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S'3 J ^-3?^ 






Smnetime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridga, 

'* Pausanias est un homme qui ne manque ni de bon sens ni de 
bonne foi. mais qui croit ou aa moins voudrait croire k ses dieux." 









OF Pausanias personally we know very little, but that he 
lived during the Reign of the Antonines, and travelled 
all round Greece, and wrote his famous Tour round Greece, 
or Description of Greece, in 10 Books, describing what he 
had seen and heard. His chief merit is his showing to us 
the state of the works of art still remaining in his day in 
the Greek cities, which have since been swept away by the 
various invasions that have devastated that once happy 
land. " When Pausanias travelled through Greece, during 
the age of the Antonines, about 1690 years ago, he found 
every city teeming with life and refinement ; every Temple 
a Museum of Art ; and every spot hallowed by some tradi- 
tion which contributed to its preservation. The ruthless 
destruction of these works of art, in subsequent ages, has 
reduced them to a small number ; and the Traveller now 
pauses, with a melancholy interest, to reflect upon the 
objects described by Pausanias, but which no longer 
exist." ' 

Pausanias' Detcription of Greece is also full of varions 
information on many topics. It is for example a mine of 
Mythology. For its various matter it has been happily 
compared to a " County History." There is often a quiet 
vein of humour in Pausanias, who seems to have been 
almost equally a believer in Providence and in Homer. 

I have translated from Sckubart's Text in the Teuhner 

• George Scharf, Esq., F.S.A. 1859. Wordsworth's Greece, p. 1. 


Series, (1876), but have taken the liberty always, where 
the text seemed hopeless, to adopt a reading that seemed 
preferable from any other source. I have constantly had 
before me the valuable edition of Siehelis, (Lipsise, 1827), 
to whom I am much indebted, especially for his Illustra- 
tions, still veracity obliges me to state that occasionally he 
too gives one reason to remember the famous lines of a 
well-known Rector of Welwyn in the Eighteenth Century. 

" The commentators each dark passage shun, 
And hold their farthing candle to the Sun." 

In the Index it is hardly necessary to state that I owe 
much to Schubart. 


Mat/, I88tt, 



Book I. Attica ^ 


III. Laconia 168 

IV. aiESSENIA 228 

V. Elis 302 

VI. Elis. Part ii 360 




ON the mainland of Greece, facing the islands called the 
Cyclades and the -^gean sea, the promontorj of 
Sunium stands out on Attic soil : and there is a harbour 
for any one coasting along the headland, and a temple of 
Athene of Sunium on the summit of the height. And as 
one sails on is Laarium, -n-here the Athenians formerly had 
silver mines, and a desert island of no great size called after 
Patroclus ; for he had built a wall in it and laid a palisade, 
when he sailed as admiral in the Egyptian triremes, which 
Plotemy, the son of Lagus, sent to punish the Athenians, 
Antigonus, the son of Demetrius, in person making a raid 
into their territory with a land force and ravaging it, and 
the fleet simultaneously hemming them in by sea. Xow the 
Piraeus was a township in ancient times, but was not a port 
until Themistocles ruled the Athenians ; but their port was 
Phalerum, (for here the sea is nearest to Athens), and they 
say that it was from thence that Menestheus sailed with 
the ships to Troy, and before him Theseus to exact ven- 
geance from Minos for the death of Androgeos. But when 
Themistocles was in power, because the Piraeus appeared to 
him to be more convenient as a harbour, and it was cer- 
tainly better to have three harbours than one as at Pha- 
lerum, he made this the port. And even up to my time 
there were stations for ships, and at the largest of the three 
harbours the tomb of Themistocles ; for they say that the 
Athenians repented of their conduct to him, and that his 


relatives exhumed his remains and brought them home 
from Magnesia. Certain it is that the sons of Themistocles 
returned from exile, and hung up a painting of Themistocles 
in the Parthenon. Now of all the things in the Pirseus 
best worth seeing is the temple of Athene and Zeus ; both 
their status^ are of gold, and Zeus has a sceptre and Victory, 
while Athene is armed with a spear. Here, too, is a paint- 
ing by Arcesilaus of Leosthenes and his sons, that famous 
hero who at the head of the Athenians and all the Greeks 
defeated the Macedonians in battle in Boeotia, and again 
beyond Thermopylee, and drove them into Lamia over 
against Mount (Eta and shut them up there. And it is in 
the long portico, where those near the sea have their 
market, (for there is another market for those more inland), 
and in the back of the portico near the sea are statues of 
Zeus and Demos, the design of Leochares. And near the 
sea is a temple erected to Aphrodite by Conon, after his 
victory over the Lacedemonian fleet off Cnidus in the 
peninsula of Caria. For Aphrodite is the tutelary saint of 
the men of Cnidus, and they have several temples of the 
goddess ; the most ancient celebrates her as Doritis, the 
next in date as Acrtea, and latest of all that which every- 
body else calls Athene of Cnidus, but the Cnidians them- 
selves call it Athene of the Fair Voyage. 

The Athenians have also another harbour at Munichia, 
and a temple of Artemis of Munychia, and another at 
Phalerum, as has been stated by me before, and near it a 
temple of Demeter. Here too is a temple of Sciradian 
Athene, and of Zeus at a little distance, and altars of gods 
called unknown, and of heroes, and of the children of 
Theseus and Phalerus; for this Phalerus, the Athenians 
say, sailed with Jason to Colchis. There is also an altar 
of Androgeos the son of Minos, though it is only called 
altar of a hero, but those who take pains to know more 
accurately than others their country's antiquities are well 
aware that it is the altar of Androgeos. And twenty 
stades^ further is the promontory Colias ; when the fleet of 
the Persians was destroyed the tide dashed the wrecks 
against it. There is here also a statue of Aphrodite of 
Colias and the goddesses who are called Grenetyllides. I 
' A stade was about one-eis;lith of a Roman mile. 


am of opinion that the Phocian goddesses in Ionia, that 
they call bj the name of Gennaides, are the same as these 
at Colias called Genetyllides. And there is on the road to 
Athens from Phalernm a temple of Hera -without doors or 
roof ; they say that Mardonius, the son of Gobryas, burnt 
it. But the statue there now is (as they say) the work of 
Alcamenes ; this, indeed, the Persian cannot have touched. 


AS one enters into the city there is a monument of 
A ntiope t he Amazon. Pindar says that this Antiope 
was carried off by Pirithous and Theseus, but the account 
by Hegias of Trcezen is as follows : that Hercules besieg- 
ing Themiscyra near the river Thermodon could not take 
it ; but that Antiope being enamoured of Theseus, (who was 
besieging the place with Hercules), handed the place over 
to him. This is the account Hegias has given. But the 
Athenians say that, when the Amazons came, Antiope was 
shot by Molpadia with an arrow, and that Molpadia was 
slain by Theseus. There is a monument also to Molpadia 
among the Athenians. And as one ascends from the 
Piiteus there are i;eiiiaiaa_xȣ-the_ walls which Conon re- 
erecte d af ter the sea-fight off Cnidus; for those which 
Themistocles had built after the defeat of the Persians had 
been pulled down during the rule of The Thirty Tyrants, as 
they were called. And along the way the most notable 
tombs are those of Menander the son of Diopeithes, and a 
cWotaph of Euripides without the body. For Euripides was 
buried in Macedonia, having gone to the court of King 
Archelaus ; and the manner of his death, for it has been 
told by many, let it be as they say. Poets even in those 
days lived with kings and earlier still, for when Polycrates 
was tyrant at Samos Anacreon lived at his court, and 
^schylus and Simonides journeyed to Syracuse to the 
court of Hiero ; and to Dionysius, who was afterwards 
tyrant in Sicily, went Philoxenus; and to Antigonus, king 
of the Macedonians, went Antagoras of Rhodes and Aratus 
of Soli. On the other hand Hesiod and Homer either did 


not get the chance of living at kings' courts, or of their 
own accord didn't value it, the former because he lived in 
the country and shrank from travelling, and the latter, 
having gone on his travels to very distant parts, depreciated 
pecuniary assistance from the powerful in compai'ison with 
the glory he had amongst most men, for from him too we 
have the description of Demodocus' being at the court 
of Alcinous, and that Agamemnon left a poet with his 
wife. There is also a tomb not far from the gates, with 
the statue of a soldier standing near a horse ; who the 
soldier is I don't know, but Praxiteles modelled both the 
horse and the soldier. 

As one enters into the city there is a buildingjE or the 
getting ready of processions, which they conduct some 
annually, somS at various intervals. And near is the 
temple of Demeter, and the statues in it are her and her 
daughter and lacchus with a torch ; and it is written on 
the wall in Attic letters that they are the production of 
Praxiteles. And not far from this temple is Poseidon on 
horseback, in the act of hurling his spear at the giant 
Polybotes, in respect to whom there is a story among the 
Coans as to the promontory of Chelone ; but the inscrip- 
tion of our days assigns the statue to another and not to 
Poseidon. And there are porticoes from the gates to the 
Ceramicus, and in front of them brazen statues of women 
and men who have obtained some celebrity. And one of the 
porticoes has not only shrines of the gods, but also what is 
called the gymnasium of Hennes ; and there is in it the 
house of Polytioh, in which they say the most notable of 
the Athenians imitated the Eleusinian mysteries. But in 
my time it was consecrated to Dionysus. And this Dio- 
uysus they call Melpomenos for the same reason that they 
jail Apollo Musagetes. Here are statues of Pjeonian Athene 
and Zeus and Mnemosyne and the Muses, and Apollo (the 
votive ofiering and work of Eubulides), and Acratus a satel- 
lite of Dionysus : his face alone is worked in the wall. And 
next to the shrine of Dionysus is a room with statues of 
earthenware, Amphictyon the king of the Athenians feast- 
ing Dionysus and all the other gods. Here too is Pegasus 
Eleutherensis, who introduced Dionysus to the Athenians ; 
and he was assisted by the oracle at Delphi, which foretold 

BOOK I. — ATTICii. 6 

that the god would come and settle there in the days of 
Icaritis. And this is the way Amphictjon got the king- 
dom. They say that Actaeus was first kmg of what is now 
Attica ; and on his death Cecrops succeeded to the king- 
dom having married Actsens' daughter, and he had three 
daughters, Erse, and Aglauros, and Pandrosos, and one 
son, Erjsichthon. He never reigned over the Athenians, 
for he chanced to die in his father's lifetime, and the king- 
dom of Cecrops fell to Cranans, the foremost of the Athe- 
nians in power and influence. And thev say that Cranaus 
had among other daughters Atthis ; from her they named 
the country Attica, which was before called Actaea. And 
Amphictyon rose up in insurrection against Cranaus, 
although he was married to his daughter, and deposed him 
from the kingdom : but was himself afterwards ejected by 
Erichthonius and his fellow conspirators. And they say that 
Erichthonius had no mortal father, but that his parents 
were Hephsestus and Mother Earth. 


NOW the place Ceramicjas. gets its name from the hero 
Ceramus, he too reputed to be the son of Dionysus 
and Ariadne : and the first portico on the right is called the 
royal portico, for there the king sits during his yearly oflice 
which is called kingdom. On the roof of this portico are 
statues of earthenware, Theseus hurling Sciron into the sea, 
and Aurora carrying off Cephalus, who, being most hand- 
some, was, they say, carried off by enamoured Aurora, and 
his son was Phaethon. And he made him sacristan of the 
temple. All this has been told by others, and by Hesiod 
in his poem about women. And i^ par the pnrtjcn are 
statuesof Conon and his son Timotheus, and Evagoras, the 
king of the Cyprians, who got the Phoenician triremes 
given to Conon by King Artaxerxes ; and he acted as an 
Athenian and one who had ancestral connection with 
Salamis, for his pedigree went up to Teucer and the daughter 
of Cinyras. Here too are statues of Zeus, surnamed Eleu- 
therius, and the Emperor Adrian, a benefactor to all the 


people he ruled over, and especially to the city of the Athe- 
nians. And the portico built behind has paintings of the 
so-called twelve gods. And Democi'acy and Demos and 
Theseus are painted on the wall beyond. The painting 
represents Thesens restoring to the Athenians political 
equality. The popular belief has prevailed almost univer- 
sally that Theseus played into the hands of the people, and 
that from his time they remained under a democratical 
government, till Pisistratus rose up and became tyrant. 
There are other untrue traditions current among the mass 
of mankind, who have no research and take for gospel all 
they heard as children in the choruses and tragedies. One 
such tradition is that Theseus himself was king, and that 
after the death of Menestheus his descendants continued 
kings even to the fourth generation. But if I had a fancy 
for genealogies, I should certainly have enumerated all the 
kings from Melanthus to Cleidicus the son of ^simidas 
as well as these. 

Here too is painted the action of the Athenians at Man- 
tinea, who were sent to aid the Lacedemonians. Xeno- 
phon and others have written the history of the entire war, 
the occupation of Cadmeia, and the slaughter of the Lace- 
damonians at Leuctra, and how the Boeotians made a raid 
into the Peloponnese, and of the help that came to the 
Lacedemonians from the Athenians. And in the picture 
is the cavalry charge, the most noted officers in which 
were on the Athenian side Gryllus, the son of Xenophon, 
and in the Boeotian cavalry Epamiriondas the Theban. 
These paintings were painted for the Athenians by Eu- 
phranor, and in the temple hard by he represented Apollo 
under the name Patrous. And in front of the temple 
Leochares represented another Apollo, and Calamis the 
Apollo who is called Averter of Evil. And they say the 
god got this name by stopping from his oracle at Delphi 
the noisome pestilence, that smote them at the same time as 
the Peloponnesian war. There is also a temple to the Mother 
of the Gods wrought by Phidias, and next to it a council- 
chamber for those who are called The Five Hundi'ed, who 
who are appointed annually. And in the council-chamber 
are erected statues to Zeus the Counsellor, and to Apollo 
(the artistic design of Pisias), and to Demos (the work of 


Lyson). And the legislators were painted by the Cannian 
Protogenes, but Olbiades painted Callippus, who led the 
Athenians to Thermopylae to prevent the invasion of the 
Galati into Grreece. 


N' OW these Galati inhabit the remotest parts of Europe, 
near a mighty sea, not navigable where they live : it 
has tides and breakers and sea monsters quite unlike those 
in any other sea : and through their territory flows the 
river Eridanus, by whose banks people think the daughters 
of the sun lament the fate of their brother Phaethon. And 
it is only of late that the name Galati has prevailed among 
them : for originally they were called Celts both by them- 
selves and by all other nations. And an army gathered 
together by them marched towards the Ionian Sea, and 
dispossessed all the nations of Illyria and all that dwelt 
between them and the Macedonians, and even the Mace- 
donians themselves, and overran Thessaly. And when they 
got near to Thermopylse, most of the Greeks did not inter- 
fere with their onward march, remembering how badly 
handled they had formerly been by Alexander and Philip, 
and how subsequently Antipater and Cassander had nearly 
ruined Greece ; so that, on account of their weakness, they 
did not consider it disgraceful individually that a general 
defence should be abandoned. But the Athenians, although 
they had suffered more than any other of the Greeks during 
the long Macedonian war, and had had great losses in 
battles, yet resolved to go forth to Thermopylae with those 
of the Greeks who volunteered, having chosen this Callip- 
pus as their General. And having occupied the narrowest 
pass they endeavoured to bar the passage of the barbarians 
into Greece. But the Celts having discovered the same 
defile by which Ephialtes the Trachinian had formerly 
conducted the Persians, and having routed those of the 
Phocians who were posted there in battle array, ci'ossed 
Mount CEta unbeknown to the Greeks. Then it was that 
the Athenians displayed themselves to the Greeks as most 


■worthy, by their brave defence against the barbarians, being 
taken both in front and flank. But those suffei'ed most 
that were in their ships, inasmuch as the Lamiac Gulf was 
full of mud near Thermopylae ; the explanation is, as it 
seems to me, that here warm spi-ings have their outlet into 
the sea. Here therefore they suffered much. For, having 
taken on board their comrades, they were obliged to sail 
over mud in vessels heavy with men and armour. Thus 
did the Athenians endeavour to save the Greeks in the 
manner I have described. But the Galati having got inside 
Pylse, and not caring to take the other fortified towns, were 
most anxious to plunder the treasures of the god at Delphi. 
And the people of Delphi, and those of the Phocians who 
dwelt in the cities round Parnassus, drew up in battle array 
against them. A contingency of the -iiEtolians also arrived : 
and you must know that at that era the ^tolians were 
eminent for manly vigour. And when the armies engaged 
not only did lightnings dismay the Galati, and fragments 
of rock coming down on them from Parnassus, but three 
mighty warriors pressed them hard, two, they say, came 
from the Hyperboreans, Hyperochus and Amadocus, and 
the third was Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. And in conse- 
quence of this aid the Delphians offer sacrifice to Pyrrhus, 
though before they held his tomb in dishonour as that of 
an enemy. But the greater part of the Galati having 
crossed into Asia Minor in their ships, ravaged its maritime 
parts. And some time afterwards the inhabitants of Per- 
gamum, which in old times was called Teuthrania, drove 
the Galati from the sea into the region now called Galatia. 
They lived in the region east of the river Sangarius, having 
captured Ancyra, a city of the Phrygians which Midas the 
son of Gordias had formerly built. And the anchor which 
jMidas found was still, even in my time, in the templei of 
Zeus, and the well shown which was called Midas' well : 
which Midas, they say, poured wine into that he might 
capture Silenus. As well as Ancyra they captured Pessi- 
nus near the mountain Agdistis, where they say Atte was 
buried. And the people of Pergamum have spoils of the 
Galati, and there is a painting of their action with the 
Galati. And the region which the people of Pergamum 
inhabit was in old times, they say, sacred to the Cahiri. 


And thev claim to be Arcadians who crossed over with 
Telephus into Asia Minor. Of their other wars, if they 
fought any, the fame has not universally spread : but three 
most notable exploits have been performed by them, their 
gaining dominion over the southern part of Asia Minor, and 
their expulsion of the Galati from thence, and their venture 
under Telephus against the forces of Agamemnon, when 
the Greeks, unable to find IHum, ravaged the Mysian plain, 
thinking it was Trojan territory. But I return to where 
I made my digression from. 


NEARJihe_CQuncil chambejvof The Five Hundred is the 
room called the Rottmda, and here the Prytanes sacri- 
fice, and there are some silver statues not very large. And 
higher up are some statues of the heroes, from whom the 
tribes of the Athenians in later times got their names. 
And who made the tribes ten instead of four, and changed 
their names from the old ones, has been told by Herodotus. 
And of the heroes who gave their names to the tribes, 
{Eponyriui.s is the name they give them), are Hippothoon, 
the son of Poseidon by Alope the daughter of Cercyon, 
and Antiochus, one of the sons of Hercules by Meda the 
daughter of Phylas, and the third Ajax,the son of Telamon ; 
and of the Athenians Leo, who is said to have devoted all 
his daughters for the public weal at the bidding of the 
oracle. Erechtheus also is among the Eponyini, who con- 
quered the Eleusinians in battle, and slew their commander 
Immaradus. the son of Eumolpus ; also ^gius, and (Eneus 
the illegitimate son of Pandion, and of the sons of Theseus 
Acamas. And what Cecrops and Pandion they hold in 
honour, (for I saw their statues too among the Eponymi), 
I do not know, for there were two of each ; the first Cecrops, 
that was king, married the daughter of Actaeus, and the 
other, who settled at Eubaea, was the son of Erechtheus, the 
grandson of Pandion and the great grandson of Erichtho- 
nius, and the two Pandion kings were the son of Erich- 
thoTiins and the son of Cecrops the younger. The latter 


was deposed from his kingdom by the Metionidae, and when 
he fled to Megara, the daughter of whose king he had 
married, his sons were banished with him. And it is said 
that Pandion died there of illness, and his tomb is near the 
sea in Megara, on the rock that is called the rock of Athene 
the Diver. But his sons returned from exile at Megara, 
and expelled the Metionidge, and -^geus, being the eldest, 
had the sovereignty over the Athenians. Pandion also 
reared daughters, but not with good fortune, nor had they 
any sons to avenge him. And yet for the love of power he 
had made affinity with the king of Thrace. But man has 
no power to escape what is willed by the Deity. They say 
that Tereus (though married to Procne) dishonoured Phi- 
lomela, not acting according to the law of the Greeks : and, 
having still further murdered the damsel, he compelled the 
women to punish him. There is also another statue erected 
to Pandion in the Acropolis, well worth seeing. These are 
the ancient Eponymi of the Athenians. And after these 
they have as Eponymi Attalus the Mysian, and Ptolemy 
the Egyptian, and, in my time, the Emperor Adrian, who 
worshipped the gods more religiously than anyone, and who 
contributed most to the individual happiness of his sub- 
jects. And he never willingly undertook any war, only he 
punished the revolt of the Hebrews who live beyond the 
Syrians. And as to the temples of the gods, pai-t of which 
he originally built, and part of which he adorned with 
votive offerings and decorations, or of the gifts which he 
gave to the Greek cities and to those of the barbarians who 
asked for them, all these good deeds of his are written up 
at Athens, in the temple common to all the gods. 


AS to the actions of Attalus and Ptolemy, not only are 
they become more ancient from the progress of time, 
so that the fame of them no longer remains, but also those 
who lived with those kings in former days neglected to 
register their exploits. I thought it well therefore to 
record whatever works they did, and how it was that the 


government of Egypt and of the Mysi, and of the neigh- 
boui-ing nations, fell to their fathei*s. Ptolemy, the Mace- 
donians think, was really the son of Philip the son of 
Amyntas, (but putatively the son of Lagus), for his mother, 
they say, was pregnant when she was given to Lagus to 
wife by Philip. And they say that Ptolemy not only dis- 
tinguished himself biilliantly in Asia Minor, but, when 
danger befel Alexander at Osydracae, he of all his com- 
panions was foremost to bring him aid. And upon the 
death of Alexandei', he it was who mainly resisted those 
who wished to give all the dominions of Alexander to 
Aridaeus the son of Philip, and he again was responsible 
for the different nationalities being divided into kingdoms. 
And he himself crossed into Egypt and slew Cleomenes, 
whom Alexander had made satrap of Egypt, thinking him. 
friendly to Perdiccas and therefore not loyal to himself, and 
persuaded those of the Macedonians who were appointed to 
carry the dead body of Alexander to ^Egse to hand it over 
to him, and btiried him at Memphis with the customary 
Macedonian rites ; but, feeling sure that Perdiccas would go 
to war with him, he filled Egypt with garrisons. And Per- 
diccas, to give a specious colour to his expedition, led about 
with him Aridaeus the son of Philip, and the lad Alexan- 
der, the son of Alexander by Roxana the daughter of 
Oxyartes, but really was plotting to take away the king- 
dom of Egypt from Ptolemy. But having been thrust out 
of Egypt, and consequently losing his foi-mer prestige as 
a general, and having incurred odium among the Mace- 
donians on other gi'ounds, he was assassinated by his body- 
guard. The death of Perdiccas roused Ptolemy to imme- 
diate action : simultaneously he seized Syria and Phoenicia, 
welcomed Seleucus the son of Antiochus, a fugitive who 
had been driven into exile by Antigonus, and made prepa- 
rations to take the field in pei-son against Antigonus. And 
Cassander the son of Antipater, and Lysimachus king of 
Thrace, he persuaded to join him in the war, saying that 
the exile of Seleucus and the aggrandisement of Antigonus 
was a common danger to all of them. Now Antigonus for 
a time went on with his preparations, but by no means 
courted war. But when he heard that Ptolemy had gone to 
Libya to put down a revolt of the people of Cyrene, forthwith 


he took Syria and Phoenicia by a coup-de-mam, and, handing 
them over to his son Demetrius, a boy in years a man in 
intellect, returned to the Hellespont. But before getting 
there, on hearing that Demetrius had been beaten in battle 
by Ptolemy, he led his army back again. But Dercetrius, so 
far from yielding ground altogether to Ptolemy, planned an 
ambush and cut to pieces a few of the Egyptians. And 
now, upon Antigonus' coming up, Ptolemy did not wait for 
him, but T'etired into Egypt. And when the winter was 
over Demetrius sailed to Cyprus and beat Menelaus, Pto- 
lemy's satrap, in a naval engagement, and then Ptolemy 
himself, as he tried to force his way through. And he fled 
into Egypt and was blockaded both by land and sea by 
Antigonus and Demetrius. But Ptolemy, although in great 
straits, yet preserved his kingdom by stationing himself 
with his army at Pelusium on the qtoi vive, and by keeping 
the enemy from the river with his fleet. And Antigonus 
had no further hope that he could take Egypt in the present 
state of affairs, so he despatched Demetrius to the Rhodians 
with a large army and ships, hoping that, if he could get 
possession of Rhodes, he could use it as his base against 
the Egyptians. But not only did the Rhodians exhibit 
great daring and ingenuity against their besiegers, but also 
Ptolemy himself to the utmost of his power assisted them 
in the war. And Antigonus, though unsuccessful with 
Rhodes and Egypt, ventured not long afterwards to fight 
against Lysimachus and Cassander and the army of Se- 
leucus, and lost the greater part of his forces, and himself 
died mainly from being worn out by the length of the war 
against Eumenes. And of the kings that put down the 
power of Antigonus I think the most unscrupulous was 
Cassander, who, having preserved his rule over the Mace- 
donians only owing to Antigonus, went and fought 
against a man that had been his benefactor. And after 
the death of Antigonus, Ptolemy again took Syria and 
Cyprus, and restored Pyrrhus to Thesprotian Epirus. And 
when Cyi'ene revolted, Magas the son of Berenice, who was 
at this time the wife of Ptolemy, took it in the fifth 
year after the revolt. Now if this Ptolemy was really the 
son of Philip the son of Amyntas, it will be clear that he 
inherited this madness for women from his father, who. 


though married to Euryclice, the daughter of Antipater, 
and having children by her, yet fell in love with Berenice, 
(whom Antipater had sent into Egypt as a companion to 
Eurydice), and so enamoured was he of her that he had 
children by her, and when his end was near willed to reign 
over Egypt Ptolemy, (from whom the Athenians name one 
tribe), his son by Berenice and not by Eurydice. 


THIS Ptolemy being enamoured of Arsinoe, his sister on 
both sides, married her. doine what was by no means 
usual among the Macedonians, but not uncommon among 
his Egyptian subjects. And next he slew his brother Ar- 
gaeus plotting against him, as was said. And he brought 
the corpse of Alexander from Memphis. And he slew also 
another brother, the son of Eurydice, observing that he was 
trying to make the Cyprians revolt. And Magas the uterine 
brother of Ptolemy, (being the son of Berenice and one 
Philip, a Macedonian but one of the common people and 
othei-wise unknown), who had been chosen by his mother 
to be governor of Cyrene, at this time pel:^uaded the people 
of Cyrene to revolt from Ptolemy and marched with an 
army for Egypt. And Ptolemy, having guarded the ap- 
proaches, awaited the arrival of the men of Cyi'ene ; but 
Magas having had news brought him on the road that the 
Marmaridse had revolted from him, (now the Marmaridae 
are a tribe of Libyan Xomads), endeavoured to get back to 
Cyrene at once. And Ptolemy, intending to follow him, 
was prevented by the following reason. Among some of 
his defensive operations aganst Magas, he had invited in 
some foreign mercenaries, and among others some 4,000 
Gralati ; but finding that they were plotting to make them- 
selves masters of Egypt, he sent them down to the Xile to 
a desert island. And here they perished, partly by one 
another's sword, partly by famine. And Magas being 
the husband of Apame, the daughter of Antiochus the son 
of Seleucus, perstiaded Antiochus to violate the condi- 
tions which his father Seleucus had made with Pto- 


lemy, and to lead an army into Egypt. But as he was 
preparing to do so, Ptolemy sent into all parts of Anti- 
clius' dominions guerilla troops to ravage the country 
where the defenders were weak, and more formidable bodies 
he checked with his army, so that Antiochus had no longer 
the chance to invade" Egypt. I have previously described 
how this Ptolemy sent a fleet to aid the Athenians against 
Antigonus and the Macedonians ; but, indeed, the Athe- 
nians derived no great benefit from it. Now his sons were 
not by Arsinoe his sister, but by the daughter of Lysi- 
machus, for although he was married to his sister and lived 
with her, she pi-e-deceased him and was childless, and the 
district Arsinoites is named after her. 


