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Full text of "Pasumalai ; a half century record of a mission institution"

PASUMALAI. 



LIBRARY ()F 



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THE LIBRARY 
OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



PASUMALAI 



HALF CENTURY RECORD 



lissi0n Institution, 



MADURA: 

PBINTED AT THE LENOX PBESS, PASCMALAI. 
1895. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PASUMALAI 1 

JUBILEE CELEBRATION 3 

PERSONNEL ... ... ... ... ... 6 

PROGRESS ... ... ... ... ... 14 

THE PLANT OP THE INSTITUTION ... ... 29 

THE: ENDOWMENT FUND ... ... ... 34 

CONCLUSION 41 

DR. WASHBURN'S ADDRESS... ... ... 47 

APPENDIX I. EARLY MINUTES OF THE MISSION 81 

THE SEMINARY'S FIRST COURSE OP STUDY ... 86 

APPENDIX II. SCHOOL PLANT AND COST ... 88 

APPENDIX III. TEACHING STAFF 91 

APPENDIX IV. STUDENTS' LIST ... ... 96 

SEMINARY STUDENTS ... ... ... ... 103 

PASSED FIRST ARTS STUDENTS ... ... 107 

PASSED MATRICULATION ... ... ... 109 

PASSED NORMAL STUDENTS ... ... 112 

PASSED LOWER SECONDARY ... ... ...115 

APPENDIX V. PASUMALAI MEMORAHDA ... 119 
APPENDIX VI A. THE SCHOLARSHIP FUND ... 137 
APPENDIX VI B. SUBSCRIBERS FOR ENDOWMENT 
FUND . .138 



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0001 r 






American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions the first Missionary Society 
organized in the United States began work at 
Jaffna, Ceylon, in 1816. In 1831, sixty-one years 
ago, two of the members of that mission came to 
Madura and opened the work o the present Mad- 
ura Mission. The American Board represented 
then, as it does now, some of the most intelligent 
Christian churches in the United States churches 
whose members have founded and maintained a 
large number of Colleges and Seminaries through- 
out that land and have always regarded a sound 
education as the next thing to, and auxiliary of, 
Christian faith and piety in the regeneration and 
elevation of a people. It is therefore natural that 
the society itself and the missionaries whom it has 
sent forth should, in their work, emphasize the 
importance of imparting to their converts at least 
a common education and of raising an intelligent 
and well trained native agency. The many efforts 



and the abundant labors of the Madura Mission in 
this department of its work are well described by 
Dr. Washburn in the interesting paper which fol- 
lows. That a consistent policy in this matter has 
not been maintained from the first is due not so 
much to a change of principle as to a difference of 
opinion concerning methods of applying the prin- 
ciple to our educational work. 

But whatever divergence of opinion existed 
in the past, there is certainly none at present con- 
cerning the utility and importance of the educa- 
tional work of the Mission. The unanimity and 
cordiality with which both the mission and the 
officers of our Board have recently supported our 
general educational work and have in particular 
enlarged and developed the higher institutions, 
for young women in Madura and for young men 
at Pasumalai, bear evidence to this. 

PASUMALAI. 

Pasumalai ("cow mountain") is the name of a 
small hill, something over 200 feet high, and three 
miles to the south-west of the town of Madura. Fifty 
years ago the mission secured from the government 
a grant of some 40 acres of land at the southern 
foot and on the slope of this hill for the purpose 
of establishing thereon an educational institution. 



3 

On the borders of this land was situated a small 
hamlet of Kallars (robber caste) which, in suggest- 
ive contrast to all around, has remained about the 
same during all these years. It is a healthy site. 
Why the mission should have chosen this spot for 
the institution is not altogether apparent to-day. 
Proximity to Madura was doubtless deemed a 
necessity; and yet that proximity must not be too 
great lest the students be subjected to constant 
distractions and temptations. Hence, we presume, 
the present distance from the town. In view of 
modern developments and of present needs we 
cannot help envying the Hindu Club its good for- 
tune and wishing that our distance from Madura 
were halved or quartered. And yet we are sensi- 
ble of the important advantages which arise to an 
institution like this from its quiet and isolated 
position advantages which will probably grow 
with the institution itself. 

THE JUBILEE CELEBRATION. 

In September 1892, the Mission celebrated the 
Jubilee of the founding of the institution at Tiru- 
mangalam. At this latter place the School was 
first opened Sept. 4, 1842, and conducted there for 
three years. After this it was transferred to Pasu- 
malai. It was therefore deemed a matter of suffi- 



4 

cient pleasure and importance three years ago to 
publicly celebrate this fiftieth anniversary of the 
institution. 

A large number of the alumni, former students 
and friends of the institution crowded the halls of 
Pasumalai on Sept. 15, 1892, and with many words 
of filial affection and with much festivity, set their 
seal upon the institution's half century of noble 
history and faithful labor. The following is a pro- 
gramme of the day's proceedings: 

PROGRAMME. 

GENERAL MEETING 810 A.M. 
REV. G. T. WASHBPRN, D.D., Chairman. 
ME. GRANT ASIBVATHAM, Vice-Chairman. 

Music Band. 

Singing " He who hath trusted".. College Choir. 
Reading the Scriptures, Ps. 67 ... Rev. H. C. Hazen, M.A. 
Prayer ... ... ... ... Rev. J. C. Perkins, M.A. 

Address of Welcome ... ... Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A. 

Singing Tamil Lyric ... ... Theological Students. 

Historical Paper Rev. G. T. Washburn, D.D. 

Singing Pasumalai Song ... ... College Choir. 

Address The Aim of the Past, } 
the Hope of the Future Char- > Rev. J. E. Tracy, M.A. 
acter ... ... ... ...j 

Singing ' Praise waiteth for Thee'. College Choir. 
Addresses 
The Old Education Mr. L. A. Sami Aiyar. 

The New Education how pro- ) ,, a ir LI 
vided for ? ] Mr> S.Muttusami Aiyar, H. A. 



Obligations of Educated Men ... Mr. S. Venkoba Chari, B.A. 
Sanscrit Poem ... ... ... Mr. S. Sesha Sastri. 

llecess 10 10.15 A.M. 



SECOND SESSION 10.15-11 A.M. 
REV. J. S. CHANDLER, M.A., Chairman. 
MR. R. SANTHIAPPAN, Vice-Chairman. 
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Choir. 

("Rev. M. Eames. 
Short Addresses ... ... ... < Rev. James Rowland. 

(. Mr. T. Loomis & others. 
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Choir. 

Recess and Breakfast 1112.30 P.M. 



REUNION MEETINGS 12.301.30 P.M. 

Of Students, from 184270, in the ") n T r ,, n , . 
, r , . , TT I, : Rev. J. Cotton, Chairman. 

1 heological Hall ... ... . . . _) 

Of Students of Theological Classes, "^ Rev. W. A. Buckingham, 
1870 92, in the VI. Form room) Chairman. 

Of Students of High School and *) ,, -p , T 

Coltege, in the Training Class [ Mr " * 'chairman 

room ... ... ... ... ) 

Recess from 1.302.30 P.M. 



GENERAL MEETING 2.304.30 P.M. 
REV. E. CHESTER, M.D., Chairman. 
MR. JOSEPH TAYLOR, Vice-Chairman. 
Music... ... ... ... ... Band. 

Reading of Letters 
Addresses of Delegates ... 

Kinging "Blessed are the people". College Choir. 
Historical Address ... ... Rev. A. Barnes, M.A. 



6 

Singing "Hark the Song" ... College Choir. 

Address-Personal Influence } Rev . j. S . Chandler, M.A. 
Education ... ... ...) 

Singing "Over the mountains" ... College Choir. 

/Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A. 
The Pasumalai Fund Further N Rev. S. Simon. 

Efforts Remarks by ^ Mr. S. Tirittuvadasan. 

C Rev. S. Isaac & others. 
Singing Lyric ... ... ... Theological Students. 

Music "God Save the Queen" ... Band. 

Planting the Jubilee Tree ... Miss B. B. Noyes. 

Singing "To 50 Swift Sped" ... College Choir. 
Planting the Columbus Tree . . . Miss Perkins. 
Recitation ... ... ... ... Mrs. Jeffery. 

Address ... ... Mr. M. V. Subramanian. 

Gymnastics and Foot-ball. 



In the evening 
Fireworks. 

Under the inspiration of the meetings of the 
day both missionaries and mission agents were led 
to promise at least a month's salary towards the 
much needed Endowment Fund for the institution. 
This has now been nearly all paid in and further 
reference will be made to it under the " Endow- 
ment Fund." 

PERSONNEL. 

In the founding and development of an institu- 
tion like this very much depends upon those who 
have been at its head as Principals. This has been 



preeminently so in this case, since those in charge 
have had practically supreme influence iu shaping, 
so far as funds in hand would permit, the destiny 
of the school. 

REV. WILLIAM TRACY, D D. laid the foundations 
and was the first Principal of the institution. He 
joined the mission in 1837 and devoted 40 of the 
best years of his life to the Lord's woi'k in this 
district, dying at Tirupuvanam Nov. 28, 1877. 
Of these years 22 were spent in charge of the 
Seminary. Dr. Tracy was an able and devoted 
missionary and a faithful and capable educator. 
He threw his whole soul into the work of the 
Seminary and had manifestly a peculiarly strong 
influence upon his students. In the great work of 
character building, which is essential to a first 
class educator, he was conspicuous. The earnest 
Christian lives, no less than the abundant hearty 
testimony, of his old students give ample assurance 
of this fact. He was also a man of literary tastes 
and worked as a member of the Tamil Bible Revis- 
ion Committee. He loved the Seminary, as a 
father his child, and wisely devised plans for its 
growth and highest pi-ogress. He was also much, 
beloved by his missionary associates and left be- 
hind him the legacy of a precious memory to alJ 



8 

who knew him and the well-laid foundations of an 
institution which we trust will long continue to 
impart increasing blessings to the people of South 
India. His grateful students and others united in 
placing, in the Pasumalai Church, August 1692, as 
a loving memorial of him, a beautiful brass tablet. 
But the institution and those who came under his 
influence as students in it are the best memorials 
which he could have desired of his life and labors. 

THE REV. J. HERKICK, though not at any time 
in permanent charge, was nevertheless principal of 
the school for an aggregate of eight years, and 
furthered the interests of the institution by that 
ardent piety and conscientious discharge of duty 
for which he was so well known. He arrived in 
India in 1846 and left in 1883. And, though ill- 
health prevented his returning to this land, his 
heart was ever in the mission and its work until 
his death in 1891. While the chief result of his 
life work is to be found in the Tirumangalam Sta- 
tion which in almost every thing still bears the 
impress of his faith and character, Pasumalai will 
never, I trust, lose entirely the fragrance of that 
Christ-like patience and loving Christian example 
which he showed during his connection with the 
Seminary. 



9 

THE REV. G. T. WASHBURN, D.D. was appointed 
principal in Jan. 17, 1870, and during the last 
quarter of a century has continued, with a few 
brief intermissions, in charge of the institution. 
It would be very agreeable, if proper, for the writer 
to dwell at this time upon the conspicuous ability 
and devotion which Dr. Washburn has brought 
to this work. This fortunately is unnecessary in 
view of the fact that the results of his labor are 
manifest to all. It should be remembered that, 
during this quarter of a century, the institution has 
entered upon a new era which means a complete 
transformation and a practical new birth. Form- 
erly the school was merely a humble training insti- 
tution for mission catechists and teachers. Now it 
has entered upon the broader sphere of general 
education, inviting all to come and enjoy its bless- 
ings, but still retaining its important function as 
the training school and nursery of mission agents- 
At the beginning of this twenty-five years the 
Seminary was a very simple affair, unconnected 
with the educational department, and furnishing 
to its graduates none but the Principal's certificate. 
To-day it is a congeries of schools and depart- 
ments, each one either helping toward furnishing 
a higher education, or qualifying men for special 
departments of work as Christian preachers and 



10 

as teachers. The teaching staff has been enlarged 
many fold and the students are ten times as many 
as they were 25 years ago. 

Looking at the plant of the institution we see an 
equally remarkable growth and transformation. 
Old buildings have been remodelled and greatly 
enlarged, and new ones of architectural grace and 
beauty have been erected so as to meet the rapidly 
growing needs of the institution. Nearly all of 
these changes have sprung from the fertile brain 
and determined heart of the present Principal. 
And his own private purse has been extensively 
drawn upon to meet the clamoring needs of the 
school and to erect the substantial edifices which 
adorn the compound of the New Pasumalai. 

It would certainly be both ungracious and 
unjust not to mention the quiet but most necessary 
and efficient assistance which MRS. WASHBURN has 
rendered to Dr. Washburn and the unremitting 
labors which she has bestowed upon the institution 
during this quarter of a century. The feeding of 
more than 200 youth is, in itself, a task whose 
many cares and disagreeable burdens must be 
borne in order to be appreciated. Add to this the 
ministering to the sick ones and the many labors 
connected with the press, and one begins to realize 
the varied and exacting duties which this mis- 



11 

sionary lady has regularly performed; and that 
those who have known Mrs. Washburn most inti- 
mately during these years have rarely heard her 
mention these abundant labors only attests the 
efficiency with which she has performed them. 
Certainly many students have had abundant 
occasion to experience her loving service and 
constant motherly care. 

Among other Americans who have acted as 
principals are Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A., for 5 months 
in 1883 and Rev. J. S. Chandler, M.A., during 
1883 84 and '90. 

The following American instructors have also 
been members of its staff; 

Mr. A. North Jan. 1846 Jan. 1847. 

Mr. Chapin, B.A 188384. 

Mr. D. S. Herrick, B.A 188590. 

Rev. R. Humphrey 1890. 

Mr. H. H. Stutson, B.A 189194 

Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A 1894 

Among the early instructors of the school not 
a few have given it many years of service; and of 
these, several resigned to enter pastoral work in 
the mission. The first instructor, who began work 
with the opening of the school in '42, is Mr. Cotton 
Mather of Batticotta Seminary, Jaffna. Though 



12 

he spent but two years in connection with the Semi- 
nary he is still enjoying the blessings of a good 
old age in his native home. Among the older 
instructors should be mentioned Rev. A. G. Row- 
land who taught here, from 1848 to 1868, and 
who, after years of pastoral work in the mission, 
entered into his rest a few months ago. Rev. J. 
Colton, now pastor of the Dindigul Church, was 
an instructor here from 1848 75 and was also 
useful as a translator of theological books. Rev. 
M. Eames was on the staff of teachers from 
'54 to '70 and resigned to enter upon a long and 
successful pastorate in the Mandapasalai Station. 
Rev. W. A. Buckingham also taught from '75 to '94 
and is now an acting pastor in the Tirumangalam 
Station. The Rev. S. Mathuranayagam taught 
from 1874 84 and resigned to take up the pastor- 
ate of the West Church, Madura. 

But of all the native instructors, he whose name 
is most highly esteemed is the Rev. A. Barnes, 
M.A. Entering the institution as a student mem- 
ber of its first class he became a member of its 
teaching staff just half a century ago and has 
continued in this work with much efficiency and 
unabated interest until the present. He has also 
been the pastor of this church since 1871. He 
has watched, through these nearly two generations, 



13 

the annual incoming classes of raw youth and the 
outgoing classes of well equipped Christian 
workers and has had the satisfaction of having 
had a share in the training of their mind and in 
the development of their Christian character. In 
an important sense the Jubilee of the Institution 
is that also of this faithful instructor ; and he will 
not fail to receive the honor and affectionate 
reverence due him from all the old students of 
Pasumalai for his life of faithful and efficient 
service which is synchronous with the history of 
the school itself. Few instructors in any land can 
show a record of such unbroken length or of 
greater fidelity. Yale University honored Mr. 
Barnes with the degree of M.A. in 1887. 

In very recent days many university graduates, 
under-graduates and others have been added to 
the staff of teachers and have honored the institu- 
tion by their able and faithful service. We shall 
not endeavor to mention them individually. Their 
names and years of service will be found in 
Appendix III. Of these, most have been graduates 
of Pasumalai. Some have left and others are 
still identified with the institution in its various 
departments; all I trust striving hard to contribute 
to the highest efficiency and best progress of the 
school. 



14 

PROGRESS. 

I will now enter more specifically upon a state- 
ment of certain facts which indicate the growth of 
the school during the half century of its history. 
It may be well to remember here, that, to the 
Madura District generally, this half century has 
been one of wonderful progress in many ways. In 
'54 was published the famous Educational Des- 
patch which was fraught with so much educational 
good to India. It was about this time that the 
great Mutiny occurred and the reign of the noted 
East India Company came to an end. The first half 
of the period was, to Madura, one of old-time isola- 
tion from the world. This, however, was suddenly 
terminated through the opening of the new Rail- 
road by the Prince of Wales in Dec. 1875. Thus 
was Madura for the first time made to feel the 
pulsebeats of modern civilization and of progress. 
Later, under Lord Ripon's administration, measures 
of self-government were introduced which, in a 
day, threw the people into a new world of political 
life and privilege a privilege which has been 
since enlarged. General intelligence has been 
moving on apace; and during this period the first 
steps were taken for the education of woman. 
During these years municipalities have been organ- 
ized ; and in these, water-works and other im- 



15 

provements have been introduced conferring many 
of the benefits of sanitation upon the people. 
Kodaikanal, one of the best sanitaria of India, has 
been, during this time, and practically by this 
mission, opened in this district. And at present 
there is being completed at Periar one of the 
greatest engineering triumphs of the century; 
by which a great river is being turned from its 
course and compelled to contribute, now for the 
first time, its untold blessings to this Madura Dis- 
trict. The people have greatly advanced in every 
way. During this time the town of Madura has 
doubled in population and has been nearly rebuilt 
with a splendor that it did not formerly possess. 
The people have shaken off not a little of their 
narrowness and superstition and are religiously 
and socially passing through such mighty changes 
as the land probably never witnessed before. 

So, as we return to Pasumalai, we notice similar 
changes and progress 011 all sides. In the first 
place the teaching f . rce reveals a remarkable 
change both as to numbers and needed qualifi- 
cations. In the beginning it would have been 
thought highly extravagant to keep two American 
missionaries occupied in the work of the school, 
even though the mission was indeed possessed of 
a sufficiently lively faith to erect, at that time, two 



16 

bungalows at Pasumalai. One of these houses, 
erected the very year its present occupant was 
born, had to wait for permanent occupancy until 
he entered it three and a half years ago. To-day 
it is thought a wise economy of forces to concen- 
trate in this place three missionaries, or one-fourth 
of the whole male membership of our mission. 
And these gentlemen feel that their position is by 
no means a sinecure. 

The staff of native instructors numbered no 
more than three for the first thirty years. From 
that time onward the number has been constantly 
increasing and its educational qualifications ever 
advancing, until we find at present 25 teachers 
engaged, including an M.A., five university gradu- 
ates, five First in Arts and eight Matriculates (See 
Appendix III). 

In the number of students also, growth has 
been most marked. For some 28 years the attend- 
ance was very much the same ; but from that time 
onward progress has been very marked; so that 
in all departments of the institution there are 
now 325 students in attendance, of whom 220 are 
boarders. Of these, 267 are Christian, and 58 
are non-Christian youth. Perhaps in no other 
institution in India can be found so many Christ- 
ian young men preparing themselves for lives of 



17 

usefulness and for Christian service. For many 
years it was the policy of the mission to admit 
into the institution only Christian youth. But 
in 1879 it was wisely decided to make the bene- 
fits of the institution accessible to non-Christians 
also ; and from that day to the present, a num- 
ber of such have been in attendance upon the 
classes. And in 1892 the Southfold Hostel was 
erected and opened for the use of such students. 
In this way, the school has become an evangeliz- 
ing agency and has the privilege of daily impart- 
ing Christian truth to the Hindu youth whose 
names are upon its rolls. It should be mentioned 
however that during the last seven years, the 
number of the students has made no advance. 
This is owing to several causes, one of which is 
the falling off in the mission station-boarding 
schools, which are the principal sources of student 
supply to the institution. According to the 
excellent graded educational system of the mission, 
the growth and expanding prosperity of Pasumalai 
will depend to a considerable extent upon the 
thorough up-keep and vigorous maintenance of 
the out-station boarding schools. And it is hoped 
that, now that the attention of the mission has 
been called to this defect in these schools, it will 
be early remedied and a progress, at least com- 

3 



18 

mensurate with the growth of the Christian com- 
munity, be restored to the institution. 

In nothing is the progress of an institution 
more clearly marked than in the scope of the 
studies which make up its curricula. During 
the larger part of the history of the school it was 
regarded as almost entirely a professional institu- 
tion, whose chief, if not only, design was to pre- 
pare men to become preachers and pastors. So 
long as that object remained supreme, expansion 
in studies was inevitably slow. But when it was 
broadened into an institution for general education, 
containing departments for special training, and 
brought into line with the requirements of the 
government educational code, its development 
became marked. First, the Middle School require- 
ments were all enforced. Later, the High School 
department was added ; and in the latter part of 
1879 the first students passed the matriculation 
examination in the institution. In Nov. 1881 the 
school was affiliated to the Madras University as 
a second grade college, and since then, has been 
annually preparing and sending out under-gradu- 
ates. 

In all these government and university examin- 
ations, the institution has stood well among the 
schools and colleges of the presidency. Early in 



the year 1885 the Normal School was opened and 
recognized by government and now has three 
classes preparing for the Primary, Lower and 
Upper Secondary grades. In connection with this, 
is also found the Practising School. All the stu- 
dents have been trained in the Bible ; and some 
have been brought up annually for the Peter 
Cator Examination with creditable success. For 
many years the institution has been noted for the 
physical culture which it imparts to its students.; 
and the Inspector of Schools has testified to its 
superiority in this respect. To those who believe 
not only in the principle of "a sound body in a 
sound mind/' but who also feel that the develop- 
ment of the character of natives in South India 
must be conditioned and accompanied by a sound 
physical training, this department is not without 
its importance. 

