the tirst actual conflict arose between Louisiana and the Atlantic 
colonies. F'rom the earliest advent of the Jesuit fathers, up to the period of which 
we speak, the great ambition of the l-rench had been, not alone to preserve their 
possessions in the west, but by every possible means to ])revent the slightest 
attempt of the English, east of the mountains, to extend their settlements toward 
the .Mississipi)i. !•" ranee was resolved on retaining possession of the great terri- 
tory which her missionaries had discovered and revealed to the w orld. French 
conmiandants had avowed their purpose of seizing every Englishman within the 
Ohio valley. 

The colonies of Pennsylvania, Xew 'S'ork and Virginia were most affected by 
the encroachments of France in the extension of her dominion, and particularly 
in the great scheme of uniting Canada with Louisiana. To carry out this pur- 
pose, the French had taken possession of a tract of country claimed by \'irginia 
and had commenced a line of forts extending from the lakes to the Ohio river. 
Virginia was not only alive to her own interests, but attentive to the vast import- 
ance of an immediate and effectual resistance on the part of all English colonies 
to the actual and contemplated encroachments of the French. 

In 1753, (iovernor Uinwiddie, of X'irginia, sent George Washington, then a 
young man of twenty-one, to demand of the French commandant "a reason for 
invading liritish dominions while a solid ])eace subsisted." Washington met the 
French commandant, Gardeur de .'^t. Pierre, on the head waters of the .Alle- 
ghany, and having communicated to him the object of his journey, received the 
insolent answer that the French would nut discuss the matter of right, but would 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading on the Ohio and its waters. 
The country he said belonged to the French by virtue of the discoveries of 
La Salle, and they would not withdraw from it. 

In January, 1754, Washington returned to \ irginia, and made his rc|)ort to 
the governor and council. Forces were at once raised and Washington, as lieu- 
tenant colonel, was disjiatched at the head of a hundred and fifty men. to the 
forks of the Ohio, witit orders to "finish the fort already begun there by the 
Ohio Company, and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all who interruined the 
English settlements." 

On his march through the forests of western Pcmisylvania, Washington, 
through the aid of friendly Indians, discovered the French concealed among the 
rocks, and as they ran to seize their arms, ordered his men to fire upon them, at 
the same time, w ith his own musket, setting the cxamjile. .\n action lasting about 
a (juarter of an hour ensued; ten of the Frenchmen were killed, among them 
Jumonville, the commander of the jiarty. and twenty-one were made prisoners. 
The dead were scalped by the Indians, and the chief, bearing a tomahawk and a 
scalp, visited all the tribes of the Miamis. urging them to join the Six Xations 
and the English against the I-'rcnch. The I'rcnch, however, were soon reen- 
forced, and Colonel Washington was compelled to return to Fort Xecessity. 
Here on the 3d day of July, De \'itliers invested the fort with six liundred r>ench 


troops and one hundred Indians. On the 4lh, Washington accepted terms of 
capitulation, and the English garrison withdrew from the valley of Ohio. 

This attack of Washington ujwn Junionville aroused the indignation of 
France, and war was formally declared in .May, 1756, and the "French and 
Indian war" devastated the colonies for several years. Montreal, Detroit and all 
Canada were surrendered to the English, and on the 10th of February, 1763, by 
the treaty of Paris — which had been signed, though not formerly ratified by the 
respective governments, on the 3d of November, 1762 — France relinquished to 
Great Britain all that portion of the province of Louisiana lying on the east side 
of the Mississippi, except the island and town of New Orleans. On the same 
day that the treaty of Paris was signed, France, by a secret treaty, ceded to Spain 
all her possessions on the west side of the Mississippi, including the whole country 
to the head waters of the Great river and west to the Rocky Mountains, and the 
jurisdiction of France in .America, which had lasted nearly a century, was ended. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, by the treaty of [)eace between Great 
Britain and the United States, the English government ceded to the latter all the- 
territory on the east side of the Missi.ssippi river and north of the 
parallel of north latitude. At the same time. Great Britain ceded to Spain all the 
Floridas. comprising all the territory east of the Mississippi and south of the 
southern limits of the United States. 

At this time, therefore, the present state of Iowa was a part of the Spanish 
possessions in North America, as all the territory west of the Mississippi river was 
under the dominion of Spain. That government also possessed all the territory 
of the Floridas east of the great river and south of the thirty-tirst parallel of 
north latitude. The Mississippi, therefore, so essential to the prosperity of the 
western portion of the United States, for the last three hundred mile? of its 
course flowed wholly within the Spanish dominions and that government claimed 
the exclusive right to use and control it below the southern boundary of the 
United States. 

The free navigation of the Mississippi was a very important (juestion during 
all the time that Louisiana remained a dependency of the Spanish Crown, and 
as the linal settlement intimately affected the status of the then future state of 
Iowa, it will be interesting to trace its progress. 

The people of the United States occupied and exercised jurisdiction over the 
entire eastern valley of the Mississippi, embracing all the country drained by its 
eastern tributaries; they had a natural right, according to the accepted interna- 
tional law, to follow these rivers to the sea, and to the use of the Mississippi 
river, accordingly, as the great natural channel of commerce. The river was not 
only necessary but absolutely indispensable to the prosperity and growth of the 
western settlements then rapidly rising into commercial and political importance. 
They were situated in the heart of the great valley, and with wonderfully expan- 
sive energies and accumulating resources, it was very evident that no power on 
earth could deprive them of the free use of the river below them, only while 
their numbers were insufficient to enable them to maintain their right by force. 
Inevitably, therefore, immediately after the ratification of the treaty of 1783. the 
western people began to demand the free navigation of the Mississippi — not as 
a favor, but as a right. In 1786, botli banks of the river below the mouth of the 
Ohio, were occupied by Spain, and military posts on the east bank enforced her 


power to exact heavy duties on all imports by way of the river for the Ohio 
region. Every boat descending the river was forced to land and sul^mit to the 
arbitrary revenue exactions of the Spanish authorities. Under the administra- 
tion of Governor Miro. these rigorous exactions were somewhat rclaxcfl from 
1787 to 1790; but Spain held it as her riglit to make them. Taking advantage of 
the claim of the American people that the Mississippi should be opened to them, 
in 1791, the Spanish government concocted a scheme for the dismembership of 
the Union. The plan was to induce the western people to separate from tl)e east- 
ern states by liberal land grants and extraordinary commercial i)rivileges. 

Spanish emissaries, among the people of Ohio and Kentucky, informed them 
that the Spanish government would grant them favoral)le commercial privileges, 
provided they would secede from the Federal government east of the mountains. 
The Spanish minister to the United States plainly declared to his confidential 
correspondent that, unless the western peo])le would declare their indci)en(lence 
and refuse to remain in the Union. Spain was determined never to grant the free 
navigation of the Mississippi. 

By the treaty of Madrid, (X'tober 20, 1795, however, Spain formally stipulated 
that the Mississippi river from its source to the gulf, for its entire width, should 
be free to American trade and commerce, and that the people of the United States 
should be jiermitted for three years to use the port of Xew Orleans as a port of 
deposit for their merchandise and produce, duty free. 

In November, 1801, the United States government received through Rufus 
King, its minister at the Court of St. James, a co[)y of the treaty between Spain 
and France, signed at Madrid. March 21. 1801, by which the cession of Louisi- 
ana to France, made the previous autumn, was contirmed. 

The change offered a favoral)le (opportunity t<j secure the just rights of the 
United States, in relation to the free navigation of the Mississipjii. and ended the 
attempt to dismember the Union by an effort to secure an indejiendent govermnent 
west of the .Mlcghany mountains. On the 7th of January. 1S03, the .American 
house of representatives adopted a resolution declaring their "unalterable deter- 
mination to maintain the boundaries and tlie rights of navigation and commerce 
through the River .\lississi|)pi. as established by existing treaties.'" 

In the same month. President Jefferson nominated and the senate confirmed 
Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe as envoys plenipotentiary to the Court 
of France, and Charles I'inckney and James Monroe to the Court of .Spain, with 
plenary powers to negotiate treaties to effect the object tnunciaicd by the poi)u- 
lar branch of the national legislature. These envoys were instructed to secure 
if possible, the cession of I'lorida and Xew Orleans, but it does not ajipear tiiat 
Mr. Jefferson and his cabinet had any idea of purchasing that i)art of Louisiana 
lying on the 7i'cst .side of the Mississippi. In fact, on the 2d of March following, 
the instructions were sent to our ministers, containing a |)lan which expressly 
left to France "all her territory on the west side of the Mississippi." Had these 
instructions been followed, it nu'ght have been that there would not have been any 
state of Iowa or any other member of the glorious Union of states west of the 
"Father of Waters." 

In obedience to his instructions, however, Mr. Livingston broached this |)lan 
to M. Talleyrand, Xapoleon's prime minister when that courtly <lii)lomatist 
<iuietly suggested to the American minister that France might be willing to cede 


tiie wliole I->ench domain in North America to the United States, and asked 
how much the Federal government would be willing to give for it. Livingston 
intimated that twenty millions of francs might be a fair price. Talleyrand thought 
that not enough, but asked the Americans to "tliink of it." A few days later, 
Napoleon, in an interview with Mr. Livingston, in effect informed the American 
envoy that he had secured Louisiana in a contract with Spain for the purpose of 
turning it over to the United States for a mere nominal sum. He had been com- 
I>elled to provide for the safety of that province by the treaty and he was •'anxious 
to give the United States a magnificent bargain for a mere trifle." The price pro- 
posed was one hundred and twenty-five million francs. This was subsequently 
modified to fifteen million dollars, and on this basis a treaty was negotiated, and 
was signed on the 30th day of April, 1803. 

This treaty was ratified by the Federal government and by act of congress, 
approved October 31, 1803, the president of the United States was authorized to 
take possession of the territory and provide for it a temporary government. 
Accordingly, on the 20th day of December, following, on behalf of the president. 
Governor Clairborne and General Wilkinson took possession of the Louisiana 
Purchase, and raised the American flag over the newly acquired domain, at New 
Orleans. Spain, although it had by treaty ceded the province to France in 1801, 
still held quasi possession, and at first objected to the transfer but withdrew her 
opposition early in 1804. 

By this treaty, thus successfully consummated, and the peaceable withdrawal 
of Spain, the then infant nation of the New \\'orld extended its dominion west of 
the ^lississippi to the Pacific Ocean, and north from the Gulf of .Mexico to 
British America. 

li the original design of Jefferson's administration had been accomplished, 
the United States would have acquired only that portion of the French territory 
lying east of the Mississippi river, and while the American people would thus have 
acquired the free navigation of that great river, all of the vast and fertile empire 
on the west, so rich in its agricultural and inexhaustible mineral resources, would 
have remained under the dominion of a foreign power. To Napoleon's desire 
to sell the whole of his North American possessions, and Livingston's act trans- 
cending his instructions, which was acquiesced in after it was done, does Iowa 
owe her position as a part of the United States by the Louisiana Purchase. 

By authority of an act of congress, approved March 26, 1S04. the newly 
acquired territory was on the ist day of October following divided: that part 
lying south of the thirty-third parallel of north latitude was called the Territory 
of Orleans, and all north of that parallel the District of Louisiana, which was 
placed under the authority of the officers of Indiana Territory, until July 4. 1805. 
when it was organized, with territorial government of its own, and so remained 
until the name of the territory of Louisiana was changed to Missouri. On the 
4th of July, 1814, that part of Missouri Territory comprising the present state of 
.\rkansas, and the country to the westward, was organized into the .\rkansas 

On the 2(1 (if March, iSji. ihe state of Missouri, being a ]iart of the territorv 
of that name, was admitted to the Union. June 28, 1834, the territory west of 
the Mississippi river and north of Missouri, was made a part of the territory of 
Michigan; but two years later, on the 4th of July, 1836, Wisconsin Territory 


was erected, enihraciiifj witliin its limits the present states of Iowa. Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. 

By act of congress, approved June 12. iN,v^. the territory of Iowa was erected, 
com]jrising, in addition to the present state, inucli the larger part of Minnesota, 
and extending north to the boundary of the I'.ritisli i)ossessions, 


According to the policy of the European nations, possession perfected title 
to any territory. W'c have seen that the country west of the Mississippi was lirst 
discovered by the Spaniards, but afterward was visited and occupied by the 
French. It was ceded by France to Spain, and by Spain back to ("ranee again, 
and then was purchased and occupied by the L'niled States. During all that time 
it does not appear to have entered into the heads or hearts of the high contracting 
parties that the country they bought, sold and gave away was in the possession of 
a race of men who, although savage, owned the vast domain before Columbus 
first crossed the Atlantic. Having purchased the territory, the United States 
found it still in the possession of its original owners who had never lieen dispos- 
sessed ; and it became necessary to purchase again what had alread> been bought 
before, or forcibly eject the occupants ; therefore, the history of the Indian nations 
who occupied Iowa prior to and during its early settlement by the whites, becomes 
an important chapter in the history of the state that cannot be omitted. 

For more than one hundred years after Marcjuctte and Joliet trod the virgin 
soil of Iowa, not a single settlement had been made or attempted ; not even a 
trading post had been established. The whole country remained in the undis- 
jiuted possession of the native tribes, who roamed at will over her beautiful and 
fertile prairies, hunted in her woods, fished in her streams, and often poured out 
their life blood in obstinately contested contests for supremacy. That this state 
so aptly styled "The lieautiful Land," had been the theater of numerous, fierce 
and bloody struggles between rival nations, for possession of the favored region, 
long before its settlement by civilized man, there is no room for doubt. In these 
savage wars, the -weaker party, whether aggressive or defensive, was cither 
exterminated or driven from their ancient hunting grounds. 

In 1673, when Marquette discovered Iowa, tlic lllini were a very powerful 
I)eo])le, occujiying a large ])ortion of the state: but when the cnuntry wa< agaii? 
visited by the whites, not a remnant of that once powerful tribe remained on the 
west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa was principally in the possession df the 
."^acs anrl Foxes, a warlike tribe which, originally two distinct nations, residing in 
New York and on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had gradually fought their 
way westward and united probably after the Foxes had been driven out of the 
l"ox river country in 1846 and crossed the Mississiiipi. The death of I'ontiac, a 
famous Sac chieftain, was made the i)rctext for war against the lllini, and a fierce 
and bloody struggle ensued, which continued uiuil the Illinois were nearly 
destroyed and their hunting grounds possessed by their victorious foes. The 
lowas also occuj)ied a portion of the state for a time, in common with the Sacs, 
but they, too, were nearly destroyed by the Sacs and l-"oxes and in "The lieauti- 
ful Land," these natives tnct their equally warlike foes, the Northern Sioux, with 


whom iliev maintained a constant warfare for tlie possession of the country for 
many years. 

When the United States came in possession of the great valley of the Missis- 
sippi, In' the Louisiana I'urchase, the Sacs and l''oxes and lowas possessed the 
entire territory now comprising the state of Iowa. Tlie Sacs and Fo.xes also 
occui)ied the most of the state of Illinois. 

The Sacs had four principal villages, where most of them resided, viz: Their 
largest and inoSt important town — if an Indian village may be called such — and 
from which emanated most of the obstacles and difficulties encountered by the 
government in the extinguishment of Indian titles to land in this region, was on 
Rock river, near Rock Island; another was on the east bank of the Mississippi, 
near the mouth of Henderson river; the third was at the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, near the present site of Montrose, and the fourth was near the mouth of 
the Upper Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages, viz: One on the west side of the 
Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock river ; another about twelve miles 
from ib.e river, in the rear of the Dubu<|ue lead mines, and the third on Turkey 

The lowas. at one time identilied with the Sacs, of Rock river, had withdrawn 
from them and become a separate tribe. Their i)rincipal village was on the Des 
Moines river, in \'an Buren county, on the site where lowaville now stands. 
Here the last great Ijattle between the Sacs and Foxes and the lowas was fought, 
in which Ulack Hawk, then a young man, commanded one division of the attack- 
ing forces. The following account of the battle has been given : 

"Contrary to long established custom of Indian attack, this battle was com- 
menced in the day time, the attending circumstances justifying this dejiarture 
from the well settled usages of Indian warfare. The battlefield was a level river 
bottom, about four miles in length, and two miles wide near the middle, narrow- 
ing to a point at either end. The main area of this bottom rises perhaps twenty 
feet above the river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along the shore, covered 
with trees that belted the prairie on the river side with a thick forest, and the 
immediate bank of the river was fringed with a dense growth of willows. Xear 
the lower end of this j^rairie, near the river bank, was situated the Iowa village. 
About two miles above it and near the middle of the prairie is a mound, covered 
at the lime with a tuft of .small trees and underbrush growing on its summit. In 
the rear of this little elevation or mound lay a belt of wet prairie, covered at that 
time with a dense growth of rank, coarse grass. Bordering this wet prairie on the 
north, the country rises abruptly into elevated broken river bluffs, covered with a 
heavy forest for many miles in extent, and in places thickly clustered with under- 
growth, affording a convenient shelter for the stealthy approach of the foe. 

"Through this forest the Sac and Fox war party made their way in the night 
and secreted themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, intending to remain in 
ambush during the day and make such oi)servations as their near proximity to 
their intended victim might afford, to aid them in their contemplated attack 
on the town during the following night. hVom this situation their spies could 
take a full survey of the village, and watch every movement of the inhabitants, 
by which means they were soon convinced tliat the lowas had no suspicion of 
their presence. 


'At ihe foot of the mound above mentioned, the iowas had their race course, 
where they (hvertcd themselves with the excitement of horse racing and schooled 
their voung warriors in cavalry evolutions. In these exercises mock battles were 
fought and the Indian tactics of attack and defense carefully inculcated, Ijy which 
means a skill in horsemanship was acquired rarely excelled. Unfortunately for 
them this day was selected for their e(|uestrian sports, and wholly unconscious 
of the proximity of their foes, the warriors repaired to the race ground, leaving 
most of their arms in the village and their old men, women and children 

■■Pash-a-po-i)u, who was chief in command of the Sacs and I'"oxes. perceived 
at once the advantage this state of things afforded for a complete surprise of his 
now doomed victims, and ordered I'llack Hawk to file off with his young warriors 
through the tall grass and gain the cover of the timber along the river liank, 
and with the utmost speed reach the village and commence the battle, while he 
remained with his division in the ambush to make simultaneous assault on the 
unarmed men whose attention was engrossed with the excitement of the races. 
The plan was skilfully laid and most dexterously executed. I'.lack Hawk with 
his forces reached the village undiscovered, and made a furious onslaught upon 
the defenseless inhabitants by firing one general volley into their midst and com- 
pleting the slaughter with the tomahawk and scalping knife, aided by the 
devouring flames with which they enveloped the village as soon as the fire brand 
could be spread from lodge to lodge. 

"On the instant of the report of firearms at the village the forces under 
Pash-a-po-po leaped from their couchant position in the grass and sprang, tiger- 
like, upon the astonished and unarmed Iowas in the midst of their racing .sports. 
The first impulse of the latter naturally led them to make the utmost speed 
toward their arms in the village and protect if possible their wives and children 
from the attack of their merciless assailants. The distance from the place of 
attack on the prairie was two miles, and a great number fell in their flight 
by the bullets and tomahawks of their enemies, who pressed them closely with 
a running fire the whole way and the survivors only reached their town in time 
to witness the horrors of its destruction. Their whole village was in flames, 
and the dearest objects of their lives lay in slaughtered heaps amidst the devour- 
ing clement, and the agonizing groans of the dying, mingled with the exulting 
shouts of the victorious foe. lillcd their hearts with maddening des[)air. Their 
wives and children who had been spared the general massacre were prisoners. 
and together with their arms were in the hands of the victors; anrl all that 
could now be <lonc was to draw off their shattered and defenseless forces, and 
save as many lives as possible by a retreat across the Des Moines river, which 
they effected in the best possible manner, and took a position among the Soap 
Creek Hills." 

The Sacs and Foxes prior to the settlement of their village on Rock river had 
a fierce conflict with the Winnebagoes, subdued them and took possession of 
their lands. Their village on Rock river at one time contained upward of sixty 
lodges and was among the largest Indian villages on the continent. In 1825 the 
secretary of war estimated the entire number of the Sacs and Foxes at 4,600 
souls. Their village was situated in the immediate vicinity of the upjicr rapids 
of the Mississippi, where the beautiful and flourishing towns of Rock Island and 

12 111 S'r( )KV Ol" A I TAXOOSE COUXTV 

Davenport are now situated. The beautiful scenery of the island, the extensive 
prairies, dotted over with groves, the jiicturesque bluffs along the river banks, 
the rich and fertile soil, prodvicing' large crops of corn, squash and other veg- 
etables, with little labor; the abundance of wild fruit, game, fish, and almost 
everything calculated to make it a delightful spot for an Indian village, which 
was found there, had made this place a favorite home of the Sacs, and secured 
for it the strong attachment and veneration of the whole nation. 

Xorth of the hunting grounds of the Sacs and Foxes were those of the Sioux, 
a fierce and warlike nation, who often disputed possession with their rivals in 
savage and bloody warfare. The possessions of these tribes were mostly located 
in Minnesota, but extended over a portion of northern and western Iowa to the 
Missouri river. Their descent from the north upon the hunting grounds of Iowa 
frequently brought them into collision with the Sacs and Fo.xes : and after many 
a conflict and blotKly struggle, a boundary line was established between them by 
the government of the I'nited States in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien. in 1825. 
But this, instead of settling the difficulties, caused them to t|uarrel all the more, 
in consequence of alleged trespasses upon each other's side of the line. These 
contests were kept up and became so unrelenting that in 1830 the government 
bought of the respective tribes of the .Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, a strip of 
land twenty miles in width on both sides of the line, and thus throwing them 
fortv miles apart by creating between them a "neutral ground." commanded 
them to cease their hostilities. Both the Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, however, 
were allowed to fish and hunt on this ground unmolested, provided they did not 
interfere with each other on I'nited States territory. The Sacs and Fo.xes and 
the Sioux were deadly enemies, and neither let an opportunity to pimish the 
other pass unimproved. 

In April, 1852, a tight occurred between the .Musquaka band of Sacs and 
Foxes and a band of Sioux, about six miles above Algona, in Kossuth county, on 
the west side of the Des Moines river. The Sacs and Foxes were under the 
leadershi]) of Ko-ko-wah, a subordinate chief, and had gone up from their home 
in Tama county, by way of Clear Lake, to what was then the "neutral ground." 
At Clear Lake, Ko-ko-wah was informed that a party of Sioux were encamped 
on the west side of the east fork of the Ues Moines, and he iletermined to 
attack them. With sixty of his warriors he started and arrived at a point on the 
east side of the river, about a mile above the Sioux encaminncnt. in the night, 
and concealeil themselves in a grove where they were able to discover the position 
and strength of their hereditary foes. The next morning after many of the 
Sioux braves had left ilieir camp on hunting tours, the vindictive Sacs and Foxes 
crossed the river and suddenly attacked the camp. The conflict was de.-perate 
for a short time but the advantage was with the assailants, and the Sioux were 
routed. Sixteen of them, including some of their women and children, were 
killed, and a boy fourteen years old was captured. One of the Mus(|uakas was 
shot in the breast by a st|uaw as they were rushing into the Sicnix' camp. He 
started to run away, when tiie same brave s(|uaw sliot him through the body, 
at a distance of twenty rods, and he fell dead. Three other Sac bra\es were 
killed. But few oi the Sioux escaped. The victorious jiarty hurriedly buried 
their own dead, leaving the dead Siou.x above ground, and made their way home 
with their c;ipti\e. with all ])ossible expedition. 



, \'cry soon after the ac(|uisition of Louisiana, llu- Inilcd States government 
adopted measures for tlie exploration of the new territory, having in view the 
conciliation of the numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was j/Ossessed, and 
also, the selection of proper sites for the establishment of military posts and 
trading stations. The Army of the West. (Jeneral James Wilkinson command- 
ing, had its head(|uarters at St. Louis. From this post, Captains Lewis and Clark, 
with a sufficient force, were detailed to explore the unknown sources of the 
Missouri, and Lieutenant Zebulon M. I'ike to ascend to the head waters of the 
Mississippi. Lieutenant I'ike, with one sergeant, two corporals and seventeen 
privates, left the military camj) near St. Louis, in a keel boat, with four months" 
rations, on the 9th day of August, irSo5. On the 20th of the same month the 
expedition arrived within the i)resent limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des 
Moines river, where I'ike met William Ewing, who had just been appointed 
Intlian agent at this point, a I-'rench iiUeri^retcr and four chiefs and fifteen Sac 
and I-'ox warriors. 

.\t the head of the rapids, where Montrose is now situated. Pike held a 
council with the Indians, in which he addressed them substantially as follows: 
"Your great F'ather, the ])resident of the United States, wished to be more inti- 
mately acquainted with the situation and wants of the different nations of red 
peoi)le in our newly ac(|uirefl territory of Louisiana, and has ordered the general 
to send a number of his warriors in different directions to take them by the hand 
and make such inquiries as might afford the satisfaction required." At the 
close of the council he ])resented the red men with some knives, whiskey and 

Pursuing iiis way up the ri\er. he arrived on the 23d of August at what is 
supjwsed. from his description, to ))e the site of the present city of I'urlington, 
which he selected as the location of a military post. Me describes the ])lace as 
being "on a hill about forty miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, on the 
west side of the river, in latitude 41^ 21' north. The channel of the river runs 
on that shore : the hill in front is about sixty feet perpendicular ; nearly level on 
to]) : four hundred yards in the rear is a small prairie fit for gardening, and 
inunediately under the hill is a limestone spring, sufficient for the consumption of 
a whole regiment." In addition to this description, which corresponds to lUir- 
lington. the sjiot is laid down on his map at a bend in the river, a short distance 
below the mouth of the Henderson, which ])ours its waters into the Mississippi 
from Illinois. The fort was built at Fort Madison, but from the distance, lati- 
tude, description and map furnished by I'ike, it could not have been the place 
selected by him. while all the circumstances corroborate the opinion that the 
I)lace he selected was the spot where Burlington is now located, called by the 
early voyageurs on the Mississippi "Flint Hills." 

( )n the 24th, with one of his men, he went on .shore on a hunting cxi)e(lition, 
;iii<l following a stream which they sup|iosed to be a part of the Mississijipi, 
they were led away from their course. Owing to the intense heat and tall grass, 
his two favorite dogs, which he had taken with him, became exhausted and he 
left them on the prairie, supposing that they would follow him as soon as they 
should get rcstetl. and went on to overtake his Iniat. Reaching the river, he 


waited some lime for his canine friends, Ijut they did not come, and as he deemed 
it inexpedient to detain the boat longer, two of his men volunteered to go in 
pursuit of them, and he continued on his way up the river, expecting that the 
two men would overtake him. They lost their way, however, and for six days 
were without food, except a few morsels gathered from the stream, and might 
have perished had they not accidentally met a trader from St. Louis, who induced 
two Indians to take them up the river, and they overtook the boat at Dubuque. 

.At Dubuque, Pike was cordially received by Julien Dubufiue, a Frenchman, 
who held a mining claim under a grant from Spain. Dubuque had an old field 
piece and fired a salute in honor of the advent of the first Americans who had 
visited tliat part of tjie territory. Dubu(|ue. however, was not disposed to pub- 
lish the wealth of his mines and the young and evidently inquisitive otScer obtained 
but little information from him. 

After leaving this place. Pike jjursued his way up the river, but as lie passed 
beyond the limits of the present state of Iowa, a detailed history of his explora- 
tions on the ui)per waters of the Mississijipi more properly belongs to the iiistory 
of another state. 

It is sufficient to say that on the site of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, at the 
mouth of the Minnesota river, Pike held a council with the Sioux, September 
23d, and obtained from them a grant of one hundred thousand acres of land. 
On the 8th of January, 1806, Pike arrived at the trading post belonging to the 
Northwest Company, on Lake De Sable, in latitude 47°. At this time the then 
powerful Northwest Company carried on their immense operations from Hud- 
son's Bay to the St. Lawrence ; up that river on both sides, along the great lakes 
to the head of Lake Superior, thence to the sources of the Red river of the north 
and west, to the Rocky Mountains, embracing within the scoiie of their opera- 
tions the entire territory of Iowa. After successfully accomplishing ids mission, 
and performing a valuable service to Iowa and the whole northwest. Pike returned 
to St. Louis, arriving there on the 30th of .Xjiril. 1806. 


The territory of Iowa, although it had been purchased by the United States, 
and was ostensibly in the possession of the government, was still occupied by 
the Indians, who claimed title to the soil ])y right of ownership and possession. 
Before it could be open to settlement by the whites it was indispensalile that the 
Indian title should be extinguished and the original owners removed. The 
accomjjlishment of this purpose required the expenditure of large sums of money 
and blood, and for a long series of years the frontier was disturbed by Indian 
wars, terminated repeatedly by treaty only to be renewed by some act of oppres- 
sion on the part of the whites or some violation of treaty stipulation. 

As previously shown, at the time when the United States assumed the con- 
trol of the country by virtue of the Louisiana Purchase, nearly the whole state 
was in possession of the Sacs and Foxes, a powerful and warlike nation, who 
were not disposed to submit without a struggle to wliat they considered the 
encroachments of the pale faces. 

Among the most noted chiefs, and one whose restlessness and liatred of the 
Americans occasioned more trouble to the government than any other of his tribe, 


was Black Hawk, who was born at the Sac village, on Rock river, in ij'^j. He 
was simply the chief of his own band of Sac warriors, but by his energy and 
ambition he became the leading spirit of the united nation of Sacs and Foxes and 
one of the prominent figures in the history of the country from 1S04 until his 
death. In early manhood he attained some distinction as a fighting chief, having 
led campaigns against the Osages, and other neighboring tribes. About the 
Ijeginring of the last century he began to appear ]:>romincnt in the affairs on the 
Mississippi. Some historians have added to the statement that '"it does not 
appear that he was ever a great general, or possessed any of the qualifications of 
a successful leader." If this was so, his life was a marvel. How any man who 
had none of the qualifications of a leader became so prominent as such, as he 
did, indicates either that he had some ability, or that his contemporaries, both 
Indian and .Anglo-Saxon, had less than he. Me is said to have been the "victim 
of a narrow prejudice and bitter ill will against the .\inericans," but the impartial 
historian must admit that if he was the enemy of the .\mericans, it was certainly 
not without some reason. 

It will be remembered that Spain did not give up possession of the country 
to France on its cession to the latter power in i8or, but retained possession of it 
and by the authority of France, transferred it to the United States in 1804. 
Black Hawk and his band were in St. Louis at the time and were invited to be 
present and witness the ceremonies of the transfer, but he refused the invitation, 
and it is but just to say that this refusal was caused probably more from regret 
that the Indians were to be transferred from the jurisdiction of the Spanish 
authorities than from any special hatred toward the Americans. In iiis life he 
says: "I found many sad and gloomy faces because the United States were about 
to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the Americans came, I 
took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. The Americans 
came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out of one door as they 
entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for our village, on Rock 
river, not liking the change any more than our friends appeared to at St. Louis. 
On arriving at our village we gave the news that strange people had arrived at 
St. Louis and that we should never see our Sjianish father again. The informa- 
tion made all our people sorry." 

On the 3d day of Xoveniber, 1804, a treaty was concluded between William 
Henry Harrison, then governor of Indiana Territory, on behalf of the United 
States, and five chiefs of the Sac and Fox nation, by which the latter, in con- 
sideration of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars' worth of goods 
then delivered, and a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars to be paid in goods 
at just cost, ceded to the United States all that land on the east side of the 
Mississippi, extending from a point opposite the Jeflfcrson, in Missouri, to the 
Wisconsin river, embracing an area of over fifty-one millions of acres. 

To this treaty Black Hawk always objected and always refused to consider 
it binding upon his people. He asserted that the chiefs or braves who made it 
had no authority to relin(|uish the title of the nation to any of the lands they 
held or occupied ; and, moreover, that they had been sent to St, Louis on quite 
a different errand, namely, to get one of their people released, who ha<l been 
imprisoned at St. I^uis for killing a white man. 

The year following this treaty (1805). Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike came up 


the river for the purpose of holding friendly councils with the Indians and 
selecting sites for forts within the territory recently acquired from France by 
the Unitetl States. Lieutenant I'ike seems to have been the first American whom 
Black 1 lawk ever met or had a personal interview with : and he was very much 
prepossessed in Pike's favor. He gives the following account of his visit to 
Rock Island: 

"A l)oat came up the river with a young American chief and a small party of 
soldiers. W'e hearrl of them soon after they passed Salt river. Some of pur 
young braves watched them every day, to see what sort of people he had on 
board. The boat at length arrived at Rock river, and the young chief came on 
shore with his interpreter and made a speech and gave us some presents. W'e in 
turn presented them with meat and such other provisions as we had to spare. 
We were well jjleased with the young chief. He gave us good advice and said 
our American father would treat us well." 

The events which soon followed Pike's e.\])edition were the erection of F'ort 
Edwards, at what is now Warsaw, Illinois, and I-"ort Madison, on the site of the 
present town of that name, the latter being the first fort erected in Iowa. Those 
movements occasioned great uneasiness among the Indians. When work was 
commenced on Fort Edwards, a delegation from their nation, headed by some 
of their chiefs, went down to see wdiat the Americans were doing, and had an 
interview with the commander, after which they returned home apparently sat- 
isfied. In like manner, when I'ort Aladison was being erected they sent down 
another delegation from a council of the nation held at Rock river, .\ccording 
to Black Hawk's account, the American chief told them that he was building a 
house for a trader who was coming to sell them goods cheap, and that the soldiers 
were coming to keep him company — a statement which Black Hawk says they 
distrusted at the time, believing that the fort was an encroachment upon their 
rights and designed to aid in getting their lands away from them. 

It has been held by good American authorities, that the erection of Fori 
Madison at the point where it was located was a violation of the treaty of 1804. 
By the eleventh article of that treaty, the I'nited States had a right to build a 
fort near the mouth of the Wisconsin river; by article six they had bound thein- 
selves "that if any citizen of the United States or any other white person should 
form a settlement ujion their lands, such intruders should forthwith be removed." 
Probably the authorities of the United States did not regard the establishment 
of military posts as coming properly within the meaning of the term "settle- 
ment," as used in the treaty. .\t all events, they erected Fort Madison within the 
territory reserved to the Indians, who became very indignant. Not long after 
the fort was built, a ])arty led by I'.lack Hawk attempted its destruction. They 
sent s])ies to watch the movements of the garrison, who ascertained that the 
soldiers were in the lialiil of marching out of the fort every morning and even- 
ing for ])arade, and the plan of the jiarty was to conceal themselves near the fort 
and attack and surprise them when they were outside. On the morning of tiic 
proposed day of attack, five soldiers came out and were fired upon by the Indians, 
two of them being killed. The Indians were too hasty in their movements, for 
the regular drill had not yet commenced. However, they kept up the attack for 
several days, attempting the old Fox strategy of setting fire to the fort with 

iiicii stiioDi, 111 II. dim;. rxiuxviLi.E 

!illflllilliiiiiiiiiiiiiniiii"iiiiiii"" ■""""' iiiiiiiii' '"ii'iiii 



blazing arrows, but finding tlieir efforts unavailing, they soon gave up and 
returned t(j Rock river. 

Wlicn war was declared between the I'nited States and Great Ilritain in 
1812. lUack Hawk anrl his band allied themselves with the ISritisb. partly 
because lie was dazzled by their specious promises, and more probably because 
they had been deceived by the Americans. Black Hawk himself declared that 
they were "forced into the war by being deceived." He narrates the circum- 
stances as follows : "Several of the chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Fo.xes 
were called upon to go to Washington to see their Great Father. On their 
return they related what had been said and done. They said the Great l-'athcr 
wished them, in the event of a war taking place with England, not to interfere 
on either side, but to remain neutral. He did not want our help, but wished us 
to hunt and suj^jiort our families and live in peace. He said that I'ritish traders 
would not be permitted to come on the Mississippi to furnish us with goods but 
that we should be supplied with an .American trader. Our chiefs then told him 
that the British traders always gave them credit in the fall for guns. ])owder 
and goods, to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. He repeated that the 
traders at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods ; that we should go there 
in the fall and he would sup])ly us on credit, as the British traders had done." 

lilack Hawk seems to have accepted of this proposition, and he and his 
people were very much pleasetl. Acting in good faith, they fitted out for their 
winter's hunt, and went to Fort ^^adison in high spirits to receive from the 
trader their outfit of supplies. But. after waiting some time, they were told by 
the trader that he would not trust them. It was in vain that they pleaded the 
promise of their great father at Washington. The trader was inexorable, and, 
disappointed and crestfallen, they turned sadly toward their own village. "I-'ew 
of us." says Black Hawk, "slept that night : all was gloom and discontent. In 
the morning, a canoe was seen ascending the river ; it soon arrived, bearing an 
express, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Rock Island 
with two boats loaded with goods, and requested us to come up immediately, 
because he had good news for us and a variety of presents. The exj^ress \ne- 
sentcd us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran through our camp 
like fire on a prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down, and all started for 
Rock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at peace, having been 
forced into the war by being deceived. ' 

He joined the British, who flattered him. styled him "General I'.lack Hawk.' 
decked him with medals, excited his jealousies against the .Americans and armed 
his band ; but he met with defeat and disapiiointmcnt. soon abandoned the service 
and came home. 

With all his skill and courage. I'dack Hawk was unable to leacf the Sacs and 
I'oxes into hostilities to the Inited States. ,\ portion of them, at the head of 
whoin was Keokuk ("the Watchful Fox"), were dispo.sed to abide by the treaty 
of 1804, and to cultivate friendly relations with the .American people. There- 
fore, when Iilack Hawk and his band joined the fortunes of Gircat Britain, the 
rest of the nation remained neutral, and. for protection organized with Keokuk 
for their chief. This divided the nation into the "War and Peace ])arty." 

Black Hawk says he was informed after he had goife to the war, that the 
nation, which had been reduced to so small a body of fighting men, were unable 

Vol 1-2 


to defend ihcmselves in case the Americans sliould attack them, and liaving all 
the old men and women and children belonging to the warriors who had joined 
the British on their hands to provide for, a council was held and it was agreed 
that Ouash-qua-me ("the Lance) and other chiefs, together with the old men, 
women and children, and such others as chose to accompany them, should go 
to St. Louis and place themselves under the American chief stationed there. 
Thev accordingly went down and were received as the "friendly band" of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and were provided for and sent up the Missouri river. On 
Black Hawk's return from the liritish army he says Keokuk was introduced to him 
as the war chief of the braves then in the village. He inejuired how he had become 
chief and was informed that their spies had seen a large armed force going 
toward Peoria, and fears were entertained of an attack upon the village ; wliere- 
upon a council was held, which concluded to leave the village and cross over to 
the west side of the Mississii)i)i. Keokuk had been standing at the door of the 
lodge where the council was held, not Ijcing allowed to enter on accouiU of never 
having killed an enemy, where he remained until \\'a-co-me came out. Keokuk 
asked permission to speak in the council, which ^Va-co-me obtained for him. 
Keokuk then addressed the chiefs : he remonstrated against the desertion of their 
village, their own homes and the graves of their fathers, and offered to defend 
the village. The council consented that he should be their war chief. He mar- 
shaled his braves, sent out spies and advanced on the trail leading to Peoria, but 
returned without seeing the enemy. The Americans did not disturb the village, 
and all were satisfied with the appointement of Keokuk. 

Keokuk, like Black Hawk, was a descendant of the Sac branch of tht- nation, 
and was born on Rock river in 1780. He was of a pacific disposition, but pos- 
sessed the elements of true courage and could fight, when occasion required, 
with a cool judgment and heroic energy. In his first battle he encountered and 
killed a Sioux, which placed him in the rank of warriors and he was honored 
with a public feast by his tribe in commemoration of the event. 

Keokuk has been described as an orator, entitled to rank with the most gifted 
of his race. In person he was tall and of portly bearing ; in his public speeches 
he displayed a commanding attitude and graceful gestures : he spoke rapidly, 
but his enunciation was clear, distinct and forcible : he culled his figures from the 
stores of nature and based his arguments on skillful logic. Unfortunately for 
the reputation of Keokuk, as an orator among white people, he was never able to 
obtain an interpreter who could claim even a slight ac(|uaintance with philosophy. 
With one exception only, his interpreters were unacc|uainted with the elements of 
their mother tongue. Of this serious hindrance to his fame. Keokuk was well 
aware, and retained Frank Labershure. who had received a rudimcntal educa- 
tion in the l""rench and English languages, until the latter broke down l>y dissipa- 
tion and died. But during the meridian of his career among the white people, 
he was compelled to submit his speeches for translation to uneducated men. 
whose range of thought fell below the flights of a gifted mind, and the fine 
imagery drawn from nature was beyond their power of reproduction. He had 
sufficient knowledge of the English language to make him sensible of this bad 
rendering of his thoughts, and often a feeling of mortification at the bungling 
efforts was depicted dn his countenance while speaking. The proper place to 
form a correct estimate of his abilitv as an orator was in the Indian council. 


where lie addressed himself exclusively to those who understood his language, 
and witness the electrical effect of his eloquence upon his audience. 

Keokuk seems to have possessed a more sober judgment and to have liad a 
more intelligent view of the great strength and resources of the United States 
than his noted and restless contemi)orary. Black Hawk. 1 le knew from the first 
that the reckless war which Illack Hawk and his band had determined to carry 
on could result in nothing but defeat and disaster, and used every argument 
against it. The large number of warriors whom he had dissuaded from follow- 
ing Black Hawk became, however, greatly excited with the war spirit after Still- 
man's defeat, and but for the signal tact disjjlayed by Keokuk on that occasion, 
would have forced him to submit to their wishes in joining the rest of the war- 
riors in the held. A war dance was held and Keokuk took part in it. seeming 
to be moved with the current of the rising storm. When the dance was over, 
he called the council to prepare for war. He made a speech, in which he 
admitted the justice of their complaints against the .Americans. To seek redress 
was a noble aspiration of their nature. The blood of their brethren had been 
shed by the white man, and the spirits of their braves, slain in battle, called 
loudly for vengeance. "I am your chief." he said, "and it is my duty to lead you 
to battle, if. after fully considering the matter, you are determined to go. But 
before vou decide on taking this important step, it is wise to inc|uire into the 
chances of success." He then portrayed to them the great power of the United 
States, against whom they would have to conteiul. that their chance of .-success 
was uttcrlv hopeless. "But," said he. "if you do determine to go ui^on the war- 
path, I will agree to lead you on one condition, viz: that before we go. we will 
kill all our old men and our wives and children, to save them from a lingering 
death of starvation, and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on 
the other side of the Mississippi." 

This was a strong but truthful picture of the prospect before them, and was 
presented in such a forcible light as to cool their ardor and cause them to abandon 
the rash undertaking. 

r.ut during the war of 1832. it is now considered certain that small bands of 
Indians from the west side of the Mississippi made incursions into the white set- 
tlements in the lead mining region and committed some murders and depredations. 
When peace was declared between the United Slates and England, Black 
Hawk was required to make peace with the former and entered into a treaty at 
Portage des Sioux, September 14, 181 5, but did not "touch the goose quill to it 
until May 13, 1816. when he smoked the i)ipe of peace with the great white chief" 
at St. Louis. This treaty was a renewal of the treaty of 1804, but Black Hawk 
declared he had been deceived: that he did not know that by signing the treaty he 
was giving awav his village. This weighed upon his mind, already soureil by 
previous disapj)ointment and the irrcsistable encroachments of the whites: and 
when, a few years later, he and his peo[)le were driven from their possessions by 
the military, he determined to return to the h<ime of his fathers. 

It is also to be remarked that in i8i() by treaty with various tribes, the I'nited 
States relinquished to the Indians all the lands lying north of a line drawn from 
the southernmost point of Lake Michigan west to the Mississippi, except a rescr- 


vation five leagues siiuare on tlie Mississippi river, supposed tlicn to be sufficient 
to include all the mineral lands on and adjacent to Fever river, and one league 
square at the mouth of the Wisconsin river. 


The immediate cause of the Indian outbreak in i<S30 was the occupation of 
Black Hawk's village on the Rock river, by the whites, during the absence of the 
chief and his braves on a hunting expedition, on the west side of the Mississippi. 
When they returned they found their wigwams occupied by white families and 
their own women and children were shelterless on the banks of the river. The 
Indians were indignant and determined to repossess their village at all hazards, 
and early in the spring of 1831 recrossed the Mississippi and menacingly took 
possession of their own cornfields and cabins. It may be well to remark here 
that it was expressly stipulated in the treaty of 1804, to which they attributed all 
their troubles, that the Indians should not be obliged to leave their lands until 
they were sold by the United States, and it does not appear that they occupied 
any lands other than those owned by the government. If this was true the Indians 
had good cause for indignation and complaint. But the whites, driven out in turn 
by the returning Indians, became so clamorous against what they termed the 
encroachments of the natives, that Governor Reynolds, of Illinois, ordered Gen- 
eral Gaines to Rock Island with a military force to drive the Indians again from 
their homes to the west side of the Mississippi. Black Hawk says he did not 
intend to be provoked into war by anything less than the blood of some of his 
own people ; in other words, that there would be no war unless it should be com- 
menced by the pale faces. But it was said and probably thought by the military 
commanders along the frontier that the Indians intended to unite in a general 
war against the whites, from Rock river to the Mexican borders. But it does 
not appear that the hardy frontiersmen themselves had any fears, for their experi- 
ence had been that, when well treated, their Indian neighbors were not dangerous 
Black Hawk and his band had done no more than to attempt to repossess the old 
homes of which they had been deprived in their absence. Xo blood had been 
shed. Black Hawk and his chiefs sent a flag of truce and a new treaty was made, 
by which Black Hawk and his band agreed to remain forever on the Iowa side 
and never recross the river without the permission of the president or the gov- 
ernor of Illinois. Whether the Indians clearly understood the terms of this treaty 
is uncertain. As was usual, the Indian traders had dictated terms on their behalf, 
and they had received a large amount of provisions, etc., from the government. 
but it may well be doubted whether the Indians comprehended that they could 
never revisit the graves of their fathers without violating their treaty. They 
undoubtedly thought that they had agreed never to recross the -Mississippi with 
hostile intent. However this may be. on the 6th day of April. iS,^2. Black Hawk 
and his entire band with their women and children, again recrossed the Mississijipi 
in plain view of the garrison of Fort Armstrong and went up Rock river. 
Although this act was construed into an act of hostility by the military authorities 
who declared that Black Hawk intended to recover his village or the site where it 
stood, by force, yet it does not appear that he made any such attempt, nor did his 
appearance create any special alarm aiuong the settlers. They knew that tlie 


Indians never went on the warpath encumbered with the old men, tlieir women 
and their children. 

The Galenian. printed in Galena, of May 2, 1832, says that Black Hawk was 
invited by the prophet and had taken possession of a tract about forty miles up 
Rock river. l)Ut that he did not remain there long, but commenced his march up 
Rock river. Ca])tain \V. B. Green, who served in Captain Stephenson's company 
of mounted rangers, says that "lilack Hawk and his band crossed the river with 
no hostile intent, but that his band had had bad luck in hunting during the pre- 
vious winter, were actually in a starving condition, and liad come over to spend 
the summer with a friendly tribe on the head waters of tlie Rock and Illinois 
rivers, by invitation from their chief. Other old settlers, who all agree that 
Black Hawk had no idea of fighting, say that he came back to the west side 
expecting to negotiate another treaty and get a new supply of provisions. The 
most reasonable explanation of this movement, which resulted so disas- 
trously to r.lack Hawk and his starving people, is that during the fall and win- 
ter of 1 83 1 -2, his people became deeply indebted to their favorite trader at 
Fort Armstrong (Rock Island). They had not been fortunate in hunting and he 
was likely to lose heavily, as an Indian debt was outlawed in one year. I f . tiiere- 
fore, the Indians could be induced to come over and the fears of the military 
could I)e sufficiently aroused to pursue them, another treaty could be negotiated, 
and from the payments from the government the shrewd trader could get his pay. 
lust a week after Black Hawk crossed the river, on the 13th of April. 1832, 
George Davenport wrote to General Atkinson: "I am informed that the I'ritish 
band of Sac Indians are determined to make war on the frontier settlements.. 

I'-rom every information that I have received. I am of the opinion that 

the intention of the British band of Sac Indians is to commit depredations on 
the inhal)itants of the frontier."" .\m\ yet, from the 6th day of .\pril until after 
Stil]man"s men commenced war by firing on a flag of truce from Black Hawk, no 
murders nor depredations were committed by the British band of Sac Imiians. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to detail the incidents of the Black Hawk 
war of 1832. as it [jcrtains rather to the hi.story of the state of Illinois. It is suf- 
ficient to say that, after the disgraceful aflfair at Stinman"s Run. Black Hawk, 
concluding that the whites, refusing to treat with him. were determined to exter- 
minate his i)eople. determined to return to the Iowa side of the Mississippi. He 
could not return by the way he came, for the army was behind him. an army. too. 
that would sternlv refuse to recognize the white flag of peace. His only course 
was to make his way northward and reach the Mississii)i)i. if possible, before the 
troops could overtake him, and this he did; but before he could get his women 
and children across the Wisconsin he was overtaken and a battle ensued. Here 
again he sued for peace, and. through his trusty lieutenant, ""the Prophet."' the 
whites were plainly informed that the starving Indians did not wish to fight, but 
would return to the west side of the Mississippi peaceably, if they could 1)C per- 
mitted to do so. No attention was jiaid to this second effort to negotiate peace, 
and as soon as supplies could be obtained the pursuit was resumed, the Hying 
Indians were overtaken again eight miles before they reached the mouth of the 
Bad .\xe. and the slaughter (it should not be dignified by the name of battle) 
commenced. Here, overcome by starvation and the victorious whites, his liand 
was scattered on the 2d day of .\ugust, 1832. P.lack Hawk escaped but was 


brouglit into camp at Prairie du Chicn by three Winnebagoes. He was confined 
in JelTcrson Barracks until the spring of 1833, when he was sent to Washington, 
arriving there April 22d. On the 26th of April they were taken to I'ortress Mon- 
roe, where they remained till the 4th of June, 1833, when orders were given for 
them to be liberated and returned to their own country. By order of the presi- 
dent he was brought back to Iowa through the principal eastern cities. Crowds 
flocked to see him along his route and he was very much flattered by the atten- 
tions he received. He lived among his people on the Iowa river till that reserva- 
tion was sold in 1836, when, with the rest of the Sacs and Foxes, he removed to 
the Dcs Moines reservation, where he remained till his death, which occurred on 
the 3d of October, 1838. 


At the close of the Black Hawk war, in 1832, a treaty was made at a council 
held on the west bank of the Mississippi, where now stands the thriving city of 
Davenport, on grounds now occupied by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad Company, on the 21st day of September, 1832. At this council the 
United States was represented by General Winfield Scott and Governor Rey- 
nolds, of Illinois. Keokuk, Pash-a-pa-ho and some thirty other chiefs and war- 
riors of the Sac and Fox nation were present. By this treaty of Sacs and Foxes 
ceded to the United State a strip of land on the eastern border of Iowa fifty miles 
wide, from the northern boundary of Missouri tn the mouth of the Upper Iowa 
river, containing about six million acres. The western line of the purchase was 
parallel with the Mississippi. In consideration of this cession, the United 
States government stipulated to ])ay annually to tiic confederated tribes, for 
thirty consecutive years, twenty thousand dollars in s]jecie. and to j^ay the debts 
of the Indians at Rock Island, which had been accumulating for seventeen years 
and amounted to fifty thousand dollars, due to Davenport & Farnham, Indian 
traders. The government also generously donated to the Sac and Fox women 
and children whose husbands and fathers had fallen in the Black Hawk war, 
thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels of salt, thirty barrels of pork, fifty barrels 
of flour and six thousand bushels of corn. 

This territory is known as the "Black Hawk Purchase." Although it was not 
the first portion of Iowa ceded to the United States by the Sacs and Foxes, it 
was the first opened to actual settlement by the tide of emigration that flowed 
across the Mississijjpi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished. The treaty 
was ratified February 13. 1833, and took effect on the ist of June following, when 
the Indians f|uietly removed from the ceded territory and this fertile and beauti- 
ful region was opened to white settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the Black Hawk Purchase was reserved 
for the Sacs and Foxes four hundred s(|uare miles of land situated on the Iowa 
river, and including within its limits Keokuk's village, on the right bank of that 
river. This tract was known as "Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by the 
Indians until 1836, when, by a treaty made in September between them and 
Governor Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, it was ceded to the L'nited States. 
The council was held on the banks of the Mississippi above Davenport and was 
the largest assemblage of the kind ever held by the Sacs and Foxes to treat for 


the sale of land. Aljout one lliousand of tlicir cliicfs and braves were present 
and Keokuk was their leading spirit and principal speaker on the occasion. By 
the terms of the treaty, the Sacs and Foxes were removed to another reserva- 
tion on the Des Moines river, where an agency was established for them at what 
is now the town of Agency City. 

llesides the Keokuk Reserve, the government gave out of the I'.lack Hawk 
Purchase to Antoine Le Claire, interpreter, in fee simple, one section of land 
opposite Rock Island, and another at the head of the first rapids above the island, 
on the Iowa side. This was the first land title granted by the United States to 
an individual in Iowa. 

Soon after the removal of the Sacs and Foxes to their new reservation on the 
Des Moines river. General Joseph M. Street was transferred from the agency of 
the W'innebagoes, at Prairie du Chien, to establish an agency among them. A farm 
was selected, on which the necessary buildings were erected, including a com- 
fortable farm house for the agent and his family at the expense of the Indian 
fund. A salaried agent was employed to superintend the farm and dispose of 
the crops. Two mills were erected, one on Soap creek, and the other on Sugar 
creek. The latter was soon swept away by a flood but the former remained and 
did good service for many years. Connected with the agency were Joseph Smart 
and John Goodell, interpreters. The latter was interpreter for Hard F"ish's band. 
Three of the Indian chiefs, Keokuk, Wapello and Appanoose, had each a large 
field improved, the two former on the right bank of the Des Moines, back from 
the river, in what is now "Keokuk's Prairie," and the latter on the present site 
of the city of Ottumwa. Among the traders connected with the agency were 
the Messrs. liwing, from Ohio, and Phelps & Company, from Illinois, and also 
J. P. Eddy, who established his post at what is now the site of Eddyville. 

The Indians at this agency became idle and listless in the absence of their 
natural and wonted excitemcnits, and many of them plunged into dissipation. 
Keokuk himself became dissipated in the latter years of his life, and it has been 
reported that he died of delirium tremens after his removal with his tribe to 

In May. 1S43. most of the Indians were removed up the Des Moines river, 
above the temporarv line of Red Rock, having ceded the reniTiant of their lands 
in Iowa to the United States on the 21st of September, 1H37. and on the nth of 
October. 1S42. I'.y the terms of the latter treaty, they held ])ossession of the 
"New Purchase." till the autumn of 1X45. when the most of them were removed 
to their reservation in, the balance being removed in the spring of 1S46. 

1. Trcatv with the Sioti.v. — Made July 19. 1815: ratified December 16, 1815. 
This treaty was made at Portage des Sioux, between the Sioux of Minnesota 
and Upper Iowa and the United .States, by William Clark and Ninian Edwards, 
commissioners, and was merely a treaty of peace and friendship on the part of 
those Indians toward the I'nited States at the close of the War of 1812. 

2. Treaty with the Sacs. — .\ similar treaty of peace was made at Portage 
des Sioux, between the United States and the Sacs, by William Clark, Ninian 
Edwards and .-\iiguste Choteau, on the 13th of September. 1815. and ratified at 
the same date as the above. In this, the treaty of 1804 was reaffirmed .and the 
"^ .,■- ii.r,. represented promi-^''d fi"' iluin>iclvc<; ami their bands to keeji entirely 


separate from the Sacs of Rock river, who, under Black I lawk, had joined the 
British in the war just then closed. 

3. Treaty -n'ith the Taxes. — A separate treaty of peace was made with the 
Foxes, at Portage des Sioux, by the same commissioners, on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, 181 5, and ratified the same as the above, wherein the Foxes reaffimed 
the treaty of St. Louis, of November 3, 1804. and agreed to deliver up all their 
prisoners to the officer in command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, Illinois. 

4. Treaty li'ith the lowas. — .\ treaty of peace and mutual good will was 
made between the United States and the Iowa tribe of Indians, at Portage des 
Sioux, by the same commissioners as above, on the i6th of September, 181 3. at 
the close of the war with Great Britain, and ratified at the same date as the 

5. Treaty 'a'ith the Sacs of Rock River. — Made at St. Louis on the 13th of 
j\Iav, 18 1 6. between the United States and the Sacs of Rock river, by the com- 
missioners. William Clark. Xinian Edwards and Augusle Choteau. and ratified 
December 30, 1816. In this treaty, that of 1804 was reestablished and confirmed 
bv twenty-two chiefs and head men of the Sacs of Rock River, and Black Hawk 
himself attached to it his signature, or, as he said, "touched the goose quill."' 

6. Treaty of 1824. — On the 4th of August, 1824, a treaty was made between 
the United States and the Sacs and Foxes, in the city of Washington, by William 
Clark, commissioner, wherein the Sac and Fox nation relinquished their title to 
all lands in Missouri and that portion of the southeast corner of Iowa known as 
the "Half-Breed Tract" was set ofl^ and reserved for the use of the half-breeds 
of the Sacs and Foxes, they holding title in the same manner as Indians. Rat- 
ified January 18. 1825. 

7. Treaty of August IQ, 182^. — At this date a treaty was made by William 
Clark and Lewis Cass, at Prairie du Chien. between the I'nited States and the 
Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes. Menominees, Winnebagoes and a portion of the 
Ottawas and Pottawatomies. In this treaty, in order to make peace between the 
contending tribes as to the limits of their respective hunting grounds in Iowa, it 
was agreed that the United States government should run a boundary line between 
the Sioux, on the north, and the Sacs and Foxes, on the south, as follows: 

Commencing at the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, and ascending said Iowa river to its west fork: thence uj* the fork 
to its source : thence crossing the fork of Red Cedar river in a direct line to the 
second or upper fork of the Des Moines river : thence in a direct line to the 
low-er fork of the Calumet river, and down that river to its junction with the 
Missouri river. 

8. Treaty of iSjo. — On the 15th of July, 1830. the confederate tribes of the 
Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of country lying south of the 
above line, twenty miles in width, and extending along the line aforesaid from 
the Mississippi to the Des Moines river. The Sioux, also, whose possessions 
were north of the line, ceded to the government, in the same treaty, a like strip 
on the north side of the boundary. Thus the United States at a ratification of 
this treaty. February 24, 1831. came into possession of a portion of Iowa forty 
miles w ide, extending along the Clark and Cass line of 1825, from the Mississippi 
to the Des Moines river. This territory was known as the "Neutral dround."' 
and the tribes on either side of the line were allowed to fish and hunt on it 


unmolested till it was made a Winnebago reservation and the Winnebagoes were 
removed to it in 1841. 

9. Treaty icitli the Sacs and Foxes and other tribes. — At the same time uf tiie 
above treaty respecting the "Xeutral (iround" (.Iul\- 13. 1830 ), the Sacs and 
Foxes. Western Sioux, Omahas. lowas and Missnuris ceded to the L'nited States 
a portion of the western slope of Iowa, the boundaries of which were detined 
as follows: Beginning at the upper fork of the Des Moines river, and passing the 
sources of the Little Sioux and Moyd rivers, to the fork of the lirst creek that 
falls into the Big Sioux, or Calumet, on the east side; thence down said creek 
and the Calumet river to the Missouri river; thence down said Missouri river 
to the Missouri state line above the Kansas; thence along said line to the north- 
west corner of said state ; thence to the high lands between the waters falling 
into the Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said high lands along the dividing 
riflge between the forks of the Crand river; thence along said high lands or 
ridge separating the waters of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, to a 
point opposite the source of the Boyer river, and thence in a direct line to the 
upper fork of the Des ^foines, the place of beginning. 

It was understood that the lands ceded and relinc|uished by this treaty were 
to be assigned and allotted, under the direction of the president of the United 
.States, to the tribes then living thereon, or to such other tribes as the president 
might locate thereon for hunting and other purposes. In consideration of three 
tracts of land ceded in this treaty, the United States agreed to pay to the Sacs 
three thousand dollars ; to the Foxes, three thousand dollars ; to the Sioux, two 
thousand dollars: to the Yankton and Santie l)ands of Sioux, three thousand 
dollars ; to the Omahas. two thousand five hundred dollars : and to the Ottoes 
and Missouris, two thousand five hundred dollars — to be ])aid annually for ten 
successive years. In addition to these annuities, the government agreed to fur- 
nish some of the tribes with blacksmiths and agricultural implements to the 
amount of two hundred dollars, at the expense of the l'nited States, and to set 
apart three thousand dollars annually for the education of the diildren of these 
tribes. It does not appear that any fort was erected in this territory prior to the 
erection of Fort .-\tkinson on the Xeutral (iround, in 1840-41. 

This treaty was made by William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs. 
and Colonel Willoughby Morgan, of the L'nited States First Infantry, and came 
into effect by proclamation. I'ebruary 24. 1831. 

10. Treaty with the irin)ieba(/oes.--y[a(\e at Fort .\rmslrong. Rock Island. 
September 15. 1832. by General Winfield .Scott and Hon. John Reynolds, gover- 
nor of Illinois. In this treaty the Winnebagoes ceded to the l'nited States all 
tlieir lantl lying on the east side of the Mississi])]ii. and in part consideration 
therefor the United States granted to the Winnebagoes. to be held as other 
Indian lands are held, that portion of Iowa known as the Xeutral Ciround. The 
exchange of the two tracts of country was to take place on or before the ist day 
of June. 1833. In addition to the Neutral Ground, it was stipulated that the 
United l^tates should give the Winncl)agoes, beginning in .^^cptcmber. 1833, and 
continuing for twenty-seven successive years, ten thousand dollars in specie, and 
establish a school among them, with a farm and garden, and provide other facil- 
ities for the education of their chiUlren, not to exceed in cost three thousand dol- 
lars a vcar, and to continue the same for twentv-sevcn successive vcars, ."^i.x 


agriculturists, twelve yoke of oxen and plows and other farming tools were to be 
supplied by the government. 

II. Treaty of iSjs unlh the Sacs and I- axes. — .\lready mentioned as the 
Black Hawk purchase. 

\2. Treaty of r8j6 zvith the Sacs and Foxes. — Ceding Keokuk's reserve to 
the United States : for which the government stipulated to pay thirty thousand 
dollars, and an annuity of ten thousand dollars for ten successive years, together 
with other sums and debts of the Indians to various parties. 

13. Treaty of iS^j. — On the 21st of October, 1837, a treaty was made at 
the citv of Washington, between Carey A. Harris, commissioner of Indian 
affairs, and the confederate tribes to Sacs and Foxes, ratified Feljruary 21, 1838, 
wherein another slice of the soil of Iowa was obtained, described in the treaty 
as follows: ""A tract of country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west and adjoin- 
ing the tract conveyed by them to the United States in the treaty of Septem- 
ber 27, 1832. It is understood that the points of termination for the present 
cession shall be the northern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the 
survey made under the authority of the United States, and that a line shall be 
drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended westwardly from the 
angle of said tract nearly opposite to Rock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby ceded, 
which last mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five miles." 

This piece of land was twenty-five miles wide in the middle, and ran off to 
a point at both ends, lying directly Iwck of the Tilack Hawk purchase, and of 
the same length. 

14. Treaty of Relinquishment. — .\t the same date as the above treaty, in the 
city of Washington, Carey A. Harris, commissioner, the Sacs and Foxes ceded 
to the United States all their right and interest in the country lying south of the 
boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes and Sioux, as described in the treaty 
of August 19, 1825. and between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the United 
States paying for the same one hundred and sixty thousand dollars. The 
Indians also gave u]) all claims and interests under the treaties previously made 
with them, for the satisfaction of which no ;q)pro]iriations had been made. 

15. Treaty of 1842. — The last treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes 
October 11, 1842; ratified March 23, 1843. It was made at the Sac and Fox 
agency (Agency City), by John Chambers, commissioner, on behalf of the United 
States. In this treaty the Sac and Fox Indians "ceded to the United States all 
their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any claim or title." By 
the terms of this treaty they were to be removed from the country at the expi- 
ration of three years, and all who remained after that were to move at their 
own expense. Part of them were removed to Kansas in the fall of 184;. and the 
rest in the spring following. 


While the territory now embraced in the state of Iowa was under Spanish 
rule as a part of its province of Uouisiana. certain claims to and grants of land 
were made by the Spanish authorities, with which, in addition to the extinguish- 


ment of Indian titles, tlie United States had to deal. It is proper tliat these should 
be briefly reviewed. 

Dubuque. — On the 22(\ day of September, 1788, Jiilien Dubu<|ue, a French- 
man, from Prairie du Chien, obtained from the Foxes a cession or lease of lands 
on the Mississippi river for mining purposes, on the site of the present city of 
Dubuque. Lead had been discovered here eight years before, in 1780, by the 
wife of Peosta Fox, a warrior, and Dubuque's claim embraced nearly all the 
lead bearing lands in that vicinity. He immediately took possession of his claim 
and commenced mining, at the same time making a settlement. The place be- 
came known as the "Spanish Miners," or more commonly, "Dubu(|ue's Lead 

In 1796. Dubuque filed a petition with L'.aron de Carondelet, the Spanish 
governor of Louisiana, asking that the tract ceded to him by the Indians might 
be granted to him by patent from the Spanish government. In this petition, 
Dubuque rather indefinitely set forth the boundaries of this claim as "about seven 
leagues along the Mississippi river, and three leagues in width troin the river," 
intending to include, as is supposed, the river front between the Little Maquo- 
keta and the Tete des Mertz rivers, embracing more than twenty tliousand acres. 
Carondelet granted the prayer of the petition, and the grant was subsetiucntly 
confirmed by the board of land commissioners of Louisiana. 

In October, 1804, Dubuque transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Auguste Choteau. of St. Louis, and on the 17th of May. 1805. he and Choteau 
jointly filed their claims with the board of commissioners. On the 20th of Sep- 
tember. 1806. the board decided in their favor, pronouncing the claim to be a 
regular Spanish grant, made and completed prior to the ist day of October. 
1800. only one member, J. B. C. Lucas, dissenting. 

Dubuque died March 24, 1810. The Indians, understanding that the claim 
of Dubuque under their former act of cession was only a permit to occujjy the 
tract and work the mines during his life, and that at his death they reverted to 
them, took possession and continued mining operations and were sustained by 
the military authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the 
commissioners. When the Plack Hawk purchase was consunmiated. the Dubu(|ue 
claim thus held by the Indians was absorbed by the United States, as the Sacs 
and Foxes made no reservation of it in the treaty of 1832. 

The heirs of Choteau, however, were not disposed to relinc|uish their claim 
without a struggle. Late in 1832. they employed an agent to look after their 
interests and authorized him to lease the right to dig lead on the lands. The 
miners who commenced work under this agent were compelled by the military 
to abandon their operations, and one of the claimants went to Galena to insti- 
tute legal proceedings, but found no court of competent jurisdiction, although 
he did bring an action for the recovery of a quantity of lead dug at l)ubu<|uc. 
for the purpose of testing tin- title. Being unable to identify the lead, however, 
he was non-suited. 

By act of congress, approved July 2, 1836, the town of Dubuque was sur- 
veyed and platted. After lots had been sold and occupied by the purchasers, 
Henrv Choteau brought an action of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who 
held land in Diibuquc under a patent from the I'nited States, for the recovery 
of seven undivided eighth parts of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by .\ugiistc 


Choteau in 1804. The case was tried in the district court of the United States 
for the district of Iowa, and was decided adversely to the plaintiff. The case 
was carried to the suijreme court of the United States on a writ of error, when 
it was heard at the December term. 1853, and the decision of the lower court 
was affirmed, the court holding that the permit from Carondelet was merely a 
lease or ])ermit to work the mines : that Dubuque asked, and the governor of 
Louisiana granted, nothing more than the "ijcaceable possession" of certain 
lands obtained from the Indians ; that Carondelet. had no legal authority to make 
such a grant as claimed and that e\en if he had. this was but an "inchoate and 
imperfect title." 

Giard. — In 1795. the Lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana granted to 
liasil (hard five thousand eight hundred and sixty acres of land, in what is now 
Clayton county, known as the "Giard tract." He occupied the land during the 
time that Iowa jiassed from .Spain to I'rance, and from France to the United 
States, in consideration of which the federal government granted a patent of the 
same to (liard in his own right. His heirs sold the whole tract to James H. 
Lockwood and 'I'homas I'. lUirnett, of Prairie du Cliien. for three hundred 

Honori. — ^larch 30, 1799, Zenun Trudeau. acting lieutenant governor of 
Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Honori a tract of land on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Montrose, as follows: '"It is permitted to Louis ( Fresson ) Honori, 
or Louis Honore Fesson, to establish himself at the head of the rapids of the 
River Des Moines, and his establishment once formed, notice of it shall be given 
to the governor general, in order to obtain for him a commission of a space 
sufficient to give value to such establishment, and at the same time to render it 
useful to the commerce of the peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and 
keep them in the fidelity which they owe to His ^Majesty."' 

Honori took immediate possession of his claim, which he retained until 1805. 
While trading with the natives, he became indebted to Joseph Robedoux, who 
obtained an execution on which the ])roperty was sold May 13, 1803, and was 
purchased by the creditor. In these proceedings the proj^erty was described as 
being "about six leagues above the River Des Moines." Robedoux died soon 
after he ]nirchased the projicrty. .\uguste Choteau. his executor, disposed of 
the Honori tract to Thomas F. Reddeck, in April. 1805. up to which time Honori 
continued to occupy it. The grant, as made by the Spanish government, was a 
league square but only one mile scjuarc was confirmed by ihe L'nited States. 
After the half-breeds sold their lands, in which the Honori grant was included, 
various claimants resorted to litigation in attempts to invalidate the title of the 
Reddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by a decision of the supreme court 
of the United States in 1S39, and is the oldest legal title to any land in the state 
of Iowa. 

Tiin; H.\r.F-r.Ri:En 

P.efore any permanent settlement had been ma<le in the territory of Iowa, 
white adventurers, trappers and traders, many of whom were scattered along 
the Mississii)i)i and its tributaries, as agents and employes of the American Fur 
Company, intermarried with the females of the Sac and Fox Indians, produc- 
ing a race of half-breeds, whose number was never definitelv ascertained. There 


were some respectable and excellent people among them, children of men of 
some refinement and education. For instance: Dr. Muir, a gentleman educated 
at Edinburgh. Scotland, a surgeon in the United States army stationed at a 
military post located on the ])resent site of Warsaw, married an Indian woman, 
and reared his family of three daughters in the city of Keokuk. Other examples 
migiit be citetl, but they are probably exceptions to the general rule, and the 
race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

A treaty was made at Washington, .\ugust 4. 1824. between the Sacs and 
Foxes and the United States, by which that portion of Lee county was reserved 
to the half-breeds of those tribes, and which was afterward known as "The 
llalf-I'reed Tract.'" This reservation is the triangular piece of land, contain- 
ing about I IQ.CXX) acres. lying between the Mississippi and Des Moines rivers. 
It is bounded on the north by the jirolongation of the northern line of Missouri. 
This line was intended to be a straight one. running due east, which would have 
caused it to strike the Mississippi river at or below Montrose; but the surveyor 
who ran it took no notice of the change in the variation of the needle as he pro- 
ceeded eastward, and, in consequence, the line he ran was bent, deviating more 
and more to the northward of a direct line as he a])i)roached the Mississip])i. so 
that it struck that river at the lower edge of the town of Fort Madison. "This 
erroneous line. " says Judge Mason, "has been acquiesced in as well in fixing the 
northern limit of the Half-Hreed Tract as in determining the northern boundary 
line of the state of Missouri." The line thus run included in the reservation a 
portion of the lower jiart of the city of Fort Madison, and all of the jiresent 
townshijis of \'an I'.urcn. Charleston, leffcrson. Des Moines. Montrose and 

Under the treaty of 1824. the half-breeds had the right to occupy the soil, 
but could not convey it. the reversion being reserved to the United States. PiUt 
on the .pth day of January. i8,:?4. by act of congress, this reversionary right 
was relinquished, and the half-breeds ac<|uired the lands in fee simple. This was 
no sooner done, than a horde of s])eculators rushed in to buy land of the half- 
breed owners, and. in many instances, a gim. a blanket, a ])ony or a few quarts 
of whisky was sufficient for the purchase of large estates. There was a deal 
of sharp practice on both sides: Indians would often claim owncrshij) of land 
by virtue of being half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed 
blood by the Indians, and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land 
to which they had no rightful title. On the other hand, speculators often claimed 
land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut diamond, until at 
last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized surveys ami no 
boundary lines to claims, and, as a natural result, inimennis conflicts and quar- 
rels ensued. 

To settle these difficulties, to decide the validity of claims or sell them for 
the benefit of the real owners, by ,ict of (he legislature of Wisconsin Territory, 
approved January 16. 18^*^, Edward Johnstone. Thomas S. Wilson and David 
P>righam were appointed conunissioners. and clothed with power to eflfcct these 
objects. The act provided that these commissioners should be paid six dollars 
a day each. The commission entereil ui)on its duties ami contiiuicd until the next 
.session of the legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidating all 
that had been done and depriving the commissioners of their pay. The repeal- 


ing act, however, authorized the commissioners to commence action against the 
owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive pay for their services in the district 
court of Lee county. Two judgments were obtained, and on execution the 
whole of the tract was sold to Hugh T. Reid, the sheriff executing the deed. 
Mr. Reid sold portions of it to various parties but his own title was questioned 
and he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor of Reid and those 
holding under liim were made by both district and supreme courts, but in 
December, 1850, these decisions were finally reversed by the supreme court of the 
LTnited States in the case of Josej)h Webster, plaintiff in error, vs. Hugh T. 
Reid, and the judgment titles failed. About nine years before the "judgment 
titles" were finally abrogated as above, another class of titles were brought into 
competition with them, and in the conflict between the two, the final decision 
was obtained. These were the titles based on the "decree of partition" issued 
by the United States district court for the territory of Iowa, on the 8th of May, 
1841, and certified to by the clerk on the 2d day of June of that year. Edward 
Johnstone and Hugh T. Reid, then law partners at Fort Madison, filed the peti- 
tion for the decree in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of half-breed lands. 
Francis S. Key, author of the Star Spangled Banner, who was then attorney for 
the New York Land Company, which held heavy interests in these lands, took a 
leading part in the measure and drew up the document in which it was pre- 
sented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, presided. The plan 
of [jartition divided the tract into one hundred and one shares and arranged that 
each claimant should draw his proportion by lot, and should abide the result, 
whatever it might be. The arrangement was entered into, the lots drawn, and 
the plat of the same filed in the recorder's office, October 6, 1841. Upon this 
basis the titles to land in the Half-llreed Tract are now held. 


The first permanent settlement by the whites within the limits of Iowa was 
made by Julien Dubuciue, in 17S8. when, with a small jiarty of miners, he set- 
tled on the site of the city that now bears his name, where he lived until his death 
in 1810. Louis Ilonori settled on the site of the present town of Montrol^e, prob- 
ably in 1799, and resided there until 1805, when his property passed into other 
hands. Of the (iiard settlement, opposite Prairie du Chien, little is known, 
exce])t that it was occui^ied by some i)arties jirior to the commencement of the 
present century, and contained three cabins in 1805. Indian traders, although 
not strictly to be considered settlers, had established themselves at various points 
at an early date. .\ Mr. Johnson, agent of the .\merican Fur Company, had a 
trading jwst below I'lurlinglon, where he carried on traffic with the Indians 
some time before the United States possessed the country. In 1820 Le Moiiese, 
a French trader, had a station at what is now Sandusky, six miles above Keokuk, 
in Lee county. In 1829. Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a settlement on the Lower 
Rapids, at what is now Nashville. 

The first settlement in Lee county was made in 1820, by Dr. Sanuiel C. 
Muir, a surgeon in the L'niled ."States army, who li.'id been stationed at Fort 
Edwards, now Warsaw, Illinois, and who built a cabin where the city of Keokuk 
now stands. Dr. Muir w.'is a m;in of strict integrity and irreproachable char- 


acter. While stationed at a military i^ost on the Upper Mississippi, he had 
married an Indian woman of tlie I-"ox nation. Of liis marriage the following 
romantic account is given: 

The post at which he was stationed was visited by a beautiful Indian maiden 
— whose maiden name, unfortunately, has not been preserved — who, in her 
dreams, had seen a white brave unmoor his canoe, paddle it across the river 
and CO ne directly to her lodge. She felt assured, according to the superstitious 
belief of her race, that, in her dreams, she had seen her future husband and had 
come to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. Muir, slic instantly recognized him 
as the hero of her drtam, which, with childlike simplicity and innocence, she 
related to him. Iler dream was indeed pro])hetic. Cliarmed with Sophia's 
beauty, innocence and devotion, tlie Doctor honorably married her but after a 
while the sneers and gibes of his brother officers — less honorable than he, per- 
haps — made him feel ashamed of his dark-skinned wife, and when his regiment 
was ordered tiown the river to I'ellefontaine, it is said he embraced the oppor- 
tunity to rid himself of her, and left her, never expecting to see her again, and 
little dreaming that she would have the courage to follow him. I'.ut with her 
infant child, this intrejiid wife and mother started alone in her canoe, and after 
many days of weary labor and a lonely journey of nine hundred miles, she at 
last reached him. .^lie afterward remarked when speaking of this toilsome 
journev down the river in search of her husband, "When I got there I was all 
perished awav — so thin I" The Doctor, touched by such unexampled tlevotion. 
took her to his heart and ever after, until his death, treated her with marked 
respect. She always presided at bis table with grace and dignity, but never 
abandoned her native style of dress. In 1819-20 he was stationed at Fort 
Edward, but the senseless ridicule of some of his brother f)fficers on account of his 
Indian wife induced him to resign liis commission. 

After building bis cabin, as above stated, he leased his claim for a term of 
years to Otis Reynolds and John Culver, of St. Louis, and went to La I'ointe, 
afterward Calena, where he i)racticed his ])rofession for ten years, when he 
returned to Keokuk. Mis Indian wife bore to him four children: Louise, who 
married at Keokuk but is deceased; James, who was drownc(i at Keokuk: Mary, 
and So])hia. Dr. Muir di_ed suddenly of cholera in 1H32. but left his property 
iti such condition that it was soon wasted in vexatious litigation and his lirave 
and faithful wife, left friendless and penniless, became discouraged, and with 
her children, disappeared, and it is s.aid, returned to her peo])le on the Up]XT 

Messrs. Reynolds & Culver, who harl leased Dr. Muir's claim at Keokuk, 
subsecjuently cmi)loyed as their agent. Moses .'^tillwcU, who arrived with his fam- 
ily in 1S2H and took jwssession of Muir's cabin. His brothers-in-law. .Amos and 
N'alencourt \'an Ansdal. came with him and settled near. Mis daughter. NLir- 
garet Stillwcll. afterward Mrs. I'ord. was l)orn in 1H31. at the foot of the rapids. 
called by tiie I'uch-a-she-tnck. where Keokuk now stands. Slie was 
probably the first white .American child liorii in Fow.i. 

In 18^1 Mr. Johnson, agent of the .American h'ur ( Omp/niy, who had a sta- 
tion at the foot of the rapids, removed to .mother location and Dr. Muir. having 
returned from Galena, he and Isaac R. Campbell took the place anrl buildings 
vacated by tlie company and carried on trade with the Indians and half-breeds. 


CamphL-ll, wlio had first visited and traveled through the southern part of Iowa, 
in 1S21. was an enterprising settler and besides trading with the natives carried 
on a farm and kept a tavern. Dr. Muir died of cholera in 1832. 

In 1830 James 1.. and Lucius II. I .aiigworthy, brothers, and natives of \'er- 
mont, visited the territory for the purpose of working the lead mines at 
Dubuque. They had been engaged in lead mining in Galena. Illinois, the former 
from as early as 1824. The lead mines in the Duljuque region were an object 
of great interest to the miners about Galena, for they were known to be rich in 
lead ore. To explore these mines and to olHain permission to work them was 
therefore eminently desirable. 

In 1829, James L. Langworthy resolved to visit the Dubuque mines. Cross- 
ing the Mississippi at a point now known as Dunleith. in a canoe, and swim- 
ming his horse by his side, he landed on the spot known as Jones Street levee. 
Before him spread out a beautiful prairie, on which the city of Dubuque stands. 
Tw-o miles south, at the mouth of Catfish creek, was a village of Sacs and Foxes. 
Thither Mr. Langworthy proceeded and was well received by the natives. He 
endeavored to ol)tain permission from them to mine in their hills but this they 
refused. He, however, succeeded in gaining the confidence of the chief to such 
an extent as to be allowed to travel in the interior for three weeks and explore 
the country, lie employed two young Indians as guides and traversed in dif- 
ferent directions the whole region lying between the Mafiuoketa and Turkey 
rivers. He returned to the village, secured the good will of the Indians, and. 
returning to Galena, formed plans for future operations, to be executed as soon 
as circumstances would permit. 

In 1830, with his brother. Lucius II.. and others, having obtained the con- 
sent of the Indians. Mr. Langworth\- crossed the Mississippi and commenced 
mining in the vicinity around Dubu(|ue. .\t this time the lands w-ere not in the 
actual jjossession of the L'niled States. .Although they had been purchased 
from France, the Indian title had not been extinguished, and these adventurous 
persons were bexond the limits of any state or territorial government. The 
first settlers were therefore obliged to be their own law-makers, and to agree 
to such regulations as the exigencies of the case demanded. The first act 
resembling civil legislation within the limits of the present state of Iowa was 
done by the miners at this point, in June. 1830. They met on the bank of the 
river, by the side of an old cottonW'Ood drift log, at what is now Jones Street 
levee. Dubuque, and elected a committee, consisting of J. L. Langworthy, H. 
■ F. Lander. James Mcl'hetres. .^aniuel Scales and E. M. Wren. This may be 
called the first legislature in Iowa, the members of which gathered around that 
old Cottonwood log and agreed to and re])orted the following, written by Mr. 
Langworthy, on a half sheet of coarse, unruled pajjcr, the old log being the writ- 
ing desk : 

"We, a committee having been chosen to draft certain rules and regulations 
(laws I by which we as miners will be governed, and having duly considered 
the subject, do unanimously agree that we will l)e governed by the regulations 
on the east side of the Mississippi river, with the following excc])tions, to wit: 

"Article I. That each and every man shall hold two hundred yards s(|uare 
of ground by working said ground one day in six. 

".\rticle 11 We further ;igree that there be chosen, by the majt>rity of the 








'C LIC' 


miners present, a person who shall huld this article, and who shall grant let- 
ters of arbitration on application having been made, and that said letters of 
arbitration siiall be obligatory on tiie parties so applying.'' 

The report was accepted by the miners present, who elected Dr. Jarote, in 
accordance with Article 11. Here tiien we have in 1830 a primitive legislature 
elected by the people, the law drafted by it being submitted to the people for 
approval, and under it Dr. Jarote was elected first governor within the limits of 
the present state of Iowa. And it is to be said that the laws thus enacted were 
as promiJtly obeyed, and the acts of the executive officer thus elected as duly 
respected, as any have been since. 

The miners who had thus erected an independent government of their own 
on the west side of the Mississippi river continued to work successfully for a 
long time, and the new settlement attracted considerable attention. But the west 
side of the Mississippi belonged to the Sac and Fox Indians, and the govern- 
ment, in order to preserve peace on the frontier, as well as to protect the 
Indians in their rights under the treaty, ordered the settlers not only to stop min- 
ing, but to remove from the Indian territory. They were simply intruders. 
The execution of this order. was entrusted to Colonel Zachary Taylor, then in 
command of the military post at Prairie du Chien, who, early in July, sent an 
officer to the miners with orders to forbid settlement and to command the min- 
ers to remove within ten days to the east side of the Mississippi or they would 
be driven off by armed force. The miners, however, were reluctant about leav- 
ing the rich "Jeads" they had already discovered and opened and were not dis- 
posed to obey the order to remove with any considerable degree of alacrity. In 
due time. Colonel Taylor dispatched a detachment of troops to enforce his 
order. The miners, anticipating their arrival, had, excelling three, recrossed the 
river and from the east bank saw the troops land on the western shore. The 
three who had lingered a little too long were, however, i)ermitted to make their 
escape unmolested. From this time, a military force was stationed at Dubucjue 
to prevent the settlers from returning, until June, 1832. The Indians returned 
and were encouraged to oi)erate the rich mines opened by the late white occu- 

In June. 183-?. the troojis were ordered to the east side to assist in the anni- 
hilation of the very Indians whose rights they had been ]irotecting on the west 
side. Immediately after the close of the Black Hawk war and the negotiations 
of the treaty in September. 1832, by which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the 
L'nited States the tract known as the "I'llack Mawk Purchase," the settlers, 
supposing that now they had a right to reenter the territory, returned and took 
possession of their claims, built cabins, erected furn^ices and prepared large 
quantities of lead for the market. Dubuque was becoming a noted place on the 
river, hut the prospects of the hardy and enterprising settlers and miners were 
again ruthlessly interfered with by the government, on the ground that they had 
withdrawn from the vicinity of the .settlement. Colonel Taylor was again 
ordered by the war department to remove the miners, and in January, 1833. 
troops were again sent from Prairie du Chien to Dubuque for that purpose. 
This was a serious and perhaps uiniecessary hardship imjioscd upon the settlers. 
They were compelled to abandon their cabins and hotncs in mid-winter. It 
must now be said, simply that "red tape" should be respected. The purchase 

Vol. 1—3 


had been made, the treaty ratilied, or was sure to be; the Indians liad retired, 
and after a lapse of several decades, no very satisfactory reason for this rigor- 
ous action of the government can be given. 

But tlie orders had been given and there was no alternative l)Ut to obey. 
Many of the settlers recrossed the river and did not return. A few, however, 
removed to an island near the east bank of the river, built rude cabins of poles, 
in which to store their lead until spring, when they could float the fruits of 
their labor to St. Louis for sale, and where they could remain until tiie treaty 
went into force, when they could return. Among these were James L. Lang- 
worthy and his brother Lucius, who had on hand about three hundred thousand 
pounds of lead. 

Lieutenant Covington, who had been placed in command at Dubuque by 
Colonel Taylor, ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to be torn down, and 
wagons and other property to be destroyed. This wanton and inexcusable action 
on the part of a subordinate clothed with a little brief authority was sternly 
rebuked by Colonel Taylor, and Covington was superseded by Lieutenant George 
Wilson, who pursued a just and friendly course with the pioneers, whcj were 
only waiting for the time when they could repossess their claims. 

June I, 1833, the treaty formally went into effect, the troops were with- 
drawn and the Langworthy brothers and a few others at once returned and 
resumed possession of their home claims and mineral prospects, and from this 
time the first permanent settlement of this portion of Iowa must date. John 
P. Sheldon was appointed superintendent of the mines by the government, 
and a system of permits to miners and licenses to smelters was adopted, similar 
to that which had been in operation at Galena since 1825, under Lieutenant 
Martin Thomas and Captain Thomas C. Legate. Substantially the primitive 
law enacted by the miners assembled around that old Cottonwood drift log in 
1830 was adopted and enforced by the United States government. excejU that 
miners were required to sell their mineral to licensed smelters and the smelter 
was required to give bonds for the payment of six per cent of all lead manu- 
factured, to the government. This was the same rule adopted in the United 
States mines on Fever river in Illinois, except that until 1830 the Illinois miners 
were compelled to i)ay ten per cent tax. This tax upon the miners created much 
dissatisfaction among the miners on the west side as it had on the east side of 
the Mississippi. They thought they had suffered hardships and privations enough 
in opening the way for civilization, without being subjected to the iin])Osition 
of an odious government tax upon their means of subsistence, when the federal 
government could better afford to aid than to extort from them. The measure 
soon became unpojnilar. It was difficult to collect the taxes and the whole sys- 
tem was abolished in about ten years. 

During 1833, after the Indian title was fully extinguished, about five hun- 
dred people arrived at the mining district, about one hundred and fifty of them 
from Galena. 

In the same year Mr. Langworthy assisted in building the first schoolhouse 
in Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of the now populous and thriving 
city of Dubu(|ue. Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked prairie on which he 
first landed become the site of a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants, the small 
schoolhouses which he aided in constructing replaced by three substantial edi- 


fices, wherein two thousand children were being trained, churches erected in 
every part of the city, and railroads connecting the wilderness which he first 
explored with all the eastern world. He died suddenly, on the 13th of March, 
1865, while on a trip over the Dubui|ue & Southwestern Railroad, at .ALonti- 
cello, and the evening train brought the news of his death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was one of the most worthy, gifted 
and influential of the old settlers of this section of Iowa. He died, greatly 
lamented by many friends, in June, 1865. 

• The name Dulnuiue was given to the settlement by the miners at a meeting 
held in 1834. 

In 1832, Ca[)tain James White made a claim on the present site of Mon- 
trose. In 1834 a military post was established at this point, and a garrison of 
cavalry was stationed here under the conunand of Colonel Stephen W. Kcariiii^. 
The soldiers were removed from this post to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 

During the same year, 1832, soon after the close of the Black Hawk war, 
Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jennings, Aaron White, .Augustine Horton, Sam- 
uel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter Williams made claims at Fort Madi- 
son. In 1833 these claims were purchased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon 
which, in 1835, they laid out the town. The next summer lots were sold. The 
town was subsequently resurveyed and platted by the United States govern- 

At the close of the Black Hawk war, parties who had been impatiently look- 
ing across upon "Flint Hills," now Burlington, came over from Illinois and 
made claims. The first was Samuel S. White, in the fall of 1832, who erected 
a cabin on the site of the city of Burlington, .\bout the same time David 
Tothero made a claim on the prairie about three miles back from the river, at a 
I)lace since known as the farm of Judge Morgan. In the winter of that year 
they were driven of!' by the military from Rock Island, as intruders upon the 
rights of the Indians, and White's cabin was burned by the soldiers. He retired 
to Illinois, where he spent the wiiucr, and irr the summer, as soon as the Indian 
title was extinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. White was joined by 
his lirotlier-in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out the original town of Burling- 
ton in 1834. 

All along the river borders of the Black Hawk Purchase settlers were flock- 
ing into Iowa. Immediately after the treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, in Sep- 
tember, 1832, Colonel (jeorge Daven|)ort made the first claim on the spot where 
the thriving city of Davenport now stands. As early as 1827, Colonel Daven- 
port liad established a flatboat ferry, which ran between the island and the 
main shore of Iowa, by which he carried on a trade with the Indians west of 
the Mississippi. In 1833 Captain lienjamin W. Clark moved across from Illi- 
nois and laid the foundation of the town of Piuffalo, in Scott couiUy, which 
was the first actual settlciueiit within the liiuits fif that couiUy. Among other 
early settlers in this part of the territory were Adrian II. Davenport, Colonel 
John Sullivan, Mulligan an<l Franklin Easly, Captain John Coleman. J. M. 
Camp, William White, H. W. Higgins, Cornelius IFnrrnld. I\irhnril Ilarri-on, 
E. H. Shepherd and Dr. E. S. Barrows. 

The first settlers of Davenport were .Antoine LcL lairc, Loionel George Dav- 


eiipuit, .Major Tlionias Sniith. .Major William Gordon, Philip Hambough, A\ex- 
ander W. McCiregor, Levi S. Coltoii, Cai)tain James May and others. Of .\ntoine 
LeClaire, as the representative of the two races of men who at this time occupied 
Iowa, Hon. C. C. Nourse, in his admirable centennial address, says: "Antoine 
LeClaire was born at St. Joseph, .Michigan, in 1797. His father was P'rench, his 
mother a granddaughter of a Pottawattomie chief. In 1818, he acted as official 
interpreter to Colonel Davenport, at Fort Armstrong (now Rock Island). He wai 
well acquainted with a dozen Indian dialects and was a man of strict integrity 
and great energy. In 1820 he married the granddaughter of a Sac chief. The 
Sac and Fox Indians reserved for him and his wife two sections of land in the 
treaty of 1833, one at the town of LeClaire and one at Davenport. The Potta- 
watomies, in the treaty at Prairie du Chien, also reserved for him two sections 
of land, at the present site of Moline, Illinois. He received the appointment 
of postmaster and justice of the peace in the Black Hawk Purchase, at an early 
day. In 1833, he bought for $100 a claim on the land upon which the original 
town of Davenport was surveyed and platted in 1836. In 1836, LeClaire built 
the hotel, known since, with its valuable addition, as the LeClaire House. He 
died September 25, 1861." 

In Clayton county the first settlement was made in the spring of 1832, on 
Turkey river, by Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. Xo further settle- 
ment was made in this part of the state till the beginning of 1836. 

In that portion now known as Muscatine county, settlements were made in 
1834 by Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. W. Kasey, who were the first 
settlers. E. E. Fay, William St. John, X. l-\illington. H. Reece. Jonah Petti- 
bone, R. P. Lowe, Stephen Whicher, Abijali Whiting. J. E. Fletcher. W. D. 
Abernethy and Alexis Smith were early settlers of Muscatine. 

During the summer of 1835 William Bennett and his family from Galena 
built the first cabin within the present limits of Delaware county, in some tim- 
ber since known as Eads' Grove. 

The first postoffice in Iowa was established at Dubuque in 1833. Milo H. 
Prentice was appointed postmaster. 

The first justice of the peace was Antoine LeClaire, appointed in 1833. as 
"a very suitable person to adjust the difiiculties between the white settlers and 
the Indians still remaining there." 

The first Methodist society in the territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 1 8th of May, 1834, and the first class-meeting was held June ist of that 

The first church bell brought into Iowa was in March. 1834. 

The first mass of the Roman Catholic church in the territory was celebrated 
at Dubuque in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the fall of 1833. 

The first schoolhouse in the territory was erected by the Dubucjue miners in 


The first Sabbath school was organized at Dubu(|ue earl\- m the summer 

of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the territory with a view to per- 
manent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosca T. Camp 
in 1832. 


The first meeting house was built by the Methodist Episcopal society at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubucjue N'isitor, issued May 11, 
1836. John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and William C. Jones, 

The pioneers of Iowa as a class were brave, hardy, intelligent and enterpris- 
ing people. 

As early as 1824 a French trader named Hart liad established a trading post 
and built a cabin on the bluffs above the large spring now known as "Mynster 
Spring." within the limits of the present city of Council Bluffs, and had i)roba- 
bly been there for some time, as the post was known to the employes of the 
American Fur Company as Lacote de Hart, or "Hart's Bluff." In 1827 an 
agent of the American Fur Company, Francis Guittar, with others, encamped in 
the timber at the foot of the bluflfs, about on the present location of Broadway, 
and afterward settled there. In 1839 a block house was built on the bluff in 
the east part of the city. The Pottawattamie Indians occupied this part of the 
state until 1846-7, when they relinquished the territory and removed to Kan- 
sas. I'.illy Caldwell was then principal chief. There were no white settlers in 
that part of the state e.xcept Indian traders, until the arrival of the .Mormons 
under the lead of Brigham Young. These people on their way westward halted 
for the winter of 1846-7 on the west bank of the Missouri river, about five 
miles above Omaha, at a place now called Florence. Some of them had reached 
the eastern bank of the river the spring before, in season to plant a crop. In 
the spring of 1847 ^'oung and a portion of the colony pursued their journey to 
Salt Lake, but a large portion of them returned to the Iowa side and settled 
mainly within the limits of Pottawattamie county. The i)rincipal settlement of 
this strange community was at a place first called "Miller's Hollow," on Indian 
creek, and afterward named Kanesville, in honor of Colonel Kane, of Penn- 
sylvania, who visited them soon afterward. The Mormon settlement extended 
over the county and into neighboring counties, wherever timber and water fur- 
nished desirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, lawyer and editor, was installed 
as president nf the quorum of twelve, and all that part of the state remained 
under Mormon control for several years. In 1846 they raised a battalion, 
numliering some five hundred men, for the Mexican war. In 1848 Hyde 
started a paper called the I-rontier Guardian, at Kanesville. In 1849, after 
many of the faithful had left to join Brigham Young at Salt Lake, the Mor- 
mons in this section of Iowa numbered 6,552 and in 1850, 7.828, but they were 
not all within the limits of Pottawattamie county. This county was organized 
in 184S. all the first ofTicials being Mormons. In 1852 the order was promul- 
gated that all the true believers should gather together at .Salt Lake. Gentiles 
flocked in and in a few years nearly all the first settlers were gone. 

Mav 9. 1843, Captain James .Mien, with a small detachment of troops on 
board the steamer lone, arrived at the ])rcsent site of the capital of the state, 
Des Moines. The lone was the first steamer to ascend the Des Moines river 
to this point. The trooi)s and stores were landed at what is now the foot of 
Court avenue, Des Moines, and Captain .Mien rettirned in the steamer to Fort 
Sanford to arrange for bringing up more soldiers and supplies. In due time 
thev, too, arrived, anri a fort was built near the mouth of Hacconn fork, at its 


confluence with the Des Moines, and named I'ort Des Moines. Soon after tlie 
arrival of the troops, a trading post was estabhshed on the east side of the 
river by two noted Indian traders, named Ewing, from Ohio. 

Among the first settlers in this part of Iowa were Benjamin Bryant, J. B. 
Scott, James Drake (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert Kinzie, Alexander 
Turner. Peter Newcomer, and others. 

The western states have been settled Ijy many of the best and most enter- 
prising men of the older states, and a large immigration of the blood of 
the old world, who, removing to an arena of larger opijortunities, in a more 
fertile soil and congenial climate, have developed a spirit and an energv pe- 
culiarly western. In no country on the globe have enterprises of all kinds been 
pushed forward with such rapidity or has there been such independence and 
freedom of competition. Among those who have pioneered the civilization of 
the west and been the founders of great states, none have ranked higher in the 
scale of intelligence and moral worth than the pioneers of lowu. who came to 
the territory when it was an Indian country, and through hardship, privation 
and suffering, laid the foundations of the populous and prosperous common- 
wealth which today dispenses its blessings to a million and a quarter of peo- 
ple. From her first settlement and from her first organization as a territorj- 
to the present day, Iowa has had able men to manage her affairs, wise states- 
men to shape her destiny and frame her laws, and intelligent and impartial 
jurists 10 administer justice to her citizens : her bar, pulpit and press have been 
able and widely influential : and in all the professions, arts, enterprises and in- 
dustries which go to make up a great and prosperous commonwealth, she has 
taken and holds a front rank among her sister states of the west. 


By act of congress, approved October 31. 1803, the president of the United 
States was authorized to take possession of the territory included in the Lou- 
isiana purchase and provide for a temporary government. By another act of 
the same session, approved March 26, 1804, the newly acciuired country was 
divided. October i, 1804, into the territory of Orleans, south of the thirty- 
third parallel of north latitude, and the district of Louisiana, which latter 
was placed under the authority of the officers of Indiana Territory. ' 

In 1805, the district of Louisiana was organized as a territory with a gov- 
ernment of its own. In 1807, Iowa was included in the territory of Illinois, 
and in 1812 in the territory of Missouri. When Missouri was admitted as a 
state, March 2, 1821, "Iowa," says Hon. C. C. Nourse. "was left a political 
orphan." until by act of congress, approved June 28. 1834. the Black Hawk 
Purchase having been made, all the territory west of the Mississippi and north 
of the northern boundary of Missouri, was made a part of Michigan Territory. 
Up to liiis time there had been no county or other organization in what is now 
the state of Iowa, although one or two justices of the peace had been appointed 
and a postoffice was established at Duburiue in 1833. In September, 1834, 
however, the territorial legislature of Michigan created two counties on the 
west side of the Mississippi river, viz : Dubuque and Des Moines, separated by 
a line drawn westward from the foot of Rock Island. These counties were 


partially organized. John King was appointed chief justice of Dubuque county 
and Isaac Leffler. of IJurlington, of Des Moines county. Two associate jus- 
tices "in each county were appointed by the governor. 

On the first Monday in October, 1835, General George \V. Jones, later a 
citizen of Dubuque, was elected a delegate to congress from this part of Michi- 
gan territory. On the 20th of April, 1836, through the efforts of General Jones, 
congress passed a bill creating the territory of Wisconsin, which went into 
operation July 4, 1836, and Iowa was then included in 


of which Cieneral Henry Dodge was appointed governor; John S. Horner. 
secretary of the territory; Charles Dunn, chief justice; David Irwin and Wil- 
liam C. Frazer, associate justices. 

September 9, 1836, Governor Dodge ordered the census of the new terri- 
tory to be taken. This census resulted in showing a population of 10.531 in 
the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines. Under the apportionment these 
two counties were entitled to si.\ members of the council and thirteen of the 
house of representatives. The governor issued his proclamation for an elec- 
tion to be held on the first Monday of October. 1836. on which day the follow- 
ing members of the first territorial legislature nf Wisconsin were elected from 
the two counties in the Black Hawk Purchase: 

Dubuque county — Council: John Fally, Thomas .McKnight, Thomas Mc- 
Craney. House: Uoring Wheeler. Hardin Xnwhin, Peter Hill Kngle. Patrick 
Quigley. Hosea T. Camp. 

Des Moines county — Council: Jeremiah Smith, Jr., Joseph B. Teas. .Arthur 
B. Ingram. House: Isaac Leffler, Thomas Blair, Warren T.. Jenkins, John 
Box, George \V. Teas. Eli Reynolds, David R. Chance. 

The first legislature assembled at Belmont in the present state of Wiscon- 
sin, on the 25th day of October. 1836. and was organized by electing Henry T. 
Baird president of the council, and Peter Hill Engle, of Dubuque, speaker of 
the house. It adjourned December 9. 1836. 

The second legislature assembled at Burlington, November 10. 1837. Ad- 
journed January 20, 1838. The third session was at Burlington; commenced 
June 1st and adjourned June 12. 1838. 

During the first session of the Wisconsin territorial legislature in i83f^>, the 
county of Des Moines was divided into Des Moines, Lee, Van Buren. Henry. 
Muscatine and Cook (the latter being subsequently changed to Scott) and de- 
imed their boundaries. During the second session, out of the territory embraced 
in Dubuque county, were created the counties of Dubuque. Clayton, Fayette. 
Delaware. Buchanan. Jackson. Jones, Linn. Clinton and Cedar and their I)onnd- 
aries defined but the most of them were not organized until several vimts ;ifter- 
ward. under the authority of the territorial legislature of Iowa. 

The question of a separate territorial organization for Iowa, which was then 
a part of Wisconsin Territory, began to be agitated early in the autumn of 
18^7. The wishes of the people found expression in a convention held at Bur- 
lington on the 1st of November, which memorialized congress to organize a 
tcrritorv west of the Mississipfi uul to >,.-ttl.- ib.' biumd.irv line between Wis- 


cousin 'I'crritotv and Missouri. I'iie territorial legislature of Wisconsin, then 
in session at Burlin,i;ton, joined in the i)etition. General George W. Jones, of 
Diihn(|ue, then residing at Sinsinawa Mound, in what is now Wisconsin, was 
delegate to congress from Wisconsin Territory and labored so earnestly and 
successfully, that "An act to divide the territory of Wisconsin, and to establish 
the territorial government of Iowa" was approved June 12, 1838. to take ef- 
fect and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. The new territory embraced "all 
that part of the present territory of Wisconsin which lies west of the Missis- 
sippi river, and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or sources 
of the Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided for a gov- 
ernor, whose term of ofificc should be three years, and for a secretary, chief 
justice, two associate justices and attorney and marshal, who should serve four 
years, to be appointed by the president, by and with the advice and consent of 
the senate. The act also provided for the election by the white male inhabitants, 
citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of age, of a house of rep- 
resentatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and a council to consist of 
thirteen members. It also appropriated $5,000 for a public library, and $20,000 
for the erection of public buildings. 

President \'an Buren appointed ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be 
the first governor of the new' territory. William B. Conway, of Pittsburgh, 
was appointed secretary of the territory ; Charles Mason, of Burlington, chief 
justice, and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of Penn- 
sylvania, associate judges of the supreme and district courts ; Mr. \'an Allen, 
of Xew York, attorney; Prancis Gehon. of Dubuque, marshal: .Augustus C. 
Dodge, register of the land office at Burlington : and Thomas McKnight. re- 
ceiver of the land office at Dubuque. Mr. \'an Allen, the district attorney, died 
at Burlington during the second session of the legislature, and James Clarke, 
editor of the Gazette, was appointed to succeed him. 

Immediately after his arrival, Governor Lucas issued a proclamation for the 
election of members of the first territorial legislature, to be held on the lOth of 
September, dividing the territory into election districts for that purpose, and 
ai)pointing the 12th day of November for meeting of the legislature to be elected, 
at Burlington. 

The first territorial legislature was elected in .September and assembled at 
Burlington on the 12th of November, and consisted of the following members: 

Council — Jesse B. Browne, J. Keith, E. A. M. Swazey. .Arthur Ingram. 
Robert Ralston, George Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark. 
Charles Whittlesey. Jonathan W. Parker, W'arner Lew-is, Stephen Hempstead. 

House — William Patterson. Hawkins Taylor. Calvin J. Price. James Bri- 
crly. Jiuiies Hall. Gideon S. Bailey. Samuel Parker. James W. Grimes. George 
Temple. \'an B. Delashmutt. Thomas Blair. George H. Beeler. William G. Coop. 
William H. Wallace, Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, William L. Toole. Levi 
Thornton. S. C. Hastings. Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, Jabez .A. Rurch- 
ard. Jr.. Chaunccy Swan. Andrew Bankson. Thomas Cox and Hardin Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding a large majority of the members of l)olh branches of the 
legislature were democrats, yet Jesse B. Browne (whig), of Lee county, was 
elected president of the council, and Hon. William H. Wallace ( whig), of Henry 
county, speaker of the iiouse of representatives — the former unanimously and 


the latter with but little opposition. At that time national politics were little 
heeded In the people of the new territory, hut in 1S40. during the presidential 
campaign, party lines were strongly drawn. 

.\t the election in September, 1838, for members of tlic legislature, a con- 
gressional delegate was also elected. There were four candidates, viz : William 
\V. Chapman and David Rohrer, of Des .Moines county; 1>. F. \\'allace, ot 
Henry county; and P. H. Kngle, of Dubuque county. Chapman was elected, 
receiving a majority of thirty-si.\ over Engle. 

The first session of the Iowa territorial legislature was a stormy and excit- 
ing one. Ky the organic law, the governor was clothed with almost unlimited 
veto i)ower. Governor Lucas seemed dis])()sed to make free use of it. and the 
independent Ilawkeyes could not (|uietly submit to arbitrary and absolute rule, 
and the result was an unpleasant coiUroversy between the executive and legis- 
lative departments. Congress, however, by act ai)i)rove(l .March 3, 1839. amended 
the organic law by restricting the veto i)ower of the governor to the two-thirds 
rule, and took from him the i)ower to appoint sheriflFs and magistrates. 

.\mong the first important matters demanding attention was the location 
of the seat of government and provision for the erection of public buildings, 
for which congress had appropriated $20,000. Covernor Lucas, in his mes- 
sage harl recommended the appi)intment of commissioners, with a view to mak- 
ing a central location. The extent of the future state of Iowa was not known 
or thought of. Only on a strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the Mis- 
sissippi river, was the Indian title extinguished, and a central location meant 
some central point in the lilack Hawk Purchase. The friends of a central loca- 
tion supported the governor's suggestion. The southern members were divided 
between Purlington and Mount Pleasant, but finally united on the latter as the 
proper location iur the seat of government. The central and southern parties 
were very nearly e(|ual, and in consequence, much excitement prevailed. The 
central |)arty at last triumi)hcd. and on the 21st day of January. 1830, an act was 
passed, ajipointing Chauncey .Swan, of I)ubui|ue county; John Ronalds, of 
Louisa county; and Robert Ralston, of Des .Moines couiUy. commissioners to 
select a site for a permanent seat of government within the linnts of Johnson 

Johnson county had been created by act of the territorird legislature of Wis- 
consin, api)rovcd December 21, 1837, and organized by act ])assed at the s])e- 
cial session at I'.urlington. in June, 1838, the organization to date from July 
4th, following. Xapoleon. on the Iowa river, a few miles below the future 
Iowa City, was designatefl as the county seat temitorarilv. 

