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Full text of "Patrologia orientalis"



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PATIIOLOGIA OIIIENTALIS 



TOMIJS DECIMUS OUARTUS 



1 



R. GRAFFIN — F. NAIJ 



PATItOLOGIA ORIENTALIS 



TOMUS ÜECIMUS QüARTUS 

I. _ E. W. BROOKS. 

A COLLECTION OK LETTERS OF SeYERUS ÜF AnTIUCH , FROM 
NUMEROUS SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS (faSC. II). 

II. — M. H. DAVIS. 

The Life of Abba Johx Käme, coptic text edited axd 
translated prom the cod. \ \t . copt. lx. 

III. — E. BLOCHET. 

Mufazzal Ibx Abil-Fazail. Histoire des Suetaxs Mam- 
louks, texte arabe publie et trauuit en fraxcais ■ 
(fasc. II). 

IV. — G. FURLANI. 

Sei scritti axtfireistici ix i.ixgua siriaca. 

V. — S. GREBAUT. 

Les miracles de Jesus, texte ethiopiex publie et tra- 
Durr EN FRAxgAis (fasc. II). 




^v 



a\ 



^ \«N. 



N 



Ov^ 



PARIS 

FIRMIN-DIDOT ET C", IMPRIMEUUS-EDITEUHS 
LIBRAIRIE DE PARIS, 56. RUE JACOB 

1920 



p n 



KD ü 

ff 



4^ 



A COLLECTIOX OF LETTERS 

OF SEVERUS OF ANTIOGH 

FROM NUMEROUS SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS 

EDITED AND TRANSDATED 
BY 

E. W. BROOKS 
II 



PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1- 



MANUSCRIPTS 



A = Brit. Mus. Add. 14601 (9"" cent.). 

E = — — — 17214 (7"' cent.). 

F = — — — 14538 (lO"- cent.). 

G = — — — 12155 (8'" cent.). 

H = — — — 17193 (874). 

I — — — — 12144(1081). 

J = — — — 121G8 (8'" or 9'" cent.). 

K = — — — 17191 (9"> or 10'" cent.). 

L = — — — 14532 (8'" cent.). 

M ;= — — — 14533 (8'" or 9'" cent.) 

N = — — — 14613 (9'" or 10'" cent.). 

Q = — — — 12154 (circ. 800). 

T = — — — 14612 (6'" or 7'" cent.). 

U = — — — 12153 (845). 

V = Vat. Syr. 103 (841). 

W = — — 100 (9'" or 10'" cent.). 

X = — — 107 (7'" cent.). 

Y = — — 108 (7'" cent.). 

Z = Brit. Mus. Add. 7191 (7"" cent.). 

? = — — — 7192 (7"' cent.). 

FoR The Appendix. 
Brit. Mus. Add. 14504 (9'" cent.). 



\Mien the same passag-es occur in more than one place in the same ms., the 
differenliation is marked by the addition of (1) (2) (3) or (4) after the letter indicating 
the ms. 



•>)»wbjbJLM K^O^^ ^lQ..„^Ui ISC^^A ))S.JL.)So ^3 '^'^^ 



Y 156 v° a. 



l 4 r" a- 
Y 150 v° b. 



|IajL«\^px^ Uäot.^ )K:i)3ü.o tjlSs^N-X. Ua^iö ia\ )— jkjLio |J; "'^S&.^^ioo 

:)-<i.tfo/; ,.^00(0 V^jN^ :K^)v-*-3iSl w>.,^3D3 J^j^y.^ )^....(Y) )jl30(; jtoi |t^^^^ 
t^ :jLo l\^ \^M |;oi; öi^V^j.^ ).,^a2o j^o^o :ot.^ «.s öi^ j-^äijO; )ji^^a3o 
^ ^iaJu^; jo^.^.^ r^jK.^ )..<u3Do)^ joJji )~*->t>.o )^o^o \^l lo^ 1^2 ^"""^ 

1. Fiom Ihe work of Peler of Callinicus against Damian. — 2. Y' ^'^JJ-. — 3. Z >«.» ov^ 



LXIl (XIX)'. OUR GOD-INSPIRED FATIIER SeVERUS SAYS IN TUE LETTER TO 

IsiDORE THE COUNT, THE BEGINNING OF WHICH IS, « I l'ejoiccd gl'eatly 

when I received the letter of yoiir Christ-loving illustriousness ». 

As regards tliese things therefore I thiiik that we oiiglit to avoid this 5u8-ii(?). 
composite terni, that we should call the Holy Trinity or the Fathcr uni-essen- 
tial, both because it is not foiind among the accurate fathers, and" it gives 
occasions for the evil deviatioiis of the heretics : but they called the Trinity 
co-essential, in order that by means of this word so plainly and very excel- 
lently stated there might be expressed in the same phrase both the oneness 
of the essence ■' and the Separation of the hypostases, and by means of this 
one word unity and division : for by being called co-essential with the Father 
and the Holy Spirit the Son claiins to share essence' with those who are 
reckoned with hini, but to be distinct in hypostasis; for a man is not co- 
essential with himself, but one man with another. 

1. See p. 41, n. 2. — 2'. Sic S\r. — 3. o-jdia. 



LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [174] 



LXIII 
W 32 r 1. 



)iQj,_=L^J2iO .-jK^ps ^^/ 'JSJ^^ •.^fl.oi fJ ^^CM .):^^).:3 |)l^Jü; jooi ^^Ka 

•:>^JU3; j'>'>nv> jjoi ia\ .•|ju.^a.'i>o 

1. Marg. f> ^o ow lo-^iw. Tlie exlract conies froiii die work of Jolin of Dara De resiirreclione 
corpornm. — 2. Ms. i-^- — 3. Ms. ^=^ (ita abbr.). — 4. A point follows in marg. 



LXIII. Ol- THE ilOLY ' M.\R SeVERUS FROM THE LETTER TO C.\ES.\RI.\". 

519-3S. When' llierefore Adam was stripped of the blessediiess of immortality, 

and was tliereafter destined lo he cast into tlie eartli by means of death, then 
only tliere was introduced, as being necessaiy, the process of the geiieration 
of children, which preserves a succession to our race by means of the inter- 
course of copulation, and by means of the partnership of male and female, in 
the manner in which the quadrupeds also increase and multiply by generation. 
And for this reason also the flow comes from the very mcmbers which point 
downwards, and intercourse and birth do not take place from any other, in 
Order that we may learn that it was from a high and heavenly position that 
we flowed down to this lowly state. 

1. Marg. ' Ile is a herelic, and not liolj '. — 2. See ep. 53. — 3. A .similar pas^ago of 8ev. is pub- 
lished in Gr. in Mai, Class. Auct., X, 'i5(j; bat Diis dillers considerably froia our lext and appear?^ to 
conie from a commentary on S. Luke. 



[175] LXIV. — TO OECUMENIUS. 



LXIV 
1 v° a. 



41 v" b. 



oöi vS/j ,^j (-^w^c Ji»^ öj!iw3 ,oo(^U •.^aiw^J ^-1^,^«^ l;°t°^! )-.»o|K^o 
>i.^; )JLX>/ •.'*.^ ^r-^ )J'•)-*•^^o V^*^? "^»wOoi vßij .^totoh^l jijx^tp; 

1. l'roiii tlie wuik of Peter against Daniian. — 2. Ms. l'^'^^"-'><o- 



LXIV. — And lex tue God-clad Severus also bear witness, he who in 

ALL SUCH MATTERS HAS MORE KNOWLEDGE THAN MANY MEN. In THE LETTER 

TO Oecumemus ' OF wHiCH THE BEGiNNiNG IS, « Neitlier ditl I forget wheii 
I was wriling the letter », in speaking on this subject he uses the fol- 

LOWING WORDS. 

For those therefore who wish to learn the purport of what has becii 513-8. 
written by me in brief and in few words it was right that these things should 
be put forward : but to those who desire to Icnow the reasons and the 
argument" contained in this composition let the whole letter be given. But 
it is certain that even a man who has received sunimaries of what has been 
Said will need the whole : for a summary is an epitome of raany words; 
therefore he must first know those many words in order to know of what 
things it is an epitome. Otherwise the result will be that we shall be 
putting forward empty words devoid of sense, like those perhaps who desired 
to speak with tongues only, whom Paul reproves, saying, « For, if I prayed 

1. See ep. 1. — 2. Bsupia. 



LXV 
G 153 V" a. 



6 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [176] 

t»*.>v wöi .|^f,^eL3 vs/ vjit^^a^ ^9 ^;j .JJ.^^ «ji^t»:^^ u);;; -.jj/ y.^/ )j/ 

^^I/; ^X^V^/ JJLSlL./; ^6| ^%w^:>o .)joi ,^oio1^/ )-i^^o,^ ^^; lijo-i^ 
^iö Kj/ .)joi ,«otots^/ ^j l^-t-^/? ÖMuij .|.i/ ^io )_.9a& JJ9 )<hSx jtO^io 

1. Ms. ^»»- — 2. A «ord is erased before this. — 3. Erased. 



in a tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful » : and 
afterwards he adds what he thinks right, saying, « I will pray with my spirit, 
but I will pray also with my understanding. I will sing with my spirit, but 
I will sing also with my understanding » '. And I therefore, making a sliglit 
change, say : It is right to argue witli words; but it is right to argue also 
with tho understanding. I do not know if any of the God-clad fathers 
pronounced it right for us to speak in brief when giving teaching; for in 
these matters it is a welcome thing if even by expending the whole power 
of speecli that is in us we utter a small portion and tliat in obscure form of 
wliat the intellect has gathered. 

LXV. FrOM the LETTER OF THE SAME HOLY SeVERUS TO EuPRAXIUS THE 

508-11. CH.VMBERL.VIN ^, AND ABOUT THE QIESTIONS WIIICH HE ADDRESSED TO IHM. 

(And llip. first quesiion is this, as lo liow «v say llial God llic ]yiird was bcijotlcn 
loithoul hi'yiniiiny hij Ihc Fallier : and the hr</innln</ of Ihr letlrr is Ihis : « You, 

1. I Cur., XIV, 14, 15. — 2. Zucli. Uli., iii, I; /'. 0., II, lo'i. 



[177] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 7 

'■^^^^»^ »^s^o ♦Kj/ >6..-CS^ I^oC^ jLsa^^ -.' sjoo « mT^^o/ )o(\jJ ya.L.i 
)oC^ |^.^^s.bo« yi itN?/ ^3Ü>/; •.«aL^jl; K_»)L^^ ^^«asoi K.^..^^^ oI^^o*^ vüSl^ 

.joou; m6i ^^ . I it i'\ oolo .^xL.ooi JJLSJ-S -.^K^/ )-L^,.3L!^bs.:>e ).1a2; 
). . I ^ ^1^/ .^-^ ^>-=>° .^^^JhaL^w^^..lJL^ vK^^^; joi^Qjio ,)joC^^.^^^ 
• .^Juoöi jöi^/o .) . I ^ joou; ~^^6| ^o ^i..^.'i[ -Jjoi )K^ ^^o .^«Ju/; 

IV-s IV-30 'joot y^>>^ )t-so .%-otoK-./ jLs/ .Vi^«^ ^Jioo .wOioK-./ ,^oio)^/j 

f^l/ li-s OOI JJLS; jlio j^ioA jJ;; ^^.>3 .oCS, |oo|.J ).^/; v*6( j^jJ ' öt«in/ 
m6i ^— •/ :)V-^ ^otoK^/; ^-JL.f.^/ )_3/j oCS..<wk.o ol^s.^a^LM t-^^ vi .ou^ 

1. Ms. ol bis. — 2. Ms. -w. — 3. Ms. 0M")^ 



God-loving Eupraxius, are ' smitten with divine love » : and a Utile failher 
on the defence). First therefore you seek to learn how \ve say that God tlie 
Word was begotten without beginning by the Father. But I from the very 
appellatiou 'Father' say that the gencration of the Son is without beginning. 
If the Father was from eternity, the Son also, who shows fortli tlie Father, 
existed from eternity : for, if there was a time when the Son did not exist, 
there was then" a time when the Father was not a father. We, because we 
are a corruptible nature, come into being in time, and again pass away 
from being : therefore also the names applied to iis vary ; and at one time 
we are sons of certain persons, and after this we cease to be sons, and we 
become fathers, and we beget others. But God is in bis nature invariable, 
and he is as he is from eternity, and he is a father from eternity. And the 
Son became such to eternity, and the Son is a son who is from eternity, 
and he was begotten everlastiagly by the Father, and he did not acquire for 
the Father from outside the Status of a father, because the Son was begotten 
by him without beginning and without time. If we say that the Son is 
the wisdom and the power of the Father in accordance with the wise Paul's 

1. In the heading of the extracts at G 8 v a (p. 180) and G 13" v b (p. 181) 'being'. — 2. i'pa. 



153 V 



8 LETTEKS OF SEVERUS. [178] 

:ooi ).:>a«.au» ^ab^ ^io ^j y/ .-i^-i/ jJ-— jJ? °l ••j^OjCua— jJ; vjotoo 
^6t .JL^mO oi^ K^/ JJ^^CLSL^ )a^^ ^:m ^/o -.ooi JjK^jw«* >olS^ ^^o 
.ot^MOJLO; jL^CLAoio •.j.s/; otK^a^iil; )L<.^t V^~^ '^otoh^—l .).^aJl^ ,öul^'/; 

oiXMy ^^1 l'.«-^) =>o^^ l-^^o^ '^|.^a\« >■•/<> tv'Oio)^/ j^ioso yo^ j';^-» 
)„j/ \~^l \~^i}i :)-oaA, K^k^l oi^si^ ioi-JL^o v^K.Ijk^o« ^oioK^/ j^oioj 

1). "^oK (Y> 'vio Kj/ )jr)^.io otJLio; jioiajL^ «s/o : Kj/ >&.^aji )jL:)aA; «6» VLi. 
,s^olo^s^/ ^^ ou^ :ioi.j'K.^ ouL^; oöC^o )OU^; oöi^ : ^^^).jif.^L^ jJ Kj/ 
mOIoJ^/; )-jl-^,^K.^o j^oooK^ l^oioj ^^o JJLSOI .'^oioK^/ oi^lS.^ ^^ a^o 

^j^^^^oa; )^; Pp/o Jf^K:» oi^K^ ^^ o^o .-^aJ^j K>)f..i.b^ ^^ ou^; 

1. Ms. \'l 



saying, « Christ is the power of God and the vv'isdom of God »', how is it 
not beyond all impiety for us to presumo to say tliat the Father ever 
appeared without wisdom or withont power? But, il' he is wise 
from eternity, and he is powerful frum eternity, thcn he has also wisdom 
and power from eternity, which is Christ : for he is the ray of the glory of 
the Father, and the imprcss of his hypostasis^. As the sun from which it 
shines is the cause of the ray, and the sun is a circle and orb, and, so to 
speak, a composition, and the ray that comes from it is the light that is 
emitted and lightens everything under heaven, the land I mean and the sea 
at the same time, and one can never see the sun without the ray that comes 
from it, hut, when you hear of the sun, then you also without Separation 
think of and undorstand the light tiiat comes from it, that which gives light 
and that which is lighlencd hj^ it, for it is from It, and is not after it, so also 
from the everlasting and suprasensual lighl, which is the Father, the Son 
shone forth without beginning and everlastingl}', who himsclf also is the su- 
prasensual ray which proceeds from him by generation, and does not appear 
after him. And, as when we hear ihc divine Scripture calling the Son a lay, 

1. I Cor.,1, 24.— 2. Hob., I, :i. 



[179] LXV. - TO EUPRAXIUS. 9 

-.,' -\ Vl^ Oft v< >-~«^> oUio; oöi ).J>JJ :|V-^ o«^ f^l )-— ^)» ij-toC^X |.:slSo!^ 

• .K^)ju^o/ ^^JL«^D K m >o JoilSs«. lol^ jooi ^otoN-./ jts^iooo :|fcCS.^» )oot 
,^S-. t^jjiQJu- jJ oi^-J JjLO ^iOj .jJiC^O»©; jK^i. ^oioK^/j 061 'l-sJJ 
ti'mv>o )o.'...V) ot-3j jLajlioo .jl^i )ts.*i.U; jts.'Swio V-iej-iois.; y^l .jV-Äi». 

^^^^ '^i'm V)o :)_Ju« )J; jK^s^bO^ f.\a:» J^; jjooi; ^; Ua^/ .^^^ ^^^ 
:jifcs-.l^ jio-iojo :)joo«j jj-^i^ )-io^> |K^s^)0 «o» öul^/o :), ^ \ i; jIoaÄ 

yoySii '.'s^^h^ j_s/j )J^:>Q.a^ «otoRs»./» o6t jt-^; ^iö j^o^v^ ^^^O .|.JU>t.A 
Iv-^^j ••—.JÜ-.Kio JLjlooi Nk-/;; ji,iäi .-j^otSs j-sISo ooij ^J^/ oi^o .■^s>j 



1. Ms. bis. 



WC tliiiik of the Fatlier frora whom he radiated, so, when we hear that he is 
the Word of God, according to the passage, « In the beginning was the 
Word, and the ^^'ord was with God »', we regularly think of the Father 
who is the subject of the M'ord, who begot the Son from his own nature 
without passion, the Word so to speak of a great intellect, and the messenger 
in whom hc displays and makes known and on whom he impresses the 
h\'postasis of the Father, who is a great intellect, and a mind above all 
things. And, as our mind begets the word without passion, and makes 
known the thought that is in the heart, and the word is a true Image of 
the mind and an exact likeness, and in conjnnclion with tlie word, so to 
speak, there proceeds forth also the emission of the breath of the mouth, 
in the same way from the essence" of the Father also the Son proceeds by 
way of birth, and the Holy Spirit by way of procession. And of the person 
of the Son who is the wisdom of the Father it is written, <( I was born before 
all the mountains »', and about the Spirit it is said, « The Holv Spirit whieh 
proceedeth from the Father »^ . And the divine Scripture does not use such 
words at random, saying that the Son is begotten and the Spirit proceeds, 

1. Jolin, I, 1. — -1. o^tri«. — 3. Pr., VIII, 25. — 'i. John, xv, 26. 



10 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [180] 

^^ OÖi; .'l-s/ ^—J OU^O ^ OU^O .-vOOJrfVJL vOO|-.K-./ |.j^.fiDo/; o(JL^ t^ 

.jJ/ f.«!^ '■'-^ J^ •°°' )'»-=* °^ -.Ij^t-o I— o' J!« ^^! .^aläJ ^; oö« ,>«I^.. 

^ ^" " rCdAi^rs: w^n coL-n :vä coLn 

^ -.t^l >i-Iics j^oj!:^ j-so--^ ti 

|-.jKiL^c>(sic)^^ .'n°iiV> jK^uK^oSü 

♦vm . (Tn'>V3o/ joüSSs >q1«» 0/ 

G(l)154ra. )jL„UL,Jiotio jJo |l\.^'..«ts.^ jJ jjooi * )KJi»™äO -.y. .-a \^> >0 ) . I ■ ft >^ 

1. In /, Ulis coines in the worli of Peter against Damian, and, as G (2) has the same version, the 
Compiler musl liave taken the extracts Crom tlie Syr. version of Peter's worli, not directly from Sev.; 
cf. p. 26, 1. 6-8. — 2. Ms. _^I^VJ. 



Jjut tliat we may not confusethe hypostases, and that' we may know definitely 
tliat the Soll is one in his hypostasis, and the Iloly Spirit another, and that, 
though they are both froni Ihe same essence", and from the same one Father, 
one is begotten and the other proceeds : whence it follows tliat the Holy Spirit 
is not the Son; for lie is not begotten but proceeds. But, if anyone say, 
(1 llow is the Son begotten, and how does the Spirit proceed? », we discreetly 
say that it is as the Father knows that he begot and the Son that he was 
begotten, and the Spirit that lie is from the Father; but this even the very 
angels are not allowed to understand, and we too will not confuse ourselves 
by investigating it. But, inasmueh as we are variable, our mind, being 
subject to variations and changes, emits a word that proceeds and is dis- 
solved in the air% and a breatli in the same way that as soon as it proceeds 
is dilfused over the same air'. But God and the Father, the living and 

1. The granimar is liere confusud. — 2. oj'jia. — 3. ii^p. 



[181] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 11 

^ooiXo ouioas; Uov^o ..OMk*/ |aa./o .wV:ixx:>o j^cuioo )-^ ^oio 

ögL^ t^ ouio ..vOot.K-t/ JLs/; jj^Äo/; )->t-^; V-^i^ oiK^ jift ■•? .)jl..»-o l^oio Iv^ 

Jla*iooKio;o )l.n'>\v>;o jJ^^o^l; «i^ OiioaS; U^V^o -.1-^* omK^/ 

.^01 »J >-0); ^; v-ot .>oo«_.J\.^( J\^J pX • \ .. -o x 

ll-— ^ -.It-S V ' • '"^* ? -Kio/o , , KUX 

^ «Ol; t--^^ -o« .J 1.0.000 J>oo .JJlmNv) 

1. Ms. Cv-loaSio; corr. from a. v. 



liypostatic mind, being incorruptible and invariable, and everlastingly the 
same, consequently begets a living and hypostatic Word, and emits a living 
and hypostatic Spirit. And, as the Father is the Creator, so the Son is the 
Creator, and the Iloly Spirit : for 'by the word of the Lord were the heavens 
established, and by the spirit of bis mouth all tiie strength of them'' : and, 
since they are of the same essence* of the Father, they are of necessity'' 
of the same glory and kingship and eternity ; for the fact that they are of 
tlie same essence" brings with it identity in every respect. And, when \ve 
liear of the Son, we immediately understand that he himself is of the same 
essence- as the Father; for every father certainly begets a son of the same 
essence" as himself. Thns also from every appellation ' we draw God- 



1. Ps. xxxn, fi. — 2. rj-jnia- — -t.äviYxyi. — 'i- A. v. (G [1]) ins. ' concerning God' and om. •aboul the 
Son'. 



12 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [182] 

jlo-OooKio i_ij v-6i .|->*io,j ^_iö -Ol ')-JL-3o« .vxoova^J ^^ ^- ).*.Ä)o)^ 

«öl .JK:i.^o; ^j -Ol ^ .j-s/j ooi )<s(i>.}i ^jS\s> jl-söxo -.l-uaa ^s '^o 

^io .oi,J^aio «oioK_/ ts-jjicuuw. |lj ^-io oöi ^_io . ^i . i i 'nv) Jv-s ^^<^^ioj 

•,^^ jj .Jl«.äo/ V~s; ^-öi )v-=>; ^; «öi iai.» |lQ-»^ooJ^io Iq^qjii oöi -.^.^w.^o.; 

G{3/132ra. ^iO K*3 o/ ).jja3 ^— ^iO; Öl-K*/ JIqAQJl-, )J •.|^^iOJ ^; o6i^.J.Js/ 

G(4)i3v»b. ^^o».^J JK—o— 1 )t— o; u-i. ►- ^- c^/ ;^ P * --^V-»? \-? o« ^.JW*'^? 
L 87 r» a. ^ • . ^- '-^i -v ^ . 

. r- ,. K*^ , r^ '1 • -« r fff ' '^»i:^^ ;.*kaj .ii^o-i 1^^ K..»!^ .'').A.aDO( 1q-.q.>; oöi 

jj;j ^«5^^ .)-ojSs )JL*:1^ ^^ ^"^' M^ .-^, ^o, j^^ ^1 j^^ ^^ ^^ .^^ 

Po .wOio^--/ I I VI ..sN-ao pj 
.Kcu«.Ä )J»0 %-0|oJ^/LiO-y^ •* » 'fCl I w-0|Ji>0 j^O^I 

jJLooi ^jJ )—)-3; -öl -^"-^^ ^'^ '^'^'° ^r* -oiol^/; ^^^^-^Oo .j-oCSsv 

L ',.7 1° b ^OiSj PV*?o .\l*JJLaio ^ JJ^.Jjicu^ jJ;o )laio; |J; 

■ >« °>i K--lS^»o -.. Lyü . . , . «öl lotiöji ^iO f.JS.S ^.io 

V-«— ^ -K-io/ .> I . n^tt. .:|Loo<i.)j ^! ... I . i'mi joi\jJ |->|^; 

a. )Li/ pö/ ).o/ -.^-JL-^ia:» J-OÜS^ jÜLO; ^.-«JiC^jo -.^A )^V*? ^oi^ ^-^Ol 

,^^ |_boa-Lä.IS> -.jju»^ |_Moio j'f^o i^ j-toü:^ ^; }j~>Jü . ^i . n -i'> ^ÖSJ 

I ., .'..NA ^j )iooi_\jJ .. i..,>V^L^ )._Jt_.,_o |_-«o;o )V-30 \^l •.^-i.io/; 

^_J^- |J» -öl :).i/» opaj^» ^» UaL-./o .^JL_OLVSL_iö ^-iö l^ioalo ^ .^-^io/ 

)_«._iu^-j l-iOAo» -oioK-/ |ji— / ^^ )-^<^! ^iL^^/o .)i.ooi!!^ .^j ^^^^^^.«^o 

1. Ilcre begins an extract in Z 32 v a (Z (2)). — 2. Here begins an extract in G 131 v b (G (3)). 
Z (2) G (3) ^. — 3. Ilcre Ihe exlracls in Z (2) and G (3) end. — 'i. G oni. — 5. Z l^/v 



Z 32 V 



hefittiiiy thoughts about tlie Soii, from tliat of Tay' the ihought of co-eternity 
witli the Father, from tliat ol' 'Word' impassibility of birtli, from thal of 'Soii' 
tlie tbougbt of co-essentiality. It is impossiblc for us in one appellation or 
iUustration to coraprehend all the attribiites that exist in the divine nature, 
l)ecause it is without likeness and without peer : but, wlien we receive from 
each ofthe names that which is.God-bciilting, we dismiss all the othor things 
and let them remain below. Wlien we speak of ihe divine nature, we mean 
the Father, the Son, and liie lloly Spirit, separaling the hypostases, but 



[183] LXV. — TO RUPRAXTUS. 



13 



oio 



K.O o/ ^^s.r^2oi ) vin Y f> .|.iL..t-o |.~OM 

.^.iJ^^I^^ |.jUlSJ>> ).^CLJlOfl^ -.I^Oi'^ 

jJo •.) >...,-0 jx^O); o/ j-a/; ^ö| lo^ 

1. Ms. "W- — 2. Ms. "'OH. — .3, Ms. ^Äiols. 



oi^ooJLo« )N.-i»^,..;o,öt.j)^/ )K « 1 1 n . V 
f->^-; ^ö|0 1^2; o6i |.^a&o |jl30( ».l-a/; 

|-..oi; )->Ja3o iasoi o,oi .)t^; oi^aXA; 

)J^.fc^3jo .«31-^—/ )K..Jn,n,.«.V> ■ X=>1 

.:■ joLo 

\^l jJo ;. «J■Ml^ao yoov!^^; ) j .x>ä.«-5 
)L<o^ )Jo :V-2lI>> ).^jJ o/ )■»■■.», o )-wO*^ 

.jlooC^^O )..*.^Do/; <,-,0| ^3 '^.^;; ^Ö|.:5 



G(4)l.'!Vh. 
L 97 1- b. 



uniting the Godhead. And, as tlie name 'Fatlier' and the fact that he is not 
Ijegotten by anything is the pecullar characteristic of the hypostasis of the 
Father, so also the name 'Son' and the fact that he is begotten by the Father 
is the peculiar characteristic of the hypostasis of the Son : similarly also 
the appellation 'lloly Spirit' and the fact that he is not begotten but proceeds 
irom the Father is the peculiar characteristic of the hypostasis of the Holy 
Spirit. While therefore the hypostases or persons are recognised by the 
peculiar characteristics, and the Father is not converted into the Son or the 
Holy Spirit, nor does the Son pass into the Holy Spirit or the Father, nor 
yet is the Holy Spirit transformed so as to become the Father or the Son, the 
three are one, in that they are of the same essence' ^oi the" Godhead; for 
the Father is God, and the Son God, and the Holy Spirit God, and, while 



1. o-JcU. — 2. A. V- (G (3) L) 'and' 



14 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [184] 

G(4)14ra. j»_-«0 Ji.l « Viots.^ I»—© |^ ..r. ^»1 jj ot_,)S>_/ . -«i\ 'N ■> ..)_ioäjLO 

v^oi o \ \ o ouJ-io t .. N") V-^^ ^/o joCSx ^— ;o );o( ^*^s_^oo Jlgj, ivvi 
.^^ ^^o(o .vaJsj; w6i .^; j-^oio .»-« ^k -.; w*6« ,^^ JV-s | . mo)-a oio ^ ö(^ 

«Öl jJ^joo)-. jicmmM^o jJ/ .)JL) «"^m )j.qi>..V ^jiio > ^a^sjbo t->-^ }i 

■ ^ » « n »:>> j ^ ii. ' . ' ..; jöiSx lo|^,^o ^_ioo .^J^,^.^i^ jJ Jicm .V la-,N.J^K^o 

1. Ms. o^•»•^=^. — 2. Some words seeni to have fallen out. 



the liypostases remain unconfused, the Trinity is invariable in all points : 
for its essence ' is one, its glory one, its everlastingness one, its kingship 
one, its power one, its will one, its Operation one, and through it we hold 
that the Trinity is one God. And, thongh each appears b}- himself, yet 

there is one Godhead, in the sanie essence" the Son the fact that he 

is begotten, and the Spirit the fact that he proceeds. And these are from 
the Father as froni a root and we refer their Godhead eternally and timelessly 
to one first cause, to the Father, and so the principle of a single first cause 
is prescrved. For we do not hold several first causes, but we reject the 
Jewish poverty also which sees little, and do not confine the Godhead in one 
person, and at the same time we know and think of three hypostases in 
one essence', and one identity of honour, and do not divide it into a trinity 
of lirst causes, and shun the polytheism of tiie pagans. 

(Of Cyril, from the 12'" clmpter of the Treasure. « As the sun is in the 
ray that proceeds from it, ;unl the ray in the sun from which it proceeded, 

1. ovrri». — 2. oOsia. Here some words seem to havo fallen out. 



[185] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS, 15 

icitJ^o/; j^t-^ I^^JS^^CLSO :>n °ii ou^; ooi Jj.vijlj» ).<>..^o«o :^oioK^/ otiv> 

juv^l/ jLij )ju).io j^/ ^^^ioj '.ai!.. ^v\\ 'öu)^-./ |.S3l,q.ji ^j '^ «ni^o 
r-al^ P .^; ^-JL— .If^ |JL.U .JJ|«iA i-<^ jjo« -loCSsv; )v-2> l^f*'»»* l^>A^o 
). >o\\ \ iou/o w-_lj j;oi ^^>.^oo; -.. I .^Vi/ ..^JL-.!/ jj )^öC^ |.^"to ^^ 

1. The fact tliat this citation is introduced withoul preface makes it verj doubtful if it is reallj pait 
of the leller. — 2. Ms. ov^-J C-iaaj. 



and in the word is the intellect which begot it, and in the rivcr the fount 
that sent it forth, and in the image the original, so the Father is in the Son 
and the Son in the Father, as he says, ' He who hath seen me hath seen the 
Father', and, 'I and my Father are one', and, 'I am in my Father, and 
niy Father in me', being numerically divided into a dualit\s and being so in 
hypostases, but in that they are one in nature restricted to one Godhead ») '. 
Next the second question, ' Wliy and in what way do we say that God the 
Word was humanized?'. The defence. fiut now it is reasonable to consider 
why and in what way we say that the only Word, the Son of God, was huma- 
nized; for this is the second question that you put. But we without going 
outside the divine Scriptures say that the reason for which lie shone upon 
and gave light to tliis world by the Coming of his Humanization in tlie flesh 
was that, as in Adam we die, so in Christ himself we might live-, and, as 
it is Said, « By man is death, so also by man is the resurrection of the dead »'. 
Since Adam was condemned to death after the transffression which was 
committed through the deceitfulness of the serpent, and heard the words, 

1. Thes. 12 {P. G., LXXV, 181, 184, 185), put together frora several passages. See note on (ext. — 
2. ICor., XV, 22. — 3. Ibid., 21. 



16 .LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [186] 

vio^ ^/o .) . iS ^^)1 )K.n\-i; J^^icla; v^oi f-«.^ -Jo-^k« ^/o oi.^a^ ^« 
' ^ . '^v o .^x^,I^^s.:>o jKn^s^Lsto jK^o^; ) ^ » ;; v>o ... i^^soi )-,.°vn\o )-^i> 

)»*J>wa/; \..i.jx.4 j]/ .jLöJLio JJo ;^. It^i-/ jJ •JVJ'J v^? °^-^? ^'^ 
^^_d; ooi jot_^ jtsj^io j--.,—.^— ♦■■''^ °9' 'V^ ^♦^. )-t-^ °°l -.^Ä^'pö 



« Dust tlioTi art and to diist shalt thou return », and, « Cursed is the ground 
in the work of thine liands », and, « In the svveat of thy face shalt thou eat 
thy bread », and Eve too was also condemned witli liini byhearingthe words, 
« In pains shalt thou bear children » ', so with us also who are Sprung froni 
them the charges of disobedience have been confinned, and we ourselves 
are dust and to dust we return, and we are condemned to the curse and are 
creatures born in pains : and from that time we have been in subjection, 
being subject to lust and to tiie varied pleasure of this, according to the 
saying of the lilessed Paul -. For it was right that against the cunning 
contriver of evil, the serpent and the destroyer of our life, we should contend 
witli him with the same weapons(?)' with which he deceived those founders 
of our race : and, since it was not the part of anotlier power to annul the 
punishment fixed by our Lord himself, he did not send an envoy nor an angel, 
but, as Isaiah cries, the Lord himself saved us \ The only God the Word 
who is before the ages, the power and wisdom of the Father, in whose image 
he created rational man, became flesh, I niean man according to the words 
of John'\ not that he was changed into flesh (far be it!), but, while he 
remained invariable as God, he himself assumed the whole of nie by a true 

1. Gen., III, 16, 17, 19. — 2. Tit., iii, :i. — 3. The subsUintive has perh. fallen out. — 4. Is., Lxni, 
9. — 5. Joliii, i, 11. 



fl87] LXV. — TO EUPRAXTUS. 17 

)•, "n '> .-jNjL^f.o jJ^oK^; jf_>h^a^; otJL^o •.J.Jl^ho U-^oi ^^ 'fCO^i/o .oi^^V-^cls 

00« .jja^«-» jooio |t>CQ.^ s-i ffii j^V-^ oot ÖU^; .'CX-^K^/ . i «"^ I*^^ vd/; >^öi 
^jKa ^^o .-^^Ä^/ oC^o ouio );a^v^ JS^|.io^ö o^o ..|;Qu^ )ooi V*">x 
^js^^^i^ '^JJLX.S ^VKS.; ^^Vo( ^v^/t j-L3u/ -'lloia^ai^i \.)[«s> (x^cl^ joot ivi 

1. Here is writlen in marg. " ■ i" ^y»^^.3o ^y . "n ,3o »^t^^^ ^N »..■«ii.s ; Iml thore is nothing to sliow 
to whal it refers. — 2. Ms. sing. 



and hypostatic union, but still without the sin wliich had come in lipon us ' . 
For, immediately after Gabriel had made announcement to the Virgin and 
said to her, « Rejoice greatly, thou that art made glad, the Lord is with 
thee »-, at the very moment of time, we believe that God the Word himself 
eame to dwell in her woinb, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit, and of the 
very leaven of the holy Virgin, in flesh of our nature possessing an intelligent 
soul. For he says, « That wliich is born in thee is of the Holy Spirit » ', 
since the Iloly Spirit operatively effected the fertilization of the concep- 
tion, while Mary contributed the birth according to the natural manner of 
mothers. Wherefore also the period of conception was one of nine months 
(for he says, « But, when the days were accomplished that she should bring 
forth » ^), and all these things were devoid of phantasy^ since he who was 
conceived took the seed of Abraham" : for a descendant of Abraham is the 
Virgin, who also is of our nature, from whom the Lord took flesh and became 
a habe. For he himself became a habe, and the habe was not first formed 
separately, while he afterwards came to be with him by way of indwelling, as 
thosc who divide him into two natures say. This unsound opinion is reject- 

1. Marg. 'everything that is is included in tliat which lias past, and in llio lliings (hat are presenl 
and in the tliings that are future'. — 2. Luke, i, 28. — 3. Ibid.. 35; Matth., i, 21 (?). — 4. Luke, ii, 6. 
— 5. ^avTotala. — 6. lieb., Ii, 10. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 2 



v"b. 



18 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [188] 

yoou^ JlQ-3LVf.^x^ ooi vs/o -.j-CMio I', Oft '■N. o^löKjil | » 1 ■>; t~*-^ ^^'^^^i 

j,J^^)^-^0 }jlJV.^; OMl9J; jjLSi^/; •.^Ol j.^v^f.^ -.j-^jo ), m '»N v^IÖKa/ I » l.Ti» 

jLusoi •J^^^Xw>f jio^i.^^ )^^Sl2^ ou^ J^.«.^^ s^ f.3o :)f.,fla^ ioJ^ K» i «; 
jJ/ .Ö(.jl:)0 v^.ixiJ .-)o(.^ jbifrooo ^otoK^/« s^öi; )~«iaA ^^ oJ^ .)J^oK_a^ 

1. Ms. >31q-Csm.I. 



ed by tlie blessed Paul wlieii he says, « For, since tlie cliilJren partook of 
flesli and blood, he himself also similarly partook of the same, in order that 
through dealh he might destroy him who hath the power of death, who 
is tlie devil »'. If then" he partook of flesh and blood similarly to the 
children and in tlie same way, it is piain tliat, as the soul of a man is born 
with its own body, though in its nature it is incorporeal, but is nevertheless 
reckoned to be one with it because of the Union, so too he who was born 
is also said to be united to the body that was l)orn that has a rational and 
intelligent soul. And, as you do not sa}' that a man's soul passed into flesh, 
although it is united with the body by an original union, so also no one 
says that God the Word was changed into flesh and endured the process of 
mingling, because he is hypostatically united to a body. Wherefore, when 
he was born, he made the Virgin the God-bearer, but he did not receive the 
beginning of being God and being lield as such from her, but in that he 
became man he writcs her as his molher. Hut he did not pass from being 
God, although he took that which he was not; but, as he remained that which 
he is, so also he became truly man. That the body which he united to 

1. llel)., II, l'i. — 2. äpct. 



[189] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 19 

,»,^^j l't-«^ 1°°* -o»oK_/ ),« „a L.oo jJ ^j qAj .'().jü^) K-.|V-v^ jooio 
..otiojlo )-»I^..^sX ^o; ^QJ5; V-o^ 'r^l .|jjl^j o(\^ t^ ^ .>-oi J-i^*-. -.oüi^ 
0<..J, °>-J 000( y fc ^ ^ l a; vQ-iöi ♦-'«-^ yOOl^ oKj>_io .^^.-.|^.£Q_./5 )^»ii ^jo 
)jL^CS.aJiO .-ÖwOCU.-ä/j uC^ J^-,/ jjL^^QJi; jooi -yjicl sS/j «6» ^.^oo -jL«^^; 
.•loot öuK-./ jK-CS-icuLio JJ o/ jjooi jJ; ^; qJ^ .öi^.2LXo/ oolj u>.^ K^/ 
owi^as ooi 3/; jjiau/ -JK^iul^o^o jJ/ .^£a/,JL<^ci3/; s^o|a^^^bö IS^^io yi_/ 
)-«N^; V-..^ omlSü JaLtl );oi s^oi« ^oi JLa.!2uflD -.oi^KjL/ )jlj^; ^ö|o JL^^« 
yoy^ .öt-K-./ Jl^Jj/; ^^^^ .V-01 1^-^-J^^.io JJ/ .6i-N-/ )KA.io jJ; oA 

^V^/ |^,^^<« oiloo«.^ ^'; vj -JJ-.-^ I KAjLS^K.m.^0 jl^s..^^wJ^:)0 ).jl2j 
jJ ) J. ■» •> ""^«^ jJ^^_a.^; )-i^^; -'l^i— >--^ l;oi ^<M l-iocx jJ; '.looi jjooi ^J^w^« 
• .JjJV^ )oo( jKJ^^^o |oC^ j^t-^'-«^ JSs.^).^^eLk.^ ^1-^ '\-^fJ joC^; )^aju>< 

1. Ms. om. 



hini was not without a soul is certain from the words of tlie ans'el : for he 
Said, « Rise, take the bby and his mother, and go to the land of Israel, for 
they are dead who sought the boy's soul » ' : concerning which he also said, 
« I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again » ■. But it 
was not without intelligence and imperfect, according to the statement of 
the proverbs of Apollinaris, but was in fact intelligent, as indeed the very 
term 'boy' and the fact that he was named 'man' is enough to show this 
same thing : for a boy's soul is not without reasi>n, but it is reasonable 
because it is human. However this very same thing is also clearly shown 
even by the sacred writings of the gospel; for it said of bim, « Then he 
began to be distressed and grieved, and to say, 'My soul is sorrowful, even 
unto death ' »'. But it is piain to everyone that distress and grief happen 
to a rational and intellectual soul. But, if they say that the Godhead of the 
Only one took the place of intellect, this is in truth a thing without intel- 
lect, for US to assign the passion of distress to the impassible nature of God. 
Accordingly tlie Only God the Word became perfectly man, that he miglit 
bestow upon us perfect salvation : for, as soon as he was born, he did away 

1. Maltli., II, 20. — 2. John, x, 18. — 3. M;iUli., XXVI, 28. 



155 r a. 



20 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [190] 

:|-.c.xi; o«J^^ 1*^ ^/j o6« :^£Q..^i/; jo«-^; )tC^.io >-otoK-/; ooi ly^is^ll 



JL-3 



jLlo fcoLÜ vs/o -J;©»^ ooi yjöi-floo .^Al joi^; ^'^..^^.io ■.K^C^i ^j yo\^ 

• .J^lt-top ^; v>>^ •i-'^?? oiJ^« «t^a.s I .. >v> |-*V.^ «oioK«/« oöi .j^o^^ 
s^öi :).^)a^^ oÜSj^ looi; «öi )Lo^^ if^v^l/; oö( jooi v^oioK«/ )->po; JJ ol!^; 
^^tJS>|l J^nXlII^'.^; s^6( looi )^^^ jJ •.öu>^^/ jl > I » 1 ^; | '^^ ' - ot.^«^; >3/; 
^^ «Ol )jV ,.. V> ifJS-.; «öl >^/ -.llo,^; OOI ) 1 «,V)'p)0 jfl^ ^; y/ .} «Ji.^ 
.)io,.w>« |V-2>>.' K^l 1^ -.01.2 . 1 VI »oi.^; ^wC^/ io^ "^ ."Wi^ •j-'^'t-^ VimV) 
.yoooij |oiJ^; )"*-J^; )jl^CS.<ijl yoou^ oou '.«oioN ^'f>; > «\ ./; t-'^^ r^l 
•>)jü^3 jooi) ;K_3 ^^ .'I-mO« ,.wi^ q^oKjl/ ) . 'i -I Kvi . (y)\; ^^^^ ./ 
It-o-io/; «öl ''^oKJajj ^ y£>'if jJLaLl*/; «öl "^^i.^s^o .JJ^^lj jJjoA oolo 



tlie punishment laid upon Eve, who was first led astray by tlie serpent. If 
Emmanuel liad not been born, who is the Word of God who took llesh, who 
according to the saying of the prophet ' removed weeping- from all faces' ', 
thc curse, « In pains shalt thou bear children » ", would not have ceased : 
nevertheless it ceased because God was born. Further witness is borne to 
this by the uctual unerring words of the gospel also : for it introduces to 
US the angel saying, « 1 announce unto you great joy, which belongeth to 
all the World, that to-day tliere hath been born to us a Saviour, who is the 
Lord Christ, in the city of David »'. Mark clearly tlial, if it were not that 
he who was born was the Lord, the joy that came to all the world, which 
is also the joy of the whole race of men, the curse, « In pains shalt thou bear 
children », would not have ceased. But, if the birth is the cause of the 
joy, she who bore is also free from the punishment; and thenceforth the joy 
uecessarily passes to those who believe in him : for he said, « Those who 
received him he gave them power to become sons of Gud » ', those who 
attained to the adoption through tbo Spirit, after he became man. 

And next the third question, as to liow we should understand Paul's 

1. Is., xxv, 8. — 2. Gen., iik IG. — :i. Luke, il, 10. 11. — 'i. John. I, 12. 



[101] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 21 

jjLSu/ •.jJ^CS^xx^ oübw ^t-^/ j-io^a^; jjj.^ ^"^^^ ^i^oi • > i «\j'Km>ft t^^' 
:t.^a^; Jt-Oo/j -öj ^^ jü/ jJj ^j "'^ii.^^io .) ..,.a v > r-^o^.; )-^üj ^^^ i-~^; 

K-») v^o t n ^^ 6i_>^sw</; —öl .K^) I VI *Q->^ o<"3 V^^? '-t^/ 1-3 vfooJ^o.^ 
ts—Jl ^\ ->.^ jJ .'jLbojo j^m-xs ^. «sloK»./ jlrt ^ .^ n •>» —öi; U-^^l .I^JJLOO 
) « (n^vjL3o l^jQ^o oC^o p .);oi.I^3K^ jJ; )ia-t..w^^ . ■ K-)jl2u^^mKjl^ jJo 
o/ u >_iö6v_jj —öl .• >oa_jL_^ JJ; ) I « "^X r— ".^ — oi j-^V^QJ .övJLio >n « ..j 

1. Ms. .i.5'livo>xi- _ 2. Ms. ov«a»«.j. 



saying, « In him all tlie fulness of the Godliead chvellcth bodily » ' . The 
defence. 

In the same God-befitting frarae of mind let us also iinderstaiid (and that 
is what in your third question you thought good to ask) the words which 
the wise Paul wrote and sent to the Colossians about Christ, how that in 
him all the fulness of the Godhead came to dwell bodily; for we do not 
understand the expression 'in him dwelleth' as the supporters of the impiety 
of Nestorius wish to understand it : for these say that the Word came to 
dwell in Christ by war of indwelling, as in one of the prophets. But, lest 
any man in consequence of the Statement that he came to dwell decline 
from the proper opinion and reckon the Incarnation of the Word a mere 
indwelling, as happened in the case of a man, Paul is sufTicient to mect 
this false tenet when he says that it came to dwell in him 'bodily', that 
is hypostatically and naturally, even as the Statement that he similarly 
partook with us of flesh and bloud" unconfusedly aiid immutabl}', in a 
Unity that is not dissipated, all mingliug and phantasy'' being far from it ; 
for it is allen to a bodiless nature that in consequence of its union with 
a body it should be mingled or changed, a thing which in its nature does 

1. Cul., II, 9. — 2. Heb., 11, 11. — 3. fx-jiarjia. 



155 r° h. 



22 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [192] 

vQj^-N..^ aj»V; oöi .-lloT« mvi ÖCS.J ^^ wCS^^ ^/o •.|->t~^'w^; ).^ax£ 

1. Ms. I^»■».«^v — 2. Ms. oowi». 



not touch auything bodily. As to the fact tliat tlie word 'dwell' is also 
used of tliose ^Yho are hypostatically united, we have the testimony of 
tlie wise Paul himself; for in ^Yriting to the Gorinthians he said, « We know 
that, even if this cur house, our tent on earth, is dissolved, we liave a 
building from God, a house not made with hands, tiiat ahideth for ever 
in heaven »'. As we are said to dwell in a body as in a house, so too 
God the Word is said to dwell in a body, as being hypostatically united to 
a body tliat has a rational and intelligent soul. But he said that all the 
fulness of the Godhead dwells, that is, not one Operation, nor yet a partial 
grace of the Word himself, as took place in the Inspiration of the prophets, 
but the whole hypostasis of the Only one, although he is raiscd above all 
limitation, he who imparts tens of thousands of Operations to others, and 
distributes graces by way of gifts as from a fountain. 

And again liie fourlh question, as lo hdw il is tlial, if we say that the 
Trinity is one nature, and also confess (ine incarnate nature of God the Word, 
we do not also ^ay that the Father and Ihe lloly Spirit becanie incarnate 
will) the Son. The dcfence. 

1. II Cur., V, 1. 



[193] LXV. — Tu EUPKAXIUS. 23 

>^ö|-sj :iV-^/ ^*-*-'/ ^^ )i-^)^^^-^ )^«w.)_i^-..Ji»; |;oi ^s/i ^-; '"^^'»~^^ 

^Oi ^A^oi jls/o '.j-i-aü; oi^JS.^0 ^/ ^,i,. nN'>^ j^»/ ^io oi^o ..)_öiSjs 
\^ ,. ii ^; oot vj; •:«)-00t JKasoi J;o« ^j ycoil^ ^^»-^ . y » « '^ s^.al^ X'^^ 

.jKjuit^ )lQ-.^>-w^i ö(.^l^/ ) « mo/ jt^f -.Icx^il )j^oi ^^; /"•/? '-^t-^! 



1. Ms. 0*150- 



Since you have said that this also is impiously said by some men, 
that, inasmuch as we believe that God the Word was united to flesh, tlie 
Father also, inasmuch as he is named as being of the same natiire, is neces- 
sarily said to have become incarnate, and the Holy Spirit also, we fitly say 
what we can and what we have believed, fixing our niind on the divine 
Scriptures, and not crying from the earth according to the prophet's saying', 
nor yet making iip things that come from our heart". But this objectiou 
has occurred to them in this way. If so be that Christ cries in the gospel, 
« I am in my Father and my Father in me »% and Paul again says that the 
Son is the Image of the invisible God\ and the Holy Spirit also the image 
of the Son, in that he said of those who liad been admitted to the adoptiou 
as sons by the Spirit, « they became conformed to the image of bis Son »', 
that it might be shown as following from this that the Holy Trinity is one 
essence", when it is said that the Son became incarnate, how can we not 
also allow that the Father and the Holy Spirit (oo became incarnate, inasmuch 
as they are in the Son and appear in him? This is what these say. But 
we say with intelligence : These, my good men, are the words of those who 
confuse the hypostases. But, if the Father is the Father, he never passes 

1. Is., XIX, 3 (?). — 2. Jei-., XXIII, 16. — 3. John, xiv, lo. — i. Gol., i, 15. — 5. liom., viii, ■2!i. — 
6. o'juia. 



155 V« a. 



V 2;i2 v° 
(I 167 r.) 



24 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [194] 

)— ©; vS/o :j,_s loij. jJLJLio ^oKio jlo :«oioK-/ )^/ )_s/ ^; y/ .^oul^/ 
|>o a JLO la\ jjLJL^ JJo :o(!^; |vioir>^ JL^oa jJjo ^ -| >- - ^ " jolo^o \.a^yjo 

-oioK-/; )j;Kio ouio f^x^; JLjV—/ jLieoJLO;; jo^^ l-^tcJ^*; j-iOA ooi -Ji-s 
s^oioK-,/; oöi OOI .'»-ojoJ^-,/ jLst^-wjLio jJ .-oio)^/ ^^, N«\. «> ^. ^^..^^io o^o 

OOI V--.^ Q^ .wOJoK-./ jwiCL^, OjJ^ Q-.OOI 0^3 ^_iO joj ja\^»jL^ JJ ).^i0^i 

v*öi oiü>> looi If^m-M -Jooi ■^otots^l V-~^ o^ -J-^sc^) ^oioJS*-/ oi^;; oöi 
i-fc^ CT i. vi' ^ .). N:i . N i ^Oioh^l jooiJ; jooiJ jJ; looi ).o.»Va' -Joot >.*oioK_./ oöc 
V-.^ Ijp/ •)-ic^> joot -oioK^/ )o6| K.^)-3 i-*^ o I v>; .|.^aA. ^otoK_/ 

K-.)L)^o :|lQ_iojo IbiCLito; ^(x^ jJ'»-"/ JJ^Q^; :)>aisi o».^» ^»-^ l-^'^) ^^o 
|. : > aX i|!^ «oio^io^o :^,.iCL^o^ »oo .-j-io^o io»j )JV— / j-io^j-s )ju>q-.o 

^^0 t-^Ck^ t^ :).^JL^1 yJU.) OÖI Id)^ 

^ « v>t n; ^öi jlo^; ^^ >. ^N? jJ 



into the Son, and the Holy Spirit also remains fixedly and without trans- 
formation in his own hypostasis, and does not pass into the hypostasis of 
the Son : but the divine Scriptures have said that the Son becaine incarnatc 
and became man, and it is on account of the co-essentiality that the Father 
and the Holy Spirit are said to be in hiin, not in order that \ve may 
dissolve and confound the hypostasis of the Father and of the Holy Spirit in 
the Son. But, if the Son is the Image of the Father, the very name 'image' 
shows that it is understood to be the imagc of another hypostasis separate 
froni ilself : for, if it is an iniage, it is an image of some one, and, because 
it is an unvarying image in all points, it is not therefore the person himself 
of whom it is an image; for, if it wcre the person himself, it >v()uld fail to 
be an image, for of wliom would it be an iniage? Suppose a man delineates 
and copies a design and pattern froni an original talilet on to another, and 
draws it corrcclly in all points, and makes the copy like the original, in no 



[195] LXV. — TO ELIPRAXIUS. 25 

\yy n m/o )jQ_^*3/o JJ/ :)._ia_.^jL; ),.vt3L(p)^o l-io^^ 

).^Voi9 Jv< -'<v>^ :|)^^qjl^o jtooaiX) ^'^..•^!^^^ '^«^; U^-^l .-JN v>r> n -lo 

ou^o; ^-^'Z V^)-^a^! y->/o :)-^t-^ |K.,<lm,.a ji)—» ^^; yOJot ^a^^J jJ 

:yQ_j/ l-x^l '«^f^ U^r**? )-'°-*? oo« °/ Wsl Ju.» ooi )jl-/; . y »). ' ^ 

oui-^i )_a_JL-3l a-i> oöi 'fooi )jl./j) jloot i m >» ^^:i».^sj)0 ..^.U/ ou^; 

)i>— '"'^.„^^-io .'^aU/o oK^1/i .vOouVKjs; 

^^ioo :y00t.-V)Ss_s; )i^..^^poo )1K^)^ 

)..ao \ »-^ >jOif) « 1 m I :);ot ^K_3 

<xi/ v^/ )^/ :)K,of>|, ?i v^oin «\ -^ n lo 

vJLti; j.3; o6(; i^'^oK'iinVi K_)_2l^; o6i 

. •-• "^ * ; . « \oi o(J^ K_/o oi-^oJ^I ^h, x^^^l ^-«oi^^ ) I nn » '> « ■■ ' « 'M i; 

^^oi oj^ K-,/ >opo ^^^^ K*}a-o; oöi ot-3 o»J^ K-./ |-^Äo)_s ^o^^^; oö» 

)ioi ^^o oJ^o .-oijoJ^^ ...«•<'*; o^o .'01)0^^13 ^oi^J^/; « « \ «/ 

|wM«^.f^A^ -^ffft -s)/. ^ . ■■ -»«N/^ J -sjl .'^m -.1/ )-3/; « I ,y i'ro );oi ^^ 

1. Ms. ^^y. — 2. Ms. om. — 3. Ms. q-viaU/o aa^sL;. _ 4. o init. ins. later. 



point falling short of tlie pattern that was first desigiied, but makes the colour 
and form' and stature and size and pose of the limbs also alike, and those who 
see it for the first time do not know, if one may so say, which is the original 
from which it was drawn and desie:ned, on account of the exact resemblance 
of the appearance in both, and after this he takes the copy and fixes it on 
a wall, then- will anyone of right understanding say that the original 
tablet has been fixed on the wall, because it is a copy of it and contains 
all that belongs to the original pattern? So we say that the Son becanie 
iiicarnate, the true Image of the Father, who has by nature everything that 
belongs to bis begetter, and we do not on this account hold that the Father 
became incarnate, who appears in his own special hypostasis or person. 

1, a-/fiii.3.. — 2. i'pa. 



26 LETTERS OF SEYERUS. [196] 

^'^..^^^ .-JIsa.fiD oo( o.fiaJ jK^o^o^o 
oiJ^ yil .')^V-Ji.; ot^ n\ «K^ qJ^; 

> t,«,.M.iij.^ .)loi°>\....KiLbo jl jjujxs 

)£<^v^ .o.mJj ^o-*-^; oöi; ji.a-.^^t.^ jJ^s^s.^; 

)^^; -.j^; ^X3 <^oi ).^^f^ ^M« ^ 'V^! l-io^! ou^w/ j^I^ ^^> ^^ 

» . ia^....\ .5 )»\ . q\o .^ooi« ÖuK^/ )t-^^ qJ^o .|-bk^^ )-^a->t-^ .> Ji \')\ 

1. Ms. with lull stop. — 2. Ms. o'w 



What Iias been said is intended as an indication of tlie subject, in order 
ihat the understanding may receive a defective and obscure example, because 
tlie whole force of the example does not follow in the footsteps of the 
truth, since liere the image is without soul and immoveable, and is limited 
by the appearance ' of colours, but above there is a living and moveable 
image, suprasensnal and unlimited and without appearance', and possessing 
immutabilit}' by nature. But, if we look into the divine Scriptures, we 
may through the mystery that has been richly revealed in them by 
another example also receive an Illustration of what is stated. It is every- 
where known that nur speech" is the ofTspring of our niind, and not the 
ofTspring only, but also the clear image, which represents the disposition' 
that is in the depths of the mind, and with the speech comes forth also the 

I. ayfi[Loi. — 2, Wuril. — 3. otaöeai;. 



[197] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 27 

Jt^o^l ^^ vOfo .).^a3; )^09 ^^/ jn'^'i ^; /«....i-o/; .jjoo«; ).xk^oa^^i 

^ jja^M. ^j^I^jJ .-jitA; Oii^; öuK^/ Ji'O^J -»-o« )K.-uu;olK.io : )_«V-ooi.^>.io 

|_ä^_<j-;boo )^.SuJ JLß; yO-JL^o/ o^^^jl; vOJÖl^ ).^oUj jupo :|itJij 
|,^to>o; jtC^iwia^ 'pö/ »ju/ jlo :).jJLJtio >«w^al&; 001 ^ °->^° : ) Ki»^o.jLia\ 
)^o°^ 0/ :jJ)^ vN^t; oöi; |K.X:»QjL:>a.3i ^6t loi^ts^l h^l vo 1 n» :)joot ^^ 
;a.J^^^ ]1/ :)v>oi n > ^oioK^/t o|J^ pö/ :jLo ,_<k^ )K S . >o j> öt^ » fi'°>i ; oöi 
''^.^s^o .jouSs |^Jiwio; )j); ^^^^^.ioo ^'^.iK.i»/ |jL3ot .JK-iOOJLiOj jji^io 
peu^ .■>i.'^ ;a,M^.a ooi« y-lo ^^^j,JL^S.\ ^too jJo J^) v>o 1 n ia.J^^^ 001; 
>n'qi h 061 )-^oi 0/ oi;a^^ JL-a/ aJ^o .-»m •>!/ öui^o jKJ^ol^; )^a»:> Q -5 
joi^o .)oo( )v-m.-3 JK2b^.^ -.^JL^a^; ou^^^ l\^ y^l jJ/ .Ijoi^ ^ioJ^^/ 
J^lf^ox^; m6i ^ -'j^'t^/ ick^ l-<t^/ >-•/ -.looi )ot^ loL^o .)ooi s^oioK^/ 

1. Ms. C^iii^Coo- 



breatli' of the mouth. The example is defective, and is a kind of similitude 
aud shadow of the truth itself for those who are able to listen properly and 
intelligently. However, as our speech comes out through the organ^ of the 
voice and moves the hearing and passes inside him who hears, and no one 
says that the speecli which is begotten by the mind exists hypostatically, 
the speech which enters into the hearing of him who hears, or says that 
the brealh which comes out in the speech through the voice exists in 
hypostasis% but only calls it a help tu the hearing, so understand also with 
regard to the mystery of God the Word, because he himself alone hypo- 
statically and ineffably and as he himself only knows came to dwell in the 
Virgin's womb and became incarnate from her, and neither the Father his 
begetter nor the Spirit which proceeds shared in this, but according to the 
saying of John, « The Word became flesh, and he was God, and was with 
God »', as one with another, because the hypostases exist severally. Since 
then these things are so, that question of theirs which arises from ignorance 

1. Spirit. — 2. öpyavov. — 3. I cannot rencier Ulis otherwise, but do not foUow tlie argumeiit. — 
4. John, I, 1, 14. 



15G i" a. 



28 LETTERS ÜF SEVERUS. [198] 

y/ ♦)'i/ lb>.Ao;; ot.^; otloJ^j .•)laa.«\. }i ^io; \i]o^ oö« vOoCbv «oiofts-./ 

vOOtloAjiiaA io\»^..,.5 |j/ 'pofK^ ,^) )j/ '>l\ m -li/ jio^K^l ö^O; yopejlt 

• .jiojü/ öi.^«^^ ^JuV^/ jJUb^ V-*-^ 1-» .)jL^;a*.V> ^oioK^/ yjui/; o)V>riLnM 

|j3l'/ .. i.,....,>.'^too I.A.CD0/ ^Sl^ww •.jj.'i^; jvi* ^ l^jjLfiQj^x •Jiojü/ öj^:^ 
)Ln;oq-1i .°^\ M JJUJ« ) Vi li -^ -.looM )^oC^ U-*^l j^lcLk.« )jLX>/ :|-2l«K3; 



is superfluous and vain, a question that amounts to actual impiety. « If » 
(they say) « you say that the Trinity is one nature, and say that there is 
one nature of the incarnate Word, how are you not driven to saying that 
the whole Trinity became incarnate? » I am surprised at the cunning 
rusticity of those man, as shown by the way in which they dispkiy courage 
without consideration against the right opinion. We' use the name 'nature' 
sometimes generally of 'essence'", and sometimes specifically signifying 
the hypostasis of a man. We term all mankind one nature, as in the text 
« Every nature of beasts and of birds and of things that are in the water is 
subjected and made subject to human nature »' : and again we call a man 
'nature', Paul for instance or Peter or James. Where we name all mankind 
one nature, we use the name 'nature' generically in place of 'essence'" : 
but, where we speak of one nalurc of Paul, we employ the name 'nature' 
in place of 'individual hypostasis'. So also, when we say that the Holy 
Trinity is one nature, as in the text, « In order that we may be sharers of 
the divine nature »', we use the name 'nature' in place of the gcncral 

J. Cf. e|). G. ~i. oWm. — 3. James, lu, 7. — 4. II Pol.. I, 4. 



[199] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 29 

jtC^«.^) )v)oi o ^...\ ou^ J«oi-.3o .).jUb3i^ > I .^V)/ )_iul2^i l^jooji .a.^^ 
,_w Jl/ .yi .v>o/ ts-.|. :^ ,/^^wu> a\ •.V-fio-si'/; ^V^o/ \j..*js ^^; ).^o )joi ^^..^j^o 

jK-O—l. ^^ . .•>m Vi; ^t^O .-^^iiO ^^ ^^.^y.^^; )^0(^ I.X-JL3 ^^7^ 

f^ ■■ \ -N oJ^ :vOO{-^lS>_>/ )_..cDo/; öt I VI i— «..^ ^/o .vifioi.^^90 y£DaIS.aa; 
}:x\. •\ tp)— so )K vn n ^o ..llo i^ i wj>o Jl « .. -^o jj/ •.^w^ji^.°>>ö )v>ni »•> 

mÖi.30 .-jla^ajL^ öt^K_/ )K.aLS.<w^x^ JJ ^Of.^0L^a.2o •.|.a.'^3l^ |.^aJLfi; «o^J^^^ 

♦ ,^|K,^ ;)J-s; j—o; jLs/o ..^'üoN.J»! J^OJLO JJ; )K.I^Oo jlo .Jiooi^JJ 



1. Ms. |ta*^-:^^^. 



designation 'essence' '. And to say tliat tlie Iloly Trinity is one.nature is 
the same as to say that it is one Godhead, as we are in fact accustomed to 
call all mankind one nature. But, when we say 'one incarnate nature of God 
the Word', we say 'nature' in place of an individual designation, and tliere- 
by we denote the one actual hypostasis of the Word, like that of Paul or 
Peter or any single man. Therefore also, when we say 'one nature which 
became incarnate', we do not say so absolutely, but we say 'one nature of 
the Word himself, and clearly denote that it is one hypostasis. But agaiii 
let no one stain the divine nature that is raised above all things with anything 
lowly taken from the example of Paul and Peter. For, although they are 
of the same essence', they diifer not only in hypostases, but also in power 
and Operation, and stature and shape, and in the various kinds of Impulses 
that are in nien's minds. The Holy Trinity however differs by the dilTe- 
rence of hypostases only, and in every point is unvarying in equality, and 
in the fact that it is of the same essence'. And avoid that poverty of 
the example which is not worthy of the Godhead, and do not conceive of 
the Word as without hypostasis, nor yet of the Spirit as being dissipated in 
the air ^. 

1. O'jai'a. — 2. är^f. 



15G r b. 



30 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [200] 

o6i .■j-.f.^www« ooi «JLsl/ jK^a^ JLia-/; -oi ''^-^*^^ -.IjLioJij jJjoA ool 

JUt-sl/ v--^ vj .jJ^^^o-L—io tto»Q-3 s»otoK-./; .)-.^^^^. oo» sjUj'I/ jl^ab. 
), '*■> -^ :o-£QJ >oo(f_3/; o{.^ijo ; > (ft i ^\ i^..,^ \.jSoy^ )->-aaV) )Vq-cd/ w^; 

t^^^ yju» •^-^/ i-^!>^ ou^^f (^^oi^j V"?*^ > i, -^NtN^; ^~«^^/ X'^'^"'^- 

>ooti_3/; l^ijj »"""^ ^öus .jooi ^^^; )-i--3; w» )K.*Jt-.i .^J^euJ^ ^aa)l 

po JJ/ .),. ^\>V) jooi ^_*J^oi^ ^o(,lS. ). ,. ,1, :>j )pot-=> '^; jJ^/<) .^o<A 
wuü;j «K.io/ JjLiCLfcj '^^'^ ^f T^^ '^^l ^^^— o«^ ^«-»V^l/ ts^\ n . \ m 
0,01 ^ :).2a.jL^w^ oü^ l'^ln o(.a.«^j poju^; It-^^ rj'^« »!.tO ji^o^io^. )K « -^-^ 

1. Ms. om. 



Next tlie fifth queslion, as to how the Oiily one, who is a quickening 
blessing, was termed a curse'. The defence. 

W'e will now go on to give you an ansM'er with regard to the fifth questioii 
also, how the Oiily one, who is a quickening blessing, was termed a curse. 
If he became man to free our race from the bonds of former crimes, and 
took upon him the seed of vVbraham, and (lesh of our nature, and united a 
human soul to himself hyposlatically, therefore he mado all the debts of our 
race to which we were liable liis own : for wo are accursed, and we came 
under the penalty of the curse, and heard the words, « Dust thou art and 
to dust shalt thou return », aud, « Cursed is the earth in the work of thine 
hands », and, « In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread »"; and he 
became the firstfruits of our nature. For in that he took upon him the seed 
of vVbraham he is consequently said to have become' those tliings to which 
our nature was subject. Nor yet was ho subject to these things for a moment 
of time, but ratlier after they had been vainly applied to liim he destroyed 
them. Just as the sun when it shines in a gloomy and dark house, as soon 
as it puts forth its ray, dispels the darkness, since it itself is not alTected 

1. Gal., III, 13. —2. Gen., III, 17, 1!). — :!. We ratlier require ' beeii subject to': but au omeudatiün 
cannol be made without violent alteration. But cf. p. 2ü2, 1. lü. 



[2011 '^ L^V. - TO EUPRAXIUS. ■ 31 

).iiv>it o,o( .-jo«^ )KS.io J^» « ,.. .o |j)_s 0^:5 ^^ ou> -.^-JÄ^K-io jj Jjjojl-. . v^ 
j^-V) V-'^^ K^ J SiCLii .j^ji )&s^Q^JS.o •'^>; jJL ^ Ji S . Opal/; j«-«'^^ .-)1o.q_vj; 

"^OSJl ^-iis/j )K-\Op> |Jo .vOA^ ^Kj |.Jü/; OJ-^; )^/ «Öl .-^ClIS^sJ^j 

^oajj ju/ y/o .)Sw*j l-^^^CLii ,^j oöi J.*I«j ):)a.^wi\ >-)^.l*/ )j/ |1/ -yV) .A 
jjcji jJ/ .^<x2>oil )v ? i \ .\o Kj/ )vs^? ool jJo .^oJSnX J.-J-> j-io-A )joi ^io 

joop; ^«öt^ :^oi^a^; Kj/ )>1« .).y,_«./ j.^al^^ «oia^^aeu^.o/ )j/o .)aLS.^^; 

1. Ms. "'-.'■<• — 2. Ms. '»-Ol- 



by darkness, in the same way also the Only God the Word, the Sun of 
righteousness, as soon as he approached our nature, also dispelled the curse. 
For the holy Virgin, who conceived with'the divine and incorruptiblo con- 
ception, immediately heard from Elizabeth who had been divinely moved, 
that is the servant of the Baptist, the words, « Blessed art thou among 
women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to nie, 
that the mother of my Lord should come to me? » '. If she had not known 
that it was the Lord who was conceived of the God-bearer Mary, slie would 
not have cried, « Blessed is the fruit of thy womb ». In agreenient with 
this our Lord himself also in bis words dispelled the curse, that the earlli 
might no more be ' cursed in the work of thine hands ', saying, « Work not 
the food that perisheth, but the food that abideth in eternal life, which the 
Son of man will give you », and not, « In the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat thy bread », but, « I am the bread of life which came down from heaven, 
and if any man eat of this bread he shall live for ever », and no more, « Dust 
thou art and to dust shalt thou return », but, « This is the will of my Father, 
that everyone who seeth the Son and believeth on bim shall have eternal life, 
and I will raise hi:n up at the last day » -. You see that on all points by 

1. Luke, I, 42, 43. — 2. John, vi, 27, 40, 51. 



32 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [202] 

ooi «^^^; -"t^/; oöi looi ) I ffr.'..K.Nrt «..ik^ j tionvi i ^^ .öi^ ^'^\ jK^o'pk 

oKJs« viPn.No <=> t 1 ->o^ iC)(..flDo .yyl^ | ... » i/ ) m I ^ ch\t\ ,\^io{ ^jmo 
> .«.a V^ jooio J.^a:)CU) oiK^aJ^ ^^ ^ ^— sj ) .... >vi; -V-^/o JLJL^C^^,^ 
)■•*-/ .) m » f> ''^o. jl.l; ^io ^*%o oo) v.^-..^; -.o-.Ks; ^''^-^Oo Jl^aJ^ 

J_LJoi .»V-^.i l-i^—/; )ot^-:;L^j ..jK.*^-. jooi JjLOoi .s.->.»...l/ jJäi> ^iwj 



being himself made a curse he becomes a dispeller of tlie curse, and this 
curse he takes iip on to the cross, and thence puts it to llight : for it was 
overcome by the law which said, « Gursed of God is everyone who shall be 
hanged upon wood » '. And hc himself underwent the accursed dcath that 
was for our sake, and thence blessed the whole human race; and the blessed 
Paul bears witness who writes to the Galatians and says, « Christ redeemed 
US from the curse of the law, and became a curse for our sake, because it is 
written, 'Gursed is everyone who is hanged upon wood', in order that the 
blessing of Abraham might be among the nations in Jesus Ghrist »'■. So 
also he is said to have become sin^ because he endured the deatii that was 
the due of sinners; for, while he is himself the pure justice of the Father, he 
is crucified between two robbers; but these on account of their offences, and 
in accordance with the passage in the Gospel of Mark who says, « And 
with him they crucified two robbers, one on the right liand and one on the 
Icft, and the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, ' lle was numbered with 
the unjust' » '. So he became sin to remit the sins of olhers : so also he 
paid the debt that was incurred for us, and we ourselves became righte- 
ousness in him ; for those who have been freed from debts are righteous, and 

1. Deut., XXI, 23. — 2. Gal., in, 13, 14. — 3. II Cor., v, 21. — 4. Mark, xv, 27, 28. 



[203] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 33 

y.^1 ooi o(~3 :)i ro •> jooi ,.30 :)la.a_<?j ^o(o^>.^/ ^1 aJoi :|-a~«;j ^>-*<l/ 

.-oi^b« )K.A^^^ ^.ft^L^M .-IJS.»«.^»-« ^'^ jJ; oöi; .'l-s/ ^^io )-.KjVq-o^ 
)-«N>fl)^vJL^ )K_>kXDO.äeu |K.jL^ajtK^ v^/o J;0( .joü^; llo-O-»;; oi^ loop ^J-»« 
|ffi'=>o^ •J'fS ooo) ^-«.Vi* miJ^Oo vooj-o^s^; l^'y-^\ y~t'il V-«-^ ^-«^oj .looi 
JJSn^^^s^clsl^ Ul 'r^l \looi^ ^^ ^IVl ^; o6( .'^o'f^ )^.>jlV>; 0001 ^^.«.wm/ 
^t o6( .)ooi ^tm*)! Kj^ ,I~*V^; )(Tn °> "^^ s^oia^^; ^.^ ^:)ö oöio .|laju/o 
o0oKliLio |jmK.!jl:m vs/; .|ju/ .-V-a-i^Kio jJj Jv-Sf^a^ jooi ijfroLio -.jj',.^/ 

^ « tm'io -.j-A^ )^V^?^ o'^-olo .jjLSoi .V-"^^ V^l .)-iJ^ V^/? °®i l-")^ ßl 
jK.».^^^ ojio .^oiolS^ I;c^o -.U»-^ i-'f^l'i o«-»-»» ^^>^ w.oto"^/ ^oulVi voioi/ 
ot-iL^) ^^s_^ v^-j/ y» « fifi'io •.^ooC^aAo vOOi^vA.o^ oi^o '^ -|, '^ -/ > « 1 iV 
s^oiQ^s^ oloQJo Jf^f^CL^ |-a..>.^J>o |^-a~^v ^i-^ta <^oia^«^Jo -.l-o-^ )-*'r^)) 



are not termed liable. And, because during the time of his Ilumanization 
he Jid no sin, thcrefore also iniquity was not found in hiin, but he showed 
himself righteous, that is, he is righteousness; and, when he became llesh, 
all cur nature again was justified in him as in firstfruits; and this is what 
the wise Paul said to the Corinthians about the Father, « Ile made him sin 
für cur sake, who knew no sin, that we might be the righteousness of God 
in him » '. This too was carried out in the ritual of the law also; for the 
two goats on whom lots Avere laid were a type of Christ our Saviour, who 
is made up of two elements, the perfect Godhead I mean and the manhood : 
and the one, on whom the Lord's lot feil, was slaughtered, while the other 
was dismissed into the wilderness that is not passed, who also was named 
'the dismissible', who gained the appellation also from the fact itself; for 
lie was dismissed, bul was not simply dismissed, but in the manner whicli 
Scripture mentioned; for it said as follows : « And thou shalt bring the living 
goat, and Aaron shall lay his two hands on the head of the living goat, and 
shall confess over him all the sin of the sons of Israel, and all their wicked- 
ness and their iniquity, and shall lay them on the head of the living goat, 
and shall dismiss him by means of a man who is ready into the wilderness ; 

1. II Coi'., V, 21. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 3 



150 V" b. 



34 LETTERS OF.SEVERUS. [204] 

lo-i^J^ie .^y^ K_j^otJ .jLjiwi^i ^^>^! }))'r^ .:;Kjl^ ^; oöi ■vm'^ itoo ,^^ 
^olo .^iL^ ,^^ )'^.£a^^j .\.., » t v> t-^^X o(^ fj> oC^ -.) «"""^^ ooi V-i^^v ^« 
^'^K.^ j>s>-2o oci ^ ^-*-^ *'?< •it-'i-*' )oi^ l-)'.^^^-^! s^ou» -.I-Jum jl; ^t 
)o|,j..jJ ).,.M^^;o |Ljl3^o-o « .. °i\ .M oC^ OOI t>-'^->N^ y°^:^t .vcnn its.^eo ,|-.',.äa\ 

.'^^^j^JIQ^/ oÜSJ; )o<-^'^ '^;Qfc ^3 ^j/ i'^-*' j^;<3 jsrt . Oft -> ),.^w^*,^^ )^/ 

i-».^ Jg'.»«.^ .>0»0i/; OMXlSQ.^^^ .-J-.VSo OMl.» ^'^O. OOOl ^«ol'J^OO; ^^01 

^;a^ ^oiOL^«^ K-.).joa^cu; o6i .'|v*t>A )oi^ v^oioK^/ ooi) '.K^jf-tou oi^ ooi 
«AQ-aLiil Kj/o •. ^01.^0:. uJIs/ ''^^>i^ j->piO t-^/ r--«^^ yi^ y^ |;o7 .^öi.^^ 

.)oj)5^ y-tl ^■^<3ioh^l V-0-^ )^^-=>V*^ i^? -I^'/ ^^ — otoJL«. ^:»CL.mSoo; ''^s^OO 
^•.^ K^l^.'^ .y.a^'J^.fiD/0 X'^il ^^ V-*"^ y°^\^^l -ouLK-a^ s^oiofr«^/ JJLmo 



and the goat shall take upoii liim all their iniquity » '. This therefore was 
thus performcd in the case of the two goats also, that the one was slaugh- 
tered and the other dismissed. We clearly see the hidden meaning which 
relates to the Gross : for the type denotes that the same one Christ sutl'ered 
in the flesh, but remained without sufTering in that he is considered to be 
true Gl id. For the same person both is separated by lots to the Lord and 
slaughtered (for ' he delivered himself for our sake as an offering and a sacrifice 
to God the Father for a sweet savour'-), and goes away without sulfering 
bearing the sins of all Israel, which in the type of Aaren were confessed over 
the liead uf the goat : for he clearly displays himself as bcing himself true 
God, over whom we confess our sins according to law; for « I will make 
confession », he saith, « unto thee, Lord, concerning my sins, and thou wHt 
forgive the wickcdness of my heart » ' ; for, though ' he was led as a lamb 
to the slaughter', yet, 'who shall teil bis generation, because bis life is 
taken away from the earth?' ', for he is without descenl as God, and he is life 
in bis nature, for he was taken away and lifted up from the earth. Truly is 
it said of him in reference to the type that he shall be dismissed into the 
wilderness that is not passed; for that country is impassable to all outside 

1. Lev., XVI, ÜO-22. — 2. Eph., v, 2. — 3. Ps. xxxi, r,. — ',. Is., liiI. 7, 8. 



fooo] lAV. - TO EUPRAXIUS. , 35 

)a-,^o .Uakiö jpo/ ^j ^^).i .)Lv3j ^ ^)-s 001 yJä ^*^ 001 .).ia^iK; 
^.^.^ y^iö/ .UL.»; .2i>w-.o .JJ/ •.. » ..>n\ ).!/ )--^ va:^^- jaJ^i o^; 

^; )-AQj,..> JJ .'^ m -^ •> ,_i6 Uaju« ..001 ^ 0010 ,.-* jil .\.XQ.i-^ jJ ^; 

I .«vnX )q— ^; .sxojutsj jJio vxttju^u OCH ^3 oc<; joot )j^ *,_^ ).JLaL-7 
^^ -Ol i:^^^> )oi )J .)jl-- ^ y-^^^iö oiioo«;^).:»© -.Vjjoji-i jlaio )a^i 



natiire, and is passable to him wlio became incarnate only, I meau the 
throne of the kingdom, on which he sits at the Father's right band, bearing 
our sins; for so too John also the loud-voiced preacher and ambassador of 
the Word himself cried and said, « Behold! the Lamb of God wbo beareth 
the sin of the world » '. For the same person is termed at one time a goat, 
at another a lamb; and he shows that he came to snffer not only l'or the 
sake of sinners, but also for the sake of the righteous; for death reigned 
'even over those who had not sinned' also, as Paul also said". Accordingly 
the lamb is the type of the righteous, and the goat of sinners; for the 
righteous stand as lambs on the right band, and the sinners as goats 
on the left. Let no one think that through the symbol of the two goats 
he shows us two Christs, one passible and the other impassible, but one and 
the same, passible in the flesb, but impassible in bis Godhead. For indeed 
one goat only was not sufficient to signify what was signified wilh two 
(how was it possible for the same to be slaughtered and not slaughtered?), 
to show that Christ tasted death in the flesh, and in his Godhead is raised 
above suffering. Is it not piain therefore that another goat is necessarily 
taken, in order that the one fact may be perfectly revealed symbolically in 

i. John. I, 211. — -I. liom., v, 14. 



36 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [206] 

157 r ,1. N^o,, * jlQ_jL2>Kjiio ;)> «K.io/ Jv-j JLi/; V--^ i-ip/ :ts~»)im°>Q^ ^^nJ^ 
^Ä)/; .oC^ r^h. )<H^JJ '^.iöji p ^^ ^^ :'o«^ »)'» K.»)..^^» :^oi^/ 
oi\ \ 1°) xS; ooi ^; V^^ : j m « f» <-~^>; ^; V^^ :jKbJ^^ >t-^3\ ^^ 
).^lSoofrooo ji »•>m ') oty^l )jL>po; ^; rP)-^ :|mi^f> ^^>^ o(^ yo'\.£Oo ».n .. m »JJ 
,_— ocxA 'q1S.o :|-0QjlKio l'i/ ''^^i^ ^^; )jL^.J^& JLo ^ioo :|Kfniii\ 

y^ -JIojlj/o |^s.jl!S..:».iL:!>o jiooi^ > . » V) ^Vl ^^ jJ/ .^ju.,^pv\!) )■ ii.>o 

. -; - -f/ |_m.-2a^ ^A^yia« ^; ^'^? •» l »Wv>^ ^^^oi . l .. ^/ ^ou^o« 
|joia ooi; ^a^/ V*-^ °^ '^ f^ ^i^j jj)? ^^ ,>-oi )b^t~* •.! <■ » »v» ^— j ooo« 
oou )p; JJLq^^^- JJJS. jil .)oo( JLJ.^ )K-*i^'i* i-'^S? ^-^ Xr^ »->^ .•vO^oi/ 
.oi^.ia-3;o joiü^ )K^.^o; )J^_iJju>i jlo^,.^ .-joJLj );oi f->-3; ..IjVNofnN oC^ joot 

1. Ms. ov^^- — 2. Ms. a^- 



llie two? Just as a painter, when lie tlepicts the story of Abraham, depicts 
liim several times, now hearing God saying to him, « Offer thy son to me as 
a burnt-sacrifice », now cutting faggots, now again binding Isaac and laying 
him on the faggots, now with his hand armed with the knife and stretched 
out to slay and held back by the heavenly voice coming from above, and 
WC do not think the one Abraham to be many because the same person was 
depicted many times, and indeed one picture was not sullicient to teil the 
whole story, so also for the shadowy representation of the S3'mbol, for the 
sake of perfectly setting forth the faet, two goats were taken, and we do 
not divide the one Christ into two, but we declare him to be one out of two 
natures, the perfect Godhead and the manhood, according to the faith of the 
divine ScripLures, and the words of the fathers that are inspired by the Spirit, 
from which sources we also speak these things. That the two goats sym- 
bolized the one Christ is piain from the allegory of the lots ; for the priest 
Aaron did not select one of the goats at haphazard to be slaughtcred, but 
committed the matter to the uncertainty of lots, that by tiiis he might show 
the primary unity of God ihc Word and his ilesh, As he is himself God 



[207] LXV. - TO EUPRAXIUS. 37 

p oC^o .'. «\in>V' ) ...» >v> ^-^mX ,^«^«'^1 ^■•'*^? \^m'^ )-^^t-> o;^»>>>; o/ 

.'MtO^s^i .^oio^Q^w^v.^ ot^o .'^^>^fl ^oC^ )->^.^a\ ,ooi.o .ooi f_ .)-*V^o '^oj^ 
.•y0^v>f|g> ,_io ^:mKjü jlo .-vopjil jJ jj'^l— / |ötS>sj ).:)eLJio .'llv—/ ^oJ^ 



impassible and free, but by reason of the unioii wltli a body possessing a 
rational soul was condemued to death, though in bis nature he is imraortal, 
so also the one goat who was to be dismissed to the wilderness symbolized 
the impassibility of the Godhead of the Only one, and was under the decree 
of slaughter; for the lot cast over him, whether he was to be slaughtered 
or dismissed, was uncertain. Accordingly it is jjain that the two goats 
signify the one Christ, and tliat the same sufTered in the flesli, and, in that he 
is God, remained raised above sufferings. Nor yet let anyone, imitating the 
madness of the heathen, imagine that the dismissed goat was set apart and 
dismissed to the wilderness for sorae demon; for this is a departure from 
the laws of Moses, inasmuch as he said, « Hear, Israel. The Lord thy God 
is one Lord », and again, « Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and him only 
shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou draw near, and in bis name shalt 
thou swear », and, « Thou shalt not go after other gods »'; and again in 
another place, « And ye shall not makc mention of the name of other gods, 
and it shall not be heard from your mouth » ; and again, a Thou shalt not 
worship their gods, nor serve them, nor do according to their deeds, but 
shalt utterly overturn them and destroy their pillars, and shalt serve the Lord 

1. Deut., VI, 4, 13, l'i. 



157 r" b. 



■ 



38 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [208] 

jooi ■■.«i..«JLV> jjoC^o .-)ooi vJiV^ j-»v^p^ . • |.jl.j^.s yoyiie jaJ^^i ^>/ ou^o 
\~»y^^ voouVl .'>^oto«a.wi^S,^ )oC^ t"**; )^a->jj« ^/; •.>^oi |.^>»*t-> ji / -lioi f.^:» 

)ooi ^|Kjl^ JLiV^/o -.j^pCL^ )ooi ^co.. a jK^ ^^o .oooi ^^«K^o ) p ^Vlo 
•y^l r*-^ alSx .)ooi )V-0,K-io )._i;;K,JLio j-icnJü^-^^-ioo .JV3; IjlujoS; |j>^ 
>o^^ J'^ -g» c)(.2\ joot h^l .f-3b3 •.)-i';l^^>*-^Q-^ 1-^ )-*V^)° ')-*V^°^ t-» ^V^>! 
,_-o .-).^',.:>aS. ^^ 1^3 )ooi i-iö/; ^^^Oso .-jutoC^ j-sKa ^^ yOOiiajf.^).^^.flL^ 

.j^oC^ )_aK3 p6/ V-*~^ U^o{ .oi.Li)0 \.jä\ ^V-^JJ o-^o •.j-.v^joJS. o(^ )ooi 
^; ^-»-Ä-j/ .)loJi;KjL^eL3 s^oiQ^i^JÜ; j-LS^/ L't^o yo^ j..^^^ ^oia^a^^o 

1. Ms. »»«pS- — :;. Ms. ll»o. — 3. Letter erased betöre^- — 4. In erasure. — 5. v[*]^ in erasure. 



thy God only » ' . How then should he in the same mind break in pieces and 
overUirn tlieir pillars (and he did not allow the name of othcr gods to be 
mentioned at all beside the one Lord God), and on the other band separate 
the goat to another beside him as to some evil fiend, and propitiate this fiend 
in this way? But it is piain that the two goats were oflered in order to 
honour one God onl}-, and completed the symbolic allegory which we havc 
already mentioned, and two lots were cast, and one was slaughtered to the 
Lord, and the other was dismisscd after the manner of the Separation of the 
lots, and iherefore he was calied 'the dismissible '. If he had said, « One 
goat to the Lord, and one goat to the dismissible », perhaps their charge 
would have derived some plausibility from the divine Scriptnre, bccanse it 
said, « One lot to the Lord, and ono to the dismissible » ; for it is piain that 
the one was separated lor the pnrpose of slaiightcr, and the other was dis- 
missed to the Lord, not to another diffcrent from him; for this is wliat tiie 
divine Scripture said, « And he shall set the living one beforc the Lord, in 
Order to dismiss liiin in dismissal »'-. But some of tlu; learned Hebrews, 
that is rather those wlio are earlier lliaii tliose nvIio are o! tlie llebrews, said 

1. ICx., xxiii, i:), 2'i, 2ö. — 2. Lev., xvi, In. 1 do not l'üllow tlio argument in tliis passage. 



[209] LXV. - TO EUPRAXIUS. 39 

ogtio »3/0 ji^l^ ^oi^aijs; U^-^l .ijtvjLioj oöü^ ^^ )f:^° .l"»»-io^ t— I >s? 

jju^^^jop; jJ^C^w-; »1^ ^-io; nOJÖ» :yaAjL^jLio/ j'^K^y); oöi yooio«^ ^'^■"-^^-^ 

y^l ..■^yoKljso )^).a-^xa; oÄ^w-i/ ]i\.\ Kiiv-«^o :^)i.a9LCCiS^ai oüooKIjl/ 

]'n . ir. .^.^JLh |J/ .)Ö«J^jJ w«Q_3^1 so'lf ^CL^ jJ 'l'U'y-"! »3u^^-* .\^»-^/ V^-"?!? 

^:io y^ Uoioj ^''^.-^301 ooi.j/ . ^ .^Laj }ii .jJ/ .yV^iJ; ot^ . n v , n ^clS. sö'jj ^)OLi>. 

jjf^/ ^; 061 Jooi vAOOjK^ .sA^al^s.^ ).:>CL.po joC^jJ; ^-^ 061; .jl.30.a^; 

1. Ms. om. — 2. Ms. |l. ft«\mN . qi . _ 3. Jis. sSs^^jJ- 



« One lot to the Lord, and one lot to him that was dismissed »', in ordcr 
that in all points and that even froni the very Imagination of the heathen, 
or, to speak fittingly, from their lack of Instruction, it might be seen 
that their charge against the holy laws of Moses is without plausi- 
bility. For those who after the Christian religion were lifted up in 
philosophy, and endeavoured to adorn demon-worship in a reverend fashion-, 
as they themselves say on behalf of others, say of their god who is called 
' m b 1 kh V w n, « We should not sacrifice to the gods, Init by purity of mind 
propitiate and honour them »' : but menwho were fettered in the same chain 
as they said that men should sedulously oifer sacrifices to the evil spirits 
who delight in blood, not that they may help, but that they may not injure'. 
If then Moses separated and dismissed one ofthe goats to a demon, according 
to the madness of those men he ought to have ordered this goat to be 
slaughtered to the demon, and he who is pleased by blood ought to have 
rejoiced in bis blood. But now the exact contrary is the case : the one who 
was set apart to God Most High was slaughtered, while the other, the dis- 
missible, or, as they wish to say, the one who was separated to an evil 

1. I do niil know the source of this qiiotation. — 2. Julian {'!]. — 3. Purphyi'y, De Abstin., 11, 37 IT.; 
De sacrißciis et diis atque daemonibus, aji. lamblichum, ed. Ficinus (1577), p. 317. 



157 V a. 



n 



40 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [210] 

jlo^lA >CL3Q-w vfnfn-»!/ '^A.SOI y^O|.by^ f~»_3 .JOOI 9;KjuM jf-S^^O^ .l^"-^? jJ^O 

^aO; \~l •\ >l •.vOf-o-l jjijKjL^ vOOi-tpsK^; )y-'^] )-'^*-^!! ^''^Z j^; vQ-<ö| 

oi^ )oou ^^9 .■>&aju> )ooi jK.».^^.«* ^A.^kSwk< j-ial»/; .-)al^) ^Xj>^\ ^ **^ 
)ooi ^>-S; joi^^^ «21^^; o6| '.^.^'..OO > «"i'^.m; t-i^^ jio^ Jow^; |lQ.a^;j 

f-o-3 ^; )f_M l^t-'^'^^ U^^^-*-^"-^? ^! J^-^<=>~^^° .t.2L^mIi )),. ^ l iö ; )o(.^^':jlX; 

^i .Uä.j^, ''^s^ OlV>^L^ ^Oi^Lw. y^lsol |jO| 001; -.V^/ ).^ww C^ JlV Us~t^ OÖ| 



demon, was dismissed into the wilderness without blood and withoiit sacrifice. 
By all these arguments the ingcnious madness of the heathen has beeil refu- 
led, who wished to stain the divine Scripture with the blame of their cults 
of many demons, meii who did not shrink from calling the usual sacrifices 
to their Idols ' dismissible', in order to substantiate their error by a plausible 
identity of name. These things we have stated shortly in the desire to 
show how Jesus became sin for us, that we might in him become the right- 
eousness of God. IIa endured a death that was for our sake, he who for 
the sins of us all became one that is subject, he who knows not sin, for 
according lo the prophet's saying, « lle came to death for the sins of my 
people, and for our sake he sulfered pain, and was smitten, and he endured 
sickness for our iniquity )> '. So also Paul wrote to the llebrews and said, 
« Christ was olfered once, that he might bear the sins of many » , and he 
says that 'by bis sacrifice he hath been revealed once for all at the last for 
tiie doing away of sin', and 'he oll'ered one eternal oflering for our sins'- : 
and Peter the eminent among the apostles said, « The same carried up 
our sins in bis body on to the cross, that wc, ])eing freed from sins, 
miijht live in righteousness »'. 

And again the sixtli question, as to how we say tiial the same sulfered in 

1. l!^., i.lil, 5 (loose quotalioii). — 2. Hob., ix, 20. 28; x, 12. — 3, I Pol., II, 24. 



[211] LXV. — TO EUPRAXILIS. 41 

:ooi j^Qj o(\^; 't-=>K flfivi; :|Lljl:»6 )J oü^; )jla^ ^-^ p :oüS. ^JuJ:)^^ jjj't^ 
:^olo^w>/ jjLSoi po togLbo mÖiI/o v^lto :^.<>Jjlii )K...^oiS^ oü^o IolS.« oöi k 

1. Ms. o for ;. 



tlie flesli, and in his Godhead remained without sufFering, and, while we do 
not make him alien to suffering, we keep him withont snfTering. The defence. 
Now we will give a snfiicient answer to that question also, how we say 
that the same snffered in tlie ilesh, and did not sufTer in the Godhead, and, 
while we do not make him alien to suffering, we keep him without suffering. 
On the same subject we will lay before you an example which has come to 
US from our fathers. The force of examples is in truth small, and far 
removed from the truth; nevertheless, if only in some thin and shadowy 
phantasies', it offers to the understanding a beginning of conceptions. As, 
when iron or another simtlar substance'' is abundantly warmed by fire, and 
is heated by flame, we know that, while the iron does not pass out of its own 
natura, the iron which has passed into a complete llame, and has been made to 
hiss and to glow by it, it appears to be all fire, and, while it is in this State, 
blows are applied to it, it being smitten by a hammer or by means of otlier 
kinds of strokes, but the iron is exposed to the blows themselves, being 
expanded and narrowed at the same time, while the nature of the fire is in 
no way injured by the smiter, so must we also understand the mystery 

1. <potvTaoi'a;. — 2. üXr,, 



V b. 



42 LETTERS OF SEVEKUS. [212] 

.)jf^Q.fiD; ol^wl^Q-:LAi ^^ vD^' )^^^«^o« jLw^ ^'^O ^/o .•).^.*.*>o ''^«^OOJ 
.JKajK^o^o )K^..J^«^o oi\ h^l \*°iU .-K^l.^ooJLo )v^a^ V^^^ )oo( ^->.^:>6 
^f I-IV^/ .'j-iälLs; ^aJÖi jlowCI^o ^^ O..^^ K^JJL»^; ,^; oü^ )ooi ^^^^.^ 
);oj!^^^ o^ .jj/ .jo^S^ y^l jouQJ ^-^\oiS. 3/j ^j )ooi )oo .)- S >-«.^J-3 

JJLSOI -.s^oiol^/ oü^^; ^^'^? ^''■^^/^ •^%x; ^'"'^^ ^"^""^ ^°°* »Jw^»^ J-H^w^ 

|1 .t-«-^ )oi^ .)ju« jJj ^alo )ojü^ ^l ^; yo'^ .v.:>o|lS..:»o oC^; Ijuwo 

omlSlI 'f-*-^ jio .jooi v>oioK</; ^qIm jjLjiiaS jJ; sOOuVl^ |J/ Jo.oi jicoü!^ 

);0| ''^s-^JMo .)ooi ^-ai-oK^; 061 OlV>^ ^-^ )oo< a_.VS t-*-^ i' 'W^PÖ; 
|lo I— X^ s^oioK../; oöi ^:>o jooi sJui'^ ^''^ ^~^ .jLsuJ^ jooi ^^t^^^-Si^ 



1 



concerning Christ also, even although all the power of speech shrinks from 
the glory of the fact. He was hypostatically united to a body with a 
rational and intelligent soul, but he permitted it to sufTer naturally from the 
blows of pains, I mean on the cross, when he might have deadened thcse 
also as God, but he was not desirous of this, for it was not for himself, but 
for our race, that he was purchasing the successes of victory. Therefore 
he permitted his body to sufTer, while even he himself also was not allen 
from suiTering, for he was united to a sufTering body, and, as it is his body, 
so also it is called his suffering; nevertheless as God he remained without 
sutfering, for God is not touched by sufTering. Ile is said also to have tasted 
death for us, in that his soul was separated from his body; not that his soul 
was cut away from bis Godlicad, or his body loft without Godhead ; but he 
showed that he was in both without Separation, for neither was his soul 
left in Sheol, nor did his flesh see corruption', according to the saying of 
the Psalmist. For he was not separated from his body that was buried, 
and therefore he annihilated corruption; for, if it had been separated from 
him who is lifo and incorruption, perhaps it would have been constantly 

1. Ps. XV, 10. 



[213] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 43 

V*^ oi^ joot »^';j ■|ni>mv> jJ y^-^l "^'i^ jA-^oJ? Ip9?° I-^^clwi-*-^ JJ ^/ 

ILsö^o .oi^^i .^oio)>M« ^Q-«Jij t-"-^ )^'^ .>,« \ >ö ■ > )f.Jx^J^ j;oi .ol^^^.I/j 
iJL-^iD ^i'<^° .wmI^.^ jooi «-•-«</; oöt )..cq-«;VSl^o .vf> ..* .j-i^^J; ).\Vlo jJjV^; 

oitoo-..u »KJ^ ,_io l^if-s> v^'o .)|-.^^m\ .a-.j— I/o -JKju.^ JKjL.f.:>a^ 
,K_>Jbo^; -.oULo^-s )Lx^ ^OiolSw/; oot^ V^^ )ooi sjs'^f .-).^uXi^S^o/ ..SlCDo/ 
)-w9o/ ^oifj oo( -.lla^o; ou^-mo/ Jr^A-i; > ..i« /» o6i ooio .)1Ss.^q..*.a^ JV^ <3oi 

yl^lo U\^ y-A JJ/ -«^ü/ )oi^ ^^; _^/ P .jL^o^ |.jl J ».3\ Oi-O^/; oöi 



attacked by corruption also. For he went down into Sheol with his 
soul also, tho \vhole of him beiny in It, and the whole of him in his hody 
without Separation, as one that is incorporeal and is able to fdl everything 
as one that is infinite. It was necessary for him to give light even to the 
lower regions also, and to have mercy on the souls there imprisoned, and, 
according to the saying of the prophet, « to say to those that are in bonds, 
'Come. forth', and to those also that are in darkness, ' Be revealed' »'. 
This he accomplished in action. The gates of Sheol which saw him trembled, 
and he broke the bars of iron and gates of bronze^, and opened Paradise 
which was shut, and « many bodies of just men among those who had fallen 
asleep came out of their graves after his resurrection, and went into the 
holy city, and appeared to many »'. Very properly the evangelist added, 
'after his resurrection'; for it was necessary that he who is lifo in bis nature 
should himself first begin the resurrection, and that the very one^vho was 
able to dissolve the power of death should himself tread the way for the 
rest who came after him. He did not deal arbitrarily with the devil, the 
same who led the first man astray, when be was defeated as by God, but, as 
one who is just and 'taketh the wise in their craftiness"', he brought the 

1. Is., XLix, 9. — 2. Ps. cvi, k;. — 3. Matth., xxvii, 53. — 'i. Job, v, 13. » 



158 r" a. 



44 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [214] 

)la^f_u5 )j>coo^wi^ •.^.XDQ^aj ^^^^ Kj/ t-2ÜN« oou/ :)oC^ )ooii<; oi^ V-^/o 
jouSs ch-wOi-a/o -.I-^^^jl^ v-o»ot^^/; oö^ jjLiU >o;/ ^ai. »"«^-^ ^V^/ .^^ssA» 
^^O.» oüS^; )i<"j; )J^»" '>»! ^ «•^vio .jKjjLs jlasj s-ch-Jjo .|jLJi.^o .)^-o| 
ooi j-a-'/o •Jloio s»1q.3j -ot )a-7; ..^ypo/o l^jLoi > < « ...a-liL^ jlaio 

.yOPtloJ^in n\ ^9>1^ vooou; .-jlöi^jj jL-coa^ieu yn »colli )jl^ ^^k.^.^; 
• .^.ib^ o'f-^/ .q^cl S ^ J l/ );oi y^l^ )K.!^s^ ,K^jLX;o l^)..a..«.«.°> ^-^^^ ^ X;^/ 
y^l jL'^^SL^ ^^; jooi vtn,°iv> :)->'i^^ K^^^ ^^ )oo( "^n't/ yoofy^li ^'^«^^^o 
vOOiicLw/o ^oo|lö|.^/ y^^i :)..<^XDfl3o )>*^^ou^ ^/o ^; ojöi tvoouöo/; ]^.f^ 

1. Added above line. 



crafty one into subjection by means of bis devices. He who led Adam astray 
and said to bim, « You will be a god, if yoii transgress the law », feil by 
tbe device of craft. He fought with the second Adam wbo is Christ, and 
found bim to be God and man at tbe same time; and be won a just victory 
over bim ; and benceforth we confidently sing songs of praise for bis 
victory over death and say, « Where is tby victory, deatb? and wbere is 
tby sting, Sbeol? » For Paul says that 'tbe sting of death is sin' '. 

Next tbe seventh question, why the law was given to the fathers that 
they sbould circumcise their foreskin. Tbe defence. 

Now we pass ou to discuss tbe subjeet of circumcision. Tbis - is wbat you 
ask, « Why was tbe law given to the fathers that they sbould circumcise 
their foreskin ? » Some have simply and easily banded down a reason 
like tbis. They say, « Because Abraham migrated from the land of the 
Chaldees, and tbe Chaldees were permitted (and the same was tbe case 
too with the Medes and Persians also) according to tbe custom of their 
fathers 1o bave intercourse with their motbers and sisters, for tbis reason 
therefore be circumcised liis foreskin, that he might shun kindred flesh, 

1. I Cor., XV, 55, ifi. — 2. This passagc to 'kin' (p. 215, 1. 1) is published in Greek in Gramer, Cal. in 
Act. Aposi., p. 108. 



[215] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 45 

jN-r'^; "^^a lo^ ^»-^*-^? •t-^/o j mo v> I )ooi >o\leo '"^^ j^co../ v^-xil^ )jiaio 
yoou^ I ,.,■ .. »,>o; -.loog j-^^t-*! -.ou^o; ^-<^^^|J ^/o io>^; ^^W^/ t-<^^/ 

)^)_3o |v->t-*^; ^? >-»'o< •Q-'t-i^ )-»y '»V^ ^/o •. vOOtloL^jo^ ^i>^; Ur-^l 
.^jupö/ J—stCa ^_io );0(l^aüo;o )..^.N.>>ft v:»^;© :j «Kivi i yo}leo joj^jJ 

«•pa^ «t-»! -UV^ V^l Ua«<! .V-^^^ s^-fco .joü^) I . Y ') . I .y. o too ötsj 

|J_3; jjL-^^a— o )-.o;» |joi l-L^C^a—o .i,^^o .Nji^^^^«» •.|q^> A yo^J )Q~p^ 
jii .-jloouva; V».io )1q.-wä/ -0(oK-./; .ooul/ ^-xa.JUx j |L»a^ .Jla^L-X 



158 r° b. 



1. Ms. s^wlii^ia 



and renounce marriage with those of his kin, and on this account God gave 
tlie law to the sons of Israel through Muses and said, 'A man shall not 
go in to any that is related to liim in the flesh to uncover liis shame'' ». 
And others say that the reason why Abraham was commanded to 
circumcise his progeny also besides was that it might be piain that Christ 
should .come of them in the flesh who is God over all for ever and ever. 
Bat, if von please, we will pass from these reasons; for it is known that the 
Egyptians also as well and other nations circumcise their foreskin, eveu 
although they imitated the Hebrews; and we State that which is true and 
befits God the lawgiver, and that is very sublime and to which testimony is 
borne by the Scriptures, that circumcision promises renunciation of fleshly 
birth, and acquisition of the adoption of the Spirit, by which we are called 
sons of God; for it is written, « Thus saith the Lord, 'Israel is my son, niy 
firstborn' » ^. After the fall from Paradise and the destruction of immortality, 
Adam knew Eve, and she conceived and bare; and this unstable intercourse, 
intercourse befitting beasts, was given for the propagation of nur race, 
it being a kind of healing of the sickness, that the race of men raigiit 

1. Lev., XVIII, 6. WhatfoUows to 'ever' (1. 6) is in Gramer, l. c, headed [leT* öäi'y«. — 2. Ex., iv, 22. 



46 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [216] 

•JchS^ P^ y^^ y.^1 .oCü. jooii )K-J»,.i.^; ßl .^;jJ jlKj/ t^Ol-U U-^ 
V-io/ t-i^^ jJ .oitoa/ ).J»,Jx.io ov^ i-^"^ .s^oio;n,^.\ -> ^o;/ )ootJ; '^-«aji jlj 

)-La-./o .JUvOoj; )jL^C^Q_u jjjo .|;oj ^^iJ; )oC^ V-.^ jooi ) ^io Jlo^..,^» 1q\ 

.•|;OI ^-/j |lto/ ^''^..^OO V:^/ vQ-iÖjXjl vS/j U^~»l -.{LÄQ-iCUj Ji^Q-^OLiO 

JK-oy.^^ jil^/; •.'r~^l JJ»— / ooi. ).^a.*Ju.<o .... Ttv> o.tV) |)^-*j»_x^ U^^/j 
|mav)i\ K_)ja.^ )joi^^<ioo.)K_i^ ^oi j^ULio JK..3l^ J1Nj/o .-oi^^^ )-•<— >^ 
|. « t SoK^ jlo •.f.oo.flo lo^ajio Jla^o/ ^..«-3 yooou j^l^otj; -.oooi ^ -^ '.'rtN« 

1. Ms. l^-o*»S. 



not be cut offthrough dcath. Tho woman was not at first given to Adam ' 
for the sake of the procreation of cliildren, but that she might be a helper to 
bim; for the Lord God said, « It is not good for Adam to be alone; let us 
make him a helper bke to him » '. He did not say from the beginning that 
he would make her be fruitful and multiply, in order that by means of 
fertility the race might go on to multiplication; for God might have done 
tliis even without tlie intercourse of marriage, and have made our race 
increase and multiply like the myriads of angels, as the Lord himself actually 
said in a place in the gospel, « In the resurrection there is no marriage, nor 
yet are they joined in marriage, but they will be as the angels in heaven »-. 
If anyone says, « What is the help that the woman was to give the man? », 
we easily say : In the worship in Paradise and in the keeping of the law; 
as Solomon also said of a similar woman, « Who can find a manly woman? » ', 
and again another wise man says, « A manly woman gladdeneth her 
husband », and, « A good woman is a good portion ' » : and for this reason 
they also received the law in common, that througli union und Tconjunction 
of breath'^ they might be cautious, and not liablc to be overcome by the 

1. Gen., II, IS. — 2. Matth., XXII, 30. — 3. Pi-., xxix, 28. — 'i. Sir., xxvi, 2. 3. — 5. Tliis iirubably 
repi'csents sonic Grock oompomid (6|jioTtvoia?). 



[217] 5.XV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 47 

))^; )la.«^^V^vZ)0 :oooi w^L« l<^ ^^ K^jjiaJu» jlo : |. JoaNn i ooo« ^v^->? 
. vMyi'-sN.v> ._oooi ^x'^' )sNpo>-3J vOOila3lajL\ »s/o :oooi . « * ^»-^ jJ i^' 

,w.o( vd/ x^fi-'Oi -.K^.-.slIo t'a^; ot'iXv) Iq.^^:)^ |l^A^i y>~»l |la^..i^jL3 ^-:x>o 

) n nrN- ^/o -.OOOI ^OÖ( JO^JJ f^pOJ Jf^VlO .lo,0« )t "^ ^ ))^ «■« D jJ^OCL^iO 

o(^ }^oö(o -.oilNjjJ >o;/ Vi.i ....o .OOOI > « > <>'..)^oo jla^ ^-a-ao .|.m^;V^o? 

oila^wk.^v_s oi-K-./ V— ^ )?«• >-*/? .j^-*J5t^«^o ot^ ioo! K_30ul/ j.Ä-.;t.2tja; 
.jjMO^. . ^^^ oMO^vJ>eu >.. I .°ii\'..KjL^ ^JL^ p ^/f •.yl)^^'..^^,^; jot-^j 
)>^ ^1-^ po J^^^-^i'^^ t o'» ';o o(K-i^^ s^oi^S^k. I » i 't ^ \ V-*^-^ oi^-sl^ 
)JL.o^ jlo -^ . ^ ^ yoijo jJoC^^^^io .jjiioik oj\ w^ioi/ ^^lx> ..v2^S— l^jLio; 



deceit of tlie serpent; for he said to them, « Of the tree of knowledge of 
good and evil ye shall not eat of it ; but in the day in which ye shall eat of 
it ye shall die » '. For, as long as they kept the law, and rejoiced with one 
another without passion, and did not perceive one another's nakedness, and 
also did not think of their union in marriage, they enjoyed the blessed life 
in Paradise itself. But, when the woman gave up the duty of help, and 
like a weak person out of simplicity accepted the deceitful counsel of the 
serpent, then she herseif also became an evil counsellor to the man, and 
immediately they were alien to God, and also to the life in Paradise, and by 
means of death were condemned; and Adam knew his wife, and she becomes 
a helper to him in the second line, through the procreation of children*. And 
at first she was given him as a helper in the worship in Paradise; for 
such is God's care for us that, even when we change, he continues to help 
US : for he made man his own master, and to honour that which is good; 
and, having foreseen that he would change, he provided a helper for him 
beforehand. Therefore also Adam by the grace of God, as soon as the 
woman was created, foretold that a man should 'leave his father and his 

1. Gen., II, 17. — 2. Cf. ep. 63. 



8 v° a. 



48 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [2181 

.•]Uoi^ .-oc )va.b )^Vs^ \^ |JC*^ -V^^ ^-' .V°«^'i V^^'^*-^^ '^^^^ 
)..m.a^ N^oui/ ).^ö-!,Äi? I-^ v^! l^-'i^a^^ 'l^ re°? 'r^ ^°^ 

jjüV-au^ „_JLio j-^lAo .1^;)^? ,-^Vo^ )K-^iö ^ .-^ouo^^xio )oi:Ss, 
..JSJa .)l;o>^ ii-J^/ onttSa^; )ju/ o6) );v* o« V-^ ^:^ !«*^ .^^I^i- 

j^oiL- jJo jl^Ui JJL-, io:^© .^. so .lfl MoV* -t^:-^o jl^^o ..j.--.**^ ^i. 
yOJL*!-/ yCLDV^aj» ia\iaXj>o yOJi-oi^^-^Ls yoK-ooi ^-^-J>o; yoa^ »s/o 

1. Ms. Ij| ov». — 2. Ms. with point.- loUowing. 



mother, and cleave to his wife, and they two should be one flesh' '. This 
bodily biith circumcision renounces, which was given after the fall from 
the lue in Paradise in the cliaracter of a remedy, and causes us to approach 
to the impassibility which existed during the residence in Paradise ; by 
which we are named sons of God, inasmuch as it slays cur members lipon 
the earth, and pnts off from us the old man. The trnth itself, of which 
circumcision is a type, testifies to us ; for Paul wrote to the Golossians 
and Said that circumcision in Christ is baptism, whereby we put away from 
US our old man, and the morlality wlierein we died after our fall from 
Paradise, and we also cut away ihe bodily desire as it were a kind of 
foreskin, and bury it in the walcrs which slay sin, and in the same way 
we are buried with Christ, and rise as new men and born afresh, and 
hasten to the new and , passionless life ; for this is what Paul wrote : « In 
whom ye were circumciscd with a circumcision not made with luuids, by 
Stripping oll" the body of your (Icsh, by the circumcision of Christ, and 
were buried with liim in baptism, and rose in him ihrough faitli in the 
Operation of God who raised him from the place of the dead; and you also, 
wiio had died in your sins and in the foreskin of your llesli, he quickened 

1. ('.eil., 11, 2'i. 



[219] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 49 

Ol-.^>-./ )laS.»ab.; Uy~^U, ^l )>^ .vQJl^o«.^-U: yOoiSjJ yCiat^ ^jio .ot^ox 
\s^ '-It-^! otloK-...io iQ.wUOi;o :).ja-,„caj5 It^J CH-^ ^l )-»a2L3o :jlio>.^ * 158 v» 
ooi .'v-ol- jf^cu^f oi;VA ooi; l-ia-./ •.|».;oJ^JLio )L.J>.S ^l'^o jjiöju- jJ V-^-^ 

.^oJbö 6il<aJu«.;s io'^K.^ V-^j-icC^j y^h -.jjLajj |la\»aiX .^^; Jpai. 
.^oCyjäl ^oi.; ).ia*Äo .•jK^jOQ^a.j )fcs.jLiajil looi <n^h^l t-«-^ j;o« ^/» 

K-.K.^/o JkX^; ^wJ^oi .-j.^jjV jLscLflo j^a-u-io ^; iooi j.^, nvi .-looi 

^K_./ ooi jJ; .-^x^^invi yK-i^;ts..io .•|fcs.^^xi>^!S^>o |l;o>^ ^_jl.;>.^ISoo 

^_bo a\j ^i'i^/ .oi.ioJLi Q.tia:>o»j ^-^^ji .\oo<XJ jo»,:^; )-».ii; -.ja^^QJ»^ 
jo^^Si O ^j ^^-j^o».J .0,^1/ |oi5s ^ jJ/ .jt-^^j )j--3» ^ Q^o -.j-^! 

1. Added in marg. — 2. Ms. )£^«~iai,L». 



witli him, and he forgave you all your sins »'. You see tliat circiimcision 
is the destruction of thc foreskin, and contaius a renunciatiou of fleshly 
birth and of the body's pleasure in mortality; for it confesses the passionless 
and new-fashioned life, as the actual truth of baptism showed, of which 
circumcision is a type, which in a shadow cuts away the foreskin of the 
flesh, while baptism cuts away the foreskin of the soul, and, so to speak, 
destroys its excessive wickedness. Such was the legal ceremony, and 
the covenant with Abraham, and of- bis descendants, which by tlie ancients 
was carried out in a bodily and sensual fashion, but signified bcforehand the 
allegorical conceptions, which the spiritual and suprasensual ceremony in 
Christ revealed and brought to pass, for through baptism wo are circumcised 
with a suprasensual circumcision, and receive in our mind the privilege of 
being no longer sons of the flesh, for we are named sons of God. Ilear 
what John the thunder and trumpet of the divine words says, « For thosc 
who received him he gave them power to become sons of God, those who 
believed on bis name, who wefe born not of blood, nor of the will of man, 
but of God » '. Joshua ' also the son of Nun, who typified Jesus who is God 
and our Saviour, shows this clearly, that circumcision is the baptism which is 

1. Col., II, 11-13. — 2. Sic Svr. — '.i. Julin, i, 12, l:i. — 4. Syi'. 'Jesus'. 

r.WR. Olt. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 4 



50 .LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [220] 

.^^ ^3 .yoo-oj lil->^ jJ» o^-i/ voouäo; l- 'i'^N ^^^ :)■»-=►:«-= o^-? 
la-'i». ^ .jJ/ iooi U^:.«^ oo«! v^/ °^ J?« i^/ -'^^^ V?«^ ^°°* ^^^-^^ 
.-voj/ ;>^ JjLaio ^-; jls/o .jjoü^ |oj:§>. iC^ );opö .-^I^; )j)i; U-X^ 

OÖI joCSx; oj^>>?^ ^h -loo« ^'^- ^i-»^ ^^*^» ©o« ••ia^o-'? )*^-^»^! ^ioa-^ 
jjuaj ^ojl .juUL-.ioi. J-ioo^i oiloA^oi.; jt-flo-s ' i>s!5^T^ ^t ^ll -"r-^ll 
OCH s^oju. ool jLs/o .K.>.^ ^^-; j-icL-A^; ''^^io -o«^»«^ r:^ -■«• 

.vOOila^Voä. voouio .n iir>°io .I^oa; jJuüLco "^^^ui ^^-oi -.^»io-. o't7=>^? ^ 
. )IV.,,(v>^ ju.;^Xio; ),^i>^-^ JoK-iLioo ^JMdJ^ V-a^; oöi; -.wOi |^^^- );o|o 



159 r 

1. Ms. ;i.^»- — ■^- Ms. v^ 



pcrfccled in Christ, aiid was giveu to the snns of Israel as to a kintl of sons 
witliout passihility ; l)ut, because they had lived forty years in the wilderness, 
it happoned tliat tlie sons wlio were begotten by them remained uncircum- 
cised, though it was possible for them to circumcise. Bat this did not happen 
by cliance, biU because God was directing this matter in order to reveal the 
future mystery ; and neillier did Moses circumcise them, the exact observer 
of the fathers' customs, who ordercd that anyone who coUected sticks on 
the sabbath-day shouhl die', who kncw all things beforehand, and among 
them tlie threat pronounccd by God who said, « Whoever is not circumcised 
in Mm ilesh of Iiis foreskin on the oighth day, that soul shall perish from 
among ils people, because it haiii set at naught my covenant »"; nor yet 
did Joshua ' again, who succeeded to the government after Moses, circumcise 
them before tliey crossed Jordan; but, after they had crossed Jordan, then 
he took knivcs of rock and cnt away their foreskins from them. And this 
is piain, that he wiio iias crossed Jordan and by the laver is admitted to 
retreneration is circumcised witli a rock-knife, whicli is Chi'isl : for a the 

1. NiiMi., XV, 32-35. — 2. Gen., XVII, l'i. — 3. Syr. 'Jesus'. 



[•22t] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 51 

oit^^^^o y^l .öi.«.^äa ^Vl; Jjlolod ^^ -y^ls^ J3l.V^o ),.^^^o -.joC^t 

»Ol JJOOI jj«; ^'0| ^; >JU/ jj ..^Oloi^/ Jb^ajl .{^.«.iL^ sS/ . .ffr.r>\.r>o.. ^, 

oü^ )-i^^/ Ijl't^'^ "»^^^ ^>.^ .ooot . »; ^r>>ö yOojN ^ nni\ ^^^A.Lot ^.«C^jJo 

^.iJ^oi ^«-'^v I » « T m -vQJ; ot^-^ ^ax> oi\ |o.Lwi^o | > not . |jo<!^ oü^o .o^:^^ 
^^>^^/) 'Jo!.«. I );oi^; .«KJ^ oi^a^ ^^^I^sl^Kj; •.^^s^J^.iiq.«/ uüLai^ ^oi.^ '^r^! 
oi_3 ,jJL^KjL^ oil.a:ia^; oöi )t-^a\ :JV<VA joC^ >^q.jl>; oi-^a«.:» v -i^^; 

)ou^ f^J^ . I « .. 'i» Vio .-ji^Ji Icx^; |.£a3ä^; )l^.'ju.^ jla^oi^sJio Jio^ojio 

. i/^, ni^ooo :).^L«^Ow ^jlj',.^\ > t^ > t «'....Niio :^v»m ^io« ),^w.^o jK^oC^ 
OOI •.^JLa^b/ ljLo.^alii.0 j^sjl-^ ).>o.^«.\o :),.>j|j)i j^o^O lo^ {.^.ouV^ ^V) 
vOOil^^L^Oo t-»-^ '1^ x-^ -l-ioi |;)f^ ^^ o(„«alu yOJ; oif^ >&.aji^ ool 

1. Ms. om. o- 



Word of God is living, and effectual and sharp beyond a two-edged knife » ' ; 
and according to Paul's saying Christ also is a rock". Let no one hold 
the unreasonahle supposition that they had no iron-knives in the wil- 
derness; for they were armed, and slew those who opposed theni. Mark 
again the same type in other mysteries also; for the blessed Paul said, 
« Those Avho were baptized in Christ were baptized in his death »^, and 
Joshua^ the son of Nun presents the same figure, for he provided that the 
knives with which he circumcised the sons of Israel should be buried with 
him, that thereby he might show that those who are baptized in the name 
of Jesus the true God with the baptism that is completed in his death are 
by it circumcised. And, when we examine the sense of Scripture, we find 
an unlimited abundance of thoughts, and a primary union and agreement of 
the types with the truth, and praise the one God, the giver of the two 
covenants\ And, as to the manner ao-ain in which we on beino- admitted 
to the divine laver and regeneralion and putting off from us our old man 
are both invited by Christ to the mystic table and eat the angelic heavenly 
bread, Joshua' the son of Nun liimself again showed us this mystery. For, 

1. Heb., IV, 12. — 2. I Cor., x, 4. — 3. Hoiii., vi, 3. — 4. Syr. 'Jesus'. — 5. Sia'J^xa;. 



L K> r 1 



52 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [222] 

jj/ .j-Q.*!^ )-^ici-^ o^ .Up o,_aLi.o .-o^/ o»)-r^/? v«^« I^l^^o 

vs/, «oj )K.-:^o .«oL- );VA^ jJJ:^ .t^-u.^ .Ijuiio, jN.ix.to. jKXaa)^ 

•;-K nN ^ |.ioa^ o'oü otjso 

1. Ms. om. — 2. G (2) IP^aN. 



aftcr ihev had crossed llie Jordan and been circumcised witli knives of rock, 
tlieii l'or llie first tinic ihose who ^were circumcised ate of ihe wheat of the 
land of promise, aiul celebrated the Passover, not with the old leaven, 
liiil wilh Iho pure true leaven : and, as, when Jesus Christ ate the legal 
i'assovcr ^vith his disciplcs and thcrcby fulfilled the law, and Ttook the bread 
of liianksgiving in tlic midst, and blessed' the cup, and put an end to 
the legal Passover, the new'- suprasonsual sacrifice received a beginning 
and entrance, so also, wlion Josliua'' the son of Nun as in a kind of 
prcfigurement and lyi)c kneaded ' unleavened loaves out of new wheat and 
kcpt ihe Passover, the old eating of manna ceasod, and on that same 
day camc to an ond. Thus in every single point the lypc set forth the 
Iruth. It is proper also for us to hear the actual words of divine Scripture : 

1. A. V. (0 (2) li) 'blcs^eil in Nie niiüsl llii; eiirlidrislid und'. — 2. A.v. (G (1)) ' spirilual'. — 
3. Svr. 'Jesus'. — 'i. A. v. (G (1)) ins. 'and made'. 



OOI 

o6i 



[223] r.XV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 53 

j- «%v V .'J ^ l—fS ^^^|",_CQ-./ wJLs ^0^ o,_3uii.o .>4wi>ajtJ )^oi^ l-^J^; jLicLX ^oi^ 

^y^ r ^ ouo .)-«f3; ).^w>^!^ jJ ^^ Q^a/ .)-^Q-» i)^^-so .)^i/j öiKiC^^" 

Ool JJo .).i.;/; )V)L30 )-^C- ^ a^^/? '1^ r^ .-jjJLiO '•^ii^.l^/ ..OCH 

)oO| »).pJSv~io |_»JL-Jiol^; ool ^öio .'"^Js^l^flQ.-/ »^xiaJS. |jJLio )ooi ^oto^-./ 
)l; )j;-«j ou.^— / )m3a^ l^'^Hs» '^°*? )-.a-^io K_|v-oM -.».X-tv.-iO; ooj 

y^l ßl .^_^w^o»>_iö; jL^/o -.j-^oj K-^^b. i-*-^ jKia^ÄJi .jLa.:-^2^ 
VLO oi_3; ).*»aJio ^Oioh^l ooi •.I-.jl.OoI V*^ o« .vOOU^«/ JL^iCLJus; ^!bji,io 
;j_,JS..io )-fcJL-.ioK^; ♦-^■^ °°' .|K*Ju.» jooi ^^■•; |K .^ a.^.Q.\ ^ .•\Jpo 
.•|jo) )-a<L>o> ^io ou^ Jlb^too -.t-Kiw; l-iai^^j )L_;aji -oioK-./» 

)^)OJi; [j^iOQ^ OÖI io^ -'^ »^*.iO 0|:M.^OJi; OÖl .)»<^>.j>~3lSi joOl Osfrs.M~<bJLS>1 

.'«.'f.* )j «^ - «"" oy^y v>ou^o .-jjiätuM }i l-i^ yOot-K-/ yOOt~s; .•|««JL-.ioio 

1. Ms. 'oit^X^. _ 2. Ms. osov-l-/- 



« And the sons of Israel celebrated the Passover on tho fourteealh day from 
the evening, to the west of Jericho, beyond Jordan in the piain. And they 
ate of the produce of the land, and the next day they ate of the unleavened 
loaves of the Passover. And that same day the manna was taken away, 
after they had eaten of the wheat and the fruits of the land, and the sons 
of Israel had no longer manna » ' . The fact again that he who was born 
was circumGised on the eightii day shows clearly that that circumcision is 
a type of the life of impassibility in which we truly live, not tho 
life that is spent by those who are born.to destruction; « for in the resur- 
rection there is no marriage, nor yet persons given in marriage, but they 
are as the angels in lieaven »- : for the eighth day itself is the beginning 
also on which our Lord rose, when he became firstfruits for our resurrection. 
He who is circumcised on the eighth day, which is the beginning of tho 
future World ', is raised above tiiis world, for the rcst of which the seventh 
day was appointed, the end of which brings us to that day which is the 
beginning and the eighth, on which is the impassible life, and he does not 
know the words, « Be iruitfnl aud multiply »''. These, wo think, are the 

1. Josh.. V, 10-12. — 2. Malth., xxir, 30. — 3. Cf. ep, 79, 80. — 4. Gen., i, 2S. 



l.-yj r" 1). 



159 V a 



54 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [224] 

yo^ vs/ ..KjI ).JLi. jK^äiSx ^'Sov^; ^ ^-/ V^3 v? ^^' .^^5^)v^/ 

tsj| c*iCLi. ^ ••'^:s^ ^^^.^>.^V ]o\K^ K-oo,; .JV^io/ ^a^Vs^o^^ 

|j^a3 ^io )joj .)-V-/ Jjaic^ "^^i? Nt^ ^^^ iJ \;^i ^^° -I^^-ä/ 
«ÄÄX-'jo ^iQ.i> vO,.J; jJ^o ^; -'V^/! o«« -«o^-./ ooj ^3 ooi ..^'Jis^iJ V-j-= 
w.« la^ .j-iJjs )^; )ja^/ .)joi ^-.j ^V-» •^^'^iv^ ^^ ®^^ ^^■=^* .•;^i-la^ 



1. Ms. /^la^v 



things which througli circumcision were given to tlie sons of Israel. Bat 
you perhaps, conversaut as yoii are in divine things, can tliink of something 
eise Ihat is greater and more sublime. 

And next the eiglith question, how we ouglit to understand the saying 
(if our Savioiir in tlie gospel, « Agree with thine adversary quickly, while 
tlidu art in tlie \vav ^vitIl liiia » '. The defence. 

ll agrees with tlie order of your qnestions that we should also shorlly 
rcfer to ydur ollier question about the woids spoken by our Saviour in the 
gospel by way of persuasion and advice, « Agree with thine adversary 
quickly, while tiiou art in tiic \Yay with hini, lest thine adversary deliver 
theo to the jiidge, ;iii(l the jndgc deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast 
intd prisDii, and ihon shalt not coine out thence tili thou pay the last mite »". 
Tliis conunandinent is almost tiie same which says, « lle ihat will suc thee 
and lake away Ihy lunic, lot hini have ihy coat also »'''. However this 
needs a great eil'ort in order that we may reslrain and cut away the eorruptions 
of sin. Fol' whal iie said is like this. « If you are standing in the 

1. MuLtli., V, -25. — 2. Ibid., 2.5, 2ü. — 3. Ibid., W. 



[225] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 55 

la^« y^ ^ ->, \ v-s ^^ s2l2SJ-«1/o -.J-^iol-i t-*^^^/ "-J-V! ^■•-^! y-^^l 
I^V-» )-2>c^" .)i n=\v>; oiloLi«»-. ]L^ Kj/ ojLl«Kio ^ .|iQ-.ojJ ,yi_aus^ivi 

»^U )jL30io .juvi t vi\ ^:>aS'i.i )-ü.jo .j-Ot— . ^...w-l jooti ^;»j ),-«o 

y. -s -s^V V -N ^<ii, J^sJ/ "^j/j ^j )^ .jlojjj ^.j/ yjj )J ^jl2j '^ ^j |jLiai>. 
• U-'j lob. ^»7^ )-iio^»» .oo-io joiU^o J1;q^)1 ooi -.JjlI.; IqA |-*;o)-3 
^*io/ ^|*2>o/o .)il-Jo/ ^>«.«-^ ^-wioVJ j^a^lo .•j.^o^KA ^oo-^S-Jl-'j |jl-;o 

))-K^ jL^-*io r^^o^Vio «s/ wcii^jil :^juici3 ^^s^» ^.iai. y^);; oöC^» 
.ou^-/ ""^»i^jo )ts.-^^o»wiö )Kiciau-j .Jv—.J^^-io ^.:ä<5^j oöij otta3a.^^.>A )-3jl 
:^_.i^^s^ )j)-^! J-J'-S')-:» t^^^ K-j-ial-^o r^amsl |jlL.; ia^; l^?"'? "♦-'^ ^^^ 
1. Ms. ^•■ 

court that is trying the case itself, and are prosecuting before the judgc, 
and are altogether wrapt up in the court, rouse yourself on the way, and 
change from enmity towards your adversary to agreement, considering the 
uncertainty of the issue, lest you have to subrait to an adverse verdict, and the 
adversary on the contrary part deliver you to the judge as one that is guilty, 
and you fall sonie time uuder sentence, and the judge deliver you to the 
oflicer, and so you be chastised until you pay the last mite » (it is the custom 
to torm the bronze coin that is the smallest a mite). Luke also clearly 
confirms this sense, and for perfect understanding it seems to me suilicient 
to cite his actual words : « But why dost thiai not of thyself judge right- 
eously? But, when thou art going with thine adversary on the way to the 
judge, make it thy business to be quit of him, lest he deliver thee to the 
judge, and the judge deliver thee to the exactor, and the exactor cast thee 
into prison. And verily, verily I say unto tliee that tliou shalt not conie out 
thence tili thou pay the last mite » ' . To strip olf your cloak also for the 
man who has a suit with you about your tunic and with groat power over- 
come the rapacity of him who is contending with you is an act of sublime 
and exalted wisdom. Think only of getting rid of the running to the judge 

1. Luke, XII, 57-59. 



V 310 v° 
(IlS4v"n) 



G 159 v° b 



56 r.ETTERS OF SEVRRUS. [226] 

.^_*JsLi^Xi^jL.bv ^o/ x^öojj .JJ/ ..»^Is |-ü,:2S.i^ joojJ jJ; -Ol jo^I^^ 
^*,^^ JU^-N,\vs. )5aJL.\o .JJSocuA ^-JL*LaQ.Dlo ^V^J joou )loV-^i.Jso 
)jp> :);oij Ji-*^; t^;-»! )jusÄio .).^,j |ta-o|.^ .)jiotj |.üi».25>>i..iL^o joVAJ 
^•p6/ .ölQ-auCQj K».|.*^i.^^ j;o» JJ^Cis^>a\ ^*^ v^ >. " i/ .-oioK_./ jjoi Jtv.*^^lj 
.-oioK-./ )i-=^? ot.2L^,^S^:5; V-^ jioJjotXio -otoK>/ JJDV-S» o».Ju^i^ 
.•y».io y.:x>l J;o»o .oil;|l. ^-io; jjjojoi. -Kio/; .y^o ^.io/ );Olo.oil;/l ^; ^6i 

);oi,i>^j -Kio/ .-^l;)! ^; jlaXÄLaLio )jOi>^i6; -too/ .-^l»/! ^; jlaxm.aio 

j-JL^SfOX^"^; y^l ).^i«^.XLiOO sJ^ OOIJ /o .K.j,.i'. o/ .Kj-^-* y/ .-jj^i.© ^is 

y/ .j.^^--^; ^Kiwj öoi\;^/o/.J^!-»; .^l»/l ^-io; )iaJ;oti..io ^^!^>iw ) /n V i; 

^coosUo )laj;oi.^.äOL^ >t^:^Al jJ ^; .£s_ö)i/ |1 -.ymmpU jJo viOol^l jJo 

.yjus,^0)>jx^ Kj/ JoJKio |J ..yi>. Kj/ )^.-— «-^ n •> K-:^.iL->>o l^-a; jJ| 

^•^^^ ]^j/ ^jJ>.l^.:>o K-Jv-)^ J/ .^-,^i.^oü^ 

1. JIs. RaSoia^^-Sv 



and duly prcveiiting it diiring the tirae that is pressing upon you, wheii ' you 
are not niaster of yourself, either to ruin your enemy or to reconcile him ; 
and tliis needs the labour and toil of philosophy. For he commands us not 
onlj' iiol to beconic adversaries, but to agree >vith oiir adversaries, and by 
watchfulness to koep guard over and restrain wrath, and quickly assuage the 
lire of enmity, and reconcile our prcsent enemies by agreement. This is 
the simple conrhision of this in the form of exposition; for some have taken 
this saying in a higher sensc. Tliey say that a man's adversary is the remind- 
er that comes from his conscience, and our Lord says this : « ^Vhen fyou 
sin or wish to sin-, agree with your adversary » ; that is, accept the admoni- 
lioii ihat comes fr()m your conscience, whcu it reniinds you and blames you, 
if you have sinned or wished to sin; and, if you neglect Ihc reminder from 
your conscience, and do not obey nor Trcstrain yourself', you do not agree 

1. \Ve ratlioi- rcqiiii'c 'bcfore'. There is probably soiiic crrur in lliis senlencc. — -2. A. v. (G) 'your 
iicigliboui- uireuds aguinsl you'. — i. A. v. (V) 'be admonishod'. 



'IT, 



LXV. 



TO EUPRxVXIUS. 



),.iOQ..^j> .-j-^o-^ I f>'°>i K.-J0/ •.j;o^Ä>■ 
) « ,t 1: 1 -> yooC^ ^M ^; )~>'^°/ •)~'°< 

1. Ms. UmwoV^- 



.•J--0» )n'=vJ vs/ jiöw» <^-? U'U; 

j-»io/ .)^io).i Kj/ ovioi. t^; ^-; -61 
».i.» .yJ^l )jo«o .o«o <^t-3L^* )ai^-»-s 

).iaio^ fco/ ^ai." ^»j/o .^a^l jJo 
j^ iV )-ü»j; j-A.-»; '>-^ Kä-*1o .y^ 



with your advcrsary, but rather use forcc against yoiir adversary. So also 
is it writteii intlie prophet Ilosea : « Ephraim usedforce again-t bis adversary 
and forgot judgment, because he began to go after vanity » '. So also Paul 
wrote to the Romans and said : « Our conscienco beareth witness, or maketh 
defence, on the day on which God shall judge the secrets of men »-. The 
words, 'as long as thou art in the way Avith him', have this meaning, 'as 
far as this world extends', and the way is trodden by all men : ^and this is 
Avhat he said : « ^^'hile you are Walking in this world as on a way, ' accept 
the reminder that comes from your conscience and do not refuse it. If you 
refuse it and pass out of this world Twitliout having agreed^ the conscience 
will take the place of an adversary and accuse you before the judge and 
place you under bis sentence, and ^the judge will deliver you to the torture ^ ; 



1. Hos., V, 11. — 2. Rom., II, 15, 16. — 3. A. V. (G) om. 
uiiending judgmenls'. 



.V. V. (G) 'you will be delivercil tti 



58 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [228] 

).^-^J; )oi^- ^^3? -It-^/ )~.^JVq^ iQii.J )K-^t^ )^»^)-^ vÄQ^aS» 

vAStio •:*)^"— oot oi*,^ai JJpö; ^; oöi .-«oiofcs.-/ ^«»-«^ ^^ V-^ I^JV-^ 
)K-.JicHJLio )K.*i^JiKi Lo-'^i./ -.I^'— oi^; )'t>^2L^ I-Jpö? r-*'^oö) r^oioK-./ 



1. Ms. oiiM'». _ j. Ms. "«^a^jittiv 



and these things would not liave befallen you if you had aiade union with 
your adversary in this way ol" the world, when admonilion was offered to 
you, and j'^ou did not accept this in agrcement. This John the Evangelist 
also wrote in an epistle and said : « If our conscience condemneth us not, 
we have confidence towards God » ' . 

And next the nintli question, as to liow we oiight to understand tho 
words used by Paul in the first epistle to the Corinthians, « Every sin 
that a man may sin is outside his body; but he who committeth fornication 
sinneth against his body » ". The defencc. 

Since you wished to have that other saying of the wise Paul also 
explaincd toyou wliich is made in the first epistle to the Corinthians, « Every 
sin that a man may sin is outside his body, for he who committeth fornica- 
tion sinneth against his own body », examine the explanatory and easy 
cxposition of our holy falhers, who take this as a dccree. Some say that Paul's 

1. l John, m, 21. — 2. I Cor., vi, 18. 



[229] lAV. - TO EUPRAXIUS. 59 

JJo^ O^ ,.30 .vOOU^-./ )i^ ^ t~a^ l^tJ^! ,5;---'^01J ,5_iÖ s^lo .OUN-./ 

)!^^; )ju.m.5 otV^ ov^o -.pö/ jjpö; ' o6i ^\ )J/ .^^^o^oö |^^^; 

OCi vS/o JLJOl ''''^«.^^iO .K_^i6 C5|A OO« )I.Q_>V-Ä> jbo» j-OO^-ö-S; )-»P/o .^iO^iÖ 

jjLau/ ..s^cH» jkL-^i» K.*^ -.^^ii^-a^^^i/o *2lL^1/ oCSj; t-=>-^? «öt-s -.Jj)-^? 

Jo»..^^-^ yooiv-^ .auL^IS^^o ^^^.-3u^.s^.iö; ^^t^lflo i-.w^ jJ .i^Ji» l-:»-«^ 
• Joi^sJl«; jJiJt ^ «^^iö; )la-u;; JJL**',^ l«^--'! I^j P V*^ va>aii.a3 
V-w^ ooi .^001-.^-./ IVs^ x;^ t-=^ joi^JL«; ,_iö ^>tJi; •V~>o/o .)?«>^=> •■ '*" ^/ 
6u^ K-/ )K.*i.il );ot; -.^-V^io/ Pf-/ ^! v;^/ l-^^ '=>''^?^ ■'-'>-^! 
I >^ .r. » -s. . ),o, ^^ öu^-./; -I-^^ oi^? )»-^^ )^PÖ; oöi; -öi .{tCS^^A^ 



Intention was this, to show tlie oll'ence of fornication to be something greater 
than all other sins, and therefore he frightens those that are weak in order 
that they may rise to reformation, and by way of deterrent says that for- 
nication is a sin of the body, and as if the other sins are outside the body, 
and, though a murderer defiles his band with blood, and sins against bis 
own body, and a slanderer immerses his tongue in calumny as in blood, yet 
he who commils fornication, he says, dips his whole body in the mire of sin, 
and lets it down as into a pot that is fall of putrid matter; therefore too he 
who coramits fornication also, in that he thinks that the whole of him has 
been defded und polluted, runs to the laver in order to wash off the stain 
itself of the pollution, which a slanderer or a robber or a thief never does, 
for they do not think that tlieir body is polluted and defiled by tlie sin : for 
Paul, wishing to show that the offence of fornication is higher than the 
other sins, used this expression and said, « The other sins are outside the 
body; for he who coramits fornication sins against his body ». But certain 
others say that this is the meaning of the saying that he who commits forni- 
cation sins against his own body, that is, that he offends against the striic- 
ture of the body, and, so to speak, against the very formation of man, and 



160 !•» a. 



60 LETTRRS OF SEVERUS. [230] 

jKs; );o« jla-w- )ja,mj j-ioA -JV-j^ J-^»)? oiN.Ä2Lio ^ |jLi-/; ^^Kio 

yi>wj>aÄ\ Kill •v-*^'^/ W' -^^^^H^ y^? ^^^ '^^° °*-'^; •1-'^-^? ou-ooi 

,5-*.\o»o ♦jjo» jj-^dxo -oiolSs-/ 'jlo-oijo |1q_jaj V-^l'tJ^ -^l )j^-^*^ 

V256r .llci.OM loU^Oy^ ^Ot-.Q— j jjQ-iQA O»^ joOJ t^/ ^^>— »-301 )■ -!■ > >. A \ , O *, 

(I 131 v° a). • " 

oC^Kj/,-a^'o:| .. . %>o<) ot.^;oi )»/^^/ \Qj/ )-^oVo< vQ.">N .; )iU^-3; v©^/ 
.N^a.ccLl:>o )..wu«jl^» v^oto^oVou» .}-ipö« »J^ww^x^; )-^;oi ^''^wikdoi )j/ ^'^^is.alA. p 

1. lls. |l.a>oiio- — 2. Ms. UÄ^-oSLi.. 



thc very mystery of the beginning of birth (for it is indeed an ineflable and 
all-glorious mystery and is known to God alone, lio\v frorn the ennission of 
a small seed this great and rational animal, that is to say man, takes a begin- 
ning); and this, they say, is the meaning of the words ' sins against bis 
body' : « and abstain, I pray you, so to speak, froin doing despite to tlie 
formation of nalure, from which your body too also sprang, by iinlawful 
intercourse ; for you forget that you are acting madly against yourself, for 
tliis acl is in trulh one of madness and drunkenness ». 

This is wliat these say. Bnt nlhers say better, as I also judge their 
interpretalion to be the highest, that is the nearest to the apostle's meaning. 
Paul dcsired, so to speak, to show that the sin of fornication is beyond 
forgivencss; and above ihis he says, « Know ye not that your bodics are 
members of Christ? », and he turns reprovingly and says, « fShall 1 ' then take 
a membcr ol' Christ and make it a member of ^a harlot'? » '■' : aml by this he 

1. A. V. (G) 'Will lliou'. — 2. A. V. iV) • foniication. Far be iL'. — 3. I Cor., vi, 15. 



[231] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 61 

joi^^^ ^^^« .y^lo jlSw^ |jL30(o .jood' jj -JIoaj;; |-^;oi >^oio .» in/' 

.v»oiol^/ oi^^ ^ 'f_2u^ JjüV-^).^^^; |:bo;CH^ .l-'i-^; oöi? :);<^ ^^ mO^o 

.).^Cm oi^; ^^^^^ .)-'P^? xr'! ®öi )K.jJ^ ^«-^<3< .^ •> m'io \ .. «üV>i 

^^s3 .1^,. »»^1 ~0|.iOjOJ»S OJj^j/; OOUS o/ .^j^—, OUS.; oÖ»_S .^^..a-flo/ O IW r" b. 

)ii I . I S •>; OÖI ^/o.yQj/ ).aJl!j/ .^1:^0 r-'^^ ^^^ .j...^.«.*.^; )-^;oi — oiol^/) 

lf.,^D o/ ^; ')-a;a^ .o^w^.^!./ y..^^w>.l/ oi^;o .-jo^jJ vO-^X^ j°t-^^ 

jL^öv-io sJj/ ) IT) 1 i; — ö|o :)pK^ I-aJu/ :|_ifL«./ V^-"^ ^V-^ i "^A "^^ 

,^^oi\ ^>ö;;o :))S> t »^ n )K» v>»t<.^ ) > i . Y ^ ->» ^J!^ y-,1 -.ycoü^ ^jl>V-^/ 

y>-lo . y\ >y >ö; . I .» V>/ joi^)^ ^^^OS o/ ^1 jL^jO-^ .Oa^^I/ 

^oi^S. K.^; y'^ts.ra^ po).:)0,\i J^s .-3 |lo i; rr> •> >n o/ :)^l^s-9 

jf^ooa ». \ \ k^/; ) I "^ ./ .JÜlo^oa ^^11)^/0 :)-»jöo )^;ö-a-3« )in> «Vtot^o 

|ooi )_^Ö^-:m; Jtooä.^-5 .t « t f>o Joi.\j •>; ), \->o> •.> . NoiJS, . .>Ö;; 

1. Ms. va^-|C>M- — 2. Ms. «»p- — 3. Ms. pl. — 4. Ms. ^»;iov 



showed that he who commits fornication ofTends as^ainst the members of 
Christ; and so he goes on to say, k Every sin tliaL a man may sin is outsidc 
the body, but he who commits fornication sins against his own body ». 
A slanderer or a thief or a robber or a covetous man sins against a man 
by slandering him or by stealing his property or by desiring his goods; but 
he who commits fornication sins against his own body, that is against a 
member of Christ. Every sin distresses God, and men are reckoned to have 
sinned against him. These however are human sins, and have been com- 
mitted as it were against men. But blasphemy or idolatry, and contempt 
and neglect of the sacred service, and things lilce these, are, we say, acts of 
iinpiety against God, and they are believed, so to speak, to be without 



62 



vxaaicü )J» ooot ^jCS..3xQ.'ioo .•s,2u.^>.a; 
^01!^ )oo« ;oua:io.Jts-.oj:^ jKjLiCLAts^ 

^jjj ^io^ •.\-^ ^pa-=> ^! v' 
) - » ^^ ^ oi-s; oöt ^^-»/ j o - ■ " - ' J; 

Jlo^Jj '■^^-^^-^ ;o^.V;s oilb. :;ai^Äi.J 

v»^ ,_io )-»>lio; 0610 )-L30l .JKaj^o 
^l^io/ .v:slflo 50-.^^^^ )Iq_.jj -.oC^ 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [232] 



oon 



<m£0 



V? 



jLx.oi\ c*-i^iu ]ts.^f ^(jj/) v2L-m.j 

.JN.^<H30 )Kju.tJ5 )Kj50^ v. =i' « « >0 



1. Ms. 1. 



•2. Ms. Hin. — :i. .Ms. pl. 



forgiveness, as also Eli the priest and old in days who was negligent con- 
cerning liis soiis, who were evil men as it is written and iinlawfully ofTended 
against the divinc Service; for' he testified to them and said, « If a mau sin 
against a man, they shall pray to the Lord for him : bat, if he sin. against 
the Lord, to whom shall they pray for him?» - So therefore Paul also wishes 
1(> makc it ap})(!ar llial the sin of fornication is committed against Christ 
himself : and just as, il' a man take a harlot and bring her into the holy 
teniple of the Saviour ol'all, and therc commit foruication, he will not merely 
be called lo accouul for foruicatiou, but also judged For impiety as having 
polluted tlie illustrious aud iioly place, so also he who commits fornication 
before believing in Chrisl ;uul writing him as his leader commits fornication 



1. Sic Syr. — 2. 1 lieg., 11, 25. 



[233] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 63 

^'^ '^ -N qJ^ ■ ,yn.j>.eoll!^ ) > v>; :;o,..\.s )iQ-».ij a^.-^^oio^-./ )-«.«->^e» 

* • o 

)^^,>o .)^1- oC^; )"'-<^^ )^)-^? °°*t -"y^l .v£OQ^Q.3 --JjL-,KiO jK-^»l 

«Ol ).x>,-. .yOJV-^^us jojAJJ '''^..ooi o .. >>> .)^iö^ •'"'^ vO^^-H^?J / -vQ-:^ 
ou^s.aL.010 .•)....-. »>o; \-Moi «oioK-./» oöi .').mOm ) « Y -> K >n «■ «> t-*^; .^»-^ 

.•i.io)j ^; Jü/ jJo .) ..J-V) i-iCLi.' yiö-a^^ .V-'^^/? )-^ ^/o J^H^! ^-Juoöt 

ai^'N/N ja-«^.^ !,-./■ ^j oö» .'litN ^Jio 061 .-sSl^J— ; ooto L'^ ^'^^/; oöl» 
^/o .jÜL^^-fiDo j-ioloa «Ol ^3 «Ol jls/ -.llaSüL^ 01-.^«/ «Ol ,J «Ol V— ^oA 

• |, -sv'v^ )1ol3jl^ «Ol l'f.^ oC^sJls K«)«aA 0^ ßl -.^N-j «ci ^ «Ol ^; 
..)-upoj «öl ^)o^ jjpoj V-^^061 .j-äcu^K^ po|-:>o^! y^l )<H^! JJ^^o« oi^i^^ 

1. Ms. ►»•/o- 



only; Lut, whon he lias through acloption been inserted in Clirist's body, he 
is not only cliarged on account of fornication, but is also accused of 
impiety, as rdoing despite to the members of Christ'. Therefore it is wilh 
this meaning tliat Paul says, « Ile who commits fornication sins against 
his own body ». Immediately Svithout any intervening words he went on 
to say, « Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Spirit that is in 
you, which ye liave from God? And ye are not your own, for ye were bought 
witli a price. Praise God therefore in your body » '• Accordingly it is piain 
that through the adoption of the Spirit, which is the Spirit of Christ, we 
both become a temple of God, and, as it is said, « Christ dwelleth in our 
hearts » ^ ; and let no one say that he who slanders and he who robs pollutes 
the one the tongue, the other the band only; for the poUution is not the same, 
nor are the stain and the mire the same; and, even if we allow it to be the 
same, yet the pollution does not affect the whole body equally, nor is the 
whole temple of God so to spcak defiled. For he who commits fornication 
with a woman who commits fornication intertwines his whole body. 

1. A. V. (V) 'taking a raember of Christ and raaking it a meinber of fornication '. — i. I Cor., vi, 
19, 20. — 3. Eph., III, 17. 



IGO v" a. 



64 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [234] 

o^; .\JXL^ ^- vO<x-Vl VOOW.J -Vio/o vÄia^I/ J-Öu^ J-SKj; )lo;owao ^3 

jLauOi-s K.*3 o/ :of,_^^uj> )j>io; oö».^ oi^ ^-SLi.* )K-.ou^ jlo-i*^ ^-io; 
)_joi .ycuj^ioji "^5s^io; V-Ö1 |laJL_sK^.io -.j-i^ioJ» Mt-«J l?« •Jo^^? 

• • • " 

jJo ..Iva* |)o IVio- JJ .^'1^1 JJo '.^^-V^i? -.V-^-^ V-.^/ .«HJ^^Quco yaL.111 
.o^ o.i; jooio jLsio .V-J1X0V3 ^ l-"^ o?« loi^JJ oo« )i-P? ^^^^ .'OUL-i 
joi^CL. '.j-tf.^; o(.£0abMJ V.2>^; )ooi «-i-A ^; »J .Jooi pJro ),.. » Hfc o )o|.X:>oi 



1. Erasiire aller ». — ■-'. Ms. ;iU- 



This ohjection tlie blessed Paul demolislied beforehand by having recourse 
to the divinc Scriptures and saying, « The}' two shall lie one flesli » ' . That 
the sin and .pollution of the other sins and those of lornication are not the 
same, but that the sin that arises from fornication is far removed from these, 
because it rendcrs the man who commits fornication with liis body, or -svith 
the temple ol' God, suddenly void of divine grace, this is clearly signified by 
the Story of Samson. Ile even before his conception received a command- 
ment by the voico of au angel, his mother being harren and his father 
Mannah"; and, when lio had lioen cnnccivcd and grown up, his affairs were 
detcrniincd according lo the coraniandmcnt of the angel who appearcd; i'or 
he Said, «. Tliou shalt observe and not drink either wine or strong drink, 
and thoii shall nol, eat anghl Ihat is delilcd; for lo! lliou shalt conceivc and 
shalt bcar a son, aud !ron shall not go np npon his hcad, Ijecanse the boy 
is'a Naziritc unto God from thy womb »■'. Aud he grew up and became 
vcry great, and he was blessed by the Lord, and the Spirit of God Avas npon 
the boy, Uirougli whoui he wrought marvellous and glorious deeds. But, 

1. I Cor., VI, 10. — 2. Sic Syr. — 3. Jiid., .xiii, 4, 5. 



[235] LXV. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 65 

K « I * jJ .^.«^O;. \ I-mO^« )1o 1 » ^o .oooi yOOU>K_./ | > o .-ao *■ \ w>.«c>.jl j^V^; 

^.i^flsoj; . ^\../; jJö jJ; .•''^>-.)^. m ./ >« Y 'iX , n'=vv>; ocx .-).Aa:>Qj ''^^^ 

.'Kjl^K^ )».*£>*; lih^l K^>1a.; •.yOJi.^QjL V-..^ ^/ 'O.^'t-* vOO(^)jJ; ^■»^^/ 

jlVoi» I^ISsJIa^«^ 1q\ Kj/ "^"j/; :>.=l£o1; ^i-^Cl^.; >^^/; )J^ « i •> jlJ^/ J^/ 
'.OIM \ o^j/ Jl ->r> fi\ ;o jl,/ .^0(0.00-»^/ jJ ,^; ^^ 'J^^/ 7"^ "^"^ '^l; 
)^ >\X jiNJioi jjoi; jooi ^^%A'po ^^ jov^o .yo^^ >^japQ.aaj jJ; )^oiiV>\; 

OOOI ^-A ^ j7 ^; p .vOOUJ«— =>jJ looi jK^>^ -.y^o t V) »; t-*~^ odo-lJ^ ■.., >o 
' ^ ... a-i o -.1^90/ ^^ ' ^ ■« ^ ■■o u>.^.a0/ -.yppvii» v>6i lo^ 0001 ^^^ <>°>.».o 
,|.<oC^ [siKs >&;o;mo .jioiw) )— .,-^ ^a^vjQj «ju/; ^/ ,o»»^^^lßo .^i| ""^O. 

1. Ms. l'T- 

when he began to transgress the law of the Lord, the other sins were worthy 
of forgiveness, and the grace of the Spirit did not yet depart from him; but 
the sin of fornication rendered hlm bereft of the grace of the Spirit. First 
he transgressed against the law which commands the sons of Israel that it 
is not right to take in marriage women allen to their tribes, who ' were the 
peoples round them whose land they inherited. For Samson said, « I have 
Seen a beautiful woman in Timnath, ofthe daughters of the Philistines : now, 
take her for me to wife ». And his father said to him, « Is there not a 
woman in the house of thy brethren of thy people to take, that thou goest 
to the uncircumcised Philistines to take thee a wife ? » ^ : however, they did 
not persuade him, but on the contrary even went with him to make the 
unlawful betrothal. And God sull'ered this wickedness to be carried out, in 
Order that he miglit requite the Philistines, even against the wish of the sons 
of Israel; for Samson's going down became an occasion for their destruc- 
tion. But, as they were going aloug and were bent on making the betro- 
thal, he turned a little out of the way, and he came upon a lion and killed 
him as a man might kill a little kid. And the divine Scripture states that 
'the Spirit of the Lord worked mightily upon him', or according to tlic text 

l.Soiue words have perhaps fallen out. The proiiuun in luasc. — 2. Jud., xtv, 2, 3. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 5 



160 V IJ 



66 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [236] 

s-oi .-looj ov-.^-- / jlo^Jj Q^ .^j ^V-s •^*— t-o I— 'O'? |ia-a— ^ 
JJJQJi .JloKjL-iO; )L*ÄJuia-i ooio .)»^ooj .jJ/ .0001 ^_-^^Ä-, cxK-^^^^Oo; 
vOoCS. ;>clL-1 tO .^KJLllbs^ yQJoiA ^)JLO ..v,=o» UJLs ^; yolij^io : )o^ 
jljis» l, «'g^« oow/ .Ijäso 1.^03; )K .m'>lo )K-:iJ vOoC^ s-;oK.a/o JK-söiaio 
y^li ILäCLS^y .,yoj.io)j jJo yoi^sJuOöJ öuioJi ^^ ^; yj -o»^ v^V^o)-' -ot 
.jJjojL) oi-OJiaS n ■■'^^ l jJ .^j vQJOl .^^o» .^ ooto .yooi.-^»^ ^)*'^ X*^''' 
jjcu^K^ ^.iCL^ oi-JUiO OQJL^; ..oiA KsuujI/; «61 jlKjjJ ^■. n->.^v> jJ/ 
yojöi )J^«-:!J; Jooi o3*;j "^-JLioo .loot »3/; ^-61 .vooi:^ JL^ \-ioiS.o Jljls; 
K->*Jo .|-V^; Ol— o» -oioXi. K-*Xj/? -.l-o*^ ).iKj V--^t^/ .'V*^^ 
vOOi-^-CJ oot-o .yOOiJLjJ^ ^=5!i.-AJio -it^i^^^ ^tOi.1 ,5^0! ^^5s^Loo .,vQuS.-£i:aJJ 
J^^-w:^ ,/; ,»ao/ Ua»./ .jjjojo ooJ. ^*; .-Ji». t^ .JAÄ-2> ou^ n n '%°>i yCiJC)«.^ 
.oiK-s-, » N ^pojj ^-JisotA "^^s».^ l"=>Vja^? "^^^^ -l-V^! «H—o' -ojoi^ 



1. Ms. .-•««• 



contained in otlier manuscripts, ' thc Spirit of the Lord prospered his way ' ' ; 
and, though hc opposed himself to God's laws, the grace of the Holy Spirit 
did not abandon him. Ilowever it was not fornication on ^Yhich they were 
bent, but marriage. And again at the wedding-feast he composed a certain 
question, or rather" a riddle, and asked it of those Philistinos, fixing gifts 
for them and promising them so niany garments and articles of ch)thing, if 
tlicy told liim the Solution of that riddle; but, if they failed to find the origin 
of it and did not teil it, on thc other band he appointed a similar present 
Cor tiieni to give. So nmch for what he did : but they could not find the 
Interpretation of thc question; but they persuade the woman who had becn 
uuiti'd to him to get the ansvver to tiie riddle from him by a trick, and make 
this known to ihem, as was in facl done. And thercupon those garments 
had lo bc exactcd from him; for Ihc holy Scriplure said, « The spirit of thc 
Lord camc mightily upon liini; and he went down to Ascalon, and tlierc 
killcd tliirty mcsn; and he took thcir spoils, and gavc their garments lo those 
who interprctcd thc riddle to him »''. Now mark here again also how it 
said that the spirit of thc Lord came mightily upon him, because he killed 
inen alien lo his raoe in figlit, since God, as we havc said, permittcd this 

1. Jiid., XIV, G. — 2. (läXXov. — :!. JuU., XIV, 19. 



i 



[237] LXVI. - TO EUPRAXIUS. 67 

^«-wU ^; ^^ —otoubo. )->po; ou-o» wJ^,"/? •V^/o .j^Ko >ö.tQ^M jooi v^^äj 
^ou> t.3 ^ou) -.c*-!)» "^i^o S^^"-^} |i^>-W ^i )>:— o :o_Kdj y^l )>^ 
Ji-^^ ' ^^o .jooi u VÄlio j.Vol loj^L^^ vpou» p VOOJ..SO -.ioo» v^L^po JKj;|ä^ 

.•)la*jj iJ^ ^ l-oC^ j^sfto oot "^^^.jiio JJ W-; >'t-=' -^-^o« iol^ oj^ 

oo«; '.po/ vmo^as 1 ^ .,^.« ^/o jjoi^^^io .s^V-iOo jLsu.^^ ^.o'^; ..).^^-«)^oo 
) 1 V -^. ^ jl |_StJ^f joi^JI--; ^^ y^l <x^ -1^— Ol-^; °'V'^^ .I-Jp*! 
^^^0 ji/ .vooC^ N-./ jiaaJ^i^io ^io, )K\aaLio .V-*^ yPot^-iN .yoo»-.K-./ 
^«jlI^^^ ^ioo .'lla^jj «oj jLjUk^i •Jo^; jooi »^s.3lLu)^oo loo« jL^cu^JO» )»oi 



1. Ins. In niarg. 



same tliing, that these mon should perisli, as meii \vlio had oppressed Israel : 
and at every great and wonderful and glorious deed that he did Scripture 
stated and said that the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him'. And, 
after he had gone down to Gaza as is written'-, and had there seena harlot 
and gone in to her, he shone with the same brilliant deeds and was resplcn- 
dent with the same good successes, and with great power advanced to such 
acts, God instigating him to these. Nevertheless after the fornication on 
the occasion of the successes gaincd by him the divine Scripture no longer 
stated that tlie spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him; for the sin of 
fornication which is committed against the body, that is which is a sin 
against God, is of such a kind as to drive away the Holy Spirit. Wherefore 
also the wise Paul too says, « He wlio commits fornication sins against his 
own body », not as if the other sins were not objects of condemnation, for 
all of them contain a falling from the kingdom, but Ibr the reason that was 
stated he was desirous to show that fornication is evil, and he wished to 
eradicate the passion itself from every man, as from some root; bccause the 

1. Juil., XV, 14. —2. Id., XVI, 1. 



im !■» a. 



LXVI 



68 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [238] 

j)j JJL^O^Q^; ouio .Jjoi ^/; jioJ-t^l^ÄJs ^ -VJ^o .0»^ )ooil «oia^/ 
)^i •>./ .-joi-Sxj oiLQJLia.--i.io loK-K-^ -J--0 .^»/ 1^0*1-^ -.^-»01 7-/?! 
|1qj,,i\v>.so J1.*-w^ oila\ jooi -«i^KliLio ^; ^,_a .ouio «jla |.— om jjLA^jaio 



V 
(I 18 



JVjoj; )j:»Ka\ 001 ),Ja>. •.J-Oclh ^ ^^tolKio x:^; jifol io^; ^61 -j-^J 



Corinthians sinncd wickedly in this respect; for he said, « Such fornication 
is reported among you, and fornication of such a kind that is not even 
named among the peoples, that a man should have his father's wife » '. He 
began witli an accusation of tliis kind, founded upon the particular unlawful 
intercourse, and he went on to use the spiritual knife against all fornication; 
and he raised a charge of this kind to a height. Look at the strict merci- 
fulness of God, as in the history of Samson. As soon as he had committed 
fornication, the grace of the sanctifying power of the Spirit departed from 
him, hut it was neverthelcss poured out upon him in tho power and Operation 
of the successes obtaincd hy him, giving an opportunity for repentance by 
means of whicl) every sin is overliirown and cast out, unless we throw our- 
selves into tlic pit ofdespair". 

LXVL Ol' TIIK IIOLY SkVERUS from tue LETTER TO EuPRAXRIS. 



:.ns-ii. 



For not only the manifestations of wrath that arise from wars, but also 
the chastiscments of mauy kinds which are brought to pass from heaven 
for our correction it is the habit of Scripture to call evils. For the prophet 

I. I Cüi'., V, 1. — 2. A (ireek extracl äx twv jtpi; E. xou6ixou),äptov ä;roxpia;wv is published in (aanicr, 
(^iil. in Lue rt Jo., p 2r,:,, bul Ihc passtige is iiol in our Icxt. 



[239] LXVII. — TO EUPRAXIUS. 69 

yoN-K^/ ,)jLov-^j»o I^Q--^ yÄsK*-*^ .oil^j l^ojVS ^! /-/ Vr*®/ )oi^ 

J_JL30t jLs/o ..|_^Q_jLiO '"^Z yOaXj'jlo vQ.3l:;K-.JO v^->«>0,a .vQ,*)«!^ 

~')1qJla.)_2l^o jioj'po ^'^...ocH ^^oi; .^-i^ ![^ •>)-po y-^l ^l<^ yoK^j^i/ 
V*^ oSs .JJQJL-« OOI ^:^Li. .Jioiaj ^^loi; ^^!%^.^oo; .jooi v^| |;oi p .^jqj— 

1. Ms. l-^- — 2. Ms. Itou-la» (sie). — 3. Ms. oü-i (ila abbr.). — 4. Ms. ^i»'-j- 



Arnos Said, « Is there evil in a city which the Lord hath not done? » And, 
cxplaining what an evil of this kind is, which is brought to pass by God 
in Order to benefit, he said as bis mouthpiece : « 'I smote you with heat 
and with jaundice, ye increased your gardens : your vines and your olives 
and your figs the Caterpillar ate, and even so ye turned not to me', saith 
the Lord » ' . 



LXVII 

V 22'J v° 



{A little farther on.) Of these chastisements and calamities therefore God 
is the maker, for our reproof and the repression of our sins. Indecd we 
also call the things that are brought upon us by way of chastisement evils : 
and the holy prophet also speaks and composed accordiug to our custom, 
or rather- the Lord himself who spoke in him. 

LXVIL Ol- THE HOLY M.VR SeVERUS, FROM THE LETTER TO EuPRAXIUS 

THE CHAAIBERLAIN. 

First he says, a I am he who formed light », and then he added, « and 508-u 
made darkness; »' meaning this; that, because he formed light, hc himself 

1. Arnos, iil, ö; iv, 9. — 2. [lailoi. — 3. Is., XLV, 7. 



70 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [240] 

|.iajia^» IvauO) ^ .IjsajL-- ]o<nyeL^'^ll jJ -J^oiaj )ooi >-o«oN-/ )oo» ^^Ä jl 
^ "^s^:^ ^Kjioll iL^l ioio^ ).-.iaAo :^U/ jjotaj i-*^ p .U-LbOA 

..pojjj "^9; );a-2Li. ooi uu.^-fio/ );oi ^^50.o .)a-»J> ^ jo.o« j) ^ -.i^ox-, 

jöCSS; jJ^'oji.; y^l .\t^>.y> \\-^l ^! ooi .JjQJu« )ooi w*^ |1 ..jiojoJ 
^V-^/; Uau,/ oAo .).aQ.^eu/;o J-^'^j J-Ot-=> a-ooij ^tJ;© 'l-^iOA «^^V 

)jL*A t-=Lli^J ^; -Ol ♦JJOJU-J Ool )jV—/o jiOlQJj Uo't_3 OOI UV^h. -K»^^ 

I ^«»e.\ oiA I, •^^' ),i«^- -.ji^» )L3l30»; jlaoÄ; OUiO »JK » .« -» )i-so 

• • * * * 

]yLl .)Kjl*j> jvlao |JL*A t-aJi.; och -Kl-/ )j/; .JUL^io ^cs^j; .V*^ ^io/ 
^)-^o,L«o .)^,Lo ^j OJOi .jjuji '^^aa^ )^V3kio K-jLsQ-aÄ; -6i .|K .* .«a 
) I. t -> »J; )jp/ .^...W ^-K-.lK.io ,^01,^ "'^'^^-^ )iQj)jLa; .-jkjupöj 



1. Ms. «o"!- — 2. Ms. om. o- 



made darkness. If light had not existed first, darkness would not have been 
broiight into being, from the shield of the heavenly body. When light 
was formed, and lieaven was stretched like a roof over the earth, the space 
between became of necessity ' not light, and so darkness was accidentally 
brought into being, not having existed before; and for this reason the 
maker of all had need to say, in order to illuminate the darkness that was in 
the World, « Let there be light »'. All darkness is brought abont by reason 
of shadowing bodies; bccause, if bodies did not cxist in the way of the 
light, darkness would not result. The words are moreover spoken in order 
to do away wilh the falsely-named gods, and that we may know that he 
is the Creator of night and of day, and not, as the dcceivers say, that the 
Creator of lischt is one and the creator of darkness ayain anothcr. 

But the phrase « maketh peace and createth evil » makes its interpre- 
lation clear froni the very uuderstanding of the composition of the words : 
for he meani, 'Let everyonc know that I am he wlio makes peace and 
creates evil'. What evil? That which Stands in active Opposition to peace, 
that is wars, and devastations of cities, which are jnstly brought upon us 
on account of our sins : just as, when the sons of Israel sat in peace 

1. äväfXTi. — 2. Gen., i, 3. 



[241] LXVIII. — TO PHOCAS AND EUPRAXIUS. 71 

).ypo yo^^ ^J» jtsJL.,.:^ K-wj .p6/ ^ )a*,>o >ö>;aio );oC^o .).^a:>ä^; )jt-»^o 



LXVIII 
E 28 r" a. 



•>r^Hlj3cvaoj3 



'>*oi :j.iaiOw 0(^0^ -0(o;,o vOl^^oJJ |^", v?^?« ©Jt^/? i-*^ '^*^ V^ 

o;.o )^^. ia^t^ vQj/ lifX •.jjut,^ l^o^; jla^O) JJ; l^JLx ^^ vOj/ k 47 r. 



1. Mss. "w- 



and plenty, and afterwards left the Lord and turnod aside to idolatry, God 
delivered them into the band of the Moabites, and at timeö to the sons of 
Aramon, and to the rest of the nations : and this Micah declares when he 
says, c( Evils camc down from the Lord upon Jerusalem, noise of chariots 
and horsemen » ' . 

LXVin. — Of tue s\me from tue 10'" letter of the 2'"* rook of those 

WRITTEN BEFORE EPISCOPACY, WHICH WAS ADDRESSED TO PlIOCAS 
A>D EUPRAXIUS THE CHAMBERLAINS. 

• For, after the fishermen had proclaimed the gospel and caught all the sos-ii. 
world, the word of truth took teachers of the church from profane wisdom, 
and seized them like vessels of sanctification (?)■, and, having given them 
to taste of the bowl of true wisdom, and satisfied them with the unintoxi- 
cating drinks of the Holy Spirit, it sent them out like fishermen and they 
caught those who were pulfed up with the wisdom of the rulers of this 
world on all mountains, that is by means of the very thoughts of false 

1. Mic, I, 12, 13.— 2. There is no aulhority for this meaning Ol' M»-, wliich is perli. cornipt. 



72 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [242] 

,^^.^V» ^V-^J^-»^? VOJÖ" •■)J^'^^^! 1^^-? JJ-SÖ-flOj vOOlS-J »„^ ^; QJOI 

«V-j M)-2^s^ M 't-»^ ^-C^ot ;K^ ^o .yoj/ yo?ojJo 'U'y^ t^l ))-^^ 
2^jU) ^ ol^ ^^ .jK^V '"^io ^^^^^o .jVo^ '"^io ^^is^ vQj/ yoiojjo -Jlci^-». 