OUR subject now demands that we should relate the 
doings of Attains, for he is also one of the Athenian 
Eponymi. A Macedonian by name Docimus, one of An- 
tigonus' generals, who afterwards gave himself and his 
fortune into the hands of Lysimachus, had a Paphlagonian 
eunuch called Philet«?nis. Now all the circumstances of 
Philetaerus' revolt from Lysimachus, and how he invited 
in Seleucus, shall be narrated by me in my account of 
Lysimachus. But this Attains was the son of Attains, and 
nephew of Philetaerus, and got the kingdom from Eumenes 
his cousin handing it over to him. And this is the greatest 
of his exploits, that he compelled the Galati to leave the 
coast and go inland to Galatia, the country which they 
now inhabit. 

And next to the statues of the Eponymi are images of 
the gods, Amphiaraus and Peace with Wealth as a boy in 
her arms. Here, too, are statues in bronze of Lycurgus 
the son of Lycophron, and of Callias who negotiated peace, 
as most of the Athenians say, between the Greeks and 
Artaxerxes the son of Xerxes. Here, too, is Demostlienes, 
whom the Athenians drove into exile to Calauria, the island 
near Troezen, and after having recalled him drove him into 
exile a second time after the defeat at Lamia. And when 


Demostlienes went into exile the second time, he crossed 
over again to Calauria, "where he died by taking poison. 
And he was the only exile who was not handed over to An- 
tipater and the Macedonians by Archias. Xow this Archias, 
who was a native of Thurii, acted very inhumanly. All who 
had opposed the Macedonians before tlie disaster wiiich befel 
the Grreeks in Thessaly. Archias handed over to Antipater 
for punishment. Xow this was the end of Demosthenes' 
excessive affection for the Athenians. And it seems to me 
deserving of record, that a man who had been cruelly exiled 
for his policy, and had yet believed in the democracy, came 
to a bad end. 

And n ear the statue of Demo sthenes is the temple of 
Ares, where are two images of Aphrodite, and one of Ares 
designed by Alcamenes, and one of Athene designed by a 
Parian by name Locrus. Here too is an image of Envo 
y the sons of Praxiteles. And roaiiii_Lhje_teiaplfi_are 
atatflea, of Hercules, and Theseus, and Apollo with his long 
hair in a fillet : and statues of Calades, who was a legis- 
lator of the Athenians according to tradition, and of Pindar, 
who amongst other honour obtained this statue from the 
Athenians because he praised them in an Ode. And at no 
great distance are statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, 
the murderers of Hipparchus : the motive and manner of 
this murder has been told by others. And of these statues 
some are by Critias, but the oldest ones by Antenor. And 
although Xerxes when he captured Athens, (the Athenians 
having left the city), took them off as booty, Antiochus sent 
them back afterwards to the Athenians. 

And in the t heatge . which they call Odeu m, there are 
statoea^ifl ^ the e ntrance, of the Egyptian... kings. Their 
names are all Ptolemy alike, bat each has another distin- 
guishing name also. Thus they call one Philometor, and 
another Philadelphus, and the son of Lagus Soter, a name 
the Rhodians gave him. Philadelphus is the one whom 
I have before made mention of as one of the Eponvmi. 
And near him is also a statue of his sister Arsinoe. 



IVTOW the Ptolemy called Philometor is the eighth in 
-'■ ^ descent fi'om Ptolemy the son of Lagus, and he got 
his name in irony ; for none of these kings that -we know 
of was so hated by their mother as he was ; for though he 
was the eldest of her sons she would not allow them to call 
him to the kingdom, but got him banished to Cypras by 
his father previously. N"ow of this dislike of Cleopatra to 
her son they allege other motives, but especially this one, 
that she thought Alexander, the younger of her sons, would 
be more obsequious to her. And therefore she urged the 
Egyptians to choose Alexander for their king. And when 
the people opposed her in this, she sent Alexander to 
Cyprus, nominally as general, but really because she wished 
through him to make herself more formidable to Philo- 
metor. And at last having mutilated those of the eu- 
nuchs whom she thought most friendly, she brought 
them before the populace, and pretended that she was 
plotted against by Philometor, and that the eunuchs had 
been treated in that shameful manner by him. And the 
Alexandrians were eager to kill Philometor, but, as he got 
on shipboard and escaped them, they made Alexander king 
on his return from Cyprus. But Cleopatra was punished 
eventually for her getting Philometor banished by being 
slain by Alexander, whom she had got appointed king over 
the Egyptians. And the crime being detected, and Alex- 
ander fleeing from fear of the citizens, Philometor quietly 
returned from exile and a second time held Egypt, and 
warred against the Thebans who had revolted. And having 
reduced them in the third year after the revolt, he punished 
them so severely that there was no vestige left them of 
their ancient prosperity, which had reached such a pitch 
that they excelled in wealth the wealthiest of the Greeks, 
even the treasures of the temple at Delphi and the Orcho- 
menians. And Philometor not long after meeting the 
common fate, the Athenians who had been well treated by 
him in many respects that I need not enumerate, erected a 
brazen statue both of him and Berenice, his only legitimate 


child. A nH tiPv^ t-n thfi T:pr;qitian Idngra arfi statnes f>f Philip 

and his son Ale^andfii". They performed greater exploits 
^an"to be mere appendages to an account of something 
else. To the other Egyptian kings gifts were given as 
being of real mei"it and benefactors, but to Philip and 
Alexander more, from the flattery of the community towards 
them, for they also honoured I^ysJJQiaclllls by a statue, not so 
much out of good will as thinking him useful under ex- 
isting circumstances. 

Xow this Lysimachus was by birth a Macedonian and 
the ai'mour-bearer of Alexander, whom Alexander once in 
anger shut up in a building with a lion and found him vic- 
torious over the beast. In all other respects he continued 
to admire him. and held him in honour as among the fore- 
most of the Macedonians. And after Alexanders death 
Lysimachus ruled over those Thracians who were contigu- 
ous to the Macedonians, over whom Alexander had ruled, 
and still earlier Philip. And these would be no very great 
portion of Thrace. Now no nations are more populous 
than all the Thracians, except the Celts, if one compares 
one race with another ; and that is why none of the Ro- 
mans ever subdued all Thrace at an earlier period. But all 
Thrace is now subject to the Romans, and as much of the 
Celtic land as they think useless from the excessive cold 
and inferiority of the soil has been purposely overlooked by 
them, but the valuable parts they stick to. Now Lysi- 
machus at this period fought with the Odrysae first of all 
his neighbours, and next went on an expedition against 
Dromichetes and the Getae. And fighting with men not 
inexperienced in war, and in number far superior, he 
himself getting into the greatest danger, fled for his life ; 
and his son Agathocles, now first accompanying his father 
on campaign, was captured by the Get£e. Ajad Lysima- 
chus after this, being unfortunate in battles and being 
greatly concerned at the capture of his son, made a peace 
with Dromichetes, abandoning to Getes his possessions 
across the Ister. and giAring him his daughter in mamage, 
more of necessity than qhoice. But some say that it was 
not Agathocles who was captured, but Lysimachus himself, 
and that he was ransomed by Agathocles negotiating with 
Getes on his account. And when he returned he brought 



with him for Agathocles a wife in Lysandra, the daughter 
of Ptolemy Lagus and Eurydice. And he crossed over into 
Asia Minor in his fleet, and destroyed the rule of Antigo- 
nus. And he built the present city of the Ephesians near 
the sea, bringing into it as settlers Lebedians and Colopho- 
nians, after destroying their cities, so that Phoenix, the 
Iambic writer, laments the capture of Colophon. Her- 
mesianax, the Elegiac writer, could not have lived, it seems 
to me, up to this date ; for else he would surely have 
written an elegy over the capture of Colophon. Lysima- 
chus also waged war against Pyrrhus the son of -^Eacides. 
And watching for his departure from Epirus, as indeed he 
was wandering most of his time, he ravaged all the rest of 
Epirus, and even meddled with the tombs of the kings. I 
can scarce believe it, but Hieronymus of Cardia has recorded 
that Lysimachus took up the tombs of the dead and strewed 
the bones about. But this Hieronymus has the reputation 
even on other grounds of having written with hostility against 
all the kings except Antigonus, and of not having been alto- 
gether just even to him. And in this account of the tombs in 
Epirus he clearly must have invented the calumny, that a 
Macedonian would interfere with the tombs of the dead. And 
besides it appears that Lysimachus did not know that the 
people of Epirus were not only the ancestors of Pyrrhus 
but also of Alexander ; for Alexander was not only a native 
of Epirus, but on his mother's side one of the ^acidee. 
And the subsequent alliance between Pyrrhus and Lysi- 
machus proves that if they did fight together tV.ere was no 
irreconcilable animosity between them. But perhaps Hie- 
ronymus had other causes of complaint against Lysimachus 
besides the chief one that he destroyed the city of Cardia, 
and built instead of it Lysimachia on the Isthmus of the 
Thracian Chersonese. 


NOW as long as Aridseus, and after him Cassander 
and his sons, ruled, there was friendship between 
Lysimachus and the Macedonians ; but when the kingdom 


came to Demetrius the son of Antigonus, then at once 
Lysimachus thought war would be waged against him by 
Demetrius, and preferred to take the initiative himself, 
knowing that it was a family tradition with Demetrius to 
wish to be grasping something, and at the same time ob- 
sei-ving that he had come to Macedonia on being sent for 
by Alexander the son of Cassander, and on his an-ival had 
killed Alexander and taken in his stead the kingdom of the 
Macedonians. For these reasons he fought with Demetrius 
at AmphipoUs and was within an ace of being ejected from 
Thrace, but through the help of Pyrrhus he retained Thrace 
and afterwards ruled the Nestians and Macedonians also. 
But the greater part of Macedonia Pyrrhus kept for himself, 
coming with a force fi'om Epirus and being useful to Lysi- 
machus at that time. But when Demetrius crossed over 
into Asia Minor and fought with Seleucus, as long as the 
fortunes of Demetrius lasted the alHance between Pyrrhus 
and Lysimachus remained unbroken ; but when Demetrius 
got into the power of Seleucus the friendship was dissolved, 
and Lysimachus fought with Antigonus, the son of Deme- 
trius, and with Pyrrhus himself, and was easily victorious 
and got Macedonia and compelled Pyrrhus to return to 
Epirus. Now many misfortunes are wont to come on men 
through love. For Lysimachus being already advanced in 
age, and being reputed fortunate in respect to his offspring, 
and although his son Agathocles had children by Lysandra, 
yet married Arsinoe Lysandi-a's sister. And it is said that 
this Arsinoe, fearing for her children that after the death 
of Lysimachus they would be in the hands of Agathocles, 
for these reasons conspired against Agathocles. And some 
writers have alleged that Arsinoe was violently in love 
with Agathocles, but being disappointed in this plotted 
his death. And they say that afterwards Lysimachus 
came to know of the awful doings of his wife, when it 
was too late to be of any service to him, being entirely 
deprived of his friends. For when Lysimachus permitted 
Arsinoe to put Agathocles to death, Lysandra fled to 
Seleucus, taking with her her sons and brothei*s, and in 
consequence of what had happened they fled for refuge 
to Ptolemy. And these fugitives to the court of Seleu- 
cus were accompanied by Alexander also, the son of 


Lysimachns by his wife Odrysiades. And they, having 
got to Babylon, besought Seleucus to go to war with 
Lysimachns ; and Phileteerns at the same time, who had 
had all the money of Lysimachns entrusted to him, indig- 
nant at the death of Agathocles and thinking the conduct 
of Arsinoe suspicious, occupied Pergamum beyond the river 
Caicus, and sent an envoy and offered himself and his 
money to Seleucus. And Lysimachns, learning all this, 
crossed into Asia Minor forthwith, and himself began the 
war, and encountering Seleucus was badly beaten and him- 
self killed. And Alexander, who was his son by his wife 
Odrysiades, after much entreaty to Lysandra recovered 
his corpse, and subsequently conveyed it to the Chersonnese 
and buried it there, where even now his tomb is to be seen, 
between the village Cardia and Pactye. Such was the fate 
of Lysimachns. 


THE Athenians also have a statuEL-ol _Py rrhus ■ This 
Pyrrhus was only related to Alexander by ancestry. 
For Pyrrhus was the son of ^acides the son of Arybbas, 
whereas Alexander was the son of Olympias the daughter 
of Neoptolemus. Now, Neoptolemus and Arybbas had the 
same father, Alcetas the son of Tharypus. And from 
Tharypus to Pyrrhus, ttie son of Achilles, are fifteen gene- 
rations. For he first, after the capture of Ilium, neglected 
returning home to Thessaly, and removed to Epirus and 
dwelt there in accordance with the oracles of Helenus. 
And he had no son by Hermione, but by Andromache he 
had Molossus and Pielus and the youngest Pergamus. 
And Helenus also had a son Cestrinus by Andromache, 
whom he married after the death of Pyrrhus at Delphi. 
And when Helenus died having handed over the king- 
dom to Molossus the son of Pyrrhus, Cestrinus with the 
Epirotes who volunteered to go with him occcupied the 
region across the river Thyamis, and Pergamus, crossing 
into Asia Minor, killed Arius the king of Teuthrania in single 
combat for the sovereignty of the country, and gave the 


city his own Bame, which it now has. There is also to this 
day a temple of Andromache, who accompanied him, in the 
city. But Pielus remained at home in Epirus, and it was to 
him and not to Molossus that Pyrrhus the son of ^acides 
and his fathers traced np their ancestry. Xow up to the 
days of Alcetas the son of Tharypus Epirus was under one 
king ; but the sons of Alcetas after some quarrelling 
changed the goyemment to an equal share for each, and 
remained loyal to that agreement ; and afterwards Alex- 
ander the son of Neoptolemus died in Lucania, and Olym- 
pias returned to Epirus from fear of Antipater, and 
^acides, the son of Arybbas, in all respects remained loyal 
to Olympias, and eyen joined her in fighting against 
Arideeus and the Macedonians, though the people of Epirus 
were unwilling to enter into it. But as Olympias, when 
she conquered, had acted infamously in connection with 
the death of Aridaeus, and far more so to the Macedonians, 
and consequently was thought afterwards to have only met 
with her desei'ts from Cassander, the Epirotes would not 
receive -^acides for a time owing to their hostility against 
Olympias ; and when he obtained pardon from them some 
time after Cassander again prevented his return to Epirus. 
And a battle being fought between Philip (the brother of 
Cassander) and ^acides at CEnidte, ^acides was wounded 
and died no long time after. And the people of Epinis 
made Alcetas king, the son of Arybbas and elder brother 
of ^acides, a man on previous occasions of ungovernable 
temper, and for that very reason banished by his father. 
And now on his arrival he immediately so madly raged 
against the people of Epirus, that they rose up against him 
by night and killed him and his sons. And when they had 
killed him they brought back fi'om exile Pyrrhus the son 
of -^acides. And immediately on his arrival Cassander 
marched against him, as being young and not firmly estab- 
lished in the sovereignty. But Pyrrhus, on the invasion of 
the Macedonians, went to Egypt to Ptolemy the son of 
Lagus ; and Ptolemy gave him as wife the uterine sister of 
his own children, and restored him with a force of Egyp- 
tians. And Pyrrhus, on becoming king, attacked the 
Corcyraeans first of the Greeks, seeing that the island of 
Corcyra lay opposite to his own territory, and not wishing 


it to be a base for operations against him. And after the 
capture of Corcyra all the defeats he met with fighting 
against Ly simachus, and how after he had driven Demetrius 
out of Macedonia he ruled there until he in turn was ejected 
by Lysimachus, — all these, the most important events 
at that time in Pyrrhus' life, have been already narrated 
by me in connection with Lysimachus. And we know of 
no Greek before Pyrrhus that warred with the Romans. 
For there is no record of any engagement between ^neas 
and Diomede and the Argives with him ; and the Athenians, 
who were very ambitious and desired to reduce all Italy, 
were prevented by the disaster at Syracuse from attacking 
the Romans ; and Alexander the son of Neoptolemus, of 
the same race as Pyrrhus but older in age, was prevented 
by his death in Lucania from coming to blows with the 


SO Pyrrhus is the first that crossed the Ionian Sea from 
Greece to fight against the Romans. And he crossed 
at the invitation of the people of Tarentum, who had 
had earlier than this a war of long standing with the 
Romans : and being unable to resist them by themselves, 
(and they had already done services to Pyrrhus, for they 
bad aided him with their fleet when he was warring against 
Corcyra), their envoys won Pyrrhus over, giving him to 
understand that it would be for the happiness of all Greece, 
and that it would not be honourable for him to leave them 
in the lurch, inasmuch as they were friends and on the 
present occasion suppliants. And as the envoys urged 
these things, the remembrance of the capture of Ilium 
came to Pyrrhus, and he hoped the same would happen to 
him : for he, a descendant of Achilles, would be warring 
against colonies of Trojans. And as the idea pleased him, 
(and he was not the man to loiter at anything he had a 
mind for), he forthwith equipped men-of-war and transports 
and got ready cavalry and infantry to take with him. Now, 


there are some books -written by men not remarkable for his- 
torical power still extant, called Commentaries of Events. 
As often as I read them I am inclined to marvel, not only 
at the daring of Pyrrhus which he displayed in action, but 
also at the forethought which he always exhibited. On this 
occasion he crossed over into Italy in his ships nnbeknown 
to the Romans, and his arrival was unknown to them until, 
(an attack being made by them upon the people of Taren- 
tnm), he first showed himself at the head of his army, and, 
attacking them contrary to their expectation, threw them 
into confusion as was only likely. And, knowing full well 
that he was not a match for the Romans in fighting, 
he contrived to let loose elephants upon them. Xow Alex- 
ander was the first European who had elephants, after the 
conquest of Porus and India : and on his death other 
European kings had them, and Antigonus a very large 
quantity of them : and the elephants of Pyrrhus were cap- 
tured by him in the battle with Demetrius. And now on 
their appearance a panic seized the Romans, who thought 
they were something superhuman. For the use of ivory 
indeed all nations have clearly known from the earliest 
times ; but the animals themselves, until the Macedonians 
crossed into Asia, no nations had seen at all except the 
Indians and Libyans and the adjacent nations. And Homer 
proves this, who has represented the beds and houses of the 
wealthier of the kings as decked with ivory, but has made 
no mention whatever of the elephant. And if he had seen 
or heard of them he would, I think, have recorded them 
rather than the battle of the Pygmies and cranes. Pyrrhus 
was also invited into Sicdy by an embassy of Syracusans. 
For the Carthaginians used to cross over and take the 
Greek cities in Sicily, and Syracuse the only one left thev 
were blockading and besieging. And Pyrrhus, hearing this 
from the envoys, left Tarentum and the Italians thatdweit 
on the headland, and crossed over into Sicily and compelled 
the Carthaginians to raise the siege. And, having over- 
weening self-confidence, he was elated to fight on sea against 
the Carthaginians, (who were the greatest maritime nation 
of all the barbarians of that day, having been originally 
Tyrians and Phoenicians), with the natives of Epirus only, 
who even after the capture of Ilium were most of them 


unacquainted with the sea, and knew not the use of salt. 
As that line of Homer, in the " Odyssey," bears me out : 

" Men who know not the sea, nor eat food seasoned with salt." ^ 


THEN Pyrrhus, after his defeat, sailed for Tarentum 
with the remnant of his fleet. There his fortunes suf- 
fered great reverses, and he contrived his flight in the 
following manner, (for he knew that the Romans would not 
let him go scot-free). On his return from Sicily he first 
sent letters everywhere to Asia Minor and Antigonus, ask- 
ing for soldiers from some of the kings and for money 
from others, and for both from Antigonus. And when 
the messengers returned and their letters were given to 
him, he called together a council of the chief men of 
Epirus and Tarentum, and read none of the letters which 
he had with him but mei'ely said that aid would come. 
And quickly a report spread among the Romans, that the 
Macedonians and other tribes of Asia Minor were goinc 
to come over to the help of Pyri'hus. So the Romans 
when they heard this remained quiet, and Pyrrhus under 
the shelter of the next night crossed over to the moun- 
tains which they call Ceraunia. And after this reverse 
in Italy he remained quiet with his forces for some time, 
and then proclaimed war against Antigonus, bringing 
other charges against him but mainly because he had 
failed to bring reinforcements to Italy. And having beaten 
Antigonus' own troops, and the foreign contingent with 
him of the Galati, he pursued them to the maritime cities, 
and became master of Upper Macedonia and Thessaly. 
And the greatness of the battle and the magnitude of 
Pyrrhus' victory are shown by the arms of the Gralati hung 
up in the temple of Athene Itonia between Pherae and La- 
rissa, and the inscription on them is as follows : 

" Molossian Pyrrhus hung up these shields of the brave 
Galati to Itonian Athene, when he had destroyed all the 
1 Odyssey, xi., 122, 123. 

BOOK I. — ^ATTICA. 25 

host of Antigonus. No great wonder. The ^acidae are 
vrarriors now as formerly." 

The shields of the Galati he put here, but those of the 
Macedonians he hung up to Zeus of the Macedonians at 
Dodona. And the following is the inscription on them : 

'• These formerly ravaged the wealthy Asian territory. 
These also brought slavery to the Greeks ; 
But now hang up on the pillars in the house of Zeos 
The spoils snatched firom boasting Macedonia." 

But Pvrrhus was prevented from overthrowing the Mace- 
donians entirely, though he came within an ace of it, and 
was only too ready always to seize whatever was at his feet, 
bv Cleonymus. Xow this Cleonymus, who had persuaded 
Pyrrhus to leave Macedonia and come to the Peloponnese, 
although a Lacedemonian led a hostile force into the terri- 
tory of the Lacedemonians, for the reason which I shall 
give after his pedigree. Pausanias that led the Greeks at 
Platfea had a son Pleistoanax, and he a son Pausanias, and 
he a son Cleombrotus, who fought against Epaminondas and 
the Thebans, and was killed at Leuctra. And Cleombrotus 
had two sons Agesipolis and Cleomenes, and the former 
dying childless Cleomenes had the kingdom. And he had 
two sons, the elder Acrotatus and the yotmger Cleonymtis. 
And Acrotatus dying first and after him Cleomenes, there 
was a dispute who should be king between Acrotatus' son, 
Areus, and Cleonymus. And Cleonymtis. determined to 
get the kingdom whether or no, called in Pyrrhus into the 
country. And the Lacedemonians before Leuctra had met 
with no reverse, so that they wotild not admit they could 
be conquered by a land army : for in the case of Leonidas 
they said his followers were not sufficient to completely 
destroy the Persians, and as for the exploit of Demos- 
thenes and the Athenians at the island of Sphacteria, they 
said that was a fluke of war and not a genuine victory. 
But after their first reverse in Boeotia, they had a second 
severe one with Antipater and the ^Macedonians : and thirdly 
the war with Demetrius came on the land as an unexpected 
evil. And when fourthly Pyrrhus invaded them, when 
they saw the enemy's army, they drew up in battle array 
together with their allies from Argfos and Messene. And 


Pyrrhus conquered and was within an ace of taking Sparta 
at the first assault ; but after having ravaged their terri- 
tory and got much booty he rested for awhile. And the 
Spartans prepared for a siege, Sparta even before in the war 
with Demetrius having been fortified by deep trenches and 
strong palisades, and in the weakest parts by special works. 
And during this time and the long Laconian war Antigo- 
nus having fortified the towns of the Macedonians pressed 
into the Peloponnesse, perceiving that Pyrrhus, if he should 
subdue Sparta and most of the Peloponnese, would not go 
into Epirus, but into Macedonia again and to the war sure to 
come there. And when Antigonus was intending to move 
his army from Argos into Spartan territory, Pyrrhus himself 
had arrived at Argos. And, being victorious, he followed 
the fugitives and entered the city with them, and, as was 
likely, his army dispersed into all quarters of the city. And 
as they were fighting in the temples and houses and alleys 
and in all parts of the city promiscuously, Pyrrhus was left 
all alone and got wounded in the head. They say Pyrrhus 
was killed by a tile thrown by a woman : but the Argives say 
it was not a woman that slew him, but Demeter in the form 
of a woman. This is the account which the Argives them- 
selves give of the death of Pyrrhus ; this is also what Lyceas, 
the expounder of his country's usages, has written in his 
verses. And on the spot where Pyrrhus died was erected a 
temple to Demeter in accordance with the oracle of the god : 
and in it was Pyrrhus buried. I am astonished that of all 
those who were called ^acidoe their end happened in the 
same supernatural manner, since Homer .says Achilles was 
slain by Alexander the son of Priam and by Apollo ; and 
Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, was ordered to be slain by the 
Pythian oracle at Delphi ; and this son of ^acides met his 
fate as has been recorded by the Argives and sung by 
Lyceas. And yet this is different to the account given by 
Hieronymus of Cardia : for one that lives with a king must 
needs write history like a courtier. And if Philistus, 
hoping for a return to Syracuse, was justified in concealing 
the most flagitious acts of Dionysius, then Hieronymus, I 
ween, had good excuse for writing to please Antigonus. 
Such was the end of the glory of Epirus. 



AND as one enters the Odeom at Athens, there is a Dio- 
nysus an d oth er things worth seeing. And nnnr is a 
SjP ring called the Ninf^ Spr ino-s coustructed so bv Pisistratns; 
for th^Tp a.rft wqlla all over iho city but tliis ii the only. 
springs And two te mples have becu built over the spring, 
one to Demeter and the other to Proserpine; in_Qrie of them 
is a statne-to Triptolemus, about whom I will record the 
traditions, omitting what is said about Deiope. Now the 
Argives are those of the Grreeks who chiefly dispute with 
the Athenians their rival claims to antiquity, and assert 
that they have received gifts from the gods, just as among 
the barbarians the Egyptians have similar disputes with 
the Phrygians. The story goes then that when Demeter 
came to Argos Pelasgus received her into his house, and 
that Chrysanthis, knowing of the rape of Proserpine, in- 
formed her of it : and afterwards Trochilus the initiating 
priest fled they say from Argos in consequence of the 
hatred of Agenor, and came to Attica, and there married a 
wife from Eleusis, and had children by her, Eubnles and 
Triptolemus. This is the account of the Argives. But 
the Athenians and neighbouring tribes know that Triptole- 
mus, the son of Celens, was the first who sowed com in the 
fields. And it is sung by Musteus, (if indeed the lines are 
by Musjeus), that Triptolemus was the son of Ocean and 
Earth, and it is sung by Orpheus, (if these lines again are 
by Orpheus, which I doubt), that Dy sanies was the father 
of Eubules and Triptolemus, and that Demeter taught them 
how to sow corn because they had given her information 
about the rape of her daughter. But the Athenian Choeri- 
1ns, in the play called 'Alope," says that Cercyon and Trip- 
tolemus were brothers, that their mother was a daughter of 
Amphictyon, and that the father of Triptolemus was Rharus, 
and the father of Cercyon Poseidon. And as I was intend- 
ing to go further into the account, and narrate all thins^s 
appertaining to the temple at Athens called the Eleusinium, 
a vision in the night checked me : but what it is lawful for 
me to write for everybody, to this I will turn. In front o f 


thisjeniple, where is also a statue of Triptolemus, there is- 
a brazejQ. bull being led to sacrifice, and Epimenides the 
Gnossian is pdurtrayed in a sitting posture, who is recorded 
to have gone into a field and entered into a cave and slept 
there, and woke not from that sleep till forty years had 
rolled by, and afterwards wrote epic poems and visited 
Athens and other cities. And Thales, who stopped the 
plague at Lacedemon, was no relation of his, nor of the 
same city as Epimenides : for the latter was a Gnossian, 
whereas Thales is declared to have been a Gortynian by the 
Colyphonian Polymnastus, who wrote a poem on him for 
the Lacedemonians. And a little further is the temple of 
Enclea^_(]J'<iir_Fa'rrke}j^ a votive offering for the victory over 
the Persians at Marathon. And I think the Athenians 
prided themselves not a little on this victory : ^schylus, at 
any rate, on his deathbed, remembered none of his other 
exploits, though he was so remarkable as a Dramatist and 
had fought both at Artemisium and Salamis : and he wrote 
in the Poem he then composed his own name and the name 
of his city, and that he had as witnesses of his prowess the 
grove at Marathon and the Persians who landed there. 

