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Full text of "The path of purity; being a translation of Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga by Pe Maung Tin"

SHASTRI INDO-CANADIAN INSTITUTE 

156 Golf Links, 
New Delhi -3, India 






I 

/ 




THE PATH OF PURITY 



PALI TEXT SOCIETY 

Translation Series 

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TRANSLATION SERIES, No. 11 
(EXTRA SUBSCRIPTION) 




BEING 

A TRANSLATION OF 
BUDDHAGHOSA'S VISUDDHIMAGGA 

BY 

PE MAUNG TIN 

TRANSLATOR OF THE " ATTHASALINI " 



PART I. 
OF VIRTUE (OR MORALS) 



Xonfcon 

PUBLISHED FOR THE PALI TEXT SOCIETY 

BY 

THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

AND AT 

NEW YORK, TORONTO, MELBOURNE, AND BOMBAY 



Pk 



PniNTEU IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



PREFACE 

THE present volume is a translation of the first part of 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, the famous treatise which was, 
as is believed, written in Ceylon in the beginning of the fifth 
century A.D. Professor Lanman of Harvard University 
published an admirable analysis of this first part in the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. xlix, No. 3, 
August, 1913. Since then ten years have passed by without 
our seeing the long-hoped-for American edition of the text or 
its translation. The Pali Text Society, which all along felt 
the need of a European edition of this work, could wait no 
longer, and recently brought out their own edition of the text. 
So, on the assurance of the editor, Mrs. Rhys Davids, that she 
saw no prospect of an American translation, I submitted my 
translation to the Pali Text Society. As has been explained 
in the Editorial Note to my translation of the Atthasalim, 
if I had not entertained from year to year good hopes of 
seeing Professor Lanman's edition and translation, I would 
have taken up, six years ago, the translation of the 
Visuddhimagga instead of the Atthasalim. 

In the Afterword to her scholarly edition of the 
Visuddhimagga, Mrs. Rhys Davids has said what she had to 
say about the book and its author. I especially appreciate 
her useful list of quotations in the book from canonical and 
other works. I will here touch upon just one point. The 
Visuddhimagga makes reference (see Index) to the Commen- 
taries on the Anguttara, Majjhima, and Samyutta. To 
those unacquainted with the history of the Commentaries it 
would thus seem that the Visuddhimagga was written later 
than these Commentaries. But, on the other hand, it is 
quoted by just these Commentaries on the Nikayas as well as 
by the Samantapasadika and Atthasalim, and is therefore 
earlier than these works. For instance, the Majjhima Com- 
mentary, which is being edited for the Pali Text Society by 
Professor James H. Woods, refers to it by name. When, 
therefore, the Visuddhimagga in its turn refers to the Majjhima 



vi Preface 

Commentary by name, the explanation may well be that the 
reference is not to the Majjhima Commentary as it has been 
written by Buddhaghosa, but to the original Ceylonese Com- 
mentary from which he later made his redaction. In the 
Sumangalavilasirii also (i, 87), which is Buddhaghosa's 
Commentary on the Digha Nikaya, he refers to the Digha 
Commentary that is, to the original Ceylonese Commentary 
he was recasting, or at least consulting. The same may be 
said of the other references in the Visuddhimagga to the Com- 
mentaries on the Anguttara and Samyutta. And we know 
that there were these original Ceylonese Commentaries and 
also the ' Poranas ' on which Buddhaghosa based his writings. 
This explanation may account for the close similarity, which, 
as M. Nagai has pointed out in the Journal of the Pali Text 
Society, 1917-19, exists between the Visuddhimagga and the 
Vimuttimagga, a work by another writer. I would not, 
however, go to the extent of saying, as does M. Nagai, that these 
two works ' are one and the same work appearing in different 
attire.' Considering that the doctrines, called the Buddha's 
Word, have been preserved through the centuries by a line of 
teachers, whose aim is consistency in doctrinal interpretation 
rather than originality in striking out new paths, we may 
regard the Visuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga as more 
or less independent works, written by men who belonged to 
the same school of thought namely, the orthodox school at 
Anuradhapura. Final decision, however, should be postponed 
until we know more of Buddhaghosa's writings and the works 
to which he refers. 

I have consulted with benefit the Burmese translation 
(Rangoon, 1914) by Pyi Sayadaw. And in the footnotes I 
have made occasional quotations from such works on the 
Visuddhimagga as the Mahatikd by Dhammapala of Ceylon 
and the Ganthi by Saddhammajotipala of Burma. My 
thanks are due to Bhikkhu Sllacara, who was kind enough 
to go over my first draft translation of Chapter I; and to 
Mrs. Rhys Davids for her kind help in reading the proofs 
and for the keen interest she has taken in the translation. 

EXETEK COLLEGE, OXTOKD, PE 

December 10, 1922. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

V 

vi 

- 8-65 
8 
9 

ITS 



PREFACE 

INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE - 

CHAPTER 

I. EXPOSITION OP VIRTUE 

1. WHAT IS VIRTUE ? - 

2. IN WHAT SENSE IS IT VIRTUE ? 

3. WHAT ARE ITS CHARACTERISTICS, 

ESSENCE, ITS MANIFESTATION, ITS 

PROXIMATE CAUSE ? 10 

4. WHAT ARE ITS ADVANTAGES ? - 11 

5. HOW MANY KINDS OF IT ARE THERE ? 12 

6. WHAT IS ITS CORRUPTION ? - 57 

7. WHAT ITS PURIFICATION ? - 57 

II. EXPOSITION OF THE ASCETIC PRACTICES - 66-95 

GENERAL DISCOURSE 66 

1. THE REFUSE-RAGMAN'S PRACTICE - - 70 

2. THE THREE-ROBER'S PRACTICE - 73 

3. THE ALMSMAN'S PRACTICE - - 74 

4. THE HOUSE-TO-HOUSE-GOER'S PRACTICE - 76 

5. THE ONE-SESSIONER'S PRACTICE - - 78 

6. THE BOWL-FOODER'S PRACTICE - 79 

7. THE AFTERFOOD-REFUSER'S PRACTICE - 81 

8. THE FORESTER'S PRACTICE - - 81 

9. THE TREE-ROOTMAN'S PRACTICE - 84 

10. THE OPEN-SPACER'S PRACTICE - 86 

11. THE BURNING-GROUNDER'S PRACTICE - 87 

12. THE ANY-BEDDER'S PRACTICE - 89 

13. THE SITTING-MAN'S PRACTICE - 90 

OF ASCETIC AND OTHER TERMS AS MORAL TRIAD 91 
OF ASCETIC AND OTHER TERMS AS DIFFERENTIATED 92 

IN GROUPS AND IN DETAIL - - - 93 



THE PATH OF PURITY 

Honour be to Him, the Blessed, the Saint, the 
Buddha Supreme 



INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE 

" The man discreet, on virtue planted firm, 
In intellect and intuition trained ; 
The brother ardent and discriminant : 
'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil." 1 

Thus it was spoken. And why was it thus spoken? 

It is said that to the Blessed One then staying at Savatthi 
there came one night a certain deva who, in order to have his 
doubt removed, asked this question : 

" Tangle within, without, lo! in the toils 
Entangled is the race of sentient things. 
Hence would I ask thee, Gotama, of this : 
Who is't can from this tangle disembroil ?" 1 

And this briefly is the meaning. By '' tangle " is meant 
the net of craving. For craving is like the tangle of the 
network of branches of bamboo-bushes and the like, in the 
sense of an intertwisting, because it arises below and above 
repeatedly in connection with such objects as visible things. 
And it is said to be " Tangle within, without," from the fact 
of its arising within one's own and others' individualities 
and what thereto appertains, in the organs subjective and 
objective. Mankind is entangled in such a tangle. Just as 
bamboos and the like are entangled by such tangles as bamboo- 
bushes, 2 so all mankind, known as the various classes of 



Kindred Sayings 1, 20. - Read velugunibajatadlhi. 

1 



2 The Path of Purity 

sentient beings, are entangled, enmeshed, embroiled, in that 
tangle of craving this is the meaning. [2] And because of 
such entanglement, the meaning of, " Hence would I ask thee, 
Gotama, of this," is to be understood thus: Therefore I ask 
thee, addressing the Blessed One by his family name, Gotama. 
"Who is't can from this tangle disembroil?" means: Who is 
able to disentangle this tangle which has thus entangled the 
Three Elements? 1 

Thus questioned, the Blessed One, walking in unobstructed 
knowledge of all things, the Deva of devas, the Sakka of 
Sakkas, the Brahma of Brahmas, confident with the Four 
Confidences, bearer of the Tenfold Strength, endowed with 
unimpeded knowledge and the all-seeing eye, spake this 
stanza in answer : 

" The man discreet, on virtue planted firm, 
In intellect and intuition trained; 
The brother ardent and discriminant : 
'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil." 

In setting forth, according to the truth, 
The meaning of the stanza of the Sage, 
Which treats of virtue and such other things, 
I will expound the Path of Purity, 
Which rests on the strict rules of the devout 
Dwellers at the Great Minster, and contains 
Purest decisions, gladdening even those 
Who never may attain to purity 
For all their striving, though they seek it here, 
Not knowing aright the Path of Purity, 
Which holds all virtue, and is straight and safe, 
Though they to ordination have attained, 
Hard to attain in the Great Conqueror's realm. 
Devout men, whose desire is purity, 
Attend ye to the things that I relate. 

Here, by " Purity " is meant Nibbana, which is free from 
all taints and exceedingly pure. The way to this purity is 

1 Or threefold conditions, viz. the world of sense, the world of form, 
and the world of the formless. 



Introductory Discourse 3 

the '' Path of Purity." The means of its acquisition is called 
the " Path." I am going to speak of that Path of Purity, 
is the meaning. This Path of Purity has been set forth in 
terms of simple insight in some places thus : 

" All things conditioned are impermanent ; 
The which who understandeth, holdeth III 
In scorn. This is the path of purity; ' 31 

[3] in terms of Jhana-insight in other places thus : 

" He from Nibbdna is not far in whom 
Appear Jhana and insight; " 2 

in terms of kamma and so forth in some places thus : 

" Good will, and wisdom, mind by method trained, 
The highest conduct on good morals based: 
This maketh mortals pure, not rank nor wealth ; " 3 

in terms of virtue and the like in other places thus : 

" He that in virtuous habit never fails, 
Hath insight, can to mystic rapture win, 
Who stirs up effort, puts forth all his strength, 
'Tis he can cross the flood so hard to pass ; " 4 

in terms of the application of mindfulness and so forth in 
some places thus: "This single way, this path, brethren, 
is for the purification of beings ... for the realization of 
Nibbana, to wit: the Four Applications of Mindfulness." 5 

And the same with the Supreme Efforts and so forth. 
But here in the Blessed One's reply it has been set forth in 
terms of virtue and so forth. 

Thereon (i.e., on the Blessed One's stanza) this is the 
brief comment : 

" On virtue planted firm," means, being established in 
virtue. And here in this phrase one who is even now engaged 
in fulfilling virtue is said to be established in virtue. Hence 
the meaning here is, being established in virtue by fulfilling 

1 Dhammapada 277. 2 2b. 372. 

3 Kindred Sayings I, 46. * Ib. 76. 

6 Dlgha Nikaya ii, 290; Dialogues of the Buddha ii, 327. 



4 The Path of Purity 

it. "The man" means, the sentient being. "Discreet" 
means, wise by means of wisdom born of kamma associated 
with conception (in the womb) attended by the Three 
Root-conditions. 1 " In intellect and intuition trained," means 
cultivating concentration and insight; for here concentration 
is set forth under the head of intellect (or mind), and insight 
under the name of intuition (or wisdom). " Ardent " means 
energetic; for energy is called ardour in the sense of causing 
the corruptions to be completely burnt up. He who possesses 
it is ardent. In '' discriminant," wisdom is called discrimina- 
tion. Endowed therewith, is the meaning. By this word 
" discriminant " is indicated preserving wisdom. 

In this answer wisdom comes three times. First there is 
mother-wit, second there is insight-wisdom, and third there 
is preserving wisdom, maintaining all functions. 2 He sees 
clanger in the stream of existence this is " the brother " 
(bhikkhu). " 'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil " 
means: [4] Just as a man standing on the ground may lift 
up a well-sharpened sword and clear away (disentangle) a 
big bamboo-bush, so may the brother endowed with the six 
states, to wit: this virtue and this concentration set forth 
under the heading of mind, and this threefold wisdom, and 
this ardour, and standing on the ground of virtue, lift up, by 
means of the hand of preserving wisdom supported by the 
strength of energy, the sword of insight- wisdom well sharpened 
on the stone of concentration, and clear away, cleave that 
entire tangle of craving which keeps falling into the continuity 
of his own aggregates. And indeed he clears that tangle 
at the moment of his attainment of the Path. At the moment 
of Fruition he, having cleared the tangle, is worthy of the best 
gifts in heaven and earth. Hence has the Blessed One said : 

" The man discreet, on virtue planted firm, 
In intellect and intuition trained; 
The brother ardent and discriminant : 
'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil." 

1 Viz. The absence of greed, of hate, of delusion. 
- Such as acquiring the subjects of meditation, making frequent 
questionings and being strenuous in culture. 



Introductory Discourse 5 

What is meant therein is, that there remains nothing for 
" the man " to do in regard to that wisdom by means of 
which he is said to be " discreet," for his wisdom has been 
made perfect in virtue of kamma done in a previous existence. 
And in " ardent and discriminant " it is meant that he is to 
be persevering by means of the said energy, and compre- 
hending by means of wisdom; and establishing himself in 
virtue, cultivate calm and insight indicated by way of 
intellect (or mind) and intuition (or wisdom). Here, thus, 
the Blessed One has set forth this Path of Purity under the 
heads of virtue, concentration, and wisdom. 

Indeed, thus far have been set forth the threefold training, 
the religion happy in its three stages, 1 the sufficing condition 
of the threefold knowledge 2 and so forth, the avoidance of the 
two extremes and the practice of the middle course, the means 
of escaping states of woe and so forth, the rejection of the 
corruptions in three ways, the opposition to transgression and 
so forth, the cleansing from the three corruptions, and the 
instrumentality necessary to Stream-winning and so forth. 

How so ? Here by virtue is indicated the training in the 
higher virtue; by concentration, the training in the higher 
thought; and by wisdom, the training in the higher wisdom. 

And by virtue is indicated the happiness of the religion in 
its beginning. For, from such expressions as: " What is the 
beginning of moral states ? The virtue of great purity," 3 and 
" the refraining from all evil," 4 it is evident that virtue is the 
beginning of the religion. And since it bears such merit as 
absence of remorse, it is happy. 

By concentration is indicated the happiness of the religion 
in its progress. [5] For, from such expressions as: " tJie 
fulfilment of morality," 4 and so on, it is evident that concen- 
tration is in the middle of the religion. And since it bears such 
merit as the various kinds of supra-normal power, it is happy. 

By wisdom is indicated the happiness of the religion in its 

1 Its beginning, progress, and end. 

2 Knowledge of former existences, the passing away and reappearing 
of beings, and the destruction of the intoxicants. 

3 Samyuttav, 143. * DJuimmapada 183. 



6 The Path of Purity 

consummation. For, from the expression, " the cleansing of 
one's mind, . . . this is the religion of the Buddhas" 1 we see 
the superiority of wisdom, and that it is the consummation of 
the religion. And since it maintains its natural state un- 
affected amid desirable and undesirable things, it is happy. 
As it has been said : 

"As wind a massy rock doth never move, 
So neither praise nor dispraise moves the wise." 2 

Similarly, in virtue is set forth the sufficing condition of 
endowment with the Threefold Knowledge. For, depending 
on the attainment of virtue one attains to the Threefold 
Knowledge, and not to anything higher. In concentration is 
set forth the sufficing condition of endowment with the Sixfold 
Superknowledge. 3 For, depending on the fulfilment of con- 
centration one attains to the Sixfold Superknowledge, and not 
to anything higher. And in wisdom is set forth the sufficing 
condition of the various kinds of analysis. For, depending 
on the attainment of wisdom and on no other ground, one 
attains to the Four Analyses. 4 

By virtue also is indicated the avoiding of the extreme of 
devotion to the pleasures of sensuality; by concentration the 
avoiding of the extreme of self -mortification ; and by wisdom 
the practising of the middle course. 

Similarly in virtue is set forth the means of transcending the 
states of woe; in concentration the means of transcending the 
elements of sensuality; and in wisdom the means of transcend- 
ing all existences. 

Again, by virtue is set forth the rejection of the corruptions 
by way of partial rejection; 5 by concentration, that by way of 

1 Dhammapada 183. 2 Ib. 81. 

3 Super-normal power of (1) manipulating the physical form, 
(2) clairaudience far and near, (3) knowing others' thoughts, 
(4) remembering former existences, (5) clairvoyance far and near, 
(6) knowing how to bring the intoxicants to an end. 

4 Analysis of things, causes, terms, and the knowing process. 

6 Tadangappahdna : ' rejection by parts,' rejection of various parts 
of immorality by various parts of morality, as darkness by the light of 
a lamp. Translated as ' elimination of the factor in question ' in 
Expositor 454. 



Introductory Discourse 1 

discarding; and by wisdom, that by way of extermina- 
tion. 

Again, by virtue is set forth opposition to actual deeds of 
the corruptions; by concentration, opposition to their up- 
rising; by wisdom, opposition to their latent tendency. 

[6] Again, by virtue is set forth the cleansing of the cor- 
ruption of misconduct; by concentration, cleansing of the 
corruption of craving ; by wisdom, cleansing of the corruption 
of views. 

Again, by virtue is set forth the instrumentality for Stream- 
winning and Once-returning; by concentration, that for 
Never-returning; and by wisdom, that for Sanctity. For 
the Stream-winner is said to be a fulfiller of virtue; likewise 
the Once-returner. But the Never-returner is said to be a 
fulfiller of concentration; and the Saint a fulfiller of wisdom. 

Thus in so far are set forth these nine triads, to wit; the 
Threefold Training, the religion happy in its three stages, the 
sufficing condition of the Threefold Knowledge and so forth, 
the avoidance of the two extremes and the practice of the 
middle course, the means of transcending the states of woe 
and so forth, the rejection of the corruptions in three ways, 
the opposition to transgression and so forth, the cleansing of 
the three corruptions, the instrumentality for Stream- winning 
and so forth, and such other triads as those of merits. 

This is the Introductory Discourse. 



CHAPTER I 

EXPOSITION OF VIRTUE 

THUS this Path of Purity, albeit set forth under the heads 
of virtue, concentration, and wisdom, including various 
merits, has been expounded very briefly indeed. Conse- 
quently it may not be sufficiently useful to all ; and so, in order 
to make it known in detail, the following questions are asked, 
beginning with the subject of virtue: 

1. What is virtue ? x 2. In what sense is it virtue ? 
3. What are its characteristics, its essence, its manifestation, 
its proximate cause ? 4. What are its advantages ? 5. How 
many kinds of virtue are there ? 6. What is its corruption ? 
7. And what its purification ? 

And these are the answers : 

1. What is virtue? 

Such states as the volition of one who abstains from life- 
taking and so forth, or of one who fulfils his set duties. For, 
this has been said in the Patisambhidamagga, 2 " What /.- 
virtue? Volition is virtue; mental properties are virtue; 
restraint [7] is virtue; non-transgression is virtue;" wherein 
the volition which is virtue is that of one who abstains from 
life-taking and so forth, or of one who fulfils' his set duties; 
and the mental properties which are virtue are the abstinence 
of one who abstains from life-taking and so forth. Further, 
the volition which is virtue is that of the seven courses of 
action of one who forsakes life-taking, and so on ; the mental 
properties which are virtue are such states as non-covetous- 

1 Sila is moral habit, habitual good conduct. Cf. Pss. of the Brethren, 
p. 269, n. 2. It was the very essence of the Founder's gospel. For 
his Order it became the basis of doctrine, and elaborated into what wo 
understand bv virtue. 

2 i, 44. 

8 



I. Exposition of Virtue 9 

ness, goodwill, right views expressed in this manner: " Putting 
away covetousness he lives by thought free from covetous- 
ness." In " restraint is virtue," restraint should be under- 
stood as fivefold: 1 by means of the Patimokkha, of mindful- 
ness, of knowledge, of patience, of energy. Of these, " He is 
endowed,fulfitted with this restraint according to thePatimokkha "' z 
this is Patimokkha-restraint. " He keeps watch over the 
controlling faculty of sight, attains to the restraint of the con- 
trolling faculty of sight" 3 this is mindfulness-restraint. 

" The currents flowing in the world Ajila, 
Said the Exalted One, these may 
By mindfulness be checked, this the restraint I teach, 
By insight they may be shut iw." 4 

this is knowledge-restraint in which (knowledge in) the 
(right) use of the (four) requisites also is included. " One 
endures cold and heat " 5 in such expressions it is patience- 
restraint. " One does not consent to the uprisen lustful thought " ( 
in such expressions it is energy-restraint, in which purity 
of livelihood also is included. Thus this Fivefold Restraint 
as well as the restraint which noble youths dreading sin 
exercise in regard to anything that falls in their way should 
be understood as restraint- virtue. " Non-transgression is 
virtue," means the absence of bodily and vocal transgression 
in one practised in virtue. This so far is the answer to the 
question, " What is virtue ?" 

[8] Passing to the remaining questions : 

2. In what sense is it virtue ? 

It is virtue in the sense of being virtuous (or moral). And 
what is this ? The being virtuous, is the right placing 
together (of bodily and vocal actions). The meaning is that 
because one is highly virtuous, one's bodily actions and so on 
are not dissipated. Or it means, supporting. The being a 



1 See also Expositor 454, where ' restraint by virtue ' is synonymous 
with Patimokkha-reatraint. 

-' Vibhanga 246. 3 Digtw, i, 70. * Sulla .V/>i/ 1035. 

"' Majjhima i, 10. 6 Ib. 1 1. 



10 The Path of Purity 

support of moral states by way of establishment, is the 
meaning. Indeed those who are skilful in the significations 
of words here understand this double meaning. But others 
set forth the meaning in such ways as: " It is virtue in the 
sense of being the head (sird), in the sense of being cool (to)." 

3. Now: What are its characteristics, its essence, its 
manifestation, its proximate cause ? 

So has it been divided, and its mark 
Is virtue, even as visibility 1 
The mark of objects is. 