^ou^-/ llaib^t^ K-.)V-V*o .yOtSs )-.po OOt K-,/j ^^^üi^^OO .j^JsLi. _y\ joow 

JJLiö; ).:)cL«N.^ JJ)öjio .) S»o.. ^^ooi; |.j»Ju ..^-Jbo^^^tooj JJjVS; jlscboo 
ooi yoj/ ^coa/; ^^oi .).^oof:3 >^) V ^flf> voou^^/; ..—»ou^ ^V^iot^ K_.\; 

1. E sing. — 2. E »V l-l^l- — 3. K pl. — 4, E pl. — 5. E i^^l- — 6. E l'V , K lin- 



knowledge which are supposed to be high and elevated. This was pro- 
claimed beforchand by Jeremiah the prophet when he said thiis : « 'Lo ! 
I send ont the niany fisliermen', saith the Lord, 'and they shall catch them; 
and alter these things I will send out the many hunters, and they shall catch 
them on all mountains, and on all high places' »'; though indeed, Avhen a 
goodly spoil has been caught by the doctrines of divine wisdom, they 
rcveal and expose their own defeat by means of another prophecy, crying 
to God their Saviour, « Behold us. We will bc bondmen to thee, because 
thou art the Lord our God, and truly the high places and the power of the 
mountains were reduced to falseliood »-. But, if the thoughts of profane 
wisdom are undcrstood to bc tho low mountains, >vc shall consequently 
understand that the gatcs of bronze which are shattered and the bars' of iron 
that are broken' are the snarcs of argument and the precise questions stated 
in words from which thcrc is no escape, which havc many windings; questions 
which the truth iias refuted and dissolvcd, being stronger than everylbing, 
which heaven also blesses, as Ezra said'"; questions which Jeremiah calls 
'holes of the rocks', on account of the secrecy and obscurity and the 

1. Jer., XVI, 16. - 2. Id., III, 22, 23. — 3. |xox).6?. — 4. Is., XLV, 2. — .5. I (III) Esdr., tv, 35, 36. 



s V" b. 



[243] LXVIII. — TO PHOCAS AND RUPRAXIUS. 73 

.o;oo .jtoüsoj; ^o(^s^; ' )i)-*2b. M.nm\ Jj).iebo )ia3QJu«o )la « t ^ca 
^j^j .li^ÖA; ^{»o,:- ^o .jtooV "'i^ ^No .jVo^ "^5^ "^^^ i-iö/ f^^ yoj/ 

■ ««^v . ^^oio .-JK-Vl jKVKäio ^oögo ■•yOT^vtKj jKioV ^*%oo jVo^ ^^iiJ; 

jüDu/ .vOOU-^p *^0,_«U/ t^ .'vOj/ «-N-»/ yOÖlKj jJ; «öl ici^ (vS/ JJ/j K 47 V 

1. Mss. H-vi3o .K(^ (.jiiimio with slop preceding. — 2. E U'^, K lif-. — 3. K "w. — 4. Mss. H P. 
— 5. K pl. — 6. E ins. P- — 7. Mss. um. — 8. K ^t-l-J- 



ambiishes hard to see which the same objections contain; for « they shall 
catch them », he says, « on all mountains, and on all high places and from 
the holes of the rocks ». For the low mountains may be understood in 
another way also as those who are proud and arrogant in character, but 
are taught the gospel and made lowly, and are changed so that they cast 
themselves on their faces on the earth and converted to a humble demeanour 
by hearing the Teacher say, « Learn of me for I am meek and loAvly in heart, 
and ye shall find rest for your souls »', and thercby another prophecy of 
Isaiah also is fulfilled in addition which says, « AU mountains and all high 
places shall be brought low, and the crooked places shall be made straight, 
and those that have rough paths smooth, and all flesh shall see God's 
salvation »'. But, if we call the change of the souls of the haughty to a 
lowly demeanour the low mountains, we shall not receive it as unfitting that 
the sates of bronze and the bars' of iron are the character of wickedness 
that is very wicked, that has not only set men under the compulsion* of 
nature, rbut also" brought them to such a state that they cannot be reformed, 
since 'they have been constrained in their will', as Jeremiah says, 'and 

1. Matth., XI, 29. — 2. Is., XL, 4, 5. — 3. (jiox)ö?. — 4. äväyxri. — 5. Mss. om. 



74 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [2'i41 

E2ora. .^oiJ pai^^ )«»^! I—O'? v<^--=iJ^ JJ? \^^l '-l^^^^^ o°«o -V^/ )-»^'/? 
JU-w.i ,;,;© VÄ-.A :jJjV3; jböioo JjuwJ; K'l? i-^)>o'^; _y-/ 061 )^ 
.-j^^ioA, jloii^ "c*-!^/ )jr-^!? P?/? «ö« -.l^«*^ llcxjjJV^too» 

''I^^^.ü; \^ili j-oioäi.'^ vpoi^ sS/; .^Vio/ ^io^a hV*^ ot^ ^V* 



1. Mss. ow. — 2. K Ol for 61. — 3. K wNS/. _ 4. K om. — 5. o added above in K. 



E 29 r 



become piecos of flesh'', so that tliey are not able to have God's spirit 
dwelling in ihem. That character so to speak of gates of bronzo and bars" 
of iron was shattered and crushed by the power of the divine Incarnation 
by bim who said, « The kingdom of heaven belongs to violent men, and 
violent men seizc it »\ and, « I will give thee hidden and secret treasures, 
and invisible ones will I open to thee that thou mayst know that I am the 
Lord God who calleth thy name, the God of Israel, because of Jacob my 
bondman and Israel my chosen » '. And we said before at the beginning 
of the composition that Cyrus searcbed the very depths of the earth 
thcmselves in Babylon, and carried all the riches of the Babylonians into 
captivity. This thorefore God himself promises to Cyrus by word of mouth, 
saying, « I will give thee hidden and secret treasures, and invisible ones 
will 1 opcn to theo, that thou mayst know that I am ihe Lord thy God, 
who called thy name, the God of Israel ». But he uses the name 'kingdom', 
on account of which he also termcd bim 'anointed'". « These », he says, 
« you shall find, because of Jacob my bondman and Israel my chosen », 

1. I cannol traco Ulis qunlalioii. All Ulis pari of the leller is corrupl in Iho m?s., and it is onlv liy 
free emendation lluit I caii prodiice any scnsc. — 2. (jio-/),ö?. — :i. Maltli., xi, 12. — 4. Is., xlv, 3, 'i. — ' 
5. Ibid., 1. Therc is no mcnlion of Ihc name 'kingdom' in onr tcxts, but only loxiv ßatjiXcuv. 



[245] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 75 

ö»^ )o.oi floau^^uj \j) l-"« ^^^^4^*301 ^^ vji'aa ^'^i.-^^io .^of^xl n^r*^l 
..1»-)^^ W.010K-./ fjä . •^mv>l/ ytC^^.ioo touLÄJ a>-,-flO; V*-.^ 001 vj •^^^^? 



:v*J^sj/ ).*.^)Svi6 joCS^ ,^ ^..^wi^äü JLsKlb; {..»^o:::» jboio-s )_'^j )jl-«o 
^^o» jloJLaLflQ^o ^ioo |^>.i-t-.; Iloy. m .,. ^^o :w.Ro/ )*.JL n i >ö yoot-t^ jilo^o 
whX.1^/ )K.£0^ui^ -.s'Kj/ )-£>V^ )oi^ ^^^^^ü }jt-<^<^^! )l^p<u y-'l :)-3'°< 
.jK^V ^v- .)-ö--?J? jlaäLoo ..JJKiö; \^Ks »s/ ^o^j5 ^.-^ v^/ .jK-^i^jl jjoij 

1. K .^ä- — 2. Cx 5G v° b, heading (seo p. 268, n. I) l-iola. 



whom also Cyrus brought up from captivity : tliercforc he mcritcd also the 
aforesaid rewards. It was because of Cyrus therefore thatthe announcement 
was put together in this way : but the aforestated words fit Christ the 
Saviour of us all also; for, if he divested himself and became poor for our 
sake while he is rieh ' , he does not refuse to have words used of him which 
befit his exinanition. 

LXIX. — The letter of tue iioly Mar Severus, Patriarch of Antiocii, 
TO Anastasia the deaconess '. 

While Walking in the way of righteousness (I mean that of asceticism), 
and the monastic life, you meditate on the sublime thoughts of the God- 
inspired Scriptures, and gather benefit from them, and shun lack of know- 
ledge and the poverty arising therefrom as something allen to the command- 
ments of religion, and for this disposition therefore you are an object of 
praise. For the book of Proverbs also somewhere said, « The lips of the 

1. II Cor., VIII, 9. — 2. Ep. V, 1 after cxile (see lext, p. 249). A so-called life of Anastasia (there 
called 'patrician') exists in Add. 14Gi9 (f. 99'), but is historically worthless. This letter was written 
after the work against Julian of Halicarnassus (p. 272), but the allusion to Isaiah (ihid.) forbids a 
late date. 



LXIX 
1 5 v a. 



115 V b. 



75 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [246] 

.^.^es >^^..^ ^, * \Ks;o^ )joi ^^ ♦^Kl^io )loVw.Ä..^ .^; Ji-ixo 

..)^^ ^-.so, ).iCL-^Ä .|j::ivi jK-di. 6Ci^ .aüOoU JJo .);lio^ j;« l^j;; 
p JoCSs -i6-V wJL-.\)äA ^ .--Nj/ ).J^po )*^-o-^ iJ? -*« .«^ ^/! 

Vio)jo l^^'^j oifco.^^iCLa oilo^ "^j)jo .j-iö-; 06. joou vOiXiO OJ^ .).130« 
.j^io/ ^ -lo^ 1.1/ l-i«^'! 'M^ .'^^icui:^ ji^i. ^x-.'^Ia/ s^icü-.; .06. 
.V^ojjo j-iCL^to sä-Kj a^ ^ 0610 .oiÜJ. ya^^'U, v«^ o« «^ ^^^-^° 

oCb. n^Kj j)eaAJ |)j ooij/j ..voa^ )j/ i-^ö/ .^ ^i| )e<^'h, P/ --a*^ 
|_iaa oCi». ^Kjo ^qju otlQj»--J>K.io JJ '"^^i.s.^ -.oOal^i -otoN-/j ^'«i.^^io 
jjjo .6uN-/ jlSOs.^ --axJ t-^ ^ •}^^^^ l-»«! )*^^? *o^^ N^M? 



righteous know high things, but fools die in scarcity ». For this reason it 
has decrced for you a blcssing from above, and a life that is without sorrow 
and blessed : for it adds, ' The blessing of the Lord upon the head of the 
righteous, this maketh rieh, and sorrow in heart shall not be added unto 
it » '. It is therefore known beforehand that to me too you bring freedoni 
from sorrow through your God-loving questions, inasmueh as you cause me 
to enjoy the pleasure of spiritual tlioughts. Accordingly 1 will readily try 
to givc an elucidation of the rest" of your questions also. You are pleased 
to ask me what cur Lord Jesus Christ wishes to make known to us by that 
parablc which Luke the Evangelist recorded as follows : « Who among you 
sliall liave a friend, and he shall go unto him at midnight and say to iiim, 
' My friend, leud me three loaves, for a friend hath come to me from a journey, 
and 1 have not wherewith to set before him', and he from within shall 
answer and say, ' Trouble me not. Lo ! the door is shut, and my childrcn 
with myself are in bed. I cannot rise and give to thee'? I say unto you 
that, if he will not rise and give to him bccause he is bis friend, becausc 
of his importunity he will rise and give him as much as he needeth ». For'', 
US to find the reason of tliis parablc from outside is foolish and senseless, 

1. Pr., X, 21, 22. — 2. See p. 274, n. 2. — 3. This passage down lo the citation is published in 
Greek in Mai, Class. Auct., X, 431, under the heading £. eU tö xax« Aouxäv. 



[247] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 77 

.^Ijljo jJ'o ••'ÄjLio; jloi »\nl ^io . i .\ ..V)to6 o/ yi « '*! ^otooio Jl 
06^0 .wwLÄjLio .)-i«-3io .o-mj' .^1^; ^^^^ ^^^^^ -vOJ^ «-«l^3KJo aian 
jJts.io 6j^ IclSSv ^o(o J.«.^ * •>; oö« vO-s/ ..chjl-»; -'oi -Jt-iticL^JS^ jlSwoi!^ 

»s/o ..ÖÜSj )-fljLj/ ..^--^ia-^ii». jtC^l vOJo» voj/ |jLioj «tsj/ JJjjL^oo rjlJ^oo» 

1. Ms. ow. — 2. llere begins an extracl in II 44 r% headed ^ov^ ia»ajo? IL;^^,' (ci^irr. cn^») .^ oJ^» 
»OCH U< a^ ^:-» o'oio 0^ »»üo/j »^ c» ICJ^t ». iN »/ ^-sal-i .... ajM .-^ol^^oU ^; m ^m/. 



since our Saviour himself plainly added by bis own words and declared 
tbat be brougbt tbis forward to conviiice us tbat we ougbt to pray and make 
requests without ceasing and at all times, readily ' and witbout ever growing 
slack or weak Tfrom tbe constant babit" : for be added, « I also say unto 
you, Ask, and it shall be given unto you. Seek, and ye shall find, knock, 
and it sball be opened unto you. For everyone tbat asketb receivetb; and 
be tbat seeketb findetb ; and to bim tbat knocketb it shall be opened unto 
bim » ^ In wbat precedes be delivered to tbe disciples tbe form of tbat divine 
prayer wbicb begins, « Our Fatber whicb art in heaven » " ; and so be added 
to it the parable given above, so tbat on all sides tbe object is clear. But, 
since you bavc tbougbt to yourself tbat tbere is some spiritual, sublime, 
lofty allegory' contained in tbe words of tbe parable, and ask wbat tbose 
tbree loaves are, we ourselves also find it quite impossible not to be uplifted 
witb yourinstruction-lovingand inquiring mind, andto State tbe partial result 
wbicb we have reacbed; for assuredly we must not force tbe parables into 
an allegory'' in every point. These' tbree loaves I consider to be faith in 

1. Gr. cuve'/m;. — 2. Gr. om. — 3. Luke, XI, 5-10. — 4. IhicL, 2. — 5. Oswpia. — 0. Oeupi'a. — 7. This 
passage to the end uf the paragraph is in Mal, p. 430, 4.5G (cf. Gorderius, CcU. in Luc, p. 321). Here 
the sentences are in a diflcrent order, and are sonietimes shortened. 



n 44, V 



A Uli i 



78 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [248] 

.Jla-k*M ^ ^ ooi ypo; ..oj^Kj; )äLqj ^oilo^j .iul^/j Ul o^^ 

:^3oi •^/; v=^ov^ ^vs/, .{.jj/ ;clL.; pö/ );oi -.^öi» jleu^-o. ^jo 

^ojii. ^/ .-^ol-; jLiisjiü.; oöi .-"«sajL- ^j^o^So .s-oioK-/ joi^ ..' )K-^j 

^s^ \ \h^U ^; OOI .vOogLoias^ '''joijo .-ot^ aiio-oi ^^^^^N jJj 

rjLiaU.; ^; oöi .)!/ )laJLia-oi lo^ Mv- QJ^^» oo« •.'^)-^ l-^'^! oifco.j:i« 

"b. ..t^)_o,j ^;K.a 'I'^jjKjoj -.oULio * ^^^.J^l/o )— io/ ^ )ljj ^"ooi 



1. H ;.v,i. _ 2. II «La^v - 3. Mss. >S>1 p. _ 4. II ^^i- - ;,. H |l-iu,<i^, -•»- iLoj-v^w- - G. H 
y,. _ 7. H I'i-Vaj. — 8. A ^o;3o- — 9. 11 IwjO. — 10. H om. -- U. II r^ow'^- 



the Father and in the Son and the Holy Spirit; to which it is reasonable 
to suppose that our Lord, the ' one of the Trinity ' is urging all men 
through these words; because indeed, as the apostle said, he 'wisheth all 
meu to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth ' ' . Since there- 
Ibrc sonie have wastod all their life in negligence, and taken no account of 
tlic faith, and at last towards the end of life come to a perception of tlieir 
sins, and rush to the faith, the merciful one says this : « Even men of tliis 
kind, who come and knock at my door at an untimely hour of night, I will 
hcar, not for the sake of justice, but because of their importunity-, and I will 
band to them the loaves of faith, which is the confession of the Holy Trinity ». 
The friend thcrefore, the master of the house, is the God and Saviour Jesus", 
who loves cvcry man, evcn those who have not yet believed on him, and 
tliirsts for their salvation. But he who asks for the thrce loaves in the 
middle of the night is ho who comes to the faith late. But the friend who 
came Crom a journey and was received by him we should afterwards rightly 
understand as the angel ur angels who come at the end of life to take us and 



1. 1 Tim., II, 'i. Whut l'oUows is in llie ür. pul iiilo ChrisL'.s moiilli. — 2. Gr. ins. ivaiSeiav 5^ tviaüea 
xr\i ÜTiotiovv' ^/loiv x. itpoceSpeiav. — 3. Gr. ins. ö XpiSTcJj. 



[249] r.XTX. - TO ANASTASIA. 79 

^ yo^csajo .-^ yO-SLfiQ-i; ^ U^-^l Ut— ^ \-*^l? v^ö« J^'Ji^ o/ \)^|Lio 

U*-^^-** ^^ .-jo»)^; jjjiio yo^ JLoöi jio,-«; .-jpo/j .-öi yt-io; jlcjOtflO^ y^l 

^ioo )...wJf^ ^1 voi|j )i-*^^! •* r^/ «-J^-io; yo-^^oj-s yV-io ooi ootji 
»:♦ )-«.^a.j; )lojLS.beL3 oon>^.o >n .. m ./o >ooi^^/ vl\ yO.a'NoKlcQJo .-^j-ap^^o 

)-£li';j; )^; ^^50 yOIi-N^N |l)j; {jiSl-/ ^ ^ ^ _^ 1_ 

^ •/rsröUjjt>jjL>3 rrifn\.fv>^rs: 

1. A lsU-»v — 2. 11. om. — 3. H >J"'«. — 'i. II ^^^^» *^'oi- — 5. Mss. ins. »^m. — o. H Uaa-». 
— "■ II ^v» P«N- — 8. H 1^1» »^o l=;-'>-5o ,jo- — 9. Here the extract in H ends. 



conduct US 011 the last journey; for they themselves also love us, aud make 
our salvation a subject of rejoicing, according to the testimony of our Lord 
which says, « Joy ariseth before the angels of God ovcr a sinncr who repen- 
teth »'. But the children who are resting in the bed are those who havc 
beeil brought up as children, and have believed the gospel with a simple 
heart, and have been judged worthy to rest with our Lord. Für the lying 
on the bed also is a sign of rest, as our Lord himself again says in the 
Gospel of Matthew : « Maiiy shall come froni the east and froni the west, 
and shall recline with AJjrahani and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of 
heaven » ". 

The words spoken by our Saviour to the Jews, « In ordcr that upon you 
niay come all the blood of righteous raen that has been shed upon the earth, 
from the blood of Abel the righteous to the blood of Zacharias^ whom ye 

I. Luke, .XV, 10. — 2. Matth., VIII, II. The Gr. adds : tä/a &i x. TtpocjriTet'a isTi ntfi t7i; cuvTe>,Eia?, öte 
Sii TÖ TCXrjfluvO'/ivai tt|V ävo(iiav '^iv^d'jrii; T»i; öcYati; twv itoWoiv ^ 6upa xex),£iSTai, toc [Si] naiSia [lexa toO X. 
EOtiv ÖT£ o-j ToooCiTCv 8iä TÖ sivoi fiXoc ).a(i()av£i Ti? opTOv, 5(T0V Sta [xTivJ Toü a'iTeiv xpeii; apTOuc ivaiSEiav. 
— -i. A. V. (E) ins. ' son of Barachias'. 



1) r b. 



19 v° a. 



A IIG V" a 



80 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [250] 

)^j '^SiO; :|^, ^rfoV^? «*J^? ^V? ^-♦^^; otio^ I^A l-o-?J "^S^— »Ol! 

:"^^ l-joöt-. loJS. ^\o» ooi 00; \^tsji ^ ^po )l»j5.a^iA3; ^oi ^ 
vOO<.>.>n'<^!0>OsOCHJ:^>:>>)joi; jt^sAo .jo-fcoo J^jJi^^ );oi ^^^^^00 |-oiSs 

JL^oi» • ■ ' - "' |N-,ötJSx "^^ y>\ ^^01 )-.;öou lo^ 001 ot-sj oöi ).iOQ_A 
..j-joöi.- •'o^i.^^; j-aKiö I-sKj) JJ; y^l -01 ) v « °>« •J^-*J vOOt-.ö».J>/ 

vv <N > . |_ooV-3o j-si )oi_5s ,I^K.io jJ )lo I vi\.iL-:»a..5; oöi .|j,:iai«.ioo 
)jLiu.jo jji^iö «JLi/; 1^ * .-/ .-)■■.,. .«>V) J-joöt-j lOI^J^^,^ ^P«/ j^^-3-^ 

1. Here begins an extiact in G 264 r b. — 2. G om. — 3. A l^o^Sv — 4. G om., but will) maik 
Ol' Omission. — 5. G i-^^l ü. G '*^;Oj- — 7. G v^^iio. 



slow between the temple and tke altar »', have been variously understood 
by ihoso who have interpreted, because concerning this matter uothing is 
plainly stated by the God-iuspired Scripture. But, since our Saviour's pur- 
pose requircs tliat hc should uuite and comprise in the sayiiig all the blood 
of righteuus mcu tiiat was unjustly shed, l'rom Abel down to tlie day on which 
hc himself said these things to the Jews, and lay the responsibility l'or lliis 
upon them and upon tlicir ancestors, it" is a riglit and reasonable thing, as 
it seems to me, to understand that he referred to Zacharias the priest, who 
begot for us the iioly^ John the Foreriinner and Baptist, whom a tradition 
not contained in Scripture rciates that the Jews slew between the temple and 



1. MaUh., xxiil, 51. — 2. Tliis passage lo 'llu-iii' (p. 252, I. 2) is in Mai, p. '.32. — 3. A. v. (AU) 
'Thcologian' ; Gr. Oeonsdiov. 



[251] LXIX. - TO ANASTASIA. 81 

«._\o .)o6« yoouio^ ^^^^ )i„ioo ..)L«.:s^.ia.V jl.ai.oi ki*j> ^oia^ö 

jl \.x^^ ;K_s .,'jKjL.^ö jl^.'^ot^A^i.T .-Mt-oui )oo« U-jKio; Jot ^^s^^iO 

^ -.j-^^js ^oi ^; o-o« :)La.^;Kio joiSs^ 1^^ )ooi jo^io ^j K-,|t-.K-. 

Ki*ij :J1a-oi.3; «Ol j^.'i.oK.üj 'JKjoj joiSSs ^too 6uioj oc*\o .jK.soK.a 

^'ö.^:- j^.'^oK.i ."^fes^a^ä. jj/ .).>^po; W^ "^^ jpoo JjlLjo ^^io ).a^iö 

1^.30^0 jj^i^ -"oi^y sAiLjioT .01-^ :|Kju.^ jK^oKjt^ 6Ci.o .vOO^^I 

'^^Doi ^o) ''^i^io '.^oäI )^^, ^, ooi JLjL^i::i^ioK.io jJ öu^a yx-i. 

.Qu^aj |toa-«.z> .ax>>ajL; »ajöi; -.^t^/ -o» |!S>:^ö)^; )K.soj ^ -.U-^ySi j.-©; 

^-«^i^j t^ -.s-ota^i« yoou»^/ Q.xl,jo ..)-w^^o Jiauot KjL^i. ^o :jLa-.o«o; 

.Ls^-Äiö odo-^aj ^, OOI )La^iö ^io .J^^ojj/, o'oi y^\ a^ joot sa^po jJ 

j^-^o .•voot.-j^jvi. '"^ü^.-w-'fc^jj ^K>., .öv:^ jooi >*>•»-, )K\o^>s Nb^o^ä, jJ/ 

^--w2i.0»0 .vOO»-..^»^ ^ö„««fltt.J jlo»Jii>; )Kjo^J5 ÖI-S ^3 «i>U>; -./oOI ^JlIO E 19 

^--JS.ous )a^.a^ oo( vica-V-^v^ ^^ );« "^i^io .)jsa*i> iooi j^i., 

^«^-^"-«»•■s? ^ )—/ o« :|K-ö»:^ .<ii5^^Li oi\ oooi ,^-.iOajij ,^o« |>^,_3 

|~i-30( .^o^S; 01^- K_«.s ^^o.» oöi .jooi |jK.xo.io oiio^^^j ^i ooi jis^^^io 

^-^01 ^ |ja_«o-,.\ q\ ^j vj ♦i^/ Iv^jo .-voouj^^ ,^Kjj |oo« ^-tow; 

o6) l-pjo ..,^;\7 y^ b a .V.g) ,;ia-^ßj ^ ^J.o)o .^a*ÄU yOOi-i>wiw |1o^a>.j 

1. A H^ol^ |IS».,aX. _ 2. G ins. "■«• - 3. A U^.«^o. _ 4. G ins. low; Gr. Ttvciax.iv. - 5. G 
0V3 lo-aAo. — i;. Here the extract in G ends. 



the altar, because he plaiuly propliesied or rathcr ' sliowed the rOod-bearer 
to be a virgiu', and liim that is born of her, the great God and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, like some King and chict' and Lord over thoir people, and 
did not reniove the lioly Virgin herseif ai'ter the incomprehensible conception 
by the Holy Spirit from the virgins' place in the temple, between the temple 
and the altar, as one that was married, but knew her to be still a viro-in and 
allowed her to stand in the same ' accustomed place as usual. For this 
reason (they say) those who heard of it feil into a rage and took weapons 
in their hands against him, fearing the king who was expected from bis 

1. (lä)lov. — 2. A. V. (AG) 'Virsin to bo llie Gocl-bcarer'. — i. A. v, (.VG) ins. 'limp and'; Gi-. um. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. g 



V" b. 



E 20 r° a. 



82 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [252] 

^iö |joo .ya.* nt jNCS^CL-^Lio )l )j)o/; oi,.^^^ K-^Js; oöi )t>^)jCL:d :).äqjj 
)jOi5 ^; q!^ -UV^) JJO« )oö« -oioK^/ ^ )-Q— oV^ ^; yj .pö/ jjLSOt .^^V3j 



jJlpojK^ f^o .yoV-a-QQJ )jljl:)0_.öi]^oo JJ 
vQJotj )la:ia^„»\ jjii^iö JLbo^a jKa)^ 

i^ « 1 \o j ) •, r> ^\ •.^.■«■X^Q^O),:» jJ) 



.L>Pj )joi )ooi y^oioK-i/ jjoi^.v^oia^£s_iU 

w,oi ^ .j'pK^ ya.>.^,^Jo/« l-aJ^OLS 
)-.;a-ii |joi .)i.-3 fJS^l^oo JK:>oa^ IooiJjlm iooi|v)^ n^jK^otSx jlci i »^ 

:U>ol )-.oöi JJUJ; Ji.«.^a o^ w •> > ."^ ; ^.^.^ ^s .-jK^oK^ ^^; )i^^^ V-»«^ 

..jKJ^oo )-<C^; o(^^ l-'O!::^ )->->^^> .•^.■i,>>o.ot^ ^(^?) V^^*- l^Q-^^ *^ 

JI[ •>!«.]; )lo n VI .CxK.ao )L\o JJL30I ,^^O0 )'^ j^OOOA ^ »^N )>-, r>x\. 



1. Ms. Uaw. — 2. Ms. ollao. 



3. Ms. um. 



prophecy, who was to exercise sway over thom and lay the yoke of bondage 
upon them. And these things Gregory the wise in divine things, the brother 
of Basil the great, and bishop of Nyssa, in the sermon on the Nativity of 
ourSaviour, states thus : « But, if we are not straying a long way from the 
.sul)ject, it would perhaps not be inopportune to adduce Zacharias also who 
was slain between the temple and the altar to testify to the undefded mother. 
This Zacharias was a priest, but not a priest only, but possessing also the 
gift of prophecy , and tlic power of prophecy is proclaimed in the book of the 
gospel as inevitable', in that the divine grace makes a way for men before- 
liand, that tliey niay not tliink the birth from a virgiu iucrediblc, and, training 
the assent ofthose who did not believe beforehand by sniall miracles, a child 



1. A. V. (Ej •unbUiiucd'; Greg, (od.) «värpanTo; (1. ivayxato;? Luko, i, G" ?). 



[25.-^] LXIX. — TO 

• Joj^lo^; )laji,.\\toeL:5-.)-AoK-5 

^^f O'OI jN^oK.^ ^^« oÖi^ )^tT°? 

vf> °> i; )^.^.^ : 1« l^^^oi.^/ ) «>•»•>•> 
'^jK I .T> »-.-3 .'ILoI^ )Lvp>\ jiKjLio 
.s^oöi ^oul^/ )f-«J^; >^'oi9 )ir> « 1 1 

^eui» ot^ K_./ )^-/ )^.-^-.l Jfts^V-^ 



ANASTASIA. 83 

^"oi jljoio;!; OU.1^/ l-tioJi );oio ,|ooi 
V-*.^ J-JUa—/ .)-.oo( jKAoK. 1 t ; 
•.\^)ol j^ooi )j-0« Jl *..,?> o^ rwi» .'^; 

..jb.^.:» JL.^; o«t^ J-ot^ ^■'^"'^J 

j;*^ jlooC:^; )ia^.X>ft lo^ )lo>vi.oi 
ooi^ >Otja.ioj ''^wbaot ^^».^.^o .ö«^ K_./ 

. -)^p; ; ou>)^ ) »KjLio ^^01 • .) JSC^io; e 20 r b. 
^^i^Ol^oi^^O .|oO( ) > M )i,^0^ t-'i-S! °°l 



1. Ms, um. >»• — 2. Ms. l^^^- — 3. Ms. l^-i»: i'.reg. immoiou;. — k. Ms. Ijw^.!^. — 5. Ms. l^^o^3v 

is born to her that is harren and past age ' . This is the heginning of the 
miracle that is Tperformed in the Virgin ". For, as Elizabeth does not become 
a mother by the power of nature, inasmueh as ^she had grown old in the 
world'^ without bearing, but the boy's birth is leferred to the divine will, 
so also the incrodibility of thevirgin birth-throes obtains belief by reference 
to the deity. Siuce therefore the son born of the harren woman, who at 
the voice of her that had conceived the Lord, before he came forth to the 
light, leaped in his mother's wo:ab, preceded the son born of the virgin, 
immediately on the forerunner of the Word Coming forth to birth, then the 
silence of Zachariäs is dissolved, by the prophetic indwelling, and all things 
that Zachariäs utters were a prophecy of the future. This man therefore 
who was being led by the spirit of prophecy to the knowledge of liidden 



1. The arammar is confused in botli versions and in the texl of Greg.. — 2. Greg, xati Tr,v Tiap- 
ötviav. — 3. A. V. (A) 'her life had gruwn old'. 



E 20 v° 



84 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [254] 

06..; jl.*--^; Ui-/ Jooi Ij«? )J^- iJ? -*o« NiJ .-jKü.öKjib. l^^-o ioo« 

Jia-.oi JisJL-^; |»a^ .Jtoo; )joi ^j iooi o».xio 0.01 c^o .oj!^ i-3f^ o«^ It-a^^! -o« 

. n vNAf. ^*3oi ^^00 .)^...>,v>\ .01,-^-/0»^-; jL^-w^; )jLa-./ .,5JlQ-«tO0 

|K„olj/ |i.o^-.V-^|K-,-s; JA ^O Ö; :oooi s-*oi jjso/ ^; 'ocH-s .'IV-aJ ji-t— )^-'l° 

vooog JJ; jKis-«^ ..K^)jVi>t.io uxaü JJ jK^oK^ c**K-./ jood; «'ot .'Ji^; 

.olb^-^^-A Jio^-Jiw ^''i»^»^ ;o«.aiio oi-J^/ .)K^öK-s; |i,.flO ^^ )La*ous 
♦aJÖ»a jjoia^ j.M, •>,>»» o(^^; odo^o jooi K>/; j»Q^-s -.Ijo« jtooj ^j ioot 
j^o^iCL^ ji^'t-^! )j^^«^o? oo®» ^-^ittJL; ^*^bw.^3oi ^^00 .)....^^:>aL^ jbL.01 Kjl_s 



1. Ms. "^^c^ojif- — '2. Ms. o-w. 



tliings, liaviiig untlerstood tlie mystory of virgiuity in the luidefdcd birtli, 
did not cxclude the unmarried raother in the temple frora the place which 
according to tlic law was assigned to the virgins, tcaching the Jews that the 
Makcr of the things that arc and King of all creation has human nature 
under his rule with all things, and by his own will leads it to that which 
pleascs him, and is not himsclf controlled by this nature, so that it is in his 
power to make a new form of birth which will not cause her who has become 
a mother to cease from being a virgin. Thereibre he did not exclude her 
in llie Icmple froin liic ranks of the virgins; and this place was a space 
between the temple and tho allar. Since therefore they heard that the King 
of creation was Coming forth ' by dispensation to human birth, in fear of 
boin"' iiiidir a kiiiLi's rule ihoy slow the man who lestilied thcse ihinsrs 



12551 



LXIX. - TO ANASTASI A. 

1 



85 



-otoK-/; ooi j-pj "'^ss.^aoi ^j "^^i^^ ..ojc*^ )j<xa^ oiS> l^^^; oiV.» 



. Ijn «m l-ioj^lo» )»oi I vi .. \ \t ••^*-=lJ 
(.io.\oJLi IJ( .\^^^l;. .t^^lXl (li ^Joo 
. <^OiaXj^ ■g\\'.. I » I ■ 'i •>* i^^^! t-^* 

',\^i w£Daj^£DOto|L» OiV-3 r-3 : Jjl^i^lio 

• ) ■ ' \ I - ^ . w> .\<ic\rt;if^^^i l»L^j> 

oci Pi.OiO * |(_-N^ .^iO| |i-°^j; 
^öl yOoiioi. ■■loii.p yOp'L/ oi yi« j ; 
)tO]0 .Iv^i^^oo [^^^ wOiOl^/ ^V^l^t 
|N.^L-^ |N...N-it; .jj/ ^^aaj.^)axD w^u'L 
^4i_{v.io> '. o^ixail ^; ,^/ .wsISo; 
^*v{yj>L(! oöt .-^ä.r-a..; oi^o Mop MPI 
|>Oi l.po|>; .Mjoo»-! tji^lio Ulla- ^ 
^1 ||qi .^ßo;a ^^ 1^ - f.-) Uo-^^; 

I ly Krt n,^« ^OOy.] V^O •. |NXm |»Oi 

.odtJ^ M°<-^ »-^ °^ . (.mai^ECio 
.ya^o MÖO.'O U^< ll-»i (I^^tO — V^l-l 
^jäV-Si |N-^^o/ |N:i.io> otJi P:^ 



w'oi ^ooiNjJ öu-l^-./ l- v i. A Pj •.\S-z^ 
w.OiC^ä^ MuLN^o» ^^<^io .V-^Oa-OD |_iOL^»_D; 
.3^-. UJ=^5> I. yiNo«^ ; PI .~^^i^l.( P; 
>xon*m*o|L; lX3)-5 ^9/ v?^r^ -1 ' " ''^ 
f^ci . prt«(^[l t o,;j o'oi IlS^ä—J ; «. ^« |. ''^'vi 
I ■ -\ ■ ».-^ ^^xij^^a3»|LQ^! lHJ-3 : J-a» 
PI :|iji;.j» p f3 :Vju^ oit^ —3^»/ 
|too,_3 -looi ; .. in ..^N^l-I* o'oi j^l OOI 
: li—tvio |-toi! °"ot l^°^j f^-^ -^'! Ir"' 
,|oii.p vopi; oi.v\« "*^> ^i.( pi-oio 
ooi) w^i^N^I >jmQj^^o)om ^ju( |io>^o 

^^^^aJ* Oi;^ odi 1-.P) \v^oo» -.o; -inr) j 
LpolL/ Ijikjii j|a^ ^ ^\^'l(i oöi 
I i\'f, ■ I y i- fT» l-io-^^» |»oi ^oV3 ^io 
] ■■• srt n^t ^ooi I v> ^/o |C^*io ^t 
jIoj ^; pO) ^*^ OOI .Ir orm lS.^ 
; |ooi Ivot^io \-.''\^l o^° l-'l)l^ ^^-^l-( 
|_;|j|o .Uoji. ..^oi<i=v\'..« ^ij/ ^( 
^»o ^» ^oL .a:)CkCD pii)!-^ ^a^— 



V 330 l" 

(I 203 r a). 



Q^f ^^OO .[^.»tV l-^. nV » IJOA 

|_ja^ Uioi.ajLj. PI .iJ a o i i '~^k^L(. 
(ia^iO yCi^rJ • --•-" l-ioij. ^ | l' l ' .l -> ! 

|»L^3 : p^^lio ^£i^^..£Do»|L loi^p ^^— ♦; 
Ij^Xn. \^ : INj-.^.^ ua[l*^a9o»Lo:äNj 
:.jilSji( p ^,.io-=. p |J-^ oi^i Iv^ 
..—^t-j-l N-^io .^JoL(! o'oi j^.t p( 

),ÖV-^ß N . 1 P*0) 0^3» »-'O) |1500,-3 

■ E 20 v° b. 
ji;3L/ ovio-»^» o'O) piDcuo .■|^-^wio ^Y'117 Y" a. 

jj; J;oii.o .|Vä*mo -0)0t-( 1-S-.J. 
^Co INJLlLp. INJLi^L jj .rroiv^Oja^p 
^4,^oo> -.o^jJ»! ^> v'JiJl .w.^lS-i( 
^^^^^äL/j o'oi .■>».^a*» oiv^ pop pP) 
PiOjiiio; |;Of .piäow! P>^-» -*l'»- v" 
l.o) ^! paj .l.w»|L/ ^oV3 ^ I v i. m 

o'o( ^*^; oo, |U»i p^ ;^^ Q^ 
pöp; ^^o/ ■' l-X-^t P^ .--.V^L) 
^o^> |l!^>X^o| |t-^-^; o'»l .'-oiolj-l 
-.aa^^^ol -all- V-^ »1^^ ^^ -lo-l» |.*^j 



1. A Stop : foUows in ms., and Ihe text is perh. corrupt. — 2. Ms. om. — 3- Ms. sing. 



concerning- the birtli, sacrificing' the priest at the very altar » ^ But of the 
Zacharias who was one of the twelve prophets we cannot reasonably under- 
stand the passage quoted, since it is not related that he was killed, but he 
departed frora life by the ordinary end of human life. Wherefore also in the 
times of the pious king Theodosius the grandson of the eider Theodosius 
his holy body was found by revelation in the territory of Eleutheropolis, 
when it had not been in the least corrupted but was found as if it had becii 
buried yesterday, at a place at which an oratory is now to be seen, and a 
temple which was consccrated to God in his name; and it is known and 
honoured by all who pass by that way. This is related by a ccrtaiii Sozomen 
who wrote ecclesiastical histories\ Some have supposed that in the above- 
quoted passage our Saviour referred to Zacharias the son of Jehoiada who 
was put to death by Joash, king of the Jews. But this explanation is futile, 
and is refuted by the facts themselves. For it is not the case that the foul 
inurder of prophets and priests, the murder which it is the Intention of the 

1. Greg, (ed.) lep(;upYin««''t« ('• hfOMfinamzic,). — 2. P. G., XLVI, llSli. — 3, ix, 17. 



86 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[256] 



0001 ^^« .. «.iv; yQJ&i IQ^ ^o&tii. looj N- ( 
E 21 V° y. Q^ } .^ »|i '.1 1 1^ o'oi yoov=>» .)oA(J 

[ e> \ -^ ■ ^^ .'l 'in t o'=^N' .. ^«JLi/ 
^■©1» -.^j—D^io P^!)! '.v^O) ^cn^3 

' ./O) ■:■ 0=0^^5.^,5^ \^fr> ^io|; p^/ 
OOl» 



^ |oi\|l -J^; \J^lo p:jxj qX^U 
.^*k^v^; |;^|toe ll mvi j) 



pop ppi ^*>^! •. L^L/ ^ov^ ^; -öl 



\ f,r^<-*^ Lq^i .-p'öov» |JV-/ pJ^'iö ^[o 

0001 ^. .. « IV»* ^-^O] Lq\ .-yOoA |ool 
^|Nu> ' oöi ■■ I » I v > yOc»-=; .loi^M 
) - '-^ ■ -■ ^j o'oi poaP; .-«oiqX* 
,3(0 ^! ^O) ^oj. .oi^ÄU | ;fnvi-i ; 
jijo-. ^» o'ojj .'^jJ» ^'j) )1-V-/ —'01 
.|ooi IVisCoo PPI 0:^0 pip. -.^^^l; 
•^^ °^ ■ ' ,jiJLi| l-öto; ^001 1 VI -> ^/o 
ppl p;^>\ |q\.,oj; |Loiai.)-so . ^XLii. 
:^!)> ^01 ^ot^ v-^ ^fio .-OlOJ^J 
^4^ -.^OrS ^.io l;..:io|l|> -"oi; too-ll 

■:U^( v£o^!q^-„^Ij-.(^! pi-( -ü-ta-oj 



V 279 v° 
(I 135 r a) 



äi; :sajai>.a3 l-^ei^n^ ^ )-.KjVq-o lai.; )k*io^ '')lv^)-3 ^=l-.N^; ^-j 

^,J.3l:» JL^J^o )löi/ vS/ -.0001 ^t MinNS )jLiä-oCo jL^; j-tau/ ..0001 ^».ai^io 

.^-aiQ-.oiio; ^^o! ^ .-IIj..,^ 0001 la^ .oooi ^-K.--io j;^*; jioia^^J^ 

1. Ms. «m- — 2. Ms. H^l^- — 3. Ms. sing. 



evangelic saying of our Saviour to set forth, ^Yas perpetrated down to his 
time and then ended : for after Joash other kings of the Jews also reigned 
wlio turned aside to idolatiy, and, as is natural, were ill-disposed towards 
those who pleased God; among whora Manasseh is said to have put Isaiah 
the grcat among prophets to dcath with a saw. But besides these things 
\ve should know this also, that the man who was put do death by Joash was 
called Azarias and not Zacharias, though in certain copies some raen have 
changed the namc, and by a slight change have written 'Azarias' as 'Za- 
charias' '. Accordingly for all these reasons it seems to be a just conclusion 
Ihat we must consequcnily understand our Saviour's saying of the father of 
.löhn the Baptist, as the holy Gregory said. 

Of the passage writlen by the wisc Paul in the first epistle to the Corin- 
thians, ic Ho that speaketh witli tongues edifieth himself, but he that prophe- 
sieth edifieth the church" », this is the elucidation. In the times in which 
the aposlles were propagating the saving preaching of the gospel in tho 



1. II Par., xxiY, 20. — 2. I Cor., xiv, 4. 



[257] 



LXIX. 



TO ANASTASIA. 



87 



a^o -.lipo;! y^)^,^o ^30( ^^.io 

y^l n I \n .e>^ O^O ^^J vQ-jÖl io^ 

JLjUSOcLji K-.)_2S^^ i-K-O •J'f.XL^/ A117 1 1). 

^) yOj6(o .oooi > j.,, ■>ou»l^oö )loi VI »Ol 



sS/o - . ) ■ » ^' ^ OOOI y^i>N\ VI Vi 



.OOOI 



vr 



jjLjiiL 



)„^-aQ-\l OOOI 

.OOOI ^^oKjl^ |K.,m>.^J 



•:«oooi 



wSL^K-Si ) I '^ ./ -.OOOI . . vim.ato6 . . vim ->J^oo» ^Kio/ 1^/ ^oi-.iVK.3 

•:>)jL3oi "^"'^°'| •" o,.^a^ vjOQ^aa ^^^! 
yj.^; ojaeuLa Ot.^a^ '-V*' ^^^^^ f^ 

I,— ,/ vOOt-w^-^ i w^ ^CL_flO po 

1. Ms. s?"««- — 2. Ms. l^-aa.«^. 



World, maiiy of thuse who believcd worked signs and prodigies, in order to 
bring unbelievers to accept the truth. For it i'^ für this cause that miracles 
are numerous among unbelievers, and not among tliose who liave already be- 
lieved, according to the saying of the same Paul ' . For this vcry same reason 
the gifts of the Spirit were given with greater liberality, and more openly, 
tothese who were being brought to the faith. And those who were baptized 
often spoke with tongues imniediately, and some were thought worthy to 
receive prophctic Inspiration, while certain others even enjoyed the posses- 
sion of both, as is written in the book of the Acts about some raea who were 
baptized by Paul at Ephesus, as follows : « But, when they had heard it, 



1. I Cor.. .\iv, 22. 



88 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 

.0001 «--iCS^CLiÖ jjLxS;.^ .^ ^*Äj/o 
,0001 ^oKjuio yOJjjKj; ^-; yj «-* ' / 
q\» Jooi jJLOOt ^-/; jla«..J»Jj ^; U»/ 



[258] 



laV iooi )^JX»io \Iq.j^ ^^üs^soi );oi 

^; ^ajLi/o .0001 ^^«NNviN) y i» \ •> 
^J \j} .0001 ^oKjl^ Q.JOJ^O>CL^ 

^l ]il .\^l ^ySi^ V'^'^^? r;^*^/ 



]h^ 



»o 



=^- 



..»^si. i'K:» ^£ooKj; o fi -> 



JLJujk.^« ^'OU^ OOOI 



;K._ic 



oco» ,5_.^jajKiC) ^^; )jV— / :^*iC^iaio 



^<uÄjKio vasoKj.-iQ.ai ^'^^ao« ^^Jü / 
0001 ^-^^^iaio; v-*oi ^^iJs^^io :K»? oooi 



0001 ^«..-^ iK^ ^-; U'r^l •)■ Ä * N .a 



1. Ms. iJi-vai.U; cf. p. 277, 1. 7. — 2. Ms. ins. »3 in Uiler iiand. 



they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And, when Paul had 
laid his band upon tliem, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and lliey spakc 
with tongues and prophcsied »'. This grace therefore llourished among 
the Corinlhians also at tliat time, and some used to speak with tongues, 
while others were thought Avorthy to prophesy. And the form of prophccy 
was such that it was madc known not only by foretelling the future but 
also by the commingling of words of instruction wliich corrected morals, 
as the God-clad doctors such as Athanasius the great and Basil, and such 
as Gregory and John, and all who were like these, gained renown at one 
time and anoliicr in ihc cliurches. Sincc therefore certain men at Corinth 
were puffcd iip aiul ihonghl much of llicinselves because they spokc with 



1. Acts, XIX, ."), 6. 



[259] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 89 

y^ •.yVlaioo >..... n *=<; ^^6< > «'=^^^o p .yVlaioo . . ' : f>'=> ; ^-« ^ ■'/ ^ *. ? ii \ v >o 

-öl .)-JÜ5 ouA-au ..)_ia_icb.j jjLJukj» oj!^ ooi |.:>cl2iÖ^; ) i t \ ^ ^^ictäo; oö»; 

v« -^ N^ oil^^-.; )...,.aQ. » .öuK,-/; ^j jj .^*_aio oC^^; ).--^aA^o |jl1=) 

.|-XJj; LioK:» ^^.^J:>aA; vOJÖi; jjLatj\ )laxa^ioo:)_3LJN.ioj N.io)j^; oö( 

:Jjüj; |lo.i.°>\:>o t-ojo |-=LJ^.i6j ^j ocx jlcLali^; )fcOLflQ.ai>.o V^j j-is^ j'i^o»? 

jlotaXv^. o/ jlg« M; JJLSOQJI cj.* P> i\ a\ jlf>l°i\>oi ^^.oo/ )l< x ».M; -Ol 

jto^O^; :oQ-./ V^/» ^? ***oi •••)-l^ ♦OMLÄJlS A n7v a. 

JLslLoj; -'oi ^-^ .Jl)l s-Ci«^ )t-«-i/? .v|is^v-( !f^o E 21 r a. 

Jjooo; ^.^N.jl -Ol )-^\.^ -.^äj )ia, ° > .>.n J ^ ^o^l v-iso. \^li 

-Ol V-«■^^ «o» )?öi '^t^ ).aLiL::)eLa o^o ^-.^oio :c>iA ^-ioiVo; ^-^oi jLio; 

^_*jL- ^ v'-"^^^ ^K*-^^^' •■'^^ ^--Jisoi^ —Ol ) — .: S .^ ^11 6i»K_3; 

1. Heie begins an extract in H 43 v°. In place of ^ — <t-*^i? H lias M;-^ P?^-« »^ >»'( v' 



tongues, while others prophesied and tauglit tliings iiseful and beneficial, 
Paul, wishing to bring down tlieir high looks, says this : « He who speaks 
with the tongues of the nations edifies himself. that is, establishes his own 
reputation, and is admired only, but does not benefit the soul of ihe hearers 
by reforming morals : but he who prophesies and Aveaves a web of mural 
teaching, and reproves secret things of the hcart, and purifies the sonls 
of the hearers from shameful passions, edifies the church, and aequires the 
gift of prophesy or of teacliing for others rather ' tlian for himself ». 

The meaningof Job's saying, « May the blessing of him that hath perished 
come upon me »- is piain to those who read with intelligence and not 
carelessly from the fact that it foUows the words which precede, and from 

1. nä),Xov. — 2. Jub, XXIX, 13. 



90 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [260] 

:snj,K_io jK-JV-/ ^-.'^ovi! \-^r^ ^t^ t^\J...^oo^:M c^o K-^t^oaüO; 

•y^l, U^ y^l :^)j; ^K^ )»-.ioo ^-ÜLSj? r-^h. -*« -.o^^l V-^^ )♦« 

^^JUL-; y^^JLil o/ :^^-^iCL*:D |jLS,LQ.io )^^>niiv> |j^V^» -*j/ ^>^ v'"^'-^ 

jbä ..i^-K-/ JJLSOI );oi;o '.jotSx ^ .Joo» -oioN^/ JV^iJO |J;; .-JV^Ä oC^ 

..Uts^^t )^-/ ^ j nmv^ V-^ Jbä ..CH-K-/ Usoi );ot,o JoiSs ^ 

.)j;,J>^ oüS. )ooi ^-,.\; o'oi )j«)^'^o l-,-i6/ fcoo^u; y^l v.°> « "J? r:— ^«» 

..*:^o. )1|1 j^-^/; jtoio^ .1»^ M«" --Vio/ v3/o ^; joie .^;axio 

1. Ms. ^^^M. — 2. Ms. -^-»15. — 3. II oivi. — 4. II ins. l^^-'»-^^ ^(K-»o ^^-^^j t^/ "^^o U- Nwo- 
Here the extract ends. 



tlie words wliicli next foUow. This is wliat he says : « Often have I seen 
a man sufTering extreme tortures, and jnst on the point of perishing, as 
perhaps -svhen eiiemies werc upon him, or violent men, and have rescued 
him from distress' and saved him; and such a one has blessed me, because 
Tagainst all hope he had becn delivered from the destruction that was im- 
pcnding over him". May that blcssing therefore come upon me, and may 
God bring it to efTect ))\ 1'hat this is so the words which follow will prove 
as I said before. \\'hat in fact docs he say? « For I delivered the poor 
from the band of the powerful, and I helped the orphan who had no hclper. 
May the blessing of him liiat hath perished come upon me; and the mouth 

1. 4väY>"i- — 2. A. V. (E) 'hopo had been found for him whn was withoul liope, and throngh the 
same ho had bcen savcd'. — .'S. II ins. ',\iid lliis applics also to lliose who are sent and go down inio 
tlle world'. 



[261J LXIX. — TO AXASTASIA. 91 

jla^i -.ot, >..?>, I . ..•^ t v>o ^£0^2) .(.^CL^^^^; ) VI foaa ^^ ^>^^.,^l^oo; 

))0|o .ö^K../ yo^ |^^^i -.jJ^o^a^o ^^CS.^^^ omlSü f_3o^0; oöi; ^öi ^/ 

.»*.?>» ^^^toö; ^^d ^^ aj/ jj'o y^\ y.»^l JJLSOI; ^a2oi o6|; .öt.«.^<.aj I 




of the \vidow hath blessed me » ' . But one may also understand this in a 
higher sense as a parable. For our Lord also says in the gospels about 
those who mortify their soul to the world, and give up their body to the 
arena" of martyrdom, or t<> labours of asceticism, and are thereby thought 
to be destroying and slaying their soul, because they are deprived of 
worldly pleasure : « He that destroyeth his soul for my sake shall find 
it »'. The prayer and blessing tiierefore of a man who has thus perished 
according to our Saviour's saying and finds his soul is a great thing : and 
any right-minded man will pray that this may come upon him, and will 
wisely say the words, « May the blessing of him that hath perished come 
upon me ». 

As to what is written at the end of the book of Job, that he took an 
Arabian '' wife, it is unnecessary for us to inquire much who this is, whe- 

1. .Tiib, XXIX. 12, l:?. — 2. ora^inv. — 3. Maltli.. X, 39; Luke, ix, 34. — '(. A. v. (.VII) ^"Arbakilha'; so 
below. 



A 117 V 



92 LETTRRS OF SEVERUS. [262] 

y/; .-«Ol )»!,/; v^n \j ^^A>; ^ woi .jljl. «is^ jt-^/? oifcojoij ^äö/ 

»K_^ Ol I M; |;ot \iKjl -Ol )iv-/ oi_s)^J; )-icu\aJi la.'^ l-a-Ko; ^; 

«'Ol o/ )JV-/ '|*I3 oü^ oooi )1q--j>o ^ .,)ts-*3i^ jifco/ ^■V«-'? :^^<^/? 

b jio^; Id^ * vs/j «Ol .)K.*.iOtJ> .•o.üiu6l^X.^sJio^^io;c)U^>~./oV-^- 

•J^^l-a^i/ «-oicuiso. «*l/; )JioLjLOj oi^ oooi öuLioi .-j;©! öu^-/ )lv-/ )W? 

>o,^>o jKb.^; looi ),i\^o.^>l2^>-oi.l/o )K*io^ -öl o/ .'llo-.^ »ts-s^ )jül» 

,).^):j ^ l^h^o .;'°^^*^ ^?°^? IJ^^J'-i^? )i<^-=»' ^"^-^^^i -Ol •■«-^/ 

jL»/ jiv-/? -.^^iokisijj Isiltu yo\^ .-K^sl/ ^/o ftoLsU/o .--oiallS^ -p.» 

ouio; );oi .--Ol ^ i-^^-Ä Aoo« oi-.^-./ j^Ji^io ^lau .•^».,^ p; KjlS^oo 

\>>o ~y.4 .)i.Q.^:>o »1^? l-*^ o^l/ -Ol l-. '^ n I ys-y^ .)ji)j ^ lo-^cuo 

JLjusKaio .qmQ.v» )!,-« ^t-^? V*^ '•o"« «*-K*/ ^t-^ \^'y**l\ •>' '« "^; 

E 21 v° h. )K . rH-s,v )iKj/ ^JLk ^J -Ol .po/ ^«^Ol )jLU5 ÖUiOJ -Ol ^ V-^^JO . ' ) »Ol 

U\^ Ji* V-^^J^ooi jlo;; JJ .)t-3 ^oiö oöi y^l .o,J^l/ )1q^»:> o »Ka ^; 

-Ol .jK-au^J» vSloKjil -Ol; .-'iooi .^iö/ jJLsKaiO 3.äo/ )i^-»^po; •,.*^ 

^^ Kl«l;oT .-^^j)^/ »Mj jJLdjJ»; J^si,!^ )^w^•^i»)iKJ/o-fflJ p; -Öl 

J-^-^lJJ jldJt^.mVi; \-^'t )-Jl*) iooi ÖmJ^/ \-Ol)\ ^ y-^K:*^^ ^•^''^ 

1. Ins. in marg. — 2. Hei'e begins an extracl in J :i5 i'°. — 3. A oni. — — 'i. A C^i^-vi(. — 5. j 



ther tliis^is aiiotlier wife by whom he had othcr children aflcr thc calamity, 
or thc former oue, who imder the magnitude of the afflictions that came 
lipon him gave way and stumbled, and advised him to utter sonie blas- 
phemous speech and depart from bis pains. However it is reasonabh' for 
US to understand that tlie wife by whom tho children after the calamity 
wcre born was some other one dilTerent from her. For it is as if adding 
somcthing new that the writer uses the words : « Ilaving taken an Arabian 
wife iic begets a son n'. For it would have been far from just tiiat she 
should share in the good things, wbo shrank in the time of the struggle, 
and Iried to bring the combatant" down from the highest summit of en- 
durance. 

1. .lul), XI.Il, 17(.-. — 2. iOXTiTTi;. 



[263] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 93 

I I -sN. «> Nrt ^o; ^« ^ •:• K'«.mi ) I ^>-s; ^öi .-jKJx-^-^ v^loKjti; 

)joi ioJ^ -.l^t-^ v> '." ^? ^-^<3( jjL3K.aL:M ^; ^; ^6i .Ka^xu 1.^.^1 jj 

I '•, --" ^ jjot oiiio ,-...3 >0f^ )-'>■=! t-"-^ )°~^ ^a_oJ ool; v^oioX ^ o^K^t 

y^l :J^-<J "^l-V—/ JJt^/o ^Q-<^ ia^ ))Ss_^i.»l );oi ia\ :)^-^^...f> V^; ^»<i^oi 

i-LSu/ :oiioji vs/ "^^^aiio \i^»^; ).io _^/; V-^.,^ ''^'^»^^ .o.£qjU Iv-iojl/j 

)oo< gQjK ,t >ö f^ )ooi f-^/ ooi v^/; lok^ )jo( ^/; j^.^ t,.*^ ^i-^ j-'i-^; 

)&sJ:^o ^^; (.icto/ v.-^i>Ji ^o :)j3")LaLj> :|v-*ia-^ )J^■^/ Iol^^o :^w*J ^o*». 

:|jL— ÖAj jl)— 1 jlo » > fo wJSwio :yo^ yJl :otiCLA. oot »s/ ,-a)j ^^»*aio; |jLX./ 

^u_/ :)ooi «otoN-i/ |-.)i_3 o(.:)CLAa^:30 ^^jltoo )J>|jt:s p :)ooi i-^/ ooij |.io 

v»VA ^opcL^oo :|Iq-iC^» jlo-auiOiiCLa; K-.^ ^_io ^Qj^ ^^; )jp/o :)ooi 

sjLj/ JJ; .JKJi^; Isiü^^w^^oji la_\ oi^ :|.-JL— öjij |j"^^ wwJ^sAo r^Q-o jKxio 

o|.\ yo\^ ^^ouS. )~:mPo; :V •> cf\i j.^ ^/ :|oo< ..^oioK^/ )'yl^ ^^"^^ 

> I,» |J vS/ :)io;N.<k^o; jlodj; )jL^.ia3 oC^ v»iJk ^o^^oo :|i.o..Cb^; ).<y^aJu3; 

j^Owö« .SL^^^f jjL^Vas ^JL.-^» ^-«^o< jJ;o:yVN.*^ o.^; r:^®«? I^^^^^»^ J^-^;^ 

)_JL_3j )-Jou.sj V^^Kj :jio»J^io; jL.^^ yo\^ ^^oi!^ j-^'t-^» t """^ ^*j/ 

1. Here the exlract in J ends. — i. Ms. pa^^/v — 3. M.s. Vt^l- — k. Ms. <;f?'^^- 



The words that were MTitteii by the writer in the book, and these also 
about Job, of whom it is written that he also ' shall again rise with those 
whom the Lord raiseth'', we must suppose to liave been composed witli 
this meaning. In consequence of so great a trial he had in a sense gone 
.down to Sheol and linal destruction, so that even his name should thence- 
l'oi'th be extinguisiied, as he himself said when he was being tormented by 
tlie pains-, and suddenly he arose as froni tlie dead, and put off the 
unsightliness of the sores, and he was comely in body, as in tiie bloom of 
youth, and everything ended Ibr liim in a change to the best fortune. There- 
fore, lest any think that the prize of virtue ends with these things, and 
lest we who read imagine that \ve shall rcceive the rewards for the labours 

1. Job, XLll, 17a. — 2. Id., M.v, 14. 



E 22 r ;i. 



J 35 1° a. 



A 118 r» a. 



94 LETTRRS OF SEVERUS. [264] 

,)jLsK.a>o >eu*; ^^^oo •.''ö>v^Kj :yt .'» n; ^Jl« )1 »s/o toilojN.-..^; 

^6u^-/? «öl .ys.»n^ * )-V^j ^,-Xoi ^ i- . :< m -i ^l-o; j-ioJ^^ Ijot-s? 
.•^icü:^; ^oC^ 1^»^! »Jj/ i-^:^»-' )!? oNj/; oöi )joi "^ib^-^^-iö .v^v^i^-AJ 

^iöi; .ooul./ ''|l'>'*V> ^-/ .V*^ ..ouK-Zj -Ol. l-V^^a^Äio; 1^01^)0^ 
j^oJJä; ^^3^ ^-J^-flÖiOO v^t^'to.; b;o«; ,5_Aov^ )^t^? ^/ V^iÄU jJj 

.oV-3;l/ )la-io^_s öusj .^-^.'^ot — oi ^'^»..^oo -.ooi-l/ jJiajLioj )jp/ V--^ 
oKb * p vxoa^oS kS/ yOOltC^^io; .^nN ^ts-floioo y^^fco.; (^_*IbwOi) 
o;oiÄ>/j ^^oi vOoj:^3; .^iö/ .)-.•^^^^ -l-t-io ^)a-.-aio; ^-^oi ^a>. ^-.^ ^)j> 

.,))--^t.lOyKb^^OO>^;^^ joCSx 1-^^»^ ioi^ y^ Vasopos yOOltsX^^iO; 

..«Öl vd/; -.} t -^Ki v> ^f v^K..m >n .^) ii\övi oimi jJ •Jlnivi.oi ^.«.^ 

ju^'f-^; ^^.>JS.oi ^a^ >oa-a.-j ooi; .^oV-ia-^^Kj > <^, \.2^>^ jJj .V-« ^t-o 
o^ •,•<, ■\»'eo ^oi sk^/; )-=>|.^; .ya.*-a^ l^V^/ ^°i «s/; jjis^^^^o ooi ^; ^-^Ki DVi 

I. Ms. -^i^Ll- — 2. Ilore begins an exlract in J 31 v° b. — 3. A »lis? .-oot .1 »^ß ool.»o. — 
■'i. J spJ'w. — 5. .1 um. ;■ — r>. J pl. — 7. Ilere the e.xlract in J cnds. — 8. Ms. omj. — U. Ms. sing. 



of virtue in tliis world, for this reasoii the writer recorded the words that 
ar(^ wrilten, « Ile shall again rise with those whom the Lord raiseth » ; that 
is, lest any think that bis rewards are completed and ended with present 
things : l'or tliese wcre given as an earnest l'or the things that arc i'uture, 
and are expected by us all. For he shall rise with those whom the Lord 
raiseth, viz. those who have conducted themselves alter the same pattern, 
of whom Paul also in wriling to the Ilebrews says that all those who have 
hörne lestimony through faith 'did not receive the proinises, God having 
provided some better tliing for us, that they might not be made perfect 
witbout Tis''. Hy tlie words which he used (and it is written, « He shall 

1. llrll.. M, :l'.F. ',0. 



[265] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 95 

^^>^/■ ).^a^^ jjousj ^;«^o( lol^ i[L^ ^ woiois^ «cl-Kjj» .^io/j s*6( »_«^ j e>-y!> 

jKj»; v-öi |Kj>cuwä; yf.^L£S> lo^.jl/..oC^ OCH ^«n>io» ^_Aoi ^>> ^jaa oolj 

• Jooi -^l ^l 6i^:b^^v^; .|loi.^^ioio ^_^oi _y-,/jj )3)ji^j ^ ^./ .p^io 

Jooj/ ooij |j>o^ ys. |j/ - Q ^ m'^o ; ).iaio^; ^_*^i.o^ lo^ a^ ^ . ^n^ ., 

oö) . r»; N N ^ ^ ; -^-^ \jI >ö>^- .oolo ^; l,a\.oi\ ^J^/; ^-.'^oi '»)_.|joi 

^ » ."V > .)^j/ ^b. «JL.VJJ; ^*J^; .jou^-ioio |js» oo» |K-ia.-_o; Ir^to 

^'^s^.^oo .^\oi '■'^ss^ÄO» |joi w^ajLio )j/ y.-v .mvi; :)ooi -po/ cxKi^^ioj 

001 ^ Iv-^/ |-ojia2iL\ ^ |.icu*i» oöt ..>-:^j h>>o\ ^^uj j^j/ '^v 

^QJlJ ool; ^; j-a-ka; w.61 :oKs/; )ts..iQ_^^ ^-^s-^ .^-«^^O« ^^.-Äi»; 

oAo ..^_w.Äio JLpo; ^^01 )0^ .j-.-jK-flQ.JiO vJüL^o\; >-6| )^-UQ^ 

KISw— .; li__a_flo/j ^>^/ W.OJ '^.^^io ^ ^_Ä ^,^.io; j.joi |..ia.,J^a 

^t^ ^ X;;;;^:^/ ÖU>; .'v-J^-J joi^ OÖ« .oto/; o6l ^ V-^io/ j-ÜJiCiaü». 

yV-^ )_*ÄO,_3 I 1 .. Aj ^ ..oicaj yo^ ye\-o ool; wOtoJis^ * I-Jl-Jo; E 22 
.a;:^-« yuo oulSjo .-^^ii^juo ,^fcCi>.^oo .-öi '^iis.^oo o^o .^r» sr, . ^^. ^j,©, 

"^^»^aiÖ..-,-^ );oj^.)_i^*|^:i.; j^Vi, .•..'>\.; joC^ J^Ci^; l,-=L-<»/; y^l 

.^ii jLj 1.^ ^ ^; >^ajL- .. )jL3o» .•'^sjxo^-.a^is-« yjpo jLiJOtÄ ).iL^J^ 

1. Ms. v^- — 2. Ms. om."i. — 3. Ms. f^li- 

again rise with those whora the Lord raiseth ») the writer is thouglit to 
be explaining this also, that he eadured such pains, not because he looked 
to the things that were giveu him in this woild, but to the hope of the 
great and wonderful resurrection, concerning which also he said, « I will 
endure for thee uatil I shall again be » ' ; and again, « For I know that 
he ever floweth who shall release me upon the earth. He shall raise my 
skin which endureth these things »-. The words which are before us for 
the purpose of Interpretation were used by the anthor with reference to the 
general resurrection which is expected by everyone (and the words are 
« He shall again rise with those whom the Lord raiseth »), and not, as 
your religiousness has supposed, to that by which some of the saints rose, 

1. Jub, XIV, 14. — 2. Id., XIX, 2."), 2ü. 



A 118 r 



K 22 v° b 



96 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [266] 

•)LaL-,oij )_^;J. Os/ )oio .\^oi ^a-iJL «-oiai*^^ Äi>^ yeuio ot^-j |j.aj.\o 

j-lys^ .^^^«^»^ ^ .^VtO^ »Äj^-flo/ s-R^io Jjl-.^o i-^^ );Oi^ .j.!^ U^«» 

)U^ 1^:^0.0— ^Jsi/ jVojLÄ K.-^o vü-aA j^» jLo-s J-V* t* '*'**'^ V' 

I) •■• ^^\ ^ .j -.1 /<. ■ 1 1^ « .^ « ) kj^^^'S. Ji^A-oo a-t-ij/ .)..ä.ä.*o .fc^-i-jU/ 

"'^J V-io/ ^-^^-ÄJ.^^^->^o/ ^^!Ss-*aoi ^ * ^oi U-^^? ))-^^s^ j^l^^ .a-*K3l/ 

ajLiJij )ju.,:d; Jl-Ji,^ ji^^? :ts_),i-^- ^ qm2li po .oioö oooi ^^..jx^ixa« 

^1 Nw ^ - .-s ftv'i . oi^hs-,1 jl'^K^ •.oiseLO a^^^ •.oiK.^ Q» fci > »t^-s ^^ yOOuV-a-o 

V*^ ,^ "^^«-^ •<=x^l |ooi -o«o^-/ :K-|:i-^- JJ t-io/ I^Ä^^^o/ "^^^^sot ^ 

)^L^ yOO^^? °^0 •^'■^^^^ '^^ °°®' r;;;;* '^ * '^* ? )j^V^? )^*-^ ^''^^? 

C)i-.K-/ «Ol aJ^j "^.^^-io ..|_jl-,U5; o_.q- K .j; ouKa/ o\^ts^ ^ :a^aA 

jJ/ . ..JU^ iN J-oK-fiCLio; «6i.-)Kia--o y/o .^^oi oooi yOOt-.K-./ ^^*^/; 

) .«NA ^?foV^! ^iVl; ))^l|.iCLs; s-cH ^*!5».^oo .oo-/ )ooi «oioK-./ voooai. 

) '"'\; Ul po/ U^>-=> V-^r^t^o« vpoCSj CL^i^o :)M>^ r^l V— ^ l?« 

oj^..w»; ;a^A ^ jK^o^i lo^ . .)» n.« v> )K,icuuö «öl q\; ^^>*^O>0-.)JL.^; j^l^ 

«öts ^a*jL^ N-*J? OOI .-^V^j oi^j «öl jJ/ .looi ÖW.K-,/ J-ofc^Äiio jüSj!^» 



wlien our Lord took the saving Gross upon him for our sakes, and the Good 
Shepherd laid down his soul for the sheep. For tliis the holy' Matthew the 
Evangelist recorded in these words : « But Jesus, when he liad cried with 
a lond voice, gavc up the ghost. And lo! the veil of tlie temple was rent 
in twu, l'rom the top to the botloni, and the eartli quaked, and the rocks 
were rent, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of the saints wiio 
slept arose, and eame ouL from the graves, and after his resurrection went 
into the holy city, and appeared to many »". Since then the Evangelist 
slatcd indefiiiitcly ihal many bodies of tiie saints who had fallen asleep rose, 
it is unnccessary for us to inquire who these were, and if .lob was among them. 
For the reason why he said 'many', and not 'all the bodies of the saints' 
is because the resurrection which is expected by everyone is not that one, 

1. A. V. (A) 'Tliculogian'. — 2. Mallli., xxvil. 50-53. 



[267] LXIX. — TO AXASTASIA. 97 

j • « ' ^ I '.oooi yOOuK^/ ^; ^^A^ot :'9*V<^ ^^ oi.jLaj o-V^; ^^cx-^ :K..^uJ 
|:»^V vooi-K^/; ^-.^oi .oi-sji/ vooilS. )|_3 jjLii^^w^ »_^ ij-i^'/j jK^t^l-Kjs 



I « »i; )^ v>t f> j-slo^o . - )_i>...<.ji^^^ vm . ^>-jl-^/ >N«ax^ jjoio . - n- -, - 

jlojoiÄj JLJ^^a^o .vrooi-^ )^^...>v'jl; { ,« m;ciu-a-\; o6i Jou^jJ >» > r»\ 

(tj) i^La-JO Ol^M .OUiO V-^^.£0 )_«JLlJ ,^-«^0| io^ V-»^ «AJa fD .wCS.^oKji/ 
1. Ms. ^w?- — 2. Ms. oiu. 



but the one at the second coming of our Saviour Christ. For tlieii, I mean 
at the time of the revered Gross, it was only ia order to demonstrate the 
power of our same Saviour, who in that the soul separated from the bodv went 
down to Sheol, that certain men rose by a divine manifestation, showino- 
tliat in the places beneath the earlh there was perceptioa of the God-befittino- 
illumination. And these were prophets and some of tbose who lived after 
the same manner as they, who were well known iVom the Holy Scriptures 
among the inhabitants of Jerusalem. This is stated also by the God-clad 
Ignatius, who adorned the throne of the Antiochenes, immediafely after the 
apostolic administration', and the first see of the chief of the apostles Peter, 
and was perfected with a crown of martyrdom. In writing to those at 

1. A. V. (A) 'Coming'. 

TATR. On. — T. .\IV. — F. 1. 7 



A llS va 



M 43 r" a 



E 2:) 1- 



98 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [268] 

'^; -6|T .jKüO ^ vQ.j/ ^<1_^_d/ ^_./ ..w-Oi_» yOOW.K-./ s-oto^-X-ioAl 

).JL^>^ V*^'*®' °^^'^>-°? v°JÖ<? V^^!^:'? ^^^^-^^^o •°°°* ^'•^«'^ o*^ j-LSi^^«^ 
..jjLio(x*X).io^a-(aj>-.).*i5oV3 j~=L*\,» t^ :oooi ^ . •>mv? oi!i>. K-|j)j; oot );ot 

Q-.>-*l/; ^^>^v^5i .)).*,^oq:^ Q-.)— .I/o JLiopw oj^J; :ai4LD ).*i3oVÄ i^-^j; 
.•)to.ji JLioj )1>- ..J^j.^'is^^ |.i>;Q^ |I^s.-X^o/ jLß 1,-s j-o-aji |1 ..)jLioa^ 

jJ jböioo .-jju-wj} J.i.Vl; oöt .-^0^3; '■^^ ''°' •))-*-<^=Q^ cl.)««1/o |KjL-.,ja 

^^^-o» ^'^»-joi Q^a— ^ .-^l JLs>;/ ^ JiiajL lo^ .)ts.iKA loa)^; )iaJL.>— too 

»^ N« "ft ool •.o.^euoi ^«^o< yOOUt-SLi )^V^^; oöi .o'^/; y-^l .^^\^i j^-'^-^l 

«oiS, ^ * .yooits,-^; 1q\ o. i'iio )iU^ a5Viwia\ K_^; J'/VS? jböiOL^o jjuw^j; 

■ « i\<\\ |..>jfr>.m>o;o jo-,^; )^.:>a..«.i> t-s .>f>..».» 1-^'/? jK^l^^-lwi; yooo-^ 

b. iS/l ..Öt^J^v-./ }jL30| ^J jjOIJ .^■.Of>>0 )— L-^; oöt.^ v^OJJlSü O^Am ^ä301 

1. llcre begins an exlract in G 56 v° b aiul M 42 v° b (See Land, Anecd. Sijr.. i, 34; ii, 7), headed : 
AM ,;;•-•«• — 2. Ms. ^j*'«- — 3. M ^»-»N- — 4. A N?J'w;- 



Magnesia he wrole as follows aboiit our Saviour Glirist : « How shall we 
bc able to live wilhout him? wliom tho prophels also, belog bis disciples in 
llio spiril, expccted as a Icacber; and for tliis reason be whom they rigbtly 
awaitcd wlion be came raised ibem from tbe dead » ' . But tbat we sbould 
lliink tbat tbose wbo rose tben, at tbe time of tbe saving Gross, reniained 
lo tbis da}' tlie words of tbe gospel do not permil; for they ory plainly, 
« They went into tlic boly city and appeared lo niany ». Tbe word 
'appeared' plainly denoles a teniporary appearance, for the purpose of 
confirming, as Ave'" said, the power of our Saviour, who broke tbe gates 
of bronze, and the bars of iron' from which there is no escape, of tbe places 

1. Ad Magn., 9. — 2. A. v. (15) 'Ihey'. — 3. Ps. cvi, 1(>. 



J 



[269] . LXIX. — TU 

J exr. r. ffft . es^ ^ ..g . )_>..,«, f> 

• .;o(...£Q...:^ >,aa— «>.2b>o ,<=> i « ^jL^.xoQ.g» 

)La;o) ^K.-/ jj :^^-:xn.,^o )lS^_ia.^ 

• .v>^; o(.l^>2 Q^CLO« vQJÖi |^A.a,^i> 

Q-Vin; v^oi; V-*-^ ^'^ •t-^)-'' |^>-^>a - «-o 
oö<i loo< ou^'>~<>^ -.^IS^^^; )a..'i ool 

01.1^ V~^/ l—t— /o i-^-«^ ^o« "^^^ 

... )la-^ |9K,jl.^ K..f_«K.i ^'C^^ 
|K^;a^eL^>o ^^^io '^iö/ ''^ ..oiiK^s; 



ANASTASIA. 99 

vQj/ a.^a-OD ^ ooi -.aiCLOj ^.«I^oi 

-.CH-^l^-./ ).J.^oi ^; );0|i .^. :>m>o 



;y.» ■=^b^:>o JL»/ ^; yj .|.JL3ot oKj 

.^vW ^^>-*^ot «-«öl -.Q-iaa yV.io yoi^y 
.f.^)j jK^eiAis ^"'^s.^^^o; );oi ö|-.)^/ ji; 

oöij ioo« o«~»'^/ ji •.^!^>.-<wio; vQj/ 

'01,-io/ K_-,— /o V-^->^ )?o« "^^^^ 
.>o|^; •, ^ml "^^Aio jJ; .^^v_sI^oa» 

«»o im^oai-^gjattoi. _ .^ IL;^;,. — -j. GM ^'■V'-». — 4. Ms. <;J«»- — 5. Ms. w^-mT — C. GM oiu. 
- 7. .V H»/- 

beneath the earth. After therefore tliose who rose had shown tliemselves 
at tliat time, they again laid their bodies aside and departed to their places, 
awaiting the general resurrection which is expected by everyone. That thi^ 
is so, the holy John bishop ol" Constantinople also testifies in the fourteenth 
note of the second part of the commentary on the first epistle to the Corin- 
thians, where he wrote thus : « But if any be in doubt why, when speaking- 
about the resurrection, he did not here introduce the bodies which rose in 
our Lord's time, Ave will say this, that this is not speaking about the 
resurrection. For to show that those who rose die again was alien to the 
purpose of one who is showing that death is finally destroyed. For it is 
für this reason also that he said that it is the last thing to be destroyed, 
in Order that you may no longer fear that it will rise. For, when evil is 



100 LETTERS OF S.EVRRUS. [270] 

E23 v°a. );.i,,oaJi ^^^iÄio p :,.iQ^ia^ t-»^^! Ijä^oK-so .jjKjLio jlcLboocu K-.)v-.^~. 

jöi-^..^; )_JL_Q._3a.jJS. :)1q-L..^cl-.o(; •^joo^NjLat i ^; s*oioK^/j ^»K-s; oot ^; 

..)i_ai. > -n'. ^D:KS.iw/ jloio jK^A.-*» )laJLäCL-oi; j-icu^lÄii». ^ .-pai^j; ^-l^j 

• V • • • • • 

ool oiaÄj t--^^ ^^^^ •^'^^ 1«^-*^? ^-)-io«-Ä t-3 l;« ^''**-^^^ l'JLs; oiJ^; 

Aii8v°b. ^^/ ' :|KÄ^to^^j vQ-JÖ« y-^l tOL^j/ j;»-^ ^t^o« -.lot^-^! | i n ^ qa '^l 

jK:»Q-u öiS^ jjioi ^..jK^a.!^^ w*6i iKj» |.^ ^/ oK_Oo a:>&A; iK_3 ^-^ V-'^^ 



1. G hfl- — 2. GM ^-l-»^o P-»;, A ins. "^fr»- — 3. GM Uaaaii- _ 4. A ^ i^o |»oö.(N». 
\i^»- — G. GM '^'l ^i^t^- — 7. Ilere tlie exiract ends. — 8. Ms. l^=-.^i^,. 



.0(» 



(lone away, mucli more sliall dealli be annihilaled » '. And in llie fifteenth 
nute whicli follows, wlicn speaking about saving baptism, and explaining 
\vhy a man who is about to be baptized, when he repeats" the baptismal 
confcssion, is l)aptizcd into the remission oF sins and the resurrection of the 
dcad, and ciciiial lue, hc says this : « For, since sin brought in death, the 
root bcing dried up, wo niust no longor dispute in any way about the 
destruction of the fruit. Tiierefore after first saying 'the remission of sin', 
he then confesses'' also the resurrection of the dead, being led from this 
to that also. And aCterwards, since the name 'resurrection' does not suflice 
to set forlh cverylliing (for mau}^ ufter they iiad risea departed again, as 

I. In Kp. I ad Cor. Hom. XXXIX, .30 (ed. Fiold). — 2. A. v. (E) 'learns'. — 3. Jo. Clirys. öitoXoYEi« 
(V. 1. 6|ioXoYEt). 



[271] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 101 

.ylQLS..«.^...Vl y^l ,yJL.', t -.«-J^/ )"»>^? 1— 0~3 •)-2^'OJ? I-I^j-^»! X:^^®«? U^^l 

I ^ ^"ft jj;; <-6l .•VL-ViOj )^>... 'tlL^ JJJOAJ )oCS^ ts.ia— »; )jUq^ 0»!i>^ jd E 2i v b. 

^^o(^i ^; ^^K^.io .öuio siLoajU )Jj -ö» .-öiis^ '^-^»^^ l^-^^ l^^-"^^ "'■^^ 
«jo-«/ :)la..i.:)a_.oi^ v-oio!^-/ ^^^Z? *^^^??/ 'V**^^^ oKol/ ^■•^•o x;^>5; 
:yOO«NJbs^.ioj ^^ot >^)^.^V>; »K^o :|lä-./o :v,m«^i n>./ |oCi>.|l ^^^; 

^^^011 .-^Ilojj; )KaJ-^oV ^-CS.o»jso .-|loJLXL.oi ^.^Jioj ^6« .•woioV-.io.,^ 
^^^'io .■'^^«^^eL^'l v^3l^i^ji.m* ^^4 ^^010 .-^A^Jl ).XQJL^ u>J^ ^Lo;;; 
)tCi»:io kS/ )_^K^ );o( loSo .J^.*; ^'^oi t-«~^ ^'^ots .jlo^^üo ILa^^-^ 

1. Ms. C^^io.;. — 2. Ms. ,^=-l- 



those in the Oltl Testament, as Lazarus, as those at the time of thc Gross) 
rjou are bidden' to say, 'and in eternal life', tliat none nny any louger fear 
death after that resurrection »-. 

We havc now discharged, as you see, all thc God-loving deljt of your 
esteemed questions, according to our feebleness, and according to tlie small 
measure of knowledge which lias come to us; and we pray that there may 
fall to you the glorious part of Mary, who nover tired of hending her 
instruction-loving ear to the saving teaching of Jesus, and upon whom that 
testimony was given which said, « For Mary lialh chosen for herseif the 
good part, which shall not be taken from her »^ But, whereas in the 
previous letter to us you stated liow your religious brother Innocent and thc 
sisters stand in tlie faith, and after writing this about them, as if you had 
done -something contrary to the profession of philosophy, you then added 
that you take no thought for them, know clcarly that it is not a thing 
unworthy of your perfection that as regards the faith and in ütting spiritual 
matters you should take thought for those who are related to you, and 
perform all that is in your power, and give assistance with counsels and 

1. A. V. (K) -lie bids'; Jo. Chrys. xeXeOei. — 2. Op. cit., XL, 4, — 3. Luke, x, 42. 



102 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [272] 

l^ö-ja.::^*». il vQ-i6t; .^jU jjoiiö! ^t—/ ^^-^ '^'^«^■^ o| ij^-^iialiOK 

|lo ^3oi ^/; yoy^ )-2>!Ö^ .^-iJ^öa- jtC^i; jlj o'.n') ).iöAa^ «»^-a/o 

■1. Ms. pl. — 2. Ms. ■^^x' <?• — 3. Ms. .•I'ova. 



prayers. For in these things our duty consists; and to this also the apostolic 

saying extends, a If any man taketh no thought for his own and especially 

those of tlie house, he denieth the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever »'. 

And that we should take thought for their worldly opulence, or for anything 

eise tliat is pleasant, is the part of those wlio are not philosophers. This 

distinction therefore I too made, and asked the love of God that is in you 

to Avrite to me about them; and you have done well in telling everything 

liuth wiscly and in accordance witli trutli; and it is proper that the distinction 

in this poini also should not escape you. Upon another matter you have 

asked me questions of this kind. 1 have heard that Isaiah- the unlawful, 

likc Dathan and vVbiram, has risen against the laws of the priesthood, and 

has Irampled upon everything like a bog, with foul, disorderly, uncanonical 

feet; and lliat, baving gone to Pamphylia, he has thought fit to whisper 

lies about nie, and to say ihat in wliat I wrotc about the incorruptibility of 

the body of God 'and our Saviour Jesus Christ' I proclaimed the faith, and 

Said that the body was corrupted and dissolved during tbt> Ihree days' burial, 

and certain siniilar blaspbendcs whicli are not plausible, wliich wound the 

cars, and disturb the souls, of those who listen without intelligence : and it 

1. I Tim., V, 8. — 2. S. L., pp. 232, 473; P. G., LXXXVI, 'lö. — 3. In tlie ti-catise against Julian of 
• •Hulicainassus (Adil. 17200; Val. Syr. l'iO, 255). 



1273] LXIX. — TO ANASTASIA. 103 

jtC^.^ .«JL^>.;o| -.«Jt^ Q-^;o/ aii^S J.JlD ^-Ju/ ^3 .^t^^^/ ^iol Jl-<^1/'; 

jio,^ K-.^l«o .K-^.'ß K-).*joi ^iö ^-oA^o) -.«^loa^aLiOLS. ^*j^:^ »-^ou-*ioo 

oiio^ ^KjI )^iwio; ^\ot ^ioo .^^aL^ipo l<^ ^^Si^ jK^^^io |^JLaLJ 
^ati ^j»K_sl |1);^«) '''^^; ©o« \S/; -.x^; ^«^ \^l ^ici-»ö».io .J.-**»^»» 

• .^; -•^\ )j/ jl p6 .', « m^^ |;oi ^-^ |.^ä-MO'^o joJjL jJ; oöi .'^lo^ ^« ^N 



is therefore in my mind to send a man there carr3'ing all that has been 
writfen by me, in order to establish the trnth. If tiien you also have 
heard of any similar report that has been whispered there, since some 
persons have perhaps written and told you, teil me. The Statement on 
which you have dilated in the letter, as to how you have loved and still 
love my humility with peculiar warmth, I read with great pleasure, and I 
rejoiced with spiritual joy on learning the fervour of tlie love that is in you, 
the God-befitting and pure love, wherewith rational souls are smitten 
towards one another, even among those with whoni you associate in the 
blood of Christ. But I believe of you that, even if you write at very great 
length in every letter, you will not be able to express even a small portion 
of the love and confidence that you have towards me, who am unworthy 
and fall far short of this. But I pray that for tliis perfect love you may 
receive rewards both in this world, and in the future and endless life. 

The end of the letter to Anastasia the dearoness'. 

1. A letter to Anastasia whicti is probably tliis exists also in Coptie in Vat. Copt. 1 1 (Assem., D. 0., 
I, fil8). 



104 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [274] 



LXX 

K 52 v" 



53 r", 



cna-rda 'rcf^rd^. v^^rsf-n x.aal rsf-Tj^rcT-n Jen A^iTa cal*:\ 

s*l5 ^oot-K^/ jJLSot .J.jKIbs.*--» oi^)._3 jVJ^j;.-/; .'Uüjaio; )K^:aÄij 
jlojL-l; )V)L3o .aSj-jl/o oSV^l/ ^oj^o j^joüix jUs^iö ^Jo^icu ^o .-ol/ 

1. Ms. sing. — 2. Ms. Roj-aJ; see below. LAX £XTeTivayiJ.£vwv, Pesli. Uo-«^. — .3. Ms. om. — 4. Ms. 
\lf.Su wiih o ei-ased alter j. — 5. Here begins an e.xtiacl in E 64 r a witli no lieading, the preceding 
leaf having been lost. 



LXX. Of the SAME CONCERNING Da.Y11i's SAYING, « As .^.RROWS IN THE 

H.VND OF \ MIGHTY MAN, SO ARE THE SONS OF THE SHAKEN »', FROM THE 
LETTER TO AnASTASIA THE DEACONESS'. 

522-c. Buttlie words used in the 126'" ■' Psalm, which is the 8'" of the Songs of 

Ascents, « As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the sons of the 
shakcu », shoukl receive this interprctation. Bat the words contaiiiud in 
this Statement apply also in a higher sense to each man's soul whidi by 
means of decds of repcntanc(i is built np and renovated to form a holy 
temple oi God. Those who returned from Babylon to tiiis tangible and 
visible Jerusalem became sons of the shaken; who aller captivity came to 
rei)entance, and by nioans of many trials wero driven this way and that and 
shaken, and pioducod fruils of repentance, and thereby merited the rcinrn. 
Bul ihose who build up thcir own soul are in another sense sons of the shaken. 

1. Ps. cxxvi, 4. — 2. .\s il appcars from Ihe preface to cp. 69 that A. had already addressed 
queslioiis to Scv., I place ep. 70-72 about the samc lime. — 3. Ms. ' 120"''. 



[275] LXX. — TO ANASTASIA. 105 

''%sSi "^..^yjM .0^;1/ w.<w^O| ^/j vQJÖt yOOul^OL^O .]\lo |->^.«.X» ' O )-.^Jl ' -J 

.yooi^^; |.« °> I ^io ojiäLi )._ia_^^_D ^/ lioin Naoo K>..D jLaojo ijlo-iULi.;/ 

O.^^/ ^^J^OI .■=h\^ vOOJ^ VOJOIO .)_D-.tOw )jLJi-s;o JJ'^Sl^« )jlo(X. oC^j^o 

1q\ U-^i-^l »~«^j )n./ .jit-^ JL^-X. t-^ ).i.»^ ^o ,» oöi; |jLoa^ voo^a aicuiio 

^^^«JboK m Vi )«-•«• <^.i ..oV~^^_ji/ )K >•«•-> ^.io jNJ^^^o/ jJ jlaa_w. ,_.^ 
jbe^O^; s^otCL^-^w,^ jJL.v4».io jJo )-.äji |^ä*. ^/; ^-«\o( .oolo ,^-V-^)K.ioo 
jtJ^^j '^.oot ^cl^t^_oQJ -.^^^invi K^j i°v\ ..^.Jl^ \i jbo . m I; )3).^o :|jot 
^/; Jlt^; ) i°>N,>n •.yOOi-.K^/ ^»■.■3.".i; w>^ot; ^; j- ^ l-s . t^)»o^o ok^Do 
.-jla2^.^L»« )-«t-^ )oCS^ t-"-^ °°' >...n,>>o .^^,.*-m/ jjl^C^A^; Jt-*)-^ ^'^^ 
yooiiä ^W it-A-^o .'joi!^ lSC^w>>f^ . ..."rbs... yOO(!^; ^-'-^! ^-^oC^ '^>-'^! 

I. K Itoj-Sj- — '1. E ^- — 3. E sing. — 'j. Mss. ^-P^o- — 5. K o.w. 



Divine Scripture calls the holy prophets and apostles, and all who conducted 
themselves like these, 'the shaken', because they shook out of tlieir own 
soul like ashes all earthliness, whether thought or action, and all the likeness 
of the creature of dust and of the cid man, and iutroduced into and impressed 
upon themselves instead of these the likeness of the heavenly one ' by means 
of a new life, as through the mouth of Isaiah our Lord is introduced saying 
to Jerusalem, and raising her ohediently (?) from earthly deeds, « Shake the 
dust from thee and rise »". And a garment that is shaken is not eaten by 
moth, and remains whole and uneaten. So therefore also those who bj-^ 
means of earnestness that is not eaten by evil things have been preserved 
for the adoption are understood to be and are called shaken. And again. 
Those who like smooth rocks that cannot be broken receive without 
changing the waves of this world and the assault of trials will therefore be 
understood and that very rightly to be shaken : and the sons of those 
who are shaken are the teachers of the church, who are held like arrows in 
the band of a mighty man. For God the Lord of hosts is able to shoot 
those who through the same men learn religion, and to send into their 

1. I Cor., XV, 47-49. — 2. Is., LH, 2. 



r b. 



K 53 V». 



E 61 v° b. 



106 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [276] 

.-j^VA; jK^io '^js.oai^ ^-<Lyu...n; ^_«^oi^o «ooC^^; »j^^o ^j *i^-*-3 •»-^-*/ 

ooi-kio V*^ UiO-l .vOOHio oiK.^; ji~^>ö_Ji )t-2^.^ -oiQ-SQ^; -V^/o l-SQ^ 

jlaioj lo^o .s^JlJ oÜ^^; j-i.— j )jl3oo) ».-^ )')-'^? ^ /-»/o .jloiN^iCLa 

JK^^m/ )1^;V^o :J.:x^o> ^^ . « nqii ,j} V"...^ "^Z •I-"=*i )<^>c^^ \;;^! IjuiSl:» 
^'^wkJl^ vOOI.2 yo^^^ü« •.yaXJL^aj; ^^K.^ yooioi^; oC^^; oild^o :^;' 



1. Mss. ins. stop : heie and oni. after !^-Ma-v — 2. E ^ftS^o- — 3. K "j*^^? with o erased after 
j. — 4. Mss. sing. — 5. K U^i-v 



hearts the arrow of wisdom, the arrow of righteousness, tlie arrow of love 
in him, which comprises all the virtues; and through the same men also 
he shoots those too who oppose the word of truth, sending shafts of 
reproofs to effect a saving restoration if they will. To these sons of the 
shaken therefore, who are as arrows in the hand of a mighty man, he next 
gives a blessiog, and says, « Blessed is the man who shall 1111 bis desire from 
them » ' : for a blessing is giveii to the teacher who fills his desire by means 
of such arrows. But wliat eise is the teacher's desire except the things that 
are for the profit of the souls of those that are saved? And this therefore 
should be understood not of a teacher only, but also of every Christian 
who lives virtuously, and through his own manuer of life shoots everyone 
eise as with arrows, and draws them to his own pattern. For those who 
so teach, er live, 'siiall not be ashamed when they speak with their enemies 
in the gate"-; and the gate is the exit from this world. For, even when 
tliey depart from the world, and take the last journey, and are about to go 
to the actual presence of their God iiimself, Ihe demons the enemies of 
man's life are no longer able to encounter them; because, when they take 

1. Pf. c.xxvi, h. - 2. Ihid. 



[277J LXXI. — TO ANASTASIA. 107 

|1^0)CL..^SJI^ fsjL..^^ .-).j'^^).^ ;K^ )jL^«^Jji ''o^o^D .).:»^^sio ^)^a; )ia:»o>^ 

jfcs^w^^^'i.o 1^,^'^ v-lS^_».io/ ,)-^^i^; J^io ^/o .J.jl;Ls J.JL- ^^^^5»^ ^iaSli.ts.ioj 

*^ ':'j^s_i>.j^£Q.^ 

■:■ |l>.. 1 1 yii v> \^m fc- m 1 1 la'i. ' NjCoLJi -v^^iai^t (left). 

Q 57 v" 

(^cii^^op. |oou (I; a\ji ^^i „> : (.^mii^o; -too -oC-j; \i-ooi w.»i yQjijoDo^i loovJ )J; o^j; i^l; — t« (Ulla.;. 

V 331 r^ 
^DoiD» '. J-^^ l^ooi : jt^juu» Po loN^a^ v»a t . ^o;-So ^oi^o ypo %^o/» ■ [k ^« ^ [lo )ofS.ca^ (I 204 r" a) 

'"^ |IS— .^L ^/o .'■'dii, IS^( |q..°iv ^" ^ . ^r.-^^ loop |J, q\' :|...^i;>a ('"ig'lt)- 

1. K vöiw- — 2. K ILaMv _ 3. Mss. pl. — 4. E pl. — 5. K ».'.ß- — 0. E sing. — 7. K ,» U|a«i 
? I'-'^'- — 8. Ms. i^-y>ly — 9. E ov>>- — 10. Mss. <•• — 11. K om. 



the last departure, those holy ones are not sileiit, but speak witli the high 
voice of deeds, and in Company with the rulers, l mean with the good and 
angelic hosts, who come to receive them, sing songs of victory and thanks- 
giving, according to ^vhat is said in the 67"' Psalm, « Rulers \vent 
in front follo^ving singers, in the midst of damsels beating tambourines »'. 
And he applies the expression 'damsels beating tambourines' to the souls 
which show youthful pro^vess over evil passions, and like tambourines have 
deadened the bodies and fleshly desires. 

LXXI. Ol' THE SAME FHOM THE 8"' LETTER OF THE 2"'' BOOK OF THOSE 

AFTER EXILE, WHICH WAS ADDRESSED TO AnASTASIA THE DEACONESS. 

As to the ^vords therefore which the Evangelist Matthew wrote that our 522-G. 
Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ used : « Pray that j-our flight be not 
in the winter nor on the sabbath » ■, know that they have a double meaning, 
and as a historical fact this has already happened to the Jews ^at the time 

1. Ps. LXVII, 26. — 2. Matth., XXIV, 20. 



108 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[278] 



^<ijL.;i( ' p-MooiV p . OO01 ^-ojl.!»-» 
IUI ^4>^o loov öi^ ^*-io .xooi^'^^ 
. IDwCroöjLJio I ■ i"i ooo) ^^ öv-V^-,1 

E 53 r b. ,_QJÖ| j3* .|ol>.caj IS-l^^tv^ v^0]0 .v^öo) 

ooot ^j^inAJIS.io |t^j3ju30 ]H . ;o ..N -. |;0| 
|K^ui; 1-1^^ ~*>-6-^ OOO) ^^.-ijLio Vr^ 
^bo Ito^l yOj-iXio .yoovj^l'l ■ yO-UM! 
1»0)0 . ^ooi'inN OOO) ^--ttoIS^o» y^QJO) 

'*^ ^ v; .^ci_jd)i ^oo)lViL.-^ QjiDol» 
.^oopii^ ^L|> ^o, \tJU^< l-ij^o( 
^ojo) ^4.^^ai.o .o^j ll!»-"! pVJ^ii.o 

ItOUI-i. Poji; ILV^oa^ |ls:i.aaLio |-u>o,o 
|jj;^ "X-'"^ |...Nyi <:x> PjjPo o N '»! 

|l<A^ ^ ^j ^^» ) I yi'.'oyao^ |»Ni.iO -.IjO) 



■;|oO)L |>l\\; |,^a ^ o ■ - I 



1. K Ucoy- — 2, K <»ll- — 3. Mss. s?^-Mv — 4. E u«a^;a^l,o. 



ILVtw^ioj; ■. (jJa.ovM^ |Ni>io lito-io 



of the captivity at the hands of the Romans', hut in a higher sense it is 
expected to talve place at the end of the whole world. In fact after tlie 
outrage on the cross the judgment of God-slayers was exacted from them 
when the Romans took arms against them, and encamped over all Judaea 
and over the country round for whole years, and during the winter-seasons 
the evil consequences of war prevailed, and these especially in the winter 
when the fighting-men werc idle; and not so only, but on the sabbath also 
they were slaughtered, because on account of the ceasation of the sabbath 
tliev could not take arms in their hands and exact vengeance from those 
who were fighting with them. And tliis is often recordcd by those who 
described the calamities of those men, that, hy reason of the distress of the 
calamities which came upon them, they disrcgarded cven the cessation of 
the sabbath, and took arms against their adversaries : nevertheless even so 
they feil with a complete and lamentable fall, and endured utter ruin. But. 
when our Saviour's words in respect of this prophecy are raised in meaning 
so as to refer to the tiino of the end and of Antichrist, il induces jtclievers 



1. A. V. (EK) om. 



[279] 



LXXI. 



TO ANASTASIA. 



109 









Po .^o,— LiSvj lotSJßo P* : ^-»-^vjw2l« 

;.A^ yL^^t-. . |LoiN-oo ^» ^i\^a\ 

fc*«.:iAao . ^^icit^ Ijl^..^^^ JN^^laio . IVt^; 
)oovJ ^»JiQ^iu^; lotSu» " ooi ;-*^ oo] 
Co/ )P^>^co IV-^^^o ov^! oc^ • *-^' 
I ■'■>-* 1;«^ yiL^f ^OjtO .U^Lt )LN.,.y)0 

. IV)-3 N.l .X V ^o ^ovC^/ ^OOVJ 

Loi.; |Lo^^^o ILajk-fcgvio \i^io;o 
j^l . |.^t_&a^ p» )o^^ f*^^!* PP^Q^ß 

l-iL.fci-3 cn-3 »^ ^! 0)-3 . * ^J^^^al/ po 

^-j* <^0* -|i - "^l* wOtO -, wAJl^LL 

''yOJÖtJS ,^ft I V ^ ^jt^po )tCj-^..3.\ 
IIS-o^aI. ^l )*oi ;.A^ <£)l . IN^ocL. 

P.^OO|Vf J »1. / ^ , LoOi »OOV- Oiikü 

1. Ms. ^ l'or o — •_>. K ow. — 3. Mss. sing. — 'i. Mss. with point :. — 5. K x^JOva. — C. K UmoV». 



■:■ .^oLo 

wO» wOj ^l -.. fH^'U. p)_3 ^* OJ^ 

yQJo>-d ^niXao; ^-*X.po ^j-^^3* »K^P 






^Q-L*-iö» ,jCi«Po |N.Ll^vji\ ^» „o 



Q 58 !•■ 



always to persevere in works of virtue, and strive not to be caiight by the 
winter or by the sabbath, at the tirae of the end, or the departure of every 
soul and its Separation from the body, the winter signifying absenee of fruit, 
and the sabbath cessation from virtue : for \ve know that the winter is unpro- 
ductive as regards the production of fruit, and that the sabbatli signifies 
cessation. For the winter, in which there is much rain and falls of snow, 
and gathering of clouds and a murky atmosphere', and scarcenoss of pure 
air', may denote confusion. The intention of the saying therefore is that 
our souls should be active and fruitful, and free from confusion as regards 
readiness and preparation for acts of religion, as in the words sung by David 
the prophet, (( I was made ready and was not confounded » ". In the same 
way should also be interpreted the saying, « Woe to them that are with child 
and to them that suckle in those days a \ For this also occurred as a his- 
torical fact throughout Judaea, when the band of the Romans fought with 
them, so that the women who were with child and those who were suck- 



1. ä^p. — 2. Ps. CXVIII, 60. ~ 3. Matth., xxiv, 19. 



110 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[280] 



E 55 V° 1). •.^jQ\tti> t^on.-. ^> * N^(juij.lS>^o 
IC^joi l^i|-s --^AO :.^s4, M»P^! r-l° 

! ■ -is^N ; )JJl.( :P.1N .^OV*JQ-LX^ 

ptoai0^^io|LQjo^ ■.' IV^J v,=^«.x3 f^J 
»^ ;jaOt~3 NO-nXD* ^«:3N.kJ Jl^-Oo |V>^^; 



IS^.oji -Wr-l IV'"- •' v! ^-P-^^f^^" 
I ' .\r.n. ^öi llSiaij ^^-^ * V .tS-» P-sp 
oö) ;"/o • .v_^"« poov» )LoiK--io» 

^_J>_5L) y,Or^ ^m..v>\o /lop^ t^»— !! 
P ^» -k^fiO .•y^V ocf) ;*-/© .-^ov^ 



o/ :vCl^X^ol-=! Il-N /-(! -.ILoiN^io 

p pa-2, )^l -.^o, ^ ;-j-=> ;-^ 
sofio PA lJ..ai>>Ltoo (lo 1 . N VI 1 i n 






^öl •. IISJÜSJ ^=JL-I5oo P^P N-di Wr~l 
"l^f^j v"V*o '.l-io^:»^ oA v^^^! °öl 
^|o .-''IJoiaji. ^> ^^i.» . V'^ 
^»^roVNj; ^'j-io P; oö) /-|o • I p''^ »i^ 



1. Ms. pl. — 2. I W'P=. V illeg. — 3. K v>>- — 4. Ms. vOO*=- — 5. 
l^:iJo; coiT. from a. v. — 8. So ms., bul llie oxtracl is coiitinuous vi 
lü. Ms. » für o- 






Ms. iMwai^- — G. K Ho- — 7. Ms. 
Uli the preceding. — 9. E sing. — 



Uno- were pitifully slain with their children themselves, either while they 
were yet in tlic womb or while they were being nourished at the breast. 
And in a higlier sense on the last day the souls are to be reckoned as objects 
of pity which received in the mind the practice of virtue and bear it as in a 
womb, and began to liokl tlie seed of the word of religion, M-hich was with 
difhculty conceived in them, which bring forth to the light and as it were 
give birth, but produce the tliing itself in vcry imperfect form, like women 
who are unable to give perfect nourishment to their babies. For those who 
cultivate virtue must according to the parable that is in the gospel bear the 
füll measure so as to rise to ihe number of 100, or produce fruit of the 
measure of GO, or at leasl of 30; for what is less than this should like an 
incomplctcly-formcd aiid uiiiiourished habe bc reckoned as nothing. 

But the saying « Wliere the corpse is, there will the eagles be gathered 
tof-ether » ' is spoken as a kind of simile and proverb and Illustration. As, 
when a dead body is fouud lying anywhero, both eagles and other birds of 



1. M-Mh.. XXIV, 28. 



[281] 



LXXL — TO ANASTASIA. 



111 



IN^j^qX...« Vi : ^A.VN.aa -_i^f ^^^ ^^ooV 

•.yoeoiltsj* ); im JJ* ^^tV» ^ : |;ca.5 
otV-s; 0]IS*-N.ico )ooiL p)-=. ;.Ij«| oi_3 
:1^»/ ^^^ '-»OL ;^^ Iv-^t^io jj :)jlj/» 
•."^^wi-sN^ \Ot-J» ^LVl» |IS— »jji )N .1} Nn f 
: ff-^tv_i ^jUL^)_^t p3[l.^ot pkcu^Noo 

^Qjit /-•{o ■•)P^.*i...:in.»o )IS_«:^:!ä^ 
. yQ.Q.jL3Li t Q.*.cnj (-1301 I y - '^'=^ pcn^ 
l-ioV l'^jü La^^o : o;_a;L/ l^p)jj;* ^^aj(>j 

|tOOf <^Cn-3 ÖfJSO .^Q-Hl^QJ ) rrt .«;ci\ 

.■tooi ^»/» [N.\a£!Lioj l-i-,/ .^qaldNj 






jtooj -.ovoo 



■^ 



>\.c^'.«.ao [ nrt . « ; a\ 






E 5G r a. 



K 49 r\ 

«oC^/ ^ooyio .-^.vio» ^g\ oiP^tOQ_st 

: l'o Sni o "^ioV |-;jlj ^^ q_^ I^-MI^» Q 5S V. 

PV-fo i-^»Co ^- : I.i»»a^|_a ^ooovJ 
)f.u-:> ^ i**!^ ^öop ^lHo . ^Il_^^uLJ 






OOM 









1. Mss. sing. — 2. Ms. sing. — 3. K xjuoi- — 4. E om. 



prey come from different quarters from very lofty heights, suddenly and 
unexpectedly, in order to be fed, 'in tlie same way' (he says) ' shall be also 
the Coming of the Son of man' ', for, when he shall again appear upon the 
earth, at the glorious second coming to judge the world, and shall appear 
with armed ranks of angels, all the saints also, rising ' suddenly and in the 
twinkling of an eye at the last trump ' '-, as the apostle said, shall suddenly 
all appear like some swift eagles of rapid motion. And very rightly were 
they compared to eagles, because they had high and heavenly thouo-hts, 
and lived in a manner worthy of the kingdom of heaven. But some have 
tried to Interpret this saying in the following way, and have said that at 
the Lord's second coming all those who have lived a righteous life, and were 
like high and heavenly eagles in their mind, shall receive Paradise, and shall 
be gathered in the same place where Adam's falP was, and the disobedience 
through which he feil into sin. Of the words, « Two meu shall be at that 
time in tiie field, one is taken away and one left, two women shall be grindino- 

1. MaUIi., XXIV, 27. — 2. I Cor., xv, 52. — 2. Sc. 7rTü>[j.a, the word which is used for 'corpse'. 



112 LRTTRRS OF SEVERUS. [282] 

^il^ts^l )K-^o .06. K>/ jioiOJ ^oi .j-io^i. ^oioh^l l-ÄJa^/ 

^-^Äit^jLio .-U^Vo ).JLi|ioo jl-.^ .^^.sKxioo .^-^Ut^bo ..U^ioäooo 

^ vajiajo .Jbxj-Jb. ^-Jl-^^/ jloJLio )»™3u><j» ^ yOJcuo .j-io-A ^--^^^/ 
^kj!.jo ''^Ju- )lci.ii.-.;jj )^^^i-^ .!^J.jUaio ^to.;o ^Viai. jloÄ-jj; 

1. K oCCs^l. _ -2. K owv — :i. K v5"w- — 4. Mss. U-».vao- — 5. E ^- — 6. Mss. tj»— — 7. Ms. om. 



in tlie luill, one is taken away and one left » ' this is tlie explanation. 
The field is tlie world, according to wliat was said by our Saviour, « He tliat 
soweth the good seed is the Son of man; but the field is the world » -. Those 
therefore who have received the seed of the gospel, and the word of religion, 
whilc they are in llie field and at work, cither are taken into the kingdom 
becausc they are working and acting strenuously, or are Icft and remain as 
men avIio are indolent and slothful and lax. And the mill after the sarae 
model is this world, in whicli ^\\e pass our ' time as at a mill, eating bread 
by lalioni' and Iciil; and some strenuously undergo hardsliip and exertion in 
works ol' rigliteousness, wliile others spend ihcir linie in vain acts which 
pass awav ükc a shadow. And Ton account ol' those ihings ' therefore it is 

1. Maltli., XXIV, 'lO, 'il. — -2. lU., xni, 37, 38. — 3. A. V. (V) 'men pass Iheir'. — 'i. A. v. (V) 'of 
Ihese also'. 



,o 



[:^83] LXXI. - TO ANASTASIA. 113 

JJLDOI -.jLioi |-Daai2L.\ ).^o3jX^o/ 

^Vi vOOO»,-J .•)_.^S^ )-JO|_JS .ot-sKj/ 

♦««^''Sbj ^ ynj. £Ly> >o^f>V) ^^o(!^ 

'. yO m 1-^ °> I K^|_a^ liloiJ^; ooi 
^^oi .joC^; |iaa^,^o; |v-0_.jJ yOoNjj 

1. i:. <»• — 2. E uso-A", K «..i^i- (sie). — 3. K .airaj-^. 



manifest that some are takeii and otliers left. But tlie very wise Liik(3 the 
Evangelist wrote this passage in the following fonn : « In tiiis night there 
shall be two in one bed; th3 one shall be taken and the other left. There 
shall be two women grinding togethcr; the one shall je taken away but the 
other left » '. And these things are brought about beforehand by each act, 
of the rieh that is and of the poor, some of whom because they have done 
deeds worthy of the kingdom of heaven shall be taken, while others who 
have been negligent shall be left. For indeed even those who are in bed, 
those that is to say who enjoy case in this world, and are in the portion of 
the rieh, who", if they administer the riches well, shall earn the privilege 

1. Luke. xvil. 34. 35. — 2. Sic Sjr. 

TATR. OR. — T. XIV. — P. 1. 8 



F. 5« V a. 



114 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [284] 

yolo-^CLJo .'1 » n qi vi.5 jv^^/) ^6i 
^^ .-^-»ooj l^^l-sj 'jpQ-a vooj^ 

JJXLI; ^oi |->^^ );o< ^^; .j-o^i K^^ 
E 56 v"b. )ia^*.a\-.)-fc--i;*K.«J5o/)-.^-*5K..^; 

K ',9 v°. j._|o, y..,/; J,.JL.»\q-3„3; "^^_<^OIj 

yCi.iC^^oj-3 ^6i vV^o;; oiN^^ ^-»t-^ 
^\; '^vQJoi )t^)^ x^ *s/; •.)^;Q.jLio 
)»'>m"vi ^ioo :''^j^.«.^Kio )Ki»"^ 

1. Mss. ^a^-.A^'o- — 2. E sing. — 3. Mss. ,^or^ 4. K xf"«- — ö. E ,^tlXio. 



ol' tlic! kingdom of God, but tliose who spend this on vanities will justly be 
despised and put to contempt. But by the work of tbe mill those again are 
denoted ^vlio live in poverty and contempt, according to what is said in 
Exodus, « And all the firstborn sliall die in the land of Egypt, from the first- 
boru of Pharaoh who siltoth on his throne down to the firstborn of the bond- 
woman wlio is in the niill-house »"; so that from this it is manifest that the 
name of '"mill-house or^ mill signifies the utter contempt and poverty of those 
who conlinue in such service l'or the sake of daily sustenance. Accordingly 
cur Lord's saying in the gospel signifies that both from among the rieh who 
enjoy ease upon beds, and from among the utterly poor who are occupied 
in contoniptible employmcnts on the last day somc shall be found, of whom 

1. Ex., XI, 5. — 2. These wonls imisl luive been inserled bj Ihe traiisbilor in ref. to Pesh. l— i '^'»=. 
LXX ■K'xpä xiv |i-jXciv. 



[285] 



LXXl. - T() ANASIASIA. 



115 



)Uq^ JJo jloJLaLCQ.^ ]lo , r, ^/ ^--J 

^OOVl ^iVt; „öi'i, ^, ^,uu( ' .I.YIi; *^oLo* 

■.|juNj^|j_o|Lo(ooo|j_ :|.^^;j^i_{^ ^ 1 .. "/, ^öou ^IVt; „övi. ^; ^»iil 

L^^|L(. opo/ lu^ij CLa5\! ^o, ^4.^00 -...Qj^jii. H^/o ^j.u I,. :'-^w--^;5 

v Vi. tn |t.iw:i.io |jo...\o -.^»aV.; 



Q 59 I 

• öA v^-i! CLQJlS |Lpj ^.■^l\^; V 331 
[UVio |v>...\ j^to |tniq\^; | N\\^\ 



• ) « ■ « >; )— 2l_3; JJo I-.^; ,_ajLiol jl; 

y « I •^ > M .. ^ I-L-SOI )_jL_aL_l; ^^5i^io 

^-^oi; IJkjLstA^j «Ol |iaJL2LS.^ ^io 
^; JV^ÄO .joi^ ^^5^jj )KS^ 



^-Jü/ ♦)-.-«» Jt*-^ \i--4 ^°Ö|J ^lU 

<^Ö|0 joioi ^-^ ♦yOÖlK>'=MN <. ^m>)S>.^ 



^' 83 v°. 



E 57 i"» a. 



1. Ilere the exlract in K eiiJs. — 2. Ms. U"P- — 3. Ms. oi^- 



some will be saved, while others will perish, and neither poverty nor riclies 
are ' iinpediments to him who seeks to live in the fear of God, in order to 
earn the kingdom of heaven. But some havc »aid that the words cc Two 
women shall be grinding in the mill, one is taken and one is left » were 
meant by our Saviour to refer to those who teach in the church. For those 
men grind the word of teaching as in a mill for those who learn, and lay 
rational bread before them, snprasensnally feeding the souls. Whercfore 
also they say that what is written in Deuteronomy, « Thou shalt not take a 
millstone nor an upper millstone in pledge, because this man taketh a soul 
in pledge » ■, was meant to refer to teaching, that a teacher must not lay 
them under any debt and bond of debt, Tsince the souls of those who are 



1. Sic S\T. — 2. Deut., x.xiv. G. 



E 57 r- b 



116 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [28ß] 

l-i^f "«^io V^/ ^3 )-c*3s j.^fio u>j; jJ; .|v-^/ j-isCi^ "^^:>o .|jo« 

yOJÖi ^M^^ P JiojJo Jiici^o -jL*! ^VN-aiioo ..^xajLioKiö ^^^>a\lK.io; 

«6i; ^^-o^ ••J-^-^J -otoK-./ V-^ ♦p»« 

);oi ^'^^^io .vo',,\ ffi-J o/ yasJ^jjj 

.^;:^ ^öop ^IVi ^t-»«Hj .-^0^3 
)^-> .jK^XSL^iS JK.jL3lJ; -.v-OI )^-^-.0 

jj^^io^o .vsS^ jojSs lSCi>^-;; ,^oij ^ och; 

..^a_a> JL-Jb^^ ^oi \^i^ yo^ ' ;)CLflo J^)Li;o ts^Jl-ÄÄ jJ jtojsJi^-* 

1. Ms. with stop.-. — 2. Ms. Uta.- 



taught are takcii in pleJge, and made void ' in respect of the principles of 
religion and tlie hope tliat arises thence. And this holy Scripture signifies 
in Kohelelh also, saying of the time of the end, « And the grinding-women 
ceased becanse thcy had becamc few » -. Then accordingly all teaching shall 
be silcnt, and labonr and toll, when those who liave previously perlbrmed 
shall receive rewards : for neither is it time then for them to teach or 
pcrforni. Tlieieforc Panl in writing to the Galatians said : « Thereforc then 
while WC iiave time Ict us work lliat >Yliich is good »■'. This then is what 
our Saviour said : « Then shall there be two women grinding » (and that 
nicans souls occnpicd in teaching), « one is taken and ono is left » : and he 
who has taught llie things tiial bclong to religion, and has set the sound 
word without detraotion and accurately before the rational sheep is taken 

1. A. V. (E)'aiid pass awiiy fruiii Ihi' Iracliiiig wliicli lakcs Uio souls taiiglil, in pleiige, and 

falls'. — 2. Ecd., XI, 3. — 3. Gal., vi, 10. 



LXXII 
W 53 V a. 



[287] LXXII. — TO ANASTASI A. 117 

^io v-^x^o >A^Äoü •.^^■li.ijJ \.m.,l va_sl^JLJ .y*JJJl ' .°i'^tP ov^; jioj^i^^ 

)..:)0O',_3; ^wJSoi -Jt-^/ ^-^; ool 

oi^ 1^/; oöi )jL^f.Ao oo( )jNoa^; :^-Lm(X>; Jjl«^,^ )..2u.N_3i '^^.*; •^oC 
))^..uuUo jK^io^ jKiaA-D; ^».-SL-flol JJ .JK-.io^ >-öt j^^ia^-a.i jKjiio 

1. From the work of John of Dara De resurreclione corpontm. — 2. This wurd soems to have been 
halferased and written again in the niargin. — 3. Ms. <?.►•■«• — 4. Ms. >^»» — 5. Ms. aa.jp (ita abbr.). 



into the kingdom, but he who has rdetracted l'rom ' the teaching by heretical 
doctrines and deceived many, who by his own deceit has injured some, shall 
be left and sent outside the kingdom, having extreme judgments exacted 
from him on account of the wrong that he has done. Those again upon the 
roof they interpreted as those who have stood at the height of eminence. 

LXXII. — Of the holy M.\.r Severus, from tue letter to An.\stasia 

THE DEACONESS. 

But do not think that the words written in the Revelation of John, « ßles- s22-r,. 
sed and holy is he who hath part in the first resurrection «- indicale a first 
and second resurrection in order of time. There is one resurrection of all 
men, and God 'appointed one day, on which he will judge the world in 
righteousness'', and that is the day of the resurrection und ol" the judgmenl, 

1. A. V. (V) ' debased'. — 2. Rev., xx, 6. — 3. Acts, xvii, 31. 



53 V b. 



LXXIII 

K 40 V". 



118 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [288] 

)m->^ ^/; .s-ot l-i-,- -.l^/ j)-^«^^ )joö/ ^^/ .v*.^/ K~^ Jjoö/ yCij/ 

♦ . ^V); ^^o<\; ^-^oi;o .■^&aJL^) )lo;oi.cD 

rs^ij>3jc rdxnvl cvl3j3"n ^cuVot\ jCo jcd r^i>jn *^-^^ ctaL-n 

1. Ms. bis. — 2. Ms. oü^l ('da abbr.). — :i. Ms. ojow» (ila abbr.). 



and of receiving of good things. But John used the terni ' first resurrection', 
because it has the first, glorious, superior rank. Our Lord said in the 
gospel, « The abodes in my Father's house are many »'. Bnt, if there are 
many abodes, it is piain that the ranks are also many of those who are 
adniitted to the different abodes ; so tliat one is first, and another second, 
and another third, and otliers lower, as each prepared bis conduct. But the 
first rank bclonys to ihe sonls whicli have suffered tribulation for the 
testimony of Jesus'", and those who are like these'. 

LXXIII. Ol' TUE S.VME, AS TO WHAT IS TUE MEANING OF TUE SAYKNG THAT 

THOSE WHO HAVE UECEIVED THE HEAVENLY SEED WILL PRODtCE FRUIT A 
IIUNDREDFOLD AND SIXTYFOLD AND TllIllTVFOLD ', FUOM THE LETTER TO 

DOROTHEUS TUE COUNT. 

513-8 (?). Those Ihereforc wlio love the Lord as it is written with all their heart 
and with all their soul% and observe the commandmcnls Ihat were given 

1. John, XIV, 2. — 2. Rev., XIX, 10. — 3. A Greek oxtracl l'rom a lellcr to Anaslasia is published in 
5. V. N. C, IX, 736. — 4. Matlh., xiii, 23. — 5. Id., xxii, 37. 



[289J LXXIII. — TO DOROTIIEUS. 119 

^6ü^; oi^cL^ vOoÜSj» ^~*^ ^^ .^^^.mJSs^ ^-«^oi ^^« vOJÖi •.^£s\^«^; 
•)\ " -/ Io^ojl^ yooü^ jfoi ^^«^.^o roL^^jaLD )N...»^oV^ j^s^^c^ )1qjl:»cu.oi9 

jooi f_tK.^ JJNaa-5; y^l ^1 t-so .v.*^/; ot)^ » ^ -> jjöo/ yoj/ ^)>».,^3D« .-)oo( 

j^frsjVoJS lo^ f^ ^cdol^oSo ^^oC^ ^; > vi\iii •jt-'^o ^>^o oCS^; \L.,.m 

1. Ms. ov^?- — 2. Ms. ow- — 3. Ms. ^• 



by him, and follow him as far as men can rise to the height, arc saiJ to 
produce fruits to the number of a hundred; and to the niimber of sixty those 
who hold a middle place ; and after the same fashion those who produce 
thirtyfold also, who are lower than these. Though all received the saving 
word with the very same faith, and therefore all were with equal honour 
termed 'good soll', yet all had not the same capacity. Accordingly there- 
fore among the crowns that are provided in the future blessed life they 
will receive abodes and honours ou different scales, those which our Lord 
signified when he said in the gospel, « Many are the abodes in my Father's 
house »'. And, when as in a parable he was about to go on a journey, 
he distributed talents araong bis bondmen to ns'-, for it is plaiuly writteu 
thus : « To one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one, 
to each of them according to his own capacity, and immediately started 
on his journey »'. Words agreeing with these were spoken by Paul also 
in writing to the Corinthiaus, « Every man shall receive his own reward, 
according to his own labour » '. 

1. John, XIV, 2. — 2. Matth., xxv, 15. — 3. I Cor., iii, 8. 



LXXIV 

G 21 i» b. 
Z 1.(9 r° b. 
Y 118 V. 



120 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [290j 

a.^loo \ 'cax*nT\ .rdxjXD ^cv^jia3 ^cdT\ «f^T\,r^ '^ cnL-^i 



G 21 V" 
Y 119 r 



LXXV 

N 203 V. 



a .^OJ^/ l-^^J^? )^-a.*iai. |)^i.>l^; |.jl*j «-^ )ooi ya^co v-^ l^s/ 
». V-K-j )jooi i.a^ -.OQ-/; JJJüooiO; ^^ia-^j j^^ks ^Ji^oio ^; |aoi 

1. Froni tlie work of Pcler againsl, Dainian : see j). 1, n. 180. — 2. YZ >=o Ui- — 3. Y ovu*» uwoC-/», 
Z ovl»i uo^'lv — 'i. YZ ins. »;»/ Pl l'ov=- — 5. G 180 ^a-vij l. _ g. Ms. ^'N >»-w. — 7. A lelter 
erased before Ulis word. 



LXXIV. Of THE S.\ME FROM THE LETTER TO ViCTOH THE PRESBYTER*, 

THE BEGiNNiNG OF wHicH IS, « Witli grcat pleasure I received tlie letter 
ofyour God-loving wisdom ». 

513-21 (?). And these things are obvious in accordance with the primary and as one 
miglit say the superficial sense-, for it was not cven my intcntion to toucli 
lipon tlic deep meaningof the expression : but now the very expressions which 
precede in Joh's speech appear to mc to Icad ihe man who examines thena 
np to a liiglier understanding, and to sliow very clearl}- ihat wc must 
understand the saying as rcfcrring to the Spirit of truth w ho proceeds 
l'rom the Fathcr, and is himself Life and God, who is evcrlastingly with the 
Fallier and the Sou. 

LXXV. To VlCI'OU THE I'UKSIiYTEH. 

.'J13-21 {■>). A groal and stern rcbulve givon in its time as llic saying is should not 
be called presumption as somc ihink, Imt gentleness. 

1. See cp. 30. 



■2911 I.XXVI. — TO GEORGIA. 121 



LXXVI 

33» v° 
(I llCv"b). 



.cnl^-n rcT^-iu ^cda ».rdkjXiTJ^a 

sXSJJ jÜLio "'^^^^io; :^*JlS^; lloa^ULOj jla-^-^io ^)o^^ ^io «utCi>.).jL 

^■^oi 'yOiOQ^i^jij '(^oia^Kiö) Ka3o/ )lo;'^io ^^oi ••[iy-ro ^^'il Ki>viCLSj 
• Jioou« |jl^^ )..^>^; jjsa:— V ajCQJL^" K.*3o/ oia^lco; ^--.^oi .-jji.^Äio jJ 
^4^^/ ^iö JJtoö; .)fcC^>^o Ua^^o )tv-fc5.;l |;oi ^/;; )^sKäi,2o «^o 
)ia_Ojo )_iajLa^ t">*^; >■•/; ^Ijoi I^cluo?^ )-ioA )-^J^a-= oi~=> ^:>a.-.»flOj 

).iä.,JS.Äij y^l oC^ ^,L^io/; ))-i^OO ^j U'y^I .yfj/ ^•O"^' vQ^oi^* 
;)iaiN v^i oöi 'joKo ^/ );oi ^; ).i.*Kjtio ,oooi ^tolfcoo K-.);,-a^o j n « m 3 

1. Ms. om.; ins. Irom the heading uf Uie scction in thc ms. — 2. Ms. pl. — 3. Ms. |l.<i^i::3. 



LXXVI. — Of tue holy M.^ii Severus, fkom tue letter to Georgia 

THE PATRICIAN AND TO HER DALGHTEr'. 

Your modesty's highiiess asked me some time ago Avhy towards the end 532-8 (?). 
of the proverbs ol' Solomon \\e find this heading placed among theni, as it 
were between two lines : « These are the indiscriminate admonitions or 
proverbs of Solomon, wliich the friends of Hezekiah king of Judah set down 
or arranged »-; and it seems to me that the sentence bears some such 
meaning as this; that the proverbs contained in the book down to this heading 
are those which were discriminately arranged as 'one may sa}' in one corpus 
and volume, that is which were set down in order and collected, Solomon 
liaving so arranged them; liut many others also which were spoken by him 
as in short utterances were in a scattered way current. And the book of 
Kingdoms also states this, that Solomon spoke 3000 proverbs or parables '. 
From those therefore that were set down in a scattered way, confusedly 

1. Georgia not being a common name, thi.s addressee should probably be identifiod wilh the G. of 
S. L., X, S; bul, as she was then unmai-ried, the present letter must have been writlen niuch later. — 
2. Pr., XXV, 1. — 3. III Reg., ill. 32. 



122 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [292] 

j-aia^ »^ K.*-io :)-wÄ>-; «otaiCL«V ^-^oCii. vOj/ a-^-:^^^^ P :)la a A^Nv> -^o 

jj^Lßos, |;a^o .-j-.^)— ooi jooj s-oioK-./ jov!^ yaL^ii .-^o^auio ^ ^» 
I^xjjl^ P .JL:^Üo U,:3Lio ]i ^oi jJkiä:^ '^^s^sot N-M»^*^ ♦l-ÄO^OJ; 
_^./ .jJ^öas ]bcL> ).iCLia-o jl-'^oä p,:^ ,^JUlj/ .-I^-^a-j- oaVs' )o^ 

♦ )jl:SO«lS. QJS,Io jL^iO )jUsiQ^ y^lo -.vOj/ QlV^SO-« ^i<^AO-^^ 



LXXVII 

V 255 r° 

(I 131 r a). 



V255r QocujtoÄcilkS i\cil'^ r^^T^^r^ ^ \r^\ardßo j"\!73:\ 



255 



jK-i-auL^j wci 'jK^jKji cH-K-/ ^i U>o .K-ieuÄ j^^jNj. •.)- y> > '>" 

^^WsSOI -Ol ♦)k-X^jo/ völ Jlojop v/ )!/ .-^0^03 .00»/ U^A-ÖliOj 



1. Ms. l^i>oI.^»• 



and iiidiscriminately, not as in a series and coUection, Hezekiah's friends 
chose these, brought them into one order and collection, and added them 
to the book itself. You certainly do not forget that llezekiah was a lover 
of God and an observer of tho commandments of the law. Conseqiiently 
therefore soine learned Hebrews, wise in the divine words, took the trouble 
to dispose these indiscriminate and confused proverbs in some order, piit 
them together as in one corpus, and presented them as a rational present 
to the king. 

LXXVII. — Of Mar Severus, from tue letter to Philoxenus the bishop. 

513-8. This saying refers to teaching; and this is piain from the words that 

precede : for he said, « According to the grace of God that was given to me 
like a wise master-builder l laid a foundation « '. But what is the foundation 
that Paul laid in the souls of believers except the gospel-preaching? 

1. I Cor., III, 10. 



[293] LXXVII. — TO PHILOXRNUS. 123 

ojoi :JJ0|; J^I'tN :)i'^.*.^ci^ 1^)-^ o/ ')>^)~fiD o/ |-30i« la^^^ ly^liua ^«K^'o 

* * * * ♦ • ^^ 

üu/ ^fj/ .^ iii«)^^ JJo Jon Vi )L.axi/ ^o .)al«.K.J; ^K>^ |V-<>~~>-3 -.l-^l-^ 

;ts-a_io y-ä -.ojoKjLio jil .|l)Li )L.^^o>^ jLs/ -.^-^ ^i!..)^ JJ -.jjoi; 
h^\ I fi'S^'l^oo jJ p .-jK . ivi «>vio |_s|b K-rC^io |)S^«im3/ yo^ )laJits.aio 
jl ^Joi ^■•/;; vOJÖtj j^'^oij ."^io/ |-r.»aj )-*isJi/ vs/; |;oi .jiaü v,fl;^'ISv.io 

I. Mj. UX^'oN- — 2. Marg. ins. >a^ (l .au3o >£Sk). _ 3. Ms. ^[^aae. 



What he liere said therefore is this. If a man has expoiinded the genuine 
message of the gospels to those who listen, like gold or silver or precious 
stones, this man's work, that is his teaching, will by the test of the last 
lire, and by the impartial judgment, be showii to be genuine, and of 
necessity' it abides and is not destroyed. But, if one of the falsely-named 
teachers has used defded and spurious doctrines, like pieces of wood and 
reeds and hay, this man's doctrine does not endure the fire, but, as soon 
as it is brought into contact with the flame, it will be burnt and consumed. 
But the expounder and teacher of this doctrine will not be destroyed, nor 
come to annihilation, but he shall be saved, continuing to maintain a stränge 
kind of existence, painful and grievous, being consumed by the iire without 
Lieing consumed. This Isaiah the prophet also said, « Such mens' worm 
shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched »-. 

1. ävafxri. — 2. Is., L.XYI, 24. 



124 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [294] 



LXXVIII 
E ü3 r° a. 

K Ci r". 



E 93 r° D. 



K 61 \°. 



,jc>3.-wa ^a_x>3jj:\ rsT^-i^rsr ^ 'rsfnojoo j"\l73 TSfx*"nj3T\i 

ob. .Jlaäojo |..:u^a--;o jK^a^j jlof- ^x-ooij ^_JL.po))^Oo );oi ^^^S^^^-io 
y_/ ^^oi; o6i y.^1 .•vlo^ oj-aus JIq^oo j-^^o^o )N.^w^^ «oi; ^io >^/ 

^io jjL^C^a^; )K-.jpoj |jjj ^io y^l JJ/ .^oiSj ^-<Xoi ^ •'JJ^t-s; 

1. E o^>»» .5 ovN>». — 2. K '■»=!>■■ — 3. Ilore thc cxlract in K end?. 



LXXVIII. Of THE HOLY M.VR SeVERUS, FROM THE 55'" LETTER OF THE 

2""' BOOK OF THOSE WRITTEN DURING EPISCOPACY, WHICH WAS ADDRESSED 

TO CONON THE SILENTIARY ' . 

ii3-8. The reason l'or wliich we are said to liave beeome heirs of the curse and 

of condemnatiou and of death is not that the sin and condemnation and 
death passed to us, as if these feil to our nature by lot, for man's natura 
was froin tho bcginning free froni all these things, bnt that the raethod by 
which interconrse takes place derived its origin from sin, as I have said, 
a method which cut away the blessing of immortality, so that the race of 
men is prcscrvcd from dissolulion ])y the procreation of children". Wc 
therefore werc in conseqiicnce born mortal from a mortal father. These 
things are defuied both by thc holy John in thc Commentary on the Epistle 
to thc Honians ', and by thc holy Cyril in the Ictter to Succensus \ 

1. S. L., X, 4; id.. ji. 'in'.l. — 2. C(. ep. 63 and p. 215 ff. — 3. In Ep. ad Ihm. Iloni. XI, 2 (ed. Ficld) 
(?). — 'i. Ep 45 (f. C, LXXVII. 233). 



i.xxin; 



IS v 1). 



[2951 LXXIX. — TO PROBUS. 125 



Jyi•^ rsfivx-"n rsfaivÄ-n «i^Hr^-n r^h^Xjrs^ ^^ coL-n tvä coL-n ^, 

jKjui .öü^ K^l )»otai )joi ^j \icn .).*JLioK'^ ss/ {.^..^jl^ jNjLio oo» 

oi^; |jo( )jL2; ^^s^j>.3oi Od .«■«^■jil/ ) « \ » ^ » ■>o .joi^ ^r^^ li-*''^^-^; j.^o^s^ 
oi^ ooi ^Jl^oo^ |\i> f_«b^ -.jL.w..^« Uy^l :) ».t.VAr^ > L. .. ,« |joi ).:>eL^^ä'.^ 

"^ «llVlO .jjLS'pl^OO )jO( )^)-M ^O )^0<; ^ jLjl ^9 ).^aLS.OJL^ .iy^O yyjäh^io 

jj/ .|-iCS.\ l^s.^ 01.^0^1 .l-*V-^/ l-^o^-*; :ya~».^i Ol^; l^i yof^ jioiaj w>Jj; 

.'i>du JJ jÜUA; ^^<M |^>-ä^ yooi^ jj^ -.^■«■■a..«.^^ JL^^^LSu» )j^axo f^^o 

1. Ms. e^U- 



LXXIX. Of THE SAME FROM TUE 4'" LETTER OF THE 6'" BOOK OF THOSE 

WniTTEN AFTER BANISHMENT, WHICH WAS ADDRESSED TO PrOBUS THE GENERAL*. 

« Give a portion to seven, also to eight »-. This has tliis elucidatiou. 5in-38. 
In six days, as the writings of the blessed Moses m3'stically teacli us, God 
made lliis visiLle world, and on the seventh he rested. Tliis same period 
therefore diiring which we men live in this world, like a wheel, turns and 
revolves round itself in the space of seven days, but at the end it gives up 
the course and this circular movement; and thereafter rises a great much- 
belovcd light, that of the last day, with whicii there is no night, but this 
day is one thing extending without end, and does not pass into another; the 
day on which the Lord the Judge will come, and ' will reward every man 
according to his works'% and to those who have lived well, and are preparcd 
by zealous actions, he will reveal the good things which 'eye hath not seen, 

1. (JTpatriXäTyi?. For Probus see Zach. Bh., vil, 10; xii, 7. The Probus dl' Z. R., vii, 10 was 
nephew of Anastasius and may have beeu l'ather ol' Iho Pi-ubus of id., xii, 7 and of this letlcr. — 
2. EccI., XI, 2. — 3. Malth., xvi, 27. 



I'J r° a. 



12G LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [29G] 

^oioK^l ^ ^- .JjLioi * )J;o \:^y~'0 j-V-/ ).2>0Q-. '"'^^^aoj )joi .J-^^oa; 
^^LioQ- )^ •^* ^-Aoi ^CLi. oü^ jjLio Jü/ ^; y/ .^oiaS^o oyiio |jLiotooj 
a_L.icuoij 'yOJoi vOOiS.3 oilaiv; .ovSw pö/ |..ul>o1; ji n<^ . ni ^ .-jjoi ).:>aSA; 

^Kj; .^laj )-,>\.>...-\* |jLsj ou>; .)joi J.ioi^^i>-=)» )j'^ o mN ^Kj )^;j; l^j? 



1. Ms 



and ear hatli not lieard, and which liave not gone up into the heart of man' ', 
and the wliole kingdom of heaven itself. This last and renowned day without 
evening therefore is one reckoned by itself : but, if a man reckons it witli 
the seven days of this world, he mentions it in the sequence ofthe eighth"; 
the day for which all who have believed in Christ are made ready by good 
actions, yearning to be admitted to the good things in it, which do not withcr, 
which belong to the angels only. This therefore is {he^ says) the command- 
ment of Koheleth also, that we ought to give a portion to seven, that is, give 
the proper attention to the affairs of this world, in which the seventh period 
is passing'', but give a portion also to the eightli, and that means show great 
earnestness in the matter of labours of virtue, and of good works which on 
the eighth day procurc for us the beloved bliss, not the cnjoyment that 
blooms aud withers. 

1. I Cor., II, ii. — 2. See p. 297. — .'S. This musl be Sev., and tlie word is therefore Ihe inserüon 
of a scribe or uf Uio <-(in)piler of tlie ms. — 4. He seems lo liave reckoiioil a period as 1000 years 
aiul supposed Ihal llio world woiild last 7000 years. Cf. ep. 81. 



[297] LXXX. — TO AMMONIUS. 127 

. t\ ^ (I119ra). 

^-^l jl^.-, yo^ K^ :)^C^oiQja\ JV-wio/; Ipo/; J^^*s 'j^!^/ :^, ^61 

K*/ ^oC^ ^^O. q\ -.^öch o^ ,^ )cH joovio^; ^-«\o( ^oi^so :^o^oh^l 
|.^^;o .•),-^Q„aji j.*3opj ^cH-.K-/j ^-^-/ ';Q--^is^ ,5-^01 "^ä. JJ / .|U/ o«\ 

;|l nn . ' , or> o jläialito •.> . v> '.>,o > ,« i-sot.^ jloiCLso K-*j )J.o^.wi!^^-«.ao •■ ny,? 
jl 'vOJoi |JL« ^; jt^aSLioo .jj^-XKiS Vr=L^ iKjj ^ ^j/ v^l,.^!/; y*6i 

^; yOJÖ) ""^^^j ,^»AcH ).iaJüL*lo );ot "^^Ss-^oo ;)Q:i>.QjL jj,o jjLio; )l;o jl^L- 

1. Ms. tt-N- — 2. Ms. a^j "^i-- — 3. Ms. ins. ^ovi>3. _ 4. Ms. U^\ Uio Ui«. — 5. Ms. sing. 
— 0. I ins. o 1>^^'- — 7. Ms. l»vi»oto;3. 



LXXX. — Of tue SAME Mar Severus from tue letter to Ammonius 

THE PRESBYTER OF AlEXANDRIA'. 

That which you say is stated by Koheleth, « Tliere is nothing new under 515-8. 
the sun; whosoever shall speak and say 'Lo! this is new'; whatever 
happened is already », and, « All things that are to be lo! they have been 
already » -, does not apply to everything, bat only to those things that belong 
to the weekly circle, and to this limited and temporal life, which revolves 
lipon itself by means of niglits and days, and blooms and wilhers by means 
of birth and death, and to the distraction and vanity to which Adam was 
condemned after the disobedience, and the fall from the immaterial and 
blessed life in Paradise. 

Bat all things that occurred in Christ and after Christ are the appointed 
time ' or beginnings of that eightli day, and of that new life without ovening 
and without end. Therefore also the torments that are applied to those 
who come afterwards are terrible and beyond conception, and such as the 

1. Ep. 38. — 2. Eccl., I, a, 10; in, 15. — 3. Ttpoeeoixi«. 



LXXXI 

F 7(1 !•". 



79 V, 



128 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [298] 

• .^ooi «^.»po/ :).,~>„<2S;ji) ]LIa Kl:a^ |.9>JL.o j-^jcL» oooi ^^ •> n>o ^ o^ 



previous lime did not display. What also shall we in fact say, when our 
Saviour liimself cries in the gospel about the things tliat shall liappen in the 
last times, « For there shall be then great tribulation, such as hath not 
been from tho beginning of the world unto now, and shall not be » ' ? Or 
what Solution shall we devise in considcration of the plagues beyond concep- 
tiou Avhich John the son of tlmnder named, when he had mysteries revealed 
to him in tlie wonderfui revelation? Shall we say that ihese things also fall 
under the words of Koheleth? But how is it not unreasonable, and a tliing 
thal plainly contends against the truth, and against the sacred Scriptures? 

LXXXI. Ol' THE S.VME TO JoiI.N OF BoSTIl.V", EXPLAINING WIIY, WHEN TUE 

GOSPELS AND TUE OTIIER IIIVINE ScUlPTimES SAY TUAT ClIIUST DAWNED 
UrON US IN TUE I.AST l)\Y, WE SEE l'UAT MANY llKVOI.l TKtNS Ol' YI.MIS IIAVE 

PASSEII SINCE THAT TIME. 

&19-38. If Jews and heallicns accepted liic words of llie apostles, we should havc 

Said what Peter says in the second epistle : « One day wilii the Lord is as a 

1. Maüli., x.xiv, 21. — 2. S. L., VIII, 'i. 



[299] LXXXI. - TO JOHN Ol- BOSTRA. 120 

.-^J^jj/ yOt-sjj; \^\ }i f^ ^^.J^s^ ot-.o5 t-^^o jJ/ .jl-t— o^ ^V-^^-'ö x*^'t* 
.■I.SlX^ y^l J-.V.io; |.iOQ_. ^^j ji/ .-lla-au^K^ '(yoljj) Jj^jl^jl^ vO®«^! JJ / 

|Kv 11 Jillo J^.JLd ^^ •.^oo(laJ.:sCL<ol jJJS. ^A^^ K^j^K^ \^'10^ ' ^^ jj/ 
.. n ffoN.^ ).^öiü^ v^öi |o)Ji:.; 1^1 A. o6i ^-i>-^^^y-.)-«J; .|lax^a.^:bo yooi^ v^V^q.j 

)3w»o jJjt^o JLjlwwiJo |.:>o)...qdo j-^ot« ^^; oöi :)ooi ji--^ j-^io^.^..^^ oü^ ^y^il\ 
^loavi vxojJöoi« jlosuK^ ^A^ )K.3^,.,.ä.^ l^>->.3 jloai^^^o :)oo( oj',.^ 
^a-*.jaj •.yOJÖi jjJ^si^o; jK^cLu^o .)jl30( .{.^^jl^o« |la2L!i^io ^^i-^s^io 'po/ :|ooi 



1. Ms. P-A^jo. — 2. Ms. um. — 3. Ms. ^j- 



thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord delayeth not 
from liis promlse, as some recken delay; but Jie is long-sudering toward us 
not wishing that any sliould perisli, bnt that all men sliould conic to repen- 
tance, but the day of the Lord will conie as a tliief, whcrein the heavens 
shall pass away witli a cry, the elements shall be burnt and dissolved»'. 
But, since those men are under no Obligation'" to bow to the writings of the 
New Testament % but from this source yet more increase their unbelief, we 
will produce a demonstration for them from the prophetic words. Daniel 
the seer of those divine visions hard of interprelation, when he was explain- 
ing Nebuchadnezzar's dream, and was revealing the heterogeneousness of 
the image that appearcd to him in the dream, which was composed of gold 
and silver and bronze and iron and earthenware, and by the diversity of the 
niaterials^ siy-nified the various kino-doms, said of Christ's kincrdom as fol- 
lows : « And in the days of those kings the God of heaven shall set up a 
kingdom which shall not be destroyed for ever; aud bis kingdom shall not 
pass to another people. It shall break in pieces and scatter all the king- 
doms and itself shall stand for ever ))^ Those therefore who proclaimed 

1. II Pel., in, 8-lü. — 2. ivivifl- — 3. aicAi\-i.ri. — 4. ü).a;. — 5. Dan.', Ii, Vi. 

PATR. ün. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 



130 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [300] 

JKjljl Öu^Oj ^«.^oC^o jj/ ..ja-2i^^ jKioai'j ^-^oü^ ol^. \SiX jyn v>\ 

.'JKaJLmO) ]lo.0jy\^ jJ ^^J o(-i; •'♦r*'/ ).iOL^o> oi^a\; oöi .'lioeös. JJ; oöi 
^^; )^)/ 6(^; )..»^aQ.iL.'y> |»>;tc> .-{.»oC^ )-<»o'; JL^ot^oji ^::m; jlof^^oo 
oiK^ljL^ ^.ju^ :jlaA^);; 061 ) >>t\* 061 l^.* *v> p .'Ia^cla ^.bo; JjlsÖjl 
^f»3L>w |^.J^o ),;'i*; ) •«•.■=C^ |jl2iCU< f3 :^j; K_)L».JV^/o »^^ '-^? 1 1» 'i "^^ 
:^^ ^A^^euS^ji/ )aia:)0; ^^01 )KJL*1^) )-^c^/ :).^aL^N )o,oi ^ ^^ ^ö<n 
\<>[%. 0/ jj-iCLiiJiJi 0/ )).^Kä ^..ISCiofrvJi/ ^'^wO^N )l ).^>>^>JL>o; oiK_.ij.iiO ^ioo 
^^^01 )Kioä-\; .•jfj-.U jM^io ^^ V^i^ )->^-»/ -.j-LSot V-.^^'^'' :)-^iii; 
1. Ms. li-;-(. 



the gospel applied the term 'last days' to the days of Christ's kingdom and 
the evaugelic life. 

John the Evangelist also wlien he said in his epistle, « Ghildren, it is the 
last season » \ did not speak falsely. For it is in fact the custom to apply 
the term 'seasons'" not only to those of the days, but also to those of the 
whole 3rear : for the whole course ofthe year is divided into the spring season, 
the summer season, the autumn season, and the winter season; and the 
wänter was in truth that of godlessness, which covered the whole world, in 
which there was all spiritual barrenness, and coldness as regards the fervour 
ofthe divine Spirit, and the whole earth was completely devoid ofthe gifts 
from heaven, when Christ ' tiie Sun of righteousness ' ' by his Coming in the 
(lesh dawned upon us. 

And, to put it in another way, since 5000years and more had passed since 
the World came inlo being, as the writings of Moses have handed down to 
US, aiid froin Christ's Coming there has not yet been completed as much as 
600 or 700 or 1000 years '' (let us concede this), how can it appear unreas- 
onable to apply tiic term ' last ' to the days of the 600 years or may be JOOO, 

1. I .luhii, II, 18. — 2. Ür Miours'. The duiiblo nicaiiiiig caiiiuit bc prcserved. — 3. Mal., iv, 2. 
- 'i. Cf. ep. 79. 



LXXXII 

E ^3 r» b. 



[301] LXXXll. — TO SCIIOLASTICUS. 131 

^^o( ^-^ j'^^j U-^) 'i^-^ ^-^J*^ .'In^No* s^otoK^/ jL^tioiaL^ ol^; :|LilJ'^ 

^^oi |.:>a^ä^o .oooi ^^<J^oi ^^ ) n «°> «> •.j.^öC^ 1-^1^; jila^:^ ^V-*^^? °°'^ 

.Q^^^l^-Xo/ •. ^£002)0^ \-'^^>-> V^/? U^->/ Joi^^l jl^CS^^O; )jL2i3 .OOOI ^^laS« 

1. Ms. l m . n .^Ja^aaxo. — o Ms. »—»N- 



wheii compared witli those of tlie 5000? Johannes also in the 34"" homily 
of ihe Goinmentary on the Gospel of John uses these words, which agree 
with the above sentiments : « For whence do you know, O man, that the end 
is not near and that the things mentioned will occur after a short tinie ' ? 
For, as we do not say that the last day is the end of the year, but also the 
last nionth, although it contains 30 days, so also, eveu if I call 400 years 
the end of so large a number of years, I shall not be wrong » ". 

LXXXII. — Of the s.vme from the 11"' letter of the 1'' book of those 

WRITTEN AFTER B.'^^NISHMEAT, WHICH W.\S ADDRESSED TO ScHOLASTICUS. 

« Ilungry men iie fiUed wilh good things and ricli mcn he sent empty 510.38 
away »'. For the Jews, who thougbt tlial they were rieh in tiie riches of 
the divine Scripturcs, became empty of these, and the nations who were 
hungry with the hunger uf the word of God, as the prophet Arnos said'', 

1. The translator has misunderstood the Greek, where oj Covers both clauses. — 2. In Joh. IIoiu. 
XXXIV, .3 (ed. Par. 2% VIII, 230). — 3. Luke, i, 53. — 4. Arnos, viil, 12 (?). 



132 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [302] 

yoN ,°> I; oooi ^^^^s^; -.Y^l yoy-^ \-^~»r^ )jVo|.JljJ^ V*"^ '^^° X"*' ^?°^ 
• JotS^s; jlaaib^io vQ-aiio ^^uiSjil; -.jL-öi:^ J-sKlbj jLäöjo ^io K-,)i..,,.io_^ 

Lxxxiii TSÜjAiJilna '.^ ^^i^.3Ji^A vyr£f;\ <♦ jjjcij i\cil r^nardjDo j-iln-n 

•:-cal 

^^/; yo^^ |K_<_i'^wK</o -.j«!-:»; Ji~>3; )-^o;; j-a^'^^-^ j-^^ot^ .ILm-roV .j^zs« 
oi^ .|j'^a.co; ji I fin «V o«!^ a^ -.y^^Kx) ^^oi j^^-ii^; |.ooa:»cu jooi y-»-**l 

1. Ms. ^• 



were fillecl. This nur Lord himself also foretold to the proud Pliarisees, 
who wereto fall completely away from the principles of the divine Scriptures; 
« The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, aud shall be given to a 
people that shall bring forth ils fruits »'. 

LXXXIII. — Of Mau Severus to John", th\t, accoüdiag to the letter, 
ROTH Christ and Paul arolished the law, rut, accordinc; to the 

SPIRIT, THEY CONFIRM IT. 

5I0-38. We say ihat accordiiig to the letter the law was abolished throus^h 

Christ, but tlial in the spirit il was much more fully brought to coiifir- 
mation. But what were the thiiigs of tho letter? Sacrifices, sprinklings, 
various temporary clcansings repeated at stated times, and other s'imilar 
things, Avhich were diH'orent from heathen demou-worship, but prefigured 
the truth as in a shadow, as Paul also says : « For the law cont;iined a 
shadow of the future good things, not the very Image of the facts » '. In the 

1. Matlli., XXI, 'i3. — 2. Joliii of Hdslra (ep. 81) (?). — 3. Heb., x, i. 



1303] LXXXIII. — TO JOIIN. 133 

.'Jt^|Lj> lt><)-3; JLuajLj» ^ -.jüLwi^A'^ ^f ^^o( ^Sl^^ •)»*;<^' .x~>ö |-:>eL:>äx 

y O «. •> t-i jJo .)i.o;o|.^; oöl ).nt VI.5 vj JJ/ .'vCUm^^ )^V-~/ jK^o^:^ |&^^...»3;; 
^^<Aäoi ^iö| .yO0i^K_3 ^p6 v^oi; >aj6i :|lan .ymX vOoC^^ |.^>,b^^ ool 
\^l \^oi ,.-^5 ^6| joiS^i IK^via.^ )la>.. «>V) iaS,;o :)v.2l1i ooi jbo^; 
: 11/ |la-.^^iL.^ ^ wa\oi .-{..oso^aj ^^^ciX^l/ v.a_aQJi )ooi ) »^ jJ )j/ 

1. Ms. "iU- 



same way Gregory the Theologian' also in the homilv on the Iloly Spirit 
wrote thus : « The first, wheii it cut away idols conceded sacrifices : the 
second, when it caused sacrifices to pass away, did not forbid circumcision. 
But afterwards, when thej^ had once accepted the suppression, they conceded 
even what had been conceded, the one sacrifices, the other circumcision ; and 
they became instead of Gentiles Jews, and instead of these Christians, 
having by a gradual change of position been brought near to the gospel. 
Let Paul persuade you of this, who from circumcising and being puriüed 
was brought to say : 'But as for me, my bretiiren, if I still preach cir- 
cumcision, why do 1 continue to be persecuted?' The one is a matter of 
the dispensation, the other of perfection »^. 

That God permitted sacrifices in order to lead men to shun idolatry, 
Moses also testifies, since in Leviticus he wrote thus, after he had said that 
those of Israel were not allowed to perform any kind of sacrifice in another 
place besides the tent of witness : « And they shall no longer perform their 
own sacrifice to the vanities after wliom they themselves go a whoring »^. 
When therefore we say that the enactments which were laid down for thtit 
Infant people, who were incapable of rising to the perfect scrvice of God, 

1. 6£o>6yo;. _ 2. Or. Theol \% 25. — 3. Lev., xvii, 7. 



59 v°. 



134 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [304] 

jju.^ )-«oi ^^ioj OCH Ipej-ioi .v^Da^^jQ^ojl ^coo-^^t.^ ^ / )j>-3 oii ^ 

^io «öoi ^_-:i_ijts~io :|)^JS_io.Ii>. oi-UL,-^/ vm . m)K3oot-a; ^-/; v-^ )^/ 
).A;CLO K-wä';^ :^-^oij ^ )j^;o .)oi.^s— "^^-^ jjopo >>t-^ jlci^L« ^^^ 

:)K^t «Ol |K— s^ ..vaai3t^^ )oo« ^o^ P^^ü )-*?/ J-^®! '^o®« ^-»-iCL^I^OLic 
■Viö/ smQ_\a.3 s3/; j-ioj/ :|.io^i.; )J.)-.^£D )frs_..^w-j ji>JL~> K-oI». «6i 
jöi.^.--. ^^oo jJtjcLo K_.^I^ ^ou^; U>Oi )ooi ^).!i.; ^*jöi ^--^ }IqS^ 
);ouS>«^.io .ooo« w'^ii^ )K-V*-^ v-^ t-3^ ^*-^®'? ^'»^'^^ •.)-'öo Ju.i t-*-=> 

>e;oi >o;oto :vm.-3L.jfcs_io |_-*._s^-io ^'^^^ V^|,afl,'\; y.^1 ^; ^o— ..2^0 sS/ 
]J w^^lrso .-ooi IjUla ).isoit oJLio ..v^^sKio )_jöu3; \^l ^^ ).i>>eL:;ot, ^ \ 
).£Q.3a^ ooi «?Ka/ jlj .-j.ioj.ia.^ w-Y-ioljj ^-/ .-jK-sVo» ^^oi::» Ja-.2S^ 



1. Ms. sing. 



that 1 mean which is performed tlirough the spirit, when the perfectioa 
came, which is Christ, were in the bodily form done away, we do not sin'. 
Let me, as if dealing with a hypothesis^, test the matter. Various animals 
were formerly sacrificed for sin, and the blood of these was brought into 
the sanctuary by the high-priest, while their bodies were delivered to be 
biirnt outside the camp. Tliis kind of sacrifices therefore symbolized before- 
hand tlie great sacrifice which balances the great sin of the world, as Paul 
also says : « For, as for the animals wliose blood was brought into the 
sanctuary because of sins by the high-priest, the bodies of these were burnt 
outside the camp. Therefore Jesus also, in order to sanctify the people by 
his own blood, sufTered outside the gate »''. Since then Christ the Saviour 
of all was sacrificed in the oria^inal modcl on the cross, and is also slauffh- 
tered so to speak ev(>ry day on the altar, and is distributcd to the bclievers 
limb by limb by the band of the priests, who is so mad, and so exceedingly 
uninstructed in the grcatest matters, as to dare to deny tliat the type was 
abolished in the letter, that is according to the bodily form, and the 

1. Sc. ii|j.apTivon£v (oiT) : cf. p. 77, n .'f. — 2. ühöOeoi?. — 3. Heb., XiII, 11, 12. 



[305] LXXXIII. — TO JOHN. 135 

^j K.j>/oKa./ .-JIoJLm la^,*-5; K^*_^k_3o .-j.iajia^ ^^l ^^ aJOj .•)K_a.-fro 

•C'I^VAjo jlo.«^;; |^_<..^^a^ |1/ •JioV't-^io 



;o^J^^«^ jyinfif)/ -.llo«)^ »Ol w.*; ^jlS^oo ^ .-IIq... «"^t jJ loi^ ^t-'A. :)juwJ 
>Ot-^ |la^l',jL^ ^J^ ts,-tll ociil vXÜiL^ -.JL-Jt.^-L^ j-^oi..* ts^jx^/; s.*6i; 
jtol -JK .^ .t^J -ot )»K.Jil :\loi\ji K^its^xl ^ 'lyaupll y/ jJ/ .|Kiaa— ; 



sacrifice of aniiuals ceased, but tlie intellectual meaning' was also preserved 
according to the spirit, in which the trutli was prefigured throiigli it? After 
the same manner also the eating of unleavened bread was abolished according 
to the letter, but according to the spirit it is still maintained, in that we 
'keep the feast not in the leaven of wickedness and bitterness, but in the 
unleavened bread of purity and truth'-. {A little farther on). But we will 
grant if you wish that the wax represents the letter, and the bronze that has 
been melted is the perfection in the spirit. If then it is the fact that, when 
the bronze is brought to the fire, it is reduced to non-existence, and the 
wax, when liquefied, gives to the bronze the shape only of that which was 
fashioned, explain if you have any abundant störe of wisdom. But, if the 
wax has beea dissolved and liquelied, the letter will be dissolved, but the 
Spiritual meaning' of the law will remain, preserving the form' of the letter. 
For Cyril teaches and says : « We have not relegated the types to utter 
desolation(?), though certainly to partial desolation, I mean since the letter 
of the bodily observances ceases »\ Listen to the expressions of Gregory 

1. öewpiit. 2. — I Cor., v, 8. — 3. ^ewf'.n. —4. a/jtit-oi. — 5. I il(i riol know tlie source of Ulis citation. 



136 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [306] 

).x*.^»<Äii:D yooü^a^ ^/; ^^^*^^ :).iv*^-D ).ioa--lo :^oiol^3Q.äo ooij ^.oiotis^iö 
^-J^iölS^jLio; ,^-«^01 ^^ovVa ^^50w l-io)!. ,^^i. \.^^ ^%^*^ oöi j^l^Äi V*^ P 

);,JLJ> ^-^s.-.; |joi |^v.aL::b.; oc>».-\ ^^ Jv-Ji )joi; jlJisC^o :).l/ JV^a-. loü. 
.>oa_D K-.);iJLio .[iJiZfi V^/ ^3 . . y^icts..£CU jlaJL^a^oi; )v^a-* ^'^iis^; •.''^^-^/ 

oiiok^» 061 .^)a:is:A )— .Jtio •.^-.'iJ.oi .)laJLCD.*Äioj jbö ^io kj/ ^v^^io jlo 
:)..*.-,|^ ^-; Uoj :^^ j-=>J^3 t--,^ • / •:•)— om ogu::ioajLio 001 .^s^-S; 
..jL^^J xr-"^-*? I"*— J-*^*»^? -)^^-^/ :o_K.3j ^/ )-X— ^-; oo« )^-.xio 
a:^; 001 vj; "^-^-io .^;K.jl/ jJ )ooi ^^-O; oöi .jl/ )-i- oc< ^3 Ua-/ 

|j^ä3; )j»aiaj^ ^^''^-^Cs; o'^J ,.3 ^iö ^o^ JV:-^ V^/ )N.-.i^^aiLcD; 



thc Thcologian', and let the words of tliat man and liis thouglits be a law 
to you, and a fixed ordinance, since they are indeed such to all Christians. 
When in tlie homily on the Passover he discussed the meaning- of all the 
rites performed at the old Passover, he also caused the liearer to pass from 
the letter to the spirit : for, when he came to the statt, and solved the riddlo 
of this, he commanded the man who eats this our Passover in trnth to lean 
lipon the staffof faith, using these words : « Stand firmly, with feet strongly 
planted, being in no point shaken by the adversaries, nor carried away by 
words of plaiisibility. These things Christ fulfdlod, thc subvcrtcr of the 
letter, llie fulfdler of the spirit »'. If 'the letter killetb, but the spirit givetii 
lifo"', and Christ is life as it is written, « When Christ our life shall be 
revealed »", liow can it be tlial when Ihe life came that whirii slew was not 
abolished? since, if ynu dony tliat the law was abolishcd in the letter, but 
brought to confirmatiou in thc spirit, Paul also will bo seen to say contradic- 
tory things, wriling in one place that he 'anmilled the law of commandmcnts 
in teachings'''', and saying in another, « Do we therefore annul thc law 
through faith? I^'or be it. Nay we establish the law »\ recognising the 

1. eeoXÖY'j;. — 2 The wortl öeupia is herc preservod. — :?. Or. xi.v, 19, 21. — 4. II Cor.. Iil. 6. — 
5. Cul., III, 'i. — G. Eiih., II, 15. — 7. Rom., in, ai. 



[3071 LXXXIII. — TO JOIIN. 137 

|.j|.-3o I n, .,— o ^/ )jt-OQ.3.2^ "^^clsl^o f^ . r. I .,vi..,,n,^ l-ooaaeuj jJ/ .«xo.^ 
^K_^ ^^ vO.-«.)— I l-JDO v> I •>; oooi rr * '* '^? v^JÖt^ ^ :^^; /^t-^ ''■'^ l'^ 

^*5 yOJÖu^ :|)^^o )Kj)jl^; y.^1 ^io öti p6;Nj;o :)joKjü )^*).[-.j2^^^ 

«ots .-jmo.vi.i oot .^j tsj/ .».iö/ )-iK_a ^»l^ji/i )_a.-Mä oöi )!/ '(h<jl) 
^^01 ^^ :Kj/ K^j;».lS^^ .mOioISm/ JLfloa:aaJi oiioK.iD viso^a^; .-i'po/; 

1. Ms. om. — 2. Ms. om. 

commandment as 'holy and just and good'', and in another sorrowfully 
crying to those who chose after recognition of tlie trutli to live by the law, 
« Ye who are justified in the law have been annuUed i'rom Christ, ye have 
fallen frora grace »". It is a thing impossible that of the same object he 
should say that it has been annuUed and openly confess that it has been 
established, and that he should admire it as just and good, while he rejects 
those who are justified in this and asserts that they have fallen from 
the grace that is in Christ. For it seems to some extent likely that we 

[shall remove] the enigma from doubt if we look carefully at the words 

of Gregory the Theologian^; for he called Christ 'the snbverter of the 
letter, but the fulliller of the spirit'. Let us therefore cleave to the law 
inasmuch as it has been fuHilled, but let us neglect it, let us make haste 
to eradicate it with the swil't i'oot of the word inasmuch as it has been 
abolished, rightly treating iLs bodily observances with contempt. Nay, 
you say, but that holy man says that the letter was abolished, while you 
say the law, inasmuch as you said that Paul is a snbverter of the law. 
Rather from what we have said you have the certain truth which 

1. Rom., vil, 12. — 2. Gal., v, 1. — 3. OeoXöyoc 



138 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [308] 



LXXX 

E 30 l" 



OJl^ 



ji^/j^ r£fAj:i73^;> r£f3ivÄ:\ ^Hj^ix-n rsf^n^^r^ ^ coLn oä coL-n 

1. Ms. om. stop. — 2. Ms. «J»- 

■was l)eforc likely. Wlien Paul says that tlie law of commandments was 
aniiulled, wo say that he means that according to the letter it was annuUed, 
trusting to the words of Gregory; and there is therefore nothing that prevents 
me also from calling the letter the law. Ilowever', if you desire to hear 
one of the fathers saying that the law was abolished when he should have 
said the letter, we will rcadily produce this citation also for you. 

LXXXIV. — Of tue same vium tue 20'" letter oi- tue 8'" rook of those 

WRITTEN DURIiNCi EriSCOPACV, WIUCIl WAS AllDRESSED TO THE MOMvS OF 
THE HOUSE OF MaR IsAAC". 

.m:!-8. Hut the ' alioniination of desolation ' (for you asked this also as Avell) 

Daniel the. prophct mentions at the end of tlie 10"' vision, saying thus : 
« And in the niiddle of llie week the sacrifice and the libation shall be taken 
away, and together wilh these things upon the temple shall be the abomi- 
nalion of desolation » '; and a menlion of it was made also in the gospels '. 
And .lohn the holy and of renowncd memory, Avho adorncd the throne" of 

1. H; >o;3 iiero represents it>T|V im. — 2. B. L., i, 29; v, 20; C. B. M.. p. G'Jl. — 3. Dan., IX, 27. — 
4. Mnllh., XXIV, 15; Mark, xm, 14. — 5. Opövo;. 



[309] LXXXIV. — TO TUE MONKS OF ISAAC. 139 

|l n <\ I ^ ; i-^)-); V-^^ ^ot )»l^-.io .| :^.';c>iio vj^,^»/o jlallajL^ ^.os/; ••*pö/ 
)K.A\jk^i9 )l nivi\tv> ^/ .•vf>ii°>i; );.,>•> >^ .-JKdoj «öi.^ öi.:s .•yO-.^^ol.s 

1. Ms. \^t — 2. Ms. l>=ow»v — 3. Ms. »^»ita,. _ 4. ijcro follows an erasure. 



the church of Constantinople at that time, said ' that the abomination of 
desolation is tlie image which lladrian, king of the Romans, sei up within 
the temple, when lie encamped against Jerusalem - : for it is the haliit uf 
Scripture fo say that likenesses made with hands, and the graven statues 
of the demon-worship of the heathen, are an abomination, as Manasseh says 
in the song that he set up abominations and multiplied pollutions\ For it 
is better for us to say that the abomination of desolation is Antichrist; since 
it is impossible for us to Interpret all the expressions contained in the gospel 
in the same passage like a record of Scripture'' history. Of him the apostle 
also In writing to the Thessalonians said, « In order that the man of sin 
may be revealed, the son of perdition, who is opposed to and cxalteth himself 
against everyone that is called God or is an object of worship, so that he 
sits in the temple of God, declaring himself to be God » '' : l'or the temple 
at Jerusalem is termed a ' holy place'. For it is possible for the same words 
of the gospel to be taken both in a historical sense as referring to the deso- 
lation and devastation of Jerusalem, and in a sublime sense to the complete 

1. This passage to 'Jerusalem' (1. Ifi) is published in Greek witli tlie heading SiS^ipou in .S'. I'. N. C, 
I, II, 213. Gr. 9tx[ji.ev. — 2. Jo. Chrys., Adv. Jud.. v, 10, 11 (ed. Par. 2-, I, 788). — 3. Or. Man., 10. 
— 4. Or 'literal'. Gr. xara triv zffi tti-r. äTtöoemv. — 5. II Tliess., II, 4. 



30 V" 1). 



31 1" a. 



lAXXV 

li Tiil r n. 



53 r 



1/^0 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [310] 

ii-^N-fio/ jK^^Si«. ^:>o vQLa^>; ^; )»jqa ^^ü^^^io .j-icCis^i.; ot^ics^l^aAo JV-^^ci^ 

•t'oC^ jooi )^o JJ-a-xO 

/.ryxn'^l .»vnt<^n OflU^C\J3 Qflu\^"\fiO ^cd 
j^Ä^CL^lo )->*-^Jl ^iO t-^<JO .•^JU^QjJiXO Kj^ oo^>^^ -'-»-SJ ^-JLiL\o 

ya-*.2i^-^Jo/5 Jia 1,-=) )t^/; ^/o .jio^^ Oiieo. voj/ vü-co/ p oolo 

1. JIs. Ua-v 



desolation and end of thc world. But for your assurance I have thought it 
to bo necessaiy for us to cite also the words of the interpretation of the 
man whom we have mentioned, the holy John, which are these : « But he 
said that the image of him who came at that time, who also devastated the 
city, and set up the image within tlie temple, is an abomination ; wherefore 
also he called it a desolation » '. 

LXXXV. — Of tue same holy Seyerus from tue 27"' letter oi- tue 2'"' 

BOOK OF TIIOSE WRITTEN AFTER BANISHMENT, AYHICH \YAS ADDRESSED TO 

Sergius tue count and arcliirttros-. 

:,\'.>-:i8. You ask why our Lord and God Jesus Christ took Peter and the sons of 

Zebedee, James that is and John, apart from the other apostles and disciples, 
and this when he raised the daughter of the presidcnt of the synagogue who 
Avas dead, and again Avhcn hc took tlieni up with him into the mounlain, and 
as the text of the gospel says ' Avas transfigured beforc them, and his face 

1. Jo. Glirys., op. eil., v, In (cd. V:\r. 2% I, 788). The text differs widcly. — 2. Perh. the physi- 
cian of ep. 31. 



[311] LXXXV. — TO SEUGIUS TIIK ARCHIATROS. l/,l 

.yOOlA joCH ts^l J-Sl.,— K^|V-^~. 0_^; jK„O.U; ^^s:iO -.vOoÜ^ ] <^ -^ 

|,<..i> » , v > OCH Kj/j V^/o ot>s v-;o/ p »-«.^ ^coo»-^^ .)_.oj!:^ otioVioojo s^Ns><« 
U JLiojo j,-cQ_s; :|jQ-. v^ vOXiaji _y-^^a^ : K-^'S.^ >ö.iaji .^^ 1«^; «^ 
)^ m ' ^ ^"Z vÄQjJV-io; JLxaL./ ^x^o^o ^j oon\. .).<>vi3lj>; «.i/ jj/ Jli, jL^ 

^/; j« i cil \ j;0! ^^-^ .oooi ^^oiboKjOio ^o^S ,_io JLiai.i wJLs oi_K.-/; 
.-|.^^^CLJi ^^; jLotü^ OOI JL!^>JscLia\ K-jL^io» ^^)a^»; "'^^^-^Oio .a^ofi>>Ji/ )jo« 
K^Aj-sj jp/; oöi .jiVJLJs; ^/i IN-wJ ^^1 ^; v>öi JL-^^om |^-soiaiai>.o 
^oiols^l joil^o .joi^ la^ jooi •^oiots^^l |tCi>^io ooto .jKS.io )oo< «otot^^/ 

1. Ms. ^^^M- — 2. Ms. oi^S' — 3. Ms. a-viiM. — 4. In siiiallur letlers in an erasure. 



shoae like tlie sun, and liis raimeiit becanie briglit like tlie liglit''. My 
opinion is tliat he sliows them sucli honours beyond the otliers because 
they had a more specially acute mind, and oiie (hat rose with tlie height of 
the Godhead of him who voluntarily humbled himself for us and Tcondes- 
cended to become incarnate and remained in the sanie and did not leave bis 
most exalted glory and bis divine height". For Peter after be had confesscd 
him and said, « Thou art the Ciirist the Son of tlie living God », heard the 
piain >vords, « Blessed art thou, Simon Bar Jona, for flesh and blood revealed 
it not to thee but my Father which is in heavcn »'. And James and John, 
as Mark the Evangelist related, being brothers in the spirit more than in the 
body, were named by our Saviour Biiai racjsh, that is 'sons of thunder' '. 
The reason for which they merited such an appellation was that ^he who 
proclaimed, « In the beginning was the Word, and the \\'ord was with God, 
and tlie ^^'ord was God » ', loudly thundered the divine uMerance from heaven 

1. Matth., XVII, 2. What foUows to • appellation' (p. 312, 1. 5) is published in Gr'eeli in Mai, Class. 
Auct.. X, 453 under llie heading S. ei; td xaia Aouxäv. — 2. Gi'. ev -cauTÖiriTi [jieivavTo? r?,; OTTepTdre,; 
565(i; Tj X. Ja(iitpÖTiiiT05. — 3. Matlh., XVI, Ki, 17. In the Greeli llie eitations are paraphrased. — 
4. Maili, III, 17. — 5. John, i, 1. 



r.3 V a. 



