(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pattillo's Geographical catechism"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

Education 

GIFT OF 

Professor 
George C. Kyte 



PH-ICAL 
CATEC 



UNIVERSITY REPRINTS 
NUMBER ONE 



PATTILLO'S 

a 

GEOGRAPHICAL CATECHISM 



EDITED BY 

N. W. WALKER 

and 
M. C. S. NOBLE 



CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

DECEMBER, 1909 



COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY 
N. W. WALKER 

AND 
M. C. S. NOBLE 



Education 



GIFT 



PREFACE 



In tliis reprint of Pattillo's Geographical Catechism the orig- 
inal text has been reproduced line for line and page for page. 
The spelling, punctuation, and capitalization also remain as 
in the original. The only liberties the editors have taken 
consist (1) in substituting the modern style for the old-style 
"s" and (2) in correcting a few typographical errors. The 
changes made are as follows : 

"Equinoxical", p. 7, 11. 19-20, has been changed to 
"Equinoxial". 

".Q 13", p. 8, 1. 11, has been changed to "Q. 13". 

"africa", p. 11, 1. 16, has been changed to "Africa". 

"lighter", p. 20, 11. 17-18, has been changed to "light- 
est". 

"grant", p. 21, 1. 16, has been changed to "grand". 

"more that once", p. 26, 1. 37, has been changed to 
"more than once". 

"Q. 41", p. 37, 1. 11, has been changed to "Q. 91". 

"Setna", p. 40, 1. 36, has been changed to "Aetna". 

"Lariffa", p. 41, 1. 10, has been changed to "Larissa". 

"Augsbury", p. 42, 11. 4-5, has been changed to "Augs- 
burg". 

"Their", p. 47, 1. 4, has been changed to "Their". 

A few errors have been allowed to remain: as, for instance, 
"Q. 56" which is repeated on page 17. Spellings like "rug- 
gid", p. 7, "Labrodor", p. 9, "chearfully", p. 26, and 

275 



many others have not been regarded as typographical errors 
and have been left as in the original. 

So far as the editors have been able to learn there are only 
two copies of the original edition of the Catechism that can 
be located: one (an imperfect copy) is in the library of the 
University of North Carolina; the other belongs to Dr. Ste- 
phen B. Weeks, Trinity, N. C., who has kindly furnished 
the editors those parts which are missing from the University 

copy. 

THE EDITORS. 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



INTRODUCTION 



A peep into any schoolroom typical of any age or method 
of teaching is always of great interest and value to the pro- 
gressive teacher. A close perusal of this work of Henry Pat- 
tillo, a North Carolina Preacher-Teacher of the 18th cen- 
tury, takes the reader into a schoolroom of over one hundred 
years ago and gives him a clear view of how our great-grand- 
parents were taught. The book shows us the old-time 
teacher and his pupils on recitation, and from start to finish 
the reader is struck not only with the quaint style of expres- 
sion but with the steady stream of information poured forth . 

The title-page and the preface together give us a clear-cut 
description of what is to be found in the text, and from these 
we learn that the author hopes (1) to make the study of 
Geography easy for ambitious youth; (2) to enable the 
farmer and his family to read intelligently descriptions of 
foreign lands; (3) to bring all to know something of the 
works of God; and (4) to receive in the end "a few dollars 
which will be welcome visitors." This book, like all text- 
books written by teachers, is the fruitage of the author's 
experience in the class-room, and it reveals clearly and dis- 
tinctly the pedagogy of his time. 

A good old Scotch Presbyterian preacher of Granville 
had a class of "three lads" and began to teach them the fas- 
cinating subject of geography. He had no beautifully illus- 
trated text- books, nor wall-maps, nor blackboards with 
which to do effective work ; and so with question and answer 
he leads his "three lads" around the world, and to the stars, 



to distant lands and through far off space, describing every 
land and star and phenomenon with a style and method that 
do not fail to catch the eye and the ear of even the modern read- 
er. And on nearly every page he puts into the answers to his 
ponderous questions an humble reverence for the Deity, as 
on page 29-30 in speaking of comets: "No part of God's 
works that have come to my knowledge, astonish me more 
than the infinite wisdom, foreknowledge and divine art of 
the Deity, in throwing from his creating hand more than 40 
enormous globes, whose paths oppose and cross each other 
for thousands of years, in every direction, without the rapid 
fiery comet once touching or interrupting a single planet ? 
which must have frequently happened had the planet been 
in that part of its orbit in which it was before the cornet 
passed, or would be soon after. Adore ye sons of men, and 
in humble gratitude acknowledge the power, wisdom and 
goodness of GOD ! If he is thus tremendous in one of his 
works, who can stand when HE ariseth? Make peace with 
him whilst thou art in the way; for he is as gracious to 
returning penitents, as he will be terrible to the sinner in 
his crimes." M. C. S. N. 



SKETCH OF PATTILLO 

(1726-1801) 



Henry Pattillo was an eminent Presbyterian preacher and 
teacher who lived and labored in the counties of Orange and 
Granville from 1765 until his death in 1801. He was born 
in Scotland in 1726 "of pious parents well situated in point 
of religious privileges." About 1740 he with his brother 
George emigrated to America and settled in Virginia. Heat 
first engaged with a merchant as clerk but soon gave up this 
occupation in order to study for the ministry. He was 
licensed to preach about 1757, and in 1765 moved to North 
Carolina. He carne from an ancient and honorable Scotch 
family residing at Balermic near Dundee. The original 
name of this family was Pattullock, of which name there are 
at least eighteen variations or modifications ranging in 
spelling from Pattillo to Petilly. The subject of this brief 
sketch married in 1755 Miss Mary Anderson of Virginia. His 
descendants are now living in North Carolina, Virginia, 
Georgia, and Canada. 

Henry Pattillo was a man of large public spirit and took a 
deep and active interest in all matters relating to the welfare 
of his state and nation. He was a man, too, of : -great energy 
and force of character and he exerted a strong influence upon 
the political as well as the religious and educational life of 
his state. Because of his prominence he was chosen one of 
those sent by Governor Tryon to pacify the Regulators. 
During his brief residence in old Bute county (now Warren 
and Franklin) he was sent as a delegate to the Provincial 



Congress at Hillsboro in 1775. He was chosen one of the 
chaplains of that body and was called to preside in the Com- 
mittee of the whole. He also served as a member of the 
Committee of Safety for the Halifax District. 

He began his teaching career in Virginia while studying 
for the ministry. After coming to North Carolina he con- 
ducted schools at Hawfields, Williamsboro, and at Gran- 
ville Hall, a school "incorporated in 1779 when the coun- 
try was convulsed in war, ' ' the exact site of which is not 
now known. He doubtless taught at several other places 
wherever, in fact, his pastoral duties called him to reside. 

Mr. Pattillo is said to have been an excellent classical 
scholar for his day and opportunity. In recognition of his 
varied talents and scholastic attainments Hampden-Sidney 
College conferred upon him in 1787 the honorary degree of 
A.M. He wrote a good deal, but because of the limited 
facilities for printing, published but little. He left many 
manuscripts which have never been published. In 1787 he 
published in Wilmington a volume of Sermons; in 1796 his 
Geographical Catechism, the first text-book written in North 
Carolina, appeared; his only other publications consist of a 
few pamphlets. 

N. W. W. 



A GEOGRAPHICAL 

CATECHISM, 

To assist those who have neither Maps nor Gazetteers, 
TO READ 

NEWS-PAPERS, HISTORY, OB TRAVELS; 

With as much of 

The S c i E N c E of ASTRONOMY, and the DOCTRINE of the AIR, 
As is judged sufficient for the FARMER, who wishes 

to understand something of 
The Works of GOD, around him; 

And for the studious YOUTH, who have or have not a prospect of 
further prosecuting those SUBLIME SCIENCES. 

BYHENRY PATTILLO, A.M.GRANVILLE. 

The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have 
pleasure therein. Psalmist. 

Lord how manifold are thy works! In wisdom hast thou made them all. 

Sun, Moon and Stars, praise ye the Lord. 

For ever singing as they shine, 

' 'The hand that made us is divine. ' ' Adison . 



HALIFAX: P R i N T E D BY ABRAHAM HODGE, 
M,DCC,XCVI. 



GRANVILLE, November 27, 1795. 



TO 

GENEBAL DA VIE. 

SIR, 

I RELY on your goodness to admit this address, without 
any previous notice. Though I write not for the learn- 
ed, yet I wish my book to pass through the hands of such. 
They only are judges of literary merit. It is only the 
learned who know the work of science ; and what a ruggid 
steep they had to climb, to attain but a moderate share of it. 
A writer expects more mercy, and even more gratitude from 
men of real knowledge, than from an hundred of the less 
knowing, for whose sake he writes. If your kindness in- 
clines, and your numerous avocations permit* you, to pe- 
ruse these sheets before they go to the press, they will re- 
mind you of the road you once travelled, as far as they go; 
and cause you to recollect the time when you would have 
joyfully received such an introductory assistance to the study 
of these sciences. If my little book meets with your appro- 
bation, sir, and in your judgment answers the design of the 
writer, expressed in the title page, any way you please to 
take to express that approbation to the numerous and re- 
spectable circle of your acquaintance, will be agreeable and 
obliging to 

SIR, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

HENRY PATTILLO. 



PREFACE. 



THE following Catechism is designed to smooth the way 
to the study of Geography. What put it in the way of 
question and answer, was, that I intended three young lads 
then under my care, should commit it to memory. It is 
published in the same order, that others may take the same 
advantage. This was my first view. My second arose from 
this consideration, that as news-papers are happily and pret- 
ty generally circulated among us, there must be many honest 
farmers and their families who must be ignorant of many 
countries, towns, rivers and seas mentioned in them; and 
my book would enable them to read with more intelligence. 
Though these were laudable and sufficient motives for its 
publication, yet I acknowledge a third, and a more power- 
ful reason, knowing what false and absurd ideas the bulk of 
mankind entertained of the works of God around them, and 
consequently how dishonourable such opinions are to the 
Deity, and how unworthy of that wisdom and beauty mani- 
fested in his works; I judged it a duty I owed to my Crea- 
tor and to my fellow-creatures, to attempt to lead common 
readers to some more just conceptions of the divine works; 
and this in so small a compass that the size of my book should 
not deter them; and I hope in a manner suited to their un- 
derstandings. If I did not add a fourth inducement for pub- 
lishing, my reader would for me. I did, and still do hope 
my book may bring me in a few dollars, which will be wel- 
come guests when they arrive. 

The reader will readily discover the intimate connection 
betwixt Geography, and its elder sister Astronomy. I hope 
that hard word will fright no reader. It signifies no other 
than the doctrine of the heavenly bodies, of which the Sun, 
Moon, Planets and Comets, compose the part we are most 
nearly connected with. A moderate share of acquaintance 
with these, must constrain us to say, the depth of the wis- 
dom and knowledge of God! And sure I am, the more he is 
known in his works, as well as in his word, the more he will 
be adored and loved by his creatures. 

A large 



[ vi ] 

A large volume on these sciences, that condescends not 
to a low beginning, distresses the teacher, and discourages 
the learner. My book is designed to pave the way for au- 
thors who enter deeper into science; therefore all youths at 
our seminaries, will find their advantage from them; while 
the planter, and those youths who are not intended for the 
learned professions, will perhaps satisfy themselves with what 
is here offered to them. 

Knowledge is the cure of ignorance : Let it not therefore 
spurn the hand of its physician. Leave it, my dear reader, 
to a few silly women, to cry down a book for assertion that 
the planet Jupiter is a thousand times as large as the Earth 
that the human body is pressed with thirty thousand weight 
of air that the Earth and Moon fly one million and an half 
of miles daily that the Sun is larger than ten millions of the 
Moon. These are well known and established truths; and 
those who cry them down as impossibilities, only betray an 
incurable ignorance. Farewell, courteous reader. My best 
wishes attend you through my book; through life, death 
and the whole of your existence. 



AGEO- 



A GEOGRAPHICAL CATECHISM. 



\ T /HAT is the meaning of the word Geo- 
Questionl. \\ graphyj > 

Answer. It is compounded of two Greek words, Ge, the 
Earth, and graphe, a description; and is the science that 
describes the Earth, or the globe of sea and land. 

Q. 2. Why do you call the sea and land a globe? 

A. Because it is round as a globe or ball. 

Q. 3. How is the land on the globe divided? 

A. Into four quarters or large continents. 

Q. 4. What are their names? 

A. Asia, Africa, Europe and America. 

Q. 5. How are these situated, with respect to each other? 

A. Asia on the east, Africa on the south, Europe west 
of Asia, and north of Africa, and America to the west of all. 

Q. 6. How are places on the Earth known, as to their 
situation? 

A. By their latitude and longitude. 

Q. 7. What is latitude? 

A. Latitude counts the distance of places, from the Equi- 
noxial, north or south, in degrees, minutes, seconds, &c. 

Q. 8. What is longitude? 

A. Longitude counts the distance of places east or west, 
from some given point, called the first meridian, and is also 
reckoned in degrees, minutes, &c. 

Q. 9. What is a degree and a minute? 

A. A degree is the 360th part of the Earth's circumfer- 
ence; a minute is the 60th part of a degree; a second the 
60th part of a minute, &c. 

Q. 10. Why are lines of longitude called meridians? 

A. Because when the Sun is on any particular meridian, 
it is mid-day to all who live under that line, on the same side 
of the globe, and midnight to all who live on the opposite 
meridian. 

Q. 11. Are degrees of latitude and longitude the same? 

A. On the Equinoxial only; there a degree of each is 
69i of our miles: latitude is the same every where; but lon- 
gitude decreases from the Equinox, north or south; so that 
in the lat. of N. Carolina 37, a degree of longitude in only 

48 



[ 8 ] 

48 miles; and continues to decrease to the pole, where all 
the meridian lines meet.* 

Q. 12. What is the Equinoxialf 

A. The Equinoxial is that part of our globe that is at an 
equal distance or 90 degrees from both poles. Sailors call 
it the line, and it surrounds the Earth where its diameter is 
the greatest. When the Sun is on the Equinox, in March 
and September, the day and night is equal, all the world 
over. There is no latitude at the line, for there that reck- 
oning begins. 

Q. 13. What are the poles? 

A. They are those two spots on our globe, that lie di- 
rectly under the poles in the heavens, and where there is no 
longitude : So that were a rod to pass from the north pole 
in the heavens to the south, it would enter the Earth at its 
north pole; pass through the center, and out at its south 
pole, to the south polar star, and be in fact what it is called, 
the axis of the Earth, the pole stars being its supporters. 

Q. 14. What is the diameter of the Earth? 

A. The distance from side to side, passing through the 
center. This line would be about 8000 miles in length, 
and half of it, the semi-diameter. Consequently the cir- 
cumference, or line that would surround the Earth at the 
equinoxial, where it is largest, would be 25,000 miles, for 
the one is to the other as 7 to 22. 

Q. 15. You say the Earth is divided into land and water; 
how are the waters divided? 

A. Into oceans, seas, gulfs, bays, lakes, straits, rivers 
and canals. 

Q. 16. What is an ocean? 

A. An ocean is one of the largest collection of waters. 

Q. 17. What are the principal oceans in the globe? 

A. I. The Pacific ocean, or great South sea; which 
lies betwixt the western coast of America, and the eastern 
coast of Asia, where it is called the Eastern ocean. It is ten 
thousand miles over. 

II. The Atlantic ocean, which lies from the eastern coast 
of America, to the western coast of Europe and Africa, and 
is about 1000 leagues, or 3000 miles over. 

III. The Indian ocean, on the east of Africa, and south 
of Asia. 

IV. The Southern ocean, towards the south pole. 



* They are marked thus, a degree , a minute ', a second ". As 25 
37' 42", 25 degrees 37 minutes 42 seconds. 

V. The 



[ 9 ] 

V. The Northern or Frozen ocean, to the north of Asia, 
Europe and America. 
Q. 18. What is a sea? 
A. A sea is a smaller collection of water than an ocean. 

I. The Mediterranean sea, which has Europe on its nor- 
thern shore; Africa on its southern, and Asia on its eastern. 

II. The Euxine or Black sea, which has Asiatic Turkey 
on the south, Turkey in Europe and Grim Tartary on the 
north, and communicates with the sea of Asoph, through 
the straits of Kaffa, 

III. The Baltic sea, surrounded by Denmark, Sweden, 
Russia and Poland. 

IV. The Red sea, which has Africa on its western ahore, 
and Arabia on the eastern, and hence it is called the Ara- 
bic gulph. 

V. The Caspian sea, a large collection of fresh water 
near the middle of Asia. 

There are many other seas that are named from the 
countries they lie on ; as the German sea, betwixt Germa- 
ny and Britain : The Irish sea, betwixt England and Ire- 
land, &c. 

Q. 19. Whatisa&ayf 

A. A bay is a part of the ocean, that has land on each 
side, but a wide entrance; as 

I. The bay of Biscay, which is that part of the Atlantic 
that washes the western coast of France, and the northern 
shore of Spain. 

II. Chessapeak bay, which washes the shores of Virginia 
and Maryland, and receives all their great rivers. 

III. Hudson's and Baffin's bays, large arms of the sea, in 
the high latitudes of North America, &c. 

Q. 20. What is a gulph? 

A. A gulph is a collection of water, nearly surrounded by 
land. 

I. The gulph of Mexico, which has the continent of A- 
merica on the north, west and south, and the West-India 
islands on the east. 