For just as visibility is the characteristic mark of the 
different varieties of form such as indigo, yellow, and so on, 
because albeit of such various kinds they do not go beyond 
visibility, so what has been said about being virtuous by way 
of the right placing of bodily actions and so forth, and of 
the establishment of moral states, is the characteristic mark 
of the different varieties of virtue such as volition and so on, 
because, notwithstanding its various kinds, it does not go 
beyond right placing and establishment. And concerning 
virtue, as possessing such a characteristic, this has been said : 

Her active property or essence lies 
In excellence and war against all sin. 

Therefore this virtue possesses the essence, in the sense 
of function, of destroying wickedness; and has the essence, 
in the sense of property, of faultlessness. For when the 
characteristics and so on are mentioned, essence is said to 
be either function or property. 

It manifests itself as purity; 

Its proximate cause is the sense of shame 

And dread of blame (for so the wise give praise). 

[9] This virtue has, as its manifestation, purity, said to be 
purity of body, of speech, and of mind. It is considered to 

1 Read sanidassanattam perception of form, that is, perception of 
objects through the visual sense, is, for all that sense by itself can tell us, 
perception of various colour-areas and nothing more. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 11 

manifest itself as purity. Sense of shame and dread of blame 
are extolled by the wise as its proximate cause, which means 
immediate reason. For in the presence of sense of shame 
and dread of blame, virtue arises and establishes itself : in their 
absence it does not arise nor establish itself. Thus are to 
be understood its characteristic, essence, manifestation, and 
proximate cause. 

4. What are its advantages ? 

The acquirement of various qualities such as absence of 
remorse. For it has been said, " Ananda, moral virtues have 
absence of remorse for benefit and advantage." 1 Further, 
" Householders, five are the advantages of the fulfilment of virtue 
obtained by the virtuous. What are these five advantages ? In 
this world, householders, one virtuous, endowed with virtue, 
acquires much wealth chiefly owing to the effect of non-negligence. 
This is the first advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the 
virtuous. Again, householders, of one virtuous, endowed with 
virtue, a good report is noised abroad. This is the second 
advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. Again, 
householders, to whatsoever assembly one virtuous, endowed with 
virtue, goes, he enters boldly and unperturbed, whether it be an 
assembly of princes, an assembly of brahmins, an assembly of 
laymen, or an assembly of monks. This is the third advantage 
of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. Again, householders, 
one virtuous, endowed with virtue, dies undeluded. This is 
the fourth advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. 
Again, householders, one virtuous, endowed with virtue, on the 
dissolution of the body after death, reaches a happy destiny, 
a heavenly world. This is the fifth advantage of the fulfilment 
of virtue by the virtuous." 2 

Furthermore: " Brethren, should a brother desire to be dear 
and precious to, respected and honoured by his fellow-monks, 
he should fulfil the virtues" 3 In such wise have the various 
advantages of virtue, beginning with loveableness and 
preciousness and ending in the destruction of the intoxicants, 
been mentioned. Thus various qualities such as absence 

1 Anguttara v, 1. a Dlgha ii, 86. 3 Mnjjhima i, 33. 



12 The Path of Purity 

of remorse constitute the advantages of virtue. [10] More- 
over : 

The true religion gives to noble sons 

No other stay than virtue. Who can tell 

The limit of her power ? Not Ganga stream 

Nor Yamuna nor babbling Sarabhu, 

Nor Aciravati nor Mahi's flood, 

Can purify on earth the taints of men. 

But virtue's water can remove the stain 

Of all things living. Necklaces or pearl, 

Rain-bearing breezes, yellow sandalwood, 

Gems, nor soft rays of moonlight can destroy 

Heart-burnings of a creature. She alone 

Virtue well-guarded, noble, cool, avails. 

What scent else blows with and against the wind ? 

What stairway leads like her to heaven's gate ? 

W r hat door into Nibbana's city opes ? 

The Sage whose virtue is his ornament 

Outshines the pomp and pearls of jewelled kings. 

In virtuous men 1 virtue destroys self-blame, 

Begetting joy and praise. Thus should be known 

The sum of all the discourse on the power 

Of virtue, root of merits, slayer of faults. 

Now this is the answer to 

5. How many kinds of it are there ? 

(i) All this virtue is of one kind through its characteristic 
of being virtuous (monad i.). 

(ii) It is of two kinds as positive or negative rules of 
conduct (dyad 1) ; likewise as the minor or the major precepts 2 
(dyad 2); as abstinence or non- abstinence (dyad 3); as inter- 
ested or disinterested (dyad 4); as practised for a limited 
period of life or until the end of life (dyad 5); as violable or 
inviolable (dyad 6); as worldly or transcendental (dyad 7). 

[11] (iii) It is of three kinds as inferior, middling or 
superior (triad 1); likewise as dominantly influenced by self, 

1 Note the plural form yatino instead of yatayo. 

2 Or, the specialized or fundamental precepts. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 13 

by the world, or by the Law 1 (triad 2); as misconstrued, not 
misconstrued, or tranquillized (triad 3); as pure, impure, 
or doubtful (triad 4) ; as probationary, adept, or neither pro- 
bationary nor adept (triad 5). 

(iv) It is of four kinds as partaking of deterioration, of 
stability, of speciality, or of penetration (tetrad 1); likewise 
as concerning the brethren, concerning the sisters, concerning 
novices, or concerning laymen (tetrad 2) ; as natural, customary 
practice, fixed law, or the fruit of former conditions (tetrad 3) ; 
and as restraint according to the Patimokkha, restraint of the 
controlling faculties, purity of livelihood, or connected with 
the requisites (tetrad 4). 

(v) It is of five kinds as limited precepts of purity, unlimited 
precepts of purity, completed precepts of purity, precepts of 
purity not misconstrued, or tranquillized precepts of purity, 
according to what has been said in the Patisambhida, 
(pentad 1) ; likewise as rejection, abstention, volition, restraint, 
or non-transgression (pentad 2). 

Of these, 

(i) In the onefold portion (monad 1) the meaning is to be 
understood as has been said above. 2 

(ii) In the twofold portion (dyad 1) the fulfilling of the 
precepts enacted by the Blessed One thus: " This ought to be 
practised," is a positive rule of conduct; the non-doing of 
what has been prohibited as, " This ought not to be practised," 
is a negative rule of conduct. Here is the word-definition: 
by having fulfilled the precepts those who are endowed with 
a precept are practised in it ' positive rule of conduct.' 
By means of it they avoid, guard against a prohibition 
' negative rule of conduct.' Of these two, the former is 
accomplished by the effort of faith, the latter by faith. Thus 
it is twofold as positive and negative rules of conduct. 

In the second dyad special precept means the highest 
precept. 'Specialized ' is just special. Or, what is emu-ted 
with reference to a special precept is the ' specialized precept.' 
a synonym for the precept which remains over from the Bet 



- 1*. 9. 



14 The Path of Purity 

of eight precepts of which pure livelihood is the eighth. 1 
' The fundamental precept ' is the foundation of the exalted 
practice of the Path; and is a synonym for the set of eight 
precepts of which pure livelihood is the eighth. This set of 
eight is the foundation of the Path, because it ought to be in 
purified practice previous to the Path. Hence (the Buddha) 
has said: "Previously his bodily action, his vocal action, his 
livelihood have been well purified." 2 Or, what has been declared 
to be the minor and lesser precepts, [12] is the " minor pre- 
cept." The remainder is the " major precept." Or, that 
which is included in both the Yibhanga's, 3 is the " major 
precept"; that which is included in the Khandhaka 4 duties 
is the " minor precept." The former is perfected by perfec- 
tion in the latter. Hence (the Buddha) has said: " Brethren, 
it is impossible that a brother without fulfilling the law of the 
minor precept, should fulfil the law of the major precept." 5 
Thus it is twofold, as minor and major precepts (or specialized 
and fundamental). 

In the third dyad, the mere abstention from life-taking 
and so on, is the virtue of abstinence. The remaining volition 
and so on, is the virtue of non-abstinence. Thus it is twofold 
as abstinence and non-abstinence. 

In the fourth dyad ' interested ' means that there are two 
inducements : the inducement of craving and the inducement of 
views. Of these two that which arises from a desire to attain 
(a blissful) existence thus: " By means of this virtue I shall 
become a dera or a certain deva," 6 is the inducement of craving. 
That which arises from pure views thus: " By means of this 
virtue there will be purity," 7 is the inducement of views. And 
there is the transcendental virtue, and there is the worldly 
virtue which is a constituent of this these constitute the 



1 Viz. the purified actions, three of deed and four of speech, and pure 
livelihood. Cf. Expositor 505. 

2 Cf. Anguttara iii, 124 /. 

3 I.e. precepts for the brethren and the sisters as laid down in the 
Patimokkha, Vinaya Texts i (Sacred Books of the East). 

4 I.e. in the Mahavagga and Cullavagga, Ib. i, ii, iii. 

6 Angultara iii, 14. 6 Ib. iv, 461. 7 Dhammasangani 1005 



I. Exposition of Virtue 15 

" disinterested virtue." Thus it is twofold, as interested and 
disinterested. 

In the fifth dyad the virtue which is practised within a 
time-limit is " for a limited period of life." That which arises 
so long as it is practised during a life-time is 'until the end of 
life.' Thus it is twofold, as practised for a limited period of 
life, and until the end of life. 

In the sixth dyad that which is limited by present gain, 
pomp, relatives, limbs and life, is known as " violable." 
What is contrary to that is " inviolable." And this has been 
said in the Patisambhida: 1 ' What is that virtue which is 
violable ? There is virtue violable by gain, there is virtue 
violable by pomp, there is virtue violable by relatives, there is 
virtue violable by limbs, there is virtue violable by life. What is 
that virtue which is violable by gain ? Some one in the world 
on account of, by reason of, for the sake of gain transgresses any 
precept that may have been observed. Such [13] is the virtue 
that is violable by gain.' In this way the others also should be 
expanded. In the answers concerning the inviolable, also, it 
has been said: 2 " What is that virtue which is not violable by 
gain ? In this world, on account of, by reason of, for the sake of 
gain, a certain person does not give rise even to a thought of 
transgressing any precept that may have been observed. How, 
then, will he transgress it ? Such virtue is not violable by gain." 
In this way also the others should be expanded. Thus it is 
twofold, as violable and as inviolable. 

In the seventh dyad all virtue which is accompanied by 
(or the object of) the intoxicants is " worldly "; that which 
is not accompanied by the intoxicants is " transcendental." 
Of these two worldly virtue brings about distinction in present 
life, and is a constituent part of the escape from existence. 
As has been said: 3 " Discipline is for the purpose of restraint, 
which is for the purpose of absence of remorse, which is for 
the purpose of gladness, which is for the purpose of rapture, which 
is for the purpose of repose, which is for the purpose of blix#. 
which is for the purpose of concentration, which is for the purpose 

i i, 43. a Ib. i, 44. 3 Vinaya v, 164. 



16 The Path of Purity 

of knowing and seeing the truth, which is for tlie purpose of 
disgust, which is for the purpose of dispassion, which is for the 
purpose of emancipation, which is for the purpose of knowing and 
seeing emancipation, which is for the purpose of birthless 
Parinibbdna. 1 For such purpose is the discourse (on the 
Discipline), for such purpose is the consultation, for such purpose 
is the groundwork, for such purpose is the attentiveness, namely, 
the emancipation of the mind devoid of grasping." Transcen- 
dental virtue brings about escape from existence, and is the 
ground of retrospective knowledge. Thus it is twofold, as 
worldly and transcendental. 

(iii) Among the triads : In the first triad, that virtue which 
arises through inferior conation, consciousness, energy, or 
investigation, is "inferior"; that through middling conation 
and so on is "middling"; that through superior conation and 
so on is ' superior." Or, that which is practised from a 
desire for pomp is " inferior "; that for a meritorious result is 
" middling" ; that which is practised in connection with Ariyan- 
ship, 2 thus: "' This is what ought to be done," 3 is " superior." 
Or, virtue corrupted by exalting self and disparaging others, 
thus: " I am possessed of virtue; but these other brethren are 
wicked and evil in nature," is "inferior"; worldly virtue 
uncorrupted is "middling"; transcendental virtue is 
" superior." Or, that virtue which arises for the sake of 
wealth and property by way of craving is " inferior "; that 
for the sake of self -emancipation is " middling"; while that 
virtue of the perfections which arises for the sake of the 
emancipation of all beings, is " superior." Thus, it is three- 
fold as inferior, middling, and superior. 

In the second triad that virtue w^hich arises out of self- 
respect, having regard for self, and from a desire to put 
away what is improper for self, [14] is " dominantly influenced 

1 Anupadaparinibbana, i.e. entrance into Nibbana which, not grasp- 
ing after anything, leaves no material form behind and does not give 
rise to rebirth. 

2 On the definition of Ariyan see Expositor 452. 

3 The Tika reads : in connection with Ariyanship out of a loathing 
for evil: ' How shall one like me do such evil ?' 



I. Exposition of Virtue 17 

by self." That which arises out of respect for the world, 
having regard for the world, and from a desire to avoid accusa- 
tion by the world, is u dominantly influenced by the world." 
That which arises out of respect for the Law, having regard 
for the Law, and from a desire to honour the greatness of 
the Law, is " dominantly influenced by the Law." Thus it is 
threefold as dominantly influenced by self, and so on. 

In the third triad that virtue which in the dyads (dyad 4) 
was said to be ' interested,' is ' misconstrued ' through the 
misconstruction of craving and views. That virtue which is 
a constituent part of the path of a good average person and 
which is associated with the path of the probationers, is 
' not misconstrued.' That which is associated with the fruition 
of probation and adeptship is " tranquillized." Thus it is 
threefold as misconstrued and so on. 

In the fourth triad that virtue which is fulfilled without 
committing an offence or by atoning for an offence committed, 
is '"' pure " ; the virtue of one who has not atoned for an offence 
committed is " impure"; the virtue of one who has doubts 
regarding the object, the offence, or the transgression, is known 
as " doubtful." Of these, the religious meditator should 
purify the impure virtue; and when there is doubt, it should 
be dispelled by not transgressing against the object. So will it 
be pleasant for him. Thus it is threefold as pure, and so on. 

In the fifth triad virtue associated with the four Ariyan 
Paths and the three fruitions of monkhood is *' probationary " ; 
that which is associated with the fruition of sanctity is 
" adept " ; the rest is " neither probationary nor adept." Thus 
it is threSf old as probationary, and so on. But virtue is spoken 
of as simply the natural dispositions of the various beings in the 
world, so that, as referring to their virtue, one speaks of a 
man who has a disposition for ease, of one who has a dis- 
position for ill, of one who has a disposition for quarrels, of 
one who has a disposition for beautification ; thus, therefore, in 
the Patisambhida 1 there are three kinds of virtue: moral, im- 
moral, and unmoral. Hence it is said to be threefold, as moral, 



i, 44. 



18 The Path of Purity 

and so on. Of these three, immoral virtue does not correspond 
to any of the characteristics of the virtue which is meant here, 
therefore this triad has not been brought in here. Hence the 
division of the triads is to be understood in accordance with 
the method here given. 

(iv) In the first of the tetrads : 

Who serveth here the wicked, not the good, 

Seeth no injury to anything, 

Because he is unwise. [15] Full of wrong thoughts, 

He heeds not the controlling faculties, 

And all his virtue to corruption turns. 

Who is content with his own virtue won, 

Nor will bestir him to apply his mind 

In stations of religious exercise, 

Pleased with his virtue, seeking nothing higher, 

This brother's virtue turns to stagnancy. 

The virtuous, seeking fixity of thought, 

His virtue to pre-eminence is turned. 

Dissatisfied, wrapped in world-weariness, 

This brother's virtue is to insight turned. 

Thus it is fourfold as partaking of deterioration, and so on. 

In the second tetrad there are precepts enacted for the 
brethren, who should keep them separate from those enacted 
for the sisters. This is virtue " concerning the brethren." 
There are precepts enacted for the sisters, who should keep 
them separate from those enacted for the brethren. This is 
virtue " concerning the sisters." The ten precepts for novices 
male and female constitute virtue " concerning novices." 
There are five precepts ten if possible for the constant 
practice of lay-disciples, male and female. Eight are by way 
of duties for the sacred day. These constitute virtue " con- 
cerning laymen." Thus it is fourfold as concerning the 
brethren, and so on. 

In the third tetrad non-transgression by men of Uttara- 
kuru 1 is " natural " virtue. The regulated conduct of various 
people according to family customs, localities, beliefs, is 

1 One of the ' four Great Islands.' 



I. Exposition of Virtue 19 

virtue " as customary practice." The virtue of the mother 
of the future Buddha, declared thus: " This is a fixed law, 
Ananda, that when the future Buddha descended into the mother's 
wotnb, she had no thought connected with lust for men," 1 is 
virtue " as fixed law." The virtue of such pure beings as 
Mahakassapa, and others, and of the future Buddha in many 
births, is virtue " as the fruit of former conditions." Thus 
it is fourfold as natural, and so on. 

In the fourth tetrad, (a) that virtue which has been declared 
by the Blessed One thus: "Here (in this religion) a brother 
lives, being restrained by the restraint of the Pdtimokkha, is 
possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort, sees danger in 
the smallest faults, trains himself in the observance of the pre- 
cepts" 2 this is virtue " as restraint according to the Pati- 
mokkha." (6) Virtue " as restraint of the controlling 
faculties," is that virtue which has been declared thus: " Whm 
he sees an object with his eye, [16] he is not entranced by the 
general appearance or the details of it. He sets himself to 
restrain that which might give occasion for immoral states, 
covetousness, and grief to flow in over him while he dwells un- 
restrained as to the faculty of sight. He keeps watch over his 
faculty of sight, and he attains to mastery over it. And so, in 
like manner, when he hears a sound with his ear, or smells an 
odour with his nose, or tastes a flavour with his tongue, or feels 
a touch with his body, or cognizes an idea with his mind, he is net 
entranced by the general appearance or the details of it. He 
sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for immoral 
states, covetousness, and grief to flow in over him while he dwells 
unrestrained as to the faculty of mind. He keeps watch over 
his mental (representative) faculty, and he attains to mastery 
over it." 3 (c) The abstinence from wrong livelihood arisen by 
way of evil states, such as the transgression of the six precepts 
encicted for the sake of livelihood, and as " trickery, boastful 
talk (about self and donors), insinuation (in almsgiving), 
crushing slander, hungering to add gain to gain," 4 is virtue 
" as purity of livelihood." (d) The use of the four requisites 

i Majjhima iii, 121. 2 Vibhanga 244. 3 Dlgha i, 70. 

* Vibhanga 345. Cf. Dialogues of the Buddha i, 15. 



20 The Path of Purity 

after pure reflection set forth after this manner : " He accepts 
the robe wisely reflecting that it is only for the warding off of 
cold," 1 is known as virtue " connected with the requisites." 

5 (iv, a). Virtue as restraint according to the Patimokkha. 

Herein (i.e. dealing with the four kinds of the fourth tetrad) 
this is the deciding discourse together with the word-by-word 
comment from the beginning: "Here" means, "in this 
religion." " Brother " is a son of respectable family, who from 
faith becomes a monk in the customary way, because of 
his viewing danger in the stream of existence, or of wearing 
torn shattered rags, and so forth. In " being restrained by 
the restraint of the Patimokkha," " Patimokkha " is the 
virtue of the precepts. It delivers, releases him who guards it, 
observes it, from the ills of the states of woe and so forth 
hence it is called " Patimokkha." The restraining is 
i- restraint," a name for non-transgression, bodily and vocal. 
" The restraint of the Patimokkha " means that the Pati- 
mokkha itself is the restraint. " Being restrained by the 
restraint of the Patimokkha " means, to be restrained by that 
Patimokkha-restraint. Attained to, endowed with, is the 
meaning. " Lives " means comports himself. 

[17] The meaning of, " is possessed of good behaviour and 
lawful resort," and so on, is to be understood in the way that 
comes in the Pali text. 2 For this has been said: ' He is 
possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort. There is good 
behaviour and there is misbeJtaviour. Of these what is misbe- 
haviour? Bodily transgression, vocal transgression, bodily- 
and-vocal transgression, this is called misbehaviour. All 
wickedness also is misbehaviour. A certain member of the 
Order here obtains his livelihood by a gift of bamboos, of 
leaves, of flowers, or fruits, or bath-powder, or tooth-sticks, by 
fawning, by bean-curry talk, by nurture (of supporters' chil- 
dren), by carrying messages on foot, or by any other means of 
wrong livelihood loathed by the Buddhas. This is called 
misbehaviour. 

1 Majjhima i, 10. The remaining portion of this quotation is brought 
out and commented on in p. 36 /. 

2 Vibhanga 246. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 21 

And what is good behaviour? Bodily non-transgression, 
vocal non-transgression, bodily-and-vocal non-transgression 
this is called good behaviour. All virtue-restraint also is good 
behaviour. A certain member of the Order here does not obtain 
his livelihood by a gift of bamboos . . . loathed by the Buddhas. 
This is called good behaviour. As regards lawful resort there 
is lawful resort, and there is unlawful resort. Of these, what 
is unlawful resort ? A certain member of the Order here 
resorts (for alms) to a harlot, a widow, an old maid, a eunuch, 
a nun, or a liquor shop ; against the 'precepts, he associates after 
the manner of laymen, with kings, ministers, heretical teachers, 
and their disciples; serves, follows, attends on families of faithless 
unbelievers, who abuse and censure the brethren and sisters, 
the lay-disciples male and female, not wishing their good, benefit, 
comfort or security (from the burden of ill). [18] This is called 
unlawful resort. And what is lawful resort ? A certain 
member of the Order here does not resort to a harlot . . . does 
not associate after the manner of laymen, against the precepts, 
with kings . . . serves, follows, attends on faithful families 
of believers who are welling springs (for the benefit of monks), 
who love the shining of yellow robes and the odour of sanctity, 
and who desire the good, benefit, comfort, and security of the 
brethren and sisters, of the lay-disciples male and female. 
This is called lawful resort. Thus being full of, fulfilled with, 
arrived at, attained to, possessed of, fully possessed of, endowed 
with such good behaviour and such lawful resort, one is said 
to be" possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort." 

Further, " good behaviour and lawful resort" here should 
be understood also in this way: For misbehaviour is twofold, 
bodily and vocal. Of these what is bodily misbehaviour '$ 
A certain member of the Order here, having gone to an 
assembly of the Order, stands and sits rudely brushing against 
the senior brethren; stands and sits in front; sits on a high 
seat; sits with his head covered; speaks while standing and 
while stretching out his arm ; walks up and down with sandals 
on while the senior brethren walk without sandals; walks 
above while they walk below; walks on the promenade while 
they walk on the ground; stands and sits pushing himself 



22 The Path of Purity 

close to the senior brethren; withholds seats from the new 
brethren; without the permission of the senior brethren 
throws down fire- wood in the fire-shed and shuts its door ; 
goes down to the bathing-place brushing against the senior 
brethren and before them ; takes a bath brushing against them 
and before them ; comes up brushing against them and before 
them ; enters among houses brushing against them and before 
them ; departing from their side goes in front of them ; enters 
abruptly into the secret and private rooms of respectable 
people, where their women and daughters are sitting down, 
and strokes the head of a child. This is called bodily mis- 
behaviour. 