142 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [312] 

'"«^oo .'Äw.j/ )Iiaio;l ^^^io jJb Ö Jac O s yOoC^iO; )l^iCLJLio^o .ItCs^ oo« jooi 
V^)j ju/ y^l o».*.ji,:a ^ il^il ^i. hsJSLxio )K-,wJlj|o |^^>5^; )K^a.aAl 
V-.Ki» -oia-*/j )la,iL*^i oi-s oanX- ^/; t-"^^ ^"^-^ •♦"'^■^ Ö|-.jo)K;ao 
^^wjj/ .yQj/ V-'^ j-ooa y^si K^jja^; ocx; )ISC!i^; )J oiIo;oiä> y^l .)ooi 

*3|; «Ol .yooi^ -oöi K_/; ,^ö| )lVK.*io ^^'^^^Cso .'vOoCi». )ocn vjÄ-*io oo» 
"«i^-^oo .voot-^s^j jK^bOo^ OUV3 Ijlooi p-.'po/ «-too; va-^<^o/; ).ÄAa3; 

.ooo« vOOJ-K.-/ ^SQJÖ« ^ ^^-*r^b^iO ^^^Ol; "^^w:bO .^AA ,(^o6. U^ 

.jio-s,^ otJS. joot n&.90Jl^ oiS jooi 0.^:^0 ot^; -6» ^ ^ ^asov^o 

)jA,J^3 wUOa ^iO ^J OQ-Q^* Joot OuÄ-^iO Ui^; v.*6l ^iO ^J ^-L^O.» 

.^io/; ^^oi ^..^^Oaa; ^6^ ,_ioo K-.3 )j^-/ ).J'^a£0 ^ioo jJ / ..;aJ^^ 

1. Ms. wilh stop following. — 2. Ms. ^^^-^v — 3. Ms. n<"oi- 

and the gift of the Spirit that in trutli came down thencc, and stirred the 
attention of all nations by reason of the wonder, and tore up from its roots 
and as one might say from its foundations every false and human opinion 
that creeps upon the earth '. For it is manifest that James also was rieh in 
the same grace as liis brother, according to the unerring testimony of him 
who honoured tliem by one comman appellation. But somc have said that 
the reason for which those three were peculiarly honoured beyond the rest 
of the disciples was that they specially loved Jesus, and in the same way he 
also too loved them, because of the virtues that were in them, as the very 
wise John bishop of Constantinople also said in the 56'" homily of the Com- 
mentary on the Gospel of Matthew, where he thus interpreted the words con- 
cerning them : « Why did he take these? Because these excelled the olhcrs. 
And Peter showed the superiority by the fact that he loved him much, and 
Jdhn by the fact ihat he was much loved, and James by the answer which 
he roturned saying, ' We can drink the cup', and not by ihe answer only, 
but also by other actions, among them the fact that he carried out what he 
said. For he was so troublesome and burdensome to the Jews that lierod 

1. Gr. (jLEyaXo^uJVw; {dc^ovTyjaat Tr,v öeoVoYiotv £X£ivr,v t:^,v il oOpavoy x. tt]; exeTOev ETTtuvoia; xaievE/OetGav, 



[313] LXXXV. — TO SERGIUS TUE AIICIIIATROS. 14.! 

vV^o hio/; ^; -Ol .^q.^^äj oöC^; ooj y/ •.l-.jöoi-X > niivt; ^^Lcd |_3» 

chA; j-jio JJ jj/ .|^ji.OLio )^.w^;I; jjLSL.'S^söAo ILJ.3 jjboi^:»; jLjLJLiiaJLiaS. 
Jl ->nn\ M j;ow» ^«-^ |a-«Kio .^^5i..^.Qj )joi )Kj..i.il; jLaoÄ) si-/ |i, ~^°.\ 

l^oi:^ c*\ JLflQüio vS/ jooj jJ .voKj/ ^^J3L>. It-K- jjLio :;a^\.a vaaL-.ia-.V; 
)iLi,^^wiwj>;o jJ/ :JLicu«V yooul^/ jJj vQJÖt; lO^J^-a a\; ^*JX5i oöi '.«^^^ 
jl |-«»o)j ^i ^iv^j ^^-^oi;j ^^^iö Ua-/ -.jLic^^Ji "^JJLJ; /«<=> 
CXA-J t^-wj )iV— / |K-^;1 ia\» -Ol )-X^ ^«^..w^so« ^»^ .).iCLSji ^)jlj 
)j-Sjo .voouio ^-/^^..^w»;; yooi-^ö».^» I * I y » '»X K-/ ^.w,.^ 1».^^ .)j,.ßa3; 
6^ l^io/j |^.V^ ^ -.vQj/ v°f^üaj; -.vOj/ o>-, JJj vO<H^ ^l i^"-^^ 

1. Ms. with point •.. — 2 Ms. ^ov^»- 



thouglit tliis Avciuld be a great present to glve to the Jews if lie put him to 
death » '. The words used by our Lord to bis disciples, « Greet no man by 
the way » ^ naturally cause perplexity among tliose who read the divine 
Scriptures superficially : for greeting more especially becomes ministers of 
peace aiid teacliers of a bumble disposition. But it is not possible for us to 
take the actual injunction as bearing this meaning; for our Saviour is there- 
by shown to contradict himself and to be malcnig use of injunctions which 
do not agree with one another; for Matthew wrote of him that lie said to bis 
disciples, « And, if ye greet your friends only, what special thing do ye? 
Do not the tax-gatherers also the same? » '. How then can he who enjoins 
US to greet not only those who are friends but also enemies prohibit us from 
greeting those who meet us on the way ? Accordingly therefore it is manifest 
that we must direct the purport of the injunction to another meaning. It is 
the babit of men to visit their acquaintances who live at a distance from 
them, and whom they bavc not seen for a long time, making this the occasion 

1. In Matlh. Hoin. LVI, 1 (ed. Par. 2% VII, G37). — 2. Luke, x, 5. — 3. Mattli., v, 47. 



Vi i" ;i. 



1' I) 



5'i v° a. 



IVi LETTRHS OF SEVERUS. [314] 

fS .>a.jLjL.<3Sj öv^cü^^^ ^j-it; )»Q-^^ '^'^j/ )»o« ^''^''>^^^! -JoC^ ^1^ ^a-V^ 
jia^^X K^j/o -.vajoi )K^ä..k2 yooi.:» ^Q-*'«-^ ^) K;:^£> .jjisoi '^/ 

.0001 y^>^ jK-oiSso jK... ^.....Xa ^61 )L.»ioJL=i p .^"^.^<_s jjo» ^/; )>^a^x S > 

|l^:)aitl >o^Qi^; -.1^»/ ""^^^N^ >£iJiij J..30-M ^o :)-Ojjj «öt )frs.....Jü/ jlSoiCu»? 
:^^oü^ ^; ^^°^*~*^? .J^-~«-ooV^ )lojo"p;o JK_.Ii^^o/ jJS^^^^O; .VJa-.U jlS^oi^ 
:)_oaL^; yO^i^^^o/; ) n»ci°>; w^Vlo ^1^; JV^jL:^^ :]S^^|_>K^o Ji^cLd wOi^ 

^s^).JV.^ q\o .-ya^^^Ju^Kj )l|..i..,wXO ) la.>^a.»^o )laJL».jL^a.^ K_»)V^K^« •'v^-'/ 



of a jouriiey, the greeting of tliose persons, as Luke wrote of Mary the God- 
bearer that the reasoii for which slie wont to the hill-country was to arreet 
Elizabeth, saying thus : « And Mary arose in tlie sanie days, and went to 
the hill-country in haste, to a city of Judah, and entered the house of Zacha- 
rias, and greeted Elizabeth » '. Since therefore oiir Lord and God wished 
his disciples to be unencumbered and self-reliant, and that they should be 
very zealous for the preaching-journey, he prohibited such greeting, Avhen 
they were setting out on the apostolic and divine journey, lest tiiey should 
give up the zeal Um- the journey set before theni and enter upon the journey 
tliat is called vain, which leads aside to another path. For he wished the 
divine Service of ihe gospel-message and of the saving preaching to be 
honoured before fitting human affection and the love that crceps upon the 
earth. And the approvcd Cyril also bishop of Alexandria wrote in agreenicnt 
with these tliings in precise words and at length, in the 62'"' homily of the 
Commentary on the Gospel of Luke : « Again how could it not be incumbcnt 
on men who were to cnlii'lilcn ihose that were in darkness and to brina: 

1. Lukf, I. ;itt. 40. 



[315J LXXXV. — TO SERGIUS TUE ARCIIIATROS. 145 

jJ/ .«OOI^ OOOI ' y^..V^^ ^^Ol OOOt vOOul^/ jjL^CLyOl.^ jj vCDOf^ ''^J ^^ 
^^w^^^O; .oioull OfS ^^ JOI; yOJÖl ^-^ o/ •.)^^.»^^K^ >« .<3l> ^^ . »jLi/o 

Jjl:m .Of.^; .^öC^ ^j Jj/ pö/ .vooü^ 'vQ^Kj jL^o^; )tCi^.ioj looi | JSs jjoi 

)) .vQ^j^juj .al^io '^öi ,_ioj ^>; K-Iv-K-, -.'V-Q-s j-iot^A tO^Jji ji.X 

jKjL.,.icLs ),JLiaAi. ^_^.J-pK.io ^» .^'^oK.flQj; ^)K_Ao ^_io V-^ 6l-K_/ 

I. Ms. sing. — 2. >* in erasure. — 'i. In erasure. — 4. Ms. ^. — 5. Ms. "^^f- — (j. In smallei' 
lettcr.s in erasure. — 7. Ms. "w. — 8. Ms. l^-^i^o. — <». Ms. l•^-»^^. 



thera to the kiiowledge of the trutli above all others to adopt a gontle demea- 
uour and great affability, and not rouglily shun intercourse with tiicra, so 
as to refuse even to greet them? though it indeed becomes saints together 
with other good qualities to havu tiiat also of approaching people in a proper 
way and giving greeting. For perhaps it would liappen that those who 
met them were not under all circumstances un])elievers, but also some of 
those who shared their opinions, or of those who had been alrcad}- cn- 
lightened, so that for this reason it was necessary to give them a message 
of love, I mean the word ' Hail ! '. Wlnxt therefore? And for this reason Christ 
does not give the injunction in order tiiat they may Ije misanthropes, nor 
does he give it in order to show honour to ' a refusal to ofTer greeting, but 
rather he tcaches them to avoid such refusal. It is not unreasonable for us 
to understand that, when the disciples were going round the cities and 
villages, and propounding the mysteriös relating to the divine doctrines to 
those in every place, they did not tlien wish to do this without distraction, 
but so to speak at leisure, turning out of the way and making use of certain 
diversions, because someone perhaps wished to see a man whom he knew 

1. The translator seeras to liave misunderstood the Greok. Tiie Syr. Version of Cyr. has « \\'hat 
therefore does Christ teaeh by this also? He did not ordain that they should bc rüde, nor Ihal lliry 
should honour ». 

P.vrR. OR. — T. .\iv. — i'. 1. 10 



y" b. 



14G LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [316] 

vO-JL-atJLj \i JK-ötSs 'jiojo^; :)K^-IS.; )la^-^a.>>.5; \.icl vooi^ jooil 

•:«yO,-..)j jK-X-w^-.^» jiaaLi'w^ ■.^^^jl^K:^ lloau.».. jJ;o 
i.xxxvr r^ircL-T^ rdlaivÄn ^a.^ajL':> t^^t^t^ ^ caL:> oä coL-a 

:).2l^; ),l« Vi .; )~^^^ |i.t^pa\ yO^o'^i y-^-^o '• ) -*•■»■ *-^ >^ojl< yoC^o ^po 
'^Äj-iCL-o |)-io; oöi ).i . ivi\ ^a^ol^wJu^; :~JL^Vo» JJÖJ; j)L,xCi.flO yOjo»J;o 

1. Ms.^ for »• — 2. Ms. sing.; gr. ueya/ojv. — 3. Ms. ^^ao»-©. 



and his friend, and afterwards spend the time proper for teaching in gluttony, 
not in urgent things. Accordingly he says tliat, showiug unencumbered 
zeal l'or the divine procianiation, tliey shonld be sure not to give attention 
that does not profit to t'riendships (but rather that which pleases God is placed 
hefore cvery thing), and, while employing acts of courtesy that cannot be 
impugned and do not occupy attention, to givo close attention to the apo- 
stolic liiusiiiess » '. 

LXXXVI. Ol- TUE S.VME FKOM THE 70'" LETTER OK THE 6"' BOOK 01 TIIOSE 

WHITTEN M'TER BANISHMENT, WHICH WAS ADDUESSEI) TO SeRGIUS THE COUNT 

AND arrhiatros'-. 

r.iu-3s. As to (he fact Ihat our Lord and God Jesus Christ appeared ai'tcr tlie 

Resurrection to l'etor and John and iheir companions, and commanded them 
to cast the net on the right side of the ship, and to catch a mnltilude of grcat 
fish, making up the number of I ;"):}, l"] say in brief language that its mcaning 

1. Comni. in Luc. (Syr.), ed. Cluiijüt, [i. 238. Nol cxlanl in Gicfk. — 2. 'l'lils twlract to •iKinoiii- ' 
(317, 1. iilt.) Is piiblishcd in Grcek in Gramer, CmL in Luc. et Jo., p. 'lOT. whrrc. il, begins : 1. itpo; ilEpy. 
öp/iSTiioxoTtov (sie) iniaxoXf.c To o'i to'j; Trcpi II. x. 1. [icTii Tr,^ äviTTOCTtv EnijivjvTo; aÜTot; Toü O. x. -intTipo; 
ifl[j.<5v I. X. X. ■npoo-KzaUTOi ßaÄiiv. 



[317] LXXXVI. - TO SERGILIS TUE AKCIIIATIU )S. 1'.7 

^ jpoi );oio .oj, jj ^^io r~^<^ o-JJ ^-^ t^ ).-IS^ ocH.^; ^o-Ii^^o/ 

^^o(!^ *^^Wo — 7^!® IM ^o»^ »^ -Jo.oi j'Otoj; U^^o yoy^a 1^3» ^-j r^ 
)jo( )J!Slb^^ .opcLA )^,; |l^j.ia\ p ..)-i.2Jo V--^ jutoie .U*^ );ot ^^!%>*,^oo 

^; JJÖJ; .j^Q^jL^ ö«-.)^/ )J^MT"=> ^^^^? )»^^ r-^! >-•/? ^öl •^♦-•— / )l^Q-flO; 
^^; .)ij-...wCO jloj-fc^sQ^ ja-*io :)J.-io; ooi ^^ \.i ^ x.ya :ot-.,U/; ^-2^oi 

1. Ms. sinff. — -J. Ms. I^aj- 



is this '. The gospel related that that iiiylit after toiling o-rcatly they caught 
nothiiig whatever; aiul tliis narrative, wlion transferred to spiritual and 
suprasensual subllmitv, suggests to us that before oiir Saviour's coming there 
was night in this worhl, for human afTairs were devoid of tlie knowledge of 
God, being devoted to thc Service of gods i'alsely so-calied; biit, when a kind 
of risingand da\vn of light took place, when oiir Saviour came and rose and 
shoae upon those on eartli, like a 'Sun of righteousness ' (this the divine 
Scripture says^), then the apostolic net was let down, and made a great catch 
of men, and for this reason had the riofht side allotted to it. For Moses 
and the prophets, when tliev let down the fishing-net, during thc past 
night, caught the people of Israel only, while these often jumped out of the 
net and served demons, and '"the present state is understood to be the same 
as if they had not been caught'. Whcrofore also they ' left for the apostles 
the most honourable place on the right, while they themselves occupied the 
left Station, which according to our custom is inferior in honour. But in 
respect of the fish which were caught the number 100 shows thc great niul- 

I. ür. üi; Ev Ppa'/£i :fpä5ai zxv-rr,-/ l/^ii ty)v oirtÄudiv. — -i. Mal.. IV. i. — -i. i.'m'. iv i(jo> toC [iTi&'z TiOripäiOoti 
TÖ Tiapänav vooij[j,evov. — -i. Sc. Moses and thc prophets. 



L XXXV 
K 38 r 



148 • LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [318] 

ooi |i . 1^ ^oioJ^/ t~«-^ ),..N yi «.^ .|..«X^.>.^; v^ö^ Ksl^^^ yCuJ^^^o/; 

"«.aIo ^^ > «\>l; •V-^/ r^ ^^o'^ M^o; )~3^^ ll-^o^ 

acn rdincuJ rdirjTvx (sicj r^^q*s-n r^oL rdjco ^ rdx-cn 
.u3r^:> ca^ci.&l!nn «cv^^ix (sie) ^^vu ^cncu^uLT^ ca3T\ 

1. Tlic rest it; lost on accounl of a lacuna in Ihe ms. 



titude from the nations who were cauglit by the prociamation of the gospol ; 
and, wlieii Israel did not succced, the teaching of the gospel seized that 
which is perfect; for the number 100 is perfect, being composed of 10 timeS 10. 
Wherefore also our Saviour likened all rational creation lo 100 sheep, saying 
that 99' 

LXXXVIl. Ol' THE SAME ON OUR LoRd's SAYINO, « I WILL NOT MHh\K 

WITH YOII IIENCEl'OIiTH OF THIS PRODUCT Ol' TUE VINE TILL TUE KW ON 
WIUCII I SH.VLL DIUN'IC IT ANEW WITII YOU IN MY FaTHEr's KINGllOM »'; 
FROM THE 60'" LETTER^ WHlCli \V\S MiDRESSEn TO LeOATIUS THE PRESBYTER ' . 

But the Yvord.s spokeu by our Saviour to the disciples at the instilution 
of the new and divine mystery, « I Yvill not drink henceforth of this product 
of the vine tili the day on whieh I sliall drink it %vith you new in my Father's 
kingdom » are explained and interpreted in Iwo ways. John bishop of 

1. Mallli., XVIII, 12. llnc llic ms. brcaks olV. — 2. Maltli.. x.wi, 2!). — :t. Tlie n-f. Id llic Imok and 
serics seems tu liavc lalhni mil,. — 'i. J'robably tlie Leonl. of S. ],., i. .■>. 'l'lio cxlracl down to "says' 
(p. 319, 1. 10) is publislied in Gi'eek in (li'aincr, Cal. in f.tiv. el .lo.. p. Im. wUltb il bogins : Ttpb; Taüta 
4noxpi'v£Tai I. 6 iitiaf.. Avt. Ttpb; A. izgtao. ypiqswv oOtu. Toüto omXyjv xriv «TtöSouiv lyii x. n^v ilriyrimv. 
'O |iEv Y- i-tM-idtoi Ti); KIl. Eitiox. I. From ' Uic new' (p. 319, I. 1) lo the same poirit it is also in Mai, 
rVrt.s-.s, Ami., X, 'i'.il in a sliurtcr and lianspdj-cd lurni. 



[319] LXXXVII. — TO I.EONTIUS. IV) 

mOIoIS«^/; po/ o'oi^ :>m.«\a£iLjL.i.^OL^foo f>; )°^ nm .ol t»*.^ . n^ ,—1^0^ 
^ .-^K^l wOio^JL^o^l ^CL^ |Kj)eL..^o ^1^ ^:x?; oöC^ -.l-m-s; l^-r^ l ,^*^ 

'j-fldSj ji^-. ).-)S.jLio; .po/ )^p ^^^ioj Iv^oj-iCLi jK-öi::^ "^Si^ictio '^j 
.j-oojij jiajLSwiojs loKm-ioo ^-l^j oöi .-j-iotSs jjjscLflOj l-uJb«»^ -.s-CHots../ 

.)L.va^ ^-io ^1 » 1 m I .jjLDoi ^^o«.^ J^/j :''JLta^.^oj JI."f> 'KjL^ ^-^ot^ 
j-«j»aiaj t-.^ I— p .)La-.Ki. oöt ^io jL^ ^^?o •.^.-Uro.Sa^ ,^i6 |^oi 
;K_3 .;oo)-3 OL^; jooi «cxoK^/ ).ÄL3a^i ).m3a^ .jj/ Vio/o .)j/ s^po;^ 

1. JIs. ^- — 2. An erasure follows. — 3. Ms. <^m- — ',. Ms. U^a- — ,5. Ms. ^-la^.. — G. Ms. pl. 



Coustantiiiople says that tlie new drinking of tlie cup is tliat occasiou on 
whicli he drank witli his disciples after the Resurrection', thereby coufirming 
tlie natura- of tlie body whicli rose, and eradieating the profane notion ol' 
phantasy^; for the holy Peter is related in the Acts'' of the Apostles to 
have Said to Cornelius, « Us who ate and drank with him after he rose 
l'rom the dead » ^ But Gregory the Theologian in the homily on the Passover 
says that the new drinking of the cup is fthe revelation of the divine 
conceptions that shall take place and is expected in tho kingdom of the 
heavens", when mirrors and riddles are done away, and the siglit face to face 
is revealed, as tiie divine apostle says '. But it is fitting that I should quote 
to you tliese words of the doctor, the contents of which are as follows : 
« We shall receive the Passover, but now symbolically*, and a Passover 
that is more plainly revealed liiaa the old onc (for 1 am hold enough to say 
that the legal Passover was an obscurer symbol of a symbol) ; but a little later 

1. Gr. adds. ex vExpüv. — 2. Gr. vaöv. — ;i. Gr. 5i),o6o:ia;. — 'i. irpä^i;. — 5. A(-|s, x, 'il ; Ju. Clirvs.. 
In Malth. Hom. lxxxii, 2. (ed. Par. 2", VII, 884). — ü. Gr, triv iv t?) ixeXXoücrr, x. itpoo8ox(o(i.E'v^ ßaciXsia 
TMV o-jpavwv TMv Ssitov vo-ri|iaTwv EnyiYYs^|J.£vwv {I. lTiT\yyE).\i.vn\y) yjiiiv aitoxa)i'j']/iv. — 7. I Cor., ,XIII, 12. — 
8. By omitting en tlie ti'aiislator has lusl Uie poini of Ihe seiilence. 



:18 v° 



LXXXVllI 

E 29 !■" b. 



150 LKTTERS Ol' SEVERUS. [3201 

V-«»^ jlt— .-Q.-K. l^^))oou> jjio«; ^ji^ot ^ .3l^:>oo ji-^ t-3 -l-^/? lioaL^^^CLs 

^-AoCS. K_,)~:x^ ^«^oo .vSLi^io; oöi; jlaxaiv^oo öv-K-,/ V*-^ jtC^aaJLio 

> .Vy>A . Nrt; ^^Oi^) jooi ^Ki. ^ oolo .w^:»/; ou--3> t-^ti./; •. öi-I^/ 
Lo» -.^oa/ji «X K4 \ts\Q.s[^ J^i .)ooi V^/ j^üa^l 1q.\ -.^^iaj 

:|.-J>aji^j ^/ .SL^^^ll ^; oöt :)— ^-Xa '^io/; jJLi-/ :)iaio )>-*J )Jj ^^Kji/ 

1. Jis. w^^.(- — 2. Ms. sini». — 3. Ms, >-w -.^asN. 



one that is more pcrl'ect. aiid purer, when the ^^'ord shall drink it new with 
US in the Fatlier's kingdom, revealing to us and teacliing us tliings that 
he has uow showu obscuiely; i'or that which is now made to appear is 
always new. But, what the drinking and enjoyment is, it is ours to learn, 
but his to teach, and to slio\v tlio matter to his disciples. For even the 
teaching is the food ol' liim \vho teaches »'. And very well did the Theolo- 
gian give expression to these words ; for our Lord also reckons our profit his 
own food and drink; for thus also he says in the gospel, « My food is to do 
my Kather's will »■; and again, when he Avas about to speak to the men from 
Samaria, he said to the disciples, « 1 have food to eat, which yc know not »^. 

LXXXVllI. — Of tue SAME FH0M tue 69"' letter ov tue 4"' book of tiiose 

AFTER RANISHMENT, WIUCH WAS MIliRESSEI) TO SeRCIIS RISIIOP OF CyRRHUS ' . 

519-38. But, since your saintliness askcd with regard to l'hioch and Elijah, of 

whom one was translatcd that he should not see death, as the apostle said\ 

1. Or. XI, V, 23. The last sentence riiiis : Tpotpri yoüv eariv i] 8t6a?i; x. toü Tplifovtp?. — 2. Jüliii, iv, 3'i. 
— 3. Ibid., 32. — 4. S. L., V, LS p. 121, 198; M:insi. VIII. 817; Mich., p. 2fi7. — .^. Heb., XI, .'>. 



29 v° a. 



[321] I.XXXVIII. — TÖ SKKGIUS OF CYRRHUS. 151 

In .. , vv , •/Q0a-ScVJ3T\ 

■ >?> ^~^i./ I .>fi »\; y-l w; j-^ ^; )-C§^ .-«-.jKIi./ ^ ^qjl-*; .-j-^öti 

.-^.k^^oi y.-»/j )toL3o^:5 vOOt_.)^-/;o ^ooi-lS.— ./;© .^^.«^^»o :)ooi jK^-lKio 

• .vOoC^ ^JlI \.siot ^io )jOl ^/; -.yOOi^ jot—iol l-o-ioJi; oö» joi^ 

)oü^ p .)jLa\cba\ o im I )1 )loiv> .ot ^».^^ ojotKxo/; vOoüSwS ^ -^oio Joi^jJ 

1. Ms. sing. — 2. Ms. «»fi>»J- — 3. llere Ihe text breaks off, l'oi' f. 33 lias no connoxion wilh it, and 
a leaf or inore must have been lost. 



wliile the other was cauglit up towards heaven, if they will undera^o the 
common death, it is iucumbent upon iis to state, in proportion lo the small 
eapacity whicli we possess, tlie things that have reached onr comprehension 
from the teachinff of the fathers. It is believed therefore accordinff to the 
testimonies of the divine words that Enoch was tran.slated, and Elijah was 
caught up towards heaven, and was carried by the air', and that they are 
alive, and that they are in such places as God knows, ^and that he- bestowed 
upoii them such a marvellous translation hence, and that tliey are in a 
mortal body, having not yet received the blessing of immortality. For let 
US agree with Paul who says generally of all the holy men who pleased God, 
« And all these to whom testimony was borne through faith received not 
the promises, God having foreseen some better thing for nur sakes, that 
they might not be perfected without us » ^ And it is manifest that perfection 

1. äiip. — 2. A. V. (M) -who'. — 3. Heb., Xl, 3'.l, 40. 



V 32 V 



2^1 v° b. 



ao r" a. 



152 LETTERS OF SFTVERUS. [322] 

.)ia~-kjuJio )l.ola-.io |lj )ju3ol y/ )J / ..öu)^-/ )JV— / ^»^^ jJo )iot-oa^i ^j 
^fJL^ -.öul^/ JJLSOI ^; )fO|; .j.-'^^^<=>^; jln'^Nvi.s; .-o'l.^ jJ; IIojlQJl^ jJo 
)f.:^).^a-3 .sin »\o°m « ^>JL^.coa.o; j^a^ixis/ jooi; oöi ^i ..o . wmoV^ ya.»'\»,o 
^f JJJL,^» .v^J^oo ^^<^o« ^ .)<->t^3^ loL^; l^'f^/? J' Q - « Q- 3 ; ^Vlo . .ym\i 

)J/ »Iviiflo/ )jL.|-:»o .^; M ^^ U-^^l •.^■«■ ^ ^^A^^; ooi y/o .).^/ jJo ooi )Jo 
.)J»K^ "Of.^/ OOI wC:^>^l/;o ).JOi t->~.^ uuKji/; .ojaiXJ ^^^oC^; oV^K^ ^^ 
i_.K^ V-*-«^ y°f^^ .oSlcoo/ ^-.2Lio jJ .voow.^-./ U^L^l o/ yOoi^K../ ^j ia-/j 
po/ |.ia.^ol )jL3^i)0 OOI ^ ^-j OOI .^V-io/ jJ ^-ot-^i. If^? ^-*^oi ^^ 
).^wi_.CS.*; |.^eL.,vK^ ^^^ .•) . m^>xQj/ «iv^o; )^t^^^ vCQ..«\a2LL^>^>jL^ c oo n ^ 
oC^; JL^oo^ ''füo .oi\«.^; )jf.^o).^o yV^iOLJs OL^^ik^l/ uiJlyi/ ""^wk^^o -'V^/; o6i 
^o^-A V» I HO jiöutf K.« 1 \ |i/ jjxl^^ oo|0 .jooi «oioK«/ l;ö|.^; l-iV^o;; 

1. Ms. sins;. — 2. Ms. ^»^ — 3. Ms. .= • ' 



is notliing eise except a state of iuimortality and glorv, and impassibility, 
that does not grow old, in tlie kingdom of heaven. That tliis is so is 
confirmed by John also tlie wiso in the Spirit, wlio became bisliop of Con- 
stantinople, in the 22'"* homily of the commentary on the Epistle to the 
llebreM's, where he givesthe following teaching : « But man}'- inquire whither 
Enoch was tianslaled, and why he was translated, and why he did not die, 
neither he nor Elijah, and, if tliey are still living, how they are living, 
and in wliat form. But it is superriuous for us to inquire into these things. 
For that the one was translated and the other was taken up the Scriptures 
stated; but where they exist or how they exist tliey did not go on to say; 
for they do not say anything beyond -what is necessary »'. And the same 
doctor delivered an expository discourse in Constantinople in the church of 
Marth Anastasia" about tlie saying of the apostle who says, « Henceforth, 
my brethren, be strong in our Lord and in the power of his might »■', and, it 
being the day of the actnal commcmoration of the martyrs, and the king 

I. In Kp. iid Heb. Ilom. xxii, 8(ed. Field). — 2. In IhfiGrook Ulle il i.s (^illedlhe church olS. Thoma.s. 
aiiil llic bibliral citation and the nienlion üflhe marlyrs are absont. — s. Epli.. m, 10. 



[323] LXXXVIil. — TO SERGIUS OF CYRRIIUS. 153 

y\ ^N" .o|!b>. 1^/ )->5aA ).JOi; -.ooi; ouoJOJi «1^ ^^ V^/ j-^a^ol .jL^^et^o 

^^io ..aSx ^^o« ..).xi.Jiaa\ o«^ )ooi ,_2Jiw |JSocl*.äo )l.Q.io ^^>^^io l-ict^oi 

.^^»»^-io ^j ^i— 3 J--^-^ i^° r:^ )L-^aXL^> .^\.io )toa*J5 ^^:&>^io» oöi 
^/ ^cDo^o-^o .la.^&-i; ot..n ^-». ]J Joot ^-»^oi iK^ V^? ^~*'^ ^OJI^J^ 
01.^0^1 "^^^ -.looi wm^Kjl:^ jJo .)lo.:>o \\„,^ jj< ^cxju. ^u)^/ )l a i^ o .>ou>; 
.oi,_2l^ ^*ip. )Ia.>^o |J ~^io ol^ .la^aj; om^aji jJo V-*-^ o|.-<i.lJi .joi!^ )ooi 
jAo-^io jj ^ a\o .l)Lio jj p ^ ;Kjiio jJ/ .)^:^--^\ IVJU jJ; jJLi-./ 
Ipö/; SL-/ w«KÄio ySi .^aji )L:L-«j ).-«fcs.io JIq-k^o jt-,^-^ |l/ .^oiofcs.-/ 

1. Ms. -toi- — 2. Ms. ,«• 



having comc to the martyrs' chapel and withdrawn before tlie sermon, lie 
delivered a discourse after the king's departure, of whicli the beginning is : 
« Blessed is God for the greatness of the power of the martyrs, for 
yesterday they drew the whole city with the queen, and to-day the king 
with his soldiers, with great reverence ». And, when in this discourse he 
was explaining about death and the resurrection, he gave this teaching : 
« Since therefore the fear had increased and had shaken the raind, see how 
thereafter ho introduces also the hope concerning the resurrection, a dark 
hupe indecd and not clear, Iiut still he introduces it. For Euoch, who came 
into being after these things, he did not allow to die; and Paul says that 
'by faith Enoch was translated that he might not see death; and he was not 
found, because God translated him'. For he translated him and did not 
allow him to die. He did not yet make him immortal, in order that he might 
not do away the fear, but he reraains without dying. And he is not immortal; 
but he gave continuance of Ute in the mortal body, opening up, as I said, 
obscurely the hope of the resurrection » ' . 

1. Ed. Par. 2% XII, 474, 477. 



»l !■' b. 



154 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [324] 

Lxxxix (sie) TSlpo^x^uioAJto QocujcCnrsf i\al r^nardfio j'iiTa'n 

), - ^^ O^s^t Ot . . . vQJUllJ^-J ).XOQ.iCULS :a^^^ |,flOC>>flJL3; vQj[ö|o 

U . . . |j^ju-.[^o ) [K^x^c:^ .-usi^i/ Vj. . ) . . . .) 

vooi— .K..-/; vQ~l6| voo« . . ; ..)v--_io/ K-. äo I-«^^ 

)l ts K_.)j)_3; v-öt I jNJüwJ-^IisJse [jl2uo |^[jsl^] 

|1 )-M.jk |jLio; |.^cu^ ^,-0 yO>oc>n[j]; ^^^J^ )_K.*ltoo 

^e ) W.ÖU3 ^ . . )ts.Ä>o )lQj[v]£Q.ifcoo '"^jj; . . jJ^ . . . jioJJJ; 

...» *^^ t-wISj ]y^U> )t-M>0 •r^-J |Ja . . . I . . . 

)o(.^; )la_JUiw;oK_jL.iCLS ©».aj ) yo ^;l)S>_io oitoöa^^jsj 

lo',-..'=> % -^o . •) ,« J. « •> [ oot ] ) eon vi l\ o^.^;o J-^clmOS ^ ... .1/ l^)V-> ... 

yOjÖl^ .-y/ . • OÖI ... iO . . . . JOU^JJ "^U> / )K2^w-J 

^^ .-ca-Söil/ . . . 1^ -) «v> v^ I j..^ con VI 1 ) . . . ^; ^; 

JL-If— OÖud ''^^-^; yO-lÖtJ^O J^) «Kl V> I; yOJOI 



LXXXIX. ■ — Ol- Mau Severus to Ammonius tue scholastic of Bostha. 

.-iia-3s. For Paul says, « [Those who sinneil without the law] shall also perish 
witliout ihe law; [and] those who siiined in the law shall also bo judged in 
the law. »' every created tliing good and evil 



who are creatures and a rational soul 

'shall stand before the judgmenf-seat of Christ'" 
[shall give account] ' für all the contempl and . . . 



renounced the recognition of God 



n* 



and that they kept the natural law and in piety 

lived .... according to the law from among those who 



aecording In the law 



1. Honi., II, 12. — 2. Id., XIV, 10. — 3. 'l'liis is the sense ie(|uire<l. 



[325] LXXXIX. — TO AMMONIUS THE SCHOLASTIC. 155 

.) . . . ]J;o ^So . . o . . . 1; yOJÖi ^^ .-. , . ^ )_i^^ö/ 

V-^ . . . o|.I^ ooi vr> '»■ji. )i,o;o|.-£D jJ« a^ ^~^-^ '^^ 

1 jK.iw^ la^..^Ju3 ^ .jooi JL^QJL^ jlojx^^j Iql^ ) > r«' I ^\ 

^]; oo< .JV^si vf°^! ^°< y-*/ v^?t-'! I-*"'"*-'^^ yC>oi^va\ ^^ j sQ 'tt 

yQL^K.CQ.J .'vOOU^s-»/ jL*^»^ t^S; loOl ) . . ^ yOO«^^')^) 

yQ,-iM...s»J; Q^^^i vQ-JÖi la2^ ).^jf-2o l^cocL^a-S ot-^/i ^aI^oi JL>ö..a] 

)ot^ loA vQJLSU [)KJi^.^J> ^"^Ol ^iO ] jÖi^jJ? >-/ vOOJIi». 

sO -^tl jl ^.So .[yooi^j; jK^VojLs yO^jjj; j-M^ö^ yOoC^a^ oxol^ > »•,.« i^; 

[jicLi]^ Hot.[-,]o )_fcÄ[;]oi ^ )oo( jiio ^ .jVl^ [»-Küo )jLÜjo )i::^0)o 

Ol . , . ]o6t .-joi^^ ,— , . . . ^_./ yOOl.^^-.; 

vQJÖfO .Jl .... iciio v-oioK-./ . . ; \j \ji.\xX.\j[^ 

o . . _<^io !:» lo . . jfroo )lo K . |;o 



)Sv io )K-iO 



and tliose who the gospel-coraniandments 

from among those wlio 

For neither diJ he leave liimself without witness 

. . .made men perfect towards rigliteousness, since [he permitted . . . ] 

all men in freedom of will to walk as pleased them, but he . . 

that, being rational, they should understand [the words that Paul] 

and Barnabas [said] to those who wished to sacrifioe to them as gods : « . . 

turn [from these vain things] to the [living] God who made heaven 

and earth [and] the seas [and all that is in them, who in] past [generations] 
permitted all nations to go [their own] ways; and that without [leaving 
himself] without witness, in that he did good, since from heaven [itself] he 
gave them [rains and] fruitful [seasons], iiUing their own [hearts] wilii food 



and gladness » ' 



1. Acts, XIV, 15-17. 



er. v°. 



XG 
Q 58 V 



V (111 1- 



156 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [326] 

. ■ a^CL^vA; )lSs„.yJC)a^cvj jl K ; 

♦ |;oi jlai»^ ^-io ^^^ vooou -.o^.«^ |1 vOoCS— ; )jl.q-s jJ ^^ jjaAiC^o 

«CHQ-UL-sl jJ .-«^ t-=^*- )^l-_3 ^iO ^* \ 

II ik V II" »/rslulyiLxjocua i^<^l•a 

K^JV'l^ -.l-^W % V ^^^^-aouK^ U~^i ^, ,.\ fTn°>; vOJÖi ^^) )j^/ )t «mo/ 0/ 

yO '^V'oi^J ^A^oio Joj^jJ ^)_*Joi ^^IKio; V*->^ ).--^t.ia.\ .^_a\Kio 

)_._3a^>-* ^_io; vQJÖi Q^o -.jLi^^ ..OLjLL-)L.2i^j!aio 1^^ j'^^JLcQ.3; )^)Jb ^ 

jJjV^i ) 1 .. I n; w^^/ -'l-^V^; )t~*-^^-oo .3^.^ .^i nV) jJ ) 1 « m >n\; ^^/o 

1. Mj. *a3. 



porformed iinla>vful deeds, and from lack of perceptioii did not knuw tlicir 
own Maker, sliall he, bereft of tliis grace'. 

XC. — Of tue SAME, riiOM tue letter to Co^■STA^•TI^"E insiior of Laohicea', 

AN INTERPKETATION OF THE POINTS STATEI) BELOW. 

513-38. ^'^11 i^sk therefore wliat is tlin meaning ol' llie divine command whicli is 

contained in tlie law tliat was given through Moses and says : « if tliou make 
nie an altar of stones, build tliem not hewn; for thou hast laid thy hand- 
tool upon it, and it is delih^d » ■'. By ' hand-tool' he designates the instru- 
ment ' of.iron, the ax or hatchot, tliat is wielded by the hewers. For he 
reckons an allar fashioned of liewn stones to ho aboininable and does not 

1. A Greek exlraol rroiii a Irltor In A. Ihc srliolaslic is |iiiblisheil in S. ^•, N. C, I, 11, 177. — 2. H. 
1... p. 1117. 21'i; Marcel!., anii. 510; Zaoli. Uli., VIII, v; Mich., p. 2GC; P. /,., LXIX, 23: Mansi. X, 
1117. He is porli. \hc C. of Josli. 8lyl.. XLViii. LV. i..\xiv. — 3. Ex., xx, 25. — i. öpyxwi. 



o. 



271 XC. — TO CONSTANTIiXE. 157 



^; J^ ^*5!>>O^.i0 ...^oLo ♦yOOt-.)^/ ^\oi ).>.;/ ^; )v)^i .l.£a.B<x^ ooi ^^; 

. N^ ^oi:;K_^ K_.)Jl.l2;o :^o(Jl3j ^'j-o-s^ jt-o-^^o 

^^^; )..jLa 1.3; )Kjljl>^3 jK^ä...yi.3o K.^jjL.010 ^oul2ü lo^, ^:^« \^\^ 

y!S>..3L^po; '^^ot-3^ V^l^.-yi . fiv ^öi Ja-wi.|ioj :|_i.i/ ^io ^otl-l^oo 

.•~ Ji^-flQ.3K.iÖl OÖt ^/o .•)^O^sÄiO •.^^; I-ILÄJ; jKjÜLO ) K-3lJL-^SCLJ9i 

»aIhSj t-"-^ j-^si-»/ ■"'^ -^=''^° •••l^'Ot •jjK.äio |.^dVcl3o j-iJL^o/ |;l.a^ 
), ,.. -^^vi -.yMoV^; jKjL^a&l ^'^N^oo; 

1. Ms. r^ovaj- — 2. Ms. ins. |M:=*--m. — :.i. M.s. -^t-»- 



accept it as being a defiled tliiuy. But tlie symboI tcaches that fruits that 
spring by nature itself from the earth are more pleasing to God, wliich shall 
be offered to God upon the altar rather than those that arc gained iiy thc 
rapine and violence of war, which are the acquisition of iron. 

(And (tfjain.) But the symbol of the law introduces to us also another 
tliought which is akin to this and edifying. The altar that was built of 
Chance stones naturalh' produced by ihe earth establishes the fact that 
God is pleased ' by the simple Impulses and natural thoughts that are in our 
soul, not by thoughts that are decked out by artificial preparation and mani- 
fold devices, and, as if hewn out, mingle with the truth and the simplicity 
arising from this. [And at/nin from the saine.) For as the holy Cyril inter- 
prets in the ')'" book about worsliip in spirit, « He names Emmanuel an earth- 
altar. For 'the Word became flesh'. For the nature of flesh is earth and 

1. This is fippy. tlie riipanini; of lov^H '-'w, tliougli Üie constriiclinn is unlviiuwn lo llio le.\icons. 



) 511 r" 
lO 
O 



XCI 
E15 i°a,b 



158 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [328 

\^l ji -.wJS. t-a^i. \^\^ y^ )..w^^^ 

jj —cjioJ^/ ) » v> ji; n » v>o otla^io ^ aL..,yijj )ooi >ö>^^ jjj^^oo 

..JJjVAi ^..M^^ck^ JJ; ool j-sj-llao :)^»/ ^^; ^'^:M |.^.5»^o .^^oioK-,/ )-»->t-° 

)ofSx ^^o .'l.:«^^ l^>->r-^; j-aKjLs; ^öi .^otj} «öi loili^ ^; ' ^ » "^V) 



from earth »'. « But, if thoii make me an altar of stones, biiild them not 
liewn ». He does not allow words offered to God to be cut with iron. For 
Christ was ' the elect stone of the head of the corner and precious ', ■ incapable 
of being cut by sin, because he knew not how to be injured by the devil's 
strokes; and he was not divided between God and the world, though he 
becarae flesh, but he is all holy. Aecordingly the altar made of earth, and 
the stones also that arc not smitten by iron, signify Christ, as in the illus- 
trations mentioned above. 

XCI. — Of Till': null Skveuijs patrimich of Amioch, fhom tiik 1.")"' i.httfii 

OF tiik 5"' ItooK OF TIIOSE AFTKR T! \MSIIM K.NT, WIIICII \V\S ADMUKSSICIl TO 
MaI) (^)NSTANTI.MC lilSIlOI' OF IjAOIIICEA. 

5i9.:!8. Hut the next point lo whiili l will apply niys(df is llic words found in 

the Bool< of Gi'iiesis lliai wcre spokon l»y God, w licn lio was aboiil lo bring 

1. /'. (!.. l,XVIll,rii):i. — 2. Is.. .X.X.Mll, IC: I l'cl.. II. li. 



[320] XCI. — TO COA'STA.XTIXK. 159 

.2l-^/o .^K4 )t-2L>Ji>. I^>,^ oi\; jj^too ^^^JU jj^ ;K-s ^ .•o_ou 

|.iOQ— i ^*i ^ jo-wJ» p |J/ .|oo(l; loo« )^<K^; -6i oj^ loot |-»^; oöt 



1. Ms. xa-^. 



the ilood in the days of Noah, « My spirit shall not dwell among those men 
for ever, because they are ilesli; liut tlieir days shall be 120 years » '. You 
ask how it is that, when a Space of 120 years had been granted, he is seen 
to have carried out tlie same threat after 100 years, and flooded the whole 
earth together. For Noah was 500 years old on the day on which lic granted 
him the space ; and the divine Scripture said, « And the waters ol" the flood 
came upon the earth in the GOO'" year of the life of Noah, in the 2'"' montli 
on the 27'" day ol' the moath » -. Upon this, being directed to the truth by 
the divine Scripture itself, we say that the term of 120 years was given in 
mercifulness, in order that those who were livins^ an evil life miyht chaoffe 
for tlie better in fear of the threat. But they came to the utmost limit of 
wickedness, and treatcd the divine iong-sulTering witli contempt, and accor- 
dingly God brought the punishment immediateK-; not as if he did not know 
what was to liappcn, but to sliow by the long term the abundance of bis own 
long-suHering, and to establish also the greatness ofthose men's wickedness, 
who so much increased their impiety, and went down to the very end und 
bottom of wickedness, so as to call the sentence quickly dowii upon them. 



I V a. 



1. Gen., VI. 3. — ■>. Id.. vii 



ir. V" li 



Kl r° a. 



160 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [330] 

lo^ po/ sS/o );OI ^^>^ -vOi-^^ yOOl.-*^^^ K^JJL^^A JUL.« ^>^^? U-^^l 

)lQ..a..«.\j lo^ .°i\ .,xj oi^9 )JL.i '><^? '^ ^l t"*^ If-"^ •JJo^ 

JKjLfc^ ^^^:m \olll •.vOOfKJL.^ ^^ o6i ).^a>w ^aSouo :ö\^^olo öuf.^^/; 
^^«.^k^e )oU/ •.s«\ na vox^ojü )lo :w>.^^ JKä^js yOf>2L^uo :ovjUo jÜLdil; 

^rt >cxN/< ^ .vcQ-.i^aq[ I o ^.JL^ too o; j-So n m°>/ )o,oi« oöi « i**o » v^ V> ."^ ..o 

• .^mKI^ )^;oöi^ ''^ji-oaJS.; ^/o .oKls jjLSoio JLb^aV/o j).^; l^o^opoA 
'^iool^ )-.«oou |t-«<K^ ^; yj .^Ka^ jK^poL^ yoouöi^/ io^; J^ioÖjl^; 

• .^J^oi ^/m |)-iL,^CD; jj/ ^2L^rf -.jooi vOOiIol^) oöi t-'^^/ j-'JOO-A.^O :^^oi 
,lV^ U^^ ^^tp3i jiog ^-^ ):^)jJ oo«.«; y^toKa./ .oooi )K.o-.(o^j» vs/o 



Therefore he further also said to the rightcous Noah, « The end of all flesh 
liath come in before me, because the earth hath been filled with iniquity by 
ihem » ' . For it is bis custom to change his own seiitences in the direction 
of fury and goodness according to our change, either towards wickedness or 
towards virtue. And this he stated plainly tbrough Jeremiah the propbet : 
« If I speak a determination against a people or against a kingdorti to root 
it out and destroy it, and that people turn from their evil deeds, I will repent 
concerning the evil things which I spake to do to them. And, il" 1 speak 
a determination against a people and against a kingdom, that it be built 
and planted, and they do evil deeds before me, and hearken not lo my voice, 
I will repent concerning the gobd things which I spake to do to them » -. 
And that these liiings are so is laid down by the very wise John also who 
became bishop i4' C.onstanlinople, when ho is interpreting the 104"' Psalm 
and writing thus, and contending as against the Jews, wlio adduced the 
promises to their fathors : « But, if the Jew argues against these things, and 
liolds to Ihc proinisc lliat was madc lo them, I learn thal many such promises 
were indeed made in the Old Testament also. He promised to give the land 

1. den., VI, l.'i. — 2. Je]'., .wiii, 7-l(i. 



[3311 XCl. — TD CONSTANTINK. Kil 

^; yj :oj.ia^o ).i^iOL^ :)laa^i>o ^i.o |.iai. ^>> ^^&.^o/ ).^)o\aJi \^l 

.yOCk^J; yOoC^ K.-/ jJ jJ/ .a>>-».t/ ^^oC^ Xf^^!? °?' v/ yOCL.wi-' i^ / -jot^; 
:)bä^a>> yocsi^o vao'^lSu vl^;>.^« '^*^ "^^^ •°^^ J-'v-*/ i<^ .l!°i ^^^^ 
KaA |.,J^a3; oCS.^; oiLol^ .Ka,aj yooiu«^^) yoa^j; ^^^^.jl^ JJ ^o^^ 

1. Ms. ^oa*- — -2. M.-.. "^'J- 



from the river of Egypt to Ihc Euphrates, and did not give it. He promiscd 
Adam to lay the fear and dread of liim upon the animals, and the promise 
was not brought to completion. He promised that the life of men should 
Ite 120 ^^ears, and he brought the punishment before the term. And in the 
opposite cases the same things are to be seen. He threatened Hezekiah 
with death, and turned it away. He threatened the Ninevites with over- 
tlirow, and dispelled the wrath, showing that neither good tliings nor painful 
things depend ou him only, bot also on the recipients. Fur, if Iic llireaten 
soniething grievous, and those who receive the tlireat change, they rcpel the 
wrath from tliem. But, if he promise somcthing good, and they show 
themselves to be unwortliy, they will be deprived. Thercl'ore he says, ' I will 
speak a determination against a people and ugainst a kingdom, to imild 
and to plant', but, 'if he says 'they are seen to be unworthj-, I will not 
bring these things'. Let theni not therefore bring God's promises before 
US, but let them show if they were seen to be worthy of these. But they 
cannot show it : therefore they passed to others. For we nowhere find that 
they are able to show that the words ' In tliy seed shall all the nations be 
blessed ' ' were fulfilled of tlieni »'-. It is the same difficultv and elucidation 

1. Gi'ii.. XXII, 18. — 2. Till' (■(jiiiiiifiil,ii\ IUI I's. i:iv is losl. 

P.\TR. OK. — r. XIV. — F. 1. II 



IC. r b. 



IC V a. 



162 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [332] 

J ntn°>; ^ ffivVl; |^l^^.n^ .-v^DOu^^^aA l-*->t-o *>^^^^? ^-^oio ■•v^^'»' jioV^otJo 

. .«Not^ ji nq[>o joöi ^fioov^ ^^..a^jo :^v^)v-•^A ^^:ieL.og9 U^^l •^^••; )m «°> 
ool ) i,°iV>;o .)KjL:>e^ ^a^A.^; ^;oKji/ .^-JL.a^MJM U>i<s^ ^^ -.po)!/ ou^; 
fS öt^; •J)^0«jl 'f^l *'*"^ ^^^ ♦. ,« VI » m )f.2L^^o l^^l^; ^->J^oC^ |J U^ 
IKi^Odk^iL^ )J^^-=i4 <^t-:^^; ^ ^^oi .vO-a.aj )jü/; oit-^) oC^i> jl^sj:.^ yQ-NXx,» i 
.^K.^ ^4; );oü^io •JLl>;; ) K.>n » n"^ JJ^JL.«^^ opus« ^^ ^.^oi •.U^.-*'» 

oily ^\o .)Ki^io»/j ötV^'iso »).>Cis.\. ycLi^l yj> yiji jg^^ o o jtocu^; )jLs; 

1. Ms. lo,m; Cyr. ExßiidEToi. 



to whicli tlie words also relato which the holy Cyril wrote in tho 12"' book 
of the commcntaiy on the Gospel of John, as follows : « Biit, becausc', 
tliough he often promised to do mauy things at the litting time, he never- 
theless did them even before the time appointed, l'or the purpose of persuading 
US, in Order that we may truly believe that even ander all circnmstances the 
things Said l)y bim will come to efl'ect, we will show from the foUowing. 
He promised to raisc tlie dead, and to bring ])ack to life those who are laid 
in the earth and dust. For, 'Ihere cometli', he saith, 'an iiour, wherein 
the dead shall liear the voice ol' the Son of man and come l'orth, thcy that 
liave done good deeds to tlie resurrection of life, but they tliat have done evil 
decds Lo tlio resurrection of judgment '. And Ihat he will casily makc this 
good, Tand will hasten to persnade " he taugiit by saying, 'I am the resur- 
rection and the life'. And, bccause The would not make the greatness of the 
thing that the dead should rise at that time so to speak incredilde, for a 
useful purpose the time of the resurrection is hastcncd' and he sliows the 
sign in that he ralsed l^azarus and the widow's son, and Jairus' daiightcr. 
And wliat (dsc besides tlicse things? Me says that tiic resurrection of the 

1. Cyr. oTt, \vlii<'li Ihe Iraiisliilxir lias iMisiiiidcisUiDd. — 2. (lyr. Ti)jipo?opeTv £it£iY6(ievo5. — :i. (^yr. -fi 
Toü 7ipoiY(ji«TO; ÜTtEpSoXr) xb iva6i(i(j£<76a( tiote to'j; vExpoü; äntaiöv itw; stIOei tffiivt: /p/i'jti/.tü; tov Trj; äiaataaeioi 
xaipüv. 



[33;i| XCI. — TO CONSTAXriNR. I6;5 

.jia^C^ vfiXmo •.. 1 ..n «^o oo n\ «\o w»oV^>^\ V-*-^ "^^oji. .jooi ii; v b. 

^^ > » % i/o .j'ljj yoa.MJ; ^^«Xoi OOOI ^^1^ ^oot^; •), " ' jji^o vQ.^>oKjlIi 

)K n « ..? )Io»^°>>na o^) ""^..^«^o .yoljb |.^a->; l-*-^; i<ooi | ....•> J.^; o'r^l 

)j^/ .yaa^>»u^jLj )N.Ajia^o JIojl^o/ f.«^^ ^^oi\; -.j-^Q-« )ooi ^otoh<^l 

jloJL^oJJ jji^t^; j-LSi-*/ .'|^:>0L^ yoj/ )ooi ^3oiJ ) I .i\o yooü^^j )^>'>^ ooi 



1. Ms. sing. 



saints shall be sometliingexceedingly glorious. 'Then', he says, 'the righ- 
teous shall shine in their Father's kiugdom', that he may again be believed 
as one who speaks truly, in that ""he saw the disciples beforehand and gave 
the sight of this'. For ' he took Peter and James and John, and went up 
into a mountain, and was transfigured bßfore them; and his face shone as 
lightning, and his raiment became white as snow' » ■. But in the above- 
mentioned commentary on the 104"' Psalm we find the holy John bishop 
of Gonstantinople solving I he point in Exodus ihat seemed doubtfui ; and the 
point that seemed doubtfui is, you said, as follows : « flow is it that, after 
Moses had turned all the watcr in Egypt into blood, Scripture said that tlie 
magicians were able to show the same sign against that? For, since all 
the water had bcen changed, liow was it possible for pure water to be found 
in whicii these men were to show the sign? » Some bave said that it was 
possible for sea-water to come, since the sea was not at a great distance, 
in Order that they might change this by magic skill; while others have said 
that it is not incredible that Moses himself, after the change to blood, turned 

1. Cvr. Ttpoupov Toti iiaO'OTar; x. tyiv loiitr/j Ocav e-/apii;£TO. — 2. In .Tu. Ev., cd. Piisey. III, 1:i(i. 



17 r :i. 



17 r° b. 



164 LETTERS OF SEVEUUS. [334] 

^^i^^j \j» ■ y.-/; -.t-^/ ^JL— Q-. ).:)a-.>a^ jjia^^Oio i'^sKä/ K_)jL,^sÄio 
J^oioJ ^9 "^ »i f" ' / ^aJLs^ .'1oo( öu^»-»/ jlooaju.. v«öi w^ J^Vocl^ J-^ojl^ 
^^oi :^K.a:» ^ yOo^-.^^-/ )V-*J K-i^— l; ^-^ot ^b.o :)AioV ^^io; )jLau./o 
oooi yoci^K^/; )-a_./ :|;t^; )la«-^o ''^.ii.o .. .^i jJ; ooot ^^iK.a^o vQJÖi; 

.)..:)o^ |jL^ ^« )a\,»o*; ^öio .-locM )f<^^/ ^o<-3; ^^oi .-jlo^:!.^ ^ojSo 

-.^^ ')•, <^ '/ vjJl2) oooi vOOt.K-./; j-^-*/o :^Jl_^j )^')-s; ^iCU.OtUj vß'jJO 
vC)0|_2) .OfKj {.^L^^aA |1; ^'^>^) '^.xa^ / wJl.2^ )jl^ yO-JÖi :vOO(!S^; )jl»jX3 
llax^oipo-s; y^l .yOQ..»jJ yOOi^^; jlcUL^o/; ^^.oi .')^V^ V^-*?!? •'^°'^ j-*?-^ 

|jo> .. ^9 0CL3 .SoM.^ ^o,^S^^ l-o->^j t-3; ^oi «'iooi 6i-«K^/ )K.. «,a.a 
jl; .jLVpO OOOI yOOl^K^/; ).0^/ «o^yl^js )J/ .oÜSjlj» Ol^ w^; )«ot^o .))_«Kj 
»Ol looi ou^l ))Oi.cD lov^ixi.^ ^^; ojoi :^\m . fn-KSw^v /; f.^)j vJu/ t-<<^^ 

1. Ms. ov^sNa»;. — 2. Ms. ;'/• — :!. Ms. »awioSii^;,. 



tlie water hack to ils own appearance and nature, in orJer tliat the magicians 
might show their own skill on the other side. But the wise doctor John, 
since he understood the divine power as is right and in very discerning 
fashion, said that, as in the case of the darkness the Egyptians had that 
darkness, while the sons of Israel had light, and, as in the matter of tlie 
herds, and in the case of the yoke-animals when they died, those belonging 
to the Israelites remained unharmed, and, in the case of Ihe plague of hau, 
where the sons of Israel were in the land of Goshen uo hail feil, in llie sanie 
way you should understand as rogards all the plagues too, auKuig which 
that change from water to blood was also includcd, and i( inusl he helievcd 
that in the land of Goshen, and where the sons of Israel were, the watcr 
remained for the sons of Israel in ils own natnre without ciiange, in which 
it was possible for the magicians to show the Performances of their own 
skill. Among the words uttered by the doctor is containcd the foUowing 
passage by way of summary : « ' He sent darkness and made it dark' ' ; and 
it was a very glorious fact that, while the ray shone everywhere, in Egypt 
darkness appeared; and thcrc not ihroughoni, 1ml only whi-rc the Egyptians 
were. For, lest any one sliould say that whal, happened was an cclipso-, 

1. l's, civ, '-'8. — 2. ExX£i4'i?. 



[335] XCI. — TO CONSTANTlNr-:. 165 

jK-^f-<..j3 |ooi s^oioK^/ ))l.«.,w^« oöi .j-xDOJ; {.ai n m °> / v£DQ_^aL,^t->Np V^/ 

|..:Mf^ )..jia-:>o; )j^.i}a^ y^^l ^iv^a^« ).Xao; |jla^ ot!^3 «-«~^ v**"**^ 

)oo) );o» ^^^io .ooo( vooi-j^-/ JjLio JLio; oot oooi > «\\i ^ ^*; )-»V i\\ 
)-^;; )i.Q^o^; . • . .«.^sK.jl^ ) -'f ^ n- la^^ ^^oi jLoöj»; .-ji.aJL:^o|J )jl3J 
io-i^ : 'jläai^^« )»>w^>o^ |.^Kn^ )f_oo/; ^; ^6i .vQ.:sio,:> »Kj K_>)^^^ 
jji^K.^; ^^I&w^^^o :)^V^ )-^'o/ ^^01 ^/; :f.>Of )ju>t-° ^~m :)jop ybOQ...w>./ 

1. Ms. Willi poiiil-, • — :;. Ms. willi pniiU : iollowing. — 3. j\ls. sing. — 'i. Ms. «»o». — 5, Ms. ow. 



tliat is a disappearance of thc moon, nor ' the coiirse of nature, the Hebrews 
Avlio wcre liviiig in the samc country witli tliem were not alTected bv thiä 
plague, a thing which liappened in the other plagues ». After a similar 
manner Gregory also bishop of Nyssa, who was great in the knowledge 
oI' diviue things, in thc treatise which he composed about virtuc said these 
things : he said : « For then all the nature of the waters in Egypt was in 
accordance with Moses' conimand turned to blood, and the fish were de- 
stroyed, because the water was converted to fleshlike density ; but ^tlie 
Hebrews, when they drew the blood, had water -. Therefore therc arose 
an occasion for the display of skill, that with the water found among the 
Hebrews they might in a defective manner contrive to produce the appcar- 
ance of blood » '. The words used in the P' Book of Kingdoms to Ahimelech 
the priest by the holy David, « Is the journey itself also profane? '' because it 
will be hallowed to-day by means of my implements )>, if it is very carefully 
and clearly read, is seen to be mucli plainer than the sun, and to be free 
from all obscurity. David asked for bread to eat; and the priest answered 
and said, « There are no profane loaves under my liands ; but there arc holy 

1. Sic Syr. — 2. Greg. ■coX<; 'FXcj. äpuoiisvoi; növoi; üäojp to atjj.ot vjv. — a. P. (1., XLIV, 3i18. — 'i. Tili' 
anibiguity belween allirmalive and intcTrogative (see beluw) cannol be preserved. 



17 V" ;i 



17 V" b. 



18 r" a. 



16(i LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [33(i] 

)— »o/ 6uK-/ jj öt-sj «Ol ^U )Ki^^ )tv.3Li»ol W.OI ^-.Tvo -.j-V*^ )— 'o/ 
ojot .wC^; Jb)^ »_,^ ..)jiiOQu, sA^U; ^^'^^io -.Ivio/ »O )ÄÄ)oi.KiOO .|)^tJt 

' • • ' • ^ 

wCS«9 )K\j).^eL30 -.wwj)^) )-L^o .wC^^; jloxtpo f-<^:3 ^^t «Ol ).^w.^O 

yOiN,^; oooi ^f^>^o jjC^ v^-*?!? ^ y-*/? •"■*• ^"""^^^^ ^5°* ^° •)-=»t-^? 
oooi ^M ool |.^^^;o .OOOI ^..^«JS..^ JL:»^a^; oiK.nqiV>^ .-ogu/o «oiöj).^ 
jljLX^^D ^^ •.U-') '«.1^ ^/ O'V'flO v**.jV KjJ o/ )j.ä2^.>^^ wi-sV iK-3 
.jlÖA^Oo; )-o.^^o j^^Ks; oi-^CL^^aji ^^ ^; 1'^'-^^^; •);<3I öuK«/ jKwi^^ 
.oi^ «JUtQjOio v>V m <^ tp ^a^CLH .-«oiojjL^ '^ o,t^ ^o)jl 'po/; .-ts^/ oi^f 

I. Ms. ^vl::Aii,^. -2. JIs.ow- :;. — A p.-uaiihraso ofUiis passage occurs in V Im; r", as tollows : ">-» U'.oi 
^o^•^■•/ uoiöjI^-» i^.::o»i ^^»o •. Psl"^>i ^( |;o l»::s» .-..^iom^Ij iai-S( jj^ig-aoac La\< ''■»-5^ <^ lio|-oo 

.•..o^.•*^^; |^»iig,.5o U l-io/ ",«o •Tf*',»^ H--M Iwj .low ;~5oJ >?«*5j»= •«^••j — 4. Ms. ^!- — 5. GoiT. 
früin »-A^-vi- 



loaves. If tlie slaves have refraineil, at loastfrom a woman, they shall eat ». 
And David answered and said, « But. we have kept away from a woman 
since yesterday, and since the tliird day. Since I set out on the journey, 
all the slaves have been pure ». And, these things having been so stated 
first, v^hat Ibllows should be read as a question, « Is the jounioy itself also 
profane? » '; and thereupon the addition will give the reason for which the 
journey is not profane; and the addition runs, « Bccausc it will be hallowed 
1,0-day by means of my implcmeuts », that is to say, 'Will anyone call 
the same journey a profane tliing, a journey M'hich has been hallow^ed by 
means of my implements?', viz 'by means of my armour, and the bürden of 
my implements, and by my going to war'. And from this it is manifosi 
that, inasmuch as the slaves were accustomed to carry Ins implements and 
arms, when he went out to war, they were purified. And, that slaves again 
used to march aftor generals or Commanders, as armour-bearers, this is 
manifest from many instances ; for the present from the end of the P' Book 

1. I Heg., XXI, 'i, 5. 



[337 1 XCI. — TO CONSTANTINR. Ui7 

•^ ojo^; JL»)-^ ^^Jäa )->1oV-2 'v-*,-wJ ..)LoiSs t"»o;» l'VflO «Jl-V frv-».3 o/ 
^'iSi^io .yOj/ ,_*0; j-^^ vQJOl »s/; .».-o; 'po/ jjioi '^.OOi liojli». '-'^J 

otKi^^oj ^''is^io .-^-)-3 Kb^Laji jJ «jJLiöo wiÄ-^i»; ^''^»^^io .).au^Ä) o/ j-w^ioo» 

j^^^Oo lS.^)f^o{J ^j o^ .0001 ^.<o;too ooot . . n'M oiiK^CLiCL^; v^-JÖi; 
ssisJi ^j 001 y/ •V-.-.x Pö/ .yt.->..ä3 ).£Da:>aj ^_*jKij ^^C^oi ^_ioo .)»oi 

:).jwiäo Olt^ ).-U!QJ ).JLiO; «^"jJ )001.J0 .)K-.^lLiCL^ ^oiu JJo jK-VJLiO ^io 

• JK-V^-io ^ '^.i^ jlSoo; y."^ looilo .jlSwV*-iOL^ "^oij )jLiaji )^i.i>^; -)S«.io/o 



1. Ms. '■ — •!. Ms. «•**»• — 3. Ms. ">' 



IS 1" h. 



of Kingdoms, in wliicli it is stated that Saul said to his wcapon-carricr, a Draw 
thy sword and transilx me with it » ' . And towards tiie end of the 2" ' 
book he says, in the numeration and reckoning of the gencrals or Commanders 
of the divine David, « Naharai the ßerothite, weapon-carrier of Joab the son 
of Zeruiah d". This then is what David here said, « Even the slaves them- 
selves are pure, because they are weaponbearers » ; and this now when he 
had iled from Saul, and was not carrying arms. Wherefore also he asked 
the priest saying, « See if there be here under thine band a spear or a 
sword, because I did not take my sword aad my weapons in mine band, 
because the king's word was pressing »'. And from what is here stated 
cspecially it is manifest that those wlio went out for the purposc of being 
ranged in order of battle were purified. And this is very clearly recognised 
also from the commandments given in Dcutero- nomy; for he says : « If 
thou go out against thine enemies, keep thyself from every evil action. 
And, if there be among thee a man who is not pure from his discharge at 
night, lie shall go outside the camp and shall not come into the camp. And 
it shall be that towards evening he shall bathe his body in water, and, 

1. I Reg., XXXI, '1. - 



18 V a. 



108 I-ETTERS Ol- SRVKRUS. [338] 

^Vl; )-3K.aj3o .^1^ ^cisouo pv^oxo« )....is;a3 ^ )>^^ jJo .o^^K^l 
)K.»,aa.j.-. »Ki ^_io; ^-o; o»^ jooi »„a^ •.^jl-' v^otloi^; joot ^£o.o :)''»Vä 

^^t-^CL^ |;00t«*0 ^y^üQ-./o )io 1 n; 00( y/ -po/o )jLi.O .IcUwwJ OV^^; |Kj...3^ 

"^oi./ )j/o :^V^ Jt n .. uJIs/ ''^^^^ -poj s-oio^ü^o o)qj «"^o :) nü^o •> 
^la^ ]J, > , 1 0| ( ^oi )L_« •)-i-3'>/ -.v-IKj/ ^i^ y-^*J° j)^*/© ^as/o ^K..^^"^ 

1. Ms. Iwl-I.- — 2. Ms. ow- 



wlieii tlic siui liath set, lic sliall go iiilo tlie camp, xVnd tlion slialt liavc 
a place outside the camp, and he shall go out thcre without. And thou sliall 
have a peg on tliy loins, and it shalt be that, when thou sittest outside, 
thou shalt dig with it, and shalt turn and lüde thy shame with it; because 
the Lord thy God walketh in thy camp, to rescue thee, and to deliver thine 
enomies into thine hands; and thy camp sliall be huly; and the shame of an 
act shall not be seen in thee and shall turn away from thee » '. And in the 2'"* 
Book of Kingdoms Uriah too also manifests tliis same senti ment. ^^'hell 
he had returned from the lines, and was about to go to tlieni, David ordered 
him to go down to bis own house after supper; and he answered and said, 
« If the ark and Israel and .ludah dwell in tents, and my lord .loab and my 
iord's bondmen are encamped upon the face of the hehl, shall even I go 
into mine house and eat and drink and sleep witli my wife? how? As my 
soul livclli, I will not do this thing )>'-. These are the conclusions at wliich 
we l'or our part have arrived on the questions Ihat were presented to mc 
bv your saintliness according to the capacity that our ineanness possesscs. 



I, heul., .x.xiii. lii-l'j (tc.\l i.r AF). — 2. II He«., xi, 11. 



[33ni XCII. — TO I'ROCLA. iOO 



Ijoi ^^^io •.jll^/ ^-. t-«--'/ )jL-»; ).Äi.^o Ji-3^ ^o\oK^l |.J^^^io ^/ 
K-30i-.l/j j->-^HO \^Kä y^l V—^ )^v„»J^,,^>^>o .).QQ_.9^^9 ).:>Q.^aa; ^^.o^^ 

lal^; '-"■^ ^°°' i ^ ^ * -it-^-^ lo^; lt~<3-*/ 1q.>qa i-t—so/ w^f-*o( -JiKj/ 
>^>jla2iLaj jLjL_.t.-3 ^CLOQ.^ |.Jou^ .v«*^ » \\ v^J^KJjlj ooio •- « ».all .-o'^-a.^ 



X(M1. AcMN Ol- TIIK S\MK IIKIM TIIK I.KITKIt In PhOCLA, IN WHICII HE 

SHOWS Tll.VT THE WOM.VN HVD EQU.VL HO>OUK WITH THE MAN IN THE LIFE 

IN PaBADISK. 

Though the mau is ruler, and holds the position of head towards tlie 
woman ' (it was indeed for this reason tliat she came into being from his 
rib), yet nevertheless the tw^o had equal honour in the life of Ijliss in Paradise. 
Holy Scripture says that the woman was given as a helpcr to the man, who 
was ofdered to tili and keep Paradise", and botli the tilling and the keeping 
was common to them. But, because the decoitfulness of sin came in through 
the woman, then she lost the eqnality of hononr with the man; for sho 
heard the words, « To thy husband shalt thon (nrn, and he himself shall 
have authority over thec » ^ ; which punishment your modcsty desired to 
undo. 

1. I Cor., XI, 3. — 2. Gen., ii, 15, 18. — .!. Id., in, 16. 



XCII 

II :!:! I". 



XGIII 

E 57 1- b. 



57 V° a. 



170 LETTERS OK SEVERUS. L340] 

V*^ »J .oVio/ );oij ,5--^oi; jlo-.;; jLso llaSi-^i»^- jJ; * jia. -.v^ ^ |j/ 
^«^isicu JLsoia^b.; ).-öCäs JLlilSo ^«!i.OL£a\; ^.'cxJis )U/ öi^ K^/ j-a-/ .^^ 



XCIII. Ok tue SAME FROM THE 5"' LETTER OF TUE 9"' HOOK OF THOSE 

WRITTEN WIIII.E UE HELD TUE RISIIOPRIC, AVIIICII WAS VDDUESSEI) TO 
ArCIIELAUS THE READER ' . 

513-8. For you writo lo tlie effect that certain meu said about tlie holy .lohn the 

Evangelist that h(3 did not undergo the common end, but still continues 
even now to exist without death, like Enoch, of whom the apostle said that 
he 'was translated that he might not seo death % and Elijah of whom it is 
written that he 'was carried up in a whirlwind toward lieaven'^ I am 
astonished at the crassness o! ihc ignorancc of those who said this and their 
lack of Information. As the ovangclisl manifestly corrects the supposition 
of many and says, « .Jesus did not say to him ' Me shall not die', but 'if 
I will that he tarry tili I come what is it to thce ? »', where is there room 
for US to speak in Opposition to the divine Scripturcs and say that hc; who 
said these things renuiined immortal? The disciples ahove all, they who 
were the preachers of the rcsurrection, were bouud to undergo the common 

I. or T>J-e (S. L., VI, 2). A Greek cxlrart IVniii a Irllcr lo liiin is piiblUluHl In Mai, Cldss. AiicL. X, 
441) (er. 'i57). — 2. Heb., .\i, 5. — 3. IV Reg., II, II. — '». Joliii, xxi, 2:!. 



[3',l] XCIII. — Tf) ARC[||-:i,AUS. 171 

)jjo»; ^-<^0I JLX-. ^'^s^jO .vOoj^ U>0^£0 HqjK-SO^j jl^Oi^^O Övio .'^»-.Kiw; 

"^»^^Oo; jK^wio yO^^^jQJ; ooo« ^-^-^aJLio jJo .)iajLin-.oü oooi ^(X-po .0001 

t3 ool :;a-A joo« ^t n V)o :)oo» wOioK..-/ jLol ^^^o( y-);; JJ)ä_», ioA, 
^.001 K^LSu .-^io/ );oj on\j JV-i^ ^f^ JJ? oi^ j»'« :oila-w^-lj^ .n'mo, 

1. Corr. lo >3ol-i- 



end, in ordcr that all who received the preaching of the gospel miglil learn 
that all the chances of their blessediiess rest in the future life, and tliat we 
must despisc the life here, and willingly hasten to death. Such wonderful 
things were done in the times of the old covenant', when men wcre not 
yet in a perfect condition, and were deficient in faith, and were unable to 
receive the teaching of the resurrection, and firmly to believe that, after 
the Separation of soul and body, it is possible for those who have once died 
to come back again to life. As to the fact that John the Evangelist under- 
went the common end, it is not we only who ndimt this, bat men also who 
are highly distinguished among the fathers, and Tguides to the mysteries" 
and doctors of the holy church. And John, who became bishop of Constan- 
tinople, in the commentary on the Gospel of Jnhn, when commenting on 
the vcry place from which those who are blind towards what is manifest 
and piain draw the erroncous inference, says thus : « For, because Peter was 
always confident and forward in asking such questions, il was again by 
way of cutting away bis impetuosity and teaching him not to make any 
further inquiry that he said this. Therefore the report went out among 

1. Sia'JyjxYi. — 2, Tliis plirase represeiils iJuisTaYwyoi. 



V 1). 



58 r" h. 



172 LEITERS OF SEVKRUS. [3V21 

Of^K.^ ^^; Ih. ■ja. -..; ^^ fj )ooi ^.sl^w' ^^; );o<-^ •)-)/ ^ty>i^'=\v> yoslaj^) 

Q^Sx .. ■.■.\jp>^o yOooM );"^ >°^? ^-»-SLy joot usSj jJ -.yO.I^.iuaj "^.«^1 
•V-iö/ JJLDOI );oi ^^v^oo .looi J-.OOI );ot ^^i))^ jLsi jLiV^'ou^ -.looi )joi ^; 

^/o V*^ U-^ •J^JJQ-^/ JlJ^i/o »O \ CPO .j-O-sl/ Ot-S •.KjLiCL.Oll/ I^-SlN' 

a.«,n.T)I/ jJ; ^-^ y^^/ öi^ öl^s.-^ :)|Oi ^^..^.^o; j^-OcL^l« )loJL:)a^ou^ po/ 

v2^jjO .-looi |fn,l^ ^I-Uj Vl-*"^j; .vjC0O",-^3 |>~-* ^'^»^.»^O! jjoü^ ^ .JJISOI 
^.rJ^oi il^^ ^"v» OOI kS/ ox^^JLo ^.<JS^/ v-*/;o )^/ ^ji^^jJ; :)ooi -^«^ .c^^/^ 

]. Ms. aL.,iao. 



tlic brethreii lliat that man sliould not die. And lie did not say, ' Hc sliall 
tarry tili I comc', but, 'If I will that he tarry'. ' For do not suppose 
eitlier', he says, 'that I manage your alfairs in one way only'. But this 
iie did because he wished to detach them from excessive love tONvards one 
another. For, since they were to receive the charge of the world, it was 
not right for them any longer to be bound up with one another : for, if 
this had been so, this would have been a great loss to the world. Therefore 
he says thus' : 'You have had a werk entrusted to you, look to it, and act 
and fight like a combatant. For wliat even though I will that he tarry 
here? look you to your own alFairs, and concern yourself about them'. 
But do you observe, I pray. even here also the unassuming character of the 
evangelist. For after mentioning the belief of the diseiples with regard to 
this matter he corrects it on the ground that they liad not notieed what he 
said. For neither did Jesus say, 'He shall not die', but, 'If will that he 
tarry"". And ihe very wise Cyril, while inserting a mention of the Inter- 
pretation of this saying, writes thus : « When Peter therefore saw this man, 
he tried to be curious, and begged to learn lo what and what kind of dan- 

I. The li-aii>liil()i' llierelure read oütm; l'or auTni. — 2. In ,loli. Uom. i.xxxviii, •> (ed. Par. 2", VIII, ßO). 



[3«] XCIII. — TO ARCIIRLAUS. 173 

,^l"l U'i-^l ^i.; ^;^^°'? I'^i'»-^'^ 3Ü^.-QJi ^oiqÜS^ OOI \j oöi )t..a.\' .-jooi 
Vio/o ^iö jooi )_i_i.' J—'t--^ :)-j/ V ^ polV»; ni-./ )KJ^s^ |;oi ^^.^^^io .o^iJ 

joOiJ |lQ^..iO jj O^j .^)jLiO; OÖIJ oul.u]^ |K-o,L>,/ 1q^ ooi; . a»/ ^; oi\ 
)»/ :|j/ jr/! l-^t^ ^— joot); Jj/ )^\j o« vj jJ/ V^/ ^>.>o-. OOI v-oioK-./ 
.^K^s-^oo; ^\oi It-^s^ o/ fco^ian ^j ojoi );oi "^^^^o .y^ ).io y^? 7^ 
.-j-Öi^ jJL.;; |fto.,_^o .^Ul; Kj/ ^oL.; jj^L«/; ^\oi "^^OO * jj^Oi^O 
j;oi IJ-^jL^o |.JLio );/ .\.icl r|_io V^^^Ii». jJio V--^ y/ -^l VS^ )-iL^>-:> O-^ 

^--^oij yOOu',Lxoo .^/ ^^^J^oi ).-*V- ^iaioV3»s |K^K_s \^\^^ 'r*-^h. t— o 
vflooV_^<_Sj oöi.1^; Ua-/ .vaLj/ xr'^>-*' ^J^o .vOOi-.^^/ )LjiO|J^ )-^t^ yOoC^o 



gcrs he also would at'tor thesc thiiigs be exposed, or to what the cnd of his 
life also would come. But the questiou was manifestl}' beyond the liiiiits 
of due reason, and that act was one of inquisitiveness rather, not of uscful 
learning, that, having obtained knowledge about himself, he should inquire 
into the things that were coming upon others. For this reason, as I think, 
the Lord answered and said something, though not a direct answer to the 
things asked or inquired about, but lie turns in a way the purpose of ihe 
questioncr to other things, so that he does not say '.lohn shall be inimortar 
but 'If 1 will that he be alive tili I come, what tben is it to you yourself?' : 
'therefore", that is, 'you have heard, ü Peter, the things ihat concern you, 
and why are you curious about things that concern others? and why do 
you probe into the knowledge of the divine judgments out of season? ^Fur, 
if he had actually said tliat he siiould never die', how then will this comfort 
your anxiety?' »" And Athanasius patriarch of Alexandria in the 41^' 
exposition spoken at a festival on the '.V'^ of the montii of Farmenothi said 
these words : « And the graves of all these exist to this day, and we have 
ourselves seen them, as that of Peter and that of Paul at the great Rome, 

1- So Sj-r. mpaniiiiilessly ; Gyr. ü yap y.ri (jl/iSoIiü; ti\i-jtu>-/\, zr^w. — i. In .In. Kv., cd. I'iisos, III, 
1«8. 



58 V" b. 



174 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [344] 

j^..\>; to.Ko K-.)-«^^ )ts_jJL»^ )K.Aijilj jfcCb.lj |-=)fcoL3 ':^a>0LSÄi3; och 
»K-s ^ioj yOJÖi .jj-flo yooib* K-^jo ).3-.V/o )v-t^ )-o.^ ) c>nV) ;o .^'^jLi» 

«oioK-,/ ^^ü^wO»:». ).:>eL^K^.5 ..j^ai^^^o/o j^—j/ |— _.^^Ji ^-L^a^; :jtC^io 
^poiJ; :o-.w-l/ )oi.2S5s jKJioso «J^s/ ^^^^; * )io;oi.jOD ''^Js.^^ioo .oinsoof )oo) 
^^oi^ .|jL3o« oKb jJ^lo > .ypoN; ool ^; yoJJLa-o.i :|ij>.^ vxoaia^aa.i 
yt ..rt. ,>ö.qjl- oC^ )ooj ^Q— 5; oöt ooi ..).j..£o).i jLiot^i^ )ooi V— iSsJi/ |jLi>; 
l^j 1^')-«^ \:^ ^^ ^ •^^^*. Uf^ )°°« t"=»t-^o .).JV.=t£Q.ioo J^-^/ )— ^-^ui 
It^w.^ :f^o ^K^l; ^« voJJAfl-s .^coai^^^^OM oilo^o iK^ ^^ .öi.^ jooi 

|ooi s^otoh^l ^^; jjoi .j-tO^K.^ sm^i^OL^oS; l^V^/ ^ <=*(t^^! ^? )^o; 

1. Ms. >Ä>oi>.oaia,. _ 2. Ms. .sing. — 3. Ms. ^- — 'i. Ms. f^^'-'y 



and that of John at Ephesus •»'. And Eusehiiis Pampliili in tlie 3''' book 
of the Ecclesiastical Ilistory plainly wrote that John the theologian-apostle 
and evangelist underwent the common end of all men, and that he awaits 
the true and long life that has no ending which is al'ter the resurrection : 
and in the 68"' chapter' of the book which we have meutioned he says; « It 
is related thal John, the apostle and evangelist at the samc time, was still 
living in the world, and oii accouni of the testimony concerning ^God the 
Word^ was condemned to live in tlic Island of Patmos »; and again in tho 
23"' chapter- he writes tiius : « In thcsc times therc liad bcen Icft in the 
world in Asia the actual man whom Jesus lovcd, John the apostle and 
evangelist at the same time, and he was governing the churches there, having 
returned from the Island in which he had bcen exiled after' Domitian's 
death »•, and in the 31" chapter- he immediately adds theso things about 
him : « But the chronology of John's life we have already mentioncd, biit 
the locality of his body is shown from the letter of Polycrates (he was bishop 
of the region'' of lilphesns), in writing which to Victor bishop of the Romans 

1. Tills wüi'k is Hill oxliiiil. — 2. xecpa).atov. — :!. Eus. im Oeiov Aöyov. — 'i. x^P" f^'is. «otpoix!«;). 



o 



I 



[.S^.5] XCIII. — TO AliClFKI.AnS. 175 

)ooi; o6( 'vi-^; ot.^^~.^ '^^.^ ^^^i oöi . t..c> . ^/o ^f ool .K.«i_iull/ 

jlso^to \h>^i )l,a.*JLJL; jit-»/ ^01 vd/o )!/ .^^oi; yooilo^o ^^..^^^ ^V^/ 

mOIo^JL^Ol^I lo^ .-) .. »*>e> >$^ajL^ ^oV^o yOi!^ ^ l^-^jl/i ^öi .-)K..<C^s^o/ 
jl; vQ_l6l . ^ ■.■^ <V «. Jl )-3)0|; J.-«-j/ K^/ .yTliN )Ll/ \.>cl wJ»/ .)jj jjOii 

JIÖa^o )J ^; Ck^ai); .'IIol^ <^^^<=)^ )J ^X^Q-»; 01.^0^; .'jlojf^SLm.^ vOoC^ 

1. Ms. ^Äiola. _ •>. Ms. '«aS^^v — :j. M.s. .sing. 



he mentions him and Philip the apostle at tho same time and tlie latter's 
daughters as follows : 'luAsiaalso sleep great lights who shall rise at the 
last dav of our Lords comins', in whicli he comes with g-lorv from heaven and 
shall search out all the saints, Philip who was of the 12 apostles, who also 
sleeps in Ilierapolis, and his two daughters who had grown old in virginity; 
and his other daughtor, who lived her Ute in the lloly Spirit, feil aslcep in 
Ephesus. Moreover John also as well who feil upon our Lords breast, 
who became a priest, having pnt on the crown, and martyr' and doctor, he 
sleeps in Ephesus'. So much wc have said concerning those persoiis' 
death »'-. But that other argument also besides is one of great madncss and 
of uninstructed understanding, which conßrms the erroneous supposition iVtini 
the gospel saying which was spoken by our God and Saviour Jesus Christ to 
his disciples in this way : « Verily I say unto you; there are some standing 
here who shall not taste death tili they see the Son of man coming in his 
kingdom »^ It is time for those who thus err to say also of which of the 
üther disciples they suppose that together with John himself they did not 
taste of death, but that they have remained immortal to this day; for the 

1. Or 'wilness'. — 2. //. E., III, wiu, 1 ; xxiii, 1; xxxi, 2-4. — 3. iMallli., xvi, 2S. 



•'.) r" a. 



59 1" b. 



59 v a. 



176 LETTRRS <)V SEVERUS. [3'iC,] 

i-,^ JÜL./ .Pilo "vN Ni-s )!/; |Ljlj/j oi» '.X '|>-Jj l-io^i. .-Iloi© ^i»^ jjj 

|l)j; ).Jlj/; oi*^ ooi ^)^s.^; -.W^/ ^*^»-o yo^ V-«.^ vs/ .^00«.^; )K..o *>>! 
.^oio,:1;3l:^ ^/ ojl^^jl^ >d.Of^ü ^^010 .^oial!^)^^.^ ^o^ ^.010^/« |K ..o miI^.3 
^'^..Of^i .öi.*.^ou 061 JV-^-flo; ).^oi lo^ yooiK.<k^^K2!^f ^V^/; y^l \^ \ O 

.oiIoii\v>.s |'l|j |jlj/; oiV-zl^ \0>-J; U^t^ -.lio-^ vQ-icOK-^J |1; yOJÖi :)^»oi 
r^x^o^o on n\ «\o ^£DoV^2\ -.Jt-A^ö^l )^^)^ )io^>^ v.f> m m ^^K^ ^.äo 
)f~*^^; ^öi jiaa^^s^o; :«ooi^ cza.^; )jloo_.o yo^ )-*.£Q.^^j^ ^^oi^ )a..Mj;o 
)io v,\ • .l^j^lSoo K-.).:3l^ )jp/o j^..»^; >^6tS. ^Kj '')jLa,jL:>ao; :oi^; ) K^O-SLAlto 

1. Ms. sP**"?- — -• Ms. om. slup. — 3. Ms. um. =• 



saying is eJcpressed in the plural, l'or Christ diJ not say 'someone wlio sliall 
not taste death tili he see the Son ol' man Coming in Ins kingdom'. What 
answer will the men who speak all their words without examination give to 
this? It was not in reference to immortality in this world that our Saviour 
himself spoke these things to his own disciples, but because he wished to 
supply confirmation in the matter of the proniise of the fntnre life, and of 
the glory that is in il; for iu faul a little before he said, « The Son of 
man shall comc in the glory of his P^athcr with his angels, and then sliall he 
reward every man according to his works »'. It was because he wished, 
as 1 have said, to raisc their mind whicli still saw little and was confined to 
the lowliness of the dispensation and had no God-beütting thouglits to the 
height of that hope that he immediately added the saying, « Verily I saj^ 
unto you that there are some standing here who shall not taste death tili 
ihey see the Son of man coming in his kingdom », and because he was about 
to lake the three disciples, Peter, James, and .K)liti, up into the mountain, 
and to shoNV them a phantasni' und very obscure picturo of the l'ulure kingdom 
and of his own glory, and as on a stage give to that which was immediately 

1. MulÜi., XVI, 27. -■ 2. ipavTaoia. 



[347] XCIII. — TO ARCIIELAUS. 177 

y^l 0|^0«V^ fO{.-l/o .>OOiÄX^.^ >3l^^Ka/o yCXH')a.,.^Jb«.^ \.i>oi )iQ^\ yOj/ 

v^öi ^^ ooi. vjL-i/ ^1 jJ .jioia- 1 ^/ jVo^ oooi ^v >^oioK.<:;j .), t ,^, a 
öi..CS.XJ ^^v^; \-*^^^? j^U^ il'O^ .-oil.aaL^:>CL3 )l| )ju/; oit-s; .-i'pojj./; 

|fcCS.io )^a^^ )jot,I^ .)_ouSx jjLwClb^^j jioiOJo )K->*a.ajil lob^o jJ/ -.pojNj 



1. Ms. l»M- 



duly to appear the future exalted and God-befitting greatness wliich our 
mind cannot grasp. For after these words in immediate sequence the 
evangelist added, « After six days Jesus took Peter and James and John his 
brother, and led them up into a high mountain alone and was transfigured 
before them, and his face shone like the siiu, and his raiment became white 
like the light » '. Let no one again from the Statement tliat the Sou of man 
shall come in his kingdom refer the saying to the second Coming of our 
Saviour; for the name ' Coming' may be used not only to signify a bodily 
Coming, but also for the glory and light of the divine revelation. This is 
shown by the divine saying of our Saviour when he says in the Gospel 
of John to his disciples, « If a man lovetli me, he will keep my words, and 
my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make an abode with 
him »-. Here the expression 'we will come'manifestly denotes not a bodily 
Coming, liut a revelation as we have said of G'od-befitting glory and 
brio-htness. 

o 

1. Maltli.. XVII. 1, -2. — 1. Jolni. xiv. ii. 



ä'j V" b. 



I'ATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. 12 



178 LKTTERS OF SEVERUS. [348J 



V 25-J r .... 

^^/JS..a/« '*'*■-'! -Ol -.voo»--!^/; oo); ^.1..^^-./ .jjJLiöj t— "i-^ l-üiJS. ♦jjLSoi 

•:*|_.K-i_Va.jD loJ^« ^''V^^? |.r)>o'=v> >£u^./ K^^J-^oJ^Ja jK-ou.o« jlQJLtOiJL^ 
ooj )J/ .)jsjb)ä^ v^^^^oö Jv^s p Q^ -.'r^l ^>»« ^0^ I^JJL^; ^? ) > '«' N 
K_./; ^— / :).j/ ^'iSi^.ia-iö )jl30| ^2i>» ^s/; .^oioK_./ |jl3o> ^/; ^io/j ).io 

jju^iCL».'» )j)iQo ^s sSoal oC^j :V^/; v-Kio/ .-jlv— / j^oo^o '^-Jo« )jl3o» 
jjoi jjJJLiö '''^.^ ^j-^ ^'^^ ^j^Voi f^ 0^ '.j^'/ ^-^ K-«KS.;o .)-iwJL5wV/;o 

1. Ms. sing. — 2. Ms. iä«»!»«/ • — 3, I ins. ^^ ol ■ \>^^ ■ — 4. Ms. sing.; Jo. Chr. yövaTa. — 5. Ms. "W. 



3 



XCIV. Of tue IIOLY SeVEHU.S, IROM tue LETTER TO ArCHELAL'S, VVHEUE 

IIE .\DIJUCES TESTIMOMKS l-ItOM TUE DOOTOHS. 

r>i3-8(?). For the holy Ba.sil tlie wise in divine tliings in the liomily, on tlie Faith 

says tlius : « For as to angels' tongues, wliatever they are, to know wliat 
they are is not within our compass » ' . But the holy Johannes also the great 
in Spiritual weath taught in accord witii this in the commentary on the Epistle 
to the Gorinthians : « But he herc says ' angels' tongues', not that he clothes 
angels in a body, but what he says is ol" this kind : ' even if I so spcak as it 
is tlic law for angels to speak to one anotiier, without love I am iiuthing'. 
So therefore also in another place, Avhen he says, 'To hiiii shall every kncc; 
bow ofthose in heaven and of those on earth, aiid of tliosc under the earth', 
he docs not say this as assigning knees and bones lo angels (away with the 
thought!), but he wishes to signify the intcnse worsiiip througii the form 
that it takes anumg us. So hcre also he uses the tcrm 'tongue', not as 

1. Iloiii. .w, 1 (/'. (1-, X.\.\I, 'i(),"i). 'I'lie (Irook liowovcr is ; o\ii't yxp al tMV 4yyj>,wv y'^o-ijoh aiVivF; 
Ka-i e'toiv... 5io),XoaToO [jepou; Sfiy.eoOai öuv/iooviai. 



[349] XC\ . — Tu ISllJOllK. 170 

^ |l/ ».>a>;o * >n l\-^0.2>i vQJL^o/ ^ Q.2is -Jv-o' )jL*.Ib. JLo^oio JLxacx .>^;o.JLJ; 
•:->&)aju; )ooi ]—^'i ^^t-* vf^-^! °öi j-Jj—s •);t~--<' iallb^t yoot.2^« )ji.<ax^ 

^ V :fJ3 V" 

<«OCut73CU3 (UU-rb). 

^-/ :|oiS^ '"^!sS>^>o; ^-.C^CM jilo Kii; ."^j.jLio p au/ v^/ ^jjs JJ/ 
.>oj/ Kj/ |ji-/; ^;/ Iql^j — öt y_/ i-iö/ ^; jllo )Ss.jljs .v.öoi; ^"^J>N.„flQj 
j^^a^ p ^MO~«; )y.3..QP l.a\o .Jlcdoj^oj lo >flo . m :a J^o^^ Jjlq^o Iq^« ^c 

^io ^'^«a_» jJj .-. «Not ^-/;; ^-.I^*/ ^^ot^^ai^o ^^ot^o :>^^^cl^ ^^iw.jo( 



OÖl 



1. Ms. ^ti'- — 2. Ms. bis. — 3. Ms. 0V3 il ov=»). 



signifying an organ ot' flesli, but bccause he wished to signify their own 
intercourse witli one aiiother by the meth(jd known among us » '. 

XCV. -^ Ol" THE IIULY M.VH SeVEULS FRüM THE LETTEH TO IsiUOllE 

THE CüU^■T'■. 

But perhaps someone will say in question, « Ilow are we to understand 
that the words which God spoke were uttered.' " (mcaning wurds such as those "US-lUÜ- 
that were addressed to Adam, « Where art thou, Adam? » ', and those to 
Moses on the mountain at tlie giving of the law, and on the banks of Jordan, 
when Christ was baptized witii the dispensatory baptism which saves us, 
and again wlien his appearance was changed on the mountain, when Peter 
and James and Joiin were with him); Tor lo! we see that they are words of 
a saviu"- that was uttered throuijh the articulation, and it is written that 
they were heard by human ears, and it plainly cried by the Jordan and on 
the mountain, « This is my beloved Son in whom I am well plcased » '. \V'c 
should thcrefore know, both in these cases and in all similar ones, that we 
ought not to fall from the supposition that befits God, and say that God emits 

1. In Ep. I ad Cur. Hom. x.x^n, lo (ed. Ficldj. — i. K|j. In. — :f. ili'ii., iii. 9. — 4. Matlli., iil, 7: 



ISO LETTERS OF SEVEHUS. [350] 

jjLjJS^o jiciäLflD t-«^^? Ä^; )..2l3om )»f>l; V^ojjo .-)o|A|J K^\^ )1qj', im Vi 

^^ '"^ss-xX» oöi ji » li\; .)1)-.K^ jlox^^ ^^^^ t-2^ 00*1 ^*^t-» t-^^ 
la\ .)L.po jJ ^Ju. V-O"^ t-^)Lj? '^t-' ooi» oöt ijj-s .jjüLULÜ JLq^j ^*JÖi )L1d 

.•|K^«*j l.»-«ÄA )K*i«ilj ötloj/ p öilos/ ool :)jü;^ ^ JLi/ la^ joü!^; 

1. 1^»-^ is hure wrilleii aiid erased. 



the sound of the composition of words made tlirough the lips and with the 
tongue, but be assured, and that very wisely and confidcntl}^ that, by the 
divine Operation and by the power that makes all things that exist, the fitting 
word was brougbt into being. This the holy Cyril teaches and coniirms 
in tlie work whieh lie addressed to Theodosius : « For tlie Jcws said that 
they knew that (Jod spoke with Moses'. For perhaps they did not know by 
reason of great stupidity that no one has ever lieard the nature that is above 
all things speaking in a manner befitting men, but Ihe words that are ad- 
dressed to men are brought into being in a manner which he knows, for it is 
not possible for us to say. For what work will God fail from weakness to 
perform? For what will he not bring to pass if he wishes, and that very 
easily ? » ' 

AMien also it is written that the words of God were brought to 
one of the saints through a mediating angel, according to the same reverent 
principle let us say that the words that were emitteil by the mediation of an 
angel were brought into being through divine inspiration and so to speak 
by Operation. And this Athanasius teaches in the 3'^'' treatise on the Trinity ^ 

I. .Inliii. IN, -jvi. — 2. Not in i'itlicM- 1)1' Uli' cxlaiil. works adilre^scd to Theodosius. — ;i. P. C. XXVIII, 
1-jiil 11'. (simrious). No special passagc scL-rns to Iw hilcndod- 



[351] XCVl. — TO SOLON. 181 

^n^'n r^3vÄT\ ^^H^a ^■iiiflix'a r^^-i^r^ TSTnojQo v^x^-xß-^ 

JOÜ^ wi^I^^; :>"^; )oC^ ^OCL^fJ^ ^t-3L^ ^^'^^ l^'^t-^i^ ^-1-» t^ 

looi j^j^K:^ )K.nm\o .^-< J^ ot^ )oo( K^/ JLx^K^ ^o^.^ | ^noV; V^^ jl^o^^ 

•I U qi I jK_i*_»i laX )_ia.^lk_S «JQ3 .-^-aA ^öt^-* ^'^«^^ 'yOsicxX; 

1. Ms. |U-\a9;e^v _ 2. Ms. ««.•'i=v — 3. Ms. with stop following. 



XCVI 

i: y."> !■• :i. 



XCVI. Of THE HOLT SeVERUS THE 22"'' LETTER OF THE 2'"" BOOK OF THOSE 

WRITTEN DUHING EPISCOPACY, WHICH WAS \DDRESSED TO SoLON BISHOP 

OF IsaURIa'. 

After we liad held the love of God that is in you much to blame for sending 
the religious bishops Epiplianius and Symbatius-, who are under your 
authority by right of the metropobtan dignity, without a letter, the well-tried 
Basil arrived, bringing us a letter written by you, and, after gladly seeing 
this, we believed it to be a defence to the same charge, siuce we perceived 
that by nieans of it the reason for which the bishops caiiie to the city of 
Antiochus is made clear. And the contents of the letter wero concerned 
with other matters : for amoug these there was a query coucerning a certaiu 
Scriptural problera; and it seemed to me dillicult and evidence of great 
ignorance for us to return an answer to the question while I am distressed 
in my soul on account of the division in the faith which has prevailed among 
you because of our sins. For we remember one of those wise in divine 

1. See p. 132, n. 3. — 2. S. L., p. 75. 



'.!.-. r° ij. 



rA'i-'. 



182 . LETTERS OF SEYERUS. [352] 

vi>.» vQJÖi )löt^/o .•)— ©v^s -^■»•^/ ).i"Ki ^io; ^.J^oto .-■*!/ ^^^? |joot^j 

I s« /y.» -s )_,J^»jLiö-=>o Jlsj-iai jJ vS/o -.»-oio)^/ j-AJu^Kio oA; ..Klicuoi 

.•).-Ii>.^>s^ )-»o)i icu^; «öj;^ öti». )j/ V-=^' -l-^-'t-a^^! ooi )-iO-flOQ-a;^o .)k.^i«; 
,)j/ )17 JJL.V— jJ; ^; jlivXio Icui». .jjJcLflo w^Vfl^o jü^-jlo o6i ) v \ tioo ^ \ 

1. Ms. ov:-^-»(, in snialler IcKers in erasure. — 2. Ilere begins an exlrael in F 28 v° and K G8 v°. — 
3. K pl. 

things who says, « Instruments of music at a time of mourning are a tale 
out of season » '. Ilowever, since by ""the otlier letter- \ve were released so 
to speak from llie raouining of sorrow, I considered it riglit on account of 
tlie o-reat lionour maintained towards your excellence to write a few words 
in answer to tliat query, such as liave come into my mind, and words wliicli 
are drawn from tlic Scriptures composed by tlie Spirit and tlie fathers wlio 
with the help of tlie Spirit expounded these, little as we have understood. 
Since you liave sei down in your letter (tlierein acting riglitly) the points 
raised by every kind of underslanding or by impulsive eloquence, I have 
detcrmined not to exteud this letter to a great length ; for I myself also have 
believed that the enjoyment of the good things that are promised us in the 
kino-dom of heavenis not seusual, uor yet does it consist in eating and drink- 
in"-. Since the man w'Iki propounds the contrary argument is vehement, 
and everywhere introduces tiie restoration to the primitive State and the 
enjoyment in Paradise, I pass over the theory wliich raises the enjoyment and 
the tri!cs and the ends of the branches to an allegory ', and come to a matter 
which is free from dispute, and simple, and onc whicli draws its defence 

1. Sir.. XXII, G. — 2. The Grei'li niusl liavcinoanl ' resl uf lim loller '. — :!. Oetüpia. 



[353] XCVT. — TO SOf.ON. 183 

^f Ijoi .wOi \^>^^-t '.jl^^ o/ ^ wi ^^ ' otiQ.Jt m :>froo ^...^ )L.y^iLao :|K.ou>V 

) «^ -;, o- \ a^;o .,.:aLl:)w )r-*^ Ij'jai»; );ö; ^-^-•; ) >VoKJ^ ^ :^>|aJL.iai. 
JJj ^'^.w^-ioo .^A^oalS^ ^-*-*^°°! r-*-^iJ JJ ^/ .llüqq; öi-K.-/ ^oolS^iaio 

o,N^ .j^O'oj:^ jJ^! U-'^^l \ots.^i ^aJU.^ )0t-°? » « n°>^; . Vi . mi jlt.^; 

1. F oCiiV. — 2. FK oni. — :1. F -ÄO^ai-o/l-, K uoa^lt. _ 'i. K ot'^l. — :<. V >x«i.m^Lg.o, 



tVoni the triith only. Tliat Christ by means of liis Incarnation raised or 
raises us to these primitive conditions is certain. But tliis raust be understood 
as far as concerns incorruption and the abolition of death, to which the bitter 
taste enjoyed by disobedicnce gave birth. That Emmanuel invites us to 
prizes and crowns that surpass the primitive state, making our right actions 
means of support for further assistance, and that he does not raise us to 
Paradise again, but introduces us in a nevs^ fasliion into the !<ingdom ol 
heaven, is manifest and is nevcr a matter of doubt, not even to those who 
are verv perverse. And, in order tliat \ve may not be thought to bo rousiug 
the liearer to rnaintain the contrary argument by using cur own inventions, 
we will as a superiluity cite the laws of the God-clad •'guides to the mysteries ' 
of the churcli, which sufTice to bring before our eyes tlie meaning of the 
divine words. Gregory the Theologian in the homily on the divine Epiphany 
in speaking ajjout the Incarnation wrote thus : « This is more godlike tlian 
the former. This to those who have intelligence is higher » -. But, if there 
is more likeness to God, and it is higher than a new creation, it is manifest 
that it leads those who are formed anew to a higher and more divine condi- 

1. This phrase reprospnis iiunm^myoL — 2. Or. xxxYili. IS. 



!!.-. V 1), 



•. 'M I- M. 



K 611 r 

E W, r" 
F 29 1 



184 LRTTERS OF SEVERUS. [3541 

..^ IjoKjLio )oC^/j ^-^'^-Z }^^l :^oi-.t^/ ^'^oi V-^ 1^^ •)?«>• -« 

1. E ^»JOt-M- — 2. F u»»>la.|- — :?. F om. K »Ä^aS ^u^jxiao». — /j. F oin. — 5. K ov^^i. — 
(;. p Olli. >o«>Um?o. — 7. K ^^:-iaA. _ 8. FK om. — 9. F ^o^- 



tioii'. And .lolm the holy bishop of Constantinople in the liomily entitled 

' Why that tree was called the tree of good and evil ', and ' Wliat is the meaning 

of the words «To-day thou shalt be with me in Paradisc » ', laying down clear 

teaching on this matter, said these words : « The robber entered Paradise. 

And what is this? Are these the good things which God promises us? Do 

you not hear Paul saying, ' These good things eye hath not seen, and ear 

hath not heard, and they have not gone up inlo man's lieart'. But Paradise 

both eye has seen, that of Adam, and ear lias heard, and man's heart has 

received, for indeed we have been speaking about it for so many days. How 

then did tliat robber reccive them? For God does not promise to bring us 

into Paradise, but into lieaven itself; and he did not pruehiim a kingdom of 

Paradise but a kingdom of heaven. For 'he began to proclaim and to say, 

« Repent, for llie kingdom of licaven hath drawn near »"-. Since these 

Ihings thereforc have been llius stated liy tln' lioly doclors, it is good to add 

PauFs words as a liead and conürmation to wliat has been stated; for lie 

■1. xaTaaiaaii;. - li. I" l'"'ii- H"»". VII, 1, 5 (ed. Par. 2", IV: 788). A similar passage is publisheil 
in Greeli from Sev. «Uli un iiii'iitinn eil' .lo. Glirys. in Mai, Class. Auct., X, 44'i. 



[355] XCVI. — TO SOLON. 185 

)K.ii-.Kji. 'J^ts^j; lt~*-^ 't^ )jLX.7j -.t-^/ 'l;oi.b.i/ "^-^iwis ^t^; oö»! j-iL^^ii 

.|joj )-iOLi>.i^j jKiÖQ-. ioJL-opL^ .-j-ÄLSCL^ )L)Ot_s |jL.H>ffS. w.;oKa/ OO» sS/ K 9fi v" a. 
Q^ .Uaoi o'Ka .-K-boj yO-Ji^^Jo/j )n>o°>-) ,.3 .)^»/; jJ^^-^^^» |i.a3lajLl^o 
.^ju-^_oj ^.<JS^>/ ^_io ^l }il .;a...wJS^^ ..^^.au^uw:» y^towj j^-^II^ ^^o i-— ^ 

JJj .|-aV t\ oiA \Lof ^«-sV yOCH-ia-iwj '''^.»^^o! jLö ^^Jio .)-iw>/ ^i't-» t-«^ 
w-VÄJj ooi y/ jJ/ .t-io/ )jLao( )-üa^ ^^«.^^.io ö«...^«^ ,>Q-**'? ^öi lloj-sKa^ cia 

1. F vM-jla-i- — 2. £<>>■ — .'!. F lim. — 4. Mss. ^y — 5. F »tt.l.UM- — 6. Ms. l;"-^v; Jo. Clirys. 
ita-/'j-epojc. — 7. F ^o{i- — 8. F »^- EF have these 2 words in red as if introducing a new exlract 
inslead of a new citation. — 9. E om. — 10. F '*"'^n^>>^ ^^ . K «ea*i *<!s>'^ <?' 



Said, « Tlio kingdom of heaven is not food and drink, Init righteousness and 
peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit » '. For tlie saying, « Blessed are llie 
Iowly, for tliey shall inherit the earth » ", must on no account lead ns to tlic 
Hotion tliat after release from this world and the future life \ve shall enjoy 
sensual tliings. For even the holy John also whom 1 mentioned a short 
time ago stated hoNv Christ, following the custom of the Old Testament % 
which promises a land of promise llowing with milk and honey, himself also 
similarlv promised to the Iowly after this model abundanee of days in this 
world, and a share in the good things of the earth, vvriting thus in the 
commentary on the Gospel of Matthew : « For he does not incite from future 
good things only, but also from present ones, and that on account of the 
more dense among the hearers, who seek tiiese things before those that an^ 
future »; and a little farther on : n And in another way also, because in the 
Old Testament the prophet says, • For the Iowly shall inherit the earth', iie 
therefore weaves the sentence together out of words that had grown up 
with them, in Order that tliey may not everywhere hear stränge tliings » '. 
And the saintly Gregory bishop of Nyssa in the work entitled ' About the 

1. Rom.. XIV, 17. — 2. Matth., v, 5. — 3. äiaeijxyi. — 4. Serm. in Matth. XV, 3 (ed. Par. 2", VII, 21ü, 217). 



F. ;m-, \ • 



K <;'.> v° 



E ii7 r» a 



186 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [356] 

.o-w« )loiK*.ia_3; yOJÖi^ .jv*^ |lolv-^j «ö» .j^^eui ^Jio "^»iJ^j 

oo) vjj .ojA V-i«oJL^ö-^ ^-.^-.o^ .)-n»)-3 ^J- « »too ""^^^.ooi UioA :Vi6^ 

)^-K.i> j^w^"^ ).ja3ä^u»/j )1;q.-w^j .'Öw.^-/ |_iAQ— jJj oi:^ jjia-,/ -.j-oC^ 

otX^jL^-x v*^ *^/ .^*^^^-Aioo ^ .oet^iiP ^-.'^oi ^ V^ ^f ^^üi^i»; 

.•ju/ V-^/ )-Jo«o -l-ä-;;; ).i -> * vi -> jüLoiaSjo ).-^aA; jLo -Viö/j |.j-popa^ 

1. F Olli. — 2. I\ x»-«'-/- — :!. F foSon. — 4. F pl. — Ti. E ins. «J— — (i. K ov^-i- — 7. E sing. — 
S. K. sing. — lt. E Oni. <i-^^— |I.oj"0- 

Beatitudes' said tlius : « But, if we soar in lunguage and stand above llie 
arvh of heavcn, we shall find there the supracelestial earlh also, which is 
kept as an inheritance for those who have lived in virtne, so that the order 
of sequence of tlie Ijlessings may not seem to be at fault, in tliat heaven was 
fii-st set beforo us by God and afterwards a promise of earth » '. But, if any 
man, liaving regard to bis belly and occupying himsolf witli foods that 
please the tliroat, turn against these things also, saying, « Why therefore 
sliall we make use of the earth? », then we must say to hiin : If we look for 
a new heaven and a new earth according to bis promise, as tlie divino 
Scripture said", iiow is it anything but inconceivable that we should intro- 
duce the old custom into the renovation of the elements? WUen the earth 
is new, the life also as well will assuredly be new, a life that on every point 
lies outside this one and differs from it; for we may hear the Psalmist saying, 
« The voice of praise and salvation is in the tcnt of the righteous » \ And 
this a man will say is the food of those who are aliout to live the expected 
life, continnal songs of praise and the sublime contcmplation ' on which the 
ano-els also feed, and joy and inexplicable exaltation, in life that does uot 

\.P. G.. xi.iv. 1209. — 2. Uev., :^xi, 1. — S. Ps. cxvil, l-'i. — 4. Oeiopia. 



357 XCVI. — TO SOI.ON 



187 



>3 r^'X-.orC' fn ' r^Jc_.-x.j3-;\ vn' 



2H r" b. 



o/ .'jJüLa > I ........ ^Jk^o ^A^oi jjL^CLa 

I -^ m i)^^ vpcx^; •'l-'i^'»/ l^;o< ^^o(.:d 

ioJIS, .yJ-jwJÖlJ ^A^OI; )ia_LjL,v ^.io 

yCUJÖi ^oö( |t-^-< ^^ -» N' V )— ^;oi 



yooilal^i .).imiK.^ ^o(^; ^-^^! 
)j>^/; .V-:>o}..v>,\ ^oi |]^ ^ « ^*-^ 

^ooi j^^w «^» i\v> yOJÖi \:Miöi ^ 



1. Froni flie woi'k uf .Tolm of Dara De rcsurreclinnc corpariim. — ■!. K Ho^a^B |lS»iioaii..->ci::3. — 
3. Ms. l»::^, but sonielhing is inserled iindor llie liiie after >*• 



end. For tliose wliose thi-Dat gapes for sensual ciijoyraent, bo'iiiy involveJ 
in the same empty-mindedness as those men, make use of senseless fatuities 
and sa3% « For what purpose tlien shall we make use of teeth, or tlie other 
members l)y which (he perception of the things tliat please is received? » 
To these it is obvious to answer tliat, since the soul receives the body in 
perfection at the tinie of the resunection, those who rise not l)oing devoid 
of genital members, and this thongh the book of the gospel cries, « In the 
resurrection they marry not, nor are given in niarriage, but they are as the 
angels that are in heaven » ' , after the same fashion they will have also 



1. Matth., XXII, M. 



188 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [358] 

) uaL_/j Iv-^? )-^;« yoouis^Jo 'ov^jl/ )t— =/? ^^/»^ •)'»-^? '^!°" 

• JlojK-OO; )-^oj )jl2ü yoLi. ot^'i/; )^-j/o.-|loiK.OOj ootJV-so; I^ÄJ^oi. 

oot )jLs; .-j-ai. jJjo ^t-.^^^; ^^01 ]ljo ^^)^iw; yOJÖi )■— 1^ ;)J. on «. i cPo 
:>ö.^Kio ).ia\aji }ii ,-- |.ioa*3; :^)1»— U^j; )— toooi )i^ |i.i/o jl^-. 



F 2'l v 



1. Mss. <oi>. ^o"w \*^. — 2. Ms. a-J»l-( l^-sN ^-vo/. _ 3. Ms. I3-^- — 4. FK om. — 5. FK 



teeth and all tlie members of the body, that, as they have together with the 
soul practised liabits of virtue, they may also partake of the glory; for it is 
not in Order that they may make use of these according to the ancient cus- 
lom. If we crave for and need sensual food in the future painless lifo, it is 
then time to desire also clothes made of wool, and the other things which 
this life shows to be necessary, in the summer and in the winter whicli comes 
round in the succession of the other seasons. But it is very certain that 
the expected life is free froni all these things, since the seven days' circle 
which makes up the existing time ceases, and there is one day the eighth', 
one which has none to succeed it and is without cvcning. If then there is 
a new heaven and a new earth and a new course of time expressed in one 
endless day and not divided into days and nights, how is it anything but 
reasonable to expect that the new life which is unknown to us and is not 

1. See cp. 79, 8u. 



[350] XCVI. — TO SOF,()N. 189 

)K..ULiL^'l^oo jK^Ib).^ ^; .-'n .•\fnvi\ /.^loj ^^«^K.^ jjooi^ )J v^/o .-^ 

^^ |ooj )JS>.-.. 1. .; ).^>. - ^.iL ^ ; ^'^i^.^.io; .)j/ V^/ );Olo ^j 'l-j/ .) » Y . I ^^ E ',i7 v° ;i 
.)_i..^oo« . » l"f» |^«.«n*-•i; ö(la^ '^^? j^^eij.^; ^«^oi vS/; ]^^y^ -.^oüS-n^ 
'«^f^.l^oo •,«''■-' :''j^^J:^o K-«_3 ^^; jtoaA^ fK^ ^^ ).^.i^iLbo "^«^oi y/ 

/yfoa^aa V^^ V^/ .vQ..ajKixu< jj y^jo ^^; )^<^ ^/? ^coot-i» ^o ^ ) C^ 
.|.A^afc ^^; oö(; oila^o; >£/ >jl.3l\j jjisoi •.|LiV2lX o6i; oiIq^o; ^A-^; )-<^^-*/; 

JV.^« QU »iN; :)oo( ^JjlX );oi -6i; ^^-io .ojl*.U jloJi-Sfic^ jN.-»a3).io 

^« Ul ^KjI^oo ^3 .'vn'°>i jlo^^^« I Igj^ 1 m V) \o .jooi 9V-*^J )<'-^^. oöi i: ht v 

1. EK aii-jaiaX. _ 2. K].' ^,=J>5ov — :j. 1' «/■ — 'i. EK wlc^- — 5. Mss. ins. "i^' — 6. FK l^ly — 
1. EK riJo/j ,alßl^aaJ. _ ». ]•; ^«^; ^oov^,, K "^I "OCai- — S). 1' ^ai^- 



even comprehended by the mind is severed from sensual l'oods, just as the 
life of the angels is far removed in comparison with tlie prcsent life of men? 
But I for my part say this also, that, since Christ became a heginiiing for 
US iu all things, it is manifest tliat the conditions of cur resurrection also 
bear a resemhlance to the same beginning. If then Christ alter the Resur- 
rection from the place of the dead is ' made known in flesh as it iswritten'-, 
having, as he had, tliat hody and no other, but no longer susceptible of 
hunger, or of any similar ihing, nor yet one sustainedby foods, it is assur- 
edly necessary that our bodies also should not want anything; for Paul 
Said, « As we were clad in the image of the earthy, so shall we also be clad 
in the image of him that is from heaven »\ For the fact that he ate and 
drank with the disciples as it is written ' and received food should be ascribed 
to dispensation; because he did this same thing in order to conürm the nature 
of the body that had risen and cast out the supposition of phantasy. But, 
even thougli in conflict with the beginning of the argument, I say tiiis also, 
guiding my opinions by the labour of the God-clad rguides to the mysteries% 

1. Mss. ins. 'nor. — 2. Luke, xxiv, 3'J. — 3. I Cur., xv, k\K — i. Acts, x, 11. — 5. This phraee 
represenls [lustaYiovoi. 



b. 



E 1)8 1- a. 



V 38 r" 



190 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [360] 

:. I >'>{inv> )..*.:>eiJif )ioi!\>n\ v^/i 'oot y/« .j.j/ t-^^^ ^K->^)K.j. )j/V ^, 

)V^).^.a :\.^i oöt ' >xDQ-iCS>Aj3a:3 *^-^ y^l .)Ka,Jl.^) ^w ^'M ^M; JLjo^ 
yoij r:^<-i q.2Ssj .jKii,. n; jKIi^js. jou^ ^oioK_^/ )Jj ,s^oia2^^ ^q_«ji»j oöi 
latot loL^fo .oü^ ooot y. ^ . ^^:bo ).JL>»fLiK^ jLCSc^o )>JL^">J '.V-^ JJo )jt-ooj3 

^._:x..u^«-^; ^oöi ^-oi-K-./ )K_fcJ'f<-/ jj/ .jloJLioo/ ^_io ^jJo .jK^äiDi oCb» 
jJ ^*30« );oi "^s-^^io .) '»"'Kt > jioiQj ^io y^K^o : 'jw^ÄS; jlooKÄio ^io 

J t r^ l\ ^V^^^; OOOI yOOi-K^/ jlo»)S^*.iO; JJL--«.J; '^^iO .).jLä^\ jt"*^^ 

ft N. I v^ >o\ )J.n I m qi.^o "'^■»sld jJ -.Ix^^-O); oilo-3o.r^2>. ^^^ ^^^jJ^ot.2^ 

.)v>..\ JJ; 6t-K-./ o^ :;>ooi^i/ ^io T^ flo Jl firt i qrST 

J fn °>a-^o )o>.w^; >"/! t-<^^ ^-^ot *!♦ r^i.J3CUT^JQ0T> 

1. E siiis. — 2. E ow- — 3. E i»ii»Mi3- — ',. E ^o. — 5. Mss. sins-: Bas. pl. — 6. EK sing. — 7. E 
|l.amj;a», l'K |l.ai«aj;aoo; Bas. int-fin-ri. 



that, eveii if \ve expcct the kingdora of heaven, and an end that is greater 
than tlie life of Paradise, we are not debarred from expectiiig a fresh return 
of the primitive State; for Basil the great said in the homily entitled ' God 
is not the cause of evils' that, if Adam had kept the commandmunt and not 
transgressed, suprasensual prizes and crowns and such as raise to an equality 
of honour with the angcls were prepared for liim; for he wrote as follows : 
<c It was not fitting that he shouhi have clothes either from nature or from 
craftsmanship, but there were others prepared for the man, if he disphived 
virtues, clothes such as by God's grace glistened and were to flash, shining 
garments, as those of the angcls also are, surpassing the varicd hues of tlic 
llowers, and excelling the light of the stars. F'or this reason thereforc the 
garments were not immediately forthcoming, because they were prizes of 
virtue reserved for llio man, to which by Satans fraud he did not receivc 
perniission to attain » '. Kor us to adduce the food of Ihe angels who were 

i.y. ti.. \.\\i. iv.i. 



[361] XCVI. — TO SOLON. 11)1 

^^oCs jJLßQ-. s^oow J-LO-/ -.Q-.y^ll )K_.^ JLsJiwiö; jK^oDJLia.^; ^j «öl 

)Kju>t^ )lo-i£^.^i; j^joOAO :)lö<J»/ -.^jl^i/ |m°>o^Js jof.^; ^/; f"*^^ 
)-JL.SO( .) ,» .» O l-sKs t^/ ^OOI'^jJ V-*^^ )'/ .^'OÖt-J ^^ ^>^-3"K m Vi 

o^o ; I .« I \öoi I» ö q Vi\o ^w>I^O( ^•*-^^ oo(; :Q-.a^ JKjl^^ jlo^K,^!; 

.v£QJV^ ^/ :asioKji/ ^'-'^^ oö(.^o jfl^^S 
:^^oi voljj jK^a3).^o \aB lo^ vs/; 

\jf oöu:» :nn\^'l/ K«)ju>^K^)0 jJ 

^JLaJl^ sSloKji/; ""woi ,_.^ :^oV.a; ; m i ^; oiiaj^^.^ci\ fS ',_«„^ )^o/ .j^ioi 
1. E >-*»•.■>».• — 2. K ooi»- — 3. K ou^lo. — 'i. FK Ui^o/»- — 5. K "W- 



entertained by Abraham is very much beside the jioiut; for how can those 
who appeared as in a vision and a Symbol be patterns for the things that are 
expected by us in reality? Shall \ve say that these three, who appeared to 
the patriarch in tiie likeness of men, and signified the lloly l'rinity (for the 
sacred Scripture said that God himself was manifested to Abraham'), ate of 
that unleavened bread and partook ofthat calf in such a way that these things 
actually passed into the digestion and the material exits, and not rather tlial 
they were invisibly consumed in a manner which God uuderstands, who 
brouglit about these things? But how is it anything but foolish and an act 
of great madness for ns here to think of the phantasy- of Eutyches? Euty- 
ches liy comparing our Saviour's dispensation in the flesh, by means of which 
the A\'ord of God shared our nature, to earlier utterances and revelations of 

1. Gen., XViII, 1. — :;. cpav-uaaia. 



E «8 1- b. 



K 7U V. 



1'' 30 I " a 



102 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [362] 

joilSs; 'y-/? ••)n^.°) jouS^; )-^^t-ö 1-t-^.^is.o JJ,\ viwN :)oCSxj oifcC^io 
\.. •>\ ^^AJ ..jlöijs/ vj.Ju.Vo I^ÜJ laJ^o :oooi ^^^K.3 )).ioVo JL^oScl^j» 
^JL*.\^; : > 1.« °i n t )^-...v\a )j.°i\ö »\; ^_aJ^^/ ^; ^Ju< .|.A;;; >^6| ^^^ 

'j-iL-J^v^ > I «\:»aii v-^^vs/ .jJ^Oivio; Vjaa-^it^? oi)^l|.io ''öul^/; ^^i « vi .,K.^ 
voai^ jooiJ yj; . > »i^o/ ^cuv^oo ^^iö vO'O»/ io^? -^i*/ )oC^ i-Q^ ^^» 

^-s^/ )o>-i; OCH Ji/ .K—ieji/ IjJLi; )^-)-so .)jö>-« K—,^/ |j/ . ;'y«n\j\9 

^A^^iSQ.^ U |.ia^a3Lj> :)-^Ju.Vo |-upoV J-oisä^; "^-^ao« f-ia../ .yts^^^io )ooi 
;).».fca.>o "«.aju. vOt^o y^-io rj-iü^-^ |oo( K^)jl2l^— N-iuio jJ )»*tJLi; -öi^ '^o^ 
"')JLJ^,^o U^io^ |{if>°>ä^\ Jit-tJ^ ' oiloj-^m-sKio ''^!;i..^^io oA )jl3oi 
p .*'li«boV yOOtA > 1 . 'o m V» jJ :|.iä^-«o jKjLJLi)» ^/; vcuöi .j^ ö ^\ 

1. V Olli. — 2. E l^aSa^,^ l'K iiaSaagov _ 3. EK sing. — '1. E |il. — ."<. 1' Ii-m^sv — 6. Ke^^ly 
1. F sing. — 8. E ^ — y. F ^d^\.v>- — lo. K |l.a);«tt3CN»- 



God botli to prophets and to patriarchs, whicli were deseribed in Symbols and 
adumbrations as beinu^ of God, missed the riglit principle. But we, wlio fol- 
low the apostolic teacliing-s, who know that a vision sliownin a symbol is one 
tliing, and the trutli ol' the fact another, pronounce that the coming of the 
Word in the flesh is quite distinct IVom the earlier manifestations which were 
made as in a droam and an adiimbration. For wo also hear of revelations 
Coming from God which say to Aanm and Miriam, « If thorc shall be among 
you a prophet to the Lord, I -will be made known to hiin in a vision and will 
speak to him in a dream »', and cry in llo.sea the projihet, « I for my part 
mnltiplied visions, and by means of prophets was I likened w". But he who 
multiplied visions and was variously likened by means of prophets became 
man for our sake truly and witiiout Variation, and in a new way. As there- 
fore the shadowy and j)rimitive Symbols in nu way impair liy comparison 
the fact that our Lord and God Jesus Christ became in trutli man invariably, 
SO we do not on account of his true Incarnation refuse to hold the earlier 
Symbols and obscure revelations given as in a drcam and visions to be adum- 

!. Nuiii.. ,\il. (i. — -J. Uli.-.. MI, lu. 



[363] XCVI. — TO SOLON. 103 

«Ol i,Q\ . |.A^aA; |laaS.^a:» ^.^^; )-:»,£Dq.^ «otoK-./ |K*.xjL^"K-io V),.io 
'^j-k^^; «o|ä-^^o^« . ).a\|.^:3; \^öi yOt.,^CL^j "j.3Qja.aa.A^/ vtooJjl.^*/ "^V:^! 
'\ n »^ m . nri'^ a/; JK^^aI; oöi .-vm.^.jiÄa/ oKd/i j-iai^/ Ji^Ji . >^ va.2ü 
•.y<wa,m . ^ vV.M ^^; ^»-^ |iia-.\o -.^^^^l ).i3oij i^^ yojöj .J^ jjai» 
•'^•V:* 1^1"^ > n .«. S La > oot vin.^iJL-.'^as/ ys/, s^öi ia\ .JL^JUJi; jj >3/; jio^o^ji; 
jK^a*^ y^l .{.^^ac; |;Ot )K^.3lJ» otsJLbCL^ x^JL-^t->J i^"^-/ x^/ ^^'^oi 
•.^\oi; ^^ou*V^ »Ko ^io» : (^u^^*/ y^.«; wj jlo^m.^; •^^'? JJ^-'«^^/ 
^^^? v«"ö« .oooi U-o )jL.)-s; v-oviS. .-^ öt-t-ü.! )l^.Ji>^ jlV.^/ ^-^i 
ooi y/j .t^^Iik^ >i.^j «öl .^2i). jocd jliäi.; ).JLiy»a3 i»,^^ )Ljoi .(X.»^1/ );oi 
^j JJ ^3/ .jJ.j>aÄi»j )K.,^iij ^-.2t-^*j vai'oi oi^U ofcol/; ^-^-/ ^^j Eoar 

I. II.M-e the exlrai/t in F ends. — ?.. E ßacuiaa(. _ .{. k cw — 'i. Ms:?. ^•H^^^v — 5. Mss. 133,. _ 
C. K ke-Äuii^y _ 7. E Uo;^o, K l,e;»^o- — s. K '©>;«>. — .|. K omCv^;. _ 10. K pl. _ 11. K US/- 
— 1-J. K Ulli. 



brations, since the Holy Scriptures cry this out with loud voice. Siiice then 
these things are so, \ve must shuii the false opinion of tliose who think 
that the enjoyment promised in the kingdom of heaven ronsists in some 
sensual foods, an opinion into wliich Irenaeus hisiiop of Lyons in Gaul feil, 
who tiirough the books of Papias departed froni tlic trulh, as Eusebius, who 
composed the Kcelesiastical ' llistories for us, wrote-. Those who so hold, 
and expect a kind of recurrence of a cj'cle, are of a folly which evenniadmen 
do not posscss; into which the witless Apollinaris also feil. This is as 
müch as we are able to write on the present question, according to our small 
capacity. But it is the duty of your saintliness after the reading of these 
things to acquaint us by letter what was the frame of niiiid of those who 
dispuled about this; for we sliall think lliis a reward for our labours, lo know 
clearly if aftcr what has bcen writlen tiie supporters of the contrary opinion 
were helped. The other thing also do not forget, that, if after reading these 
things they re.tain any contrary opinion in their inind, we shall perhaps not 
be wanting in the needed medicines for this also. 

1. Ex/.XriffiaffTtxvi. — 2. //. E.. tll, x\xi\. iL', l:i. 

PATR. 011. — T. XIV. — r. I. ]:j 



b. 



194 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[364] 



x(;vii 

K 37 l'" 

(lefl), 

L72 v° b 

(riglit). 



L 73 1- 



rsfiü^^A T^ivÄ'n o^anrsfa 
x^ \ ^ory\ niv_a ^-^n-n 

f._^/; ^^/ :^..2l^ )i mo vi 1 -i; 

• .>&aiu> o(.^eLA. v^V-ol/ :oi^>,^a^ |_*jl^1 
^V ^ m >o .oiJla^iQ.ä>.\ öi^ )ooi )jl^ 

;a.w^^ yOOiS.^; jlooC^ ]J;o » ooiK^f.^ 

1. Marg. l'oU» li^,ßv The preccding uitalioii 
yao.m^ii:9^. — 'i. Ms. oowf- 



^iJcn ♦.cojL.nn «.T<*f»tl,*^qcp 

)Ll.O;>.^ jj ^^^; ^■.•, i mV) ^ 
yV^ ^'^i ^ ^.jo y/; -.^yf^o/o > » ,.,\ m V) 
v^K.io/ :).Joa^a.JLsi >>■■•/? ^ö« )i»o>'^^ 

is IVoiii Ephraim. — 2. Corr. lo ^i^j (?). — 3. Ms. 



XCVII. Of THE SAME FROM THE 74"' LETTER OF THE 3"' BOOK OF THOSE 

AFTER EXILE WHICH WAS ADDRESSED TO CaESARIA TUE HYPATISSA WHICIl 

REGiKs, « The various Communications addressedto me by 3'our higlmess ». 

519-38. And ilie otlier ihiii«; also which you ask is a qucstion of tlie Plianlasiasts ' 

wiio hold tlie opinions of tlie Manichecs, sincc iliey tliink tliat tliey are 
propoundini;' and saying somctliing against wliicli it is impossiblo to argue : 
« ir oui' Lord lUHlerwcnt tlie circumcision requircd by the law, 'when', as 
llie gospel says, 'eiglit days wcrc accomplished for circumcising liint, and 
bis name was called Jesus'", what happcned to bis i'orcskin? » ; für tliose 
wretcbcd inon tbink lliat tbey aro driviug us into a corncr, and do not 
undcrstand tbat it would be an act of tbeir own godless lack of intclligence 



1. rpavTaniaoT»; 



Luke. II, -n. 



[365] XGVII. - TO CAESAHIA. 195 

jJ; y »- N ot '"^w^.-ioj «^6» .-öuK-/ yo-^^o/ V--^ "J^ -^f"^^^! ^^oi; 

vO~^^Jo/ «o^w^j» v-^o^ .^ju.Kla; ßl -.I-Äaiaj y^l »)^./j '(|Ki.po\) 

jJ/ -.l-floaiaj ^/ »i^/j )K^j-ia\ |, i . »>o»Vi )„w_ol^; V".^ )j/ pö/ .-^Z 

Ui L^O A ^ jooj I ....,iL V> ; ^*^ ^Jfio/ ♦)lö»-s/; )jL3\ä:»0 itJUj 

I la J^ a^o ..frs.iOi^i/ jlio)^; )^K_.;o ..ylöts/ oon\,.\o sf> .. m^jJo t--^ 
jooj s-oioK-/ ^j vooi^ij .jLiaiäi.j )K^^ ».oC^o ^OfLsKj ^^j.^« oö» )oo( 

Jl v> > I; ) 1/ |jLa\ä:>o vQJÖi; ^^>jO0| )jba\ajL^ ■)..».xJl.:>o s-oioJ^/j oöi ,yi.i)^o 



1. Ms. Olli. 



for US to refiise to acknowledy-e thinü^s that are written on account of things 
that are not written. It is not the gospel only wliich testifies tlirou_i;h these 
words wliich have been cited that Christ was circumcised according to the 
law, but Panl also, who in writing to the Romans says, « For I say that 
Christ became a minister of circnmcision on bchalf of tlie truth of God, that 
he might confirm the promises made to the fathers » ' . F'or to Abraham 
and Isaac and Jacob our fathers both the covenant" of circnmcision was ajiven, 
und the promise was made, « In thy seed shall all the families of the nations 
be blessed »''; for Christ was their seed. Therefore also in writing the 
epistle to the Galatians iie says, « But to Abraham were the promises made 
and to bis seed; for he saith not 'and to seeds' as to many, but, as to one, 
'and to thy seed', which is Christ » '. In order to carry out the accom- 
plishment of those promises therefore Christ came, and Lruly to endure cir- 

1. Rum., XV. 8. — i. öta6r|xr). — 3. Gen., x.xil, 18; xxvi, 1: xxviii, li. — 4. (.al.. iii. lü. 



.37 V 



L, 73 1'° a. 



L73 



196 LETTERS OF SEYERUS. [366] 

)K.^-Ko ^*JOi ^ .^otVo/; l-ßJLs yoj/ ^ju^o .; , |.:iCL^ä^ yooiio Oi-s; 

öCS.^Ä jJ; .••po)jj wpaioj ^oiots-,/ )oj!Ss ^ >--.*äj j-sKo ^*30| yJS 

^ 1-.)^; V*^ JjLDOi -V^/; oöi ')-s!^/ -'i-^^./ l't-J^? ^;aio jJ |;oi ^^io 

^t.M\.1JiO.)lQj)j C)t!^3 IbÖJ; 'oi...t^^/ jJ-^J? ^ l-jLs V-»^ UsOI? V^/? O« 

joi^jJ ts^[^ lliaiojl ^poo i-j^^ »""^^ sr-*-^J .)K_A^— wie V^.^d ^^ 

«Ol .ioot lij-^/; «'oi |K-tio ^^s^io joC^jJ I^-)^ >o»-^ |l»aio;io .,y|j:^Ä 

«'oio .).-2^3 öi..a_=LA. jlSo«.^^^ )J ^w; |J; v^'oi .Kf> m°>l/; )K.jl^ la^ io,o(« 

V^jLi; V-=>'''=öJ :^^^^ jJj ^-«^ot ^i.» '"''J&s.^^ioj >^'oto .j^Ka ^ öt-O-a-Ji )Kx^^ 

1. M,-^. w-^W- — -2. Ms. ins. ^. 



cumcision in the flesh, and to carry out the dispensation that consists in this; 
l'or the wliole principle of the dispensation is dispensation and Service ; and 
so he caught all the nations liv faith in him and made them Abraham's sons. 
Since tiierefore the God-inspired Scripture says that he was circumcised in 
reality, who is he who presumes to say thathe did not iindcrgo circumcision? 
a thing wliicli those who teach tlie phantasy ' seek to deny along with the 
other tliings. Because nothing is written about the portion of himself that 
was cut oir (I refer to the foreskin), we will not therefore refrain from confes- 
sing that he was circumcised in reality, he who said, « For so it becometh 
US to lulfil all justice » ", and was in everything made like unto us except 
siir\ Pcrhaps indeed some God-belitting rairaclc was performed with regard 
to the portion that was cut olT, whieh Scripture left unknown to us; and for 
US to "uess altoul unknown niatlcrs is a ihiuy- of yreat dauger '. But wliat 

1. ■javTK'jta. —'2. ^I.'itlli.. Hl. i:». - ."!. llt'h.. il. 17: iv. I."». 'i. xivouvo:. 



[367] XCVII. - TO 

.ot-*N->/ >fno I n I . n; ^-^f^ '.^1-^ 

)joi )ai. jLal« )Jj ^3 .')t^; oili^-! 
jj Jl vi ~> '>&f.L. oöi; ^.'/ .oiV-.^^ 

)K.^lä3 ^^« jlo; . m ., f^ .. 1 « im I 
ji l .oi^ KwJ^ )-)i^/ yo^JM JLjL. ^-bo o/ 

JJJÖJL. ^« ^V n, m Vi; iJi^^aIl'^^ V^ojLl; 
jLs/o ..t^-^ )->.;/ "^o. );/ .|.iicu5 

1. Ms. oi^c^i — iMs. ov:^- — 3. Ms. pI. — '/. Ms. 



CAESARIA. 



197 



^^ y-,1 .s^Ot vS/ Oi^ lo.OI )tOLM 

JLal». JJ;o .)V^3 oiioj C*>K-./ jKjLiö; 
.-^ ^ fr. Nft. :jJcb«:^ ^Uiüt ^j )v.».2iL> 

^^Oi^ ^^>^L<po JJlOOI ^/« jJjÖJl ^j 

yV^ o^ )V-*t^ l^'^; ^h^-) JJ; ^01 
"'üis.^ -'v^o« ^t-^/ U^? -.V-^^ 



L 7.3 v° a. 



.'^O. 






I^A-VIOS. 



Ms. v?>oi- — 6. Ms. <». 



is assuredly already known is this, tliat, when he rose from the dead, he 
took that also, inasmuch as it is a portion of the whole body, aud he prc-- 
served it with this without corruption according to ineHablc inetliods wiiich 
he understands. For we also shall receive our own body complete at the 
resurrection, not carry ing the diminution caused by sores or other injuries, 
but whole and perfect. It is a good thing to ask the inipious man, who 
think that by such questions they frighten those who believc rightly, 'so 
as to reduce us not to acknowledge ' that our Lord sufTered real sutl'erings 
in the body, what they themselves say about the blood whicli came out from 
the pure rib mixed with water. Did it reacii the earth.' For this also is 



1. A. V. (K) ■anii tliey will be cauglil not acknowledging' 



198 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[368] 



jioj', ••> nn VI ••)i yov^jj; vooi!^ -^oi 

)l3o f) m.o.3/ )ooi; o6| ^^; . > ..a.» .).^; 
)joV-So V.CQ— ■JS.g.qi 1 .. » ■.^>-JL.,^.-Joa„o; 

K 38 1° wotoüb«^ i^ki^Ks) oöi )'po|.^e>-5 : )ooi 
;).m « .^ ^^^..ioo |ä*i>j ^''^^^^io 

)KS^; ^ •.^j_*^po )ooi.J )..^^,^^s^::^ 

.)_3»j ;)/j U-JL^; "^^^ .jl^^ 
V1-.Ä ^ O^O ).iOO» ^^Ow Ijoi ^.^.io 

|.ia— CO ^ JJ/ .jlX^oo oULio ^iT^ 



^0-0.1.^ jv^).^ ^ (sie) y£oa:>a^.^DoV3 
• .JJÖN x^oit jKS.^) ^^>r^? l' P? 



)_iö; |_ca. 



^^iMO_«f 



^^^ 



V? 



Uici». 



wy^)^.>o ).:ioot.j»; .;)/ .^ )ooi l^jKio 



1. >3 added later under the line. — 2. Iii red. — 3. Ms. ov«=»o w. — ;'.. Ms. ^' 



not declared by the holy Scripture of tlie gospel. But let tliem themselves 
be friglitened by tlie fear of loss; and it is consistent for tliem to say tliat 
tlie blood was poured out in semblance only, and did not flow in reality. 
But Jolin, wlio becarae bisliop of Goustantinople and was a preacher of tlie 
true dispeusation witli boldness', in the homily entithi-d ' Concerning the 
cross and concerning tlie robber, and concerning the fact that we should 
frequently pra}' for enemies ' was not frightened by the fear of these impious 
men, but said that the blood dropped upon the earth and purified the whole 
of it, inasmucli as hc wrote lluis : « But why is he slaughtercd at the heiglit 
of the tree, and not under a roof ? In order to purify the nature of the air, 
tiierefore it is donc high up, wilhout a roof above hini, but heavon. For 



1. itaf^Tioto. 



[3fi9] XCVH. — T() 

' ^/; ~ ooj y/ ^*Ä>| ^t-^ .OU13; ^ 

K^)jL>-3t; 061 ^t.l< ooi) ^^01 jJj^^o 
öii^ ..ipo/ K^^, J^ ^l :it^l 

JJ/ .^CLO );0(.^ oi^ K../ )lo', . m..s y^ 
']y-^ oi\jo .jLa-M ji;o I-jI^^iOA^o 

jJiOk^j jJ jllo Kjl3 ^-/ -..^oio^o;» 

1. Ms. ovia.- — i. Ms. ow- — 3. Ms. ^Nj- 



CARSAIIIA. i<)i) 

.j-i^;/ vs/ ^j iooi )..ojKi6 .j-^t^ jocH 

> ..\ot ^ )>.^^s^J« ^K^ sS/j ^->^Ot.^ 

JKJSl^j )J \L1jd tüLa ^^/ .«-oto'^x>j; 



tlio air was purified by the sheep being sacrificed high up. But thc earth 
also was purified; for the blood droppcd from tlio rib upon it » '. Accord- 
ingly therefore, if on tliis analogy the ibreskiii that wa§ cut ofT touched 
the earth, it assuredly also sanctified it, and by methods whicli he himself 
understands who was voluntarily circuracised, he assuredly, as I said before, 
preserved it;aiid at the time of the Resurrection ho rose with the whole body 
complete and without corruption, having this porlion also undiminished, 
although he showed the scars of the nails and the lance; wilh which he will 
also appear to those who pierced him, according to the uneiriag wonis ol 
the God-inspired Scripture-. 



1. Ed. Par. 2'. II. ',". 



■2. .Tolui, XIX, 37. 



200 LETTKRS ÜF SRVKRUS. [370] 



11 rdi3^r£f:\ rc!a^i\ jc>uj:^ r^h^i^v^ ^ rsfnardxjo j"\^:\ 



xcvin 

E 88 r- 

^^^^o'o\r^A m p iiaJ iv_3iv_aiir£f:\ .n^ i qq:>^ niua ^7\ 

T9y r b. 



i: 88 i"ii 



T ii'.i V" ;i. 



^-;i "^^O .yt.*üiw ''«.Xio; OCH ^/ K-jL^j ,^/ )q-J; K-*)jSs >^^^l^1/ 
^-/ :^oolK.,^..^' Q-I.N Mail v»'^ ^wULA );oi ^/» |K*^jl; ^-«^■•/ ^;~*-=>j 
l^^oi-.i.äiCLJi^ ""V^? '-'ibcLs ..).ÄJ.*3 ^-JUJj '^kio)^ jJLjia-. ^^^ 

1. L iiilil. r;'-''- Wo .=1 If- U .>»3l.euP Laaii lov^ M-vu.;, |eo:i.ßo ^^;o ,3 .o»:»*»», T wilhout iianie 

or aildressee. - i'. T - 3. MK Hla* o-w- — ',. K ul^^jb,^Av — 5. EK usLoi^l»» lUai, T <-<^i: 

.-sl.a».=»». _ r,. T ioi-.Mg,ai^ii3o/. — 7. Iloje llii' i-xIimcI in 1, nids. -~ 8. Ilcre llif exli:icl in K enils. 

— 9. T ow o'wi (l'or "i»i — ^j^w), mai-g. l»on \'^j t»^- — 10. llero begins an extract in K 67 v°, 
headed :"^o i^ao- — ll'. T ;->55, ,j=j. — 12. T ^oi- — 13. K ,•-», T um. — 14. T "^-«s- - 15- T U:^- 

— k;. i: v^-'"'- — 1'. T ^ov-->-viii. 



XCVIII. — Ol- MvH Skvkrus fuüm tue 5"' lettkr of tue 4"' book of 

THOSE .\FTP:R EXILE, WIITCH W.VS .^DDRESSED TO CvESARI.V THE IIYP.VTISS.V, 

wHiCH BEGINS, (( A\'lioii 1 Fcad tliG letter of yonr magnificence's love of 
God, noi oiice nor Iwice ». 

äi;i-38. l}ut to tlie qucstlon wliicli your exceliency's magniticeace lias asked ine 

by letter I returii au easy answer, tliat for iiiy part l have never accepled or 
expressed agreeiiuüit witli tliosc ^vllO speak of an (ipukatastasis, and an end 
to the judgmenl, involved in the torments tliat are tliroatened us in tlie future 
World, and llie man wlio says tliat lic lias a letter of mine wliicli proclaiins 
this opinion inaiiifcstly lies. Tliereforc I praised your God-loving magni- 
ficence for asking for such a letter to lie sliown to you; a letter wliicli tli(> 
man wlio concocted it necessarily set hiraself falsely to sliow to be iny compo- 
sition. Tliose \vlio liold smli an opiiiion, wishiiiu' \n ai'coniplish tlioir desires, 
as if forpooth on tlie basis of plausible suppositions, inake use of argumcnfs 
that are gratilying to the hoarcrs, sayiiig tliat it is unbecomingto or unworthy 



[371] XCVIII. — TO CAESARIA. 201 

^ It^OL^ ~uw,^o -Joi^jl )-.Q.A o/ ya^ j.-)L3 'jj; ..-^ioj.io.j. ^j^^x^ts.^ 

).Ȋiajj .-jjoi yO0t\ ).-.i^^ t^ .j-iCL^aji vO<h\ K-.\j |.io\.iii ).ia.XiJil 

:^*Äj/ "^^io ^'^io/j :t-=L'^; j.iai.a.-J^ vs/ >iiw:^jLXLS. K^lo .>ii.iK,äo\ 

•• it-^'-N.^'^ )-'°<? :''oVi^» ^2Lio JJj )läi.o 'lil^a.* j-i^i^o.»; ^-^/ iv r.: v°. 

) n « I aJ^o . -^o^Os;^ j ) ioA ' \sa^*^Ki ) [ »o-j ^jJ^jK[^)L«^ L j : ^^ötl / 
^-JiAJjLioj OÖ1 i.*^'^vS/o .' '^)ab»ji jJj' .oiJ^ K_J^ )_icu^cu»; )_i^oio T 
:|jo» ).^OL^.^^jl^i.^ '^jJLSot^i \^K^ o/ y/ K^J.°>...°i\ jaljL JJ jjji*/ .ym'.v^o 

'JLwi^a\)ooi jpoai^v.ooi>&^^:^A-aü^ ))-^» '"■"^ °°' .oC^ fr>.<J^ JLxiÜ^qji; 

I. T tt- — 2. o added above in T. — 3. T :"' ■ "'■" ■ — 4. T sing., » added in lalor li;tnd. — 5. EK 
IV«a»- —6. T i-^- — 7. T l;-r=^- — 8. T '*>^v — il. K um. — 10. E "'w ^^6^0,0; ^ioS '*^, K 
"■«• — 11. T ^ ;m3»o. — 12. T ca»-iSi,. - i:i. T «"^^j ('■oiT.), Hj ap|.. deleted. — l'i. T om. o. — 
1."). T om. — IG. T Ul-vi^ tow Ufe a^i \s^^l -.cnaS/. 

ot'God, and far removed from liis mercifulness, tliat tlie man wlio lias sinned 
Ibr 50 or 100 years in this world sliould endure torments i'or nnending ages, 
Ibrgetting tliis, tliat God's laws and those wliich prevail among men tliink 
üt to requite sins according to tlie Intention of tlie sinner, and one niay iiear 
even wise men outside sayiiig of certain persons wiio liave done foul deeds 
and acts that are not permitted, « Tiiis man deserves to die not once but 
many times »'. But, when a man hears as \ve do that God rwho became 
incarnate and was humanized witliout Variation for our salvation, and who 
for this reason came down from heaven and conversed with us plainly threa- 
tens ' fire that is not quenched and an undying worm-, and' makes liglit of 
it, liow does he not deserve, if it is possible to say so, to be condemned 

1. This seems to be a citation, but I du noi know the soiirce. • 



ii:i v° b. 



E 88 V" b. 



202 LRTTKRS OF SRVERUS. [372, 

• Jla-io JJj ;Kjtio ^ r'^al^an )lj ).Joi ), >ia,^N,j. |— «|j t^-K- o/ ^^^-Lji 
.-)io>...<^o )J.n„i.\..i ^^0 jooi jLk. jJ )la-a_V-m-d ).JOl ^/; )^.^^Jo :^jii 

• • ooi jjLSoi ^/;; oöi "^.^^ooi jJLau./ yOj/ )— )-» ^-'■[■^j]? )^*-^ ^-»^oi v^Joi? 
^^^^^.^^O) ^J^oi ^; ^QJO|o . ^ojKu ).joi '^.ooi )jlo~./o .>0L^^« OlloJLi^^O 

|..>.iü..a; •,\.'»~^<^ "^Ji- i'i'^l ^l-;^;; ^.A^oi ^^; yo-ioio .wa.j'lS...iu:^ 
.* pö/ JJLSOI; .-j'^j.^ U^>^o jl).^:^^ :^pö/ ^^./CS^^ ^caAtf)^^|.^^a3/; 

.•\« II ..J^OOO ^^;K.^ ^il^ ^t->OI<3 ^.A^jK^ ^.OV) ^f-»0|0 •.yafuKjl^ 

^^oi; . «\oi^ ^; v°oi!^ V**^ vooi^ ^l ^■•; v*"^ ♦j:^ .«N^o» >^6i 
•.).«Ju/ 'yOot^S>o,.< laa\; .-^po/> oi.^ .r> ..v;. .•)„ou/ yoot^S»n,..\ 

1. T W^a»- — 2. T Itai-v-o |tot;-9o |Ui-j. _ :j. T low. — 4. Here the extract in K ends. — 
5. In T a line is left blank, covoiing Ibis word. — CT ^m- — 7. E rf<-^l- — 8. E ,j' «»•oto. — 
«1. \i ^AA^tsxo- — 1(1. T Itaio^oa^. — 11. E U^ii .>o^^»- — 12. T la»a::.M tca^. ..^,^^ 



twice over to '' endless torment? If a man live 100 years or mqre in tliis 
present world and spend such a period in vanity, it is certain tliat lliis man, 
if lie were allowed to live ^this same temporal iil'e ^ witliout end", would not 
cease from riüs eternal'' greed and wantonness '. How tlierefore will this 
man in accordance witli liis disposition not justly' be tormented without 
end? Even the very men who introduce an apokaiastasis' say oI' sinners 
that they will be tormented for inany" and long periods Tgo to speak'", and 
then afterwards will be purified and admitted to clemency and attain to the 
promised blessedness. But they " I'orget thal their human reasonings them- 

1. A. V. (EKT) 'became ... salvalioö, and Üiat for... roason he came... hoaven, plainly threalenins^'. 
— 2. Mai'k, IX, 44. — 3. A. V. (EKT) ins. 'al'ter all tbese things'. This vorsion bas many addilions, 
whicb l'rora a comparison wilh Ihe Originals of the citalions containcd in the extract I inl'er lo be 
inlprpoialidns. —4. A. v. (EKT) ins. 'eternal (Ire and'. — 5. A. v. (I<;KT) om. — (i. A. v. (EKT) ins. 
'reniaining withoul death'. — 7. A. v. (EKT) ins. 'and lasciviousncss and a l'oni life in lusts'. — 
8. A. V. (ET) ins. 'or cnd ot' judgment'. — 9. A. v. (KT) ins. 'years'. — 10. A. v. (ET) -orsucli a kind 
and prolraetcd future ages,'. — 11. A. v. (KT) 'those who say thcse things'. 



[373| XCVin. - TO CAKSAHIA. 20;{ 

''^»O^IS, ^•oJiJi > .)iv>i o/ ^.<ujL:>eu.< "^ 'i '« > )_a-.V/o jj-JU^D ^; JV; 

^)-i-; :)-^-— t^ ^>Ju/ ).-^ 'K.-*ts.V.o yooil^i.;! ^jaja\ ooi ..[|jx]:uji.1 

yi.mi ')-Q.;ujil.o :''>öolfto )>-.).b. ) lax v i .... • , n\' S> )...qa /[o»| |J; -.Uf-^K^ 

)L.>-*tsjio ..l^^^o )).j:^iaD j-iaSli.» :I^*JLJil; jx^l j] w>,o.to<SJj :jjoi)<x^; 

}iy •.vOOtKis.io ^/ jjLDoi ^»s/ ooi jJo .j<H_^w:ii; j™:^-*; )jLi; ^ V-^^-« 

jJo •Joi!^; otlaxio.-.pa\ );o| ).*qjl [j>^-* vJ yo««-^ J-=J^Q-- ^ '^^ ^°°^ 

|...« •>»; |.iL,L...JL3 K^a^V^ ool I^JLd •.^^JLA ^^jl^cuw. j-^.»; o6i; -JoC^ )ooi 

yooi fi « I tl; jjL^j loj). JJf vrföv^ .01.2 |lo -.In «.i>l ^a^mj ^«Öa ^ « t Vi . » 

^^S-*/) yOOUi„2LA.a.M^ qS^j -.»-fc^looi •;•> . • » V> /; ^/ 

061; '.IjjK^OO JOOI ^loj yOOlK^^kVl^^O 

y^l jooi |lo .jK^^jdl •, •> . m I «a^J^w^ 

1. T la»»>o tfS. — 2. T ^> iiiil. ins. IrilPr. — 3. K om. o- — 4. T om. — 5. E \-,i-jo- — G. T ^>.^^l• — 7. E 
sing. — 8. Ilei-e T breaks off in consequence of the loss of 3 leaves. — tl. Ms. >Maj. — to. Ms. sine;. 



selves show God to be uurighteous rju his judgments '. If a man lives " in 
sin 50 or 80 years, but ' endures torments many long generations, it is 
again apparent on their principle that this is noL worthy of God's merci- 
fulness\ to extend tlie period of torment beyond tlie time of the life in sins. 
If God agreed with the reasonings of those who think thus% tlie man who 
sins for 50 years should endure torment for 50 years, f^and it '' slionld not 
be thus long extended over mauy generations, as they say '. For our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ also, in the holy words of bis preaciiing, when 

1. A. V. (ET) 'and unjusf. — 2. ,\. v. (ET) ins. 'up and down'. — 3. A. v. (ET) ins. Ms requited 
witti a severe sentence and'. — 4. A. v. (E) ins. 'nor yet becoming to tlie Itindness exisling in liim '. 
— 5. A. V. (E) ins. 'and agreed and assented to their opinions'. — 6. .\. v. (E) 'only, and the jndg- 
ment'. — 7. A. v. (E) ins. 'and liis lormont endni'p for ages'. W'liat follows to • distinction' (p. 374, 
1. 4) isomitted in vers. F. 



204 r.ETTKRS OF SEYERUS. 374] 

E89ra. ^^,^ot ,^aJ^j)jj po/ ' ..|_^OL^ 
~ |-Ä^\ )-<^>JO ^^OL^N^'S.t JLolaXaK^ 
^-«^oi; l-iä^ vOOi^Vi ""^^Owo .^OL^^iJ^; 

)jOIO .yOOl-Vl ^^»>> «Sl^^^OJi jjj VLCD 

\jäi 061^ SCOQ-.N o m 't •.KjJV-tou )a.u^:»o 



1. Here beginn an exliact in K CT v°, lieaded : "^^^ >'>=o, and L l'»ü r, headed ; l^-VQi.| itoo- 
— 2. K |o.i-keO^ Uß'i-'O ■.>aii:k\i l»:t».>!k l::o*i|. — 3. K um. — 'i. L '■o^^' — "). EK sing. — H, 1\ ins. 
lalcT below line. — 7. A word erased bel'ore tliis. — 8. E r^a^Sv 



separating tlie righteous from the sinners, said, « These shall go to eternal 
torment, and l\\e rigliteous to eternal lifo » ', and with regard to botli the 
classes-, that ol' tlie l'ormer and tliat of the latter, he spoke in oxactiy the 
same fasliion of an eqiiality ^vithout distinction, applying the word 'eternal' 
to botli without distinction. Basil Tthe great among teachers of the truth 
shows this clearly in tlie teaching composed by him in the form of question 
and answer addressed to tlie brethren of the convents; and it is the 219"' 
question, wliicli is expressed as fullows : 

« The brethren say\ 
' If ■' onc shall hr beaten with many stripes and another with few, liow 

I. M;illli., \xv, 'iG. — 2. tiyy.x. — 3. A. v. (E) 'w-hen he was asked by llic brellirt'jr. 'i. A. v. 

(EKL) ins. 'il is said ol' Ihr Iwo slaves descrihrd in Uie gospe! that'; Bas. oni.. 



[375] XCVIII. 

K-*^; ^-«-Äj/ ^t^o/ )jL3^/ .jK^Vo^; 

K-.). « »> .■'SO; yi-sK (in V>; ^^0| 

)j^--JJ »tJLio; jLa-/ oolo :''^a^iJb.; 
ooi jl « M ^o :jLa^'; jJ yooiiojo :)fcs_.^io 



ro CAESARIA. 205 

jjÄ^Qji K-J^j -^t^/ Usl*/ :'"':i.w,iISuO 

po/ ^>^; ^^wOo» ''^^io .yVogtoo 

^öi r^OL^,^« jiai^ ^-^>-<jJ 't-iL^ ^; e 
:«^oia-D]JLiä.\o L',™qJSöJJ )._3u-.^ioj l 

^CL>f>0 ^^ oolo .'jjÜNf JJ yOO|«Q.JO 

^-^.;l jJ yooiiajo .-laiot jJ ycoi^oi» 



811 r" b. 
liii v a. 



1. K bing. — 2. E ^ m'S . m-t . — 3. E pl. ^ '1. K nm. — 5. E .;i^oi näS.iI'i. — (1. EL ins. l^a^ilc 
>oiv.v.\, k--^; Bas. om. — 7. EK ins. ;-■•-»/' \^l ^oL t^lo- 



say some that tliere is no end to tlie sentence of tliose who are tormented?' 



Basil ' 



savs. 



Points wliich are matters of dispute and seen' to be obscurely expressed 
in various places of tlie Holy Scriptures are elucidated by clear statements in 
other places. Since therefore our Lord says at one time, 'Tliesc shall go 
into eternal torment'', and at anotlier dismisses some to 'tlie eternal fire 
prepared for the devil and his angels', and at another mentions 'tlie gehrnna 
of iire', ^uttering further tlie words,^ 'W'liere their worm dietli not, aiid tlieir 
fire is not quenclied', and again said bel'ore through the proplict ^about certain 



. 1. A. V. (F) 'the great among doctors'. — 2. X. v. (F) and EL ins. -and lln' rii;lit(^ons inlo rlcrnal 
lifo'; Has. oni. — .!. A. v. (EKL)om. 



K 68 r" 



206 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. _ [376] 

yjl-.io/ ^~«^oi ^/;o "^-JOt ^^01 [>Ot— * ^]^H /~*^?° ^-^oi ^ 
j.^^^ -.j^öC^ I^KJLs >J.w>^iD w^:dj ^ |;o( sd/ lo,oi-.yJ^^( ).A^fJi i^hJisi 

•^>&>o»>J -.yi-io; -oiQJLi-; ;>^ r:^^* )-^^-"> JJ?] •.^;^*»>:■^4/ Vp* '?;r<*? V^"^"« 

^olS^C^; I n « JLiitOS. V*^v/ .jl^iuö; )ji-J^o joöi ^too^ulS |.io.\Qji •.j.io^Q.Ji 

)jl«*\o .vfioovs ^^s^ ^ ..).iCL^aji K-./ JJ '^3K„flQJ );o( )[ ^2S^^;] 

}i |;ot y/o .)-aaJ:^aii K_/ ^XiC^; U-,^; o(A K-/ jlo, )jl-/ ..,5Jl*js*, 

|ma^ chÜk K-/ UaJ-/ -.^abwi^» ) X....\ K-J-o* voomVI ^^«^ )a^^'isj |;oi V-<^ 

1. EK li;o "^sN ofl-c^a) ,.3,. — 2. E «"o^l/. _ 3. KK ^il r^^ O-»^ uwa^:-» ^- —4. KK oni. o. — 
ä. KK l^-us H»» .-^tt-^vu,. _ 6. L '^.^jaik. _ 7. K pl. (in erasure). 



men,' 'Thoir worin shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched'; 
while these and similar expressions, are often- used in the divine Scripturos, 
rthis also was broiight about by the machination of the devil, in order that 
men, forgetting these and similar decre.es of our Lord, might presume to 
sin without restraint, persuading thcmselves that there is an end to 
jiidgment. For, if it is possible for there to be^ an end to eternal judg- 
ment, there will assuredly also be an end to eternal lile. But, if we do not 
consent to think rthis with regard to' life, wliat Tplausibility is there in our 
assigniiig-' an end to eternal judgment? For the addition of the word 
'eternal' is made equally in both cases. 'These shall go into eternal 

1. A. V. (EKL); " Ye shall s" out and see Uio eorpses of them wlio liave cimimitled inii|iiily agaiiist 
MIC, für'. — 2. A. V. (F) 'licrr and Iheri,''; Bas. -ko/.Ixxo'j- — 3. A. v. (KKL) -il is cerlain tlial llie devil 
l)y liis craft eoiili'ivrd to iIih-imvo Ihe iiiliuls cif iiian\. in unler llial wlillc llicy forget our Lord's s<mi- 
lenccs, he ma\ sow Ihis in llicir llioushls Ihat liiere... judgment. and iiiake them ycl mofe iiresumc... 
restraint in the evil dceds of halefui lliings. l'or, if Ihere is'; Bas. ev /.. toöto t?,; (isOoSeta! toü oiaß., to 
TO'j; 7TO>).oO; twv ivöpwTTWV uxriiep 6Tn>a9rijj.£vou; Ttijv tOffouTtijv x. TOiourtüv toü K. ^'/ip-axiov x. ÄiroyäTEwv teXoc 
■/.olioeu; zli TÖ |j:äX).ov xa-raToXfiäv Tf,c i|iapTiac d»-jTot? -JTcoYpäfciv. KI y. x^; atuvi'ou xo>.ä(7£<i>; euTai noTe. 
— '«. A. V. (EKL) -thal lliore is an end In eternal'. — 3. A. v. (EKL) ' room is Ihore for the tlieory 
llial liiere is'. 



[377] XCVIII. — TO CAESARIA. 207 

yO^/Jj .).ia*J0 ^ot-lVl '^'i^i. .K.*)^aji ^pa\]jJo :^*^^ U^x»« ^'^ot ^^^4^.00» 

sjal^SL^ ^V^so :)j^U ooi |.jl1.; )oj!Sx o|/ .•) •> ' N; |J» |»aJL3 oj/ joog; 

'jjoöf^ j-it-^/o .jK.^^ jJ; j.^.^oK.J» jj't-o'/ •j<a--A; ^'/ >*>\3 .'uw.^^^o 
.^A.Md>.jL3; )..a:LiaK-5; K-./o .j^V^ :).I.JL>;; JLa.I^,^QJ | öi^ ^h. ^^^"^ 

K</ •.)->t-3 jLsojuu V-*-^/? ^°^ '^öi.ao i^]/ ))t-*>3; )^;Q^o j-^V-'^ ^; {.^oji^ 

1. K'^-^. — :;. K xi^ ^w- — 3. KK ^J10^■-■-». — ',. Here llic extract in L ends. — .">. E lJoly=- — 
l>. llere tlio extract in K ends. 



judgment, and the righteous into eternal life'. These things therefore being 
tlius admitted, we must know that the W'OiJri 'He shall he beaten with 
maiiy stripes' and 'shall be beaten with few' are not an end, liut signilV a 
difTerence of torment. For, ifGod is an upright judge, ^not only to the good 
but also to the evil', and requites each according to bis deeds, it is possible 
for one to be in the fire that is not quenched-, burning either less or more 
than the other, and another in the worm that dies not, ^both one that hnrts 
little and one that hurts much '\ cach as he deserves, and ""another in rjclwnna 
that has a variet}' of torraents, and another in outcr darkncss, and that there 

1. A. V, (EK) om. — 2. A. v- (Eis) ins. ';ind another tu be in fire'. — 3. A. v. (EK) 'and another 
in l)ilt(r liabitations. and one in initder torments, aud one in torments niore severe Ihan Ihev". 



H!t v b. 



[378] 



208 LETTERS OF SEVERUS 

,f^l K-/; -.j^joie l-SQ^; o)Kjl|Jo [^>-/? I^!«»^«] y f* V)n\» ; jlK.iaJ» 






^wJ^^/; .-)j-.^; )_JLb«iaS) j-a^^oji 
o/ .-^A^V^IS..^ vOO<-.y ^ '\ > jO»; >-*/? 

1. Ms. wilh puiut .■ fdllowiiig. — 2. Ms. om. j iiiit. — :i. Ms. om. stop. 



J»oio 



is a place where a man is found amidst weeping onty, and there is a place 
where he is amidst gnasliing of teeth also from tlie severity of tlie pains ' . But 
the outer darkness signiiies tliat tliere is in trutli an inner darkness also." 
And the vvords used in the Proverbs' '""at tlie hottom of Sheol' ' signify 
that there are persons in Sheol and not at the bottora of it, because their 
torment is smaller\ And this is depicted now also in bodily afllictions. 
Für there is a man who is in a fever together with other pains, and another 

I.A. v.(E) 'one niay recognise nioreovci- in gehrniia m variety ol' lüriiienls of lliosc wlio are beiiig 
i'cqniled' — 2. A. v. (K) ins. 'And Uierc is a place ol' i('i|uilal where a man is in weeping only. and 
Uiere is one again where lu' is in gnasliing ol' leelh, fruni Die severe lornients of the biffer senteni'e'. 
— ;!. A.v. (F) ins. 'of Suhmion'. — 'i. A. v. (E) 'l)ringelli down lo Ihe doptlis of !>heol and In Dir liolfoni 
of die pil'. ~ 5. A. V, (V.\ ins. 'and there is one who is in llic pit and not as it were al tlie botlom 
of it. Hn all wliicli lliings Ihe dilTerenee is sigiiilied of Ihe lelribnlion in Ihe judgitient of tliose who 
are requiled as Iheir deeds deserve. eilhcr by a severe sentence or by a veiigeanee wilh iiiitigalion 
in 11 aei-ording lo their acis'. 



[379] XCVIII. — TO CAIvSAKlA. 209 

K-/o .JJ^I—/ |-=>)-ä^ \-^i p .1^^)-=' .oöi-^ jüoi )_i6j jJo .»a-*.\ )Kji)»3 

..oC^ K-jJ^ ]h<xl p; K-./o .0011 ^io o/ ool jjofo .>..<\.nv> ^^io )-i>o»oi» 

.^abt^oji ^^«3; ^U'^l \-^"\-^^^oJ^^ ^; lt-»^o/ .oiV-a— ^^ i-.»-3 o/ V-»^ 

o/ w*oicL3)-3 ^a^^aJl^i -.ool JLio»; vfc^/ .^^i^ji^i^jjj o/ >-<-^^D; yV^aS> jjot 

yQ„^^>ao .^>^too oii-:x-*; ^ ^)..>>^; )K * l y.»/ kS/; ^/ J^^L^« )K_.aMl. 

)1)JU^ )lcL-.io; v-6( v^V^o^ )t-^^/ V-"-^ s^' « ^ M .<^-.'^oi ^1; |i|.«^«> 

If—.^^.« |K » <. -»; ^/ •JK*Vai.;o );oi )KI^-^; öt > « I D^^^Qjaij ^/ 

vJjl^^-jLsj i.*^^>-,.^^oi^../; ^^Si^^oo ^V^/ .)jl2lL./ .^ouva j-^i» 

o/ ,>« )-3)<a^ v«-...>iv)» »xj/ ^^o» »3/ |-:>c u ao ^^i» l-^^o-s? :)-3u«^ »o-J^i 

^.^Z f '•*-/ ^/« ....g> nv» )joiiaDj> ws^joi ^.öio ^»^o jjiaot .^.a->.!.flo ^ m n 1 1 / 

)^Ji)_3 ooC^KjLio; OLljJ )>— J; v-Kio/ .-jj/ pö/ ool •.>5w^^^J ^''5!^..^wä; -6|0 

.•)..L.V„\; )-s)jls 1-*—/; 0/ -.ja-Jl^k-s jj/ ./jlai^^-b^-o-ao JJLSJ» I— ts.io-s Q^ 

0/ )i) «V"> )lcL<^o; y^oi > ,»^>o .V.a.«.flO 
IV-io/; j-Jio _y-./ -.Iv*^/; )^-Vq^; 

1. Ms. P';-. — i. Us. Sinti. — i. Ms. Ht>»v — '•. Ms. ' luv =■ — 5. Ms. 1^-» 



who is in a fever only, and the latter is not like the former, and another 
lias no fever, but is trnubled by ^pain in somu limb', and one again elf her 
less or more than another. But this expression 'mach' or 'little' is employed 
by our Lord in accordance with customary usage, as are also many other 
similar phrases. For we knowthat this form of speech is frequently adopted 
even with regard to those who are suilering from one disease'. For 
oxample, in the case of a man who has a fever only, or lias pain in the eye 
only^ we ' say in astonishment ' How mueh he has suffered ! ' or '\Miat anguish 
he has endured!' Accordingly the expression 'shall be beateu with many' 

1. A. V. (Ej 'other pains of every kiml'. — 2. A. v. iE) ins. ' ov illiiuss'. — .i. -\. v. Kj om. — 4. .\. v. 
(F)-they'. 