And beyoud-theUCfiramicus and the portico called The 
Royal Portico is a temple of Hephaestus, and that a 
statue of Athene was placed in it I was not at all sur- 
prised at when I remembered the story about Erichthonius. 
But seeing that the statue of Athene had grey eyes, I 
found that this was a legend of the Libyans, who record 
that she was the daughter of Poseidon and the Tritonian 
Marsh, and that therefore her eyes were grey as those of 
Poseidon. And near is a temple of Celestial Aphrodite, 
who was first worshipped by the Assyrians, and after them 
by the Paphians of Cyprus, and by the Phoenicians who 
dwell at Ascalon in Palestine. And from the Phoenicians 
the people of Cythera learned her worshijj. And among 
the Athenians her worship was instituted by -^geus, think- 
ing that he had no children, (for he had none then), and 
that his sisters were unfortunate, owing to the wrath of the 
Celestial One. And lier statue is still among us of Parian 
stone, the design pf Phidias. And the Athenians have a 
township of the Athmoneans, who say that Porphyrion, who 
reigned even before Actoens, erected among them a temple 


to the Celestial Aphrodite. But the traditions of townships 
and the dwellers in cities are widely different. 


AND ag^nnq goes into the portico, which they call The 
Painted Chamber from the paintings, there is a brazen 
statue of Her mes bf _the Market- Place, and a gate near, and 
by it is a trophy of the Athenians who overcame Plistar- 
chus in a cavalry engagement, who, being the brother of 
Cassander, had brought his cavalry and a foreign force 
against them. Now. this portico has first the Athenians 
drawn up in battle array, at (Enoe in Argive territory, 
against the Lacedemonians : and it is painted not in the 
height of the action, nor when the time had come for the 
display of reckless valour in the heady fight, but at the 
commencement of the engagement, and when they were 
just coming to blows. And in the middle of the walls are 
painted the Athenians and Theseus fighting with the Ama- 
zons. Now these are the only women as it seems from 
whom reverses in war did not take away a relish for danger; 
for after the cfipture of Themiscyi-a by Hercules, and later 
on after the destruction of the army which they sent against 
Athens, they yet went to Ilium and fought with the Athe- 
nians and other Greeks. And next to the Amazons you 
may see painted the Greeks at the capture of Ilium, and 
the kings gathered together on account of Ajax's violence 
to Cassandra : and the painting has Ajax himself, and 
Cassandra among the other captive women. And at the 
end of the painting are the Greeks that fought at Marathon, 
of the Boeotians the Platseans, and all the Attic contingent 
are marching against the barbarians. And in this part of 
the painting the valour is equal on both sides, but in the 
middle of the battle the barbarians are fleeing and pushing 
one another into the marsh. And at the end of this paint- 
ing are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks slaying the 
barbarians who are trying to get on board. Here too is a 
painting of the hero Marathon from whom the plain is 
named, and Theseus in the guise of putting out to sea. and 


Athene and Hercules : for by the people of Marathon first, 
as they themselves allege, was Hercules considered a god. 
And of the combatants there stand out most plainly in the 
painting Callimachus, who was chosen by the Athenians as 
Polemarch, and Miltiades, one of the generals, and the hero 
who was called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention 
hereafter. Here also are fixed up brazen shields, and these 
have an inscription that they are from the Scionaeans and 
their allies, and others smeared over with pitch, that neither 
time nor rust should hurt them, are said to have belonged 
to the Lacedemonians who were captured in the island of 


AND before-ihe portico are brazen statues of Solon, the 
Athenian legislator, and a little further Seleucus^to 
whom came beforehand clear indications of his future pro- 
sperity. For when he started from Macedonia with Alex- 
ander, as he was sacrificing to Zeus at Fella, the wood laid 
on the altar moved to the statue of the god of its own 
accord, and burst into a blaze without fire. And on the 
death of Alexander Seleucus, fearing the arrival of Anti- 
gonus at Babylon, fled to Ptolemy the son of Lagus, but 
returned some time after to Babylon, and on his return de- 
feated the army of Antigonus and slew Antigonus himself, 
and afterwards captured Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, 
who came against him with an army. And as all these 
things succeeded with him, and not long after the power 
of Lysimachus collapsed, he handed over all his power in 
Asia Minor to his son Antiochus, and himself hurried into 
Macedonia, and took with him an army of Greeks and bar- 
barians. But Ptolemy the brother of Lysandra, who had 
fled to Seleucus from Lysimachus, and who was generally 
speaking a very bold and daring fellow and on that account 
called Lightning, when the army of Seleucus reached 
Lysimachia privately slew Seleucus, and, allowing the 
other kings to take Seleucus' money, became king of Ma- 
cedonia, until venturing first of all the kings we know to 
fight against the Galati, he was killed by the barbarians. 


and Antigonus the son of Demetrius recovered the kingdom. 
And Seleucus, I am persuaded, was an especially upright 
king, pious and religious. I infer this partly because he re- 
stored to the ^lilesians at Branchidae the brazen Apollo, that 
had been carried away to Ecbatana in Persia by Xerxes ; 
and partly because, when he built Seleucia on the river Tigris 
and introduced Babylonians to dwell there, he destroyed 
neither the wall of Babylon nor the temple of Bel, but 
allowed the Chaldfeans to dwell in its vicinitv. 


AXD the Athenians have in the market -pl ace among 
other things not universally notable an altaiLQfJ/ercj/, 
to whom, though most useful of all the gods to the life of 
man and its vissitudes, the Athenians alone of all the 
Greeks assign honours. And not only is philanthropy 
more regarded among them, but they also exhibit more 
piety to the gods than others. For they have also an altar - 
fn f>h>ij,ip ^ and RujujLii'.r, and Energy. And it is clear that 
those people who have a larger share of piety than others 
have also a larger share of good fortune. And in the gym- 
nn"^inp]„nf thr mnrkot plncf, which is nnj far off and is 
called after Ptolemy because he established it, are HermaB 
in stone worth seeing, and a brazen statue^ Ptolemy ; 
and the Libyan__Juba is here, and Chrysippits of Soli. 
And nea r the jsymnasium is a. ter^p lp "f Tht^aong^ where 
are paintings of the Athenians figh.ting against the Ama- 
zons. And this war has also been represented on the shield 
of Athene, and on the base of Olympian Zeus. And in the 
temple of Theseus is also painted the fight between the 
Centaurs and Lapithae. Theseus is represented as just 
having slain a Centaur, but with all the rest in the picture 
the fight seems to be on equal terms. But the painting on 
the third wall is not clear to those who do not know the 
story, partly as the painting has faded from age, partly 
because Micon has not pourtrayed the whole story. When 
Minos took Theseus and the rest of the band of boys to 
Crete, he was enamoured of PeribcBa, and when Theseus 


was very opposed to this, he in his rage among other sar- 
casms that he hurled against him said that he was not the 
son of Poseidon, for if he threw the ring which he chanced 
to be wearing into the sea he could not get it again, Minos 
is said at once to have thrown the ring into the sea when 
he had said this. And they say that Theseus jumped into 
the sea and came up with the ring and a golden crown, the 
gift of Amphitrite. And as to the death of Theseus many 
varying accounts have been given. For they say that he 
was once bound by Pluto until he was liberated by Her- 
cules. But the most credible account I have heard is that 
Theseus having invaded Thesprotia, intending to carry off 
the wife of the king of the country, lost the greater part of 
his army, and himself and Pirithous were taken prisoners, 
(for Pirithous also came on the expedition marriage-hunt- 
ing), and confined by the king of Thesprotia at Cichyrus. 

Now among other things worth seeing in Thesprotia are 
the temple of Zeus at Dodona, and a beech-tree sacred to 
to the god. And near Cichyrus there is a marsh called 
Acherusia and the river Acheron, and there too flows 
Cocytus with most unpleasant stream. And I fancy that 
Homer, having seen these, ventured to introduce them in his 
account of the rivers of Hades, and to borrow his names 
from these rivers in Thesprotia. However that may be, 
Theseus being detained there, the sons of Tyndarus led an 
expedition to Aphidna, and captured it, and restored Menes- 
theus to the kingdom. And Menestheus paid no attention 
to the sons of Theseus, who had gone to Euboea for shelter 
to Elephenor ; but as to Theseus himself, thinking he would 
be a dangerous adversary if ever he returned from Thes- 
protia, he coaxed the people so that if Theseus ever re- 
turned he would be sent back again. Accordingly Theseus 
was sent to Crete to Deucalion, and being carried out of 
his way by storms to the island Scyrus, the Scyrians gave 
him a brilliant reception, both for the splendour of his race 
and the renown of his exploits ; and it was owing to this 
that Lycomedes planned his death. And the shrine of 
Theseus at Athens was after the time that the Persians 
were at Marathon, for it was Miltiades' son, Cimon, that 
drove out the inhabitants of Scyrus to revenge the hero's 
death, and that conveyed his bones to Athens. 

BOOK I. — imcA. 33 


NOW the tem ple of the_^Diosc uri is ancient ; they are 
designed standing, an3~TEeir~st>ns seated on horse- 
back. Here too is a painting by Polygnotus of the marriage 
of the daughters of Leacippus, and by !Micon of the Argo- 
nauts who sailed with Jason to Colchi: in this painting 
Acastus and his horses stand out remarkably well. And 
ahnTP_thg_tpmp1e "f t^^ T^'^ffrnri 7gJJTA_ grove of Aglanms, 
to whom and to her sisters Herse and Pandrosus they say 
Athene gave Erichthonius, after putting him in a chest 
and forbidding them to pry into the contents. Pandrosus 
they say obeyed, but the other two opened the chest, and 
went mad when they saw Erichthonius, and threw themselves 
down the Acropolis at the very steepest place. It was on that 
very spot that the Persians landed, and slew those Athenians 
who thought they understood the oracle better than Themis- 
tocles, and fortified the Acropolis with wooden palisades. 
And next is the Prytaneum, where the laws of Solon are 
written up, and where are images of the goddesses Peace 
and Yesta, and among other statues one to Autolycus the 
pancratiast ; for ^Miltiades and Themistocles have been re- 
moYed for a Roman and a Thracian ! As one goes thence 
to the lower parts of the city is the temple of Serapis, whose 
worship the Athenians introduced to please Ptolemy. Of 
the Egyptian temples to Serapis the most famous is that 
at Alexandria, but the oldest is that at Memphis, into which 
strangers may not enter, nor even priests except during 
the ritual in connection with Apis. And not far from 
the temple of Serapis is the place where they say Pirithous 
and Theseus agreed to go to Lacedsemon, and afterwards 
to Thesprotia. And next is a temple erected to liitLyia, 
who they say came from the Hyperborean regions to 
assist Leto in her travail-throes, and of whom other 
nations learnt from the people of Delos, who sacrifice to 
her and sing at her altar the Hymn of Olen. But the 
Cretans consider her to have been bom at Amnisus in 
Gnossian territory, and to have been the daughter of Hera. 
And among the Athenians alone her statues are draped to 
the bottom of her feet. Two of her statues the women 


said were Cretan and votive offerings of Phasdra, while the 
oldest was brought by Erysichthon fi-om Delos. 

And before going into the t empl e of Olympian Zeus — 
which Adrian the Roman Emperor l)uiTfc7and iu'which he 
placed that remarkable statue of Olympian Zeus (larger 
than any works of art except the Colossusses at Rhodes 
and Rome) ; it is in ivory and gold, and elegant if you 
consider the size — are two statues of Adrian in Thasian 
stone, and two in Egyptian stone : and brazen statues 
in front of the pillars of what the Athenians call their 
colonial cities. The whole circuit of the temple is about 
four stades, and is full of statues ; for from each city is a 
statue of the Emperor Adrian, and the Athenians outdid 
them by the very fine colossal statue of the Emperor 
which they erected at the back of the temple. And in the 
temple precincts is an ancient statue of Zeus in brass 
and a shrine of Cronos and Rhea, and a grove to Earth 
by the title of Olympian. Here there is about a cubit's 
subsidence of soil, and they say that after Deucalion's flood 
the water came in and escaped there, and they knead every 
year a cake of barley meal with honey and throw it into 
the cavity. And there is on a pillar a statue of Isocrates, 
who left behind him 3 notable examples, his industry 
(for though he lived to the age of 98 he never left off 
taking pupils), his wisdom (for all his life he kept aloof 
from politics and public business), and his love of liberty 
(for after the news of the battle of Chaeronea he pined 
away and died of voluntary starvation). And there are 
some Persians in stone holding up a brazen tripod, both 
themselves and the tripod fine works of art. And they 
say that Deucalion built the old temple of Olympian Zeus, 
bringing as evidence that Deucalion lived at Athens his 
tomb not far from this very temple. Adrian erected also 
at Athens a temple of Hera and Pan-Hellenian Zeus, and 
a temple for all the gods in common. But the most remark- 
able things are 100 pillars wrought in Phrygian stone, and 
the walls in the porticoes corresponding. And there is a room.- 
here with a roof of gold and alabaster stone, adorned also 
with statues and paintings : and books are stored up in it. 
And there is a gymnasium called the Adrian gymnasium : 
and here too are 100 pillars of stone from Libyan quarries. 



AND next to the temple of Olympian Zeus is a statue 
of _Pytbiaii Apollo, as also a templeofPelph ian Apollo ". 
And they say that, when this temple was completed except 
the roof, Theseus came to the city incognito. And having 
a long garment down to his feet and his hair being 
elegantly plaited, when he came near this temple, those 
who were building the roof asked him jeeringly why a 
maiden ripe for marriage was wandering about alone. 
And his only answer was. it is said, unyoking the oxen 
from the waggon which stood by, and throwing it in the 
air higher than the roof they were building. And with 
respect to the place that they call The Gardens, aad the 
tem^le__o£ Apheodite, there is no account given by the 
Athenians, nor in respect to the statue of Aphrodite which 
stands next the temple, and is square like the Hermae, and 
the inscription declares that Celestial Aphrodite is the oldest 
of those that are called Fates. The statue of Aphi"odite 
in The Gardens is the work of Alcamenes, and is among 
the few things at Athens best worth seeing. There is also 
a tenipl£_fif_Hgrcules called Cynosarges: (i.e., of the u'hite 
dog) ; the history of the white dog may be learnt by those 
who have read the oracle. And there are altar&txuHer- 
cnles_and.-Hebe, (the daughter of Zeus), who, they think, 
was married to Hercules. There is also an altar^of Alc- 
mene and lolaus, who was associated with Hercules in 
most of his Labours. And the Lyceum gets its name 
from Lycus the son of Pandion, but is now as of old 
considered a temple of Apollo, for Apollo was here called 
Lyceus originally. And it is also said that the natives of 
Termilae, where Lycus went when he fled from ^geus, are 
called Lycians from the same Lycus. And behind the 
Lyceum is the tomb of Nisus who was king of Megara 
and slain by Minos, and the Athenians brought his corpse 
here and buried it. About this Nisus there is a stoiy that 
he had purple hair, and that the oracle said he would die if 
it was shorn off. And when the Cretans came into the 
land, they took all the other cities of Megaris by storm, but 


had to blockade Nisaea, into which Nisus had fled for refuge. 
And here they say the daughter of Nisus, who was ena- 
moured of Minos, cut ofi her father's locks. This is the 
story. Now the rivers of Attica are the Ilissus and the 
Eridanus_ that flows into it, having the same name as the 
Celtic Eridanus. The Ilissus is the river where they say 
Orithyia was playing when carried off by the North Wind, 
who married her, and because of his afiinity with the 
Athenians aided them and destroyed many of the bar- 
barians' ships. And the Athenians think the Ilissus 
sacred to several gods, • and there is an altar also on its 
banks to the Muses. The place is also slGe^wn where the 
Peloponnesians slew Codrus, the son of Melanthus, the 
king of Athens. After you cross the Ilissus is a place 
called Agree, and a temple of Artemis Agrotera, {The 
Huntress), for here they say Artemis first hunted on her 
arrival from Delos: accordingly her statue has a bow. 
And what is hardly credible to hear, but wonderful to 
see, is a stadium of .^.white-.^iaj:ble ; one can easily conjec- 
ture its size in the following manner. Above the Ilissus is 
a hill, and this stadium extends from the river to the 
hill in a crescent-shaped form. It was built by Herodes 
an Athenian, and most of the Pentelican quarry was used 
in its construction. 


NOW there is a way from the Prytaneum called The 
Tripods, so called from some large temples of the gods 
there and some brazen tripods in them, which contain 
many works of art especially worthy of mention. For 
there is a Satyr on which Praxiteles is said to have prided 
himself very much : and when Phryne once asked which 
was the finest" of his works, they say that he offered to give 
it her like a lover, but would not say which he thought his 
finest work. A servant of Phryne at this moment ran up, 
and said that most of Praxiteles' works were destroyed by 
a sudden fire that had seized the building where they were, 
but that they were not all burnt, Pr£i.xiteles at once rushed 


out of doors, and said he had nothing to show for all his 
labour, if the flames had consumed his Satyr and Cupid. 
Phrjne then bade him stay and be of good cheer, for he 
had suffered no such loss, but it was only her artifice to 
make him confess which were his finest works. She then 
selected the Cupid. And in the neighbouring temple is 
a boy Satyr handing a cup to Dionysus. And there is 
a painting by Thymilus of Cupid standing near Dionysus. 
But the— mQgt__ancient temple— oJLJlLQix ysus i s at the 
theatre. And insidethe sacred precincts are two shrines 
ofTJionysus and two statues of him, one by Eleuthereus, 
and one by Alcamenes in ivory and gold. There is a 
painting also of Dionysus taking Hephaestus to Heaven. 
And this is the story the Greeks tell. Hera exposed 
Hephaestus on his birth, and he nursing up his grievance 
against her sent her as a gift a golden seat with invisible 
bonds, so that when she sat in it she was a prisoner, and 
Hephaestus would not obey any of the gods, and Dionysus, 
whose relations with Hephaestus were always good, made 
him drunk and took him to Heaven. There are paintings 
also of Pentheus and Lycurgus paying the penalty for 
their insults to Dionysus, and of Ariadne asleep, The- 
seus putting out to sea, and Dionysus coming to carry 
her off. And there is near the temple of Dionysus and 
the theatre a work of ait, said to have been designed 
in imitation of Xerxes' tent. It is a cojjy, for the 
original one was burnt by Sulla the Roman general when 
he took Athens. And this is how the war came about. 
Mithridates was king of the barbarians in the neighbourhood 
of the Euxine Sea. Now his pretext for fighting against 
the Romans, and how he crossed into Asia, and the 
cities he reduced by war or won over by diplomacy, let 
those who wish to know the whole history of Mithridates 
concern themselves about all this : I shall merely relate the 
circumstances attending the capture of Athens. There was 
an Athenian called Aristion, whom Mithridates employed 
as ambassador to the Greek States : he persuaded the Athe- 
nians to prefer the friendship of Mithridates to that of the 
Romans. However he persuaded only the democracy and 
the fiercer spirits, for as to the more respectable Athenians 
they of their own accord joined the Romans. And in the 


battle that ensued the Romans were easily victorious, and 
pursued Aristion and the fleeing Athenians to the city, 
and Archelaus and the barbarians to the Piraeus. Now 
Arcbelaus was the general of Mithridates, whom before this 
the Magnesians who inhabit Sipylus wounded, as he was 
ravaging their territory, and killed many of the barbarians. 
So Athens was blockaded, and Taxilus another general of 
Mithridates happened to be investing Elatea in the Phocian 
district, but when tidings of this came to him he withdrew 
his forces into Attica. And the Roman general learning 
this left part of his army to continue the siege of Athens, 
but himself went with the greater part of his force to en- 
counter Taxilus in Boeotia. And the third day after news 
came to both the Roman camps, to Sulla that the walls at 
Athens had been carried, and to the force besieging Athens 
that Taxilus had been defeated at Chseronea. And when 
Sulla returned to Attica, he shut up in the Ceramicus all 
his Athenian adversaries, and ordered them to be deci- 
mated by lot. And Sulla's rage against the Athenians not 
a whit relaxing, some of them secretly went to Delphi : 
and when they enquired if it was absolutely fated that 
Athens should be desti'oyed, the Pythian priestess gave 
them an oracular response about the bladder.' And Sulla 
after this had the same complaint with which I learn Phere- 
cydes the Syrian was visited. ^ And the conduct of Sulla 
to most of the Athenians was more savage than one would 
have expected from a Roman : but I do not consider this 
the cause of his malady, but the wrath of Zeus the God 
of Suppliants, because when Aristion fle.d for refuge to the 
temple of Athene he tore him away and put him to death. 
Athens being thus injured by the war with the Romans 
flourished again when Adrian was Emperor. 


NOW the Athenians have statues in the theatre of their 
tragic and comic dramatists, mostly mediocrities, for 
except Menander there is no Comedian of first-rate powers, 

^ See Plutarch's " Life of Theseus." 


and Euripides and Sophocles are the great lights of Tragedy, 
And the story goes that after the death of Sophocles the 
Lacedaemonians made an incursion into Attica, and their 
leader saw in a dream Dionysus standing by him, and bid- 
ding him honour the new Siren with all the honours paid 
to the dead : and the dream seemed manifestly to refer to 
Sophocles and his plays. And even now the Athenians are 
vfont to compare the persuasiveness of his poetry and dis- 
courses to a Siren's song. And the statue of -,:Eschylus 
was I think completed long after his death, and subse- 
quently to the painting which exhibits the action at Mara- 
thon. And ^schylus used to tell the story that when he 
was quite a lad, he slept in a field watching the grapes, and 
Dionysus appeared to him and bade him write tragedy : and 
when it was day, he wished to obey the god, and found it 
most easy work. This was his own account. And on the 
South Wall, which looks from the Acropolis to the theatre, 
is the golden head of Medusa the Gorgon, with her fegis. 
And at the top of the theatre there is a crevice in the rocks 
up to the Acropolis : and there is a tripod also here. On 
it are pourtrayed Apollo and Artemis carrying off the sons 
of Niobe. I myself saw this Niobe when I ascended the 
mountain Sipylus : the rock and ravine at near view convey 
neither the idea of a woman, nor a woman mourning, but 
at a distance you may fancy to yourself that you see a 
woman all tears and with dejected mien. 

As you go from the theatre to the Acropolis is the 
tomb of Calus. This Calus, his sister's son and art-pupil, 
Daedalus murdered and fled to Crete : and afterwards es- 
caped into Sicily to Cocalus. And the temple, of Macula- 
plus, in regard to the statues of the god and his sons and 
also the paintings, is well worth seeing. And there is mjt_ 
a springiiiL. which they say Halirrhothius the son of Posei- 
don was drowned by Ares for having seduced his daughter, 
and tbis was the first case of trial for murder. Here too 
among other things is a Sarmatic coat of mail : anyone 
looking at it will say that the Sarmatians come not a whit 
behind the Greeks in the arts. For they have neither iron 
that they can dig nor do they import it, for they have less 
idea of barter than any of the barbarians in those parts. 
This deficiency they meet by the following invention. On 


their spears they have bone points instead of iron, and 
bows and arrows of cornel wood, and bone points to their 
arrows : and they throw lassoes at the enemy they meet in 
battle, and gallop away and upset them when they are en- 
tangled in these lassoes. And they make their coats of mail 
in the following manner. Everyone rears a great many 
mares, being as they are a nomadic tribe, the land not 
being divided into private allotments, and indeed growing 
nothing but forest timber. These mares they use not only 
for war, and sacrifice to the gods of the country, but also 
for food. And after getting together a collection of hoofs 
they clean them and cut them in two, and make of them 
something like dragons' scales. And whoever has not seen 
a dragon has at any rate seen a pine nut still green : anyone 
therefore comparing the state of the hoof to the incisions 
apparent on pine nuts would get a good idea of what I mean. 
These they perforate, and having sewn them together with 
ligaments of hoi'ses and oxen make them into coats of mail 
no less handsome and strong than Greek coats of mail : for 
indeed whether they are struck point-blank or shot at they 
are proof. But linen coats of mail are not equally useful 
for combatants, for they admit the keen thrust of steel, but 
are some protection to hunters, for the teeth of lions and 
panthers break off against them. And you may see linen 
coats of mail hung up in other temples and in the Gryneum, 
where is a most beautiful grove of Apollo, where the trees 
both cultivated and wild please equally both nose and eye. 


NEXT to the temple of ^sculapius as you go to the 
Acropolis is the temple of Themis. And before it is 
the sepulchre of Hippolytus. His death they say came to 
him in consequence of the curses of his father. But the story 
of the guilty love of Phaedra, and the bold forwardness of 
her nurse, is well known even to any barbarians who know 
Greek. There is also a tomb of Hippolytus among the 
Traezenians, and their legend is as follows. When Theseus 
intended to ma.rry Phaedra, not wishing if he had children 


by her that Hippolytus should either be their subject or 
king, he sent him to Pittheus, to be brought up at Traszen 
and to be king there. And some time after Pallas and his 
sons revolted against Theseus, and he having slain them 
went to Traezen to be purified of the murder, and there 
Phaedra first saw Hippolytus, and became desperately 
enamoured of him. and (being unsuccessful in her suit) 
contrived his death. And the people of Traezen have a 
myrtle whose leaves are perforated throughout, and they 
say it did not grow like that originally, but was the work 
of Phaedra which she performed in her love-sickness with 
her hairpin. And Theseus established the worship of the 
Pandemian Aphrodite and of Persuasion, when he combined 
the Athenians into one city from several townships. Their 
old statues did not exist in my time : but those in my time 
were by no mean ai'tists. There is also a temple to Earth, 
the Rearer of Children, and to Demeter as Chloe. The 
meaning of these names may be learnt from the priests by 
enquirers. To^he^cropolis there is only one approach : 
it allows of no other, Tieing everywhere precipitous and 
walled off. The vestibules have a roof of white marble, 
and even now are remarkable both for their beauty and 
size. As to the statues of the horsemen I cannot say 
vrith precision, whether they are the sons of Xenophon, 
or merely put there for decoration. On the right of the 
vestibules is the shrine of Wingless Victory. From 
it the sea is visible, and there -i^EIgeus drowned himself as 
they say. For the ship which took his sons to Crete had 
black sails, but Theseus told his father, (for he knew thei*e 
was some peril in attacking the Minotaur), that he would 
have white sails, if he should sail back a conqueror. But 
he forgot this promise in his loss of Ariadne. And ^geus 
seeing the ship with white sails, thinking his son was dead, 
threw himself in and was drowned. And the Athenians 
have a hero-chapel to his memory. And on ^the-left of 
the vestibules is a building with paintings : and among 
those that time has not destroyed are Diomede and Odys- 
seus, the one taking away Philoctetes' bow in Lemnos, the 
other taking the Palladium from Ilium. Among other paint- 
ings here is -Flgisthus being slain by Orestes, and Pylades 
slaying the sons of Xauplius that came to ^gisthus' aid. 


And Polyxena about to have her throat cut near the tomb 
of Achilles. Homer did well not to mention this savage 
act. He also appears to me to have done well, in his ac- 
count of the capture of Scyrus by Achilles, to have said 
not a word about what others relate, of Achilles having 
lived at Scyrus among the maidens, which Polygnotus 
has painted ; who has also painted Odysseus suddenly 
making his appearance as Nausicae and her maids were 
bathing in the river, just as Homer has described it. And 
among other paintings is Alcibiades, and there are traces in 
the painting of the victory of his horses at Nemea. There 
too is Perseus sailing to Seriphus, carrying to Polydectes 
the head of Medusa. But I am not willing to tell the story 
of Medusa under ' Attica.' And, among other paintings, to 
pass over the lad carrying the waterpots, and the wrestler 
painted by Timaenetus, is one of Musseus. I have read 
verses in which it is recorded that Musaeus could fly as 
a gift of Boreas, but it seems to me that Onomacritus 
wrote the lines, and there is nothing certainly of Musaeus' 
composition except the Hymn to Demeter written for 
the Lycomidae. And at_the_entrancfe_to the Acropolis is a 
Hermes, whom they call Propylaeus, and the Graces, which 
they say were the work of Socrates the son of Sophronis- 
cus, whom the Pythian priestess testified to have been the 
wisest of men, a thing which was not said to Anacharsis, 
though he went to Delphi on purpose. 


