a ~> ^.nio
HALF CENTURY RECORD
PBINTED AT THE LENOX PBESS, PASCMALAI.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
JUBILEE CELEBRATION 3
PERSONNEL ... ... ... ... ... 6
PROGRESS ... ... ... ... ... 14
THE PLANT OP THE INSTITUTION ... ... 29
THE: ENDOWMENT FUND ... ... ... 34
DR. WASHBURN'S ADDRESS... ... ... 47
APPENDIX I. EARLY MINUTES OF THE MISSION 81
THE SEMINARY'S FIRST COURSE OP STUDY ... 86
APPENDIX II. SCHOOL PLANT AND COST ... 88
APPENDIX III. TEACHING STAFF 91
APPENDIX IV. STUDENTS' LIST ... ... 96
SEMINARY STUDENTS ... ... ... ... 103
PASSED FIRST ARTS STUDENTS ... ... 107
PASSED MATRICULATION ... ... ... 109
PASSED NORMAL STUDENTS ... ... 112
PASSED LOWER SECONDARY ... ... ...115
APPENDIX V. PASUMALAI MEMORAHDA ... 119
APPENDIX VI A. THE SCHOLARSHIP FUND ... 137
APPENDIX VI B. SUBSCRIBERS FOR ENDOWMENT
FUND . .138
American Board of Commissioners for
Foreign Missions the first Missionary Society
organized in the United States began work at
Jaffna, Ceylon, in 1816. In 1831, sixty-one years
ago, two of the members of that mission came to
Madura and opened the work o the present Mad-
ura Mission. The American Board represented
then, as it does now, some of the most intelligent
Christian churches in the United States churches
whose members have founded and maintained a
large number of Colleges and Seminaries through-
out that land and have always regarded a sound
education as the next thing to, and auxiliary of,
Christian faith and piety in the regeneration and
elevation of a people. It is therefore natural that
the society itself and the missionaries whom it has
sent forth should, in their work, emphasize the
importance of imparting to their converts at least
a common education and of raising an intelligent
and well trained native agency. The many efforts
and the abundant labors of the Madura Mission in
this department of its work are well described by
Dr. Washburn in the interesting paper which fol-
lows. That a consistent policy in this matter has
not been maintained from the first is due not so
much to a change of principle as to a difference of
opinion concerning methods of applying the prin-
ciple to our educational work.
But whatever divergence of opinion existed
in the past, there is certainly none at present con-
cerning the utility and importance of the educa-
tional work of the Mission. The unanimity and
cordiality with which both the mission and the
officers of our Board have recently supported our
general educational work and have in particular
enlarged and developed the higher institutions,
for young women in Madura and for young men
at Pasumalai, bear evidence to this.
Pasumalai ("cow mountain") is the name of a
small hill, something over 200 feet high, and three
miles to the south-west of the town of Madura. Fifty
years ago the mission secured from the government
a grant of some 40 acres of land at the southern
foot and on the slope of this hill for the purpose
of establishing thereon an educational institution.
On the borders of this land was situated a small
hamlet of Kallars (robber caste) which, in suggest-
ive contrast to all around, has remained about the
same during all these years. It is a healthy site.
Why the mission should have chosen this spot for
the institution is not altogether apparent to-day.
Proximity to Madura was doubtless deemed a
necessity; and yet that proximity must not be too
great lest the students be subjected to constant
distractions and temptations. Hence, we presume,
the present distance from the town. In view of
modern developments and of present needs we
cannot help envying the Hindu Club its good for-
tune and wishing that our distance from Madura
were halved or quartered. And yet we are sensi-
ble of the important advantages which arise to an
institution like this from its quiet and isolated
position advantages which will probably grow
with the institution itself.
THE JUBILEE CELEBRATION.
In September 1892, the Mission celebrated the
Jubilee of the founding of the institution at Tiru-
mangalam. At this latter place the School was
first opened Sept. 4, 1842, and conducted there for
three years. After this it was transferred to Pasu-
malai. It was therefore deemed a matter of suffi-
cient pleasure and importance three years ago to
publicly celebrate this fiftieth anniversary of the
A large number of the alumni, former students
and friends of the institution crowded the halls of
Pasumalai on Sept. 15, 1892, and with many words
of filial affection and with much festivity, set their
seal upon the institution's half century of noble
history and faithful labor. The following is a pro-
gramme of the day's proceedings:
GENERAL MEETING 810 A.M.
REV. G. T. WASHBPRN, D.D., Chairman.
ME. GRANT ASIBVATHAM, Vice-Chairman.
Singing " He who hath trusted".. College Choir.
Reading the Scriptures, Ps. 67 ... Rev. H. C. Hazen, M.A.
Prayer ... ... ... ... Rev. J. C. Perkins, M.A.
Address of Welcome ... ... Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A.
Singing Tamil Lyric ... ... Theological Students.
Historical Paper Rev. G. T. Washburn, D.D.
Singing Pasumalai Song ... ... College Choir.
Address The Aim of the Past, }
the Hope of the Future Char- > Rev. J. E. Tracy, M.A.
acter ... ... ... ...j
Singing ' Praise waiteth for Thee'. College Choir.
The Old Education Mr. L. A. Sami Aiyar.
The New Education how pro- ) ,, a ir LI
vided for ? ] Mr> S.Muttusami Aiyar, H. A.
Obligations of Educated Men ... Mr. S. Venkoba Chari, B.A.
Sanscrit Poem ... ... ... Mr. S. Sesha Sastri.
llecess 10 10.15 A.M.
SECOND SESSION 10.15-11 A.M.
REV. J. S. CHANDLER, M.A., Chairman.
MR. R. SANTHIAPPAN, Vice-Chairman.
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Choir.
("Rev. M. Eames.
Short Addresses ... ... ... < Rev. James Rowland.
(. Mr. T. Loomis & others.
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Choir.
Recess and Breakfast 1112.30 P.M.
REUNION MEETINGS 12.301.30 P.M.
Of Students, from 184270, in the ") n T r ,, n , .
, r , . , TT I, : Rev. J. Cotton, Chairman.
1 heological Hall ... ... . . . _)
Of Students of Theological Classes, "^ Rev. W. A. Buckingham,
1870 92, in the VI. Form room) Chairman.
Of Students of High School and *) ,, -p , T
Coltege, in the Training Class [ Mr " * 'chairman
room ... ... ... ... )
Recess from 1.302.30 P.M.
GENERAL MEETING 2.304.30 P.M.
REV. E. CHESTER, M.D., Chairman.
MR. JOSEPH TAYLOR, Vice-Chairman.
Music... ... ... ... ... Band.
Reading of Letters
Addresses of Delegates ...
Kinging "Blessed are the people". College Choir.
Historical Address ... ... Rev. A. Barnes, M.A.
Singing "Hark the Song" ... College Choir.
Address-Personal Influence } Rev . j. S . Chandler, M.A.
Education ... ... ...)
Singing "Over the mountains" ... College Choir.
/Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A.
The Pasumalai Fund Further N Rev. S. Simon.
Efforts Remarks by ^ Mr. S. Tirittuvadasan.
C Rev. S. Isaac & others.
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Theological Students.
Music "God Save the Queen" ... Band.
Planting the Jubilee Tree ... Miss B. B. Noyes.
Singing "To 50 Swift Sped" ... College Choir.
Planting the Columbus Tree . . . Miss Perkins.
Recitation ... ... ... ... Mrs. Jeffery.
Address ... ... Mr. M. V. Subramanian.
Gymnastics and Foot-ball.
In the evening
Under the inspiration of the meetings of the
day both missionaries and mission agents were led
to promise at least a month's salary towards the
much needed Endowment Fund for the institution.
This has now been nearly all paid in and further
reference will be made to it under the " Endow-
In the founding and development of an institu-
tion like this very much depends upon those who
have been at its head as Principals. This has been
preeminently so in this case, since those in charge
have had practically supreme influence iu shaping,
so far as funds in hand would permit, the destiny
of the school.
REV. WILLIAM TRACY, D D. laid the foundations
and was the first Principal of the institution. He
joined the mission in 1837 and devoted 40 of the
best years of his life to the Lord's woi'k in this
district, dying at Tirupuvanam Nov. 28, 1877.
Of these years 22 were spent in charge of the
Seminary. Dr. Tracy was an able and devoted
missionary and a faithful and capable educator.
He threw his whole soul into the work of the
Seminary and had manifestly a peculiarly strong
influence upon his students. In the great work of
character building, which is essential to a first
class educator, he was conspicuous. The earnest
Christian lives, no less than the abundant hearty
testimony, of his old students give ample assurance
of this fact. He was also a man of literary tastes
and worked as a member of the Tamil Bible Revis-
ion Committee. He loved the Seminary, as a
father his child, and wisely devised plans for its
growth and highest pi-ogress. He was also much,
beloved by his missionary associates and left be-
hind him the legacy of a precious memory to alJ
who knew him and the well-laid foundations of an
institution which we trust will long continue to
impart increasing blessings to the people of South
India. His grateful students and others united in
placing, in the Pasumalai Church, August 1692, as
a loving memorial of him, a beautiful brass tablet.
But the institution and those who came under his
influence as students in it are the best memorials
which he could have desired of his life and labors.
THE REV. J. HERKICK, though not at any time
in permanent charge, was nevertheless principal of
the school for an aggregate of eight years, and
furthered the interests of the institution by that
ardent piety and conscientious discharge of duty
for which he was so well known. He arrived in
India in 1846 and left in 1883. And, though ill-
health prevented his returning to this land, his
heart was ever in the mission and its work until
his death in 1891. While the chief result of his
life work is to be found in the Tirumangalam Sta-
tion which in almost every thing still bears the
impress of his faith and character, Pasumalai will
never, I trust, lose entirely the fragrance of that
Christ-like patience and loving Christian example
which he showed during his connection with the
THE REV. G. T. WASHBURN, D.D. was appointed
principal in Jan. 17, 1870, and during the last
quarter of a century has continued, with a few
brief intermissions, in charge of the institution.
It would be very agreeable, if proper, for the writer
to dwell at this time upon the conspicuous ability
and devotion which Dr. Washburn has brought
to this work. This fortunately is unnecessary in
view of the fact that the results of his labor are
manifest to all. It should be remembered that,
during this quarter of a century, the institution has
entered upon a new era which means a complete
transformation and a practical new birth. Form-
erly the school was merely a humble training insti-
tution for mission catechists and teachers. Now it
has entered upon the broader sphere of general
education, inviting all to come and enjoy its bless-
ings, but still retaining its important function as
the training school and nursery of mission agents-
At the beginning of this twenty-five years the
Seminary was a very simple affair, unconnected
with the educational department, and furnishing
to its graduates none but the Principal's certificate.
To-day it is a congeries of schools and depart-
ments, each one either helping toward furnishing
a higher education, or qualifying men for special
departments of work as Christian preachers and
as teachers. The teaching staff has been enlarged
many fold and the students are ten times as many
as they were 25 years ago.
Looking at the plant of the institution we see an
equally remarkable growth and transformation.
Old buildings have been remodelled and greatly
enlarged, and new ones of architectural grace and
beauty have been erected so as to meet the rapidly
growing needs of the institution. Nearly all of
these changes have sprung from the fertile brain
and determined heart of the present Principal.
And his own private purse has been extensively
drawn upon to meet the clamoring needs of the
school and to erect the substantial edifices which
adorn the compound of the New Pasumalai.
It would certainly be both ungracious and
unjust not to mention the quiet but most necessary
and efficient assistance which MRS. WASHBURN has
rendered to Dr. Washburn and the unremitting
labors which she has bestowed upon the institution
during this quarter of a century. The feeding of
more than 200 youth is, in itself, a task whose
many cares and disagreeable burdens must be
borne in order to be appreciated. Add to this the
ministering to the sick ones and the many labors
connected with the press, and one begins to realize
the varied and exacting duties which this mis-
sionary lady has regularly performed; and that
those who have known Mrs. Washburn most inti-
mately during these years have rarely heard her
mention these abundant labors only attests the
efficiency with which she has performed them.
Certainly many students have had abundant
occasion to experience her loving service and
constant motherly care.
Among other Americans who have acted as
principals are Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A., for 5 months
in 1883 and Rev. J. S. Chandler, M.A., during
1883 84 and '90.
The following American instructors have also
been members of its staff;
Mr. A. North Jan. 1846 Jan. 1847.
Mr. Chapin, B.A 188384.
Mr. D. S. Herrick, B.A 188590.
Rev. R. Humphrey 1890.
Mr. H. H. Stutson, B.A 189194
Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A 1894
Among the early instructors of the school not
a few have given it many years of service; and of
these, several resigned to enter pastoral work in
the mission. The first instructor, who began work
with the opening of the school in '42, is Mr. Cotton
Mather of Batticotta Seminary, Jaffna. Though
he spent but two years in connection with the Semi-
nary he is still enjoying the blessings of a good
old age in his native home. Among the older
instructors should be mentioned Rev. A. G. Row-
land who taught here, from 1848 to 1868, and
who, after years of pastoral work in the mission,
entered into his rest a few months ago. Rev. J.
Colton, now pastor of the Dindigul Church, was
an instructor here from 1848 75 and was also
useful as a translator of theological books. Rev.
M. Eames was on the staff of teachers from
'54 to '70 and resigned to enter upon a long and
successful pastorate in the Mandapasalai Station.
Rev. W. A. Buckingham also taught from '75 to '94
and is now an acting pastor in the Tirumangalam
Station. The Rev. S. Mathuranayagam taught
from 1874 84 and resigned to take up the pastor-
ate of the West Church, Madura.
But of all the native instructors, he whose name
is most highly esteemed is the Rev. A. Barnes,
M.A. Entering the institution as a student mem-
ber of its first class he became a member of its
teaching staff just half a century ago and has
continued in this work with much efficiency and
unabated interest until the present. He has also
been the pastor of this church since 1871. He
has watched, through these nearly two generations,
the annual incoming classes of raw youth and the
outgoing classes of well equipped Christian
workers and has had the satisfaction of having
had a share in the training of their mind and in
the development of their Christian character. In
an important sense the Jubilee of the Institution
is that also of this faithful instructor ; and he will
not fail to receive the honor and affectionate
reverence due him from all the old students of
Pasumalai for his life of faithful and efficient
service which is synchronous with the history of
the school itself. Few instructors in any land can
show a record of such unbroken length or of
greater fidelity. Yale University honored Mr.
Barnes with the degree of M.A. in 1887.
In very recent days many university graduates,
under-graduates and others have been added to
the staff of teachers and have honored the institu-
tion by their able and faithful service. We shall
not endeavor to mention them individually. Their
names and years of service will be found in
Appendix III. Of these, most have been graduates
of Pasumalai. Some have left and others are
still identified with the institution in its various
departments; all I trust striving hard to contribute
to the highest efficiency and best progress of the
I will now enter more specifically upon a state-
ment of certain facts which indicate the growth of
the school during the half century of its history.
It may be well to remember here, that, to the
Madura District generally, this half century has
been one of wonderful progress in many ways. In
'54 was published the famous Educational Des-
patch which was fraught with so much educational
good to India. It was about this time that the
great Mutiny occurred and the reign of the noted
East India Company came to an end. The first half
of the period was, to Madura, one of old-time isola-
tion from the world. This, however, was suddenly
terminated through the opening of the new Rail-
road by the Prince of Wales in Dec. 1875. Thus
was Madura for the first time made to feel the
pulsebeats of modern civilization and of progress.
Later, under Lord Ripon's administration, measures
of self-government were introduced which, in a
day, threw the people into a new world of political
life and privilege a privilege which has been
since enlarged. General intelligence has been
moving on apace; and during this period the first
steps were taken for the education of woman.
During these years municipalities have been organ-
ized ; and in these, water-works and other im-
provements have been introduced conferring many
of the benefits of sanitation upon the people.
Kodaikanal, one of the best sanitaria of India, has
been, during this time, and practically by this
mission, opened in this district. And at present
there is being completed at Periar one of the
greatest engineering triumphs of the century;
by which a great river is being turned from its
course and compelled to contribute, now for the
first time, its untold blessings to this Madura Dis-
trict. The people have greatly advanced in every
way. During this time the town of Madura has
doubled in population and has been nearly rebuilt
with a splendor that it did not formerly possess.
The people have shaken off not a little of their
narrowness and superstition and are religiously
and socially passing through such mighty changes
as the land probably never witnessed before.
So, as we return to Pasumalai, we notice similar
changes and progress 011 all sides. In the first
place the teaching f . rce reveals a remarkable
change both as to numbers and needed qualifi-
cations. In the beginning it would have been
thought highly extravagant to keep two American
missionaries occupied in the work of the school,
even though the mission was indeed possessed of
a sufficiently lively faith to erect, at that time, two
bungalows at Pasumalai. One of these houses,
erected the very year its present occupant was
born, had to wait for permanent occupancy until
he entered it three and a half years ago. To-day
it is thought a wise economy of forces to concen-
trate in this place three missionaries, or one-fourth
of the whole male membership of our mission.