In the Theological Seminary also progress is 
evident. It was only recently that this depart- 
ment was separated and made the special care and 
chief work of a missionary. The curriculum has 
been enlarged, and new and important subjects 
introduced. The course of study also, which 
formerly covered two years, has now been length- 
ened into three years, with an annual incoming 
and an outgoing class. In addition to these a 



20 

special class of lower grade men has a separate 
two years' course of training. As most of the 
theological students are men who have already 
been out in mission service and are married, their 
wives also have two hours of daily class work with 
a view to preparing them to become more efficient 
helpmeets to their husbands in future Christian 
work. 

It is the aim of the management to make the 
whole institution as thoroughly Christian in its 
character as possible. The spirit of the Seminary 
was early expressed in the small and private 
prayer rooms erected in 1846, in the quad- 
rangle for the students, with the view of impress- 
ing upon them the truth that something more 
than knowledge or mental training and discipline 
is necessary for true success and high usefulness 
in life. We trust that this aim has not been 
obscured. In these days of all consuming desire 
for certificates and for government and university 
degrees, it is much more difficult than it was 
formerly to impress upon the minds of the young 
the truth, that hard-won character is still the only 
foundation of true greatness, and that the main 
spring of character is piety, and that the essential 
means of piety are prayer and private devotion. 
The changed spirit of New India, while less 



21 

superstitious and childish than that of half a 
century ago, is just as sordid and much more 
corroded with worldly ambitions, and has the added 
liability of believing, with our first parents, that 
the tree of knowledge may be better than the tree 
of life itself. It therefore needs constant care 
and effort to keep prominent before the students 
the religious and spiritual side of a true culture. 
In the first years of the Seminary the " Native 
Provident Society" and the "Native Improvement 
Society" were established with this object in view. 
These societies passed away, and in their place 
the Y. M. C. A. was organized and is now doing 
good work in cultivating, among its numerous 
members, the graces of an active Christian life. 
Through this association aggressive Christian 
work is carried forward in the surrounding 
region. Much evangelistic work is being con- 
ducted in the villages by the theological students 
both on Sundays and on Wednesday evenings, when 
raagic-lantern services are conducted. Thus the 
direct influence of Pasumalai is felt, as it has 
been for many years, throughout the surrounding 
country. The effect upon this people is not as 
much as we could wish ; and yet we have evidence 
enough that even if they have not become, to any 
great extent, Christian, they are not as supersti- 



22 

tious as they were. We are reminded of this by 
the fact that when Dr. Tracy was digging up cists 
in his compound in 1846 a cry was raised that thir- 
teen victims had been sacrificed here in order to 
obtain buried treasure, and that four other victims 
were needed for that purpose a report which so 
affected the superstitious community, that it led to 
a cessation o travel upon this road, and necessi- 
tated the interference of the Collector of the Dis- 
trict. We cannot believe that such dense ignor- 
ance and folly were possible here to-day. 

We still wait to see within the young men 
themselves a marked and powerful development in 
sturdiness of character ; and we continue to pray 
for a repetition of that great revival of God's 
Spirit which swept over the institution during 
February and March, 1861. 

Another evidence of advance is found in the in- 
crease of the expenses and receipts of the institu- 
tion. Beyond the salary of the missionary in 
charge, the annual amount required for the support 
of the institution during each year of the first half 
of its history was inconsiderable ; whereas it has 
greatly increased during the last quarter of a cen- 
tury. So that outside the salaries of the three 
missionaries, there is at present a total annual 
expenditure of at least Rs. 20,000. On the other 



23 

hand the receipts of the institution were practical- 
ly nil for many years, so far as the government 
grants and students' fees were concerned. In 1848 
the mission declined, for the Seminary, govern- 
ment aid and patronage. It was not until nearly 
a quarter of a century later, that it allowed 
the government to assist it by grants then, 
as always, very inadequate and circumscribed 
with many conditions in the support of this work 
which is so intimately connected with the well- 
being of the community. The mission maintained 
the principle not very dissimilar to that advocated 
by a few missions even to-day that any alliance 
with the government, through grants in aid, is to 
be deprecated and shunned as a compromise ; and 
that total separation and unencumbered independ- 
ence in this respect are the necessary conditions of 
the highest success in the work. The mission is to 
be congratulated upon its abandonment of such, an 
ultra position and thus enable itself to enlarge, by 
government aid, which it well earns, a department 
of work whose importance no one at present ques- 
tions. This aid from the government is not at all 
commensurate with the claims which the institution 
has upon it and yet is not inconsiderable, averaging 
some Us. 950 for instruction and Us. 2,000 for 
normal students' stipends. 



24 

In like manner, fees were not collected from 
students until recent years. In 1868 a fee of 8 
annas was required of each student, which demand 
was continued for two years. Subsequently, under 
the new regime, the students were required to con- 
tribute more and more, as an expression of their 
growing appreciation of the blessings received, 
and in order to enable the mission to distribute 
these blessings to more youth than would other- 
wise be able to enjoy them. 

In this way the income of the institution has 
grown until it has reached some Rs. 4,000 annu- 
ally. In view of the great poverty of the people, 
this sum is by no means small. Nor, on the other 
hand, does it reach the high rates which are de- 
manded from students in most institutions of the 
kind. Indeed, the institution aims to lead, so far 
as possible, in the work of bringing a good Christ- 
ian education within the reach of any and every 
worthy boy within our community. And the fact 
that Tamil Christian young men find a liberal edu- 
cation open to them on easier terms than perhaps 
any other youth of the same station in life through- 
out the world shows that the dangers of this and 
similar schools is certainly not in the line of over 
exaction of fees from the students. Some indeed 
fear, and perhaps not unreasonably, that over 



25 

kindness and generous indulgence in this matter 
has led to the pauperizing and demoralization of 
not a few youth. 

At any rate, Pasumalai cannot plead guilty to 
the charge of demanding too much in fees from 
its students. The total receipts from students and 
government does not reach more than 35 per cent 
of the total expenses of the institution ; and, even 
adding to this the appropriation of the mission, 
there is still left to those in charge ample room for 
anxiety, and urgent need to supplement these with 
funds secured with much effort from private 
sources. 

We shall refer later on to the buildings and gen* 
eral plant of the school, which are indeed among 
the most marked tokens of progress. 

It may not be out of place here to mention a 
few outside agencies which are closely related to 
the institutions and which help to illustrate the 
growth of Pasumalai. 

Until 1381 great inconvenience was felt owing 
to the absence of postal facilities. But in that 
year Dr. Washburn prevailed upon the Post 
Office department to open experimentally an office 
here. He also erected a building for this purpose. 
Subsequently the office was confirmed and made 
permanent; so that this important servant and 

4 



26 

emblem of civilization abides under the shadow o 
the school and renders, in its quiet way, its aid to 
the enlightenment of the community and students. 

In Nov. 1871 that other handmaid of intelli- 
gence and of progress the printing press was 
established here. The Lenox Press has, during 
these 24 years, been kept busy in the important 
work of producing and disseminating a Christian 
literature, not to speak of its general convenience 
to the mission and of its furnishing honorable 
employment for a number of our Christian men. 
During these years, in addition to the printing of 
outside matter, the press has put forth some mill- 
ion pages in books, pamphlets and tracts pertain- 
ing to Christian truth, life and work. And its 
facilities for work are being enlarged and its use- 
fulness will we trust continue to grow. 

Another work of the press is the printing of two 
periodicals. One of these, the " Sattiavartamani," 
or "New Age," was started by Dr. Washburn at 
Pasumalai in 1870 and has been conducted ever 
since as a semi-monthly. Until this year it was 
privately supported by Dr. Washburn. Now the 
mission has taken it over and proposes soon to 
enlarge it and increase its usefulness in other ways. 
During these 25 years it has had no small influ- 
ence especially among our own mission agonts, to 



most of whom it is the principal means of commu- 
nication with the broader world without ; and its 
periodic arrival is always anticipated with great 
interest. One of its four pages is English and the 
other three Tamil. It has a circulation of over 
500. 

The "Joyful News" (riVpesv. Q*v) is the 
other periodical, published monthly. It is a Tamil 
missionary sheet, started in 1884 by a few of the 
missionaries, with the special object of furnishing 
the mission catechists and pastors with missionary 
intelligence for their "monthly concerts." It ia 
now supported and conducted by the mission, is 
printed at Pasumalai and has a circulation of over 
1,100 copies, mainly in this mission. It gives to 
many a new and a higher impulse as it furnishes 
a broader view of the field, which ia the world, and 
enables most of our people to realize more fully 
than before that th kingdom of our Lord is a 
world wide kingdom, whose glory and whose obli- 
gations are theirs to share. 

Among the many vicissitudes of mission policy 
and owing to the exigencies of the personnel of 
the mission, the Female Seminary was transferred 
from Madura to Paeurnalai in June 1870. It re- 
mained here until Aug. 1872 under the charge of 
Miss Smith, after which it was transferred again 



28 

to Madura; and the managers of these schools are 
at present not ambitious to shorten the distance 
between them. Pasumalai is exceedingly happy 
to witness the healthy and rapid progress of ita 
sister institution for girls in Madura during this 
last quarter of a century and to wish for it, here- 
after, a full continuation of the same growth. 

The great Famine of 1876 '77 with its terrible 
destitution and appalling mortality thrust upon 
the principal the necessity of opening temporarily 
a nursery and an orphanage. This was opened in 
Nov. 1877 with 80 children in attendance. The 
nursery was closed in '79, after 1,070 children had 
been cared for. The orphanage, for larger chil- 
dren, was continued for some years more until 
most of the young people taken in were equipped 
with an education, and sent out to support them- 
selves. A number of these have entered mission 
service and are repaying with interest, by their 
lives and Christian service, the money expended^ 
and the efforts put forth, in their behalf. 

Pasumalai is a healthy situation and free from 
many of the epidemics and diseases of a large 
town. And yet with so many students and with 
the teachers and their families constituting quite 
a large community it was imperatively necessai'y 



29 

that a dispensary be established with a hospital 
assistant in charge. For some years this blessing 
has been enjoyed to the great advantage of the 
community. 

One of the essential concomitants of an educa- 
tional institution is a library. For many years the 
mission libraiy, containing several hundred vol- 
umes, has been housed at Pasumalai. Many of 
these are valuable books and a few of them are 
modern. 

In connection with the College and High School 
there is another growing library containing a 
goodly number of appropriate and useful works of 
reference and standard authors. 

There is also, in connection with the Theological 
Seminary, a small, but helpful library suited to 
the needs of the Seminary. We trust that these 
two school libraries may be greatly enlarged and 
rendered adequate to the increasing wants of the 
institution. 

THE PLANT OF THE INSTITUTION. 

An institution may not be known by its build- 
ings so accurately as a man by his clothes. And 
yet the buildings are generally a fair index to the 
inner condition of a school and help not a little in 
shaping its destiny. When this institution was 



30 

founded, buildings suitable to the time and its 
work were erected, including two bungalows cost- 
ing nearly Rs. 4.000 each, a church upon which 
nearly Rs. 3,000 was expended, and Seminary 
buildings and helpers' houses, &c., costing Rs. 
7,000 ; bringing the total expenditure to over 
Rs. 19,000. These buildings sufficed for a quarter 
of a century and the bungalows and church are 
still (with some changes and additions) doing ser- 
vice. But the last quarter of a century has wit- 
nessed large additions to, and many transforma- 
tions of, the school buildings so that it would be 
hard to recognize the lineaments, or even the loca- 
tion, of the old as one stands in the presence of the 
new. In these changes and new buildings above 
Rs. 60,000 have been expended since 1870 (See 
Appendix II) whereby the institution has come to 
possess halls, class rooms, dormitories, &c., which 
are as substantial, commodious and well-suited to 
their purpose as any probably in the Presidency. 

Of these later additions I may speak in detail 
and refer to the sources of the funds used in 
erecting them. 

The College. Of this building two separate pic- 
tures are found in this volume one representing 
the old and the other the new building. These will 
enable one to judge of the superiority of the lat- 



31 

ter ovei' tbe former. It will also enable him to see 
something of the effort made to add beauty to 
utility in the construction of the newer buildings. 
In the early history of the mission the old New 
England ideas of architecture with rectangular, 
unrelieved and unadorned buildings were brought 
to this mission bodily. The only claim that could 
be pressed in its behalf was that of simple utility. 
But it was a style both foreign to the people and 
devoid of attractiveness. These buildings were 
useful in their day ; but we have fallen upon bet- 
ter times in this respect. Certainly the outward 
aspect of this new hall is both inviting and impos- 
ing. By the transformation and expansion of this 
building the hall of the school was itself much 
enlarged so as to meet the present needs for a 
large study room, and was raised from the first to 
the second floor. This gave several new and com- 
modious class rooms for the High School in the 
lower story. To the east of these have been erect- 
ed several class rooms for tbe College classes and 
the Normal School ; and on the west of the hall, 
as an extension, is the attractive Library hall which 
however is already beginning to feel the growing 
burdens of its shelves. 

On the east of the quadrangle was the old and 
uninviting dining hall and kitchen which were 



32 

demolished and rebuilt in a much more attractive 
style as class rooms for the Middle School forms. 
This is now called the "Seals Memorial," as a 
considerable part of the funds for its erection were 
contributed by the Beals' family of Winchendon, 
Mass., U. S. A. The old dormitory, on the west of 
the old quadrangle, which was originally a one story 
structure, was crowned with a second story which 
became the dormitory room ; while the lower part 
is divided into class rooms and is used by the Pri- 
mary classes. The building joining on to this ou 
the south-west, and which was originally used for 
the Press, is now much improved and converted 
into a Science Lectruo Room. 

Turning to the west side of the enlarged quad- 
rangle we first come, on its south end, to the 
Hollis Moore Memorial Hall which was erected by 
a part of the legacy of Mr. Hollis Moore, of South 
Boston, Mass., U S.A. through his executor Rev. 
E. K. Alden, D.D., who, for many years, has been a 
true friend of the institution. This hall was 
erected and opened in 1887 at an expense of 
Rs. 9,000 and is both large and commodious and 
well adapted to its purposes. The lower story is 
devoted to class rooms for the Theological Semi- 
nary and a large room for the Lenox Press. The 
second story, which is coextensive with this, is one 



83 

spacious sleeping room for the students of the in- 
stitution. To the north of this structure is the 
new Dining Hall and kitchen which was completed 
at an expense of Rs. 3,500 and opened in Aug. 
1891. On the western part of the northern side of 
the quadrangle has just been completed the Yokan 
Lodge at an expense of Rs. 4,000. This is a hostel 
for the older and more advanced Christian stu- 
dents. As it is the last, so is it architecturally the 
most attractive building in Pasumalai, being a beau- 
tiful structure of the Saracenic style and suited to 
accommodate 20 students. Under the leadership 
of Dr. Miller, of the Madras Christian College, 
the mind of the educators of this presidency has 
been turned to the need of hostels for students. 
In this respect Pasumalai began to move early ; 
for the Principal erected on the south side of the 
main road in 1892 the Southfold Hostel at a cost 
of Rs. 4,000, for the accommodation of 36 Brahmen 
students. Another building is now in course of 
construction which will allow of the opening of a 
cottage as a "Home" for ten or twelve non-Brah- 
inin Hindus. These hostels meet a long felt want 
in the institution and add to its attractions both 
to Christian and non-Christian youth. In the erec- 
tion of all these buildings Dr. Washburn has not 
only been his own architect and builder a work 

5 



34 

whose difficulty and worry is known only to those 
who have experience in building in India he has 
also been instrumental in securing from others 
some of the funds necessary for the work and has 
freely devoted his own private resources to the 
work. None of these buildings erected during 
his time were built without his pecuniary aid and 
Borne of them are the monuments of his offerings 
alone. In addition to these school buildings much 
has been expended in accommodation for teachers 
and theological students. The nineteen teachers' 
houses have cost Bs. 10,500 in sums contributed 
mostly through the American Board. The sixteen 
houses for theological students have been erected 
partly by funds collected privately and partly 
through special offerings by a few New England 
Churches and Sunday Schools sent through the 
Board. 

Thus the institution has put on externally an 
entirely new aspect daring the latter part of its 
half century of existence; and we trnst that by 
healthy and vigorous growth necessity may be laid 
upon it during the next half century, to make 
equally bold advances in external progress. 

THE ENDOWMENT FUND. 
Pasnmalai has of course been a distinctively 



35 

missionary institution from its incipiency. Our 
Missionary Society in Boston has generously sup- 
ported it during these fifty years ; and we have 
only grateful thanks for those good and wise men 
on the Prudential Committee and in the Secretari- 
at in America who have exercised so much care to 
shield the institution from serious harm in times 
of financial distress and have evinced such a gen- 
erous sympathy with the aims of the school. And 
yetj our experience has already abundantly shown 
and emphasized to us the fact, that an institution 
of these years and proportions, with ever increas- 
ing wants, should not rest content to live in abso- 
lute dependence upon the annual grant of funds 
given by a society 11,000 miles away a society, 
moreover, which is constantly exposed to the 
dangers of a depleted treasury and pressed with 
the urgent claims of the varied departments of 
work in 22 missions of many lands. It is cer- 
tainly time that efforts were made to create aa 
Endowment which will ensure, without fail, the 
perpetuation of such a work as this. And it would 
seem that the half century of life and successful 
work behind the institution should constitute a 
claim through which we may confidently appeal to 
the appreciative pu-blic for substantial aid and 
sympathy in this movement. It is under the strain 



36 

of this conviction, that the mission has more than 
once shown its deep interest in the creation of a 
Pasuraalai Endowment Fund and has voted its 
unanimous approval of various efforts put forth to 
this end. These efforts have extended over more 
than 15 years since Oct. 1879 when the first gift 
of Rs. 1,000 was made by the Principal and his 
family for the Endowment Fund. Though many 
and varied efforts have been made since then to- 
wards this end we cannot, as yet, claim any great 
success in the enterprise. 

And yet we have made what we consider a suc- 
cessful beginning, a beginning which we confident- 
ly hope will bring us more substantial success in the 
near future. In any case, we feel that in the mat- 
ter of this Fund, we have embarked upon an import- 
ant undertaking, which will doubtless demand pa- 
tient and persevering effort. But the growing need 
for the Fund must stimulate us to increasing enthu- 
siasm in the work of securing it. The encouraging 
thing about this movement is that it has taken a 
strong hold upon our poor, but appreciative, natire 
Christian community, who have already strained 
themselves to the utmost to inaugurate it. In 1 884, 
upon the Celebration of the Jubilee of the Madura 
Mission the Christian community made an offering 
of Rs. 5,200 which was cheerfully devoted to the 



37 

Pasumalai Fund. Three years ago, upon the Jubi- 
lee celebration of this institution, all the agents 
of the mission, with the missionaries, decided to 
devote a month's salary to the fund. We who 
know how much this means in self-denial to these 
poor people appreciate this offering. Though small 
in bulk, it is nevertheless very large in spirit and 
rich as a stimulant to others of means to give unto 
this good cause. For a complete list, so far as 
available, of the offerings thus far made to this 
Fund (See Appendix VI). I desire to make par- 
ticular mention of a few of these, such as may be 
of general interest or may prove instructive and 
stimulating to others. 

The first is the Washburn Scholarship of Rs. 
5^100 a donation of Dr. and Mrs. Washburn in 
perpetuation of their life work. 

The Burnell Scholarship was the offering of the 
family of one of our older missionaries as an evi- 
dence of their interest in the work of the institu- 
tion. The Noyes Scholarship of Rs. 750 is also 
the filial offering of a Madura-born son, Mr. 
Joseph Noyes, in commemoration of the long serv- 
ices rendered by his father to the Christians of 
South India. 

The Welsh Scholarship of Rs. 1,215 was coutrib- 



38 

uted by the Welsh Congregational Churches of 
Northern Ohio in 1884 in response to the earnest 
efforts of Revs. W. P. Edwards and J. M. Thomas, 
both now deceased. The mites and faith of many 
poor Christians are embodied in this not very large 
Fund. By the side of this we place the Glovers- 
ville Fund of Rs. 1,000 being the offering of the 
one Congregational Church of Gloversville, New 
York, as a token of its continued interest in Mrs. 
Washburn a member of the church. 

The Clancy Scholarship of Rs. 700 was the gift 
of Mrs. C. Clancy, a life-long friend of Mrs. 
Washburn. 

The Scudder Scholarship of Rs. 800 perpetu- 
ates the name of Rev. David Scudder, one of the 
most promising of all the young missionaries who 
have joined this mission, but who was cut off at 
the beginning of his career. It is fitting that hia 
name should, by a gift of two of his brothers, be 
thus permanently identified with the highest insti- 
tution of the field of his brief labors. 