NOW the Greeks among other things say that they had 
the seven wise men. And among these they include 
the Lesbian tyrant and Periander the son of Cypselus : 
and yet Pisistratus and his son Hippias were far more 
humane and wise than Periander, both in war and in all 
that appertnined to citizen life, until Hippias because of 
the death of Hipparchus acted with great cruelty, especially 
to a woman called Leaen^ (Lioness). For after the death 
of Hipparchus, (I speak now of what has never before been 


recorded in history, but yet is generally believed by the 

Athenians), Hippias tortured her to death, knowing that 
she had been Aristogiton's mistress, and thinking that 
she could not have been ignorant of the plot against Hip- 
parchus. In return for this, when the Pisisti-atidae had 
been deposed from the kingdom, a brazen honess was 
erected by the Athenians to her memory, and near her a 
statue of Aphrodite, which they say was a votive offering 
of Callias, designed by Calamis. 

And next is a brazen statue of Diitrephes pierced with 
arrows. This Diitrephes, among other things which the 
Athenians record, led back the Thracian mercenaries who 
came too late, for Demosthenes had already sailed for Syra- 
cuse. And when he got to the Euripus near Chalcis, and 
opposite Mycalessus in Bceotia, he landed and took Mycal- 
essus : and the Thracians slew not only the fighting 
men, but also the women and children. And this proves 
what I say, that all the cities of the Boeotians, whom the 
Thebans had dispossessed, were inhabited in my time by 
those who had fled at their capture. Therefore if the 
barbarians had not landed and slain all the Mycales- 
sians, those that were left would afterwards have re- 
peopled the city. A very wonderful fact about this 
statue of Diitrephes is that it was pierced with arrows, 
seeing that it was not customary for any Greeks but the 
Cretans to shoot with the bow. For we know that the 
Opuntian Locrians were so armed as- early as the Persian 
war, for Homer described them as coming to Ilium with 
bows and slings. But the use of bows did not long remain 
even with the Malienses : and I think that they did not use 
them before the days of Philoctetes, and soon afterwards 
ceased to use them. And next to Diitrephes, (I shall not 
mention the more obscure images), are some statues of god- 
desses, as Hygiea, (Health), who they say was the dangrhter 
of ^^sculapius, and Athene by the same name of Hygriea. 
And there is a small stone such as a little man can sit on, 
on which they say Silenus rested, when Dionysus came to 
the land. Silenus is the name they give to all old Satyrs. 
About the Satyrs I have conversed with many, wishinsr to 
know all aboot them. And Euphemus a Carian told me 
that sailing once on a time to Italy he was driven out 


of his course bj the winds, and caiTied to a distant sea, 
where people no longer sail. And he said that here were 
many desert islands, some inhabited by wild men : and at 
these islands the sailors did not like to land, as they had 
landed there before and had experience of the natives, but 
they were obliged on that occasion. These islands he said 
were called by the sailors Satyr-islands, the dwellers in 
them were red-haired, and had tails at their loins not much 
smaller than horses. When they perceived the sailors they 
ran down to the ship, spoke not a word, but began to handle 
the women on board. At last the sailors in dire alarm 
landed a barbarian woman on the island : and the Satyrs 
treated her in such a way as we will not venture to describe. 
I noticed pther statues in the Acropolis, as the boy in 
Ijrass with aT laver in his hand by Lycius the son of 
Myron, and Perseus having slain Medusa b}" Myron. And 
there is a temple of Brauronian Artemis, the statue the 
design of Praxiteles, but the goddess gets her name from 
Brauron. And the ancient statue is at Brauron, called 
Tauric Artemis. And a brazen model of the Wooden 
Horse is here, and that this construction of Epeus was a 
design to break down the walls, every one knows who does 
not consider the Phrygians plainly fatuous. And ti^adition 
says of that Horse that it had inside it the bmvest of the 
Greeks, and this model in brass coi-responds in every par- 
ticular, and Menestheus and Teucer are peeping out of it, 
as well as the sons of Theseus. And of the statues next 
the Horse, Critias executed that of Epicharinus training to 
run in heavy armour. And (Enobius did a kindness to 
Thucydides the son of Oloi'us. For he passed a decree that 
Thucyclides should be recalled fi-om exile to Athens, and 
as he was treacherously murdered on his return, he has 
a tomb not far from the Melitian gates. As to Her- 
molycus the Pancratiast, and Phormio the son of Asopi- 
chus, as others have written about them I pass them by : 
only I have this little bit more to say about Phormio. He 
being one of the noblest of the Athenians, and illustrious 
from the renown of his ancestors, was heavily in debt. 
He went therefoi'e to the Pa?anian township, and had his 
maintenance there until the Athenians obose him as 
Admiral. He however declined on the score that he 


owed money, and that he would have no influence with 
the sailors till he had paid it. Accordingly the Athenians 
paid his debts, for they would have him as Admiral. 


HERE too is Athene ponrtrayed striking M^j^as the 
SilenuSi, because he would take up her flutes, when 
the goddesswished them thrown away. Besides those which 
I have mentioned is the legendary fight between Theseus 
and the Minotaur, a man or a beast according to different 
accounts. Certainly many more wonderful monsters than 
this have been bom of woman even in our times. Here 
too is Phrixus the son of Athamas, who was carried to 
Colchi by the ram. He has just sacrificed the ram to some 
god, (if one might conjecture to the god who is called 
Laphystins among the Orchomenians), and having cut ofi 
the thighs according to the Greek custom, he is looking 
at them burning on the altar. And next, among other 
statues, is one of Hercules throttling snakes according to 
the tradition. And there is Athene springing out of 
the head of Zeus. And there also is a bull, the votive 
offei-ing of the council of the Ai-eopagus. Why they offered 
it is not known, but one might make many guesses if one 
liked. I have said before that the Athenians more than 
any other Greeks have a zeal for religion. For they first 
called Athene the worker, they first worshipped the muti- 
lated Hermae, and in their temple along with these they 
have a God of the Zealous. And whoever prefers modern 
works of real ai*t to the antique, may look at the following. 
There is a man with a helmet on, the work of Cleoetas, 
and his nails are modelled in silver. Here is also a 
statue of Earth supplicating to Zens for rain, either want- 
ing showers for the Athenians, or a drought impending on 
all Greece. Here too is Timotheus, the son of Conon, and 
Conon himself. Here too are cmel Procne and her son 
Itys, by Alcamenes. Here too is Athene repi-esented 
showing the olive tree, and Poseidon showing water. 
And there is a statue by Leochares of Zeus the Guardian 


of tlie city, in recording whose customary rites I do not 
record the reasons assigned for them. They put barley on 
the altar of this Zeus Guardian of the city, and do not 
watch it : and the ox kept and fattened up for the sacrifice 
eats the corn when it approaches the altar. And they call 
one of the priests Ox-killer, and he after throwing the axe 
at the ox runs away, for that is the usage : and (as if they 
did not know who had done the deed) they bring the axe 
into court as defendant. They perform the rites in the 
way indicated. 

And as regards the temple which they call the Parthenon, 
as you enter it everything pourtrayed on the gables relates 
to the birth of Athene, and behind is depicted the contest 
between Poseidon and Athene for the soil of Attica. And 
this work of ai't is in ivory and gold. In the middle of 
her helm et is an image of the Sphinx — about whom I shall 
give an account when I come to Boeotia — and on each side 
of the helmet are griffins worked. These griffins, says 
Aristus the Proconnesian in his poems, fought with the 
Arimaspians beyond the Issedones for the gold of the 
soil which the griffins guarded. And the Arimaspians 
were all one-eyed men from their birth, and the griffins 
were beasts like lions, with wings and mouth like an 
eagle. Let so much suffice for these griffins. But the 
statue of Athene is full length, with a tunic reaching to her 
feet, and on her breast is the head of Medusa worked in 
ivory, and in oneJband she has a Victory four cubits high, 
in the other hand a spear, and at her feet a shield, and near 
the spear a dragon which perhaps is Erich thonius. And on 
the base of the statue is a representation of the birth of 
Pandora, the first woman according to Hesiod and other 
poets, for before her there was no race of women. Here 
too I remember to have seen the only statue here of the 
Emperor Adrian, and at the entrance one of Iphicrates 
the celebrated Athenian general. 

And outside the temple is a brazen Apollo said to be 
by Phidias : and they call it Apollo Averfer of Locusts, 
because when the locusts destroyed the land the god said 
he would drive them them out of the country. And they 
know that he did so, but they don't say how. I myself 
know of locusts having been thrice destroyed on Mount 


Sipylus, but not in the same way, for some were driven 
away by a violent wind that fell on them, and others by a 
strong blight that came on them after showers, and others 
were frozen to death by a sudden frost. All this came 
under my own notice. 


THERE ai'e also injjie Axropolis at Athens statues of 
Pe ricles the son^ of Xanthippus and Xanthippus him- 
self, who fought against the Persians at Mycale. The 
statue of Pericles stands by itself, but near that of 
Xanthippus is Anacreon of Teos, the first after Lesbian 
Sappho who wrote erotic poetry mainly : his appearance 
is that of a man singing in liquor. And near are statues 
by Dinomenes of lo the daughter of Inachus, and Callisto 
the daughter of Lycaon, both of whom had precisely 
similar fates, the love of Zeus and the hatred of Hera, 
Id being changed into a cow, and Callisto into a she- 
bear. And on the southern wall Attains has ponrtrayed 
the legendary battle of the giants, who formerly inhabited 
Thrace and the isthmus of Pallene, and the contest be- 
tween the Amazons and the Athenians, and the action at 
Marathon against the Persians, and the slaughter of the 
Cralati in Mysia, each painting two cubits in size. There 
too is Olympiodorus, illustrious for the greatness of his 
exploits, notably at that period when he infused spirit 
in men who had been continually baffled, and on that 
accotmt had not a single hope for the future. For the dis- 
aster at Chaeronea was a beginning of sorrows for all the 
Greeks, and made slaves alike of those who were absent from 
it, and of those who fought at it against the Macedonians. 
Most of the Greek cities Philip captured, and though he 
made a treaty with the Athenians nominally, he really hurt 
them most, robbing them of their islands, and putting down 
their naval supremacy. And for some time they were 
quiet, during the reign of Philip and afterwards of Alex- 
ander, but when Alexander was dead and the Macedonians 
chose Aridaeus as his successor, though the whole power 


fell to Antipater, then the Athenians thought it no longer 
endurable that Greece should be for all time under Mace- 
donia, but themselves took up arms and urged others to do 
the same. And th.e cities of the Peloponnesians which 
joined them were Argos, Epidaurus, Sicyon, Troezen, 
Elis, Phlius, Messene, and outside the Peloponnese the 
Locrians, the Phocians, the Thessalians, the Carystians, and 
those Acarnanians who ranked with the ^tolians. But the 
Boeotians who inhabited the Theban territory which had 
been stripped of Thebans, fearing that the Athenians 
would eject them from Thebes, not only refused to join the 
confederate cities but did all they could to further the inte- 
rests of the Macedonians. Now the confederate cities were 
led each by their own general, but the Athenian Leos- 
thenes was chosen generalissimo, partly from his city's re- 
nown, partly from his own reputation for experience in war. 
He had besides done good service to all the Greeks. For 
when Alexander wished to settle in Persia all of those who 
had served for pay with Darius and the satraps, Leosthenes 
was beforehand with him and conveyed them back to 
Europe in his ships. And now too, after having displayed 
more brilliant exploits than they expected, he infused dejec- 
tion in all men by his death, and that was the chief reason 
of their failure. For a Macedonian garrison occupied first 
Munychia, and afterwards the Piraeus and the long walls. 
And after the death of Antipater Olympias crossed over 
from Epirus and ruled for some time, after putting Arideeus 
to death, but not long after she was besieged by Cassander, 
and betrayed by the multitude. And when Cassander was 
king, (I shall only concern myself with Athenian matters), 
he captured Fort Panactus in Attica and Salamis, and 
got Demetrius the son of Phanostratus, (who had his 
father's repute for wisdom), appointed king over the 
Athenians. He was however, deposed by Demetrius the 
son of Antigonus, a young man well disposed to the Greeks : 
but Cassander, (who had a deadly hatred against the Athe- 
nians), won over Lachares, who had up to this time been 
the leader of the democracy, and persuaded him to plot to 
be king : and of all the kings we know of he was most 
savage to men and most reckless to the gods. But ^ 
Demetrius the son of Antigonus, though he had not been 


on the best of terms with the Athenian democracy, yet was 
successful in putting down the power of Lachares. And 
when the town was taken Lachares fled into Bceotia. But as 
he had taken the golden shields from the Acropolis, and had 
stripped the statue of Athene of all the ornaments that 
were removable, he was supposed to be very rich, and was 
killed for his money's sake by the people of Corone. And 
Demetrius the son of Antigonus, having freed the Athe- 
nians from the yoke of Lachares, did not immediately after 
the flight of Lachares give up to them the Piraeus, but 
after being victorious in war with them put a garrison 
in the town, and fortified what is called the Museu.m. 
Xow the Museum is within the old town walls, on a hill 
opposite the Acropolis, where they say that Musaeus sang, 
and died of old age, and was btiried. And on the same 
place afterwards a tomb was erected to a Syrian. This 
hill Demetrius fortified. 


SO!ME time after a few remembered the fame of their 
ancestors, and when they considered what a change 
had come over the glory of Athens, they elected Olympio- 
dorus as their general. And he led against the Mace- 
donians old men and lads alike, hoping that by zeal rather 
than strength their fortunes in war would be retrieved. 
And when the Macedonians came out against him he con- 
quered them in battle, and when they fled to the Museum 
he took it. So Athens was delivered from the Mace- 
donians. And of the Athenians that distinguished them- 
selves so as to deserve special mention, Leocritus the 
son of Protarchus is said to have displayed most bravery 
in action. For he was the first to scale the wall and leap 
into the Museum : and as he fell in the fight, among other 
honours conferred on him by the Athenians, they dedicated 
his shield to Zeus Eleutherius, writing on it his name 
and his valour. And this is the greatest feat of Olympio- 
dorus, though he also recovered the Piraeus and Munychia : 
and when the Macedonians invaded Eleusis he collected a 



band of Eleusinians and defeated them. And before this, 
when Cassander intended to make a raid into Attica, he 
sailed to -^tolia and persuaded the -^tolians to give their 
help, and this alliance was the chief reason why they 
escaped war with Cassander. And Olympiodorus has 
honours at Athens in the Acropolis and Prytaneum, and a 
painting at Eleusis. And the Phocians who dwell at Elatea 
have erected a brazen statue to him at Delphi, because he 
also helped them when they revolted from Cassander. 

And next the statue of Olympiodorus is a brazen image 
of Artemis called Leucophryene, and it was erected to her 
by the sons of Themistocles : for the Magnesians, over whom 
Themistocles ruled, having received that post from the 
king, worship Artemis Leucophryene. But I must get on 
with my subject, as I have all Grreece to deal with. En- 
deeus was an Athenian by race, and the pupil of Daedalus, 
and accompanied Daedalus to Crete, when he fled there on 
account of his murder of Calus. The statue of Athene 
sitting is by him, with the inscription that Callias dedi- 
cated it and Endseus designed it. 

There is also a building called the Erechtheum : and in 
the vestibule is an altar of Supreme Zeus, where they offer 
no living sacrifice, but cakes without the usual libation of 
wine. And as you enter there are three altars, one to 
Poseidon, (on which they also sacrifice to "Erechtheus 
according to the oracle,) one to the hero Bates, and the 
third to Hephaestus. And on the walls are paintings of 
the family of Butes. The building is a double one, and 
inside there is sea water in a well. And this is no great 
marvel, for even those who live in inland parts have such 
wells, as notably the Aphrodisienses in Caria. But this 
well is represented as having a roar as of the sea when the 
South wind blows. And in the rock is the figure of a 
trident. And this is said to have been Poseidon's proof 
in regard to the territory Athene disputed with him. 

Sacred to Athene is all the rest of Athens, and similarly 
all Attica : for although they woi'ship different gods in 
different townships, none the less do they honour Athene 
generally. And the most sacred, of all is the_ statue of- 
Athene in what is now called the Acropolis, but was then 
cilied the"T*olis (city), which was~^ universally worshipped 


many years before the various townships formed one citv : 
and the rumour about it is that it fell from heaven. As to 
this I shall not give an opinion, whether it was so ^r not. 
And Callimachus made a golden lamp for the goddess. And 
when they fill this lamp with oil it lasts for a whole year, 
although it bums continually night and day. And the 
wick is of a particular kind of cotton flax, the only kind 
imperishable by fire. And above the lamp is a palmtree 
of brass reaching to the roof and carrying off the smoke. 
And Callimachus the maker of this lamp, although he* 
comes behind the first artificers, yet was remarkable for in- 
genuity, and was the first who perforated stone, and got 
the name of Art-critic, whether his own appellation or given 
him by others. 


IX the temgle_j2LA tb e Be ^Eoljas is a Hermes of wood, 
(said toHBea votive offering of Cecrops,) almost hidden 
by mjrrtle' leaves. And of the antique votive offerings 
worthy of record, is a folding chair the work of Daedalus, and 
spoils taken from the Persians, as a coat of mail of Masistius, 
who commanded the cavalry at Platfea, and a scimetar said 
to have belonged to Mardonius. Masistius we know waB 
killed by the Athenian cavalry : but as Mardonius fought 
against the Lacedaemonians and was killed by a Spartan, 
they could not have got it at first hand, nor is it likely that 
the Lacedaemonians would have allowed the Athenians to 
carry off such a trophy. And about the olive they have 
nothing else to tell but that the goddess used it as a 
proof of her right to the country when it was contested 
by Poseidon. And they record also that this olive was burnt 
when the 'Persians set fire to Athens, but though burnt it 
grew the same day two cubits. And next to the temple of 
Athene is the temple of Pandrosus ; who was the only one 
of the three sisters who didn't peep into the forbidden 
chest. Now the things I most marvelled at are not uni- 
versally known. I will therefore write of them as they 
occur to me. Two maidens live not far from the temple of 


Athene Polias, and the Athenians call them the carriers of 
the holy things : for a certain time they live with the god- 
dess, t)iit when her festival comes they act in the following 
way by night. Putting upon their heads what the priestess 
of Athene gives them to carry, (neither she nor they know 
what these things are,) these maidens descend, by a natural 
underground passage, from an enclosure in the city sacred 
to Aphrodite of the Grardens. In the sanctuary below they 
deposit what they carry, and bring back something else 
closely wrapped up. And these maidens they henceforth 
dismiss, and other two they elect instead of them for the 
Acropolis. And near the temple of Athene is an old 
woman, about a cubit in size, well-modelled, with an in- 
scription saying that she is the handmaid Lysimache, and 
there are large brazen statues of two men standing apart 
as for a fight : the one they call Erechtheus and the other 
Eumolpus. And yet all that know Athenian Antiquities 
are aware that it was Eumolpus' son, Immaradus, that was 
slain by Erechtheus. And at the base are statues of 
Tolmides' prophet, and Tolmides himself, who was the 
Athenian Admiral, and did great damage especially 
to the maritime region of the Peloponnesians, and burnt 
the dockyards of the Lacedeemonians at Gythium, and took* 
Basae in the neighbouring country, and the island of Cy- 
therus, and made a descent on Sicyonia, and, when the 
Sicyonians fought against him as he was ravaging their 
land, routed them and pursued them up to the city. And 
afterwards when he returned to Athens, he conducted 
colonies of the Athenians to Euboea and Naxos, and at- 
tacked the Boeotians with a land force : and, having laid 
waste most of the country, and taken Chaeronea after a 
siege, when he got to Haliartia was himself killed in battle 
and his whole army defeated. Such I learnt were the 
fortunes of Tolmides. And there are old statues of Athene: 
they are entire but rather grimy, and too weak to bear a 
knock, for fire passed upon them when Xerxes found the 
city bare of fighting men, as they had all gone to man the 
fleet. There is also a representation of a boar-hunt, (about 
which I know nothing for certain unless it is the Caly- 
donian boar,) and of the fight between Cycnus and Her- 
cules. This Cycnus they say killed among others the 


Thracian Lycus in a prize fight : but was himself slain b\- 
Hercnles near the river Peneus. 

Of the legends that they tell at Troezen about Theseus 
one is that Hercules, visiting Pittheus at Trcezen, threw 
down during dinner his lion's skin, and that several Troe- 
zenian lads came into the room with Theseus, who was 
seven years of age at most. They say that all the other 
boys when they saw the lion's skin fled helter skelter, but 
Theseus not being afraid kept his ground, and plucked an 
axe from one of the servants, and began to attack it fiercely, 
thinking the skin was a live lion. This is the first Troeze- 
nian legend about him. And the next is that ^geus put 
his boots and sword under a stone as means of identifying 
his son, and then sailed away to Athens, and Theseus when 
he was eighteen lifted the .stone and removed what -.i^geus 
had left there. And this legend is worked in bronze, 
all but the stone, in • the Acropolis. They have also de- 
lineated another exploit of Theseus. This is the legend. 
A bull was ravaging the Cretan territory both elsewhere 
and by the river Tethris. In ancient times it appears 
wild beasts were more formidable to men, as the Xemean 
and Pamasian lions, and dragons in many parts of Greece, 
and boars at Calydon and Erymanthus and Crommyon in 
Corinth, of whom it was said that some sprang out of the 
ground, and others were sacred to the gods, and others 
sent for the punishment of human beings. And this bull 
the Cretans say Poseidon sent into their land, because 
Minos, who was master of the Grecian sea, held Poseidon 
in no greater honour than any other god. And they say 
that this bull crossed over from Crete to the Peloponnese, 
and that one of the twelve Lrabours of Hei-cules was to 
fetch it to Eurystheus. And when it was afterwards let 
go on the Argive plain, it fled through the Isthmus of 
Corinth, and into Attica to the township of Marathon, and 
killed several people whom it met, and among them Andro- 
geos the son of Minos. And Minos sailed to Athens, (for he 
could not be persuaded that the Athenians had had no 
hand in the death of Androgeos,) and did great damage, 
until it was covenanted to send annually seven maidens 
and seven boys to Crete to the Minotaur, who was fabled 
to live in the Labvrinth at Gnossus. As to the bull that 


had got to Marathon, it is said to have been driven by- 
Theseus into the Acropolis, and sacrificed to Athene. And 
the township of Marathon has a representation of it. 


WHY they erected a brazen statue to Cylon, although 
he plotted for the sovereignty, I cannot clearly tell. 
But I conjecture the reason was that he was very hand- 
some in pel-son and not unknown to fame, as he had won 
the victory at Olympia in the double course, and it was his 
good fortune to wed the daughter of Theagenes the king 
of Megara. And besides those I have mentioned there are 
two works of art especially famous, made out of Athenian 
spoil, a brazen statue of Athene, the work of Phidias, made 
out of spoil taken from the Persians who landed at Marg,- 
thon : (the battle of the Lapith^e with the Centaurs, and 
all the other things represented on her shield, are said to 
have been carved by Mys, but Parrhasius is said to have 
drawn for Mys the outline of these and of his other works.) 
The spearpoint of this Athene, and the plume of her helmet, 
are visible from Sunium as you sail in. And there is a 
brazen chariot made out of spoil of the Boeotians and Chal- 
cidians in Eubcea. And there are two other votive offer- 
ings, a statue of Pericles the son of Xanthippus, and, (one 
of the finest works of Phidias,) a statue of Athene, called 
the Lemnian Athene because an offering' from the people 
of Lemnos. The walls of the Acropolis, (except what 
Cimon the son of Miltiades built,) are said to have been 
drawn out by Pelasgians who formerly lived under the 
Acropolis. Their names were Agrolas and Hyperbius. 
When I made enquiries who they were, all that I could 
learn of them was that they were originally Sicilians, who 
had emigrated to Acarnania. 

As you descend, not into the lower part of the city but 
only below the Propylasa, there is a well of water, and near 
it a temple of Apollo in a cave. Here they think Apollo 
had an amour with Creusa the daughter of Erechtheus. 
And as to Pan, they say that Philippides, (who was sent 


as a messenger to Lacedaemon when the Persians landed), 
reported that the Lacedaemonians were defen-ing their 
march : for it was their custom not to go out on a campaign 
till the moon was at its full. But he said that he had met 
with Pan near the Parthenian forest, and he had said that 
he was friendly to the Athenians, and -would come and help 
them at Marathon. Pan has heen honoured therefore for 
this message. Here is also the Areopagus^^ so called be- 
cause Ares was first tried here. I have before stated how 
and why he slew Halirrhothius. And they say that subse- 
quently Orestes was tried here for the murder of his 
mother. And there is an altar of Athene Area, which 
Orestes erected when he escaped punishment. And the 
two white stones, on which both defendants and plaintiffs 
stand in this court, are respectively called Bigour-of-the- 
' '"• and Impudence. 

And not far off is the temple of the Goddesses whom the 
Athenians call The Venerable Ones, but Hesiod in his 
Theogony calls them the Erinnyes. And ^schylus first 
represented them with snakes twined in their hair : but in 
the statues hei-e, either of these oi* of any other infernal 
gods, there is nothing horrible. Here are statues of Pluto 
and Hermes and Earth. Here all that have been acquitted 
before the Areopagus offer their sacrifices, besides foreigners 
and citizens occasionally. Within the precincts is also 
the tomb of (Edipus. After many enquiries I found that 
his bones had been brought there from Thebes : for I could 
not credit Sophocles' account about the death of CBdipus, 
since Homer records that Mecisteus went to Thebes after 
the death of Qildipus and was a competitor in the f tineral 
games held in his honour there.^ 

The Athenians have other Courts of Law, but not so 
famotis as the Areopagus. One they call Parabystum and 
another Trigonum, [that is Crtish and Triangle,'] the 
former being in a low part of the city and crowds of liti- 
gants in very trumpery cases frequenting it, the other gets 
its name from its shape. And the Courts called Froggy and 
Scarlet preserve their names to this day from their colours. 
But the largest Court, which has also the greatest number 
of litigants, is called Heli?ea. Mtirder-cases are taken in 
' Diad. xxiii., 677-680. 


the Court they call the Palladium, where are also tried cases 
of manslaughter. And that Demophon was the first person 
tried here no one disputes : but why he was tried is debated. 
They say that Diomede, sailing home after the capture of 
Ilium, put into Phalerum one dark night, and the Argives 
landed as on hostile soil, not knowing in the dark that 
it was Attica. Thereupon they say Demophon rushed 
up, being ignorant that the men in the ships were Argives, 
and slew several of them, and went off with the Palladium 
which he took from them, and an Athenian not recog- 
nized in the melee was knocked down and trodden under- 
foot by Demophon's horse. For this affair Demophon had 
to stand his trial, prosecuted some say by the relations of 
this Athenian, others say by the Argives generally. And 
the Delphinium is the Court for those who plead that they 
have committed justifiable homicide, which was the plea of 
Theseus when he was acquitted for killing Pallas and his 
sons who rose up against him. And before the a<;quittal of 
Theseus every manslayer had to flee for his life, or if he 
stayed to suffer the same death as he had inflicted. And 
in the Court called the Prytaneum they try iron and 
other inanimate things. I imagine the custom originated 
when Erechtheus was king of Athens, for then first did 
Ox-killer kill an ox at the temple of Zeus Guardian of 
the City : and he left the axe there and fled the country, 
and the axe was forthwith acquitted after trial, and is 
tried annually even nowadays. Other inanimate things 
are said to have spontaneously committed justifiable homi- 
cide : the best and most famous illustration of which is 
afforded by the scimetar of Cambyses.^ And there is at 
the PiraBus near the sea a Court called Phreattys : here fu- 
gitives, if (after they have once escaped) a second charge is 
brought against them, make their defence on shipboard to 
their hearers on land. Teucer first (the story goes) thus 
made his defence before Telamon that he had had no hand 
in the death of Ajax. Let this suffice for these matters, 
that all who care may know everything about the Athenian 

^ See Herod., iii., 64. 