And these gentlemen feel that their position is by
no means a sinecure.
The staff of native instructors numbered no
more than three for the first thirty years. From
that time onward the number has been constantly
increasing and its educational qualifications ever
advancing, until we find at present 25 teachers
engaged, including an M.A., five university gradu-
ates, five First in Arts and eight Matriculates (See
In the number of students also, growth has
been most marked. For some 28 years the attend-
ance was very much the same ; but from that time
onward progress has been very marked; so that
in all departments of the institution there are
now 325 students in attendance, of whom 220 are
boarders. Of these, 267 are Christian, and 58
are non-Christian youth. Perhaps in no other
institution in India can be found so many Christ-
ian young men preparing themselves for lives of
usefulness and for Christian service. For many
years it was the policy of the mission to admit
into the institution only Christian youth. But
in 1879 it was wisely decided to make the bene-
fits of the institution accessible to non-Christians
also ; and from that day to the present, a num-
ber of such have been in attendance upon the
classes. And in 1892 the Southfold Hostel was
erected and opened for the use of such students.
In this way, the school has become an evangeliz-
ing agency and has the privilege of daily impart-
ing Christian truth to the Hindu youth whose
names are upon its rolls. It should be mentioned
however that during the last seven years, the
number of the students has made no advance.
This is owing to several causes, one of which is
the falling off in the mission station-boarding
schools, which are the principal sources of student
supply to the institution. According to the
excellent graded educational system of the mission,
the growth and expanding prosperity of Pasumalai
will depend to a considerable extent upon the
thorough up-keep and vigorous maintenance of
the out-station boarding schools. And it is hoped
that, now that the attention of the mission has
been called to this defect in these schools, it will
be early remedied and a progress, at least com-
mensurate with the growth of the Christian com-
munity, be restored to the institution.
In nothing is the progress of an institution
more clearly marked than in the scope of the
studies which make up its curricula. During
the larger part of the history of the school it was
regarded as almost entirely a professional institu-
tion, whose chief, if not only, design was to pre-
pare men to become preachers and pastors. So
long as that object remained supreme, expansion
in studies was inevitably slow. But when it was
broadened into an institution for general education,
containing departments for special training, and
brought into line with the requirements of the
government educational code, its development
became marked. First, the Middle School require-
ments were all enforced. Later, the High School
department was added ; and in the latter part of
1879 the first students passed the matriculation
examination in the institution. In Nov. 1881 the
school was affiliated to the Madras University as
a second grade college, and since then, has been
annually preparing and sending out under-gradu-
In all these government and university examin-
ations, the institution has stood well among the
schools and colleges of the presidency. Early in
the year 1885 the Normal School was opened and
recognized by government and now has three
classes preparing for the Primary, Lower and
Upper Secondary grades. In connection with this,
is also found the Practising School. All the stu-
dents have been trained in the Bible ; and some
have been brought up annually for the Peter
Cator Examination with creditable success. For
many years the institution has been noted for the
physical culture which it imparts to its students.;
and the Inspector of Schools has testified to its
superiority in this respect. To those who believe
not only in the principle of "a sound body in a
sound mind/' but who also feel that the develop-
ment of the character of natives in South India
must be conditioned and accompanied by a sound
physical training, this department is not without
In the Theological Seminary also progress is
evident. It was only recently that this depart-
ment was separated and made the special care and
chief work of a missionary. The curriculum has
been enlarged, and new and important subjects
introduced. The course of study also, which
formerly covered two years, has now been length-
ened into three years, with an annual incoming
and an outgoing class. In addition to these a
special class of lower grade men has a separate
two years' course of training. As most of the
theological students are men who have already
been out in mission service and are married, their
wives also have two hours of daily class work with
a view to preparing them to become more efficient
helpmeets to their husbands in future Christian
It is the aim of the management to make the
whole institution as thoroughly Christian in its
character as possible. The spirit of the Seminary
was early expressed in the small and private
prayer rooms erected in 1846, in the quad-
rangle for the students, with the view of impress-
ing upon them the truth that something more
than knowledge or mental training and discipline
is necessary for true success and high usefulness
in life. We trust that this aim has not been
obscured. In these days of all consuming desire
for certificates and for government and university
degrees, it is much more difficult than it was
formerly to impress upon the minds of the young
the truth, that hard-won character is still the only
foundation of true greatness, and that the main
spring of character is piety, and that the essential
means of piety are prayer and private devotion.
The changed spirit of New India, while less
superstitious and childish than that of half a
century ago, is just as sordid and much more
corroded with worldly ambitions, and has the added
liability of believing, with our first parents, that
the tree of knowledge may be better than the tree
of life itself. It therefore needs constant care
and effort to keep prominent before the students
the religious and spiritual side of a true culture.
In the first years of the Seminary the " Native
Provident Society" and the "Native Improvement
Society" were established with this object in view.
These societies passed away, and in their place
the Y. M. C. A. was organized and is now doing
good work in cultivating, among its numerous
members, the graces of an active Christian life.
Through this association aggressive Christian
work is carried forward in the surrounding
region. Much evangelistic work is being con-
ducted in the villages by the theological students
both on Sundays and on Wednesday evenings, when
raagic-lantern services are conducted. Thus the
direct influence of Pasumalai is felt, as it has
been for many years, throughout the surrounding
country. The effect upon this people is not as
much as we could wish ; and yet we have evidence
enough that even if they have not become, to any
great extent, Christian, they are not as supersti-
tious as they were. We are reminded of this by
the fact that when Dr. Tracy was digging up cists
in his compound in 1846 a cry was raised that thir-
teen victims had been sacrificed here in order to
obtain buried treasure, and that four other victims
were needed for that purpose a report which so
affected the superstitious community, that it led to
a cessation o travel upon this road, and necessi-
tated the interference of the Collector of the Dis-
trict. We cannot believe that such dense ignor-
ance and folly were possible here to-day.
We still wait to see within the young men
themselves a marked and powerful development in
sturdiness of character ; and we continue to pray
for a repetition of that great revival of God's
Spirit which swept over the institution during
February and March, 1861.
Another evidence of advance is found in the in-
crease of the expenses and receipts of the institu-
tion. Beyond the salary of the missionary in
charge, the annual amount required for the support
of the institution during each year of the first half
of its history was inconsiderable ; whereas it has
greatly increased during the last quarter of a cen-
tury. So that outside the salaries of the three
missionaries, there is at present a total annual
expenditure of at least Rs. 20,000. On the other
hand the receipts of the institution were practical-
ly nil for many years, so far as the government
grants and students' fees were concerned. In 1848
the mission declined, for the Seminary, govern-
ment aid and patronage. It was not until nearly
a quarter of a century later, that it allowed
the government to assist it by grants then,
as always, very inadequate and circumscribed
with many conditions in the support of this work
which is so intimately connected with the well-
being of the community. The mission maintained
the principle not very dissimilar to that advocated
by a few missions even to-day that any alliance
with the government, through grants in aid, is to
be deprecated and shunned as a compromise ; and
that total separation and unencumbered independ-
ence in this respect are the necessary conditions of
the highest success in the work. The mission is to
be congratulated upon its abandonment of such, an
ultra position and thus enable itself to enlarge, by
government aid, which it well earns, a department
of work whose importance no one at present ques-
tions. This aid from the government is not at all
commensurate with the claims which the institution
has upon it and yet is not inconsiderable, averaging
some Us. 950 for instruction and Us. 2,000 for
normal students' stipends.
In like manner, fees were not collected from
students until recent years. In 1868 a fee of 8
annas was required of each student, which demand
was continued for two years. Subsequently, under
the new regime, the students were required to con-
tribute more and more, as an expression of their
growing appreciation of the blessings received,
and in order to enable the mission to distribute
these blessings to more youth than would other-
wise be able to enjoy them.
In this way the income of the institution has
grown until it has reached some Rs. 4,000 annu-
ally. In view of the great poverty of the people,
this sum is by no means small. Nor, on the other
hand, does it reach the high rates which are de-
manded from students in most institutions of the
kind. Indeed, the institution aims to lead, so far
as possible, in the work of bringing a good Christ-
ian education within the reach of any and every
worthy boy within our community. And the fact
that Tamil Christian young men find a liberal edu-
cation open to them on easier terms than perhaps
any other youth of the same station in life through-
out the world shows that the dangers of this and
similar schools is certainly not in the line of over
exaction of fees from the students. Some indeed
fear, and perhaps not unreasonably, that over
kindness and generous indulgence in this matter
has led to the pauperizing and demoralization of
not a few youth.
At any rate, Pasumalai cannot plead guilty to
the charge of demanding too much in fees from
its students. The total receipts from students and
government does not reach more than 35 per cent
of the total expenses of the institution ; and, even
adding to this the appropriation of the mission,
there is still left to those in charge ample room for
anxiety, and urgent need to supplement these with
funds secured with much effort from private
We shall refer later on to the buildings and gen*
eral plant of the school, which are indeed among
the most marked tokens of progress.
It may not be out of place here to mention a
few outside agencies which are closely related to
the institutions and which help to illustrate the
growth of Pasumalai.
Until 1381 great inconvenience was felt owing
to the absence of postal facilities. But in that
year Dr. Washburn prevailed upon the Post
Office department to open experimentally an office
here. He also erected a building for this purpose.
Subsequently the office was confirmed and made
permanent; so that this important servant and
emblem of civilization abides under the shadow o
the school and renders, in its quiet way, its aid to
the enlightenment of the community and students.
In Nov. 1871 that other handmaid of intelli-
gence and of progress the printing press was
established here. The Lenox Press has, during
these 24 years, been kept busy in the important
work of producing and disseminating a Christian
literature, not to speak of its general convenience
to the mission and of its furnishing honorable
employment for a number of our Christian men.
During these years, in addition to the printing of
outside matter, the press has put forth some mill-
ion pages in books, pamphlets and tracts pertain-
ing to Christian truth, life and work. And its
facilities for work are being enlarged and its use-
fulness will we trust continue to grow.
Another work of the press is the printing of two
periodicals. One of these, the " Sattiavartamani,"
or "New Age," was started by Dr. Washburn at
Pasumalai in 1870 and has been conducted ever
since as a semi-monthly. Until this year it was
privately supported by Dr. Washburn. Now the
mission has taken it over and proposes soon to
enlarge it and increase its usefulness in other ways.
During these 25 years it has had no small influ-
ence especially among our own mission agonts, to
most of whom it is the principal means of commu-
nication with the broader world without ; and its
periodic arrival is always anticipated with great
interest. One of its four pages is English and the
other three Tamil. It has a circulation of over
The "Joyful News" (riVpesv. Q*v) is the
other periodical, published monthly. It is a Tamil
missionary sheet, started in 1884 by a few of the
missionaries, with the special object of furnishing
the mission catechists and pastors with missionary
intelligence for their "monthly concerts." It ia
now supported and conducted by the mission, is
printed at Pasumalai and has a circulation of over
1,100 copies, mainly in this mission. It gives to
many a new and a higher impulse as it furnishes
a broader view of the field, which ia the world, and
enables most of our people to realize more fully
than before that th kingdom of our Lord is a
world wide kingdom, whose glory and whose obli-
gations are theirs to share.
Among the many vicissitudes of mission policy
and owing to the exigencies of the personnel of
the mission, the Female Seminary was transferred
from Madura to Paeurnalai in June 1870. It re-
mained here until Aug. 1872 under the charge of
Miss Smith, after which it was transferred again
to Madura; and the managers of these schools are
at present not ambitious to shorten the distance
between them. Pasumalai is exceedingly happy
to witness the healthy and rapid progress of ita
sister institution for girls in Madura during this
last quarter of a century and to wish for it, here-
after, a full continuation of the same growth.
The great Famine of 1876 '77 with its terrible
destitution and appalling mortality thrust upon
the principal the necessity of opening temporarily
a nursery and an orphanage. This was opened in
Nov. 1877 with 80 children in attendance. The
nursery was closed in '79, after 1,070 children had
been cared for. The orphanage, for larger chil-
dren, was continued for some years more until
most of the young people taken in were equipped
with an education, and sent out to support them-
selves. A number of these have entered mission
service and are repaying with interest, by their
lives and Christian service, the money expended^
and the efforts put forth, in their behalf.
Pasumalai is a healthy situation and free from
many of the epidemics and diseases of a large
town. And yet with so many students and with
the teachers and their families constituting quite
a large community it was imperatively necessai'y
that a dispensary be established with a hospital
assistant in charge. For some years this blessing
has been enjoyed to the great advantage of the
One of the essential concomitants of an educa-
tional institution is a library. For many years the
mission libraiy, containing several hundred vol-
umes, has been housed at Pasumalai. Many of
these are valuable books and a few of them are
In connection with the College and High School
there is another growing library containing a
goodly number of appropriate and useful works of
reference and standard authors.
There is also, in connection with the Theological
Seminary, a small, but helpful library suited to
the needs of the Seminary. We trust that these
two school libraries may be greatly enlarged and
rendered adequate to the increasing wants of the
THE PLANT OF THE INSTITUTION.
An institution may not be known by its build-
ings so accurately as a man by his clothes. And
yet the buildings are generally a fair index to the
inner condition of a school and help not a little in
shaping its destiny. When this institution was
founded, buildings suitable to the time and its
work were erected, including two bungalows cost-
ing nearly Rs. 4.000 each, a church upon which
nearly Rs. 3,000 was expended, and Seminary
buildings and helpers' houses, &c., costing Rs.
7,000 ; bringing the total expenditure to over
Rs. 19,000. These buildings sufficed for a quarter
of a century and the bungalows and church are
still (with some changes and additions) doing ser-
vice. But the last quarter of a century has wit-
nessed large additions to, and many transforma-
tions of, the school buildings so that it would be
hard to recognize the lineaments, or even the loca-
tion, of the old as one stands in the presence of the
new. In these changes and new buildings above
Rs. 60,000 have been expended since 1870 (See
Appendix II) whereby the institution has come to
possess halls, class rooms, dormitories, &c., which
are as substantial, commodious and well-suited to
their purpose as any probably in the Presidency.
Of these later additions I may speak in detail
and refer to the sources of the funds used in
The College. Of this building two separate pic-
tures are found in this volume one representing
the old and the other the new building. These will
enable one to judge of the superiority of the lat-
ter ovei' tbe former. It will also enable him to see
something of the effort made to add beauty to
utility in the construction of the newer buildings.
In the early history of the mission the old New
England ideas of architecture with rectangular,
unrelieved and unadorned buildings were brought
to this mission bodily. The only claim that could
be pressed in its behalf was that of simple utility.
But it was a style both foreign to the people and
devoid of attractiveness. These buildings were
useful in their day ; but we have fallen upon bet-
ter times in this respect. Certainly the outward
aspect of this new hall is both inviting and impos-
ing. By the transformation and expansion of this
building the hall of the school was itself much
enlarged so as to meet the present needs for a
large study room, and was raised from the first to
the second floor. This gave several new and com-
modious class rooms for the High School in the
lower story. To the east of these have been erect-
ed several class rooms for tbe College classes and
the Normal School ; and on the west of the hall,
as an extension, is the attractive Library hall which
however is already beginning to feel the growing
burdens of its shelves.
On the east of the quadrangle was the old and
uninviting dining hall and kitchen which were
demolished and rebuilt in a much more attractive
style as class rooms for the Middle School forms.
This is now called the "Seals Memorial," as a
considerable part of the funds for its erection were
contributed by the Beals' family of Winchendon,
Mass., U. S. A. The old dormitory, on the west of
the old quadrangle, which was originally a one story
structure, was crowned with a second story which
became the dormitory room ; while the lower part
is divided into class rooms and is used by the Pri-
mary classes. The building joining on to this ou
the south-west, and which was originally used for
the Press, is now much improved and converted
into a Science Lectruo Room.
Turning to the west side of the enlarged quad-
rangle we first come, on its south end, to the
Hollis Moore Memorial Hall which was erected by
a part of the legacy of Mr. Hollis Moore, of South
Boston, Mass., U S.A. through his executor Rev.
E. K. Alden, D.D., who, for many years, has been a
true friend of the institution. This hall was
erected and opened in 1887 at an expense of
Rs. 9,000 and is both large and commodious and
well adapted to its purposes. The lower story is
devoted to class rooms for the Theological Semi-
nary and a large room for the Lenox Press. The
second story, which is coextensive with this, is one
spacious sleeping room for the students of the in-
stitution. To the north of this structure is the
new Dining Hall and kitchen which was completed
at an expense of Rs. 3,500 and opened in Aug.
1891. On the western part of the northern side of
the quadrangle has just been completed the Yokan
Lodge at an expense of Rs. 4,000. This is a hostel
for the older and more advanced Christian stu-
dents. As it is the last, so is it architecturally the
most attractive building in Pasumalai, being a beau-
tiful structure of the Saracenic style and suited to
accommodate 20 students. Under the leadership
of Dr. Miller, of the Madras Christian College,
the mind of the educators of this presidency has
been turned to the need of hostels for students.