And what is vocal misbehaviour ? A certain member of the 
Order here goes to an assembly of the Order, and without ask- 
ing leave of the senior brethren rudely speaks on the Law, 
answers a question and expounds the Patimokkha; speaks 
while standing, [19] and while stretching out his arm; goes 
among houses, and says to a woman or a girl: "Madam 
so-and-so, of such and such a family, what is there to eat 
and drink ? Is there rice-gruel ? Is there food ? Is there 
something to eat ? What shall we drink ? What shall we 
eat ? Of what shall we partake ? What will you give me ?" 
Thus he chatters. This is called vocal misbehaviour. Good 
behaviour should be understood as its opposite. Further- 
more, a brother is respectful, obedient, possessed of a sense of 
shame and dread of blame, wears his inner and outer robes 
properly, is distinguished by his gracious manner of advancing, 
of retreating, of looking ahead, of looking sideways, of bending 
and stretching his limbs, keeps his eyes lowered, is possessed 
of good deportment, keeps a guarded door as respects his 
controlling faculties, is moderate in food, devoted to keeping 
awake, endowed with mindfulness and comprehension, free 
from desires, contented, strenuously energetic, a respectful 
observer of the minor precepts, and full of regard for worthy 
things. This is called good behaviour. So far it should be 
understood. 

Lawful resort is of three kinds: as a sufficing condition, 
as a guardian, and as a bond. Of these what is lawful resort 



I. Exposition of Virtue 23 

as a sufficing condition ? A good friend endowed with the 
qualities of the ten subjects of discourse, owing to whom one 
hears what has not hitherto been heard, purifies what has been 
heard, gets beyond one's doubts, rectifies one's views and 
composes one's mind; or under whose training one increases 
in faith, virtue, learning, self-sacrifice, wisdom, is called 
lawful resort as a sufficing condition. 

What is lawful resort as a guardian ? A brother here, 
on entering among the houses of a village and walking along 
the streets, goes lowering his eyes, looking before him not 
further than the distance of a plough, and is well-restrained. 
He does not go looking at an elephant, a horse, a chariot, 
a pedestrian, a woman, or a man. He does not go looking 
above, down, or in different directions. This is called lawful 
resort as a guardian. 

What is lawful resort as a bond ? The four applications of 
mindfulness 1 wherein the mind is bound. For this has been 
said by the Blessed One: " Brethren, what is the lawful resort 
of a brother, his paternal province ? It is the four applications 
of mindfulness" 2 This is called lawful resort as a bond. 
Thus being full of ... endowed with such good behaviour 
and lawful resort, one is said to be " possessed of good be- 
haviour and lawful resort." 

[20] " Sees danger in the smallest faults" is in the habit 
of seeing danger in the various kinds of the smallest faults, 
such as are unintentional, committed in the course of his 
training, produced by immoral states of consciousness. 

" Trains himself in the observance of the precepts " 
trains himself by observing all that ought to be observed in 
the precepts. And here by so much of the text " being 
restrained by the restraint of the Patimokkha," the virtue of 
the Patimokkha-restraint is indicated by the exposition, 
determined by the person. But all beginning with " is 
possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort " should be 
understood to have been said to indicate that practice which 
arises for any one who practises it. 

1 I.e. as regards the body, feelings, thought, and states. 

2 Sayyutta v, 148. 



24 The Path of Purity 

5 (iv, 6). Virtue as restraint of the Controlling Faculties. 

In virtue as restraint of the Controlling Faculties which 
has been shown in this way, " when he sees an object with his 
eye," and so on (p. 19), " He " is a brother established in 
virtue which is of the-Patimokkha-restraint. 

" When (he) sees an object with his eye," when he sees 
an object by means of visual cognition commonly called the 
eye as instrument, and capable of seeing an object. But the 
Ancients have said: " The eye does not see the object in the 
absence of the mind. The mind does not see the object in 
the absence of the eye. But one sees by the mind with the 
sentient eye as basis, when an impact takes place between 
the door (of the eye) and the object." Nevertheless, such a 
discourse as the present one really refers to the constituent 
parts of sight in the same sense as when one says, " He 
pierces with a bow," and so forth. Therefore the meaning here 
is, " when he sees an object by visual cognition." 

" Is not entranced by the general appearance," does not 
seize the general appearance as furnishing a basis for corrup- 
tion, such as the general appearance of a woman, a man, or of 
any desirable form, and so on. He stops at what is actually 
seen. " Is not entranced by the details of it," does not 
seize the different modes of hand, foot, smiling, laughing, 
speaking, looking ahead, looking sideways, and so forth, 
which have obtained the common name of " details " by 
reason of repeated expression as a manifestation of the 
corruptions. He seizes only what appears (as the abominable 
thirty-two parts) in the body, like Mahatissa the Elder who 
lived at Mount Cetiya. It is said that a certain daughter-in- 
law, having broken with her husband and having well beauti- 
fied and dressed herself like a celestial nymph, left Anuradha- 
pura betimes, and, while going to the home of her relatives, 
saw on the way the Elder, who was coming to Anuradhapura 
from Mount Cetiya for the sake of alms, and with corrupt 
thoughts [21] laughed aloud. The Elder, wondering what it 
was, looked up, and acquiring the perception of the foul 
in her teeth (-bones), attained Sanctity. Hence it has been 
said: 



I. Exposition of Virtue 25 

'' Those bones, her teeth, he saw, and called to mind 
His first perception. Even where he stood 
The Elder thus attained to Sanctity." 

And the husband, following the same road, saw the Elder 
and enquired: "Perhaps Your Reverence has met a certain 
lady ?" The Elder replied : 

" I know not whether man or woman passed. 
A certain lump of bones went by this way." 

In " which might give occasion," and so on, these states 
such as covetousness and so forth might flow in over, might 
pursue this person who dwells with the door of his sight open 
without shutting the faculty of sight by the door-leaf of mind- 
fulness on account of, by reason of, whatsoever non-restraint 
of the faculty of sight. " He sets himself to restrain that," 
sets himself to shut his faculty of sight by the door-leaf of 
mindfulness. Only he who is practising thus is said " to keep 
watch over his faculty of sight and to attain to mastery over 
it," whereby, if there is neither restraint nor non-restraint in 
the faculty of sight, it is because there arises neither mindful- 
ness nor forgetfulness with reference to the sentient eye. 
But indeed, when a visible object enters the avenue of sight, 
then, on the cessation of the subconsciousness after arising 
two or three times, the inoperative mind-element (or, the 
five-door-adverting) arises, accomplishing the function of 
adverting, and then ceases. Then arise and cease in order, 
the visual cognition accomplishing the function of seeing, 
the resultant mind-element accomplishing the function of 
receiving, the resultant element of mind-cognition without 
root-conditions accomplishing the function of scrutinizing, 
and the inoperative element of mind-cognition without root- 
conditions accomplishing the function of determining. 
Immediately afterwards, apperception takes place. But 
still in these processes there is neither restraint nor non- 
restraint at the time of subconsciousness, or of any one of the 
processes beginning with adverting. But if at the moment 
of apperception there arises wickedness, forgetfulness, lack 



26 The Path of Purity 

of knowledge, lack of patience, or laziness, then there is non- 
restraint. Such non-restraint is called " non-restraint in the 
faculty of sight." [22] And why ? Because when it arises 
the door is unguarded, and so also the sub consciousness and 
the thought-processes beginning with adverting. Like what ? 
Just as although the interior of houses, door- entrances and 
chambers, and so forth, may be well closed, yet when the 
four doors in a town are not closed, all treasure within the 
town is unguarded, unprotected, so that thieves entering by 
a door of the town may do what they please, so when 
wickedness and so forth arise at apperception, when non- 
restraint is present thereat, the door is unguarded, and 
so also are the subconsciousness and the thought-processes 
beginning with adverting. But when virtue and so on arise 
at apperception, the door is guarded, and so also are the 
subconsciousness and the thought-processes beginning with 
adverting. Like what? Just as, although the interior of 
houses and so on may not be closed, yet when the doors 
of the town are well closed, all treasure within the town is 
well guarded, well protected, and there is no entrance for 
thieves through the closed doors of the town, so, when virtue 
and so forth arise at apperception, the door is guarded and 
so also are the subconsciousness and the thought-processes 
beginning with adverting. Hence, although it arises at the 
apperceptional moment, it is said to be restraint in the 
faculty of sight. And the same with, " when he hears a sound 
with his ear," and so on. And thus briefly, virtue as restraint 
of the controlling faculties should be understood as possessing 
the characteristic of not being entranced by such outward 
signs and so on in following the corruptions in visible objects, 
and so forth. 

5 (iv, c). Virtue as Purity of Livelihood. 

Passing now to virtue as Purity of Livelihood (p. 19), 
spoken of immediately after virtue as restraint of the con- 
trolling faculties: " Of the six precepts enacted for the sake 
of livelihood " means for the sake of, on account of liveli- 
hood, one with evil desires, oppressed by desire, lays claim 
untruly, falsely, to possession of a quality pertaining only to 



I. Exposition of Virtue 27 

the highest kind of men, 1 whereby he commits a Parajika 
offence. 2 For the sake of, on account of livelihood, one acts 
as go-between, and so commits the Sanghadisesa offence. 
For the sake of, on account of livelihood, one knowingly 
proclaims (for gain) that a certain brother who lives in one's 
monastery is a saint, and so commits the Thullaccaya offences. 
For the sake of, on account of livelihood, a brother, not being 
ill, demands for his own benefit and eats delicious food, and 
so commits the Pacittiya offence. For the sake of, on account 
of livelihood, a sister, not being ill, demands. for her own benefit 
and eats delicious food, and so commits the Patidesaniya 
offence. For the sake of, on account of livelihood, one not being 
ill, demands for one's own benefit, soup or rice, 3 [23] and so 
commits the Dukkata offence, thus are laid down these six 
precepts in the words, " Of these six precepts, and so on." 

Of ' trickery,' and so on, this is the Pali text: 4 ' What here 
is "trickery?" The adjusting, establishing, regulating, of the 
postures, knitting the brows, the state of knitted brows, trickery, 
its production and its state on the part of one of evil desires, 
oppressed by desire, who relies upon gain, honour, and fame, in 
what is called his acquisition of the requisites and in his round- 
about talk (with a show of wisdom) this is called " trickery." 

'What here is " boastful talk?" Initial talk, boastful talk, 
repeated talk, flattering talk, very flattering talk, binding speech, 
encircling speech, praise, full praise, pleasant speech, fawning, 
bean-curry talk, nurture (of supporters' children) on the part 
of one of evil desires, oppressed by desire, who relies upon gain, 
honour, and fame this is called " boastful talk" 

' What here is " insinuation?" A sign, making a sign, a hint, 
giving a hint, roundabout talk, winding speech on the part of 
one of evil desires, oppressed by desire, who relies upon gain, 
honour, and fame this is called " insinuation" 



1 I.e. those on the Higher Path to Sanctity. 

a This and the following five are names of offences against the 
Vinaya of a descending degree in seriousness, from the first kind which 
involves immediate and lifelong expulsion from the Order, down to the 
last which only entails reprimand from a senior brother or sister. 

3 Vinaya v, 146. * Vibhanga352f. 



28 The Path of Purity 

' What here is " crushing slander ?" Abusing, reviling, 
blaming, sarcastically praising (or casting out), sarcastically 
praising much (or totally casting out), ridiculing, much ridicul- 
ing, accusing, fully accusing, dealing in dispraise, backbiting 
on the part of one of evil desires, oppressed by desire, who relies 
upon gain, honour, and fame this is called " crushing slander." 

' What here is " hungering to add gain to gain?" The search, 
earnest search, full search, the seeking, earnest seeking, full 
seeking, for one fleshly need by means of another fleshly need, 
in such wise as taking what has been obtained in this place to 
that place and bringing what has been obtained in that place to this 
place, on the part of one of evil desires, oppressed by desire, 
who relies upon gain, honour, and fame this is called " hunger- 
ing to add gain to gain." 

And the meaning of this Pali text is to be understood thus : 

In the exposition of " trickery," " who relies upon gain, 
honour, and fame," means, relies upon gain, and honour, and 
the report of good repute; desiring is the meaning. [24] " Of 
evil desires " means, desirous of showing off imaginary 
merits. " Oppressed by desire " means, set apart by, i.e. 
oppressed by, desire. After this, because the threefold basis 
of trickery comes in the Mahaniddesa, 1 as the acquisition of 
the requisites, roundabout talk, and dependence on the four 
postures, therefore, in order to set forth this threefold basis, a 
beginning is made with in what is catted his acquisition of the 
requisites and so on, where " basis of trickery that is called his 
acquisition of the requisites " is to be understood as the admira- 
tion of him which causes the presentation to him of requisites in 
cartloads, since, much as he wants them on account of evil de- 
sire, he refuses the robes and so forth offered to him, as knowing 
also the householders' firm faith in him that he shows favour 2 
to those who offer excellent robes in divers ways, exclaiming : 
" Ah ! what little desire has our master ! He does not want 
to take anything. It would indeed be great gain to us were 
he to accept a little from us !" 

1 224. 

2 Implying that he accepts the gifts offered not because he -wants 
them, but only in order that the donors may obtain merit. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 29 

For it has been said in the Mahaniddesa: 1 

" What is the basis of trickery that is called his acquisition of 
the requisites ? Householders here below invite a brother to accent 
the four requisites, namely, a robe, alms, dwelling, and medicine 
for the sick; and he, of evil desires, oppressed by desire, much as 
he wants them, refuses the robe owing to his desire for more ; 
refuses the alms, the dwelling, the medicine for the sick. And 
he speaks thus : ' What is the use of a costly robe to a monk ? 
It is proper that a monk should pick up rotten nigs from a 
graveyard, refuse-heap, or from shop-refuse, and make and 
wear his robe. What is the use of grand alms to a monk ? It 
is proper that he should maintain life by whatever morsels of 
food he has received on his begging round. What is the use 
of a costly dwelling to a monk ? It is proper that he should live 
at the foot of a tree or under the open sky. What is the use of 
costly medicine for the sick to a monk ? It is proper that he 
should make medicine out of putrid cow-urine or bits of myro- 
balan.' And accordingly he wears a coarse robe, eats coarse 
food, [25] resorts to a coarse dwelling, resorts to coarse medicine 
for the sick. Him the householders know thus: ' This monk 
is of few wants, contented, secluded, set apart from laymen, 
strenuously energetic, and ascetic.' And so all the more they 
invite him to accept robes, alms, dwelling and medicine for the 
sick. And he says: ' Through the presence of three things a 
faithful son of noble family gets much merit. From the presence 
of faith, of the thing offered, and of those worthy of receiving 
the gift, a faithful son of noble family get* much merit. You 
have indeed faith, and there is the gift, and 1 ant, worthy to receive 
it. Were I not to accept it you would be deprived of the oppor- 
tunity of earning merit. I have no need of thin gift. However, 
I accept it out of compassion for you.' And accordingly he 
accepts many robes, much food, many dwellings, much medicine 
for the sick. Such knitting of the eyebrows, state of knitted brows, 
trickery, its production and its state is known as ' the basis of 
trickery that is called his acquisition of the requisites.' ' 

And the admiration that he excites in various ways by his 
words, which seem to show his attainment of qualities possessed 

1 Loc. cit. 



30 The Path of Purity 

by noble men, whereas in truth he is of evil desire, is to be 
known as "the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk." 

As has been said : l 

" What is the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk? 
A certain member of the. Order here below who is of evil desires, 
oppressed by desire, and wishful of obtaining praise, speaks 
words appertaining to the Ariyan Law, in so doing hoping that 
the people may praise him. And he speaks thus : ' That monk 
who wears such and such a robe is a powerful monk.'' He says : 
' That monk who has such a bowl, metal cup, water-filler, water- 
strainer, key, belt, pair of sandals, is a powerful monk. That 
monk who has such and such a preceptor or teacher, such and 
such a friend, acquaintance, companion or intimate friend under 
the same preceptor and the same teacher . . . that monk who 
lives in such and such a monastery, 2 half-roofed monastery, 3 
graduated turret, flat turret, cave, cavern, hut, gabled house, 
tower, square turret, treasury, service-hall, [26] pavilion, at 
the foot of such and such a tree, is a powerful monk.' More- 
over, being repeatedly blinded by the dust of evil desire, knitting 
the eyebrows repeatedly, wonderfully tricksome, excessively 
talkative and praised for his words, he utters such speech, pro- 
found, hidden, subtle, secret, transcendental, connected with the 
Void as, ' This monk has acquired such and such calm attain- 
ments of the modes of life.' Such knitting of the eyebrows, 
state of knitted brows, trickery, its production and state, is spoken 
of as ' the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk.' ' 

The admiration that he excites by regulating his four 
postures 4 with a view to getting praise, he being of evil desires 
and oppressed by desire, is to be understood as the " basis of 
trickery dependent on the postures." As has been said : 5 

" What is the ' basis of trickery that is called the postures?' 
A certain member of the Order here below, being of evil desires, 
oppressed by desire, and hoping to get praise from the people 



1 76.226. 

2 The roof consisting of two sloping parts which meet at the ridge- 
pole. 

3 The roof being one sloping piece. 

4 Viz. walking, standing, sitting, and lying down. 5 Ib. 225. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 31 

by his actions, adopts an affected style of walking, of lying 
down, walks, stands, sits, lies down with a resolve to keep up 
appearances, walks, stands, sits, lies down, as though he possessed 
concentration, and pretends to be rapt in trance. Such adjusting, 
establishing, and regulating of the postures, knitting of the brows, 
state of knitted brows, trickery, its production and state, is known 
as ' the basis of trickery that is called the postures.' ' 

In that text (p. 27) :" In what is called his acquisition of the 
requisites " means, in his acquisition of the requisites so-called ; 
or, in that which is said to be his acquisition of the requisites. 
" In his roundabout talk " means by speech bordering on 
wisdom. "Of the postures" means of the four postures. 
" Adjusting " means initial arrangement or reverential arrange- 
ment. " Establishing " means the mode of arrangement. 
"Regulating" means perfect arrangement; it is said to 
produce faith. ' Knitting of the brows ' is said to mean by 
way of showing that he is noble and of the first importance, 1 
he knits and contracts his brows. His nature is to knit his 
brows; hence he is known as " knitting his brows." The 
state of one whose nature is to knit his brows is " state of 
knitted brows." " Trickery " means wonderfulness. The 
producing of trickery 2 is " production of trickery." The state 
of him who works trickery is " state of trickery." 

In the exposition of " boastful talk," " initial talk " 
means that, on seeing men come to the monastery he begins 
the talk thus: " Sirs, for what purpose have you come ? Is it 
to invite the brethren ? [27] If so, proceed; I will follow 
with my bowl." Or it means boastful talk turning upon 
himself which he makes after presenting himself thus: " I am 
Tissa. With me the king is pleased. In me such and such a 
royal high minister is pleased." " Boastful talk " means 
boasting in the said manner on enquiry being made (as to a 
good monk). " Repeated talk " is good talk given freely 
to him from among the householders who is afraid the brother 
may not be happy in a particular place. "Flattering talk " 
means talk flattering to such a person as a millionaire, a great 

1 Or, ' is noble and polished ' reading parimatthita/or purimatthita. 

2 Or, ' The manner of him who products trickery.' 



32 The Path of Purity 

boat-owner, a lord of great charities. " Very flattering talk " 
means talk flattering a person on all sides. " Binding speech " 
means that he talks thus: " Lay-disciples, formerly at such a 
time you used to offer the first fruits. AVhy do you not ofier 
them now ?" And he goes on binding and enveloping them 
with his talk until they say, " Sir, we shall offer. We have 
not yet had a chance," and so forth. Or, seeing a man holding 
a sugar-cane in his hand, he asks: " Lay-disciple, where have 
you brought it from ?" " From the sugar-cane field, sir." 
" Is the sugar-cane there sweet ?" " Sir, that may be known 
after sucking it." " Lay-disciple, it is not proper to say, 
give the sugar-cane to the brother." To him who replies 
thus it is enveloping speech, which is " binding speech." 
Binding repeatedly on all sides is " encircling speech." The 
setting forth with flattery thus: " This family knows me only. 
If they have anything to give, they give it to me only," is 
" praise," said to be " setting forth." Here the Telakanda- 
rika 1 story is to be understood. Praising repeatedly on all 
sides is '' full praise." Speaking loving words again and 
again without regard to anything about the truth or the Law, 
is " pleasant speech." " Fawning " is lowliness, speaking 
by ever lowering oneself. " Bean-curry talk " bears resem- 
blance to a curry of beans. As when beans are cooked some 
are not cooked, while the rest are cooked, so when a certain 
person speaks, some words are true, while the rest are lies. 
Such a person is said to be a " bean-curry-man." His state is 
' that of a bean-curry.' " Nurture " [28] is the state of nur- 
turing, the act of him who, like a nurse, nurtures on his hip 
or shoulder the children of families carries them is the 
meaning. The state of nurturing is " nurture." 