PA'nt. UK. — T. XIV. — !•'. 1. ''* 



E ;i(i I"' b 



210 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. i380j 

)..°>,N .»n * "^i. jJ/ ..).ia^aA Jjlä; 
^^oio .f^K^i I 1..» •> joöi; )..a.«JLiil; 

:'o>-J_->j; ^j-Sa n in «■=>/ |oot; o6( oipo|.^aj» :o>ju>.j; ^; ^coQ^V<^t-^ 

^ .JJLOOI V^/o .SliwiO yJä .^010)^/; ^; ^ ♦jÜLJOl ■<^,'S Vi yA .jJiwjtoo 

).JL_» J!^ yOOuK^/ '^ vCDQJOfJL»_0^; )»°i I; jJLOfOS ^otoK_>( ^JOQJo^ > « n.5; 

J._ia_flQ™3Kio * ^CL^iCS.; HoJL^iO-S; u>';j |.icta .j^lW """^^^ 0/ JIqjlj^wJ) 



.Ka 



; J-ieu^ioI 



> i..^o . ) * .^ no •:*jjL3oi V'^/ ^^I^oi^ ^^.:;^; •.^K^; 



1. Ms. >»^-ä3. — 2. llere l)el;iIl^ an exlract in K 08 r°, headcd : ^^ i^^o■ K ""^''^kss^- — ■^- K 
ins. ICv^oC-'^ ^5s^^vl.yJ._ ',. !■; \Bacmäl. — 5. E o|i^m/i- — C. E >;»/■ — 7. Ms. oni. >=. ~ 8. K aioaa..,j.ii3i. _ 
!). Ms. 'f"^'- — 1". K iii>. >oo in ivd. — II. 1\ -m^wa* >-;-», E ins. iiio;i.aai.g.ig.Ä>ao, ^SaamS;. 



and 'with t'ew', I say again, Stands not in tlie extent of tlie time ^and tlic 
shortness', bat in tlie difference of tlic tormcnt » '". ^Tphese things this great 
ruler and shepherd of rational souls Basil taught and stated witli great 
conipleteness.'' And Gregory, who becamc bishop of Nazianzus, himself 
in tlic liomily of defence tliinks (hat the future tormcnt is cndless, teacliing 
thus : « Bnt for iis, tlic salvalion of wliose blessed and inimortal soul is in 
danger, wliicli will be undyingly tormented or glorified' by reason of 
wickedness or of virtue, liow great do you tbink sliould the contest be*? «". 
And .loliii in tlic <)(>"' liomily' of the commentary on the Gospel of Matthew 

1. A. V. (10)' wliicli lias rocrived an ond'; Liiis, vi frunTiXrifwaei, wliicli liiltcr wül'd tlie anllior of Uie 
E Version lias taten as a vorb. Ilaivi^o nmst app. be rendered ' shüitness ', though tliis nieanin.^ is 
nul otherwisc Ivnown. — 2. /'. 0.. XXXI, 12ii'£. — .3. A. v. (F) om. — 4. \. v. (EK) 'Mialilicd in tin- 
(•U'nial liingdoni'. — •"). \. v. (EK) ins. ■ cuncerning Ulis'. — li. < ir. 11. 28. — 7. A. v. (EK) ins. 'dcli- 
vered liv liiin'. 



I 



[381] XCVUI. — TO CAESARIA. 211 

f.icl fä -.»Sl^ ^^oi^ x^;? -.^ts-io; 4 n « t° > ww,^äo v-~,x I»».*.^ .' jLcojiio 

.si:^^^; l^otol .yof^ ""^^o ysfji .JjLOot vJL^j» .^')l»a^)l |^.,^o .o» Ji^^^/o 

ooi oolo .|.^a^Qji oi^ K»iJS; 1.11 ■«■Uli 

JJjo J^..)jt m ivi» oöi '^^.io :%äL^^ ooi ^^^ ^^ io :.o_3; oö« so 

OÖI ^)j;)a ,1^ OOI Jucsj .^^oi v^/ .i-iö/ ^3 .2^:« -.jLjLiVo )j)V; Jlasloj.'^ 

y-ä ^Ao'f.3; ot^;o oiV^^L^ o'^K^; \-^--^i °°t '■'^^ h^-'t \^l '>^j\<y[ 

|Jm^Öu3 t—»— ^ ^*^oi .w>-^»M |o-»!? ^^>"^*-^ '"'^^ ^-^oi .ovloJSooo 

jJ ... .» 1 \ KaO yijji ^>0 yOOU.*_Sj-3 ^J ^'^Ol .^*JL.;.1,K^0 jl .yOoiS. K-/ 

1. Ms. sing.; ,To. Chr. pl. — 2. Ms. U'iVsj,'-- — :!. K l'-»'^'-? U^^-». — ',. Here thc extracl in K ciids. 
— 5. Ms. IvU- 



stales things consonant \\itli tliese as foUows : « ""For all these reasons 
accordingly let us first pay tlie taxes; for it is indeed very' easy, and tlie 
reward is greater, and tliere is great ■^abimdance of- profit, and worse is 
the torture ^if we do not understand, aud'' a lurture tliat lias no end »'. 
■"And tlie same again in tlie 79'" exposition wlien speaking oi' the Passion 
reforred to the kingdom, and to the endless torment." And in the 82'"' 
about the man who approaches the communion of thc Iioly mysteries in a 
careless mood and without caution he gives teaching in the following words : 
« He who approaches^ after he lias sinned is worse tlian a demoniac; for the 
latter hecause they rjiave a denKin" do not receivc pnnishmcnt', bnt the 

1. A. V. (EK) 'Before all lliings let us have a slrugglc oii behalf oT guoil lliiiigs; foi' labour for fair 
things is'. — 2. A. v. (F) om. — 3. A. v. (EK) ■ wliich will be exacted IVom us, which is'. — 4. In Matth. 
Hom. Lxvi. 4 (ed. Par. 2«, VII, 742). — i. A. v. (E) ins. ' our Saviour's body and blocid'. — (!. A. v. 
(E) 'aro involuntaiily loniriillod by demons'. — 7. A. v. (E) ins. -and are noi Judgcd'. 



E 90 V" a. 



212 LETTEUS OF SEVERUS 



[382] 






^mÖi .'f^l ).isoi J « m'^/ JLql^; j.^><>^.ii ; 

jJo |jL\.a.^)^oo jl OOI )l.aLwM ..^Ot-sKj 

oiV^3 |oo( "^^..too; .-OQ-./ jJLao^ 
M ^ - v> / jJ/ .•^i-.^- jJLs; t-s"/ JJo 
jooi ;t-s^^o P .soJ^tooo jooi üi|^ 
v>-./; ^^. 1)^,^0 JJLJSJ |äw-.j> oi^oii 

y^»— J .•). »qit.V O.,^ ^^.,-.301 jÜLSOI 

yfp\; o/ .-^^mjLh ^iVi; »g^N.a |J jjLSj 
JJ; ^:>o^a«\ JJ/ .Q-2)Vj o/ JJ-io; o/ 

1. Ms. ^»tv»- — 2. Ilere begins an extract in K U8 r, lieadcd : oii^j. — 3. Ms. um. 



♦JjLDoi J « (in °>/ iaS.j UV^/? J-io.'^QJi-so 
)^\.oK..30 : ^c^s^'Kj JJo ^ )j; ^.^^^öi 
JJ ■^Oioh^l JJw.2lLw. •.saj'J^sjü vlS.x^ 
JjJ^^oo^ io^ ^t-^! ^W .JjlS^w^J^s^o 
fS :jooi fls/ JJo jooi "^.^^.^K.^» :v^a^/ 

,|J.-K^ Iv^ oii^ ^ JJo«; ;v:^ 

V{a\-> JJo . « i't ^IVJ^ JJ .-. v>y..5o 

.J)a:i.a* JJ; JJ/ Jla^;:^ JJo |Jj^ JJo 

♦JK_»^ JJ V-^/ t"*>v vOO|.i^ol 



former, Lecause they approacli unM'ortliily, are delivered to rundying tor- 
ment' » "'. And at tlie end of tlie coramentary on the epistle to tlie Ephesiaiis 
he^ expressed hiniself tlius : « For a man to be burnt * and not consunied, 
and to be perpetually gnawed by a* worm is indestructible'' destruction, as 
riiapponed to ' tlie blessed Jol), wlio" was in process of destruction and did 
not perish rfor a considerable time, but was constantly sufTering and wasting 
avvay", Avliile lie scrapod olT putrid matter Tfrom bis body '" for a long time. 
Sometliing similar will liappen to tbe soul at that time, wlien tlie" worms 
Surround und gnuw it, not for two years' nor for ten nor for a buudred nor 

1. A. V. (li) •judgiiient willioul incrcv and turmenl Ihat does nul linish';(F) 'undviiig tornipnts'; 
.li). Clirjs. äöavä™ Ti|i(i)pia. — 2. ()/). eil., i.xxxii, (> (ed. Par. 2", VII. 890). — 3. A. v. (ü) 'the .■iame 
))le^s(■(l John again'. — 't. A. v. (EK) in.<. 'in gelieiina'. — J. A. v. (EK) 'an undying'. — ü. A. v. (EK) 
ins. 'and nniierishinf^'. — 7. A. v. (KK) ' \vc lioar nl". — 8. A. v. (EK) 'whose liody'. — 9. A. v. (F) om. 
— 10. .\. V. (EK) 'Willi a |nit>lici'd ' (.lob, II, 3). NtiUier is in .Jo. Chi'js. — 11. A. v. (EK) ins. ' iindylng'. 



[383J XCIX. — TO CAESARIA. 213 

jj > ooi.^Xolf V-*-^ vsl^K^ .^a^oji E 'M) v b. 

^^« )&oeu.^A ^.A^ ^^ tK^, ^eiLS.N^f 1^„>.. ^ ^0; jK.aa « f> f..^ 'i-^^ |i« 



xr.ix 






for myriads", but for years without end; for 'their worm', Iie says, 'sliall 
not die' »'. The Twise Cyril' also in the 1" book of tlie commentary on 
the Gospel of John said : « We ought not to be ungrateful to God but Ton the 
contrary^ to thank him because by means of the Resurrection froni the dead 
he has appointed for us torment tliat does not pass away *■' »'. 

XCIX. — Of the SAME from the 57"' letter of the 4"' book of those 

WRITTEN AFTEU EXILE, WHICH WAS ADDRESSED TO CaESAHIA THIC HrPATISSA*. 

« But in the fourth watch of the night Jesus came to them Walking on r,i9-;!8. 
the sea »'\ Know therefore that it is the custom in a city for the sake of 

1. A. V, (EK) ins. 'only'. — 2. Jo. Chr. [ijpioi?. — 3. In Ep. ad Eph. Hom. xxiv, 28, 29 (ed. Field;. 

— 4. A. V. (EKj 'blessed C. wise in divine Ibings'. — 5. A. v. (EK) 'the conliary, i. e'. — 6. A. v. 
(EK) ins. 'unless we repentcompletely'. ^7. In Jo. Ev., ed. Pusey, I, 119; but mir texl differs widel\. 

— 8. In the heading of the fragnient in U 110v° (p. .■594) it Is called Ihe l(i"' letlei- to Caesaria. — 
9. Matth., XIV, 2.".. 



Ol r I). 



214 LETTERS OV SEVERUS. [384] 

^^ . « \oiO .^..^312^«.^^.^ ^ vO^OUüO )..iJ^J^«„3 yOf.^; •.yOOUfcJL^^.^.^^^; 
.|K~.V.iL:>o..a K.^^ o/ |K-i n.>na ^^pts-i^oo .^jot^ |->J^^; l-*-^t-A )«a^o 

yJii its^ ^^ Jlggy . n I •> ^iKj»; ^^oi ^ .)LmJ^; öua^a ow» ^i JL^t^/ 

y^ .)L3u>Kj3 )K.i3^^0. |^K->M )K.iLiKaL^ »s/o );0(0 .^^JS.)^ )cn'\^>>B yOJÖl 

^^O. ^j jj/ pö/ :'jK.i^pe ^^>N ^SJ |_C:sCb^; )ooi ,_a3K.io yOi»,.^ i_w^ 

n VI . n/ |jlo( ^ .jK^^po )Iv^^^>cl3 a^^a. ^ JKv^jl^; |Kjl^,.s .-oi^a^; 
^Vi; ^; l-aK ^ •>o |N- ly*-« ^ o.^ ^ »o .^^'^.^j yojöi.^ ^j^vi * n Vi; > > \oi 
> »Noi |...v.v».-»o : vlI^a^o/; ÖuVoji oooi . « i -^K^ p -.v-^l^K^ J^P^! 

.JjLSOi )^ ->v\ ya2S.^>.2Jo yOOL*.IS^ OOOI yO^o^Jf OOOI ^.«.,5. :)UjJ > . 1 .» n; 
yoy^ ,~^ .l-d^S^^o |.^coa^)-3 x-*^*-^ 1'^^ . iv>,. n/o .yoC^ la\ K.*^iO 

1. Ms. Olli. — 2. A stop loUows in ms. — 3. Ms. pl. — 4. Ms. Pv 



precaution against housebreakers and thieves, as well as in military camps 
for the sake of precaution against an attack upon them by their enemies, to 
keep ward by night and watch in turns ; and some watch during the iirst 
portion of the night, and go round the city or the camp, and some during 
the rsecond portion and some during the ' third, and others during the fourth, 
and others at the very appearance of dawn, those who foUow in succession 
Coming in in order after the previous ones are tired. And this is recorded 
even in the Old Testament" Scriptures also. When Gideon was ordcred to 
attack a city by night, I mean the camp of the Midianites, the divine Scripture 
said : « And Gideon went in and the 100 men who were with him into a 
part of the camp when they had begun the middlc watcli, when those who sot 
the guards had just set them, and they sounded the horns » ^ And in the 
2"'' book of Ezra, when the walls of Jerusalem were bciug built, and the 
barbarians who lived near the countrv wished to assail them and stop tlie 
work, it is writtcn tlius : « And I prayed to our God, and wc set guards over 
US day and night against them »; and again, « At Ihat time I said to the 

1. Ms. om. — •.!. Si»6<ixiri. — 3. .lud., Vli. 1!l. 



|385] XCIX. - ro CAESARIA. 21:. 

"■^^-o -^-J 01 - . J^ .^ ^i. JU/ ^3j .(.iCL-SJS. Ij-^o/ ).i^j OCH.^ Oolo .yOOi^a/ 

./» " ■ VN jLioicu/o .jl^io^ )l-,.^^ia\ J-.JS.\ ^ jooiJo .^o^^io/; öil^^ia-s 



•>|I!wu'^/ »Njso 



^^l )»<>.^oooiVi ^öi :lLöu^ )-*^.^ö)»3 ^01.00^ ^^Jis-^^io )L:^K.3; ^; ^öi 



>&.a_iL-. vO('^< 



V*-^^° V 



Q-iAÄ ..)N.*;a-*;j ua.-.iaISj ..y-o(a-J^ji/ ^o .«^tv»./ JLisoi .«^ftooj ^''^s^^io 

1. Ms. oc^^. — 2. A slop follows in ms. — 3. Ms. <«• 



people, 'Eveiy mau witli liis slavo sliall i^-o up and dowu in tiie midst of 
Jerusalem, and let us take night for tlie first watcli, and day for tlie work' » '. 
Accordingly therefore tlie evangelist desired to signify tlie very time of 
night at which Jesus, who is God appeared to his disciples when distressed 
in the boat Walking on tlie sea". 

(.4/!*/ aftiT olhrr thitujs.) 

Hut tliat wliicli is Avrittcn in tlie divine gospels about the cloak'' witli 
which tlie Romans at the time of the Passion and of the voluntary saving 
Gross sought to clothe our Lord and God Jesus Christ, and indeed did actually 
clothe him, for the purpose of mockery contains no discrepancy, liecause 
Matthew related as follows : « And, when they had stripped him, tliey put 
on him a cloak of searlet » ', and Mark, ^ And they clothe him in purple 
robes » ', and John, « And they covered him witli a purple garment »". 
You should understand tliat the rascally Company of soldicrs", by way of 
prolonging the mockery and ridicule and derision for him, first clothed him 
witli the cloak* of searlet, that is red, and after this witli the purple oue, 

1. II Esdr., XIV (iv), 9, -22. — 2. This sentcnce is piiblishod in Grceli in Crnmcr, Cu/. in Mal/Ii. c/ 
Marc, p. 118. — 3. x>»[J^iJC- — 4. Maltti., xxvil, 28. — 5. Marl<, xv, 17. — r>. .lolin, xix, 2. — 7. «rrpa- 
TiwTai. — 8. x^.aH''^;. 



fio v° a. 



(jö V" b. 



210 LüTTERS OF SEVERUS. [386] 

• .oooi ^t~^^ jju^o^ ^^.^ V-'i^jto^t . 1.0^0,^ oüS, ^ ^.a'^; ^V-S'^^^ 

jjo :^f^ jK^Oo ou^ ^^A. jJ yMi .oi.^y^ )lo^^^ ^^i oöi .)ooi «£%; oj^ 
wiOifi...\3 ^a_i. v^/ oi-^'-* 1^ :ui__.K»*.j ot ... •>> / jJ/ :ou.io )>-« y>t.io )!/ 
. ..•i>>o .vfDo^k.^^.«^ Iq^ di^jL -.j.^'^f.^ |l^s.wa.j Ott i'^' p :oio sA^Kji/o 

^iö y^l .)..i^_30j 01.2^ N-./ UQ.iai> yoy^ic ^; l-^**? «x;^ J-"«^»/? -V^U 
V*fcs_j oöt iaX ^oiös/ ^j ^2l^^x:io .)v->V^ ^*^^^ V^ ^^*'^*"^ )o*Wj 
yooui-io ,_« ''^wOo .^a..«™co jlai.yn.s JJÖ^ yOOi-Vt^^; t~sK.m^oo .<.n:MQ.fio 
^^ o6( i~^ m^'^^^Jo/ v^oi ^po .yOO|.JL^o y.^ jJo K_)^w<K^o .«^oioK^/ 
JKaJ^U ia^cuL^o yoou^o y.^ ^^..ai^; .o^^ oöi lo^ ^; o6t •)-i&-^ )jo( Ia\ 

v.*^',U^O yOjÖi^ tyOO^ joOl K../ jjuU; V"'^^ ^^^^«.^.^ .vOf^ojÜ K-.).^'S......jLaOO 

1. Ms. ^- — 2. Ilero beging an exiraot in K 4'! v°. 



tliinking by the change of attire ' to increase the mockery. Tlial tliey did 
tliis for the sake of mockery is plainly signified by the story told by Luke 
also, for he said that, when PiLite learned that Jesus was from Galilee, he 
sent him to Herod, on the ground that the supremacy and autlioritv was 
by right bis, and he was glad to see him; and when he did not bear any 
M'ord from him, or see any sign done by him, l)ut found him silent, 'having 
set him at nauglit' (he says) 'with bis soldiers and made fun of liim, liaving 
clad him in spknidid robes, sent bim to Pilate'\ But, if one eonsiders the 
matter carefully and minutely, one may say tliat there is one cloak% of pur- 
ple, but of pnrple wliich contains some inferior dark tincture, so that it 
disavows the trne purple, and changes its appearance to one that is redder, 
and appears to liold a position approximating to both colours, and lo be eacb 
of them, and in strictness is neither of them. Accordinglv the evangeHsts 
looked one at the one colour and the otlier at the otber, so as to mention 
eacli of them botb with the same meaning and in düTerent terms. Since it 
was tlie purpose of tbose blaspbemers against God to pib^ up the whole mass 

1. a-/t,\j.ix. — 2. Lukr^ xxill. 11. — ■!. ylaiixii;. 



1 



387] XCIX. — rO CAESARIA. 217 

^^w_^».io .)_iä.^v » v^ y.^ "^^ ,_._3 )ooi ja^Kjbo jooi vaJl^«.^« ^otOL^s^l 061 

K-|jL--3, )» .. loi^j .-ja-J )o£Sso U\^o |jlS^; |.^:)0^ |jq_^;/; )->Q.^; E(;ira. 
.o-mj 001 ^^^; l^^-^»-^^ öC^3\; ^öC^ •.) nv>om o )^s^ia^;« ^« 061 .jl'/ 
.l-^^^oV-S ),°>..iOJ.a öi>')'>mi );o<^o . jKwiJ'poolo j.^;; ^ö«^ j-in^Kj; jJLaL./ 

^^ yju.a^o ^'^.aSoi jiotJS, .^-^j jöt^w^ » '=^\ .. ^* K^jf..]^ -t-^jj );o<; 
saao',.^ .|vb\^; ot)^^^— ^^>Jäa; oöt )oC^j oiy-^l )oi Jooi \^l )»^>-»/ 

^aSIl\.» )^s^^.^ >&,!> jlt OÖI^; -.vJU^ ) » I . 1 •■> yOOuSO; ).flQJ.,^1 jjLoiod 

\j'f-<^l jiJQ-A t-*~^v^ "^/o {'jo«.^]! Ilo-O-.;/ JOOM 0«~3 « I ..; .OI^-Sl:^ jK_>b.^.M E Cl r° b. 

1. In K the 2"'' o i« insei'tcd above. 



of insult and increase the mockery, for this reason tliey found oven tlie vcry 
dress whicli, as they thought, would excite much mockery; but the mystery 
contained in it whicli was hidden was shown by each of the colours, in 
Order that tiie purph:- colour might show the King of kings and Lord and 
God, who was of liis own will coming to the Passion, while the scarlet and 
red showed the fact that he himself took the whole of our sin, so that he 
was clad in the crimson cloak of blood, and nailed this to the saving Gross. 
For he suffered who knows not sin, not on his own belialf (may we never 
say this!), but rather on behalf of our sins. This therefore John also the 
ambassador said : « Behold! the Lamb of God who beareth the sin of the 
World »'. And Peter the chief of the apostles wrote in his epistle : « He 
took up our own sins in his body on to the tree, in order that being sepa- 
rated from the sins we may live in righteousness »-. And the wise Paul 
wrote to the Corinthians about God and the Father, who wishes with him 
that he should suffer for for the sake of the salvation of the race of all men : 
« Him who knew not sin he made sin for our sake, that we in him may 
become righteousness unto God » '. 

1. .Tuhn, I, 29. — 2. I Pet.. 11. 24. — .3. II Cor., v, 21. 



218 LEITERS OF SEVERUS. [388 

.JLjl-Soi )J^, ii .» f) llo-t^-J^l "^'^-^^i« .•'jjüLOLio ^Vl; JVioJLicus .-ItOGuSss 

JIA jJo •.Öt.-.K-,/ joOli )1C50USS W.OI Jlw.>JSs ^iö jlj ,)lcUL.Uj j-aL^OV^ 
jj .^; );oi .-Ol l\ n ./ l^oeu,»; ]i t-"^^ ^-^ -6| .j^jtoo jood jlo^.fYt^ 

loj^^JlDjO JK»°H,» ^« jjOI .K-tjLi^^OCLJL^ —Ol jK^tOOU ^ — 6|0 ) t f» ffP» «N ^ V^ 

1^1.^^ :)1oVaAa ""^^..^äoi j;oi .jöC^ yo^jx^^ ^;j juj^K^ flov^aui )toi 
jJ; —öl •.^^; jLoQj» ^ *f_a^^^! ^';j i "^ i"' JJ; —öl -.yK-K^U w^ )fiL,'rJ 

OI.2S— ; ) V>0 I n •> ^^ K-).^f^; V-^£QJ )...;Q^w^ 1.^00X0.^ ^3 ^^ K.a^0^9 

E Gl V" a. ^; y-*l° -'l^l )oOt — OloK>/ )-;Q...,.\ I 1 >0 .» ^; Vk^/ .'J-^/ — oioK-/ Oi^l 

<!/ S30l|jL30|0.-j',^)0Ö|S..'jj',-»/ y^^i/ v^lCDÖ/ JJLSOIO .'JV-^; OÖI U'f^l 



1. K t^Uv — 2. Mss. W»» ^^^- — 3. Ilere begins an extraol (cum another version in F 78 v", 
which I have given sepaiately aflei- Ihis fragraent. — 4. E «»■ — 5. K '■;-^>^- — 6. K pl. — 7. E ^Cxm^LLI. 
— 8. This füllows the pxtract givon on p. 391 with the addiUon nienliuned :i\ p. 393, n. — 'J. Ms. jS»- 



For there is also anotlier fiirther question which you ask, as to how we 
should understaud the Statement made by Gregory the Tlieologian in tlie 2'"' 
peace-making homily about the Holy Trinity in the following words : « A 
perfect Trinity of three perfect ones, Unity having beon moved on accouut 
of wealtiiiness, while duality was passed over on account of the material and 
the form of whicli bodies consist, and a Trinity was fixed on acconnt of 
perfection, for it first passes the composition of a dualit)-, in order tliat tlie 
Godhead may not remain narrow, nor be difTused into infinitude; for tlie 
one is mean, and the other disorderly, and the one is utterly Jewisii, and 
the other heathen andpolytheistii; » ' . This abominable notion musttherefore 
first be removed from onr mind, that we should not" ihink tliat the Fathcr 
first existed in bis own sole hypostasis, and was moved as if by some after- 

1. Or. XXIII, 8. — 2. Sie all versions. 



^389] XCIX. - Tf) 

061^ OUL^ «A^ü )_.ts_J^l )v>oi f>;o 

-^Nj );l/o .).^)l ooo» Uv-^j jJ / .\^^ 
)ooi K^/i -'i-^/? °°* «jOOO^^/; j^io,^ 

V-^ oöi .W.OI jif^AJi );Oj jJ/ .)jL^t^ 
)ov!^ Q-x -.iooi 'K^v^/fo :oo( JJg^O>.; 
' ouK_i/ *~*"^ )iQ-«.^oK.^a.a K^oji .001 

IV^; oöi; jL>.<><^o |1S..Vi,3l..\; :)>^fcs.^9 

1. U*f> is here erased. — 2. Mss. ^-p;-/io- - 
(ji£Ye9ou!. — 6. Mss. pl.; gr. iLtyi^o-jc. — 7. Ms. pl. 



CAESARIA. 219 

oö« oiJ.^ vn''=M )^K-«^I )vffli n\ sd/i 
.)oo|-J )la-»K*.\K_a; j-LS-»/ -'j-Moi; 

ooo( ji.V-''^! )!/ j.^oio If^ v^otoK../ 

v^DO^i/; OOjO,^ ^JU^ÖW» )U/o -./..^jJ 

jtoi jl/ .).Ju.^ )-woio l'yjs jooi ^oioK^/ 
»°i moU/; t— "^^ )-^ oö) •>'Oi JV-'^^^ 
.001 )oC^ a^ Jooi |1',.^2^o v^xaI/ 
lla^K-n^l V^^.^01 jJLo^Jboo^oojd J^ojl 
|_jJooiK_io ^jjoi ^^^.^s_ioo )K t .» n 
)^^K^ K^IV'fjk t-» )oC^ )L;olK.^oo 
)V— «-io/; ^öi ^^>-ooj ^01 .). v>n 1 n 
^ö< y——»l •.''^»^-ai^'ttt ' ) I "»"^^ol^ 
jyaojio jlglaj ^; .-j-a-.Kj jKvnii .. •>; u 
J).mK_^ '^ouov^ ^s^|.^uQJ )K^^« 
|joi J-^olS^ ^^o )1^^^^^ I^^V^. ^-^! E 

OtK,NTl..\; K^) ;Q N -> )J .jj^K.^« 

jJ/ -.s-i t ..'Kj ^/ j'f.-^.; oöi; oi^wk^o 

5. Ms. |il. : gr. 



Gl V h. 



3. k ov«^-/- — 4. >» füUows in ins. 
— 8. K pl. ; gr. xa),Xovi-q. 



tliouglit to put forth another hypostasis, that of the Son, and similarly furtlier 
conceived the thouglit of putting forth a third hypostasis also from himself, 
that of the Spirit, in order that he niig-lit exist in a Trinity. On this theory 
it will result that the Son and the Holy Spirit are not ever-existing but were 
afterwards added lo the Fatiier, and we shall give occasion for the blasphemy 
of Arius who says, « There was once when the Son and tiie Holy Spirit 
were not ». But this is abominable; l'or one wlio was acquired later and 
came into being afterwards is not God ; for the Holy Trinity is of equal 
everlastingness, and it is therefore understood and acknowledged to be one 
God truly in tliree hypostases. The words used by the doctor we should 
therefore understand in the same way as that which is stated in Wisdom, 
« From the greatness and beanty of created things the causer ol' tiieir birth 



h 



IC 50 V" 



E 62 r° a. 



220 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [390J 

"^»A^; .*)K_V^ lo^; <X^; jlooi^t JK-.V-3, loJ^; l-^>-^oo; jL^o .-1.0.1^^; 

. . \vi»>n; > «\oi ).^clÄo.^ yooi^o; ^-:m; •.J.^olS^X^ oC^ > .\vi»>ö; ^^oi 

. y v\ . nvi l^ijo JJooi ^j •.)L:)Ol^o^ ^^o ..g v> « o'l/ )..»»/ ^^o jloo« 

.po|j )K^a_«)^_sj ^/ jwJij/o 'jJoot ^/j .v^jj jK-o— Kij ^/ ,|ji;/o jJooi 

)^«^; )j"Jl^ ' i-=>^? ^ÖÜ^ 'U^^l y-'l* jloJ^oo/ lo^ l-v ...'p> \ jloot.^ . •^'/ 

.)ju^ ooi ,JJooi öi-^K-./ :oil.aJ^oo/ lo^ jlooi ^^^>^ ^; ^j-^ -U-^ .>^oioK^/ 

jj/ .)joi ^/jj jbv— / ^po? o/ )-=J>-? rr* ^'"^ ^^ •^*°' ^^ ^'r^? °' 

jia-^M IV'M^ '«. '\ °> OOI ^^ \-äiot .);oS\ »otoK^/ ;a>.X.5 Ja;/; •.j-»«..»^ 

JJooj^y; ö^.);Q-a^. y^otot^/ ;q^w ^i >-b ^; )oi.3s •:>>Sjli ''vdjjL^ ^; jJooi 

|jL^oo/o ^^O; y» |;o-:i^ . öiS>-. ^jj.^ .Jia-L.ioo)_3 vo^-^o ^^<j; );a_2L.^ 

^OQJL^^^JJ; ')JooC^o/o-JoCäx Jt-'i^Lii |J; ).io oöi ^_iO J-iOAdu^ ^^O; jloo^o 

mK_^/ JOOI ^0loK_>/ )1; ^t—bO ^ y/o.ÖtiCS^VLflD )a;/o>.^KI</ >.*0|oK^/ 

1. K. pl. — 2. Ms. ovl^-r — 3. E p;^7- — 4. Ms. U^j- — 5. Ms. Uixw,. _ 6. Ms. >S^>o• — 7. K w^t.. 



is inferentially seeii » ' ; and IVoin formed creation and tliis visible world wo 
may conceive not only of tlie wisdom and power of liim wlio created them, 
but also of tlic very peerlessless of liis Godliead in regard of creation, and 
its distance in all points and lack of similarity. We see that all tlie bodies 
wliicli make up tlie world are composed of material' and form, and arise 
from a duality; but wliat material' and form are wc will State in tlie form 
of an example. For instance the potter's material' for the craft is the 
clay, but be adds tbc form to the material', tiiat is to say, that wbicli belongs 
to tbe fashioning of the vessel that is being manufactured, a jar or a pot or 
anything of tbe kind. But in this case the potter is tlie maker of the form 
only, and he borrows the material'. But God, the Maker of all and perfeet 
in craftsmanship, hoth brought the material' ol everv body from that whicli 
did not exist and added tbe form; aud, if you speak of fire or of eartli, or 

1. Sap., XIII. ."i. — 1. üJirj. 



j.! r" I). 



[391] XCIX..— TO CAESARIA. 221 

pojl )»QJ yjo.^Ä jlo^o^o -.j-tocv^ ..l^iÖy/o »)/■ y/o-.l^i/ y/o pojlj^oj 

• .)jV^/ jJaLOOdo :)io|..jOOO K..O )» vm ^^o JJooi^o vooti^; -.Jü^^/ \ i'k>'> r 

ooot; >^öi la\ oi / ; >^öi Vl^. K...)A\,^»,>n )Ji jJooi;o |ln i Vtoj—a ^1' Jt-^^o/ 

'jlooijo .h^eOfSll J^jjL^o/ yooi.')^/ ^o(o^sw^/ |;n i'no | ^ftüno^; i"-*^^! 

wOloIS«»«/ )»n i\o ;)v>'iiO ^; o^; jJ; ^^0( )'=^\,..ü V) )^)]1 «^ •.|J^^^'poo 

) <-^\ .. > V> Ix'iU* 1-3 •^^ jjK^poo |;oi ''^s — ^^-^ .öl.^'K-3 I Vi"»n ^; 

.jjL^^^>a^o)L.Vpoova^.V3^^>.^Oop.|^f ,. .. a» :)„.i..>)S«,..jl.^ )_.V>-^o yO^V^ 

V^O^A pOVJ ^OltO^ l^- ^3 -^I \^ l-3r-'^^^3 |io^£D Ml^v-O* |iOlQJ | VI-t Q^ 1^« ^3 '^^ ^^^*30l pOO] U(2)52V"a. 

: ^ov•^u/ ILoj^k ^.*o ■■ ^* v\. nvi ':-\^\ mn : ,^* •tn» nsn v**-^/! ^/ ^.W ^o Nooi ]<^ ()-2 t'" ]). 

1,^1 „o^ ■■ , irtMLf |Nj;o»^ INJi^Do ^o poöp ^tc:3 ^o -.yOov^N-./ |Lax.U ^o 

1. K |il. — 2. Ms. ]i^y- — 3. K sing. 



of air' or of water, or of the sky and tlie sun and the moon and the otlier 
Stars, he both formed the material" of all ot'them out of non-existenl things, 
and the form was devised for theni in difl'erent ways at the moraent that 
they came into being, and he is both the Maker and the adorner of the 
shapeless materiaP of the bodies, in that he differentiated it into the various 
forms of the bodies. And this Wisdoni also states, when it declares 
concerning Pharaoh and the Egyptians, who were vexed by the serpent and 
the vile reptile : « For neither was thine almighty band, which created the 
World out of shapeless material, at a loss to send against tliem either a 
multitude of wolves or fierce lions » '. Therefore our mind, seeing that the 
bodies in this tangible world consist as we have said of material' and form, 

1. 4r|p. — 2. :i.ü>,Yi. — 3. Sap., xi. IT. 



222 



LETTERS OF SEVpRUS. 



[392] 



U hs v a. 



001* ^^-«/O . N^l. ...» .ItQ^ 1^» )lS^!-3 

JooiL p» '.iLoot^ 'ö\^t^l ^:^Qj.^ f— .j 



K (12 V a 

K 51 r. 



' It-sl^* ^6i^ '')-^ll <Kr^° ' 6\j\jI PoO) 

■.ooL op^-/ p ^» |l.a±-»^vJ'^ — U»/ 
P/ ■.^ia::Jla^. 11!^;^ l^;L P» U^/ 



ILo^^uC^Lf |irt t-.;f.\\« pj^ >aV.. ÖM^oo 
La^» OfLo^Loji^o Po Öva^o* P-^o 
'. V^Io ^^^.^ ovJt^^ La\o . |IS^^ 

|LOO>^ 1^ I '^r. I n -s o^b. |»Ot ^^^^kO \Hl 

jj t.Na-ici^ ^ jia3L pt M-a-/ -.öu^l 
■■.■\. •ü^'.^t ooi^/o lt->j-3 l->-<^^! ILouk^l^ 



JS^j-^^^o y »<=^i vAja^; :oi1ql^ jooi ^ ();ot!^) •.^>^/ )^).^>-»»^ ; vLiL P iii 
jooi '^i.^^jriio '^^-iö );cn.2^ :^>— / )>-w^ia2i>. K--«_io Pj .p6/ »^ »äJää 

)>*.lj fco/ .....aLlL^ P; /pö/ ^ "Öj!^ »j..3o,V3 jj^i-^))— J t-^^i* k3/.v-3o,^9 

1. Ms. l^-aootaas- The beginning nf tliis extract seems lo bc an epitome of the earlier part of Ihe 
citation. — 2. K « for w- — 3. Ms. Us^ol'-'- — 4. Here is a mark of ref. with a coirespüiiding mark 
in marg. Tliis perh. denoles that |l.<uisi.t _ ^.oa shoukl lollow Wazio. — 5. Ms. ow-Cv-r - (;. Ms. 
1;=».» ^0^. _ 7. Ms. prel'. ?• — 8. K 8ie ms. — '.). Mss. U».^i- K o corr. to ol, but / pcrli. belougs 
to the preceding word. — lo. Whal loHows is fiom the version in thf right col. ; see p. 393, n. 8. — 
11. Ms. oni. — 12. K ^■ 



and that they arise from a duality, and being instructed by tlie sacred 
Scriptures that there is one Godhead in a Trinity, wonders and is amazed at 
the profoundness of the theology ' , since it sees a corresponding fact in creation, 
and is as it were initiated int,o a mystery and learns from creation the 
inaccessibility of tlie Trinity and its lack of likoness to and Community witli 
creation, and rellects in itself and says : Tlie reason theu" why tlie Godliead 
does not exist in one hypostasis is that it may not be inferior to the bodies, 
falling short in the rcstriction of number. And it does not again exist in a 
duality, Ijccauso it shuns similarity to the bodies, which arise from a duality, 
but it onlv appcars in a Trinity and as plnral, wliicli is admirable; for in the 
Trinity is completcd tlic uiiiquc number wliieh follows two. Therefore also, 
wlicn Moses said to liim, « Show nie thyself, let me see tliee plainly », he 
refused this, saying, « Tliou wilt not be able to see my face, for a man shall 
not see my face and live » ; but he added, « Thou shalt see my back parts. 



1 . OeoXoYia. — -• äpa. 



[393] XCIX. — TO CAESARIA. 223 

oj/ )>L« i-*^ ]l »3/ .uJ^; l^ojVS ]iK£CL^ ]y^U -.^j )oo« sSoöaio .|-^o 

.otlol^; ^■«■\oi >ö.,J ^; oii^ m .s )l ' ^-^. \ i y . \ oi )K_.V-=> ^©»--.K:;/ 
^^0( j^-.";^ ..«-Oiots-/ ^1 OJ»fts.flQ.J» ^OI;Q-ä^ K_)ÄiU ^o|.-^i)-3; .^.oö« u 

^ou-)^/ V*^ ^*Ao( .)..^\o)l; i^;*>^/ '^oUi^J .-joi^j jVKfll^ 

^^^; jji^iaji; jKjÜL^^o jJLfiO^; U'^'l > .Q'.M.>n jJ^.m V m I | I V \ \ «d/; 
•"Mi-j-s Ji . .. ^;1 )I),..\; .Uiä jJ )> .. v>N ou\; '''^^»-^Oo .-j-JLioJi 
|.^a.iL^ jl^ ^^^.^.^ .|jl:>c l »\ ^q.^^ .j^^V^ oiioioj; |la.o,-3 jL^;; .-^«-^ 

1. K U^-o. — ■_>. Ms. >-'-»[>■ — 3. Ms. "W- — 4. Ms. ,k^^o|l.j- — 5. Ms. ins. ^sss," — t»' '^ '•'J^? 
Cvll»-». __ 7. Jiss. »o-lt. — 8. Here begiris an extract at 52 v° a (U (2)) which follows on tluit givcu 
above wiUiuul headiiig ur division; see p. 392, 11. 10. U (2) '^•^w |Lai».*|l.Cv«:^. 



butmy face sliall not Le seen by tliee » ' ; sigiiifving tliat Ijy tlie veiy essence- 
and by the siglit, as one may say, of tlie i'ace no man can comprehend God, 
but from liis back parts a man shall know tlie tliings tliat pertain to him. 
But liis back parts are created things wliich came into being afterwards, 
tlirougli wliicli he is inferentially seen as tlie causcr ol' tlieir birth, as nur 
fathcr tlie Tlieologian liinisclf also said in the 2'"' theological liomily : « These 
are God's back parts, all tliings which, being alter liiin, iiiake him known, 
like the shadows and reflexions of the siin upon waters, which show the siin 
to weak eyes, because they cannot look at it, since by the puritv of the light 

1. Kx., .\XXIII, 18-23. —2. oOdia. 



V h. 



224 



LETTERS OF SEVERUS. 



[394] 



E 62 V b. 



V 110 V 



-.) n>o "»'S ^ I N!) ... no I v>» n V); -.oi >ö, a )iQ-L_.iK-^; |U .p ..V, 

jioJuiK^; )i.Q-.;OL..^\; jJ.aJLX-jltoo lt— s; jN_-^.ioot^_io 'j><^, ^^ r\ 

• jj-SJ JJ; jK n'^^^ .JloJL.;!; )^;Q_aL^O jj; );Oi_SO .j-JL-SJ }il )U ft/^ o. i\ 

^«>J^O| ,_._30 .j-uOM j^s.Ol9 ii );0(^0 ^A.^^/ , . ->0 '.j «..,.0 ).mOM )jl«) 



.j_Jj/i v*»*»--)^ / jlo I oK-5; ts_ 



»JOU^O J^^-_)_Jj/^ yOOl->^w>/ 



^lo-o^l Ot^ h^ll o6i; «-^/; :)VoiQJ; 

yO-jÖU^ .JKvI.mM v*Ot I ,«\ VlQ.il ^; 

""^«i^; vOJÖi^ -l-^i^; yOJÖC^ )»s»oiL^j 

v-oioK-_./ 1- ^ .^ •,^<^^» |_s; ^»io )^io).iö_3 ^ e uwio; oöt ^; |jäCL,vks.3o 






•r; 



iiK-ii vn in \; yOf-:iO ou^ K^>^o oöi :)Voiaj ""^.^ ^oiaibv^ vl^am oöt 



1. U (1) Ita,^!- — i. U (2) om. — 3. Ilere the exlnict U (2) end,<. — 4. Ms. ^•Ijiv — ."i. K ow^»/. 



it overcomes the perception » '. And tlierefore in tlie passage now before us 
for Interpretation he applied the expression 'movement of ihe Unity towards 
a duality' to the everlasting birth ol' the Son from the Father, and 'passing 
over oi" the duality' to the procession of the Holy Spirit which is timeless and 
thereby ^vithout beginning, and by means of the words used as \\e have said 
he gave a philosophical" explanation in mysterioiis and divine fashion of the 
lack of Community in the Trinity towards bodics which exist in a duality. 
The passage contained in the homily eutitled -of Lights' which says, 
« But where there is purificatiou there is shining, and shining is the 
completion of love, to tiiose who desire things that are great, or tiiat which 

1. Or. Theol. II. 3. — 2. Tlir wcnil ji/offosfjaai is here iiicludcd. 



i 



[395] XCIX. — TO CAESARIA. 225 

.^-«-JÖij ^-. J^ ot;o )K^^.>^'; ).^a::)0 )jl../v.»-.^^^/ ♦)iQ.JL3?;toei^vn m\» 

>-0(oK_i/ ).i»j «öl ^_io ^^iJ^o :).^V-^o |... J^ Q-^ lo^; .-jJSo..^; )laJio|J^s.^ 

^«-^ioV; ~^^ > ,« \oi„a .^^^^.^0 .|-».^>^..^o {.ix^Oi^ )lSs.^OiI:^ j^oeu^i; 

jL.--.i voonio ,_« t-»>-» jJo rjl.-.-^ öi-K^/; -öi "^)tsJL3J-K.ioo ))^,^fc^'/j 

• ,^^ "^ai r:*^.-''^ •\-''r-^l v*JÖi ^ . .«Noi-a 'ö.^frs.ioo y^oioK.*/» oöi-JoC^ 

jlof„«^^ Ji^ ^^iL^f.3; s^öi ^^ t-^^ °°t xr^ "^oC^o .'OM oöi^o ^^^ioM 



^^«^iO y; )-3V-3 .).iOQJ.lo ^iO ^^ ^ yOO|.JLiO ^..J^o ;«.its.io )J Ns^ia^o 

.jloov^« |laj;a««\o lla^ouiio .f.^; «öi ^^-a^; )la-.ajL^o .Jl ......^ U'^f-^l ^^ot 

jlj «öl ^"^«^oo ..^; 1^; ^io ^'^»^^ )io^-^^ jLa ^4-.^; «öl VLi. .•^^io 

>3/ .llaA^^oa^o jla^t^ o(,j^ ^^N.£qj ]J |lk..iJ^V-=^ .|la-Da.aL-io )1o,.a2^^ 

1. riere tlie exlract in E breaks off llirough Ihe Inss of a li\al'. — 2. Ms. ^- — .!. Ms. sing. — 'i. Ms. 



is great, or beyoiul wliat is great »', is plaiu and contains notliing diOicult 
of comprelieusion. Wliat he said is, « Wliere tliere is purificatioii of tlie 
süul by mcaus ol' virtues, therc is llie sliining of knowledge, wliieli raiscs 
and uplifts to tlic satisfaction of divine love ». But tlie satisfaction of lovo 
is the end of things deliglitful and pleasing, wliich is God, who exists and is 
made known in things that are great, and in that which is great, and beyond 
that which is great; in tiiings liiat are great in the tiiree iiypostases whicii 
are equal in power and of whicii none is in anytliing inferior to tlie others 
in power and in equality in all things, except that they are distinct in the 
matter of non-generatiou and generation and prooession, in the unconfused 
individualities wiiich stanip each of the Iiypostases; in that which is great, be- 

1. Or. xx.Kix, 8. 

PATR. ÜR. — T. XIV. — r. 1. 15 



F 78 V" 



226 LETTERS OF SEVERUS.. [396] 

)Ui-%rft>^^ ^ i,.,..t ..jk..^ ^ V^^ ^:^ t^ ^^^! |K«iin .vio )1^\ .X"-v 
)o|2^ ^oioK^/ ).^^; -.ylo^; jopÄA« ^ö| "^^.^ '.oi; ^; o6|^ •. )>on'i'f> 

•:*oi^ y.« mvt; K.^ )-*T-^ OOI oi -./ooi ^^/ jbpopoo );oi 

• . öuK- / •' ( I K-ULa-Kixiio jj ) I looiSs ^1 
•:• jju^-ca^ ).^Q^1 ^^wi^ jJo p 

1. Ms. Sing. — 2. Ms. o\^^l- — 3. Ms. um., bul wilh mark of oiiiissiuu. 

cause he is one and the samo and because of the Unity of the Godhead; and 
beyond that which is great, because he is not limited by size and quantity. 
For, in that \ve employ the poverty of names that exists among us, \ve 
name God great, when he is more than great. Therefore also the Psalmist 
Said : « Great is the Lord and very admirable; and there is no end to his 
greatness »'. For all greatness is limited, but the Godhead cannot be 
limited, and is not limited by any boundary. 

1. Ps. CXl.IY, 3. 



^n^-n r^T_>ird2ru .ooo-^Jarsf^ qocut^t.^ rsf"v»^rsfT\ 

1. See |). 3S8, ti. :!. — 2. M-ss. Uo^^-v 



[397] XCIX. ~ ro CAESARIyV. 227 

.ou^s '"^wrS )i^;a«. .^iö );oio .) m "^ ^ )J; ^; )joi Jt-o-./ too.^» jJ» »-".-»v 
|lo', « 1» jjoij -.^o, f>rt\ ^^^j^aoi »^'jj •>|öC^ lo)^,^oo )^w>.aju. ^j |;oi 
|^;a^J^ JN-mi n ^ ^^ Kl>|.^^; ^^ ^ -^m'i ji; •'^^«^^ )&s^^kU ^^ )eum 
»s/ >n °\'l<) -<&,-.)lll .-yX,.?» I V>; ^Ot-iO |K„A^»1 ^Jio; I-XSl./ :i^/ )ooi V)^ 
OÖI OMlSlI ^^ Sülls/ I ).^QJLOO -.Ooi OJlImI/ jjLSoio :)*f_3; o6i JLi^m/ ).^qjla 
\Mi\ •> ■> q\« .|;oi^ ^i>.^ «.«oKjl^ .^oioK^/ joou lia^K^n^K^j JJlsl»/ :)-Moi« 
)U/ ^ftoo -.jls/ ^^»^ oÄxeoU/ Ui--^ JJ/ -J-i^t-o J— oio j^-s -ocoK-./ joöi 
)-«o» [sS/ |t»sj joot «otoK-,/ ]J; «too/ |xsj )ooi K^/j t^iö/j ^coa-.i/j |^«o^^ 
qJ^ jooi )it..wJS.o :w>JL^l/ ^)frs.^9 ^.^^ OÖI .).\';Kj )ioi4 |y «nii ,j]/ .)jl^|^ 
.jKiL^^ )l<x.K*M .Jia^K.-^i CH.*^-/ ^«Ci^is ^ V-^^ j,-wjj[/ .ooi| )<hSs 

JjLOOl .).^'aJLO )K.JsKü ts^Jt-jjL joC^S ,— IjoltoOO ^•^S^wD.N.CQ.iO ^0| ^^-^OO 

^^o •J>^K.^ jLoöi; v00ilo,_<J^j t»^? °°l J^j-^ta^"^ )l^<V-3; j^Sojio \lo^i 
OOI jL«.^J^o )K:> a A^\ to^J^^^ ol^ .')>.^K^o; jLioi )j)cl^.^o )1,^.3l^> )1^-^ 
.^-JsKio jJ )K[-^3] ioA; oilootSSj 'voio jJ/ -.ojlL-Kj; ^ K^/ |j_aj 
y<. \ , ^ >..^; j v)">a ,v vooC^; ^""^ ^-^>^ '1^; 1^° >a.«y^^ >opoJ^>^äo 
^; )jLio .yOOuK-./ jlaJL.U ^ioo :^_.oa_u^.io |.a;/o jJooj [^^ JuliCL^O»^ 
)lQ.t.. V) o/ lal^ J^v^.a L .' ^ [|.J^ooij |jp/ .^iojLj |K*Q^K-2); vi^/ .JLaj/o jJooj 
Qjoi .JLj)_io; )la^-.^,iu^; U»"^ -.U»/ JJoo« ^>^ ^J )o'Uo -l-»-^ ..-oioK*/ 
.\;;^ l^'O« |J/ -J-LOOt ^/; ;>o^; o/ JLsj— J o/ jL^Äiua; i^'ü&^^j^io; ooi; .^; 
.»3>1. '>3;|.io .^j jJooi .);o-2l^ .-ojoK-./ ;a.wl^^j» )ji;/; .JjLioo/ K.00/ |->V'>^3 
-öl ,^0 ^-^icÜJia^ ''^i&jj "^JJooi^o .jioJLiooJLs ko;^ joi^o ^'iio; ^; jjQ-a^ 
vjo ..Uiö vjo U^il y/o .);aj ^pojl vjo .yeLco )Ljij/ .3/ -K»*/ öi-.^..J^j 
^^o« ^ jJooio .öi-J»; vOO|.X_3 ) '»•'v\'> o jL_^_ii yjo jioiÄo JLjl^oji " 
vooi_*K-./j v^öi ^a_i. l^-j/ )^)L3LX--jLio vooi^ l-*!/o .^oI-d ^ouK-.-^; 
ilJijJJo ,JbK_^^j_ioo ^-Olo^«/ j;a_aL^o j.iojia^j l^i-Q-:^? i^? jiooi;o .^Ji^t/ 
"^^i^^s^ PiC^-iCLio p :)^/ )K. y i 3 L>» .3/ |;oi,io .ouaks {.icuicL^; {.au^^-üLio 
)AA^K.io t-*-^ |J .0,^1/ JL^^ 'jj-^Ao ^A^^M yQ.JÖi ,.-^; :j-.Vvioo vO^'t^ 

1. Ms. ".wo. — 2. Ms. «Sv-M. _ ;i. Ms. Uoov=o- — 'i. Ms. ;-:.y)\L. _ i. Ms. lilJ-^o- 



228 LETTERS OK SEVERUS. L3'J8] 

^^o :. «VI . f)V) ^-^>io/; y^l jJooi ^^; : |jLjL^;K.:bo ).^a^o^ )jou» JJioIjiq.^ 
jlocH^Ss j,^ )la-K_,Ji).K^; :^iOL^l)^.io JjL.^ä |.üfro ^^o tyOOuK»./ )Iqjl-U 

)lQXSV^*K.iO jJo jioJLiO^D'l^OiO JL^ y^L^sJ^ CHJliOO K_.).Jj /» >£>.\J>1 j.^ y^/o 

joog jJ; jJLSu/ Joj)^ ■^oiots^l IvxajLo ^.^w.^ oS. )joi ^'^^^i 't-^/o jj^^^l^ 
|_^ >->/o .ötJ^ K-./ J^IV-'^-fiO-'»; 1 1 « LV>; jict-A^^jL^ .-).^ajia^^^ V:..i.^q„w 
io^; )-*-^o; ^-^ ''^»-^ ; ^^"""^-^ -.^oioK^/ ooi ^9 jiojL^iK^ jl .)j;>-:>o« 

iKjd; oöi )-.;■■« <■> . ooi jxo.1^ Ji^oK.JL^ t-"*"^ )la>K-.XJ^^^ .j .. « iii; mÖi .).,^lfiDO 
jj ,^; wk^o^f.^ .>^>K m ^; ^^J^oi )>w>*l; J;oi v^lodo/o .j_>.^o v^So^'^S )-'^°^-^ 

""^ixi v^ jls/ OOI k^/« >^6i .)>^K,.^ ^oilo,^^^ y ^\ ^-•/ .'N^l-^cu.^ 

).JL^aAi )K « i"^^; l-^o^/ -ooi; )K.*jl^;cLil^ oöi iKj»; ^.«^oi ^oD^o -.joü!^ 
}i yVo...^ oi«3; ^^^i:»..^^^ :)^^aA. ^q_^^ )K m « m i JjlX^JS.^ |.^aS.Vo :)^:icL2ii 
Vi..t.Io; "^-..Joi |«ioio ♦jjL.^^lJ^ )jj ))Oia-i; )lS>_<>.A.^i )lot>.o«JL3; :|— jjLio 
-.«aJls )la,i...>K-^; jlo_.;aA<J^; ).^o; :)^sJS.^ );oi.2 .j^Aoa..^ ^w )a;j>-.fiD 
jJ |la,f>a°i,L2S. •.'jloJL.il» )^»Q_3Li.o .Jv_3; |^/ ^^o; ^a2Sj)» ^ioj jlo^wJbwJ^ 
jJ -.^jpo/« ^/ V^)^/! ^-«--^oi fA^o .\jL^i jJ> |«oi.^o )~iL^t^ U^oii )KaJL3j 

j'^l-^o-a ).:>Q. ■«■«); ^öi ^JM jKJ^^^oo •:*t.:3u^ |.in^3a m^^s^s K_.|ov^o K^Jb//i 
jloJ^öiJL^ :)laJ^öt.JLM )lo.A^M ^f 'j-^^/ ^Ji-"-^/; '^öt :|Voiaj ""^k^^a^«; o6< 

1. Ms. laVv — 2. Ms. jS l'oio. — 3. Ms. k^~^-o|l.v — 'i. ^[s. |l.al.;^>,. _ .-,. Ji..,. (xj/- 



[399] C. — TO CAESARIA. , 229 

oöi ^^ "^^.Xi o/ :oM o/ : . « ~>»oV; >QJÖiS«; ^.<i^^jj :)_3a^« ).^a^o ^t 

jL^o:^ la\ JK^^« jlaj^öu^ ^1 -JiVl^A^o ,.A^; oöi )jlSü; )-^>>3om I-Sl./; 
JLLm/ oöi ,^o(oK.^/ I^Om« ^4 I « \a:>o .)^IS.b«^oo ) n m v^ )-.ow^ j-so-x« 
:o^f-3o :^j._2Voi; ^^o«.^; oöi Joiü^ ^oioK^/; oöi » »|.«.,ioio . . >^. .^i \0~<öi; 
l-^äjLO jK^KJls :^.*^Voi; ^wJ^ot.^ ^^ '>isf_^Ooo .^oioK->/ o^; ^^ ^^«^C^«o 
Ji-n-^^ ^» JLi^^/ vQ-JÖi ^^ ^vl^i^Oo >Of.^a^ JJo yoou^ t~^^3; •ji-*->'>~3 ^Q-&.;o 
:|lo no°i IQ |lof->.jS.w>.2o |lof»•^Sw^ jJL^ ^^.^V^« y^öi Vl^ . ^Of-^eCSjudi |la.a«..2>o 
^; oi; OÖI .|.^äjLO ^^ ^^2^n^ ^_:)aI^pö;o :)KJ^iL^^^ jj jKjL^^^ 
^^^io :^; j.i» ^io ^'^^.^Ji. .)looi.I^; )la^;a^I^o ooi p ooio ,—* ^'^s^.io 
ylo^« > ■.i.. !^ oi joi^ji; f"^'<^, )lf<i'>fflV-5 .jlo « vnio vkA^ci^ |laj>t-3 oX; 

.«OloK_/ )-3»; *>Ö| ^^ ^^>i^J :joi^jl OÜ^ ^JUO|V>>\^ )_3»o ■•^JL.>.^.t'^l^oo 
I Ti m K..^o •.>.«_ ^ .ig wM,^^jio ,)L.po oi; .)o®l r^l U\-^}-^ Ijo' "^s*"^"^ 
jjLflO jjj ja*<^i^^ ^^j )o(2^ .01.2^ j^/ |jl£0 ^^/^ V^i.^ jia^i ^3 .oila^i^ 



ji— o|.^Q.f>.3; -.jJ^^'o»)!^ Jbö ^^ joil^ixiio; :[:>ax v.*^l^j |öi^; ) ■ - v, v.^ 
);^>J^ -Jctoi yt-a^o; vQJÖ« vOOuN-»/ oooi ^ ).3^UaL^; .Oib. jooi K_./ Jjoi ^-/j 

I. Ms. i-;~y'i 



C. Ol- TIIK S.VMK l'UOM Till': ))"' MiTTlCU dl' TIIIC G"' HOOK Ol' TIIOSE AKTEIl 

KXn.K, WIIICII WAS ADIIHKSSEI) TO TlIK (iLORIOUS GaESARIV. 

You say therefore tliat it lias Jjeen discpvered liy certaiii persons concer- sm :>s. 
iiing Balaam tlie sootlisayer and seer aud propitiator of falsely-named gods 
tliat it is testified by the divine words that he had .such power in his raouth 



li r h. 



230 I.KirKIIS ÜF SRVERUS. * [400] 

)..^CL.^J^ ^'^s-,V-in..-JJo -.""^J^^jL^oi j;oi ^^oo Jooi *^']Jj vOJÖi JI.ao n \,_5 ^^j 
s^oioK^/ JJLSOI ^'/m oöi Vt-^; :)oiü^; j-^A^ )ooi ou^^ol:^) oöv^o :)Lil^^x> 

.yOf>«M jK-X^o j^JII^^^; jioJfl^rci^o IdJ^; s^öi .■)K...^.X^« ouK^/ )^<^;'; 
.•oV-io/ vo-ioi; ^l .•) .\ mvi ^axi^^ ^i. ;<Hä/ j-toü!^ J^Ks V-o-ix^ h^l 
Ok^; \^oi ^^ p :oto/ ^^oi) o6| V'«-^ )-i^<^~^ 'O^ ^/ l-<oi >■•/; jJ>->>~**; 
^M; ^^/ 'po/ ooi jJo : )jLJL^a.jL:bo jooi s^oioK^/ jit-A.;o Hooi w.<i^2liV j^K^Oo 
|joi ^/m ^fio jot-co/j '"t^l jojSs ^^K^-io ^j jJo -.lioiot^oo j;oC^ oi^o^V^ 

o^o J^jj'^^; .-).^o«^ ^a^^wo ^%^ jooi \ ^ mV) -.JjlJLs jcL*;; jf.^.^o :joo( 
:ji^öC^ j-ILsKsL^ "«.^aju; >^o( J.2l^'^o . v>f-2J;o ^Q^J; jooi »..a*.>o K^J^aJi 
OOI.2 jooi ^oioK-./ -.ojo^o; jli\>o ioS« f^ vii^^wjso .K_>j.rfCS>^,^jVJL^ h^i^! 



1. Ms 



tliat thosc wlinm lic hlesscd were blessed, and tliose on thc contrary wlioni 
lie cursed were cursed. For this reason therefore the man who bore such a 
character was tlien lifted up to bless Israel also the holy people, the people 
wliich was named God's people ; for you say that the same men who discovered 
this plainly produco these words. And at this 1 am not surprised; for it is 
the peculiarity of those who repeat the contents of divine Scripturc cursorily 
and as it were l'rom hearinsj, and not from learnin^ and accurate knowledsre, 
to arrive at false and erring notions. Where did the divine Scripture testify 
of the roprobate Balaam, as they said, that he had such a power? Moses 
wiio wrote these tiiings, Hjeing inspired ' by the very excellent Spirit and 
being a minister of thc truth, neither gave this testimony as in his own 
pcrson, nor said of God that he gave any such testimony concerning Balaam, 
l)iit recorded that Balak, King of the Moabites, being a demon-worshipper 
and a slave of foul fiends, thougiit of Balaam the soothsayer that he could 
cursp and bless authoritatively aud not in a worthless manner. And it is a 
simple tliing to listen to the divine Scriptures manifestly proclaiming tiiis : 
« And Balak son of Zippor, King of Moab, was at that tinie, and he sent 

1. Ms. Olli. 



[401] C. — TÜ CAESAUIA. 231 

joio .^ioo ^^o ^a.3J )-^a^ )o(; -.V^/ t-S ^oto^V-OJ; .oi^o^ >...x".a; j^op; 
.)jo( )..^aJ»w2^ wJ^ ^ot-«.^Q..\ |1 .jjioio .M^f_M j'^A )-JOio .)^i/; oi.aI3)1 v,<>.qi^< 

sXl^^.3^ Oi\ )oO| t^l jloJ', im Vi ^'^saSOI );oi fJ -v^/ ^■'^■^; .^/ "^JJ? 
oooi yoouj^/; Zyoot» Sit )-iUL.;:^eL^o :oi, iNfiii K.*.^!; y^oi ) <>'S)a : xi^o 

).a2ooi\ ^^^ ^ t^ ;).3L^..i>.v> )-«Ij; )JLx,^aD f..<i^ ^3 : |.^.<C^iLi oi^^ l\^ 

:o;fK£Q.;^eu^ o^oi^o :oooi ^■<Jb»>.«ji ^ooi^am ^^^o :oooi yoot^frs^/ If-sJL^; 

koJS^ )joi 001 ^; [^Js^J^.^ •nQ-'/ >^Q-w yOO|.X folooi yfc^^Kji:»; ^w^oi 

1. Ms. Ntt»ot:i^». 



ambassadors to Balaam son of Beor tlie interpreter of clreams, wlio was 011 
the river-land of tlie sons of liis people, to call him, saying, 'Lo! a people 
hath come out of Egypt, and lo! tliey have covered the face of the laiid, and 
this people hath encamped round me. And now come, curse me this people, 
because tliis people is stronger than we, in case we niay be able to overthrow 
some of them, and cast them out of the land; because I know that they whom 
thou blessest are blessed, and they whom thcucursest are cursed' » '. Since 
therefore Balak and the Moabites who were under subjection to him, and 
the Midianites their neighbours, who were barbarians, held this belief, God 
' >vho wisheth that all men should live and come to the knowledö-e of the 
truth ' - according to the apostlo's saying, instructing our race, hard as it 
is to turn, by many various methods, first showed his power with which 
none can contend, and displayed the kings round about them, Sihon, King of 
the Amorites, and Og, King of Bashan, who were giants, and trusted to 
tlieir strength, and were eager to engage in battle, and met Israel in warlike 
guise, slain willi the sword and dead together with their followers; and 

1. Nuiii., XXII, i-i;. — 2. I Tim., II, 4. 



'1 v° a. 



4 v° b. 



5 r a. 



232 LETTERS OK SRVERUS. [402] 

)öu^; JJLo-M io^ ^i>^o :|oou) jK-iJS^^co-./ j-^V-**? )i»^ ooi ^/ )-^a^; 
:)ooi )o(-,^^o oiK ü » •> ^^ ).^o«.Ai oi^^^o.!^ ^■'^^? '■> "^ "^/° tl-^eui u^^.^'i 
"'^^11/ vS/; oöl jboo^; Oi^; <3it->)-=> -.j-lOOt ^3 ^.V? j-r^X^; y^öl )K,^1.» 

)la.<L:)^; jK^Vo/; ^cHJ^o; -.^^^o^) yaJoi\« ouS. K_./ V^^^ j^.^^ .;oil^vjaQ.:>o 
j^K^t ou^ t^ )1/ .wX>v^/ o<-^ ^'L-'^-:i>~>^ f3 O"^ |;ou^o .j^V^ loS^ )jl2lj 

:)ou^; o»lfi Ml \ t^/ n ^(Di jiv^/ )i<>-3 ^)°^! )-<^^^/ -v^/ ^^i j^ol^N^ 

OOOI ^.»Jb^-SQu^; jKjU^ ^^v3 ^ :)pl^3; J.CPQJL.50 ),.. ->yV> Kwk^ ö(Q-^a^o 



1. Ms. «^;m/v — 2. Ms. wl»»- 



afterwards, when the same Balak, prince of tlic Moabites, as we have said, 
perceived the feebleness of bis owu power, and feared lest he also should 
become the prey of the Israelite sword, and had recourse to the power of 
the falsely-named gods, and thought that by means of tlie soothsayer's curse 
ho, was escaping from bis troubles, the wisdom that is higher than all under- 
standing instructed the barbarian by the instrumentalit}^ of the very soothsayer 
himself in whom he trusted that there is no other god beside him, and that 
by the very demons and thQ very soothsayers who serve them witness is 
borne that bc alone is true God. For it is bis habit to convert thosc who 
are in error to the truth by the very paths of the error. And this we do 
not say out of our Imagination, but because we learn it l'rom Scripturc itself. 
It is recorded in the first book of Kingdoms that the Pbilistines who dwelt 
in Ascalon and Gaza and the ncighbouring eitles took arms against Israel 
and woii a great victory over them in combat, iusonuich that together with 
the rest of the spoil tliey took the ark of God also and placcd it in the sanc- 
tuaries and shrines of the idols, and cvery city to which they carried it was 
snütlen wilh the disease of omcrods for which there was no eure, and the 
land produced a multitude of mice, and they [deliberated] ' and took counsel 

1. 'l'liis is ÜU! .scnse roquired. 



[403J C. — TO CAF.SARIA. 233 

a:>a.oo j;ot y.^/j jK^^U yOJÖio .jj^üu^j» ^-*^o(; yO ..•!> 1 )-»V*; tvoo«^ ooo« 

''^w^Jot yajL.a..M.J;o -J;« >-•/; |lQ-».ia_3 ^*^i»-^} .-jKji:;^; ) .1.« t >ft ; |lQ-.aJLj» 
y,Ux ^ '^-oiläio/ ^j)j; 00t y^l; .<-*» |K-r^_aL_s t-^^; ^-J^oj )K^,^i^ 

JLj,_jxi_3 ^^j |.io ^-/ jiVol ^-aö) :po)l/ )jl30! ^-«J^oi ^so .yOj/ J^»-<^ 
^oi * °i J ^^ ^_*JÖ) );ooi^; )^i/ la^ :«öoi yjV^Kio K-.)^jud o^ joi^; 

1. Ms. ,^3:^ — 2. See Smith, col. 222, 1. 6, and cf. Land, Anecä. Siji:, III, 52, 1. 14, 18 (Zach. Rh., 
ed Brooks, I, «3, I, 11, 16). 



what thcy could cIo to cscapc from such distresses, and, having- called upon 
the soothsayers, who were accustomed to instigate their actions by makiug 
use of the deceit of demons, they begged them to find a means of release 
l'rom these calamities, and those men proposed to them the following plan; 
to bring cows that were first-born ' and were unaccustomed to the yoke, 
and to yoke these to a new cart bearing the ark and golden figures of the 
emcrods and of the mice, equal in number to the cities that had becn smitten 
with a plague of this kind, and upon this to shut up the calves that had bcen 
born in one house, that, if their niothers went on drawing the cart to the 
land of Judall, where the ark was previously placed, they might know that 
the God of Israel had laid the plagues upon tliem as a punisliment, but, if 
they turned töwards the cry of the calves and were affected in accordance 
with their own natural instincts, they miglit learn that it was not on account 
of Israel that the punisliment came upon them, but they happened as men 
to sufTer these tliings. And, wlien these things had been thus stated, those 
cows as if very forcibly driveii by the command of God, went of tlieir own 

1. I Reg,, VI, 7 TipwTOTOxo'jffa;, 



1- b. 



5 v° b. 



234 LEITERS OF SKVERUS. [Wi] 

|.^-j.. mJo :6\^ oooi ^^.it^y^o; )ia^o>j3 ^.a^ oooi ^a^«^« vQJÖi )-.Kü \q\o 

061 ) ^»<^ -■ N- osl^^ j^lSJL^^^^« vQ-Joi )lmö«^ jJ v^/t I-ISl./ .~^aa1K[j1 
^)«j jlöjl/ t-*-^; 'V?"*?* ^^° ^^'^ ««•>>; 001 yj f»*.^ OOOI ^.»...n» v> .y - o o /; 
>0f-^ ^'^i_^»io t---,^ jJo .jla^x^^ voaxu jJo •JoiJS.JJ yOi.ioKju :^^I^o( 
jJ; ^ji^oi lal^ I— lIIs)— 3 K.<M^K.:)o p :)oC^ ^-aJ^oi ^>/i <sd.i\^ j-J't-»/ 
.«oioK-./ ^^s3; )-.o».i .3/; ^^io .OJ0K.JUJ jlj/ ^D; yj JJ/ ..^-I^iaJLio 
^^Ot f.^^^ .-JliliOji; jloj^^lioo jlcLc^J ^-«.JÖI ' ^CDO^S ^3 ^^ '"'^^ °^ 

1. Ms. I•»-S^i■ — 2. ' crased. — 3. Ms. willi slup roUowing. 



accord to the lanil of Judah and brouglit thc ark with the propitiatory ofTer- 
ings, tliough it was not thosc words of the soothsayers tliat were able to do 
these things, but God himself acted according to their words, and by means of 
the soothsaying to which they were accustomed and wliich they loved led the 
Philistines wdio were in error to the knowledge of the truth. So too Nebu- 
chadnezzar also had future things revealed to him beforehand by an ordinary 
vision Seen in dreams, in order that by üaniel's wise interpretation concer- 
ning the things seen in the dream the Babylonians might know what the 
God of the Ilebrews was; and Nebnchadnezzar must not on this account be 
placi'd among religions men, as noither must the soothsayers who advised 
the IMiilislines to adopt thc abovc-mentioned plan; for even they themselves 
also could if they wished on thc strength of such signs have recognised God 
and not rcmained in error. For neither did God bring such things about 
for any other purpose, condescending as he did at times to men who were 
not in the perfect state, except that every man might be saved, because he 
is indced the Creator of all. Thc prophesyings and workings of miracles are 
not undcr all circumstances pcrformed by men who are worthy, but perhaps 
by men who are unworthy also for their own proflt, because they are bar- 



[405] C. — TO CAESARIA. 235 

-«.aju. vot^o ypöo l;o« -Ol .J;oi _^/;j llv— / ^»-io )-«»o/ ^ o/ )lajL=)'^>^o 

.y» 'i V H » ^«> JJ— IL-, ^a o jL'so :^-ä3/ jjjjji [^Jicuuso .. ..aLii/ [^liaiLi 

^oi. K_^ )KjiQJL3j :|ooi «0(oK-,/ )j^^,.ioo ^sloio JL.» t^.^j )ä*ijo .jJ.ai. 
.ÄÄjp ).iaN ..si^^f ..|ooi [t-]^/ K-j-^-iJ lyV^^»^ oSldj; ^\o( :)L;öou; joüSx 
ofro/ ).^.,Ät>^o/ jt^oi!^ ' ^^^>^^ooLio o^j o6i ^-JL«.o^ K-)_Ji^^ );oi^o 

Vio/ JK_L_A. ^ÖIJ ).-lÖ|.0 JL.» JOOI y>0(oK.-/j OÖ( {.Su^A yOOU^ ^J ,— .)Ll30( 

ia_sj ^io ^j );oi ,^)j ).iaN ou^ )lo .-j-ioi. .a^^^ loioj IjuiV-^» »— ? ^ 

^^^J «..äjI/ ,JK.JLIL >^6tJ jjöia vJ»_.i jooi y^OloK^/j ^^«^-^ }il -t^/ ji OWlSJ 

joj^f ^)^JL3^;o |J/ -.«(xJ^^^ 1.^0^ .q\,» ol^o .).äcüK .a^^^M la^oj; >«.aA-. jooi 
wC^::.« ^aiCS-3 jlo )ä--o JJo ^^w»jo« ^t^o .|,.^.\ vJLiaLi oooi ^^^.sl^; ^^\oi 

1. Ms. ''^k^jo. — 2. i-^^i^^ in siiiallei' letters, app. in erasure. 



barians, and cannot be brouglit to religiou by teaching or by any other 
similar melhod. This same thing oiii- Lord and God Jesus Christ also said 
in the gospel : « Many shall say in that day, ' [Our Lord,] oiir Lord, did we 
not in [thy] name prophesy, and in [thy] name cast out demons, and in thy 
name do many mighty works ? ' and then will I profess unto tlieni, ' I never 
knew you, depart ye from me, workers of iniquity ' » '. And Caiphas, being 
President and ruler of the assembly of the Jews that contendcd with God, 
those who crucified our Lord, said prophetically that he should be crucified 
for the people; and this John the Evangelist who was indeed the Theologian 
described as follows : « But one of them, Caiaphas, who was the high- 
priest of that year, said to them, ' Ye know uothing, and do not cousidcr 
that it is expedient for us that one man die for the people, and the whole 
people perish not'. But this he said not of himself, but, because he was 
the high-priest of that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for the 
people, and not for the people only, but also that he-might gather into one 
the sons of God who were scattered »-. Accordingly tlierefore neither 

1. Matlh., VII, 22, 23. — 2. Jolin, xi, 49-52. 



II i-> a. 



(i V" 1). 



2.% LETTEUS OF SEVERUS. [40(i] 

.a_ci_o l-i^LO»; JLslÄjlso JoilSx ^i> >.*^JJo )jl3,U^o JJ / .vOOi-K>,/ jojAjJ 
iV-a-3 .-^-O^j ^^oif jloJU^JLStoo ^^!^>^^ioo .jiV*? )N.-Q— 1 la\ jofSs ^/o 



:-)IS-U'^/ iP>^o 



^^oi; -Jit^; )^->^-><^-=> 1.13^ V^ sS>li jK_Vci^j t-'^^ ^; Ul )«a.^^ -j^öi:^ 
) °> n m «»t/ jo.oi; o^ ^OaJlm oöi t-<>~^ ^jl^o^ . J^ asi^ V-^)-)o l^il^ 

vO^fj^ ^6t ial^ a^;oil/ J-sl^os; oil).^ i-*^^! v^-iöi -.jooi ^^^^.^cl^ JjlÖ,^^ 
t ffl 'i •> 1-3^-* ot-^/; j;i ^-ioo jVoip^^ ^otoh^li :>&aJu. yOiSso yVieC^ 
,^ );o« ^/; )1>^ ,_,^ ^o^ 1^/ '"'^«.^.ioo .3!^iö ^wi^ot -Jooi J-^dUI^Oo 
. j • « • 1 1^ jjLCL^o ooot ^*^o;Kio ]J ßl -.iySJ )-«~äj; .looi 1.^0 )l1l./ JJ/ -vOj/ 
..»»Jü I^Jboj iJ| .);o«~3 ooo( ^,-.w« jJ .)]/ -.•pojuj ^'i^^'^ ^ JJld 1-^; |J/ 



1. Ms. ^. 



Caiaphas nor Balaam are' religious men, but actually blaspliemers and con- 
tenders against God, and remained in the snares of impiety, althougli God, 
In Order to show the truth, and in order to convert tliose who were in error, 
made use of tlieir words. 

{And ufti'r ollier thiiigs.) The citations Avhich \ve have made from the 
testimonies of the divine Scriptures are in themselves suiTicient; but I will 
show by mcans of a few instances that the genuine doctors of the churcli 
also have taught us to think and say these things. The very wise John 
who became bishop of Constantinople in the 6'" homily of the commentary 
on the Gospcl of Matthew, Avhen he was speaking about the Magi who by 
seeing the star were lod to know our Lord and God Jesus, who was in swad- 
dling-clothes and was being nurtured on milk from Ins mother's breast in 
the flesh, teaches as foUows : « And whereforc did he attract them by such 
a siglit? But how shuuld he have done so? Should hc have sent pniphels? 
but the Magi would not have submitted to the prophets. But should he 
have emitted a voice from on high? but they would not have regarded this. 
But should he have sent an angcl:' liul liiin also thev would accordingly have 

1. Sic Syr. 



li V" h. 



[407] C. ^ TO GARSAHIA. 2;i7 

oWbo^o )i>^; JV^OAo jia^i «-»-2; )-l^-*/ •.JLaLS„,.«>,v>o \^i j^^soD yOOi^ jo^uwi^o 

I— .»Cl 1[\ -.OOOI ^->w>.M J^l tPO VIM yOJÖl VlX P^^; ^^O .)oOI ^'^ ^O Q.^ 

\\-o I ivi*) 1-*-^! '^°* )->aji JJ« Vi ml ^^_oo( jj ) iyvr> m -> 0001 t ..too 

ax^; ^;*^oi; |ju)»a3 "^^-^ |o»S\ yo\^ jJ/ .)-.iaji ^^n» )K.^3,jl,.. |ta*.a>, 
)»„fci» ^io ''^.wCü^-o '^«\n 't yooC^ " \f^{\ j-ta-./ .001 s^i^^w^ ^'^.jJS.ä ^ .ooot 

1. / flu. erased. — 2. A word erased, app. lunger tliau P»- 



neglected. But on tliis account God, having set all these methods asidc, 
calls them by means of things to wliicli they are accustomed, condesccnding 
greatly, and sliowing them a great and peculiar star, in order bv means of 
tlie size and the beauty of tlie appearance to make them astonished, and by 
the method of movement. Iraitating these things, Paul spoke to the heathen 
froni tlie starting-point of an altar, and cites testimonies from the poets, and 
he spoke with the Jews from the starting-point of cireumcision, and witli 
those M'ho lived according to the law he took the beginning of teaching from 
sacrilices. For, since each man loves that to which he is accustomed, both 
God and also the men who were sent by him for the salvation of the world 
used facts in this way. Do not therefore tiiiiik it an unworthy thing that 
he called them by means of a star; since, if it is so, you will find fault \vilh 
all the practices of the Jews also, their sacrifices and their cleansings, and 
the beginnings of the months and the ark and the temple itself. For these 
things also received their origin from heathen denseness. But nevertheless 
God for the sake of the salvation of those who had gone astray consented 
to be worsiiipped by means of the very things by which the demons outside 
were worsiiipped, changing them himself a little, in order [tliatj lie might 



7 i'° a. 



238 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [408] 

^.A^ ool JJ -.vQj/ ysLt^-ol JL?o/ lo^o :vQj/ v-;oio -»K-./» ^^.-«JOj ^'^.»^oo 
■^^-Xä '^«N n^ jjisoio .yOCH^iCk^ )ooi ""^S^-ictio '^...^^o jJjLio v->_s )!/ .j-aLSoa 
^^d t-*-->x^ "^l Jooi ,J.3L:bw l^'j.,^0 )-«Jo\ ötjJo lioCs. öi^ .oooi ^ooi )Vl^v~oo 
1^.030 vQ^^-^ )K»\vi,|[.>o )ia>.^^ )io-3LO 11/ f9; ^^..^^bo :JKjl:>'^ oJäcu» 
:Of_o j-^öt-aiS. ^ :yOO{.i2^«^ >^oöi yV>.« cio; ^^oi )lä<..b^ ^^ et ..t>/ f.^ jlo 

JJ oj/ po .jlai n •> yOJ^j; ^';j jlpo^o )K.JL.2La^o jJ jlVol; o'^.^/ ^; 

ooi y/ .jjoiias o/ ^t-^ jL^anxD ^^ yjo .-)la.uk^ <^oi )o(^ ^^; oo( 
^ j^^L^ Ici^ o/ :. nn, v> |»-u.\ jlaAi^io )l ^io o/j :^v^/ t-«^.^ 
K-.|w.»l ^; y/ .loo«; v*6i öi-.K-/ 1^.^ J^3 o/ .W»-^ -.^^ASow ^*i^-«^ 
^oilojk^; jl^t-* JJ ^o JJo •.^ot-i>.JL5; jCow^ ^-^ ^,.^ yt^i jlo :^j:l^op 

]. Ms. oo(. 



remove them gradually from the custom [and] bring them to tlie high philo- 
sophy; a thing which he also does to the Magi, in ihat he consented to call 
them liy means of the appearance of the star, in order to make them therc- 
after higher. Since therefore he lirought and led them, and set them by the 
manger, he did not again thereafter speak with them through a star, but 
through an angel, and so they gradually becainc better. The same thing 
he did also to the men of Ascalon and Gaza. For tbese five cities also, 
since after the Coming of the ark they had been smitten with a regulär plague, 
and found no escape l'rom the plagues laid upon them, |haviug called tlio 
soothsa3'ers and lield an assembly, wished to ilnd a release from ihc plague 
which came from God. But the soothsayers said that they should yokc 
unbroken and firstborn ' cows to the ark and let ihcin yo, no man leadiny; 
them; ' for so it will be piain whether the plague is from God, or from some 
Chance or disease. For, if (they say) 'they either from inexperience break 
Ihe yoke, or relurn to the calvcs when they low, it is a chance or au 
accident that has happened. But, if they walk slraight, and are in no way 
affected by the lowing of their young, or by the ignorance of their error ■ 

1. Ju. c;iirys. TtpwtoToxoOoa;. — li. Tlu' ti'aiislaliir sceiMs lu li:ive read ji),avri; l'or nXavufiüai. 



[400] C. — TO CAKSAUIA. 239 

^^s.^s.bo .^-^oi )K.JU,.iäi ts.2LiL^; o^.^^-/ )oi^! otr-»/» •.)'^>>-t- o^ :)_-;o)_s; 
^^^ÖA ^^o( )tsjL.,.;xi.^; ^^oi om «°>^1/ :o^/ ).^o^ ^^oi «^t ^^soi 
.looi K.<wJ^y.^ fä .■'^ n I ).^övA; j-ito .."^ joC^o -.Of-A^; U-^^l 0|_2l^o :ooo« 
|.^oö>^ ^ ipo)i</ K:^^5 ^'ot^; .-oi^ öi^K-»/ |_>(Xk. JIm oC^ 1v.^K.£d/ jJo 
)jL3j ooi.^« ^^«^oi-3 .-yOCH^K../ It->i^; >^V-:>bs.isui f-^L^Jio .-JKaJ ),..aL:s.!l^ 

^^iJ^oi s.<UL^ v°La\ o n ..»/ .yO^)^,^ ^o)^.ieLio )Jj yCoilS. );oK.jü ^^^o(o 
vOOU^.-/ ''^>^*30l ^_*^/; .v3l2^ jLi; )j<Hi ^-a\o<!^ ^-«Ot^ -.JJ^^ X-*»"^^? 

1. Ms. sing. 



in the way, it is vGiy piain that it is God's band that has touched these 
cities'. Since therefore, after the sootlisayers had said iheso tliings, those 
who dwelt in tliese cities obeyed, and did as they commanded, God also 
foUowed the connsel of the soothsayers, again condescending, and it did not 
seem to him to be a thing unworthy of bim to carry into elTect the tbing 
stated beforeband by the soothsayers, and make them appear to be truthliil 
men in what tbey spoke at that time. For indeed the success obtained was 
a great thing, that the adversaries themselvcs should bear witness to the 
power of God, and their own teacbers tbemselves should pronounce a decision 
concerning him. And many other such things one may see that God per- 
formsby dispensation » '. And in the 2'i"' homily of the same work, where 
he is expounding the passage wiiicli we ourselves mentioned above, wbicb 
says, « Many sball say to me on that day, ' Our Lord, our Lord, did we not 
in thy name prophesy, and in thy name cast out demons, and in thy name 
do many mighty works?' And tben he will profess unto tiiem, ' I never 
knewyou. Depart ye from me, ye who work iniquity' », he gave tbe same 
toaching in the following form : « Who therefore are these? o (ho says). 

I. In MaUh. Ildiii. vi, :! (ed. Par 2', VII, 105). 



1" I). 



7 v° a. 



7 V« b. 



240 LETTERS ()F SEVERUS. l/ao] 

)ooi .^otoJ^/; )~LO^/ .oi.^^ )ooi ^oioK.^o .-jooi ua-Si^ jjjJL^; oö( jooi 

jlo I VI .Ol :)^:»o; wij;^; oooi vOouK^/ ^^ yOOUL^ jJ/ •Jl.a.2LA^M v°oj!^ )ooi 
f->-3 > .«NoC^o :jL30.a)^^ ^; yOOUL^ tvOOiS. jooi K^| jJLSOt ^■•/; Q.\ ^j 

)io 1 « ^ ,^^ ^-«.\oi^O .yOO..>^ )lj^,^D )loiV>..01; I-Ul^/ -.^fjL^ ^-<^OI 

^»-.oi JJ| .^^^^ ^^-*^^^ '""■^ ^°^ ^^""^^"^ '^°°* ^°^ )lajL-.^\ |l|».w,^o 
.>oou^^/ ^>^^« J^^ö^^V; ^V ^ m >o V-^^ )-AOi .vaa\ )j/ ^^'^ jJ; yOoC^ );oKji/ 
y/ .-Kj/ '^;K^ jjL^o .K.^öi^ wt.vi ««'t'\? f^l ^^! .v^t~' ^! ^t-*^ 
.'yOO(^ K^rJ^ Jlai>n «otS. > .« ^ni'^^Ji; ^« }'y-^°^. °i-^ aji^a^oi; ^^ )-J>-<jJ; ooi 

yo'y^ jJ/ Jooi wOioK../ )~>paj j^-so^o jlaJL^a^oi^ '•^'''^ ^a^^:d .^jai^k^o; 

1. Ms. sing.; Jn. Clir. |il. 



"Many ofthose wlio believed received gifts, as was ' the man whowas casting 
out deinons and was not with liim; as was' Judas, for eveu he also, being- 
an evil man, had gifts.- And in the 0hl Testament one will accordingly 
find that the grace often worked in men who were unworthy, in order to 
Ijcnellt others. For, since all had not readiness for all things, but some 
were pure in life, but had not an equal amount of faitii, while others were 
in the convcrse position, he both entices the former by means of the latter 
in Order that they may shovv great faith, and calls the latter by means of 
this incomprehensible grace to become virtuous. Wherefore also he used 
to gave the grace with great abundance, for' « ^^^^ did many mighty works ». 
But thcn will I profess unto them « I know you not «. For now they thiidc 
they are my friends, but thcn they will know that I did not give as to friends'. 
And why are you surprised if he gave Ins graces to men who had beli(>ved 
in him but had not a life consonant to tlie faith, when he is in fact found lo 
work even in mcii wiio liavc i'allcü from both? For lialaam was an aliru 
both to faith and to lifo: but ucvcrtheless the grace was cfTected in liim fnr 

1. Sic S\]'. aiiil .hl. i;lii-\s. 



[411] C. — TO CAKSAUIA. 241 

^i-s jj/ .)jLDOi y^lii .\Q^t-So -l-J^-/? |lQ.Jj.i».io "^^io liaji-^^ oj.i i^■3^i/ 

.otJ^ )L^ llV-^ ^'-^^^ ^'! ''^■^ ^^ .^-.oöi; ^^'^oiS. ool jjoi^o .Jooi 
y^J^j ^-w.\o(!^ JL.aDo^aJ V-2l>«-^ «ota^jJ )oot jJoj ^ oöij ool ^^j oi',_a!^o 
oöijs >3/j "^-.30« ''^K^io Jooi V^t-io )_s?oVo joiiioi JLjp^aro ^ .o|^ «o— 
• jooil oC^w^^; )laJL.a--Kio» jj'o w^^oo rjtojoVJL^ öj!^ jooi K^l j-ioA Jjl^j 
)Jo ^i-3 )!/ "^ "» jKooiäio^ .-oooi ^^OA |Jj ^\oi ^io »s/o ||.X ^f o 

jfcsTis^eL^o yO-^t-s .^..itoo K^|i».K-o jJ/ .oiK^ yOJÖi ^^oi jtöl./ ^ ^t^ 
jjioi ^^o t-«-^ ))-X.^m\ .yoaKi«^ ^oK.:x oo jJj .vOOi\ '^io/ jtCbwjw«; -6i 
"^,-001 ^oiS^ ^^i .voogiio .-oiös/ ^^oi.^ )Ljl.; ^»^ ^ioo .jjLro o^ ^io 
:)joi; oi^i » wiL^^.^.^0 :iu^3a^jo ^oiC^^ ^/j K-JL^^ ^ « nv^ ^^«^oi 
j.j-wi.'^aS; |.^jLXij «o»-3 .o-^oit/ ji )oiS>»; )lcx^^ ^ -.^^oi _^-/;; yOoC^so 
♦^^Ül.op IfJJi; \.iJii it-^1 I fxin'^'^ K^)«»K^o jJ / .oiN.3 |V).ji; 



1. Ms. 1^1; Jo. Chr. vizwvti. — 2. M». sing.: Jü. CUir. pl. 



the sake of influoiicin!^- others. And Pharaoli likcwise; biit nevertheless 
to him also as well he showed the future. And Neljuchadnozzar was a great 
transgressor of the law; and to him again he revealed things that should 
happeu later after many generatious. And to his son again who surpassed 
his father in transgression of the law he showed the future, in that he brought 
wonderful and great things to pass. Since therefore cat that time also the 
proclamation was at its beginning, and it very was desirable that a display 
of its power should be made, many even among the unworthy also 
received gifts. But nevertheless those men gained nothing from these 
signs, but are even judged all the more. Wherefore also he said to them 
those terrible words, ' I never knew you'. For many he already hates even 
here, and before the judgment turns away from them » '. By means of all 
these tliings therefore he elcarly establishes the fact that Balaam also and 
Nebuchadnezzar, and Belteshazzar the latter's son, and all such men, did 
not profit by the grace of God, in that they remained in the snares of 
demon-worship, but even endure the decrees of the sentences of tortures 
all the more. 

1. Op. cit., XXIV, 1, 2 (ed. Par. 2% VII, 340). 

PATn. On. — T. XIV. — F. 1. IK 



1'° a. 



242 



LETTEIIS OF SEVERUS. 



[412J 



:-)Uwuv-"i »l^^-^o 



V 36i) V" 
(I 229 r° b). 



a.»^0)/ aaLX>j; ^^Oi ci...J^y^« :^oVS joC:^ >i.ajL^; )jL>lcx3 ^i ^^^>>^Oo 

.«.I^OI ^/m V-*"^ J I . ^ ffr»\oi ^ 



E 8 I" li. 






^^öoi jjKao )v-:>CL^ oo; .-^^oi y.-/;; 

,^;5 :^«)L»j.3o K^livto/ JÄjwivfrooo 

j^^w^/ Ö(,2Sj IV-^-oj; ).:)a^aJL^ j^t^ |.^o^ öu^ojl. ^ .■^^^.^»■ui '^K^; >ajö( 
^y^lo Jt-^bk ^^l ^a\oÜ^o .vOOi\ h^l vooü^ «oio^s-./ '«~o.£j l^'^^/; ooeC^ajc^ 
K_mKJ^ )-^A ^^ ^^; .-^^oC^ ^^1 y.^1 )«oi^o .jj^los; |.jLa.^ oöi 



1. Ms. H.^«^a=, (v). _ 2 Ms. om. 



3. M 



s. ^-^ 



[Ami after otlicr lhiii(/.s.) But, as to tlie tunic of God our Saviour Jesus, on 
wliich those wlio perfornicd tlie crucilixion cast lots, your mii;litiiiess' love 
ol' God should know (hat \ve should understaiid the Statement exactly according 
to tlie lettcr. In Palostiiie it is the custom for meii to make sucli tunics as 
are divided in tlic middle and not \voven togetlicr throughout, bnt cpntain 
the sections of the texture sejiarately ; so that evcn now we niay see many 
such tunics, niadc of wool and linen, in the city ol" Gaza ; since aftenvards, 
wheu it is about lo be pul on, and is skilfully and becomingly folded, that 
division is conccaled by the tailors. But somc' of those who are of low 
Station have il all wovcn logvther liimi bcginning to cnd, and thcse ihey 

1. A. V. (V) 'all'. 



1413 C. — lO CAESARIA. 243 

|a.^v> )ji/ *s/o ^; Ijo^i)» .)Lo.ä.3 ^*; );oi .^«ois ^^oCb. K.^/ j-ß^S »■— 

)„-,_fc-*^ jt^Xio och; .ot-s ))— N.ioi ).*^j^-^ jts^bwio» Jci-^iö; jpo» jj)» vS/ 

• * ' • 

""^i^-iw^ ,^ .^Al J^tCS. Väi.:3u=>; ^io V m->-^ ^.1«^!^ ^io ^-.1/; oo» 

).j).iO ^.l )V^9 )K.-.lLi/ I.X2LJ '^S; :)K**j| )lJl2U ^3; )i^ ^/; V-^ 

^6t ^-/ tw-alji o(.^a.>.; öjli. K~./ ^po :-oioK-./ )».aj..3 JK^J ioiOj-a 
)lof.^x^; JLjLJLm.:>a^^ o(V.)l JV^^o/; 
V-.QQ-20 <-^i )L^.jLbo :joi.^ lo^ 

|jL.la3 p ^o^S; oiV^o ).JLDOi . .wjUv* )"J.-i.a3 P :^Ot^! °'"'->^ '^Z ^°^ 

:]r*^l ^Q^; J>j/ ^''isofrs-flaio >o^io v>6j-s .^^^-sl^.m >o )^> — «.. 1 . ^f^ 

^io ^-; Qjoi '(:v-.Ä| joot s^otofcs-/ ^io o^o .jJL^^Ä )— o»; jlaix^io ^io 

1. Ms. Ij-i (V). — j. Ms. V-"« CO- — ■i- Jl^- um- 



describe according to custom as heing woven from the top to the Itoltoin, since 
therc is 110 division in them. But this rindicales also a mystery wliicli shows ' 
that tlie Oidy Word wlio was boni below in flush is above from God and 
the Father. Since every human soid has a body like some garment which 
Springs up with it, as is said bv Job the man of mighty endurance to God : 
« With skia and flesh hast tliou clothed me, and witli liones and sinews liast 
thou strengthened me »% so also our Saviour's body, if one conceives of it 
as a kind of tunic that sprang np at the same timo, because it was nnited to 
the Word invariably by a natural union, was woven from the top, tiiat is by 
the Coming of the Holy Spirit, and not by human seed. That tliese things 
are so the genuine doctors of the holy ehurcii also show ; for it is good that 

1. A. V. (E) 'is l'urllier also sliowii by Ihe msstery uiiicli appeai's in iC. — -. .loli. x, II. 



E 8 v° a. 



244 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [414] 

)...a. Q. m.. s> / )ooi; 061 ^^ ^x^o^ .vl-^Nj jLsa-^o )KJ^.M "^.Sl^ 
i^i^Q^; va.o^^o/« J n*n°>; jjL^a^o ^)j.^l; )^^)l^o.2 :v(Tr> >\Q.aLi..fc^UL^..floa.o; 

K-.). ^ a..«.^A q\ J1'^.<^^j "^-^^ ^^; ^^t «^öi ..^otoai^oi )jp«a.ca^ ,).AiaLS.o jJ / 

.>&.^K.^ |)Oi ^...b^ ^^^ «°>X^ ^t^^? -.^■» V -^/ ^-^ yoou^ jl/ .).:)Q..fc^ 

8 v° b. N^s-iC^ ^ioo jJ/ .oX^po; OCH jooi -oioK-./ )>c>..,^^<i * jj^i-s oi^j ^^^^o 

.jL^oSL^^o/ iL j^x^las; jia^^ öi^; ^« vOOiJL:>o .oCbw jooi ts^l )looiüb.JJ 

^9 -.V^/^ .jjulas looi öui^/ );oi ^/; o^; -.^a^a^ "^jqjl^ :)j).^^ 
|1o.^^.ol^ >ä>;ajL:tf ^3 V^/; ^»^ |i.^l^,m^o jioio .looi öi^^^/ )lv^>-oj ''^k^J^ 



1. In sinalkT leller? in erasiirc 



we confirm every Statement and opinion by the expressions used by tliese. 
John wliu became bishop of Constantinople in the 85"' homily of the commen- 
tary on the Gospel ofJohn wrote as follows : « But doyou, I pray, observe 
the prophet's accuracy ; for the prophet did not say only that they divided, 
but also that they did not divide. Sonie things they divided, but the tunic 
they did not divide, but also committed the matter to lot. But the expression 
'woven from the top' is not added casually; but some say that by means of 
this expression one thiui^- is indicated in phice uf another, because lie who 
was crucified was not mere man, but had also the Godhead from above; w hilc 
others say that the evangclist is depicting the actual pattern of the tunic, 
for, since in Palestine they join Iwo pieces of material together and so weavc 
garments, John signifies that the tunic was not' of this kind, in that lie 
says lliat it was woven from the top. And this ii seeais to nie that he sa^'s 
by way of signifying the meanness of the garments, and, as in all other things, 
so also in raiment he followed a simple form »". And Athanasius fhe great 
in the homily on tlie Gross says tliese things : « Together with these ihings 

1. Tlie iiegalivc. reqnired li> llie <i>nM\ is nnl in Ihr ('iiecK. — 'J. In .lip. Ildin. ixx.w, 1. '2 (Ocl. I'.ir. 
■2\ VIIL :>-i). 



[415] C. — TO CAESARIA. 245 

^-iJ^ ^^ looi ouK-/ )l»-«~o;j -U^*-^ j^! )j-.ia3o .^^oi vti. .*-^\ 

.j^Xio 1.1/ ^^^o:^ ^j jil .oot )^»/ ^ oüS., .ju^ v^"^®*? 'oöt h-l 
jo.ot p; ^^^io .J_a/ ^ ^otoKtl * l-^a.3 Ji; .)i / .oot )L^3Lio; a\o 
^; .JJ/ .jlKj/ ^o )t-i^ x;io .j,^ <h\ jooi K-/ .^^*-; Q^ -.jj^V-^ 



o 



)K_äL_,fcoL3j -.l^.»»-» v-^-ooi :|.ioj; JJ^^SLuo )JS>.5.o; ^^«^ioj "^j ^oC 

^^JSo^O )jL-.^^Äpj JK^w-j ..21^.^; '^jC^OI; i-Ctli.Vl; )^io).ia^ sÄ)Q^i^;Q_0 
.>&;o-Jl ^^^|.AJ^^ jjLSoi •.^cooju^ou. |;).JL^ ^^i^Iso ),^^^jl; ^^toiisaSw :oi\ 
jjjLio ,^ joo« )o\l£>i :ya.£0 oC^« jJ^i. j^oC^ )-oa^; j.io/» ^j ^^«-^Oo 
:).ioj ^/ fts.j,j o/ )tCS;.A ^^l jooi )^^ oiKi.ojo :>&.aJuJ^ jooi "^^^^nso 
s^/ ^) e u-flp; ^> ..•> > / |j3Q^; jlcüLstsjLiCLi jjLSoi ^-/;; )o^ jjj •.> »>o ^\)j 

1. Ms. ooi- — 2. Ms. t^.»*'oi- — 3. Ms. om. v This aiid Ihc iiexl 2 wonis aro in an erasure. 



he put 011 also an unsewii tunic that was woven from the top throughuut, tlial, 
from this also the Jews might be able to bolieve wlio and Mlience he is who 
put on these thiiigs; that the W'urd is not IVom the earth, but that he came 
from above, and he is not one dividod, but is without division from the Fatlier ; 
because, when he became man, he had not a body that was sewn together 
from a man and a woman, but one that was woven from a virgiu alone by 
the Spirit's workmanship »'. 

(.4/»/ aftcr othcr tliiiu/s.) But, as to the passage about the sweat and the 
drops of blood, know that in tiie diviiio and m'angelical Scriptures tiiat are at 
Alexandria it is not written. Wherelbre also the holy Cvril in the 12'" of 
the books written by him on behalf of the religion of the Christians against 
the impious demon-worsliipper Julian plainly stated as follows : « But, since 
he Said that the divine Luke inserted among liis ownwords the Statement that 
an angel stood and strengthened Jesus, and his sweat dripped like blood- 
drops or blood, let him learn from us that we have found nothing of this kind 
inserted in Luke's work, unless perhaps'- an interpolation has been made 

1. De Pdss. et Cruc, 21 (P. G.. XXVIII, 221). — 2. i'oa. 



'■I ]•" a. 



ii r" b. 



Gl 

K 51 v°. 



■il9-:i8. 



246 LETTERS OF SEVEliUS. [41(ii 

j-sKlis .j^-^V-JL jjj ^öi .-looi jj V-^ ^^ >'t-^ JK^-Ko loV-t^-; )»/ ooi 
jJLa^XAo .voo».^ J^s.-^ )~.JL3oi y-'l^^i y>^^ ^^''°'~^ vf°^? ^-*^o' ^-^ot 

^jia^>w» )^-«a^ .yV*io/ t-^^ jJ; ^-^o« ^.^io .-oj jlv-J^-» oi^^aÄ^ 

>ji.i. IjCMj 6i^-; |.J;o«aäw .)v-=> ^^^? »<^"»i? )v^l-^ö_3 jK-öj^ '^^S&Jiaio 

)Vio).ia.i ^*3oi JLj/o .)jo« \.£a.D s-,iio V-^^J )— A*.io v/ ^•^/? ^"^ ^^^ 
y^/ -.K^a^ Ot-^jJ'-/ )-A30l? r^®«? )oi^ JS^-.;j |K.*^;K^ -.j-i^^V/o ^i^; 

1. Ms. ow. — 2. Ms. ,»• — :^. Ms. '^i>.»- 



from outsldo wliich is not genuine. The books thcrefore tliat are amoug us 
contain nothing whatever of this kind; and I therefore tliink it maduess 
l'or US to say anytliing tn him about tliese tliings; and it is a superlluous 
thing to oppose him on thingsthat are not stated at all, and we shall be con- 
demned to be laughed at and that vcry justly » '. In the books therefore tliat 
are at Antioch and in other countries it is written", and some of the fathers 
mention it; among whom Gregory the Theologian müde mention of this sanie 
passage in the 2'"^ homily nn the Son^; and John bishop of C^nstantinople 
in the exposition composed by him about the passage, « My Fatiier if possible 
let this eup pass from nie »'. And I myself therefore in the 64"' homily 
showcd ihe reiigious meaning of the things thus brougiit about\ according 
to the limited power that has been given to me from above. 

CI. Ol' THK SAME IIIOM THE LETTER TO CaES.VIU.V THE IIVPATISSA. 

I5iil tili' JjOrd, wheii aflrr llic l^esurreclioii he breathed upon ihr disciples 

1. Not elscwhere cxtani, ;ind ikiI :iiiiong llie IVagniciils publislicd hy Noumann. — 2. Luko, xxii, 'i3. Vi. 
— 3. Or. Tlieol. iv. Kl. — 'i. Jii .MüIIIi. l!om. i.xxxiii, 1 (ed. Pap. 2". VIT. SO:!). - :,. I>. ().. VIII. :M7 IV. 



» 



[417; CI. — TO CARSARIA. 2',7 

"ooi y/o .yO<x^ yOjüJ^vJtJ ^^*Ju/; |<H^wi vO^«J/ « . r>.:>.ti; ocn y/j -.1— om 
l^^-fc—QÄio ,.*^ K^jjjj; ^j w^,^oo .^^-..ä/ vooot"' ^■'^/? vf'^/ ^t-fio/» 

U—o» |.iaS.j^ ^ .v^*fts.3j ^/ .1^.*— JjLStili. J.jLJi.^\ oi^Ai^jo .jL..:^» )L-*o; 
)q^>«^o ^j K^l^^oio .^iojk^ jJS^^oC^ )la:)0,.^o .^^»a.io ^^1 ^ioj j'^oji^o 
OOt ooi )L-*pQ.J a\o .ot^; l^£ßol ^ ^oioK^/; .-j^.jbiCL^K.lii «-«.ajj s^öi ,„,^ 

«ojoK-./, Ua-./; -V^/; ).-^4.io ypo "^^^tJ jl; -öi ''^..^.io .jl^Ciswio ^^JJ 
ofy^ joon JjL30)) ivQ.I^-..'^ jKMo ^^^:>a^/ jK^l |.jajj ou»-,JX3 ^o^ joot 

1. o ndiled abüve. — 2. Ms. ooi. — s. Ms. ^'l'li- 



and Said, « Receivo the Iloly Spirit »', (since you ask this qiiostion also 
besides), gave them a beginning only of the gifts of the Spirit, and, as 
one may say, one kind among the many gifts of the Spirit whieii Paul 
enumeratedin writing to the Goriuthians-, I mean that of bindiuo- and loosinu' 
men's sius. This was signified by the aildition, in that that Giver of the 
gifts of the Spirit said, « If ye forgive anv men's sins they shall be forgiven 
to them; and if ye bind any men's sins they shall be bound »". And'by 
means of the breathing ho taught them in very mysterious fashion that he 
is hiniself the Creator of Adam, whom he formed out of earth and into whose 
face he breathed the Spirit of life, and that he made man 'a living soul' as 
it is written ', shining in the spiritual image and the beauty ihat flaslies from 
it, and sharing in tlie diviiic likeness. And by breathing iiUo the disciples 
he majestically sliows that tlie Holy Spirit himself is of his essence" and not 
alien. 

And in addition to that you ask this other question, hi)\v then we are 
able to explain how it is that our Lord Christ does not spcak falscly who 
says, « As Jonah was three days and threo nights in the fish's belly, ^so 
shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in tiio heart of the 

1. .Icihn. XX, 22. — 2. I Cur., xii, 7-10. — 3. .Tnlin. xx, 23. — 'i. Gen., ir. 7. — ."). oOoia. 



3 



248 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [418]. 

)^«^o .■),^:>cL\i ^a>> ^^>oV2 yn x^l yS> ^^ ).->t,a ) a-aa,.»; )j>^0'; ou^o« 
)^^K.IlM^C^o -.^^^^^ jooi wMi„3;i/ K^jjL«.^. JL»..^.a :)jL3j ~^oöi; ouJio j^^V^ 

oi^o!S, •JISs.slJi.; |L:>a^a-./o ^^K^; oöi )..<CS^ "^«"VV»; jJLa^/ .^U; ).J^C^o 
)ia\«\o ^).iaiä>/ )K.\l »K.JS ^^ j-isoto .yo^ia^ jlS^lj ).^.^^o ).^a a cu/ 
jioiaj •.).:>a_<...xo |.m^^i |;oi )w.io)l ^^^^o ^^; |ji^/ .> >n »oiU yt-^ ^)°^! 
|,_o. ^o V-«^-^ °'r-^l •^^■^■^? ©V-s^vä/ )S^)^w« «^^jo }j..0^^s^ U'y~^l ^f^ 

1. Ms. om. — 2. Ms. ooiv — 3. Ms. sing.. — 'i. Ms. ^• 



earth ' »". Some say that we are to reckoii tito tinie from the very evening 
ofthe 5'" day of the week when our Saviour supped witli the disciples, and 
instituted the iiew Passover, eausing the old to cease, since it was from that 
time that our Lord was virtually sacrificed of his own accord on our liehalf, 
and went down into the lower parts of the earth, and tliey say that the one 
night and the six hours of tlie preparation should be reckoned as one day 
and night, and thi' darkness fmui tlie (i"' houi' to th(^ '-.)"' and the light from 
the 9"' liour tili sunset as the 2'"' day and night, so tliat coiisequentially the 
foUowing night and (he sabbath-day make up the whole of the 3"' day 
and night, and in this way it is to be believed that our Lord rose after three 
da^'sand nights. Hui others ' have appeared to give another elucidatit)n upon 
the question' before us, which is subtle and very accurate. They said that 
accordiiig to the custoiu and Iradition containcd in Scripture every day with 
the night preceding it are ' combined into one entity. Thus in Exodus, when 
Moses was giving orders about the Passover and about the feast of unlea- 
vened brcad, he said, « ^^'hcn the l'i"' day of the V monlh beginneth, ye 

1. Ms. um. — 2. MalLli., xn, 'lO. — 3. Diuiiysius dl' .VIc.KiiiKli'iu; sce Conslieare in Jutirii. Tlit'ol- 
SliuL. XV. 'i'iO. — 4. Bswpia. — .'i. Sic Syr. 



1419] CI. — TO CAESAHIA, 249 

.).-L-^ yo^ n Vi; o6| Jul^^ ^^ :^3^)^i j-^ci«; l^iaJi^o .j^...^^ vCi^>o)l 

)— L^^ 1 ^ jKjiA. yo^o^ o6i )L>.ISJ^ )lil .jfr^_3LiL iK.^; oo(J^ a^o -.^yf.^ 

"««-at/o ^y, m \ ^^<J^o( ^:bo )^^^ vju/ t-^-^; ''^^^.»ooi yo^^ o6io .^oiol^/ 

o/ .'l. l.a - J |K.JL^^^aX o/ oCS».; jUjJ .-j-jQ.«.^.? ).>^oj.^^ i,.jL^ p ^j/; j.^ 
jK-La o- a o/ jio.^ ^^iö )^-*i Jbot .)K-a.Aj )^K-.^ts.ii o/ .jjL.il jL^o^^ 
|i./ j-ajus ^«K^ .\^? '.■^^/ ^! >J^/ ^*^>^ .)Kju».ia_ ''^»^ |J^^^>>^; Ji'Q^j 
.^o-^j oöi )-J^^ ^oi. s^oioK-,/ »_«; oöi ).^a^ ot>v^\o .jJ^K^ K.*Jo/ 

1. Ms. 001. _ 2. Ms. ^M 1."= I'w- 



shall eat unleavened bread from tlie evening » ', and lie counted the beginning, 
of the following day from the precediiig evening : and the cessation of the 
sabbath he instituted the same way, so that they were to cease from work 
on the preceding night and the following day; and the Jews are known 
to oljserve this down to this day, and to hononr not the night after the 
sabbath but the night before the sabbath by cessation and abstention l'roni 
work; and we ourselves on the T' day of the weck honour tlie preceding 
night as nnited with the hononred day, and not the night following. Accor- 
dingly therefore they say that gvery uight-and-day is as one may say one 
entity, and, what therefore anyone does during one of these 24 hours, that 
act is Said to have been performed on the whole of that day. As for instance, 
when a man is sent on a long journey and returns to bis own country or 
city either on the 2'"^ or on the .T' day of the week, this man entered the 
city dnring one hour or a small portion of an hour, but everyone says, « So- 
and-so arrived on the 2'"' day of the week » or « on tlie 3'''' », and they 
reckon the whole day which is one with the preceding nigiit to bis arrival. 

1. Ex.. XII, LS. 



250 LETTRRS OF SEVERUS. [420] 

fS ^o -.ym -)l/; oöi ^-Doy^o yOu!^9 ^q„*jl^) )iJ^..^aa.5o .|_a^^NJ . -'»^■^ - 
Wh.:»/ t-^/ t^ .ou<oi '.n.it; iKo ^^ ^9 jooi .|.^^/; 6|..2L2bw^ )ooi J^jf.-«VA 

)l?a *> n ^^ y..,^o :)y.,^^o ).jl2lj );^^ ^^ ojt.,.3i./o :|ooi t~<^<>*^0 "|1K.>1^ 
•)).--too jLiwilj ))^«.K-.tds .Jj^Sl» ^-; ,^.s .jyinjs; Jli!..\ ^^w^io -Jt-,^» 
p -.j-^)/; ö(.2k^..:» jooi ^'^i^.ooi ^t-*oi .0001 ^'^-i^-eol jyijxa^; yOJÖt^ }\-^o 
)~^ocL^KJ^ ^; ajoi .j.-^)/; jK^Kli^i )i.ax^eL\ .-vfiDa^a3 V^/; ^i*/ )^~><J 

|->IS]^ ^i. jK-soi-i. -ch; ^*joi "^^oo .\jieLia.^l ^io ^^!ji tC^i ^y- ■■« - 
JLioQ_. o(.^^.aA ..^I^jL-io JLsKüj 061 ),— ^ ^l :),>«*too ^cu^j 061 

> .y n * v> jLj^v^.^.3 ,|_.«oöu; <.<öi .ö(.2^) )»iJSJ^o JK.3kA JLoa )_»iaA •.)ji.iojL 

1. Ms. ^aSüi- — 2. Ms. |t-i^- — 3. Ms. sing. — 4. Ms. wai^- 

And theref'ore, tliey say, \ve should 011 tlüs principle regard tlie period 
ol'tlie tliree days' biirial, and the descent ol'our God and Saviour who became 
incaniatc into Sheol, as beginning froni the time ^Yllen lie truly entered the 
heart of the eartli ; and that he did ai'ter he gave up his spirit, saying, « My 
Fatlier, into thy hands I comniit niy spirit »', and then his spirit departed, 
and thus, though he was nnited in a perfeet union, the soul and the body 
were separated from one another, and through the Imrial of tlie body he 
does away corruption in graves, and through the; .■^oul he is seen in lh(^ 
lower parts of tlie eartli, and he released tliose who were bound in graves. 
Then it was thereforo tliat lie entered the heart of tlie eartli, wlien 'he went 
down', as Paul says, 'to the lower parts oftlie earth'-, that is to the lowest 
limits and to the gloomy crowns(?)'' in the eartli. From the dcparture of 
the spirit therefore the tliree dav-and-nights are to be counted; and the 
deparlurc took, place at tlic 9"' iiour of the preparation, when three hours of 
the day reraained. Since therefore the preparation is according to the custom 
handed down in Scripture nnited witli the preceding night, we recken that 
our Lord spent the wlioh; of the day and the night of the preparation in 
the heart of the earth, and then aftcr sunsct the sabballi bcgins and its 

1. Luke, xxiii, 'ifi. — 2. l'.ph., IV, 1). — :i, 'J'liis word is probahly (.(iirupl. 



[421J CI. — TO CAESAUIA. 251 

)K_I^IL».frs_s -.öCi«, -Slj-su^ ^aifrv^j oöt ).:!oa^ ycL^ ^y^ öjüso |jot.I^o .ö».!^ 

jf.A^; oub^^; otios/ -.otjK.ij ooi ).:Ma^o ool ^-; |_<J^J:^ .)Lx»..3f.M; j^^J^ 

,>a-S» ^ia-/ v^^f o«-.jaJi; oö» v*,^ »3/ .jK«^ K.«^ ^ )cld; .-)..äJu3,_M; 
j;oi '^^ic .ojl-,Kj ^iol ^\ )o^>o^l >-^*^ oöi oiJ^S; -.j^»/; öt^'S.i 
,-3uN )«tia_./ v-^-.\j jl^y^*,/ 's^ci jtoLio ^io ^iö jK^op.» -.^po/ ^; 

yasK .. ^"> i ^ot^^o .'ILsjJ voa^pw"^ ^aScx/; .-jpo/o )-^>-^ )-.jochjiXo 



1. Ms. "W- —2. Ms. will) |i(iinl-. following. 



niglit, the day which the Jews lionour by a cessation; and the wliolo of this 
togetlier with the following day whicli is joined to it our Lord spent in the 
lower parts of the earth. But, whcn the sabbath had gone by, and had 
been completed by the setting of the sun, thon began the night of the 1'^ 
day of tlie week; and the night again and the day following it are to be 
reckoned in (irder according to that same custom of Scripture, and onr Lord 
will be found to have risen from the place of the dead on the 3"' day-and-night, 
that of the 1" day oF the week; for in fact one who passed the beginning ol 
a day-and-night in the heart of the earth is to be reckoned as having spent 
the whole ofthat day-and-night there. For this rcason they say thal Christ 
spent the preparation in the lower parts of the earth as regards the last 
portion of the day-and-night, and the 1*' day of the week as regards the Hrst 
portion, and the sabbath entirely through all the 24 hours, keepiug the day 
of the Jews' feast in mourning, that thereby also he might fulfd the prophecy 
spoken throngh the prophet Arnos, which threatens the Jews and savs, 
« I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into wailing »'. 
But those men say also that the thrce hours' darkness which took place is 
reckoned to be a night, and this is forced; for this darkness is not a night, 

1. Arnos, VIII, 10. 



252 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [422] . 

.^.^sK^; ^V^/ l-i"3J? )l<i-"aJ ^ioo -.jjcs) ^*/j ^^io vQ.i>iKj»o .-oioK-,/ 

•lo\o .J-fcJ^j. jJo j.iOQ-. jJo .ppoX ^>öw.^ jootJ OÖ» )-ioci^o .jjioa-. ,_« joou 

oöi )>oiQjL^o .Ijoi si_/; ).ju«^ )ooi JJj K-,|.wJ^^ JLaojL-J^ Uaio ^t-a^o ^ao 
.jx^AA )Jo .).iaiCL./ jJ; Vio/t-3 .o.iL--)^j |.iaia-/o )^I^2^; •■^-*-H? ^'^■^? 
li-oo/; ^j >-6i .oaju-*j l-CS.'^o J-ictio-./ )joi^ Jui/ jlj ..J^l-J^^-,^©/ );oio 

•'|K„Ac> ^iO V-=i^ oi^ ^^ ^CH-<Ji>oK.ÄJJj -.I^Q-. y^ )oO»J ),_^^^ JJL^OA; 

*^(vOoaio tOs^^^) |K^;qj )1q— i» ^^^ U-^y^ i»-o )-»;oöi-. ,_ioj ^'^..^^io; 

♦ OJL^N.iO JLiOQ-. OU^3 )KJS.lj ).:>00u.; )-.»QJi *3/; •JKiS.^O ^01 ).iw;CljLiO p 

1. Ms. O01, previously wrilten belore Im»«. Another erasure aller U^w- — 2. Ms. -^fl (sie). — 
3. Ms. O0V3 (o above line). — 4. Ms. ovi.3£SaiM. — 5. Ms. I^^o- — ti. Ms. om. 



but an affliction of day; and they say that they are prevented from Holding 
anything of the kind by the propliecy of Zechariah also, who prophesies 
aboiit that day as follows : « On that day there shall bc no light, and cold 
and frost shall be one dav, and that day shall be known to the Lord, neitlier 
day nor night, and towards evening there shall be light »'. See! the 
prophet plainly says, « On that day there shall be no light », and, having 
ßrst plainly named the darkiiess, he prevented such an allliction and the 
light which rose afterwards from being reckoned a night and a day by 
saying « neither day nor night » ; and this he says plainly, in order that 
no one may reckon this a day and a night. As to the Statement, « Cold and 
frost shall.be one day », it is not unreasonable l'or ns to understand it to 
mean that there was actually sensible cold and frost on that day; and supra- 
sensually that, because at a certaiu timc llery fervour had grown cold among 
the Jews, the grace of the Holy Spirit Tceased to work among them -. This 
also besides we should know, that our Lord in the gospels sometimes said* 
that he was destined to risc on tlie 3"' day, and sometimes that he would 
rise after three days, the expression signifying that even the beginning oi 
the ;>"' day is reckoned a whole day. 

1. Zcih., XIV, G, 7. — 2. Ms. (ini. 



[423] cm. — TO CAESARIA. 253 

^ ^ V 255 v° 

Qjoi :oiio'Kjuio sJLj/ )_/ p ^2^ ^r-'t"'^ JootJ l-^' ^ ^^ ^io V-=^ ).ia— o^^; 






cm 

V 317 r" 

(M'JI ra). 



CII. Of THE IIOLY Mar SeVEKUS, KROM THE WORKS WRITTEN 

TO GaESARIA THE PATRICIAN. 

What he says therefore is tliis. In the way of worldly intereourse, that 519-38. 
is to say in the business of this world, I do not forbid you to associate with 
idolaters, it may be, and with those who are dilfercntly situated and hold 
dilferent opinions. Othe^^Yise we are reduced to withdrawing outside the 
World. But, if, whcn a man is named a brother, that is one who lias the 
same spirit of adoption with us and is judged among the sons of faith, he 
fall away to idolatry or any such abominable thing, with such a one it is 
good for US not even to eat'. Otherwise, by disregarding foul bchaviour 
of such a kind we fall undcr God's judgment. 

CHI. ■ — • Of THE HOLV Mar Sevekus frqm the letter to Caesaria. 

For-, since they liad a mind in contact with earthlv"tliings, thcv said, sni-ss. 

I. I Cor., V, 10-12. — 2. This exlract is imblisliod in Creek in Mai, Class. Aiict.., X, 433, uiuler the 
heading I. sl« tö xati Ao-jxäv, where il is shoi'tened and the l'ollowing precedes : i'va ii -TiEpceXovTe; 
■CO |i.r,xo; ToO ),ÖYOu Stä ßpa/^itüv tb tiäv etTiwiXsV, ö xmv 'louoaiwv TcapavoiJLO^ o^lt^o^ xaTa Tfj i(pr,[jL£vov £v Tai; 



254 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [424] 

ja^fo Kj/ j.^'^:^Ji; ooio •>vu*v^o j^jJ^oo cx.^/ ql^ -Iv^? ^V-^ ^^°i °^' 

^^!^/ ^(H^^J ^^^«-.^scM ^...^chIS. ^ ♦)oi2Sx ^.jlSlj Kj/ ^^iw' li^/ )jU'^ 
> ■«■N.oi.K^ '^ m 1 -<; )iaj^.j>»vi ^; ^.«.^ :oooi ^'^^o/ ^^^«„^o )Lilj/; "i\ > •>« 

jio-J^j»^^; ).Xi^a^ o^^ jJ; ).iüL,>Y'> \; ^-'/t -'jooi 't^/; oöi ^/ .yO-aJ^ 
.')ooi ^jax^o t-^^^-cs; ]L:~wO |l^ö(.2^ ji-öljJ; ^; . ...Xot •:')jLa:3QjL )j/ oöi^ 

:|.jl...,_-o I-^o^ ^'^Owj j^jo,^ v^*"**^- v:'*~^''^ 7"*^ ^^^ ^-«-Xoi .ja:»'; >^3l2l^ 
^M jJo )..uO',..3 yjaSi^OL^ )^^/o '• joi^jJ )^)-^; ''öl ^'oC^ ts^l )j» \aoo; yOOtiV)o 

1. Ms. vpov^ 



« Is not this tlie carpenter's soii? Is nol liis mother called Mary? « '; and 
again, « Tliou art a Samaritan and liast a demon »"; and, « For good deeds 
we stone thee not, but for blaspliemy, that, being a man, tlioii makcst thyself 
God»'. Sinco tlierefore it was bocause they sluml)led at the dispensation 
in the flcsli'' that they said these things, all the blasphemies that thcy uttcred 
against tlie Son of man, our Saviour said that they sliould be forgiven to 
them; l'or Ihey have as a defence Hgnorance of the raysteiy and the condes- 
cension as man '. « Thereibre it shall be forgiven to men and not to you », 
as if he were saying, « I give forgiveness as to men who have not known 
the depth of the dispensation ». Hut the things which they said in blas- 
phemy against the divino signs and mighty works wliich he did and per- 
formed by the Spirit that was in him and of iils naturc (as he said, « I by the 
Spirit of (!od cast dut the domons »"), « In Beelzebub'' » (as they say) « lic 
casts out the demons »^ thesc things (lie says) as things whicl: arc cun- 
cerned with blaspliemy against the Iloly ''Spirit and have from the acts 

Mpälsat Ixecp. T(t» 7Cpa)T0|A. tw tiv. tw ay. 0t7]ve/u);"ävTi7rt7CT0VT£; x. Tr;v evavxtav asc TOi; toO 0. vofioi; 9£p(5[JLEV0i 
Ttpö; TÖ E'JTeXe; xe x. to 3i' rifid; TaTtsivüv zfi roü (■). A. x. icox- enavSpiüTirjaew; t-jjXuttovte;" x. (o; cv sxÖtm 
TuepiTraToüvTt; TcporreTiTaiov, x. viyovev aOToV; 6 Xtöo; 6 axpoywviato; x. £x).£Xtö; x. EVTifj-i? TiExpa azav5ä).oy x. 
),[9o; 7tpi3axö|X(jiaTo;, x. oüSäiaw; £7r£v6ouv aOioO xY)V Tipoairivtov üirap^tv, x. xr^j ix Mv. äafopLaxov y£vvyi»Tiv, x. xo 
iipoc Xfjv yeyevvvixota loov, x. xaxä Tiäv oxioüv änxpotXXocxxov, 

1. Mallli., Mii, 55. —2. Jolin, viii, iS. — :J. Id., x, 3:!. — 'i. Gr. ins. xaeäitep etnov. — 5. Gr. ttj; 
äyvoia; xoO iiuux. x6 xxxi ävOpwTtov xoO 'E[>.\j.. -/_Oa(ia),öv x. iiTtoSigriXo;. — fi. Maltll.. XII, 28. — 7. Tir. ins. 
äpx- xiüv Sai[j.O'n(ov. — 8. Ibid., 'Ih. 



[425] C!V. ~ TO CAESAR lA. 255 

1. Ms. ins. Usoi- 



CIV 
V ;!58 v». 
(I22'j v"a). 



themselves the quality ol" God-befittinoness ' and have no room i'or defence 
Christ Said should not be forgiven'-. But this blasphemy against the Soii 
of man shall be forgiven, and it is smallcr than the biaspiieniy against 
the Holy Spirit, down to the time of the Gross, we must nnderstand, 
because down lo that time Glirist obscured the greatness of bis Godhoad 
by means of the words and actions of the dispensation; but after the 
Gross and tlie Resurrection ^ he did so no longer; since the dispensation 
had once for all received an end'. 

GIV. • Ol' THK IIOLY M.Ml SkVERÜS FROM THE LETTER TO G.\I',S.VRI.\. 519-38. 

But Luke related that he even commuaicated in the holy body and in 
our Lord's fup", whence also the devil gained complete mastery over him, 
inasmuch as he liad presumed to communicate in the mysterious spiritual 
food when he was unworthv and had a heart sucii as lii.s. This we say, not 

1. This is clcarly wrong; liut lliu üreelv is the eame. The uorils should perh. l'ollow the 1'' pa- 
i'enthesis. — 2. Gr. ins. [jir|Te iv tw vüv aiöjvi ^r,Ti ev tm (iiX).ovTt. — 3. Gr. ins. ix vexpwv. — 4, Gr. adds 
xa9ä 9'/)(jiv ö äitoüt., ei 8e x. eYviixxjiev xotti (ripza X., iXXa vjv oüxeTi Y''"i""">|ji£V x. 6 £i? aütov pXacr^rjuüv 
(o'^TiEp Et; TÖ ilv. TrapoivüJv wi; aauYYvwdia ä|j:apiivti)V dt^sTtv ou5£[i£av l/si TOÜ a[xapTri[j.aTo;. tajta os ya[/,Ev ii 
yi Tt; tri ß>aTq)ri[jita [ily.pi toO teXo'j; xij; olxEta; ^Mj;; dvajiEjiSive x. oütwc hete'itk) toO ßio'j. Ei yäp is&xijz [jiETa- 
|J.s).r)0/ivai TMV Ti); i;«-?,; toüt»]; -ofXEpüv £vSa'iO.EUö|xEV(ov aOuji, itp66r)),ov w; -^ asTavoia xpEiTTUv Eariv itivto; 
»(/.aoTTiiiiaTi); iipeaiv SriXaSr; Tof; liE-cavocüiTi ^laps/ouia. — .5. Liil\e. x\il, ri-21. 



cv 

F 68 v°. 



'256 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [426] 

^x i m ^^ ^3oi ^-/jj ^^01.3 \-^\-^ oöt );JLa; ^ >■■•/ <ii. -.^jl.^/ ^j 

JJ .' y .» . .■ jou^ lo^; ^.AJ^ot-s K^)i^K_.o .- ^ .«-sio» yOJÖl )Li^*oV-^ t^; 

• .^o-»Ufrs.^ oöi; |KS.^^^0 ^1 ilS._3 ^^oo i^^cüLod ^^^^^J ^^wJ^Ot^ | ««r.«\\A 
)ooi ..>°i ^.^ yo~»^'0 ^^; OÖI )j|m •.jJfl^QuCD; vOÖu^■•j-^ l^)-<!b<»^ ^o^).^ 
>b.^K^ la^M^^wO )>^V^« OÖI y.^lo .-)K.,<j^^ )K.ii.y>itlo ).w>.£Dä^eLJ j.^^; ,_.^ 
yOJÖi^ .-)£CSwJS^oo jK.ULw09 )iauo«.3 ^^\aa );oi ^».^ •.K^l^o.^a^ )ooi 

1. Ms. pl. 



because that savacre ileud in llic case of men of tliis cliaracter treats the 
power of the mystery with coiitempt, but because he wlio communicates 
when unworthy is delivered into bis hands, when anyone presumes to receive 
the boly communion wben secretly involved in impieties tliat are great, and 
especially in such as relate to God. 

CV. — Or Mar Sevehus to Caesahi.v tue uypatissa. 

5i'j-38. You sbould know that the priest who ofTers represents the great God and 

our Saviour Jesus Christ; for he in fact celebrates the momory of the sacrifice 
Avliich iie himself instiluted, and of that which he himself began in the mys- 
terious supper. 

The veil therefore which beforc llu' piiest approachcs hides what is set 
forth and is removcd after bis entry manifestly cries by the mouth of the 
facts tbemselves that tlie mystery, which was previously concealed by nieans 
of the sacrifices of the law and the shadowy servicc, and was ol)scurely 
made known as it were by an indication only, by means of this spiritual 
and rational priestly ministration reveals Christ who is God to those who 
have believed on bim. 



i 



[427] CV. — TO CAESARIA. 257 

^ ^coaS.o3; K-o v^öi ^/ \\->^^ );0( loS, •r'joC^ | *>o jUsv oi2> o> i vi ,.ot; 

)....^iL:)o cH^^j» '^^soi ^ .jl^-sKio ),^.>>^.5; "^'i^^Cio j..,2^^too jlo 
1'f.A^/; V.ÖI y>~»l .-j-^Of^; )jL..\a°>o J^ol^claI ,..<k^ )K..«. 3 .^KS. ÖÜ^Slo K_oo/ 

•^—.^.^ > . I ^ m « NU aus I .^-o(.-K-/ |K.jUi^)-:;)^ioo )Kx^^ ')jjV)l^oa^o 
^Ixsio^ ^^'*^? -*• )^^*a^^-a )joi3 It-itio ^ «•^vi ).JL3oio .Jio^,; ou^^oa^ 

I. Ms. \>o-». — -2. Ms. laa». — 3. Ms. Hl 'l'>'--»»^o. — ',. Ms. Uo^aS. 



To this refer also the words wliicli Paul uses in tlie epistle to the Corin- 
thians, « The veil remaineth upon the readers of the Old Testament, and it 
is not revealed Ijecause' it is done away in Christ »'"; since Christ iias 
indeed done away or has renioved the veil hv means of the service and minis- 
tration in the Spirit, as is iurtlier stated by Paul himself, « Wc all wilh open 
face see the glory of the Lord as in a mirror »'. For what is dorn« %vith the 
veil shows according to a simple explanation that things that are hiddenl'rom 
and not [seen] by those who initiate, these are manifest and visible to 
those who believe and are initiated. [In] Palestine and in Jerusalem, while 
the priest niakes the said ' prayer, the deacons frequently and ceaselessly 
lift [the Cover]' up and let it down again, until the end of the prayer, and 
so after that the priest begins the petition over the olTcring of the sacrifice. 
Further what is done in this fashion reminds us of that veil or lincn sheet 
which came down from heaven upon Peter, which contained all the quadru- 
peds and reptiles, and birds clean and unclean, and signified to liiin that 

1. By misunderstandiiig äti the translator has made nonsense of the sentence. — 2. II Cor., iii, l'i. 
— 3. Ihid., 19. — 4. Porh. mentioned in the earlier part of the letter. — 5. This is the senso required 

PATR. GR. — T. XIV. — F. 1- ' 1" 



258 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [428] 

JJ yO-JÖi |.iaiä^. yOC*2^3 ^^^ JJ/ :1.^a)1/ jot^i^; ).Äaiaj ^olIä; ^^»-io 
^iCLiVß; ^-^oi '"^^ >eu*j»; )jo,_fio ''^.-ooi )jo( ^^s^io ..)-SJ; jlo I^äö^clj 

>JL •> .»; »£DO»-^ "1 \ woL^I/ )o>^ 1--*-^? °\°^\ :i 'Of'p^ )-»o«; )v-*- ^ o - <xp 

.-^cLjk.fiD ^^,.A; ^^[^01 ^s] ^[^1 JLOOJI ^^ V^^- *)-^^'-^^ yOOt SlN 

t 



'^ .Oib> vJl, f>>00 JL^OX^O 



c;vi 

V 241 V" 
(I118v°b), 



^—^ •.,x!?a.x>3J «aaijaa Ir^coir^ i\x'-\\ iur^ JArsT-n 

1. Ms. |il. — •!■ Ovei' Ulis \viii-(l is a linc as if iL were an abbrcviatioii. — y. Ilero tlie ms. broaks 
olT thruugli Die luss of a leaf ov iiioie. — 'i. Uaving no plicitogiaph dl' 241 v, I siip|ily Ihe title and 
first .i words of (he te.xt Ironi I. Tlie title is also given in Asseniani, Cal. Hihi. \'nl., III. p. 16. — 
5. Assem. sin!2. — U. I "Ov>o^i.'>a*- 



tlie gilt ol' tlie lloly Spirit was poured out not only on tlie people of Israel 
whicli was clean, because it received God's law, but iipon all tlie uations 
wliicli were witbout tlie law and uncleaii. 

For this reasoii tlierel'ore tlie clotli tliat is laid upun wliat is set l'ortli uii 
tlie altar sliows by beiny lil'ted and lowered tlie abuiidant and perfect gift 
ol'tlie diviiie Spii'it, wliicIi was sliown to Peter liy flic visiun to liave included 
all the nations. which descends l'rom licaven upou [all] tliat is set l'orlli, and 
consecrates and liallows it ' 

:ii'j-38. GVL — Or tuk uoly AIar Skvkhus tiik i'ATni\ncii, un some exi'ukssioks 

TAKF.N' laO.M TUE SAME liOOK OF KoiIELETH, WIUCH AUE, « KEEl' THY FOOT 
WHEN TIlOU (;OEST INTO A UOUSE OF GoD, A>"D IIUAW NKIII TO HEAH )) ', 
FHUM THE LETTEH TO (jAES\KI\. 

For you liave listoncd willi perception lo Ivoheletli wisely warning and 

1. II.Tc Uli' ms. brcalis olf. — 2. IvtI., iv, 17. 



[429] CVI. — TO CAESAHIA. 2Ö\) 

^-^ oot ♦v\:io »nS"^ oo*,.ao :)oi;5s.; ))^*a'^ Kj/ ^j"/» )-^ '7^? i^^ ri 

V*^ );oi :)j/ pö/ |iQJLicu.otj )lcuL.;aioo .|^Ci>ww,j 1oV-»äa; )laiq\v> .ji» 
.^o^r^o jJo .sViO >.afl\ oo',>aj -.llp« ö<^JS^/; K^)jV^ ^^^cü; ^ sd';; 
jK^eui^S^ JJLa If-sJ^ .-{.x^eLii JSoaJ^« )jtjJ po).:>eL^; ^/ yAl:»tJo ^; -aJ^i 
o.jlL- )K-w^; >°>>x.«« :).ia-fc» Usotj -ö» ^*^ ^'ix )K-o»i)^ .)lai q i \v )i 

♦ jtsjSL^ ,-a^^a^ ^^:^^; yOOW.K-./ JJ; ^'^^io -.y^-; )^w>*s; 

1. Coir. above from ^-^j'- — "2. Ms. |iluj'. : //.VA' 5ö|j.a. 



saying, « Keep thy foot when thou goest into a house of God, and draw nigli 
to hear ». For a man who is going along the road of religion nmst keep 
his own foot and be attentive lest Iie anywhere slip ; and, when he is Walking 
to the church as to a house of God, I mean the teaching of piety and tlie 
confession of the faitli (for this is what wc must suppose the church properly 
tobe), draw nigh to hear, and not hold aloof, and.apply and attach so to 
speak a ear that loves listening to the sound words of the teaching. F'or a 
mind that is so disposed God reckons in place of a sacrifice, and above every 
gift and fruit-oflering of the foolish, wiio know not hovv to do good, nor yet 
will learn from those who know. Therefore he who said, « Keep thy foot 
when thou goest into a house of God, and draw nigh to hear », went on to 
say carefully, « Above a gift of the foolish is thy sacrifice, because they are 
not men who know how to do good » '. 

1. A Greck e.xlraut fimii a loller to Caesaria i> iiiibli>hrd in :S. \'. .\. C, I.\, :jl. 



I 



CVII 
T 1(36 I" b. 



IIJCi V" ;i. 



.Ol; 

1 



G 5 



519-38 (?) 



260 LETTERS OK SEVERUS. [430] 

wi-Lrsfn-n rdA.a.i.Lar^;\ r^n.*"\L3 'r^^ardito rdi^ujan 

4 

^A^,fiDQ^O ,^^ yOO|.JL.^; .^■«■^•^JQ.^ )1,.^^0 -.^^.^p. |Kil<K\ j^K.<^\; 

^.o^^/ ,_<w^ vOO(!^ Vx ^^ix^; ^-»^ot .ö(Ju:>o . » nm°) ^^; yoou^oo öiiCS^ 
j-JU-^o^ in «.x"> V^ ^.^>^S^^o^o;^ ^^ ^/ .-jjooi^ ^; ).^.r J^ iL t-^|l/; 
..l^ji^ JL.» ^j ''^^JAj..io .öt»Ki ).-i/; V-Ö1 -/po/ yooil ».iCL-,1 »3/; .|3;a^j 
• .)jiCL^; ^"»-^ ^''^^^ loot ''^'^^^^^ ^^ .'looi y/j ji^aNo/ ^oi. "^^».-oj 

J.aOo,^ y^^U*.^; ^rfJS»*/ ^oC^D .JJCM >k^/; jJoo^ )L>w)O^0;^ uJS. )v^Kfn>o; 

1. Erased and re-wiillon in anolher liani!, — 2. The loxl of T is vcry corrnpl. — '■'■. M^. ^ ^^U Uj ; 
.Tuilr )a/;T. — 4. Ilere begins an extract in G 58 v li and M 'j.") v" b, beadcd : l-ai>i 1'-!^/ ^ 
jaaottiS/ \xo]L (erassd in G) Uoom^ Uk^J ^' l-■»l^^J^ ^^ ei^W^ ■,\.a^ixi^j \io\'^ U-.»»- — 
5. T um. » — (). T ^*Jk». — 7. T. ^-i^--» Ho- — 8. T. \^^ l^»^ '■ — '■'• T «•""° \>vi f*U l^ow^» 



CVII. Ol" THE IIOLV SkVKRUS l'.\Tni.\l{CH OF AnTIOCII .VS TO WII.VT TIIING.S 

TIIK SOUL WILL ENCOUNTEK. 

[To Tliomas, bishop of GernKinicea)' . 

For we have already said tliat tli'jse who became founders of these evil 
heresies find fault witli tlie Old Testament", and put forward the New, some 
adding to it, otliers mutilating it; men whom the apostle Jude accuses 
tlirough the words stated as men who speak {?)^ great swollen words of 
railing, which he also callcd their shame whicli rcomes alter' it. Bul 
Michael the archangel who was then conlending with the devil, when he 
was speaking about Moses' body, did not dare to bring a railing accusation, 
but said, « The Lord rebuke thee »', whicli seems to nie to convey the 
following nieaning. The law which was given ihrougli Moses showed 
all llic lliings thal rehite to the cleansing of tiic soiil and its jnstification 

1. In G M the hcading is « iil Wm holv ö. I'rom the letter to Th., bp. uf Gornianiccii, wlio asl<od hini 
aliout sonie passagcs froin the episllc of Judo ». Fnr Thomas see Maiisi, VIII, 817; Mich., p. 267. — 
2. SiaSrixTi. — :i. Conjectural conx'clion uf a coi'inp.l Icxl. — 'i. ili'. 'accuses'; See p. 57, I. '■>. 
— 5. .lüde, '.1. I:t, li;. 



['.31] CVll. — TO THOMAS Ol'- GERMANICEA. 2(il 

« 

ooul/; j-ÄaiCLJ '|oot )a--^io IpoVo ^Ji:^3 )-aQ-3Ö.^ ^-«^^ •.'c»|lQ.iÄ;>.ia\o )Lxaj; 
. l-oj jlAj ^^/ -vOtJ 'Ja-av^j ^^<^^! ^=^ V*^ '^3o» ^-/j .\.xa:x> y^:» 

'^öi-,,-.j.^j .jK^^-ji^ K^aii.0 'jN.3)S>.2Lio )K.*^^j jloioKaia^i ^wJb.oi ,_^ 
''jooMj wöiJ^ ..jlaioj ^^i.*aoi |;ots "j^^ Uau '")-^KjK.io ''K_|jKaio 

Ui^^-io t^j i-^^ "^^»^oo .JjlSlj la\ jöoij ^^io ''Ijj; joilSs ^ol« "'vaÄo/ 

öwo^^aj "ycuöi o/ ^wJ^oi o/ ^'^*-oj;j jloVl/ ia\ :JLjl^ o/ {.ü^ ^f-r^-oo? 
"^-JOt ^ ." y^ lAaolK^ j-io^KjLio jj; «-Ol )»QJ; jK-^oiIi^jL^ o/ .•^)0^iJiK; 

i. ■]' cfiLat,,f^Q. _ 2. T O.W- — 3. T U^w- — 4. T -oioC^/. — 5. G pl., T U;««^,». — fi, T Uv — 

7. T ^3^axJ |^w.^.-, |l.a^^av^^.. _ k. t ou_^l3 (sie). — 9. ^-s^a^• — lo. T l^»^n«.— n. t om — 
12. T loov. — in. T l>a»cj ^öi \Le^». _ 14. T \Laj^- — 15. GM pl.; Gr. sins. — Ifi. T -a«o/o. — 
17. M ImI, T \\U. — IS. T Itii::^^— — 19. T HaJjsXi.» tt^j; Gr. Opb; tPiv TtoioxoTo. — 20. T 1=^ 
^'■^ o'- —21. T ^►-j; Gr. Tcpoacpöpo-jj. — 22. T t;^«; Gr. ezeivoi. — 23. T ^J-^^oI^m. 



by means of bodily types and indications. Such i.'^ tlie fact that it passes 
judgment upoii tlie bodyof a leper as uncloaii, and similarly also vi[it>n a man 
witJi an issue; for God does not exact punishnient l'or involaiitary rdllictions, 
but by means of these tliings annuls the stain of sin whieli is diverse and 
hard to wash away, by which the soul is in divers manners stained. After 
this pattern therefore he judges it pollution that tlie man shonld l)e dissi- 
pated on pleasures who begets fruits for the benefit of the rational and 
intelligent soul ' ; and here therefore God further showed Ijv a bodily type a 
certain mystery that happens to the soul. Since, when the soul is separated 
from the bodr after the release from this world, the ang-elic and g-ood hosts 
and a Company of evil demons meet it, in order that, according to the quality 
of the decds wliicli it has performed bad or good, either the ono or the 
other may convey it to the proper regions to be kept tili the last day, on 
which, Twe sliall all rise, either to judgment" or to eternal life, or shali be 
brought to the unending Harne of the lire, therefore, because God wished 

1. The lollowing to -day' (p. 433, 1. 2) is publishud in Greek in Gramer, Cal. in Epp. Catli., p. 161 
fi. — 2. Or. et? xpicjiv navT£; itapa<rT»i(i6(<.s6a. x. 



T 167 



262 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [432] 

.oi;^o oio ^«^? \~^' hj^ '^■.ja^NB jooi ^i. jjoi ^jxoQ^ K.-jLsaÄ.fioo 

«6i^ '.^|o°« 1-"-^?^ jiojQjj ^t^ j-o-^'^j '^»s/ •.K^>.-,1/ JLx:lx^ )jo( |1>^ 
^äol '^olSIao -.po/ )jl-^ I^K-S )-ooaioj ^jjK.j>o1 )joi ^^io .oil»a.aLD 

1. T om. V — 2. GM "^-.^^l — 3. T wl-ioao, ilsv Uw Uo-m »po l»j;^- — 4. GM om: Gr. W 
öste.>.noüc o-JToT?. — 5. T om. — II. Mss. USa-; Gr. 7tept7T'//T|V. — 7. M U^«^- — 8. GM P-»/ jS ; Gr. 
Iv e'iTiEiv. — 7. T. ^»t^Jo» ^-^../ ^aSXV ^oi; (ir. ol 5taiSai'ü>Yo0.asvoi. — 10. T «a^gj- — II. M »5- — 
12. T »so — IS. T 1a:^j; Gr. veseXviv... -yEYevJisöai. — l't. T ^j^on low v^aso- — 15. T >;>»/ U«>o»' ^^^ 
xCiA, .U'f^ ^i>^^, Gr. ?-»! for t;-»! ; Gr. K i-cit.vjzr,'jt\. — 16. T »ja; Gr. oizJTr,?. — 17. T w^^>s 
oiisDo Ui-»y. Gr. K. eOa'^/otv a-JTov. 

to show this to the sons of Israel by some bodily type, he caused the burial 
ol' Moses to appear before their eyes at the time of the swathing ' of the body 
and at the customary deposition in the earth, as if the evil demon were 
oppnsing aud ^Michael the good angel were actiiig contrary to him, who 
met hini" and drove him away, and did not anthoritatively rebuke hini, 
but yiehled the judgment against that demon to the Lord of all, and said, 
« The Lord rebuke thee », that by means of these tliings those who are being 
instructed may learn that that the soul iuis a contest after the release from 
this World, and that we mnst by means of good deeds prepare ourselves in 
Order that angelic help may come to us when the demons gnash their teetli 
enviously and bitlerly at us. And, when this sight had appeared before 
the eyes, then there feil in that place a ray of liglit of a cloud^ that darkened 
and obstructcd the sight of those who were Standing on this side and 
that, that no man might know liis grave. Therefore the Holy Scripture says 
in üeuteronomy also : « Moses the Lord's bondman endcd his life there, in 
the land of Moab, by the word of the Lord; and they buried him there in 

1. Mss. 'hiding. '; Gr. nipima'/.ri'/. — 2. Gr. avTHtfitTOvioc x. toütw tov M iyaOrjv ctYyeJov övTa jtpo5\j7iavTf,<iai. 
— 2. Gr. vey6),T)v J] 9<oi6; EX/,a|j.<J/iv YEYEvfjuOa. 



[«3] - CVII. — To THOMAS OF CKHMAXICKA. 2()3 

jjte^oA jLi/ "jJo 'ö.t-. jJo .'»OLi»^; ott^*^! cii^ "^i. ojoio; j^yU» ^-^l 
^1 JL^osxb^o/ oN.J; '(-ö<-s) *2./; -öl ^.Uao^ ''jjoi^ U>o^ •.o»lia.:xo o/ 

K-/; .^-iö-wl»; "oV^o/ j-jL^s^bo i^sKaii ..jLfcoioj oilio-xo ^^^&.^^io ^-\ot ^j 

jaoot; -.jjaÄ j>Ot.Äj * Ijoi^ J^/j ^ lv^K.Äj.io \.jij,QS> )joj "^ J^ 
»ao .).-«XiiOJ ' 'oof^ );oov- jvlo Uo^i °'»-'^? ••'^'r-^l \^? ^:^/ .Öu^oKä)/ 
.t^jlioji-flo |oo« ^)-o jjt-a^/ •.^'^Itja^/ wULÜ.\ )a-wJ jjoC^; k^ 
joji jJ -.Viö/o y);o .^ÄOiojj |K_30iQ.io\ Jo^^oo p )ooi ^.iJÄ) jLsQ„ais»o 

..ooi. |j^/o .|-.po ^ 'O^s^ ■•"»^■^ *^ '^°'? >'J-o K-JIiaüi»» o6ii>. 

1. T ia^= ^-:s: (Ir. üm-^ ^^ytip. — -2. T om. — 3. T^o^. — 'i. Hüre Ihe exlra.i in OM erids. — r,. Ms. 
om. — 6. Ms. !>-» "^» ^, Willi puint-. prcceding. — 7. Ms. om. =• — 8. Ms. ^aolt/o. — <i. Ms. ojoi. 
- 10. Ms. ;-»/• - II. Ms. ^- - 12. Ms. oov:\: Gr. aÜTÖv. - 13. Ms. "h-«*.?-- li- Ms. ;-^:^Gi-. exSoüV/. 



tbe land of Moab beside the lioiise of Peor, and no man bath knowii tbe 
end or bis grave to this day » ' ; wbicb is also confirmed by tbat wbicb tbe 
evangelist wrote% since Luke one of tbe evangelists said in the story of tbe 
rieh man and Lazarus, « And it happened tbat tbe poor man also died, 
and was carried by the angels inlo Abraham's bosom »\ These same details 
labout tbe burial of Moses men have stated to be contained in an apocrypha 
book the more succinct title of wbicb is 'Tbe book of Generation or 
of Creation, wbicb Moses bimself wrote for us"'. And to us tliis seems 
to be tbe Interpretation of what be propounded, so tbat I thus understand 
it. But some have said tbat Jude calls tbe law itself tbe body of Moses; 
and, wben became down to show tbis to tbe sons of Israel, the devil opposed, 
and he worked in Opposition retarding tbe gift of the law, and conten- 
ding and saying, « Tbe people does not deserve this to be done for 
them »; and therefore Michael went before bim and drove away bim 
who opposed, uttering tbe rebnke, « Tbe Lord rebuke theo ». And others 

1. Deul., XXXIV, 5, 6. — 2 This is the best eiiiriid.iliuu of a corrupt passage llial I luh mal\(_'. Iiiil I 
do not .see llie relevance of the citation. — 3. Lulie. xvi, 22. - 4. The story was told in the Assiim[)tio 
Mosis (ed. Charles, p. 106), but the title seems rather to refer to the Book of Jubilces or Parra (Iciifsis, 
in the present text of wliich it is not found. The rcst is in Cramer, p. 1G2, iieaded : l^'oci jjiet' ÖXi'ya. 



.O ir,7 1° b. 



GVIII 
117 I- b. 



264 L1<:TTERS OF SEVERUS. [434] 

ya:^ )o,o( \^l |-J~<t-2; oöi y.^1 .jLaofiN; «f-ODo -Jl •>o n\; )it..a^«^/ Vlo 

rsf^-l^rsf ^ .rcL«My,irsf:\ rS^Ä-v."!^ r^nard^} 'rdr,aj3;\ 

jlo a^j .JLsV'x u^^X^^ ^a^w )v2^:)eua ).:)euij^^ K.wJ3ilii/ .)~*V^ pö/ Jjlsoi 

) n N.Nrt«Na ).aa^^.5 .^OIOl^^ i^-<^^ ^Q-SuD ^^ l->t-^ .^'^V^a^jJ yOf^ol 
)tCS,oK^ ^^-JLsUo ».-JuULs/ Ool .)^-«V-^ vd.»Dl^^ |;0| ^^.iO ,vjOK-i-./ 

1. Fluni llie work uf Peter agiiinst Danüan. 



Tagalu : « Ue calls tlie people wiiom Iie was leading the body ol' Moses; and 
he meant' that, when they were leaving the land of Egypt, the devil opposed 
and resisted, as if lie were saying in contentiou with Moses, « His body 
(which is tlie people) does not deserve deliverance from Egypt to be given 
lo it ». And this devil r^hen he was opposing Michael put in bonds, and 
he reproved him- saying, « Tlie Lord rebuke thee ». 

CVIII. — Ol' THE HOLT SeVERUS PATRIAnCll OF AnTIOCH, FROM THE 
27'" LETTER OF THE 9"' HOOK AFTER EXILE WHICH WAS ADDKESSED 

TO Thomas bishop of Germanicea. 

iin-.i.s. « Thus saith thi' Ijord : 'I found a liot onc in tho wilderness with the 

slain of the sword. Go and dcstroy not Israel. Tlie Lord sliall be revealed 
upon him afar off. Willi perfcct love I loved thee; therefore I drew thee 
with mercy. Agaiii 1 will build thee and thon shalt be built, virgiii 
Jerusalem' «'. Certain men with experience of war say that generals ' of 

]. Gr. <j(iü|j.a Toü M. ov iSri\i.ijiliyti >,aov aTtsxäXeaav x. eItiov. — '1. Gr. 6 M. äjtsip^e x. ävttTtpaTTofiEvov 
sTtauuE. — 3. ,Icr., XX.WIII, 2-4. — 4. u-paTtiyoi. 



[435] CVin. — TO THOMAS OF CF.RMANICRA. 26,", 

yO; n 11; -JlcLaDJJ ^ff^-^ -.jLdaii^; ^~^~^ )^!>-'° ^l-^V-^ M^mvio :);^'u^ 

K..a. t /; wöi; ) fiüo'^ JJo .osi;/ jj }Uo, );o(^; jl-^x ^t ^~*-Ä-W '.oi^ h<^ 
yo^ )t-Q^? -.hol ^-^ Of^Ao .|^....a,»,^ o'y-^l } V « >o.-«* vOV^)j; >aSw..o 

).^Q..«.a o L.M ^>w^a:ji/ •^)a^ol ,)-:»)^; JI^ ^; ^ouK^/ .vOOilajV.3LeQ.:MLS. K-)v^^ 
^ wJS. s«Kj>i/; ^-i^/ ^^-^ )K.*Vai.j '^Si.^/o jLaji/j )j/ * j^^Kioo 

1. Ms. Il-P». — 2. Ms. sin?. 



armies have a custom of bringing besides the armetl forces physicians also, 
and, after the liosts engage with one another and the battle is joined, and the 
opposite side is defeated, they send the physicians to searcii among the 
fallen, and examine carefully lest there be found a man among them who 
is warm and has breath in him, anil may by medical skill recover from the 
deadly wounds that are upon him. Therefore also the purport of this figu- 
rative prophecy which we have cited is that, when Israel was reckoaed witli 
the dead, he restored him to life; bnt sonie have not discovered the meaning 
contained in this figure, or the explanation of the words, 'I found a bot 
one in the wilderness', but have given a foolish Interpretation. They changed 
the reading 'hot', and instead of saying 'bot' said 'solitary', and supposed 
from this that there is some herb which grows of itself in the wilderness, 
and signifies the solitariness of Israel. For it is not so. The words of 
the following context refute and truly banish their supposition; and the 
words of Scripture are as follows : k I found a bot one in the wilderness 
with the slain of the sword ». So therefore I also am i'n tliis manner lifted 
up, and am constrained to take courage and speak a few words about the 
Communications that have been addressed to me by your eloquent wisdom. 



117 V" a. 



117 \° b. 



118 



266 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [^M6] 

oi^o :oi^oi ^>o^wa/; )^sj» ^^ :ou3t>3 j^a^^^^^o/ oöi ^^ JK-kJOlS-s 
Uy-^l ^Aj/o .oKs/ |^m.^^o/ ^JL»a> j^oi!^ ..).a^oo j.^; K^jf^oil ö|.i^ 

o(JL3; j^Q^^V^^-^/ Vr°; ^°^ ^""X t^; yoa^wJ; .öi^K^/ Jl ^o n\; p -.IfOl v^oi 
p :|^i |jL^>^\ nt -^ )fO( IS^^k^^^l/o .oi^ot ^ol^a/ ^^Kjs ^^o .)..wb^oot.i3 
^^j ^ .«^ot y^...\.aK^ ^3 l-<»3>-3 -.K^ooi s^K^l fioSL^^^o Kjl>,.:)cl3 ^K^ia^j 

vui.^D )lm\vi ^'^t-^eus \^i )^a_.|.^o :|ooi ^a^K^ K_)_3io^; o6( :^K^o; 
:|Jj>.^ jj^Ao^ joJL vOüL.;; o)loTi\>ft; jK^oä..^:»; )ooi V-^jJ^oo; o6i :)ooi 

yO-o^^s^o/ oo( t^o .)ooi jV-Sl^ jl^ot^ jlojo'po .-jocH ypK.^ ^cDo^aS ^o^; 

1. Ms. "Ol. Tliis passage lo >»»v)o»io (p.437. 1. 1) is published in Assem.. Bilii. Gr.. II. 81. — 2. Ms 
sing. — 3. Ms. u»:sc>»/. 

{And after otlwr things.) 

But that our Lord Jesus Christ our God was pierced in the side with 
a lance by that soldier' after he gave iip tlie ghost, and blood and water 
came forth from it in a miraculous manner, the divine John the Evangelist 
recorded, and no one eise wrote about this. But certain persons have 
cleafly i'alsifled the Gospel of Matthew and inserted this same passage, 
when the contrary iä the fact,' in order to show that it was while he was alive 
that the soldier' pierced his side with the spear, and afterwards he gave up 
the ghost". This question was examined with great carefulness when my 
meanness was in the royal city, at the time when the atTair of Macedonius 
was being examined, who became archbishop of that city, and liiere was 
produced the Gospel of Matthew, wliich was written in large letters, and 
was preserved Avith great honour in the royal palace, which was said to 
have been fouiul in the days of Zeno of honourable memory in a city oi 
the Island of Cyprus buried with the holy Barnabas, who went about with 
Paul and spread the divine preaching; and, when the Gospel of Matthew was 
opened, it was found to be free from the falsification conlained in this addition, 

1. TT?aTia)Tri;. — 2. Matlli., XXVII, 'i9. See Tisclioniloi'f ad loc. wlicie Ulis passage uf Sev. is c-iied 
fi'oiii Assemani (see noie oii tc.\D. 



t4;!7J CVIII. — TO THOMAS Oh' C.EUMANICKA. 267 

OOI ^J^O^ )-*-»t-0 -'^-^ ^^.^.iOO ^at-./ Ul ^'»- JJo .).— .iOOMO I^O-r^V-^s-flo/» 

va>>^Kj;o :).^;/ ^ j-^^^CLi ^^>.^m ^*l ;^»°ii>? |^i/ vlN; ^.»^ ^;<Xo( ^V) 
|oi-\jl -^t V^N ^pcL^S; ^ö< ^* n ^>;o ryOCX^K^/ |jü/ s^Jls vQJoi ^/; 

oKsLio ).^ot^ j-iKs vs/ ya^»,i .yoio— j )loni.'^>n lo^j joot .^ib^^oo .jooi/ 
• j-i-io po/o .oöi J»-^^ iaioC^ j"l/ vj -t-^o/o .)L.ViCLs ^«^S^Jq^cla "^j-i-o .)jl3oi 



1. Ms. ;»»oJ. 



of the Story of the soldier' and the spear. I do not know liow and for what 
reason the holy John who became bishop of the same royal city, and the 
admirable Cyril, bishop of Aloxandria, did not test this question, and allowed 
the two passages to stand, in the two evangelists, neglecting the evidence 
to the contrary;- but perhaps in order that this also might be known, that, 
whilo they speak and write everything under the Operation of the Holy 
Spirit, and while these men are higher than we (for we arc men who creep 
along the earth), as the heaven is higher than the eartli\ and that they them- 
selves also might be known to be men, and to leave omniscience to God only, 
and that there is something in affairs which cannot be expressed, the completc 
revelation of which is not made known. Thus Samuel also, who as one 
may say saw with the eye of prophecy everything that was about to happen, 
did not know Saul when he was present and standing among all Israel, 
because God by means of these things was instructing his bondmen, and 
teacliing them to pay regard to humility. Wherefore also the divine Scrip- 
ture is written thus : « And Samuel asked in the Lord and said, 'Gometh that 
man hither?' And the Lord said, ' Lo ! he is liidden among the vessels'. And 

1. rfTpaTiwiri;. — 2. The passago is not in thi' cxliint fragnients of Cyril's conimentary on Mallh. For 
Jii. Chrys, see below. — 3. The sentencf is noi ooinpleted. 



118 r° h. 



118 v» a. 



2(38 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [438] 

CHi-^J ^J U-SJ-=>0 .^iol ^iO Ol^XQ.JO .»^0|»0 .U\^ K~.w^ jjt^KiO 00| joi 

)~io/ ^_./ :)K_3i )KäX^ iooi U/ >a>jL> 3 s loAo :K.*^o jK-^ioaX*».; 

Vio/ joü;^« oi»^^ )ji.-*io ).^a-*j> ^»i/ fS :c*^ jo« Jlb «>-*^ )oi^; 
.«jua-. JJo v-^iio w..jl^ t-V^o -öt^ )t~«po ÖmlSüj ^'^s^^io .öi.*jOQ_aiA .w>-s,^,^ 

1. Ms. «;=• — -2. Ms. u^aXaSjaS,. _ 3. Ms. witli point : foUowing. — 4. Ms. '^^9^ _ 5. Ms. _t-v 
— 6. Ms. ttatKs/; oni. point lollowing. — 7. Ms. 0111. point. 



he ran and took him thence » '. And at the time when the Shilumite woman's 
son died, and slie liad come to Elisha in great distress, as a mother wlio 
had heen deprived of lier beloved son, and, Milien slie had just fallen at the 
feet of the prophet of God, and Geliazi tried to prevent her, tlie bondman of 
God, being moved by love and soitow, said to Gehazi, « Let her alone, because 
her soul is bitter in her, and the Lord hid it from nie and showed it not to 
me »'". Accordingly yon should know that Eusebius of Caesarea also who 
is called 'Pamphili', who wrote the canons of the gospel, and imitated those 
Avho wrote on this subject before him, and had more coniplete knowledge 
of this question than the others, in the 10'" canoiij in which he recorded the 
places peculiar to one ofthe evangelists, inserted this passage also aboul the 
soldier^ and the laiice, saying that John alone recorded it'. And we also 
agree with this careful accuracy, not that we contend against our fathers 
(far be itl), but that we place the evangelists at a greater height than them, 
and assign to the evangelists only the Intention which properlv belongs to 
them, in Order that in everything .lesus, who is God, who spoke in the es'an- 

1. I Heg., X, 2i, 23. —2. IV Reg., IV, 27. — 3. atpatcwT-o;. — 4. Noviim Tesluniciilini). ed. I.loul anil 
Sunilay, p. xx; P. G., XXII, 1292. 



[439] CVIII. — TO THOMAS OK GERMANICEA. 269 

oJL^o .vmo^oj ,jj; vootlos/ jooiJ ax^o .^a\oi ^^ >&w»^m )oo|.j >o^ )jl^o 
jK-».^ ^^<^ ^^^? •'O-*^'«' v^oilo^a.3 );oi^ )>^t^? •'^-•■'^oi; yoogi:» t->t-^; 
iK^ ^^ .IV^K^/ ^w; jjLoioa^ yOOiJLo^a.3 j-LO-»/ '»i-x w; ^/ .n'>'>flO 
|J/ -.li'r^l ye^ys CH.-K*/ jl ^-; J;oi .^ Ki^^j )Li-.j |ji.o^:>o jia-wJio V-'^^ 
^ou't^ f~*.^)K.o.^ .|.^wiaLS.^o/ ^x^a^; otlQJL3^^3^0; jKjLo^C^ >^'^^^! "^^U. 

■j^ nnmq / ^i^o^ jjia^M ooi v^/« Jjlsl./ .^o.jti. ^xi>;a2; Jjl..^^ ^1 ^^« 
' ^io ^oKiOio Jij/ ji ..jL^mN^o/ ^fcoo; oiloJLiKjLio; jtoiÄol ^; jjoi^ 

1. Ms. plur. — 2. Ms. on]. 



gelists, may be glorified, 'in wh.om are all the tr(?asurcs of wisdom and 
knowledge hidden'', according to the saying of Paul. But for the rest \ve 
find that the holy John himself also, the bishop of Constantinople, in the 
commentarv on the same Matthew the Evana^elist with resfard to this same 
addition which we are now discussing, himself also said things that fit the 
trutli ; for he expressed himself thus : « ' But another came up and perforated 
his side with a lance". And what could be more wicked than these men? 
And who could be lawless like them ? And who could be more savage thau 
these same men, who showed their madness to such an extent, that they 
attacked a dead body. But do you mark how their madness was brought 
about for our salvation. For after the wound the fountain (d life welled 
forth für us » -. But these are the words of a man who follows the footsteps 
of the narrative of John the Evangelist and nothing eise ; for he called the 
body 'dead'; because it was after he gave up the ghost thaL the soldier' 
pierced him, and gave occasion for the fountain of our salvation to well forth 
tlience, as the doctor John the bishop said. But this addition to the narrative 
; of Matthew the Evangelist has never been iuserted by any of the earlier 

1. Col., n, :). — i In Malth. llom. Lxxxviii. 1 (eil. Par. 2\ MI, a32). — 3. oTpaTituTri;. 



HS V" b. 



270 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [440] 

119 i°a. JioJLia-ot; j»tJ^ ^*^v^Kio; ^J!^OiJ» ^s/ :^-<Xo( ^-/; ' )K.3t^ Oi^ V*^^ 

^jC^a ^t-o ^! °o^ :' >J0CL^>A^a3; j^oK^; oöi • J -i -^ '•^ ^; sfn . -».coo/ ^/ 
:^oV^; |.Jl^ ^^^^»^! ^l^ '^'^^^ ^l-L^V^o )f-°^^^-^; ^Ji^l/ ^^ y^ :wOUJ;oi.^l/ 
,>o,^o Jb» Iv-^^o/; )?o» l^^ÄÄoi ''^»i» oC^wS ^^o -.looi ofco oiKiet*Ä ^^^o 
^; ^^o(j» .ya.>I^^o/; j^Küjä ).^a-ikXD )Jo -.j-^Mf.!/ JJ) ^^ y^l ..^Om |J 
)L^>_3 |.iiAa3 •. oi&s^eu^o ^isof^; JjLm m^/ '"^^t ; Ij^\ >n lo^« oil'f^)>3 
JL^aa^^o/ sioaiipo ^^ |^oi^; -.^ajlSo oilfL^I^ ^clcd );oio .oix^ )ooi 

^jlmQ^ .^£ov^ joi!^ |< t^ oi,2 «2lO)j/i jjf^k^ ^:•oö| ^^^»^ K^l; -.po/ 

>eLA:d ^'^Ow v£0o^\.».3 oK-^) o^o/ ^^a^a 1^ v^^^-a; .po/ j-ioi^ ^^j 
'j 1° b. po/ jioi ^^s^o .|-'>'^^^*-^>°^ \°°i vl;° .jKsu^o l^v^l^.^; )lSoo^ .-oC^; 

1. Ms. It^^-^. — 2. Ms. "^^ UU-l >*'t' US/ .uosooiOf»^. — J. Ms. lüBO^^aa-viSi. _ 'j. Jls. w^-vi^io- 



ll'J 



commentators who wrote, not by Origen, who examined such questions 
minutely, tlioiigli he sinned' in matters that are necessary for the truth 
of the faith ol' the cliurch, nor by Didymus, nor by any other man wliu 
has written on this subject. Bat Eusebius" of Caesarea, who is called 
'Pampiiili', whom \ve mentioned a little above, when writing to a man 
called Marinus about questions concerning the passions of our Saviour 
and about his Resurrection, showed us nothing whatever about the said 
addition, as being unknown and having no phice in the books of the gospel. 
But in the samc lelters to Marinus, who had asked him for an Interpreta- 
tion on the subject of our Saviour's' passions and his Resurrection, he inser- 
tcd tiie following exposition also in his letters, that the divine Mark the 
Evantrelist said tluil it was the S"' hour at tlie time when Christ who is 
God and our Saviour was crucified, but the divine John (he said) wrote 
that it was at the (i"' hour that Pilate sat upon his judgment-seat at tlie 
place called 'tlic pavement', and judged Christ. And tlierefore Eusebius 
said that this Is an error of a scribc, Tw-ho was inattentive when writing 

1. Perh. yiiiaprt (errcd'); sec p. 77, n. 3. — 2. This passage to 'Icltpr' (p. 'i'il.l. 12) is publisheil in 
(Iriek in Cnimcr, Cut. in Luc. et Jo., p. .ISO (cf. Coideiius. Cat. in Ju., ]<. i3i;; P. G.. XXII. lOüli). 