In this respect Pasumalai began to move early ;
for the Principal erected on the south side of the
main road in 1892 the Southfold Hostel at a cost
of Rs. 4,000, for the accommodation of 36 Brahmen
students. Another building is now in course of
construction which will allow of the opening of a
cottage as a "Home" for ten or twelve non-Brah-
inin Hindus. These hostels meet a long felt want
in the institution and add to its attractions both
to Christian and non-Christian youth. In the erec-
tion of all these buildings Dr. Washburn has not
only been his own architect and builder a work
whose difficulty and worry is known only to those
who have experience in building in India he has
also been instrumental in securing from others
some of the funds necessary for the work and has
freely devoted his own private resources to the
work. None of these buildings erected during
his time were built without his pecuniary aid and
Borne of them are the monuments of his offerings
alone. In addition to these school buildings much
has been expended in accommodation for teachers
and theological students. The nineteen teachers'
houses have cost Bs. 10,500 in sums contributed
mostly through the American Board. The sixteen
houses for theological students have been erected
partly by funds collected privately and partly
through special offerings by a few New England
Churches and Sunday Schools sent through the
Thus the institution has put on externally an
entirely new aspect daring the latter part of its
half century of existence; and we trnst that by
healthy and vigorous growth necessity may be laid
upon it during the next half century, to make
equally bold advances in external progress.
THE ENDOWMENT FUND.
Pasnmalai has of course been a distinctively
missionary institution from its incipiency. Our
Missionary Society in Boston has generously sup-
ported it during these fifty years ; and we have
only grateful thanks for those good and wise men
on the Prudential Committee and in the Secretari-
at in America who have exercised so much care to
shield the institution from serious harm in times
of financial distress and have evinced such a gen-
erous sympathy with the aims of the school. And
yetj our experience has already abundantly shown
and emphasized to us the fact, that an institution
of these years and proportions, with ever increas-
ing wants, should not rest content to live in abso-
lute dependence upon the annual grant of funds
given by a society 11,000 miles away a society,
moreover, which is constantly exposed to the
dangers of a depleted treasury and pressed with
the urgent claims of the varied departments of
work in 22 missions of many lands. It is cer-
tainly time that efforts were made to create aa
Endowment which will ensure, without fail, the
perpetuation of such a work as this. And it would
seem that the half century of life and successful
work behind the institution should constitute a
claim through which we may confidently appeal to
the appreciative pu-blic for substantial aid and
sympathy in this movement. It is under the strain
of this conviction, that the mission has more than
once shown its deep interest in the creation of a
Pasuraalai Endowment Fund and has voted its
unanimous approval of various efforts put forth to
this end. These efforts have extended over more
than 15 years since Oct. 1879 when the first gift
of Rs. 1,000 was made by the Principal and his
family for the Endowment Fund. Though many
and varied efforts have been made since then to-
wards this end we cannot, as yet, claim any great
success in the enterprise.
And yet we have made what we consider a suc-
cessful beginning, a beginning which we confident-
ly hope will bring us more substantial success in the
near future. In any case, we feel that in the mat-
ter of this Fund, we have embarked upon an import-
ant undertaking, which will doubtless demand pa-
tient and persevering effort. But the growing need
for the Fund must stimulate us to increasing enthu-
siasm in the work of securing it. The encouraging
thing about this movement is that it has taken a
strong hold upon our poor, but appreciative, natire
Christian community, who have already strained
themselves to the utmost to inaugurate it. In 1 884,
upon the Celebration of the Jubilee of the Madura
Mission the Christian community made an offering
of Rs. 5,200 which was cheerfully devoted to the
Pasumalai Fund. Three years ago, upon the Jubi-
lee celebration of this institution, all the agents
of the mission, with the missionaries, decided to
devote a month's salary to the fund. We who
know how much this means in self-denial to these
poor people appreciate this offering. Though small
in bulk, it is nevertheless very large in spirit and
rich as a stimulant to others of means to give unto
this good cause. For a complete list, so far as
available, of the offerings thus far made to this
Fund (See Appendix VI). I desire to make par-
ticular mention of a few of these, such as may be
of general interest or may prove instructive and
stimulating to others.
The first is the Washburn Scholarship of Rs.
5^100 a donation of Dr. and Mrs. Washburn in
perpetuation of their life work.
The Burnell Scholarship was the offering of the
family of one of our older missionaries as an evi-
dence of their interest in the work of the institu-
tion. The Noyes Scholarship of Rs. 750 is also
the filial offering of a Madura-born son, Mr.
Joseph Noyes, in commemoration of the long serv-
ices rendered by his father to the Christians of
The Welsh Scholarship of Rs. 1,215 was coutrib-
uted by the Welsh Congregational Churches of
Northern Ohio in 1884 in response to the earnest
efforts of Revs. W. P. Edwards and J. M. Thomas,
both now deceased. The mites and faith of many
poor Christians are embodied in this not very large
Fund. By the side of this we place the Glovers-
ville Fund of Rs. 1,000 being the offering of the
one Congregational Church of Gloversville, New
York, as a token of its continued interest in Mrs.
Washburn a member of the church.
The Clancy Scholarship of Rs. 700 was the gift
of Mrs. C. Clancy, a life-long friend of Mrs.
The Scudder Scholarship of Rs. 800 perpetu-
ates the name of Rev. David Scudder, one of the
most promising of all the young missionaries who
have joined this mission, but who was cut off at
the beginning of his career. It is fitting that hia
name should, by a gift of two of his brothers, be
thus permanently identified with the highest insti-
tution of the field of his brief labors.
The William Banfield Capron Scholarship of
Rs. 1,314. This scholarship was founded by Mrs.
S. B. Capron in memory of her husband who died at
Manamadura in 1876 after twenty years of devoted
and efficient service for the Master in India. We
are much pleased to have this name of precious
memory in the mission associated, by this Fund,
with Pasumalai in whose growth he was formerly
much interested and towards which he contributed.
Among Hindu gentlemen who have shown their
sympathy is the Rajah of Ramnad who generously
added Rs. 2,000 to this Fund. The Hon. Justice
S. Snbramania Iyer, c I.E. also showed his wonted
public spirit and sympathy not only by a subscrip-
tion to the Fund but also by a donation of a piece
of land adjoining our property at Pasumalai. We
wish that more of the wealthy gentlemen and
princes of South India could be induced to bestow
upon institutions of learning at least a small por-
tion of their large fortunes for the improvement of
their own people and generation. Wealth has not
yet, in this land, become the servant of a public
spirit or of a high interest in the intellectual pro-
gress of the community. It continues to be too
much the instrument of selfish, personal and low
gratification; so that no institutions arise, as for
instance in the United States, by personal self-
denial and a holy and lofty ambition of individu-
als of means to make posterity wiser and better
than their own time. We are glad to see faint
indications of the rise of such a sentiment among
a few in this land. But this is a plant of slow
growth ; and we cannot expect to see many such
institutions as Patchiappa's, perhaps, in this too
close-fisted age in India. Frequent appeals for
their aid and sympathy, with limited responses in
this generation may lead to the large endowments
and "foundations" of the next.
Of the constant and generous friends of the
institution, in the United States, should be men-
tioned the Congregational Church in Lenox, Mass.,
whose yearly contributions, have sustained numer-
ous beneficiaries ; the Rev. N. G. Clark, D.D., who
as senior Foreign Secretary of the Board, has
throughout his connection with the Society main-
tained the deepest interest in the welfare of the
institution, sympathised with every effort to im-
prove it, and when legitimately within his power,
directed valuable contributions to its support ;
Rev. E. K. Alden, D.D., of Boston, Mass., who has
more than once come to the assistance of the insti-
tution in its time of need ; the Rev. John Hanna
of Chicago, whose repeated donations have helped
many a poor student; Rev. and Mrs. Devins of
New York who have contributed in memory of
Thornton B. Penfield, former husband of Mrs.
Devins and a missionary with her of the Madura
Mission for several years, till his death in Pasu-
malai in 1871; and especially Williams College,
whose repeated donations in recent years amount
to nearly 8,000 Rupees, and evidences of which
are to be seen in the buildings of the institution
as well as in the maintenance of the teaching staff.
Some effort has been made and is still being
made in America in behalf of this fund. Rev. G*
H. Gutterson and Rev. H. C. Hazen have been, by
the mission, deputed to collect sums for this pur-
pose. The former has secured some $200 for the
In conclusion, we desire to send forth this
simple story of the inception, struggles, growth and
hopes of this one mission institution in no spirit
of boasting but in an humble though strong hope
that it is the small beginning of what, under
God's guidance, will prove to be a great and an
abiding power for good. And in prayerful reli-
ance upon Him who has, from the first, been its
recognized Head we commit it to Him again at the
beginning of the new half century.
We also trust that the Native community in
genera^ and Native Christians in particular, will
earnestly study and gratefully appreciate this
strange and truly Christian spectacle of a people
who are their antipodes, for 50 years, offering up
their prayers and sending forth their sons and
daughters and their money (about Rs. 250,000)
nearly 11,000 miles, to educate a people whom they
have never seen, and whom they are bound by no
ties, save that all potent one of Christ-like love,
sympathy and Christian obligation. Has the world
often before, or at any time outside of Christianity,
witnessed such patient constancy or such a lofty
altruism in the loving work of one people for
another ? To be wanting in gratitude under such
circumstances would be vile indeed. And we have
many evidences among the Christian community
of a lively sense of appreciation of all this kind-
ness. Still the highest appreciation of such a
benefit is best shown by a full realization of the
obligations which it brings to the recipients obli-
gations which in this case are neither few nor
light. If the time has not already come, it certain-
ly cannot be far off, when our Christians should
be willing and happy to assume the burdens of
such an institution themselves when the strength,
intelligence and means acquired by them through
the generous self-denying offerings of distant
Christian friends should be lavishly consecrated
upon the altar of self-support, and a vigorous
propagation of the truths and principles taught
when the long habit of dependance and of recipi-
ency should, by manly energy and Divine grace,
be transmuted into a life of self-reliance and self-
forgetting effort for others. If the history of
Pasumalai teaches one lesson above all others,
it must be this. And until this lesson shall be in
good part learned, the aims of the promoters and
supporters of the institution will not be realized.
J. P. JONES.
[This address was delivered at the Jubilee celebration in 1892
of the founding of what is now the Pasumalai College, Semina-
ry, and Training Institution, and is published by request of the
Mission, along with the appendices on which many of its state-
ment are based. Since its delivery, it has again undergone
careful revision with the earnest desire of stating truly and
fairly the facts in a controversy, which for above twenty years
created much heat in the Mission, and called out strong parti-
sanship both in the Mission and in the Board at home.
Happily, time and events have in a great measure, decided
questions which four or five decades ago, it was attempted to
settle by argument. I say in a great measure, because there
are still worthy missionaries and others, who like the veteran
Rev. Maurice Philips, in his paper before the late Bombay Mis-
sionary Conference, repeat the arguments which were much
heard in this Mission between 1849 and 1855, and would try
anew the experiment which the Madura Mission made between
1855 and 1875.]
jfiftg |ears of % $mmalai institute.
THE Seminary, out of which the present Pasu-
malai institution has grown, was opened in Tiru-
mangalam on September 4th, 1842, in a bungalow
similar to the present missionary bungalow in that
town, standing about where the present girls'
school now stands. It was demolished in 1860
and the materials used in part for the new bunga-
low then building in Mauamadura, in part for the
inclosing wall of the Tirumangalam compound,
and in part for the present church.
From the first, it was the purpose of the mission
to transfer the school to Madura, as soon as quar-
ters could be provided for it there ; bat two things
stood in the way of this consummation the diffi-
culty of securing an eligible site, and the equal
difficulty of obtaining 2,500 with which to build ;
for that was the figure at which the mission esti-
mated its requirements.
Sites were sought both at the east of Madura in
the neighborhood of Teppakulam, and also beyond
the Dindignl gate; the rental of the Tamakam,
then in a somewhat dilapidated condition, was
asked. But nothing satisfactory offering, a plot
of ground* was pitched upon, on the north side of
the river near the Tamakam,t and recommended
for purchase. A committee of the mission seems
to have busied itself in negotiating for it in the
interval of two years or more while no funds were
available and then suddenly to have given it up;
partly on account of its liability to isolation by
floods in the Vaigai, and partly because of its
proximity to the town, a disadvantage which Mr.
Tracy's experience in Tiruinangalam seems to have
made apparent. J
But for whatever cause, the proposed location
was abandoned. In April 1844 when the neces-
sary funds were ready, and the mission had receiv-
ed permission to move in the matter, the question
of a site was still an open one ; and not till late in
the following July had the Pasumalai site been
fixed upon. Then work was pushed on apace,
* The land selected was a field west of the old jail, the site of
which is now occupied by the Madura Union Club house.
t The Tamakam is an old native castle situated on what was
then an open plain on the north of the Vaigai, a mile and a half
from Madura, and said to have been Tirumal Nayak's hunting
lodge, from which also he witnessed the contests of his ele-
phants with one another and with wild beasts.
J Mr. Tracy's report of his work for 1843.
Mr. Girdwood, a passed Batticottah man, was the overseer,
while Mr. Tracy superintend from Tirumangalam spending, his
Saturdays at Pasumalai.
and on September 1st, 1845, the school bungalow,
without any class rooms or kitchen, and the princi-
pal's bungalow had been so far completed as to
allow of the transfer of the school to its new
quarters. The remaining buildings were com-
pleted within the following two years, the church
having been finished so as to be used in October
1847. The east bungalow was erected for the use
of a second missionary instructor, whose coming this
jubilee year has just witnessed, thus testifying to
the breadth of plan and confidence of the founders.
The land on which the buildings were erected
was said to be held on annual lease from govern-
ment by the people of the neighbouring Krishna-
puram. But the Madras Government chose to deal
directly with the mission as a foreign body asking
permission to hold real estate, and granted on very
generous terms a title to a tract of land of forty
acres and more,* which included that claimed by
the Krishnapuram villagers, and waste land ex-
tending north towards the top of the hill. What-
ever their title was, the holders of the government
pattas were satisfied by a money payment, and friend-
ly relations were established between the mission-
aries and the thief caste which have continued to the
* See Appendix I.
present day. This then, constituted the real estate
and school plant, which supplied for nearly forty
years the wants of the school. The erections were
of a substantial kind, and during 1 that time, re-
quired very little alteration to enable them to
meet the changing needs of the Seminary. But
by 1832, the institution had undergone such
changes, and had increased in size to such an ex-
tent, as to render necessary the initiation of those
changes, which have made it what it is to-day.
No pant of the school buildings are exactly what
they were. The area of usable room covers now
nearly three times what it did eleven years ago.
It was then about 14,000 square feet; it is now
over 41,000 square feet.* Our real estate has not
increased as much in extent ; but four or five plots
of land amounting to several acres, very valuable
for our purposes, have been acquired. One of
these directly before the college is the gift of Mr.
Grant Asirvatham. Most of the Pasumalai land
held by the mission was originally Government
waste ; and the remainder of it has cost the mis-
sion very little. But not so with the buildings.
* Since this was written in 1892, two hostels accommodating
56 students have been built, and arrangements have been made
for opening a cottage for the accommodation of ten or a dozen
more ; sixteen houses for students in the theological seminary
have also been erected.
We have seen that, at the outset, the mission esti-
mated the cost of the necessary outfit at $2,500,
or say Rs. 5,000 ; but by the time Mr. Tracy had
completed the buildings, he had spent nearly
20,000 rupees ; and the expenditure on buildings
up to date has been not far from 65,000 rupees
to which the Board has contributed by direct grant
not far from 46,000 rupees.* This doea not in-
As before mentioned the Seminary was opened
on September 4th, 1842, by assembling from the
feeder boarding schools of Dindigal, Tirupuvanam
and Tirumangalam 34 lads who had already made
some progress io an English and Vernacular edu-
cation. And according to the programme of their
studies, they were to undergo a very respectable
degree of teaching and training, in the five years
before they were to be dismissed from its highest
class. t The institution can fairly lay claim to
having been one of the earliest mission schools of
superior secondary education established in the
* la September 1895 the expenditure on buildings had
amounted to above Rs. 81,500 and the Board's contribution to
the same about Rs. 54,000.
t See list of text-books in the Appendix I. When the writer
came to the Seminary in 1870 he found the students' library
well supplied, for class use, with the Science and Mathematical
text-books in use in American Colleges in the forties.
Presidency. And this claim is amply borne out
by the positions under government and in honor-
able vocations filled by its early students.
At that time, Batticotta Seminary in Jaffna
stood among the foremost mission schools in the
East. And the founders of the Pasumalai Semi-
nary seem to have studied with much care the
make up, management, curriculum of studies, and
the general arrangement and provision for the
Batticotta School.* Indeed, the Madura Mission
was but a bud nipped off from the Jaffna stock
and set to grow in Madura soil; and like buds
under such circumstances, it was, for a time, so far
as surroundings would allow, very much a repro-
duction of the original.