Then there existed good reason for locating the capital in the county. The 
territory of Iowa was bounded on the north by the British jiossessions ; east bv 
the Mississi)i|)i river to its source; thence by a line drawn due north to the 
northern boundary of the United States; south, by the state of Missouri; and 
west, by the Missouri and White Earth rivers. I'.ut this immense territory was 
in unijispiued possession of the Indians, excej)! a strip on the Mississii)pi, known 
as the I'.lack Hawk Purchase. Johnson county was, from north to south, in 
the geographical center of this j)urchase. anrl as near the east and west gco- 
gr.'ii)hical center of the future state of Iowa, as could then be made, as the 
boundary line between the laii<Is of the United St.itcs ;ni<! lln- Fmli.ins, cslab- 


lished by the treaty of October 21, 1837, was immediately west of the county 

The commissioners, after selecting the site, were directed to lay out six 
hundred and forty acres into a town, to be called Iowa City, and to proceed 
to sell lots and erect public buildings thereon, congress having granted a sec- 
tion of land to be selected by the territory for this purpose. The commissioners 
met at Napoleon, Johnson county. .May i, 1839, selected for a site section 10, 
in town?hi]) 79 north of range 6 west of the fifth principal meridian, and im- 
mediately .-surveyed it and laid off the town. The tirst sale of lots took place 
August lO. 1839. The site selected for the public buildings was a little west 
of the geographical center of the section, where a square of ten acres on the 
elevated grounds overlooking the river was reserved for the purpose. The 
capitol is located in the center of this square. The second territorial legisla- 
ture, which assembled in November, 1839, passed an act requiring the com- 
missioners to adopt such plan for the building that the aggregate cost w^hen 
complete should not exceed $51,000, and if they had already adopted a plan 
involving a greater expenditure they were directed to abandon it. Plans for 
the building w-ere designed and drawn by John F. Rague, of Springfield, Illi- 
nois, and on the 4th day of July, 1840, the corner stone of the edifice was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies. Samuel C. Trowbridge was marshal of the day 
and Governor Lucas delivered the address on that occasion. 

When the legislature assembled at Burlington in special session. July 13, 
1840, Governor Lucas announced that on the 4th of that month he had visited 
Iowa City and found the basement of the capitol nearly completed. A bill 
authorizing a loan of $20,000 for the building was passed, January 15. 1841, 
the unsold lots of Iowa City being the security oflfered, but only $5,500 was 
obtained inider the act. 


The boundary line between the territory of Iowa and the state of Missouri 
was a difficult question to settle in 1838. in consequence of claims arising from 
taxes and titles, and at one. time civil war was imminent. In defining the 
boundaries of the counties bordering on Missouri, the Iowa authorities had 
fixed a line that has since been established as the boundary between Iowa and 
Missouri. The constitution of Missouri defined her northern boundary to be 
the ])arallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Moines 
river. The lower rapids of the Mississippi immediately above the mouth of the 
Des Moines river had always been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or "the 
rapids of the Des Moines river.'' The Missourians (evidently not well versed 
in history or geography) insisted on running the northern boundary line from 
the rapids in the Des Moines river, just below Keosauqua, thus taking from 
low'a a strip of territory eight or ten miles wide. Assuming this as her north- 
ern boundary line, Missouri attempted to exercise jurisdiction over the dis- 
puted territory by assessing taxes and sending her sheriffs to collect them by 
distraining the personal property of the settlers. The lowans, however, were 
not disposed to submif, and the Missouri officials were arrested by the sheriffs 
of Davis and \'an Buren counties and confined in jail. Governor Boegs of 


Missouri called out his militia to enforce the claim and sustain the officers of 
Missouri. Governor Lucas called out the militia of Iowa and both parties made 
active j^reparations for war. In Iowa about 1,200 men enlisted, and 500 were 
actually armed and encamped in \'an Ikiren county, ready to defend the in- 
tegrity of the territory. Subsequently, General A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, 
Genernl Churchman, of Dubu(iuc, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were sent 
to Missouri as envoys plenipotentiary, to effect if possible, a peaceable adjust- 
ment of the difficulty. Upon their arrival, they found that the county commis- 
sioners of Clarke coimty. Missouri, had rescinded their order for the collection 
of the taxes, and that Governor I!oggs had desi)atched messengers to the gov- 
ernor of Iowa proposing to submit an agreed case to the supreme court of the 
United States for the final settlement of the boundary question. This proposi- 
tion was declined, but afterward congress authorized a suit to settle the con- 
troversy, which was instituted, and which resulted in a judgment for Iowa. 
Under this decision, William G. Miner, of Missouri, and Henry B. Ilendcrshott 
were appointed commissioners to survey and establish the boundary. Mr. 
Nourse remarks that "the expenses of the war on the part of Iowa were never 
paid, either by the United States or tiie territorial government. Tiie patriots 
who furnished supplies to the troops had to bear the cost and charges of the 

The first legislative assembly laid the broad foundation of civil equality, on 
which has been constructed one of the most liberal governments in the Union. Its 
first act was to recognize the equality of woman with man before the law by pro- 
viding that "no action commenced by a single woman, who intermarries during 
the pendency thereof, shall abate on account of such marriage." This princi- 
ple has been adopted by all subsequent legislation in Iowa, and today woman 
has full and equal civil rights with man, except only the right of the liallot. 

Religious toleration was also secured to all, personal liberty strictly guarded, 
the rights and privileges of citizenship extended to all white persons, and the 
purity of elections secured by heavy penalties against bribery and corruption. 
The judiciary power was vested in a supreme court, district court, probate court 
and justices of the peace. Real estate was made divisible by will and intestate 
property divided equitably among heirs. Murder was made punishable by death 
and propc:irtionale penalties fixed for lesser crimes. .\ system of free schonls. 
open for every class of white citizens, was established. Provision was made 
for a system of roads and highways. Thus under the territorial organization, 
the country began to emerge from a savage wilderness and take on the form 
of civil government. 

By act of congress of June 12. i.\vS, the lands which had been purchased of 
the Indians were brought into market and land offices opened in Dubuque and 
Burlington. Congress provided for military roads and bridges, which greatly 
aided the settlers, who were now coming in by thousands, to make their homes 
on the fertile prairies of Iowa^"the Be.'iutiful Land." The fame of the coun- 
try had spread far and wide; even before the Indi.m title was extinguished, 
many were crowding the borders, imiiatient to cross over and stake out their 
claitns on the choicest s()ots they cnulil lind in the new territory. As soon as 
the country was open for settlement, the borders, the Black Hawk Purchase, 
all along the Mississippi, and U[) the principal rivers and streams and out over 


llic Ijroad and rolling prairies, began to be thronged with eager land hunters 
and immigrants, seeking homes in Iowa. It was a sight to delight the eyes of 
all comers from every land — its noble streams, beautiful and picturesque hills 
and valleys, broad and fertile prairies extending as far as the eye could reach, 
with a soil surpassing in richness anything which they had ever seen. It is not to 
be wondered at that immigration into Iowa was rapid and that within less than 
a decade from the organization of the territory, it contained a hundred and 
fifty thousand people. 

.\s ra]3idly as the Indian titles were extinguished and the original owners 
removed, the resistless tide of emigration tlowed westward. The following 
extract from judge Xourse's Centennial address shows how the immigrants 
gathered on the Indian boundary ready for the removal of the barrier: 

"In obedience to our progressive and aggressive spirit, the government of 
the United States made another treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians on the 
nth day of August, 1852, for the remaining portion of their land in Iowa 
The treaty provided that the Indians should retain possession of all the lands 
thus ceded until May i, 1843, and should occupy that portion of the ceded 
territory west of a line running north and south through Red Rock, until Oc- 
tober II. 1845. These tribes at this time had their principal village at Ot-tum- 
wa-no, now called Ottumwa. As soon as it became known that the treaty had 
been concluded, there was a rush of immigration to Iowa and a great number 
of temporary settlements were made near the Indian boundary, waiting for the 
1st day of May. As the day approached, hundreds of families encamped along 
the line and their tents and wagons gave the scene the appearance of a military 
expedition. The country beyond had been thoroughly explored but the United 
States military authorities had prevented any settlement or even the making out 
of claims by any monuments whatever. 

"To aid them in making out their claims when the hour should arrive, the 
settlers had placed piles of dry wood on the rising ground ai convenient dis- 
tances, and a short time before twelve o'clock of the night of the 30th of 
April, these were lighted, and when the midnight hour arrived, it was an- 
nounced by the discharge of firearms. The night was dark but this army of 
occupation pressed forward, torch in hand, with ax and hatchet, blazing lines 
with all manner of curves and angles. When daylight came and revealed the 
confusion of these wonderful surveys, numerous disputes arose, settled gen- 
erally by compromise, but sometimes by violence. Between midnight of the 
30th of April and sundown of the ist of May. over one thousand families had 
settled on their new purchase. 

"While this scene was transpiring, the retreating Indians were enacting one 
more impressive and melancholy. The winter of 1842-3 was one of unusual 
severity and the Indian jirophet. who had disai)proved of tlie treaty, attributed 
the severity of the winter to the anger of the Great Spirit, because they had 
sold their country. Many religious rites were performed to atone for the 
crime. When the time for leaving Ot-tum-wa-no arrived, a solemn silence per- 
vaded the Indian camp and the faces of their stoutest men were bathed in tears; 
and when their cavalcade was jnit in motion, toward the setting sun. there was 
a spontaneous outburst of frantic grief from the entire jiroccssion. 

"The Indians remained the ai)])ointed time beyond the line running north 


and soiitli through Red Rock. The governiiieiii established a trading post and 
mihtary encampment at the Raccoon fork of the Des Moines river, then and 
for many years known as Fort Des Moines. Here the red man lingered until 
the nth of October, 1845, when the same scene that we have before descrilx-d 
was rceiiacted and the wave of immigration swept over the remainder of the 
'New Purchase." The lands thus occu]Med and claimed by the settlers still 
belonged in fee to the general government. The surveys were not completed 
until some time after the Indian title was extinguished. After their survey, 
the lands were ])ublicly proclaimed or advertised for sale at public auction. 
Under the laws of the United States, a ])reemption or e.xclusive right to pur- 
chase i)ublic lands could not be acquired until after the lands had thus been pub- 
licly ofi'ered and not sold for want of bidders. Then, and until then, an occu- 
pant making improvements in good faith might actjuire a right over others to 
enter the land at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre. The 'claim laws' were 
unknown to the United States statutes. They originated in the 'eternal fitness 
of things' and were enforced probably, as belonging to that class of natural 
rights not enumerated in the constitution, and not impaired or disparaged I)v 
its enumeration. 

"The settlers organized in every settlement jjrior to the public land sales, 
appointed officers, and adopted their own rules and regulations. Each man's 
claim was duly ascertained and recorded by the secretary. It was the duty of all 
to attend the sales. The secretary bid off the lands of each settler at $1.25 
per acre. The others were there to see, first that he did his duty antl bid in 
the land, and secondly, to see that no one else bid. This of course sometimes 
led to trouble, but it saved the excitement of competition and gave a formality 
and degree of order and regularity to the proceedings they would not otherwise 
have atiaincil. As far as practicable, the territorial legislature recognized the 
validit}- of these "claims' ui)oii the jiublic lands and in 1839 passed an act le- 
galizing their sale and making their transfer a valid consideration to support 
a promise to i)ay for the same. (.Acts of 1843, p. 456.) The supreme terri- 
torial court belli this law to be valid. (See Hill v. Smith, ist Morris Re]). 70.) 
The o[)inion not only contains a decision of the c|uestion involved, but also 
contains nuicli valuable erudition upon that 'spirit of .\nglo-Saxon liberty' 
which the Iowa settlers unquestionably inherited in a direct line of descent 
from the said ".Vnglo- Saxons.' P.ut the early settler was not always able to pay 
even this dollar and twenty-five cents per acre for his land." 

Many of the settlers had nothing to begin with save their hands, health and 
courage and their family jewels, "the jilcdgcs of love,'' and the "consumers of 
bread." It was not so easy to accumulate money in the early days of the state, 
and the "beautiful |)rairies," the "noble streams," and all that sort of jjoctic 
imagery, did not ])revent the early settlers from becoming discouraged. 

An old settler, in s|)eaking of the privations of those early days, says: 

"Well do the "old settlers' of Iowa remember the days from the first set- 
tlement to 1840. Those were days of sadness and distress. The endearments 
of home in another land hafl been broken up : and all that was hallowed on earth, 
the home of childhood and the scenes of youth, we severed ; and we .sat down by 
the gentle waters of our noble river, and often 'hung our liari)s on the willows.' " 

Another from another part of the state testifies: "There was no such thing 


as getting money for any kind of labor. I laid brick at $3 per thousand and 
took my pay in anything I could eat or wear. 1 built the first Methodist church 
at Keokuk, 42x60 feet, of brick, for $600, and took my pay in a subscription 
paper, part of which I never collected and upon which I only received $50 in 
money. Wheat was hauled a hundred miles from the interior and sold for 
37/4 cents per bushel."' 

Another old settler, speaking of a later ]jeriod, 1843, says: "Land and every- 
tliing had gone down in value to almost nominal prices. Corn and oats could 
be bought for si.x or ten cents a bushel ; pork $1 per hundred ; and the best horse 
a man could raise sold for $50. Nearly all were in debt and the sheriff and 
constable, with legal processes, were common visitors at almost every man's 
door. These were indeed 'the times that tried men's souls.' " 

"A few," says Mr. Nourse, "who were not equal to the trial, returned to 
their old homes but such as had the courage and faith to be the worthy founders 
of a great state remained, to more than realize the fruition of their hopes and 
the reward of their self-denial." 

On Monday, December 6, 1841, the fourth legislative assembly met at the 
new capital, Iowa City, but the capitol building could not be used and the legis- 
lature occupied a temporary frame house, that had been erected for that pur- 
pose during the session of 1841-2. At this session the superintendent of public 
buildings, (who, with the territorial agent, had superseded the commissioners 
first appointed), estimated the expense of completing the building at •'?33.330, 
and that rooms for the use of the legislature could be completed for $15,600. 

During 1842 the superintendent commenced obtaining some stone from a new 
quarry about ten miles northeast of the city. This is now known as the "Old 
Capitol quarry," and contains it is thought, an immense quantity of excellent 
building stone. Here all the stone for completing the building was obtained 
and it was so far completed that on the 5th day of December, 1842, the legis- 
lature assembled in the new capitol. At this session, the superintendent esti- 
mated that it would cost $39,143 to finish the building. This was nearly $6,000 
higher than the estimate of the previous year, notwithstanding a large sum had 
been expended in the meantime. This rather discouraging discrepancy was ac- 
counted for by the fact that the officers in charge of the work were constantly 
short of funds. Except the congressional appropriation of $20,000 and the loan 
of $5,500, obtained from the Miners' Bank, of Dubuque, all the funds for the 
prosecution of the work were derived from the sale of the city lots ( which did 
not sell very rapidly), from certificates of indebtedness and from scrip, based 
upon unsold lots, which was to be received in payment for such lots when they 
were sold. At one time the superintendent made a requisition for bills of iron 
and glass, which could not be obtained nearer than St. Louis. To meet this, 
the agent sold some lots for a draft, payable at Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, for 
which he was compelled to pay twenty-five per cent exchange. This draft, amount- 
ing to $507, that officer rcjjorted to be more than one-half the cash actually handled 
by him during the entire season, when the disbursements amounted to very 
nearly $24,000. 

With such uncertainty it could not be expected that estimates could be very 
accurate. With all these disadvantages, however, the work appears to have been 
prudently prosecuted, and as rajiidly as circumstances would permit. 


Iowa remained a territory from 1838 to 1846, during which the uftice of 
governor was held by Robert Lucas, John Chambers and James Clarke. 


By an act of the territorial legislature of Iowa, approved February ij. 1S44, 
the question of the formation of a state constitution and providing for the 
election of delegates to a convention to be convened for that purpose was sub- 
mitted to the people, to be voted upon at their township elections in April fol- 
lowing. The vote was largely in favor of the measure, and the delegates elected 
assembled in convention at Iowa City on the 7th of October, 1844. On the ist 
day of November following, the convention completed its work and adopted the 
first state constitution. 

The president of the convention, Hon. Shepherd Lefller, was instructed to 
transmit a certified copy of this constitution to the delegate in congress, to be 
by him submitted to that body at the earliest practicable day. It was also pro- 
vided that it should be submitted, together w ith any conditions or changes that 
might be made by congress, to the people of the territory, for their approval or 
rejection, at the township election in April, 1845. 

The boundaries of the state as defined by this constitution were as follows : 

Heginning in the middle of the channel of the Mississippi river, opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines river, thence up the said river Des Moines, in the 
middle of the main channel thereof, to a point where it is intersected by the old 
Indian boundary line, or line run by John C. Sullivan, in the year 1S16; thence 
westwardly along said line to the "old" northwest corner of Missouri; thence up 
m the middle of the main channel of the river last mentioned to the mouth of 
the Sioux or Calumet river ; thence in a direct line to the middle of the main 
channel of the St. Peters river, where the Watonwan river— according to Nicol- 
let's map— enters the same; thence down the middle of the main channel of said 
river to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence down 
the middle of the main channel of said river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries were rejected by congress, but by act approved JMarch 
3, 1845, a state called Iowa was admitted into the Union, provided the people 
accepted the act, bounded as follows: 

beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines river, at the middle of the Mis- 
5issii)pi, thence by ihe midfllc of the channel of that river to a parallel of latitude 
passing through the mouth of the Mankato or Blue Earth river; thence west, 
along said parallel of latitude, to a point where it is intersected by a meridian 
line seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian of Washington 
City ; thence due south, to the northern boundary line of the state of Missouri ; 
thence eastwardly, following that boundary to the point at which the same in- 
tersects the Des Moines river; thence by the middle of the chaniul of that river 
to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries, had they been accepted, would have placed the northern 
bonnflary of the state about thirty miles north of its present location, and would 
have deprived it of the Missouri slope and the boundary of that river. The 
western boundary would have been near the west line of what is now Kossuth 
county. But it was not so to be. In consequence of this radical and unwcl-. 


come change in the houndarics, ilie pcijple refused to accept the act of congress 
and rejected the constilution at the ck-cti(jii. held August 4, 1845, by a vote of 
7,656 to 7.235. 

A second constitutional convention assembled at Iowa City on the 4th day 
of May, 1846, and on the i8th uf the same month another constitution for the 
new state with the i^resent boundaries, was adopted and submitted to the peo- 
ple for ratification on llie 3d day of August following, when it was accepted; 
9,492 votes were cast "for the constitution," and 9,036 "against the constitu- 
tion." The constitution was approved by congress and by act of congress ap- 
proved December 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted as a sovereign state in the 
American Union. 

I'rior to this action of congress, however, the people of the new state held an 
eleotion under the new constitution on the 26th day of October, and elected 
Oresel LJriggs. governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., secretary of state; Joseph T. Fales. 
auditor; ^lorgan Reno, treasurer; and members of the senate and house of 

At this time there were twenty-seven organized counties in the stale, with a 
population of nearly 100,000, and the frontier settlements were rapidly pushing 
toward the ]\Iissouri river. The Mormons had already reached there. 

The first general assembly of the state of Iowa was composed of nineteen 
senators and forty representatives. It assembled at Iowa City, November 30. 
1846, about a month before the state was admitted into the Union. 

At the first session of the state legislature, the treasurer of state reported 
that the capitol building was in a very exposed condition, liable to injury from 
storms, and expressed the hope that some provision would be made to complete 
it, at least sufficiently to protect it from the weather. The general assembly 
responded by appropriating $2,500 for the comj^letion of the public buildings. 
At the first session also arose the question of the relocation of the capital. The 
western boundary of the state, as now determined, left Iowa City too far toward 
the eastern and southern boundary of the state ; this was conceded. Congress 
had appropriated five sections of land for the erection of public buildings and 
toward the close of the session a bill was introduced providing for the re-location 
of the seat of government, involving to some extent the location of the State 
University, which had already been discussed. This bill gave rise to a deal of dis- 
cussion and parliamentary niancu\ering. almost purely sectional in its character. 
It provided for the appointment of three commissioners, who were authorized 
to make a location as near the geographical center of the state as a healthy and 
eligible site could be obtained ; to select the five sections of land donated by con- 
gress ; to survey and plat into town lots not exceeding one section of the land 
so selected : to sell lots at public sale, not to exceed two in each block. Having 
done this, they were then rc<|uired to suspend further operations, and make a 
report of their proceedings to the governor. The bill passed both houses by 
decisive votes, received the signature of the governor, and became a law. Soon 
after, by "an act to locate and establish a State University," approved Feb- 
ruary 25, 1847, the unfinished public buildings at Iowa City, together with the 
ten acres of land on which they were situated, were granted for the use of the 
university, reserving their use, however, by the general assembly and the state 
officers, until other ])rovisions were made bv law. 


The commissioners forthwith entered upon tlieir duties, and selected four 
sections and two half sections in Jasper county. Two of these sections are in 
what is now Des Moines township, and the others in Fairview township, in the 
southern part of that county. These lands are situated between Prairie City 
and Monroe, on the Keokuk & Des Moines railroad, which runs . diagonally 
through them. Here a town was platted, called Monroe City, and a sale of lots 
took place. Four hundred and fifteen lots were sold, at prices that were not 
considered remarkably remunerative. The cash payments (one-fourth) amounted 
to $1,797.43. while the expenses of the sale and the claims of the commission- 
ers for services amounted to $2,206.57. The commissioners made a report of 
their proceedings to the governor, as rec|uired 1)\- law, hut the location was gen- 
erally condemned. 

When the rejiort of the commissioners, showing this hrilliant financial opera- 
tion, had been read in the house of representatives at the next session, and 
while it was under consideration, an indignant member, afterward known as 
the eccentric Judge Mcl-'arland, moved to refer the report to a select committee 
of five, w ith instructions to report "how much of said city of Monroe was under 
water and how much was burned." The report was referred without the in- 
structions, however, but Monroe City never became the seat of government. 
By an act approved January 15. 1849, the law by which the location had been 
made was repealed and the new town was vacated, the money paid by pur- 
chasers of lots being refunded to them. This, of course, retained the scat of 
government at Iowa City, and precluded, for llic time, the occupation of the 
buildinrj and grounds by the university. 

.\t the same session, $3,000 more were appropriated for completing the state 
building at Iowa City. In 1852 the further sum of $5,000, and in 1854 $4,000 
more were appropriated for the same purpose, making the whole cost $123,000, 
paid partly by tlie general government and partly by the state, i)Ut princiiially 
from the proceeds of the sale of lots in Iowa City. 

But the question of the permanent location of the seat of government was 
not settled, and in 185 1 bills were introduced for the removal of the capital 
to Pella and to Fort Des Moines. The latter appeared to have the support of 
the majority, but was finally lost in the house on the question of ordering it to 
its third reading. 

.\t the next session, in 1853. a bill was introduced in tlic senate for the re- 
moval of the seat of government to Fort Des Moines and, on final vote, was 
just barely defeated. At the next session, however, the effort was more suc- 
cessful, and on the 15th day of January, 1855, a bill relocating the capital within 
two miles of the Raccoon fork of the Des Moines, and for the appointment of 
commissioners, was approved by Ciovernor Grimes. The site was selected in 
1856. in accordance with the provisions of this act, the land being donated to the 
state bv citizens and property holders of Des Moines. .\n association of citizens 
erected a buililing for a temporary capitol and leased it to tlie state at a nominal 

The thinl cunstitutional convention to revise the constitution of the state as- 
sembled at Iowa City, January 19. 1857. Tlie new constitution framed by this 
convention was submitted to the people at an election hclfl .August 3. 1857, when 
it was approved and adopted by a vote of 40.311 "for" to 38,^)81 "against," and 

Vo) 1—4 


on the 3(1 day of September following was declared by a proclamation of the 
governor to be the supreme law of the state of Iowa. 

Advised of the comi)letion of tlie temporary state house at Des Moines, on 
the 19th of October following, Governor Grimes issued another proclamation, 
declaring the city of Des Moines to be the capital of the state of Iowa. 

The removal of the archives and offices was commenced at once and con- 
tinued through the fall. It was an undertaking of no small magnitude: there 
was not a mile of railroad to facilitate the work and the season wa> unusually 
disagreeable. Rain, snow and other accompaniments increased the difficulties; 
and it was not until December that the last of the effects — the safe of the state 
treasurer, loaded on two large "bob-sleds" — drawn by ten yoke of o.\en. was 
deposited in the new capital. It is not imprudent now, to remark that during 
this passage over hills and prairies, across rivers, through bottom lands and 
timber, the safes belonging to the several departments contained large sums of 
money, mostly individual funds, however. Thus, Iowa City ceased to be the 
capital of the state, after four territorial legislatures, six state legislatures and 
three constitutional conventions had held their sessions there. I!y the exchange, 
the old capitol at Iowa City became the seat of the university, and except the 
rooms occupied by the United States district court, passed under the immediate 
and direct control of the trustees of that institution. 

Des ^loines was now the permanent seat of government, made so by the 
fundamental law of the state, and on the nth day of January, 1858, the sev- 
enth general assembly convened at the new capital. The building used for gov- 
ernmental purposes was purchased in 1864. It soon became inadequate for the 
purposes for which it was designed and it became apparent that a new. large and 
permanent state house must be erected. In 1870 the general assembly made an 
appropriation and provided for the appointment of a board of commissioners to 
commence the work. The board consisted of Governor Samuel Merrill, ex- 
officio. president : Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs; James F. Wilson. Fairfield; 
James Dawson, \\'ashington ; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine : James O. Crosby, 
Gainsville : Charles Dudley, .Agency City ; John N. Dewey, Des Moines : William 
L. Joy, Sioux City; Alexander R. Fulton, Des Moines, secretary. 

The act of 1870 provided that the building should be constructed of the 
best material and should be fire proof : to be heated and ventilated in the most 
approved manner ; should contain suitable legislative halls, rooms for state of- 
ficers, the judiciary, library, committees, archives and the collections of the 
State Agricultural Society, and for all purposes of state government, and should 
be erected on grounds held by the state for that purpose. The sum first appro- 
priated was $150,000: and the law provided that no contract should l)e made, 
either for constructing or furni.shing the building, wliicli .should liind the state 
for larger sums than those at the time appropriated. .\ design was drawn and 
plans and specifications furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard. architects, which 
were accepted by the board, and on the 2,vl of Noveml>cr. 1871. the corner 
stone was laid w^ith appropriate ceremonies. Tlie estimated cost and present 
value of the capitol is fixed at $,cxx). 

From 1858 to i8ro, tlie Sioux liecame troublesome in the northwestern part 
of the state. These warlike Indians made frequent plundering raids upon the 
settlers and murdered several families. In 1861. several companies of militia 



were ordered to that portion of the state to hunt down and piinisli the murderous 
thieves. No battles were fought, however, for the Indians tied when they a>cer- 
tained that systematic and adequate measures had l)een adopted to prolecl the 

"The year 1856 marked a new era in the history of Iowa. In 1854. the Clii- 
cago & Rock Island Railroad had been completed to the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi river, opposite Davenport. In 1854. the corner stone of a railroad bridge 
that was to be the lirst to span the "I-'ather of \\'aters,' was laid with appro- 
priate ceremonies at this point. St. Louis had resolved that the enterprise w'as 
unconstitutional and by writs of injunction made an unsuccessful effort to prevent 
its completion. Twenty years later in her history. St. Louis repented her folly 
and made atonement for her sin by imitating our example. On the 1st day of 
January. 1856, this railroad was completed to Iowa City. In the meantime, 
two other railroads had reached the east bank of the Mississippi — one opposite 
Burlington, and one opposite Dubui|ue — and these were being extended into the 
interior of the state. Indeed, four lines of railroad had been projected across 
the state from the Mississippi to the Missouri, having eastern connections. On 
the 15th of May. 1856. the congress of the United States passed an act granting 
to the state, to aid in the construction of railroads, the public lands in alternate 
sections, six miles on either side of the proposed lines. .An extra session of the 
general assembly was called in July of this year, that disposed of the grant to 
the several comjianies that proposed to complete these enterprises. The popula- 
tion of our state at this time had increased to 500.000. Public attention had 
been called to the necessity of a railroad across the continent. The position of 
Iowa, in the very heart of the center of the republic, on the route of this great 
highway across the continent, began to attract attention. Cities and towns sprang 
up through the state as if by magic. Capital began to pour into the state and 
had it been cm|)loyed in developing our vast coal measures and establishing 
manufactories among us. or if it had been expended in improving our lands, 
and building houses and barns, it would have been well. But all were in haste 
to get rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the hour. 

"In the meantime every effort was made to help the speedy completion of 
the railroads. Nearly every county and city on the Mississippi, and many in the 
interior, voted large corporate subscriptions to the stock of the railroad com- 
panies, and issued their negotiable bonds for the amount." Thus enormous 
county and city debts were incurred, the payment of which these municipalities 
tried to avoid upon the plea that they had exceeded, the constitutional limita- 
tion of their powers. The supreme court of the United States held these bonds 
to be valid; and the courts by mandannis compelled the city and county author- 
ities to levy taxes to pay the jutlgmcnts. The first railroad across the state was 
completed to Council Bluffs in January, 1871. 




A valuable and interesting article on the nativity of the people who settled 
Iowa has been written, after careful research, by F. I. Herriott, professor of 
economics and political science. Drake University. The author of this sketch 
relates not only that which he has learned from various sources pertinent to his 
subject, but gives the opinions of others, who themselves were early on the 
field and. through their activities and prominence in state affairs and other chan- 
nels of usefulness were given peculiar opportunities for acc|uiring data of great 
value and usefulness in an article of this kind. The details apply to the state 
in general and to localities in particular, and from the fact that the character of 
a community is largely known when the nativity of its people is shown makes it 
apparent to the compiler of this history that a reproduction of Professor Tler- 
riott's brochure will not be amiss and follows: 

The lineage of a people, like the genealogj- of a family, is not commonly 
looked upon as a matter of general importance. The wayfaring man is wont to 
regard it as interesting and worth while only to anti(|uarians and scholastics. 
But states or societies, no less than individuals, are the outgrowth of heredity 
and environment. Life, be it manifest in individual organisms or in social or- 
ganisms, is a comjilex or resultant of those two variables. We certainl\- cannot 
understand the nature or significance of the customs and institutions of a peo- 
ple or a state unless we know the character of the environment of that people. 
P>ut no less true is it that wc can neither comprehend the character of a people 
or the peculiarities of their social development, nor measure tiie forces that 
determine public life and action in the present, unless wc understand the sources 
of the streams of influence that unite to make them what they are. .\ people 
cannot break with its past nor discartl inherited jjolitical and social ideas, any 
more than a man can jxit away his youth and its influences, ."social or political 
life mav be greatly modified by the necessities of a new environment i)Ul hered- 
ity and ancestral traditions continue to exert a potent influence. 


For years the declaration — "I'niigrants from New England" settled Iowa — 
has been made by the Xew York Tribune .Mmanac, a popular standard book of 
reference, whose compilers have always maintained a fair reputation for ac- 



curacy in historical matters. The assertion — enlarged often so as to include 
the descendants of New Englanders who earlier swarmed and pushed out into 
the valley of the Mohawk and into the petty lake region of New York, thence 
southwesterly around the great lakes down into Pennsylvania and thither into 
the lands out of which were carved the states of the old northwest territory — 
reflects probably the common belief or tradition of the generality. 

Justice Samuel F. Miller, a Kentuckian by birth, was a practicing lawyer in 
Keokuk from 1850 to 1862, when Ix; was appointed by President Lincoln a 
member of the federal supreme court. In 1884, in a post-prandial speech be- 
fore the Tri-State Old Settlers' Association, he said: "The people (of Iowa) 
were brought from New England, interspersed with the vigor of the people of 
Kentucky and Missouri." In 1896 in an address at the Semi-Centennial of the 
founding of the state, the late Theodore S. Parvin, who came from Ohio in 
1838 as private secretary to Robert Lucas, the first territorial governor of Iowa, 
and who was ever after an industrious chronicler of the doings of the first set- 
tlers, declared that the pioneers of Iowa "came from New England states, the 
younger generations directly, the older having migrated at an earlier day, and 
located for a time in the middle states of that period and there remained long 
enough to become somew-hat westernized. They were from New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. There was an element of 
chivalry, descendants of the old cavaliers of \'irginia, some of whom had come 
through the bloody ground experiences of Kentucky and Tennessee ; these were 
found mostly in the southern portion of the territory." 

Here and there we find contrary or divergeiU opinions. Occasionally we 
encounter assertions that original New Yorkers or natives of Pennsylvania or 
emigrants from southern states constituted the important elements in the tides 
of the western popular movement between 1S30 and i860 that flowed over into 
and through low-a. But even when speakers and writers recognize that the 
mimigration into Iowa was not entirely from the states of New England thej' 
almost always regard such other streams as of secondary importance or as sub- 
sequent to the inflow of the New Englanders or their westernized descendants. 
Issuing from this common belief we have the general opinion that the predomin- 
ant influences determining the character of the social and political life and in- 
stitutions of Iowa have been Puritan in their origin. 

In what follows I shall examine briefly the grounds on which this tradition 
rests. I shall first consider the premises of the belief ; second, the social con- 
ditions and political developments persistent throughout the history of Iowa 
that are inexplicable upon the New England hypothesis ; and third, facts that 
clearly suggest if they do not compel a contrary conclusion resi>ecting the 
region whence came our predominant pioneer stock. 

The New Englander has always been in evidence in Iowa and his influence 
manifest. George Catlin on his journey down the Mississippi in 1S33. found 
that "Jonathan is already here from 'down east.' " In 1834 the name of Iowa's 
capital city was changed from "Flint Hills" to P.urlington. at the behest of John 
Grav, a son of Vermont. Father .\sa Turner, a son of Yale, while on a mission- 
ary expedition in 1836 found a settlement of New Englanders at Crow Creek 
in Scott county. Stephen Whicher. himself from the Green Mountains, found 
"some families of high polish from the city of New York." in Rloomington 


I Muscatine I. in October, 1S38. In all missionary and educational endeavors in 
Iowa, New Englanders have from the first days played conspicuous parts and 
have been potent factors in the development of the state. I'atiier Turner preached 
Congregationalism in "Rat Row." Keokuk, two years before Rev. Samuel Clarke 
exhorted the pioneers to embrace Methodism in the "Grove." In 1843 came 
the "Iowa Band," a little brotherhood of Andover missionaries and preachers, 
graduates of Amherst, Bowdoin, Dartmouth, Harvard, New York City Uni- 
versity, Union College, the Universities of \'ermont and Yale. It may be doubted 
if any other group of men has exerted a tithe of the beneficial infiuence upon 
the life of the state tliat was exerted by those earnest workers. The two oldest 
educational institutions in the state owe their inception and establishment to 
the far-sighted plans and persistent self-sacrifice and promotion of Asa Turner 
and the Iowa Band. It is not extravagant to presume that it was the emulation 
aroused by those apostles from New England that created the "passion for edu- 
cation" among the pioneers of Iowa that resulted in the establishment of the fifty 
academies, colleges and universities between 1838 and 1852. From this fact 
doubtless Iowa came to be known as the "Massachusetts of the west." 

The election of James W. Grimes, governor of Iowa in 1854, and the revolu- 
tion in the political control of the state which that event signified, first at- 
tracted the attention of the nation to Iowa. Prior to that date Iowa was re- 
garded with but little interest by the people of the northern states. She was 
looked upon as a solid democratic state and was grouped with Illinois and Indiana 
in the alignment of political parties in the contest over the extension of slavery. 

Suddenly the horizon changed. The Kansas-Nebraska bill produced a com- 
plete overturn. Grimes, a pronounced opponent of slavery, a son of New Hamp- 
shire, representing the ideas and traditions of the Puritans, was elected chief 
magistrate of Iowa and James Harlan was sent to the United States senate. At 
the conclusion of that critical contest Governor-elect Grimes wrote : "Our south- 
ern friends have regarded Iowa as their northern stronghold. I thank God it is 
conquered." In the accomplishment of this political revolution New Englanders 
energized and led largely by members of the Iowa Band, were conspicuous, if 
not the preponderant factors. The immigration of po|)ulation from New Eng- 
land was then approaching flood tide. "Day by day the endless procession moves 
on," declared The Dubuque Reporter. "They come by hundreds and 

thousands from the hills and valleys of New England, bringing with them that 
same untiring energy and perseverance that made their native states the admi- 
ration of the world." The prompt, firm stand of those pioneers when shocked 
into consciousness by the aggressions of the southern leaders, the brilliant lead- 
ership of Grimes and Harlan for years thereafter and the long continued suprem- 
acy of the political party they first led to victory, probably afford us no small 
part of the explanation of the theory of the supremacy of New England in the 
settlement of Iowa. 

Not the least important premise of this view, it may be suspected, is the 
observation so fref|uently made by students of western litstory in the past three 
decades that migration from the .Atlantic states to the interior and western states 
has ahv.i,- followed along the parallels of latitude. Illinois is a remarkable illus- 
tratirm nf this tendency. . . . Southern Illinois received its population from 
\'irt;inia and other southern states, while northern Illinois was chiefly settled 


from Massachusetts ami cither Xcw England states. Historians Fiske and 
Schouler make similar ohservations ahout the lines of western popular move- 
ments. Now if we extend eastward the line of the northern boundary of Iowa, 
it will pass through or above Glens Falls, near the lower end of Lake George, 
New York, through White Hall, X'ermont, Lacona, New Hampshire, striking 
the coast near Portland, Maine. Extending a similar line eastward from the 
southern boundary (disregarding the southeastern deflection made by the Des 
Moines river) we should pass just north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and come 
to the coast not far from Sandy Hook. U the general conclusion respecting 
western migration is universally and precisely true, Iowa, it will be observed 
would naturally have been settled by New Englanders or their westernized 
de.scendants in New York, Michigan and Wisconsin, and by those in Indiana, 
Ohio and Illinois. We have been told recently by George Moore that under the 
"Ordinance of 1787. New England men and ideas became the dominating forces 
from the Ohio to Lake Erie" in the settlement of the old northwest territory. 
A necessary consequence of this fact, if true as alleged, would lie that the large 
emigration to Iowa from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois prior to iS'X) was pre- 
dominantly New England stock, or subject to Puritan ideas and institutions. 

The theory that Iowa's pioneers were of Puritan origin, while resting on these 
strong jiremises, and others that may be mentioned, breaks down when viewed 
in the light of common and notorious develo])nients in the political and social 
life and institutions of the jiioneers. many of which are manifest and potent in 
the life of the state today. New Englanders were conspicuous, energetic and 
vocal prior to 1840; they were disjnitatious and vigorous jiromoters of their 
ideals of government, law and morals and religion piior to i860: but neither 
they nor their kith and kin from New York and Ohio were supreme in Iowa in 
those days. If they were supreme in numbers, how arc we to account for the 
absence of so much that is distinctly characteristic of the customs and institu- 
tions of New England in the life of this first free state of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase ? 

In the local government of Michigan and Wisconsin the imjiress of New- 
England's democratic ideals, her forms and methods of jirocedure. are to be 
observed in striking fashion. In Minnesota and the Dakotas the same is largely 
true. In Illinois the "intense vitality" of the town meeting system of govern- 
ment so possessed the minds of immigrants from New England that it over- 
came the prevalent county form of government, and now controls nearly four- 
fifths of the area of Illinois, although it was not given the right of way until 
1848. Here in Iowa, it is not untrue to say that the town meeting and all that 
it stands for in New England has been conspicuous chiefly by its absence. 
Governor Robert Lucas urged the adoption of the township as a unit for school 
purposes. An annual mass meeting was adopted in the scheme therefor. Rut 
neither became a vigorous institutional growth. Professor James Macy has 
shown us that there is strong warrant for doubting the vitality of many of the 
laws first adopted for the regulation of local affairs in the territory. Not a 
few of those statutes were enacted pro- forma, not especially in response to in- 
sistent local demand. Conditions did not compel compact town or communal 
life. The pioneers depended upon township trustees and school directors. They 
relied ui)on county commissioners. Finally it is almost impossible to conceive 


of New Englanders deliberately or even unwittingly adopting the autocratic 
county judge system of government that prevailed in Iowa from 185 1 to \8<K). 
It struck full in the face every tradition of democracy cherished hv the i)eople 
of New England. 

If New Englanders settled Iowa, why did the i)eople of the east experience 
a shock of surprise when the report reached them that the whigs in 1X41) had 
captured the first general assembly under the new state government. '•\Vhat 
gain had freedom from the admission of Iowa into the I'nion," exclaimed Horace 
Greeley, in the New York Tribune uf March 29, 1854. "Are Alabama and 
Mississippi more devoted to the despotic ideas of .\merican pan-slavism . . . ?" 
Was not his opinion justified when one of our senators could boldly declare in 
congress that "Iowa is the only free state which never for a moment gave way 
to the Wilmot Proviso. My colleague voted for every one of the compromise 
measures, including the fugitive slave law, the late Senator Sturgeon, of Penn- 
sylvania, and ourselves, being the only three senators from the entire non-slave- 
holding section of this Union who voted for it." \'on Hoist ranks Iowa as "'a 
veritable hot bed of dough faces." These current assumptions and conditions 
do not suggest that the state was originally or predominantly settled by emi- 
grants from the bleak shores and granite hills of New England where love of 
liberty was ingrained. 

The people of New England from the beginning of their history were alert 
and progressive in the furtherance of schools, both common and collegiate. 
Among our pioneers there was, as we have seen, great activity in the promotion 
of "higher" institutions of learning but the movement was largely the result 
of missionary zeal and work. It was not corporate and communal as was the 
case of New England. In 1843 Governor John Chambers expressed to the 
territorial legislature his mortification on realizing "how little interest the impor- 
tant subject of education excited among us." Notwithstanding the great legal 
educational reforms secured l)y the legislatures of' 1856 and 1858. the backward 
condition of Iowa's rural schools in contrast with those in states west, north and 
east of us, has been a matter of constant complaint and wonderment. 

If one thing more than another characterizes the New Englander it is his 
respect for Jaw and his resort to the processes of law for the suppression of 
disorder and violence. ' Coupled with, if not underlying this marked trait, are 
Iiis .sobriety, his love of i)caceful i)leasures and his reserve in social life. In 
the early history of Iowa we find much of boisterous carousal in countrv and 
town. In 1835 Lieutenant .\lbert Lea was refused shelter late on a cold night 
at the only house near the mouth of the Iowa river which was "occupied by a 
drinking crowd of men and women." .A correspondent to The New York 
Journal, writing from Dubuque in 1830, declared that "the princi])al amuse- 
ment of the people seems to be playing cards, Sundays and all :" while another 
observer speaks of the "wide and unenviable notoriety" of Dubuque. One may 
cr)me upon sundry such accounts of pioneer life in various cities along the river 
and inland. .Along with this sort of hilarity and reckless pleasures alien to 
Puritan character we find gross disregard of law and order frequent in election 
contests, flagrant corruption and considerable popular practice in Judge Lynch's 
court. Brutal murders, cattle and horse stealing and counterfeiting appear fre- 
quentlv in the calendars in the early days. Outbursts of mob fury and hanging 


bees, the insiitutiun of societies of Jvcgulaiors and N'igilaiites form consider- 
able chapters in the careers of many counties in the state. This lawlessness 
can hardly be made to square with the traditions that New Englanders brought 
with them to Iowa, traditions that universally govern their conduct as citizens 
wherever we find them. 

Finally we may note a comjilex or miscellany of facts that have always 
given more or less color to the history of the state, the significance of which is 
not commonly discerned. These facts consist of sundry intangible psychic or 
"spiritual" traits of the pioneers and of their descendants, characteristics often 
vague and varying and difficult to visualize, but which close observers may 
clearly perceive. 

Iowa, by reason of the marked fertility of her soil and favorable climate, 
has become the garden spot of the continent. ?Ier citizens have attained dis- 
tinguished success in the accumulation of wealth. The high level of general con- 
tentment and prosperity of the citizen body has long been a matter of comment 
and admiration among peoples in neighboring states. The high degree of pop- 
ular intelligence and education and the prevalence of high standards of private 
and civi(^ righteousness are no less marked. All these things are admirable and 
more are incontestible. They no doubt suggest the preponderance of Puritan 
or northern influences in the life of lowans. Nevertheless one does not long 
study the history of Iowa, or converse with those familiar with the early days 
of the state, or scrutinize our life in recent years before he becomes dimly con- 
scious of something in the character of large portions of the population that 
clearly distinguishes them from the New England type of citizen. About the 
time the writer became interested in the make-up of Iowa's pioneer population 
he asked an early law-maker of the state, (the late Charles Aldrich. founder 
and curator of the Aldrich collection and the historical department") if. in his 
opinion, Iowa was first peopled by emigrants from New England, and his reply 

"That is a common opinion but I have long doubted the truth of the asser- 
tion. Iowa has been very slow in making progress in education, in the promo- 
tion of libraries, in the improvement of our city governments, in the beautifying 
of our cities and towns, and in the public provision of facilities for art and 
culture. In New England, cities promote general culture as a matter of course. 
In 1856 Governor Grimes, himself a New Englander. urged public provision 
for libraries in country and town. But nothing came of it. Our people did 
not become aroused to the importance of libraries until late in the 'gos, and 
then you know it was probably the munificence of the ironmaster of Pittsburgh 
and the conditions of his gifts that stirred our people into active promotion of 

"Take the long struggle of the friends of the State University before they 
got that institution of learning on a firm foundation. It was not until after 
1880 tliat the vigorous opposition to its enlargement and expansion ceased. 
From the "505 right on to the '80s the advocates of university education found 
it hard to overcome, not only active opposition, but the inertia and indifference 
of legislators and the public towards ])ublic expenditures for education. This 
same characteristic was observable in many other directions. We have made 
marked progress in Iowa to be sure. P.ut it has been hard sledding. I can tell 


you. 1 do not understand the reasons for such an attitude of constant hostihty 
and bushwhacking opposition to forward movements that prevailed so gener- 
ally in Iowa before 1880. It was hardly in harmony with the known liberalism 
of New Englanders." 

This attitude towards "forward" movements in Iowa, this "unprogressiveness" 
many would not regard in such an adverse fashion. In their estimation it 
represents not indifference to the finer arts and culture of civilization but rather 
a strenuous individualism, a sturdy independence and self-dependence instead 
of an inclination to resort constantly to the agencies of government. New Eng- 
landers from the very beginning of their colonial history have been much given 
to socialism. They turn naturally to the state and communal authorities to 
secure civic or social improvements and popular culture. The people of Iowa, 
on the contrary, have certainly been normally inclined to improve things chiefly 
via the individualistic route. They have been and now are instinctively opposed 
to the enlargement of governmental power that entails increased taxation and 
greater interference with what the people are prone to regard as the peculiar 
domain of personal freedom and selection. 

All of a piece with the traits just referred to is the "placidity" of so much of 
our life. One often hears the comment that there is little that is interesting 
or picturesque either in our history or in the character of the population. We 
are pronounced "prosaic." There is much that is old-fashioned, out of date ; 
but it is not quaint or romantic. Travelers liave noted that while there is much 
of commendable success and wealth throughout the commonwealth, there is a 
monotony in the local life, a lack of ambition and general contentment with 
things as they are. Land and lots, corn and cattle, "hog and hominy," these things 
we are told constitute our sttinmum bonuin. The hasty and promiscuous obser- 
vations of travelers who sojourn briefly among us are not always to be accepted 
without salt. Yet the fact is obvious that there is in the Iowan"s character and 
in his life a noticeable trait that we may designate Languor, a certain inclina- 
tion to take things easy, not to worry or to fuss even if things do not satisfy. 
We may observe it in commercial and mercantile pursuits, in city and town 
governments, in rural and urban life. This is clearly not a characteristic of the 
New Englander. The Yankee, whether found in Maine, or Connecticut, or 
New York, is alert, aggressive, eager in the furtherance of any business or cul- 
ture in which he is interested. In all matters of public concern, especially if they 
comprehend considerations involving right and wrong, the New Englander is 
ardent, disputatious, relentless. Me agitates, educates and preaches reformation. 
But this is not the characteristic disjiosition of the lowan. 


There is a subtle attraction about exclusive explanations of political events 
or institutional developments that is wont to lure us into erroneous conclusions 
— conclusions that are too extensive or sweei)ing. It is untrue to say that the 
population of Iowa prior to 1850 was matte up entirely of emigrants from any 
one section of the country. The pioneer population, no less than the present 
population, we shall find, was an infusion of peoples hailing from various 
regions. The representatives of the several race elements each and all played 


parts more or less important in the life of the state. l!ut in the coalescence or 
collision uf the peoples from the various sections in their new habitat some one 
race or group of immigrants jjredominated and determined the character of 
the government and the general drift of jjolitical opinion. In what follows I 
am concerned to ascertain and to make clear what the doiuinant elements or 
.streams were among the jjioneers of Iowa. 

We have seen that while there are many facts in the history of Iowa that 
tend strongly to substantiate the tradition that New Englanders first settled the 
state the absence of the distinctive local institutions of New England and in 
their stead political conditions, institutions and social habits of radically unlike 
types, suggest, if they do not enforce, the conclusion that peoples from other 
regions dominated by different habits and ideals constituted the major portions 
of the streams of ])ioneer immigration prior to 1850. Our (juestion now is — 
Whither sliall we proceed from New England to discover the ancestral seats 
of the ]'ioneers whose habits, notions and traditions of government and society 
so powerfully affected the currents of politics and the development of forms of 
government in Iowa during the formative jieriod of the state when its fun- 
damental institutions were given their "set" and the civic and social traits of 
the people were so largely determined? Into the lands of the tall pines and the 
deep snows north of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence : or into the middle 
states; or into the vast regions south of Mason and Dixon's line and the Ohio 
river ? 

The nativity oi the pioneers of Iowa, those settling in the state prior to 1850, 
unfortunately cannot be determined ])recisely by a resort to census enumerations. 
We are compelled to have recourse to inductive proofs gathered from sundry 
sources and to various deductive or general considerations governing the move- 
ments of po]Julation westward from the Atlantic seal)oard from colonial times 
up to the outbreak of the Civil war. Such evidence is circumstantial and often 
variable in character ; nevertheless, it affords us basis for definite conclusions. 

The character of a state's immigration is determined of course by many and 
various conditions and factors. Hut in the last analysis the nature of the immi- 
gration and the rate of influx are determined by two sets of conditions and 
causes, both being in the long run of e<|ual force and imi)ortance. The first 
set is the character of the economic advantages which a state offers and the ex- 
pense of travel thereto. The second complex of causes is the conditions, econ- 
omic, i)olitical and social, in the countries or states whence the ]>o|Hilation may 
or does emigrate. In brief, we shall discover the character of Iowa's pioneer 
population in sundry fundamental facts or laws that contn^l the conduct of 
peojjles in their migrations. We must appreciate Iowa's geographical location, 
the chief features of her topography, her natural products having commercial 
value, the routes and modes of travel to her borders. We must likewise realize 
the character of the predominant industries in the regions whence the state 
may have received its immigration and the economic, imlitical and social con- 
sequences with respect to the redundant population in those regions. Space 
limits ol)viously prevent satisfactory treatment of all these antecedent conditions 
and factors and J shall consider chiefly the first set of considerations mentioned. 

Furs, metals, wooded streams and beautiful prairies, with highly fertile 
acres and favorable climate. ha\e been Iowa's chief economic advantages through- 


out her histury. Prior to 1830 furs and metals were tlie attractions that lured 
frontiersmen within the state's bortlers. The one mineral found, viz : lead, while 
of consc<|uence, was not a very important factor so far as concerned its imme- 
diate etTect upon pioneer immigration. Furs, on the other hand, was an impor- 
tant factor, r.uffalo and deer flourished on our prairies and beaver and otter 
thri\ed in our rivers and streams. Since 1840, however, neither our metals 
nor our fur-bearing animals have constituted the ])redominant or persistent 
attractions of Iowa. The attraction has been her beautiful and bountiful lands. 

The routes of travel by w'hich the pioneers gained access to the haunts of 
our beavers and to our fertile acres were mainly three: First by the great lakes 
to Green Hay, thence up the Fox river to Lake Winnebago, thence across to the 
I'ortage. and down the Wisconsin river ; second, via the Ohio river, thence up 
the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; third, overland by wagon. The degree of 
use of these routes before the advent of the railroad can only be surmised. 
Prior to 1845 certainly the river routes were the highways chiefly used by the 
westward bound emigrants. From 1845 overland travel by wagon became 
increasingly common until the railroad became a practicable mode of travel, 
round about i860. 

With such commercial and industrial attractions and such routes of travel 
thereto we should naturally presume that Iowa's pioneer population in the main 
hailed from the land of the pines and from south of Mason and Dixon's line. 
Indeed, when we consider the nature of the industries of the people to the north- 
east and southeast prior to 1840. and the economic effects upon redundant popu- 
lation such a conclusion seems to be enjoined. 

The first jJeople to ])enctrate and frequent Iowa in any numbers were the 
French and Canadian hunters, traders and voyageurs. Xo large or durable 
French settlements, however, were found when the immigrants began to come 
into the state after 1830. I'rom this fact it is jierhaps commonly assumed that 
peo])le of French extraction or of Canadian lineage formed no considerable pro- 
portion of the state's early population. This conclusion, however, is hardly 
warranted. But as our special concern here is the major factor in the pioneer 
population. I shall pass over this interesting element and turn immediately to 
the population that came into Iowa via the Mississii)pi river and overland by 
wagon. I'rom what section did the major or i)redominant number come? 

We may determine this in various ways; first, by noting the nativity of the 
men chiefly in control in the state's prenatal period ; second, by ascertaining 
the nativity of the first residents in numerous sections; third, by the nativity of 
the men in power in the territorial and state governments in the pioneer days 
prior to 1830; fourth, by comparison of the returns of the national census of 
1850: fifth, by a study of the industrial, political, religious and social habits 
and institutions of the pioneers; sixth, by a study of contemporary o])inion ; 
seventh, by a similar studv of the ]>ioneer immigration into and emigration from 
the states of the Ohio valley, namely, rennsylvania, the \ irginias. Kentucky and 
Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana ;md Illinois, Wisconsin and Missouri. I shall under- 
take here but a brief consideration of some of the<c modes of ;ipproach to the 

The nativity of the officers in charge of the governmental agencies in a 
region often, if not usually, indicates the nativity of the pioneer population — 


at least it points to the origin of the major political and social influences that 
prevail when the political habits and institutions of the people are being estab- 
lished. In the first settlements of the upper Ohio valley the hardy pioneers 
usually pushed ahead of the army and the assessor and justice of the peace ; 
but in the Lousiana Purchase the military authority always, and often the civil 
jurisdiction of the national government were ''extended" over its vast unsettled 
regions previous to or coincident with the influx of settlers. The reports and 
correspondence of such officers would naturally have a pronounced influence 
upon relatives, old friends and neighbors "back in the states" that would induce 
emigration to the region where "splendid opportunities" awaited those who would 
but take them. 


When France released her authority over the Louisiana Purchase in 1804, 
the region embracing Iowa was for a short time attached to the territory of 
Indiana, over which William Henry Harrison, a son of old V'irginia, was gov- 
ernor. At St. Louis, in 1804, he negotiated the treaty by which the L'nited 
States gained the right of access to most of the lands of the Sacs and Foxes. It 
w-as a Marylander, General James Wilkinson, stationed then at St. Louis, who 
ordered Lieutenant Zebulon \l. Pike forth on his exploring trip up the Missis- 
sippi. Colonel George Davenport, a one time partner in the American Fur 
Company, and influential in the history of Scott county and Davenport, served 
under Wilkinson, being with him on the Sabine during the trouble with .\aron 
Burr. ,\mong the officers stationed at Fort Madison in the winter of 1808-9 was 
a Kentuckian, Lieutenant Xathaniel .Pryor, :i mcnibcr of the Lewis and Clark 

The first governor basing intimate relations with the region embracing Iowa 
was Captain Meriwether Lewis a son of \'irginia, the leader of the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition. The brigadier general and Indian agent for the territory 
was his distinguished companion. Captain William Clark, another son of Vir- 
ginia. L'pon the organization of .Missouri Territory (that included Iowa) in 
18 12, General Clark was made governor, holding the office until 1821, when 
Missouri entered the Union. Governor Clark's voice, however, continued potent 
in the region as Indian agent until his death in 1838; one noteworthy instance 
being the treaty of 1824, whereby the half breed tract was established. It was 
at the instance of General Clark that Anloine Le Claire, afterward so promi- 
nent in the history of Scott county, was taken into the American service and 
given an English schooling to enable him to serve as an interpreter, .\mong the 
first "white" women in Clayton county, it is claimed, was a former slave or 
house servant of General Clark. She was a mulatto. 

During the period from 1821 to 1834, when Iowa was merely a part of the 
unorganized territory of the United Slates, its afl"airs were looked after by 
officers of the army and Indian agents, whose work consisted mainly of pro- 
tecting the Indians against aggressions' of the whites. Among them were many 
southerners who later ac(|uired great fame in national affairs. The first officer 
sent to look after the Galena miners was Colonel Willoughby Morgan, a Vir- 
ginian. Colonel Zruliary Taylor was another \'irginian with whom the miners 


in DiibiK|ue came into direct collision on July 4, 1830. Colonel Taylor ordered 
them to disi)crse and on tlieir refusal sent troops from Fort Crawford tti arrest 
them. Years after he declared to Mr. Langworthy that "those miners at Du- 
buque were worse to manage than the Seminoles or even the Mexicans." As- 
sociated somcwh;it intimately with Taylor, especially during the Black I lawk 
war, was a Kentuckian of note. Lieutenant Jefferson Davis. lie is declared 
to have acted with and for Taylor when the Mission school for the Winnebago 
Indians was established in Allamakee county in i<S54. Davis was also assigned 
to the adjutantshi]) of the l-"irst United States Dragoons, of which Henry Dodge 
was colonel. In that regiment Davis, we are told by the late General James C. 
Parrott, of Keokuk, himself a Marylander, was a "great crony of my (Par- 
rott's) Captain Urowne." The captain referred to was Jesse B. Browne, after- 
v/ard one of the lirst merchants of Keokuk and the speaker of Iowa's first 
territorial house of representatives that convened in Piurlington in December, 
1838. With another lowan, G. W. Jones, later of Duinic|uc, Jefferson Davis 
formed in those early days a fast friendship that endured until death severed 
the tics — a friendship that had a momentous influence upon the jiolitical view,"} 
and conduct of one, if not both of Iowa's first senators, a friendshi]) that event- 
ually caused the imprisonment of General Jones on the charge of treasonable 
conduct during the Civil war. With that same regiment was Lieutenant Al- 
bert M. Lea. a .\ortii Carolinian, whose report on explorations throughout 
Iowa determined the site of the second Fort Des Moines, and the publication 
of his little book of "Notes," in Philadelijhia. in 1831'). Another southerner of 
note in the same regiment was Captain Nathan Boone, the youngest son of the 
great Daniel Boone, of Kentucky. He aided Lieutenant Lea greatly in fur- 
nishing data for the lalter's map of Iowa. 

Another distinguished southerner intimately associated with the preterri- 
torial days of Iowa was Robert E. Lee. With respect to Lee, ^Ir. Langworthy 
suggests that it was i)robably largely due to his report to congress in 1838 that 
Iowa received her name. There are some who claim that Lee county was 
named in honor of the efficient and genial officer who studied the region of the 
Rapids so thoroughly. One of the classmates of Davis and Lee at West Point 
was afterward a nntable tigure in Iowa's history, Charles .Mason, for many years 
judge of the supreme court anfl subsequently the author of the Iowa Code of 
1851. In the service with these men, especially in connection with the I'lack 
Hawk war, were Generals E. P. Gaines, a \irginian, and Henry Atkinson, a 
North Carolinian, after whom Fort Atkinson, located on Turkey river in Win- 
neshiek county, was named. At this fort was stationed Captain J. J. Aber- 
crombie. a Tennessecan, and Lieutenant .\Ifred Pleasanton. a Washingtonian, 
both of whom rose to high rank in the Union ;irmy, and Lieutenants Simon B. 
Buckncr, Henry Heth, Abraham Buford and .Mexander W. Reynolds, all of 
whom became general officers in the Confederate army. .Another conspicuous 
figure in the negotiations with the Sacs and Foxes following the Black Hawk 
war was also a \irginian. General Winfield Scott. 

Next to General William Clark, of .Missouri, the most noteworthy Indian 
agent of the national government immediately charged with the supervision of 
the interests of the Indians in Iowa and Wisconsin, was "a grand old \'ir- 
ginian," General Joseph M. Street. Ti w.-i> he ulm <;trove so vigoronsK to 


initiate the i)olicy of mission schools among the Indians. His services for the 
nation's wards won for him honorable distinction in the Indian annals of the 
middle west. He lies buried in the graveyard at Agency City, Iowa, near by 
the grave of the chief Wapello, of the Sacs and Foxes. General Street's son- 
in-law, Captain George Wilson, was in the same company with Jefferson Davis 
at Fort Crawford. I'.oth were in the company that cxi)elled the Dubuque min- 
ers. Captain Wilson later became the first adjutant of the militia of the terri- 
tory of Iowa. Cjeneral Street's son, Joseph H. D. Street, was the first register 
of the land office in Council Bluffs. 

-Another jjrominent, if not dominant, figure in the Black Hawk war was 
Henry Dodge. He soon thereafter became governor of Wisconsin Territory 
and therein- of Iowa. He was a native of Indiana but he spent his youth in 
Kentucky and began his public career in Missouri in 1805. He gained distinc- 
tion in the latter state, holding many offices from sheriff and marshal up to 
the major general of Missouri's militia, and member of the constitutional con- 
vention of Missouri in i(S2o. He was one of the positive factors in the first 
legislative enactments ])assed by the legislature of Wisconsin that first met 
at Belmont. Wisconsin, and later at liurlington. Iowa. 

If the general associations of men constitute any considerable factor in de- 
termining their conduct, in creating their attitude or state of mind with respect 
to life and its affairs, then enough has i)een shown to indicate that southern 
rather than Xew England ideas and traditions dominated the men who con- 
trolled Iowa, when it was in the initial jjrocesses of beginning, when it was in- 
choate, as the lawyers would put it. Their presence in and about Iowa was 
unquestionably a potent fact in determining the character of the inflow of im- 
migrants that Ijegan in 1S30. Let us ascertain as far as may be the nativity of 
the first settlers. 

The first frontiersmen, other than the Canadian traders and trappers and 
voyageurs. to frequent Iowa were doubtless Kentuckians. Floyd's remains now 
lie on the bluffs of the Missouri river near Siou.x City. When William Hunt 
was fitting out his Astorian party at St. Louis in 1810, he was anxious to se- 
cure and did enlist the services of several Kentuckian himters and river men. 
On their way up the river both the scientist, Bradbury, and Hunt separately 
encountered three Kentuckians returning, who for three years preceding had 
been hunting and trajiping at the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia. 
That many of these "men of the western waters'' had frequently penetrated 
Iowa far inland is surely not a violent presumption. 

Colonel John Smith of Missouri, some time after the death of Julien Du- 
buque and the sale of the latter's '"Mines of Spain" at St. Louis, went up the 
river in a keel boat with sixty men, bent on mining and smelting lead in the 
region round about Dtibuque. The belligerant attitude of the Indians, liow- 
ever, effectually interfered with his plans. The inhabitants of the mining region 
of Galena were mainly people from Kentucky, Tennessee and soutiiern Illi- 
nois, a region inhabited largely by people from the former states. If was 
Colonel James Johnson, of Kentucky, brother of the celebrated Colonel R. vM. 
Johnson, who in 1823 inaugurated the lead mining in the northwest between 
1812 and 1813; and John S. Miller, of Hannibal, Missouri, .\mong that min- 
ing population was a notoriou- mining cli.iractcr. "Kcntiick Anderson," who 

METHonisT r.piscoPAi- ciinii'ir. rxioxviLLK 


ti:e nev/york"! 
puglic libraiiy 

AS•.0^, L'NOX AND 
1 Tl. N FOL'NOA; I0N8. 


had a widespread reputation as a bruiser in fist fights, who later went over to 
Dubuque and in a feud six miles southwest of Dubuc|ue was killed in 1X36. 

All of southwestern Wisconsin was settled chiclly by southerners. It was 
their presence and predilections that secured the adoption of the county com- 
missioner system of local government in Wisconsin, and maintained it until 
the state was admitted into the Union in 1848, despite the wishes and protests 
of the Xew Englanders and New Yorkers who had gained control in .Michigan 
and who were rapidly coming into Wisconsin. Colonel Arthur Cunynghame 
traveling across Illinois in 1850 encountered numerous caravans or wagon trains 
of the Kcntuckians and Tennessceans returning from the Galena mines for the 
winter to their homes south of the Ohio. We shall see later that the Dodges 
and Governors Clark and Hempstead were among those interested in lead min- 
ing around Galena. Iowa, no doubt received prior to 1850, no inconsiderable 
number of the southern people from southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 
It is clear that the people who first began to look with covetous eyes across the 
Mississippi to the attractive lands in Iowa in the main hailed from the south. 

We find southern men, or men of southern extraction, or of southern affilia- 
tion no less conspicuous and prominent in the government of the territory and 
state prior to 1850 and even well up to the outbreak of the Civil war. Gov- 
ernor Robert Lucas, the first chief executive of the territory, was a native of 
\'irginia, a flescendant of that sturdy Scotch-Irish stock that so early pushed 
westward through the gaps of the Alleghanies into the valleys converging on 
the Ohio. His successor, John Chambers, although born in New Jersey in 1789, 
spent his life mainly in Kentucky from 1792 to 1844'. 'In' his old age he re- 
turned to Kentucky, where he died. Governor James Clark was born in West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania. In 1836 he went to Missouri, thence to Belmont, 
and finally to I'.urlington. He married a daughter of Governor Henry Dodge, 
and tiiereby j)robably resulted his appointment. The first governor of the new 
state was Ansel I'riggs, a \'ermonter. a whig in Ohio, who became a democrat 
when he settled in Jackson county, Iowa, in 1836. His successor, Stephen 
Hempstead, although born in Connecticut. si)ent his youth in St. Louis, gained 
business experience in the lead mining region of Galena and settled in Dul)uc|ue 
in i83i'>. (iovcrnors James W. Grimes and Ralph P. Lowe were northern men 
by birth and affiliation. Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood was a Marylander, 
molded as was Governor Lucas by a suhsef|uent residence in Ohio. 

In the relations of the territory and state to the national government, south- 
erners and men of southern predilections were likewise doininaiU in most of 
the important positions. The first federal judge was John James Dyer, a na- 
tive of Pendleton county. \Mrginia, now West \irginia. P.ut for his refusal 
to consider the democratic nomination he probably would have been the first 
governor of the state of Iowa. The United States marshal was Dr. Gideon S. 
Railey of \'an P.uren. a native of Kentucky. Judge Dyer's successor in 1855 
was another \irginian, James M. Love. Iowa's first territorial delegate to 
congress was W. W. Chapman, who was born and educated in \irginia under 
the tutelage of the noted lawyer St. George Tucker. His successor in 1841 
was .\ugustus Caesar Dodge, a son of Governor Henry Dodge, born during the 
latter's residence in St. Genevieve, Missotiri. and he was Iowa's national repre- 
sentative until the state was admitted into the I'nion in 184^1, When the first 

Vol. I— B 


legislature broke the senatorial deadlock of 1846, the first senators elected wjrt 
A. C. Dodge and George W. Jones. The latter was born at Vincennes, Indiana, 
spent his youth in Missouri, and was educated at Transylvania University, Ken- 
tucky. One could without doing violence to language claim one and perhaps 
both of Missouri's distinguished senators as Iowa's guardians and representatives 
in congress. Thomas H. Benton had, as is well known, a direct family inter- 
est in Iowa through his nephew who early attained distinction in Dubuque and 
later in state affairs in Iowa, and Senator Lewis F. Linn was a half-brother 
of Governor Henry Dodge. So industrious was Senator Linn on behalf of 
the interests of this state that he was known as the "Iowa senator." 

Iowa's first representative in the lower house of congress was Shepherd 
Letiller. of I^urlington; William Thomjjson, of Mount Pleasant, was our sec- 
ond. Both were sons of the Keystone state. Daniel F. Miller, our third rep- 
resentative, was born in Maryland, and our fourth, Lincoln Clark, of Dubucjue, 
was born in Massachusetts, but he had been a resident of Alabama from 1830 
to 1848. Of the six other representatives in congress prior to i860 one, James 
Thorington, of Davenport, was a North Carolinian, and Timothy Davis, of 
Dubuque, was a New Jerseyan, who lived in Kentucky from 1817 to 1847. 

Striking evidence of the domination of men of southern affiliations and 
antecedents in Iowa's political affairs prior to 1850, and even beyond, is af- 
forded in the membership rolls of the early legislatures and constitutional con- 
ventions. The delegation from this side of the Mississippi in the Wisconsin 
legislatures that met first at Belmont and later at Burlington, numbered eighteen 
out of the thirty-nine members. Of Iowa's quota there was only one repre- 
sentative of New England, and one from Xew York, whereas there were four 
from Pennsylvania (three being from Washington county). The south had 
eight representatives; one each from Virginia and Georgia, and three each 
from Kentucky and Tennessee. There was one each from Ohio and Illinois. 
Mrginia. North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee were the southern states 
represented. Disregarding the southern stock among the people of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio and Illinois, sons of the south constituted more than half of the 
membership. The records of nativity are not complete for subsecjuent sessions 
and the states of origin cannot be given except for the state senate in 185 1, 
and the fifth general assembly that met in 1854. In the senate of the third 
general assembly ( 1851 ) southerners continued the most numerous, seven as 
against two from New England. In 1854, however, we note an increase in the 
relative proportions of the representatives from the middle and northwest states. 
Nevertheless there were in the senate ten southerners and only four Xew Eng- 
enders, and in the lower house sixteen from the south and but nine from north- 
east of the Narrows. 

In the constitutional conventions that convened in 1844, 184O and 1857, we 
find men hailing from south of Mason and Dixon's line greatly outnumbering 
the New Englanders. In the first convention there were eleven \'irginians, 
six North Carolinians, eight Kentuckians and one Tennesseean, twenty-six in 
all ; while New England was rejjresented by ten ; the middle states by twenty- 
three, of whom thirteen came from Pennsylvania ; Ohio had eight and Indiana 
and Illinois each had one. In the second the numbers wxre fifteen from the 
south, eight from New England, four from the middle states and five from 


the southwest states. In the convention of 1857 the south had ten, Xew Eng- 
land sLx, the middle states eleven and the northwest states nine representatives. 


The declarations of local chroniclers respecting the "first" events in pioneer 
times, .such as the "first white child" born, or marriage solemnized, or the first 
house built, or the first church dedicated, are often born of misty memories or 
hasty surmises indulged in by ardent patriotic temperaments. Nevertheless, while 
subject to suspicion and often heavy deductions, taken altogether they may afford 
us considerable data from which substantial conclusions may be drawn. A 
cursory examination of the histories of the counties of Iowa, of the few memoirs, 
journals and letters relating to the first years of the state will soon convince one 
that Xew Englanders were not always the first settlers in all of the counties, and 
contemporary opinion often indicates that their presence was rare in various com- 

In Lee county, excluding the French Canadians and Creoles, the first Ameri- 
can settlers are said to have been Richard Chancy, a native of Prince George's 
county in Maryland, and Peter Williams, of Kentucky or Tennessee. The 
first merchant of Fort Madison it is asserted, was one Walsh, a Baltimorean. 
Hawkins Taylor, himself one of the first settlers, states that Lewis Pitman, a 
Kentuckian, was the first settler "in all the section round about" West Point ; 
and in Charleston he informs us there was a man by the name of Allen who 
"prided himself on being a Yankee — an article scarce in that section." Of the 
five members of the legislature from Lee in 1838 four were from southern 
states : Captain Jesse B. P>rowne, Kentucky ; William Patterson, Virginia ; Haw- 
kins Taylor, Kentucky ; C. J. Price, Xorth Carolina ; and James Brierly, Ohio. 
Among the immigrants to Fort Madison in 1837 was a family of Xortli Caro- 
linians whose head was John .\. Drake, afterward the founder of Drakesville, 
in Davis county. One meinber of that family, Francis Marion Drake, became 
governor of Iowa in 1896. When General Joseph M. Street was ordered to 
drive back the squatters from the second Purchase he appointed a \irginian 
as the first licensed ferryman over the Des .Moines, a man who afterward 
exercised a marked influence upon his fellows in territorial days, \'an Caldwell, 
the father of Henry Clay Caldwell, a prominent state senator in i860 and 
1862, and later a judge of the federal circuit court for the district of .Arkan- 
sas, and still in active service. 

Southerners were not an inconsiderable number in Des Moines county. The 
tirst county clerk and city postmaster of I'urlington was a Scotchman, Dr. 
William Ross, who had lived many years in the south, in Kentucky ami Mis- 
souri. In 183'" Lieutenant Albert M. Lea bought in the "raw vill.ige" of Bur- 
lington from "one David, a shrewd Kentuckian," four lots fronting the court- 
house "in expectancy," an<l the next year sold them to John Pcml)crt<in, the 
father of the celebrated officer who years after surrendered \'icksburg to Gen- 
eral U. S. Grant. In 1838 General William Thomjison, Iowa's seconrl reiire- 
sentative in congress, a Pennsylvanian, whose parents moved into the Keystone 
state from \irginia. registered at the "Wisconsin House, the largest hotel" in 
Burlington, whose hostess and assistants were "all West \'irginians from 
the flats of Graves creek." One of the most influential of the first pioneers 
was Isaac Leffler, a Pennsylvanian, who had served eight years in the legisla- 


turc of \'ir<,'inia ami represented that state in congress. He was one of 
the representatives of Demoine county in the Wisconsin legislature at Belmont. 
In liie first territorial legislature four of the Des Moines representatives were 
from Kentucky and N'irginia, one each from Ohio and Pennsylvania, and two 
from Xew Hampshire. Another notable early settler of Burlington was 
no less than John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, who became vice president 
in 1857. Here it is interesting to note that in the case of the fugitive slave 
"Dick," whose owner sought by suit to recover him in order to take him back 
to Missouri, not only were both the leading attorneys southerners, but so was 
the mayor of the city. M. D. Browning, for the plaintiff, was a Kentuckian, 
and Judge David Rorer, for the defendant, a \'irginian, and the mavor, S. A. 
Hudson, who was expected to maintain peace and order, was a Kentuckian. 

In Scott county we find men from south of the Ohio river much in evi- 
dence in the early settlements. Mr. Barrows, one of the first surveyors and 
cartographers of Iowa, writing in 1863, says that "probably the first settler 
in Scott county"' was Captain Benjamin W. Clark, a native of \'irginia, who 
had commanded a company of mounted rangers in tiie Black Hawk war. He 
was given the first ferry franchise between Rock Island and Davenport. He 
founded the town of Buflfalo. Bowling Green in Scott county derives its name 
from James M. Bowling, another Mrginian. The town of Princeton was set- 
tled first by a Kentuckian, Thomas Hubbard, ."^r. The names of Colonel George 
Davenport and Antoine LeClaire have already been mentioned. 

The first settler in Clinton county it is said was one Elisha IJuell, a Xew 
Yorker, who had been "a pilot on the Ohio and lower Mississippi," coming 
up from St. Louis in 1835. Perhaps the most notable and forceful character 
among the first settlers of Jackson county was Colonel Thomas Cox. a Ken- 
tuckian, who had been a member of the senate of the first state legislature 
of Illinois and had served in the Black Hawk war before coming to Iowa. 

The population that came across to Dubuque between 1830 and 1840 from 
the Fever river or Galena mining region was a variegated mixture of Cana- 
dian French and Scotch, Irish, Yankee and southerners. Excepting the Cana- 
dian infusion the majority of the "down easterns" had been previously "west- 
ernized" either in southern Ohio or southern Illinois, or in Kentucky and 
Missouri, that is, the Hempsteads and Langworthys. The southerners were in- 
fluential. Among them were Thomas S. Nairn and General William A'andever, 
Marylanders, William Carter, Iowa's first manufacturer of shot, and General 
John G. Shields, Kentuckians, and the Emersons, John King, General Warner 
Lewis, Major Richard Mobcrly and \\'illiam G. Stewart, \'irginians. John 
King had the distinction of being the founder and editor of The Dubuque \'isi- 
tor, the first newspaper printed in Iowa (1836'). His associate, Andrew Keer- 
seckcr. who was the printer or compositor of the lirm. was likewise a \"ir- 

Concerning Cedar Rapids, we are told that "it should be remembered that 
in the settlement of our city and its vicinity a strong and important element 
was from the south. That element brought a rich strain of blood, and means 
and intelligence into the raw community. And with this element the force of 
tradition and pride of race and early education held to accepted ideas of their 
section." Another writer only recently declares that those "intluential pioneers" 


came "from Maryland, Tennessee, \'irginia and from .Soutli Carolina, and 
from a number of southern states," and they "left a social impress upon the 
community which, even to this day, has not been entirely obliterated." Among 
the number that came from South Carolina were the three Bryan brothers, 
Michael, B. S. and Hugh L., Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Staney, Mrs. Rutledge and 
two sisters, and Donald M. Mcintosh, a "brilliant lawyer." I'.ut the chief star 
of them all was Mary Swinton Legare, a sister of Hugh S. Legare, of South 
Carolina, who became attorney general in President Tyler's cabinet and later 
succeeded Webster as secretary of stale. Miss Legare was her brother's con- 
stant ci)mi)anion until his death and later the editor of his literary works. She 
married Lowell lUiUcn, of North Brooklield. .Massachusetts, in the "nld muddy 
church" in Cedar Rapids, and lived in .Marion for some lime, but she e.xerted 
her great social inlluence chiefly in Cedar Rapids. 

.A census taker in Cedar and Johnson counties in 1836, and the first sher- 
iff of Johnson county ajipointed by Governor Henry Dodge, was Colonel S. C. 
Trowbridge, a \irginian. In Walter Terrell, one of the early millers of the 
state. Iowa City had another "fine old \'irginia gentleman," highly educated 
in the classics and mathematics, widely traveled and influential among his fel- 
lows. Rev. John Todd, on his arrival at Tercival, hremont county, in Octo- 
ber, 1S4S. found that most of the ^fethodists thereabouts were "from \ir- 
ginia, Kentucky and Missouri." In 1S54 James W. Grimes spoke at Glen- 
wood, some thirty miles north of Percival, in Mills county, in Ijclialf of his 
candidacv for governor, and in a letter to Mrs. (Irimes describing his recep- 
tion, he said: "\\Iuii T came here I found that the poinilation is entirely south- 

Following up the Des Moines river valley we tind numerous sons of the 
Old D(.minion, Kentucky and Missouri among the first settlers. In Jefferson 
county the "first white settler" was John Rufi', a \irginian. In Mahaska the 
De Lashmutts, Edmundsons, Phillips and Seevers families brought with them 
the traditions of the Cavaliers and of the i)roud gentry of the lilue Grass re- 
gion. The man who was the occasion of the "Tally war" during the rebellion 
was a Tennesseean. In Monroe county one John Massey surveyed .Mbia. One 
naturally conjectures whether he was a lineal descendant or relative of Na- 
thaniel Massie, of Kentucky, who surveyed X'irginia's lands in south central 
( )liio in 1789-92. .\ large proportion of the .Mormons who stopped in Mon- 
roe county came "from Pennsylvania, North Carolina, \irginia and other moun- 
tainous regions." Claiborne Hall, a \irginian, was the first settler in Red 
Rock, Marion county, coming up from Missouri in 1833, and the two following 
him were from Kentucky. George Gillaspy. likewise from Kentucky, settled 
first in Louisa county (1840). going to Marion in 1843. He became assessor, 
sheriff, treasurer of board of public works, niemi)er of the constitutional con- 
vention of 1857, and the first democratic nominee for lieutenant governor in 
Iowa in 1858. .\ fugitive from justice in Missouri is alleged to have lieen the 
first settler in Madison county but soon there followed him a "colony of new- 
comers" from Missouri. Among the party was a McCrary. "an old Tenncs- 
^(^ean. mountaineer." 

The first white settlers in Polk county came in when the second Fort Des 
Moines, at the "Raccoon I-^orks" was garrisoned in 1843. .\mong the troops 


and the attaches of the garrison were a mitnber who remained permanently in 
the rejiion and one finds southern blood common, coming in directly or indi- 
rectly through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The government contractors, the 
brothers John B. and W. A. Scott, came via Indiana from North Carolina stock. 
The tailor of the fort, J. M. Thrift, was the son of a \'irginia slave owner and 
Baptist preacher who took his slaves to Ohio and gave them their freedom, 
whose grandson is now (1906) adjutant general of Iowa's militia. Peter New- 
comer, who was granted jiermission to take a claim at Agency Prairie on con- 
dition that he would build a bridge over Four Mile creek, was a Marvlander. 
One of the first trappers along the Des Moines was Landon Hamilton, a \'ir- 
ginian who a few years since left his estate to the city of Des Moines and to 
the state of Iowa. Among the southern stock that came in later was James C. 
Jordan, a X'irginian, afterward state senator, whose home just west of Des 
Moines became a noted station on the underground railway. Another \'ir- 
ginian was John H. Given, father of Mrs. Pauline Given Swalm, and another 
was Thomas M. Napier, a county judge under the law of 1851. M. D. Mc- 
Henry, an attorney and later state senator, and James A. Williamson were 
prominent Kentuckians. In the development of the transportational facilities 
of Des Moines were Dr. M. P. Turner, a i\Iissourian, who became interested 
first in the ferry franchises and later inaugurated the first street car system, 
and Jefferson S. Polk, a Kentuckian, who upon graduation from Georgetown 
College entered upon the practice of law in Des Moines in 1856. Since the 
early '90s he has been manager and chief owner of the electric railways of Des 
Moines. Des Moines and Polk county w-as settled by great numbers 01 indi- 
anians and Ohioans whose ancestors came from south of Mason and Di.xon's 
line and the Ohio river. Many names of men of note might be mentioned ; a 
few might be cited — Thomas J. Saylor and Alexander C. Bondurant, after 
whom Saylorville and Bondurant were named. Senators P. M. Casady and 
Colonel C. IT. Gatch, Colonel Isaac \V. Griffith and General Ed. Wright. Judge 
William H. .IMcHenry, Sr. and Tacitus Hussey. 

Southern stock predominated in the first settlement of Boone county. It 
was named after Captain Nathan Boone who first surveyed the region. Wil- 
liam Boone, a relative, early settled near .Boonesboro that commemorated the 
old home of their great namesake in Kentucky. Many of his descendants are 
found in Worth and Des Moines townships in Boone county today. In the 
same townships are also many relatives of the \'irginian who became a noted 
circuit rider in Illinois, Peter Cartright. A South Carolinian has his name 
preserved in the town of Luther, and a X'irginian in Zenorville. The common 
practice of western emigration ]3roceeding by "families" and "neighborhoods" 
is exceedingly illustrated in the career of the Hull family. Three brothers, 
James, George and Uriah, of \"irginia Scotch-("ierman stock, settled in and about 
Boone between 1847 and 1850, and their numerous families and relations al- 
most immediately made them the most potent political factors in the county, 
an influence which they maintained until the war and after. Two other broth- 
ers, John and C. J. McFarland, representatives of southern stock and views, 
early attained positions of marked influence, the former in banking and busi- 
ness and the latter on the bench. Judge McFarland was an exceedingly pic- 
turesque character in the annals of the county judge system. 


One may tind some interesting evidence of the make-up of tlie population 
in various sections of the northwestern counties of Iowa in the muster rolls 
of the Northern Border Brigade, raised in the fall of 1862 to guard our frontier 
against the threatened forays of the bloodthirsty Sioux. The live companies, 
comprising sixteen ofificers and two hundred and fifty-four men, were recruited 
from an extensive region including Harrison, Shelby, Woodbury in the south- 
west, Hamilton and Hardin in the southeast, and Emmet and Kossuth on the 
north. The lieutenant colonel, James A. Savage, of Sioux City, was a Ten- 
nesseenn. Of the two hundred and seventy there were twenty-four from New 
England, fifty-five from New York and Pennsylvania, thirty- four from the 
southern states, eighty-four from the northwest states, and seven from Iowa. 
The first mentioned were chiefly in the northern counties. In the southern and 
western counties the southern states and Ohio and Indiana claimed the 
major nwnil)er. In company B for instance, recruited chiefly in and about Fort 
Dodge, eigliteeii out of the forty-two native born were southerners, mostly 
North Carolinians and Tcnnesseeans. 

This somewhat drearisome recital of particulars may be closed by one other 
reference. During the high waters in the Missouri and Floyd rivers in March, 
1857, it was discovered that the floods were encroaching dangerously near to 
the grave of Sergeant Floyd, the young Kentuckian of Lewis and Clark's party 
who died and was buried on the river IjlufFs in 1804. His remains were taken 
up for- reinterment. On Alay 28, 1857, under directions of Captain James B. 
Todd, late of the United States army, they were taken to the steamer for 
transfer to their present resting place. The pallbearers whose names are pre- 
served were \V. Craft, of Virginia; T. Grifi'y, of Kentucky; L. Kennedy, of 
Missouri; \V. H. Levering, of Indiana; N. Levering, of Ohio; and D. W. Scott, 
of the army. In Woodbury it appears that southerners seem to form a goodly 
proportion of the population if the suggestions of those names are worth 

If we examine into the nativity of the pioneers among the professions we 
find many noteworthy southerners. 

Iowa's first preacher probably was a Kentuckian, Rev. David Lowry, a 
Cumberland Presbyterian, who assisted General Street in his work with the 
Winnebago Indians at the Mission school in .Allamakee county. In Mahaska 
county, in 1844, Mrs. Phillips tells us, "Cumberland Presbyterians seem to pre- 
dominate." Rev. Launcelot Graham Bell, a X'irginian, organized the First Pres- 
byterian church, at West Point, Lee county, at Muscatine, at Iowa City and in 
cities and towns along the southern part of the state to the Missouri. It was Rev. 
John Hancock, of Kentucky, assisted by Mr. Bell, who started the first Presby- 
terian church in Council Bluffs. The first Presbyterian preacher in Red Rock, 
Marion county, and the first resident pastor in Des Moines was a North Caro- 
linian. Rev. Thompson Bird. The first preacher of the Christian cliurch in Iowa 
was David R. Chance, a Kentuckian. He was one of the seven representatives 
of Demoine county in the legislature at Belmont in 1836. His experience with 
legislative virtue in the location of the territorial cajiital did not enhance his faith 
in human nature. It was Elder D. S. Burnet, of Baltimore, who e.'^tablishcd the 
Christian church in Iowa City. One of th? forceful and constructive men in the 
Methodist church was Rev. Samuel Clark. He was born in X'irginia. and was 


chaplain of Xirginia's constitutional convention in 1S29-30. in which sat ex-presi- 
dents Madison and Monroe. He was one of the foimders of the W'esleyan Uni- 
versity at All unit Pleasant and the father of the brilliant editor of The Keokuk 
Gate City. Sam M. Clark, liishop Loras of the Catholic church, who came to 
Dubu(|ue in 1836, was stationed in ^lobile, Alabama, from 1829 to 1836. 

Among the doctors of the state were Dr. Enos Lowe, of Burlington, a native 
of \'orth Carolina. He was made chairman of the constitutional convention that 
met in Iowa City in 1846 that framed the constitution finally adopted. Dr. John 
D. Elbert, of Keosanqua, Dr. John W. Finley, of Dubuque, Dr. John F. Henry, of 
Burlington, were Kentuckians. Dr. W. Patton, of Council lUufil's. was from \'ir- 
ginia ; Dr. G. L. Brown, of Marion county, was a Tennesseean. There were 
two physicians in the first territorial legislature and both hailed from the south, 
Dr. Gideon S. Bailey of \'an Buren county, from Kentucky, in the house of rep- 
resentatives, and Dr. Jesse B. Payne, of Henry county, from Tennessee, in the 
council. In the constitutional convention of 1844, four out of the five doctors 
were members from the south. In the convention of 1846 honors were even; 
one was from Alabama, one from North Carolina and two from N'ermont. 

In the military service distinguished names are met with: ( jeneral James C. 
Parrott, of Keokuk; General J. G. Lauman, of lUirlington ; (ieneral William \'an- 
dever, of Dubuque, all Marylanders ; and General John Edwards of Chariton, and 
General James A. Williamson, of Des Moines, were both Kentuckians. 

Southerners loom up prominently in the early annals of Iowa's legal pro- 
fession. Besides Judge Caldwell already mentioned and Judges Dyer and Love 
referred to. Judge James Grant, a North Carolinian who settled in Davenport, 
was a man of remarkable force of character if one-half that hosts of admirers 
relate of him be true. He w^as a member of the first constitutional convention of 
1844 and he called the second convention to order in 1846 and was a potent fac- 
tor in their deliberations. Other southern lawyers in those conventions were 
W. W. Chapman, of \irginia, our territorial delegate in congress; William R. 
Harrison, Washington county, from North Carolina ; H. P. Haun. of Clinton 
county, from Kentucky ; and G. \\'. Bowie, of Des Moines county, from Mary- 
land ; Judge Dyer's brother-in-law. Ben M. Samuels, a \'irginian. was one of the 
forceful lawyers of Dubuque. In .Mahaska county we have the name of Wil- 
liam II. Seevers, who gained fame both as a codifier and as a judge of the state 
supreme court. A vigorous lawyer in the pioneer days of Council Bluffs was 
Judge R. L. Douglass, a native of Maryland. One of the leaders in the consti- 
tutional convention of 1857 was William Penn Clarke, a Marylander. .\nother 
Marylander then rising into prominence was C. C. Nourse, of Keosauqua, who 
later became attorney general of Iowa. The name of one Iowa lawyer, however, 
stands above all, Samuel F. Miller, of Keokuk, a Kentuckian. who practiced law 
in the Gate City from 1850 to 1862, when President Lincoln made him associate 
justice of our great supreme court at Washington. 

In the development of the jniblic schools of Iowa men from the southern states 
were not a little in evidence. A young Kentuckian, Berryman Jemiings. was the 
first school teacher in Iowa, conducting a school in Lee county from October to 
December, 1830. W. W'. Jamison, a \irginian. a graduate of Washington Col- 
lege, was among the first teachers of Keokuk. The first schoollmuse was built 
three years later at Burlington by Dr. Ross, a long resident Kentuckian, already 


mentioned. It was Gideon S. Bailey, of \'an Buren, also a Kentuckian, who 
introduced the first school laws in the territorial legislature in i8^S. The schools 
of Council Bluffs were started by Mr. and Mrs. James B. Rue, from Kentucky. 
In 1838 a nepiiew of the author of "Thirty Years Yiew," Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
a Tennesseean, educated in Missouri and Tennessee, founded a classical school 
in Dul)U<|ue. Ten years later he entered upon an influential career as state super- 
intendent of public instruction that did not cease until his death in iSC);. The 
influen:e of Rev. Samuel Clarke in the founding of the Iowa Weslevan Univer- 
sity at Mount Pleasant has been noted. The founder of Cornell College, at Mount 
\'ernon. was Rev. George B. Bowman, a North Carolinian. The first instructors 
in Oskaloosa College, in 1861, were two brothers. Rev. George T. and \V. A. Car- 
penter, both sons of Kentucky. The former was made ])resident and held the 
office until 1880, when he, with the assistance of his brulher-in-law. General F. 
M. Drake, founded Drake University, in Dcs Moines. 


Among the pioneers opinions were now and then expressed concerning tho 
nativity of the population. As we might anticipate the subject was not one that, 
amidst the press of efforts to subdue forests, prairie and stream, would seriously 
engage attention or elicit seasoned opinion. Personal associations, especially 
political and religious affiliations, usually narrowed vision and interfered with 
impartial judgment. A few recorded oi^inions are found that are of interest 
although they are somewhat divergent ; some were exjjressed earlv in the history 
of the state, some in memoirs and recollections jjublished in recent years. 

Writing to Peter Cooper in 1868, Governor Samuel Merrill, a native of Maine, 
who came to Iowa in 1856, declared that the stale was "settled mainly from Ohio, 
Indiana and Pennsylvania, with a large admixture from Xew England." Judge 
Francis Springer, also a son of Maine, who rei)rescnted Louisa and Washing- 
ton counties in the territorial council in 1840-41, and in 1857 became president 
of the third constitutional convention, stated in his "Recollections," published in 
1897, that "the first settlers of Iowa, it has been said, were from southern Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois." Professor L. I". Parker, one of Iowa's pioneer teachers, 
and historians, writing in 1893. saiil iliat "the earliest settlers came largelv from 
southern Ohio. Indiana, Illinois and the must northerly of the southern stales; 
Pemisylvania soon furnished a large contingent. * * * About 1854 large 
additions were made to the i)opulation from Xew England and from its earlier 
overflows into Xew York and northern Ohio." George Duffield. of Keosaii<|ua, a 
pioneer of 1837, has recently told us that when his father, James Dulitield, started 
west in 1837, there were thou.sands of settlers "on the move" towards Iowa, leav- 
ing Pennsylvania and Ohjo. "They (^the Duffields ) were joined on their way 
down the Oiiio by movers from the Carolinas, Kentucky anrl other states, and 
all were afloat in keel boats, 'broads'' and steamboats." The observation of the 
late Theodore Parvin respecting the settleiuent of sons of the Old Dominion in 
.southern Iowa has already been <|uoted. .\ccording to Hawkins Taylor "Yan- 
kees were a scarce article" in Lee county in the first years of the territory. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1841 the late James Hilton, of Monroe county, marie a "pedes- 
trian tour of the counties of Lee, Des Moines, Henry, lefferson ;ind \'an I'lUren" 


and lie found that "by far the greater j)art of the settlers in that part of Iowa 
were from \ irgiiiia, Kentucky and Indiana." 

Three opinions are esjjecially noteworthy. They were expressed by men 
whose experience with, and knowledge of the pioneers were both extensive and 
oflRcfnl. Each opinion was expressed in connection with or relative to a critical 
event in the life of the territory of the state. The nativity of the people was con- 
sciously considered in the first and tliird and evidently in the mind in the second, 
hence their significance. 

When the first proposals for the organization of the territory of Iowa were 
being urged upon congress, the lynx-eyed, far-seeing guardian of slavery, Cal- 
houn, was stoutly oiJiiosed. (George W. Jones, the delegate of Wisconsin, who 
urged our case "told him that the inhabitants were mainly from Missouri, Ken- 
tucky and Illinois ; that the institutions of the south had nothing to fear from 
them. Mr. Calhoun .replied that this state of things would not last long; that 
men from Xew luigland and other states, where abolition setatiments prevailed, 
would conic in and drive him from power and place." The error of both Jones 
and Calhoun was their lack of appreciation of the abolition or anti-slavery senti- 
ment among the southerners who came north. 

Writing to Salmon P. Chase upon conditions in Iowa in 1856, Governor Grimes 
declared: "The southern half of our state is strongly pro-slavery, but I think 
we will be able to carry a majority with us for free principles. * * * The 
north third of our state will be to Iowa politically what the Western Reserve is 
to the state of Ohio." The impligations jilainly are: first, people of southern 
sympathies, if not of southern lineage numerically prevailed in Iowa up to 1856; 
second, the same was true of southern Ohio ; and third, the opponents of slavery, 
if they were to win in their fight against the arrogant advance of the leaders of 
the southern system had to depend upon the division of the southern residents 
in Iowa. The latter fact has not been fully appreciated in Iowa. No more has 
a similar state of facts in southern and western Pennsylvania, in Ohio. Indiana 
and Illinois. 

In 1859. excluding slavery, the (|ue5tion that vexed lowans locally more than 
any other matter, was the continuance of the county judge system that was insti- 
tuted in 1851. The gross disregard of economy in financial administration and 
often flagrant misuse of their autocratic powers in many districts outraged the 
dearest traditions of the New Englandcrs and Xew Yorkers who came into Iowa 
in such numbers between 1850 and i860. Julius H. Powers was elected to the 
senate in 185Q from a district in north central Iowa comprising nine counties. 
He was chairman of the senate committee on county and township organization. 
In describing the contest in the legislature over the attempt to revolutionize the 
system of local government, Mr. Powers explains the animus of the struggle, 
and so far as I can discover he is the only observer or writer wlio has perceived 
the profound social and political consequences of the different streams of pio- 
neer immigration into Iowa in the ante bellum period : 

"Two tides had flowed into Iowa in populating the state, one from the cast 
bringing the Xew England element and habits, with its memory of town meet- 
ings and individual rights, and one from the south, bringing with it the southern 
element with its thoughts and polity. 

"In the carlv settlement of the state the southerner had largely predominated, 


and the state's early organization was fashioned and molded by that influence, and 
the old baronial system had been peri)etiiated through the slave power where 
necessity rec|uired a centralizing. To abolish this one man power and disburse 
it among the many was looked upon by the southern element as dangerous in the. 
extreme, and considerable bitterness was engendered when a change was 

"Party lines were thrown down, and former influences and surroundings 
controlled the vote." 

All these things may I)e so ; and still the numerical preponderance of southern 
stock in Iowa prior to the Civil war is by no means demonstrated. The pre- 
dominance of southerners among the men charged with the supervision of this 
region in the preterritorial days may have been a mere chance occurrance. The 
preference of the national government for men of southern blood or views in the 
territorial appointments was due, some may contend, to political conditions affect- 
ing the entire nation. Again the large number of southerners in our early legis- 
lative and constitutional assemblies, while very suggestive, is not in and of itself 
proof of the numerical preponderance of southern stock. And as to opinions 
they are usually based on promiscuous and vagrant impressions. The facts may 
be far different. 

The New England tradition must be adversely considered, and presump- 
tuous it may seem. Justice Miller's judgment must be reversed; the 
decision must be Iowa was settled first by sons of the Old Dominion interspersed 
with the vigor of New England. Upon such a holding much that is inexplicable 
in Iowa's history becomes easily understandable. We can readily appreciate 
why Senator Dodge could so confidently proclaim in the senate in 1854 that he 
and his colleague. General Jones, with the senator from Pennsylvania were the 
only senators from the north who had voted against the Wilmot Proviso and for 
the fugitive slave law; and why Governor Grimes found the south half of Iowa 
so strongly pro-slavery. 

This predominance of southern stock among Iowa's pioneers, the prevalence 
of southern traditions among the dominant political forces of the state prior to 
the Civil war had ineradicable effects upon the life and institutions of lowans. 
Throu.ghout the entire history of the state one may discern a sharp cleavage among 
the people of Iowa that in general typifies the traditional conflict between the 
Cavalier and the Puritan. It is manifest not only in the political life of the state, 
but in the social life of the people, in industry and commerce, in church and 
religion, in education and modes of recreation — sundry phases of which the 
writer hopes some time to set forth. 





With regard to the origin of dividing individual states into county and tow n- 
ship organizations, wliicli in an important measure sliould have the power and 
op[iortunity of transacting their own business and governing themselves under 
the approval of and subject to the state and general government of which they 
each formed a part, we quote from Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good 
authority on the subject. 

In his "Laws of Illinois. Relative to Township Organizations," he says the 
county system "originated with \'irginia, whose early settlers soon became large 
landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living apart in almost baronial magnifi- 
cence on their own estates, and owning the laboring jiart of the poinilation. 
Tiius the materials for a town were not at hand, the voters being thinly dis- 
tributed over a great area. 

"The county organization, where a few influential men managed the whole 
business of the community, retaining their places almost at their pleasure, 
scarcely responsible at all except in name, and permitted to conduct the county 
concerns as their ideas or wishes might direct, was, moreover, consonant with 
their recollections or traditions of the judicial and social dignities of the landed 
aristocracy of England, in descent from whom the \'irginia gentleman felt so 
much pride. In 1S34 eight counties were organized in N'irginia and the system 
extending throughout the state spread into all the southern states and some of 
the northern states, unless we except the nearly similar division into 'districts' 
in South Carolina and that into 'parishes' in Louisiana, from the Erench laws. 

"Illinois, which with its vast additional territory, became a county of \'ir- 
ginia, on its conquest by General George Rogers Clark, retained the county organi- 
zation, which was formally extended over the state by the constitution of 1S18, 
and continued in exclusive use until the constitution of 184S. 

"L'nder this system, as in other states adopting it, most local business was 
transacted by those commissio!icrs in each county, who constituted a cuunty 
court, with (|uartcrly sessions. 

"During the period ending with the con^tilulion of 1S47, a large portion of 
the state had become tilled with a population of \ew England birth or character, 
daily growing more and more com|)act and dissatisfied with the comparatively 



arbitrary and inefficient county system. It was maintained by the people that the 
heavily populated districts would always control the election of the commis- 
sioners to the disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in short that 
under that system 'equal and exact justice' to all parts of the county could not 
be secured. 

"The township system had its origin in Massachusetts and dates back to 


"The first legal enactment concerning this system provided that, "whereas 
particular towns have many things which concern only themselves, and the order- 
ing of their own affairs and disposing of business in their own town," therefore, 
'the freemen of every town, or the majority of them, shall only have power to 
dispose of their own land? and woods with all the appurtenances of said town, 
to grant lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well ordering of their 
own towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders established by the general 

"They might also," says Mr. Haines, "impose fines of not more than twenty 
shillings, and 'choose their own particular officers, as constables, surveyors for 
the highways and the like.' 

"Evidently this enactment relieved the general court of a mass of municipal 
details, without any danger to the power of that body in controlling general meas- 
ures of public policy. 

"Probably also a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt for the 
control of their own home concerns. 

"The New England colonies were first governed by a 'general court," or legis- 
lature, composed of a governor and a small council, which court consisted of 
the most influential inhabitants and possessed and exercised both legislative 
and judicial jjowers, which were limited only by the wisdom of the holders. 

"They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and decided 
civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal regulations and in 
fact did all the public business of the colony. 

"Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the first 
constitution of Connecticut, adopted in iGy), and the plan of township organiza- 
tion as experience proved its remarkable economy, efficiency and adaptation to 
the requirements of a free and intelligent people, became universal throughout 
New England and went westward with the emigrants from Xew England into 
New York, CJhio, and other western states." 

Thus we find that the valuable system of county, township and town organi- 
zations had been thoroughly tried and proven long before there was need of 
adopting it in Iowa, or any of the broad region west of the Mississippi river. 
But as the new country began to be opened and as eastern people continued to 
move westward across the mighty river and form thick settlements along its 
western shore, the territory and state and county and township and t'lwn organi- 
zations soon followed in quick succession and those different systems became 
more or less modified and improved, accordingly as deemed necessary by the 
experience and judgment and demands of the jieople until they have arrived at 
the present stage of advancement and efficiency. 

In the settlement of the territory of Iowa the legislature began by organiz- 
ing counties on the MississijJi^i. As each new county was formed it was made 


to include under legal jurisdiction, all the country bordering west of it and 
required to grant to the accidental settlers election privileges and an equal share 
in the county government with those who properly lived in the geographical 
limit of the county. The counties first organized along the eastern border of 
this state were given for a short time jurisdiction over the lands and settlements 
adjoining each on the west, until these ditTerent localities became sufiticiently 
settled to support organizations of their own, and finally, at the first session of 
the legislature, after the Indians sold out, the newly acquired territory, includ- 
ing all northwestern Iowa, was laid off into counties, provisions were made for 
their respective organizations when the proper time should arrive and these 
were severally named. 

At the lime of the organization there were i)ut two townships in the county — 
Magnolia and JefTerson. The organization was completed by the election of 
Abraham I'letcher, of I-'remont county, Charles Wolcott, of .Mills county, and 
A. D. Jones, of Pottawattamie county, commissioners; and Michael McKenney, 
organizing sheriff. 

The election, it is hardly necessary to say, had nothing of the nature of a 
political contest. The object was simply to organize the county and political 
differences had not yet a[)pearcd. But very soon there came a change. The 
citizens were then generally quiet, industrious and peaceable with one another. 
Occasional differences and disputes arose, which in the main were soon over- 
looked or forgotten on account of their necessary and natural deisendence for 
aid and convenience, as well as for common defense in their ])ioneer homes. 

Dissensions and enmities, however, began to creep in gradually as the settle- 
ment progressed and continued to increase in working discontent very much in 
proportion as the settlements became more independently situated and more 
exclusive in their devotion to self interest and advancement. The unwelcoine 
spirit of dissension began to manifest itself to the public most clearly perhaps 
about the time of the proclamation of the organizing sheriff announcing the 
organization of the county, which would create numerous offices to be filled from 
the ranks of the first voters. 

These offices during the first term of course, presented no great inducement 
for being very eagerly sought after, so far as the salary was concerned, but then 
they afforded jjositions of influence and preference, and they might in the near 
future firove very convenient stei)ping stones to more lucrative and influential 
positions. IJeside, it was no mean thing to be elected to fill the first offices created 
in the new county. In this regard they afforded consideralile inducement for 
being sought after by those who were at all iiulinid toward official distinction 
and they called forth numerous aspirants. 

At that time as well as now, doubtless, there was a good percentage of worthy, 
influential citizens who, so far as their own desires for otlicial jiosition were con- 
cerned were entirely disinterested in the political canvass. These persons 
sought no such |)ositions for themselves and would not accept one if offered. 
Public api)lause and criticisms were not at all coveted by them. Nevertheless 
they were as deeply interested in the welfare of the county as any other citizens 
and had a decided iirefercnce for those who should receive their votes. Thcv 
desired to entrust the county government to efficient, trustworthy men. who 
were willing to assume the responsibility, and capable of conducting it in an 


efficient anil acce]ital)lL- manner, while ihey themselves were content to engage 
in some other (lejiartmenl of the county's jirogress, more congenial to their 
tastes and dispositions. On the other hand, there were always enough of those 
who would accept these official positions, more or less reluctantly or cheerfully, I 
if duly elected or urged a little to fill them, so that it was soon found the 
various offices were not sufficient to give each of the aspirants a position. Evi- 
dently some of these must gain tiic honored distinction, while others must be 
left out, part of wlmni duulitless wnuld he disappointed not a little over their 

Who then of these various as])irants were the best (jualified to fill these sev- 
eral positions? Who had the most deserved claim on the ])ublic support? Who 
were the shrewdest ])olitical tricksters and wire pullers? Who of all the num- 
ber could wield the most extended and effective influence, either by honorable, 
or it may be. by unfair means in securing the majority vote? These and many 
other questions of similar character would quite naturally arise, even in the 
minds of early settlers, as the tnemorable first elccti(jn day drew near, when 
they must each receive a decisive answer at the ballot box. 


There are and have Ijeen ever since the 26th day of Fciiruary. 1837, ninety- 
nine counties in this state. Xo county has been created under the present con- 
stitution of the state, although acts have been passed looking 1;o that end. One 
enactment divided the county of Kossuth, and out of the three northernmost 
townships erected the county of Crocker ; but the act was subsequently pro- 
nounced unconstitutional by the supreme court. .Acts looking to the division of 
Pottawattamie county have also been passed, but, upon submis,sion to the voters 
of that county, were defeated. 