NEAR the Areopagus is she-wn the ship that is made for 
the procession at the Panathenaea. And this per- 
haps has been outdone. But the ship at Deles is the finest 
I have ever heard of, having nine banks of i-owers from the 

And the Athenians in the townships, and on the roads 
outside the citj, have temples of the gods, and tombs of 
men and heroes. And not far distant is the Academy, once 
belonging to a private man, now a gymnasium. Aji3 as you 
go down to it are the precincts of Artemis, and statues 
of her as Best and B ea id if idlest : I suppose these titles have 
the same reference as the lines of Sappho, another account 
about them I know but shall pass over. And there is a 
small temple, to which they carry every year on appointed 
days the statue of Dionysus Eleuthereusis. So many 
temples to the gods are there here. There are also tombs, 
first of Thrasybulus the son of Xycus, in all respects one 
of the most famous of the Athenians either since his day 
or before him. Most of his exploits I shall pass by, but 
one thing will be enough to prove my statement. Starting 
from Thebes with only sixty men he put down the Thirty 
Tyrants, and persuaded the Athenians who were in fac- 
tions to be reconciled to one another and live on friendly 
terms. His is the first tomb, and near it are the tombs of 
Pericles and Chabrias and Phonnio. And all the Athenians 
have monuments here that died in battle either on land or 
sea, except those that fought at Marathon. For those have 
tombs on the spot for their valour. But the others lie on 
the road to the Academy, and slabs are on their tombs 
recording the name and township of each. First come 
those whom the Edoni unexpectedly fell upon and slew in 
Thrace, when they had made themselves masters of all the 
country up to Drabescus : and it is said also that hailstones 
fell on them. And among generals are Leagrtis, who 
had the greatest amount of power committed to him, and 
Sophanes of Decelea, who slew the Argive Eurybates, 
(who was helping the ^ginetans), the victor in five con- 


tests at Nemea. And this is the third army the Athenians 
sent out of Grreece. For all the Greeks by mutual consent 
fought against Priam and the Trojans : but the Athenians 
alone sent an army into Sardinia with lolaas, and again 
to Ionia, and the third time to Thrace. And before the 
monument is a pillar with a representation of two cavalry 
oflBcers fighting, whose names are Melanopus and Macar- 
tatus, who mot their death contending against the Lace- 
daemonians and Boeotians, at the border of the Eleonian and 
Tanagrjean territory. And there is the tomb of the Thes- 
salian cavalry who remembered their ancient friendship to 
Athens, when the Peloponnesians under Archidamas first 
invaded Attica: they are near the Cretan archers. And again 
there are tombs of the Athenians, as of Clisthenes, (who 
made the regulations for the tribes which are observed even 
now,) and the cavalry who were slain on that day of danger, 
when the Thessalians brought aid. Here too are the Cleonsei, 
who came with the Argives into Attica : why they came I 
shall tell when I come to Argos. Here too is the tomb of 
the Athenians who fought with the ^ginetans before the 
Persian "War. And that was I ween a just decree of the 
people that, if the Athenians gave a public burial to the 
slaves, tlieir names should be written on a pillar. And this 
proves that they behaved well to their masters in the wars. 
And there are also monuments of other valiant men, who 
fell fighting in various places : the most illustrious of those 
that fought at Olynthus, and Melesander (who sailed in his 
ships up the Mreander in Upper Caria), and those who fell 
in the war with Cassander, and those Argives who were 
formerly the allies of the Athenians. This alliance came 
about (they say) in the following manner. There was an 
earthquake at Lacedaemon, and the Helots revolted and 
went to Ithome : and when they revolted the Lacedfemo- 
nians sent for aid to the Athenians and others : and they 
despatched to them picked men under Cimon the son of 
Miltiades. These the Lacedsemonians sent back moved by 
suspicion. And the Athenians thought such an outrage 
insufferable, and, on their return home again, made an 
offensive and defensive alliance with the Argives, who had 
always been the enemies of the Lacedsemonians. And after- 
wards, when a battle between the Athenians and Boeotians 


and Lacedi^monians was on the eve of taking place at 
Tanagra, the Argives came to the J^id of the Athenians. 
And when the Argives were having the better of it, night 
came on and took away the cei'tainty of victory, and the 
next day the Lacedaemonians won the victory, the Thessa- 
lians having betrayed the Athenians. I ought also to men- 
tion Apollodorus the leader of the mercenaries, who was an 
Athenian, but had been sent by Arsites, the satrap of 
Phrygia near the Hellespont, and had relieved Perinthia, 
when Philip attacked it with an army. He is buried here, 
with Eubulus the son of Spintharus, and other men who 
although they deserved it did not meet with good forttine ; 
some fell conspiring against the tyrant Lachares, and others 
counselled the seizure of the Piraeus when the Macedonians 
guarded it, but before they could carry out their plan they 
were informed against by their fellow-conspirators and put 
to death. Here too are the tombs of those who fell at 
Corinth : and it was palpably shewn here (and afterwards 
at Leuctra) by the Deity, that those whom the Greeks call 
brave were nothing without good fortune, since the Lace- 
daemonians who had formerly conquered the Corinthians 
and Athenians, and moreover the Argives and Boeotians, 
were afterwards so completely routed at Leuctra by the 
Boeotians alone. And next to the tombs of those that fell 
at Corinth, some elegiac Lines testify that the pillar was 
erected not only to them, but also to those that died at 
Euboea and Chios, as also to some whoni it declares were slain 
in the remote parts of the continent of Asia Minor, and 
in Sicily. Ajid all the* Generals are inscribed on it except 
Nicias, and the Platae«n soldiers and citizens together, 
^icias was passed over for the following reason : I give 
the same account as Philistus, who said that Demosthenes 
made conditions of suirender for everybody but himself, 
and when he was taken attempted stiicide, whereas Xicias 
surrendered voluntarily. And so his name was not written 
on the pillar, as he was shewn to be a willing captive and 
not a man fit for war. On another pillar are the names of 
those who fought in Thrace, and at Megara, and when 
Alcibiades persuaded the Mantinaeans and Eleans to revolt 
from the Lacedaemonians, and those who conquered the 
Syracusans before Demosthenes came to Sicily. Those also 


are buried here who fought the naval engagement at the 
Hellespont, and those who fought against the Macedonians 
at Chaerouea, and those who served with Cleon at Amphi- 
polis, and those who fell at Delium in the territory of the 
Tanagraeans, and those whom Leosthenes led to Thessaly, 
and those who sailed to Cyprus with Cimon, and those, 
thirteen only, who with Olympiodorus drove out the Mace- 
donian garrison. And the Athenians say that, when the 
Romans were fighting against one of their neighbours, they 
sent a small force to their aid, and certainly afterwards 
there were five Attic triremes present at the seafight 
between the Romans and Cai'thaginians. These also have 
their tomb here. The exploits of Tolmides and his men, 
and the manner of their death, I have already described : 
but let any one to whom their memory is dear know that 
they too lie buried on this road. They too lie here who on 
the same day won under Cimon a glorious victory both 
by land and sea. Here too lie Conon and Timotheus, father 
and son, second only to Miltiades and Cimon in their brilliant 
feats. Here too lie Zeno the son of Mnaseas, and jChrysippus 
of Soli, and Nicias the son of Mcomedes, (the best painter 
of animals in his day,) and Harmodius and Aristogiton who 
murdered Hipparchus the son of Pisistratus, and the orators 
Ephialtes, (who did his best to discredit the legislation of 
the Areopagus,) and Lycui'gus the son of Lycophron. This 
Lycurgus put into the public treasury 6,500 talents more 
than Pericles the son of Xanthippus got together, and fur- 
nished elaborate apparatus for the processions of Athene, 
and golden Victories, and dresses for 100 maidens, and for 
jvar arms and darts, and 400 triremes for naval engage- 
ments. And as for buildings he finished the theatre though 
others began it, and during his term of ofiice built docks 
at the Pireeus, and a gymnasium at the Lyceum. All his 
silver and gold work Lachares plundered when he was in 
power : but the buildings remain to this day. 



BEFORE the entrance into the Academy is an altar 
of Eros, with the inscription that Charmus was the 
first of the Athenians to offer votive offerings to Eros. 
And they say that the altar in the city called the altar of 
Anteros is the oft'ering of the resident aliens, for Meles an 
Athenian, tired of Timagoras, a resident alien who was 
enamoured of him, bade him go to the highest part of the 
rock and throw himself down. And Timagoras careless of 
his life, and wishing in all things to gratify the stripling's 
commands, threw himself down accordingly. But Meles, 
when he saw that Timagoras was dead, was so stricken 
with remorse, that he threw himself down from the same 
rock, and so perished. And in consequence it was ordained 
that the resident aliens should worship as a god Anteros, 
the avenger of Timagoras. And in the Academy is an 
altar of Prometheus, and they mm from it to the city with 
lighted torches. The game is to keep the torch alight 
as they run. And if the torch goes oat there is no longer 
victory to the first, but the second wins instead. And if 
his is out, then the third. And so on. And if the torches 
of all go out, then there is no one who can win the 
game. There is also an altar of the Muses, and another of 
Hermes, and in the interior one of Athene, and another of 
Hercules. And there is an olive-tree, which is said to have 
been the second that ever was. And not far from the 
Academy is the tomb of Plato, to whom the Deity foretold 
that he would be most excellent in Philosophy, and foretold 
it in the following way. Socrates, the night before Plato 
was going to be his pupil, dreamed that a swan flew into 
his bosona. Now the swan is a bird that has a fame for 
music, for they say that Cycnus [_Sican'\, king of the Ligyans 
across the Eridanus in Celtic territory, was fond of music, 
and when he died was at Apollo's desire changed into a 
bird. I daresay a musical man reigned over the Ligyans, 
but I can hardly believe that a man became a bird. Here 
too is seen the tower of Timon, who was the only person 
who thought one can be happy in no way except by shan- 


ning one's kind. There is also shewn here a place called 
Colonus, sacred to Poseidon the creator of horses, the first 
place in Attica which they say CEdipus came to : this is 
however different from the account of Homer, still it is the 
account they give. There is also an altar of Poseidon God 
of Horses and of Athene Goddess of Horses, and a hero- 
chapel of Pirithous and Theseus and CEdipus and Adrastus. 
But Poseidon's gi'ove and temple were burnt by Antigonus, 
when he invaded Attica and ravaged it with his army. 


TVr OW the small townships of Attica, founded by hap- 
-L ^ hazard, have the following records. The Alimusii 
have a temple to Lawgiving Demeter and her daughter 
Proserpine ; and in Zoster [BeW] by the sea is an altar to 
Athene and Apollo and Artemis and Leto. They say that 
Leto did not give birth to her children hei'e, but loosed her 
belt as if she were going to, and that was why the place got 
that name. The Pi'ospaltii also have a temple to Proserpine 
and Demeter, and the Anagyrasians have a temple to the 
Mother of the Gods. And at Cephalae Castor and Pollux 
are held in highest honour : for they call them the Great 

And the people of Prasire have a temple of Apollo : here 
came (they say) the firstfruits of the Hyperboreans, handed 
over by them to the Arimaspians, and by the Ariraaspians 
to the Issedones, and brought thence by the Scythians to 
Sinope, and thence carried by the Greeks to Prasise, and 
by the Athenians to Delos : these firstfruits are hidden 
in an ear of wheat, and may be looked at by nobody. 
At Prasise there is also a monument to Erysichthon, who 
died on his passage home, as he sailed back from Delos after 
his mission there. That Cranaus the king of the Athenians 
was expelled by Amphictyon, though he was his kins- 
man, I have before narrated : and they say that when he 
fled with his adherents to the Lamprian township he was 
killed and buried there : and his tomb is there to this day. 
v\-nd Ion the son of Xuthus, (for he too dwelt in Attica, 


and commanded the Athenians in the war against the 
Eleusinians,) has a tomb in the place called Potami. 

So far tradition goes. And the Phljenses have altars to 
Dionysus-giving Apollo and Lightgiving Artemis, and to 
Dionysus Crowned with flowers, and to the Nymphs of the 
River Ismenus, and to Earth whom they call the Great 
Goddess : and another temple has altars to Fruitbearing 
Demeter, and Zeus the Protector of Property, ^ind Tithro- 
nian Athene, and Proserpine the Firstborn, and to the god- 
desses called The Venerable Ones, {i.e. the Enmenides.) And 
at Myrrhinus there is a statue to Colasnian Artemis. And the 
Athmonenses woi*ship Amarynthian Artemis. And when I 
enquired of the Interpreters and Experts as to these God- 
desses, I could obtain no accurate information, but I conjec- 
ture as follows. Amarynthus is in Euboea, and there too 
they worship the Amarynthian Artemis. And the Athe- 
nians at her feast bestow as much honour on her as the 
Euboeans. In this way I think she got her name among 
the Athmonenses, and Colsenian Artemis at Myrrhinus from 
Colaenus. I have written already elsewhere that it is the 
opinion of many in the townships that there were kings 
at Athens before Cecrops. Xow Colaenus is the name of a 
king who ruled at Athens before Cecrops, according to the 
tradition of the people of Mvrrhinus. And there is a town- 
ship at Achamge : the Acharuians worship among other gods 
Apollo of the Streets and Hercules. And there is an altar 
to Athene Hygiea : they also worship Athene by the name 
of Horse-lover, and Dionysus by that of Songster, and Ivy- 
God, for they say ivy grew here first. 


AND the mountains of Attica are Pentelicus, famous 
for its stonequarries, and Parnes, which affords good 
hunting of wild boars and bears, and Hvmettus, which is 
the best place for bees next to the territory of the Ala- 
zones. For among, the Alazones the bees are so tame that 
they live with the people, and go freely about for their food 
anywhere, and are not confined in hives : and they make 
honey anywhere, and it is so firm and compact that you 


cannot separate it from the comb. And on the moun- 
tains of Attica also are statues of the gods. At Pentelicus 
there is a statue of Athene, and at Hymettus one of Zeus of 
Hymettus : there are altars also to Rainy Zeus, and Apollo 
the Fore-seer, And at Parnes there is a brazen statue 
of Parnesian Zeus, and an altar to Semalean Zeus. There 
is also another altar at Parnes, and they sacrifice on it some- 
times to Ze¥is the Rainy, sometimes to Zeus the Averter of 
111. There is also the small mountain called Anchesmus, 
and on it the statue of Anchesmian Zeus. 

Before I tui'n to the description of the islands, I will 
enter again into the history of the townships. The town- 
ship of Marathon is about equi-distant from Athens and 
Carystus in Eubcea. It was ihis part of Attica that the 
Persians landed at, and were^ defeated, and lost some of 
their ships as they were putting out to sea in retreat. And 
in the plain is the tomb of the Athenians, and on it are 
pillars with the names of the dead according to their tribes. 
And another for the Plateeans of Boeotia and their slaves : 
for this was the first engagement in which slaves fought. 
And there is apart a monument to Miltiades the son of 
Cimon, whose death occurred afterwards, when he failed to 
capture Paros, and was on that account put on his trial by 
the Athenians. Here every night one may hear horses neigh- 
ing and men fighting : those who come on purpose to 
see the sight suffer for their curiosity, but if they are there 
as spectators accidentally the wrath of the gods harms 
them not. And the people of Marathon highly honour 
those that fell in the battle, calling them heroes, as also 
they pay honours to Marathon (from whom the township 
gets its name), and Hercules, whom they say they first 
of all the Greeks worshipped as a god. And it chanced, 
as they say, in the battle that a man of rustic appear- 
ance and dress appeared, who slew many of the Persians 
with a ploughshare, and vanished after the fight : and 
when the Athenians made enquiry of the oracle, the god 
gave no other answer, but bade them honour the hero 
Echetlseus. And a trophy of white stone was erected there. 
And the Athenians say that they buried the Persians, (it 
being a matter of decency to bury in the ground a man's 
corpse,) but I could find no tomb. For there was no mound 


nor any other visible trace of burial. So they must have 
carried them to some hole and thrown them in pell-mell. 
And there is at Marathon a fountain called Maearia, and 
this is the tradition about it. When Hercules fled from 
Eurystheus at Tiryns, he went to his friend Ceyx the king 
of Trachis. And when Hercules left mankind Eurystheus 
asked for his children, and Ceyx sent them to Athens, plead- 
ing his own weakness, and suggesting that Theseus might 
be able to protect them. And coming to Athens as suppliants, 
they brought about the first war between the Peloponnesians 
and the Athenians, as Theseus would not give them up to 
Eurystheus, though he begged hard for them. And they 
say that an oracle told the Athenians that one of the chil- 
dren of Hercules must voluntarily die, or else they would 
not get the victory. Hereupon Macaria, the daughter of 
Deianira and Hercules, sacrificed herself that the Athenians 
might conquer in the war, and the fountain gets its name 
from her. And there is at Marathon a lake for the mosr 
part muddy : into it the fugitive Persians fell not knowing 
the way, and most of the slaughter happened they say here. 
And above the lake are the mangers of the horses of Ai'ta- 
phernes in stone, and among the rocks vestiges of a tent. 
And a river flows from the lake, affording pleasant water 
to the herds that come to the lake, but at its outlet into the 
sea it is salt and full of sea fish. And at a little distance 
from the plain is a mountain of Pan, and a cave well worth 
seeing. The entrance to it is narrow, but when you get 
well in there are rooms and baths, and what is called Pan's 
herd of goats, rocks very like goats in shape. 


A ND not far from Marathon is Brauron, where they 
-^*- say Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, landed 
in her flight from the Tauri, bringing with her the statue 
of Artemis, and, having left it here, went on to Athens 
and afterwards to Argos. Here is indeed an ancient statue 
of Artemis. But those who have the Tauric statue of the 
goddess in my opinion, I shall show in another part of my 



work. And about sixty from Marathon is Rhamnus, 
as you go along the shore to Oropus. And there are build- 
ings near the sea for men, and a little way from the sea on 
the cliff is a temple of Nemesis, who is the most implacable 
of all the gods to haughty men. And it seems that those 
Persians who lauded at Marathon met with vengeance 
from this goddess : for despising the difficulty of capturing 
Athens, they brought Parian marble to make a trophy of, 
as if they had already conquered. This marble Phidias made 
into a statue of Nemesis, and on the goddess' head is a 
crown with some figures of stags, and some small statues of 
Victory : in one hand she has a branch of an apple tree, in 
the other a bowl, on which some Ethiopians are carved. 
As to these Ethiopians I could not myself conjecture 
what they referred to, nor could I accept the account of 
those who thought they knew, who say that they were 
carved on the bowl because of the river Oceanus : for the 
Ethiopians dwelt by it, and Oceanus was Nemesis' father. 
For indeed Oceanus is not a river but a sea, the remotest 
sea sailed on by men, and on its shore live the Spaniards and 
Celts, and in it is the island of Britain. But the remotest 
Ethiopians live beyond Syene by the Red Sea, and are 
fisheaters, from which circumstance the gulf near which 
they live is called Fish-eater. But the most upright ones^ 
inhabit the city Meroe, and what is called the Ethiopian 
plain : these shew the Table of the Sun, but have no sea 
or river except the Nile. And there are other Ethiopians 
(who live near the Mauri), that extend to the territoiy of 
the Nasamones. For the Nasamones, whom Herodotus 
calls the Atlantes, but geographers call Lixitge, are the 
remotest of the Libyans who live near Mount Atlas. 
They sow nothing, and live on wild vines. And neither 
these Ethiopians nor the Nasamones have any river. For 
the water near Mount Atlas, though it flows in three 
directions, makes no river, for the sand sucks it all in. 
So the Ethiopians live by no river or ocean. And the 
water from Mount Atlas is muddy, and at its source 
there are crocodiles two cubits long, and when men ap- 
proach they dive down into the water. And many have 

^ Perhaps a reminiscence of Horn. II. i. 423. 

BOOK I. — ^ATTICA. 67 

the idea that this water coming up again ont of the sand 
makes the river Nile in Egypt. Now Mount Atlas is 
so high that its peaks are said to touch the sky, and it 
is inaccessible from the water and trees which are every- 
where. The neighbourhood of the Nasamones has been 
explored, but we know of no one who has sailed by the 
parts near the sea. But let this account suffice. Neither 
this statue of Nemesis nor any other of the old statues 
of her are delineated with wings, not even the most holy 
statues at Smyrna: but in later times . people, wishing" to 
shew this goddess as especially following upon Love, gave 
Nemesis wings as well as Love. I shall describe what is 
at the base of the statue, only clearing up the followino- 
matter. They say Nemesis was the mother of Helen, but 
Leda suckled her and brought her up : but her father 
the Greeks generally think was Zeus and not Tyndareus. 
Phidias having heard this represented on the base of the 
statue Helen being carried by Leda to Nemesis, and Tyn- 
dareus and his sons, and a man called Hippeus with a 
horse standing by. There too are Agamemnon and Mene- 
laus, and Pyrrhus the son of Achilles, the first husband 
of Hermione, the daughter of Helen. Orestes was passed 
over for the murder of his mother, though Hermione 
remained with him all her life and bore him a son. And 
next come Epochus, and another young man. I have 
heard nothing else of them than that they are the biHjthers 
of CEnoe, who gave her name to the township. 


THE land about Oropus between Attica and Tanagra, 
which originally belonged to Boeotia, is now Athe- 
nian. The Athenians fought for it continually, but got 
no firm hold of it till Philip gave it them after the 
capture of Thebes. The city is near the sea and has 
played no great part in history : about 12 stades from it 
is the temple of Amphiaraus. And it is said that, when 
Amphiaraus fled from Thebes, the earth opened and swal- 
lowed up him and his chariot: but it did not they say 


happen here but at a place called Harma {Gha/riot) , on the way 
from Thebes to Chalcis. And the Oropians first made Amphi- 
araus a god, and since all the Greeks have so accounted him, 
I can mention others who were once men, who have honours 
paid to them as gods, and cities dedicated to them, as 
Eleus in the Chersonnese to Protesilaus, and Lebadea in 
Boeotia to Trophonius : so Amphiarans has a temple 
at Oropus, and a statue in white stone. And the altar 
has five divisions : one belongs to Hercules and Zeus and 
Paeonian Apollo, and another is dedicated to heroes and 
heroes' wives. And the third belongs to Vesta and Hermes 
and Amphiaraus and the sons of Amphilochus : but Alc- 
meeon, owing to the raurder of Eriphyle, has no honour with 
Amphiaraus, nor with Amphilochus. And the fourth divi- 
sion of the altar belongs to Aphrodite and Panacea, and 
also to Jason and Hygiea and Peeonian Athene. And the 
fifth has been set apart for the Nymphs and Pan, and 
the rivers Achelous and Cephisus. And Amphilochus 
has also an altar at Athens, and at Mallus in Cilicia an 
oracle most veracious even in my day. And the Oro- 
pians have a fountain near the temple, which they call 
Amphiaraus', but they neither sacrifice at it, nor use it for 
lustrations or washing their hands. But when any disease 
has been cured by means of the oracle, then it is cus- 
tomary to throw into the fountain some gold or silver coin: 
and here they say Amphiaraus became a god. And the 
Gnossian lophon, one of the interpreters of Antiquities, 
has preserved some oracular responses of Amphiarus in 
Hexameters, given he says to the Argives who were de- 
spatched to Thebes. These lines had irresistible attrac- 
tion for the general public. Now besides those who are 
said of old to have been inspired by Apollo, there was 
no oracle-giving seer, but there were people good at ex- 
plaining dreams, and inspecting the flights of birds and the 
entrails of victims. Amphiaraus was I think especially 
excellent in divination by dreams : and it is certain when 
he became a god that he instituted divination by dreams. 
And whoever comes to consult Amphiaraus has first (such 
is the custom) to purify himself, that is to sacrifice to 
the god. They sacrifice then to all the other gods whose 
names are on the altar. And after all these preliminary 

BOOK I. — aTTICA. 69 

rites, they sacrifice a ram, and wrapping themselves np in 
its skin go to sleep, and expect divine direction through 
a dream. 


AND the Athenians have various islands not far from 
Attica, one called after Patroclus, about which I have 
already given an account, and another a little beyond 
Sunium, as you sail leaving Attica on the left : here they 
say Helen landed after the capture of Hium, so the Island 
is called Helena. And Salamis lies over against Eleusis 
and extends towards Megaris. The name Salamis was they 
say originally given to this island from Salamis the mother 
of Asopus, and afterwards the -^^Eginetans under Telamon 
inhabited the island : and Philaeus, the son of Eurysaces 
and grandson of Ajax, became an Athenian and handed it 
over to Athens. Arid many years afterwards the Athenians 
expelled the people of Salamis, condemning them for hav- 
ing been slack of duty in the war with Cassander, and for 
having surrendered their city to the Macedonians more 
from choice than compulsion : and Ascetades (who had 
been chosen as Governor of Salamis) they condemned to 
death, and swore that for all time they would remember 
this treason of the people of Salamis. And there are yet 
ruins of the market, and a temple of Ajax, and his statue 
in ebony. And divine honours are to this day paid by the 
Athenians to Ajax and Eurysaces : the latter has also an 
altar at Athens. And a stone is shown at Salamis not far 
from the harbour : on which they say Telamon sate and 
gazed at the vessel in which his sons were sailing away to 
Aulis, to join the general expedition of the Greeks against 
Ilium. And the natives of Salamis say that after the death 
of Ajax a flower first appeared on their island : white and 
red, smaller than the lily especially in its petals, with the 
same letters on it as the hyacinth.^ And I have heard the 
tradition of the ^'Eolians (who afterwards inhabited Ilium) 

> See Yerg. Eel. 3. 106. Theocr. x. 28. And especially Orid. 
Metamorph. x. 210-219. 


as to the controversy about the arms of Achilles, and they 
say that after the shipwreck of Odysseus these arms were 
washed ashore by the sea near the tomb of Ajax. And 
some particB-lars as to his great size were given me by a 
Mysian. He told me that the sea washed his tomb which 
was on the seashore, and made entrance to it easy, and he 
bade me conjecture the huge size of his body by the follow- 
ing detail. His kneepans, (which the doctors call mills,) 
were the size of the quoits used by any lad practising for 
the Pentathlum. I do not wonder at the size of those who 
are called Cabares, who, remotest of the Celts, live in a 
region thinly peopled from the extreme cold, for their 
corpses are not a bit bigger than Egyptian ones. I will now 
relate some remarkable cases of dead bodies. Among the 
Magnesians at Lethaium one of the citizens, called Proto- 
phanes, was victor on the same day at Olympia in the 
pancratium and in the wrestling : some robbers broke into 
his tomb, thinking to find something valuable there, and 
after them came others to see his corpse : his ribs were not 
separated as is usual, but he was all bone from his shoulders 
to the lowest ribs, which are called by the doctors/aZ&g ribs. 
And the Milesians have in front of their city the island Lade, 
which breaks off into two little islands, one of which is 
called Asterius. And they say that Asterius was buried 
here, and that he was the son of Anax, and Anax was the 
son of Earth : his corpse is two cubits, no less. The follow- 
ing circumstance also appears to me wonderful. In Upper 
Lydia there is a small town called the Gates of Temenua. 
Some bones were discovered here, when a piece of cliff 
broke off in a storm, in shape like those of a man, but on 
account of their size no one would have thought them a 
man's. And forthwith a rumour spread among the popu- 
lace that it was the dead body of Greryon the son of Chrysaor, 
and that a man's seat fashioned in stone on the hillside was 
his seat. And they called the mountain torrent Oceanus, 
and said that people ploughing often turned up horns of 
oxen, for the story goes that Geryon bred most excellent 
oxen. But when I opposed their theory, and proved to 
them that Geryon lived at Gades, and thiit he has no known 
tomb but a tree of various forms, hereupon the Lydian 
Antiquarians told the real truth, that it was the dead body 


of Hylhis, and that Hyllus was the son of Earth, and gave 
his name to the river Hjllus. They said also that Hercules 
on account of his former intercourse with Omphale called 
his son Hyllus after the same river. 


AT Salamis, to return to my subject, there is a temple 
of Artemis, and a tx-ophy erected for the victory 
which Themistocles the son of Neocles won for the Greeks. 
There is also a temple to Cychreus. For when the Athe- 
nians were fighting the naval engagement with the Persians 
it is said that a dragon was seen in the Athenian fleet, and 
the oracle informed the Athenians that it was the hero 
Cychreus. And there is an island facing Salamis called 
Psyttalea, on which they say as many as 400 Persians 
landed : who after the defeat of Xerxes' fleet were they 
say slain by the Greeks who passed over into Psyttalea. 
There is not one statue in the island which is a work of art, 
but there are some rude images of Pan made anyhow. 