The pupils received into the new Seminary were
all of the Sudra caste; and the school was carried
on with careful reference to the caste prejudice of
pupils and teachers. Thus it went on for fivo
years ; and two classes left in a regular way. It
is possible, perhaps probable, that other than
revolutionary methods might have been adopted to
bring the practices of the school, and the mission
as well, more nearly into harmony with Christian
* It is an interesting fact that the first four masters in Fnsu-
malai were Batticotta Seminary men, and the head master con-
tinued to be a Batticotta man, till 1855.
ideas of fellowship and brotherhood ; but such
were not employed ; and in October 1847 the caste
storm burst which left the Seminary little better
than a wreck. Ten only of the pupils remained,
though several others found their way back in the
course of time.
A very striking case was that of Muttian who
twelve years after came back to Pasumalai to confess
his rashness, and wrong doing towards Mr. Tracy
on that occasion, and to renounce caste and Hindu-
ism, and to be received by his old teacher into the
The disastrous effect of the caste troubles on the
Seminary would not have been so serious, had not
the same cause also decimated the four boarding
schools as well as the Seminary; only 73 of 155
pupils} remaining in them after the storm had blown
over ; and from this set-back they never recovered.*
The four years following were years of reaction in
the native mind and of questioning and debate, in
which, not only the missionaries, but the Secreta-
* The boarding schools contained their largest number of
pupils in 1845, viz., 216; in 1846, 155; at the end of 1847, 81;
and in the following years 77, 68, 69, 82, 88, 91 ; in 1854 when
the Sivaganga school was united with the Tirupuvanam school,
98; in 1855 when the Dindigul and Mandapasalai schools were
united, 72; the next year when the Tirnpuvanam school was
dropped, 37 ; and in 1857 when the last school at Tirumanga-
lam was closed, 23.
ries at home took part. Within that time several
questions began to loom on the missionary horizon,
and before long filled the whole educational sky.
The chief of these were and they were all closely
interwoven with one another The functions of the
Seminary ; The functions of Missionary Education ;
The place of English in Missionary Education in
India; The remuneration to be given Mission
agents and educated men in its employ ; and later
on, The posture of Mission education to Govern-
ment grants in aid.
It is not to be forgotten that American mission-
aries in Asia, in the thirties and forties, were be-
ginners ; and, whether they were conscious of it or
not, quite as much learners as teachers learners
of an old and complicated civilization, and of a
religion wholly heterogeneous from any thing they
had had to deal with, and therefore chief of all,
learners as to the means and methods of aggressive
Christian work. Western prejudices, and early
missionary preconceptions had to be given up;
and our early missionaries had to learn that in the
Madura district itself they were to devise their
own working scheme, and not find it ready made
in Jaffna or Calcutta.
Among the better classes of Jaffna, to which the
missionaries chiefly addressed themselves, they had
found elementary schools by far the most available
agency for getting at the people ; and having all
their schools within easy reach of constant inspec-
tion they found it easy, through a system of moni-
tors and pupil-teachers in the elementary schools
to supply the necessary masters for them. But
laboring as they did, among a small and intelli-
gent section of the people, the missionaries also
strongly felt the need of institutions of higher in-
struction to prepare competent preachers and
assistants for them in their work. Moreover, under
the influence of Dr. Duff in Calcutta and Dr. An-
derson in Madras, it is undeniable, that among mis-
sionaries, the tide was moving in the direction of
missionary higher education. It is hardly neces-
sary to say that the combination of circumstances
described above as existing, in Jaffna, was highly
artificial, and not likely to exist in any other mis-
sion field, nor likely to allow of identical treatment
With these preliminary statements, let us see if
we can place ourselves in the position of our pio-
neer missionaries, and look at things from their
point of view. When the first missionaries arrived
in Madura from Jaffna they found the Madura Dis-
trict wholly heathen, not one in five of the people
able to read. And yet its people had seen better
days intellectually, and had reached in some things
a high stage of civilization. As in Jaffna, so here,
the missionaries found that as soon as the people
understood that they would teach them, the villa-
gers and towns-people from every quarter came
clamoring to their doors. for schools. And these
schools afforded permanent audiences, to which
the Bible could be taught, day after day, and in
such an amount, that the people could really be
made acquainted with Christianity; while on the
other hand no heathen would on any account enter
a place of Christian worship, and the audiences on
the street were uncertain in numbers, distracted,
and never twice the same. The missionaries there-
fore adopted schools and printed books as the
means of accomplishing their purpose with
the approval of their supporters at home* and
with gratifying success. f One difficulty, while this
* The course pursued in the schools at Madura must satisfy
any one, that they come within the Scriptural and literal com-
mand to publish the gospel to all nations. Report of the Board
for 1839, p. 108.
f In 1834 two schools were opened with 78 pupils. In 1835
there were eight schools with 312 pupils, in 1836, 37 schools were
going on with 1,286 pupils. The following year there were fifty-
nine schools under the missionaries with 2,158 pupils; and in
1842, the year in which the seminary was opened, there were
ninety-two schools, with 3,395 pupils. They reached their highest
level in 1845, when there were 114, with 3,7"!' pupils; after
that they declined, and in 1853 nominally ceased, perhaps, actu-
class of schools continued to be used, was to obtain
suitable teachers, who, even under frequent inspec-
tions, would do their work intelligently and faith-
fully. The difficulty was partially met by a scheme
for training monitors or pupil-teachers, carried on
by each missionary at his station, thus obviating,
for the time-beiug, the need of any central training
school, had such a school then been possible or
practicable.* At any rate, from 1837, the time
when they began to agitate for a seminary till
1845 or 1846, the missionaries seem never to have
ally did cease for a few years, though there always seem to have
been some mission schools, maintained in purely heathen villages.
* Mr. Poor gives this description of the plan of the mission-
aries for availing themselves of the good-will and prestige of
the native village school and hereditary schoolmaster to graft
their Christian ideas upon them. " Most of the schoolmasters
hitherto employed (1836) are old men, but rendered docile by
considerations of self-interest. They are indeed, most anxious
to understand our new rules, which are to be strictly applied,
and the new lessons to be recited in the monthly meeting. For
the purpose of stimulating them in various branches of learning,
they are assembled at the mission house two days in a month.
In each school, a monitor is appointed, usually from the first
class, who receives half a rupee monthly. The object of ap-
pointing monitors is twofold ; first, to assist the teacher in in-
structing the classes ; secondly, to take measures for bringing for-
ward a better race of schoolmasters. In many schools the mon-
itor is by far the most efficient man ; and it is mainly by his
assistance that new branches of study and new methods of
teaching are introduced. The monitors are in attendance at
the mission station two days in a month, when they receive ap-
propriate instruction and direction for teaching their classei."
Statement of Schools for 1836.
thought of the Seminary as a source of supply of
masters for their village schools.
The idea at the bottom of the Seminary contem-
plated quite another style of work than this simple
evangelism, and its aim was the preparation of
quite a different class of agents from those serving
in the village schools.
It is to be remembered that the missionaries
were college and seminary-bred men, accustomed
to the New England idea of the church, and to
the dignity and Fespeet attaching to it and its col-
lege-bred minister. Could these men at once lay
aside all these ideas, and come down to the simple
necessities of a mission among illiterates ? Should
they leave Christianity to such defenders in the
face of one of the most intellectual races the world
has produced ? Should they introduce a system of
theological education starting at the level of the
village school ? Or should they follow the honour-
ed traditions of New England Puritanism which
founded its first college within sixteen years of land-
ing on Plymouth rock, and which numbered more
graduates of Cambridge and Oxford among its emi-
grants, in proportion to its population, than the
mother country itself? Should they deliberately
arrange for a graded ministry who believe first of
all in the parity of the clergy ?
The point from which all the missionaries viewed
higher education is well set forth by Mr. Tracy
in his report of 1842. He says: "It is evident to
any one who has paid the slightest attention to the
subject, that the immense population of this coun-
try can never be converted from idolatry and in-
structed in the worship of the only living and true
"God by the personal labors of foreign missionaries
That must be done chiefly through the agency
of men raised up from among the people themselves
and laboring under the direction of a few for-
eign missionaries. It was thus its present rulers
subdued its one hundred million inhabitants ; it is
only by the same means that they retain their pow-
er. We may in this respect learn wisdom from the
children of this world. Impressed with such views
the mission established boarding schools at nearly
all the stations as the first step towards raising ap
a native ministry/'*
Under the circumstances it is net surprising that
the first missionaries did not strike out wholly new
lines for themselves. They were not blessed with
* The first boarding school was established in Dindigul in
1837, and one each at Sivaganga, Tirupuvanam and Tirumanga-
lam in 1839 ; and the first setback in scholarship which the
Seminary suffered, arose from the caste defection of 1847, reduc-
ing not only the number of eligible pupils but also the quality
and scholarship of those sent for admission.
superhuman prevision ; and it was in truth, events
which happend a year or two after the Seminary
was under way, that created division of opinion as
to the method of carrying it on. In the year the
Seminary was opened there began to be talk in the
Madura District about a gregarious movement of
villages and families towards Christianity such as
had occured in Tinnevelly under the ministry of
Khenius, Thomas, and other missionaries;* and
within five years, that is, before the caste troubles
broke out, a score of congregations had renounced
Hinduism, were waiting for instructors in the Chris-
tian religion and in the elements of knowledge, and
were needing preachers and teachers.
These applicants were not Christians, and they
were not, on the other hand, heathen. In joining
the mission they had gone as far as to renounce
idolatrous marks, ceremonies and worship ; and had
given their promise to keep the sabbath, practice
Christian forms and ceremonies and receive relig-
ious instruction. In some cases these catechumens,
as they were called, were remote villagers of the
poorest and lowest classes, repulsive in many ways
* A few applications to become catechumens were received
by Mr. Lawrence of Dindigul in 1842. In 1843 several con-
gregations with 330 members were received. In 1845 there
were 44 congregations with 330 members ; and in 1847, 73 con-
gregations with 1,113 members.
to the higher and more educated classes. Yet they
needed religious instruction, and the mission need-
ed some system of training fitted to supply speedi-
ly a considerable number of men adapted to these
congregations; humble men, on very moderate sal-
aries, knowing enough to instruct their people, and
willing to live among them, and sympathise with
them in their lot.
The Seminary was not immediately called upon
to meet this demand in a direct way: on the other
hand, the necessity was immediately provided for
by the several missionaries, in the same way as they
had provided schoolmasters for their village schools.
It will be remembered that there were classes of
monitors at each station, who were taught and
trained two years, to prepare them for their work.
As the Hindu village schools declined, these classes
of monitors became the preparandi classes " whose
object was to supply suitable readers and teachers
for the Christian schools" and congregations.
These classes were carried on in almost all of the sta-
tions and gradually came to demand more and more
of the missionaries' time and care, till at length, in
1852, it was determined to transfer them to Pasu-
malai. There it was possible for the united classes
to receive much more thorough training and instruc-
tion than they could receive at the district stations,
though something of the village simplicity of
thinking and living had to be sacrificed. Still later,
in 1856 and following years, classes of catechists
were received into the Seminary for a single year's
course of study.
We must now turn back and see what changes
the Seminary according to its original plan had
undergone in the years immediately following
1847. We have already seen that the caste troubles
left the boarding schools in a very feeble and shat-
tered condition, and, to say the least, supplied with
a less advanced grade of students than they previ-
ously had. At the same time, the waning activity
of missionaries in the line of their Hindu village
schools, the unlocked for success in gathering village
congregations, and the want of funds to keep all
their varied work on foot tended to concentrate their
attention on these village congregations, and the
missionaries naturally began to cast about for
means and plans to procure more and better edu.
cation for the youth in them, and finally to provide
from them indigenous agents to carry on their sta-
tion district work. Up to 1849, it had been the
custom of the missionaries to receive into their
boarding schools, and so into the seminary, promis-
ing lads of good family, whether Hindus, Roman
Catholics or Protestant Christians, and whether from
the Madura, Tanjore or any other district, to be
trained for future Mission agents. When the first
boarding school was opened in Dindigul there were
no Protestant Christian children in our district;
and the number of such must have remained very
small for many years. Hence, when the Seminary
opened, all its students were either non-Protestants
from the Madura district or Protestant outsiders.*
Looking at these as materials for mission agents,
there seemed indeed some cause for misgiving,
But notwithstanding, after a practical test, it must
be confessed that the students turned out better
than was feared. Many completed their education;
most were truly converted in the boarding schools
or Seminary, and many became mission agents and
did excellent service. They constituted the most
intelligent and generally useful class of agents in
the mission, and not a few of their children are
with us to this day. They were well adapted for
the work at the station centers ; but they were not
* In the first class in 1842, 13 Hindus and 8 Romanists were
admitted ; in 1844, 7 Hindus ; in 1845, 7 Hindus and 7 Romanists ;
in 1846, 4 Hindus and 2 Romanists; in 1847, 4 Hindus and 5 Ro-
manists; in 1848, 3 Hindus; in 1850, 2 Hindus and 1 Romanist;
in 1851, 2 Hindus and 1 Romanist; in 1852, 3 Hindus; in 1854,
2 Hindus. The first convert was baptized in 1837; at the end
of 1840 there were but 15. The total number of communi-
cants in the mission was in 1839, the year the Seminary was
sanctioned, 19; in 1842, 42; in 1845, 120; in 1847, 186; in 1850,
inclined to, or fitted for rural life and work. Others
of them sought government service in preference
to any kind of mission work, to the great grief of
the missionaries, who had brought them up and
educated them. This was not forgotten by the
mission, which had little money to waste on failures
of this sort. And it resolved to avert, if possible,
danger in the future, and at the same time stimul-
ate education in the congregation of catechumens
by ordering admissions to the boarding schools
and Seminary to be restricted to the children of
our congregations. The order was followed in the
main, with its natural effect upon the schools.
About the same time, October 1849, another step
was taken in adapting mission education to current
needs and necessities. This consisted in a revision
of the curricula of the boarding schools and semi-
nary with reference to instruction in English. It
was claimed that though the pupils in the schools
were selected boys, many were incapable of learn-
ing English to a usable extent ; that English con-
sumed much time that might more profitably be
given to other things; that it delayed pupils in
getting into their work, and so enhanced the cost
of education; that it denationalized the student,
and broke his sympathy with mission work, while
it awakened aspirations for government service ;
and that it compelled a higher rate of wages than
was compatible with the best interest of the work
of the mission;* and finally, that it retarded
the .development of vernacular literature. On the
other hand, many of the ablest missionaries main-
tained that there existed in Tamil literature noth-
ing but mere translations for Christian educated
men, and these were very few; that a useful edu-
cation, even of an elementary grade, much less of
a higher, in Christian or any subjects, could not be
obtained in Tamil alone; and that after such a
* The matter of remuneration to mission agents was a quea--
tion by itself of no little importance, creating much discussion,
and in more ways than one, reflexively influencing mission
secondary education. At that time, Christians and non-Christ-
ians, intelligent and educated in English, were in great demand
in the government offices as well as among the missionaries.
What was to be the principle governing the remuneration of
men brought up and educated by the missionary societies
at their own expense ? The missionaries received a main-
tenance allowance. Were their educated agents to receive
a bare support, a comfortable support, or were they to be
paid the value of their services in the open market ? In
either of these last cases, could they be provided as preachers
and teachers for the young congregations and churches, if the
idea of self 'Support immediate or prospective was to receive
consideration? Or should self-support from the first be the
dominant idea, and only agents be employed of such quality,
and .at such rates as the congregation could afford? These
questions had to be acted on : and the different missionaries
pursued somewhat different methods: but on the whole, the
idea of the future self -support of the native laborers, and the
capital put into their education became important considerations
in settling not the question of remuneration only, but also, the
kind and grade of education,
yernacular education had been gained it led to
nothing, there being no scientific literature, no
history, no biography, and no Christian literature
of value to educated men in the vernacular ; and
that for cogent reasons a vernacular educational
apparatus and literature could not be furnished by
missionaries then at work, or likely to be employ-
ed that would meet the requirements of the case.*
Some also believed the question of missionary edu-
cation in India, governed, as the country is, by
an English speaking people to be exceptional, and
was not to be decided only by such reasons as
should settle the question in Western Asia and
There was a vast amount of discussion going on
about education in English, not only in the Madu-
ra Mission but in all the Asiatic Missions of the
Board, and not between the missionaries more
than between them and the management at home.
The question, as it presented itself at home and in
the missions, was a question first of policy, and
after that of funds. But, as has been said, late in
1 849 the mission revised its scheme of English study
* AB bearing on this question, the history and development of
the Christian Vernacular Education Society, a society instituted
about this time to promote Christian vernacular education and
literature, are most instructive and suggestive.
in the Seminary, in general reducing it; but divid-
ing the Seminary course into two stages. In the
first of these Tamil and English was taught to all
the pupils; but at the beginning of the second
stage the pupils divided according to their ability
to go on, and the instruction of the first section was
continued in Tamil only.* It was not till 1852
that the proposed changes were actually carried into
effect, and then, not without some friction and the
loss of a few students. This plan was continued
till the changes determined on in 1855 superseded
this class arrangement.