In the exposition of " insinuation " " sign " is any act of body 
and speech producing a sign to others for the giving of the 
requisites. " Making a sign " is the making of a sign as much 
as to say, " Did you get any food ?" on seeing others going 
along taking food. " Hint " is speech connected with the 
requisites. *' Giving a hint " is the production of a hint 

1 Telakatahagatha ? See Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1884, 49 /. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 33 

thus: On seeing cow-herds tending calves, a member of the 
Order asks: '' Are these calves sucking the mother's milk or 
drinking diluted buttermilk ?" " They are calves sucking 
the mother's milk, sir," the cowherds reply. Then he says: 
' ' They are not milk-sucking calves. If they were milk-sucking 
calves, the brethren also would receive milk." And in this 
way he makes the lads inform their parents so that they have 
to offer milk. " Roundabout talk " is talk bordering on the 
object wanted. Here the story of the brother, frequenter 
of a family, should be considered. It is said that a certain 
brother, a frequenter of a family, enters the house and sits 
down wishing for food. The lady of the house seeing him, 
and not wishing to give food, says: " There is no rice," and 
goes to a neighbour's house as though to bring rice. Then the 
brother enters the interior of the house, and looking about, 
sees sugar-cane in a door-corner, molasses in a bowl, flat pieces 
of salt fish in a basket, 1 rice in a pot, butter in a jar, and comes 
out and sits down. The lady comes back saying she has not 
obtained any rice. And the brother says: " Madam, I already 
saw a sign that to-day my alms-begging would not be success- 
ful." " What may it be, sir ?" "I saw a snake like the 
sugar-cane lying there in the door-corner. Looking about 
with the intention of striking it, I saw a stone like the molasses 
kept there in the bowl. And the snake, struck by the stone, 
spread a hood like the fiat pieces of salt-fish kept there in the 
basket. The teeth of the snake wanting to bite the stone 
were like the rice kept there in the pot. And the saliva mixed 
with poison issuing from its mouth in its state of anger 
was like the butter kept there in the jar." Then the house- 
wife, unable to impose upon the bald-pate, presented him with 
the sugar-cane, [29] cooked the rice, and gave everything, 
butter, molasses, fish and all. Thus a talk bordering on 
what one desires is " roundabout talk." " Winding speech " 
is speaking round and round until one gets what is 
wanted. 
In the exposition of " crushing slander " (p. 28) " abusing " 

1 Read pitake/or pat ike. 



34 The Path of Purity 

is abusing by means of the ten terms 1 of abuse. " Revil- 
ing " is humiliating speech. " Blaming " is charging another 
with fault, such as calling him a person without faith, without 
belief. "Casting out" (ukkhepana) is casting out a person 
verbally, saying, " Speak not to him about almsgiving." 
" Totally casting out " (samukkhepana) is casting out a person 
by finding a reason, a cause on all sides. Or, ukkhepana means 
" sarcastically praising," whereby, on seeing a person who 
has not given alms a monk calls out sarcastically: " Oho! 
what a lord of alms !" Samukkhepana is " sarcastically prais- 
ing much," whereby he calls out: " What a great lord of 
amis!" "Ridiculing" is making fun thus: "What a life is 
led by this man who feeds on the seed of kamma !" " Much 
ridiculing " is making much fun thus : " What ! do you call this 
man a non-giver, who always gives the expression ' nothing ' to 
everyone ?" " Accusing " is charging one with a lack of alms- 
giving or of praise worthiness. Making charge thus on all 
sides is " fully accusing." " Dealing in dispraise " means 
that he deals out dispraise of a person from house to house, 
village to village, district to district, thinking that from fear 
of dispraise that person may give him alms. " Backbiting " 
means that he speaks honeyed words in one's presence, and 
speaks in dispraise behind one's back. And because such a 
speech of one who dares not look another in the face is like 
gnawing the flesh off another's back, it is called " backbiting." 
" This is called crushing slander " means, because it crushes, 
scrapes off another's merits as unguent is scraped off the body 
with a split bamboo ; or because it crushes and grinds to powder 
another's merits like extracting scent from a fragrant substance 
by grinding it; and it (this speech) is also a search after gain, 
therefore it is called " crushing slander." 

In the exposition of " hungering to add gain to gain," 
" hungering " is tracing out. " W T hat has been obtained in this 
place " means what has been obtained from this house. " To 
that place" means to that house. "Search" is desiring to 

1 I.e. calling a person a thief, a simpleton, a fool, a camel, an ox, an 
ass, a denizen of hell, a brute, and saying to him ' There is no salvation 
for you,' and ' An evil destiny awaits you.' Dhaminapada Corny, iv, 1 . 



I. Exposition of Virtue 35 

get. " Earnest search " means tracing out. " Full search " 
means tracing out repeatedly. [30] Here is to be related 
the story of the brother who went giving to the boys of 
various families whatever had been obtained, beginning from 
the first house and getting milk and rice-gruel on the way. 
" Seeking " and the others are only synonyms of " search " 
and so on. Hence " search " is " seeking," " earnest search " 
is "earnest seeking," "full search" is " full seeking " 
thus is the construction here to be understood. Such is the 
meaning of " trickery " and so on. 

Now in, " Of evil states such as " (p. 19, c), by the ex- 
pression "such as" inclusion should be understood of the 
various evil states spoken of in the Brahmajdla Sutta in this 
way: " Whereas some monks and Brahmins, while living on food 
provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of 
livelihood, by low arts, such as these: 'palmistry, divining by 
means of omens and signs, auguries drawn from thunderbolts 
and other celestial portents, 'prognostication by interpreting 
dreams, fortune-telling from marks on the body, auguries from 
the marks on cloth gnawed by mice, sacrificing to Agni, offering 
oblations from a spoon" 1 Thus has been indicated this 
" wrong livelihood by way of evil states such as the trans- 
gression of the six precepts enacted for the sake of livelihood, 
and as trickery, boastful talk, insinuation, crushing slander, 
hungering to add gain to gain." That abstinence from all 
such wrong livelihood is " virtue as purity of livelihood," 
wherein, this is the word-by-word comment : depending on it 
people live " life." What is that ? Effort in the search for 
the requisites. " Purity" is the state of being pure. " Life- 
purity " is the purity of life. 

5 (iv, d). Virtue connected with the requisites. 

And immediately after this there is mentioned " virtue 
connected with the requisites," wherein " wisely reflecting " 
means knowing on reflection as to expediency and the right 
path: considering is the meaning. The consideration men- 
tioned here in such wise as " for the warding off of cold," is 

1 Dlijha i, 9. 



36 The Path of Purity 

to be understood as " wisely reflecting." Here " robe" means 
any garment such as the waist-cloth. "Accepts" means 
enjoys, wears or puts on. "Only for" is [31] an expression 
showing the limit of purpose. " For the warding off of cold," 
and so forth this is the sole object of the religious medi- 
tator in accepting the robe; there is no other. " Of cold" 
means of the cold arising to any one either internally by the 
disturbance of his own elements, or externally by a change 
in the weather. " For the warding off " means for the 
purpose of warding off; for the purpose of expelling so 
that sickness may not be produced in his body. Because 
when the body is afflicted with sickness, one becomes 
distracted in mind and cannot wisely strive (for culture), 
therefore, the Blessed One allowed the use of a robe for the 
warding off of cold. And the same with all the other words. 1 
For among them " of heat " means of the heat of fire, i.e., 
heat produced in a jungle-fire, and so forth. In " of the touch 
of gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, heat, and reptiles," " gad- 
flies " are biting flies, also called blind flies. " Mosquitoes " 
are mosquitoes. " Wind " is divided into wind charged with 
dust and wind not charged with dust. " Heat " is the sun's 
heat. " Reptiles " are those creatures that creep and move 
about, such as the long-bodied snakes. Their touch is twofold : 
the touch of bite and the touch of contact; and this troubles 
not him who is seated covered with a robe. Hence under 
these circumstances he accepts a robe for the purpose of the 
warding off of such creatures. The repetition of the expres- 
sion " only for" is to show the limit of a constant purpose. 
For " the covering of one's private parts " is a constant 
purpose. The others are so only at times. Here " private 
parts " means the interstice between the legs. Indeed, when 
any of these parts is revealed, the sense of shame is disturbed, 
destroyed : and so because they destroy shame they are called 
" the private parts." Hirikoplnapaticchddanatthdni means 
for the purpose of covering these private parts. The reading 
is also hirikopinaih paticchddanattham. 

1 Occurring in Majjhima i, 10, quoted above on p. 20, n. 1. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 37 

"Alms" means any food. Any food is called "alms" 
from its being put into the brother's bowl in his food-gather- 
ing. Or " alms " means the collection of morsels of food. 
It has been said to be the collection, group of morsels of food, 
obtained from various houses. " Not for sport " means not 
for purposes of sport like village-boys and so forth; it is said 
to be " indicative of play." " Nor for intoxication " means 
not for a display of pride like boxers and wrestlers and so 
forth; it is said to be " indicative of the pride of strength and 
the pride of manhood." [32] " Nor for personal charm " 
means not for the purpose of beautifying oneself like court 
people and courtesans and so forth; it is said to be " indicative 
of fulness of limbs, big and small." " Nor for beautification " 
means not for the purpose of beautifying oneself like actors 
and dancers and so forth; it is said to be " indicative of clear- 
ness of skin and complexion." Of these, " Not for sport " 
has been said in order to remove the sufficing condition of 
delusion; "nor for intoxication" has been said in order to 
remove the sufficing condition of hate; " nor for personal 
charm, nor for beautification," in order to remove the 
sufficing condition of lust; " not for sport, nor for intoxica- 
tion," in order to prevent the growth of one's own fetters; 
" nor for personal charm, nor for beautification," in order to 
prevent the growth of another's fetters. And by these four 
expressions, rejection of unwise attainment and of devotion 
to a life of pleasure should be understood to have been 
indicated. The expression " only for " has the meaning 
already given. " Of this body " means of this material 
body dependent on the four great primary elements. 
" For the sustenance " means in order to be stable as 
a continuous series. " For the preservation " means in 
order that the procedure (of life-controlling-faculty) may not 
be cut off; or in order that (the body) may last long. He 
accepts alms for the sustenance and preservation of the body 
as the owner of a decayed house props up his house, and a cart- 
man lubricates (lit. feeds) the axle of his cart; he accepts it, 
not for sport nor for intoxication, nor for personal charm. 
nor for beautification. Furthermore, " sustenance " is a 



38 The Path of Purity 

synonym for life-controlling faculty. Hence " for the sus- 
tenance, preservation of this body " should so far be under- 
stood to mean for the procedure of the life-controlling 
faculty of this body. " For the allaying of the pangs of 
hunger," in the sense of inflicting pain, hunger is called 
" pangs," for the allaying of which he accepts alms, as one 
might accept ointment for a wound, or medicine to counter- 
act heat and cold, and so forth. "For aiding the practice 
of the noble life " means in order to uphold the noble life 
of complete instruction in the Law, and the noble life of the 
Path. Indeed, he accepts alms in order to uphold the noble 
life, practising, as he does, for release from the desert of exis- 
tence, by devotion to the three precepts, by means of his 
bodily strength on account of his acceptance of alms, as 
starving parents might eat their children's flesh in order to 
be able to cross a desert, 1 as people who desire to cross a river 
rely on a raft, as people who desire to cross the ocean rely on a 
ship. " Thus I shall subdue the old feeling and I shall cause 
no new feeling to arise " means [33] he accepts alms giving 
heed thus: " By this acceptance of alms I shall subdue the old 
feeling of hunger and shall produce no feeling due to im- 
moderate eating, like one of those brahmins: one who eats 
till he has to be lifted by the hand, or one who eats till his 
loin-cloth cannot be retained, or one who has to roll where he 
eats, or one who eats till a crow pecks from his mouth, or one 
who eats till he vomits." He accepts alms of food as a patient 
takes medicine. Or, it is called " old feeling " because it 
arises in this life-time owing to unsuitable and unrestricted 2 
food on account of old kamma: " destroying its cause by suit- 
able and restricted food, I shall subdue the old feeling." 
And that feeling which will arise in future through the accumu- 
lated kamma of inconsiderate eating in this life-time is called 
" new feeling." Causing its root not to arise by means of 
considerate eating, I shall produce no new feeling, thus 
also is the meaning to be understood. So far should the 
compendium on considerate eating, the forsaking of devotion 

1 S. ii, 98. - Join asapp&y ii to the folloicing compound in the text. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 39 

to self -torture, and the non-forsaking of righteous bliss be 
understood to have been shown. "And maintenance shall 
be mine " means he accepts alms, saying: " By moderate 
eating I shall have the preservation or equalization called 
the longevity of this body in harmony with causes owing to 
the absence of the danger of cutting of! the life-controlling 
faculty or of destroying the four postures." He accepts 
alms of food as a patient of long suffering accepts healing 
medicine. " Faultlessness also and comfort " " faultless- 
ness " is by avoiding inconsiderate search, acceptance, and 
eating; "comfort" is through moderate eating. Or "fault- 
lessness" is due to the absence of such faults as discontent, 
drowsiness, sleepy restlessness, and blame by the wise, caused 
by unsuitable and immoderate eating. " Comfort " is due to 
the production of bodily strength caused by suitable and 
moderate eating. Or, " faultlessness " is due to the forsaking 
of the pleasure of lying down, pleasure of sleeping on the 
side, or the pleasure of torpor, by not eating food to satiety. 
By accomplishing the harmonizing of the four postures 
through eating less than four or five mouthfuls, so that 
"comfort shall be mine"; thus he accepts alms. Indeed 
it has been said : 

" Hath he but eaten mouthfuls four or five, 
Let him drink water : here is sure enough 
Refreshment for a brother filled with zeal" * 

[34] And so far the limiting of purpose and the path of the 
mean should be understood to have been shown. 

" Dwelling " means sleeping place and seat. Wherever 
he sleeps, whether in a monastery or half-roofed monastery, 
and so on, that is a sleeping place. Wherever he sits, seats 
himself, that is a seat. The two taken together are called 
" dwelling." " For the dispelling of the danger of the 
weather and for the purpose of delighting in solitude "- 
weather in the sense of causing trouble is " weather-danger." 
In order that one may dispel the danger of the weather and 

1 Psalms of the Brethren. 983. See also Expositor 511 /. for a similar 
exposition of most of the terms lien- commented on. 



40 TJie Path of Purity 

delight in solitude, that unsuitable weather which causes 
sickness of the body and distraction of mind should be dis- 
pelled by acceptance of a dwelling: and it has been said that 
it is " for the purpose of dispelling that weather and of well- 
being in living alone." As, although by the warding off of 
cold and so forth the dispelling of the danger of the weather 
has been indicated, yet the covering of one's private parts in 
the acceptance of a robe is a constant purpose, while the others 
(cold and heat) are so only at times, so here also this has been 
said concerning the constant dispelling of danger from the 
weather. Or, this weather as described already is just " the 
weather." And "danger" is twofold: obvious danger and 
hidden danger. Of the two, obvious danger is lions and 
tigers, and so on; hidden danger is lust, hate, and so on. They 
may cause trouble to one seated in an open yard, at the foot 
of a tree, and so on, by there being no guarded door and by 
seeing unsuitable objects, and so on. The brother who accepts 
a dwelling, knowing and reflecting that there such dangers 
cannot cause him trouble, is to be understood as accepting 
it after wise reflection, for the purpose of dispelling danger 
from the weather. 

In " the requisite of medicine for the sick," ' for ' is in the 
sense of counteracting disease: going against is the meaning. 
It is a synonym for anything suitable. " Medicine " is 
the work of a doctor, as being permitted by him. Medicine 
which is for the sick is " medicine for the sick," said to be 
anything used by a doctor, such as oil, honey, molasses, and so 
forth, suitable for the sick. " Requisite " means a protec- 
tion as in " surrounded by the seven requisites of a town," 1 and 
so on; an ornament as in " the (Ariyan) chariot has the orna- 
ment of purity, tJie axle of jhdna, the wheel of energy," 2 [35] and 
so on; a constituent as in " the monk should carry out whatever 
are the factors of livelihood," 3 and so on. Here it is proper 
to take it as constituent and protection. For that " medicine 
for the sick " is protection of life, from its guarding it, giving 
no opportunity for the production of life-destroying disease. 

1 Anguttaraiv, 106. 2 >amyuttav,6. 3 Majjhima i, 108. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 41 

It is also a constituent of life because it is a means of pro- 
longing life. Hence it is called " requisite." And so, being 
medicine for the sick and a requisite, it is " requisite of medicine 
for the sick " ; and whatever is suitable for the sick and per- 
mitted by the doctor such as oil, honey, molasses, and so forth, 
being requisite of medicine for the sick, is said to be the 
constituent or protection of life. " Which have arisen " 
means, which have been produced, have become, have been 
born. In " connected with diseases," " disease " means 
a disturbance of the elements, and leprosy, boils, pustules, 
and so on, sprung therefrom. " Connected with disease " 
means, because it arises from disease. In '' of feelings." 
painful feelings, the immoral resultant feelings, are intended. 
" For the freedom from the pain " of those feelings connected 
with diseases means, in order to be free from the suffering; 
that is, he accepts medicine until all that pain is removed. 
Thus in brief this virtue, whose characteristic is judicious use 
of the requisites, should be understood to be " connected 
with the requisites." And the word- definition is: Because 
beings come and go, and live enjoying robes and so forth, 
relying on these, depending on these, therefore are they called 
"requisites." "Connected with the requisites" means con- 
nected with those requisites. Of this fourfold virtue "the 
restraint according to the Patimokkha " is to be attained 
by faith, for it is accomplished by faith, the enactment of the 
three precepts being beyond the province of disciples, as is 
shown by the Buddha's rejection of a request to enact these 
precepts. Hence observing by faith completely the precepts 
as enacted, one should be perfect in it (this fourfold restraint), 
regardless even of life. For thus has it been said : 

[36] " Be prudent, reverent ; guard thy virtue well, 
As pheasant guards her egg or yak his tail, 
Or as a son beloved, or one's sole eye." 

And this also has been said, " So, king, my disciples do 
not transgress even for the sake of life the precepts which I have 
laid down for them" And in this sense are to be understood 
the stories told of Elders bound by thieves in a forest. 



42 The Path of Purity 

It is said that in the Himalayan forest thieves bound an 
Elder with black creepers, and made him lie down. And the 
Elder, as he lay, increased his insight for seven days, and 
attaining the fruition of never-returning, died there and was 
reborn in the Brahma world. 

Again, in Tambapaimi Isle thieves bound an Elder with 
puti creepers and made him lie down. And when a jungle 
fire came on he established insight before the creepers could 
be cut, and died in the extinction of his corruptions. 1 
Elder Abhaya, a reciter of the Digha Nikaya, coming 
with five hundred brethren saw and cremated the Elder's 
body and had a shrine built. Hence others of good family 
also should,- 

Keeping the Patimokkha pure, let life 
Be yielded up : forsake not virtue's law 
Enacted by the Master of the world. 

Even as Patimokkha-restraint is to be attained by faith, 
so by mindfulness is restraint of the controlling faculties to 
be attained; for this is accomplished by mindfulness, because 
covetousness and so forth do not flow from controlling 
faculties that are established by mindfulness. Hence, remem- 
bering the Fire-sermon 2 preached in this way: "Brethren, 
better were an iron wire heated, molten, burning, incan- 
descent, aflame, than the faculty of sight grasping details 
and signs in visible objects," and so on, one should attain it 
well through checking, by means of unremitting mindfulness, 
the seizure by the general appearance of visible objects, and so 
forth, followed by covetousness and other evil states of con- 
sciousness which proceed in the eye-door, and so forth. [37] 
For 3 when it is not attained, virtue as Patimokkha-restraint 

1 Samasisi i.e. the head of his corruptions is severed by the Path of 
Sanctity when he died. His death being simultaneous with the 
extinction of his corruptions, he is called jivitasamasisi. When one 
adopts any of the four postures until sanctity is attained and dies in that 
posture, one is called iriyapathasamasisi. When one is afflicted with 
a disease, and attaining sanctity dies of that disease, one is called 
rogasamasisi. 

2 Samyutta iv, 168. 3 Read asampadite hi. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 43 

also does not endure, does not last long, like corn which is not 
well set round with a thickset hedge. And one is harassed by 
those thieves, the corruptions, as a village with open gates by 
robbers; and lust penetrates the mind, as rain penetrates a 
house badly roofed. And this has been said: 

" In sights, sounds, odours, tastes, things tangible, 
Guard the controlling faculty : for these, 
Finding an open and unguarded door, 
Witt vex thee as a village vexed by thieves. 

Even as rain enters an ill-roofed house, 
Lust enters the uncultivated mind." l 

But when this restraint of the controlling faculties is 
attained, virtue as Patimokkha-restraint also endures, lasts 
long, like corn well set round with a thickset hedge. And 
one is not harassed by those thieves, the corruptions, as a 
village, well closed by gates, is not harassed by robbers. And 
lust does not penetrate the mind, as rain does not penetrate 
a house well roofed. And this has been said: 

" In sights, sounds, odours, tastes, things tangible, 
Guard the controlling faculty : for these, 
Finding in thee a closed, well-guarded door, 
Will shun thee as a village shunned by thieves. 

Rain cannot penetrate a well-roofed house, 
Lust cannot penetrate a well-taught mind"* 

But this is an extreme admonition. The mind, however, is 
flighty. Hence restraint of the controlling faculties is to be 
attained in repelling arisen lust by directing one's attention 
to the foul, as it was done by the Elder Vangisa when he was 
recently ordained. [38] It is said that seeing a woman, 
lust arose in the Elder but recently ordained, as he was going 
about for alms. Then he said to Elder Ananda : 

" With sensual lust I burn, my mind aflame. 
I pray thee, pity have, Gotama, 
And tell me how I may extinguish it." 

1 Dhammapada 13, 14. 



44 The Path of Purity 

The Elder replied: 

" Through wrong perception is thy mind aflame 
Pleasant appearances avoid, for they 
Are full of lust, but cultivate the mind 
In things unpleasant, that it may attain 
To concentration and a single aim. 
Things-in-the-making shalt thou see and know 
Evil as other than thee, as not the self. 
Slay the great lust. Burn not repeatedly." x 

And the Elder, repelling his lust, went his way. 

Further, a brother who is fulfilling restraint of the con- 
trolling faculties, should be like the Elder Cittagutta, who 
lived in the great Kurandaka cave, and like the Elder Maha- 
mitta, who lived in the great Coraka monastery. 

It is said that there was a beautiful painting of the Re- 
nunciation of Seven Buddhas in the great Kurandaka cave. 
And many of the brethren, wandering round the dwellings, 
saw the painting, and said: " Sir, beautiful is the painting." 
The Elder said, " Lads, I have lived in the cave for over sixty 
years and I did not even know whether the painting existed 
or not. Now I know to-day through you who possess eyes." 
Thus it is said that for so long the Elder living there never 
lifted his eyes and looked up. And at the cave-entrance 
there was a great ironwood tree. But the Elder had never 
looked up at it. It is said that he knew that it was in blossom 
when each spring he saw the filaments that fell to the ground. 
The king, hearing of the Elder's virtuous attainments, and 
wishing to pay his respects, sent for him three times. And 
when the Elder did not come he caused to be shut up the 
breasts of the women in the village who were suckling infants, 
and had his seal put to this order: "As long as the Elder 
does not come, so long these infants must not suck milk." 