The William Banfield Capron Scholarship of 
Rs. 1,314. This scholarship was founded by Mrs. 
S. B. Capron in memory of her husband who died at 
Manamadura in 1876 after twenty years of devoted 
and efficient service for the Master in India. We 
are much pleased to have this name of precious 



39 

memory in the mission associated, by this Fund, 
with Pasumalai in whose growth he was formerly 
much interested and towards which he contributed. 
Among Hindu gentlemen who have shown their 
sympathy is the Rajah of Ramnad who generously 
added Rs. 2,000 to this Fund. The Hon. Justice 
S. Snbramania Iyer, c I.E. also showed his wonted 
public spirit and sympathy not only by a subscrip- 
tion to the Fund but also by a donation of a piece 
of land adjoining our property at Pasumalai. We 
wish that more of the wealthy gentlemen and 
princes of South India could be induced to bestow 
upon institutions of learning at least a small por- 
tion of their large fortunes for the improvement of 
their own people and generation. Wealth has not 
yet, in this land, become the servant of a public 
spirit or of a high interest in the intellectual pro- 
gress of the community. It continues to be too 
much the instrument of selfish, personal and low 
gratification; so that no institutions arise, as for 
instance in the United States, by personal self- 
denial and a holy and lofty ambition of individu- 
als of means to make posterity wiser and better 
than their own time. We are glad to see faint 
indications of the rise of such a sentiment among 
a few in this land. But this is a plant of slow 
growth ; and we cannot expect to see many such 



40 

institutions as Patchiappa's, perhaps, in this too 
close-fisted age in India. Frequent appeals for 
their aid and sympathy, with limited responses in 
this generation may lead to the large endowments 
and "foundations" of the next. 

Of the constant and generous friends of the 
institution, in the United States, should be men- 
tioned the Congregational Church in Lenox, Mass., 
whose yearly contributions, have sustained numer- 
ous beneficiaries ; the Rev. N. G. Clark, D.D., who 
as senior Foreign Secretary of the Board, has 
throughout his connection with the Society main- 
tained the deepest interest in the welfare of the 
institution, sympathised with every effort to im- 
prove it, and when legitimately within his power, 
directed valuable contributions to its support ; 
Rev. E. K. Alden, D.D., of Boston, Mass., who has 
more than once come to the assistance of the insti- 
tution in its time of need ; the Rev. John Hanna 
of Chicago, whose repeated donations have helped 
many a poor student; Rev. and Mrs. Devins of 
New York who have contributed in memory of 
Thornton B. Penfield, former husband of Mrs. 
Devins and a missionary with her of the Madura 
Mission for several years, till his death in Pasu- 
malai in 1871; and especially Williams College, 
whose repeated donations in recent years amount 



41 

to nearly 8,000 Rupees, and evidences of which 
are to be seen in the buildings of the institution 
as well as in the maintenance of the teaching staff. 
Some effort has been made and is still being 
made in America in behalf of this fund. Rev. G* 
H. Gutterson and Rev. H. C. Hazen have been, by 
the mission, deputed to collect sums for this pur- 
pose. The former has secured some $200 for the 
fund. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, we desire to send forth this 
simple story of the inception, struggles, growth and 
hopes of this one mission institution in no spirit 
of boasting but in an humble though strong hope 
that it is the small beginning of what, under 
God's guidance, will prove to be a great and an 
abiding power for good. And in prayerful reli- 
ance upon Him who has, from the first, been its 
recognized Head we commit it to Him again at the 
beginning of the new half century. 

We also trust that the Native community in 
genera^ and Native Christians in particular, will 
earnestly study and gratefully appreciate this 
strange and truly Christian spectacle of a people 
who are their antipodes, for 50 years, offering up 
their prayers and sending forth their sons and 

6 



42 

daughters and their money (about Rs. 250,000) 
nearly 11,000 miles, to educate a people whom they 
have never seen, and whom they are bound by no 
ties, save that all potent one of Christ-like love, 
sympathy and Christian obligation. Has the world 
often before, or at any time outside of Christianity, 
witnessed such patient constancy or such a lofty 
altruism in the loving work of one people for 
another ? To be wanting in gratitude under such 
circumstances would be vile indeed. And we have 
many evidences among the Christian community 
of a lively sense of appreciation of all this kind- 
ness. Still the highest appreciation of such a 
benefit is best shown by a full realization of the 
obligations which it brings to the recipients obli- 
gations which in this case are neither few nor 
light. If the time has not already come, it certain- 
ly cannot be far off, when our Christians should 
be willing and happy to assume the burdens of 
such an institution themselves when the strength, 
intelligence and means acquired by them through 
the generous self-denying offerings of distant 
Christian friends should be lavishly consecrated 
upon the altar of self-support, and a vigorous 
propagation of the truths and principles taught 
when the long habit of dependance and of recipi- 
ency should, by manly energy and Divine grace, 



43 

be transmuted into a life of self-reliance and self- 
forgetting effort for others. If the history of 
Pasumalai teaches one lesson above all others, 
it must be this. And until this lesson shall be in 
good part learned, the aims of the promoters and 
supporters of the institution will not be realized. 

J. P. JONES. 



ADDRESS. 



[This address was delivered at the Jubilee celebration in 1892 
of the founding of what is now the Pasumalai College, Semina- 
ry, and Training Institution, and is published by request of the 
Mission, along with the appendices on which many of its state- 
ment are based. Since its delivery, it has again undergone 
careful revision with the earnest desire of stating truly and 
fairly the facts in a controversy, which for above twenty years 
created much heat in the Mission, and called out strong parti- 
sanship both in the Mission and in the Board at home. 

Happily, time and events have in a great measure, decided 
questions which four or five decades ago, it was attempted to 
settle by argument. I say in a great measure, because there 
are still worthy missionaries and others, who like the veteran 
Rev. Maurice Philips, in his paper before the late Bombay Mis- 
sionary Conference, repeat the arguments which were much 
heard in this Mission between 1849 and 1855, and would try 
anew the experiment which the Madura Mission made between 
1855 and 1875.] 



jfiftg |ears of % $mmalai institute. 



THE Seminary, out of which the present Pasu- 
malai institution has grown, was opened in Tiru- 
mangalam on September 4th, 1842, in a bungalow 
similar to the present missionary bungalow in that 
town, standing about where the present girls' 
school now stands. It was demolished in 1860 
and the materials used in part for the new bunga- 
low then building in Mauamadura, in part for the 
inclosing wall of the Tirumangalam compound, 
and in part for the present church. 

From the first, it was the purpose of the mission 
to transfer the school to Madura, as soon as quar- 
ters could be provided for it there ; bat two things 
stood in the way of this consummation the diffi- 
culty of securing an eligible site, and the equal 
difficulty of obtaining 2,500 with which to build ; 
for that was the figure at which the mission esti- 
mated its requirements. 

Sites were sought both at the east of Madura in 
the neighborhood of Teppakulam, and also beyond 
the Dindignl gate; the rental of the Tamakam, 
then in a somewhat dilapidated condition, was 



48 

asked. But nothing satisfactory offering, a plot 
of ground* was pitched upon, on the north side of 
the river near the Tamakam,t and recommended 
for purchase. A committee of the mission seems 
to have busied itself in negotiating for it in the 
interval of two years or more while no funds were 
available and then suddenly to have given it up; 
partly on account of its liability to isolation by 
floods in the Vaigai, and partly because of its 
proximity to the town, a disadvantage which Mr. 
Tracy's experience in Tiruinangalam seems to have 
made apparent. J 

But for whatever cause, the proposed location 
was abandoned. In April 1844 when the neces- 
sary funds were ready, and the mission had receiv- 
ed permission to move in the matter, the question 
of a site was still an open one ; and not till late in 
the following July had the Pasumalai site been 
fixed upon. Then work was pushed on apace, 

* The land selected was a field west of the old jail, the site of 
which is now occupied by the Madura Union Club house. 

t The Tamakam is an old native castle situated on what was 
then an open plain on the north of the Vaigai, a mile and a half 
from Madura, and said to have been Tirumal Nayak's hunting 
lodge, from which also he witnessed the contests of his ele- 
phants with one another and with wild beasts. 

J Mr. Tracy's report of his work for 1843. 

Mr. Girdwood, a passed Batticottah man, was the overseer, 
while Mr. Tracy superintend from Tirumangalam spending, his 
Saturdays at Pasumalai. 



49 

and on September 1st, 1845, the school bungalow, 
without any class rooms or kitchen, and the princi- 
pal's bungalow had been so far completed as to 
allow of the transfer of the school to its new 
quarters. The remaining buildings were com- 
pleted within the following two years, the church 
having been finished so as to be used in October 
1847. The east bungalow was erected for the use 
of a second missionary instructor, whose coming this 
jubilee year has just witnessed, thus testifying to 
the breadth of plan and confidence of the founders. 
The land on which the buildings were erected 
was said to be held on annual lease from govern- 
ment by the people of the neighbouring Krishna- 
puram. But the Madras Government chose to deal 
directly with the mission as a foreign body asking 
permission to hold real estate, and granted on very 
generous terms a title to a tract of land of forty 
acres and more,* which included that claimed by 
the Krishnapuram villagers, and waste land ex- 
tending north towards the top of the hill. What- 
ever their title was, the holders of the government 
pattas were satisfied by a money payment, and friend- 
ly relations were established between the mission- 
aries and the thief caste which have continued to the 

* See Appendix I. 



50 

present day. This then, constituted the real estate 
and school plant, which supplied for nearly forty 
years the wants of the school. The erections were 
of a substantial kind, and during 1 that time, re- 
quired very little alteration to enable them to 
meet the changing needs of the Seminary. But 
by 1832, the institution had undergone such 
changes, and had increased in size to such an ex- 
tent, as to render necessary the initiation of those 
changes, which have made it what it is to-day. 
No pant of the school buildings are exactly what 
they were. The area of usable room covers now 
nearly three times what it did eleven years ago. 
It was then about 14,000 square feet; it is now 
over 41,000 square feet.* Our real estate has not 
increased as much in extent ; but four or five plots 
of land amounting to several acres, very valuable 
for our purposes, have been acquired. One of 
these directly before the college is the gift of Mr. 
Grant Asirvatham. Most of the Pasumalai land 
held by the mission was originally Government 
waste ; and the remainder of it has cost the mis- 
sion very little. But not so with the buildings. 

* Since this was written in 1892, two hostels accommodating 
56 students have been built, and arrangements have been made 
for opening a cottage for the accommodation of ten or a dozen 
more ; sixteen houses for students in the theological seminary 
have also been erected. 



51 

We have seen that, at the outset, the mission esti- 
mated the cost of the necessary outfit at $2,500, 
or say Rs. 5,000 ; but by the time Mr. Tracy had 
completed the buildings, he had spent nearly 
20,000 rupees ; and the expenditure on buildings 
up to date has been not far from 65,000 rupees 
to which the Board has contributed by direct grant 
not far from 46,000 rupees.* This doea not in- 
clude repairs. 

As before mentioned the Seminary was opened 
on September 4th, 1842, by assembling from the 
feeder boarding schools of Dindigal, Tirupuvanam 
and Tirumangalam 34 lads who had already made 
some progress io an English and Vernacular edu- 
cation. And according to the programme of their 
studies, they were to undergo a very respectable 
degree of teaching and training, in the five years 
before they were to be dismissed from its highest 
class. t The institution can fairly lay claim to 
having been one of the earliest mission schools of 
superior secondary education established in the 

* la September 1895 the expenditure on buildings had 
amounted to above Rs. 81,500 and the Board's contribution to 
the same about Rs. 54,000. 

t See list of text-books in the Appendix I. When the writer 
came to the Seminary in 1870 he found the students' library 
well supplied, for class use, with the Science and Mathematical 
text-books in use in American Colleges in the forties. 



52 

Presidency. And this claim is amply borne out 
by the positions under government and in honor- 
able vocations filled by its early students. 

At that time, Batticotta Seminary in Jaffna 
stood among the foremost mission schools in the 
East. And the founders of the Pasumalai Semi- 
nary seem to have studied with much care the 
make up, management, curriculum of studies, and 
the general arrangement and provision for the 
Batticotta School.* Indeed, the Madura Mission 
was but a bud nipped off from the Jaffna stock 
and set to grow in Madura soil; and like buds 
under such circumstances, it was, for a time, so far 
as surroundings would allow, very much a repro- 
duction of the original. 

The pupils received into the new Seminary were 
all of the Sudra caste; and the school was carried 
on with careful reference to the caste prejudice of 
pupils and teachers. Thus it went on for fivo 
years ; and two classes left in a regular way. It 
is possible, perhaps probable, that other than 
revolutionary methods might have been adopted to 
bring the practices of the school, and the mission 
as well, more nearly into harmony with Christian 

* It is an interesting fact that the first four masters in Fnsu- 
malai were Batticotta Seminary men, and the head master con- 
tinued to be a Batticotta man, till 1855. 



53 

ideas of fellowship and brotherhood ; but such 
were not employed ; and in October 1847 the caste 
storm burst which left the Seminary little better 
than a wreck. Ten only of the pupils remained, 
though several others found their way back in the 
course of time. 

A very striking case was that of Muttian who 
twelve years after came back to Pasumalai to confess 
his rashness, and wrong doing towards Mr. Tracy 
on that occasion, and to renounce caste and Hindu- 
ism, and to be received by his old teacher into the 
Christian fellowship. 

The disastrous effect of the caste troubles on the 
Seminary would not have been so serious, had not 
the same cause also decimated the four boarding 
schools as well as the Seminary; only 73 of 155 
pupils} remaining in them after the storm had blown 
over ; and from this set-back they never recovered.* 
The four years following were years of reaction in 
the native mind and of questioning and debate, in 
which, not only the missionaries, but the Secreta- 

* The boarding schools contained their largest number of 
pupils in 1845, viz., 216; in 1846, 155; at the end of 1847, 81; 
and in the following years 77, 68, 69, 82, 88, 91 ; in 1854 when 
the Sivaganga school was united with the Tirupuvanam school, 
98; in 1855 when the Dindigul and Mandapasalai schools were 
united, 72; the next year when the Tirnpuvanam school was 
dropped, 37 ; and in 1857 when the last school at Tirumanga- 
lam was closed, 23. 



54 

ries at home took part. Within that time several 
questions began to loom on the missionary horizon, 
and before long filled the whole educational sky. 
The chief of these were and they were all closely 
interwoven with one another The functions of the 
Seminary ; The functions of Missionary Education ; 
The place of English in Missionary Education in 
India; The remuneration to be given Mission 
agents and educated men in its employ ; and later 
on, The posture of Mission education to Govern- 
ment grants in aid. 

It is not to be forgotten that American mission- 
aries in Asia, in the thirties and forties, were be- 
ginners ; and, whether they were conscious of it or 
not, quite as much learners as teachers learners 
of an old and complicated civilization, and of a 
religion wholly heterogeneous from any thing they 
had had to deal with, and therefore chief of all, 
learners as to the means and methods of aggressive 
Christian work. Western prejudices, and early 
missionary preconceptions had to be given up; 
and our early missionaries had to learn that in the 
Madura district itself they were to devise their 
own working scheme, and not find it ready made 
in Jaffna or Calcutta. 

Among the better classes of Jaffna, to which the 
missionaries chiefly addressed themselves, they had 



55 

found elementary schools by far the most available 
agency for getting at the people ; and having all 
their schools within easy reach of constant inspec- 
tion they found it easy, through a system of moni- 
tors and pupil-teachers in the elementary schools 
to supply the necessary masters for them. But 
laboring as they did, among a small and intelli- 
gent section of the people, the missionaries also 
strongly felt the need of institutions of higher in- 
struction to prepare competent preachers and 
assistants for them in their work. Moreover, under 
the influence of Dr. Duff in Calcutta and Dr. An- 
derson in Madras, it is undeniable, that among mis- 
sionaries, the tide was moving in the direction of 
missionary higher education. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the combination of circumstances 
described above as existing, in Jaffna, was highly 
artificial, and not likely to exist in any other mis- 
sion field, nor likely to allow of identical treatment 
anywhere else. 

With these preliminary statements, let us see if 
we can place ourselves in the position of our pio- 
neer missionaries, and look at things from their 
point of view. When the first missionaries arrived 
in Madura from Jaffna they found the Madura Dis- 
trict wholly heathen, not one in five of the people 
able to read. And yet its people had seen better 



56 

days intellectually, and had reached in some things 
a high stage of civilization. As in Jaffna, so here, 
the missionaries found that as soon as the people 
understood that they would teach them, the villa- 
gers and towns-people from every quarter came 
clamoring to their doors. for schools. And these 
schools afforded permanent audiences, to which 
the Bible could be taught, day after day, and in 
such an amount, that the people could really be 
made acquainted with Christianity; while on the 
other hand no heathen would on any account enter 
a place of Christian worship, and the audiences on 
the street were uncertain in numbers, distracted, 
and never twice the same. The missionaries there- 
fore adopted schools and printed books as the 
means of accomplishing their purpose with 
the approval of their supporters at home* and 
with gratifying success. f One difficulty, while this 

* The course pursued in the schools at Madura must satisfy 
any one, that they come within the Scriptural and literal com- 
mand to publish the gospel to all nations. Report of the Board 
for 1839, p. 108. 

f In 1834 two schools were opened with 78 pupils. In 1835 
there were eight schools with 312 pupils, in 1836, 37 schools were 
going on with 1,286 pupils. The following year there were fifty- 
nine schools under the missionaries with 2,158 pupils; and in 
1842, the year in which the seminary was opened, there were 
ninety-two schools, with 3,395 pupils. They reached their highest 
level in 1845, when there were 114, with 3,7"!' pupils; after 
that they declined, and in 1853 nominally ceased, perhaps, actu- 



class of schools continued to be used, was to obtain 
suitable teachers, who, even under frequent inspec- 
tions, would do their work intelligently and faith- 
fully. The difficulty was partially met by a scheme 
for training monitors or pupil-teachers, carried on 
by each missionary at his station, thus obviating, 
for the time-beiug, the need of any central training 
school, had such a school then been possible or 
practicable.* At any rate, from 1837, the time 
when they began to agitate for a seminary till 
1845 or 1846, the missionaries seem never to have 



ally did cease for a few years, though there always seem to have 
been some mission schools, maintained in purely heathen villages. 
* Mr. Poor gives this description of the plan of the mission- 
aries for availing themselves of the good-will and prestige of 
the native village school and hereditary schoolmaster to graft 
their Christian ideas upon them. " Most of the schoolmasters 
hitherto employed (1836) are old men, but rendered docile by 
considerations of self-interest. They are indeed, most anxious 
to understand our new rules, which are to be strictly applied, 
and the new lessons to be recited in the monthly meeting. For 
the purpose of stimulating them in various branches of learning, 
they are assembled at the mission house two days in a month. 
In each school, a monitor is appointed, usually from the first 
class, who receives half a rupee monthly. The object of ap- 
pointing monitors is twofold ; first, to assist the teacher in in- 
structing the classes ; secondly, to take measures for bringing for- 
ward a better race of schoolmasters. In many schools the mon- 
itor is by far the most efficient man ; and it is mainly by his 
assistance that new branches of study and new methods of 
teaching are introduced. The monitors are in attendance at 
the mission station two days in a month, when they receive ap- 
propriate instruction and direction for teaching their classei." 
Statement of Schools for 1836. 

8 



thought of the Seminary as a source of supply of 
masters for their village schools. 

The idea at the bottom of the Seminary contem- 
plated quite another style of work than this simple 
evangelism, and its aim was the preparation of 
quite a different class of agents from those serving 
in the village schools. 

It is to be remembered that the missionaries 
were college and seminary-bred men, accustomed 
to the New England idea of the church, and to 
the dignity and Fespeet attaching to it and its col- 
lege-bred minister. Could these men at once lay 
aside all these ideas, and come down to the simple 
necessities of a mission among illiterates ? Should 
they leave Christianity to such defenders in the 
face of one of the most intellectual races the world 
has produced ? Should they introduce a system of 
theological education starting at the level of the 
village school ? Or should they follow the honour- 
ed traditions of New England Puritanism which 
founded its first college within sixteen years of land- 
ing on Plymouth rock, and which numbered more 
graduates of Cambridge and Oxford among its emi- 
grants, in proportion to its population, than the 
mother country itself? Should they deliberately 
arrange for a graded ministry who believe first of 
all in the parity of the clergy ? 



59 

The point from which all the missionaries viewed 
higher education is well set forth by Mr. Tracy 
in his report of 1842. He says: "It is evident to 
any one who has paid the slightest attention to the 
subject, that the immense population of this coun- 
try can never be converted from idolatry and in- 
structed in the worship of the only living and true 
"God by the personal labors of foreign missionaries 

That must be done chiefly through the agency 

of men raised up from among the people themselves 
and laboring under the direction of a few for- 
eign missionaries. It was thus its present rulers 
subdued its one hundred million inhabitants ; it is 
only by the same means that they retain their pow- 
er. We may in this respect learn wisdom from the 
children of this world. Impressed with such views 
the mission established boarding schools at nearly 
all the stations as the first step towards raising ap 
a native ministry/'* 

Under the circumstances it is net surprising that 
the first missionaries did not strike out wholly new 
lines for themselves. They were not blessed with 

* The first boarding school was established in Dindigul in 
1837, and one each at Sivaganga, Tirupuvanam and Tirumanga- 
lam in 1839 ; and the first setback in scholarship which the 
Seminary suffered, arose from the caste defection of 1847, reduc- 
ing not only the number of eligible pupils but also the quality 
and scholarship of those sent for admission. 



60 

superhuman prevision ; and it was in truth, events 
which happend a year or two after the Seminary 
was under way, that created division of opinion as 
to the method of carrying it on. In the year the 
Seminary was opened there began to be talk in the 
Madura District about a gregarious movement of 
villages and families towards Christianity such as 
had occured in Tinnevelly under the ministry of 
Khenius, Thomas, and other missionaries;* and 
within five years, that is, before the caste troubles 
broke out, a score of congregations had renounced 
Hinduism, were waiting for instructors in the Chris- 
tian religion and in the elements of knowledge, and 
were needing preachers and teachers. 

These applicants were not Christians, and they 
were not, on the other hand, heathen. In joining 
the mission they had gone as far as to renounce 
idolatrous marks, ceremonies and worship ; and had 
given their promise to keep the sabbath, practice 
Christian forms and ceremonies and receive relig- 
ious instruction. In some cases these catechumens, 
as they were called, were remote villagers of the 
poorest and lowest classes, repulsive in many ways 

* A few applications to become catechumens were received 
by Mr. Lawrence of Dindigul in 1842. In 1843 several con- 
gregations with 330 members were received. In 1845 there 
were 44 congregations with 330 members ; and in 1847, 73 con- 
gregations with 1,113 members. 