And as you go to Eleusis from Athens, by the way 
which the Athenians call the Sacred Way, is the tomb of 
Anthemocritus, to whom the Megarians acted most unscru- 
pulously, inasmuch as they killed him though he came as a 
herald, to announce to them that henceforth they were not 
to cultivate the sacred land. And for this act of theirs 
the wrath of the two goddesses ^ still abides, since they are 
the only Greeks that the Emperor Adrian was not able to 
aggrandise. And next to the column of Anthemocritus is 
the tomb of Molottus, who was chosen as General of the 
Athenians when they crossed over into Euboei to the aid of 
Plutarch. And near this is a village called Scirus for the 
following reason. When the people of Eleusis were at war 
with Erechtheus, a prophet came from Dodona Scirus by 
name, who also built at Phalerum the old temple of 
Sciradian Athene. And as he fell in battle the Eleusinians 
buried him near a mountain torrent, and both the village 
and torrent get their name from the hero. And near 
^ Demeter and Proserpine. 


is the tomb of Cephisodorus, who was the leader of the 
people, and especially opposed Philip the son of Demetrius, 
the king of the Macedonians. And Cephisodorus got as 
allies for the Athenians the Mysian king Attalus, and the 
Egyptian king Ptolemy, and independent nations as the 
^tolians, and islanders as the Rhodians and Cretans. And 
as the succours from Egypt and Mysia and Crete came for 
the most part too late, and as the Rhodians (fighting by sea 
only) could do little harm to heavy-armed soldiers like the 
Macedonians, Cephisodorus sailed for Italy with some of 
the Athenians, and begged the Romans to aid them. And 
they sent them a force and a general, who so reduced Philip 
and the Macedonians that eventually Perseus, the son of 
Philip, lost his kingdom, and was carried to Italy as a 
captive. This Philip was the son of Demetrius : who was 
the first of the family who was king of Macedonia, after 
slaying Alexander the son of Cassander, as I have before 


AND next to the tomb of Cephisodorus are buried Helio- 
dorus the Aliensian, (you may see a painting of him 
in the large temple of Athene) : and Themistocles the son 
of Poliarchus, the great grandson of the Themistocles that 
fought the great seafight against Xerxes and the Medes. 
All his other descendants except Acestius I shall pass by. 
But she the daughter of Xenocles, the son of Sophocles, 
the son of Leo, had the good fortune to have all her ances- 
tors torchbearers even up to her great grandfather Leo, and 
in her life she saw first her brother Sophocles a torchbearer, 
and after him her husband Themistocles, and after his death 
her son Theophrastus. Such was the good fortune she is 
said to have had. 

And as you go a little further is the grove of the hero 
Lacius, who gives his name to a township. There too is 
the tomb of Nicocles of Tarentum, who won the greatest 
fame of all harpers. There is also an altar to Zephyrns, 
and a temple of Demeter and Proserpine : Athene and 


Poseidon have joint honours with them. Here they say 
Phvtalas received Demeter into his house, and the goddess 
gave hira in return a figtree. Mj account is confirmed by 
the inscription on Phytalus' tomb. 

*• Here Phytalus king-hero once received 
Holy Demeter. when she first vouchsafed 
The" fruit that mortals call the fig : since when 
The race of Phytalus has deathless fame." 

And before crossing over the river Cephisus, is the tomb 
of Theodoras, one of the best tragic actors of his day. And 
there are two statues near the river, Mnesimaches, and his 
son cutting off his hair as a votive offering to the Cephisus. 
That it was an ancient custom for all the Greeks to cut off 
locks of their hair to rivers one would infer from the verses 
of Homer, who describes Peleus as vowing to cut off his 
hair to the river Spercheus if his son Achilles returned 
safe from Troy.^ 

On the other side of the Cephisus is an ancient altar 
to Milichian {i.e. mild) Zeus, where Theseus got purified 
after slaying the progeny of Phytalus. He had slain other 
robbers, and Sinis, who was his relation by Pittheus his 
maternal grandfather. And there are the tombs here of 
Theodectes the son of Phaselites, and of Mnesitheus. This 
last they say was a noted doctor, and dedicated several 
statues, and among them one of lacchus. And by the 
roadside is a small temple called the temple of Cyamites 
(Bean-man) : but I have no certain information, whether 
he first sowed beans, or whether they gave the name to 
some hero, because it was not lawful to ascribe the invention 
of beans to Demeter. And whoever has seen the Eleusinian 
mysteries, or has read the Orphic poems, knows what I mean. 
And of the tombs that are finest for size and beauty are 
two especially, one of a Rhodian who had migrated to 
Athens, the other of Pythionice. made by Harpalus a Mace- 
donian, who had fled from Alexander and sailed to Europe 
from Asia, and coming to Athens was arrested by the Athe- 
nians, but escaped by bribing the friends of Alexander and 
others, and before this had married Pythionice, whose extrac- 
tion I don't know, but she was a courtesan both at Athens 
and Corinth. He was so enamoured of her that, when she 
' Iliad .\xiii. 144-148. 


died, he raised this monument to her, the finest of all the 
ancient works of art in Grreece. 

And there is a temple in which are statues of Demeter 
and Proserpine and Athene and Apollo : but originally the 
temple was built to Apollo alone. For they say that 
Cephalus the son of Deionens went with Amphitryon to the 
Teleboae, and was the first dweller in the island which is 
now called from him Cephallenia : and that he fled from 
Athens, and lived for some time at Thebes, because he had 
murdered his wife Procris. And in the tenth generation 
afterwards Chalcinus and D^tus his descendants sailed to 
Delphi, and begged of the god permission to return to 
Athens : and he ordered them first to sacrifice to Apollo 
on the spot where they should see a trireme on land moving. 
And when they got to the mountain called Poecilus a dragon 
appeared eagerly running into its hole : and here they sacri- 
ficed to Apollo, and afterwards on their arrival at Athens 
the Athenians made them citizens. Next to this is a temple 
of Aphrodite, and before it a handsome wall of white stone. 


NOW the channels called Rheti are like rivers only in 
their flow, for their water is sea water. And one 
might suppose that they flow from the Euripus near Chalcis 
underground, falling into a sea with a lower level. These 
Rheti are said to be sacred to Proserpine and Demeter, and 
their priests only may catch the fish in them. And they 
were, as I hear, in old times the boundaries between the 
territory of the Eleusinians and Athenians. And the first 
inhabitant on the other side of the Rheti was Crocon, 
and that district is called to this day the kingdom of 
Crocon. This Crocon the Athenians say married Ssesara 
the daughter of Celeus. This at least is the tradition of the 
occupants of the township of Scambonida^. Crocon's tomb 
indeed I could not find, but Eumolpus' tomb the Athenians 
and Euboeans both show. This Eumolpus they say came 
from Thrace, and was the son of Poseidon and Chione : 
and Chione was they say the daughter of Boreas and 


Oritliyia. Homer has not indeed given ns his pedigree, 
but he calls him in his poem a noble man. And in the 
battle between the people of Eleusis and the Athenians 
Erechtheus the king of Athens was slain, and also Imma- 
radns the son of Eumolpus : and peace was concluded on 
these conditions, that the people of Eleusis should be in 
all other respects Athenians, but should have the private 
management of their Mysteries. And the rites of the two 
goddesses, Demeter and Proserpine, were performed by the 
daughters of Celeus. Pamphus and Homer alike call them 
by the names Diogenea, and Pammerope, and Seesara. But 
on the death of Eumolpus Ceryx the youngest son was the 
only one left, who (the heralds say) was not the son of 
Eumolpus at all, but the son of Hermes by Aglaurus the 
daughter of Cecrops. 

There is also a hero-chapel to Hippothoon, from whom a 
tribe gets its name, and near it one to Zarex, who is said to 
have learnt music of Apollo. But my own idea is that 
Zarex was a stranger, a Lacedaemonian who had come into 
Attica, and that the city Zarex in Laconia by the sea was 
called after him. But if the hero Zarex was a native of 
Attica, I know nothing about him. And the river Cephisus 
flows near the Eleusinian territory with greater speed than 
before : and here is a place called Erineus, where Pluto 
they say descended, when he carried off Proserpine. On the 
banks of this river TheseiLS slew the robber Polypemon, 
who was surnamed Procrustes. And the Eleusinians have 
a temple to Triptolemus, and to Propylfean Artemis, and 
to Father Poseidon, and a well called CaUichorus, where 
the Eleusinian women first danced and sang songs to 
the goddess. And the Rharian plain was the first sown 
and the first that produced crops according to tradition, 
and this is the reason why it is the custom to use barley 
from it to make cakes for the sacrifices. Here is shown 
Triptolemus' threshing-floor and altar. But what is inside 
the sacred wall I am forbidden by a dream to divulge, for 
those who are uninitiated, as they are forbidden sight of 
them, so also clearly may not hear of the mysteries. And 
the hero Eleusis, from whom the city gets its name, was 
according to some the son of Hermes and Daira the daugh- 
ter of Oceanus, others make him the son of Ogygns. For 


the ancients, when they had no data for their pedigrees, 
invented fictitious ones, and especially in the pedigrees of 

And as you turn from Eleusis to Bceotia the boundary 
of Attica is the Platsaan district. That was the old boun- 
dary between the Athenians and the people of Eleutherae. 
But when the people of Eleutherae became Athenians then 
Mount Cithseron in Boeotia became the boundary. And 
the people of Eleutherae became Athenians not by com- 
pulsion, but from hatred to the Thebans and a liking 
for the Athenian form of government. In this plain too is 
a temple of Dionysus, and a statue of the god was removed 
thence to Athens lono- aofo : the one at Eleutherae now is 
an imitation of it. And at some distance is a small grotto, 
and near it a spring of cold water. And it is said that 
Antiope gave birth to twins and left them in this grotto, 
and a shepherd finding them near the spring gave them 
their first bath in it, having stript them of their swaddling 
clothes. And there was still in my day remains of a wall 
and buildings at Eleutherae. This makes it clear that it 
was a town built a little above the plain towards Mount 


AND another road leads from Eleusis to Megara : as you 
go along this road is a well called the Well of Flowers. 
Pamphus records that it was at this well that Demeter sat 
in the guise of an old woman after the rape of Proserpine : 
and that she was taken thence as an old woman of the 
country by the daughters of Celeus to their mother, and 
that Metanira entrusted her with the education of her son. 
And not far from the well is the temple of Metanira, 
and next to it the tombs of those that fell at Thebes. For 
Creon, who was at that time the ruler at Thebes (being 
Regent for Laodamas the son of Eteocles), would not allow 
their relations to bury the dead : and Adrastus having sup- 
plicated Theseus, and a battle having been fought between 
the Athenians and Boeotians, when Theseus was the victor, 


he conveyed the dead bodies to Eleusis and there buried 
them. But the Thebans say that thev surrendered the 
dead bodies of their own freewill, and did not fight on this 
question. And next to the tombs of the Argives is the 
monument of Alope. who they say was the mother of Hip- 
pothoon by Poseidon, and was in consequence put to death 
by her father Cercyon. Now this Cercyon is said in other 
respects to have been harsh to strangers, and especially to 
those who would not contend with him in wrestling : and 
this place was called even in my day Cercyon's wrestling 
ground, at a little distance from the tomb of Alope. And 
Cercyon is said to have killed all that wrestled with him 
but Theseus. But Theseus wrestled against him cunningly 
throw for throw and beat him : for he was the first who 
elevated wrestling into a science, and afterwards established 
training: schools for wrestling : for before the time of Theseus 
only size and strength were made use of in wrestling. 

Such in my opinion are the most noteworthy among 
Athenian traditions or sights. And in my account I have 
selected out of a mass of material that only which was im- 
portant enough to be considered history. 

Next to Eleusis is the district called Megaris : it too be- 
longed originally to the Athenians, having been bequeathed 
to Pandion by (its) king Pylas. Proofs of what I assert 
ai« the tomb of Pandion in that district, and the fact that 
Nisus, though he conceded the kingdom of Attica to ^geus 
the head of the family, yet himself was selected te be king 
of Megara and the whole district up to Corinth : and even 
now the Megarians have a dockyard called Nisaea after 
him. And afterwards, when Codrns was king, the Pelopon- 
nesians marched against Athens : and not having any 
brilliant success there they went home again, but took 
Megara from the Athenians, and gave it to the Corinthians 
and others of their allies that wished to dwell in it. Thus 
the Megarians changed their customs and dialect and 
became Dorians. And they say the city got its name in 
the days of Car, the son of Phoroneus, who was king in this 
district : in his day they say first ^temples were built to 
Demeter among them, and the inhabitants called them 
Halls.' This is at any rate the tradition of the Megarians. 
' The Greek is Megara. Hence the paronomasia. 


But the Boeotians say that Megareue the son of Poseidon 
lived at Onchestus, and went with an army of Boeotians to 
aid Nisus in his war against Minos, and that he fell in the 
battle, and got buried there, and the city which had been 
formerly called Nisa, got its name Megara from him. 
And years afterwards, in the 12th generation from Car, the 
son of Phoroneus, the Megarians say Lelex came from 
Egypt and became king, and during his reign the Mega- 
rians were called Leleges. And he had a son Cleson, and a 
grandson Pylas, and a greatgrandson Sciron, who married 
the daughter of Pandion, and afterwards, (Sciron having a 
controversy with Nisus the son of Pandion about the sove- 
reignty), ^acus was arbitrator, and gave his decision that 
the kingdom was to belong to Nisus and his descendants, 
but the command of the army was to devolve upon Sciron. 
And Megareus the son of Poseidon, having married Iphinoe 
the daughter of Nisus, succeeded Nisus they say in the 
kingdom. But of the Cretan war, and the capture of 
the city in the days of King Nisus, they pretend to know 


THERE is in the city a conduit erected by Theagenes, 
of whom I mentioned befoi'e that he married his 
daughter to Cylon an Athenian. This Theagenes when he 
was king erected this conduit, well worth seeing for its size 
and beauty and the number of its pillars. And the water 
that flows into is called after the Sithnidian Nymphs, who, 
according to the Megarian tradition, are natives, and one 
of them bare a son to Zeus, whose name was Megarus, and 
who escaped Deucalion's flood by getting to the top of Mount 
G-eraneia (Granemountain), which was not the original name 
of the mountain, but was so called because he followed in 
his swimming the flight of some cranes by their cry. And 
not far from this conduit is an ancient temple, and there 
are some statues in it of Roman Emperors, and an image of 
Artemis in brass by the name of Saviour. The story goes 
that some men in the army of Mardonius who had overrun 
Megaris wished to return to Thebes to join Mardonius, but 


bv the contrivance of Artemis wandered about all night, 
and lost their way, and got into the mountainous part 
of the country, and, endeavouring to ascertain if the 
enemy's army was about, shot some aiTOws, and the rock 
shot at returned a groan, and they shot again and again 
furiously. And at last their arrows were expended in 
shooting at their supposed foes. And when day dawned, 
and the Megarians really did attack them, (well armed 
against men badiy armed and now minus ammunition), they 
slew most of them. And this is why they put up an image 
to Artemis the Saviotir. Here too are images of the so- 
caUed 12 gods, the production of Praxiteles. He also 
made an Artemis of the Strongylii. And next, as you enter 
the sacred enclosure of Zeus called the Olympieum, there 
is a temple well worth seeing : the statue of Zeus is not 
finished in consequence of the war between the Pelopon- 
nesians and the Athenians, in which the Athenians every 
year by land and by sea injured the Megarians both pub- 
licly and privately, ravaging their territory, and bringing 
them individually to the greatest poverty. And the head 
of this statue of Zeus is of ivory and gold, but the other 
parts are of clay and earthenware : and they say it was 
made by Theocosmus a native, assisted by Phidias. And 
above the head of Zeus are the Seasons and the Fates : 
it is plain to all that Fate is his sei-vant, and that he orders 
the Seasons as is meet. In the back part of the temple 
there are some wooden figures only half finished : Theo- 
cosmus intended to finish them when he had adorned the 
statue of Zeus with ivory and gold. And in the temple 
there is the brazen ram of a trireme, which was thev sav 
taken at Salamis, in the sea fight against the Athenians. 
The Athenians do not deny that there was for some time 
a defection on the part of Salamis to the Megarians, 
but Solon they say by his elegiac verses stirred the 
Athenians up, and they fought for it, and eventually re- 
took it. But the ^legarians say that some of their exiles, 
called Doryclei, mixed themselves among the inhabitants 
and betrayed Salamis to the Athenians. And next to the 
enclosure of Zeus, as you ascend the Acropolis still called 
the Carian from Car the son of Phoroneus, is the temple 
of Nyctelian Dionysus, and the temple of Aphrodite the 


Procuress, and the Oracle of Night, and a roofless temple 
of dusty Zeus. And statues of -^sculapius and Hygiea, 
both the work of Bryaxis. Here too is the sacred Hall of 
Demeter : which they say was erected by Car when he was 


AS you descend from the Acropolis in a Northerly direc- 
tion, you come to the sepulchre of Alcmene near the 
Olympieum. She died they say at Megara on her journey 
from Argos to Thebes, and the sons of Hercules had a 
dispute, some wishing to take her dead body to Argos, 
others to Thebes : for the sons of Hercules by Megara were 
buried at Thebes, as also Amphitryon's sons. But Apollo at 
Delphi gave the oracular response that it would be better 
for them to bury Alcmena at Megara. From this place 
the interpreter of national Antiquities took me to a place 
called Rhun (Flow), so called because some water flowed 
here from the hills above the city, but Theagenes when he 
was king diverted the water into another direction, and 
erected here an altar to Achelous. And at no great distance 
is the monument of Hyllus the son of Hercules, who 
fought in single combat with the Arcadian Echemus, the 
son of Aeropus. Who this Echemus was that slew Hyllus I 
shall shew in another place, but Hyllus is buried at Megara. 
The expedition to the Peloponnese, when Orestes was king, 
might rightly be called an expedition of the sons of Hercules. 
And not far from the monument of Hyllus is the temple of 
Isis, and near it the temple of Apollo and Artemis. This 
last they say was built by Alcathous, after he had slain the 
lion that was called the lion of Mount Citha3ron. This lion 
had they say devoured several Megarians and among them 
the king's son Euippus : whose elder brother Timalcus had 
been killed by Theseus still earlier, when he went with 
Castor and Pollux to the siege of Aphidna. Megareus 
therefore promised his daughter in marriage, and the suc- 
cession to the kingdom, to whoever should kill the lion of 
Mount Cithseron. So Alcathous (the son of Pelops) attacked 
the beast and slew him, and, when he became king built 


this temple, dedicating it to Huntress Artemis and Hunter 
Apollo. This at any rate is the local tradition. But though 
I don't want to contradict the Megarians, I cannot find myself 
in agreement with them entirely, for though I quite admit 
that the lion of Mount Cithaeron was killed by Alcathous, 
yet who ever recorded that Timalcus the son of Megareus 
went to Aphidna with Castor and Pollux ? And how (if he 
had gone there) could he have been thought to have been 
killed by Theseus, seeing that Alcman in his Ode to Castor 
and Pollux, recording how they took Athens, and carried 
away captive the mother of Theseus, yet says that Theseus 
was away ? Pindar also gives a very similar account, and 
says that Theseus wished to be connected by marriage with 
Castor and Pollux, tOl he went away to help Piiithous 
in his ambitious attempt to wed Proserpine. But whoever 
drew up the genealogy plainly knew the siruplicity of the 
Megarians, since Theseus was the descendant of Pelops. But 
indeed the Megarians purposely hide the real state of things, 
not wishing to own that their city was captured when Nisus 
was king, and that Megareus who succeeded to the kingdom 
was the son in law of Xisus, and that Alcathous was the 
son in law of Megareus. But it is certain that it was not 
till after the death of Nisus, and a revolution at Megara, 
that Alcathous came there from Elis. And this is my 
proof. He built up the wall anew, when the whole of the 
old wall had been demolished by the Cretans. Let this 
sufl&ce for Alcathous and the lion, whether he slew the lion 
on !Mount Cithaeron or somewhere else, before he erected the 
temple to Huntress Artemis and Hunter Apollo. 

As you descend from this temple is the hero-chapel of 
Pandion, who, as I have already shewn, was buried at what 
is called the rock of Athene the Diver. He has also divine 
honours paid to him at Megara. And near the hero- 
chapel of Pandion is the monument of Hippolyta. This 
is the Megarian tradition about her. "When the Amazons, 
on account of Antiope, made an expedition against the 
Athenians, they were beaten by Theseus, and most of them 
(it so happened) fell in battle, but Hippolyta (the sister 
of Antiope), who was at that time leader of the Amazons, 
fled to Megara with the remnant of them, and there, having 
been unsuccessful with her army, and dejected at the pre- 


sent state of things, and still more despondent abont get- 
ting safe home again to Themiscyra, died of grief and was 
buried. A:id the device on her tomb is an Amazon's shield. 
And not far distant is the tomb of Tereus, who married 
Procne the daughter of Pandion. Tereus was king (ac- 
cording to the Megarian tradition) of Pa,g8e in Megaris, 
but in my opinion (and there are still extant proofs of what 
I state) he was king of Daulis N.W. of Chseronea : for 
most of what is now called Hellas was inhabited in old 
time by barbarians. And his subjects would no longer obey 
Tereus after his vile conduct to Philomela, and after the 
murder of Itys by Procne and Philomela. And he com- 
mitted suicide at Megara, and they forthwith piled up a 
tomb for him, and offer sacrifices to him annually, using 
pebbles in the sacrifice instead of barley. And they say the 
hoopoe was first seen here. And Procne and Philomela 
went to Athens, and lamenting what they had suffered and 
done melted away in tears : and the tradition that they 
were changed into a nightingale and swallow is, I fancy, 
simply that these birds have a sorrowful and melancholy 


THERE is also another citadel at Megara that gets its 
name from Alcathous. As one goes up to it, there is on 
the right hand a monument of Megareus, who started from 
Onchestus to aid the Megarians in the Cretan War. There 
is also shown an altar of the gods called Prodromi : and 
they say that Alcathous first sacrificed to them when he 
was commencing to build his wall. And near this altar 
is a stone, on which they say Apollo put his harp down, 
while he assisted Alcathous in building the wall. And the 
following fact proves that the Megarians were numbered 
among the Athenians : Periboea the daughter of Alcathous 
was certainly sent by him to Crete with Theseus in 
connection with the tribute. And Apollo, as the Megarians 
say, assisted him in building the wall, and laid his harp 
down on the stone : and if one chances to hit it with a 
pebble, it sounds like a harp being played. This inspired 

BOOK 1. — ATTICA. 83 

great wonder in me, but not so much as the Colossus in 
Egypt. At Thebes in Egypt, when you cross the Nile, at a 
place called the Pipes (Syringes), there is a seated statue 
that has a musical sound, most people call it Memnon : for 
he they say went from Ethiopia to Egypt and even to Susa. 
But the Thebans say it was a statue not of !Memnon, but 
Phamenophes a Theban, and I have heard people say it 
was Sesostris. This statue Cambyses cut in two: and now 
the head to the middle of the body lies on the ground, but 
the lower part remains in a sitting posture, and every morn- 
ing at sunrise resounds with melody, and the sound it most 
resembles is that of a harp or lyre with a chord broken. 

And the Megarians have a council chamber, which was 
once as they say the tomb of Timalcus, who, as I said a little 
time back, was killed by Theseus. And on the hill where 
the citadel stands is a temple of Athene, and a brazen 
statue of the goddess, except the hands and the toes, which 
as well as the face are of ivory. And there is another 
temple here of Athene called Victory, and another of her 
as Aiantis. As regards the latter, all mention of it is 
passed over by the interpreters of curiosities at Megara, 
but I will write my own ideas. Telamon the son of ./Eacns 
married Periboea the daughter of Alcathous. I imagine 
then that Aias, having succeeded to the kingdom of Alca- 
thous, made this statue of Athene Aiantis. 

The old temple of Apollo was made of brick : but 
afterwards the Emperor Adrian built it of white stone. 
The statues called Apollo Pythius and Apollo Decata- 
phorns are very like Egyptian statues, but the one they 
call Archegetes is like ^ginetan handiwork. And all alike 
are made of ebony. I heard a Cyprian, a cunning herbalist, 
say that the ebony has neither leaves nor fruit, and that it 
is never seen exposed to the sun, but its roots are under- 
ground, and the Ethiopians dig them up, and there are 
men among them who know how to find it. There is also 
a temple of lawgiving Demeter. And as you go down 
from thence is the tomb of Callipolis the son of Alca- 
thous. Alcathous had also an elder son called Iscliepolis, 
whom his father sent to assist Meleager in ^tolia 
against the Calydonian boar. And when he was killed 
Callipolis heard the news first in this place : and he ran 



to the citadel, where his father was sacrificing to Apollo, and 
threw down the wood from the altar. And Alcathous, not 
having yet heard the news about Ischepolis, was vexed with 
CallipoHs for his irreverence, and in his wrath killed him 
instantaneously by striking him on the head with one of 
the pieces of wood he had thrown down from the altar. 

On the road to the Prytaneum there is a hero-chapel of 
Ino, and a cornice of stone round it. Some olive-trees also 
grow there. The Megarians are the only Greeks that say that 
the dead body of Ino was cast on the shore of Megaris, and 
that Cleso and Tauropolis, the daughters of Cleso and 
granddaughters of Lelex, found it and buried it. And they 
say that Ino was called by them first Leucothea, and they 
sacrifice to her every year. 


THEY also lay claim to the possession of a mortuary- 
chapel of Iphigenia, for she too they say died at Me- 
gara. But I have heard a difi^erent account of Iphigenia 
from the Arcadians, and I know that Hesiod in his Cata- 
logue of Women describes Iphigenia as not dying, but 
being changed into Hecate by the will of Artemis. And 
Herodotus ^ wrote not dissimilarly to this, that the Tauric 
people in Scythia after shipwreck sacrifice to a virgin, 
who is they say Iphigenia the daughter of Agamemnon. 
Adrastus also has divine honours among the Megarians : 
he too they say died among them (when he was leading 
the army back after the capture of Thebes), of old age and 
sorrow for the death of -<:Egialeus. And Agamemnon erected 
an altar to Artemis at Megara, when he went to Calchas, 
a native of the place, to persuade him to join the expedi- 
tion to Ilium. And in the Prytaneum they say Euippus 
the son of Megareus was buried, and also Ischepolis the son 
of Alcathous. And there is a rock near the Prytaneum 
called The Calling Bock, because Demeter (if there is any 
truth in the tale), when she wandered about seeking her 
daughter, called out for her here. And the Megarian, 

' Herod, iv. 99, and 103. 


women still perform a kind of mimic representation of 
this. And the Megarians have tombs in the city : one 
they erected for those who fell fighting against the Medes, 
the other, called -^symnian, is a monument to heroes. For 
when Hyperion, the last king of Megara, the son of Aga- 
memnon, was killed by Sandion on account of his greed and 
haughtiness, they chose no longer to be under kingly go- 
vernment, but to have chief magistrates annually chosen, so 
as to be under one another's authority by turn. Then it 
was that ^symnus, second to none of the Megarians in fame 
and influence, went to Apollo at Delphi, and asked how they 
were to have prosperity. And the god among other things 
told them they would fare well if they deliberated on affairs 
with the majority. Thinking these words had reference to 
the dead, they built here a council chamber, that the tomb 
of the heroes might be inside their council chamber. As 
you go from thence to the hero-chapel of Alcathous, which 
the Megarians now use as a Record Office, there are two 
tombs, one they say of Pyrgo, the wife of Alcathous 
before he married Eutechma the daughter of Megareus, the 
other of Iphinoe the daughter of Alcathous, who they say 
died unmaiTied. At her tomb it is the custom of maidens 
before marriage to pour libations, and sacrifice some of their 
long hair, as the maidens of Delos used to do to Hecaerge and 
Opis. And near the entrance to the temple of Dionysus 
are the tombs of Astycratea and Manto, the daughters of 
Polyidus, (the son of Coeranus, the son of Abas, the son of 
^Melampus,) who went to Megara, and purged Alcathous for 
the murder of his son Callipohs. And Polyidus also built the 
temple of Dionysus, and erected a statue of the god veiled 
in my day except the face : that is visible. And a Satyr is 
near Dionysus, the work of Praxiteles in Parian marble. 
And this they call Tutelary Dionysus, and another they call 
Dionysus Dasyllius (the Vine-ripener), and this statue they 
say was erected by Euchenor the son of Cceranus the son of 
Polyidus. And next to the temple of Dionysus is the shrine 
of Aphrodite, and a statue of the goddess in ivory, under the 
title Pi-axis {Action). This is the oldest statue in the 
shrine. And Persuasion and another goddess whom they 
call Consolation are by Praxiteles : and by Scopas Love and 
Desire and Yearning, each statue expressing the particular 


shade of meaning marked by the words. And near the 
shrine of Aphrodite is the temple of Chance : this too is by 
Praxiteles. And in the neighbouring temple Lysippus has 
made the Muses and a brazen Zeus. 