II. The gulph of Saint Lawrance, which has Labrador 
or New-Britain on the north, Nova-Scotia on the west, and 
the islands of Newfoundland and Cape Breton on the east. 

III. The gulph of Venice t betwixt European Turkey on 
the north-east, and Italy on the south-west, formerly called 
the Adriatic sea. 

Q. 21. 
B 



[ 10 ] 

Q. 21. How does a gulph and a bay differ? 

A. A gulph has a narrow entrance, and a bay a wider, in 
proportion to the water within: hence the Mediterranean, 
the Euxine, and the Baltic seas, are all real gulphs; for 
they have narrow entrances, and widen greatly within. 

Q. 22. What is a lake? 

A. A lake is a piece of fresh water, surrounded by land; 
some of which receive rivers, but emit none; as those two 
famous lakes in Asia, the Caspian, which receives the Vol- 
ga, and many other rivers; and the lake of Sodom, or the 
Dead sea, into which the Jourdan mouths and is lost, after 
running through the sea of Tiberias. Africa has few lakes 
that are known. Europe has the lakes of Constance, Ge- 
neva, and some in Sweden, Russia and Ireland. But the 
American lakes, which divide the British dominions in Ca- 
nada from the United States, are the most remarkable: 
they are lake Superiour, lake Huron, lake Michigan, lake 
Erie and lake Ontario, through which the river St. Law- 
ranee runs, 

Q. 23. What is a strait? 

A. A strait is a narrow passage betwixt two lands; as the 
straits of Dover, betwixt France and England; the straits 
of Gibraltar, betwixt Spain on the north, and Morocco on 
the south; the straits of Babelmandel, at the mouth of the 
Red sea, betwixt Arabia on the east, and Abissinia on the 
west; the straits of Magellan, betwixt Patagonia on the 
north, and Terra del fuego, the southern part of America; 
the straits of Bellisle, betwixt Labrador north, and New- 
foundland south; Davis 's and Hudson's straits; the sound at 
the entrance of the Baltic, &c. 

Q. 24. What is a river? 

A. Rivers have their origin in the bowels of mountains 
or hills, from whence flow springs, which uniting form 
brooks, creeks and small rivers, which pouring themselves 
into a large bed, are thus united, conveyed to the sea. 

Q. 25. What is a canal? 

A. A canal is a large ditch, into which water is conveyed, 
for the carriage of vessels with goods and passengers ; and 
the banks are earth, wood, brick or stone work. 

Q. 26. Tell me how the land on the globe is divided? 

A. Land is divided into continents, islands, peninsulas, 
mountains, capes, promontories, isthmuses, hemispheres, 
zones, and climates. 

Q. 27. What is a continent? 

A. Aeon- 



[ 11 ] 

A. A continent is a large surface of earth, not divided by 
water, and answers to an ocean, not divided by land. 
Q. 28. What is an island? 

A. An island is land, wholly surrounded by water, and 
agrees to a lake, wholly surrounded by land. 
Q. 29. What is a peninsula? 

A. A peninsula is, as the word signifies, almost an island, 
joined to other lands by an isthmus, and answers to a gulph 
or bay. 

Q. 30. What is an isthmus? 

A. An isthmus is a narrow neck of land, betwixt two 
larger tracts, and answers to a strait by water. 

Q. 31. What are the most noted isthmuses on the globe? 

A. I. The isthmus of Suez, betwixt the northern end of 

the Red sea, and the Mediterranean; about 60 miles of 

land ; which is all that prevents Asia and Africa from being 

islands, and renders them two vast peninsulas. 

II. The isthmus of Darien, betwixt Panama, on the Pa- 
cific ocean, and Porto Bello an the gulph of Florida, but 60 
miles over; from which America widens into two mighty 
continents, north and south; and being every where else 
surrounded by water, they are also very large peninsulas. 
Q. 32. What is a mountain? 

A. A mountain is a large hill, standing either alone, or 
joined to others, and then it makes part of a ridge. Moun- 
tains are the sources of fountains and rivers ; the beds of 
metals, minerals, and building materials; the refuge and 
shelter of man and beast; the girdles or hoops of the earth; 
the boundaries of nations, and frequently their best defence; 
the collectors and condensers of clouds and vapours, and the 
checks and barriers of furious storms. They beautifully va- 
riegate the scene; strike the beholder with awe, and enter- 
tain his eye with their majestic glories. 
Q. 33. What is a cape? 

A. A cape is a point of low land that makes out into the 
sea, and a promontory does the same, but is high and rockey. 
Q. 34. What is the hemisphere? 

A. If you cut an apple through the middle, at an equal 
distance from the stem and the flower, it will represent the 
Earth divided at the Equinoxial, into the northern and south- 
ern hemispheres, or half globes, as the word signifies: or 
if you cut the apple through the stem and the flower, it will 
represent the Earth, divided by the two opposite meridians, 
into the eastern and western hemispheres. 

Q. 35. 



[ 12 ] 

Q. 35. What are the zones? 

A. The Earth is divided into five zones, or girdles, to 
wit, 1. The two frigid, or cold zones, that lie one round 
the north, the other round the south pole, and extend 23 
30' from them all round. 2. The two temperate zones, so 
called from their lying betwixt the extremes of heat and cold. 
The northern temperate zone, extends from the arctic cir- 
cle to the northern tropic; the southern temperate zone, 
from the antarctic circle, to the southern tropic, and are 
each of them 43 in breadth. 3. The torrid, or burning 
zone, which extends from tropic to tropic, 47 in breadth, 
with the equator in the middle of it. 

Q. 36. What are the tropics? 

This question brings us to 

THE YOUTH'S AND FARMER'S ASTRONOMY. 

Answer. The tropics are two circles, supposed to be 
drawn round the earth, parallel to the Equinoxial, and at 
23 30' from it; the one north of the line, called the tropic 
of Cancer; the other south, called the tropic of Capricorn. 

Q. 37. Why are they called tropics? 

A. From a Greek word, that signifies to turn. For when 
the Sun, at our longest day, has arrived at the tropic of Can- 
cer, he begins to turn, or gradually lowers, towards the 
southern tropic of Capricorn, when all on the south of the 
line have their longest days, and we the shortest. 

Q. 38. What mean those words, Cancer and Capricorn? 

A. Cancer is the most northern sign of the Zodiac, or 
that cluster of stars that has some resemblance to a crab. 
Capricorn is the most southern sign or constellation in the 
Zodiac, which is called the horned goat. 

Q. 39. What is the Zodiac? 

A. The Zodiac, so called from a word that signifies living 
creatures, is that imaginary broad belt in the heavens, with- 
in which lie those 12 constellations, or clusters of stars, that 
are called the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and generally call- 
ed by the names of creatures. 

Q. 40. What are the names and marks, by which these 
constellations are known? 

A. The names are Latin : the marks are arbitrary; both 
which I recommend to you, to commit to memory, at this 
place, that you may know them on sight. The Sun enters 
the twelve signs in the following order : 

1. T 



[ 13 ] 



1. T Aries, the ram, in March 

2. tf Taurus, the bull, April 

3. tt Gemini, the twins, May 

4. Cancer, the crab, June 

5. 7 Leo, the lion, July 

6. W Virgo, virgin, August 



7. Libra, balance, Sept. 

8. Wl Scorpio, scorpion, Oct. 

9. ^ Sagitarius, archer, Nov. 

10. %> Capricorn, goat, Dec. 

11. sas Aquarius, water bearer, Jan. 

12. X Pisces, fishes, Feb. 



Q. 41. Why are these constellations called by such ani- 
mals' names? 

A. Those who divided the starry heavens into constella- 
tions, must call them by some name, to know and distinguish 
them by; and the several clusters thus laid off, probably 
bear some resemblance to the animals on Earth whose names 
they wear. 

Q. 42. What do you mean by the Sun entering the 12 
signs? 

A. When the Sun is said, for instance, to enter Aries, 
the meaning is that he then comes between the Earth, and 
the first degree of that sign . 

The names and order of the twelve signs, may be easily 
remembered by the following verses of Dr. Watts: 

The Ram, the Bull, the heavenly Twins; 
And next the Crab the Lion shines, 

The Virgin and the Scales: 
The Scorpion, Archer, and He Goat; 
The Man that bears the water pot, 

Audfish with glittering tails. 

Q. 43. What is the Ecliptic? 

A. The Ecliptic, so called from eclipses happening under 
it, is that circle, supposed in the middle of the Zodiac, 
which crosses the Equator at an angle of 23 30', and is the 
path the Sun describes, and never quits, while he passes 
through the twelve signs, as above described. 

Q. 44. What causes an eclipse of the Sun? 

A. An eclipse of the Sun can never happen, but at the 
change of the Moon ; and as the Moon continually wheels 
round the Earth left about, and completes her revolution in 
her month; so it will sometimes happen, that in passing 
from the east to the west of the Sun, she must come betwixt 
him and the Earth, and hide a part, and sometimes, though 
very seldom, the whole of his disk from us. 

Q. 45. How can the Moon come between us and the 
Sun? Are they not both at an equal distane from us? 

A. The distance of the Moon from the Earth, is 240,000 

miles ; 



[ 14 ] 

miles; the distance of the Sun, is about 96,000,000, which 
is 400 times as far. Now though it would take several mil- 
lions of Moons to make a globe equal to the Sun, yet she 
can hide his light from us, by the same law of nature that 
your finger held near your eye, will cover a whole field; and 
if you were on a mountain, might hide 100 miles from you. 

Q. 46. What causes an eclipse of the Moon? 

A. This can never happen, but when the Moon is full, 
and in direct opposition to the Sun . Now as the Moon has 
no more light than a clod, unless the Sun shines upon her, 
if any body large enough, comes between, and intercepts 
his rays, she must be in darkness. When the Moon then, 
for example, rises full in the east, and the Sun sets in the 
west, the Earth is betwixt them; and if exactly betwixt 
them, she must prevent the rays of the Sun from falling on 
a part of the Moon, or, in other words, the Moon must 
pass through the shadow of the Earth ; and if it be a central 
eclipse, that is, if the centers of the Sun, Earth and Moon, 
be in a direct line, the Moon will be totally darkened as long 
as she would be running thrice the width of her own body 
in her monthly course round the Earth ; for the shadow of 
the Earth at that distance, would contain three such Moons 
by the side of each other. 

Q. 47. What is the horizon? 

A. The horizon is either sensible or rational. 1. The 
sensible horizon is as far as a person can see around bim by sea 
or land: Every part of the Earth's surface has its horizon, 
and the more elevated the station, the more it is extended. 
2. The rational horizon surrounds the Earth at 90 from a 
person every way around him, and thus divides it exactly in- 
to two hemispheres, the pole of which, or point over head, 
is called the Zenith; the opposite point the Nadir. 

Q. 48. What is a climate? 

A. Climates are imaginary lines, that run parallel with 
the Equator north or south of it, where the day is half an 
hour longer. Now as the day is always 12 hours long at the 
Equinoxial, to complete the first climate, that is to arrive 
where the day is 12 1-2 hours long, you must travel above 
500 miles north or south of the line, and then be in the 8th 
degree of latitude. But this distance greatly lessens as you 
proceed; for as high as the 10th climate, where the day is 
17 hours long, you will arrive at the llth climate, only by 
going north or south 150 miles. And from the 20th to the 
21st climate, 20 miles will make the day half an hour longer. 

Q. 49. 



[ 15 ] 

Q. 49. What gives us day and night? 

A. Why, do not the Sun, Moon and Stars rise in the east, 
and wheel round to the west and back again, every twenty- 
four hours. 

Q. 50. So it evidently seems to every body, but some de- 
ny it : what say you? 

A . They must not deny what appears so plain ; and you 
can convince them directly, by pointing to the meat on the 
spit, around which the house and the fire turn like a wheel, till 
it is roasted; and to the turkey hung by the line, round 
which the fire and hearth turn millstone-fashion, to give eve- 
ry side its due share. 

Q. 51. But this is not so, and it is absurd to talk of it. 
How do you say it is? 

A. Let us be satisfied it is not one way, before we try ano- 
ther. When you wish for a good view of the adjacent coun- 
try, you climb a hill, and on the eminence you stand quite 
still, till the whole prospect turns round you, do you not? 

Q. 52. No: I am not fool enough to expect such impossi- 
bilities. I turn round and round again, and view the whole 
at my leisure. Why do you ask me such a question? 

A. Because I only wish you to allow the Almighty Crea- 
tor to be as wise as you and your cook ; for to save the whole 
creation from turning round a little spot, HE has command- 
ed the Earth to turn all its sides to the Sun and Stars, every 
twenty-four hours, and thus to have day and night alternate- 

ly. 

Q. 53. This is new indeed; but can you make me under- 
stand it? 

A. The daily motion of the Earth is easily understood. 
Have a ball of cotton or wool dark will best suit the colour 
of Earth. Run a wire exactly through the middle. Stand 
in the sun, and point one end of the wire towards the north 
star. Turn your ball gradually to the east about; and if you 
stick a pin deep in the ball, it will represent yourself. You 
will then see, that when the sun first touches the pin, it west 
and he east, you have sunrise. When the pin and sun are 
in a line, you have midday. When you in the east lose sight 
of the sun in the west, you have sunset. When the pin 
comes opposite to the sun, you have midnight, and so on a- 
gain to sunrise. 

Q. 54. This would be very beautiful, and convenient in- 
deed ; but how can things avoid falling off, when the Earth 
turns her sides downwards? 

A. This 



[ 16 ] 

A. This childish fear arises from the silly notion of an uni- 
versal ivp, and an universal down, through the whole crea- 
tion. Whereas the Earth has its own particular up, and 
particular down. From the center, or middle point to the 
surface in any direction, is up; and from any spot on the sur- 
face, towards the center, is down. Thus it is with the Sun, 
the Moon, and all the planets, with which I hope you will 
presently be better acquainted. Nothing therefore can fall 
from the Earth, till attraction ceases to operate. 

Q. 55. What is attraction? 

A. Attraction is that property, power or law the Great 
Creator has given to all material bodies, to draw all other 
bodies towards them ; and this in proportion to their distance 
from each other, and their quantity of matter. It is this 
law that gives weight to all bodies; for weight is nothing 
but the Earth's attraction, drawing every thing to it; not 
in proportion to the bulk, but quantity of matter. It is by 
this law the stone you throw up, is again drawn to the Earth, 
which would otherwise fly off in a straight line, and could 
never cease to fly. This power acts in all directions: for 
if you throw up a stone at six in the morning, and another 
at six in the evening, they both return by the same law ; the 
Earth's attraction quickly overpowers the force you gave 
them; and yet these two stones were thrown to directly op- 
posite points in the heavens. Cease then, your ridiculous 
fears for the inhabitants of Asia, on the opposite side of the 
globe: the ignorant among them are as apprehensive, that 
you must/a^ up to the skies, as you are for them; for the 
the same law of nature keeps you both steady to your places, 
as well as operates through all the visible creation. The 
Sun attracts the Earth and all the other planets ; and they 
attract him, and each other. 

Q. 56. Then I should suppose the largest would draw all 
the others to it. How is this prevented? 

A. Your supposition is very natural, and the Earth would 
be quickly drawn to the Sun, by his vastly superiour attrac- 
tion, had not infinite wisdom given the Earth a circular mo- 
tion round the Sun, that exactly balances his attraction, and 
keeps the Earth and Moon continually at or nearly the same 
distance from him. To have some idea of this, tie two 
weights to a string, to represent the Earth and Moon, the 
one ten or twelve times as large as the other: face the south, 
and turn them round you, left about. Your hand will be 
the Sun the string acts as the centripetal force, or the con- 

stan 



[ 17 ] 

stant inclination of the Earth and Moon to draw near the 
Sun by the force of his attraction the circular motion you 
keep the weights in, will represent the centrifugal force, 
or the constant inclination of the Earth and Moon, to fly off 
farther from the Sun : but from their wonderful adjustment, 
neither of these can happen, but by the will of HIM that 
made them. Every turn you give the cord, will represent 
the course of the Earth and Moon round the Sun, once a 
year, called the annual orbit. 

Q. 56. Is the speed of the Earth, in her yearly course 
round the Sun, known? 

A. You will see hereafter, from the distance of the Sun, 
that the Earth flies every year more than 500 millions of 
miles ; and of course about a million and an half every 24 
hours. 

Q. 57. Prodigious! Is not such speed inconceivable? 

A. It is so. But consider that you have hitherto believed 
in a speed 365 times swifter. For you believed that the Sun 
flew round the Earth every day and night. Thus you gave 
him the task every day, that the Almighty has assigned to the 
Earth and Moon in a whole year: for we must travel that 
mighty circuit in a year, or the Sun in a day. And what infi- 
nitely adds to the absurdity, the fixt stars, the nearest of which 
are several hundred thousand times farther from us than the 
Sun is, they must join in this useless whirl, with a velocity 
past the conception of angels; and all this to twinkle on us, 
in a clear night, when one little additional Moon could have 
given us more light than all of them together. Never be- 
lieve fuch folly can proceed from the God of wisdom , who 
performs all his works in the easiest and most simple, that is, 
in the wisest manner possible. 

Q. 58. I cannot reconcile the annual motion of the 
Earth round the Sun, to complete her year, and her daily 
motion round her axis, to receive day and night. 