61 

to the higher and more educated classes. Yet they 
needed religious instruction, and the mission need- 
ed some system of training fitted to supply speedi- 
ly a considerable number of men adapted to these 
congregations; humble men, on very moderate sal- 
aries, knowing enough to instruct their people, and 
willing to live among them, and sympathise with 
them in their lot. 

The Seminary was not immediately called upon 
to meet this demand in a direct way: on the other 
hand, the necessity was immediately provided for 
by the several missionaries, in the same way as they 
had provided schoolmasters for their village schools. 
It will be remembered that there were classes of 
monitors at each station, who were taught and 
trained two years, to prepare them for their work. 
As the Hindu village schools declined, these classes 
of monitors became the preparandi classes " whose 
object was to supply suitable readers and teachers 
for the Christian schools" and congregations. 
These classes were carried on in almost all of the sta- 
tions and gradually came to demand more and more 
of the missionaries' time and care, till at length, in 
1852, it was determined to transfer them to Pasu- 
malai. There it was possible for the united classes 
to receive much more thorough training and instruc- 
tion than they could receive at the district stations, 



62 

though something of the village simplicity of 
thinking and living had to be sacrificed. Still later, 
in 1856 and following years, classes of catechists 
were received into the Seminary for a single year's 
course of study. 

We must now turn back and see what changes 
the Seminary according to its original plan had 
undergone in the years immediately following 
1847. We have already seen that the caste troubles 
left the boarding schools in a very feeble and shat- 
tered condition, and, to say the least, supplied with 
a less advanced grade of students than they previ- 
ously had. At the same time, the waning activity 
of missionaries in the line of their Hindu village 
schools, the unlocked for success in gathering village 
congregations, and the want of funds to keep all 
their varied work on foot tended to concentrate their 
attention on these village congregations, and the 
missionaries naturally began to cast about for 
means and plans to procure more and better edu. 
cation for the youth in them, and finally to provide 
from them indigenous agents to carry on their sta- 
tion district work. Up to 1849, it had been the 
custom of the missionaries to receive into their 
boarding schools, and so into the seminary, promis- 
ing lads of good family, whether Hindus, Roman 
Catholics or Protestant Christians, and whether from 



63 

the Madura, Tanjore or any other district, to be 
trained for future Mission agents. When the first 
boarding school was opened in Dindigul there were 
no Protestant Christian children in our district; 
and the number of such must have remained very 
small for many years. Hence, when the Seminary 
opened, all its students were either non-Protestants 
from the Madura district or Protestant outsiders.* 
Looking at these as materials for mission agents, 
there seemed indeed some cause for misgiving, 
But notwithstanding, after a practical test, it must 
be confessed that the students turned out better 
than was feared. Many completed their education; 
most were truly converted in the boarding schools 
or Seminary, and many became mission agents and 
did excellent service. They constituted the most 
intelligent and generally useful class of agents in 
the mission, and not a few of their children are 
with us to this day. They were well adapted for 
the work at the station centers ; but they were not 

* In the first class in 1842, 13 Hindus and 8 Romanists were 
admitted ; in 1844, 7 Hindus ; in 1845, 7 Hindus and 7 Romanists ; 
in 1846, 4 Hindus and 2 Romanists; in 1847, 4 Hindus and 5 Ro- 
manists; in 1848, 3 Hindus; in 1850, 2 Hindus and 1 Romanist; 
in 1851, 2 Hindus and 1 Romanist; in 1852, 3 Hindus; in 1854, 
2 Hindus. The first convert was baptized in 1837; at the end 
of 1840 there were but 15. The total number of communi- 
cants in the mission was in 1839, the year the Seminary was 
sanctioned, 19; in 1842, 42; in 1845, 120; in 1847, 186; in 1850, 
235. 



64 

inclined to, or fitted for rural life and work. Others 
of them sought government service in preference 
to any kind of mission work, to the great grief of 
the missionaries, who had brought them up and 
educated them. This was not forgotten by the 
mission, which had little money to waste on failures 
of this sort. And it resolved to avert, if possible, 
danger in the future, and at the same time stimul- 
ate education in the congregation of catechumens 
by ordering admissions to the boarding schools 
and Seminary to be restricted to the children of 
our congregations. The order was followed in the 
main, with its natural effect upon the schools. 

About the same time, October 1849, another step 
was taken in adapting mission education to current 
needs and necessities. This consisted in a revision 
of the curricula of the boarding schools and semi- 
nary with reference to instruction in English. It 
was claimed that though the pupils in the schools 
were selected boys, many were incapable of learn- 
ing English to a usable extent ; that English con- 
sumed much time that might more profitably be 
given to other things; that it delayed pupils in 
getting into their work, and so enhanced the cost 
of education; that it denationalized the student, 
and broke his sympathy with mission work, while 
it awakened aspirations for government service ; 



65 

and that it compelled a higher rate of wages than 
was compatible with the best interest of the work 
of the mission;* and finally, that it retarded 
the .development of vernacular literature. On the 
other hand, many of the ablest missionaries main- 
tained that there existed in Tamil literature noth- 
ing but mere translations for Christian educated 
men, and these were very few; that a useful edu- 
cation, even of an elementary grade, much less of 
a higher, in Christian or any subjects, could not be 
obtained in Tamil alone; and that after such a 

* The matter of remuneration to mission agents was a quea-- 
tion by itself of no little importance, creating much discussion, 
and in more ways than one, reflexively influencing mission 
secondary education. At that time, Christians and non-Christ- 
ians, intelligent and educated in English, were in great demand 
in the government offices as well as among the missionaries. 
What was to be the principle governing the remuneration of 
men brought up and educated by the missionary societies 
at their own expense ? The missionaries received a main- 
tenance allowance. Were their educated agents to receive 
a bare support, a comfortable support, or were they to be 
paid the value of their services in the open market ? In 
either of these last cases, could they be provided as preachers 
and teachers for the young congregations and churches, if the 
idea of self 'Support immediate or prospective was to receive 
consideration? Or should self-support from the first be the 
dominant idea, and only agents be employed of such quality, 
and .at such rates as the congregation could afford? These 
questions had to be acted on : and the different missionaries 
pursued somewhat different methods: but on the whole, the 
idea of the future self -support of the native laborers, and the 
capital put into their education became important considerations 
in settling not the question of remuneration only, but also, the 
kind and grade of education, 

9 



66 

yernacular education had been gained it led to 
nothing, there being no scientific literature, no 
history, no biography, and no Christian literature 
of value to educated men in the vernacular ; and 
that for cogent reasons a vernacular educational 
apparatus and literature could not be furnished by 
missionaries then at work, or likely to be employ- 
ed that would meet the requirements of the case.* 
Some also believed the question of missionary edu- 
cation in India, governed, as the country is, by 
an English speaking people to be exceptional, and 
was not to be decided only by such reasons as 
should settle the question in Western Asia and 
China. 

There was a vast amount of discussion going on 
about education in English, not only in the Madu- 
ra Mission but in all the Asiatic Missions of the 
Board, and not between the missionaries more 
than between them and the management at home. 
The question, as it presented itself at home and in 
the missions, was a question first of policy, and 
after that of funds. But, as has been said, late in 
1 849 the mission revised its scheme of English study 

* AB bearing on this question, the history and development of 
the Christian Vernacular Education Society, a society instituted 
about this time to promote Christian vernacular education and 
literature, are most instructive and suggestive. 



67 

in the Seminary, in general reducing it; but divid- 
ing the Seminary course into two stages. In the 
first of these Tamil and English was taught to all 
the pupils; but at the beginning of the second 
stage the pupils divided according to their ability 
to go on, and the instruction of the first section was 
continued in Tamil only.* It was not till 1852 
that the proposed changes were actually carried into 
effect, and then, not without some friction and the 
loss of a few students. This plan was continued 
till the changes determined on in 1855 superseded 
this class arrangement. 

In the beginning of February, 1 855, a deputation, 
appointed by the Board in April of the previous year, 
arrived in Madura. It consisted of the Foreign 
Secretary and one from the Prudential Committee 
of the Board. The immediate occasion of the 
appointment of the commission was the establish- 
ment of an English school in Bombay, which re- 
quired a considerable outlay for building, and an 
annual grant for maintenance from the treasury 
of the Board. But the ultimate object was a gen- 
eral revision of the methods of operation employ- 
ed in all the Board's Indian missions, in order 

* See Appendix to the Deputation's Report on Madura pp- 

A * jt& 

4o, 46. 



68 

to bring them more nearly into harmony \vith the 
views of the representatives of the Board. The 
Foreign Secretary, as appears from his letters to 
the missions, had a very clear-cut theory in regard 
to mission work, and a strong repugnance to 
English schools, as mission agencies.* 

Numerous changes were brought about in the 
mission by this visit, not the least of which were 
those in education. So far as that was concerned, 
the center of the work was transferred from the 
heathen to the Christian congregations. Education, 
used heretofore to gain access to the people, and 
teach Hindus Christian truth was hereafter to 
be exclusively used, first, to improve the youth of 
the congregations, and secondly, to provide preach- 
ers, teachers, and necessary evangelists. No schools 
were to be maintained for Hindus; and no Hindu 
children were to be allowed to attend the schools 
for the Christian congregations, except on the per- 
mission of a committee of the mission. As a mat- 
ter of course, the English school in Madura was 
disbanded; and in order to bring the Seminary 
into closer sympathy with the village congrega- 
tions, its feeder boarding schools were gradually 



* See Dr. Anderson's letters to the Madura, Jaffna and Mah- 
rathi Missions. Deputation Report. 



69 

doubled up and closed, and- the Seminary was 
brought down to the level of the village primary 
school for its entering candidates. This point was 
reached in 1857 when the last boarding school 
ceased to exist; but English lingered on in the 
Seminary for three years more, and vanished from 
its walls in 1860. The principle of refusing govern- 
ment aid* for each and all mission schools was 
formally adopted. 

These changes were accepted by a majority of 
the missionaries and acquiesced in by all. It was 
believed that a plan of campaign had now been 
marked out in accordance with the apostolic 
method, and that earnest work on these lines would 
lead to triumphant success. In the Seminary, 
geometry and algebra were taught in Tamil. 
Commendable efforts were made to translate into 
the vernacular books on physics, moral science, 
and theology, church and general history, and to add 
to the scanty supply of useful Tamil literature all 
seconded by the American Press at Madras with 
its newly designed dies for Tamil type, and its 
beautiful typography. Tamil lyrics replaced hymns 
and English tunes in public worship and earnest 

* Grants were offered to the Seminary by the Collector of 
the District.,- Mr. Blackburn, in 1848, before the grant-in-aid 
coda came into existence. 



70 

effort was made to make the theory of a purely 
vernacular work a success.* 

The following years were years of faithful, labo- 
rious work; but by 1863 misgivings had begun to 
spring up in the mind of the missionaries, and 
some of the more rigid rules were relaxed. Hiu- 
du children were freely allowed to attend the 
schools of the Christian congregations. English 
was readmitted into the Seminary in a small way ; 
and the report which proposed these changes, 
recommended that the question of resuscitating 
the boarding schools be placed in the hands of a 
committee for examination and report. f 

It had been predicted that with the extinction 
of the feeder boarding schools, the Seminary 
would perish. On the other hand the deputation 
reasoned that the doing away with the station 
boarding schools and the connecting of the Semi- 
nary directly with the village schools would stimu- 
late and much improve these village schools. 

* For the translation of numerous books and the introduction 
of the native lyrics into Christian worship the mission was, at 
this time, greatly indebted to the Rev. E. Webb, of Dindigul, 
Vethanayaga Sastri of Tanjore, composed most of the lyrics 
first introduced into worship, and Mr. Webb pioneered the way 
for them into use. In his translation of text-books and other 
books he was assisted by Mr. A. Allien who had worked many 
years with Dr. Winslow on his great Tamil dictionary. 

t Minutes of the Missions for May 1860. 



71 

Neither of these anticipated events occurred. The 
Seminary did not perish, and no appreciable im- 
provement took place in the village schools. The 
whole system of education was degraded. So far 
as they were able, intelligent families among our 
people preferred to send their children for educa- 
tion to other missions instead of their own mission 
schools at hand. 

The influence of the East India Company's fa- 
mous Educational Despatch of 1854 had by this 
time begun to be felt in South India, stimulating 
education in a remarkable degree.* It is no dis- 
credit to the American Board of Missions that in 
April 1854, when it appointed its deputation, it 
was unacquainted with the spirit and purpose of 
the Directors of the East India Company, or with 
their now famous despatch ; and it is equally no 
discredit that they could not forecast the result 
of that, despatch, and the spirit in which it was to 
be accepted, and administered by the government 
in India. But we now know that that document 
embodied the genuine purpose of the Directors at 



* The two grant-in-aid codes of 1855 and 1858 prepared with 
a view of giving efficacy to the despatch proved unworkable, 
and too parsimonious to produce much effect; but the revised 
code of 1865 was much more liberal and powerfully stimulated 
education. 



72 

home and their agents in India to enter upon a 
new course of popular enlightenment. And we 
now can easily say that any mission in India which 
attempts to ignore or cuts itself off from the gov- 
ernment system of education in -carrying on its 
.work, makes a serious mistake.* 

Mission educational matters went on in this way 
till 1870. Lads, twelve or thirteen years of age, 
were taken from the village schools into the Semi- 
nary for a full course of five years, and were dis- 
charged at seventeen or eighteen, as far fitted as 
the circumstances would allow, for employment as 
teachers and preachers. But the time had now 
come when the mission was more than supplied 
with this class of men ; at the same time it was 
discovered that this was fast becoming the only 
grade of men available, and that soon the pastor- 
ates, and more important posts in the mission, 
must be filled from them. 

The most natural thing under these circum- 

* In 1855, when the Deputation visited Madura, there were no 
schools in the district supported by the government. By the 
last report of the Director of Education (1892 3) the popula- 
, tion of the district is 1,884,706; the schools of all classes 1,378 
and the number of pupils in tho district 44,683 of which 6,280 
were in the schools of tho American Madura Mission. Tho total 
of pupils in the presidency was 644,164, by far the larger por- 
tion in government schools. 



73 

stances would have been to bring the new station 
boarding schools into line with the Seminary, to 
raise the standard of that institution, and to devel- 
op a Theological Seminary upon it. And this was 
actually done five years later but in a very round- 
about way. At the time of which we speak, the gen- 
eral education carried on in the Seminary togeth- 
er with all the students, except the highest class, 
was transferred to boarding schools ; and a purely 
theological school was opened on the Seminary 
premises, to which many of the best men in the 
previous Seminary classes returned for two years 
study, in subjects fitting them for the Christian 
ministry. The new school of theology opened in 
June 1870, and has continued to work on in sub- 
stantially the same lines up to the present time. 
There have been changes in text-books, and the 
introduction of special subjects Greek, logic, and 
mental science; but with these exceptions, the 
course of study has remained substantially the 
same.* 

Kesults of social changes cannot in any caso be 
fully foreseen ; so also it proved in regard to the 

* With a view to providing a more thorough training for pas- 
tors and spiritual agents of the mission, the Rev. J. P. Jones, in 
January 1892, was appointed to the independent charge of this 
department of the institution and this arrangement it is expect- 
ed to maintain in future, 

10 



74 

changes in the school. It was expected that the 
station boarding schools would furnish a good sup- 
ply of young men, who, sooner or later, would find 
their way into the theological classes. But in this 
particular, expectation was doomed to disappoint- 
ment. In the twenty years following scarcely a 
young man, except by a very round about path, 
has found his way from the station boarding 
schools into the Theological Seminary. For the 
first five or six years, its classes were chiefly filled 
by men from the ranks of the catechists, and 
schoolmasters, who had passed through the old 
Seminary. Thus things went on for half a decade, 
two years of which the principal was on sick leave 
in the United States. On his return in 1874, it 
was evident that some important change must be 
introduced, for the supply of preachers to say 
nothing of the supply of schoolmasters through 
the C. V. E. Society's training school in Dindigul 
was seriously falling short. 

And the time was ripe for it. The Christian 
community had become larger and more intelli- 
gent; and educated Christian parents sought a 
better education for their own children within 
their own mission. The Government had already 
entered the educational field, and had practically 
settled the. question of English in all secondary 






7S 

and higher education. The railway was opening 
the district in an extraordinary way to a multitude 
of outside influences, all urging in the direction of 
united, systematic work in the education of our 
Christian people. Opposition both at home and 
ia the mission had died out, and other views of the 
function of the school in missionary work had 
taken their place. 

It was therefore with great unanimity and heart- 
iness that the mission voted in January 1875 to 
open classes in Pasumalai for the purpose of im- 
parting a general education on the lines laid dowa 
by the Government for the lower secondary and 
high schools preparatory to the University. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 8th of June, a number of lads 
from the various boarding schools assembled at 
Pasumalai, from whom twenty were selected and 
formed into a sixth standard class of the middle 
school. Mr. P. Joseph, a trained matriculate of 
the C. M. S. High School, Palamcottah, and now 
a successful pleader, was made the first master, 
and a new era of our educational work in the dis- 
trict began. The boarding schools, the High 
School, the College and the Theological Seminary 
were brought into line under circumstances that 
promised more favorable results than the former 
experiment. 



76 

For four years, the new school was restricted to 
boarders on the premises; but there seemed no 
reason to refuse the request for admission of non- 
Christian scholars; and from 1879, day -scholars, as 
well as boarders on the premises, have been freely 
admitted to the school. The first class went up to 
the University's Matriculation examination in 1879 
and from that time, 1 20 have passed the examina- 
tion from the high-school. In 1880 pupils began to 
go up for the Middle School examination ; and 172 
have passed that and the Lower Secondary exami- 
nation from our middle school, besides 32 more 
who have passed the Special Upper Primary ex- 
amination to qualify for primary teachers. 

The college department was affiliated with the 
Madras University in 1881, and our students ap- 
peared at the First in Arts examination in Decem- 
ber 1883, since which 54 have passed that exam- 
ination from the college. In 1886 a normal 
department was organized in accordance with the 
rules of government, and was recognized by the 
Director of Public Instruction, as qualified to edu- 
cate all the three grades of teachers up to the col- 
lege grade. It has passed 69 teachers through 
the theoretical branch of the examination. The 
theological department has gone on without inter- 
ruption since its organization in 1870, keeping up 



77 

two classes, in one of which the subjects are taught 
exclusively in the vernacular, and another in which 
a part of the subjects are taught in English. With- 
in this period 153 have been trained or are con- 
nected with this department ; and most of these 
have remained through the two years course, and 
have passed out after examination by a committee 
of the mission. 

In making our final summary of the Seminary 
as it was till 1870 we find 386 names on its regis- 
ters, of whom 111 passed through its regular five 
years course. Since that date 153 have enter- 
ed the theological department. The nominal reg- 
isters of the various schools show that 715 have 
entered the middle school, 599 the high school 
289 the college, 153 the normal school and 153 
its primary practising branch, making alto- 
gether 2,540. Of course, many of these names are 
repeated ; some of them several times, as the pupil 
passed from school to school; so that probably the 
total number of separate individuals indicated does 
not exceed 1 ,500, if it even reaches that number. 

The cost of the school, which in this case includes 
instruction, apparatus, books and also to a large 
extent maintenance has amounted to Rs. 123,000 
exclusive of the salary of the principal, which has 
amounted to 97,000 rupees more. This last sum, 



78 

however, should only in part be debited to the 
school, since for 32 of these 50 years, the mission- 
ary at the head of the institution has had a mis- 
sion district in charge, and sometimes two districts. 
Fees began to be levied twenty-four years ago of 
the pupils receiving a general or non-professional 
education. In the college and lower institutions 
not far from 40,000 rupees have been paid in ; and 
the government has made grants amounting to 
about Rs. 15,000; so that the school and the peo- 
ple of the district are largely indebted, for the 
education here offered, to the benefactions of the 
Christian people of America. 

In 1879 the effort for an endowment was begun 
in a humble way by a gift of 1,000 rupees. Other 
gifts followed; and in 1884 the jubilee year of 
the mission, the matter was taken up energetically 
and over Rs. 5,000 were raised. These sums have 
been added to, little by little, till the funds now on 
deposit amount to between 14,000 and 15,000 ru- 
pees. 

Three voluntary societies have flourished in the 
institution, which, both by their spirit and works 
have honoured their members. The first was the 
Native Provident Society. It raised its funds by 
the money contribution, of its members and from 
savings effected by the abstinence of its members 



79 

from one meal a week. The funds, so collected, 
amounted to a considerable sum in the aggregate 
which was expended in tract distribution, on the 
distressed and worthy poor, on maintaining for 
many years a free primary school at Pasumalai, 
and finally in the erection, in part, of a dispensary 
building in Pasumalai. 

The second society was the Native Improvement 
Society, mainly supported by the masters and old 
students of the school in mission employ, who feel- 
ing the need of more books than they conld indi- 
vidually own, organized themselves into a Library 
and Improvement Society. They got together a 
good sized library suited to their wants, and used 
it for many years. It has now fallen into disuse, 
but a part of it is still here and available. 

The third was the Prayer Union, a society of 
very much the same character as the Native Prov- 
ident Society. It started in 1875 and in course of 
time was changed into the Pasumalai Young Men's 
Christian Association. The peculiar work of these 
associations is familiar to most of you, and also the 
special work of the Pasumalai Association, in the 
line of rural evangelism. 

It would be too long a task to speak of indivi- 
dual men educated here, whose lives are worthy of 
mention. The majority of them are still living 



80 

and may well wait to have their lives and deeds 
recorded by the future historian. 