In the beginning of February, 1 855, a deputation,
appointed by the Board in April of the previous year,
arrived in Madura. It consisted of the Foreign
Secretary and one from the Prudential Committee
of the Board. The immediate occasion of the
appointment of the commission was the establish-
ment of an English school in Bombay, which re-
quired a considerable outlay for building, and an
annual grant for maintenance from the treasury
of the Board. But the ultimate object was a gen-
eral revision of the methods of operation employ-
ed in all the Board's Indian missions, in order
* See Appendix to the Deputation's Report on Madura pp-
A * jt&
to bring them more nearly into harmony \vith the
views of the representatives of the Board. The
Foreign Secretary, as appears from his letters to
the missions, had a very clear-cut theory in regard
to mission work, and a strong repugnance to
English schools, as mission agencies.*
Numerous changes were brought about in the
mission by this visit, not the least of which were
those in education. So far as that was concerned,
the center of the work was transferred from the
heathen to the Christian congregations. Education,
used heretofore to gain access to the people, and
teach Hindus Christian truth was hereafter to
be exclusively used, first, to improve the youth of
the congregations, and secondly, to provide preach-
ers, teachers, and necessary evangelists. No schools
were to be maintained for Hindus; and no Hindu
children were to be allowed to attend the schools
for the Christian congregations, except on the per-
mission of a committee of the mission. As a mat-
ter of course, the English school in Madura was
disbanded; and in order to bring the Seminary
into closer sympathy with the village congrega-
tions, its feeder boarding schools were gradually
* See Dr. Anderson's letters to the Madura, Jaffna and Mah-
rathi Missions. Deputation Report.
doubled up and closed, and- the Seminary was
brought down to the level of the village primary
school for its entering candidates. This point was
reached in 1857 when the last boarding school
ceased to exist; but English lingered on in the
Seminary for three years more, and vanished from
its walls in 1860. The principle of refusing govern-
ment aid* for each and all mission schools was
These changes were accepted by a majority of
the missionaries and acquiesced in by all. It was
believed that a plan of campaign had now been
marked out in accordance with the apostolic
method, and that earnest work on these lines would
lead to triumphant success. In the Seminary,
geometry and algebra were taught in Tamil.
Commendable efforts were made to translate into
the vernacular books on physics, moral science,
and theology, church and general history, and to add
to the scanty supply of useful Tamil literature all
seconded by the American Press at Madras with
its newly designed dies for Tamil type, and its
beautiful typography. Tamil lyrics replaced hymns
and English tunes in public worship and earnest
* Grants were offered to the Seminary by the Collector of
the District.,- Mr. Blackburn, in 1848, before the grant-in-aid
coda came into existence.
effort was made to make the theory of a purely
vernacular work a success.*
The following years were years of faithful, labo-
rious work; but by 1863 misgivings had begun to
spring up in the mind of the missionaries, and
some of the more rigid rules were relaxed. Hiu-
du children were freely allowed to attend the
schools of the Christian congregations. English
was readmitted into the Seminary in a small way ;
and the report which proposed these changes,
recommended that the question of resuscitating
the boarding schools be placed in the hands of a
committee for examination and report. f
It had been predicted that with the extinction
of the feeder boarding schools, the Seminary
would perish. On the other hand the deputation
reasoned that the doing away with the station
boarding schools and the connecting of the Semi-
nary directly with the village schools would stimu-
late and much improve these village schools.
* For the translation of numerous books and the introduction
of the native lyrics into Christian worship the mission was, at
this time, greatly indebted to the Rev. E. Webb, of Dindigul,
Vethanayaga Sastri of Tanjore, composed most of the lyrics
first introduced into worship, and Mr. Webb pioneered the way
for them into use. In his translation of text-books and other
books he was assisted by Mr. A. Allien who had worked many
years with Dr. Winslow on his great Tamil dictionary.
t Minutes of the Missions for May 1860.
Neither of these anticipated events occurred. The
Seminary did not perish, and no appreciable im-
provement took place in the village schools. The
whole system of education was degraded. So far
as they were able, intelligent families among our
people preferred to send their children for educa-
tion to other missions instead of their own mission
schools at hand.
The influence of the East India Company's fa-
mous Educational Despatch of 1854 had by this
time begun to be felt in South India, stimulating
education in a remarkable degree.* It is no dis-
credit to the American Board of Missions that in
April 1854, when it appointed its deputation, it
was unacquainted with the spirit and purpose of
the Directors of the East India Company, or with
their now famous despatch ; and it is equally no
discredit that they could not forecast the result
of that, despatch, and the spirit in which it was to
be accepted, and administered by the government
in India. But we now know that that document
embodied the genuine purpose of the Directors at
* The two grant-in-aid codes of 1855 and 1858 prepared with
a view of giving efficacy to the despatch proved unworkable,
and too parsimonious to produce much effect; but the revised
code of 1865 was much more liberal and powerfully stimulated
home and their agents in India to enter upon a
new course of popular enlightenment. And we
now can easily say that any mission in India which
attempts to ignore or cuts itself off from the gov-
ernment system of education in -carrying on its
.work, makes a serious mistake.*
Mission educational matters went on in this way
till 1870. Lads, twelve or thirteen years of age,
were taken from the village schools into the Semi-
nary for a full course of five years, and were dis-
charged at seventeen or eighteen, as far fitted as
the circumstances would allow, for employment as
teachers and preachers. But the time had now
come when the mission was more than supplied
with this class of men ; at the same time it was
discovered that this was fast becoming the only
grade of men available, and that soon the pastor-
ates, and more important posts in the mission,
must be filled from them.
The most natural thing under these circum-
* In 1855, when the Deputation visited Madura, there were no
schools in the district supported by the government. By the
last report of the Director of Education (1892 3) the popula-
, tion of the district is 1,884,706; the schools of all classes 1,378
and the number of pupils in tho district 44,683 of which 6,280
were in the schools of tho American Madura Mission. Tho total
of pupils in the presidency was 644,164, by far the larger por-
tion in government schools.
stances would have been to bring the new station
boarding schools into line with the Seminary, to
raise the standard of that institution, and to devel-
op a Theological Seminary upon it. And this was
actually done five years later but in a very round-
about way. At the time of which we speak, the gen-
eral education carried on in the Seminary togeth-
er with all the students, except the highest class,
was transferred to boarding schools ; and a purely
theological school was opened on the Seminary
premises, to which many of the best men in the
previous Seminary classes returned for two years
study, in subjects fitting them for the Christian
ministry. The new school of theology opened in
June 1870, and has continued to work on in sub-
stantially the same lines up to the present time.
There have been changes in text-books, and the
introduction of special subjects Greek, logic, and
mental science; but with these exceptions, the
course of study has remained substantially the
Kesults of social changes cannot in any caso be
fully foreseen ; so also it proved in regard to the
* With a view to providing a more thorough training for pas-
tors and spiritual agents of the mission, the Rev. J. P. Jones, in
January 1892, was appointed to the independent charge of this
department of the institution and this arrangement it is expect-
ed to maintain in future,
changes in the school. It was expected that the
station boarding schools would furnish a good sup-
ply of young men, who, sooner or later, would find
their way into the theological classes. But in this
particular, expectation was doomed to disappoint-
ment. In the twenty years following scarcely a
young man, except by a very round about path,
has found his way from the station boarding
schools into the Theological Seminary. For the
first five or six years, its classes were chiefly filled
by men from the ranks of the catechists, and
schoolmasters, who had passed through the old
Seminary. Thus things went on for half a decade,
two years of which the principal was on sick leave
in the United States. On his return in 1874, it
was evident that some important change must be
introduced, for the supply of preachers to say
nothing of the supply of schoolmasters through
the C. V. E. Society's training school in Dindigul
was seriously falling short.
And the time was ripe for it. The Christian
community had become larger and more intelli-
gent; and educated Christian parents sought a
better education for their own children within
their own mission. The Government had already
entered the educational field, and had practically
settled the. question of English in all secondary
and higher education. The railway was opening
the district in an extraordinary way to a multitude
of outside influences, all urging in the direction of
united, systematic work in the education of our
Christian people. Opposition both at home and
ia the mission had died out, and other views of the
function of the school in missionary work had
taken their place.
It was therefore with great unanimity and heart-
iness that the mission voted in January 1875 to
open classes in Pasumalai for the purpose of im-
parting a general education on the lines laid dowa
by the Government for the lower secondary and
high schools preparatory to the University. Ac-
cordingly, on the 8th of June, a number of lads
from the various boarding schools assembled at
Pasumalai, from whom twenty were selected and
formed into a sixth standard class of the middle
school. Mr. P. Joseph, a trained matriculate of
the C. M. S. High School, Palamcottah, and now
a successful pleader, was made the first master,
and a new era of our educational work in the dis-
trict began. The boarding schools, the High
School, the College and the Theological Seminary
were brought into line under circumstances that
promised more favorable results than the former
For four years, the new school was restricted to
boarders on the premises; but there seemed no
reason to refuse the request for admission of non-
Christian scholars; and from 1879, day -scholars, as
well as boarders on the premises, have been freely
admitted to the school. The first class went up to
the University's Matriculation examination in 1879
and from that time, 1 20 have passed the examina-
tion from the high-school. In 1880 pupils began to
go up for the Middle School examination ; and 172
have passed that and the Lower Secondary exami-
nation from our middle school, besides 32 more
who have passed the Special Upper Primary ex-
amination to qualify for primary teachers.
The college department was affiliated with the
Madras University in 1881, and our students ap-
peared at the First in Arts examination in Decem-
ber 1883, since which 54 have passed that exam-
ination from the college. In 1886 a normal
department was organized in accordance with the
rules of government, and was recognized by the
Director of Public Instruction, as qualified to edu-
cate all the three grades of teachers up to the col-
lege grade. It has passed 69 teachers through
the theoretical branch of the examination. The
theological department has gone on without inter-
ruption since its organization in 1870, keeping up
two classes, in one of which the subjects are taught
exclusively in the vernacular, and another in which
a part of the subjects are taught in English. With-
in this period 153 have been trained or are con-
nected with this department ; and most of these
have remained through the two years course, and
have passed out after examination by a committee
of the mission.
In making our final summary of the Seminary
as it was till 1870 we find 386 names on its regis-
ters, of whom 111 passed through its regular five
years course. Since that date 153 have enter-
ed the theological department. The nominal reg-
isters of the various schools show that 715 have
entered the middle school, 599 the high school
289 the college, 153 the normal school and 153
its primary practising branch, making alto-
gether 2,540. Of course, many of these names are
repeated ; some of them several times, as the pupil
passed from school to school; so that probably the
total number of separate individuals indicated does
not exceed 1 ,500, if it even reaches that number.
The cost of the school, which in this case includes
instruction, apparatus, books and also to a large
extent maintenance has amounted to Rs. 123,000
exclusive of the salary of the principal, which has
amounted to 97,000 rupees more. This last sum,
however, should only in part be debited to the
school, since for 32 of these 50 years, the mission-
ary at the head of the institution has had a mis-
sion district in charge, and sometimes two districts.
Fees began to be levied twenty-four years ago of
the pupils receiving a general or non-professional
education. In the college and lower institutions
not far from 40,000 rupees have been paid in ; and
the government has made grants amounting to
about Rs. 15,000; so that the school and the peo-
ple of the district are largely indebted, for the
education here offered, to the benefactions of the
Christian people of America.
In 1879 the effort for an endowment was begun
in a humble way by a gift of 1,000 rupees. Other
gifts followed; and in 1884 the jubilee year of
the mission, the matter was taken up energetically
and over Rs. 5,000 were raised. These sums have
been added to, little by little, till the funds now on
deposit amount to between 14,000 and 15,000 ru-
Three voluntary societies have flourished in the
institution, which, both by their spirit and works
have honoured their members. The first was the
Native Provident Society. It raised its funds by
the money contribution, of its members and from
savings effected by the abstinence of its members
from one meal a week. The funds, so collected,
amounted to a considerable sum in the aggregate
which was expended in tract distribution, on the
distressed and worthy poor, on maintaining for
many years a free primary school at Pasumalai,
and finally in the erection, in part, of a dispensary
building in Pasumalai.
The second society was the Native Improvement
Society, mainly supported by the masters and old
students of the school in mission employ, who feel-
ing the need of more books than they conld indi-
vidually own, organized themselves into a Library
and Improvement Society. They got together a
good sized library suited to their wants, and used
it for many years. It has now fallen into disuse,
but a part of it is still here and available.
The third was the Prayer Union, a society of
very much the same character as the Native Prov-
ident Society. It started in 1875 and in course of
time was changed into the Pasumalai Young Men's
Christian Association. The peculiar work of these
associations is familiar to most of you, and also the
special work of the Pasumalai Association, in the
line of rural evangelism.
It would be too long a task to speak of indivi-
dual men educated here, whose lives are worthy of
mention. The majority of them are still living
and may well wait to have their lives and deeds
recorded by the future historian.
In conclusion, this cluster of institutions at Pasu-
malai can lay claim to occupy only a humble place,
and to have concerned itself chiefly with the instruc-
tion of a very small and humble community. But
the smallness and weakness of that community is
the smallness and weakness of vigorous growing in-
fancy not that of decaying age. The question these
institutions, on this 50th anniversary of their found-
ing, are bound to answer are such as these : Have
they done their work in that community, and
through it for the district, with a measurable degree
of success? Have they faithfully borne witness
to that light which dawned far back in the old
centuries, but which through following centuries has
been steadily ascending towards a perfect day ?
Have they held up ideals fit to inspire a worthy
following above self, above mammon ? And have
they made the country, or any so small part of it,
better by the teachings and lives of their men ?
If they can answer these questions to the satisfac-
tion of reasonable men, they have a just and rea-
sonable claim on the future.
Extracts from the early Minutes and Correspondence
of the Mission relating to the Seminary :
July 5th, 1838. Brethren Poor and Tracy were
appointed to draft a letter to Mr. Anderson expressing
our views in regard to boarding schools and a Semi-
nary to be established at some future time, to be pres-
ented to the next quarterly meeting.
August 6th, 1838. Voted that a Committee of three
be appointed to draft a letter to the Prudential Committee
urging our need of a Seminary to be presented at the
quarterly meeting. [This Committee presented a re-
port which was adopted at the meeting Oct. 9th, 1839.]
Oct. 3rd, 1838. The Committee appointed to ex-
press our views to the Prudential Committee in relation
to boarding schools and Seminary presented their report
which was accepted.
Jan. llth, 1839. Voted that brethren be authorized
to encourage the attendance of the monitors of our
schools at the mission premises daily for instruction by
giving them half a rupee per month.
April 1st, 1839. From a letter written to the Pru-
dential Committee, requesting a grant for establishing
Seminary. " We cannot by tiny possible means, from
any existing known source, obtain either the number
of native assistants necessary "for us, or those possess-
ing such character and qualifications as the interests of
the mission require. We supposed that we wore war-
ranted in expecting such aid from the Batticotta Semi-
nary, and our hopes have rested there as the only source.
But the result has been often-repeated disappointment,
both in relation to the qualifications of the young men
who have come, and to the number which have been sent,
until we are constrained to relinquish all hope."
Oct. 9th, 1839. Brethren Poor and Dwight were
appointed to draft a letter to Government in relation to
the Tamakam, requesting that we may be allowed to
use it for the purpose of a Seminary.
Oct. llth, 1839. Voted that the brethren at Dindi-
gul be encouraged to send two catechists to the Catho-
lic applicants near Trichinopoly to obtain information
and induce young men to engage as preparandi [z'.e.,
pupil-teachers to be trained for teachers.] Brethren
Dwight, Poor and Lawrence were appointed a Commit-
tee to report respecting the expediency of gathering
a preparandi class.
April 8th, 1840. The Committee on the Tamakam
presented a copy of a letter to Sir Alexander Johnston
and reported progress.
Oct. 7th, 1841. Brethren Dwight, Crane and Steel
were appointed a Committee upon the following ques-
irons : What advance in study in the boarding schools
should be considered sufficient preparation for entrance
to the proposed Seminary ? How many boys should be
thus advanced before the Seminary is commenced ?
April, 1842. Voted that brethren Cherry, Crane and
Dwight be a Committee on compound for Seminary
and plans of buildings, &c.
Estimate for Seminary building compound and .prin-
cipal's house Rs. 2,400, central school building Rs. 500.
August 17th, 1842. " Voted that the two first classes
in the boarding schools at Dindigul, Tirumangalam, and
Tirupuvanam be assembled at Tirumangalam, as the
commencement of a Seminary under charge of brother
Tracy as PrincipaL"
August 17th, 1842. The Committee on compound
and plans for a Seminary beg leave to report in part,
recommending t4iat the lot of land adjoining the old jail
on the west and lying on the north of the road leading
east to the Tamakam and measuring 18 acres more
or less be purchased and inclosed as soon as possible.