A. The Earth's two motions are easily reconciled. 
When the rolling hogshead or the carriage wheel go the 
road, consider a moment, whether they have not the same two 
motions which the Earth has. One of these is round their 
axis, on which they could be moved, though lifted from the 
ground by the other they proceed forward, the extent of 
their own circumference every turn. If you throw a ball 
from your hand, it has the same two motions, both in the 
air, and on the ground; and if you roll your ball with the 

wire 
C 



[ 18 ] 

wire in it along the floor, it will not be an unapt resemblance 
of the real thing. 

Q. 59. I thank you sir, I see it plainly, and admire the 
beauty, ease and harmony of the Earth's double motion; 
but I do not see by what law the Moon accompanies her, in 
the annual orbit? 

A. The Earth's superiour attraction draws the Moon 
with her, and would soon draw it to her, had not creating 
wisdom given the Moon a circular course around the Earth, 
once in a lunar month, left about, which exactly balances 
the Earth's attraction: the Moon also attracts the Earth 
with force sufficient to raise great tides, as well in the ocean 
as in the air; and at the full and change, when the attrac- 
tion of the Sun and Moon act together, or in straight lines, 
the tides are highest. 

Q. 60. When I think of the Earth's diurnal motion on 
her axis, I find every part must fly swiftly, and at the Equi- 
noxial, one thousand miles each hour; I should think there 
would be always a furious wind blowing from the east, that 
must level every upright thing on the surface; but when the 
annual motion is added, at the rate of a million and an half 
of miles each day, I wonder anything is left on the face of 
the Earth. 

A. I am glad you make the objection; it is a very natu- 
ral one, and proves that you think as we proceed. What 
you mention would happen in a moment, if the great Creator 
had not given the same motion to the air that he gave to the 
Earth, and made it as much a part of our world, as the wa- 
ters of the sea are. The air in your room would remain 
undisturbed, could the house fly off from the Earth a thou- 
sand miles in a minute, you would be quite insensible of any 
motion you would step as far, and move as easily the one 
way as the other, and a drop of water would fall as perpen- 
dicular as if the house was at rest. All this is verified in the 
cabin of a ship under sail; while sailors experience no 
difference in their motions or actions, whether the ship is sail- 
ing or at anchor. They are insensible of the ship's motion, 
when sailing out of harbour ; for it is the land that appears 
to retire from them, and not they from the land; and if they 
sail past any thing at rest, it is that thing which seems to have 
all the motion the contrary way. 

Q. 61. This, sir, removes several difficulties that had 
occured to me. I could not account for our flying so fast, 
and not be sensible of any motion : and if I threw a weight 

upwards, 



[ 19 ] 

upwards, I judged it ought to fall a great way to the west; 
nor could I see how the clouds or birds could ever fly to the 
east. But if the air moves with us, as a part of the Earth, 
and if I might fly in a close house with the lightning's speed, 
and not be sensible of any motion at all, it removes my diffi- 
culties ; but it seems to require that the air should have some 
weight, to cleave so close to the Earth in her swift moti- 
ons, which is a thing I never thought of; for we common- 
ly say, as light as the air or the wind. 

A. The wind has weight enough at times, to level with 
the ground, the stubborn oak and stately pine; for the wind 
is only air in motion. And to engage your attention I tell 
you, that the air is so heavy, whether in motion or still, that 
in clear weather, it presses on every middle sized man with 
a weight equal to thirty thousand pounds. 

Q. 62. I am learning not to oppose my ignorance to the 
works of the Creator, seem they ever so strange; but you 
must allow me to wonder, that we can be pressed with such a 
weight, and not suffer by it, nor be sensible of it. 

A. I honour your modesty; and to encourage and reward 
it will assure you that I have told you nothing, and dare tell 
you nothing, but what is strictly true. Had I no regard to 
the God of truth, nothing could induce me to publish to the 
world, what a thousand learned men could refute to my con- 
fusion. Your present difficulty respecting the pressure of 
the air on the human body, and on every thing of the same 
size on the face of the Earth, will be removed by a maxim 
in philosophy, that action, and re-action are equal. The 
blow you give is repelled with just the force you give it. 
The ball strikes your hand just as hard as your hand strikes 
the ball. The waggon draws back to an ounce, what the 
horses draw forward, whether 1000 weight on a level, or 
2000 on an ascent; for they cannot possibly draw more at 
the time, than they have to draw: and if you increase the 
weight, you increase the resisting power. Apply this rule 
to the case in hand. Creating wisdom has exactly balanced 
the pressure of the atmosphere on our bodies, by the resist- 
ance of the air ivithin us; and the lower air repels, or pres- 
ses upward, with a force just equal to all the weight or 
pressure of the upper air, that bears on it by the Earth's 
attraction . But to assist you in this important subject, I must 
acquaint you with some properties of the atmosphere. 

I. The air surrounds the whole globe of sea and land, a 
number of miles high. 

II. The 



[ 20 ] 

II. The air being as proper a fluid as the water, but 
very elastic or springy, which the water is not; it must be 
thickest or heaviest at the Earth's surface, and becomes 
lighter or thinner the higher it ascends. 

III. The weight of air to water is nearly as 1 to 1000; 
and though this may appear light, yet could a vessel, a foot 
square, be erected to reach the top of the atmosphere, the 
air in it would weigh as much as the water in a vessel a foot 
square and 33 feet high. This is known to every pump- 
maker; because the pressure of the air on the surface of the 
well, will force the water to rise in the pump 33 feet, and 
no more without another valve. 

IV. The air differs in its weight, at different times. 
When the weather is quite clear and serene, the air is hea- 
viest, and our bodies and minds feel the most agreeably. 
When the weather is foggy or cloudy, it is a proof that the 
air has become lighter. In rain it is lighter still, and light- 
est of all when stormy. This is proven by the barometer, 
a long glass tube filled with quicksilver, which rises in the 
glass in clear weather, by the pressure of the air on the little 
vessel of quicksilver, in which its lower open end stands; 
but sinks on the approach of rain, from the decreased weight 
and pressure of the air. Rhumatic, ruptured, asthmatic, 
and other ailing people, are very sensible of this change in 
the state of the atmosphere, by their pains and complaints; 
which they, by a great mistake, ascribe to, the thickness or 
weight of the air; whereas the true reason is, they are de- 
prived of at least 2000 weight of that 30,000 that braces 
them up in clear weather, and gives them more agreeable sen- 
sations. And as the surface of the human body measures about 
14 or 15 square feet, so every thing on Earth of that size loses 
also 2000 in rainy weather. This abatement of weight is, 
on the whole very great : the air becomes too light or thin , 
any longer to support the watery vapours above; conse- 
quently they must descend, form themselves into clouds, and 
fall in rain. Heat is the common instrument of lightning 
the air. 

V. From the elasticity or springiness of the air it is, that 
it may be compressed into much less space than it naturally 
fills, or expanded into vastly greater. Your pop-gun has 
taught you, that all the air in it could be compressed into an 
inch or two, till the spring of the condenced air forced out 
the lower plug with a little crack. The elastic or expansive 
property of the air, you have proved, or may prove, by 

holding 



[ 21 ] 

holding a well-tied bladder to the fire, with apparently no 
air in it. You will presently, however, see it dilate till it 
not only fills, but bursts the bladder with a great explosion. 

VI. The air is the medium of breathing, to every living 
creature. It is the great instrument of conveying sounds; 
of conversation; of all the instruction you give or receive 
by the voice; of speaking comfort to the distressed; and of 
praying to and praising GOD. Sound is conveyed through 
the air 383 yards in a second a thread and weight 39 inches 
long will count seconds, 10 1-2 inches will count half se- 
conds; thus you may know the distance of a great gun by 
the flash, and of a thunder cloud by the lightning. Fires 
cannot exist without air and on it pumps and many other 
useful engines depend. It takes up all filthy effluvia from 
the Earth, that would otherwise destroy us; yet winds and 
tempests purify it for our use. Air is the grand agent in 
sailing the ocean , and of conveying the productions of the 
most distant nations to each other. The air is the grand 
medium of sight, as well as hearing. It is the atmosphere 
that receives, conveys, retracts and reflects the rays of light; 
and without it, if we could live a moment without it, the 
Sun would appear a glaring spot, and he and the Stars be 
seen through the blackest darkness at midday. No tree nor 
vegetable can grow or live without it, more than creatures. 
It turns thousands of mills every day, and all bellows have 
their use from it. Supported by it, the birds wing their 
way; and you move through this mighty fluid with the 
same ease and celerity, with which the fishes cut the stream. 

Q. 63. I thank you, sir: I shall think more of the air 
than I ever have, study its properties, and adore its Crea- 
tor. Wonderful! to think that I am at the bottom of such 
a vast ocean, that is of such use and advantage that I am 
pressed by it up and down, and on all sides with such a weight, 
and yet by the resistance and re-action of the air within me, 
I move through it with as much ease as if I could move on 
its surface. Surely the wisdom and goodness of the Deity 
are manifested in all his works, could we study and under- 
stand them. But before we leave this wondrous element, 
pray inform me how deep the ocean of air is ; or in other 
words, how high does the atmosphere arise above the sur- 
sace of the Earth and sea, all round the globe? 

A. The height of the air cannot be exactly ascertained, 
on account of its gradual increasing rarity as it ascends. But 
two things we are sure of. 1. That if the atmosphere ex- 
tends 



[ 22 ] 

tends to the orbit of the Moon, it is there so very rare, 
that it does not affect the Moon in her monthly course round 
the Earth. 2. We know the air has density enough about 
50 miles high, to bend the Sun's rays down to the Earth, 
an hour before he rises, and as long after he sits. The 
grateful twilight then, is another blessing we owe to the at- 
mosphere, otherwise we should have pitchy darkness the 
moment the Sun was out of sight, and till he appeared a- 
gain in the morning. 

Q. 64. At what rate does the air lighten, or become 
rare, as it ascends from the Earth's surface? 

A. The regular rarefaction of the air, has been disco- 
vered by experiments on the air pump, and by carrying the 
barometer up mountains. As they ascend, they perceive the 
mercury or quicksilver to sink gradually in the tube, and 
proves that the air lightens or rarefies as they mount. Now 
as you already know, that 33 feet of water in a vessel of an 
inch or a foot square, is equal in weight to the whole atmos- 
phere, of the same size or base, so 14 inches of quicksilver 
is equal to the whole weight of air, of the same base; for 
mercury is to water as 14 to 1 in weight. When they rise 
about 1200 feet high, the mercury will sink an inch, and 
the air will lose a thirtieth part of its weight. There the 
air would force water up a pump but 32 feet high. At five 
miles up, the air loses half its density; at seven miles up, its 
weight is about as 1 to 4; at 14 miles high, it is as 1 to 16; 
at 21 miles high, as 1 to 64; at 28 miles high, as 1 to 256; 
at 35 miles high, as 1024 to 1. That is, a cubic foot of air on 
the Earth, would expand into 1024 cubic feet at the height 
of 35 miles from the Earth's surface. 

Q. 65. Pray sir, does the water increase in its weight, 
according to its depth, as the air does? 

A. In the same exact proportion, but with much quicker 
transitions, from the wa.ter's superiour weight, which you 
know is to air as 1 to 33. When men descend 33 feet in the 
diving bell, they feel the weight of two atmospheres, one 
of air and one of water; at 66 feet deep they have three, 
and at 99 feet deep they have four atmospheres upon them, 
1 of air and 3 of water, and so down to any imaginable 
depth. Carious gentlemen at sea, have sunk a bottle, with 
a large cork fixed two-thirds of its length, in the mouth; 
and from the depth of 50 or 100 fathom, have drawn it up, 
and found the whole cork pressed into the bottle. 

Q. 66. I acknowledge the pains you take with me, sir, 

and 



[ 23 ] 

and beg to be indulged with one question more : Is it possible 
to know the weight with which the air presses the whole ter- 
raqueous globe ; or what the whole body of air weighs? 

A. It is not only possible, but yourself shall do it, by 
plain multiplication. Remember, if the Earth were co- 
vered with water 33 feet deep, it would just equal in weight, 
the whole incumbent atmosphere. Now a cubic foot of wa- 
ter weighs 63 pounds, which multiplied by 33, makes 2079; 
the number of pounds that the air presses on every square 
foot on the face of the globe. That multiplied by 9, gives 
you the weight on a square yard. Multiply 1760 by itself, 
and that product by the weight on a yard, will give you the 
weight on a square mile. That multiplied by 200,000,000, 
the square miles on the face of the globe, which, if I have 
figured right, will read thus, 11 trillions, 595,824 billions, 
720,000 millions, gives the whole weight of the air in 
pounds; and if the air descends two or three thousand miles 
down, and the calculation could follow it, I doubt not it would 
be found as heavy as gold, which is to water as 19 1-2 to 1 ; 
and consequently to air on the surface, as 20,000 to 1. 

Q. 67. How wonderful the works of GOD, in this one 
element the air! But let us now descend to the Earth, if 
we can find our way, after so long a voyage. 

A. The Earth's attraction will secure our way, if we 
can but arrive with whole bones, without the help of the 
little Spaniard's geese, which carried him to the Moon and 
back. We have, and are now on a more solid element. 

Q. 68. I have, sir, as you directed, procured myself a 
ball, and have run a wire through it pretty exactly. I have 
tried it in the sun and by the candle ; but I find the light al- 
ways shines on the same parts, which would make the days 
and nights constantly of a length . Pray tell me what makes 
them of different length, and gives the different seasons? 

A. I rejoice to have a pupil that labours for knowledge: 
the teacher has then as much pleasure as the learner. Your 
own industry must make your ball supply the place of a small 
terrestrial globe. You know that round the Earth either 
way, is 360, consequently, from pole to pole, or from 
wire to wire is 180. Cut a slip of paper that will reach 
from wire to wire; half of that lay off into nine equal divi- 
sions, and each of these into nine more, which will give you 
90 or a quadrant. At 90 degrees from each pole, wrap 
two white threads round your dark ball for the Equinoxial, 
and if the ball is white, wrap black threads. 23 1-2 from 

which , 



[ 24 ] 

which, wrap a thread, parallel to the Equator, for the 
northern tropic, and another at equal distance south, for the 
tropic of Capricorn. If they are exact, they will be every 
where 47 asunder, and include the torrid zone. 43 
from each tropic, or 23 30' from each pole, stick a 
white thread around, for the two polar circles. Thus you 
have the two frigid zones, round the two poles; the two 
temperate zones, betwixt the polar circles and the tropics, 
and the torrid zone from one to the other tropic, and the 
Equator betwixt them. Now tie your thread to one wire, 
and passing close by the other, bring it quite round; this 
gives you two meridians, but as you need four, wrap it round 
again, at an equal distance from the other two, and you di- 
vide the globe into 4 quarters, each quarter 90, as well 
where narrowest as widest. Tie your thread to a pin, and 
run it into the ball, where one of the meridians crosses one 
of the tropics; thence conduct it diagonally to where the 
next meridian crosses the Equator, which it will do at an 
angle of 23 30'; thence to where your second meridian 
crosses the opposite tropic, and there stick another pin, with 
the thread round it. Then carry it to where the third me- 
ridian crosses the Equator, and thence to your first pin, to 
which fasten it. This gives you the Ecliptic. Stick ano- 
ther pin half way into the ball, where one of the meri- 
dians crosses the north polar circle; and another where the 
opposite meridian crosses the other polar circle, and these 
will be the axis of the Ecliptic, 23 30' from the axis of the 
Earth. Procure a large wire, 9 or 10 feet long, and bend 
it into a circle; or if that cant be had, tough hoop- wood, 
cut small, may do. Have 12 slips of paper, of equal length, 
that will go round the hoop; set on them the marks of the 
12 signs, and divide each into 30. Fix these on your hoop, 
touching each other all round, in the order mentioned a- 
bove. Set a candle on the table, and raise the hoop even 
with the blaze; having bent one end of your wire into a hook, 
and hung it to a thread, twisted so as that the ball will turn 
left about, or opposite to the hands of a watch laid on the 
table; you can carry it round, left about too, for the an- 
nual motion, while the thread untwisting, gives you the di- 
urnal motion. But thus you have day and night still equal, 
and no change of seasons; because you cannot make your 
ball turn on its axis, and at the same time incline or lean 
23 30', as the Creator has the Earth. To obtain an idea 
of the seasons, and different length of days, let those who 

hold 



[ 25 ] 

hold the hoop, a little raise the side , and the other a lit- 
tle depress the side <6 ; T and being exactly in a line with 
the candle. Now if you suspend your ball in Aries, the 
light will shine to both poles ; and you have the vernal equi- 
nox, or day and night equal in spring, and your equator 
will be in a line with the hoop. Then steadily conducting 
your rolling ball, so that the middle of it shall always be in 
a line with the hoop ; you will see how gradually the light 
arises on the north polar circle, and sets on the southern, 
till when you arrive at Cancer, the whole arctic circle is en- 
lightened, and the antarctic all in darkness, and the tropics 
are in a line with the hoop, and we have our longest days. 
As you proceed through Leo and Virgo, the days gradually 
decrease; the north polar circle loses, and the southern 
gains light, till your ball arrives at Libra, your equator a- 
gain in a line with the hoop, and we have day and night 
equal, at the autumnal equinox. Thence rolling through 
Scorpio and Sagitary, our day continues to shorten, theirs 
to lengthen, till in Capricorn, the north polar circle will be 
all in darkness, the southern all in light; we have our 
shortest days, the southern hemisphere the longest, and the 
tropics are again in line with the hoop, at the winter sols- 
tice. Proceeding now through Aquarius and Pisces, the days 
gradually lengthen to us, and shorten to the south, till you 
again arrive at Aries, have the vernal equinox, your equa- 
tor and the hoop again on a line, and your ball supposed to 
have turned 365 times during the revolution through its an- 
nual orbit. This is as good a representation as can be given 
without an orrery. The candle is the Sun, the hoop the 
ecliptic among the fixt stars, and the ball the Earth. The 
candle seems to move into the sign opposite to the ball, tho' 
it remains at perfect rest. So to a spectator in the Sun, the 
Earth alone would be seen to move through all the 12 signs, 
and the Sun at rest in the centre. 