The creation of a county having less than 432 square miles has always 
been forbidden by the state constitution, and it was because the proposed county 
of Crocker was obnoxious to this interdiction that the act creating it was declared 
void. It was found, however, when the present constitution was adopted, that, 
owing to want of knowledge of the fact that the township adjoining the north- 
ern state line (number 100) w-as one mile short throughout its entire length, 
several counties, viz : Mitchell, Worth, Winnebago, Emmet, Dickinson and 
Osceola — had each an area sixteen miles less than the required minimum. To 
remove all doubts likely to arise because of this error, the constitution of 1857 
authorized the organization of these counties with their area already defined. 

The ])resent constitution further provides that "no law changing the bound- 
ary lines of any county shall have effect until, at a general election, it shall be 
approved bj' a majority of the votes in each county cast for and against it." 
An act was passed in 1862 authorizing counties to readjust their boundaries as 
they might see fit. Under the provisions of this statute, the boundary line of 
Crawford and Monona counties was removed six miles to the westward. The 
commissioners who drafted the code, believing the act unconstitutional, recom- 
mended that it be not embodied in the code, which recommendation being 
adopted, the act ceased to have force September i, 1S73. 

Two counties were created by the legislative council of Michigan : twenty- 


two (iiicliidiiig three extinct) by tlie legislative assemblj- of Wisconsin; and 
twenty-three by the legislative assembly of Iowa territory; while the general 
assembly of the state has established in all fifty-nine, of which, however, it 
has abolished three — Bancroft. Yell and the first Humboldt. 

All the counties of the state are now organized and have been so since 1871. 
The organization of the older counties was provided for by si)ecial legislative 
enactments. But chapter 84. of the acts of the first general assembly, and chap- 
ter 12, of the acts of the fourth general assembly, provided modes of ])roceed- 
ing for such organization; and, especially since January 22, 1853, when the lat- 
ter act took effect, nearly all the counties organized, and since the adoption of 
the present constitution all of them have followed the mode thus provided. 

The statement given below is a brief synopsis of the facts connected with 
tiie establishment and organization of the counties, together with the original 
selection of county seats, so far as the same may be gathered from the various 
statutes of the several legislative bodies. 

The act of the territorial council of Michigan which laid off the counties of 
Dubuque and Demoine is deemed of sufficient interest to warrant its reproduc- 
tion entire here : 

An .Act to lay off and organize counties west of the Mississippi river. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the legislative council of the Territory of Michi- 
gan. That all that district of country which was attached to the territory of 
Michigan, bv the act of congress entitled ".An act lo attach the territory of the 
L'nited States west of the Mississippi river and north of the state of Missouri 
to the territory of Michigan." approved June twenty-eight, eighteen hundred 
and thirty-four, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, which is 
situated to the north of a line to be drawn due west from the lower end of Rock 
Island to Missouri river, shall constitute a township which shall be called 
Dubuque; the said county shall constitute a townshi() which shall be called Julien; 
the seat of justice shall be established at the village of Dubuque until tlic same 
shall be changed by the judges of the county court of said county. 

Sec. 2. -Ml that part of the district aforesaid, which was attached as afore- 
said to the territory of Michigan, and which is situated south of the said line 
to be drawn west from the lower end of Rock Island, shall constitute a county, 
and be called Demoine; the said county shall constitute a townshi]), and be called 
Flint Hill; the seat of justice of said county shall be at such place therein as 
shall be designated by the judges of the county court of said county. 

Sec. 3. A county court shall be and hereliy is established in each of said 
counties. The county court of the county of Dubu(|ue shall be iicld on the tirst 
Monday in .\i)ril and Septeml)er. annually; and the county court of the county 
of Demoine, on the secon<l Monday in .April and .September, annually. 

Sec. 4. All laws now in force in the county of Iowa, not locally inapplicable, 
shall be and hereby are extended to the counties f)f Dubu(|ne and Demoine, and 
shall be in force therein. 

Sec. 5. The inhabitants of the said township may hold an election for their 
townshi() officers on the first Monday in Xovember, next; all elections in the 
county of Dnbu(|ue shall be held at the following places, to-wit : at Sorimicr's 
store in the village of Dubu(|Ue and at (iehon's store in the village of Peru, at 
the dwelling house now occupied by Hosea T. Cam]), near the heail of t'attish 


creek, and at Lore's dwelling house on the Mukkoketta. The elections in the 
county of Dcnioine shall be held at the seat of justice of said county. The said 
elections shall be held by three persons, at each place above mentioned, who 
shall be elected to perform such service by a majority of the inhabitants then 
present between the hours of ten and twelve of the said day, and who shall pro- 
ceed to hold said elections according to the mode prescribed by law for iKjlding 
township elections, and make return thereof to the justices of the county court 
of each comitv respectively, who shall canvass the votes given at the several 
polls within their counties and declare the names of the persons who shall have 
been duly elected at such election. The oath of office of the chief justices of 
the countv courts of the said counties may be administered by the person 
appointed clerk of the respective counties, and the said chief justices shall then 
proceed to administer the oath of office to the said clerk and associate justices 
of the county courts according to law. 

Sec. 6. Process, civil and criminal, issued from the circuit court of the 
United States for the county of Iowa, shall run into all parts of said counties 
of Dubuque and Demoine. and shall be served by the sherifl', or other proper 
officer, within either of said counties ; writs of error shall lie from the circuit 
court for the county of Iowa, to the county courts established by this act, in 
the same manner as they now issue from the supreme court to the several 
county and circuit courts of the territory. 

Sec. 7. This act shall take effect and be in force on and after the first day 
of October next, and the township officers elected under this act shall hold their 
offices 'until the first Monday of April next, and until others are elected and 

Approved September 6, 1834. 

The first and second sections of the act were probably intended to divide 
the territory to which the Indian title had been extinguished between the coun- 
ties of Dubuque and Demoine ; and the first section limits the county of Dubuque 
to the line of the Indian purchase. The letter of section two does not. however, 
it will be observed, so limit the county of Demoine, whatever might have been 
the intention. In the following statement, accordingly, it is assumed that the 
original county of Demoine comprised all of the present state south of the line 
now separating Madison and Dallas counties, extended to both rivers. The 
actual line — one drawn due west from the low-er end of Rock Island to the Mis- 
souri river — was rather more than half a mile to the northward ; but the assumed 
line is believed to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of this statement. 




Section 2 of Chapter 34, Laws of 1843, approved February 17, reads as 
follows : 

"Sec. 2. That the following boundaries shall constitute a new county, to 
be called Appanoose, to-wit : Beginning at the northwest corner of Davis, and 
running west to the township line dividing townships 70 and 71 to range 20 west; 
thence south on said range line to the Missouri state line: thence on said line to 
the southwest corner of Davis county; thence north to the place of jjeginning, 
which county, with that of Davis, and all the territory lying west, shall be 
attached to Van Buren county for judicial, revenue and election purposes." 

Section 12 of the same act required the commissioners of each organized 
county to have the boundaries of attached counties surveyed, which survey was 
to remain good until surveyed by government authority. 

Section 13 authorized the governor to appoint as many justices of the peace 
in the newly created counties as he might deem necessary, and each justice so 
appointed had the power to designate two constables. 

Section 15 required the new counties to refund the ex])enses incurred in the 
preliminary survey of their boundaries. 

Section 13 of Chapter 122. Laws of 1844, approved I-'ebruary 15, attached 
Appanoose to Davis county for election, revenue and judicial purposes. 

By virtue of the above act the commissioners of Davis county erected Appa- 
noose into a voting precinct, and the first election was luld at the house of J. F. 
.'^tratton, .April i, 1844. at which only nine votes were polled. The judges were 
J. F. Stratton, William Money, and Joseph Crow; and the clerks, William Crow 
and John Stratton. The electors were William Crow, Joseph Stratton, John 
Crow, Stephen Trimble, William Money, John W. Clancy, J. F. Stratton, 
uel Trimble and Jehiel Troxell. 

Jonathan F. -Stratton was elected justice of the peace for the county, which 
was precinct Xo. 5 of Davis county, and Joseph Stratton and William .Money 
were chosen constables. The du]ilicatc poll list of this election was carefully 
preserved by Mr. Stratton, who stated that there were at the time not more than 
two or three other voters in the precinct, exclusive of those who lived south of 
the line claimed by Missouri. It is probable that the Mansons and some others 
had not yet returned to their claims. 




Chapter (o of the acts jjassed liy the territorial legislature of 1S46, apjiroved 
Jantiary 13, reads as follows: 

"An Act for the organization of the County of Appanoose. 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the council and house of representatives of 
the territory of Iowa, That the county of Appanoose be and the same is hereby 
organized from and after the first Monday in August next, and the inhabitants 
thereof shall be entitled to all the privileges and rights to which, by law, the 
inhabitants of other counties in this territory are entitled ; and the said county 
of Appanoose shall constitute a part of the First Judicial District of the 

"Sec. 2. That the first general election in and for said county shall be held 
on the first Monday in August next, at which time the county officers for said 
county shall be elected; also such number of justices of the peace and constables 
as may be ordered by the clerk of the district court of said county ; said clerk 
to have due regard to the convenience of the i)eople. 

"Sec. 3. That it shall be the duty of the clerk of the district court, in and 
for said county, to give notice of the first general election in and for said county, 
grant certificates of election, and in all respects discharge the duties rec|uired by 
law to be performed by clerks of the board of county commissioners in rela- 
tion to general elections, until a clerk of the board of county commissioners for 
said county may be elected and qualified. 

"Sec. 4. That it shall be the duty of the clerk of the district court in said 
county to perform and discharge all the duties required by law to be performed 
by sheriffs in relation to general elections until a sheriff for said county shall be 
elected and qualified. 

"Sec. 5. That the term of office of the county officers elected at the first 
general election, under the provisions of this act shall expire on the day of the 
general election for the year 1847, and the term of ofifice of the justices of the 
peace and constables elected, as aforesaid, shall expire on the first Monday in the 
month of April, 1847. 

"Sec. 6. The clerk of the district court for said count}- ma\- be a])pointed 
at any time after the passage of this act. 

"Sec. 7. In case of a vacancy in the office of clerk of the district court for 
said county, it is hereby made the duty of the sheriff of Davis county to per- 
form the duties required by this act to be performed by said clerk. 

"Sec. 8. That there shall be no assessment or tax levied by the authorities of 
Davis county within the limits of said county of Appanoose, for the year 1846, 
but such assessment may be made by the county assessor elected at the first gen- 
eral election in said county of Appanoose, which assessment may be made at any 
time prior to the first Monday in the month of October. 1846. 

"Sec. 9. That it shall be the duty of the board of county commissioners of 
said county to hold a meeting on the first Monday of October, 1846, at which 
time they shall examine the assessment roll returned to them, and levy such a tax 
for count v and territorial i)urposes, upon such assessment for the year 1846, as 
may be required by law. 

"Sec. 10. That the time for the treasurer of said countv to attend to each 


of the townsliip precincts, for the purpose of collecting revenue, according to the 
provisions of the thirty-fourth section of an act entitled "An act to provide for 
assessing and collecting public revenues," approved 15th of I'~ebruary, 1844, shall 
be during the month of Xoveniber, and he shall attend at his office, at the county 
seat of said county during the month of December, to receive taxes from ])er- 
sons wishing to jiay the same, for the year 1846. 

"Sec. II. That all actions at law or equity in the district court, for the 
county of Davis, commenced i)rior to the organization (jf the said county of 
Appanoose, where the i)arties. or either of them, reside in the county of .Appa- 
noose, shall be prosecuted to final judgment, order or decree, as fully and effec- 
tually as if this act had not been passed. 

"Sec. 12. That it shall he the duty of all justices of the i)eacc residing within 
the county aforesaid to return all books and ])apers in their hands pertaining to 
the said office, to the next nearest justice of the peace w liicii may be elected and 
qualified for said county, under the provisions of this act ; and all suits at law, 
or other official business, which may be in their hands and unfinished shall be 
prosecuted or completed l)y the justice of the peace to w-hom such business or 
papers may have been returned, as aforesaid. 

"Sec. 13. That the judicial authorities of Davis county shall have cognizance 
of all crimes or violations of the criminal laws of this territory committed within 
the limits of said county jjrior to the first day of .August next ; provided jjrosecu- 
tion be commenced under the judicial authorities of Davis county prior to said 
first day of August next. 

"Sec. 14. That said county of .Apiwnoosc shall have cognizance of all crimes 
or violations of the criminal laws of this territory prior to the first day of .August 
next, in cases where prosecution shall not have been commenced under the 
judicial authorities of Davis county. 

"Sec. 15. That the territory or country west of .Appanoose be and the same 
is hereby attached to said county of .Appanoose, for election, revenue and judicial 

"Sec. 16. That the clerk of the district court in and for the said county of 
.\ppanoose, may keej) his office at any place in said county until the county seat 
thereof be located. 

"Sec. 17. That William Whitacre. of \an iluren county, U. 1'. lialdwin, of 
Washington county, and .Andrew Leach, of Davis county, be and the same are 
herebv appointed commissioners to locate and establish the seat of justice of 
said county of Appanoose. Said commissioners, or a majority of them, shall 
meet at the office of the clerk of the di.strict court in and for said county on the 
first Monday in the month of September next, or within thirty days thereafter, as 
they may agree. 

"Sec. iS. Said commissioners shall first take and subscribe the following 
oath, to-wif: "We do hereby solemnly swear (or affirm) that we have no per- 
sonal interest, directly or indirectly, in the location of the .scat of justice of .Appa- 
noose county, and that wc will faithfully and impartially locate the county seat 
of .said county, taking into consideration the future as well as the present jjopula- 
tion of said county ;' which oath shall be administered by the clerk of the district 
court, or any other person authorized to administer oaths within said county, and 
the officer administering said oath shall certify and file the same in the office of 


the clerl< of the district court of said county, whose duty it shall be to record the 

"Sec. 19. Said commissioners, when met and qualified under liie provisions 
of this act, shall proceed to locate the seat of justice of said county, and as soon 
as they have come to a determination they shall commit the same to writing, 
signed by said commissioners, and tiled with the clerk of the district court of 
said county, whose duty it shall be to record the same and forever keep it on file 
in his office; and the place thus designated shall be the seat of justice of said 

"Sec. 20. Said commissioners shall each receive the sum of $2 per day for 
each day they may be necessarily employed in the discharge of the duties enjoined 
upon them by this act, and $2 per day for each traveling to and from said 
county of Appanoose, which shall be paid out of the first proceeds arising from 
the sale of town lots in said seat of justice. 

"Sec. 21. This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage." 

The name which had been bestowed in 1843, ''"'J retained in 1846 was that 
of a minor Sac chief, who was well known to the settlers in the counties east. He 
removed to the reservation at Agency, in Wapello county, where Keokuk, Wapello 
and himself were each given a farm. Here he lived till his death, in 1845, and 
was buried near his cabin ; he was well liked l)y the whites. 

Joint resolution Xo. 15, passed by the legislature and approved June 11, 1845, 
provided that the county of Appanoose should receive fifty copies of the laws of 
the session in that year. 

Chapter j,"] of the Laws of 1846 provided ihat .Appanoose and Kiskkekosh 
(now Monroe) counties shall be entitled to one delegate in the forthcoming 
convention to frame a state constitution. 

Joint resolution Xo. 13, approved January 17, 1846, authorized William G. 
Coop to procure a full set of seals for .Appanoose county. 


Chapter 5 of the first Iowa legislature, approved January 18. 1847, reads: 
"Section i. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Iowa, 
That the name of the town of Chaldea, in Appanoose county, be and the same is 
hereby changed to that of Centerville." 

The name of Chaldea had been bestowed at the suggestion of Mr. Stratton; 
but a month or two after, at a house-raising in the town or vicinity, Rev. Mr. 
Manson proposed that the name should be changed to "Senterville." Mr. Man- 
son was a Tennesseean. an ardent whig, and a loyal admirer of Governor Senter, 
long distinguished in the annals of Tennessee. Mr. Manson pressed his argu- 
ment with so much elo(|uence that the assemblage, who composed at least one- 
third of the county's voters, concurred in his suggestion, and Mr. Manson at 
once drew up a petition to the legislature asking that the name be changed to 
suit his idea, which was signed by the voters present, and in due course for- 
warded to Iowa City. The solons on the ai)i)ropriate conmiittec liad no objec- 
tion to recommending a little bill like that, but, concluding that Mr. Manson was 
not quite up to the mark in the matter of spelling, they sagely changed the initial 
letter of the name, and the town became Centerville. The name of Chaldea, it 



is said, was not on llie postal directory, and on tliis account had at first been con- 
sidered (|iiite appropriate. Mr. Stratton was a democrat, and, while sorry that 
his name had Ijceii discarded, lie had \ct a feeling of lively satisfaction that his 
whig neighbor had also failed to name the town. 


Chief Appanoose, who presided over a band of Sac Indians has his name 
preserved in the name of this county. The name signifies "A chief when a 
child." Little is known of his early life, but during the Black Hawk war he 
belonged to the peace party. He was tall, straight as an arrow, finely formed 
and intelligent. After the removal of the tribes from the eastern part of the state 
to the Des Moines valley the village over which he presided stood near where 
Ottumwa has been built. Appanoose was one of the chiefs who accompanied 
Keokuk to Washington in 1837. At Boston he made a speech which made him 
famous. He had four wives and lived a very quiet life, seldom going far from his 
village. The exact date of his death is not known. These facts about Appanoose 
are from the history of Iowa, written by the late Lieutenant B. F. Cue. Quot- 
ing from the same history some interesting information is given relating to the 
opening of this county to white settlers by treaty with the Indians, it says : 


On ?epteml)er 21, 1832, General Winfield Scott and Governor Reynolds, of 
Illinois, negotiated a treaty with the Sacs, Fo.xes and W'innebagoes, by which 
tliere was acquired from these tribes six million acres of land on the west side 
of the Mississippi, known as the Black Hawk Purchase. The treaty was made 
on the west bank of the river in the present limits of the city of Davenport. The 
tract thus ceded extended from the northern boundary of Missouri to the mouth 
of the Upper Iowa river, and had an average width of fifty miles westward of 
the Mississii>pi (being somewhat to the east of Appanoose county). 

The consideration to be paid for this grant was an annual sum of $20,000 
for a i)eriod of thirty years; and a further sum of $50,000 to be applied to the 
payment of debts due from the Indians to traders Davenport and I'arnam, at 
Rock Island. Six thousand barrels of pork, twenty-five beef cattle and twelve 
bushels of salt were also approi)riatcd for the support of women and children 
whose husbands and fathers had been killed in tiie war just closed. It was esti- 
mated that the United States paid in money and provisions about nine cents an 
acre for this munificent grant of lands. 

Black Hawk being a prisoner, the treaty was agreed to on the part of the 
Indians by Keokuk, Pashepaho and about thirty other chiefs and warriors 
(including .Appanoose) of the Sac and Fox nation. There was reserved for the 
Sacs and Foxes within the limit of this grant, four hundred stjuare miles of land 
on the Iowa river, including Keokuk's village. This was called Keokuk's reserve, 
and was occupied by the Indians till 1836, when by treaty it was ceded to the 
Initcd States. The Sacs and Foxes then moved to a reservation on the Des 
Moines river, where Agency City has been built. Here Keokuk, Appanoose and 
Wapello, chiefs of the united tribes, had each a large farm under cultivation. 


The farms belonging to Wapello and Keokuk were on what is known as Keo- 
kuk prairie, lying back from the right bank of the Des Moines river. Appanoose's 
farm included a part of the present site of the city of Ottumwa. The memory of 
these chiefs has been perpetuated by three counties and two cities, which bear 
their names, while a county in northern If)wa ])ears the name of the famous old 
war chief, lUack Hawk. 


On October u, 1842, another treaty was made with the Sac and Fox Indians, 
in which they conveyed all their remaining lands in Iowa to the United States. 
They were to vacate the eastern portion of the lands ceded to a line running 
west of the present counties of Appanoose and Lucas and north through Marion, 
Jasper, Marshall and Hardin counties, to the north limit of the grant, on May i, 
1843, ^"d the remainder on October 11, 1845. 

When the time came for the departure of the Indians they were sad and 
sorrowful. They lingered around their old homes reluctant to leave them for- 
ever. The women were weeping as they gathered their children and household 
goods together for the long journey to a strange and distant country. The war- 
riors could hardly suppress their emotion as they looked for the last time upon 
the beautiful rivers, groves and prairies that they had owned so long and were 
so reluctant to surrender. As the long line of the retreating red men silently and 
sorrowfullv took its way westward, the booming of guns and the light of a liun- 
dred bonfires gave evidence of the advancing hosts of white settlers who hastened 
in to occupy a vacant place. In the progress of years these once powerful and 
warlike tribes became listless and enervated, losing the energetic characteristics 
which distinguished them in former times. The excitement of war and the 
chase having long ago died out in their changed environment, they became degen- 
erate, intemperate and lazy. 




W'licn tlii; Luunly was created the act of the legislature established a govern- 
ing body for the new entity, designated the same as a board of commissioners 
and prescribed in general terms its duties. Therefore, the business affairs of 
the county were placed in the hands of three men, who, agreeable to instructions 
under the creating act, held its first term of court at the time provided for so 


In 1 85 1 the office of county commissioners was abolished and to take its 
place that of county judge was created. The last meeting of the board of county 
commissioners was held July 28, 1851, and as its successor in the business affairs 
of the county, Reuben Riggs was elected county judge in .August, 1851. His 
duties were numerous and jurisdiction almost without limit. The county judge 
not only became heir to the powers of the boartl of commissioners, but was also 
clothed with the authority of a court of probate and was empowered to sit as a 
committing magistrate. He was his own clerk. If of an arbitrary disposition, 
the county judge could make himself very obnoxious to his enemies and vice 
versa to his friends. Among his duties were the issuance of marriage licenses 
and solemnizing the rite of matrimony. He was his own clerk and in case of 
absence or <leath the duties of the office devolved upon the prosecuting attorney, 
and in case that officer was tioI available, the clerk of the district court. There 
is no adverse criticism to be offered anent those gentlemen who served as county 
judge in .\i)panoose, hence the allusion to temperament does not apply to Judge 
Riggs or his successors. 

In i8(^K) the office of county juflge was abolished. In some resjjects it was 
found faulty, but on the whole the system worked well. In this county the gov- 
ernment by the judges w-as economical, but in other sections of the state com- 
plaints were frefjuent of extravagance, autocracy in office and favoritism. On 
the first .Monday in January, 1861. the townshij) .<iystem of government was 
adopted, by which each township was represented on 




Elections for members of the board of supervisors were held annually and 
each township had a candidate. This system prevailed for ten years, when the 
plan of electing the supervisors at large was created in 1870 and went into 
operation in this county in 1871. That year three candidates for the ofifice were 
elected by the county at large. From that time to the present (1912) the mem- 
bers of the board have been three in number, which seems to be a reversion to 
first principles in the make-up of the governing body of the county. 

The acts of the board of commissioners appear in the following paragraphs 
and are given verbatim as they were recorded Ijy the clerk of the board. 


Be it known on the first Monday, fifth day of October, A. D., 1846, Reuben 
Riggs, George W. Perkins and J. B. Packard County Commissioners elected of 
the general election held on the first Monday of August, A. D., 1846, in and for 
the County of Appanoose and Territory of Iowa 

Met at the Store of Spence Wadlington near the centre of the said County of 
Appanoose then and there convened and organized a board of County Commis- 
sioners for the said County. 

In pursuance of an act of the Legislature Assembly approved January 13, 1846 
for the organization of said County of Appanoose. 

MoxD.w, October 5. 1846. 

The office of clerk of the board of county commissioners being vacant J. F. 
Stratton was appointed Clerk pro tern of said board. On motion the board 
adjourned until the 6th at 9 o'clock A. M. 

TuESD.w 6 o'clock .\. M. 

J. F. Stratton filed the necessary bond and oath and took his seat. 

Jonathan Scott assessor filed in his assessment roll received and examined. 

Be it ordered by said board that a percentage of 5 mills on the dollar on all 
Taxable property be levied for County pur])oses on said assessment as a County 

Be it ordered by the authority aforesaid that a Poll tax be levied of Fifty 
cents per ])oll for county purposes. 

Be it ordered that Three mills per cent be levied on said assessment for the 
support of Common Schools. Re it ordered by the authority aforesaid that all 
the portion of the assessment returns by the assessor as related to property and 
Polls that come into the county after the first day of March. 1846, be rejected and 
stricken out. 

Be it ordered by the authority aforesaid that Dempsey Stanley, Sebastian 
Strecter and William Crow be appointed \'iewers to \'iew and cause to be \'iewed 
and marked the route for a Road or Highway Commencing on the Fast line of 
the County of Appanoose at the greater section post on the East line of Section 
Thirteen in Townshi]i Sixty-nine North Range Sixteen ^\'est and to run from 
thence Westward on or near the cjuarter section line through ."Sections 13, 14, 15. 
16, 17 & 18. Continuing on or as near the said line as the formation of the line 
will admit to the Chariton Creek at a riff near the center section Sixteen ( 16; in 


Township Sixty-nine north of Range 17 West and from thence on the most 
eligible route to the northeast corner of section Twenty- four (24) in Township 
Sixty-nine North Range 18 West, thence West on the Section line dividing Sec- 
lions 13 & 24 to the Northwest corner of said section 24. said X'iewers to meet at 
the house of J. F. Stratton on the tirst Monday of November next and proceed 
to view and cause to be surveyed and returned to said board on the first day of 
January, A. D., if^47. term of said board, without expense to the county. 


Be it ordered by the authority aforesaid that the seat of justice of the County 
of .\j)panoose this day located and designated by Andrew Leech and William S. 
Whitaker, Esq., Commissioners, appointed by the Legislature .Assembly for the 
Territory of Iowa to locate such seat of justice, shall be known by the name of 
the town of Chaldea. 


WrCD.NESD.W 7, 9 o'clock .\. .M. 

Be it ordered by the authority aforesaid that J. F. Stratton, County Surveyor, 
proceed to survey, lay out and plat the town of Chaldea as soon as practicable 
and agreeable to a plan exhibited by J. F. Stratton and approved by said board of 
County Commissioners. Be it ordered that Andrew Leech be allowed the sum 
of twelve dollars for his services as Commissioner to locate the seat of justice of 
Appanoose county. 

Be it ordered that William S. Whitaker be allowed the sum of sixteen dollars 
as Commissioner to locate the seat of justice of Appanoose county. 

To be paid from the proceeds of town lots in the town of Chaldea. 

Be it ordered that J. F. Stratton clerk of the district court be allowed the sum 
of thirty-nine dollars and eight cents for services rendered under the act of the 
organization of Appanoose county as per account 5. 

Ik it ordered that Jonathan Scott assessor be allowed the sum of twenty-two 
dollars and fifty cents for takeing the assessment of the county for the year 
A. D.. 1846. 

Be it ordered that Jonathan Scott assessor's charge for takeing the census of 
the county be rejected and set aside. 


Be it ordered that Clerk of the B. C. C. issue orders to the following named 
persons who served as judges of the August election: 


John W. Clancy $1.00 

Henry Miller i.oo 

Walter G. Perry, services and mileage, carrying returns 8 miles. 1. 40 



Nathan LlartlcU, services and mileage, carrying returns 32 

., S2.60 

miles ^ 

J esse Buck 

Dempsey Stanley 


Thomas Watson ?'-°° 

Joseph Tump 

;',"., 1 .00 

Isaac McAdams 


Richard W. Davis ^^-^ 

Joseph Westen ■ " ' ' 


Be it ordered that the Clerk of B. C. C. issue orders to the following named 
persons who served as clerks of the election of August, 1S46: 


George W. Perkins ^^^^ 

Felix O'Neil ^"^ 


W. S. Townsend ^'•°° 

Daniel P. Sparks 


, , ,, ^ Si.oo 

John B. Graves 

Jesse Wood, services and mileage to carry returns 34 miles. . 2.70 

, , , $1.00 

James ]. Jackson 

John Overstreet, services and mileage to carry returns it> 

., 1.90 


Attest : 

J. F. Stratton, Clerk. 

Reuben Ricc.s. 

George W. Perkins. 
1. B. Packard. 

Coiintv Coiniiiissioiicrs. 



Jesse Wood, collector and treasurer : 

In account with the Board of Commissioners of the County of Appanoose, 
November [>. 

TAX LIST roK riii: vi;ak 1846 

Total calculation assessments, $24,055. 

Territorial tax $ 18.29 

County tax, .'>iJi.i3 — I'oll tax $54.50 ■75'^.^ 

School tax 7307 



January. 1847. 

By taxes abated by commissioners at their January term, 1847. 

By abatement of Territorial tax $ 1.68 

By abatement of County tax i • •'^.3 

By abatement of Poll tax 3.00 

By abatement of School tax 6.78 

July 5 by county orders paid in and canseled : 

On County and Poll tax $83.55 

By county orders paid in on county school tax 28.96 

ocTOiiKR 5. 1847 

By county orders paid in and canseled: 

On County and Poll tax $ 5.00 

By county orders i>ai<l in on county school ta.x 7.00 

RicLtnuN Rir.ns. Clerk. 

jANiARv tf:km, 1847 

Monday, Januarv 4111. 

George W. Perkins, J. B. Packard and l\cul)eii Ri.%'s met in session. 

The ])roceedings of the October term l)eing red by the clerk & court proceeded 
to business. 

W'illiani .'■>. .Manson api)lied for al)atcment of assessment for the vear 1846. 
Applicant duly sworn and examined. 

Be it ordered by said board that an abatement of $248 be allowed from the 
total Valuation of his .Assessment. 

Daniel P. Sparks applied for the abatement of his and \\ iliiam .S|)arks' assess- 
ment for the year 1846, being duly sworn and examined deposeth and sayeth that 
the said Daniel P. SjMrks and William ."sparks nr their property were not in the 
county on the first Monday of March, 1846. 

Be it ordered tliat said assessment be abated and set aside. 

Christian Zuck by his agent J. V. Stratton ai)plied for an abatement of his 


assessment for the year iS46on the ground that the said Zuck or his property was 
not in the territory until after the first Monday of March, 1846. 

He it ordered that the total assessment of said Christian ZucU be abated and 
set aside. 

Nathaniel Rartlett by his agent William S. Townsend applied for an abate- 
ment of his assessment. It was ordered that his assessment be abated $150. 

Harvey Campbell also applied for an abatement of his assessment on the 
grounds that neither he nor his property were in the county on the first Monday 
of March, 1846. Total amount of his assessment was abated and set aside. 

It was ordered and resolved by the board "that no bounty or premium shall 
be allowed or ]Jaid from the County for the killing or destroying of Wolves in 
said county. 

On January 7th it was ordered liy the board "'That William S. Manson be 
appointed recorder of deeds for the said county of Appanoose." 

Others from time to time applied for abatement of their assessments. Among 
them were David ShafTer, Jesse W'ood, George W. Benner, Nelson Alverson, 
l.evin Dean and Nathaniel Moore, all in the year 1847. 


TUESD.W. J.\NU.\RV 5, 1847, 8 o'clock .\. M. 

Court in Session. 

Be it ordered thai \iewers be ajipoinled to view and cause to be surveyed, 
marked and returned a Road commencing at Chaldea and from thence on to 
nearest and best rout to the line between David .Shaffer's and William Pewthers". 
thence to William S. Townsend's, thence northwesterly to the nearest and best 
rout to intersect the Indian Trace near the northern boundary of said county. 

Be it ordered that Jonathan Scott, Isaac Riggs and James McCarroU be 
appointed \'iewers and survey said road. Said \'iewers and Surveyors are to meet 
at Chaldea on the 15th day of February, 1847, or within five days thereafter and 
proceed to the discharge of their appointment and make due returns of their 
doings on the first Monday of .\pril. 1847. without expense to the county. 


Be it ordered by said board that the School Tax levied for the year 1846 may 
be paid in County Orders and that the clerk issue an Order direct to the treasurer 
of said countv, directing him to receive county orders in payment of said school 


Be it ordered by said board that ten dollars be appropriated from the first 
money coming into the treasury for the purchase of books and stationery for the 
use of the several county offices, subject to the order of the commissioners and 
that the clerk deliver a copy of this order to the treasurer without delay. 



Re it ordered by said board that each grocery license granted this year shall 
be taxed tuenty-tive dollars per year. At this same session of the board William 
Crow and Sebastian Streeter. viewers, and J. F. Stratton, surveyor of the Appa- 
noose ridge road filed their report, and J. F. Stratton as clerk of the district court 
was allowed $1.56 for services rendered in swearing Andrew I.eech and William 
Whitnker commissioners and filing certain papers therein named, dated October 
8, 1846. As clerk of the board of county commissioners Mr. Stratton was allowed 
Eighteen Dollars and Sixteen Cents (Si8.if)| for his services at the October term. 
A bill of Thirteen Dollars and Ten Cents ($13.10) submitted by J. F. Stratton as 
clerk of the commissioners' court for services rendered and notifying and making 
returns of the October election and for stationery furnished for the use of the 
county was allowed. 

William S. Manson. Martin Jones, U'illiam P.. Packard, John W. Clancy, 
Walter G. Perry, Menry Miller. Denijisey Stanley, Moses ^forse, John Scott, E. 
A. Packard. John Pilkey. Anthony Williams, Ephraim Sears, Felix O'Xeil, Henry 
Allen, William Smart, James J. Jackson and John F. Overstreet were allowed 
$1.00 each for services at the October election. P>ut it was ordered i)v the board 
"that the judges and clerks who served at the October election in Precinct Xo. 3 
shall not be allowed pay for their services on account of their failing to make 
legal returns." 

For services rendered at this election Reuben Riggs and J. B. Packard were 
each allowed $6 as commissioners of said county and George W. Perkins $5 for 
services as county conimisioner. Jackson Perjue as "sherrilT" was allowed $3 for 
attendance on the board of commissioners at the October term. 1846. 

Fi:iiKiARV 1, .\. I).. 1847. 

Court called by Sheriff Perjue, present Reuben Riggs, George W. l^arker, J. 
E. Packard, commissioners. J. F. Stratton, clerk. 

The proceedings of the January term red by the clerk. J. F. Stratton, the 
county surveyor, presented for examination and acceptance the map of the town 
0; Chaldea, which was taken uj). examined, accepted and ordered to be recorded. 


On motion it was ordered the court appraise the lots in the town of Chaldea, 
which was done accordingly and the list of the appraisements made out and 
filed with the clerk. 

It was also ordered by said court that George W. Perkins be appointed agent 
to sell lots in the town of Chaldea and that said Perkins give bonds in the penal 
sum of $1,000 for the faithful performance of his duty as such agent. The 
agent was authorized to offer at private sale one-fourth of the lots fronting on 
the public s(|uare "provided, however, that two adjacent corner lots shall not 
be otTered by said agent and ()rovided also that he shall not sell any lot or lots 
for a less price than that set on the same by the board of commissioners as stated 
on the bill of api)raiscments on file in the office of the clerk of the board of 
commissioners, antl further the said agent is authorized to ofTer at jirivate sale 
one- fourth of the number of the other lots in said town ])rovidcd no lots shall 
be sold for a less price than that set on them by the bill of a|ipraisement on file." 
The agent was also authorized to advertise and hold a public sale of lots in said 


town ijf Chaldca to he held on tlie iirst Tuesday in ihc moiUli of A])rih 1847. 
At that time an additional one-fourth of the lots were to be offered for sale, 
subject to the same restriction as in the preceding section. The terms of sale 
were one-quarter down at the time of purchase and remainder in three e(|ual 
installments— one in six months, one in twelve months and the other in eighteen 
months. Under instructions the agent was empowered to receive payment for 
any lot or lots by him sold, one-half of each installment in county orders and 
issued by said county provided "that the orders issued to Andrew Leach and 
William S. Whitaker, locating commissioners ; to J. F. Stratton, county surveyor, 
for as the same was given for services rendered as surveyor for said town of 
Chaldea ; to Benjamin Spooner for services rendered as assistant in surveying 
and stakes furnished for said town ; and to Spencer F. Wadlington for office 
room and fuel furnished ; board C. C. be received as cash payment on any lot or 
lots sold by said agent." 

It will be seen by this, although the record is a little bit mi.xed, that the 
clerk in making a record of this order intended to show that the orders issued 
to these county commissioners should be received as cash for any lots they 
might purchase of the county. 

It was ordered at this meeting of the hoard thai the county surveyor draw 
an additional map of the town of Chaldea for the use of the agent. 

At the meeting of the board held February 3, 1847, it was ordered that 
the clerk "'make out and foot up" a statement of the condition of the finances 
of the county and that Spencer F. Wadlington be allowed $7 for office room and 
fuel furnished for the board of county commissioners. 

The county was ordered at this meeting to be divided into two election pre- 
cincts which were bounded as follows : 


Precinct No. i was bounded as follows : Beginning at the northeast corner 
of the county; thence west to the northwest corner of section i, township 70, 
range 17: thence south to the southwest corner of section 1, township 68, range 
17; thence east to the county line; thence north to the ])lace of hegiiuiing. The 
polling place to be at the house of Christian Zuck. 

Precinct No. 2, beginning at the northeast corner of section 2, township 70. 
range 17; thence west to the northwest corner of the county; thence south to 
the southwest corner of township 70. range 19; thence east to the southeast cor- 
ner of section 35, township 70, range 17; thence north to the place of begin- 
ning. The country Iving west, and now composing the northern part of Wayne 
county, was attached to this precinct for election, judicial and revenue purposes. 
The polling place was established at the house of .Arthur Switchlield. 

Precinct No. 3, commencing at the northeast corner of section 11. township 
68, range 17; thence south to the southeast corner of section 14, township 68, 
range 17; thence west to the southwest curiier of section 18, township 68, range 
19; thence north on the west line of the county to the northwest corner of 
townshi]) 69. range 19; thence cast to the northeast corner of section 2, town- 
ship 69, range 17; thence south to the southeast corner of section 14. town- 
ship 68, range 17. The territory lying west and now comprising the soutliern 


part of \\ ayne, was attached for election and other purposes. The election was 
"to be held at the office of the Clerk of the Board of County Commissioners." 
F'recinct Xo. 4 included the remainder of the county ; "'the election to be held 
at tlic house of Mr. Suiunicrs, on the west side of the Chariton, at the crossing 
of the old Mormon trace." 


On the 2(\ day of February, 1847, Jesse Wood, treasurer, filed in the office 
of the board of county commissioners the following reirort of taxes by him col- 
lected up to that date. 

Territorial tax levied on the assessment : 

For the year 1846 $ 8.66 

County 57'^ 

Polls 22.50 

.'School tax 32.09 


"In conformity to an act of the General Assembly for the state of Iowa, entitled 
an act concerning the distribution of the school moneys, approved January 19, 
1847, I' J- I'- Stratton, clerk of the board of County Commissioners and clerk of 
the district court, appoint by warrant bearing date lOth day of February, 1847, the 
following named persons to serve as School Inspectors for the several precincts 
of the County of Appanoose, to wit: 

"In and for Precinct Xo. i: Christian Zuck. James Wright and Andrew 

"Precinct Xo. 2: Henry Allen, Isaac Riggs and Andrew Jackson. 

"Precinct X<>. 3: William S. Manson. Daniel P. Sparks and Spencer F. Wad- 

"Precinct Xo. 4: R. W. Davis, E. .A. Packard and Moses Walker." 


The inspectors of the several boards made the following rci)orts of liic num- 
ber of persons in their respective precincts between the ages of five and twenty- 
one years: 

Precinct Xo. i i iS 

Precinct Xo. 2 77 

Precinct Xo. 3 75 

Precinct Xo. 4 — no report made 

Amount of .school money in the hands of the school treasurer on the 2d of 
February. 1847, $32.09. 

The next items of interest in the minute book of the clerk of the board of 
county conmiissioners recorded were those of the bond given by J. F. Stratton 
as clerk of the district court. Those signing the bond with him were Jackson Per- 


jue, Abraham Payne, Daniel P. Sparks, William Pewthers, William Smart and 
Christian Zuck. The bond was acknowledged before Benjamin Spooner, clerk 
of the probate court, the 8th day of April, 1847, and given for $2,000. 

The names of the following judges and clerks of elections in the various pre- 
cincts as constituted in 1847 are here recorded, so that the reader may know who 
were in the county at that time and taking an active part in its affairs. 

Precinct No. i, Christian Zuck, William Crow, Levi Lose, judges; Cortland 
Harris, Andrew Morrison, clerks. 

Precinct No. 2, James McCarroll, Dempsey Stanley, Isaac Riggs, judges; 
Andrew Jackson, Jesse Buck, clerks. 

Precinct No. 3, William S. Manson, Benjamin Spooner, William Pewthers, 
judges ; Spencer F. Wadlington, C. F. Spooner, clerks. 

Precinct No. 4, C. A. Packard, John Bond, Hiram Summers, judges; James 
J. Jackson, John F. Overstreet, clerks. 


At the July session (1847) of the board Andrew Collins applied for a license 
to keep a ferry on the Chariton river "at or near the section line between sections 
22 and 27, near the home of the said Andrew Collins, in township 69 north of 
range 17 west." 

The license was granted, with the right to exercise the privilege of running 
a ferry for a distance of two miles above and below the town designated, for the 
term of eight years, on the ist Monday of July, 1847. Said Collins obligated him- 
self "to keep or cause to be kept at said described point a good and sufficient 
boat of at least 35 feet long and 8 feet wide, provided with sufficient oars and 
poles and shall keep two good and sufficient hands or one hand and a good and 
sufficient rope for the safe conveyance of all teams, horsemen and passengers 
and property or effects of any person who may desire to cross or which may be 
included in the following schedule at all times when the water is at such a stage 
that it cannot be safely forded, that the said Collins shall enter into a bond with 
the board of County Commissioners conditioned for the faithful performance of 
his duty as such ferryman in the penal sum of $600. 

"The rate of ferriage shall be as follows, to-wit : 

For crossing a waggon drawn by 2 horses or i yoke of oxen with 

a load on the same 40 cents 

For every additional horse or ox employed on any such waggon 

as draft animal 5 cents 

For a man and horse 10 cents 

For a footman 5 cents 

For each head of cattle or horses 25^2 cents 

For each head of sheep or hogs i cent 

"That the said Collins shall pay yearly into the County Treasury for the privi- 
lege of keeping such ferry 10 cents." 

This great sum of money for the privilege of running a ferry on the Chariton 
was probably paid, but whether in a lump sum or in installments, the record does 
not show. 



It was ordered by the board that Spencer F. WadHngton "be authorized to 
keep up a post and railing in front of his house (or store) both on State street 
and on the public square at a distance of 15 feet from the boundary of said street 
and square, provided that the space between said Railings shall at all times be 
free for foot persons and that provided that said Railing shall be free to all 
persons for the purpose of tying or hitching horses on the opposite side of Rail- 
ings in street or square, subject, however, to the order of the Commissioners' 

At the July term of the commissioners' court it was ordered that a tax of 
four mills on the dollar be made for county purposes on the assessment of all 
property subject to taxation as returned by the assessor and that a poll tax of 
fifty cents be levied on each poll for county purposes, and a school tax of one- 
half mill on the dollar for the support c;)f common schools. 


The first grand jury selected for the April term of the district court of 1848 
was made up of the following persons : George W. Perkins, James Hughes, David 
Bealcr, C. A. Packard, Ephraim Sears, James Wright, Joseph Overstreet, John 
Felkner, S. X. Sayles. Jonathan Scott, Joseph Jump, Henry Allen, Edward Bry- 
ant, William Bryant, Lindsey W. Spooner, Anthony Williams. They received 
$1,25 per diem for their services. 

The iirst petit jury was that in the case of George L. Castle against John Haney 
at the October term of the district court, 1848, but only eleven names are recorded. 
They are as follows: Thomas G. Manson, George Lake, Benjamin Spooner, Har- 
vey Sellars, William Pewthers, David Bealer, Jesse Wood, J. F. Stratton, John 
Felkner, Thomas Cochran, Lindsey Spooner. They each received a dollar a 
day for their services. 

The assessment roll for 1848 was as follows: 

County tax 4 mills 

State tax 2>4 mills 

School tax 1 1/^ mills 

Poll tax 'for Each able Bodeyed man" 50 cents 


The board at its session held in July, 1848, issued a license to E. A. Packard 
"to vend Spirituous Lijiuors in any way that he sees proper for one year from 
July 7 A. D., 1848, for the sum of S25 paid in the county treasury." 


At the same time that it issued a license for the sale of whiskey in the county 
the board ordered that "a job of Diging a Public Well be let to the Loest bidder 
provided that the Citizens subscribe $25 in cash to be applied on said Job. We 
the Commissioners bind ourselves to complete such well. The contract is to 


Insure a sufficient quantit}' of water to be Received by the Board of Co. Com. 
Such well is to be dug 5 feet and a half in the clear and waled up with a good 
Rock 15 inch wall which said well is to be done by the first Monday in Sep- 
tember A. D. 1848. Such well is to be Dug on the line of the Court House 
Dimond. The contractor is to take Town Lots in payment for such job after the 
above aplication has been made. Be it ordered that George W. Perkins be 
appointed agent to superintend the above mentioned job. He will receive sealed 
bids on the 22d day of July, 1848, at the clerk's office in Centerville. The bids 
being banded in and opened in the presants of the clerk according to order the 
job was struck off to Thomas Cochran, his being the loest at Eighty-nine Dol- 

It was ordered that the account of J. J. Jackson be allowed and George W. 
Perkins was appointed agent for the purpose of "letting a job to make window- 
shutters and to procure a lock and kee for the Door of the court house." 

Thomas D. Cox was licensed to keep a grocery in the county of Appanoose 
for the term of one year for the sum of $25. At the January term of court held 
in 184G, it was ordered that no bounty should be paid on wolf scalps. This was 
repealed in the July session of the board and in September Jesse Wood was 
allowed fifty cents as a bounty on a wolf scalp submitted to the board. At the 
same time William Wilson was allowed a bounty on a wolf scalp for like amount. 


Thomas G. Manson, treasurer and collector in account with the board of 
county commissioners of Appanoose county : 

Poll tax S106.50 

School tax 14-91 

State tax 72.86 

County tax 115-69 

The called term April 2, 1849, for the purpose of ordering a public sale of 
town lots. At this meeting George W. Perkins and Ephraim Sears, commis- 
sioners, Jackson Payne, sheriff, and James J. Jackson, clerk, were present. It 
was ordered by the board that the county agent withhold all sale of lots until 
Monday April 9 at one o'clock p. m. It was further ordered that all town lots 
in Centerville which had not been sold be offered at public sale by the agent to 
the highest bidder, provided that the l^ids were not less than the appraised value 
of the lots and that the clerk advertise them for sale forthwith, "by Riten 

At the April term the commissioners, Ephraim Sears. Jesse Wood and George 
W. Perkins, the sheriff', Calvin Spooner, and the clerk. James J. Jackson, were 
present. The board ordered that Frederick Trocksell he allowed $2 for four 
wolf scalps. 

It was ordered that the unsold lots "except the one the court house stands on 
be off'ered at Publick Sale to the highest bidder, provided that said bid is not 
less than the appraised valuation fixed by the commissioners and that all the 
lots between South street and Washington street north of the square, also 
between West street and Jeft'erson street, inclusive, which shall be raised 100 
per cent above the former regulated price and all the rest of the back lots at 50 


]jei- cent above the aforesaid price in payment whereof the count)- agent is auth- 
orized to take county orders at the former rates of one-fourth down, one-fourth 
in six months, one-fourth in one year and the last payment in eighteen months 
from the time of purchasing, or otherwise one-half down and the balance in 
eighteen months. All of the unsold lots was ofifered by the agent, cryed by the 
sheriff at Public Sale on Monday the lOth day of April, 1849, at the aforesaid 
rates and 8 lots was sold." 

At the May term of court Archibald Burrows was granted a license to "keep 
a ferry on the Chariton river at or within two miles of the town where the old 
Mormon Trace crosses the river in Appanoose county, for which he has obligated 
iiimself to pay into the County Treasury $2 annually." At this same session James 
J. Jackson was allowed $209 "for services done in Building a Court House to be 
paid in town lots." It was also ordered that G. W. Perkins be allowed "or 
empowered to examine the remainder of the job of Jesse Wood (on the court 
house) and if he considers it done according to the contract to settle with him for 
the same." 

It is C]uite evident that Mr. Wood's work on the court house was satisfactory, 
as the following entry would indicate : 

"Be it ordered that Jesse Wood be allowed $119.50 for work done on the 
court house to be paid in town lots." 

The petit jury in the district court for the May term, 1849, ^^'^s as follows: 
Benjamin Spooner, David ]\IcKeehan, Shubel Fuller, D. Lotridge, Hiram Glas- 
gow, Stephen Glasgow, Isaac McAdams, Abraham Perjue, James Hughes, Mil- 
ton Van Dyke, Xoah Nash, Isaac Fuller. 


At the May term, 1849, it was ordered "that if citizens would pay one-half 
by subscription for building a bridge across the Chariton river where the state 
road crosses the same from Centerville to Bloomfieki, the commissioners will 
pay the balance in town lots at Centerville." At the July session a report was 
received from a committee appointed on the part of citizens in relation to the 
constructing of a bridge across the Chariton river "a subscription of $307.50 
was granted in May, payable to the commissioners with a recommendation that 
they make the donation equal to the county jail, a proposal to let out said job by 
receiving sealed bids with the plan of the bidder continuing the same to be 
insured to stand for two years there was excepted unless it is burnt when found 
to be failing from other causes." 

Although the bid of William Packard and Daniel Hollingshead & lirothers 
for the construction of the bridge was over $100 more than competing bids, they 
were given the contract for constructing the bridge. 

.\ petition was presented to the hoard at its July session in 1849 asking for the 
organization of a new township to be called independence, which was granted. 


At the August session, 1840;. of the lioard of commissioners it was ordered 
"that the agent be empowered to sell all town property reserved for the Building 
of a Geol at the same installments now existing for cash." 


In 1849 the following persons served in official capacities at the township elec- 
tions of Washington township: William Gaylor, John \V. Clancy, Eli Bagley, 
judges; Cortland Harris, Nathan G. Perry, clerks. 

Caldwell township: Frederick A. Stephens, William M. Cavanah, Elisha 
Beard, judges; John Dillon, Marshall Morris, clerks. 

Wells township: John Bond, William Cooksey, Michael Pilkey, judges; A. 
Carpenter, James M. Scurback, clerks. 

Union township: James Ewing, Elijah Thompson, Andrew Morrison, judges; 
Levin Dean, Samuel W. Wood, clerks. 

Shoal Creek township: Carter Trocksell, George J. Emerich, Moses Kirken- 
dall, judges ; Peter V. Burris, George B. Greenwood, clerks. 

Chariton township: Dempsey Stanley, Jonathan Scott, Noah Nash, judges; 
John Jackson, John H. Zimmer, clerks. 

Independence township: Levi ]\Iondan, Bradley Collins, James D. Riggs, 
judges ; F. N. Sales, John W. Knapp, clerks. 

Garden Grove township: George Carson, Hugh McKinney, Elisha Hooper, 
judges ; John Bear, Don C. Roberts, clerks. 


At the November session of the board it was ordered "that the town agent be 
empowered and required to procure a stove and have it put up in the court house 
in Centerville." 

At this same session it was ordered that the account presented by Henry 
Allen for witness fees in the case of the state against Gheen laid over at the 
July term be not allowed except the charge for handcuffs for $1.50. 

Another order was to the effect that James J. Jackson be employed to work 
on the court house and that the "agent shall be allowed to furnish the nails neces- 
sary for the same." 

It was further ordered "that the Commissioners advertise that they will give 
the lawful bounty for w-olf scalps of $1 for' those over six months old; under, 50 

At the January term William Flood "was allowed to take a Grocery License 
for the term of three months from the expiration of his present permit at the 
rate of $50 per year." 

At an adjourned term held February 4, 1850, it was ordered "that the order 
of January 8th allowing William Flood to take out a Grocery License for a 
further term of three months from the expiration of his present term be rescinded 
and revoked and no such License be granted on the charge that he the said Wil- 
liam Flood keeps a disorderly and Riotous house." 

At the January term the township of Richland was created. 


The first paid fireman whose name is on record in this county was Thomas 
A. Cochran, who was allowed at the April term of the board of commissioners 
in 1850 five cents "for his services as fireman, February 14, 1850." It is highly 
probable that the present fire department of Centerville fixes its birth from the 
date above given. 



At the April term, 1850, it was "ordered and decreed by the County Commis- 
sioners that the rates for obtaining a grocery license shall be $100 and before 
any person can take out a license to keep a grocery in this county he shall pay 
into the County Treasury the sum of $100 lawful money of the United States and 
procure the Treasurer's receipt for the same.'' This order was afterward res- 
cinded and the license was changed back to $50 per year. 

The record shows that the bridge across the Chariton river built I)y the 

county commissioners and the citizens interested was ' completed by this time. 

It was ordered at the October term of the board of commissioners that G. 

W. Swearingen "be allowed $1.95 for sustenance of the jury at the September 

term of the District Court." 

At the November terms of the county commissioners' court the board pro- 
ceeded to make deeds to lots in the town of Centerville to the following named 
persons: John \V. Ruby for the east half of lot No. 9 in block 3, range 2, for the 
consideration of $15: Charles Tandy and Thomas D. Cox, for lot No. 3 in block 
No. I, range 4. consideration, $40; Adam Cuppy for lot No. 5, block 2, range 
2, $50. A deed was issued to Daniel P. Sparks for the west half of lot No. 4, 
block 3, range 2, for $50. 


.■\t the March (1851) term of the county commissioners' court it was 
ordered that "lots Xo. i, 2, 5 and 6 in block 4, range No. 5 be reserved for the pur- 
pose of a site for a jail, the same to be withheld from sale." It was also ordered 
by the board that the clerk give notice that "plans and specifications for building a 
jail and also a jailer's building will be received and considered at the April 
term of the court." At that time the contract was let to A. & J. Thompson. 

The following is a partial list of those who bought lots in the county seat, 
for which deeds were issued by the board of county commissioners: James H. 
Shields, Spencer F. Wadlington. Powers Ritchey, Daniel P. Sparks, Charles H. 
Howell, Joel Hargrove, William Pevvthers, Amos .Harris, Joseph C. Knapp, 
George G. Wright, Thomas A. Cochran, Laura W. F. Stratton, Jonathan F. 
Stratton, William S. Manson. Benjamin F. Spooner, James Hughes, Jesse Wood, 
George W. Perkins, James J. Jackson, Samuel Stewart, Jackson Payne, Nathan 
Bartlett, Thomas Wilson, George W. Purcell, James Justin Packard, Robert 
Trimble, William B. Packard, Luther D. Packard, Samuel Saltsgiver, William 
C. McClain. John B. Hatton. Milton O. Givin, Thomas G. ^Llnson, John W. 
Ruby, Calvin Tandy, the heirs of Thomas Cox, Adam Cuppy, Thomas C. Osmun, 
Isaac Hodge, John McClurc, John T. Pollock, David Shaffer. James Powell, 
Samuel McElroy. Hugh McCoy. John Puricr, George W. Swearingen, Squire 
Bates, Elihu Knapp, John Reisman, Reazon Bridges. 

The highest price paid for any one of these lots was about $207. This was 
lot 3, block I, range 2, purchased by George W. Perkins. Others sold for $10, 
$20, $30, $40 and $50. 





1846 — Reuben Riggs, George W. Perkins, J. I!. I'ackanl. j. I". Stratton, clerk. 
1847 — Jesse Wood. Ephraini Sears, George W. Perkins, Reul)en Riggs, clerk. 
1849 — (ieorge \\'. Perkins, Jesse Wood, Alfred Thompson. J. J. Jackson, 

1850 — Cieorge W. I'erkins, Henry Callen, Jesse Wood, J. 1". Siralton, clerk. 

JUDGE OF ruoi'.Ai !•: 

1846 — Pienjaniin .Spooner. 1849 — James Wells. 

1847 — S. F. Wadlington. 1850 — Alhinl Tliompsnn. 

couNTv jrncic 

Ofifice created by the legislature in 1X51, Succeeded the powers of commis- 
sioners in connection with that of judge of ])robate. 

1851 — Reuben Riggs. 1857 — James Galbraith. 

1854 — Amos Harris. 1866 — S. M. Moore. 

1855 — Harvey 'lanneliill. 

In 1870 the office was merged into that of auditor and the probate business 
was transferred to the newly created circuit court. 


i84r> — J. !■". Stratton. 1874 — W. S. Jolmson. 

1847 — William S. Manson. \i<yC, — Xoali .M. .Scott. 

1854 — John L. .\rmstrong. 1878 — W. (). I lollingsworth. 

1856 — J. F. Stratton. 1880— Lewis L. Taylor. 

1861—0. C. Campbell. 1886— C. J. Phillips. 

1863—0. A. Bryan. i.S<>o— John Flliott. 

1865 — Jacol) Rummel. 1894 — I). K. ( iuern>ey. 

1866— k. P. .Morrison. 1898— M. IC. I.outher. 

1870 — W. S. Johnson. i<)04 — U. G. Turner. 

1872 — Josiah T. 'S'oung. i()<i(i — -Genrge (". I'.lltoit. 




In 1869 the office of clerk of the board of supervisors was abolished and 
the office of auditor created in its stead. 

1869 — S. M. Moore. 1892 — J. T. Connor. 

1871— B. A. Ogle. 1896— H. L. Hazlewood. 

1873 — John B. Alaring. 1900 — J. F. Parks. 

1879 — J. C. Crawford. 1904 — R. J. Baker. 

1881— O. H. Law. 1908— G. G. Gilcrest. 

1885 — James Merritt. 1910 — John B. Taylor. 
1889— Jacob M. Willett. 


1846 — Jesse Wood. 1855 — A. J. Morrison. 

1847 — Thomas G. Manson. 1856 — James Hughes. 

1849 — David Glass. 1863 — James H. Hough. 

1851 — Nelson W. Gibbs. 1864 — G. S. Stansberry. 
1853— John Overstreet. 

In 1865 the office of recorder was separated from that of treasurer. 

1866— S. M. Moore. 1888— William Cree. 

1868— E. C. Haynes. 1892— D. W. Bryan. 

1872— John B. Wright. 1896— J. A. Stevens. 

1876 — Thomas H. Morris. 1900 — H. L. Waters. 

1877 — W. O. Hollingsworth. 1904 — G. S. Beever. 

1880— W. S. Scott. 1908— J. L. Dood. 

1882 — William M. Peatman. 1912 — Frank L. Click. 
1886— L. J. Fleming. 


1867— C. W. Bowen. 1895— N. ^^- Scott. 

1871 — William Evans. 1899 — J. T. Sherrard. 

1879 — J. A. Pierson. 1903 — J. A. Moss. 

1881— J. R. Hays. 1908— W. M. Dukes. 

1883— "S. W. Lane. 1912— W. O. Steele. 
1891 — James Merritt. 


1846 — Jackson Perjue. 1873 — B. F. Silknittcr. 

1851 — George W. Swearingen. 1881 — William S. Gay. 

1855 — James Ewing. 1885 — Samuel Jennings. 

1858— William Ferren. 1889— M. B. Maring. 

i860 — John Banks. 1891 — William Bray. 

1867— H. H. Wright. 1895— B. F. Silknitter. 



1897 — G. E. Climie. 
190 1 — \V. P. Davis. 
1906 — John G. Clark. 

1910 — J. F. Luse. 
1912 — Lee M. Dowis. 


1858 — J. J. Cummins. 1863 — Henry Hakes. 

1859 — R^^'- James Sliields. 

1865 — J. K. Morey (died before (|ualifying — vacancy filled by T. M. Fee). 

1867— L. X. Judd. 
1869 — Thomas Wentvvorth. 
1871 — G. C. Goodenough. 
1873 — George W. Taylor. 
1875— J. W. Carey. 
1877 — D. R. Guernsey. 
1879 — C. J. B rower. 

1885— Elon G. Ashby. 
1889— J. W. Rinehart. 
1891— P. H. Bradley. 
1895 — E. W. Adamson. 
1899 — R. A. Ehvood. 
1903 — W. M. Speers. 
1908— Mrs. S. S. Webster. 


1846 — J. F. Stratton. 
1859— J. H. Hough. 
i860— Asa Dudley. 
1862 — E. D. Skinner. 
1867— J. J. Wall. 
1877 — Cyrus Kerr. 
1879— d. C. Whitsell. 
1881 — Cyrus Kerr. 

1883— S. T. Galbraith. 
1885— Charles A. Miller. 
1887— Perry Holbrook. 
1891 — John Reynolds. 
1895— P. S. Holbrook. 
1901 — W. L. Holbrook. 
1906— M. G. Hall. 


1854 — George Swearingcn. 
1855— William D. :McC!ain. 
1857 — Ebenezer Taylor. 
1859 — James Wright. 
1863— H. H. Foster. 
1865 — Jacob Shaw. 
1867 — B. A. Joiner. 
1869— E. O. Smith. 
1871 — William Chadd. 
1873— William P. Darrah. 
1875 — ^I- •"^- Holshouscr. 

1877 — Noah Lantz. 
iSji) — Jacob Shontz. 
1885 — Robert Easton. 
1893- — William J. .Martin. 
1897 — John Dailey. 
1899 — D. C. Stansberry. 
1901 — A. J. Shaw. 
1903 — -Mien Shaw. 
1906 — C. P. Tillmont. 
1912— Dr. W. B. Miller. 


C. 'B. Miller, chairman, Joseph McGowen, James !!. Bialc, William Mc- 
Daniel, E. D. Skinner, E. Glass. 11. .S. Rogers, llcnry Morlan. James .'^. Wake- 


field, Edward J. Gault, Robert P. Wilson, William B. Packard. Joseph Arm- 
strong, E. F. Horton, James May, L. C. Dudley. 


James S. Wakefield, chairman, William McDaniel, Joseph McGowen, E. D. 
Skinner, H. S. Rogers, Robert P. Wilson, L. C. Dudley, L. J. Dillon, William 
Swiney, Joseph Armstrong, William B. Packard, James Huflfman, L. J. Rogers, 
John N. Dunbar, George W. Wise, J. K. Boyles, David Groom. 


James S. Wakefield, chairman, John X. Dunbar, J. K. Boyles. David Groom, 
James Huffman, William B. Packard, T. J. Rogers, George ^^ . \\ise, George 
Gollaher, Robert Kester, J. R. P. Garrison, Reuben Denney, A. E. Carson, Joseph 
AlcGowen, R. P. Wilson^ G. Wade, L. C. Dudley. 


L. C. Dudley, chairman, Joseph McGowen, J. R. P. Garrison, Reuben Den- 
ney, G. Wade, R. P. Wilson, Jesse M. Ellis, John Hudson, Phineas Porter, L A. 
Brannon, L. ^\. Andrews, John Lynch, James Huffman. John X. Dunbar, 
James May. 


James ^lay. chairman, J. ^I. Ellis, Henry Kearsey, John Hudson, Phineas 
Porter, L A. Pirannon. L. M. Andrews, John Lynch, James Huffman, James 
May, John X. Dimbar, Xathan R. Earlywine, W'illiam McDaniel. D. F. Stevens, 
E. O. Smith, Joseph Bland, John \'. Cresswell, W. T. ^^'ade. 


T. M. I'ee. chairman, Joseph Bland, L A. Brannon, John \ . Cresswell, J. X'. 
Dunbar, William Dougherty, J. M. Huffman, Henry Kearsey, Xoah Lantz, W. 
A. McDaniel, A. C. Reynolds, D. T. Stevens. E. o' Smith, W. T. Wade, J. S. 
Wakefield, George Wolf, G. W. Wyckoff. 


G. W. Wyckoff', chairman. L A. Brannon, E. J. Brown, William Crow, John 
V. Cresswell, William Dougherty, J. N. Dunbar, Robert Goldsberry, Horatio 
White, Caleb Wentworth, James Hutchinson, Xoah Lantz, Joseph ^lorris, A. C. 
Reynolds, E. O. Smith, James S. W'akefield, George Wolf. 


G. W. Wyckoff', chairman, E. J. Brown, J. \'. Cresswell, John X. Dunbar, 
James Hutchinson, Noah Lantz, Joseph Morris, E. O. Smith. Caleb Went- 
worth, L A. Brannon, Horatio White, George Wolf. I-. M. Andrews. I. A. Pier- 
son, D. W. Hardman, F. H. Shonkwiler. 


E. J. Brown, chairman, G. W. Boston, Caleb Wentworth, R. E. Davison, J. 
A'. Pierson, Noah Lantz, William Evans, Alfred Hiatt, E. O. Smith. G. W. 


Jackson, G. W. Wyckoff, I. A. Brannon S. M. Andrews, James F. Hicks, D. W, 
Hardman, George Wolf. 


E. J. Brown, chairman, G. W. Boston, J. N. Dunbar, R. E. Davison, William 
Evans, Alfred Hiatt, J. F. Hicks, D. W. Hardman, John Hudson, M. A. Hols- 
houser, Noah Lantz, E. O. Smith, G. S. Stansberry, J. M. True, G. W. Taylor, 
C. Wentworth. 


G. M. Teagarden, chairman. J. B. Gedney, J. G. West. 


(J. M. Teagarden, chairman, J. W. Moore, J. B. Gedney. 


J. W. JMoore, chairman, J. B. Gedney. G. M. Teagarden. 

J. \\'. Moore, chairman. J. B. Gedney. R. K. Johnson. 

J. B. Gedney, chairman. R. K. Johnson. W. S. Llewellyn. 

J. B. Gedney, chairman, R. K. Johnson. W. S. Llewellyn. 

Claudius B. Miller, chairman, W. S. Llewellyn, R. K. Johnson. 

Claudius B. Miller, chairman. W. S. Llewellyn, J. L. Earnest. 

Claudius I!. ^Miller, chairman. W. .S. Llewellyn. James W. Wailes. 

James W. W'ailcs, chairman, Peter Koontz, W. S. Llewellyn. 

George Wolf, chairman, Peter Koontz, J. W. Wailes. 

Peter Koontz, chairman, Edward Broshar. George \V. Wj-ckoff. 

George \\ . Wyckoff, chairman, J. B. Mering, Timothy Jennings. 

George W. Wyckoff, chairman, J. B. Maring, S. B. Short. 


J. B. Maring, chairman, S. B. Short, Edward Broshar. 

S. B. Short, chairman, Edward Broshar, John Dailey. 

Edward Broshar, chairman, John Dailey, J. B. Teagarden. 

J. B. Teagarden, chairman, John Dailey, G. R. Haver. 

J. B. Teagarden, chairman, G. R. Haver, G. W. Streepy. 

G. R. Haver, chairman, G. W. Streepy, R. M. Hicks. 

G. W. Streepy, chairman, R. M. Hicks, A. G. Davison. 

R. M. Hicks, chairman, A. G. Davison, H. L. Halladay. 


A, G. Davison, chairman, H. L. Halladay, M. S. Edwards. 

H. L. Halladay, chairman, M. S. Edwards, L. H. Smith. 

M. S. Edwards, chairman, J. M. Walker, Harvey Cochran. 

J. M. Walker, chairman, Harvey Cochran, H. H. Phillips. 

Harvey Cochran, chairman, H. H. Phillips, J. M. Walker. 

H. H. Phillips, chairman, J. M. Walker, H. Baker. 

J. M. Walker, chairman, H. Baker, A. F. Johnston. 

H. Baker, chairman, A. F. Johnston, A. E. Tucker. 



A. F. Johnston, chairman, E. H. Streepy, A. E. Tucker. 


A. E. Tucker, E. H. Streepy, R. M. Hicks. 

The following shows an abstract of the elections from 1854 to 1912 in Appa- 
noose county: 



Nathan Udell r5g 

Thomas G. Manson 286 


William ]\lonroe 482 

Henry Robley ^go 


Amos Harris A-iy 

William S. Henderson -352 


John L. Armstrong ^^g 

\\'iniam S. Manson ^02 


Harvey Tannehill 45 1 

John Potts 11^ 


George Swearingen 679 

John H. Curtis 64 



James Ewing 600 

J. G. Brown 550 


Harvey Tannehill 602 

-Amos i larris 538 


John F. Overstreet 614 

.Andrew J. .Morrison 5G7 



Ilailaii P. Welsh 574 

James Galbraitli 572 


George W. Taylor 612 

J. F. Stratton 447 

John Potts 71 


William D. McClain 614 

Ebenezer Taylor 545 



James Hughes 708 

Humphrey Roberts ; 574 


John H. Zimmer 313 

Robert Bradley 22 

William McClain 20 



James Galbraitli 969 

John L. 434 


James Hughes 939 

D. L. Strickler 344 

Phineas Taylor 145 


William Ferrcn 847 

William Crow 358 

\\illiam D. McClain 194 


James H. Hough i ,032 

J. W. Morrison 364 


Ebenezer Taylor 93c 

Edwin •^^echem 391 


• ITV I'AK'K. M()I;A\ IA 


J. '' jg^ 

wii, 1,1AM stim:i:t. mokax ia 




John J. Cummings 878 

Josepli T. Place 349 


J. F. Stratton i ,080 

L. G. Parker 541 



Nathan Ldell 983 

Thomas W'entworth 608 


Frederick A. Stevens 918 

J. C. Sevy 663 


James Hughes 898 

John K. Allen 656 


John Banks 927 

Josepli McGowen 566 

A. Purjue 97 


James H. Shields i,0i8 

N. M. Longfellow 576 


Asa Dudley 940 

John Pott< 603 


James Wright 995 

J. \'incent Delay 606 



David C. Campbell i ,249 

O. P. Stafford 880 

Vol I- s 




Edward J. Gault i ,540 

George B. Stewart 955 

A. C. Reynolds 758 


James H. Hough 991 

J. F. Walden 741 


John Banks i -547 


James Galbraith i .003 

S. M. Moore 7^5 


James H. Shields i/>29 


K. D. Skinner 1,717 


James Wright 1,101 



H. H. Trimble 1,012 

H. Tannehill 547 


Amos Harris 1 ,002 

M. H. Jones 559 


George \. Bryan i , 104 

W' illiam Truax 784 



-Xathan L'dell 1.288 

John A. Pierson 1,130 



E. F. Horton i ,234 

George H. Stewart i.i43 


S. M. -Moore 1,235 

James Galbraith 1,160 


B. F. Bradley 1,246 

John Banks 1,167 


G. S. Stansberry 1 ,227 

James H. Hough 1,187 


E. D. Skinner 1.223 

J. T. Stratton 1,079 


H. H. Foster 1,106 

John Delay ■ 876 


Henry Hakes 1,121 

Charles W. Bowen 898 

C. \V. Brown 315 

C. H. Bowen 154 



Jacob Rumniel i .086 

George A. Bryan 932 


S. M. Moore 1,091 

H. H. Foster 920 



Madison M. Wahicn 1,167 

William R. Davenport 979 



S. M. Moore 1,171 

J. F. Stratton 982 


G. S. Stansberry i.i53 

James H. Hough i ,002 


Henry H. Wright 1,178 

John Banks 981 


Ehsha D. Skinner 1,168 

John Potts 947 


J. K. Morey 1,164 

Francis M. Sharp 967 


Jacob Shaw i , 164 

Peter Koontz 987 



J. B. Weaver i ,300 

Amos Harris 974 


K. p. Morrison 1,305 

W. C. Ewing 996 


S. Ar. Moore 1,301 

J. N. Mason 1,005 


Madison M. Walden 1,301 

\V. M. McCreary 1,004 



Madison 'W. Walden i,340 

Nathan Earlywine I.I54 



B. Phillips 1,345 

James S. \\'aketiel(l i . 1 56 


S. M. Moore i ,^522 

J. F. Stratton 1,172 


C. W. Bowen r.~.~. i ,349 

John X. Dunbar 1,150 


Henry II. Wright 1,34^ 

Peter H. Callen 1,154 


J. J. Wall 1.340 

John Potts 1,158 


L. N. Judd 1,349 

W. S. Henderson 1,145 


B. A. Joiner 1,341 

John Stier i,i'>3 



K. P. Morrison 1.5 14 

M. Chastain 1.244 


E. C. Haynes i ,520 

William Woolridge i ,239 


Thomas Wcntworth '.514 

William P. Morrctt 1,248 


Jacob Shaw i ,509 




William F. Vermilion 1.342 

John A. Pierson 1,100 


Claudius B. Miller 1,348 

William S. Henderson 1.099 


B. A. Ogle 1.348 

William Evans 1,106 


Charles W. Bowen 1,271 

John N. Dunbar 1,140 


Henry H. Wright 1,361 

B. F. Silknitter 1,008 


J. J. Wall 1,332 

G. L. Lockman 1,107 


Thomas Wentworth i ,366 


E. O. Smith 1,366 



M. H. Jones 1,274 


Walter S. Johnson 1.253 

Lewis L. Taj'lor 1,150 


Eugene C. Haynes i ,275 

Eugene Horner i > 1 38 


D. T. Monroe i ,301 



J. R. Gedney 1,344 

G. M. Teagarden i ,268 

J. G. West 1,23s 

John A. Pierson 1,112 

John N. Dunbar M15 

WilHam Evans 1.182 



E. J. Gaiilt 1,41-J 

L. G. Parker 1 ,370 


C. B. Miller 1,486 

A. F. Haines i ,309 


B. A. Ogle 1,460 

E. T. Stratton i.3'3 


William Evans i,3^9 

E. .M. Reynolds 1.382 


H. H. Wright 1.387 

B. F. Silknittcr i .380 


J. J. Wall 1.470 

Samuel Bressler 1 .284 | 


G. C. Goodenough 1 .449 

J. B. Horner 1.3^9 


William Chad.l i .4/6 

W. P. Darrah 1.329 


J. W. Moore 1.422 

Lewis L. Taylor 1.368 




Robert Sloan i,54i 

E. L. Burton ' > 1 57 


Walter S. Johnson 1,555 

\V. F. Howell 1,130 


J. B. Wright 1,492 

A. F. Thompson 1,164 


Caleb Wentworth 1,509 

Joseph Hatton i , 1 65 


J. B. Gedney i ,541 

W. M. McDanel 1,162 



Samuel Jordan 1,522 

George W. Wyckoff 1,109 


John B. Maring i ,291 

"S. K. Ball 1 ,289 


William Evans 1 ,575 

George M. Teagarden 1,054 


John 'SI. Elgin 1.322 

ixfansel Hughes i ,305 


George W. Taylor i ,240 

R. E. Chandler 1.068 

G. C. Goodenough 270 


D. N. Miner i ,453 

J. J. Wall 1,158 




William P. Darrah i ,458 

Caleb W'entwortli 1,1 59 


Thomas M. Fee 1.283 

J. C. Mitchell 1,107 


Walter S. Johnson i ,3^3 

S. H. Shnwalter 1,061 


John B. Wright i ,249 

S. D. Harris 1,166 


William S. Llewellyn 1,270 

Amos D. Thatcher 1,163 



Joshua Miller 1,435 

A. F. Haines 1,354 


J. B. Stuckey 1,416 

James C. Coad 1,386 


John B. Maring 2,743 


William Evans • ,55 ' 

K. P. Morrison i ,25 1 


B. F. Silknitter i ,596 

ITenry H. Wright 1.104 


J. W. Cary 1.401 

H. Welker Zentz i ,396 


D. N. Miner i,44S 

J. J. Wall 1,357 



M. A. Holshouser i ,440 

J. J. Hicks 1,363 


J, p.. Gedney 1,404 

John N. Dunbar 1,401 



Robert Sloan i ,708 


Noah M. Scott 1,778 

J. O. Hunnell 1,485 

J. S. Wakefield 85 


Thomas H. Morris 1,840 

George A. Bryant i ,358 

Joseph Reynolds 123 


Claudius B. Miller 1,734 

William B. McDonald i>493 

J. L. Earnest •,719 

N. J. Moreland 1.436 

A. P. Berry iig 

Joseph Bland 108 

A. C. Stone 68 



S. T. Sherrard 1,176 

J . 1!. Stuckey i ,027 

A. P. Berry 775 


John 1!. Alaring 1,304 

Lewis L. Taylor i ,067 

J. C. Crawford 603 


William Evans 1.286 

Thomas Went worth 1.124 

J. M. l.oughridge 548 



Benjamin F. Silknitter 1.223 

R. B. Carson 1,210 

Joseph L. Youngker 533 


D. R. Guernsey i ,201 

John W. Cary 993 

Mrs. M. A. Haughey 706 


Cyrus Kerr i ,207 

David X. Miner 1.094 

J. J. Wall 662 


Xoah Lantz i ,207 

Peter Koontz i ,069 

J. C. Thompson 680 


William S. Llewellyn 1,192 

Jesse M. Ellis i ,085 

Samuel Hixon 690 



E. L. Burton 1,760 

T. M. Fee i .25 1 


R. B. Townsend i ,77i 

W. M. Tedford 1.247 


J. \V. Moore 1,606 

Xoah M. Scott 1,416 


W. O. HoUingsworth 1,605 

Thomas H. Morris i ,409 


J. W. Wailes 1.762 

J. L. Earnest i .253 




J. J. Wall r,6i6 

Madison M. Walden i>503 

|. S. Wakefield 121 


Samuel Hixon 1,661 

C. B. Miller 1,475 

G. R. AIoss 146 


J. C. Crawford 1,610 

E. G. Ashby i ,502 

J. W. White 157 


John A. I'ierson 1.570 

G. T. Pulliam 1,545 

T. Davidson 157 


Lewis L. Taylor 1,616 

T. H. :\Iorris 1,507 

C. F. Findley 166 


B. F. Silknitter 1,615 

Harvey Cochran i .500 

J. J. Stone 145 


C. J. Brovver i ,659 

D. R. Guernsey i ,463 

J. W. Payne 158 


O. C. Whitsell 1.660 

Cyrus Kerr i .464 

John Potts 167 


Jacob Schontz i ,654 

Noah Lantz 1.471 

Joseph Kinkade 160 



Peter Koontz i ,62 1 

G. S. Stansberry i -5 ' 3 

S. Summers 141 



J. W. 1-rcclaiul 1.865 

H. C. Traverse i ,666 

D. H. Payne 6t 


Lewis L. Taylor i ,898 

E. C. Haynes 1,71 1 


W. S. Scott ' 1,859 

T. H. Morris 1.732 


S. \V. Wliitnier 1,899 

John C. -McAdams 1,688 


George Wolf 1 ,<J62 

G. \V. Streepy i ,629 



E. M. Reynolds 1.4 12 

A. P. Berry 1,112 

A. C. Stone 370 


O. 1 1. Law 1 .539 

1 1. T. Phillips I .,v,7 


J. R. I lays 1 ,5 18 

William Evans 1,163 

M. Y. Sellers 25S 


William S. Gay I .^t^2 

J. P.. (icdney 1,292 

If. K. Showalter 302 



C. J. Brewer 1,335 

P. B. Wilkes 1,320 

John A. Moss 288 


Jacob Scliontz 1.556 

L. G. Parker i ,380 


Cyrus Kerr i ,390 

J. H. McClard 1,191 

John Potts 337 


G. W. Wyckoff 1.404 

Lafayette Shaffer 1,204 

A. G. Davidson 325 



E. L. Burton i ,752 

H. L. Dashiell i ,294 


W. A. Work 1.524 

Samuel Jones 1413 


Lewis L. Taylor 1.944 

John C. McDonald i ,079 


W. M. Peatman 1.512 

J. L. Hughes 1 ,294 


Timothy Jennings i ,306 

J. U. Williams I.I3-2 

A. C. Stone 632 

J. B. Maring 1,516 

Peter Koontz i .235 



E. J. Gault 1,818 

John H. Drake 1-595 



Samuel Jordan i /)86 

E. M. Reynolds i,(J04 

J. P. Smith 132 


O. M. Law 1,857 

L. 11. Marshall 1,504 


S. \\'. Lane i .727 

James Merritt 1,618 


W. S. Gay 1,861 

W. T. Ogle 1,502 


C. J. I'.rower 1.925 

P. B. \Vilke«; 1.423 


S. T. Galbraith i ^84 

J- J-^Vall '...m;536 


Jacob Schontz i .848 

F. Ellis f ''.570 


S. B. Short 1 .7 1 1 

Timothy Jennings 1.518 

J. E. (joodhue 210 



Henry C. Traverse i ,807 

S. S. Caruthers i .762 

Dell Stewart i ,729 

W. H. C. Jaques 1,721 


Lewis L. Taylor i ,782 

James C. Revington .1 .755 



Levi J. Fleming 1,771 

William M. Peatman 1.73'^ 


James Redding i ,779 

James K. Boyles I./IS 


Edward Broshar 1.769 

Levi Broshar i ,750 



E. M. Reynolds 1.854 

W. H. Young 1 ,577 


James Merritt i ,798 

Edwin Lowry • i .622 


S. W. Lane 1.872 

John B. Morrison i .589 


Sanjuel Jennings i .765 

W. S. Gay 1.677 


Elon G. Ashby 1,857 

G. W. Armstrong i .S77 


Charley A. Miller i .739 

E. T Stratton 1.722 


Robert Easton i .766 

J ames Reddig 1 .674 


John Dailey i ,730 

Douglas 1,718 





COUNTY attorn'i:y 

C F. Howell 1,-84 

George D. Porter ' .833 


C. J. Phillips 1.762 

Lloyd C. Lane i ,67 1 


Elza M. Rigler I063 

L. T. Fleming i .833 


J. B. Teagarden 1.756 

James ^L Creech i ,684 


Perry S. Holbrook i ,737 

Edward T. Stratton i .695 



E. AL Reynolds 
W. H. Taylor .. 
J. P. Smith 


George \\ . Wyckofi' 
F. M. Sharp .' 


James Merritt 
H. Booth 


Levi Broshar 
S. W". Lane . 


Samuel Jennings 
James M. Dale 


Elon G. Ashby . . . 
George W. Taylor 














Perry Holbrook i ,711 

E. T. Stratton 1,637 


George R. Haver 1,810 

J. C. Crawford 1.591 


Robert Easton i ,809 

George A. Bryan i ,605 



C. F. Howell 2,127 

George D. Porter i .823 

C. W. Martin 46 


C. J. Phillips 2,124 

B. F. Silknitter 1,904 

T. J. Green 39 


William Cree 2,049 

Zack Rupe 1,961 

T. O. Wilson 47 


G. W. Streepy 2,065 

William B. Strickler i ,939 

J. E. Goodhue 39 



M. M. Walden 2,070 

E. B. Horner 1,884 

C. P. Campbell , n 


J. T. Connor 1 .952 

Jacob M. Willett 2,019 

C. W. Martin 3° 



D. N. Steele ,,812 

S. W. Lane 2, 1 54 

J. P. Silknitter 21 


J. T. Rogers , ,877 

M. B. Maring 2,091 

G. T. Moore 20 


P. B. Wilkes 1,938 

J. W. Rinehart 1.998 

Thomas McNeflf 30 

Robert Easton 2,067 


L. J. Stiirdivant i .883 

James True 'ij 


Perry S. Holbrook 2,027 

John H. .McClard 1,921 


R. M. Hicks 2.045 

Noah Nash 28 

Noah Lantz i .913 



C. F. Howell 2,309 

O. II. Law 2.032 


J. Elliott 2,189 

L. L. Taylor 2. 181 


William Vi. Crce 2.},'^ 

John Bencfiel i .<A72 


A. Davison ^•2},'J 

W. A. Lcmaster ... 2.135 




E. M. Reynolds 2,435 

D. C. Bradley 1,848 

S. B. Downing 439 


G. W. Wyckoff 2,393 

L. Shaffer i ,994 

J. J. Stone 347 


James Merritt 2,499 

S. J. C. Eby 1 ,946 

G. N. Gates 291 


William Bray 2.348 

M. B. Maring 2.128 

W. G. Green 265 


P. H. Bradley 2,419 

J. W. Rinehart 2.020 

J. T. Coulson ; 291 


Robert Easton 2.492 

E. S. Denoon 1.911 

D. F. Williara| 330 


John Reynolds 2,508 

J. J. Wall 1.926 

H. Harris 300 


H. L. Halliday 2.324 

W. B. Strickler 2.111 

Joseph Kincade 2<y<) 



\\'. H. Sanders 2,000 

C. W. Vermilion 2,511 

W. F. Garrett 437 



J. M. Willett 2.084 

J . T. Connor 2.44S 

Edwin Lowry 427 


J. W. Argo 1,898 

John Elliott 2.590 

F. A. Brown 462 


J. C. Bell 2,029 

D. W. Bryan 2.477 

Patrick Qiiigley 442 


W. J. Taylor i.9<4 

yi. S. Edwards 2.582 

C. A. I'llrich 45^^ 



George \\'. W'yckofF --35" 

J. D. Pirtle 2.324 


James Merritt --i?- 

Gust Parson ' -3 ' 9 

Edwin Lowry i ,042 


William Bray 2.345 

G. S. Minor i ,447 

Horace .'^ilk 908 


P. H. Bradley 2.384 

J. S. Stamps 1 .370 

J. C. Hornady 940 


John R. Reynolds 2.^40 

J. J. Wall .' 1.074 


William J. Martin j.j8; 

D. C. O'Xeil 1 .441 

W. C. Willis oT.i 



S. H. Smith 2,239 

C. M. Crego i ,493 

H. K. Showalter 963 



J. T. Connor 2,717 

J. X. Roby 2,260 


D. R. Guernsey 2,552 

Frank Hughes .'.... 2,422 


D. W. Bryan 2.617 

S. F. Haines i .269 

James H. Inskeep i .085 


C. W. Vermilion 2,518 

C. R. Porter 2.481 


Harvey Cochran 2.501 

Pierce Wilson i .4/8 

E. Moss 997 

James M. Walker 2,679 

H. K. Showalter 2,265 



B. F. Carroll 2.691 

W. S. Scott 2.194 


J. C. Barrows 2,426 

"C. R. Porter 2.S2S. 


N. M. Scott 2.499 

R. M. Hicks '•820 

J. G. Patterson 630 


M. S. Edwards 2.330 

B. F. Silknitter 2.631 



E. W. Adamson 2,699 

Mrs. Mattie Cashman 2,214 


p. S. Holbrook 2.620 

David Blosser i ,586 

John Reynolds 694 


William J. Martin 2,665 

O. P. Martin 843 


H. 11. Phillips 2.595 

Newton Moore i .578 

Abner Wells • in 



D. R. Guernsey 3.030 

Edwin Lowrey 2.928 

J. J. Pratt . .'. 18 

Casper Stoltz 28 


H. L. Hazlewood 3,072 

J. D. Galbraith 2,893 

R. H. Marshall 16 

Bernard Murphy 29 


J. A. Stevens 3.105 

J. H. Inskeep 2,855 

A. L. Callen 18 

Samuel Gough 26 


J. M. Wilson 3,017 

W. H. Sanders 2,934 

T. W. Meers 19 

W. M. Morlan 36 




J. M. Walker 3-°'/^ 

A. W. Potts --898 

J. H. McCauley '8 

Arthur Grover -^ 



A. A. Highbarger ^432 

C. R. Porter ^.1^3 


N. J\I. Scott ^.^32 

C. A. Hornaday 2.3'tO 

Fay Richardson ^5 


Edward CHmie ' 2.623 

B. F. Silknitter 2.578 

Harry McVeigh 05 


E. W. Adamson 2,731 

John S. Stamps 2.367 

W. C. Murdy 117 

H. G. Street «9 


John Dailey 2.735 

E. S. Denoon 2.363 


P. S. Holbrook 2.775 

David Blosser 2.350 


Harrison Baker 2.620 

G. W. :McKeehan 2.507 

R. C. Coffey '0<'^ 



I. .M. Wilson 2.720 

j. R. Barkley 2.265 



H. L. Hazlewoofl j.781 

James Keller -.199 

Harry McVeigh 1)5 


M. E. Louther 2.jSSi 

W. J. Jones 2.if>2 

Andrew Anderson 63 


J. A. Stevens -2.9>3 

Isaac Wakeland -.043 

X. H. Barnes 65 


A. I". Johnston j.6i 3 

T. W." Oden 2.332 



E. Roniinger 2.848 

C. R. Porter 2.581 


F. S. Payne -.879 

A. H. Stuckey -.499 

John Wood 60 


J. T. Sherrard 2.858 

W. H. Owen 2.536 

C. Stoltz 5 


G. E. Climie 2.8Ck8 

I. A. I'erjiie 2.474 

John .Maring i 


D. C. Stansherry 2.o8r) 

VV. H. Stevenson -■354 

C. McCondra 38 


K. .\. illwood . . 2.8(>«i 

VV. K. I'lishoj) -•SO', 

Robert Wilson 32 



W. L. Holbrook 2,888 

J. J. Wall 2,460 

W. P. Clifford 37 


A. E. Tucker 3,004 

M. J. Elam 2,338 

W. M. Murdy 35 



M. E. Louther 3,141 

L. L. Taylor 3,087 


J. F. Parks 3.462 

T. L. Morlan 2,776 


H. L. Waters 3.352 

J. F. Boileau 2,885 


E. M. Probasco 3.405 

H. E. Valentine 2,815 


E. H. Streepy 3.3^9 

Fay Richardson 2,856 



Frank S. Payne 2,562 

Lafayette Shaffer 2,062 

C. S. Peteraon 2 


J. T. Sherrard 2,699 

Jacob I larter i ,894 


W. p. Davis 2,623 

George McDonald 2,039 



R. A. Ehvood 2,424 

Orsini V. Swift 2,174 


W. L. Holhrook 2,682 

Jolm Ransficn i .900 


A. J. Shaw 2,729 

J. D. Cleveland i .847 



A. E. White 2,099 

R. M. Hicks 2.501 


E. M. Probasco 2,213 

Claude R. Porter 2.390 

A. F. Thompson 219 


J. F. Parks 2,i^-, 

Harry B. McCreary 2,193 

Andrew B. Standberg 235 


(To fill vacancy.) 

George C. Elliott 2,743 

W. E. Law I 

G. E. Ferreii I 

Ralph M. Davis i 


U. G. Turner 2,533 

G. E. Ferren 2,033 

Bruce F. F'urdum 249 


H. L. Waters . . 2.520 

John T. Hiatt 1.949 

William McCowin 24S 



(To fill vacancy.) 

P. S. Holbrook 2,377 

D. B. P>losser 2.006 

J. J. Wall 255 


A. H. Gray 2.538 

B. G. Miller 1,917 

J. J. Wall 264 



J. M. Wilson 2.419 

William M. McCreary 2.451 

George H. Fryhoff 175 


J. A. Moss 2.664 

George W. Patrick 2. 194 

Joseph Wheeler 179 


W. P. Davis 2.816 

Charles A. Yates 2.056 

Bruce Piirdum 177 


W. 'M. Speers 2.702 

Mrs. S. S. Webster 2. 1 50 

Mrs. E. Hays 186 


B. F. Bradley 2.558 

W. B. Ellis 2.284 

Peter Ambuster 187 


Allen Shaw --775 

Dr. J. P. Neeley 2.060 

J. T. Lewis 187 


P. S. Holbrook JjC^ 

D. B. Blosser 2,033 

J. J. Wall 210 




T- G. Fee 3,48 

C. R. Porter 2,363 

G. H. Fryhoff (socialist) 409 


R. J. Baker 3,538 

C. E. Brokaw i §(; , 

Charles Bixby 447 


U. G. Turner 3i444 

J. N. Willett 1,821 

F. R. Crouse 446 


G. S. Bever 3.483 

N. W. Hamilton i ,987 

Charles Xighswonger 441 


John E. Moore 3.388 

R. M. Hicks 2,088 

C. M. Thompson 441 



George \V. Swan 2,461 

A. F. Wilson 2.178 

H. G. Street 253 


R. J. Baker 2,883 

Jacob Ritter i ,845 

Joel Wheeler 230 


George C. Elliott 2,890 

William Leeming ' .759 

J.J. Hanrahan ^08 


J. A. Moss 2.800 

C. E. Evans i .84.^ 

D. F. Williams 208 



George S. Bever 2,886 

James White 1,761 

F. E. Daniels 218 


John G. Clark 2,710 

C. E. Campbell 1,761 

T. T. Prough 219 


W. M. Speers i ,924 

Mrs. S. S. Webster 2.835 

Beulah Hinzman 194 


M. G. Hall 2.439 

David Blosser : . i ,988 

J. J. Wall 257 

P. S. Holbrook 119 


C. P. Tillmont 2,516 

Edgar Heaton 2,066 

Peter Ambuster 250 



R. J. Raney 2,437 

Newton Harris 2,008 

J. T. Lewis ^30 


Z. 1!. Xighswonger -076 

S. S. Amos 1 .881 

Geno Ortino 217 



Charles H Meyers 2.582 

J. O. Cole 1,941 

Peter Magnall 235 


Mrs. S. S. Webster 2.384 

Bedinger 2.877 



G. W. Swan 2.728 

Shaffer ; 2,358 

Gott 2,287 


G. G. Gilcrest 3,080 

Wilson 2,057 

Daniels 281 


W. M. Dukes 


Evans 2,207 

Bixby 274 


George C. Elliott 3,089 

Evans 2.025 

Hanrahan 278 


John G. Clark 3.136 

Qu'gley 2, u I 

Baxter 2151 


J. L. Dodd 2,938 

Killion 2,188 

Friel 270 


R. W. Smith 2,830 

Valantine 2,316 



M. G. Hall 2.836 

Blosser 2,224 

^^■all 286 


Z. B. Nighswonger 2,910 

Boardsman 2,112 

Sparks 282 

R. J. Raney 2,849 

Hicks 2,196 

Langdon 273 




Roll W. Smith 2,672 

H. P. Powers i .802 

F. T. Roniesbiirg i-O 


Arthur L. Lyons i ,836 

Mrs. S. S. Webster 2,764 

Charles Bixby 148 


M. G. Hall 2,492 

D. B. Blosser 1,897 

J. J. Wall ,81 


C. p. Tillmont 2.535 

I. S. Lane 1.852 

E. Baxter 171 


G. G. Gilcrest 2. 119 

John B. Taylor -■2,417 

F. E. Daniels 1 6f 


W. M. Dukes 2.566 

C. E. Evans i .S48 

J. T. Lewis 180 


George C. Elliott 2,766 

Thomas L. Bryan 2,417 

H. G. Street 166 


J. F. Luse 2,216 

Lee M. Dowis 2.340 

Richard Magnall ~2 


J. L. Dodd 2,309 

Louise Wiseman 2,2ip 

Richard Magnall 155 



U. G. Bear 2.3 1 3 

Edward Gault 2. 109 

William \\'essel 174 

su PERVi SORS — 1 9 1 2 

Z. B. Xighswonger 2,204 

A. L. Stuckey 2,1 12 

William Booth 165 

AiDiTOR — 191 2. 

John B. McNeal 2.548 

John B. Taylor 2,557 


W. O. Steele 2.723 

C. E. Evans 2.227 


George C. Elliott 2,842 

Thomas L. Brjan ' .2.188 


George Payton i .822 

Lee yi. Dowis .^401 


Frank L. Click 3.0I9 

Miss Louise Wiseman 2.189 


Clarence S. Wyckoff 2.789 

W. B. Hays 2.2_-\j 


Mrs. Grace Gilcrest 2.531 

Mrs. S. S. Webster 2,557 


Dr. W. B. Miller 2.725 

Dr. G. F. Severs 2.2(^^ 


B. S. Everniaii 2.852 

John Massman 2.100 

( 1014 I 

C. F. Parker 2.(^<oR 

R. M. Hicks 2.344 

Vol. I- 1 





The surface of Appanoose county is, generally speaking, a nearly level plain, 
lying on the water-shed dividing the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The 
depressions for the river and creek beds are shallow, and it is probable that the 
extreme diflference between the water-bed of Chariton river and the highest 
prairie summits will not exceed a hundred and fifty feet. The soil of the county 
is a brownish-gray loam, largely intermixed with clay, but yet tempered suf- 
ficiently with sand to be easily plowed and cultivated. It also absorbs the rain- 
fall rapidly so that very muddy roads are rare. The surface soil is of ample 
dei>th and very fertile. The substratum is nearly pure clay, and with proper 
care any portion of the subsoil of this county can be made into excellent brick. 

Roth Professor White and Mr. St. John visited .Appanoose county in 1868, 
and the former gentleman records that it is now known that all three of the 
divisions of the coal-measure group occupy the surface beneath the drift; the 
lower occupying the northwestern portion, the middle traversing it near the cen- 
ter, anrl the base of the upper appearing as ledges of limestone along Copper 
creek, west of Centerville. In the valley of that stream, Mr. Talbot had opened 
a mine in a three-foot vein of good quality. This is regarded as the upper bed 
of the middle coal-measures, and whatever other beds may exist within the 
county doubtless belong beneath it. Thus, the place of all the heavy beds of coal 
found elsewhere is at considerable depth here ; but they may be looked for nearer 
the surface in the northeastern part of the county. It is believed that a shaft 
sunk in the valley of the Chariton river near Centerville would pass through all 
there is of the coal-bearing strata within three or four hundred feet. There are 
good reasons for believing, also, that one or more good beds of coal would be 
passed through at that or a less depth, besides the one worked by Mr. Talbot. 

W. P. I'ox, the geological commissioner of Iowa at the Centennial Rxhibi- 
tion, visited Appanoose county in 1875 and made a statement, which is undoubt- 
edly true, that a vein of coal exists beneath the one now being worked, and 
gave it as his opinion that it lies from thirty-five to fifty feet below the other. 
There is no reason to disbelieve his statement that the lower vein should be five 
or six feet in thickness. Mr. Fox claimed that the slate overlying the coal is 
suitable for roofing purposes, but this was a blunder on his part, and pointed 
out the immense deposit of potter's and fire-clay overlying the shale. 

Mr. Fox also visited the saline springs in the edge of Davis county, and 



describes tliem as being located in an outfield of the Onondaga salt group, wliicii 
was certainly an egregious blunder on his part, for if that formation exists in 
lovva at all it must lie at least five hundred feet below the coal beds. The saline 
character of the Davis county springs is owing undoubtedly to local peculiarities. 
After the above paragraph had been written, the compiler had an opportunity 
to consult Owen's Survey of the Northwest, made in 1849. That distinguished 
and reliable scientist visited several mineral springs in the eastern part of Davis 
county, and states, on page iii of his report, that the chemical analysis showed 
the water to contain chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesia, bicarbonate of 
iron, bicarbonate of lime, sulphate of magnesia and sulphate of soda. The salt 
e.xists, it is true, but the other minerals mixed with the water would render ii 
worthless as a commercial article. Fox must have been well aware of Owen- 
visit to this neighborhood, for he was himself an assistant in Professor Whit- 
ney's survey ten years later, and his assertion that the springs along Soap creek- 
have any value should be entirely disregarded. 

Tin-: ORir.ix of co.\i. 

It is believed that a further discussion of the tojiic with reference to th' 
coal mines may not be out of place. This article of commerce is found in various , 
places in tlie geologic series of formations, beginning with the Middle Carboni-1 
ferous, in which stratum belong the coal-seams found in this county, and ending 
with those much more recent in point of time, which are found in the Middle 
Tertiary. These latter beds are found best exposed in Wyoming and are in all 
about thirty feet in thickness. 

But the coal field in Iowa belongs to the true Carboniferous system of the 
writers upon the subject, and is, moreover, the outfield of the vast coal basin 
partly covering this state, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania. It is only in 
the Alleghanies that subterranean action has converted any ])art of the coal 
into anthracite. Everywhere else in the immense basin it is strictly bituminous, 
varying, however, from the article as first prepared by the economic forces of 
nature from the Ijlock coal of Indiana to the cannel coal found in several places ' 
in Iowa. 

In the ancient history of the earth, the leading events of which have been 
slowly deciphered through the researches of scientific men, the earth's crust was 
much more plastic than at present, and the climate was more than tropical from 
pole to pole. The carbon now stored beneath many feet of soil and rocks was 
mingled, in the form of carbonic-acid gas, with the atmosphere. The earth's crust 
lacked the stability it now possesses. .A vast plain would gradually thrust itself to 
the surface of the ocean, where vegetation would at once begin, ("ireat forests 
would grow in the tropical heat, fanned by the damp sea breezes, and stimulated 
by the carbon in the atmosphere. This vegetation was usually composed almost 
entirely of a species of palm and a variety of fern that grew to an enormous 
size. That this is true cannot be disputed, for in many coal districts the stumps 
of immense trees are to be found in the clay underlying the coal, and often tiie 
trunks can be found only partially converted into coal. Hut what is more curious 
still, is the fact in Nova Scotia mines, when the vegetable mold that now 
forms the coal bed was buried up. many trees were left standing. The lower 


portions of their trunks were in process of time converted into coal, but the 
upper sections, surrounded by sand, as that was converted into rock, became 
petrified, the bark taking the form of coal. This peculiarity is a source of danger 
to these mines, for the petrified trunks, as the coal is mined away beneath them. 
are liable to slip from their brittle enclosures of ancient bark and fall to the 
floor of the mine. .More than one workman in these mines have been crushed to 
death by these silicified trees becoming detached and falling. 

in explaining the cause of the freedom of coal from impurities of almost 
every description. Sir Charles Lyell gives a i)aragraph which has an imiiortant 
bearing on the above. He says : 

The purity of the coal itself, or the absence in it of earthy particles and sand, 
throughout acres of vast extent, is a fact wliich appears very difficult to explain 

; when we attribute each coal-seam to a vegetation growing in swamps. It has 
been asked how, during river inundations capable of sweeping away the leaves 

tof ferns and the stems and roots of Sigillariae and other trees, could the waters fail 

Ito transjwrt some tine mud into the swamps? One generation after another of 
tall trees grew with their roots in mud. and their leaves and prostrate trunks 
formed layers of vegetable matter, which was afterward covered with mud, since 
turned into shale. Yet the coal itself, or altered vegetable matter, remained all 
the while unsoiled by earthy particles. This enigma, however perplexing at first 
sight, mav. I think, be solved b\- attending to what is now taking place in deltas. 
The dense growth of reeds and herbage which encompasses the margins of 
forest covered swamps in the valley and delta of the Mississippi is such that the 
fluviatile waters, in passing through them, are filtered and made to clear them- 
selves entirely before they reach the areas in which vegetable matter mav accu- 
mulate for centuries, forming coal, if the climate be fa\orablc. There is no 
possibility of the least intermixture of earthy matter in such cases. Thus in the 
large submerged tract called the "Sunk Country." near New Madrid, forming 
part of the western side of the valley of the Mississippi, erect trees have been 
standing ever since the year 1811-12. killed by the great earth(|uake of that 
date; lacustrine and swamp plants have been growing there in the shallows, and 
several rivers have annually inundated the whole space, and yet have been unable 
to carry in any sediment within the outer boundaries of the morass, so dense is 
the marginal belt of reeds and brushwood. It may be affirmed that generallv, in 
the "cypress swamps" of the Mississippi no sediment mingles with the vegetable 
matter accumulated there from the decay of trees and semi-aquatic plants. .As a 
singular proof of this fact. I may mention that whenever any part of a swamp 
in Louisiana is dried up during an unusually hot season, and the wood is set 
on fire, pits are burned into the ground many feet deep, or so far down as the 
fire can descend without meeting with water, and it is then found that scarcely 
any residuum or earthy matter is left. .\t the l)ottom of all these "cvprcss 
swamjjs" a bed of clay is found with roots of the tall cypress, just as the midcr 
clays of the coal are filled with .Stigmaria. 

Let a depression of the lower Mississipi)i valley take i)Iacc. whercbv the sea 
shall flow in and cover these "cypress swamps" during a long ])rocession of 

i years, and a coal bed will result. It appears from the researches of I.icbig and 
other eminent chemists, that when wood and vegetable matter are buried in the 
earth, exposed to moisture, and partially or entirely excluded frnm the air. they 


decompose slowly and evolve carbonic-acid gas, thus parting with a portion of 
their original oxygen. By this means, they become gradually converted into 
lignite, or wood coal, such as is found in the Tertiary beds of Wyoming, and 
which contains a larger proportion of hydrogen than wood does. A continuance 
of the decomposition changes this lignite into common or bituminous coal, chiefly 
by the discharge of carbureted hydrogen, or the gas by which we illuminate our 
cities and houses. The disengagement of all these gradually transforms ordinary 
or bituminous coal into the anthracite found in Pennsylvania and Kentucky. 
The gases and water which are made to [jenetrate through the cracks in the rock^ 
forming above the coal, are ])robably effective as metamorphic agents, b;. 
increased temperature derived from the interior. It is well known that at the 
present period thermal waters and hot vapors burst out from the earth during 
earth(iuakes, and these would not fail to promote the disengagement of volatile 
matter in the carboniferous rocks. 

The whole subject is of absorbing interest, but the above outline must suffice, 
especially as enough has been said to account for the origin of the Middle Car- 
boniferous bed, which is the sole matter in hand. It is enough to add that, in all 
about one hundred and fifty species of vegetalile life have been discovered among 
the fossil remains in the various coal fields of the world. 


It is stated that the first coal .shaft ever sunk in the country was by B. F. 
Kindig, who found the coal bed about sixteen feet below the limestone rock 
which crops out in the vicinity. This was in 1863 or 1864, but coal had been 
known to exist in the county long before, for it crops out in several places 
along Shoal Creek and its tributaries, and had liecn mined for several years for 
local uses. 

The shaft of the Appanoose Coal Company, near the railway junction at 
Centerville, was sunk, it is said, twenty or thirty feet below where the coal was 
afterward found. An experienced miner suggested that a side drift be made 
at a depth of one hundred and twenty feet. The experiment was tried, and the 
coal was found a few feet from the shaft. Other shafts have been sunk below 
where the coal ought to lie, and trunks of trees, buried in clay, have been 
found, indicating that the coal has, since its formation, been gashed and broken 
by some disturbing cause. This would seem to have been a local upheaval, for the 
reason that the limestone overlying the coal, lying west and south of Centerville. 
has a positive dip toward the southwest of perhaps fifteen degrees, which can 
be ascertained by visiting the mine owned by Mr. Kindig, and that worked by 
Mr. McClard. F'urther, the coal bed itself dips at the same angle. The bed 
probably does not possess this dip for any great distance, for, as stated above, it 
appears near water mark along Shoal creek, and along the streams in the north- 
west part of the county. The line of disturbance or breakage then passes nearly 
north and south in the vicinity of Centerville. 

The following is given as the order in which the rocks were found in sinking 
the shaft of Oliver, Phillips & Dargaval's mine, in the ea.stern part of Centerville 
about the year 1875, after passing through the surface of soil and clay: Hani 
lime-rock, 8 feet ; soapstone ; hard sand-rock, 2 feet : soapstone ; limestone. nearl\ 


4 feet ; soapstone ; limestone, i foot ; soapstone ; "black rock" or shale, 2 feet ; 
coal. The sand-rock appears between two laj'ers of lime-rock, in the ledge near 
Talbut's mill, on Cooper creek, but the soapstone is wanting, having apparently 
thinned out or been dissolved away by the action of water. The rock near lal- 
bot's is filled with fossils from top to bottom, all apparently of the same species. 

The shaft of the Watson Coal Company, a short distance south of the Rock 
Island depot, is stated to have shown the following stratifications: Soil, clay and 
gravel, 80 feet; hard lime-rock, laying in layers and broken by joints, 12 feet: 
shale and soapstone. 8 feet: fossil-bearing (mountain) limestone. 9 feet; black 
slate, 15 feet; lime-rock. 3 feet; shale, 16 feet; lime-rock, 3 feet; slate 4 feet; 
lime-rock, 6 feet; coal. 3 feet. It may be noticed as a curious circumstance that 
the sand bed in the Oliver mine and at Talbot's Mill is wanting in the Watson 
mine. However, as many layers are entirely wanting in the Iowa coal system 
which are noticed elsewhere, these local variations may be e.xpected. 