In conclusion, this cluster of institutions at Pasu- 
malai can lay claim to occupy only a humble place, 
and to have concerned itself chiefly with the instruc- 
tion of a very small and humble community. But 
the smallness and weakness of that community is 
the smallness and weakness of vigorous growing in- 
fancy not that of decaying age. The question these 
institutions, on this 50th anniversary of their found- 
ing, are bound to answer are such as these : Have 
they done their work in that community, and 
through it for the district, with a measurable degree 
of success? Have they faithfully borne witness 
to that light which dawned far back in the old 
centuries, but which through following centuries has 
been steadily ascending towards a perfect day ? 
Have they held up ideals fit to inspire a worthy 
following above self, above mammon ? And have 
they made the country, or any so small part of it, 
better by the teachings and lives of their men ? 
If they can answer these questions to the satisfac- 
tion of reasonable men, they have a just and rea- 
sonable claim on the future. 



APPENDIX I. 



Extracts from the early Minutes and Correspondence 
of the Mission relating to the Seminary : 

July 5th, 1838. Brethren Poor and Tracy were 
appointed to draft a letter to Mr. Anderson expressing 
our views in regard to boarding schools and a Semi- 
nary to be established at some future time, to be pres- 
ented to the next quarterly meeting. 

August 6th, 1838. Voted that a Committee of three 
be appointed to draft a letter to the Prudential Committee 
urging our need of a Seminary to be presented at the 
quarterly meeting. [This Committee presented a re- 
port which was adopted at the meeting Oct. 9th, 1839.] 

Oct. 3rd, 1838. The Committee appointed to ex- 
press our views to the Prudential Committee in relation 
to boarding schools and Seminary presented their report 
which was accepted. 

Jan. llth, 1839. Voted that brethren be authorized 
to encourage the attendance of the monitors of our 
schools at the mission premises daily for instruction by 
giving them half a rupee per month. 

April 1st, 1839. From a letter written to the Pru- 
dential Committee, requesting a grant for establishing 

11 



82 

Seminary. " We cannot by tiny possible means, from 
any existing known source, obtain either the number 
of native assistants necessary "for us, or those possess- 
ing such character and qualifications as the interests of 
the mission require. We supposed that we wore war- 
ranted in expecting such aid from the Batticotta Semi- 
nary, and our hopes have rested there as the only source. 
But the result has been often-repeated disappointment, 
both in relation to the qualifications of the young men 
who have come, and to the number which have been sent, 
until we are constrained to relinquish all hope." 

Oct. 9th, 1839. Brethren Poor and Dwight were 
appointed to draft a letter to Government in relation to 
the Tamakam, requesting that we may be allowed to 
use it for the purpose of a Seminary. 

Oct. llth, 1839. Voted that the brethren at Dindi- 
gul be encouraged to send two catechists to the Catho- 
lic applicants near Trichinopoly to obtain information 
and induce young men to engage as preparandi [z'.e., 
pupil-teachers to be trained for teachers.] Brethren 
Dwight, Poor and Lawrence were appointed a Commit- 
tee to report respecting the expediency of gathering 
a preparandi class. 

April 8th, 1840. The Committee on the Tamakam 
presented a copy of a letter to Sir Alexander Johnston 
and reported progress. 

Oct. 7th, 1841. Brethren Dwight, Crane and Steel 
were appointed a Committee upon the following ques- 



irons : What advance in study in the boarding schools 
should be considered sufficient preparation for entrance 
to the proposed Seminary ? How many boys should be 
thus advanced before the Seminary is commenced ? 

April, 1842. Voted that brethren Cherry, Crane and 
Dwight be a Committee on compound for Seminary 
and plans of buildings, &c. 

Estimate for Seminary building compound and .prin- 
cipal's house Rs. 2,400, central school building Rs. 500. 

August 17th, 1842. " Voted that the two first classes 
in the boarding schools at Dindigul, Tirumangalam, and 
Tirupuvanam be assembled at Tirumangalam, as the 
commencement of a Seminary under charge of brother 
Tracy as PrincipaL" 

August 17th, 1842. The Committee on compound 
and plans for a Seminary beg leave to report in part, 
recommending t4iat the lot of land adjoining the old jail 
on the west and lying on the north of the road leading 
east to the Tamakam and measuring 18 acres more 
or less be purchased and inclosed as soon as possible. 

The Book Committee beg leave to present the fol- 
lowing as a list of books to be ordered from America. 
25 Copies Abridgement Olmstead's Philosophy. 
25 Olmstead's Astronomy. 
25 Day's Mathematics including Loga- 
rithms Trigonometry,' Mensuration, 
Navigation and Surveying. 



84 

25 Copies Playfair's Euclid. [ed. 

12 Mathematical Tables the most approv- 
25 Day's Algebra, &c., &c., adopted, sent, 

and procured. 

[No appropriation was received towards erection of 
the Seminary till Jan. 1844 when Rs. 7,000 was voted 
by the home Committee.] 

April 3rd, 1844. Voted that Mr. Cherry be allowed 
to spend not over Rs. 2,500 in purchasing a lot for the 
Seminary. 

July 25th, 1844. Voted that brother Muzzy be ap- 
pointed to assist brother Tracy in the Seminary buildings, 
such as plans, location, &c. [The same meeting] Bro. 
Tracy presented plans for a house and Seminary which 
were accepted. 

No. 249, Madura, Apr. llth, 1846. 

From Mr. J. Blackburn, 

Principal Collector of Madura, 

To Rev. Messrs. Tracy and Cherry, 

American Missionaries, Madura, 
GENTLEMEN, 

I have much pleasure in communicating the ready ac- 
quiescence of the most Noble, the Governor in Council with 
my prayer of the 14th of February, that you should be 
allowed to hold c. 23, a. 7| of peramboke gravel hill 
known by the name of Pasumalai, at the tax of one 



85 

anna per cawny per annum, and that you should hold 
the neighbouring land previously in your possession 
comprising c. 10, a. 10| taxed in the survey at Ra. 5-0-8 
at the reduced rate of Rs. 3-13-11 per cawny per an- 
num, &c., as long as they continue to appropriate it to 
scholastic missionary purposes. 

I have the honour to be, gentlemen, 
Your most Obedient Servant, 

(Signed) J. BLACKBURN, 

Principal Collector. 

October 4, 1849. At the mission meeting the follow- 
ing report was read and adopted : 

I. " That the object of the Seminary is not general 
like that of a College, but is exclusively, to raise up 
the native missionaries required in our field. 

II. " That the course of instruction in boarding 
schools, and in the first stage in the Seminary, be main- 
ly in Tamil, and that the English language be studied 
as a classic in the boarding schools, to the amount of 
one hour a day, and in the Seminary two hours a day, 
both exclusive of recitations. That the rule and aim in 
respect to English shall be ability, at the end of the first 
stage, to read common English with profit. 

III. " That when the course of instruction in the first 
stage, on these principles, is completed, a division be 
made and that those not designed for the second stage 



86 



in English, pursue mainly Tamil for one year ; that the 
others, amounting to at least one-third of the whole, 
pursue both in English and Tamil a more extended 
course ; the aim being in respect to English, partly 
to give instruction in it, but more especially to prepare 
them for profit in the continued study of it, and that the 
rule and aim in respect to the amount of this prepara- 
tion, shall be thoroughness." 

January, 1850. At a meeting of the mission, the fol- 
lowing course of study was adopted : 



SEMINARY, FIRST COURSE. 
Tamil Studies. 



. [mi-. 



Rhenius' 



Schaffter's Geography of 
Palestine. 

English 

Webster's Spelling-book re- 
viewed. 

Pond's Murray's Grammar. 
Putnams's Introduction. 
Analytical Read- 
er. 

Analytical Sequel. 
Book of Commerce. 
Parley's First Book of His- 
tory. 



Schaffter's Geography of 
Classical Reader 

begun. 
Tamil Bible. 
Rhenius' Body of Divinity. 

Studie*. 

Britons and Saxons. 
D'Aubigne's History of the 

Reformation. 

Middle Ages of England. 
Geography : Text-book 

Mitchell's. 
Joyce's Arithmetic. 



87 



SEMINARY, SECOND COURSE. 
Tamil Studies. 



Gallaudett's Natural Theol- 
ogy- 

Rhenius' Evidences of 
Christianity. 

Crisp's Theology and Crisp 
on the Christian Ministry. 



Earth's Church History. 
Watts on the Mind. 
9/psv and Classical Reader. 
Hindu Astronomy. 
Composition in Tamil. 



English Studies. 



Symond's Geography of 

India. 
Watts on the Mind. 

Robbins' Compendi- 
um of History. 
Wayland's Moral 
Science. [omy. 
Do. Political Econ- 
Hopkins' Summary 

of Theology. 
Day's Algebra. 
Playfair's Euclid, 
omitting fifth Book 
I and Supplement. 



Olmstead's Natural Philos- 
ophy, School Edition. 

Astronomy. 
Day's Mathematics. 
Dwight's Theology. 
English Composition. 



APPENDIX II. 



SCHOOL PLANT AND COST. 















Es. 


A. 


p. 


Es. 


A. 


p. 


1842-7 


West Bungalow and out-hous- 
















es 


3,927 


1 













East Bungalow and out-hous- 
















es 


3,917 


12 













Church ... 


2,853 


7 


8 










Seminary and 4 clasa rooms, 
















godown, kitchen, dining 
















room ... 


3,677 





i 










Sick room, bath room and lat- 
















rine 


362 
















Prayer rooms and Quadrangle 
















wall 


566 


4 


11 










Verandah to class rooms 


52 


1 


1 










5 Helpers' Houses ... 


1,245 


1 


c, 










Compound wall ... ,.. 


474 


8 


4 












17,075 


6 


a 










The above is from Mr. Tracy's 
















private memorandum. Mr. 
















Rendall in his report of the 
















Seminary to the Deputa- 
















tion, February 1855, makes 
















the cost of the whole plant, 
















up to that date, ... ... 








19,975 


14 


4 











89 







Cost. 


A.B.C. 

grant. 


Other. 






Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 






19,975 


19,975 




1870 


Changes in the School buildings 










and Bungalow 


1,988 


1,988 




1877 


Building Dispensary and school 










room 


368 




368 


1877 


Do. Lenox Science Room 


700 




700 


1879 


Do. Post Office 


550 




550 


1880 


Do. Gymnastic Room... 


300 


300 




1882 


Rebuilding Old Dormitory and 










College Class Room ... 


3,132 


2,665 


467 


1882-4 


Building Laura Blossom Library.. 


605 




605 


1884 


Do. Churph Gate Lodge, Infirm- 










ary, &c. 


1,439 


150 


1,289 


1886 


Do. Hollis Moore Memorial Hall. 


9,013 


8,890 


123 


1888 


Rebuilding College and improve- 










ments 


12,650 


4,578 


8,072 


1888 


Building Pastor's House and 5 










College Teachers' Houses 


2,939 


2,939 




1890 


Rebuilding C apron Cottage 










Teachers' Houses 


755 


755 




1891 


2 Catechist-Students' Houses ... 


215 




215 


1891 


Build'g New Dining Hall & Kitchen 


3,500 




3,500 


1891 


Do. Bible woman's Cottage 


320 




320 


1892 


Do. Beals Memorial Class Rooms. 


2,400 


1,362 


1,038 


1892 


Do. East Normal Room 


850 


850 




1892 


Do. 2 Theological Teachers' 










Houses 


1,500 


1,500 




1892-5 


Do. 16 do. Students' 










Houses and Compound Walls . . . 


4,650 


2,850 


1,800 


1893 


Do. Connecting Verandah 


780 




78C 


1892-5 


Do. Southfold Hostel Hindu 










Students' Home 


4,000 




4,000 


1894 


Do. Alden Cottage Teachers' 










Houses ... ... 


1,500 


1,500 








71,129 


50,302 


23,827 



12 







Cost. 


A.B.C. 
grant. 


Other. 






Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 






74,129 


50,302 


23,827 


1895 


Building Williams College Cottage 










Teachers' Houses ... 


1,210 


1,210 




1895 


Do. Yokan Lodge for College 










Students ... ... ... 


4,000 




4,000 


1895 


Do. Cedar Cottage ... 


800 


800 




1895 


Do. Assistant Principal's Quar- 










ters ,.. 


1,275 


1,275 








81,314 


53,587 


27,827 



APPENDIX III. 



TEACHING STAFF IN THE OLD SEMINARY. 
18421870. 

Rev. W. Tracy, D.D., Principal, 

from Sept. 1842 to Nov. 1867. 

He left on furlough to America in Nov. 1850, 

returned April 1854. 

Rev. James Herrick, B.A., Acting Principal, 

from Nov. 1850 to Apr. 1854. 

May 1867 to Apr. 1870. 
Aug. 1872 to Oct. 1874. 

Mr. A. North, Assistant Principal, 

from Jan. 1846 to Jan. 1847. 

Teachers. 

Mr. J. Cotton Mather, Jaffna, 

Batticotta Seminary, from Sept. 1842 to Jan. 1844 

Mr. Wright, Jaffna, Batticotta Sem. 1843 to 1845 
Kellogg, 1843 ... 1844 

S. Winfred, Tinnevelly, 1844 ... 1855 

A. Barnes, Diudigul, Pasumalai Sem. 1845 Th. S. 
G. W. Edelman, Tirupuvanam, P.S. 1845 ... 1847 
J. Grant Asirvatham, Tanjore, 1846 ... 1847 
A. Allien, Tirupuvanam, 1847 ... 1848 

A. G. Rowland, Tinnevelly, 1848 ... 1868 
John Colton, Tanjore, 1848 Th. S, 



92 

Mr. Gurunathan Samuel, Ammapatti, P.S. 1854 ... 1870 
M. Eames, Kottampatti, Melur, 1854 ... 1870 
H. Martyn Winfred, Tinnevelly, 1856 ... 1857 
Charles Coit, Thevathanapatti, 1850 ... 
K. Asirvatham, Tirurnangalam, 1861 ... 1870 



THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Principals, 

Rev. G. T. Washburu, B.A., D.D. June 1870 to Apr. 1883 
Oct. 188 4 ...Jan. 1892 

J. P. Jones, M.A., D.D. Apr. 1883 ... July 1883 

Jan. 1892 ... 

J. S. Chandler, M.A. July 1883 ... Oct. 1884 

Ag. Principal, Aug. 1890 ... Oct. 1890 

Teachers and Instructors. 

Rev. A. Barnes, M.A. 1870 ... 

J. Colton 1870 ... June 1875 

S. Mathurauayagam June 1872 ... Nov. 1883 

W. A. Buckingham Nov. 1883 ... Jan. 1895 

Mr. P. Daniel, Matr. Jan. 1892 ... 

P. Asirvatham 1892 ... 

S. Sesha Sastri 1893 ... 



MIDDLE, HIGH SCHOOL, AND COLLEGE. 

Principals. 

Rev. G. T. Washburn, B.A., D.D. June 1875 to Apr. 1883 

Oct. 1884 .. 



93 

Rev. J. P. Jones, M.A, I>.D. Apr. 1883 ... July 1883 
J. S. Chandler, M.A. July 1883 ... Oct. 1884 

Mr. D. S. Herrick B.A., and Rev. J. S. Chand- 
ler, M.A., Acting Principals, Apr. 1890 ... Dec. 1890 

Assistants of the Principal. 

Mr. Chapin, B.A. Sept. 1883 to Oct. 1884 

D. S. Herrick, B.A. Oct. 1885 ... Aug. 1890 

Rev. R. Humphrey, B.A. Apr. 1890 ... Dec. 1890 

Mr. H. H. Stutson, B.A. Jan. 1891 ... Apr. 1894 

Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A. Nov. 1894 ... 

Teachers and Professors, 

Mr. P. Joseph, Matriculate June 1875 to Aug, 1882 
Thos. Rowland June 1875 ... Oct. 1879 

A, Samuel, Matr. Oct. 1877 ... T.I. 

N. Sidambaram Ayer, Matr. June 1877 ... Jan. 1888 
N. Samiadian, Matr. Mar. 1878 ... Jan. 1884 

Rengasami, F.A. June 1880 ... Aug. 1883 

T. Loganatha Ayer, F.A. Oct. 1879 ... Sept. 1883 
Samuel Barnes, Matr. June 1880 ... June 1882 
,, Ramachandra Ayer, B.A. Mar. 1882 ... Nov. 1882 
Sambasiva Ayer, B,A. Sept. 1882 ... Apr. 1883 
Krishnasami Ayer, B.A. Sept. 1882 ... Feb. 1883 
P. Mahalingam Ayer, B A. Mar. 1883 ... June 1884 
S. Muttusami Pillai, B.A. June 1883 ... Nov. 1883 
N. Sabapathi Chetty June 1883 ... Jan. 1885 

S. Moses, Matr. June 1884 ... T. I. 

S. Matthusami Ayer, B.A., L.T. 

Feb. 1884 ... June 1893 



94 

Mr. V. W. Stephensou, Jaff. Col. Jan. 1885 ... 
K. Gauapathi Ayer, B.A. June 1885 ... Jan. 1891 
C.Ganapathi Ayer, B.A. Feb. 1885 ... Apr. 1889 
Chinniah Eames, Matr, June 1885 ... Dec. 1885 
Y. Joseph Taylor, Matr. Jan. 1886 ... Jan. 1889 
A. David, Hosp. Asst., lust. 

in Physiology ... Jan. 1886 ... Jan. 1889 

S. Anantharama Ayer, B.A. Feb. 1889 ... Apr. 1890 
S. Sesha Sastri, Sanskrit Munshi 

Feb. 1889 ... 

Peter Isaac, B.A., L.T. Feb. 1890 ... 

V. Santhiagu, F.A. Jan. 1891 ... 

S. Ramakrishna Ayer, B.A., L.T. 

Jan. 1892 ... 

S. Mahadeva Ayer, B.A. June 1893 ... 

G. Joseph, Matr. & Ag. Col. J une 1893 ... 

Paul Samuel, B.A. June 1894 ... 

S. Gnanapirakasam, B.A. June 1895 ... 



TRAINING INSTITUTION AND PRACTISING SCHOOL. 

Head Masters, and Training Masters. 
Mr. W. Devapiriam Clark, B.A. Feb. 1886 ... Jan. 1890 
S. Chinniah B.A., L.T. Jan. 1890 ... 

R. S. Ignatius, Matr. Feb. 1885 ... 

R. Sivasambu Ayer, F.A. Aug. 1889 ... July 1891 
S. Minachisundaram Ayer, F.A. 

Jan. 1890 ... Mar. 1892 
R. Michael, F,A. Jan. 1891 ... 



95 

Mr. V. David, Drawing Master, 

Medalist & Group Certif. June 1892 ... 

Practising School. 

Mr. A. Samuel, Matr. Jan. 1886 ...Sept. 1895 

S. Moses, Matr. 1886 ... 

A. Pakkianathan, F.A. 1889 ... 

M. Abraham, Matr. 1889 ...Nov. 1893 

P. Vethanayagam, Matr. Feb. 1890 ... Dec. 1890 

R. C. Thomas, Matr. Jan. 1894 ... 

N. Ramalingam, Matr. Sept. 1895 ... 



Gymnastic Teachers. 

Mr. N. SithambaramAyer,Matr. Jan. 1884 ... Jan. 1888 
Gr. Joseph, Matr. & G. Certif. Jan. 1884 ... Oct. 1890 
June 1893 ... 

I. David, 1889 ... Jan. 1892 

G. David, Jan. 1891 ... 1892 

Paul Daniel Jan. 1891 ... July 1892 

P. David July 1892 

Medical Assistants. 
Rev. S. Mathuranayagam, Hosp. Asst , 

June 1871 ... Dec. !8gS 
Mr. Gurupatham, Certif., Hosp. Asst., 

Jan. 1884 ... Aug. 1885 

A. David, Asst. Oct. 1885 ... Feb. 1889 

S. Devanesam May 1889 ... Dec. 1891 
,A. Tambupillai May 1892 ... 

Clerk of the College 8? Institution. 
Mr. V. Ramanatha Ayer, Matr. Jan. 1891 .,. 



APPENDIX IV. 

(anus of Stotonts in $asmnalai Sminarg, 

1842 187O. 



1841 

K. Manikkam, Robert Street 
D. Manikkam, Samuel 
S. Stisai, Albert Barnes 
J. Asirvatham, John Lodor 

Grant 

A. Asirvatham, David 
R. Asirvatham, Michael 
D. Jesildas, Michael [man 
S. Subramanian, G.W. Edel- 
G. Rajakannu, Wilfred Hall 
P. Soundarapandian, Abra- 
ham Allien 

A. Anbunathan, Joseph 
D. Anbunathan, Samuel 
R. Rayappan, David 
S. Vethamanikkam, J. Ed- 
wards [ian 
T. Vethamanikkam Christ- 
G. Devasagayam 
G. Kalaimegam 
G. Nallannan 
A. Jaganathan 



R. Gurunathan 

T. Selvanayagam 

V. Subbunayakan 

M. Perumal, I. Williams 

M. Rayappan, L. Parsons 

S. Savarirayan, James 

Tafts [bel 

S. Rayappan, Walter Hub- 
R. Antonimutthu, Henry 

Allen 
C, Masillamani, Albert G. 

Rowland 
V. Mutthian 

T. Puvallan, Dwight Rip- 
ley 

P. Nallasangu 
S. Rasauayagam 
J. Devasagayam 
S. Reugasami 

1844. 

R. Pakiam, Cha. W. Rock- 
well 



S. Ganapathi, John Harned 
Joseph 
David 

A. Kanthan, Henry Hill 
R. Nagalingam 
G. Nallathambi, John Col- 
ton 

R. Sankaralingam 
N. Ramasami 

C. Devasagayamani f lor 
V. Velayutham, John Tay- 
N. Palaniyandi, J. Elling- 

wood 

1845. 