The Megarians also have the tomb of Corcebns: the 
verses about him I shall relate here though they are also 
Argive intelligence. In the days when Crotopus was king 
in Argos, his daughter Psamathe they say had a child by 
Apollo, and being greatly afraid of her father knowing it 
exposed the child. And some sheep dogs of Crotopus lit 
upon the child and killed it, and Apollo sent upon the city 
Punishment, a monster who took children away from their 
mothers (they say) , till Coroebus killed it to ingratiate him- 
self with the Argives. And after killing it, as a second 
plague came on them and vexed them sore, Coroebus of 
his own accord went to Delphi, and offered to submit to 
the punishment of the god for killing Punishment The 
Pythian priestess forbade Coroebus to return to Argos, 
but told him to carry a tripod from the temple, and wher- 
ever the tripod should fall, there he was to build a temple 
to Apollo and himself dwell. And the tripod slipt out of 
his hand and fell (without his contrivance) on the raountain 
Gerania, and there he built the village Tripodisci. And 
his tomb is in the market-place at Megara : and there 
are some elegiac verses on it that relate to Psamathe and 
Coroebus himself, and a representation on the tomb of 
Coroebus killing Punishment. These statues are the oldest 
'^'reek ones in stone that I have myself seen. 


NEXT Coroebus is buried Orsippus, who, though the 
athletes according to olden custom had girdles round 
their loins, ran naked at Olympia in the race and won the 
prize. And they say that he afterwards as general cut off 
a slice of his neighbours' territory. But I think at 
Olympia he dropped his girdle on purpose, knowing that 
it is easier for a man to run naked than with a girdle on. 
And as you descend from the market-place by the way called 


Straight, there is on the right hand a temple of Protecting 
Apollo : you can find it by turning a little out of the way. 
And there is in it a statue of Apollo well worth seeing, and 
an Artemis and Leto, and other statues, and Leto and her 
sons by Praxiteles, And there is in the ancient gymna- 
sium, near the gates called Nymphades, a stone in shape 
like a small pyramid. This they call Apollo Carinus, and 
there is here a temple to Ilithyia also. Such are the notable 
things the city contains. And as you descend to the dock- 
yard, which is still called Xisaea, is a temple of Demeter the 
Wool-bearer. Sevei-al explanations are given of this title, 
among them that those who first reared sheep in this 
country gave her that name. And one would conjecture 
that the roof had fallen from the temple by the lapse of time. 
There is here also a citadel called Nisaea. And as you descend 
from it there is near the sea a monument of Lei ex the king, 
who is said to have come from Egypt, and to have been the 
son of Poseidon by Libye the daughter of Epaphus. There 
is an island too near ^isaea of no great size called Minoa. 
Here the navy of the Cretans was moored in the war with 
Nisus. And the mountainous part of Megaris is on the 
borders of Bceotia, and contains two towns, Pagae and 
^gosthena. As you go to Pagae, if you turn a little off 
from the regular road, there is shewn the rock which has 
ari'ows fixed in it everywhere, into which the Medes once 
shot in the night. At Pagas too well worth seeing is a 
brazen statue of Artemis under the title of Saviour, in size 
and shape like the statues of the goddess at Megara. 
There is also here a hero- chapel of -iSigialeus the son of 
Adrastns. He, when the Argives marched against Thebes 
the second time, was killed in the first battle at Glisas, and 
his relations carried him to Pagse in Megaris, and buried 
him there, and the hero-chapel is still called after his name. 
And at ^gosthena is a temple of Melampus the son of 
Amythaon, and a man of no great size is carved on a pillar. 
And they sacrifice to Melampus and have a festival to him 
every year. But they say that he has no prophetic powers 
either in dreams or in any other way. And I also heard at 
Erenea a village of Megaris, that Autonoe the daughter of 
Cadmus, excessively grieving at the death of Actaeon, and 
the circumstances of it which tradition records, and the 


general misfortunes of her father's house, migrated there 
from Thebes : and her tomb is in that village. 

And as you go from Megara to Corinth there are several 
tombs, and among them that of the Samian fluteplayer 
Telephanes. And they say that this tomb was erected by 
Cleopatra, the daughter of Philip the son of Amyntas. And 
there is a monument of Car the son of Phoroneus, origi- 
nally only a mound of earth, but afterwards in consequence 
of the oracle it was beautified with a shell-like stone. And 
the Megarians are the only Greeks who possess this pecu- 
liar kind of stone, and many things in their city are made 
of it. It is very white, and softer than other stone, and 
seashells are everywhere in it. Such is this kind of stone. 
And the road, called the Scironian road after Sciron, is so 
called because Sciron, when he was commander in chief of 
the Megarians, first made it a road for travellers according 
to tradition. And the Emperor Adrian made it so wide 
and convenient that two chariots could drive abreast. 

Now there are traditions about the rocks which project 
in the narrow part of the road ; with regard to the Molu- 
rian rock, that Ino threw herself into the sea from it with 
MeHcerta, the younger of her sons : for Learchus the oldest 
was killed by his father. Athamas also is said to have acted 
in the same way when mad, and to have exhibited un- 
governable rage to Ino and her children, thinking that the 
famine which befell the Orchomenians, which also appa- 
rently caused the death of Phrixus, was not the visitation of 
God, but a stepmother's contrivance against them all. So 
she to escape him threw herself a,nd her boy Melicerta into 
the sea from the Molurian rock. And the boy, being carried 
it is said by a dolphin to the Isthmus of Corinth, had 
various honours paid to him under the name of Palaemon, 
and the Isthmian games were celebrated in his honour. 
This Molurian rock they consider sacred to Leucothea 
and Palaemon, but the rocks next to it they consider ac- 
cursed, because Sciron lived near them, who threw into the 
sea all strangers that chanced to come there. And a tor- 
. toise used to swim about near these rocks, so as to devour 
those that were thrown in : these sea tortoises are like 
land tortoises, except in size and the shape of their feet 
which are like those of seals. But the whirligig of time 


which brought on Sciron punishment for all this, for he 
himself was thrown by Theseus into the same sea. And 
on the top of the mountain is a temple to Zeus called 
the Remover. They say that Zeus was so called because 
when a great drought once happened to the Greeks, and 
^acus in obedience to the oracle prayed to Pan-Hel- 
lenian Zeus at ^gina, he took it away and removed it. 
Here are also statues of Aphrodite and Apollo and Pan. 
And as you go on a Uttle further is the tomb of Eurystheus. 
They say that he fled here from Attica after the battle with 
the HeracHdae, and was killed by lolaus. As you descend 
this road is a temple of Latoan Apollo, and near to it the 
boundaries between Megaris and Corinth, where they say 
Hyllus the son of Hercules had a single combat with the 
Arcadian Echemus. 



THE Corinthian territory, a part of Argolis, gets its 
name from Corinthus, and that he was the son of 
Zeus I know of none who seriously assert but most Corin- 
thians, for Eumelus the son of Amphilytus of the race 
called Bacchidge, who is also said to have been a poet, says 
in his History of Corinth (if indeed he is the author of 
it), that Ephyre the daughter of Oceanus, dwelt first in 
this land, and that afterwards Marathon the son of Epopeus, 
the son of Aloeus, the son of the Sun, fled from the lawless 
insolence of his father, and took a colony into the maritime 
arts of Attica, and when Epopeus was dead returned to 
the Peloponnese, and after dividing the kingdom among 
his sons went back into Attica, and from his son Sicyon 
Asopia got the name of Sicyonia, and Ephyrea got called 
Corinth from his son Corinthus. 

Now Corinth is inhabited by none of the ancient Corin- 
thians, but by colonists who were sent there by the Romans. 
And this is owing to the Achaean confederacy. For the 
Corinthians joined it, and took their part in the war with 
the Romans which Critolaus, who had been appointed com- 
mander in chief of the Acheeans, brought about, having 
persuaded the Achseans and most of the Grreeks outside 
the Peloponnese to revolt againSt Rome. And the Ro- 
mans, after conquering all the other Greeks in battle, 
took away from them their arms, and razed the fortifica- 
tions of all the fortified cities : but they destroyed Corinth 
under Mummius the General of the Roman army, and they 
say it was rebuilt by Julius Caesar, who instituted the pre- 
sent form of government at Rome, (the Imperial). Carthage 
also was rebuilt in his term of power. 

Now the place called Crommyon in the Corinthian tern- 

BOOK n. — CORIXTH. 91 

tory is so called from Cromus the son of Poseidon. Here 
thej say was the haunt of the Phtean boar, and the scene of 
Theseus' legendary exploits against Pityocamptes, (the 
Pinebender). As you go forward the famous pine was to 
be seen even in my time near the seashore ; and there was 
an altar to Melicerta there, for it was here they say that 
he was conveyed by the dolphin : and Sisyphus, finding him 
lying dead on the shore, buried him at the Isthmus, and 
established the Isthmian games in honour of him. N'ow it 
is at the head of the Isthmus that the robber Sinis took 
two pinetrees and bent them down to the ground : and who- 
ever he conquered in battle he tied to these pinetrees, and let 
the pines go up into the air again : and each of these pines 
dragged the poor fellow tied to it, and (neither yielding but 
pulling with equal vigour) the victim tied to them was torn 
asunder. In this way Sinis himself was killed by Theseus. 
For Theseus cleared all the road from Troezen to Athens of 
evildoers, having killed those whom I mentioned before, 
and, at Epidaurus the Holy, Periphetes the putative son of 
Hephtestus, whose weapon in fighting was a brazen club. 
The Isthmus of Corinth extends in one dii*ection to the sea 
near Cenchrese, and in the other to the sea near Lechteum. 
This Isthmus makes the Peloponnese a Peninsula. And 
whoever attempted to make the Peloponnese an island died 
before the completion of a canal across the Isthmus. And 
where they began to dig is now plainly visible, but they 
didn't make much progress because of the rock. The Pelo- 
ponnese remains therefore what it was by nature main land. 
And when Alexander, the son of Philip, wished to make a 
canal through !Mimas, the work was all but completed. But 
the oracle at Delphi forbade the navvies to complete the 
work. So difficult is it for man to oppose the divine ordi- 
nances. And the Corinthians are not alone in their boasting 
about their country, but it seems to me that the Athenians 
even earlier used tall talk in regard to Attica The 
Corinthians say that Poseidon had a controversy with the 
Sun about their land, and that Briareus was the Arbi- 
trator, awarding the Isthmus and all in that direction to 
Poseidon, and giving the height above the city to the 
Sun. From this time they say the Isthmus belongs to 


The great sights at Corinth are the Theatre, and the 
Stadium of white stone. And as you approach the temple 
of the god, there are statues of the Athletes who have been 
conquerors in the Isthmian games on one side, and on the 
other pinetrees planted in a row, mostly in a straight line. 
And at the temple, which is not very large, there stand 
some Tritons in brass. And there are statues in the porch 
two hi Poseidon, and one of Amphitrite, and a brazen Sea. 
And inside Herod aei Athenian placed in our time 4 
horses all gold except the hoofs, which are of ivory. And 
two golden Tritons are near the horses, ivory below the 
waist. And Amphitrite and Poseidon are standing in 
a chariot, and their son Palaemon is seated bolt upright 
on the dolphin's back : and these are made of ivory and 
gold. And on the middle of the base, on which the chariot 
rests, is the Sea supporting the child Aphrodite rising 
from it, and on each side are the so-called Nereids, who 
have I know altars in other parts of Grreece, and some 
have temples dedicated to them as Shepherdesses, in places 
where Achilles is also honoured. And at Doto among the 
Gabali there is a holy temple, where the peplus is still 
kept, which the Greeks say Eriphyle took for her son 
Alcmseon. And on the base of Poseidon's statue are in 
bas-relief the sons of Tyndareus, because they are the 
patron saints of ships and sailors. And the other statues 
are Calm and Sea, and a horse like a sea-monster below the 
waist, and Ino and Bellerophon and Pegasus. 


AND inside the precincts there is on the left hand a 
temple of Palasmon, and some statues in it of Poseidon 
and Leucothea and Paleemon himself. And there is also a 
crypt, approached by an underground passage, where they 
say Palaemon is buried : whatever Corinthian or foreigner 
commits perjury here has no chance of escaping punish- 
ment. There is also an ancient temple called the altar of 
the Cyclopes, to whom they sacrifice upon it. Biit the 
tombs of Sisyphus and Neleus, (for they say that Nek us 


came to Corinth, and died there of some disease, and was 
buried near the Isthmus), no one could find from the account 
in the poems of Eumelns. As to Xeleus they say that his 
tomb was not even shewn to Nestor by Sisyphus : for it was 
to be unknown to all alike. But that Sisyphus was buried 
at the Isthmus, and indeed the very site of his tomb, a 
few Corinthians who were his contemporaries know. And 
the Isthmian games did not fall into disuse when Corintli 
was taken by ^lummius, but as long as the city lay deso- 
late, these games took place at Sicyon, and when the city 
was rebuilt the old honour came back to Corinth. 

The Corinthian seaports got their names from Leches 
and Cenchrias, who were reputed to be the sons of Poseidon 
by Pirene the daughter of Achelous : though in Hesiod's 
poem the great Ecece Pirene is said to be the daughter of 
(Ebalus. And there is at Lechteum a temple and brazen 
«itatae of Poseidon, and as you go to Cenchreae from the 
Isthmus a temple of Artemis, and old wooden statue of the 
goddess. And at Cenchrese there is a shrine of Aphrodite 
md her statue in stone, and next it, on the breakwater 
near the sea, a brazen statue of Poseidon. And on the 
other side of the harbour are temples of -^sculapius and 
Isis. And opposite Cenchreae is the bath of Helen : where 
much salt water flows into the sea from the rock, like water 
just with the chill ofi. 

As you go up the hill to Corinth there are several 
tombs along the wayside, and at the gate is buried Dio- 
genes of Sinope, whom the Greeks nickname the Cynic. 
And in front of the city is a grove of cypress trees called 
Craneum. Here is a temple of Bellerophon, and a shrine of 
^lelsenian Aphrodite, and the tomb of Lais, with a lioness 
carved on it with a ram in its front paws. And there is 
another monument of Lais said to exist in Thessalv : for 
she went to Thessaly when she was enamoured of Hippo- 
stratus. She is said to have come originally from Hyccara 
in Sicily, and to have been taken prisoner as a child by 
Nicias and the Athenians, and to have been sold at Corinth, 
and to have outstripped in beauty all the courtesans there, 
and so admired was she by the Corinthians that even now 
they claim her as a Corinthian. 

The notable things in the city are partly the remains 


of antiquity still to be seen there, partly works of art more 

recent, when Corinth was at the height of all her glory. In the 

market-place, for most of the temples are there, is Ephesian 

Artemis, and there ai'e two wooden statues of Dionysus 

gilt except the faces, which are painted with red paint, 

one they call Lysian Dionysus, and the other Dionysus the 

1 Reveller. The tradition about these statues I will record. 

/ Pentheus they say, when_^e outraged Dionysus, among other 

lacts of reckless darin^ actually at last went to Mount 

)Cith£eron to spy the women, and climbed up into a tree to 

{see what they were doing: and when they detected him, 

I they forthwith dragged him down, and tore him limb from 

; limb. And afterwards, so they say at Corinth, the Pythian 

! Priestess told them to discover that tree and pay it divine 

1 honours. And that is why these statues are made of thni 

''very wood. There is also a Temple of Fortune : her statu( 

is in a standing posture, in Parian marble. And near it is 

a temple to all the gods. And near it is a conduit, and a 

brazen Poseidon on it, and a dolphin under Poseidon's feet 

passing the water. And there is a brazen statue of Apollo 

called the Clarian, and a statue of Aphrodite by Hermogenes 

of Cythera. And both the statues of Hermes are of brass 

and in a stending posture, and one of them has a shrine 

built for it. And there are three statues of Zeus in the open 

air, one has no special title, the second is called Zeus of the 

K'ether World, and the third Zeus of Highest Heaven. 


AND in the middle of the market-place is a statue of 
Athene in brass : on the base are sculptured effigies of 
the Muses. And above the market-place is a temple of Oc- 
tavia, the sister of Augustus, who was Emperor of the 
Romans after Ceesar, the founder of modern Corinth. 

And as you go from the market-place towards Lechaeum 
there are testibules, on which are golden chariots, one 
with Phaethon in it (the son of the Sun), and the other with 
the Sun himself in it. And at a little distance from the 
vestibules on the right as you enter is a brazen statue 


of Hercules. And next to it is the approach to the well of 
Pirene. They suy that Pirene became a well from a woman 
through the tears she shed, bewailing the death of her 
son Cenchrias at the hands of Artemis. And the well 
is beautified with white stone, and there are cells like 
caves to match, from which the water trickles into that 
part of the well which is in the open air, and it has a 
sweet taste, and they say that Coriuthian brass when hiss- 
ing hot is dipped into this water. There is also a statue 
of Apollo near Pii*ene, and some precincts of the god. 
There is also a painting of Odysseus taking vengeance on 
the suitors. 

And as you go straight on for Lechaeum, you will see a 
brazen Hermes in a sitting posture, and by it a ram, for 
Hennes more than any of the gods is thought to watch 
over and increase flocks, as indeed Homer has represented 
him in the Iliad " The son of Phorbas rich in flocks and 
herds, whom Hermes loved most of the Trojans, and in- 
creased his substance." ^ But the ti-adition about Hermes 
and the ram in the rites of the Great Mother (though I 
know it) I purposely pass over. And next to the statue of 
Hermes are Poseidon and Leucothea, and Palfemon on the 
dolphin's back. And there ai*e several baths in variotis 
parts of Corinth, some erected at the public expense, and 
others by the Emperor Adrian. And the most famous of 
them is near the statue of Poseidon. It was erected by 
Eurycles a Spartan, who beautified it with various stones, 
amongst others by the stone they dig at Crocea? in Laconia. 
On the left of the entrance is a statue of Poseidon, and 
next to him one of Artemis hunting. And many conduits 
have been built in various parts of the city, as there is 
abundance of water, as well as the water which the Emperor 
Adrian brought from Stymphelus : the handsomest is the 
conduit by the statue of Artemis, and on it is a figure of 
Bellerophon, and the water flows by the hoof of Pegasus. 

As you go from the market-place towai*ds Sicyon, there 
is visible on the right of the road a temple and brazen 
statue of Apollo, and at a little distance a well called the 
well of Glauce: for she threw herself into it, thinking 
the water would be an antidote against the poison of 
' Iliad XTi. 490. 491. cf. nhn Hes. Th. 444. 


Medea. Above this well is what is called the Odeum. 
And near it is the tomb of the sons of Medea, whose 
names were Mermerus and Pheres, who are said to have 
been stoned by the Corinthians because of the gifts which 
they took Glauce. But because their death was violent 
and unjust, the children of the Corinthians wasted away 
in consequence, until at the oracular response of the god 
yearly sacrifices were ordained for them, and a statue 
of Panic erected. This statue still remains to our day, 
the figure of a woman represented as feeling the greatest 
terror. But since the capture of Corinth by the Romans 
and the decay of the old Corinthians, the sacrifices are 
no longer continued by the new settlers, nor do their 
children continue to shear their hair, or wear black rai- 
ment. And Medea when she went to Athens, lived with 
JEjgeus, but some time after (being detected plotting 
against Theseus) she had to fly from Athens also, and 
going to the country which was then called Aria, gave 
her name to its inhabitants, so that they were called Medes 
from her. And the son whom she carried off with her 
when she fled to the Arians was they say her son by 
^geus, and his name was Medus. But Hellanicus calls 
him Polyxenus, and says Jason was his father. And 
there are poems among the Greeks called Naupactian: 
in which Jason is represented as having migrated from 
lolcus to Corcyra after the death of Pelias, and Mermerus 
(the elder of his sons) is said to have been torn to pieces 
by a lioness, as he was hunting on the mainland opposite : 
but about Pheres nothing is recorded. And Cineethon 
the Lacedaemonian, who also wrote Genealogical Poems, 
said that Jason had by Medea a son Medeus and a daughter 
Eriopis : but of any children more he too has made no 
mention. But Eumoelus' account is that the Sun gave 
Asopia to Aloeus, and Ephyraea to ^etes : and -(^etes 
went to Colchis, and left the kingdom to Bunus the son 
of Hermes and Alcidamea, and after Bunus' death, Epo- 
peus reigned over the Ephyraeans. And when in after 
days Corinthus the son of Marathon died childless, the 
Corinthians sent for Medea from lolcus to hand over the 
kingdom to her : and it was through her that Jason 
became king of Corinth, and Medea had children, by 


Jason, but whenever each was born she took it to the 
temple of Hera and hid it there, for she thought that bj 
hiding them they would be immortal : but eventually she 
learned that she was wrong in this expectation, and, being 
at the same time detected by Jason, he would not forgive 
her though she pleaded hard for forgiveness, but sailed away 
to lolcus. Eventually Medea herself went away too, and 
handed over the kingdom to Sisyphus. This is the account 
I have read. 


AND not far from the k>mb of Mermerus and Pheres is 
the temple of Athene the Bridler : who they sav 
helped Bellerophon more than any of the gods iu various 
ways, and gave him Pegasus, after having broken it in and 
bridled it herself. Her statue is of wood, but the head and 
hands and toes are of white stone. That Bellerophon was 
not absolute king at Corinth, but limited in his power by 
Prcetus and the Argives I am positive, as every one will be 
who has read Homer carefully. And when Bellerophon 
migrated into Lycia, the Corinthians seem just the same to 
have obeyed those who were in power at Argos or Mycenae. 
And they had no separate commander-in-chief of their own 
in the expedition against Troy, but took part in the expe- 
dition only as a contingent with the men of Mycenae ; 
and Agamemnon's other troops. And Sisyphus had as 
sons not only Glaucus the father of Bellerophon, but also 
Omytion, and Thersander, and Almus. And Phocus was 
the son of Omytion, though nominally the son of Poseidon. 
And he colonized Tithorea in what is now called Phocis, 
but Thoas, the younger son of Omytion, remained at 
Corinth. And Demophon was the son of Thoas, Propodas 
the son of Demophon, Doridas and Hyanthidas the sons of 
Propodas. During the joint reign of Doridas and Hyan- 
thidas the Dorians led an expedition against Corinth, under 
the command of Aletes the son of Hippotas, (the son of 
Phylas, the son of Antiochus, the son of Hercules). 
Doridas and Hvanthidas handed over the kinsdom to 


Aletes, and were permitted to remain at Corinth, but the 
Corinthian people were expelled, after being beaten in battle 
by the Dorians. And Aletes himself and his descendants 
reigned for five generations, down to Bacchis the son of 
Prumnis, and his descendants the Bacchidse reigned five 
more generations, down to Telestes the son of Aristodemus. 
And Telestes was slain by Arieus and Perantas out of 
hatred, and there were no longer any kings, but Presidents 
elected annually from the Bacchidee, till Cypselus the son 
of Eetion drove out the Bacchidse, and made himself king. 
He was the descendant of Melas the son of Antasus. And 
when Melas joined the Dorian expedition against Corinth 
from Gonussa beyond Sicyon, Aletes at first according to 
the oracle told him' to go to other Greeks, but afterwards 
disregarded the oracle and tookf him as associate. Such 
is the result of my researches about the kings of the 

Now the temple of Athene the Bridler is near the theatre, 
and not far off is a wooden statue of a naked Hercules, 
which they say is the work of Daedalus. All the works 
of Dasdalus are somewhat odd to look at, but there is a 
wonderful ins]3iration about them. And above the theatre 
is a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in the Roman diction, 
in Greek it would be Zeus Coryphaeus. And not far 
from this theatre is an old gymnasium, and a well called 
Lerna. And there are pillars round it, and seats to 
refresh those who come in in summertime. In this gym- 
nasium there are shrines of the gods, one of Zeus, one of 
-^sculapius : and statues of ^sculapius and Hygiea 
{Health) in white stone, and one of Zeus in brass. As 
you ascend to Acro-Corinthus, (it is the top of the hill 
above the city, Briareus gave it to the Sun, after litiga- 
tion, and the Sun, as the Corinthians say, let Aphrodite 
have it), there are two temples of Isis, one they call the 
Pelagian and the other the Egyptian, and two of Serapis, 
one under the name of Canobus. And next them are 
altars to the Sun, and a temple of Necessity and Force, 
into which it is not customary to enter. Above this is a 
temple of the Mother of the Gods, and a stone pillar and 
seat. The temples of the Fates and Demeter and Proser- 
pine have statues rather dim with age. Here too is a 


temple of Buntean Hera, which Btmus the soh of Hermes 
erected. Hence the goddess got the title Banaean. 


ON the ascent to Aci*o-Corinthus there is also a temple 
of Aphrodite : and statues of her in full armour, and 
the Sun, and Cupid with a bow. And the fountain behind 
the temple is they say the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus : for 
he, though he knew that Zeus had carried ofE ^gina the 
daughter of Asopus, refused to tell him unless he would 
give him this water on Acro-Corinthus. And Asopus giving 
this water he vouchsafed the required information, and for 
his information pays the penalty in Hades, if indeed this is 
credible. But I have heard people say that this fountain is 
Pirene, and that the water in the city flows down from it. 
This river Asopus has its rise in the neighbourhood of 
Phlius, flows through the Sicyonian district, and has its 
outlet in the Corinthian Gulf. And the people of Phlius 
say that Asopus' daughters were Corcyra and -^gina and 
Thebe: and that from Corcyra and -^gina the islands 
Scheria and (Enone got their present names, and that Thebe 
gave its name to Thebes the city of Cadmus. But the 
Thebans do not admit this, for they say that Thebe was the 
daughter of the Boeotian Asopus, and not the Asopus that 
has its rise at Phlius. The Phliasians and Sicyonians say 
further about this river that it is foreign and not indigenous, 
for Maeander they say flowing down from Celsenae through 
Phrygia and Caria, and falling into the sea at ^Miletus, 
travelled to the Peloponnese and made the river Asopus. 
And I remember to have heard something of the same 
kind from the people of Delos of the river Inopus, which 
they say came to them from the Nile. And moreover 
there is a tradition that the same Nile is the river 
Euphrates, which was lost in a lake and re-emerged as 
the Nile in the remote part of Ethiopia. This is what I 
heard about the Asopus. As you turn towards the moun- 
tains from Acro-Corinthus is the Teneatic gate, and a 
temple of IHthyia. Now Tenea is about 60 stades from 
Corinth. And the people of Tenea say that they are Trojans, 


and were carried away captive by the Greeks from Tenedos, 
and located here by Agamemnon : and accordingly Apollo 
is the god they hold in highest honour. 