The Book Committee beg leave to present the fol-
lowing as a list of books to be ordered from America.
25 Copies Abridgement Olmstead's Philosophy.
25 Olmstead's Astronomy.
25 Day's Mathematics including Loga-
rithms Trigonometry,' Mensuration,
Navigation and Surveying.
25 Copies Playfair's Euclid. [ed.
12 Mathematical Tables the most approv-
25 Day's Algebra, &c., &c., adopted, sent,
[No appropriation was received towards erection of
the Seminary till Jan. 1844 when Rs. 7,000 was voted
by the home Committee.]
April 3rd, 1844. Voted that Mr. Cherry be allowed
to spend not over Rs. 2,500 in purchasing a lot for the
July 25th, 1844. Voted that brother Muzzy be ap-
pointed to assist brother Tracy in the Seminary buildings,
such as plans, location, &c. [The same meeting] Bro.
Tracy presented plans for a house and Seminary which
No. 249, Madura, Apr. llth, 1846.
From Mr. J. Blackburn,
Principal Collector of Madura,
To Rev. Messrs. Tracy and Cherry,
American Missionaries, Madura,
I have much pleasure in communicating the ready ac-
quiescence of the most Noble, the Governor in Council with
my prayer of the 14th of February, that you should be
allowed to hold c. 23, a. 7| of peramboke gravel hill
known by the name of Pasumalai, at the tax of one
anna per cawny per annum, and that you should hold
the neighbouring land previously in your possession
comprising c. 10, a. 10| taxed in the survey at Ra. 5-0-8
at the reduced rate of Rs. 3-13-11 per cawny per an-
num, &c., as long as they continue to appropriate it to
scholastic missionary purposes.
I have the honour to be, gentlemen,
Your most Obedient Servant,
(Signed) J. BLACKBURN,
October 4, 1849. At the mission meeting the follow-
ing report was read and adopted :
I. " That the object of the Seminary is not general
like that of a College, but is exclusively, to raise up
the native missionaries required in our field.
II. " That the course of instruction in boarding
schools, and in the first stage in the Seminary, be main-
ly in Tamil, and that the English language be studied
as a classic in the boarding schools, to the amount of
one hour a day, and in the Seminary two hours a day,
both exclusive of recitations. That the rule and aim in
respect to English shall be ability, at the end of the first
stage, to read common English with profit.
III. " That when the course of instruction in the first
stage, on these principles, is completed, a division be
made and that those not designed for the second stage
in English, pursue mainly Tamil for one year ; that the
others, amounting to at least one-third of the whole,
pursue both in English and Tamil a more extended
course ; the aim being in respect to English, partly
to give instruction in it, but more especially to prepare
them for profit in the continued study of it, and that the
rule and aim in respect to the amount of this prepara-
tion, shall be thoroughness."
January, 1850. At a meeting of the mission, the fol-
lowing course of study was adopted :
SEMINARY, FIRST COURSE.
Schaffter's Geography of
Webster's Spelling-book re-
Pond's Murray's Grammar.
Book of Commerce.
Parley's First Book of His-
Schaffter's Geography of
Rhenius' Body of Divinity.
Britons and Saxons.
D'Aubigne's History of the
Middle Ages of England.
Geography : Text-book
SEMINARY, SECOND COURSE.
Gallaudett's Natural Theol-
Rhenius' Evidences of
Crisp's Theology and Crisp
on the Christian Ministry.
Earth's Church History.
Watts on the Mind.
9/psv and Classical Reader.
Composition in Tamil.
Symond's Geography of
Watts on the Mind.
um of History.
Do. Political Econ-
omitting fifth Book
I and Supplement.
Olmstead's Natural Philos-
ophy, School Edition.
SCHOOL PLANT AND COST.
West Bungalow and out-hous-
East Bungalow and out-hous-
Seminary and 4 clasa rooms,
godown, kitchen, dining
Sick room, bath room and lat-
Prayer rooms and Quadrangle
Verandah to class rooms
5 Helpers' Houses ...
Compound wall ... ,..
The above is from Mr. Tracy's
private memorandum. Mr.
Rendall in his report of the
Seminary to the Deputa-
tion, February 1855, makes
the cost of the whole plant,
up to that date, ... ...
Changes in the School buildings
Building Dispensary and school
Do. Lenox Science Room
Do. Post Office
Do. Gymnastic Room...
Rebuilding Old Dormitory and
College Class Room ...
Building Laura Blossom Library..
Do. Churph Gate Lodge, Infirm-
Do. Hollis Moore Memorial Hall.
Rebuilding College and improve-
Building Pastor's House and 5
College Teachers' Houses
Rebuilding C apron Cottage
2 Catechist-Students' Houses ...
Build'g New Dining Hall & Kitchen
Do. Bible woman's Cottage
Do. Beals Memorial Class Rooms.
Do. East Normal Room
Do. 2 Theological Teachers'
Do. 16 do. Students'
Houses and Compound Walls . . .
Do. Connecting Verandah
Do. Southfold Hostel Hindu
Do. Alden Cottage Teachers'
Houses ... ...
Building Williams College Cottage
Teachers' Houses ...
Do. Yokan Lodge for College
Students ... ... ...
Do. Cedar Cottage ...
Do. Assistant Principal's Quar-
TEACHING STAFF IN THE OLD SEMINARY.
Rev. W. Tracy, D.D., Principal,
from Sept. 1842 to Nov. 1867.
He left on furlough to America in Nov. 1850,
returned April 1854.
Rev. James Herrick, B.A., Acting Principal,
from Nov. 1850 to Apr. 1854.
May 1867 to Apr. 1870.
Aug. 1872 to Oct. 1874.
Mr. A. North, Assistant Principal,
from Jan. 1846 to Jan. 1847.
Mr. J. Cotton Mather, Jaffna,
Batticotta Seminary, from Sept. 1842 to Jan. 1844
Mr. Wright, Jaffna, Batticotta Sem. 1843 to 1845
Kellogg, 1843 ... 1844
S. Winfred, Tinnevelly, 1844 ... 1855
A. Barnes, Diudigul, Pasumalai Sem. 1845 Th. S.
G. W. Edelman, Tirupuvanam, P.S. 1845 ... 1847
J. Grant Asirvatham, Tanjore, 1846 ... 1847
A. Allien, Tirupuvanam, 1847 ... 1848
A. G. Rowland, Tinnevelly, 1848 ... 1868
John Colton, Tanjore, 1848 Th. S,
Mr. Gurunathan Samuel, Ammapatti, P.S. 1854 ... 1870
M. Eames, Kottampatti, Melur, 1854 ... 1870
H. Martyn Winfred, Tinnevelly, 1856 ... 1857
Charles Coit, Thevathanapatti, 1850 ...
K. Asirvatham, Tirurnangalam, 1861 ... 1870
THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.
Rev. G. T. Washburu, B.A., D.D. June 1870 to Apr. 1883
Oct. 188 4 ...Jan. 1892
J. P. Jones, M.A., D.D. Apr. 1883 ... July 1883
Jan. 1892 ...
J. S. Chandler, M.A. July 1883 ... Oct. 1884
Ag. Principal, Aug. 1890 ... Oct. 1890
Teachers and Instructors.
Rev. A. Barnes, M.A. 1870 ...
J. Colton 1870 ... June 1875
S. Mathurauayagam June 1872 ... Nov. 1883
W. A. Buckingham Nov. 1883 ... Jan. 1895
Mr. P. Daniel, Matr. Jan. 1892 ...
P. Asirvatham 1892 ...
S. Sesha Sastri 1893 ...
MIDDLE, HIGH SCHOOL, AND COLLEGE.
Rev. G. T. Washburn, B.A., D.D. June 1875 to Apr. 1883
Oct. 1884 ..
Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A, I>.D. Apr. 1883 ... July 1883
J. S. Chandler, M.A. July 1883 ... Oct. 1884
Mr. D. S. Herrick B.A., and Rev. J. S. Chand-
ler, M.A., Acting Principals, Apr. 1890 ... Dec. 1890
Assistants of the Principal.
Mr. Chapin, B.A. Sept. 1883 to Oct. 1884
D. S. Herrick, B.A. Oct. 1885 ... Aug. 1890
Rev. R. Humphrey, B.A. Apr. 1890 ... Dec. 1890
Mr. H. H. Stutson, B.A. Jan. 1891 ... Apr. 1894
Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A. Nov. 1894 ...
Teachers and Professors,
Mr. P. Joseph, Matriculate June 1875 to Aug, 1882
Thos. Rowland June 1875 ... Oct. 1879
A, Samuel, Matr. Oct. 1877 ... T.I.
N. Sidambaram Ayer, Matr. June 1877 ... Jan. 1888
N. Samiadian, Matr. Mar. 1878 ... Jan. 1884
Rengasami, F.A. June 1880 ... Aug. 1883
T. Loganatha Ayer, F.A. Oct. 1879 ... Sept. 1883
Samuel Barnes, Matr. June 1880 ... June 1882
,, Ramachandra Ayer, B.A. Mar. 1882 ... Nov. 1882
Sambasiva Ayer, B,A. Sept. 1882 ... Apr. 1883
Krishnasami Ayer, B.A. Sept. 1882 ... Feb. 1883
P. Mahalingam Ayer, B A. Mar. 1883 ... June 1884
S. Muttusami Pillai, B.A. June 1883 ... Nov. 1883
N. Sabapathi Chetty June 1883 ... Jan. 1885
S. Moses, Matr. June 1884 ... T. I.
S. Matthusami Ayer, B.A., L.T.
Feb. 1884 ... June 1893
Mr. V. W. Stephensou, Jaff. Col. Jan. 1885 ...
K. Gauapathi Ayer, B.A. June 1885 ... Jan. 1891
C.Ganapathi Ayer, B.A. Feb. 1885 ... Apr. 1889
Chinniah Eames, Matr, June 1885 ... Dec. 1885
Y. Joseph Taylor, Matr. Jan. 1886 ... Jan. 1889
A. David, Hosp. Asst., lust.
in Physiology ... Jan. 1886 ... Jan. 1889
S. Anantharama Ayer, B.A. Feb. 1889 ... Apr. 1890
S. Sesha Sastri, Sanskrit Munshi
Feb. 1889 ...
Peter Isaac, B.A., L.T. Feb. 1890 ...
V. Santhiagu, F.A. Jan. 1891 ...
S. Ramakrishna Ayer, B.A., L.T.
Jan. 1892 ...
S. Mahadeva Ayer, B.A. June 1893 ...
G. Joseph, Matr. & Ag. Col. J une 1893 ...
Paul Samuel, B.A. June 1894 ...
S. Gnanapirakasam, B.A. June 1895 ...
TRAINING INSTITUTION AND PRACTISING SCHOOL.
Head Masters, and Training Masters.
Mr. W. Devapiriam Clark, B.A. Feb. 1886 ... Jan. 1890
S. Chinniah B.A., L.T. Jan. 1890 ...
R. S. Ignatius, Matr. Feb. 1885 ...
R. Sivasambu Ayer, F.A. Aug. 1889 ... July 1891
S. Minachisundaram Ayer, F.A.
Jan. 1890 ... Mar. 1892
R. Michael, F,A. Jan. 1891 ...
Mr. V. David, Drawing Master,
Medalist & Group Certif. June 1892 ...
Mr. A. Samuel, Matr. Jan. 1886 ...Sept. 1895
S. Moses, Matr. 1886 ...
A. Pakkianathan, F.A. 1889 ...
M. Abraham, Matr. 1889 ...Nov. 1893
P. Vethanayagam, Matr. Feb. 1890 ... Dec. 1890
R. C. Thomas, Matr. Jan. 1894 ...
N. Ramalingam, Matr. Sept. 1895 ...
Mr. N. SithambaramAyer,Matr. Jan. 1884 ... Jan. 1888
Gr. Joseph, Matr. & G. Certif. Jan. 1884 ... Oct. 1890
June 1893 ...
I. David, 1889 ... Jan. 1892
G. David, Jan. 1891 ... 1892
Paul Daniel Jan. 1891 ... July 1892
P. David July 1892
Rev. S. Mathuranayagam, Hosp. Asst ,
June 1871 ... Dec. !8gS
Mr. Gurupatham, Certif., Hosp. Asst.,
Jan. 1884 ... Aug. 1885
A. David, Asst. Oct. 1885 ... Feb. 1889
S. Devanesam May 1889 ... Dec. 1891
,A. Tambupillai May 1892 ...
Clerk of the College 8? Institution.
Mr. V. Ramanatha Ayer, Matr. Jan. 1891 .,.
(anus of Stotonts in $asmnalai Sminarg,
K. Manikkam, Robert Street
D. Manikkam, Samuel
S. Stisai, Albert Barnes
J. Asirvatham, John Lodor
A. Asirvatham, David
R. Asirvatham, Michael
D. Jesildas, Michael [man
S. Subramanian, G.W. Edel-
G. Rajakannu, Wilfred Hall
P. Soundarapandian, Abra-
A. Anbunathan, Joseph
D. Anbunathan, Samuel
R. Rayappan, David
S. Vethamanikkam, J. Ed-
T. Vethamanikkam Christ-
M. Perumal, I. Williams
M. Rayappan, L. Parsons
S. Savarirayan, James
S. Rayappan, Walter Hub-
R. Antonimutthu, Henry
C, Masillamani, Albert G.
T. Puvallan, Dwight Rip-
R. Pakiam, Cha. W. Rock-
S. Ganapathi, John Harned
A. Kanthan, Henry Hill
G. Nallathambi, John Col-
C. Devasagayamani f lor
V. Velayutham, John Tay-
N. Palaniyandi, J. Elling-
Thangasami, Joseph Emer-
N. Appasami [lig
S. Arokkiam, William Stir-
V. Arumugam, Rufus An-
V. Manikkam, John Shep-
S. Muniyandi, Ezra Ely
D. Gnanaparanam, Moses
K. Ponnusami, Alvan Bond
A. Suppan, N. Moses
V. Vethanthavelu, Charles
S. Yagappan, Jacob
Manuel, H. Arms
V. Ambalam, Henry Allen
Manikkam, Calvin Chapin
Manuel, Robert Landes
D. Arokkiam, Edgar Gre-
N. Mutthusami, Alfred
K. Suppan, Asirvatham
P. Duraisami, S. Mills
P. Nallathambi, M. Eames
P. Jacob, Theron Loomis
W. H. Martyn Winfred
P. Mutthurakku Jacob
A. Vellaiyan [ingham
M. Santhiagu, W. A. Buck-
K. Arumainayagam, W. P.
G. Paranjothi, W. J. Baxter
J. II. DeZilva
S. Yagappau, Joseph;
D. Vethamutthu [mas
M. Sangilikaruppan, Tho-
S. Mutthukaruppan, Isaac
A. Santhirakannu, Devasa-
M. Ponnusami, Asirvatham
C. Appavu, Abraham
A. Vetham, 1st
A. Vetham, 2nd
S. Vaitbilingam, Abel
S. Mutthusami, A. Foster
S. G. Thangam
J. Gnanaprakasam, 1st.
J. Gnanaprakasam, 2nd.
V. Murugandi, Paul
NAMES o? STUDENTS.
S. Than gam
W. A. Buckingham
R. 8. Ignatius
V. S. Edward
R. S. Gnanamutthu
P. D. Jesudasan
E. V. Nallathambi
T. S. Thirithuvathasan
E. V. Masillamani
J. C. Cleveland
M. 8. Devasigamani
C. D. Samuel
N. C. Solomon
J. A. Thomas
List of Pasumalai Students
who passed the First in Arts Examination
and other Examinations.
FIRST IN ARTS.
M. Strinivasa Aiyangar
N. Guru Rau
R. Sanaa Rau
A. K. Pichu Aiyar
S. Kalianasundram Aij'ar
M. Veukata Rau
R. Duraisami Aiyar
S. Lachmana Aiyar
S. Sangara Aiyar
S. Venkatacbalam Aiyar
T. S. Ramasubbu
M. R. Strinivasan
M. K. Strinivasan
A. R. Govinda Aiyar
E. R. Krishna Aiyangar
C. Minakshisundram Aiyar
N. Ramanatha Aiyar
S. Sankaranarayana Aiyar
P. R. Subramania Aiyar
S. Venkatarama Aiyar
T. V. Chellappasastri
G. Krislitnasami Aiyangar
S. Krishtnasami Aiyangar
C. S. Patmanaban
S. Sundram Aiyar
S. Mahadeva Aiyar, I. Class
R. Narayana Aiyangar
P. Ramasami Aiyar
N. Subramania Aiyar
T. A. Subbavenkataraman
P. M. Visvanathan
G. D. Manikarn I.
V. Gangatharaa I.
P. Rarnakrishnan I.
T. N. Sundararajan
C. V. Nagasundarain
A. R. Narayanan
P. V. Subramauiau
List of Pasumalai Students
who passed Matriculation Examination.