Thangasami, Joseph Emer- 
son 

N. Appasami [lig 

S. Arokkiam, William Stir- 

V. Andi 

V. Arumugam, Rufus An- 
derson 

T. Jeganathan 

P. Isaac 

V. Manikkam, John Shep- 
ard 

G. Mathuranayagam 

S. Muniyandi, Ezra Ely 

D. Gnanaparanam, Moses 
K. Ponnusami, Alvan Bond 
Sangili 

A. Savarimutthu 

A. Suppan, N. Moses 

P. Crane 



P. Vethakkannu 

[Coit 

V. Vethanthavelu, Charles 
S. Yagappan, Jacob 
P. David 
D. Satthianathan 
A. Asirvatham 
A. Pirakasam 
Gnanamutthu 
Manuel, H. Arms 
A. Savarimutthu 

C. Arokkiam 

1846. 

V. Ambalam, Henry Allen 

Asirvatham 

John 

Manikkam, Calvin Chapin 

Manuel, Robert Landes 

Peter 

V. Suntharam 

Saravanakumaru 

Chokkalingam 

1847. 

D. Arokkiam, Edgar Gre- 
gory 

S. Arokkiam 
Karunaiyanantham 
A. Chinnappan 
Pichaimutthu [Clark 

N. Mutthusami, Alfred 
Arokkiam 

13 



98 



Rengasami 

Narayanan 

K. Asirvatham 

K. Suppan, Asirvatham 

A. Abraham 

1848. 

S. Athisayam 

M. Pitchaimtthu 

S. Rayappan 

P. Duraisami, S. Mills 

R. Masillamani 

K. Chinnathamban 

K. Karuppanan 

P. Nallathambi, M. Eames 

T. Lazarus 

P. Jacob, Theron Loomis 

W. H. Martyn Winfred 

P. Mutthurakku Jacob 

1850. 
W. Daniel 
P. Joseph 
A. Fitch 
C. David 
A. Peter 
A. Isaac 

A. Vellaiyan [ingham 

M. Santhiagu, W. A. Buck- 
Ratthinam 

1852. 

K. Arumainayagam, W. P. 
Whittelsey 



G. Paranjothi, W. J. Baxter 

R. Jesuthasan 

D. Belavendram 

P. Gnanaratthinam 

K. Solomon 

T. Ebenezer 

Y. Chinnappan 

T. Zachariah 

D. Moses 

S. John 

J. II. DeZilva 

Segini, Ezekiel 

Joshua 

A. Michael 

I. Savarimutthu 

Savarimutthu 

Vetham 

Daniel 

Johnson 

Joshua 

Manikkam 

Pakkiam 

Solomon 

Peter 

Moses 

Israel 

1853. 
S. Yagappau, Joseph; 



1854. 



G. John 
V. Pakkiam 



99 



T. Lazarus 

R. Santbiappan 

A. Amirtham 
S. Vethamutthu 
J. Solomon 

C. Masillamani 

B. Samuel 

D. Vethamutthu [mas 
M. Sangilikaruppan, Tho- 
S. Mutthukaruppan, Isaac 
A. Santhirakannu, Devasa- 

gayam 
M. Ponnusami, Asirvatham 

C. Appavu, Abraham 

1856. 

A. Vetham, 1st 

A. Vetham, 2nd 

S. Vaitbilingam, Abel 

S. Gurupatham 

R. Antony 

N. Mutthusami 

M. Savarimutthu 

K. Peter 

S. Vethamanikkam 

A. Zaccheus 

Mutthusami 

S. Mutthusami, A. Foster 

V. Isaac 

A. Vetham 

N. Savarimutthu 

A. David 

S. Pakkiam 



A. Savarimutthu 

A. Simon 

A. Solomon 

S. Pichaimutthu 

S. Savarimutthu 

S. Asirvatham 

J. David 

J. Arokkiam 

Venkatasalam 

Yesadian 



1857. 

A. Asirvatham 
M. Devasagayam 

B. Chancy 
P. Crane 
B. Daniel 
P. Henry 
I. Isaiah 
N. Lazarus 
M. Michael 
A. Michael 

S. Savarimutthu 
S. Santhiagu 
S. Visuvasam 
S. Yagappan 
D. Samithasan 
Savarimutthu 
Yesadian 
Johnson 
Christian 
William 



100 



1858. 

J. Barnabas 

D. Gnanathikkam 

S. Gnanamutthu 

J. Isaac 

S. Jacob 

S. Manuel 

V. Mutthu 

G. Pirakasam 

A. Pichaimutthu 

A. Rayappan 

D. Solomou 

M. Devasagayam 

P. Samuel 

K. Vethauayagam 

A. Cornelius 

P. Jacob 

K. David 

M. Rayappan 

C. Samuel 

M. Devasagayam 
N. Savarimutthu 

1859. 

S. Savarimutthu 
M. Abrabam 
P. Amirtham 
V. David 
V. Devapiriam 

D. Isaac 
C. Jacob 
M, Moses 



A. Pakiam 

Y. Santbiagu 

V. Vethamanikam 

Perinbam 

C. Appavu 

S. Simoa 

C. Solomon 

S. Visuvasam 

A. Gnanasiromani 

I. Mariasusai 

A. Samuel 

P, Gnanatbiraviam 

1860. 

V. Visuvasam 

M. Abraham 

Y. Abraham 

G. Satthianathan 

A. Francis 

D. Thiruchelvam 

A. Samuel 

V. Elkanah 

C. Pakianathan 

P. Isaac 

M. Innasimutthu 

Y. David 

S. Asirvatham 

S. Vethamutthu 

S. Gabriel 

A. David 

G. Vethanayagam 

P. Shadrach 

N. Samuel 



101 



K. Antony 

M. Savarimutthu 

Y. Arulappan 

A. Arumainayagam 

M. Abraham 

G. Chinnappan 

1862. 

P. Abraham 
S. Perianayagam 
M. Manuel 
S. G. Thangam 
P. Israel 
L John 
S. Jesudasan 
S. Joshua 
V. Gnanamutthu 
S. Malayappan 
S. Nallathambi 
A. Nallathambi 
D. Pakiam 
S. Pakianathan 
S. Belavendram 
M. Peter 
Y. Sebastian 
S. Thiraviam 
G. Vethamanikkam 
M. Vethanayagam 
M. Appavu 
A. Arulappan 
Lazarus 
A. Arokiam 
N. Simon 



I. Jacob 
S. John 
Y. Tesadiau 
S. Manuel 
S. Paranjothi 
Y. Sebastian 
P. Savarimutthu 
I. Vethamanikam 
V. Yagappan 
V. Perumal 
A. Manuel 

1863. 

L. Alasu 

M. Abraham 

A. Isaac 

George Rowland 

Jas. Rowland 

S. Jesudasan 

S. Raju 

Y. Samuel 

M. Solomon 

S. Simon 

S. Sundaram 

J. Gnanaprakasam, 1st. 

J. Gnanaprakasam, 2nd. 

E. Gnanaprakasam 

V. Pichaimutthu 

M. Vetham 

C. Joseph 

Chinnappan 

I. Yesadian 

T. Satthianathan 



102 



S. Vellayan 
K. Sarkunan 
K. Gnanamutthu 
A. Simon 

1865. 

Y. Sebastian 

M. Rajenthiram 

A. Joseph 

M. Pakianathan 

D. Savarimutthu 

S. Masillamani 

Y. Timothy 

P. David 

S, Chinnathambi 

R. David 

S. Jacob 

V. Gnanathiraviam 

C. Asirvatham 

G. Rayappan 

Z. Thangamutthu 

V. Pakianathan 

V. Murugandi, Paul 

R. Arokianathan 

P. Moses 

S. Vetham 

V. Abraham 

C. Nathaniel 

R. Manuel 

A. Dairiam 

A. Daniel 

S. Samuel 

A. Arulappan 

S. Savarimutthu 



1867. 

A. Abner 
P. Rayappan 
A. Isaac 

C. Yesadian 

J. Savarinayagam 
R. Savarimutthu 
Samuel 

D. Solomon 
J. Shadrach 
P. Chinniah 

M. Devaeagayam 
N. Pakiam 
A. Francis 

C. Pichaimutthu 
S. Jacob 

Y. Joseph 

S. Vethamanikam 

N. Vethanayagam 

M, Abel 

P. Solomon 

D. Vethanayagam 
D. Daniel 

I. Perumal 
A. Samithasan 
V. Gnanamutthu 
G. Vethamanikam 
S. David 
M. Yesadian 
Devasirvatham 
Santhiagu 
Vethamutthu 
Thomas Eowland 



103 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 



NAMES o? STUDENTS. 



1870. 

R. Santhiappan 

M. Thomas 

R. Antony 

M. Peter 

S. MathuranayBgam 

S. Than gam 

Y. Abraham 

S. Gabriel 

S. Nallathambi 

M. Vetham 

A. Pichaimutthu 

W. A. Buckingham 

M. Isaac 

Vetham 

A. Dairiam 

Arokianathan 

P. Gnanathiraviam 

N. Simon 

P. Shadrach 

S. Mutthusami 

Tharmakannu 

A. David 

Y. Arulanantham 

Deivanayagam 



S. Isaac 
A. Zacheus 



1871. 



1872. 

D. Gnanathikkam 
A Jivaretthinam 
J. Sebastian 
Vethamutthu 
S. Barnabas 
r. Solomon 
A. Cornelius 
M. Michael 
A. Pakkiam 
N. Pakkiam 
P. Daniel 

1873. 

I. Gnanamutthu 
S. Belavendram 
P. Isaac 
M, Ycsadian 

1875. 

Samuel Taylor 

S. Simon 

E. Gnanaprakasam 

Y. Yagappan 

P. Israel 

M. Abraham 

M. Solomon 

M. Devasagayam 

I. John 



104 



1877. 
A. Joseph 

1878. 

A. Perumal 

J. Gnaoaprakasam 

S. Jacob 

M. Peter 

R. Arulanthu 

C. Mutthian 
M. Abraham 
A. Isaac 

S. Isaac 
Paul Cross 
M. Samuel 
R. Chiuuappan 

1880. 

V. Solomon. 
V. Antonimutthu 
A. Arumainayagam 
A. Pichaimutthu 

D. Anbullanathan 
Y. Lazarus 

1881. 

Daniel Colton 
S. Paranjothy 
R. 8. Ignatius 

1882. 
G. Yesadian 



A. Paul 

J. Shadrach 

S. Isaac 

L. Arivanantham 

G. Joseph 

J. Kennett 

P. Vethamanikam 

G. Samuel 

A. Amirtham 

V. David 

V. S. Edward 

G. Mamuel 

1884. 

S. Vethanayixgam 
V. Masillamani 
A. Gnanamutthu 
S. Pakianathan 
D. Yesuthasan 
Aaron Moses 

1886. 

M. Daniel 
A. David 
S. Vethanayagam 
S. Puthumai 
A. Nallasami 
M. Andrew 
A. Luke 
H. Appavu 

1887. 
S. Joseph 
K. John 
P. Aairvatham 



105 



1888. 

S. Samuel 

P. Vethanayagam 

S. Thomas 

V. Thevathasaii 

W. Samuel 

R. S. Gnanamutthu 

1889. 

V. Santhiagu 

A. Asirvatham 
P. Thomas 

R. Devapiriam 

B. James 

A. Mathalaimutthu 
A. Stephen 
James Rowland 
P. D. Jesudasan 
A. James 
N. Nagalingam 

1890. 

K. Samithasan 
V. Paul 

S. Savarimutthu 
J. Gnanasigamani 

1891. 

R. Michael 

P. Daniel 

V, Guanamutthu 



S. Chinnasami 

R. Gnanaprakasam 

R. Isaac 



1892. 

P. Daniel 

N. Nagalingam 

S. Chinnasami 

V. Gnanamutthu 

R. Devasagayam 

A. Pakianathan 

G. Samuel 

S. Mutthiaii 

V. Israel 

V. Peter 

Y. Vethanayagam 

V. Arokiam 

M. Nallathambi 

Jesuthasan 

I. Santhappan 

P. Joseph 

P. Asirvatham 

D. Joseph 

V. Visuvasam 
P. Manuel 

E. V. Nallathambi 
Y. Samuel 

1893. 

T. S. Thirithuvathasan 
E. V. Masillamani 
G. Manuel 

14 



K. Paul 
Y. Samiadian 
K. Vethanayagam 
J. C. Cleveland 
M. 8. Devasigamani 

1894. 

S. Multhusami 
V. John 
P. Sundaram 
G. Gnanamntthu 
D, Savarimuttha 
C. D. Samuel 
A. Manikam 
Chinniah Barnes 



106 



1895. 

A. Stephen 
N. C. Solomon 
S. Paranjothi 
J. A. Thomas 
A. Savariappan 
I. Nallathambi 
Y. Jacob 

N. Gnanasigamani 
C. Vethamanikam 
A. Vethamutthu 
P. Jesuthasan 
A, Samuel 



List of Pasumalai Students 

who passed the First in Arts Examination 

and other Examinations. 



FIRST IN ARTS. 



1883. 



Daniel Colton 

M. Strinivasa Aiyangar 

1884. 

N. Guru Rau 
R. Sanaa Rau 

1885. 

A. K. Pichu Aiyar 

S. Kalianasundram Aij'ar 

M. Veukata Rau 

D. Navamani 

1886. 

R. Duraisami Aiyar 
S. Lachmana Aiyar 
S. Sangara Aiyar 
S. Venkatacbalam Aiyar 

1887. 

Peter Isaac 
Yesadian David 



T. S. Ramasubbu 
P. Ramasami 
S. Rarnasami 
M. R. Strinivasan 
M. K. Strinivasan 
S. Subramanian 

.1888. 

Jobn Samuel 
J. Ariakutti 

D. Draviam 
L. William 
S. Samuel 
V. Santhiagu 

A. R. Govinda Aiyar 

E. R. Krishna Aiyangar 

C. Minakshisundram Aiyar 
N. Ramanatha Aiyar 
S. Sankaranarayana Aiyar 
P. R. Subramania Aiyar 
S. Venkatarama Aiyar 

1889. 

S. Gnanaprakasam 

T. V. Chellappasastri 

G. Krislitnasami Aiyangar 



108 



S. Krishtnasami Aiyangar 
C. S. Patmanaban 
S. Subramanian 
S. Sundram Aiyar 

1890. 

John Arulappan 

Samuel Pirakasana 

1\. Michael 

S. Mahadeva Aiyar, I. Class 

S. Lnkshmanan 

R. Narayana Aiyangar 

P. Ramasami Aiyar 

N. Subramania Aiyar 

1891. 

S. Pichaimutthu 

G. Sankaranarayanan 

K. Somasundram 

T. A. Subbavenkataraman 

M. Sundaresan 

P. M. Visvanathan 



1892. 

G. D. Manikarn I. 
V. Gangatharaa I. 
Paul Devadasan. 
S. Gnanaprakasam 
G. Raiaram 
R. William 

1893. 

P. Ranganatham 
P. Rarnakrishnan I. 
G. Subbaraman 
A. Pakianathan 
T. N. Sundararajan 

1894. 

Devavaram David 
M. Asirvatham 
C. V. Nagasundarain 
A. R. Narayanan 
S. Ramachaudran 
P. V. Subramauiau 



109 



List of Pasumalai Students 
who passed Matriculation Examination. 



1879, 

Devapriam Clarke 
V. Solomon 
Samuel Barnes 
V. Anthonimutthu 
A. Samuel 
N. Samiadian 

1880. 

C. Ganapathi I. Class 
S. Paranjothi 
Daniel Colton 
R. S. Ignatius 
Minatchisundaratn 
Somasundaram 

1881. 

A. Arumainayagam 
James Rajanayagam 
G. Venkatesvaran 
V. Sundaram 
Y. Yesadian 

1882. 

Chinniah Eames 
Y. Guana prakasam 



A. M. Jegathees varan 
C. Subramaniam 
C. Narayanasami 
V. Samuel 
V. Subramanian 
R. Sundararajan 
M. S. Subbiah 

1883. 

Y. Gnanamutthu 

M. Paul Samuel 

V. P. Sundaram 

R. Ananthanarayanan 

Mohidin Ali 

C. S. Ramasami 

S. Daniel 

P. Samuel 

S. Thirithuvathasan 

M. Gnanasigamani 

Diraviam Solomon 



1884. 

A. Pakianathan 
V. Joseph 

P. C. Ganapathi 

B. David 

V. P. Vittal Row 



110 



1885. 

K. S ul>ra muni an 
S. Ramasami 

F. Isaac 

P. D. Jesudasan 

G. Jesudasan 

A. V. Samuel 
N. Sundaram 

1886. 

Devavaram David I. Class 

V. Santhiagu I. 

S. Venkataraman I. 

K. Gnanamutthu I. 

D. Susai I. 

S. Narayanasami I. 

V. Ramanathan I. 

Abel David 

J. Ariakutti 

M. Abraham 

C. Asirvatham 

M. Daniel 

S. Gnanaprakasam 

K. John 

S. Joseph 

L. William 

C. Minatchisuudaram 

M. V. Mutthusami 

G. Mathuram 

B. Narayanan 
N. Ramamurthi 
A. Samuel 



S. Samuel 

D. Srinivasagam 

B. S triii ivasa Row 
K. Vaithianathan 
D. Wilson 

1887. 

V. Joseph 
S. Santhappan 
V. Santhappan 
John Arulappan 
P. Daniel 
David Irulappan 
G. Joseph 

C. Samuel 
V. Shadrach 

P. Velhanayagam 
V. Solomon 
S. Krishnasami 
M. Knmarusami 
K, Mutthusami 
R. Ramasami 
R. Rengasamt 
S. Subramanian 

1888. 

G. David Fenn 
S. Gnanasiromani 
J. Mathuranayagam 
A. Gnanasiromani 
G. Manikam 
N. Samuel 



Ill 



R. Michael 
P. Devapiriam 
L. Vaigundam 
S. Mahadevan I. 

1889. 

G. Sankaranarayanan 
S. Arulanantham 
Paul Devadasan 
G. Rajaram 
S. Pichaimutthu 
J. Samithasan 
S. Thomas 
C. Velayutham 

1890. 

R. William 

S. Gnanaprakasam 

R. C. Thomas 

Kanthiah 

1891. 
V. M. Vryagesan 



Aiyanadan Pakiauathau 

M. Asirvatham 

M. Jesudasaa 

G. David 

S. David 

John Arulappan 

P. John 

G. Samuel 

H, Yesadian 

Y. Rayappau 

1892. 

A. D. Kanagaratthinam 
S. Narasimman 

J. Thiagaraj 

1893. 
M. Devadasan 

1894. 

V. Ponniah 

B. V. A. Venkatesvaran 
8. Shanmugakumaru 



112 



List of Normal Students trained 

in the A. M. Training Institution, Pasumalai, 

who have passed one or both of the 

Educational Tests. 



UPPKB SECONDARY. 


LOWER SECONDARY. 


PRIMARY. 


1887. 


1887. 


1887. 


D. Susai 
8. Samuel 
A. Samuel 


D. Devasirvatham 
S. Savarimutthu 
D. Samuel 
I. Savarimutthn 


V. Vethamanikam 
P. Joseph 
C. D. Samuel 


1888. 


1888. 


1888. 


A. Pakianathan 
M. Daniel 
K. John 
C. Samuel 
V. Santhappan 
V. Joseph 
M, Abraham 


N. Samuel 
P. John 
S. Vethanayagam 
D. Antony 


K. Yethanayagam 
A. Stephen 
V. Dairiam 
S. Manikam 
S. Savarimutthn 
J. Devasagayam 
M. Devapriam 


1889. 


1889. 


1889. 


V. Bamanathan 
S. Samuel 
G. David Fenn 
P. Yethanayagam 
G. Manikam 


S. Paranjothi 
Y. Manikam 
V. John 
C. Selvanayagam 
Y. Devasirvatham 
S. Jivanantham 
D. Devasagayam d. 
G. Abraham 


G. Manikam 
W. Jivanantham 
N. Samuel 


1890. 


1890. 


1890. 


K. Sundaram 
S. Santhappan 


G. Devasirvatham 
V. Vethagiri 


Y. Samiadian 
S. Mutthian 



118 



UpPEm SECOXDA&T. 


LOWES SECOXDA&T. 


PBIMARY. 


1890. 


1890. 


1890. 


Paul Devadasan 


D. Daniel 


J. Asirvatham 


C. B. Srinivasan 


D. B. Doraisami 


Y. Yet hanayagam 


P. C. Ganapathi 


A. Savarimuttha 


IT. Gnanamanikam 


S. Narayanasami 


D. Joseph 


S. Abraham 


S. M. Saminathan 






A. Ganapathi 






189192. 


189192. 


189192. 


W. H. Sampuranam 


P. Thomas 


P. David 


M. S. Kamasubbu 


M. Tharmanathan 


A. Savariappan 


M. Y. Mntthnsami 


P. Yesadian 


M. Asirvatham 


S. Yenkusami 


P. Xallajepam 


B. James 


K. Israel 


G. Bamasubbu 


P. Devasigamani 


S. Bamiah 


B. Bamalingam 


S. Samuel 


C. N. Govindasami 




S. Gnaniah 


M. Abraham 




Y. Yethamanikam 


P. K. Saminathan 






S Yethamanikam 






1892. 


189293. 


189293. 