[39] And the Elder, out of compassion for the infants, went 
to the village. And the king heard of it, and saying to his 
ministers, " Go, I say, and introduce the Elder; I will acquire 
the virtues," had the Elder brought within the palace, paid 

1 S. i, 188, which gives a different order of the lines; Th. i, 1223 /. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 45 

his respects, gave him his meal of food, and saying to him, 
' ' Sir, to-day there is no opportunity. To-morrow I will 
acquire the virtues," he took the Elder's bowl, accompanied 
him a little distance, and having, together with the queen, 
paid his respects, turned back. And the Elder said: "May 
the king be happy !" whether it was the king that paid 
respects or the queen. Thus seven days passed. And the 
brethren said: "Sir, whether it was the king that paid 
respects or the queen, why did you only say : ' May the king 
be happy '? " The Elder replied : " Lads, I make no difference 
as to the king or the queen." After seven days the king, 
finding that the Elder was not happy there, let him go. The 
Elder went back to the great Kurandaka cave, and at night 
ascended to the promenade. And the deity that lived in 
the ironwood tree stood holding a torch. Then the Elder's 
subject of meditation became exceedingly pure and clear. 
And the Elder was glad, saying to himself, " AVhy is my subject 
of meditation so exceedingly clear to-day ?" And causing 
the whole mountain to resound, he attained Sanctity imme- 
diately after the middle watch. And even so should any other 
son of good family desirous also of his own benefit, 

Let not the eye wander like forest-ape, 

Or trembling wood-deer, or affrighted child. 

The eyes should be cast downward : they should look 

The distance of a yoke : he shall not serve 

The eye's dominion, like a restless ape." 

A poisonous boil once arose on the mother of the Elder 
Mahamitta. Her daughter also had been ordained among the 
sisters. The mother said to her daughter: " Girl, go to thy 
brother's presence. Tell him I am unwell, and bring medicine." 
The daughter went and told him. The Elder said: " I do not 
know how to gather medicinal roots, and so forth, and to 
prepare medicine. But this medicine will I tell of : since I have 
become monk I have never broken the controlling faculties 
with a mind accompanied by greed and looked at a female 
form. By the virtue of this [40] declaration of truth may 
my mother be relieved. Go, recite this, and shampoo the lay- 



46 The Path of Purity 

sister's body." She went and related the matter, and did as 
instructed. And in that moment the lay-sister's boil was 
crushed and disappeared like a mass of foam. And she rose 
and uttered these words of joy: "If the supreme Buddha 
were alive, with his hand like a variegated lattice, would he not 
stroke the head of a brother like my son ?" Hence 

Another well-born youth having become 
A monk 1 in the religion, he should stand, 
Like Elder Mitta, in the wise restraint 
Of the controlling faculties. 

Purity of livelihood should be attained by energy as restraint 
of the controlling faculties is attained by mindfulness : indeed 
it is accomplished by energy, because a man of strenuous 
energy abandons wrong livelihood. Therefore it is to be 
attained by energetic alms-gathering and so forth, abandoning 
wrong search and unfitting behaviour, and resorting to those 
requisites which are clean in their acquirement, and avoiding 
like poisonous snakes those that are impure in acquirement. 
Of these, the requisites which a brother, who has not mastered 
the ascetic practices has obtained from the Order, from a 
chapter of the brethren, and from laymen who are pleased 
with him on account of his religious preaching and so forth, 
are to be known as clean in acquirement. Those obtained by 
alms-gathering and so forth are exceedingly clean in acquire- 
ment. Those which a brother who has mastered his ascetic 
practices has obtained by alms-gathering, and so forth, and 
by his regular observance of the ascetic practices, from those 
laymen who are pleased with him because of his ascetic 
merits, are to be known as clean in acquirement. The 
observance of ascetic practice by one who, when putrid 
sycamore and the four sweet stuffs are sent him for the 
purpose of allaying a disease, eats only the portion of sycamore, 
thinking: " My other fellow-monks will eat the four sweet- 
stuffs," is " fitting behaviour." He, indeed, is called a 
brother of the highest Ariyan race. Whatever robes and 

1 Read pabbajitvana. 






I. Exposition of Virtue 47 

other requisites there are, a brother who is purifying his 
livelihood should not make a sign, hint, roundabout talk, or 
intimation regarding a robe or alms. But a sign, hint, or 
roundabout talk regarding a dwelling may be made by one 
who has not mastered his ascetic practices. Of these, [41] 
when one who is preparing the ground for a dwelling is asked 
by laymen: " Reverend Sir, what are you doing ? Who is 
enabling you to do it?" a reply to this effect, "Nobody," or 
any similar reply, is making a sign. " Lay-disciples, where 
do you dwell ?" "In a graduated turret, sir ?" " Lay- 
disciples, a graduated turret is not proper for the brethren." a 
Such a dialogue, or any other speech to this effect, is giving 
a hint. " The dwelling of the Order of brethren is cramped " : 
such talk, or any other to that effect, is roundabout talk. 
As regards medicine, all four ways are proper. But is it 
proper or not proper to use the medicine obtained in these 
four ways when the disease has been allayed ? The Vinaya 
scholars say it is proper because the Blessed One has allowed 
it. But the Suttanta scholars say that it is not proper because 
though there is no offence, yet the life of austerity is spoilt. 
Whoso, however, though permitted by the Blessed One, does 
not make sign, hint, roundabout talk, intimation, but avoiding 
them by virtue of his merits such as contentment, and so forth, 
when a mortal disease arises, accepts whatever requisites 
are forthcoming, is called, " one who leads an ideally simple 
life," like Sariputta the Elder. 

It is told that that senior monk 2 was at one time living 
with the Elder Mahamoggallana developing the practice of 
solitude in a certain forest. To him one day there arose a 
wind-disease in the stomach, causing great pain. Late in the 
evening the Elder Mahamoggallana went to attend on the 
senior, and seeing him lying down, enquired concerning the 
matter, saying: " Brother, on former occasions how did you get 
comfort?" The Elder replied: "Brother, when I was a 
layman my mother mixed together butter, honey, sugar, 
and so forth, and gave me undiluted milk-rice; and that gave 

1 The punctuation of the Pali Text is incorrect. 
3 Read ayasina/or yaama. 



48 The Path of Purity 

me comfort." And the senior said, " Be it so, brother. If 
there be merit in me or in you, perhaps we shall get some 
to-morrow." And a deva residing in a tree at the end of the 
promenade heard this conversation, and thought: " To-morrow 
I will produce rice for my lord." And immediately he went 
to the family that supported the Elder, [42] entered into the 
body of the eldest son, and caused him to suffer pain. And 
he showed the means of cure and said to the relatives: 1 " If 
you make ready such and such a preparation of rice for the 
Elder to-morrow, I will release him." Saying, " You need 
not have told us; we always give alms to the Elders," they 
prepared the particular kind of rice on the next day. And the 
Elder Mahamoggallana, coming early, said: "Brother, until 
I return from alms-gathering stay here," and entered the 
village. The men rose to meet the Elder, took his bowl, 
and gave him the particular kind of rice, filling the bowl. 
And the Elder showed signs of going. But they made him eat, 
saying: " Eat, sir, we give more," and filled the bowl. The 
Elder went and offered it, saying: " Now, brother Sariputta, 
eat." The Elder, seeing it, thought: k ' The rice is very 
tempting. How has it been obtained ?" And when he 
knew its origin he said: " Brother Moggallana, the alms 
is not fit to eat." And the senior did not entertain such a 
thought as: " He does not eat the alms brought by such as I," 
but at the words, took hold of the bowl by the brim, and turned 
it upside down, tilting it on one side. And upon the rice 
being put on the ground, the Elder's illness disappeared. 
Thenceforward it did not arise for forty-five years. And he 
said to Mahamoggallana: " Brother, even though my entrails 
were to come out and move on the ground, it would be im- 
proper to eat rice that was obtained on account of vocal 
intimation." And he uttered this exalted utterance: 

Were I to eat the honey-rice obtained 
Through use of revelation made by speech, 
Then would my livelihood be full of blame. 

1 Or, 'he said to the assembled relatives concerning the means of 
cure,' reading niinittam saunipatite iiatake aha. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 49 

My bowels may gusli out and walk, yet ne'er 
For life itself will I break livelihood. 
My own mind I control, and the wrong search 
Avoid, for I desire not the wrong search 
Loathed by the Buddhas. 

[43] And here also the story of the Elder Ambakhadaka- 
mahatissa, who lived at Ciragumba, should be related. So, 
under all circumstances, 

The wise monk, faith-ordained, should purify 
His livelihood, nor think of the wrong search. 

And virtue connected with the requisites should be attained 
by wisdom, as purity of livelihood is attained by energy; for 
it is accomplished by wisdom, the wise man being able to see 
the evils and the advantages in the requisites. Hence it is 
to be attained by abandoning greediness for the requisites 
obtained righteously and justly, and using them only after 
reflection and with wisdom, according to the rule already 
laid down. 

Here reflection is twofold: as practised at the time of 
obtaining the requisites, and as practised at the time of using 
them. Indeed it is using them blamelessly when one uses 
deposited robes, and so forth, subsequent to reflection upon 
the elements and upon loathsomeness at the time when they 
are got, and likewise after reflection at the time when they are 
used. The latter case furnishes the conclusive decision, for 
one may use them in four ways: as a theft, as a debt, as an 
inheritance, and like a master. Of these, a wicked person 
who uses them sitting in the midst of the Order is using them 
as a theft. A virtuous person who uses them without reflec- 
tion uses them as a debt. Hence one should reflect every time 
the robe is used, and at every morsel of alms received. If one 
is not able to do this, then one should reflect four times, 
three times, twice, or once a day, before and after the meal, 
in the first, middle, and last watches of the night. 1 If dawn 

1 Supply ekasmiih divase catukkhattum tikkhattum dvikkhattum 
sakim yeva va paccavekkhitabbam, after yamesu. 

I. 4 



50 The Path of Purity 

comes before lie has reflected he stands in the position of one 
using them as a debt. 

One should also reflect every time one makes use of a 
dwelling. And in accepting and using medicine also, it is 
proper to cherish mindfulness. This being so, there is offence 
if one is mindful in accepting, and is not mindful in using the 
requisites. But there is no ofience if one is mindful in using, 
after being unmindful in accepting them. For purity is 
fourfold: admonition-purity, restraint-purity, search-purity, 
and reflection-purity. Of these, admonition-purity [44] is 
virtue as restraint according to the Patimokkha, which virtue 
is indeed called admonition-purity because one becomes pure 
through listening to an admonition. Restraint-purity is 
virtue as restraint of the controlling faculties, which virtue 
is indeed called restraint-purity because one becomes pure by 
means of the restraint of mental resolve, saying: " I will not 
act thus again." Search-purity is virtue as purity of liveli- 
hood, which virtue is indeed called search-purity because one 
is pure of search in obtaining the requisites righteously and 
justly and abandoning wrong search. Reflection-purity is 
virtue connected with the using of the requisites, which virtue 
is indeed called reflection-purity because one becomes pure by 
reflection as already described. On this account it has been 
said that there is no ofience if one is mindful in using, after 
being unmindful in accepting them. 1 

The using of the requisites by the seven probationers is 
known as using them as an inheritance: for these seven are 
sons of the Blessed One, and so, being heirs to the requisites 
their father's property, they use them. What ! do they use the 
requisites of the Blessed One, or the requisites of laymen ? 
Though given by laymen, the requisites are the property of 
the Blessed One, who has allowed them. Therefore it is to be 
understood that they use the requisites of the Blessed One. 
And on this point the Dhammadayada sutta 2 has been borne 
out. 

1 This sentence is repeated from the previous page, and so should not 
be marked in the Pali Text as ' Not traced.' 

2 Majjhima i, 12. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 51 

The using of the requisites by saints purged of the intoxicants 
is known as using them like a master. For saints, having passed 
beyond the slavery of craving, use them like masters. Of 
these four ways, the using them like a master, and as an 
inheritance, is suitable for all ; not so the using them as a debt, 
to say nothing of the using them as a theft. And that using 
them after reflection by a virtuous person, which is opposed 
to the using them as a debt, is also called the using them 
like a man freed from debts. This is included in the using 
them as an inheritance, because a virtuous man, being endowed 
with the training in the higher virtue, is counted as a pro- 
bationer. And because among these four ways the using them 
like a master is the best, therefore a brother who aspires to 
this should use them reflecting in accordance with the various 
kinds of reflection already described, and should attain to 
the virtue connected with them. So will he be a fulfiller 
of duties. And this has been said : 

[45] " Hearing the Law preached by the Blessed One, 
The follower, who in wisdom doth excel, 
Should not without reflection use his alms, 
Dwelling, couch, seat, and water to remove 
The dust from off his robe. The brother, like 
A drop of water on a lotus leaf, 
Is not attached to any of these things, 
Alms, couch, and seat, and water to remove 
The dust from off his robe. 1 Still mindful, he 
Should of compassion know the mean in food, 
Hard, savoury, soft, from donors duly got, 
Like growth of flesh in an anointed wound. 
Like eating in the desert a son's flesh, 
Like lubricating axles, even so, 
Should one eat food, never infatuate, 
For preservation." 2 

As regards the fulfilling of this virtue connected with 
the requisites, the story of nephew Sangharakkhita the novice 

1 Sutta Nipdta 391, 392. a cf. Samyutta ii, 98. 



52 The Path of Purity 

is to be told. For he rightly reflected and ate. As he has 
said : 

" As I did eat the boiled and well-cooked rice 
The spiritual adviser spake to me : 
' Novice, burn not thy tongue through unrestraint !' 
Hearing the spiritual adviser's words, 
I suffered agitation. In that place 
Remaining I attained to sanctity. 
Full of intentions am I like full moon 
Of fifteen days : extinct the intoxicants, 
And re-becoming is not any more. 
[46] Let him then who desireth loss of ill, 
Think wisely and accept the requisites." 

So it is fourfold by way of virtue as restraint according to 
the Patimokkha, and so forth. 

Thus is the particular discourse on the Fourfold Purity 
Virtue. 

(v) In the first pentad of the Fivefold Portion (p. 13) what 
is to be understood as the meaning is, that these are precepts 
for the unordained, and so forth. For this has been said 
in the Patisambhida: 1 

" What are the limited precepts of purity? They are the 
limited precepts of the unordained. What are the unlimited 
precepts of purity? They are the unlimited precepts of the 
ordained. What are the completed precepts of purity ? They 
are those of good average men, who are applying themselves to the 
state that is moral, who are fulfilling up to the limit the states 
for probationers, and who have sacrificed their lives regardless 
of body and life. What are the precepts of purity not miscon- 
strued ? They are those of the seven probationers. What are 
the tranquillized precepts of purity? They are those of the 
Tathagata's disciples who are purged of the intoxicants, silent 
Buddhas, Tathdgatas, saints, supreme Buddhas." Of these, 
the precepts for the unordained, as being limited in number, 

1 i, 42 /. 






I. Exposition of Virtue 53 

are to be known as "the limited precepts of purity." For 
the ordained, 

Nine thousand koti's, 1 nine score koti's more, 
And fifty hundred thousand, and again 
Thirty-six (thousand) are the precepts given 
In the Vinaya Pitaka by Him, 
The perfect Buddha, and in order shown 
By the brief rule. 

Thus, though there is a limit in number, [47] yet these are 
said to be " unlimited precepts of purity," referring to the fact 
that one observes them without remainder, and that their 
limit as measured by the standard of gain, pomp, relatives, 
limbs, life lies out of sight, like the precepts kept by the 
Elder Ambakhadakamahatissa, who lived at Ciragumba. 
Like that senior, so : 

Wealth should be given up for a noble limb, 
One should give up a limb to save a life. 
A man should give up limb, wealth, life, and all 
To recollect the Law. 

Not giving up his recollection (of the behaviour) of good 
men though his life was in doubt, he did not transgress the 
precepts, and attained Sanctity mounted on the back of a 
lay disciple through the unlimited precepts of purity. As 
has been said: 

" Not father, mother, kinsman, relative, 
This boon he does theefor thy virtuousness. 
Producing agitation, pondering 
With wisdom, thou, being mounted on his back, 
Hast unto Sanctity attained." 

The precepts of good average men from ordination are 
free from the dirt (of corruptions), as soon as consciousness 
is produced being exceedingly pure like a well-burnished gem 
and well-wrought gold, and are the proximate cause of 
Sanctity. Hence the " completed precepts of purity," like 
those kept by the Elders Saiigharakkhita, uncle and nephew. 

1 koti ten millions. 



54 The Path of Purity 

It is said that the Order of brethren asked Mahasangharak- 
khita the Elder, over sixty years old, on his deathbed, about 
his transcendental attainment. The Elder said: " I have no 
transcendental state in me." Then a young brother who 
ministered to him said": " Sir, men have assembled from a 
circuit of twelve yojanas saying that you have entered complete 
Nibbana. And the people will feel regretful at your death 
as an average man." " Lad, I never established insight 
with a view to seeing the Blessed Metteyya. [48] Therefore 
raise me and give me opportunity." And the brother raised 
the Elder and went out. And the Elder, as soon as he went, 
attained Sanctity, and gave intimation by snapping his 
fingers. The Order assembled and said: " Sir, dying at such 
a death-time you have done a difficult thing in attaining the 
transcendental state." " Friends, this was not difficult to 
do. But I will tell you what is difficult. Friends, since I 
became monk, deed of mine done without mindfulness, 
without understanding, I do not see." His nephew also 
attained Sanctity after fifty years. 

If one have little learning, and withal 

No concentration in his doing, men 

Will blame him both in learning and in deeds. 

If one have little learning, and withal 

Much concentration in his doing, men 

Will praise his deeds, his learning not complete. 

And if one have much learning, and withal 

No concentration in his doing, men 

Will blame his deeds, his learning being complete. 

And if one have much learning, and withal 

Much concentration in his doing, men 

Witt praise him both in learning and in deeds. 

The Buddha's deeply learned follower 

Is bearer of the law. And he is wise 

And, as the gold of Jambu, without blame. 

Devas praise him, yea, Brahma praiseth him. 1 

1 Anguttara ii, 7. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 55 

The precepts of probationers from not being misconstrued 
by way of views, or those precepts which are not misconstrued 
by way of the lust of average men, are to be known as "precepts 
of purity not misconstrued," like those of the Elder Tissa, son 
of Kutumbiya. For that senior, desirous of establishing 
himself in Sanctity through such precepts, said to his enemies : 

" Breaking both legs I will convince you. Yea, 

I loathe, I am ashamed of death in lust." 
[49] So thought I, wisely pondering, and attained 
To sanctity what time the dawn arose. 

Another Elder also, being afflicted with disease, was 
unable to feed himself with his hands, and was wallowing 
and rolling about in his own urine and excrement. Seeing 
him, a certain young man said: " Alas, how painful are your 
life complexes !" The Elder said to him: " Lad, if I die now 
I shall get the bliss of heaven. There is no doubt about 
that. But the bliss obtained by breaking this virtue would 
be like the state of layman brought about by renouncing the 
precepts. I shall die even together with my virtue." And 
contemplating that disease as he lay there, he attained 
Sanctity and gave explanation to the Order of brethren in 
these stanzas: 

" A sickness falls upon me. The disease 
Brings sharp pain and corruption. Very soon 
This body will dry up even as a flower 
Wrapped in hot dust. This ailing, putrid corpse, 
Called loveable, being unloveable, 
Fie on it ! impure thing that men deem pure, 
Full of all loathsomenesses ; loveable 
To the unseeing, this foul-smelling thing, 
Corruptible, void of all purity, 
Whereby intoxicated, dazed, the world 
Destroys the way by which heaven is attained." l 

The precepts of saints and so on are to be known as " tran- 
quillized precepts of purity" from their tranquillizing of all 

1 Jataka ii, 437. 



56 The Path of Purity 

suffering, and from their complete purity. This is purity of 
precepts fivefold as limited precepts of purity and so forth. 

In the second pentad (p. 13) what is to be understood as 
the meaning is by way of removing life-taking and so on. 
For it has been said in the Patisambhida: 1 " There are five 
kinds of virtue: (1) the rejection of life-taking is virtue, (2) ab- 
stention is virtue, (3) volition is virtue, (4) restraint is virtue, 
(5) non-transgression is virtue. Virtue is the rejection of 
theft . . . of wrong conduct in sensual pleasures . . . of false 
speech, calumnious speech, harsh speech, frivolous talk, [50] 
covetousness, ill-mil, wrong views. It is the rejection of sensual 
desire by renunciation, ill-will by good-will, sloth and torpor by 
the perception of light, flurry by non-distraction, doubt by 
determination of states, ignorance by knowledge, discontent by 
gladness, the hindrances by the first jhdna, initial and sustained 
applications of mind by the second jhdna, rapture by the third 
jhdna, ease and ill by the fourth jhdna, the perception of matter 
by the attainment of the sphere of space, the perception of variety 
by the perception of aversion, the perception of the sphere of 
space by the attainment of the sphere of consciousness, the 
perception of the sphere of consciousness by the attainment of 
the sphere of nothingness, the perception of the sphere of nothing- 
ness by the attainment of the sphere of neither perception nor 
non-perception, the perception of permanence by retrospection 
of impermanence, the perception of ease by retrospection of 
ill, the perception of the soul by retrospection of soullessness, 
delight by retrospection of disgust, passion by retrospection of 
dispassion, origination by retrospection of cessation, clinging 
by retrospection of forsaking, the perception of density by retrospec- 
tion of loss, reinforcing by retrospection of decay, the perception 
of constancy by retrospection of change, the sign by retrospection 
of the signless, hankering by retrospection of the unhankered- 
after, conviction by retrospection of emptiness, the clinging to 
and conviction of essence by the higher wisdom of insight into 
states, the conviction of delusion by the knowledge and discern- 
ment of things as they really are, the conviction of attachment by 



i, 46. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 57 

retrospection of tribulation, non-reflection by retrospection of 
reflection, the conviction of fetters by retrospection of escape from 
the round of births, the corruptions occupying the same place 
with views by the path of Stream-winning, the gross corruptions 
by the path of Once-returning, the subtle corruptions by the 
path of Never-returning, all corruptions by the path of Sanc- 
tity; virtue is abstention, volition, restraint, non-trans- 
gression in regard to all these things. Such kinds of virtue 
conduce to absence of mental remorse, to gladness, rapture, 
tranquillity, joy, practice, culture, development, adornment, 
requisites (of concentration), fulness, fulfilment, certain disgust, 
dispassion, cessation, quiet, higher knowledge, perfect knowledge, 
Nibbdna" 

And herein, other than the not allowing life-taking, and so 
forth, described above to arise, there is no state whatever that 
is called " rejection." And because the different rejections 
are [51] the support, in the sense of basis, and also owing to 
their not shaking, the right placing of the different moral 
states, therefore it has been said previously to be virtue in the 
sense of being virtuous, already mentioned as supporting and 
right placing (p. 9). The other four states are mentioned 
with reference to the procedure and existence of mind as 
abstaining from this and that, as refraining from this and that, 
as volition associated with both (abstaining and refraining), 
and as non-transgression on the part of one who does not 
transgress this and that. And their being virtue has been 
mentioned previously. Thus it is fivefold as rejection and 
so forth. 