C. Ganapathi I. Class
R. S. Ignatius
Y. Guana prakasam
A. M. Jegathees varan
M. S. Subbiah
M. Paul Samuel
V. P. Sundaram
C. S. Ramasami
P. C. Ganapathi
V. P. Vittal Row
K. S ul>ra muni an
P. D. Jesudasan
A. V. Samuel
Devavaram David I. Class
V. Santhiagu I.
S. Venkataraman I.
K. Gnanamutthu I.
D. Susai I.
S. Narayanasami I.
V. Ramanathan I.
M. V. Mutthusami
B. S triii ivasa Row
G. David Fenn
S. Mahadevan I.
R. C. Thomas
V. M. Vryagesan
A. D. Kanagaratthinam
B. V. A. Venkatesvaran
List of Normal Students trained
in the A. M. Training Institution, Pasumalai,
who have passed one or both of the
C. D. Samuel
G. David Fenn
D. Devasagayam d.
C. B. Srinivasan
D. B. Doraisami
Y. Yet hanayagam
P. C. Ganapathi
S. M. Saminathan
W. H. Sampuranam
M. S. Kamasubbu
M. Y. Mntthnsami
C. N. Govindasami
P. K. Saminathan
P. P. Eggiam
P. M. Bamasami d.
M. N. Seshan
M. K. Subramanian
J. A. Thomas
S. Thirumalai Aivan-
P. Bagavendra Bow
R. C. Thomas
M. R. Kuppuaami
S. L. Venkataraman
A. K. Ramasanii
S. David Navamani
George S. Chelliah
E. V. Nallathambi
C. K. Venkatasubban
A. S. Doraisami
S. V. Subramania
List of Pasumalai Students
who passed the late Middle School or
the present Lower Secondary Examination.
M. Paul Samuel I. Class.
V. K. Ragavan
P. P. Eggiam
V. S. Ramasaml
Daniel Manuel I.
Pakianathan Joseph I.
S. Joseph I. Class.
Devavaram David I. Class.
G. Savarimutthu I.
Samuel Sonaimutthu I.
Santhiagu Vetham I.
John Pichaimutthu I.
William Lamoch I.
II. Gnanamutthu I.
Susai Devasaga)-arn I.
C. Patbmanaban I.
E. V. Masillamani
V. M. Joseph
M. S. Alagiasundaram
S. V. Ponniah
P. John Devasigamani
C. S. Narayanasami
G. P. Mutthusami
E. V. Nallathambi
P. 1. Samithasan
C. S. Gnanayutham
C. D. Samuel
J. S. Jusuthasan
Durairaj James I. Class.
R. A. Jesudasan
P. K. Samuel
R. S. Samuel
A. S. Duraisami
P. S. Samuel
f asumalai butati0nal
Sept. 4, 1&42. Seminary opened at Tirumangalam with
34 students from Dindigul, Tiruman-
galam and Tirupuvanam.
Dec. 1843. Pupils reduced by various causes to 25.
Five united with the Church.
Apr. 1844. Erection of buildings for the Seminary
sanctioned by the Board and an
appropriation of funds made.
July 1814. Plans for the Seminary made and ap-
Mar. 1, 1845. First class of 6 students finished their
course in the Seminary and leave.
Sept. 1, 1845. Seminary removed to Pasumalai.
Dec. 1845. Pupils numbered 54.
Jan. 1846. A. North, Esq., Professor in the Semi-
nary from 1846 to Jan. 1847.
Jan. 1816. Mr. Tracy digging up cists in his com-
pound led to a report that 13 victims
had been sacrificed to obtain buried
treasure, causing cessation of travel
and the interference of the Collector.
Apr. 11, 1846. The Madura Mission authorized to
hold land by the Madras government.
1846. Pasumalai Hill granted by government.
1846. Five teachers' houses and 2 Hues of
prayer rooms erected.
1846. Establishment of the Provident Society.
Sept. 1, 1846. Pasumalai Church formed.
Jan. 1, 1847. The visit of Collector Blackburn and
the Tondaiman Rajah. A gift of
Rs. 200 was received from Mr.
Blackburn and Rs. 200 from the
1847. The Mission declines the government
offer of aid and patronage.
1847. The east bungalow began early in 1846
was completed in 1847.
Mar. 1, 1847. The second class left the Seminary.
June 1847. The number of pupils was 49.
Oct. 1847. The Pasumalai church begun in 1846
was first used for worship.
Oct. 7, 1847. Caste troubles in Seminary.
1848. Great reduction in funds provided by
the Board for education.
Oct. 2, 1848. The third class left the Seminary. 3
Dec. 1848. The number of pupils was 27.
l Xr A ( ^ rev i va l occurred in the school which
is!iQ < nearly all the pupils professed con-
*' ( version.
Dec. 1849. The number of pupils was 29 of whom
20 were communicants.
1850. Students in the Seminary restricted to
members of the congregations.
Feb. 28, 1850. The fourth class left the Seminary 4
Nov. 1850. Mr. Tracy took a furlough to America
and handed over charge to Mr. Her-
1851. The amount of English reduced and
the course of study shortened for a
portion of the students. Five left
on this account.
July 1852. Transfer to Pasumalai of preparandi
classes begun at stations 12 or 15
Mar. 1853. The fifth class left the Seminary 4
Oct. 1853. Native Evangelical Society formed.
Nov. 1853. Mr. S. Winfred, first teacher released
to become an evangelist in Mallan-
Dec. 1853. Number of pupils was 44.
1854. The Tamil Quarterly Repository for
Native helpers and Christians start-
ed subscribers 400.
1854. Mutual Improvement Society formed.
1854. Mr. Tracy returned and took charge
from Mr. Herrick.
July 19, 1854. Educational despatch of the Court of
Oct. 1854. The sixth class left the Seminary 4
students ; also a class of 1 4 prepa-
Feb. 1855. Visit of Deputation, Drs. Anderson
and Thompson, in which important
educational changes were determined
Feb. 1 855. School grants-in-aid from government to
be refused and application withdrawn.
Aug. 1855. First grant-in-aid code issued by gov-
ernment ; found unworkable.
Oct. 1855. Madura English School closed after 20
years, having had more than 1,900
Jan. 1856. A class of 16 received to study wholly
in Tamil ; subsequently a class for
the regular course was received from
the boarding schools.
Mar. 1856. The seventh class left the Seminary
1857. The last of the four feeder boarding
schools was abolished.
Mar. 1857. The eighth class left the Seminary
June 2, 1857. The Madura Zillah School opened
Raised to a 2nd grade college April
Sept. 5y 1857. Madras University incorporated first
1858. A new grant-iii-aid code was issued.
1858. Six Taluq schools opened by govern-
1858. Mr. Tracy engaged from 1858 till 1866
in revising the translation of the
Mar. 1858. The ninth class left the Seminary 6
1859. Dr. Chester gave a course of lectures
on Practical Chemistry.
1859. A Primary day school opened with 24
scholars, supported subsequently by
a society in the Seminary.
1860. Mr. Barnes was engaged in bringing
out Hopkins' Theology, and in Bible
versions with Mr. Tracy.
Mar. 1860. The tenth class left the Seminary 9
Mar. 1860. The Semmary finally reduced to a ver-
Feb. & Mar. ) There was a powerful revival in the
Mar. 1 862. The eleventh class left the Seminary
1863. Hindu children who were debarred in
1855 from attending village schools
again freely admitted.
May 1863. Mr. Col ton prepai-es tracts and history
Sept. 1863. English was introduced into the upper
classes of the Seminary as a classic.
Sept. 1863. The twelfth class leaves the Seminary
Oct. 1864. The Madura Widows' Aid Society was
1865. Mr. Graut Asirvatham collected in
Kombaconam Rs. 100 and sent to
the Seminary, the funds of which
were insufficient owing to famine.
1865. A more liberal grant-in-aid code was
framed and issued.
Sept. 1865. The thirteenth class leaves the Semi-
nary 6 students.
July 1866. Boarding schools were established to
work for village congregations and
not in connection with the Seminary.
May 1 867. Dr. Tracy took a furlough to America
and handed over charge to Mr. Her-
Sept. 1867. The fourteenth class left the Seminary
1868. A fee of 8 annas was required of each
student continued for 2 years.
1868. A district was added to Pasumalai Sta-
Feb. 1868. Mr. A. G. Rowland was ordained and
installed over the West Gate Church,
April 1869. The fifteenth class left the Seminary
Jan. 13, 1870. At a mission meeting at Battalagundu
a reconstruction of the Seminary was
determined on, and Mr. Washburn
was put in charge.
The mission allows its missionaries to
take result grants if they please.
April 1 870. The old Seminary was disbanded 38
May 20, 1870. At a Mission meeting at Kodaikanal
the action of the January meeting
was confirmed and Mr. Washburn
took charge June 19th.
June 17, 1870. The Female Seminary under Miss
Smith was removed to Pasumalai
where it remained till Aug. 1872.
June 17, 1870. A class of 24 was received in the
Aug. 1, 1870. The "Sathiavarthamam" News paper
was established at Pasumalai.
Jan. 23, 1871. A Mason and Hamilton organ was
given by the makers for use in the
1871. Mr. Capron contributed money to erect
a catechist's house at Pasumalai. It
was burned down in 1 890 and rebuilt
substantially as a catechist's house
for 2 families.
1871. Dr. Palmer delivered a course of lec-
tures on Hygiene to the theological
July 1, 1871. A medical dispensary was established
Aug. 19, 1871. Rev. T. B. Penfield died at Pasumalai,
Oct. 1871. Mr. M. Eames was ordained and install-
ed over the church of West Karisak-
Oct. 1871. A wooden Printing Press was tempo-
rarily set up at Pasumalai.
Nov. 30, 1871. Mr. A. Barnes was ordained and in-
stalled over the Pasumalai Church.
March 1872. A Hoe's printing press arrived from
America and was substituted for the
April 1872. The first class of 1 2 catechists under
the new plan leaves.
July 20, 1872. Mr. Washburn going to America on
furlough gave over charge to Mr.
April 1873. No class received this year ; but a class
of 6 catechists left.
Aug. 11, 1874. The death of Rev. William Todd oc-
curred at Madura, Kansas, U. S. A.
Mr. Todd came from Jaffna to Mad-
ura in July 1834 and was one of the
founders of the A. M. Mission.
Oct. 3, 1874. Mr. Washburn resumed charge of the
Jan. 18, 1875. The Mission voted that a preparatory
department be opened at Pasumalai
to take pupils who had passed the
4th standard twice to be educated up
to Matriculation; 20 to be received on
account of the Mission at Rs. l a
month, these to be residents of the
district, free from chronic disease,
with a prospect of usefulness, espe-
cially sons of pastors, catechists and
teachers, and of influential families
in the congregations.
April 20, 1875. The first locomotive and train of the
S. I. R. ran from Trichinopoly to
June 8, 1875. A Middle School was opened at Pasu-
malai with 21 students.
June 24, 1875. Mr. J. Colton ordained and settled over
the church in Dindigul.
Dec. 10,1875. The Prince of Wales arrived at Mad-
ura by way of Tnticorin and Mani-
achi and performed the ceremony of
opening the S. I. Railway.
June 1876. A class of 12 from the boarding
schools enter Pasumalai School.
July 4, 1876. The centennial of American Independ-
ence was celebrated by the Mission
at Pasumalai and a centennial tree
was planted by Dr. Tracy on the
west side of the Seminary.
Jan. 1877. A class of 1 1 from the boarding schools
1877. A severe famine prevailed. A nursery
and orphanage was opened at Pasu-
malai in November with 80 children.
Nov. 14-17, ) His Grace the Duke of Buckingham,
1877. } Governor of Madras, visited Madura.
Nov. 28, 1877. The death of Rev. W. Tracy, D.D., for-
mer Principal of Pasumalai Semina-
ry, occurred at Tirupuvanam.
Jan. 1878. Mr. K. A. Burnell, the evangelist visit-
ed Madura and Pasumalai.
Jan. 1878. A class of 11 from the boarding schools
Jan. 4, 1878. The death occurred of Rev. C. T. Muz-
zy for a long time head of the A.
M. Mission English School, Madura.
Jan. & Feb. 1 The district suffered in many place 8
1878. J from destructive visits of locusts.
Mar. 8, 1878. Mr. Yorke of the C. V. E. S. Training
School, Dindigul, left for England.
Sept. 1878. Sacred Concerts were introduced as a
feature of the September mission
Nov. 1878. Government took under its patronage
Dr. Chester's Medical School, Din-
digul, which has received many of
ils students from Pasumalai.
Jan. 1879. A class of 9 from the boarding schools
March 1, 1879. The nursery was closed 1,070 child-
ren had been cared for the average
stay was 2% months the average
number per month was 136 for 16
March 1, 1879. A gift of Rs. 1,000 was received as
the beginning of an Endowment
Dec. 15, 1879. Pasumalai students were sent up for
the first time to the Matriculation
examination ; six passed including
Jan. 1880. Non-Christians were admitted to the
Feb. 16, 1880. The time of entering and leaving school
was changed to Jan. and Dec.
Dec. 15, 1880. Middle School pupils were sent up for
examination 3 passed.
Jan. 1881. The Mission approved of the opening
a theological class for Matriculates
and others able to study with them.
Feb. 1881. The first class of the Matriculates was
received to the theological school.
Feb. 1881. The Burnell Scholarship begun by a
gift of Rs. 100 increased in '81 and
'82 to Rs. 400.
Oct. 1, 1881. A Post Office was opened at Pasumalai.
Nov. 1881. The College was a affiliated with the
1882. The Welsh Scholarship amounting to
Rs. 1,250 was founded.
1882. Gymnastic apparatus provided and in-
struction in college and school began.
Aug. 1882. Mr. P. Joseph left to become a pleader.
Aug. 24, 1882. The west upstair dormitory was opened;
also two college class rooms.
Sept. 12, 1882. The Director of Public Instruction
requires Middle Schools to be recog-
nised in order to receive grants and
to send pupils to the Middle School
Mar. 1883. The Pasumalai Scholarship begun by
gifts to the amount of Rs. 350.
Apr. 5, 1883. Mr. Washburn going on furlough to the
United States givei over charge to
July let, 1883. Owing to the death of Mr. Kendall on
June, 13th Mr. Jones was transferred
to Madura and gave over charge to
Mr. J. S. Chandler.
Sept. 1883. Mr. Chapin arrived from Jaffna and
acted as assistant to Mr. Chandler
till his departure for America Sept.
Oct. 1883. The Pasumalai Middle School recog-
nized as conforming to government
requirements for Middle Schools.
Feb. 1884. The new library room was opened.
Feb. 1884. Mr. S. Mutthusami Aiyar, B.A., be-
comes an instructor in the college.
Feb. 4, 1884. The Director's fee notification was is-
Feb. 27, 1884. The Mission Jubilee was celebrated
the enthusiastic giving resulted in the
raising of Rs. 5,250 appropriated as
an Endowment Fund for Pasumalai
June 1884. The Noyes' Scholarship of Rs. 750
Oct. 1, 1884. Mr. Chandler gives over charge of the
Pasumalai Institution to Mr. Wash-
Oct. 1884, A new outfit of chemical apparatus was
provided for the High School.
Nov. 1884. The " Santhosha Seithi " was begun.
Nov. 1884. Candidates first sent up to the Peter
Dec. 1884. A Portrait of Dr. Tracy was placed in
the Pasumalai Library.
Feb. 11, 1885. The Normal School received recognition
Feb. 1885. At the gymnastic competition in Mad-
ura for the schools of Madura and
vicinity, Pasumalai won the Director's
Prize and six other prizes.
June 1885. The Scudder Scholarship for Rs. 600
and the Clancy Scholarship of Ra.
Oct. 18, 1885. Mr. D. S. Herrick arrived from the
United States to assist the Principal.
Jan. 28, 1886. The training school was opened with
7 students, afterwards joined by
Jan. 28, 1886. The Primary school was incorporated
with the Training Institution as a
Feb. 1,1886. The 2nd fee notification framed by a
commission, to run for five years, was
approved and issued.
Nov. 7-8, 1S86. The Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, visited
Madura and reviewed the Mission
schools near the American Mission
Dec. 21, 1886. Of the Matriculation class this year,
7 passed in the 1st class and 20 in
the 2nd class.
Dec. 27, 1886. A gift was made by Mr. Grant Asirva-
tham for a village plot and play
Sept. 8, 1887. The Hollis Moore Memorial Hall was
Oct. 23, 1887. Lord Con nemara, Governor of Madras
Nov. 1887. In the Peter Cator Examination, Peter
Isaac gained a prize of Rs. 40, G.
Joseph Rs. 20, and 7 others gained
Nov. 1888. In the Peter Cator Examination, R.