In some places in the western part of the county, a thin layer of coal or 
shale has been noticed, which goes to show that the Upper Carboniferous touches 
.■\ppanoose on the west. The group of rocks covering the coal belong to the 
"mountain limestone," as named by Dana and sanctioned by Lyell. 


The coal industry of Appanoose county has readied vast proportions in the 
past few years, as the products of over fifty mines will attest. In the year ending 
December 11. 1911. there were taken from the bowels of the earth in this 
county, one and one-third millions tons of coal, which meant the employment of 
over three thousand men and a vast expenditure of money for labor and work- 
ing material. Most if not all, of the money was spent in the county and as a 
consequence, the operating of the mines has increased the wealth of the county 
to a very appreciable extent. From the fact that the lands of .\pi)anoose county 
are teeming with coal, — rich and deep veins of the black diamond of a splendid 
quality, — the owners of these lands, many of them, have become enriched from 
royalties received on the coal mined and unmined and from the products of the 
soil. .Appanoose coal finds a ready market and from shafts dotted here and 
there in different parts of the county comes a steady stream of the article that 
is shif)ped broadcast over the land. 

A list of the mines now operating in the county follows: 

Peacock — Peacock Coal Company, owners, Brazil. 

Walnut Block — Walnut Block Coal Company, owners, Brazil. 

Laneville — Louis Anderson, owner, Centerville. 

No. 30 — Carbon Block Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Center and Dewey — Center Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Nos. I, 2, 3. 5, 9 and 10 — Centerville I'lock Coal Company, owners, Center- 

Citizens — Citizens Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Koontz — J. A. Koontz, owner. Centerville. 

Maggie Lynn — Maggie Lynn Coal Company, owners. 103 South Main street, 

Monitor — Monitor Coal Company. (I. Hitchins"). owner. Centerville. 


Oriental — Oriental Coal & Mining Company, owners, Centerville. 

Peerless, Nos. 2, 5 and 6 — Peerless Coal Compan)', (Lee Brothers), owners, 

Phoenix — Phoenix Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Streepy — A. G. Widmer, owner, Centerville. 

Scandinavian, Nos. i and 2 — Scandinavian Coal Company, owners, Center- 

Sunshine — Sunshine Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Trio — Dan Clark, owner, Centerville. 

White Oak — White Oak Coal Company, owners, Centerville. 

Woodland — Woodland Coal Company, owners, 916 West Washington street, 

Armstrong — Armstrong Coal Company, owners, Cincinnati. 

Domestic — Domestic Coal Company, owners, Cincinnati. 

Hocking Valley — F. C. Hand, owner, Cincinnati. 

Thistle, Nos. i, 2 and 3 — Thistle Coal Company, owners, Cincinnati. 

Guinn — I. A. Guinn Coal Company, owners,* Dean. 

Morrow — Evans & Morrow Coal Company, owners. Dean. 

Exline, Nos. i and 2 — Exline Coal Company, owners, Exline. 

No. I — Iowa Block Coal Company, owners, Exline. 

Royal — Royal Block Coal Company (P. N. May), owner, Exline. 

Sundeen — Sundeen Coal & Mining Company, owners, Exline. 

Big Four — Consumers' Coal Company, owners, Jerome. 

Acken — Acken Coal Company, owners. Mystic. 

Barrett — Barrett Coal Company, owners. Mystic. 

Beggs — Beggs Coal Company, owners, Mystic. 

No. 5 — Diamond Block Coal Company, owners, Mystic. 

Egypt Block, No. i — Egypt Coal Company (A. B. Duddy), owner. Mystic. 

Orville, No. 6 — Interocean Coal Company (James Horridge), owner. Mystic. 

Nos. 3, 12, 22 and 29 — Lodwick Brothers Coal Company, owners. Mystic. 

Little Creek — Charles Galagher, Cowan & Booth, owners, 2klystic. 

Horridge, Nos. i and 2 — Mystic Coal Company (James Horridge), owner. 

Lady Mary (Lodwick) — Winifred Coal Company, owners. Mystic. 

Nos. I, 2 and 3 — Anchor Coal Company (also in Wapello county), owners, 

Rathbnn, No. i — Fowler-Wilson Coal Company, owners, Ottumwa. 

Rosebrook — Farmers Coal Company (Anderson & Mc\'eigh), owners, Rath- 

Darby. No. I — Unity Block Coal Company, owners, Rathbun. 

Nunia, No. i — Numa Block Coal Company (also in Wayne county), owners, 

No. I and Juckett — Big Jo Block Coal Comjiany. owners, 407 Dearborn street, 

Albert and Appanoose — Mcndota Coal Company (also in Missouri), owners, 
Mendota, Missouri. 

Martin Block Coal 'SWne — Martin Block Coal Company, owners, Numa. 



The Chariton river is tlie princijial stream in Appanoose county. The main 
stream takes its rise in Lucas county and enters Appanoose near the northwest 
corner. The south fork of the same stream rises in Clark and Decatur counties, 
and discharges into the main stream on section 14, Independence. The union of 
the two forms a considerable stream, which takes a southeastern direction through 
the county, passing into the state of Missouri between Caldwell and Wells town- 
ships. There are several mill sites along the river, which have been made avail- 
able for many years. Thirty years ago, the river was regarded as sufficiently for- 
miflable to require the establishment of ferries. This stream empties into the 
Missouri river. 

South Fox and .Middle Fox rise in Washington township, and the north fork 
of the same stream rises in Udell. These flow eastward into Davis county and 
thence to the Mississippi. 

South Soap rises in Taylor, and North .Soap in Union. These are triljutaries 
of I'ox river. 

I'.ig Walnut creek rises in Wayne county and flows in a direction north of 
east, through Johns, Bellair and Walnut, and discharges into the Chariton. 

Cooper creek drains the southern part of Lincoln, flows through Bellair, the 
northern part of Center, receiving the water of Hickory creek north of Center- 
ville and emptying into tlie Chariton in Sharon. 

Shoal creek originates in Wayne county, passes through the northern part 
of I'ranklin and Pleasant, and in the latter takes a southeastern direction into 
Caldwell, and flows thence into ilissouri. 

There are numerous other small streams and but few sections in Appanoose 
are destitute of running streams. 

Appanoose thus lies on the water shed separating the Missouri and Missis"- 
sippi rivers, the Chariton draining into the former great stream, and the Fox 
into the latter. 


Tliis county enjoyed above most Iowa counties, a very equal distribution of 
timbered and prairie land, almost every little stream having been skirted with 
timber. Hence, the groves, which in other counties become distinctive features" 
and landmarks to the pioneers, known by characteristic names, were not often so 
designated in Appanoose and localities were designated by the streams or by the 
names of pioneer settlers. "Packard's Grove," east of Chariton, was, however, 
and still remains a well known lanrlmark. 




The first white men to traverse the soil of Appanoose county, so it is said, 
were of a company of dragoons, who dc])arted from tlie island of Rock Island, 
then known as Fort Armstrong, in the summer of 1832, with the pur])ose of 
reconnoitering the country as far west as Kansas. The company, taking a 
southwesterly course, struck the locality now known as Agency, in Wapello 
county. Other points touched by the dragoons in their way were the future 
sites of the villages of Drakesville and Moulton. They then struck off south- 
west through Ap])anoose and entered Missouri near the southwest corner of 
PVanklin township. The country between this county and Davenport had not 
been at that time organized into civil divisions. In fact the treaty between 
the Sacs and Fox Indians, ceding the land, had not been completed and, as a 
matter of fact, the country had not come under the jurisdiction of the govern- 
ment, to the extent of throwing it open for settlement. Appanoose county 
was at this time terra incognita to the whites and the dragoons from Fort Arm- 
strong, as far as is known, were the first white men to tread its soil. They met 
the owners of the prairies, the hills, the streams and their wild inhabitants, the 
Sacs and I-"ox Indians, who were soon to give over their birthright to the "pale 
faces" and be driven from their hunting grounds. 

The dragoons left a trail that for .some time after their departure was notice- 
able to the hardy pioneer who happened this way. Josejih Shaddon, who lived 
in the county at one time, and was well known to the late Dr. Sturdivant, made 
the statement to him, that he tramped over a good part of Appanoose county 
in 1833, hunting for deer and other animals and found many deer and wild 
turkeys. Shaddon, the first hunter and trapper to visit this section, of which 
there is any record, noticed the tracks of the dragoons and said they were east 
of the Chariton river and in the neighborhood of Moulton. However, pros- 
pectors coming into the county, with the view of looking up claims, found two 
trails, the one made by the dragoons ; the other had a general trend of Bee 
Trace, in Washington township, and was known by that name by the Missou- 
rians. This "trace" may have been made by the Indians, but early settlers 
declare the trail was really a wagon road, as traces of wheel tracks were plainly 
visible. These tracks, it might be well to say. were probably made by bee hunters, 
who hauled the honey, then abounding in the hollow of trees, in wagons to their 
homes in the wilderness. Joseph Shaddon is accredited with being the first civil- 


ian to enter this region. But the claim is set up for \\ illiani Kirln. that he was 
here in 1X30. and that he found bee trees in profusion, having in their forks or 
lioll<j\v trunks large stores of delicious honev. which he ijrocured and conveyed to 
his home in I'utnam county, Missouri. 

TiiF. ^rl)RM()^■s 

The history of the religio-political sect designated as the Mormons, is generally 
known. l!y reason of doctrines ex])ounded and certain jiractices performed they 
were driven from pillar to ]jost and in 1838 and 1839 began their great movement 
to the northwest, which terminated at Salt Lake City. Dissensions arose in their 
ranks and many who believed in the main tenets of Mornionism refused to Ijelieve 
in or adhere to the advanced ideas of Josei)h Smith and lirigham Young and 
seceded. Manv of these people w hilc on the move toward the mecca of Mornionism 
passed along the dragoon trail through .XpjJanoose county and some remained 
here and formed the nucleus of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, still in 
existence in this county. Large bodies of Mormons passed over this route 
through this country and made the road so distinct and passal)le that it was 
long designated by many as the "Mormon trail." 

FJK.sT pi:km.\.ni;nt 

A Iiistory of Appanoose county was written in the year 1878 and published 
by the Western Historical Society. From what the compiler of this work can 
gather by strenuous research, the history is as true a relation of facts as con- 
ditions would permit when the work of research was in i)rogress. It was much 
easier in that day, however, to gather the data for a local history than now. 
Then a great many of the first settlers were living antl in their prime. They 
were just emerging from a primary state, so to speak, and the recollection of the 
first vcars spent in this new country was still fresh in their memories. The 
men and women who had left comfortable homes in the eastern states and 
friends of a life time, coming here when there was nothing to greet tlieir eyes 
but a V. ilderness, the haunt of wild animals and untamed savages, still were 
here and were brimming over with tales of their early fears, privations and 
struggles in building new homes, new towns and cities and should have been 
seen and interviewed. But they were not and posterity is the loser. 

Few there are today, who know out of their own experience what were the 
conditions of this section when thrown open for settlement by the government. 
There are men and women still living, who can tell you of the experiences here 
of fifty or sixt) years ago in this county, but they are few in number and becom- 
ing less as the days go by. Those who can tell you of the early days oi .\]i])a- 
noose know of events, but are woefully lacking in names and dates, the most 
salient and important features of any occurrence. So it is that the historian 
of the present day, if not possessed of unlimited time and jiatience. is sadly 
handicai)])ed in his researches and his readers are deprived of their ju?t dues. 

This digression is the result of a doubt in the writer's mind as to who was 
the first settler in .Appanoose county. The former history, heretofore men- 
tioned, i)laces the distinction on Ewen Kirby, a '•-"Miig Missourian. who came 


into the county in 183X, and built a cabin near tbe east line of I'lcasant town- 
ship and not far from the ])resent village of Cincinnati. Here Kirby lived with 
his family and trafficked with the Indians for about two years. At the expira- 
tion of that time he gathered up his family treasures, burned down his cabin 
and departed with his family for other scenes of activity. To Ewen Kirby, 
while living in the county and in the year 1838, was born, most probably, the 
first white child in the county. The l)aby was named Elizabeth, who grew to 
womanhood and married a Missourian by the name of Tate. Elizabeth's aunt, 
Mrs. W illiam Kirby, whose husband gathered honey along the bee trace in 
1839, resided in this county nearly a half century, part of which time was 
spent with her daughter, in Caldwell township, whose husband was Dr. J. H. 
W'orthington. who came to this county in 1846 and was the first "regular" 
physician to locate in this section of the country. 

If two years' residence in a community is sufficient duration to establish 
what may be termed a permanent residence, then Kirby was the first settler, 
or pioneer, of Appanoose county. Those who are versed in matters of this 
kind are permitted to solve the problem to their own satisfaction. Kirby was 
a resident of the county two years, that seems to be undisputed. He built a 
log cabin on a tract of land and established his family therein. He also culti- 
vated a patch of ground and, as lie came here mainly for that i)uri)ose, it is 
presumed he bartered and traded with the Indians. 


The first person to enter the county and lake up a claim, locating liiereon 
and making permanent improvements, was Colonel James Wells, who selected 
a tract of land in section 16, township G- (Wells), range 16. in the summer of 
1839. one year before Kirby had left. On this land, near the timber. Wells 
put up a rudely-constructed log cabin, in which he installed his familv and a 
few household goods. Two years following his location he constructed a saw- 
mill on his claim and sawed the logs that entered into the construction of habi- 
tations for his neighbors, who had come in the preceding year. This was no 
great task, however. The Wells family had no neighbors until .\dolphus Stevens 
and .\ustin Jones took up claims in the locality in 1841. Stevens staved, improved 
his holdings and added to his i)ossessions. He remained on this farm over fortv 
years. Jones was not a "stayer" and after a few years of "riiu,s,dnng it." sold out 
and went to California. It is very i)robal)le that in 1841, Jack Klinkenbeard was 
a settler in the Stevens neighborhood, but if he was, nothing remains to identify 
him witli the pioneers of the county. 


J. F. Stratton must be jjlaced in the honorar\ list of pioneers of .\i)i)anoosc 
county, for it was as early as the year 1841 wiicn, leaving iiis family in St. 
Francisville, Missouri, he found his way here in search of a claim and selected 
what he desired in section 2, township jf>7 (Pleasant), range 18, and about a 
mile east of the present village of Cincinnati. On this land .Mr. Stratton built 
a cabin and then returtied to .\[i'---rniri fnr his familv and chattels. I'rif)r to this 


and while prospecting for a claim, Stratton had left a chest of tools with a Mr. 
Robinson, who was then living in a cabin just over the Iowa line in Missouri, 
and Mr. Stratton said that Robinson was the only settler in that vicinity. If 
this is true the claim made for one Jack Vinton that he was a settler near "the 
spring" as early as 1837 has been refuted, as Mr. Stratton saw no evidence of 
a habitation anywhere in that locality. 

"undesirable citizens" 

That part of the county now known as Caldwell township was probably 
inhabited about the year 1841, or shortly thereafter, by a man named Moore, 
who w-as certainly, to use an expression of President Roosevelt, an "undesir- 
able citizen," if it were true, as was broadly hinted at the time, that he was 
possessed of too many wives. He came to stay, as his building of a cabin indi- 
cated. But officers of the law got on his trail and when the doors of the peni- 
tentiary closed upon him his career as a citizen of Appanoose county came to 
an unsavory end. 

William Level was another "undesirable," who sought the tall timber of 
Appanoose for a habitation and a place of seclusion. He came to the locality 
now within the confines of Caldwell and settled down with one wife, and what 
may be termed, a near wife, a young woman called Jane, for whom, in the 
Mormon fashion, he built a separate cabin. But one man maintaining two fami- 
lies in the manner laid down by Level was not according to the code of ethics 
even at that day. Some time in 1844 he was arrested, convicted of the charge 
brought against him and sentenced to jail. There being no institution of that 
kind at hand, he was placed in charge of a deputy sheriff, who gave him em- 
ployment as a clerk, accepting his word that he would not attempt to escape. 
He was allowed to spend Sunday with his "families" and in the course of time 
Level, with both women, sold his property and went to California. The girl 
while here bore children and was attended by Dr. W'orthington. w-ho related 
the facts in the case as here stated. 

Colonel James Wells' family secured neighbors in the fall of 1841, or 
spring of 1842, when William Cooksey and family settled not far from their 
cabin. In 1842 Solomon Hobbs made a claim not very far away, in town- 
ship 69 (Caldwell), range 17. About this time Robert Caughran and George 
Buckner also made locations in the southern part of the couiuy. Other set- 
tlers came into the county in the spring of 1842 and put up rude habitations of 
logs, the furniture of which was mostly "homemade." 

All these settlements in the county up to this time were in direct opposition 
to the treaty ceding the lands to the government, which prohibited settlement 
on the land until May i, 1843, and under the treaty no white man was even 
allowed to go upon the land for any purpose. Notwithstanding these inhibi- 
tions, settlers came into the Indian country and took their chances of remain- 
ing unmolested. Some were fortunate, as the Wells, Stevens. Cookseys. Jones, 
Buckner and Caughrans, but others were not. for in the summer of 1842, a 
party of dragoons from the ])ost at .Agency. Wapello county, was sent out 


under instructions from the war department, to warn off the settlers and destroy 
their improvements. Many of them lost all they possessed and were driven 
out of the country. 


Tales of the beauty and fertility of the country had reached the people of 
the middle, eastern and southern states. The "Black Hawk Purchase" then 
became a loadstone, which drew from the older and thickly populated states 
the ambitious and courageous men and women who desired better opportuni- 
ties for making a living and building homes for themselves and their children, 
^lonths before the day set for the opening of the new country to settlements, 
its borders were crowded with impatient men and women, who with their chil- 
dren and a few household necessaries, were waiting anxiously and eagerly 
the word to proceed to the land of promise and choose from the millions of 
acres of farms to suit their individual tastes. Soon the western borders of the 
"P.lack Hawk Purchase," up the principal streams, began to take on a new life 
and the habiliments of civilization. First, the timber country was the more 
sought after and chosen, for little faith was then placed in the virtue and 
productiveness of the open prairie land. But it was not long before this great 
mistake became apparent and the prairies were turned into farms that are now 
the wonder and admiration of the world. Iowa, "the beautiful land," was "a 
sight to delight the eyes of all comers from every land — its noble streams, beau- 
tiful and picturesc|ue hills and valleys, broad and fertile prairies, extending as 
far as the eye could reach, with a soil surpassing in richness anything they had 
ever seen. It is not to be wondered at that immigration into Iowa was rapid 
and that within less than a decade from the organization of the territory it 
contained 150.000 people." 

In the early summer of 1843, J. F. Stratton, who had selected his claim in 
what is now Pleasant township, and built a cabin, returned to this county, his 
future home, accompanied by his brother, Joseph. Mr. Straiten did not set- 
tle on the claim selected in 1841, however, being fearful that in the survey of 
the land and its further division, the claim might be found in slave-holding 
Missouri. Having an intense repugnance to the "peculiar institution" of the 
south, he decided to take no chances and, relinguishing his claim in Pleasant 
township as it is now known, he took uj) another one in sections 2 and 10, town- 
ship (i(j (Udell), range 16, and with the assistance of his brother, built a cabin 
on the land, in which he installed his family, leaving Joseph in charge while he 
■It back to Missouri for his wife and children. 

J. B. Packard was a settler in the county in 1843 and chose a tract of land 
in what is now Sharon township. The same year George \V. Perkins selected 
a home in Center townshi]) and at once began preparing the ground for a 
nursery, .\bout the <:\mf time James M;m<nn located within tlu- present limits 
of I'.ellair township. 

That i)ortion of the county wliich makc> up Udell to\\ii>lii]) was good to 
l""k upon to the eyes of John W. Clancy. William Money, John and William 

i\v and Samuel and Stephen Trimble. These pioneers settled here in 1843 
and soon others came to join them. 


The first persons to settle in what is now i<no\vn as Washington township 
were William Bratton, James Wright and Jehiel Troxell. Tliey were among 
the number who came about 1843, soon after the ""purchase"' was thrown open 
for settlement. 

The Packards, Josiah P... William, P>. L. and E. A., took up claims in 1843 
along the Chariton river, in the timber which later was called Packard's Grove. 
John Overstreet came at the same time and located in the same part of the 

William Manson, Thomas Wilcox and Thomas G. Manson made their claims 
in the vicinity of a little stream subsec|uently called Sanson's branch. Thev 
immediately began improving their farms, but it was not until 1844 that thev 
brought their families from Lee county, Illinois, to their Iowa homes. 


In Jul}-. 1844. before the county had been organized. William Wells, son 
of the pioneer. Colonel James Wells, was married to !\Iahala Cooksey, daughter 
of William Cooksey. For this ceremony, no minister of the gospel was avail- 
able to solemnize it, nor were there a judge or justice of the peace. If everv 
settler in the county had been invited to be present, all could easily have been 
provided for. There were no local officials, and a justice of the peace over 
the border in Missouri, was called upon and no doubt i)erformed his duties in 
a manner entirely to the satisfaction of all concerned. 


As before related, Elizabeth, daughter of Ewen Kirby. was the first white 
child born in Appanoose county. Her birth occurred in the fall of 1838. The 
second birth of a white child is believed to have been that of \\'illiam Shauver. 
Jr,, son of the man who had charge of the Wells' mill. Young Shauver came 
into the world in 1842 and. in April, 1843, 1'- -^- !^tevens and wife becaine the 
parents of a daughter, whom they named Elizabeth. 


The first death of a white i)erson in the county was probably that of ai] 
unknown man, who was found not far from the Kirkendall cabin, by Colone 
James Wells in 1842. The body of the man, when discovered, was in a sitting' 
posture, leaning against a tree, with the head bent forward. Upon investigation, 
a hole was noticed in the unfortunate's head, where a rifle ball had penetrated 
and entered the brain. r)nc hand held an o])en memorandum book and be- 
neath the other was a ]iencil. which had evidently (lro])ped from it to tlie ground. 
The book entries resembled the notes of one who had been looking up claims. 
but as the township lines had not been laid, this seemed inexplicable. Undoubt- 
edly th.c man had come to his death by the hands of an enemy, but who the 
nmrdercr was has ever remained a mystery. The body was given decent burial. 





Andrew Trussell was the tirst person to make an entry of land in Appanoose 
unty. He located the northwest quarter of section i, township 70, range 16 in 
1S47, for which he paid cash, and received his patent from the government Feb- 
ruary I, 1848. Seven or eight other entries were made the same year in township 
70, range 16, and many more in 1848 and 1849. The reason for this was that the 
range in which this township was situated was the only one in Appanoose county 
then open to entry, the other not being subject to entry until in 1850. Again the 
vexed boundary question was in the way. The rest of the county had been sur- 
veyed and the civil divisions defined some two or three years, but entries were 
delaved until the question was settled for all time. Entries were made in the 
months of January and February, 1850, and by the end of i860 the last scat- 
tering tracts were taken. 

The first deed recorded in the county was presented by James Shields. The 
grantors in the deed were Jesse Wood, George W. Perkins and Albird Thompson, 
who, as the board of county commissioners, conveyed to Shields, lots 9 and 6, in 
range 4, block i, in the town of Centerville. for the sum of $30. The deed was 
dated I'ebruary 12. 1850. The price of that same lot is now up into the thousands 
of dollars. 


The first mill of any flcscri])tion built in Appanoose county was the one put 
up by Colonel James Wells on his claim in section 16, Wells township, in 1841. 
One of the first necessities of the pioneer was lumber, with which to build shel- 
ters for his family and live stock and the man who iiad a sawmill was of more 
than ordinary impr>rtance. While most of the houses were built of logs, window 
.'ind door casings and doors were indispensaljle, so that a sawmill would be built 
- soon as possible. As settlers became more numerous, mills were erected in 
various portions of the county and it was not long before the log cabin gave way 
to the frame house, and the family that lived in one was considered more blessed 
than the common run of settlers. 

From the minute book of the clerk of the board of commissioners it is deter- 
mined that a mill was erected near the first bridge that was built over the Chari- 
ton river. This mill was on the state road from I'loomfield to Centerville. 

The first flouring mill erected in the county was put up by J. F. Stratton in 
I •'^43. Jt was the crudest structure of its kind imaginable. "The lower frame 
■nsisted of a bee-gum, in which was fitted a small boulder as a bed stone. An- 
other b(julder was dressed to fit above, and a spindle attached, on the toj) of wiiich 
was fastened a crank. A small box above .served as a ho[)per." This ingenious 
and simple contrivance enabled the family to grind their wheat, corn and buck- 
wheat. Mr. Stratton took great pains in cleaning his grain, so that his flour ami 
corn meal were of as good quality as any to be obtained at the mill in P.onaparte or 
over in Nfissouri. This soon became known to Mr. Stratton's neighlwrs and many 
of them had their grain ground by him. .\fter doing sjilendid service (for the 
times) for the Strattons and their neighbors, the mill found its way into a 
pottery at Sharon, where it was long used for grinding clay. 

Colonel James Wells, the first permanent settler, erected a flouring mill in 


Wells townshii), about the year 1845. With this mill and that of Mr. Stratton. 
the early families in the county were vastly benefited. Before their advent "going 
to mill" was an event of no little imiiortance and much hardship and inconvenience 
were connected therewith. Distances to the nearest mills were fifty and seventy- 
five miles, and to make the journey and back often required a week's time, for 
it was never certain when the grist could be ground after it reached the mill. 
There were very apt to be others ahead of it and each grist had to take its turn. 
Consefjuently, the man on horseback, with his sack of grain, would quite fre- 
(luently be compelled to wait from one to two and three days before his turn 
came to have it ground. In the meantime the family at home had to subsist on 
cracked corn and other stuff equally as primitive. A sawmill was erected in 
Centerville early in the '40s and by 1850 it had been supplied with machinery 
for grinding grain. In the same year a sawmill was built in Franklin township 
by James Ilibbs and by the year 1856 he had in operation a flouring mill. 


In all probability, the first religious meeting held in this county was at the 
house of J. F. Stratton, in Udell township. On December 15. 1844. two minis- 
ters of the Baptist faith. Elders Post and Thompson, stopped with him and gath- 
ering in the neighbors, they preached the gospel to a group of God-fearing men 
and women, whose numbers had not gained sufficient strength to warrant them 
in organizing a church society. Four weeks later, one of the elders held a meet- 
ing at the home of Mr. Camp, who lived near the site of the present village of 

.After he got his family hou.';ed and his farn) in running order, William S. 
Manson. a deeply religious man. preached occasionally at his own home, where 
his neighbors gathered, or at the houses of those who were desirous of hearing, 
the "Word." The first sermon, jireached at the home of Mr. Manson, was by a 
Methodist clergyman, in the spring of 1845. In 1847 a Methodist class was 

The first Sabbath school in Ajjpanoose county, is said to have been organized 
by C. H. Howell, at his store in Centerville, in 1847. Not long thereafter, the 
First Presbyterian church of Centerville was organized and for many years Mr. 
Howell was one of its elders and clerk of the church. About tiie year 1846, a 
Baptist society was formed a little distance west of Centerville. 


In a log cabin erected by Spencer F. Wadlington in 1846, and situated a little 
northeast of where the city of Centerville now stands, was opened for business 
the first store in Appanoose county. The stock was of a variety to suit the needs 
and purses of settlers in a new country and did not take up any great amount of 
space. I'.eing a bachelor, Mr. Wadlington slept in the store, his bed being com- 
posed of bearskins and the pillow a bundle of coonskins. To economize, he did 
his own cooking. It is stated that the first year's sales of this store in the wilder- 
ness were a dozen pairs of coarse shoes, half a dozen of calico dress patterns, 
about that number of bolts of brown muslin, a few coarse casinettes, a sack of 


coffee and a few other groceries. From this small beginning Squire Wadling- 
ton "got his start" in the county and eventually liecamc an extensive farmer and 
stock dealer. He was the first mayor of Centerville, was probate judge, justice 
of the peace and dciiuty clerk. He held other offices and was a man of import- 
ance in his day. The death of this noted pioneer occurred on Monday, .Vovcni- 
ber 4. 1878. He was in many respects a type of the true Kentuckian — truthful 
and often generous. He was a Mason, was a member of Jackson lodge, and was 
buried in the fraternity, in a spot selected by himself, near his house in Indc])ciid- 
en'-e township. Sf|uire Wadlington w^as eccentric in character, but for all that 
he was trusted and respected. 


The first celebration of the 4th of July in this county was at Centerville, in 
1851. On that day. although the sky was dark with clouds and the ground soaked 
with rain, a procession was formed on the public square, headed by a fife and drum 
corps, the latter being thrummed by B. F. Packard, but the name of the fifer has 
not been obtainable. The jollifyers marched to a grove near town, and there dis- 
cussed juicy steaks of a beef that had been barbe(|ued. .\ddresses were made by 
Amos Harris, James Wright and others, afto" the Declaration of Independence 
had been read, and the eagle screamed triumphantly. 


The first agricultural society in the coutUy was organized in 1855. .\ prelim- 
inary meeting for the ])urpose of ascertaining the sense of the people relative to 
the enterprise was held in the latter part of .A^pril of that year, the presiding offi- 
cer being .\. S. Stone and .-\mos Harris, secretary. An adjourned meeting, on 
the first Saturday in June, followed, at which time 1". A. Stevens, W. W. Cottle, 
Reuben Riggs. James tJalbraith and .\mos Harris were chosen to prepare articles 
of incorijoration. .At a third meeting a constitution and set of by-laws were pre- 
sented and adopted and then the following named persons paid membership fees : 
Elias Conger, William Monroe, .\sa Dudley, Harvey Tannehill, James McKee- 
han, John Wilmington, .Michael Caldwell, J. 1'. .\nderson, James Wells, F. A. 
Stevens, D. T. Stevens, J. G. Brown, W. S. Hendersnn, .\mi)s Harris, Hiram 
Summers, Solomon Walker, B. .S. Packard. J. H. Parker, J.nmes Childers. James 
Galbraith. The presidency of the association fell to the lot of James Wells. .Asa 
Dudley was chosen vice president ; .\mos Harris, secretary ; Harvey Tannehill, 
treasurer. The townshi]) committeemen were: Dr. Nathan Udell, Union; F. 
Taylor, Washington; James Wells, Wells; J. Delay, H. S. Stone, G. W. Perkins, 
Center; F. A. Stevens, Caldwell; J. H. P.. .Armstrong, Pleasant; Dr. Hall, Shoal 
Creek; John Bland, Johns; D. Stooley, Independence; Mr. Macon, Chariton; 
S. M. Andrews, Taylor. 

The first fair held by the association, which took the title of the .\ppanoose 
County .Agricultural .Society, was on the 5th day of October, 1855, near Center- 
ville. There were a large number of exhibits and the meet was quite generously 
attended. Those winning premiums were: B. Adamson, best boar; H. S. Thomas, 
yearling heifer: .Mr. .Abel, second best heifer; James Wells, yearling bull; James 


Galbraiili, cow; ^Ir. Abel, second best cow; \'alentiiie Tripp, best bull calf; Mr. 
Abel, second best ; X'alcntine Tripp, best bull ; D. Scott, second best ; Thomas 
Tresser, best yoke of oxen ; H. S. Thomas, second best ; James Wells, best cow ; 
S. Thomas, second best; J. H. B. Armstnjng, best mule team; Isaac Grigsby, sec- 
ond best; George Abel, best butler; Mr. Breazeale, second; M. O. Quinn, best 
boots; Silas Jump, best two-year colt; William Breazeale, second; D. T. Stevens, 
best colt, three years old: H. S. Thomas, best yearling mare colt; Gilbert McFoy, 
second; G. R. Mors, best yearling horse colt; O. Harrow, best horse colt; Simp- 
son Cupp, second; H. S. Thomas, best stallion; Isaac Gregory, second; J. H. B. 
Armstrong, best brood mare ; James Wells, second ; John Wright, buggy horse ; 
R. ^lemnon, matched team ; J. Conger, draft horse ; B. Burdam, second. The 
total amount of premiums was $33.50. 

Xo fair was held by this organization in 1856 or at any other time, and it is 
presumed the society disbanded. Another one, however, was organized in Sep- 
tember. 1856, with forty members, and the constitution of the former society 
was adopted. George Abel was the president ; J. S. Wakefield, secretary ; Har- 
vey Tannehill, treasurer. A fair was held, but there were only seventeen entries. 

At the meet of 1857 there were sixty-three entries. George W. Perkins 
exhibited some fine apples and samples of sorghum molasses were entered by two 
other persons. The premiums paid amounted to $25.75. P'airs were held for a 
number of years and then interest lagged to that extent that the association dis- 
integrated and the grounds, which were southeast of the Burlington depot, were 
sold and later cut up into city lots. 

Another fair association was organized in the county in the '80s and fitted 
up beautiful grounds northeast of the city and close to the corporation line. Here 
were held some interesting gatherings of the community, but like its predecessors, 
the association failed to impress the people sufficiently with its annual programs 
and a'jout five years ago the last fair was held in .Appanoose county. 


The farmers' institute has come to stay and meets with the commendation of 
both men and women. .Annual meetings are held in the fall or winter, and exhibits 
of farm products are attractions that appeal to many. But the main features of 
the institute are the lectures of men versed in the science of farming and stock- 
raising, who are employed to address the gatherings and instruct the farmer how 
best to cultivate his land, in order to reach the highest results. The state takes 
a hand in making the farmers' institute interesting and profitable, by appropriat- 
ing funds to be applied to their support, and each year the institute is becoming 
more popular and becoming of greater interest, not only to the tiller of the soil, 
but also the lousiness and professional man. 

Till; ■■(;k.\ni,i;ks 

The Patrons of Husbandry was an order that sprang up among the farming 
communities of the United States in the early ■70s and arrived at its greatest 
strength in .Appanoose county in the. year of 1874. The object of the organiza- 
tion was to make of its tenets an educational force, as a means for promoting 
the material condition of the great industry of farming. 


The order became of great help to members in distress and contributed large 
sums of money to those who had become practically helpless through loss of 
crops, their holdings and other disasters. "Grangers" had their stores and ware- 
houses for the purpose of heading off the "middleman" and for a while the 
movement was successful. But roguery crept into the fold and financial scandals 
were th.e results. From year to year the ranks of the "drangers" became weaker 
and weaker, until today the "Granger" organization has practically ceased to 
exist in many parts of the country. 

On September 27. if^73, when the order in .Appanoose was blossoming into 
vigor and strengtii, its members held a big celebration at Centerville. where they 
were addressed by Colonel Earlywine. Rev. Clark, Elder Sevey, J. A. Pierson, J. 
I,. Hughes and Mansel Hughes, and in the following month the establishment 
of granges was reported as follows: Rehobeth, Hickory, Concord, Bellair, Bun- 
combe, Philadelphia, Hibbsville, Golden Rule, Caldwell, Antioch, Nashville, Wash- 
ington, Iowa, and Mai)le Grove. Others were organized later on and the grange 
flourished, only to wither and perish in the course of time. 


Every community has its poor and indigent people, unable or indisposed to' 
care pr(>])erly for themselves. A duty devolves on the ta.xpayer to provide . for 
them, not only under the unwritten law but by statutory ])rovisions. At first the 
"poor" of .Appanoose county were "farmed out" to individuals, who were paid 
a certain stipend for taking care of their charges, but soon different methods 
became imperative and in 1867, the board of supervisors appointed from its mem- 
bers a committee of three to choose a .suitable site for a "poor farm." llie cost 
not to e.xceed $4,000. The committee, in the line of its duties, viewed several 
tracts of land within a radius of eight miles from Centerville and finally fixed 
upon the land owned tjy W. C. Ewing, situated on the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 32. in Bellair township, about si-\ miles southwest of Centerville. The land 
was secured by the board and the deed was executed and delivered on the i6th 
day of March, 1867. Possession was given the following November. 

The residence was jjrepared for its unfortunate ( ?) guests and other imjjrove- 
ments were made. In 1878, a new building, 14x28 feet, was erected and the 
old Ewing house repaired. Since then changes of a progressive nature have 
taken place on the farm and the county's charges have l)een well provided for. 

FIN.\NC1.\I. rROr.RES.S 

r)n the 7th day of October, 1846, Jesse Wood, collector and treasurer of the 
newly organized bailiwick of .Appanoose, reported to the board of county com- 
missioners that the total valuation of all property in the county, subject to taxa- 
tion, amounted to $24,055, on which the levy was $2W).9y, diviiled as follows: 

Territorial $ 18.29 

Poll 54.50 

School 7,V07 

Total . .$145.76 


Of die above amount the commissioners had aljated S23.09; Treasurer Wood 
collected, in orders. $88.55 o^ ^'^^ county tax and $35.96 school tax. The sum 
of $37.94 was reported as delinquent. 

That was sixty-six years ago and as compared with the liistory of communi- 
ties in a foreign county, it is a short space of time, when one takes into considera- 
tion the newness and rawness of the state of Iowa in 1846 and brings to mind what 
small means the first settlers possessed, many of them with scarcely a dollar in 
money, few articles of furniture, some without beasts of burden or live stock of 
any kind, and that these hardy and courageous men and women came into a wilder- 
ness, devoid of habitations or any comforts of life, that they went manfully to 
work and first erected the crudest of log ca!)ins, many of them without doors, 
windows or floors, and then, as best they could with the means at hand, breaking 
the virgin soil to receive the grain and [iroduce a crop. Certain it was that from 
these small beginnings was produced this rich and growing community and in 
the comi)aratively short sjjace of three score years and six the taxable property 
of the county has grown in value from a few thousands of dollars to millions. 
Compare the foregoing tabic with the one that follows and then rejoice in the 
thought that as descendants of the .Appanoose pioneers you have been left a 
heritage, through their brawn, courage and j)rivations, that is a blessing ever to 
be kejn in mind and that those who made it jiossible should never be forgotten 
by the Ijeneliciaries : 

.\c:tu.\l .\sse.ssed \aluk uf rk.\l i;st.\ti-: 191 i 

Actual value 

Township .\'o. of .\cres Actual value of Lots 

Bellair 15.387 $ rx34,o76 $ 56,774 

Caldwell 24,126 623,273 

Chariton 14-385 387,844 10.145 

Douglas 13,862 368,881 

Franklin 20,999 600,392 

Independence 22,584 570.596 

Johns 24,366 962,038 39.412 

Lincoln 13,797 557420 23,930 

Pleasant 23,689 570,238 

Sharon 15.072 455-351 

Taylor 17,304 529.287 1,725 

Udell 16,848 586.236 50.956 

Union 16,420 387,614 

Yermilion 17,402 650.352 

Walnut 20,543 549.740 10.372 

Washington 21,841 813,908 

Wells 23,816 755.992 5.390 

Centerville town 846 75.2 10 2,460.251 

Cincinnati 734 38.428 211,224 

Exline 560 46,468 125.468 

Moravia 512 27.424 199.724 

Moulton 249 19.632 396.736 


Mystic 1-478 62,738 295,664 

Rathbiui 3 36 35.148 

Udell 105 i>.220 25,612 

Xuma i3« 28.151 80,639 

Total 327.086 $10,282,545 $4,039,170 


X umber Value 

Colts in county one and two years old 2,609 ? ISS-'^S 

Horses three years old and over 7.3^4 71 1,868 

Stallions 83 18,913 

Mules and asses over one year old 1,107 100.257 

1 leifers one and two years old 4.57° 86,446 

Cows 9.755 274,455 

Steers one and two years old 7,228 195.556 

Steers three vears old 241 8,579 

Bulls 448 12,801 

.Cattle in feeding 938 39.639 

Swine over six months 9,184 77,812 

Sheep and goats 13.30° 47.250 

\'ehicles excluding automobiles 1.2 13 36.862 

Household goods - 36.956 

-Moneys and credits 1.465.09' 

Merchandise 546.71 1 

Capital employed in manufacture 4'. 372 

Other personal property 125,679 






lolin I'.rown, who declared and honestly believed himself chosen of the Lord 
lu strike the shackles from the southern slave, was hanged on the gallows at 
Charlestown, near Harper's Ferry, X'irginia, on the 2(1 day of December, 1859, 
as a penalty for his misguided attempt to cause an uprising of the blacks in the 
vicinity of Harper's I-'erry. where he and his small band of followers had forcibly 
taken ])ossession of the United States arsenal. This event caused a furor of 
excitement in the south and events that made for internecine strife and the 
bloodiest civil war on record were hastened at a furinus speed toward Fort Sum- 
ter, where the shot was (ired that echoed its baleful signilicance throughout the 
hills and vales of Christendom. The walls of Fort Sumter were battered by the 
rebel guns at Charleston. South Carolina, by the would-be assassins of the Union 
on the morning of .\])ril 12, 1861, and in twenty-four hours thereafter news of the 
world-momentous action had reached every accessible corner of the United 
States. Fn the south the ])ortentous message was generally received with boister- 
ous demonstrations of joy and the belief on the part of the masses that the day 
would soon come for their deliverance from the "northern yoke" and their 
"peculiar institution" was to be per])clualed under the constitution and laws of 
a new confederacy of states. In the north a <lilTerent feeling possessed the ])eo- 
ple. The firing on Fort Sumter was looked upon with anger and sadness, and 
the determination was at once formeil to ui)hold the integrity of the Union and 
the perpetuity of its institutions. It was then that .\hrahaiu Lincoln began his 
great work of preserving the Union. 


On the K'th of Ajjril, four days following the assault on 1-drl .^uniter. Cov- 
ernor .Sanuiel |. Kirkwood, of Iowa, rccrivt-d ilu- fullowint; Iclc£;rani from Simon 
Cameron, secretary of war : 

"Call made on you by tonight's mail for one regiment of militia for immedi- 
:iie service." 

That very day the governor ])roclaimed to the people of Iowa that the nation 



was imperiled and invoked the aid of every loyal citizen in the state. The tele- 
gram above alluded to was received at Daven])ort. The governor was then resid- 
ing at Iowa City, but there was no lelegrai)iiic communication in those days 
between the two cities. 

Jt was important that the dispatch should reach the eyes of the governor at 
once and (.Jeneral \ andever, then a civilian, volunteered to take the message to 
Iowa Cit\-. The governor was found on his farm outside the city by the self- 
appoinlcd messenger, dressed in homespun and working in the field. Reading the 
dispatch Governor Kirkwood expressed extreme surprise and exclaimed: "Why, 
the i^rcsidcnt wants a whole regiment of men ! Do you suppose I can raise so 
many as that, Mr. \andever?" When ten Iowa regiments were offered a few days 
later the (|ucstion was answered. 


President Lincoln announced, April 15, 1861, that the execution of the laws 
of tlie Union had been obstructed in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, 
Mississi]ii)i, Louisiana and Texas by "combinations too powerful to be suppressed 
by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in tlie 
marshals by law." Tie called out the militia to the numl)er of 75,000. Seeing 
that the insurgents had not dispersed in the states named and that the inhai)itants 
of \'irginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee had joined them, lie 
issued this jMoclamation, August 16. 1861 : 

"Whereas, on the isih day of Ai)ril, 1861. the president of the United States, 
in view of an insurrection against laws, constitution and government of the United 
States, which has broken out within the states of South Carolina, Georgia, .Ala- 
bama, Morida. Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and in i)ursuance of the provi- 
sions of the act entitled, 'An act to provide for calling forth the militia to exe- 
cute the laws of the L'nion, suppress insurrections and rei^el invasions, and to 
repeal the act now in force for that purpose,' approved h'ebruary 28, 1795, did 
call forth the militia to suppress said insurrection and cause the laws of the Union 
to be duly executed and the insurgents having failed to disperse by the time 
directed by the president ; and whereas such insurrection has since broken out and 
yet exists within the states of \'irginia. North Carolina, Tennessee and .Arkansas; 
and whereas, the insurgents in all tlie said states claim to act under the authority 
thereof, and such claim is not disclaimed or repudiated by the persons exercising 
the functions of government in such state or states, or in the part or parts thereof 
in which combinations exist, nor has any such insurrection been suppressed by 
said states: 

"Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, ])resident of the United States, in pur- 
suance of an act of congress approved July 13, 1861, do hereby declare that the 
inhabitants of the said states of Georgia, South Carolina, X'irginia. North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, .-Mabama. Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and Florida 
(except the inhabitants of that part of X'irginia lying west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains, and of such other parts of the state and the other states hereinbefore 
named as may maintain a loyal adhesion to the Union and the constitution or 
may be from time to lime occupied antl controlled by tlie forces of the I'nited 
States engaged in the dispersion of said insurgents), are in a state of insurrection 


against the United States ; and that all commercial intercourse between the same 
and the inhabitants thereof, with the exceptions aforesaid, and the citizens of 
other states and other parts of the United States, is imlawful, and will remain 
unlawful until such insurrection shall cease or has been suppressed; that all goods 
and chattels, wares and merchandise, coming from any of said states with the 
exception aforesaid, into other parts of the United States, without the special 
license and permission of the president, through the secretary of the treasury, or 
proceeding to any said states, with the exceptions aforesaid, by land or water, 
together with vessel or vehicle conveying the same or conveying persons to or 
from said states, with said exceptions, will be forfeited to the United States ; and 
that from and after fifteen days from the issuing of this proclamation, all ships 
and vessel? belonging in whole or in part to any citizen or inhabitant of any of 
said states with said exception found at sea or in any port of the United States 
will be forfeited to the United States, and I hereby enjoin upon all district attor- 
neys, marshals and officers of the revenue and of the military and naval forces of 
the I'nited States, to be vigilaiU in the execution of said act and in the enforce- 
ment of the penalties and forfeitures imposed or declared by it; leaving any party 
who may think himself aggrieved thereby to his application to the secretary of 
the tre.'isury for the remission of any penalty of forfeiture, which the said secre- 
tary is authorized by law to grant if, in his judgment, the special circumstances 
in any case shall require such remission. 

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand ;ind caused the seal of 
the United States to be affixed. 

"Done at the City of Washington, this sixteenth flay of .Xugust. in the year 
of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the independence 
of the United States of .\merica the eighty-sixth year. 

".Ai!R.\ir.\M Lincoln." 


"Whether in the promptitude of her response to the calls made on her by the 
general government, in the courage and constancy of her soldiery in the tield," 
said Colonel .A. P. Wood, of Dubuque, upon one occasion, "or in the wisflom and 
efficiency with which her civil administration was conducted during the trying 
period covered by the war of the rebellion, Iowa i)roved herself the peer of any 
loyal state. The proclamation of her governor, Samuel J. Kirkwood. responsive 
to that of the president calling for volunteers to compose her first regiment, was 
issued on the fourth day after the fall of Fort Sumter. Ai the end of only a 
single week men enough were reported to be in fjuarters (mostly in the vicinity 
of their own homes) to fill the regiment. These, however, were hardly more 
than a tithe of the number who had been offered by company commanders for 
acceptance under the president's call. So urgent were these offers that the gov- 
ernor rec|ucsted on the 24th of .April jjermission to organize an additional regi- 
ment. While awaiting the answer to this rcfpiest he conditionally accepted a 
sufficient number of companies to compose two additional regiments. In a short 
time he was notified that both of these would be accepted. Soon after the com- 
pletion of the second and third regiments, which was near the close of May, 
the adjutant general of the state reported that upwards of 170 companies had been 
tendered to the governor to serve against the enemies of the Union. 


•Much (lifficuhy and considerable delay occurred in fitting these regiments 
for the field. For the First Infantry a complete outfit — not uniform — of cloth- 
ing was extem])orized — ])rincii)ally by the volunteer^^d labor of loyal women in 
the different towns, from material of various colors and (|ualities obtained within 
the limits of the state. The same was done in \>iiTi for the Second Infantry. 
Meantime an extra session of the general assembly had been called by the gov- 
ernor to convene on May i5lh. With but little delay that body aiuhorized a loan 
of $800,000 to meet the extraordinary expenses incurred and ii> be incurred by 
the executive department in conseijuence of the new emergence A wealthy 
merchant of the state — ex-CIovernor Merrill, then a resident of Mc(jregor — imme- 
diately look from the governor a contract to supply a complete outfit of clothing 
for the three regiments organized, agreeing to receive, should the governor so 
elect, his pay therefor in state bonds at ])ar. This contract he executed to the 
letter, and a portion of the clothing, which was manufactured in Boston to his 
order, was delivered at Keokuk, the place at which the troops had rendezvoused, 
in exactly one month from the day on which the contract had been entered into. 
The remainder arrived only a few days later. This clothing was delivered to the 
regiments, but was subsecjuently condemned by the government for the reason 
that its color was gray, and blue had been adopted as the color to be worn by 
national troops. 


"The state, while engaged in efforts to discharge her dul\ in connection with 
the common emergency, was compelled to make separate and large provision for 
the security of her own borders. On the south she was threatened with invasion 
by the secessionists of Missouri, w hile on the west and northwest there was dan- 
ger of incursions by bands of hostile Indians now freed from the usual restraint 
imposed by garrisons of regular troops at the frontier posts. For border defense 
the governor was authorized to raise two regiments of infantry, a scjuadron — not 
less than five companies — of cavalry, and a battalion — not less than three, com- 
panies — of artillery. Only mounted troops were enlisted, however, for this service ; 
but in times of special danger, or when calls were made by the Unionists of north- 
ern Missouri against their disloyal enemies, large numbers of militia on foot 
turned out (often) and remained in the field until the necessity for their services 
had passed. 

"The first order for the Iowa volunteers to move to the field was received 
June 13th. It w-as issued by General Lyon, then commanding the United States 
forces in Missouri. The First and Second Infantries immediately embarked in 
steamboats and nioxcd to Hannil)al. .Some two weeks later the Third Infantry 
was ordered to the same point. These three, together with many others of the 
earlier organized Iowa regiments, rendered their first field service in Missouri. 
The I'irst Infantry formed a ])art of the little army with which General Lyon 
moved on Sjjringfield and fought the bloody battle of Wilson's Creek. It received 
un(|ualilicd i)raise for its gallant bearing on the lield. In the following month 
(September) the Third Iowa with very slight sui)i)ort fought with honor the 
sanguinary engagement of I Hue Mills Landing: and in November the Seventh 
Iowa, as a i)art of a force commanded by (leneral Grant, greatly distinguished 
itself in the battle of I'.elmont, where it poured out its blood like water — losing 

HIST(JkV Ul- .\ri'A.\(JUSK LCiLMV 173 

more llian half of the men it look into action. Tlie initial operations in which 
the battles referred to took place were followed by the more important move- 
ments led by General Curtis of this state and other commanders, which resulted 
in defeating tiie armies defending the chief strategic lines held by the confederates 
in Kentucky. Missouri, Tennessee and Arkansas, and compelling their withdrawal 
from much of the territory previously controlled by them in these states. In these 
and many other movements down to the grand culminating campaign by which 
\'icksburg was captured and the confederacy permanently severed on the line of 
the Mississippi river, Iowa troops took a part in steadily increasing lunnbers. In 
the investment and siege of X'icksburg the state was represented by thirty regi- 
ments and two batteries, in addition to wliich eiglit regimcius and one battery were 
employed on the outposts of the besieging army. The brilliancy of their e.xploits 
on the many tields where they served won for ihem the highest meed of praise 
both in military and civic circles. Multiplied were the terms in which ex[)ression 
was given to this sentiment, but these words of one of the journals of a neigh- 
Ip'ping state — 'The Iowa troops have been heroes among heroes" — embodies the 
spirit of all. 


"In the veteran reeidistments that distinguished the closing months of 1.S63 
above all other periods of reenlistments for the national armies, the Iowa three 
years' men who were relatively more numerous than those of any other state, 
were prompt to set the example of volunteering for another of equal length, 
thereby adding many thousands to the great army of those who gave this renewed 
and practical assurance that the cause of the Union should not be left without 
defenders. In all the important movements of 1S64 and 1865 by which the con- 
federacy was penerated in every quarter and its military power linally over- 
thrown, the Iowa troops took part. Their drumbeat was heard on the banks of 
every great river of the South, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande and evcry- 
" liere they rendered the same faithful and devoted service, maintaining on all 

asions their wonted reputation for valor in the field and endurance on the 

"Two Iowa three-year cavalry regiments were employed during their whole 
term of service in the operations that were in progress from 1863 to 1866 against 
the hostile Indians of the western plains. A portion of these men were among the 
last of the volunteer troops mustered out of service. The state also su[)plied a 
considerable number of men to the navy who took jjart in most of the naval 
operations prosecuted against the confederate power on the .\tlantic an<l Gulf 
coasts and the rivers of the west. 

"The people of Iowa were early and constant workers in the sanitary field, 
and by their liberal gifts and personal efforts for the benefit of the soldiery placed 
their state in the front rank of those who became distinguished for their exhibi- 
tions of patriotic benevolence during the f>eriod covered by the war. .\gents 
appointed by the governor were stationed at points convenient for rendering 
assistance to the sick and needy soldiers of the state, while others were employed 
in visiting from time to time hospitals, camps and armies in the field, and doing 
whatever the circumstances rendered possible for the health and comfort of such 
of the Iowa soldiery as might be found there. 


"Al llie beginning of the war the ijopulalion of Iowa included about 150,000 
men, presumably liable to military service. The state raised for general service 
thirty-nine regiments of infantry, nine regiments of cavalry, and four companies 
of artillery, composed of three years' men, one regiment of infantry composed of 
three months' men, and four regiments and one battalion of infantry composed 
of one hundred days' men. The original enlistments in these various organiza- 
tions including 1,727 men raised by draft, numbered a little more than 69,000. 
The reenlistments, including upward of 7,000 veterans, numbered very nearly 
8,000. The enlistments in the regular army and navy, and organizations of other 
states will, if added, raise the total to upward of 80,000. The number of men 
who under special enlistments arid as militia toolc part at different times in the 
operations on the exposed borders of the state was probably as many as 5,000. 


"Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men she placed in the tield. In 
some instances toward the close of the war, bounty to a comparatively small 
amount was ])aid by cities and towns. On only one occasion, that of the call 
of July 18, 1864, was a draft made in Iowa. This did not occur on account 
of her proper liability, as established by previous ruling of the war department 
to supply men under that call, but grew out of the great necessity that there 
existed for raising men. The government insisted on temporaily setting aside 
in part the former rule of settlements and enforcing a draft in all cases where 
subdistricts in any of the states should be found deficient in their supply of 
men. In no instance was Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to the general 
government for men on a settlement of her quota account." 

PATRIOT K .\i'r.\.\uosi-; 

Centerville and the whole county was aflame with the lire of patriotism as 
soon as the people realized that the republic was menaced by an internecine war. 
In every town and hamlet men met upon the streets and in' places of business 
and discussed the traitorous deed of the southerners at Charleston. Every 
one was awakened to the grim and terrorizing fact that an unholy and devas- 
tating war had been proclaimed and that the roar of the guns at Charleston 
and Fort Sumter had been heard throughout all Christendom. Patriotic and 
inflammatory speeches were to be heard on all sides and the men. young and 
old, of Ap])anoose county expressed their willingness and eager desire to enlist 
in the cause of the Union and lay down their lives on the field of battle, if need 
be, to uphold President Lincoln's contention that no state had the right to secede 
from the I'ederal Union and that the southern states in rebellion should not. 

The spirit of loyalty in Appanoose county was of a general character and 
few there were who had the hardihood to express sympathy with secession and 
the system of barter and trade in human "chattels." There were some, how- 
ever, who declared themselves as being opposed to coercive measures, in the 
great controversy between the states, and maintained, with the people of the 
south, that the "peculiar institution of slavery" should not lie molested, nor its 
establishment and growth in the territories and newly-made states impeded. 


The "coiiperheads" in Appanoose county were in a hopeless minority and what- 
ever sympathy and assistance they rendered the southern malcontents were 
practically of a negligible (|uantity in their results. 

Governor Kirkwood's call to arms was like a shock of electricity to the able- 
bodied, liberty-loving men of this county and each one vied with tlie other to 
be the first to offer his services to his country's cause. Men of means, too 
advanced in years to take uj) arms themselves, served the occasion bv other 
means that were efificacious and which were fully appreciated by those 
in aut'iority; com])anies of m'en were organized, drilled and e(|ui])ped for 
the war and, being assigned to regiments in the volunteer army of the Union, 
went into camp, thence to the front and fought and died for their iiomes, free 
institutions and native land. In this band of patriots were men of foreign 
birth. But they had come to the "land of the free," to escape oppression and 
the yoke of a master. Divesting themselves of allegiance to the "mother coun- 
try" and becoming .\merican citizens, they cast their lot with tiie northern 
armies and fought with them for the maintenance of the Union's integrity and 
the perpetuation of the republic. 

Appanoose county made a splendid record in the war of the rebellion. Her 
sons performed their duty nobly and well. Some of them rose to distinction in 
the army, i)ut all, by their devotion to country, privations and suffering endured 
bravely in camp, field and southern prison pens, gave luster to the splendid 
escutcheon of this community, and, when the distressing and terrible work 
had been well done, these soldiers of the "grand army" returned to their homes, 
where they were received amidst the acclaim and benedictions of a grateful 


At the session of the board of supervisors in September, 1862, the following 
resolution was passed, ai)parent]y without a dissenting vote : 

"Be it resolved by the Board of Supervisors of Ap])anoose County, Iowa, 
That the Township Trustees of said county be authorize<l and required to report 
to the Supervisor of their proper township, the families of those who are in 
the United States service, and who, in the opinion of said Trustees, are in such 
condition or like so to be as to need support or assistance from the county, 
either in sustenance or clothing, provided always that such families claiming 
such support or assistance, shall report themselves to the Trustees of the proper 
townshi])s before the second Tuesday in October .'\. D. 1862." 

This was the only action taken by the board in regard to the pecuniary assist- 
ance to the families of the brave fellows at the front ; but as will be seen by its 
terms, the resolution was ample for all purposes. Every session of the board 
up till r868, three years after the war had closed, a considerable space of the 
proceedings is taken up with the reports of the supervisors, giving the amount 
of aid extended by each, which, in the aggregate, must have amounted to thou- 
sands of dollars. Nor, during the seven years in which aid was afforded, was 
there a member of the board who so much as hinted that that body was too 
lavish with the county's funds. Each member was left to he the sole judge 
as to the amount needed in his own township, and had another member criilcised 
his action the fault finder would have been promptly silenced. So the purse 


strings of the county were never tightened so long as a soldier's family needed 
clothing, food or fuel. No buncombe resolutions were passed, but the jjatrio- 
tism oi the board was of that practical character that cheered the soldier's 
heart, whether in the grand charge that led to victory or surrounded by the 
horrors of a southern prison pen. 

However, toward the close of the war a sort of ])ension fund was created 
for the benefit of those who had become disabled in the service and could not 
make a valid claim against the government, and also for the assistance of indigent 
orphans. .\ large part of this was not needed and was finally transferred to the 
general fund. 

It would require a large volume to recount all that was done at home and 
in the tield by the patriotic citizens of Appanoose county during the war. As 
long as the war continued money was ready, men were ready. Men of wealth 
furnislied the former, and the less affluent filled the ranks — furnished the brawn, 
the muscle, the bravery, the sinews of war. Oftentimes the former furnished 
not only their share of money, but shouldered their muskets and followed the 
starry ilag as well. 

And of the volunteer soldiery what can fittingly ])e said? What vivid words 
can the pen employ that will do justice to their heroic valor, to their unequaled 
and unparalleled bravery and endurance? Home and home comforts, wives and 
little ones, fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, were all given up for life and 
danger on the fields of battle — for exposure, fatigue: disease and death, 
at the point of the bayonet or at the cannon's mouth. Little ?they recked for all 
these, but bravely and boldly went out, with their lives in their hands, to meet 
and conquer the foes of the Union, maintain its supremacy and vindicate its 
honor and integrity. No more fitting tribute to their patriotic valor can be 
offered than a full and complete record, so far as it is possible to make iti. 
embracing the names, the terms of enlistment, the battles in which they were 
engaged, and all the minutiae of their military lives. It will be a wreath of 
glory encircling every brow — a precious memento which each and every one 
of them earned — gloriously earned — in defense of their and our common country. 

si.xTir i.\r.\XTRV 

This regiment was mustered out at Louisville, July 21, 18(15. 


Orrin P. Stafiord, commissioned December 30, 1864; promoted ([uarter 
master sergeant. 


John H. ("ilciui, enlisted October 15, 1861 ; died January 14, 1862. 

Company A — Prii-ates 

Blakesley, Alexander, enlisted February 19. 1862; died at Memphis, Ten- 

Inman, Timothy, enlisted March 24, 1862; traii'^fcned to I;nalid Corps, 
November 20, 1863. 


Kellogg, William, enlisted March ii, 1862. 

Kellogg. I., enlisted March 24, 1862; died August 16, 1862. 

Kellogg, David, enlisted March 3, 1862 ; died July 6, 1862. 

Lepper, Alfred, enlisted February 15, 1862. 

Povner. J. L.. enlisted March 3. 1862. 

Company D — Captains 

M. M. Walden. commissioned May 16. 1S61 ; resigned. December 10. 1862. 

John L. Bashor, commissioned first lieutenant. May 16. 1861 ; promoted 
captain December 11, 1862; resigned March 3. 1864. 

Thomas J. Elrick, enlisted as sergeant June 25. 1861; promoted second lieu- 
tenant, luly 2, 1862; first lieutenant. January i. 1863; captain, March 6, 1864: 
killed at Atlanta. 

William H. Alexander, enlisted as corporal, June 2^. 1861 ; promoted cap- 
tain July 25. 1864. 

First LieiiteiUDit 

Eugene C. Haynes, promoted first lieutenant, July 25. 1864; wounded August 

22, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants 

William A. E. Rhodes, commissioned May 16, 1861 ; resigned June i. 1862. 

Cyrus r. Wright, promoted second lieutenant. January i. 1863: died near 

Henry H. Wright, enlisted as corporal, June 25. 1861 : prunioted second lieu- 
tenant, January i, 1865; mustered out as first sergeant. 


G. X. Udell, enlisted June 25, 1861 ; wounded at Shiloh. 
Joseph T. Place, enlisted June 25, 1861 ; discharged February 16, 1863. 
Thomas Foster, enlisted June 25. 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864; wounded 
at D.i!!.!-, Georgia. 


O. P. Start'urd, enlisted June 25, i8(')i ; veteranized January i. 18(14: pro- 
moted (|uarterniaster sergeant. 

James II. Ogle, enlisted June 25, 1861 ;. died l"ei)ruary 20. 1862. at Tipton, 

James M. Pierce, enlisted June 2-,. 1861; veleranizccl January i. 1864; 
wounded at Missionary Ridge. 

Henry II. Wright, enlisted June 25, 1861 : veteranized January i, 1864. 

Jose])h K. Morey, enlisted June 25, 18^)1 ; wounded at Shiloh. discharged 
for promotion to first lieutenant in Eighteenth InfaiUry. 

Alexander Maring. enlisted June 2-:,. 1861 ; wounded. at Missionary Ridge. 

David r.Iadftll, iw, enlisted June 23. iRCii ; killed, November 23, \^^j(,. 

John P.. .\rmstrong, enlistcil June 23, 1861 ; vetcranizeil January i, 18(14; 
wounded June 27. 1864. 

Jesse P.ryan, enlisted June 2~,. iN'u ; discharged Jainiary 21). iS')3, disa- 

Vol I-l'J 


James M. Hutchinson, cnlislcd June 25, 1861; veteranized January i, 1864; 
wounded at .Macon, Georgia. 

Westenliaven Marcel, enlisted June 25. 1861 ; wounded at Sliiluli ; veteranized 
Januarv 1. 1864; wounded July 28, 1864. 

F. 1!. Ilunncll, enlisted June 25, 1861; died of wounds, August 6. 1863. 


Charles F. Stratton, enlisted June 25, 1861; wounded at Shiloh : killed at 
Bentonville, XortJi Carolina. 

T. B. Somers, enlisted June 25, 1861 ; discharged September 5. 1S62. wounds. 


William Ogle, enlisted June 25, 1861 ; discharged January 29. 1863. disa- 


Ashley, Elon, June 25, 1861; wounded at Missionary Ridge. 
Adams, G. W., February 28, 1862. 

Atkinson, O. P., June 25, 1861 ; killed battle of Shiloh. 
-Vdams, J. W., October 12, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 
Allen, F. M., June 25, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864; discharged Sep- 
tember 30, 1864, disability. 

Aylward, N. J., June 25, 1861 ; discharged January 6, 1862. 
Beamer, Z., October 7, 1861 ; wounded at Shiloh. 
Bradley, B. F.. June 25, 1861 ; discharged September 30, 1862. 
Brown, J. B., .April 12, 1864; wounded, Macon, Georgia; killed at La Hunt 

Black, George, June 25, 1861 ; killed at Dallas, Georgia. 

Bryan, |. W., June 25, 1861 ; transferred Fifth Kansas Regiment. 

Brannon, Lewis, June 25, 1861. 

Beamer, Reuben, June 25, 1861 ; wounded Missionary Ridge. 

Cleaveland, E. A., October 15, 1861. 

Clark, J. W., June 25, 1861 ; discharged October 4, 1861. 

Conger, John, June 25, 1861 ; discharged July 7, 1862, disability. 

Conger, William, October 7, 1861 ; died Pittsburg Landing. 

Crow, William. :March 25, 1864 ; wounded Kenesaw Mountain. 

Cox, Jacob, June 25, 1861 ; w-ounded Kenesaw Mountain. 

Crow, Samuel, June 25, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Callen, A. H., June 25. 1861 ; killed at Resaca. 

Devore, B. T., April 28, 1864. 

Devore, E. D., June 25, 1861 ; promoted corporal. 

Ellis, Joseph. March 26, 1864; wounded Macon. Georgia. 

T^-vin. N. S.. February 24, 1862. 

Flock, George, June 25, 1861. 

Frost, H., June 25, 18O1 ; discharged March 6, 1863. 

Gale, A. F., March 30, 1864; killed at Atlanta. 

Gelan, Nicholas, June 25, 1861. 

Griffith. G. B.. June J-,. 1861 : discharged January 17. iS(j2. disability. 


Green, O. S., March 29, I1S64; wounded Kenesaw Mountain. 

Holjert, H. W., June 25, 1861 ; discharged Jainiary 6. 1862, disability. 

Hughes, \V. -M., October 12, 1861; killed at Atlanta. 

llallock, Uri, June 25, 1861 ; wounded Missionary Ridge. 

Henderson, .-X. C, April 9, 1864. 

Huliler, John, June 25, 1861 ; killed at Big Shanty. 

Harn, S. D., June 25, 1861 ; wounded at Missionary Ridge. 

Ireland, J. B., June 25. 1861; wounded at Griswoldville. Georgia. 

Johnson, W. S., June 25, 1861 ; discharged January 6, 1862, disability. 

James, Z., March i, 1862. 

Jones, J. A., June 25, 1861. 

Kuhns, Peter, October 19, j86i ; wounded at Shiloh ; discharged Septem- 
ber 27, 1862. 

Lane, Edward, June 25. 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Legrand, J. \V.. March 30, 1864. 

Larkin, T. S., June 25, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Larkin, J. A., June 25, 1861 ; discharged February 15, 1862, disability. 

Mitchell, Andrew. March 30, i8(>4; died August 14, 1864, Chattanooga, 

McCord, Josei)h, June 23, i8fii ; transferred Fifth Kansas Regiment. 

McClain, Michael, June 25, 1861 ; discharged January 6, 1862, disability. 

McGee, D. W., June 25, 1861 : killed at Shiloh. 

McKeehan. D. S., .April 7, 1864: discharged June 14, 1865. 

Martin. William, June 25, 1861 ; promoted corporal. 

.Morris. T. II., June 25, 1861 ; wounded at Shiloh. 

Main. Charles, June 25, 1861 ; veteranized January 4, 1864. 

Xclson, Isaac, June 25. 1861 : died January 13. 1862. 

Payton, J. F., March i, 1862; wounded at Missionary Ridge. 

Pyles, J. J., June 25, 1861 : discharged December 24, i86r. disability. 

Payton, William, February 17, 1862; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Parker, Silas, June 25, 1861 ; discharged August 14, 1862, disability. 

Reynolds, J. F., October 7. 1861 ; died May 14, 1862. 

Rice, J. J., June 25. 1861. 

Reed. Matthias, June 25, 1861. 

Riley, James, June 25, 1861 ; promoted corporal. 

Stejihens, Charles, I'cbruary 22, 1862: died of wounds. 

Sumner, ."^amuel, June 25. 1861 ; killed at .Atlanta. 

Sumner, Thomas, June 25, 1861 ; discharged January 17, 1862. disability. 

Stratton, C. F.. June 25, 186 1 ; veteranized January 1, 1864. 

Stratton, ICdward. June 25. 1861; discharged August 22, 1861. disability. 

Swift, M. J., June 2-,. 1861. 

Swift, .Aimer. June 25. 1861. 

."^hari), F. M., June 25. 1861 ; wounded at Kenesaw Mountain. 

.Stanton. S. P... June 25. 1861 ; discharged October 11, 1862, disability. 
. Trusell, G. \\'., June 25, 1861 ; diid f^ jo. iSfu. 

\cach, F. M., June 23, 1861. 

W'hitesett, .-\. E., June 23, 1861; discharged ( iclober 4, iSoi, disability. 

Ware. \N' F. Ortobcr (i i8fpi ; pruninlfd cnrpural. 


\\'aro. M. L.. June 25, 1861 ; discharged Alay 15, 1862, disability. 
Ware, T. ^^, February 17, 1862; wounded at Macon, Georgia. 
Wentwortli. G. L., June 25, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 
Wailes, G. W., June 25. 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 
Wailes, Lloyd, June 25. 1861 ; wounded at Missionary Ridge. 
Young, J. W.. June 25, 1861 : died at Pittsburg Landing. 
Young. G. \\'., June 25, 1861 ; discharged February 20, 1862, disability. 
Zimnier, Daniel, June 25, 1861 ; discharged October 12, 1861. 
Zimnier. J. ^I., March i, 1862; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Co)iipaiiy E 

Burris, John A., July 1, 18(^11; died XovemlxT 17. 1861. 

Kemper, M. \\'., Iul\ i. iS'ii ; wounded Kenesaw Mountain: died at Keokuk. 

Company G 

Delap. William. July 8. 1861 ; killed at Shiloh. 

Frost, William, July 8. 1861. 

ITuhler, John. July 8, 1861 ; killed at Big Shanty. 

Hagner.E. CJuJy 8, 1861. 

Stitt. William R., July 8, 1861 ; discharged January 17, 1862. disability. 

Sommers. J. B., July 8, 1861 ; wounded: discharged September 29. 1862. 

Turk, Warren, July 8, 1861. 

Truscott, William, July 8, 1861 ; died December 15. 1861. 

Waters, Amos O., July 8, 1861 : died April 18, 1862. 

Conipaiiy H 
Mosher, M. G., Xovember 8, 1861 : discharged January 21. 1862. disability. 


This regiment was mustered out at Louisville. Kentucky. Jul\' 2^. 1865. 


John F. \\'alden. commissioned captain Company F, .Vjjril 10. 1862: disabled 
by being thrown from horse at Champion Hills: promoted major June 3. 1863; 
additional paymaster U. S. \'., March 18, 1864. 


Nathan Udell, cnmniissioned Ai)ril 8. 1862. and .\ugust 1. i8(')2, commission 

Coiiif^aiiy F — Ca/'taiii 

Evan E. Swearingen. enlisted as sergeant. March 4, 1862: promoted second 
lieutenant. June 3. 1863: promoted tirst lieutenant. June 3, i8(>3: captured at 
Tilton. Georgia; promoted captain June 17. 18(15. 


First Lieutenants 

Robert S. Morris, commissioned second lieutenant. April lo, 1862; wounded 
at Corinth; promoted first lieutenant (not commissioned); resigned April 18, 

Joshua R. Arthur, enlisted as corporal, March 4, 1862; promoted first lieu- 
tenant. June 17, 1865; mustered nut as hospital steward. 


E. F. Martin, enlisted .March 3. 1862; wounded .March 23. 1864: captured 
at Tilton, tieorgia. 

Joseph Gray, enlisted March 8. 1862; discharged October 25, 1862. 

D. H. I'cach, enlisted March 8. 1862; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 

Archibald Hamilton, enlisted March 8, 1862; discharged October 3. 1862; 

George Griffith, enlisted March 8, 1862; wounded at Missionary Ridge; 
veterani/;ed March mj. 1864: captured at Tilton. Georgia. 


James C. P.rannon. enlisted March 3, 1862; discharged Decemljer 2, 1862. 

Edward T. Strattoti, enlisted March 4, 1862 ; discharged Jaiuiary 29. 1863, 

Sanford A. Stanton, enlisted March 25, 1862; wounded at Ja'ckson, Missis- 
sippi; veteranized March 29, 1864; captured at Tilton. Georgia. 

D. McGinniss, enlisted March 13, 1862; discharged June 8. 1864. 

H. Cochrane, enlisted March 4, 1862; veteranized March 27,, i8''>4; cap- 
tured at Tilton, Georgia. 

X. Michael, enlisted March 4, 1862; captured at Tilton. Georgia. 

M. J. Richardson, enlisted March 8, 1862; wounded at luka ; veteranized 
-March 29, 1864; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 

H. C. Webster, enlisted March 8. 1862; died September 8. 1862. 

M iisiciaii 
J I. .\1. Williams, enlisted .Xjiril 2. 18O2; died at \ icl<sl)urg. 


.Arthur, J. R., veteranized .March 24, 1864. 

Bessey, George .\., March 10, 1862; captured at Tilton, tieorgia. 

Bramhall, I. X., March 15, 1862; promoted corporal. 

liranthouse, O. A., .March 14, 1864; discharged January 18, 1863, disability. 

llrower. C. J., .April 2. 1862; discliargcd December 18, 1862. 

Browning, John W., March 8. 1862; deserted .Mary 10, 1862. 

Cochrane, James H., .March 4, 1862; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 

Cline, William J., March 8, 1862; wounded at Juka: veteranized .Marcii 23, 
1864; captured at Tilton. Georgia. 

Carr, William H., March 15. 1862; veteranized March 2',. 1864; captured at 
Tilton, Georgia. 


Chessman, C. A., .March 4, 1862; discharged Decemljer 8, 1862. 
Duncan, Alexander, March 8, 1862; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 
Elgin, Benjamin, March 4. 1861 ; discharged Sciitemhcr 27, 1862. 
Holman, Joseph W., March 10, 1862; discharged February 3, 1863. 
Haney, Thomas, .Vpril 2, 1862; captured at Moscow, Mississippi. 
Linton, Henry, March 10, 1862. 

McClure, James, March 26, 1862; discharged August 9, 1862. 
■Morris, Z., March 10, 1862; discharged November 10, 1862. 
McClark, David, March 3, 1862; killed at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Osborn, Alfred, March 8, 1862; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 
Pierce, M., March 18, 1862; died at Keokuk. 
Reed, James, March 2. 1862; discharged December 18, 1862. 
Swearingen, John \V., March 4, 1862; promoted corporal. 
Taylor, Hampton, March 10, 1862; wounded at Champion Hills; veteranized 
March 29, 1864. 

Thomas, J. A. J., March 3, 1862; discharged November 5, 1862. 
Wentworth, F. H., March 4, 1862 ; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 
Waples. William. March 8, 1862 ; captured at Tilton, Georgia. 
Ward, W. N. March 8, 1862; discharged November 26, 1862. 
Williamson, P. C, March 8, 1862 ; discharged October 26, 1862. 
Young. Henry, March 8, 1862; died May 15. 1862. 
Zimmer, D. M., March 4, 1862; discharged July 25, 1862, disability. 

Company C 
Stout, Jackson, April 7, 1862; killed Jul\- 28. 1864. 

Company II — Corporal 

David Monroe, enlisted March 3, 1862; wounded at X'icksburg and Mis- 
sionary Ridge; veteranized March 26, 1864. 


This regiment was mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, July 20, 1865. 

Lieutenant Colonel 

Joseph K. Morey, commissioned first lieutenant Company I", August 5, 
1862; promoted captain, February 28, 1863; promoted major March 3, 1864; 
promoted lieutenant colonel May 12, 1865. 

Henry Clay Sanford, promoted surgeon, July 30. 1865. 

Company C 
Butler, R. Y., February 29, 1864. 

Company F — Sergeants 

J. A. Hollingsworth, July 7, 1862; killed at Clarkville. .Arkansas. 
George N. Scurlock, July 7. iSri2; discharged Januar\ i. 1865. disability. 



Elias Fox, July 7, 1862 ; discharged April 5, 1863. 

Cephas Andrews, July 7, 1862; captured Camden, Arkansas; died al Camp 
Felder, Texas, while prisoner. 

Harrison West, July 7, 1862; discharged December 30, 1862, disability. 
William E. ISeddison, July 7, 1862 ; captured Camden, Arkansas. 
John Crow, July 7, 1862. 
II. \\'. Hobert. July 7, 1862. 

George Barnes. July 7, 1862; discharged February 19, 1863, disability. 


Barnes, II. W'.. July 7, 1862. 

Buck. Daniel. July 7, 1862; captured Camden, .\rkansas. 

Crow. Jesse X., January i, 1864. 

Cawhorn, William, July 7, 1862. 

Dukes, William R., July 7, 1862; died Springfield, Missouri. 

Dodd, L. C, July 7, 1862; discharged February 19, 1863, disability. 

Gladfclder. William K., July 7, 1862; died September 16, 1862. 

Gitchell, John H., July 7, 1862; died Springfield, Missouri. 

Hall. Russell, July 7, 1862. 

Hopkins, William F., July 7, 1862; captured Camden, Arkansas. 

Kuhns. .Abraham. July 7, 1862; discharged February 19, 1863, disability. 

Love. David, July 7. 1862 ; discharged I'ebruary 19, 1863, disability. 

Love. John, July 7. 1862; discharged February 19, 1863, disability. 

Mottoe, Jacob, July 7, 1862. 

Mc.Murray, X. J.. July 7. 1862.. 

Mapes, William C, July 7, 1862; killed Springfield, Missouri. 

Pider, C. July 7, 1862. 

Root, H. C., July 7, 1862. 

Scott, James, July 7, 1862; wounded Poison Spring, Arkansas. 

Scott, B. J., July 7, 1862; discharged February 19, 1863. disability. 

Tearl. Samuel, July 7, 1862; discharged I'ei)ruary 16, 1863. disability. 

Tearl, John, July 7, 1862; discharged F'ebruary 16, 1863, disability. 

Vaughn. C. B., July 7, 1862; discharged February 16. 1863. disability. 


This regiment was mustered out at Dusalls Bluff, .\rkansas, August 24, 

Lieutenant Colonel 

Francis M. Drake, commissioned Se])teml)er 5, 1862; wounded and cap- 
tured at Mark's Mills, Arkansas. February 22, 1863; commissioned colonel 
May II. i8(>5; brevet brigadier general U. S. V. but no vacancy. 



Sylvester IT. Sawyers, promoted surgeon .\i)ril 29, 1863 ; resigned December 
10, 1864. 

Company A 

Xoe!, Samuel F., December 8, 1863; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Thompson, Robert R., January 4, 1864; wounded and captured at Mark's 


Company C — Captains 

James G. I'hilip, commissioned October 4, 1862; resigned March 6, 1863. 

Allen W. Miller, commissioned first lieutenant November 13, 1862; pro- 
moted captain March 7, 1863; captured Mark's Hills, Arkansas; died at home 
September 17, 1864. 

K. P. ^lorrison, commissioned second lieutenant October 4, 1862 ; promoted 
captain October 11, 1864; discharged for disability February 2, 1865. 

^^'illiam F. X'ermilyea, enlisted as sergeant, August 19, 1862 ; promoted 
second lieutenant and first lieutenant : promoted captain, February 3. 1865. 

First Lieutenant 

Claudius B. Miller, enlisted as sergeant ; promoted lirst lieutenant, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant 

Marion H. Skinner, enlisted as sergeant, promoted second lieutenant, August 
2, 1865 ; mustered out as sergeant. 


Alexander C. Raynolds, discharged February 9, 1863, disability. 
Abraham McKeever, discharged January i, 1863, disability. 
George W. Dean, wounded and captured at Mark's iMills. 
Benjamin S. Vierling, wounded and captured at Mark's Mills. 
Benjamin C. Stauber, discharged February 22,, 1863, disability. 


Jesse G. Dean, captured at .Mark's Mills; died at Tyler. Texas. 

Jacob ^^■. Green, discharged April 18, 1863, disability. 

Jacob \. Grubb, killed at iMark's Mills. 

A. II. Cummings, enlisted August 22, 1862; died at Helena. Arkansas. 

John II. Cummings, August 22, 1862; discharged January 26. .1863, disa- 

James H. Bovill, enlisted August 21, 1862; wounded and captured at .Mark's 

William V. Patterson, enlisted August 19, 18C2; wounded and capturetl at 
Mark's Mills. 



John H. T. Harn, enlisted August 21, 1862. 

C. D. Conrad, enlisted August 20, 1862; wounded and (.aptured at Mark's 


Alexander .-\. Monroe, enlisted August 19, 1S62; discliarged rebruary 25, 
1863, disability. 


liurris. Wilson. August 20, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
I'.urkharl, j. W., August 20, 1862; died at .Memphis. 
Baldridge, A. M.. .August 22, 1862. 

Bray. X. J., August 19. 1862; captured at .Mark's Mills. 
Burkhard, Isaac, .\ugust 19, 1862; died at Helena, Arkansas. 
.Chrisnian, J. M., .\ugust 20, 1862: died at Keokuk. 
Cumniings, George, August 21, 1862; died at Memphis. 
Carter, Albert, August 19, 1862. 
Chenoweth, Joseph, August 21, 1862. 

Clark, Jesse, .August 19. 1862; discharged June S, 1865, disability. 
Callen, J. R., .August 20, 1862 ; died at Helena, Arkansas. 
Cummings, Eli, August 19, 1862; died at Pine Bluffs. 

Cunimings. J. B., .August 22, 1862; discharged I-^bruary 4, 1863. disability. 
Caylor, John. .August 22, 1862; died at Helena, Arkansas. 
Caylor, C;. \V., August 20, 1862; died at mouth of While river. 
Dotson, P. B., .August 21, 1862. 
Egley, P. C, .August 22, 1862. 

Fullerton. .A., .August 21, 1862; discharged May 4, 1863. 
I'ullerton, Thomas. August 20, 1862; died Xovember 2, 1862. 
Flock, M., February 6, 1864; wounded Jenkins Ferry, .Arkansas. 
Goodwin, J. P., .August 22, 1862; discharged June (>. 1865. 
Gladfelter, George, .August 22, 1862. 
Hiatt, Lewis, August 19, 1862. 

Hcdgecock, C. S.. .August 20. 1HU2: cai)tured at .Mark's Mills. 
Huntington, O. P., August 20, 1862; discharged I'ebruary 20, 1863, disa- 

Hudgins, L. 1!., .August 22, 18^.2; captured at Mark's .Mills. 

Hayes, S. .A.. .August 22, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Hardin, I. .A.. .August 20, 1862. 

Hiatt. J. H.. .August 20, 1862; discharged February 4. 1863, disability. 

Helverson, J. H., .August 22, 1862; discharged May 22, 1865. 

Hall, Asbury, .August 21, 1862; died at Shell Mound, Mississippi. 

Jones. J. H., .August 22. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Jordan, Andrew. .August 22. 1862; died at Keokuk. 

Jackson, A., .August 19. 1862: died at Helena. 

Jones, Wesley, .August 19. 1862. 

Link, Uriah. .August 22. 1862; wounded and captured .it .Marks Mills. 

Lamar. Mathias, .August 20. 1862; discharged February 9, 1863. disabilitv. 

Leavell, D. J., .August 20, i8r)2; died at Benton Barracks. 

186 lllSTURV OF Al'l'AXUUSl': COUNT V 

.Miller, j. A., August 20, 1862: killed at Mark's Mills. 

McDimiitt, William, August 19, 1S62; discharged April 30. 1863. disability. 
Miller, B. G., March 26, 1864. 
McDanel, William. August 22, 1862. 

McKim, W. II. II., August 22, 1X62: captured at .Mark's Mills. 
Mitchell, Elias, .\ugust 20, 1802; captured and died at Mark's .Mills. 
Mitchell, James, .August 21, 1862; died at St. Louis. 
McDanel, James, August 20, 1862; died at Keokuk. 

McFall, J. T., .August 22, 1862; discharged February 13, 1863, disability, 
McCoy, -Matthias, .August 20, 1862; killed at .Mark's Mills. 
Matherby. George, .August 21, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
McCoy, Jehu, .August 19, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Mcintosh, John, August 22, 1862; discharged January 24, i8(:)3. disability. 
Needham, J. W., August 21, 1862; killed at .Mark's Mills. 
Polk, R. R., January 4, 1864; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Porter, W. 11. H., Augi:st 21, 1862. 
Porter, T. B., .\ugust 19, 1862: killed at Mark's Alills. 
Primm, -A. P., January 19, 1864; captured at .Mark's Mills. 
Pence, C. D., .August 20, i8()2; discharged I'ebruary 20, 1863, disability. 
Riggle, W. II., January 4, 1864; captured at Mark's .Mills. 
Riley, W., .August 21, 1862; discharged February 20, 1863, disability. 
Riley, J. H., .August 22, 1862; died at Helena, .Arkansas. 
Reynolds, W. W., .August 22, 1862; died at .Mound City, Illinois. 
Robinson, T. I., .August 22, 1862; captured at Mark's .Mills. 
Reynolds, S. F>.. .August 22, 1862; killed at Helena, .Arkansas. 
Scott, H. G. W., .\ugust 22, 1862: ca])tured at Mark's Mills. 
Swank, David, .August 20, 1862; discharged Alay 11, 1865, disability. 
Sawyers, D. A., December 25. 1863. 

Sumner. D. H., .August 20, 1862; captured at Mark's .Mills. 
Smith. J. S., October 26, 1862. 

Sumner, E., .\ugust 22. 1862; discharged .Ajiril 13, 1863, disability. 
Sumner, L. (j., .August 20, 1862; died at Keokuk. 
Sumner, Peter, August 22, 1862. 

Sumner, J. R., October 26. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Smith, Isaac, .August 21, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Stansberry, A. J., August 20, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Stansherry, J. .A., .August 20. 1862; wounded at Mark's Mills and died 

Shafifer, R. 15., .August 19, 1862; died at Shell Mound, Mississippi. 

Stapleton. E. A., August 20, 1862; discharged January 7. 1863. 

Showkwiller, G. W., .August 22, 1862; died at Keokuk. 

Taylor, M. S., .August 19, 1862; died at Helena, .\rkansas. 

Thomas, C, .August 21, 1862: died at Mark's Mills. 

Tedrew, M. K., .August 22, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Tutwiler, Robert, August 22, 1862. 

Thompson, S. K., August 21, 1862. 

X'andiiver, Grayson, .August 20, 1862. 

'Vandover. !•'., .August 19, 1862; captured at ^^ark's Mills. 


Wilson. G.. August 22, 1862. 
Williamson, A. W.. August 20, 1862. 

Company E 
Ward, George !•". II.. January 4, 1864; killed at Mark's Mills. 

Coinf'any F — Captain 
William I". \ ermilion, commissioned October 4, 1862. 


Jacob F. Grimes, enlisted August 9. 1S62: transferred to \ctcran Reserve 
< orps, July I. 1864. 

Levi Broshar. enlisted August 9, •i8()2; wounded at Jenkins" F'erry. 

William R. Davenport, enlisted August 9, 1862; wounded and captured at 
Mark's Mills. 

II. X. Swallow, enlisted August 9, 1862; died on "\'azoo river. 


Willani 11. Maiken, enlisted August 9, 1862. 

William H. Slnitterly, enlisted .August 9, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

John D. Westfall. enlisted -August 9, 1862. 

.Andrew J. Day. enlisted .\ugust 9, 1862; captured at Mark's .Mills. 

James M. Walker, enlisted .August 9, 1862. 

Samuel Clellan, enlisted August 9, 1862. 


•Adam Wafford, enlisted August 9, 1862; discharged December 2, 1862, disa- 


liartlett, J., enlisted .August 9, 1862; died at Keokuk. 

Uartlett, William, enlisted December 16, 1863; captured at Mark's .Mills. 

Burns, William .A., enlisted -August 9, 1862; died at Keokuk. 

Clark, John, enlisted .August 9, 1862; captured at -Mark's .Mills. 

Carpenter. George C, .August 9, 1862; wounded and captured at Mark's 
-Mills; discharged October 25, 1864; disability. 

Collett, John .M., .August 9, 1862. 

Davis, John, .August 9, 1862; wounded at Mark's .Mills. 

Dykes, Henry, August 9. 1862. 

Ely, Simon, .August 9, 1862; captured at .Mark's Mills. 

Eads, William, .August 9, 1862; discharged February 20, 1863; disability. 

F.lgin, John M., .August 9, 1862; wounded and captured at Mark's Mills; dis- 
charged June 2S, 1865. 


J-'ree, John, August, 9, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
F"unkhouser, Joseph ¥., August 9, 1862; captured at Marks Mills. 
Fenton, S. A. D., January 24, 1H64; lapturcil al Mark's Mills. 
Fcnton, John, August 9, 1862. 

Fuller, William 11., .August 9, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
Galhraith, T., December 20, 1863; wounded and captured at Mark's Mills, 
(jris.son, William, .August 9, 1862. 

Gilman, A., February 27, 1864; wounded and died at Mark's Mills. 
Graham, ^[., 9, 1862; discharged December 22, 1864. 
Jlowell, David, February 29, 1864; wounded and captured at Mark's Mills. 
Hardin, R. M., August 9, 1862 ; died at Helena. 
Ili.xenbaugh. Juhn 11., February 20, 1864: died at Memjihis. 
Hughes, Charles, .August 9, 1862. 

Huiatt. James R., I'ebruary 29, 1864 ;, captured at Mark's Mills. 
Houts, Flenry, August 9, 1862; cajjtured at Alark's Mills. 
Haver, George R., .\ugust 9, 1862. 

Kines, 1'.. D., I'Y'ljruary 29, 1864; captured at Mark's Mills. 
].uzader, Perry G., August 9, 1862: wounded and captured at Mark's Mills. 
-McDanel, P>., February 28, 1864; died at Little Rock. .Arkansas. 
AJaiken, 11. A., .August 9, 1862. 

.McHeiiry, Levi, I'ebruary 29, 1864; cajjtured al Mark's Alills. 
Marchbanks, John, August 9, 1862; discharged h'eljruary 4, 18(13. disability. 
Marchbanks, X., .August 9, 1862. 

-Main, Jacob W., ^August 9, 1862; discharged February 28, 1863; disability. 
Alain. C. B., August 9, 1862: killed at Mark's Mills. 
Alain, Lewis, .\ugust 9, 1862: captured at Mark's Alills. 
AlcCullougli. John, .\ugust '). 1862; died October 28, 1862, at Keokuk. 
AlcCullough, William, .August 9, 1862. 

Aliller, George W., August 9, 1862; died February 6, 1863. 
Nicholson, E., August 9, 1862; wounded and captured at Alark's Mills. 
Peppers, D. LL, h'ebruary 28, 1864; cajJtured at Alark's Mills: died at Tyler, 

Patrick, T. W., August 9, 1862; dietl at Shrcve])ort, Louisiana. 

Parkhurst. E. \V., .August 9, 1862; died at Memjihis. 

Sheeks, .Alexander C, August 9, 1862: died at Keokuk. 

Sheeks, John T.. August 9. 1862. 

.Sheeks, I. 11., .August 9, 1862. 

Smith, John P., .August 9, 1862; died at Helena, Arkansas. 

Smith, .Samuel 11., August 9. 1862: captured at Alark's Alills. 

Swift. 11. IL, .August 9, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Stew.iri, 1). -A., .\ugust 9, 1862; cajnured at Mark's Alills. 

Standley, John, August 9, 1862; cai)tured at Alark's Mills. 

Sanuuons, S. AL. .August 9, 1862; died January 18, 1864. 

.Sullivan, P.. S., August 9, 1862; captured at Alark's Alills. 

Tucker, Thomas J., .August 9, 1862. 

Trinchillion, C, .August 9, 1862. 

Tcater. John J., .August 9. 1862; discharged .August 18. 1863, disability 

Walker, 11. .A., August 9, 1862. 

HISTORY' Ol' AIM'. \.\OOSI-: COL'.VTV 189 

W'orthingtoii, Thomas, August 9, 1862. 

Whitesett. John. August 9. 1862; canturcd at Mark's Mills. 

WalTord. John, August 9, 1862; captured at Mark's .Mills. 

Coinpaiiy G — Captain 

TliDnias ^^. Fee, coniniissioncd ( )ctcii)cr 4. iSfu; captured ;il .Mark's Mills. 

First Licittciuiiits 

William McL'reary, commissioned October 4, 1862; resigned Mardi 3. 1863. 

Benjamin F. Pearson, commissioned second lieutenant, October 4, 1862; 
promoted tirst lieutenant, March 4. 1863; resigned May 3. 1865. 

Xicholas Snedeker, enlisted as private, i)roiuoled lirst lieutenant, Mav 8. 

Second Lieutenants 

I-eniuel L. Spooner, enlisted as sergeant July 2(^. 1862: promoted second 
lieutenant, Marcli 4, 1863; died at Memphis. 

Andrew J. r.oston, enliste<l as sergeant, August 4, 18(12; promoted second 
lieutenant, June 15, 1864; died at Tyler, Texas. 

James ?. Thom]ison, enlisted as corporal, -August 2, 1862; promoted second 
lieutenant July 14. iSri^; mustered out as first sergeant. 


A. R. Murdock, enlisted .\ugust 9, 1862; died at Keokuk. 
John Dail}-. enlisted .August 10, 1862; discharged h'ebruary 8, 1863. disa- 

James \\'. Calvert, enlisted .\ugust 2, i8()2; discharged Jaiuiary 15. 1864. 

William Davis, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Silas A. Snyder, August 9, 1862; captured. 

James I.nwrey, enlisted .\ngust 11, \^Ci2: captured at Mark's Mills. 


V. M. Snyder, enlisted .August 9, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 
James Skipton, enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862. 

Ezra Wade, enlisted .August 10, 1862; killed at .Mark's Mills. 
Silas -Moreland. enlisted .\ugust i_>. i,S(i_>; dischargeil March 2},. i8('>:?; 

R. r.. Rice, enlisted .\ugust 2. 18(12; died ;it Cincinnati. 

L5. D. Ilaylcy, .August 9, 1862; died December 9. 1862. 

W. Higgenbothan, enlisted .August 10. 1862; captured at Mark's .Mills. 

William O. Gaol, enlisted .\ugusi 9, 1862; died at Spring Hill, .Arkansas. 


C. W. \\ illianis, enlisted .\ugust 16, 18(12. 
Scott Crow, enlistcfl .August 18, 1862. 



Barren, A. H., enlisted July 26, 1862. 

Bryant. K., enlisted I'ebruary 27, 1864; died September 5, 1864, at Little 

Benge, ^I. J., enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged June 30. i8<j5, disability. 

Beach, Bernice, enlisted August 21, 1862; discharged February 23, 1863, 

Bashare, Daniel, enlisted August 9. 1862; discharged May 30. iS')5. disa- 

Bridgeman, James, enlisted February i. 1864; captured at .Mark's Mills. 

Boyer, William, enlisted August y, 1862. 

Buck, William 1., enlisted August 1, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Bowen, Smith, enlisted August i, 1862; died at Fittle Rock. 

Babb. I. L., enlisted August 19, 1862; discharged November 3, 1863, disa- 

Benge, Joshua, August 14, 1862. 

Biddison, Josiah. August 19, i8f)2: died December 27. 1862. 

Bryant, Eli, August 8, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Bryant, William, .August 14. 1862. 

Beamar. Isaac, .August 11. i8G2; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Buck. William. July 26, 1862; discharged l-'ebruary 22, 1863, disability. 

Clark, ISenjaniin, July 26, 1862. 

Cline, John, .August 9, 1862; died December 20, 1862. 

Carter, Thomas, August 19, 1862; died at Duvall's Bluff, .Arkansas. 

Crage, Thomas, August 10. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Cavanaugh. George T.. August 11, 1862: captured at Mark's Mills. 

Criddlebaugh. M.. .August 9. 1862: captured at Mark's Mills: died at Helena, 

Cross. Isaac, August 9, 1862; cajjtured at Mark's Mills. 

Chambers, H. A., August 10, 1862; discharged I-'ebruary 22. 1863. disability. 

Dodds, F. A., enlisted .August 11, 1862; died on steamer. D. .A. January. 

Davison. James (i.. enlisted .August 14, 1862; cajitured at Mark's Mills. 

Darling, William R., enlisted .August 7, 1862; discharged December 29, 1862. 

Douglass. James A., enlisted August 7, 1862; captured at .Mark's Mills. 

Ellis, Andrew, enlisted .August 21, 1862; died at Helena. 

Eddy, Frederick, enlisted .August 4. 1862. 

Farnsvvorth, Jacob, enlisted .August 11, 1862. 

Fisk, William R., enlisted .August 21, 1862; cajJlured at Mark's Mills. 

Grass, James T.. enlisted .August 11, 1862. 

Grass, John T., enlisted .August 11, 1862. 

Gunter. C T., enlisted August 9, i8ri2. 

Gay, Andrew, enlisted .August 9, 18(12; died at Duvall's BlufT. 

Hopkins. James C. enlisted .August i, 1862. 

Hodge. William C. enlisted .August 13. 1862. 

Hodge, John R., enlisted .August 13. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Hall, Francis, enlisted August i, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Horn, Samuel, enlisted .August 11. 1862. 

Hays. Amos, enlisted .August 10. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 


Jolinson. Thomas, enlisted August lo. 11862. 

Kelclium. C. enlisted August 10. 1862; died Little Rock. 

Kirhy, Newton, enlisted March 14, 1863; captured Mark's Mills. 

Launtz, SiniOn, enlisted August 9, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Lambert. John W.. enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862; discharged March i(), 1864, 

Lambert, B., enlisted August ii. 1862. 

Leonard, Joseph, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Mo-rill, Amos, enlisted .\ugust i, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Mofifat, D., enlisted April 5, 1864. 

Mapes, E. F., enlisted .August i. 1862: ca])tured Mark's Mills. 

^L-lrland, I'enjamin, enlisted .August i. 1862. 

Mullin, Thomas, enlisted .August 11, 1862; discharged December 18, 1862, 

Morrison, John J., enlisted .\ugust 11. i!^()2; captured Mark's .Mills. 

Mottoo, X. F., enlisted August 11. 1862; died at Prairie de Ann. 

Masters, II., enlisted .August 11, 1862. 

Maring. X., enlisted .August 12. 1862; died at Little Rock. 

Merrill, William, enlisted .August 12. 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Alaring. ArloofF, enlisted August 12, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Myers, John \\'.. enlisted .August 21, 1862; died Greenwood. Mississippi 

O'Conner, George, enlisted August 1, 1862. 

O'Conner. J., enlisted .August i, 1862. 

l'hilli])s. Henry, enlisted .August 9, 1862; discharged July 23. 1863. disability. 

Paine, Jesse O., enlisted August 20, 1862. 

Park, J. M., enlisted April 5, 1864. 

Robison. James L. enlisted August 11. i8d2; discharged .August 21, 1863, 

.Smith, R. 15., enlisted .\ugust i, 1862: captured .Mark's Mills. 

Smith. C A., enlisted January 5, 1864; captured Mark's Mills. 

.^taiiton. Thomas J., enlisted .August 2, 1862; discharged February 14. 1863, 

."^tark. William .\.. enlisted -August 19. 1862; discharged March 20, 1863, 

Shaw, S. R., enlisted January 4, i8()4; cajiliucil M.irk's Mills. 

Snedcker, .\., enlisted .August 19, 1862. 

.Skipton, J., enlisted .August 11, 1862; discharged Xovember 16. 1863, disa- 

Strickler. John, enlisted 22. 1862: died Helena. .Arkansas. 

Thomas. James, enlisted .August i, 1862. 

Thomas. William, cnlistcfl .August i, 1862; captured M.'irk's Mills. 

Thornburg, John .'^.. enlisted .August 11, i8r)2. 

Webber, John, enlisted .August 13, 1862. 

Whitsell, Phili]). enlisted .\ngust i, i8('i2: transferred to \ eteran Reserve 
Cor|>s, fVtober 13, i8<')4. 

Zinimer, William T., enlisted .\ugust 1. 1862: capture<l Mark's Mills. 


Company II 

Dyson, Thomas, enlisted August 21, 1S62. 

Gillilantl, James A., enlisted August 16, 1862; died Memphis. 
Helmick, Joseph M., enlisted August 21, 1862; discharged December 17, 
1863. disability. 

Hamblin. William, enlisted .\ugust 16, 1862; died St. I^uis. 
Sales, F. M., enlisted August 21, 1862; died Clarendon, .Arkansas. 
West, Sylvanus, enlisted .August 21, 1862; died Little Rock. 

Company I — Captain 

Joseph !!. Gedney, commissioned ( )ctober 4, 1862; captured Mark's Mills, 

First Liciitcnaut 

George 1\. Ilutson, commissioned October 4, 1862; wounded Jenkins Ferry, 

Second Lieutenant 

\\'alter S. Johnson, commissioned October 4. 1862; captured Mark's Mills, 


Henry Jaquiss, enlisted August 11. 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

H. Dodge, enlisted August 11, 1862: killed Clark's Mills. 

O. H. Perry, enlisted August 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

George Frush. enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862. 

R. E. Chandler, enlisted August 11, 1862. ' 


William D. .\rnisirong, enlisted .\ugust ii, 18^2; discharged Februarv 6. 

Josejih l-"ulclier, enlisted August 11, i8(>2; died Keokuk. 

M. Shoi^iia, enlisted .August 11, 1862; discharged February 21, 1863. 

George Athey, enlisted .August 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

T. E. Gilbert, enlisted .August ti. 1862; captured AFark's Mills. 

R. S. Lowry, enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged June 2~, 1865. 

James Ridgeway, enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged February 10, 1863. 

James C. Hartley, enlisted .August 11, 1862; discharged June 14. 1865. 

John P.. .Adamson, enlisted August 11. 1862: captured Mark's Mills. 

H. Entsmurger, enlisted .August 11, 1862. 

James L. Stone, enlisted August 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

James X. Hodges, enlisted .August 11. i8()2; captured Alark's Mills. 

George Holbrook. enlisted .August 11. i8(>2; captured Mark's Mills. 




4 - 





Adamson, Benjamin, enlisted August ii, 1862; discharged January 29, 1863. 

Bales, Lee, enlisted August 11, 1862; died July 18, at Little Rock. 

Bayles, W. C, enlisted August 11, 1862; died January 5. 1863. 

Ball, Daniel R., enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged February 13, 1863, 

Buck, Charles, enlisted October 11, JiSijj; died at Memphis. 

Bovver, Jacob, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Becknall, Isaac, enlisted October 11, 1862; died at St. Louis. 

Baggs, John C. enlisted October it, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills; died at 
Tyler, Texas. 

Brown, J., enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

liraynian, A. J., enlisted October 11, 1862; killed Mark's Mills. 

Baker, Simeon, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured .Mark's Mills. 

Brown, A. S., enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Baker, H.. enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 25, 1863, disa- 

Baker, James, enlisted ( )ct()l)cr 11. 1862: wounded and captured at Mark's 

Cole, George B., enlisted October 11. 1862; discharged September i, 1863. 

Calvert. F.. enlisted October 11, 1863; died Helena. 

Condra, William, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Copple, Levi, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Cox, David, enlisted October 11, 1862; died at Centcrville. 

Cooley, James A., enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Conger, David, enlisted October 11, 1862: wounded and cajHured at Mark's 

Conger. William, enlisted October 11. 1862; died at Benton Barracks. 

Denvon, James l-.. enlisted January 12, 1864': captured at Mark's Mills. 

Delay, George, enlisted r)ctober 11, n%2; transferred to Invaliil Ojrps, 
March 20, 1863. 

Davis, H. W., enlisted October 11. 1S62; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Davis, Samuel, enlisted October u, 1862; wounded at Jenkins' Ferr\-. 

Darrow. S., enlisted October 11, 1862: died December 12, i8()2. 

Drunimond. L. D., enlisted October 11, 1862; died December 14. 1862. 

Ervin, John M., enlisted September 22, 1864. 

Farmer, E.. enlisted October 11, 1862. . 

Forest, Isaac, enlisted February 12, 1863; captured Mark's Mills. 

Falconer, R.. enlisted October 11. 1862: captured at Mark's Mills. 

Fisher, John 1... January 4, 1864. 

Fairbother, T., enlisted October 11, 1862; died Helena. .Arkansas. 

Gib'son, George \\'.. enlisted F'ebruary 2/. 18^)4; killed at Mark's Mills. 

(jillman, .Silas, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Gillaspie, Benjamin, enlisted October 11, i8()2; wounded an<l di.scharged 
lune 21, 1865. 

Gibson, C. W., enlisted October 11, 18^12; wounded Mark's Mills. 

Guy, Benjamin F., enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Harvey, \V. M., enlisted October it, 1862; wounded Mark's Mills. 


Huntington. William T., enlisted October ii, 1862; died at Memphis. 
Hoadsheldt, William, enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 5, 


Hutchinson, Dillman, enlisted October 11, 1862; wounded and captured at 
Mark's :Mills. 

Ireland, William A., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 7, 1863. 

Jones, Alexander, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

John, James, enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged May 18, 1864. 

John, Henry, enlisted October 11, 1862; died at Helena. 

John, David, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Jarvis, William, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Knapp, Melvin, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Kingsbury, John, enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged November 19, 1864. 

Kelly. William H., enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Kingsbury, Robert, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Leonard, A. A., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 10, 1863. 

Lewis, George, enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 4, 1864, 

Linch, James, enlisted October 11, 1862; died Helena. 

Lewis, Rozzell, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Linton, James W., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged April 24, 1863, 

McDonald, R. S., enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Moore, E. O., enlisted September 6, 1864. 

Morgan, John \V., enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Moss, George R., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged March 3, 1863, 

Meddis, A. R.. enlisted October 11, 1862: transferred to In\alid Corps. 

McCIure, John, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Marshall, William F., enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Manning, Joseph, enlisted October 11. 1862. 

Meddis, Isaac O., enlisted October 11, 1863; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Nelson, James A., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged February 13. 1863. 

Ogle, Barton A., enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Ogle, James, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Parks, Orin, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Park, H. E., enlisted February 14. 1863; wounded and captured at Mark's 

Peugh, S. E., enlisted October 11, 1862; wounded and died at Mark's Mills. 

Streepy, Edward, enlisted October 11. 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Streepy, George, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Streepy, Isaac, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 

Stephenson, H. W'., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged July i, 1865. 

Sutton, George, enlisted October 11, 1862; captured at Mark's Mills. 

Stanton, David, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Shoemaker, F., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged November 17. 1862, 

Stone, A. C, enlisted April 11, 1864. 


Sayles, John A., enlisted October ii, 1862: deserted. 

Smiley, William, enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged June 8, 1865. 

Thompson, William H., enlisted October 11, 1862; discharged June 14, 1865. 

Tetter, John R.. enlisted January 4, 1864. 

Thornburg, A. C, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Winters, John S., enlisted April 14, 1864; died at Little Rock. 

Cotnpatiy K 

Rrott, George W., enlisted August 22. 1862; died at Mark's Mills. 
Bailey, L. C, enlisted August 21, 1862. 

Hager, Jacob, enlisted August 22, 1862; captured Mark's Mills. 
Turner, Robert, enlisted August 20. 1862. 

Company Unknown 

Baker, Willis, enlisted December 15, 18C3. 
Mauba, F., enlisted December 17, 1863. 
Smith, James M., enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Browning, George W., enlisted February 27, 1864. 
Dotson, A. T., enlisted February 17, 1864. 
Gaughenbaug, M., enlisted February 26, 1864. 
Piatl, Oscar, enlisted January 18, 1864. 
Show, John W., enlisted February 2~, 1864. 