Q. 69. I will study this great subject, as you direct, that 
your labour may not be lost on me. But as you have sun- 
dry times mentioned the planets, it is time for me to know 
what they are? 

A. Yes; the very proper time. The planets are a num- 
ber of globes, that revolve round the Sun, as the Earth 
does; some less than the Earth, some vastly larger, some 
nearer to him, others much farther from him, some prima- 
ry, others secondary; and the Sun, Planets and Comets com- 
pose the SOLAR SYSTEM. 

D Q. 70 



[20 ] 

Q. 70. What is the distinction of primary and seconda- 
ry, among the planets? 

A. The Earth is a primary planet; the Moon a second- 
ary, called a satellite, guard or attendant; and so of the 
rest. 

Q. 71. How I long to know the names, sizes and distan- 
ces of the planets, and the length of their days and nights! 

A. I will chearfully gratify your wishes in the plainest 
and briefest manner I am able. The Sun is the grand 
center of the system, around which all the planets move; 
and when they have accomplished the revolution, they 
have completed their year. 

I. Mercury , the planet nearest to the Sun, revolves 
round him in 88 of our days, which is his year, at the dist- 
ance of about 35,000,000 of miles from the Sun. The dia- 
meter of this planet is 2600 miles, and he moves in his orbit 
95,000 miles each hour. He has seven times the light and 
heat that we have ; so that our water would there quickly 
evaporate, and our earth be in flames. From his constant 
vicinity to the Sun, nothing can be seen on his surface, to 
ascertain the length of his day and night. 

II. Venus 9 , the next in course, is our morning and 
evening Star, about the size of our Earth, or 8000 miles in 
diameter. She revolves round the Sun at the distance of 
60,000,000 of miles from him; and flying at the rate of 70,000 
miles each hour, completes her year in 225 of our days; 
though she turns so slow on her axis, that she has had but 9 
days and nights in all that time. As seen through a telescope, 
she has all the appearances of the Moon, at her different a- 
ges. You must not judge it contradictory, when you see 
Venus to the west of the Sun, as morning star, or to the 
east of the Sun, as evening star, really longer than her 
whole year; for the Earth is flying the same way, though 
with a slower course, and in a larger circle. If any person 
and you agree to walk round a small house, he 20 yards from 
it and you 30; he takes three steps for your two, you will 
see that he surrounds the house more than once before he is 
hid behind it; and when he appears again on your other 
hand, he will be much longer in your sight than he is mak- 
ing his whole round. Continue this for a few circles and you 
cannot fail to understand it. You are the Earth, the other 
person Venus, and the house the Sun. 

III. The Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and 
revolves round him, as you have seen, in 365 1-4 days, at 

the 



[ 27 ] 

the rate of 60,000 miles each hour, and at the distance of 
96,000,000 of miles from him; while her secondary or sa- 
tellite, the Moon, attends her through the whole of her an- 
nual course, but partakes not of her daily motion round her 
axis: instead of which, the Moon has an orbit of about 
1,400,000 miles around the Earth, from change to change; 
and consequently travels so much more than the Earth eve- 
ry month. The diameter of the Moon is about 2200 miles, 
and she moves in her monthly orbit 2300 miles each hour, 
besides the 1,500,000 she daily travels with the Earth. To 
have the course and different appearances of the Moon re- 
presented, set a candle at one end of the room, for the Sun, 
and you set a few yards from the other end, for the Earth 
let a person hang a ball betwixt you and the candle, to re- 
present the Moon at her change: and if directly betwixt 
your eye and the candle, it is the Sun eclipsed. Let the 
person gently move the ball left about in a circle, of which 
your head is the centre; you will soon see a narrow streak 
of the enlightened part, as the new Moon. While he moves 
on you will see more and more of the enlightened part, till 
she comes a quarter round, when you see half; and still mov- 
ing round, you see more and more of her clear side, till she 
comes directly opposite to the Sun, and the Moon is full. If 
you would have a lunar eclipse, let the ball pass through the 
shadow of your head. Thence proceeding on, you see eve- 
ry day less of her enlightened part, till she comes to her 
third quarter, and on again to the change. A few rounds 
will make a whole room full of people understand it. You 
will see that the Sun always enlightens one half of the 
Moon that at the change, or when she passes from the east 
to the west of the Sun, her dark side is towards the Earth; 
and when on the opposite side of her orbit, you see her whole 
enlightened side. In other parts of her course you see her 
light increasing from the change to the full, and decreasing 
from the full to the change. Remember the Earth is a Moon 
to the Moon, and reflects much more light on her than she 
does on it, from the Earth's superiour size. It is by the 
light the Earth reflects on her, that the whole of the Moon 
is always visible, when the tenth part of what the Sun shines 
on cannot be seen. The Moon turns once on her own axis, 
during her monthly course; for she always keeps the same 
side to the Earth, which can never be seen from the Moon's 
farther side. Lastly, the Earth is to the Moon the best 
time-keeper it can have by turning every day all its seas, 

conti- 



[ 28 ] 

continents and islands to her. The Lunarians may very 
probably breakfast on China and Japan, dine over Europe 
and Africa, sup with America, and sleep through the whole 
Pacific ocean. 

IV. Mars cf is the fourth planet from the Sun, and the 
first above us, or exterior to the orbit of the Earth. His 
distance from the Sun is about 140,000,000 of miles, and by 
travelling 48,000 miles each hour, he completes his course 
round the Sun in 687 of our days, and in 668 of his own, 
which are 40 minutes longer than ours. His diameter is 
about 5000 miles. He has a thick atmosphere, but no 
Moon yet discovered. He appears among the stars of a red 
fiery colour, has but half the light and heat that we have, 
and the Sun appears to him but half as large as to us. 

V. Jupiter 2l, the next from the Sun, and fifth in the 
system, is the largest of all the planets. His distance from 
the Sun is 495,000,000 of miles, and he finishes his course 
in a little less than twelve of our years, by flying 30,000 
miles each hour. His diameter exceeds ten times the length 
of the Earth's, which makes his bulk above a thousand times 
the size of our Earth; and yet he turns so amazingly swift 
on his axis that his day and ni^ht are equal to but 9 hours 
and 56 minutes. He has but the thirtieth part of light and 
heat that we have from the Sun : but he has a quick return 
of day, and at least four Moons* to enlighten him; some of 
those Moons larger than our Earth. What a glorious scene 
of wonders does that mighty Planet, with so many attend- 
ants, present to all who are disposed to admire the works of 
GOD! His Moons are of great use to seamen, in discover- 
ing their longitude. Jupiter is the brightest star in the hea- 
vens, next to Venus, and he has been visible for some months 
past, and will be to the end of the year. 

VI. Saturn ^ the sixth, and till lately judged by all a- 
stronomers the highest and most distant of all the planets, is 
900,000,000 of miles from the Sun; and by travelling 18000 
every hour, completes his revolution in 29 1-2 of our years, 
which is the length of his. He is 67,000 miles in diameter, 
so must be 600 times the size of the Earth. The Sun ap- 
pears to him one ninetieth part of the size he does to us ; 
but the gracious Creator has given him five moons to en- 
lighten him, besides a vast luminous arch or ring 21,000 

miles 



* / have been told, that the famous Dr. Herchell has by the superi- 
our power of his glasses, discovered two more Moons attending Jupiter, 
interior to all the former. 



[ 29 ] 

miles wide, and about the same distance from the body of 
the planet all round. Nothing can be seen on this planet 
to determine his revolution on his axis, consequently we are 
ignorant of the length of his day. 

VII. The seventh and most exterior of all the planets 
was discovered a few years ago by Dr. Kerch ell, which in 
honour of the British King, he calls the Georgian Planet. 
Its distance from the Sun is 1565,000,000 of miles, and 
moving in its orbit 7000 miles each hour, accomplishes its 
year or revolution in 83 of our years, and 5 months. His 
diameter is 34,000 miles, of course he is as large as 80 of 
our Earth. Two moons have been discovered attending 
him; and this is all that is yet known of him. 

Q . 72 . You have drawn a glorious plan of seven primary 
and fourteen secondary planets or moons, which revolve 
round the Sun and each other, and receive all their light 
and heat from him; but vast as this system is, you mention- 
ed also comets, as belonging to it. Pray what are the co- 
mets or blazing stars, as they are commonly called? 

A. The comets, more than twenty of which have come 
within observation and calculation, have their regular 
course round the Sun, as the planets have; but in orbits 
very different. The orbit of comets generally resemble the 
handle of a gimlet, or two sugar loaves butted together, 
and the Sun nearly in one end of them. They are named 
from a Greek word that signifies hairy or bearded, from 
their appearing with beards and long tails, which are judg- 
ed to be oily vapours carried from the body of the comet by 
the Sun's rays. Comets are not vapours or meteors, as for- 
merly imagined, but exceedingly hard and solid bodies, ca- 
pable of bearing the greatest extremes of heat and cold; 
through which they pass in their progress round the Sun, 
and at the mighty distance they fly off from him. The or- 
bits of the comets differ from those of the planets, not only 
in their very eliptical or oval shape, but in their direction. 
The orbits of the planets lie all nearly in the same plane or 
level: but those of the comets lie some the same way, some 
crossing the orbits of the planets, and some directly against 
their course. No part of GOD's works that have come to 
my knowledge, astonish me more than the infinite wisdom, 
foreknowledge and divine art of the Deity, in throwing 
from his creating hand more than 40 enormous globes, 
whose paths oppose and cross each other for thousands of 
years, in every direction, without the rapid fiery comet 

once 



[ 30 ] 

once touching or interrupting a single planet, which must 
have frequently happened had the planet been in that part 
of its orbit in which it was before the comet passed, or 
would be soon after. Adore ye sons of men, and in humble 
gratitude acknowledge the power, wisdom and goodness of 
GOD! If he is thus tremendous in one of his works, who 
can stand when HE arisethf Make peace with him whilst 
thou art in the way; for he is as gracious to returning peni- 
tents, as he will be terrible to the sinner in his crimes. 

Q. 73. I thank you sir, for your observations on a sub- 
ject so uncommon ; and shall impatiently wait for the awful 
glories of the next comet. But please to remove another 
difficulty. I observe as the planets are placed farther from 
the Sun, and consequently have longer journeys round him, 
they move, slower in proportion to their distance. This does 
not appear natural, but I dare not say it is not wise. 

A. Your objection would have weight if all the planets 
moved round the Sun in the same space of time, like a num- 
ber of weights tied to a stick and moved round you; for then 
indeed they will travel faster in proportion to their distance 
from your hand. But it is very different with the Sun and 
planets. You should remember that the centripetal force, 
or the Sun's attractive power on a planet, and the centrifu- 
gal circular force which constantly inclines the planet to fly 
farther from him, exactly balances each other. NOW T as at- 
traction acts in proportion to the distance betwixt the attract- 
ing and attracted bodies, so the Sun's attraction must act 
strongest on the planets nearest to him; of course they must 
wheel round him the more swiftly, to prevent falling down 
to him; whereas the more distant planets can move more 
slowly without any such danger. Had Mercury the slow 
motion of Saturn, or the Georgian, he would be drawn to 
the Sun in a few days; but if either of them had the rapid 
motion of Mercury, it would quit its orbit and fly off fore- 
ver through the voids of space. If you tie a weight to a 
string four feet long and let it represent Mars, which tra- 
vels 48,000 miles per hour, and swing it round your hand 
with just force enough to keep it going; and then to repre- 
sent Mercury, which travels with twice the speed of Mars, 
swing it round with half the length of string; and you will 
see how swiftly you must turn it to keep it going at all. 
Hence you will discover the necessity of the swifter motion 
of the interior planets, and the slower progress of those that 
are more remote from the Sun . 

Q. 74. 



[ 31 ] 

Q. 74. I now plainly see that the planets must move 
quicker or slower in proportion to their nearness to, or dist- 
ance from the Sun , and ardently wish I had a plan of the 
Solar System, as you called it: I would study it with plea- 
sure, till it became familiar. 

A. That could be easily drawn on paper, but it would 
require a particular plate which printing-offices are not ex- 
pected to be furnished with : however, you can do it your- 
self. 

Q. 75. You have a higher opinion of my apprehension 
than it deserves; but I will attempt it with your direction. 

A. A large rough draft will suit you best at first. If you 
are on a floor with which you can make free, and a piece of 
chalk at hand, make a round spot for the Sun, in the middle. 
Then if you will allow an inch for 17 or 18,000,000 of miles, 
draw a circle two inches from the Sun for the orbit of Mer- 
cury; only remember the planets move through pure ether, 
and leave no tract behind them; but you must for the present, 
imagine they do. Three inches and an half from the Sun 
draw a circle for the orbit of Venus, and an inch without 
that draw the orbit of the Earth, and a very small circle 
round the Earth for the orbit of the Moon. Eight inches 
from the center draw the orbit of Mars, and about 27 inches 
from the Sun draw the whole or a part of the orbit of Jupi- 
ter, and six small circles for his Moons. Fifty inches from 
the centre draw a part of Saturn's orbit, and his five Moons, 
the outermost of Avhich is so distant from its primary, that 
it is believed to have a Moon attending it. Eighty-six 
inches from the Sun draw a part of the orbit of Georgian, 
with his two Moons. After this you can proportion it so 
as to draw it off on a sheet of paper; and you will value it 
more as your own work, than if you could have it from the 
press. Let me inform you, that the orbits of the planets 
are not exactly circular, but a little oval or egg-like, as the 
word signifies; and the Sun in their lower focus, or nearest 
to one end ; in which part of their orbit all the planets fly 
swiftest. 

Q. 76. Can you make me understand the orbits of the 
comets? 

A. Try three that are best known. The comet of 1661 
has appeared since, but I forget the year. It is first seen in 
the south, in the thirtieth degree of Sagitary. It crossed 
the orbits of all the planets but Mercury, passed round the 
Sun to the right, betwixt the orbits of Venus and Mercury, 

and 



[ 32 ] 

and disappeared in the southeast, in the seventeenth degree 
of Aquarius, about forty-eight degrees from where it was 
first seen. This comet has a wide orbit, and therefore not 
a long one. The comet of 1682, whose period I have also 
forgot, was first discovered northwest, in the thirtieth degree 
of Leo, and having crossed the orbits of all the planets, but 
that of Mercury, it turned round the Sun to the left, and 
disappeared in the fifth degree of Cancer, fifty-seven degrees 
from where it entered , and has a wider orbit than the for- 
mer. But the most remarkable comet of the system appear- 
ed in 1680 in the north, the nineteenth degree of Gemini; 
it crossed the orbits of all the planets, and turned round the 
Sun to the right, so close to his surface as to imbibe a heat, 
that scarcely anything on Earth could bear the thousandth 
part of. Its period is 575 years; and its orbit so exceed- 
ingly narrow that it falls almost perpendicularly to the Sun 
for 280 odd years, and acquires the amazing velocity of 
880,000 miles in an hour. It was accurately observed by the 
great Sir Isaac Newton. The orbit of this comet is more 
like two tapering sticks butted together, than sugar loaves 
like the other two. 

Q. 77. You have given me the dimensions of the prima- 
ry planets, is the size of the Sun known? 

A. The maritime powers of Europe have sent their best 
astronomers with proper instruments, to various parts of 
the Earth, to observe the passage of Venus over the face 
of the Sun, in the years 1761 and '69. Many important 
purposes in astronomy and geography were to be answered 
by their observations, and providence favored their lauda- 
ble endeavours, by sending a clear day every where, dur- 
ing the planet's passage. Such was the accuracy observed 
by a thousand telescopes, and the best time-keepers, that 
the Sun was discovered to be not 82, but 96,000,000 of 
miles from the Earth. His distance and visible diameter be- 
ing known, his real diameter is found to be equal to 100 
times the diameter of the Earth, or 800,000 miles through 
his body. But to have a juster idea of his dimensions, let 
me bring him nearer. Suppose the Earth could be remov- 
ed, and the Sun brought into its place; before the center 
of the Sun arrived where the center of the Earth is, you 
would see him push the Moon out 160,000 miles, and extend 
the same distance all round, just as your ball would fill a hole 
of the same size, cut in a sheet of paper. 

Q. 78. Prodigious! The idea terrifies me. Pray in- 
form 



[ 33 ] 

form me of the necessity there is for the Sun being such a 
vast globe? 

A. Could you have a steelyard only 100 feet long, and 
40 different weights suspended on it from end to end, some 
of them 100 weight, and the three nearest the farther end 
1000 weight each; consider what a weight must that be 
which all these could not move. But in this very position 
all the planets were 600 years ago. Hence conjecture the 
necessity for the vast weight and dimensions of the Sun, which 
has to rule, attract, and keep in their stations, so many 
enormous globes, at such distances from him, and be but 
little affected by their motions and attraction. 