So far this is the end of the answers to the questions: What 
is virtue ? In what sense is it virtue ? What are its charac- 
teristics, its essence, its manifestation, its proximate cause ? 
What are its advantages ? How many kinds of it are there ? 

6. W^hat is its corruption ? 7. What its purification ? 

In what has been said as " What is its corruption ? and 
what its purification ?" we say that the state of virtue being 
broken and so forth is its corruption; that its state of being 
unbroken and so forth is its purification. And that state of 



58 The Path of Purity 

being broken and so forth is counted as its breaking con- 
ditioned by gain, pomp, and so on, and the sevenfold associa- 
tion with sexual feelings. For a man whose precepts in 
the group of the seven offences are broken either at the out- 
set or conclusion, is known as having broken virtue, like a 
garment frayed at the edges. And whoso has them broken 
in the middle is known as having riddled virtue, like a garment 
with holes in the middle. And whoso has two or three of 
them broken in a series is known as having streaked virtue, 
like a cow the colour of whose body is one or the other among 
black and red colours and so on mixed with other dissimilar 
colours, either on the back or on the belly. And whoso has 
them broken at different stages is known as having spotted 
virtue, like a cow variegated by dissimilar colours and spots 
at intervals. And so the state of being broken and so on is 
due to breaking conditioned by gain and so forth. 

And this is by way of the sevenfold association with sexual 
feelings. For the Blessed One has said : J 

" Brahmin, here a z monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste 
and does not actually [52] enjoy a woman, but he likes to have 
her rub, chafe, bathe, or massage him ; he is pleased with it, 
desires it, takes delight in it. This, brahmin, is being broken, 
riddled, streaked, spotted in respect of the holy life. And he, 
brahmin, is said to practise impure chastity, and to be asso- 
ciated with the fetter of sexual feelings. And I say that he is 
not freed from birth, old age, death . . . ill. Again, brahmin, 
here a monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not 
actually enjoy a woman, and does not like to have her rub, chafe, 
bathe or massage him, but he likes to jest, play, and sport with her ; 
he is pleased with it. . . . And I say that he is not freed 
from birth, old age, death . . . ill. Again, brahmin, here 
a monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not actually 
enjoy a woman, and does not like to have her rub . . . to jest, 
play and sport with her, but he likes to stare and look at her ; 
lie is pleased with it. . . . And I say that he is not freed from 
birth, old age, death . . . ill. Again, brahmin, here a monk 

1 Anguttara iv, 54. - Read ekacco. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 59 

or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not actually enjoy 
a woman, and does not like to have her rub . . . to jest . . . 
to stare and look at her, but he likes to listen to her voice, when 
she laughs, talks, sings, or cries across a wall or fence ; he is 
pleased with it. . . . And I say that he is not freed from birth, 
old age, death . . . ill. Again, brahmin, here a monk or a 
brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not actually enjoy a 
woman, and does not like to have her rub . . . to jest . . . 
stare . . . listen to her voice . . . but he likes to think about 
his former laughs, talks, sportings with her ; he is pleased with 
it. ... And I say that he is not freed from birth, -old age, 
death . . . ill. Again, brahmin, here a monk or a brahmin 
is pledged to be chaste and does not actually enjoy a woman, 
and does not like to have her rub, . . . to jest . . . stare . . . 
listen to her voice . . . think about his former laughs . . . [53] 
but he likes to see a householder or his son enjoying fully the 
pleasures of sense ; he is pleased with it. . . . And I say that 
he is not freed from birth, old age, death . . . ill. Again, 
brahmin, here a monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and 
does not actually enjoy a woman, and does not like to have 
her rub . . . jest . . . stare . . . listen . . . think . . . see a 
householder . . . but he likes to practise the holy life in the 
hope of attaining to a celestial abode, saying, ' By this virtue, 
vow, austerity, or chastity, I shall become a deva, or one of the 
devas ; he is pleased with it, desires it, takes delight in it. This, 
brahmin, is being broken, riddled, streaked, spotted as regards 
the holy life.' " 

Thus the state of being broken, and so forth, should be 
understood to be counted as its breaking conditioned by 
gain and so forth, and the sevenfold association with sexual 
feelings. 

And the state of being unbroken, and so on, is considered 
as the not breaking of all the precepts, the atoning for those 
to be atoned, the absence 1 of the fetter of the sevenfold sexual 
feelings, the not producing of such evil states as anger, hatred, 
hypocrisy, ridicule, envy, meanness, wile, craft, stiffness, 

1 Read bhavena cw pzrt of the preceding compound. 



60 The Path of Purity 

clamour, conceit, excessive conceit, intoxication, negligence; 
and the producing of such qualities as moderation of desires, 
contentment, simple life. Indeed those virtues which have 
not been broken for the sake of gain and so forth, or which 
have been atoned for even though they may have been broken 
through the fault of negligence, and which have not been 
oppressed by the fetter of sexual feelings and anger, hatred, 
or other evil states, are all said to be unbroken, unriddled, 
unstreaked, unspotted. And they are ' liberating ' through 
their bringing about liberation ; ' praised by the wise ' through 
their being praised by the wise; ' not misconstrued ' through 
being not misconstrued by craving and views; and they are 
conducive to concentration since they conduce either to 
access concentration or ecstatic concentration. Hence their 
state of being unbroken, and so on, is to be known as their 
purification. 

And that purification is fulfilled in two ways : by seeing the 
evils of the depravity of virtue, and by seeing the advantages 
of the fulfilment of virtue. [54] Of these, the evils of the 
depravity of virtue should be understood according to the 
Sutta which begins: " Brethren, five are the evils of depravity 
of the virtue of a wicked man." x 

Moreover, a wicked person, on account of his wickedness, 
is not liked by devas and men; is not admonished by his 
fellow-monks; is miserable amidst the scoffings at his wicked- 
ness; feels remorse amidst the praises of the virtuous; is ill 
favoured like a hempen garment on account of his wickedness ; 
is in touch with pain inasmuch as those who follow his views 
bear the pains of the states of woe for a long time; is of little 
worth inasmuch as he does not produce much fruit to those 
whose giftsr he accepts ; is difficult of purification like a pit of 
excrement that has been collecting many years; is outside 
of both (the pleasures of man and of monk) like a vile creeper ; 
not a monk though pledged to be one, he is as a donkey that 
follows a herd of cattle; he is ever alarmed like an enemy 
of all men; is not worthy to live with, like some dead body; 

1 Anguttara iii, 252. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 61 

is not worthy to be reverenced by his fellow-monks, even 
though he may be endowed with such merits as learning, 
any more than a cremation fire by brahmins; is unable to 
attain distinction as a blind man is unable to see objects; 
has no more desire for the Good Law than a grave-digger's 
boy has for kingship ; is in pain though he thinks he is happy, 
being a partaker of pain as is said in the Fire Discourse. 

For in setting forth the visible result of Karma in all 
its forms, and the exceeding severe pain which arises to evil 
men with minds giddy with enjoyment of the five sensual 
pleasures, and the pleasurable taste of the salutation and 
reverence and so forth which result from these pleasures, 
the which, merely in recollection, is able to produce heart 
burning and the spitting of hot blood, the Blessed One has 
said: l 

" Brethren, do you see this great mass of fire, burning, ablaze, 
aflame ?" 

" Yea, Lord." 

" What do you think, brethren? Which is better: to sit 
or lie down embracing this great mass of fire, burning, ablaze, 
aflame ; or to sit or lie down embracing a princely maid, a brah- 
min maid, or a maid of the householder class, with soft and 
delicate hands and feet . ? " 

" Lord, it is better to sit or lie down embracing a princely 
maid and so on. [55] Painful it is, Lord, to sit or lie down 
embracing a mass of fire." 

" / tell you, brethren, I declare unto you, brethren, that it is 
better for a wicked man of evil nature, of unclean and hesitating 
conduct, of hidden actions, not a monk but pledged to be one, 
not a holy man but pledged to be one, putrid within, flowing with 
lust, offensive as refuse, to sit or lie down embracing a mass of 
fire. . . . And why ? On this account, brethren, he may die 
or suffer mortal pain, but on the dissolution of his body after 
death, it will not make him suffer in states of woe, an evil destiny, 
in a place of suffering, hell. But, brethren, that a wicked 
man . . . should sit or lie down embracing a princely maid . . . 

1 Ib. iv, 128 (correct the reference on p. 54, n. 8 of the Pali Text 
accordingly). 



62 The Path of Purity 

that indeed is to his disadvantage and pain for a long time ; 
and on the dissolution of the body after death, he goes to a state 
of woe, to an evil destiny, a place of suffering, hell." 

Having thus by the simile of the mass of fire made known 
the pain caused by enjoying the five pleasures connected with 
women, the Blessed One in the same way said : x 

''Brethren, which do you think is better: that a strong man 
should twist a strong hair-rope round the shins of both legs and 
pull it, rubbing them, so that it cuts the skin, and then the thick 
inner skin, and then the flesh, and then the nerves, and then the 
bones, and having cut the bones, remains chafing the marrow ; 
or that one (the wicked man) should acquiesce in the salutation 
of great princes, great brahmins, or great householders ? Brethren, 
which do you think is better: that a strong man should pierce 
the breast with a sharp spear cleansed in oil ; or that one should 
acquiesce in the obeisance of great princes, great brahmins, 
or great householders ? Brethren, which do you think is better : 
that a strong man should cover the body with a heated iron-plate, 
burning, blazing, flaming ; or that one should use a robe, a gift 
of faith from great princes, brahmins, or householders ? Brethren, 
which do you think [56] is better: that a strong man should open 
his mouth by means of heated iron tweezers, burning, blazing, 
flaming, and throw into it a heated iron ball, burning, blazing, 
flaming, so that it burns the lips, and also the mouth, tongue, 
throat, stomach, and comes out from below together with the 
intestines and the mesentery ; or that one should eat food, a gift 
of faith from great princes, brahmins, or householders ? Brethren, 
which do you think is better : that a strong man should seize one 
by the head or shoulder and make one sit or lie down on a heated 
iron bed or a chair, burning, blazing, flaming ; or that one should 
use a bed or chair, a gift of faith from great princes, brahmins, 
or householders? Brethren, which do you think is better: 
that a strong man should seize one, feet upward and head down- 
ward, and throw one into a heated iron pot, burning, blazing, 
flaming, so that one is cooked giving rise to bubbles, and keeps 
on now coming up, now going down, now going sideways ; or 

i Ib. 129 /. 



I. Exposition of Virtue 63 

that one should use a dwelling, a gift of faith from great 'princes, 
brahmins, or householders ?" 

Thus under the similitudes of hair-rope, sharp spear, 
iron plate, iron ball, iron bed, iron chair, iron pot, did the 
Blessed One set forth the pain caused by the enjoyment of 
salutation, obeisance, robe, food, bed, chair, dwelling (by the 
unworthy). 

Whence can there be true happiness to him 
Of broken virtue, who doth not forsake 
Sensual pleasure, yielding sharper pain 
Than to embrace a mass of living fire ? 
What happiness is there to him whose virtue 
Hath been depraved, accepting salutation, 
Suffering pain more galling than the pain 
Of flesh tormented with strong ropes of hair ? 
[57] What happiness to one who hath no virtue, 
Accepting the obeisance of the faithful, 
The root-condition of a sharper pain 
Than pain of piercing spear ? Or what to him 
Who knoweth no restraint in use of robes, 
Wherefor he should be punished long in hell, 
Being bound upon a blazing iron plate ? 
Though sweet the food, to one who hath no virtue 
It is as virulent poison : wheref or he 
Shall mouth in hell a red-hot iron ball. 
Though deemed a joy, the use of bed and chair 
By one who hath no virtue is a pain. 
Wherefore let him be racked long time on beds 
And blazing chairs of iron. And to him 
Whose virtue is perverted, what delight 
To dwell within a house, a gift of faith ? 
'Mid blazing iron vessels should he dwell. 
Thus the world-Teacher blameth him for one 
Of hesitating conduct, passionate, 
Evil, putrid within, a rubbish heap. 
Fie on the harmful and destructive life 
Of him who knoweth not restraint, no monk, 



64 The Path of Purity 

But wearing a monk's guise and suffering 

Austerities I 1 For what to him is life, 

Avoided is by the virtuous and good, 

As dung by those who would be beautified, 

Or corpse. He is not freed from fears ; but freed 

From every hope of bliss. Heaven's door is closed, 

The way of hell he hath taken. Who but he 

Is pitiable to the piteous ? 

Perverted virtue many faults begets. 

Thus by retrospective knowledge are to be understood 
the evils of the depravity of virtue. And the advantages 
of the fulfilment of virtue should be taken as the opposite 
of the description here given (of the former). 

Further: 

[58] His virtue pure, his bearing bowl and robe 
Pleasing, his ordination not unblessed. 
As darkness enters not the sun, so fear 
Of self -blame enters not that brother's heart 
Whose virtue is purified. As in the sky 
By the fulfilment of her rays the moon 
Shines, in the wood of his austerities 
By the fulfilment of his virtue shines 
The brother. A good brother's bodily scent 
Brings gladness even to gods : what need to tell 
His scent of virtue ? For it overcomes 
The attainment of all other kinds of scent: 
Unchecked in all directions it is borne. 
Deeds to the virtuous done, though they be few, 
Are fruitful. Thus the virtuous dispense 
Honour and reverence. The intoxicants 
Of the conditioning present do not vex 
The virtuous. The virtuous dig up 
The root of future ills. 
Whatever of attainment among men, 
Whatever of prosperity there be 

1 Read khatam attanam va hautassa for cbatam . 




I. Exposition of Virtue 65 

Among the gods, it is not hard to gain 
By one fulfilled in virtue, if he will. 
The attainment of Nibbana takes away 
Burning untold : his mind seeks after it 
Whose virtue is fulfilled. Thus should the wise 
Show forth the benefits of virtue, root 
Of all attainments, various, multiform. 

And so the mind of him who shows them forth trembles at 
the depravity of virtue, and inclines towards its fulfilment. 
Therefore, seeing the evils of the depravity of virtue and 
the advantages of the fulfilment of virtue as spoken of above, 
one should purify virtue with due respect. 

So far has virtue been explained in the Path of Purity set 
forth under the heads of virtue, concentration, and wisdom 
in the stanza, " The man discreet, on virtue planted firm." 

Thus is ended the first chapter called The Exposition of 
Virtue, in the Path of Purity, composed for the purpose of 
gladdening good folk. 



[59] CHAPTER II 

EXPOSITION OF THE ASCETIC PRACTICES 

Now virtue, the different kinds of which have been described, 
is cleansed by means of such qualities as fewness of wishes, 
contentment, and so on. Because a religious meditator who 
has kept his virtue should, to be proficient in those qualities, 
observe the ascetic practices, therefore we will begin the dis- 
course on the ascetic practices, so that he (who observes them) 
may have his virtue washed and purified by the waters of 
such qualities, to wit, fewness of wishes, contentment, austerity 
of life, solitude, loss of sin, strenuous energy, easiness of 
support by others, and may have his vows fulfilled. And so 
being absolutely pure in conduct through his qualities of 
faultless virtue and ritual, he may be worthy of being estab- 
lished in the three ancient orders of Ariyans and, fourthly, of 
attaining to delight in culture. 

Thirteen ascetic practices namely have been permitted by 
the Blessed One to be kept by those well-born youths who have 
put away worldly needs of the flesh and who, regardless of 
body or life, are eager to make fitting progress. They are (1) the 
refuse-ragman's practice, (2) three-rober's practice, (3) alms- 
man's practice, (4) house-to-house-goer's practice, (5) one- 
sessioner's practice, (6) bowl-fooder's practice, (7) afterfood- 
refuser's practice, (8) forester's practice, (9) tree-rootman's. 
practice, (10) open-spacer's practice, (11) burning-grounder's 
practice, (12) any-bedder's practice, (13) sitting-man's practice. 

Therein: 

As to the meaning, characteristic, 
Observance and directions, grade and breach, 
And eke the benefit of this and that, 
As moral triad, as differentiated, 
In groups and in detail decision shall 
Be made on these ascetic practices. 
66 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 67 

[60] Of these, as to the meaning: 

1. A refuse-rag is one which is placed on a refuse-heap in 
such places as a chariot-road, burning-ground, rubbish-heap, 
and so on, and which, in the sense of covering-up is like the 
heap of dust in them. Or, it gets to a loathsome state like 
the dust hence refuse-rag; it reaches the loathsome state, 
as, it has been said, refuse-rag practice means the wearing of a 
refuse-rag so denned. One who has the habit of wearing it 
is a refuse-ragman. The practice 1 of a refuse-ragman is 
refuse-ragman's practice. Practice is said to mean reason. 
Therefore this practice should be regarded as a synonym 
for whatever observance by reason of which one becomes a 
refuse-ragman. 

2. In the same way one who has the habit of wearing the 
threefold robe namely, the shoulder-cloak, upper garment, 
and the waist-cloth is a three-rober. The practice of a 
three-rober is three-rober's practice. 

3. Alms 2 is the falling of morsels as food for the flesh. It 
is said to be the falling into the bowl of morsels of food given 
by others. One who gathers alms and seeks it by approaching 
this and that family is an almsman. Or, one whose duty it is 
to roam for alms is an alms-roamer, where to roam is to 
wander. Alms-roamer is the same as almsman. The practice 
of such an one is almsman's practice. 

4. A broken series (ddna) is said to be an interruption. 
An unbroken series (apaddna) is without interruption; 
uninterrupted is the meaning. With unbroken series is 
sdpaddna (sa-apaddna), that is, from house to house without 
interruption. One whose habit it is to go from one house 
to another in an unbroken series is a house-to-house-goer, 
sapadanacari, which is the same as sdpaddnacdrika. 3 The 
practice of such an one is house-to-house-goer's practice. 

5. One-session is food taken at one sitting. One who has 
the habit of taking such food is a one-sessioner. The practice 
of him is one-sessioner' s practice. 

6. Bowl-food is food that falls into a single bowl, a second 

1 Or, factor (angam). 2 Cf. above, p. 37. 

3 I.e. with the addition of the suffix ka. 



68 The Path of Purity 

bowl being refused. Now the name bowl-food is given to the 
acceptance of such food. One who has the habit of accepting 
such food is a bowl-fooder. The practice of him is bowl- 
f coder's practice. 

7. Khalu is a particle with the meaning of denial. [61] 
Food that is got later by one who refuses further offerings 
while eating his first meal 1 is called afterfood. The partaking 
of that afterfood is afterfood-taking. The name, afterfood, 
is given to the taking of such food. One who has the habit of 
taking afterfood is an afterfooder. Afterfood-refuser is one 
who does not take afterfood. It is a name for one who by 
virtue of his observance refuses additional food. But it is 
said in the (Great) Commentary : ' Khalu is a bird which takes 
a fruit in its beak, but when that falls down does not take 
another fruit. Such is the man,' namely the afterfood-refuser. 
The practice of such an one is afterfood-refuser's practice. 

8. One who has the habit of dwelling in the forest is a 
forester. The practice of such an one is forester's practice. 

9. Tree-root is a dwelling at the foot of a tree. One who 
has the habit of dwelling at such a place is a tree-rootman. 
The practice of a tree-rootman is tree-rootman' s practice. 

10. 11. And the same with the practices of the open-spacer 
and the burning-grounder (or charnel -fielder). 

12. Any-bed is any lodging that is allotted. It is a 
synonym for a dwelling first allotted thus : ' This is available 
for you.' One who has the habit of living in whatever place 
is allotted is an any-bedder. The practice of such an one 
is any-bedder' s practice. 

13. A sitting-man is one whose habit it is to refuse to lie 
down and to live sitting. The practice of such an one is 
sitting-man's practice. 

All of them are the practices (or factors) of the brother who 
has shaken off the corruptions through the observance of this 
and that practice; or, knowledge, which has acquired the 
common name of shaking-ofE by reason of its shaking off the 
corruptions, is the factor for (or reason of) these practices 

1 The meaning of pavaritena sata is brought out in these two clauses. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 69 

hence ascetic practices (or factors). Or, again, they are 
ascetic because they shake off the hostile corruptions and they 
are the factors of moral attainment hence ascetic practices. 
So far is the decision to be known from the meaning. 1 

And the will to observe is the characteristic of them all. 
It is also said (in the Commentary) : ' It is the person that 
observes. Mind and mental properties are the states by 
which he observes. It is the ascetic practice that is the will 
to observe. It is the physical basis that is rejected.' And 
all of them have the slaying of worldly lust as function, the 
freedom from such lust as manifestation, and such Ariyan states 
as fewness of wishes and so on as proximate cause. [62] Thus 
is the decision to be known from the characteristic and so on. 

As to the five topics : their observance, directions, and others, 2 
in the lifetime of the Blessed One all the ascetic practices 
had to be observed under him ; after his decease, under the Chief 
Disciple ; he being absent, under a saint purged of the intoxi- 
cants and so on, under a never-returner a once-returner a 
stream-winner a scholar of the three Pitakas a scholar of 
two Pitakas a scholar of one Pitaka a scholar of one Nikaya 
a scholar of one Agama 3 a teacher of commentaries a 
master of the ascetic practices ; and in the absence of this last 
person one should sweep the shrineyard, sit on the hams, and 
observe the practices as though uttering them under the 
tuition of the Supreme Buddha. But it behoves one to 
observe them also by oneself. And here as regards fewness 
of wishes by reason of the ascetic practices, the story of the 
senior of the two brothers, Elders living on Mount Cetiya, 
should be told. 4 

This so far is the general discourse. 

1 Dhutanga: from dhu: to shake off. 

2 See the verse on p. 66. 

3 Ekagamassa, meaning the same as the preceding, is omitted by the 
'Ilka. 

4 He, it is said, was one who never lay down, but none knew of it. 
One night as he sat on a bench his brother saw him by lightning- flash 
and asked if he was practising the habit of the sitting-man. The Elder, 
through fewness of wishes by reason of his ascetic practice, at once lay 
down, but afterwards resumed the habit. Tikd. 



70 The Path of Purity 

1. The Refuse-Ragman's Practice. 

Now we shall set forth, the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage of each in order. 