Company G 
Regiment mustered out at Davenport, date unknown. 

Asa Dudley, enlisted October 23, 1862; died January 10, 1863. 


Oliver Gorrell. enlisted October 6, 1862; died at Memphis. 
Anthony Martin, enlisted September 11, 1862; discharged September 7, 
1864, disability. 


.•\dams, Walter, enlisted September 21, 1862. 
Blakesley, Joel, enlisted September 26, 1862; died at St. Louis. 
Braidwood, William, enlisted October 2, 1862. 

Blackburn, B., enlisted October i. 1862; discharged July 0, 1864, disability. 
Chipman, John, enlisted October 2, i86j. 

Danford, Milton, enlisted October 21, 1862; discharged May 25, 1863, disa- 

Forsyth, Thomas, enlisted October 22, 1862. 


Frederick, David, enlisted October 27, 1862; discharged April 29, 1863, disa- 

Locli, \\'illiam, enlisted October 1, 1862; died at Alton. 

Merter, Joshua, enlisted October 4, 1862. 

Matheson, Daniel, enlisted October 4, 1862. 

Morris, Joseph, enlisted October 18, 1862. 

Staten, Perry, enlisted October 2, 1862. 

Zimmer, John H., enlisted September 11, 1862; discharged July 4, 1864, 

Company H 

Shaw, John W'., enlisted October 2, 1862; died at St. Louis. 

Company I — First Sergeant 
James E. \\'hitinan, enlisted September ir, 1862. 


Ashby, Daniel C, enlisted Septeniljer, 18^)2; died .Mton, Illinois. 

Burke, William, enlisted October 20. 1862; died at St. Louis. 

Bell, William, enlisted December 20, 1862; died March 6, 1863. 

Hacker, David, enlisted October 16. 1862; died at St. Louis. 

Parks, L. H., enlisted October 17, 1862: discharged May 21. 1863. disability. 

Company K 

Casebeer, J., enlisted October 21, 1862. 
Green, Philetus, enlisted October 21, 1862. 

Myers, George, enlisted October 16, 1862; discharged September 29, 18^ t, 

Mosher, M. G., enlisted September 30, 1862. 
Severs, William P., enlisted October 8, 1862. 


Regiment mustered out at Davenport, September 21,. 1864. 

Company G — Captain 
Edward Mericle, commissioned June 10, 1864. 


Milo W. Phillips, enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Joseph F. Stewart, enlisted May 5, i8()4. 


Charles Dodge, enlisted .May 14, i8(>4. 
William C. Miller, enlisted .May ih, 1864. 
lacol) n. Croft, enlisted .May 10, 1864. 



])uTU>. William, enlisted May 28, 1864. 
Beatty. Aaron, enlisted May 18. 1864. 
lirecs, George W'., enlisted May 3, 1864. 
Cuppy, Charles L., enlisted May 5. 1864. 
Dykes. John, enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Ely, Adam M.. enlisted May 16, 1864. 
Gillis. Albert, enlisted :May 28. 1864. 
Harn, George W., enlisted May 14. 1864. 
House. James, enlisted ^Fay 14, 1864. 
Iledgecock. Lewis, enlisted May 28, 1S64. 
Hedgecock, Albert, enlisted May 14. 1864. 
Hinton, William, enlisted ^fay 8. 1864. 
Jones, William, enlisted "May 5, 1864. 
^^ain. John W., enlisted May 19, 1864. 
^FcAninch, G. R.. enlisted May 23, 1864. 
^^aiken. D. A., enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Robinson, John, enlisted May 5, 1864. 
Sharp, Jesse M., enlisted May 10. 1864. 
Townsend. H. X.. enlisted ^fay 10. 1864. 
Townsend, James S., enlisted ^fay 10, 1864. 
Walters, James E., enlisted May 10, 1864. 
Westfall. William, enlisted ^Tay 28. 1864. 

Company K 
Potter. Albert, enlisted May 12, 1864. 


Coiii/>aii\ B — Captain 
Robert S. Mnrris. ecnnmissioned Jnnc 4. 1864. 

first Lieutenant 
Benjamin Morris, commissioned Jnne 4, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant 
<7harles A. Conger, commissioned June 4. 1864. 


Hiram Barnes, enlisted May i, 1864. 
Beverly A. Joiner, enlisted May 2. 18A4. 
David A. Porter, enlisted May 2, 1864. 
John Nelson, enlisted May 2, 1864. 



C. A. Chessman, enlisted .May 2, 1864. 
Abram Wood, enlisted May 2, 1864. 
James L. Dysart, enlisted May 2, 1864. 
John D. Stewart, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

D. M. Rice, enlisted May 4, 1864. 

E. B. Wilson, enlisted May 2, 1864. 
James W. Taylor, enlisted May 6, 1864. 
R. G. Wilder, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Worth Green, enlisted May 2, 1864. 


Anderson, George W., enlisted May 3, 1864. 

Anderson, Joseph T., enlisted May 5, 1864. 

Borrough, William, enlisted May 6, 1864. 

Blakesly, F. 'SL, enlisted IMay 2, 1864. 

Beard, William, enlisted May 2, 1S64. 

Biddison, John, enlisted May 7, l8(^. 

Buckmaster, R. M., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Conger, John, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Conger, Enos, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Condra, I. AI., enlisted ATay 7, 1864. 

Cummins, George \'., enlisted May 3, 1864. 

Coe, Hiram W., enlisted May 5, 1864. 

Chrisman, William H., enlisted May 6. 1864. 

Cline, Washington, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Christey, George W., enlisted May 18, 1864. 

Drake, John X., enlisted May 6, 1864. 

Dorrah, William L., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Dukes, Jesse M., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

F.dgington, Thomas J., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Farley, William \\'., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Fisher, Benjamin S., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Frost, Andrew, enlisted May 16, 1864. 

Green, S. J., enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Grass, John, enlisted May 4. 1864. 

Tlornaday. X. S., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Harris, E., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Hicks, Andrew, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

1 licks, Robert, enlisted May 2, 18^14; died at Davenport. September 24. 1864. 

Holman, D. B.. enlisted May 16, 1864. 

Hoiigland. William II., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Huston, Thomas A., enlisted May 14, 1864. , 

Hanev, M., enlisted May 2, 1864. 


Leonard. George A., enlisted May 9, 1864. 

Murdy. William L., enlisted May 4, 1864. 

Monroe, Curiis, enlisted May 7, 1864. 

McFerron, II. S,, enlisted May 5. 1864. 

Moreland. U. N., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

McClard, William T.. enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Morrill, E. P.. enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Musgrove. P.. T., enlisted May 5. 18^)4: died at Helena, Arkansas. 

Pratt, A. J., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Phillips, H. P., enlisted May 6, 1864. 

Points, Arthur, enlisted May 3, 1864. 

Phillips. William, enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Parkhurst. E. H., enlisted May 4, 1864. 

Rubey, Elias, enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Smith, H. J., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Smith, J. E., enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Stephens, Edward, enlisted May 5, 1864. 

Scott, J. R., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Shoemaker, C. R., enlisted May 7, 1864. 

Skinner, W. C. enlisted May 2. 1864. 

Scott, B. W.. enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Stier, William, enlisted May 16, 1864. 

Stewart. D. M., enlisted May 15, 1864. 

Silknitter. B. F.. enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Stewart, David, enlisted May 7. 1864. 

Teagardcn. Simon, enlisted May 2. 1864. 

Turk. E. 11.. enlisted May 2. 1864. 

Taylor. I'. S.. enlisted May 2, 1864: died at Helena. Arkansas. 

Tulles, L., enlisted May 4, 1864. 

Thornburg,J. G., enlisted May 2. 1864. 

X'andever, Hiram, enlisted May 13. 1864. 

\'andike, Abram, enlisted May 3. 1864. 

Van lUiskirk. J. W.. enlisted May 9. 1864. 

Wentworth, G., W., enlisted May 2, 1864. 

Ware, R. I-., enlisted May 7. 1864. 

Zimmer. J. H.. enlisted May 6. 1864. 

Com lenity K 
Lloyd, James, enlisted May 26, 1864. 


Regiment mustered out at .Vtlanta, Georgia, Au^'ust 9, 1865. 


Cornelius A. Stanton, enlisted as sergeant; promoted sergeant major; i)ro- 
moled captain; promoted major, September 21, 1864. 


Quartermaster Seryeaiit 
Eli S. Taylor, enlisted September C, 1861. 

Comically B 

r'ailey, X. \V., enlisted August 15, 1861 ; wounded at Osage. Missouri. 
Scott, T. J., enlisted February 27, 1864. 

Comt'any D — Corporal 
Paul Black, enlisted August 24. 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

John L. Wolf, enlisted August 24, 1861 ; cai)tured at I'ea Ridge. 


Caylor, E. M., enlisted August 24. 1861. 

Rodgers, C. R.. enlisted February 25. 1864. 

Taylor, E. S., enlisted August 30, 1861. 

Taylor, J. G., enlisted August 24. 18O1 ; veteranized January 1. 18114. 

Company E — First Sergeant 

Thomas H. Brennon, enlisted .August 17. 1861; veteranized January i. 1864; 
discharged August 2^, 1865. 


James F. Tarr. enlisted August 17, 1861 ; discharged January 20. 1863. dis- 

Worley, James, enlisted February 20. 1864. 

Company G — Corporal 

H. H. Gale, enlisted November 5, 1861 ; discharged January 25. 1862. dis- 

Eowen. \\'. \\'., enlisted 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Company 1 — Captains 

Thomas J. Taylor, commissioned September 6. 1861 : died on Mississippi 
river, July 24, 1862. 

Edward F. llorton, commissioned second lieutenant. September (>. 1861 ; 
promoted captain, September i, 1862; resigned June h). 1863. 


First Liciitciuiiit 

Thomas II. Md^annal, commissioned September (i. i8fii ; resigned August 
15. 1862. 

Second Lieutenant 

Reuben Delay, enlisted as c|uartermaster sergeant, August 20. 1S61 ; pro- 
mote<I second lieutenant January 24, 1864: missing at Ripley, Mississipi)i : lune 
II. 18^14. i)nniiritr-I «-.un(i lieutenant, but not mustered; discharged .Mav .v. i''^^>5- 

l-irst Sertjeants 

Abram Button, enlisted August 20, iSfn ; apjiointed bugler. 

Samuel R. Snyder, enlisted August 20. 1861 ; transferred to Seomd Arkansas 
Regiment. May 10. 1863. 

Charles K. Halbrook. enlisted August 20. 1861 ; veteranized January 1. 1864; 
captured at Rijilcy. .Mississippi; died at .Milieu. Georgia. 


Isaac Duvall, enlisted .\ugust 20. 18(11 ; dicil at l.iule Ruck. 

James B. Story, enlisted August 20. iWu ; captured at l.atirange. Arkansas; 
veteranizerl January i. 1864. 

Martin Clark, enlisted .August 20. i8f^)i. 

William Brannon. enlisted .August 20. i86i ; veteranized January i. 1864; 
died at Centerville. 

Robert Coldsberry. enlisted .\ugust 20. 1861 ; discharged .\'o\cnil)cr 7. 1862. 

Joseph II. Ramsey, enlisteti .August 20. 1861 ; cai)tured at Rii)le\. Mississippi. 

Thomas J. Frost, enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; captured at Jackson. .Mis.sissippi. 

William II. McXulty. enlisted .August 20. i8(')i ; cai)tured at LaOrange. 
.Arkansas; veteranized January i. 1864; captured at Rijiley. Mississippi. 


Richard FVeeborn. enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

P. .A. S. O. Scott, enlisted August 20. 1861 ; died at Helena, .\rkansas. 

John G. Dudley, enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; died at Keokuk. 

Oliver Breese. enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; captured at Ripley. Mississippi. 

John Buckmaster. enlisted .August 20. hSfn. 

William Delay, enlisted .Vugu^'I 20, 18(11: wounded .it l.a(lraMi;e. .\rkansas; 
\eleranized January i, 1864. 

James S. .Swift, enlisted .August 20. i8(ii ; veteranized January 1. 18(14;' cap- 
tured at Ripley. Mississi]i])i ; died at Florence, .Alabama, while jjrisoner, 

S. F.. Fwing. enlisted .\ugust 20, 1861; veteranized January 1. 18(14. 

X. Solon, enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January 1. iS(i4; wounded 
and cajiiured at Ri])ley; <iied at Millen. Georgia. 

J. J. I'inkerlrin. enlisted .August 20. 1861; veteramzed Janu;ir\ 1, 18(14, 



John Nowles, enlisted August 20, 1861. 

William Adams, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; captured at LaGrange, Arkansas; 
veteranized January i. 1864: captured Xovember 3, 1864. 


David Frederick, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged March 21, 1862. 
Joseph A. James, enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Samuel Benge, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged December 20, 1862. 


William F. barker, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864; 
died June 16, 1864. 

Caleb Durbin, enlisted August 20, 1861. 


Adamson, F. H.. enlisted February 24, 1864. 

Adamson, William R., enlisted February 29, 1864; killed at Guntown, Mis- 

Bowman. William, enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Button, II., enlisted February 29, 1864. 

Beall. -M. P., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; died July 12. 1862. 

Bradley. B. F., enlisted February 27, 1864; captured Xovember 3. 1864. 

Baker, Samuel G., enlisted .August 20, 1861. 

Brock, George, enlisted January 5, 1864. 

Beard, George W., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Craig, John, enlisted December 23, 1863. 

Caylor, William K.. enlisted August 20. 1861 ; discharged for disability. 

Calvert, I., enlisted March 20, 1864; captured at Ripley, Mississippi. 

Conger. Joseph M.. enlisted August 20, i86t. 

Clinkenbeard, A., enlisted March 17, 1864. 

Chany, George R., enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Cronin. J., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864: captured 
at Ripley, Mississippi. 

Curran, John, enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Darling. I. K., enlisted February 2y, 1864; captured Xovember 3, 1864; 
discharged March 3, 1865, disability. 

Delay, Willis, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Deemer, G., veteranized January i, 1864. 

Donaldson, James Y.. enlisted .August 20, 18^)1 ; wounded at Coldwater, 

Eddy. Samuel, enlisted .August 20, i86i ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

Ethridgc, William, enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; discharged Xovember 20, 1862. 


Elli>. Harmon, enlisted August 20. 1861 : discharged February 19. 1862, 

I'Vaser, William, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; cajiturcd at LaGrange. Arkansas; 
veteranized January i, 1864. 

Fresh, John II.. enlisted I'ebruary 29, 1864; capturerl at Ripley, Mississippi. 

Holbrook. John R., enlisted -March lo, 1864; captured at Ripley, Mississippi; 
died in Georgia while prisoner. 

Hall. Amos P.. enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; discharged N'ovcmber 24, 1862. 

Hamilton, James S., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged November 20, 1862. 

Haney, B. F.. enlisted March 9, 1864. 

Hopkins, James, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged Xovember. 1861. 

Hines, D., enlisted February 29, 1864; died at Andcrsonville. 

Johnson. James A., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Ketchum, B. D., enlisted February 27, 1864. 

Kerschner. Fli .A., enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Lanham. John .\.. enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Meyers, J. M., enlisted I'ebruary 27, 1864; died at Memphis. 

McDonald. S. L.. enlisted February 27. 1864. 

McKeehan, H. C., enlisted August 20. 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

McTIenry. G. \\'.. enlisted December 25, 1863. 

McFall. William I., enlisted .August 20, 1861. 

McLaughlin. S. H.. enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged January 28, 1862. 

Miller. Peter, enlisted .August 20. 1861. 

Morrisey. Jesse M.. enlisted August 20. 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

McCune, William II.. enlisted -August 20, 186 1 ; discharged -April 2^. 1864. 

^foore, J. L., enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; discharged .April 25, 1864. 

Monroe. James M., enlisted March 17, 1864; died at St. Louis. 

Mohr. .Martin, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 18^54. 

Mcintosh. D. S.. enlisted -August 20. 1861 ; discharged September 26. 1862. 

Murphy, Peter, enlisted August 20, i86i ; veteranized January i, 1864. 

Xelson. S.. enlisted February 23, 1864: killed at Columbus. Georgia. 

Oden, E. S., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged September i. 1864. 

O'Connor, Isaac, enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

O'Connor, M., enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; veteranized January i. 1864. 

Porter, James J., enlisted February 23. 1864; died at .Memphis. 

Points. Thomas, enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; discharged March 5, 1S62. 

Patrick. William M., enlisted .August 20, 1861 ; captured at Rii)ley. 

Reid. M.. enlisted February 25, 1864. 

Ram.sey. Silas C, enlisted .August 20. iSfii. 

Reynolds, T. .M., enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; veteranized January 1, iX'n. 

Root, Moses, enlisted February 24, 1864; died at St. Louis. 

Reynolds. E. M., enlisted .\ugust 20. 1861 ; discharged March 5, 1862. dis- 

Richardson, George L., enlisted .August 20. 1861 ; discharged, disabiliiv 

Rice. John W., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged, disability 

S()rague. E., enlisted I'ebruary 28. 1864; captured at Ripley. 

Steven-;. Isaac, enlisterl .\ugust 20, iSrit ; vc'ii-r.-mized January i, iSi.j 


Smith, Robert P., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged January 6, 1862, 

Staul)er, William TT., enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged March 13, 1863, 

Spangler. Joini, cnlisled August 20, 1861 ; discharged November i, 1861, 

Thornburg, A. B., enlisted February 29, 1864. 

Thompson, I,., enlisted August 20, 1861. 

Tibl)etts, A. W., enlisted I'ebruary 29, 1864. 

Taylor, George W., veteranized January i, 1864. 

Walker, William W., enlisted I'^bruary 2"/, 1864. 

Wadlington, S., enlisted December 17, 1863. 

Walden, |ose])h A., enlisted December 27, 1863. 

Walfinger, E., enlisted February 27, 1864; died October 11, 1864. 

\\'esterberger, J., veteranized January i, 1864. 

Company L — Farrier 

Silas C. Ramsey, enlisted August 20, 1861 ; discharged January 25. 1863 


Isaac W. Green, enlisted August 15, 1861 ; veteranized January i, 1864. 


Boyd, Edward B.. enlisted August 15, 1861 ; deserted December 17, 1861, and 
discovered in Fourth Cavalry in A])ril, 1862. 
Bailey, \. W., enlisted August 15, 1861. 
Forkner, Albert, enlisted .August 15, 1861. 

Com pan y .1/ — Sergeant 
Edward liroshar, enlisted .August 15, 1S61 : veteranized January i, 1864. 

Erastus Ili-oun. enlisted .\ugust 15, 1861: veteranized January I. 1864. 


lirown, Thomas, enlisted .\ugust 15. i8()i ; killed at ( )1(1 Town Creek, Mis- 

Cline, \\'illiam J., enlisted .\ugust 15. i8')i ; discharged .\<i\cmber 2J. 1861, 
disabiiit} . 

Dykes, .Xatlianicl, enlisted .\ugust 15, i8()i ; discharged June 24. 1862, 

(jurn, George A., enlisted .\ugusi 15, i8()i ; discharged January 18, 1862. 

Kimmel, James, enlisted August 15, 1861 ; veteranized January i. 18^)4. 

Kimniel. .M. \'., enlisted .\ugust 1. 1861 ; discharged .May 15. 18(12. 

HIST()k\- ()!• Ari'AXOOSE COUXTY 205 

Murphy. William, enlisted August 15, i,S6i ; cliscliarged June 24, 1862, 

McFatridge. John C. enlisted l^'ebniary 2-j. 1864. 

Comfmiiy I 'nkiioiv'ii 

Hartholoniew, John, enlisted December 20, 1863. 
Brcek, George, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Craig, John, enlisted December 23, 1863. 
Murphy. William, enlisted I-"ebruary 27, 1864. 
.\rcllenry. George \V., enlisted iJecembcr 25, 1863. 
Wadlington, Spencer, enlisted December 17, 1863. 
W'alden. John A., enlisted December 27, 1863. 
Randolph. George F., enlisted I'"el)ruary 6, 1864. 


Regiment mustered out Leavenworth. Kansas, Mav 17, 1866. 

Company .1 — Corporal 
William A. I.owry. enlisted October 20, 1862. 

Ste])iien Martin, enlisted Sepleniber 15, 18^12. 


l-euis, James M., enlisted l-'ebruary 14, 1863. 
Rhoads, Cicero, enlisted September 15, 1863. 
Swearengin, William T., enlisted February 21. 1863. 
Stearns. Lewis, enlisted .September 15, 1862. 
Stearns. Elisha, enlisted September 15, 1862. 
Whitman, D. J., enlisted September 15, 1862. 

Company B — Serrjeant 
I'hilip Smith, enlisted November 7, 1862. 

John D. McKim. enlisted November 7. I1S62. 


Alberson. Xoah, enlisted March 8, 1863. 
I'arljer, Joseph T.. enlisted February 10, 1863. 
Cleghorn, Joseph H., enlisted November 7, 1862. 
Crawley, Samuel, enlisted February 16, 1863. 
Good, Edward, enlisted January 15, 1863. 
Ku\pers. James, enlisted {'"ebruary 7, 1863. 


Morris, Abner, enlisted Xoveniber 7. 1862. 
Matherly, August^ enlisted November 7, 1862. 
O'Connor, F. M., enlisted November 7, 1862. 
Staley, V. M., enlisted I'ebruary 7, 1863. 
Slagle, R. C, enlisted February i, 1863. 
Williamson, P., enlisted November 7, 1862. 

Company D — first Lieutenant 

Jacob R. Delay, enlisted as sergeant, December 25, 1862; promoted second 
lieutenant; promoted first lieutenant, July 13, 1865. 

Worthington McNeal, enlisted December 25, 1862. 

Company E — First Lieutenant 

Jobn W. Robley, commissioned second lieutenant, June 3, 1863 ; promoted 
first lieutenant, June 3, 1865 ; resigned December 14, 1865. 

George W. IMartin, enlisted May 11, 1S63. 


William H. Delay, enlisted May 21, 1863. 
Henry Skinner, enlisted May 8, 1863. 
Lewis B. Korn, enlisted May 14, 1863. 


Albertson, John P., enlisted May 21, 1863. 

Britton, Jobn R., enlisted May 4, 1863. 

McDonald, John C, enlisted April 23. 1863. 

March, Jacob C, enlisted May 11, 1863. 

Morse, John A., enlisted April 15, 1803. 

Payne, John W., enlisted May 23, 1863. 

Swartz, Carey, enlisted May 19, 1863. 

Sleeth, Caleb, enlisted May 23, 1863. 

Train, S. H., enlisted April i, 1863; died at Davenport. 

True, S., enlisted May i, 1863. 

Whitman, R. W., enlisted May 18, 1863. 

i:k;hth cavalry 
Regiment mustered out at Macon, (leorgia. August 13, 1865 

Company F — Captains 

Ephraim Cummins, commissioned September 30, 1863; wounded at Cass- 
ville : resigned August 18. 1864. 


Jackson Morrow, commissioned second lieutenant, September 30, 1863; pro- 
moted captain August ly, 1864. 

First Licutcmutls 

James Ewing, commissioned September 30, 1863; honorably discharged 
August 2, 1864. 

Henry Parker, enlisted as sergeant, June 24, 1863; promoted first lieutenant 
December 21, 1864; commission canceled. 

John B. Morrison, enlisted as first sergeant June 24, 1863: promoted first 
lieutenant, January 16, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant 
Charles R. Rogers, commissioned March 3. 1865. 

Quartermaster Sergeant 
William H. PuUiam, enlisted June 24, 1863; killed at Newnan, Georgia. 


George M. Dunton. enlisted June 24, 1863; captured at Newnan, Georgia. 
James H. Ruckner, enlisted June 24, 1863. 


William D. Kinser, enlisted June 24, 1863; captured at Newnan, Georgia. 
C. W. Morrison, enlisted June 24. 1863; captured at Newnan. 
Charles Severance, enlisted June 24, 1863. 
J. M. Robinson, enlisted July 7, 1863. 

Jesse Evans, enlisted June 24, 1863; captured at Newnan. 
J. A. J. Thomas, enlisted June 24, 1863; captured at Newman; died at 
Florence, Georgia, while prisoner. 

Thomas L. Myers, enlisted June 24, i8()3; captured at .\ewnan. 


Samuel Thnmp'^on. enlisted June 24, i8r)3; captured at .Newnan. 
Peter Talkington, enlisted June 24, 18(13. 

James McColm, enlisted June 24, i8'>3. 

Robert McClaren. enlisted June 24, 1863. 



Anderson, joliii \\'., enlisled June 24, 1863. 

Allen. S. \\'.. enlisted June 24, 1863; captured at Xewnan. 

Adams, H. I)., enlisted July 2X, 1863. 

Brees. F., enlisted August i, 1863. 

Chadd, A. C. enlisted August 21, 1863. 

Cliilds. John, enlisted June 24. 1863 ; died at Xashville. 

Delay, William S.. enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Davis, .S. X.. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Donnelson, William 1 1., enlisted June 24, 1863 ; wounded at Florence. .Mabama. 

Davis. Henry, enlisted July 28, 1863. 

Elmore. David, enlisted June 24, 18^)3. 

Elmore. Henderson, enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Freeman. J. R.. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Garton, Daniel, enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Gale, Joseph W.. enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Harris, O., enlisted June 24, 1863; wounded at Florence. Alabama. 

Hiatt. Oliver, enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Hiatt. Isaac, enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Hall. John \V.. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Harmon. George, enlisted June 28. 1863. 

Hubbard, George \\'.. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Hardy, John S., enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Johnson. Henry, enlisted July 28. 1863: discharged .\pril 14. 1865. 

Johnson. Eli. enlisted June 24. 1S63: captured at Xewnan. 

James, Benjamin 1*".. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

]\Iason. Samuel R., enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Monroe, J. R. X., enlisted June 24. 1863: captured at Xewnan 

Moss, Jacob, enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Xeighbors. E., enlisted June 24. 1863; died at Davenport. 

Xeighbors. Joseph, enlisted July 7. 1863: dieil in Tennessee. 

Padgett. R., enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Porter, R. W., enlisted July 28, 1863; captured at Xewnan. 

Rhoads. Joseph, enlisted July 8, 1863. 

Rowe, Matthew, enlisted July 28, 1863. 

Rockw'Ood, F. M., enlisted July 8, 1863. 

Ramsey, John T., enlisted July 24. 1863. 

Stanley. William H.. enlisted July 24, 1863. 

Shaffer, John, enlisted July 24, 1863. 

Sweaney, Samuel, enlisted July 28, 1863; captured at Xewnan. 

Sheeks, D. P., enlisted June 24, 1863. 

Wood. Jefferson, enlisted June 24, 18^13. 

W'olfard, L. E.. enlisted June 24. 1863. 

Wood. William A., enliste<l July 17. 1863. 

Williams. John, enlisted July 28. 1863. 


Comically H — Caf'taiiis 

Madison M. Walden, commissioned September 30. 1863 ; captured at Xewnan, 
Georgia; resigned May 27, 1863. 

William T. Ogle, commissioned lirst lieiileiiant. September 30, iS(>^; pro- 
moted captain, June 12, 1865. 

First Lieutcimnf 

Jeiierson D. P.rown, enlisted as sergeant ; promoted second lieutenant ; pro- 
moted lirst lieutenant. June 12. 1865, 

Second Lieutenants 

Benjamin Morrison, commissioned September ^o. 1865: resigned March h. 

Columbus X. Udell, enlisted as first sergeant, July 30, 18(13; promoted second 
lieutenant. March 7, 1864; resigned January 28, 1865. 

Jonathan Harris, enlisted as sergeant. July 17, 1803; (jromoted secoml lieu- 
tenant. June 12, 1865. 

Quartermaster Sergeant 
Daniel F. Pool, enlisted July 23, 1863. 

Commissary Sergeant 
Robert (ioldsberry. enlisted September 2. 18(13. 


Xoah Lantz. enlisted August 22. 1863; wdunded and ca])tured at l.ovejoy 
Station; discharged June 14, 1865. 

T. H. B. Snedeker, enlisted August 22, 1863; captured at Xewnan, Georgia. 

C or /^ orals 

].. II. Park, enlisted July 29. 18(13; discharged May 20, 18(15, disability. 
James .\. Xelson, enlisted .August 22. 1863; wounded at Campbellsville, 

I-ewis Hall, enlisted .\ugu>i jj. 1863. 

Thomas McClaskey, enlisted August 22, 18(13. 

James W. W'ailes. enlisted .August 22. 18(13; captured at Xewnan, Georgia. 

Joseph F. l^mith, enlisted August 3, 18(13: discharged March 29, 1864. 

George M. D. .'"^nead, enlisted .August 22. 1863; wounded at Xewnan, Georgia. 

John Waller, enlisted .August 22. 1863; captured at Xewnan, (ieorgia. 


John McKern, enlisted Septemlier 2. 18^13; captureil at Xewnan; supposed 
t" have died at Florence, while pris<iner. 

Vol. I— I 4 


James Abernathy, enlisted July 2j, 1863. 


Barrows, James C. enlisted July 18, 1863. 

Barrett, David, enlisted August 22, 1863. 

Brayman, Edward B., enlisted August 22. 1863. 

Britt, Robert, enlisted July 27. 1863. 

Brown, Richard, enlisted September 7, 1863. 

Brown. William H.. enlisted September 7, 1862; killed at Xewnan. 

Coffman, James E., enlisted August 22, 1863. 

Conger, E. G., enlisted August 4, 1863. 

Corbin, Isaiah, enlisted July 29. 1863. 

Corporan. Gaines, enlisted August i, 1863. 

Cowles. George X., enlisted July 28, 1863. 

Crow. James P., enlisted September 7, 1863; killed at luka, Mississippi. 

Danford, T. C. enlisted August 8. 1863. 

Danford, R. C, enlisted August 8, 1863. 

Delay, Joseph, enlisted July 20, 1863. 

Edgington. George W., enlisted August 3, 1863. 

Elliott, William W. 

Entsminger, J. 

Everman, William F. 

Farnsworth. Eli. 

Frost, William H. 

Fuell. John W. 

Fuller, John W.. enlisted .August 22, 1863. 

Gale, Thomas A., enlisted September 2, 1863. 

Gardner, W. E.. enlisted August 22, 1863. 

Gordon, Howard, enlisted August 22, 1863. 

Gorrel, Oliver, enlisted .>\ugust 3, 1863. 

Hickman, Daniel, enlisted July 30, 1863. 

Higblan. Peter, enlisted September 7, 1863; died at Macon. Georgia. 

Hollingsworth, A. G., enlisted July 3, 1863. 

Holshouser, George, enlisted .August 22, 1863. 

Hubler, C, enlisted July 28, 1863. 

Linton. A., enlisted August i, 1863. 

Love. Joseph H.. enlisted -August i, 1863. 

Lynch, James, enlisted August 17, 1863. 

Masters, W., enlisted August 15. 1863. 

Melson, F. G., enlisted .August 8, 1863. 

Miller, A. M., enlisted August 3, 1863. 

Moore, M. L., enlisted August 3, 1863. 

Packard. J. P... enlisted August 15, 1863. 

Putnam, William, enlisted August 13, 1863. 

Reed, B. F., enlisted August 15, 1863. 

Roby, I. O., enlisted .August 22. 1863. 


Sayres, John D., enlisted August 22, 1863. 
Smead. Z.. enlisted August 7. 1863. 
Stanton, B. G., enlisted July 29, 1863. 
Simpson, J. R., enlisted August i. 1863. 
Still, William K.. enlisted August 4. 1863. 
Tucker, H. C, enlisted September 7, 1863. 
Wailes. T. J., enlisted September 2, 1863. 

Company L — Quartermaster Sergeant 
C. X. Hinkle, enlisted July 24. 1863. 


Harrison West, enlisted July 3. 1863; transferred to \etcran Reserve Lor. 
-March 29, 1864. 


A. Lepper, enlisted July 11, 1863; wounded and died at Cassville, Georgia. 


Adams, John C, enlisted July 27,, 1863. 
Cline, A. J., enlisted July 21, 1863. 

Fitzpatrick, , enlisted July 3, 1863. 

Frost, Edmond, enlisted August i, 1863. 
Flowers, Joseph, enlisted July 28, 1863. 
Lewis, Joseph, enlisted August i. i8r)3. 
Morris, James H., enlisted July 8, 1863. 
Rice, John W., enlisted August 15, 1863. 
Rice, David F., enlisted August 22, 1863. 
Rice, William F., enlisted August 28, 1863. 
Singley. John A., enlisted July 4, 1863. 

Company Unknoivn 
Clark, Jacob, enlisted December 8. 1863. 


Company B — Captain 
F.Iisha D. Skinner, conunissioned October 6, 1862. 

Grant S. Stansbcrry, commissionefl October 7. 1862. 


Anderson. James I'., enlisted ( Vtober 7, iSr.2. 
Anderson, John W., enlisted Octoi)er 7. 1862. 


Bramhall, William, enlislcd October 12, 1862. 
Britton, John R.. enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Baldwin, William A., enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Barrett, James S., enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Cormican. James, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Conger, Mark, enlisted October 18. iS(>2. 
Cooksey, C. enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Cooksey. J., enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Demoss, William, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Edwards, Daniel, enlisted October 7, \SG2. 
Edwards, Louis, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
l'3win£:f. James, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
l^lledge. Harvey, enlisted October 7, 1862 
Elam, Socrates, enlisted October 17. 1862. 
Findlay, A., enlisted October 7, 1862. 
I'Yeeborn, John, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Hiffner, August, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Highland, Peter, enlisted October 18 1862. 
Harris. Enoch, enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Horn. Isaiah, enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Horn, John, enlisted October iS. 1862. 
Korn. Samuel, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Klenkenbeard, J., enlisted October 8, 1862 
Lynch. William, enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Lambert. L.. enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Morrow, Robert, enlisted October 7. i8fo. 
McFadden, W., enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Murray, Jesse E., enlisted October 7. iSfu. 
Marlow, Eli, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
McCaskey, Robert, enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Morrow, W'^illiam, enlisted October 7. 1862 
McColm, Tames, enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Nelson. James, enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Oden. Thomas, enlisted October 8, 1862. 
Pickham. John D., enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Payne, John, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Points, Arthur, enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Purdon. Benjamin, enlisted October 7, 1862. 
Ratchford, Alexander, enlisted October 7, 186? 
Skinner, Henry, enlisted October 7. 1862. 
Skipton, Elijah, enlisted October 18. 1862. 
Stephenson. William, enlisted October 8. 1862. 
Steeth, Caleb, enlisted October 18. 1862. 
Williams. John, enlisted October 8, 1862. 
Wardlow, R., enlisted October 18, 1862. 
Yarnall, Tthnmar. enlisted October 7, 1862. 



Company B — Captain 
James W. Edwards, commissioned January i, 1862. 

Quartermaster Sercjeant 
riionias Rogers, enlisted February i, 1862. 

William Edwards, enlisted January 4, 1862. 


Craig, X'ictor, enlisted F'ebruary 10, 1862. 
Gragg, Samuel, enlisted January i, 1862. 
Hornback, Jacob, enlisted January i, 1862. 
Rye, John, enlisted January i, 1862. 
Stevens, Thomas, enlisted January i, 1862. 
Stevens, James \ ., enlisted February i, 1862. 
Thompson, William, enlisted January i, 1862. 

Company C — Second Lieutenant 
William Law, connnissioned .March 10, 1802 ; promoted lirst lieutenant. 

1-irst Sergeant 
James G. West, enlisted .March 10, 1802; promoted second lieutenant. 


William W. iirown, enlisted .March 10, 18O2; deserted. 
John R. Frost, enlisted March 10, 1862. 


Cline, John J., enlisted .March lu, 1862. 

Gale, Samuel .\1., enlisted .March 10, 1862, promoted corporal. 

Moore, Charles, enlisted March 10, 1862. 

Thompson, D., eiilisled March 10. 1862. 


Company D 
Rigler, John, enlisted September 27, iW)i ; died June 25. 1863. 

Company G 
Peterson, Cornelius, discharged October 17, 1862. 


Company I — Sergeant 
Caleb Wells, enlisted October 17, 1861 ; died prisoner of war, May 17, 1862. 


Charles M. Skinner, enlisted September 17, 1862. 


Bacchus, Sanford, enlisted September 2. 1S61. 
Cavanaugh, G. W., enlisted September 2-, 1861. 
Cooksey, Claiborn, enlisted September 17, 1861. 
Cool, Hendrix, enlisted October 17, 1861. 
Kom, Leander, enlisted October 17, 1861. 
Korn, L. B., enlisted September 24, 1861. 
Maples, J. I., enlisted September 15, 1861. 
Mercer, Henry, enlisted October 16, 1861. 
Mercer, Samuel, enlisted October 7, 1861. 
Rohrer, Daniel, enlisted September 21, 1861. 
Sharp, J. E., enlisted September 17, 1861. 
Sterret, Johnston, enlisted October 17, 1861. 
Thompson, William, enlisted September 14, 1861. 


Company G — Corporal 
William H. Pulliam, enlisted October 25, 1861. 


Bates, M. W., enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Carr, Richard, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Commons, Henry, enlisted December i, 1862. 
Cummings, Alonzo, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Davie, C. C, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Knapp, J. M., enlisted October i, 1861. 
Knapp, W. A., enlisted October i, 1861. 
Lamar, Trusten, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
McCune, Robert, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Masterson, C, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Masterson, J. W., enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Miller, W. C, enlisted September i, 1861. 
Pitts, Peter, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Seals, A. J., enlisted December 25, 1861. 
Sheeks, G. W., enlisted December 15, 1861. 
Watts, Elihu, enlisted October 25, 1861. 
Watts, John, enlisted October 25, 1861. 


Company II 

Jones, J. L., enlisted January ii, 1862. 
Lewis, J. M., enlisted January 24, 1862. 


E. E. Harvey, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

First Lieutenant 
Jacob Morehead, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant 
R. R. McOuire, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

first Serjeant 
S. D. Harris, enlisted August 12, 1862; promoted first lieutenant. 


J. II. McCabe, enlisted August 12. 1862; discharged October 23, 1863, dis- 

J. H. Aslier, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

G. \V. Farnsworth, enlisted August 12, 1862; promoted first lieutenant. 

R. F. Rinker, enlisted August 12, 1861. 


John Crowder. enlisted August 12, 1861 ; discharged January 5, 1863, dis- 

\Y. W. Lockard. enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 

John W. Miller, enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Noah M. Scott, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 

E. L. Parker, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 

Addison Pendergast, enlisted August 12, i86r. 

William P.ell, enlisted .\ugust 12. 1861, discharged October 2, 1861, disability. 

T. (". McCauley, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 


Samuel I'.all, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861 ; transferred to iMfiii Kansas. 
M. L. Maddo.N, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 


Allen, D. H.. enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Abbot, Groves, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Arrison, F. R., enlisted August 12, 1861. 


Bryan, J. \\"., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Buck, Sylvester, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Belvail, Samuel, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Boston, Cyrus, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Barrett, John, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Barljer, W. E., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Beamer, H. C, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Barchu';. \\'illiam. enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Cline, Washington, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Curtis, G. W., enlisted June 12, 1862. 
Davis, W. B.. enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Davis, E. H., enlisted August 12. 1861 : killed May 15, 1862. at Jackson, 

Farnsworth, John, enlisted March 7, 1863. 
Fox, William, enlisted .\ugust 12. 1861. 
Fugua, R. F., enlisted September 16, 1861. 
Grass, John, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Gelman, Arthur, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Goldsburg. John, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Gilman.' F... enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Gregsby, William, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Glass, E., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Harrison, T. C., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Hawkins, D. H., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Hamlin, Thomas, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Hercules, \\'. T.. enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Hinton, Afarion. enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Innman, X., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Jennings, E. T., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Jackson, C. R., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Jackson, Alexander, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Kiser, .Adam, enlisted August 12. 1861. 
Kellogg, Hiram, enlisted .August 12, 1S61. 
Lee, W. G., enlisted August 12. 1861. 
Lowery. J. C. enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Lewallen, X. J., enlisted May 20, 1862. 
LeGrand. T. G., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

McCord. Joseph, enlisted July 17, 1861 ; died at I'ort Scott, Kansas. 
McCord, John, enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 
McDonald, D. P.. enlisted August 12, 1861. 
McLain, P. B.. enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Mc( iuire, (ieorge, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Morris, William W., enlisted August 12, 1861. 
McCord, .Andrew, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Manning, E., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 
Manning, William J., enlisted August 12. 1861. 
Xash, William, enlisted .August 12. 1861. 
Xorwood, W. W., enlisted .August 12. 1861. 


Owens, William T., enlisted August 12, 1861 ; killer] at Hickory Grove, .Mis- 
souri, September 19, 1862. 

Orill, Allison, enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Paite, M., enlisted September 16. t86i. 

I'ettit, Allen G., enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Parker, John G.. enlisted .March 24, 1862. 

Pendergast. John, enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Parker, L. G., enlisted August 12, \X(>i. 

Paite, David, enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Rinker, George \\'., enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Roy, Isaiah, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Roop, George W., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Root, .Albert, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Rinker, O. C., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Root, George R., enlisted -August 12, 1861. 

Slavens, J. H., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

.*^te\vart. .Amos, enlisted .August 12, i86i. 

Smith, William .A., enlisted 12, 1861. 

Strickland. Elmore, enlisted August 12. 1861. 

Sidles. Peter, enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Sigler, Peter, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Simmons, Richard, enlisted September 16, 1861. 

Teater, C. AT., enlisted .August 12. 1861. 

Teater. I... enlisted .August i, 1863. 

Teater. P. R.. enlisted August 12. 1861. 

Tucker. H. C. enlisted .August 12. 1861. 

Tucker. C. C, enlisted .August 12, 1S61. 

Thurher, .M,. enlisted .August 12. 1861. 

Walden, Samuel, enlisted September 16, 1861. 

Wright. James R.. enlisted .August 12, iSf)!. 

Whitham, John W., enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 

Woltinger, James, enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Westfall, W. W., enlisted .August 12, 1861. 

Wood. John B., enlisted .August 12, 1861, 

Wilson, .A. J., enlisted .August 12, iSrn ; killed at Jackson. Missouri. 

Wolfinger, S., enlisted .\ugust 12, 1861. 

Zentz. J. I!., enlisted August 12, 1861. 

Zimmerman. John, enlisted August 12. 1861. 

Zimmerman, George, enlisted AiilmkI 12. iR^n. 



John Wesley Scott, enlisted as corporal, May 6. i8<>r ; jiromoted second lieu- 
tenant, first lieutenant; captain, December 12, 18^)4; mustered out, July 12. 1865. 


Robert i!. \ermilyea, enlisted May 6, 1861 ; mustered out June 18, 1864. 


Buckmaster, E., enlisted May 6, 1861. 
Park, Simpson, enlisted May 6. 1861. 
Phillips, S. B., enlisted May 6, 1861. 
Staler, Daniel W., enlisted May 6,1861. 
Strunk, Daniel J., enlisted May 6, 1861. 



John H. Dougherty, enlisted August 10, 1861 ; discharged February 15, 1862. 
John Haver, enlisted August 10, 1861 ; mustered out April 20, 1866. 


Davis, Isaac, enlisted August 10, i86r. 
Duncan, John, enlisted August 10, 1861. 
Garrett, Reuben, enlisted August 10, 1861. 
Haver, George, enlisted August 10, 1861. 
Jackson, Joshua, enlisted August 10. 1861. 
Mickey, Isaac, enlisted August 10. 1861. 


Buckmaster, Charles. 


Houts, Orrin F., enlisted November I, 1861. 


Harl, Charles F., enlisted February 12, 1862. 


Albert Benson, enlisted August 22. 1862. 

Train, Isaac N., enlisted August 21. 1862. 


Oliver Williams, enlisted August 9, 1862; mustered out .\ugust 10. i86i. 


TlllkTli:Tll I.NM".\N"TRV 

John W. Law. enlisted August 13, 1862. 


Bryant. Robert M., enlisted August 9, 1862. 
Gardiner. Elijah, enlisted July 30, 1862. 


Clark. William A., enlisted August 13, 1862. 
Larkin, Charles W., enlisted August 13, 1862. 


M. M. Boyer. enlisted September 21. 1862; mustered out June 5, 1865 


Assistant Surgeon 

John H. Rassell. commissioned May 28, 1864; mustered out September 15, 


Brees, William H., enlisted June 15. 1864. 
\'an Kirk. Henry, enlisted June ii. 1864. 


Bessey, Charles, enlisted June 24, 1863. 


Carson, James M., enlisted October 8, 1861. 
Ogdcn. H. B., enlisted October 9, 1861. 
Cafferty, George, enlisted November 14. 1861. 
Dotson, John, enlisted November 14, 1861. 
Swain, William, enlisted November 14, 1861. 
Fullerton, W.. enlisted November 14, 1861. 
Brotherton, M. \'. B., enlisted January i, 1H64. 


Elijah Atkinson, enlisted September 21, 1861. 



Branchcome, D., enlisted Uctuber 4, 1863. 
Gouldsbury, Cyrus, enlisted October i, 1863. 
Griffith, M. B., enlisted October 7, 1863. 
Smith, James W., enlisted April 18, 1864. 
Shannon, Joseph O., enlisted April 18, 1864. 


Flock, CJcorge li., enlisted November 23, 1864. 


William Stinson. enlisted Feliruary 13, i8<'i2: discharged June 27. disability 

Benner, I'Vederick, enlisted February 3. 1862. 


Matherly, John, enlisted Alarch 22, 18O2. 
^fatherly. Wisely, enlisted December 3, 1861. 
Taylor, Abner, enlisted October 12. 1862. 


Ball, Samuel, enlisted August 12, 1861. 
Maddax, Martin, enlisted August 12, 1861. 


Gordon, Allen, enlisted August 9. 1861. 


Reed, Benjamin 1\, enlisted August 18, 1862. 


The major portion of the enlisted men from Appanoose county and com- 
panies organized therein were assigned to regiments of infantry and cavalry, 
short records of which are given below. Many of the men were scattered and 
lost a local identity in other regiments: 


was mustered into the service July 6, 1861, at Burlington, with John .\. McDow- 
ell, of Keokuk, as colonel; Markoe Cummins, of .Muscatine, lieutenant ciMonel : 
John M. ('<)r-.e. of riurlinu'ioii. major. Company .\ was from Finn county; 


Company B from Lucas and Clarke counties; Company C from Hardin county; 
Company D from Appanoose county : Company E from Monroe county ; Com- 
pany V from Clarke county ; Company ( i from Johnson county ; Company 1 1 
from Lee county ; Company I from Des Moines county ; Company K from 
Henry county. It was engaged at Sliiloli. ^^ission Riclge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Jackson, Black River Bridge, Jones' Ford, etc. 
The Sixth lost 7 officers killed in action, 18 wounded; enlisted men 102 were 
killed in action, 30 died of wounds, 124 of disease, 211 were discharged for dis- 
ability and 301 were wounded in action, which was the largest list of casualties, 
of both ofiicers and men, of any regiment from Iowa. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. July 21. 1865. 

Till-: si;\i:ntii i.\i\NTin 

was nuistcred into the Cniled States service al Burlington, July 24, iSdi, with 
I. G. Lauman, of Burlington, as colonel; Augustus W'entz, of Davenport, as 
lieutenant colonel, and E. \V. Rice, of Oskaloosa, as major. Com])any A was 
from Muscatine county; Company B from Cliickasaw and Floyd counties; Com- 
pany C from Mahaska county; Companies D and E from Lee county; Company 
F from Wapello county; Company G from Iowa county; Comjiany II from 
Washington county ; Company I from Wapello county ; Company K from Keo- 
kuk. Was engaged at 'the battles of Belmont ( in which it lost in killed, wounded 
and missing 237 men"), Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, siege of Corinth. 
Corinth. Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Xew Hope Church, I'.ig Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain. \ick-a-Jack Creek, siege of Atlanta, battle on the 22d of July in 
front of .Atlanta. Sherman's campaign to the ocean, through the Carolinas to 
Richmond and thence to Lom'sville. Was nuistcred out at Louisvilli-. Kciituckv. 
July 12, 18*15. 

Till-; i;ic,iiTici;.N" I'll ini.\.ntkv 

was mustered into the L'nited ."states service August 5. (> and 7. \H(>2. at Clinton. 
with John Edwards, of Chariton, colonel; T. Z. Cook, of Cedar Rapids, lieuten- 
ant colonel ; Hugh J. Campbell, of Muscatine, as major. Comjjany .\ was from 
Linn and various other counties; Company B from Clarke county; Company C 
from Lucas county; Company D from Keokuk and Wapello counties; Company 
E froiu Muscatine county: Company I" from .Xifjianoose comity; Company (i 
from Marion and Warren counties; Company H from I'ayette and I'.enton 
counties; I'ompany I from Washington county; Comi>any K from Wapello. 
Muscatine and Henry counties, and was engaged in the battles of Springfield. 
Moscow, Poison Spring, Arkansas, and was mustered out at Little Rock. .Arkan- 
sas. July 20. 18^15. 


was organized at Keokuk, with L liarlcs W . Kittrcdge, of ( ntumwa. as colonel; 
F. M. Drake, of Cnit)nville, .\ppanoose county, as lieutenant colonel; and T. C. 
Woodward, of Otlumwa. as major, and nuistcred in October 4, i8fi2. Com- 
pany .A was from Monroe county: Com|)anies B, D, I',, H and K from Wapello 
county, and t'ompanics C'. I". G and 1 from .\|)panoose county. Was engaged in 


tlic following battles: Mark's Mills, Arkansas; Elkins' Ford, Camden, Helena, 
Jenkins' Ferry, etc. At Mark's Mills, April 25, 1864. out of 500 engaged, lost 
200 killed and wounded, the balance being taken ])risoners of war ; was ex- 
changed October 6, 1864. Was mustered out at Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas, August 
24, 1865. 

THF,;vi;xTH i>Jf.\ntrv (or crav isf.ards) 

was organized, willi George \V. Kincaid, of Muscatine, as colonel; George R. 
West, of Dubuque, as lieutenant colonel ; and T-vman Allen, of Iowa Citj", as 
major, and was mustered into the United States service at Muscatine, December 
15, 1862. Company A was from lilack Haw-k and Linn counties ; -Company B 
from Muscatine county ; Company C from Van Buren and Lee counties ; Com- 
pany D from Johnson and Iowa counties; Company E from Wapello and 
Mahaska counties ; Company F from Dubuc|ue county ; Company G from 
Appanoose, Des Moines, Henry and Washington counties ; Company H from 
Henry and Jefferson counties ; Company I from Jasjjcr, Linn and other counties, 
and Company K from Scott and Fayette counties. The object of the Thirty- 
seventh was to do garrison duty and let the young men go to the front. It was 
mustered out at Davenport on expiration of three years' service. 

Tin: F()irr>-si\Tii i.vr.wruv ( 100 

was organized with I). 1!. ilcnderson, of Clermont, as colonel; L. D. Durbin, of 
Tipton, as lieutenant colonel; and G. L. Tarbet, as major, and was mustered in at 
Dubuque, June 10, 1864. Company A was from Dubuque; Company B from 
Poweshiek; Company C from Dallas and Guthrie; Company B from Taylor and 
Fayette; Company K from Ringgold and Linn ; Company F from \\'inneshiek and 
Delaware counties ; Company G from AjJiianoose and Delaware counties ; Com- 
pany H from Wayne, Company I from Cedar; and Company K from Lucas 
countv. Was mustered out at Davcnjiort, .Sc])tember 2^, 1864. 


was mustered into the United States service at Davenport, June 4. 1864. with 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, as colonel; John Williams, of Iowa City, as 
lieutenant colonel; and (i. j. Wright, of Des Moines, as major. Company A was 
from Marion and Clayton counties; Company B from Appanoose county; Com- 
pany C from Wapello and Benton counties ; Company B from Buchanan and 
Linn counties; Com[)any F from Madison county: Company F from Polk 
county ; Company G from Johnson county ; Company H from Keokuk county ; 
Comi)any I from Mahaska county ; and Company K from Wapello. 

riii-: riiiuii c.w.vlkv 

was organized and mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, in .August 
and September, 1861. with Cyrus liussey, of Bloomricld, as colonel; H. H. 
Bussey, of Bloomfield, as lieutenant colonel; and C. H. Perry. H. C. Caldwell 
and W. C. Drake, of Corydon, as majors. Companies .\ and F were from 


Davis county: Company I'. ln>m \'aii Piuren and Lee counties; Company C 
from Lee and Keokuk counties; Comjiany D from Davis and \'an lluren 
counties; Company F from Jefferson county; Coni|)any G from \'an Huren 
county ; Company H from \'an Buren and Jefferson counties ; Company I from 
Appanoose county ; Company K from Wapello and Marion counties ; Company 
L from Decatur county ; and Company M from Appanoose and Decatur coun- 
ties. It was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes: Tea Uidge, La 
Grange, Sycamore, near Little Rock, Columbus, Pope's F'arm, Big Blue. Ripley, 
Coldwater, Osage, Tallahatchie, Moore's Mill, near Montevallo, near Independ- 
ence. Pine Bluff. I'.olts' I'arm. Ciun Town, White's .Station, Tui)elo, N'illage 
Creek. Was mustered out of service at Atlanta, Georgia, August 9, 1865. 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered into the United States service .\pril 
27, 1863, with .S. W. Summers, of Ottumwa, as colonel; Joiin i'attee, of Iowa 
I ity, as lieutenant colonel; H. H. Heath and G. M. O'Brien, of Dubiuiue and 
John S. Wood, of Ottumwa, as majors. Companies A, B, C and D were from 
Wapello and other countries in immediate vicinity; Companies F. 1', G and II 
were from all parts of the state; Company 1 from Siou.x City and known as 
Sioux City Cavalry; Company K was originally Company .\ of the I'ourteenth 
Infantry and afterward Company .\ of the Forty-first Infantry, was from 
Johnson and other counties; Company L was originally Company B of the Forty- 
first Infantry and afterward Company 15 of the I-'orty and was from John- 

-•n county; Company M was originally Company C of the Fourteenth Infantry, 
and afterward Company C of the Forty-first and from Des Moines and other 
counties. The Seventh Cavalry operated against the Indians. F.xcepting the 
lieutenant colonel and Companies K, L and M, the regiment was niuslered out 
at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 17, 1866. Companies K, L and M were, mustered 
out at Sioux City, June 2 J. 1866. 


was organized with J. B. Dorr, of Dubuque, as colonel; II. G. Barner, of Sidney, 
as lieutenant colonel; John J. Bowen, of Hopkinton, J. D. Thompson, of Eldora, 
and A. J. Price, of Guttenburg, as majors, and were mustered in at Davenport, 
September 30. 1863. The companies were mostly from the following counties: 
' om|)any A, Page; Company P.. Wajiello: C"ompany C, \'an Buren; l."omi)any 
D, Ringgold ; Company E, Henry ; Company F, Appanoose ; Company G, Clay- 
ton; Company H, Appanoose; Company I, Marshall; Comp.iiiy K. Muscatine; 
Company L, Wapello; Company M, Polk. The Itlighth did a large amount of 
duty guarding .Sherman's communications, in which it had many small eng.ige- 
ments. It was in the battles of Lost Mountain. Lovejoy's Station, Ncwnan, 
Nashville, etc. Was on Stoneman's cavalry raid around .Atlanta, and Wilson's 
raid through .Alabama. Was mustered out at Macon. Gef)rgia, .August 13, ii^(<^. 


JOHN IIASIIOK I'UST. (). A. K.. NO. 122 

\'eteraiis of the Civil war organized a jjost of the Cjrand Army of the Repub- 
lic in Centerville, December 2, 1882, and gave to it the name of John Bashor, 
who enlisted early in the \\'ar of the Reliellion in Company D, Sixth Iowa Infan- 
try, and was mustered out as a captain. Mis death was as sad as it was untimely. 
After leaving the front he was selected as a deputy provost marshal and, in 
company of Captain Woodruff, dejnity provost marshal, went to Union town- 
ship, Poweshiek county, in the month of October, 1864, to apprehend certain 
southern sympathizers, who were ]iarticularly active in placing obstacles in the 
way of Union officers engaged in tiic "draft" for the army and deserters there- 
from. r)0th of them were killed in the discharge of their duties and three years 
later, P>aslior's murderer, Michael (ileason, was convicted and sentenced to be 

The charter members of Bashor post were H. H. Wright, (i. W. Peall. G. T. 
Wentworth, W. O. Crosby, W. J. Martin. W. \'. McConnell, J. J. Pratt, H. D. 
Chatterton. .\, J. Pixley and J. C. {'.arrows. The first commander was G. T. 

Since the comijlctii>n of the court house in 1904, the post has had its quar- 
ters in the northwest room, on the first or basement floor. Here the veterans 
have a cozy and commodious meeting place, which is opened to them every Sat- 
urday afternoon, between the raising and lowering of a flag, in the court house 
yard, immediately in front of head(|uarters. The boys are fast responding to 
their last roll call and their ranks are thinning daily. .At this time the member- 
ship of the jiost is about fifty and John Mc.Murra\' is commander. 


The Wf)man's Relief Corps was organized July 21. 1885. l)y Elizabeth. Colfax, 
Sarah E. Henderson, Lucretia .\. Charlton, Lucy Pratt. Sophronia Kellogg, Lois 
H. Lemington, Sarah John.son, Jane I'.rower, Cill McGregor, Orpha Barrows, 
Clare Gish, Melissa Wright, Sallie .\. A'oung, Rachel M. Thorne, Austin Thorpe, 
Maggie Sharpe, Sadie E. Maring, Elizabeth Rex, Louisa Burgess, Ada. L. Went- 
worth, Ruth Stephenson, Hallie Ogle, Carrie Harper, Lide Swearingen, Susie J. 
Wentworth, Mary J. Moore. Louisa L. Gray, Hattie Pi.xley. Rhoda Wentworth, 
Elizabeth Peyton, Alma Devore, Xan Elliott, Sarah E. Price. .\da Kirkham, 
Emma Stanton, Samantha Shaw, So])hia J. Baker. Ida Bishop, Fannie .\. Wal- 
den, Ellen Mauby. Sarah J. Green. Mary E. .Myers. Sarah Gudney, Sarah M. 
Thompson, F'annic I'.dwards, Maria .'^lirivcr. Lizzie Mechem, Ellen F". Martin, 
Mrs, S. H. Robb. 

The first president of the corps was Mrs. M. M. Walden and the jtresent is 
Mrs. Nan I~.lliott. The mcnibcrshi]! is about 100. 


It was through the jjalriolic initiative of J. P.. .Maring. C'. \. Udell. R, .Ste- 
phenson, Jr.. 1). D. Sturgeon. C. N. ilinkle. lid Lane. .Miss lunma Shanks. Miss 
Ilattie Wilson an<l Miss Sallie Shanks, that the movement for raising funds to 

I'hriHtian ('hnrrli 
I'lililic Si'hnnI litiililiiig 

West Ward S.hdiil 
Methodist Kpiscopnl Church 
I'liitoil nrolhriMi <'hiir<'h 

GUon- or curRCHKs and sr uools of mystic 



procure a monument to the departed heroes of the Civil war gained impetus and 
hnally resulted in the accumulation of a fund of $2,000, which was exi)endcd on a 
tittinfj memorial shaft, that was erected on the southwest front of the court house 
]«rk, Inly 4, 1869, — but four years after the close of the great conflict between 
the states. .\ dramatic association formed by the men and women whose names 
have been here given, presented to the pul)lic amateur performances that had the 
merit of drawing large audiences. .-\ called meeting of the citizens followed 
and through the persistent efforts of Elder Sevey, Judge Tannehill, C. M. Howell, 
D. M. Rice, Jacob Rummel, J. A. Breazeale, Isaac S. .\dams, C. Hollingsworth, 
I). L. Strickler. S. M. Moore, William Bradley, C. Adamson, General Francis 
,M. Drake. J. R. Wooden, D. C. Campbell, and J. Lankford, a county memorial 
association was organized. John Hughes was chosen ])resident, Colonel J. F. 
W'alden, vice president, Jacob Rummel, secretary, and C. H. Howell, treasurer. 
These associations secured the money for the monument, passed upon and adopted 
tlie plans and made all arrangements for the dedication, which was made one of 
the salient events in the county's history. General J. B. Weaver of Iowa, noted 
for his oratory and a ])residential candidate, delivered the address of the day. 

The stone is about twenty-two feet in height and stands on four bases, the 
first three of limestone and the fourth marble. The die is about two and one- 
half feet S(juare at the bottom and four feet high. On the southwest face of the 
die is the inscription, "Union Soldiers' Monument. Erected July 4. 1869," while 
on the three other faces are carved the names of tiie dead heroes of Appanoose. 
The i>linth is about two feet s(|uare. ornamented with lily work. The spire is 
six feet in height, and is ()erfectly plain, except that it bears the national coal-of- 
arms on the southwest face. The cap is al)()ut two and one-half feet square and 
of corresponding height. On this rests an urn of suitable ])ro]jortions. In all, 
the monument, while not elaborate in design, is admirably proportioned and is an 
object of special interest and reverence of the people. Its cost was $2,000. 

COMP.SKV !■: IN Till-: SI'.\NISI1-.\.MERIC.\N W.\K 

The student of iiistory well knuws that for many generations the inhabitants 
of Cuba had been struggling to rid themselves from the .Spanish yoke and estab- 
lish autonomy on the island. In 1897 many bloody skirmishes had taken place 
between the islanders and .S])anish troops, most of which were in tiie nature of 
guerilla warfare on the jjart of the Cubans, with such success for the Cul)an 
arms, however, as to arouse general sympatiiy throughout the United States. 
I'rom various sources in this country the Cuban ])atriols received material assist- 
ance, which became known to the Spanish government and so enraged certain of 
the loyal Spaniards, residents of Cuba, that the lives of the American consul. Gen- 
eral Fitzhugh Lee. and other citizens of the United States on the island became 
imperiled. To increase the bitterness of the liberty-loving citizens of the United 

Mates and the blood-thirsty Dons, a magnificent war vessel, the Maine, was 
blown into fragments while in the harbor of Havana, on a February night in 
iX'jS, destroying hundretls of lives of the sailors who were on board. This so 

irouscd the war spirit throughout the length and breadth of the Union that the 
IcKinley administration was practically forced into a declaration of war against 

-pain, it having l)ecn taken for graiUed throughout this nation that the destruc- 

Vol. 1—15 


tioii of the Maine was the inhuman handiwork of Spanish sympathizers. Hence, 
it was, that on the 23d day of Ajiril, 1898, President McKinley issued a call for 
125,000 volunteers to assist the regular army and the Cuban soldiery to whip the 
Dons and drive them forever from American soil and when Company E was 
notified every member dropped whatever he had in hand and that evening gath- 
ered at the Armory to answer roll call anfl make ready for de])arture to camp and 
the field of battle, if need be. 

Company E was a constituent part of the Second Regiment, Iowa National 
Guard. The "boys" were members of well known families and some of them 
were married. Others had sweethearts and all the feminine contingent of patri- 
otic Appanoose had their hearts pitched to a high key of an.xiety for Company E 
in detail. On Monday evening, April 25, 1898, the ladies of the P. E. O. Society 
gave the company a reception and the military organization ajipeared in full uni- 
form at the Armory, the scene of the function, headed by the Third Regiment 
band. The gathering — a very large one — was addressed by Colonel C. A. Saun- 
ders, commander of the regiment ; Colonel E. C. Haynes, General H. H. Wright, 
H. E. Valentine, mayor of the city and a member of Company E. Others who 
expressed their sentiments towards the Spaniards and cheered the boys in their 
coming ordeal, were Joseph Payton, commander of I^iashor Post, G. .\. R., and 
Hon. Claude R. Porter. 

On the afternoon of the 2C)th of April, Company E. with the Third Regi- 
ment band in front, marched to the K. & W. depot, where 5,000 patriotic and 
enthusiastic men, women and children saw the soldier boys entrain for the state 
capital, where, upon their arrival, they took up quarters in Camp McKinley. 

While in camp at Des Moines, the company was thoroughly drilled and 
equipped with all the paraphernalia and accoutrements of the modern soldier, and 
on the 17th of May, with the e.xception of a few rejected at the time of the physi- 
cal examination, the boys were mustered into the service of the United States as 
Company E, Fiftieth Iowa Infantry, for three years, or until the end of the war. 
On this same day ComiJany E was presented with a silk flag by the Society of 
the Sons of the American Revolution. 

On the 2 1 St of .May the iMftieth Regiment left Camp McKinley for Tampa, 
Florida, but was stopped at Jacksonville, went into (|uarters at Camp Cuba Libre 
and remained there until the articles of peace were signed. On the 13th of Sep- 
tember the regiment broke camp and returned to Camp McKinley, at Des Moines, 
reaching there on the 17th. On the 20th Company E returned to Centerville on 
thirty days' furlough and was given a magnificent reception by the citv, whose 
citizens were proud of the splendid record the boys had made, even tiiough they 
had not been able to meet the enemy face to face. On November ist the com- 
pany again was in Camp McKinley, where each member was reexamined, paid and 
honorably discharged, having served six months and seven days from the time 
the organization answered the President's call for troops the preceding .Viiril. 
It still maintains its identity as Company E, Fiftieth Regiment, Iowa National 
Guards, having been mustered in as such February 9, 1899. The roster nf Com- 
pany E, Fiftieth Iowa X'olunteers, follows: 


H. C. Haynes. 
O. M. Cole. 
Carlton \V. Bradley. 
Haynes, G. C. 
Lowtlicr. A. M. 


First Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant 

First Sergeant 

Quartermaster Sergeant 


Fee, T. G.; Porter, G. .M.; \alcntine. H. E. ; Gilcrest, G. G. 


Fowbel, S. B.; Ogle, G. B.; Cutler, W. A.; Elgin, C. H.; Stephenson, R. O. ; 
Phillips. W. J. ; Duckworth, A. S. ; Benson, L. E. ; Halden, W. L. ; Fortney, G. 
\V. ; Kindig, C. W. ; Pixley, E. A. 

Barrow, F. E. ; Braun, L. C. 

Sapp, E. W. 

Ramsey, E. L. 





Ammons, B. F. ; Baker, C. A. ; Beall. C. H. ; Blakesley. \V. P. ; Boston, C. 
P. ; Brown, G. \V. ; Brown, Z. E. ; Burns, Thomas ; Berry, G. W. ; Bryan, E. E. ; 
Caster, H. W.; Charlton. M. L. ; Clark, G. F. ; Clark. Claude; Close. W. J.: 
Connoly, J. G. ; Daniels. W. S. ; Davis, J. \V. ; Dodds, W. P. ; Duck, George ; Duck- 
worth, A. B. ; Efaw, Dexter: Elwood, Samuel; Everman, J. P.; Finerty, J. M.; 
f-"leak. Dennis ; Frisby, Charles ; Fuller. C. E. ; Frazec. \V. L. ; Gale. \V. I. ; Gil- 
crest, Paul; Greene, \ . \V.; Gedney, Harry; Maiden, M. A.; Harris, .'\. H.; Hig- 
ginhottom. I!.; Hasclton; llobson. |. L. ; Kelley, James; Kinion. G. C. ; Kings- 
bury, C. VV.: Khyler, H. J.; King. J. R. ; Lantz, J. G.; Larson. O. O. ; Lane, C. 
J.; Lane. G. IL; Lewis, E. IL; Loughridge. E. ; McXelly. \V. A.; McKeehan, 
C. E.; Maddeaux. H. \V. ; Mytinger. A. E. ; Moore, R. H.; Moore, F. C; Moor- 
man, C. M.; Mundell, G. H.; Ogle. James T. ; Palmer. J. P.; Reed. C. P.; Par- 
ker. J. IL; Reynolds, A. C ; Richardson, L. O. ; Robey, S. B.; Sapp, B. F. ; 
Simpson, F'. B. ; Stevens, J. IL; Stei)henson. R. G. ; Shook. Jos.; Snyder, Ed.; 
Trcon, Bert ; Tyler, C. M. ; Tuttle, J. B. ; Ward, John ; Wakcland. C M. ; Weaver, 
M. J.; Weaver. Claud; Wiemer. 1". A.; Wilkcrson, C. A.; Welton. Charles; 
Wright. D. R.; Wood, Xoah D. 

Private W. P. Blakesley died of typhoid fever en route home from service. 



For a long time Centerville's military organization strongly felt the need of 
a hall specially constructed for its purposes and in the summer of 1912 stock was 
issued by the company and bought by the individual members to the extent of 
$12,000, which was expended on a brick building, erected in the fall on East 
Jackson street, just off the public square. The structure is two stories in height, 
has a frontage of 60 feet on Jackson street, and a depth of 100 feet. The sec- 
ond story extends 20 feet. The drill room is 60 x 80 feet. Armory E was built 
to suit the desires and needs of a military organization. In connection with the 
drill room there are locker rooms, toilet rooms, quartermaster's room, all on 
the first floor. In the upper story are club room and officers' quarters. In the 
basement are the target range and shower baths. 





Most of the early settlers of Iowa came from older states, as Pennsylvania, 
New York and Ohio, where their prospects for even a competency were very 
rioor. They found those states good — to emigrate from. Their entire stock of 
furniture, implements and family necessities were easily stored in one wagon, 
and sometimes a cart was their only vehicle. 


After arriving and selecting a suitable location, the next thing to do was to 
huild a log cabin, a description of which may be interesting to many of the 
younger readers, as in some sections these old time structures are no uKire to 
he seen. Trees of uniform size were chosen and cut into logs of the desired 
length, generally twelve by fifteen feet, and hauled to the spot selected for the 
future dwelling. (.)n the ap])oiiitc(l day the few neighbors who were available 
would assemble and have a "house-raising." Each end of every log was saddled 
and notched so that they would lie as close down as possible ; the next day the 
])roprictor would proceed to "chink" and "daub" the cabin, to keep out the rain, 
wind and cold. The house had to be redaubed every fall, as the rains of the 
intervening time would wash out the greater part of the mortar. The usual 
height of the house was seven or eight feet. The gables were formed by shorten- 
ing the logs gradually at each end of the building near the top. The roof was 
matle by laying very straight small logs or stout poles suitable distances ajiart, 
and on these were laid the clai)boards. somewhat like shingling, generally about 
two and a half feet to the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their 
place by "weight poles" corresponding in place with the joists just described, 
and these again were held in their i)lace by "runs" or "knees" which were chunks 
of wood about eighteen or twenty inches long fitted between them near the ends. 
Clajiboards were made from the nicesf oaks in the vicinity, by chopping or 
sawing them int(j four foot blocks and riving these with a fnnv. which was a 



simple blade fixed at right angles to its handles. This was driven into the 
blocks of wood b}' a mallet. As the frow was wrenched down through the wood, 
the latter was turned alternately over from side to side, one end being held by 
a forked piece of timber. 

The chimney to the western pioneer's cabin was made by leaving in the origi- 
nal building a large open place in one wall, or by cutting one after the structure 
was up, and by building on the outside from the ground up, a stone column, or 
column of sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up cob house fashion. The fire- 
place thus made was often large enough to receive fire wood six to eight feet 
long. Sometimes this wood, especially the "back-log," would be nearly as large 
as a saw log. The more rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood in his vicinity 
the sooner he had his little farm cleared and ready for cultivation. For a 
window, a piece about two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed, sometimes by glass, but generally with greased paper. Even greased 
deer hide was sometimes used. A doorway was cut through one of the walls 
if a saw was to be had, otherwise the door would be left by shortened logs 
in the original building. The door was made by pinning clapboards to two or 
three wood bars and was hung upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, with 
catch, then finished the door, the latch being raised by any one on the outside 
by pulling a leather string. For security at night this latch string was drawn in, 
but for friends and neighbors, and even strangers, the "latch string was always 
hanging out." as a welcome. In the interior over the fireplace would be a shelf, 
called the "mantel." on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking and 
tableware, possibly an old clock, and other articles. In the fireplace would be 
the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood. On it the pots were hung 
for cooking. Over the door, in forked cleats, hung the ever trustful rifle and 
powder horn. In one corner stood the larger bed for the "old folks," and under 
it the trundle bed for the children. In another stood the old fashioned spinning 
wheel, with a smaller one by its side, in another the heavy table, the only table, 
of course, there was in the house. In the remaining corner was a rude cupboard 
holding the table ware, which consisted of a few cups and saucers and blue 
edged plates standing singly on their edges against the back, to make the dis- 
play of table furniture more conspicuous, while around the room were scat- 
tered a few splint bottom or Windsor chairs, and two or three stools. These 
simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true hearted people. They were 
strangers to mock modesty and the traveler seeking lodging for the night, or 
desirous of spending a few days in the community, if willing to accept the rude 
offering, was always welcome, although how they were disposed of at night 
the reader might not easily imagine, for, as described, a single room was made to 
answer for the kitchen, dining room, sitting-room, bedroom and parlor, and 
many families consisted of six or eight members. 

SLEEPING .\Cai.M Mi iHA niiNS 

The bed was very often made by fixing a post in the floor about six feet from 
one wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, and fastening a stick to this 
post about two feet above the floor on each of two sides, so that the other end 
of each o{ the two sticks could be fastened in the opposite wall. Clapboards 


were laid across these, and thus the bed made more complete. Guests were 
given this bed. while the family disposed of themselves in another corner of the 
room, or in the "loft." When several guests were on hand at once they were 
sometimes kept over night in the following manner: When bedtime came, the 
men were requested to step out of doors, while the women spread out a broad 
bed upon the midfloor and put themselves to bed in the center. The signal was 
given and the men came in and each took his place in bed next his own wife, 
and the single men outside beyond them again. 


To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would alike sur- 
prise and amuse those who have grown up since cooking stoves and ranges came 
into use. Kettles were hung over the large fire, suspended with pot hooks, iron 
or wooden, on the crane, or on poles, one end of which would rest upon a chain. 
The long handled frying pan was used for cooking meat. It was either held 
over the blaze by hand or set down upon coals drawn out upon the hearth. This 
pan was also used for baking pancakes, also called "flap-jacks," batter cakes, 
etc. A better article for this, however, was the cast iron spider, or Dutch 
skillet. The best thing for baking bread those days, and possibly even in these 
latter days, was the flat bottomed bake kettle, of greater depth, with closely 
fitting cast iron cover, and commonly known as the Dutch oven. With coals 
over and under it bread anrl biscuit would quickly and nicely bake. Turkey and 
spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, suspemk-fl by n string, a dish 
being placed underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. The hominy, however, was gener- 
ally hulled corn — boiled corn, from which the hull or bran had been taken by 
hot lye, hence sometimes called "lye hominy." True hominy and samp were 
made of pounded corn. A popular method of making this, as well as real 
meal for bread, was to cut or burn a large hole in the top of a huge stump in 
the shape of a mortar and pounding the corn in this by a maul or beetle sus- 
pended by a swing pole like a well sweep. This and the well sweep consisted of 
a pole twenty to thirty feet long fixed in an u|)riglu fork so that it could be 
worked "teeter" fashion. It was a rapid and simple way of drawing water. 
When the samp was sufficiently pounded it was taken out. the bran floated off, 
and the delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in an early day were corn bread, hominy or samp, 
venison, j)ork, honey, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for more than half the year), 
turkey, prairie chicken, s(|uirrel and some other game, with a few additional 
vegetables a f)ortion of the year. Wheat bread, tea, coffee and fruit were 
luxuries not to be indulge<l in except on special occasions, as when visitors were 

wome.n's work 

Besides cooking in the manner describetl, the women had many other arduous 
•lulies to perform, one of the chief of which was spinning. The "big wheel" 
was used for spinning yarn and the "little wheel" for spinning flax. These 
stringed instruments furnished the princijial mu^ic of the family, and were 


o]jerated by our motliers and grandmotlicrs with great skill, attained <vitIiout 
pecuniary expense, and witli far less practice than is necessary for the girls of 
our period to acquire a skilful use of their costly and elegant instruments. 
But those wheels, indispensable many years ago, are all now superseded by the 
mighty factories which overspread the country, furnishing cloth of all kinds 
at an expense ten times less than would be incurred now by the old system. 

The loom was not less necessary than the wheel, though they were not 
needed in so great numbers. Not every house had a loom, one loom having a 
capacity for the needs of several families. Settlers, having in spite of the 
wolves succeeded in raising sheep, commenced the manufacture of woolen cloth. 
Wool was carded and made into rolls by hand cards and the rolls were spu;i on 
the "big wheel." We still occasionally lind in the house of old settlers a wheel 
of this kind, sometimes used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They 
are turned with the band and with such velocity that it will run itself while the 
nimble worker, by her l)ackward step, draws out and twists her thread nearly 
the whole length of the cabin. A common article woven on the loom was linsey. 
or linsey woolsey, the chain being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was 
used for dresses for the women and girl^. Nearly all the clothes worn by the 
men were also home made. Rarely was a farmer or his son seen in a coat made 
of anv other. If occasionally a young man appeared in a suit of "boughten" 
clothes, he was suspected of having gotten it for a ])articular occasion, which 
occurs in the life of nearly every young man. 


The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. It was never 
full. Although there might already be a guest for every inmcheon. there was 
still "room for one more." and a wider circle would be made for the newcomer 
at the big fire. If the stranger was in search of land, he was doubly welcome 
and his host would volunteer to show him all the "first-rate claims in this neck 
of the woods," going w'ith him for days, showing the corners and ad\antages of 
every "congress tract" within a dozen miles of his own cabin. 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally liberal. If a deer was killed, the 
choicest bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a half dozen miles away perhaps. 
When a "shoat" was butchered, the same custom prevailed. If a newcomer 
came in too late for "cropping." the neighbors would supply his ta1>le with just 
the same luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal (|uantily, until a 
crop could be raised. When a newcomer had located his claim, the neighbors 
for miles around would assemble at the site of the newcomer's proposed cabin 
and aid him in "gettin' '' it up. One party with axes would cut down the tree> 
and hew the logs, another with teams would haul the logs to the ground, another 
party would "raise" the cabin, while several of the old men would "rive the clap- 
boards" for the roof. r)y night the little forest domicile would be up and ready 
for a "house warming," which was the <ledicatory occupation of the house, 
when nuisic, <lancing and festivity would be enjoyed at full height. The next 
day the newcomer would be as well situated as his neighbor. 

An instance of primitive hospitable manners will be in place here. .\ travel- 
ing Methodist preacher arrived in a distant ncighborhcod to fill an apjjointment. 


Tlie liuiisc w here services were to be held did not belong to a cluirch member, 
but no matter for that. lioards were collected from all quarters with which to 
make tenii)orary seats, one of the ncighbor.^^ volunteerir.f; to lead off in the work, 
while the man of the house, with the faithful rille on his shoulder, sallied forth 
in quest of meat, for thus truly was a "ground-hog'' case, the preacher coming 
and no meat in the house. The host ceased not the chase until he found the 
meat in the shape of a deer. Returning, lie sent a boy out after it. with direc- 
tions on what Vpint" to find it. .\fter services, which had been listened to with 
rapt attention by all the audience, mine host said to his wife. "Old woman. I 
reckon this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry and }ou must git him a bite to eat." 
What shall I get him?" asked the wife, who had not seen the deer. "Thar's 
nuthin" in the house to cat." "Why look thar," returned he. "thar's a deer, and 
thar's plenty of corn in the field ; you git some corn and grate it while I skin 
the deer, and we'll have a good supper for him." It is needless to add that veni- 
>()n and corn l)rcad made a supper fit for any iMoncxT i)reachcr and wa-; thank- 
fully eaten. 


Fires set out 1)\- Indians or settlers, sometimes purposely and sometimes per- 
mitted through carelessness, would visit the prairies every autumn and some- 
times the forests, either in autumn or spring, and settlers could not always 
succeed in defending themselves against the destroying element. Manv inter- 
r-ting incidents are related. Often a fire was started to bewilder game, or to bare 
a piece of ground for the early grazing of stock the ensuing spring, and it would 
get away under a wind and soon i)c beyond control, \iolcnt winds would often 
arise and drive the flames with such rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds 
could scarcely escape. On the approach of a prairie fire the farmer would 
immediately set about "cutting oft' supplies" for the devouring enemy l)y a "back 

re." Thus by starting a small fire near the bare ground about his i)remises and 
Keeping it under control next his property, he would burn off a strip amund him 
and ])rcvent the attack of the on-coming flames. A few furrows or a ditch 
around the farm were in some degree a protection. 

.•\n original prairie of tall and exuberant grass on fire, especiallv at night. 
\\;is a magnificent si)ectacle. enjoyed only by the i)ii)neer. Here is an instance 
where the frontiersman, proverbially deprived of the sights and jileasures of an 

1d community, is privileged far beyond the peoi)le of the present dav in this 

■untry. ( )nc could scarcely tire beholding the scene, as its awe inspiring 
features seemed constantly to increase, and the whole i)anorama unccasinglv 

linngcd like the dissolving views of a magic lantern, or like the aurora borcalis. 

ini;uage cannot convey, words caimot express the faintest idea of the splendor 
and grandeur of such a conflagration at night. It was as if the pale (|ueen of 
night, disdaining to take her accustomed place in the heavens, had disjiatched 
myriails upon myriads of messengers to light their torches at the altar of the set- 
ting sun until all had flashed into one long and continuous blaze. 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by a traveler 
through this region in i840- 

"Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the long grass. 
I he gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and soon formed the small. 


flickering lilaze into fierce torrent flames, which curled up and leaped along in 
resistless splendor, and like quickly raising the dark curtain from the luminous 
stage, the scenes before me were suddenly changed as if by the magician's wand, 
into one boundless amphitheater, blazing from earth to heaven and sweeping the 
horizon round — columns of lurid flames sportively mounting up to the zenith, 
and dark clouds of crimson smoke, curling away and aloft till they nearly 
obscured stars and moon, while the rushing, crashing sounds, like roaring cata- 
racts mingled with distant thunders, were almost deafening. ' Danger, death, 
glared all around; it screamed for victims, yet, notwithstanding the imminent 
peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to withdraw or seek 


In the early days more mischief was done by wolves than by any other wild 
animals and no small part of their mischief consisted in their almost constant 
barking at night, which always seemed so frightful and menacing to the settlers. 
Like mosquitoes, the noise they made appeared to be about as dreadful as the 
depredations they committed. The most effectual, as well as the most exciting 
method of ridding the country of these hateful pests, was that known as the 
"circular wolf hunt," by which all the men and boys would turn out on an 
appointed day in a kind of circle comprising many square miles of territory, with 
horses and dogs, and then close up toward the center of their field of operations, 
gathering not only wolves, but also deer and many smaller "varmint." Five, ten, 
or more wolves by this means would sometimes be killed in a single day. The 
men would be organized with as much system as a little army, every one being 
well posted in the meaning of every signal and the application of every rule. 
Guns were scarcely ever allowed to be brought on such occasions, as their use 
would he unavoidably dangerous. The dogs were depended upon for the final 
slaughter. The dogs, by the w-ay, had all to be held in check by a cord in the 
hands of their keepers until the final signal was given to let them loose, when 
away they would all go to the center of battle, and a more exciting scene would 
follow than can easily be described. 


The chief public entertainment for many years was the celebrated spelling 
school. Both young and old looked forward to the next spelling school with 
as much anticipation and anxiety as we nowadays look forward to a general 4th 
of July celebration. And when the time arrived the whole neighborhood, yea, and 
sometimes several neighborhoods, would flock to the scene of academical com- 
bat, where the excitement was often more intense than had been expected. It 
was far better, of course, when there was good sleighing, then the young folks 
would turn out in high glee and be fairly beside themselves. The jollity is 
scarcely equaled at the present day by anything in vogue. 

When the ap])ointed hour arrived, the usual plan of commencing battle was 
for two of the young people who might agree to play against each other, or who 
might be selected to do so by the teacher, to "choose sides." that is, each con- 
testant would choose the best speller from the assembled crowd. Each one 


choosing alternately, the ultimate strength of the respective parties would be 
about equal. When all were chosen one could be made to serve, each side would 
"number," so as to ascertain whether amid the confusion one side had more 
spellers than the other. In case he had, some compromise would be made by the 
aid of the teacher, the master of ceremonies, and then the plan of conducting the 
campaign, or counting the misspelled words would be canvassed for a moment. 
There were several ways of conducting the contest, but the usual way was to 
"spell across," that is. the first on one side would spell the first word, then the 
first on the other side ; next the second in line on each side, alternatelv, down to 
the foot of each line. The question who should spell the first word was deter- 
mined by the "choosers." One would have the first choice of spellers, the other 
spell the first word. When a word was missed, it would be repronounced. or 
passed along without repronouncing (as .some teachers strictly followed the rule 
never to repronounce a word), until it was spelled correctly. If a speller on the 
opposite side finally spelled a missed word correctly, it was counted a gain of 
one to that side. If the word was finally corrected by some speller on the same 
side on which it originated as a missed word, it was "saved" and no tally mark 
was made. An hour perhaps would be occupied in this way and then an "inter- 
mission" was had, when the buzzing, cackling, hurrahing and confusion that 
ensued for ten or fifteen minutes were beyond description. 

Coming to order again, the next style of battle to be illustrated was to "spell 
down," by which process it was ascertained who were the best spellers and could 
continue standing the longest. But often good spellers would inadvertently miss 
a word in an early stage of the contest and would have to sit down humiliated, 
while a comparatively poor speller would often stand till nearly or (luitc the 
last, amid the cheers of the assemblage. Sometimes the two parties first "chosen 
up" in the evening would again take their places after recess, so that bv the 
"spelling down" process there would virtually be another race in another form; 
sometimes there would be a new "choosing side," for the "spelling down" con- 
test, and sometimes the spelling down would be confluctcd without anv i)artv lines 
being made. It would occasionally happen that two or three very good spellers 
would retain the floor so long that the exercise would become monotonous, when 
a few outlandish words like "chevaux-de-frise," "Ompnmpanoosuc." or "baugli- 
naugh-claugh-ber." as they used to spell it sometimes, would create a little rijiple 
of excitement to close with. Sometimes these words would decide the contest, 
but generally when two or three good spellers kei)t the floor until it became tedious. 
the teacher would declare the race ended and the standing spellers ac(iuitted with 
a "drawn game." 

The audience dismissed, the next thing was to go home, very often bv a 
round-about way, "a-slcighing with the girls," which, of course, was the most 
interesting part of the evening's performances, sometimes, however, too rough 
to be commenderl, as the boys were often inclined to be somewhat rowdyish. 

THK HRir.irT SfDK 

The history of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the picture, hut 
the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a series of unmitigated suf- 
ferings \n; for while the fathers and mothers toile<I hard, thev were not 


adverse to a little relaxation and had llieir seasons of fun and enjoyment. They 
contrived to do something to break the monotony of tlieir daily life and furnish 
a good hiearty laugh. Among the more general forms of amusements were the 
"c)uilting bee," "corn husking," "paring bee," "log rolling," and "house raising." 
Our young readers will doubtless be interested in a descrijnion of these forms 
of amusements, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment to all partici- 
pating. The "quilting bee," as the name implies, was when the industrious quali- 
ties of the busy little insect that "improves each shining hour" were exemplified 
in the manufacture of quilts for the household. In the afternoon, ladies for 
miles around gathered at the appointed place, and w liile their tongues would not 
cease to play, the hands were as busily engaged in making the c|uilts, and the 
desire always manifested itself to get it out as quickly as possible, for then the 
fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and the hours would then 
pass (|uickly by in "plays," games, singing and dancing. "Corn luiskings" were 
when both sexes united in the work. They usually assembled in a large barn 
which was arranged for the occasion, and when each gentleman had selected a 
lady partner, the husking began. When a lady found a red ear of corn she 
was entitled to a kiss from every gentleman i)resent. When a gentleman found 
one he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all husked, a 
good supper was served, then the "old folks" would leave, and the remainder of 
the evening was spent in the dance and in having a general good time. The 
recreation afforded the young people on the annual recurrence of these festive 
occasions was as highly enjoyed and quite as innocent as the amusements of the 
present boasted age of refinement and culture. 

The amusements of the pioneers were peculiar to themselves. Saturday after- 
noon was a sort of half holiday. The men usually went to town and when that 
place was reached, "fun commenced." Had two neighbors business to transact, 
here it was done. Horses were "swapped," difficulties settled and free fights 
indulged in. Whiskey was as free as water. Twelve and a half cents would 
buy a quart, and thirty-five or forty cents a gallon, and at such prices enormous 
quantities were consumed. 

WHAT iiii': iMONicr.Rs ii.wb-: donic 

Iowa is a grand state, and in many respects second to none in the Union, and 
in everything that goes to make a live, prosperous community, not far behind the 
best. Her harvests are bountiful: she has a medium climate and many other 
things that make her people contented, prosperous and hapjiy : hut she owes much 
to those who opened up these avenues that have led to her ])resent condition and 
happy surroundings. Unremitting toil and labor have driven off the sickly 
miasmas that brooded over swamjiy i)rairies. Energy and perseverance have 
peopled every section of her wild lands and changed them from wastes and 
deserts to gardens of beauty and i)rofit. Where but a few years ago the barking 
wolves made the night hideous with their wild shrieks and howls, now is heard 
only the lowing and bleating of domestic animals. Less than a century ago the 
wild whoo]) of the Indian rent the air, where now are heard the engine and rumb- 
ling trains of cars, bearing away to markets the jiroducts of our labor and soil. 
Then |]ie savage built bis rude huts on the s]H)t where now rise the dwellings 


and schoolliouses and clnuch spires of civilized life. How great the transforma- 
tion. This change has jjccn ijrnught about by the incessant toil and aggregated 
labor of thousands of tired hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspirations 
of such men and women as make any country great. What will another half cen- 
tury accomi)lis]i? There are few. very few of these old pioneers yet lingering 
on the shores of time as connecting links of the jiast with the present. What 
must their thoughts be as with their dim eyes they view the scenes that sur- 
round them? We often hear ])eople talk of the old fogy ideas and fogy ways and 
want of enterprise on the ])art of the old men who have gone through the experi- 
ences of pioneer life. Sometimes, i)erliaps, such remarks are just, but consider- 
ing the experiences, education and entire life of such men, such remarks are bet- 
ter unsaid. They have had their trials, hardships, misfortunes and adventures, 
and shall we now, as they are passing far down the western declivity of life, and 
most of them gone, point to them the finger of derision and laugh and sneer at 
the simplicity of their ways? Let us rather cheer them up, revere and res])ect 
them, for beneath those rough exteriors beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed in 
the human breast. These veterans have been compelled to live for weeks upon 
hominy, and if bread at all, it was bread made from corn ground in hand mills, or 
pounded in mortars. Their children have been destitute of shoes during the 
winter; their families had no clothing except what was carded, spun, wove and 
made into garments by their own hands ; schools they had none ; churches thev 
had none ; afflicted with sickness incident to all new countries, sometimes the 
entire family at once; lu.xuries of life they had none; the auxiliaries, improve- 
ments, inventions and labor-saving machinery of today they had not ; and what 
they possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor and individual exertions ; 
yet they, bore these hardships and ])rivations without murmuring, hoping for 
better times to come, and often, too, with but little prospect 'of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes on every hand are most wonderful. It 
has lieen but little over three score years since the white man began to exercise 
dominion over this region, erst the home of the red men ; yet the visitor of today, 
ignorant of the jiast of the country, could scarcely realize that within these years 
there has grown up a population who in all the accomplishments of life are as 
far advanced as are the inhabitants of the older states. .Schools, churches, col- 
leges, palatial dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well cultivated and ])ro(luctive 
farms, as well as cities, towns an<l busy manufactories, have gruwn up and 
occupy the hunting grounds an<l camping places of the Indians, and in every direc- 
tion there are evidences of wealth, comfort and luxury. There is but little of 
the old landmarks left. Advanced civilization and the i)rogrcssive demands of 
revolving years have obliterated all traces of Indian occupancy, until they arc 
remembered only in name. 

In closing this section, we woulfl again impress upon the minds of our readers 
the fact that they owe a debt of gratitude to those who pioneered this state, which 
can be but partially repaid. Xevcr grow unmindful of the peril and adventure, 
fortitude, self-sacrifice and heroic devotion so prominently displayed in their 
lives. As time sweeps on in its ceaseless flight, may the cherished memories of 
them lose none of their greenness, but may future generations alike cherish and 
perf)etuafe them with a just devotion to gratitude. 


OLD settlers' association 

A meeting was held September lo, 1875, attended by c|uite a numljcr of the 
early settlers of Apijanoose county. J. F. Stratton was chosen as president of 
the Old Settlers' Association, which organized at the time, and his associate offi- 
cials were: W. S. Manson, vice president; James S. Wakefield, secretary; W. S. 
Main, Dr. Nathan Udell, J. H. Gaiigh, IJaniel .McDonald and L. Dean, executive 

From the time of the organization of the Old Settlers' Association, annual 
meetings have been held. At the beginning, a twenty years' residence in the 
county was required for eligibility to the society; but the period of residence has 
necessarily been lengthened. Annual reunions have been held near Unionville for 
many years past, and at these gatherings members and invited sjieakers have 
declaimed to large audiences, relating their experiences of the days when Appa- 
noose was but a wilderness and their trials and triumphs in making new homes 
for themselves and their children. 

In 1912 the president of the association was William P)ra\', of Udell town- 
shij), and the secretary, V. A. Wilson, of Unionville. In the minute book now in 
the hands of the secretary, is a list, not comjjlete, of men and women who were 
members of the society. They came in the '40s and '50s and their names are 
worthy of jjreservation. This list does not show, by any means, all the builders 
of Appanoose county, but broken as it is, the names placed before the reader 
are recorded and the pity is that all the names of the brave and industrious men 
and women of the early days cannot be given. The records shows the follow- 

1843 — Levi Davis, Elizabeth Wright, J. \\ . Clancy, deceased: Nancy Hol- 
man, deceased ; William Crow, deceased ; Malinda Crow, deceased ; Elizabeth 
Bishop, Eliza Creech, John A. Crow; 1844 — J. N. Riggs, deceased; 1845 — O- -■^• 
Hiatt. John T. Close," :\Irs. J. C. Hopkins. Rachel Hiatt. II. H. Nash. C. L. 
Smith; 1846 — W. J. Phillips, Margaret Cox, G. W'. Taylor, William Swank, 
deceased; Elizabeth Swank, deceased; C. W. Morrison, deceased; George W. 
Dean, deceased; M. A. Dean, deceased; 1847 — J- I'- Thomasson, John C. Cox, 
A. W. Hiatt, Mrs. M. J. McCauley, deceased; I. A. Morrison, J. R. Wright, 
deceased; Samuel I'.enge, deceased; 1848 — I!. G. Miller, deceased; C. R. Mills, 
W. C. Miller, Dr. Nathan Udell, deceased; Dr. C. N. Udell, John I.. Hiatt. U. B. 
Denny, J. A. Miller, J. ]\I. Zimmerman. Mrs. M. E. Chrisman. W. T. Houser, 
Oliver Morris. ^laggie Dean; 1849 — f^- ^- X'ermilyea. Cyrus Swank. Thomas E. 
Hopkins, G. W. Taylor, deceased ; A. P. Berry, deceased ; Jane Snyder, deceased ; 
J. A. White. William Caylor. A. T. Bishop. L. L. Taylor. Mrs. i.idy Hiatt. W. 
J. Taylor, deceased: Mrs. T. J. Gladfelder, James Caylor, J. H. McConnell ; 1830 
—A. Hicks, R. W. Dodd. deceased; F. M. Swank, J. C. Hopkins, J. F. Hicks, M. 
L. Taylor, Robert White, C. A. Stanton. G. W. Arnold, I.ucinda Gunter. de- 
ceased; Nancy Caylor, Elijah Hiatt. Mrs. N. J. Hiatt, Frank Dodd; 1851 — S. T. 
Elam, J. T. Etheridge, deceased ; J. D. McKim, deceased ; Martha McCready, 
G. W. Jones; 1852 — Mrs. F. M. Swank. Levi Swain. Samuel Crow; 1853 — Mrs. 
W. T. Houser, A. W. Hunt, deceased: Lydia Hunt, James H. Mc.Vdam, de- 
ceased; Ward Taylor. Mrs. Mary E. Skinner. Joseph Gladfelder. Mrs. M. E. 
Davis, Mrs. Eugenia Miller; 1854 — W. H. Boggs, deceased; William P.radley. 


deceased; William Bray, D. L. Strickler, deceased; Joseph Zook, deceased; John 
C. Skinner; 1855 — J^ck Luse, E. A. Buckmaster, S. Peterson, Ed. Streepy, J. 
McCready, deceased; Joseph Goss, George S. Beaver; 1856 — A. H. Gray, Jacob 
Cox, deceased; Henry Hardy, deceased; 1857 — C. C. Baker, R. M. Hicks, J. M. 
Creech, deceased; 1859 — Governor F. M. Drake, deceased; i860 — James Hamil- 
ton, L. F. Darnell, H. T. Phillips, deceased. 




Joiiil resolution Xo. 7, passed in l"cl)ruar\ . 1N44. recites that in the fall ami 
winter of 11^39. an unjust claim was made by the governor of Missouri to a por- 
tion of territory lying within the limits of Iowa; that the marshal of Iowa, act- 
ing by national as well as territorial authority, had called for an armed posse to 
preserve peace and to resist the encroachment of Missouri authority within the 
well known limits of Iowa ; that several hundred jiatriotic citizens had obeyed the 
marshal's summons late in 1839. marching in an inclement season ; that an account 
of the expenses had been taken by a United States official, but had not then been 
liquidated. These things having been recited. Hon. A. C. Dodge, then territorial 
delegate in congress, was called upon, not only to secure jiay for the volunteers, 
but for the marshal's services as well, "in preserving the and pnitecling the 
-nithern boundary of Iowa." 

Chapter 23, Laws of iS4(>, ai)])roved January 17. recites the fact of the arrest 
of the sheriff of Davis county by the authorities of Missouri, and the i>robability 
of litigation arising from the dispute l)etween Iowa and Mis.souri. The gov- 
ernor was accordingly authorized to draw upon the territorial treasurer for 
$1,500 to defray counsel fees in cases where either the territory or its citizens 
might be a party against Missouri. 

Chajiter 3. I-aws of the First General Assembly, a|)pn)ved J.inuary i(>, 1847, 
authorizes the governor to agree with the state of .Missouri fur the commence- 
ment and sjicedy termination of a suit in the su])reme court of the United -States 
to determine the true location of the boundary line l)etween the two stales. The 
sum of $1,000 was appropriated to defray the expenses of the same. 

This disi)ute arose in conse(|uence of two surveys having been made of the 
imrthern boundary of Missouri, the first begun at the head of the rapids in the 
river Des Moines, and the second at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, in the 
Mississipjii. The diflTercnce between the initial points was nearlviiiine miles. 
Missouri having elected to assume the northern line as her boundary, ;md Iowa 
the southern line as hers, there was of course a conflict of jurisdiction over a 
strip of country nearly nine miles in width, it being daimefi bv both Iowa and 
Missouri. The line claimed b\ .Missouri passed very nearlv through the rail- 
way junction at Centcrville. 



The above peculiar condition of the southern part of the county enabled the 
persons we have mentioned to remain by claiming to be within the limits of 
Missouri, and conse(|Ucnt!y outside of the Indian boundary. Tlie soldiers of 
course would not exceed their orders and these settlers were allowed to remain. 

As long as the boundary fjuestion remained unadjusted, people did not care 
to invest much money in "Chaldea," or Centerville, for, if Missouri's claim 
should be established, Appanoose county would certainly remove its seat of 
justice further north. But the pacific disposition of Iowa having been recipro- 
cated by .Missouri, jieople had no fear of the result of the litigation, and were 
willing to invest in Centerville. Hence the growth of this town may be said to 
have begun with the termination of the boundary disjjute. 

The vexed (|uestion was not settled till 1850, when the l)oundary was estab- 
lished by commissioners, who had the line carefully surveyed. Posts were 
erected a mile apart, every tenth post being of iron. One of these, the one- 
hundredth, stands in the eastern part of section 22, Caldwell. 

Accounts do not agree as to the actual amount of war waged in i<*39. One 
writer asserts that a martial spirit pervaded \'an Ikiren county. Troops were 
organized and history records no war more bloodless than the one which ensued, 
in which \'an Buren took a conspicuous part, some of her citizens acquiring 
great distinction as officers. After a manifestation of the most undoubted pluck 
and heroism on the part of the Iowa troops, and the exhaustion of the supply of 
liquors on both sides, an armistice was declared and it was agreed to submit 
to the arbitrament of the supreme court. 

Dr. Sturdivant's father served as a volunteer in this cam])aign, and the doctor 
says the above is not a fair account of the matter ; that the Iowa men were 
orderly and strictly obedient to discipline, being well aware of the possible results 
that might follow from a collision between the two armed forces. The Iowa men 
were anxious for peace, if possible ; but no less determined to maintain the 
boundary as they understood it. 

Dr. J. H. Worthington, of Caldwell, was one of the Missouri heroes and 
says the cause of the assembling of forces was owing to the arrest of the Clark 
county (Missouri) sheriff by the sheriff of Van Buren county. The two officers 
met on the disputed strip while collecting taxes, and the \'an Ruren man bagged 
the other, who was sent to jail at Iowa City. The Clark county citizens wanted 
their sheriffs back, and Dr. \\'orlhington says the two forces marched near 
enough so that chance rifle shots could be heard from the opposing lines. But 
the Clark county court did not wish to precipitate a bloody struggle among neigh- 
bors, and appointed a commission, composed of Colonel Mitchell, Judge Wagner 
and Colonel Rutherford, to treat with the Iowa legislature, then in session at 
Burlington, for a release of their sheriff and also to secure peace, if possible. 
The basis of agreement, as remembered by the doctor, was that the sheriff should 
be released, and that Missouri should continue to collect the taxes on the dis- 
puted strip until the matter should be adjusted, when, if Missouri lost the case, 
the money so collected should be refunded to Iowa, The commission succeeded 
in their delicate negotiations, and the internecine strife was over. 





.\t the outer edge of American civilization there have for a hundred years 
hovered, like scouts before the march of an invading army, a swarm of bold, 
enterprising and adventurous criminals. The broad, untrodden prairies, the track- 
less forests and unexplored rivers furnished admirable refuge for reckless, hardy 
desperadoes, whose deeds are part of the annals of almost every county from the 
.Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains, and from the northern bounds of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois and Iowa to the states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. 

These men followed the unlawful callings of horse stealing, burglary, coun- 
terfeiting and protitahle freebootery on all occasions that promised reasonable 
immunity from punishment. They were in most cases connected by ties of blood 
or marriage, and many of their women were as skillful in crime as the men, 
and as full of resources for personal safety in time of danger. .\s a rule, the 
more cool headed and daring among these outlaws conducted the most dangerous 
part of the business in which they were engaged. Others, more timid, would 
keep places of harborage, sell the stolen horses, pass counterfeit coin, break open 
jails when an unlucky brother had been caught in the meshes of the law. and act 
as spies and go betweens on all occasions. Others who had a sufficient heredita- 
ment of craft, or who had acquired that faculty by long training in crime, and 
had begun to feel the weight of years, sought to pass for resjjectable members 
of society and would aspire to positions of trust, being always eager to be 
elected justice or sheriff if possible. In some cases they actually succeeded in 
becoming prosecuting attorneys and district judges, so numerous were their 
friends and adherents. Some of them were so bold as to become preachers and 
more than one pioneer has been converted by their ministrations. 

This widespread band of cut-throats, scoundrels and robbers were settled 
in eastern Ohio and Kentucky at the beginning of the last century, and had been 
driven from .Maryland, Pennsylvania. \ irginia and Xorth Carolina about the 
close of the Revolutionary war. They had been loyal to the British crown dur- 
ing that long struggle — had been Tories — a class hated and despised by the suc- 
cessful Revolutionists. Their property had been sequestered at the close of that 
momentous struggle, and when the ragged Continental soldiers returned to their 
homes, it was unwholesome for a Tory to live in sight of them. With hearts 



full of billeriiess and liatrc<l, l)Ul licl])lcss to master their fate, ihey sought the 
wilderness and "nursed tiieir wrath to keej) it warm." Ostracized from their 
homes for their perverse loyalty, it is not very strange that they became Ishmael- 
ites — arrayed against society, which in turn, sutTered and feared tliem, then 
began to maintain an equal struggle with these miscreants, and at last expelled 
them from their midst into the wilderness. 

The contest in Ohio and Kentucky was waged for thirty years or more, in 
Indiana fur ten. and in Illinois for nearly twenty more. The only certain way 
of securing conviction and ])unishment was to open Judge Lynch's court. Some- 
times a state of actual war would break out. In 1S35 members of the gang 
began to make incursions into Iowa, and in the "Banditti of the Prairie" fre- 
quent e.\]iloits are recorded that were originated and carried out in the counties 
bordering along Skunk river. It was about the same time that the tiendish 
nuirder of Colonel George Davenport was perpetrated. 

In 1837 the country began to be flooded with counterfeit money, some of it 
so well done that it was sometimes passed at the United States land offices. 
Occasionall}-. and the occasions were rather more fre(|uent than angels" visits, a 
horse would be stolen. No one could tell where the counterfeit money came 
from, nor where the stolen horse was hidden. At last horse stealing became so 
general and was so successfully prosecuted that when a farmer missed a horse 
from his stable or pasture, he never hunted for him beyond a half mile from his 
premises. It was useless, the gang was so well organized and had such a ]>erfect 
system of stations, agents, signs and signals. 

I'-rom 1838 to 1840 most of the Illinois members of the gang were driven into 
Cedar, Linn, Jackson. Clayton and Fayette counties, where they made them- 
selves verv troublesome for several years. 

It is ])robably not best to give every detail of horse, cattle and sheep stealing 
and burglary that ever transpired in this county. Such a record would no doubt 
be readable, but as no credit is to be gained by a parade of vice, or advantage 
to be secured thereby, a few instances only are given in order to show the work- 
ings of an old system that held the west in a state of trepidation for many years. 
It should be .stated in this connection that the interposition of Judge Lynch 
was oftencr invoked to secure the jnuiishment of suj^posed horse thieves and 
barn burners than for any other class of offenders. For murder, slander, seduc- 
tion and numerous other offenses, the support of the court was considered ample 
by the jiioneers, but lay a finger on his horse, and the rope or rifle was regarded 
as hardly efficacious. Like the Arab of the desert, the pioneer settlers loved 
their horses more than wife or children. 

It is believed that A]ipanoose county was a route for horse thieves almost 
from the earliest settlement. The instance mentioned by Mr. Stratton, who saw 
a suspicious character on the dragoon trail in 1843, tends to confirm this opinion. 
The custom among the heroes of dark nights was to steal horses in Missouri 
and take them to central and northern Iowa, there to be secreted and cveniually 
sold by their confederates. There was also a southward movement, horses being 
stolen in Wisconsin. Illinois and Iowa by the P.rodys. Ways, Wilsons and others, 
and sent to Missouri for sale. It is a current statement that there was harbor- 
age for this class of property in the northeastern part of tlie county, where horse 
fanciers have often stoi)ped just before sunrise, slept during the day, and when 


the shades of evening had fallen, resumed their journey to a cave in W apello 
county, where the jaded horses were allowed to rest from their hard iournev 
before being sent northward for sale. 

Until 1854 the people of this county suffered hut little from the ravages of 
these marauders. In 1856 the store of Mr. Pulliam, at Orleans, was entered by 
burglars, one of whom was named Wilson, and a considerable amount of goods 
and some money stolen. An arrest of suspicious characters was made and it 
was noticed that some of the men named in the "Danditii of the Prairie," were 
at hand to comfort the prisoners and get up evidence for their defense. Some- 
times the band would change the object of plunder. In one case, a riock of four 
hundred sheep were stolen in the eastern part of the county, driven into .Mis- 
souri, and there sold to a well known stock dealer. 