Q. 79. Has the Sun no motion at all? 

A. The Sun has certainly two motions. The attracti- 
on of the superior planets draws him a little from his place; 
so that he makes a small circle as they move round him ; and 
by spots observed on his surface, he is known to move round 
on his center in 25 days. The great Herchell has publish- 
ed to the world, that the Sun moves 1,500,000 miles every 
day. If so, he must carry all the planets and comets with 
him, as his satellites; and is probably himself a primary pla- 
net to some vastly more enormous center. 

Q. 80. What are fixt stars? 

A. As they appear through the best telescopes smaller 
than they do to the naked eye, and mere shining specks, their 
distance from our system is past all calculation ; and our Sun 
appears to them a luminous spot, as they do to us. They 
therefore receive no more light from our Sun, than he does 
from them; and must be just such luminous bodies as he is, 
giving light and heat to a system of worlds floating round 
them, as he does. 

Q.81. More and more wonderful! at this rate there is 
no knowing the extent of the creation, or what are its limits. 

A. Nothing can set limits to infinite power, which has 
infinite space to work in. 

Q. 82. But what can all the supposed worlds be made 
for? and particularly what can the planets be created for? 

A. To prevent you and me from stumbling of a clear 
evening, when they happen to be above the horizon. 

Q. 83. Pray sir, be serious, for my question was such. 

A. Seriously then, I refer you to your own thoughts on 
the subject. 

Q. 84. Let me consider. When I think for instance, 

of the planet Jupiter; that he is 1000 times the size of the 

E globe 



[ 34 ] 

globe I live on ; that he is enlightened by the same Sun ; 
that he is kept in his orbit by the same attraction ; that he 
has so many Moons to reflect the light of the Sun upon him ; 
that he has more than two days and nights for one on the 
Earth, and different seasons from his position to the Sun; 
that he appears in all these respects to resemble the world I 
live on, and as well accommodated for the dwelling of liv- 
ing creatures as it is, I must conclude he is an inhabited 
world, and appears a most desirable dwelling for rational 
creatures, if his little light and great cold do not prevent it. 
But is my reasoning just? 

A. To me, and to such as know much more than you 
and I do, it is perfectly just; all but your trifling objection 
respecting the cold, and the want of light. HE who made 
man's eye, could have formed it to see as well by the Moon 
or the Stars as by the Sun. Allow him the same power and 
skill in the upper planets. The light of the Sun even in 
Saturn, is a thousand times as great as the light of the full 
Moon with us; and in Jupiter it is 3000 times as great. 
And as for the cold, either warm exhalations from his body, 
or the temperature of his atmosphere may render it a very 
comfortable dwelling; or divine wisdom has formed the bo- 
dies of the inhabitants so that cold shall be as much their cho- 
sen element, as the frigid zones with us, are the region of 
numerous creatures that could not live in a temperate cli- 
mate. 

Q. 85. But what are we to think of the other planets, 
and their use in the creation? 

A. I return your question: employ your own thoughts 
upon them. 

Q. 86. I am afraid to say, Mercury is too hot to be in- 
habited; because I am sure divine power can form creatures 
to live in fire as happily as others live in water. Their bo- 
dies therefore, if bodies they have, are much more refined 
than ours, and perfectly suited to their warm station. Ve- 
nus seems a most delightful habitation for vigorous spirits, 
whether with or without active bodies. Mars is 15,000 
miles in compass, and I must not suppose that part of GOD's 
creation is left destitute of rational and animal life. And 
we have already seen that cold may be the proper element 
for the inhabitants of the upper planets. But what are we 
to think of the Moons? 

A. The Moons you know are all made of green cheese, 
and fit for nothing but mites te live in. 

Q. 87. 



[ 35 ] 

Q. 87. You make merry sir, with my ignorance; but 
still my question is unanswered. 

A. You can answer it yousrelf, after attending to a few 
facts. Our Earth was never seen since the creation, from 
either of the three upper planets or from their Moons ; for 
this plain reason their Moons were never known on our 
world to have existence, till 200 years ago, when telescopes 
were invented ; and yet some of their Moons are much lar- 
ger than our globe. The Georgian and his two Moons have 
been known to the learned but very few years ; and yet that 
planet is 80 times the size of our Earth. They are not 
made then for our use, no more than we are made for theirs. 
All the Moons in the system have as much light and heat 
from the Sun as the primaries they attend ; and receive much 
more light from the larger planet than they can reflect on 
him. If our own Moon, the least in the system, has all these 
advantages, and a circumference of near 7000 miles, with 
mountains, valleys, pitts, and level plains, and some other 
Moons be more than twenty times her size now solve your 
own question. 

Q. 88. As the SUPREME BEING has made nothing in 
vain: as he delights to multiply his creatures, and to render 
them as happy as their conduct toward him and each other 
will admit; and as he has formed fourteen secondary pla- 
nets that appear to be as well suited to the accommodation of 
rational and animal life as the primaries are, I must believe 
the great CREATOR has stockt every Moon in the system 
with creatures capable of enjoying his goodness, and ador- 
ing his wisdom and power. Is my reasoning just and conclu- 
sive? 

A. You will soon be able to teach me. The most learn- 
ed astronomers on Earth have long drawn the same conclusi- 
on from the same sure premises. All the creation of GOD 
abounds with proofs of his infinite power, wisdom and good- 
ness. But all would be vain and useless without rational 
creatures to behold and to study, to wonder and adore. Yes, 
my dear pupil, you are surrounded with wonders. Never 
lift your eyes to the glories around you, 

* 'Those bright temptations to idolatry . ' ' Young. 

But with the most humble adoration ; for 

"An undevout astronomer, is mad." Young. 

You have now a plan to go by. You will see the Earth 
turning her side to the Sun in the morning, and your meri- 
dian towards him, till it comes directly in a line with him at 

midday, 



[ 36 ] 

midday, and turns from him till he disappears in the west, 
and rises to enlighten other nations. You will see the Moon, 
from the change to the full, travelling to the eastward, be- 
twixt you and the planets and the fixt stars; and leaving 
them behind her to the westward, about 50 minutes in 24 
hours; and back again on the other side of her orbit, de- 
creasing in her light till she passes again betwixt you and the 
Sun at her change. You will commence acquaintance with 
the planets; their rising, southing, setting, conjunctions, 
and oppositions. The planets are sometimes stationary, or 
seem to stand still in their course: at other times retrograde, 
or seem to go backward among the fixt stars; and their mo- 
tions appear accelerated, as they seem to go faster than they 
really do. The planets never stop, never move back, nor 
faster in one part of their orbit than another, that a naked 
eye can discern; but these appearances arise from the Earth's 
motion in the several parts of her orbit, as well as from 
the motion of the inferior planets in theirs. If you will 
walk round a tree on your left hand, at 20 yards distance ; 
and another person 100 yards on your right hand, the same 
course, but with a slower step, you will see this illustrated 
respecting the upper planets. The tree the Sun, you the 
Earth, the other person Jupiter. Then if you change pla- 
ces, and call yourself the Earth, and the other man Venus 
or Mercury, you will see it as it takes place in the inferior 
planets; for by a few rounds you must understand it. 

Q. 89. The labour you bestow on me sir, and the expe- 
riments you set me on so easy and without cost, claim my 
gratitude. But you have not yet told me the dimensions nor 
uses of the comets? 

A. And for a very good reason; I am not acquainted 
with them myself. But take what little I know of them, 
which does not merit the name of knowledge. They are 
larger than our globe. Their uses are mere conjecture. 
Some judge them the seats of punishment, where sinners suf- 
fer the extremes of heat and cold. Mr. Whiston says, a co- 
met approaching the Sun , brushed the Earth with its tail , 
and caused the deluge ; and that another will cause the con- 
flagration. Some say they finally fall into the Sun, and supply 
him with fresh fuel. Others ascribe great utility to them, by 
supplying the planets as they pass through their orbits, with 
recruits of water, and other useful fluids; and perhaps car- 
rying the filth of the whole system out of the way of doing 
injury. They are surely not made in vain ; but we can only 
guess at their use, while confined to Earth. 

Q. 90. 



[ 37 ] 

Q. 90. Having surveyed wonders sufficient to bring an 
infidel to his knees, and to animate the devotion of the 
most devout; may we now return to Geography, if , 'any thing 
on our globe be worthy of notice, after the more illustrious 
scenes we have passed through? 

A. It is true our world is but a speck in the creation, 
and yet it has wonders of power and wisdom belonging to it, 
sufficient to employ the deepest researches of the wisest of 
men, and fresh wonders discovered every day; and it has 
one thing to glory in, above all the creation of GOD. 

Q. 91. What is that pray? 

A. It is that great gospel truth, GOD so loved the world, 
that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in 
him should not perish, but have everlasting life. A world 
thus redeemed, is well worthy of our notice. We return 
then to Geography, or that description of countries, cities, 
and seaports, without the knowledge of which, no person 
can read a news-paper, nor follow a traveller by sea or land. 

Q. 92. Where will you begin sir? 

A. With the smallest, but most improved quarter of the 
world, Europe, and with the most western part of it, Spain 
and Portugal. This last mentioned little kingdom borders 
on Spain to the east and north, and on the west and south 
it is bounded by the Atlantic ocean. Its most frequented 
ports are Lisbon, the capital city, near the mouth of the 
Tagus, and Oporto on the Douro. Their chief exports are 
wine. It has several other ports, as St. Ubes, Lagos, Faro, 
&c. Its population 2,000,000 of souls; 300,000 of whom are 
said to be ecclesiastics of both sexes. 

Q. 93. Has Portugal any foreign dominions? 

A. It owns Brasil in South America, which extends 2 or 
3000 miles north and south, on the Atlantic to the east; the 
river Amazon on the north, and La Plata on the south, the 
two largest rivers on earth. From St. Salvador, the chief 
city, and other towns, they send to Europe gold, diamonds, 
pearls, Brasil wood, tobacco, hides, sugar, drugs, &c. 
Brasil is supplied with negroes from the Portugese colonies 
in Africa. The other foreign dominions of Portugal, are 
the Madeiras, famous for wine; the Azores, or western 
Islands, the chief of which are St. Michael, Tercera, Fay- 
al and Flores. They are very fruitful. The island of Goa 
on the Malabar coast, is their chief port in the East Indies. 

Spain is a very large kingdom, 700 miles in length, and 
500 in width, including Portugal; it is bounded on the north 

by 



[ 38 ] 

by the bay of Biscay, on the west by the Atlantic ocean and 
Portugal, on the south and east by the Mediterranean, and 
on the- northeast by the Pyrenean mountains, which divide 
it from France. It is composed of 14 small kingdoms. The 
capital city is Madrid, in the middle of Spain, and lies about 
3200 miles east of Philadelphia. The principal seaports on 
the north and west, are St. Sebastian, Bilboa, Ovcido, Fer- 
rol, Corunna and Vigo. On the south, without the straits 
of Gibraltar, are St. Lucar, Seville, and the famous port 
of Cadiz. Within the straits, in the Mediterranean, are 
Malaga, Carthagena, Alicant, Valencia, Barcelona, Pala- 
mos and Roses, with three islands off the coast, Majorca, 
Minorca and Yvica. Its inhabitants are 9 or 10,000,000. 

Q. 94. Has Spain any foreign dominions? 

A. Spain claims as much territory in North America, 
as thrice the United States; extending from the isthmus of 
Darien, to the polar circle; and from the Pacific ocean on 
the west, to Canada, Missisippi and the gulph of Florida, 
on the east. In such a vast extent of coast they have many 
ports and harbours, the chief of which are New-Orleans, 
on the Missisippi; Vera Cruz, Campechy, Honduras, St. 
Jago and Porto Bello, on the gulph of Florida; and Aqua- 
pulcho and Panama, on the Pacific. These dominions con- 
tain Mexico, New-Spain, and many other provinces. Spain 
owns in South America, from the Carribean sea to the straits 
of Magellan, near 5000 miles north and south, and about 
600 miles wide, containing the large countries of Terra 
Firma, New-Granada, Amazonia, Peru, Chila, Paragua, 
La Plata, &c. The chief places of trade are Quito, Cusco, 
the capital of Lima, Potosi, rich in silver mines, Valparissa 
and Baldavia, on the Pacific ocean: and Carthagena, St. 
Martha, Venezuela, on Terra Firma. In Paragua, As- 
sumption, St. Jago, and Buenos Ayers, the capital. The 
maritime powers of Europe supply the Spaniards with vast 
quantities of goods, for their American dominions; and of 
course carry off the greatest share of the returns in gold, sil- 
ver, cocoa, cotton, sugar, cochineal, Jesuits bark, and 
other productions of Spanish America. And the Spaniards 
are so just and honourable, that they never have deprived 
foreigners of their share, though they should be at war with 
the nation they belong to. This nation also owns Cuba, the 
largest island in the West-Indies, with its famous port of 
Havanna. Their part of Hispaniola they have ceded to the 
French republic, in their late treaty of peace. To Spain 

also 



t 39 ] 

also belong Porto Rico, Trinidad, and some other American 
islands; and the Philippines, with their capital, Manila, in 
the East-India ocean. 

Q. 95. Are not the Spaniards, with such amazing ex- 
tent of territory, the most powerful nation on earth, and 
formidable to all their neighbours? 

A. Their aversion to industry, and their dependence on 
other nations for what their own would abundantly produce, 
is the grand reason why they are neither a populous, rich, 
nor powerful nation. Their bigotted attachment to Pope- 
ry, drove off millions of industrious Moors, who had long 
resided among them: America has drained the mother coun- 
try of millions more; and the multitude of clergy and nuns, 
who never marry, are a great drawback on the population 
of Spain. 

Q. 96. What country will you next describe? 

A. France, that is separated from Spain, only by the 
Pyrenean mountains, and lies northeast of that country, is 
600 miles in length, and 500 in breadth; and was formerly 
divided into a number of provinces.* But since the revolu- 
tion France is divided into departments, which cannot be 
understood without a map. However, as our principal con- 
cern is with their seaports, I shall describe them, after ob- 
serving that France is bounded on the north by the British 
channel, on the west by the bay of Biscay, on the south and 
southwest by Spain and the Mediterranean, and on the east 
by Italy, Switzerland and Germany. The capital city is 
Paris, up the river Seine. The chief ports and trading 
towns in the north of France on the channel, are Dunkirk, 
Calais, Bologne, Abbeville on the river Somme, Dieppe, 
Havre de Grace near the mouth of the Seine, Rouen and 
Paris higher up the stream; Caen, Lifeux, Cherbourg, St. 
Malos, Dinnan, Moiiaix. On the Atlantic, the famous 
port of Brest, L' Orient, Vannes, Nantz on the river Loir, 
Rochelle, Rochfort, the islands of Bellisle, Ree and Oleron, 
Bourdeaux on the river Garonne, and Bayon, near the bor- 
der of Spain. French Ports on the Mediterranean, are Per- 
pignan, Narbonne, Aries on the river Rhone, Marseilles, 
Toulon, Antibes and Nice. Britain has taken from France 
during the present war, the islands of Corsica, Bastia, its 
capital, and Pondicherry, in the East-Indies; Martinique, 
and some other islands in the West-Indies; most of which 
they 

* 2he idea of starving them out is given up, and the British are re- 
duced to the distress to 'which they attempted to bring the French. 



[ 40 ] 

they have retaken. They still retain the islands of Bourbon 
and Mauritius, in the Indian ocean, east of Madigascar. 
The French in 1794, conquered the ten provinces of the 
Austrian low countries ; and brought the seven provinces of 
the United Netherlands to a compliance with all their wishes. 
Heaven grant they may not be crushed at last, especially by 
the powerful naval force that Britain has afloat this year. 
The exports of France are numerous and valuable, particu- 
larly in wines, the best and greatest varieties the world pro- 
duces. The population of France is estimated from 20 to 
24,000,000 of souls. 

Q. 97. Whither turn you next? 

A. To Italy, which, with Spain and European Turkey, 
make the southern division of Europe. This fine country is 
about 800 miles in length, from northwest to southeast; 
and from 120 to 400 in breadth. It is separated from France 
and Switzerland on the N. W. by the Alps, the highest moun- 
tains in Europe; on the east by the Adriatic sea, or gulph of 
Venice; and on the south and west by the Mediterranean. 
The chief Italian islands are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica & Malta. 
Its southern parts compose the kingdom of Naples, or of the 
two Sicilies; Naples the capital, and most populous city in 
Italy. In the middle part lie the state of the Church, the 
Pope's dominions, the capital cities Rome and Bologna. 
The grand dutchy of Tuscany, Florence the capital. The 
two noted republics of Venice and Genoa. The dukedoms 
of Modena, Parma and Milan. The upper parts of Italy, 
are the dutchies of Savoy and Piedmont, Turin the capital, 
whose Duke has the title of King of Sardinia; the chief 
town of which island is Cagliari, or Calari. The principal 
ports in Italy are Nice, Oneglia, Finale, Genoa, Lucca, a 
a small republic, the most industrious people in Italy, and 
extremely jealous of their liberties; Pisa, Leghorn, Piom- 
bino, Civita-Vecchia, Naples, Salerno, Rhegio, Squilace, 
Farento, Ravenna and Venice. In Sicily, Messina, Cata- 
nea, Syracuse, Trapano, and Polermo the capital. Aetna, 
the famous volcano, is in Sicily, and Vessuvius, the other 
is within 7 miles of the city of Naples. The Knights of 
Malta keep some gal lies, and by their vow, are obliged to 
be at constant war with the Turks, Algerines, &c. The 
productions of Italy are corn, oil, wine, marble, silk, fruits, 
cheese, and others. Its population may be about 18,000,000. 