P. P. Eggiam 


Paul Daniel 


M. Meivaopan 


K. Mutthosami 


I. Savarimuttha 


Y. Daniel" 


P. M. Bamasami d. 


A. Abraham 


A. Samuel 


M. N. Seshan 


G. Devavaram 


V. Srinivasagani 


M. K. Subramanian 


H. Kanagasabapathi 


J. Jesudasan 


S. Yenkatasubban 


J. A. Thomas 


B. Isaac 


B. Yenkataraman 


A. Snbbusami 


S. Asirvatham 


S. Thirumalai Aivan- 


X. Yenkatasubbu 


S. Yenkatacliari 


gar 




D. William 


P. Bagavendra Bow 






A. Samuel 






Moses Samuel 






G. David 







15 



114 


UPPER SECONDARY. 


LOWER SECONDARY. 


PRIMARY. 


1893. 


189394. 


189394. 


M. Dairiam 
G. Siluvaimutthu 


R. Sankaranaraya- 
nan 


S. Koilpillai 
S. Somasundaranr 


Joseph Michael 
Henry Vaiguntam 
N. Ramalingam 
S. Selvanayagam 
M. Jesuthasan 
R. C. Thomas 


V. Daniel 
M. R. Kuppuaami 
S. Subbarayan 
S. Rathnasami 
A. Masillamani 
David Samuel 
Stephen Ponniah 


M. Arokiam 
K. Solomon 
T. Joseph 
C. Mathias 
R. Santhiagu 
P. Gnanakan 
J. Mathuram 
P. Pakianathan 


1894. 


189495. 


189495. 


P. Athinarayanan 
S. L. Venkataraman 
A. K. Ramasanii 


S. David Navamani 
George S. Chelliah 
E. V. Nallathambi 


P. Manuel 
M. Devasirvatham 
S. Jacob 


P. Subramanian 
C. Rengasami 
A, Appathurai 


Samuel Dorairaj 
V. David 
C. K. Venkatasubban 
P. Ramanathan 


A. Gnanasigamani 
B. Rajamutthu 
Y. Nallathambi 
K. Zachariah 




P. Lazarus 


P. Gnanathikam 




A. S. Doraisami 


J. Visuvasam 




I. Devanesam 


P. Asirvatham 






G. Gnanamutthu 






S. V. Subramania 






Sastri 



115 



List of Pasumalai Students 

who passed the late Middle School or 

the present Lower Secondary Examination. 



1880. 

C. Subramanian 
V. Ramanathan 
S. Ananthapathuaanaban 

1881. 

M. Paul Samuel I. Class. 
Y. Gnanamutthu 
A. Matbalairauttbu 

1882. 

V. K. Ragavan 
P. P. Eggiam 
V. S. Ramasaml 
A. Pakianathan 
Stephen Simon 
Joshua Solomon 
Pichaimutthu Thomas 
Daniel Manuel I. 
Jacob Yesadian 
David Vethamutthu 
Asirvatham Suviseshana- 

than I. 

Pakianathan Joseph I. 
Mathuren thiram 
Vethamutthu Samuel 



Devanesam Santhappan 
Devasagayam Rayappan. 

1882. 

R. Narayanan 

V. Santhappan 

S. Joseph I. Class. 

V. Arivauantham 

S. Chiunappan 

J. David 

R. Jesudasan 

P. Asirvatham 

1884. 

Jacob Appavu 
Devasagayam Dairiam 
Abraham Masillamani 
Joseph Abraham 
Santhappan Savarimutthu 
John Kothalan 
Manuel Vetham 
David Irulappan 
Joseph Visuvasam 
Paranjothi Samithaean 
J. Mathuranayagam 
S. Vethanayagam 
S. Venkataramaa 



116 



Devavaram David I. Class. 
G. Savarimutthu I. 
Samuel Sonaimutthu I. 
Santhiagu Vetham I. 
John Pichaimutthu I. 
William Lamoch I. 
II. Gnanamutthu I. 
Susai Devasaga)-arn I. 
C. Patbmanaban I. 
Devapiriam Rayappan 
K. Manuel 
Ephraim Abraham 
David Fenn 

1885. 

S. Krishnan 
V. Shadrach 
G. Joseph 
P. Daniel 
John Arulappan 
G. Manikam 
John Hensman 
Y. Manikam 
N. Samuel 
V. Yethagiri 
P. Vethanayagam 
N. Gnanasigamani 
M. Ramasami 
V. Gnanasiromani 
A. Gnanasiromani 
E. V. Masillamani 
C. Samuel 
Z. NYilliam 



S. Jivanantham 
V. M. Joseph 

1886. 

S. Mahadevan 

R. Ramalingam 

P. Samuel 

D. Samuel 

P. Devapiriam 

M. Devanayagam 

S. Gnanasigamani 

R. Michael 

P. Yesadian 

S Melchizedec 

D. Devasirvatham 

S. Savarimutthu 

S. Thomas 

P. Jacob 

D. Daniel 

M. S. Alagiasundaram 

S. Rahmathulla 

R. Rengasami 

1887. 

V. Kalianasundaram 
S. Duraisami 
Y. Samiadian 
S. Arnlanandam 
Paul Devadasan 
G. Samuel 
A. Masillamani 
S. Yesadian 



117 



C. Thomas 

G. Gnanasnndaram 

S. Gnanamanikam 

B. Belavcndram 
V. Daniel 

A. Fakianathan 
G. Dairianathan 

1888. 

M. Jesudasan 
A. Ponnusami 

C. Selvanayagam 
V. Israel 

S. Mutthian 

A. Jivananlham 

S. V. Ponniah 

R. William 

V. John 

Y. Devasirvatbam 

J. Asirvalham 

G. Selvanayagam 

S. Devanayagam 

Y. Rayappan 

S. David 

G. David 

C. Cleavelnnd 

M. Darmanathnn 

P. John Devasigamani 

C. S. Narayanasami 

S. Sankaran 

G. Ramasubbu 

December 1889. 
M. Subramanian 



V. Viagesan 

Thamothiram 

S. Somasundaram 

Y. Daniel 

J. Joseph 

G. Thangam 

M. Asirvatham 

G. Devasirvatbam 

G. P. Mutthusami 

R. David 

E. V. Nallathambi 

P. 1. Samithasan 

T. Antony 

J. Devasagayam 

May 1890. 

C. S. Gnanayutham 
S. Davamani 

D. Vethanayagam 
S. Poncusami 

C. D. Samuel 

A. Savarimutthu 

A. Edward 

M. Savarimuttbu 

D. Joseph 
P. Dnraisami 
R. Thomas 

A. Gurabatham 
J. S. Jusuthasan 
M. Narayanasami 

December 1890. 
Durairaj James I. Class. 



A. David 

M. Asirvatham 

A. Abraham 

S. Suudaram 

J. Appavu 

P. David 

M. Samathanam 

R. A. Jesudasan 

A. Savariappan 

S. Thayanautham 

V. Arunasalam 

1891. 

T. Karunai 

S. Subbiah 

P. Thangamutthu 

S. Antbonimutihu 

G. Joseph 

S. Thasan 

G. Yesadian 

M. Lazarus 

F. Samuel 
A. Zachariah 

G. Chelliah 

189293. 

C. Mathavadian 
T. Horace 
M. Antony 
G. Siromani 
C. Purushothman 
S. Rajanayagam 
P, Asirvatham 



December 1893. 
P. K. Samuel 
P. Lazarus 
R. Daniel 
M. Sarkunara 
R. Solomon 
David Perumal 
R. S. Samuel 

C. Durairaj 

S. Thambusami 
S. Thambithurai 
S. Ponniah 
I, Manikavasagam 

A. S. Duraisami 

D. Manikam 

B. Ponniah 
I. Devanesam 

A. Devasagayam 

N. Thomas 

R. Savarimutthu 

December 1894. 
S. Narayanasami 
P. S. Samuel 

C. Samuel 

S. Vethamutthu 

A. Israel 

D. Samuel 
D. David 
John Duraisami 

B. James 

C. Manuel 
Y. Koilpillai 
N. Devathasan 
J. Devasagayam 



APPENDIX V. 

f asumalai butati0nal 



Sept. 4, 1&42. Seminary opened at Tirumangalam with 
34 students from Dindigul, Tiruman- 
galam and Tirupuvanam. 

Dec. 1843. Pupils reduced by various causes to 25. 
Five united with the Church. 

Apr. 1844. Erection of buildings for the Seminary 
sanctioned by the Board and an 
appropriation of funds made. 

July 1814. Plans for the Seminary made and ap- 
proved. 

Mar. 1, 1845. First class of 6 students finished their 
course in the Seminary and leave. 

Sept. 1, 1845. Seminary removed to Pasumalai. 
Dec. 1845. Pupils numbered 54. 

Jan. 1846. A. North, Esq., Professor in the Semi- 
nary from 1846 to Jan. 1847. 

Jan. 1816. Mr. Tracy digging up cists in his com- 
pound led to a report that 13 victims 
had been sacrificed to obtain buried 
treasure, causing cessation of travel 
and the interference of the Collector. 

Apr. 11, 1846. The Madura Mission authorized to 
hold land by the Madras government. 

1846. Pasumalai Hill granted by government. 



120 

1846. Five teachers' houses and 2 Hues of 
prayer rooms erected. 

1846. Establishment of the Provident Society. 
Sept. 1, 1846. Pasumalai Church formed. 

Jan. 1, 1847. The visit of Collector Blackburn and 
the Tondaiman Rajah. A gift of 
Rs. 200 was received from Mr. 
Blackburn and Rs. 200 from the 
Rajah. 

1847. The Mission declines the government 

offer of aid and patronage. 

1847. The east bungalow began early in 1846 

was completed in 1847. 
Mar. 1, 1847. The second class left the Seminary. 

11 students. 

June 1847. The number of pupils was 49. 
Oct. 1847. The Pasumalai church begun in 1846 

was first used for worship. 
Oct. 7, 1847. Caste troubles in Seminary. 

1848. Great reduction in funds provided by 

the Board for education. 
Oct. 2, 1848. The third class left the Seminary. 3 

students. 

Dec. 1848. The number of pupils was 27. 
l Xr A ( ^ rev i va l occurred in the school which 
is!iQ < nearly all the pupils professed con- 

*' ( version. 
Dec. 1849. The number of pupils was 29 of whom 

20 were communicants. 

1850. Students in the Seminary restricted to 
members of the congregations. 



121 

Feb. 28, 1850. The fourth class left the Seminary 4 
students. 

Nov. 1850. Mr. Tracy took a furlough to America 

and handed over charge to Mr. Her- 

rick. 
1851. The amount of English reduced and 

the course of study shortened for a 

portion of the students. Five left 

on this account. 
July 1852. Transfer to Pasumalai of preparandi 

classes begun at stations 12 or 15 

years before. 
Mar. 1853. The fifth class left the Seminary 4 

students. 

Oct. 1853. Native Evangelical Society formed. 

Nov. 1853. Mr. S. Winfred, first teacher released 
to become an evangelist in Mallan- 
kinaru. 

Dec. 1853. Number of pupils was 44. 

1854. The Tamil Quarterly Repository for 
Native helpers and Christians start- 
ed subscribers 400. 

1854. Mutual Improvement Society formed. 

1854. Mr. Tracy returned and took charge 
from Mr. Herrick. 

July 19, 1854. Educational despatch of the Court of 
Directors. 

Oct. 1854. The sixth class left the Seminary 4 
students ; also a class of 1 4 prepa- 
randi left. 

16 



122" 

Feb. 1855. Visit of Deputation, Drs. Anderson 
and Thompson, in which important 
educational changes were determined 
upon. 

Feb. 1 855. School grants-in-aid from government to 
be refused and application withdrawn. 

Aug. 1855. First grant-in-aid code issued by gov- 
ernment ; found unworkable. 

Oct. 1855. Madura English School closed after 20 
years, having had more than 1,900 
pupils. 

Jan. 1856. A class of 16 received to study wholly 
in Tamil ; subsequently a class for 
the regular course was received from 
the boarding schools. 

Mar. 1856. The seventh class left the Seminary 
6 students. 

1857. The last of the four feeder boarding 

schools was abolished. 
Mar. 1857. The eighth class left the Seminary 

o students. 
June 2, 1857. The Madura Zillah School opened 

Raised to a 2nd grade college April 

1880. 
Sept. 5y 1857. Madras University incorporated first 

Matriculation Examination. 

1858. A new grant-iii-aid code was issued. 
1858. Six Taluq schools opened by govern- 
ment. 

1858. Mr. Tracy engaged from 1858 till 1866 
in revising the translation of the 
Tamil Bible. 



123 

Mar. 1858. The ninth class left the Seminary 6 
students, 

1859. Dr. Chester gave a course of lectures 
on Practical Chemistry. 

1859. A Primary day school opened with 24 

scholars, supported subsequently by 
a society in the Seminary. 

1860. Mr. Barnes was engaged in bringing 

out Hopkins' Theology, and in Bible 
versions with Mr. Tracy. 

Mar. 1860. The tenth class left the Seminary 9 
students. 

Mar. 1860. The Semmary finally reduced to a ver- 
nacular basis. 

Feb. & Mar. ) There was a powerful revival in the 
1861.J" Seminary. 

Mar. 1 862. The eleventh class left the Seminary 
8 students. 

1863. Hindu children who were debarred in 
1855 from attending village schools 
again freely admitted. 

May 1863. Mr. Col ton prepai-es tracts and history 
of Madura. 

Sept. 1863. English was introduced into the upper 
classes of the Seminary as a classic. 

Sept. 1863. The twelfth class leaves the Seminary 
4 students, 

Oct. 1864. The Madura Widows' Aid Society was 
started. 



124 

1865. Mr. Graut Asirvatham collected in 
Kombaconam Rs. 100 and sent to 
the Seminary, the funds of which 
were insufficient owing to famine. 

1865. A more liberal grant-in-aid code was 
framed and issued. 

Sept. 1865. The thirteenth class leaves the Semi- 
nary 6 students. 

July 1866. Boarding schools were established to 
work for village congregations and 
not in connection with the Seminary. 

May 1 867. Dr. Tracy took a furlough to America 
and handed over charge to Mr. Her- 
rick. 

Sept. 1867. The fourteenth class left the Seminary 
13 students. 

1868. A fee of 8 annas was required of each 
student continued for 2 years. 

1868. A district was added to Pasumalai Sta- 
tion. 

Feb. 1868. Mr. A. G. Rowland was ordained and 
installed over the West Gate Church, 
Madura. 
April 1869. The fifteenth class left the Seminary 

9 students. 

Jan. 13, 1870. At a mission meeting at Battalagundu 
a reconstruction of the Seminary was 
determined on, and Mr. Washburn 
was put in charge. 

The mission allows its missionaries to 
take result grants if they please. 



125 

April 1 870. The old Seminary was disbanded 38 
students. 

May 20, 1870. At a Mission meeting at Kodaikanal 
the action of the January meeting 
was confirmed and Mr. Washburn 
took charge June 19th. 

June 17, 1870. The Female Seminary under Miss 
Smith was removed to Pasumalai 
where it remained till Aug. 1872. 

June 17, 1870. A class of 24 was received in the 
Theological Seminary. 

Aug. 1, 1870. The "Sathiavarthamam" News paper 
was established at Pasumalai. 

Jan. 23, 1871. A Mason and Hamilton organ was 
given by the makers for use in the 
Seminary. 

1871. Mr. Capron contributed money to erect 
a catechist's house at Pasumalai. It 
was burned down in 1 890 and rebuilt 
substantially as a catechist's house 
for 2 families. 

1871. Dr. Palmer delivered a course of lec- 
tures on Hygiene to the theological 
students. 

July 1, 1871. A medical dispensary was established 
at Pasumalai. 

Aug. 19, 1871. Rev. T. B. Penfield died at Pasumalai, 
of fever. 

Oct. 1871. Mr. M. Eames was ordained and install- 
ed over the church of West Karisak- 
kulam. 



126 

Oct. 1871. A wooden Printing Press was tempo- 
rarily set up at Pasumalai. 

Nov. 30, 1871. Mr. A. Barnes was ordained and in- 
stalled over the Pasumalai Church. 
March 1872. A Hoe's printing press arrived from 
America and was substituted for the 
wooden press. 

April 1872. The first class of 1 2 catechists under 
the new plan leaves. 

July 20, 1872. Mr. Washburn going to America on 
furlough gave over charge to Mr. 
Herrick. 

April 1873. No class received this year ; but a class 
of 6 catechists left. 

Aug. 11, 1874. The death of Rev. William Todd oc- 
curred at Madura, Kansas, U. S. A. 
Mr. Todd came from Jaffna to Mad- 
ura in July 1834 and was one of the 
founders of the A. M. Mission. 

Oct. 3, 1874. Mr. Washburn resumed charge of the 
Pasumalai Seminary. 

Jan. 18, 1875. The Mission voted that a preparatory 
department be opened at Pasumalai 
to take pupils who had passed the 
4th standard twice to be educated up 
to Matriculation; 20 to be received on 
account of the Mission at Rs. l a 
month, these to be residents of the 
district, free from chronic disease, 
with a prospect of usefulness, espe- 
cially sons of pastors, catechists and 
teachers, and of influential families 
in the congregations. 



April 20, 1875. The first locomotive and train of the 
S. I. R. ran from Trichinopoly to 
Madura. 

June 8, 1875. A Middle School was opened at Pasu- 
malai with 21 students. 

June 24, 1875. Mr. J. Colton ordained and settled over 
the church in Dindigul. 

Dec. 10,1875. The Prince of Wales arrived at Mad- 
ura by way of Tnticorin and Mani- 
achi and performed the ceremony of 
opening the S. I. Railway. 

June 1876. A class of 12 from the boarding 
schools enter Pasumalai School. 

July 4, 1876. The centennial of American Independ- 
ence was celebrated by the Mission 
at Pasumalai and a centennial tree 
was planted by Dr. Tracy on the 
west side of the Seminary. 

Jan. 1877. A class of 1 1 from the boarding schools 

enter. 

1877. A severe famine prevailed. A nursery 
and orphanage was opened at Pasu- 
malai in November with 80 children. 

Nov. 14-17, ) His Grace the Duke of Buckingham, 
1877. } Governor of Madras, visited Madura. 

Nov. 28, 1877. The death of Rev. W. Tracy, D.D., for- 
mer Principal of Pasumalai Semina- 
ry, occurred at Tirupuvanam. 

Jan. 1878. Mr. K. A. Burnell, the evangelist visit- 
ed Madura and Pasumalai. 



128 

Jan. 1878. A class of 11 from the boarding schools 

enter. 

Jan. 4, 1878. The death occurred of Rev. C. T. Muz- 

zy for a long time head of the A. 

M. Mission English School, Madura. 

Jan. & Feb. 1 The district suffered in many place 8 

1878. J from destructive visits of locusts. 

Mar. 8, 1878. Mr. Yorke of the C. V. E. S. Training 
School, Dindigul, left for England. 

Sept. 1878. Sacred Concerts were introduced as a 
feature of the September mission 
meeting. 

Nov. 1878. Government took under its patronage 
Dr. Chester's Medical School, Din- 
digul, which has received many of 
ils students from Pasumalai. 

Jan. 1879. A class of 9 from the boarding schools 
enter. 

March 1, 1879. The nursery was closed 1,070 child- 
ren had been cared for the average 
stay was 2% months the average 
number per month was 136 for 16 
months. 

March 1, 1879. A gift of Rs. 1,000 was received as 
the beginning of an Endowment 
Fund. 

Dec. 15, 1879. Pasumalai students were sent up for 
the first time to the Matriculation 
examination ; six passed including 
two teachers. 

Jan. 1880. Non-Christians were admitted to the 
High School. 



129 

Feb. 16, 1880. The time of entering and leaving school 

was changed to Jan. and Dec. 
Dec. 15, 1880. Middle School pupils were sent up for 

examination 3 passed. 

Jan. 1881. The Mission approved of the opening 

a theological class for Matriculates 

and others able to study with them. 

Feb. 1881. The first class of the Matriculates was 

received to the theological school. 

Feb. 1881. The Burnell Scholarship begun by a 

gift of Rs. 100 increased in '81 and 

'82 to Rs. 400. 

Oct. 1, 1881. A Post Office was opened at Pasumalai. 
Nov. 1881. The College was a affiliated with the 

Madras University. 
1882. The Welsh Scholarship amounting to 

Rs. 1,250 was founded. 

1882. Gymnastic apparatus provided and in- 
struction in college and school began. 
Aug. 1882. Mr. P. Joseph left to become a pleader. 

Aug. 24, 1882. The west upstair dormitory was opened; 
also two college class rooms. 

Sept. 12, 1882. The Director of Public Instruction 
requires Middle Schools to be recog- 
nised in order to receive grants and 
to send pupils to the Middle School 
examination, 
Mar. 1883. The Pasumalai Scholarship begun by 

gifts to the amount of Rs. 350. 

Apr. 5, 1883. Mr. Washburn going on furlough to the 
United States givei over charge to 
Mr. Jones. 

17 



180 

July let, 1883. Owing to the death of Mr. Kendall on 
June, 13th Mr. Jones was transferred 
to Madura and gave over charge to 
Mr. J. S. Chandler. 

Sept. 1883. Mr. Chapin arrived from Jaffna and 
acted as assistant to Mr. Chandler 
till his departure for America Sept. 
1884. 

Oct. 1883. The Pasumalai Middle School recog- 
nized as conforming to government 
requirements for Middle Schools. 

Feb. 1884. The new library room was opened. 

Feb. 1884. Mr. S. Mutthusami Aiyar, B.A., be- 
comes an instructor in the college. 

Feb. 4, 1884. The Director's fee notification was is- 
sued. 

Feb. 27, 1884. The Mission Jubilee was celebrated 
the enthusiastic giving resulted in the 
raising of Rs. 5,250 appropriated as 
an Endowment Fund for Pasumalai 
Institution. 
June 1884. The Noyes' Scholarship of Rs. 750 

founded. 