And first, the refuse-ragman's practice is observed with one or 
other of the two expressions : I refuse a robe given by a house- 
holder; I observe the refuse-ragman's practice. So far this 
is the (formula of) observance. And he who observes this 
practice should pick up one or other of these rags, namely, 
burning-ground-rag, shop-rag, street-rag, rubbish-heap-rag, 
childbirth-rag, bath-rag, bathing-place-rag, after-return-rag, 
burnt-rag, cattle-bitten-rag, ant-bitten-rag, mouse-gnawed- 
rag, side-torn-rag, border- torn-rag, flag-rag, oblation-rag, 
monk's-rag, consecration-rag, psychic-power-rag, road-rag, 
wind-blown-rag, spirit-rag, ocean-rag. Tearing the rag he 
should throw away the rotten parts and wash the good parts 
and make a robe of them, and wear it after removing his old 
householder's robe. 

As to these, burning-ground-rag is a rag cast away in the 
burning-ground. Shop-rag is a rag thrown away at a shop- 
door. Street-rag is a rag thrown into the street from a 
window by those who desire merit. Rubbish-heap-rag is 
[63] a rag thrown away at a rubbish-heap. Childbirth-rag 
is a cloth thrown away after wiping the impurities of the 
womb at childbirth. It is said that the mother of Tissa the 
minister had the impurities of her womb wiped with a cloth 
worth a hundred coins, and had it thrown on the Talaveli 
Road 1 in the hope that refuse-ragmen would pick it up; and 
the brethren took of it just enough for mending purposes. 2 
Bath-rag is a rag which sick people 3 throw away as inauspicious 
when, with the advice of exorcists, they have washed their 
heads and bathed themselves. Bathing-place-rag is a cloth 
thrown away at the river bathing-place. After-return-rag 
is a cloth which men, on their return from the burning-ground, 
throw away after their bath. Burnt-rag is a cloth partially 

1 A road in Mahagama and in Anuradhapura. 

2 So as to leave some for others. 

3 Read nahapita, as in footnote. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 71 

burnt by fire. That also men throw away. Cattle-bitten- 
rag and the next four are obvious, i.e. rags bitten by cattle, 
by white ants, by mice, torn at the side, and at the border. 
Those also men throw away. As regards the flag-rag sailors 
embark on a boat after planting a banner (at the port) ; one 
may take it when they get out of sight. That banner planted 
on the battlefield by soldiers one may also take, when both 
armies have marched away. Oblation-rag is a cloth which 
is wrapped round an anthill and offered to spirits. Monk's- 
rag is a robe belonging to a brother. Consecration-rag is a 
robe thrown away at the place where the king was anointed. 
Psychic-power-rag is a robe made by a newly initiated brother. 1 
Koad-rag is a cloth thrown away (or fallen) on the road. 
But one should wait awhile before picking up that cloth, 
which the owner dropped through inadvertence. Wind- 
blown-rag is a cloth which, carried by the wind, has fallen 
afar. That also one may take when the owner is not in sight. 
Spirit-rag is a cloth given by devas, like the one given to the 
Elder Anuruddha. 2 Ocean-rag is a cloth thrown up on to 
the land by the waves of the sea. But that robe which is 
given with the expression, ' we give it to the Order,' or that 
which is obtained by monks who go to receive a gift of cloth 
and alms is not a refuse-rag. As for a robe given by a 
brother, that which is given out of regard for (the ragman's) 
seniority, or that which is offered to (the inmates of) a 
monastery is not a refuse-rag. That which is given out of 
regard, not for the ragman's seniority (but, for the donor's 
seniority), is a refuse-rag. And here also that robe which, 
having been placed at a brother's feet by donors, is offered 
by him into the ragman's hand, is indeed half pure. That also 
which, having been given into the brother's hand, is by him 
placed at (the ragman's) feet is half pure. But that which, 
having been placed at the brother's feet, is by him given to 
the ragman in the same way 3 is wholly pure. [64] That which, 
having been placed in the (brother's) hand, is by him placed 

1 Ehibhikkhus, i.e. ' Come, brother !' the oldest formula of admission 
to the Order. Vinaya iv, 214. 

2 Dhammapada Corny, ii, 173/. 3 I.e. by placing it at his feet. 



72 The Path of Purity 

in the (ragman's) hand is indeed not a robe. Thus knowing 
the different kinds of refuse-rags the refuse-ragman should 
wear his robe. These herein are the directions. 

Now this is the grade. There are three ragmen: strict, 
moderate, and soft. Of them he who picks up a rag thrown 
away in the burning-ground 1 is a strict man. He who picks 
up a rag 2 which was placed with the verbal expression : ' the 
monk will pick it up ' is a moderate man. 3 He who accepts 
a rag placed at his feet (by a monk) is a soft man. And the 
ascetic practice of any of them is broken the moment he 
accepts, through his own wish or through submission to a 
request, a robe given by a householder. 4 This herein is the 
breach. 

Now these are the advantages: The state of his having 
behaved in accordance with the spiritual guidance (of his 
superior) as said thus: ' He is a monk having a refuse-rag as Ms 
resource for clothing ;' 5 his establishment in the first order of 
Ariyans; the absence of the trouble of looking after his robe; 
the independence of livelihood; the absence of danger from 
thieves; the absence of the lust for enjoyment; the fitness of 
the rag as a monk's robe; the state of its being a requisite 
praised by the Buddha as ' cheap, easy to get, and faultless ' ; 6 
its delightfulness; the yielding of the fruit of fewness of wishes 
and so forth; the development of right conduct; the institution 
of a precedent for future generations of monks. 

1 The particle yeva is used in a collective sense to include the other 
twenty-two rags. 

2 I.e. any of the twenty-three kinds. 

3 But the Visuddhimaggadipam inclines to the view that he is a 
strict man because, in the case of the burning-ground, of the loath- 
someness of the place and, in the case of rags gnawed by mice and so 
forth or burnt by fire, of the discarded nature of the rags themselves. 

4 ' But if he accepts it out of regard for the donor's faith and with the 
intention of presenting it to another, as Ananda accepted a robe from 
King Pasenadi for another, there is no breach.' Culatikd. ' It is 
not proper for a monk to accept a robe which a layman has placed 
at his feet requesting him to receive it as a special favour. But if 
the donor goes off dropping it with indifference at the monk's feet 
saying " He will not take it even when I offer it so," it is proper to pick 
it up.' Ganthi. 

5 Vinaya i, 58. 6 Anguttara ii, 26. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 73 

As in the battle shines the mail-clad prince, 

So in the routing of the Tempter's ranks 

Shines the ascetic in a cast-off clout. 

The cast-off clout that the world's Teacher wore, 

Kejecting fairest robes of Kasi silk, 

Who will not wear ? Let Brethren take delight 

In the old clout befitting hermit ways, 

Remembering their vows. 

This so far is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the refuse-ragman's practice. 

2. The Three-Rober's Practice. 

Next comes the three-rober's practice observed with one 
or other of the expressions: I refuse a fourth robe; 1 1 observe 
the three-rober's practice. [65] He who observes this practice 
should, on getting a new piece of cloth, put it by as long as he 
cannot make it coarse, or cannot find one who knows how 
to cut it, or lacks any of the articles such as a needle. There 
is no fault in putting it by. But he should not put it by once 
it is dyed. He would then become a thief of the ascetic 
practice. These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here. When the time 
for dyeing comes, the strict man, having first dyed either his 
waist-cloth or upper garment, should wear the one he has dyed 
and then dye the other. And having put on his upper garment 
he should dye the shoulder-cloak. But he should not put on 
the shoulder-cloak. This is his duty in a village-monastery. 
But in his forest-abode he may wash both the garments 
together and dye them. In so doing he should sit in a place 
near enough for him to be able, in case he should see any one, 
to drag the yellow robe and cover himself with it. For the 
moderate man there is in the dyeing hall a yellow dyeing robe 
which he should wear or put on and do the work of dyeing. 
The soft man may wear or put on the robes which are for the 



1 I.e. for the purpose of wearing either as an inner or outer garment. 
It does not refer to a robe thrown over the shoulder, which is per- 
missible. See below, p. 74, n. 2. 



74 The Path of Purity 

common use of the brethren and do the work of dyeing. 
Even a bed-cover 1 there is proper for him, but he may not take 
it about with him. Nor may he wear off and on a robe which 
is for the common use of the brethren. To one who is observing 
the three-rober's practice a yellow shoulder-cloth as a fourth 
piece 2 is permitted. It must be one span in breadth and three 
cubits 3 in length. But the moment a fourth garment is accepted 
by these three men, the ascetic practice is broken. This herein 
is the breach. 

Now these are the advantages : The brother who is a three- 
rober is contented with the body-protecting robe, therefore 
he takes it about with him as a bird carries its wings. And 
such advantages as these are attained : little need of tendance ; 
the not having to treasure up clothes ; lightness in travelling ; 
abandonment of the lust for extra robes; simplicity of life 
through a limit being set for what is proper; the yielding of 
fewness of wishes and so forth. 

[66] The wise recluse, who wears the threefold robe, 
Forsakes a craving for an extra cloak. 
No other clothes he needs to treasure up ; 
He knows what taste contented bliss bestows. 
So he, the good recluse, who loves to roam 
With his three robes, as flies the bird with wings, 
Should note with joy the rule concerning robes. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the three-rober's practice. 

3. The Almsman's Practice. 

The almsman's practice also is observed with one or 
other of the expressions: I refuse an excessive amount of food; 
I observe the almsman's practice. He who observes this 
practice should not accept these fourteen kinds of food, 
namely, food offered to the Order as a whole, to one or more 
particular monks, food given by invitation, by tickets, food 

1 A shoulder-cloth (not usually worn as a garment) for self or another, 
used as a bed- sheet in the monastery. Tlkd. 

2 Sea note 1 (p. 73). 3 Read ti-hattham. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 75 

given on a day of the waning or waxing of the month, on a 
sacred day, on the first day of the moonlit fortnight, food given 
to guests, to monks about to travel, to the sick, to those 
who minister to the sick, food given in honour of a monastery, 
at a principal house, food given by donors in turn. But if 
donors do not use the expression ' Partake of food that has 
been offered to the Order,' but say, ' The Order partakes of 
food in our house; may you also partake of it,' it is proper 
to accept such food. Food obtained from the Order and 
distributed by tickets for purposes 1 other than the gratification 
of fleshly needs, and food cooked in a monastery are also 
permissible. These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here. Of them the 
strict man accepts food brought both from in front and from 
behind. He gives the bowl to the people who receive it out- 
side their door. He also accepts food given after he has sat 
down to eat in the dining-hall 2 after his almsround. But he 
does not accept food (that has been promised) by sitting for 
it the whole day long. The moderate man accepts food sitting 
and waiting for it the whole day; but does not consent to a 
meal for the morrow. The soft man consents to a meal for 
the morrow and also for the day after. The latter two men 
do not get the bliss of independent life; the strict man gets 
it. Suppose there is (a sermon on) the lineage of the Ariyans 
in a certain village. The strict man says to the other two: 
' Friends, let us go to hear the Law.' One of them replies: 
' Sir, I have been made to sit for a meal by such and such a 
man;' and the other says : ' Sir, I have consented to to-morrow's 
meal offered by a certain man.' Thus both of them fail to 
hear the Law. But the strict man goes early for alms and 
enjoys the taste of the Law. [67] The moment these three 
men accept extra food, such as food for the Order and so on, 
their ascetic practice is broken. This herein is the breach. 

Now these are the advantages: The state of his having 
behaved in accordance with the spiritual guidance (of his 
superior) as said thus : ' He is a monk having morsels of alms 

1 Such as medicinal purposes. 

2 Asanasalayam bhunjanatthaya nisinne adds the Cu/af'ihl. 



76 The Path of Purity 

as his resource for food ; 51 establishment in the second order of 
Ariyans; independence of livelihood; the state of the food 
being a requisite praised by the Blessed One as ' cheap, easy 
to get, and faultless ;' 2 the state of his having overcome idleness; 
the purity of livelihood; the fulfilment of his probationary 
conduct; the state of not being nourished by others; the doing 
favour to the poor (donor); 3 rejection of conceit; checking of 
the lust for tasty food; freedom from offence against the 
precepts concerning a meal for several monks, a meal subse- 
quent to the acceptance of a previous one, and personal 
behaviour; conduct in conformity with few wishes and so 
forth; development of right conduct; favour to future genera- 
tions. 4 

Contented with his lumps of alms, 

And independent in his life, 

The monk forsakes a lust for food, 

And goes at will to any place. 

His idleness he drives away; 

His livelihood is purified. 

And so the wise should ne'er despise 

The going round to beg for alms. 
For such 

A brother going on his begging round, 
Supporting self, not others him the gods 
Admire; for he is free from gain and fame. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the almsman's practice. 

4. The House-to-House-Goer's Practice. 

The practice of the house-to-house-goer also is observed 
with one or other of the expressions: I set aside greedy be- 
haviour in alms-gathering ; 5 I observe the house-to-house- 
goer's practice. Standing at the village-gate he who observes 

1 Vinaya i, 58. 2 Anguttara ii, 26. 

3 Who is thus not put to the trouble of having to give much. 
* In providing them with a precedent. 

5 I.e. greediness shown in passing over houses from which one does 
not expect to get food, and going to those houses which offer good food. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 77 

this practice should see that there is no danger 1 he is likely to 
meet with. If there be any such danger in the road or village 
he should leave that place and go elsewhere. Whether it 
be at the door of a house or on the road or in the village itself, 
if he gets no alms there he should go away and not count that 
place as a village. He should not forsake that place in which 
he has obtained something (abas). The brother should enter 
the village quite early, so that he may have time to leave any 
place he finds unpleasant and go elsewhere. [68] If alms 
be given him in his monastery, or men meeting him on the 
road take his bowl and give alms, he should accept it. When 
in his almsround he reaches a village, he should not go past it. 
Whether he gets nothing or something from that village, 
he should go from one village to another in order. These are 
the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here. Of them the strict 
man does not accept food offered before he reaches a house or 
after he has left a house 2 or food given after he has sat down 
to eat in the dining-hall on return from his almsround. He 
gives up his bowl 3 at the donor's door. In this ascetic 
practice there is indeed none like the Elder Mahakassapa; 
the occasion on which he gave up his bowl is well known. 

The moderate man accepts food offered either before he 
reaches a house or after he has left a house, as well as food 
that is brought after he has sat down to eat in the dining-hall 
on return from his almsround. He also gives up his bowl at 
the donor's door, but does not sit waiting for food that has been 
promised. In this respect he is like the strict almsman. The 
soft man sits waiting the whole day for food that has been 
promised. The moment greedy behaviour arises in these 
three men their ascetic practice is broken. This herein is 
the breach. 

Now these are the advantages : The being ever fresh 4 in his 
relations with the families; the being cool like the moon; 



1 Such as an elephant, horse, and other animals. 

2 Cf. the almsman's practice. 

3 So that food may be put into it. * I.e. not familiar. 



78 The Path of Purity 

rejection of meanness for the families; impartial favour; 1 
absence of disadvantages that arise to monks who eat together 
with the families 2 ; non-acceptance of invitations; absence of 
wish for a meal to be brought; conduct in conformity with few 
wishes, and so on. 

In coolness like the moon, and ever fresh, 
And faultless in regard to families, 
And free from meanness and partiality 
This brother is a house-to-house-almsman. 
A prudent man, who wishes here on earth 
To lead an independent life, should look 
With downcast eyes the distance of a yoke, 
All greediness of conduct put away, 
And go for alms from house to house. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the house-to-house-goer's 
practice. 

[69] 5. The One-Sessioner' 's Practice. 

The practice of the one-sessioner also is observed with one 
or other of the expressions : I refuse to eat food at more than 
one sitting; I observe the one-sessioner 's practice. He who 
observes this practice should not sit at the place reserved 
for the Elder in the dining-hall, but find such a suitable seat 
as will be available for him. If, before he finishes his meal, 
his teacher or preceptor arrives, he should rise and pay his 
respects. But Tipitaka-CFilabhaya the Elder said : ' He should 
keep his seat or his meal. 3 He who has not finished eating 
may rise and pay his respects, but he may not resume the 
meal.' These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here: The strict man 
will not accept more, once he has laid his hand on the food, 
be it little or much. If men bring butter and so forth saying, 

1 To rich and poor alike. 

2 Or, ' the absence of evil or fault such as familiarity with the donors' 
families.' 

3 I.e. keep his seat and finish his meal; or rise up if he has not com- 
menced eating. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 79 

' The Elder has not eaten anything,' he may accept them as 
medicine, not as food. The moderate man will accept more, 
as long as he has not finished the food in the bowl ; he is indeed 
known as ' limited by food.' The soft man will eat as long 
as he does not rise up. Inasmuch as he may eat until he 
takes the bowl to wash it, he is limited by the water with which 
he washes the bowl. And because he may eat until he rises 
up he is limited by his sitting. But the moment these three 
men eat food at more than one sitting, the ascetic practice 
is broken. This herein is the breach. 

And these are the advantages: Freedom from sickness* 
freedom from bodily ailment, lightness in movement, strength, 
comfort, the not committing of ofEence through his refusal of 
excessive food, the repelling of craving for tasty food, conduct 
in conformity with few wishes, and so on. 

Diseases caused by eating do not harm 
The monk who at one sitting eats his food. 
Not greedy for sweet tastes he does not let 
His work slacken. A monk should gladly take 
Delight in eating so his food, which makes 
For comfortableness and is the source 
Of joy in purity and simple life. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the one-sessioner's practice. 

[70] 6. The Bowl-Fooder's Practice. 

The practice of the bowl-f ooder also is observed with one or 
other of the expressions: I refuse a second bowl; I observe 
the bowl-fooder's practice. When at the time of drinking 
rice-gruel curry is offered in a vessel, he who observes this 
practice should first eat the curry or drink the rice-gruel. The 
rice-gruel would become loathsome, if he were to put into it 1 
the curry, in which there might be rotted fish 2 and so on. 
And he should eat nothing that is loathsome. Therefore 
concerning such curry the above statement was made. But 



Read yaguyam. * Read maccha 



80 The Path of Purity 

any honey, sugar, and so forth, which are not loathsome may 
be put into the rice-gruel. He should take just enough for 
his consumption. He should eat green vegetables, holding 
them in his hand, or else put them into the bowl. Any other 
tree-leaves are not permitted, since he has refused a second 
vessel. These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here. Except in chewing 
sugar-cane the strict man may not throw away 1 even such 
things as he cannot eat. He may not eat separating the lumps 
of rice, fish, meat, and cakes. 2 The moderate man may eat 
separating them with one hand; he is known as a ' hand- 
ascetic.' And the soft man is known as a ' bowl-ascetic.' 
Whatever he can put into the bowl he may separate with his 
hand or teeth, and eat. The moment these three men accept 
a second vessel, the ascetic practice is broken. This herein 
is the breach. 

And these are the advantages: The repelling of a craving 
for taste of various kinds, the repelling of desire for taste 
in more than one bowl, the seeing of the purpose and measure 
of food, the absence of the trouble of carrying various dishes 
and so forth, undistracted eating, conduct in conformity with 
few wishes, and so forth. 

The bowl-food-eater, disciplined enough 
To delve the roots of taste-desire, with eyes 3 
Of downward gaze, is not distracted by 
More dishes than his own. With joyful heart 
He bears contentedness as though it were 
A thing that's visible. Who else, forsooth, 
Can eat his food as does the bowl-foodman ? 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the bowl-f coder's practice. 

1 Into a second bowl, which, even for the purpose of receiving such 
things (like fish-bone, grain, and so on), as one does not eat, ia not 
permissible. 

2 Lest he should relish the individual taste of each. 

3 Read locano. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 81 

[71] 7. The Afterfood-Ref user's Practice. 

The practice of the afterfood-refuser also is observed with 
one or other of the expressions : I refuse extra food ; I observe 
the afterfood-ref user's practice. Once he has made his vow 
(pavdrand), he who observes this practice should not eat 
any more food that may be offered. These are the direc- 
tions. 

There are also three grades of men here. Because his vow 
applies not to the first almsfood but to the refusal of more 
food while he is eating it, therefore the strict man who has made 
his vow does not eat a second almsfood after his first. The 
moderate man finishes the meal on which he has made his 
vow. But the soft man eats as long as he does not rise up. 
The moment these three men accept and eat after their vow 
any more food that may be offered, the ascetic practice is 
broken. This herein is the breach. 

And these are the advantages: Distance from the offence as 
to extra food, absence of a full stomach, absence of absorption 
in the fleshly needs, absence of search for fresh food, conduct 
in conformity with few wishes, and so on. 

The wise ascetic, who refuses food 
Additional, knows not the pain of search; 
He makes no storage of his fleshly needs; 
He suffers not his stomach to be full. 
To shake off faults ascetics should observe 
This practice, which produces qualities 
Such as increased contentment, and is praised 
By Him the Happy One. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the afterfood-refuser's practice. 

8. The Forester's Practice. 

The practice of the forester also is observed with one or 

other of the expressions: I refuse a village-dwelling; I observe 

the forester's practice. He who observes this practice should 

leave a village-dwelling and be in the forest at dawn. Here 

i. 6 



82 The Path of Purity 

a village-dwelling is a (dwelling in a) village including its 
precincts. A village may consist of one or more houses, may 
or may not have a wall, may be inhabited or uninhabited. 1 
Even a caravan that is encamping for more than four months 
is a village. [72] Supposing a walled village has two gate- 
pillars like those of Anuradhapura, an outward stonethrow 
of a strong man of middle height from between the two pillars 
is village precinct. The Vinaya scholars decide the boundary 
by taking the characteristic (standard) throw to be the fall of a 
stone, thrown by young men stretching out their arms in a 
display of strength. But the Suttanta scholars say that the 
boundary is the fall of a stone thrown to drive away a crow. 
In a village which has no wall a woman, standing at the door 
of the house which is outermost of all, throws water from a jar; 
the place where the water falls is house-precinct; whence a 
stonethrow in the way described above is a village. Another 
stonethrow (from the village) is the village precinct. And in 
the Vinaya explanation a forest is said to be all that is outside 
of village and village-precinct. In the Abhidhamma explana- 
tion 2 it is forest when one goes out by the gate pillars. But 
regarding this ascetic practice in the Suttanta explanation 
this is the characteristic measure : a forest-dwelling is at least 
500 bow-lengths (or fathoms) distant. That distance is to be 
measured and fixed by means of a drawn standard bow 3 from 
the gate pillars, if the village has a wall, or from the first stone- 
throw if the village has no wall, as far as the monastery-wall. 
The Vinaya Commentaries say that if the monastery has 
no wall, the limit of the measure is the first dwelling, dining 
hall, permanent assembly hall, Tree of Wisdom or shrine, 
provided these are far from the monastery, But the Majjhima 
Commentary says that after fixing the precinct of the monastery 
as in the case of the village 4 the measure is to be made between 
the two stonethrows. 5 This is the measure to be taken here. 