Two well known ministers of the gospel, residents of .Appanoose county, 
are said, on good authority, to have acted regularly as friends of the gang, being 
ready to direct the friends of prisoners, in hunting up evidence, i^rocuring bail, 
etc. ; and it is also believed that these two men have more tlian once been receivers 
of stolen i)roperty, acting in the capacity of middleman in the nefarious business. 

Another minister, a man of considerable repute, also a citizen of this county, 
went down into Missouri and brought back with him a fine dun team that he had 
not purchased, and it is believed that no one presented the horses to him. The 
horses belonged to a man named Lundy. He drove si.xty miles the first night. 
He was soon after arrested but declared he could prove an alibi, and the examina- 
tion was postponed fifteen days to enable him to secure his witnesses. He was 
detected with a well known scamp in suborning the evidence to be produced 
in his favor at the preliminary examination, taxed with it and charged with being 
an unmitigated thief. Like Mr. Cockett's coon, he "came down." but being 
carelessly guarded, succeeded in making his escape. 


In the summer of 1857, J. C. Grimes, a resident of Sharon townshi]). had his 
■:i!)le burned, together with two horses and mules. .\ ni;m named .Murphy 
-as living in the vicinity, who bore an equivocal character. Suspicion fell upon 
him and he was arrested. He was conveyed to Centervillc and preparations were 
made for hi.s examination. There was no testimany at hand to secure his com- 
mitment for trial but the people of Sharon township undertook to see to that. 
Living with Murphy was a man named Gardner, who was Iielieved to be a liard 
case, but the peojjle were not sure about this, so they decided to ascertain, lie 
was seized by a crowd and a stout rope having been produced, lie was informed 
that he must confess that he knew about the origin of the fire. This friijhtcned 
him thoroughly and he stated explicitly that Murphy had fired the stable. tJard- 
ner was then taken to Centerville and for an hour or two there was a strong 
probability that Murphy would be immediately lynched on the testimony of 
Gardner. I'.etter coun.sels prevailed at last and the examination was allowed 
to go on, which resulted in Murphy being bound to appear at district court ami 
in Gardner giving security to ajjpear as jirincipal witness. 

Pending the interval before court. Gardner maile a visit to Missouri, and 
there informed a lawyer named Moldridgc that Murphy was innocent — he 


himself had fired tlie stable. This word was brought to Murphy's attorneys. 
When Gardner returned he was induced to repeat this statement in the presence 
of Constable Curtis under a tree near where later Mr. Wentworth's house stood 
in Centerville, saying in substance that Murphy had nothing to do with the burn- 
ing and that he (Gardner) was the perpetrator. 

.Murphy and his attorneys knew that he would not stand a ghost of a chance 
with an Appanoose county jury but an afifidavit of three disinterested persons 
was required to obtain a change of venue. Application was made to several 
prominent citizens for the needed affidavits but all refused point-blank, until 
S. F. Wadlington was asked, who not only cheerfully complied, but used his 
influence to obtain two others. Ihe venue was accordingly changed to Monroe 
county and when court came on, Gardner appeared at Albia, quite ready, as the 
prosecuting attorney supposed, to swear Murphy to the penitentiary. When the 
day of the trial arrived and just before Gardner was wanted, he appeared on the 
public square, apparently much intoxicated. He declared to several by-standers 
that Murphy was entirely innocent and in a few minutes after he disappeared, 
never to return to this part of Iowa. His absconding, of course, broke down 
the case and Murphy was acquitted but he soon after removed from the county. 


About the middle of February, 1864, Salmon Howard, of Franklin township, 
had his barn burned, together with several head of stock and a considerable 
amount of grain, aggregating a loss, as stated by Howard, of about $2,500. The 
scoundrel after firing the barn had made off, Howard believed, on one of his 

Some years before John Seaman had stolen a horse in Howard's neighbor- 
hood and Howard had been active in tracing and arresting him. Howard visited 
his mother's house in the northern part of the county and inquired for John, 
but his mother denied any recent knowledge of his movements. The house was 
carefully searched and the culprit was at last found in a bulky bed in one corner 
of the cabin, his mother having artistically concealed him therein. Seaman was 
tried in due course, convicted and sent to Fort Madison and his attorney said 
he was doubtless guilty, although he said he came nearly getting him off. 
Seaman had been seen in the vicinity of Genoa, Wayne county, a day or two 
before the arson had been committed and he was suspected of the crime. 

Officers were put upon Seaman's trail at Genoa, and he was traced without 
special difficulty to his mother's house, on Soap creek, where he was arrested. 
He was taken before E. O. Smith, of Franklin township, the next day for pre- 
liminary examination and, having asked for a day's adjournment for the pur- 
pose of procuring counsel, he was placed in the hands of Constable John S. 
Trescott for safe keeping. This was on Friday. About eleven o'clock that even- 
ing about a dozen masked men appeared at Trescott's house, according to his 
statement, and forced him to give up his prisoner in their keeping. They imme- 
diately started southward with Seaman and were followed by Trescott for 
about a half mile, when he was met, as he says, by Howard, who advised him 
to return and notify Mr. Smith that the prisoner had been seized by a mob and 
to ask that officer what should be done. Trescott then went to Mr. Smith and 

illSTURV (Jl- AI'I'AXUUSL: couxtv lMT 

related what had happened. BeHcving that two men could accomplish nothing 
with a dozen, and knowing that it would serve nothing to rouse the neighbors, 
for the mob could accomplish any purpose it sought long before they could be 
found, Mr. Smith allowed the matter to rest. 

The ne.xt morning about sunrise Seaman crawled to the house of Mr. Fyffe, 
who lived about four miles southwest of Livingston, just over the state line. 
The man's clothing was saturated with blood, which had flowed from several 
bullet wounds. He had according to his own statement, been riddled w-ith balls 
and had been left for dead by the mob. His condition was truly pitiable, and Mr. 
FyfTe and family entered upon the task of caring for him, believing that he must 
soon die. which was probably the case. The neighborhood soon became 
acquainted with the fact of the uncompleted lynching which had been done on 
Fyflte's farm, and, as ugly news travels fast, the intelligence during the day 
reached some of those concerned in the attempt on his life. That night (Satur- 
dav ) a i)arty of disguised men went to FylTe's house and removed the prisoner. 
The sun on Sunday morning rose bright and clear. Mr. Fyffe went out to see 
the result of the firing he had heard soon after Seaman had been taken from 
his house. He found the man lying dead in a little grove a quarter of a mile 
from his house. This news spread rapidly. Mr. Smith and Trescott heard of 
the awful death of Seaman and reached the spot an hour or tw^o before noon. 
.At that time the hogs had lorn half the clothing ott the body and at Mr. Smith's 
request a pen was built about the corpse to keep the brutes away. The coroner 
of Putnam county, Missouri, had been notified of the awful tragedy and appeared 
that day or the next to conduct the intjuest. The verdict of the jury was that 
.'^eaman had been murdered by unknown persons. 

The judgment nf the surn iun<ling neighborhood aas that this was an aliuciuus 
and barbarous murder, for which there was no extenuating circumstance. The 
killing of Seaman was absolutely unjustifiable. He had not committed any mur- 
der himself and even if he were guilty of the arson and theft as alleged there is 
no reason to believe that the law could not have been enforced in his case. The 
punishment inflicted on the Friday night ought to have been considered ample in 
its terrilile severity, but when to that was superadded the vindictive and blood- 
thirsty feeling that i)rompted those men to drag a dying man from a bed of 
charity to complete their barbarous and bloody work, this case is made to stand 
out almost alone as a monument among the headboards erected by Judge Lynch's 

There are many estimable citizens of .Appanoose who have grave doubts 
that Seaman was in any way connected with the firing of Howard's barn. 
Further, it was conjectured that the fire was accidentally set by a party of young 
men who had met to play cards in the barn. Be that as it may, Seaman was not 
allowed to have his hearing in the courts but his guilt was assumed by the crowd 
and he was shot like a dog by "civilized and enlightened" .Americans. Xo effort 
was ever made to institute legal proceedings against the men concerned in this 
tragedy. Seaman appearetl to have had few friends and none who were willing 
or able to stir in his behalf. The war was in progress and peojile living near the 
border were in a constant state of uneasiness regarding what might transpire. 
Many citizens living near the boundary had been bitter partisans in the great 
political contest that had led up to the war, and those who would, under ordinary 


circumstances have caused an investigation, judged it best to let the matter pass. 
It may be added that most of the supposed participants in this cruel tragedy are 
no longer residents of Appanoose county and it is probable that some who saw 
Seaman d_\ing and dead never lived in Iowa. 

The only approach to a mob act that afterward transpired in the county was 
the "brigade case'' in 1874, when a large number of the neighbors of Henry 
Sanders assembled at his house and invited him to leave the country. They had 
grown weary of his presence among them on account of several irregularities. 
It is understood that this was a case of "bounce" and that violence was intended. 
However, he concluded to migrate. 


John Foster had several times figured on the court record of Appanoose 
county prior to i860, but had almost invariably succeeded in getting clear, either 
on examination or at trial. He was conceded by all who knew him to be a hard 
case but he was ingenious and evasive in all his criminal acts. However, his 
principal crimes appear to have been committed in surrounding counties, doubt- 
less with the intention of securing immunity at home. His residence was in 
Sharon township. 

In April or May, 1866, John had been arrested for the theft of a saddle, 
but the evidence w-as too slight to hold him and he was discharged by the magis- 
trate. Soon after, two horses w'ere stolen from a widow named Blatchly, in 
\'an Buren county, which were traced by the woman's neighbors to the eastern 
line of this county. I'or some time before this, so frequent had been the loss 
of horses and other property by theft that the farmers had organized protective 
associations in this and other counties. The local club in Sharon township 
was notified by the \'an Buren men of the theft and invited to cooperate in dis- 
covering the thief. Foster, it was ascertained, had been absent a few days 
before, and it was determined to try an experiment or tw'o with him. .Accord- 
ingly, one evening about June i, 1866, as it was growing dusk. si.\ residents of 
Sharon township appeared at Foster's house. That worthy, as soon as he dis- 
covered them, attempted to secure his arms but was not quick enough, for he 
was covered with a weapon in the hands of a returned soldier and ordered to 
hold up his hands. He was then taken in charge and escorted to Orleans, to be 
held for the further movements. Foster's wife, as soon as the party left, sent 
to Centerville to an attorney to endeavor to obtain her husband's release, but 
without success. The next morning about a hundred members of the association 
in Appanoose county gathered at Orleans and proceeded to the vicinity of 
Unionville, where they were met by about a hundred members of the Monroe 
county society. A scuflle ensued between the two bands and Foster was cap- 
tured by the Monroe men and started northward by them, followed by the .Appa- 
noose crowd. The march was continued to a small grove about five miles south- 
east of Albia, where the two forces found at least three hundred more "vigi- 
lantes" awaiting them. It was now nearly sunset and Foster was badly frightened 
but had asseverated his innocence of anything criminal all day long. 

Only a week or two before, a resident of \'an Buren county named Thomp- 
son, a thoroughly hard case, guilty of both horse stealing and murder, had been 


seized by a Monroe county crowd, at the request of citizens of \'an Buren county, 
had lieen taken to this very spot, and after liaving l)een stretclied by the neck 
to a tree three times, in the vain effort to obtain a confession of his crimes, 
had been finally swung and allowed to hang all night. He was found by some 
neighbors next day and buried three or four miles off. The rope was still 
hanging to the tree and Foster was led thereunder. It was shown him, an 
account of Thompson's unhappy fate was related to him, and John was then 
informed he could have till daylight the ne.xt morning to arrange and give his 
confession, or he would be hanged by the same rope. He was then carefully 
guarded, pickets were placed to prevent the approach of either officers or citizens 
and the remainder of the crowd laid down to rest. 

About daylight ne.xt morning, l-'oster broke down and asked that two of his 
neighbors be sent for. This was done and he gave a list of all his crimes, 
together with ample details regarding them. This was written out by one of 
them. In this document John admitted the theft of the horses and gave the 
name of the party who had bought them. He also admitted having been con- 

ined in the theft and sale of the Hock of sheep mentioned above, as well as 

imerDUS other thefts in the surrounding region. 
This was regarded as highly satisfactory to the crowd, most of whom dis- 
persed but John was detained by the rest till his statements in regard to stealing 
the widow's horses and their subsequent sale were fully verified, when he was 
regularly apprehended and taken to \'an Buren county to jail. Had not the 
crowd detained him till they had verified his statements, it is possible that Foster 
might have escaped punishment, for he soon after repudiated the confession, 
but it was of no avail, for a solid case had been made against him and he was 
transferred in due time to Fort Madison. It is stated that this confession of 
Foster's practically ended horse stealing as a business in Appanoose county. 
The gang seem to have avoided the maimers and customs of this part of the 
"Hairy Nation" ever since, believing that their business would prove more 
lucrative in other localities. 

The protective associations soon after disl)anded. These societies were com- 
posed of estimable citizens, many being prominent church members. Their object 
was to protect the property of themselves and neighbors, peaceably if they 
could, but forcibly if they must. 

Foster served his sentence and soon after settled in \ an iiuren county, near 
Des Moines river, where he bought forty acres of land and married again. H. 
H. Wright, who was sheriff of this county for several years, had a talk with him 
while visiting that vicinity several years afterward. The neighbors spoke well 
of him as a neighbor and citizen but had an impression thai llierc was some 
mystery about him. Soon afterward he abandoned his wife and home and it 
is believed settled in Missouri, fearing possibly that Wright had informed his 
neighbors regarding his past record. 


ICarly in November. iS^/i. while a >inging school was in jirogrcss one even- 
ing, a little way south of where Moulton now stands, two horses which had been 


ridden to the school, were stolen. One was owned by Elder Jordan, of Orleans, 
and the other by Mr. Adams. 

As soon as the loss was discovered, Elder Jordan and James Pulliam started 
in pursuit. It was a warm trail, but as "a stern chase is a long one," these gentle- 
men rode to the vicinity of Kirksville, Missouri, where they stayed all night, 
and their host being a resolute, determined fellow, decided in the morning to 
accompany them. The thieves, who were known as Robert Low and Marion 
Wright, were overtaken about eleven miles south of Kirksville but had no inten- 
tion of giving up either the horses or themselves. An affray occurred, in which 
a ball struck Jordan side wise in the stomach. Pulliam was struck by a ball near 
the temple, which raked along his skull for several inches, leaving a bad gash 
in the scalp, and their Missouri companion was badly wounded in the cheek 
and mouth. Low made his escape but Wright was captured. The latter was 
taken care of by a Missouri crowd who did not consider it worth while to trouble 
the courts with his case. It is certain that he never stole any more horses. 


The most audacious piece of scoundrelism ever perpetrated in the county 
was the robbery of two stage coaches on the Corydon road, near where it crosses 
Big Walnut creek in John's township, in the summer of 1865. As stated by 
George I'ratt, who was keeping hotel in Centerville and also acting as state agent 
at the time, this daring robbery was substantially as follows : 

Mr. McKeever, who was a resident of Centerville, had made a trip to Decatur 
county and perhaps further west, with the intention of buying horses. He had 
borrowed a considerable sum of money at Corydon, but had decided not to buy 
any stock and made his preparations to return home. He got into the stage 
at Leon, Decatur county, eastward bound, with E. Johnson as driver. Three 
strangers in Leon also got on, paying their fare to Corydon, and it is now 
believed that these men expected to rob McKeever. This gentleman, how- 
ever, got off at Corydon and remained for the purpose of paying back the money 
he had borrowed. John.son's three other passengers decided to come on to Cen- 
terville and paid their fare accordingly. They were a very sociable load and 
more than once Johnson was supplied by them with cigars and sup out of their 
flasks. Arriving near the bridge across Walnut, they took possession of John- 
son's outlit. One of them conducted him to a fallen tree and told him to sit 
quiet. The others unhitched his horses, took off the harness and tied them 
near by, intending to rifle the mail bags. About the time this was accomplished, 
a neighboring farmer drove along, who was also sto])ped, robbed, and his team 

The stage moving west, which should have left Centerville in the morning, 
had not started till about four o'clock, now appeared on the east side of the river, 
it then being nearly sundown. The passengers were a returned soldier and two 
ladies. This stage was stopped on the bridge, the mail sacks taken and the 
soldier robbed, but the ladies were not molested. The best hor.scs were 
unharnessed, when the three dashing brigands selected the three best horses from 
the whole lot, gathered up the mail bags, mounted the horses, and after warning; 
their prisoners not to follow them for a specified time, the jolly stage passengers 


rode ott like fox hunters, probably having securcfl six or seven hundred dollars 
booty. They rode west about three miles, when they met a man driving a flock 
of sheep, whom they robbed of three or four hundred dollars and then rode 
southwest to Promise City. In the neighborhood uf lliat village they "drafted" 
the services of a boy to guide therri several miles. They then let him go and fol- 
lowed down the Locust about twenty-five miles. 

Of course the stage driver and the farmer did not care to lose three valuable 
horses and as soon as they dared they started in jjursuit. rousing the country 
as thev went. The horses were found in the western part of Putnam county, 
Missouri, a day or two after, badly used up, but the flashing trio csc;ii)cd with- 
out leaving their cards or postofiice address behind them. 

This whole affair smacks of the darinjj style and brilliant successes of the 
Jameses and Youngers, together with the iieculiar courtesy and bland demeanor 
of those daring highwaymen of Hounslow Heath, Claude Duval and Jack Rann. 
It is but one in the long list of western stage robberies and train stopi)ages, but 
fortunatelv there was no bloodshed, fpr the show of weapons by the party was 
prudently respected. But it is probable that these dashing highwaymen have 
years ago been exterminated or gone west to "grow up with the country." 






For several years prior to the war, it was no uiuisual (.irtuinstance for negroes 
to pass through Appanoose county while fleeing from slavery in Missouri to 
freedom in Canada. Just what was done to help ihem on their way, and who 
were the people helping them, is not clearly understood, even in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, which was a i)rominent station on the subterranean road, exceiu hv 
the persons who have furnished the facts uiwn which the following suinmarv 
of incidents is based. 

Thus, it is a commonly received tradition that Luther R. l,[oll)rook and faniilv. 
who reside at Cincinnati, used freiiuently to hide and care for fugitive slaves, 
sometimes disposing of them under their own bed for greater safety. This is 
denied point-blank by the family, who add the proviso that they never had a 
chance to do so. 

.Another story is told with considerable glee and is applied both to Solomon 
Ilolbrook and J. H. H. Armstrong. .Vs related of .Mr. Holbrook, the story runs 
that during a very dry season. ])robably in i860, a negro came to his mill at Cin- 
cinnati to have some grinding done. The negro lived in .Missouri, and was a 
slave. There were several other grists ahead of the negro's load, but Mr. Ilol- 
brook proposed to the darky that if he would run away to Canada, he would 
not only grind his wheat at once, but woulil furnisli him some money for the trip. 
The negro was advised that he could convert the team and wagon, as well as the 
flour, into cash on his journey northward, and thus reach Canada with a little 

ipital. The negro consented, started northward with his flour, made a circuit 
around Centervillc and gf)t home sooner than his master e.\|)ected, having Mr. 
Ilolbrook's donation for his own pocket money. Others a])ply the same story 
I" -Mr. Armstrong; but it is ])ure tiction in both cases — a good story, but too 
romantic for history. 

The following circumstances, however, arc strictly authentic, h.ivintr !>ifn 

•imnunicated by the old officers of the Cincinnati station: 
The first case hai)i)ened in the winter of iS5j-5_^. .\ negro lail. about ,si\- 

cn years old, came to the house of J. it. I'., .\rmstrong. in Pleasant township, 
in the night, and applied for shelter. He was fed and lodgetl till the next night, 



when -Mr. Armstrong took liini to the house of his ljrother-in-la\v, Mr. Calvert, 
near Centerville. On the way, after a silence of half an hour, the boy broke 
into a guffaw loud enough to startle the prairie chickens for a mile around. Mr. 
Armstrong asked him rather sharply what he was making so much noise for. 
The boy continued his laugh and exclaimed : "How mas'r will be disappointed 
when he goes to look for dis chile." The boy's statement was that his mother 
had reared fourteen or fifteen other children, who had all been sold as they grew 
up. He and another lad had ])ledged each other to run away at the first oppor- 
tunity. Their master lived in Clark county, Missouri, and his son lived sixty 
or seventy miles further south. The young man had come up to visit his father, 
and had ridden a valuable horse, which got out of the stable early the next morn- 
ing and started homeward. As soon as tlie loss was discovered, the lad was 
ordered to eat a "snack" at once, after dispatching which he was mounted on a 
fleet and valuable animal, and was ordered to ride hot foot in i)ursuit of the 
stray. He instantly resolved to make an attempt for his liberty while devour- 
ing his breakfast, and informed his mother of his design, who heartily encour- 
aged the ])lan. He had no time to notify his chum of his intention and con- 
cluded it best to take the chance wdien he had it. He rode south a few miles, 
turned into a by-road, and then made northwest as fast as he could push the 
horse. When he reached Armstrong's, he said he had ridden two hundred miles 
without sto])ping to sleep, and the appearance of the horse justified his statement, 
for the poor brute had been badly punisiicd. The lad was anxious to take the 
horse with him, but Messrs. Armstrong and Calvert would not allow him to do 
that, and the animal was turned loose near the Missouri line. The horse was 
soon after taken up as an estray, ap])raised before Mr. Armstrong, who was 
justice of the peace at the time, and who, in his notice, stated that the animal had 
either been stolen or had stolen somebody. The horse was kejit a year and sold 
for charges. 

Another well remembered case was that of Davy Crockett, which occurred in 
t86i. Davy was a free man. but had become frightened by the persistency of his 
more remote neighbors in demanding to see his papers every month or so, and 
had decided to leave Missouri. Having got into Franklin township. Davy was 
met by Moses Joiner, a citizen of that township, who was a thorough ])ro-slavery 
man. Joiner halted him. l)Ut Davy succeeded in getting otT for the time being, and 
started in the direction of I'.ellair. On his way he met a member of the Wesleyan 
Methodist church, of whom he inquired the direction to Mr. .\rmstrong"s. The 
Wesleyan advised him to go to his house for supper and he would accompany 
him to .Armstrong's after dark. Meantime, Joiner, fully convinced that Crockett 
was a runaway slave, assembled a crowd of about forty choice spirits, who pro- 
ceeded to .Armstrong's fully bent on ca])turing Davy and returning with him. to 
his suppositious master. They reached the a!iout an hour before mid- 
night, roused the .Armstrongs, and insisted on searching the l)arn. The luows 
had just been filled with hay and Armstrong sturdily ol)jected for some time, 
warning them that if they went near the barn they would do so at their jieril. 
Having protracted the argument as long as he could, he told them he knew 
nothing about the fugitive, but that if any one had been hiding there he had 
doubtless made of? during the long talk they had had. Satisfied at last that 
Armstrong was not harboring the fugitive, the crowd left for their respective 


homes. An hour had not elapsed until the Armstrongs were again disturbed by 
.Mr. Calvert, who had brought Crockett over to stay all night. The mob had 
started too soon from .Vrmstrong's. It was considered unsafe to keep the negro 
at .Armstrong's and he was accordingly transferred to the house of Daniel 
.McDonald, where he remained two days and was sent on in the <lircction of 
Drakeville, the ne.xt station on the line. 

.\ot long afterward, another negro applied for relief at Armstrong's getting 
in after nightfall. This man was (|uite well satisfied to remain there, and 
demurred to going further, but Mr. Armstrong hurried him oft to -Mr. Inilcher's, 
who lived a few miles northwest. The next morning a posse appeared at .Arm- 
strong's and asked his wife if a negro had come to their house at one o'clock the 
night before. .As the man had come and gone an hour or two before, Mrs. .Arm- 
irong promptly answered in the negative. Just then .Mr. .Armstrong entered the 
house and relieved the woman, who by this time began to show some little trepi- 
dation and might j)ossibly have soon betrayed her knowledge of the negro's move- 
ments. The next night Armstrong took the negro's horse to I'ulcher's and the 
runaway was guided by Mr. Calvert nearly to Drakeville. where .Mr. Calvert made 
the negro abandon his and secrete himself in the woods, just before daylight. 
So close were the ])ursuers on the trail that the horse was found by them an 
hour or two afterward. This negro was a happy-go-lucky fellow, who believed 
himself out of danger as soon as he crossed the Missouri line and would doubt- 
less have been captured had it not been for .Armstrong and Calvert. 
■ The case of John and .Archie was another notable one. These two slJves 
lived in central Missouri and had traveled two hundred miles toward freedom. 
They had been hindered three weeks in Missouri, owing to John having been laid 
up with rheumatism. .Archie nolily remained with him until he was able to travel 
again. .Arriving in the woods near .Armstrong's, the two negroes camped and 
John's rheumatism returned, as bad as before. Early on a rainy, disagreeable 
morning, a knock was heard at the kitchen door by Mrs. .Armstrong, who opened 
it and admitted a negro. There was a neighbor in the sitting room who did not 
believe in harboring colored persons. Just then .Mr. .Armstrong entered, took 
in the situation at a glance and hustled the negro into the kitchen bedroom. 
The neighbor, having completed his call, left for home, much to the relief of the 
family. .Archie was then fed and told the family how his companion was faring 
in the woods. Having ascertained where he could be found, Nfr. .Armstrong 
ai)prised a trusty neighbor, and some food was sent him during the day. That 
night the negroes were taken to John Shepherd's, where a supper was jjrovided 
for them. .As .Archie sat down anrl saw the tempting variety spreacl before them, 
he exclaimed: ".My good Ciod, John! who'd have ever thought we'd set down to 
a meal like this?" The fugitives were allowed to stay at -Shepherd's all night 
and were forwarded to Drakeville. Mr. .Armstrong subse(|uently received a 
letter or two from .Archie, one of which, in substance, announced that they had 
reached Canada in safety and that they were getting a dollar a day instead of 
the usual Hogging. The writer added: "I hojie that the good Lord will bless you 
for your kindne-s tow.ird u-, :md 1 hope the time will soon come when we will 
he a people." 

Here is an instance uhiib shows that the (leople in southern .Appanoose were 
liv MO means nnanimous mi tin- sl.ivcrv (luestion : W. M. Cavanah, wlm siitlctl jn 


Wells townsiiip, prubably in iH^d. brouglu with him a negro lad who liad been 
presented to his wife by her father. This lad was considered as a slave by the 
family, and as such Cavanah paid taxes on him in I^itnani county, Missouri, while 
that portion of Appanoose was in the disputed strip. About the time the land in 
Wells township was thrown open to entry, Cavanah sold the boy for $600 and 
the i)roceeds were soon afterward used in entering Cavanah's land. When the 
republican party rose. Cavanah, it is said, identified himself with that party, but 
his father-in-law dying soon after, his wife inherited a negro girl as her portion 
of the estate. The girl was sold by Cavanah and the proceeds applied to familv 

In 1862 or 1863 a family nf nine fugitives stayed at John i'ulcher's. This 
party was comjjosed of an old woman, her married daughter, husband and six 
children. This party was hauled by David McDonald to Drakeville, whence they 
made the remainder of their journey in com])arative safety. 

During 1862 word was sent to the station at Cincinnati that a consirlerable 
party of runaways would reach the state line on a certain date and asking that a 
party be sent to help them along. A large wagon, accompanied by three or four 
men or horseback, repaired to the designated spot, but the negroes failed to 
appear. It transpired afterward that the party had started, but had been over- 
taken by a pursuing party and one of the negroes killed. Word was sent a second 
time for the rescuing party, who again went to the designated i)lace. Xo negroes 
being visible, three of the jiarty rode on to Unionville. where two of the number 
were captured ])\ the Missouri "Home Guard" and lodged in jail. The other 
was chased for two hours, but managed to escape. This was supposed by his 
pursuers at the time to be Mr. Armstrong, who had established a reputation all 
through Missouri, and the man or party who could produce him before any 
Missouri court would enjoy a life long reputation for bravery and daring, for 
Armstrong was believed to be a giant in stature and a terrible fellow generally, 
instead of the thin, light-weight man he was. 

Mr. Armstrong during 1864 or the following year, had three horses stolen 
from his barn, which is believed in the neighborhood to have been done by Mis- 
sourians out of revenge for his help to the slaves leaving that state, but this is 
only a matter of conjecture. It is quite as likely that they were stolen by men 
who cared nothing whatever aboiU the slavery ([uestion. but a great deal about 
the cash value of a good "hoss." 

It is said that at one time so bitter was the feeling toward Cincimiati by the 
Missouri people, the tow-n was threatened with destruction by fire. Detectives 
often appeared in the neighborhood and would stay about for days at a time in 
search of slaves or of evidence that would implicate any citizens in the vicinity 
of Cincinnati in the disappearance of so many ebon-hued chattels. 

On one occasion, toward the close of the war, a message was sent from Put- 
nam county, Missouri, whicli has always had a considerable anti-slavery popula- 
tion, that a party of Missourians were coming across the line to exterminate the 
Armstrong family and leave his habitation desolate. The rumor sfiread into 
Wayne county, and in a few hours forty or fifty armed men appeared to defend 
his family and home. It was soon ascertained that the invasion was a mytii. and 
Armstrong's friends returned home. .\n arrangement was made, however, with 
the authorities of Putnam countv. so that if anv mischief was meditated, a mess- 


age sliouKl be sent in regular form, which would avoid the annoyance of false 
alarm thereafter, but the message never came and no trouble ever arose. 

The above are perhaps the most characteristic occurrences connected with 
the slavery fjuestion in A])iianoose county. Xo instances of this sort will ever 
come up again, for this long vexed question was relegated to the held of history 
i)y the result of the war, and the above statements have aimed to deal with the 
facts, and not with the opinions of the era before the war. It is believed that in 
all, at least forty or fift\- negroes have been sheltered and fed by various citizens 
of this countv. 

Vol I- IT 




It sliould be kept in mind that when Appanoose county was thrown open for 
settlement it was one vast wilderness and rarely had been trodden by the foot 
of man. As has been before stated, when the first settlers came in the only signs of 
a road were the trail of a company of dragoons tint had traversed a section of 
the county and "bee traces," made by venturesome bee hunters from over the 
border line. 

One of the first necessities of the pioneer, after building his cabin and pre- 
paring a patch of ground for seed, was an outlet to the closest trading point. If 
his claim happened to be "back in the timber," he had to cut his way out, by 
felling trees and underbrush and removing them to one side. On more than one 
occasion the pioneer was compelled to clear away the trees in the forests in order 
to get to his claim with teams and wagons ; and this took time and much hard 

By perusing the minute book of the court of county commissioners, the reader 
will find that a great amount of space is taken up in recording the petitions of 
settlers for the viewing and building of roads. \'icwers were appointed to select 
the direction and locality of the new thoroughfares and their reports to the board 
are quite voluminous. The making of roads was imperative and many of them, 
now crisscrossing the county, were laid out in the early days of its history. 

These highways answered the purpose for which they were built and do 
today; but, as the country grew in population and tlie products of its farms 
increased, a more rapid means of transportation became necessary. A wider 
and greater market was demanded and the people desired closer and more 
speedy communication with the outer world. Then came the r.iilroads. 


The St. Louis, Kansas City & Xorthern Railroad Company, successor to the 
bankrupt Xorth Missouri Railroad Company, engaged in the years 1867-8 in 
railroad building in Missouri. Tempting offers had been made by the iicoplc 
of Ottumwa and other communities in Iowa to extend the stem from Macon, 
Missouri, northward, and the work of construction began. It was understood 
by the people of Centcrville that the line would reach this point, but it was 



diverted from its anticipated course by the people of Davis county. The 
North Missouri Company, however, laid about two miles of its line into Appa- 
noose county in 1869. at which time the town of ^loulton, which had only been 
platted a few months, became a station. From here the line took a long curve 
eastward to Bloomlield, in Davis county, and thence to Ottumwa, with the ulti- 
mate object of reaching Cedar Rapids. But in this the company was disap- 
pointed, having in the meantime become bankrupt. That part of the road con- 
structed passed into the hands of the Wabash Railroad Company and is now 
part of that great system. 


When the project of building the Chicago & Southwestern railroad was first 
inaugurated, the route as determined, was to pass through Moulton and the 
southern townships of the county, but the people of Centerville and the central 
portion of the county by a vigorous effort, the still more powerful means of a 
contribution of $125,000, and a donation of the right of way, secured the diver- 
sion of the route to Centerville by way of Unionville. By taking this course and 
securing the change of routes, bad feeling was engendered between the people 
of the two sections of the county, which soon passed away, however, after 
the change was effected. The construction of the road was rapid, as it had 
strong financial backing in the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific corporation. The 
road was completed to Centerville, February 16, 1871. and from that on Cen- 
terville took a marked change for the better. Business increased rapidl\- and its 
population was doubled in numbers in a short time. The road is now a part 
of the great trans-continental system of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad Company. 


The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska Railroad Company was organized March 
26, 1870, and its road was l)uilt the following year from Keokuk to Centerville 
The incorporators were of the old Iowa Southern Company, which was organized 
August 3, 1866. They were F. M. Drake, James Jordan, S. W. McAtee, Andrew 
Coliver, William McK. Findley, H. H. Trimble, J. !'.. Glenn, William Bradley, 
T. J. Rogers, Jacob Shaw. Nathan Udell, J. D. Baker. B. Bowen, Harvey Tanne- 
hill and R. N. Glenn. 

The road was mainly secured l)y the efforts of people living along its line in 
Missouri and in Ai)panoose county, the contributions and local aid amounting to 
about $700,000. The object of the incorporators was to build a line with two 
branches to Bloomfield, thence west by way of Centerville to the Missouri river. 
One of the branches it was decided should commence at a point on the Dcs 
Moines \'alley railroad, running thence to Bloomfield. the other branch to com- 
mence at a point on the state line of Missouri and Iowa, where the Alexandria 
& Bloomfield railroad terminates, running thence to Bloomfield. there forming 
a branch with the branch first above named and then running west by way of 
Centerville through the southern tier of counties in Iowa to a jioint on the 
Missouri river. The Bloomfield program was abandoned and a consolidation 






having been effected with the company at Alexandria, the road was built as above 
-ct forth by way of Meni|)his and Glenwood to Centerville. 

In 1879 the Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska was extended west through Cory- 
don and Humeston to \an Wert, in Decatur county. At about the same time 
the Humeston & Shenandoah line was constructed, thus making a natural and 
direct line from Keokuk to Council Bluffs. For two years the Missouri, Iowa 
& Nebraska line was a part of the Wabash, from which it was separated in 
1885, and as the Keokuk iK: Western this branch passed into the hands of the 
r.urlington .system in 1903. In 191 1 the Burlington erected a modern depot at 
I c-nterville. 


.\ third branch of this road was built in the years 1879 and 1880. a charter 
having been granted on May 6, 1879, to the Centerville. Moravia & Albia Rail- 
way Company. Later the road was sold to the Wabash Railroad Company 
and afterwards there was a foreclosure by the bondholders. The company was 
then reorganized as the .Mbia & Centerville Railway Company, and on February 
10, 1910, it wa- cnnveyed to and reorganized as the Southern Iowa Traction 
' ompany. 

This line from 'September, 1889, to November 26, 1910, was operated by 
the Iowa Central Railway Company and it was thought by many that that road 
owned the property. The road furnishes the shortest line between Appanoose 
county and the north, west and northwest, and its value to this county and Cen- 
terville cannot be overestimated. At Albia connections arc made with the main 
line and the Des Moines line of the C. B. & Q., the M. i\: Si. 1.. and the Wabash 
railroads. .At Moravia it connects with the C. M. & St. P. and the ^^■abash 
railroads; at Centerville with the C. R. I. dv P. and the C. B. & Q. railroads. 
rians are now matured to convert this road into an electric traction system 
and to maintain an interurban service from the court house at Centerville to the 
court house at Albia. which will still further enhance the value of the road to 
the people of both Appanoose and Monroe counties. 


The aljove named company conif)leted a road across .\ppanoose countv in 
1874. running from lUoonifield to Moulton, and thence by way of Cincinnati 
to LaClede. Missouri. The people of Cincinnati contributed about $25,000 to 
its construction. 

( II II \i .11 \l II W \l K ■ I .<■ < I , 1' M I 

The Chicago. Milwaukee \- St. Paul Kaiiroail e'ompany finished its Kansas 
' ity line through this county in 1886. passing through Union. Taylor, Walnut, 
Bellair and Lincoln townships. In 1887 its principal station in the countv — 
Mystic — was laid out ;tnd has today a ivi|)ulation of 3,000 people. 




Perhaps no body of men, not excepting the clergy, may exercise a greater 
influence for good in a community than those who follow the profession of the 
law, and it must be admitted that no other body, not even to the so-called criminal 
classes, are permitted greater possibilities for an influence for evil. What that 
influence shall be depends upon the character of the men who constitute the bar 
of the community — not merely on their ability or learning but on their character. 
If the standard of morality among the members of the bar is high, the whole 
community learns to look at questions of right and wrong from a higher plane. 
If the bar consciously or unconsciously adopts a low standard of morality it 
almost inevitably contaminates the conscience of the community. And this is 
true not only in the practice of the profession itself, not only because of the 
intlucnce of members of the bar as men rather than lawyers, but in the effect 
upon other professions and occupations to which the bar acts as a feeder. The 
members of the legislature are recruited largely from the legal profession. How 
can legislation, designed solely for the welfare of the public, be expected from 
one whose honor as a lawyer has not been above suspicion ? .And since lawyers, 
outside of the legislature, have a great influence in shaping the law, how can 
the people expect that influence to be exerted in their behalf when the bar itself 
is unworthy? Still more does the character of the bar affect the judiciary, which 
is supplied from its ranks. It is not always, perhaps not generally, the case 
that members of the bench are chosen from those lawyers who have attained 
the highest rank in their profession. If a judge he industrious and honest, but 
not of great ability, or if he be able and honest, though lacking industry, tne 
rights of the litigants are not likely to suffer seriously at his hands. But there 
have been instances where judicial office was bestowed solely as a reward for 
political service; and while it is sometimes realized that one who has been a 
strenuous and not too scrupulous politician up to the moinent of his elevation 
to the bench, has thereafter forgotten that there was such a trade as politics and 
has administered justice without fear or favor, the experiment is a dangerous 
one. No one need be suri)rised if in such a case the old maxim holds true: "He 
who buys the office of judge must of necessity sell justice." Let our judges be 
men who are subject to other influences than those of the facts submitted to 
them and the law applicable to those facts : let them lack that independence which 
is an imperative requisite to one who holds the scales of justice, let a well founded 


264 HISTORY UF Al'I'-WOUSK CUL■.\■^^■ 

suspicion arise that their decisions are dictated by something outride ui liitir own 
minds and consciences, and the confidence of the people in the maintenance of 
their rights through the agency of the courts is destroyed. 

It has been the good fortune of the city of Centerville and the county of 
Appanoose that the members of the bar here have been, for the most part, 
men of high character as well as of ability and learning, so that its bar has 
won a high and honorable reputation throughout the rest of the state and because 
of the high character of the bar it has followed that those of its members who 
have been elevated to the bench have enjoyed the confidence and respect of 
■the public and have been honored not only in their own locality but in many 
cases throughout the state. 

^ et the preparation of a history of the bar, so far at least as that part of it 
which lies back of one's own generation is concerned, is attended with consider- 
able difficulty. I'robably few men who in their time play impDrtant i>arts in the 
community or even . in the state or nation, leave so transient a reputation as 
lawyers do. A writer on this subject who took for his text the Lawvers of 
Fifty Years Ago, said : "In thinking; oxer the names of these distinguished men 
of whom I have been speaking, the thought has come to me how evanescent and 
limited is the lawyer's reputation, both in time and space. I doubt very much 
if a lawyer, whatever his standing, is much known to. the profession outside of 
his own state." Those W'ho attain high rank in the profession must realize 
that with rare exceptions their names are "writ in water." One may turn over 
the leaves of old rej)orts and find repeated again and again as counsel in different 
cases the name of some lawyer who must have been in his time a power in the 
courts, only to wonder if he has ever seen that name outside of the covers 
of the dusty reports in which it appears. Hamilton, in the conventions, in the 
Federalist and in the treasury, and Webster, in the senate and in public orations. 
have perpetuated and increased the fame of lawyers. Hamilton and Webster; 
but were it not for their services outside the strict limits of their profession one 
might come ujion their names at this date with nnicb the same lack of recognition 
as that with which one finds in a re])orted case the names of some counsel, great 
perhaps in his own time, but long since forgotten. 

And there is another difficulty in preparing such a history as this, brief and 
therefore necessarily limited to a few names, and that is that some may be 
omitted who are quite as worthy of mention as those whose names appear. It 
is not often that any one man stands as a lawyer head and shoulders above the 
other members of the profession; and the same may be said i^f any half dozen 
men. In many cases the most careful measurement would fail to disclose a 
difference of more than a fraction of an inch, if any. Lives of eminent men 
who have at some period been practicing lawyers have contained the assertion 
that while they were engaged in the practice of their profession they were the 
"leaders of the bar ;" but there is almost always room for doubt as to whether 
the title is now a brevet bestowed by the biographer alone. Therefore, the men- 
tion in this article of certain lawyers must not be taken as any disparagement of 
those who are not mentioned, and, finally, it is to be observed that this article, 
so far as the bar is concerned, will treat not only of those memi)ers who are past 
and gone but will make mention of some of those now in the flesh. 



l!y an act oi ilic icrriturial legislature appruxed I'eljruarv 17. i''^4,v the 
boundary lines of Appanoose county were declared, but the county remained 
attached to or a part of Davis county for elecfion, revenue and judicial ])urposes, 
until, by an act of the territorial legislature, approved January i_^. i84(t, it was 
ori^anized into a separate county. The name of the county was given by the 
tirst act of the territorial legislature. The first court held in Appanoose county 
was presided over by Judge Cyrus Olney, judge of the third judicial district, 
September, 1847. The tirst clerk of the court was J. F. Stratton b\- appointment 
I of Judge Charles Mason. 

For judicial purposes .Appanoose county was originally in the lirst judicial 
district, and afterward in the third judicial district, until 1849, when it was placed 
in the fifth district. In 1853 it was made a part of the ninth district. In 1858 
I it was placed in the second district, wliere it has remained ever since. 

No judicial rlistrict in Iowa has ever had aliler judges or men of higher integ- 
rity, than the judges on the bench in the second jmlicial district since its organiza- 
tion in 1858. No suspicion of a lack of judicial honesty or integrity has ever 
been cast u])on either of them. 

Under the territorial organization as well as under the state organization u]) 
to 1851, we had the i)robate court, but after that the county court .system until 
1870. when that court was abolished. 

Benjamin Spooner was tiie first probate judge in .\])i)anoose county, and his 
first order made was the appointment of an administrator. 

The first case docketed in the district court was a criminal case against 
( ieorge liraffit, charged with larcency. Defendant ran away and his bond was 
forfeited. In the first law case, the i)lainlilT recovered judgment for iliirty-two 
cents. The first equity case was an action for a divorce. 

There being no court house, the court was lield in a little store room owned 
by one W'adlington, and the grand and jjetit juries deliberated in Jim I lough's 
little blacksmith shop, except when the court adjourned to the blacksmith shop, 
and then the juries went out to a clear place in the hazel brush near by to deliber- 
ate. When the court was held in the little store the judge sat on the counter and 
the clerk's table was a barrel, and when held in the blacksmith shop the juilge 
sat on the anvil and the clerk's desk was the bellows. It was said this matle the 
judge hard hearted and the clerk a "loiul fellow," or a "blow." 

It is a noteworthy fact that the bar of Appanoose county has always been 

one of the ablest in the state, and so recognized since the early days of its history. 

The lawyers who attended the first court were J. C. Knap]), afterward Judge 

KiTip]). and .\ugiistus Hall of Keosau(|ua, S. W. Summer- ■••' ' 'ttninwa, and 

;iniel Mc.Xrchon of I5loomfield, and Powers Ritchie. 

The first court house was built in the fall and winter of 1847, of logs, and cost, 
when completed, .Sifo. This was the home of the district court until i8()0. when 
it was voted by the |)eople to build a new court house to cost Si5.<xx>. The 
court house was occupied by the district court from 1862 until the house was con- 
demned, years ago. Then the court was held from house to house imtil Kjoft, 


in which year a magnificent court house, costing $100,000, was completed, and 
is now one of the finest and most comfortalile IniihHngs in hjwa in which to 
transact tlic legal business of a wealthy and pupnloiis county. 


Amos Harris 

was the first attorney permanently located in Appanoose county. He was born 
in Madison county, Ohio, in 1822. He studied law in Ohio and came to Center- 
ville in 1847. He was elected prosecuting attorney, as the office was then called, 
in 1849, and reelected in 185 1. In 1852 he was elected representative to the leg- 
islature from this county. In 1854 he was elected county judge. In 1855 he was 
elected a delegate to the constitutional convention which met in Iowa City, Janu- 
ary 19, 1857, and took an active part in the convention, displaying that activity 
and legal ability that afterward marked his career as an attorney. In 1858 he 
was elected district attorney for the second judicial district of Iowa. He was a 
very able lawyer, and filled the office of district attorney with fidelity, and to 
the satisfaction of his constituents. In 1875 he removed to Wichita, Kansas, 
where he died some years after, leaving a widow and three sons. 

Harvey Tannchill 

was born in Urbana, Ohio, September 5, 1822. His father was a native of Vir- 
ginia and his mother of Kentucky. His parents were farmers and of limited cir- 
cumstances. In his youth he had no advantages of school, his services being 
required on the farm, Ijtit after reaching the age of twenty, having always had 
a desire for an education, he attended three years the high school at Springfield. 
Ohio. From 1845 to 1848 he taught school, and during that time acquired a good 
education and a cultivated mitid. After that time he read law with Charles 
Morris, of Troy, Ohio. In .August, 1851, he came to Centerville. and in Septem- 
ber following was admitted to the bar in .Appanoose county. In 1853 he was 
elected prosecuting attorney of Appanoose county. In 1855 he was elected county 
judge of the county and served two terms. In 1866 he was elected judge of the 
second judicial district and served one term. 

Judge Tannehill was one of the ablest lawyers in Iowa and a model judge. 
He was a most industrious, painstaking and conscientious lawyer and absolutely 
pure as a judge. Ills reputation as an honorable and honest lawyer was not con- 
fined to this county, but extended wherever he was known. He was a most genial 
gentleman when in tlie company of his intimate friends, luit rather cold and 
reserved in his demeanor generally, which caused him to l)e misunderstood by 
some, and considered selfish, but no man doubted his integrity. He was a strong 
lawyer with the court. When he retired from the bench he formed a partner- 
ship with T. M. Fee, which continued for sixteen years, or until January, 1886. 
Some time after he retired from the firm of Taimehill & I-"ce, he formed a part- 
nership with W. I"'. X'crmilion, but soon thereafter Tannehill moved to Rureka 
Springs, .Arkansas, where he died I'ebruary 26, 1901. 


Thomas C. Mansoii 

entered the practice of the law at Centervillc, in 1852. Me was the oldest son of 
Rev. WilHam S. Manson, who came to Appanoose comity from Tennessee al)out 
1848 with his family. He studied law with Amos Harris. He held the office of 
postmaster at Centervillc for some time before engaging in the practice of law. 
He was married to .Miss Elizabeth Swearingen in 185 1, and died in 1853. 

John J. Cummings 

was a native of Belmont county, Ohio. He studied law with Judge Kennon, of 
Ohio, and located at Centervillc in January, 1857, becoming associated with H. 
Tannehill in the practice of the law. In 1862 he married a daughter of Dr. 
Steele, of Fairfield, Iowa, to which place he removed the ne.xt year. He filled 
the office of mayor of I'airlield for a number of years. 

Reuben Riggs 

came to the county soon after .Amos Harris and entered upon the jiractice of law. 
He was a rough-hewn frontiersman with but little education, but was possessed 
of an unusual amount of native common sense and had a high legal mind. In 

1857 he was elected county judge of .\ppanoose county, for a term of four years, 
being the first county judge under the code of 1851. At the termination of his 
office as county judge, he removed to Union county, Iowa, whence he removed to 
Kansas. He there froze to death in a storm while crossing a large unsettled 

James B. Reall 

came from Guernsey county, Ohio, in 1S58, taught .school at Centervillc for a 
year or two, studied law in the office of Tannehill & Cummings, and commenced 
the practice of law at Centervillc. He married Miss Mary E. Mowbray, of Cen- 
tervillc. He died in the fall of iHdj. 

Lewis Mechem 

an attorney from I'.elmont county, Ohio, located in Centervillc in the spring of 

1858 and commenced the jiracticc of law. His health failed, however, and he 
returned to Ohio, where he died within a few mr)nths. 

James dalbraith 

attorney-at-law, came to CciUerville from cciUral ( )hio about 1854, and became 
a law partner of Amos Harris, under the firm name of Harris & Galbraith. The 
partnership was continued until 18^13, when he went to California. He was once 
elected a representative in the legislature and was afterward elected county judge. 


Thomas M. I<"cc 

was born in Ohio, April 18, 1839. His parents were Thomas J. and Sarah 
(Hastings) Fee. Thomas J., his father, laid out the town of Feesburg, in Urown 
comity, six miles from F'elicity, in Clermont county, and six miles from George- 
town, the county seat of Brown county. This was only a few miles from the 
Grant lanyard, where General U. S. Grant learned his trade, Georgetown being 
for some years the home of General Grant. His father was of English and 
Welsh descent, and his mother of Irish descent, although l)oth were horn in 
Clermont county, Ohio. 

Thomas M. Fee removed with his parents from Ohio to I'erry. I'ike county, 
Illinois, in 1848, where he received a good common-school education and finished 
his studies in the academy at that place, then a ])r(iminent educational institution. 
In 1858, lieing then nineteen years old, he left the parental home and started in 
life for himself, with but little money and among strangers. The first place he 
stopped after leaving his father's house was Lancaster, Missouri. Soon after 
he secured a school in Adair county and taught one term, not yet being twenty 
years old. In the spring of 1859 he went to Ottumwa, Iowa, and began the 
study of law in the office of S. \\ . .Summers, then one of the most prominent 
lawyers in Iowa. Me read law until his money ran out, which was very soon, 
and then secured a place as principal of the Ottumwa schools, which place he 
held until .March. 1862, when, having finished his course of law studies, which 
he kept up while teaching, he was admitted to the bar. In May, 1862, he went 
to Centerville and formed a partnership with Joshua Miller, an old and success- 
ful law}er. but the cry of war ran through the land and young Fee put aside his 
books and surrendered for the time his ambition to rise in his profession, and on 
.'Kugust 8, 1862, enlisted as a private in Company G. Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry 
\'olunteers. The regiment went into rendezvous at Keokuk, Iowa. The gentle- 
man who had been captain of the coni])any up to tlie lime it. witii the regiment, 
was mustered into the United .Slates service, having found soldiering not agree- 
able to him. declined to l)e mustered in. The company being witliout a captain, 
an unusual thing was done, lo muster a soldier over his superiors in office, but 
Fee was promoted to be cajitain of his company, and commissioned captain by 
Governor Stone, then governor of Iowa. He served with his regiment until the 
close of the war, and was mustered out in the fall of 1865. He. with his regi- 
ment, was captured by the confederates and confined in a rebel prison for ten 
months. He escaped from prison once, but after hiding in the woods, wading 
creeks, rivers, swamps and lakes, and hiding and escaping from the blood- 
hounds, he was after weeks captured and returned to jirison. .After returning 
to his regiment from the rebel i)risoii, he was detailed as assistant insjiector-gen- 
eral of the Trans-Mississippi deiiartment on General j. J. Reynolds" staff, and 
inspector-general of the .'-ievcmh Army Cor])s, on the staff of General Shaler, 

On his return home from the war to Centerville. where he has lived ever 
since, he devoted all of his energy to regain in the law what he lost therefrom 
in the army. In 1871 he formed a jjartnershi]) with judge Harvey Tannehill, 


who had just retired from the Ijciich as judge of the district court. This part- 
nership lasted for sixteen years. In 1866 Captain I-"ee was elected superintend- 
ent of sciiools in Appanoose county. 

In 1874 he was elected district attorney and Acni into office in lanuary, 
1875. Judge J. C. Knapp was elected judge at the same time, but Knapp was 
a democrat and I'"ee a reiiuhlican, the republican candidate for judge being 
defeated by Knapp. Captain Fee defeated J. C. .Mitchell, afterward one of the 
judges of the district court. So well did he fill this office that his party, at the 
next juilicial convention nominated him as its candidate for judge, but his parly 
l)eing in a hopeless minority, he was defeated. In 1894 he was elected judge 
of the district court for the second judicial district, and in 1898 was again 
nominated and elected to the same office. At the end of the third year of \u> 
second term as judge, he resigned his office and reentered the active practice of 
the law, with his son Thomas Grant F'ee, under the lirm name of I'ee & I'ee. 
He was a member of the Masonic order, the Knigiits Templar, the Mystic 
Shrine, the Flks. the (irand .Army of the Rei)ul)lic. the Loyal l,egi(jn and was 
a working member of the Methodist Episco])al chnrcli. In politiis lu- u;is n 
republican. His death occurred April 13, 1910. 

Andrew J. Baker 

was born in Marshall county, now West X'irginia, June G, 1832. After leaving 
the common school of his state he entered the Iowa Wesleyan University, at 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa, where he took a special course. He taught school four 
years and read law in the office of C. Ben Darwin, of Burlington, Iowa. He. 
was admitted to the bar in August, 1855, at Winterset, Iowa, and engaged in 
practice there. In 1861 he enlisted as a private in Company E, Seventeenth 
liiwa N'olunteer Infantry, and was elected first lieutenant. He was with lii^ 
regiment until January, 1863, when he resigned on account of disability. 

After leaving the army he went to Lancaster, Missouri, and entered again 
the practice of law. So successful was he that in January, 1867, he was elected 
county atttorney. In 1868 he was nominated an elector on the Grant & Wilson 
ticket for the eighth congressional district of Missouri. .\t the election in 1868 
he was elected to the Missouri house of representatives. In 1870 he was elected 
attorney general of the slate of Missouri. In .March, 1875. General liakcr 
returned to Iowa an<l formed a partnership for the practice of law at Center- 
ville, with (jeneral ]•'. M. Drake, later governor of Iowa, under the firm name 
of Baker & Drake. 

.\t the republican state convention in 1884, he was nominated for attorney 
general of Iowa and clccterl that fall, and was reelected to the same office in 
1886. In 1891 General I'.aker retired from active practice and became [)resi- 
dent and counsel of a loan company of Des Moines, where he then lived. In 
1892 he sold his interest in the loan company and soon removed again lo Cen- 
terville. where he formed a ])artiicrshi]> with his son Clarence .\. ISaker, under 
the firm name of Baker .K- H.-ik-r n.iker died .\i)ril 23. loit. 


W. F. \'ermilion 

was another member of the Ajipanoose county bar. He was born in Kentucky 
in 1830. He read medicine and came to Iowa and located at Iconium in this 
county, and rose to distinction in the profession of medicine and surgery, which 
he followed until the summer of 1862, when he raised a company for the war, 
and on the 4th of October was mustered into the United States service as cap- 
tain of Company F, Thirty-sixth Volunteer Infantry. He served with his regi- 
ment until the close of the war and was mustered out of the army in the fall 
of 1865. He read law with the firm of Miller & Fee, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1868. He at once took high rank as a lawyer. There were but few bet- 
ter lawyers in Iowa than was Captain Vermilion, and none more honorable 
than he. He was elected and served one term in the Iowa senate, in which he 
was regarded one of the ablest members. He and Judge Fee were pitted 
against each other for years in all the important cases in the county. He was 
also for some years a partner with Judge Tannehill, under the firm name of 
Tannehill & Vermilion. He died December 24, 1894. 

Henry Clay Dean 

was connected more or less with the courts and bar of .Appanoose county up to 
the time of his death, although never enrolled as a local member. He lived 
for many years south of Centerville just across the Missouri line on a farm, 
which he called "Rebel Core." He was never regarded as much of a lawyer 
beyond his great oratorical ability. He was employed, not so much for his legal 
attainments as for his influence on the jury, by his unequalled aljility as an 

i..\wvi:ks now, i.\ tiii-: county 

Of the lawyers now in active practice at this bar is L. C. Mechem, dean of 
the profession, and a man of ability and of high standing. He was born in Bel- 
mont county, Ohio, in 1S43. In 1S61. young Mechem enlisted in the Fifteenth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry and served until the summer of 1863. He was admit- 
ted to the bar at St. Clairsville, the county seat of Belmont county, in 1866, 
and the same year came to Centerville, where he built up a large clientele and is 
still in the harness. He is one of the pillars of the Christian church, a mem- 
ber of the G. A. R. and of the republican party. 

W. S. Johnson 

was a lawyer who came to Centerville in 185 1, but did not practice his profes- 
sion to any appreciable extent, preferring to enter trade. He was the senior 
member of the clothing firm of Johnson & Calvert, is given credit of having 
built the first store building in Cincinnati, was the first merchant and post- 
master of that village, and clerk of the courts three terms. He is a veteran of 
the Civil war. 


Joshua Miller 

was the senior member of the law firm of .Miller & Goddard, of Centerville. 
Mr. Miller located here in 1850, went on a farm and at intervals studied law 
under Harvey Tannehill. He was admitted to the bar at Centerville in 1856. 
He served as justice of the peace and in 1876 was elected state senator. 

Judge S. M. Moore 

was born in Miami county, Ohio, in 1830. Came to Iowa in 1844 and to Appa- 
noose county in 1859, locating in Centerville. Hegan the practice of law in 
1862. Elected probate judge in 1865; auditor in 1870. 

A. F. Thompson 

began the practice in Centerville in 1880 and made a specialty of pensions. 

Charles W. X'ermilion 

is a son of Captain W. F. \ermilion, and became one of the leading lawyers of 
this section of the state. He was born in Centerville, November 6, 1866. Gradu- 
ated from the high school and then entered his father's alma mater. De Pauw 
University. In i86y graduated from the law department of the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor. The same year of his graduation the young lawyer 
entered into the practice with his father. Fie was county attorney two terms, 
and upon the resignation of Judge Fee from the district bench in 1901, Gov- 
ernor Shaw appointed Vermilion to fill the vacancy. Was elected to the place 
in 1902 and still remains upon the bench. Judge Nermilion married Clare 
Eloise Ltiddle in 1897. They have one child. 

Claude K. Porter 

stands at the head of the Appanoose county bar. He is a very able lawyer and 
an orator whose services, are in constant demand. He is still a young man and 
was born in Moulton in 1872, the son of George D. and Hannah (Rodman) 
Porter. The elder Porter was at one time a prominent member of this bar, 
locating at .Moulton in 1870. where he practiced for some time and then removed 
to Centerville, where he died in 1899. The son read law in his father's office 
and was admitted to the bar in 1893 and began the practice with his father, 
soon attaining a high standing as a lawyer. He was elected county attorney in 
1902 and in 1906 was the democratic nominee for governor of the state. 

Appanoose county has an able and reliable class of men who go to make up 
the members of the local bar and the names of those not heretofore mentioned 
follow : 

Centerville— C. A. P.aker. C. H. Elgin, T. G. \-ec. J. M. Fee. Harry S. 
Greenkaf, F. ( . Haynes. C. F. Howell, W. R. Hays. O. ll. Law. F. S. Payne, 
Purley Kinker, R. \V. Smith. H. E. Valentine. J. M. Wilson. C. S. Wyckoff; 
Moulton— J. R. Barkley. W. F. Garrett. H. P. Powers; Mystic— J. P. F^ussell. 



Thomas S. Wilson, l)iilni(|iK-, 1X52 lo i<S5<S; John S. Townscnd, Alhia. 1859 
lo i86j; Henry H. Trimble, iiloomtield, 1863 lo 1866; Harvey Tannchill, Cen- 
terville, 1867 to 1S70; M. j. Williams, Ottumwa, 1871 to 1874; Joseph C. 
Knap]), Keosauqua, 1875 to 1878; Dell Stuart, Chariton, 1877 to 1890; H. C 
Traverse. Bloomlieltl, 1877 to 1894; E. L. llurton, Ottumwa, 1879 to 1894; Joseph 
C. Mitchell, Chariton, 1892; W. D. Tisdale, 1892 to 1894; Robert Sloan. 1895 
to 1906: \A'. 1. Babb, Mt. Pleasant. 1891 lo 1894; Milton A. Roberts, Ottumwa. 
1895 to igio; I'rank \V. Eiciielinirf^er, Iiloomtield, 1895; T. M. Fee, Center- 

ville, i8()5 16 1901 ; Charles \V. X'ermilion, Centerville, 1902 to ; Dan M. 

.Anderson. Albia, 1907 to ; Francis M. Hunter. Ottumwa. 191 1 to . 


It was not until July 5, 1847, that the board of county commissioners reached 
a decision to build a courthouse, i'lans were adopted at that time and a con- 
tract \\a.$ let lo James J. Jackson for the construction of the building, his bid 
having been .S140. It was provided in the contract that the house was to be 
completed by the 1st of January. 1848. This sum of Si 40 did not cover all the 
expenses of building the first Appanoose courthouse, however. Additional con- 
tracts were let under sealed bids. l"or instance, there was a contract for cutting 
doors and windows and plastering, which amounted to $49; finishing work, 
$119.50; shutters and banisters, $11, so that in all there was about $324 expended 
up lo this lime. A year or so later, additional room being necessary, a contract 
was let to Joab G. Brown for the construction of wings to the building. Like 
the other contractors, he was paid by the board of commissioners in town lots. 

A description of this old building is given in the old records made by the 
clerk of the board of county commissioners in 1847. -^t I'l-'t t""^ Jesse \\'ood, 
Ephraim Sears and George W. Perkins were the three members of the board, 
and J. F. Stratton clerk. In his minutes the clerk recorded the following: 

"On motion be it ordered liy the said board of county commissioners tiiat 
the dimensions of the courthouse at the Julv term lie reconsidered. Therefore 
be it resolved that said courthouse shall be of the following dimensions, to-wil : 
To be of logs, 24x20 feet, one and one-half stories high, to be well hewed down 
outside and inside, the two lower rounds to be of good sound burr or white 
oak, the bottom side logs to be hewed on the upper side to receive the sleejjers, 
the lower story to be eight feet in the clear, the upjier half story to be four and 
a half feet to the top of the plate, nine good substantial sleepers to be put in 
ready to receive the floor; nine joists seven inches thick hewed on two sides to 
be put in entire through the side wall, to be well rafted with a sufficient num- 
ber of good substantial rafters ; the roof to be of good three feet oak boards, 
laid one foot to the weather in a workmanlike manner, and well nailed: the 
gable end to be weather boarded with sawed or shaved boards, with a space left 
open in each gable end of a sufficient size to receive a nine-light 8x10 window ; the 
corners to be sawed down close and square; good stone to be placed under the 
corners and also under the center of the side logs of such size as to raise 
the house eight inches above the surface of the ground ; the site for said house 


to I)e seltcteil and staked off by tlie county commissioners; all to be completed 
by January ist next; the nails to l)e furnished by the commissioners; the above 
described house to be let to the lowest bidder, provided, however, that the com- 
missioners reserve the right of receiving or rejecting any such bids, the con- 
tractor to enter into bunds with good security to double the amount of his bid, 
conditioned for the faithful performance of his contract. 

"lie it ordered by said board that the person contracting to build said court- 
house may have the right of selecting any unsold lot or lots in the town of 
Centerville at any time after he enters into bonds for the fultillment of his con- 
tract, which lot, or lots, shall be held in reserve for his use until the completion 
of said contract. 

"By order of said board said courthouse was put uj) for a bid announced 
by the sheriflf and struck to the bid of James J. Jackson at $140. 

"October 4, 1R47 — V.e it ordered by the board that the contract with James 
J. Jackson be so altered that the said James J. Jackson is to hew the logs on the 
ground to be seven inches thick in workmanlike order and also to raise the corners 
half dove tail, for which the court allows him an additional $5. 

".\pril 10. 1848 — Be it ordered that the job of finishing the courthouse be 
let out as follows : That in one contract, sawing out the doors and windows and 
chinking said house and ])lastering the same ingood workmanlike manner. 

"Be it ordered by the board that the second contract for finishing the court- 
house l>e let out in one contract, if one person will bid for the same, bid sub- 
ject to the approval of the board. 

".April 10. 1848 — Be it ordered that the sheriff proceed to let out the court- 
house. The first contract was let out to the lowest bidder. Bid was struck off 
to J. J. Jackson for S4Q. the work to be iierformed in good workmanlike man- 
ner by the first Monday in July next. The second contract was struck oft' to 
Jesse Wood at Si 19.50, the work to be performed by the first Monday in 
September next, viz : Laying the upper and under floor, the upper floor may 
be laid with any good plank, the under floor to be laid with good oak, to be 
laid square joint and reed and case up and sash five windows, three twelve- 
lights and two nine-lights, and case up and make a good batten door and run 
straight stairs. 

"Be it ordered that J. J. Jackson be allowed to select of the unsold lots to 
the amount nf his contract, though not to exceed one reserved lot. 

"Be it ordered that Jesse Wood be allowed to select unsold lots to the amount 
of his contract, though not to exceed two reserved lots, the board to hold the 
so selected lots in reserve until the respective jobs be finished. 

"October 2. 1848 — G. \V. Perkins was appointed .igent to let a job to make 
window shutters and procure a lock and key for the door of the courthouse. 

"May 18, 1849 — Jesse Wood was allowed $119.50 for work done on court- 
house to be |)aid in town lots. James Hughes was em])loyed to make window 
shutters and stair banisters, and fix them up in workmanlike manner for $tt, 
to be done the first Monday in July, 1849." 

.-\t the de<lication of the new courthouse in if>D4. L. C. Mechent. now the 
dean of the .\ppanoose county bar. who was on the program at the time, gave 
an interesting sketch of the former courthouses. He said in jiart : 

The first place for holding court that we can obtain any knowledge of was 

Vol I— I 8 


in the store of 'Sciiiirc Wadlington. The April term of tlic district court of 
1848 was held there. The building was on the west side of the ])ublic s(|uare, 
on the lot now occupied by the Wooden r.ank. The jur\- deliberated in James 
Hughes' blacksmith shop close by. 

In 1847 the commissioners, consisting of George W. Perkins. Kphraim Sears 
and Jesse Wood, commenced the erection of the tirst courthouse. The build- 
ing was located at the southeast corner of the public s(|uare and was constructed 
of logs. The main Iniilding was 24x20 feet, one and a half stories high, with 
two small rooms of one story on each side, was completed and ready for use 
in the spring of 1848 and cost about $500. The building was occupied for hold- 
ing court about eight years, after which court was held in tiie old .\Jetiiodist 
and Presbyterian churches until near the year 1864. 

In the year i860 the county commissioners were instructed to erect a new 
building to be constructed of brick, to be two stories high, with basement. The 
first floor to be used for county offices and the second for court and jury rooms. 
The contract was let to Callen & Pearson, who completed their work in 1864, 
at a cost of $23,000. The Ijrick used in the construction of the building was 
burned on the public square near where the band stand is located. The funds 
for the payment of the building were obtained from the sale of swamp lands 
belonging to Appanoose county. In 1891 this building was condemned by the 
board of supervisors as being unsafe, after which they removed the upper 
story, then roofed over the first story, in which the county offices remained until 
the building was torn down and removed during the winter of 1903. Bids had 
been advertised for the sale and removal of the old courthouse and on Saturday, 
January 10, the l)ids were opened, .^mong those who set a price on the struc- 
ture were the following: 

C. R. Inman S200.00 

Burkland & Manson 1 50.00 

William Wilkes, Sr 102.62 

I. S. Lane 100.00 

Elton Eikelberry 100.00 

Davison & McCoy 55-00 

L. \\'. White 50.00 

The bid of W. H. Triggs w^as not even considered, as that gentleman desired 
not only the building as a gift but demanded in addition $735 for wrecking and 
taking it away. The successful bidder was C. R. Inman, who got all there 
was of the old landmark excepting the corner stone, which was reserved by the 
county executives. 


The old courthouse had served its purpose long before giving way to a new 
one. Once, on account of its unsafe condition, it had been i)artially dismantled 
and the remnant patched up as a make-shift. The building Ijecame inadecjuate, 
unsanitary and an eye-sore to at least that section of the county, whose people 
were compelled to face its disrejiutable exterior frt)m day to day. and strenuous 
efforts were made to bring the property owners and tax])ayers of the county 
to consent to the building of a new one. The cjuestion of issuing bonds for the 
payment of a new courthouse was submitted to the pcojilc. but a i>reponderance 


of the sentiment was time and again antagonistic to the proposition and it failed 
of fruition until the November election of 1902. when a niajoritv of 881 votes 
was cast in favor of the board of commissioners issuing $75,000 in bonds. In 
February. 1903. the contract for tlie huil.hng was let to WilHam Peatman, then 
a citizen of Centcrville. the amount of his bid being $69,900; and. with pluml)ing. 
lighting, frescoing, furniture and other necessary appurtenances, the new tem- 
ple of justice was turned over to the county in liie early fall of 1904, having 
cost tile sum of $90,600. 

On Monday, September 12, 1904. the beautiful courthouse was dedicated and 
a vast number of people were edilied and entertained by the ceremonies and 
by those who took an important part in their completion. Judge Horace E. 
Deemer, chief justice of the supreme court of Iowa, delivered the principal 
address. He was followed by Judge Robert Sloan, Judge C. W. X'ermilion, 
Judge T. .M. Fee, General A. J. Baker and Hon. C. R. Porter. Rev. [. D.' 
Vannoy, pastor of the Baptist church, delivered an invocation, and L. C. .Mechem 
extended the address of welcome. Of peculiar interest to the spectators was 
the presence of "Uncle Jack" Perjue, first sherifif of the countv; ludge S. M. 
.Moore, first county recorder, and William Crow, a pioneer of 1843" 


The courthouse rises majestically in the center of the park, with each of its 
four faces turned to one of the main thoroughfares of the city. The building 
is of stone veneer, tile roof and massive tower rising from the center, in which 
has been placed, through the generosity of J. R. Wooden, a clock of fine work- 
manshi]) which, from its four dials the time of day or night can be seen from 
a great distance. Electricity illuminates the clock's faces at night. 


On the interior the wainscoting is of marble, the walls are beautifully 
frescoed and the floors laid with encaustic tile. Red oak was selected for the 
woodwork and the stair railings are of grilled iron work. 

On the first floor are the sheriff's, suiierintcndcnt of .schools' and surveyor's 
offices; a room for the (Jrand Army of the Republic's headijuarters, janitor's 
working and storerooms, a woman's rest and toilet rooms, vault room for the 
storage of records, etc., and men's toilet room. 

The second floor is devoted to the auditor's, recorder's, treasurer's, clerk 
of the courts' and supervisors' rooms, and the third story has the beautiful court 
room, with its five hundred oi)cra chairs; also the county attorney's, jury's, 
witnesses' and bailiff's rooms. Rooms b.ivc .il-n been i»rovided for the law 
library and the sitting judge. 

Shortly after the county had been organized disorder and misdemeanors 
crept in, so that the (juestion came before the board of commissioners for the 
building of a place to confine persons who had made themselves amenable to 


the law and liable to imprisonment. Liut the jjioject iiung in abeyance for some 
time, partly because the coimty could not afford the expense and also for the 
reason that complaints and convictions on criminal charges were infrequent. 
The county managed to do without a jail until 1855, but in that year a small 
stone building was put up and given the name of county jail, but it was so 
inadequate for the purpose that when it had a tenant of any importance to the 
law, guards were necessary to keep the prisoner in confinement. In 1866, to 
give an instance of the jail's inefficiency, one I.ockhart, awaiting trial for horse- 
stealing, easily effected his escape. After this, ])risoners were kept in the 
Ottuniwa jail at the expense of the county. 

Sending prisoners to Ottumwa and bringing them back when needed, became 
monotonous and expensive. So that, on June 8, 1871, the board of supervisors 
gave the contract to Jacob Shaw, Thomas Wentworth and William Ames & 
Company to build a jail, the dimensions of which were to be 42.\42 feet. The 
building was erected on the west side of Xorth Main street and was constructed 
of stone and brick, the outer walls being of the latter material. The cells were 
of iron and, when the structure was completed, the cost amounted to about 
$10,000. In 1904, the building was remodeled, new steel cells replacing the 
old ones. The cost of the improvement was $5,000. However, the Appanoose 
county jail has nothing about its exterior to draw forth any encomiums. Its 
architecture is of a vintage not known to professional designers and when the 
grade of Xorth Alain street was established the building got a black eye. so 
to speak, by being left in a hole, four or live feet below the level of the thorough- 






By Robert Sloun. Presiding Judge 

Gentlemen of the Appanoose County Bar: It alTords me great pleasure to 
be with you on this occasion, and to take part in the dedication of your new 
courthouse to the transaction of public business and this room to the admin- 
istration of justice and the enforcement of law. The people of this countv 
are to be congratulated upon the success which has crowned their efforts to 
secure better facilities for the transaction of public business. 

The building is excellent in design, elegant in construction, beautiful in 
appearance and is evidently strong and durable, and will doubtless prove both 
comfortable and convenient for the uses for which it is designed. It is the 
visible home of local government and at the same time a reminder of that 
power, emanating from the people which secures to the individual citizen the 
enjoyment of life, liberty and property. It has been well said that this is "a 
government of the people for the people by the people." 

The constitution which they adopted creates each department of the gov- 
ernment and detines and limits the ]Jowers therein conferred. The people choose 
from their number their own officers. There is no disjilay in the exercise of 
the powers conferred upon them by these officers, but there is behind tliem the 
entire i)0wer of the state to enforce obeclience to the mandates of the law. 
While the power of the state is exercised by officers selected therefor, it must 
be borne in mind that every duty imposed upon them, and all the authority con- 
ferred upf)n them, is regulated by law and must be discharged according to law. 
The officer is just as nuich bound by the law and governed by it. as the citizen 
and cannot substitute his own will therefor, be he the highest or lowest officer 
of the state. It is this fact more than aught else that prevents tyranny and 
oppression. I'ut for this fact a government of the ])eople may become just as 
tyrannical and oppressive as any other. 

The work of enacting these laws is entrusted to the legislature l)Ut it lies 
with the courts to interjiret and apply them and direct their enforcement, and 
this duty should be discharged wisely, justly, fearlessly and im[)artially. It is 
to this dutv and this work that this court room is dedicated. The <lutv is 


unchanging. We soon pass away, others will take our places, but this duty will 
remain as binding upon our successors, as upon it. No duty is more sacred. 
Faithful adherence to it, throughout the land, will keep this government the best 
the world has ever known, and make its citizens free, happy and contented. 
We need not contemplate the evils that would result from a disregard of this 
duty. We may, with confidence, hope that the people will be ever watchful of 
their liberties and quickly resent any efforts to diminish them, or disregard the 
safeguards with which they have surrounded them. From them came the power 
which created this great commonwealth, by them it has been so wisely and ben- 
eficently exercised that it has made Iowa one of the happiest, freest and best 
states of the Union ; and we may safely trust and justly hope that her citizens 
will be as faithful in the future as they have been in the past in the cause for 
good government. 

The people of this county decided by their votes that this building should 
be erected, the officers charged with that duty have faithfully fulfilled their 
wishes, and the money will come from them to pay for it. By so doing it has 
became their property devoted and dedicated to the work for which they designed 
it, and we again congratulate them upon its beauty, elegance, and evident dura- 
bility. It is the act of the people, more than aught we can say, that dedicates 
this building to the transaction of public business, and this room to the work of 
administering and enforcing the law. Divine wisdom alone would prevent mis- 
takes and errors in the judgments of the courts and verdicts of the juries, which 
will be rendered and returned in this room, in the future deliberations of the 
court that will be held therein, but let us hojic that its walls may never witness 
a judgment rendered or verdict returned which is knowingly wrong. To this 
end, the efforts of both the bench and the bar should be united. While the 
lawyer should put forth his best efforts in behalf of his clients, he should never 
resort to unfair or unwarranted means to win success, nor should the judge 
tolerate it. 

I feel that I ought not to conclude these remarks without at least a brief 
reference to the members of the bar of this county who were present at the 
first term of court held by me in this county, more than thirty-one years ago, 
and whose lips are now silent in death. The names of Joshua Miller, Amos 
Harris, W. F. Vermilion, J. A. Elliott, George D. Porter, Harvey Tannehill and 
Francis Marion Drake are indelibly impressed upon the early history of this 
county and the development of its resources. I bear glad testimony to their 
ability as lawyers, their worth as men, and their fidelity to duty, and reckon 
their friendship as among the most valued treasures of my life. You do well 
on this occasion to place on record a history of the bar of this county, of which 
these men were such important members and contributed so much to its luster 
and renown. Their example we may well emulate and their virtues com- 


By C. If. I'crmilion 

The first session of a court of record in Appanoose county was held Sep- 
tember 17, 1847. The county at this time was a part of the third judicial dis- 


trict and the court was presided over by Cyrus Olney. district judge, whose liome 
was in Jetterson county. 

A local history records that the tirst action taken by the court was in rela- 
tion to the bondsmen of one who had l)een held upon a charge of larceny and had 
failed to ajjpear. The tirst judgment was for thirty-two cents, the result of 
tlie trial of an appeal case. It is perhaps worthy of note also that among the 
Ktions begun at this term was one for divorce — since which time that form of 
action has not been permitted to fall into disuse. 

At that time there were but four judicial districts in the state but in 1849 a 
new district, the fifth, was organized, which included the countv and the terri- 
tory westward to the Missouri river anrl northward as far as Marshall, Story and 
Boone counties. 

Judge William McKay, of I'ulk county, was elected in this district in April, 

In I'ebruary. 1853, the state was redistricted and the ninth district organized, 
consisting of Appanoose and the counties lying to the north and west. 

John S. Townsend presided in tliis district from its organization until the 
^tate was again redistricted under the constitution of 1857. At that time the 
county became a part of the second district, which included the same territory 
belonging to the present district except that of Wayne county was included 
while Jefferson was not. Judge Townsend was reelected in the second district 
in 1858. He was the first of the judges whose length of service was sufficient 
for him to e.xert any appreciable influence on the community. He went upon 
the bench when but twenty-nine years old and during the years of his service 
-itablished the judiciary in the respect and confidence of a frontier community. 

The unwritten history of the courts of .Appanoose county — that preserved 
in the traditions of the bar and the stories of the old settlers — begins with Judge 
Townsend's court. 

Upon his retirement he resumed the practice at .Mbia and before his death in 
1892 had witnessed the gradual expansion of the frontier court he had held into 
the present system. 

In 1862 Judge Henry M. Trimble, then of I'.loomfield, now of Keokuk, was 
elected, as the successor of Judge Townsend. .After four years of distinguished 
service upon the bench. Judge Trimble returned to the practice, where for almost 
forty years he has been known as one of the great lawyers of the state. 

He was followed by Judge Harvey Tannehill, of this county, who was elected 
in i86ri and remained on the bench one term of four years. Upon his retire- 
ment he entered the practice here, where he w,-is n<-iively engageil till 1893, 
when he remover! to -Arkansas. 

Judge Tannehill j)ossessed a natural dignity of carriage and manner that 
must have made his ai)pearance on the bench that of the ideal judge. In the 
way of his profession his character and methods of thought were accurately 
portrayed by his appearance. .As a man, however, and beneath the cloak of his 
dignity and reserve, he had the kindliest of natures. His private life was marked 
by a temperance, serenity and self control that are not often witnessed. Though 
the enfl of his days came among new friends and surroundings, his ashes rest 
here where the active years of his life were spent. 

In 1871 Judge Morris J. Williams, of Ottuniwa, succeeded Judge Tanne- 


hill and presiiled with distinguished ability fur four years. He was followed 
by Judge Joseph C. Knapp, of Van Buren county. Tradition throughout the 
district abounds with stories of Judge Knapp. Among the laity he became 
famous for the gruftness and vigor of his rulings and in the profession for the 
soundness and certainty of his opinions upon the law. 

Judge Edward L. Burton, of Ottumwa, who presided during the eight years 
following Judge Knap]j's retirement in 1878, was another strong character who 
was noted not only for the dignity and order of his court but as well for the 
ability displayed in his work on the bench. 

In 1868 the legislature had created a circuit court, each district being divided 
into two circuits, with one judge to each. Ajipanoose county was in the second 
circuit of the district. 

The first circuit judge was Henry L. Dashiell, of Albia, who presided for 
four years, beginning with 1869. None of his successors have, I believe, equaled 
the industry of Judge Dashiell. If my recollection of stories heard at the jjarental 
fireside is to be relied upon he began court at 7 o'clock in the morning and 
adjourned for the day at 10 o'clock at night. This great industry was prompted 
however, by a lofty sense of duty and was made jjossible only by a correspond- 
ingly great legal ability.' 

An interesting incident — for it was scarcely more — of the history of the 
courts of those days was the creation and the abolition of the general term. 

When creating the circuit court the legislature had provided that the district 
judge and two circuit judges should hold from two to four general terms in the 
district each year and that all appeals should be heard in the first instance by 
the general term. 

The general term was abolished by the ne.xt legislature in 1870, its downfall 
brought about, it is said, by the rage of unsuccessful appellants who cliarged, 
no doubt falsely, that it perpetuated rather than corrected the errors of its mem- 
bers, v.hose judgments were reviewed. 

In 1872 the circuit courts were reorganized, the circuit courts lieing made 
coextensive with the districts and with but one judge to each district. 

From then till the close of 1880 the circuit court of this district was pre- 
sided over by Judge Robert Sloan, who had oceui^ied the bench in the first 
circuit for the previous term. 

Judge H. C. Traverse, of Bloomfield, went ujion the circuit liench in 1881, 
remaining until the abolition of the court. 

In 1884 provision was made for an additional circuit judge for the second 
district and to this position Judge Dell Stuart, of Chariton, was elected in that 

Two years later the circuit court was abolished and the state redistricted. 
the changes taking efifect in January, 1887. 

The second district as at present constituted — with the addition of Henry 
county which was subse(|uently detached — was provided with three judges. 

These places were filled by the election in 1886 of Judges Traverse and 
Stuart of the circuit bench and Judge Charles D. Leggett. of Fairfield. Judge 
Stuart resigned in i8(p to reenter the practice on the Pacific coast and Judge 
Burton was called from the bar to fill the vacancv. The election in that year 










resulted in the choice of Judge Uurton, Ju.lgc W. I. Babb, of .Mount Pleasant, 
and the reelection of Judge Traverse. 

Before the end of this term Judge Uurton suffered a stroke of paralysis 
which incapacitated him fur further labor, and which, after a lingering illness, 
caused his death. The second period of Judge I'.urton's service ujwn the bench 
added much to an already enviable reputation, h'ew judges have l)een able to 
exert a more lasting influence upon both bar and bench than Judge Uurton 

In 1892 the legislature made provision for an additional judge in the district 
and the position was tilled until the ensuing election, by the appointment of 
Judge Joseph C. Mitchell, then of Chariton, later a resident of Ottumwa. 

Judge \V. D. Tisdale. of Ottumwa, was chosen at the election, licnvever, and 
served until the close of 1.^94. In that year were elected Judge T. M. Fee, the 
dean of the Appanoose county bar; Judge Sloan, who thus resumed the judicial 
function he had laid aside fourteen years jjefore; Judge M. A. Robirtv, of 
' )ttumwa, and Judge Frank W. Eichelberger, of Bloomfield. 

The reelection of all of these gentlemen in 189S and again in 190J, except 
Judge Fee, who had meanwhile vukmiarily returned to the practice, is a greater 
tribute to their ability and fitness than any mere words of praise. 

It will be observed that this 12th day of Se])tember, 1904. is within five 
days of the fifty-seventh anniversary of the opening of the courts in the county. 

This beautiful building we have met to dedicate, in comparison with the log 
store building where that first term was convened in 1847, is typical of the 
progress, growth and prosperity of the county. 

Naturally, the business of the courts has increased with the population, the 
accumulation of wealth and the growth and development of diversified indus- 
tries. This increased business has, however, not been in exact i)roi(()rtion tn 
the changed conditions in these respects. 

The 948 people residing in -Appanoose county in 1S47, possessing wealth 
amounting to. less than .S25,ooo. had more business before Judge Olney's first 
term than an e<|ual number of ])eo])le living a vastly more complete life have in 
the courts today. 

One term of perhaps a week was held in that year, while now with a popu- 
lation nearly thirty times as great, holding two hundred times as much property 
as then, but twenty-eight weeks of court are held in each year. So that con- 
trary to a popular belief the business of the courts has not kept pace with either 
the growth of population, the increase of wealth or the diversification of occu- 

THE n.\R. WH.\T IT IS. ANIi SIIolI.!) i;i: 

Hy Judijc I . M. 1-ce 

I congratulate the members of the bar of .\ppanoose county in their good for- 
tune of this day, that they stand in this truly magnificent building, erected by 
the s|)lendid i)eoj)le of .\i)panoose county, wherein the business pertaining to 
the whole people may be transacted. ;ind as a de|)ository of the records and 
their treasure. — the store house of the present and the future. Rut above all, 
as especially interesting to the bar, the lawyers, by wliich they are inore directly 
benefited as a class, I congratulate you for your good fortune in having tliis 


splendid court room erected as and for a temple of justice, in which to spend 
so many of our hours of arduous labor, rather than as it has been in the jjast, 
especially since we were deprived of the old court room. Xo better proof 
exists of the enterprise and intelligence of the citizens of a county, state or 
city, than their public buildings, schoolhouses, churches, liiiraries and court- 
houses, and 1 am glad to know that this building, witli its finishings and furnish- 
ings, reflects the character and enterprise of the citizens of our own countv. 

I came to this city when the first rough little frame courthouse stood about 
where A. E. Wooden's clothing store now is, and the one replaced by this mag- 
nificent courthouse was then under construction. 

The lawyers residing in this county when I came here were Harvey Tanne- 
hill, Amos Harris, Joshua Miller and James Galbraith, living in Centerville. 
All of these are dead and all remained in the active practice until their death. 
All of these men were honest, courteous and able lawyers, and worthy the name 
and the profession. 

Tannehill, Harris and Miller were distinguished for their ability as law- 
yers, as citizens and Christian gentlemen, and all rose to distinction. Harris 
was a member of the constitutional convention which framed the present con- 
stitution of Iowa. Tannehill was elected judge of the district court and Miller 
was state senator. 

Other lawyers were afterward added to this bar as the years passed by. 
Some are dead and others are yet alive and with us now and some removed to 
other places. The time limits of my remarks will not permit me to refer to them 
individually. My subject is the bar. 

What is the bar? It is a class of men who have been admitted to the legal 
profession, or profession of the law, and in this country includes the counselor, 
the advocate and the barrister, and all embraced in the title, lawyer. We are 
members of and represent one of the noblest, and sometimes it is claimed, the 
noblest of all the professions. As we look out upon the present <ind turn back 
to the past, we discover that it includes many of the greatest, ablest and re- 
nowned men of the present and the past, and certain it is. that no ])rofession 
or class has so great an influence in shaping and controlling the destinies of 
mankind and of governments, as the men of the legal profession ; and none have 
so great opportunities to direct the affairs of men in all the divisions and walks 
of life as the legal profession, or members of the bar. 

Then what kind of a man should the lawyer be? My judgment is, and that 
is the consensus of most of mankind. I believe, he should be a man of the high- 
est character and integrity ; of the highest patriotism and deep seated honesty ; 
of the most lofty conception of the rights of others and his duties in obtain- 
ing or defending those rights ; a man of such noble traits as cause him to shun 
and scorn the base and dishonorable tricks and practices of what is known as 
the shyster or pettifogger; a man educated and learned, diligent and wise, cour- 
teous and considerate and who holds love of truth and right, personal honor and 
personal integrity above mere success and financial gain. 

After long years of experience, with the best of opportunities to learn the 
character of the members of the bar, I am glad to be able to say that in no pro- 
fession or class of men. outside the ministers of the gospel, can a greater per 


cent be found who come up to the standard I have given tlian can he found in 
the legal profession. 

I have many times been pained, humiliated and disgusted by a wholesale 
rriticism or declaration by some intelligent i^eople that all lawyers arc flishonest. 
The whole profession has to suffer this denunciation because of the acts or 
character of some individual member of the profession. 

It is the dishonest and disreputable individual member that brings disgrace 
and distrust upon the profession. He filches the good name of the greatest 
profession and makes it a by-word upon the lips of those who cannot dis- 
tinguish between the clean and the unclean. 

The one who tampers with or packs the jury, or suborns witnesses or per- 
suades, drives or coaxes his clients or witnesses to commit perjury, either directly 
or indirectly, or employs all the tricks of deception, omission or of commission 
known to a skillful, adroit and bold shyster, "who is a past master of the arts 
of impudence, swagger and cunning," or, in other words, the lawyer whose 
purpose is to win his case by fair or foul means and wins his case, is talked of 
and his success is heralded forth in the comnmnity, and he is the man that 
brings unmerited condemnation upon the whole profession. 

The profession shoidd not be condemned because of the disreputable prac- 
tice of the few, any more than the Christian religion because a minister of the 
gospel has fallen from the path of virtue. 

The true lawyer is he who with honest motives endeavors to develop the 
truth, and searches for the same with all his might, let it be with his client or 
the opponent, and not use any means to conceal the truth and cheat justice of 
its reward, or conceal it from the court or the jury. He will ap])eal to the 
court and the jury only for a just, fair and honest disposition of his client's 
cause and will only seek to develop the truth, that right and justice prevail. 

His whole aim should be to tip the scales of justice, by truth, fairness, hon- 
' >ty and the very right, and not by knavery, imposition, injustice, perjury, 
subornation of f)erjury. deceit, deception or the practices of fraud, or by the 
concealment of the truth, or misleading jurors or witnesses, or false statement 
or deception. 

No lawyer should seek to obtain business by the means that by all respectable 
lawyers are recognized as unfair, dishonorable or disreputable. 

To maintain our good standing, we must not go contrary to the ethics of the 
profession, which all lawyers are supposed to know an<l recognize, but which it 
is needless for me to recall if time permitted. The lawyer's life is one of con- 
t1ict. He leads a strenuous life and spends much of his lime in conflict with the 
court. He jnits in much of his time in every court trying to keep the court 
from making mistakes, and much of his time is employed in trying to convince 
the court that it has made mistakes and in the latter case it is a hard task he 
has assumed. 

It is said the lawyer sometimes confuses the jury. That may be, but that is 
no worse than the judge does. I heard of a judge in another district, who 
instructed the jury in a case tried before him. The jury retired to consider 
their verdict but remained out a long time. The judge got impatient at the 
delay in returning a verdict and called the jury into court and asked them what 
was the cause of the delay. He was not a good writer and it occurred to him 


that perhaps they could not read his instructions, so he said to the jury, "Can't 
you read my instructions?" The foreman of the jury arose and said, rather 
hesitatingly, "Yeas-ah, Judge, we can read your instructions easy enough, but 
we can't make head nor tail out of them." 

That reminds me of another transaction in court. A lawyer had been talk- 
ing two hours to the jury, and a listener that heard it leaned over to the bail- 
iff and asked him which side the lawyer who was talking was on. The bailiff 
rci)lied: "I don't know; he has not committed himself yet." 

At the dedication of the new courthouse in 1904, John Jackson Perjue. famil- 
iarly known as "Uncle Jack" Perjue, the first sheriff of Ai^panoose county, was 
present, and took a lively interest in all that was taking place, notwithstanding 
he was then in the eighty-ninth year of his Jlge. lie came to the county in 1843, 
about the lime this ])ortion of Iowa had been thrown open for settlement, took 
an active part in the organization of the county in 1846, and was elected its 
first sheriff. His experiences were varied and intensely interesting, as his life 
covered the period of the county's birth and growth of sixty years. IJelow is 
given a reminiscent article, the material of which was furnished by this pioneer 
settler and sheriff for The lowegian, and published a short time before his 
death. There are valuable details of the early history of this county never 
before published, w'hich are here preserved for the edification of coming genera- 
tions. The reader should keej) in mind that Sheriff Perjue gave the relation 
of his recollections in 1904 and all comparisons of dates should be made with 
that year : 

Had "Uncle Jack" Perjue had his way about it, Centerville would now be 
admiring her paved streets and other improvements and the people of the 
county would lie coming to pay their taxes in a new courthouse some distance 
to the of where the city site now lies. In 1845 when the commis- 
sioners came to lay out the county seat, Mr. Perjue, a resident of the county 
since 1843, piloted them over the neighborhood and helped make the selection. 
The commissioners first came to his house from Bloomfield, Mr. Perjue then 
.living northeast and some five or six miles from what is now Centerville. Using 
his own expression, he went with the commissi6ners to old man Perkins', where 
now is the McConnell farm east of town, and from there they went to the Strat- 
ton place, north on Cooper, and then these three pioneer settlers and commis- 
sioners went over the hills through the grass and hazel brush and finally decided 
on Ihe spot where the future county seat was to grow. 


The main motive of the commissioners was to secure a site for the countv 
seat as close to the geographical center of the county as possible, anil when 
they found the center was near what is now the northeast corner of the corpora- 
tion of Centerville they chose the r|uartcr section lying to the south and west 
as the proi)er one. 

"If I had my way about it," says Mr. Perjue. "it would have been to the 
northeast, nearer Chariton and in the neighborhood of my jilace. I had a good 
lying piece of ground in mind for it but old man Perkins had a site too. and 
if he had won out. it would have been east of the i>resent site, wiiile if Mr. 


Straticn had succeeded in having Iiis way. it would have heen north of Cooi)er 
on the divide between it and Wahuit. ajjout where {•"orhush now is. I think 
the commissioners did not listen much to any of us. and onlv tried to get close 
to the center. I think it was something of a mistake, loo, for if the town had 
been built where I propo.sed, it would have been on lower ground and railroads 
would liave ijccn much more easily secured." 

'syuiui-; w.\i)i.i .vc.TON 

in prospecting for a town site the |)rairie south of Centerville was looked 
over, but prairie in those days did not ai)peal very strongly to the prospective 
settler. The site was selected — an open country with no inhabitants. I'.ut there 
was a i)ioneer watching to open up in business in the iierson of a man who became 
widely known as 'Sciuirc Wadlington. "He had settled down," says Mr. IV-rjue, 
"in a little cabin, a short distance east of llic iKjrtlaast corner of town. Wad- 
lington had learned from George W. Perkins, wiio was something of a survevor 
and possessed a compass, that he was near the center of the county and thnught 
it might be that he would be on the county seat site when it was chosen. I'.ut 
Wadlington was not on the site of the future city of Centerville, and when 
he discovered the fact, he tore down his cabin and moved it to the spot where 
now stands the Wooden Rank. Here he installed his little general store in a 
little room of the log cabin. .-V brother assisted him in making his new arrange- 

The site for the future city of Centerville. which was I'lrst called Chaldea, 
was a half mile si|uare and took in a part of the .'^jiooner claim, that family 
having located to the north. The W^adlington store became .something of a 
center of importance but it was not destined to long have a monopoly. .\s Mr. 
I'erjue says, "Charlie Howell, father of attorney I-'red Howell, oi)ened a store 
on what is now East Maple street, not far from the .\ugustus place. In 1846 
when the town was surveyed by J. F. Stratton and the public S(|uare laid out, 
this Store was removed and set upon the lot where the 1 lowell brick block now 
-tands on the public sf|uare, part of which is ()ccui)ied by a son of Mr. Howell 
IS a law ofifice." 

TME-: I not .■^^ lloiJi. 

"The first school in what is now Centerville," continued Mr. I'erjue, "was, 
if I remember rightly, at I'.illy Manson's. I am not sure just when it was opened 
but ill those days the people were ])retty careful to have schools wherever they 
could. Charlie I lowell built the tirst fr.ime house in the town, on the east 
corner of Main, on the south siile of the s(|uare. In this building he kept his 
Store and part of it was occupicfl by his family. It was Tiot long either, till tiie 
people had church ])rivileges and the old Methodist church was built. The first 
church bell that I remember of was the one put in the I'.aplist church. '.^(|uire 
Wafllington gave it to them. His store is where the public business was first 
transacted and in it the first court was hehl, the jury using an adjoining room 
to his store, liut court did not last long." 



The first election in the county is vividly remembered by Mr. Perjue, as he 
was then elected sheriff, and as no counties to the west were organized, his 
jurisdiction took him to the Missouri river. His family was now growing and 
having a dislike to Ijeing away from home, he resigned after having been 
reelected. Thomas Wilson was appointed to fill his une.xpired term. 


At the lime of the first election in .\ppanoose county, there was no postofifice 
established nor was there such a person as a mail carrier in this section of the 
country, hence it was required of Mr. Perjue, as sherifif of the county, to take 
the election returns to the state capital, then at Iowa City. The journey was a 
long one, but he set out in the early part of 1847 with the few ballots which 
had been cast, probably about thirty-five, all of which had been deposited in 
the bo.x at Centerville. The journey was made safely, however, and arriving 
at Iowa City, he was disappointed by not finding a person about the state house. 
The next thing to do was to put up at a lodging house and when finally he 
delivered his ballots to the proper official and received his pay for his arduous 
services, he found that his stipend was not in currency but state script, which 
had to sufifer a generous discount before it was available to meet his expenses. 
After having paid his bills and returned to his home, Sheriff Perjue had $1.50 
in script remaining. 

This, however, was not the first trip Mr. Perjue made to Iowa City. When 
first elected sherifif he was keeping "bachelor's hall" in a lonesome cabin he had 
erected. From events that followed it is very probable the sheriff had deter- 
mined while in Iowa City that he would return and marry the girl he had met 
there some time previously, so that it is presumed having seen his sweetheart in 
the city and being disgusted upon his return here with the barrenness of his 
cabin, he hitched up his ox team, drove back to Iowa City, married the girl, 
returned to Centerville and set up housekeeping. On his wedding trip back 
from the capital, Mr. Perjue brought back some wheat and rye, which he sowed 
in the spring. His first home in the county was on a tract of land, part of which 
is now owned by Edward White. 


"Settlement the first six years," says Perjue, "was slow. There was a dis- 
pute about the Missouri line and people did not like to settle so near trouble and 
uncertainty. P.ut finally these difficulties were adjusted and then the growth 
was substantial. .\t the time 1 came here the last settlement passed was in 
Jefferson county and this was pretty much on the frontier for some time. Old 
Alexandria on the Mississippi was the trading point for several years. Later 
came Des Moines river points and a little trading was done at P.loomfield. It 
was not until if^44 that I learned of other settlers around me in the county. In 


that year I met the Strattons from about Lnionvillc and they told me of Wil- 
liam Crow being down there, and other settlers. Mr. Stratton had set up a 
little mill on Cooper, north of town, and with the Siinnncrs south ni that, and a 
few other stragglers here and there, a feeling of great neighborliness sprung up 
and soon the work was initiated and the foundation of .\ppanoose county's 
future prosperity was laid securely and well." 




The pioneers of the healing art in Ccntcrviile and Appanoose county were 
the guarchans of a widely tlispersed population. Aside from their professional 
duties they contributed their full share to the material development of a newly 
opened country. Some were men of culture who had gained their medical edu- 
cation in college; the great number were of limited educational attainment whose 
professional knowledge had been acquired in the offices of established prac- 
titioners of more or less ability in the sections from which they emigrated. Of 
either class almost without exception they were practical men of great force 
of character who gave cheerful and efficacious assistance to the suffering, daily 
journeying on Ixirseback scores of miles over a country almost destitute of roads 
and encountering swollen, unbridged streams, without waterproof garments or 
other now common protection against water. Out of necessity the pioneer 
])hysician developed rare quickness of perception and self-reliance. .\ specialist 
was then unknown and he was called upon to treat every phase of bodily 'ail- 
ment, serving as physician, surgeon, oculist and dentist. His books were few 
and there were no practitioners of more ability than himself with whom he 
might consult. His medicines were simple and carried on his person, and everv 
[irepanition of pill or solution was the work of his own hands. 

Hefore the advent of the "regular" practitioner the sick and ailing were sub- 
jectefl to the tender mercies of the "_\arl)" (herb) doctor, the "bone-setters," 
and other "(|iiacks," who knew of the virtues of certain nostrums which they 
compounded, and which were prescribed to their patients indiscriminately. Then 
there was the woman doctor, whose chief merit lay in the intensity of her pas- 
sion for nursing and mothering the object of her ministrations. She gath- 
ered boneset, pennyroyal and other herbs, from which she made teas and svrujis, 
the latter being nnich more palatable than the former. She was the dreadful 
ogre of the youth of early days, as she was wont to dose Ihem with her bitter, 
nauseous decoctions, to her heart's content and the utter disgust of the little 

Patent medicines did not come until later on and those who took up the heal- 
ing art were often put to severe tests to meet the exigencies of an extraordinarv 

Vol I— 10 



case. Drug stores were few and far between and the doctor was compelled to 
use his wits to the stretching point in many instances. 

In the "Forties" appeared the college bred, regularly i)rei>arcd praciiiioncr, 
who gave to his patient the benefits of a specially trained mind and hand. With 
ambition to become practical and expert in his chosen profession and a Isfud- 
able determination to "make his mark" as a physician in the new field of his 
choosing, he soon made headway into the confidence of those who placed them- 
selves under his care and the "quack" almost disappeared as a nondescript unit 
of professional society. We still have the gentry with us, however, and the thou- 
sand and one "patent" cures for consumption, cancer and other maladies, which 
baffle the research and skill of the most adept in the science of materia medica. 

During the early settlement of the county the principal diseases were ma- 
larial fever and catarrhal pneumonia, according to Dr. S. W. Sawyers, of Cen- 
terville. At this time — 1849 to 1853— "these diseases were usually sthenic in 
character and were almost invariably treated by vene-section. calomel and qui-, 
nine. In 1852-3 a very widespread epidemic of scarletina of severe form pre- 
vailed in the western part of the county." Typhoid first made its appearance 
in 1853 and prevailed to quite an extent, and in 1856 dipthcria taxed the ingenuity 
and endurance of the physician, the first cases nearly all proving fatal. In the 
same year the scourge of smallpox menaced the community. There were forty 
cases, many of them resulting in death. In the winter of 1863-4, a number of 
fatal cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis were reported and in 1865 an epidemic 
of erysipelas was energetically fought before it could be exterminated. 


The first person to take up the practice of medicine and surgery in .Appa- 
ngose, of which there is any record, was William S. Manson, who had acquired 
some little acquaintance with the uses and efficacy of drugs and medicines in 
his old Tennessee home. Arriving early in the '40s, he at once became known as 
the "doctor" and soon had quite a clientele, which he visited on foot or horse- 
back, as the occasion required. He concocted his own medicines and carried 
them in saddlebags, which were thrown over the shoulders of his horse, or 
carried on his own back. It was said of "Dr." Manson that "he was a man of 
good judgment and, in ordinary ailments, was of considerable help." The 
chronicle does not state, however, that Manson was prepared for his vocation 
by a course of reading and training in college and hospital. 

In the class with William Manson may be added "Dr." Shafer, a German; 
"Dr." Sales and "Dr." Pewthers. There was also a Mr. Stratton. .-Ml of these 
attended the sick and distressed and prescribed for the bodily ailments of their 
patients with more or less success. They were not required in those days to 
have a license to practice medicine and that, for one reason, was why the set- 
tlers took them upon trust, so to speak. Through a sjiirit of kindliness, earnest- 
ness of purpose and natural aptitude for the work at hand, these men undoubtedly 
did well, worked hard, withstood many privations and were poorly paid, for 
money was an extremely scarce article. 

J. H. Worthington was the first regular physician to practice his profession 
in Appanoose county. He was born in Shelby county. Kentucky, in December, 


1822, and commenced the practice of medicine at Exlinc in 1846. He died at 
Exlinc in 1885. 

In the year 1851 there were four physicians in Centerville: W. \V. Cotteli; 
Hugh McCoy, Amos Patterson and Jeremiah Brower. Dr. Cotteli, a bachelor 
came from Ohio and removed to Jefferson county in 1855 and from there to 
Fairfield, where he died in 1883. He was considered a very good physician. 
Dr. McCoy was in good standing, but relinquished his practice for farm life in 
1868, moving to Walnut township. Dr. Patterson also tired of the routine of 
a professional life and retired to a farm a mile and a half south of Centerville. 
He is still living, but the years are bearing heavily upon him. 

Dr. Jeremiah Brower immigrated from .\orth Carolina and located in 
Centerville in 1850, where he became well known as a physician. He practiced 
three years in Centerville and then removed to Warren county, continuing there 
as a physician until incapacitated by physical inlirmities. 

Dr. Pewthers was a botanic doctor, or an herbalist or "yarb" doctor. 

Dr. Nathan Udell was one of the early settlers in the county, coming here 
in 1848 and locating in Unionville. The township and village of Udell were 
named in his honor. He practiced his profession at Unionville for many years 
and in 1885 removed to Kansas. Dr. Udell was an able physician and became 
a prominent citizen. He was a member of the state senate. His death took place 
in Denver, Colorado, in March, 1903, and his body was brought back for inter- 

Henry Hakes was born in New York in 1823 and studied medicine with one 
of the leading physicians of the Empire state. He practiced his profession in 
his native state and after his marriage came to Appanoose, in 1853, and located 
in Centerville and opened an office. He also kept a drug store. Dr. Hakes died 
in 1885. 

Dr. E. Mechem was a resident of Centerville some time before the war and 
many patients were on his list, all of whom spoke a kindly word for him, both 
as a man and physician. After a short stay he left Centerville for Decatur 
ounty, where he sjient the remainder of his life. 

Dr. Walker jiracticed medicine in Centerville in the days of its infancv, but 
left the village for a more lucrative field of endeavor. 

Dr. Robert Stephenson, Sr., immigrated from Ohio to Centerville while 
the Civil war was on and maintained a successful practice until his death in 

Sylvester H. Sawyers was the son of Elisha Sawyers, who left .Nashville, 
1 cnncssee, with his family in 1850 and settled in the free state of Iowa, choosing 
< nterville as a location for his energies. For a while he kept a hotel and later 
one at I'nionville. Sylvester H. Sawyers, the son, became noted as a physician 
and surgeon, acquiring a large practice, not only in the county but in other 
localities. To Dr. Sylvester Sawyers Appanoose county is indebted for the two 
physicians and surgeons of his name. John I.azelle Sawyers and Clvde E. Saw- 
yers, both of whom have a large and lucrative practice at Centerville. 

Hague Hoffman was born in Green county, Pennsylvania, in 1831. He 
came to Iowa in 1857 and lived in Unionville several years. Here he studied 
medicine unfler Dr. S. II. Sawyers, an eminent physician and surgeon of his 
day. Dr. Hoffman graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 


Cincinnati, Ohio, and practiced his profession at L'nionville until 1865, when 
he moved to Moravia. 

I'rankhn Eeils located in Centerville in 1855 and began the practice of 
medicine with Dr. McCoy. He graduated from Rush .^Medical College in 1864. 
The doctor went into the manufacture of medicine later on and from the fact 
that he advertised, it is probable he was not in the best of standing with tiie 
"regulars," who make a fetich of the so-called "professional ethics." 

Moses Y. Sellers began the practice of medicine in Moulton over four decades 
ago. He spent part of the year 1864 in the medical college at Keokuk and then 
opened an office in Iconium, where he remained four years. He graduated from 
the Keokuk Medical College in 1880. 