[4^.1] CVIII. — TO THOMAS OF GERMANICRA. 271 

^; jlol/ .JL.>>;o t >o ^^'>-^A K;^.!» -6( ^iCL^; V-^^ jlol/ .ya-^^o/ 
^-; ^^; .^jk^Üi Ka; j.1 « I V? ^^s^ j.^>;aJL^>0 •.yQ.^Q.m «°i/ K.<jjo_. )_.-,_oKiO; 

'^.^^io .Kj, oi^ K.^K.xlo -.'öiiKm^ ^^^^Vä jloljJ 0IA30I0 .N^l 
K»ii; j)^*JLi.;ajLio jlol/ w.öi; .•öi;t«>ja.^\ jlol/ Kasoil/; .-ov^ Ij-sKuö/j 
:j^a^o ^flOQjJV-^o ^Kio j-J^l— / J.^^älSl^jo/ yooui^l ^.ooi p .öt,K^/ 

JOOI JjOl*-« 'i.A^^ j^p. y «. X ;A J^ ,^iOj iJ-iOQÄ ^-* ^J ^*/ )^^j.^QJl 

yo^ ^^ •.j-«_,jLio >&ax^ yOtS^o ypo; >-oi j.^«»-./ :'oi.io/ j^»/ öü^ao 
^wL^:^. K^l ^ ^; OJOI . joOl > a ..«.£ > J .•jjOJUw. joo« '^o^s; ^^«.^^m K».; jj^ 
.^0».-K.-/; ^-V^/ x^A J^l jjuU; Olloa/ .^L^Q^ jjKiO^ OOI oKj/j y-./ 

.jloljJ oiJb. öjoaü^^ji -.^po/; y^l ya^yj> ^_io '<a_sKj5; ,,-«.'^01; ''^^io 

:> m . 1 ff>oJJ Olb. j)^-.KÄi 06^ yi.-.io/j ^^01 ^^ ^pO JKjLiO vS/j ^^; ^;J 
JIq^Jlä looio i-fc^ Ji»^ .^cociDV.ia^ .?««-'»/ j;«» j^jsi^^^ojj jj/ .001; ^\ 

l.Ms. »Cv^a^. _ j. Ms. \-,-^l- — 3. Ms. ^ov=- — 'i. Ms. ins. ^oo;9- — 5. Ms. ot.j). 



the Gospel'. For it is the lelter gamal that denotes 3 hours, while the 
letter whicli is called in Greek episemon denotes the number of 6 hours, and 
these letters are like one another in Greek, and, the scribe wishing to write 
'3' quickly, and having- turned the letter a little backwards, it was therebv 
found to be '(V, because, since the letter had been turned backwards, it 
was supposed to be the letter that denotes '6'. Since therefore the three 
other evangelists Matthew, Mark, and Luke stated alike as with one mouth 
that from the 6'" hour to the U'" therc was darkness over all the land, 
it is piain that our Lord and God Jesus Christ was crucified before the (j'" 
hour, at which the darkness took place, that is from the ;}"' hour, as" the 
blessed John himself wrote. Similarly we say that it is the 3"' hour, be- 
cause those who wrote before, as we have said, changed the letter. We 
must insert also in this our letter upon this matter a part of what Eusebius 
himself stated at length ; and his words are as follows : « We agree not 
with any chance man, but with the evangelist who gave this tcstimony, 

1. Gr.itapayopaöev (ciinj. Cr. itapavP^fSev, P. (',.. napöpaP^v) Tcapa tüv ii, ap//i; änoYpcolanEvwv xot EuayT^''«- 
— 2. Some words luive perli. I'alli'n oiil ; Cr. Mipzo; iirop-yiirs- ■/.. toO 'I<odvvoi. töv ö|xoiov rpoTcov triv 
üp»v Tpt'xriv eivat e7ti'7»i(iavo(ievt,u. 



111* V" a 



im V b. 



272 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [442] 

K^l "^i. j^jQjLioj »^ötj )löl/ ^<H-lVl; jLooo; ^^-^-io .ouK-/ Kji .^^i; 

)oi )_4Öou>^ ^QDa.^J^wA^ jooi t-^/o :^.jk^^ K». ^/ jooi {jfi^o :)f.^b.^s^) 
l^foj. p .K)S.l; ^öi .Ko.) ^öi ,3^,^ Jt^U •.jbvA« ^^<^oi yeüK ryOSLaiS.^ 

wtoKjilf ^^l .v^oioSloj JSwjCSwiol/ »J 0/ ^j öi^^^^ud -.loo» wt-*OI ot~L*j; 

)jL^£oLb09 0|loK_K^ K.^.ai[.>0 •> .»^Ol; j.A.*0^ ^^Ow oC^ jL^J^Ol^ ) ' r, V^ 

1. Ms. ins. ^1-12, app. deleted. 



Mark. For it happened that there was an error 011 thc part of tlie scribe so 
tliat he clianged the letter by adding length to it, and it was thought that 
the letter whicli reprcsents '){' was '(>', on account of the likeness of the 
two letters ^of tliat which dcuotes '3' and that which denotes '6'. If 
the refore it is stated by John that it was the preparation of the day of 
unlevened bread, and it was about the 6"' hour, and Pilate said to the 
Jews (( Behold! yonr king »', and so on, let ihere be read instead 
of '6"'' '3"'', since tlie beginning of his trial took place at that time, and 
in the middle of the hour or after it had been completed they crncified him, 
so that ihe result is that they jiidged and crucified him at the same hour »-. 
ir you lofik for and find the volume addressed to Marinus about the inter- 
prctation of these things, you will find the accuracy of the writer as 
regards these matters. For cur pari we do not wish to write much on 
these subjects in this our letter. May the industry of your holiness be 
preserved for us mcditaling 011 these things and occupied with these things 
in priestly fashion, and rousing u[) the glooni of our silence and urging it 
to speak'. 

I. .Inliii, XIX. l'i. — - Nol kiKjwM ecc. Irom Sev. — 8. A ürcek exlriirt IVuiii ;i letler to Tli. of 
('■ei'iiiinnci'a is piiMislicil in Gramer, (mI. in lip/). (Uilli.. p. 159. 



[443] CX. — TO EUGENIA. 27;? 

K^A^rt an p «v> Qrc^ •^■^j3T\ rSlx-iTa^ja rd.3iv-Ä';\ ^jx>3jja 



1 1!) V 1>. 



j.-.^, jjLiO; V--^ ^t-^/ •)i|-' J-"»— i oöt JJ)Q-* '•Q^? ^^w^a^O ^; OOl )jL3j 

^)j/ p6/ ^-; );0i .)-.V^o; ))SCS.J i .n V > 

•tTS^Tj-n ivXina t^iuAXiai273 I 123 1 b) 

1. Fruiii llie würlv of PeltT agaiii^l Daiiiiaii. — i*. Ik-re Ihe fragmenl breaks olT llirougli llie loss of 
a Icaf or iiiore in the ms. 



CIX. Ol- THE SAME HOLY SkVERI S EROM THE 250"' LETTER OF THE 

1^' BOOK liETORE EPISCOPACY, WMICH \V\S ADDRE8SED TO TheOGNOSTUS. 

But now it is time for us to come to the other question. You say « What JO8-12. 
is meant to be signified by the phrase used by Isaiah the prophet aboiit our 
Lord, that he was seilt ' to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord'' ? » 
Hut this I say ■ 

CX. — Of the holv Mar Severls, i rom the letter to Eugema 
THE deaconess and archima.ndritess. 

ff When thou sittest at tlie taltle of mighty nien, to diiie » (or « to take a 513-38 
meal »), « consider tlie things set l)efore thee with intelligence, and stretch 
forth Ihiiie band «'. But a mau will properly say that mighty men are 
certain wlio showod iheniscives mighty aiid prevailed against tlie passions 

1. Is., L.\i, 1, ü. — 2. Heru llie ms. breaks ulV. — 3. Pr., .\.\iii, 1, d. 

PATR. OR. — T. .XIV. — F. 1. 18 



274 LETTERS OK SEVERUS. [444] 

"^^k 0"i\iV»/; ^^ yt^l ^1 ^^Ol ^^ •:•^oOi^; |KJLsüL3 ).wiJ;)JIjio )-*VAOJ 

• |chl\JJ ^^w«^iaS> ;a.J:^2 q\ |_ij.i6j .joCS^ J^^^^— !? jtCS^o» jiol^ )J^C^-«; 
);o|\ ojKjk.^^^; j^lL. vooiio "^ 1 oo\o Lv^ol^'s/ ^^»jijool^; j^oKsio JJ/ 

K.00/ IjloX^i .|KIS.^ aJL3oi^\ u>)j )S>-.)jK^ ■«■■.« mÖi; i-*-^ 6(lo^ 

1. Ms. ljo?Vv — 2. Ilaviiig iiu photogiMph uf s r". I siippls llic beginning nT llip title. — 3. Ms. 
l;ji>aÄ>/ ; cf. ep. 4. — 4. Ms. ^J^-^.— v 



of sin, luit are mied by righteousness, and made their uwn members an In- 
strument ol' lliis, and give no passage for any stränge and demoniao 
thoughts to creep into their own souls. 

By these, as by men who have made themselvcs masters of the passions 
of lusts and gained the victory over them, -the talde of the word.of religion 
is sct beforc the pious hearer, which urges not only to frar God, bat also 
strife against the devil and again.st all the passions of sin. 

This teaching one should considcr wilh iiilcUigenec and clothe oneself in 
the benefit derivcd from it, and deiight onesell' in its swoet and plcasant 
sustenance. 

öl:{-8 (?). GXl. Ol" TUE llnl,> IVlvit SeVKRUS I'HOM THK LETTER TO SiMUS TUE 

SCH1?<'IAR1US ', SlIOVVlNi; TII\T THK lIlVIiXE lNM..\Tr()N IX Ad.\M LS Tili: lliHI Bj 

SlMHIT, AND TUE rOWKII WIIICII M\Ki:s TUE sota. Ol' M.\N'. 

For against lliat contention \ve niiisl vigorouslv niak{> answer, thal in 
i. i:p. '1. 



[445] CXI. — TO SIMUS. 275 

yo^ jlo •.).^'^.^^s.^ |.:^Aa^ yo^s> )jlj^; )fiC^^.<J^^ ).jlSlj |J :|jdV^; JjlooI 

) .A °> 11 .• yn « m i )K_iU^/ jlo^öiXD «s/; -.V-^-s ^^ ^o^ ) ..•^>v> n^..xo i^^ 

I, Aililod in iiiwrg. aiid app. beluiiying liere; bul see ii. :i. — 2. JI.s. ^- — :!. Ilere follows :i iiiaik 
of rcf. : biit ^l»»o»< (n. 1.) makes iio sense luTe. — 4. Ms. ^'t-.L 



the coniposition or l'asliioning oi' mau ihc nitioiial soul ul' man is not creatcü 
bel'ore the body, nor is the body t'ormcd befbre the soul. NN'li.y du you drag 
the teaching of the holy fathers which says that the divine iuspiration is 
Ihe Holy Spirit, an active aml operative l'orce, and is the power wiiich makcs 
the soul of man, to an abominable objection by saying this, that they who 
say this absolutely and by all means clearly hold tliat the body is creatcd 
llrst, and after the formation is complete receives a soul, in tiiat the Holy 
Scripture says, « And God created man dust from the earth, and breathed 
iulo bis face the brcath of life » ', as if the formation comes first, and tiie 
animation follows afterwards, in the second place, according to the narrative 
i>f Scripture? But we shall not arrive at this cold supposition, if we receive 
in our raind that God creates, not like some feeblc man. {A Utile farther on.) 
It would perhaps be possible for us to adduce other testimonies also that 
the human soul was created by divine Inflation; but indeed this Stands clear, 
that the holy Cyril taught all of theni in las writings, showing that the soul 
of man came into being by divine Inflation, and again that we are to under- 

I. rii'ii.. II. ',. 



CXII 
V -I 



276 LETTERS OF ÖEVEHUS. [446J 

..)K_.o»!S>. )K.».^^aav» ^io; wöt |Icu3l*.^s^ yo^l ^ol ^.^^ p ♦^2l3s. ^^o( 

Pilo ,.< > t VI ^o :)oo< . ..Jl■^^^.^ )jö|.aLiii p :)K.ja^frOw v^ix^ll^f^o );oC^^^^ 



l. Ms. "W- — 2. Ms. siiii 



stand that, man having been created and possessing a souI, the inflation 
inserted onlv spiritual gifts and patterns of divine association. 

And the lioly Basil in what he wrote about the Holy Spirit taiight as 
foUows : « For, Avhen Adam had lost the grace derived from the divine infla- 
tion, Clirist gave it back again, when he breathed into the face of his disciples 
and Said, ' Receive the Holy Spirit' » '. And again he said, « When he 
breathed in intellect, he is not another dilTering froni liim w iio breathed at the 
beginning, but the same thnmgb whoni he gave the intlatiun, thcn giving 
it with the soul, bnt now giving the soul ». So niuch wo liavc written as 
an abundant elncidation of the words, « Lot us niake man in our image »'", 
and of the words, « breathed into his face the breath of life ». 

CXll. — Ol TlIK FlOLV Mau SeVEHUS IHOM Till-: LKTTKlt TO Ull.VMlS. 

Tliercfore in liie Old Testament'' also, wdien the high-priest was anointcd, 
iuid at his auoinling the sacrifice of the ram of perfcctioii was offercd, the 

1. Dr Sjiir. Siiiirlo, XXXIX (/*. (i.. .VXXII. IS'.i;,, ;i InöSr rihilicili. I c-.itiiinl liiiil llic .ihilinri wlii.li 
)'cill(iw>. "i. fieii., I, 2(i. — 3. Sia6y;xri. 



P 



CXIII 

V :: \". 



447] CXIll. " TO /.AClIAIllAS. 27/ 

^9» )ojS>v °> VnA^ JoOI );» jlojL^aiO loJi^ ^ ^.VoiO .vOOt-«C^i. ^Q„»_flo/o 

.)jV— / vOoC^ jbo JJOI ^io .yoL^il ).JLCLio ^*5>^j oöi l—oi ,^; K^^ "^'^■^'^ 

I. Ms. o^-; lilii ulihr.i. 



tliumb of liis ri_y,lit band, and tlio great toe of bis riglit foot, aiul tbe lobe of 
liis ritjbt ear were anointed witb tbe blood oltbe victim wbicb was sacriliced '. 
tbe type sigriifying tbis, tliat, if be set bimself to perform rigbt actions, 
and if be make great progress in tbem (for tbe band is tbe emblem of deeds 
and of aotions, and tbe foot of effort and of advance towards tbe tbings tbat 
are in front), lie will bave bis ears fall uf diviue announcements and reve- 
lations. 

CXIII. — Of thk hülv M\u Severus fhom tue letteu to Zaciiarias-. 

God Said to Moses, « Giioose tliee seveuty old men and 1 will take of tby öit-s. 
spirit and lay it npon tbem » \ And tbe God of all said and diil tliese tbings 
l)y way of giving instruction and teacbing in tbe direction of bumility (for 
tbe gifts of tbe Spirit are not scanty or defective), and it was not because he 
took away some of tbe spirit tbat was upon Moses tbat be fiiled others wilii 
tbis. For tbo wbole of it was botb witb tbe recipients and witb bim, just 
as one may also see in tbe nature of fire. Wben a man bas ligbtod several 



1. Ex., XXIX. 22. 20. — 2. This may be eillici' llie biogi-apher ul' Sev. or Z. of rdu-iiiin (S. L., 
IV, 1). — 3. Num., XI, le, 17. 



CXIV 

V 158 I" 

(I 40 v" b). 



27.S LKTTEHS OK SKVERUS. [448] 

^a!^;/ |l>^m )<)^:>öJ^ l;]^^"^ y^ ^^ V"*-^ t^ .)),^:i eCS . K^l jiaj; )j„o 

f..fiQ-2i^; oib^^l).^o «^s^ ^^ V-*-^ t^ .)^>K^; ^6i -.looi ).wJS.aeL^ ).m3a^ ^; 
oöi j-k-^aA; ^^.^^ vA^^vlt ) ö «\).^ •Ijot-o.]^ v^ix^^o/ Iql^ ^ ){iPov>i; 

^^..^oo :)aJS.ji;o]l öi.«^euSjLj )^2^:»o.jl:>o |...,^i^2i>.; jooi ^-Ki. v-»^ P 

• .OOOI ^j>.ii.>:<ii>o )!<^? vP-*^ |j»jl^ä^ )ooi ^^jl^oo .""^j-o)^ ).. 1 1 \ oi^ )ooi 
oöio ..^oJ^Jiio/; )K>).j,iCL3 VtA .)jL3oi jooi y.al2 ^.^JSoi; Jjt-s»-^ t— oöu^ 

1. M-. Olli, o- — :i. Ms. um. <. 



torches from one torch', lie has not diminisheil tlie one, and yet lias from 
it caused many to be in equal honour. For tlie grace tliat was upon Moses 
appeared as it were to be darkened by the fact that tlie seventy shared in 
the saine lionour and propliesied in tbe Spirit. But this type was fuliilletl 
by tlie future; tbr, wlien alter tlic coniing of tlie Only one in the flesh tlie 
Spirit was ponred out, the grace *hat was upon Moses was darkened, and 
the fire of the torch of the law, when brought near to the gospel, is extin- 
u-iiislied bv the iill-brilliant ravs of the Sun of ri^hteousness. 

CXIV. — Of tuk holy Mah Skvkrus vrom thk i.inrKit m Mitii.\el;s -. 

r.i<t-:!8. When he was about to deliver Jerusalem to utter destruction on acoount 

of the abundance of evil things that were done in it, and show^ed the prophct 
Ezekiel the form that such wrath was to take,- and sent forth the angels 
wlio performed this olTice, one executor of these things he ct>mmanded 

1. ).0(iijri8».. — 2. S. L., p. 1.">S. S72. ÜTI',. 37'.l. 



\M] CXIV. — TO MlTRAKl'S. 279 

^OÜ^S "^Ok .•^^■■Q.J;N.^O ^«.— jl^OOj vQJÖl )^-=^\^? U^^ ^-^■=> "^'^-^ }^'l 

yOJÖI ^*; loA .o,Ja «is.-; {jl-^js ^o .)-.»aia,^ Q^^^ ).jLl\o j-iLcoiso 
..OVJt .>^>J ).*^'»-ß ^^^; \^-? -0<^ ♦sQ.iV^'-'' i' 1^/ vO<H-^i>^ voot^ K^/j 

I v> « Ti cp).a )jl-.jl^ 0001 ^*ieu.V^ ^^^^7 ^-^Ji^W )o®< ^-/? .!-Q-*-io );o« 
.•0001 . - -°" Koi |jkt.^^;o jJwai-ot; )Kjo; «..IIs/ ^''^i^o .jlajois laju*^ 

VOO^X JOO» y£>if l-LDOl; vQ-JÖl ^-iO .-1.-10». yO^JuiU vOOUiOj .•jjLIULA.iä vQJOt 

♦yooiiio ^i.^». jj i; o6« |.Ju..t.ja ^flaic^o ).ia-*a^\ yO^asKjo .-jo»!^ lo^ 



1, iis. \Ll. — 2. xts. ^a)o^>- — :i. Ms.^ji^w- —4. Ms. om. {I ins. 



thus : « Pass tlirough the midst of Jerusalem, and give forth a mark on 
the foreheads of the men who groan and are distressed, on account ol' all 
the unlawt'ul acts tliat have heen done vvithin her » ; and to the others he 
Said, « Go after him and destroy and spare not; and have no mercy on old 
man and on young man and virgins; and tlie old men and the women slay 
utterly; and begin with my holy ones; but those that have the mark upon 
them approach not »'. The expression, 'begin with my holy ones' shows' 
this, that there were men who were very proud of the garb ' ol" the high- 
priesthood, and on account of the place of the temple and the sanctuary 
were much puiTed up, but were devoid of good deeds '' ; and therefore he 
teils the tormenting angels to make a beginning willi those who ought to 
have conducted themselves in such a way as to be able to Stretch out their 
liands to God on behalf of others also who sin, and restrain the threat and 
the punishment impending over them. ' 

I. Ez., IX, 'i-6. — 2. Tlie rest of tlie exti'acl, is puljüslied in Greek with Ihe lioading S. ävTtoxe'w; 
in 8. V. N. C, IX, 738. — 3. oxnH^*- — ''• ''•'• '"^- "• '''*'' ävavTtwv EpyäTai. — ."■. An extract IVuiii n 
leller to Mitras itpwteOwv is pubüshed in Greek in Gramer, (Utt. in Act. Apnsl., p. 202. 



•280 



LEITERS OK SEVKRUS. 



[450] 



cxv 

^■ 226 v° 

(1 105 r a). 



oJ, 



Ajir^\*r^ i\<^^'^ rcf^i^rsf ^ «^rcfnardito ^\^-:\ 



)>.Lu jooi ^o^o ^^o^; ^tJlo; ^-« ^ ot j-X^^^ ^D :|.^^J oöi ^^ 1-^^^/ ^l 

^^ .'lo)-3« ).yf.^o.\ jjLsVo-o yO fi m I OÖI )>X-3)-3 Jooi o'Ks jLxsoi ^ Jooi v^/ 
.I^Q^M.^ JLi«.;i^o/; vooila^,><=v>,\ ..).,^\^j ^*» >^6^ .).,^^ioo )>.-^ l-ioi. 
..V^OuS^ciJ K^}f^.^s^ jLioü^o :;a^|j jli/j JLjl-m JV-b^^Q-d oj/; ooi.j/ t"^,^^ ^l 
o6i oa^/ ^/o );oi ^^^:m .oi^ ,ol^' ) l^s..Of.^^K.ffi.^ JJ jlaivi^t.^o \^U> 



ub-jf_/ ^ .jooi y^l jaLcJ« jooi \.^f' oC^^^ )-i>)-s« )ic 



fS -U' 



^j/; )t-30l Iql^ ^3 "^.ti-SOI ^f^ .^X,^^^ K.aSo/ wOJi^O -.wC^t jLaii^ 

.•^^«^>^'o yiKji;;^« JIS^ülsj y.ni\ ts^l )oou« x:*i^/ ^^^^-X.« -.^J^ociaU/ |joi 



cxv. 



Of Mar Skvebis, from tmk letter to IIi:rvclf\na '. 



ji'.i- 



But Isaiah ■ also the prophet, beholding- bet'oreliand with foresemng eyes 
the holy Order of the monks, who take upon theinselves the voluntary 
distresses for the sake of the law ol' the Lord, said that their trihulation was 
offered to God in place of sacrifices and oll'erings, in tliat he wrute thus : 
« At that tirae there sliall come up oiTerings to the Lord of S'abaoth from a 
people distressed and plncked»''. But the word 'plucked''' shows the' 
abundance of the distresses; for, if one grasp the hair of a man's head, and 
pluck this out by force, one causes him intolerable pain and injurv. \^'here- 
l'ore also the great Job too, when he wished to shuw the abundance of his 
own pains, said, « Ilaving grasped mc by my locks he tore » (or « plucked ») 
« me » ■'. Accordingly therefore, since you have bccn marked for such a life, 
you ought to liave souls ready aiid prepared for every trial that is thought 
to be hard. 



1. Deaconess aiul archiinaiuliilcss (S. L., |i. 21'i, 21.")). — 2. This pas>at,'e lo • ilistresses' (1.8) is 
published in Greek in 8. V. N. C, IX, 729; bnl Ihe wurds fi'om 'in tlial' lo the end (if Ihc cilation 
liiHuwing ai'p Ihei'e omitted, and llie lexl is therebv renderod meaniiiijlcss. — :!. Is., xviii. T. — 'i. Hoad 
llii'ii'lore TETiXfjiEvou lor TeTi(j.ir)(i£vo'j in the Gi'eek. — .'>. Job, xvi, 13. 



L451] CXVI. — TO JOHN. THKOÜOÜi;, AM) ,ln||\. 281 



alj3':\äj3 J.3j3cvl:\ r^^cu3ivÄ.in ^ 'rsTnar^Äj rS^aj3T\ cxvi 



♦;'cni>äi>3 ^^n^ niva Qoa^'njiaaÄJr^":\ 



(XXVII) 

c; r.fi r b. 

M VJ i" b. 



jJ/ -.o^K.. od>M ^^ jJo .«oia^,« yooC^ Q^ .jJ/ .o.^Ks« ^/ ^olo; jijt-3; 

1. Eraseil in G. — i. (\ a\ooyo, M a^oßmao. _ ;;, ]\| a^. _ \_ i\[ ^M.a.^L;. _ r,. M u»o;^3^. 



CXVI. (XXVII) Ol TUE HÜLV SeVEHVS I-KOJI tue TRE.VTISE AGAINST THE 

CoiMciL.s' OF Alexander, aftek its two parts (?). - ,' (xxvji) 

(7''/ .lohn, 'riicddarc. und .lulin)". 

But he' says concerniiig wliat is wrilteii 111 .Matthew, » .Many Ijodies ol" 5ii)-38. 
tlie saints who siept arose »' : « For, if'many', it is piain tliat all did not; 
and, if 'saints', it is beyond controversy that those of wicked men and men 
who died in sins did not also rise ». 

(And a littlc farther on.) For this also is the reason for which he said 
that they 'appeared to many' ', to show the object for wliieh they rose, 
and through a thing that is manifest to make known something that is not 
manifest, whom Christ's descentinto Sheol henefited, viz. the saints who had 
aiready purified their soul. For, wlien lie weiit thither, he made procla- 
raation to the spirits in prison also who liad aforetime becn disobedient 
according to the Statement of the apostle Peter^ And to all alike he ap- 
peared, having broken gates of bronze and shattered bars' of iron as it 
written". I>u( all did not know him, nor bcnefit by liis appearance, but those 

1. xwäixi'/./oi. — ■>. This exlract escaped ray notioe tili after tlie appearance of' l'asc. 1 ; see ep. 27 
— 3. Possibly Ifiis is Sev., not Ale.xander, and tlie sentence tho \vorl\ nf the Compiler. — 4. Matlh., 
.\XV1I, .^2. — .-). Ihid. 53.— 6. I Pol.. in, 11). 2ll. — 7. nox>oi — 8..Ps. nvi, If). 




(.ETTKliS OK SEVEHUS. [452] 

"'^..A^^ fS GL^ sS/; ^^d ,Omm Krf|j)j; ^.iJ^/ ;a<,>^>.3 ycuoi 
'.■\t^-^l iN^o •>o^^ 0004 i>n.ot yfno^JLS •.yooi^ ^jx^it/ JV-CQ-^^; ).X^ 0001 
oK^^; ^wJbyOi yooi^s c^o :|.<M^«.^ >a^ ^t-*ot a^O-o yooi^ ^« ol^« 
jj/ :jV3/o ^)-m1/ K^)L.aA yooi^aL^ 001 ^/o :^CL«.x^t oilK^^^^^ > v> ot,K^ 

•.Oiyi .010 ^OtO^«^ j^O^^^O :^V^/; ^l yOOULSü Ql^C^'i O^^A« yCUÖl 

y^l (H^jio/ ^ :j»Mv3 ^'^«^j )^.^}.:>Q-5 jN^ötS^ ''^S^-ieiio oöj ^ ^).£q_.v^».^ 
yj •:*)aäoi ^o'io ^ v*K_/ sSiÄo/j ^-<^oi^ -.'^otioi./ |Ka...a\ ).-q.ji; ^aö 

J.io;Kj >s/; ^/ :\j'y^l Ju/ KwO 0/ ))_-* )jLS^s;.ietoo jJ ®|j)V; oöi :J;o».äo 
.-6^3 Q^ »-^^ ^^ "^^ :)Ka-.aio )JSw^;l ^oiw jjoio rowLÄJ "^^.io V^Jjo 

1. M ;aLUf. _ 2. M uiDa.;tt^;^. — ;{. M »^- — '1. M ^t>^- — 5. M ota-. _ b. m hv/ fi,|- h|V. — 
7. G maig. »Äi ,.3 '^»tt»»^^© .|l.tt>;m3tXM3 ).i.;ll y^jLo |^£Lai. |l.t^».io. — s. m om. o- — 9. M >ä<u^j^;. 
Tliis passage lu »-0;= (p. 4.")'i 1. 'J) i^ [niblislied with \A\i. translatioii in Land, Anecd. Syr., I, |ir(]|.. :i-'. f:; 
(Irom M onh), and In l^::-» (p.'i53 1.;») wilh Engl, (ransladunin Liglitlnot, Apiislnlir I'allicrx. U. 1. p.iii. 



only wlio lived uprightly, wlio also, if he liad appeared to them while tliov 
were still living the lifo in tlie llesli woidd eertainly ' liave helieved ou liim. 
{And lower (louni.) But that all did not rise a tliat time with Christ, nor 
all wlio had died henefit by his descent into Sheol, altiiough he iiimself 
appeared and made proclamation to all alike, hut tliose who had already 
purified their soul as \ve liave said, and therefore kuew hini and helievod, 
Gregor}' the Theologian in the sermon on the Passover lianded down, al'tiT 
expanding the question as is proper in what he added, writing thus" : « If 
he go down to Sheol go down with him. Ivnow the niysteries there, what 
is the economy of the double descent% what the principle. Does he simply 
save all by appearing, or there also those who believe'? » And Ignatius 
the truly God-clad and martyr, who, or some other man^ saw inell'able 
mvsteries, so that he was even carei'ul to say of himself, and this with 
humble mind, « For 1 also in that I am liound and am able to understand 

1. navTu;. — 2. 'l'liis extracl and the 2"' Irom Ignatius are editcd in (ir. vvilli heading Ssbripoj in 
Cratner, Cut. in Epp. Calli.. p. 07 (Lightfoot Apost. Fathers, II, i. 178); but what precedes and foUows. 
thougli simllai- lo nur l<'xl, dill'eis widely from it. — :i. Marg. " He calls 'the double descent' to caitli 
in the Incarnaliun, and to Sheol through llie sonl ". — 4. Or. xiv, 24. — 5. I cannul rendor Ihi;; 
oiherivise (see LighU'ool, p. 192). 



,453] CXVI. — l'O J()H\, TIIKODOUK, AND .lOII.X. 2S:i 

"^-^.-^ Pilo ^ « ^ ^^ > ... g<iK:bo Y^ :aa;U/o |;otS.^k.^ ta^^ ) . . ...li.v» 

oöi; ji.*~w« ;a^Jb<>2 )«iajL^ q-.j^1/o :ci>o o yOCuV^^ ^^ ))-^^^^^? ^-^<^ 
)^s_;:^la\o t--^,^ )a^ );oi^ ■■■\t^i~i st^o •:*)-i)j ).i>.»a3; |,^aw.^ .■),.^>o/ yooü^ai^ 

1. ]\I Olli. (J. — 2. M i-~^l- — A. In red, as il' iiilrdilmiiig a iicw ixlracl insleail of a iiew cilalion. — 
'i. M r^l- — .">. M iii>. oooi. — (j. G a^oi. — 7. M ^-m. — ,s. (; o'oi- 



tlie lieavenly tliiiigs and tlie angelic locations, and the princely companies,, 
visible and again invisible, am not tliereby a disciple »', in writing to those 
at Magnesia said thus : « For tlie divine prophets lived in Jesus Christ; 
therefore also they were persecuted, being inspired by bis grace in Order 
that the incredulous might be persuaded that there is one God who 
revealed liimself through Jesus Christ bis Son » ; and a little further on : 
« llow shall we able to live without him? wliom the prophets also, being 
liis disciples in the spirit, expected as a teacher, and therefore he whom they 
rigbtly awaited, when he came, raised them from the place of the dead »-. 
You see that those who like the prophets lived in Jesus Clirist, that is in 
justice and saintly deeds, benefited Jjy our Saviour's descent into Sheol; 
many of whose bodies arose, and appeared for the confirmation only of the 
power of him who went down into the lower parts of the earth as I said, not 
to give the recompense of the resurrection that is promised to all together, 
on the day of the righteous recompensing. 

[And loaer dorcn.) « For to this end it was preached to the dead also, that 

I. Ad Troll.. V. — 2. .4f/ Magn.. viil, ix. 



(\ :,i; \" b 



i;\vji 

G 57 V" a 
M 'j4 1" a. 



r.l'j-:tH. 



284 LETTERS OK SKVERUS. [454J 

)iaJV-3k>wtoo-d ^^K^^« ^rfi^^jJo ,K^)t_JSs^ )jL^wJS> JJ/ -.j-A^V))^ f^^^ °^ 
J^jjLi/ ,vocxji.aü ^'io. )Lx-j i)^ ^ -.^cuotJ yooi^ v^?*? ••v^-"^^'^®/ f'y-^^ 
>ooul2uj ^.<i^^.^o .^4^jx^.jl:m )la.3^1; jl^ä>«^o .. « >!»; jv^co-a^o ^«.n^LV^ 

y-ä sju/; y^l ■.^'<; ojoi -.1* 1 Vi^ y^l ym y^ ^-^ yOJuilKj; U-^^l 
^a_i"n ' rClj3jJLflüLi>xaacn ^In '/r^nardto ^dx-.'^J3•a caL"n 

1. M. v^-1j- — i. M sOUil^J»- — :t. Krased in G. — 4. G vO'''*fr*»^^^ow M Uy^^^ixti^om. 



they may be jiidyed in llie llesli as meii, Imt live in GoJ in tlie spirit »'. 
For it was not lo lln' just, Iml cliiel'ly to sinners and lliose sunk in trans- 
gression that tlio gospel was proclaimed, that lliey mit;ht judge themselves, 
iiumanly publishing a sentence against themselves and judging the llcsIi, 
and liringing llieir soul into subjection by works of repentance aud urging 
it to escape from llic divine judgment, since there is also fear ol' falling into 
the hands of llic living God', in order that they niight iie jndged in the flesh 
as men (that is, that a man in inercy on bis soul niight judge himscU), but 
live in God in Ihc spirit. 

CXVII. -- Ol THI, S.\Mh: 11(11,1 SkNKMI S, I Itd.M THK II 1 l'd M KSTl K \ TO CaKSMU.V 
THE HVI'ATISSA, I li(i\l Tili; 1"' lUKiK IHOM TUK 20"' llYPOMNESTl KON '', Sl'KVKlX; 

ABOUT Till-: DEl'AltTKn. 

Bot they are conscions of Services and prayers, and especially thosc that 
are made over thi' bloodloss sacrifice on behalf of their life; and assuredlj' 

1. I Püt., IV, li. — -l. lieb., X, Hl. — :J. Gf. op. .')5. The I-' book piMli. mean.s IIip I" bonk of 
lotlei's aflel' episcopacy; olherwise \ve musl.suppose an inüidinale number uf liytomtiosUka. 



[455] CXVII. — TO CAESARIA. 285 

. iV"»» ^-* ^ oi Nk^/j t-"~^ )L:Li; -V?^^ ^ jloslajL^o ~)K_Di>^ •■"hiö/o 

).io^ JLioA ^ioo ^^si^ ^io )-:i>^ji ^io |ips.\ ^\.Kji/» oö» "^ ).ai3Q.^ 
)~^; jj; l^^'M^? t^ ^,<^-:> a ..«.lfl; yOJOiJ^ ).i «vi« Vi t-i^^v )\-yi>o .|.jl^q..«.\ 

^^oi ^äo ^t^o J^/; :V^)-'; J^.-«^Äaiaj ch.-K_,/ ^; }i .. .» i'n ))^sJ1o;jo 

♦"*« i^ tn\; vQ..Q.<-^ m i vi °>ooi )joi; o<.i^ -.liol-aD )Liu*t"^; Oi^; 
K^jL^a-O.^; vOJcn jJL^wJ^ ^'<>^'>' )-ai*;;o .^>; jj / .JJL^S^J^ Jj:^.-«.o -.^^^ 

1. G sing. — -J. M pl. —3. 1[ U>»3a^. _ ',. y\ ^aa*gjiai.5ott3o«- — 5. Mart;. ^^^*» |l.al^ol■^lÄa^ 



some consolation results to them in proportion to tho measure of euch man' 
character. And they are conscious too of alms given to the poor on their 
behalf; for they also are a rational sacrifice as Paul teaches this and says, 
« To give alms and to impart forget not; Ibr such sacrifices please God »'. 
For that those who have fallen asleep in Christ are conscious of these things 
the ritual also which was iianded down to the churches froni of old b\- the 
apostles and from the beginning to the present day clearly witnesses : for 
the deacon makesproclamation to those who are standing while tlic MckkIIcss 
sacrilice is being ofFered that they are to make supplication on behalf of 
those who have fallen asleep, and on beiialf of those on whose behalf they 
are making commemorations and alms. liut it is not lawfid for us to say 
that any of the things enjoined in the holy churches is useless or vain. 

Of the samc holy Scvcrus, from the sante 20'" hypoiniiestikoti. 

F'rom the God-inspired Scripture we learn that in the rcsurrection both 
the just shall see the just and the sinners the sinners; but the just also 

I. llel)., xiri. 10. 



G 57 V I). 



G 57 V" b. 
M 44 r a. 



286 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. ttöG] 

\.io{o . ).^:;.ia ^atija^JSoo; -.01^0.^1/ yOO|.x^; ^^«^oi )j)ü^ ^-»V-«-^ ).A^oi 
)jLX)a.i^j»; ^l ^^oio .OL^^^J l^^"-^ X«^^/ ^ \;^i-> ^t->oio -.{loJi^olK^eLa 

jL^oo^^ ^'^t-! -IV^i U><^-A'f^ K^-^ii^^ p .j-.o-^io jfcoajL-.; JK-^L-Ka 

yOJÖi; j^OiV^ '^■a - ogü S , .-jK^i |_>b^D0(43.^ \-^-']) yooAJ ^«-»oi .yO-i/ vm \ lo 

I, M i"-:--^- - i. G >*- 



shall See the sinners wlio liave conductcd themselves in a manner opposite 
to their own being sent to the endless torments, and the sinners also shall 
ujaze from afar at the righteons who have been injured by them enjoying 
pleasures. And this is a kind oF punishraent which they will bear in 
addition to their torments in the pains, that of being tormented by remorse, 
and then they will know from what good things they have lallen. These 
things the Lord taught us in the gospel as in an image and lype deli- 
neated beforehand, by means ol' the parable ot' Lazarus and the rieh 
man. Lazarus, having been juslilled by endurance in the distresses of 
povcrty, was known bv righteous Abraliam, and was resting in hisbosom; 
and the rieh man also when judgmiMit was being exacted l'rom him for 
bis sins, and bis mercilessness towards Lazarus, whilc he Mas in the 
flame that is not quenched, from afar saw and knew Lazarus. This the 
Book of \\lsdom also shows, in lliat it rlcarly depicts the wicked as knowing 
on the dav of judgment the just who have been set at naught and evil 
entreated by thom; and it speaks ihus : " And they shall come to pereeption 
of their sins in fear; aud their iniquity shall stand up against them and 
reprove them. Then shall the just man stand up with great boldness against 
the face of those who alllicl-ed him and spnrned his lajiour. Thcv shall see 



[457] CXVIl. - TO CAKSARIA. 287 

yOioiKjO .)t^_Äjt_0 jKiSw«^ V^^'^^O \0>-*J .OlLoJJ OiO^O v^OlOj.'^J 

va^xjlKj )L«OM |l,o«.^j.^o -.yOOiJLajLä ^^ol p yopojjo .ouä»q3; Hqjs»»» 

)_JL.al./ .\-^*^ oilcLiaAo .^-J_aLjL^ ji.a-.^A .v-oiä^->A . )j:^^ji ^ jooi 
J.-*;©/ ^ )i/ y^A«,,\^ .oiioi-,^ öuts^/ jJL.^ ^joiwo JoiSs; f - Y ^ ^ ^-n » ,J / 
0«.-^-./ yOOiK^^Ooj yOJCi '^^aot )oi .^ --*io,/ JJ |lQua-,;j; jjotojo .ji^A; 
1-.»-«/ ^^0Q-.-3 -.l-ia-^V );f-:;C^ 0001 ).j^/;o |Kjl*^ jlQ.ia-.w^ ^ -•jK^io 

vQJot ij^-äo^ LiöojJ .^^j ,_-:^ot .^-M^jLio ^3oi ^-/; ).:J.j;-ij * )^V^ 

1. G Olli. ©■ — 2. (1 siiia;. — .'f. II «^«a«. ' 



and hc troubled witli sore fear, aad tliey sliall he amazed at tlie greatiiess 
oC bis salvation. And repenting in their soul tliey shall sav, and in allliction 
of spirit they shall groan and say, 'This was he who was then tu ns fools 
ibr a derision and a parable and a reproach. His lue we counted iblly, 
and his death contemptible. llow is it that he hath been counted among the 
sons of God and his inheritancc is with the saints? Did we then err from 
the way of truth, and did llie light of justice not shine upon us?' »' Lo! 
therefore they of whom we speak, who were friends to one another with the 
evil frii'ndship tiiat is of perditioii. on the last day at the judgment shall 
recognise one another, and the just man, whom in this world they senselessly 
set at naught and derided, they shall see to have been counted among the 
sons of God and to be receivinginheritance with the saints; and so thereaftcr 
the}- shall be separated, tiie one party to the outer darkness as it is writtcn-, 
or to the fire that is not quenched, or to the gnashing of teetli and to the 
weeping and to the worm tJiat undyingly torments, and to judgments that 

arc sent in such forms, and the otlier lo the blessed abodes in the kiuffdom 

o 

of heaven. For the words « Let the wicked man be taken away that he see 
not the glory of the Lord » ' are spoken witli this meaning, that he shall not 

I. Sap.. IV. i>ii — V. li. — -J. Miillli.. \i[i. 1-J: \xii, 1:i; \xv, :!ii. — :i. Ls.. xxxvi. lo. 



,0 '' JS r" :i. 



288 LETTKRS OF SRVERUS. [4581 

yOjoi j^L./ ^^o .•\..aJiif ^« vi'm •>^oo )K„^o '»»l )^!..)..5; v.ooC^ )~*-^^ 

^Ö|0 l^tO^O •.).l . mi •>> joOiJO ySlo^^jL^f ^öi «2l^^ ji-'^; ^6i^ Ot.^aJD; JLsKjlb^ 
^^!iwJ_»_D)-« .>Q^Ji»o/j jKji.^^-» )>-— lo .•vQ_.01, ^ )-iV^ >^V-^ UV*-^/ 1-*°t^? 

oil^so ,>CLS...k>. ^^1 {»oolo •t'OiJLXS oC^oo ioil ^~>ol ■,\^^ \jmI .^^ooi 

ts.^)--.!^^ •.^f*'^! J— :L-..^ vOOt.<>..a.» jl^J^ ov^jl/ K_»)j)j)« vOJÖi ^.«k^^f 
^„fcjöi ».^^^ '«^:*5? r:^ T""^ '^^ \oo\.^ joaLio ^ ..^-i.).io )^jlj )-..^a./ 

Iäi^ <. "i-i\ ^""■'■^ i»i-3o ■, ^»•a--^^^^ Miii't;. — 'i. ^1 tt»*»?- 



sharc in tlie glory oftlie Lord tliut is given to liis just ones. Tliough' they 
sliall not come to judginent nor stand before the judgment-seat- of Christ 
according to wliat is stated l)y the psalmist : « Thcrefore the wicked shall 
not stand in judgment »^ yet still they will be aware what glory the just 
are enjoying, and of wliat they themselves havc hcen deprived on accounl of 
their unbelief, in order tliat tliey may bc tormented by this also. 'I1uü it is 
tlie uustom of Scripture to usc the exprcssion 'see' in place of 'siiare' or 
'have experiencc' is made known l)V that which is stated by David also, 
« May the Lord bless tlice out of Zion, and mayest tliou look upon the good 
things of Jerusalem » '. And Ezekiel the prophet shows that the grievons 
tyrants of the ditl'erent peoples and liie soldiers with tlieni, who did cvil 
with one another and armed ihemselves in sins, sliall also be together in 
the eternal tormenls; for he said, « There is Assyria, and all bis coneourse »; 
and again, « There is Rlani and all his host » ; and furthcr on, « There werc 
given Mosbach and Thidiel, aud all their host )>;'. I>nt that those who have 
lived uprightly will know those wliorn they love in the futurc lifc Isaiali 

1. Marg. '\i'i y a[il iiili>r|irrliili(]ir. - -i. ßr,|w. — ■>. I's. i. ■"■. i. IS. i:.\.\vii, ... ■>. 1./.. \,\xii, 
22, 2'j, 26. 



[459] CXVIl. — TO CARSARIA. 280 

.fj^>\\.a; jL*.M OiS^ ^^^o .-).^fJ3^o jlocL.« '^\ .-jJLw. ^^olOo\ oaISs^I/« 
j^^sJ./ ^^1 .jjLOcx .V-^ po/ -jL./ «oioK-./ )loä- Kl^w^siß V*^ )ia*- 
.ly^l jJ ,^o(JL^ )^^o t-^ ' ) I . I VI -» .);t-X>; j-^oi'^s ^yJ^o -.j^^Jl^ '^'^^ 
wJlSO .^-^Z fc^-JULS 0)-*0i0 -.^oCS. y.^£LQ l-V^? ^^«-^^^ .«.ü^ jJ j^-A I,-. 

>a.£Doil/« ^^ ^Of-d .-oJ^^.».^; oo n \ .o ».fl ..m ./o >ooi',_3/ ""^..^.^ -'jpo/ P 
p :».-fc^^; )t~=«-flo l>7-o '.»»li/ ^t^ )-^-=^ r-*/?° ) V « "> " oo» ^-j t-»o?o 
)j/ ^j7 .jL)/ ..'"^^i^abo 's-oia-o£)oi/ |j/ ... >>»>,■> ).io\, .jj/ ''^). Jj/' jjiio 



'(4 v° b. 



looi 



1. M |il. — -2. G ins. ►>.^. — :j. G ins. in iiiarij;. — 4. M a^^oLLl,. _ 5. m \i\LH (sie). —11. M U^lj- 
— 7. G uoiQiSwJ- 



tlie prophft clearly cries, in tliat lie terms them deer, inasmucli as by 
means of their struggles against passions they trampled upon serpents and 
scorpions, and upon all the power of the the adversary (for a deer is a 
serpent-slaying animal) ; for he said thus : « There the does met one another, 
and saw one another's face. They passed over in number and none of them 
pcrished. They sought not one another, because the Lord commanded them, 
and his spirit gathered them »'. And kinsmen shall know kinsmon, as the 
sacred Scripture teaches us, saying of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob who 
died, in one place, « he was added to liis fathers », in another, « he was 
added to his kin », and again, « lie was added to his people »-. And 
David the wise, who as a prophet was initiated in and saw the future hope 
beforehand, when he had buried his son, bathed and anointed himself, and 
changed his garments, and set out a table, saying, « Wherefore do I fast? 
Shall I be able to bring liim back any more? I shall go to him, but he 
himself will not return to me » ^ 1 le would not suddenly have been converted 
from that mournful sorrow to sucli great cheerfulness unless he had been 
assured that he should see the boy again living in the resurrection. The 

1. Is., XXXI, 1.5, 16. — 2. Gen., xxv, 8 (the best mss. have Xaöv); xxxv, 29: xu\, 33. — 3. II Reg., 
XII, 23. 

P.\TR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 1. l'J \ 



290 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [460J 

:oooi ^V^lDj |i-^\; JböA yA )i.p.j |'i°i\:>o ..)jLjsto j^Voeui ^>oo :^^ 
•>)bal<^o jlaio^i ota j-cQJk^ > « t -Ao •> .\ -^n^iöo ^)1« oK-io; ^^oi 



GXVIII. 



nc^oc tßiO?^ untit^jijE e^ok: ^s^nnE* Ertic E^onrvi riKt- 
coT^ ^iimETifAEsc mAKCUvnc ATTE^uuAnr onruAujßi 

T^E'X^At^ 5S;EAT10K ^i" n'^^''^" 7\3<3<^ ATA «^«Jußi EC^TlfO- 

1. I liave, on account of itshistorical importance, included this Coptic fragment, sup- 
pliedby Mr. W.E. Cruni, by kind permission of the authorities of thelMetropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, in wliose volume on the « Monastery of Epiphanius » it will even- 
tually appear. Mr. Crum states that it is written on a limestone ostrakon, found with 
many others in a ruined monastery in W. Tliebes, during excavations carried out by 
the New York Museum, and that its date is about 600. The translation is Mr. Crum's, 
and the subject of the fragment is clearly the events which preceded the espulsion of 
Macedonius from the see of Constantinople. 

doctors of the church, weaving words of consolatiou frotn these and slmilar 
thoughts and from scriptural indicatious, persuaded fathers and mothers 
who were mournina- bevond measure that in the resurrection thev would 
see and receivc their children who had died, and in like manner kinsmen and 
friends. 



CXVIII. — Fragment of a letteis of Severus to Soteiuc 
OF Caesarea, from tue Coptic. 

Apa Severus to Solcric, [the] bi.s/io]) of Cappadocia. liut tlie Christ- 
loving and revered general ' Patrick rose and said to him in righteous 
anger, « A synod tliat everyone has rejected it does not befit you to bring 
up afresh by the minute ' wbicb von liavc drawii up ». He answercd and 

1. oTpaTriXaTTii; [i. c. mag. mililum]. For P. see Müller, Fragin. Ilist. Gr., V, p. 32 b; 
Jo. Mal., p. 40A : Zach. Rli., vii, 4, ,5. 8; ' Josh. Styl., ' liv-lvii, lxvi, lxix-lxxi, lxxv, 
Lxxxvii. — 2. Ttpöc;!;. 



[4öl] CXVIII. — TO SOTERIC OF CAESAREA. 291 

tri ^tnuortAcnHfson e^onr« tirvtcisc «uu^s^n AnoK ^^t 
i6T^fAEs[c] tiuuA'r- A'TO'Ttuujßi n6\ (T^)Y^A[^j^^K^oc 

Tlt2SA<^' !2S:tA'rui ^StKAC tKVU^^tnW «^lOOT H ^O'X^ 

'2S:tECi<xi rtnAHCurt itn^^E^c t^uuJ^'r tKO'ruj»i) t^tin 

uuoK fjsis j^rtAjAj ^^^nonor^A^^H vnooionr rtrttnscKo- 
TTOC E^K;x^^?^'^^^^^ uuoonr kaia. coTi t^ft•^r2S^s icnru- 

1. Tlie tj is uncertain, but is inevitably requircd by tlie sense. 



Said, « But I for my part will bring up nothing- that may prejudice ' tlie synod. 
As for that minute-, I drew it up at the bidding " of the devout ' king, being 
desirous to bring certain monasteries into the faith with us ». But I an- 
swered and said, « His majesty ' did not know that you were desirous of 
confirming" the synod by that minute'. The revered and Christ-loving 
patrician Paul the son of Vivian ' answered and said, « And in order to 
reconcile four or five monasteries to yourself you will dissolve the whole 
unity of the churches ». The bishop Julian* also said to him, « Must wc 
needs drawup that minute", because you dcsire to reconcile the monasteries 
to yourself? And who constrained " you to receive oaths and signatures '" 
from the bishops whom you from time to time ordain, " tliat they would 
accept the synod of Chalcedon ? » 

I. Trpoxpi;aTifji£iv — 2. itfä^ii;..' — 3. XEAiUOn. — 4. eudcSrii;. — 5. xpiTO;. — G. jäeSaioilv, 
— 7. [Probably the consul of 496 or 512. A Vivian was consul in 463; see Müller, 
Fragm. Hist. Gr., JV, p. 126 a, 135 b]. —8. [Of Halicarnassus?]. — 9. avaYxäijEiv. — 
10. ÜTCOYpacfr^. — 11. /£tpoTov£tv. 



Add. 14Ö01 
f. 3- r. 



292 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [462] 

APPENDIX 

'JK—qjlaI .cvL'HrdLrdL 'ocu^rdla Qo<xä-irdn '.jcoaiur^a 

•:«)^)>^ |-.VacC^ a^.r>ii .)K->.^^ 

|.^;|J jju^ioji )ooi |j-^o v^^^^ jJk^^K.^ 'jJ |.:» a -. ^ >r> mal/; oöi JV^o^ 
).^ooil; ^i^^' l»<>-^>ä-=> jlal\' I -^ -n\ \ 1 \o .oiJS. looi )^i-M ^otoo jJ« w.ö( 

'jJÖj )_^ '>~>/o ) r^ O I >0 ♦... -MiVlO f_«10| t-*~^ JS>-.| ... 1* ■■...JLJi. l jotl^ 

t-*»^ ^^^J .vfiDoio|«flO )— iK. - 30u. ^ o ) « m^ öl '^^w; |jlm«JJ .■..i.3l '> I ; *. n'^'c o 

1. In Ulis Word in llie ms., a <* is ahvays wiilten above Ihe linc aflei- / and a niai k uf abbrevialiun 
placed over tlie end of tire word. — 2. Ms. ins. stop, and oni. alter l^«»»o- 

APPENDIX 

A C.\NON CONCEHMNG TJIE HOLY AND GKEAT SeVERUS I'\TR1\UCII Ol' AnTIOCII IN 
SyIIIA WHICH IS PERFORMED ON THE 8'" OK FeBRUARY, AND IS IN THE 1^4'" 

OBLIQUE TONE '. 

77»' t' hf/iiui. Piaise Ihr glorioiis Lonl. 

The rod which was cleft- divided the indivisible sea and the suu saw 
land which had never seen it; and it whelmed the iniquitous foeman in the 
water of the deep, and Israel passed through by a road that had not been 
trodden, singing a hymn and saying, « Let us praise the Lord God for he 
is gloriously splendid and glorious »''. 

Who is able and suiücient as is meet to praise thy triumphs, Ü saintly 
and blessed Severus? For they overcome and surpass all intelligence and 
reason and knowledge. Thee Christ raised up as a champion of the ortho- 
dox faith, Christ whom also thmi didst praise 'for he is gloriously splendid 
and glorious'. 

1. »ixot nXa-fio; Te'Tapio(?). -. TIk; antlior Uiol» aOxriv in Ex., .\iv, IG lo refer to Ibi' iml iii-|r,iil uf 
Ihc sea — 3. Ex., xv, 1. 



[463] APPENDIX. 293 

•••■ - ^«nA» \^^o^ t-*"^ l^...) .. «■*>> oC^ K_.ooi s.«^jl:>o K^s ^bI^ oÖ\^ 

ooi K_j/ ''^.^ jpo .^^ . .^ i'mx^; > .\ ./; jvOAo | i,»o\ ooi Kj/ 
jjLHO^ OOI ^o/ •t'jokS^ 'jiy wwmO^ )->ta^ ooi '^^o jjo'n .. -i; ^..T^/« .j^oioj 

)l,.2iL3 .jlwU )loivi .01 liV7>^ "^^ ^^^aA.A 001 ^o/ •t-^JVSo; ^oo^ > i.V.n«.^o 
•:'^V^o« ^OQ^ ^X4^.A-ooo .vQ-^/ ^'oöi ^AiK^^ .vfn . floVoi ^^; 

K.^001 It^/o .""^O j'pÖ y..fcJU.!>>^ VOOI^J^/« )jl3V ^"^O. .|~wO)..3 Jk^i 



Since tliou first receivedst tlie seal of li"lit, tliou dielst ucver consent 
to defile tliis by tlie lusts of the world, but straiglitway betookest thyself to 
the life of asceticism and didst commune with Christ the Ring, the Saviour 
of all created things, whom also thou didst praise 'for he is gloriously 
splendid and glorious'. 

My licdit liath bcen stiTUf/lliciied. 

Thou art the strength and confirmation of theni tliat hope in thee. Lord 
of all, thou art the light of them that are in darkness and to thee my spirit 
maketh confession without ceasing. 

Thou art the strength of the truth, thou art the sound prop. Thou art 
the pillar and the fouiulation of the churclies and we hononr the day of thy 
commemoration. 

Thou didst raise up and confirm the right faith in the cliurclies which 
were torn by lieresies, our father, and we honour the dav of thy comme- 
moration. 

Lord, I have hmrd. 

Thou rodest in procession upon horses which are those who please thee, 



:!7 V 



2f''' LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [4641 

sjo o > » I » ^^XOQ-. I^^oji s^f^'iU \-^<^ .vSjiö sSl-^^-Lcd ^ ')-«Vio ^/ \^l^ oöt 

.l;^Ao K:iaÄ> .«^^ jlj ♦ojOAo )ooi «^^/ .«-oialioö; Jv).^t-^^ . ')j>^Kio» 
vQJoj; Kii««; ^-)I.QJl jJ.ou'^Q-so J-aloaSiS. yS> .)lajiiö_.o«; * | w,Vl '|jl3\cL.J^ 

.|« m .. ÄJLöi/ ♦JLAj/ ^o-,» yt>^>'^V\ ^a:* .y^-j oöt JJUJC^ .^ K-.joijio 

1. Ms. «MiuioW- — 2. Ms. IiiI=^m;- — 3. Ms. sine. ■ 



Lord of all, and witli strengtli tliou didst hold these reins in thine hands 
and they became as it wero a great salvation in tliat comoliness becometh (?) ' 
them that cry in faitli « Praise to tlie might of tliy being, Lord of all ». 

That wolf once attacked as one that is bold when Justinian overtlirew 
and expelled the party of tlie orthodox; but Severus opposed liini in tlie niind 
of the Lord, and by the shafts of liis words rescucd and saved the flock that 
was being despoiled. 

Thou didst sei np and strengthon the riglit teachings of the faitli witliont 
blame, having thrust away alike the cleavage and the confusion of lliose who 
foolishly dared to divide or confound, in that thou taughtest us rightly to 
proclaim the doctrinc of one incarnate nature. 

/// llir nif/lil iiiij Sdiij. 

Give light to ns all, Lord, b}^ thy life-giving commands, and, leading 
ns witli thino exalted arm, grant thy peäce to our sonls, merciful one. 

Supplicate, saintlyone, ou behalf oftite members of the holy church, that 

1. There is peiii. somc corruptioii liore. 



[465] APPENDIX. 295 

.v*oi-.K_.;o/ ;a^^ ^^ •t'öu^ ""^«^.ao »o-^i ^loi^-s ^'^^y^-*_s .ö|f^K\ 

^oil^ .)— <t— ^/ V^ >«i . fi'jp/ ').^eu a^ ^^ ^o^ lo^^ .o^^^l/o 
K^j vi ■« •!! .. IVr^^. ooi Kj/ .jLjuw^^ jjoi ).:>eL2^xi J-o-a^o ^jqvxoTiN •>^...£ov^o 
.|,»,«t.-o ^o^, |»>nf> |jloio .to/ v--^^/ l">>^QJ> ^rr*'^ .jiojL^o-iOi; jL^o^K^ ^ 
•>)LjK.3oJ^ öl .l-^JC ^dC^^ Ij^Su^cL.; .K_>w>.1/ jw..IS.^ ).^oo..Ja^ Is^l t..*pö 



they may quickly in raerey be at peace and be unitcd, and tlirouyli tliy prayer 
be delivered from the assaults of heresies. 

Arise saintly one now also to defend the flock which hath fled to thee 
for refuge, and restrain by the mijLJ^ht of thy prayer the treacherous wolves 
of all the heresies, who are howling to break it in pieces, and make them 
cease from it. 

Thou confessedst the incarnate Word to be one hypostasis and nature 
only, that was in no wise divided or changed; and therefore the believers 
zealously honour the day of thy commemoration. 

« / cried luito the Lord » '. 

I pour out niy prayer before God, and to him I reveal and declare my 
distress, because my soul hath been filled with evil things, and my very life 
hath approached and reached Sheol. Lift me up from destruction, my God, 
like Jonah from beneath the sea and save me. 

Thou passedst wisely through the grievous storm" of this perturbed 
World, holding the definition of the orthodox faith, and now in heaven thou 
dwellest with the saints because thou showedst thyself a strenuous defender 
of the teachings' that are füll of life, O blessed one. 

1. Ps. CXLI, 2. — 2. xsi|iwv. 



:i8 V 



296 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [466] 

K ■.... :VS.i/o K^t-S/ ^Oi-*lVl ^.^JS.OU^t y^l .IIo^Ka^O; IfLSO^-^O jK^'f.^^ 

ö/ JKiio-.^L- 7^! JJ^-s .ts-ooi jlv^ ^'^Ol^ K-.)ä1.w.o K_.oo( >^'=>:..>o 

y^l ',.^^^iLJt 'yeu^^lo jooi t.A3 jjoijj )joV^ oöi ^>.d J«o;; |K\ f>qi-> 
V'x oöi.^ Oa^U/ fO )KJ^1 )^^^" -'ot-s; OÖI Joi^ w2^!:^,^ vp-'/' ^oo-<; 
y, " •^ ) >m .. .^^; l^öi^/; )oi!^ .. »yvi/o oooi ^ ^^^.a . jL^ K^),K^i Jot^ 
^^l yn » e>l '^£oaJL..^Dpo )-jl.X3 IojuU; )K> «.-•» .^)-^ JI^'V^ t^ {»Kj/ 
s^<^^^ '^^sj^ fS ^SM«Jl/ f_.]^ N^-s/ -'^i °*'-^ )...>'ffl« "'r-*'^! j-S^-xQ'^Q^; 
39 r. y, -NN« I .m .. ^■•; lloi-ls/; )oC^ .vopo)j;o yONoM K>>ooi ^a^S^o K^ooi 
IjV^/ö 'K_io/ ^oo(.:so^o )io).tf ) . m .. ö/ |jLaLS.^cL3 K^>^i/ JV^^w^ •:«Kj/ 
,_« ^mSi./; jKJ^io 1^—3 oot; .-iv^/o ') »-.Vi )j.2^ä* ^^*_3')^^ ö|K.*JS.ioo 



In knowledge and in a life of virtue, as in these two things ' tliou didst 
glitter and shine brightly, while thou wast eminent in all things, and didst 
urge all nations to come to the faith and diligently admonish everyone witii 
thy sonnd words, O blessed one. 

(( Blessed arl tlmu » ■. 

Once that tyrant oomnianded and provided tlie i'urnace to be heated in 
the piain of Dura to burn those who feared God, the furnace in wliich the 
three boys, having been made like to the one God, uttered a triple song of 
praise and said, « God of cur saintly fathers, blessed art tiiou » -. 

When Marcian once set up the evil invocation of two natures to overtlnow 
the orthodox, thereby, our father, thou becamest rnore illustrious in that 
thou didst urge and teach all men to cry and say, « God of our saintly l'atiiers, 
blessed art thou ». 

Thou shoNvedst thyself an approved one amoiig the doctors, saintly 
Severus, and with them thou didst profess and proclaim and fiU tiie world 
with the right doctrines and saidst, « The Son, tiie \\'ord who becanie incar- 

1. Sic Syr. — 2. Dan., iii, .VJ. 



[4ß7] AI'PFADIX. 297 






1. JIs. o w- — 2. o ins. in smaller size. — 3. » ins. midei' line. 



iiate, is one nature and hypostasis » and taughtest us to cry and to say, 
« God of our saintly fathers, blessed art tlion ». 

a Bless, all ye » ' . 

Praise liim wiio was glorified on the holy mountain, and in tlie flame in 
tlie bush figured befofeliand and showed to Moses by a miracle the mysterv 
ot" the Virgin, the Lord of all, and exalt him without ceasing for ever and ever. 

Praise him who bestowed such a luniinary upon bis chiircii, one who 
stood forth as an advocate " of tiie right doctrines, and in all iiis contests 
was shown as victor, the Lord of all. 

Thou becamest a teacher of the apostolic faith, and a subverter of the 
heresy that is füll of impiety, thou who didst never divide Christ the Son, 
but who didst confess him. Praise the Lord of all. 

« Mij souI magnißeth »^ 
Thee we confess to be verily tiie God-bearer in wliom we have been saved 

1. Dan., in, 90. — 2. ouviifopo?. — 3. Luki'. r, 46. 



39 v°. 



298 LETTERS OF SEVERUS. [408] 

s^ ^i^/fJl^O ^)Oul/ ^^jJls; VOJÖI ^JLw .) ■■ 'K^'» lowtUl oöi .|i°>Nv> 

<']io\l£0 I « m .. .JSsj/ "^A-oJk yooi^f Iv-^o^o 



1. Ms. »->■• 



and delivered, O pure Virgin, and' together witli the bodiless hosts we all 
magnify thee. 

We who have been enliglitened tlinmgh thee proclaim thee to be verily 
the teacher of ortliodoxy, and tlierefore the church and all its children honou- 
reth the day of thy commemoration. 

Truly thou art the invariable Image of all the orthodox teachers, carrying 
their doctrine and their maiiner of life at the same time, saintly Severus. 



1. Ms. om. 



ADDITIONAL INDICES 

To T. VI fasc. 1 and T. VII fasc. 5 (The hvmns oi Si-.verus). 
Authors to whom hymns are nscribed. 

Habbula, bp. of Edessa (d. 435) 101, 339 

Philoxenus, bp. of Ilierapolis (circ. 515) 1 

Severus, patriarch of Antioch (d. 538) . 2-45, 51-61, 04-73, 75-100, 102-153, 155-190, 198- 
207, 212. 215, 216?, 227-2.34, 244-299, 303-305, 311-315, 317-.320, 322, 324, 325, 

331-338, 340-346, 348-356, 359. 

John son of Aphlhonia, archini. of Kenneshre (d. 538). 1, 46-50, 63, 74, 101, 191-193, 

208-211, 213, 214, 217-226,*301,*307-310,*316,*321,*323,*326-329, 357, •358*'. 

John Psaltes Calligraphus, archim. of Kenneshre (circ. 600) 154, 195-197 

Paul, bp. of Rdessa (circ. 6251 62 

An Alexandrine poet 194, 306 

An Edessene poet 360 

Unknown (Greek) 300, 302, 330 

— (Syriac) 23,5-243, 347, 361-365 



Index of names and subjects - 



Aegae 249 

Alexandria 282-285 

Anastasius, emperor 298 

Antioch 395. Era of. 291, 293 

Antony 193 

Apollo, Statue of, at Daphne 188 

Apostles, church of the, at Meroe . . . 286 

Arabs 201 

Arcadius, emperor '. . 240 

Arianism 381 

Arius 252, 256 

Athanasius 232, 2.33, 242, 244 

Babylas, bp. of Antioch 186, 187 

Bacchus, martyr 1,S9 

Basil 233, 234-236, 242, 244 

Brumalia 300 

Calliopius, TOTroxripriTrii; 309 

Cappadocia 300 

Chalcedon, synod of 289 

Constantine, emperor .... 251, 252, 256 



Constantinople, synod of 255 

Cyprus 389 

Cyril 240, 242, 244 

Daphne, near Antioch 188 

Diocletian, emperor 229 

Diphysitcs 174. 245 

Drosis, martyr 209, 210 

Egypt 197 

Egyptian martyrs 197 

Ei(7£Xa(j|xa 305 

Eleazar, teacher of Maccabee martyrs . 195, 

196 

Euphemia, martyr 211 

Eutyches 250 

Forty martyrs 202-207 

Gentilian martyrs 199 

Gratian, emperor 254, 255 

Gregory of Nazianzus . . 233-236, 242, 244 

— the Wonder-worker 231 

Harith, martyr 202 



1. The hymns niarkfd wilh an asterisk are ascribed to 'John the archimandrile', by which John 
Psaltes may be meanl; but 358 is in B given to the son of Aphlhonia. — 2. Biblical subjects are not 
included in this index. The numbers refer to, the bracketed page-numbers. 



300 



[470] 



•299, 



Homerite martyrs 

Honorius, emperor 

Huns 

Hypatius, mag. inil. Orient ix 

Ignatius 227, 

Indiclions 229, 249, 

James, bp. of Edessa 43, 

Jeremias, martyr 

Jews 

John Chrysostom 238, 239, 

— Psaltes Calligraphus 

— son of Aphthonia 248, 

Julian, emperor 188, 

— patr. of Antioch 

Justin, emperor 

Juventius, martyr 

Kenneshre, inonastery of 

Leontius, martyr 

Longiiius, martyr 

Maccabee martyrs 195, 

Mary the Virgin, ehurch of, at Antioch. 

Masruk, King of the Homerites 

Maximus, martyr 

Menas, martyr 

Meroe, near Antioch 

Nestorius 241, 



201 
253 
300 
249 
235 
389 
389 
198 
201 
242 
389 
389 
199 
247 
201 
199 



Nigran. 



Nilus, martyr 

TcovSEXTat (cemeteries) 
Paor, martyr .... 



387 
183 
199 
19G 
229 
201 
199 
191 
286 
245 
201 
198 
257 
198 



Paul, bp. of Edessa 387, 389 

Pelagia, martyr 212 

Persian martyrs 198 

Persians 249, 301, 302, 389 

Peter, bp. of Alexandria and martyr. 229,230 

— of Callinicus, patr. of Antioch . 246, 

247 

— syncellus . 360, 361 

Phantasiasts 245 

Porphyry, bp. of Antioch 236, 237 

Psom, martyr 198 

TCTC>))(^£i0V 178 

Piomanus, monastery of ...... . 381 

Saracens 201 

Sebaste (Sebastia) 201 

Seleucus Nicator, King of Syria .... 389 

Sergius, martyr 189-191 

Severus 43, 241-245, 289 

Shmuni 195, 196 

Simeon Styütes 192 

dTpaTTjXaTr); 249 

Thecla, martyr 160 

Theodosius I, emperor. . 240, 253, 255, 256 

— II, emperor 240 

TOTTOTripyjT/]? 309 

Trajan, emperor 209 

Trimarius, dancer ; . . . . 305 

Valens, emperor 255 

Valentinian, emperor 254 

Vitalian 298 



,TC 1 



INDEX OF QUOTATIONS 



Gen. I, 9. . . . 

26, 27. 

27, 28 . 

— li, 7 . . . . 

15. . . 

21, 22 

— III, 14, 1," 

— — 16. . 



293 

69 

155 

162 

69 

157 

191 

46 

— 17-20 55, 355 

— 19 376 



Gen. XV, 6 220 

— XVIII, 1-5 382 

— XIX, 15, 17, 26. 304 

— — 17, 26 320 

— XXVIII, 16, J 7 156 

— — 16-18 161 

_ _ 24-26 361 

Ex. IM, 2 (neither P nor LXX] 227 

— XII, 6, 7, 21, 22 LXX 270 

16 LXX 88 



1. 'l'he bibliial relerences aie lo the Pcsliito. 
il is uthei'wise slated. 



iind llie cilatioMs lollow llic P(>sliilo te.\l cxcopl wIumi' 



[471] 

Ex. XIII, 19 LA.\ 

— XV, 2-4 LAW - 

— XIX, 17, 18 L\.\ 

— XX, 18, 19 LAX 

FiBv. XIV, 3-7 

Xum. I, 46(?);ii, 32(?)Z.XY 

— XI, 23ZA'A' 

— XIV, 28, 29 LAX 

— XVII, 7, 8 

— XVIII, 2 

Deut. VI, 4 LAX. 

— XXXII, 15 LXX 

I Reg. XVII, 34-36 

— — 49-51 

II Reg. xxiii, 13-17 

III Reg. II, 3, 4 

IV Reg. XXI, 1-xxiii, 25 

Job viii, 8, 9 L.XX. 

— IX, 25, 26 LXX 

— x, 7-13 LXX 

— XIII, 24-xiv, 5 LAX. 

— XIV, 4, 5 LXX. 

— XV, 14-16 LXX 

— XVII, 11, 12 LAX 

— XIX, 25, 26 LAX 

— XXV, 4-6 LXX 

— XXX, 23 LXX 

— XXXVIII, 4-7 Z,Xl' (vers. Paul Teil.). 

— xLii, 5, 6 LXX 

Ps. I, 2 307, 

— II, II 69, 163, 

— in, 2 

4 LXX 

8 

— IV, 4 178, 

— V, 4 

7 

13 LAX 

— VI, 2 

3 75, 

5 . 165, 317, 

— VII, 14 

— VIII, 2 

— — 3 97 {LXX), 

— IX, 2 302, 333 (LXX), 

4 

9 304, 

14 



361 
299 
160 
160 
338 
205 
289 
206 
158 
158 
149 
166 
347 
347 
219 
254 
255 
351 
351 
376 
372 
366 
366 
322 
178 
366 
375 
383 
363 
363 
318 
348 
146 
310 
243 
340 
200 
167 
386 
315 
381 
344 
98 
100 
342 
110 
327 
118 



301 

Ps. X, 15 301 

— XIII, '^ 294 

— — 4 (neither P nor LAX) .... 361 

— XV, 1 211 

5 LXX 324 

— XVI, 4 .501 

— — 11 324, 379 

— XVII, 15 LXX 324 

— xviii, 6 .... , 300 

— — 10 47, 48, 52, 141 

— — 11 (neither P nor LXX) . . . 143 

— — 29 76, 336 

— — 33 347 

— — 36 117 

— — 38 190 

— — 50, 51 252 

— XIX, 1 98 

2-5 169 

10 312 

15 78 

— XX, 9 LXX 147 

— XXI, 2 252 

1 LXX 166 

14 LXX 141 

— XXII, 8 (neither P nor AA'A) .... 111 

— — 8, 9 289 

— — 23 140 

— XXIII, 1 48 

— — 3 116, 224 

— XXIV, 3 367 

— — 5. 167 {LXX), 184, 233 (LXXj, 246 

— — 7, 9 143, 270, 280 

— — 7-10 143, 144 

— — 9, 10 ZA'A' 141 

— XXV, 4 56 

— — 6 282, 284 

— — 7 187. 222, 370, .373 

— — 9 217 

— — 12 204 

— — 20 332 

— XXVII, 4 251, 344, 346, 378 

— — 6 350 

— XXVIII, 1 284 

— — 9 364 

— XXIX, 1 130, 337 

— — 3 61 

— XXX, 4 LXX 90 

— XXXI, 8£AA' 118 



302 

Ps. XXXI, 10 307 

_ — 11 315, 329 

— — 16 346 

— — 20 59 

_ — 24 138 

_ — 25 67 

— xxxn, 4 190 

— — 5 84, 294, 339 

_ — 11 223 

— xxxiii, 1 137, 214 

— — 15 LXV 80 

— — 19 236 

— xxxiv, 2 175 

— — 4 234 

_ — 9 74 

— - 10 LAX 101 

— — 12 216 

_ — 13 219, 233 

— — 15 74 (bis) 

— XXXVI, 8 295 

— — 9, 10 276 

— — 10 65, 340, 359 {LXÄ) 

— XXXVII, 2 288, 386 

— — 7 176 

— — 23 252, 344 

— — 27 ,326 

— — 31 191 

— xxxvui, 4. 311,347 (neither Pnor LXX) 

— — 5 280, 315 

— XL, 3 241, 324 [LXX) 

13 338 

14 318 

— xLi, 5 79 

— xLii, 2 122 {LXX) 

— — 4 307 

— xLiii, 4 73 

— xLiv, 2 103 [LXA), 193 

_ _ 10 7>.\'A'. 136 

— — 18-21, 25-27 LXX 327 

_ — 22 80 

— — 26 67 

— XLV, 3 176, 238 

— — 8 240, 368 

— — 10 212 

— — 12 208 

— xLvi, 2 300 

— — 5 . . 239 

— — 6 241 



' . [4721 

Ps. XLVI, 9 , 120 

— — 12 LXX 54 

— xLvii, 2 129 

— — 3 145 

__ 6 141, 142, 143 

— — 9 124 

— — 10 253 

— xLviii, 3 LXX, 359 

— xLix, 2 304 

_ — 3 71, 331, 371, .382, 357 

— — 4 239 

— — 9 LXX 248 

— — 12 (?) 304 

— L, 5 335 

15 386 

— LI, 4 106, 337, 338, 342 

6 149, 310 [LXX) 

7 65 

9 . . . . 04, 229, 2,58 (bis), 338, 345 

11 299, 321 (?) 

12 341 

16, 17 279 

19 315 

— Liv. 3 356 

— Lv, 2 LXX 305 

5, 6 358 

24 215 

— LV[i, 4 55, 151, 159 

— LX, 4 293, 296 {LXX) 

5 295 

8 LXX 50, 298 

— Lxi,6 231 

_ _ S LXX 191. 213, 245 

— Lxir, 4 312 

— LXiii, 3 330 

_ — 4 376 

— — 9 253 

_ — 12 107, 115 (LXX) 

— LXV, 1 , 340 (bis) 

— — 2 3.50 

6 195 

10, 11 288 

— — 11 290, 201 (LXX) 

— Lxvi, 3 49 

— — 8 62 

— — 11. (neither 1' nor A.V.V). ... 296 

— — 15 341 

— — 16. 89,126, 139,192, 205, 210, 243, 245 



[473] 

Ps. Lxvii, 2 366 

— Lxviii, 3 202 

— — 5 123 

— — 6 370 

— — IILXX 232 

— — 19 169 

— — 28 168 

— — 32 197 

— — '36 178, 235 

— Lxix, 23 LXX. 61 

— Lxxi, 6 LXX 248 

— — 8 279 

— — 10-12 ZA'A" 310 

— — 14 277 

— — 23 336 

— Lxxii, 6. ^ 52, 141 

— — 10 51 

— — 17 (neither P nor Z.O) . . . 171 

— Lxxiii, 2 .343 {LXX), .344 

— — 24 344 

— — 27 199, 288 

— Lxxiv, 12 LXX 118 

— — 13, 14 58 [LXX), 321 

— Lxxv, 4 288 

— — 8 282 

— Lxxvi, 2 147 

— Lxxvii, 11 LXX 109, 198 

— — 15 91 [LXX), 102 

— Lxxviii, 54 (neither P nor LXX). . 249 

— Lxxix, 1 300 

— — 8. 286, 300 (neither P nor LXX) 

— — 9. 164, 247 (LXX), 285. 290 (?), 

299 LXX 

— — 10 154 

— Lxxxi, 4 57 

— — 11 231 

— Lxxxni, 3, 4 302 

— Lxxxiv, 2 251 

— — 4, 5 317 

— — 7 LXX 324 

— — 9 53, 136, 222 

— — 12 LXX 214 

— Lxxxvi, 1 241 

— — 2. 346 (neither P nor LXX), 348 

— — 4 342 

— — 6 286 

— — 8 63 

— — 10 LXX 201 



303 

Ps. Lxxxvi, 12 302 

— — 13 62(?), 261 

-- — 14 81 

— — 15 ,356 

— Lxxxvu, 3 350 

— Lxxxviii, 2. 95, 261, 316, 332, 362, 369 

— — 6 174 

— — 8 LXX 221 

— Lxxxix, 2 373 

— — 6 302, 377 

— — 18 300 

— — 20 106 

— — 38 189 

— xc, 4 3.">1 

7 282, 297 

9 287, 329 

17 277 

— xci, 1 308 

— — 1, 2 LXX 308 

— — 4-6 LXX 308 

— — 13 LXX 309 

14 LXX 309 

— xcii, 2 125, 127 

— — 3 124 

— — 6 157, 377 

— — 12 219 

— xciii, 1 118, 120 

— — 2 LXX 144 

— — 5 225 

— xciv, 1 310 

— - 8 94 

— — 17 LAX 119 

— xcv, 1 123, 244 

— — 6 259 

— — 10 20() 

— xcvi, 2 135, 172 

— — 11 135 

— — 12 1.38 

— — 13 304, 327 

— xcvii, 4 Z,XV 118 

— — 8 152 

— xcviii, 1. . 132, 134 [LXX), 140, 186 

[LXX), 321 (?), 383 (?) 

— — 2 151 

— — 8 58 

— — 9 304, 327 

— — unidentified 138 

— c, 3 (neither P nor LXX) ... 155, 102 



304 

Ps. c, 4 378 

— ci, 1 311 

— eil, 2 350 

— — 4 I.W 329 (bis) 

— — 11 283 

— — 12 73, 322 

— — 19 225 

— — 22 LXÄ 105 

— — 25 316 

— cm, 10 295, 298 

— — 21 286 

— civ, 3 61 

— — 24 112, 273 

— — 29 354 

— cv, 1 319, 338 

3 236 

7 227 

— cvi, 2 46, 201 

■ 4 303 

— — 6 385 

— cvii, 2 47, 201, 371 

— — 16 118 

— — 32 369 

— cviii, 7 352 

— — 8 LAX 50, 298 

— cix, 21 324,384 

— CXI, 1 302, 363 [LAX] 

— — 6 45, 173 

— — 9 203 

— cxii, 1 254 

— — 2 LAX 202 

— — 4 123 

— — 5 LAX. 172 

— — 6 229 

— — 10 309, 322 (Z,.V.V') 

— cxiii, 2 265 

— — 4 99 

— — 6 183 

— cxiv. 1 334, 385 

— — 2 302 

— — 3 310 

— — 10 220 

— — 17-19 236 

— — 23 301 

— cxv, 7 LAX 313 

— — 14, 18 96 

— — 17 341, 345 

— cxvi. 2 349 



Ps. 



cxvii, 17 . . . 

— 19 . . . 

— 22 LAX 

— 23 . . . 



[474] 

. 366 
. 378 
. 2.50 
. 121 



- cxviii, 1 134, 276, 353 

- — 4 221, 331 

— 26 96 

■ — 27 66 

• — 29 .' . 276, 313 

■ — 35 344, 349 

— 38 344 

— 57, 58A.V.V 306 

— 58 (?) 348 

— 59 348 

— 81 196 

— 84 (?) 329 

— 120 191,328 

— 133. ..... . 277, 321 {LXX) 

— 136 Z,A'A' 283, .343 

— 137 (neilher P nor ZXV) . . 217 

— 148, 149 336 

— 155 287 

cxxi, 3 251 

cxxii, 1 51, 257, 342 

— 2 257 

— 3/..\:V. . . , 86 

cxxiii, 4 ^ 327 

— 8 314 

cxxv, 1 52, 161, 244, 278 

— 2 106 (Z.VA'j, 209, 374 

— 3 128 

(jxxix, 3 311 

— 4 (neilher P nor LXX) ... 349 

cxxxi, 8 114 

cxxxii, 1 125 

— 2 105, 365 {LXX) 

— 3 (neither P nor LXX). . . 341 

— 13 158 

cxxxiii, 1 (neither P nor A.VA). . . 131 

— 1, 2 335 

cxxxiv, 1 72 

— 2 226, 335, 364 

— 6 183, 310 {LXX) 

— 13 265 

cxxxv, 1 27() 

— 4 (neither P nor LAX) . . . .335 

— 13 335 

— 15 59 






'/.■ 



305 



l*S. CXXXVII. 1 



CXXXIX, 1, o 



1 . . . . 


. . . 302, 333 (/.,V.\ ) 
150 


, 0. . . . 
14. . 


... 112 il.W), 185 
82 


2, 5. . . 


317 


4. . . . 


88 




343 


G. . . 


343 


8. . . . 


346 


12. . . . 


200 



CXLV. 



CXLVI, /. . 

CXLVII, G. 

- CXLVIII, 1. 

- — 12 

- — 14 

— • CXLIX, 2. . 



CXI., 2 345 [bis] 

— 4, 9 L.W 325 

— 10 254 

cxLi, 1(?) 329 

— 4 .343 

— 8 324 

cxi.ii, 2 254 

cxLiii, 4 93 {LXX), 303, 358 

cxi.iv, 7, 8 124 

— 9 85, 27G 

— 12 92 

— 14 366 

— 15 257 

— 21 156, 174 

4 372 

6Z,\.V 339,3.50 

8 334 

,7 366 



Sir. XVII, 31 /..\.\' ,503 

— xxiii, 7, 8 /,\\ 351 

— XI. I, 1 L\ \ 357 

— XI. VII, 5, 11 300 

— 1.1, 6 /. \ \ 329 

Is. I, 4-G LAA 285 

18 65 

- III, 12-14 L.\.\ 326 

- VI, 1-7 L.\.\ 260 

G, 7 L-\.\ 272 

- VII, 14 50, 157 (/,\.\ 

- VIII, (1 77 

- IX, 1, 2 193 

2 LXX (?) 169 

G 50 

16, 17 LXX .• . . 326 



207 
260 
224 



198 

98 

— — 5 138 

— — 6 307 

Prov. XVIII, 2, 3 337 

— XXIV, 27-29 LXX 374 

I, 2, 3 LXX 359 

vii, 20. 21 LXX 366 

,2.3 105 

III, 5, 6 LXX .314 

— VII, 3-6 ZA'.V 353 

— IX, 5 LAX .351 

— — 14, 15 LXX. 312 

— XIV, 6, 7 LXX 116 

— XVI, llLA'X 297 

Sir. II, 12, 13 LXX 186 

— X, 9 LXX (?) 363 



Eccl. 

Cant. 
Wisd. 



33 



XI, 3. 



— XII, 



XIV, 3-15 

— 10, 11 (AAA'reading added). 

— 12 

XXI, 3, 4 LXX 

XXIV, 16-20 LXX 

— 23 (?) 



175 
63 
187 
101 
343 
333 
282 
143 

— 23 — XXV, 1 LXX 271 

XXV, 6 LXX 271 

— G-10 Z,AA' 355, 356 

XXVI, 9 LXX 124 

— 18, 19 Z,AA' 288 

XXVIII, 16 250 

XXIX, 13, 14 330 

XXX, 15 291 

— 18 LXX. 375 

— 18, 19 LAA' 356 



XXXI, 10 

XXXII, 1-6 

xxxiii, 13-16 LAX. 
x\xv, 3-10 

— 9 



135 
184 



i'vrri. OH. 



F. 1 



134 

134 

— XL, 27 — XLi, 1 203 

— xi.vi, 12, 13 LA'A'. .303 

— XLix, 14-18 250 

18-21 137 

— LI, 11 135 

— Lv, 6-9 LA'A 327 

— Lvii, 19-21 LA V 298 

— LViii, 1, 2 298 

— Lix, 11-13 LXX 287 

20 



•SOG 

Is. i.xi, 3-8 227 

— — 10, 11 135 

— i.xii, 1,2 136 

— Lxiii, 17, IS LAW 354 

— — 19 299 

— LXiv, 5-9 LXÄ 3G0 

— Lxv, 15-18 Z.V:V 3()3 

— — 22 LXÄ 3Ü3 

— i.xvi, 6-10 131 

— — 17-19 L.V.V 311 

Jer. III, 14 LX\ 64 

— VIII, 3-5 LXX 433 

— VIII, 16, n LXX 204 

— IX, 1 LXX 307 

— —2,3 LXX 306 

__ _ 9 LXX 315 

— —23 ;i03 

— XV, 16, 17 LXX 316 

— XVII, 13, 14 LXX 334 

— — 15, 16 LXX 316 

— XXXI, 15, 16 154 

— xi.vii, 2 7..V.\ 204 

— LI, 6-9 LXX 199 

— unidentified 45 

Lam. III, 22 (neither P nor LXX). . . 283 

— — 25-30 319 

Ez. XVIII, 21-23 286 

_ _ 30-32 y..\'.V 374 

— XXXVII, 15-17 176 

Dan. III, l(i-18 Tlieod 290 

-_ _ 3/,, 35 Theod 281 

— — 42 Theod 373 

_ _ 45 Theod 310 



Ilos. 



23-2n 



135 



— VI, 4-7 /..V.\ 331 

Arnos V, 24 284 

— VIII, 9, 10 291 

Jon. III, 7, 8 68 

Mio. IV, 4, 5 LXX 320 

— VII, 7-9 314 

Nah. 1, 7 (1- clause /.-\.V j 319 

Hag-. II, 7-10 237 

— — 9, 10 LXX 177 

Zech. II, 3-5 LXX . . ill 

— V, 1-5 LXX 177 

— X, 1 291, 292 

— XI, 7, 8 J75 

IV Macc. V.4-XV11, 10 195 



|47G] 

Ps. Sol. III, 1-G. 314 (sec Errata in tom. Vll) 
Matlh. I, 1 1,56 

— — 20 51, 54 

— — 21 ■. . 54 

— — 23 54 

— II, 2 53 

— — 10-12 47 

— — 11 48, 53 

— III, 1,2 165 

— — 7-9. 163 

— — 13, 14 60 

— — 14, 15 67 

— — 14-17 58 

— — 15 64 

— — 16 60 

— — 17 65 

— IV, 14-16 143 

— V, 14, 15 193 

— —38-40 218 

— — 44, 45 85 

— VI, 3, 4,6 194 

— — 9 270 

— —9-13 220 

— — 17, 18 72. 74 

— VII, 13 343 

— — 13, 14 343 

— — 26, 27 250 

— VIII, 1-4 75 

— — 5-10 80 

— — 14, 15 81 

— — 23-27 83 

— — 28-32 91 

— IX, l-(; 79 

— — 18, 19. 23-26. 85 

— — 20-22 78 

— — 27-30 86 

— X, 17-22 186 

— — 19, 20 234 

— —35-49. 222 

— — 37, 38 3G2 

— XI, 7-11 163 

— — 12, 13 109, 320 

— — 28-30 317 

— — .30 310 

— XII, 9-13 88 

— XIII, 24-30 325 

— XIV, 3, 4 165 

— —3-5 239 



[477] 

MatÜi. XIV. O-U 2:59 

— XV, 21-28 W) 

— XVI, lG-11) o2(i 

— XVII, 19-21 309 

— — 20, 21 17 

— xviii, 12, 13 55, lüO 

— XIX, 13-15 377 

— XXI, 7 95 

— — 15 9'., 97 

— XXII, 11-13 315 

— XXIV, 27 117 

— —29, 30 117, 127 

— — 50, 51 315 

— XXV, 31-34 227 

— — 31-41 354 

— — '34, 41 357 

— — 34, 46 (?) 353 

— — 41 315 

— xxvii, 19 10« 

— — 24, 25 108 

— —27-31 113 

_- —39-44 IM 

— — 50-54 Hl 

— —51,52 118 

— XXVIII, 5-10 121 

— — 8-10 125 

— — 20 129 

Mark, 1, 11 05 



LuNe 



iO-44. 



57 



II, 3-13 79 

jii, 16, 17 171 

IV, 38, 39 83 



V, 1- 



91 



— — 2.5-34 78 

— — 43 85 

— VI, 17, 18 165 

— VII, 24-30 89 

— X, 13-16: 377 

— XI, 7 95 

— XIII, 24-26 127 

Luke I, 6, 7 45 

— — 28 52 

— — 35 KiO 

— —39-45 56 

— — 79 14:; 

— II, 8-15 49 

— — 10-12 63 

- — 13, 14 387 



,I(.ilin 



307 

II, 25-32 383 

III, 22 05 

V, 12-14 ■ . 75 

— 18-25 79 

VII, 2-9 80 

— 11-16 90 

— 24-28 163 

■ — 36-38 ; 84 

VIII, 22-25 83 

— 26-33 91 

— 43-48 78 

X, 19 309 

— 30-35 9:; 

XI, 2. ;. 270 

— 2-4 220 

- 9, 10 385 

— 13, l'i 56 

XII, 48-50. 228 

— 49, 50 205 

— 49-53 208 

XIII, 6-9 I'i6 

XIV, 25-27 361 

— 26, 27 362 

XV, 3-6 318 

— :!-32 280 

— 7 137 

XVII, 3 103 

— 5, 6 309 

— 13 •« 

XIX, 35 95 

XXI, 14-19 3.56 

— 25-27 127 

XXII, 14-16 100 

XXIII, .39-43 109 

XXIV, 1-5 125 

1, 1-3 171 

— 1-4 152 

— 9-10 74 

— 11-14 131 

— 14 52, 2.52 

— 26, 27 OG 

— 29 ' . . 49, 55, 04, .388 

— 29-31 104 

— 49-51 214 

III, 29-32 105 

IV, 22-24 147 

— 46-50 80 

V, 25-29 128 



30S 



[47,S] 



John VI, 53, 54 2G7 

— —55-58 266 

— VII, 14 140 

_ _ 28-30 140 

— — 37-39 234 

— IX, 1-7 76 

— X, ll-K! 234 

— XI, 1, 33-40, 43, 44 92 

_ _ 21-27 196 

— XII, 14 95 

— — 24, 25 225 

— — 31, 32 317 

— — 31-33 110 

— XIII, 3-5 '. 107 

_ — 23 173 



— — 23-2:; 



171 



— —31, 32 317 

— XIV, 12 353 

_ — 27 292, 346 

— XV, 11-15 221 

— XVI, 33 95, 216, 263 [bis) 

— XIX, 16, 17 318 

— XX, 1-3, 11-13 119 

__ _ 11, 12 129 

— — 11-17 272 

_ _ 24-29 175 

— XXI, 20 171 

Acts I, 15-17 Harkl 103 

— II, 1-11 Harkl 148 

— — 3-6 151 

_ _ 12-22 Harkl 153 

— VI, 6, 7 Harkl. (?) 237 

— VI, 15 Harkl 167 

— VII, 55-60 Harkl 168 

— IX, 15 Harkl 170 

— XIII, 2 Harkl 152 

— XIV, 21, 22 Harkl 314 

— XVI, 7 Harkl 152 

— XVII, 27, 28 Harkl 293 

— XIX, 20 Harkl 237 

— XXI, 10, 11 Harkl 152 

Rom. I, 20-25 197 

_ _ 2()-29 325 

— 11,4 59 

— — 4, 5 296 

— — 5 316 

— IV, 3 220 

— — 16-18 198 



Rom. VI, 3-9 132 

— VII, 6 153 (bis), 382 

— -- 14-19 .325 

-^ — 19-26 328 

— VIII, 5-9 213 

— — 29 50 

— — .34-39 210 

— IX, 22-26 135 

— XI, 33 46, 115 

— XII, 13 331 

— XIV, 15-17 69 

I Cor. I, 2.3-25 142 

_ _ 2.3-28 115 

— II, 8 116 

— III, 11-13 172 

— V, 7, 8 74 

— VI, 20 361 

— vii, 23 361 

— — 28-30 217 

— IX, 22 71 

— — 25-26 190 

— X, 12 104 

— XII, 4-11 231 

— XIII, 12 (y) 74 

— — 12-xiv, 1 184 

— XV, 16-20 217 

— — 26 114 

_ _ 32-34 218 

liCor. III, I7-IV, 1 271 

— — 18 255, 261 

307 



IV, 7-10. . . 

— 7-12. . 

— 11, 12. 

— 14-18. . 

V, 15. . . . 



250 
215 
361 



— — 17, 18 64, 121 

— VI, 11, 12 170 

n <-» ,"> 

VIII. .) ■^•I.i 

— i\, 10, 11 332 

— X, 2-6 207 

— — 3-6 192 

— XIII. 2, 3 170, 218 

Gal. 1, 1, 11 225 

— n, 8-10 237 

— — ',), 10 331 

— m, 1-7 223 

— — 26, 27 139 

— — 26-29 210 



C.al. IV, 4 ■'>■> 

— V, 16, 17 68 

— — 17 328 

— — 24 370 

_ _ 24-20 363 

Kph. I, 20, 21 145 

— — 22-11, 2 129 

— II, 1, 4-6 146 

— — 4-6 141. 161, 270 

— —4-7 142 

— — 6 143 

— —8,9 270 

— — 12 145 

— m, 8-10 113 

— IV, 3-6 133 

— — 8-10 145 

— — 9, 10 123 

— — 13 71 

_ —20-25 269 

— — 22 138 

— — 22-24 194, 323 

— — 24, 25 73 

— V, 2 75 

— VI, 10-12 194 

_ _ 10-13 286 

— — 14-l(i 191 

— _ 14-20 188 

— — 16 318 

l'hilipp. 1. 7 170 

— — 21-24 212 

— II, 5-7 HO 

— — 5-9 384 

— — 7 1(15 

— — 14-16 169 

— — 15, 16 138 

— —20, 21 303 

Col. I, 16-19 163 

— II, 1-3 170 

— — 11-13 133 

— III, 1-3 130 

— —3 143 

— — 5 240, 248 

— — 5, 129 

— —9, 10 137, 194, 323 

1 Thess. IV. 1'^. J4 377 

— — 13-17 126 



309 

I Thess. V, 4-8 127 

— VI, 13-16 120 

II Thess. III, 1,2 237 

I Tim. III. 14, 15 193 

— — 14-16 183 

— — 15, 10 218 

— V, 3-5 370 

— — 9, 10 371 

II Tim. I, 10 114 

— n, 1-4 322 

— IV, 6-8 212 

Tit. II, 11-15 222 

Heb. 1,1. 158 

— — 1-3 340 

— — 3 293, 388 

— II, 14 62, 114, 146, 187, 267 

— — 14, 15 141, 375 

-- — 16 49 

— — 17 50, 61 

— — 17-III, 3 368 

— IV, 14, J5 116, 145,368 

— — 15 50, 59, 61 

— — 16 360, 371 

— V, 5, 0, 9, 10 ,368 

— IX, .3-5 158 

— — 28 75 

— X, 19-24 258 

361 

273 

331 

229 

226 

226 

390 



XI, 22. . 

XII, 23. . 

XIII, 1-3. 



— — 7, 8 

— — 11, 12 

.James v, 16 

I Pet. I, 12, 13 261 

— II, 24 113 

— IV, 18 313 

I John V, 6, 8 132 

Ign., ad Rom., 4, 6 228 

Marl. S. Marci, 3 172 

Acta S. Petri Marl. Alex. (ed. Viteaui, 

p. 75 ff 230 

Greg. Nyss., De vita S. Greg. Thmtm. 231 

— Naz., unidentified 57 

Socr., //. E. V, 25 2.56 

Theodoret, H. E. v, 17, 24 2.56 



ERRATA 



P. (> 1. l.'i, lli. For another text seems to have' read • the Harklensian version has'. 
I>. 18 1. 15. For ic^-.'i.t^ |o; read ic^v^i»; (correct the Krrala to lom. VI fasc. 1). 
P. 81 vers. 1. 5. Fori read » (correct the Frrata to tom. VI fasc. 1). 

p. 183 1. (i. i-'or Ä.n'n^r5^:\ read ^n-^Artfa- 

P. 187 n. c 1, 8. For '(sie). Pi^jio' read 'isic) ■pv^j^'- 

P. 192 n. cl. 1. For ^( read ^(. 

Ibid. n. hl. 2 For inji^^^. read iisj..^. 

P. 205 1. 10. For ^oQu^^^o/; read ^o^i^o/.. 

P. 230 1. 4 of notes. For (Iääs read iioäs. 

P. 232 vers. n. 4. Before 'he' ins. 'in that'. 

P. 233 n. 1. For |i.ci±io „o, read ilqjlä,»,. 

P. 237 1. 7. Before ;-( ins. .. 

P. 240 1. 11. F'or ^a^^.oii read .ma*£Do;o(i.. 

P. 243 vers. n. 31. 2. For; read? 

P. 270 1. 1. After o« ins. ref. ". 

P. 293 vers. 1. 5. After 'hand' ins. ref. •'. 

P. 296 vers. 1. 9. For 'will est' read 'willest'. 

P. 307 1. 7. For^Lo. read olo.-. 

Ibid. n. cl. 1. F'or i-iiu..ia£. read pnj-Vo^.. 

Ibid. n. 1. For v^oVo read ViopooVo. 

P. 3i5n. d. For '/' read '1'. 

P. 325 1. 2. After icv^j^ ins. stop. 

P. 326 n. cl. 1. Dele stop at end of line. 

P. 331 vers. n. 21. 5. For 'convenant' read 'covenant'. 

P. 337 and 339 heading. Dole 'AGAIN'. 

P. 340 n. f. 1.2. For ^ read ,:^. 

P. 343 n. b 1. 2. After y.^^ ins. stop. 

P. 344 1. 2. After ^M, ins. stop. 

P. 354 n. dl. 2. For v^Jiii read ).^-sji. 

P. 356 n. hl. 3. Dele p»a3 ^<i:.^. 

Ibid. n. i 1.1. After \.u ins. (.^oas ^ao^.. 

i\ 364 n. 3. For i!^p».^o read lu-^^i^o. 

P. 366 vers. n. 51. 7. For 'will a man be righteous' read 'shall there be a righteous 

man'. 

P. 370 n. jl. 3. F'or .^-.oi| read •^>-.oi^ 

P. 373 1. 5. After ...ic^ ins. ,^i. 

P. 382 n. 21.1. After .Äi:t ins. braci<et. 

P. 386 vers. n. 1. For 'P ls' read ' Ps. i.'. 

P. 387 1. 10. After ;.\ ins. stop. 



THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME 



I'ATU. UK. — T. XIV. — F. 2. -1 



THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN RHÄME 

GOPTIG TEXT EDITED AND TRANSLATED 

Ji'ROM: THE COD. VAT. COPX. LX 
BY 

M. H. DAVIS 



Nihil obstat, 

R. GRAFFIN. 



PERMIS D'IMPRIMER 
Paris, le 28 fevrier 1919. 



P. FAGES, 
Vic. gen. 



INTRODUCTION 



The text here published is edited at the instance of Mr. H. G. Evelyn- 
White, who is writing a history of Nitria and who has kindly added 
here the notes that bear his Initials. The remaining texts, all preced- 
ing this, comprised in Codex Vaticanus LX are the Martyrdoms 
of Pisoura, Pirow and Athöm, John and Simeon, all published by Prof. 
Hyvernat in his Actes des Martyres. 

The Script is illustrated by Prof. Hyvernat in his Alhum, pl. 43, 
and is assigned by him to the 12'" or 13"" Century. The Script of the 
title closely resembles that of the Album, pl. 1, dated A. D. 4 230. 
There are a few small corrections, some by modern, some by earlier 
hands, and here and there a modern band has gone over faded let- 
ters. The present edition reproduces all superlineation, but not punc- 
tuation nor paragraph-divisions. The text is paged independently 
of the remainder of the volume, on alternate pages only, from 2 to 96, 
though both first and final numbers are effaced. 

A complete quire of 46 pages has been lost, being quire § (5), 
after p. 64 (f. 447), where the death and burial of the saint are re- 
corded and the subsequent increase in the number of his disciples. 
This gap must have contained an account of the loss of the MS. of his 
Life and of its subsequent restoration « at this time », by divine revela- 
tion, which is compared to that of the Invention of the cross and tomb 
of Christ, hidden by the Jews and eventually revealed by Cyriacus. 
Where the text begins again, on p. 84 (f. 448), the author is con- 
cluding his refutation of those who declared themselves unbelieving 
(as to the genuineness) of the Life. It is probable too that some mira- 
cles were related in the missing pages, as the Avriter prefaces that of the 



318 ■ INTRODUCTIOX. [61 

serpents, related on f. 120 v°, with the words : « Hear and I will teil 
you this other marvel. » 

The abbreviated version of the saint's legend given In the Synaxa- 
rium (for 25'" Kihak] ' differs slightly in detail. Besides the miracu- 
lous vine in the bride-chamber (f. 95 v"), \ve read of an angel over- 
shadowing husband and vvife as they sleep and of the surprise of the 
parents that there is no offspring of the marriage. The decision to 
retire to the desert is not, as in our version, directly inspired by an 
angel (f. 96 v"), as John only meets a « man of liglit » on leaving bis 
village and from hini receives Instructions as to his journey. 

The following chronological notes have been kindly contributed by 
Mr. H. G. Evelyn-White : 

M The date of John Khame is not very easy to determine. The Goptic 
Life (fol. 110 v") refers to his monastery as fifth among the convents 
of the ^Vadi Natrün in order of foundation, and he is therefore later than 
the 4 Century. On the other band the first direct mention of the Monas- 
tery of Khame is found in the History of the Patriarchs ' in connec- 
tion with Gabriel I (913-923 A. D.) : « when he (Gabriel) was a young 
« man, he had entered the desert and become a monk in the Wadi [Mabib] 
« at the Monastery of St. Macarius, at a cell there named alter the Syrian 
« [^^jAi.j^), that is to say, the father Kama (US), brother of John in the 
« monastic lifo «. The context of this passage, which implies that Khame 
was a Syrian and not an Egyptian, shows that the cell was then no 
longer a modern foundation. But this long period can be substantially 
reduced. On the one band the History ofthe Patriarchs^ regularly 
refers to « the foiir mona.steries » of the Wadi Hablb in the time of Da- 
mianus, showing that Khame's monastery was not yet established at 
the close of the 6'" Century; on the other, mention is made of « the 
seven monasteries ' » during the patriarchate of Shenouti I (859-890), 
at a time when Ahmed ihn Mohammed al-Mudabbir Avas minister of 
finance (856-866). The date of Khame lies therefore between ca. 580 
and 860. This again may be reduced : reference is made in the Goptic 
Life (fol. 99) to the Instruction of Khame in the « canon of the 

1. P. 0., Ill, 519. — 2. Bibi. Nat., fondn arabe n° .304, p. (i(i (the translation is that 
of Mr. Evetts). — 3. Ed. Evetts, p. 209 (— - P. O., I, 473). — 4. The seven were those of 
Macarius, John, Pishoi, Baranuis, Khame, the Syrians, and of Moses. 



[7] INTRODUCTION. 319 

Synaxis », according to the commandments of Agatho the Stylite '. 
Khame was therefore later than Agatho the Stylite, who, as a disciple 
of Abraham and George and a younger contemporary of John the 
Hegumen, is to be dated at the end of tlie 7'" or beginning of the 8'" 
Century. 

i( Khame Hved therefore after ca. 70O and before ca. SSO. 

« Less trustworthy evidence may carry us even further. Great stress 
is laid in the Life on the inviolable state of the monastery (fols. 
106 v°, 107, 121). If this is fact, then the convent can hardly have 
existed in the last days of Mark III (709-819), when all the monaste- 
ries were sacked ; and consequently Khame must have lived in the 9'" 
Century. This being so, it seems likely that considerable importance 
should be attached to the evidence of the colophon to a Coptic MS. in 
the Vatican-, which prays the reader to remember the poor sinner who 
wrote (it), Jacob, the son of my father Shenouti, son of John Khame 
(;/ AJÜLt). If Khame is to be assigned on other grounds to the 9"" Cen- 
tury, it is hardly doubtful that the Shenouti of this colophon is the 
Shenouti described in the Life as succeeding Khame as superior of 
the monastery (fol. 114). It is then possible to date Khame's 
floruit at ca. 850. » 

The name Khame is translated as Niger by Renaudot, Lit. Or. 
(1847), I, 18, and as le Noir' by Prof. Hyvernat in his Actes des Mar- 
tijres, p. 77. It occurs indeed here in one instance (f. 117 v°) with 
the adjectival n- and possibly the black serpents mentioned on fol. 
121 point to a play upon the name. Quatremere however maintains ' 
that the name, if it meant 'the black', would be preceded by the ar- 
ticle, as in the case of JJLUjitcMC Y\\KJ<3JLt and similar forms. Nor 
does the fact that the ansfel bestows the name on the saint, as one bv 
which he shall always be known (fol. 101), lend much colour to such 
a translation. 

Possibly a Sahidic form of the name (KAJült, KAJÜLH) is to be 
recognised in Crum, Coptic Ostraca, Ad. 40 etc. 



1. For Agatho see Sijua.rarium, P. 0., I, 265. — 2. W LXVI : cf. Zoega, p. 45. — 
3. Recher ches, p. 29. 



320 IXTRODUCTION. [8] 

The author remains anonymous, nor is there any evidence that 
he was a monk of John Khame's monastery, unless we may deduce 
this from the closing words of f. 87 v". 

For the following Arabic colophon, found on the verso of fol. 125 
and for several incidental references I am indebted to Mr. W. E. Grum. 

y j J.5 4,— iJ üllil 3I sjs^ Jj ijUi-l jl ^\l^\ ^ U-jli. J^\ 'JS^A ^J\ y 

^J^ ^Jii»^\j Ai-Vlj LL>y^^,i.t<-Vl J^_ *. K^ Jj^.J f_r*^lj C~^^ '~'^ '^^, '>^ 

« A gift unto the library (ßig>.ioOfl/.-^) of the holy Abu Mak;\r. And 
whoso shall bring it forth from the keep (/.aGTsniov) unto another cell, 
or unto another place, without the keep, or shall borrow it and not 
return it, or shall appropriate it unto himself without... [illegible] of 
Abu Makar, the same shall be under ban and excommunication and 
his portion shall be with Judas Iscariot. And he that taketh and he 
that giveth (a bribe) that it may be brought away, they both shall be 
under this same bond. And the humble Paul wrote (it', the minister of 
(the church of] Abu Shanoudah, in Bebig |?) ' Year 971 (= A. D. 1255). » 

1. This word, unpointed like most of the text, admits of various readings, That 
here proposed would give the word discussed by G. Salmon, in Bull. Inst. Fr., I, which 
represents, I believe, ntno^K^o« (the ntnerE, nmHK of the .lerne documents). (W.E.C.) 



UTE LIFE OE ABHA JOHN KHAME 



fol. SGr«. 



fol. 8C V' 



TiEnuj.KA^^oc ns^-i uY^vvIio^o^oc o-ro^ firtTirto^o^oc 

^e^eiA ^uji^rtnHC ^^AUH (s/r) tir^«onr rtonrou n\^in 
t^riACujintu E^oc^ o-ro^ ort ÄErtSE^oonr eiac^üiovi 

«IE ^'\ AUHn :- 

cuaiH^ rt^r^^oc V3ET1y^^ETA^^E?^^or\ E^onr^fi äevi^uj- 
^Er^T^E ^ox^^m^ utukocuoc uuon «^äou r^^EO'rß\3.K^ 
yy^yi ^ojM ^^'SEUO'TiuaoT onrT^E UTiAnrdE^EonrloH&kC 



*A portioa ([AEfo;) iVom tlie life ([ii'o;) and the polity (iroXiceia) of our * I'jI- s''r° 

blessed (jj-axapw;) and Spirit-endued (irve^fiatdcpopoc) father and (ysvvocpopo;) ' 

Godclad (Osofpopo;), cross-bearing ('iTxupofpöpo?), revered priest (TtpeuSüTEpo?), 
Abba John Khame, for a proüt unto every one that shall hear it. And 
inoreover the day whereon he went to rast was the -i.V" of the month 
Khoiak. In the peace of God. Amen. 

Well UaAü);) indeed hath our good (äyaöoc) Saviour already * said in'ioi. »ßv 
the holy gospel (eüayysliov)-, « Ye are the light of the world (y.6c^.oi;). A city 
cannot be hid that is set on a hill. Neither do (men) light a lamp and put 
it under a bushel; rather (äVAzi they set it on the candlestick CXuxvia), that 

1. An uiiidentified word. — 2. Mt., v, 14-16. 



fol. 87 V". 



322 TUE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [10 

UA^ETvtitvionr'Jumt t^onruimt UTitu^o nrnfujim ^m^ 
nctuAnr erttitrt^ßivio'r? t^rtAUtno ftcE'\"JOT ünt- 

UAKA^soc fi\«JuiT 'YuonTE fto'T^AAm^ u^^H*^ ftvisAvnm 

jyojTAs tt^co^rs E^ontT\»A^uauAiA a«-\|^ujta^ fio'r'z^uA^ort 

V)tvtijnE'2S^\ ATitc^^ATi tfCJ^ST V3Er\-Tny:ocuoc iw^^ 
j^cjujujiTv^ fiÄETiEc-j^ATi Tionrco'Ätrt rtc^omonrc^? l3trt- 



iW) it ma}^ give light uuto all that are in tlio liouse. Let your liglit so 
sliiiie ]>efore men, tliat (iva) they may see your good works and glorify your 
fatlier which is in heaven ». In vcry deed (6'vtw; ä/z/iöw?) tlie liglit of our 
blessed {[lx-/..) fatlier, Abba Joliu Kliame hath attain(>d unto tlie gates (xÄr,) 

fol. 87 r. of heaven and the swcet savour of liis vir'tnes (äoiTn) hath reachcd unto tlie 
throne (Opdvo?) of God and the angcls (äyyeXo;) and all tlie saints have 
rejoiccd at his lionour. The life (ß(o;) of our blessed (f^ax..) father gave forth 
sliiniiig splendour, cven as the shining rays («/.tiv) of the suii, giving light 
unto the uttcrinost ends of the earth. The swect savour of his virginity 
(TCapÖavjia) hath spread abroad as the sweet smell of the rose in the inonth 
Pharmoutlii. IIü was choicer than spices (ä'pw[;.x), he was a lioly gift (^öipov 
uiilo liic Lord, of more value than pearls ((xapyapiTvii;) and prccious stones. 
The Lord, sanctified him from (the time) wlien he was in the womb. His 

•fol. 87 V. namn hath won renown in * all tlie world (xdifioc), and hath bocomc a 
sweetsmelling ointment in all the churches (i-A-Al-ncia.). For tliis cause hath 
my soul {'\i^yi) loved him, and therefore (o'jv) I desire, O my beloved, to set 



[11] TlIK I.IIK OP AMBA .lollN KFIAMK. .S2:? 

^j±)öE^o'Ju^ AS^Anut-rs tßio^. tutt^jKA^JAfiouA t^doct 

ÜrtA?.AC A?%?.A CIO-TUOC ' VtlAUEIT^vxAei E^\>H^ fl'ÄE- 

rn'\^o fint rttnsujn EiJonrAßi 4^a\ ei^Cw bEviiErtUH-Y 

Ü^OO-r EC^^A^^ HEUAn joEriTlE^OOir filE<^ -FJAVtHK-V^^C 

OTO^ E<^'\EfOTOT riArt EiJ^ErfS«^ eIxe^e^oh uriEt^fimc 
E^o-TA^i rjT^vsn CJ^iEU Efo^ joErto-r-^^^Hc^ m rtAUErt- 
fA^ TUTsAOC JüLUAmo-r-Y -^onruaty onrn E^A^EU^Hrto-r 

Ü^OO-r EO-rAfSCIOVt JüL&iACi?s^KOVt '^«'^'^^ ^X"^ V^A^«^- 
lEn ftOTIfATIE'^A JÜßiACtTNSKOn O-TO^ UVinAI^KOrt 

riiAnEuu^AAiEn vtonn^o^^H fJETtuj^ATnort eie^a^tie 

Tt^PitOC E^UE^ fiC0?sCE2% ftlE TIErtT^AnEU^^tOC ftSUiT 
EFl^'KH ArtOK O'T^nrKAnOC An Ei^f^E^^^AS A?s?sA EWOVl- 
^E^ UUOi ^^AJi E^^^MfA ft^HK^ EIAC^^Onr? ft-^IE&i^ 



1. Ill'ail CETOXllOC. 



moving llie iiistrument (opyavovi ol' my feeble tongiie, tliat I iiiiiy teil some 
fevv tliings frora the Life (ßto;) of <>ur blessed and holy fathcr, John Rhame. 
\Mien I consider his lofty good deeds (icaTÖp9coiAa), I am afraid and tremble, 
niore especiallv ((Aa").:cTa) wlien I laiow the poverty of my understanding 
(voü;) and the weakness of my tougue. But (ocXkx) the pra}'ors of our lioly 
fatlier raise up my feebleness, he that is in our midst today, rejoicing 
Avith US (in the day of his * festival (xav/iyupt;), cncouraging us that we may ♦ loi. ss r 
teil particularly (ä^atpeTo'v) his holy Life (ßto;). Then (wV/iv) hcar me with 
attention, my beloved, ye God-loving people (lade), for I would bid you 
today li) a kingly feast {^xmlr/Mt, apicTov), 1 would set before you a.kingly 
(ßx(7.) table (rpaTce^a) and a spiritual (■Jz-tBw.y.ziyA^) that I might feed you witli 
a heavenly food (eiroupav.o;, rpo-p-/)'), which* is the Life (ßw;) that is füll of 

encouragement of our (:Ta,v£;x(pio5) ' father. Secing that (ettsiS-ä) I am 

not myself fitted (ly-avo'c) to do this, but rather {iXky.) I liken inyself unto 

1. Unidentified. irav£ij'pr,,uo(; would scarcely be applied to a monk. 



324 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [12] 

^AUE KATJ^ ^f^'Y E^^'^'^^OC riArt SÜL'ÄtnErt^O'Y 

rtEUonron vt^&kEU l<^o\ vtcrvonr'Z^EOc V^Ert-YA^E^H Et-jCEU- 

rtHOTT VDErtUEt^CA'iS:^ tM^?M )3trtrtEc^?\orscuoc E«^onrj^Bi 

• füi 80 1". V)Ertr\E«-jcujuj^ Et^^onrßiHonri V^EmEcj ' — ^\^'r2)(^H e<^os 

nXrA^oc eV^oityi e^uju^ rußiEVi e«^o? üuj^iArj^nvi üuai- 

JiJEUUO EC^Ot fl'ib.lKEOC V)EmEt^^^'r;)(;H Et^O^ fiCABiE OTO^ 
flKAI^ViT ECjOi fi!2^mEOC V)EnrtE«-\^&vHOXt IH^OT l<^0\ 

fi^EOCE^iHC V)Enr\mA^'Y t^-jjij'ju^n üuot^ e-^ekk^hcsX 
«IE ^X^ Et^E^TiHcnETsn TiCHOir rt^&kEVt EtJjE^rs^ocEir- 
;XEC^E V3E«0TU0'rrt ^^o7\ E<^EfUE?\Eij^n 3ün^fAn 



tlie poor Avidow', tliat did cast two mites into the treasury (ya^otp'AKxtov), 
therefore will I betake myself uuto the preface (xpooirjuGv) and will teil 

lüi. 88 V. * clearly (? Oeup-ATüi;) - tliat whicli the Holy Spirit (irveOjj.a) shall furnish {yofn- 
yeiv) unto US through the prayers (sü;^/!) of our holy aud all-saintly (Tvaviy'o; ' 
father, Abba John Khame, according as (xarz) our fathors have told us. 
NoAV (Äe) this holy man (äyto?) of wliom we teil was of a village which 
is called Jepromounonsön', in the nome of Sais, and he gave himself unto 
virtue (i^trr,) froni his childhood. Tle was sweot in his nature and unto 
all men mild, zealous (cTroufWio;) in virtue (äpeT-/i) and prudent in his words, 
sober in his judgment (aoyig[7.ö:), pure in his body (<j(o[ji.a), sanctihed in his 

' foi. 89r. * soul (']''-'/•')), good toward all men, a lover of charity {ixyi--ri), a lover of 
strangers, righleous (f^iV-aio;) in Ins soul (4'.), wise and of undcrstanding, 
righteous (St'xato?) in all his ways, devout (OeoceSr';) in the faith, going early 

1. Cf. Mk., XII, 'i2; Lu., xxi, 2. — 2. A merely supposililious form. — 3. In tlie 
Synaxarium [P. 0., HI, 519) Shoubr;i Mansü. 



fol. 8'JV". 



[13] TUE MIT-: OF ABF5A JOHN KIIAMK. 325 

UYitvtdc mc y^X^ ]btrto'rn^j^'\ ftdt^jiyuao'r uy\tE^oonr 
mtc^^Y'^^^ Ec^CA^Honn e^o?% ^j^^uaonrjy ni&ktn 

riEU^K^H^onousA hie ns^uH^ E«-\E^Kocum V)Er\^«^ßi 
vn&iEn Eört^rtEnr ^^lEn'^'i^'Ju^EA uie n^YirtA E^onrj^Bv 

E«^A^E^ ErtEmO?NH UrtETI^EÖ^O^OC fl^u^T A^&kA ^u^AUHHC 

änr-soc rtArt E^&iHncj 'Xiee'Y e^o» tiV^et^^s^s e^V^evi- 
nj^s^&vHO'Ts E^rtAUE-r ETJ^TiÄononr rtEu^onro E^*xionr 



'.PO I" 



1. Read cdpel^T. 



to tlie churcli (exy-V/Kiia.) of Christ, fastiiig (v/ic7TcJsiv) at all times, prayiny 
(-poseü/coöa;) continuallv, mcditating (;y.e>,eTäv) tlie iiamc of our Lord Jesus 
Christ witli great fervour hy day aiid by night, keeping his body {rn^ij.7.) in 
subjectioii ', niaking il the servant of his soul (ij/.), withdrawing himself 
i'rom all worldlv (ß:(DTi/.o;) cares and from thought ol" the matter * (üX/i) * lui. »n v» 
and ease of this life ([i''o{) and from the deceit iTcaTvi) of the tlesh («ixp^), 

bringing to nauglit his sin-loving -, forgetting the things of this life 

(ßio;) for they swiftly pass away, and eager for the age (a.twv) of light and 
llie inlii'i'itance {-/.l-n^o^rj^ix) of the righteous. He was adorned (/.ocjjistv) witli 
all good things by the gift ((^wpe«) of the holy Spirit (tüv.); in a word (aira^ 
ä-\ü;] hf sen-ed the Lord with all his miglit. keeping the commandments 
(i'/Tolr,^ of our God-clad (Oecooio-r, father ALba John'. 

It is told US '■ concerning liim that while he was yet (I'ti a youtli and 
loutinuing in these good works that we have recorded and more ihan thesc, 
"he was betrothed unto a maiden, a virgin (ivapösvo;), that he should take ♦ fui. '.m r 

1. I Clor.. i.\, 27. — 2. One is inclined to suggest ^opuH, as in 1'. 12o. - - -i. Perliaps 
John IV jl'atr. 775-799), once a monk of Wadi Ilabib and later oeconomus of the 
Cliurch of St Alenas (see P. CK, X, .381). (E-\V. . — 4. Cf. tlie history of Ammoun and 
liis bride, Hisl. Monach., XXIX; Hist. Laus., \ 111. 



fol. 110 v° 



32H THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [14J 

ns^uHs ntrts'^i E^oiTA^i A«^^<ju^uj nntt^'X:«'^ tß^o^» 

ÜUOC '2S:ET\3c ^'Y ^"^^ rtfÄOU Anr^SHT flCJUV: SC2S^E«EW 
VDEmO'Y H^OKTIE n^YlOIT'Y SC2S;E«Et)3ET1imE'2S:S f^^E 
lAUAIT UlViSC rtHS J\3<6c E^^^JJJUJTH V^EWOTIOTßiO f^^E 
^^rJA^^En^A * ujATI^'ÄuaK E^O?^ Onro^ ort UMiC fi'lEKBi'JUKt 
^3<\ E^J^'r^A^UEC rtEUHi E^^ECE^VIEUTI^A UmK2%HfOC 

f^^E ^Y^ TicA^iH UTiA^iJEnoc nsülono «j^k jijj^EriE^ 

1Et^JiJE>kET !ii.E ACCOUC ACrtJ^T E^H EiJ^Onr^ßi Ef-JO^S 
E^A^«^ E^EMEt-^-ÄitJS: ^O^JiJ E^02s EfETlE«-Jt VlIH^ OS 

rtEUO'TCÖEflEf ?1A At^UOT'Y EföC ri!ÄET\S^UH? FVEÄA^^ 



her to wife, accordiug (xa-ra) to the laws (vo'fAo;) of nature («p'joi;). And wheu 
they had made the marriage feast for him and her, as {xara) was befitting, 
they set him with her within the bride-chamber (vuu.ipcüv) and they closed 
the door. But (8i) the righteous man, our holy father, spread forth bis 
hands and prayed unto the Lord, desiring (xiTeivj him to give him strength 
in that -which he had it in mind to fulfd. And he said ' : « Lord God of 
hosts I was cast upon thee since 1 was in the womb , tliou art my God since 
I was in the belly of my mothcr'. Grant unto me, my Lord, that I may bc 
♦lui.Düv". in the purity of virginity (TcapOsvaia) * unto the end and grant unto thy scr- 
vant also, she that liath been bidden with me, that slie may be worthy of 
Ihe lot (icVÄpo;) of Ihr live wisc virgins (TrapOsvo?). Glory (be) unto thee for 
cver. Amen. » 

And {Si) bis bride lookcd and saw the holy man standing and bis hands 
spread forth and bis ten fingcrs were as it were ten lamps {la.u.-xi; of lirc 
and she was in fear and Irembling. Then (siTai the righteous man calh-d 
unio her and said niildly unto her : « Gonie near unto me, Uiat 1 may speak 

1. Ps. xxi, 10. 



fdl. '.Il I" 



* roi. ;ii v° 



[15] TlIK LIFE OF ABIiA JOHN KlIAMK. 327 

CAÄ^ rttUE \c^iA ^XrAuy\ fine n^^c etto'T'Xj^^ me^- 

ft!2S;Ey\;y;c ■ yDEnTi^fTTj^rrt^stort "XEUuon tieötiaac E^AtA- 
rAT\H finEn^?ss ^^^^ «ieo-va^ jyui n^^^^^^jM ^^-js^eh- 
TiEt^jij^Hp EHS'ii.H A'T^oinEVi nEUUErtE^Vionr V^Erionr- 

^cuiTT KJ^IJ^ C3<fc'. ETTJS^in'iSl^^O n^Art«iJVi^t V^EUOTUKA^ 

fi^HT A-^^^A Ejijujrt niEC<JL»nEu ftc^^ ^Er^«A^^Ju^TT 
UEurtEriE^Honr JoEno'r^'junrs ÜTiuAM^Kon ETTSvn'X;^^ 
«Art fir\?A^EiH En^'i^H O'rn ^T^o^YiEn viEunEriE^Honr 
JDErt^An^u^o'rw^ uBiSÜJintKovi Ejij'jun finiEfcuJiEU ricujn 
^EnrtA^ujiTi ErtEriEfHOT V^Ertonr^ujiTi jülUE^A^^'r^H 

UA^ErtOTEt E&iO?s ETl^^CX: UTTfOC OTCHOT WIE 

iCA^l: ' ^mA fi^ErtE^fEU^E )r)ErtrnE^oonr fiiE th^ati 

ÜUHS EJiJUJn ArtujAMAfE^ E'lErtnA^^ETI^A «EurvErtcuauA 

EironrAßi nEnnj^E^T\Eun«i)j^ ^«jun «"^K^NH^onou^A fiie 

rti^UH^ EircOTl Eniüi.H V^tfuau^ ETACjÖSC^^U^ YlEU'^C^lUS 



with thee, according to (/cxTa) the love («yaVr,) of Christ, tbr the salvatioii 
at oace of thy soul {<\i.) and of raine also, according as iaätzj Christ hath 
Said * in tl)e holy gospel (£ÜayYc'>.iov) ' . : 'None hath aught greater tliau tliis Toi. ;»i r» 
love (aysiT:-/!), that (iva) one lay down liis life ((j^.) for bis friend'. Seeing 
that ii-Kii^-nj we are united one to another in a union after (xaTa) the flesh 
(-Tzp;) for the begetting of children in sorrow of heart" yet (aXkd) if thou 
\\ilt hearken iinto me, we will unitc together in a spiritual (Trvsu[;.ai:wd;) 
Union for the begetting of virtues (ipe-rri'). For seeing that (iiraiS-fl o'jv) we have 
heeu Ullilcd one with another in the cares of life (ßiwTwo?), if thou will 
hearivi-n unto me, we will uuite ourselvcs in au immaterial i^-üXri) union. Let 
US depart far from the sweetness of the flesh {nii)?,) which is for (irpo?) a time, 
* that we may be set free in the day of the true judgement. If so be^foi. niv 
that we keep our virginity (TrapOsvsta) and our bodies ((;w(j.3c) pure, we shall 
ourselves be made together worthy of the inheritance(x.).y)povojAta) of the 
righteuus. For (gTisiSr,) the man that hath married a wife and the womaii that 

• 

1. Jüh., xv, lo. — 2. Gen., in, 16. 



328 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [16] 

Idj^ti^s^tiöc ^^a fiionr^AriAt^ «Ante onrn n^rv finErt- 
^sn^o nrtATiKA^s onro^ fiiEVij^m^ «caviai^e finEn^x*^ 

TXC^^rt ' fivHTT^OC O'TCHO'r ftTEnK^J'^ ftCArt^^AEriE^ 
E^UA fiO-rUA «JiJE?^E1 mE TIASKOCUOC vi^ET1E^yiEUr\J±)J^ 

riEUünrc^i^o^ rtOTc-ji ri'iE ^EV1UE^y^A^uyE?^E^ E^rtj^cms nErt- 

rtAE^T1EUT\^A ÜTTSCO'X^Ert «HE H^E UEJÜlT\mE^ fiiJE?sH?\ 

^A^ E^V^A'Y E&kO^. V)EmEKy:?%HCiA «IE rt^j^o^n üuiCi 

HAjijuiTis fijijM^i '^^'Y onro^ fi^<^H^ EnEc^ArrE?\oc 
onro^ ftiErtjAjuar\i V^Enn^f aj±)^ yinE -^e ftCAtiVj utia^^e- 
rtoc HA» EHAnrcoTsCE^s finonTT^AUT^AC at^uj^^ EJDonnn 
In^^ovi nEUTisnAijA)t?sET yhkücuoc riAcm^ fi;)(^ujj?stu 
rtEUTiEt^üjoT nmonr^ viahako finEm^AT E^jijMsßii 

1. Corrected Irom »ttiun. 



hath married a husband have taken thouglit for tlic iliings of this life (ßi'o?), 
that they might please one another ; but (Se) they that have not married 
have taken thought for the things of the Lord, that they might please iiim. 
It were good for us therefon« (oiv) that \ve should despise the tliings of the 
earth and seek after those of heaven, that we should renounce the things 
of a season (irpö?-) and seek after ihose of eternity. 

Instead of the bride-chamber uf this world (■m<:[m;), we should be made 
*iui. 'J2r. worthy of the brido-chamber * tluit is in heaven. In exchange for the 
gladness and the pcrfume of our bridal State that shall pass away, we may 
be made wortiiy of the ointment of heaven and tiie oil of gladness, ihat 
which floweth forth from the church (IK/Avioca) of the first-born. in exchange 
for the ("hildren that we siiould heget in the flesh (capxwüii;), we shall be- 
come the children of God and the coinpanions of his angels («yy) and 
shall rejoice with the live wise virgins (iva.pÖevoc), they that trimmed their 
lamps [IcniJ.itxc) and went in unto the feast with the bridegroom. The earth 
(x,o(7{iOi;) shall swiftly pass away and the glory df it, gold sha*ll perish and 



[17] TUE I.ll-K ()F ABBA lOll.X KIIAMK. 329 

outicA^t uv\s'^cu-»uA riA^AKo n^tt^?iUJ7\ E&kO>. Vjtu- Toii'^iv». 

\Ci TÄ^ OirnA^AIClE E^^E^ECTI^O^E^ECtC EOVtAriEC 

^S-X^EHTIKA^^ ACOTUityT U^^ OHTO^ r\E'X:AC •SEmuuO'T 
nAK ^X^ '2SEÜY1EK<^0'X;T JüLTlCVLOTIOC Jiiv\ds^|ii'JJO'r 

UET&vU-iV: AK'^ riH^ nonrUEI^EU^E ft"l«iE&v?Cu uonriJ^KO 



silver rust, tlie beauty of the * body [aüy.a.) shall perish and shall hv. dis- *rni.!ij v^ 
solvcd in the tonib, but (i^s) 'he that doeth the will of God shall abidf for 
ever". 

Now [ßi) wheu she heard these things, his blessed bride — for (x.7.1 y^tp) 
she was indeed blessed by reason of her good disposition (irpoxifcct?) — 
booame filled \\ ifli the jov of the Iloly Spirit (itvEöpia) and she cast herseif 
upon the ground and worshipped God. And she said : « Glory unto thee, 
Christ, that tliou hast not deprived me of the aim ('tx-otto?) of my soul's (A.) 
zeal. Thou hast granted me the desire (ex'.dujiia) of my soul {<^.} and of the 
prayer of my lips thou hast not deprived mc". In exchange for suffering. 
thou hast given me rest, * forsorrow of heart thou hast given me gladness, ♦lui. 1« v 
for bondage freedom, f<ir tliiiigs perishable things imperishable, for the things 
of the earth, the good things that are in heaven, in exchange for death thou 
hast given me lifo eternal. Thou hast illuminated me, my Lord, by means 
of thy servant, him wliotn thou hast alrcady chosen from (ihe time) thal 

1. I Joh.. II, 17. — 2. Cf. Ps. .\x, 2. 

p.vm. üR. — T. .xiv.. — r. -J. 22 



fol. it-'i r". 



330 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [18] 

ftVjHIC OnrO^ C^CUAf'JUO'n fi'2S:ET4SE^OOT E^AT•X^^OK 

vicon AKUErt^iT ü'^fH'^ rtiEK^nr^« ak'\ nw^ «o'tta^o 
onrrt sc'Xleak;^^'^ V^EnnEK^wi Cü nAUErtf^T ftcort 

E^^EKA^E^ E^EKTIA^^EVISA ATIOX: ^»^ ^^f^^y^ ^^?^^?^^ 
E^UJH ^UJi fi^OK UETI »Ju TlAUEVIftT UCOTI TI^OK EIO^ 

rt3c ETVAC*JJiUA KA1A T\CA2S^ JÜLTlA'r?\OC TlSATlOCIO^vOC 
O-rO^ EK'\UA"^ E^^EK^UiTT^ UTTA^^EUOC AnOK ^«JJ 

'YcE^TJui E«*-f^c<J"^EU ficJUK j±)Ar\\E^ooir \vii nAUoip 

ETl^li.H O'rn AT1EKCA'X:S E^^02^'2S: ^^^^"^ firVAKAC OITO^ 

A'Tu^E EV^onrn jijArt^EC^E^vi^son riiE lA^^fr^^H onro^ 



he was in his mother's belly, that he might call many in imto thy ' king- 
dom; for thine is the glory for ever. Amen ». Tliea (eItk) she laid hold 
of the feet of our holy father and kissed them, saying after this manner : 

loi. 9av°. « ßlessed be the ' hour wherein 1 met (äTravTav) tlice and ihe day wherein 
thou wast l)orn, lliou holy one of God. Verily (äV/i9w;), O iny beloved 
brother, ihou hast loved nie as thine (own) soul (4'.). thou hast given unto 
nie lionour and hast glorified me; thou hast given life unto my soul ((]>.). So 
then ()iOi-ov o'jv), if thou hast set it in thy heart, O my beloved brother, that 
thou shouldst kecj) tiiy virginity (■rcapOeveta), l likcwise rejoici; ihat I should 
keep mine also. For (pv) thou, O my beloved brother, art lord of my 
body (<jw[j.a), according (x.ocTa) to the saying of Paul, the apostle', and arl 

' loi. 9'i I". agreed that thou shouldsl bc a virgiu (irapöevoc), so I too am ready to * obey 
theeunto the day uf my death. For seeingthat {I-keiSy, ouv) thy sweet words 
have made fat my bones and have entered in unto the senses (aloÖYiTyfpiov) 
of my soul (ij/.), so have I also understood (voeIv) them aright (x.a'Xw,:) witli 

i. LH. las. — 2. ('/: 1 Cor., vii, 4. 



[19: Till-: Lwi: of ahba joiix khamk. 331 

j^^E^nosn uuuionr ftKA?^<Juc JDtrtruuj^uj^sL finoHfon ft^t 
TiA^m tnrcoTi n^s tn^t^ÄOC to^iHionr fi'XEYitrvdc mc 

UAu^QS UUO«^ ECUAiEU UA^tt^C<JU1EU m<\ 'Kl EHJ^C-J- 

nc^tus At^^A^s n^o-vo onro^ ac^'^ujot u^^-Y O'to^ 

U«0 E&vü?s Undc EÖ^OnrA^E^ ElOTTlAf^^ErHA KAI^ 

ov^UA'Y ^^E nonr^vii 

A?^H^ujc onrnt^^^^yiE rvEKiAiO Cu yitru'JU'i e^ota^ 
TiEVCf^rt UE^ ftciJOi rtonrc^t JDErti^E rtE)jL^^'X:ErtnKA^? 

ETIEKIA^O "SE^Vi EH^fO flOITCUOI ftOT'JUT E«:yujlin V^En- 

OTw omuic j.HAJCA'X:» ^x\ -j^ujiK i^o^^ ^^•2SErtrt^suj^- 

KA^tOC UJ n?U TIE^TIACA-^SS E-^VtS^y^ ÜUEHÄtUft vi^E 
YlErt^UAl Ei^OVA^ TIEUmOT^O UnEC^^HT UEUmj^'Ä^O 

nriEc^^^ortcuoc rtEunEcjnsu^-Y S^uoni mo^cj «euuec^- 



the understanding (voepd;) ears of my heart, those things concerning which 
uur Lord Jesus Christ spake in the holy gospol {i\)xfyil\.o'j), saying ' : lle 
that hath ears to hear, let hiia hear' ». And (Si) wlieii the blessed (p.a/..) 
John heard these things Irom the blessed (pix/c.) woman he rejoiced the more 
and gave glory unto God. And they made a covenant {^ixHy{-A-n) together, 
they twain, * in the presence of the Lord, that they should keep their vir- ♦ ioLM' 
ginity (-xpOsveia) according to (/.ara) the agreement of their heart. 

Great indecd (ikrfiü;) is thy honour, our holy father; thy namc is 
fillcd with perfume in heaven and upon the earth. Well (/.alw;) hath David 
Said in his prophecy (Tzaoft-zia.), speaking of thy honour-, lle that maketli 
a solitary to dwell in a house'. Verily (övtw;) was this saying fulfdled in 
these blessed ones ((aocx.). 0, who sliall teil of the great oourage of our 
holy father and the purity of his heart, of the firraness of his reason (loyispi;) 
and nf Ins great continence and his wondrous (rapi^o^o;) uprightness. 

1. Ml., XI. 15. — 2. Ps. I.XVI1. 0. 



332 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [20J 

» foi. 35 r -ij^^o Ef^"i<^ ünj^fA'ib.oEoTi * KE TJ^f uuort fuaui h)^n- 
Eonr;)(f»Juu u^Et^JJi^tu^<JUK^ rttu ntnA^uoji)^ ^s-Ätrirti- 

"^CA^E KE TA^ j^Kjy«JUTTS fionrEf^Et «^E TiirvrtA e^ota&l 

5CATA yiCAÄ^ JjLTidc 'X:ET\ST\nA At^n^C-JS EC^UA EIE^YlAt^ 

•fui.'jöv». Eitfi^oKTtE CD nErm^rsoc ^ vli'jui E^ßiE^j^^ * AKuju^tu 

E^ßiH^K "XLEonron ^^rt^uiu^ EATAi^o'r rtcsonr^ uuin 
uu^AAonr E^ßiE'^UEno'Tf o rtns^HO'rf uj<f onod^jj^im "^rto'r 
«ÄEriH EiduiV^EU ünoTcuJUA \)Ert^Artc«Ji^«-j riEU^j^n- 
UEnriAf A^^nrcsc E'rcuJ^EU E^j^PvETiEnsu^T e^jotaBi äeu- 
nEt^E^KOiriuirtm rtEuiEf^c^iu» 

1. Read ntnnAnArjoc 

»loi.usr. * For (/.al yap) at tliis time there is no man shall be able thus to contain 
himself. Lo, I myself marvel that thy thoughts have not troubleil thee, 
being in this same house with this woman. Who shall approarh a fire 
and shall not be burnt, who is he that hath walked like thee upon coals of 
lire and hath not known (awOave^Öai) ' ? Who hath conquered pleasures 
(nSovy;) as thou didst ? For (xxl yap) thou hast tramplcd on all the passions 
(ir«6oi;) of the flesh (ffip^), for (/.at yxp) thou didst become a temple of the 
lloly Spirif- (ivv.), according to (xara) the saying of the Lord ' : The wind 
(tcv.) bloweth wiiere it listeth'; tliat is to say thou, our all-saintly 

*foi.u5v. (■jvaväywi;) fatlier. Thercforc '' * didst thou extinguisii the llame of fornication 
(irooveta), and of thee also hath the Lord said ' : There be mcn that have 
niadc themselves cunuchs for the kingdom of heaven'. Let them be 
ashamed now liiat defilc thcir bodies {cü^a) with pollutions and with unna- 
tural sins (7:apa(pu<>i?), when they hcar concerning our holy father, that he 
had not intercourse (/.oivwvtiv) with bis wife. 

1. V Cf Prov., VI, 27, 28. — 2. 1 Cor., vi, 19. — 3. .loh., in, 8. — 'i. One would 
expect 'bocausc thou didst'. — 5. Mt., xix, 12. 



[2n TUE F.ll'F. Ol AHHA IDIIN KIIAME. 333 

Ü^&k^OC UnETIAr^üjiTAlOC rit<-UT E^OITA&i riEurtEc^- 
KA^O^^UJiUA EldoCS EIAC^TIJ^'r EIA^JiJ^H^i ft'X;Ey\EVt^'-UT 

E^onr^ßi ^ujiATirtHC vieuiec-^c^^ui ovo^ A'tta'js^^o 

enr'Y'^o'r n^c^ VjETi^Art'z^oEo^^or^A «eu^ayicuo't 
ncHonr «^ßiErv urttE^oonr heutue'äuj^^ E'r«i)OTi JDEno'r- 
rttjjj'^ n^Ajijt OTO^ Enr^ujc e^'Y '^^^m'V ^^^^rrE?sOC 

T^^E'ÄUi^^ EOT^ujui ftonrujms V:)t«oToynAC»A eis ttjjo^s 

EfJ^lc^ Et^Jii7\H?\ OXO^ At^CA'ÄS VAEUAt^ rtTS^ETlS^UJUS 
* ftOTUisrts E^-^Ä'JiJi ÜUOC •X:EÜT1EfE^AUE?%EC E'^'ii.tXKOrtS J^ * 

Eij^nr^A^UEv: Efoc E&kO?% ^siErtTidc ^^ AKjyj^nTxirty: 

rt^AcY UA^E rtAK E«^S^H1 EV\«iJAC^E UnEn^u^l ^ßi&iA 



roi. '.Ml [■". 



lol. ilfi v°. 



Xow ().oi-öv) after tliese tliings a wondrous (Trrpa^o^o;) raarvel came to 
pass. God commanded and caused a vine to spring up in the bride-chamber 
(vuao(ov), laden with frnit (/.aoTo;) and spreading fortli in tlie wliole house. 
And [r^i) this liappened i'or a faitliful proof (iTCo-^et^i;) and t'or a ' testimony to ♦ id. iw f. 
the purity of life (ßioc) of our most saintly (äyi.(OTxTo;), holy fatlier, and of his 
lofty good deeds (xaTopOwu-a ) . When our holy father John and his wife saw 
this marvel, they were the more established in the love (äyaVr,) of Christ, 
giving thanks unto the Lord and glorifying hini in praisings ßololoyla) and 
in blessings, by day and by night, at all lionrs, being in great gladness 
and praising God, like the angels (ayf.). 

And [hi) after all these things it came to pass in the night that he saw 
in a vision (rÄTa^ia), the while {i-:} he stood in prayer, a man of light, and 
he spake with him * saying : « Be not neglectful («(/.eW?) of this ministration »foi. aev. 
(^laxov'a) unto which thou art called through the Lord God. ^^^hen thon 
risest on the morrow, betake thee to Shihöt, to the desert of our father Abba 



lol. 97 r" 



334 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [22] 

c^HUA rtiE rttArrE?\oc 2^Eonr2:i.?Ktocnt nsV)t?%?^o uua- 
3JLMUJ u>\^'r^vi "st^^j^twE «^onruj^ uT\(5c Eij^t^nujintj 

V12S;ETlErH<^T E^Onr^ßl n^J^TIJk'TOO'rS At^UOT^ EIEC^^E- 
?%ET TTE'ÄÄt-J T1ÄC 2S;E'Y^^^» t^O <JU 1AC<J"*-n^ E^riÄ^TIEC 

XnoK TAp AT^on^Evi nw\ E^o?\ ^i^En^^dc E^fsjAjE nws 
finAE^uoriA^^oc ft«o ^<J"» ^ iac«j"th uuErifST j^juayh 
EfECfuic^T ETvonr^SA^ finE>^'r2^vi ^^otnort ^^uim» e^o 
jAjATErtrtAir EriErtE^HOT ^^Eri'Y'^t'^onr^o n^E rn^HO'rf 
EiAccu^iEU EriAscA'Ät f^^o^c^ ü^« E^onr^Bi acj^juath 
V:)E«onrvnvy'^ Heukj^^ fi^HT o-ro^ nE!ÄAc r\A^ 

'XiE'^'Y^o EfOK Cu T\A()C ficon ^mA rtiEKEfTiJ^UEnrf 

V)EnnEK:^7%H?^ ^^^^ fiiErtdc E^osKonoum ütia^ioc 

t. Read noii-^. 



Miicarius, and enqiiirf after tlie dwelling of lay l'atlier Teroti ' and bocome 
a raonk (p-ovayo;) with hini and wear (ipopsTv) the habit (oyÄp.a) of the angels 
(ayy.), for that blessod ([i.ax.) old man is rigliteous [Siy.yMi) and iitted (ixavo;) 
for the salvation of many souls (ij*.). For this is the will of the Lord ». When 
he arose at dawn, our holy father called unto his bride and said unto her : 
foi. vi7r. « I bid theo farewell, my good sis'ter, for (yzp) 1 am bidden of the Lord 
to depart and to beconie a monk (pvz/o;l. Thou also, my beloved sister, 
do thou apply thyselfto the salvation of thy soul (4».). So (T^oiTtov) I Itid thce 
farewell uotil we see ojie another in the kingdom of heaven. » When she 
heard these things from the holy one, she was in great sorrow of heart, and 
said unto him : « I pray thee, O my lord brother, that thou wouldest remem- 
ber me in thy prayers, tiiat (iva) the Lord may order (owovoixsrv) my whole 
life (ßio?) according as (xaxa) it pleaseth him ». And the lioly one said unto 
her : « Bo of good couragc, the Lord shall not forsakc thee ». 

1. This name recurs Zoega, p. 107. Cf. -roxfoi».*, CSCO. 43 {Acta Marl.), 202. 



[23] THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. 335 

onro^ Ac^nHS«^ e^uuj^t uuovys e«^-^ ft^OT^ fi'^SLtru^uoi 
^i^E ^^Y ^A^it<^f E^^^^OT\oc e^ota^ fvnt ntrt^to^H- 

UlOrtOC AUA n^EOCtPiHCIAlOC ntn^UJiT I^O'TA^ A&ißiA 

TTSSvwK n'Y'^tionrH5i ^h l^A^6sXh\oc HuutnuAKA- 
AnnAuot-j E<^UA n;j^'J-»Tit ÜTitrtiujii t^onoA^ «cmat- 

fO^OfOC rVA^'JJT ItfO'Y E^A<^K^7^^ ETH^O KAnA 

* icnrnvi^^A firnuortA^y^oc onoo^ A^imrtOTi Aovw^rfoi «^ 
At^^fonrErt«^ eV^oth JDErtoirf aj^s nEn^uji oirrt e^otaSi 

A^5iA HEfO'Y riEATd^Ai^n HACJ E^iO?^ ^ilETITldc EC^^A)ÜLO 

1. Read xn^-^ne. 



* And he saluted her and departed from her in peace (äip-^V/i) and botook *roi. '.i7v". 
hiin to the high-road, the grace of God assisting him, until he came to the 
holy topos of our divinely-speaking (? ÖeQpp-zi'y.wv) and (x[jm) mosl pious (öeoce- 
SscTocTo?), holy father, Ahba Macarius, the all-virtuous champion (iravapsTo;, 
äO^ocpöpo;), the chief of monkhood (s^xpyo;, -fxovxyo?) the measnro of virtue 
(icavüv, äpex-fl), the statf of age, the completion of the priesthood, he that 
was found worthy (-a^io?) of the blessedness (-(Aaxapio^) of tlie promises, ac- 
cording to (x.aTx) the Interpretation (spfjiviveia) of his name. And he enquired 
and was shown tlie dwelling of our holy cross-bearing (<jTaupo(p6po;) father, 
my father ' Teroti. \\'hen he knocked at the door, after (jtaTz) * the custom * foi. «s r. 
(cuv^^'Öetaj of the monks ([ji.ov.), the porter opened unto him the door, and said 
unto him : « What desirest (aiTEtv) thou, my son? » He said unto him : « If 
it be the will of God, I desire to become a monk » (pvaj^dc). And the porter 
told the old man concerning him and he caused him to be brought in in 
gladness. For (ouv) unto our holy father, Abba Teroti, it had heen revealed 

1. Clearly here a title. Cf. nAcon similarly used elsewherr. (H. Thompson in Fl. Pe- 
trie, Memphis, I, 21). 



336 THE LIFK OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [24] 

uuo<^ tTTXim? ^'S^fot-j uTvertsuii n-^v^Ktoc E'i^c^n^'r 

• )oi.98v. nE2S:^t^ viAc^ •2S:to'rr\E tia^ckttsuoc e— ^AKA^<^ ^A^ort 

üü TlAJiJVlfS Af-JE^Onr»JLi n'2S:ET^EVmJjin V^ETXO'T^E&iiO E^E- 
TIEC^^O ^aV)T ETIECHT •2S:EE"lAn EVIASUA Cu HA^^UJi 
EiJOTA&k OTO^ VIIA^U^T^S V^A^V)»^^^ filE nEKJ^?%H^\ 
UHA'^^O ETvdc E^&iETIATAoBit SHA A^-JOTUJJaj nT^ETlErViUJll 
E^OITA^ A&k^A ^EfO'Y EEf jb^OKSUA^m ÜUOt-J TIEÄAC^ 
SIA«^ •ÄECJAJE ET1lU0rtA2)(;0C E«-JCA^HOnn EßiO?\ ^A^Uißi 
TliEliEVA En^ujono Et^^E'2S:^UJ'2S^ V^EVtUO^TIEC TIS&vErt HIE 
rVAlKOCUOC ^AE^^H^ E^EC^'iSmCA'X:^ TIE'ÄE'^W EiJO'TA^ 
lUJiArtnHC riAt^ 'XlE'Yf^tTsTtiC EUEVC^^wVJ?^ •äet\ek^ht 
rtAÜlOrt E^^H^ E'2^UJ^ 
Mol. 991». OnrO^ TIAS^M'Y ^^'^ E'Ä'JUt^ ÜnSC^X^'^''^ E^OTA^i 

Et^EU\ •XETSAl^UJ&i onrE^O^s ^^lEn^-^VtE O^TO^ '^^'\ 

nA«-j vtonruA uuAnrAit^ E^I^Ec^E^Hcnr^^A^m ftVDvnc^ 



of the Lord, lie telling him of the coming unto him of our righteous (Sixaioc) 
father. Aud when he saw him, giviiig forth splendour bv the grace of the 
Lord, he gave glory unto God and received him with great willingness 
(TrpoOufiia). And he said unto him : « ^^'herefore this haste ( ay,'A[Lrl<;j that 

lüi. 98 Y". * thou hast made (to come) unto us, O my son ? » Our holy father made answer 
>vilh liumility, his face cast down, saying : a I came hither, O my holy father, 
that ' I might remain under the shadow of thy prayers, and entreat the Lord 
because of my sins ». Then (slTa) our lioly father, Ahha Teroti, desired to 
prove (Soz-ip-izCetv) liim and he said unto him : « It befittelh the monk ([Aovx/og) 
that he be withdrawn from all things evil aud straitened as to all roniforts 
of ihis world (/.oGiAo;), cveii unto his speoch ». Tlu' lioly man .lohn said 
unto liim : « 1 trust (-e).-i?) in thy prayers that lliy licarl sliail iiiivc satisfaction 
in me ». 

101.99 1". *And thus he put upon him lln' holy haiiit (cyr.y.x), Uuowing that tliis 
thing was from God, aud lie gave him a place apart wherein he might be in 

1. Tho apparent meaning of oTog, tliough one would expect xe gi«*. or the like. 



♦fol.'.l'.IV 



[251 Till". LIFE OF ABB A inllX KIIAME. 337 

mE<^t^Ar«J^rt^'z^tc«t onr&ktusnuA ti^u^onr fi^t '^tiohh- 

ns^'\ uut^^t«-^cuJ^^tu e<^^ EY\Ar\A^ uuHn^ ^»itvtnd^Ci 
ft«sTio?smsA nturtsACKHCiC t^V^oc^ vias E^tc-^?^^ uuuaonr 
V)tvi^w ti^HT\ rttu^H E^o'Tort^ E^o?^ rt^]bE?^?^o l^i 

E^O-TA^i lE^O'Y E1Af-\EUS EHE^A^E^H A^-^ CuoiT U^^p-^ 
^UJICIE mEt^wjOTJJJO'T E'2^«JCJ V^ATErtO'TOH VIS^ETI 

UeTIEUCATIA^ 'Ki ACJiJ'JurJt JDEVtonrE'Xiua^^ l-^s Et^O^S 
E^Alf^ E'\r\^OCE'r;)(^H nS&ET\EUT\AnArmC fituai ^UJATirtMC 

A«-jv4Anr EonrArrE?\OC rtiE ndc e^^o^^ e^a^c-j utie«^jül^o 



tjuiel (r,(juy^xiletv). And lic visited liim, imparting- untn hiiii tlie word of lln' 
Lord and the hol)' Service of tliose that liad become renowned in virtue (äpeT-/i) 
and the canon (y.avüv) of the holy Synaxis of the hours ' , that he should pray 
every (/.aT«) hour, according to (/.xtx) tlie commandmont of our father, Abba 
Agathon, the slylite ■, and that ho sliould contend with (äywvitsTfiai) the evil 
spirits (-V.) of wickednoss (Tvov/jpia) and vile passions (ivot'Jo;) and bring them 
t(i noüght hy ' the strictness of continence (£Yy.paTe;a). So (o'jv) cur holy ^loi.yn v 
father, Abba John, received all the words of the old man with great Submis- 
sion, increasing in grace dailv by the loftiness of his polity {■r:olf.zii%) and the 
laborious excrcises (aw-yjai?) that ho performed (both) in socret and openly. 
And when the holy old man Teroli learnt of his virtuos (iper/f), he glorified 
God, and so (wcte) commended him before all men. 

Now (5=) after these things it befcU of an ovoning, the while (sti) our all- 
sainily (TravaYio;) father John was standing at prayer (iirpoiTeuj^-fl), that he beheld 

1. This plural uf AXn is unknown to me. — 2. A disciple of Abraham and George. 
He received the habit from John the Ilegumen, the contemporary of the patriarch 
Benjamin oä. 662\ E-W.). 



' fol. 100 r 



'fol.ioov 



338 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [20] 

OTO^ filtKJiJt riAK t^^J^OXM JjLTTmS^'Y U^^UJCIHf 

«vyujiTi^ rtH^ono mtK^^AUio nonouA njyuuTi^ üuj^-r fiitK- 
jAjcuns fiV:)wnc^ rtAmt nw titt^ssua uu'uuo'r rtÄtyvdc 

3ÜLUJH1 «ujonr E'Y^?^''^^^^ fiArrtTs^Kon meK^u^n^ rtvjuo'r 

ETlEKf Art t^fH^ EÄ^^C YVtK^An YIA^UAyi^ TICJU^T V^trtn^- 
KOCUOC 1M^<^ t-JTIA'Y^^MfOC T1AK Sl!2^ETldc t^^HS V)trA- 

EiAnoE^conom ^s^SLErtrvAtTxionr atjjjujtv^ yiA^^Mroc Hie 
riH I^A'r«±JuaT^i ^iTij^A«-jE EiETimi^'^^ ABiß^A uaka^^fve 
rtEUAÖiBiA s'JUAnrtvic riEUA&k&iA m^os vieiiuac,\uoc 



■fui.ioor. an angel {y-jy.) of ihe Lord, standing before him in glory. * And lic said 
unto him : « Peace (Eipuivyi) be unto thee, thou servant of God. ^\'hen thou 
risest in the morning, come forth from this place and go unto the cell of the 
great light (ipwsTYip) Abba John. Go thou toward the west, far removed froni 
all dwellings and mako there a dwolling and live therein. For these things 
saith the Lord : 1 will give theo an inheritance (yAy)povo|Aix) in that place, I will 
gather unto thee much people CXao;) and thou shalt lead them unto the angelic 
(äYy£>.i-/.ö?) woi'k (epyaaia) and thou shalt be to them a leader and the saviour 

'foi.ioiiv. *()f their souls (ij/.). And there sliall he for thee a holy Community (äyia -/.oi- 
vcüvi'a), and by thy name it shall be called. Thy name shall be renowned in 
all the World (xo/ip;). The Lord shall give unto thee a lot ('x.V^po;) in these 
deserts, because thou hast walked in tiie footprints of those that are becomc 
famous on this mount, and that have become rulers (äpyviyö;) for them that 
have dwelt in the wilderness, namely the great Abba Macarius and Abba 
John, Abba Pishoi, and Maximus and Dometius, and seeing that (exeiÄ»') thou 
hast striven after, their likeness, thou shalt be with them in ihe same resting- 



[27] llll': Lll'l'. Ol'' AIHiA JollN KIIAMK. :m 

UUOC 'X:EEt^ECUO'r E^OK VI'ÄETTdc ^'^ «J^mEK^SU^K 
E?iO?s ÜTIEt^OT'J"^ E^OTA^i XUMVI EIA^-^d^ UntCUOT 



place, * in the kingdom ofhoavcn. And I will visit thee, according-.(y.xTz) lo ♦toi.ioir. 
tlie commandraent of the Lord and thy name shall be called John Khanie, 
that thou mayest fulfil' all tlie will of the Lord ». 

And (Se) when he had said these things unto him, the angel (äyy.j depar- 
ted from hiiii and appeared unto his spiritual (ivveuw-aTHto?) father and related 
all these things unto him. But ßi) when morning came, our righteous , 

(ÄiV.x;o;) father arose and went unto our holy father, Abba Teroti, and 
told him those things that had boen said unto him. And his father said 
unto him : « Go thou and i'uUil tiie will of the Lord ; for the Lord shall do 
unto thee *all things of which the angel («yy.) spake unto thee ». There- 'fdiioiv». 
fore (o'jv) our holy father John Khamö besought his father that he would 
bless him, and the holy old man Abba Teroti blessed him, ev(Mi as Isaac 
blessed Jacob, saying : « The Lord God shall bless thee that thou mayest 
fulfd his holy will. Amen ». And when our holy and all-saintly (xav-xyio;) 

1. Or nnlil thou hast fulfillcd'. 



♦fol. 111-2 1- 



'fol.iniv 



340 THE IJFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [28] 

l^tu*UA'^r t«^'j"f«-i üuoc-^ rtV:)«^«-^ Et-jt^v^''^^^^ jot^- 

Ul r\MX TiE^rtACA!2S;s nrtiJ^^E^M Eidoc^ riiE nj^wuvi^ 
viEurts2S^mu\^s EiJ^t^d^o v1V)H^o'^r r\3<\ XpEuj^rtoTAS 
CJu^EJüL E^ujonr jijAf^ETi^pnr^ Anr'2S;oc on EiJ^EYVErtsujiT 

EiJOnOA^i "XlErtAt^V^OCS V)ET1T1E«^ACKEC\C E^O^E^i^^^UHJJ^ 
filE riEnSO'Y E^^EWEt^()'^?\K ATEfUEiJfE OH E^&kYnc^ 

'JSEAt^dtci )r)ErtniT\o?%yin^A ü^^h'^ fiH?sSAC ' m«EC- 
Bi^iHC Anr'ÄOC ort E^ßiMitj •2S:EA«^jijArt6^^ E^j^if-^ it\\- 
^?sH?% «^Af-jKE^.ÄKE?\? V^EnoTrtsuj'^ rt'X:ou AidriEiA^no 

Ü^^^H-^ rtOITK^^KOC JAJA^E'^t-J^JU'Y V1^E Y\E«-^CU-»UA ^D^^ 

EÖiO^» CAvvECwi TiTiEc^d^T^A'T'^s u^^H'\ nonouuaonr A^E- 



father had received Ins father's blessing, he journeyed, rejoicing, until he 
came to the place concerning which the angel (äyv.) had told him and he 

»foliiisi". made there a cave (cTr-/)laiov), * shutting himself within it and singing (^-al'XEtv) 
this psalm (({/aA[j.oc), saying ' : n 'Thou hast set m_y feet upon a rock (-st:«) 
and established my footsteps, thou hast put a uew song in niy mouth, 
and a hlessing unto cur God. Amen' ». 

who shall teil the lofty virtues (äpeTvi) of this righteous man and the 
combats wherein he conquered, which, if one should hear thom, he would 
tremble ! It is said also concerning our holy faiher that he wearied himseli' 
in Ins exercises (aw/icii;) beyond many of our l'athcrs because of his strict- 
ness, and they bear witness concerning him ihal lic was exalted in his 

•foi.ioiv". polity {mlmia.), cven as Elijah * the Tishbite. Farther, is it said of him 
that when he stood at prayer he was wont to bond llie knee with great 
effort withont Interruption, as though he formod a ring (y.ptV.o:) ", until the 
sweat of his body ((7cö(j.a) ilowcd down upon his feet like water, as though 

1. Ps. XXXIX, 2, 3. — 2. Cf. Is., i.viii. 5. 



fol.Ii]:!i". 



l'ol.lOliv'' 



[29] Till-: Liri-; of abba ioh.n kiia.mi-:. va 

iH^OT it^tuos uutü^t rttUH\ triH t'^TSiuj üuu-ionr 

0'rrt\ji)'\ JüLYiE?\Aroc uAiAnr^HTS:^ uuon ^»-^ üuo^ 

fi^ujii suiAnvivjc 2^^UE y^E ta^ onr?%AC ncA^l; taeieuuo^ 
nEU^Auc^o^onr fi^Ef-\E^no&vs jliuou ;^'X:ou uuos An 
E^^SÄUJ unE«-jTAm onro^ )c)Enr\'X:su^fmAnr efveievi- 
^ujonnc^ ^H^o'r Eö^EiEnE^ETW^nrum V^ETionr^A^^js 

ECJUIEU Er\Et^&kmC AUOK ^<JU Ai'XlEUnOU'Y fl^OITO 
AV\A^H1 OXUOf-J E^OS E&kO^v V^EHnS^A^S ATnH^^JJC ^ 

nAUETI^A'Y r\S?sAOC UUAS^^^C A^E^ U'L^fH'Y HO-T^OUT 
* EC^CErtCEH VtEUOTKTußiATsOn Et^EJJy?\H?^0'rS V^EUTITSSU- 
Ü^^CA^Si nrUKlA^O^'HJUUA f^^E VtErtSUJl fi^EO^OpOC 

1. «-J altered to ox by a modern liand. — • 2. llead ke rAp. 



oiic slioiilil bathe himself tlierciii and wet bis wbole body («rüfio.). For (xal 

yäp) he made many thousand obeisances ([AETzvoia), such tbat if one should 

write them, lie would not be believed of them that are without faith, for 

whose sake the wrath of God conaethV But (i/.Xx) wherefore speak I thus ? 

for indced (xxl yap)ye do all bear witness with me to those things that I teil. 

* In truth (äX-/iOw;), O my beloved, I am as one in a great and buundless sea ♦foi.iosr 

(uäXayo?) without means to reacii the shorc, because of thc greut virtues 

(äf8T-fl) of our all-saintly (iravayio;) father, John Khame. For indeed (xai 

yap) mine is a tongue of flesh (cz?;) and sinful Ups ; I am not able to teil 

of his honour. Yet when I see your eagerness and how gladly ye desire 

(e:Tif)u;j.crv) to hear his Lift; (ßioc), I myself take courage the more, my heart 

rejoices in gladness. Verily (äT^riOtö;), O my beloved, ye Christ-loving people, 

1 am as sounding brass * and a clanging cymbal (z.'JaSa'Xov) - , when I speak of 'foLiosv 

the good deeds (/,aTÖpOüjiy.a) of our God-clad (Oeo^popo?) fathtT, John, he 

1. Epli., V, 0. — 2. I Cor., XIII, 1. 



*fol.lO'il 



'lol. Ki'ir' 



342 TUE LIFE OF ABBA JOllN KHAME. [30] 

^uam eriAnmsvy^ AriTJurnoc uat^scij^ rttt^Ti^AE^c 

loonrs nxs AtvyATitfTio'ruE'Trf ujj^^E^j^Tiofm V^tno'T^o'^ 
oiro^ fi^E«-J^tuu"^ fiÄET^Arto'rc ^t^TsS. '^^^'^oc ^uj» 

T^^^J^^iK'^c ntUTisnfo^HiHc E^onr^s^ßv ^^aits'K 2^Endc 

•ÄEonruH^ ficon nA^ '^onru^u ahtie ^c'2S:EncA^ßiA^or^ 
^AT^c<3^&i^J^^on ^AriKECOTi "KE ort ünAt^OTUiu lKw7\ 

KA^A ^u «E^oonr onruw^j ncoTi ^At^E^ArtA;)(<JUfm 
ETiiy^c^E f^^E<^E^vlC'r3QA:^m Ida^s V^a^o«^ V^Ert^Art- 
no^^wiiA fiA^CA'^s^^ üu'xio'r Anr'Efut^fE ort E^B^wntjj 
!iS:ErtAc^^msu AviTTE o'T'ivE V^ErtYiSE^oonr o't'z^e V^etitv^e- 

•2S:UJ^^ EßiH2% EO'rKO'TÄS rtCf OU UUAir A^t^ E<^&iO?^C - 
EV^O'rrt E'Y'XO^ UEriEnCUJC Ji)A«^^UJ^^t«-J fi2)^"Ji?\EU «^ACJE^- 
■»^A^^m l3Er\T\AS^^A2vUOC Et^ÄUJl UUOC '2S:ET1T1A'Y noT- 

1. Corrected from at. — 2. Usually oyotvC. 



whose Life (ßio;) and whose virtues (ipeT-/)') may Ix; likeiied unto those of the 
great Anthony, and especially (iimIicxo.) all his acts (Tupä^i?), wliich shino as 
the Stars of the morning, so that when I remember thcm I am at a loss 
(-aTTopeiv) and fearlul and my mind (vou;) is amazed. But {allx) I too shall 
say spiritually (-TTveuixaTixü?) with the holy prophet (TTpoip-ziTnc) David ' : "O Lord, 
open thou my lips and my mouth shall speak thy Idessing'. 

It is told also concerning our all-saintly (ivavxyio;) falhor, that many times 
he would * not cat from Sabbath (uxSSaTOv) to Sal)balh (ijaS&aTov), but {^i) 
at other times lie would not eat save every (xara) forty days. Many a time 
he would retire (ävaj^wpstv) to the dosert and lic in (juiet (rTuya^^stv) by 
himself, in austcrities (iroliTEta) not to be dcscribed. Furtlier thcy boar wil-. 
ness concerning him that he slept not, (oü^e) by day (oö^e) or by night, save 
only for a brief slumber, leaning against the wall, after which he would 
arise swiftly and would sing (ij/aX'Xeiv) in this psalm (tj;a>.(>.6i:) , saying" : 1 will 

1. l's. L. 15. — 2. l's. cxxxi, 4, 5. 



[31] THE Lll-Ii OK A13BA JOHN KIlAMfi. :m 

^msu fir\A^j^?s rttuo-rc^ou yinA&kO-r^t «EUOTunort 
ü^^'Y ^f^K«^ßi ■ O'TO^ Jbtri^At j^CE^onr^sTis viTSit^tc^-^M i,j4v, 

"ÄE^H EICUJIEU EnACA!2S^S OVO^ E^AfE^ EfUiOT ^H 
EHEUUA'r E^UMS ÜUOt O^TO^ ^H EÖUE? UUOS Et^EUEft- 
^S^«^ TlÄETlA^uaT OTO^ ETIEl ^AfO^j ETIE^AU^O UrtETtUA 

rtujtum vijbHi^ A'T'iSioc on E^*&iV^^cJ rt^otj TiErttuJT 
EttonrAßi iujj^nrtHc "äe^ua^i rt^&kEn Ejijj^fEn^crtHO'r ^^<^^o'r 
* scAYi o'rApE^H KAn ke^'j^Bi jjyj^t^rtAT e^ujov V^eh^h m. lo.-.r' 
EH^HFi E^fiEcJpAS onrri XnEt^^Avi Efc<JunT JDErtuj^^ n^ßiE« 
üi n\ix nE^nAj^CA2S:s utta^a^ nnsd^fn i^o^^ rtEU^t- 
UTCHH^sort TiEun^j^TVOKA^nru>\^^c tiAc^rtj^'r e^ujiot 
Enrcon oiruwu^ rA^ ftcon väAc^rtAT EnuaoY undc 

1. netj added above. 



not give slecp lo raine eyes, uor slumber to mine eye-lids, nor rest unto 

ray temples, until I find a place for the Lord and a dwelling-place for the 

God of Jacob'. * And thereby bis souI (({(.) and bis mind (•/lyey.ovt/.o?) shone ♦loi. lu'.v 

forth, and bis face sbone tbrougb tbe power (jvepyeia) of tbe Holy Spirit (uv.) 

wbicb rested within bim, becausc of bis purity ; according as (/taTx) our 

Lord Jesus Cbrist, our good (äyaOo'c) Saviour, bath said in tbe boly gospel 

(cOayys'Xiov) ' : llc tbat hearetb my words and keepetb tbem, be it is tbat 

loveth me; and he tbat loveth nie ray falber will love bim and we will go 

unto bim and muke our dwelling within bim'. It is told also concerning 

our boly father John, tbat all thiiigs that the bretbcn did, * wbether (xxv) a'foi.ioör. 

(deed) of virtue (äpsTvi') or (xdtv) otber matter, be would see tbem in secret. 

For this cause tberefore (ojv), was bis name renowned everywhere. who 

raay teil the number of the manifcstations and tho mysteries (jxuiTvj'p'.ov) and 

1. Cf. John; XIV, 21. 



344 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [32] 

fi^Y^^A^of A E^onoA&v AT'Xoc ort t^&kETitrti'JU"i e^onr^ßi 
»"JAnrtwc 'X;tOTUH^ ficoTi «ijAconron^c e^o^^ «•js^e'^^eo- 

2vOKOC EiJOTJ^Bi JÜliJ^^^A iJH EIACÄ^O nxn UVlEndc iHC 

3ic^ujv\i «KE V^EnntE'Ä'Ju^^ e^otaBl fi'Y^'^?^^^:« E^^ 
Et^Ö^s E^Ai^ ^M^?^ ftnEc^crriJ^E^c AC\ EJ^onrn jj^j^^o«^ 
fiTS^E'Y^to^KOKOc E^onrA^i UA^?A ECjyoTi )r)Eno'rusji)'Y 
fiCHo'r fij^iuyCi3^'2s:s üuot^ cro^ viA^E^AnuH«ij fiAr- 

TETsOC UOUjt T1EUAC l^07\ ^^^tri'Yö^'V ''^MB^^ ^^'ÄEVI- 
TTEt^^O '^^EO'Zi.OKOC 'h.E AC^On^r^OCCJ OnrO^ TIE'ÄJ^C riAt^ 

^SEI^S^HSIH rtJ^K S<JUAVirtHC C^UETIfST ÜT\A»^>1^S SMC riEU- 

HEc^suAi rtXrj^i^oc nEun^nnA E^ono^ßi •x:Eurtou'Y onro^ 
fi^EK^A'2S^fo mEK^<Ju»Tii fiono^uju^ fi'2S:uj^t ek^ot\ V^e«- 



the revelations (iTCOJczXuij/t?) that he saw froni time to time. For (yäp) often- 
times he would see the glory of the Lord upon the altar as it were a fire 
and would hear the angels («yy.) singing the Trisayion at the time of the 
holy Anaphora. It is also told of our holy father John that oftentimes there 
appeared unio hini the holy Theotokos Mary, she who bare for us our Lord 
•Jesus Chrisl, our true king, and she wished' him * peacc (£tp-/i'v/i) and com- 
forted him. 

Now ßi) it befell in ihc holy night of the liords Day ()tup'.ax.-fl), the wliile 
(k'Ti) he stood performing iiis Synaxis, that the lioly Theotokos Mary c«me in 
unto him in great and unspeakable glorv and a multitude of angels («yy.) 
accompanied her. He feil upon his face from fear, bat (^i) the Theotokos 
raised him and said unto him : « IVace be unto thee, John, beloved of my 
son Jesus, and of his good (iyaOo;) l'ather and of the Holy Spirit (tv.). Be 
of good courage and steadfast and bccome a mighly mau, having great 
enduranee (ürropv/i), fighting against the cvil liostile (evavTt'o;) spirits (tuv.). 