1 Or, inhabited by unhuman beings. On the definitions here see 
Vinaya iii, 46. 

2 Vibhanga 251. 3 Lit. ' master-bow.' 
4 I.e. a strone-throw to drive away a crow. 

6 One to fix the monastery-precinct and the other the village- 
precinct. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 83 

If the village be so near that those in the monastery could 
hear the voices of the villagers, and yet it could not be reached 
by a straight path on account of such obstacles as hills, 
rivers, and so on, and if the natural means of approach be to 
cross by a boat, then the measure of 500 bow-lengths is to be 
taken by that (watery) path. Whosoever blocks the way here 
and there, so that the requisite measure may be fulfilled, is 
a thief of the ascetic practice. 

And if the forester's preceptor or teacher be ill and the 
necessary medicine cannot be obtained in the forest, [73] he 
may then take the sick man to a village-dwelling and look after 
him. But he should depart in good time, so that at dawn 
he may be in a place which fulfils the requirements of his 
practice. 

If at dawn their illness increases, he should do his duty by 
them and pay no heed to the purity of his ascetic practice. 
These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here : The strict man 
should find the dawn break in the forest at all times. The 
moderate man is allowed to live in the village for the four 
months of rain; the soft man for the four months of winter 
as well. The ascetic practice is not broken, if the dawn 
breaks while these three men, having come from the forest 
during their terms of forest- life, listen to the Law in a village- 
dwelling. It is not broken though the dawn may break, while 
they are still on their way back from the sermon. But if after 
the preacher has risen up they go to sleep saying ' We will lie 
down awhile and then depart,' and the dawn breaks, or if out 
of enjoyment they let the day dawn upon them in the village- 
dwelling, then the ascetic practice is broken. This herein 
is the breach. 

And these are the advantages: The forester-brother who 
attends to the perception of the forest can acquire concentra- 
tion not yet acquired or keep that which has been acquired. 
The teacher also is pleased with him, as He has said : ' Ndgita, 
I am pleased with the forest-life of that brother.' 1 Improper 



Anguttara iii, 343. 



84 The Path of Purity 

objects and so forth do not distract the mind of him who lives 
in a border-dwelling; he is free from fear; he puts away a 
craving for life, enjoys the taste of the bliss of solitude; the 
practices of the refuse-ragman and others are also agreeable 
to him. 

Secluded, solitary, delighting in 
A border-dwelling, by his forest-life 
The monk endears himself unto the Lord. 
Alone in forest-life, he gets that bliss, 
Whose taste even gods with Inda do not get. 
The refuse-rag he wears as coat of mail; 
The signs of other practices he wears 
As weapons. 1 At the forest battle-ground 
He conquers ere long Mara and his hosts. 
So should the wise delight in forest-life. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the forester's practice. 

[74] 9. The Tree-Rootman's Practice. 

The practice of the tree-rootman also is observed with one or 
other of the expressions : I refuse a covered dwelling ; I observe 
the tree-rootman's practice. He who observes this practice 
should avoid these trees: a tree which grows on the border 
between two countries, a sacred tree, a resinous tree, a fruit 
tree, a tree on which bats live, a hollow tree, a tree growing 
in the middle of a monastery. He should resort to a tree on 
the oustkirt of a monastery. These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here : The strict man is 
not allowed to resort to any tree he pleases and make a clearing 
underneath it. He may dwell under a tree after removing 
with bis foot the fallen leaves. The moderate man is allowed 
to cause those who arrive at the tree to make a clearing. The 
soft man may summon the monastery-lads and ask them to 
make a clearing, to level it, to scatter sand on it, to make an 
enclosure and to fix a door, and may dwell there. On a feast 

1 Read yudho as part of the preceding compound. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 85 

day the ascetic should not remain at the foot of the tree but 
go to some other hidden place and sit down. The moment 
these three men make a dwelling in a covered place, their 
ascetic practice is broken. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya 
say that it is broken the moment they consciously let the day 
dawn upon them in a covered dwelling. This herein is the 
breach. 

Now these are the advantages : Attainment in accordance 
with the third requisite as expressed in, ' A monk depending 
on a dwelling at the foot of a tree ; ?1 the possession of requisites 
praised by the Blessed One thus, ' They are trifling, 2 easily 
got, and faultless ;' 3 the production of the perception of im- 
permanence by seeing the constant change in tender leaves j 
the absence of meanness for a dwelling 4 and of delight in new 
work, intercourse with tree-deities, conduct in conformity 
with few wishes, and so forth. 

Where is the lonely man's abode, extolled 
By Buddha best of men as requisite, 
And which is equal to the root of tree ? 
The well-controlled man, who lives at such 
A lonely place, protected by the gods, 
Subdues all meanness for a dwelling-place. 
[75] He sees the change that comes o'er tender leaves, 
Which turn from deep red into indigo, 
And fall as sere leaves to the ground. From this 
He learns the lesson of impermanence. 
Therefore the wise should not despise to dwell 
In isolation at the foot of tree, 
The Buddha's heritage and home of those, 
Who take delight in culture of the mind. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the tree-rootman's practice. 



1 Vinaya i, 58. 2 As regards care, duty, or tendance. 

3 Anguttara ii, 26. 

4 On the five kinds of meanness see Expositor 480. 



86 The Path of Purity 



10. The Open-Spacer's Practice. 

The practice of the open-spacer also is observed with one or 
other of the expressions: I refuse a roof as well as the root of 
a tree; I observe the open-spacer's practice. He who observes 
this practice may enter the sacred house either to listen to 
the Law or to do the sacred duties. If the rain falls while he 
is inside he should not go out in the rain but wait till it ceases. 
He may enter the dining-hall or the fire-hall to do his duties. 
He may invite the Elders and brethren in the dining-hall to 
a meal. As an instructor (of the Pali) or as a pupil he may 
enter a covered dwelling. He may cause to be brought inside 
bedsteads and stools which are badly kept outside. If the rain 
falls while he is going along carrying a requisite that belongs 
to his seniors, he may enter a hall on the way. If he is not 
carrying any such thing, he may not hasten with the intention 
of entering the hall, but going with his ordinary steps he may 
enter and remain till the rain ceases and then depart. These 
are the directions which also apply to the tree-rootman. 

There are also three grades of men here: The strict man 
may not dwell depending on a tree, mountain, or house. He 
should dwell beneath the open sky in a hut made of leaves. 
The moderate man may dwell depending on trees, mountains, 
or houses without entering them. For the soft man a cave not 
covered with a roof, a pavilion of branches, a cloth-cover for 
a chair, a hut in the field deserted by field-watchers and so 
forth, are permissible. The moment these three men enter a 
roof or beneath a tree to dwell there, [76] the ascetic practice 
is broken. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya say that it is 
broken the moment they consciously let the dawn break upon 
them in such places. This herein is the breach. 

Now these are the advantages : The cutting off of the nuisance 
of an abode, the dispelling of sloth and torpor, worthiness of 
the praise bestowed as, ' Like the deer the brethren live un- 
trammelled in their walks, homeless, n freedom from attach - 

1 Samyutta i, 199. Cf. Kindred Sayings I, 253, n. 3. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 87 

ment, 1 the going (at will) in the four directions, conduct in 
conformity with few wishes, and so forth. 

As free in mind as is the antelope, 
The brother lives an easy homeless life 
Beneath the open sky lit by the moon, 
A lamp that lights the vault of starry gems. 
His torpid sloth he drives away and takes 
Delight in culture ; presently he finds 
The tasteful essence of his solitude. 
Therefore the wise should take delight in life 
Beneath the open sky. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the open-spacer's practice. 

11. The Burning-Grounder's Practice. 

The practice of the burning-grounder also is observed with 
one or other of the expressions : I refuse (to dwell in) a place 
that is not a burning-ground ; I observe the burning-grounder's 
practice. He who observes this practice should not dwell in 
a place which village-builders fix as burning-ground. For 
when a dead body has not been burnt on it, the place is not 
known as burning-ground. It is a burning-ground, though 
it has been deserted for twelve years since a dead body 
was burnt there. But he may not have there promenades 
and pavilions and so forth built, bedsteads and stools arranged, 
water and food brought, and live there teaching the Law. 
This ascetic practice is indeed heavy. Therefore in order to 
quell any danger that might arise he should tell the Elder of 
the Order or one connected with the king, and live free from 
negligence. In walking to and fro he should do so looking 
with half-closed eyes at the burning of dead bodies. [77] In 
going to the burning-ground also he should leave the main 
road and go by a side path. He should note any object there 
by daylight, so that it may not appear to him fearful at 
night. Though unhuman beings may roam about uttering 
loud cries, he should not throw anything to hit them. He 

1 To houses and so forth. 



88 The Path of Purity 

should not pass a single day without going to the burning- 
ground. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya say that after 
spending the middle watch of the night at the burning-ground 
he may depart in the last watch. He should not partake of 
such foodstuffs as sesjanium, flour, peas, rice, fish, meat, 
milk, oil, molasses, that are dear to unhuman beings, nor 
take them to the houses of donors. These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here: The strict man 
should dwell where there are continual burning, continual 
smell of dead bodies, and continual weeping. The moderate 
man may dwell where there is one of these present. The 
soft man may dwell in a place which just fulfils the require- 
ments of a burning-ground as given above. When these 
three men make their abode in a place which is not burning- 
ground, their ascetic practice is broken. This herein is the 
breach. 

Now these are the advantages : Attainment of mindfulness 
regarding death, a life free from negligence, acquirement of 
the outward sign of the foul, dispelling of sensual lust, the 
perpetual seeing of the intrinsic nature of the body, growth of 
agitation, rejection of the pride of health, overcoming of fear 
and fright, respect paid by unhuman beings, conduct in 
conformity with few wishes, and so forth. 

The faults of negligence, even while he sleeps, 

Touch not the burning-ground-recluse, such is 

The power of his mindfulness of death. 

Because so many corpses he beholds, 

His mind is freed from lust's dominion. 

Great agitation seizes him and leaves 

Him without pride. He makes a right effort 

To win tranquillity. Therefore with heart 

Inclined unto Nibbana follow hard 

The burning-grounder's practice, which bestows 

Such manifold merits and qualities. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the burning-grounder's practice. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 89 

[78] 12. The Any-Bedder's Practice. 

The practice of the any-bedder also is observed with one 
or other of the expressions: I set aside greedy behaviour 
regarding dwellings; I observe the any-bedder's practice. 
He who observes this practice should be content with whatever 
dwelling is allotted to him by the distributor who says, ' This 
is for you.' He should not oust any man from his place. 1 
These are the directions. 

There are also three grades of men here :. The strict man must 
not ask concerning a dwelling he has come to, 2 whether it is 
far or quite near, troubled by unhuman beings, snakes, and so 
on, or whether it is hot or cold. The moderate man may ask 
such questions, but may not go and examine it. The soft man 
may go and examine it, and if it does not please him he may 
take another. The moment greedy behaviour in regard to 
dwellings arises in these three men, their ascetic practice is 
broken. This herein is the breach. 

Now these are the advantages : Obeying the advice given, 
as: ' One should be content with what one gets, 1 seeking the 
good of one's fellow-monks, abandonment of thought of what 
is inferior and superior, rejection of approval and disapproval, 
closing the door of covetousness, conduct in conformity with 
few wishes, and so forth. 

Content with what he gets, the any-bed- 

Recluse lies down in careless ease on beds, 

Even though they be of grass. He does not long 

For what is best, is not perturbed because 

Of an inferior bed. To younger monks 

He shows compassion. So a wise man ought 

To be content with any bed, a rule 

Of constant practice with the Ariyas, 

And by the Bull-sage fittingly extolled. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, grade, 
breach, and advantage in the any-bedder's practice. 

1 Or, he should not make another place for himself. 
- Or, allotted to him. 



90 The Path of Purity 

13. The Sitting-Man's Practice. 

The practice of the sitting-man also is observed with one or 
other of the expressions : I refuse to lie down ; I observe the 
sitting-man's practice. He who observes this practice should 
rise up and walk to and fro for one watch out of the three 
watches of the night, for lying down is the only posture that 
is not permitted to him. These are the directions. 

[79] There are also three grades of men here: The strict 
man is not allowed a plank with a back support, or a cushion 
of cloth for squatting on, or a bandage-cloth. The moderate 
man may use any one of these three. The soft man is allowed 
a plank with a back support, a cushion of cloth for squatting 
on, a bandage-cloth, a pillow, a five-limbed seat, a seven- 
limbed seat. A seat with a back support to lean against is a 
five-limbed seat. A seat with a back support and a hand 
support on either side is a seven-limbed seat. It is said 
that people made such a seat for Mllhabhaya the Elder, who, 
becoming a never-returner, entered parinibbana. The moment 
these three men accept a bed to lie on, their ascetic practice 
is broken. This herein is the breach. 

Now these are the advantages: The cutting off of mental 
bondage described as: ' He lives devoted to the pleasure of 
lying down, the pleasure of lying on one's side, 1 the pleasure 
of torpor,' 2 fitness for application to all subjects of medita- 
tion, satisfied state of the postures, agreeableness for strenuous 
effort, development of right attainment. 

The monk who sits cross-legged, keeping straight 

The body, doth disturb the Tempter's heart. 

He takes no pleasure in the torpid state, 

In lying down, but wakes his energies 

And joyfully sits up, illumining 

The grove of his ascetic practices. 

As bliss and rapture, cleansed of earthly things, 

Reward the monk, so one should steadfastly 

Perform the duty of the sitting man. 

This is the setting forth of the observance, directions, 
grade, breach, and advantage in the sitting-man's practice. 
1 Or, of turning from side to side. 2 MajjJiima i, 103. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 91 

Of Ascetic and Other Terms as Moral Triad. 
Now this is the elucidation of the verse (p. 66) : 

As moral triad, as differentiated, 

In groups and in detail decision shall 

Be made regarding these ascetic practices. 

Therein, ' as moral triad ' means that all the ascetic 
practices may be moral or unmoral as those of probationers, 
average persons and of saints purged of the intoxicants. [80] 
There is no ascetic practice that is immoral. But the sectary 
says, an ascetic practice may also be immoral because of the 
saying: ' There is a forester of evil desires, not free from desire? 1 
We reply that we do not say that one may not dwell with an 
immoral thought in the forest. For whosoever makes his 
abode in the forest is a forester, who may have evil desires, 
or little, or no desire. Because the corruptions are shaken 
off through this and that observance, the practices (or factors) 
of the brother who has shaken them off are called ' ascetic 
practices.' Or, knowledge which has obtained the common 
name of asceticism, because it shakes off the corruptions, is 
the factor of these observances thus ' ascetic practice ' (or 
factor). Or again, it has been said that because these observ- 
ances shake off the hostile corruptions they are ascetic, and 
they are factors of (moral) attainment thus ' ascetic practice.' 
No one whose observances are 2 such factors is known as 
ascetic on account of his immorality. Else we should speak 
of ascetic practices of which the factor is immorality which 
shakes off nothing ; and immorality does not shake off greedi- 
ness for robes and other evil states, nor is it a factor of moral 
attainment. Therefore what has been said as, ' There is no 
ascetic practice that is immoral,' is well said. There is no 
ascetic practice in the ultimate sense to those whose ascetic 
practice is freed from the moral triad. 3 From the shaking off 
of what does this imaginary thing become ascetic practice ? 
They would also fall into opposition with the saying : ' He goes 

1 Anguttara iii, 219. - Read bhaveyyum for bhaveyyani. 

3 Because they consider it as a concept. 



92 The Path of Purity 

on keeping the ascetic duties.' Therefore their saying should 
not be accepted. 
This so far is the elucidation by way of the moral triad. 

Of Ascetic and Other Terms as Differentiated. 

(1) Ascetic should be understood, (2) ascetic doctrine should 
be understood, (3) ascetic states should be understood, 
(4) ascetic practices should be understood, (5) for whom 
is the practising of the ascetic practices suitable ? this 
should be understood. Of these points (1) ' ascetic ' is a 
person who has shaken off the corruptions, or a state for the 
shaking off of the corruptions. (2) In ' ascetic doctrine ' 
there is one who is ascetic and not ascetic preacher, there is 
one who is not ascetic but ascetic preacher, there is one who 
is neither ascetic nor ascetic preacher, there is one who is 
both ascetic and ascetic preacher. Of these he who has shaken 
off his corruptions by means of his ascetic practice, but does 
not admonish nor instruct others regarding ascetic practice, 
is an ascetic but not ascetic preacher,like Bakkula the Elder; 1 
as has been said : ' This venerable Bakkula is ascetic not ascetic 
preacher.' And whoso [81] has not shaken off his corruptions 
by means of ascetic practice, but just admonishes, instructs 
others regarding it, is not ascetic but ascetic preacher, like 
Upananda the Elder; 2 as has been said: ' This venerable 
Upananda Sakyaputta is not an ascetic but ascetic preacher.' 
Whoso is deficient in both respects like Laludayl 3 is neither 
ascetic nor ascetic preacher; as has been said: ' This venerable 
Ldluddyi is neither ascetic nor ascetic preacher.' Whoso like 
the captain of the Law 4 is fulfilled in both respects is ascetic 
and ascetic preacher; as has been said: ' This venerable 
Sdriputta is both ascetic and ascetic preacher.' (3) ' Ascetic 
states should be understood ' these five attendant states of 
the volition of ascetic practice : fewness of wishes, contentment, 
austerity, solitude, desire-for-these-states are known as 
ascetic states from the expression, ' depending on fewness of 
wishes, and so on.' Of them fewness of wishes and content- 

1 Of. Majjhima iii, 124 /. a Cf. Jataka ii, 441. 

3 Cf. Ib. i, 123, 446 /. 4 Cf. Theragathd 982 /. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 93 

ment fall under non-greed; austerity and solitude under the 
two states: non-greed and non-delusion. Desire-for-these- 
states is knowledge. By means of non-greed one shakes off 
greed for forbidden things, by non-delusion one shakes off 
delusion which covers faults in them, and by non-greed one 
shakes off devotion to the pleasure of sense which arises from 
resorting to things allowed. By non-delusion one shakes off 
devotion to self-torture, which arises on account of excessive 
austerity in ascetic practice. Therefore should these states 
be understood as ascetic states. (4) By ascetic practices 
should be understood the thirteen, namely, the refuse-rag- 
man's practice . . . sitting-man's practice. They have been 
stated as regards their meaning, characteristic and so forth. 
(5) For whom is the practising of ascetic practice suitable ? 
for one walking in lust and one walking in delusion. Why so ? 
Because the practising of ascetic practice is of painful progress 
and means a life of austerity; and through painful progress 
lust is calmed, through austerity the delusion of a non-negli- 
gent man is put away. Or, herein the practising of the 
practices of the forester and of the tree-rootman is suitable 
for one walking in hate, for hate ceases in one dwelling without 
society in the forest or at the foot of a tree. 

This is the elucidation of ascetic and other terms as differ- 
entiated. 

[82] In Groups and in Detail. 

' In groups ' these ascetic practices are eight three chief 
practices and five unmixed (separate) practices. Of them the 
practices of the house-to-house-goer, one-sessioner, and open- 
spacer are the three chief practices. For whoso keeps the 
house-to-house-goer's practice will also keep the almsman's 
practice. And whoso keeps the one-sessioner's practice, for 
him the practices of the bowl-fooder and afterfood-refuser 
will be easy to keep. Whoso keeps the open-spacer's practice, 
what need is there for him to keep the practices of the tree- 
rootman and the any-bedder ? Thus these three are the chief 
practices. They make eight with these five: practices of the 
forester, refuse-ragman, three-rober, sitting-man, burning- 



94 The Path of Purity 

grounder. Again, they form four classes: two concerning 
the robe, five concerning the alms, five concerning the dwell- 
ing, one concerning energy. Of these the sitting-man's practice 
is one that concerns energy; the others are obvious. Again, 
all are of two kinds by way of dependence: twelve depending 
on the requisites, one depending on energy. They are also 
of two kinds as to be resorted to and as not to be resorted to. 
For they should be resorted to by him whose subject of medita- 
tion increases with such resort, but not by him whose subject 
of meditation decreases with it. He whose subject of medita- 
tion increases and does not decrease, whether he resorts to 
them or not, should also resort to them out of compassion for 
posterity. For the sake of habit in future they should be re- 
sorted to by him also whose subject of meditation, whether he 
resorts to them or not, does not increase. Though twofold, as 
to be resorted to and as not to be resorted to, all of them are 
one by way of volition ; for ascetic practice as the volition to 
observe is just one. It is also said in the commentaries: 
' They say that which is volition is ascetic practice.' 

' In detail ' they are forty-two : thirteen for brethren, 
eight for sisters, twelve for novices, seven for female student 
novices, two for lay-disciples male and female. If there were 
a burning-ground fulfilled with the forester's practice in open 
space, a single brother would be able to enjoy all the ascetic 
practices at once. But the two practices of the forester and 
the afterfood-refuser are prohibited for sisters by precept; 
[83] and the three practices of the open-spacer, tree-rootman, 
burning-grounder are difficult to carry out, for it is not proper 
for a sister to live without a second person ; and in such places 1 
it is hard to get a second with similar wishes. Even if one 
was obtained, the sister would not be free from a life shared 
with others. This being so, the purpose for which she resorted 
to the ascetic practice would not be fulfilled. So, owing 
to impracticability, five of the practices are left out for the 
sisters, and only eight are to be taken. 

Excepting the three-rober's practice from those mentioned 

1 Or, on such occasions, under such circumstances. 



II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 95 

for the brethren and sisters, the remaining twelve are to be 
known as for male novices, and seven for female novices. 
For lay-disciples male and female the two practices of the 
one-sessioner and the bowl-fooder are suitable and practicable. 
Thus in detail they are forty-two. 
This is the elucidation in groups and in detail. 

Thus far is told the discourse on the ascetic practices to be 
observed for the fulfilment of those qualities, such as fewness 
of wishes, contentment, by means of which there is cleansing 
of virtue, the different kinds of which have been shown in 
the Path of Purity under the heads of virtue, concentration, 
and understanding in the stanza : 

The man discreet on virtue 'planted firm. 

Thus is ended the second chapter called The Exposition 
of Ascetic Practices, in the Path of Purity, composed for the 
purpose of gladdening good folk. 



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