Oct. 1, 1884. Mr. Chandler gives over charge of the 
Pasumalai Institution to Mr. Wash- 
burn. 

Oct. 1884, A new outfit of chemical apparatus was 
provided for the High School. 

Nov. 1884. The " Santhosha Seithi " was begun. 

Nov. 1884. Candidates first sent up to the Peter 
Cator Examination. 



131 

Dec. 1884. A Portrait of Dr. Tracy was placed in 
the Pasumalai Library. 

Feb. 11, 1885. The Normal School received recognition 

by government. 

Feb. 1885. At the gymnastic competition in Mad- 
ura for the schools of Madura and 
vicinity, Pasumalai won the Director's 
Prize and six other prizes. 

June 1885. The Scudder Scholarship for Rs. 600 
and the Clancy Scholarship of Ra. 
700 founded. 

Oct. 18, 1885. Mr. D. S. Herrick arrived from the 
United States to assist the Principal. 

Jan. 28, 1886. The training school was opened with 

7 students, afterwards joined by 

4 others. 
Jan. 28, 1886. The Primary school was incorporated 

with the Training Institution as a 

practising branch. 
Feb. 1,1886. The 2nd fee notification framed by a 

commission, to run for five years, was 

approved and issued. 
Nov. 7-8, 1S86. The Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, visited 

Madura and reviewed the Mission 

schools near the American Mission 

High School. 
Dec. 21, 1886. Of the Matriculation class this year, 

7 passed in the 1st class and 20 in 

the 2nd class. 
Dec. 27, 1886. A gift was made by Mr. Grant Asirva- 

tham for a village plot and play 

ground. 



132 

Sept. 8, 1887. The Hollis Moore Memorial Hall was 

opened. 
Oct. 23, 1887. Lord Con nemara, Governor of Madras 

visited Madura. 
Nov. 1887. In the Peter Cator Examination, Peter 

Isaac gained a prize of Rs. 40, G. 

Joseph Rs. 20, and 7 others gained 

certificates. 
Nov. 1888. In the Peter Cator Examination, R. 

Gnanamutthu gained a prize of Rs. 

50, and 9 others, certificates. 

Nov. 1888. The printing office was remodelled and 

used as a science room. 
Dec. 5, 1888. The new College Hall begun in March 

was opened. 

Jan. 1889. The teaching of Sanskrit was introduc- 
ed into the Middle School, High 
School and College departments. 

July 1889. The Lower Secondary examination was 
instituted in place of the Middle 
School examination. 

Aug. 1889. Land and a spring for a well mile east 

of the east bungalow was acquired. 

Mar. 20, 1890. The Principal visited the United States 

for 4 months protracted to 8 months 

by illness. 

Aug. 1890. Mr. Herrick who had temporary charge 
of the College left for America. 

Dec. 1890. Rev. R. Humphrey, instructor in tho 
College and the Seminary for tho 
second terra. 



133 



Jan. 15, 1891. Mr. H. H. Stutson, B. A., arrived to as- 
sist the Principal. 

' Feb. 4, 1891. Mr. L. D. Wishard, Secretary of the 
International Y.M.C.A., spent 4days 
in Pasumalai and Madura. 

April 1891. The University required High Schools 
sending up candidates to the Matric- 
ulation Examination, to he recogniz- 
ed by government in the same man- 
ner as Upper Secondary Schools. 

June 1891. The connecting verandah between the 
College and Seminary was erected. 

July 1891. High Schools required to be recognized 
and the course extended to 3 years. 
Percentage of marks increased in 
Matriculation Examination and Eng- 
lish texts done away with to take 
effect in the examination of 1892. 

Aug. 1891. A new dining hall and kitchen was 
opened for use. 

Nov. 20, 1891. The death of Rev. J. Herrick, for more 
than 8 years in charge of the Semi- 
nary, occurred in Brattleboro, U.S.A. 

Jan. 1892. The Theological Seminary was trans- 
ferred to Mr. Jones. The new term 
opened with 17 etudents who were 
increased to 22. 

Feb. 1892. The College Library received a gift of 
200 volumes from Prof. Lincoln of 
Williamstown, MASS. 



134 

June 10, 1892. The Beals class rooms were opened. 

July 1892. Six new houses for catechists were 
erected and occupied. 

July 1, 1892. The Southfold Hostel erected in part 
and occupied. 

July 7, 1892. 3 acres government waste land, east 
of the east bungalow were acquired, 

July 1892. Rev. Alexander Miller visited Pasu- 
malai and made a donation of Rs. 50 
to the College Library. 

Aug. 1892. A brass memorial tablet to Dr. Tracy 
was placed in the Pasumalai church. 

Sept. 12, 1892. The new normal class rooms were 
opened. 

Sept. 15, 1892. The Jubilee celebration of the founding 
of the Pasumalai Seminary was held. 

1 893. The ball field was walled in and open- 
ed to use. 

1893. Four cottages for the theological stu- 
dents and two for teachers were com- 
pleted. 

July 1893. The quadrangle of the Southfold Hos- 
tel was completed. 

Sept. 11, 1893. The Rajah of Ramnad visited the Col- 
lege. 

Oct. 1893. The Alden Cottage containing residence 
for two teachers was finished and 
occupied. It is the gift of two mem- 
bers of Park St. Church, Boston. 



135 



Jan. 1894. One year was added to the theological 
course making it three years. 

. , Jan. 1894. The Doberty class room, given and fur- 
nished by Mrs. Doherty and family 
of South Boston, was opened. 

Jan. 1894. Drawing was introduced into the High 
School. 

March 5, 1894. Williams College made a donation to 
Pasumalai College of 1,910 dollars. 

March 1894. Mr. H. H. Stutson left Pasumalai to 
return to the United States. 

June 1894. The time for admission to the Theolog- 
ical Seminary was changed from 
January to June. 

July 1894. Four cottages for student catechists 
were erected. 

Aug. 1894. A plot of land adjoining the Southfold 
Hostel on the east was given by 
Hon. S. Subramania Aiyar Avergal. 

Aug. 1894. A supply of physical and chemical 
apparatus and elate boards placed in 
the institution. 

Nov. 1894. In the Peter Cator Examination D. 
Manikam gained a prize of Rs. 10 
and 6 of the remaining seven gained 
1 st and 2nd class certificates. 

Nov. 3, 1894. Rev. W. M. Zumbro, M.A., arrived. 

1 894. S. Ramachandran of the F.A. class gain- 
ed the Fischer gold medal for 1894. 



136 

1895. Eight cottages for catcchist students 
and teachers were erected. 

July 4, 1895. The Madras Educational Rules revised. 
July 6, 1895. Yokan Lodge was occupied. 

Sept. 1895. Mrs. S. B. Capron founded tho William 
Ban field Cnpron Scholarship by a gift 
of Rs. 1,475. 

Sept. 1895. The Williams College Cottage fur 
teachers was erected and occupied. 

Sept. 19, 1895. The Jubilee of the removal of the Semi- 
nary from Tirumangalam to Pasu- 
malai was celebrated. A fund of 
Rs. 14,026 had been raised in three 
years for the Endowment of the In- 
stitution. 

Sept. 1895. Cedar Cottage for 2 families was erected. 

Oct. 1895. A scholarship fund of Rs. 1,401 col- 
lected in tho U. S. by Rev. II. C. 
Ilazen. 



APPENDIX VI. 
A. 



ENDOWMENT FUNDS. 

The Washburn Scholarship Fund Rs. ... 5,100 

and Pasumalai Post Office property ... 550 

TheBurnell Scholarship ... 400 

The Pasumalai .. 350 

The Welsh ... 1,215 

The Jubilee ... 5,250 

The Scudder ... 800 

The Clancy ... 700 

The Noyes ... 750 

The Glovervill ... 1,000 

The William Banfield Capron ... 1,475 



18 



APPENDIX VI. 
B. 

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE 
JUBILEE FUND Rs. 1O AND ABOVE. 



His Highness the Rajah of Ramnad ... 
Mrs. S. B. Capron 

Collected by Rev. H. C. Hazen in U.S.A. 
Rev. G. T. Washburn, D.D. 

J. P. Jones, D.I>. 

Mr. Warren Gookin Waterman, U.S.A. ... 
Rev. J. C. Perkins 

W. P. El wood 

J. E. Tracy 

J. S. Chandler 

Hon. S. Subramania Aiyar, Dewan Baha- 
dur 
Rev. Frank Van Allen, M.D. 

E. Chester, M.D. and Mrs. Chester ... 
Mrs. Tuflts 
Rev. E. P. Holton 

G. W. Wright 

and Mrs. D. S. Herrick 

J. E. Chandler 

Hon. R. Ramasubba Aiyar, Row Bahadur 
Miss B. B, Noyes 



Rs. A. P. 

2,000 

1,475 1 7 

1,401 6 

1,100 

450 

350 14 

300 

300 

270 

258 

250 

200 

187 6 

184 6 3 

180 

160 

150 

100 

100 

75 6 



lis. A. r. 

Miss M. T. Noyes ... 75 

E. M. Swift ... 75 

Mr. J. Matiiuranayagam, Hosp. Asst. ... 70 

S. Chinniah ... 67 

G. Abraham ... 65 

Peter Isaac ... 50 

S. EamakrishDa Aiyar ... 50 

3. Gnauamanikkam ... 50 

S. Mahadeva Aiyar ... 48 

N. Chidambaram .,. 45 

V. W. Stepheuson ... 40 

Rev. A. Barnes ... 37 8 

Mr. P. Strinivasa Aiyar ... 36 10 

Rev. J. Colton ... 36 

Y. S. Taylor ... 35 4 8 

Mr. Y. Gnanamutthu ... 31 

Rev. S. Isaac ... 30 

J. Rowland ... 30 

G. N. Pakiauathaa ... 30 

Mr. V. Santiagu ... 30 

G. Joseph ... 30 

R. Michael ... 30 

Y. Gnanapragasam Bonnell ... 30 

S. G. Subrainania Aiyar ... 30 

V. Kanthappu ... 30 

Rev. Y. J. Taylor ... 26 13 11 

,. M. Eames ... 26 7 3 



uo 



Mr. A. Samuel 

A. Thambupillai, Hosp. Asst. 

,, A. Pakianathan, Palamcottah 

,, Muthusami 
Rev. W. A. Buckingham 

A. Pichaimutthu 

,, M. Thomas 

A. Perumal 

W. D. Clarke, Madras 

S. Simon 
Mr. T. Loomis 
A. David, Dist. Munsif 
,, S. Sesha Sas trial 
Moses Samuel 
V. Ramanatha Aiyar 
R. S. Ignatius 
V. David 
Y. Sebastian 
Samuel Joseph 
G. Jesudasan 
S. Devanesam, Hosp. Asat. 
S. Thirithuvathasan 
Rev. S. Nallathambi 

A. Savarimutthu 
Mr. T, S. Mutthusami Aiyar 
Kailasam Aiyar 
E. V. Santhosham and wife 



HI 

Rfl. A. F. 

Mr. P. Council ... 17 8 6 

A. Pakianathan ... 17 

Rev. A. Clarke ... 16 8 

Mr. M. P. Samuel ... 16 8 

Rev. K. John ... 16 3 9 

S. Vethamanikam ... 16 

C. William ... 16 

Mr Israel Isaac ... 16 

Rev. A. David ... 15 15 

Mr. D. Pakiam ... 15 15 

S. Palaniappa Pillai ... 15 8 

Gnanapragaeam, Dresser ... 15 3 

S. Appavu ... 15 2 3 

Rev. I. Savarimuttbu ... 15 o 

S.Jacob ... 15 

Mr.T. S. Vethamutthu ... 15 

,, I. Devasirvatham ... 15 

Mr. M. Solomon ... 15 

B. Subramania Sastry ... 15 

P.David . ... 15 

R. Gnanamutthu ... 15 

Jeyamani Paul ... 15 

R. Santhiappan ... 14 10 8 

A. Manikam and wife ... 14 8 

A. V. Samuel ... 14 7 10 

P. Vetbanayagam ... 14 2 4 

G. David Fenn ... 14 o 



142 

Rs. A. P. 

Mr. S. Samuel 1400 

V. Antonimutthu ...... 14 

Rev. A. Gnanamutthu 14 

Mr. V. David 13 8 

J. Appavu 13 8 

Y. Jacob 13 

A. Samiadian 13 

P. Joseph 13 

R. Sivasamba Aiyar 12 8 

Paul 12 7 3 

,. P. Gnanaratthinam 13 6 

Paranjothi 12 5 6 

V. Gnanamutthu 12 5 4 

Y. Yesadian 12 4 8 

P. Thomas 

G. V. Dovadasau 

,, R. Israel 

V. G. David and wife 

A. David 

P. China in h 

P. C. Yesadian 

,, R. Gnanathikam 

M. Daniel 

S. Gabriel 

C. Muthian 

,, G. De va sir vat ham 

,, 3. Gnanayutham 



143 

Rs. A. p. 

Mrs. A. Santhammal 12 

Mr. R. Rayappan 12 

P. Daniel 12 

M. Pichaimntthu 11 14 3 

G. Visuvasatn 11 12 

Gnanapragasam 11 12 10 

C. M. Abraham ...... 11 80 

A. Michael 11 60 

S. Joshua .... 11 511 

Arokiam 11 5 11 

Y.Jacob 11 4 11 

N. Pakiam 11 40 

P. C. Cross 11 10 

Barnabas 11 00 

,. A. Pakiam 11 00 

S. Belavendram 11 00 

S. Vethanayagam 11 00 

D. Simdaram ..... 11 00 

Vetlagiri 10 15 6 

P. Israel 1 1 10 6 

M. Kayappan 10 8 

M Vetham 10 8 

S. Abraham 10 8 

Y Manikam 10 7 

P. Daniel 10 5 7 

I. Gnanamutthu 10 3 5 

S. Vethamanikam 1C 3 5 



144 

Ra. A. p. 

Mr. Devapiriam ...... 10 3 5 

P.Samuel 10 3 r, 

S. Paranjothi 10 3 6 

V. John 10 3 o 

D. Gnanamutthu ...... 10 3 4 

Zaccheus 10 2 

Isaac ...... 10 2 

J. John 10 2 

P. Israel 10 1 10 

B.James 10 1 

Nallathambi 10 10 

M. Nallathambi 10 9 

S. Thomas, Hosp. Asst. 10 

E. V. Sampson 10 

Paul Daniel and wife 1000 

S. Pakianathan 10 

V. Isaac and wife 10 

S.Isaac 10 

M. Amirthanayagatn 10 

G. Daniel 10 

S. Jeevanantham 10 

Mutthu Pillai 10 

J. Shadrach 10 

R. Devapiriam 10 

P. T. Vetham 1000 

S. Daniel 

G. Visuvasam 10 



145 

Ra. A. P. 

C. E. Graham Norton, Esq. 10 

Henry B. Dalgetty, Esq. 10 

Mr. P. Sundaram 10 

P. Asirvatham 10 

P.Joseph 10 

,. S. Guanapirakasam 10 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 
BELOW Rs. 1O AND ABOVE Rs. 5. 



Mr. J. Kennett 9 10 8 

D. Devasirvatham 9 9 4 

., S. Subbiah 990 

M. Abraham 980 

R, Arulanantham 9 8 

V. Muttha 980 

K. Samithasan 9 7 G 

S. Thomas 964 

V. Yagappan 960 

G. Manuel 920 

A. David 9 111 

Visuvasam 8 1 3 

Sargunam 906 

A. Masillamani 9 o 

,, R. C. Selvanayagam 9 

Timothy 900 

19 



Rs. A. P. 

Mr. P. Yeadian 900 

D. Gnanathikam. 9 O 

^ v!l)airian> 900 

M. Samuel 9 O 

1L Thomas 9 O O 

A. Annasami 

S.John 900 

ILDarmakin 900 

Ualtikarjuna Aiyar 900 

Muzzy 9 O 

Y. Gnanamani 815 8 

N. Asirratham 

J. S. Stephen 8138 

J. Barnabas ...... 8 13 O 

m M. Samuel 8 10 1O 

M.Vetham 

S. Pakiam ...... 8 10 8 

J. Arumainayagam .- 8 10 8 

Y. Gnanakan 8 1O O 

D. Samuel 8 10 O 

n W. Jeeranantham 8 8 O 

A. SaTarimutthu 

T.Joseph 

D. AnbuQanathaa 

., Arokiam 

M. Asorathanr 864 

, Belranaymgam 856 



147 

B . A. T . 

Mr. A. James 856 

V. Gnanamutthu ...... 847 

,, D. Manikam 816 

T. Devanesam .... 846 

S. Joseph Benjamin ...... 843 

Visuvasam 849 

A. Savariappan - 837 

,. J. C. Cleave land 835 

Grace Samuel 830 

N. Moses 810 

-,, N. Cbumappaa ^.... 810 

v A. Aiyathurai 819 

Satbiavasagam ...... 806 

M. Abraham 800 

Peter 800 

B. Moses 800 

S. Joseph 800 

,, Vethamuttfm 8 

Paul Peter 800 

V. Pakianathan 800 

B. Gurubatbam 800 

,, Marther Paul ...... 800 

,. Annamutthu 8 

P. Arokiam 800 

.. Yesadian Samuel 800 

S. Simon 800 

,. R. Savarimuttbn ...... 3 9 



148 

Es, A.>. 

Mr. Geo. W. Nathaniel 800 

G. VctLanayagam 7 15 9 

E. V. Masillamaui 7 15 2 

E. S. Thayananthara 7 14 

H. Arms 7 14 

P. Peter 7 14 

T. Antony 7 14 

M. Gnanaprakasam 7 13 8 

N. Samuel 713 5 

M. Perianayagam 713 

G. Gnanamuttbu 711 3 

E. Peter 7 11 

Samiadian 795 

K. Vethanayagam 7 9 2 

D. Savarimutthu 7 8 9 

Arumainayagam 788 

A. Solomon 780 

S. Amirthanayagam 7 8 

Savarimutthu 780 

Paul Peter 780 

G. Samuel 778 

D.John 

Simon 756 

E. Manuel 750 

S. Philip 750 

A. Stephen 733 

I. Santhappnn 7 211 



149 

Re. A. r. 

Mr. Geo. Moses Arion 7 2 10 

N. Samuel 7 2 9 

,, G. Pakianatban 729 

Y. Samuel 709 

S. VethamuttLu 700 

A. Arokiam 700 

M. Rayappan 700 

M. David 700 

A. Devasagayam 7 

A. Gnanamutthu 700 

M. R. Antony 700 

A. Sebastian 700 

G. Isaac 700 

P. G. Devasagayam 7 

M. Samuel 700 

R. Saptarishi Aiyar 6 15 8 

P. Pakiam 6 15 4 

M. M. Devasagayam 615 

,, Muthusami 6 14 6 

Y. Rayappan 6 12 

V. Savarimuttbu 6 12 

V. Subbiah 6 12 

Joanna 6 12 

Mr. C. Visuvasam 6 11 11 

S. Mutthian 611 8 

C. Perinbam 688 

G. Samuel 680 



150 

Rs. A. p. 

Savarinayagam, B. \V. 80 

G. Gnanapiragasi 680 

S. Harriett 680 

P. Yesadial 680 

G. Michael 680 

A. Elizabeth 680 

Mary Pakiam 680 

C. Ammani ...... 680 

Y. Yesadial 6 8 G 

Air. D. Daniel 660 

V. Gabriel 650 

S. Daniel 640 

P. Asirvatham 6 1 10 

V. Vethamanikam 616 

J. Thomas 600 

A. Mathalamutthu 600 

R. C. Thomas 600 

P. Rayamutthu 600 

A. Rayappan 600 

A. Mailvela 600 

Gnanamutthu 600 

V. Annamaria 600 

C. Annal 600 

Mr. S. Samuel 600 

K. Yagappan 6 

R. Savarimutthu 6 

S. Manikam 600 



151 

Rs. A. P. 

Mr. V. Israel ... 6 

C. Sanel ... 6 

G. Mutthusarai Aiyar ... 6 

G. David ... 6 

Davi.l Fenn ... 6 

.. F. Mutthukumarusami ... 6 

.. A. John ... 6 

,, A. Simon ... 5 15 

A. Daniel ... 5 13 4 

M. Pakiam, B. W. ... 5134 

A. Gnanammal ... 5 12 6 

Mr. P. Isaac ... 5 11 10 

D. Duraisami ... 5 8 

Marial, B. W. ... 5 8 

Natchetram ... 5 8 

AnnammaL ... 5 8 

Yellaramal ... .180 

Mr. Joseph Col ton ... 5 8 

P. Ferinbom ... 5 8 

Gnanamanikam ... 5 6 1 

M. Andrew . . 5 5 10 

G. Savarimutthu ... 5 4 

A. Pakiam, B. W. ...540 

V. Rose ... 5 3 4 

Mr. P. Joseph ...520 

S. Amiam ... 5 2 

ilr. Derasagayam ... 5 1 9 



152 

Rs. A. p. 

Mr. Geo. R. Abraham ... 5 1 9 

A.Jacob ... 5 1 6 

Nachetram ... 5 I 

Mr. S. A. Samuel ... 5 6 

.. M. V. Subramania Aiyar ... 5 

.. B. Yetham ... 5 

Annamutthu ... 5 

Fakiam, B. W. ... 5 

Mr. G. Joseph ... 5 o 

,. G. Savarimutthu ... 5 

H. Macneal, Esq. ...500 

Mr. L. Narasimmachariar ... o 

.. A. Ramasami Aivar ... 5 

Miss Smart ... 5 

Mr. M. Meyappan ... 5 

A Poor Sympathiser ... 5 o 

Mr. Samuel Piragasam 5 



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