Q. 98. Whither next? 

A. Across the Venetian gulph to TURKEY in Europe, 

which 



[ 41 ] 

which is about 1000 miles in length, from Chotzim, near the 
border of Poland, to the southern point of the Morea; and 
from Oczakow, on the Nieper, to Dalmatia on the Adriatic, 
nearly as wide. This empire contains the ancient Pelepon- 
nesus, now Morea, Achaia, Greece, Macedon, Illyricum, 
Bulgaria, Wallachia, Moldavia and parts of Tartary. The 
capital of the whole empire is Constantinople. Its princi- 
pal cites and ports are Asoph, Kaffa, Precop, Oczakow, 
Belgorod, Nicopoli, Silistria, Adrianople, Constantinople, 
Salonichi, Larissa, Athens, Lepanto, Misistra, Corinth, 
Butrinto, Durazzo and Ragufa. Its chief rivers are the 
Don, the Nieper, the Neister and the Danube. The 
Turkish islands are Crete, now Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes, 
Negropont, Samos, Scio, Mitelene, Lemnos, and many 
others in the Archipelago. This empire in Asia, contains 
Asia proper, Pontus, Capadocia, Cilicia, Galatia, Bythinia, 
Caria, Lydia, Mysia, Syria, its famous ancient capital An- 
tioch, and Judea, its capital Jerusalem now a little town, 
without the old walls. In Africa it claims Egypt, its capi- 
tal Grand Cairo, and some other ports on the mouths of the 
great river Nile. The Turks are Mehometans, but many 
Christians and Jews among them. 

We now turn northwest to Germany, which lies east from 
France, and is about the same dimensions.lt is divided amongst 
perhaps 300 sovereign Princes, of whom the Emperor is Chief; 
and he is chosen by the votes of eight Electors ; three of whom 
are spiritual and five secular, viz. the Archbishop of Mentz, 
Treves and Cologne; the Electors of Saxony, its capital 
Dresden; of Bohemia, its capital Prague, though this has 
now no vote, as it belongs to the house of Austria; the 
Elector of Bavaria, its capital Munich; of Brandenburg, 
who is also king of Prussia, capital city Berlin; of the Pa- 
latinate, capital Heidelburg; and of Hanover, whose Elector 
is also King of England. To these are to be added a num- 
ber of Princes, Dukes, Marquisses, Counts, Bishops, Abbots, 
and several free cities and hansetowns, who are all repre- 
sented in the great Diet of the empire, held at Ratisbon. 
Vienna is the capital of all Germany; it stands on the Da- 
nube, and is the imperial residence. This large and popu- 
lous country is divided into ten circles: Upper Saxony, 
Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Upper Rhine, Lower Rhine, 
Franconia, Bohemia, Austria, Bavaria, and Swabia. As 
Germany lies in the middle of Europe, it has but few sea- 
ports; yet it carries on a great trade by its noble rivers, the 

F Danube, 



[ 42 ] 

Danube, and its numerous branches; the Rhine, which di- 
vides it from France; the Moselle, the Weser, the Elbe, 
and the Oder. On the Danube are the cities of Belgrade, 
Buda, Presburg, Vienna, Lintz, Ratisbon, Ingolstadt, Augs- 
burg and Ulm. Up the Rhine, from the United Provinces, 
stand the cities of Cleves, Wesel, Dusseldorp, Cologne, Co- 
blentz, Mentz, Worms, Spire, Strasburg, Brisac. On the 
river Ems, Enden and Munster. On the Weser, Jade, 
Bremen, Verden, and Osnaburg. On the Elbe stand Ham- 
burg, Dam, Lunenburg, Magdeburg, Wittenburg, Dres- 
den: and on the Spree, a branch of Elbe, stand Potsdam 
and Berlin, and betwixt these rivers, the trading cities of 
Lubec, Wismar, Rostock, and Stralsund. On the Oder, 
Cammin, Stetin, Custrin, Frankfort, &c. The other Frank- 
fort lies on the Maine, a branch of the Rhine. The popu- 
lation of Germany is about 21,000,000.* 

Q. 99. What country comes next in order? 

A. A country that claims the attention of all American 
citizens, the famous Helvetic Union, or Cantons of Switz- 
land; but we must climb to come at them, for their dwelling 
is among the lofty show-crowned Alps, which they cultivate 
trom bottom to top, with a degree of industry, which no- 
thing but their love of freedom, and their independent spi- 
rit could inspire. This brave, hardy, and virtuous people 
compose thirteen small states, viz. Berne, Zurich, Schaff- 
hausen, Basil, Lucern, Underwalden, Uri, Switz, Friburg, 
Zug, Soleure, Apenzel and Glaris. The Orisons, Geneva, 
St. Gall, and some other small republics, are allies of the 
Switzers. Every man here is bred a farmer or tradesman, 
but surely a soldier. As gaming and luxury are prohibited 
among them, their youth go from the war-like exercises of 
wrestling, running, throwing and shooting, to books; which 
laudable custom they follow through life, and are a very 
knowing people. As to religion, some are Papists, but the 
greatest number are Calvinists. They are so very jealous 
of their liberties, and so well prepared to defend them, that 
no nation has given them disturbance for ages past. Neither 
are they cursed with the spirit of conquest, but perfectly 
contented with their romantic mountains, and fruitful val- 
lies, both which they have rendered a paradise. Some of 
their cantons are Aristocracies, where the nobles rule; 
others are Democracies, where the people chuse their legi- 
slators 

* The religion of this empire is Papist, Lutheran, and Calvinists, 
and many Jews. 



[ 43 ] 

slators and rulers, as in the United States; others are a mix- 
ture of both these ; and some of their small cantons are Oli- 
garchies, where every man votes in legislation, and admi- 
nistration. Yet such is the virtue, harmony, equality of 
fortune, and love of their country that prevails among them, 
that we hear of no discontent; no pretended friends, or se- 
cret foes, to raise a clamour against their government 
and if any disputes arise, they are quickly quelled by reason 
and authority. They have generally kept a number of their 
youth in foreign service, to have them thoroughly acquaint- 
ed with the military art. The population of Switzerland 
is estimated at 2,000,000. 

Q. 100. Whither will you descend from this highest 
ground in Europe? 

A. To the very lowest, the seven provinces of the United 
Netherlands, commonly called the States of Holland. They 
were called Republics, but they had too much of Monarchy 
in the person of their Stadtholder, and too much of Aristo- 
cracy in their high and mighty Lords, the States-General, 
to deserve that name. The provinces are Holland, chief 
city Amsterdam; Overyssel, chief town Daventer; Guel- 
derland and Zutphen, chief town Nameguen; Friesland, 
chief town Lewarden; Groningen and Utrecht, towns the 
same name; and Zealand, chief town Middleburg. These 
states were part of the seventeen provinces of the Low 
Countries, that revolted against the oppressions and persecu- 
tions of their Sovereign, that gloomy bigot, Philip II, King 
of Spain; and by the assistance of England, after a long and 
very severe struggle, secured their independence, while the 
other ten were again reduced under the Spanish yoke, and 
so continued till the Duke of Marlborough, in 1706, con- 
quered them for Charles IV, Emperor of Germany. France 
soon after reduced some of them, and all the remainder in 
1794. Their names are Brabant, capital city Brussels; Ant- 
werp, Malines, Limburg, chief town Maestricht; Namur, 
Hainault, chief town Mons; Luxemburg, Cambresis, chief 
town Cambray; Artois, chief town Arras; Flanders, chief 
towns Sluys, Ghent, Bruges, Courtray, Ypress, Tournay, 
Lisle, Dunkirk, &c. These provinces form the most re- 
markable country on the globe. Part of them are gained 
from the sea, by vast banks of earth, raised and kept up at 
great expence. A large proportion of it was mere swamp, 
among the mouths of great rivers : they have confined the 
rivers with dykes, and drained the country with a thousand 

canals, 



[ 44 ] 

canals, which are now their public roads, as they travel 
chiefly in covered boats. These seven little spots, scarcely 
the size of seven of our counties, by their bravery, industry, 
and spirit of adventure, arose to an eminence that astonished 
the whole world. The fleets they fitted out both for war 
and commerce, enabled them to form settlements in all parts 
of the world, and to make head against all the naval power 
of Britain, in numerous desperate engagements. From their 
possessing the Molucca and Banda islands, and Ceylon in the 
East-Indies, they have supplied the world with all the rich 
spices for ages past; and their possession of Cape Good Hope, 
the southern point of Africa, enables them to preserve all 
their eastern settlements. They have made Batavia, in the 
island of Java, the finest city in Asia. They possess Surinam, 
in South America; and Curazza, Eustatia, and some other 
ports in the West-Indies, exceedingly profitable to them; 
but which no other nation would have thought of improving. 
One third of the commerce of the world has been in their 
hands 200 years. Though their taxes are higher than those 
of any other nation, yet they all lay up money. They are 
said to catch eight millions sterling worth of herrings annu- 
ally, on the coast of Scotland, and in the channel. Their 
soil not being firm enough to build their cities on, they drove 
numberless trees pointed at one end, into their ground for 
a foundation; and one single building, the state house in 
Amsterdam, has more than 13,000 such poles under it. The 
Dutch in their turns saved England from popery and arbi- 
trary power, by sending over their Stadtholder, William 
Prince of Orange, with a fleet and army, who drove off the 
popish King James II, his father-in-law, a,nd had the British 
crown for his pains. Their population is estimated at two 
millions and an half, which on so small a spot, makes it five 
times as populous as so much of England. The Dutch are 
Calvinists, but all nations and religions are tolerated among 
them, though only Presbyterians have a share in the Govern- 
ment. Their immense trade has rendered these provinces 
the emporium of Europe. They have lately expelled their 
Stadtholder, and declared themselves a Republic. War 
with Britain must prove extremely pernicious to the Dutch, 
as their fleets must pass very near to Britain, whether 
through the channel or north about, before they can arrive 
at home, from any of their foreign settlements. How they 
are to get through this year, secure their trade from the 
British cruisers, and establish their infant republic, America 
waits with anxiety to know. Q. 101. 



[ 45 ] 

Q. 101. Whither stear you next? 

A. Due west, and 90 miles of sea will bring us to the 
coast of England, the southern division of Britain, Scot- 
land being the northern. 

England has on the east the German sea, on the south the 
British channel, on the west St. George's channel and the 
Irish sea, which separates it from Ireland, and Scotland on 
the north. Its length 380 miles; its greatest breadth 300; 
but it narrows all the way north to Berwick. It contains 
near 50,000 square miles. London the capital, stands on 
the river Thames, in lat. 51 30, that is 1000 miles north 
of this state, and more than 3000 east. Since we now have 
a right by treaty, to enter the British ports, it is of import- 
ance to Americans to know them. As you sail up the chan- 
nel, France on the right and Cornwall on the left, you have 
Pensance, Falmouth, Penryn, Tregony, Fowey, east and 
west Looe, and Saltash. In Devonshire are Plymouth, 
Dartsmouth, Totness, Torbay, Exmouth, Topsham and Ex- 
eter. In Dorsetshire, Lime, Portland, Weymouth, Dor- 
chester, Wareham and Pool. In Hampshire, Lymington, 
Southampton, Gosport, the famous harbor of Portmouth, 
and some ports in the Isle of Wight. In Sussex, Chichester, 
Hastings, Winchelsea and Rye. In Kent are Romney, Hyth, 
Dover, Deal, Sandwich, Chatham, Rochester, Gravesend 
and Woolwich. In Middlesex, London; and higher up the 
Thames are Kingston, Hampton, Windsor, Reading, Wal- 
lingford and Oxford. In Essex, Maiden, Colechester and 
Harwich. In Suffolk, Ipswich, Aldborough, Dunwich and 
Lestoff. In Norfolk, great Yarmouth, and Lynn Regis. 
In Lincolnshire, Boston, Grimsby and Burton. In York- 
shire, Hull, Scarborough and Whitby. In Durham, Har- 
tlepool, Sunderland and Shields. In Northumberland, New- 
Castle, Morpeth, Alnwick and Tweedmouth. We now 
follow the line that separates England and Scotland, up the 
Tweed, and along the Cheviot hills to the Solway frith, 
the English and Welsh ports on the Irish sea, St. George's 
channel, and up the river Severn, are Carlyle, Cocker- 
mouth, Whitehaven, Kirby, Kendall, Lancaster, Preston, 
Liverpool, Chester, St. Asaph, Bangor, Carnarvan, Har- 
loch, Cordigan, St. David's, Haverford-West, Milford- 
Haven, Pembroke, Landaff, Cardiff, Gloucester, Bristol, 
Bridgewater, Barnstable, Camelford, Padslow and St. Ives. 
The population of England 6 or 7,000,000. 

We now turn to Scotland, the northern part of Britain. 

Its 



[ 46 ] 

Its length 300 miles; its breadth where widest 190. It has 
England to the south, the German sea to the east, and other 
parts of the Atlantic to the north and west. Its chief ports 
on the east are Berwick, Haldington, Leith the port town 
of Edinburg the capital city, at the mouth of the Clyde; 
St. Andrews, Dundee, at the mouth of the Tay. Perth 
16 miles higher up the river. North from the Tay are 
Ardbroath, Montroses, old and new Aberdeen, Forres, 
Inverness, Nairn, Dingwall, Dornock. North of Scot- 
land are the islands of Orkney and Shetland. On the west 
are the islands of Lewis, Skye, Mull, Jura, Isla, Contyre, 
Arran, and many others, abounding with excellent fishing 
ports, though but little trade, till you come to the river 
Clyde, where stands the noted port of Glasgow, other trad- 
ing towns, and the famous canal, that goes from the Clyde 
to the Forth. The chief ports on the south are Wigton, 
Kelly, Kirkudbright and Dumfries. The population of 
Scotland must exceed two millions. 

We now pass to Ireland, 60 miles west from England, 
and 20 miles southwest from Scotland. It is bounded on 
the north, west and south by the Atlantic, and on the east 
by the Irish sea and St. George's channel. It is divided 
into four provinces, Munster on the south, Leinster on the 
east, Ulster on the north, and Cannaught on the west. Its 
chief ports on the east, from south to north, are Kinsale, 
Cork, Cloyne, Lismore, Waterford, Wexford, Wicklow, 
Dublin the capital, Drogheda, Dundalk, Dundrum, Down- 
patrick, Belfast, Corrickfergus. On the north, Bally castle, 
Colrain, Londonderry. On the west, Donegal, Sligo, Kil- 
lala, Galway, Limerick on the river Shannon, and Dingle. 
On the south, Bantry, Baltimore and Ross. The exports 
of Ireland are beef, pork, butter, tallow, hides, wool, 
woolen yarn, fish, but above all, vast quantities of linen 
cloth. The Irish assert that their population is three millions. 
The English church is here established. 

The British dominions abroad are numerous and expensive. 
In North America, Canada, Nova-Scotia, St. John's, Cape 
Breton, Newfoundland, and some settlements in Hudson's 
bay. In the West-Indies she owns a number of islands, too 
well known to need being named. In Spain they hold Gi- 
braltar. Some forts and settlements in Africa. Very ex- 
tensive dominions in the East-Indies, by conquering the 
Princes of the country, under various pretences; and it is 
supposed they have now 15,000,000 of the inhabitants their 

subjects. 



[ 47 ] 

subjects. However, in the late treaty, they have granted 
to the ships of the United States, access to their ports in that 
rich and extensive country ; for which America has no equi- 
valent to grant. Their chief ports there are Bombay, Pon- 
dicherry, Madrass, Calcutta, and many others on the bay of 
Bengal, and the famous river Ganges; and Bencoolen in 
the island of Sumatra. 

We now cross over the German sea, to Denmark, on the 
east of it. This northern kingdom has Norway on the north, 
Sweden over the sound on the east, and Germany to the 
south. It lies at the entrance into the Baltic sea, and re- 
ceives toll from all ships that pass. Denmark is 240 miles 
in length, and about 100 broad. Copenhagen the ca- 
pital, lies in the island of Zealand, and is the residence of 
the King, and the chief place of trade, though they have 
many other good ports. Norway belongs to Denmark, and 
from its chief town Bergen and other ports, it sends abroad 
vast quantities of all kinds of timber and naval stores. This 
country owns Tranquebar in the East Indies; St. Thomas's, 
St. Cruiz, and St. John's in the West-Indies; and several 
islands in the Baltic. It claims a part of Lapland, the islands 
of Iceland, east and west Greenland, and Spitzbergen; and 
carries on a considerable trade in the Mediterranean. Den- 
mark figures as a maritime power, and can fit out 50 or 60 
ships of war. The population of all the Danish dominions 
may be estimated at 2,400,000. The religion of Denmark 
is Lutheran. 