MV>1.105v' 



1. Lil. gave. 



[331 Till-; LIFK OK ABI5A JolIX KIIAMK. 3/,.-, 

5comujntA fxcEuoir'Y etta^a« e^^h» Itsiujic ticuot 
UT\A*ijH^t ntunEc^^^^HriH ^^EU^E<^CKETl[v^ UA^^Juni V^eu- 
TEv:K:omuirtsA ' vnArrt^soc tia^^kot mEKUoriAc^H-noi inv» 
^ton o-ro^ n^oTiijuaTts Enr^uj^c EViEK^Hf^ firiE^^s mw\- 
ß^onr^^oc ^^wjAnc Erv^co^T yiie ttekua n^ijuiv^^ j^aeue^ 

AfE^AnrtEK^H^l UOjyS ^mEKUUi^T OTO^ ftCE^p? firtEK- 

o-TA^CA^n^ ficEAfE^ ETiEKEmoT^M nEUTiEx:rtouoc ftio-r- 

UETIfErtOTEfHO-r V^EYlO'TArATlH «CEUJUJnt V^EnOTIO-T^O 

riEuo'T'i^sKEOcxnH 'Y^^JiJ'^^^ rtEUujio'T «jyAErtE^ '^tia- 

1. Read nÄ2i.5A«MVH. 



* that contend with thee. And lo, I am with thce until thou shalt overcome »loiKier 

them all and tlicir evil (y.y-a^'.a) ' and fulfil all the will of my Son. 

Further (elrx) 1 will establish (my) covenant (^locÖYinr,) with thee and will prc- 
serve my mercy for thee; for I will abide in this place with thee, because 
I love it; and it shall become for thee a holy Community (iyta xowwvia), and 
there shall be unto thee multitudes of children and they shall call it by thy 
name; and shall build a chnrch (i/.y.l-ficix) in thy Community (xoivwvte) and 
shall call it by my name; and the blessing of my Son and his peace (etp/vv)) 
and his protection (<;x£7ty)) shall abide in thy Community (/.oi.).* The angels ^foi.ioGv. 
(a-,7.) shall Visit thy monastery ([y-ovair/fctov) and shall watch over thy cliil- 
dren, that no traitor {im^cAoi) break through the walls of thy dwelling- 
place for ever. As long as thy children walk in thy Avays and do thy bid- 
ding and keep thy commandments (evroX-zi) and thy laws (vojao?) and lovc one 
anotherin charity (>.yy.~n) and rcmain in purity and righteousness (^waioTuwi), 

1. The form xaTa(Ta);ia is not fouml, Init niiplit herc mean 'designs, projects'. A 
more probable reading is xa/e?!«. 

PATK. Or,. — T. XIV. — F. :!. 23 



'fol.lO/r' 



*lol.l07v". 



346 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. " [34] 

^ut^oTpo ftTi^^HOT? OTO^ Ac^ «^^ fir'Y «nouicuA 

HCJüLonr UTiAjijHfs n^ujuAni fiV)Wic ^Alnt^ A'r'2S:oc 
"ÄE^vjTiTiE ^c rtA^ ct;x" V)E«TiiuortAciHpion jö^^tV^onrn 

sujy^ vtCuo'T Tttru'xn 'Ki «•KiKtoc Ac^<±)uayn V^tnoir- 
rt^vy^ n^A^t E^&iErncA5S;s eiacxioiot riAcjj vi'x^t'Y^to- 
T^OKOC E^OTAßi ULAfiX uA?\?%on oion Ac^^junt fiV)Mncj 
n'ÄEO'rrn^'Y «25:011 r^A«-Jt^^^A2^^^^y^E tcj-isiua üuoc 

'2S^EA^K'X»'Y fiCATTEK^O T\()C TTEK^O TVdc TlEIAiK^'Y 
fiC<JJCjj unEf^U-»«^ ÜTiEK^O CA&iO?s ÜUOt J^jua^ rtMS 
ftOnrßiOH^OC liTlE^;)(AT ftCJ^K JiJArtlAif^ ÜTIEKOnruJJiJ 
Y\6C TTArtOIT'Y AHM« 



I will abide with them for ever and I will bless their ministration (Ätx/.ovix) and 
their handiwork and they shall inherit (•/.Xvipovoij.srM) eternal lifo with thee in 
the kingdom ol' heavcn ». And she gave unto him three gold solidi (w^ua^oL), 

*roi.io7r. * having upon them the sign of the Gross (araupo?) and said unto him : 
« Take these and put them in the purse of the luinistry (^taxovte) (and) the 
blessing of my Son sliall be in it for ever ». (It is said, Behold, these lie in 
the monastery ([/.ovairTvipiov) even unto this day.) Wlien she had said these 
things unto liim, she wished him pcace (sipvi'vyi) and filled bim with sireugth 
and she was liidden iVoni him in great glory. Bul ißi) our rigbteous (^waio:) 
fathor was in great gladness by reason of the words the holy Tlieotokos Mary 
had said unto him and there carae upon him a slill (fjiaXXov ouv) greater power. 
And he sang {^cilla^)) saying ' : « '1 havc soughl aftcr ihy face Lord, tliy 

♦lui. 107 v°. face Lord, have I souglit. * Turn not ihy face away from me, be unto 
mo a helper (ßo-flöo?), forsakc me not, that I may fnllil thy will, Ü Lord my 
God, Amen' ». 

1. Cf. Ps. XXVI, 8. 9. 



[35] niK I.IFR Ol- AHIIA .l<)||\ KII\MK. 347 

nnt v\6q '\ ftnoio'r V^tnrtoT^&iHoir? ih^ot ^tntuTio'r 
rtAcot ft*±)^H^ ftt^^uji^ ntuuaonr ^titviTun^tc^^^ fint 
EUOTJ^&i ^ujj^urtHC Ac^^uarit ftc^^^T )otyiUA\ riißvtn 

^uuoT^ ^v^^o'r At^A^^oT ü&kuaK u.T\trt()C mc y^ys- ^t^" 

rATlH riEUünr^A^S rtEUüntHJE^sM^» «EUOnr^SfHTAH riEUOT- 
UE^^EC^UJ^on^ fi^HT HEUOTUEH^^C?^ rtEUO'TUEIArAÖOC 

«Euo'rrtA^'Y rtEUünruEi^EU^Anriy rtEULonoErK^AnsA v\3<s 
onrn oir uonon "ÄEc-^sf^ üu'juo'r a2s?^a «a«^'Y^^^*^"^ 
nonro« n\&kEn e^^otasiot ecj^äuj uuoc rt'xjo'r «js^e^h 



I 



It is told also regarding him that at tlic time wheii tliey were buikling 
thu wall ol' the monastery (jJi.ova.'jT-iip'.ov) aud the towers (Trjpyo;), the angels 
(zyy.) of tlie Lord would help them in all their labours by the commandment 
of God ; but (Si) especiallj' the most high power of God was a fellow worker 
with them, through the luediation (^rpscSsia) of the holy Theotokos Mary. And 
(^e) the name of our holy father John became renowned in all places, so that 
(w<7Tc) everyone blessed ([y.x-/.apr(etv) him as (tJ?"^ prophet (Trpoo-flTV);) * and as »loi. msi" 
teacher in his gcneration (yevea), because he cruciüed his flesh (5ap;), aud bis 
desires (i-'.9ju.ia) and his thoughts '. All his cares he raadc the servants of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, our God, briuging forth the fruits of the Holy Spirit 
(tcv.) in love (iy;cir/i) and gladness, and rejoicing aud peace (eif/jV/i) and long 
suffering and kindness (-;(p-/i(jTo?), and goodness (-iyaöoi;) and faith and 
meekness and temperance (ey/.päT£ia) -. These things not only (oü (j.ovov) did 
he (himself) perform, but (äW.aj to everyone he taught that tliey should do 

1. Cf. Gal.. V. 2'i. — 2. Ib.. 22. 



'fei. 108 V 



■ idl. lonr 



348 TUE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KIIAME. [36] 

l^tTTs^'Juu^ rtACJ^n«-^ ri^ot^ ort nEit«-\-*rtAoc)r) ^h 
E^TiAcs'Y vtitt^cAfE t^uA'JJicV) ort E^o?% )3trtitc^cA^E 
rtonriAKO ^h tncs-^ lin^TirtA At^uA'JucV) ort e&iO?s V)trt- 
nsTtrtA nonrujrtV) fttrtt^ a?^h^<j"c «jS ntn\"J-i t^oxA&k 
AKcs-^ onro^ AK^^cV) ftOTOTi^s^^ unrtAi^Kort etcoti 

ATKUJTV rtAK ft'JSErtEKKApTtOC V^Ertf rtEuE rtEU?\ 

•^onruatA) onrrt uj rtJ^UErt^A'Y E^^^iAUtunErt E^ßiE- 

T\^LUU^ mE<^UAKA^SA ftC^\U\ ACJ±)tJUVtS "i^E EHAt^^E 

HAc^ E&io?\ ^\noic rt2S:Er\Ertsuai EiJO'rAßi ^uAArtrtvto 

AC^JiJE rtAC^ EYt«^AC-JE ACTJurtC ft^^^'JLiTsEU ACCU-»f E&kO^s 

ft^Ui&i rtS&kEH E^EmAC rtrts^HKS oto^ ac^ujtv ÜT^^C^uj^ 

rtiE ^ECA^E onro^ Acjyuart^ uuo'rrtA;^" onro^ rtAcf- 

f^TlE fi^ArtT\0?^H1SA ErtAUJ^^OX rtEU^ArtACV:HCSC ETOUJ 
EUAJiJua ^uac'ivE ftnEYlECf AU E^CJUSI ft^OnOO O'TO^ 

fi^O'Y'^u-^0'r'Y e^oc ft*x;E^ArtUH^ ÜTiA^^j^Ertoc rxc^sui 
ftnoTE^uortA^^^H V)AnoMC onro^ ack^^t rtuaonr rtonr- 
uortH onro^ acj^'jutts ftA^;^"^^^ ^^?"^ e'äujot rtAC^ 



♦l'oi. losv. them, saying uuto ihem ' : « Whatsoever a man soweth tliat * sliall he 
also reap. He tliat soweth unto his llesh (czp^) shall rcap also oi' the llesli 
{(sy-ol) corruption, (but) he that soweth unto the Spirit (tiv.) shall also of 
the Spirit (tcv.) reap eternal life' ». Verily (ä>.vi9ü)?), our holy father, tliou 
hast both sown and reaped spiritual (ttveujaocti-co;) fruit. Thy fruits (xap-o?) are 
increased unto thee an hundred and sixty and thirty fold '. 

1 desire, then (oW), O niy beloved, to relate unto you concerning the des- 
tiny of his blessed {['.y.-/..) wife. Now {^i) it bcfcll, when our holy father John 
departed froni her and weut into the desert, Ihal she arose swiftly and dis- 

• loi Küir. tributed all she had to the poor and she shaved llic hair * of her head and 
became a nun (-pvayvi'). And she practised many austerities (iro)>t7£;a) and 
exercises {oicy.-ricuc) in great number, so that {ioa-e) her narae was greatly 
renowncd and there gathered unto her a niullitudc of virgins (TcapOt'vo;) and 
thcy became nuns (-[jLovayvi) under her. And she buiit for them a nunnery 

1. Gal., VI, 7, 8. — 2. C.f. Ml.. .\iii. 8. 
1 



I'nl. Ill'.l V. 



il(ir 



[37' TIIH LIFE OF ABBA .IO[IN KHAMK. .T'.O 

Tide ü-ro^ V)trtc^At Acj^^JUTis viÖA-ru^Aitn Eiio'r'X:^? 
ft^AnuHuj jjL^\/'r;X" EJoüirrv tn^uavtV) vttnt^ O'ro^ nj^nr- 

rtAcos ü^»JUK iüLTiSc onro^ j^caij^s V^trtntCE^oonr acu- 

At^Esio'T eVdo'tyi ft'i^'ju^ort ü'^'\ fi'ZLtvttrtöto^o^oc 

nEUitK'2S:muonru e^'Y k^u otas e^eviec^^mt * ioir-*iüi 
^iHOTi jjL^^H'\ rtnsArrE2\0C onro^ I^ETtEt^rtonrc orts 
firtsACUJiuA'TiOC cjyiAjij'X:«^ ^n üti'2S;ujk utiek^j^so rtEUTts- 

1. Ileady tiAj>)JLOT. 



([;.ov/i) and became a ruier (äp-//,Yo;) over tliem. And she assisted tlu'üi in good 
works and in tlie ways ol' tlie I.ord, and thus liecame a leader lor the salva- 
lion of manv souls {'\i.) unto eternal lifc. And tlie virgins (TrapÖsvo?) began tu 
increase in number, * the grace ol' God assisting tliem. And ßi) the blessed 'loi.ioov" 
woman was tlie servant ofthe Lord and she increased in her days and went 
to rest at the Lord's pleasure, through the prayers (eOp) ol" our holy father, 
Abba John. And lo, tliese others also our God-clad (Osocpopo?) father John 
broug-ht in as ffifts (S<Loov) unto the Lord. Man^' indecd (ir/iOci?) are the 
souls [^.) that thou hast saved i'roni the evil devilish (^ta?o).oc) enemy, hy thy 
holy prayers. 

W'hat tdiiguc of flesh {'7y.fl) or wliat Iieart of man sliall teil of thy upright- 
ness and thy glory in (i:p6;) the nieasure of thy honour, and of thy con- 
stancy toward God. Even be it (/.zv) one whosc heart is pure' as are the 'f<ji m^r'" 
angels (äYy.) and his mind (vou?) like unto the incorporeal (äcoJy-aTo;), yct 



350 TUR FJFR OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [38] 

KÄ^^ KAiiJ^ 4^?"*! ETAt^'Äoc n'ÄtTiEndc Vhc tiJc Vde«- 

'^Cuo'T riA«^ t^Bit^^7AS 'Y^'^^^y ^^X^?*^' '^t" A2s?^A^ 

ti^^xiono EiAcj^iun ÜTis^j^T mt ntt^dc V3t^^T^^KJ^^^ 
t^i&iE^A^ 'Y^^^'^^ö'^^'^ finAC<J"K uv\scA'Ä? ft'iA'is^uji 

^iJ<^An^fVi'X:o'r fiiErtEc-jr\o?\Hi?A nA\ a^ej^aviota^ 
loi.iiov". ^s^oionr ^v^^o'r t^^ca'X;^ rtAonrujijAjc iBio?^ * ft^onro 
A?\?^A ^E«v1A;X"-' n^AUUH^ ricxirt E^rtAn ftiErt^Ä^uji 
rt^An^onr'Ä^ eti'Y sül^ueit? rtu^iEn «ü nAUEnfA-^ ^t- 
AcjiyuuTi^ fio^^ouAC^oc V3Enn\jijA<^E'r E^onrA&i oxo^ 
fi^Et^^cBiWJ V)tmE«^rtnEA u^^h-^ utiattsoc eia^^e^- 
UA^sr V3Enn^AT\ocio?%oc ^Asr\E ü^^h'Y ürtEnsuAi 

V)Ertu^ioy\oc E^onrA^i EiA'r«i)'^T\^ V)En^^^HT ^sieh- 
n^onpA^CA^rt^ T11E rsdc Acjyujns !2^e UETiEncArtA^ ehs 



shall lie not be able to teil tlie tulnoss nf tliy honoiir and tlie glory that the 
Lord hath given unto tliee, in heaven and upon tlie carth; even as (/larz) 
our Lord Jesus Christ hath said in the holy gospel (s'jayY£>itov) ' : « He that 
glorifieth me, liini will I glorify. » For this cause I would indeod ([as'v) be 
silent, yet (akli) fear I lest I come under the charge (iy/lniLx) of the wicked 
servant that hid in the ground the silver of bis lord. Tlierefore will I be 
instant and prolong the discourse and will ti'll olhcr few things from bis 
upright deeds aiid the boundless victorics of bis austerities (ttoIiteix), such 
that should onc teil them all, the discourse would be greatly extended. 
'idi.iiov". " Bat (ocX'Xä) we will Icave aside niany, choosing to teil sonie few, rcminding 
you, O my beloved, tliat he becamc famous (övojAanTo?) in the holy deserts 
and a teacher in bis gonoration (yevez), even as Paid, that ])ecame the thir- 
teenlh of the apostles (ärooToVj;). Thus it was that our holy falber, Abba 
John Khanie, became the fifth in the iioly topoi tlial were in Siiiiiet, by the 
commandment gf the Lord. 

1. Apparcntly iiol .iii cxiicl qiiiitatioii. 



.1.111 r. 



fol.lll v° 



[39] TUR LWE OF ABBA JOFIN KIIAME. :{5l 

utTstn^rt untfAn viot'^^j.s fi^e ntudc ?mc ti;^^ ntrt- 

riJ^iCA'Ss E^»Juonr V^trtnH E^^v^n onr rj^^ UTit^?^^ 
fi^<juu\ Eus EiTÄ<JUK ftn^)o^c» E^Af-^^OT^o'r •x;En<5<c^^vn 
Eßi02\ ^j^Ti^ujoT E^^onr\'^ ftiE rt^^u^u^ EiJ^nort^'r •ii.E 

EnE«^UETlE?%SOC fJIE ' rtS7^E)ÜL»x»U Ei^ujonr j^nr^oKono 

OT&kMt^ loEn^ArtrtonruEfon viEU^AncT^Anort «;)(;ak^ 
E-r^iO^c oT&vEnE«-^?sor^cuoc loEn^j^nuETS f^Ä^2)C^'^^'^" 

OT E&iO?s E^^<JU01^ UTlSE^OOnr TIEUYV^ETS:'-"^^ E'T'^^O'Y 

ftcjuonr HH^onr ^^TErtTituHsrn e^ota^ täie ti^ci^c eia<^- 

GiAorcJuiEU "z^E rt'JSE^j^viUHjij E^Pivntjj «EuriEcj- 
AfE^H ATö'Juo'r'Y t^ot^ «ÄE^j^nuH^ Enro^ onro^ 

1. Read nxe. 



But (8i) after these things, wlülc yet (in) our lioly father John dwelt in tlie 
cave ((jTUT;>,aiov), meditating (jjie>.sT?.v) the saving name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
cur God, with prayers (Trpoceuy/i) unceasing and * secret petitions beyond tf^inijo 
telling — for (oü yÄp) no man knew the fulness of the sufferings that he endur- 
ed, t'or hc fled froiu the vaiii glory of men — i( befell, when the evil demons 
(i^aijiwv) saw his perfeclncss (-tO.sw;), tlioy armed against him in trooj)s 
(vou7.£_5ov) and dark hosts (TTpaTo?), tliinking to bring him down from the height 
of virtue (äps-r/-,) and attacking his mind (XoywjAo;) with cvil thoughts uncea- 
singlv, hy day and niglil and terrifying iiim with phantom l'orms. Hut 
(8i) the righteous man pursued after them all with. the holy sign of the 
Gross (TTaupo'c). And (8i) when God saw his * great endurance (ÜTroaov^'), he^f^i jn^. 
gave him rest from all thoughts'. 

And (Äc) when many had heard concerning him and his virtuos {isi-'ö), a 
great multitude gathered about him, and they besought him that he would 

1. (Evill thoughts. 



'foI.lI2r< 



352 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KMAME. [40] 

KuuT vtonpuA n^u^ni onoo^ äitkujjt uotti^u^-^ uy\e?%a- 

nuuoTnE Eno'r'2S;j^^ rtr\0'rv^'r2)C>^ EiJ^onr^^^E^ e'^uei- 
ovA^ ftiE * T\m^^'^ EicoTTJ^rv nionruEr(^ETtsjii?\H?s 
nEU'Ynvici\A fiio'ruErt^Erto'rE^vjoT moTA^E^ 

ETnoioßiO üno'TC'JJUJ^ TiEuio'Y'>^'r;)(^vi ftioTjjjujns 

fi^E ^'\ JüLTioTu^o E&kO?s ftCHOT rtifiETi A<^CEurv^ rtuionf 
ft^AriKArtuari rtEU^Artnouoc ETOTA&k A«^CEurt^ rtu^o'r 

UTsnA^^Kort ^AmETimirujm^ ^a^ ^t^^ovt^ETi vtuaonr ort 



put upoii tliem thc habit ((s-/rii>.ci.) of the monkhood (-y.ovayd?). And there 
were (given) iinto him many children and he formed them into a oommunity 
(/coiviüvta) tlial they should build a dwelling-place. And they built a great 
ocean (xeTiayo;) of dwellings and high towers (xüpyoc) and walls firmly 
(xa'Xw;) established. And the bretliren began to increase more and more 
([AaX>-ov xal j^.ä>>).Qv) and he taught them, for the Valvation of their souls {'l.), 
'foi. H2r'. that they should keep the unity of * the right faitli and should love prayer 
and fasting (v/ioTeia) and love one another and keep the purity of their body 
(cwjAa) and soul (']/.) and that they should be lovers of the poor and lovers 
of charily (äyairfl) and should love solitude and should put beforc them at 
all times the fear of the Lord. And he established for them canons (xaviöv) 
and holy laws (vdp:) and set up for them a meeting-place, where they 
should meet togelher in thr middle of the nighl and should sing psalmody 
(i|/a>.;AW'5ix) and spiritual (TTV£U[jLaTiKo'?) songs (w'^/)) ' until the light dawn. 
And he bade them morcover one and all that they should pray each one 

1. Cf. Ispli.. V, 10. 



[41] TIIK Ulf-: nV ABBA .lOllN KIIAMK. 353 

«AK ^AETit^ ntKfAvt «Auo^rrt tßyo^s *±)A«»rtr»tA 
A^A-rtAcioc Ac^^on«^ tßiOTs Ö^?^M tHAc^jii'Ji^ni onrnToi UM'. 

V^tnonr^A^t «Ät^H E^OnOA^i ACJOTA^CA^rt^ ftriEt-^J^H^^ 
E^^OTEfOrtOUA^S« U^^Art JjinEVmJUT A^&kA Ä^ATIA- 

c^oc V^Ertn^Tunoc fi^E T\sr rtA^^onr ftAr^oc onro^ ce^^^ 
UTiEc-jCTA^CA^n? «JjAEV^O'rn E^oonr «E^ooir E'^Cuo'r 



apart. And by tliese (rules) and some otliers also the wliicli he delivered 

untu tliem ' lie caused tliem all to wax liot in godly zeal. ♦i'ui.ii2v° 

It is told also concerning our holy father that while yet (et'.) he stood 
singing ('ly.\\u•^) with the brethren by night, our father Abba Athauasius 
flie apostolic (ztvottoIwöc) appeared unto him and said unto hini : « Peace 
(=;pT,v/i) be unto thee, thou good and faithful servant of God. Peace (sif/iV/-,) 
unto all thy children and unto them that obey thy laws (vöjxo;). The sweet 
smell of thy prayers (Tupoceu-^vi ) hath mounted up into tiie presenee of God, 
as a remembrance for thee for ever, and thy name shall endure to all gene- 
rations (ysvez) ». And ßi) when our father Abba Athanasius had said these 
things unto him ' he was hidden from him. Thereforc (ojv) was the holy *foi.ii:ir> 
man glad and he commandcd bis children that they should name (övojAx^stv) 
the name of our father Abba Athanasius in the hymn (ui^-vo;) of the Three 
Holy (äY'°?) Children; and they do his bidding even unto this day, to the 
glory of God. 

Now (8i) the first of his children he made of the order (tz;'.?) of disciples 



'fol. 113 V 



354 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [42] 

Ko^^onr^oc rttunAsu^i th^v^Xk'J"« rt^J^^rs «euvias<juii 
AUTJ^ns rttuTiA^'Aii rtui^rs nx\ tiAnrtfut^^E V)A- 

^ujoT * 'X;tA'Trtfr\EÜYi«jA üm^uoT ftit rtiviuA 

TITIOTKA^OfTJLJUA TUCA'X:? «AAJ±)Ai EYl^^OTO 

UtriErtCAUAs 'h.t ort ata^jas ^ üntn^uAi e^ota^ 

oirui«ij EiA«-jA?%H\ ^s'ÄtrtTJS^nrc^ACiH^ion Ac-jt^^wnc 
E'Y^^^^ö?^ E^JOTA^i At^j^ujTn u'Äto'riJCio'r fint Tide 

ETAmei^fSA fi'ÄETiEnsujT tiJonrA&k At^-^ ^^'^ '^^'Y 

1. Read? auoh?. 



(jj-ocÖYiT^'?) unto him, and tliese are their names : our father Shenouti' the 
completion of tlie collectiug together of this congregation ; and my father" 
Papa Mark, Iiis successor ((^lä^o/o;) after him, and my father Coluthus, and 
my father the deacon (5t3t/.ovo?) George, and my father Anthony, and my 
♦fol. 113 v°. father George, of whom is born witness * that they were worthy of the 
grace of the holy Spirit (ivv.). And if one should begin lo teil the fulness 
of their good deeds (/.aTo'pOwpLa) , the discourse would increase greatly. 

And (Äs) moreover after these things they laid hold of (?) our holy father, 
and consecrated (^^sipoTovsiv) him priest (lupeirS'JTspo;) against (Tvapa) his will. 
When he was standing hefore the sanctuary (6u'7i7.'jT-/)'piov) and hegan the 
holy Anaphora, a glory of the Lord canic iipou ihe allar, as it were a fire. 
And when our holy father saw this sight (O£top;a), ho glorilied God. 

And (Se) after these thiugs our holy father was told by the angel (ayy.) 
that staved by him that he should go unto iho parts of Southern (Egypt), 

1. Jolin's successor, Shenouti, appears to be namod in a ralojjlion dated A.D. (US 
(Zoega, p. 45). (E-W.). — 2. Cf. p. 23, note. 



[MI THE LII'E Ol' AMBA JOHN KHAME. " 355 

ATiJA^UEi E&k02\ ^^itnrvdc tOT"2^tXKortsX \c "^^ \\ns- 

^Eus üuocj nti^E'^&iOHiJ?^ n*iE ^-^ onro^ .s^c^'Xi^us 

T\o>»HT\j^ EiAc^-a^i^o'T * V)EnTi^uA EiEUU^nr E^A'rr^AT'lul ii,v 
'K^ n'2S:Erts^ujiu^ fiiE tisua eieuu^it etiec-ja^ehh ats 

CEUo-v^ E^^Art üv\^^or\oc EIEUUA'T '2S:ET1ATTA ^«^au- 
rtHC 3QAUE u^AEV^onrrt E^oo'ir «E^oonr yiEt^uA^HiHC 
2i.E ^"^c ^Et^cu^TEU ficAriEt^s'^i «A^o^\ t?^^ ^^"^trt- 
riEc^dj^T^AT'^s riE^oonr «s^Ert EnATtETt^tuT ^snoir V^eh^- 
UAfwc Ec^o^\ E^^n«^ V^ErinsuA eiatiec^^uit u^e riA^-j 



tbr tlie salvatiou of other * multitudes of souls (J/.) together, after the manner *iiii.ii'£r. 
of our father Abba John and our father Abba Pishoi, the great lights (9(0- 
cT-zfp). And (Si) our holy father called unto one of his children, namely our 
father Shcnouti, his successor (ÄiaSo;(^o;) after him, and said.unto him : 
« My son, I am called of the Lord to a ministry (Siaiiovta). Lo, I entrust to 
thee the brethren, do thou stand in this place and direct the brethren until 
I return unto th^e by the will of God ». And (Se) by the grace of God he 
departed unto Southern (Egypt), the help (ßoröei«) of God guiding him, and 
he found a topos and dwelt tlierein. O who can recount the austerities (-o/.--- 
Teiz) tiiat he practised * thore? And (Si) when the men of that place 'i^iiiw-. 
saw his virtues (ipsT/i), there canie multitudes unto him and became children 
unto him, and the name ofthat topos is called Papa John Khame' even unto 
this day. But (^i) his disciple (jaxO/itvi?), being (ws) obedient unto his father, 
stood upon his feet all the days that our father passed in Southern (Egypt), 
Standing in the place wherein our father left him when he departed from 



356 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOIIX KIIAME. [44] 

Un^UA njJJ'XiTI^ ^uJC'ii.t fi'ltc^ujA^^t Vl'2^EV\t«^C<J"UA 

u^fM*^ vionrcTTT^oc ovo^ ArticnHO'T "^^o t^o^ •x:eu- 
*roi.iiM . T^tc^^tjjLC» Tio'rKO'r'2^^ rint<-jjjnoyi * üuocjj u.r\E«-j^ujiT 

ü^^H'Y ÜTten^uj-j E^oTA&k A&k&iA ^u^ArtriMC hake 
V:)EnTTX;m^^EATTA TiA^rtonrin 2S:oc rtA«^ '2S:eo^s nws 

filACE Uuaonr OirO^ Af-^E^TluJ&iUj At^^»JUi?% ETASUJCV) 

^H^t^ E'rcoTV rinEc^{ ftiE«^2^Eucj e«^o^s e^ ah^^ V^Ertn^uA 

E^^rtA^'Y 'Ü^^'^A^W^MC AC^O'T'Xi^Tt ÜT\^ArrEriOC a<^a- 
AC^Enc^ E^^^HT )3ET1'\'ÄOU f^^E ^^ A«^^AUOf^ E^ßiE- 

1. A altered l'roiii o. 



Iiim, showing oudurauce ('jurcifxs've'.v) and directiiig tlie house, so tliat (wirre) his 
body ((7(ü[;,a) swelled' like unto a pillar ((ttCXo;) and the brethren besought 

♦rui.iiör. him lliat he would sit a little and rest * himself. (But) he eonsented not 
and the brethren set some stones about him, and he remained standing 
in great obedience; even as cur holy l'ather, Abba John Pake", wiien 
Apa Papbnouthius said unto him : « Wait thou I'or me thal I may drink 
water », and forgot him, and departed unto the harvest and left Abba 
John Standing, so that he passed the wiiole summer through; and lie camo 
and found iiim standing in the pbice where ho had said unto Iiini : « Wait 
thou I'or lue ». But (Si) when the Lord saw the l'ailh of the disciple ((y.xO-/;- 
Tr,i), he sent the angel (äyy.) and hc took the band <if our holv falber Abba 
John and brought iiim to Sliiiiet, by the miglit of CkkI '. Ile tobl iiini concer- 

♦loi.u.Tv». ning iiis disciple ([j.xO-/it-/i?) * and he told him also, saying : « The day drawetli 

1. Cf. Aeg. Zcilschr., 187(1, 44. — 2. See Quibell and Thompson, Excav. at Sak- 
kara, n"" 27 and 22C. Ile was clearly an Upper Egyplian saint. Except here, lie is 
always Jolin »nAKE. M' Evelyn-White suggests tliat lic may be the Jolin of the Hist. 
Monach., chii. xv, xvi. — 3. /. e. by supernalural means. 



[451 IHK IJFR OF ABBA JOIIN KIIAMK. 357 

Vyscs 'ivi^üt^ o-ro^ vtitKÜnort üuük "K^yitoc yiturt« 
E^o'TÄ^ ^Hpo'r CA^o^t^ ''^Mö^^M ^5iO?% ^a^oc-^ u-Xle- 
rv?<s^rrEr»oc eia^-^^ "ke vi'ÄEn^ouHS e^ua ÜYisuAiJViiHC 

o'ro^ Ac^do^ Ey\Ec-jcuiuj^ At^onr'ÄAt V^Ert-^onrnonr !h.E 

T\Ec^^'Jui ETJ^nrEU» 'K.^ u'^s^EnscHMonr iHfono Anri^ujov^ 
E^o«^ onro^ Anrdicuonr E&kO?s ^tion?^ ÄtviAnruE^ 

UUOC^r\E EUAWJ'J" •X^EVlAC^'iJOTl VI^XIOITTIE V1*^^E«-^'^rtOU'^ * 
rtEU^Et^'^C^'J" EYVO'T'^^AS nTIOnTV^'V;)^« EITCOTI OnOO^ 
«At^^^^TlE ft^AnUH^ UACKHC^C EtV^OC^ V^ETA^^H E^^HT\ 

lUviETACAnAS "Z^E ort AC^AriA«^ ünonr^o t^X^ E'Y'^^ort 
viA<-i eB\o?% V)EVinE«^V3»c^ ^H^onr onro^ Eonro^&LE«^ e^o?\ 

l3EV1V\A^k^OCUOC E«UE^ ftV^SC^ HEUKnoriT^SnOC rtEU"lA2%E- 

riuiou vi^E ^onrujsu^ taeulvhuovih E^l^)E^^T\()^c^ «eutih 

CKnrriH EICAnj^'JUS rt1«i)E^tCii VASIECJACKHC^C rtEUT1E«-JYVO?^H- 



lol.unr, 



iiigh whorein tliou shalt have rest from all th}'' labours and rightly ((Jf/caiw?) 
take thy res! with all the saints ». Immediately the angel («yy.) was 
Iiidden from him and (ßi) the righteous man came to where the disciple 
(lixB^T-flc) was and said unto him : « Well done mdeed, O my obedient son ». 
And he touched his body (cöiaa) and it was madc whole. And (Ss) imme- 
diately \n' arose, and did obeisance to him, und his fatlier blessed him. 
And (^s) Avlien all llic brethron knew, they gathered unto him and received 
blessing from him, for they loved him greatly, for he was to them * both *ioi.ii(;r, 
an encourager and a teacher for the salvation of their souls (ij/.)- And iu- 
perfornied many severe exercises ( i'w.r,(7'.;) in secret. 

And (Bi) further, after these f hings, it pleased the king Christ to give him 
rest from all his labours and to translate him from out this world (xocp?), 
füll of sulTcring and dangers (/.ivSuvo;) and wretchedness (TaXa'.irwptx), and to 
bring him agaiii t<i the heavonly Jerusalem and the resting-places of light 



'riii.ii6v°. 



358 TUE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KIIAME. [46] 

cuoirnE Indc o'ro^ n^nr^o'rHO'rT tfoc^nt ri'ÄtUEc^«ijH^s 

^^VilEVt E^AT1Af;^UiU O'T'ii.E UTTEf ^^C^ö'^^^ Uuaitri 
UApEC^^E^iJ^HnOT f1•2^ETIE^En^'Jußl ft!S^'2S; SIAS "ZvE E^AC-J- 
2SO^O'r rtUJOT A«-Jt^AS «^^Et^&lA?^ EHJiJtJUS At^riAio E«s;;)ro^- 

oc E^An^s ficjut^ EnoE^^ofsrt VDErtonrCHo'r rtEUO'irns'Aj'Y 
fi;Xua^oc «ArrET^oc rtEU^ATA;)(^»ju^oc fiiE rts^i^sscEOC 

EIA'TJiJ'JJTTS ^Sn«±)AC-JE «AS ETACJj;)(;0^ EVSOnrCUOT EC^JAJOVS 

♦lol.iiTi . 2^t V^ESIOnr^E^sHT^ * SIEUOir^A^S SITE TSSTSSIA E^OITA^ 

Ac^onruisi sif^^t^ ^H'l UTisnriA esiesi'äs'SS^ ündc onoo^ 



and the raansions (pvvi) on high and the tabernacles (tx-yiv/,) above, in exchange 
for his exercises (äW/üri;) and his austerities {■Ko'Xirsia.), and to give him eternal 

♦loi iii;v. life jn the land ot' the living. And the Lord visited him with a little * fever 
and as he lay he blessed the Lord. And all his childreu were gathered 
unto him and they said unto him : n Our father, speak a word unto us ». 
And (^e) he said unto them ' : « Do not hold disputations regarding heresies 
(aipsai;), neither (o'j^e) go in to a house with women, nor (o'J^e) put your trust 
in rulers (apywv), nor (oüSs) get for yourselvcs substance ('jIt,); (but) let your 
handiwork sulhcc you ». And (Si) when he liad said tliese things unto 
them, Iie lifted up his eyes and saw the companies (^opo?) that had como 
for him, clothed in («popai'v) glory, and a grcat Company (y.) of angels {x^y.) 
and companies (y_.) of the righteous (r^axto?) that dwell in the dcseri, after 

*roi.ii7r. whose example he had striven. And (Se) being in tlie joy * and the gladness 
of the Holy Spirit (t:v.), he opened his mouth and yicldcd up his spirit (ttv.) 



1. The following apophthegms are extant also in Greek and attributcd to Ihis sanie 
Saint, there called 'A66ä Xo)|xai (or Xaijioif) thougli it seems more probable Ihat their 
author was some earher namesake, from wliom the sayings were borrowod. 

'EXeyov TTEol toü dßSä Xwfjiai oti [/eXXwv TeXeuTav ünt tot? uioi; «ütou fx^ oixYiffTjxe [iExi alpETixwv, 
(tYlSJ c/^te yvuioiv (i£Ta ap/övtwv, uriSs latuiatxv otl /eipE? ufiiöv ^Tr),oj|ji£'vai tl; to (juvaysiv, äXX eotw- 
ooiv [xäXXov »)itXu)HEv«i si? TO oiodvai (Migne, P. G., LXV, 436j. (E-W.)- 



lol.llTv", 



[47J TUE LIFE OF ABBA JOIIN KIIAME. 359 

THEnuj^\ou nEurt^ETiJ^^Tsort e"i()ocs At^()SK?^w^o^tou^J^ 

fllSUH E<^«JJE«iJ fic^OS nOTCJt ' E^O?^ JÜ^^W^ UTtSJ^^'JU- 

UA"iJ^ Anrt^At üuoc^ E'rE^^\;J^2^^^^ ^^i^h uuo?^ jiJA«- 

lOnnO^wt^ CJ^TlESE&iT fi'^EKK2\HCSA rtHE nEUS'JUI EiJOnrj^ßi 

rtovKAnA^ACic CArvECHT urttKA^t ^'^y^A.^ ftV^Ync j<t- 

nj^t^ujoY^ u^oH^^ArtE ftonrort rn^En e^«a^?\M?\ ftV^m«^ 
KA1A onrrtA^'Y ^^t^ooir 2^e E"^Ac-JU^or^ uuiof-j viV^mcj 
rtQSEntrtnj^nAr^oc Ei^onr^ßi fisuai ^uji^rtrtvjcrvE cohtke 

UTlSAßiOT ^OtAK E^ECUOT ^ E^OOTABi JiJ'Jun^ UEUJ^Vl 
XUHH nE<^JiJH^» 2i.E «J^fE^'Y 'SEJJjnAi t^?"^ E'2S:'JUO'Y^nE 

1. Read E«^»yE»yc«oi. — 2. Kuad netjcuov. 



into the liaiids of tlic Lord aiid liis souI (<\i.) was fakcn up to lieaveii by ihc 
angels (ä^yOthat liad corae for him. And he received of the Lord the prizes 
(ßpaSsiov) and the (sTTioptov) ' and the high rewards (eTCa,6>.ov) and he re- 
ceived the inheritance (•/.'XYipovoy.ix) of all the saints. 

Fortlnvith his holy body {nütaa.) was enshrouded with great honour (Tip) 
wliilst it dispersed sweet odours like unto spices (apojy.a.) ; and they bore him, 
singing (({^aX'Xsiv) before him, until they brought him unto the east of the 
church {i-A-Al-nnia) of our holy father, the hegumen (-/lyoüfAsvo;), Abba John -. 
And they made for him a vault (xaTagaci?) beneath the ground and laid him 
therein; and ' over it they built a notable monument (p^i^a) und he was ♦foi.i77v°. 
for a help (ßov;6£ia) unto everyone that should pray therein with (xaTz) failh. 
And (5i) tlie day whercin went to rest our Iioly and all-saintly (TCavzY'.'j;) 
father John was the 25'" day of the month Kiioiak. May (his) holy blessing 

1. An unidenlified word. — 2. This is John Colobus, commonly styled ilegumen; 
not to be confounded with the 7"' ccnt. John, Hegumen of Scetis. (E. W.)- 



'ful. llSi- 



'foMlsr 



360 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [48] 

EcjnEUUJonr ^aetxe^ 

Lacuiia of 8 folios. ->, 

* Onro^ At^cV^vn«^ fiKECon V)ErtTT2sm^f tvj^y\v\j^ e^- 
onrA^i f E^V"^ £25;»^"^^ ort n^s ue« vie^qsluj ftuu^onr e^- 
ßiEnw EiEf^ms^^Erm l^ErtO'rrn'^UM «j^i^uji fv^wi 
Enros fiA^nA^'Y ErtH EiErt'Ä'J" üuujioir Eij&vEvv&kioc ürtEn- 

fiKO^E CEnj^jjyu-int V^AircA^onr? ü&iat^aau hcj^^ac 
finH ETÄUJi ujüLOC E'Y'^^^'^^^ •ÄEO'ruE^no'rTSinE onnos 

1. Wrilten tlius witli n here only. — 2. Read? nas.AJO. 



be with US, Amen. And (Se) God poured out mercy upon his children and 
they began to increase and multiply and great blessing was on their minis- 
tration (Staxovia) and great security and uprightness in their holy Community 
(äyt'x y.o'yoi-jlx), througli the prayers (eü/-/i) of our holy father Ablia John Khame 
and the mercy of God shall not cease to be with them for ever. 

[8 füll, »lissiiu/ '.] 



* And he wrote it oiice more according as the Holy Spirit (ivv.) came upon 
him again. Now {y.i•^) these things I have said concerning them that gain- 
say (ävTi'Xe'ysiv) with unconvinced opinion (yvciu-/;), believing not those things 
which we teil of the lifo (ßiV) of our father Abba .lohn Khame. Hut (illx) 
woe to such as these, for they sliuU perish in their gainsaying (ivT-.'XoYtx), 
Oven as Korah; they shall b(! under the curse of Balaani. Isaiah tlie prophet 
(upocpTiT-/)'?) tellcth of tJK'ir shame (?), saying- : « 'Woc iiiiUi ihcm ihat say of 

1. Fol. 117 is tlic last ofquire 2^ (Aj ; fol. 118 Ihe lirst of quirc c (ü). — 2. 6/. is., v,20. 



[W] IHK 1.11- 1-; Ol- AlJliA JOHN KIlA.Mi:. ÜOl 

fiviH tT2S;uj uuoc Eyimnn«jum\ 'Ätoir;)(^AKmE onro^ unw 

ftn^.^KO'T'JS? tOVIA^^ E^O\ CE^HOf-J^\ HAt^ VtlO'TtJJy- «lul. iisv. 

cujitu on ^ ^]pH EiE^Avi"n?%Erm ^mA uia^ujt üyiek- 

^HT E^O^ V:)Enn»r^A^]pH EÖOTA^ ETli'ZvVl OTW nSCI^C 

EOOnrAßi AT^On«^ VtEUmU^AnO YITE T^2)C^ vi'ÄETAmT'i^A^ 
VIAnOUOC AT'2^EUE0V1Onr'Ä ETEC^AriACTACSC ULEUtnCAT 
fi^OUrVt At^OnOOn^t^ ePiOTs ft-^^EKT^SAKOC ^»^EH^^^OTA^- 

CA^rt^ urto-r^o K^CTArtTmoc at^e viEuiiKA^t smo^ 

E^O?% JoEUTIEt^uJOnr EWO-TA^ «A^ UET1 E^'iSvJU Üuuucr ^ 
TIAUEVI^A^Y ^^^'^ ftHETEVIVIA^'Y 'X;Eh)Ert^O'rujiuj * Ü^-^ -toi 1 1 .r. 

ArtcV)As nt"iE^i vio-TKonr-x:» üue^oc e^o?^ VDEnvt&k^oc 

ÜT^EnUAKA^SOC VltUAT ETH-Z^^H OnTH O'TOn J^'X:03ÜL ft^U-i^ 

1. Read cKAtt2i.A?^AV;ni. 



trulh ihal it is falseliood, woe imto tliem tliat sa\' ul' tlie liglit tliat it is 
«larkness. woe uiito tlieni tliat say of thal wliich is sweet that it is ijitter ». 
Our Saviour saitli ' : « If one cause to stumble ((j/.av5a.Xi"(£iv) one of these 
little ones ' that believe on me, it were good for liim that a mill-stone [ij/An:) »foi. iisv- 
Nvcrc hanged about Iiis body and tliat he weie drowned in the sca » ; and : 
« W oe to that man tlirougli wliom the occasion of stuml)ling (^y-av^alov ) 
cometli ». llear again, thou that gainsayeth {iv-OJyny), that (iva) I may 
convincc thy heart through the holy Scripturcs (ypaip-/)). For seeing that 
(£TC£iS-fl oOv) the lawless (i'vop;) Jews hid the holy Gross (sTaupo;) and the 
tomlt of Christ and spake falsehood concerning his resurrection (äva^raci;), 
alter 300 years Cyriacus revealed it by command of the King Constantine " 
(and) lieaven and carth were filied witli its holy glory. Now ([^iv) these 
things 1 relate, my beloved, that yc may believe. For by the will ' of God Toi. iifli" 
we have written unto you a small portion (jAepo?) from the Life (ßio;) of our 
blessed (jx-ax.) father. Seeing therefore [kTzvM o'Jv) that they that believe have 

1. Mt.. XVIII, 6, 7. — 2. V. Guidi in HOC, l'.iO'., 310. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. L'. 94 



'fnl. II 



'lul. llilV 



302 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHA:^H:. [50] 

U'^OTuami üni^o^ onr-^E uuovi «jj-x^ou nTto-r&kAK? 

X^^ tc;X" ^»'2S:tuo'Tnujiox kaia tica-xis uTidc o'ro^ 
V)trtcj7Ai itrirtA^-Y 'j^tuuort jy'X:ou vi^t^^t fiAmtKiu- 
tvtoc •X:tu'Äou fi^vjuY\ ü^&k^oc untniuaT e^otaEi 

''^° A^&kA ^»-UAnrtHC ^AUt ' ^A\ EIAnOE^Utö^E UUO^-J 

riArt vt'2S^E^AUi^EO^o^oc ^i'^oinErt^onno'r EnrcoT\ Anon 
^u-»u Avt^suj^uj 3Liuo<^ EnrCuonr u<l\7^avi ü^-^ t'v^E^- 

^UETt nEVAE^ UT\En^uan E^O'ITA^ E'rjJJOX^Onn HAVt 

^turt Anort V^ArtEt^j^w^i EriEU^ l3EUonnA'X;fo "XiEUuort 

^H Elevin 'ÄECEriAEUS tfO^-^ AY1 E^&iE^Ai AHEf^H^C 
nCA'X^^ UJAT5ASUA ATsH^J^'J^C ^ rtAUEH^A'Y ATlOnrnOC^ 

uuovi u^oonr jbtnnE^c^uE'rf UTiEvt»ua-i e^otaPi 
u^^^H-^ firtH Enonono«^ uuujonr V^EnwH^Ti ^c^s^eaot- 

f AJ^^ lyujYts U^?%AOC fJ^ETI^H^t Un^C?^ 53EnTT2S:mü^E'^- 

1. Read otoBiüt^oc. 



power for all tliings, ^^et (^i) have not llie luibelievers a single penny (öSolci;) '. 
But [illx) wherefore say I these things and others also? Who can Jiinder 
tlie winds of heaven, or who can hide the rays (iurtv) of the sun, or wlio 
can hide the light of the moon? Neither (oü^s) can a city he hid that is set 
upon a liill, according to {-/.v-tD the saying of the Loid"; and by Ihis we 
helievc that no advcrsary (ävTtx.si[;.svo;) lialli powcM- lo liidc Ihe Life (pio;) of onr 
■ holy falher Ahba .lohn Kliame, * of whom God-clad (öso^dpo;) men, worthy 
of Irnst. wilh one accord bare witness. And we too have proclaimed it, to 
the glory of Uie name of God, as a rcmeinbrance for ever of onr holy father, 
a boast also to us, bis children, knowing surely that there is nothing hid 
that shall not br kiiown''. Vov ihis cause we have begun to speak tiius 
l'ar. \'erily (ä.>.r,Oä);), O my beloved, we are gladdoiied today in the commemo- 
ratioii of oiir holy falliei', like theni thal are gladdeued with wino. If 



.1. Tills phrase (wilh 66oXd; instead of ßöXo?) occurs in Budgc, Coptic Apoc, 83, and 
lUi. Malt. 52, apparenlly as a biblical quolalion. — 2. Mt., v, iU. — 3. Mt., x. 2Ü. 



lol. 1201°. 



lul.liov 



"51 IHK l.ll'l'. (>!■ AI'.ÜA JdllX KIIAMK. .%:] 

T\AS^H'^ A^^fAU U^\?ßitOC UrttTXtUJT ^X\^\ lv\QA^A^\AZ 

TJAs^H-Y ndc vtACUO-r Eonrou u^ßiEVt e^viac^a^ urv'X;'^u 

U^\7^\OC UUEVA^'JUI n^EC^O*^«^ eV^OIT^^ ETIE^H^ V:)EV\OT- 
VIA^^Y "tU^\7H E^rtACJU^EU E^O?^ EY^^-KH A« TS^E^^r^^^J^^ 
EHETE^IArAVtH ^ ^^AUESI^A^^ T\^?%AOC ÜUAniOnr-Y tr\E^- 

UEö^E rtvAjnEu V^Ert^AnAvio^^^Esc eiteti^ot -äeIdeu- 

^EO^O^OC n-t<JUT joEnTiAtCHOir ^AS E^^EC^^u^n^ 

T1AU rico?NCE?% uvtEc^;X''^M ^Mö"" vt-iSLEc^-Y V^AnmEm 
A^?sA ^f^^C^^ ^s7S:E^A'^?Nnr2/;rtsA nuo-r&i AHEt^AK^m 



thci'i" was joy for the people (T-ao?) of thc childrcu of Israel wliiiii tliu aik 
(y.'.gwTo;) returned unto tliem from out the land of thc gentiles (äXVJoü'Xo;), then 
how great indeod (y.y.>.Xov) is our joy in thc finding of the Life (ß;o;) * of our ♦foi.iinr 
holy falhcr! If the aik (/.i^wto;) Struck the gentiles (ino9tjlo;) and Dagoii 
tlicir god ', even so did the namc of thc Life ([ii'oc) of our falhcr strike Satan 
and his wicked (Ttov/ipo;) demons (f^aw-wv), If the Lord blessed the house of 
Aminadab by the bringing in of llie ark (xio.) unto his house "', even so shall 
the Lord bless everyone that shall write the book of the Life (ß'o;) of our father 
and bring it in unto his iiouse in faitli, and htm that shall hcar it. Sceiug 
that iir.ii^v,) we have said sulTicient unto your benevolcnce (äyar-fl), O niy 
beloved, ve God-loving people Om;). bearing witness unto you with faithfui 
proofs (ä^TÖSci;^;), that by the will of God he revealed unto us the Life (ßto;) 
of our God-clad (6eo(fopo;) ' father at tliis preseut linie, that it miglil hc fornul. i20v" 
a comfort unto us. God hath not left it hiddcu under the bushel, but rather 
(iXlz) hath set it upon thc golden candle-stick (l-j'/y'-y.) and its rays (i/.Tiv) of 
liglit havc reached unto thc uttermost ends of all the earth. 

1. (y. I Silin., V, :]. — 2. /b., \ii, 1. 



'£01.1211' 



364 TUE LIFE OK ABBA JOHN KHAME. [52] 

C^AAntu ort ftTA'Xiui E^ujTtri üwj^»v:E^ujißi fi^^H^s 
UTttnsuji E^onoA^ "ÄEAC^ujns V:)ErtT\CHOir urssvis^'Y 

^S'ÄtrtTVKA^? IHfCJ E^Bitrti^KO ETAAt^J^OTl ^'Y^iS^UJiOT'Y 

EV)onru f\'2S:E^AviEn^&ionr?\oc fif«juui oto^ ^nrt^^ fionr- 
ijuAonnc E«fonr^iUJA^c t'YKor-nujvnA vtit Titrts'JUT 
t^o'Tj^&L fict^o?^c EHAnodt Tiujonr rt^ArtuoTKs avia- 
^uionr E^Aionr ewsco^i •ÄErtionr^ua^^ ey\echt onro^ 
fiioirV^uATE^ nniV:)E?%?%o^ fi^o'ruiuji^ ÜT\tuA e^ohoa^ CH 
•^vn^-^ n^^H^^ ETAc^«^r\i unm^nr EiEuu^nr CA^o^- 
onr Anronr^xirt^ e^o?^ n'ÄE^Artn^ji)'^ «j^f ak»jliu rt^^C^j^UE 
Eiro? ^Ö^'Y jbt^^onrcuoT ait^ UY\o'ro'ro^ ^^?w^ 
E'2Sujo'r EnronrujjA) eujiuk üuujionr CAioionr j^nrE^^O'Y 
Axs ETiECHi fi;)(^uj?sEU E&vO?% V)ErinsjüLA ETEUU^nr onoo^ 
Anrj^E U'-'-ioir E^ArtKEUvi«^ uu»J"ii fiiE n^co^i ATrtJ^nr 

ETH'Zv^AKU^n E'vdoTS:^ ficwaonr CAHO^OT A^TEUi 'X:Eonr- 



llear further and I sliall teil von of tliis other wonder wliercol" \ve arc 
told, that was donc alter tlie dcatli of our holy father. It hcfell in the 
tim(> of the great famine that was in the öSS'"* year of the Holy Martyrs 
(äyio; jAaoT'jpo;) ' , that there Avas great afiliction (6>,':(j/i;) over all the land be- 
cause of the hunger that prevailed. And some treacherons (ä-ioouXo;) nien 
gathered together and made a band, that they sliould break into the coni- 
'lui.iji r". ' munity (/ioivtiivb.) of our holv father and despoii il. And having taken 
ladders, tiiey set them up against the wall, tiiat they niight descend and 
slay the cid men and despoil the sanctuary. Ü, the great wonder that 
then befell! Suddenly there appearcd great black- serpents (Spa'zwv;, fcarful 
in their form, and rushcd upon thcm, wishing fo devour ihem. And ini- 
mrdiately they were afraid and carae down quickly from thence and betook 
them to many other places of the wall and they saw the serpents (Äpäjcwv) 
pursuing aflcr them. Immcdiately they knrw llial il was a power of God 

1. y. f. A. D. DUO. — 2. See Intruduetiün. 



[531 TlIK LIFE OV AUBA .lolIX KIIAMK. 3(55 

o-vj^^ uj^^s5! t-rCuonr u^^^^n UTitrisuji e^joT^ei t^ßi^Y- 

Vi-^UE^UMS A-TE^UE^fE Vt^TI fJTS^E^AVIUHU^ E^O?^ fiJDm- 

ot^ Aco-von^c ' E^'JLAO'r vi^o ov^^e^o onoo^ viiect3.u- 
uiO'T E^^vtru^i'Y uunrcivj^soyi fi^onro !h.E taevisuji 
jyEnox'^ ^J^s E^AtJJ^«Ju^^^ uono'^^^A'^o;)(oc JüLY\Ertu3.KAf- 

l. Kead':' •JS.EACOTOttgc. 



lol.l-jfr». 



Mul.lilV 



ihal \vat(hed ovor them' and tliey departed * in fear. And when thoy 
arose in Uh- laorning they came to the monastery (pvacT-np'.ov) and told thc 
brethren tliose things they liad af tempted to do and those that they had seen ; 
and they estahlishedapeacc (Eip-zivr,) with them for ever. And (^s) the bre- 
thren. when tliey heard these things, gave thanks to God, who had saved 
them tVom this bitter dcalh. This gift (Swpsa) was theirs through the 
mcdiation {TZfiaSiix} of the holy Theotokos Mary, to the glory of the name 
of üur holy father, because of the covenant (S-.y.O-fl/.r,) that she had established 
with liini. saying : « I will be with thy children and will save them for thy 
sake unto thc cnd (cuvTslsia) j) ; and this she fullilled unto him in deed and in 
Word * of truth. And many among them hear witness unto us that she TuLUir" 
appeared unto them face to face and told them great mysteries (pd-r/if.ov), but 
(Äe) especiallv our father Shenouti, he tiiat was a successor (SiäÄo-/_oc) to cur 
blessed ((/.«/.. J father and became ruh'r (äpy-ziYo?) over the Community (xowwvia). 



1. /. e. the monks. 



36G THE LIFE OF ABBA JOIIN KHAME. [54 

fi^OXO ETl^'ii.H 3^V\yy^ fi^AVtKEUWJii ftC^U t^ßitVISJ^^- 

rtA^ujiu^^ E^os j^r\ E^^s'X;<Ju riOTKonr'X:^ üue^oc fiTE yiek- 

»iol.lJJv». fl*-1E Y\^r\rt<J^ E^OTA^i AKjy<^TT^ rtuj^H^ U'^'Y u^^h^ 

SJL^^H'^ yiicAAK AKrtAir e^'Y fi^o onr^E^o ü^^m^ 

riAK ri'X:ET\dc Ü^fH'^^ VtE^^EU riEUUAVIACC« AKrtAIT 
ETIUJO'Y^ JÜL^*^ U^fH'Y UUUJ'TCHC AK'YvtOUOC UTIEK- 

?\AOC ÜTiEt^^H'Y A«^iErt^onnv: vt'is^ETtdc ri'^iJ'^tio'rvj&k 

Ü^^H'^ «AA^UJ« AKT^&v^ E'2S:ErtV\EK?sAOC U^^H-^ 
U<^Sn«EOC AtJJ^Uiyi^ vy^^OK n'X:Ey\CA'2^^ UTVdc U^^H^^ 
fiSE^EULiAC YV^n^O^VnHC AKUO^ E^iOTs V^ErtOTT^riA 
Et^OTA&i UC^p^H-^ riV1^AT\OC10?sOC AK^»^US ^^'2S:Eri'^'Ä0U 

'lüi.i.'or. ^Mfc rtiE ' TttArvn^KvuEOC ' AK^ujui ^i'ÄEnrtE'^onruju^ 

1. Read AmiKsutnoc. 

Lct US content ourselves thus far, lest ([jM-Ko-t) the iliscourse increasc 
greatly; for (iirsi^-/)') \ve have let't out much on accouiit of those \vitlioul 
faitli. Verily (i>-/)9äj;) my whole time and the remainder of niy ycars sluiU 
not sulTice me, that I may teil a small portion (;j.e'fo;) of thy glory, O my 
lord father, nor can my mind (voG;) nor my tongue teil of th^v honour, O 

♦lui. ijiv. beloved of Christ, thou well-famed of ' ihe lloly Spiril (~v.). Thou 
wast the friend of God, even as Abraham; thou didst ofl'cr thy body (cöp-a") 
as a sacrifice (Oudia) unto liim, even as Isaac; thou wast wise as Joseph, 
the Lord gave thee a lot ([ji.epo;) like unto Ephraim and Manasseh ; thou didst 
behold the glory of God, even as Moses; thou didst make laws (v6;;.o;) for 
thy people (Xocd?) like unto him; the Lord entrusted thee with the priesthood. 
even asAaron; thou didst pray hir thy people Asco;) like unto Phinehas; tho 
word of the Lord came unto thee, even as Jercmiah the prophet (ivfO(pr,Tr,;); 
thou wast lilled with the Iloly Spirit (tcv.), like unto the apostles (ä-d(;To).o;) ; 

*iol.i2;ir'. thou didst trample on all tho power ol' * the cncmy (ivTi/.e'|i.jvo;'), thou didst 



fol.I2:iv°. 



[55] IUI' I.IFF. "1' AHliA .li»ll.\ KIIA.MI.. 307 

T1AU0C n3^S l^0\ VtOnoUHJJJ nCUOT V1A\ ET^t^E^^A?^. 
«16 nmvÜA E^O'^A^i EijßiETlEVCIOnrßvO KE rJ.^ AVnOT^iO 

finEKE vtECUECsc onro^ A^^»^r\s ekeh^ot Ioeti^^h 
EiE^ujiK 3<\c6s ürtSE rt'2S:m(3UJ^ ake^^uj^ nV^HioT 

uriEKdc loEnoT^Auy^ A<^iAioy: h)EHiJUw^ hviek^^h^ 
At^E^^uoT riAK US u^Aöuoc Enodocs ' EnruE^ nüäonr 

V3EnnS^\7HOTS AK^S^t E&kO?N iül^^^H'\ JüLVtS^EHS AKOnruJ^C 
E&tO?^ Ü^^H-^ ÜTtS^E r\Q,\<^S nit T\S2%S&iAr\OC AVtEKCiJOS 

not^f^s ^uiuj E&kO?% ü^fH'Y fio-TK^mou EiyfeiETnoir&kO 
vtEUO'TiAF.SA^^^C"^ ^"^^ rtsuoriA^oc AK^'J^ns siono^E«^- 

CiE^S VtlE '^UEÖUHS rtEUO'T^Et^CEUrtEUOUOC ftlE 'Ya^EIH 



trampln on all liis dcsires, tliou dielst scatter all Iiis eounsels; llion didst 
brino^ low the violence (öppi) of desire (sTriQuaiy.) and all tlie wilrs uf liis pas- 
sions (tczOo;) wliich take many forms and wherewith lie hath deceived many, 
tliroua^li fornication (-opvsia) that contendetli -with the flesh (/^ip?)'. But [Si) 
tlioii, O our fatlier, thou didst make thy members ((ae"Xo;) a temple of the 
lioly Spirit (ivv.) -, because of thy purily. For (/.al yzp) thou didst purify 
thy five senses (xh^-raii) and wast faitiiful wilh Uiat which is thine. Thou 
didst takr llic live talents and traded \villi tluMii and llioy mad'e five talents 
and thy pound (fAva) made ten pounds (avai '. Thou didst j^ive them unto 
thy lord with gladness and he honoured thee in the midst of thy fellows 
aud grantod thee ten exaltcd gradi's (ßaO[;.ö;;, * filled with glory in heavcn. *iui.ij.i\° 
Thou didst flourish as the palm-tree, thou didst wax broad as the cedars 
of Lebanon ' ; thy perfume hath spread abroad as a Uly (/.pivov) from the 
puritv of thv virginity (irapOEveia). Thou didst become a ruler (äpy-oyd:) to 
those of the desert and a captain (Ta^tapyo?) of monks (pvayo'c); thou didst 

1. Cf. Kph., VI, 12. — 2. I Cor., vi, 19. — 3. Cf. Mt., xxv, lü. — 4. <:/. Ps. xci, 12. 



308 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. [561 

roTUtnoc fiiE onruH^ fi?^AOc AKj^u^m fio'rsc^AM?^- 

"lol I2'u° s-ivJC ÜUOn 2i.O?NOC VtV^MT«^ ' AK^'JJiTTS ftO'TC^OS UOXt^t 
^UJVtK InSiS AmAIA^OK jotYlO'V uj TttrHUJiT E^OITA&k 

^A^EVi^?^A0C ^t?\«?% A?\H^fujic AK^'J^Tis rionr^^«juciHf 
tt^t^onr'Jjm^ tuA^ua V^trti^E ntu^^'X;Eny\KA^s ak- 

t^&iE^A^ "V'Vö^ E^OK ^ TAAdc ftSUJil EKEÖS V110T UTIA- 

riEU^YoC"?^ E^AC^mno^ fi'Y'^t^^ cvioir-Y Ert^K^'z^o^nr- 

Mol i2'.v» 2sAK»Ort ■ E^&LE'iS^EArtOK OnOi'i^iUJi'lHC TIAK^AJÜLA^OC 

onno^ fiArvs^oc V^ErtncA'ÄS onro^ ekes^^ ürsAUEnrf 



become a i'ouutaiii ol' rigliteousness and a law-glvcr {-wm;) of virtue (äpsTrl). 
TIlou wast a liaven ()itpiv) oF salvatiuii l'or many souls (']'.), thoii be- 
camest a sage (cocpü'c) and a teacher (^iSiiy-a^o;) and a leader (yiyou[Aevo;) for 

'lüi.i:;'!]''. many peoples;thou wast an Israelite in whom is no guile (Äo'Xo;) ' ; * lliou 
didst become a sweet savour, acceptablc before God and bis angels (ä'yy.)- 
Unto wliom sball 1 liken tbee, with whai shall I bonour thee, O our lioly 
father? Verily (äVr/iöi?) tbou art like unto a golden bell; wben it soundetii 
ihe people (Xao;) rejoice. Verily (äXviOäJc) thou Avast a Jiglit ((pwcT/ip), 
shining fortb grcatly in lioaven and upon tlie carlb. Thon wast a sweet- 
smelling rose in tlie <liurc!ies (sy-xV/iit«) of llie ortliodox (öoÖq'So^q?) and tlie 
elect doctors teil of tliy honour. Tlierefore I licseecb tliee, niv lord 
fatber, receive of niy bands my little gifl (i^wpov), poor thougb it be (/.av); 
and do tbou number nie also witb tbe widow (/;/"':«), tbat cast in two 

•füi. lav". mites into tbe treasury (ya'CoouTia/.iov) . * P^or I am an unlearned (iypiy- 
[^.ÄTo?) and ignorant man (ii^iwr/;?) - and untried in speecb, tlierefore bave 

1. Cf. John, 1, A:. —2. Cf. Ac. iv, 13. 



[57| THR LII'K Ol" .\15BA JDlIX KIIAMK. 369 

tTCon o'TO^ 'V'VB^ e^'Jj'teu ^ y\\7\3<iiz üuj^srtoio'Y 

ETÖÜ-THO-rT EHJ^^UA töOnTA^i JüL^OOnr ÜnE^'X:EUA^SK^ 
t^Ot AVI •ÄEAS^VTÜI EOnrVtV^'^ fiVCE^A?\tOr\ EC^(30C\ 

;XAUE 

O'TO^ ATIS^V JJJUJiyii E^^tn-^ UOlO'ÄuaK ijLV\SCA'2SH 

ECE^'j^ns uAn iH^o-r »H rtAUEVi^A'Y EiJ^Erv^A^rn Eonr- 
K0'r'2S:v \\r\jx\ ftArATiH ^s^E^^^^^^EcSi^A finEiEndc nw^onr 

*YAr»A UA^VA riEUrtSV\^EC&iiA fi^E VHA^*-3(^HArrE?\OC'fol.i2.-. 
UH^^AH?. V1EUrA^^m?N UEUL^A^AHT. VlEUVtS-^^O HiE HH 
EiVO-TA^ IHfO-r EIAnr^AUAt^ ^^^ rVEUV1VE'r;)^H 
E^O-TAfei vilE nEHi^JUiT ÜUAmEt^J^H^V ^SIErtllV^UOT UEU- 
rtVUEI^Ert^HI HEU-^JÜLElUA^^uauV ftlE YtEndc OTO^ 

nErtuoT'Y onro^ tieucu-iih^ mc y^X^ ^as EnEE&kO?\ 
^^loit^ E^ECJüonr nv&vEVi rtEJunAto vts^E« ueuyv^ockt- 

TiHCsc TufcvEn E^rtfEYit ü^v'^T UEUA«^ viEunvnrtA 



tliou nie in reineml)rance before our Lord Jesus Christ, that lic may forgive 
me, even me tlie liumblest one (s'Xz/iGTo;) botli my many sins and all my errors 
of tongue. And I beseech yoii, O God-loving people (Xao'c), gathercd lo- 
getber in this holy place today, blame me not that I attempted a great matter 
(xe(pi).aiov), too high for my capacity (uiTpov) in that I should teil a sniall 
portion (wip'^;) from the Life (ßio:) of our fatlicr, Abba Joini Khaine. 

And the measure is reached that we should bring the discourse to an 
end. May it be unto us all that we attain unto a little coinpassionate {xyx--ri) 
mercy. through the mediation ( rsEugeia) of the lady of us all, the holy («yix) 
Mary, and the mediation (irpe-rSeix) of the arcii'angels {i^yxyyslai) Michael *fo]. i2r, 
and Gabriel and Raphael and the entreaties of all the Saints that have 
pleased God and the holv prayers (s'J/rO of our father that lovetli his children; 
throuo-h the yrrace and the conipassion and the lovinykindness of our 



o 



ipass 



Lord, our God, and our Saviour, Jesus Christ, through whom uU glory. 



370 THE LIFE OF ABBA JOHN KHAME. i58] 

Onn^^fMTIH U^H Eiuaty AJJIHU 



all honoiir and all worship (-f0';/.jv7ji7ic) befitteth (-irps-ei) tlie Fallier, with 
him and with the Holy Spirit (ttv.), life-giving and consuhstantial (öi^.ocj'jto:) 
with him, now and at all times and for all eternity, Amen. 

Mercy to him that writeth. Amen. 
Peace (etpv(vy,) to him that readeth. Amen. 
Understandin"- to liim that heareth. Amen. 



nirU.lCAF. ()IU)TATI0NS 



Gen. III, 16. . 
1 Sam. V, 3 . . 

VII, 1 . 

Ps. XX, 2. . . 
XXI, 10 . . 
XXVI, 8, 9. 
XXXIX, 2, .3 
I., 1.5 . . . 
i.xvii, 6. . 
xci, 12 . . 
cxxxi, 4, 5 



15 
51 

» 

17 
14 

;54 

28 
30 
19 
55 
30 



Prov. VI, 27, 28 

XVII, 6 . 

Is. i.viii, 5 . . 

Mt. V, 14-1(1 . 

V, 14-1(> . 

X, 26 . . . 

XI, 15 . . . 
XIII, 8 . . 

XVIII, 6, 7 

XIX, 15. . 
XXV, 16. 



20 
50 
28 
9 
50 
50 
19 
36 
49 
20 
55 



Mk. XII, 42 . 

Lu. XXI, 2 . 

Jo. I, 47. . . 

III, 8. . . 

XIV, 21. . 

XV, 13. . 
Ac. iv,13 . . 
I Cor. VI, 19 

VI, 19. 

VII, 4. 



12 
12 
56 
20 
31 
15 
56 
20 
55 
18 



1 Cor. IX, 27 . 


13 


XIII, 1 . 


29 


Gal. V, 22. . . 


35 


V, 24. . . 


35 


VI, 7, 8. . 


36 


Eph. V, 6. . . 


29 


V, 19 . . 


40 


VI, 12 . . 


55 


IJo. 11, 17. . . 


17 


Unicleiitilicil. . 


38 



PERSON S 



Aaron, bihl 54 

Alirahain, bilil 54 

Abraham, monk. . . 7, 25n. 
Agatlio, stylite. . . . 7, 25 
Ahmed ihn Mohammed 

al-Mudabbir 6 

Aiiiinadab, bibl 51 

Ammoun Ion. 

Anthony Ihe Great. ... 30 

Anthony, monk 42 

Athanasius the Great. . . 41 

Balaam. bibl 48 

lienjamin, patr 25n. 

Coluthus, monk 42 

Conslaiitine, emp. ... 49 
Cyriacus of Jerusalem 5, 49 

Dagon, bibl 51 

Damianus, patr 6 

David, bibl 19, 30 

Dometius of Nilria. ... 20 

Elijah, bibl 28 

Ephraim, bihl 54 

Gabriel, archangel ... 57 
Gabriel I.. patr 6 

VATR. Oli. — T. XIV. — F. 



George, deacon 42 

George, monk. ... 7, 25n. 

George, monk 42 

Isaac, bibl 27, 54 

Isaiah, bibl 48 

Jacob, bibl 27 

Jacob, scribe 7 

Jeremiah, bibl 54 

John, Abba 26, 43 

John theHegumen.7,25n.,47 
John, brother of Khame. . 6 

John IV., patr 13n. 

John Colobus 47n. 

John Khame6,7, 8, 9, 10,11, 
12, 19, 21,24,25, 27,29, 
32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
42n., 43, 47, 48, 50, 57. 
V. also Kama, Xojaai 

John Pake 44 

Joseph, bibl 54 

Judas Iscariot 8 

Kama 6 

V. John Khame 



Korah, bibl 48 

Macarius the Great. . 23, 26 

Manasseh, bibl 54 

Mark, monk • . . 42 

Mark III., patr 7 

Mary, Virgin. 32, 34, 35,53,57. 
Maximus of Nitria. ... 26 
Michael, archangel. ... 57 

Moses, bibl 54 

Moses n^KAiiE 7 

Paphnouthius 44 

Paul, bibl 18, 38 

Paul, scribe 8 

Phinehas, bibl 54 

Pishoi of Nitria. ... 26, 43 
Raphael, archangel. . . . 57 

Shenouti I., patr 6 

Shenouti, John's successor . 

7[?), 42, 43, 53 

Teroti 22,23, 24, 27 

.Kwi/oti, .\«u.ai 46n. 

V. John Khame 

Abii Shanoudah, church of. 8 
Baramus, monastery of. 6n. 

2i 



372 



INDEX. 



[60] 



Bebtg (•?Pepoikion). ... 8 

Jeme 8n. 

Jepromounonsön 12 

John, monaslery of. . . 8n. 

John Khame. monastery of 

6n., 8, 43 



PLACES 

Macarius, monastery of. . . 

6, 8, 23 

Macarius, desert of. ... 22 
Menas, church of. . . 13n. 
Moses, monastery of. . Cn. 
Pishoi, monastery of. . . 6n. 



Sais 12 

Shihet 21, 38, 44 

Syrians, monastery of the. . 

6n. 

Wädi Habtb 6, 13n. 

Wädi Natrun 6 



GREEK WORDS 
{a selection only) 



aYiiÖTaTO? 21. 
(i§Xo;pdpo? 23. 
aipeaic; 46. 
oiaÖriCK; 55. 

ai(76YlTVlplOV 18. 
aväaraai? 49 
Anaphora 32, 42. 
(xvaywpEiv 30. 

«VTIXEIULEVO; 50, 54. 

(xvtiXeyeiv 48, 49. 

ovri^oyi« 48. 
äitöSei;!? 51. 
otiroxaXu']/!? .32. 
aiTopecv 30. 

apyriYo'c 26, 37, 53, 55. 
aaxyjdi; 28, 36, 45, 46. 

ßaSpioi; 55. 

ßto? 9, 11, 40, 50, 51, 
. 57. 
ßpaßcTov 47. 

fevvo'fopo; 0. 
Yvwjjir] 48. 

Siocooyo; 42, 43, 53. 

Sio<9r|Xri 19, 53. 
oiaxovia 34, 48. 
Sioixovo? 42. 
oioidxaXo; 56. 
Spaxüjv 52. 

lYxXr,|ji.a 38. 
EYxpocTeta 25, 35. 
Ev-roXr, 33. 
e5»p/.oi; 23. 
ETtaOXov 47. 
iTTt'SouXo; .33, 52. 
ETToi'xiov 8n. 

E'TTWpiOV 47. 

spY^ui» 26. 



£p[xr|V£ia 23. 

£Ü/>i 37, 48, 57. 

fiY£fJiovixo? 31. 
f,Yoü|/.£v'3(; 47, 56. 
r,(7u/_ä^5iv 25. 

9£o:i'/i!xi>)v ? 23. 

ÖEOffEÖE'lTTaTO; 23. 

Theotokos 32, 34, 
35, 53. 

ÖEo^pöpo; 9, 29, 37. 50, 

51. 
OEojprjTiü^ ? 12. 
Osopia 42. 

xoivt.jv 23, 25, 29. 
xaTOiSam 47. 
xaToi^iot (y x«/_£;ia) 33. 
xo<Top9o)|ji.a 11, 21, 42. 
XE:paX«iov 57. 
xvßwTOq 51. 
xivSuvoi; 4,5. 

ZOtVOjVElV 20. 

xotvwv!« 26, 3.3, 40, 48, 

52, 53. 
xpixo? 28. 
xpi'vov 55. 
K'jpiaxr' 32. 

XaaTtix; 1'», 16. 
'l■^\xr,•^ 56. 
Xuyvia 9, 51. 

u.aOif)tr^(; 43, 44, 45. 
jxipTupo? 52. 
(j^eXetöv 13, 39. 

u.£Tavoia 29. 
|j.v9;jjLa 47. 

[xovaiT/ipiov 33, 34, 35, 
53. 



|AOV01/Y1 36. 

[jLovax.'ö<: 22, 23, 24, 40, 

55". 
pLov^ 37, 46. 

[XUITYlplOV 31, 53. 

VT|ITt£l'a 40. 
viqaXEUEtv 13. 
VOEpO? 19. 

vöui(j[jia 34. 

VOUlXEpOV 39. 
VUf/^tOV 14, 21. 

6S0X0; 50. 

oixovoaEiv 22. 
äaoouüio; 58. 
övoijiai^eiv 41. 
ovofiiaffTo? 38. 

opY«vo^ 11- 
öpÖöSo^oi; 56. 
öpavi 13 (?), 55. 

TTotv^'yio? 12,20, 25,27, 

29, 30, 47. 
TCxvapetoi; 23. 

TTOtVEU^lO; 11. 

TraWiYupi; 11. 
/^a^rt 42. 
TtotpaSoqoi; 19, 21. 
r«p«'^Ü!ji(; 20. 
ltOIp8£V£t« 10, 14, 15, 

18, 19, 55. 
TtspÖEvo? 13, 14, 16. 18, 

36, ,37. 
irvEuixaTtxös 11, 15, 27, 

36. 
7tveu[xaTO',fooo« 9. 
TroXiT£ia9,'25, 28. 30, 

,36,, 38, 43, 46. 
7ip£(j6£i« 35, 53, 57. 
7:p£u6tJT£coi; 9, 42. 



irpoaipEdii; 17. 
irpoOufiia 24. 
■iTpooi[iiov 12. 
v^oiUffr^ 25, 41. 
7rpooxuvT](Ti<; 58. 

icüpYo; 35. 40. 

(ToiSSaTov 30. 
(XxeTtr, 33. 
(7xr,v>i 46. 
(JX'jXuÖ; 24. 

(jx»iXo(iov 28, 39. 
CTtouSaioi; 12. 
(jTaupdc 34, 39, 49. 
CTTaupo^dpo? 9, 23. 
(JTÜXo; 44. 

Sijnaxis 25, 32. 

düvr'QEia 23. 

(T/rjuii 24, 40. 

TaXatircDpia 45. 
Ta^iapyo; 55. 
tÖ^k; 41. 
te'Xeio; 39. 

Topos 23, 38, 43, 
Trisagion 32. 

uXr, 13, 15, 4(i. 
ÜU.VO? 41. 
Oiroiiovr; 32, 39. 

IflOpEtV 46. 

cfoxiTiip 26, 43, 56. 

/ElpOTOVEiv 42. 

yopr,Yeiv 12. 
/opö; 46, 

läXXEiv 28, 30, 34,41, 
47. 

\j(»XijiwS(a 40. 



MOUFAZZAL IBN ABir,-FÄZAlL 

IIISTOIKE DES SULTANS MAiMLOÜKS 

TEXTE ARAliE PüBLIE ET TRADLTT E.X FP.ANCAIl:; 

PAK 

E. BLOCHET 

(11) 



patr. on. — T. XIV. — F. 3. 



211] IIISTOIIIK Ui:S SL'I.TAXS MA.MI.OL KS. 375 

Oä^j Aepi JLi- ic j^i j^ jlLUI 44-y "^^J 0:*—-' i^-*^^ "^ jj' Tui. wv. 

^^üi -a.^ ^.A.>i w^j ^jji jß j..a)1 jl^3 i^^^ ^„aJI ja. ^vi 

j <lJI iAA Jj -s^i^ «,lj lj::»ij ^li-AJ ''^j^äJI 'l^Vl CÄ>.ä'3 ^»•^•j (^'^ *^y 
^li_fr 'j-»^^ Ij-^Lj i,j- ^y» ijJ' j')^; v^^o ^tU^ c-L^3 f>^' (>« äir^'3 i5'i^'^ 
j,\ lÄ* jl^j bjVjb ^_jif^ j>^^i IfJljj 1,-^L: Ij-öj ^tL^ \ji:ii [^j\^^ 1_^3 

1. Ce nom est generalement ecrit ^j^-^ ou ^_c^~vO. — 2. Ms. ««Lv^. — 3. Lire 

.^\ . yf vi^ ^J'-i.". — •'». On attendrait Uj ^U!,. — 5. Lire ,., , , XO!. — 6. Lire 

* En ranuee 67 1, le sultau parlil de Damas siir les chevaux de la poste, *roi. 'lov 
accoinpagne de l'emir Badr ad-Diu Baisari, de Djamal ad-Diii Oughousli 
ar-Uoumi, de Saif-ad-Din Tclierik ' an-Nasiri. et il arriva ä la Forteresse 

de la Montagiie, (au Caire), le treizieme jour du luois de Moharram. 11 
y sejourna jusqu'ii la uuit du vendredi, vingt-seplieme jour de ce meme 
mois; puis il se mit en cheniin pour retourner ä Damas, accompagne des 
emirs dont les noms viennent d'etre raentiounes. II fit son entree dans la 
ciladellc de cette ville, le quatrieme jour du mois de Sai'ar. 

Cette meme annee, le vingt et unieme jour du mois de Moharram, une 
troupe de gens de la Nubie, envoyee par le souverain de ce pays, arriva ä 
l'improvistc dans le pays musulnian; ils attaquerent "Aidhab-, pillerent 
les gens qui s'y trouvaient, et en tuerent un certain nombre ; ils tuerent le 
kadi et le gouverneur de cette ville, ainsi qu'Ibn Djali et ses fds. Cet Ibn 
Djali avait pour fonctions de survciller les revenus [provenant des taxes] 
prelevees sur les marchands. 

Uecit de la bataille de l'Eupbrate. Le cinquieme jour du mois de Djou- 
mada preniicr de cette annee, le s-ultan, qui etait alors ä Daraas, regut la 
nouvclle qu'une division de Tatars avait attaquö ar-Rahba ; il partit avec 
ses troupes pour aller les conibattre, et il marcha jusqu'aux envirous de 
al-Kosair '. (^)uand le sullan ful arrive dans cette localite, les Tatars apprirent 

* Ce l'ascicule l'ait suite au fascicule .J du tome XII, cumme Tindique la pagination 
entre crochets : il contient le texte et la Iraduction des feuillets ''iO''-i21 du nianuscrit 
arabe 4525 de la Bibliotheque Nationale. • — 1. Tcherik est un nom connu dans rono- 
inastique mongole, qui se trouve souvent en composition avec Temour : Tclierik-temour 
j_«-j sju-C,^. — 2. 'Aidhab est le nom d'une petite ville sur le rivage de la mer Rouge, 
ou faisaient escale les navires qui allaient d'Aden dans le Said (Yakout, III, page 751). 

;. II y a beaucoup de localiti'S luusulmanes qui portent le nom d'al-Kosai'r « le 



376 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [212] 

jÜaUl jLi ®b^l IjJ^'j ^^-=>:^'l ^y- ^ii^i ^5j=' (V^ '*4> ^-*^ ^,-ai!! _jÄi ^H 

IajIaI« jÜI J^ ^Uj^ j\ Ij^^lj 'j-^^J 7?~— • jJ^ IjjLi j»AjlJ-l >_ä.f.xj ^,X^1 -^ 

(5jUj5- _^£. J^li' J jLLUl Jka-_^ «S^ä'I i^ ll^ '^xl^'l JaJ Jx- ^jU ^Vl i'Mi' 

i[^l ,^_^ ^Ljc'I ^Ij i«^_yiil J^l * ^r-?- ti^* ^b '1/^'^ -^ «-'-^3 (J^ "'JjVi 

1. Lire .ij3j', s'il s'agit des pecheurs; ^^\ si l'auteur, conime le fait est vraisem- 
blable, entend parier de leurs barques. — 2. Oii dil plus couramment dans ce sens 
JUi' ^.--. —3. Lire ^j^^ — 4. Lire ^^^ ^-W- t^r' j^- ^r''^" J'! ä partir d'ici, 
sauf exception, je ne corrigerai plus ces innombrables fautes dans les nombres des dates, 
car elles sont des constantes du style de cet ecrivain. 



qu'il s'etait mis ea marche pour les attaquer ; ils retrograderent alors de ar- 
Rahba, et vinrent camper ä al-Bira. 

Le sultaii continua sa marche sur Homs, et il ordonna ä ses troupes de se 
saisir des bateaux des pecheurs qui se trouvaient sur le lac de Kadas ', lequel 
depend admiuistrativemeiit de Homs. Cet ordre fut execute, et ses soldats 
les chargerent sur des chameaux. II partit eiisuite, marcha jusqu'ä veuir 
'loi.'ii r. camper ä al-Bab" et ä Bouza"a% qui sout dans le ressort d'Alep, et il envoya 
un detachement de l'armee pour reconnaitre l'eunemi. Le detachement 
s'avan(,-a jusqu'ä Maubidj, puis retrograda, et les soldats qui le composaient 
firent connaitre qu'un corps de Tatars qui comptait 3.000 cavaliers se 
trouvait sur le rivage de l'Euphrate contigu ä la proviuce du Djazira. 

Le sultan leva soii camp, le dix-huitieme jour du mois de Djoumada prä- 
mier, et marcha jusqu'ä arriver sur le bord de l'Euphrate; il ordonna de 
jeter un pont sur le lleuve, puis il se decida ä tenter brusquement la fortune, 
et il commanda ä ses soldats de se jeter dans l'Euphrate (pour gagner ä la 
nage la rive opposee). 11 prit cette decision sous l'inspiration de l'atabek 

petil chäteau »; celle-ci est la premicre ctapc qui se trouve sur le cliemiu de Damas 
ä Homs. 

1. Nom dun lac entre Homs et le Liban, qui a 14 milles de long sur 4 de large 
fVakoul, I, pa^e .jKi). — 2. Et mieux Bab Bouza'a, sur le (lanc du Wadi Boutnan. 
dislantu de Manbidj de 2 milles, et de 10 milles d'.Vlep i^akoul, 1, 437). — 3. Bouzaa, 
ou Bouza'i, dans le Wadi Boutnan, entre Manbidj et Alep, ä une etape de chacune d'elles 
(Yakout, I, 603). 



[213] IIISTOIHK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 377 

^ü, j. j^ vij Ji^^ -*:* pv^jU jj UV ju" aTu m ^m SjUl aji ji^j 

j;; ^Ul ^Vi jjj!>ls' ^yL_ll ji-JI 'il>'l J ^-^ ^j\ J- Jjl jl<^ ®M-^^ ^ 
^l^ VI p,^ ~ pl^ i'^ij ^" P*j-^li pv:J' -^ -^3 J^^ ''jb liJ ^>^ -^3 J^^ 
aJ jlkUl jl<3 dl> JU^ J '■i:^\^\ i^i^3 'iJUl i^ ^^ ^3 -^'3 cTv'^ 

1. Lire O'''^"- — -• ^l'''"- .^'~-.-'- — ■>• ^"■'■'^ >''' -Sj ^^^ """^ '^^'^*® courante dans 
les manuscrits copies par des illettres. — 4. Man. i.^^'. 



Paris ad-Din qui dit : « Si nous ne les joignons pas (d'un seul coup) avec 
toutes nos troupcs, (U'rtainemcnt, toiis cciix de nous qui (arrivant dans les 
bateaux) cscaladeront (la rive occupee par les Tatars), ceux-ci les feront pri- 
sonniers. » 

Le premier qui se jeta dans TEuphrate fut son Excellence Saifienne (Saif 
ad-Din) Kalaoun al-Alfi al-Salihi, puis ce fut l'emir Badr ad-Din Baisari 
al-Shamsi ; le sultan imita leur exemple avec tous ses soldats, et ils escala- 
derent la rive du fleuve pour coml)attre les Tatars. Les Tatars fureut 
confondus de stupefaction quand ils virent que les soldats egyptiens venaient 
de grimper sur la rive oü ils se trouvaient, qu'ils commengaient ä les tuer ot 
ä les faire prisonniers, et seuls se sauverent tous ceux qui etaient gratifies 
(par Dieu) d'une longue vie. 

Le general des Tatars se nommait Tchinghar ' ; il etait Fun de Icurs 
grands chefs, et il avait sous ses ordres pres de cinq mille cavaliers; il se 
tenait sur le rivage de l'EupIirate, et il surveillait le gue (qui se trouve ä 
al-Bira), dans un endroit oü le lit du lleuve est retreci. Le sultan avait avec 
lui quelques bateaux, dix en tout, comme cela a dejä ete dit plus haut; il 
donna l'ordre de les lancer sur l'Euphrate. Les meilleurs archers - s'y embar- 
querent pour aller explorer la rive, et ils engagerent a coups de fleches un 
combat avec l'ennemi. 

1. Ce personnage parait dans le Mou'izz al-ansab (man. ancien fonds persan67, folio 

67 r"), sous la formeyu~=>., c'est-ä-dire ^^i^ o. , avec cej.te notice : j^) i-^j' '-j C^^^*«^ ^y y 

.iJ^ y^ y3 .,li. lül .,U; ,.5 i^jj** X^ S^y» .Uj. — 2. Ls^I est le pluriel de 

^1 ok-tchi a arclier », du turk ok « fleche », formanl une sortc de participe actif, 

avec le surtixe tcki, qui remplit ce rölo en chinois. 



378 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [214] 

^\ dUjj üaJC \j.Ls- Ji j\zi\ jl^j-^^LLJL jjJI «^ ^j^lr* J^^ <_ii-^ jI~ä!1 

* foi. 'ii V-. l^l;-U, Ijjlfj ^Ü2, j^ »iJ jlJI ctUi Mjj ^ J6 ly^v'i ^V-'l öliL.Jl * 'cUi jl 
® jldl J^ ^1^3 JLJI dU;" Jji. Ji=- 'Ul ^__^l9 -Sl^l •iJUiC jl.ä)1 ^ Ui üU-j 

IjiUj (jjJLi i^i Ij^i jJ jllJlj ^lÄA CtU^l j»jl« jt-2. r%J\ 0^^ ^y ilj (_5:^ 

jlia-Ul äJIIsJ ®^^1 ^1 \yS» j\ Ia:>j-o i-Jl ^-T ^^\ C-Jjaj ^pJ^J jJl I^^^CLj 

1. Lire yjj^li. — 2. Lire vo'fi-M. — 3. li-» indique simplemcnl ici la fin de la phrase. 
et est explötif. — 4. Lire ■X'js ->-^^- 



Les Tatars avaient machine iin stratageme qui coiisistait en ceci : ils 
avaient abandonne le gue oi'i il ctait facile de traverser l'Euphrate, et ils 
avaient retrograde siir un point qui en etait voisin ; ils y avaient etabli des 
fui.41 v°. tranchees palissadees, et ils gardaient ce point, pour que les gens s'ima- 
ginassent que c'etait lä que se trouvait le gue praticable. Tous les Tatars 
qui etaient derriere ce retranchement etaient descendus de clieval pour 
repousser les Egyptiens qui tenteraient de monier ä l'assaut, et ils se 
mirent k les combattre comme des fantassins. Quand l'armee egyptienne tout 
entiere eut traverse l'Euphrate, le fleuve grossit tellement que ces tranchees 
boisees furent noyees, et peu s'en fallut que les Tatars ne soieiit engloutis 
sous les flots. 

Ils prireut alors la fuite, et les soldats musulmans monterent ä l'assaut 
pour les combattre, en rangs serres, comparables aux montagnes par Icur 
etendue et par leur hauteur; ils furent atteints dans leur escalade par les 
flots de l'Euphrate, et leur nomhrc etait si grand quo Ic cliquetis de leurs 
armes faillit rendre sourds ceux qui l'entendirent. Les Tatars furent 
rcpousses d'une fagon honteuse; ils s'enfuinnit isoles et disperses, apres 
avoir ete reunis en cohortes solides. 

Nous remercions Allah des gräccs (pi'ü hü a |ihi de nous accorder ; 
louangcs lui soient reudues dans le mondc ftilur el dans celiii-ci. Les soldats 
egyptiens s'cmparerent de la rive du ileuve, el du lleuvc; les ötendards 
musulmans monterent (sur les positions des Tatars), annoii(;'ant parlalangue 
de leur ctamine ilottant au vcnt qu'ils avaient appcle les Egyptiens a la 
victoirc. 

Le sultan monta ä l'assaut, comme na lioii furieux, et courut au campe- 



[2151 IIISTOIUK 1)F>S SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 370 

^M) jl<3 JL- :>i l>Ci ^j JU3 J>^ i-^'' ^!>^ J 3^i ö^r^^ -^Vl^ 
^i_JI Ji-.l VLwij ll*. ^LJl ^>j ijL^ J~^ o^ w^« -^3 V' 'Ir*"^'^ i> ^3 

.Lüi ji ib p- pAji ^11 ijL; ;«.u.'i ^ui ^3 jL^ ^i yi3 ^ (»*!j i^" 

^ß J^\ i'^tr ^.-ü;- j ^ij\ 'T^l J.3 i^y. ^Ül ^U15C. j^aJI j^U ' ^i^^f"i-i-- 

1. Lire lU -i^ ^ j/> ^^i 



ment de rennemi; puis il s'arreta, et fit une priere de deux genuflexions 
pour remercier le Dieu tr6s-haut. L'emir Saif ad-Din Kalaoun et al-Hadjdj 
'Ala ad-Din Taibars al-Vaziri fiirent Tobjet d'une citation particuliereraent 
llatteuse pour la temörite avec laquelle ils s'etaient precipites sur Tennemi; 
quant aux emirs, on ne peut les citer tous, chacun d'eux s'etant illustre 
par des actions d'eclat. Les troupes musulmanes se disperserent ä droite 
•et ä gauche pour distribuer des coups de sabrc sur le dos des Tatars jusqu'ä 
la lin de cette journee. 

Le general des Tatars, Tchinghar, fut tue dans cette bataille. On amena 
les prisonniers par-devant le sultan, de la droite et de la gauche, et les 
chevaux bronchaient avec leurs cavaliers en foulant les tetes des heros. 
Le sultan partit ensuite pour al-Bira, et il gratifia le gouverneur de cette 
ville de l.OOU dinars; il donna ä la garnison de la forteresse une somme 
de Cent mille dirhams; puis il s'en retourna ä Damas, apres avoir ainsi 
inflige aux ennemis une defaite qu'ils etaient bleu loin d'avoir desiree. 

11 se trouvait ä al-Bira, parmi les troupes des Tatars, Sliaraf ad-Din ibn ' foi. \i r 
Khatir, et Amin ad-Din Mikaiil, lequel etait gouverneur de Ivonia, ainsi que 
plusieurs generanx du pays de Roum; ils commandaient un corps d'envi- 
ron trois mille cavaliers ; leur chef etait le Prince de la mer ' . 

1. ^V.j-^ oOÜI est une faule absolue; '-),-'Jt oXl- est impossible, l>j^ etant un 
mot persan; l) ,i öXi» malik-i daria est un binömc pers.in, auquelles Arabes, le con- 
siderant comme une expression intej^rale. ont prelixe leur article. II y avait chez les 
Saldjoukides un emir qui portait le titre de J^l- oXL malik-i sahil » l^rince de la 
province maritime » ; Tun d'eux, Baha ad-Din. ful mis ä mort eii 676 de l'hegire. II est 
possible quo ce soit de ce personna<;L' qu'il s'a;;iss(' dans le texte de Moul'azzal. 



380 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [216] 

1^- UÄ^l j£. lyy;l jl A* i^^l J& Js\ ^LJI bÄj; ^Jl SJA LUs JjVl 

yis. <uA: J bli,U ^1 ^^ -UjuJI dLUl ijJ^^ \J:>- i^Lii U.ls -^jlJl Jis ®^'=^'Vi 
aJ Ci,l ^lyi ^Ul o'4v-* iS~*^ ^^J ^)- (5-^ -*-*—'' viiiJl j^,-c ^:>sj ll-lj _~-a^l 

1. Lire l._^,.^ ^a. - 2. 11 faut, ou jo^^JI A-" i' ^"•^, ou ib.^t i^JJI ^JLL. 
— 3. Man. ^^— -o. — 4. Man. ^•'-'^ ; il parait difficilc d'admcttre que l'auleur ait ecrit 
♦^U', pour »^^■'•V'!, tant cette forme serait degradee. 



La bataille que les Egyptiens livrerent ä Tchinghar, et sa defaite, eureiit 
lieu le dimanche, dix-huitieme jour du mois de Djoumada premier: la nou- 
velle de ce desastre arriva aux troupes tatares qui se trouvaieiit devant 
al-Bira, alors qu'elles etaient sur le point de s'emparer de cette place; 
elles leverent precipitamment le siege, abandonnant leurs armements, leurs 
balistes, leurs bagages, pour ne plus songer qu'ä sauver leur vie, sans que 
les chefs fissent quoi que ce soit pour s'occuper, du sort de leurs soldats. 

Le sultau partit alors pour al-Bira, devant laquelle il vint canipcr, Ic 
vingt-troisieme jour de ce meme mois, et il fit k la garnison de cette place 
les liberalites que nous avons relatees plus baut. II quitta ensuite cette 
localite pour se rendre k Damas, d'oü il partit pour regagner l'empire egyp- 
tien, et cela, le neuvieme jour du mois de Djoumada second. 

l>'bislorien a dit : (^)uaud son (lis. al-Malik as-Sa'id, appril (]u"il a|)pr(i- 
chait du Cairc, il sortit de cette ville pour se portcr ä sa rcnconlrt', b' dix- 
neuvieme jour de ce meme mois; il 6tail accompagne de r^niir Hadr ad- 
Diii Haisari rl du vizir l>;ilia ad-l)iii ibii llaiiun. Ils rencontrerent le sultan a 
al-Kosair'. Di's qu'al-.Malik as-Sa'id i'ut. aperru son pere, il mit picd k 
terre, et marcba (k sa rencontre); al-i\lalik az-Zabir descendit egalement de 
chcval, et ils s'cmbrasserent longuemcnt; puis ils se remircnt en seile, 
et se rendirent de compagnic k la Forteresse de la .Montagne; les pri.'^ou- 

\. I>p mont Mokattam, dil Yakmil. H'. 128. est situe ontrc celte localite de Kos;iir et 
Makta al-Hidjarn. 



[217] IIISTOIRK 11F.S SILTANS .MAMI-OUKS. 381 

jl<^^ Jl_^ ^ ^^ j, j^ ^^ jÜ^LJl i;V^ J}^\ IjJj «J^yliVi^ ^y^\ 

^_a)1 ^_^ ^^Vl (v,;^ <^l>-j Ail^l j. i^^ ^L^ J (.Lül Jl jlkUl <fy 

1. Lire .'■J'^. 



niers tatars ötaient coiiduits dcvtint eux sur leurs rhevaux, rharges de licns 
et de chaiiies. 

Cette annec, notre seigncur le sultan fit emprisonner le sliaikli Ivliidr, 
le douzieme jour du mois de Shavval; Ic sultan avait mande Ic sliaikh 
Ivhidr ä la P^'orteresse de la Montagne ; un certain nombre de personnes se 
trouvaient presentes; elles se porterent garantes de crimes qu'il avait toi. 
(-•ommis, tels la pederastie, l'adultere, et bien d'autres. Le sultan ordonna 
de le faire jeter en prison, et son histoire sera racontee ä roccasion de la 
mention de sa mort, s'il plait ä Allah, le tres-haut. 

Au commencement de l'annee 672, le khalife etait dans son Etat, ainsi 
que les rois, ä Texception toutefois du prince de Sihyaoun', lequel etait 
mort; la souverainete de cette ville avait ete transferee au sultan; puis, il la 
lit rentrcr au nombre des forteresses des Ismailiens. Cette meme annee, le 
sultan partit pour la Syrie, accompagne d'un tres petit nombre de personnes, 
generaux ou courtisans, parmi lesquels l'emir Shams ad-Din Sonkor al- 
Ashkar, Trmir Badr ad-Din Baisari. Tömir Saif ad-Din Etemish' as-Sa'di. 

Quand le sultan arriva ä 'Askalan, il apprit qu'Abaglia, iils d'Houlaoun, 
s'etait mis en marche pour se rendre ä Baghdad, et qu'il etait parti ä la tetc 
de son escorte pour se livrer au plaisir de la chasse. Le sultan ecrivit au 
Cairo pour mander les troupes aupres de lui; quatre mille cavaliprs partirunt 

1. Nom d'une citadelle tres puissante, qui dependait de Homs, et qui faisait partie 
de la province maritime de la Syrie. — 2. Le nom de cet emir parait plusieurs fois dans 
cette histoire, sous des graphies differentes, pages 382, 486, 497 : c'esl le participc passif, 
etc[giie]-mish, du verbe mongol etegae-ku « revenir ä la sante », dont un derive, etegui 
X:o!, a ete emprunte par le turk. Ce mot n'a rien ä voir avec le mongol eteinek « nour- 
riturc pour les cochons », qu- a ete emprunte par les langues turkes sous la forme 
elinek « pain », ce qui monlre linleriorite du Türe sur Ic Mongol. 



382 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [218] 

j^ ^ ^j^ ^Vl '■i.J Vjl ^>i JLJ\ ^ i^lDl J\ jlUJl ^ Ö!i^ jc^ 
j;_jj| jtj ^jjl J'y\ j^aJI JL<^3 i^^j^^ tX^r^ ö:.-^' '^ ^'^^ (^J f-^ "-^^ 
(vfc-A* r^p" fi^' f^' ij-*''^J (jr*^ O!. ^_/^' ij-« 'j'^'v* '^^ Cf.'^'^ A^i UtALs 
•Cjt^j SytUlL A.0JI dLUI /«lilj yi^ jti. -jA^ j jljo'jiJI siJLL a.a)1 ja. _^Y1 

* fol. 43 r. jUjiJl ^_jJl jJ. ^^Vl J\ -\^l ^b ^JocJI J:.^! J,jJI v_i^ ^^ *AA-a« 

^^^SÄJI jlS3 11^ ^__^jl ^ ^^r«^'' üS/' -^^ uT^^: ir-^ •^'^ \c^i ®ÖJI i-U 



d'abord, chaque division de mille hommes etant sous le commandenicnt 
d'un geiieral : c'etaient al-Hadjdj Ala ad-Din Ta'ibars al-Vaziri, Djamal 
ad-Din Oughoush ar-Roumi, "Izz ad-Din Koutloiiboukha, et 'Alam ad-Din Tai- 
tadj. Ces ofTiciers partirent, le lundi, de la Birka', i>t prirent le chemin de la 
Syrie; apres eux, partit l'emir Badr ad-Din Bilik, le khazindar, le dix- 
huitieme jour du mois de Safar. Al-Malik as-Sa'id demeura au Caire avec 
al-Farikani et le sahib Baha ad-Din. 

Lcs armees rejoignirent le sultan ä Jall'a; il organisa leurs dillerents corps, 
et partit pour Damas, emmenant en sa compagnie Izz ad-Din Yagban-, le 
silabdar, et le ills du prince de Sindjar; l'emir Badr ad-Din, le khazindar, 
demeura ä Jaffa, puis il s'avanga ä deux etapes de cette ville ''. Quand le sultan 
arriva ä Damas, il apprit que les Tatars avaient renouce ä leur expedition, 
et qu'ils avaient battu en retraite. II envoya alors Saif ad-Din Etemisli as- 
Sa'di sur les chevaux de la poste k l'emir Badr ad-!)in, le khazindar, pour 
♦ foi. 43 r. Ini ordonner de ramener les »armees dans l'empire egyptien; elles arrive- 
rent an Caire, k- neuvieme jour du mois de Djoumada second de cette annee. 

Getto meme annee, Balbous, ^mir des Arabes du Maghrib, dans le pays 

1. 11 y avail en deliürs du (laire plusieurs de ces mares : l'une. la iiirkat al-Djoubb 
^_,a2£-^! i5^, ou Birkat al-Hadjdjadj _.ls^' iT^j, qui se trouve sur le cliemin du Caire 
au llidjaz 'Khildt, mau. arabe 1731, lol. 294 v°i: une aulre de ces uiar(»s csl iionimee 
Birkat. al-llabasli ^vov-'' ifjj; eile ('tail situee au nord de grauds jardins, nouimi'S 
1(58 « Jardins du Vizir ''> ß\J^ .rt^'-^ [ihid., fol. 2i)5 v°). — 2. Gel ofTicier est nomine' 
plus haut Xii} Ighan (voir tome XII, page 473). .\^>.', .i^, ij^:?. sont des formes 
absolumcnt equivalcnles. — 3. Sur Vordre de Baibars, d"alicr camper en debors de 
Jaffa, commo Makrizi nous lapprend. 



ll'.y IIISTOIRF DES Sür,TANS MAMLOUKS. .is:? 

ij-^L ^3 «si^ 'Lil Cji^ j^ -7—^3 JytLö)! ^1 l^^l ij^^-Äs-lj üj^pJvs ^5j1j^'1 
•«J ^^3 4_U ».li-lj <_'! ^^f— »'3 <s-^\s AJii\ ^y^ jLkUI l^y- ^yf ^J\ Uj-ä^ 

^•l:^ jj3 i__'l bJut! J jl ^Lyi J^ •y\ J)'i. L.>J3 •äC.'Ui ii% ^_5'' '^'>^J J-^' 
jlkU jl J_^_ _^3 ^Jl ^^U '^l::^ j]p _ytlül CÜJl jlkUl J^ lt^\ dlU 
0^11 cLL ^\:i j-w jl<3 jlkUI Jl <:l::^ JU>1 J clj-UI a.^' X^ iJu^Ji 

^lül vjJJUl jlkUi ;5A;_ j^ ^;,3 ^jVl o^. ^^^-l ,>>--« CUUJI e^Ül JyL; 
1.11 rnudrait, soil , \^ j-Jj, soit ^^^ ^ J.. 



(lo Barka', ful vaiiicu. Cet emir avail refuse de payer la dime que Ion prelc- 
vait siir Irs troiipeaux des Arabes, et de se soumettre aux obligations habi- 
lurlles de vassaliti' qui lui iaconibaient ä l'egurd du siiltan. Le sultaii en- 
voya contre lui uae armee commandee par Mohammad al-Hawwari; le.s 
troupes egyptiennes le battirent et le ramenerent prisonnier au Caire, apres 
lui avoir pris un butin enorme. 

Balbous resta en prison jusqu'ä ce que le sultan füt revenu de Syrie; 
11 lui fit alors rendre la liberte; il le combla de faveurs, et lui remit un 
vetement d'lionneur; il ecrivit pour lui un diplöme lui conlerant la dignitoi 
(Temir (des Arabes du Maglirih), et il le chargea de representer son autorite 
dans ce pays, puis il le renvoya dans sa patrie. Balbous etait alors äge de 
prcs de Cent annees; le trepas l'atteignit alors qu'il etait en chemin pour s'eu 
retourner dans sa terre natale, avant qu'il n'y füt arrive, et il ex'pira. 

Ibu Alxl al-Zaliir a racontc, parmi les evenements de cette annee, que le 
sultan al-Malik al-Zahir regut une lettre du roi d'Abyssinie, laquelle etait 
plice dans une lettre du souverain du Yemen; ce prince disait que le sultau 
d'Abvssinie avait dejä prie les rois (du Yemen) de faire parvenir sa lettre au 
sultan d'ßgypte. La lettre du souverain de TAbyssinie disait : « Le moindre 
lies serviteurs, Yekouno Amlak-, baise la terre devant le sultan al-Malik al- 
Zahir. et lui adresse cette supplique, qu'Allah eternise son regne ! II porte a 



1. Barka, dans les histoires qui se respeclent, est toujours ecrit ÜiJ. — 2. P'n 127.'5, 
le roi d'Abyssinie etait jRji-r : >tr"\W Yekouno -Vmläk. f^c^ derive de .r-C Yi-kouno, par 
suite d'une de ces accumulalions d'erreurs qui sont cheres aux eopistes arabes : yo 
pour ^^C> ;^C= pour i-V) : j^* pour^— v : oX'^' est une faule l'acilement explicable pour 
O-f-^'', qui Iranscril a la perfection rcthiopicn Amläk. 



384 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [220] 

füi,43v".2^y^ U J^_ d>J! jlUJI l;y^ * ^^^ iJL_x j^jj jlUJI liVj. ®j!>. li'l^ 
dUl*Jl JiU jlyi ö_-u j_5)l i^.j -"ijij V3 Lfti ^^xä^ V Ult 1-C> >Uj jjiC 

-^■3 Jy Ai- ^3jb di-ui 5u «-'jlC j c^ Jl VI J\yy\ j\ oM ^^-^^ 

V jy^ i^j^-=JI L»J'3 ^~<J-_JI -yx j_j-jlj »_i)l iJU ^5^,5C_x. jj ^S-^i ^-^i '■-^ 

i^i^ i5-^'^ '-^-> ^' *''y^-*^„ ^cr^' jlAo-'lj c.1^131 cäTj diilJi- 1^ l3Ju._ 

1. Lire j«-^». — 2. La l'ormule .iV^-' LJ J^^»j est absolument incorrectc, et d'une 

vulgarite complete; il faudrait au moins IjLL» U J^ ,!. — 3. Man. ^. ^, ce qui 

est une faute du copiste. — 4. iu=iJ! "blj ^_,^3J'w-sr:'- "i! serait plus correct. — 5. Man. 
,D-v.'. — 6. Lire jsJj. 



sa connaissance qu'iin ambassadeur est arrive, envo3'e par le gouverneur 
de Kous, au sujet du moine qui est venu nous trouver. Mais nous n'avons pas 
vu venir d'eveque. 

Notre maitre est le sultan, et nous sommes ses esclaves. Que le sultan 
exprime l'ordre au Patriarche ' de faire pour nous un eveque, qui soit un 
liomme honnete, savant, qui n'aime ni Tor, ni l'argent, et de Tenvojer en la 
ville de 'Avan -, Le plus humble des serviteurs du sultan adresse aux 
ofTiciers d'al-Malik al-MouzalTar, roi du Yemen, ce qu'il est convenable qu'il 
envoie, et ce souverain le fera parvenir ä la cour du sultan. Les ambas- 
sadeurs n'ont eprouve du retard pour revenir a la cour du sultan ' que 
par le fait qiie j'etais engage dans une campagne. 

Le roi David est mort, et son fds lui a succede datis la souverainete. .I'ai 
autour de moi, dans mon armee, cent mille cavaliers musulmans; quant aux 
cavaliers cliretiens, j'en ai infiniment plus, tellenient qu'il est impossible de 
connaitre leur nombre; tous sont tes esclaves, et ils sont prets ä obeir a tes 
ordres. L'evcque prie le ciel pour toi, et toutc cette multitude repond : 
« Ainsi soit-il! « Tous les Musulmans qui vicnnont dans notre royaume, 



■ lol. ' 



1. Le palriarclic de la ville d'Alexandrie, dont les evöques de l'Egypte et de la Nubie 
ctaient les sufl'raganls. — 2. ,Ie n'ai trouve aucun renseignement sur celte localite dans 
Yakout. — 3. 11 est visihle par celte plirase que Haibars avail euvoy(' des ambassa- 
deurs au roi d'Abyssinie, et que ceux-ci n'etaienl pas revciius au (>aire en leinps normal, 
parce qu'ils n'avaient pas trouve le souverain abyssin dans sa residence habituelle, et 
i|u'ils avnicnl (He obliges de courir apres hii dans une contrec devastee per la guerre. 



r22r lllsrolllE DRS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 385 

^ \i J'^-' Cr -5' ^«^j ^"^'>^3 «^-^r« ^y J'j V y' ^-'' -r^=^ i^-*^' >Jr-J'j 

J a::5CLw. o^^j b^,.^a£ i^^ j1a,U1 j^ j»,J U ^^ j^UJI jULäJI c!_ji« ^1 S^^^l 
jlkU. ^^LJlj d^Ui j.A^ iji;l^^l j^.5 ^3^ A.:i£- ■öiL-_Jl ilJl ^_i-- i^^ 
•'^l]j ULi "ü U L^»3 ^L^b LÜy t»<il ^^11 ^U "Uj <_jL; «JJl ^_^ tr**"^^ 

1. l-ire -^' au cas sujet; Temploi de la forme du cas direct, au lieu et place du 
cas sujet, est l'une des caracterisliques de cette langue incorrecte. — 2. Lire 4-^j ' '*' 
sullixe, se rapportant ä U^blj, doit ötre U, cl iion 5. — 3. Lire Jj. ^ 4. Lire ^J^, 
^^^'-i' etant masculin. — 5. Lire ^.^^1!=; la forme ^^Ui, avec la confusion des empha- 
liques, est caracteristique de cette langue. 



nous les protegeons, et nous leur permettons de voyager daiis nos Etats ä 
leur guise. 

« Lambassadeur qui est venu nous trouver de la part du gouverneur 
de Kons est tombe malade. Notre pays est insalubre ; celui qui est 
alleiiil par la maladie dans nos Etats, personne ne peut se rendre aupres de 
lui pour le soigner; rhommc (jui respire les emanations (de cette contree) 
tombe malade et meurt. » 

Ibn "Abd az-Zahir a dit : Le sultan ordonna d'öcrire une reponse ä cette 
lettre, et j'ecrivis ce qui suit : « Nous avons regu la lettre du roi glorieux, 
du prlnce magnifique, qui regne avec justice dans l'etendue de son empire, 
le souverain ' du royaume de l'Amhara", le plus grand des rois des Abyssins, 
qui exerce le pouvoir supreme sur toutes les terres qui sont sous leur domi- 
nation, le Negus ' de son siecle, Tornement le plus precieux de son royaume, 
duraut Tage oü il le gouverne, le giaive de la foi revelee par le Messie, le 
soutien des Etats qui professent la religion chretienne, le plus juste des rois 
et des Sultans, le sultan de l'Amhara ; qu'Allali garde sa personne, qu'il 
repande dans son coeur la lumiere de la Verite! 

« Nous avons pris connaissance de cette lettre, et nous avous compris 

1. Js^ halt' est une forme intermediaire entre le guez ,h* hazä, ramhariqut! >,(ii. 
athe, qui designe le souverain de rEtliiopie, que l'on appelle aussi ■>'/•>»• 1 >?/"^- negoush 
nagashet « roi des rois » : .J^ä transcrit une forme /hm. du moyen Age. — 2. Aujourd'liui 
hli- Amärä, avec la chute de l'aspiree; anciennement hTihi- Amhara, d'apres la forme 
arabe '^5^'•'. — 3. Voir note 1; il est evident que la forme arabe nadjashc correspond a 
une forme anoieiine yif" nagashe, dont le pluriel est nagashet. 



386 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [222] 

CjliC« l;_^^i UJ ytikJl jl^ ^1 Jls ®z>\j» ■*i^^ f-y ^^«3 ^-^^^ VI A»l :l.j^_ 
j% ^>Uj J^lj o^Wl ^% ol:^ ^^Jl ^1 ^^ P^'-:. ^^J ^^Vl p~C«Vl 

1. Lire b^C»£. — 2. Lire '->,J-i-", le pronoin sullixe se rapportant ä un nom au 
plurieL 



tout ce qui s'y trouve contenu. Quant ä la demande de l'eveque, que nous 
y voyons forinulee, personne n'est venu ä notre cour pour nous entretenir 
de la part du roi sur ce sujet, de teile sorte que nous ignorons entierement 
foi. 44r°. ce que vous attendez de nous. Pour ce qui est de la lettre du sultan al-Malik 
al-iVlouzaffar, eile nous est arrivee, nous expliquant que ce souverain a regu 
du roi d'Abyssinie une lettre, et un courrier, qu'il a garde aupres de sa 
personne, jusqu'au moment oü il a repondu ä sa lettre. 

« Quant ä ce que le roi nous apprend de la multitude de ses soldats, et 
des Cent mille Musulmaiis qui servent dans ses rangs, certes Allah, le Dieu 
tres-haut, en a niis un nombre autrement considerable dans nos armees. 
Pour ce qui est de la pestilence de ses etats, c'esl Allah seul, le tres- 
haut, qui fixe le terme de la vie des homnies. Aucun homme ne mcurt, s'il 
n'est parvenu au terme extreme qu'Allah a fixe pour son existence, et celui 
qui s'est acquitte de sa täche ici-bas quitte ce monde. » 

Ibn Abd az-Zahir a dit : Maintenant que nous avons parh- de la corres- 
pondance que le roi d'Abyssinie entretint avec le sultan, nous allons donner 
un apercju de son empire. L'Anduira est un des cliniats de FAbyssinie, et il 
en est le plus considerable; le prince qui regne sur FAmhara est en fait le 
souverain de la plus grande partie de l'Abyssinie, lels les pays de Damout. 
de Harl6. Le souverain du pays d'Audiara est nomine hutv\ ce qui signifie 
khalife, et tous ceux qui dominent sur cette contr6e portent ce titre. 

Parmi les rois de FAbyssinie fut Yousouf, fils d'Arsamaya, qui l'ul 
seigneur des contrees de lladaya, du Shoa, de Ralhour, et des provinccs qui 

1. Voir la iiote di- la pagc pr(5cedenlc. 



[223^ IIISTOIRE DKS SUF.TANS MAMLOÜKS. 387 

■^.-«i Jl cJjX» /♦i-***3 yLkftlj jiSeAsj ly^J *jlA;>- jM> .„.»-Lj »AJ AjU— 'JI \j1 i__L-y 

A) ».»JastJ (V*-Cc- «^U- 'L -Uaä> ^^ As /k*Jl ._3-L5 jlSj @ «. 11 |*^^-ÜL% cU— l 

w»'^ "'l5 't^ ^JJ SijUoJl «ijJJl ^ULÜ ^jjuu Äi-Ii JjVVi ä-«^ JAc. "yA SjIäi»- t,L-jlj 

dÜJl jlkUl Jl )i'j^j j4^ .^' cUUl lÄ* jl^j ;.i^l 4^ ^1 ^b lÄA .^iJÜl 

1. Lire »Jjlij. — 2. Lire ._^vL_^ au cas sujet. — 3. Lire ix.^'. — 4. Lire >>.. 
— 5. Le manuscrit omet ^. — 6. Lire ii.^' ^ü) Jo^L. ^^ ^«. — 7. Man. omet 



en d^pendent; les rois des Musulmans sont les suzerains de ces princes. 
Quant aux Zaila' et k leurs tribus, ils ii'ont pas de rois, mais ils sont 
divises en sept tribus; ces gens sont musulmans, et leurs predicateurs reci- 
tent la priere publicjue au nom de leurs sept chefs. 

Le roi du Yemen avait envoye des gens pour bätir une grande mosquee 
chez les Zaila', de fagon que Ton fit chez eux la priere en son noni ' ; il envoya 
les pierres d'Aden, ainsi que tous les outils necessaires; mais un certain 
uom!)re de gens des tribus des Zaila" se saisirent des pierres et lesjeterent 
dans la mer. Le roi du Yemen mit l'embargo sur leurs navires dans Ic port 
d'Aden, en represailles de cette insulte, durant une annee entiere. 

Celui qui vcut se rendre dans l'xVmhara part de la ville de 'Avan qui se 
trouve sur la cöte du pays des Abyssins". L'arraee (du roi de l'Amhara) ^foi. vi v». 
est tres nombreuse, et il commande ä la plupart des rois de l'Abys- 
sinie. Ce souverain avait envoye nn ambassadeur au sultan al-Malik az- 
Zahir, avec des prösents et des cadeaux, parmi lesquels se trouvaient des 
lions, noirs comme la nuit. L'ambassadeur arriva au pays de Sahart % dont 
le prince s'insurgea contre Ic roi d'Abyssinie, et arreta l'ambassadeur, avec 
les objels qu'il avait avec liii. 

1. Le souverain rasoulide du Yemen; c'etait une i'acon d'y l'aire reconnaltre sa 
suzerainete; c'est de meme que les empereurs chinois envoyaient aux souverains du 
.lapon des diplömes leur conferant des litres, pour arguer de ce toupet par la suite, et 
prelendre ä la suzerainete des iles du Soleil Levant. — 2. Ce qui defeiid de corriger 
j'^ en jl^', Aswan etant sur les premieres marches de la Nubie. — 3. Sahart est la 
transcription tres exacte de la forme abyssini- rt/iiC-V. 



388 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [224] 

^Ul ij_j^l 'C.sE^j cJ=^l (j--^^ j ^LDI ^1 J-~^y ^jtLkJl dLUI jLkLJl 

^IsjUJl A'-'^J' iT-*^ .^"^'^ "Cst^J aJLwC 4jlji-l 4JI .XJlJ \^^ Vlils-1 jlLUl '«J 

^Ij __,-Ä. JU ij <-Sj3 ""^y^DUl f>L_3 ^^=J1 ~^j^ ^^ 'j:J\j^ ^ Jo-V -'^_ V U 

^^Vi 'C.Ä^ ijAiji /^-*Ji cj^ .j"^*^ ^J ®^,„?ir|^'J ^'*^" ^ Ü^J^ ijAÜ) jl 

1. Lire '^^ L-^. — 2. Lire ^^ J ou -L> ^. — 3. Man. --^LM. 



Ell rannee 673, al-Malik al-Mansour, prince de llamah, se rendit ä la 
coiir du Sultan al-Malik az-Zahir. II ariiva au Caire, le sixiemejour du mois 
de Moharram, accompagne de sou frei-e, al-Malik al-Afdal Nour ad-Din 'Ali, 
et de son lils, al-Malik al-Mouzaffar Taki ad-Diu Mahmoud. II descendit au 
Kabsh'. Le sultan lui fit uue reception magiiifuiue, et lui envoya son Service 
de bouche complet, avec Temir Shains ad-Diu al-Farikani, l'ostaddar-. 

L'emir se tint debout ä la tete de la table, conime il avait coutume de 
le faire eu la presence du suUan, mais al-Malik al-Mausour l'adjura de renou- 
cer ä ce ceremonial, et le fit asseoir '. Le sultan envoya ensuite au prince 
de Hamali une quantite considerable de vetements d'lionneur, d'or, et de 
presents de tout genre, tellement que le prince ne put le remcrcier de toules 
ces faveurs; il lui perniit des choses qu'il ne tolerait d'aucun de ses 
favoris, comme de boire du vin, d'enteudre des concerts ', de se prome- 
11er en bateau sur le Nil, et il ordonna que Ton rectifiät ä son intention les 
deux rives du fleuve, la rive de Misr, et la rive de File de Raudha ". 

Gelte nieuie annee, Sarim ad-Din Uzbek arriva au Caire, accompagne de 

1. Les belvederes de Kaljsli, dit Makrizi, dune fa^on plus claire. Les khalifes fati- 
mites avaient, tant dans I'interieur'du Caire, que dans ses environs, ä Misr, dans l'ile 
de Raudha, au Karafa, a la Birkat al-Habash, des belvederes ij^^-^, qui formaient des 
habitalions de plaisance (/vAi^w/, man. arabc 1731, folio 383 v°). — 2. Abikrizi dit, d'une 
i'ayon dIus compröhensible, qu'a peine le prince fut arrive au Kabsh, l'emir Shams ad- 
Din al-Farikani se presenta avec lout l'appareil d'un grand diner, cxactement comme 
pour le sultan, ce qui etait une marque d'lionneur insigne. — 3. A table, en sa compa- 
o-nie, pour diner avec lui. — 'i. Donnes par des ciianteuses el des danseuses peu v6tues. 
— 5. Pour qu'il n'eüt pas la vue ilioquee par les inegaliles de leur terrain, ou pour que 
son bateau püt accoster plus l'acilement. 



225] IIISTOIIIK DKS Sri/FANS MAMhOUKS. ;JS9 

vIlUl jlk-Ul '»4-y ^~J^ i-^ Jj '^ir— ' ^^' ^•^ -s^Vl iS^'^-^ Cr-r-^i ^U 'i<'i- 'i'' i° 

, Jl i^jAüCl >_jl. , Jl c'L ^•^o ^U /^ -c.j-01 ^^ _^ Jl IjusIs ^^ 



I. Lire yi^^j^. — 2. [^a graphic correcte do ce nom est iüjj. 



I V'iiiir Azaz et de ses cousius, veiiaiit de Barka; ils etaienl accompagncs 
de Mansour, seigueur de la forterosse de Talamila, ([ui presenta ses clefs 
au sultau, le viugt-septieine jour du luois de Djoumada second. 

Ilistoire de l'expt^ditioa de Sis. Gette meme annee, le sultaii al-Mulik az- 
Zahir partit du Caire, se dirigeant vers Damas, emmenaiit avec lui la total! te * loi. 'js r°. 
de ses troupes toujours victorieuses; il laissaremir Shams ad-Din al-Farikani 
dans rcmpire egyptleii, pour le gouverner durant sou absencc, et il se mit en 
luarclie, le quatrieme jour du inois de Sha'hau; il arriva a Damas, le vingt- 
ncuvieme jour de ce mois, puis il partit de cette ville, dans rintention de 
gagner Sis '. II traversa le Darband", au-dessus de Darhsak ', marchant sui' 
Sis, dans la direction de la porte d'Iskandarouna '. II sempara d'Ayas ', 
d'Adana, de Massisa''. 

L'armee entra dans ce pays, le onzieme jour du mois de Haniadhau, et 
tili' en sortit le vingtieme jour du mois de Shavval, apres avoir massacre un 
uoinlire considerable d'Armeniens, apres avoir capture le plus grand nombre 

1. Ou mieux Sisiyya, la capitale du roi d'Armenie. — 2. Ce mot, qui est persan, 
desig-ne un col dans une cliaine de montagnes: il s'agit ici du defile connu anciennement 
sous le nom de 'Ay.avixai ttu/ki, qui franchit la chainc des monls Almadagh, laquelle 
separe aujourdhui le vilayet d'AIep de celui d'Adana- —3. Le nom de Darbsak ne parait 
pas dans Yakout ; c'etait une place forte, k une dizaine de milles dans le nord-est de 
Baghras. — 4. D'apres Yakout, I, 254, c'est une ville ä lest d'Antioclie, sur le rivage 
de la Alediterranee, eloignee de quatre farsakhs de Baghras, de huit farsakhs d'An- 
tioclie; aujourd'liui, Iskanderun sur les cartes allemandes. — 5. Yakout ne parle pas de 
coltc localite, qui est la ville nommee Ajas sur les cartes allemandes. — G. Massisa, dit 
Yakout, IV, 557, est une grande ville sur les deux rives da fleuve Djilian .(U^:^; on 
la compte au nombre des places frontieres qui defendent lacces de la Syrie: eile se 
trouve entre Antioclie et le pays de Roum, dans le voisinage de Tarsous. C'etait une 
tres grande ville, tres riebe, forliliei', qui avait cinq portes. 

PATR. OH. — T. XIV. — I-. :i. Ji; 



390 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [226] 

\^ Ij^—jlj /»jl=- Ji^c ^It Jj.'3 ^^-LvJl »..«.3- (j-Ul ^j-« ÄWI3 ^j"!/» »juäT a-)jaJI. 
»>jl Cw c^,li-j jl !1 i%il ^sL-Jl Jj'j ^ (»Lslj ^"^ S^^3 ^c^\ ^i ^ 

jiLui ji ^'i iUj^n ^a)i j;« 51 a)i3 ^*iyi aui i,^ j ^i>ii ^jji 

^ <£ji JU UJ ■vfl Jili3 ®(»jjl JU2i3 i>Ui ^1 Jji^oJI Ja ^y^^ ^Ikll v^iiLJI 
1. I.iro \,^ lik. — 2. Lire ^Ji^'. — 3. |^^ '^V^. 



de leur population, apres y avoir ramasse iin biitin considerahle eii animaux, 
en esclaves, taut lioinmes que femmes. 

Le Sultan s'arreta aii defile le plus etroit du Darband, au-dessous de Ba- 
ghras', et il prit k la' population de ce pays tout son bctail; il descendit 
ensuite ä 'Anik de Harim -, et il distribua aux gens (de cetle localite), d'unc 
lagen ögale, ce qu'il avait capture. II resta ä 'Amk jusqu'ä la fin du mois de 
Sliavval, et durant tout le mois de Zilka'ada; il decampa dans les dix premiers 
jours du mois de Ziiliidjdja, et rentra a Danias. 11 sejourna quelque temps 
dans cette ville, et il renvoya les troupes dans leurs pays jusqu'au commen- 
cement de Tannee 674. 

La cause de l'expedition que le sultan entreprit cettc annee fut la suivante, 
d'apres ce que raconte 'Izz ad-Din ibn Shaddad, daus son ar-Raouz az-zahir 
fi simt al-Mallk uz-Zahir : Le parvatia '' Mo 'in ad-Din ecrivit au sultan al- 
Malik az-Zahir, pour l'iiiciter ä envahir Tempirc (saldjoukide), et ä attaquer 
le pays de Roum. 

II arriva en eilet que le parvana Tut reduit a riinpuissance al)Solu(' par li' 
l'ail, d'Alcliaii, fils d'Hoiilaonii, et frere d'Abaglia, Iccpiel Alcliai avait eu le 
dcssein de le faire assassiner. La terreur avait ineite le parvana a (''criri' au 

1. Bayhras, dit Vakoul, I, 003, est unc villü i|ui se Irouve au pied de la immtagiio 
de l.oukkam, a quatrc farsaklis d'Antioche, ä la droile de la routc qui mene d'Alep ä 
Antioche. — 2. Plusieurs localites porlenl Ic iKmi de Amk: eelle dont il est queslion ici 
est un village qui depend d'Alep, apres avoir releve d'Anlioclie (Yakout, 111, 727); cetle 
localite est citee dans les vers des poeles : eile fournissait la plus grande parlie du ble 
qui se consoinuiait :i Antioche. — 3. Co lilre est persaii; il signifie « qui comniande »; 
il elait porl('' pai' le |iirinii_r iniiiislre des Saldjoukides. 



[227] IIISTOIHE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 301 

^Ui ^11 jikui J^j ^>üi ^ ^ij^ J-*'y ®!s^ '^ys '^'^ i^^i v_^^3 ^l 
ij'Vl cJI jj ^ ■ cJl üÄa a^«! jlkl Jji. ^,i_s A__i; ^U iUj^i jUU 

lji.ls ' •^•jj jL j ».JaÄ) Vi |*J_yl> ,-»>^:>:^ V sl'lj^l JI3 l^ja—lsjj f-'-'^ J'j-«' ^«--«-=>- ^.I>o 

1. Lire c=^'- — 2. Lire ',-''. — 3. Lire sU-l. — 't. Lire ^^i^v-s. — 5. Man. v»-- js^. 
— 6. Man. .)jy^ 






Sultan, l'annee precedente, en meme temps qu'il depechiiit un courrier ä»foi. 45v° 
Abaglia, pour lui exposer les raisons ({ui exigeaient qu'il rappelät Atchai 
aupres de sa personne. Ahagha envoya un ofTicier (dans le, pays de Roum) 
|M)ür prier Atchai de venir le rejoindre, ce qu'il fit. 

Le iiasard voulut quo le prince Atchai quittät lo paj^s (de Roum) au 
mouicnt meme oü le sultan entrait ä Damas ; le parvaua se crut tire d'em- 
barras, et il envoya dire au sultan : « Attaque Sis cette annee-ci ; l'annee 
[irochaine, je te rendrai maitre du pays (de Roum). » Le sultan attaqua Sis, 
comme cela a ete raconte dans les lignes precedentes. 

L liistorien a dit : (^)uand Abagha eut mande aupres de lui son frere Atchai 
et Samaghou', il envoya dans le pays de Roum Boughou Noyan, avec qua- 
rante Chevaliers choisis parmi ses favoris; il lui donna l'ordre de consigner 
par ecrit toutes les ressources financieres du pays de Roum, et de les con- 
fisquer; il lui enjoignit de plus que le parvana n'exercät aucune autorite dans 
la contree en dehors de sa presence ä lui, Boughou Novan. 

Ouand Boughou Noyan arriva dans le Roum, tous les emirs du pays se 
presentferent devant lui, et lui apporterent des presents et des cadeaux, ä 

1. Ces evenements ne sunt pas racontes avec cette precision par Rasliid ad-Din, qui 
mentionne seulement la canipagne de Baibais contre Kaisariyya (man. supp. pers. 
209, fol. 309 r°). Bougliou est nomme dans ce passage ßy et ^ßy (voir Djami at- 
lavarikh, IL page 551). Rashid dit que ce general etait le flls d'Uugud-Noyan X>y ^J ;le 
Mou'izz al-ansab man. persan67, foL 66 r°) le nommey^ Boughou, fils d'Iluguen .,fel>l 
Noyan. L'accord du Mou'izz al-ansab et de Moufazzal indique la ledureji^, qui est le 
mongol boughou « cerf ». ^yj> de Rashid serait le mongol tughon « chaudron ». 
.Kc^ n'est pas le .,'jt.— .. du Mou'izz [ibid., fol. 66 v°). 



392 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [228] 

«ji> "j^v^ iV"^' iV'*^ l5 ^ ^*^ "" (< lAJjiij ül *-«)/' iVy .?^ c>>^"*'3 ^" (i-fj (V 
Aj\ j dUij. ^v-Öl ■Gojl" J ^^l~£ j^;l dUj ^i jhy ^} SXA x^ ^\ 4ji! 

1. Man. , »JsJ Jii. — 2. Man. , ,.'»j »äj. — 3. Man. ,__,.jjjJIj. — 4. Lire JU' 



rexception du parvana, qui nc voulait tenir aiicun compte de Tofdre d'Abaglia. 
Boughou Noyan fit main basse sur toul Targent du pays de Roum, et l'eu- 
voya ä Abaglia. Quaiid Mo in ad-üiii vit le pouvoir dont etait iuvesti Bou- 
ghou Noyan, il prit une attitudo liumble, il se fit toyt petit, et se resigna 
ä lui obeir. 

Description et histoire du pays de Sis. Massisa fut liütie par 'Abd Allah, 
lils d'Abd al-Malik, fils de Marvan, suivant ce que raconte Ibn Asakir dans sa 
grande chronique, et cela sous le regne de son pere, en l'annee iQ'i de l'he- 
gire. Quant ä Tarsous, c'est une des cites anciennes (du monde); Tabari 
raconte dans son histoire que le tombeau d'al-Mamoun se trouve dans cctte 
lui. 'ic I". ville '. Ce khalife fit en eilet eontre eile plusiours expeditions, eoup sur 
coup," et il mourut dans une localite nommee al-Badandoun-, pres de Tar- 
sous, en l'annee 218 de l'hegire. 

Tarsous et Adana, avec le pays qui environne ces villes, sont nonunees 
Rilikia''. Massisa est la ville d'Hippocrate, le niedecin ', rnais Ton dil aussi 
que c'est Homs. C'cst ce quo mentionne Ibn al-Uoumiyj'a % dans le cuni- 

1. Ce lail est 6galciiient rapporle par Yakoul, III, .")2(). — 2. Gelte localite n'est pas 
menlionni'e par Yakout. \a\ forme al-Badandoun est donnöe par Tabari, ed. du Caire, x, 
293. — 3. Transeription du grec KiXixi«. — '1. llip])Ocrate est ne dans l'ilc de Cos, comme 
le dit l'laton (Fabr.'eius, Utbliolheca graeca, 11, 508). L'autcur du Tas'iirikh nl-hou- 
kama (man. ar. 2112, fol. 41 r") dit qu'il liabila dans Kobroulia ^^j^, qui, est la nienie 
que Homs, en Syrie. — 5. Aboul- 'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammad ibn Moul'arradj al-Bou- 
nani al-I.shbili, nomme Tbn al-Roumiyya, niort cn G37 de Thegire, dont il est parle 
dans lladji Kliaiifa, \ , 29. et (|ui s'occupait. entre aulres sciences, de botaniquc. 



[229] illSTülRE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 393 

1. Man. .,'0^^. — 2. Man. .,L^.;. — 3. Man. '.^^. 



nientaire du livre de Dioscoridc '. Le tlouve Djaliau est lo memc quo lo fleuve 
Djihan, car les Armeniens rendent le ha _ par le ha <;-; ce fleuve Djihan est 
le plus considerable des trois fleuves, qui sont le Shaihan ^ le Djihan ' et le 
Baradan-'. Ce sont les fleuves de Tarsous, de Massisa et d'Adana, suivant ce 
que rapporto Hibat Allah ihn al-Iklili, dans son livre sur la description de la 
terre. II dit que ce fleuve sort des niontagnes du paj's de Roum et se dirit^e 
ensuite vers la mer; quant au Djihoun", c'est le fleuve qui coule, large 
comme une mer, vers Khvarizm. 

La premiere partie du Djihan ' coule comme un torrent furieux dans la 
directiondu sud, jusqu ace que le fleuve arriveäla ville deSisama /qiii appar- 
tient au pays de Roum; puis il coule entre deux montagnes, en descendant 
du cöte de FOccident, jusqu'au nionient oii il atti'int deux villes qui appar- 
tenaienl ä l'empire grec, et que l'on nomme Tarsa " et Zabatra. II passe dans 

1. Le grand traitc sur les plantes de Dioscoride, en grec irepl SXri; kTpix?-?; il en existe 
une traduction arabe qui est la base de tont ce que les Musulmans racontent sur la 
bolanique: Dioscoride etait originaire d'Anazarbe en Cilicie. — 2. C'est un fait cou- 
rant que le ha ~ est rendu par le ha 4 en armenien, comme le montrent assez les 
transcriptions Miuju,.;«.!!,/,}, Salahadin de l'arabe .^jJl JL^ Salal.i ad-Din; tmuuA, 
Hasan, de l'arabe ^»—^ Hasan. — 3. Aujourd'hui le Sai'houn, qui passe un peu a Test 
de Tarsous, et qui est forme du confluent du Samantia Sou et du Saran Sou, lequel passe 
un petit peu ä l'ouest de Sis. Le Saihoun passe ä Adana. — 4. Aujourd'hui Djihan, 
l'ancien Pyramus, ([ui passe pres de Marash. — 5. Sur lequel est situee Tarsous 
(\akout, HI, 526). — 6. L'auteur parle ici de ce fleuve, parce (^ue son nom a quelque 
ressemblance orlhographique avec Djihan. — 7. Ce fleuve prend sa source au nord-est 
de la ville d'Albistan. — 8. Ce qui montre qu'il ne faut pas voir dans X*—. une faute 
pour L-._ (Yakout, \\\, 217); peut-etre Sisama est-elle Antioehia ad Taurum. — 
9. Tarsa, Narsa, Barsa, n'est pas mentionnee par Yaknul, et on ne irouve ricn qui cor- 
responde ä ce nom sur les cartes: une ville de Zabatra est citee pör Yakout (II, 914) 
entre Malaliyya, Soumaisat et al-lladas. 



394 MOLIFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FÄZAIL. [230] 

•p ®i.Ä.-^l ^ j^ J:^ VJ-^^ ^:=^^ -'^ cT" ^ ^^ ^ (J^ ^^-' Cxh^ ö:^- 
JUJlj 5L j^lij i.;U ^-^ <l^ Jl oJjl ^ ^\ \S^ Jjl^ ^UJl ^1 Jl .-^. 
31. IjIl:, ^jVi ^^ J^\i S- i-;U ^_^ (.l<ill ^L^ y. Ui>l3 ^^_^ ^a^-^ii 

1. Man. W. — 2. Man. s^^Lj,. — 3. Lire -v ^,-^' ^. — k. II faut -^l^V' *-^ J^3 



Celle coutree entre ces deux villes; puis il s'engagi? entre deux montagnes, 
revenant sur sa directiou primitive, qui est celle du sud, et il parvient ainsi 
jusqu'ä la ville frontiere de Massisa. Ensuite, il descend vers la iner de Syrie; 
la longueur de ce fleuve, depuis sa source jusqu'ä son embouchure, est de 
sept cent tränte milles. 

Les montagnes qui entourent Sis et le pays qui depend de cette ville 
forment la chaine du Loukkam \ dont la longueur est de cent milles. l^e 
mille est la distance sur le terrain jusqu'ä laquelle s'etend la portee extreme 
de la vue; le farsakh- comprend trois milles. 

Histoire de la conquete du pays de Sis par la dynastie des Levon', sou- 
verains de Sis. D'apres ce que raconte Imad ad-Din al-Katib, dans le nl-Bavk 
• idi. 46 v°. al-shaini, * la dynastie de ce Levon est (la merae que) la dynastie du takafour ''. 
Ces pays sur lesquels il regnait appartenaient entierement (dans le prin- 
cipe) k l'empereur de Byzance, et ce fut Malih ihn Levon qui s'en empara 
dans les circonstances suivantes : Nour ad-Din, le martyr, etait rallie de ce 
princ(r* qu'il soulenait de toutes ses forces, et auqucl il prodiguait toutes 

1. Yakuiil, IV, 347 et 364, considere cctle chaine commc unc parlic du Liban. — 
2. L'arabe farsakh est la foi-mc arabisec du mot persan /iirsung oJvL.»?, qui est un 
anciea' frä-athanga « distance d'un jet de pierrc (lancec^ a la maini », cn pcrse aclie- 
nienide; barsang ^lSl~j> « contrepoids », en persan, est ' pura-a f /la iiga, u piervc qui 
contrebalance », dans la langue des Achemenides. — 3. En arnienicn /./tnJi. — 4. Takafour, 
en armenicn Wnniim "^ ihnkavor, signifie « roi, celui qui [)orle la couronnc », coninic 
ccla a ele (•x[)lique dans le iascicule precedent; en persan ,_jäu' tndjvitr. — 5. Les 
iirinccs musulmans. ä ce que raconte Ibn al-Alhir, reprochaienl a Nour ad-Din Mahmoud 
d'avoir pris Malih a son servicc. (le Malih est Mlrli Khorodon, fils de Levun I', qui 
hucccda il son ne^eu. Roupen V' . 



.2:il] IIISTOIÜli DRS SULTANS MAMI.OUKS. 3ii5 

i-Li 4JI.« T— »^J '>~--J J'-Äj' O- ^p- J I «-oj „Ji ,3-1 |_j '»jisjl bAA CjDj ''/«Ai« (V-"^" 

--^ l« yil jjä» ^IAjÜ Ji ^;^3 ^^3 '^— ^ «.l=-3 rc-^U Jl ', 3-lJ CJJi (V-*^' J »J 

J j_^V:'' LLa c~; ijj_*s cij]i 1-iUi ^^«3 ^jj\ ^ _^3 ^_^'L»-^ ^ \^ j»,J J«i--3 
1. Lire j«*'. — 2. Man. j^w-^. — :>. Man. ^^ .A.i,jjl. — 4. Man. »il)'. — 5. IJreUji.-. 



sortes de faveurs ; son intention, cn agissant ainsi, etait, d'apres ce qu'on a 
dit, de faire triomplier les infidcles des mecreants'. 

Le l)ut. avoue de Nour ad-üin Mahmoud etait, cn cITet, do soutenir Malili 
contrc les Francs qui elaient voisins de ses Etats. Quand Malili ibn Levon se 
fut empare de ces pays, l'empereur byzantin envoya contre lui son parent^, 
Andronicos, k latete d'une des armces grecques; Malih le liattit, et fit pri- 
sonniers trente generaux byzantins. Cette bataille eut Heu ä la fin du mois 
de Rabi' second de l'annee .168. 

Nour ad-Din, ayant regu la nouvelle de cet evenement, combla Malili de 
marques d'estime; il lui remit des vetements d'lionneur, et il augmenta le 
pouvoir dont il jouissait. En meine temps, il envoya un ambassadeur ä Bagli- 
dad pour y exalter Freuvre de Malih, eu disant ä la cour du khalife : « Ce 
Malih est de mes officiers, et c'est un grand personnage chez les Grecs. » 
A partir de ce moment, la dynastie de ce prince (lakafour) s'accrut en puis- 
sance dans ces pays, tout en restant la vassale de Nour ad-Din, le martyr. 

Le defile ' du Darband, qui se trouVe devant Sis, est connu sous le nom 
d'al-Douroub ', et on le nomme aussi al-'Avasim '; il se fait continuollement 

1. C'est-ä-dire de battre les Byzantins chretiens avec l'aide des Armeniens chretiens, 
'i^ et iys^ designanl egalement les Chretiens dans le protoco\e des inscriptions ara- 
bes. — 2. .lean Kinnamos, dans ses Histoires, livre VI, 11 et säg. (Migne, Patrologie 
grecqiie, tome 133, col. 660), raconte cos evenements en disaöt que MeXi»? (Mleh) 
succeda ä son frere, Tepoi^o; (Roupen) , et qu'Andronic, lequel etait. surnomme «l>oc6r|Voi;, 
etait le neveu de l'empereur Manuel, qui etait alors assis sur le Iröne de Constantino- 
ple. Andronic Phorbenos fut, h cause de sa nullite, remplace dans son commandement 
par Constantiii Calamanos, qui fut egalement battu par les Armeniens. Takafour designe 
egalement l'empereur grec, d'oü la confusion que Ton remarque dans cette plirase. — 

3. Sur ce sens de , ,0, voir Dozy, I, 12'i. — 4. « Los Defiles ». — 5. Comme son 

clymologie l'indiquc asscz. ce quo fait remarquor Yakout. HL 741, t'Avasim est 



Ibl. kl V 



-S' 



3i)ü MOUKAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [232] 

üLk, U^l jl^3 -ilffJb JJ-«ilj '-^^J <y^^ (^ y^^J ^t'-?^-^'-? -JJ*'^ ^^ '■c'3 r^lr^^ 

b-^ (_j -^ jl <^>c- j^j .iicl 'U_wi A.Li '^ U'_5 Ij-lc- , Jjj y-«.L_».L' Xjtü 
1. Lire i^i J»l. 



dans cette contree des expeditions de conquete et des guerres (coiitre les 
Chretiens); les gens qui l'habitent soiU, la couverture de l'lslam, les troupes 
de la guerre saiiite contre les infideles. La vie de ce pays est intimement 
liee ä celle de Tempire egyptien; Ahmad ibn Toiiloun,soiiverain de l'Egypte, 
vint dans cette contree k l'epoque ä laquelle il conquit Antiociie, en l'annee 
2G5. 

11 continua sa route siir Tarsous, on il eiitra au mois de Rahi' premier de 
l'annee sus-mentionnee, et cette villc appartint des lors aux Musulmans; 
Ahmad ibn Touloun y mit, pour le representer, un gouverneur nomme Ba- 
ini. '.7 1«. lakhshi '. Son intention etait de sejourner dans les villes frontieres de ce 
pays, a cause de l'excellence de leur terroir, et parce qu'il eiit ete tout pres 
des Chretiens, contre lesquels il voulait faire la guerre sainte. Mais il apprit 
que son üls s'etait revolte contre son autorite, et il s'cn retourna en toute 
häte vers l'Egypte, puis il mourut; qu 'Allah lui fasse misericorde. 

Sous le regne de Kafour l'Hchshidite-, qui fut sultan d'Egypte, on negli- 
gea de s'occuper des affaires des villes frontieres; l'cmpereur Nicephore les 
attaqua; elles se defendirent contre lui; aussi, il inccndia les villages de 

un Systeme de forteresses destiiu» ä (h'i'ondi'e Ir pays sur le IVonl diiqurl dies s'elevent. 
c'cst-ä-diro la Syrie; c'est, cn somme, le camp retranchii qui couvre K; pays qui s'eteiiJ 
derriere Alep et Anlioche, dont le reduit central etait Antioche; cerlainos pursonnes 
comptaient Alep parmi ces ciladelles; d'aulros Ten excluaicnt pour la raison qu'Alep 
dependait de Kinnisr'n, et que Ton disliiimiail Kinnisrin de T'Awasim : on faisail aussi 
enlrcr dans T'Awasiin, ^lassisa, Tarsous el It's villes de ccllc coniröe. 

1. Litt. : « l'iiouimo oritfinaire du BadaUlisiian », Balakhslian elant une l'ornK; e(|ui- 
valente k Badakhslian, avec ti=: /. — 2. i)6ö-968: en OO'i, .Nicepliore Phocas s'emparc 
d'Anazarbe et U'aiitres villes; en 965, de Tarse et de Mopsueste (Massisa); cette niöme 
annee, il installe un jjpcl'et a Tarse et k Mopsucste. Kn oclübre, il revint en Iriomphe 
ä Constantinoj.lc, rapporlaiit lus portcs de Mopsueste et de Tarse; au j)rintemps de 9t>(i, 
il attaqua la Syrie (Muralt, Chrnnographie hi/zant/'ne, Ö41 et 542). 



i 



[233J IIISTOIRK DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 397 

<L^}> Xjä ol,.Ä.'l v„ILj'_5 /v-^' ("-^j' o^j vS-'' "^ ijJlii ^LJl i^jJä ,_;^'j tlr'sr^^ 
Jl \As-j3 LöjS Li-»- '^,j>;^^3 (jUÄtjJI vL ^jj« L«-»wiu j4f>-j <_i_J j*slS Ja_Li-i 

^U^ ^LU!! cllJlj ■^JIä, jpU.t.11 <i_UJlj ij'U£-j ^-*— 3 ■»^j' ^^ .::-'^i3 

_^^1 ->i" jLL-LJl jlSj -^^Ji ->^ f*~^ ^j-y^ L-'^^j •*-' j^j '«[oLLiiU («jU^ jj^j 



I. Oll lirp ,ji-\x.M oA-LJ' « l'empereur grec »: ä la iin de cette histoire, Nicephore 
est en efTct qtialitie de takafour i^\^". — 2. Lire v_:u^o^'. — 3. Lire ^|/. — 4. La 
forme classique est >^-j. — 5. Lire ^Ju. — 0. Man. ^^l. 



cctte reg-ion, coupa les arbres, et saccagea tout le pays enviroaiiant. La 
nouvelle de ces evenements arriva a Kafour, qui s'en desinteressa comple- 
tement. Une certaine nuit, il eut un feve, (dans lequel il se vit) comme s'il 
monlait au ciel, arme d'un pic, avec lequel 11 se mit ä demolir la voüte 
Celeste de sa propre main. ^ 

Quand le jour fut venu, 11 manda aupres de lui les interpretes des songes, 
et il leur raconta le reve qu'il avait eu : « Tu es, lui dirent-ils, un homme 
qui ruine la religion, et qui renonce ä faire la guerre sainte contre les Chre- 
liens. » A ce moment, Kafour reprit possession de l\ii-meme, et il envoya un 
general, nomme Ibn az-Za"farani, ä la tete d'unc armee considerable. Cette 
armee entra dans les pays frontieres de l'Islamisme, 6t eile en chassa l'empe- 
reur grec. Dien seul sait ce qui est vrai. 

Eu l'anuee 67 'i, le khalifc al-ilakim etait sur le tvöne du Iviialifal; al- 
Malik az-Zahir sejournait ä Damas, ayant comme gouverueur dans cette ville 
Izz ad-l)iu .\idemur. Cette annee, le sultan conquit la fofteresse d'al-Kosair, 
qui se trouve entre Harim et Antioche ; il sy trouvail un preire considerable 
cliez les Francs. Le sultan avait tout d'abord ordonne aux Turkomans d'aller 
investir cette fortoresse, avec Tarmee d'.Vlep, et d'en faire le siege; puis 
il y envoya Femir Saif ad-üin Balaban, Ic davaddar. 

L'eniir ne cessa de duper le pretre, jusqu"au moment oü il Pameha ä des- 



398 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [234] 

Ca \i :.A ijJI JiU i}j\:> X-fc Jj>i 5Xx^ jLkUl ^^U Ji3 l^Jj «JjVl i^:sL»f- 
^■«Ll c-«A.ÄJ' As CiJ -^ij'-^ j^J '^J-=' "^J j^ dlUI j\ ^ij •^ijl-i ''^»^ ^^^;^ ^j^ 

]\ c^Vl jVaJI Jfr ^r^Vlj jJlijliJl ^^iLJl J^aJI t-T"^ ^»-^"^'^ ^Jf c^^ ilr* ^•^j^ 

Jy:_ l^^i^ JlkL-U ^Ul^ ^J\i ^>U1 ^ ^jl3 ._i-^ll Lc<d.l jyC jl ^b 

l.On atlendrait plutot l-oU.. 



centlre de la forteresse, et ä la lui rendre, par les flatteries dont il le combla, 
par ses ruses, par l'ascendant qu'il sut prendre sur lui, par les amabilites 
♦ loi. 47 v°. extremes qu'il lui prodigua. Cet evenement eut Heu le vingt-troisieme jour 
du mois de Djoumada premier, 

Cette meme annee, Shakanda, fils de loncle de David, roi de Nuhie, 
arriva ä la cour du sultan pour se plaindre des violeuces qu'avait exercees 
ä son egard le fils de son oncle, David. Shakanda exposa que le royaume 
lui appartenait, ä l'exclusion de David, (son cousin), et que la mechancete de 
David l'avait incite ä faire son incursion contre "Aidliab, comme nous l'avons 
mentionne precedemment. Quand la cour du sultan fut fixee au Caire, apres 
son retour de Damas, il envoya l'ernir Shams ad-Din Ak-sonkor al-Fari- 
kani et l'emir 'Izz ad-Din al-Afram, en Nubie, k la tete de trois cents cava- 
liers, avec Shakanda. 

Le sultan leur ordonna, lorsqu'ils auraient conquis le pays, d'en roniet- 
tre la souverainete ä Shakanda, ä la condition que ce priuce possedäl la 
moitie et le quart du pays, et que l'autre quart lui appartint d'une lagen incon- 
testee, ä lui, sultan d'Egypte. lls partireut, le premier jour du mois de 
Sha'ban, et ils arriverent ä Dongola, le treizieme jour du mois de Sliavval. 
Ouand ils approciiercnt de Dongola, David, ses freres, les fils de son oncle, 
sortirent de la villc a la tetc de son armee ', montes sur des chameaux, et 
la lance ä la rnaiii; ils u'avaient sur eux qm- des blouses noires qu'ils 
nommaient dikdak. 

(Les soldats iiubieusi ne purent soutcnir la liitle conire les troupes cgyp- 
tionnes, et ils prirent la l'uile. Beaucoup furent tues, et un nombre encoro 
bien plus granJ furent faits prisonniers, ä tel point qu'on vendail un de ccs 

1 1,0 pronom, dans a~;-?-, se rapporlc ii Daviil ; la plirasc est Ires mal construite. 



1235] IIISTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOÜKS. 399 

•'''j.i_. i_^ ^ i\ j^ (»^ ^_^Jj >jl_/>:^'l !*i.:^y V^^ (^ "'^C^j ^.^ j "»-^ (^3 

^^^'j J^ ^\ J^ ^b' U ^^1 ^^\i ^ Jh^ p;^ o^^^J \y^ Jt^\ pV^jV» ®^_il^A.li 

jjjlj dUi cJijl3 ^ ^V^ b^^ (n*-^ '^ ^r-"^'l3 L,^'^ -^ (^-*-'Lj (v*'j-» *^ (V-' 

•^'jj.^:'-'^ j^. J oL^" V ^ v.-* r ^=>^^ ^' ^^ ^^^ -^ d^-^ c^' ^^ 

Li.ls VA5.M («Li i'^lT " A-lU j I3JU3 L<yw j^ ''l^r-** (^'^^^^J C^'^'' L"^ i-li • lol. 'is r 
®iUii Jl Ijjii-jj ^.»jp- 'jAi-iJ Cij <_jL1j Iäj'j aJ»! a^I^ •Ci-13 <.L JjJ j»j) ,r-^' 
jlj i^ ÖJI J '"'jLj :>>U1 J i!L J^ ^Lt l^jj bXL-Ci lyCU jl Jl l^ l_^lils 
jbJ» Laj '*(V^Ij ^ _ii ' jj-^" j^ ^J 'j-'^'*3 "^ -jß L iL- t^o ,3 jik-L-U oUäj 
iT «jlkL.Ü ÜU ^ lj^Ul3 JIL.L.Ü Ci.li- (.Uj Ä«^ "L^ jl^l ^ '"C^" jL-.^^ 

1. Lire i^s. ^ y — 2. Lire '-j'^i. — •>• Lire ^j;■^~J. — '1. Lire ^uj'. — 5. Ces lormes de 
pluriel en rapport avec des duels sont irregulieres; il faudrait U^»--- ^^rtJ, '-^^. — 6. Lire 
',Uj.i. — 7. 11 faudrait regulierement LL-C — 8. Man. •;. — 9. Man. ^y. — 10. 11 
faudrait, ou .i'-w>5, ou mieux .^j^- — H- Lire I^j. 



Xubioiis pour trois dirhams. Le nombre des tucs et des prisonniers s'eleva 
ä dix mille personues. Le roi David s'enfuit ä la tete des fuyards, et traversa 
Ic NiL pour gagaer la rive occidentale du lleuve; puis il se precipita, au 
milieu de la nuit, vers uns de ses forteresses. 

Al-Afram et al-Farikani, l'ayant appris, monterent ä clieval avec les 
Iiommes qui se trouvaient avec eux, et ils se mirent ä la recherclie de Uavid, 
(Uirant trois jours, pendaut lesquels ils firent la plus grande diligence puur .1^,1 '.si" 
le decouvrir. Quand il seutit les Egyptiens sur la piste de son repaire, 
il descendit de la forteresse avec sa mere, sa soeur, la fdle de son frere, et 
il se sauva avec son fds. Les Egyptiens capturerent les femmes de sa famille, 
et s'en retournerent ä Dongola. 

Ils sejournerent dans cette villc jusqu'au moment oü ils eurent instaUe 
Shakauda sur le troue de la Nubie. Ils etablirent que dans le royauine chaque 
adulte paierait tous les ans un dinar comme capitation, et que Ton porterait 
chaque annee au sultaii le tribut qui avait ete impose ä Shakauda. Ils 
fixereut egalement que Dou et Ibrim , qui sont deux fortei^sses tres puis- 
santes, voisines d'Asouaa, distantes de sept jours de cette ville, appartieu- 
draient en propre au sultan, et ils installerent Kashi comme \vice-roi de la 
Xubic pour y exercer laulorite au nom du sultau. 

Los (deux) emirs s'en revinrent cnsuite en Egypte, et ils olHinrcnt une 



400 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [23ü] 

^\ U^3 <ää)1 i^i ^ ^_^läJI j jlkUL '^\y,^\^ '\:i^^^\ jLyJl ^1 ^'l^Vl :j:i\^ 
^Ij ■^•>>^lj :i3jb iJiUl (»Li -U; J^3 pi; L^ «Ai-lj L^ ^^^Cii -^[,^1 jjjb dUJl 
jÜaAJi cj-"^.-« (»-"^J (^-5 ijVl ^^^^J (v*;^ i_iJi i^Lw >»-;l9 ,_5— Jl (_Uy i' l^.....>ii aJs-1 

ei-U ykj ^'J^;"V1 -^^ J-as ^^A L^ :>jjb ^iiUl jl^jSiiVi'Vlj ^Vl ^-^ J^ V jl 
l;fr5 ^b^^ vJ1m_« 4.;! ^ytÜiJI vilUl ^ ^^\ "V-Uäs ,«_:u j^'l <J ijjl cj»!« -^ 

»IjJui ^3^3 ^i ^b '^J «Cä-J IAA Loj iyLU- oXd-Ü i-CxJi lj__L».l UJj •S'üLJLwj 

'foi. 'iSv". t^L^JIj 'UVlj ^.i^»jt.Jlj ' j^l ^1 -'MjA«]! iytlkJl S-CJI3 ^ÜJl i^LäJVIj ^-ii-JI 

U A-i Jjiij 'iT'.sv •As.c^ LS ru_^Jl Aä=-1 Vij j|^^3 'i-yiJ'j /»—-J -Uülj /-i'^jU^Jl 

1. 11 faudrait j!_;:.-='^' '■>'^^"- — 2. Lire U.vXä!. — 3. Liro^.-'. — 4. Lire J^t. — 5. Man. 
^.J-xjI. — G. Man. , ^-'■>J-'• 



audience du sultan, le cinquieme jour du mois de Zilhidjdja; ils etaienl 
accompagnes du l'rere du roi David, qu'ils avaient ramene prisonnier. Le 
sultan leur adressa de g-randes louanges, et las gratifia de vetements 
d'honneur. Quelques jours plus iard, le roi David arriva, avec son frere et 
le fds de son frere; ils furent jetes en prison; les prisonniors de gucrre 
vinrent ensuite, et on en vendit pour cent dix mille dirhams , on publia a 
cette occasion un rescrit du sultan qui defendait que Ton separat la mere de 
ses enfants. 

Quand le roi David eut pris la fuite (devant les troupes egyptiennes), il 
se dirigea vers le (pays du) roi d'al-Abvab, qui est un des rois de la Nubie, 
et qui possedait de vastes contrees. La peur quo ce souverain eprouvait d'al- 
Malik az-Zahir le porta ä se saisir de David, et ä Tenvoyer au sultan; David 
arriva, charge des Kens des prisonniers, le treizieme jour du mois de Mohar- 
ram de l'annee 675. 

Quand les emirs eureiil installc Shakanda sur le tröno, ils lui liront preter 
serment d'apres la Ibrniule suivantc, dont voici la teneur : a Par Dicu! 
par Dicu! [)ar Dieu! par la verite de la Sainte Triuite, de TEvangile sacrc, 
rui.'.sv. par la Dame immaculöe, la Viergc Marie, mere de la Lumiere^ par la verit(5 
du ba[)tömc, par celle des prophetes, des cnvoyes Celestes, des apötres, des 
saints, des confesseurs de la l'oi, des justes (|ui oiil vecii dans la piiHe ! 
Si je iie tions pas mon serment, que je rciiic lo Mcssie, ci»mme Ta renie 
Judas! qui' je proferc contri' lui ce que disent les .1 lifs! que je cniie ä ce qu'ils 



2371 IIISTOIRE DRS SULTANS MAMF.OIKS. /,0l 

®^_^l| )i^l L^ i^tjl ;^c-~-Jl J»ip\i ''^iy_ b^\ Vlj ^J-AilU. L. ^1:J^^, :^y^\ 'J^" 

aU! pi^Vl jlkUI liVj-i b^ ^Lj 1^ ^j ^ ^r_^j j^ ,:u-=.^l ^'1 

^L-säT J ji'^i iJ-S-r" ^^' (^'3 "^"^^ "^^ -^^ ^_,-^ Jy.-*-"3 LJ-kJl ^, jt\l^\ 

®^lj ÄJL ^jl '-'iAisJI jUjVl ^^»3 ÖL. jUJl ,^^1 ^3 .L-^ iy^\ ^L1 j^3 i'-X;- 
^;^U1 ^MJ\ ^^ j>ül J ^_5A,_ c^j ^Xi\ ötjl j^ ^ J^ ^ jjjl ^'Ij 

1. Ou liro 'j'jij. — 2. Man. ^-iy, comme pago 400. — .3. Lire LJji-^. — 4. Nowa'i'ri, 
rapportant ce nicme texte, a J»ä Ji'^K'. — 5. NowaTri JJ-^.'. — 6. Lire LJüä: ,jai^, 
pour .ü::;^, avcc la confusion des emphatiques, est une forme de sabir. — 7. Forme tres 
vulgaire, intermediaire entre les pluriels reguliers jii et ^^p\. — S. La forme reguliere 
serait J!,;. — !). Nowairi : I^i-^^'' iUs^t Xlii] ^. 



croient! Si je ne le tiens pas, quo je sois Judas, que je frapp(3 le Messio de 
la lance, comme les Juif.s Tont frappe de la lance! 

« Certes, je prends la resolution, ä parlir de ce momeiit et de cette heure, 
de me devouer corps et äme k notre seigneur, k' sultaii tres auguste, al- 
.ALilik az-Zaliir Rokii ad-Dounia wad-Din Baihars, que Dieu eternise sou 
n'.'gne! Je consacrerai tous mes efforls et tous raes moyens ä accomplir des 
(L'uvres qui lui donuent toute satisfactiou; tant que je serai son representant 
dans ce pays, je ue cesserai jamais de lui donner ce qui m'a ete fixe 
pour chaque annee qui s'ecoulera, c'est-ä-dire la part qui provient de la 
liivision en deux parties de mon royaume', teile que cette part etait pergue 
par mes predecesseurs, les rois en Nubie. 

« La moitie des revenus appartieudra ä notre maitre, le sultan, llbre de 
tout artifice de ma pari, et l'autre moitie. sera destinee ä la mise en valeur 
du pays, ainsi qu'ä le g'arantir contre l'ennemi qui viendrait l'attaquer. Je 
ni'engage ä donner chaque annee t'-ois elephants, trois girafes, cinq pan- 
tlieres femelles, cent ch&meaux ä la course rapide, au poU fauve, et quatre 
cents tetes de boeufs excellents. \ 

« Je fixerai pour cha^jun de mes sujets qui sont sous\mon obeissance 
dans le royaume, pour toutindividu parvenu a Läge de raison \t ä la puberte, 

1. L'une de ces parts etant, par traite, attribuee au sultan d'Egypte. \ 



fol 



402 MOUFAZZAL TBN ABII,-FAZAIT.. [238] 

■^AjC ^^j ^jjläVj ^JVj ■^IjiC^i "'is^Vj i_^l dlJL. jjjW jl^ L»^ •^Ij 'Lt ^jLj 

■Cc LiJi d^i V ^Ij 'CJUl ^1^"V1 j_j)l *,U^1 '*j_^„a:Jl ^^C_«JI ^j-— > )i.j^~~^ 'y> 

^ ,c^'3 *^iy^i /»O j =-13 i .Alia'l i-C„!l \«^ -rt- jJi Z^* tf^ C-^ i^M^l 2-^ 

•^ c JL. iyb\ V jil3 "03 J jlL..L.!l \>^y. <> ^•^'^ <«sUl3 SjUa)l jU^Vl J^ Ciw^ 
^'3 Cy Ji 3 j «-g'<Jl *jL-.^3 «juL^ i_0^3 V"^' J-^ j"^^ '' Ij V«..« -*-^ (""^3 '^j' 

1. Lire l.bi. - 2. Nowairi ajoute : jlü~l' UU J-.:s-'U ^W ^!i\.- i^j .,t_j. _ 

3. Lire a^>!. — 4. Lire j-C^; Nowairi jXi.. — 5. Man. J..^j;; Nowai'ri J^. — 

0. Nowairi i, «.^1 ^L^] vi*~~J. — 7. Nowairi ,.^* ».- JW ^.U! Jt ilo^i 
^^CJjJ J-^fj. — 8. Lire ^^j, '^. —9. Lire !w^^i. 



une capitation d'uii dinar payi'- eii especes'. Do plus, tout ce qui a appar- 
tenu ä David, roi de Nubie, a soii frere Sliankou, ä sa mere, ä ses parents, 
aux soldats de soii armee ([ui sonl tombes sous les glaives de Tarmee victo- 
rieuse (du sultan), je le ferai parvenir a la cour auguste (d'al-Malik az-Zahir), 
sans en retenir iin objet queloon(|ue, de peu de valeur ou d'un grand prix; 
je n'en dissimulerai rien, et je ne p.ermettrai ä personue d'en cacher iiue 
I)artie. 
* iVii. v.t r». « Si je viens ä transgresser quelqu'une des obligations qui m'ont ete 
imposees plus baut, que je sois excbi de bi communion du Messie, de la Vierge 
immaculee, que je perde la religion du Cbristiauisme, et que je prie eu me 
tournant d'un autre c6te que vers l'Orient; que je renie la-Croix, et que 
j'ajoute une foi entiere a la crovance des Juifs. De plus?, je ne laisserai pas un 
seul des Arabes dans le royaume de Nubie, qu'il soit jeune, ou qu'il soit 
iige, et tous ceux que je trouverai, je me saisirai de leur personne, et 
je les enverrai ä la Cour auguste. 

« Tout ce que j'appreudrai, que ce soii des uoiividles fächeuses ou utiles, 
je le porlerai ä la connaissance de notre maitre, le sultan, ;\ l'instant ra(5me. 
Je ne reglerai tout seul aucune des affaires (qui joncenn'ut la Nubie), car 
je suis le serviteur de notre maitre, le sultan, que son tiit)mplie soit exalte, 
que ses entreprises et son glaive victorieux soient couronnes de succes! 

1. Nowairi ajoute, ce qui a son importance : les p;ovinces d'al-AIi et d'al-Djabal 
appartiendroiit en propre au sultan. 



Iv 



<J 



[239! lllsroiRK DES Slf.TANS MAMLOUKS. ',(« 

t_jXs- i,* vilJ-O La.1 i:c_Jl ^ii.U-3 -S-J^j ^Oj jyl U ^U 0.ÜI3 iUlc ^Hi j-*^3 

®j_5iiJVl jjjMs ,yLJl jUi <:;! 

1. Lire ül? Lwj. — 2. Man. -W. — 3. II faudrait aJ^^j. — 4. Man. _»LC. — 
:.. .Man. ^a-.jU.. — 6. Man. j^~"- — /• Man. ^^ulJ'. — 8. Lire _.'_»j' J-' ,,j-V..rU 
,'iL-.". —9. II faudrait .»JJJ'. 



.le serai Tami de ses amis, et reimemi de ses cuncmis. Dieu est garant et 
lömoin de ce que je dis. » 

l>es jsujets pivtereiit ensuite serineiit de müme, dans la meme forme; puis 
Shakanda preta uti second serment, par lequel il s'engageait, lorsqu'il rece- 
Yiait un rescrit du sultan, que ce füt durant la nuit, ou pendant le jour, le 
maiidant ä sa cour auguste, ä s y rendre immediateraent, ä l'heure meme, saus 
aucun delai, de quelque uature qu'il füt, sauf le temps qui lui serait indis- 
pctisablc pour faire les preparatifs de son vovage. Ces serments fureut 
lalilies, le dix-iieuvieme jour du mois de Zilhidjdja. 

Gelte meme annöe, al-Malik as-Sa'id epousa la fille de sou Excellence 
Sai'fienne', Ralaouu al-Alfi. 

En l'annee 675, arriverent ä la cour du sultau deux Monyols notables 
Niguetei' et son frere Tchaouratchi '', lesquels lui apprirent que l'emir 
ilosam ad-Din Bayantchar ' al-Baibourti ' ar-Roumi, possesseur du fief de 
Kliartapirl'', et son iils, Bahadour, avec toute sa maiäon, ctaieut en route * f<>i. w v 
pour se rendre ä la cour du sultan. La cause de Tarrivee de ces deux 
emirs etail la suivante • Babadour, fds de Bayantchar, avait epouse la 
soeur des deux Mongols dont il vient d'etre parle. Ces deux personnages 

1. Sali' ud-Din. — 2. En mougol, u premier, unique », de nigueii/i « un »: :;loCw 
seguelei, en mongol, signifieraii « prudent, sense ». — 3. En mongol tckaghoura-tchi, 
parlicipe actU ie tchaghoura-khou « serrer », avec la chute habituelle ^e la gutturale. 
— 'i. Xom connu dans ronomastique des Mongols. — it. Originairc »le la ville de 
Baibouil. — 0. Forme ancienne du noni de la ville qui sc nomme aujourd'll(ii Kliarpout. 