As a physician, John M. Sturdivant was eminently successful. He was born 
on a farm in Van Buren county, Iowa, in 1838, and died November 7, 1890. 
Dr. Sturdivant read medicine under Dr. O. .\. George, at Bonaparte, Iowa, and 
graduated from an eye; ear and throat infirmary of St. Louis ; and Keokuk 
Medical College in 1861. He began practice in Cincinnati, Iowa, and remained 
there until 1882, when he came to Centerville. 

Dr. William Sayres was one of the early regular practitioners of Appa- 
noose county and established a splendid reputation as a physician and surgeon. 
He was a man of high character and his death, which occurred March 14, 1891, 
was deeply regretted. He was born on a farm in Harrison county, Ohio, in 
t8i8, and when a lad learned the tailor's trade. Being ambitious, he read 
medicine, began the practice and, in 185 1, located in Drakesville, where he 
remained until 1855, when he removed to Cincinnati. Dr. .Sayres held the posi- 
tion of postmaster at Cincinnati under Abraham Lincoln and retained the office 
until the first election of Grover Cleveland. 

Joseph P. Smith, a native of the Keystone state, graduated from the Eclec- 
tic Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1852. He located in Centerville in 
1859 and in Orleans in i860, where he practiced his profession nine years. In 
1869 Dr. Smith removed to Moulton, and there built up a good jiractice during 
his residence in the village. 

E. M. Reynolds located in Appanoose county with his ]«rents in 1849. He 
began the practice of medicine in Centerville in 1873 and continued until his 
death. Dr. E. E. Bamford bought his practice a short time before his death. 

Dr. M. L. Culp practiced for some time at Moulton, locating there in 1873. 

Dr. Price N. Landis served as an army surgeon during the Civil war and 
located in Exline in 1865. He remained in the practice a number of years. 

Dr. Beebe lived a busy and practical life and for many years practiced medi- 
cine in Franklin township. 

Dr. G. S. Stansberry took excellent care of the sick in and about Dean and 
was early in the field as a physician, the '50s having just commenced when he 
came to Appanoose county. 

In her pioneer days, iloravia was fortunate in having two good i)hysicians 
in the persons of Drs. Harvey and Bradley. Both of these worthy men died at 
Moravia many years ago. 

.'\t Moulton the first physician to practice there was Dr. M. P.. \'. Howell. 
He was followed by Dr. James P. Smitli and later. Dr. W. F. S. Murdy. Dr. 
J. D. Hawkins settled there in 1884, but none of these physicians are in the 


village al this time. W. F. S. .Murdy came to Appanoose count)- with liis par- 
ents in 1861, when a lad of seventeen years. He read medicine in the office of 
Dr. M. V. Howell, of Moulton, and, after graduating from the Missouri Medi- 
al College at St. Louis in 1848, he opened an office in Moulton. 

Other physicians who practiced in Centerville, early in its history, and who 
are long since gone to their last resting place, were Drs. X. L. Price. C. H. 
Hishop, H. D. Shontz, J. C. Whitney and G. A. Henry. Dr. William M. Scott 
i- still living, although in retirement. For an extended sketch of this dean of 
the profession, see N'okmie II. 


I'riiir to the year 1909 the ])hysicians of Appanoose county joined with 
members of their profession of Wayne county and organized the Ap])anoose 

iid Wayne County Medical Society. The medical men of Appanoose county 
■parated from Wayne in a formal manner, at a meeting held in the assembly 

■ mi of Drake Public Library building, January 26, 1909. This meeting was 

■lied to order by Dr. E. E. Bamford. Dr. C. P. Tillmont was placed in the 
' iiair and Dr. Frank Sturdivant was chosen as secretary of the proceedings. A 
'onstitution and by-laws were adopted and the following officers of the newly- 

cated society elected : President, W. L. Downing ; vice president, E. E. Bam- 

■rd ; secretary and treasurer, C. P. Bowen ; delegate to state convention. C. S. 
Inmes; board of censors, U. L. Hurt, W. A. Harris, .A. B. George. Interesting 

ipers were read and discussed and President Warher of the State Medical 
.--cicietv delivered an address. At this meeting it was determined that all mem- 
bers of the erstwhile .Xppanoose- Wayne County Medical Society should be 
ijigible to the Appanoose County Medical Society. .\ permanent meeting place 
was secured in Drake Public Library building. 

The present officers and members of the society are: 

President. J. L. Sawyers ; vice president, T. J. Case ; secretary-treasurer, C. 
James: cen.sors. J. .A. Replogle, V. L. Hurt, C. P. Tillmont; delegate to state 

. mention, R. E. Bamford. .Members: Centerville, E. E. Bamford, C. P. 
i:<iwen. T. W. r.lachley, A. B. George, C. S. Hickman, E. E. Heaton, W. A. 
I l.irris. C. S. James. W. B. Miller, J. McFarland. J. L. Sawyers. J. ^^ • Slniman, 
I . E. Sawyers, B. F. Sturdivant, G. F. Severs. W. W. .Syp, W. Scoti, C". P. Till- 
mont : Cincinnati, H. C. Hoch, J. M. Sturdivant. .\. P. Stevenson. W. 11. .Ste])hen- 
M,n: Moulton, W. L. Downing. E. T. Printz. M. Y. Sellers, W. F. Ware; 
Moravia. W. R. Day. G. D. Lynch; L'nionville. T. J. Case; Mystic, W. J. Fcnton. 
\'. W. Labaugh; I'-.xIine, L. J. Sturdi\ant: LMell. J. A. Replogle: Xuma. L'. I.. 


Through the efforts of the medical iralernity of Centerville. funds were 
lised by sul)scri|)tion and otherwise in the year i<)02, amounting to about 
10,000, for the purpose of establishing a hospital. The William Peatman resi- 
' nee, on .South Main street, was jjurchased and another, dnse by, was also 
■ cured and moved to the west end of the lot. In this latter building are rixims 
idr the nurses and a chapel. Piefore work on the hospital had been completed, 


apartments were erected wliicli joined the two structures mentioned and the 
result is a connected string of buildings, running from Main street back to 
South Twelfth street, and opposite the handsome new high school building. The 
institution was opened Xoveniber 17. 1903, under the management of a corps of 
local physicians. But the managing board soon tired of the responsibilities 
involved and the hospital was turned over to the Sisters of Mercy ot St. Joseph's 
parish and is now known as Mercy Hospital. 







The school system of .\ppanoose county was organized under tlie same laws 
and regulations pertaining to other counties of Iowa. There are thirteen school 
townshi[)s. twelve independent districts, one city and twenty-three rural inde- 
pendent districts. .\l the present time ( 1912) there are one hundred and forty 
lioolhouses. suitable for use, two hundred and thirty teachers employed, and 
eight thousand, nine hundred and sixty-three jnipils of school age. The following 
towns have graded schools : 

Centervili.e. — Four buildings for the grades and a high-school building. The 
high-school building is modern, convenient and of beautiful architecture. It is 
an accredited school and the work done by the teachers and pupils is surpassed 
by no other school in the state. .Xjipanoose county may well be proud of the 
Centerville high school. 

.Mori.ToN. — One school building, with an excellent high school, and for its 
~ize the equipment is one of the best in the state. The courses consist of a 
normal training course and others. 

Mystic. — Four school buildings and an excellent high-school course. 

Ci.xcix.v.vTi. — One building, all grades, from the jjriiuary to four-years' 
high-school course. Its building is modern in every manner. 

Mf)R.\viA. — ( )ne school building, all grades, and a four-year high-school course. 
The building is excellent and modern in design. 

jEKf>ME. — Is supjilicd with one three-room building, in which are employed 
three teachers who extend tlieir services to the tenth year work. 

Unionville. — One school building, three teachers and all employed to teach 
tu eleventh year. 

Exi.iXK. — One scliool Iiuilding. four teachers and grades to tenth year. 

Xf.MA. — One school building, four teachers and all grades to eleventh year 

l'>K.\zii.. — One school building, two teachers and work extending to ninth year. 

K.vTiiiuN. — One school building, not modern, but a very good structure. 
I here are three teachers who extend their work to the ninth year. 

L'deli,. — This modern little village has one very convenient school building. 
There are two teachers, whose work extends into the tenth grade. 







There is not more difference between llie tallow clip of half a century ago 

md a two-thousand candle-power arc than there is to he noticed lietween the 

liieftain of 1856 and the Centerville papers of today. In fact the person of 

is day who turns the old pages of the Chieftain, of which verv few remain, 

eking something in the form of news of Centerville and the countv of that 

irlier day, finds himself wondering why the subscriber or merchant paid his 

newspaper bills at all— and what he got for his money? The oldest inhalMtani 

may remember the paucity that featured the news column of papers of those days 

and he may recall the reason that peoi)le advanced for paying the printer but 

it is certain that no such paper as was then well sup])orted could live long in 

these times. This deficiency was not unique with the Chieftain however; it 

was characteristic of American newspaperdouL 

There was no thought then of anything but the simi)lest form of jH-inting 
press except in the largest and richest offices. The Cliieftain was printed on a 
iiid ])ress, operated by man power, or oftcner as being cheaper, by boy power. 
i iiere was painful reality in the phrase "working off the edition" and however 
limited the circulation, it took time. There was no i)ossibilitv of enlargement by 
throwing on an extra two or four pages, as tin- perfecting presses of this day 
do on short notice; it was four ])ages or none. If the four pages would not hold 
the advertising and the sage observations of the editor, the alternative was to 
make the columns longer, or add one or two columns to a page. Dy this process 
in times of abounding ])lenty with the advertiser the "sheet" expanded into a 
■'Manket" and was worthy of its name. Those old time papers h;i.l an immcnsilv 
expanse that would not be tolerated totlay. 


i oday jK-ople comi)lain that their papers contain too much advertising for 
the amount of reading matter, but they do not realize that there has been a 
-teady gain in the proportion of reading matter all these years. Most of the 
matter in the early days that purported to be used was paid "puffs" or editorial 



observation or opinion. The occasional news item that strayed into print was 
so shorn of details, so compressed and so laden with wise observations, com- 
ment and advice, that the reader got only the barest glimpse of what had hap- 
pened and that glimpse was destitute of all color, circumstance or incident; 
destitute of everything, in fact, but the mere statement that such and such a 
thing happened. 

TiiEKr: WEKI-; xo kepokticrs 

This lack of narrative and statement in the so-called news of fifty years ago 
may be accounted for by several reasons. b"or one thing, it was the fashion to 
treat news in tbnt manner. The reportorial art and knack had not been developed, 
though it was coming, i'or another thing, the paper that was published in Iowa 
in those days could not afl'ord to make extended mention of anything that did 
not have great political or tinancial interest, unless it might be the most sensa- 
tional of events, such as a great storm, or fire, or crime, or accident. Again, 
it was the manner of the times to take opinions at second hand ; very much more 
the manner of that time than it is of this, at any rate. And then there was little 
display of that energy in the pursuit of news matter that is the characteristic of 
the newspaper of today. The most sensational incidents were passed with the 
merest mention. 


There was a curious reluctance to mention the names of indi\iduals in those 
days. Entire issues of the paper about this period do not contain the name of 
a single person in the way of news. At the same time the editorial columns 
may have teemed with personalities that verged ui)on virulence. Strangers were 
coming to Centerville by the hundreds, yet there were no "personals," such as 
make an important feature of the papers today. People died and were married, 
bought and sold property, and ga\e parties, suffered good and evil fortune, and 
did no end of things worthy to be recounted in print, as they do now and always 
have done ; yet the local columns of the local papers took practically no account 
of them. Politics and "puffs" and stale generalities made up tiie mass of the 
matter pulilished. 


On the other hand, the editor had a plain and homely way of calling a spade 
a spade in those days — if. indeed, he did not go further than that and call it 
several things more — and in controversies he was wont to break out in language 
that would not be heard in any newspaper office of standing in this time. The 
editor of those days had not the fear of the libel law before his eyes as now, for 
one thing, and it was a ])laincr spoken and altogether cruder and rougher age, 
for another. He said things then that he would not dare to say today ; he said 
things then that he would not be disposed to say now. It was the fasiiion, the 
thing that people expected. .\ newspaper was accounted without snap, or 
character and vigor if it did not pitch into the otiier fellow without fine scru])ie, 
touching the names, if called. To give an example, not mentioning any paper : 

"Messrs. Editors: Referring to extremely personal communications in the 
World Illuminator, signed 'I'lank,' it might be expected by strangers to the man 


that I should answer his query. If any person of respectability, whether my 
political friend or enemy, desires me to answer (luestions civilly presented. I 
shall do so with the greatest of pleasure, but so far as 'Hlank" is known in this 
community, it is as a loafer and a liar, and with due respect to myself and per- 
sonal friends, I cannot descend to discuss a matter with him in the pui)lic [)rint 
but shall hereafter treat his communications as they deserve, with silent con- 
tempt, considering, as I do, personal vilification at his hands, creditable rather 
than otherwise." 

Between the editor and his brother editor there frequently befell passages at 
arms that reeked with gore. The polite vocabulary was exhausted in mutual 
belaborings and the language of I'.illing.sgate was not infrequently tlrawn upon 
and yet. when the pajier was out the principals in this wordy combat did not 
scniple to appear in public in most brotherly communion. All this slang-whang- 
ing and blustering was mere stage thunder, harmless and part of the play. The 
[leople wanted a gingery paper— or else the editor sadly misunderstood the tenor 
of their newspaper appetite — and he gave them what they wanted; but never at 
the expense of the fraternal friendship. 

r.\U) .MATTKR 

There is another reason that accounts for the lack of the personal element 
in the news columns of those times, and that is one purely of business. It is 
always hard to dissociate advertising from news. Use men's names in print, 
and a certain amount of advertising inevitably follows. The newspaper in those 
days was not at all a public affair but a private enterprise. Its first duty was to 
its owner's interest. He was primarily publishing an advertising sheet and by 
way of diversion, filling a small portion of it with opinions and news matter, 
the advertising being all the time the prime interest. So, while the first years of 
the newspaper in Ccnterville showed a scant column of so-called local news, the 
rest of the paper, with the exception of three or four columns of editorial and 
miscellany, was fairly crowded with advertising. There were no mentions of 
weldings, or funerals, or deaths; of comings or goings; of buildings and bargains 
in real estate — as a rule — unless the parties at interest paid for them. The fol- 
1 iv.'ing item published in an issue of the Chieftain .gives the clue to the situation 
as clearly as anything can: 

"Xoticc — Persons getting married and sending in notices are reciucsted to 
pay for the insertion of the same as for any other advertisement ; otherwise they 
will not appear. The man who is too poor to pay for having his marriage \m\>- 
li>hed. better be thinking of other matters than getting a wife." 

There is the matter in a nutshell — nothing was used as news that could be 
made to pay the paper a profit : and rather than miss an occasional profit of this 
sort the paper would miss iniblishing any amount of matter that is now regarded 
as vital news. The half century or more that has passed since then has abso- 
lutely revolutionized newspajicr making. It has reversed the importance of the 
editorial and the news page, and it has likewise reversed the relative position of 
proper news matter and legitimate advertising matter. Then a newspaper was 
scnlially an advertising sheet, but it carried a little reading matter. N'ow it 
i> a newspaper, and carries with the reading sonic advertising. Then the dei)art- 

300 HISTOin' (Jl- A1'I'.\X(K)SI': (J^UXTY 

ment of local news was so rudimentary as sometimes not to be visible, while the 
cilitorials gave character and standing to the paper. Xow the editorial quality 
of a paper may help to give it standing, but its rc|nUe as a jnirveyor of fresh, 
rclial^le, interesting, imjjortant news is the factor that counts with the public 
and determines its popularity. The newspaper man of this day who turns over 
the files of the papers of those days is apt to picture the stir he would have been 
able to make if he could have been there then, with a moderately good plant 
and a fresh infusion of modern ideas. Hardly any other well established line 
of actixity in this country has undergone as much change in the past fifty years 
as the making of a daily paper. 


'llic whcilc end (jf man, in those days, seemed to be political discussion, if 
the life of the time has been truly reflected in the local journalism of that day. 
Compared with the same line of matter today, it was decidedly strenuous. The 
man on the other side, whichever side it might be, was seldom accredited with 
even a modicum of brains, honor or decency. In these days such controversy 
is conducted between im]jersonal newspa])ers ; then the editor who was really in 
earnest, routed his opponent out of the defense afforded by the editorial "we," 
and fought him in the open in his own i)roper name and person. When politics 
failed as a source of inspiration the shears were the main reliance, and choice 
selections, ranging from an elopement or embezzlement in some distant state to 
the manners of the king of Portugal, were offered the readers of the paper. 
The Chieftain, in its infancy, kejn company with the other papers of the state in 
these cu.stoms. Its old files sliow numbers that are destitute of anything that can 
be construed as local news, and again there are others that tell fairly well what 
happened here when the town was new. lUit it did as well as its contemporaries, 
and eventually it distanced them all. 

ST.M.K Xr.VVS rRi:FF.RRi:i) 

Another mannerism of the time in journalism was seeming inditierence to 
the timeliness of the jnihlication of news. There was little of the present day's 
haste to have a man an the spot when things were happening. Tiie news which 
did get into the pai^er was apt to be at least one day or week older than it should 
have been, and it might be several days older. It is quite usual to hnd a bare 
mention of a hall, a concert, a lecture, a meeting, or some such event, in the 
issue following the date, with the promise that the matter shall be taken up at 
greater length in a future issue. ^lany things that a paper of today would 
report in full at any cost in the first succeeding issue were passed in this manner. 

This is easily accounted for. Capital was limited and later, as money troubles 
multi])lie<l in this community, receipts were scanty where they should have been 
])lentiful. The news])aper of those days was always shorthanded. It needed 
more helj) than it was able to hire. The Chieftain .-ufl'cred this limitation, as 
did the other papers of Centerville and this territory. What was written must 
be written by probably one man, or at the most, by two. It was a physical im- 
possibility for that one man to do all the other more necessary things that must 

illSTORV Ul- Al'l\\XO(JSI-: COUNTY 301 

be done first, and then have much time left for verbatim reports of toast, pro- 
grams, pohtical harangues, and runaways. Even if he liad notes of the matter, 
he had to wait for time to expand tliem into copy. Tliere were no sten(jgra])liers 
and typewriters in those days. 


.\gain, uf notice the wide divergence l)clween the language of the jjress in 
those days and the speech it uses now. Then it was stilted, formal and stiff, 
in many cases, and at least it was always tinctured with something of that kind. 
It had the euphemism of Washington Irving, or Macaula.\-, or Addison, when 
the writer was in good humor, and it thundered with the artillery of P.urke. and 
Webster and Patrick Henry, with considerable grape and cannislcr of liie I'.il- 
lingsgate brand when he wanted to pierce the armor of an opponent and rankle 
there. Today no newspaper that is published uses such speech. We use the 
verbiage of the present time, which is as tar from that as the aphoristic sentences 
of Alfred Henry Lewis are from the careful phrasings of Charles Lamb. How 
far this editorial bombardment overshot the heads and speech of the common 
herd who took the paper, either by subscribing, borrowing or stealing (paper 
thieves were rampant then), we have no way of learning; but if the people used 
the speech of the pa[)ers, those were indeed deliberate old days. 


Of course the striking feature of this scantiness of news in the i)ioneer papers 
w as its stalenpss. Telegraph service was in its infancy here and main dei)endence 
was placed upon Keokuk and Pjurlington papers for news of the outside world, 
which came at irrcgidar intervals and was reprinted. There was no cable in 
those days, and so there was no fresh news of the doings of the world at large. 

Till-: L.\CK Ol-- IIIi.VDI.INKS 

.\notIier feature of the paper of fifty years ago that has a queer look in 

lays, was its total absence of display of news. The art of writing headlines 

\.as a knack of later growth. In 1855 and on down to 1865, and for years after 

tiiat, the telegraph news of the paper was "run in," the news from .Africa and 

Hong Kong and Cuba and Nicaragua and New Mexico and London and Chicago 

nd Oregon and Washington, all solid type, with hardly more than a date line 

etwcen these geographical subdivisions, and no .sort of effort to bring out the 

tenor of the news so that he who ran might read. Two or three columns of this 

matter, in fine type, none too well printed, with less than an inch of headline to 

II of it, was quite usual up [<-> the mirlrjlc 'fios. 

rill. I .\,sl.l-,KI .\(, A|l\ i-.k; I l.'^l l< 

There uas another feature of the jiapers of those days, and that was tlic 
moderation of the business man in asking to have his advertisement surrounded 
with reading matter, and given other exclusive prominence of displ.iy. The 


chief aim was to get money enough out of the business to make it pay. There 
was no trouble in satisfying the advertiser in the matter of "position" or display. 
He seemed to ask only to be admitted to the paper — somewhere. 


The shift of ground from that occupied at first to the manner of conducting 
a paper today was not made of a sudden, but came as all evolutionary movements 
do come, gradually and by degrees each step in advance the outgrowth of some 
other that had preceded. The local current history was solely expanded to a 
full column, then two. and then occasionally as upon some momentous occurrence 
to perhaps a full page. .Along in war days, under the im[)etus of some stirring 
political campaign, it even bloomed with illustrations, ancient woodcuts, the 
stock of the office for the illustration of advertisements, or the remnants of some 
other enterprise, being interwoven into a lampoon at the expense of the other 
party. The same woodcuts did duty in much the same way at least several 
times, decently separated by sufficient interval to be partially forgotten. At the 
same time the editorial began to be more fairly critical and less bitterly partisan, 
and the clipped matter began to acquire some element of pertinence and time- 
liness ; fjualities which it had hitherto lacked : and the telegraph, or general 
news, began to e.xpand. After the .Atlantic cable was fairly set to working and 
the telegraph had begim to tie remote sections of our country closer together, 
the expansion of the department of telegraph news became much more evident. 
The Associated Press was then in but a crudely formative state, compared with 
its organization of today, and the news that came by wire was frequently con- 
tradicted a day or so after, and was an endless subject of revilement with the 
editor in his own columns, but it was the best there was in those days, and the 
people appeared to hold no grudges against the papers on these scores. The 
younger generation, acquainted only with newspapers that handle general news 
of such accuracy that error is an infrequent incident, have no conception of the 
jumble of fact, fancy, and fiction that was handed to the reader in the days of 
the war, and before, by the best editors in the land, simply because there was no 
way of doing any better. To relate the various steps through which this shift 
to higher ground has been made would be to tell a story of endless length. It 
is enough to say that the change came steadily along — better print, more news, 
better editing, better writing sometimes and a better filling of the newspaper's 
mission in life in general, just as the same changes are going forward now, from 
day to day and year to year. 

The Citizen, as one of the papers that has survived the vicissitudes of the past 
half century, is a plain example of the evolutionary forces that have been work- 
ing through that period to make the newspapers of today what they are. There 
is so little parallel between the Citizen of today and the Citizen as it began its 
existence that comparison is a matter of difficulty. It is worth while to mention 
this evolution here, because, in the files of the Citizen, which can be read at will 
by those who are interested, may be found epitomized the development of 
.American journalism from the ]irimifive and almost childish beginning of fifty 
years ago. 

And still, with all the crudeness of those days in many things, there were 


giants then, and the press contained within itself those stirrings and workings of 
fermentive force that would come to nothing less than tremendous growth and 
power. The Greeleys, and the Prentices, and the Bennetts of that time led the 
way, but they were followed by a host of humbler knights of the quill, and the 
word all along the line was "forward." 

Tin-: .\i'p.\xoosE chiektaix 

The Chieftain was the first newspaper to be launched in Appanoose county 
and the initial issue was published in May, 1856. Its projectors were two 
venturesome young men by the name of Fairbrother, who, having secured material 
assistance in the way of a bonus and advanced subscriptions for the oncoming 
ilisseminator of news, established the paper in Centerville. The Chieftain was 
.1 seven-column folio and had several columns of advertising, but it is fair to 
presume that space in the paper did not have the value in the day of the Chieftain 
IS it commands today in its successor. The Citizen. However that may have 
Ijeen, it is certain that the founders of the Chieftain soon tired of the field in 
which they had cast their lot and within si.x months had turned over the paper, 
its paraphernalia, hereditaments, hazards and emoluments to Al. and George 
Bincklcy. who continued the paper for two years, as a democratic organ, when 
W. P. Gill bought the outfit. Mr. Gill took in with him J. T. Place, who was 
assisted in the editorial department for a time by Livingston G. Parker. Finally 
Gill failed and sold his material to G. X. Udell, who published the paper from 
January, 1863, till some time in 1864, when David L. Strickler secured all that 
was left of the plant and the Chieftain became the Loyal Citizen. 


The Citizen is the only daily pajier published in Centerville or Appanoose 
'lunty. While the daily edition has been issued only eighteen years, the Weekly 
I itizen, which was merged with it a number of years ago, was one of the pioneers, 
and the Citizen can therefore claim to be the oldest paper in the county. This 
paper also enjoys the distinction of having been the first to install linotype 
machines, of which it has two, and to install electrical power and a Webb per- 
fecting press. The plant stands today modernly e<|uip|)ed, with facilities which 
even larger cities do not always afford for the rapid jirinting and dissemination 
of the current news of the day. 

This paper was first known as The Loyal Citizen, having been started by 
the late Uavid L. Strickler, in iiSri4. one of the critical ])criods of the nation's 
history, to champion the cause of the Union and the republican party. .After 
mer^iing with it the Chieftain, founded in 1857, Mr. Strickler sold it to the late 
Lieutenant Governor Matthew M. Walden, a veteran of Company D, Sixth Iowa 
Infantry, and the Union having been preserved by the is.sue of the Civil war, 
the word "Loyal" was drop[)ed, and Governor Walden continued the publication 
of the paper until 1874, when it became the property of W. O. Crosby & Com- 
pany, who had in the same year started the Centerville Times, so that the two 
publications were merged. Always aggressive and indejiendent. the Citizen had 
been a potent factor in the life and politics of city and countv, and had its 


financial iqis and downs. In 1886 wlien llic present owner, George W. Xeedels. 
took the jiroperty, it had ixcn under several managements but was not on a 
paying basis. Mr. Xeedels soon put it on a sound financial footing and has since 
kept it so. 

\arious attempts were made to establish daily newspapers in Centerville but 
none succeeded until December 22, i>S94, Mr. Xeedels associated with himself 
Jo R. Day. in the publication of The Daily Citizen. Mr. Day was the first editor 
and Charles D. Reimers was assistant. Later. Mr. Day retired and Mr. Reimers 
became editor and business manager. The early years were a struggle for self- 
preservation l)Ut slowly and surely the new enterprise was built up. L'nlike the 
weekly cditiitii, the daily was started as independent in politics but, in 1896, when 
the soundness of the nation's money was threatened, a stand was taken for repub- 
lican princi])!cs and never since has the paper wavered in the support of the 
party of its choice. In 1898 J. K. Huston succeeded Mr. Reimers as a ijartner 
in the business and the paper attained much prestige and the business grew to 
large proportions. Mr. Huston went west two years ago, severing his connec- 
tion w ith the i>aper and taking a position as advertising manager of the Pasadena 
X^ews. Several years ago the weekly edition was dropped and the energy of 
the publishers concentrated on the daily, the influence of which on the life and 
progress of the city has been potent. For the past two years Mr. Xeedels has 
been sole owner and proprietor and his son, Otis C. Xeedels. has been in active 
charge as editor and business manager. 

While the Citizen has tried to be .safe and sanely conservative, nevertheless 
it has been found advocating the newer ideas in politics, whenever it has felt 
that they were good and that the needs of the times demanded their adoption. 
Its rule is the familiar adage. "Be not the first to lay the old aside, nor yet the 
first by which the new is tried." So conserving the time-tried principles of the 
past and applying the test of good common sense reasoning to the solution of 
the problems of the troublous present, it looks forward to the new age with hope 
and confidence. 


The first ettort to establish a democratic newspajier was by John (iharkey. 
who came to Centerville in the spring of 1865 with the material of the Fayette 
County Pioneer, a paper he had established in 1853. John was an eccentric 
newspai)er man and his politics during the war did not fit the community in 
which he lived, though he had one gleam of good luck. May 25, 1863. Seven 
returned soldiers broke into his office that night, pied a lot of type and injured 
his press. The next afternoon the angry democracy of Fayette county held a 
meeting at the courthouse in ^^'est Union, which lasted until late in the evening. 
Resolutions denunciatory of the lawless act were adopted and a big contribu- 
tion made to repair the damage, and said one who attended, "I never saw money 
offered so freely in my life." But Gharkey found, after nearly two years, that 
he could not maintain his "grip" in Fayette county and so came to Centerville. 
His pajicr was called the South Iowa Times and was continued nearly a year, 
when he removed to Memphis, Missouri. The Centerville Clipper was estab- 
lished in 1S70 by the Hickman Brothers, who continuetl its publication about a 
year, when thev sold to a Mr. Holcomb. in whose hands it suspended toward the 


end of 1872. In 1874 H. S. Ehrman restored the paper to life and continued its 
publication rjuite successfully until 1877. when he sold to S. L. Harvey, who 
changed the heading of the paper to the Journal, and which, by the peculiar 
mutations of politics now is in the enjoyment of a fine business. 

In January, 1892. the property passed into the hands of P. G. Swigart, of 
Chicago, who in August of the same year relin(|uished control of it to f. W. 
and D. H. Rinehart, who, under the tinii name of Rineliart Brothers, conducted 
the publication of the Journal until .\ugust. 191 1. They then transferred the 
jiroperty to Xoah Ressler & Son, who, in October of the same year, disposed of 
the property to its present publishers, Walter H. Dewey and William K. Currie. 
the latter having charge of the business and editorial interests of the Journal, the 
former making his home in Chariton, Iowa, where he is engaged in other pursuits. 

The Journal has been a democratic paper from its establishment, and under 
the editorship of Mr. Currie it has met great favor among democrats of .\p])a- 
noose county, although not without its critics. Indeed, its editor seems to think 
he would have made a complete failure if he had made for his publication all 
friends and no enemies. 

Tlir. lOWECI.VN 

The early history of The lowegian can l)e best told ijy the one who saw it 
come into existence and nurtured it through that trying period in the life of a 
newspaper when it is attaining circulation and influence and develoi)ing business 
l)atronage. Charles E. \'rooman. now occupying a responsible government posi- 
tion at Washington, D. C. furnishes the following data : 

"The material for The lowegian was shipped to Centci\ illc from Lancaster, 
Missouri, where it was previously used in publishing the Peoples -Sentinel — a 
greenback paper. It was moved in .March, 1883. The lirst issue of the paper 
was April 7. 1883, and it was named by my wife. Mrs. Julia F. Wooman, who 
was associate editor. The Industrial lowegian. The name was afterwards changed 
to The Apjianoose lowegian. It was a straight greenback and labor [japcr. 

"The lowegian hung out a sign which was a large square, two-inch board. 
2x3 feet, hung on a frame, on one side of which was painted a bee hive and on 
the other an anvil, with the arm of a muscular man, in whose hand was a sledge 
hanmier. The office was first located over D. M. Preazeale's store on the south 
ide of the i)ublic s(|uare, near Henry Goss's shoe store: the material proper 
insisted of a Washington hand jjress, a Golding jobber, and such other para- 
l)hernalia as would go with such an outfit. I paid $1,500 all told fnr the material 
which was all new and bought in St. Louis. The office, composing and ware- 
rooms were in the second story, while the jobber was in the wareroom of the 
~ii>re. I was the sole owner and proprietor. No other human being outside of my 
wife had a dollar in it. it was by the solicitation of Messrs. George D. Porter, 
O. H. Law. John C. Caldwell, W. 11. ^'oung, ".-\rchie" Thompson, J. J. Wall, 
ud several other leading sjiirits, whose names I do not now recall, that the 
lowegian was established in Centerville as a straight greenback and labor paper, 
and it always |>ursued the course, and was never anything else, imtil the fall of 
1*^84. when it was deserted by its so-called friends, who thought more of office 
and fusion than they did of principle. Then it became a rei)ublican paiier, but 
never forsnnk the principles .nid U'licl-; wliiih i^.-ivi- ii biilb — '■'i'lic l-'.-illu'rhnnd 

Vol. I— 2I> 


of God and the l)iotlicrhood of man." Jn the month of May, 1884, Mr. Brea- 
zeale sold out the stock of goods and fixtures situate in the storeroom below, and 
when removed the walls were so weakened that on the first Sunday in June (by 
reason of the heavy weight above) the walls collapsed, the second story went 
down, and did not stop till the office material, brick, mortar, and all, found the 
bottom of the cellar. This collapse occurred about 3 p. m. of that day. After 
we had surveyed the wreck of the office and taken "account of stock," we imme- 
diately, the next morning, telegraphed to Messrs. Schneidwend & Lee, of Chicago, 
to send a man out to help extricate all that was left of the greenback party. The 
man came. In a few hours we had made a deal by which they took the wreck 
off my hands, and sent me an entire new outfit, including a Campbell power 
press, which was run by hand. When the new material came ( we did not go 
back there any more) it was installed in the basement of the Bradley National 
Bank, on the north side of the square, where the lowegian was located for some 
two years or more. In our extremity and misfortune we were and I am now, 
indebted to S. L. Harvey, editor and publisher of the Journal, for courtesies and 
the use of material in the publication of the lowegian. By reason of the kind- 
ness of ]Mr. Harvey the lowegian, in limited size, came out without a break in 
any volume. 

"Successfully I turned the tide of opposition and disaster. The lowegian 
pushed forward till the fall, at which time it performed a feat unknown to 
journalism in Iowa or anywhere else. The editor and publisher entered into a 
contract with Chairman Wolfe, of the republican state central committee, to 
publish, mail, and circulate from the Centerville office to all parts of the state, a 
list furnished by the committee and certified to by Colonel E. C. Haynes, post- 
master, 72,000 copies of the lowegian, or 12,000 each week for six weeks, be- 
sides our own local edition for the same time — 84,000 copies in all — and this 
done on a Campljell power press turned by hand, four men, each turning fifteen 
minutes at a time, in all twelve people in the office. Not an article or an editorial 
was written or furnished or even suggested by any one except the editor and his 
wife, the only stipulation being that I should follow my own lines in publishing 
a straight greenback paper. Just as soon, as this contract was completed the 
lowegian became a republican paper, which course it has pursued now for 
twenty-eight years. 

"The lowegian, by reason of having the largest circulation, exceeding that of 
either the Citizen or Journal — received the county printing, shutting out the 
Citizen entirely. In the year 1886 or 1887, the lowegian removed from the bank 
building to the Wooden store, northwest corner of the square, where it remained 
as the Apiianoose County lowegian till the writer hereof sold the same to J. C. 
Barrows in June, 1889. 

"From the time of its first publication I had associated with me as foreman 
of the mechanical department. Grant Potter, who came with me from Missouri. 
John Steel, M. II. Louther, and M. L. Ilensley, until J. C. Barrows associated 
with me, in the jnihlication of the lowegian, and mechanical work, but not as 
owner or proprietor. In less than eight years the lowegian grew from noth- 
ing, in material, circulation and influence ; from a greenback-labor paper, to a 
stanch, influential, useful and powerful republican party journal, with the largest 
circulation of any in the county. The editor and proprietor thereof being a 


lawyer and not a journalist, disposed of the same to J. C. Barrows, returning to 
his profession until called to Washington to take the position of chief clerk in 
the department of justice under Attorney General Miller, President Harrison's 
administration, September, 1890." 

Taking up the narrative of the history of the lowcgian from the time where 
Mr. \'rooman leaves off. it can be said that the paper has continued to enjoy a 
prosperous and influential career. J. C. Barrows later became associated with his 
son. Earl Barrows, in the jnihlication of the paper. During their proprietorship 
the movement in the republican party along "progressive"' lines began to assert 
itself and the paper allied itself editorially with the movement. In February, 
1903. Barrows & Son sold the paper to J. M. Beck and J. R, Needham, the present 
proprietors. Mr. Barrows became interested in Texas real-estate investments 
and now spends most of his time in that state. The son continued in a line of 
newspaper work, being successful in buying plants that were in need of some 
new life and improvement and after putting them on their feet making profitable 

The present proprietors of the lowegian, Beck & Needham, took possession 
on March i, 1903. J. M. Beck became the editor. He had had previous news- 
paper experience as managing editor of the Muscatine Journal, then a daily of 
4,000 circulation. J, R. Needham became manager. He, too. had had news- 
I)aper experience, being of a family of newspaper people. His father, Wm. H. 
Needham, has been proprietor of the Keokuk County News, at Sigourney, for 
many years. The oldest brother, Charles K,, was until recently owner of the 
Washington Press, and is now owner of the Montezuma Republican. Sherman 
W., a younger brother, is manager and editor of the Sigourney News after the 
elder Mr. Needham was retired from active newspaper work. The youngest 
<:on. Will, has a position on the Los Angeles Herald. 

Lnder the management of Beck & Needham the business has been conducted 
under the name of The lowegian Printing Company. The paper has grown in 
circulation till it now has a list of 3.600, of which fully 3.000 are in the county. 
!t has become a very popular advertising medium. .-K job work department is 
inducted. .\ linotype machine has been installed and other modern machinery. 
1 he (|uarters becoming too small in the building owned by J. C, Barrows on the 
east side of the S(|uare the office was moved in 1905 to the building now owned 
by Dr, H. W. I'.lachley. on Main street, between the square and postoffice. 
There it occujjies the entire upper floor, 40x80 feet. 

Editorially, under the i)resent management, the paper is a stalwart republican 
in its policy, standing loyally by the party, believing that it is the partv to solve 
present day problems just as well as it has solved them in the past, and having 
a future that will redound to its credit and to the country's honor. It stands 
for clean local government, for suppression of the li(|Uor traffic, and for those 
things that elevate the life of the community. 


The Ccnttrville Weekly Sun was established February 17, 191 1. In politics 
it is neutral. T. W. Killion is the editor and pro|irietor and has suciccded in 


building ii]> an envialile circulation. In fact on account of its large circulation, 
it is one of the official papers of Appanoose county. It is issued every Friday. 


This paper was started in 1870, by J. C King, who continued its iniblication 
about three years, when he sold it to lulwards i^ Porter. At the ex|)iration of 
a year the pa])er was in the hands of a Mr. Bolster and after running it about a 
year he transferred his interest to Post Atkinson. The jjajjer continued in a 
precarious condition until 1877, when the outfit was jjacked in boxes and 
shi])pcd to Kansas. 


The Moulton Tribune was established about 1884. by William D. Powell, 
who looked after the destinies of the ])ublication for some time, sold the plant 
to W. I'latt Smith and then going to Glenwood. Missouri, started The Criterion 
at that place. After Smith had tired of running a news])a]jer. he sold the Tribune 
to John Craig who, in li^'fi, sold to Robert R. Wilson, the i)resent editor and 
proprietor, who prints a six-column (juarto paper that is well patronized. The 
Tribune is now in its twenty-ninth year and its makeup and well-edited columns 
are evidences of the fitness of Mr. Wilson for the enviable place he occupies 
in the community and Ajipanoose newspajicrdom. 


The Moulton Semi- Weekly Sun was established by T. W. Killion. March i, 
1898, and has continued at that i^lace until T'ebruary, 191 1, when it was moved 
to Centerville, where it is still published as a weekly and now has a circulation 
of over 1.500. It was democratic in politics until it was moved to Centerville, 
when it became neutral, iJolilically. In 1906 an office was built at Moulton by the 
proprietor and this was burned in lyio. The publication became quite prominent 
in newspaper circles and is often quoted by the city pajiers. Although beini; 
established as a second pajier in a town that was only large enough for one, it 
soon took the lead and the office has acquired a wide fame for neat and correct 
job printing. 


Perhaps the first paper published at Cincinnati was the Cincinnati Local. 
An attempt was made in 1877 to found a newspaper in that old and flourishing 
little village. One W. W. Varham. in the year above mentioned, secured the 
interests of a number of the citizens, who paid in advance for a year's subscriji- 
tion and then joined in making a "jackpot" of $75, with which Yarham purchased 
a i)lant ( ?) and soon gave to the waiting and eager world a new i>urveyor of 
local and current events. It is said the sheet was quite creditable in ap])earance 
But the field at that time was too limited for Mr. Yarham's ambitions and 
after he had circulated a few issues he concluded the "game was not worth the 




handle," and unceremoniously departed for other scenes of activity. The paper 
died, for want of the i)roper sustenance, after having been printed at the office 
of the Mouhon Tribune a few weeks. 


'Ihe Review was founded by W. A. Martin and his son. D. R. Mariin. under 
the firm name of -Martin & Son. in 1892. They conducted the paper but a short 
time and then, on July iS. 1893. the present editor and pubhsher. John II. Mav, 
purchased the plant and has made of it a success. His paper is "clean." both 
from the printer's standard and that of a high-toned community, and it is well 
patronized. In make-up the Review is a five-column quarto, patent inside, and 
is published weekly. .Mthouijli independent in politics the paper has a republican 


The Messenger was established by John H. May. on the 3d day of May. 1907, 
and until May, 191 1. it was published at the plant of the Review. Since that 
time the Messenger has had an office of its own at Exline and has been printed 
ere. The paper is a five-column folio and non-partisan. 


The Union is the local paper published at Moravia, but when the paper was 
-tablished could not be ascertained by the writer. It is known, however, that 
I. II. Allred was engage<l in newspaper work at tiiis place and was connected 
with the Union. The present editor and proprietor. C. E. Nieukirk, i)urchased 
the i)lant of Allred in February. 1912. after ^Ir. Allred had owned it eight years. 
The Union has a good patronage and bids fair to attain continued prosperity. The 
Weekly Messenger, however, was published at Moravia as early as 1869, 
by one Savacool, who did not remain long. At one time and for about four 
years, the paper was edited by Captain E. Cummins. 

f.NKlNV II. I, K t IIKii.N |( 1,1-; 

While Unionville has not had a newspaper plant it has enjoyed the felicity 
ui being sponsor for a ncwsi)ai>er which bore the title of the Unionville Chronicle, 
which was established by John K. Wilson. The paper for a while was printed 
at Moulton and then at Cenlervillc. It was discontinued in 1908. 


Mystic is the newest little city in .\p]ianoose county and has had a wonderful 
growth. In 1886 the town site was devoted to farming, but now it is a nourish- 
ing tratling point of 3,000 inhabitants and nicely supports the Telegram, which 


was founded in 1906 by W. C. Raymond. Mr. Raymond only stayed with the 
Messenger about six months and then sold his enterprise to Roy Godsey. The 
latter disposed of the plant within three months after its purchase to the present 
owner and proprietor, A. R. Scott, who devotes his attention to giving a large 
clientele a newsy and popular little paper, that is published weekly. The Mes- 
senger is a six-column folio and progressive in politics. 







The history of Centcrville is practically that of the township, as the first 
settlers of Center located near the present site of the county seat, which was given 
the name of Chaltlea. 

George W. Perkins was probably the first one to make this township his 
home. Me located near the future city in 1841 and made preparations to start 
a nursery. Mr. Perkins, as will be seen quite frequently in these pages, was a 
man of great activity and managerial ability. He was often called upon to take 
part in starting the machinery of the new county government, was chairman of 
the first board of county commissioners and the first postmaster of Centerville, 
or Chaldea, as the county seat was then called and, when the name of the office 
was changed to Centerville in 1847, he was reappointed to the postmastership. 
The Masons also settled close to the county seat, coming from Lee county in 1844, 
with their families. 

The first store oi)ened for business in the township and in fact the first in the 
county, was that of Spencer F. W'adlington, a sketch of whom will be found in 
the chapter devoted to pioneers. Mr. W'adlington located near the site of the 
city, to the northeast; put up a crude log cabin, in which he placed a small stock 
of merchandise. Having no wife or family, he also slept and cooked his meals 
in the building. 

The seat of government of Appanoose county was named Chaldea and was 
located on the northeast quarter of section 36, being established in October, 
1846, by the board of commissioners. The public square lies in the southwest 
part of the plat, and is one of the largest in the state. The survc\- the work 
of J. I*". Stratton and was completed in the winter of 1846-7. 

The first building erected in the village of Chaldea was a ca!)in l;y James 
Wright, early in 1847. and soon after, Spencer W'adlington moved his cabin to 
the town and placed it on the lot now the site of the W^ooden Bank, on the 
corner of West State and Twelfth streets. In this cabin was held the first term 
• ■f the district court. 

James Hughes was the first blacksmith in the town. He arrived here in 
the summer of 1847, selected a lot and built a smithy. The little settlement was 



slow in its gniwtli tlie first two or three years. In the winter of 1848, there 
were all told the following peojjle in the county seat: Spencer F. W'adlington, 
merchant; Thomas Cochran, a merchant, and his family; James Hughes and 
David Beeler, blacksmiths; E. A. Packard and family, hotel; Benjamin Spooner, 
farmer and family; James J. Jackson, carpenter; C. H. Howell, merchant. Liv- 
ing near the town and iiractically citizens were George W. Perkins and family, 
William S. and Thomas G. Manson and families, J. F. Stratton and A. Pewthers. 
As has been stated heretofore, George W. Perkins was the first postmaster and 
Benjamin Swearingen, still living in Centerville, carried the mail on horseback 
to and from Keosauqua once a week. 

Joseph (ioss, still living in Centerville, became one of its early citizens in 1855. 
After accumulating a little cajjilal he opened a small boot and shoe store. In 
1881 he engaged in the hardware business and for some years past has been 
proprietor of the Goss foundry. 

Elisha Sawyer, with his family, came to Iowa in 1850 and for a while kept 
a hotel in Centerville and later one at Unionville. He lived to the e.xtreme old 
age of ninety-five \ears. dying at Unionville in 1901. He was the father of sev- 
eral children, among them being Sylvester Hartwell Sawyers, wdio became famous 
as a physician and the father of two physicians who are residents of Centerville. 

In 1S30 Jeremiah Brower moved with his family from Missouri to Center- 
ville, where he practiced medicine three years, after which he moved to Wavne 
county. With them at the time was a son. Chancellor J. Brower, who was fif- 
teen years of age. 

Calvin R. Jackson left Indiana in 1848 with his mother, his wife and sister 
and two children, and came to Iowa, first locating in Henry county. In 1854 he 
arrived in Appanoose and settled on a farm three miles south of Centerville, 
remaining there one year, after which he removed to Jerome. 

Dr. Henry Hakes was a resident of Centerville as early as 1854. He con- 
ducted a drug store on the west side of the sf|uarc. In 1865 he moved to a farm 
southwest of Centerville, where he resided until his death in 1885. 

William Barton .McDonald, who married Lucinda Dale, removed from Indi- 
ana to Iowa in 1855 and settled on a farm of three hundred and seventy-six 
acres, three miles northeast of Centerville. In 1902 he retired to Centerville. 

William Miller McCreary. a native of the Old Dominion, came to Iowa in the 
year 1856 and located at Centerville. then a rapidly growing little trading point. 
He clerked in William Bradley's store for the first two years and at other i)eriods. 
After the war he entered the emjiloy of I'rancis M. Drake and e\entuall\- engaged 
in the drug business. 

D. M. 'l"h(»ni])son immigrated from Indiana in 1847 '*"•' settled in .Kijpanoose 

Cyrus G. W enlworih, brick manufacturer, located in Center township in 
1856. He had the only brick yard in Centerville for many years. 

S. W. Wright took up his residence in Centerville in 1856 and engaged in 
the drug business. 

Jacob Shaw came to Appanoose county with his father, Jacob S. Siiaw, in 
1856 and located near Centerville, where the elder Shaw engaged in brick-mak- 
ing. He was killed at a coal shaft in 1872. S. W. Shaw was another son. 


In the year 1S57 Jolin A. Talbot, a native of Delaware, settled in this town- 
ship, engaged in farming, also milling and mining. 

J. G. Brough removed to this county from Ohio in 1852 and settled four miles 
west of Centerville. The father died in 1S53. .Mr. Brough learned his trade of 
tanner under J. W. Williams, at Centerville, and then went into business for him- 
self at Dean. 

Moses Mcrritt, a native of Wayne county, Indiana, located in Centerville in 
the fall of 1858 and opened a general store. 

T. II. Morris settled in this county in 1849. A veteran of the Civil war, he 
lost a leg in battle. He was recorder of .Vpiianoose county at one time. 

X. M. Scott located in the county in 1853. He was a veteran of the Civil war 
and clerk of the courts. 

Robert Henderson, with his parents. William S. and Sarah (Miller) Hender- 
son, left Indiana in the year 1849 and immigrated to the state of Iowa. In 1850 
the family settled in Centerville, where \V. S. Henderson engaged in black- 
smithing several years. In 1870 he was marshal of Centerville and was elected 
mayor of the city in 1884. He was his own successor in the office the following 

(]. Ci. .\shby. son of Daniel C. and Xancy .Vshby, removed from Indiana to 
Iowa with his parents in 1837. The location selected was near Centerville. Mr. 
Ashby was a Civil war veteran. In 1885 he was elected county superintendent of 

Thomas O. Wilson became a contractor and builder at Centerville. lie was 
a native of \irginia. In 1856 Mr. Wilson removed from Ohio to Iowa and located 
at Centerville, where he followed his trade of cabinet-making and eventually 
drifted into contracting and building. 

James R. Wooden, a native of Indiana, learned the craft of harness-making 
when a young man. He arrived in Centerville with his family in the fall of 1856, 
where he engaged in general merchandising. I^-iter .Mr. Wooden became prom- 
inent in local banking circles. The Wooden bank is well known, of which Charles 
Wooden, a son, is cashier. .Another son, .\. I". Wooden, is a clothing merchant 
at the county seat. 

James S. Hamilton came to .Appanoose county from Indiana in 1852, when 
nineteen years of age, and entered one hundred and twenty acres of land in the 
vicinity of Centerville. This place later became known as the Coon Hollingsworth 
farm. In 1858, Mr. Hamilton sold the farm and bought land on which he moved, 
part of which became a part of the site of Centerville. He also engaged in the 
sale of farm im]jlements at the county seat for some time. 

Moses Merritt and Lucy Ann, his wife, settled in Centerville in 1857. where 
he engaged in general merchandising with Caleb Wenlworth, under the firm 
name of Wcntworth & .Merritt. In 1886 he was deputy county auditor under his 
son, James Merritt. 

John I.ankford. still hale and hearty at the age of eighty-five years, came to 
Centerville in 1850, where he carried on the trade of cabinet making until 1865, 
at which time he opened a furniture establishment and has been a dealer in that 
line to the iiresent day. 

Fdecta Howell, widow of Henry It. Howell, left the state of .\ew York in 
1855 and took up her residence in Centerville with her son, Charles H. Howell, 


who liad been here since 1847. That year .Mr. llowell erected a log store build- 
ing and remained there in general merchandising for the following three years. 
He subsequently put up a large building to meet the demands of increasing trade 
and in 1856 a larger building took its place. Mr. Howell was one of the active 
and important men of the town. He speculated in real estate, helped organize 
the First .National Bank and was its vice president for a number of years. He 
was active in securing railroads for the community and was a prominent mem- 
ber and elder of the First I'resbyterian church. 

The citizens of Centerville welcomed to their thriving town in 1855 Jacob 
Knapp, who began the manufacture of boots and shoes. He formed a partner- 
ship with Warren Allen, the firm being known as Knapp & Allen. Mr. Knapp 
sold his interest in 1858 and took up farming in Walnut township, where he 
devoted most of the time to the breeding and raising of full-blooded draft horses. 

Jacob Rummel was clerking in a store in Centerville in 1856. The ne.xt year 
he formed a partnership with William Clark and engaged in the sale of mer- . 
chandise. By i860 the firm name was Rummel & Bashore. He served a term 
as county clerk. 

Calvin Finley Spooner came to Iowa with his parents, Benjamin and Martha 
(Ware) Spooner, in the spring of 1845. The claim which the family improved 
is part of the original plat of Centerville. In 1846 Calvin F. Spooner took up a 
claim near his father's, which is also a part of the site of Centerville. He was 
the first coroner of the county and one of the early sheriffs. 

Dexter A. Spooner came to Centerville with his parents in 1845, being at 
the time thirteen years of age. He clerked in his father's store until 1856, when 
he established the first stage line of the village and carried the first inail to Clar- 
inda. He sold out to the Western Stage Company in 1859. 

M. L. Ware came to Appanoose county with his father in 1851. He enlisted 
in the Civil war in July, 1861. He married Miss M. J. Hamilton, daughter of A. 
H. Hamilton, in 1863, and then settled in Centerville. 

Benjamin Swearingen, still living in Centerville, came here in the early '40s, 
and, it is said was one of the first mail carriers in the county. 

In 1855 and less than a decade after the county had been organized, Center- 
ville was incorporated and had within her borders almost one thousand inhabi- 
tants by the year 1857, when the first newspaper in the county was established. 
That wielder and molder of public opinion. The Chieftain, was well patronized 
by the business and professional men of the bustling and growing little trading 
point and its issue of May 18, 1858, saved through the methodical system of J. 
W. Williams, a pioneer business man of Centerville, shows many interesting 
things in its columns. The chief value of this copy of The Chieftain lies in the 
fact that it was published during the infancy of the county and its chief city ; and 
also that it gives to the present generation a view of the county seat and its busi- 
ness men, when the town was in its callow' youth, so to speak, and just beginning 
to show its importance. 

The professional men living in Centerville in 1858 and using the columns of 
The Chieftain to draw patrons to their offices were Dr. Franklin Eells, whose 
office was in the Oldham House, one of the pioneer caravansaries of the village. 
There was also Dr. Hugh McCoy, who appears before the public in the follow- 
ing card : 

Shawvillo Mine Ontorxillo, l^nnkiiiK Sontlifast 

North Main Street South Kinhleeiith Street 

West Siile of Sr^nare fVnIerville. Looking Northeast 




"T am now prepared to attend upon you wlicn afflicted by Ulie hand of disease'. 
Wishing to return thanks for years of hberal patronage, 1 shall take this mode of 
so doing; at the same time I would respectfully solicit further favors and all 
may rest assured I will attend them myself as I have no partner, neither do I 
desire one, believing that hereafter I shall be able to attend all calls pertaining 
to my profession." 

Dr. William Sayres advertised himself as a practicing physician and surgeon 
of Cincinnati. 

Among the legal profession whose cards appeared in The Chieftain were If. 
P. Welsh, oflfice on east side of the puljlic S(|uare; Tannehill & Cunimings, west 
side of the public square; and Harris & (ialbraith. 

Of merchants, there were several who advertised in detail their wares for sale. 
R. N. Glenn'? drug store was claimed to be the best place for drugs, and "pat- 
ent medicines warranted genuine." north side of the public square, at the old 
stand of Wright & Glenn. Arthur Allen, successor to K. Allen, advertised drugs 
and "many articles to be found in grocery establishments." Those calling atten- 
tion to their stocks of merchandise at this period were : 

W. Bradley, with a "$30,000 stock of fall and winter goods." Among other 
things for which P.radley otTered the cash was 10,000 head of hogs, 3,000 bushels 
of potatoes, 1,000 bushels of white beans, 3,000 bushels of wheat and 1,000 green 
or dried hides. The store was on the west side of the public square. The 
"Regulator" claimed to be the friend of the people in giving those seeking bar- 
gains in dry goods, boots, shoes, etc., "prices to suit the hard times." This estab- 
lishment belonged to William Wittenmyer. C. H. Howell also kept a general 
store in 1858. His son, Frederick, has been for some years past one of the lead- 
ing members of the Appanoose bar. The firm of Clark & Rummel offered a 
"choice stock of spring and summer goods, exclusively for cash or ready pay." 

Thomas O. Wilson, cabinet maker, appears in a card, which apprised the com- 
munity that as soon as he could secure properly seasoned lumber he would be 
enabled to furnish his patrons with anything in the line of furniture and, "hav- 
ing on hand well-seasoned timber suitable for coffins, I will be at all times pre- 
pared to furnish them at the most reasonable rates and on the shortest notice." 

The Tremont House assured the traveling public good accommodations at 
reasonable rates. This hostelry was on the west side of the public square and was 
conducted by S. Walker. 

The advertisement of the Oldham House shows the condition of things: 


George Oldham, Proprietor 

North Side Public Sr|uarc, 

Centervillc, Iowa. 

Stages leave this House daily for the East and West. No pains will be 
spared to make those favoring him with a Call Comfortable. All information 
Cheerfully given to Travellers, in regard to different routes. 


Attached ti; this establishniciU will Ijc found a Large and 


and an abundance of the l)est heed, w ith careful and attentive Ostlers. 


The Jlighest .Market Price I'aid iur All Kinds of Provisions. 

Dec. 12, 1857. 3--ly-" 

D. L. Strickler was the pioneer i)hologra|iher. His gallery was over Bradley's 
store and he cordially invited ladies and gentlemen to visit the studio and exam- 
ine his work, which he declared to lie in the greatest degree of perfection: "1st, 
the plain ambrotype ; 2nd, the colored anibrotype ; 3d, the Melaneotype ; 4th, the 
Parchment I'hotograjjh or Patent Leather Pictures; 5th, my Sphereotypes, the 
Excelsior of the .Art." 

In this issue of The Chieftain, George Oldham displays a desire to sell his 
hotel and other possessions; Strickler & .Martin inform the public they are sell- 
ing harness and will take in e.\change for repair work pork, hides and steers' 
hair. There are a number of legal and estray notices. .Atiiong the former appears 
the following: Notice to G. AL liinkle and .Albert Howell, foreclosure; Carter & 
Sales vs. Thomas Alalone, attachment notice; William C. .McLean vs. John and 
Lucretia Hargrove, foreclosure. .Administrators' notices ; David Groom appointed 
administrator of the estate of Peter Groom, deceased ; 1 lumphries Roberts, of the 
estate of George Davis, deceased. 

The estray notices w'ill indicate in a measure the jjrice of cattle and horses in 
1858: "On the 31st of December, 1857, two light bay mares, described as follows, 
to-wit: One supposed to be five or six years old, both fore feet and the right 
hind foot white and a white spot in the forehead, and has some collar marks on 
both sides of her neck — 13 or 14 hands high, pony made; appraised at si.xty dol- 
lars. The other is 13 or 14 hands high, pony made; both hind feet and right fore 
foot white, has a blaze face ; appraised at forty-five dollars by G. W . \\ ise and 
John Lankford, on the order of H. P. Welsh, justice of the peace." 

"Taken up by Thomas Lee, of Clinton township, Wayne county, Iowa, on 
the 2ist day of December, 1857, Four Steers as follows: One Red Steer 4 years 
old. with a crop oiT each ear, and the bush of his tail ofY; One Black Steer, 3 
years old, with a crop off each ear and an under bit in the left ; One White Steer, 
2 years old, with a crop off the left ear and a slit in the right ear ; One a red and 
white pied Steer, 2 years old, with a croj) off the left ear and a slit in the right; 
appraised at eighty-five dollars, by W. IL .Adams and Randolph E. Williams, 
before Elias Jennings, justice of the peace." 

In the '50s many of the settlers spun the wool and wove the cloth that entered 
into the family's clothing. To meet the demand Charles P.lasburg ajiprised the 
community of his business in the following card: 


".At Centerville, .Appanoose Co., Iowa. The sub.scriber having moved his 
Carding Alachine from l'>entons])ort. and ])ermanently located at the Elouring 
Mill of Talbott (S: Potts, in Centerville. is ])repared to card all kinds of clean 


Wool in the very best style; and solicits a share of public patronage. He flatters 
himself that by strict attention to business, being a practical workman, he can 
give general satisfaction. 

'•.As he expects to run night and day. persons staying over night can generally 
get their work to go home." 

The reference made in the above card to •staying over night." will be appre- 
ciated by those still living, who. at the time Houring mills were scarce in the 
county, would be compelled to go many miles with their grist and finding others 
ahead of them at the mill, were compelled to wait their turn, which in many 
instances meant a stay •'over night." or from one to two and three days. 


In January. 1855, a ])etition was presented to Judge Amos Harris, praying 
that the question of incorporating the town of Centerville be submitted to a vote 
nf the citizens, which was granted, and on Fel)ruary 26, 1855, an election was 
held, the judges being 'Scjuire liates, John Snell and John Potts; clerks, J. G. 
Brown and J. F. Stratton. The project carried and, nn the 12th of .March. 1855. 
the electors chose G. W. Wise, W. S. IJenderson. 1). I'. .Sparks, J. G. I5rown and 
William Clark a committee to ])repare a charter, which was submitted to the 
electors and ratified by their votes on March 26, 1855. Soon thereafter an elec- 
tion was held under the charter and officers chosen, but the records of this elec- 
tion and the minute book of the tirst officers of the town are lost and probably 
will never be found. 

On October i, 1857, the charter of 1855 was vacated and a .sjjecial charter was 
adojjted. under the provisions of Chapter 100. Acts of the .Sixth General A.ssem- 

l-rom 1S57 on to 1870. the Inwn of Centerville exi)cricnced many up> and 
downs in the administration of its public affairs. IJuring the Civil war. from 
April 14. 18/.2. to the spring of 1863. no records of the town were made and no 
officers elected, and it is presumed the affairs of the town were carried on under 
township administration. The county judge ordered an election of town officers 
in .April. 1865. and Centerville was under the administration of its local officers 
until October, 1868. when the cor])oration again fell under the rule of the town- 
ship, and remained, strange to relate, in this condition, until its incorporation as 
a city of the .secon<I class in April, 1870, at which time the following officials were 
elected: Mayor, E. C. Ilaynes; trustees. T. M. J^'ee, .\nios Harris, H. .S. Gilliam, 
< . W. I'.owen, .\. Richards; recorder. M. S. Moyks; treasurer, .M. I.. I'.ovles; citv 
engineer, Henry Shaw; marshal, John Wilmingtim. 

In 1857, when the new charter had taken the place of the first one. C. Wcnt- 

worth was elected mayor; S. W . Wright, recorder; O. \\ Sparks. .\. Perjue, 

\nios Harris. C. 11. Howell, J. Knapi>. and J. J.ankford were elected to the 

iiincil. Ordinances were jiassed. and chief ;imi«ng them was an iron clad law 

lative tri the lif|uor traffic. 

i-rom 1838 Centerville coniiiuKd to grow. In 184(1, when the town was 

irted, there were two inhabitants; in 1848, there were 49; by the year 1834 the 

number had increased to 2f<Ti; in i8f)0 there were 820; in 1870, 1,037; bv the 

year 1880 the population had grown to 2.473; '" ''^X) the number of peo|)le here 

had grown to 3. 23*1; the cen.sus of icjoo showe<l 3.23(1. and that of 1910 indicates 

population of 7.000. 


The count)' judge made no record of the firsf election held in Centerville for 
municipal officers, a grievous oversight or piece of negligence. Thjs precludes 
the giving of a list of city officials until the year 1857. It is known, however, that 
Spencer F. Wadliiigton was the first mayor. iM-om that time on the record is 
clear and the names of the chief executives and recorders follow: 

1857-8— Mayor, C. W'cntworth ; recorder, S. W. Wright. 
1858-9— Mayor, A. L. M. Martin; recorder, James Ewing. 
1859-60 — Mayor, J. 15. P.eall ; recorder, C. Wentworth. 
1860-1— Mayor, .S. Wadlington; recorder, O. P. Stafford. 
1861-2— Mayor, W. H. Alexander; recorder, O. P. Stafford. 

1862 .Mayor, J. W. Huston; recorder, Willard Truax. 

1865-6 — Mayor, O. W. Barden ; recorder, William Morret. 
1866-7— Mayor, ^- C- Haynes, resigned; M. P.evington ; recorder, T. O. 

1867-8— Mayor, :\1. P.evington; recorder, T. O. Wilson. 

1868 Mayor, M. Bevington; recorder, T. O. Wilson. 

18-0-1— :\layor, E. C. Playnes; recorder, M. L. Boyles. 
1871-2— Mayor, C. Wentworth ; recorder. B. A. Ogle. 
1872-3 — :\Iayor, C. Wentworth; recorder, D. L. Strickler. 
1873-4 — Mayor, C. Wentworth; recorder; B. A. Ogle. 
1874-5— Mayor, C. Wentworth; recorder, M. B. Pennington. 
1875-6— Mayor, N. Earlywine; recorder, M. B. Pennington. 
1876-7— Mayor, N. Earlywine; recorder, F. M. Sanders. 
1877-8— Mayor, N. Earlywine; recorder, J. R. Hays. 

1878-9— Mayor, J. W. Farley; recorder, D. S. McKeehan. 

1879-80 — }kIayor, N. Earlywine; recorder, L. C. Lane. 

1880-1 — Mayor, N. Earlywine; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1881-2 — Mayor, N. Earlywine; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1882-3 — Mayor, N. Earlywine; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1883-4— Mayor, L. C. Whitney; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1884-5— Mayor. Robert Henderson; clerk, W. T. Swearingen. 

1885-6— Mayor, George D. Porter; clerk. J. P. Gribben. 

1886-7— Mayor, R. Henderson; clerk, J. P. Gribben. 

1887-8— ^layor, E. C. Haynes; recorder, P. B. Wilkes. 

1888-9— Mayor, E. C. Haynes; clerk, P. B. Wilkes. 

1889-90— Mayor, R. Henderson; clerk. J. I. Ong. 

1890-1— Mayor, R. Henderson; clerk, J. N. Dunbar. 

1891-2— Mayor, M. Bevington; clerk. J. N. Dunbar. 

1892-3— Mayor, M. Bevington; clerk, J. N. Dunl)ar. 

1893-4— Mayor, R. Henderson; J. T. Conner. 

1894-5— :Mayor, R. Henderson; clerk, J. P. Gribben. 

1895-6— Mayor, John Elliott; clerk, J. P. Gribben. 

1896-7— Mayor, John Elliott; clerk, J. P. Gribben. 

1897-8 — Mayor, 11. E. Valentine; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1898-9 — Mayor, W. A. Callen ; clerk, James S. Ellis. 

1899-1900— Mayor, W. A. Callen: clerk, John Batterton. 

1900-or— Mayor, W. A. Callen; clerk, John Batterton. 

igoi-02— Mayor, W. .\. Callen; clerk, Thomas W. Meers. 


1902-03 — Mayor, W. A. Callen ; clerk. Thomas \V. Meers. 
1903-04 — Mayor, W. H. Sanders ; clerk, Thomas W. Meers. 
1904-05 — Mayor, VV. H. Sanders; clerk. '!'. \V. Meers. 
1905-06 — -Mayor, Clarence S. Wyckoff; clerk, Estella Gordon. 
1007-0R— Mayor. V. A. White; clerk. John Batterton. 
i90<MO— Mayor, R. M. Hicks; clerk. T. \V. Meers. 
191 1-12 — .Mayor, S. \V. Bryant; clerk. P. A. White. 







Centerville for the past several years has been keeping abreast of the times 
in its public improvements and now vies with any city of its population in finely 
paved streets, miles of concrete sidewalks, sewerage systems, water works, beau- 
tifully illuminated public squares and other modern advantages. 


In iXyX. the present city hall was constructed, at a cost of $5,000. Thfs is 
exclusive of the lot. The building is a one-and-one-half -story brick. The east 
half is arranged for the mayor's office and a room to the rear of this is the 
office of tlie city clerk and city engineer. The west half is devoted to the fire 
department, where are installed the fire apparatus and team for the hose truck. 
In the rear of the city hall is a three-cell jail, which seldom has an occupant. 


The fire department in Centerville has not yet been placed on a metropolitan 
system. It still is in the volunteer class, but seems to be efficient and meets U'e 
needs of the community. \'olunleer fire companies prevailed in the place early 
in its history, but the records only speak of the one established in 1872, whicli 
was reorganized in October, 1876, as the Centerville Hook & Ladder Company. 
Of this organization Robert McGregor was elected captain ; P. F. Cunningham, 
first lieutenant; J. C. Barrows, second lieutenant; George W. Bell, third lieu- 
tenant; O. H. Sharp, secretary; W. T. Swearingen, treasurer. There were about 
fifty members. The present fire company has a membership of fifteen, who are 
paid for the time used in fighting fires. A driver has a position that carries with 
it a regular monthly salary. The equipment consists of : One team of horses, 
hose wagon, 2,500 feet of 2y2 inch hose, three extension ladders, Temiile fire 
extinguishers, Mendota pump engine and iiost carl. 

The police department consists of four patrolmen, one of which takes tlie 
title of chief of police. The duties of these officers are not strenuous or irk- 

iic. Centerville is mainly composed of a class of people which has no use for 
tnc salrion or "bum element," and that means no saloons and btit little disturbance 
as a conse(|uence. 

Vol. 1-5 1 




Centerville has about nine miles of splendidly paved streets, this improvement 
first being inaugurated in 1904. The material used on all the streets is vitrified 
re-pressed paving brick and the first streets to be laid were those around the 
public square and the streets entering it. Since 1904 the city of Centerville has 
expended in street paving the sum of $385,443, a magnificent amount to come out 
of the pockets of the citizens of a municipality only seven thousand strong. In 
its sidewalks the city takes quite a little pride. Up to April i, 1912, there were 
139,630 linear feet of cement walks, or about twenty-six miles. 


The sanitation of a community is absolutely essential, to the end that disease 
shall be baffled. With a waterworks system sewerage should follow (or precede) 
to make it meet the ends desired. All deleterious refuse must be drained and 
carried out of the zone of human habitation and rendered harmless. The system 
adopted in Centerville is a good one. Septic tanks receive the sewerage at its 
outlet, and there it is consumed and purified by natural processes. The first 
sewer constructed w-as in 1904, and since then three others have been built. 
These four sanitary sewers, with their laterals, cover a distance of about si.xteen 
miles and cost the taxpayers $81,000. 


The waterworks plant was built by William Peatman, W. G. Clark and others 
in 1896, under a twenty-years' franchise. The civil engineer was H. L. Brown, 
and contractors, C. P. Miller & Company, all of Chicago. The plant was con- 
structed at 902 South Sixteenth street, where were erected a power house and 
steel stand pipe. A reservoir was constructed, having a capacity of 260.000 gal- 
lons. The stand is 12x100 feet, with capacity of 65,000 gallons. The water is 
supplied by artesian wells and is forced into the tank by pump, with capacity of 
1,700,000 gallons. When first completed the improvement cost about $65,000. 
but a great many more thousands have been added. 

After running the plant for several years the company sold out to the city 
and in about four years' time the authorities concluded the running expenses and 
loss were too great. .\t least, the plant went into the hands of a receiver and 
was bought in by P. K. Tyng. of Chicago, and a short time after sold to 
Homer C. Crawford, of Cooperstown, Pennsylvania, and O. D. and E. Bleakley, 
of Franklin. Pennsylvania, representing the Franklin Trust Company. Under 
this management the works furnished water until 1912. when a division arose 
among the bondholders in the matter of contemplated improvements and, in 
January, 1912, Homer C. Crawford and others took over the holdings ot the 
bondholders and commenced operations that will make the plant one of the best 
in the country. 

In 1912 thirty-six acres of land was jnirchased of W. D. Fulton, one and one- 
half miles southwest of the city, where a dam was built, which will collect the 
drainage of 2,400 acres of land, and cost $31,000. Here a pumping station was 


built at an additional cost of $3,000. Triplex jnimps will be installed, each with 
a capacity of 300 gallons per minute. The power will be generated either by oil 
or electricity. 

The reservoir made possible by the dam will hold 100.000,000 gallons of 
water, the supply being ami)ly sufficient for a city three times the size of Center- 
ville. There are now twelve miles of mains in the city and by the early part 
of 191 3 the new plant will be furnishing a supply of much better water than it 
has since it has been in ojieration. 

The present superintendent is Gordon Peacock, who has been with the com- 
pany for the past seven years, the last two of which he has served in his present 

CAS \\ii vf !( rutc LiciiTS 

The first lighting franchise granted by the city of Centerville, under which 
any construction work was done, was to D. W. Hunt & Company, in May, 1890. 
In July of the same year, this franchise was transferred to the Centerville 
Light. Heat & Power Company, a corporation organized by a number of the busi- 
ness men of Centerville. The first officers of this corporation were W. G. Clark, 
president; James R. Wooden, vice-president; VV. M. Peatman, secretary and 
C. P. Campliell. treasurer. This corporation proceeded to construct in Center- 
ville, a gas plant, and to lay pipes over the city. At the same time, a street 
lighting system was installed by the same company. The lights were arc lamps 
and the generator was operated by a gas engine. This was the first gas works 
and electric lighting system in Centerville, and was located on the site of the 
present works. 

The company was not successful and. from time to time, was compelled to 
burrow c|uite large sums of money which was loaned to it by D. C. Camjibell, a 
banker in Centerville, and one of the original incorporators and stockholders. 

In 1893, the entire works was sold under execution to D. C. Campbell, to 
satisfy a judgment he had against the company, and for many years thereafter 
the works were operated by D. C. Campbell and his sons, C. P. and f. .A. Camp- 
bell, who had in the meantime removed to Chicago. In 1896, they added to the 
works, an incandescent lighting system. In 1891, they applied to the city of 
Centerville for new franchises covering their gas system and electric lighting 
system ; also asking for a franchise for a district heating system and electric 
street railway. .\ll these franchises were granted in .August, 1891. 

.At about this time, Frank S. Payne, of Centerville. became associated with 
the company, and was elected president. 

The hot water system, which was an Evans Almirall. was constructed during 
the fall of 1891, and the electric street railway during the summer of 1902. 
The electric street railway took the place of a mule car line that had been in 
operation in Centerville .since about 1884. the road being owned and operated for 
a number of years by C. R. Wooden, of Centerville. 


In 1902, the company was re-incorporated under the laws of Maine, as the 
Centerville Light & Traction Company, the stockholders and officers remaining 


practically liie same. During the winter of 1909, very strong sentiment was 
aroused in Centerville for the construction of an interurban railroad from Center- 
villc to Mystic. This had been a cherished project of Centerville people for a 
great nianv years, survey having been made ten or fifteen years previous. A 
lumiber of propositions were made to the citizens, from which they finally 
accepted the plans of the Centerville Light & Traction Company, which was. 
that if the citizens would purchase $75,000 of the $125,000 bond issue, covering 
all the i^roperty of the Centerville Light & Traction Comi)any and the new road 
to Mystic, that they would build, equip, and put the road in operation. .\ very 
strenuous campaign was made by the citizens of Centerville, to raise this money, 
which was successful. Shortly afterward, D. C. Bradley, of Centerville, anfl 
Frank S. Pavne purchased all the stock of the Centerville Light & Traction 
Company and it became a local institution. They proceeded to build the road 
to Mystic, using the very best of material and constructing it along modern 
and up-to-date lines, the rails being scventy-iKJund. ties number one. white oak, 
and the bridges extremely heavy and durable. 

]Mvstic, the other terminus of the interurban road, is located on the Kansas 
City division of the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. It is a city of three 
thousand inhabitants, six and one-half miles from Centerville, in a northwesterly 
direction. The road is equipped with double truck interurban cars and an hourly 
schedule is maintained, beginning at 6:30 in the morning and ending at 11:30 
at night, making seventeen round trips per day. Located on the road, is the 
Centerville baseball park. Centerville Country club and Clen Hagan park, the 
latter being an amusement park located about one and one-half miles from Center- 
ville. with beautiful surroundings, and drawing a large i)atronagc from both 
Centerville and Mystic. 

The city line is built of j~, pound rail, all in paved streets. It is operated 
with single truck cars. 

During the last two years, the electric lighting system and power station of 
the company have been almost entirely rebuilt, new engines, generators and 
boilers being installed and a new chimney, 140 feet high, being erected. The light- 
ing system has also been changed from direct current to alternating. 

During the summer of 191 1, the heating system was entirely rebuilt and 
now is a steam system. The service has been very popular and practically the 
entire business district is heated from this system. Electricity is also used almost 
exclusively for power, so that the city presents a very clean and attractive appear- 
ance, there being practically no smoke in the business district. 

The company's office and waiting room are located in the Continental Hotel 
block, on the east side of the public square, at which point all cars, both city 
and interurban stop. 


The first postoffice established in the county was at Centerville. then known 
as Chaldea, which was its official name in the department at Washington. George 
W. Perkins was appointed postmaster at Chaldea, November r>. 1846, and kept his 
office at his home, about a mile east of Centerville. on the old state road. Mr. 
Perkins was reappointed April 7, 1847. the name of the office having been changed 
to Centerville. He served until October 21. 1847. when he gave way to Charles 

rontinpiitnl Ilotol 
Burlin|i;ton Doiiot 

f'itv WiiliT Works 
Mirip Xo. 3, f'piitpnillc Hlock Coal Com 
I>any, in Western I'art of Town 



H. Howell. Mr. Howell kept the office in a log house which stood on the site 
of the Jacob Schutz bank residence on East Maple street. Before the expira- 
tion of his term he moved the office into a building which stood on the site of 
the Centcrville Savings Bank, on the corner of Xorth Main and Fast Jackson 

Thomas (J. Manson was appointcil postmaster, January 22, i<S5i. lie kept 
the office on the south side of the square about where the Rineiiart building now 
stands. Mr. Manson was a lawyer and an ardent member of the Whig party. 
He served in the office a little over two years. 

Daniel P. .Si)arks received his appointment as postmaster July ", 1S53. He 
kept the postoffice on the west side of the square in the building that stood about 
where Robert .McKee's shoe store is now located, ^f^. Sparks dealt in real 
estate anil- was for some time commissioner of school funds. 

George A. Bryan succeeded Daniel P. Sparks as postmaster, March 25, 1858. 
lie was a democrat and his trade was that of cabinet-maker, lie was one of the 
earliest settlers, coming here from Tennessee. Mr. Bryan kept the office on the 
south side of the square, in a building that stood aboul wIktc Triebswetter & 
Parker's clothing store now stands. 

William S. Manson was the next one to hold the office of postmaster in Cen- 
terville. His commission dates from May 28, 1861, and he remained in office 
until 1876. .Mr. Manson was a pioneer in this part of the countv. He was one 
of the founders of the Methodist church here and a local preacher. He kept 
the office first in a little house which stood on the ground where now stands the 
building occujjied l)y the Standard I-\irniture Company. Later he removed it to 
the northwest corner of the public square. 

John H. Udell was a son of Dr. .\alliaii y\\d\. lie was a young man at the 
time of his appointment, which occurred .March 21, 1876. He kept his office in 
the building vacated by his predecessor and after a while removed ihe office into 
the store room now used by Gus Malina as a fruit store. 

The first ai)i)ointment to the postmastership of Colonel E. C. Haynes was under 
the administration of President Chester .\. .-\rthur during its last days. He 
served two years and then gave way to his successor. .Mr. Haynes kept the 
office in the same i)lace as his predecessor. 

.S-miuel L. Harvey, at that time editor of the Journal, and an active tlemocrat, 
was appointed to the office by President Grover Cleveland, October 4, 1886, and 
served his full term. Mr. Harvey retained the office at the same place it was kept 
by Colonel Haynes for some time and then moved it to the room under the 
Daily Citizen Office, now occupied by the Orpheum Theater. Colonel Haynes 
was again the recipient of the postmastershi|) here on the return tn office of a 
rejuiblican jircsident. He received his -cvond appointment .May 21. i8S(j, and 
served a full term. 

Willliam F.vans benetitcd by the defeat of General Harrison in |8()2 and the 
reelection of (Irover Cleveland as i)resident. He received his appointment as 
postmaster March 20, i8<)4, and served his term of four years. He kept the 
office at the place vacated by Colonel Havnes. 

On January 17, 1898. William McKinley having been elected president, the 
preceding fall. Colonel Haynes received the appointment of postmaster at Center- 
ville for the third time and occupies that position at present. 



It was during the administration of Colonel Haynes, in 1904. that the present 
magnificent federal building was erected and completed at a cost, exclusive of the 
site, which was donated by the citizens of $40.cxx). It stands on the southwest 
corner of Main and Mai^le streets, and its architectural beauty Is admired by all 
who see it. The dedication exercises were held August 16, 1904, William Peters 
Hepburn, then congressman from this district, delivering the principal address. 

This is one of the best paying offices in this congressional district. A city 
delivery was established on March i, 1903, with four carriers, and rural free 
delivery was established February i, 1902, with three carriers, which was 
increased to five in 1907. In addition to the rural routes is one star route with 
box delivery, and in addition to the four city carriers is one auxiliary carrier. 
The office force consists of five clerks. 

The money order department was established at this office under the adminis- 
tration of William S. Manson in 1869. On July 24th of that year he issued money 
orders Nos. i and 2, both of which amounted to $41. The commission on these 
two orders was thirty cents. In 1907 the number of money order transactions 
amounted to 16,036. The number of money order transactions in 1912 was 
20,120, which meant the disbursements and receipts of the moneys in these tran- 
sactions for 1912 was $327,135.20. The postal savings deposits for 1912 amounted 
to $9,625. 

The postal receipts for the year ending June 30, 1907. were $13,364.84. In 
1912 the receipts had increased to $19,478.34. 


It seems to be the bent of the average .American citizen to follow his own 
inclinations and to come and go just whenever the spirit moves him. The great 
American continent was first peopled by movers, the peripatetic aboriginee, who 
were made to move faster and oftener when the white man appeared. And 
since the beginning of the white man's supremacy in the new world even he has 
had the wanderlust and betook himself to this place and that place, some as a 
matter of habit, others through necessity and many by reason of the exigencies of 

To accommodate the traveler has always been an urgent necessity even in a 
new country. At first he was welcomed as a guest, for he came from the "outside 
world" and had a fund of interesting news to relate, or stories to tell, which enter- 
tained his hosts and was sufficient compensation for the bumble, though satisfy- 
ing fare, extended so graciously. 

Soon sprang up the tavern, in many instances with a bar attached, which 
made arrangements for the wayfarer and exacted of him the price. Of this lat- 
ter categorv were the "hotels," which catered to the wants of the traveling pub- 
lic at Ccnlerville in the '50s. There were the Eagle House, kept by T. D. Brown ; 
the Travelers Home, of which "mine host" was George Pratt; and the Appa- 
noose Hotel, presided over by John M. Slater. These landlords were all good fel- 
lows and not only cared for the traveler, but also furnished accommodations for 
his horse. 


One of the early hotels of prominence and still vivid to the memory of but 
few now living in Centerviile, was the Oldham House, which stood on the north 
side of the public square. The i^roprictor was George Oldham, who eagerly 
sought patronage for his hostelry and promised his guests that he would cheer- 
fully furnish information relating to ditTercnt routes out of the city. The Oldham 
was here in 11^58, but in tliat year the proprietor advertised it for sale. 


The Jefferson was another hotel of young Centerviile and gave way to what 
was considered at the time a grand caravansary, tiie Continental, built in 1866, 
by Mrs. Susannah McKee. The building, a large brick, was erected on the east 
side of the sc|uare and was managed by Mrs. McKee. Between four and five 
o'clock on the morning of Thursday, l-'ebruary 9, 1893, the building was discov- 
ered to be on tire, and Mrs. McKee. desirous of saving the lives of iter guests, of 
which there were many, remained too long in the building and found escape im- 
possible by any other way than by jumping from a window. She was a woman 
of large proportions and against the protests of many on the streets below and 
while smoke was belching from every aperture, leaped from a third-story win- 
dow to the ground and sustained injuries that resulted in her death, which took 
place at nine o'clock the evening of that day. When the wreckage of the build- 
ing was cleared away, another victim of the fire was found, who was later iden- 
tified as Samuel Lewis, of Greeley, Missouri, liefore the ex(iiration of the year 
the building was rebuilt and in the fall of 1912 all of the first floor was remodeled, 
at a large outlay of money. To the rear was built an anne.x costing $25,000, and 
now Centerviile has a hotpl any town should be proud of. 

The Merchant Hotel is located on West Maple street, and is conducted Ijy Mrs. 
L. C. I.ane. a daughter of Mrs. McKee. 


In the year 1895 a movement was started by the energetic, enterprising and 
noble-minded women of Centerviile. which eventually fructified and brought 
forth the present Drake Public Library, a local institution that is the pride and 
joy of every high-minded citizen of the comnnmity. Prior to this time efforts 
had been made to establish and maintain a ]>ublic library here, which resulted in 
dismal and heartbreaking failure. Hut at last the women of Centerviile took the 
matter in hand and with the determination and irrepressible persistency that is 
their bent, njiened a campaign for the securing of funds to found public read- 
ing rooms, that was irresistible. The trend of the movement had only one goal, 
that of success. Entertainments, suppers in church parlors and vacant store 
rooms, contributions of citizens and children of the schools, were the resources 
rer|uisitionefl for the purpose, all given freely and generously, that the sum of 
Si, 000 might be accumulated to meet tiie conditions of a donation of another 
$1,000. made by John I'hillips, executor of the estate of Hrazilian Howcn, a pio- 
neer of the county. 

It appears that Brazilian Bowen at the time of his death left a large estate and, 
among many licquests in his will, directed his executor to bestow $1,000 of the 


tsiaic of the testator on some wuitiiv eiiieipiiM; of a benevolent nature. Tlic 
tlien struggling reading room came under Mr. Phillips' notice and after investi- 
gating its merits he decided it was worthy of the bec|uest and offered it to the 
reading room association, on condition that another $i,ooo be added. 

As herein related, the sum of money was obtained and soon thereafter a 
grand gathering of the citizens of Centerville assembled in beautifully appointed 
reading rooms, with shelves graced by many volumes of books, to hear addresses 
of congratulation on the results of the women's work and encomiums on the 
indomitable spirit and wholehcartedncss which prompted Ihcm in their under- 

It rimained to the late (Governor Irancis .M. Drake to bring to a full fruition 
the hopes and aims of the \vorlli\ women of Centerville. The reading rooms had 
been converted into a semi-public library, and books were accumulating rapidly 
with no adequate place in which to keep them; nor were the rooms of the associ- 
ations commensurate with the demand. ( ieneral Drake had full realization of the 
situation and out of the generous inoniptings of a loyal heart, he decideil to give 
to the citizens of his home place a building that would be an ornament to the city 
and at the same time meet the desires of all interested. 

When'the intelligence was spread broadcast in lyoi that General Drake had 
offered the city of Centerville a library Imilding to cost S25.000. on condition that 
the Iniilfling and library be maintained by the city, by levying a tax of two mills 
on the dollar each year, from taxable properly, there was general rejoicing in 
the community; and when a vote was taken on (ieneral Drake's proposition, it 
was found that out of 1.528 ballots that had lieen cast, but 65 votes were 
against it. 

In tlie vear lyoi the Drake Library buildini,' was erected and deicated. It is 
one of the beauty places of the city and with its handsome front on Drake avenue 
attracts general attention. 

The city has levied the two-mill tax since the erection of the Drake library 
building, which, in a measure, meets the demands of the institution. The first 
trustpcs appointed by the mayor were: .Mesdames J. E. Shirey, A. j. Baker. O. 
H. Law. C. W. Lewis, Colonel E. C.Haynes, Dr. J. L. Sawyers. Rev. George 
M. Adams, ). A. Bradley and K. E. Little. Colonel llaynes was chosen president 
and Linna Ullrich, seeretary. Mrs. Ullrich served as librarian from 1901 
and was succeeded by Elizabeth A. Gault. The present officials are: J. M. 
Beck, president; A. P. Speers, secretary; trustees, J. M. Beck. Dr. J. L. Sawyers, 
E. C. Haynes, A. P. Speers. H. S. Grecnleaf, .Mrs. T. E. Sargent. Mrs. A. P. 
Speers. Mrs. G. W. Randle.- Miss Janet Wilson. 

The number of volumes in the library at the close of the fiscal year iyi2. was 
6,578. During the year 1911 there were 82 hooks ]iurchased and in donated; 89 
1,00''; »'pre condemned for various reasons. The largest daily circulation for the 
year was 105; average daily circulation. 41. Total circulation for the year. 12,- 
675 vohunes. 

l-IKST NAI'KlX \i. n\XK 

The First National Bank of Centerville was the lirst bank organized under the 
national law and received its charter in 1863. with the number 337. The pro- 
moters of this financial enterprise were: William Bradley. Charles II. Howell. 


David C. Campl)ell, W illiam Swincy, W illiam II. Lireazeale. Solomon Silknitter, 
John White, Jeremiah Ilollingsworth, Benjamin Adamson. William M. .McCreary, 
Louis r.rayman. John W. Williams, Jacob Riimmel, William Clark. William Fer- 
ren. I'ailman Allen. Solomon liolhrook. James S. Hough. John Conger. John 
Hughes. David T. liradley, James Hughes, Jacob Phillips, Robert .\'. Cilenn. Wil- 
liam S. Henderson. Lawrence Whitsell, Henry Hakes. Uavid S. Strickler. Harvev 
Ta-Miehill. (irant S. Stansberry. (.'harles W. I'.owen, (Icorge A. Bryan, Jonathan 
Slmpe, William E. Callen, Miles A. Holshouser and John Fulton. All these men 
have i)assed away with the exception of David C. Campbell and John Inilton. 

The bank was capitalized at $50,000. Us first ufticials were: President, Wil- 
liam r.radley; cashier, David C. Campbell. William liradley remained as presi- 
dent until his death, which occurred in iSgd. He was succeeded by his wife, .Mrs. 
A. T. r.radley, who was president of the iiank until her death, which occurred in 
January, ir)04- when her son, David C. Bradley, assumed tlie duties laid down 
by her. .\t the annual election, June 30, igio, he was succeeded by James .A. 
P.radley. who holds the office today. 

David C. Campbell served as cashier until January 11. 1870. when Charles 
W. Bowen was chosen. He retained the office about one year. John R. Hays 
was elected cashier .Xovember 7, i<S7i, and continued as such until March 26, 
1881. William Evans followed Hays and was cashier until July .1. 1887, when 
John R. Hays again assumed the duties of the office and remained therein until 
January 12, 1892. His successor was James .\. Bradley who was cashier until 
he was elected vice president in January. 1907, at which time William Evans 
took up the duties of cashier and is the present official with that title. 

The first jjlace of business of this bank was in rooms west <if the Citizen 
iniilding. The present bank building stands on the corner of \ an Buren and 
Xorth Main street and is the west half of a structure erected by the bank and the 
Odd I'ellows lodge in 1876. 

The second charter of this bank was secured in 1883 and a third in Hp^. The 
present cai)ital is $50,000, and surplus and undivided ])rotits, S,^2,ooo; deposits, 


Liuler the name of the .\pl)an()o^e County Bank this institution was organized 
and incorporated by (leneral Francis .M. Drake. May 23, 1876. under the laws 
of the state of Iowa, with a capital stock of .S50.G00. .\ssociated with him at this 
time was the governor's father. Judge J. .\. Drake. This bank continued under' 
the original name until December 6. 1882. Its first officers were: P/esident, F. 
M. Drake: vice president. Joseph fioss ; cashier. J. C. Bevington. ( )n December 
6. i88.3. the institution was reorganized and converted into a national bank by 
I'rancis M. Drake, his father. Judge J. A. Drake, and others, Ciovernor Drake 
having the lontroUing interest. The l)ank was capitalized at Sf>o,ooo. Its first 
1'1-ice of business was in a liuilding on the corner of .School and East Jackson 

cts and remained there until March, 1898. when the present building was pur- 
chased of J. R. Wooden. 

.-\t the organization of the Cenlerville .\ational I'.ank, 1-rancis .M. Drake was 
chosen president ; Joseph Goss, vice president ; Walter .S. .Selby. cashier. The 
ilirectors were: Francis M. Drake, Joseph Goss, J. .\. Talbott. William T. Rus- 


sell and Xatiian Udell. All have passed away with the exception of -Mr. Goss. 
The present officers of the bank are: {'resident, J. L. Sawyers; vice president, 
Joseph Goss; cashier, George M. Barnett; assistant cashier, F. D. Sargent. The 
capital stock is $50,000; .'inriiUis anfl undivided profits, $25,000; deposits, $400,- 

c.\MPi;i:i.i.'.s i!.\NK I 

D. C. Campbell, a native of \\ est \ irginia, immigrated to Iowa and first located 
at W'inlcrsct, Madison county. J'rom there he came to Centerville in 1855, where 
he entered the general store of his brother-in-law. the late William Bradley, as 
a clerk and was finally admitted as a partner, the firm name becoming Bradley 
& Campbell. As will be seen by a perusal of the chapter on banking, Mr. Camp- 
bell became cashier of the First National Bank, the lirst banking institution in the 
county, and remained with that concern until 1879, when he organized the 
Farmers' National Bank, and conducted its business in a building which stood 
on the south side of the square, on the site of the Parker & Triebswetter block. 
In course of time the r'armers" P.ank was discontinued and the Campbell bank, a 
private institution, was doing business in the building now owned and occupied 
by the Centerville National Bank. Mr. Campbell sold the bank in 1893 and for 
the past several years has been a citizen of Chicago. 


The Iowa State Savings liank was organized in 1896. with a capital of S50,' 
COO, by Amanda T. liradley, David C. and James A. Bradley and William Mc- 
Creary. Its place of business iSi on the public square, opposite the Continenta 
Hotel. The first officials were: President, James A. Bradley; vice president, Wil 
liam M. McCreary ; cashier, David C- Bradley. The present officials are: Presi 
dent, James A. Bradley: ca'slijer, J. B. Bruckshaw. By its last report the deposit 
were S552.000. 

ci;n'ti;rvili,e s.wincs r.vxk 

This tlnancial institutinn was established March 6, 1907, being incorporalej 
under the laws of the state of Iowa. The directors were: J. L. Sawyers, C. E 
Sawyers, George M. Barnett, C. W. X'ermilion and W. S. McKee. It is capital 
ized at $50,000 and its last report showed the deposits amounted to $150,000 
The officials are: President. George M. liarnett; vice president, J. L. Sawyers 
cashier, H. C. Greenleaf. The bank building is on the corner of South Main an< 


The Wooden Savings Bank is the outgrowth of the Citizen State Bank, whicl 
purchased the building and business of the Cam])l)ell Banking Co.. one of th( 
earliest and most successful banking enterprises in the history of the county. 

The Citizen State Bank was organized February iSth. 1893. and officered b; 
James R. Wooden, president; A. E. Wooden, vice president; J. R. Hays, cashier 
with \V. v. \ermilion and C. R. Wooden as directors. The institution was sub 
sequently changed to the Citizen Savings Bank and from that to tiie Woodei 



Savings Uank, which absorlicd ihe slock of the former institutions. It is owned 
by the Wooden family. James R. Wooden is president; A. E. Wooden, vice 
president : C. R. Wooden, cashier. 

Tiie hank, early in its history, occuined tlie Ijiiilihng purchased of the Camp- 
hell Banking Company, whicii was sold a number of years ago to the Centerville 
National Hank. The Wooden bank is now located in the building across the 
street from its former location, where over half a century ago its i)resident started 
in business as a merchant. 

The bank is capitalized at $25,000. The deposits, as shown by the last state- 
ment. pulili>]ic<l September il, 1912, were $177,205.85. 


The Appanoose Telephone Company was organized as the Centerville Tele- 
phone Company in 1900, by Otto Wettstein, F. E. lirown and C. A. Farring- 
ton, with a cajjital stock of $20,000. In 1903, the corporation was reorganized as 
the Appanoose Telephone Company, by C. A. Farrington. h'rank .Augustus and 
E. E. r.amfdrd. and capitalized at $60,000. Since then the company has grown 
in strength and usefulness and now has a large list of subscribers. The main 
exchange is at Centerville. When the company began operations, in October, 
1900, there were 200 subscriliers ; this number has increased to something like 
1,300. The officials are: C. A. h'arrington, president; Dr. E. E. liamford, vice 
president; T. M. Farrington, secretary and treasurer; C. A. I-'arrington, manager. 

The Ap]ianoose Mutual Telephone Coin|)any has been in existence about six 
years and is extending its lines and i)atroiiage rapidly. The officials are: J. N. 
Willett. jiresident ; G. G. Hamilton, secretary and manager. 


While living at Lone Tree, Iowa. .Miles IJatenian. then a molder. invented and 
jjatented a stump jjullcr. anrl in 1899 S(jld his interest in the in\entii)n and returned 
to Centerville. his former linme. where he entered Kirchman's foiiiKlry. At that 
time B. .A. I-'uller was working by the day in the Goss foundry, lie and Mr. 
Bateman formed an acciuaintanceshij) and during their first meetings of even- 
ings, exchanging ideas, they invented what has now become one of the most useful 
and widely known machines — the Hercules stumj) puller. They at once began 
making the machines under the name of the i'latemaii .Manufacturing Com])any. 
In July. 1900, the machine was given the name of the Hercules Stump Puller, 
but at this time, having no means but what they obtained through their daily 
wage in the foundries they had no regular place of business. Mr. I'"uller carried 
on the correspondence for the firm at his boarding house in the evenings after 
working through the day at his slin|). and the next day his landlady would copy 
his letters on the typewriter and mail them. The business soon grew to such 
proportions, however, that it was necessary to secure quarters for a factory. 
The old Orange wagon shop, on Fourteenth street, just east of the Continental 
Hotel, was secured. That part of it which had been used as a blacksmith shop 
was remodeled into an office and the rest of the building was converted into a 
work 'hn[>. Mr. Fuller managcfl the business, while Mr. Bateman put in his 


spare time in improving the invcnti(3n. L'lil it must Ijc remeniljered while these 
thinj^s were going on, these men were comijelled to maintain their i)laces in the 
foun(hies in order to procure the means of carrying on their small enterprise. 
Two girls were used in the office for keejiing the hooks and files. They were Miss 
Dora Cook, bookkeeper, still Imlfling that positipn, and Miss Alice Hardy, 

In 1 90 1 the concern continued to ])ros])er to that extent that Mr. Fuller gave 
up his work at the foundry and devoted his whole attention to the exploitation 
of the Hercules stump puller. Tn 1902 the Goss foundry had been closed down 
by i\Ir. Goss for six months and at that time Mr. Fuller accepted the mana.gement 
of the foundry, continuing, how'ever, in the management of the Hercules Manu- 
facturing Company. In 1963 the Hercules Manufacturing Company bought the^ 
property on Fourteenth street north of the Goss foundry and moved the factory 
into the building, which had been known as the Taylor livery barn. At the same 
time the four large rooms over the Goss foundry were secured for offices, the 
office force having grown to six people. Mr. Bateman took the position of 
foreman in the (joss foundry and thus the two concerns were closely connected, 
as Mr. I'uller was manager of them both. 

Ilie Hercules company during these years was increasing its business most 
gratifyingly and al^out 1904 the first foreign order was received and was for 
a consignment of three machines to Grahamstown, Cape Colony, South Africa. 
.\t that time the machines were being placed throughout the states. 

In 1904 the company in addition to the stump ])uller manufactured cement 
l)l()cl< and cement postmaking machines. A patent was allowed to P.ateman & Ful- 
ler on what is known as the Success Cement Block machine. A patent was 
alst) allowed on what was known as the Hercules post machine. This probably 
was the first cement post machine offered on the market of the United States 
and was also one of the first cement block machines. The Hercules com])any 
continued to manufacture the cement machines with the stuni]) puller a number 
of years. 

In 1905 the United States agricultural department issued Rulletin 150 on 
the best method of clearing timber land. The department took the i)osition that the 
land cleared with stum]) machines was left in the most tillable condition, the 
stumji pullers doing the work more thoroughly than dynamite. The Bulletin 
also claimed that the iron stump ])ullers were too heavy, unwieldly and cumber- 
some, and that the cast iron used in them was constantly breaking. Mr. Fuller, 
on reading this, said to Mr. Bateman: "We will have to overcome the objections 
of the government," so they set about making the machines of steel throughout. 
They then put out the first steel stump puller ever made, which was placed on 
the market in kjoC). The machine was reduced in weight sixty per cent and yet, 
the lighter steel puller was four hundred per cent stronger than its predecessor. 
This machine overcame the objections set uj) by the agricultural department and 
reallv revolutionized stuni]) pulling. The success of the company was from that 
time assured. 

In March, 1007, a patent was issued to Fuller iS: liateman on their improved 
stump puller. In .Xugust of the same year another patent was issued to them 
on a "take-ui)" in connection with the machine anrl, in the latter jiart of ujo". 
a triple-power improvement to the machine was afided, which gained fame and 


popularity very rapidly. F'.y that time the company had gnnvn to he (jiic of the 
best known manufacturers of this class of machines in the country. Its sales 
came from practically every state in the L'nion, Canada, Me.xico and many 
foreign countries. The Argentine re])ublic and Chili began taking large ship- 
ments of the machines. Jn 1909 orders were received for some of the company s 
I.irfje machines to ije used on the Panama canal. 

in 1910 the minister of forestry of Russia, at St. Petersburg, made exten- 
sive experiments with stump jiullers and explosives, to ascertain the best methods 
of clearing timber land. The Hercules machines came out victorious in the tests, 
which showed that it did the work with less expense and more efficiently than by 
any other method known. This resulted in the Hercules comjiany securing some 
nice orders from the Russian government and also from private concerns of the 

Ily that time the goods of the Hercules Manufacturing Company were being 
shijjped to most of the European and Scandinavian countries, also Japan, China 
and India. The company by 191 1 became one of the largest advertisers in the 
agricultural papers, expending durijig that year for this purj)ose $64,000. It was 
fast outgrowing its quarters, notwithstanding it had made additions to its plant. 
The steel castings used in the machines were also being shi])]jed in froiu Milwau- 
kee and Chicago, but the proprietors desired to manufacture these castings them- 
selves. Representatives of commercial clubs of adjoining cities began a corres- 
pondence with Mr. Fuller and made him tempting offers to locate in their locali- 
ties. Proposals were received from Des Moines, Muscatine, Keokuk, Ottumwa, 
Davenport and Cedar Rapids. 

Early in 191 2 at the request of the "Booster" committee and other business 
men of Centerville, Mr. Fuller was asked to submit a proposal for building a 
new plant in Centerville. In May. 1912, a meeting was held in the parlors of the 
First National Bank and Mr. Fuller suggested that if the citizens of Center- 
ville would take $25,000 of the common stock at par, the Hercules company, 
which up to this time had been a partnership affair, would be incorporated under 
the laws of Iowa, with a cajiital stock of $200,000, one-half of which should be 

cd to Fuller & Bateman for the Hercules company, and all of its property, 
>...,.;> rights, ])atents and good will. The citizens were to take $25,000 at par anfl 
also subscribe $2,500, as a bonus or donation, to pay for the necessary land and 
the railroad connections for the new plant. If the proposal was accepted the 
company obligated itself to build a plant to cost $45,000. 

A. E. Wooden was chairman of this committee, also chairman of the ■"Booster" 
committee, and O. H. Law, secretary. J. A. Bradley, president of the First 
National liank, promptly staterl he would take $10,000 of the stock just as soon 
as the financial statement submitted l)y Mr. Fuller was verified. The meeting 
was unanimous in agreeing to Mr. I'uller's proposal and was for its acceptance. 
A committee was then appointed to solicit the amount asked and on that com- 
mittee were placed .\. E. Wooden, J. .\. Bradley, O. H. Law, Lew Salinger and 
Frank Payne. After the statement of the Hercules coni])any was verified this 
committee went out and within two hours, to their surprise, the stock was 
over subscribed. 

On June 6, 1912, a new company was organized and incorporated with a 
paid-up capital of $125,000. The authorized capital was $200,000. The incor- 


porators were B. A. i'lillcr, Miles Bateman, C. D. Cook, George M. Barnett 
and J. A. Bradley; directors, B. A. Fuller, Miles Batemaii, C. D. Cook. J. A. 
Bradley and George M. Barnett. B. A. Fuller was chosen president and treas- 
urer; Miles Bateman. vice president; C. D. Cook, secretary. 

On July 3. 1912. the Hercules company bought five acres of land of D. C. 
Bradley on the east side of Twenty-first street, just north of the Rock Island 
tracks. On this land is a switch of the Burlington road. July 15th ground was 
broken for the new buildings which are now completed and stand between the 
tracks of the Burlington and Rock Island railroads. 

The buildings of this plant are practically fire proof, being built of brick and 
steel. The office building is 40x50 feet, two stories high, with a basement. The 
main factory building is comprised of ship])ing room, paint shop, forge, machine 
and finishing shops, all one building. 50.\350 feet. The steel foundry is 50x150 
feet, the wood working shop, 50x150 feet. The company built its own switches. 
The Rock Island is on the east and the Burlington on the west. The office force 
consists of twelve girls and eight men. In the shops are employed about one 
hundred and fifty people. 


This foundry was started by F'uller K- Bateman. In 1896 Mr. Bateman sold 
his interest to Mr. Fuller, and in 1908 Fuller failed, the concern going into the 
hands of Joseph Goss. The products are principally miners' trucks and general 
foundry work. 


The Centerville Iron Works was a concern of considerable imjiortance to 
this locality and when in operation occupied nearly a block. It was conducted 
by H. L. Kirchman, who manufactured hoisting machines for mines, stationary 
engines, coal mine cars, cane mills and furnaces, castings and the like. He also 
did considerable casting for the Keokuk & Western railway. 


The society of the Daughters of the .American Revolution was organized in 
the year 1910 by Mrs. Margaret C. Xeedels, after two years' work in securing 
enough ladies who were eligible. In March, 1908. the president general of the 
national organization appointed Mrs. Xeedels organizer of the society and in 
April, 1910, she was appointed regent of the new chapter, which was designated 
as Crosby Chapter, after Dr. Samuel Crosby, an ancestor of Mrs. Xeedels, who 
was a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. At the organization of the chapter 
there were fourteen members, which has increased to twenty-four. The charter 
members were: Margaret C. Xeedels, Bessie L. Ilaynes, Cora Wentworth. 
Rebecca J. Walker, Mary E. Wooden. Pearl Parker. .Mice Harvey Bon, Hallen 
Wilson, Elizabeth J. .Mitchell, Clara D. Hunson, Lois Lemington. Ethel K. 
Greenleaf, Tina Gilcrest, Maude B. I'orter. Those who have joined the organiza- 
tion since are: Hortense \'an Buskirk. Mary Sawyers Baker, Hygine Sawyers, 
Cecelia Greenleaf, Eleanor C. Xeedels, Mary S. Harvey, F'lora W. Wilson, Elsie 
Knox Hays, Blora Bloe, Sarah Wilson. 



The P. E. O. Society was organized by seven girls at Wesleyan University, 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa, in 1869. It is composed of a supreme chapter, state 
grand chapters and local chapters. 

The local chapter of Centerville was organized September 8, 1882, witli the 
following charter members: .Mrs. Mary L?erry Price, Mrs. Jo Dislirow Crawford, 
Miss Lou McLaughlin, Miss Stella Young, Mrs. Sadie Lane Smith, Miss Sallie 
Wright, Mrs. Jennie Drake Sawyers, Mrs. Emma Goss Vermilion. Mrs. Stella 
Reesman O'Xeal, Mrs. P)irdie Young Palliday. Mrs. Eva Drake Goss. 

The P. E. O. Society is the largest exclusive woman's secret organization in 
the world. Its objects and aims are general improvement. The work is along 
literary, social, charitable and philanthropic lines. The emblem of the P. E. O. 
Society is a five-pointed star with P. E. O. in black enamel letters in the center. 
The five points of the star represents F'aith, Love, Purity, Justice and Truth. 

The Centerville chapter has 75 active members. The ofificers are: President, 
Mrs. \'alley McKee ; vice president, Mrs. Lida Moore; recording secretary, Mrs. 
Ella Cole Wright ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Daisy W'hitsell ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Saflie Lane Smith; chaplain. Mrs. Laura Lee; guard. Mrs. Justine Speers; 
journalist, Mrs. Kate WvckolY ; pianist, Mrs. Marcia Widmer. 


was organized in 1902. The charter members were: Mrs. Lena Houston, Mrs. 
Lina King, Mrs. Hattie Biddle. Mrs. .Annie Howell, Mrs. Maud Porter, Mrs. 
Mac Highberger, Mrs. Jessie Thompson and Mrs. Olive Strickler. The first 
oflficials were: President, Mrs. Oliver Strickler, secretary and treasurer, Mrs. 
Lena Houston. 