Sweden is separated from Denmark on the west, by the 
sound, and from Norway by impassable mountains. It has 
Lapland on the north, the Russian empire on the east; and 
on the south the Baltic sea, and by that arm of it that makes 
up to Petersburg, in Russia, called the gulph of Finland. 
Sweden is 800 miles in length, and 500 in breadth; but fro- 
zen lakes and mountains render great part of it uninhabita- 
ble. It produces not grain sufficient for home consumption. 
The principal ports in Sweden are Abo, Wasa, Ulea, Torne, 
Pithea, Sunwald, Stockholm the capital of Christiansand, &c. 
and Gothenburg; from which they export large quantities of 
iron, copper, lead, timber for all uses, hides, furs, potash, 
flax, hemp, cordage, fish, sail cloth, &c. They have ports 
in the Baltic islands of Rugen, Ocland, Gothland and Alland. 
Stockholm lies in lat. 60, the same parallel with Petersburg, 
in Russia, Bergen, in Norway, and Hudson's bay, in N. A- 
merica; so it is 1600 miles north of this state, and 4000 to 

the 



[ 48 ] 

the eastward. In the reign of that military madman, Charles 
XII, Sweden lost nearly all her dominions in Germany, 
while Peter of Russia took from it the fruitful provinces of 
..Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Careliaand others. The Swedes 
have no foreign colonies; but they trade in their own bot- 
toms, and frequently sell ship and cargo. That they have 
not lost all the martial spirit of their ancestors, appears from 
their late naval engagements with the Russians; in which, 
though they lost some ships, to superior numbers, yet they 
were a dear purchase to their enemies. The population of 
Sweden does not exceed three millions. The Lutheran re- 
ligion is here established. 

Q. 102. What country will you next describe? 

A. Russia or Muscovy, which is bounded by Sweden and 
the Baltic on the west, by the frozen ocean on the north, 
and including Siberia and Russian Tartary, on the east by the 
eastern ocean, and on the south and southeast by Poland, 
Turkey, the Euxine sea, Georgia, the Caspian sea, and 
Chinese Tartary, This mighty empire is as large as all the 
rest of Europe; but its present Sovereign Catherine II, not 
content with her immense dominions, has conquered some 
valuable provinces in Turkey; and to the disgrace of all 
Europe has divided Poland with two other free-booters, the 
Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia. She has done 
many popular things in her own country; and had she con- 
fined her great talents to the arts of peace, her memory 
might have been blessed, could the world ever have forgot 
her concurring in the murder of her husband, Peter III, and 
usurping his throne, which he has filled these thirty-three 
years. Russia has a considerable fleet of ships of war, both 
in the Baltic and Black seas ; which with a mighty army 
by land, are the terror and annoyance of all her neighbours. 
This empire carries on a great trade by land to China and 
other nations; and from the seaports of Archangel, on the 
White sea, Cola on the North sea; from Wiburg, Peters- 
burg the capital, Narva and Rovel on the gulph of Finland; 
and from Perneau, Riga and Mittau on the Baltic, they ex- 
port furs and skins, linen, iron, copper, timber, naval 
stores, hemp, flax, sail cloth, wax, honey, tallow, linseed 
oil, potash, train oil, musk, rhubarb, raw silk, &c. The 
three ports conquered from Turkey, on the Black sea, Kaf- 
fa, Precop and Oczakow, are made free ports. Were 
Russia as populous as Holland or China, half the people on 
the globe might reside on it; but from 20 to 24,000,000 are 

its 



[ 49 ] 

its estimated population, without including her usurpations 
in Poland and Lithuania, which must amount to five or six 
millions more. The religion of Russia is the Greek church. 
The last nation not described in Europe, is abandoned, 
lost and ruined Poland, a country more than 600 miles 
square, containing 14,000,000 of inhabitants. It is called 
a Republic, because the nobles are every thing there. They 
own the soil, and the peasants on it, just as they do the 
cattle. The common people own no property, and are not 
known in their laws. The Polish nobles however, will have 
a King, and the Russian Court generally influences their 
choice, which is made in a full Diet of the nobility; and 
there must not be a dissenting voice, as the minority are in 
danger of being instantly cut in pieces. Their present King, 
Count Poniatowski, they choose from among themselves: 
he has wore their crown 32 years; to him a crown of thorns, 
under the title of Stanislaus Augustus ; but too limitted in 
his power to do the good he is inclined to. Popery is the 
established religion of Poland; but they have among them 
a number of dissenters whom they call Dissidents, who, 
twenty odd years ago, claimed some privileges, which were 
denied them on account of their religion. A bloody civil 
war ensued. Russia and Prussia interposed, and insidiously 
assisted the Dissidents, till by war, famine and pestilence, 
three millions of people were cut off, or fled the country; 
and then Russia, Prussia and Austria very graciously deter- 
mined, that Poland was too large to be governed, and they 
condescended to divide nearly one half of it among them. 
In the part left to Poland, the King had influence sufficient 
to prevail with the princes and noblesse to declare the com- 
mon people no longer things, but men, whose lives should 
no longer be at the mercy of tyrants; but should be 
known in law, become tenants and own property. This step 
toward human liberty alarmed the three aforenamed pow- 
ers, who fearing their drudges might expect equal indul- 
gence, and coveting the remainder of Poland, have actually 
divided it among them; the Russian tyranness having confin- 
ed the dethroned King to Grodno, under pretence of keep- 
ing him out of harm's way. A vigorous protest of the ma- 
ritime powers, would have prevented this grand breach of 
the balance of power in Europe; yet no nation interposed, 
but the Turks, who greatly suffered for their kindness, by 
bringing all the vengeance of Russia upon them. It would 
now appear just, for Heaven to suffer the Russian empire to 

G subju- 



t 50 ] 

subjugate half of Europe; which indeed they seem in a fair 
way to do; whilst America, safe in her distance from the 
bloody scene, in the wisdom of her government, and in the 
unparalleled increase of her population and improvements, 
views with safety, the catastrophe, and pities human infatu- 
ation. Poland carried on a great trade by her rivers, the 
Devina, the Boristhenes or Neiper, the Bog, the Neister, 
but especially down the Vistula, to the famous port of Dant- 
zic, which, with the city of Thorpe, the late Frederick of 
Prussia seized upon, and bought up the immense quantity of 
grain that came down to them, with base metal, and sold it 
out for good coin. But kings may do that with impunity, 
which would hang ten thousand petty rogues. Whether 
these plunderers will quarrel about the division of their 
spoils, or whether the Turks, S weeds and Danes may have 
power sufficient to restore Poland, is very doubtful; but 
surely there is a God who rules in the earth, and will, soon- 
er or later, vindicate the cause of oppressed nations. The 
chief cities of Poland are Warsaw the capital, Cracow, 
Dantzic a free city, dependent on Poland, Thorne, Guesna, 
Lernburg, Caminieck, Lucho, Brisici, Bielh, Grodno, Wil- 
na, and Rasiem. Poland being a level and rich soil, abound- 
ing with timber, of course exports vast quantities of grain, 
flesh meat, and wood for all uses. Thej 7 have mines of silver, 
copper, iron and coal; and the wonderful salt mines near 
Cracow, before the German tyrant seized on them, were 
the principal support of the crown. Many springs are boil- 
ed into salt. The waters of one fountain preserve the lives 
of the neighbouring inhabitants from 100 to 150 years. The 
water is as inflammable as the most ardent spirits. The flame 
does not heat the water; but if neglected, makes sad de- 
struction among the adjoining lands and timber. 

Q. 103. Whither turn you next? 

A. To Asia, the largest quarter of the globe, on which 
man was first created, and still the most populous. Here the 
human race were first propagated after the deluge. Here 
laws were first framed; government was established, and 
the sciences cultivated, while the other quarters of the globe 
were the range of wild beasts. Here the Almighty gave to 
a chosen people, a divine law, and preserved among them 
that great foundation of all truth the unity of the Divine 
Being. In Asia the SON of GOD became incarnate, lived, 
suffered, died and rose again, and propagated the Christian 
religion to all nations. The air, the soil, the fruits, and 

produc- 



[ 51 ] 

productions of Asia, both above and below the surface, as 
well as their manufactories, excel those of all nations. This 
quarter of the world is about 4500 miles each way, bounded 
on the west by the Red sea, the Mediterranean and Europe; 
on the north by the frozen sea; on the east by the eastern; 
and on the south by the Indian ocean. It contains the ex- 
tensive countries of Siberia, eastern and western Tartary, 
and Arabia the empires of Turkey, Persia, India and 
China. Its islands are numerous and very large. They are 
Japan, the Philippines, New-Guinea, Celebes, Borneo, 
Sumatra, Java, and numerous others. The island of New- 
Holland is as large as all Europe; to Botony bay in that 
island, the British banish all their rogues and republicans. 
Asia is believed to contain 500,000,000 of souls, which are 
half the number on the globe; and of these, China is said 
to contain 200,000,000. Pekin is the capital of China; and 
its two great trading cities, frequented by Europeans and 
Americans, are Nankin on the east, and Canton on the south. 
In Asia are some Christians, some Mahometans; but the 
greater number are Pagons and gross Idolaters. 

Africa offers next, more remarkable for size than for cul- 
tivation or improvement. Bounded on the east by the isth- 
mus of Suez, the Red sea and the Indian ocean; on the 
south by the southern ocean; on the west by the Atlantic, 
and on the north by the Mediterranean. The kingdoms of 
Egypt, Syrene, Numidia, and the famous republic of Car- 
thage, made a great figure in ancient history. But the scum 
of Arabia and Turkey now possess those fertile countries, 
under the names of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers and Morocco, 
so many nests of pirates, who keep all trading nations under 
contribution; or they will make prizes of their ships, and 
slaves of their crews. This quarter of the globe extends 
from the Mediterranean, on the coast Tunis and Algiers, in 
lat. 37 north, to Cape Good-Hoop, in lat. 34 south, near 
5000 miles in length; and froin the entrance of the Red Sea 
on the east, to the mouth of the Niger and Senegal on the 
west, nearly 4000 miles. Its internal parts are little known, 
and as yet unexplored by travellers. Most trading nations 
have forts and factories on the western coast, from whence 
they procure slaves, gold dust, ivory, gums, <fec. Mada- 
gascar on the east, is the largest African island; though no 
European power has settlements on it. 

We come in the last place to the freest, happiest, most 
plentiful part of the globe; and the farthest removed from 

tyranny, 



[ 52 ] 

tyranny, wars, and those commotions that curse and agita 
the nations. We come to a land in all its youthful vigou 
undebilitated by the luxury, vices and old age of the easte 
nations: a country in which the Laws rule, and not me 
where life and property are in perfect security, and wh( 
the happy inhabitants may confide in those who legislate, 
those who rule, and in those who judge; because they c 
remove them all at their pleasure. A country in which i 
ligion is unrestrained; morality in repute; education 
moted; marriage honourable, and age reverenced. 

Q. 104. Pray sir, where lies this terrestrial paradise? 

A. Within the limits of the UNITED STATES; a 
the spot you stand on, makes a part of it. This quarter of t 
globe was discovered by the adventurous genius of Christop, 
Columbus, and should be called by his name, as he was seve 
years prior to Amerscus Vesputius. If this change of nai 
should ever take place, the Congress must do it; but I apprehefj 
every state in the union can annihilate those names of pla 
that insult our ears with discarded royalty; reduce them 
a true Columbian nomenclature, and let the name and th: 
sink together. Europe is the mother country of Americ^ 
but that Britain and Ireland take the lead in its populate 
is evident, from the amazing uniformity with which 
English language is pronounced through the whole uni( 
from the mountains to the sea ; a thing unknown in any : 
or nation; as a river or a ridge of hills have different 
lects on each side of them and people from distant shim 
England can with difficulty understand each other. 
middle and southern states were chiefly settled by colon 
under proprietors, or the crown: But New-England 
settled by real refugees, who sought an asylum from 
persecutions of Archbishop Laud, his suffragans and bigo 
King Charles I. Wherever Europeans landed, they foi 
the bays and borders of rivers occupied by numerous tri 
of hostile Indians, whose very names are forgotten, 
whose broken remains are driven to the westward. By < 
tivating a liberal soil ; by the arrival of fresh adventur^ 
and by exporting their superfluities, the fruits of their 
nest labour, the colonies grew up towards vigorous yoi 
although the King and proprietors nominated the Go 
nors, Council, or upper House of Assembly, and the Judg 
and although religious establishments, those usurpations 
the Divine Prerogative, and chains of conscience and 1 
ral thought, had taken place in most of the colonies. 



[ 53 ] 

in made laws to regulate our trade, and secure it to her- 
If, to which no opposition was made; for there were not 
more loyal people on earth than the inhabitants of the 
ie colonies. Laws formed by our representatives, must 
ive the advantage of Britain evidently in their face, or 
tey would not pass the consent of those limbs of royalty, 
<e Council and Governor; and even after their concurrence, 
must pass the approbation of the King and his Council at 
r estminster. Thus the crown had three votes in four, for 
e passing of every law. But not satisfied with the quan- 
;ies of goods of all kinds, we took off their hands, on 
Mch they laid what prices and what duties they pleased ; 
>r with their vast gains from the valuable raw materials 
at them annually in return, they made an attempt for 
ore direct revenues, by sending in stampt paper, to sell at 
high price, and on which all business was to be transacted, 
wspapers printed, &c. To this the colonies made such 
position, that not a single sheet was sold. Parliament re- 
eled the act, but passed a clause in these words, "That 
:itain had a power and right to bind the colonies by laws 

her making, IN ALL CASES WHATSOEVER." When this 
It, which annihilated our assemblies, and reduced us from 
|bjects to slaves, was attempted to be reduced to practice 

an experiment on tea, the cargoes were either sunk in 

sea, or suffered to rot in warehouses; and not a single 

und was sold. Britain backed her claims with a fleet and 

iy, and the devoted town of Boston felt the first venge- 
ce of offended royalty. my dear country! never for- 
t your then situation . Without an army ; without a Ge- 
jral bred in the school of war; without great or small arms 

to to oppose the unconquered forces of Britain ; without a 
i-asury; without an ally; without a single frigate, to op- 
Ise the first naval power on earth; a power deemed our 

)ther, among whom we had a million of relations, friends, 
|d correspondents to oppose a King, whom we honoured 

idolatry! ! At this awful period CONGRESS met, under a 
of public cares, inconceivable by all but patriots. It 
|zed the helm it became a center of union and of motion, 

the scattered colonists; and made a common cause with 

iton. The continent, as by an electrical shock, caught 

jj noble enthusiastic spirit of liberty and resentment. Hea- 
pointed out GEORGE WASHINGTON, as the instru- 

nt by whom it would save his country; at the call of 

ich he hastened to head the brave, but fresh troops col- 
lected 



[ 54 ] 

lected near Boston, who had driven the British from Lex- 
ington, and had made so brave and obstinate a defence at 
Bunkers-hill, and he drove the enemy from that distressed 
town. Congress petitioned, remonstrated, protested, and 
appealed to heaven and earth, with a force and energy our 
language had never before experienced. But all in vain: 
King and Parliament were hardened againt us. The storm 
increased: dangers collected on every hand. Powerful 
fleets wafted over numerous bands of British, and their hire- 
lings. Congress had no resources, but in their own steady 
fortitude, and the spirit of the inhabitants. Our losses by 
sea, however, were immense; our trade ruined; our sea- 
ports possessed by the enemy; our armies defeated in almost 
every engagement; a civil war raging in our bowels, tory 
against whig and whig against tory; our slaves by invitation 
joining the enemy by thousands, and our paper money 
scarcely worth the hundredth part of its nominal value. 
Amidst such a complicated scene of distresses, our public vir- 
tue began to flag. The militia had lost their best arms, and 
were backward to the service. The regulars were badly 
cloathed, and worse paid. But when they saw their belov- 
ed Chief, sharing in all their dangers and sufferings, they 
drew courage from his eye; instruction and confidence from 
his lips. In this darkest day in the American horizon, GOD, 
who was incessantly revoked by every thinking inhabitant, 
gave us credit with some French merchants, who supplied 
our armies with great and small arms, ammunition and 
cloathing. But this was not all. HE who intended Ame- 
rica for what it now is, and promises to be, would not do 
his work by halves; but put it into the heart of the King 
of France, an absolute Sovereign, and at that time ruling a 
people devoted to him and monarchy, to take by the hand, 
on the broad basis of equality, a number of colonies, deem- 
ed to be in wanton rebellion against their lawful Sovereign ; 
make a common cause with them; send fleets, armies, and 
all things necessary; and to continue a vigorous co-operation 
with America, till her independence should be secured. I 
again call on my country to remark a coincidence of pro- 
vidence never to be forgotten. A plan was concerted be- 
twixt America and France, to entrap Lord Cornwallis in 
Virginia. A French fleet arrived at Rhode-Island, with 
all things necessary for a siege; a superiour British fleet lay 
at New- York. Another French fleet was ordered to Vir- 
ginia from the West-Indies. General Clinton could have 

rein- 



[ 55 ] 

reinforced Lord Cornwallis; but was diverted from it by 
the address of the American General, who threatened to 
attack New- York. Had the British fleet intercepted the 
French on their passage from New-Port had contrary 
winds prevented DeG rasse's arrival in the Chesapeak had 
he not defeated the fleet that was sent to drive him from it 
had he not been furnished with ships, to carry the combined 
army from the head of the bay to James-Town , the whole 
plan must have miscarried; Britain would have escaped the 
greatest blow it ever received; the war been protracted, 
and its issue rendered doubtful. But this surrender, with 
its attendant losses, had in time the desired effect: the Bri- 
tish nation became tired of the war and its enormous expen- 
ces. A general treaty took place, in which Britain acknow- 
ledged the independence of the American States, which the 
other nations of Europe did soon after. A constitution was 
formed by the united Avisdom of our country, which after 
some time was adopted by all the states. Under its happy 
influence they have flourished ever since in peace, prosperity 
and reputation and the population of our western territory 
has never been equaled since the first ages of the world. 