\ 



40'i MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIl.. ,240] 

J 0=^3 j-*-^^ L.^_" ^IJl J '(♦'•^i U.^ lj.Hs3 VU Ujl« \y\ls}> ««ojlsl ^,< ^L^ 

^ ^J Ul (_l-j jl$j ®(«^ U IjÄi-lj i^y-^^ ij f>*»-^^ ^j^'^'j J^\i\ (♦v"*-' "^^'li />-«^" 

1. Man. ,il^.'. — 2. Man. .l^Hj. — 3. Man. LJ!. — 4. II faudrail Uj'. — 5. Man. 
,lü.^'. — 6. Lire l;~i; tout ce texte est plein de lautes. — 7. Lire «-i^'; Moufazznl 
lisait ardava, ou ordava. — 8. Dans toute cette phrase. le pluriei se trouve ä la place 
duduel; il faudrait ',j'-i^J, U^-U, 'jis-'i. — 0. Lire L-i. 



avaient ua frere qui etait bouddhiste ; il viut los trouvor '. accoinpagne 
de plusieurs de ses pareiits. 

Ils leur demanderont de rargent, et iLs luur dirfut : « Vous vivcz tous 
les deux daiis l'aisance, et vous habitez les viües, tandis que uous autres, 
nous menons uue vie penible, et nous passons uotre existence ä errer 
sur les grandes routes; donnez-iious quclque chosc , nous vous en 
su}iplions; si vous ne le voulez pas, venez avec nous ä l'Ordou", par devant 
Abaglia, pour qu'il prononce entre nous. » Bayantchar et Bahadour denian- 
derent avis au parvana Moin ad-Din, lequel leur conseilla de donner quelque 
chose k ces gens; ils agirent suivant ses instructions. 

Quand ces quemandeurs eureut pris ce qu'ils avaiont aiusi obtenu, ils 
s'en allerent. Le parvana dit alors k Bahadour : « Ces gens-lä sont partis 
pour s'en aller chez Abagha \ et tu n'es poinf ä l'abri de ses attaques. » 
Bahadour, et les maris de ses fdles, partirent ä leur poursuite, ils les tuerent 
sur le chemin qu'ils suivaient, et ils leur prirent ce qu'ils avaient en leur 
possession. 

Les envoyes d'Abagha arrivaient saus cesse, et 'Is incitaient le parvana 
k se rendre ä la coiir de leur souverain; mais il leurdebitait des mensonges, 

L La leron du maniiscrit signifie que ce Bouddliisto v!nl trouvcr sa soeur. — 2. Or- 
dou, dans los chrüni(|ues pcrsanes et arabes de cette i'poque, designe le campement 
imperial du souverain des Mongols de l'Iran; cn UKin^ol, cc niot signifie primitive- 
ment un campement quelconquc. — 3. Pour les accusor d'L'lre iiiillionnairos. apres leur 
avoir e.vtorque de l'argenl ; la denonciation et la calomnie furent la plaie du regime 
mongol; personne n'ötait ä l'abri d'uiie accusation qui etait toujours ecoutee, quelque 
i'iU le rang infimc de l'individu (|ui la prononcail. 



[241] IIISTOIKI'; DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 405 

dLUI ^j^_ y>j cii-i Jo 1^ >_>_f-'j |*j^ ^Ulj^'lj aJI j^-^I ^_5Xfc ■Oii' ^j Ji 

^U. 1=>-I»i- 'C.j>t~s ^^Vj •ft' " ..O ^Ji 1 istjlj Ju^jrl Jyi "»jw iljU^^'l ^„.»i-sj Liul lyi 

jlkUl Jl Afyll ^U -^ji^-'A <.\j '''jA^. ^^Vl J,^ ^y^\ J^ ^y. LlU ^j^I 
^ OyCj j»^ 'Ij-^V p^b ^i^i JcJ\ ''clt- iü ''^l lil jl ^ <IV y^lül ^Ul 

U,lj "(V^r*. " '"jlUUI ^J.«>J (♦r'^-V? ^r-'^'''. *^'j '*ls"'^v' -'■^'■v; f-^ ""^M L-. ♦ lul. .-.() r. 

1. Lire -^. — 2. Lire '^jcTlxj^. — 3. Man. ,^'-j. — 4. Man. .Ur^L. — 5. Lire 
jüiL. — (i. Lire ^l-C^jl. — 7. ^, ici, est employe dans le sens de J; |^*i^y. — S. ()n 

attendrait w-Oj .,X.. — 9. Man. -^K-J. — 10. Les deux mots ,.,lkl™'t ^ j^xj ont 

ete en partie recrits sur une erasure du papier. — 11. Moufazzal, suivant son habitude, 
melange les formes du pluriel avec (juelques formes deduel; il faudrait Lw,->jxj, ^^^\ 
1.^'jj, UJI ^j^^. etc. 



et il remcttiüt tuujuurs au Icailfmaia de s'acquitter "de cette Obligation, tout 
cela, parce qu'il escomptait Tarrivee d'al-Malik az-Zahir. Quand le parvana 
desespera de Ic vdir vcnir, il se mit en roiite, emmenant avec lui la soeur du 
sullau Cihiyas ad-Diu, qu'Abaglia devait prendre pour epouse; il emporta 
avec lui une quantite considerable de presents et de cadeaux. 

En meme temps que lui, partit le vizir Khadja ' 'Ali. Quand il se fut 
resolu ä se rendrc cliez Abaglia, le parvana conseilla ä l'emir IJahadour 
et ä son fils Bayantchar de partir pour la cour du sultan al-Malik az-Zaliir, 
parce qu'il suvait qu'Abagha avait appris l'assassinat de ces Tatars"; il 
craignait, en consequence, pour leur vie, redoutant qu'on ne vini a tirer 
vengeance d'eux, et que cela ne fiit la cause de sa propre perte\ Baliadour 
donna ä Niguetei Fordre de prendre les devants avec son frere, avec la mis- ♦ foi.so r 
sion d'int'ormer le sultan de l'intention dans laquelle ils etaient de passer a 
sa cour. Quand ces personuages arriverent chez le sultan, il les rcQut de la 
faron la plus gracieuse, et il les envoya de Damas en Egypte '. Al-Majik 



1. '-:x'^, pour ^1^, est une graphie constante en Egypte au xiv<^ siede; \ 



e 



porsan hliadja etait anciennement khawadja, khowadja, vers le yii" siede, comme le 
nionlre la prononciation vulgaire khawadja; de niöme >j.l^, auiourd'hui Khärizni, 
ctait anciennement Khowarizm (perse [lljuvvärazmiya, zend Hwäirizcm), avec sur le kh 
une voyelle inlermediaire entre a et o, avec un alif furtif, tres breL (jui n'etait pas 
Uli vrai a/;/" i Vakout, 11, 480; khowadja represente une forme sassahide Motvarf/ß/f, 
i|ui est le perse ' hu-vaca-ka, le .sansivrit ««-(^(/ca-Zia « qui parle bien '>, C^'o^l « savant ». 
— 2. Les deu.v parenls de Baliadour. — 3. Par suito de ses relations a\ec Bahadour 
t— 4. Ici, ad-diijar al-misriyya signifie l'Egypte, par Opposition avec adrdiyar ash- 

P.VTR. QU. — T. XIV. — f. 3. 



406 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [242] 

^^ fj=^' ö^ 45"^' ^^1 ^ijl ^ lyjj ^o-jI ^_^1 f»*^jj n^^ ij— ^l? (V-^'-5 -*t«— '' 

ly^l ^Jül IfTl l Jj.ii. '-'l^jl fSAJl jLiCVij "Cf^Üs ^Jä i^'ä. jjtj mJI tj_^l ^1 Ct:^ 
\a,^ OsiJI rcjjj «»JLj 4^0 "yis- ,^^L!s1 /^ |»-VU j^V^ ijy5 '-Vt^ls '^' "' |>«--^i 

^.ia-jJI "jj ^J*~« t^.-*J^ ^_r^ J^ <-j"L5CJ1 iJjb ,.,_^ j6j ®* Li VI >._j-lj_ >^ («■'■"^ 



A* 



1. Man. Oi?-^- — 2. On attendrait Jj!. — 3. Lire !^!. 



as-Sa'id se rendit au-devant d'eux; il leur temoigna toutes sortes de 
marques d'honneur et de bons procedes; puis il les renvoya chez son pere. 

Cette meme annee, dans les derniers jours de la premiere decade du 
muis de Moharram, le sultan envoya Temir Badr ad-Din Bektout al-Atabeki, 
accompagne de mille cavaliers, dans le pays de Roum, et il ecrivit de sa 
propre main une lettre aux emirs de l'empire saldjoukide, poiir les iaciter 
ä se recoiinaitre eomme ses sujets, et ä obeir ä ses ordres. 

11 disait au commencement de cette lettre : « O emirs! vous qui croyez 
ä la verite de Flslamisine, obeissez aux ordres dAlIah et de son Envoye, 
ainsi qu'aux commandements de ceux qui ont des droits souverains sur vous '. 
Celui qui m'obeira -, sa vie et ses biens seront garantis contre toute 
atteinte, et il sera assure de gagner le paradis. Quant ä celui qui sc revol- 
tera contre mes ordres, il u'aura qu'ä s'en prendre ä lui des malheurs qui 
l'accableront. » 

Voici les raisons pour lesquelles le sultan d'Egypte correspondit avec les 
emirs du pays de Roiiin : lorsque le parvana fut |parti, l'annee pröcödente, 
pour se rendrc ä la cour dAbaglia, Sharaf ad-Din Mas'oud ibn al-Kliatir 
ecrivit au sultan pour l'inciter h se mettre en cliemin avec ses troupos, ä 

shainiyija, la Syriu, mais il y a Jus cas oü ad-diijar al-mixiiijya drsi^iic lisgyiilc. 
la Syrie et la MesojJOtamie, c'est-a-dire luut reiisemblo de rempire manilouk. 

1. Baibars prelendail avoir le droit de donner des ordres aux emirs saldjoukides. 
c'est-ä-dire de les detaclier d'Abagha, suzcraiu du sultan saldjoukide, parce qu'ils elaient 
musulmans, parce qu'ils ne dcvaient pas servir un prince bouddliiste; de mßme, le 
|iiiiice nudig'ol de l'lran reclaniail le droit d'exiger riiommage el la lidelite des öniirs 
monyols et turks qui servaienl en Kgy])te, en d'autres lermes, de leur l'aii'e Iraliir le 
sullan du Caire, parce que tous les Monguls el lous les Turks devaienl obeir aux des- 
cendants de Tchinkkiz Khag'han. — 2. Verset du Coran. 



[243] lllSTOinr, DRS SIU.TAXS MAMLUUKS. 407 

Jait "j-Up- \j Z;-'-^^ iwi— ^j^"^^ ijJ^ wjL^ J:^«i_j ^^L- ^ .^l?" i.l Ü_pLju 

UAJ ' t^A. i,X^ wüÄ, ^ j_^0 jlkUl Jl «Jt» ''jl b^K-i^l» vjll^Ol <L. _~Ü33 ijjj ♦ iVil. jov 

jjL. _^^VI jvsj «^c-Ua- pjl ^5C_£. ^ '' Jj:>U. j_:l_,UI ^1 ,yCl"VI jJ._a!1 jJu Jujj 
jAj iA-ij ^^.y ^_xl| jo^j ^ jjCj=- j^. /^_a)I <_i^ .^"^Ij „j:^^^^ ' iSJ^y ö;.-^' 

1. Lire 'j'-i'. — 2. Man. .■;,-oi.. — 3. Man. ipji- — 4. Man. .fJ-'-M ,^»^- — 5. Les 

deux mots .,' s^^'i sont en partie disparus dans une decliirure du papier. — (3. Le 

"5 de ce iiiot a disparu daus un trou. — 7. Lc — de ce mot a disparu dans un ti-uu. — 
8. Man. ..S-o.. 



venir s'emparer du pays de Roum, de fac^^ou qu'il passe sous sa souvc- 
rainete. II envoya une lettre dans ce sens ä l'emir Saif ad-Dia ibn Djandar, 
qui possedait le fief d'al-Bouloustain '. Le fils de cet emir, Badr ad-Din 
Roush", Fenvoya au sultau (d'Egypte), alors que son pere lui avait reconi- 
inaiide de la garder par devers lui, et de ne pas la faire parvenir au sultan '. 

Lorsque Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir eut envoye cette lettre, il se re- 
pentit d'avoir commis un tel acte, et il craiguit que, si eile venait ä sortir 
du pays de Roum, cette aventure n'eüt pour lui des suites desastreuses. 
Aussi, il depecha un envoye ä Saif ad-Din ibn Djandar pour lui dire de nc 
pas faire parvenir cette lettre au sultan; Saif ad-Din raanda son fils aupres 
de sa personne, et il lui reclaraa cette missive; mais celui-ci lui apprit 
qu'il l'avait fait tenir au sultan d'Egypte pour acquerir, par cette manoeuvre, 
du credit aupres de ce souverain. 

Ouand iJadr ad-Din al-Atabeki arriva ä al-Bouloustain, une partie de * roi. m v, 
Tarmee saldjoukide le regut a bras ouverts; ce furent l'emir Moubariz 
ad-Din Souvari, le tchashniguir, l'emir Saif ad-Din ibn Djandar, son fils, 
Badr atl-i)in Kousli, et Badr ad-Din Mikaiil. Quand Badr ad-Din al-Atabeki 

1. Aujourd'lmi Abiestin. — 2. Ce noin, qui signifie « oiseau » cn turk, est iusolite, 
car il ne se trouve jamais qu'en cuniposilion, comme dans les noms bien connus de 
Karakoush, Koushtemour; loutefois, le nom « oiseau » existe dans Vonomastique des 
Mongols. comme le montre suirisamment Texemple du fils de Tchoutclü\ qui se nommait 
Slübaghan, ce que les Persans ont ecrit .>'-~ Sliiban, avec la cbute Veguliure de la 
gutturale intervocalique. Peut-etre faul-il lirc Oughoush , i'yt, qui a ete explique au 
commencement du prcmier fasciculo. — 3. Avant qu'il ne lui en eüt donned'ordre. 



408 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [244] 

_^LjJI ^ «u^ jü ^ \3iJ6^ ^_^j ^ JjL J ^Ic cx. f-^j Aixj Jul^C ^^-01 
J j^ ly:ji| ^_^ j*^ 'liVI J is^Lj ®CU^ i^läl dl Ij^j bj^jJ>-j 01 lyl »Jl x," 

Jjt jjbj ^Lk)! diiJI jlLUI ^^ *j. ^A9 ^i=- t^^^'VI j^yJI j-*^ <« '^yfry3 
»_A^L jjlj) ü-Ojj j^^.L. Jr!."^' (''—=* ("-*■' 'tr^'j ®f^^ ö~^3 in;^ '-^'•' f-'^ t^t*; 
"Wj-^j jlSj "f^jj'-ä' ^j'l 'r3y*^\ j^^^. ^y, -Uj>t« /;'-*Ji JU.ä) jlia.LJi ^Ij vpi »AiüJI 

iAju »Jj li' ^j^^l (_j "^13 (»^^5>ii*Jl /»» ^r-'' ~Ul J^^i ,^"^ jLLi )l _)l Jl 

1. .Is^t'L). — 2. On attendrait '•-nv'^', mais tout ce texte est ecrit d'une fayon trus 
irreguliere. — 3. II faudrait U-j-Ls.., et jjIus loin, U^-ili.. 



apergut ces emirs, il ne descendit pas de clieval, pas plus quo les troupes 
egyptiennes qiii etaieiit veiiucs avcc lui ' . Ces emirs alors s'avancerent vers 
lui, ils lui presenterent leur liommage, et ils lui envoyerent uue belle quantitö 
de provisions de bouche ". 

Les emirs saldjoukides lui demanderent la permission de massacrer les 
Tatars qui se trouvaient ä al-Bouloustain, et de marclier ensuite sous son 
commandement. ßadr ad-Din al-Atabeki acceda ä leur requete; ils tuerent 
les Tatars qui etaient ä al-Bouloustain, puis ils sc mirent en route avec 
Badr ad-Diu al-Atabeki, qui les amena au sultaii al-Malik az-Zahir, lequel 
se trouvait alors campe dans la prairie qui entoure Harim. Le sultaa se 
porta k leur rencontre, et les regut d'une nianicre trcs llatteuse. 

Cette meme annee, arriverent Ilosam ad-Din Bayantchar et son flls 
Bahadour, pour la raison qui a etc cxpliquee plus haut. Le sultan ordonna 
k Djamal ad-Din Mohammad ihn Bahadour d'aller au dcvant de ces person- 
nagcs. Hosani ad-Diu Bayantchar arriva ;\ la cour du sultan, dcvant Damas, 
le dix-septieme jour du mois de Moharram, et le sultan lui assigna Nairab'' 
pour sa dcmeurc. Son ßls, Bahadour, arriva apres lui, le vingt-ncuvicme 
jour de ce meme mois. Son retard avait etö cause par ce fait qu'ii avail 
rassemblö les chevaux qu'il possedait dans le pays. 

Mouhazzab ad-Din Ali, füs du parvana Mo'in ad-Din, etail le liculcnaiil de 

1. l'our iiionirer aux troupes saldjoukides etä leurs olficiers que les ligypliens etaieiil 
Icurs superieur.s, el avaieul droit a leur salul. — 2. ("e qui elait uue fa(,-ün d'liomuiajjfo. 
— 3. Noni d'uu viiiage (jui se Irouve Ix uu deuii-larsalili de Üanias, au niilieu de jardius. 
(Yakoul, IV. 855.) 



[245] [IISTOfRF. DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /,0!) 

Vj ftf^^ Js ^j^'J>- ^J^ rn^^ O^ ,J^ (»C^ f-^'J >'*~^^ tj-' Lr^"^ rn-^^ -^"' 

jliaLJI ^»::a.l LiJi ® \jjJ1 ^X^^ JI jUj UÄi-li ^j-^i <JU .-»^ L'-Xc joj -iivLIl 
^Iä.I| jJ_va]1 ^^J;j i^^r— ; Jr;.-^' J-4 ^rr*'^'' ^^-^'=-=' ^"^r^^ jL-Ol Jl LaJäI L,j 

-»o ^b cJl^ ^1 >_^<3l ^t' Ulj tSL-^ ''CiuL> ^UJIj A^l JiUl (»jJl r->j 
1. Mau. .^^. — 2. Lire -i^U. —3. Man. cJS'. — 4. Lire ,L^^I ,'3jt. b^.. 



son pt>re daiis lo pays de Rouin; quand il apprit le depart de Bayantchar et 
de son fils, il onvoya ä leurs trousses une armce de Tatars, auxquels il 
doiina poiir chef Khonitchi '. Cct officier partit sur leurs traces, et il s'avanga 
jusqu'ä Kliartapirt; mais il ue trouva personne qui put le renseigner sur les 
fugitifs, sauf qu'il tomha sur un troupeau do chevaux que I:{aliadour avait 
pousse devant lui, et qui s'etait egare en cheniin. Co troupeau comprenait moI. .-,i r 
cinq ceuts totes; Khonitchi le captura, et s'en revintaupres de Mouhazzab ad- 
Din. 

Ouand le sultan al-Malik az-Zahir eut regu Bayantchar et Bahadour, il 
les envoya en Egypte, en la compagnie de l'emir Badr ad-Din Baisari et de 
Sharaf ad-Din Altch(?ke-. Al-Malik as-Sa"id sortit (du Caire) pour se rendre 
au-dcvant de cos ofTiciers, et il les regut d'une maniere gracieuse. 

Quant ä Teffet des lottres quo Badr ad-Din al-Atabeki avait par devers lui, 
voici quel il fut : lorsqu'elles parvinrent a leurs destinataires, les eniirs du 
pays de Roum, tels Sharaf ad-Din ihn al-Ivhatir et Tadj ad-Din Kenuei'', qui 
coniniandaient les armees saldjoukides au nom du parvana, ces ofRciers ordon- 
nerent ä Sinan ihn Saif ad-Din Dourounadai ' de les Uro, et de faire les 
reponses qu'elles comportaient. 

1. Ce nom signifie « gardien de moutons », de Ahunin « mouUm », avec lo sulTixe 
tc/ii, ([ui forme des noms de metier, lesquels sont des sortes de partieipes actifs. — 
2. La sio-nification exaete de ce nom turk est obscure, '^, ,5Cs., S^. I^'^x, aTU. 
tcheke, designe une sorle de fruit sur l'espece duquel los dictionnailes ne donnent auoun 
renseignement, et al signilie « rouge ». — 3. ^^5" est la transctiption de kcnukei, 
kenuei, avec la cliute de la gutturale : « ä quoi bon, pourquoi ». L'Homme qui portait 
ce nom etait ne dans une famille qui ne le desirait point; on trouve a'autues faits ana- 
logues dans lonomastique des Mongols, dunt certains se nomment « c^ui qui est venu 
en trop », ou meme « helas! «. — 4. Ce mot a ete explique dans los notes du preniier 



4tO ■ MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [246] 

j»>.Jl "•JjJ^lj Jpu' jl ^yJ^:L>, jliaAÜI Jj/> |»^Jl y^ iAi^ ^.U-J ^i-l Ia^Is v::.!!^! cLÜj 
LI. Ar-I^ Ji3 ^^C jl • ^y^ ij;.-*-'^ T^' (^-^ J^iU viüj |j |_5[_,!1 ^ji IJU-li lj,>^ 

jj^ jlj i:i% j>Ulj -»XJL«^ i^y^tJ jl 4i_^» A-sls A,^ ^c a:L.Jj jlLUl Jl '^^L:^ 
ÄJjLJi '1 ^y ,j=^3 Äj jL-s 3 ij:.-*^^ ^^ jlk,LJIj lil Jl -v^y jS Jf_-^'^ 

foi. 51 V". vtr*"^^ 't^ ""Isly ^yi-^ d-'l" IjJ.oy o^-»^ ij^ ^'^ jf-« '^y "^^ jlk.LJl Uij villJo ly:5Cs 

'-»jjj^ (_j »^,»»*J1 JC^ ^_5Uaj^i> \)1 A;-vl jLw ^^ilj ^LiiJl "y Jj.»j>m /y-'Jl s-L-^ 

1. Lire ^^^. — 2. Lire .,_jL5tj Uj). — 3. Man. >_c>\i. — 4. Lire bl^T. —5. II faut lire 
^'js; il est invraisemblable que l'auteur alt songe ä meltre ce verbe ä la forme du ducl, 
qui serait reguliere, mais inulile. — 6. II faudrait U^j/.«^. 



Ensuite, en mt'iue temps, uii autre courrier arriva, qui apportait des 
lettres du sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, lesquelles disaient : « Nous sommes en 
niarche pour venir vers vous, et nous arrivcrons immediatement apres ces 
lettres. » Les emirs discuterent sur ce qu'il conveuait de faire dans cette occur- 
rence, et Tadj ad-Din Kenuei leur donna ce conseil : « Que chacun de nous 
öcrive une lettre au sulta;i; nous enverrons chacun notre missive par l'office 
d'un courrier, qui lui fera connaitre que nous sommes ses mamlouks, que le 
pays lui apparticnt, que Mo 'in ad-Din est parti pour se rendre ä la cour d'A- 
bagha, que le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din est ä C6saree ». Quant ä nous, nous 
allons partir pour Cesaree, pour nous rencontrer avec le prince et avec les 
emirs qui se trouvent dans cette ville, uous leur- ferons connaitre l'accord 
que nous avons conclu avec le sultan, et nous porterons a la connaissance du 
sultan les incidcnts qui se produiront. 

Ils ecrivirent dans ce sens. Le sultan partit d'Alep pour Iloms, ou il par- 
vint, le Iroisieme jour du mois de Safar. L'emir /iya ad-Diu Malimoud ihn al- 
foi.51 V". Kliatir et l'emir Sinan ad-Din ihn Dourounadai etaient arrives dans cette 
ville. Voici pour quelle cause ces ömirs du pays de Roum etaient venus ä 
lloms : Quand les ömirs euren! fail (au sultan d'l*]gypte) la röponse donl 
il vieiit d'etre parle, Sharaf ad-Din ihn al-lvhalir enviiya h^s aruK^es saldjou- 

fascicule; il pourrait ögalement ("Ire douran-to'i « qui a onvie de quclque choso », de 
doli ran « cnvie ». 

1. Le pays c!o Rouin, rempire saldjoukido. — 2. A Gliiyas ;ul-Din, et surloul a ses 



[247] IIISTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMt.OUKS. /.U 

^j,: J ^i=^'l j; y„-^\ w'^ ^ j^ ^'jr-^' '^'-*^ '^^' '^ r-J-^^ ö;.-^' 'I'*'^' '^^ 

' V-Ol jA> ^.^\1 jl=>ül3 •SvlXJj jül ^^ ^3-^. ^ v-n-' iJ M-' ö'^'J ^3^'^ ^LjJI 

jbJI ly-Lj (.jjl. J:^l_^l J\ jVSS ^ K^ ^ i:,yi\i ^'y-S Ö^J ä: -»^^^-="" 

jvjiljjj jüi ^Lj «—«^ ^'■^=^. j' d»;.-^' ^"V ^-^^ ' rv::^' '-'^3 ^^ _y^aÄ9 ~!s_^Us Ij^ 
ki,ju iT *^AÄ::ili j^ji^' \-.i-l>^ ^yJiS>^ ^j^^^^^^^li oöaJjI — ^ ,^U.Ji /^ jlS ^3 

• 

1. (^-J' 1-V f^st recrit sur un grattage. — 2. II faudrait poiir que la phrase fut 
correcte : »LIL 'jiti. — 3. II faudrait U^J'. — 4. Le manuscrit a la forme abregee ir'iy- 



kides dans toutes les directious ; il permit aux soldats d'assaillir tous les 
Tatars qu'ils rencontreraient, et de les tuer. 

L'emir Badr ad-Diii Mohammad ibn Karaman, ses freres et ses fds, se reti- 
rerent, avec les Turkomans qu'ils commandaient, vers les proviaces mari- 
times du pays de Roum; ils se separerent des Tatars', et attaquerent ceux 
qui se Irouvaient ä leur proximite -. (L'emir Badr ad-Din ^Mohammad) ecrivit 
alors au sultan pour lui apprendre ces evenements. 

Le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din et Mouhazzab ad-Din, fils du parvana, apprirent 
los actcs d'hostilite auxquels Sharaf ad-Diu ilm al-Khatir s'etait laisse em- 
pörter contre les Tatars ; ils lui envoyerent un ofiicier pour le mander auprös 
de lui. Sharaf ad-Din se rendit ä cette convocation, et, quand il fut arrive 
en leur prescnce, Mouhazzab ad-Din ordonna que tous les cnvoA'es des 
Tatars, leurs officiers, et tous les Mongols qui se Irouvaient ä Gesaree lui 
fussent amencs. 

On lui amiMia ces gens, les mains liees derriere le dos, la Irte nue, e( il 
les fit charger de fers. Ensuite, Mouhazzab ad-Din envoya un oOicier pour 
ordonner ä Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir de venir le trouver, parce qu'il 
avait l'intention de l'interroger sur les actes qu'il avo^ü commis; Sharaf 
ad-l)in refusa; il se trouvait alors en dehors de Gesaree. Mouhazzab 
ad-Din donna Fordre ä Tadj ad-Din Ivenuei et ä Saif avl-Din Dourouna- 

1. Avec lesquels ils marchaient avant cette data. — 2. Ces Turkomans, parmi 
lesquels se irouvaient les ancetres des Turks Osmanlis, furent des enneteiis acharnes des 
Mongols, contre lesquels ils lutterent desesperöment jusqu'ä la dislocaiion de leur mo- 
narcliie; ils entretinrent »ine correspondance reguliere avec les snllans Wamlouks «pii 
etaient les ennemis liereditaires des Mongols del'lran. 



\ 



412 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABir.-FAZAIl.. [24,SJ 

^IL^ jjjjJl <_Ä~w ^ü «i^^lL;^ ^^.-*J^ ^:-"J '(Jj-^ ö;.-^'^ '^^" "^^ ■^i^ t^Jl 

\£. J»i]l (3 'UU- JiU-lj *jLIc- jV-*Ji ^r^ njiZs>-\ Lüi ~^^»lS /j.'-Ol 7^1" Ji-u^J Ä^>-UJ 

ili. r-^j ®^U-ls diJj J a]L3 ^2r!.-^^ —"^r* ,(J^ li^^ o'-^^ '-^~' -5^ i^L-^^ 
IJjSj UA=-y A»-*^^ ^^*-^j lIk"^^ '^ ^''^ '-^ ö'jLvj" ^^ju Ajjl ^Üj ^1 iV-^^ 

1. Man. ^j^. — 2. Man. ^y^. — 3. II laudrait ii.^s. 



dai d'aller cherclier (Sharaf ad-Din ilin al-KIiatir, et de lo lui ameuer). 

Saif ad-Din Dourounadai retouriia cliez lui, sous pretcxto d'uue afTairc 
qu'il avait ä iM-gler, et Tadj ad-Din RenucT continua sa rout(^. Quand Tadj 
ad-Din sc fiit r(MTiCüntre avec Sharaf ad-Din, iS4iaraf ad-Din lui dit des injures, 
et il lui roproclia en termes gro.ssiers de n'avoir pas voulu faire cause com- 
mune avec lui, puis, il ordonna de le tuor. Tadj ad-Din Remiei fut assassine, 
en memo temps que Sinan ad-Din, lils d'Arslan Doghmish. 

Quand il eut fait massacrer ces deux olTiciers, Sharaf ad-Din ihn al-Khatir 
i'oi. 52 r. craignit le ressentiment de Mouhazzab ad-Din, iils du parvana, et, en consö- 
quence, il partit, dans l'intention de se rendre ä la cour du sultan d'Egypte. 
Cela se passa le treizieme jour du mois de Safar. 

Quand Mouhazzab ad-Din apprit que Tadj ad-Din avait ele as.sassine, 
tandis que Saif ad-Din Dourounadai s en etait retourne chez lui, il lui envoya 
un ollicier pour le mander aupres de lui. Dourounadai s'y refusa, si bien 
que le fds du parvana s'imagina que cet eniir marchait avec Sharaf ad-Din 
ihn al-Rhatir. II lui envoya alors Sharaf ad-Din, (pii se rendit chez lui; 
Sharaf ad-Din lui denianda de le faire rentrer dans les honnos gr.ices' de 
Mouhazzab ad-Din. Saif ad-Din Dourounadai rctourna alors chez Mouhazzab 
ad-Din, et le lui dcmanda, cc qui lui fut accorde par le fils du parvana. 

Le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din sortit de la villc, 'y vcnx diic de (]esarec. 
Des qu'ils l'apergurent, Ziya ad-Diii et Sharaf ail-Diii- descendircn) de leurs 

1 . I'arce qu'il hii avail di'.sulici cn renlranl cliez lui ; cclU; liisluiro csl In s cümpli(|U(io, 
et Moufazzal l'a resumec d'unc fagori peu iutullij^ible. — 2. Ccs doux personnages ötaient 
iVöres. 



[2A01 HISTOIKE.DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. A13 

ö-u ^1 l^y;. ^^ j'_->^'^ ^Lfr •^ ly'ir'j ytlül vJlLJI jUjl, A.U1 J ljii;j jj^-jVI 

1. ^ a disparu dans une erasure du papier. — 2. Le copistc avait ecrit J^Jj^, puis 
il a raye le j, et ecrit .1 dans lu niarge. — 3. Lire slä.'. — 4. Lire KiJ. 



montures, et baiserent la terre dovant lui, el Ton proclama dans Cesaree les 
titres souverains d'al-Malik az-Zahir. Les cmirs convinrent avec le sultaii 
Ghiyas ad-Diii qu'ils partiraient pour la forteresse de Makanda', oü ils 
demciireraiont, et qu'ils enverraient des expres ä al-Malik az-Zaliir pour s'ea 
remettre de Icur sort ä ce souverain, conformement aux sernients qu'il avait 
pretes ä Ghiyas ad-Din, et k eux-memes. 

Muuhazzab ad-Din leur demanda ensuitc la permission d'entrer ä Cesaree 
pour prendre ses biens personnels, leur disant (qu'il ne resterait pas dans la 
ville, et) qu'il en sortirait pour venir les rejoindre. Les emirs le lui permirent; 
il penötra dans Cesaree, il y prit ses riclicsses, emmena ses femmes, et il en 
sortit durant la nuit, se dirigeant vers Dokak -. 

Quand (les emirs) eurent acquis la conviction que le fils du parvana etait 
parti pour Dokak, Sharaf ad-Din ihn ul-Khatir fit partir son fröre, Ziya ad- 
Din (pour la cour d'al-Malik al-Zaliir), accompagne de trente-sept personnes 
ohoisies parnii ses olliciers. Saif ad-Din Dourounadai, de son cöte, envoya 
son fils, Sinau ad-Din, avec vingt personnes, au sultan d'Kgvpte, al-Malik 
az-Zaliir. Sharaf ad-Din ihn al-Khatir et le sultan sakljoukide Ghiyas ad- 
Din se rendirent k Makanda, et ils decidörent avec leur? expres ' qu'ils pres- 
seraient le sultan d'Egypte d'entrer dans leur pays, apres lui avoir fait 
preter le serment de respecter leurs droits. 

1. ^ akout ne parle pas de cette forteresse, qui parait dans Nowairi soiis la forme 
5jJC (man. arabe 1578, folio 58 v"). — 2. 11 s'agit ici de la ville bien connue de Tokat, 
comme le montrc un passage subsequent de cette chronique (page 426), et sa comparai- 
son avec ce que raconte Nowairi (Cf. tome XIL 452). Dokak, pour Tok^t, avec la confu- 
sion de t et k, comme dans la prononciation ekcetera de et caetera, est une forme d'une 
vulgarite absolue, qu'il faut corriger en Tokat -^zMy^ partout 011 on la^rencontre. — 
3. Ceux qu'ils devaient envoyer au sultan d'Egypte. \ 



414 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-ITAZAII.. [250] 

jj'lj j,ila«:>-l ^:| A>L^ jL<!s *o-»i'' ^^ ^j^j ^Sjr ^ l^J'^J 'S Lw'^^b jlkLJl 
^li-jl ÖJl j>-\i\ J j_^l M_.:>jYl Jl -Vj^y JLi sU!3_,Jl ^jJI ^»^ ::^A£.3 .vi ^ 
Ulj _/LJI -j. j^ -y^ jM-I! ^li^^l j\ ^C_ L.3 ^-a. J Uli ^^L* i9^\ 
ji' ®üJjlj ^j ^ U j_^ CÜa. JD A-ils ^Us U j^ J^J-> (_J' ^jt-^^ ^\' 'Sf^J 
^1>U i».U>. jlkUL ^._ ji J.J01 *U= ^U. j\ß\ (^ jiul U-Li p^'i'i (^l>:l ^1 

^^ jlkUI iouJ X Vj jl^ JI3 l^U^ J._Ä)i (X^Vl J-o <J" ^v^J jJ' u^. j^ ^>,-»JI 
1. Lire j-\"^'. 



♦fol. 52v'. (Juand ces ambassadeurs arriverent a la cour du sultaii, ils obtinrent 
^ une aiidience, au cours de laquelle ils lui firent connaitre les evf^nements qui 
venaient de se passer, et ils le presseront de marcher vers le paj^s de Roum; 
le Sultan leur repondit : a Vous avez reellement agi avec trop de pröcipitation! 
J'avais promis au parvana Mo'in ad-Din, avant qu'il ne se rendit ä l'ordou', 
qu'ä la iiii de Tannee. j'ontrerais dans le pays de Roum avec mes troupos. Or, 
mon armee est en Egvpte", et il m'est impossible d'envahir le pays de 
Roum avec les effectifs que j'ai ici sous la main. Quant ä ce qui est du 
depart de Mouhazzab ad-Din pour Dokak, ce qu'il a fait lä est bien, car il 
oonnait les Conventions qui ont ete stipulees entre moi et son pere. » 

11 donna ensuite l'ordre de les faire descendre dans leurs appartemcnts, et 
il les comlila de marques d'honneur. Quand les ambassadeurs des emirs sal- 
djoukides se furent reposcs chez eux, Ziya ad-Din soUicita la f'aveur d'obtenir 
une entrevue secrete avec le sultan, ce qui lui fut accorde. Lorsqu'il se trouva 
en t6te-;\-tete avec le sultan, il lui dit : « Si le sultan n'envahit pas imme- 
diatemeiit le pavs de Roum, jo n'ai aucune confiance dans le sort de mon 
frere, Sliaraf ad-Din; je n'eprouve aucun doutc qu'il ne soit tue, lui, et les 
ömirs qui ont prete serment (au sultan d'Egypte). C'est ainsi que se passeront 
les choscs, et il n'y aura aucun moyen de les empeelier;. aussi, que Ir 
sultan envoie des gens qui aient la Force et le courage, pour qu'ils lui prötent 
secours, de facjon qu'il puisse sortir du pays de Roum. » 

Le sultan Imir dit : « Ce que je vois de mimix pour vous. c'est de re- 

1. La cour d'Abagha, souverain mongol Jo 1 Iran. — 2. Le sultan d'Egypte etait 
alors a Homs. 



[251] niSTOIRF DES SUITANS MAMI.OUF<S. /,15 

f^b ^^ J ^J^ jl J K< ^Jr^^-^i p-<^^i5 ly^^Jj ^^% J \y^J -J -l^X^] 

®l^ ''U J»"3 j:,jU. j^ ^;^i Ua J ^Lill jLl jU 'bül J.3 J *<CJI iyi.\^ J^ 

jlLUl >=;.J ^jjl J\ ^3 ^.O J ^li^ll • jU ^^_a!1 ^Ju-w j^ Ij. J^ LOi . r„i. 5.! ,•• 
^J\ S^i \iM -sj^jj^ll J^VI ^^ j»,« ^3 ^J^l j, ^A.1! ^^j j,jJl ^u 
^yC-« i,Ji^ j ytj ^jjl Jl ib As iÜlj^l jl ü^^lj «ül jUill Cjij^ '"''■^^ 
j\ j\LU\ ^ 4y,j jlUJl Jl ^ ^^li ^1 ^ J ^,j3Vy. .V3I <;>lj 
-'-^^ Jl (;.' JLL.J Jl ^U ^ ^U-^ AijA-ii JJi ^/^—^ j 'S l^«-.- Ijl jül . 

1.11 f:iut lire =U' Ji. — 2. Man. ^O ; ^C^ dans Nowairi. 



toiirner daus votre pavs, do renforcer la defense de vos forteresses, dn vous 
y retranclier, jusqu'ä ce que je sois retournö en Kgypte, quo j'aie mis ma 
cavalcric au vcrt. et que je sois revenu vers vous, ä Tepoque de I'liiver. 
En effet, niaintenant, les puits de la Syrie sont ä sec, et il ne s'y trouve 
prcsquo point d'eau. » 

Le sultan les emmena avec lui. (hiaiid il Tut arrive a llamali, il se fit 
aecompap:ner par le prince de cette ville, et il se dirigea sur Alep. Ouand 
il Tut paivenu dans cette localite, il plaga Saif ad-Din Balaban'az-Zaini äMol.öSi- 
ia tete d'un corps d armöe, et il l'envoya dans le pays de Roum, avec la 
niissiou de liii en amener le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din, Sharaf ad-Din ihn al- 
Kliatir, ainsi que les emirs saldjoukides qui se trouvaient avec eux'. 

Ouand Saif ad-Din Halaban az-Zaini arriva ä Kinouk -, il regut des 
courriers, lesquels lui apprirent que le parvana etait revenu dans le pavs de 
Roum, et qu'il se trouvait sous les ordres de Mankou Temour et de ses fröres, 
fils d'lloulaoun, avectrente niille cavaliers. II 6crivit au sultan d'Egypte pour 
portcr cette nouvelle ä sa connaissance; le sultan pensa que les Tatars, 
apprenant qu'il se trouvait ä la tcMe d'une armce peu nomhreuse, etaient 
en marche pour venir I'attaquer. Aussi, il retrograda d'AIep ä Damas, puis 
il rcütra au Caire. Az-Zaini y revint apres lui. 

1, Pour les soustraire ä la vengeance des Mongols qui ne pouvMent nianquer de 
revenir dans I'empire saldjoukide. — 2. Gelte localite parait sous ce mAiiie nom dans 
Nowairi; Baibars, partant d'Aintab pour envaliir le pays de Roum, passe ä Dalouk 
^fp.>, Mardj ad-Dibadj, Kinouk ^'^yJ', Gueuk-sou j^ ^i « la riViere bleue », 
Aktchadiz^.>Ur^!. qu'il faul corriger en .'jj,.5 Ut'I Aktchadarband (inan.Varabe 1578, 
fol. (»1 r"). 



416 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [252] 

®JjlJI ^ i_iJI i^-^' j_/j^ vjVl it>jl> (_5ii^' ^_äO lyisj "»ju« ^ «olj Ai_S |»t^^ jl 

^^^^ <) Jäils-l iji,UJI Jl^ As. ^^1 Jliä ®iLw ^-^ ^^ ü-"^ />-• (»^ ^r^^ ^-^ (Jl 
1. Man. iJJ\ il faudrait, pour que la forme ful correcte, is._j.Ljl". — 2. Lire ijt^ ^JL^. 



L'historien a Jit : Quand le parvaua Mo 'in ad-Din et Mankou Temour, frere 
d'Abagha, arriverent dans le pays de Roum, et cela dans les premiers jours 
du mois de Rabi' second, Sharaf ad-Din ihn al-Kliatir montra l'hostilite qu'il 
ressentait contre eux, et il congut le projet d'ullor leur livrer bataille; 
mais ses officiers traiterent son plan de pvxre folie, et ils lui dirent : « Com- 
meiit veiix-tu aller, avec quatre millc cavaliers, engager le combat avec 
trente mille Mongöls ? » 

(Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir) comprit qu'il serait infaillibloment tue; il 
se dirigea sur la forleresse de Louloua, dans l'intention de s'y rotrancher; 
mais le gouverncur de la citadelle ne lui permit pas d y p6netrer avec une 
troupe armee, mais bien tout seul. II y entra donc seul, accompagne de 
son emir porte-etendard, qui lui appartenait ', et d'aucune autre persoune. 
Sharaf ad-Din subvenait aux besoins de cet oüicier depuis un laps de 
temps de seize annees. 

L'emir porte-etendard dit au gouveraeur de la forteresse : « Assuro-toi 
de sa personne pour le livrer ä Abagha. » Le gouverneur fit arreter Sharaf 
ad-Din ibn al-Khatir, et il l'envoya au parvana. Quand le parvana l'apergut, 
il l'injuria, et il lui ci-acha ä la face; puis, il ordonna qu'on le surveillftt etroi- 
tement (de fagon qu'il ne put s'echapper). Parmi les generaux tatars qui se 
trouvaient alors avec le parvana, se trouvaient Totaoun-, Guirci'' et Boughou 
Noyan'. 

1. Au sens que cc mot avait en l'rance, ä l'epoque de la monarcliie; en fait, J^ k^' 
est une forme persane, (]u'il faut lire nmir-i'alam. \ix\ arabe, il faudrait au moins 
J-vU^I. — 2. Co nom est h; mongol wtaglioun « incomplet, infirme >>, avec la chute 
de la g'ulltiralf intorvocalique; ce mot se presente aujourd'hui sous la forme dotaghoun, 
dologhonn, dolaghou, avec raffaililisseineiit du t en d. — .'i. Le nom de Guirei a ete 
couramment porte par les souverains Icliinkkizklianides de Crimöe. — 4. Sur cet olfi- 
cier mongol. voir i)age 391 du present fascicule. 



[253] IllSTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLOl'KS. 417 

J..01 j^ j^ jis .i3^_j^u pisiji p) ^ ji cJi>. cUs i^ui jj; i^ji y}^\ cojj 

(^iL,;> j,^l| ^_^ ^j^l ^- SA. <l:i ■'V>U1 ^^L,.a=,^!l LU' ^>jJI c-L^ JI iUj^Jl 
py«,U..j ^_^-^ ._^LJ pAjUul j£. pAjJLj jy^l ^a)! JM=-j ''dllii ^.01 A>u<.3 
L.^ b J^ jsLiJli. ^^=^j jl Lü-j diu l;_^l _^,iiiJI ^ ^_A]i ^y: \^\ii m ^tlL 

1. Lire jl-^y ^^--■" ^'- — 2. Man. jj;;j'-o. — 3. Man. ^y^yß-'. — 4. Lire .,yJJuv'I. 
— 5. Man. "il^'. — 0. Lire ■^'->"il!, avec Farticle. — 7. Lire Lit. 



Ces geueraux tatars et le parvana vinrent teiiir uiio cour de justice •loi.. .3 v 
soleimelle, ä laquelle assisterent tous les Tatars; ils firent comparaitre par 
devaut eux le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din, ainsi que ceux de ses eniirs qui s'etaieiit 
accordes avec lui pour recoiiuaitrc la suzerainete d'al-Malik az-Zahir. Piiis, 
ils dirent au sultan Giiiyas ad-Din : « Qu'est-ce qui t'a porte ä te soustiaire 
ä I'obeissauce que tu dois ä Ahagha, et ä obeir aux ordres du souverain de 
l'Egypte? — Je suis un enfant, leur repondit le sultan saldjoukide, et je ne 
connaissais pas le droit chemin, de fagon ä le suivre. Quaiid j'ai vu que les 
grands personnages de mon empire avaient agi ainsi, j'ai eu peur, si je nc 
faisais point comnie eux, qu'ils ne me livrassent ä lui. » 

L'liistorieu a dit : A ce moment, le parvana Mo in ad-Din se leva, 
marcha sur Sliodja ad-Din Kabiya al-IIisni al-Lala', et le tua de sa propre 
niain. Ou lil ensuite comparaitre Saif ad-Din Dourounadai, Madjd ad-Din 
l'atabek, Djalal ad-Din, le uiostaufi, et on les interrogea sur la raison 
qui les avait portes a obeir au souverain de l'Egypte, et ä se soustraire ä l'o- 
l»edience qu'ils devaient ä Abagha. « C'est Sliaraf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir 
qui nous a ordonne de le faire, repondirent ces personnages; nous avons 
I raint, si nous transgressions ses ordres, qu'il u'agit avec nous, coinnie il 
Favait fait a l'egard de Tadj ad-Din -. » 



1. Lala, cn turk, signifie « precepteur »; c'est, avec / = in, Ic niongol hlaina, qui 
tianscril le tiljetain bla-ina, qui traduit le sanskrit gourou « dirccteuj- spirituel », et 
s<-' prononce lania. Ce personnage etait le precepteur du sultan Gliiyasyd-Din; ce fut 
pour le chätier de n'avoir pas eclaire la conscience de Ghiyas ad-Din qiie le parvana 
l'assassina. — 2. Qu'il avait fait assassiner, comme cela est raconle plus haut, page 412. 



tul. r,a 1' 



418 MOUFAZZ^L IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. ' [254] 

ybiyi cuui jiuji i^-i^ ^'i ouiOi -0 ^ij ^i jit t5-:^->^ ^' ^^''j^ 

,_j_^ IjJU X^" ®U;I Jl <l\ii «~<>J>t> I^^-JJCs ^;Ja=J^ jj>l *"-^ ilC'Sl U iUj^i _r^^ 

JsLJL \;->^; "jjjb"^^ '^^ (Jrl;^^ jUjl) |»jl«3J|3 >^'j !*r^ ^^ Jüj _^^lj ^LäiVl 
jj.jJl ^is-j jjj!>is J^.-*J1 i_ivw} •^dAÄ*p- ^„-^' J_y j_5^ J^^ "^J" j^ (Ir*ijr^. c5**" 
"ül JUx> *~U |Va]I ^_^ JL/^ Jvll» *.'>! ililj^l iJiÄj" UJs ®(»A^3 j1-v£»äJ1 ^;äI^ 

1. Le manuscrit omet ^J,. — 2. Man. .ijj'-J- — 3. Man. Ls:'-^. 



Les inquisiteurs firent alors veuir Sharaf ad-Diu ibn al-Khatir, et ils le 
questionnerent sur ces faits. « C'est toi qui ra'as incite ä agir comme j'ai 
agi B, dit Sharaf ad-Din au parvana, et il lui rappela les lettres qu'il avait 
ecrites au sultan al-Malik az-Zahir. Mais le parvana nia la realite des accu- 
salions qu'Ibii al-Kliatir venait de porter contre lui. Les generaux tatars 
redigerent un rapport sur loute cette affaire, et ils l'envoyerent ä Abagha. 

Ensuite, ils iaterrogereut Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir au sujet de Saif 
ad-Din Dourounadai et de Madjd ad-Din al-Atabek, pour savoir s'ils s'etaient 
concertes avec lui dans le but de reconnaitre la suzerainete d' al-Malik az-Zahir. 
II repondit que non, et dit : « C'est moi qui les ai forces ä agir ainsi, et qui 
les ai obliges ä lui depecher des expres pour s'aboucher avec lui. » Totaoun 
loi. 5i r . ordonna qu'oti le frappät ä coups de knout, jusqu'ä ce qu'il eüt denonce 
ses complices. II avoua les noms de Nour ad-Din Tchetchek', de Saif ad- 
Din Koulaouz-, de 'Alam ad-Din Sindjar, le djoraakdar, et d'autres officiers. 

Quand le parvana eut compris qu'il etait perdu par la denonciatiou 
qiic Sharaf ad-Din avait lancee contre lui, il lui envoya quel([u'un pour lui 
dire : « Quaud ils m'auront tue, ils ne te laisseront pas en vie apres moi. 

1. Tchetchek, cn mongol, signifie « lleur « ; on pourrait lire .i^r^r»', en niongol, ichi- 
tchen « sage ». — 3. ;^j^ est le memo mot quo j^c^y, i^^y koulai^hotiz, koulaouz, 
'< guide, qui indi(|ae Ic chemiii »; il serait, avec uno correction insigiiilianle, ..^^y^ 
khalaghoun, « chaud, brülant », qui correspond au turk isigh ^^^J, ou plutöt ghulti- 

ghoun « oiseau aquatique >> ; khoulagh-ghouz, pour khoulagh-ghour, par rliolacisme, est 
« celui qui manie laiguillon « j.^ji khoulaou — ?^j^ klioulagh, ou « celui c|ui se sert de 
l'oruille » khoulagh (puur se faire licouler); cf. le relleclii du iacliiii khoulagh-fu-x/i-mak 
« user de roreille pour soi, re))rimander ». Le Suffixe -ghour, -ghonl, forme cn mongol 
des noms d'agent : jasakh-ghoitr « (|iii lail observei' le reglriiieiit » i/asakh. //nstikh- 



[255] IIISTOmi!: DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 4iy 

-ki^j U.I Jl 'jjjli" JU»i ililj^l Vi ^'^-«i ^ J^ J^3 ^^J .v*^' '-'-^ <ä'>_;_^l 

>U« ^lii^ Cj^i ■5^'^ ^^ c3 ''"»JÜail »~»ja- ^J^3 <U<iJi i5-»o-l_J 'U-l_^^ ij^ Jl >1.»3 
fj^' ^^ iS'V'*'^ -*X3m /v;A)1 >_i^J jlAi*;>Jl /»>-*-' (^3 jjjy^ iV"^' >— ^ — ' 
Jju »AJJ v_iJI <-iL« »jjlj ^^ jJlw ^^LL;^^ "UjÜ MJij ®jLo_^ll |\^ i_^ iiU^j 

1. Lire > ,t-J' y. — 2. Man. i^^lu. — 3. Lire wLsi!. — 'j. Lire ^^i. 



C'est pourquoi, travaille ä te sauver, et ä mc sauver cu meme temps; fais 
en Sorte, quand tu comparaitras devant les inquisitcurs, lorsqu'on te l'rap- 
pera une seconde fois (ä coups de kaout), quand on te demaiidera de reveler 
la veritö sur ces faits, de revenir sur les declarations que tu as faites. Quant 
ä moi, j'alleguerai comme excuse que tu n'as fait cos aveux que par suite 
de lu soufTrance que tu ressentais des coups que 1 'on te portait. » 

Quand on l'eut amene, lorsqu'on Teut knoute, quand on l'eut interroge, 
Sharaf ad-Din dit : « Personne ne m'a donne d'ordre, si ce n'est le par- 
vana. » Totaoun envoya un expres ä Abagha pour lui apprendre ce fait, et il 
ordonna que, chaque jour, l'on frappät Sharaf ad-Din de cent coups de knout, 
jusqu'ä ce que vint la röponse d'Abagha. La reponse arriva : eile enjoignait 
de le mettre ä mort, ce qui fut execute. 

On envoya sa tete a Konia, ainsi qu'un de ses pieds, et Ton repartit tous 
ses membres dans les diverses provinces du pays de Roum. En meme temps 
que lui, furent mis ä mort Saif ad-Din Koulaouz, 'Alam ad-Din, le tchomak- 
dar, Sharaf ad-Din Mohammad al-Ispahani, vice-roi de Tempire saldjoukide, 
et un grand nombre de Turkomans. 

DourounadaY parviut a se tirer dallaire en donnant deux cents chevaux et 
qualre cent mille dirhams. apres ctro alle implorer des emirs mongols pour 

ghoul, d'oü la l'oriae reduito russe csaoul « capitaiiie » ; jourta-ghotil '< troupe de choc », 
cf. yourta-mak « attaquer », ijourta-ma, yourt-ish « marche forcee »; kara-ghoul « qui 
observe », du verbe mongol khara-khou, en turk khara-mah « observer », pour kharagh- 
khou, kharagh-niak, cf. kharagh c-'.ii, i-\ß « prunelle de Fii'ü », puiä « noir de la pru- 

nelle «, puis simplement « noir «, ce t[ui est le sens cuuranl du turk kliiu-a-kara ^y: cf. 
les mots mongols khara-gha « vue, point de mire vjiharagha-tou « qui vou. », khaia-inal 
>< visible », khara-ghan « poste de guet ». khara-tcha « vue >>, kluira-tchi V individu qui 
espionne pour la police ». 



I - 



420 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [250] 

' i^X— «> Ifj ^iLs i%i\ i\ il'lj^Jl r^.=- f' ^y'} jJ^ ij^\ '■\^\ (jÄJu ,b Jki-:> jl 

• foi.div". j;j jj; i^j^l jl ^^Ij ^^ ^w jlLUl * JL.? jj.»j>M j^a)I 'Li 4j^l Jl ^^ 
^jJI jL« it (jöJLlL jlkUl ^^1 i' «^"CJliCw SUj^l Is. ij\ß\ A-ö ._~w jl^j 

Jy„Jl ^a)I JM=- '"^J^^ ^^^^^ ^^b ^'■^"Vl Jj.a!1 Aä^ •'^j.i-l ^-^^^ j_5^3 t5^J-* 

JjVl ^_$JL(..^ ^,-lfi- ,«jL 'Hill (• V LiSiij j»jJl '*^ljj- ^3 tn^^'' '-^-*^j ^U!L f^-'^J 

JLL.UI oyi Xs. AolJI LlUI j_;-_^ jL^ Lfjj ®_^Lyi ^aJIj iUj Aju x^\ lLUI 
1. Lire s'-^l. — 2. Le manuscrit a ^'^°. — 3. Lire -i^L 



qu'on lui laissät la vie. Le parvana, apres ces evenemcnts, fit une cxpedition 
dans le pays, et le parcourut avec son armee; il tua tous les individus qu'il 
y trouva, et qui s'etaient rendus coupablos d'avoir provoque des troubles, 
ainsi que dans les provinces qui en etaient i'roiitieres. 

Quand Sharaf ad-Din ibn al-Khatir eut ete assassine, la nouvelle en 

parvint ä son frere, Ziya ad-Din Mahmoud. Le sultan d'Egypte lui deraanda 

des explications sur cette aflaire. Ziya ad-Din lui apprit, qu'en effet son frere 

• i'oi. ö'i v°. avait ete mis ä mort, et qu'il avait ete perdu par l'accusation qu'il avait 

formulee contre le parvana d'avoir entretenu une correspondance avec lui'. 

Le sultan ordonna alors qu'on arretät Sinan ad-Din Mousa, Ali Yousouf, 
frere de Madjd ad-Din, l'atabek, Hadji, frere de Djalal ad-Din, le mostaufi", 
6t qu'on les emprisonnät dans la Forteresso (de la Montagne) ; il ordonna en 
meme tenips quc Ton enl'ermät leurs aflides dans le depöt des etendards'; 
cela se passa le mardi, dix-septieme jour du mois de Djouinada preinier, et 
ces gens resterent enfermes dans leur prison jusqu'au raois de Uabi' second 
de l'annee 677. Le sultan as-Malik al-Sa"id les rendit alors ä la liberte, apres 
la mort de son pere, az-Zaliir. 

Cette meme annee, furent celebröes les noces d'al-Malik as-Sa'id, ijuaiid le 

1. Avec le sultan d'Egypte. — 2. Ces odiciers etaient les einirs (jui avaient deserte 
les etendards snldjoukides pour passer au Service du sultan; on ne voit pas ce que 
Baibars avait ä lear reprocher. — 3. C'est ainsi que Makrizi, dans le Kliitnt (man. 
arabe 1731, fol. .'i'i9 v"), cnlend le terme bounond, pluriel du persan band, qu'il exi)li- 
i]ue par >bL^'j O^'»-''- ^e qu'ä son cpoquc on iiommait LjlkLJ! w-jLa*J! «'les dra- 
peaux iniperiaux ». Ce dcpöl dependail du grand cliäleau ^-^It »-vaüJ*, et il lui ctait 
contigu, entre le chikleau de Sliouk o^9^'' ^r^ et la porte de la feie J-jJ' ^_.'j. H 
avail ete bäti par le khalife l'aliniile az-Zaliir li-I 'zaz Din .\liiili, et il s'y trouvait 
3.000 ouvricrs. 



[257J IIISTOIUE DKS SUI/rANS MAMLOUKS. 421 

^,A^ ^y» JO) Ä«,ll!l ^ä)' j_^V1 jl-»wJI J v-^j '*^':r*r" orr?^^ O"!^-^ f^^ 0^ 

ij^_-OI ^__j_<j; ^^Vl ^Jj 'iy^[^\ ^y, jUfj j^ öir^^ cTt*^' f.^:. -^Jr! Wi ®^!-'^:* 
(»y Li« -^ ^3 bAxiJi ,_5i ^r-"*^ ,_..b>- i^"^i3 <!« j\j^^Ji-«Ji yU ^^p-j Jljl— ,^;-^ ,*;'—' 



sultaii s"en revint de Syric. Toute rarmee se mit ea grancle tenue, et fit lu 
paradc dans l'Hippodromc noir, aU'dessous de la Forteresse; ce fut une lete 
splendide. Le sultan donna des vetemeuts d'liouneur ä tous Ics emirs, ä 
tuus les oiliciers coniiuainlanls, et ä tüus les dignitaires de l'Etat. 

Rt'cit de riiivasioii, par le sullaii, du pays de l^oum, ipii se termina par 
la prisc de Cesaree. Cette anuee, le jeudi, viiigtiemc^ jour du uiois de Ra- 
madliau, le sultaii partil du Caire. II nonuua l'ernir Sliams ad-l)in Ak-Soukor 
al-Farikani aux fouctions de vice-roi dans Tempirc egyptien, sous la sou- 
verainete de son fds, al-Malik as-Sa"id; il laissa sous son commandement 
cinq mille cavaliers, pour defendre le pays. 

Le vingt-deuxieme jour de ce mememois, il s'eloigna du Caire, et marcha 
vers Damas, oü il fit son entree, le mercredi, dix-septieme jour de Shavval. II 
en partit le vingt, et entra a Alep, le dixieme jour du mois de Zilka'da ' ; il 
quitta cette ville le jeudi suivant, et arriva ä llailan-, d'oü il envoya ä Temir 
i\our ad-l)in 'Ali iini Malialli, qui etait gouverneur ä Alep, Tordre de se 

1. Moufazzal a commis ici une grave erreur : Nowairi dit, en efTet fman. 1578, l'ol. 90 
v"), que Baibars entra ä Alep, le mercredi l" Zilka'da, et qu'il en partit le lendemain, 
, jeudi, deux de ce mois : ^j L^ -rj^i JJ^I ^i J-^/T''^ **^j^' pü »3 ^7-^^ i^' ^T^^i 
yijJ^ oU _^yiJ' >»j. D'ailleurs cette assertion de Moufazzal est en contradiction ab- 
solue avec la suile du recit de Nowairi, suivant Icquel al-Malik az-Zaliir fit une etape 
d'Alep ä Hailan, et quitta Hadan, le 3 de ce mois. Si al-Malik az-Zahir etait entre ä 
Alep, le [mercredi) 10, s'il en etait parti le jeudi 11 pour Ilailan, il n'aurait pu quitter 
cclte localite le 3. II faut comprendre avec Nowairi, dont Moufazzal a defigure le recit, 
que Baibars entra ä Alep le 1"' Zilka'da, qu'il en partit le 2 pour Ilal'lan, d'oü il decampa 
le 3. II est possible que Moufazzal ait utilisii un manuscrit fautif de Nowairi; mais il se 
pcut aussi que, dans son aulügraphe, il ait ('crit les dates en cliiffres, en laissant a son 
copisle le soin de les transcrire en lettres, <[u'il ait ecrit s-j«JiJ! ^i w^-i, I ^, que son 
scribc, par suite d'une lache quelconque, a lu i^-xs}] ^i j^ \. ^, d'oü la legon 
is-XadJI ^i J^U J:, qui est absurde. — 2. Nom d'un village pres d'xVlep, o\i se trouvent 
des sources thermales que des canalisations conduisaient ä Alep. (Yakout, II, 382). 

PATR. OH. — T. XIV. — F. 3. \ 28 



/,22 MOUFAZZAI. IB\ ABIL-FAZAIL. [258] 

<iry^, j' >T-^. v-J'Ji t/^ ö- iJ^ ^.- ->y ^rr*"^'' i^'^ f'^i o^^ '-^J-' ^^-^iJl 

1. Lire c^!;i.". — 2. Lire ^'Ju," J,oU ou J-i>'' ^! \^~J3. — 3. On attendrail U^'jJfJ, 

et le duel dans le reste de la phrase, ä moins qua le pluriel ne signifie les emirs et 

les troupes musulmanes dans leur pluralite. — 4. Lire ,^;;^'^ij'. — 5. Man. ibio^. — 
(j. Man. v_jlj ^f.^. 



rendre sur le Sadjour', et de deployer au long de l'Euplirate les troupes 
d'Alep qu'il avait sous ses ordres, pour eii defendre les g'ues, de fagou ä em- 
'foi. 55r. peclier qu'un seul Tatar les franchit dans l'intention d'attaquer la Syrie. 

L'emir Sharaf ad-Din 'Isa i])n Mohanna vint se joindre ä Temir Nour ad- 
Din. Les generaux des Tatars, qui se trouvaient dans Thak, apprirent que 
les troupes de Nour ad-Din et de Sharaf ad-l)in etaient venues prendre 
position le long de TEuphrate (pour le surveiller), et ils envoyen-ent contre 
oux un fort contingent des Arabes de la tribu de Khafadja pour leur livrer 
bataille. Ces Arabes se mirenl cn marche; mais Noui' ad-Din ibn Mahalli 
fut averti de leurs intentions; il niunta ä cheval, se porta ä leur rencontre, 
les liattit, et leur captura donze cents cbameaux. 

Le Sultan partit de llailau, le vendredi, troisieme- jour du mois, et se 
dirigea sur 'Ain-tab ■', puis sur Dalouk', puis sur Mardj ad-Dii)adj ■', puis sur 
Rinouk, puis sur le Fleuve bleu'', d'oii il rnarcba sur Aksha Darliand', oü il 

1. Nom d'un cours d'eau qui passe ä Manbidj (Yakout, ill, 7). — 2. Sur celte 
dale, voir la note de la page precedente. — 3. La « bonne source », en syHa(]ue: 
nom d'unc forteresse entre Alep et Antioclie, connue egalement sous le nom de Da- 
louk ^^3-'-, qui est le nom de son territoirc (Yakout. 111, 759). — 4. Dans Nowairi, 
man. 1578, l'ol. 91 r", k_t.Cb. Sur ce nom, voir la note precedente. — 5. Nom d'un 
wadi, a 10 milles de Massisa (Yakout, IV, 477). — 0. ^ oXT Gueuk soii, dniis 
Nowairi, il/id., Iraduclioii lurke de ^J, \^^ r^^- — 7. Nowairi. i/i/il., a j.;'.->r^', qu'il 
ne faul poinl lirc j.)or'l, la « forteresse blanche », etquieslune faute pour -'-o,- Ls^!, 
comme on le voit par un j)assago de ce meme historien, cite ä la page 432, dans Icquel il 
est cerlain qu'il s'agit bion d'un defile, --^',.5. Aksba de Moufazzal esl une forme qui 
equivaut ä aktcha de Nowairi, avec sh arabe transcrivant regulieremenl le tch turk. 
Aktcha darband signifie « le defile blanc (de neige) ». 






[2.-)9] IllSTOIKK DKS SULTANS MAMr.OUKS. 'i23 

^^Vl ^r^ if-^^ ^r-^~' j^'^ f-*'' -*-^-^ ®UjJI ZJ^X»^ cUaiJI >1)A_J ^1 J! JL) J^l 

i'^' l^"-A£- jf ",* iiiJLL» ^U «95.9 "»oJo -^ ^j,^ Jl, x^lj ^L-iJl /w« ii^Lj- -Ic- 

1. Man. -.L'J' ~^-. 2. Man. .^>S. — ;}. Man. .,.,L. — 4. Lire , J.ü ^i^'.. — 
5. Lire ^Jjs:^. — G. Lire Jix.". 



arriva, le inardi, septieme jour du mois de Zilka'da; il le franchit a la inoitie 
du jour, et, quand il en fut sorti, las troupes se deployerent; alles debor- 
daieiit dans la plaiae et remplissaient le moudc. 

A ce moment, le sultaii envoya l'emir Shams ad- Diu Soukor al-Ashkar, 
avec an detachement de l'armee, eu avaut-garde, et il lui ordoiina de uiarcher 
devant lui. L emir tomba sur uu corps de Tatars compose de trois mille 
cavaliers, dont le commandant sc nommait GuireT; il les mit en deroute, et en 
fil prisonniers uu certain nombre. Cela se passa le jeudi, neuvieme jour de ce 
inr-rae mois. 

Le sultan d'Egyptc rcgul eusuile la uouvelle quo larniec saldjoukido 
cl mongole se trouvait avec Tutaoun et le parvana', et qu'ils cauipaient 
aux rivcs du fleuve Saihoun. Quand les troupes victorieusös" deboucherent 
sur les plaines d'al-Bouloustain, elles virent que les Tatars avaient reparti 
leur arraee en regiuieiits, dont chacun comprenait mille cavaliers. Ils avaient 
mis Tarmee saldjoukide ä part, dans la crainte qu'elle ne se livrät ä quelque 
Irahison contre eux% et ils avaient forme un seul regimeut du contingent 
des Georgiens. 

Quand les deux armees prirent le contact, l'aile gauche des t^atars chargca 

1. Xowairi dit plus explicitemenl que les troupes mongoles etaient\sous le com- 
mandement de Totaoun .,^l~-', et celles du sultan saldjoukide sous le commandement 
du parvana. — 2. Les troupes du sultan d'Egypte. — 3. En leur tirant daniä le dos, par 
exemple. 



f(il. 



I'ul. .'jj V" 



424 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [260] 

^\ usL-3 L&iiLw} j»^1j "CiJli? ^^ ^.Ljs-j jLLLJ! "CöäI- Ij^j-sj Sas-U ä„Uj>- jtJI 
c~l»^ -Asj ^>--;:-»-'' ti!^ 'Clii!! c« i::o-V3 ^„ii (n^'*-' ^'-^ jlLLJl |»Ab Uij öwJI 
i^L».=- xT LJojL Aj'Loj <jUl-^i iUjs- ^_»»-Ls _yoli ^p-t" ji o^l-xs jüi 'il**^ Lic 
IjJäLj JkiLj "ij -Vo V üA=-3 4j)l ^U JL<C;i «« ■ILj^ Jai^Ij ä,Lo- ^^LJl c-Uj>-3 

J-G-j \-i«LJ! Ja 'C-> — ■ J^'3 ^^ |*y^ j^^, f»^ ulrUj f*Yj^ ö^ [yy ^—^1) 

1. On attendrait grammaticalement m-^j, par accord avec Li^r^-', mais l'accord se 
fait plutot avec le concept des hommes qui formaient le centre musulman. — 2. Ce mot 
est recrit sur un grattage. — 3. Lire l^t,. — 4. Lire ^-'° ou sUe-\ — 5. L 



ire 



■^r- 



d'un seiil bloc, et Ibndit sur les troupes qui formaient la garde des etendards 
du Sultan ' ; un corps de Tatars (rompit le front musulman) ; les Tatars 
lancerent une charge entre les lignes rausulmanes, les traverserent, et pour- 
suivirent leur course sur Falle droite". Quand le sultan vit la marche des 
Tatars, il se mit en personne ä leur poursuite ; quand son attention put se 
jiorter sur l'evolution de la bataille, il vit que l'aile gauclie de son armee avait 
ete attaquee par la droite des Tatars, et qu'il s'en fallait de peu qu'elle ne 
läcliat pied. Le prince de Ilamali ordonna alors ä ses officiers et k ses 
soldats de lancer une contre-attaque sur rassaillaut : i! prit la tete de la 
Charge, et les troupes se precipiterent toutes sur l'ennemi, d'un seul 
bloc, en mettant leur confiance entiere dans le Dien unique, et non dans 
l'aide et le secours des hommes \ TjCS Mußulmans broyerent les Tatars comme 
sous une meulo. 

()uand les Tatars s'apcrrurcnt qu'ils ne pouvaiciit echapper ä la mort, ou 
nc pas tomber aux mains des Musulmans, et qu'il leur etait impossible de 
se soustraire aux coups de leurs ennemis, ils mirent pied ä terre, et com- 

1. Sandjaki, adjectif arabe derive du turk sand/nk « etendard »; les etendards 

imperiaux elaient confies ä des reginienls d'elite; leur disparilion du champ de balaille 

entrainait toujours la deroute de l'armee, ce qui est tres important, si Ton veut 

suivre le developpement de l'action. Ce corps d'elite elail au centre, ce que I'auteur 

a oublie de dire. II est visible que Moufazzal a copie ce passage,qui detonne au milieu 

des mediocriles de son style, dans Ibn 'Abd az-Zahir. Lj'J=LJ! ^j^LuJ' . — ^Üä vJ:j,'jo:_.L 

»^Jli .,'-ü~" J-s--^\ dit Nowa'i'ri, ibid., ful. 91 r°. — 2. De fa(.'on a la prendre k revers 

1 

apres avoir rompu le centre. — 3. Poar completer renfoncemcnt du centre et le refou- 

Icnienl de l'aile droite des Kgypliens, l'aile droite mongole altaque, pour renfoncer, 

l'aile gauche i'gyptienne, de fagon ä faire pivoter toutc la ligne de bataille de Baibars 

aulour de rcmplacenienl de son cenfre. Le prince de Ilamali rc'lablit la Situation en 

eno'agcant des troupes, qui permettcnt un retablissement sur l'aile gauche. 



[261J IIISTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /,2.-. 

JcS ''^^ yj[<i\ J^ l.y_ jl^ ^X\\ ^ 5UÜI j\J Ij^ 'äi^^l 'i\^\ (-yll 
..i_.ll y, Li_^^ jL^lj ^IjJI -'^^jj ljJi=j l_^^li ®^VIj JJ..Ü1 jldl j^ <J 
^^Vlj ^'>U1 -JJ _i^ ^...Vl 'T^Vl j^ -^1 cUi J jyiJU-S JL.Jlj ^_^l jl 

Jcj __,jCLij>tJI Tx-vli y^^\ ._L^ ÖJlLUl ^LJI ^j ^^Xi:>:L.J!\ y>.\ J.-OI Je. 

pAj LjLJ ^Lfr LJ'ls * l^l_^j '^^^^j^l 'T^l y ^ ^y' Ulj <a^^:Jl dL,l ^aJI ♦roi.r.m- 
'-^l^ ä>" ^>3 ä;.-^'' Crf^ ^. ö'-^3 ^^^3^' 0;.-^'' ö::- Cf. J^ ^.A -^\'' 

u^i 'V^ ö; J-.-^'' c'-^J ^>""^' ö:.-^^ -^ >^ ^j-^ öi-^^ ^h ''^^ J'} 

^L-a-j ^L«.,^! ^_jJl JLoj ^l_j~- *_,^L> ^1 ^_->JI i^j ''^-iLjjJI iUyLL-, jj>-»JI 

1. Lire ^/LCJl sUkll >y . — 2. Lire ^^~^. — 3. Man. ^^^j. — 'i. II vaul mieux lire 
(j.rr'jj^' V"^' c*"^' luoique la legon du manuscrit soit possible. — 5. Man, l^U.. — 
G. Man. UU; Nowairi, foL 91 r°, UU — 7. Man. ^^-.Ij^^I. 



battirent desesperemeiit; mais leurs efforts ne purent les sauver du desastre, 
car Allall fit descendre sa quietudc sur les vrais Croyants, et il abandonna 
ä soll sort le peuple des tyrans infideles'. Les Tatars s'enfuirent, comme la 
brebis s'enfuit devant le loup, et ce fut une journee terrible pour les 
mecreants, dans laquelle furent tues, aussi bleu le soldat que roflicier. 

Les Tatars se sauverent et se refugierent sur la cime des colliues et des 
montagues, pour echapper au glaive des Musulmaus, ä leurs fers et ä leurs 
chaines. Ce jour-lä, furent tues parmi les emirs, remir Sharaf (ad-Din) Kiran 
al-'Alayyi, Temir Tzz ad-Din Akhou al-Mohammadi, et, parmi les mam- 
louks sultaniens, Saif ad-Din Rilitcli, le tchashniguir, Tzz ad-Din Aibek al- 
Soiikori. 

Douze des generaux saldjoukides et des grands 'personnages de cet* loi. .-,« i- 
enipire furiMit faits prisonniers; ce furent : Mouhazzab ad-Din 'Ali, fils du 
parvana Mo in ad-Din; le fils de la fiUe du parvana Mo'in ad-Din; Nour ad- 
Din Djibrail ibn Rhadja; Kotb ad-Din Mahmoud, frere de l'atabek Madjd 
ad-Din; Siradj ad-Din ibn Kliadja; Saif ad-Din Sonkorshali, le zoubashi ^; Nos- 
rat ad-Din, frere du seigneur de Sivas; Kamal ad-Din Isma'il; liosam ad- 

1. Emprunte au Coran. — 2. WU. Khadja est une forme abregefe et tres vulgaire 
de la forme qu'avait a cette epoquo le mot persan i^-U^ kluvadja dans la languc 
egyptienne, U.'_j:i., laquelle sc pronongait khadja, et non khwadja, ce que Iraduit la 
graphie illettree UU; voir page 405. — 3. ,^^.i) est pour ^b^ Soubashi, avec 
l'equivalence .s- = r. Soubashi, litteralement, signifie « celui qui a la Charge de repartir 
l'eau ». Cette forme, zoubashi, pour soubashi, est tout ce qu'il y a de plus Vulgaire. 



426 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL.' [262] 

^<j_:>U;3 ^üA^^jij "^^^^^^j L?^^-'J ^} ^-r^ ^(^'-^ r*3 ^-^ cT'^'^ -'^' ä:r*-^ ö* 

'•' •yJJIj (.Lrl ^y^ ijy^ Ljloj Jlsjj |_^1 <JU3 •cUL j.jJl iU jlkUI jr^;^ ^r^ 

1. Man. JjUT; Nowairi, 91 v°, J^L<}j. — 2. Man. JuiJ^^.-, Nowairi. fol. 91 v", 
f^JUx. — 3. Lire ,W -.= JJL=. — 4. Lire .lü' Lw^. — 5. Man. ^^^j- — 6. Man. 
j-<ij-^. — 7. Man. fJJ^^^i. — 8. Man. aj.>U. — 9. Man. ^3J!. 



Dill Bukeiir ; Sai'f aclDin ibn al-Tchaouish ; Shihab ad-Din Ghazi ihn Ali 
at-Turkoniani. 

Cinq des generaux des Tatars tomjjerent aux mains des Musiilmaiis : 
Zireki^ gendre d'Abagha, Sartakh, Tchirkir, Sherikde et Namadia'. 
Mo'in ad-Din, le parvana, parvint ä se tirer du champ de bataille; il 
traversa sans s'arreter les plaines et les montagnes, jusqu'ä ce qu'il enträt ä 
Cesaree, le douzieme jour du mois de Zilka'da. II y rejoignit le sultan 
Ghiyas ad-Din et plusieurs erairs; il leur apprit los evenements qui venaicnt 
de se produire, et il leur assura que les Mongols en deroute, quand ils 
entreraient dans Cesaröe, massacreraient toute la population, dans leur 
rage contre les Musulmans. 

Aussi leur conseilla-t-il de quitter la ville. Le sultan Ghiyas ad-Din 
partit de Cesaree, emmenant sa famille, et einportant ses biens; il se rendit 
ä Dokak% qui est distante de Cesaree de trois jours de chemin. Les 

1. Bukcül, anciennement Bukeg-hur, designait dans Fempire des Mamlouks, comme 
chezlesTimourides de l'Inde, un officierde bouche. — 2. Le nom de ce gendre d'Abagha 
ne iigure pas dans Vllistoirc des Mongols de Rashid; Tauteur a voulu transcrire le nom 
tres connu de Shireki, avec la möme transformation du sli en z, que Ton remarque dans 
zoubaslii, pour soubaslii. — 3. Ces trois derniers noiiis ne se lisent pas dans Nowairi. 
Tchirkir est pcut-etre ä rapprocher de Ichirkire-kit « crier » ; la Iccture de ce nom 
est douteuse; peut-etre j^t^ Khirghiz; Sherikde est Tcheriktai « militaire » ; Namadia 
iJiUi est le mongol Namtai « pareil, analogue, qui ressemble a qiielque chose «, ou 
mi<uix Naimatai « originaire du clan des Naiman >■, qui est un nom Ires frequent dans 
Idiiomastique des Mongols au xiii" siecle, avec ai rendu ya, comme dans Nokhai, 
que los auteurs arabes nomment Noghia. — 4. Nowairi, ibid., folio 91 v°, dit l'ormello- 
mentque ce i'ul a Tokat sOUj que le sultan saldjoukidc se refugia. Ce fait seul sullirait 
a etablir lidcntite de la ville a laquclle Moul'yzzal d«>nne la forme de üokak avec la eile 
de Tokat, voir page 413. 



\ 



[263] HISTOIRR DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 427 

^_jJI (.l_>. sLai'i (^Isj '^ yiS. ^A^l ^jjl '[_^l ^yA jlkUl «[frlU .:Uä" ij^,.:!::* 

^^ j._a!I ^_j_wi ^^Vl jr;^ Mj^VI jLLUl ^^ U-Ij ^jJJI Jls ®j.jjl ^Is 
Lo iA) ^b ^_^j Ci'jl — i ^\ '*4-yJ^J o'j«^' ^ .1^^ J,»^ cHjjV ÄtUjs- j ^-Vl 
^iU^ C !1 S^X J^j f ÄJ'^liÜl p&ljjJL ^Ul.dlj jl_j-.Vl r-!>-!5 "'«JaI J-^t 'moI.:.(1v- 

1. Lire Iji) j.i^ -^'. — 2. Lire -^'. — 3. Lire ij .^«^ ^^3, oii ij.'-~i J,' iJ-~iU. 
— 4. Man. ."^' — — 5. Lire Jb. 



personnes qui se trouvaicnt alors presentes, reconnaissant la souverainete 
du Sultan, etaient onze generaux saldjoukides et le grand kadi, Hosam ad- 
Diii, kadi du pays de Roum. 

L'historien a dit : Quand le sultan d'Egypte eut battu Ics ennemis, il 
detacha Temir Sliams ad-Din Sonkor al-Ashkar, avec un corps de cavalerie, 
pour ratlraper les Mongols qui avaient echappe au carnage, et poursuivre 
sur Cesaree ; il ecrivit de sa propre main un rescrit pour rassurer la popula- * fui- ji; v- 
tion de la vllle, pour Tinviter ä rouvrir les marches, et ä y faire les transactions 
avec la monnaie d'argent frappee au noni d'al-Malik az-Zahir'. II partit 
ensuite, dans la matinee du samedi, onzieme jour du mois de Zilka'da, 
marchant sur Cesaree. Le sultan passa dans son chemin par la citadelle de 
Samandou", dont le gouverneur descendit, pour se presenter devant sa 
personne, et se ranger sous son obeissance. Le gouverneur de la citadelle 
de Daranda agit de meme, ainsi que celui de la fbrteresse de Dalou^, qui 
dcscendirent de leurs places fortes, et reconnurent la suzerainete du sultan 
d'Egypte. 

Al-Malik az-Zahir marcha sans aucun arret jusqu'ä ce qu'il vint camper, 
durant la nuit du mercredi, quinziöme jour du mois, dans un village qui est 
voisin de Cesaree, oü il passa la nuit. Au matin, il disposa en ordre les 
troupes victorieuses, il fit mettre les soldats sous les armes, et il se mit en 
marche ä une allure splendide, pare de ses plus beaux ornements. Quand les 
habitants de Cesaree apprirent ranivöe des troupes egyptiennes, ils sor- 

1. C'est-ä-dire qu'il voulait remplacer la monnaie d'argent des Saldjoukides par la 
sienne. — 2. Cette forteresse, dit Yakout, (IH, 144), etail au milieu du pays de Roum. 
Mdufazzal, dans son ignorance, a pris le ^ final de j-i-;*-. pour la conjonctioi^ « et », et Ta 
supprime comme expletif. — 3. Yakout ne parle pas de ces forteresses. \ 



428 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [264] 

jw'LiüL Jf. ^l...«il 5s*i-3 i^^ry" 't^ "-'^ \j^ Ij ,_5>c-ivj *_j^^' ^^•i'y. >»LiJl *Jj^^ 
iyCJ ._^j ^>^i ^-ic- ^L- '>j«j>j>iJi 4^ jiS Uis Jj>j (-^J [j^^ ''t'*^. (3*^ '_j-i-«j 

üM-J x^UJl ,^r-^"^ fi>' 'y^-^b [>-*^^ CisU^ J jL.j j»jJ1 j_5i-^L' (»vr^ 1-^^ ÄjjäJ-JI 

®«-lcjdL "ij (j-Ul cJ'SsA^ 'C~PtJl 'CjjJ Ijj k_i-£>_5J "U-Aj <Üai- ..^Ja^Jl ;_ii=-; "Ua^I 
■ l'ol. 5; 1-°. (v^b-^^ K/-^^^"^ C'^>i«a!l *JJ1 Äaj^j ^^y^ ^ <jr~^^ kJ^ ^1?J i>i-a]l vS--^ UiJ 

1. Lire j t-~srr:-V . — 2. Lire J,j. — 3. Lire Ljj^s-^-I ^^J3.U!. — 4. Lire JojxJ ; JJj»i 
estune faute de sabir; eile montre que laiiteur confondait absolument C_> et ^,. 



tirent de leur ville, se rejouissant de la venue du sultan d'Egypte, dans 
rcsperanco que la pluie de sa gencrosite se rcpandrait sur eux, du monient 
qu'il etait venu dans leur pays. 

11s avaient prepare des tentes, poiir qu'il s'y logeät, dans une plaine 
qui est connue sous le iiom de Kai-lvhosrau ' ; quand le sultan approcha de 
cet endroit, les chefs de Farniee mirent pied k terre, suivant la preseance 
de leurs grades; ils marchercnt devantsa personne, jusqu'ä ce qu'il fiit arrive 
ä son campement, et qu'il s'y iut installe. Le vendredi, dix-septiemc jour du 
mois, le sultan monta ä cheval pour se rendre ä la priere du vendredi, et 
ilfit son entr^e dans Gesaree; il descendit au palais du sultan, et s'assit sur h; 
tröne; ainsi se trouverent realisees les felicites que hii avaii promises le Tout- 
Puissant, qui dispense la fortüne aux hommes. 

Les kadis, les juristes, les soulis, se prescnterent devant le sultan, et 
s'assirent suivant leur rang, d'apres le protocole en usage ä la cour des 
Souverains saldjoulddes; il leur temoigna toutes sortes d'egards, et il ecouta 
avec bienveillance les discours qu'ils lui tinrenl; il Irur lit scivir un re|)as; 
ils dinerent, puis se retirerent. Ensuite, le sultan sc rendil a la graiide nios- 
quee pour y entcndre la priere du vendredi; le pr6dicateur y prononra uu 
pronc eloquent, dans lequel il exposa toul an long les titres poiupcux du 
sullan, et les gcns recitercnt la priere en son nom. 
' loi. 57 1«. Ouand la priere eut pris fin, quand on cul distrihue aux lideles les dons 

1. 11 fallt ontendre « la plaino de Kai'-Kliosrau »; Kai-Klinsrau fiil, commc Ion sail, 
le nom de plusicurs souverains saldjoukides du pays de Rouni. 



[265] IIISTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 429 



1. Lire ^_^^_^J'. — 2. Man. omcl 5^^.. — 3. Man. ^jj^'^' 



i|iii proviennent de la mis^ricorde d'Allali, 011 presenta ;\ al-Malik az-Zahir 
les monnaies d'argent doat la face avait ete frappee ä son nom, et les coins 
graves ä ses titres. On lui apporta les tresors que l'epouse du parvana, 
Gurtchi Khatoun, n'avait pu empörter avec eile, lors de sa fuite, en mcnie 
temps quo les hiens des persounes qui avaient emigre ' . 

Le saliil» 'l/z ad-üin ihn SliadJad raconte, dans la vie (d'al-Malik az- 
Zaliiii, (juc le parvana döpecha ua officier au suitau pour le feliciter de s'etre 
assis sur le tröne^; le sultan lui ecrivit pour le prier de venir le trouver, 
pour qu'il lui conferät les dignites de son rang, pour le combler de ses bien- 
faits et de sa generosite. Le parvana repondit au suitau pour lui demandei 
de l'attendre durant quinzc jours; c'etait un stratageme destine ä lui laisser 
le temps d'inciter Abagha ä envahir le pays de Roum, et ä venir livrer 
bataille au sultan dans cette contree \ 

Totaouu, qui avait eu une entrevue avec Sonkor al-Ashkar*, lui avait 
revelc la manoäuvre du parvana; cette circonstance determina le sultan ;i 
evacuer Cesaree, et ä rcntrer dans ses Etats. 11 se mit en marche, le lundi, 
vingtieme jour du mois de Zilka'da, et prit le chemin du retour. 'Izz ad-Din 
Aibek ash-Shaikhi commandait la pointe d'avant-garde \ Le sultan lui ayant 
fait donner des coups de trique, parce qu'il marchait beaucoup trop vite, et 

1. Ici finit l'extrait de la vie de Baibars par Ihn 'Abel az-Zahir, qui a ete copiee par 
Moufazzal. — 2. Du sultan saldjoukide, ä Cesaree. — 0. Nowairi comprend « d'aller atla- 
quer le sultan landis qu'il elait dans le Roum » (man. 1578, fol. 92 r") : j' »-V ^ ■i 

jbU'j .UJlJI, , v" )p ix^. Ijol , LI U:). —4. \owairi, ihid. : ^.'^ .,.U s=.*ä>.U 

y^^yj .,'JJl-Jl .,' 3Jw,=i^ ,,L .Iky^l iJLL j 5^'_;r-'' "^^^ as^j ji-."^! k£.u.. c-»^---' o'***^' 
i\^^ J U;' iS'.^j ^_^. — .5. Xowairi, ibid., 02 v" : w-C' ^^Jl^^^'i' a-<V) J-s J«?>j 



430 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [266] 

^>c..'Jl viLI iV-*^' J^ "*^^. '—^J::^^ l5^ j^J -^^J ÜJjJJl |_5J ^ ^j^^^l ^jr^'V! /'_y_ 
jU4ril jU/ iVjl jl^3 ®jb!l ^1 ^^ jlkLAJ ■ü^ ._,.—; Aj^ jJ jILAJI jl^j 

JIjJjV J^ (V"-^ ^'^ 'Cp-I ^1 '^y ^ ilLtls 4ojJ»Vj <) (Ji-LwJ ,»;^'_^' 

* fol. 57 V. il; i^ ^1 Jjf. V, J*— J Ij-J <Afr ^J_jJ 'y,^ jlLUl Jji Xj' o^^J-J^ (J' "dJlltjl 

\)1 Jv>-^ ^_y^ k? <>J>^ (\^ jUa-LJl k_Ä3yL_;_ /y,-*J' ^xt" cS^*"^. -J^' '-.--' *'"J 

A.U1 ;JUJl; jlkUl p.U J.U1 LLli «cT^^r- ^5*^ ^^^->^ '^^ "^^ ^^"^^ ^'^-^ ■^^• 

1. Cette dale est restituee d'apres Nowairi, r[ui dit que d'aulres autorites indiqueiU 
le 22; il est vraiseniblable que c'esl cette date (|ui est exacte, et quo les autrurs qui 
indiquent celle du 20 ont commis unc crreur visuelle dans la lecture du complcxe jjJ 

^.jyuxllj jUJ! ^^r:.-^'^'. — 2. Man. ~^^^^ S'^^p^. — 3. Lire )j.p,. — 4. Lire A^_p. 



parce qu'il perdait le coiitact avec lui, cet emir s'enfuit chez les Tatars. 
Les fils de Karaman, le.Turkoman, avaient laisse leur l'rere cadet en 
otage ä Gesaree ' ; quand le sultan al-Malik az-Zahir occupa cette ville, 
ce personnage sortit pour se rendre au-devant de lui, et lui fit sa soumis- 
sion. Le sultan lui temoigna de graodes l'aveurs, et le Turkoman lui demanda 
des diplömes" et des eteudards', pour lui et pour ses freres. Al-Malik az- 
Zahir les lui accorda, et le Turkoman alla retrouver ses freres, qui hahitaicut 
dans la montagne de Lartadal oumnak, en descendant vers les rivages de la 
mer. 
♦loi. 57v". Ensuitc, le sultan vint camper k Kirlou'', ou il re(;ut un ambassadeur que 
lui envoyait le parvaua, en nienie temps qu'un autrc personnage, nommc 
Zahir ad-Din, pour le prier de suspeudre sa marchc ; ces gens ne savaient 
pas oü il avait l'intention d'aller, et les nouvelles s'etaient repandues qu'il se 



dirigeait sur Sivas. 



Quand la perspicacite du sultan cut bien saisi le veritable sens de cette 
iimbassade, il rcpondit ä son interlocuteur : « Mo'in ad-l)in of sesofTiciers'', oe 
sont leurs lettres qui m'ont fait venir; ils onl stipule des cundilious qu'ils 
n'ont pas execut^es, qu'ils n'ont pas respectöes. Maintenant, je connais le 

1. Aux mains da sultan saldjoukide. — 2. Conferanl des souverainctes territoriales. — 
3. Signe tangible de la souverainele. — 'i. Cello localite n'osl pas connue de Yakoiil; 
pcut-6lre Kizlou. — 5. II s'agit ici des generaux saldjoukides, lesquels etaicnl las 
du joug des Mongols, et avaient appele Bai'bars; Nowairi, ibid., foL 92 v", dil : 

U=^ .;i=^ ^V^; Oo^ ^'^ w^ oC< J iUl^l jlUJI _,UU. 



[267] IIISTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 'i.U 

[aXs. 1_^j Vj lj> ^>*>^. f»-' ^Jj^ ^y'j^ is^^ in'*^ "-^'^ klr*J vlr"-"^' ö*;" j' 
jl (♦fwUJ VI <j i^j cäJI j_5.U L.^1^ jl^ Uj •>j_^ ^y^j fj^'^ ^^ -^ jVlj 

jli- Jj^j >„L>-j i' «jij* ;5_^ '»-^'1 jl ^^-^. ^y -Uli j^r-^!^ Jr*'^^^ -j^"^ o* 

1. Lire ax^ ; uu ♦^y'^ «j:^;/ .^»j, ce qui est moins sür. 



pays de Uouni, et les chernins qui y condniscnl. Et noiis nc nous sommes pas 
assis sur Ic trönc' pour satisf'aire un vain desir dostentation, mais bieii pour 
Icur- montrer qu'il n'y a pas d'obstacle ä quelque chose que nous voulons, 
par la puissance d'Allah et par sa force ; il nous sufTit en efTet de nous etre 
onipare de sa mere, de sou lils, du fils de sa fille ', ainsi que du butin que 
nous a procure notre victoirc t'oudroyante. Certes, Allah doiinc la victoire ä 
celui qu'il favorise de son aide, car Allah est uue divinite puissante et 
genereusc )i. 

Le Sultan leva ensuite le camp, et s'en vint camper ä Khan-i Kai-Kobad'. 
(^)uand il y fut installe, il envoya un ofTicier ä l'emir Taibars al-Waziri, pour 
lui ordonner de marcher sur ar-Roummana % avec un corps d'armee. L'emir 
se mit en route; il alla incendier cette localite, oü il massacra les Armeniens 
qui y demeuraient, ou les fit prisonniers, parcc qu'ils avaient cache un deta- 
chement de Monopols. 

Puis le Sultan pressa sa raarche ä travers les montagnes et les vallees ; il 
traversa des fleuves, faisant toute diligence, afin de rentrer dans ses Etats, 
pour le liien de l'Islam, jusqu'au moment oü il vint camper, dans la nuit du 
samedi, vingt-sixieme jour du mois, pres de Rara Hisar, non loin d'un bazar'', 
c"cst-ä-dirc d'un marche, 011 les gens se reunissont, venant de toutes les 

1. Du Sultan saldjoukide. — 2. Au parvana et ä ses olUciers." Nowairi, ibid., dil : 
AM ^U-^ sjj ^ .i.. .^ M ^yU ^1 ^' ^)' .J Li, o--^'' ,> l™..U ,^ U.. - ;5. Du 
parvana Mo in ad-Din. — 4. Le caravanserail de K.ii'-Kobad; Kai-Kobad Tut le noin 
de plusieurs sultans saldjoukides. — 5. Cette localite est inconnue de Vakout. — 6. II 
y a quelque chose de passe dans le texte de Moufazzal, ou plutöt Moufazzal, ne pou- 
vant lire le nom de ce bazar dans le manuscrit de A'owairi qu'il avaitvsous les yeux, 
l'a saute, car Nowairi, fol. 92 v°, dit : Uli ,hlj ^' «^j^ü-'Ij W\' '^p^^ J-' J^i -^ 

^,^1 ,iki y j' ^.^ .v^^-'i ^i!r .-Im ^> ,',ur'j.j.. ' " ' 



* fol. 58 r 



432 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [268] 

iL UJi ®^jij JüLJI iAc ^jjUb \!Lx \-i-^Ul r-,^r^l5 /r"^J^'' iV ü-^ iV*^ U-jli- 

±ä)1 "''äLw ^ jlkXJI /.Islj JjJjiJl «Lä-s ^Ja-LJlj jjjkjjij jj'b^^ '^ "ALji Lisi 
^äU» UJ5 A.».^^c- «JLt* "C^ 1/^^ 0''-^='=* XjjX" i^li-Ji /»-Ji! /»_y_ (J^>-JJ -*^>-Vl /»_»J_ 

Jjjj Jo-j XT ®t,l-.^ iJLs ^ oIjj " 1^ viAS K,yL^^ i^-*J' L?JJ^' ^rr^' ^r** ^^ *^ 

1. Man. ty'-J' ;i*s-!. — 2. Man. U^l ; le .^ est recrit sur im grattage, et les points 
du .i. ont ete rayes. — 3. Lire üL.. — k. Man._j-to ^,iSS . 



contrees. 11 cn repartit le samcdi, et il traversa le champ de bataille sur 
lequel il avait regii l'assistance des anges divins. 

11 y vit les corps de ceux qui y avaient ete tues, et il s'enquit de eur uom- 
bre. On lui dit que les Mongols, ä ne compter qu'eiix, etaient lä six mille 
sept Cents hommes, qui gisaieut ä terre, dont la mort etait une legon pour 
les hommes qui reflechissent, qu'AUah avait precipite leurs ämes dans les 
flammes infernales, sans compter los cadavres des soldats saldjoukides et des 
Rurdjs' maudits, dont le nombre approchait celui des Mongols, et le depassait 
meme. 

Lorsque le sultan atteignit Aksha Darband ", il envoya le tresor, la 
tente imperiale et les etendards sous la garde du khazindar, et il resta en 
arriere, avec le gros de l'armee, le dimanche. II partit de cet endroit, le 
lundi, et il penetra dans le defile, dont la traversee causa aux troupcs des 
peines infinies; quand elles furent delivrees de ce mauvais pas \ elles traver- 
serent le Fleuve Bleu, que Ton nomme Gueuk-sou ' ; le sultan passa la nuit 
sur le sommet arrondi d'une montague^ 

Puis il leva son camp, et vint camper pres de Kinouk; il partit de cette 
ville, et marcha jusqu'au mardi, sixieme jour du mois de Zilliidjdja. au- 

1. Les Kurdjs sont les Georgiens, maudits comme les .\rmeniens, parce qu'ils 
etaient chreliens. — 2. Nowairi, fol. 93 r°, dit : Jläi"^' ^aj -'.^ ,.> U^i .,'-^^" ^. U^- 
— 3, Ces derniers mots sont une citalioii du Coran. — 4. Nowairi, ibid., dit : j^-j 
jj.:^t Hf^' 'j»^ ^ W^ ^J ^•^ -^ ^h^^i -U.),.'JI. — 5. Ou plutöt ä Koubbat 
(al-)djabal, koubba ne se rencontrant jamais pour designer une ciine arrondie coiumc 
les i)Mllons des Vosges. 



[209] HISTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /.3:i 

^U J ^>ij (^.;lji ^O ^-'jVl p^b j»^3 ^j^JI dil- J ^^j\i J\-Jl ^Az-1 

j»j^l£. «,y>cj ^^ Jl.U>- j»^jwj cJ^J^_ \.^wXJl jLo^l ^ itLks- d.'llA ilrlj ®<ÄS>J1 ^_$j 
i-L- /^ Cir*^*' '^.^ K^y ^►i^AJ ÜÜ^ u'^jj -^^ (_5--=* t_s^^ f^b (n::^' ö~^' 

1. Le manuscrit omet jj-». 



quel il viiit (Halilir son campement pres de Harim; il fit venir les troupes 
dans cette localite, et il les etablit dans ces plaiiies; il en divisa les terres 
entre elles, pour qu'elles puissent y faire paitre leurs animaux, cela, le 
septieme jour du mois de Zilludjdja. 

La, vinreut le trouver ptusieurs chefs turkomans', ([ui vivaient dans le 
pays de Roum, accompagnes d'un nombre coiisiderable de geiis; le sultaii 
leur remit des vetements d'honneur, et il leur temoigna toutes sortes d'ama- 
bilites; il demeura pres de Harim jusqu'apres la fete (des sacrifices), epoque 
a laquelle il decampa pour gagner Damas, oi'i il arriva, le septieme jour du 
mois de Moharram de l'annee 676. 

Quant ä ce qui advint ä Abaglia, et ;\ ce qu'on a ecrit ä son sujet, le par- 
vana, lorsqu'il eut contemplc la catastrophe qui venait de fondre sur les 
Mongols, ecrivit ä Abagha pour Ten avertir, en raeme temps qu'il implorait 
son aide, et qu'il Tincitait ä venir en tonte bäte dans le pays de Rouni". 
Puis, quand il eut mis ses tresors et sa famille^ en sürete ä Dokak, il apprit 
qu'Abagha etait en route pour se rendre dans l'empire saldjoukide. 

Le parvana partit alors (de Dokak), pour aller au-devant d'Abagha, qu'il 
rencontra dans son chemin; il s'en revint avec lui, s'acquittant aupres de sa *foi. nsv 
personne du service qu'il lui devait, et ils arriverent ainsi ä al-Bouloustain, lä 
oü s'etait livre le combat (entre les Egyptiens et les Mongols). Quand Abagba 
fut parvenu ä un point d'oü il doniinait le champ de bataille, lorsqu'il vit 

1. II s'agit de la venue des envoytis de Femir Sliams ad-Din Mohammad Beg ibn 
Karaman, qui offrirent au sultan les Services de leur maitre (Nowairi, ibid., foL 93 r°). 
Quand .Mohammad Beg avait appris la defaite des Mongols et l'entree de Baibars ä Cesa- 
ree, il s'etait revolte contre les Mongols, et etait parti faire le siege d'Aksera, d'ailleurs 
Sans succes, puis il s'etait empare de Kenia — 2. Avec l'armee mongole de Tlran, pour 
en chasserles Kgyptiens. 



434 MOUFAZZAL IBX ABIL-FAZAfl.. [270] 

fol.58v". ^^i Ul ^jLi l^ Ä5^^1 jL-C« _j.Aj ^.1_UI !1 J^J j\ ^\ «C^Ai- J ilcj 

Ij-wlüJ JLL.LJ1 ^j_u ^_^!1 jU xj tS'U^! j^ liL_. jD ^=- ' LC JiJl '^Ijl? ,^\jj 

J VI (^ ^^1 U ^.Tlj *ji« iJ^ xAit jj^. J *.;! ^.UiJ pA^l ^?^ "^^Jr", (^ ' "^j^ 

®ij^. y.^J i^zf^b t^' ^'-'b ^i^ ^^olj^'<Cl^J c-t«3 •^^■^"^^ (3 ^»-'^J ^*^' ^-V" 

1. Lire S.>. — 2. Lire Uaü, comme dans Npwairi (man. arabe 1578, foL 93 v°), qui 
a ^^^-01 LaxJ L^läs. — • 3. Lire i'^. — 4. Lire c-Ij. — 5. Lire s.L-'. 



les cadavres des Moiigols, il eclata en sanglots, qui Ic secouereat tellemeiit 
qu'il laillit tomber de chevaL 

II s'avanra jusqu'ä Tendroit oü s'etait teuu le sultan (al-Malik az-Zaliir), 
et il le mesura avec la haste de sa masse d'arnies; il connut ainsi relTectif 
de l'armee' qui etait sous le commandement de ce prince, quaud il etait 
venu prendre position en cette place ; il reprocha au parvana de ne pas lui avoir 
fait coiniaitre l'etat veritable des troupes (du sultan du Cairej"; le parvana 
jura qu'il n'avait aucune notion de la puissance de l'armee egyptienne, et 
qu'il n'avait ete exactement renseigne sur son compte que lorsqu'i'lle eüt 
penetre dans l'empire saldjoukide. 

Abagha n'agrea pas cette excuse, et il lui temoigna par l'alteration de 
ses traits la colere qui agitait son Arne : « II est dans le vrai, s'ecria-t-il, 
celui qui a dit que tu es notre ennemi, et que, dans le l'oiid de ton coeur, 
tu es le complice du sou verain de l'Egypte. — Qu'Allali sauvegarde le 
grand Khan\ repliqua le parvana! Si j'avais un pacte secret avec le sou- 
verain de l'Egypte, je n'aurais pas tire de son fourreau le glaive du combat; 
bien au contraire, j'ai fait tout ce que j'ai pu contre lui; je lui ai tuö ses 
emirs et les grands personnages de son royaumc, et nion fils, les femmes 
de ma famille, et le fils de ma fillc out ete l'aits prisonniers. » 



1. Abagha. avec sa masse d'armes, mesure les dimensions rectangulaires du centre 
egyptien, et en deduit par des formales connucs, la force des ailes, d'oü, le nombre des 
soldats de Baibars. — 2. j-Cj-M JU jJL ji^ J iijS' (Nowairi, man. 1578, fol. 03 v°). 
— 3. Khan est le titre porte par les souverains mongols; les princes de Perse portaient 
plus specialement le titro de llkhan « grand khan ». 



[2711 IIISIOIUK DRS SULTAXS MAMI.OUKS. 435 

Jlli A^ ^L.-3 jl^ -eis '^Ä-i.!l dLl Jl vl-äJI f vJ.JIaj3 ^I^<C. ^,< Ua J^ JUs 
•pj U -Vju ^^j Li-li Iä^j j^^ t_P ^ ^ iwisijlJ w^U!l j^-*3 \r — ■^'3 '*-^^»-<J^ [5>jl 

j\ s^L_£ ^1 A9 jl^j *t_5>" '■'ti-*-'^ v-i!^ ö::'"^' tn::^^. ^^"^ ^-^ *-* J^ ^^^' 

1. Man. ,^^. — 2. Lire ^j-O' ^)! ^^y^i ^XC^CJ! |1> U. — 3. iMan. ^X-^-^- 
— 'i. Man. .f<v-^', qui est j^'^., pour ^j-*^, pour f*~:v., avec la confusion plus que 
vulgaire ,^;;^ = ,^ =: , w. — 5. Man. s^li!. — 6. Mieu\ vaudrait lire ^jib'. — 7. Lire 



« Tout cela, dit Abaglia, est le resultat de tes intrigues et de ta 
duplicite. » II sc tourna vers (remir 'Izz ad-Din) Aibek asli-Sliaikhi, Cal- 
cet ollicier Tavait accompague, et il lui dit : « Moutre-moi ' I'aile droitc et 
Taile gauche, ainsi que I'endroit oü se trouvait le centre. » L'emir plauta, pour 
Uli (bieu iiKnitici- röteudue du iinnt egyptien), une biuce dans chacun de ces 
ciiih'oils'. Ouaud Abagha vit la distaHce qui separait les lances, il dit : 
« Cette ärmee-lä, ce ne sont pas les trente niillc homuies qui uiarcheut 
avec moi, qui eu viendront ä bout. » 

Abagha avait eujoiut ä ses troupes de se diriger vers la Svrie, mais il 
leur eiivoya Tordre de revenir de Kiuouk'' ('jusqu'ou elles s'etaient avancees). 
II apprit cnsuite que le sultau se trouvait campe ä Harim, que les troupes 
s'etaient conceutrees autour de lui, que sa cavalerie s'etait refaite durant ce 
laps de temps', qu'il etait tout pret ä aller le combattre, tandis que le plus 
graud nombre des chevaux de l'armee mongole etaient morts, tandis que ses 
soldats avaient fui, se dispersant dans toutes les directions. 11 considera 
en son esprit sa faiblesse et rimpuissance dans laquelle il se trouvait d'aller 
engagcr la bitte avec le sultan d'Egypte, et il rentra ä Cesaree. 



♦iViI. r.i) I 



1. ... Jl,i J JljÜ 'jbl I-'j..^ J, ,^r^! oXot j_^,0!^s^^.-'^l .,b^j (Nowairi, man. 
157S, l'oL 93 v"). <)n a vii uii peu plus Iiaut que cet emir, qui avait assiste ä la bataiile ' 
de Bouloustain. sous les ordres de Baibars, avait deserte quand ce pi'ince etait parti de 
Cesaree, et qu'il avait passe chcz les Mongols. C'est pour cette raison que le prince de 
Perse lui demandait des precisions sur la valeur numerique de l'armee egyptienne. — 
2. Evidemment dans I'endroit oü se tenait le commandement de chacune de ces trois 
l'ractions de l'armee de Baibars. — 3. ^ ^^^ X?* ^^-V. ^' ^"^=^ ^_5-^' ^fCoJI ijJ^ L» 
O.^'^ ,.1^ ,».iUU jUJ! U »Sf.^ J.s ,£, [sj\ ..Jbaj SySL^ ,f.' AX'J.^^ (Nowairi, man. 
J.",7S, fol. 93 v"j. — 4. Depuis la relraite de Cesaree. 



436 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABir.-FAZAH.. [272] 

VI "»^^ J^^C J IjJliJ JUj. ^^„a» ._x3-Ls n^ JD JlS, I^AaI JU l^l^3 Uij «SÖ'jl 9 

p j»jj JUs iiliJlj v_-JtiJl, t^^l V! V l_^lÄ9 '|_5-i j*.^ >_-.^ Jj» JlÜ9 Jlij JlJ- 

ots ^^ .j£. X," ® Jlirlj (»yitif- Alc jVi |V» Jlis U^ J^_j^^3 4 — »ii- lyiis ~ ^y__ J>-^^ 
'^ jji iJ-U <JJ.)A> (jaZio V '.ill« J^ A**C- jL<^'i üxh> «Aj ^ J^ lil S-~S- äSJj 

ijjL-^ (^iJl SL^l i<^^ <y^5 -*^^ J^ (j-* ^L»^ Jüs; ^Ij ->^ ,„Li Ja ®diU 

1. Lire ^~■. — 2. Man. pj jr;^ wJ S ^i. — 3. Lire UU. — 4. Lire L>1=.. — 
5. Man. .^:>. 



Quand Abagha fut rentre dans cette vlllo, il demanda aux habitants : 
« Le maitre ' de l'Egvpte avait-il des chameaux avec lui? » Ils lui repondi- 
rent que noii, qu'il u'avait que des chevaux et des niiilets. « Le maitre 
de TEgypte voiis a-t-il vole ([uelque chose? » leur demanda Abaglia. Ils lui 
repliquerent que non, mais qu'au contraire, il leur avait achete des objets 
contre de la monnaie d'or et d'argeut. « Gombieu les Egyptieiis ont-ils passe 
de jours chez vous », continua Abagha. Ils lui repondireat qu'ils etaient 
demeures vingt-cinq jours. « Maiutenant, dit Abaglia, ils sont avec leurs 
chameaux et leurs bagages". » 

Ehsuite, il decida de massacrer les Musulmaus qui habitaieul dans Cesa- 
ree^; les kadis et les juristes allerent le trouver eu corps, et ils lui dirent : 
« Ce sont de pauvres gens sans defense; il leur est materiellenicnt impos- 
sible de repousser uue armee quand eile est venue occuper leur pays, üepuis 
un temps immemorial, ils sont les esclaves du prince qui regne sur eux; 
et ce n'est pas lä une Situation qui soit particuliere a un souverain plutöt 
qu'ä un autre*. » 

Abagha ne voulut pas les entendre, et il ordonna de mettre ä mort 
un certain nombre des personnages notables du pays; c'est ainsi que Tut tue 

1. Abaglia, conformenient ä riiabitude des souverains niongois, ne donne pas ä 
Bai'bars le tilre de sidtan, ou de roi, mais seulement cehü de maitre, de possesseur. — 
2. Ce qui veut dire que Baibars, n'ayant avec lui que des cbevaux et des iimlels, elait 
venu uniquement avec des combattanls, sans ses bagages, qui etaient sur des cha- 
meaux et sur des miilets, pour un raid sans lendemain, c'est-ä-dire qu'il n'avail point 
eu l'intention d'occuper Cesaree d'une fagon definitive, mais qu'il ne serait pas facile 
de venir ä bout de lui, depuis qu'il avait retrouve tous ses moyens. — 3. Nowairi (man. 
1578, fol. 94 r") : ^^-J— Ji ^ hj-^. (j^ J^ ij= (j^ ,*^'- — ''• C'est-ä-dire « qu'ils 
n'appartiennent pas plus specialement ä un roi qu'ä un autre >>. 



[273] mSTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 437 

j:;L. ^ ,_J^ U <-i-J^ j^ L-lii- Ult \jk^ Jcij j^Ul J Ja :; jl ^LJl _^lj 

i^l ,_JÜi 'l Vj-- 1 ^L-xj ^i jji '*jli>-ls ^».LäJl (,-i_J' bL'lj^i "^ Liii ...JJai Cj^ 

ililj^' Jl — J ^l ^1 bUj^r-^ J'^J ^-»-^' |V 1*-^^ ®lil ^jly Jl «JllÄll (»J— Ij * ful. .-,1) V". 

■'a;^jj>i.J J-iuJI "^ icL«^ <; o'^jj ctUi ^ "0 jjU c l^^J-j;. Ja- jj«UJ ^^y* j^ ^^ 
lÄjJ "ü Jlij ÜsjI »:i«1 ^'Ul ^ Ij-Qsj IjLiJj Uij ®Ljj ^LÄitVlj i^UJl Jl Jj^_^l j^ 

1. .Man. Lo^X — 2. Lire '--=U^. — 3. Lire jL — 4. f-ire iU. — 5. Man. ijyu^. 



»^ 



le kadi des kadis, ä Cesaree. II enjoiguit ä ses troupes de se deployer dans 
rcmpirc saldjoukide, et d'y massacrer (les Musulmans; elles executerent cet 
ordre), et elles tuereut un nombre immense de geus, lequel depasse deux 
eeiit mille personnes. On a meme parle de cinq cent mille', tant paysans, 
ipie gens du peuple et soldats, dans toute l'etendue du pays de Roum. 

Abagha partit ensuite pour l'ordou, ä Tavriz, emmenant avec lui le parvana, 
apres avoir reparti ses soldats dans le pays de Roum, pour le saccager et le 
piller. 11 se trouva, sur le chemin que suivait Abagha, une forteresse, nommee 
Koglionia-, qui etait une propriete personnelle au parvana, et dans laquelle 
se trouvait la plus grande partie de ses tresors; eile etait commandee par 
un gouverneur, qui y exergait l'autorite en son noni. Abagha demanda au 
parvana de lui livrer la forteresse, et le parvana acceda ä ce desir; il envoya 
quelqu'un de ses gens ordonner au gouverneur de la remettre aux officiers 
d'Abagha. , 

Le gouverneur refusa de livrer la forteresse, et il fit dire au parvana : *|ü1. i'.iv 
ft Tu me demandes-lä une chose ä laquelle tu n'as aucun droit. » Le par- 
vana pria Abagha de l'envoyer parier ä la garnison de la forteresse, pour 
qu'il la reprit des mains du gouverneur. Abagha y consentit, mais il le 
fit etroitement surveiller par un detaehemenl de Mongols, pour Tempecher 
d'aller seul dans la forteresse, et de s'y mettre en defense. 

Quand le parvana y fut arrive, et qu'il eüt demande ä l'olficier qui y 

1. Xowairi (man. 1578, loL 94 r") : ^j^^ ^^^)hi\. L>Upi ^ Jss ^ üjo vju*L J^^ 

>iy (jjj' J5I '^J^^ ^r' ^^' ^\-' \j^^ « On a dit que le nombre de ceux qui furent 
tues, gens du peuple, paysans et autres, fut cinq cent mille, de Cesaree ä Arzau ar-Roum ». 
— 2. Elle n'est pas mentionnee dans Yakout, et NowaTri ne parle pas de cet incident. 

PATR. OR. — T. XIV. — F. 3. 29 



438 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [274J 

^V-Ol /^*«^ Iji aJ JUs xlij^l /^-O'i /vJ" IaIJ'I i_s*^^ tV"^ lj^U-1 L».'l JUs L«J_;' 

"bLafr ^l liAs j^^VI ^J\ Ju^j jl ^)1 Uli jL ji;^' J_^ -cl ^yb>o" dUj ijlj LwU <) 

IjJüj bUj^l ^1 SJ^ f «^«9^1 lj.lS ^j.Jül "'(»fJlj-J (^ ^»-^ ^j-; ■^y>^\ Ij14j 



1. Lire ..^Liw. — 2. Lire i-r:?-'-" ; man. ^-01. — 3. Lire Lai. — 4. II est inutile 
de corriger en ^^^1^. et de changer les formes du verbe; ces fautes contre l'accord 
sont frequentes dans les manuscrits egyptiens de cette epoque. 



commandait de la lui remettre, il Ic lui refusa egalement. Le parvana lui 
dit : « Je t'ai cache ici pour une occasion semblable, pour pouvoir nie 
sauver au prix de ce qui se trouve dans cette forteresse ; sinon, si tu ne la 
livres point (ä Abagha), je suis uii homme tue, indubitablement. — Je 
ne remettrai cette forteresse qu'ä eelui qui ni'en a confie la garde, repondit 
le gouverneur, au parvana Mo in ad-Din — Mais c'est nioi qui suis le 
parvana Mo "in ad-Din, dit (Mo 'in ad-Din). — Tu es un prisonnier aux 
mains de ces gens-lä, repliqua le gouverneur, et tu n'as plus ton libre arbitre. 
Je ne remettrai la forteresse qua mes 111s, qui ont ete emmenes comnie pri- 
sonniers'. C'est toi qui es la cause qu'ils ont ete reduits en captivite, 
comme tant d'autres. » 

Le parvana s'en retourna, et il rendit compte ä Abagha de ce qui s'etait 
passe; Abagha fit augmenter le nombre des soldats qui surveillaient ses 
mouvements; quand il vit cela, le parvana comprit d'une fa^on ccrtaiiie qu'il 
etait perdu. Abagha continua sa route, et arriva ä l'ordou; quand il eut 
rejete le bAlon de la marche ä outrance de Tepaule de la peine supportee 
Sans trcve, le soir et le matiu", les dames mongoles'' allörcnt ä son audience, 
elles se mirent ä pleurer, a lui crier au visage, et elles lacererent leurs robes 
dovant Uii, k cause de leurs maris qui avaient ete tues dans la bataille. 

I^llles tourm"'rent ensuite leurs regards vcrs le parvana, et s'ecrierent : 

I. l'ar les Egyptiens. — 2. Cest-ä-dirc, lout simplcmeiit, (]uaiid il ful renlie dans sa 
capitalc, pours'y reposer. — 3. Klialotin, primitivement, signitie « la femme du khan «. 
d'iii'i « pi'incesse «; mais ici, ce mot veut simplrnicnl dire une grande dame. 



[275] IIISTOIRE DKS SULTANS MAMF.üUKS. /.39 

«v, 4.l:ilj \Jo^ l-o jl^ ^1 sÄi- JI93 A-l::^ ol^ j_ji» ^1 ^'j iLtl li-lj •«.Ls b 

•^ <tLj- 3 ''^ '^'y («-^ '-1?^'^ iJ ""^-i^ '^''i«-^' "^. ''— ^b ij-'^ C^ i^^ '^. 

viiUl j.li!lj ^,-2.« jlial-j ^'Iä; j^UiÜ ii~liJl3 iJLi;--3 ö»::*--'3 ^^^-^ ^ c^i-jj 
\,jjl j_^ jy^3LJ\ >^U1 j^^ ,^_lw_y (V-*^^' i_r-^ ^i^Jl dLUI v»JI ,_^Ls3 ^IkJl 

\)jjuj r*^ iV (S'^" ^jA-lsjj] jy J^XsK^ iV"^' .^r^" ^ «■T.'.tJi viLLJl sU.s»j '»^>t-i 



1. I.iro ,_:,0.jtJ : --jo, pour --jo, est une faute de sabir. avec la coiil'usion du - et du 
3. — 2. Lire '^-^ — 3. Lire K~' .i-'^' .^«. — 'i. Man. j-^^ ,.,j ,Uä. 



« Voilä celui qui est la cause quo nos niaris 011t ete tues; il faut ä toutes 
forces le tiier aiissi. » Abagha refusa duiant plusieurs jours d'obeir ä leurs 
injonctions, mais elles Texciterent pendant tout ce temps ä faire assassiner 
le parvaiia. (^)iiaiid Abagha fut excede de ces plaiiites, il ordomia ä run 
dos oüiciers de sa maisoii de le tuer, et liii dit : « Prends-le, conduis-le 
daiis tcl et t<'l endroit, et tue-le ». L'oflicier se rendit chez le parvana, auquel 
il dit : « Abagha veut avoir une entrevue avec toi pour te reintegrer dans 
la dignite. » Le parvana lui repondit : « Si Abagha me voulait du bien, il 
m'aurait envoye quelqu'un de mes connaissances, tandis qu'il veut me faire 
assassiner ». 

L'ofTicier cherclia par ses discours ä tromper le parvana (sur les inten- 
tions d'Abagha), jusqu'au moment oü il toniba avec lui sur une troupe de 
soldats qui avaient ete commandes pour l'executer; ils etaient trente indi- 
vidus qui le tuerenl. 

Annee 67(i. Le klialife, cette annee, fut al-Hakini, comme ä Tordinaire; 
le Sultan d'Egypte et de Syrie, al-Malik az-Zahir; le prince du Yemen, 
al-AIalik al-Mouzaffar Shams ad-Din Yousouf ihn al-Malik al-iMansour Xour 
ad-Din Omar ibn 'Ali ihn Rasoul. A la Mecque, regnait Nadjm ad-Din Abou 
Nama; k Medine, 'Izz ad-Din Djanimaz ibn Shiha; ä Hamah, al-AIalik 
al-Mansour Nasir ad-Din Mohammad ibn al-Malik al-MouzafTar Taki ad-Din 
'Omar; ä* Mardin, al-Malik al-Müuzafl'ar Kara Arslan ibn al-Malik as-Sa'id, 
rOrtokide; le souverain du pays de Roum etait Ghiyas ad-Din KaT-Khosrau, 



fül. 601' 



' fiil. (HIV- 



440 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [276] 

Mj^,-i^ ^_J^\ ÖU ^jj\ ._^U3 ^jVI AocJI dlUl J^l j^t-jLr* _A=^' ^^^1 

^.^1 ^y_ j\i uj dUij j\^- <.üi <u^j ^lüji diui jikui Süj o;i^ cJi 

•öUJI i-lft ^If. CjIjj j-»ü1 ^^a) ^Vl ^,^1 jÜaJL.)! -J=- cJ^>t*il ^;-ij^ «jb 
,3 j_^ •UJJI viUü" j::^^ «"Csli- j^ ^1 wi^^ jl jj^r-^'3 r^^ ^'"^ ^^U^j 

1. Lire « v»«^::^ . — 2. Lire LCii. — 3. Le inan. oniet. J. 



fils du sultan Rokii ad-Üiii; les contrees de l'IraU juscju'au Kliorasan etaieut 
au pouvoir d'Abagha, fils d'Houlaoun. 

Cette annee, mourut le sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, qu'Allah lui fasse 
luisericorde ; voici comment se produisit cet evenenient. Quand fut arrive 
h' jeudi, qualorzienif jour du mois de Molmrram, le sultan alla teuir une 
soiree daus le al-Kasr al-ablak', pour y boire le koumiz ", et il passa la 
nuit dans ce divertisseinent. L'exces de la gaiete et rexuberance qui se 
manifesterent au cours de cette süiree iuciterent le sultan ä boire plus qu'il 
n'eu pouvait supporter. 

Cette nieme nuit, le sultan se sentit une lansjueur afenerale dans tout 
le Corps. Quand parut Taube du vendredi, il se plaignit de son etat ä 
l'emir Slianis ad-Din Sonkor al-Alfi, le silahdar; Icmir conseilla au sultan 
de se faire vomir. Quand la priere du vendredi fut terminee, le sultan se 
rendit ä cbeval du palais '' ä l'hippodrome % suivant son habitudc, pour 
chasser loiu de lui les pensees sombres qui l'assiegeaient, ainsi (jue l'ac- 
cablement et Tangoisse qui l'etreignaient; mais cet exercice ne lui rendit 
pas ses forces. 

II s'en retourna ensuite au al-Kasr al-Ablak, et, dans la matiuee, 

1. I^e palais moitio noir, moitie blanc, bäti, lomme Santa Maria del Flore, a Flo- 
rcnct", d'assises de j)ieri'(;s, altornalivemcnt blanclies et noires, etait, ä celle epoque, un 
monuinonl celebre de Damas. — 2. Voir tome XII, paf5;e 458, note. — .'?. Djatislik est 
Farabisation du persan oX;^ koushk « palais, pavillon », dont nous avons l'ait « kiüs- 
que », par rinlormöJiairc de la prononciation turque Idoshk. — 4. Comme loules les 
fois qu'il est parle dans l'liistoire de Damas, ä Celle epoque, du Maidan, sans epithele, 
il s'agil ici, ainsi qu'on le voit par Nowairi (man. 1578, fol. 94 v°), du ^i.^! ,L\^I, 
r« liippoJrome verl », qui est celebre dans les fasles de la capilale syrienne. 



^277] MISTOIUI'; DI-.S SL LTAXS MAMl.Ol'KS. 'ill 

J,j!i\._ 'j^ji KL,\y:^ J^, ^ "^^ <^\ j O!./»^ J<^ Cr^^ ^^ ^^^ J^ 

\ij^\ 4j ^ '^^"^^ ^^'-^ ^^*-^^ cr"'-^ t!^- r^ '^ ^'^ ^ ^^- r* 
je^j ^ir ^.-r»^' r^. -'^ ^^ "^^^'^ ^ '' ^y^^- e-'^^ ''i^ v-- ö^ '^'^ 

^^ /^a)I ja,3 >iVl >:^ J.-Ü1 ^^ ^Vl 'T^Vl ^ <^ JJi\ >T jl^ 

1. Lire Jj-\ — 2. Lire .KjJI. — 3. On attendrait plutöt ♦»j'j'- — '»• Lire Jj^. — 
5. Lire -i jj e=r'. Ji. — 6. Ou Uliu. li- ^, avec ^X- dans le sens de boire, on 
UJi_ i.s£w ^. — 7. Lire ►sus-U. 



il se plaignit d'etre interieurement tout devore de fievre. Un de ses familiers 
lui prepara alors une drogue ä la turque, et cela sans prendre l'avis d'uu 
medecin. Cela u'apporta aucun soulagement ä son etat; il finit par se sentir 
tres mal en point, et en proie ä une vive agitation. II manda les medecins 
aupres de lui, et, quand ils le virent, ils blämerent la personne qui avait 
confectionne la drogue qu'il avait absorbee. 

Ils s'accorderent sur ce point qu'il fallait donner au sultan une purga- 
tion pour expulser les matieres qu'il avait dans le corps; ils.la lui firent 
boire, mais eile ne produisit aucun effet; ils le traiterent alors par une- 
medication purgative plus forte que la premiere, laquelle provoqua une 
diarrhee excessive, et une evacuatioij de sang arteriel. La fievre redoubla, 
et ses forces s'epuiserent; les personnes de son entourage intime se figure- 
rent que son Ibie s'etait rompu en raorceaux par suite d'une boisson 
empoisonnee qu'on lui avait fait prendre'. On le traita par le moyen des 
pierres precieuses ■, mais cela ne servit ä rien. 

Le ieudi, vingt-huitieme jour du mois de Moharram, le sultan enlra 
dans la misericorde d'AUah, le tres-haut; les emirs caclierent cet evenement, 
et ils empecherent qu'on enträt dans son appartement, ou qu'on en sortit. 
A la fin de la nuit, ses generaux, l'emir Shams ad-Din Sonkor al-Ashkar, 
Badr ad-Din Baisari, son Excellence Saifienne' Kalaoun al-Alfi, Badr ad-Üin, 

1. Avec la leQon ^^J-~. I-iw ^. — 2. Lesquelles, dans Tesprit des liommes du 
moyen äge, jouissaienl de proprieles curatives merveilleuses. — 3. Saif ad-Din. 



Fol. 61 r" 



442 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [278] 

j>.^\ Jfr ^\i ^J)!\ ^>aJ1 Jtj jUjiJi j._aJI jJoj ^Vl jjjMs j^i~Jl >-!b 

C-lÄji jtlj^l 'Cjiivoj i^^^-waTj ALäJÄTj ""-l — £ iJyJ ^3~°"'". 'l/^^ ^Lo ^^^lUi' ^-'^J 
J byicj ::,^l" J Jsj..lj^ X»' «C^Vl J^_-»J1 Jcj j_5=?=^-^^ ^„-*J^ J^^ -V^lj ^;^ ^;_jJI 

j-v. ^^Vl A. ^ x^t-.j dJ-l -JlL A^l dLUl üjJj J\ '^l::^ jU_^l| ^^yJl ja. 

^U 'T^Vi l^j (._j;. ^;L" jl^ U..U •=:*|»)L ^ y^i <:j^\ jl-Oi Jl jlkUl ^«; 
-\J:-1 jljJjiJl j>a!1 jx ^^"Vi (jl ^.i'' jj»<J^ (>« ''^^ ^3jr^.. (»b 1-^^ J^-: (V-^ 

1. Lire bUT. — 2. Man. ^^^^- — 3. Man. j^-v^JjI. — 4. Lire U^. 



le khazindar, 'Izz ad-Din al-Afram, l'emir 'Izz ad-Din Aitemour az-Zahiri, 
prince des emirs ä Damas, procederent k la levee du corps du sultan. 
L'intendant Shodja' ad-Din 'Anbar, le juriste Kamal ad-Din al-Manbidji, 
et 'Izz ad-Din al-Afram, prirent soin de faire les ablutions funebres, de 
l'cmbaumer, et de l'envelopper dans le liuceul. 

Ensuite, ils le mirent ea biere, et ils la depos^rent sur unc cstrade, 
dans Tun des edifices qui se trouvaient dans la forteresse de Damas, pour 
attendre le moment oü l'on se serait mis d'accord sur le Heu de la sepulture. 
i'oi. üi r. Quand tout cela fut termine, Temir Hadr ad-Din, le khazindar, ecrivit une 
lettre au fds du sultan, al-Malik as-Sa'id, pour lui apprendre ce qui venait de 
se passer, et il la lui fit porter par l'emir Badr ad-Din Bektout al-Djou- 
kandar al-Hamawi et par l'emir Ala ad-Din Aidog'hmish al-llakimi. (hiatid 
ces deux generaux furent regus par al-Malik as-Sa'id, ce prince leur remit 
' des vetements d'iionneur, et il leur donna ä chacun cinq mille dirliams, 
pour faire croire qu'ils etaient venus lui apporter riieureuse nouvelle du 
retour du sultan an Egypte, et lui faire savoir qu'il etait en bonue et par- 
faite sante. 

Le lendemain, les emirs, suivant leur coutume, montercnt ä chcval, et 
allerent ä la parade au Marclie aux cli(>vaux', saus laisser ])araitre la 
moindrc trislesse. Ensuite, l'emir Badr ad-Din» le khazindar, pril le eom- 
mandement des Iroupes cgyptiennes, et il parlit avec dies, se dirigcant vers 
l'Egypte, le premicr jour du mois de Safar, (agissant) comme il «'tail d usagc 

1. Lc Souk al-kliail, sur lc<iiicl on trouvera unc nole plus liaul. 



[279] IIISTOIRF. HKS SULTANS MAMLOl'KS. 443 

^^IkH jlkL_y '^üi-u .^ ; 2-v>^ A;ou_i| dLUl .^^3 -^ «UiJl Jl 1_^Up) J^l:-'i 

^^ :i\s e5>V( «UJl Jl ^>-'^LJi <i3 i:-UL<!l i-.jJu-Ü ^^JJI a>^_J1 Ij-^y J^-^ 

j »Ä 'V "CI3 iJLi!i \. jV-jJ' J^ ^l-"^äH ^'^ ijy^ i-^ ob ^Äj -UjiJI dLUI •• r,,i, iji yo. 

1. Lire .,j^.^. — 2. Lire ^-^.ß. — 3. Lire ^-^^ et meme jlkLJ! ^^-^ •--:^-r^. 
^IJi.l|. _ /,. ijre c:.rl_i,. _ 5. Lire .\j^\j,. — 6. Man. (Jr^i*"; lire wu;:»M ^IjJI. — 
7. l^ire ^-xJ'. 



quand le sultan etait avec l'arraee, et (disant) que le souverain etait au 
milieu de ses troupes, mais qu'il se faisait transporter malade dans iinc 
litiere. 

On lui apportait des boissons et des poulets, et les medecins escortaient 
la litiere ; reimuque du sultan leur decrivait la marche de la maladie, et 
ils redigeaient des ordonnances suivaut ce qui leur semblait opportun. Un 
mamlouk etait dans la litiere, et mangeait les aliments qu'on y introduisait. 
Ce manege dura jusqu'ä ce que Tarmee arrivät dans la ville du Caire, la bien 
gardee. L'emir Badr ad-Din, le khazindar, fit son entree sous les etendards 
imperiaux, et les troupes monterent ä la Forteresse (de la Montagne). 

Ensuite, al-Malik as-Sa'id envoya un courrier qui s'occupät de trouver 
un endroit oü Ton püt deposer le corps du sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, ä 
Damas; on trouva (comme repondant ä cette destination) la mosquee qui 
depend du College al-Ramiliyya, dans laquelle etait une fenetro grillee, don- 
nant dans la mosquee des Omayyades. Le grand kadi (de Damas) rendit une 
decision juridique declarant que ce projet etait contraire ä la loi religieuse' ; 
il conseilla d'acheter la Dar al-'atik^, et d'y bätir un College. 

On ecrivit dans ce sens au sultan al-Malik as-Sa'id, cn lui faisant savoir 
que tel etait le conseil du grand kadi "Izz ad-Din ibn as-Saigh, parce 
qu'il n'etait point legal que l'on employät la mosquee (du coUege al-Kami- »fol.r.i v» 
liyva comme sepulture du sultan); cela fut la cause de sa destitution. 

1. Les g'cns de Damas detestaient Baibars, et ne voulaienl pas que son corps reposäl 
dans un des edidces anciens de la cite. — 2. Dar al-'atihi. dit XowaVri. man. 1578, 
foL 05 r"; al-akik de MoufazzaL avec k = t, est du sabir. 



444 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [280] 

^j^ dUJb «JlLs «^i-Vl iS^^^-^^ ^!)^ j ^'' *^l/ 0'^3 ^i"^' l5-^^ (T-''^ j 

Vi.— " ^■-- 

iU iß: \lM Ji^^ ^1 -^Ij-Uy |_$-V,V1 JjAJI ^_^ ^IjJJlj ,^r^^ y\ J>j^\ Js. kIc 
i-A^JIj KsJ^ ]\ "iyiy^i '\A^\ "jA ^liäJI ^IJI jlk-LJl lj,L=- .— f-J ^r~»^ WsJI 

•oJiJlj jLKfr |Vä>-3 jI^VI (V^^i ^C^'i lj"'^3 "OUallj v_i.ä.M)lj Ijljj <i^j AiLoj 

1. ^'oir la note 5 de la page 443. — 2. Voir la note 6 de la page 443. — 3. On atten- 
drait ^^. — 4. Man. iJ^^o. 



Al-Malik as-Sa'id publia un rescrit par lequel il ordonnait d'acheter la 
Dar al-"atik au prix de soixante mille dirhams ; ßadr ad-Diii al-Ataheki 
habitait dans cet edifice, et on l'en fit demenager; cet emir possedait en toute 
propriete une partie de cet hötel', que Ton lui racheta. Puis, on entreprit 
la construction du tombeau, le cinquieme jour du mois de Djoumada prä- 
mier; la coupole fut terminee dans les derniers jours du second mois de 
Djoumada". 

'Alam ad-Din Abou Rhirs et le toashi Safi ad-Din al-Amidi porterent ces 
faits ä la connaissance du sultan, et vinrent ä sa cour pour les lui cxposcr; 
puis, ils s'en retournerent ä Damas (pour proceder aux ceremonies des fune- 
railles d'az-Zahir). Durant la nuit du vendredi, cinquieme jour de Radjab, 
ils lirent la levee du corps du sultan al-Malik az-Zahir dans la forteressc, ils 
le transporterent au licu de sa sepulture, et l'inhumerent dans son tomljeaii. 
Ce fut le kadi 'Izz ad-Din qui presida la ceremonie du deuil. Ces oiriciers 
placerent ensuite autour du tombeau des lecteurs du Coran, puis ils s'ocou- 
perent activement de pousser la construction du College, jusqu'a tc qn"!! fut 
termine. 

Mention des conqueles du sultan al-Malik az-Zaliir. L'liislorieu a dil ([ue 
le sultan al-Malik az-Zaliir, qu'Allali, le trcs-iiaut, le couvre de sa miseri- 
corde, conquit Kaisariyya, Arsouf, Sal'ad, Tabari^-ya', Jaffa, Shakif, An- 
tioche, Baghras, al-Kosair, la Forteresse des Kurdes. la forteresse d'Akkar, 

1. Ou peut-etrc « il possedail une hypolheque sur cet hötel ». — 2. Gelte extreme 
rapidite, moins de deux mois moiitre la legerete avec la(|iK'lIe ('taient conslruits ces 
dömes de briques. — 3. L.i l'ormc i) ,--• est insolile; ce num est ecrit ^j^ par les 
historiens qui savent l'arabe. . 



[281] HISTülKK DKS SULTANS MA.MLOUKS. 445 

^y^J^\^ '^LLj ,_^__^M 75->_^l c'vLo Vj **--; OLi<<»l-^'3 LU-j <liy>^ lÜLsj 

^5Ä)lj ® jLj^lj ■' jLüjj ^ oi:.^J^i "^ ^j~^b J'yj^i dLoji ^_^_--- ._^L. ^ jLi-^j 

^.i».»J C~^-^'j -^j--»5j I^^^^S.'^ ^y\s>zi-J CX-VjuJ |i.i^J iV-*"' *^' '~^)v*^ "j^ Kj\ jt»^ 

^ÄJIj ^_i^l ^-*^'j cij^Hj d^Xllj '-'«jL-Ä^j 'ij>\^J\^' ''-'^lyjlj iiuÜlj "^iLJIj * lol. fi-jr«. 

iy)l j>l j^j -»^^llj -'Jr'J ^'-»-^'' v"^ -i^^. Jl»-^^ ^>(o ^j^ jliJl ^y- •ül o^^^ 

I. Man. \.Ok-. — 2. Man. „.LL. — 3. Man. , fi^-Jj. — V Man. ^J-^iS'. — 5. Man. 

.,U,. — 6. Man. '-ojJj. — 7. Man. ^^-..'j Jo. — 8. Man. ^jy^tg^. — 9. Man. ,_^^. 

— 10. Man *.->.jiy; V.l^' dans Nowai'ri (man. arabe 1578, fol. 61 r"). — 11. Man. 

jJLvJ' : Ai~J' dans Nowairi, ibid., fol. 6.3 v"; üa^J' ibid., fol. 64 r°. — 12. Man. ^'j^" ; 

jLir! dans Nowairi, fol. 64 r". — 13. Man. >wjL~=^. 



al-Ivourain, Salitlui, .Marakiyya, llalba. Les villcs qui etaient divisees par 
inoitie entre lui et le.s rois des Francs etaient al-Markab, Banias et Antarsous. 
U recupera sur li' priiice de Sis, üarbsak, Darkoush', Tall-Maiinas -, Kafar- 
(louhbin ', Ha l)an* et al-Marzaban. 

Les pays musulmans qui furcnt en sa possession etaient Damas, Ba'lbek, 
'Adjloun, Bosra, Sarkhad, as-Salt, Homs, Tadmor, Rahba, Zalmounita (.')'% 
Tall Bashir, Sihyaoun, Balatonos, Barzouyya", la citadelle d'al-Kalif, 
Radmous, al-Mai'naka', al-'Oullaika, al-Kh\vahi, ar-Rousafa, Masyab% al- 
Karak, ash-Shaubak, Jerusalem, la sainte. La contree qui entra en sa pos- 
session, apres avoir appartenu aux Tatars, dans le nord, fut la partie septeu- 
trioiiale de la proviuce d'Alep, Shaizar etal-Bira. 

En Nubie, il possedait File de Bilak", et les villes de cette contree, Lalia- • rui.r,2 1° 

1. Forteresse voisine d'Antioche, qui faisait partie du territoire appele 'Awasim 
par les Musulmans (Yakout, W, 569]. — 2. Forteresse proche de Ma'arrat al-No'man 
(Yakout, II, 871). — 3. Forteresse dans les environs d'Antioche (Yakout, IV, 288). 

— 4. Ville sur les frontieres de l'Islam, entre Alep et Soumaisat (Yakout, II, 791). 

— 5. Le nom de cette localite est douteux. — 6. Forteresse dans le voisinage des 
rives de la Mediterranee, sur le sommet d'une montagne, que Nowairi (man. arabe l.j78, 
loliü 61 r") nomme Bourzaya. — 7. Al-Mainaka dans Nowairi [ibid., lolio 63 v°); al- 
Manaika, ou plutöt al-Mounaika, au l'ölio 64 recto; on serait assez lente de lire iiwJ' al- 
Mounifa « le pic le plus eleve d'une chaine de montagnes ». — 8. Forteresse ismailiennc 
(Yakout, IV, 556); Masyab, ou Masyaf, 'Oullaika, Rousafa, que Nowairi nomme Kasafa, 
al-Kahf. al-Mounaika, ou al-Mainaka, Kadmous, Khwabi, etaient les forteresses ismai- 
liennes (Nowairi, man. arabe 1578, folio 62 v"). — 9. Bilak est citee par Yakout (I, 710) 
et par la continualion de V Histoire des Patriarchen d'Ale.randrie man. arabe 307, 
fol. 104 V). 



446 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [282] 

\y>j:>j IjAJbj c-^:t) (3^'i ^^ u^J^i <S^X^i "■*— ^5 ^"^^ Cx" ^ ^^ *^-^ i'4>?" 

jjjlj 4l,il 1,^3 ^^jJjJl i>(= i>lJl ÜÄAJ '^^il^jj ^J^ *_Jl. »_5_^3 »-^-^^ (vis^J \/i}^J 

iii^UI *£ 1^1 ^U L^^ j^l l^j LÜj jaJI i^U- ^»>^_>=- ^^j _^^ ftr^b '^03 
^jjjl Jli ®^ ^ä:f-'^3 ^^ r^^3 -»"^ f^' ö^ ^-^ 'J^-J '*^-^' ^^ J^ 

1. Man. ^jf'ii. — 2. Man. i^U. — 3. Man. ^r->,->- — 4. -wX^'- —5. Man. ^^^. 
— 6. Man. ,^yl. — 7. Man. illo. — 8. Lire (j^j'j O— .. — 9. Lire iy^ f^-^. 



sia', Diyoudi, le district d'al-Ma, al-Finak, Damhit, Hindou, Darbin, al- 
Haria, le district d'al-Barik, qui est connu sous le nom des sept villages, 
et Yahadi; ces contrees forment le pays d'al-'Ali; il s'y trouve les villes 
d'Adama,ad-Dou, Ibrim-, Dandal, Boukharas, Sama, et l'ile de Mikaiil; on 
y trouve, au nomhre des pays (qui forment la Nubie), les Cataractes, Ankar, 
le district de Bakr, Dongola, le district d'Ashou, qui est compose d'iles 
dans lesquelles fleurissent des cites. 

Quand le sultan eut conquis ce pays, il gratifia le fils de Foncle (de David) 
de ce qu'il lui avait pris, apres Tavoir partage par inoitie avec lui, comme 
cela a ete raconte plus baut. Par la conquete de tous ces pays, il depassc 
de beaucoup tous les rois qui regnerent avaut lui; il possedail, taut en 
Egypte qu'cn Syrie, quarante-six places fortes. 

L'historicn a dit : La duree de sa souverainete l'ut de dix-sept anuees et 
quatre-vingt-douze jours, car il s'assit sur le tröne, le dix-septieme jour du 
mois de Zilka'da de l'annee 658, et sa mort survint le vingt-huitiöme jour du 
mois de Moharram de l'annee 676. C'etait uu princc vaillant, d'une bravoure 
ü toute epreuvc, qui se portait toujours au premier rang, uu veritable beros; 
mais il fut uu tyran, qui ne laissait aucuu rcpit ä ses sujcts, qui oppriuiait les 
peuples; il avait une passion inassouvissablc pour Targenl, et il commil 

1. Yakout ne cite pas cette localite; la plupart de ces noms sonl douteux, et il 
est impossible de les lire d"une fagon cerlainc, par suite de l'absence de points diacri- 
liques. — 2. >j>} dans le man. arnbe ."lO?, fol. 06 r". 



[283J IIISTOIHK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 447 

^ Jlj^>U LIä, \JCs>- V_^^ l»^v-s- L.Uj. UIaI. ^IL \i.\^ jl^3 iJLl-j 

^iIaT •^Ül K-^j \> ^ij IjJ ^y ' jl ^\ ^jUJI «ciLj 'l^^j L*j:ii. ^^ ^j^ * lui. o:; ■ 

<[......:.<1 üt^s *ji ®jJjVl 'C_3^_ «ojIkJI j^* 'j^^-juJIj »;LJI ytj *_Jli- |_j.l ^j.i 

1. Man. '>^^>^. — 2. On attendrait plutöt ^.La^" ^.i'y *-^-^3' ^- — 3. Lire 
O/Uu. — 4. Lire ,»«.— JL aji-J'. — ö. Lire ijL= «-— ' ^j«— ^, J'hs» j-^. 



toutes Ics violenccs, touU's Ics cxactions contre ses sujets et les fonclion- 
naires de radmiiiistration, particulierement contre les gens de Üamas. 

En effet, il execrait les habitants de cette ville, lesquels le lui rendaient 
integralenienf ; par deux fois, 11 coiKjut le projet d'en chasser sa population, 
et de rincendier; mais les dcslins voulurenl, qu'il ne put realiser ses des- *foi.(;2 v 
seins, si bien qu'il mourut dans cette ville, et qu'il y füt iiihume. Que la 
misericorde d'Allah soit sur lui, et louange ä Allah, l'Unique. 

Quant ä ce que racontent les histoires des Clirctiens au sujet des evene- 
ments qui leur arriverent pendant son regne, il advint aux Chretieus jaco- 
bites un patriarche, nomme Younis ibn Wali ad-Daula Abi Sa'id, qui etait 
le fils de la soeur du patriarche Younis ibn Abi Ghalib; ce personnage fut 
le soixante-dix-septieme patriarche. 

Premier patriarcat de Younis ibn ^^'ali ad-Üaula. II fut reconnu comme 
archipretre, ä l'eglise de la Mo'allaka, ä Misr', le diraanche, sixieme jour du 
mois de Touba de l'annee 978 de Diocletien, date qui correspond au huitieme 
jour de Safar de l'annee 660 de l'hegire, et il fut conlirme dans la dignite 
palriarcale ä Alexandrie", dans l'eglise d'Absoutir, le dimanche, treizieme 

1. La Mo'allaka, d'apres le Khitat (man. arabe 1732, fol. 435 r°), elait situee dans 
la ruc du Kasr al-sham' A*iu)l y^; eile etait pläcee sous le vocable de la Vierge 
Marie; eile etait uiie oglise tres celebre chez les Chretiens du Caire; Tauleur de la con- 
linuation de rhistoire des Patriarches d'Alexandrie (man. arabe 306, fol. 33 v°) la 
nomme « l'eglise de la Vierge, ä la Mo'allaka, au Kasr al-djam', ä Misr, appartenant aux 
Coptes » : kJii) j-A>j AAS-'! y^_ iil»Jij 5.J-JI 'L^. Saka'i, man. arabe 20ül, fol. 11 r°, 
dit que la Mo'allaka etait l'eglise cathedrale du Patriarche des Coptes, au Caire : i-~-^ 
'^' .^L k-i" ^,U:u." ^<%lij ^-^1 J"^^- ^^■^^- — -• Qui etait le siege du Patriarcat. 



448 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [284] 

(iUö -Cjis Clc jU)i oVl ^-.»i- jjjj ^"Vl Iäa 'cLL.Is ^r-=s-»j aJLUJI <~jx. Lä-J 

1. Lire plutot ijU;^-;^ .^^^^ a^— »i-^o ^' rr"^^'- 



jour du mois de Touba, et au couvent d'Abou Makar, le dimanche, vingt de 
ce meme mois. II se rendit ä Misr, (>t il ofTicia en qualile de patriarche dans 
l'eglisc de la Mo'allaka, r.n cette ville, le dimanche, quatrieme jour d'Amshir 
de cette annee. 

Avant que Younis ihn Wali ad-Daula n'eiit ete installe sur le tröne 
patriarcal, comme cela vient d'etre mentionne, Gabriel, fils de la soeur de 
l'eveque de Tanbadi', avait ete reconnu comme archipretre ä l'eglise de la 
Mo'allaka, ä Misr"; mais Younis declara que sa nomination n'etait pas va- 

1. 5 j^ Tanbadza dans Yakout (III, 550), village dependant de Bahnasa, dans le Sa id ; 

^.v^'Js dans la continualion de Thistoire des Patriarches d'Alexandrie (man. arabe 306, 

fol. 33 r°). — 2. Ce qui etait la premiere phase de l'accession au Patriarcat; en realite, 

d'apres la continualion de Thistoire des Patriarches d'Alexandrie (man. arabe 306, fol. 

33 r"), apres la mort du patriarche Athanase, il se produisit un schismc chez las Chre- 

tiens d'Egypte: les chefs de la commuiiaute Ä^l,' = apy/ov de Misr choisirent comme 

candidat Younis ihn Abi Said al-Sakri; ceux du Caire, Gabriel, fils de la sceur de leve- 

que Anba Boutros, de Tanbadi; les deux partis deciderent de s'en remettre au sort l^jS 

LLC», qui designa Gabriel, lequel fut intronise comme -fiYOuairivo«, ^jajU^iji n^jjü, et fut le 

soixanle-dix-septieme patriarche. Younis et les gens de son parli le combaltirent, et le 

firent deslituer; Younis fut intronise, le sixieme jour du mois de Touba de l'annee 978 

des Martyrs, juste un mois apres la mort du patriarche Athanase. II exerga le Patriarcat 

durant six ans et six mois, puis il fut destitue, et Gabriel fut nomme en sa place, qu'il 

occupa, du 28 Paopi 985, jusqu'a sa mort, qui survint en Touba 987, apres avoir siege sur 

le tröne du Patriarcat, durant deux annees et douze jours.'Sous son regne, les autorites 

egyptiennes imposerent aux Coptes des obligations vexatoires, en meme temps qu'aux 

Juifs, d'ailleurs; on les obligea a teindre retoHe de leurs turbans en bleu, et ä monter des 

änes, ä la place de chevaux. On ferma les eglises a Misr ol au Caire d'abord. puis dans 

les autres provinces de l'Egypte, ä l'exception des couveuts et des eglises d'Alexandrie, 

ainsi que de quelques autres dislricls. i.'empereur de Constanlinoplc envoya unc anilias- 

sade au sultan du(>aire, pour inqjlorcr sa pilie en faveur desCojjtes, et on rouvrit Teglise 

de la Vierge, ä la Mo'allaka, au Kasr al-Djam', ä Misr, puis l'eglise de Michel. Younis 

ibn Abi Sa'id fut proclame patriarche, ä la.mort de Gabriel, en 987, et il exer?a cette 

dignilc pendant vingt-deux ans et sepl jours: puis il mourul en 1000. II eul pour succes- 



[285] H1ST01III-: DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 449 



i r 



1. -Man. jL'v«-". — 2. lAve joUoi™J'« .^JW« , -«*i. Ä-U- i^li , ,■■ ^J'~''. — .'i. Lire 
■i^^ .^--w. jt-w, jJ_. jfj^c^i .^- ,.o ,-ijJi. ^ wili^'J , ii'»oj|. — 4. Lire ..►-^i—s ■■ .-'j i^— 



lable, et il vorsa einq niille dinars, en especes sonnantes (aux autorites mu- 
sulmanes, pour leur faire agreer sathese); immediatement, le sahib Baha ad- 
Diii ibii Haiuia destitua GabrieL Ensuite (Younis ayant ete destitue), ce memc 
saliib Baha ad-Din ibn Hanna fit venir ledit Gabriel du couvent d'al-'Ouzaba, 
et il l'envoya ä Alexandrie (eii qualite de patriarche). Gabriel y arriva, le 
dimanche, troisieme jour du niois de Paopi de l'annee 985 de Diocletien, 
date qui correspond au vingt et unieme jour du mois de Moharram de lanaee 
6G7 de l'hegire. 

Sous le patriarcat d'Anba Younis, on imposa aux Ghretiens un impöt 
extraordinaire de cinq cent mille dinars, qu'ils durent verser en especes, et 
cela au mois de Ramadhan de l'annee 663 de l'hegire. 

Deuxieme patriarcat de Younis ibn Wali ad-Daula. Ensuite, Anba Younis 
fut rappele ii la dignite de sa charge. Ce fut le sahib Baha ad-Din ibn Hanna, ♦ foi. enr 
dont il a deja ete question, qui lui rendit le Patriarcat. Younis ibn \\"ali 
ad-Daula se rendit ä l'eglise de la Sainte Vierge, ä la Mo allaka, ä Misr, le 
dimanche, treizieme jour du mois de Hathor de l'annee 987 des Martyrs, 

seur Theo Jose, qui fut le soixante-dix-neuvieme patriarche, et fut nomme le 10 Abib 
1009; il mourut en 1016, le 5 Touba, apres un regne de six ans et denii ; on le nommait 
« fds de Franque » i~?^'' ^.f>\ vraisemblablement parce que son pere avait epouse uns 
Chretienne d'Occident. Les deux patriarches qui succedörent ä Theodose, le quatre- 
vingtieme et le quatre-vingt-unieme, porterent tous les deux le nom de Younos; Tun 
iut nomme, le 1" Tot 1017; le second, Younos al-Nakkadi, le 1" Paopi 1036. Le couvent 
d'al-'Ouzaba, d"apres le Khitat (man. 1732, fol. 428 r"i, se trouvait ä un jour de distance 
de la mer de Ivoulzoum, la mer Rouge, et ü fallait marcher trois jours dans la monta- 
gne qui se trouve dans Test de l'Egypte pour y parvenir. Gabriel s'etait retire dans 
ce couvent, apres avoir ete destitue de ses fonctions par l'autorite egyptienne. 



o 



iJ 



450 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [28(ii 

J^i i'UIL C- JjVl i^^L»i>- ^jJ:s. J:J\^' ^ii'^y^\ «IAj^U 'iu-Jj >_iJI ö- J-ij-^^ CfzT-^i 

j^ jlS OjlLJl \^ Vju-JIj />-«Ü' _j-&3 i^X.^ i_l£Ll ,_/_;i2) ^i-1 \.^ ^^ -r ^ 
*4-ju.^_5 "CoUj AoU »_o "C^ ^i^-" J}'-j'~^i ls" -^=»-il /»*> f*^*-*^ Awi-ijc^ji f ....'>v> Ui«j 

yi "yi j iL>->^\ 0\fS- ^-a:>-\^ r^V ^ ^j^ i*' "*■*" »-^ (»AaT L« ^It A^«.t »-'y 

1. Lire aJUx__j ■fr~'j ^'~-' •^~' J^^' z*-^- -k' .ijt^^'_; ^Jli''. — 2. Lire >M.--'-^i 

V aJ!_5 s— i' i^_ s^Vrf 1^^ ^ wijJlj. — 3. Lire i;—. Jj"^! ^_5jUä ^» wiUi ^i^Jld) ^äs!^'! 

jUj«-_j f,ju«ij ^^xJji. — 4. Lire ,^jx«-~.'Ij ►»'jj'. — 5. Lire ,,►* j ^Aoülj ^u.M 
iJU /^*~jj ,,^ji.v-.a jUj' i.L_ - *x-f S — 6. Lire ^-^ ^k^s^' .,^ jj-ijuu ajijü , i^j'a*j' 
joU;;«,^ ■rrr~'- — ^- Man- / wj^jii^'. — 8. Man. w»«J!; lire i^i*-' J^r^y- 



qui etait le vingt-trois du luois de llahi' preraier de Tannee 669 de l'hegire. 

II mourut dans les dernieres heures du luudi, vingt-cinquieme jour du 
mois de Barmoudi de rannee 1009 des Martyrs, date qui correspond au trci- 
zierae jour de Djouniada prämier de l'auuee 692 de riiegire, et il Tut iiihume 
dans le couvent de Nestorius, en dehors de Misr. 

Apres lui, Gabriel le Syrien, connu sous le nom d'ar-Rasliid P'aradj Allah, 
fils de la soeur de Pierre, eveque de Tambadi, s'assit sur le tröiie du Patriar- 
cat. II fut le soixante-dix-huitieme patriarcbo. II fut solennellement intro- 
nise coninie archipretre dans l'eglise de la Mo'allaka, ä Misr, le dimanche, 
vingt-deuxieme jour du mois de Ka'ihak de l'annee 978 de Diocletien, date 
qui correspond au vingt-quatrieme jour de Moharrani de l'annee 660 de 
l'hes'ire. 

o ■ 

Ensuite cette nomination fut annulee, et Anba Vounis prit sa place 
comme patriarche, suivant ce qui a ete explique plus haut. Apres ces eve- 
nemenls, Anba Younis fut destitue de sa dignite, et Ton fit venir ce Gabriel, 
dont il vicnl d'etre parle, du couvent de Saint-Antoine, qui se trouve dans 
le desert occidental '. On l'cnvoya ä Alexandrie, et il se rendit dans cette 

1. Le recit des interversions du Patriarcat est incomprchensible dans la narration de 
Moufazzal, qiii n'a rien compris ä cc qu'il ecrivait, et qui a tout brouille; la successioii do 
ces evenements sc trouve correctement exposee dans la note de la page 448. 



Tfil. f.:! V" 



[287] IIISTOIUK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 451 

iJL»::^ ö. cJ=»t^' 'rir-^j ^^^ J**'^' »/r'^J *• — *^ ^^ f*—" ^ ^^ '-^^' Aa-Vl 

«.Üsj ^_y ■^'^b tij'-^^ («^ Jjr^^ L? bAfrli. ^^^ J ■Cl j»^^ U^ /yl J^_-*J1 t^ 

■yjis.^ vl-'L" "VÄsly 'Ia^Ü '^ VJLJj ^l-- ijL. «_J' C- Jjlü: jtS. dJl." -*o-Vi /«_y_ ift-UjI 

iT ^ *-'JJ iAa-lj ö. SybUJL Jli^^ («^'-^^'j ®S^Ä(^Ü 'l3-~-'3 ^^' ^L«.-- i^ JjVl ^Jj 

1. Lire l"'-» ;a.~jj ■rr''-*^j lT'*^*- •'^ •^'~! »^ ^^lx)l. — 2. fire ^iLs^ j^j!»*)' 
iüL'^—« ,.r~-- «— w ic~. f/» >y3r*'' wJ .^fijJi«. — i5. Lire _^^^\s:r\ ; ^ , ^3- — ^' Lire 

ijlj V .tJ/^j ^J'ji". —5. Lire JoL) ^r» c^lr^' ^l^"- ~ '^- '^''''*^ c^' Z*^ ^J'-i-M 
ajU (»-«jj .r:^-*-'_3 /*-:— •'^ 1*^' — 7. Lire ;ä~j' j^— J/^ =~^i ^' ■t^r™*^^ ^J^^i 
JüL^;^ j^oiw«. — 8. Lire -»Jij. 



ville, en qualite de patriarche, ä Teglisc d'Absoutir, le dimanche, troisieme 
jour du müis de Paopi de l'annee 985 (des Martyrs), date qui correspond 
au vingt et un de Moharram de Taunee 667 de Thegire. 

Les eeremonies de son introuisation furent completees au couvent d'Abou 
^Lakar', le diniatiche, dixieine jour du mois de Paopi; il vint ensuite ä l'eglise 
de Saint-Micliel-, qui est situee ä l'origine du Canal, ä Misr, el il y fut solen- 
nellemeut iustalle en qualite de patriarche, le samedi, vingt-troisienie jour 
du Miois de Paopi; c'etait le jour anniversaire de sa naissance, et il entrait 
dans sa soixantienie amiee solaire. 

11 fut intronise ä l'eglise de la Mo'allaka, ä Misr, le dimanche, vingt- »loi. es v 
quatrieme jour du mois de Paopi; le sahib Baha ad-Din ihn Hanna le des- 
titua ensuite de sa dignite, parce qu'il n'avait point satisfait ä l'obligation 
qui incombait aux Chretiens d'acquitter l'impöt extraordinaire qui leur avait 
ete inflige, et il rcndit la charge patriarcale ä Younis. Celui-ci se rendit ä la 
Mo allaka, le dimanche, treizieme jour de Ilathor de l'anuee 987 des Mar- 
tyrs, date ä laquelle correspond le vingt-trois de Rabi' premier de l'annee 
669 de riiegire. 

Gabriel resta cache au Caire pendant une annee et un quart; puis il sortit 
de sa retraite, avec l'agrement dudit sahib Baha ad-l)in, et il s'en alla 

1. Saint Macaire. — 2. Cette öglise est citee dans la continuation de l'histoire des 
Palriarclies d'Alexandrie, man. arabe 306, foL 33 v°. 



w 



452 MOUFAZZAL IBN AßlL-FAZAlL. [288] 

'IAj^' •j.jc-Jj "»oL »-J O- ,_~oI ^r-i-t i_5-i^ ^"^' >^3 r=-~'3 ^^ ,r"^ i^-'J^^ 

jUaJLJl 'j)! jii- O^ -CL^w iV ' ^r*^" -V.« 'I ».ÜAjJl üJ^I ci.'».to V« —«liL'i 

i^.»^ JDj jljjVl) Ajiül di-Ul ^-^ j;_L«i J_,^ '^^Vl ^r'^^" ^^J ^Lül diUl 
j-^"^ jlS <JI Vi Aas A^jl^ ^*ir |V L>_^J L> -a- 'y.-.«J=- jlSj Alw "yiyLs. J^y 

I3 ^1 x;' -^jJ-Jl Jls ®>_;1^5J1 :s^^ "Vj »„jLLsJI «.« — ! ■Üc5>lJ! »LiL« xjLJl ,_;^' j' ^^ 



1. Lire JoU ^j-^j vT::^' ^~^ ^t--^' -k" <-^ ^-'-^ ■ — 2. Lire jj^'-^' iji 



a^V' ' 



joU;:-i.j ,.jt~_j ^^Jl JOw is-^! ^i frf ^j-ioJIj. — 3. Lire w^', par suite de la 
confusion habituelle du j\, et du j-,. 



resider ä l'eglise des Armeniens, Ä az-Zahri', pendaut deux annees, et ä 
Teglise d'Abou Markouri-, ä Misr, pendant uii an. II raouriit dans l'apres- 
niidi du onzieme jour du mois de Abib de l'annee 990 des Martyrs, date qui 
correspond au vingt-luiit Zilliidjdja de l'annee 672 de l'hegire. II fut inhume 
dans l'eglise d'Abuu Markouri, ä Misr. 

Le cinquieme des rois des Turks fut al-Malik as-Sa'id Nasir ad-Din 
Mohammad Berke-Khan, fils du sultan al-Malik az-Zahir. Quand les emirs 
furent arrives (au Caire), venaut de Damas, al-Malik as-Sa"id alla s'asseoir 
sur Ic tröne dans la salle de parade. U avait alors vingt ans; c'etait uu beau 
jeune Iiomme, fort, d'une figure agreable, qui ne montrait pas souvent 
ses dents, car il etait avare de ses paroles, ne trouvant pas les mots pour 
s'exprimer, ni les arguments ä invoquer; il ecoutait ce qu'on lui disait, 
mais il n'y faisait aucune reponse. 

L'liistorien a dit : Ensuite, on revela la nouvelle de la mort du sullan 
al-Malik az-Zahir. Les emirs penetrörent (dans la salle du tröne), ils baise- 
rent le so! devant al-Malik as-Sa'id, et renouvelerent le serment de fidelitc 
(qu'ils lui avaient dejä pre1e)\ ce qui fut egalement accompli par toute Farmee. 

1. Les jardins d'az-Zahri se trouvaieiil au sml du Caire; ils sont cites, en iiu'me 
tenips que le verger de Saif al-Islam, dans le Khilat de Makrizi (man. arabe 1731, 
fol. 298 r°); il est parle dans ce meme ouvrage (man. 1732, foL 435 r°), d'une eglise 
des Armeniens, qui est Celle oii se relira Anba Gabriel. — 2. Saint Mercure. — 3. Du 
temps de Baibars, qui voulait engager ses generaux sur le nom de son fils. (A^la lui 
reussit peu, comme on va Ic voir. 



28!)] IIISIOIHi: DES sui/r.ws MAMI.OI KS. /.53 

lj^I>.j j^nJ\ aUl ^^_ jo ^jVI Ulij 'T^VI IjA^^^ ^li^l ^^LUI jlkUI o_j^ 

^::_L.L>-j ' \%^i Jy^ wjlj^ ■>-' c^^j^\^ <^ c^i^ a^L»J o^.5Cti j-x_JI di..lJl> 
v_.äJJ1 Ää-li ^ä~. <■! <w_>r V3 oDIa J Iia&Uj ^Äa Ai- «J l^lsj jU-j ^Vl <'%'' 

1. Lire .ijj--: le manuscrit a la forme L»J. pour ^. ce qui est unc forme tres 
viil"aire do , -w— , on allendruit nlutot .\^.vJ" (-V. >.» uW b'jj. 



L'emir Badr ad-l)iii, le kliazindar, sc tenait didjout (ä cöle du trüne), el 
recevait le sermeut des officiers. 

Ouand cette ceremonie eut pris fin, (römir Badr ad-Diii) pcmitra daiis • fni. r/i r, 
l'appartement interdit', aupres de la mere d'al-Malik as-Sa'id, pour lui 
presenter ses condoleances de la mort du sultan, et pour la feliciter de 
raveuement d'al-Malik as-Sa'id. La sultane remercia l'emir de la fac^'on dont 
il avait agi", et pria Aliali de Ten recorapenser; eile lui sortit un hanap plein 
de sirop et de citron, et le conjura d'en boire, comme eile venait de le faire 
(avant soii arrivee), lui donnant ainsi ä penser quelle avail dejä goüte ä ce 



nreuvage. 



L'emir but deux gorgees, pas plus; ä la troisieme, devant l'insistance 
(jui! Ton mettait ä le faire boire, il se defia, et deposa le hanap; mais 
il etait atteint mortellement. 11 n-ntra chez lui, daus une grande prostration, 
et il lui aniva une constipatioii inviucible: il peusa ([u'il s'agissait d'uue crise 
d'enterite. 

Le medecin de l'emir se nommait 'Imad ad-Diii ibn an-Naboulousi; on 
lui envoya trois mille dinars. et 011 lui fit dire : « Prends cette somnie, 

1. As-sitara u le rideau », lilteralement, derriere lequel vivent les femmes: ce mot 
n'a pas, et ne peut avoir, d'autre sens ici, puisque les ceremonies de l'inhumation de 
Baibars avaient eu lieu ä Damas, et non dans la Citadelle; les princesses portaient ä 
cette epoque le titre de as-sitr al-vafi' le « volle auguste ». — 2. En cachant la mort 
du sultan, en prenant le commandement de l'armee ä Damas, en la ramenant au Caire, 
el en faisant reconnaitre la souverainete de Berke-Khan. 

PATU. 01t, — T. XIV. — F. 3. 30 



454 MQUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIl,. [290| 

^i jjj <) ^J>-J^ J> ^y^i Va)Ij ^li-) ®JljLi cX- ^y^ Lo "^ k_Äo3j «Cc JiUj 

UÜ:>.j i^j ^^ilwli ®X^Sl_x-j A^IaIj »UÜi 1 äUs^" k_.A^! ,V')--«i i?-— *-^ ls'' r-" (v' '*-^ ' 

^.'„•1 'ri-*-'' Y—o-i ^v-« J 1 OaLJl <V)Lj j_^ jliL-lj <lK,U^ iljtj/j js—oja- |_5 -U» )i iJ-L».!) 

1. Lire A=..l. — 2. Lire C^'^^iJ'. 



.lide-nous ä le (aire perir, et ne lui revelc pas qu'il est empoisonne. » 
Le medecin prit l'argent, et ue fit rien de ce qu'il l'allait tenter immediato- 
iiient pour sauver son maitre ; il lui prescrivit au coutrairo des drog'ue.s qui 
aggraverent Teilet du poison, si bien qu'il mourut. 

L'emir laissait derriere lui sa mere et deux lilles, car il ii'avait point de 
fils, et le sultan lierita de ses biens. Al-Malik as-Sa'id acheta les villages 
qui coustituaieiit la propriete particulierc des lilles de Teinir, et il les 
constitua en biens de mainmorte, dout il alfecta les revenus ä l'entretieu 
du mausolee de son pere. Ensuite, il envoj-a deux emirs ä Damas, pour 
rccevoir le serment de fidelite de la Syric, taut de la population civilo que de 
rarmec. 

Gela se fit saus aucuni; dilliculte, et iout le monde, tant en Egypte qu'eu 
Syrie, pnMa le serment d'allegeance au sultan; pcrsonne, de Dougola 
ä l'Euphrate, ne rel'usa le serment de fidelite a al-Malik as-Sa'id, et 
Ton fit le pröne du veudredi ä son nom dans toutes les provinces de son 
empire. L'emir Shams ad-Din Aksonkor al-Farikani l'ut nomine vice-roi, en 
heritage du khazindar. 

Le veudredi', le sultan fit arröter les emirs Sliams ad-l)in Sonkor al- 

Ashkar et Badr ad-Din Baisari; le samcdi", il fit arretor al-Farikuni, ainsi 

que plusieurs autres emirs, et on les enqn'isonna dans la Furteressc ilc la 

lui. ü'i V". Monlagne. I^e sultan noiuma ä la cliarge de vice-roi, Sonkor al-Alli; Ic 

dimanclie'', dixieme jour de cc meme mois, il lil remcttre eu liberte liaisari 



1. 21 Hahi' l" (NowaVri, man. arabo 1Ö7S, l'ol. !)ü V). — 2. 18 liabi'2' Xowaiii, man. 
arabe 137S, fol. 9ü v°). -- 3. Le samedi 2 Djouniada 1"' (Xowairi, man. arabe löVS, rol. 
06 v"). 



1 



[291] IIISTOIllK DKS SULTANS MAMLOÜKS. 455 

Jl* •aAo.JI >J.lJ' aU.. ß'::, •-•) JIä:5^; ^i Ai.Ä« J;_-01 jA, «Uli- ^b ^i O^mä)! ^_y_ 

ji4j.-^JI d.Ul j_^3a1I b^i-Vl ^. '^3 ^Oj'_j'^'' j^=^"^. J/."^' r^~^ "-""^ ^'-5 ^'^*^3 

j_j tä'-'i,_ oUI Cjl_^i-'Vi j;«3 ji-«")^- j;:>'l j-^ J^^^ dÜJl3 ^i^ j._-»Jl ^' 

Xs. V-aJI j y' ("^=.-3 Lfb^ol ^^rf;/=fJ^ -^ j>Aä) iS^^l t^-Jwo ^ JD3 JalJl ,_LäJ| rci— 
^J,\>-^ JLO jit^-K^l k^J»-' A)' XXSKJ> tV-^' ,)—*--' jt— iJi -^ (Jl s-*-^ J/» J^l jw 

1. Cette forme extremement vulgaire se Irouve sous la plumo de lous les liistoriens 
de l'Kgypte; il faudrait j--» y^U. — 2. Lire =—. — 3. Lire U^j. — 4. Lire 



et Sonkor al-Ashkar: le vendredi', il fit arreter son oncle maternel, Badr 
ad-l)in Mohammad, fils de Berkc-Rliau. 