This society has devoted its efforts to literary pursuits and has taken in suc- 
cessive years the study of art (for ten years), American history, German litera- 
ture, arts and craft, ceramic art, domestic science, famous women, English history 
and study of Iowa. The membership is limited to twenty active members. 

The present officers are: President, Mrs. Mae Wooden; vice president, Mrs. 
Hattie Piddle; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Grace .Syp. The club membership 
includes .Mrs. .Anna .Alexander. Mrs. Edna Beck, Mrs. .Martha Bowen, Mrs. 
Margaret Hail, Mrs. Blanche James, Mrs. Jennie Lee, Mrs. Grace Syp, Mrs 
Eloi'^e \ermiIion, Mrs. Katherinc Tillmont, .Mrs. .Mac Wooden, Mrs. Hattie 
Biddle, Mrs. Cora Bradley, Mrs. Mary (jrcenleaf, .Mrs. Ethel Greenleaf, Mrs. 
Annie Howell, Mrs. \alley McKee, Mrs. Maud Porter, Mrs. Jessie Thompson, 
Mrs. Marcia W'idmcr. The honorary members are: Mrs. Brown, Lincoln, 
Nebraska; Mrs. Gibson, Montrose, Colorado; Mrs. Highberger, Bay City, 
Texas; Mrs. Houston, Pasadena, California; Mrs. King, Escanaba, Michigan; 
Mrs. Lewis, Muncie, Indiana; Mrs. Probasco, Vanta, Oklahoma; Mrs. Strickler, 
Boise City, Idaho. 

J.\CK.SON I.ODT.E, NO. 42, .\. F. & A. M. 

This body was established by dispensation from .Ansel Humphreys, grand 
master, and held its first meeting late in 1852. The charter members were: 


Alfred Slater, Jereiniah Mrower, 1). A. Spooncr, Uaniel II. Sparks, A. 1,. il. Mar- 
tin, John Wilmington, (ieorge W. Swearingen and Hugh McCoy. The name of 
the first worthy master is missing. Thomas G. Manson was S. W. ; J. Mar- 
grave, J. W. ; J. H. Shields, treasurer; Dennis !•". Kobley, secretary; John W. 
Robley, S. D. ; J. 15. Criswell, J. D. 

On the 9th of July, 1876, the corner stone of the Masonic Temple, on the 
corner of West State and Twelfth streets, was laid by ii. W. Rothert, of Keokuk, 
then grand master, in the jircsence of a large assembly of people. The hall is in 
the third story of the building and is one of the largest in the state. It is in s])lendid 
financial condition, owns that ])art of the building ci^mprising the third story, and 
has a membership of 240. 

The present officials are: W. M., A. C. llalden; S. W., P. E. Wells; J. W., 
J. N. Kerschner : treasurer. F. 1). Sargent; secretary, J. C. Henaman. 

KUCLIL) tH.M'TKK. Ml. 43. K. .\. .M . 

held its organizing meeting, January 21, i86S. The first meeting under the dispen- 
sation was on February nth. W. E. Sargent was the first H. P.; W. C. Dar- 
nell, E. K. ; William Reahard, E. S. ; J. Harper, C. H.; T. E. Sargent, P. S. ; T. 
O. W'ilson, R. A. C. ; R. Stephenson, G. M. 3d \'. ; D. A. Spooner, G. M. 2d \'.; 
S. D. Harris, G. M., ist V.; W. A. Sargent, G. 

The first members were: O. W. Harden, J. W. Hough, J. Clark, S. H. Sawyers. 

J. R. Riggs. 

The present officers are: Joseph Lever, 11. P.; J. W. Fisher, K. ; L. J. Hanson, 
scribe; F. D. Sargent, treasurer; J. C. Henaman, secretary. The membership is 



This order was established at lUoomfield, Davis county, in 187 1, with the fol- 
lowing charter members: William J. Law, William C. Johnson, J. R. SheafFer. 
Samuel Cowen, Thomas l\. Myers. Harvey B. Kettleiuan, Charles L. Penning- 
ton, Charles AL Burgess, Samuel S. Carruthers. On October 23, 1S78, the com- 
mandery was transferred to Centerville, and on that evening the following officers 
were installed: S. H. Sawyers, E. C. ; Nelson Rogers, G. ; J. K. Boyles. C. G. ; 
W. S. Johnson, Prelate; J. L. Berch, S. W. ; 1". AL Drake, j. W. ; L. McIIenry, 
W. ; J. X. Riggs, S. B. ; A. Flicks, Sword B. ; Levi Clemmens, treasurer; B. A. 
Ogle, recorder. The first candidate knighted at Centerville was H. C. Bowen. 

The present officers are: J. C. Henaman, E. C. ; C. A. Farrington, G. ; W. J. 
Phillips. Jr.. C. G.:\\. E. Chatley, Prelate; L. L. Whitsell. S. W. ; B. F. Sturdi- 
vant, J. W . : W. S. I'"ox, recorder; G. M. Barnett, treasurer. The lodge lias a 
membership of 135. 

cEN"T]:u\n.i.i: cu.\i'ti:i<. xo. 239, order or e.\stern st.\r 

was organized several years ago, and has for its present officers: Mrs. Clara 
Hanson. W. M. ; 11. E. Link. W^ P.; Mrs. Chloe Miller. A. W. ^L : Mrs. Claud 
Henaman, conductress; Mrs. William Ballcnger, acting conductress; Mrs. Ada 
Peavcv. secretarv ; Miss Martha Halden. treasurer. 

(ili'ii lln^nn i'ark 

Lincoln 8ch(iol 

Oarfield School 

Catholir" Chnrch 

HaptiMt Church 
St. Jospjih "s Morcy IloMpitnl 
Elk»' Homo 
Count rv Cliili 

Ci:\Ti:i(\ IM.K SCENES 


CENTER I.0DC;E. XO ~6. I. O. O. F. 

'I'liis body dates from July 19. 1855, when it was conslituleil Ijy J. C. iJuiin. of 
Bloonitkld. The first officers were: Amos Harris, N. G. ; J. G. Brown, \'. G. ; 
J. L. Armstrong, secretary; P. Allen, treasurer. The other charter members 
were: E. H. Robley and J. Lankford. ( )n the evening of the organization H. 
Tannehill. William Llark, fnhn K. Allen and Joseph Moiiowan were initiated. 

The lirsi meetings were held at the old schoolliouse and later on in ludge 
Harvev Tamiehill's office. .\ room was then secured over Witteiuneyer's store 
where it remained until i.S'do and then a two-story brick building at the northeast 
corner of the S(|uare was iiurchased and the upper story of this was used until 
1876. In this year the Odd I-'eliows joined with tiie First National Bank in erect- 
ing a building, the third story being apportioned to the lodge, which it owns, and 
V '-orn licautiful lodge rooms and other apartments are used by the members, of 
which there are now about 200. 

The present officers are: G. C. Kinion, .\. (].; 1". M. ilamilton. \'. (;.; G. A. 
Ellis, F. ?.: Jacob Martin, I. S. ; E. S. Stites, treasurer; C S. Dotson, C. K. Camp- 
bfll and Harry Sininums, trustees. 

cuxTKKVir.i.F. i.oor.i;. xo. (14, kxiciits ok pvtiii.\s 

was organized October 26, 18X2, by H. D. Walker, with the following charter 
members: John Henderson.' A. C. Baker. W. F. Dickey, T. G. Manson, C. I. 
Brown, G. D. liarnthouse, E. C. Haynes, S. A. i'ennington, D. Spaulding, A. 
II. Eells, J. T. Trigg. H. C. Simms, L. Roth. Joseph Payton, W. 11. Lee, Joe 
Gray, H. Loude. Levi Clemens, J. I,. Harvey, D. C. Bradley. E. Savage. J. Lari- 
mer. C. Barlow, W. E. Selby, Crail Wiley. W. IT. I'.oggs. G. B. Shinogle, E. Park- 
erson, Sam Gates and G. VV. Needels. 

The membershij) of the lodge is 35. Meetings are held the second and 
fourth Wednesday evenings in the Odd F'ellows hall. The present officers are : 
C. C John Morris ; \". C. D. C. O'Neil ; prelate. L. Patterson ; M. of W.. E. C. 
Haynes; K. of R. S.. II. C. Haynes; M. of F., George Duckworth; M. of E.. W. 
M. Fv.-in>: M. of .\.. John Painter; T. G., G. B. Shinogle. 


The Elks ludge of Centerville, bearing the number 940, was organized Decem- 
ber 21). i<X)4. •'>■ several men of the order, whose homes were at Centerville and 
members in other lodges, nearly all of them belonging to Lodge No. 347. The 
charter members were: Alexander W'eller. J. B. (iaylor. \V. R. C. Kendrick, S. 
M. Brr.wn. Robert A. McKee. E. D. Ileatnn. C. C. Stei)henson. R. L. Robertson. 
Henry S. Moore. W. L. Halden. H. \'. P.rown, T. II. Dillon. M. II. Beer, H. C. 
Adams, J. I.. Mecheni, ('. J. Lane, J. C. Huggins, E. E. Heaton, W. S. Havs, I. 
O. Adams. T. G. Fee. 

The first officials were: Exalted ruler, ti. C. Haynes; esteemed leading knight. 

Robert A. McKee; esteemed loyal knight. D. C. Bradley; esteemed lecturing 

knight. F. B. McCreary ; secretary. J. Q. Adams; treasurer. J. .\. Bradley; tvler, 

Claude A. Baker; trustees, C. P. Bowen. I" I' Bamford, .Alexander W'eller. 
:oi. 1—22 


The present officers are: II. C. Haynes, exalted ruler; W. .M. Evans, leading 
knight; Pierce Wilson, loyal knight; J. O. Adams, lecturing knight; F. C. Mor- 
gan, secretary; D. Boyd Brann, librarian; C. Ward Howell, tyler; A. W. Bar- 
low, J. C. Huggins, J. L. Mecheni, trustees. There have been 295 members taken 
into the lodge by initiation and at this time (1912) the membership numbers 248. 

In March, 1905, the lodge purchased the C. W. Lewis home, on South Main 
street, which it used as a club house. On March 16, 1909, the present club house, 
on East State street, was dedicated. The cost of this building was $22,000. The 
lodge room is on the second floor. On the first floor is a billiard room, reception 
room, ladies' parlor, one large general room. The basement is divided into a 
dining room, kitchen, swimming pool, 20 x 50 feet, shower and tub baths, fur- 
nace, coal and storage rooms. 


This society was organized November 15, 1898, with thirteen charter mem- 
bers, as follows: A. W. Faris, A. W. Halden, O. P. Barton, S. J. Crase, John 
Garrison, Peter Sibert, T. T. Prough, James E. Blake, E. Larsen, John F. Mur- 
phy, C. J. Bowers and W. O. Hurst. The first president was A. W. Faris and 
the first secretary, S. J. Crase. 

The present membership is 1,200, and this society is the second largest order 
in the state. The present officials are: President, Roy Hardman; vice president, 
Richard Good ; recording secretary, John Bailey ; financial secretary, George Duck- 
worth ; treasurer, Frank Herbert ; trustees, C. F. Myers, F. W. Easton and .Mex- 
ander Hoag. 


The members of Centerville Union purchased the new Lewis business build- 
ing on North Thirteenth street about the year 1903, paying in full $4,200. The 
second story was at once remodeled, to suit the needs and convenience of the 
fraternity, which cost an additional outlay of money. The lodge hall is very 
commodious and the decorations meet the approval of those having an eye to 
beauty and the harmony of colors. In a room facing the street the secretary has 
an office and an outer, or lounging room for the members. 


.'\nna Rebekah Lodge, No. 95. 

Loyalty Lodge, No. 246, Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

Centerville Homestead, No. 2", Brotherhood of .\merican ^'eomen. 

Centerville Court, No. 298, Court of Honor. 

Court Appanoose, No. 15, Foresters of America. 

Troy Lodge, No. 246, Iowa Legion of Honor. 

Tent No. 60, Knights of the Maccabees. 

Hive No. 39, Ladies of the Maccabees. 

Centerville Lodge, No. 15 (colored) Knights of Pythias. 

Centerville Council, No. 1238. Knights and Ladies of Security. 

Centerville Nest, No. 1275, Order of Owls. 


Appanoose Camp, Xo. 3553, Modern Woodmen of America. 
Golden Rod Camp, Xo. 571. Royal Xeiglibors of America. 
Appanoose Camp, Xo. 340, Woodmen of the World. 
Appanoose County Editorial Association. 
Centerville Commercial Club. 
Merchants Association. 


Barbers Local, Xo. 369. 

Hricklayers International. Xo. 15. 

Centerville Plasterers. Xo. 445. 

International I'.rolhcrhood of Teamsters. Chanft'enrs. Stablemen and Helpers 
Local Xo. 321. 

Centerville Local, Xo. 597. United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 

Keokuk Division, Xo. 56, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. 

Patrick Walsh Lodge. Xo. 531, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 

J. W. Phillips Lodge, Xo. 104, Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen. 




The I-'irst Methodist Episcopal church was organized l)y the Rev. Hugh Gibson 
at the home of William S. Manson, about a mile and a half south of Centerville, 
in the year 1846. It consisted of six members, as follows: William S. Manson, 
Isabel Manson, Jesse Wood, Mrs. Wood, Mrs. Rebecca Hopkins and Mrs. Caugh- 
ran. This was the tirst religious society organized in Aijpanoose county. 

.\t that time the town of Centerville was just platted but no buildings were 
elected until in 1847. W'illiam S. Manson preached the first sermon in the town 
of Centerville, It is said that he used the head of a whiskey barrel for a pulpit. 
The society grew in numbers and strength so that in the year 1852 a lot was 
purchased on the corner of Washington and Jefferson streets and a church 30x40 
feet was built at a cost of about $800. Previous to this time meetings were held 
in private houses and at a log schoolhouse in the southeast part of town. After 
moving into the new church, a Sunday school was organized, with Frank .*>pooner 
as superintendent. In these early times society was in a very crude state; the 
people were poor and lived in primitive style; the church was lighted l)y candles 
around the walls ; no carpet was on any part of the floor or pulpit ; there was 
but one heating stove and it was placed in the center of the room and a wagon 
load of coal would be piled around it. There were but few clocks among the 
people, so they guessed at the church time. The congregation was very irregular 
in gathering. It was the custom of those coming early to gather in groups in the 
church and talk loudly about their crops, cattle, etc. In ilic warm weather the 
men came to church without coats, and the women wore sunijonnets which they 
would remove from their heads and use as fans. The church was the best 
.ludicnce room in the town. Political meetings and other public gatherings were 
held there. At one lime court was held in the church. .Vbnut the year 1858 
William .'>. Manson was elected justice of the peace and had his dffice in the 

From the organization of the church up to iS'kS ihe societv l)elongc<l to the 
Centerville circuit, which at that time comprised most of Appanoose county which 
lies west of the Chariton river. The pastors who served the circuit from the 
beginning uj) to 1855, as nearly as can be ascertained, were: Thompson, Rowley, 
Winings, Darrah, (libson, Dennis, F'rathcr and Dixon. In the fall of 1855 
R. B. .Mlender came on the circuit and remained two years. While he was here 



a parsonage was bought, which was located on the corner of W'ashington and 
School streets. There was an indebtedness hanging on the parsonage which 
for several years was a thorn in the side of the official board. Rev. Allender's 
successors were: E. L. Briggs, assisted by J. B. Hill, one year, 1857-58; George 
S. Clark, 1858-60; Cyrus Morey, 1860-62; Rev. Crellin, 1862-63; George W. 
Byrkit, 1863-65; John Welsh, three months; R. Stephens, who filled out the 
year 1865-66; J.H. Hopkins, 1866-68. 

In 1868 Centerville was made a station, with Miltiades Miller as preacher 
in charge. For years there had been trouble on the music quesion. The opposi- 
tion to the introduction of books with music or the use of a tuning fork was 
so great that some withdrew on that account. In 1870 a new parsonage was 
built on the corner of Jefferson and Van Buren streets, at a cost of about $1,200. 
It contained six rooms and was good for that day. The church building was 
now growing old — it had served its day. To those who were associated with 
it in early days it was indeed a hallowed spot. Here many a hard battle had 
been fought with the Powers of Darkness and many a glorious victory won. 
Here many who are now safe in the "Land beyond the river," were born into 
the kingdom. Here we had looked for the last time into the pale faces of our 
loved ones. We give the names of a few of those who loved to worship in the 
old church and who have entered into the Church Triumphant : Perry Stewart, 
Benjamin Spooner, Rebecca Alexander, Frank Spooncr, W. S. Manson and wife. 
Sister ^lansfield, Samuel Dickey, Lucian P.riant, Sarah J. Rummel. Elizabeth 
Hinkle, Henry Aflerbaugh. John Pullman and wife. Marcia L. Green, Jacob 
Williams, Joshua Miller and wife, Mary A. Mashon and others. 

In the fall of 1876 the foundation for a new. church was laid on the corner of 
Washington and Main streets. The building committee consisted of D. X. Steel. 
J. R. Wooden and J. W, Williams. The corner stone was laid ceremonially by 
Rev. T. E. Corkhill in August, 1877. The articles deposited in the corner stone 
were a bible, a hymn book, discipline of the Methodist Episcopal church, church 
almanac for the year 1877, the Christian Advocate, the Western Christian Advo- 
cate, Central Christian Advocate, the Citizen, Tribune and Journal (papers pub- 
lished in Centerville), a register of the names of the presiding elder of the dis- 
trict, j)astor of the society, the building committee, trustees, stewards, local 
])reachers, class leaders, superintendent of the Sunday school, the names of all 
the members of the society, and of all persons contrilniting to the erection of the 
church and the amount contributed by each, the names of the mechanics who 
erected the house, the names of the pastors of the several churches in the town. 
an Iowa Official and Statistical Table for 1876, also a list of the city officers of 
Centerville and the \aluation of the taxable ]n-operly of Appanoose county for 
1876. The church building was completed, and dedicated in the fall of 1878 
by Bishop E. G. Andrews. The building was of brick, with furnace room in 
the basement, a gallery in front, with a class room underneath, and a chapel in 
the rear of the auditorium. The size of the building was 45x80 feet, the windows 
were memorial, and the cost of the building was about S7.000, with a bell that 
cost $400. 

The society was incorporated conformaI)ly to the laws of the state of Iowa. 
January 10, 1878. and the names of M. M. \\'alden, J, .\. Calvert, J. B. .Maring, 
B. A. Ogle and J. W. Williams are in the articles of incorporation as trustees. 


The names of the pastors in charge of the society since it became a station, 
are as follows : 

Miltiades Miller, 1868-69: R. S. Robinson, 1868-70; C. S. Jennis, 1S70-71 ; 
J. A. Wilson, 1871-74; D. B. Smith died in 1874 and William Thatcher filled the 
unexpired term, 1874-75; T. E. Corkhill, 1875-77; II. E. Wing, 1877-80; I. P. 
Teater, 1880-83; W. G. Thorne, 1883-86; E. L. Schreiner, 1886-89; Dennis 
Murphy. 1889-90; T. j. Myers, 1890-91; C \'. Cowan, 1891-95; I. O. Kemble, 
1895-98; E. C. Brooks, 1898-1900; A. \'. Kcndrick, Hpo-1903; W. P. Stoddard, 
ir)03-o6; W. H. Purdue. ir)o6-o9: J- R. I lanley. 1909. 

The Xcw C'luirch 

'I'he ])resent building, a magnificent structure, was erected on the opposite 
corner from the old one, in 1905. The style of architecture is old English Gothic. 
The building is 100x200 feet. This includes the parsonage, which is attached to 
and is part of the south end of the edifice. The main auditorium will seat five 
hundred people and the main galleries two hundred. The chapel, which is a 
continuation of the auditorium and separated from it by folding doors, has a 
seating capacity, with the galleries, of four hundred, making in all eleven hundred. 
The cost was $40,000. The present membershi|) of the church is 750. 


The Christian clnirch at CenterviJIe, like every other church which has attained 
to something of success, had its struggle for existence. Conditions forty years 
ago were quite different from those which attentl our work now. Many of the 
difficuUies nf those earlier years have alnmst ciitirel\' disapjieared. (Jur peojjle 
at that time were not well known, and for the most part misunderstood. The 
truth we proclaimed was sure of final victory. However, the natural inertia of 
humanity is never more apparent than in the way in which it clings to the old, 
and the slowness with which it takes hold ol the new. The first few years of the 
church in Centcrville were years of struggle against j^rcjudice with ])oor material 
equipment in impress the people with the thought of permanency. The financial 
problem was difficult, though the members were liberal with their means. But 
what loyalty there was in those days ! These early disciples knew wlmni they 
had believed. 

The Christian church in Centerville was organized, August 10, 1867, with 
twenty-nine member^ a'^ ff)Ilows: Rebecca .Stewart, Clarissa Chesman, llannah 
Lee, Sarah Warheim, Julia A. Bennett, Joanna Root, L. C. Mechem, James S. 
Hamilton, Maria C. Alexander, William Morret, Ichabod Stewart, Silas D. Har- 
ris, J. C. Reynolds, Xancy Reynolds, Elizabeth Brough, L. J. Bennett, Jennie Har- 
ris, Lucy Chesman, I^lizabeth Conger, Lois R. Morret, George W. Stewart, William 
Wilkes, Mary Wilkes, Lydia M. Parker, Margaret Breazeale, Ellen Hamilton, 
David H. .Stewart, M. Chastain. Eliza Chastain. 

Centerville at that time was a town of less than one thousand inhatiitants 
and Appanoose county contained a little over thirteen thousand people. J. C. 
.^evey, who is now dead. i)rcached for this little b.-uul of people occasionally for 
about n .-ind nine months. Their meetings were held in the court house. T. 


A. Wilson served llie church from May i, i86g, to May i, 1870, and was really 
the first pastor, though he preached but once a month. !•". W'alden. who held a 
meeting the previous year, succeeded him and preached one-half time. These 
pastorates just named cover what might be called the period of struggle for exist- 
ence. In October, 1872, F. M. Kirkham, later editor of The Christian Oracle for 
a number of years, became pastor. At the beginning of his pastorate the actual 
number of members was fifty-three: hence, in five years there had been a gain 
of twenty-four members. More had come into the church during that time 
but the actual gain was as above stated. F. M. Kirkham was the first minister 
to devote all of his time to the church. The foundations had been laid in the 
preceding years, and he built thereon most wisely. The congregation had been 
meeting in the Baptist church. Plans were laid for a building of their own. 
They secured a more permanent and prominent place in the community. During 
this pastorate, which lasted seven years, a very commodious, substantial and 
well equipped (for those times) brick building was constructed. Their build- 
ing committee, consisting of F. i\I. Drake. L. C. Mechem, Ab. Owens. F. M. 
Kirkham and M. H. Kirkham, was appointed January 5, 1873. The building was 
dedicated February 14, 1875. Its cost was $7,000. The dedicatory sermon was 
preached by George T. Carpenter, afterwards chancellor of Drake University. 
This building was occupied until April, 1903. 

It was during the pastorate of F. M. Kirkham that our lamented brother, 
General F. M. Drake, came into vital touch with this church. His first gift of 
$500 to the church building, which was being erected, was the beginning of that 
remarkable benevolence of which the whok brotherhood came to know, and 
from which the church in every land has received great blessing. At the close of 
this pastorate in 1879, liie membership was 234 — a gain during the seven years 
of 181. H. U. Dale, now employed by the Benevolent Association, was the next 
pastor, serving from 1880 to 1885. Following him was D. W. Misener. now of 
California, who remained with the church about two years. J. P. Lucas served 
as pastor from 1887 to 1890. R. A. Gilcrest served from 1890 to 1894. H. H. 
Abrams succeeded him, and remained until October, 1896. The church had a 
steady growth during all these pastorates and the success of the recent years is 
largely due to the faithful sowing in former years. F. I,. MofFett became pastor 
October i. 1896. and remained with this charge for the extended period of ten 
years. It was ^Ir. ^Mofifett, with the assistance of L. C. Mechem. who prepared 
this article for publication, which appeared in a booklet, entitled Historical 
Sun'eys of Prominent Churches, i)ublished by the Christian Century Company, 
Chicago, Illinois, in 1905. 

In 1901 the present building was begun. Two who served on the building 
committee for the old church served on the building committee for the new- 
one F. M. Drake and L. C. Mechem. The foundation for the present building 

was laid in the fall of the year above named. It was dedicated Easter Sunday, 
April 12, 1903. There was no money to raise on dedication day; all had been 
provided before. Its cost was $40,000. The pipe organ, costing $3,000, was 
presented by John A. Drake and Mrs. T. P. .Shontz, wife of the chairman of the 
Panama Canal Commission. The building is constructed of granite brick and 
is thoroughly modern in all its appointments. It has a gallery in both the main 
auditorium and Sunday school room and seats 1,200 people. The building and 



ecjuipnient is a fit expression of the loyal lives who have labored through the 
years to build up the Kingdom of (_iod in Ccnterville. 

It is very largely in plan and structure the ideal of General Drake and his 
family. It is quite natural that the life of General Drake should make the Ccnter- 
ville church known far and wide. His name was always associated with this 
church and the church associated with him. But one who writes but briefly of 
the growth of the Christian church in Centerville must mention at a few of 
the other faithful ones whose wisdom has guided and whose liberal contributions 
have supported the work of the Kingdom in this city. L. C. Mechem has been 
with the church as a w ise counselor almost from its very beginning. Though a 
busy attorney, he has always found time to devote to the church ; it is his chief 
joy. Joseph Goss, who has served as president of the official board and as elder, 
has been a strong support w ith wisdom and means for years. W. W. Oliver has 
given largely of time and means. A. Dargavel, for more than twenty years super- 
intendent of tile Sunday school, has devoted time and means. C. \V. Lane, who 
-crved as superintendent of the Sunday school for five years and also as an 
elder of the church, must be placed on this list. Senator L. L. Taylor, also an 
elder, has added much strength to the church. J. X. Dunbar, who has also served 
as an elder, has watched its growth with supreme delight. Dr. J. L. Sawyers, 
son-in-law of General Drake, has in recent years been a bulwark of strength. 
Although a busy man, he has never been so busy in his large practice that he 
could not attend all the im])ortant meetings of the church. 

The church in Centerville has always been at peace; no friction in all of its 

'listory has ever disturbed it. Level-headed, successful business men have man- 

,'ed it. It has been a church with few short pastorates. Its first regular located 

istor served the church seven years. It realizes that nothing mechanical or 

.i-.-^thetic can take the place of the old (iospel, yet it believes there is wisdom in 

1 making all things contriliute to tlfe Kingdom ; hence for several years Professor 

K. Travis, formerly in charge of the Conservatory of Music at Cotner Uni- 
> crsity, had charge of the music, to the great delight of the congregation. * * * 

The church in Centerville has had a natural and steady growth. Its progress 
has been f|uite gratifying. Its life has expressed itself in renewed missionary 
activity. It suf)ports its own evangelist in the state, being the llrst state-living- 
link-church in Iowa. Its possibilities are great. 

"Xot that we have already attained, but we are pressing forward." 

.\t the close of the pastorate of V. L. Moffett, October i, 1906, John Sher- 
man Hill became pastor, serving until .\pril i, 1908. His successor was lohn H. 
I'.DOth. who remained until October i, 19 10. The present pastor. M. V.. Chatley, 
began his services with the church I'ebruary 15. 191 i. 


The early records being lost it is (|uite difficult to secure a full historv durmg 
the formative ])eriod of the church. What is herein stated is ba.sed on the best 
available authority and is regarded correct. The initiative of the church is sub- 
stantially credited to C. H. Howell, who organized and conducted a Sundav school 
'.me time i)rior to 1S4S. Rev. James Harvey Shields moved to L'nionville in 
1S48, supplying the church there and making Centerville a jireaching point. In 


the spring of ICS49 he moved to Ccntcrville. 'Ilie Suiiilay school and church ser- 
vices were conducted in the old log court house until the completion of Mr. How- 
ell's store building in 1852, from which time services were held in the room over 
the store until the completion of the first church building. The church was 
formally organized in October, 1849, under Rev. Shields as supply. The funda- 
mental organization consisted of nine members. A number of other persons 
united with the new organization on the following Sunday, thus giving strength 
and courage. The first building, about 30 x 40 feet in size, was erected pn the 
site of the present one. The brick was burned by Joseph Goss, and the building 
was erected mainly under the supervision of C. H. Howell. The seating was 
not secured until the following year. The first building served the church and 
communit\- until 1870, when a new and larger building was erected on the same 
site. This was about 40 x 80 feet in size and was constructefl of brick, at a cost 
of $5,000. This was then regarded as rather a pretentious effort for that day. In 
the summer of 1892 the following building committee was appointed to erect the 
third building: William Bradley, chairman; H. A. Russell, secretary; H. Tanne- 
hill, D. N. Steele, A. J. McCoy. Some of the contracts were let in the fall ot 
1892. It was completed during the year 1893, at a cost of about $18,000, and 
was dedicated December 31st of that year, Ur. Willis Craig preaching the dedi- 
catory sermon. 

The first parsonage was located some distance north of the present Keokuk & 
Western depot. This was sold and in 1881 the one now owned by the church on 
West Washington street w-as built. Considerable improvements have lately 
been made on the building and grounds, thus making it one of the desirable resi- 
dences in the cit}'. The present membership of the church is 250, while the Sun- 
day school has a membership of 125. 

This sketch would be incomplete without reference to the Christian charac- 
ter, loyalty and wise counsel of C. H. Howell, William Bradley and Samuel P. 
Hays. These men used their varied capacities in the early developing period in 
meeting many difficulties, pointing out the way to success, and ever breathing 
forth the prayer of peace. These worthies, letting fall their mantle U]}on others 
to continue the work well begun, have gone to their reward. 

Rev. Matthew Smith served this charge until about i860, when Rev. John 
Fisher succeeded him. Mr. Fisher remained here until 1868. His departure left 
the charge without a pastor until some time in the early part of 1869, when the 
services of Rev. J. C. Clyde were secured. The ne.xt pastor whose name is of 
record was Edward L. Dodder, who assumed charge of the church November 9, 
1873, as stated supply for one year, but was retained until October 17, 1875. 
His successor was Rev. McCleggett, who came in .\pril, 1876, as stated supply 
for six months. February 10. 1877, L. M. Belden was secured as stated supply for 
six months. In April, 1881, W. W. Thorpe came and his successors have been: 
June 13, 1886, I. A. Bartlett ; May, 1889, G. H. Putnam: December, 1893. S. W. 
Pollock; January, 1898, Mott R. Sawyers; March, 1898, Clarence G. Miller; 
December, 1900. Mott R. Sawyers; February, 1902, H. A. Cooper; October, 
1904, D. J. Mitterling; September, 1907, David McEwan; December, 1910, Wil- 
liam McCoy. 



The First Baptist church of Centervillc was organized in August, 1851, with 
thirty-one members as near as can be ascertained. The first officers of the 
church were: Pastor, Albert Thompson, called September 27, 1851 ; deacons, E. 
A. Packard and B. L. Packard; clerk, John F. Overstreet ; trustees, J. F. W'ad- 
lington, E. A. F^ackard and Daniel P. Sparks; (they were also chosen a building 
committee. November 22, 1851) ; treasurer, Jeremiah Lirower. The charter mem- 
bers were Daniel P. and Mary A. Sparks, John and Eurydice Overstreet, Isaac 
Fuller. E. A. Packard, J. Brower. A. Thompson, Amanda Thompson. \\. \.. Pack- 
ard. Elizabeth Packard. Hannah Packard, Jane Wright, S. !•". W'adlington, Har- 
vey Campbell, Parney Campbell, Louise Campbell, Harriet Robertson, C. Pirower, 
J. T. Gunter. Jane Gunter, James Thompson, Calvin Smith and Alarilla Smith. 

On the 22(S. of December, 1S55, the church appointed J. W. Osborn, Daniel 
P. Sparks and B. L. Packard a committee to draw up articles of incorporation to 
conform with the provisions of the law so that the society could hold in its name 
their right to a lot to be deeded to it and have power to alienate it at any time the 
church saw fit. On May 2d, 1858, D. P. Sparks presented a deed for the church 
lot and at the same time stated that the amount of money paid for the erection of 
a church edifice up to that time was $728.78 and that there were donations of 
$170.08 to apply on the building. Still there was a balance of $558.70 unprovided 
for to clear the house from debt, which Mr. Sparks agreed to pay providing the 
members would go ahead and finish the structure. S. F. W'adlington donated 
the bell. J. R. Wright and A. Fuller made the pews, which were in constant use 
until October, i88i. The building was a frame structure and is still standing a. 
short distance west of the court house s(|uare. A parsonage was built in 1874. at 
a cost of about $700 but was sold after the present building was erected and the 
society is without a home for its pastors, intending, however, soon to purchase a 
lot and erect one. 

In June, 1875, the church appointed William Evans, V . M. Vcach and \\. L. 
Packard to solicit aid to build or repair the church. In July of that year this com- 
mittee reported it had secured subscriptions to the amount of $1,100 and that it 
had an opportunity to sell the old house for $100 to Isaac Lane, he to move it off 
the lot. The report of the committee was received and the church decided to 
build a new house. William Evans, P". M. \'each and S. C. Goodenough were 
ajipoinlcd a building committee and in 1875 a new house of worship was erected 
and in November of that year dedicated by Rev. J. M. Smith, of Osceola. This 
building was a structure 30 .x 45 feet, with vestibule and bell tower. The old 
Wadlington bell which bore his name, together with the date of its cast, June, 
1858, was hung in the new structure, which cost $1,500. 

The Woman's Mission Circle was organized April 20, 1878, with Miss Rosa 
Richardson as president, and later the Baptist Young People's L'nion, Junior 
Union and Ladies' Aid Society — auxiliaries of the church — were organized. 

In i88f) special meetings were conducted by the pastor for six weeks and the 
church was greatly strengthened and encouraged. While the church reaped 
hounti fully in the services rendered by W'. A. Sunday in 1903, yet great credit was 
due to the pastor. J. D. \'annoy, who began his work on this charge, October i, 
1902. As a result of a series of meetings conducted by him in January and Feb- 


ruary over three scores of people were added to the church. During the entire 
year of 1903 there were received to membership in the church 224 memliers. 

Present Church P.uilding 

On July 15, 1903, the church voted that a committee of five be appointed to 
solicit funds for a new church building. The motion upon which the vote was 
to be taken was amended l^y making a committee of seven instead of five. J. G. 
Patterson, William Speers, E. l-'. Anderson, W'illiam Powers, Miss Elizabeth 
Thompson, Mrs. C. VV. Lewis and I'". W. Hamilton were appointed as the com- 
mittee. W. C. Cutler, A. B. Bush and Ed Lowrey comprised the committee on 
plans and specifications. On December 2, 1903, resolutions were passed that 
steps be immediately taken toward the erection of a church building to cost not 
less than $12,000, and building to commence when two-thirds of the total amount 
should be raised. In pursuance of the spirit of the resolution building opera- 
tions commenced and the new church edifice was erected in 1905, at a cost of 
nearly $20,000. In changing the plans for a more pretentious building than first 
contemplated the society found itself in debt to the amount of about $10,000. 
Efforts were then made to cancel this debt. The parsonage was sold and the 
proceeds applied on the indebtedness. By other means the amount outstanding 
has been cut down but still the society has some outstanding obligations. The 
church was dedicated Sunday, December 10, 1905, the principal sermon being 
tielivered by H. O. Rowlands, assisted by A. E. Clemmens, of Seymour. The 
names of the pastors who have served this church since its organization are given 
below : 

,\ll)crt Thompson, 1S51-55; John Osliorn. 1855-56; Benjamin Blackburn, 
1856-58; James L. Cole, 1858-60; J. C. Burkholder. 1860-61 ; John Redburn. 1861- 
65; J. W. Bolster, 1865-67; Arthur Scott, 1867-68^ \V. H. Turton. 1868-73; F. 
Edwards, 1873-80; A. Robbins. 1880-83; G. E. Eldredge, 1883-86; J. F. Leek, 
1886-88; James L. Cole, 1888-92; W. H. Sayre, 1892-95; A. J. Smith, 1895-97: 
G. F. Reinking. 1897-1900; G. M. Adams, 1900-1902; J. D. \'annoy. 1902-05; 
Dr. Bass then served the church a few months and was followed by Rev. .-\rthur 
C. Hageman, who remained two years, his successor being W. M. Martin, who 
came in .August, 191 1. 


The city of Centervillc has a class of people within her confines, which takes 
no small part in its business, social and religious affairs. This people are of the 
Jewish race, industrious, law-abiding and God-fearing. Their strength in Cen- 
tervillc encouraged them to organize a church and in 1892 the undertaking was 
realized. The B'Nai Congregation was reorganized in 1912. The charter mem- 
bers were: A. Grin.span, M. Futoransky, M. Ilirshburg. A. Chapman. \. Chaj)- 
man. M. Ritchell, A. I^zar, A. Park, A. Lieberman, S. Gaba. S. Toub. S. Hirsh- 
burg, J. Sa.x, C. H. Ilirshburg. C. H. Toub, J. Schutzbank. The officers were: S. 
J. Friedlander, president; D. Ilromberg, vice president; H. Chapman, treasurer; 
trustees, A. Israel, E. !M. Cohn. E. Teitel, J. Fefer; rabbi, .\. Israel. 

The i^astors have been: Rabbis .A. Israel, M. Levinson. L. Adelman and I.. 


Present oflficers and members: L. Salinger, president ; L. Fiernstein, vice presi- 
dent : A. Goldstein, treasurer; S. Rosenbaum, secretary; J. Rosenbaum, J. J. 
Frankel. L. P.romberg. trustees. 

A very comfortable and presentable cluircb edifice, of frame construction, 
was erected i)y tlie congregation in 1894, at a cost of $3,ocK). An additional $2,000 
was spent in remodeling the building in 1912. The synagogue stands on the 
corner of Terry and Fifteenth streets, and on the same lot is the raijlji's resiflence. 


Secund llai)tist, (colored). 

Christian Science. 

Church of Latter Day Saints. 

Swedish Congregational. 

Swedish Lutheran. 

Free Methodist. 

First .African Methodist Episcopal. 

St. .Marv'< r.uholic. 


Oakland cemetery, the "silent city of the dead," became tenanterl early in the 
history of Centerville. Us site is a l)eautiful spot within the confines of the cilv 
and practically marks the corporate limits of East State street. Xo real system 
had been adopted for laying out the grounds and practically no supervisory cor|)s 
iiad been in vogue to beautify and keep in order the grounds until the women of 
Centerville took the matter in hand. To this end and fur this purpose the Center- 
ville Cemetery Association was organized January 26, 1893, by a number of i)ro- 
gressive women of Centerville for the improvement and .systematic superintend- 
ence of the burial grounds. These enterprising women went to work with a will 
and with the hearty approval and support of almost the entire public, the incen- 
tive prompting them being the lever which enabled them to raise sufficient funds 
to start the movement. Uancjuets were given and entertainments of various 
kinds, which were quite generously aided by talented thespians of Centerville, 
who spent their vacations at home. Through these means snug little sums of 
money were realized. Donations were solicitefl from individuals, business men. 
and in fact from every one who would contribute, and every dollar was applied to 
tiie work in haml. .\ftcr sfjending several thousand dollars in constructing beau- 
tiful ilrive> and the erection of an iron fence, the association i)aid $1,000 for 
additional grounds, which were secured by the city. The members then emjiloyed 
a landscape gardener to lay off the new adtlition. The liradley estate donated a 
tract of ground on the west, which is now known as Memorial Park. Here was 
erected a large arbor or colonnade, now covered with beautiful vines. Here all 
memorial exercises are held and it has become one of the salient features of the 

Xot satisfied witii what tlicy lia<i already accomplished, the ladies purchaserl 
another tract of lancl adjoining the |iark on the west, where they Imilt an attrac- 


tive little residence for the superintendent of the grounds. This, with other im- 
provements, cost about $3,000. 

Quite recently the association bought the patent right for making cement burial 
vaults. This then suggested the idea of a building for the installation of the 
vaults and in the fall of 191 2 a beautiful and attractive structure was erected 
near the western entrance of the grounds, the material being of plain Bedford 
stone, at a cost of about $8,000. The purpose of this building is for the installa- 
tion of vaults, the temporary reception of bodies for burial and services for the 
dead. It is a chapel that meets the eye as one approaches the cemetery and is 
the piece de resistance of this beauty spot. 

The ladies of the association now purpose to procure the interests of all 
owners in Oakland in the plan to raise an endowment fund for the perpetual 
care of lots. Already quite a number have materially furthered the project and 
it is hoped that others will see in this innovation sufficient virtue to induce them 
to join those who have already expressed their sympathy with this object. Tak- 
ing it all in all the members of the Centerville Cemetery Association have accom- 
plished a magnificent work, the results of which are apparent to even the most 
casual observer at a glance; and the people of the community are back of them in 
their work and their aspirations for the future. 






Wells township was an inviting locality for the early settler. There was 
manent settler in Appanoose county and is honored in having given to the locality 
the name of the pioneer. Colonel James Wells. 

The township was organized in January. 1848. It is the extreme southwest 
township of the county and was (|nite heavily limbered in the center, running 
diagonally from the northwest to the southeast. There is considerable good 
farming land in this vicinity and there are farms that will vie with any in the 
county in productiveness. There are many small streams, the principal one being 
the Chariton, which mean that the land is generously watered and drained. The 
township is traversed by the Chicago, llurlington & Ouincy, the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee cSc St. F'aul, Keokuk & Western and the low.-i and .St. Louis railroads. 

Colonel James Wells was the first settler, coming with his family in 1839. He 
selected a location on section 16 and in the fall Ijuilt a log cabin, in which he 
installed his family. Two years after he began the construction of a sawmill on 
his claim, which was followed a few years later by a flouring mill. 

During the year 1841 Adolphus Stevens made a claim not far from where 
Wells had set his stakes and in the same year Austin Jones settled in the neighbor- 
hood. Jones remained but a few years and then removed to California. Stevens 
improved his farm and became a fixture in the township, living on his place for 
many years. 

\\ illiam Cooksey and family were also settlers in this township in 1841 and the 
Cookseys later became well known in the townshi]>. The name of Cooksey fig- 
ures quite prominently in the history of the county. 

\\ ells township was an iiniting locality for the early scUlcr. There was 
plenty of timber, water and arable land. It is unfortunate, however, that all the 
names of the iiionecrs cannot be given. A few follow: 

James Milton Scurlock was a "I'uckeye." Fie came to this locality in 1844, 
in territorial days, and married Matilda Cooksey, daughter of William Cooksey, 
in 1845, which shows that the Cook.seys were pioneers of Wells township and of 
the county. When Mr. Scurlock arrived here all he had in the world was a large 



stock of courage and (letermiiiation — and ten dollars in his pocket. It is a tra- 
dition in the family that five years passed before he saw ten dollars more. 

C F. I''indley, a l'cnns\lvaniaii, came and located here in 1855. i)urchasing 
eighty acres of land. 

William Horn lived on section 7, for many \cars. lie came to the count) in 
1848, soon after attaining his majority. Mr. Horn accumulated several hun- 
dred acres of land and became one of the valued men of this township. 

(j. .^. Stansberry settled in the township in 1852 and ac(|uired through habits 
nf industry and frugality, a competency. In 1854 he married Rebecca Cooksey, 
daughter of William Cooksey, one of Wells' pioneer farmers. 

James Craig came to this township from Morgan county, Ohio, with his 
parents, in 1856. The family located on section 2, where James remained after 
the death of his father in 1864. 

S. P. Elam, a native of Virginia, emigrated from Kentucky to Iowa in 1S50 
and Incated in this county. He traded a horse for his first quarter section of 
lan<l, on which he put up a log cabin and made the furniture from hewn timber. 
The bucket for carrying water was ])urchased with money he secured from the 
sale of a 'cocm ]ielt. Needless to say, Mr. Elam succeeded and became well and 
favoral)ly known. 

John and .\nn liond, natives of Ireland, were among the early settlers of this 
countv, having located in Wells townshij) where their daughter. Sarah Louise, 
who married George Robinson, was born March 28, 1846. 

Eli .Knkrom settled on a farm near Moulton about 1852. 

Matison .S. Edwards, with his parents, W'illiam and Marilla (Elliottt 
Edwards, arrived in .\ppanoose county from Kentucky late in the \ear 185 1 and 
located on a farm five miles south of Moulton. Here the elder Edwards engaged 
in raising and selling live stock for a jjeriod of thirty years, when he retired from 
the farm to Moulton and died there in 1883. He was followed to the grave by 
his wife in 1902. 

Thomas and Rachel Law of the lUickcye state, soon after their marriage came 
west and settled on a farm in Wells township. .Appanoose county. They were 
the parents of seven children, of whom O. H. Law. an attorney and real-estate 
man of Centerville, is one. He was born on a farm just south of Moulton in 1857. 


.\ village had been conteinplated for section 2 and its name chosen. Leona was 
to be built ujion the southeast quarter of the section and was actually laid out 
and platted. Hut the project died abornin' and has long since been forgotten. 

\ot far from the projected and rejected town of Leona, on section 4, was built 
the little hamlet of Dean. The "future great" was named in honor of Henry 
Clay Dean, a noted, although eccentric lowan of his day. who spent his declin- 
ing years on a farm four miles south and over the Missouri line. Dean was a 
station on the .Missouri, Iowa & .Vebraska railroad, but is not now .so noted by 
the assessor in making out his returns. For some little time it was considerable 
of a trading point, but it has been discarded for places of more importance. Coal 
abounds in this section and is mined (|uite extensively. 



IliMtown was a hamlet established close to ilic Missouri line, on the Chari- 
ton river in 1845, its principal business lieing clone through the mines established 
in the vicinitv. lUit after a connection had Ijeen made with the railroad at Dean 
and the mines, this source of revenue was taken from Hilltown and then it 

' ned. An important adjunct of the settlement was the Wells mills, estab- 
ii-iied in i''~''45. whicii brought no little trade. 


This township lies in the southeastern portion uf the county, being township 
68, range Hi. It is bounded on the north by Udell, east by Davis county, south 
by Wells and west by Sharon. The topography is pleasing and the land, which 
is very fertile, is drained by the Fo.x river and tributaries of the Chariton. Here 
are to be found some of the finest farms in tlie county, upon which are beautiful 
homes and substantial farm buildings. 

Washingtim township was organized in January, 1848, and the first election 
was held at the house of Eli Bagley. The judges of election were David Piarn- 
house, Eli Bagley and John C. Haney ; clerks, W. E. Ferry and Cortland Harris. 

The first persons to settle in this township were William Bratton, James 
Wright and Jehiel Troxell. They came in 1843 and chose claims directly after 
the land was subject to entry. It was not long after the advent of these pioneers 
that others came in and the township became peopled by a class of men and women 
unsurpassed by any community. 

Xo record is at hand from which to give the names of all the early settlers of 
this or the other townships in the county, hut a partial list has been secured 
and is hereto appended. 

E. A. Drake came from Tennesee to .\ppanoose county and settled here in 
' 1847. He i)urchased government land and at one time possessed twelve hundred 
acres and was one of the wealthy men of the county. 

I. X. Dunliar came from Kentucky to Iowa in 1848 and settled in this 

I. 1.. Earnest, a Fennsylvanian, came to the township in 1856 and made good. 

.\. M. Harm, who later engaged in selling boots and shoes at Moulton, located 
in the county in 1855. 

lohn Carr was born in Ireland and immigrated to America in 1840. He 
Ificated in this township in 1855 and became ])rosperous as a farmer. 

John Cupi) was born in Pennsylvania and settled here in 1850, his worldly pos- 

■ions at the time consisting of his wife and si.K children, a team an<l a wagon. 
i.\ industry and good judgment he accumulated considerable properly. 

T. H. Havs came to this township in 1856 with his parents and located on 
a farm on section 9. 

S. G. Haughev came from Illinois and .settled in the township in 1858, where 
he first SI lid himl)er and then o|)cned a brick yard. 

lohn P. Jennings was born in old X'irginia and settled in Washington town- 
' ill in 185.V 

\\ illiam I Johnson, with his parents, settled on the Fox river in 1846. His 


horse, which he rode from Missouri, and seventy-five cents in money, was all 
the projjerty he possessed. Mr. Johnson prospered. 

A. J. Morrison, who became a banker, settled in this township in 1851. 
He was county treasurer and a veteran of the Civil war. 

Thomas Morrison came here in 1856. He was a blacksmith. He enlisted 
in the Seventh Missouri in 1861. 

Robert R. Polk and wife settled in this township in 1853, locating on a farm 
two miles south of Aloulton. lie afterward sold the farm and built the Moulton 
Ilnuse, over which he presided. 

J. R. Rucker settled in this county in 1850 and was one of the pioneers of 
Washington township. 

George N. Scurlock. engineer and machinist, removed from Ohio in 1853 
and located in this community. 

G. \\'. Singley came to the township in 1856. He was a machinist and learned 
the craft in Pennsylvania. 

Joseph B. Thomas and Lucy, his wife, settled in .Appanoose county in 1850. 
locating on a farm in section 19. 

\\ H. Wamsley located here in 1852. He borrowed the money to purchase 
land and before his death was possessed of a valuable property. 

John M. and Nancy A. (Wilson) Taylor came from Kentucky to Washing- 
ton township in 1849. With them was a family of children, including Lewis 
Leroy Taylor, editor of this work. 

Thomas and Eliza (Barkley ) Wallace rcmoxcd from their old home in Indiana 
in 1847 to Davis county, Iowa, whence they came to Appanoose county in March, 
1848, and took possession of a farm of one hundred and si.xty acres in this 
township. Here his wife died in the early part of 1856, leaving five children. 

Levi Davis came to this township in 1S57 and located near the deserted vil- 
lage of Orleans. Here he met Martha J. \\"illett. to whom he was married in 


Elisha Rauson came to Appanoose county in 1856. He located on a farm 
of one hundred acres, for which he paid four dollars an acre. He became pos- 
sessed of several hundred acres of land and held various oflfices in the township. 


Elizabethtown was the first village in Washington township to be platted, 
and was located on the southeast quarter of section 15, and northeast quarter of 
section 22, town 68, range 16, lying on, or very near the ancient "bee-trace" 
heretofore described. But at the time of the laying out of Elizabethtown, the 
North ?*Iissouri railroad was building in this direction, and this induced a change 
in the plans, and the plat of Elizabethtown was merged in that of the town of 

The town plat of Moulton originally contained one hundred and sixty acres of 
land, situated in the west half of the southwest quarter of section 15, town 68. 
range 16. The land belonged to S. S. Caruthers and the plat was certified to and 
acknowledged before H. M. Jones, July 4. 1867. The streets running east and 
west were given numbers, while those running north and south were named East. 
Walnut, Elm, Oak. Main, \'ine. Maple and West. 

Biisinrss Tilock 

Inferior of the IVii-toftice 

Pulilic S'hool 

Kirtt Xatiniml Hank 

KliTtrii- I,i(;ht I'laiit 

\Val<as)i |)i'|iiit aii>l lloli'l 



The railroad reached the new town in the spring of 1869 and was extended to 
Bloomfield and. by the year just named, there were the following inhabitants 
and business lirnis at this trading point ; Thomas McAchrcn. druggist ; William 
Lowry, dry goods and groceries; James G. West, James E. Jennings. Andrew 
Ogden, Levi David. M. \'. Howell. James P. Smith, James Xorris. laborers; 
Joseph Jurd. John Burdctt. carpenters; and two or three others. .Ml of these 
men had families with the exception of William Lowrv. 

The betjinning of salient events in the village was about as follows: The 
death of Thomas .Mulock, in 1869, was the first visitation of its kind to hapi)en 
there. The first marriage was that of Wilson Xycum to Miss Xorris. The first 
.school in the village was taught in the Christian church by Thomas Haughey 
and wife, in the winter of 1869-70. Before this the children attended the district 
school near the corporation line. In 1872, the firm of Edwards & Davis built 
a steam flouring mill and filled a long-felt want, not only of the villagers, but of 
the surrounding country. It \va« well patronized and was deserving. 

sixLKi-: .\.\otiii;r r.mi.road 

In 1873, the people of the village and contiguous country were called upon 
to assist in bringing into Moulton the extension of the Burlington & Southwest- 
ern railroad. The project appealed to the growing citizenship of the village and 
$25,000 was given for the improvement, which was built through the town and 
is now part of the great Burlington system. 

In 1869, the firm of .\aron & Son erected a steam flouring and woolen mill, 
investing in the enterprise -$25,000. The mill prospered for a time, but as a woolen 
mill it is a thing of the past. 


A. J. .Morrison was the first person to establish a bank here. He conducted 
the institution for some little time. His successor was Major Moore, who gave 
up the enterprise in 1878. having been elected clerk of the courts, which necessi- 
tated his removal to the county seat. 


In the spring of 1869. Moulton was incorporated as a village and notice of its 
election for village officers was published .May 3, 1869. The petitioners for the 
incor[K)ration were Peter Fees, .Samuel Leeburi^cr. Tacc.h Xcal, Wilsnn Xvcum, 
and Thomas McAchren. 

The territory incori)orated was one mile S(|uarc and inchxled the south half 
of the northwest quarter of section 14. southwest quarter of section 14, south 
half of the northeast quarter and southeast quarter of section 15, north half of 
the northwest quarter of section 21,. and the north half of the northeast quarter 
of section 22. 

The election took place at the store of .\. Hart, .May 18. Jacob Xeal. Thomas 
.Mc.\chren and Wilson .Xycum were the judges; Samuel l.eeburger and I'etcr 
Fees, clerks. There were polled seventy-five votes ;iiid (Iniii n.i/<l\\ond">i was 


the first to be cast. C. 11. Walker was elected mayor; S. B. Thompson, recorder; 
O. Gillett, marshal; M. \'. Howell, J. C. Thompson, G. Paris, J. Q. Lane, A. 
Harter, councilmen. 

The ordinance book covering this period is lost, hence no data can be given 
of the early laws passed for the municipality. It is known, however, that a 
place for lawljreakers was Iniilt in the spring of 1871 and is still called the 

Prior to this, in 1870. a cemetery association was formed, but eventually the 
management of the burial place was turned over to the village authorities. In 
June, 1873, the mayor was authorized to appropriate such amount of money as 
might be needed to put the grounds in order, and $320 was expended for that 

A sidewalk system was adopted in 187 1, which has been maintained to the 
present day ; consec|uently, Aloulton has many blocks of fine cement walks. The 
schools and school buildings are excellent and are treated in a chapter covering 
the schools of the county. 

Transportation facilities are good, two lines of railroads entering the place — 
the Keokuk & \\'estern, which is controlled by the Burlington system, and the 
Wabash. By these roads, grain and stock can be moved readily and connec- 
tions with main lines of the Burlington, W^abash and Rock Island are easily 
attained. Being in an excellent farming district the village of Moulton enjoys 
a large trade from a prosperous class of ])eople. who come from well cultivated 
farms to sell their grain, live stock and other products of the soil, which afford 
them the means to buy generously. Moulton's population, that part of it lying 
in AYashington townshii^. is 1,233; '" ^Yclls township, iqq. making 1.430 in all. 


A postoffice was established at Aloulton, March 2, 186S, with Jacob Xeal as 
postmaster. His successors have been : Thomas L. C. Mc.Achran, December 29, 
1868; John W. Carey, March 30, 1870; James G. West. April 12, 1871 ; Nelson 
W. Edwards, March i, 1875; Aimer Swift, February 15. 1878; Jacob M. \YilIett. 
December 21, 1885; \Yilbur F. Garrett. August 31, 1889; Aimer Swift. March 
26, 1891; Thomas W. Killion. November 4. 1S93; Charles M. Marsliall, Janu- 
ary ID, 1898. 

Tin; FIR.ST X.VTION.M. r..\XK 

The First National lu'uik is a continuation of the Moulton Bank, a private 
concern established in 1887 by W. C. Stickney, which he conducted until 1891. 
At this time, William Bradley purchased Mr. Stickney 's interests, erected a 
building for the pin-pose on the corner of Main and Fourth and ran what was 
known as Bradley's Bank. The elder Bradley died in 1893, but his sons con- 
tinued the business until 1901. In July, 1901, a national charter was secured 
by J. A. Bradley and his mother, .\manda T. Bradley, and the institution began 
business as the First National Bank, with a capital of $25,000. Other charter 
members were: D. C. Bradley, a son of William Bradley: Joel S. Gregory. George 
W. Blosser, George O. Holbert, now deceased; and .\ugust Post. The first 
officials chosen were: J. .\. Bradley, president ; George W. Blosser. vice president ; 


W. C. Stii.kncy. cashier; E. L. Stickney, assistant cashier. In 1904 Mrs. IJrad- 
ley died and her interest in the bank went to lier sons. Previous to this and in 
ift02. the cajiital of the Ijank was increased to $35,000. and on November i, 
i';04. E. L. Stickney succeeded his father as cashier. 

On tlie I2th day of December. 1910. the stock of the First National owned by 
J. A. and D. C. ISradley was ]nirchased by August Post and E. L. Stickney. This 
change resulted in Mr. Post becoming president, and two new directors were 
elected — Dr. \\'. L. Downing and Samuel Richardson. In the summer of 1906 
a beautiful building was erected on the site of the old one. Its style of archi- 
tecture follows Grecian lines and the appointments of the interior meet the 
requirements and tastes of modern banking institutions. The cost was Si 2,000. 

The officials are: August Post, president; J. S. Gregory, vice president^ 
E. L. Stickney, cashier; J. J. James, assistant cashier. Capital, $35,000; sur- 
plus and undivided profits, $11,000; deposits, $210,000. 


Although but a fev,- years have passed since the establishment of tlic .Moulion 
State Savings Bank, the concern is a strong competitor for the business of a 
wide field and is growing at a pace that is highly satisfactory to all concerned. 
The bank was organized in I-'eljruary, 1903, by M. S. Edwards, L. S. Elam, G. 
L. liovard, Mary C. Hamilton. E. f . Printz, A. H. Stickney, S. A. Carr. Wil- 
liam Logan. i)resident State Savings Bank, Keokuk. Isaac Guinn, W. C. Guinn, 
James Craig. C. .\. Powers and G. .\. Singley. The capital stock was $30,000, 
and first officials were: M. S. Edwards, president; R. D. Carson, vice president; 
C. A. Powers, cashier. In 1902 a substantial two-story brick building was 
erected, on the corner diagonally from the First National, constructed of St. 
Louis red pressed brick, at a cost of $14,000. The bank fronts on Main street 
and in the rear end of the building, facing Fourth street, is the ])ostofiice. 

in 1904 A. II. Corey was elected cashier, and remained in that position until 
the close of 1906. when he was succeeded by J. B. Snead, the latter assuming 
his duties in January, 1907, and continuing there something over a year. In 
the spring of 190S, G. A. .Singley was elected cashier. The ]iresent officials are: 
M. S. Edwards, president; R. B. Carson, vice president; G. .\. Singley. cashier; 
I. (i. McOueen. assistant cashier; Cecil Dooley. teller. Capital stock, ,S30,ooo; 
■surplus an<l iin(li\ided profits, $8,000; deposits, $200,000. 


The first Methodist class in Moulton was formed in iS(i<>. by John Couch and 
wife, D. M. Norwood and wife, E. M. Carpenter and wife, Jonas Sutli>n and 
wife, .\aron Moore and wife and a few others. Meetings were first held at 
the homes of members and in the schoolhouse, but in 1S70 a house of worship — 
a frame — was erecte<l, at a cost of $2,400. However, the society met with reverses 
and in iSjo, the church i)roperty was about to fall under the sheritt's hanniicr 
for debt, when Rev. Freeland and W. R. .Marshall, by strenuous eft'orts not only 
saved it frf)m such ignominy, but also cleared the jiroperty from all incumbrances. 

The l'ir>t church w.-i> the meeting i)lace for the Metlmdists of Monllun ;ind 


vicinity until igoi. Then the oKl building was sold and moved from tlie corner 
on which it stood and is now doing service as the "den"' of the Moulton Tribune. 
In its place was erected a beautiful new edifice costing $17,000 and in 1902. on the 
adjoining lot, the clergyman's residence was built at a cost of $2,500. 

The church is prosperous and has at the present time a membership of 300 
and an attendance at the Sunday school of 250. The pastors who have served 
this society are here named as near as can be ascertained: Revs. Kirkpatrick, 
Smith, Morve, Carmine, Freeland, E. Roberts, J. F. Robertson, 1877 ; Honn, 
1881 ; J. .\. Bateman, 1883; B. M. Boydston, t888: C. L. Tennant, 1893: C. E. 
Corkhill. 1893-5; W. R. Jeffrey, 1895-1900; L. Ingham, 1900-02; \V. E. Garrl- 
ner, 1902-05; D. C. Beven, 1905-09; A. M. Smith, 1909 — . 


The First Presbyterian church was organized by Rev. William Kendrick, 
February 7. 1869, the first members being Z. L. Buck and wife, Elizabeth, Mrs. 
Sarah Co.x. George and Elizabeth Singley. George W. and Mary Ann Singley, 
Jennie Singley. Dr. A. and Elizabeth Barker, Mrs. M. E. Kendrick, L. R. Buck, 
C. B. Caldwell, Dr. Bean. .Among the first pastors were William Kendrick, 
W. J. Ballman, O. J. King, Austin Warner and R. Hahn. The church building 
was erected in 1870. but since then the society has lost in membership and can- 
not be said to be in a very flourishing condition. 


The Baptist church was organized in 1S-4, by Revs. \\'. 11. I.urton, .\. Salla- 
day and Redburn. The charter members were A. P. and Harriet Berry. T. C. 
Campbell and wife, James May and wife, Rebecca Long, Mr. and Mrs. Lull. 
Mrs. Yale and Mrs. Davenport. Revs. Redburn and A. P. Berry were the 
first pastors. A few years after its organization and after having held its meet- 
ings in the schoolhouse for some time, a neat frame house of worship w as erected. 


When the removals from Orleans to .Moulton began, on the iirospect that 
the railroad would be built to the latter place, several families, members of the 
Christian church at Orleans, decided also to come to Moulton. Soon after. 
Samuel Jordan and wife, G. W..Nash and wife, Jacob Xeal and wife. J. G. West 
and wife and John Burdett and wife resolved to have a house of worship at 
Moulton. The Iniilding was begun in 1868 and completed and dedicated the 
following year. Elder Jordan preaching the dedicatory sermon. 

Moulton is the most thriving and stirring little business center in the county, 
outside of Centerville. and taps a splendid section of country for the trade that 
comes to its doors. There are a number of mercantile concerns, some of them 
conducting stores that compare very favorably with any in the county seat. 
The hotels serve the traveling public in a hospitable manner and the streets are 
well lighted by electricity, generated by a si^lendid electric light plant, which was 
built and in running order by the year i<)04. The men who gave to Moulton this 

ciiKisTiAN ciinuii. :\rnt:i.TnN- 

BAPTIST ClUnril. >|n| I.TiiN' 



splendid industry were the Boltons, James, George and Ralpli. and tlic concern 
is now under the manaj,'cincnt of George Bolton, who is giving to the town the 
best of service and should be more generously jiatronized. 

Moulton also has a well drilled volunteer fire company, but not sufficient 
equipment to warrant the town in becoming negligent of its vast properly inter- 
ests. However, a good, big fire will be an object lesson that will be more con- 
vincing than words. 

W. .\. CL.\RK PO.'^T 

The veterans of the Civil war organized a post of the Grand .-Xmiy on June 
23, 1887, and in honor of a gallant comrade, named it W. .A. Clark Post, G. .-X. R.. 
Xo. 434. For years past the post headquarters have been in the Masonic hall, 
but as the ranks of the old soldiers are thinning rapidly, but a corporal's guard 
is now left to attend the meetings. The present commander is W. G. Ward; 
membership 25. 


Sincerity Lodge, Xo. 317, F. & A. M.. was chartered June 4. 1H73. and iiad for 
its first officers the following named persons: W. M., Thomas McAchren ; 
S. \V., A. P. Berry; J. W., P. H. Callen. The first meeting was held on June 
20th, at which time there were present C. B. Caldwell. M. Hughes. .A. H. Griffin, 
J. Ball, John Xovinger, I'. S. \'an Patten and J. W. Carey. The first "work " was 
the initiation of J. C. Thompson. July 17th. 

The installation ceremonies of the first officers of this lodge were held at 
the Presbyterian church on June 20, 1873, at. which time a beautifully bound 
bible, bearing the principal Masonic embleijis, w'as presented to the new fraternity 
by F. C. Overton, on behalf of the wives of tlic -members. Sincerity lodge is in a 
very prosperous condition. It owns the undivided one-half of one of the princi- 
pal business blocks in the village, occupying the second floor, which brings in a 
good revenue. Present officials: \V. M, C. A. Powers; S. \V.. R. M. Blosser; 
J. \V., I.. E. Buckles; Sec, E. L. Stickney; Treas., C. J. Peterson; S. D., J. W. 
Miller: J. D.. James. Black; Tyler, Henry Corey; trustees. \V. F. f'-erry. R. B. 
Carson, Freeman Davis. 


The ladies* au.xiliary to the Masonic body was organized October 3, 1894. with 
the following charter members: Mesdames A. W. Hoffman. R. B. Carson, L. E. 
\therton, D. M. .\dams, F. Corey. J. Epperson, \'. Richardson, W. C. Stickney, 
\. C. Guinn. T. Morrison, C. A. Powers, A. C. Powers, H. G. West, J. L. Ten- 
nant. E. T. Printz. From the main body were .\. W. IIotTman. t). M. .Adams. 
R. B. Carson, H. Corey, C. A. Powers. A. Swift. W. C. .Stickney. H (i \\«<t. 
E. T. Printz and J. F. Woolridge. 

ODD FELT I iw- 11 11' 

Moulton I-odge, Xo. 207. Order of Odd lellowship, was established, October 
10, 1874. the charter members being W. W M.hMmx. I T. Atkinson. F. X. Hills. 



Ithaver Moore, E. W. Walker. The present officials arc: IJ. H. Siler. X. G. ; 
L. \'. Floyd, \'. G.; C. E. Evans, R. S. ; J. A. Warner. F. S. ; W. A. Chamberlain, 


was organized October 20. 1875, with charter members as follows: J. il. .Mitch- 
ell, Joseph P. Smith. J. W. Moore, James G. West, E. W. Walker, George D. 
Porter, T. A. Wahl. 


was organized .\pril 16, 1S77, and had for its charter members James G. and 
Niemera West, A. and Rebecca Wells, T. C. Campbell and wife. Eliza Xash, 
A. J. and N. E. Cowell, E. A. and R. J. Walker. J. P. and A. Smith. 

The Odd Fellows' financial affairs are in the best of order. The lodge now 
has 145 members and owns a tine two-story brick business building, which was 
erected at a cost of $5,000. The second Hoor is devoted to lodge ])uri)oses and is 
handsomelv furnished. New paraphernalia was recently juirchased at a cost of 
$800. In all. the lodge owns $10,000 worth of pro])crty. has no incumbrances 
and money invested. 


The incorporated village of Orleans was laid out and surveyed .\ugust 16, 
1851. The plat showed twenty-four lots, situated on sections i and 2. township 
68, range 16, and sections 35 and 36, townshij) hf). range 16. The plat was signed 
by John P. Jennings, Elizabeth Howell, Josiah Hickman and T. J. Killian and 
acknowledged before .Samuel Conkright. It was near Orleans that the i)otclied 
hanging of Hinkle took place. .At one time the town had several stores and shops 
of local need, but when the railroad was built to M'lulton the village of Orleans 
was weakened and never gained enough strength to become of much importance. 

.■\ school house was built in Orleans in 1858 and in the same year the Chris- 
tian church built a house of wor.ship. The society had been organized previously, 
in 1855, the first members being Elder Jordan and wife. Elder J. X. Dunbar and 
wife, and the Wallace, Watson and Roger families, .\mong the early pastors 
were Elders Samuel Jordan, S. P. Downing and J. X. Dunbar. Members of this 
church were very helpful in the church at Moulton. owing to the membership 
there having been largely made up of families that had moved from Orleans 
to that place at the time that Moulton saw clearly ;i future before it, one of the 
principal stars of hoi)e being the coming of the railroad to that point. 


Pleasant township was organized in January. 1849, and is one of the first to 
attract settlers within its limits, and well it might, for the land, a large jiortion of 
it, is tillable and many fertile farms now dot the landscape, making the town- 
ship a very prosperous one. It is town 67, range 18, and has for its boundaries, 
the .state of ^Missouri on the south. Caldwell on the east, Bellair and Center on the 
north, and Lincoln and Franklin townships on the west. The timber aboundeii 
principally in the northeastern and southern parts of the township an<l in the 
northwestern corner. This shows where the streams are. there being many of 


ihciii, Shoal Creek', in ihe northwestern portion, lacing the principal one. Into 
this creek flow numerous branches, which serve to drain the land and water it 
•1^ well. 

In the vicinity of Cincinnati are very tine veins of coal that are being brouglit 
to the surface and rcadi a ready market. Some of the best coal mines in tiie 
■ounty are being worked in the community. 

Pleasant townshi]) was jjrobably first settled by J:ick \ inton. in 1S37. He 
built a cabin near a spring, about a mile southwest of the village of Cincinnati. 
This has been disputed by J. F. Stratton, who made the statement that he visited 
the si)ring in 1841 and found no evidence of a habitation ever having i)ecn in its 
vicinity. X'inton was in the neighborhood at about the time mentioned, how- 
ever, but it is evident he made no provision for a permanent stay. I'ndoubtedly. 
he was more of a hunter and trapper and gave no thought to building a habita- 
tion or cultivating the land. He had a claim on which he lived uiuil about 1854. 
This he sold to a Mr. Putnam and moved to Missouri. 

The first man in this township and the first to build a i.;ihin ihercin. was 
Ewen Kirby. mention of whom is made on a jireceding i)age. J. I". Stratton 
came here in 1841, took u]) a claim and built a cabin on it. He then went back to 
his home, returning with his family and brother Joseph in 1843. The Strattons 
remained but a short time and then removed into L'dell township. Other jiioneer 
men were Stotts, Skijjton and Blair. The first marriage was that of Thomas 
.Skijiton to Miss Blair, and the next marriage was the imion of a son of Mr. Wood 
to a Miss Barker. 

Solomon Ilolbrook. with his family, came in 1845. ! lis lirother, i.iuhcr !'., 
and family, followed him soon thereafter. In a carefully written series of articles, 
J. C. McDonald, son of an early settler of Pleasant townshi]). gives the names 
of many men and women, who settled here in an early day, which is appended to 
this -ketch, so as to avoid repetition. Mr. .McDonald also writes of the laying 
out and founding of the village of Cincinnati. This fact makes mention in this 
article of certain events superfluous, and for that reason the writer will simply 
treat of events in a general way. 

The organization of a Methodist church in the township, by the inauguration 
of a series of prayer meeting's in 1 851, was the first religious eft'ort in this vicinity. 
The meetings were held alternately at the houses of Solomon I lolbrook and S. B. 
.Stanton. The following winter the worshipers met in the school houge. The 
first i)reaching by a regularly ordained minister was l)y Rev. Iosei)h Welch, 
lie was a Methodist an<l met his congregation at the home of S. 1!. .^tantciu in 
.\ugust. 1851. 

A primitive schoolhouse. the first in the township, was built on a tract of land 
a mile west of Cincinnati in the fall of 1852. The structure was about 20x24, 
built of logs, had glass windows and was heated by a stove. — unusual luxury 
for that time. .\ school was taught that winter by Richar<l Conkright. 


Cincinnati was incf)rporated as a village in the forepart of 1875 and the first 
trustees met .-\pril 19th of that year. 'i"he officials of the new nnuiicipality were: 
A. A. .\therton. niavor; ,\. .S. Brown, jr.. recorder; [. I'.. ( ioodhue. William 


Sayrcs, M. X. I'.ccr, H. Atherton and J. W. May, trustees. The marshal was 
J. N. May. On July 12, 1875, J. C. McDonald was elected treasurer and the 
council levied a tax of two mills. 

Cincinnati has a splendid city hall, which was erected in 1908 by the corpora- 
tion and the Knights of Pythias. It is a brick structure of very pleasing appear- 
ance and cost $6,000. The first floor belongs to and is used by the corporation ; 
the upper story for lodge purposes. 

Cincinnati is now a village of 1,600 inhal)itants. The i)rcsent mayor is J. .\. 
Cordcr and postmaster, Ininier Fowler. 


The ])ostoffice at Cincinnati was established, Xovember 17, 185 1, with Joseph 
Welch as postmaster. His successors have been the following: John T. Matkin, 
November i. 1853; W. S. Johnson, July 24, 1854; William M. Cavanah, Decem- 
ber 24, 1855 ; A. S. P)rown. March 16, 1857 ; William Sayres, June 11, 1861 ; Moses 
N. Beer, August 31, 1885; John D. Sayres, July 13, 1889; George W. McKee- 
han. July 14. 1893; Immer T'owler, July 2^^. 1897. 


This church was organized in the early '60s but a class was formed during 
the winter of 1852-3 at the school house west of Cincinnati. The first members 
were: Mrs. Sallie Holbrook, Mr. and Mrs. Gibson. James Welch and wife, Mr. 
and Mrs. Cooley and Mr. Matkin and wife. James Welch was class leader and 
exhorter, and Rev. Hurgess was one of the early pastors, also Revs. Hunter and 
Charles Clark. 

A house of worshijj was built in 1869 at the time of the ministrations of 
Rev. Thomas Stephenson. At this time there were about fifty members which 
is probably the strength of the church at the present writing. The pastors fol- 
lowing Rev. Stephenson are as follows: Rev. Miller. J. M. Mann. Thacher, 
Spooner. J. W. Orr, Harned, T. M. Kirkpatrick, John Delay. Anthony Martin, 
I.ockridge: J. A. Sinclair, 1883-84: H. C. Millice. 1884-85; Charles L. Tennant, 
1885-88: P. C. liogle, 1888-89; E. A. Robertson. 1889-91; Charles W. Powelson. 
1891-92: Benjamin F. Shane, 1892-95; Richard Breeding, 1895-97; George W. 
Pool, 1897-98;- J. A. Sinclair, 1898-1900; R. J. Shook. 1900-03; Frank S. Seeds. 
July 1903 to September. 1903; W. S. Moore, SejJtember, 1903-05; Richard Col- 
lier. 1905-07; Charles E. Coggshall. 1907-08; C. L. Jordan. 1908-09; David W. 
Withani. 1909-10; James A. Worrell. 1910 — . 


This church was fouiKlcd in i8()i. with D. 1,. .\nimons. pastor. The first 
members were: J. II. May. Mary, I lattie and Melissa May, J. \'. I.eseney and 
wife Jane, ^Irs. Addie Leseney, J. H. B. Armstrong and wife. J. R. Putman 
and wife Margaret. Mrs. Mary Lawrence. J. A. Frost and Mrs. Addie Ruck. 
The chief factor in the organization of this church was the efforts of State Evan- 
gelist I.. C. Wilson. 


1. <). <). 1'. KiiijiiM. AM' >A\ Ki:- i:ijj.i".i; i;i \'.. iim'INNA'I'i 


Soon after the organization a liouse i)f worsliij) was erected on West I'leas- 
ant street, which cost about $2,000. This has since been remofieleci. The second 
pastor was I. A. Grow, who remained one year. His successor was W. \'. I'loltz. 
who remained one year, then came W. K. Mates tor two years. He was followed 
by Rev. Hallowell for a stay of one year; E. J. McKinlcy, two years; G. A. 
Hendrickson, about one year; W. H. Colman, one year; R. C. Leonard, two and 
a half years. Then the church was supplied at intervals i)y students from Drake 
University, after which J. H. Ragan. from Des Moines, remained something over 
one year. The church was again for a while without a pastor, but finally W. I'. 
T. Evans was engaged to preach here. He came March. ir)i2. and is the present 
pastor. The membership is about fifty and the attendance ;U i^unrlay school unc 


This financial institution was started .\prii iS, 1889, by J. C. McDonald and 
his brother. W. S. McDonald, under the firm name of J. C. McDonald & P.rother. 
It was a private banking concern and remained so until the present buiUling was 
erected — a two-story brick, on the corner of the s(|uare and East Pleasant street. 
Then the Citizens Hank was organized by the brothers. On October 20, 191 1. 
J. C. McDonald bought the interests of his brother and on the 4th of December, 
191 1, he sold the bank to J. .\. Bradley of Centervillc, who organized it as a state 
bank on the 23d of May. 191 2. 

The Citizens State Savings Bank has a capital of $30,000 and its last reijort 
shows there were deposits to the amount of $60,000. J. A. Bradley is president; 
Harry Gault, vice president; John Browitt, cashier; Lcland C. McDonald, book- 


The Farmers and Merchants Bank was organized January, 1894. by X. .\. 
Robertson. J. Ueseney and J. \'. l.eseney. It was capitalized at $20,000. The 
first president was X. A. Robertson; cashier. J. \'. l.eseney. The bank owns the 
first floor of a two-stor)- brick building erected in 1893. In 1903 it increased its 
capital stock to .'^25.000. Its undivided profits in 191 2 were about S3.000 and 
dejiosits. $54,000. The officials are : X. ,\. RoI)crtS()n. president: J. \'. l.eseney, 
cashier: C. .\. l.eseney, assistant cashier. 

in.NKV .1 AOt'ISS POST, NO. 325. C. A. IJ. 

The veterans of this vicinity organized the Grand .\nuy ixisi in 1.SS5, with 
eighteen niemtiers, which have dwindled down to eleven, although at one time 
there were sixty-three. George W. W'yckoff was the first commander. His suc- 
cessors have been J. C. McDonald. J. D. Sayrcs, J. C. Hawkins, and for the past 
twenty-three years. J. C. .McDoii;ild. 

wo.MANs Ki:r.iir ((iKr>, no. 330 

Tlie woman's auxiliary society of tlic Grand .\rmy was organized I'ebruary 
. 1900. bv Mesdamcs Martha Shaw, Lizzie Harris. I-'lizabeth Wilson. Emma 


Robertson, Alice McIJonald, Mary .\. Parks, I.ou Holbrook. Maggie McCollum, 
Lizzie Robertson, Sarah Corporon, Eliza I. Mitcliell, Lizzie Sayres, Lcm Glasser, 
Frances Hawkins, Mary !•". J-'owler, Arldie JJuck, Rebecca A. Corder. Martha 
Bowie, Alia Sturdivant, Angie Wyckoff and the Misses Josie W'yckotY, Stella 
Holbrook, Lena Holbrook, Lois Sayres, Jean Steel, Sarah A. John. 

PUOSPICKITV I.ODCi:, NO. 504, .\. F. & .\. M. 

This Masonic body was organized in i.SS.S l)y Melvin Knap]), !L H. Baker, 
G. W. Collon, VV. L. Leseney, C. S. Smith, John Brawner, C. M. Healey. R. O. 
Pinston. E. J. Gault. W. S. McDonald, J. A. J. Boley. The charter officials 
were: Melvin Knapp, W. .M.; R. O. Pinston, S. \V. ; C. ^L Healey. J. \V. : G. W. 
Colton, secretary; 11. II. I'.aktr, treasurer; J. .\. J. Holey, tyler. 

The first meeting place was over McDonald Brothers' furniture store on the 
west side, since destroyed by fire. The ne.xt place was the Odd I'ellows hall, three 
or four years. In 1898 the lodge put up a two-story brick building and occupied 
the second fioor, the lower floor being devoted to commercial uses. There are 
now seventy-five members and the organization is one of the strongest of its 
kind in the county. The present officials are: W. ^l.. W. S. McDonald; S. W'., 
X. C. Hargis; J. W'.. D. ^L Cline ; secretary. William Samson; treasurer. H. H. 
Baker; tyler, J. A. J. Boley. 

NANcv r..\KKR ch.\pti:k, xo. 61, o. E. s. 

This chapter was organized in icS,Si by Mrs. F. W. Hoover, Mrs. W. S. 
:kIcDonald. I~. W. Hoover. Mr. and .Mrs. O. H. Sayres, :Mr. and Mrs. David 
Dinning, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. McDonald. The first officials were: \V. M., Mrs. 

F. W. Hoover; \V. P., W. S. McDonald. The present officials are: W. M., Nannie 
Dinning; W. P., W. S. McDonald; A. M.. .Myrtle Steel; secretary, H. S. Jaquiss; 
treasurer, G. C. Sayres. 

CI.\"CINN.\TI LODCi;, .\0. 485. I. O. (). F. 

The Odd Fellows completed an organization August 2S, 1885. The charter 
members were Wallace M. Harvey. John C, McDonald, James R. Putman, H. C. 
Millice, Michael C. Harris. Jasper H. Glasser, William L. Leseney, L. Xathan 
Moss, R. K. Atherton. 

The charter officials were: J. C. .McDonald. X. G. ; W. L. Leseney. \'. G. ; 

G. W. Rigler, treasurer. Present officials: G. W. P.ailey. X. G.. : O. A. David- 
son, \'. <i.; Thomas Samson, secretary; Robert English, treasurer. This lodge is- 
in a highly jjrosperous condition. In 1893-4 it erected a building 40x80 feel on 
North Liberty street and the square, two stories in height and constructed of 
brick. On the lower floor are three business rooms and the second floor is devoted 
to the lodge and other rooms of the fraternity. The furnishings and parapher- 
nalia are of the very best. Cincinnati Lodge is free from debt and has ]iroperty 
worth al least $10,000. 



This cncanipnient was orj^aiiizcd October 20, i<S(ji, In- J. C. Mi-noiialil. I. 
W. Robey. 1. R. Putnian. T. S. Kerr. |. E. Ruch and G. W. Colton. 

The ladies' auxiliary lodf,'e was or<,'anized October \G, 1895. The charter mem- 
bers were J. II. and Addie Stickler, W. L. and Phoebe Lescney, A. F. and Laura 
Williams, R. L. and Fannie I lamilton, Michael and Amanda Morgan, (j. W. 
Colton. Maggie Putnam, Mary McCny, Mary K. Ervin, Minnie I!. Skinner, Sarah 
John, Charles l-'rost, .\. E. I lannn, W. .\. lieer. The officers are: X. (i., Mrs. 
Con Dartholamus; \'. G., Mrs. \V. H. Stevenson; R. S.. Bertha I'.uck; l". S.. W. 
I,. Mitchcl.' 


This lodge of l-"oresters was organized .March 12, 1909, by Ur. J. 11. llolman. 
J. A. Johnson. D. M. Osborne. J. R. Hamilton, W. X. Wyckoff, P." O. Puck and 
\\illiani I'ackard. 


This lodge was organized October 9, 1894. The charter members were Joini 
11. Stickler, J. R. Putman. George W. McKeehan, John .Mcjunis, J. H. May, C. 
M. Sayres. Jesse Hutchinson, (). H. Perry, Hugh Dinning, William I'owell, S. 
A. McKeehan. R. M. Duncan, William Corder, E. K. EUedge, T. \\. Corporon, 
Jo.seph Bier. Martha Dinning, Charles C. Morgan, W. H. Harris, John A. Corder. 
A. F. Rasnuisson, J. \'. Leseney. E. B. May, Jeffrey Hughes, John E. Ruch. 
Thomas Samson, William Evans, Ben Jones, .Arthur Duffey, James Medlen, W . 
\'. Boltz, .Mex Seath, J. B. Herron. 

The officers are: C. C. W. O. Steel ; \'. C, S. G. Lewis; prelate, Joseph Bowie; 
M. of W.. M. Murphy; K. of R.& S., Dr. X. C. Hargis; M. of F., C. A. Leseney; 
M. of E.. Hugh Dinning. Sr.; M. of .\., A. M. Bowie: I. G., John Ratliburn : C). 
r; . C P '^tmcnson. 


This lodge was organized August 14, 1895. The cliarter members were as 
follows: Mesdames J. \'. Lescney, Hugh Dinning. .\. M. Sayres, A. Seath, J. 
11. Stickler. E. Cartwright, Thomas Dawson, J. .A. Corder, \\. B. May, J. B. Her- 
ron. W . \ . Boltz, A. DufFey, John Ruch, G. W. .McKeehan, Samuel Buck, Charles 
Clawson, Thomas Samson, D. Johnson, Thomas Johnson, D. Jones, and the 
Misses Flo I'awcett and Bertie Johnson. 

CINCINNATI CAMP. NO. 4460, .M . W. .\. 

This lodge was organized January 5, 1897, with the following charier mem- 
bers: Frank W. Hoover, D. L. Saulsbery, J. M. Casey, Will Ca.sey, C. M. Jen- 
nings, A. H. .Sayres, M. Ilersberg, J. X. Stuckcy, J. L. Morgan, J. F. Woodburn. 
W. L. Holbrook, J. S. McDonald, "c S. Wyckoff. 

In the fall of 1912, J. C. McDonald wrote a series of rcmnu^icnl artick- for 
the Cincinnati Review, which arc here given to the readers of this volume: 


lla\iiig been solicited to write for the Review some of my recollections of 
the older times in Cincinnati and vicinity, I cheerfully attempt the task. In the 
first place it should be borne in mind that what I write is only a "recollection" and 
not an atteni])l at accurate history. What 1 saw and heard in 1854 and subse- 
c|uently, nii,ij;ht api)ear and sound different to other eyes and ears, and in writing 
these recollections J do not court criticism or conii)liments. If any one chooses 
to difl'er from me as to dates, names or locations J trust you will be generous 
enough to admit to your columns their version, written as I ha\c this, without 
reflection on any one. 

I was much pleased and interested in the letter of Elza .Moore, of Admire. 
Kansas, lately published in the Review, and lind that his letter has' stirred the 
minds of a good many people, which is creating an interest in the early history of 
Cincinnati and .Appanoose county. 

I came to Iowa from Pennsylvania liy river in 1S52, and landed at Keokuk in 
the month of April, at the age of seven years. Two years later, in March, 1854, 
my father moved to Cincinnati, bringing with him myself and four other chil- 
dren. Aly father had ])rcvious to this, about September, 1853. made a trip to 
Appanoose county, to seek a location, and hearing of Cincinnati as a religious and 
anti-slavery center, bought here the ])reem]Jtion right to one hundred and sixty 
acres of land lying in the northeast corner of what is now Cincinnati. He bought 
this land from a man by the name of .Meddis, later entering it by paying the gov- 
ernment $1.25 an acre. At the same time he laid land warrants, as they were 
then called, on an adjoining forty acres and forty acres on the Missouri state line, 
making two hundred and forty acres owned by my father. One of these war- 
rants was ]nuchased of David McDowell, a brother-in-law, and the other from 
Isaac Powell, both of whom had done service in the war with Mexico and these 
warrants were granted to the soldiers under act of congress, dated September 
28, 1850. My father ])aid Meddis $640 for his preemption right, including the 
improvements of a one and a half story single room log house. 15x20 feet, a 
log stable and a log smoke house, a well and fifty acres fenced and about forty 
acres cleared, making his two hundred and forty acres, including the entry price, 
cost nearly four dollars per acre, a pitiful sum looking back to it today, but a 
large sum fifty-eight years ago. 

The first court house in Centerville, built of logs and clapboards, cost the peo- 
ple of Appanoose county as much per capita and wealth as the new stone struc- 
ture tiiat now adonis the center of the i)ul)lic s(|uare. 


The land in this county was embraced by the government in what was known 
as the Chariton district and the "post of entry" was at the town of Chariton, tlicn 
an insignificant place, and the county seat of Lucas county. It was called by 
everybody "Chariton Pint." In those days there were neither railroads nor 
wagon roads to Chariton, the only distinguishing mark being a single trail trod 
by horses. .Manv ])eople going from .\])])anoose county went on htirseback, trav- 
eling in a northwesterly direction, riding night and day regardless of roads, speed 
and everything else except direction. Many races were run by contesting claim- 
ants to get to the land office first and enter the choice tract of land. 


^\■hen we came here in 1854 all the land in this district (Chariton) was open 
to entry at $1.25 per acre, which was being rapidly taken up by actual residents 
and speculators. The greatest drawback or setback to any new country was the 
law then in force which allowed one man with ten thousand dollars to enter 
eight thousand acres of choice land and hold it for the advance in jirice. That 
was done, for many persons yet living remember the vast jjrairie lying open in 
Franklin township and liellair township until after the war closed because it was 
owned by speculators in the east. The homestead law which came into effect 
in 1861 wisely provided that no man could get more than one hundred and sixty 
acres from the government. If he wanted more he would have to get it from 
ime one else. Although Missouri was admitted as a state twenty-six years 
I fore Iowa was admitted to the Union, yet the land in Putnam county, adjoin- 
ing us on the south, was not yet in the market and was not subject to entry for 
'■me little time afterward. Many Iowa i)eople went across the line and filed 
.lims on .Missouri land, which was the cause of many dissensions between the 
j residents of that state and Iowa. 

NO LONi: LOST lil-.TVVKKN MIS.SOIKI .\ M) l(i\V.\ 

In early days, Missouri being a slave state and Iowa a free ^Ullc, iliuie was 
i a hostile feeling between the denizens of the two states that was not o))iilerated 
until after the Civil war. 

Some people may think that as I was only nine years old when 1 came lu Cin- 
cinnati and am now sixty-seven years old, 1 am not qualified to w rite of events of 
fifty-eight years ago with any degree of accuracy. In this connection I wish 
■ ■ state that in the begiiming of this epistolary effort I safeguarded myself by 
i\ing that I attempted to give my recollections and not give accurate history, but 
1 have found that early impressions sink the deepest and last the longest. 

A case or two in point will illustrate. My first view of a river was tiie Ohio 
at Beaver, i'ennsylvania, and my first sight of a railroad and steamboat was at 
the same place and time, when 1 was a little less than seven years of age. They 
were all a vision to me ; in fact, to my youthful eyes they were a revelation. Since 
that time I have traveled from ocean to ocean and from lakes nearly to the gulf, 
but no river since that time has looked like such a big body of water as the Ohro, 
nor any steamboat so grand or palatial, or railroad engine so majestic or fero- 
cious, or train so long as those that I first saw at lieaver in 1852. 

Another case is that of a man by the name of Andrew J. Itorctan, of Uun- 
nellson, Iowa, who, if still living, is eighty-one years of age. It so ha]J])ened in 
1852 that in getting a place to set his foot in Iowa, my father rented a place 
belonging to the father of this man Borelan, near Warren, in Lee county. A 
double log house with shed additions to the rear afforded a home for my father's 
family, and this man, A. J. Borelan, who was then twenty-one years old, 
had just been married. The two families lived peaceably in this house for a time 
and the next spring may father rented another farm in the vicinity antl moved to 
it, while in the spring following he moved to Appanoose county, and .Mr. I Jordan 
was lost sight of. It often occurred to me to make a visit to the old places near 
Warren where we lived those two years, and 1 often thought when passing 


tlirough on ihe railroad, as 1 have done many times, that I would stop off and 
make the coveted visit, but have never done so. 

About four years ago I ])roi)osed to my brother .\lhcrt that we go and see tht 
old stamping ground and visit any of the old neighbors whom we once knew 
and might jicrchance find. \\ c went, but wc did not see but two persons whom 
we liad seen during tiie two years we lived there. The rest had either died or 
moved away. We did, however, see the man of all others whom we wished to 
see — A. J. Borclan. W c introduced ourselves, telling him that we were the sons 
of Daniel McDonald, who lived in the same house with him in Warren countv. in 

Vou can imagine our surprise when, pointing to me. he said "You look like 
your father." and then pointing to brother Albert, said, "'but this man doesn't 
look like him a bit." Everybody who knew my father and us boys will verify 
the correctness of the statement made by .Mr. Borelan. Thus had my father's 
image been carried on the retina of the e\e of this man's mind for over fifty-four 

In i.ldeii times the farmer had to sharpen his .scythe before attacking the job 
of cutting wheat, and the schoolmaster usually sharpened his quill ])en before 
he wTote copies for his pupils. 

We had the honor of a visit in Lee county in 1853. from L. K. Holbrook. 
John T. Matkins and J. H. 1). Armstrong, of this place, w'hose acquaintance my 
father had made in his c|ucsl for a location some weeks before, and on his return 
trip ]Mr. Holbrook took a load of our goods, such as we could spare over the win- 
ter, and brought them to this place, storing them until we arrivecl later. .-Accord- 
ingly, about the last day of I-'ebruary, 1854, we loaded our penates and lares into 
two wagons, driving a small herd of cattle and a drove of fifty sheep behind the 
wagons. The custody of the animals was given to William Hamlin, a neighbor 
bov, and to Oliver C. Rinker, who had been attending school in Lee county and 
wished to return to his home in A])panoose county. Many persons reading this 
article will remember .Mr. Rinker as being at one time a prosperous merchant of 
Livingston, this county. The roads were good and we made good time, arriving 
in Appanoose county on the ist day of March. We stayed over night with a man 
by the name of Steel, about a mile south of Centerville. The farm afterward was 
purchased by James Hughes, who made it his home until his death. The next 
morning we came south and west over the unfenced prairies, following a well 
beaten road, until we came to Shoal creek. The first places I can remember 
north of Shoal were the residences of Charles A. Stevens on the west side of the 
road, and William I'liillips, on the east. We crossed Shoal creek at the old 
ford about a c|uarter of a mile above where the road now runs and also crossed 
Little Shoal, the small creek that runs east a half mile, north of Cincinnati. We 
came up the hill to the first farm owned by Henry P. and John Baker, brothers, 
the former being the father of Henry H. Baker, our well known smithy. This 
farm was later sold to Lewis Harris, who lived there until his death, a few years 
ago. James Milner now^ lives on the place. Following the ridge, we came to 
the farm of \\'illiam ^FcClure. afterward sold by him to a Mr. Webster, who in 
turn sold it to a Mr. Mitchell. .-Xftcr the death of the latter the farm fell into the 
hands of .\lbert Mitchell by purchase and inheritance. He has subdivided the 
place, which originally comprised three hundred and twenty acres and now owns 


but one hundred acres, the remaining two hundred and twenty acres being now 
the suburban residence portion of Cincinnati, wliicli is owned and occupied by a 
hardy pojjulation of one hundred or more Austrians. 

The next farm we came to was that of I>azel McKeehan, now owned by the 
E. J. Gauh heirs, and south of that E. J. Gault hved on the hillside south of old 
Thistle Mine Xo. i. The farm west of that was occu])ied by William M. Cava- 
nah, but is now owned by II. II. ISaker. The next farm on the north side of the 
road coming west was the one hundred and sixty acres that my father bought 
of Mr. Meddis. We arrived at the end of (jur journey about ten o'clock. 
Although Mr. Meddis had agreed to vacate March ist. and my father had in 
advance written him that we would be here at that time, yet when we arrived 
we found that Mr. Meddis had made no attempt at vacating and did not gi\e 
promise of soon doing so, although he had four grown sons and four yoke of 
oxen to help him. He had taken eighty acres of land two miles west and had put 
up a log house preparatory to removing thereto. That eighty acres was after- 
ward owned by Daniel X'arner, later by Xorman Green and still later by G. \\ . 
Streepy. I.. R. Ilolbrook, who owned and occu|)ied a log house sixteen feet 
square, .-tanding on the lot now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. .\lbert Mitchell, 
generously offered us a home with him until such time as Mr. Meddis could 
vacate. You may be .sure with Mr. I lolbrook's family of five and my father's 
familv of seven, that little log house was well tilled, and when it came to sleep- 
ing, his two sons, Charles K. and George W., with my brother Albert and myself, 
were slieltered in the home of Solomon Holbrook. 

.\ i.o.nt; list of settlers 

.\fier a few days, which sccnicd like a long time to w.iil, Mr. Meddis vacated 
and we moved into our new home ; a sorry place it was, a lonely log house, one 
room below and a ladder for a stairs to an attic room above. Xo trees, or shade, 
or shrub, except a few wild gooseberry ijushes set out in the garden, fenced in 
with home-made split palings. We adapted ourselves to the conditions and 
were soon at home to ourselves if not to our neighbors. We built a porch in 
front 8x20 and two bedrooms as a "lean to" in the rear, covering the 10x20 
with the roof so flat that when it rained a little more water came into those 
twii bedrooms than fell outside. March was a beautiful month that year, some- 
thing like two years ago when there were thirty-live days of balmy weather 
in succession. My father sowed his wheat and it was up and through the ground 
before .April ist, and everything indicated a generous harvest, which was fully 
'i-alized in jiroper season, and we were soon well ])leascd with our new home. 

The people I can remember in addition to those I have already named as 
being here when we arrived are: Walter .^. Johnson, Dr. D. R. I'.all, who lived 
where J. \". Leseney now lives, though in a very unpretentious log building, 
which was burned down a few years afterwards. Then west of that where 
T. A. Johnson lives now, Dr. I'all's mother lived in a log house with her two 
daughters and one son, Colvin. The husband of Mrs. IJall was detained in 
Ohio and did not join his family for some time after. Roth families moved 
froin here, the old man going to Xchraska where I saw him in 1865, both he 
and Colvin l>eing in the arnn Wi-^i n! Mi- I'.-iIl w.i- I H I", \rm-irong. 

Vol 1-2 4 


who lived in the largest house of any one in the neij,'hhorhoud. It was a story 
and a half double log house — in fact all the houses built here in an early day 
were built of logs — with a porch in front and shed addition in rear. West of 
that was Moses C. Robertson, who lived in a house that was sided with boards 
and white-washed and looked like a jjainted frame house. We all thought it 
was great for a new country. Then came Josiah Clilbert, A. M. and G. W'.- 
Streepy, William Stinson, Michael Ross, and John and Jacob Calvert. To the 
north were William T. Reynolds, John Shepherd, David Moore. George Whit- 
sell. Samuel C. Cooley, James Hibbs, Jesse Thomas, George Rigler, James 
Ridgeway, John Fulcher. Nathan Stanton. David Green. Widow Stanton with 
her sons Austin. Ervin. Edward, and daughter Josie, Henry .\damson. J. 1!. 
Gedney, John Frost. Andrew liuntain. James X. Gibson, Rev. Robert Hawk, 
Absalom and Isaac Adams, and Elias Fox. known as "Mink Skin" Fox, and 
some others whose names 1 Cannot now recall. Going east from town William 
M. Cavanah, \i. J. Gault, a Mr. Skipton and two sons, James and Elijah, and 
Washington Cline. the father of our .Albert Cline. A. M. Cline and W. W'. D. 
Cline and Isaac and William Davis, Conrad MuUennax. "Judge" .\llen, and the 
Harpers and a ^Mrs. Hearty, with a family of three sons and several daugh- 
ters, all of whom were married but one. Then on the south of town lived 
John Kemery, Mr. Updyke. Joseph Crovvder, Charles R. Crowder, John A. 
Crowder, Seth B. Stanton, John Middleton and James Middleton. Isaac Fox, 
Isaac Nelson, Henry Besse, James Wright, John, Arthur and Thomas Points, 
and Isaac R. Skinner, and others, whom to mention would lengthen this chapter. 

It was characteristic of the early settlers that as most of them had come 
from timbered or wooded states like Ohio, X'irginia. Pennsylvania. Missouri 
or 'Kentucky, they first settled close to streams so as to be handy to wood for 
fuel, buildings and fences, and to water and stone, and regarded the large prai- 
ries as places to be avoided on accotmt of lack of those necessary articles. The 
greatest mistake ever made by the early settlers was that of requiring the farms 
•to be fenced and let stock run at large, not recognizing the philosophic c|ues- 
tion that live stock needed fencing and that land did not. 

William Shepherd, the father of John mentioned herein, and the father of 
the late Rebecca Boyles, and Mrs. J. H. P.. Arm.strong. lived here in 1S54. He 
had raised a large family, lost his wife late in life, remarried and had a family 
of three small children when I first knew them. He died, and the wife and 
mother not long after, and left these small children to the care of their rela- 
tives. There also was a man by the name of Stotts. who used to pound the 
face off the hill on the creek south of what is now F. C. Hand's coal mine, in 
quest of coal, and he was successful in his labors. He died at J. H. 1!. .Arm- 
strong's at an early day. 

The first bit of affinity rt)mance occurred also about 1854. .A man by the 
name of Hawkins had married a daughter of Mrs. Hearty, mentioned in this 
article, and they were to all appearances living happily; but one morning Mr. 
Hawkins arose and found that his wife had eloped with one of the liardest 
lookers in the neighborhood, whose name. I believe, was Haggerty. but whom 
everybody called "Hardscrabble." Mr. Hawkins did not ])ursue the erring 
couple, but allowed them to wend their way westward unmolested. Simeon 
Baker, a son-in-law of Samuel Ball and no relation to our 11. H. P.aker. was aUo 


here ami had tlie distinction of building the first log residence in the town, on 
the lot now owned by Dr. A. P. Stevenson. Many readers will remember the 
old house, as it stood there not so many years ago. A (|uaint old character was 
Phillip Hawk, a brother of Rev. Robert I lawk. He was a bachelor and a recluse 
and was sujjposed to have much of the "tilthy." He made periodical trips 
from somewhere to nowhere and made this town on his horseback journcvs, 
stopping always at L. R. Holbrook's. Another occurrence which we all thought 
was (juaint, too, in the brother of Phillip Hawk, was that he, the Rev. Robert 
Hawk, who by the way had come to America from England, took a notion to 
move to .Australia with his wife and three daughters. He sold his farm to 
Francis Gault, now owned by Hester .M. Gault. and shipped via England to the 
largest island in the world. He got there, too, after many months, as letters 
from his daughters to girl friends here afterward tcstitied. 

.\N r.NWEI.COMK 1,11 I 

I spoke of John Kemery living south of town. He owned one hundred and 
twenty acres, which was afterward known as the A. S. iirown place, while later 
it was owned by his daughter Jenliie and still later sold to J. F. Woodburn. 
This man Kemery had a wife and several children, the youngest an infant. 
( Jne day when he came in from work he found all the children, but his wife 
was missing. The husband made search and then gave alarm to the neighbors, who 
joined in the search. They dipi)cd the well dry, fearing she had gone for water 
and fallen in. They searched the cornfields. The news spread like wild fire. 
People came for miles around and an all night search through timber and 
brush and prairies resulted hopelessly. People came and went speaking in whis- 
pers. School at the little log schoolhouse was demoralized, we l)oys and girls 
attending more to the latest news from the search for the lost woman than to 
our studies. At the end of the second day's search she was found in the woods 
up Middle Shoal, in the neighborhood where Logan McClure now lives. She 
was scratched and torn with lirush and briers and was demented. .Mr. Kem- 
ery sold out soon after to .\. S. IJrown, .Sr., and removed to Decatur or Ring- 
gold county. I remember the deal for the farm from Mr. Kemery to Mr. 
Pirown, as the business was transacted in my father's house. The terms were 
cash. I do not remember the amount but Mr. Drown countctl the money out 
in gold and piled it on my father's dining table, which made (|uite a "pile," and 
it looked like great riches to me. In olden times people carried their money on 
their person, in their socks, or hats, or coat linings, or in a belt buckled around 
their waist, and for defense against possilile attack or rotihery. they carried a 
bowic knife or a small ])istol called a Derringer. 

The early days of Iowa were not lacking in sensations, though tlie country 
was I)Ut sparsely settled in 1852 as compared with today. Then there were 
about two hundred thousand peoi)le in the whole state, while now there are 
two million more than that. There was then not a single tie or iron rail in the 
state; now it is crossed and cris-crossed like the web of a spider, with rail- 
road tracks. 

^fany murders were committed in the early days and were as numerous in 
fomparison with the po])ulation as now, if not more so. There were no means 


of keeping money and valuables safe, it Iieing generally carried on the |)erson 
or liidden about the house. The first year we lived in Iowa many were the 
blood-curdling talcs told us of murders and robberies in the eastern part of the 
state. The murder of Colonel Davenport, of RocU Island, and the hanging of 
the Hodges at Hurlington for divers murders, were all fresh in the minds of the 
pco]>lc. and many a time, especially after night, have 1 clung to my mother's 
skirts, listening to the recital of those bloody deeds as told In- the neighbors. 

When we came to Cincinnati in 1854, we found that the ])ioncer had been 
far ahead of us and had in places trod the jirairie grass and killed some of the 
snakes. Some of the ])ioneers, like Daniel lloone, fearing that civilization was 
getting too near and ])opulation too dense, had sold or traded their land and 
gone west to California, or elsewhere. The four farms, cornering on what is 
now tlie ]Hiblic square, were owned by L. R. Molbrook, two hundred acres, on 
the southwest ; Solomon Ilolbrook, one Inmdrefl and sixty acres, on the south- 
east ; Daniel McDonald, two hundred acres, on the northeast ; and John T. 
Matkins. one hundred and twenty acres, on the northwest. My uncle, John 
McDonald, came from Pennsylvania in May, 1854, and |3urchased the one hun- 
dred and twenty acre farm from John T. Matkins, so that the two Ilolbrooks 
and two McDonalds were the owners and proprietors of the land on which 
the original town was platted and laid out, which was accomplished on the 7th 
of March, 1855. 


J. F. Stratton. county surve_\or. surveyed the land and made the plat — 
twelve lots on each corner — and the same was acknowledged by the projirietors 
and their respective wives, three of whom were named .Mary and one Esther, 
before J. H. B. Armstrong, justice of the peace. The plats were ordered 
recorded by Amos Harris, county judge, and were recorded by John T. Over- 
street, recorder, on the 25th of March, 1855. I have the original plat in my 
possession, which is somewhat dimmed with age and mutilated with handling. 
Since that plat was made there have been several additions platted and added 
to the original town. Coming into possession of some of the land owned by 
mv father, I have been instrumental, in platting two additions and joining in 
two others. My father, with J. R. Putman. made one, J. H. May one. he and 
his sisters one, he and Smith & Clawson one, Albert Mitchell and wife two, 
Solomon TTolbrook three, J. X. Marsh one, known as Maple Park, and V.. J. 
Gault one subdivision. The county auditor caused to be platted and recorded 
many lots that had never been platted or numbered. The town now as incor- 
porated, is one and three-(|uarter miles east and west, and one mile north and 
south. It has not, however, all been !)uilt on and perhaps never will be. 


The first postmaster and merchant that I knew in Cincinnati was Walter S. 
Johnson, the father of the late Allen Johnson. He kept his office and store in 
a shed addition to the house owned by John T. Matkins. where the May sisters 
HOW live, but the house now occupied by them is the third built on the site. 
After the farm of John T. Matkins was sold to my uncle. John McDonald. 


Walter S. Johnson built a small frame store on tlie corner now occupied by 
C. A. Comstock, to which he removed the postoffice and his stock of goods. 
In if<53 William M. Cavanah built uii the corner now occupied by the (Jdd Fel- 
lows block, and put in a stock of goods. Mr. Johnson removed to Bellair, a 
rival village, and Mr. Cavanah became postmaster. In this connection I might 
add that the business of handling mails was not only new, but light. Mr. 
I avanah did not have much idea of business, so when it became necessary to 
obtain a sup[)ly of ]iostage stamjis, he enclosed live dollars in a letter to the 
postoffice officials at Washington, asking tlie return of its value in stamps. The 
stamps were duly sent and with them his live dollars with the trite proverb 
attached. "Fools make feasts and wise men eat them." 

.\bout the year 1856 liazel McKeehan lived in a ])retly good log house on 
the spot where Edward Gault now lives. He was a poor man, honest and 
industrious as the sun in midsummer, and the happy possessor of a big family 
of children, which had arrived in his home with the regularity of the return- 
ing seasons; and you can well imagine his astonishment when one morning, 
near the anniversary of our .\merican Independence day, he rose early and 
found a young babe on his door steps, llis hands went up in horror at the 
thought of the additional Inirden he would have to assume if he had to take 
this babe also. He was willing tu accept all that came to him in the usual and 
.accustomed good way. but to have his burdens augmented in this irregular and 
alien manner, was more than he was p