Gnanamutthu gained a prize of Rs.
50, and 9 others, certificates.
Nov. 1888. The printing office was remodelled and
used as a science room.
Dec. 5, 1888. The new College Hall begun in March
Jan. 1889. The teaching of Sanskrit was introduc-
ed into the Middle School, High
School and College departments.
July 1889. The Lower Secondary examination was
instituted in place of the Middle
Aug. 1889. Land and a spring for a well mile east
of the east bungalow was acquired.
Mar. 20, 1890. The Principal visited the United States
for 4 months protracted to 8 months
Aug. 1890. Mr. Herrick who had temporary charge
of the College left for America.
Dec. 1890. Rev. R. Humphrey, instructor in tho
College and the Seminary for tho
Jan. 15, 1891. Mr. H. H. Stutson, B. A., arrived to as-
sist the Principal.
' Feb. 4, 1891. Mr. L. D. Wishard, Secretary of the
International Y.M.C.A., spent 4days
in Pasumalai and Madura.
April 1891. The University required High Schools
sending up candidates to the Matric-
ulation Examination, to he recogniz-
ed by government in the same man-
ner as Upper Secondary Schools.
June 1891. The connecting verandah between the
College and Seminary was erected.
July 1891. High Schools required to be recognized
and the course extended to 3 years.
Percentage of marks increased in
Matriculation Examination and Eng-
lish texts done away with to take
effect in the examination of 1892.
Aug. 1891. A new dining hall and kitchen was
opened for use.
Nov. 20, 1891. The death of Rev. J. Herrick, for more
than 8 years in charge of the Semi-
nary, occurred in Brattleboro, U.S.A.
Jan. 1892. The Theological Seminary was trans-
ferred to Mr. Jones. The new term
opened with 17 etudents who were
increased to 22.
Feb. 1892. The College Library received a gift of
200 volumes from Prof. Lincoln of
June 10, 1892. The Beals class rooms were opened.
July 1892. Six new houses for catechists were
erected and occupied.
July 1, 1892. The Southfold Hostel erected in part
July 7, 1892. 3 acres government waste land, east
of the east bungalow were acquired,
July 1892. Rev. Alexander Miller visited Pasu-
malai and made a donation of Rs. 50
to the College Library.
Aug. 1892. A brass memorial tablet to Dr. Tracy
was placed in the Pasumalai church.
Sept. 12, 1892. The new normal class rooms were
Sept. 15, 1892. The Jubilee celebration of the founding
of the Pasumalai Seminary was held.
1 893. The ball field was walled in and open-
ed to use.
1893. Four cottages for the theological stu-
dents and two for teachers were com-
July 1893. The quadrangle of the Southfold Hos-
tel was completed.
Sept. 11, 1893. The Rajah of Ramnad visited the Col-
Oct. 1893. The Alden Cottage containing residence
for two teachers was finished and
occupied. It is the gift of two mem-
bers of Park St. Church, Boston.
Jan. 1894. One year was added to the theological
course making it three years.
. , Jan. 1894. The Doberty class room, given and fur-
nished by Mrs. Doherty and family
of South Boston, was opened.
Jan. 1894. Drawing was introduced into the High
March 5, 1894. Williams College made a donation to
Pasumalai College of 1,910 dollars.
March 1894. Mr. H. H. Stutson left Pasumalai to
return to the United States.
June 1894. The time for admission to the Theolog-
ical Seminary was changed from
January to June.
July 1894. Four cottages for student catechists
Aug. 1894. A plot of land adjoining the Southfold
Hostel on the east was given by
Hon. S. Subramania Aiyar Avergal.
Aug. 1894. A supply of physical and chemical
apparatus and elate boards placed in
Nov. 1894. In the Peter Cator Examination D.
Manikam gained a prize of Rs. 10
and 6 of the remaining seven gained
1 st and 2nd class certificates.
Nov. 3, 1894. Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A., arrived.
1 894. S. Ramachandran of the F.A. class gain-
ed the Fischer gold medal for 1894.
1895. Eight cottages for catcchist students
and teachers were erected.
July 4, 1895. The Madras Educational Rules revised.
July 6, 1895. Yokan Lodge was occupied.
Sept. 1895. Mrs. S. B. Capron founded tho William
Ban field Cnpron Scholarship by a gift
of Rs. 1,475.
Sept. 1895. The Williams College Cottage fur
teachers was erected and occupied.
Sept. 19, 1895. The Jubilee of the removal of the Semi-
nary from Tirumangalam to Pasu-
malai was celebrated. A fund of
Rs. 14,026 had been raised in three
years for the Endowment of the In-
Sept. 1895. Cedar Cottage for 2 families was erected.
Oct. 1895. A scholarship fund of Rs. 1,401 col-
lected in tho U. S. by Rev. II. C.
The Washburn Scholarship Fund Rs. ... 5,100
and Pasumalai Post Office property ... 550
TheBurnell Scholarship ... 400
The Pasumalai .. 350
The Welsh ... 1,215
The Jubilee ... 5,250
The Scudder ... 800
The Clancy ... 700
The Noyes ... 750
The Glovervill ... 1,000
The William Banfield Capron ... 1,475
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE
JUBILEE FUND Rs. 1O AND ABOVE.
His Highness the Rajah of Ramnad ...
Mrs. S. B. Capron
Collected by Rev. H. C. Hazen in U.S.A.
Rev. G. T. Washburn, D.D.
J. P. Jones, D.I>.
Mr. Warren Gookin Waterman, U.S.A. ...
Rev. J. C. Perkins
W. P. El wood
J. E. Tracy
J. S. Chandler
Hon. S. Subramania Aiyar, Dewan Baha-
Rev. Frank Van Allen, M.D.
E. Chester, M.D. and Mrs. Chester ...
Rev. E. P. Holton
G. W. Wright
and Mrs. D. S. Herrick
J. E. Chandler
Hon. R. Ramasubba Aiyar, Row Bahadur
Miss B. B, Noyes
Rs. A. P.
1,475 1 7
184 6 3
lis. A. r.
Miss M. T. Noyes ... 75
E. M. Swift ... 75
Mr. J. Matiiuranayagam, Hosp. Asst. ... 70
S. Chinniah ... 67
G. Abraham ... 65
Peter Isaac ... 50
S. EamakrishDa Aiyar ... 50
3. Gnauamanikkam ... 50
S. Mahadeva Aiyar ... 48
N. Chidambaram .,. 45
V. W. Stepheuson ... 40
Rev. A. Barnes ... 37 8
Mr. P. Strinivasa Aiyar ... 36 10
Rev. J. Colton ... 36
Y. S. Taylor ... 35 4 8
Mr. Y. Gnanamutthu ... 31
Rev. S. Isaac ... 30
J. Rowland ... 30
G. N. Pakiauathaa ... 30
Mr. V. Santiagu ... 30
G. Joseph ... 30
R. Michael ... 30
Y. Gnanapragasam Bonnell ... 30
S. G. Subrainania Aiyar ... 30
V. Kanthappu ... 30
Rev. Y. J. Taylor ... 26 13 11
,. M. Eames ... 26 7 3
Mr. A. Samuel
A. Thambupillai, Hosp. Asst.
,, A. Pakianathan, Palamcottah
Rev. W. A. Buckingham
,, M. Thomas
W. D. Clarke, Madras
Mr. T. Loomis
A. David, Dist. Munsif
,, S. Sesha Sas trial
V. Ramanatha Aiyar
R. S. Ignatius
S. Devanesam, Hosp. Asat.
Rev. S. Nallathambi
Mr. T, S. Mutthusami Aiyar
E. V. Santhosham and wife
Rfl. A. F.
Mr. P. Council ... 17 8 6
A. Pakianathan ... 17
Rev. A. Clarke ... 16 8
Mr. M. P. Samuel ... 16 8
Rev. K. John ... 16 3 9
S. Vethamanikam ... 16
C. William ... 16
Mr Israel Isaac ... 16
Rev. A. David ... 15 15
Mr. D. Pakiam ... 15 15
S. Palaniappa Pillai ... 15 8
Gnanapragaeam, Dresser ... 15 3
S. Appavu ... 15 2 3
Rev. I. Savarimuttbu ... 15 o
S.Jacob ... 15
Mr.T. S. Vethamutthu ... 15
,, I. Devasirvatham ... 15
Mr. M. Solomon ... 15
B. Subramania Sastry ... 15
P.David . ... 15
R. Gnanamutthu ... 15
Jeyamani Paul ... 15
R. Santhiappan ... 14 10 8
A. Manikam and wife ... 14 8
A. V. Samuel ... 14 7 10
P. Vetbanayagam ... 14 2 4
G. David Fenn ... 14 o
Rs. A. P.
Mr. S. Samuel 1400
V. Antonimutthu ...... 14
Rev. A. Gnanamutthu 14
Mr. V. David 13 8
J. Appavu 13 8
Y. Jacob 13
A. Samiadian 13
P. Joseph 13
R. Sivasamba Aiyar 12 8
Paul 12 7 3
,. P. Gnanaratthinam 13 6
Paranjothi 12 5 6
V. Gnanamutthu 12 5 4
Y. Yesadian 12 4 8
G. V. Dovadasau
,, R. Israel
V. G. David and wife
P. China in h
P. C. Yesadian
,, R. Gnanathikam
,, G. De va sir vat ham
,, 3. Gnanayutham
Rs. A. p.
Mrs. A. Santhammal 12
Mr. R. Rayappan 12
P. Daniel 12
M. Pichaimntthu 11 14 3
G. Visuvasatn 11 12
Gnanapragasam 11 12 10
C. M. Abraham ...... 11 80
A. Michael 11 60
S. Joshua .... 11 511
Arokiam 11 5 11
Y.Jacob 11 4 11
N. Pakiam 11 40
P. C. Cross 11 10
Barnabas 11 00
,. A. Pakiam 11 00
S. Belavendram 11 00
S. Vethanayagam 11 00
D. Simdaram ..... 11 00
Vetlagiri 10 15 6
P. Israel 1 1 10 6
M. Kayappan 10 8
M Vetham 10 8
S. Abraham 10 8
Y Manikam 10 7
P. Daniel 10 5 7
I. Gnanamutthu 10 3 5
S. Vethamanikam 1C 3 5
Ra. A. p.
Mr. Devapiriam ...... 10 3 5
P.Samuel 10 3 r,
S. Paranjothi 10 3 6
V. John 10 3 o
D. Gnanamutthu ...... 10 3 4
Zaccheus 10 2
Isaac ...... 10 2
J. John 10 2
P. Israel 10 1 10
B.James 10 1
Nallathambi 10 10
M. Nallathambi 10 9
S. Thomas, Hosp. Asst. 10
E. V. Sampson 10
Paul Daniel and wife 1000
S. Pakianathan 10
V. Isaac and wife 10
M. Amirthanayagatn 10
G. Daniel 10
S. Jeevanantham 10
Mutthu Pillai 10
J. Shadrach 10
R. Devapiriam 10
P. T. Vetham 1000
G. Visuvasam 10
Ra. A. P.
C. E. Graham Norton, Esq. 10
Henry B. Dalgetty, Esq. 10
Mr. P. Sundaram 10
P. Asirvatham 10
,. S. Guanapirakasam 10
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS
BELOW Rs. 1O AND ABOVE Rs. 5.
Mr. J. Kennett 9 10 8
D. Devasirvatham 9 9 4
., S. Subbiah 990
M. Abraham 980
R, Arulanantham 9 8
V. Muttha 980
K. Samithasan 9 7 G
S. Thomas 964
V. Yagappan 960
G. Manuel 920
A. David 9 111
Visuvasam 8 1 3
A. Masillamani 9 o
,, R. C. Selvanayagam 9
Rs. A. P.
Mr. P. Yeadian 900
D. Gnanathikam. 9 O
^ v!l)airian> 900
M. Samuel 9 O
1L Thomas 9 O O
Ualtikarjuna Aiyar 900
Muzzy 9 O
Y. Gnanamani 815 8
J. S. Stephen 8138
J. Barnabas ...... 8 13 O
m M. Samuel 8 10 1O
S. Pakiam ...... 8 10 8
J. Arumainayagam .- 8 10 8
Y. Gnanakan 8 1O O
D. Samuel 8 10 O
n W. Jeeranantham 8 8 O
M. Asorathanr 864
, Belranaymgam 856
B . A. T .
Mr. A. James 856
V. Gnanamutthu ...... 847
,, D. Manikam 816
T. Devanesam .... 846
S. Joseph Benjamin ...... 843
A. Savariappan - 837
,. J. C. Cleave land 835
Grace Samuel 830
N. Moses 810
-,, N. Cbumappaa ^.... 810
v A. Aiyathurai 819
Satbiavasagam ...... 806
M. Abraham 800
B. Moses 800
S. Joseph 800
,, Vethamuttfm 8
Paul Peter 800
V. Pakianathan 800
B. Gurubatbam 800
,, Marther Paul ...... 800
,. Annamutthu 8
P. Arokiam 800
.. Yesadian Samuel 800
S. Simon 800
,. R. Savarimuttbn ...... 3 9
Mr. Geo. W. Nathaniel 800
G. VctLanayagam 7 15 9
E. V. Masillamaui 7 15 2
E. S. Thayananthara 7 14
H. Arms 7 14
P. Peter 7 14
T. Antony 7 14
M. Gnanaprakasam 7 13 8
N. Samuel 713 5
M. Perianayagam 713
G. Gnanamuttbu 711 3
E. Peter 7 11
K. Vethanayagam 7 9 2
D. Savarimutthu 7 8 9
A. Solomon 780
S. Amirthanayagam 7 8
Paul Peter 780
G. Samuel 778
E. Manuel 750
S. Philip 750
A. Stephen 733
I. Santhappnn 7 211
Re. A. r.
Mr. Geo. Moses Arion 7 2 10
N. Samuel 7 2 9
,, G. Pakianatban 729
Y. Samuel 709
S. VethamuttLu 700
A. Arokiam 700
M. Rayappan 700
M. David 700
A. Devasagayam 7
A. Gnanamutthu 700
M. R. Antony 700
A. Sebastian 700
G. Isaac 700
P. G. Devasagayam 7
M. Samuel 700
R. Saptarishi Aiyar 6 15 8
P. Pakiam 6 15 4
M. M. Devasagayam 615
,, Muthusami 6 14 6
Y. Rayappan 6 12
V. Savarimuttbu 6 12
V. Subbiah 6 12
Joanna 6 12
Mr. C. Visuvasam 6 11 11
S. Mutthian 611 8
C. Perinbam 688
G. Samuel 680
Rs. A. p.
Savarinayagam, B. \V. 80
G. Gnanapiragasi 680
S. Harriett 680
P. Yesadial 680
G. Michael 680
A. Elizabeth 680
Mary Pakiam 680
C. Ammani ...... 680
Y. Yesadial 6 8 G
Air. D. Daniel 660
V. Gabriel 650
S. Daniel 640
P. Asirvatham 6 1 10
V. Vethamanikam 616
J. Thomas 600
A. Mathalamutthu 600
R. C. Thomas 600
P. Rayamutthu 600
A. Rayappan 600
A. Mailvela 600
V. Annamaria 600
C. Annal 600
Mr. S. Samuel 600
K. Yagappan 6
R. Savarimutthu 6
S. Manikam 600
Rs. A. P.
Mr. V. Israel ... 6
C. Sanel ... 6
G. Mutthusarai Aiyar ... 6
G. David ... 6
Davi.l Fenn ... 6
.. F. Mutthukumarusami ... 6
.. A. John ... 6
,, A. Simon ... 5 15
A. Daniel ... 5 13 4
M. Pakiam, B. W. ... 5134
A. Gnanammal ... 5 12 6
Mr. P. Isaac ... 5 11 10
D. Duraisami ... 5 8
Marial, B. W. ... 5 8
Natchetram ... 5 8
AnnammaL ... 5 8
Yellaramal ... .180
Mr. Joseph Col ton ... 5 8
P. Ferinbom ... 5 8
Gnanamanikam ... 5 6 1
M. Andrew . . 5 5 10
G. Savarimutthu ... 5 4
A. Pakiam, B. W. ...540
V. Rose ... 5 3 4
Mr. P. Joseph ...520
S. Amiam ... 5 2
ilr. Derasagayam ... 5 1 9
Rs. A. p.
Mr. Geo. R. Abraham ... 5 1 9
A.Jacob ... 5 1 6
Nachetram ... 5 I
Mr. S. A. Samuel ... 5 6
.. M. V. Subramania Aiyar ... 5
.. B. Yetham ... 5
Annamutthu ... 5
Fakiam, B. W. ... 5
Mr. G. Joseph ... 5 o
,. G. Savarimutthu ... 5
H. Macneal, Esq. ...500
Mr. L. Narasimmachariar ... o
.. A. Ramasami Aivar ... 5
Miss Smart ... 5
Mr. M. Meyappan ... 5
A Poor Sympathiser ... 5 o
Mr. Samuel Piragasam 5
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