[listoire de la naissance d'al-Malik as-Sa'id. L'liistoricn a dit : II naquit 
ä al-'Ouslish, dans la baiilieue du Gaire, la bien gardee, au mois de Safai- 
de l'annee 658; sa mere etait la fille de Hosam ad-Din Berke-Khau al-Khwa- 
rizuii; il eut comme freres, al-Malik al-Mas'oud Nadjm ad-Din Kliidr et 
al-Malik al-"Adil Badr ad-Diii Soulamisli ■, saus compter sept sceurs. 

Gelte fneme aunee, le septieme jour du niois de Moharram, mourut le 
sliaikh Kliidr ihn Abi Bakr ihn Mousa al-'Adouwi al-Malirani, ([ui etait 
l'auuiunier'' du sultan al-Malik az-Zahir; il mourut daus la Gitadelle de la 
Monlague, vingt et un jours avant le sultan, et il l'ut enterre sur la pente 
du niont Mokattam. Au debut de sa carriere, il avait vecu au service des 
grands personnages de la ville de Djazira'; il eut ainsi pour maitre 
Nour ad-Din 'Ali ; du service de ce personnage, il passa ä celui du sliaikh 
Shams ad-Din Mohammad, lils de la soeur du shaikh Kamal ad-Din al-Dja- 
ziri, le poete. 

1. 14 DjoumaJa second (Nowairi, man. arabe 1578, foL 96 v°). L'omission de ces 
dates, dans la narration de Moufazzal est etrange. — 2. La graphie persane de ce nom 
est ^S^y^ — 3. Si tant est que Ion puisse employer ce terme en parlant d'un prince 
musulman; les fonclions de ce shaikh etaient Celles dun directeur de conscience. 
— 4. La ville de Djazirat ihn 'Omar, comrae on le voit assez par ce qui est dit plus 
loin. 



450 MOUFAZZAL IßN ABIL-FAZAIL. |292] 

_<i_i Ajj ii ^ ^«jJl ^fir^' i_.=-l^ jvÜilJI k_3-L.s j»S-Ä,*j| /»"-^l r— ^J ® i^LiJ' 

■L-äC «iai: l«.<i— VfS JJ-^I '^-'1>?" ir"" -^— '' -*^ ^' ^^ ijjtli?! (»,il J' JsA^ ^iiJi J^ 

«.«Jjs-l AJI Ks- JLöJ ©Ajjlj ^ ÜjUaj i_J^-«J' J--Ä) L»_J^ iiAx iXLc- ".Jk^lj ^^^.oJl V-^' 
(Jim M nji, aJIjj»! "j^ ^r*^ [< iviUa'j ^ 0^^ "" ^3 ^'-"'3 /r^L^l '^ "U-U-ÄD 

1. Lire .„-si^LJt. — 2. Lire ,1;:^.'. — 3. Lire ^,L=k. — 4. Lire •",'j^- — 5. Lire 



dt 



Ce Shams ad-Din, qui etait uii tres grand personnage, etait le seigneiu- 
de la ville de al-Djazirat al-'Omariyya. II confia ä Rhidr la fonction de traiis- 
porter les ordures des palais du sullaii» et de la forteressc, moyennant des 
ö'affes et uii traitement fixes; Khidr avait avec liii deux betes de somme: il 
resta dans cet emploi durant un certain temps ; puis, l'on decouvrit quil 
avait seduit l'une des filles de Service des palais. On decida de le faire eunuque ; 
mais il s'enfuit ä Alep, oü il prit du service cliez Hin Karatai', eliez lequel 
il remplit les fonctious d'intendant, durant un certain temps. 

Ensuite, il forniqua egalement avec l'une de ses femmes, qui, dit-on, 

fut enceinte de lui. II se sauva de nouveau, d'Alep ä Damas, oü il chercha un 

icii. r,.-, I". asile aupres de Temlr Ziya ad-Din al-Kaimari ; il resta cliez lui pendant 

quelque temps, habitant dans la montagne d'al-Mizza-, dans une grotte, oü 

il s'etait organise un ermitage. 

On a raconte, au sujet de ce personnage, qu'il roucontra plusicurs devots', 
lesquels lui devoilerent ce qui adviendrait de lui, et qui lui revelerent la 
plupart des relations qu'il aurait avecle sultan al-Malik az-Zahir. II se Irouva 
qu'un jour, b; sultan al-Maiik az-Zaliir'' niouta sur le summet de la Mizza. 
en se promenant; il poussa jusqu'ä la caverne dans laquelle se trouvait le 
sliaikli Kliidr, qui le vit, le salua, le felicita du l'ail (pfil scrait roi un jour. 

1. Karatai est an nom connu dans ronomastique mongole; il signifie « envieux. 
jalüiix »; c'est un derive de khara « pupille de rceil, («il », puis « noir », par le suffixe 
adjeclival-/(7/; khnra-la-khou signifie ä la fois « deveiiir noir ■> et « porler envie ». 
priiiiilivciiient « lorgner sur (|uelqu(; chose ». — 2. Al-Mizza. dit Yakoul (IV, 522), qui 
croil ce nom etrangcr a l'arabe, est un gros village, au milieu des jardins i|ui entourenl 
Damas, ä un denii l'arsakli de cetle ville. — 3. Des Sonfis i|ui ont la prelention d'arriver 
au devoilement des evenements fulurs par Icurs ausferites. — 4. Qui n'etail alors 
qu'emii-, a Damas. 



I 



[293] IIISI()li;i: DKS SI'LTANS MAMI.OUKS. 'i.")? 

" jLi ^->. 5>JI ^J^ Jl L.^. -^ y^ÜJl ^^* JÜ:^^^ jl J^'^J ^^^ ^i^'' 



(^ 






^,. jL cL<il Ji '<-y V ^^' t^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^*^ ^^-^ '^'^^■5 ^ ^"^ 

i-UiÜ i^^^ |_j;l ^' XS. ijli. j «LUl AJI V^l» ^r-ai- j^^r^' (>■ cS-"^' jr"^^^ 

1. II faudrait Ju^.=vy I;^. ou i.:^j.~" ij^. — 2. Lire ^ J, ^^^. Jj; le manuscrit 



porte ■> y^ ►U. - 3. Lire ^-.VxX). 



cn lui annon^ant l'epoque ä laquelle la dignite souveraine lui serait devolue. 

Ouand le pouvoir imperial l'ut confere au sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, le 
sliaikh Khidr avait seduit l'esprit de l'emir Saif ad-Din Kouslitemour ' al- 
Adjami, Tun des grands emirs bahris, qui avaient ete les mamlouks d'al- 
Malik as-Salih Nadjm ad-Din Ayyoub ' ; il lui avait appris, au sujet du 
sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, avant son accession au tröne, tout ce qui lui 
arriverait. Quand al-Malik az-Zahir fut devenu sultan, Koushtemour al- 
'Adjami lui dit : a J'ai chez moi un fakir, adonne aux actes de devotion, qui 
m'a appris sur ton compte teile et teile chose. » 

Le sultan se souvint de lui, et, quand il vint camper ä at-Tour, lors 
de sa marche sur al-Karak, il demanda ä Koushtemour al-'Adjami des nou- 
velles du sha'ikh Khidr. L'emir apprit ä al-Malik az-Zahir que le shaikh s'etait 
retire loin du commerce des hommes, dans unc caverne, pres du tombeau 
d'Abou Horaira. Le sultan se mit en route pour l'aller voir, et, quand il l'eut 
trouve, il lui rappela qu'il s'etait rencontre avec lui sur le sommet de la 
montagne d'al-Mizza. II lui ordonna de venir vivre dans son intimite, et le 
sha'ikh lui apprit tous les evenements de sa vie, avant qu'ils ne se 
produisent. 

Jamals le shaikh Khidr ne se trompa dans ses predictions; c'est ainsi 

1. « L'oiseau de fcr ». en ouighour. — 2. Cet emir Saif ad-Din Koushti^mour etait, 
par consequent. camarade de Baibars. 



lol ü: 



458 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [2!)'.l 

jl^ UJ dUi LV^ J.J <ll_j>l ^^ j i_J Js, JUl ^1^3 ^lül Jit ^« ^i 

^ ,S«S}j ilits ^»-JCIj ^^L:fl> d^<3l J'\ <=-y5 '«iJU'^J .j-^ -^-^1 J'. 'irf- ^^ j 
^^llL ijb <J 2l jlkUl jl J^ ^\^_ ^\^\ <Ü\i ^If-»-^- ^b ^>^^1 C»^ ^'^ 'L^^ ^ 

« 

1. Lire j.-.^ JsAÜ. — 2. IJre ^. — 3. Lire ' K^l. — 4. Lire ^c^- 



que, pour toiites les citadelles, il aniionga ä al-Malik az-Zahir lepoque ä 
laquelle il s'en einparerait, et jamais il ne sc trouva en defaut. Ces predic- 
tions stupeüaient completement rintellect du siiltan, et le sha'ikh finit par 
prcndre un ascendant considerable sur son esprit, danstoutes les occurrences. 
Parmi celles-ci, il arriva que, lorsque le sultan revint de üamas, il dcmanda 
conseil au shaikh sur la question de savoir s'il lui convenait de se rendre a 
al-Karak. 
Moi,i;5v°. Le shaikh ne le lui conseilla point, et il lui dit : « G'est lä une alTaire 
qui ne te reussira point; aussi, retDurne plutöt eu Egypte. » Le sultan 
n'ecouta pas ce discours, et il partit pour al-Karak; en chemin, son cheval 
fit panache, s'abattit sur lui, et il se brisa la cuisse. Enfin, il arriva au 
sultan avec ce shaikh des choses surprenantes, soit qu'il ait ete reellenicnt 
instruit de l'avenir, soit qu'il n'y ait mi \ä que des coi'ncidences, et AUali 
connait la verite sur ee point, si liieii ([uc le sultan lui construisit un 
ermitage en dehors du Caire, sur le canal, et qu'il lui constitua cn bien (h; 
mainmorte les revenus d'irnmenscs proprietes foncieres, doul il porcevait 
chaque annee plus de vingt inille dirhams. 

Il lui construisit egaleraent un monastörc ä Jerusalem, un autre ;\ üanias, 
un autre ä Balbek, un autre ä Ilamali, un autre a Honis, dans chacun 
di'squels vivaient des i'akirs', et chacMin de ces monasteres possedail des 
immeubles de mainmoi-le que le sultan leur avail concedcs. Le shaikli 
avait des superieurs dans tous ces inoiiasteres, pour les rögir en son uoni ; 
durant le regne d'al-Malik az-Zahir, il disposa de tout, suivant son bon 

1. Des rcligieux qui. suivani la coiitume des Soiifis, se livraienL ä des praliqucs sure- 
rof>;atoircs. 



[295J IIISTOIHK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /,5!» 

ytiku i<i^ ^^ j ^j^__ ji^j ^ijij ^ kS -j^jVi ^3 ''l>)i lyi .v> 

j_^i]| L_J^ J-^-*^ (■-*-* ^' p"* ®<Jlt (^^^. "^!^ f»^^, j^ '^' >-^~^ -V-5 -»^ ^ 

>-^*j ^j*-^'' -*~^ ^*t^ «^^'j •^^»Jl^ ^^' ^^^ ^-*^^ f-^3 ^jI=.lJ1 Ij. ^'l:,3 

py.-'J^P ^ L-_^ OD cJ^D i— O 'U''jAl,OVl /«AAj ''«Ü ijij ly^J !s-U. L__^" 

Jy^yi (J*^' >l;l-~Li« j^xlaaij J^A_ji.JI j^.*j>uj ^li^M jjjjai, Üa^,^! i3'-r^^ 

1. Celle forme esl vulgaire; on altendrail ^ßi. — 2. Lire ^,. — 3. *-~iJ serail plus 
correcl. — 'i. 11 faudrait iS^LL-M; i^i^M, pour iSßJkj^, signifie proprement « la dignite 
patriarcale ». — 5. Lire . JU. 



plaisir; il poussa Faiulafe jusqu'ä pretendre avoir Ic droit de Commander, sana 
que personne lui dounät le moindre ordre. 

Ensuite, il saccagea ä Damas l'eglise des Pantheres, et il y construisit 
desmihrabs ' ; il ravagea ä Jerusalem une eglise, qui etait connue sous le nom 
d'eglise de la Grucifixion, laquelle etait en grande veneration parmi les 
Chretiens; il tua lo eure de sa propre main, et il la transforma en un monas- 
tere ä son usage. A Alexandrie, il detruisit une eglise qui appartenait aux 
Grecs. et qui etait un de leurs sieges patriarcaux; c'etait dans cette eglise 
qu'ils elisaient leur patriarche. Ils croyaient quo la tete de Jean, fils de 
Zacharie, sur lui soit le salut! y etait conservee. II la transforma en une 
mosquee, ä laquelle il donna le nom de al-Madrasat al-Khadra'". 

II possedait un monastere dans loutes les villes, et il avait dans chacun 
d'eux un superieur qui les rcgissait en son nom. La conduite de tous ces 
gens etait loin d'etre loual)lc; ils interceptaient les chemins, ils couvraieut les 
fripouilles de leur protection, ils empechaient les gens de se livrer ä leurs 
occupations, pratiquant des turpitudes abominables, abusant des femmes et 
des enfants des hommes de ce pays; teile fut leur conduite, et celle du shaikh 
Khidr, jusqu'au moment oü il fut arrete. 

Voici quelle fut la cause de son arrestation : il avait pris sur l'cmir ßadr 
ad- Diu, le khazindar, et sur le sahib Baha ad-Din, un empire absolu, si bien 

1. Le mihrab est ww chapelle qui indique la direclion dans laquelle il faul se tourner 
pour regarder vors la Mecque; c'esl assez dire que Ic shaikh convertil cetle eglise en 
mosquee. — 2. Pour rappeler son nom. 



^ißO MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [290! 

iili-1 jVjI >-• J^ L-ll, jsj'^;^! ^kj jlUJI ^ jiij- dUl^ jlUJI (.IaI ^ JU^ 
^c_^lj J-jc^l ^^TT^' f^3 ^^\ ä:.-^J^ ^r«=^ ^_jül ^\y v-iis »Ul ^'l; jl X.' /.LÜl 

'VJa ^.Üa jLJ jlkUI dUi.; ^LdL ^Ül ^l^j ''rnc^ b-V^b ir;::^ ''-^^ '^ 'j^-^ 

1. II faudrait lire correctement au duel UjJ. — 2. II faudrait k^oJI Jo. — 3. Man. 
^j-^JaJ. — 4. Le pronom masculin, ä la place du leminin. se rapportant ä des choses, 

c 

ou ä des faits, est courant dans le stvle vul^aire. 



*foi. 6G1'. que ces deux personnages n'avaient plus en face de lui Tombre d'une 
liberte. Le sultan ayant concede une certaine sonime au shaikh, le khazindar 
refusa' de la lui verser; le shaikh lui dit, en la presence du sultan : « En 
verite, tu veilles sur les interets du sultan et de ses enfants, exactement 
comme Koutouz a agi ä l'egard des fils de son maitre, al-Mo'izz-. » 

Le khazindar fut terrifie de Teilet que ces paroles pouvaient proiluire 
sur l'esprit du sultan, aussi s'entendit-il avec Ic sahib Baha ad-üin poiir 
intriguer contre le shaikh, grAce ä la complicite d"lzz ad-Din, qui etait vice- 
roi de Damas. Le gouverneur de la Syrio manda aupres de sa personne les 
representants du shaikh Khidr, qui se trouvaient alors ä Damas: le shaikli 
Isma'il, le shaikh MouzaHar, et un autre de ses allides, qui se nonimait 
Mohammad ilm Hittikh; il leur dit : « Avouez les crimes dont le shaikli Khidr 
s'est rendu coupable; je vous comblcrai de bienfaits, je vous assignerai uii 
traitement, et vous serez les maitres de ces mouasteres, sans quo personne 
puisse venir vous troubler dans votrc jouissance de ces lieux. » 

Ces gens formulerent sur le oomplc du siiaikh des impulations dum' 
extreme gravite, et ils temoignerent (inclics etaient (l'uiic exactitude rigou- 
reuse. Le gouverneur de Damas ecrivit au sullau potir lui nMiilre comple de 
CCS faits; le sultan envoya querir ces gens par la poste imperiale, et 011 les 



1. Kn sa qualite de tresorier de lempirc. — 2. Koutouz lua Mo'izz, et le sliaikii 
voulait dire que le khazindar avait l'intenlion de luer Baihars, pour s'emparer du 
pouvoir, ce qui n'etait pas impossible. 



[297] IIISTOIHK DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. ',(U 

dL\_p 'Vy. M_^ilj3 ^,-:=^ ;^^\ j^^^^ jÜaJUl ^\ j-. ^^j^^^^ -^^^ ^^ ^j^^-i^'' 
^^Lu i>i-J !s^^ 'Lj:1 ^U iji.U» ^c-:>t~3 ^ifr Ä^ls Lj^ JUJ *,j Jjir "^1 ^LdL 

!s_j..Lli3 Xyt.U!l ^>l, ^^^ 4oJi All i," jlia,LJl ^ j^-r-^^ iAi-U •»-lU Jj U (J1.W ""^^ 

\S£. * Ü.^Jl ^1 dJi jÜaJUI JaäT U.U «jX'lj ^UI b>^' ^^J ^■=' (^^ ^J ToLiifi' 

^^V (»j-i« 'I^Yi j^ ÄtLp. jlL,UI j^ «-^Ij Ji-^-^ ^^ b-^^j 'S^Ä-^^ ijüi»! p 
^.CJ:! jß ^^j ^^-^ j^_A.ll jA,j jjj>L« ^^^jJI >_i^ ^^Vlj ''^.W ^>;.-v.>l ^vjlT 
ji__^l ^It .^Ik. lÄA cl.L'Vi jUs b^l j jLLUI i^jjLü jUj^l j>_A.II JJ03 ,_5-»Ä«!l 

I. ()n attendrait J yUj. — 2. ^/o' est uno forme vulgalre pour U — o. Du persan 
»p', dont les Arabes ont fail disparaitre le s, qu'ils onl pris pour le J dunite. — 
'.. Lire Jy — 5. ^Cb^i. — 6. Lire ^,^yJ^^\. 



amena en sa presence. On fit egalement venir le shaikh Khidr, auquel on dit : 
« Ces individus sont bien charj^es de tes affaires ä Damas; qu'as-tu ä dire 
sur leiir compte? » Le shaikh repliqua : « Tout cc qu'ils diroiit k mon sujet 
sera l'expression meine de la verite ». Ils Faccuserent alors de s'etre livre ä 
des actes crirninels, abominables, tels que la pederastie et Tadultere. 

Parmi toutes les actions reprehensibles qu'il avait commises se trouvait 
la suivante : Le roi du Yemen avait envoye au sultan un present dans lequel 
fiy-urait un jeune cheval du Yemen, tel qu'on n'en avait jamais vu un pareil. Le 
shaikh levola au sultan, et en fit cadeau ä une beaute du Caire. Ils l'accuserenl 
l'ormellement de ce crime, et ils firent immediatemeut comparaitre la cour- 
tisane et le cheval. 

(^)uand le sultan fut convaincu de ces faits, il ordonna que Ton surveillät 
elroitement le shaikh, puis Ton rendit la liberte ä ses yens, qui s'en ' foi. wi v 
retournercnt ä Damas. Plusieurs des emirs vinrent prendre seance avec le 
sultan, parmi lesquels Femir Paris ad-Din, Tatabek, Temir Saif ad-Din 
Ivalaoun, Badr ad-Din Baisari, Saif ad-Din Koushtemour al-'Adjami et Badr 
nd-IMn, le khazindar; le sultan leur demanda quel ctait leur avis sur le cas 
du shaikh. L'atabek dit : « Cct individu connait les secrets de I'Etat, et les 
ressorts caches qui le mettent en action, aussi ne convient-il pas de lui laisser 
la vie. » 

Les assistants temoignerent qu'ils approuvaient son opinion; le shaikh 
Khidr dit alors au sultan ; " O Baibars! vnici quo la dato fixec pour ma 



462 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [298] 

1 jj» jliaLJl >«-w Ltls 7-jJ~<J^ J^' '-*J'' j*;*^ vi^ C/' -j^"^^ ""^ <-=-L^ JJi Lu 
JlÄs s^ij ^Jt) jl '1jc5-1 ^— ^„ f»-^ ^^ cJ öjy ^ '|_^>^ J^3 ^'jf" -Vi. (*^J ""^ (^J 

i_5lj iJLaS tS^^ As -.^ ^_^LU j*>-9 -*-=»! "^^ «..»Iä) J jLVji ^j (>—'=' '-^ jÜa.i il 

jiTj ijL»l-j (V-*'^3 ^S-^^^ ^ Jl^-i _r~^ ^'^' (3 ^-^ ö'^^J «UiXfcli d)jLJl JÜäLJI 
ol^lj _^r-^b t/>-^!3 ir^^ wisVl *J ,3-iiffl Ji jL^J ^' (j-— »ä]1 J^ >_ilj jjfcj 

1. Lc man. omet ^ ._^'. — 2. Lire -äI. 



mort s'est rapprochee, mais celle de la tienne egalement, car, entre moi 
et toi, il ii'y aura qu'iin delai de peii de jours. Celui de nous qui mourra 
avaiit son partenaire, l'autre ne tardera pas ä le suivre. Comprends bieii 
ceci. » 

L'historien a dit : Quand le sultan eiitendit ces paroles, il baissa les 
yeux, et ne repondit pas un mot ; puis il dit aux emirs : « Oue voiis 
semble-t-il qu'il faille faire de cet homme? »; aucuii d'eux n'osa lui donucr 
de conseil sur ce point. Alors, le sultan dit : « Que cet liomme soit empri- 
sonne dans un endroit oü il ne puisse Jamals voir personne; qu'il soit comnic 
eelui qui a ete enseveli dans le tombeau. » 

Lcs emirs s'ecrierent : « G'est un avis beni (jue celui du sultan! ». Le 
sultan fit incarcerer le shaikh Khidr; cela se passa le treizieme jour du niois 
de Shavval de l'annee 671. II mourut, äge d'nn peu plus de cinquante ans; on 
lui Iburnissait des aliments de choix, des vetements, du dessert, des fruit s 
et des liqueurs '. 

Lorsque le sultan revint de son expedilion contre lc pays de Roum, et 
arriva .'i Danias, il envoya un olficier (au Caire) pour lui rendre la liberte, 
mais il venail de mourir; on a dit que le sahil) Baha ad-f)iu s'etait cn- 
tendu avec al-Malik as-Sa'id pour lc faire elrangler dans son cachot, ce 
qni fut exccute. ,\llali sait smil ce qui i'Sl la vcrite. 

Gelte anncc (67G de riii'^irei. lUdururcul l'cniir Djauial ad-l)iu Ougiiousli 

1. Ce qui elail encore un edel de la faveur du sultan. (|ui croyail sa vie allaelu'o 
ä Celle du shaikh; c'csl pnurquoi al-Malik as-Sa'id lil el rangier le shai'kli, pour provoqucr 
la inorl de son j)crc. 



'■2d'.)] IIISTOIHK OKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 'i(>3 

^^Vlj ^i^L-ül ^-01 Jä ^^VIj ^aXäJI J^yi j._->JI JL^ ^^"Vl ^y ^^^ ' ♦ r,,i. >■.: r. 

jlLU -u^'l ^Ul jlkUlj <]U.u p^Ul ^üLUJlj ijLl-3 ^;,;;«^j ;«_-- ö- cii^j» 
iUI j_^lsjUJI ^iLJl j.jül ^_^ ^>.V1 jj^" ö-il bÄA jj «o-;! i<.U^_ (.">L-"Vi 

iC jjü»3l r*^ cV V—«-- r-*^ ^"^ L^y f*"' ^V^ (5~*" "C^^wli»!:'! <-l£- l».L»jiS 

iJlsVl ^-~üaj C^IäJI \a ^IjäII jL-aJl (.^^o.:::; ■aj...fl« /.IILJIj <ijiM Jj^Vl ^_/ (^"^'^ 



1. Lire J^y. 



al-Mohammadi, l'omir Izz ad-Din al-Dimiati, el ToHnir Badr ad-Din, Ic klia- * fol.i;' rr 
zindar; qu Allah, le tres haut, leur fasse niiscricorde ! 

Au fommeiicemcnt de l'anuee 677, le khalife al-Hakim elait sur Ic trtiuc, 
et le öulfaii al-Malik as-Sa"id etait le sultaii de rislam dans Fempire de son 
pere. 

Cette annee, Temir Shams ad-Din Ak-Sonkor al-Farikani fut investi de la 
cliarye de vice-roi (de Tempire egyptien), mais les mamlouks khassakis ' 
tramerent des complots contre lui, jusqu'ä ce qu'ils l'assassinerent. Apres 
lui, l'iavestiture de cette dignite fut conferee ä Teinir Shams ad-Din Sonkor 
al-.Mouzaffari al-Alfi; cet officier vit que les affaires de l'Etat etaient toutes 
dcrangees, que Fordre etait bouleverse par ce fait que des jeunes gens ignares, 
lesquels appartenaicut au corps des mamlouks khassakis, gouvernaient 
rempirc. II demanda ä etre releve de ses fonctious. et, en consequeuce, la 
charne de vice-roi lui fut retiree. 

FJle fut confiee, apres lui, ä Saif ad-Din Kunduk ■, (|ui etait Tun des mam- 
louks khassakis; ce personnage avait ete ä Tecolc avec al-Malik as-Sa'id'. 
Le sultau ordonna par an rescrit ' au saliib (Baha ad-Din) d'avoir ä s'asseoir 

1. Les mamlouks particuliers du sultan, sur lesquels voir Quatremere, dans VHistolrc 
des Sultans mamlouks, tnmc L parüe 2, page l."),S. — 2. l^robablement le meme nom 
mongol qiii se trouve dans les textes persans du xiV sieclo sous les formes equivalentes 

vjl/'W^, O^W*^: w-Cs^ Konlcliek, Konlcliuk, lesquelles signifient « esclave », avec 
teil rendu d, ce qui arrive dans la Iranscription arabe. — 3. C'est-ä-dire qu'il avait une 
vingtaine d'annees, ce qui ötait insuffisant pour s'acquitter convenablement des obliga- 
lions de la charge de vice-roi; il etait ne, dit Nowairi, man. 1578, fol. 97 r*", en 667, 
mais c'est la une taute du copiste, car il n'aurait eu que dix ans a cette epoque ; il faut 
cvidemmenl lire 657. — 4. Nowairi, man. arabe 1578, folio 97 r", dit : aJ' C-^c=j3 U- 
.vLi ^!t O.J ^ ,L Ajjj ^j ^U-'. ,' o J' '.4J _^^'-.J' y'] ijUl « Ouand la 



4(i4 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [300] 

•CCoj kAcj \^[L vi ■A=~V Vy Vj "»o-Vj /^ ^«Aä) jl ^-a-La-Ü (»—JJ ,_lxji J 

^.-.V^ (♦j-lfc ^-vsj j^üLÜj ^*j'^,-aJI |j< ^jU ^v_ä!I x^it ij> a;1 X.' ®'i.,b. ^_fUJl 
^1 <s-jJl. j»A,^lj (^"^^ jjj^' ;3:.-*J' ^r" ■Jt^'^^. '^^-'^ ^ •S.j—:^. oi-^^ ^•^. 

* fol. 67 V". J^J^ ■^J^\ ^t" ^J^lj J^ \y^JC^\>^ Li:- Jjll J^,jJl 'Ij, ^5-Us)l ^y * 1^S3 ®^_p~- 

Jj:l iai^ ^-Oj jLii v_i)l ijL^ i>'-*^' /r'j "^i^»-' -ia=>-J jLL^ ^I <JLw •4ai- -Vi-lj 

C-5>D ^r^2-» (Jl /«-«.»Jl \^JL^^ JCi i i t)i aJUj ij'-^' s-^"" (V iV ^ ^j^-^^is- 

1. Lire j:'_^. — 2. Lire >^^!. — 3. Lire A-i-'. 



devaiit lui, et de n'ecrire de diplöme pour (jui qiie ce füt, que dans la 
redaction qui lui serait indiquee par Kunduk, en prenant sa formule d'apos- 
tille; il doiina ä Kunduk un pouvoir tel que personne n'en avait jamais 
exerce un semblable avant lui ; c'etait un individu sagace et intelligent. 

II occupa les fonctions de vice-roi, jusqu'au nioment ou la cour partit 
pour la Syrie, au mois de Zilkada; le sultan arriva ä Damas, et y fit 
son entree, le mardi, cinquieme jour du mois de Zilhidjdja, accompagne 
de son frere, al-Malik al-Mas oud Nadjm ad-Din Khidr, et de sa mere, qui 
etait la fdle de Berke-Khan. II antra ä Damas, au milieu d'une fete inoubliable, 
teile que les gens n'en avaient jamais contemple une semblable. 

Apres cela, il constitua un eorps de dix mille cavalicrs, tanl egyptiens 
que Syriens; il leur donna comme chel' Femir Badr ad-Din Bai'sari, auquel il 
adjoignit l'emir Saif ad-Din Ivalaouu al-Alfi, et il leur ordonna de marcher 
contre le pays de Sis. 
Toi. (>7v. Cette meme annee, niourut le sahib Baha ad-Din ibn Hanna; on arrcta 
son fils, Tadj ad-l)iu, ä Damas, el on lui iit signer un acte par leqnel'il s'on- 
gageait i\ payer cenl mille dinars; on fit cgalement signer ä son frere, Za'i'n 
ad-Din, la reconnaissance d'une somme de cent mille dinars, et l'on en usa 
de meme ä l'egard du lils de leur oncle paternel, Izz ad-Din ibn Moliyi ad- 
Din, lequel dut siguer egalement un billet de cenl mille dinars. On les cuvoya 
tous les trois au Caire, sous bonne garde '. 

Charge de vicc-roi lui cüt ele confcree, (le sultan) ordonna au sahib Balia ad-l)in de 
prendre seance devant lui, et de n'ecrire les l'ormules d'aposlille sur les diplömes, 
que surl'ordre de Kunduk », ce qui est plus clair. 

1. C'etait lä un moyen, d'ailleurs peu dplicat. pour 1p sultan. de renlrer dans uhp 



o 



[:joi] iiisroim'. dks sui.tans mami.oiks. 4o 

«wJ^jVI (vaIj^ ^^-l JyJlj ^'-»-^'3 w>^jVl **ljj il_. ^Lr^^^-aJl 

SjjJl «JJ ^.^-i j_j.'i Ji.:t«A. j»^ A,jc_M iilUJlJ aJUL-J ^ou—j jLj' <C— C^li-Jj 

JALI A.:l jiflj J^^l JI^^VI p^ JÜa. jUj Ut l_^j jlL,Ui J£t ^b lj_.::^l 
Jj«;" 4.1 l^'lij jlL.Ul Jl l^ü^^ ^r '*^^-^. '^•o ('">^^'' b^.cL-3 djj_^ ^i l^^^-^^U 

C^- e5 " -'>— * "^ T^=>- fi' ®2)-Cfr ^1 iÄi-13 j»^ *.^UcJ ^-=1=- „r^Vi _>i^ J05 
1. Lire Lc=Iä. 



Cette annöe, liourliaii ;ul-l)in ibii al-Siudjari Tut iuvesti de la cliaige du 
vizirat. Le prix du Iroment, i'u [']gyp(c, monta ä six dirlianis Tardab; l'orge 
Ol les feves arriverent jusqu'a qiiatre dirhams l'ardab. 

Au commeucenient de l'annee 678, al-Malik as-Sa'id demeurait ä Damas, 
oü il resta jusqu'au mois de Rabi' pretnier. 

La discorde (-flala entre Ruuduk, vice-roi de l'empire egyptien', et les 
mamlouks khassakis; voicl quelle fut la cause de cet övenement : les khassakis 
s'ötaient rendus maitres de Tesprit du sultan, et ils le dominaient comple- 
tement, si bien qu'il ne cessait de leur donner de Fargent, par paresse d'esprit, 
Sans s'inquieter des consequences de ces liberalites. II arriva que le sultan 
donna une soiiime de inille dinars ä Tun des khassakis, et que Kunduk empeclia 
quelle ne lui Int versee". 

Les kiiassakis so montrerent tres fäches de cet incident, et ils l'urent d'iin 
avis unanime pour blämer la eonduite de Kunduk, auquel ils firenl savoir le 
degoüt qu'il leur inspirait. Ilsenirerentensuite chez le sultan, auquel ils dirent : 
« Eloigne Kunduk de notre prcsence. » Le sultan consentit ä ee qu'ils lui 
demandaient. Ensuite, ils se precipiterent ä la maison delvundidc, dans l'inten- 
tion de l'assassiner, ou de s'emparer de sa personne. L'eniir Sonkor al-Ashkar 
assistait ä cette scene; il le lira des mains des khassakis, et remmena dans 
son hotel. 

Le lendemain du jour ou cette esclandre eut lieu, un diplöme concernant 

partie des sommes que le saliib s'etait appropriees, durant le temps quil exer^ait ses 
hautes fonctions. 

1. Na'i'b as-saltana. — 2. Malgre son incapacite, Kunduk voyait bien quil fallait 
mettro un Irrme a ces gaspillages. 



4ß6 MOUI'AZZAL IBN ABU.-KAZAIL. [302] 

^ ^j[!^ jlklJI jl ^*jJ Jlij ;5^,-o Jj.a!I ja.3 jjj>t.i> j-,a!1 >_i_^ ^^Vl Ali; |_g)l 
j»AjLi-i ;Jä^' '*^|3 jLxJl 'U^Vi V« lA=-i JL) "^3 ^»»a« Jl \7i^ iVr" «~«^i fn-^^—« 

_>^Vl jl<J ®(»pt)Laxi ^U- iräjtJi (^--^^ Ui.l=-J ^s>c«a«Jl lj^,,Ja>.| lijJi -C«S jLLUl 

1. II faudrait grammaticalement U-j.'. — 2. II faudrait regulierement sUj.^, mais il 
peut s'agir ici, dans l'esprit de rauteur, de l'ensemble des officicrs de l'armee musul- 
mane. — 3. Forme vulgaire pour j.3^. — 4. Lire Uik^. 



Kunduk fut publie, lequel lui conferait uiie charge d'emir de quarante cava- 
liers ä Alep'. Kunduk resta chez Sonkor al-Ashkar durant sept jours, 
et, le liuitieme, on regut la nouvelle que les troupes qui avaient ete ä Sis 
»foi.nsr. etaient arrivees. 

Kunduk partit alors ä cheval, ä la tete d'une troupe de Tatars"; il alla 
trouver remir Saif ad-Din Kalaoun et Badr ad-Din Bai'sari ^ , auxquels il 
dit : « Le sullan a l'intention de vous faire tous arreter, des qu'il sera de 
retour au Caire; il ne laissera pas la vie ä un seul des grauds emirs; il a 
donne leurs liofs aux enilrs khassakis, et il leur a jure d'agir ainsi ''. » 

Les ömirs ajoutereul foi ä ses paroles, parce qu'il avait etc le vicc-roi (de 
l'enipire egyptien), et parce qu'il etait au courant des intentions secretes du 
Sultan. Ils se lirent alors apporter le Koran, et ils se jurerent les uns aux 
untres de s'arrantfer au niieux de leurs intercts. 

L'emir Saif ad-Din Kalaoun avait laisse en arriere, en delachement, a 
Alep, un Corps de deux mille cavaliers de l'armee de S\'rie. Quand les emirs 
furent arrives k 'Azra ', ils envoyörent des expres ä al-Malik as-Sa'id, avec la 

1. Ce qul etait une retrogrudation enorme, et un commandement indignc d'uu per- , 
sonnage qui avait eu toute l'armee sous ses ordres — 2. C'est-ä-dire de Mongols ; 
lui-meme, evidemment, etait un Mongol, comme soii nom le prouve sulTisaniment, cl 
c'est pour cette raison qu'il se faisait escorter par des cavaliers de la meme nationalile 
que lui, lesquels lui etaient tout dövouös. — 3. Les([uels, comme on vient di' le voir, 
commandaient l'armee qui avait ete envoyee contn! la ])etite Armenie. — 4. C'est-a- 
dirc que, dans son esprit, le sultan aurait dislribue leurs liels, qu'ils possedaient encore 
ä ce moment, ä ses favoris, et leur aurait jure qu'il en serait ainsi; tout cela, d'ailleurs, 
(■■tait faux, et de I'invention de Kunduk, qui voulait tout simplement se venger du sultan, 
en le faisant detröner par Baisari et Kalaoun. — 5. Nom dun villago dans la Ghouta de 
Damas (Yakout, IIL 625). 



[303] IIISTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /.ÜT 

!y-_-j U-lj *LtJI ßV^ ^ ^jlj ^1 ,_^Ut; ijjÄ^ .„Ä-Li- -V? jjj^As \.aJI ^_i_-, 
JiiJ ^Jj Jxt j^ öjCWI Jji jl A-«J1 dlUI lj.Llj \ijL. 'Mjju^ Ji 

jjjM^ ^.01 ^__ ^Vl Jl 2 1,-1^ ^,y^Yl d.U ^j^\ >3 ^,U)lj ^Vl _^:- ^ 
^_^aIJ'j ^'^,.^1 'lr*"^'l <~^, oU-iij ''^1 ifrL=- «^ ,*s-J\ •' J't$^>i j_^:ä^I '^j-^rt'J 

iy^_ *Uji >_ji; j,_A.ii >3 ^^vi ^i— ^^>ii ^»^ ^vi jUj J_^^\ jUj 

"^^-^ !>Lr'J '*ljÄc y> \ßL, p' J-L.^ 'y^-^. tn'' |v«>J->^3^ -SpUl j p-^ 

1. Man. ',J^, avec la confusioii de i> et de i, ce qui est uiie faute courante dans 
lidiomc vulgaire de celte epaque. — 2. lArc ^1. — 3. Man. ,,U.'^.' — 4. Man. 
^^^N^. — .".. Man. ^Lvu. — 6. Lire v3/^- — '• Voir la note 5 de la page pr(!cedente. 



missioii de lui dire : « liloigne los khassakis de ta personac, et iious, nous 
iiKucherons d'accord avec toi, au mieu.v de ce qu'il uous paraitra conveiiable de 
faire. » Mais le sultan s'excusa de ne pouvoir agir ainsi, alleguant qu'il avail 
peur des khassakis, qu'il iravait aupres de sa personne, parmi les grands 
('■niirs, que Sonkor al-Aslikar, al-HalabI, et 'Izz ad-I)in, le roi des emirs*. 

Parmi les emirs de Damas", les emirs Sa'i'f ad-Diu al-Harouni, Sai'f ad- 
Din liaidoglian ar-Rokni, al-Basligliirdi \ Baibars al-Madjuoun, Bektasli an- 
Nadjmi, et plusii'urs autres emirs, allerent trouver Saif ad-Din Kalaouu; 
le reste des emirs egyptiens, des commandauts, des officiers de lidupes, 
agit de la meme facon. L'emir Shams ad-l)in Sonkor al-Ashkar, et Izz ad- 
Din, rjui etail vice-roi de Damas', partirent pour s'entremettre entre les 
rcbellcs et le sultan, et pour faire la paix entre les deux partis. 

Les rcvoltes mcnacerent d'entrer dans Damas ^; ils partirent de 'Azra, et 
vinrent camper ä Mastabat as-Sultau, pres d'al-Kiswa*. Le sultan fit partir ♦ lui. gs 

l. Ce qui, au moins a ce que pretcndait al-Malik al-Sa'id, etait insul'tisant pour 
comballre riasolencc des khassakis, et ue qui etail peut-etre vrai. — 2. 11 ne s'agit point 
ici des generaux du corps reste ä AIop, mais bieii des ('mirs qui exergaient un com- 
mandcinenl ä Damas. — 3. Raslighird, ä cette epoque, qui se trouve dans Guillaume 
de lliibriick, sous la forme Pascatur, designe unc tribu de souche liongroise, ou plutöt 
d'un clan auquel se rattachent les Ilongrois. — 4. Le meme general qui est designe 
Uli peu plus haut comme etant le roi des emirs. — 5. Pour rintelligence de ce recit, 
il faut se souvenir qu'al-Malik as-Sa'id residait alors a Damas. — 6. Nom dun 
village oii sc trouve le premier relai des caravanes qui vont de Damas au Caire fVä- 
kout, IV, 275). 



468 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAH.. [304] 



,lL,Ui 



rv="-5 



^^ ''ij-*^ Cy (nVv. ^J^':^"^ '^'^'^ t/^° frr^^. ^ o-r^^ C-?:- 

1. Lire^^ ^! ^rr-^-'U=. — 2. Lire ^r--"^! ^^'. 



sa niere, en la compagnie de Temir Sonkor al-Ashkar, pour chercher ä leiir 
doiiner satisfaction ', m'ais les insurges la menacerent d'entrer le lendemain 
daiis Damas. Au monient oü eile prenait le cliemin du retour, ils plierent 
leurs tentes, et se mireiit en marche, se dirigeant vers l'Egypte; ils arriverent 
ainsi ä Ra'as al-Ma ^ 

Al-Malik as-Sa'id parlit (de Damas), le ieudi% pour aller trouver les 
insurges, mais il rencontra (en chemin) une troupe de gens, lesquels lui 
apprirent qu'ils avaient decampe la veille. Le sultan rentra ä Damas, et 
manda aupres de lui Temir Alam ad-Din al-IIalabi, auquel il demanda con- 
seil; l'emir lui dit : a Ce qu'il faut faire, c'est de les suivre etape par etape, 
et de ne pas les laisser s'emparer de la Forteresse de la Montagnc '. Ge (|iii te 
garantira la sincerite de mes intentions (en te conseillant d'agir ainsi), c'est 
que c'est moi qui t'ai livre la Forteresse de la Moiitagne', et qui t'ai i'ait 
monter sur le trone ! » 

Le sultan donna un vetement d'lionneiir ä Temir; il ramassa son argenl, 
ce qu'il possedaitde plus precieux, il rassemblace qui restail Je l'armee (autour 
de lui), et il partit de Damas, marchant sur les traces de Tarmee insurgei' 
contre lui, le vendredi, deuxieme jour du mois de Rabi' second, accompagnc 
des troupes de Syrie'', avec lesquelles il arriva ä Bilbis. L'armi'-e syricune. 

l. NowaTri, man. arabe 1578, lol. 102 v", dit forniellement que la mere du sultan alhi 
trouver les insurges ä Kisva. — 2. Cette localite, qui n'csl point menlionnee par 
Yakout, se trouve au sud de Damas, entre Sonamain et Shamaskin [Historiens orien- 
taux des Croisades, i, 852). — 3. Premier jour du mois de Rabi' second, comme on le 
voit par ce qui est dit phis loin. — 4. Dans laqucllc se trouvait le palais royal, et ou 
les insuro-es auraienl parTaitement ete capables de nommer un nouveau sultan, qu'ils 
auraient choisi parmi eux, au Heu et place d'al-Malik as-Said, denieure ä Damas. — 
5. A la morl de Baibars. — 6. Et des contingents arabes. II laissait ä Damas Alam ad- 
Din Sindjar al-Dawaddari, en qualite de gouverneur inlerimaire de la forteresse, jusqu'ä 
ce que revint Temir 'Iz/. ad-Din Aitemour. qu'il emmenait avec lui. Les Arabes, sur 



[3051 IIISTOIRR DES SULTANS MAMI.OUKS. 409 

__Jo ^U>3 jl Jl ölJÜl ^Sl^\ "Cä-^j ^V «^j ^L' ^[»^äJI *_y «L-U .^.iiSeJ! 

i».li)l J^ ^ik« ^^LJIj iJüi ^'1 ^ «.iL-j Aj (»L>-J XÄi-l (_5-AäJ1 J;>-*J1 ' j*-le jls 

r>vi ^.a)1 > "^'i^^ü, ij^ i.iiii ji ^^^S jjj^' c»;.-^' ^^ -^j -^^ j^j 

_^lj Lj)l ^3•^3 «^j ^' rt^ Ä»U)1 jlk-LJI ^1-33 liis ®/*t^^ »ii«lj -uüJL ,_^U^ J03 
1. .Maii.^. — 2. II faudrait, au duel, UJs !^™<. 



avec 'Izz ad-I)iii, gouverncur de Damas, abandonna sa cause dans cettc 
ville, et s'en rctounia ä Damas. 

(hiant au sultan, 'Alam ad-I)iii al-Halal)i Ic pril, le for(ja ä marclier', et le lit 
moiiter (de force) - a la Forterosse de la Moiitagne; les troupes etaient rangees 
jiar escadruns ' tout autour de la Foiieresse; oe fut ä ce nioment que Saif ad- 
Din Kalaoun et al-Baisari y arriverent ' ; ils cuvoyerent an ollicier ä Izz 
ad-Din al-Afram, qui etait gouverneur de la Forteresse, pour le sommer 
de la leur livrer, raais ce general refusa de le faire. 

Quaiid le sultau arriva ä la Forteresse, 'Izz ad-Din al-Afram lui en ouvrit 
la porle; le sultan y monta; l'emir en fit fermer laporte, etle combat coramen9a. 
A ce raoment, les insurges couperent les conduites qui amenaient I'eau dans 
la Citadelle, ei ils engagerent l'attaque, avec I'idee bien nette de venir ä bout 
du sultan, qu'ils assiegerent durant trois jours^ Plusieurs khassakis trahirent 

lesquels il elait impossible de compter, lächerent le sultan ä Ghaza. Quand l'armee 
d'al-Malik as-Sa'id fut arrivee ä Bilbis, les troupes syriennes, avec "Izz ad-Din, rcQurent 
la permission de rentrer ä Damas, oü alles parvinrent, au commencement de Djoumada 1" 
(Xowairi, man. ar. 1578, fol. 103 recto sie). Le sultan demeura avec Shams ad-Din Sonkor 
al-Ashkar, 'Alam ad-Din al-Halabi, et le reste des mamlouks sa'idiens, comme Laichin 
al-Zaini; Sonkor al-Ashkar le lächa a la INIatariyya, pres du Caire {ibid., fol. 103 v°). 

1. Al-Malik as-Sa'id etait un pleutre, et, comme il craignait pour sa personne, s'il 
eüt ete seul, il eüt lache la partie, le tröne et le sceptre, et ne füt point rentre au- 
Caire. — 2. II n'y a point de raison de corriger Jsä en .»j^Ja». « il l'exhorta ». — 3. Peut 
etre lire iClL= « les troupes etaient repandues autour de la forteresse (comme de 
rhuile'i », en arabe ultra-vulgaire. — 4. Qui, en realite, etaient les chefs du mouvement 
insurrectionnel provoque par les denonciatioiis mensongeres de Kunduk; naturellement, 
ils cherchaient ii prendre possession de la Citadelle. — 5. Nowairi [ibid., fol. 102 
verso, sie), raconte que les troupes insurgees vinrent camper au-dessous de la monlagne 
sur laquelle se dresse la Forteresse du Caire, en Rabi' second. Les emirs qui se trou- 
vaient dans la Forteresse apprirent leur arrivee, c'etaient 'Izz ad-Din Aibek al-Afram 
al-Salihi, emir djandar, 'Ala ad-Din Aktoghan (^i|^t Aktouan, pour .,'jiiii', avec 

PATU. OR. — T. XIV. — F. -i. 31 



470 MOUFAZZAI. IBN ABIf.-I' AZAIL. [306] 

®ljJI *4"J-'_ ^--^ "^' ^^\ Üa*' ^2p«3 ""'j^' 1^^ J ^-'V jV 'i^l |_^^3 dlUI -y, 

^J\ •^jli-U; ^>;.-01 ,_i^ C.:>^j d^<)! Jl -UxJI diUl ^f/j ^i)J^ jUfVI «sy 

jl^ U 1,^3 JjVl --.j ^Ijl J d)_;X)l ijl J^ji :5_^'lj ^'^y <~^ «-1^ L. JU; 

yi i^^y j*L ji ^k ^\ <J\^ i..^\ ji^jüij iu^i ji^^vi ^ xjjij i>jT 



IVil. 00 1" 



1. Lire jU'. — 2. Lire bUt. —3". Man. ..,'-i-'-^'- 



■ egalement le sultan qui envoya domander aiix emirs conjures : « Que voulfz- 
vous? — Que Ic sultan abdique, repondirent-ils; nous investirons son frere 
de la souverainete, car nous avons prete serment de fidelite ä son pere ' ; 
nous dünnerons al-Karak ä al-Malik as-Sa'id, et rien de plus; qu'il aille sy 
inätaller. » 

L'accord s'etablit sur cette base, et al-Malik as-Sa'id partit pour al-Karak, 
en la eompagnie de Saif ad-Din Baidoghan ar-Rokni-, apres avoir abdique par 
devant le kadi et les Ibnctionnaires assermentes. II arriva k al-Karak dans 
les derniers jours du raois de Rabi' premier. C'etait dans cette citadelle 
que se trouvaient deposes les tresors immenses que son pere avait amasses, 
ainsi que des approvisionnements considerables, comme s'il avait eu l'in- 
tuition que ses fils iraieut y chercher un refuge apres lui. Al-Malik as-Sa'id 
prit ua malin plaisir ä disperser ces tresors, ä gaspiller les approvisionne- 
ments, ä dilapiJer les armemenls. II mourut ä al-Karak. 

la Iransmutation du gh en w, qui est parliculiere ä la plionetiquc de cet idionie; ce 
nom signifie le faucon blanc; al-Saki, Saif ad-Din Balaban al-Raziki, qui se rendirent 
chez le gouverneur du Caire pour le ])rier de faire fermer "las portes de la ville, ce qui 
fut execute ; apres quoi, on eleva des murs derriere alles, pour empßcher qu'on ne les 
forgät. Les emirs qui etaient arrives de Syric avec l'armi'e insurgce demanderent aux 
emirs de la Forleresse de leur ouvrir les portes, pour quo leurs troupes pussent se 
rendre dans Icurs casernes, ce qui ctait un stratageme assez grossier pour s'emparer de 
la Forteresse. Izz ad-Din al-Afrani at 'Ala ad-Din Aktouan descandircnt pour parle- 
menter ä cc sujet avcc les rcbelles, mais ils furent faits prisonniers par Kuiidiil;. i't les 
portes (du Caire) furent ouvcrtes. 

1. (le qui faisait que ces emirs enlendaicnt ehoisir le souvcrain dans la raniille de 
Baibars, au licu de porter leur clioix sur un de leurs collegues. — 2. Mamlouk du 
pere du sullan, llokn ad-Din; Nowairi ecrit ce nom ^J^*^^, soit .lU;^' Bai-Toglian man. 
arabe t578, fol. 103 v°); il signifie le faucon blanc, hai elant dans ce compose le niot 
(.•lünins qui vcut dire blanc, synonyme du turk c/ä; voir tomc XII, pagc 4iSß. 



[307] IIISTOIRK DRS SUF.TANS MAMLOUKS. /,71 

ji^j ^lüi ^üji jiLUi j.\ JL.M- j^ui axJi J/.(l J^U ^ ^^^Ul 

JL}\ JLJ\ Ulj «'dLüi jjj>ii- ji-vJI ^i^ ^Vl ;.Ii-lj 'T^V' ^ \j^\^3 U^l 
^U Jl i^^\ JL^\ jl^3 JjVl ^jL^ Ji^^ yi ^l^^3 J±*^ Ji ^It Ajli 

JLi-j (^J«^^ _J-^ Li ^j;.-*Jl t.r-*-^-5 L^"^' ^'••^3^ Jf.-*J' J^3 ij'^^ cO^-r; (jl"^^ 

^, .Vi jyC, jl (J-l«-^ J._Ä]I 'T^Vl « \jLlS\» ®*Ar^3 ^_5-^l Jtjsl * j^_jJl • lul.mv 

1. II faudrait lire ^b\. — 2. Lire ,,^JÄs.". 



Le sixieme des rois des Turks esl al-Malik al-'Adil Soulamisli, fils du 
sultaii al-Malik az-Zahir. II ful intronise au mois deRabi' second de l'annee 
G78 : on frappa son num sur les monnaies, on recita le pröne en sou honneur, 
et les eniirs lui pieterenl le sermeut de fidelite. L'eniir Saif ad-i)in Ivalaoun 
fut installe dans les fonctions d'atabek '. 

L'armee de Syrie' s'ea retourna ä Damas, oü eile lit son entree, au 
oommeucement du mois de Djouinada premier; quant au corps d'armee qui 
avalt ete detache ä Alep, quand oii apprit dans ses rangs les evenements qui 
venaient de se passer, il reiitra ä Damas au mois de Rabi' second \ Les 
ofTiciers qui le commandaient etaient Rokn ad-Din Baibars Altclialigh, Izz 
ad-Din Ezedemur al-'Alayyi, Shams ad-Din Kara-Sonkor al-Mou'izzi, Djamal 
ad-Din Oughoush ai-Shamsi, et d'autres. 

Ces ofTiciers tomberent d'accord avec les emirs qui si' trouvaient ä Damas 
pour que Djamal ad-Din Ougliousb ash-Shamsi prit le commandement de 
larraee, et pour arreter Izz ad-Din Aidemur, vice-roi de Damas, parce qu'il * loi. c.i v 
avait deserte la cause du fds de son maltre, et parce qu'il l'avait trahi en 
s'en revenant de Bilbis'. 

1. Regent et gouverneur politique du jeune sultan. — 2. Les ti-oupes qui etaient 
venues de Damas au Caire, et qui avaient detrone Berke Khan. — 3. Ce corps etait 
demeure en arriere, ä Alep, parce que les generaux qui commandaient l'armee syrienne, 
ä laquelle il appartenait, etaient partis pour l'Egypte. et ne lui avaient transmis aucun 
ordre de rentrer ä Damas, si bien qu'il etait reste ä Alep, en attendant des ordres; quand 
son commandant apprit pour quelle raison il n'avait pas rsQU d'instructions, il prit sur 
lui de rentrer k Damas. — 4. Le « clieval rouge «, tchaligh signifiant un clieval plein de 
feu, en lurk. — 5. Kn s'en faisant, comme le raconte Nowairi, donner la permission par 



472 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [308] 

'l^VI ^_^f>^» |^.«LiJl ^5C-«)I Oä-^3 'l^Vl viiJU ^j'-^' J'^ J^-^ ^i"^' i5'^L>^ 

ijU ^1 j_j-Jl vi c5C^l U_) 'r»-^! Ji (»^ ® jÜaLJl fy^ ^j>. jl ^1 /^-^L~JI 
^^jl T^UJIj ^^>i>t)l »IäS ^^«)I S^i^ -U ^_j!l ^^-_<>_i.!l ^_^j.sl J.a!I JL=- JCc »Isis 

1. Forme vulgaire pour ij^. — 2. Lire (id^^Jj ,_^*JLJ!. — 3. Man. U^sr'' .i'-^i 
lire H^^l ,.,|J^-. 



Le dimanche, premier jour du inois de Djoumada premier, "Izz ad-Din, 
roi des emirs, fit son entree ä üamas, ä la tete de l'armee de Syrie. Les 
emirs qui tenaient garnison ä Damas sortirent (de la ville) pour se porter ä 
leur rencontre; quaud ils furent arrives au Maidaii al-Akhdar', puis ä la portc 
ßab al-Djabiya", Ougliousli al-Shamsi dit ä Izz ad-üiii, roi des ^mirs : « II 
convient quo tu eatres avec moi dans ma maison, de fagon que tu ne sois 
pas la cause de troubles entre les Musulmans, jusqu'au moment oü arrivera 
le rescrit du sultan^ » 

Izz ad-Din comprit ce que ccla sigiiiliait, et il lui l'ut impossible d'eviter 
de se rendre ä l'hötel de Djamal ad-Diu Oughoush asli-Shamsi, chez lequel 
il resta jusqu'apres la priere de Tapres-midi. A ce moment, arriverent ('Izz 
ad-Din Ezetemour) al-'Alayyi, al-Hadjdj Flzedemour et (Rokn ad-Din Baibars) 
Altcbaligli. Ces officiers se saisirent de la personne d"Izz ad-Din chez ash- 
Shamsi; ils monterent avec lui ä la forterosse, et ils le coniiercnt ä la garde 

al-Malik al-Sa'id, qui ne pouvait la lui refuser, car l'eiuir ne se serait pas grne pour 
partir sans autorisation. 

1. L::::^^! .i'-Vi dans Ic manuscrit de Moufazzal, est une erreur du copiste pour 
j^üa.'i!! .Jj--», laquelle forme, avec l'omission de Tarlicle, est une laute de Moui'azzal, 
pour wjoi.'^! ..!j-JI; le al-lNIaidan al-Aklidar est un champ de nianu'uvre celcijre dans 
l'histoire de Damas; il cn est constamment queslion k l'epoque des Mamloulcs. l.e nom 
de la porte Bab al-Djabiya n'cxiste plus aujourd'liui; des maisons se soiit bäties dans 
le Maidan, et forment un faubourg relalivemenl moderne (Baedecker, Palesline el 
Si/rie, 18'.)3, page 326). — 2. Nowairi dit qu'il lui demanda d'abord comment il avait 
abandonne le sultan, et que, lorsqu'ils furent arrives ä la Porte Bab al-Djabi\a, il l'cni- 
mena chez lui, fol. 103 r°. — 3. Le rescrit du nouveau sultan d'Egypte, le conlirniaiit 
dans la Charge de vice-roi de Damas, parce qu'en somme cel olUcier avail abandonne 
son posle. 



[309j lllSTOIKK DES SULTANS MAMI* )L KS. 473 

j^jj^ jyC ■'ji.J pXs ^L,l ^C j^CaI pUl \yz<^ Aij ul jX* Vj b>l 
L:=,l -T^Vl Ij:)^ vilJi x^ ^U]l v_)L ly.lij i^^.^r- 'y-:. «J^ * '^^'j ^aL.'1 * 

a.ii .-^j V:M v^-5 '^>'^ ■t'^'-j ^^ v^ "^'^ c^' r^ r^^' "^"^ ^'^^ ^-"^ 



® 



1. Man. »vv-C^^. — 2. Celle forme esl vulgaire: il l'audrait regulicrcment U. — 3. Lire 



fol. 70 r° 



de Temir Alam ad-Din ad-Dawaddari, qiii etait goiiverneur de ladite for- 

teresse. 

"Alam ad-l)in le rec^ut de leurs mains; il lui laissa la faculte de^se pro- 
meiier dans la ville, tout en le faisant surveiller par des gardes, et il lui 
permit meme de sc rendre aux bains. Les emirs apprirent ce fait, et ils desap- 
prouverent la conduite qu'"Alain ad-Din ad-Dawaddari tenait ä son egard ' ; il 
leur repondit : << Je n'ai regu ancun rescrit du sultan concernant 'Izz ad-Diu, 
sur aucun sujet, ni vous non plus. Vous Tavez arrete de votre propre 
autorite', de quel droit irais-je vous le livrer, et quelle excuse pourrais-je 
en invoquer (si j'agissais d'une teile fagon?) ». 

Les emirs se prirent k injurier le gouverneur, tandis qu'il se trouvait assis 
au milieu d'eux sur le parvis de la forteresse; dun bond, il rompit le cercle, 
et rentra dans la citadelle; il ordonna aux officiers et aux soldats de la 
garnison de mettre sabre au clair, et de fermer la porte de la citadelle. 
Au meme instant, les emirs degainerent, et sortirent de la forteresse en se ♦ ua. to i 
tenant sur leurs gardes. 

La porte de la citadelle fut close, et la terreur et le desordre regne- 
ront dans la ville. Les portes de Damas furent fermees durant toute une 
semaine, et ne furent point ouvertes, ä l'exception des portes Bab al-Nasr, 
ßab al-Faradj et Bab al-Djabiya. La cause de cet evenement fut qu'on 
regut la nouvclle que Kunduk avait pris la fuite avec mille cinq cents cava- 

1. Nowairi dil que deux des emirs demanderent^ä Alam ad-Din de leur livrer Izz 
ad-Din pour le ronduire au Caire. man. arabe 1578, fol. 103 v°. — 2. De vos mains, 
dil le texte. 



474 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [310] 

^lläj •T-Lfc Ulli ^^-ijiJlj ,_„U- \ji »^U)i ^,5v_jJi '^iLsi j»A |yyj ^!>ül 1»^ \_Lslj 

_^VI txj:^' viLlrVj ^ji.~.>U i^jJl jj^ JiUI ^^Ü Ij-iai^j i..^! |>^j «^UJl 

■_ä..- ^^Vi viULk^ j\« A£.L«.»-^ ,äI50i /v>-*Ji JLo-j-j ^l=-Ul [j>"^' w-Ä— ' ^r-*"^' 

^tVj ^«M- ^r._-VJl JA; JiÜl ClUl jlkL.,Ü M^Vl l_^(=-3 ^iJVl jjjMs Jy_A)l 

>_^Ui5 Ij) ijuiU- 1 -Cc-j ijl» .M jlA) Jjj'j iJl; li»cj ^)l ^fi^V' jÄ-^ tj;''^' iT"*-" 

1. l^ire . J-^L. 



Hers tatars, et qu'ils arrivaient, pillant le pays sur leur passage; c'etait, 
en realite, le corps d'armee revenant d'Alep', avec, en plus, les Arabes 
nomades-, qui s'etaient mis en rebellion, et qiii mettaient toute la Sjrie ä 
feu et ä sang. 

Le vendredi, sixieme jour du raois de Djoumada premier, les gens vinrent 
ä la grande mosquec pour y faire la priere soleunelle, et Ton recita le pröne 
au nom d'al-Malik al-'Adil Badr ad-Din Soulamish, et ä celui de l'atabek 
des armees, l'emir Saif ad-Din Kalaoun al-Alfi, eu meme temps qu'on invo- 
qua la misericorde d'Allah pour le sultan al-Malik al-Zahir. Le vingt de 
ce meme mois, arriverent les emirs Saif ad-Din al-Bakhili, Djamal ad-Din al- 
Gandji, accompagnes d'un certain nombre de mamlouks de Temir Saif ad-Din 
Kalaoun al-Alii. Cos personnages rcrurent des emirs (de Damasj le serraent de 
fidelite au sultan al-Malik al-"Adil Badr ad-Din Soulamish, et ä l'atabek des 
armees, Saif ad-Din Kalaoun. 

Cette annee, le mercredi, deuxieme jour du mois de l^joumada second, 
l'emir Sharas ad-Din Sonkor al-Ashkar arriva ä Damas, en qualit(5 de gou- 
verneur, et il vint demcurcr au Palais de la Felicile; quand il y fut installc, 
il manda l'emir Alam ad-Din ad-Dawaddari, et il lui ordoiina de passer le 
commandenient de la citadelle ä l'emir Saif ad-Din al-Salilii, lequci etait 
"ov". arrive en sa compagnie. 'Alam ad-Din rcmit ä cet oiricier le gouveincinent 

1. Dont il a ete parle [Aus liaiiL, pag'e 471. — 2. C'etaienl ces niümes Arabes que 
le sultan Berkc-Khan avait. appeli's ä son aide quand il etail parti de Damas (Nowai'ri, 
man. arabe 1578, fol. 103 r"). Ces Arabes, comme on la vu plus haut, l'avaient lache 
a Ghaza. 



\ 




IIISTOIRE DKS SULTANS MAMLOIKS. 475 

^LaJI jj_jJI ^_i_- ^^Ml iJiJI p.L__ jl i^ij c5J^b-*J^ ä;.-*^' (^ _^V1 Tdi. 70 1 
iT r-jJJl Jlj ®^\p\ iii-^ >i"Vl >:- p-C>-3 -^UII ■u..Li -c^-^ 

^-V ^'^'' J^ '5^^'3 j^^J ^^^^ c> y.^"^'^ 

c}J^\ J\ j^^j J^Ul viLUI ^li.-J <l 1_^U.3 ^^^il <LU\ ^^ J^ cr^^^. 
jLj: j^ j_y.\}=- »;jV ^U^3 ._i~ij ^\ i->l." üa-UL O^ iJu vii^'l^j V^L J^_ls 

j_^l öLUl dUL^ ^ jUj a.Ll ö*54^Vl ^l^!l Jl^ J JUÜI OÜ.3J 
IjäU- »iUi A^ *..Ls j^ Ajju J Iaaj CjIc'U- »-^3 (^:^_^. (3 c^^*" <j -'"^ c^* 



de la forteresse, et Sonkor al-Ashkar exerga l'autorite ä Damas siüvant 
la coutume des vice-rois. 

L'historien a dit : Ensuite, les grands emirs bahris se reunirent, ainsi que 
d'autres; ils conseillerent ä Femir Sa'if ad-Din Kalaoun al-Alfi as-Salihi de 
s'asseoii- sur le tröne auguste de Tempire, i>t ils lui preterent le serment 
de fidelite. Al-Malik al-'Adil fut depose, et on l'envoya ä al-Karak, oü il 
retrouva ses fröres; la duree pendaut laquelle il porta le titre de sultan 
fut de trois mois et demi; il fut depouille de l'autorite souveraine, le qua- 
trieme jour du mois de Sha'ban de cette meme aniiee. 

Le septieme des reis des Turks fut al-Malik al-Mansour Saif ad-Din Ka- 
laoun al-Alfi as-Salihi; il monta sur le trone, le cinquieme jour du mois de 
Sha'ban, de l'annee 678', dans la Forteresse de la Montagne, la bien gardee. 
On envoya les heureuses nouvelles de cet evenement dans tout l'empire 
musulman'-; un mamlouk d'al-Malik al-Mansour fit la route entre le Caire 
et Damas, en doux jours et sept heures, ce qu'on n'avait jamais vu avant lui. 
Au moment de son intronisation, toutes les troupes lui preterent le serment 
de fidelite; on battit les tambours, et on pavoisa les villes durant sept jours. 

Cette meme annee, dans les derniers jours du mois de Shavval, on iit 

1. Moufazzal a tout confondu, suivant sou liabitude : Soulamish fut detrone le 
dimanche 4 Sha'ban (i78, et Kalaoun s'est assis sur le tröne, le dimanche 20 Radjab de 
cette annee : ^ji3! ^-r^^j j^ i-f ^j^j^^ Acs.^1 >ji ^ LvLLJ! ^Ji^sr' ^U ^^-1?-^ (No- 
wairi, man. arabe 1578, folio 105 v°). — 2. Cnmprcndrc l'empire mamlouk, cl non pas les 
pays musulmans du Maghrib. 



476 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [312] 

jj-äLJI vil-UI jÜäXüI dJJ.»^ jIaäLJI ^j^V /^-^^ («L_a- ^^r*^^ o'-^j ^^^^ t5-^ 
Mol. 71 r°. j^j, T^Vl lyLLJ-l ip:u>Jl ^i ^ * JjVl ^1 jl^ lUlä >iVi >.:- ^;y_-vJl ^_^ 

^^Vi ^S^ iV"*^' (J—*-^ ,vr°^ ^-^-' ^■^^^^ tS'^ iV* ^r~^ »jj^l '»jw^l 4jl-ii. jlS 

dl;' J cL»«j ®^l.L<3l vil,Ul »^ilj iilLJl c^i J i.,iiJl ^)i Llx_Ji jU ^^^ 

_^'-lw 1;^" ÜLki.') jjJaÄ) ^pl_jJl x~«j>- «-« ')__^'Vl "^-XJb aJ Ui,l»-j /»-r^Vj JP^äJi <£.LJ| 



fol. 71 r' 



voyager Izz ad-Din, roi des emirs, de Damas an Gaire, sous bonne g^ardc. 
Le vingtieme jour du mois de Zilhidjdja, l'emir Hosam ad-Din Latchin ' 
as-Silahdar, mamlouk du sultan al-Malik al-Mansour, arriva k Damas, ayaut 
en sa possession un rescrit lui enjoignant de descendre ä la citadelle, et 
de s'y installer, ce qu'il fit". 

L'emir Shams ad-Din Sonkor al-Ashkar en con^ut des soupgons sur ses 
projets. Dans les dix premiers jours du mois de Zilhidjdja, les emirs qui 
avaicnt un commandement ä Damas s'accorderent avec l'emir Shams ad-Din 
Sonkor al-Ashkar pour l'elever ä la souverainete ; Sonkor al-Ashkar s'em- 
barqua dans cette aventure^ et les emirs lui preterent serment de fidelite. 
Lorsque fut arrivee la soiree du vendredi, quatorzieme jour' du mois de 
Zilhidjdja, Temir Shams ad-Din Sonkor al-Ashkar partit ä cheval du Palais 
de la Feiicite pour se rendre ä la citadelle, avec l'appareil de la roj-aute, et il 
prit le titre d'al-Malik al-Kamil. 

A ce moment, il fit arreter Allchaligh '' et Latchin"; les autrcs emirs 
lui preterent serment, ainsi que toutes les troupes, en presence des kadis. 
Ensuite, il envoya Saif ad-Din Balaban al-Habishi' dans toutes les villes de 
Syrie, et dans les forteresses de cette contr^e, pour se faire prcler sermcnl 

1. Co nom est mongol; il designe une sorte d'epervier. — 2. l'our surveillcr les 
agissements du gouverneur, Sonkor al-Ashkar. — 3. Litt. « il partit pour la chasse » ; 
en fail, c'elail Sonkor al-Ashkar i|ui avait intrigue avec les ('inirs pour s'elevcr ä la 
souverainete de la Syrio. — 4. Le vingt-quati-(^ de ce mois, dans Nowairi, man. arab(! 
1578, fol. 107 recto. — 5. iiokn ad-Din al-Adjami Allchaligh al-Salihi, qui avait refuse 
de lui pröter serment (Nowairi, man. arabe 1578, fol. 107 recto). — ti. Mosam ad-Din 
Laichin, gouverneur de la citadelle, ibid. — 7. Le nom de cet olTicier ne parail pas 
dans le Manlial; Nowairi le nomme z—'-^^ ^,y Toba al-Hahishi, ibid.; ce nom est lo 
niongol dobo « coUine ». 



[313] IHSTOIRK DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 477 

^a)1 ja. ^y Ijjj «l^ ^<L«)1 üjU^ JJs ^ A-iuJI <ui-l ->^ ^J\ ytÜiJl j,l 

®<Ü JUsJlj -u*_'l ciUl Jli^ j^J^,,.; t>;' -'^o^-' 

^^^Lö) Ju.L^l cLUl ._^UJ1 ,yLiVl ^^ (3^-*i f^^ ' ^/^ ..JjilJlj jjj>ls ♦ loi. 71 v 



(par les ofiicicrs ijui les commandaient); il eiivoya de meme des expres dans 
cette intention au souverain de Hamali et au gouverneur d'Alep. Sliams ad- 
Din Sonkor al-Ashkar exerc^a rautorite souveraiuo, faisant executer ses ordres 
et rospccter ses defenses, jusqu'en l'annee 679, comme cela sera raconte 
plus loin, s'il plait ä Allah, le tres-haut. 

Cette meme annee, le vingt-deuxieme jour du mois de Zilka'ada, on 
celebra le service iunebre d'al-Malik as-Sa'id, daus laForteresse de la Mou- 
tagne ; le sultan al-Malik al-Mansour revetit des habits blancs " pour paraitrc 
i^i cette ceremonie. Cette meme annee, les olUciers d'al-Malik al-Mansour 
prirent possessiou de la forteresse de Shaubak, qui leur fut livree par 
la garnison qui capitula. Ils la firent demanteler. 

Le prince qui y regnait, Nadjm ad-Din Ivhidr, fds du (sultan al-Malik) 
az-Zahir, en etait parti pour aller chercher un asile chez son frere, (al-Malik) 
as-Sa'id, avaiit que Tarmec (d'al-Malik al-Mansour Kalaoun) ne soit venue 
l'assieger. 

Cette annee, mourut IJadr ad-Üin Mohammad iljn Berke-Khan, oncle 
maternel d'al-Malik as-Sa'id. Louanges soient rendues ä Allah! 

Au commencement d(! l'annee 679, le khalife al-Hakim exergait la 
souverainete spirituelle, coiiinir prccedemment ; le' sultan d'Egypte etait 
al-Malik al-Mansour Kalaoun, et l'usurpateur, en Syrie, ä Damas, Sonkor ' ^jI. :i v 
al-Ashkar, qui s'etait parc du titrc d'al-Malik al-Kamil; le prince de lia- 
mah reg-nait comme les annees antecedentes. 



-o 



1. Ce qui elail la couleur du grand deuil ; al-Malik al-Sa'id elail son gendre. 



478 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [314] 

®\_^ 'bi Ol Iji-oi ^^ j!„j iA-j •LiUl '1 jLiI «oA. ^ sLl. 'I^Vli j^i 

Sr" (V° "^>--^ t.5-*ir^^ ö^". ^J^r»^'^ tlr;."^^ '— ^ -.-rr*"^'^ '^3 fj^^ -^ (^^' (J-5 
^_jisj i-UIf-l U ^It ^^ ,_<^ aJ ji^.-r.: Jl viJLLjl /j^ ^15 iA) (J^J j^^-alJI di-LJl 

Sii e--JL£ X»" ®i«JU)l j >,Xs. «Ojilj "U^lj AjLö) ^1 .».Üaj <tiyi CäT Jjj— ÜIj jtUl 

"oA)! Ai. f^'it Cf^ " C-^^i^'J ^ V^ Jl A_r _^ajjl .Sl.,,.«'! (Jj.«ffi) r'-^*" 1,5 "4>^. C^3 

'^0^,"^^' (V 3 L?"™' i.?'^^-' (^'-^' ' >^>^3 ^^— »-^1 |_g-Ai ': „ ,., t ,^3 ,_$^,»_j3 (.5t^^ 

1. Man. .j.rA.UL> ^j.^»J! ,,jjj| >_a.._. — 2. 11 faul lire ,..-J-H.Jl. — 3. Man. 
ij:^jx5C>. — 4. Man. (i.U^. — 5. Lire .y..^li Hj^'j- 



Le premier jour de rannee, le jeudi, Sonkor al-Ashkar parlit ä cheval 
de la forteresse de Damas, pour se rendre ä THippodrome (vert), entoure 
de la pompe de la royaute; puls, il s'en retourna k la citadelle; cc fut uii 
jour de grande fete. Quand il sortit par la porte Bab as-Sirr, les emirs mar- 
chant devant lui, il fit im signe ä la foule de la main, et la salua: les gens 
adresserent au ciel de nombreuses invocations pour sa telicitc. 

Le douzieme jour. du mois de Moharram, Temir Saif ad-Din, suraomiiic 
Balabau al-Karimi', arriva, en qualite d'ambassadeur d'al-Malik al-Mansour; 
il apportait une lettre de ce souverain, dans laquelle se trouvaient des 
remontrances nombreuses sur les desseins qu'avait l'ormes Sonkor al-Ashkar; 
il lui demandait de faire la paix, et de rentrer sous son obeissance. Sonkor 
al-Ashkar se rendil au-devant de l'emir; il le combla de marques d1ion- 
neur, et il le fit descendre chez lui, dans la citadelle. 

Ensuite, immediatement, arriva un courrier, lequel apportait la uouvelle 
que les troupes egyptiennes etaient arrivees devant Ghaza, qu'elles etaient 
commandces par les emirs Alam ad-Din al-Halabi, HaTsari, Rishtoghdi ash- 
Shamsi, Bektout al-"Alayyi, Bektash au-Nadjnii, et (|ue ces offieiers mar- 
chaient sur Danias". 

1. jbijJI e*Jt-C3' ,.,Lb .jjjl s_i~- f-*^l « l'emir Sait ad-lJin Baiaban al-Karimi 

al-'.Mayyi », «lans Nowai'ri (man. arabe IhlS, fol. 107 i-ecto , doiit la le(,'on ne l'ail pas 

(lo doiite; traprüs NowaTri, cet timir arriva le 8; il est possilile quo Moufazzal ait Irouve 

(lans UM niauvais manuscrit, ou li^ ccipisti' de Mcuilazzai. dans le lirouilloii de son maitre. 

i^^S ^Ll) ,.►>--!' •«_i— . et niLÜ en ait l'ait ^S a.I"j ^ .:«^J' .iJ--l ^_i— pour cssavcr 

i_r -v • C^- ' yj ■ — ^^ \^'- ■■ ' 

de le gloscr. — 2. I'our venir alta(|ucr Sonkor al-Ashiiar. 



[315], HISTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. '.79 

J^ j JjJ f^^^ ^t^ '^^ '^'' ^-r^'j V^' jy^'^ er* errrt^' ■^^ f ® J^:> 



3. 



1. Lire J^H, commc dans Aboul-Mahasin, man. arabe 178'i, folio 12 verso. — 2. f.irc 
.,._U-'I. - 3. Lire .^-U-M J^-^l ^<''.. - 4. Man. ^.-.wc-'i. 



Apres cela, al-Habishi' s'en revint des forteresses de S^ric; il apportait 
la nouvelle qu'il avait fait preter dans toutes las citadelles le serment de fide- 
lite (ä Soiikor al-Aslikar), et qu'il avait mis dans chacune d'elles un gou- 
verneur ponr y exercer Tautorite en son nom. 

L'historien a dit : Quand fut arrive le quinzieme jour du mois de Safar, 
l'armee egyptienne et Tarmee syrienne se rencontrerent. Au moment meme 
oü elles prirent contact", l'armee de Hamah, les troupes d'Alep, et la 
majorite des emirs de Syrie, deserterent, et passerent du cöte des Egyptiens. 

(Juand Sonkor al-Aslikar vit cela •\ il prit lui-meme la fuite avec les 
emirs qui se trouvaient avec lui, qui etaient al-Hadjdj Ezedemur, 'Ala * loi. 72 r. 
ad-Din al-Keupeki\ Kara-Sonkor al-Mou'izzi, et al-Habishi". Auparavant, 
dans la soiree du vendredi", Sonkor al-Ashkar avait envoye ses fils, ses appro- 
visionnemcnts, et le grand maitre de sa maison ä Sihyaoun. Quand il eut ete 
vaincu, les Arabes Tentrainerent en dehors du champ de bataille, et le con- 
duisirent dans la Ghouta', puls ils entrerent dans la prairie*, monterent dans 

i. Salt' ad-Din Toba al-Habishi, voir page 476. — 2. Litt. « oii Tceil se trouva en 
face de Van\ (de l'ennemi) ». — 3. D'apres Nowairi (man. arabe 1578, fol. 107 v°), 
Sonkor al-Ashkar fut battu ä al-Hasoiira 5,j — x^' : il etait parti de Damas le 12 Safar 
(379; la bataille eut liyu le J5. Aboul-Mahasin, Noudjoum, man. arabe 1784, folio 12 
v°, nomme al-Djasoura 5,^*-==^', le lieu de la bataille. — 4. .M-Keupeki signifie « mam- 
louk de Keupek » ; Keupek signitie « le chien », en turk-oriental. — 5. Nowairi, dans le 
recit de ces evenements (man. arabe 1578, folio 107 verso), nomine cet otTicier Sait ad- 
Din Balaban al-Habishi, commr Moufazzal (page 47()) ; il n'y a pas a douter qu'il ne soit 
le meme que celui qu'il appelle autre pari Sai'f ad-Din Toba al-Habishi. — G. 13 Safar 

ibid.). — 7. Nom du pays de Damas, ä 18 milles ä l'entour de la ville. — 8. Parmi les 
localites qui sy trouvent, Yakout i\ , 488) cite Mardj Rahit, Mardj al-Soffar, Mardj 

Azza. 



480 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. .[316] 

^^ ^y^, \ 13-Uasj '^.jr" 'j*^J 7r^r»J' Uiä-iJ <i>»iJI ,3 Aj IjjL-j ^Jl ^xi ^yJl 

w-^U ^ji=yi\ j>_-OI '>U Mjj'l^ p,,T! :p ®U_y_ ^^jl J^_jC!1 iÄA J\ liJJJL ^ ^^ 
1. II faudrait la forme du duel U^ twj', comme plus loin. 



la Barriyya', et ils se reudirent avec lui aux tentes de Sharaf ad-Din ibn. 
Mohanna. 

Sonkor al-Ashkar descendit chez Sharaf ad-Din, et implora sa protec- 
tion, que cclui-ci lui accorda; puis il partit avec lui pour ar-Rahba ■. Le 
laps de temps qui s'etait ecoule depuis le nioment 011 il avait ete reconmi 
comme souverain jusqu'ä cette defaite aVait ete de quarante jours. 

Sonkor al-Ashkar et Sharaf ad-Din ecrivirent alors a 'Ala ad-Din al- 
Djouvaini'', qui etait le chef de l'administration ä Baghdad, et le gouverneur 
du pays d'Irak. 'Ala ad-Din ecrivit ä Abagha, roi des Tatars (pour lui ap- 
prendre les aventures de Sonkor al-Ashkar). Ala ad-i)in al-Djouvaini envoya 
des gens pour faire des promesses ä Sonkor al-Ashkar et ä Sharaf ad-Din, 
pour leur faire prendre le temps en patience, jusqu'au nioment oü reviendrait 
la reponse d'Abagha, avec ce qu'il aurait decide*. 

Plusieurs fakirs^ vinrent trouver Sonkor al-Ashkar; ils hlämerent son 
Intention de passer chez les Mongols, et lui dirent : « Allah le tres-haut 
t'a sauve de l'inlidelite; il a repandu sur toi les bienfaits de l'lslani '', et tu 

1. Nom du deserl qui s'etend entre la Syrie et l'Kuphrate. — 2. Qui etait sur la 
frontiere mongole. Nowai'ri (man. arabe 1578, fol. 108 recto) dit que Sonkor al-Ashkar 
avait ete abandonne en route par la plupart de ses partisans. Le gouverneur de Rahba, 
MouwalFik ad-Din Khidr, refusa de lui rendro la ville. — 3. Djouvaini est l'auteur 
dune liistoire des Mongols, en langue pcrsane, le T/iri/:h-i Djiliangoiislia, dans la- 
quelle Bar Hebreus et l'auteur du Masalik al-absar ont puise leurs renseignements 
sur ces conquerants. — 4. Soit d'acrueillir li:s i'ugitil's, snit de leiir inlerdire rentree 
de ses domaines. — 5. Ces fakirs n'oni pas d'exist(?noL' legale dans l'lslam ; ce sont 
de saints personnages, des soufis, et dos devots, qui jouissenl d'un grand credit aupri-s 
de leurs coreligionnaircs, et qui se permcltent, le cas eclieant, d'adresser des remon- 
Irances aux puissants du jour, comme, plus d'une fois, les lellres chinois ont crilique les 
actcs du Fils du Ciel. — 6. Allusion ä ce fai(, que les mamlouks etaient de recenls 
converlis; Sonkor al-AsJikar, coiunu' Ions ces miliriens, elait d'origine lurkc ou mon- 



[317] HISTOIÜK DKS SULTANS MAMLOl'KS. /,8! 

•^jj m-*^^ •* '^ ®^i-Le^3 iJlUl Ij^ Jl jj-^asJl Jl «AL;' ji ^^äIäJIj viJ äJ 

<c^ ^Ui J ^^^j, ^% Jl ^/C<,llj jj.^ J\ ^:>j\ ^UJlj j^-,-= Jl '^3 

^*^y\ ^r*^^ C?r^' O*-"^' ^ Jj-'J öri^^r^^ l_j^bl i^U ^jüS)»\ y^-^ w!3^ • fol. 72v". 

*;_^ ii,li!L ^_^_-»jl!I ^_g j.;.:. .^■'>3 jIj^I ^U ^_gdl xjIjo r^«*"^' öi-"^^ J^J j'-*-^^ 

j\xiy>^\ J^-Ol v_i~- ^r;;^Vl j^ii:>- iiiyl\ ^y Jl" Jj ®ij|jo ijy>J^')j\i, ~jb^t-l 
jJWi ^aJI J>jJ j^V j,_jJ1 (.L^ jiUlj ^jLSi\ JL^ k^ ^ l^\ Jy^ 



1. Man. omet «. — 2. Lire ,liil:iw' .^ iJ^. 



vas retourner ä rinfidelite. Tu seras ainsi la cause que les Tatars vont mar- 
clier contre les Musulmans, et cela pour satisfaire les passions de ton äme. 
Ce qu'il te convient de faire, e'est de monter dans los chäteaux l'orts oü se 
trouvent ta fauiille et tes l'emmes. » 

Sonkur ul-Ashkar ' ccouta ces paroles, et prit le chemin du retour; il 
monta ä Siliyaouii, al-lladjdj Ezedemur ä Shaizar, al-Keupeki ä Balatonos; 
il entreprit de ramener la paix entre lui et al-Malik al-Mansour, comme cela 
sera mentionne plus loin, s'il plait ä Allah le tres-haut. 

Quant ä Tarmöe de Damas, apres la fuite de Sonkor al-Ashkar, eile fit 
sa jonction avec los Egyptiens. Alani ad-üin al-llalabi descendit au al- 'fol. 72 v». 
Kasr al-ablak, dans THippodrome-, Tzz ad-Din al-Afram, dans son hötel, 
pri-s de 1 llippodnjme, Kishtoghdi ash-Shamsi, dans la citadelle, parce qu'il 
etait ostaddar, al-Aidemuri, dans sa maison. 

Le lendemain de la bataille, Temir Saif ad-Din, le tchoukandar, qui 
etait gouverneur de la citadelle au nom de Sonkor al-Aslikar, arriva; 
il rendit la liberte ä Hosam ad-Din Latcliin, ä ilokn ad-Din Altchaligh, et ä 
Taki ad-Din Toba'', apres leur avoir fait jurer qu'ils n'attenteraient pas ä son 

gole, et son pire, son grand-pere au plus, avait professe, ou le Bouddlüsme, ou le 
iNIanicheisme, ce dont les fakirs avaient, comme lui, une pleine conscience. 

1. Nowairi (man. arabe 1578, fol. 108 recto) dit que plusieurs des gouverneurs des 
places de Syrie se refuserent ä reconnaitre la souverainete de Sonkor al-Ashkar, qui 
venait d'etre battu. D'autres lui resterent fideles dans Fadversite, et le reconnurent; 
tcls furent ceux de Sihyaoun, Barzouyya ^'\y, Shaizar, Iloms, Akkar. — 2. Le celebre 
Hippodrome vert. — 3. Ce Taki ad-Din Toba avait ete arrete par ordre de Sonkor 
aJ-Ashkar, en meme temps qu'Altchaligh et Latchin fNowairi, man. arabe 1578, folio 



482 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [318] 

^UJI ^^1 ^•'^='1^ ji^-«-5 o^l jL«^ C>-i-)l ^^1' ^r'^ ^ ''-^^. JJJ X." ®jl-»wJL 
jLvii- j^l ^jj^AJi jj~»-i ,c^^' J>--~i r^^'-' ■^''J "'^" '--^■^ <^ j^3 \j~>~-*-*^^ 

1. Lire ._y:>^.,ijw.M V^', ou .^~)j^^j! L^l, ce qui conslitue une le(;on inferieure. — 
2. Lire aUi ^t:;;^, ou iSxS) w^;^. — 3. Lire ^-'Ji-> un « courrier », ou -\;i-J! « la 
poste ». — 4. Lire ^J^»-aJ! äcUäj. — 5. Lire AJ"i!. — 6. Lire ^1. 



existence quaiid il les aurait fait sortir de-leur prison. Ensuite, il ordonna 
d'ouvrir la porte de la citadelle, et les gens recouvrerent la tranquillite. 

Quand les einirs egyptiens furent eutres k Danias, comine cela vieiit 
d'etre raconte, on battit les tambours, oii pavoisa la ville, et la population 
se trouva completeraent rassuree. Puls, on arreta le vizir de Sonkor al- 
Ashkar, Ibn Kasirat, et l'inspecteur de Tadministration, lequel etait Djamal 
ad-I)in ibn Sasari; en meme tenips, on arreta le kadi des kadis, Ibn Khal- 
likan, et on l'interna chez al-Halabi, dans rilippodrome. 

Apres cela, un courrier du Caire arriva ä Damas apportant Famnistie 
pour les liabitunts de cette ville; al-Halabi fit venir le kadi Shams ad- 
Diii ibn Kliallikan, qui fit la lecture de la lettre du sultan; on remit en 
liberte Madjd ad-Din ibn Kasirat, ainsi que les gens qui avaient ete 
arretes. 

Avant ces evencments, il etait arrivü un rescril du sultan, qui enjoignait 
de pendre le kadi Sliams ad-Din ibn Rhallikan, parce qu'il avait donne aux 
gens de Damas un avis juridique leur permettant de couibattre al-llalabi et les 
troupes egyptieunes; ensuite, on rcQut la lettre accordant Famnistie ä 
Ions les coupables, apres un paragraphe dans lequel il rtail dit : « Vous 
nous avez traites comnie des mecreants, mais cst-cr que Sonkor al-Aslikar 
serail de la famille d"Abbas, par liasard? » 

107 reclo). II est essentiellement dilTerent de Sail' ad-Din Toba al-llabislii [ibid.; voir 
page 476, nole 7). 



[3li)] UISTOIHF; DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /,83 

jU,jVI f_y_ jo UJs ®yb ^1^'' t-LJ j^ ^XiVI ^/L_s r-j'j^ l;_^.»ll«=- j»<Cjl aJ Jl» 

^^ i^^r^"^' ^-"^^ *'— ^ ^^'^' W^' ^-H ^^ ^-*ii;; ^^5 ^L'"^'^ "^J 0=r-^-5 li-^^ 

Jj ®l^ ciUl iJ^j bUj>- v_,^LJ "-Mj^Uj" ^I-«^3 xjb_j.'l. iy * ^>.a!1 (-1^3 üaJUl » f,ji. -a i 

.1^" Jl jl-L^il ^^ <, ^.rf>-jj ^LJI ix,l^ ^^V j>_^\ ^L^ ^^Vl i^j jij^l 

^^. **— ^ cT^J (I^."^' f^— =- ^^r*^'' »-^vJ i*v*r*t^ 'l>^-/' J"'^ '-'^I 'j-^3 ^-*-^ ^ö«iÄ)l 
r^. J kr'-? ■•'^'^ "^^^y ^^. f'j '^^ '*-4/. J^ t5-^' ^-'^'^ r"" -'Ir* >^^' >-*' 

^" jl^ L l_^iL-l3 ^1 ^^ Jj,\ Ij-L^lj „l^Ji Iy>l3 _l> Jl ^^Vl3 jUl 



1. Lire f-^li' .'Jb. — 2. Lire .'JiJ'. — 3. Lire 



Le raercredi, vingt et unieme jour du mois de Rabi' prämier, un courrier 
arriva (du Caire), apportant un diplome qui investissait l'emir Hosam ad-Diu 
Latcliin de la charge de vice-roi de Damas, et Taki ad-Din Toba ' des fonc- 
tions de vizir. II apportait egalement un dipIöme au nom du prince de llamali, »toi. :3r 
(>t les vetements royaux qui lui conteraient la souverainete dans cette 
ville. 

Le jeudi, toutes iestroupes de Üamas et cellesd'Egypte, qui etaient venues 
avec al-llalabi, monterent ä chevul, et se rendirent ä la parade, ä l'Hippo- 
(Iroiiii'; on y rcvetit Teinir Hosam ad-Din Latchiii des vetements lui con- 
fcrant l'investiture de la vice-royaute ; puis, les Iroupes s'en revinrent de 
rilippodrome jusqu'au-dessous de la citadelle -. (^)uand elles arriverent ä 
la Porte Bab as-Sirr, tout le nionde mit pied ä terre; Temir Hosam ad-Din 
Latcliin descendit egalement de clieval, et baisa par trois fois le seuil de 
la porte ßab as-Sirr. Al-Halabi voulut Taider ä se remettre en seile, mais 
Latcliin nc voulut poiut accepter cette oflre, et l'emir ne le fit pas par defe- 
rence pour lui. 

Cetle meme annee, le dimanclie, seizieme jour du mois de Üjouiuada 
second, arriverent (ä Damas) les premiers groupes des gens qui s'^taient 
eiifuis d'Alep, de Hamali et de Hoiiis, par suite de l'invasion que les Tatars 
et les Armeniens avaient faite k Alep, oü ils avaient incendie la grande 
mosquee; les gens de Sis' s'etaient empares de la chaire ä precher, et ils 

1. Voir page 481, note. — 2. Laquelle domino l'Hippodrome. — 3. Les Armeniens 
de Cilicie. 



'fol.-Sv 



4R4 MOUFAZZAL 1B\ ABIL-FAZAII. [320] 

®j.UJIj ^^*.> ^Sl^«!l Ä.*f>-3 »[_,^V1 ^'U a) ^ia-j üAjC 13 <».L>j ^3-j ^^ J ,lfc 
•U.L [i\s jL:;!! '^_j=^ ^„, isji ^1 [j^yj jlLUI ^l^j J ^^LJl j4=^" j^-' 
^y J>;^^ 'j-*-*-^ Wä!I ^_^>^ j IjJj ®^.i.-.^ J>=*-H (»^J ^r^ es^^ *r-J tn^Jf"-' 

'■ jj-2> .j^^~^3 >* (_s="^^'' j^ ij;.-*^^ ^:"" (V" '-b-'-? -^Lp^' O'^^J 'r^L'^^ ^^ 

1. Lire li3l. 



avaieat saccage ce qui etait coiistruit', puis ils s'en etaient retournes sains 
et saufs. 

Cette annee, le sultaii al-Malik al-Mansour confera ä son fils, al-Malik 
as-Salih 'Ala ad-Diu 'Ali, au mois Je Radjab, las prerogatives de la puis- 
sance souveraine, et il le iiomrna son heritier presomptif. 11 lui fit preter 
serment de lidelile par tous les emirs et par toiites les troupes d'Egypte et 
de Syrie. 

Ensuite, les troupes partireut sous le commaiidement du sultan, et inar- 
clierent vers Ghaza, ä cause de linvasion que les Tatars avaient faite (du 
cöte d'Alep). Quand le sultan apprit que les Tatars avaient battu eu retraite, 
il reprit le chemin de l'Egypte, et il n'entra pas ä Damas. 
lui. 7.Jv°. Cette nieme annee, le vendredi '..., les Francs nioaterent de Markab '', 
et battirent une partie de Tarmee musulinane. La cause en tut (jue Ton 
avait detache de Damas un corps de niille cavaliers du cüte de Markab et 
de la Citadi'llc des Kurdes. L'eniir Sa'it" ad-Din Balaban at-Tabbaklii etait 
parti avec eux, en raeme temps que les troupes qui se trouvaient ä la Cita- 
delle des Kurdes, liuit cents cavaliers turkomans, et deux mille hommes de 
pied. Ces Forces se dirigerent du cöte des Francs, et elles pönetrerent (sur 
leur territoire) par un delile. Les Francs marcherent contra Tarmee musul- 

1. Cette forme est liarbare et une fautc grossiere pour J « lä-bas »; Moufazzal 
avait ecrit ^ pour J, avec la forme recourbee du > mim final, qui ressemble ä la 
ligalurc y, le copiste, ne comprenant pas le mot h-', ;i pensö que Moufazzal avait oublie 
une lettre, et a reslilue v*»J ; il s'ensuit qu'il faul comprendrc : « ils saccagerenl ce 
quil y avait lä-bas ». — 2. La date manque dans le manuscrit. — 3. Markab appar- 
tenait cn eilet aux Francs; eile ne ful conquise par les Musulmans qu'en 684 (Nowai'ri, 
man. arabe 1578. fol. 113 r"). 






.32r IIISTOIHK DP.S SUf.TANS MAMI.OUKS. 485 

jiAI* Jj-^-L_JI J>. ^Js.j Ij^^-Clj ^C^JI ' ,zA,_ Ji rcJ_yi)l ^»jJt »ALs ,J-ä. jl^ 

'il^Cc J^j J^>j 1^3 Jl ^1^ ^L_x.lL •q^^l jIa,I1 ^ j^^-^l dlL.I| jlUJl 

1. I,ire s.:^^, par suile de la coiifusiün du ^^ et du ^,. — 2. Man. iiy _p.!; il faul 
naturellcnient lire hy ^iv' ^"^^1 ^1. — 3. Lire .^-y; Celle crreur grossiere mon- 
tre la conl'usion absolue du O et du ^,. — fi. Man. K!i^; cette forme Uk est indubi- 
lablement une faute du copiste pour LCx, qui est pour Ki, d'oü Ton voit que l'auteur 
confondait Ic ~ /m ot Ic o 'ai/i, lesquel.s sont des arliculations qui correspondent ä des 
regislres essentiellement difTerents. 



niaiii', qui iie put leur resister, et qui f'ul battue; dans ce combat, furenttues, 
du cüte des Musulmans, deux cents hommes, taut cavaliers que fautassins. 

Cette aunöe, on regut la uouvelle que les fds du frere de ßerke ' avaient 
marclie contrc les Tatars, qu'ils s'etaient enipares de; leurs tentes -, qu'ils les 
avaieut battus par deux fois, et que les Tatars se trouvaient, du fait (de 
cette aggressiou) de leurs adversaires, dans une Situation di^sesperee '. 

Cette annee, tont au commencement du mois de Zilhidjdja, le sultan 
al-Malilv al-Mansour partit du Caire avec l'armee, et il vint camper ä ar- 
Roiiha, 011 il regul les ambassadeurs de Saint-Jean d'Acre^; il resta ü al- 
llouiia jusqu'au commencement de l'annee G80. Cette meme annee, Ic jour 
de 'Aral"a% il tomba en Egypte une averse considerable de grele, et une 
quantite Enorme de cereales qui venaient d'ötre semees furent aneanties. Le 



1. Les souverains mongols de la Horde d'Or, a Sarai, sur la Volga. — 2. 0:»-j 
tradiiit ici le terme mongol ^^^-^^ oghruk, qui designe les campements des Mongols. 
— 3. II s'agit ici d'une incursion des Mongols de la Horde d'Or sur les terres des 
Mongols de l'Iran, qui, dans Moufazzal, sont nommes Tatars; cotnme les princes du 
royaume de Tchagliatai, les khans de la Horde, par Jalousie, nourrissalent contre les 
Mongols de Tauris et de Maragha une haine inassouvissable. — 4. Makrizi dit formelle- 
ment qu'uiic Irevo fut conclue a ar-Roulia entre 1(> sultan et les Chevaliers de l'Hopital, 
lesquels se trouvaient ä Saint-.Iean d'Acre. Plusieurs localites nommees ar-Houlia sont 
citees par Yakout, II, .S2i), mais elles n'ont rien a faire avec celle dont il est question ici; 
Aboul-Mahasini.Vo«c(/()///rt, man. arabe 1784, folio 14 recto) dit qu'ar-Roulia dependait 
administrativemunt du Sahel, c'est-a-dire de la Palestine : Jo.LJ' J^ ^ '^^j-"- — 
5. I.e neuvieme jour du mois de Zilhidjdja. 

PAin. CR. — T. XIV. — 1-. 3. 32 



486 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [322] 

®^^j>'J\ <k=-jJl i__pl JD3 ^ ^J- ^jijJl 3i^\ ^ i-iAi'j jS :s^ lSj.jij3^ 

jj.^ilJI iJJLUJl *!>l-Vi jlk.L-3 aJIä. oUJl ^.iLUJIj \lX^i ijc'^'' ■*"" v:ul=-^3 

lj=-yu _)y^:LAi\ JJ..UJ13 ^^iLiVi _/^-^ iV'-*^' iT-^"' j~^^ -*--; -'^rr^3 (r-^-^3 Oyx^b 

^3j S^^lL;^]? |\>-*JI cl~=- .^r-^-o^ v-oUlj iy^ if.'^'^ ("L,;- Ijj ^5ülj JUi-«-i (_j)^ 
\« «i-Uja- Ä.^ i5 *^ '-' — '^ '<■' j^ \r^^ (3 lJ^J OAJiS ^ii__« «Llül ÜAA 

^_«j; ^r^VI Ale- Ji LsL-j i_,J_S ■itU=- ^ loj c]a;j,$ ci — «j (iiJV'j L$"^^' — •' 
1. Lire a^^.:' , ,.^\ v^CU!.. — 2. Man. , ^<vjl. 



plus fort de cette averse s'abattit sur la partie de l'Egypte qui est voisiue 
de la mer. 

Au comiiiencement de Tannee 680, le khalife al-Hakim regnait dans le 
menie Statut quo les annöes autecedeutes; le sultan de Flslaiu etait al-Malik 
al-Mansour; Siliyaoun, Balatouos, ShaTzar, se trouvaient en la possession 
de Temir Sliams ad-Din Soiikor al-Aslikar; le sullan al-Malik al-Mansour 
etait en route pour Damas, oü Hosam ad-l)iii Latchiu exergait les lonctions 
de vicc-roi. En Egypte, le vice-roi etait Hosam ad-Din Dourouuadai. 

Cette anneo, Kuuduk fut an-rte, et on le noya dans le lac de Tiberiade. 
Voici quelle fut la cause de cet evenement : Kunduk avait complote avec 
plusieurs eniirs, parmi lesquels se trouvaient h^teniisli as-Sa'di, Balaban 
al-Harouni, et une troupe considerable de inamlouks, dont la majorite etaient 
des Tatars', cl ils avaient decide, lorsqu'ils arriveraicut ä lluiuia Haisjin-, 
fui.Tir. pres du gue, sur le .lourdain, d'assassiner le sultan en cet endroit. 

Baisari apprit ce complot, et il le porLa ä la connaissance du sultan. Le 
sultan voulut faire apprehender les conjures, mais il ne pul nictlre la nuiin 
que sur Ivunduk. (^)uand as-Sa'di et al-Harouni ap|trirent que Kundnk avait 
ele capture, ils monlerent a ciieval avec une trou[)L' nonibreuse, et ils se 
rendirent aupres de TiMnir Sliams ad-!)in Sonkor al-Ashkar'. (^>nant a 

1. C'est-ä-dirc des Mongols, comine lui-mt^me. — 2. Bai'saii, dit Yakout, L 788, est 
une ville sur le Jourdain, sur los l'ronlieres de la Syrie. Le lieu dil Ilomra Bai'san n'est 
pas fite dans Yakout. — .'?. Lequol s'etait revolto conlre l'autorite de Kalaoun, comnie 
on l'a vu jiliis haut, et s'etait renda ä Siliyaoun, apres avoir tente de passer cliez les 



} 



[323 llisroiur, l)RS SULTANS MAMI.OUKS. A87 

\.\ j clAji jl^ lil 4,1 Jli' c.U_^ üi_. UJ jlLUl jl^3 tölj^ Asjii i-'^ i,r^_ 



^ ^j^\ ^_i]J>. IjiL. Ua,'1 sj^j^l iLü l;l JÜ ^^Ujl IjUi ajCu JI3J J v_~— 11 




1. Lire 'jLi'U — 2. Lire UjX-». — 3. Lire -».\£». — 4. Lire ,.fS. 



KunJiik, Temir Hosam ad-Diu Dourounadai le prit, el il Ic couduisit au lac 
de Tiberiade, dans lequel il le uoya. 

Lors(jiie Ic sultaii se fiil ciiiparu de Kuiiduk, il liii dil : « Puisque teile 
a ete ta conduite envers le fils de ton maitre', avec lequel tu as ete instruit ä 
Fecole, qui t'avait associe ä son pouvoir souverain, puisque tu t'es ainsi 
cumpoi'te, puisque tu as provoque la chute de sou tröue, qua puis-je bien, 
moi, attendre de ta part? » Quand 011 eut fait perir Kuuduk, 011 se mit ä la 
poursuite des emirs fugitifs, dans tous les endroits et sur toutes les routes. 

Lhistorien a dit : Le sultan s'en vint ensuite camper ä Khirbat al- 
Liiusous", le septieme jourdu mois. Al-Madjdi, commandant des mamlouks 
baliris, arriva ä Damas, ayant avec lui deux conts cavaliers; il amenait 
prisonniers, Baibars al-Madjnouu, Klias Turk, ainsi que quatorze ofliciers 
superieurs de la garde particuliere du sultan. 11 les fit enfermer dans la 
ciladelle de Damas. 

Le samedi, vingtienie jour du mois de Moharram, le sultan fil son entree 
il Damas; c'etait la premiere fois qu'il y entrait en qualite de souverain; 
l'emir Badr ad-Din Baisari portait le parasol au-dessus de sa tete ; ce fut 
un jour de fete memorable; les habitants de Damas adresserent au ciel, en 
sa faveur, de nombreuses priores, et ils se rejouirent de sa venue parmi eux. 

Moiigols de Perse. Rien que Sonkor al-Ashkar eiit echoue dans sa tentative, el qu'il se 
füt vu dans l'obligatioQ d'entamer des negociations pour se soumettre, il n'en restait 
pas moins le centre de ralliement de tous les mecontents. 

1. Al-Malik as-Sa'id Berke-Khan, fds de Baibars. — 2. Ce nom signifie « la ruine 
des voleurs ». 



488 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [324] 

jl ^\j JM;> ^ (»*r^-ii ®^ '^y^jb ^ JT^ '^-^ ^JLiUjJI <] Ij^ij bj^ \^y 
* foi. -,'i v°. jLkLJl Jlsj l;l_^lj 1^ (V^j!3 ^j-lJ' (J^ Jbb ilrr**^^ * Cr* ^ "^ V "^ 

^joj:.^ ^J ^j ®/»">lwVl ^uis 4)1 *-«f-3 ^riiVI ^. .:- jj;-^^ (T-'*^ -C'"^' /" lil'Joj 
jUl jl Ij^r^'j jUia-S ,_i_i.<^ Jl ij.«3j OJI iÄ* \xi ^^Vl «--JJ 7t-L- ^ jlS UJj 
lj° n "U jLJI «-« ÜJLUI j«.-K, \.lj j»A;LtJl-lj 'Ijr^'Vl jlk.LJl «-ääS "J^Ül \)A-=ls 

1. Lire l^iT. — 2. Lire -^^1 J,' .,.-w'i. — 3. Lire JxlJ!. ■ 



Le Sultan les remercia de leur accueil. II ordomia que l'ou iie refusät 

foi. 7'f V". aucune des requetes qui lui seraieat adressees par les habitants de Damas; 

il llt remise aux gens des taxes qui leur avaieut ete imposees illegalement ', 

et il repaudit sur eux ses bieufaits et sa generosite. « Le sultan al-Malik az- 

Zahir, dit-il, detestait les habilauts de Damas ■; mais moi, je les aimo. » 

Cctte meme annee, dans la premiere decadi^ du mois de Safar, le sultau 
al-Malik al-Mausour eouclut uu arrangement avec al-Malik al-Mas"oud 
Nadjni ad-Diu Kliidr, lils d'az-Zahir\ et de meme, avec reinir Shams ad-Diu 
Sonkor al-Ashkar. Allah iit ainsi triomplier l'unite de l'Islam. 

Recit de la bataille de Homs. Quand l'ou fut parvenu ä la flu du mois de 
Habi' secoud de cette annee, des courriers arriverentä Damas, et repandirent 
la nouvelle que les Tatars etaient en niarche pour veuir envahir la Syrie. 
Le sultan reunit les emirs; il leur demanda conseil sur le plan de campagne 
qu'il fallait adopter, et sur l'endroit oü il conviendrait de leur livrer bataill(\ 
Ils tomberent tous d'accord sur ce point que la bataille devait se livrer 
dans la prairie' de Homs; le sultan avait au contraire l'intention d'aller 
aitendrc Fennomi dans la prairie de Damas ''. 

1. Ces inaztilim sont des taxes appliquees arbitrairemont, soit pai- lo pouvdir royal, 
soll par ses delegues, soit par radminislration des (inances, ce quo les Levantins nom- 
ment « avanies », soit une contribulion fixe destinee ii rcinpiacer lesditcs avanies; dans 
Tun et l'autre cas, ce sont des impöts illegaux. — 2. Voir sur ee point, page 447. — 
3. Lo fils df Baibars (Nowairi, man. 1578, foL 110 r") demandait quelque cliose en phis 
de Karak, et loul cc qu'avail j)oss('de al-Malik an-Nasir Daoud; Kalaoun refusa nalu- 
rellemonldc souscrire ä ces exigences, puis il linit par lui laisser Karak. avec ses di'-pen- 
dances; il lui cnvoya ses freres et ses soeurs, et il lui rcndit les biens de Baibars. 
Nadjm ad-Din Khidr resta ä Karak jiisqu'en ßS."), datc a laqnelle Kalaoun la lui cnleva, 
ibid., fol. 110 v°. — 4. La campagne autour de Iloms, cc que signific le mot arabe 
niavdj. — h. Homs se trouve ä cent quarantc kilomt'tres, dans le N. E., ä vol d'oiseau, 



[325J IIISTOIKK DF.S SULTANS MAMLOLKS. '■«) 

LOS ®ji^:> ^r.^ jyC j\ jikui A^" ji^3 ^j-i*^ ^^ j 'lijUi oyC jl j£. 

■'j/li Vjl ^^1 p-'-J ^^\ J J^\ J^\ Jy. >V' S^^ o^ jl^ 



1. Lire J^U'. — 2. Lire "iiJi. — :^. 11 l'audruil lire !,yv.= ^_;-^, et mieux w^.'-^ 
},^^; rnais >yu' signifie aussi bien << audio; 
palais oii le souverain accorde ses audiences » 



■'; rnais >yu' signifie aussi bien << audience, conseil de guerre » que « salle du 



Au commcncement du mois de Djoumada scrnnd, rariiiee syrienne par- 
tit, sc dirigcani vcrs al-Kosair, et eile fut suivie par l'annöc egyptiennc, corps 
par Corps, jusqu'au dimanclie, vingt-sixieme jour du mois, df^tc ä laqni^llc 
lo Sultan partit ä son tour de Damas avec ce qui restait des emirs, pour aller 
combattre rcnuemi, qui venail vers eux sans l'aide divinc '. 

Quand le sultan fut venu camper dans la prairie de Damas, il tint une 
soeonde fois un conseil de guerre. II fit connaitre aux emirs quo les courriers 
etaient arrives, apportant la nouvelle que les Tatars etaient au nombre de 
Cent mille cavaliers-, « et, ajouta-t-il, la Situation exige que nous leur livrions 



de Damas. En attendant le choc des Mongols autour de Damas, Kalaoun leur aban- 
donnait tout l'espace qui separe lloms de Damas, cn les laissant libres d'y commettre 
tous les ravages qu'il leur plairait: les omirs nc voulaient pas ceder cet espace de 
lerrain, et ils entendaient reporter le front de bataille devant Homs. Outre qu'il sacrifiait 
tout le nord de la Syrie, le plan de Kalaoun avait le defaut capital de mettre Damas 
dans la bataille, et, en cas d'echec, de la faire tomber, avec toute la Syrie, 
aux mains de l'ennemi. Son seul avantage etait de maintenir l'armee egyptienne plus 
pres de ses bases du Caire d'une quarantaine de lieues, que son avance sur le front de 
lloms: il ne contrebalangait point les dangers qu'il faisait courir ä Damas. En fait, 
Kalaoun, en voulant combattre devant Damas, songeait surtout ä sa retraite en cas de 
desastre. 

i. Parce que les Mongols, en leur qualite de bouddhistes, etaient maudits par Allah. 
— 2. L'armee mongole, commandee par Mankou-Temour, fils d'HouIagou, venait, par 
Cesaree et par Abouloustain, du pays de Roum (Nowai'ri, man. 1578, fol. 110 V); 
Nowairi dit (folio 111 r°) qu'on y comptait plus de 80.000 cavaliers mongols. Le prince 
de Mardin marchait avec eile. Dans un autre passage (fol. lil r"), Nowairi alTirme que 
Mankou-Temour avait sous ses ordres 80.000 cavaliers, dont 50.000 Mongols, le reste 
elant compose de Georgiens, de Iroupes saldjoukides, d'.Vrmeniens et de Francs, dans 
lesquels ilconvient de voir des Ryzanlins. Nowairi raconle qu'un Mongol entra ä Ilamah, 
avant la bataille, et dit au gouverneur de la ville d'envoyer a Kalaoun une de- 
liöche par pigeon voyageur, pour lui faire savoir quo le centre de Mankou-Temour 



490 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [32fi] 

jlSj i^.^r~r; '"^J c-XjLjj •ctU ^^ 0^=^* o-rf'^^ <^a-ü^ j i«-^' 0^3 ®^i ^it 
Lc>.j U ol^ jLi jaJI j^ LiJi jlkUl '^5:^__ jj jl ^ jl jlkLA! j»j^>(^ j. 

Vlj jV^^ 0' <Ä.LaJI J^ <l JU'_5 ^^ ijjj 'i^Vi L-L^^^ •U-.ltlj ,_$^=>iiÄJ1 '^^lix^i 
_^,JaÄS ^ßS)i\ ^iL- ^Ü? _^J ®^jÄ*a- ^\ J}^^J (n*^3 >-'-^'^ ^^ ^--^ dlUI ^Ij 

1. Lire U/ . — 2. Lire Lu. — 3. Lire^^^'. — 4. Man. , i.LC 



bataille daiis la prairie de Damas )>'. Mais les emirs ne i'urent pas de son 
avis sur ce pöint. 

Al-Halabi se trouvait alors ä I'avant-garde de Tarmee; il decanipa sur 
rheure, et marcha de l'avant, siiivi par Baisari. Parmi les arguments qu'ils 
servirent au sultan, fut celui-ci : « Ccrtes, si le sultan ne marche pas, nous 
foi. T5 r». irons, nous, livrer bataille ä rennenii; si le sort des armes nous favorise, 
nous reviendrons (victorieux), et nous investirons de la souverainete qui 
nous plaira, et qui nous voudrons. S'il tourne contre nous, nous mour- 
rons en braves et en heros! » Puis ils partirent tous ensemble, animes d'une 
meme ardeur, car c'etait lä un sentiment qu'Allah avait fait pcnetrer dans 
leurs Arnes pour leur donner la victoire sur leurs ennemis. 

Badr ad-üin Bektash al-Fakhri s'en vint trouver le sultan; il liii apprit 
que les emirs etaient partis, et que leur decision etait irrevocable ; il lui dit : 
« Ton interet immediat est d'aller les rejoindre, sans quoi, la souverainete 
t'echappera. » J^e sultan donna Tordre de se metire en route, et de les suivre; 
il arriva ainsi k lloms. 

II envoya un oilicier pour mander Sonkor al-Ashkar, (pii vint le rejoin- 
dre, et qui se trouva ä ses oötes, avec tous les emirs, a lloms, jires du lom- 

comptait 80.000 combattants, dont 44.000 Mongols. A l'i'poque de K;diioun, il \ avait 
encore drs Francs cn Palcslinc: niais il esl clair quo ce n'elaicnt pas enx qui niarciuiitiit 
avec les Mongols, dans une armee a laquelle les emirs egypliens voulaicnl livrer iiataille 
en avant de Homs. 

1. II est visible que Kalaoun, apprenant la puissance de l'armee mongole, eut la 
conviction qu'il scrail enfonce au premier choc; cela ne fit que le confirmer dans son 
dessein de Livrer bataille sur le front de Damas, pour ctre en etat de se replier imme- 
diatement sur Jerusalem et sur l'Egypte, sans avoir ä faire, en retraile, dans un m.nivais 
terrain, les 150 kilometres qui separcnt Homs de Damas. 



[327] lllSTüIRK l)I-:s SULTANS MAMIOIKS. 401 



A_2^ 



•C»^ •'i.^j ör*-^— »^' J^l> 4.5:^15 _r^Vl ^.i— ' 1,-i jl^3 j^L_JI b^, . Jc3, 

1. Man. 'j!:y. — 2. I.irc ^^U. — 3. Le man. omet -^ ,_jjl. — 4. Lire c^'- — 
5. Lire ^^y^; »V~^, pour i__y.-^, avec la confusion du i et du C^ dans une forme 
verbale, est caracteristique de la forme plus que vulgaire de la langue de Moufazzal; 
cettc confusion ne se trouve quo dans l'es ecrits les plus negliges de la litterature arabe. 



beau de Khalid, fils d'al-W'alid, qii'AUali se montre satisfait de lui! Dans 
ce Heu, les emirs jurereat qu'ils ne prendraient pas la fuite, qu'ils mour- 
raient en se laissant hacher de coups de sabre, qu'ils ne tourneraieat pas le 
dos ä l'ennemi. qu'ils ne se trahiraient pas les uns les autros. Us se vouerent 
entierement ä ces intentions; Allah penetra leur dessein, et les favorisa de 
son aide victorieuse. 

Ensuite, les emirs se preparerent ä aller livrer bataille ä l'ennemi maudit; 
Ic comniandant de l'armee des Tatars etait Mangou-Temour, fds d'Houlaoun, 
et frere d'Abagha; il etait ä la tete de cent mille cavaliers. 

L'historien a dit ' : Lorsque fut arrive le jeudi, quatorzieme jour du mois 
beni de Radjab", les deux armees prirent le contact; l'aile droite des Tatars 
ecrasa l'aile gauche des Musulmans, dans laquelle se trouvaient Sonkor 
al-Ashkar, al-Halabi, et les heros de l'Islam^; mais l'aile droite musulmane 
mit en deroute l'aile gauche des Tatars. 

Voici quelle fut la cause de cet evenement. Les Arabes de Isa ihn 
Mohanna se mirent ä piller les bagages des Tatars en arrivant par les 
derrieres de leurs lignes*; les Tatars quitterent le front de bataille pour aller 

1. Dans ce passage, Nowairi (man. arabe 1578, fol. 111 r°) copie la narration de 
Temir Rokn ad-Din Baibars ad-Dawaddar al-Mansouri; suivant son habilude, Moufaz- 
zal a abrege le reeit de Nowairi. — 2. De l'annee 680 (Nowai'ri, man. arabe 1578, iblio 
111 recto). — 3. Badr ad-Diii Bilik al-Aidemuri, Badr ad-Din Beklash. Alam ad-Din 
Sindjar al-Halabi, Badr ad-Din Bektout al- Alayyi, Saif ad-Din Tcherik at-Tatari(;Ä/«?. . 
— 4. c;'est-ä-dire que les cavaliers arabes, qui formaient un corps independant de l'ar- 



492 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [328] 

*ioi.75v'. 2 ;^ ^^ ^^5^_ l».U V Ji=- ^L.J^ ^_5.^ C_^l ^i J' J^LlJI ^ ^1 «oU jlkUl 

Li jis-LLj' oäT jlULJl « Jb /j.>! ^1 Cj^ii-i jUJji '*---*^ -^^./"^J Ll>__,-_^ >^^-Lr~' 

ijjü^ls A^J <; ^jaLä.rJ "'"V3J v_.^_^9 _^L.& ijl JJü ^IjaJIj JlX;-Vl '■^^J J-iJl 

l.-Lire .,jJl~.JI. — 2. Lire LoU. — 3. Liro ^1/- — 4. Lire J^jj. — o. Lire 
,j^\^\. — ü. Man. omet j. 



repousser les Arabes; les Musulmans les poursuivirent ä cheval Tepee dans 
les reins, et les refoulerent siir un certaiii espace. Le sullan ordonna 
foi. 75 V. Je replier les etendards sur les lances', dans cette journee, de teile fagon 
qiron ne siit pas dans quel endroit il se trouvait; il resta seul, ä la tete 
d'un tres petit nombrc de soldats, qui formai(!nt environ trois cents 
cavaliers. 

Une personne qui a assiste k cette bataille a raconte ce qui suit : « Quand 
notrc aile gauche eut ete rompue, et lorsque la droite des Tatars fut victo- 
rieuse, je regardai dans la direction de ceux qui etaient restes avec le sul- 
tan, sous los etendards; ils n'atteignaient pas le nombre de trois cents cava- 
liers. » 

Ensuite, Mankou-Temour descendit de cheval; il regarda par-dcssous 
les picds des chevaux; il vit les bagages et les betcs de somme (qui les 
trainaient), et il se figura que c'etaieut lä des troupes". II se romit en 
seile, et tournabride^; mais son cheval broncha, ot le desargonna; les Tatars 
le prireut au milieu d'eux, et ils mirent tous pied ä terre autour de lui '. Ouand 
les Musulmans vircnt quo les Tatars etaient descendus de leurs chevaux, ils 
pousserent sur cux une charge comnic un scul homme, et cc i'ut au cours de 
cette charge que la victoire se declara pour les Musulmans. 

mee cgyptiennc, furent cnvoyes par le sultan. avec la mission de dehorder l'aile droilc 
de.s Tatars, qui rcpoussait l'ailc gauche egyplioiine, et de la cliarger par dorricrc, de 
faQon ä opercr une diversion qui periuit de retablir le combat. 

1. C'est-ä-dire de rouler les drapoaux sur leurs hampes. — 2. Des combattants, 
quand ce n'elail que du Irain. — .i. Pour prendre la fülle devant les Musulmans. — 
'1. Par respect, pour ne pas rcslcr en solle, quand le prince imperial ctait demontc. 



[329] IIISTOIUK DES SULTANS MAMI.OUKS. VJ3 

^ \j)^\ j^L^'l i^^_. o^l U ^ij ®j-».L_J) l,J ^1 jl<i A^lj o^j 

'^^L-J! ^jj jUl ÖSJ^i CjLa ■'•^^ ^><:. ^j Ui3 ®^1 .^^ ^1^ jL<i 
^ lik! dUi jl^j «^U* (»^ ^b jjyl V ^>r« ^.^ ^yy ^ (n^^=^"^' "^3 



.1 .M 



l. Le manuscrit omcl .. — 2. Lire .,^J-_JI. — 3. I>ire L. — 'i. Lire , 
5. Lire ^J^■ 



Lorsque l'aile gauche des Musulmans cut ete rompiie (par le choc de l'aile 
(Iroite des Tatars), on la retira de la lignc de bataille, et eile alla sc joindre 
au centrc. On dit quc l'eiuir "Izz ad-Din al-lladjdj Ezetemour' chargea ä la 
tete de ccs troupes, et arriva ainsi jusqu'ä Maukou-Temour; il le frappa d'un 
coup de lance, et le jeta ä terro. A ce moment, les Mongols descendirent 
de cheval, et entourerent Mankou-Temour; les Musulmans chargerent sur 
eux, et cc fut la la cause de la victoire qu'ils remporterent. 

Quand Mankou-Temour se fut remis en seile, il prit la fuite, et les Tatars 
(qui se trouvaient avec lui) en firent autaat ; les Musulmans se lancerent ä leur 
poursuite. Lorsque l'aile droite des Tatars qui avait rompu l'aile gauche des 
Musulmans s'en revint (de sa charge), et quand les Tatars se mirent ä la 
recherche de Mankou-Temour, ils ne le trouverent pas, et ils n'eurent au- 
cune connaissance de ce que leurs camarades (qui avaient fui avec Mankou- 
Temour) etaient devenus. Alors, ils prirent aussi la fuite ä toute bride, 
Sans qu'aucun d'eux tournät la tete pour voir ce que ses camarades etaient 
devenus. 

Gelte circonstance fut une gfäce qu'Allah, le tres-haut, envoya pour 
prouver la verite de Tlslam; car, si les Tatars avaient lance une nouvelle 
attaque contre les Musulmans, ceux-ci n'etaient pas restes ennombre süffisant 
pouretre en etat de les repousscr-; mais ce fut Allah qui pourchassa les Tatars 

1. ^Ojl peut representer le nom turk Astemour « riiermine de fer ». — 
2. Kn effet, le sultan avait ete ohlige de reformer en pleine bataille son aile gauche 
rnmenee a l'arriere, en Tincorporant ä son centre, ce qui revient a dire que cette aile 
gauche avait subi de telles perles qu'elle ne pouvait continuer ä se battre isolement; 
en fait, de ce moment, l'armee musulmans navait plus d'aile gauche, et les Mongols pou- 
vaient la tourner a leur gre par son cenlre. 



''94 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [330] 

-^ i^' Lrr*Jr-^^ -'^^ >_Äii- jLi ^j-jU ^Vl i_«i>u ^y>s^y\ jlLiJl ij> 
LiSj jLdl ^ili^ j_5^joVI <« jj^ ^^^ c^'^ Jls "-^jIaaäJI ^1 ^ij «jÄ^Vl 

(_^'U.i:Jlj Ols^l ^_^ f^jJ'iJ (»AjL^ Ij-^l i^ljLi- >_)_/i Y jj^ Laju |»^,j£x. 1_^' jUl 

1. La lecture de ce mot est douleifse par suil.e de ralteration du papier. — 2. h' 
Jj^.x-«-'! est recrit sur un grattage; cc nom pi'o])re est forme de malm/f v litiere >■. avec 
le Suffixe verbal dar, qui, en persan, indique la possession. — 3. \ArQ y-s^, l'alif final 
ayanl ete ajoute par imitation des formes verbales. 



sur la route qu'ils venaient de suivre', qui les for?a ä remonter sur leurs 
»fni. 7(5 r». positions de depart, et qui donna aux Musulmans la victoire sur les iiifideles. 

Le leudemain de la bataille, le sultan detacha al-Aidemouri avec cinq 
mille cavaliers, et cet officier poursuivit les Tatars eu deroute jusqu'au Fleuve 
Noii-. 

Ibn al-MaiialTdar ' a racoate : « J'etais parmi ceux qui fureat euvoyes avec 
al-Aidemouri ä la poursuite des Tatars ; peadant le combat, nous etions sous 
le commandemeut de l'emir Rokn ad-Din Toghosou ^ an-Nasiri; ensuitc, 
on nous detacha avec al-Aidemouri; nous poursuivimes les Tatars jusqu'au 
Fleuve Noir; nous leur tuämes beaucoup de monde, et nous leur fimcs 
prisonniers plus de cinq cents hommes. Les Tatars se tuaient les uns les 
autres. Si les Arabes de la tribu de Khafadja n'avaieut pas pris avec eux los 
generaux des Tatars, s'ils ne leur avaient pas indique les cliemins et los 
gues des rivieres, nous les aurions tous capturcs jusqu'au dernier ». Tels 
furent les exploits d'al-Aideinouri et des soldats qui pourciiasserenl les Tatars 
en deroute. 

Voici ce qui se passa ä Damas : le vendredi, quinzieme jour du mois de 
Hadjab, apres la jjiiere de ra|)res-midi, 011 reeul uue depechc parfumee 

1. Le terrain sur lequel ils avaient rcloulc les Musulmans. — • 2. Al-Nahr al-aswad. 

— 3. II est question plus loin de cet oflicier, qui se nominait Sliams ad-Din al-Banna. 

— 4. En mongol, toghosoun, toghosou, signifie « poussiere » ; c'est le nom de Touzoun 
ij;y, avee la chiile de la gulliirale, qui est enurante dans l'ononiastique furqiic. 



[;«1J IIISTOIHK DES SULTANS MAMLüUKS. 495 

Ä_äJL»M ülLü kSoj'j y^^ -*-»' >--=»-j ^-i-f^ ij-*^ ^«.«äJ' A_y_ jlS Lü <;ij j;.^-^ jlS 
Jj\ jl^j ©^r-Ül ^^»3 J^'^ ^-^ Zj^t-^^ jLlJI ji l^ -r'y^ 'äi^'^ tlr* 
^^ '-'j-^jj^JI j-^L_JI ^Ja C>y L-J oJJj joj il_^ ^L. jus «sj Ji jl^l 

ÄiLU.tJI ÜlkJl Cj^^ ^r-au)lj rt^l j^ jV jj~Jl ^^' *-^-^ ^J_j jj-^LwJI i_,--.U 

i^^ ^pL^j ^<liUJl, ^^Ul =^dL,j jJWi uUj ^LOl ^ JjVI ^Ül jl^ U.li 

1. Man. .fJvi.'' .^^ jJJls:^. — 2. Lire ,^.y-^" ., ^L-Jl. — 3. Ce nom est a moitie 
disparu dans unc dechirure du papier ; il est, plus bas, nole 5, clairement ecrit^iXs.'. 
— .'i. L-», .. |y^; le reste de la phrase ayant complötement disparu dans une dechirure 
du papier. — 5. Man. ^JU^. — 0. Man. ,'ji^. 



(apportee par uii pigeon) de al-Karin', dans laquelle il etait ecrit qiie les 
Tatars avaicnt ete vaincus. On battit les tambours, et les gens se livrerent 
anx Iransports de leur joie. 

Au comniencement de la journee, un pigeon etait arrive, tont barbouille 
de couleiir noire-, qui avait ete lance quand les Musulmans fugitifs de l'aile 
gauche (enfoncee par les Tatars) de Tarinee islamique avaient passe dans 
le pays; c'etait alors qu'on avait donne son vol ä ce pigeon teint en noir. 
Ensuite, quand se raanifesterent la victoire et le triomphe (des armes musul- 
manes), Ton envoya (sur l'aile d'un pigeon) la depeche parfumee. 

Au preniier tiers de la nuit, arriverent Altchaligh, Yeniek' an-Nasiri, le "loi.-iiv» 
tchashniguir. et un nombre considerable de soldats qui avaient fait partie 
des troupes qui avaient ete rompues par les Tatars, et qui avaient pris la 
iuite ■'. Altchaligh et Yemek an-Nasiri frapperent a la porte de la citadelle, et 
denianderent ;i sc rendre aupres du gouverneur, qui y exercait l'autorite au 
nom du sultan', lequel etait alors Koutchkar* al-Mansouri. 

Get oihcier leur fit ouvrir la porte Bab al-Faradj, et il les introduisit 

1. Makrizi dit que ce fut de Kakoun .,^'i que partit cette depeche, et que des 
ollicicrs fugitifs arriverent a Katia 'J=3 (man. arabe 1726, fol. 211 v"). Kakoun doit 
etrc unc faule, car, d'apres Yakout, IV, 18, c'est une localite voisine de Ramla. ^ 
2. En signe de defaite. — 3. Cette lecture est douteuse. — 4. Les bataülons de l'aile 
gauche egyptienne. — 5. Peut-ötre, au lieu de .LkLJ! ,_^\j, convient-il de lire ^_^\i 

iJJ !'. comme un peu plus bas, mais la forme nai'h as-suUan est ici parfaitement 

correcte. — 6. Koutchkar, qui est ecril }^^yi dans les lexiques Inrk-orientaux. designe 
un belier; c'est l'equivalent du mot mongol khouho; ces deux mols sont apparentös. 



496 MOUFAZZAL 1B\ ABIL-FAZAIL. 1332] 

7^-^\ i%^ Xii jl^ Uis ^^1 ij^ i-5xt Ä.Ü j ^Ul OLi V^ Vj jliai- V A:^i 

ij^ ^^53^3 "^ ^lx5Cll IjJJs-ls oLÜl jlkUl j^ w'lp i-^_ ^3 -'^^ l5-V. '-'^J 

^1 'i%^ A* jljJl ^i J jl^ UJj tS^Ul ^j.lü 0;LL C-^ J^i ^^«.1^. bUl 

jpi^Jo Ü2,U1 ^;l; ^_$J_^-a:Jl '-'jIÄäs j._aJ1 ,_L- ^^VI ^_5)1 ^l::^l a.^1 ijj 

Uis ®JjÄJ.cJl j->Jl jj; ^l_^j Ö:.>l-Vl ^LJI is^j ^y^^3 J^^ ir-^. ^r=*, 
ijjujuj «-.b Ij-«--^. ä::'-''^'^ ^> 'ty!^. ö^ -^^3 ^r^ ^^ o"^^ '.Pv* ^^^ J^ 

1. On lit dans le manuscrit la phrase inintelligible : 3^ b,^ -^ »IjL y^Jj- — 
2. Man s^y. —3. Man. ,Us^. — 4. Lire \j^. — 5. T>ire iW iyui UJl.. 



aupres de lui dans la citadello. Ils hü apprirent que les Musulinans avaient 
ete vaincus, et ils lui direiit : « Par Allah! nous avons ete battus, et il ne 
reste rien de rarmee, ni sultan, ui personne. » Les habitants passerent une niiit 
terrible, en proie ä des craintes epouvantables. Au moment de la priere de 
l'aurore, un courrier arriva par Safad', apportant une lettre envoyee par 
ordre du sultan, qui annongait l'heureuse nouvelle de la victoire. On lui 
arracha la lettre des mains, et on alla la lire sur la tribunc de la grande 
mosquee de Damas, si bien que la population hit rassuree. 

Ge meme jour, apres la priere de midi, la posle arriva av(>c la lettre 
adressee ä l'emir Saif ad-Din Koutchkar al-Mansouri, vice-roi de Damas, 
dans laquelle le sultan lui apprenait la defaite des Tatars, leur retraite, 
le triomphe des armees musulmanes, et qu'on etait enfin deharrasse des 
malheurs provoques par l'ennemi maudit. 

Quand la lettre eut ete lue, les gens hirent saisis d'une joie qui ne connut 
pas de bornes ; on arreta tous les soldats fugilifs qui arrivaient ä Damas, et 
on les renvoya k Honis. Rnsuite, on pavoisa Damas d'une faron magnifique. 
Le sultan fit son entree ä Damas, le vendredi, vingt-deuxieme jour du 
niois de Radjab, el ce ful une IV-te mcmorable; il entra a la tete d"un cortege 
immense, precede de douze chariots qui avaient appartenu aux Tatars; sur 
cliacun de ces chariots, il y avait quatre balisles; chacune des balistes etait 

L Nom d'une ville qui se trouvc dans les montap-nos qui dominonl Ilnms. dovant 
laquelle s'etait livree la halaillc (Yakoiit. lll, 309;. 



[333] lIISTOmE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. /,97 

^j'M'j -^Ut^ J^ '^/-*^J ''ij?' '^"'^■' V -^^-^ '^'^ ^^j^j "VJ^ ^-^ w^^ ^ 

ly'D "fjÄ)! <tL«ÄJl3 (Jjj't^'j i_$-u_J' ■' jl«-;>i <« jÜa-L,!! ^..^--aLwij jj^^^ jj' 

I. Lire i~.^:i. — 2. Lire .,j.,j_-U!. — 3. Lire >!Ji ^^1. — 4. Man. ^U ^ixijl^ 
_U^'I ^..,. —5. Man. , r-.--o'. — ü. Lire a=v_j^. 



formee de trois arcs', de cinq tambours pleins, et de trois tambours ä Seg- 
ments*. Ensiiile, arriverent les prisoaniers tatars, par detaclieraents suc- 
ccssifs, jusqu'au moment oü Temir Ai'demouri s'en revint ä Damas, avec tous 
li's prisoniiiers et les tetes des morts plantees sur les fers di's laiices. 

(^)iiaii(l le Sultan partit de lloms, il lit ses adieux ä Sonkor al-Ashkar, qui *)oi. 
s'eii retourna ä Sihvaoun. Le sultan se fit acconipagner par Etemish al- 
Sa'di, par al-Harouni, et par le clan des «'mirs ijui avaient pris la l'uite avec 
Sonkor al-Asiikar; il leur readit les proprietes qu'il leur avait confisquees ; il 
les reintegra dans la possession de leurs fiefs, et ces ofiiciers partirent 
pour TEgypte avec le sultan. 

Le sultan resta (ä Damas) jusqu'au second jour du mois de Sha'ban; il 
quitta alors cette ville pour regagner l'empire egyptien, oü il rentra, le vlagt- 
sixienie jour du aiois de Sha'baa; le Caire fut pavoise d'une fagon aiagnifique, 
et ce fut unc fetc teile que les gens n'en virent jamais une semblable. 

L'liistoricn a dit : Lorsque fut venu le vingl-troisieme jour du mois de 

1. Ces arcs etaient conjugues, de fa^on ä tripler la puissance de la detente de Ten- 
seinble; djarkh est le persan tcliarkh « roue », qui dZ-rivc, par suite du renversement du 
mot autour de Vr, du mot indo-europcen Ichakra, lequel a le memc sens, et correspond 
au grec xipxo? et xuxXo«, au latin circus; c'etait primitivenient une roue qui tournait ä 
grande vitesse, et qui lanQait des projectiles dans la direction de ses tangentes. — 
2. C'etait sur les tambours pleins que s'enroulaient les cordages qui servaient ä bander 
l'arc triple de la macliine; les tambours ä Segments etaient des cylindres perces 
d'encoches, dans lesquelles s'engageaient les extremites des leviers, par la nianoeuvre 
desquels on faisait enrouler les cordages sur les tambours pleins, de faQon a tendre l'arc 
triple'. 11 est evident que les tambours pleins et les tambours ä Segments etaient invaria- 
blement lies, et formaient, en somme, un Systeme unique de cabestan. 



498 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABII.-FAZAII.. [334] 

f^^l^ ^jls ^'U yJJL~ J-1^:) J>\ J^3 jL^ y^r^S '^^'^ j^ ^3 ^^>*-'' 

<J1 J.^3 x-f @JUd üj^lj ^^j^Jl jtfft:!! JJI3I <J1 J-^y "^.^r" ^-^^ L,^ ijy^. 

'jj-jC ,_^UL^j Jj^r-jCi Vj .ju. V (J Jlij <~^ ^Ji^ *^3^'?" ^_j.<0, i_^l 
Jus A^jj w-l; *■■ ■it-i-l «^1^1^ j,ß\ '' ^\^\3 ör'-^'^""'^ 1^^ J^ ^r*^ ^-i^j 

i^j^l J^Ur öllÄ, Jcj V;-i J^* 1-Ül ^Ijlj 'Ca, L\^ l^i— i'lä-'l 

1. Lire !,^~X=. — 2- Probablement ä lire yJ^^\ ^=-^1^ <^-sä ^U. 



Sha'ban, il arriva ä Damas cnviron deux cents cavaliers, dont la ma- 
jeure partie etait IVirmee d'uu corps de Talars; ces geas aunoncerent que 
Mankou-Temour etait mort, et qu'Abagha campait en face d'ar-Rahba, atten- 
dant ce qu'il adviendrait de son armee'. Les premiers detaclienieuts des 
troupes qui avaient pris la fuite (ä Roms) viurent le rejoindre, et le mirent 
au courant de ce qui leur etait arrive. 

Son frere, Mankou-Temour arriva ensuite aupres de lui, blesse; Abagha 
se mit en colero contre lui, et s'ecria : « Que n'es-tu mort? Tu n'aurais pas 
ete battu, et tu ue me serais pas revenu vaincu! » 11 s'emporta egalement 
contre tous los generaux et les commandants de corps de dix mille honunes ", 
qui se trouvaient avec son frere; puis il inonta ä cheval, et se mit en route 
pour regagner Hamadhan. 

Mankou-Temour se rendit dans le pays de Djazira, aupres de sa mere, 
car lloulaoun, quand il avait conquis le Djazirat Ibii 'Omar, (mi av;iit fait 
don ä la mere de Mankou-Temour. 

Au sujet de la cause de la mort de Mankou-Temour, on a raeonte que le 
kadi Djamal ad-L)in ibn al-'Adjamiyya lui fit boire du poison; Mankou- 
Temour en monrnt, et Allah debarrassa le monde des calamitös qu'il aurait 
fait fondre sur lui. Le personnage qui tenait le Djazira ä ferme (de la veuve 
d'Müulaoun), et qui se nommait Ibn al-lvarkawi apprit ce fait; il denonga 



I. L'tu'mrc (juil avait envoycc en Syrie par le pays de Unuin. — 2. Tawnmin est 
le pluriel arabe du mot moiififol toinnn. qui sii^nille 10.000. 



[33r.l IIISTOll'.K DKS sn.T.WS M\ML(tl KS. 400 

^läJI jl «J'-Olj ^}^} /^AJl JU^ ' ^U)l «jl^i ^ßy^'^ Cf.^ *^ ^'^. l5-*J' ' ful. 77 v° 



Jyj ij; j._Aocil j^ JyJ jU^A Jl j^j aIu ui UI3 «isiVjl ^-f-3 y 
«L-Vl ÖJI J i^i jl L^ ^^LJI ^^3 U-L. jl^3 Ul x^l b^^l di.UI 

:>__^l ._^j ^^J: J ÖJI S-VA jj i^'^r-^' J^.-^^ ^3^^ t^-J^"^'' ö»"-^ ö'-'^' (*?'-' 

^_;.j ~^/-Jl ^.^ -Uä^ J.JÜ1 ^_j_*>i3 («3^1 v-^Ls i^iu-, jlkUl dl Li j>a!1 cl,.j 

1. Lire Ji—. — 2, Man. ..^", avec le i/a sans points, le ta avec doux points des- 
sous et (leux points dessus: lire c;~^!. 



l'acte du kadi Djamal ad-Din, et il iit savoir ä la mere (de Mankou-Temour) »foi. 
(jiril avait empoisonne son fils. 

I>a jjriiicesso se saisit du kadi et de tous ses enfants ; eile les egorgea 
de sa propre main, et eile s'empara de tous leurs bieas. Par la suite, Allah 
voulut quo les Tatars capturasseut ll)U al-Karkawi, qui avait denoncc le kadi; 
ils le tuereul, lui et tous ses eufants. 

En ce qui coucerne Abagha, il arriva ä Haraadlian, oü il mourut entre 
les deux fetes': son frere Ahmad Agha lui succeda; il faisait professiou 
d'Islauiisnie, et il ainiait les Musulmans, comnie cela sera raconte dans le 
recit des evenements de 1 aunee suivante. 

Aunee 681. Le quinzieme jour du mois de Ilabi' second de cette annee, 
mourut le sahib - Nadjm ad-Din ihn al-Aslbuni, vizir de l'empire egyptien. 
Cette meme annee, au mois de Radjab, l'unique, arriverent des ambassadeurs 
envoyes par le roi Ahmad Agha ' : c'etaient Kotb ad-Din Mahmoud ash- 
Shirazi, kadi de Siwas, Baha ad-Din, atabek du sultan Mas'oud, souverain 
du pays de l^oum, etShams ad-Din Mohammad ihn al-Taiti\ vizir (du prince) 
de Mardin. Ces personnages etaient porteurs dune lettre du sultan Ahmad 
Agha, laquelle n'avait ni suscriptiou, ni souscription; eile etait revetue 

1. La fete de la rupture du jeüne fki" et celle des victimes _sr^^'. — 2. Sahib 
est le titre officiel donne aux vizirs. — 3. Le prince de Perse, successeur d'Abagha 
sur le trone des Mongols. — 4. L'auteur de l'histoire de Kalaoun Ic nommc simple- 
ment, I'emir Shams ad-Din ibn al-Sahib, Tun des intimes du prince de Mardin man. 
arabe ITO'i. folio 7 verso. voir page 526). 



ful. 78 I 



500 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [33G] 

r'^'^- ZJ^mIi A-ij ^=- Y; jUlc % »AJ ^i' -W=-l jliii )l ^ÜS i^^-^ol ijAtJ \jJjU 

l'jjijl JD Ji <C;lx«i jjij "CjLx Ji;LJ Jl»3 <;Lä— "UJI jli -Uj Ul «S^j^-a* jlkL- Jl 



1. Lire i>L*-b ijt^ .^^j- — 2-2. Le manuscrit omet cette sentence, qui est retablie 
d'apres le texte donne dans VHi.tloire de Kalaoiin, qui a ete imprime par Quatremere, 
Mainloiiks, 11, i, Appendice, 160 et ssq., d'apres le texte qui se trouve. dans le manus- 
crit arabe 1704, dont, sauf exception, j'adopte les lecons contre Celles de Moufazzal. 



d'empreiutes d'un sceau (imprimees ä l'encre) rouge, et il y avait treize de 
ces empreintes '. 

Voici quelle etait la teneur de cette lettre : « Au noni d' Allah, dement et 
misericordieux! par la puissance d'Allah"! par la felicite du Ra'anM Com- 
niandement d'Ahmad au sultan d'Fgypte. 

« Certes, Allah, qu'il soit loue et exalte! par la grace donlil nous a favo- 
rise depuis lougtemps, par la lumiere par laquelle il nous a revelc le droit 
chemin, nous a conduit, dans la lleur de notre jeunesse, des le temps de 
loi. 7si». notre enfance, ä confesser sa toute-puissance, k proclamer son unite, ä 
tömoigner de la realite de la mission de son Prophete, que les priores les 
plus excellentes, que le salut soient sur lui! et il nous a donne la croyance 
parfaite en ses saints, modeles de toutes les vertus, qu'il a elus parnii 
ses serviteurs, pour les exalter parmr ses creatures. 

1. Tainagha est le mot mongol qui signifie sceau; il a passe en turk sous la forme 
tamgha; il s'agit ici du sceau carre, portant une inscriplion cliinoise, qui etait envoj'e, 
en signe d'investiture, au gouverneur de Perse, par le Fils du Ciel. Bien qu'Alimad 
Aglia eüt abandonne le Bouddhisme pour se faire musulman, ce qui, ä Dai-dou, etait 
considere comme un acte d'indiscipline, il ne se serait jamais permis de ne pas impri- 
mer le sceau de l'empereur de Chine sur ses lettres, sur ses yarlighs, ce sceau etant 
le Symbole qui leur conl'erait leur autorite. La lettre etait tres etroile et tres longue, 
suivant la norme extreme- Orientale, ce qui cxplicjuc le nondjre de ces empreintes: eile 
formait un rouleau compose de feuillets de papier coUes les uns au bout des autrcs. 
L'empreinte du sceau imperial ötait repetee sur cliacune de ces sections. !>e rouge est 
en Chine la couleur impoiriale. — 2. Traduction du mongol : Mönkki' tegriyin kitl- 
chiindiir. — 3. L'empereur de Chine, souverain de tout le monde mongol; le prince de 
Perse, par respect pour la majeste du Fils du Ciel, n'ose prendre dans cette lettre 
auiun tilre souverain. 



[337] IllSTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 501 

^^aJI ^J^ '^Ul J\ ^LJ ' J^j Ji ^">L,>U ijA-s ^^_ <,_-»^._ jl -».Ül iy^ ^ ®*^..y. 
^Ij 2^1 L^lj ^L.WI ^Ul L.1 ^- j\ -'J j^LJlj (.>l-Vl j^l ^^Ulj 
^VT ^L^ J UU ^ jj^ L. ^-cJlÜ3 <iiyi >_^>U j^ L^Lt ^UU ®L)i .illJl 
■'i^t.l.jjJ j U-Cfi. ».«is-U -sUI 1,;^^ (J-*^b ^^ i5CiwJI '^aa >^-3 <^j'»ij 
jLOI -T^VI^ ^VjVIj o1_^VI ''^^^ 'bVl <J ^j^_ ^jül ^^^»;^il y.3 JjUl 

1. Man. Jj> Ji; dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun ^y Ji. - 2-2. \,'I/istoiie de Kalaoiin 

portc : LJ' o-OJt wJ ^J^\ L^L J-as^l LjI Jjo .^M .,1 M, dont Ic sens est 
^ ^... > ... ... . ^ ^ ^^ 

legerement dilferent de ce que dit Moufazzal, dans le texte duquel il faul lire : Jl 

^aL'! LiUL J-.WJl oX,LM bL! ^ .-J .,'. _ :{. Itistoire de Kalaoun, aAjUJ,. — 4. Lire 

»--*• — ö. Man. J,L\j ^,y ; il faut ^^}^\ ^LL ._jiJI ; cette faute se trouve dans YHistoire 

de Kalaoun, oü eile surprend plus que cliez ISloufazzal. — 6. HLstoire de Kalaoun : 

J.^I ^ ^JJ^ ^:ül man. c' I. 



« L'hoinme quAllah veut coiiduire dans la voie du salut, il ouvre son 
coeur ;'( l'lslam. Ouant ä nous, nous n'avons lais.se perdro aucuue occasion 
d(> montier notre ferme desir d'exalter la parole de la religion, et de 
faire prosperer la cause de Tlslam et des Musulmans, cela jusqu'au jour oü 
Allah rappela ä lui notre pere', le roi venerable, et notre frerc ainc", 
jusqu'au moment oü le pouvoir souverain nous a ete duvolu. 

« II nous a comble des parures de ses gräces et de sa bienveillauce, 
autant qu'il lui a convenu, pour quo nous puissions rcaliser nos espoirs dans 
rabondance de ses generosites et de ses bienfaits. II nous a gratifie de cet 
empire comnie d'un dou nuptial, ei il en a remis la souve.ainete dans nos mains 
comme une fiancee auguste. 

« II a ete procede, dans le kouriltai^ beni, ce qui est l'assemblee dans 
laquelle les avis divers se mettent d'accord, ä une reunion autour de notre 
personne, de toiis nos freres', des princes% des grands emirs, des com- 

1. lloulagou Khan. — 2. Abagha Khan. — 3. Kouriluü est le nom mongol des 
dietes, au cours desquelles on elisait le souverain, ou que Ton reunissait, comme des 
conciles, pour trancher des questions difficiles, que le souverain ne voulait pas resoudre 
seul. — 4. Ti-aJuction de l'expression mongole nk/ia-ini n les freres aines et cadets », 
qui se trouve dans les textes persans qui traitent de l'histoire des descendanls de 
Tchinkkiz sous la forme ^'3 Üt ». — ,5. ^"^j,! aulad, ou plutot valad, ^'j, singulier 
de aulad, traduit le mot mongol oghoul; en turk, ce mot signifie simplement « iils », 
mais les Mongols Femployalunt, en le sullixant aux noms propres, comme desigiiant 
uu prince de la famille royale, comme Kiioubilai Oghoul, Takoudar Oghoul. Aulad, 
les valad, signifie donc les princes trhiiikkizkliaiiides. 

PAin. CR. — T. XIV. — F. 3. 33 



8 



502 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [338] 

IjJ /^-^'>' ^^ Vf''' '-^•^' es'' ^rr^^: -^^i-^-^j ^l^-«^ rrr^»' ^j '^ij^j'VI oSt^ij 
«Ul ^,-=Jl '^( (j-« ^„/^-^ ij j^^ ^' USLk* !sljA=-ji A.k. (»Ajljlj |«aJLa1 k::o«AZs-lj 

1. Man. et Ilisloire de Kalaoun : l»,^J.£-- ; il faut lire dans les deux textes -^JX» 
j^l^]. — 2. Ullisloire de Kalaoun omet ,^.' ; oa attendrait Lj--, comme dans I-J^-äj-!, 
l^j^, mais .-^-ii! presente cette meme anomalie. — 3. Man. oniet J^i"^'- — 4. Man. 
•^^,~kj ; dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun, «^x^dJa;. — ,">. Lire .J-ls-l ».^; dans VHistoire de 
Kalaoun, J-LJ! «.o. — (i. Histoire de Kalaoun, Li,.0. — 7. Histoire de Kalaoun, 
U.i; man. L(^. — 8. Dans VHistoire de Kalaoun jU-'I r -^ ' =^^1 ^. — 9. Man. 
».l~j ; Histoire de Kalaoun »jI~3. 



maiidaiits des troupes, et des gouverneurs des pays. Us ont ete de ropiuion 
unanime qu'il (nous) Taut executer Tordre que notre freie aine a doiiue jadis, 
d'envoyer vers ces contrees ' la foule innombrable de uos troupes, qui sont 
telles que la surface de la terra est trop etroite pour contenir dans son immen- 
site la multitude de leur nombre, telles que le nioade est renipli de terreur par 
leur fureur irresistible, par l'impetuosite de leur vaillance, animees qu'ellcs 
sont d'une volonte devant laquelle s'abaisseraient les cimes des plus hautes 
moalat;nes, et d'une dccision qui ferait fondre les roclies les plus refractaires. 
a. Nous avons retlechi sur les consequences qui pourraient resulter de 
leurs augustes resolutions, et ce plan avait reuni l'unanimite de leurs voix 
et de leurs sull'ragcs. Nous avons trouve que cette dccision est en conlradic- 
tion absolue avee les desseins que nous avons formes d'cdifier le bonlieur 
univcrscl, lequel consisto ä fortifier les praliques de riskun, avec noire 
intention qu'il ne resullc jamais d'un de nos conimandements -, autant qu'il 
sera en notre pouvoir, d'autre edel que d'emprchcr Teffusion y\n sang, ile 
donner la paix aux peuples, de faire passer ainsi dans les contrees du nionde 
l'esperance (d'une destinee meilleure) sur l'aile des zephyrs charges de 
Concorde et de secuirite, d(! pcrnicttrc aux Musulinans, dans lous les pays, 

1. Les domnincs des sultans mamlouks, la Syrie et l'Egypte. — 2. Traduclion du 
mongol yarligh, qui designait les edits des princes descendanls de Tcliinkkiz Khaglian. 



[339] IIISTOIRE DES SULTANS MAMLÜUKS. 503 

jUl j. ^>Ulj Svbl ^yLÜl ^yCj-j S^Ül ^ir 'Lil JL- <cül l^Jli ®J)1 jJl^ 
^Ij MjjVI ^y JlxJI r]y '^ 'S ^^. L. (V-ur ^y •ül a-OI lijjijl L^ ^^^1 dilÄ. 
ju. VI ■-' JU=:Ü JUJi > Ji it^'L-Jl ^ V LLJ^Ij tä'lj^l >.T jyC, jl >_^_ ' U 
^b bi_>t ^yj ®'^=JI ^_/j jr-Jl j--r -u; '^'1 y jjl; Vj '^iÄi-^JI ^L:»j 
^ ^jl^il ^UJl i^|>.j j, '■> Ü ^ U -Li-LTj ^M^l ^Ij^ j^ bUj "'L, 

1. Man. U--; '-» dims V Ilistoire de Kalaoun. — 2. Man. JU:-!' JLä.JI s3-s J,!; dans 
Vllistoirede Kalaoun J'^U JU^" ^ J'. — ;>. Man. i^'l i^^*^' dans Vllisloire 

de Kalaoun. 4. Man. jj^ss^ '; üaH^' dan.s Vllisloire de Kalaoun. — 5. U dans 

Vllisloire de Kalaoun. — (i. Man. i-- 'j^ '-i.' ; ^, dans VHistoire de Kalaoun. — 
7. Man. J{ j'. 



de se roposer ä Iciir aise daus le lit drcsse par la tendresse et les bienfaits. »foi. ts v 
Nous avons agi de cette facon pour temoigner de notre respect aux ordres 
d'Allah, et par misericorde pour ses creatures. 

« Allah nous a inspire le desseiii d'eteindre cette Iiaine entre nos empires, 
de calraer ces revolutions qui repandeiit les calamites sur les hoinmes, de faire 
connaitre ä ceux qui nous ont donne ce conseil ' la voie dans laquelle Allah 
nous a dirige, qui consiste ä appliquer toute notre soUicitude ä poursuivre ce 
dessein digne de tous les espoirs, de voir guerir rhuraanite des souirrances 
([ui l'accablent, et d'ajourner indeiiniment les moyens auxquels il convient de 
ne recourir que comme au remede supreme^. 

a Gar nous ne sommes nullement porte ä brandir le fer de notre glaive 
pour le comba|;, avant d'avoir montre claireraent la voie droite qu'il convient 
de suivre; nous ne permettrons den appeler au sort des armes qu'apres avoir 
(itabli notre droit d'une fagon eclatante, apres avoir reuni toutes les preuves 
en notre laveur. 

« Ce qui a confirme nutre dessein de realiscr nos projets en lout ce qui 
concerne les moyens d'ameliorer le sort des Musulmans, de faire executor 
ce qui nous a paru susceptible de causcr la prosperite des peuples, ce i'urenl 
les admonitious du Shaikh al-lslam, le modele des hommes qui sont parve- 
nus ä la (-onnaissance metaphysiquc, Kamal ad-üin 'Abd ar-Hahman, (jui nous 

1. Les princes et les <;eneraux mongols, lo parti militaire, qui ii'vait l'invasion de 
l'empire des Manilouks. sans sc reudre un compte e.\act des difficultes de I'cntreprise. 
— 2. La guerre. 



504 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABIL-FAZAIL. [340J 

SytljJl iljjOI iÄA '^olÄT j^ -La ^^_-ÜI ^.jJI 'Ij; dlL'Vlj Jj_aJI ».Jas iUsÄJl 

(^L»j=- \*aJ Jl c_j*«i Oä' i^jk.'.r U |vAAi£- ^Jbtjj Ljlö^ |»aIjj^ x_^U)i «XU^Ij 

j i_^l ^^U <lj «Is L. ^>D (.>L-VI jlj h^. ts^'' ^"^^ (Ir* '-^' in^ ^-^3 ^*---^ 
•ül Ulfrj Lw 4LJL5OI k. <UJI i»j<; ^*Jäfr jjAALi.j *'*Ia1j ^j>J1 »:ij jl U^jj 

1. Man. O-Ojj ,L,I U,yl J,; dans YHisloire de Kalaoun sLi.J.^s'i ^^H .yt J,. — 
2. Man. Us i'; U» ^j'?.-"'-'' dans YHistoire de Kalaoun; il faudrait U» .i'JJI. — 3. Lire 
C^'^i '«1''-". pour vo'^i ävec ,^^ pour ^,, est une faule grossiere de sabir. 
— 4. Man. '-^j, ; ^J^ « dans notre cceur », dans VHistoire de Kalaoun; 5.^, pour ~j,, 
dans le texte de Moufazzal, avec la confusion du c. a'in et du ~ ha, qui appartiennent a 
deux registres dillerents, montre que l'auteur ctait entierement illettre. — 5. Man. 
jJjUo et omet »Jic, 



a favorise de son aide dans les affaires de notre Etat, et qui nous a conseille 
d'agir de cette fagon; que la misericorde d'Allali soit sur celui qui l'invoque, 
que sa vengeance s'abatte sur celui qui desobeit ä ses preceptes, qui se 
rebelle contre «es ordres! 

« Nous (vous) avons envoye le plus perspicace des juges, Kotb ad-Din, et 
Tatabek Baha ad-Din, qui sont tous les deux des personnages dignes de 
toute confiance de cet Etat resplendissant, de cet empire victorieux', pour 
qu'ils VOUS' fassent connaitre la voie dans laquelle nous avons Tintention de 
marcher, de teile sorte que vous soyez bien convaincu de tout ce qu'impliqiie 
rexcellence des projets que nous avons formes pour la coniniunaute des 
Musulmans. Nous vous avons expose que c'est Allah qui nous a gratifie de 
Tintelligence (qui ecarte les volles de l'ignorance) •', que rislamisme detruit 
tout ce qui exislait avant lui, qu'Allali, le tres-haut, a Fait penetrer dans 
notre esprit le desir de suivre sans tröve, ni relAchc, la voie de la verite, et 
de prendre nolre cxeniplo sur ceux qui pratiqucnt son culte. 

« Vous 6tes tönioin de Finimensite des bientaits qu'Allah repand sur la 
totalite de son peuplc, ijuand il nous a convie ä nous pröoccuper de faire 

1. L'empire mongol. — 2. Ahmad parle ici a Kalaoun ä la troisiume personne du 
pluriel, CO qui est une tournure essenticliemenl persane. — 3. Dans les livres de Sou- 
lisme, äf;-^} signifie la vue des sens immaleriels, la vue de l'iime, par Opposition ä 
>^, qui designe la vm- nialerirllc. 



[3411 niSTOIRE DRS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 503 

L.Aij- o^-^'j ^' o^ A-'.} J o^b ö:.-^'^ r>^^ '^M J^" ^^'^ J;»>^ * l;Ul-iv,i.Tor. 

iLU- '■:^ ü^l -'j 'tf- j-^l o« J^ Ct^ ^^3 J>»-r-'' >r'>" (> ^J^' ^^^b 
A^L^H j, J^-L_^'' ^^j^ Jr' C.^^ LuiiJj ®._iX- Uc aWI Ut lis"3 j^L 

1-1. Man. omet; reslitue d'apres XHistoire de Kalaoun. — 2. Lire j^ ", j^^i 
pour .,jiij, avec la confusion de >o et de j_„ est une faute plus que vulgaire, une faute 
de sabir. — 'A. Man. aj s'-i^' t»; »W' '^^ dans YHisloire de Kalaoun. — 4. Man. a^, 
Atw. dans YHistoire de Kalaoun. — 5. Man. ; ^1 dans VHistoire de Kalaoun. — 
fl. Man. omet .. 



vivre les oeuvres qui coiicourent ä la prosperite des hommes; ne detournez 
point vos regarJs de ce spectacle pour les porter siir les evenements du passe, 
car chaque jour se trouve caracterise par une Situation qui lui est propre. Si 
votre esprit recherche un argument qui etablisse par lui-menie, d'une fagon 
inebranlable, toutes las raisons d'avoir confiance dans nos afllrmations, une 
preuve qui vous conduise ä la certitude absolue, autant que vous en pouVcz 
concevoir le desir, considerez ce qui est resulte des ordres que nous avons 
dünnes, ce qui est proclame par la voix publique, dont les resultats sont 
visibles dans tout le monde. 

« En eilet, par la gräce d'Allali, le tres-liaut, nous avons comnience k*M.-'M 
elever les dräpeaux de la foi, ä la manifester dans la Promulgation de tout 
commandement, k nous en preoccuper avant toute autre afTaire, ä mettre en 
pratique les preceptes de la loi mohammadienne, suivant les exigences du 
code de la justice ahmadienne ' , pour glorifier et adorer Allah ! Nous avons 
fait penetrer la joie dans les coeurs; nous avons accorde notre pardon ä 
tous ceux qui ont commis des erimes, et qui se sont rendus coupables d'actes 
reprähensibles. Nous avons traite le pecheur avec indulgence, et nous lui 
avons dit : « Qu' Allah te pardonne les fautes de ton passe. » 

« Nous avons commande de mettre en ordre les affaires qui concernent 

1. Mohammad et Ahmad sont les deux nnms du Prophete. 



50(> MOUFAZZAL Il^\ ABIL-FAZAIL. 342] 

[aX]j£- ^^=^yu Ij-L^U- JLäI^ ,|..j1ja)I -ia.!^!lj ^ f^li ijL.c.3 ^ji-uJl_5 aaLlJIj 

^^ (»f-iJl (_jk j^l ^LJÜ L^" '■* '-''i^Atl^" ^y-=»-l (_jk^'^|»AjL:i.l '"^.^„„»ä; b^L-J 

1. Man. - ■^;>\ V ^^^<sJ dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 2-2. Ces trois mots man- 

quent dans Yllistoirc de Kalaoun. — 3. L^is-'-'"-" ^' dans VHistoire de Kahioiin. — 
4. Man. Is^j-^ dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 5-5. Cottc phrase manque dans VHistoire 
de Kalaoun. - (i. Man. j-.J^; j^. dans VHistoire de Kalaoun. — 7. -'-=>' dans VHis- 
toire dr Kalaoun. — 8. I/Histoire de Kalaoun omct ^M -'^-.L. — 9. Lire ^s^l. — 

e 
iO. Man. V^^^sr». — 11-11. Ces mots sont omis dans VHistoire de Kalaoun. — 12. Man. 

'—'. — 13-13. Man. omet. — 14. Omis dans VHistoirp de Kalaoun. 



les fondalions roligieuses' des Musulmans, telles que les mosquees, les 
monuments funeraires, les Colleges; de reparer les ediiices dans lesquels se 
manifeste la piete des hommes, les couvents en ruines; de faire parvenir 
lenr i-evenu, suivant les coutumes anciennes, consacrees par l'usage constant, 
aux personnes qui ont qnalite pour en disposer, d'apres les Conventions qni 
ont eti'; stipnlees par les auteurs des fondations pieuses, apres avoir retabli 
dans lenr integritc les dispositions qui en avaient etö annulees. Nous avons 
d^fendu de percevoir une somnie quelconque des impöts qui ont ete nouvcl- 
lemcnt imposes ä ces fondations'-; nous avons interdit quo Ton change quoi 
que ce soit aux dispositions primitives qui ont ete etablics a Icur cgard, et 
aux attributions qui leur ont ete faitcs. 

« Nous avons ordonne que l'on traite avec tous les egards les affaires des 
pMerins, que l'on prenue soin d'organiser leur dcpart, d'assurer la securite 
des routes qu'ils doivent suivre, et la marchc des caravanes; nous avons 
rcudu tonte libertö de transit aux marcliands, sur lesquels rcpoae la prosperite 
dos cmpircs; nous avons agi de menie a regar<l des voyageurs qui se 
rendent dans votre cmpire, de fagon qn'ils puissent chemincr suivani leur 
l)()n plaisir, au niicux de leurs convcnances; de maniere ([uc les hommes 

1. Qui avaient eledetruitos, ou tont au moins, endoninia-^öos, par les Mongols boud- 
dliistes. — 2. Sous la domination des gouverneurs mongols, puis sous le regne d'IIou- 
lagou et d'Abaglia, qni etaienl Iiostiles ä Tlslam. 



507 



,3W] lllSKilUI-, DI.S SULTANS AWVMI.Ol'KS. 

^ LU j. l^i:J j^ p; Ji ::.'L.» ^>U1 J*!^ JUI3 'T,i^'^ Jj i (^jb ^ 

I. J^^'^' (Jans V/fistoin' de Kalaonn. — 2-2. Omis dans Vllistoire de Ktilaoan. 
:j. UJ^I^s dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 4-4. Omis dans VHistoire de Kalaonn. — 
,".. I,ire -»-. — G. Man. J^^"'; 'L'ysr tlans VHistoire de Kalaoun. — 7. Man. ^j^. — 
S. Man. omet »4J' .^b.'.:'.. 



jouisscnt de la quiötude, quo les voyageiirs soient rassiirc's sur Icur soit, et 
ne redouteut point les atteintes du crime ; nous avons formelleinent defendu 
aux soldats el aux iiommcs qui Burveilleiit les chemins ', ainsi qu'aux officiers 
de police qui se trouvent dans les provinces IVontieres de notre empire, de 
les inquietcr, soil (iiiainl ils quittcut nos Etats, soit quaiid ils y n'utrent, de 
teile Sorte (piils puissent aller lä nii il leur eonvient, au niieux des liabitudes 
qu'ils ont prisos, d'apres leurs couvcnauces. 

(c Uu de uos soldats charges de la surveillauce des routcs ' avait capture 
un espiou habilhi en lakir; lo traitcment applique ä ses somblables con- 
sistait dans la peiao de mort, car il s'etait precipite lui-m6me au-devant 
du trepas; mais s.>n sang n'a pas ete repandu, par respect pour les defcnses Mol. 79' 
qui ont ete promulguees par Allah, le trfes-haut. Nous vous avons retourne cet 
individu. Vous n'ignorez point qucl dommago universel Tenvoi des espions 
cause aux Musulnians. 

« Ell e[Tet, depuis dcja lougteiups, nos soldats, voyant los espions reve- 
tus du costuuu." des fakirs, des ermites, des religleux, ont couqu coutre ces 
gens des intentions malveillantes, si bien, qu'ä plusieurs reprises, ils ont tue 
des personnes qui appartenaient ä ces categories, sans qu'elles eussent 
fommis le moindre crime, on le moindre dölit. Gräces cn soient rendues ä 
Allah! le besoin de recourir ä de tels subterfuges a disparu depuis quo les 
routes et les chemins sont dcvenus siirs, depuis que los marchands et les 
autres voyageurs ont pu circuler ä leur gre. 



1. Karnoul, derive de karaghoiil. 



508 MOUFAZZAL IBN ABFL-FAZAIL. [344] 

■^^iJlitJI i-^y ^'Ij jJl ij/kJI jj^lj-i vS^i-Tj! AiLi öii ^Js. JlsJI oiü lilj ®^^ 

(3 !Ur «i'l Juki _^ii jJLs •^-.<J__JI Oj^ A^ vIj-^'Ij ij;."^'^ (3i^ '-•'^ ^^ 

1. Dans VHistoire de Kalaoun Ucs ^^ vj^^ ly^dj > — i^'y^-' '^iXli' ^J, «^^Jb ^_;_^lLi 
IJixa U »^ y*3j. — 2. Man. lili; ce mot est omis dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 
3. Man. .^iXJLJtj ^ß^^ w-^' oX-'i J,!; Histoire de Kalaoun .^^ Uj ^XJi J,t 
jSjJJl _^:i ^ äJ LiÜ. — 4. Man. .^^*.sr! .,UL|^ j^^' '-^■^ ü' ^•-'^' (v^" '^"^-^.j 
iilLsr*'! v^^v=^ kj:^!^' ^1 ij^üjt ^^'j' '^^V'J' dans Y Histoire de Kalaoun 



laJL.1 OU 



v_aLCJl v_^o'_ji;. (^j irJi^ •*r.-W l3''=^' W »^^ <;^^ "^ Uli^lj ij-"^' ='-^--" j r^' 

li!Lt*J|. — 5. Man. ajoute ^\. — 6. Man. \^\, leQon absurde, surtout apres la defaite 
de Homs. — 7. Man. .f^. — 8. J^^ dans Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 9-9. Man. omet. 



« Si vous considerez attentivement dans votre esprit ces resiiltats, et la 
tranquillite dout jouissent les peuples, vous apercevrez .sans peine qiie nous 
avons ete guide par des qualites innces et essentielles, que nous n'avons pas 
use d'une affectation deshonorante de sentiments qui ne seraiont point los 
notres, et quo nous u'avons uullement essay6 de vous tromper par Tetalage de 
faux sentiments. 

aPuisque les choses en sont arrivees ä ce Stade, toutes les raisous qui nous 
portaient ä nous nuire, ot qui etaient la source de Tliostilite qui regnait ontro 
nous, sont disparues ; car cette hostilite etait produite par la difTerence de 
nos religions, et par l'obligation dans laquelle vous vous trouvicz de 
dei'endre Tempire musuliuan. ür, par la gräce divine, la lumiere de la verite 
s'est manifestec dans nos Etats, et, s'il y a eu entrn nous, dans les temps 
rövolus, des motifs d'liostilitc, celui qui, aiijoiu-dlmi, suil Ic droit chemin, 
est certain de trouver aupres de nous un accueil favorable, i>t uii asilo digne de 
son mörite. 

« Nous avons leve les volles (d'ininiitiö qui nous separaicnt), et nous on 
sommes arrivös ä la gräce d'engager avec vous un entrctien. Nous vous avons 



[;j/.5J mSTOIKK DKS SULTANS MAMLOUKS. 509 

J^lj JliVI ß VUi^ ^ ^y;j J_^Jlj JJI l^ ^^ l^%o J^l ^J>\^ 

■L.U .^^3 jJi (.jl ^_^ j_j^l (.Ui:-i3 (JUl ^>U «ui U jLi^V ^-^ jlLU <i)l JJ3 

Jjk,3 ^UJ-\l3 ^tlkH ^!_yj ^. ^1 ^>J1 dljl-3 "'^yi-^> ij^^; dLuJWioi.SHr. 

1. lyAnsYHistoirede Kalaoun\^\x^\ J^ J,Ui A!. — 2. Man. ^—aL,; wi)L dans 
Vllistoire de Kalaoun. — 3-3: Omis dans VUistoire de Kalaoiin. — '1. Lire ^^ 
oonime dans Yllisloirc de Kalaoun. 



fait savoir nos projets, dans iinc Intention pure de satisfaire aux desirs 
d'Allah, le tres-haut, pour connaitre la r^ponse que vous avez le dessein