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint 

Americanos! Virgil. 

But we have those who know not their happiness, or who 
knowing, would blast it. I must here bear my testimony a - 
gainst a late production of a malignant pen, who treats the 
first character of the age with a degree of scurrility, which 
nothing but malace and envy could dictate; and shall only say 
of him, what the Spectator does of the author of a discourse 
on Freethinking : "If ever man deserved to be denied the 
common blessings of fire and water, it is the writer of a 
piece signed BeUisarius." The boundaries of the states, as 
fixed by treaty, are as follow: From the mouth of the river 
St. Croix, in the Bay of Fundy, up the said river, and con- 
tinue a, north course to the ridge tha.t divides the waters that 
run into the Atlantic, from those of the St. Lawrance; and 
along the same a southwest direction to lake Champlain ; and 
thence a western course to the river St. Lawrance, the 
boundary line betwixt the United States and the British do- 
minions in Canada being supposed to run through the mid- 
dle of the lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, lake Superiour, and 
to the lake of the Woods ; from whence it takes a western 
course to the head waters of the Missisippi, and down that 
river to lat. 31; thence an east course to the mouth of the 

river 



[ 56 ] 

river St. Mary's, leaving east and west Florida to the south. 
On the east the United States are everywhere bounded by 
the Atlantic ocean. As to their extent, the post roads along 
the eastern coast, measure 1470 miles; but from the north- 
east corner to the southwest on the Missisippi, must be 1800; 
and from the mouth of St. Mary's to the northwest corner 
cannot be less. An east and west line from the mouth of the 
Delaware to the mouth of the Missouri may be 800 miles. 
The United States resemble the printed Y the lower end 
of the stem, the south line; the Atlantic ocean on the right, 
Missisippi on the left, and Canada the part cut out betwixt 
the points, but with a wider angle. New-England composes 
the northeastern division of the United States, New-Hamp- 
shire, Massachusets, Vermont, Rhode-Island and Connecti- 
cut constitute this division : Maine is considered as the north- 
ern part of Massachusets. In length about 550 miles, and 
200 in breadth. Bounded on the northeast by Nova-Scotia, 
on the north by Canada, on the west by New- York, and o 
the east by the Atlantic. Their rivers are the Penobscot 
Kannebeque, Saco, Piscataway, Merimac, Patuxent, Thames 
and Connecticut. The last river runs through, and is o 
vast use to the states of New-Hampshire, Massachusets anc 
Connecticut, where it mouths. Their principal bays anc 
harbours are Penobscot, Casco and Piscataway bays the 
fine harbours of Boston, West-harbour and Rhode-Island i 
The chief places of trade and navigation are Penobscot, Hal 
lifax and Wiscasset on the Kennebeque, Brunswick, Casco, 
Wells, York, Piscataway, Portsmouth the capital of New- 
Hampshire, where that state touches the Atlantic Salisbury 
on the Merimac, Ipswich, Salem, Charles-Town, Boston in 
lat. 42 25, Cituate. Plymouth, Sandwich, Barnstable, the 
island of Nantucket. In Rhode-Island, Newport and Pro- 
vidence. In Connecticut, New-London on the Thames, 
Lyme and Hartford on the great river, and farther west are 
New-Haven, Milford, &c. This virtuous and industrious 
people make a wise and proper use of the advantages their 
soil and seaports give them. As they abound with fine tim- 
ber and naval stores of all kinds, they carry on ship-build- 
ing to a great extent, which enables them not only to ex- 
port their own numerous productions and manufactures, but 
to be the carriers for other states, and even for Europe. 
By this they carry on a most extensive fishery, from the 
whale to the herring, for thousands of leagues along the 
coast of North and South America; which fish and oil they 

send 



[ 57 ] 

send to Europe, and sell ship and cargo. Education is much 
encouraged in those states. The religion of New-England 
is chiefly Calvanistic and Presbyterian, as might be conjec- 
tured from the first inhabitants flying to the asylum oi frozen 
forests and Indian savages, from the oppressions of the Eng- 
lish church: but religious liberty is the glorious peculiarity 
of the United States. In the year 1790, the inhabitants of 
these states amounted to 1,010,000 souls, and not 4000 slaves 
among them. They send 29 members to the Congress 
House of Representatives. It has been remarked, that dur- 
ing the very heat of our contest with Britain, the Assembly 
of Massachusets passed an act establishing a philosophical 
society, for the promotion of the study of the natural histo- 
ry, and antiquities of America; and to promote agriculture, 
commerce, and every art and science, that may promote the 
honour, interest and happiness of a great and free people. 
Boston is defended by a strong castle, at the entrance of their 
spacious harbour. 

New-York offers next, 300 miles in length, extending 
from the mouth of Hudson to Canada, north and south, and 
150 miles in breadth, from New-England on the east, to 
New- Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the lakes on the west and 
south-west. This state owns Long-Island and Statan-Island . 
The city of New- York stands on York-Island, in lat. 40 40, 
at the mouth of Hudson's river, a noble stream three miles 
wide at the city; up and down which they carry on a great 
trade with the city of Albany, 150 miles up; and with 
many other places towards the lakes and Canada. The 
productions and exports of this state are nearly the same 
with those of New-England ; large quantities of provisions, 
naval stores, furs, pot and pearl ashes, &c. The population 
of New-York is about 340,000, 21,000 of them slaves, 
which entitles them to ten members in the representation 
of the United States. Religion in New- York is perfectly 
free. 

New- Jersey follows next, 160 miles in length and 55 in 
width, bounded on the west by Delaware, on the south and 
east by the Atlantic, and on the north by Staten-Island 
sound, Hudson's river and New- York. Its rivers are De- 
laware, Passaick and Raritan. Its towns are Burlington, 
twenty miles above Philadelphia on Delaware, north lat. 
40 8. Trenton still higher up; and on the east and north- 
east Doncaster, Amboy; Brunswick and Elizabeth-Town. 
New-Jersey being a peninsula, is very convenient to navi- 

H gation. 



[ 58 ] 

gallon. But New- York on one side and Philadelphia on 
the other, draw the trade to them. They however ex- 
port provisions and lumber, and they possess the richest cop- 
per mine in the United States. In the year 1746 a College 
was established with university privileges, first at Newark 
and now at Princeton. It has greatly flourished under the 
Presidents Dickinson, Burr, Edwards, Davies, Finlay, 
Witherspoon, and now does under the presidency of Dr. 
S. S. Smith, lately and unanimously chosen to that import- 
ant station. Religion is free in Jersey; and their number* 
by the census taken in 1790, were 185,000, slaves making 
the 17th part. They send five representatives to Congress. 

Pennsylvania comes next in course, about 280 miles in 
length, from Delaware river which separates it from New r - 
Jersey and New-York, on the east, to the lands ceded to 
the United States by the treaty this year, on the west; and 
from Maryland on the south, to the Six Nations on the north, 
220 miles in breadth. This extensive and fruitful state has 
much land carriage; but by their fine rivers Delaware, 
Schuylkill and Susquehanna, they are excellently situated 
to export their numerous and valuable productions, to wit, 
ships and provisions of all kinds. The farmers are chiefly 
cloathed with their own manufactures. Their towns are 
not so numerous as those of New-England; but Gen nan - 
Town, Chester, Y'ork, Lancaster, Carlisle, and some others 
are populous and thriving. But Philadelphia on the Dela- 
ware is the most regular and populous city in America . It 
lies in the 40th degree of north latitude, and 75 20 west 
longitude from London; which by my calculation, brings 
it 3450 miles west, and 800 south of the capital of England. 
Their population in 1790 were 435,000, of whom the slaves 
made about the 120th part. No religious establishment ever 
took place in Pennsylvania. On the basis of civil and reli- 
gious liberty, did that wise legislator and statesman William 
Penn, lay the foundation of his infant colony, which drew 
such multitudes from Europe, especially Presbyterians from 
the north of Ireland, by whom the western parts of the 
middle and southern states are chiefly peopled. This state 
is represented by thirteen members in Congress. 

The three counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, com- 
pose a little maritime state by the name of Delaware, as they 
lie to the south-west of the bay of that name. It is bounded 
by Maryland on the west and south. Its chief town is Wil- 
mington. It is so like Pennsylvania it needs no farther de- 
scription. 



L 59 1 

scription. It is in length 90 miles, in breadth 24. Its po- 
pulation 60,000, of which slaves make near 9000; and has 
one representative in Congress. 

Maryland has Pennsylvania on the north, Delaware state 
and the Atlantic on the east, on the south and south-west it 
is separated from Virginia by the river Patomac, and has 
the Apalachian mountains to the west. Its length from east 
to west 210 miles; its width is very unequal, but where 
widest 140 miles. The rivers of Maryland are the Sassa- 
frass, Severn, Patuxent, Patomac, and many smaller 
streams, which with Chesapeak bay piercing it from side to 
side, renders it, like its neighbour Virginia, but one great 
harbour. The productions of both states shall be mentioned 
together. The first settlement of Maryland was by a colony 
of Roman Catholics, who were brought over by the propri- 
etor Lord Baltimore, who had prudence and moderation 
enough to grant liberty of conscience to all professions, 
which drew great numbers to Maryland, who have greatly 
improved it and built some towns, Annapolis the capital, 
but Baltimore the chief place of trade. In this state the city 
of Washington is laid off and building, as the seat of govern- 
ment of the United States. Their population five years ago 
was 320,000, of which the slaves made nearly one third. 
They have eight members in the Congress House of Repre- 
sentatives. Religion is free in Maryland; but all who are 
appointed to lucrative offices must subscribe their belief of 
the Christian religion. 

Virginia is bounded on the north-east by Patomac, on 
the east by the Atlantic, on the south by North-Carolina, 
and on the west by Kentuckey. Its length was originally 
from the Atlantic to the Missisippi 750 miles, but Kentuckey 
being cut off it may be half that length, and 240 miles wide. 
The great rivers Patomac, Rappahannock, York and James 
river, with their numerous branches, and many other 
streams, render this state as convenient for navigation as if 
it was an island. The exports of Virginia and Maryland 
are tobacco, wheat, Indian corn, flour, pork, beef, lumber, 
naval stores, iron, &c. Sir Walter Raleigh first sent a co- 
lony to Virginia, but they were cut off, as were several suc- 
ceeding adventurers; till Lord Delaware came over in per- 
son, with such supplies as established the colony, the first 
that was settled by Britain in America. Their tobacco ren- 
dered this country numerous and wealthy, though all religi- 
ous professions had to support established Episcopacy, and all 

British 



[ 60 ] 

British America belonged to the diocese of London. Vir- 
ginia took a leading part in all the contests of America with 
Britain; and during the grand struggle, the Assembly though 
mostly Episcopalians, wisely and generously let down their 
church to a level with their Christian brethren. Their nu- 
merous rivers being accessible to shipping an hundred miles 
up, renders great towns unnecessary in that large state; 
they however, carry on a great trade from Norfolk, Pe- 
tersburg, Richmond, Manchester, Fredericksburg and other 
towns on their fine rivers. The population of Virginia in 
1790, was 750,000; in this number the proportion of slaves 
to whites is as one to two and an half. This state sends 
nineteen members to the House of Representatives of the 
United States. Latitude of Richmond about 38. 

North-Carolina has Virginia on the north, by a dividing 
line in 36 30', South-Carolina on the south, and the At- 
lantic ocean on the east. It extended to the Missisippi, but 
the Assembly gave up its western territory to the United 
States. The southern line is in 35 till it turns to the south- 
east, and extends on the sea coast about 200 miles. Its 
chief rivers are Pasquotank, Chowan, Roanoak, Tar-river, 
Neuse and Cape-Fear. Its rivers and exstensive coast, ren- 
der it as convenient for trade as any of its sister states, if 
the entrance from the ocean were not shallow and sandy ; 
which confines the trade to small vessels; but Cape-Fear ad- 
mits ships of any burden. The productions of this state are 
numerous and valuable. It sends by land to Virginia annu- 
ully, 6 or 7000 hogsheads of tobacco; and exports a number 
from its own inspections. Its other exports are wheat, 
flour, pease, beef, pork, butter, cheese, lumber, pitch, tar, 
turpentine, and I wish I could add to the exports of my 
country pot and pearl ashes, which it is well calculated to 
produce. The numerous landings in this state, are also un- 
friendly to large towns. It has however, some small towns 
on navigation, as Halifax, Edenton, Washington, Tarbo- 
rough, Newbern, Fayetteville, and Wilmington, besides 
some inland towns that are represented in the Assembly. The 
seat of Government is fixed at the city of Raleigh, in Wake 
county, in latitude thirty-five and an half, where the Legi- 
slature hold their Assemblies, and the officers of Government 
chiefly reside. A University is established by act of Assem- 
bly, in Orange county, with liberal appointments by the 
state, and numerous benefactions. It is yet in its infancy, 
has about sixty students, and is under the government of 

good 



[ 61 ] 

good and learned men, must prove an extensive blessing, as 
well as an honour to the state. What can more loudly call 
for the prayers of all good people, than that GOD's blessing 
may reside on our principal seat of learning, from which 
fountain are to flow those streams, that must poison, or pu- 
rify and nourish our country. Its short progress has been 
rapid ; may its success be glorious ! The population of this 
state in 1790, was 394,000, and the proportion of whites to 
slaves nearly as three to one. North Carolina sends ten re- 
presentatives to Congress, besides two Senators, which is 
common to all the states. Religion is here also happily 
free. 

South-Carolina is bounded on the north and north-east by 
North-Carolina, on the south and south-west by Georgia, 
and on the east by the Atlantic, with a sea coast about 200 
miles, from North-Carolina to the mouth of Savanna river, 
which separates it from Georgia. My map gives it a fron- 
tier to the Missisippi of two degrees in width, but Georgia 
claims a large part of it. The chief rivers of this state are 
Pedee, Santee, Cooper, Ashly, Edisto and Savanna. The 
Carolinas were first granted to proprietors, but the Crown 
bought them all out, but Lord Granville. 

Charleston was the first spot the adventurers pitched on 
for a residence, and it has grown up to a beautiful city, and 
a place of great trade. It has some other towns, as Cam- 
bridge, Camden, George-Town, and Columbia their seat of 
Government. The productions of this wealthy state are rice, 
indigo, wheat, Indian corn, pease, tobacco, cotton, beef, 
<fec. Charleston lies in latitude 32 45. Some attempts have 
been made to establish seminaries of learning in this state, 
but with little effect. Education is however encouraged in 
private academies, and gentlemen's sons finish at some north- 
ern college. Five years ago the population of South-Caro- 
lina was 250,000, and nearly five whites to two blacks; 
which gives them a representation of six members in Con- 
gress. 

Georgia is about 500 miles in length, from the Atlantic 
ocean on the east, to Missisippi on the west; and from the 
line that divides the United States from east and west Flori- 
da, in latitude 31, to the southern line of North-Carolina, 
is four degrees or 278 miles on a meridian ; but I am yet to 
learn how much of this Georgia claims. The principal ri- 
vers of this state, are Savanna, which separates it on the 
north-east from South -Caroli na ; Ogeeche, Altamaha, and 

St. 



[ 62 ] 

St. Mary's which divides it from Florida. These all flow 
into the Atlantic. On the west it has Apalachicola, Mobile, 
Pearl river, and others, that flow into the gulph of Mexico; 
and the Yasoua that runs into Missisippi. The productions 
and exports of this state are the same with those of South - 
Carolina. The Altamaha and Savanna rivers make good 
harbours. Their towns are Savanna, Fred erica and Sun- 
bury, on the coast; and Augusta, the seat of Government, 
a great distance up the Savanna . In the census taken in 
1790, the inhabitants of Georgia were 83,000, and the pro- 
portion of slaves to the whites as 30 to 53. This state sends 
two members to the Congress House of Representatives. 
The South Western Territory contained 36,000, of whom 
not quite a tenth were slaves. 

The United States five years ago contained in round num- 
bers, 4,000,000 of souls; the slaves were 700,000; free 
people of colour 60,000. The slaves were then to the free 
as 7 to 33, a little more than one to five. Mr. Hodge's 
new Almanack will gratify political arithmeticians, not only 
in the proportion of the sexes, but it will prove the age of 
sixteen to be a good medium, at which to divide the living 
numbers of the human race. Of sixteen and upwards, the 
white males 824,000; under sixteen, 803,000. White fe- 
males of all ages, 1,560,000. This proclaims a superin- 
tending providence over the sexes, as in all ages and nations 
more males than females are born. With us, the difference 
is about as 32 to 31. It is sometimes as high as 21 to *20: 
A most wise provision for the hazardous occupations of the 
males by sea and land, in war and peace! If it be granted 
that we double our numbers in twenty-two years, without 
any supplies from other nations, I must believe, from the 
many omissions that must have happened when the numbers 
were taken; from the vast increase in our healthy inhabit- 
ants; and from the numerous arrivals from the despotism of 
Europe, I must believe, I say, the number of souls within 
the United States, at the close of 1795, must equal or ex- 
ceed 5,000,000. 

May piety, virtue, honour, truth and justice increase in 
full proportion; and let all the people say, AMEN.