And as you go from Corinth along the coast in the 
direction of Sicyon there is a temple, which was burnt 
down, not far from the city on the left hand of the way. 
There have been several wars in the neighbourhood of 
Corinth, and fire has consumed, as one would indeed ex- 
pect, both houses and temples outside the city walls : this 
was they say a temple of Apollo, and burnt down by 
Pyrrhns the son of Achilles. I have also heard another 
account, that the Corinthians erected this temple to Olym- 
pian Zeus, and that it was some accidental fire that burnt 
it down. And the people of Sicyon, who are near neigh- 
bours to the Corinthians, say of their region that ^gialeus 
the Autochthon first dwelt there, and that what is now 
called ^gialus in the Peloponnese was called after him 
its king, and that he was founder of ^gialea a city in 
the plain : and that the site of the temple of Apollo 
was the citadel. And they say that the son of ^gia- 
leus was Europs, and the son of Europs Telchis, and the 
son of Telchis Apis. Now this Apis had grown to such 
magnitude before Pelops came to Olympia, that all the land 
inside the Isthmus was called after him Apian. And the 
son of Apis was Thelxion, and the son of Thelxion was 
^gyrus, and his son was Thurimachus, and the son of 
Thurimachus was Leucippus, and Leucippus had no male 
children, and only one daughter CJhalcinia, who they say 
bore a child to Poseidon, who was called Peratus, and 
was brought up by Leucippus, and on his death succeeded 
to the kingdom as his heir. And the history of Plem- 
nseus the son of Peratus seems to me most marvellous. 
All his children died that his wife bare to him directly 
they were born and had uttered the first cry, till Demeter 
took compassion on him, and coming to -^gialea as a 
stranger to Plemnaeus reared his child Orthopolis. And 
Orthopolis had a daughter Chrysorthe : she had a child, 
supposed to be Apollo's, called Coronas. And Coronus 
had Corax and a younger son Lamedon. 



AND Corax dying childless, about this time Epopeus 
came from Thessaly and obtained the kingdom. In 
his reign first (they say) did a hostile army ever come into 
their country, as they had heretofore in all time lived iB 
peace. And the origin of the war was this. Antiope the 
daughter of Xycteus had* a great reputation for beauty 
among the Greeks, and there was a rumour about her that 
she was the daughter of Asopus, the river that forms the 
boundary between Thebes and Plataea, and not the daughter 
of Nycteus. I know not whether Epopeus asked her in mar- 
riage, or carried her off with more audacious designs from 
the beginning. But the Thebans came with an army, and 
Nycteus was wounded, and Epopeus too (though he won the 
victory) . Nycteus though very bad they took back to Thebes, 
and, when he was on the point of death, he gave orders 
that Lycus his brother should be ruler of the Thebans for 
the present : for Xycteus himself was Regent for Labdacus, 
(the son of Polydorus, the son of Cadmus), who was still a 
child, and now he left the Regency to Lycus. He also 
begged Lycus to go with a larger force to -<$]gialea and 
punish Epopeus, and even to illtreat Antiope if he could 
get hold of her. And Epopeus at first offered sacrifices for 
his victory and built a temple to Athene, and when it was 
finished prayed that the goddess would shew by some sign 
if it was to her mind, and after the prayer they say oil 
trickled in front of the temple. But afterwards Epopeus 
chanced to die of his wound which had been originally 
neglected, so Lycus had no longer any need of war, for 
Lamedon (the son of Coronus) the king after Epopeus gave 
Antiope up. And she, as she was being conducted to Thebes, 
gave birth to a child on the road near Eleutherae. And 
it is in reference to this event that Asius the son of Amphi- 
ptolemus has written the lines, " Antiope, the daughter of 
the deep-eddying river Asopus, bare Zethus and divine 
Amphion, being pregnant both by Zeus, and Epopeus 
shepherd of his people." 


But Homer ^ has given them a finer pedigree, and says that 
they first built Thebes, distinguishing as it seems to me the 
lower city from the city built by Cadmus. And King 
Lamedon married a wife from Athens, Pheno the daughter 
of Clytius : and afterwards, when there was war between 
him and Archander and Architeles, the sons of AchaBus, he 
invited Sicyon from Attica to help him, and gave him his 
daughter Zeuxippe in marriage, and when he became king 
the region got called after him Sicyonia, and the town 
Sicyon instead of -^gialea. And the Sicyonians say that 
Sicyon was not the son of Marathon the son of Epopeus, but 
the son of Metion the son of Erechtheus. And Asius agrees 
with them. But Hesiod has represented Sicyon as the son 
of Erechtheus, and Ibycus says he was the son of Pelops. 
However Sicyon had a daughter Chthonophyle, who is said 
to have had a son Polybus by Hermes : and afterwards Phlias 
the son of Dionysus married her, and she had a son Andro- 
damas. And Polybus gave his daughter Lysianassa to Talaus, 
the son of Bias, the king of the Argives : and when Adras- 
tus fled from Argos he went to Polybus at Sicyon, and after 
Polybus' death he obtained the chief power at Sicyon. But 
when Adrastus was restored to Argos, then laniscus the 
descendant of Clytius, the father in law of Lamedon, came 
from Attica and became king, and on his death Phaestus, 
who was reputed to be one of the sons of Hercules. And 
Phaestus having migrated to Crete in accordance with an 
oracle, Zeuxippus, the son of Apollo and the nymph Syllis, 
is said to have become king. And after the death of Zeu- 
xippus Agamemnon led an army against Sicyon and its king 
Hippolytus, the son of Rhopalus, the son of Ph^stus. And 
Hippolytus fearing the invading army agreed to be subject 
to Agamemnon and Mycenae. And this Hippolytus had a 
son Lacestades. And Phalces, the son of Temenus, having 
seized Sicyon by night in conjunction with the Dorians, 
did no harm to Lacestades (as being himself also a de- 
scendant of Hercules), but shared the royal power with 

^ Odyss., xi. 261-65. 



AND the Sicyonians became Dorians after this, and a part 
of Argolis. And their citv, built by ^gialeus in the 
plain, Demetrius the son of Antigonus razed to the ground, 
and built the present city on the site of what was in former 
times the citadel. And the reason of the low fortunes of 
the Sicyonians one could not find out by investigation, but 
one would have to be content with what is said by Homer 
about Zeus/ 

" Who hath brought down the pride of many cities.'" 

And when they were in a far from favourable condition an 
earthquake came on them, and made the city almost bare of 
men, and robbed them of many works of art. This earth- 
quake also injured the cities of Caria and Lycia, and the 
island of Rhodes suffered especially, insomuch that the 
oracle of the Sibyl about Rhodes was fulfilled. 

And as you go from Corinth towards Sicyon you come 
to the tomb of Messenian Lycus, whoever this Lycus was. 
For I find no Messenian Lycus that practised in the 
pentathlum, or carried off the prize at Olympia. This 
tomb is a mound of earth, and the Sicyonians mostly 
bury in the following manner. The body they deposit in 
the ground, and over it a stone slab with pillars on the 
top, on which are figures, generally like the eagles in the 
temples. But they write no epitaph, but simply the name 
of the deceased, not even his parentage, and bid the dead 
farewell. And next to the tomb of Lycus, when you have 
crossed over the Asopus, is on the right hand the temple of 
Olympian Zeus, and a little further on, on the left side of 
the road, is the tomb of Eupolis the Athenian Comedian. 
Further on in the direction of the city is the tomb 
of Xenodice, who died in child-biith : it is unlike the 
tombs in this part of the country, and has a painting, 
which is very fine. A little further is the tomb of the 
Sicyonians, who died at PeUene, and Dyme in Achaia, and 

* Hiad, ii. 117. 


at Megalopolis ana Sellasia, whose exploits I shall relate 
fully later on. And they have near the gate a well in a cave, 
which oozes through the roof of the cave, so it is called the 
Dripping Well. 

And in the present citadel there is a temple to Fortune 
Dwelling on the Heights, and next it one to the Dioscuri. 
Both these and the statue of Fortune are of wood. And in 
the theatre built under the citadel the person represented 
on the stage- curtain is, they say, Aratus the son of Clinias. 
And next to the theatre is a temple of Dionysus : the 
god is fashioned in gold and ivory, and near him some 
Bacchantes in white stone. These women they say are 
sacred to Dionysus, and full of Bacchic fury. And the 
Sicyonians have other statues in a secret place, which 
one night in every year they bring to the temple of 
Dionysus from the place called Ornament Room, and they 
bring them with lighted torches and national Hymns. The 
leader of the procession is called Baccheus, this functionary 
was appointed by Androdamas the son of Phlias, and the 
next in the procession is called Lysius, whom the Theban 
Phanes brought from Thebes at the bidding of the Pythian 
Priestess. And Phanes came to S icy on, when Aristoma- 
chus the son of Cleodaeus, mistaking the oi'acle, lost thereby 
his return to the Peloponnese. And as you go from the 
temple of Dionysus to the marketplace there is a shrine of 
Artemis Limnsea on the right hand. And that the roof has 
fallen in is clear to the spectator. But as to the statue of 
the goddess — for there is none now — the people of Sicyon 
do not say whether it was carried away to some other place, 
or how it was destroyed (if destroyed). 

And as you enter the marketplace is a temple of Persua- 
sion, also without a statue. Persuasion is worshipped by 
them on the following ground. Apollo and Artemis after 
slaying Pytho went to uEgialea to purify themselves. 
But being seized with some panic fear in the place which 
they now call Fear, they turned aside to Crete to. Car- 
manor, and a pestilence came upon the people at -.^Egialea, 
and they were ordered by the seers to propitiate Apollo and 
Artemis. And they sent 7 lads and 7 maidens to the river 
Sythas to supplicate Apollo and Artemis, and persuaded 
by them these deities went to what was then the citadel, 


and the place they first reached was the temple of Pel-sua- 
sion. A Pageant of all this goes on to this day. On the 
Festival of Apollo the lads go to the river Sythas, and, after 
bringring Apollo and Artemis to the temple of Persuasion, 
take them back again to the temple of Apollo. And 
that temple is in the middle of the present marketplace, 
and they say it was originally built by Prcetus, because 
his daughters got cured of madness here. They say also 
that Meleager hung up in this temple the spear with which 
he killed the Calydonian boar: here too (they say) are 
deposited the flutes of Marsyas: for after his awfal death 
the river !Marsyas carried them to Mjeander, and they 
turned up again at the Asopus and were landed at Sicyon, 
and given to Apollo by a shepherd who found them. Of 
these votive offerings there is no vestige : for they were 
burnt with the temple. And the temple and statue were 
re-erected in my time by Pythocles. 


TELE sacred enclosure near the temple of Persuasion, 
consecrated to the Roman emperors, was formerly the 
house of Cleon the king. For Clisthenes the son ot Aris- 
tonymus, the son of Myro, was king of the Sicyonians in 
the lower part of the city, but Cleon in what is now the 
city (i.e. the upper part). In front of this house is a hero- 
chapel to Aratus, who did the greatest exploits of all the 
Greeks in his time : and this is what he did. After the 
death of Cleon there came on those in authoritr such 
unbridled lust for power, that Euthydemus and Timo- 
clidas usurped the chief power. These the people after- 
wards drove out, and put in their place Clinias the father 
of Aratus : and not many years afterwards Abantidas got 
the chief power, (after the death of Clinias), and either 
exiled Aratus, or Aratus retired of his own free vriU. How- 
ever the men of the country killed Abantidas, and Pascas 
his father succeeded him, and Xicocles killed him, and 
reigned in his room. Against him came Aratus with some 
Sicyonian refugees and mercenaries from Argos, and slipping 


by some of the garrison in the darkness (for he made his 
attack by night), and forcing others back, got inside the 
walls : and (for by now it was day) leading his men to 
the tyrant's house, he made a fierce attack on it. And he 
took it by storm with no great difficulty, and Nicocles slipt 
out at a back door and fled. And Aratus granted the 
Sicyonians isonomy, reconciling them to the refugees, and 
giving back to the refugees all their houses and goods that 
had been sold, but not without full compensation to former 
purchasers. And because all the Greeks were greatly 
afraid of the Macedonians and Antigonus (the Regent for 
Philip the son of Demetrius), he forced the Sicyonians, 
though they were Dorians, into the Achaean league. And 
forthwith he was chosen commander in chief by the Achseans, 
and he led them against the Locrians that live at Amphissa, 
and into the territory of the hostile ^tolians, and ravaged 
it. And although Antigonus held Corinth with a Mace- 
donian garrison, he dismayed them by the suddenness of 
his attack, and in a battle defeated and killed many of 
them, and among others Persasus the head of the garrison, 
who had been a disciple of Zeno (the son of Mnaseas) in 
philosophy. And when Aratus had set Corinth free, then 
the Epidaurians and the Trcezenians who occupy the coast 
of Argolis, and the Megarians beyond the Isthmus, joined 
the Acheean league, and Ptolemy also formed an alliance 
with them. But the Lacedeemonians and Agis (the son of 
Eudamidas) their king were beforehand with them, and 
took Pellene by a coup de main, but when Aratus and his 
army came up they were beaten in the engagement, and 
evacuated Pellene, and returned home again on certain 
conditions. And Aratus, as things had prospered so well in 
the Peloponnese, thought it monstrous that the Pira?us 
and Munychia, and moreover Salamis and Sunium, should 
be allowed to continue in Macedonian hands, and, as he 
did not expect to be able to take them by storm, he per- 
suaded Diogenes, who was Governor of these Forts, to 
surrender them for 150 talents, and of this money he 
himself contributed one sixth part for the Athenians. He 
also persuaded Aristomachus, who was king at Argos, to 
give a democratical form of government to the Argives, 
and to join the Achsean league. And he took Mantinea from 


the Lacedasmonians. But indeed all things do not answer 
according to a man's wish, since even Aratus was obliged 
eventually to become the ally of the Macedonians and 
Antigonus. This is how it happened. 


CLEOMENES, the son of Leonidas, and grandson of Cleo- 
nymns, when he succeeded to the kingdom in Sparta, 
imitated Pausanias in desiring to be an autocrat, and not to 
obey the established laws. And as he was more impetuous 
than Pausanias, and brave as a lion, he quickly moulded 
everything to his will by his sagacity and boldness, and 
took off by poison Eurydamidas, the king of the other royal 
branch, while quite a lad, and vested the power of the Ephors 
in his brother Epiclidas, and having put down the power 
of the Senate, he estabhshed instead of them The Great 
Council of Patronomi (as they were called) . And being very 
ambitious of greater fortunes, and even the supremacy over 
Grreece, he attacked the Achseans first, hoping to have them 
as allies if he conquered them, and not wishing to give 
them the chance to hinder his actions. And he attacked 
them and beat them at Dyme above Patrae, Aratiis being in 
this action the Achaean general, and this defeat it was that 
compelled Aratus to invite the aid of Antigonus, being afraid 
for the Achaeans, and even for the safety of Sicyon. And 
Cleomenes having violated his conditions with Antigonus, 
(having openly acted against the terms of the treaty in 
other respects, and especially by turning out the inhabitants 
of Megalopolis,) Antigonus crossed into the Peloponnese, 
and in concert with the Achaeans attacked Cleomenes at 
Sellasia. And the Achaeans were victorious, and Sellasia 
was enslaved, and Lacedeemon captured. Antigonus and 
the Achaeans then gave back to the Lacedaemonians their 
old Polity : and of Leonidas's sons, Epiclidas was killed 
in battle, and Cleomenes, (who fled to Egypt and received 
the greatest honours from Ptolemy), was cast into prison 
subsequently for inciting the Egyptians to revolt. And 


he escaped out of prison, and caused some trouble at Alex- 
andria : but at last he was taken and committed suicide. 
And tlie Lacedasmonians, glad to get rid of Cleomenes, 
chose to submit to kingly government no longer, but from 
thenceforth until now had the republican form of govern- 
ment. And Antigonus continued friendly to Aratus, as he 
had done him many good and splendid services. But 
when Philip took the government into his own hands, 
because Aratus did not praise his frequent exhibition of 
temper to his subjects, and sometimes even checked him in 
his outbursts, he murdered him, giving him poison when 
he didn't expect it. And from JEgium, for here fate took 
him, they took his body to Sicyon and buried him, and the 
hero-chapel Arateum is still called after him. And Philip 
acted in just the same way to Euryclides and Micon, who 
were Athenians : for them too, (being orators and not un- 
persuasive with the people), he took off by poison. But 
poison was it seems destined to bring disaster to Philip 
himself : for his son Demetrius was poisoned by Perseus, his 
youngest brother, and so caused his father's death by 
sorrow. And I have gone out of my way to give this 
account, remembering the divine saying of Hesiod, that 
he who plots mischief for another brings it first on his 
own pate.^ 

And next to the hero-chapel of Aratus is an altar to 
Poseidon Isthmius, and rude statues of Milichian Zeus 
and Tutelary Artemis. Milichian Zeus is in the shape of 
Pyramid, Artemis in that of a Pillar. Here too has been 
built a Council Chamber, and a Porch called the Clisthenic 
from its builder Clisthenes, who built it out of spoil which 
he took in the war against Cirvha, as an ally of the 
Amphictyones. And in the part of the marketplace which 
is in the open air there is a Zeus in brass, the work 
of Lysippus, and near it a golden Artemis. And next is 
the temple of Lycian (Wolf -god) Apollo, in a very dilapi- 
dated condition. When wolves used to devour the flocks 
so that there was no profit in keeping sheep, Apollo pointed 
out a certain place where some dry wood lay, and ordered 
the bark of this wood and flesh to be laid together before 
the wolves. And this bark killed the wolves immediately 

^ Hesiod. Wor/cs and Days. 265. Cf. also Ovid, A. A. i. 655, 656. 


they tasted it. This wood is kept stored up in the temple 
of the Wolf-god : but -what tree it is of none of the Sicy- 
onian antiquaries know. And next are some brazen statues, 
said to be the daughters of Proetus, but the inscription 
has other women's names. There is also a Hercules in 
brass, by Sicyonian Lysippus. And near it is a statue of 
Hermes of the Market. 


NOT far from the marketplace in the gymnasium is 
a Hercules in stone, the work of Scopas. There 
is also elsewhere a temple of Hercules : the precincts of 
which they call Ptedize, and the temple is in the middle of 
the precincts, and in it is an old wooden statue of Hercules 
by Laphaes of Phlius. And the sacrifices they are wont 
to conduct as follows. They say that Phaestus, when he 
went to Sicyon, found that the people there offered victims 
to Hercules as a hero, whereas he thought they ought to 
sacrifice to him as to a god. And now the Sicyonians sacri- 
fice lambs and burn their thighs on the altar, and part of 
the meat they eat and part they offer as to a hero. And 
the first of the days of the Feast which they keep to 
Hercules they call Names, and the second Hercules' Day. 

A road leads from here to the temple of ./Esctilapius. 
In the precincts there is on the left hand a double build- 
ing : in the outer room is a statue of Sleep, and there 
is nothing of it remaining but the head. And the 
inner room is dedicated to Camean Apollo, and none but 
the priests may enter it. In the Porch is the huge bone 
of a sea-monster, and next it the statue of Dream, and 
Sleep, called the Bcnintiful, lulling a lion to rest. And as 
you go up to the temple of -^sculapius, on one side is 
a statue of Pan seated, on the other one of Artemis erect. 
At the entrance is the god himself (^sculapius) beardless, 
in gold and ivory, the work of Calamis : he has his sceptre 
in one hand, and in the other the fruit of the pine-tree. 
And they say that the god was brought to them from 
Epidaurus by a pair of mules, and that he was like a 


dragon, and that he was brought by Nicagora a native of 
Sicyon, the mother of Agasicles, and the wife of Echetimus. 
There are also some small statues fastened to the ceiling. 
The woman seated on the dragon is they say Aristodama 
the mother of Aratus, and they consider Aratus the son 
of -^sculapius. Such are the notable things to be seen 
in these precincts. 

And there are other precincts there sacred to Aphrodite : 
and in them first is the statue of Antiope. For they say 
her sons were born at Sicyon, and this is the connection 
with Antiope. Next is the temple of Aphrodite. None 
may enter into it but a maiden Sacristan, who must never 
marry, and another maiden who performs the annual rites. 
This maiden they call bath-carrier. All others alike must 
only look at the goddess from the porch and worship her 
there. Her figure seated is the design of Canachus a 
native of Sicyon, (who also designed the Didymasan Apollo 
for the Milesians, and the Ismenian Apollo for the The- 
bans) . It is in gold and ivory. The goddess wears on her 
head a cap, and in one hand holds a poppy, in the other an 
apple. And they offer in sacrifice to her the thighs of any 
victims but wildboars, all other parts they burn with 
juniper wood, and when they burn the thighs they burn 
up together with them the leaves of psederos ; which is a 
plant that grows in the precincts of the goddess' temple 
in the open air, and grows in no other land, nor in an\ 
other part of Sicyonia. And its leaves are smaller than 
the leaves of the beech, but larger than those of the holm 
oak, and their shape is that of the oak-leaf, partly black, 
partly white like the silvery white of the poplar tree. 

And as you go hence to the gymnasium, on the right 
is the temple of Phergean Artemis : the wooden statue 
of the goddess was they say brought from Pherae. Clinias 
built this gymnasium, and they educate boys there still. 
There is an Artemis also in w^hite stone, carved only down 
to the waist, and a Hercules in his lower parts like the 
square Hermas. 



AND as you turn from thence to the gate called The 
H0I7 Gate, not far from the gate is a shrine of 
Athene, which Epopeus formerly erected, in size and beauty 
surpassing those of its time. But time has obscured its 
fame. The god struck it with lightning : and now there 
remains only the altar, for the lightning did not light on 
it. And in front of the altar is the tomb of Epopeus, 
and near his tomb are the Gods the Averters of Evil, to 
whom they sacrifice (as the Greeks generally) to ayert 
evil. And they say that Epopeus buUt the neighbouring 
temple to Artemis and Apollo, and Adrastus the one next to 
Hera: but no statues remain in either temple. Adrastus 
also built behind the temple of Hera two altars, one to 
Pan, and one to the Sun God in white stone. And as you 
descend to the plain is a temple of Demeter, and they say 
Plemnaeus built it in gratitude to the goddess for rearing 
his son. And at a little distance from the temple of Hera, 
which Adrastus built, is the temple of Camean Apollo. 
There are only the pillars of it left, you will find neither 
walls nor roof nor anything else there — nor in the temple 
of Hera the Guide : which was built by Phalces the son 
of Temenus, who said that Hera was his guide on the 
way to Sicyon. And as you go from Sicyon on the 
straight road to Phlius, about ten stades, and then turn 
off to the left, is the grove called Pyraea, and in it a 
temple of Demeter Prostasia, and Proserpine. Here the 
men have a festival to themselves, and give up what is 
"called the Nym^lion to the women to celebi*ate their fes- 
tival in, and there are statues of Dionysus and Demeter 
and Proserpine (showing only their faces) in the Xymphon. 
And the road to Titane is sixty stades, and because of its 
narrowness it is impassable by a carriage and pair: and 
20 stades further you cross the Asoj^us, and see on the 
left a grove of holm-oaks, and a temple of the Goddesses 
whom the Athenians call the Venerable^ but the Sicv- 


onians the Eumenides. And every year they keep a feast 
to them on one day, sacrificing ewes big with young, 
and they are wont to pour libations of honey and milk, 
and to use flowers as chaplets. They go through the 
same rites on the altar of the Fates in the open air, 
in the grove. And as you turn back again to the road, and 
cross the Asopus again, you come to a mountain-top, 
where the natives say Titan first dwelt, who was the bro- 
ther of the Sun, and gave the name Titane to this place. 
This Titan seems to me to have been wonderfully clever 
in watching the seasons of the year, as when the San 
fructified and ripened seeds and fruit, and this was why 
he was considered the Sun's brother. And afterwards 
Alexanor, the son of Machaon, the son of -i^sculapius, 
came to Sicyon, and built a temple of ^sculapius at 
Titane. A few people dwell there, but for the most part 
only the suppliants of the god, and there are within the pre- 
cincts some old cypress trees. But it is not possible to learn 
of what wood or metal ^sculapius' statue is made, nor do 
they know who made it, though some say Alexanor himself. 
The only parts of the statue that are visible are the face and 
fingers and toes, for a white woollen tunic and cloak are 
thrown round it. And there is a statue of Hygiea some- 
what similar. You can not see it either easily, so hidden is 
it by the hair of the women which they shear to the goddess, 
and by the folds of a Babylonish garment. And which- 
ever of these any one wishes to propitiate, he is instructed 
to worship Hygiea. Alexanor and Enamerion have also 
statues, to the former they offer sacrifices after sunset 
as to a hero, but to the latter they sacrifice as to a god. 
And (if my conjecture is correct) this Euamerion is called 
Telesphorus (according to some oracle) by the people of 
Pergamum, but by the people of Epidaurus Acesis. There 
is also a wooden statue of Coronis, but not anywhere in the 
temple : but when bull or lamb or pig are sacrificed to the 
goddess, then they take Coronis to the temple of Athene 
and honour her there. N^or are they contented merely 
with cutting off the thighs of the victims, but they bum 
all the victims whole on the ground except birds, and 
these they burn on the altar. On the gable ends are figures 
of Hercules, and several Victories. And in the porch 

BOOK II. — CORINTH. , 113 

are statues of DionTsns and Hecate and Aphrodite and The 
Mother of the Gods and Fortune : these are aU in wood, 
and one of Gort jnian ^sculapius in stone. And people 
are afraid to approach the sacred dragons : but if their 
food is put at the entrance they give no further trouble. 
There is also within the precincts a statue of Granianus, 
a native of Sicyon, in brass. He won two victories at 
Olvmpia in the pentathlum, and a third in the stadium, 
and two in the doubleconrse, which he ran both in armour 
and out of armour. 


AND at Titane there is also a temple of Athene, into 
which they carry the statue of Coronis. And in it is 
an old wooden statue of Athene. This too is said to have 
been struck by lightning. As you descend from the hill, 
for the temple is built on the hill, is the altar of the winds, 
on which the priest sacrifices to them one night in every 
year. And he performs mysterious rites at four pits, to 
tame their violence, chanting, so they say, the incantations 
of Medea. 

And as you go from Titane to Sicyon, and descend towards 
the sea, there is on the left a temple of Hera, with neither 
8tr.tue nor roof. They say Prcetus the son of Abas built 
it. And as you go down to what is called the harbour of 
the Sicyonians, and turn to Aristonautae. the port of the 
people of Pellene, there is, a little above the road, on the 
left a temple of Poseidon. And as you go on along the 
high road you come to the river Helisson, and next the 
river Sythas, both rivers flowing into the sea. 

Next to Sicyonia is Phliasia. Its chief town Phlius is 
40 stades at most distant from Titane, and the road to it 
from Sicyon is straight. That the Phliasians have no con- 
nection with the Arcadians is plain from the catalogue of 
the Arcadians in Homer's Iliad, for they are not included 
among them. And that they were Argives originally, and 
became Dorians after the return of the Heraclidae to the 
Peloponnese, will appear in the course of my narrative. As 


114 ^ PAUSA.NIAS. 

I know there are many different traditions about among 
the Phliasians, I shall give those which are most generally 
accepted among them. The first person who lived in this 
land was they say Aras an Autochthon, and he built a city 
on that hill which is still in our time called the Arantine 
hill, (not very far from another hill, on which the Phli- 
asians have their citadel and a temple of Hebe.) Here he 
built his city, and from him both land and city got called 
of old Arantia, It was in his reign that Asopus (said to 
be the son of Celusa and Poseidon) found the water of 
the river which they still call Asopus from the name of 
the person who found it.' And the sepulchre of Aras is in 
a place called Celese, where they say also Dysaules, an 
Eleusinian, is buried. And Aras had a son Aoris and a 
daughter Araethyrea, who the Phliasians say were cunning 
hunters and brave in war. And, Arsethyrea dying first, 
Aoris changed the name of the city into Artethyrea. 
Homer has made mention of it (when recording those who 
went with Agamemnon to Ilium) in the line 

" They lived at Ornese and lovely Araethyrea." * 

And I think the tombs of the sons of Aras are on the Aran- 
tine hill. And at their tombs are some remarkable pillars, 
and before the rites which they celebrate to Ceres they 
look at these tombs, and call Aras and his sons to the liba- 
tions. As to Phlias, the third who gave his name to the 
land, I cannot at all accept the Argive tradition that lie 
was the son of Cisus the son of Temenus, for I know that 
he was called the son of Dionysus, and was said to have 
been one of those who sailed in the Argo. And the lines 
of the Rhodian poet bear me out, " Phlias also came with 
the men of Arsethyrea, where he dwelt, wealthy through 
his sire Dionysus, near the springs of Asopus." And 
Araethyrea was the mother of Phlias and not Chthonophyle, 
for Chthonophyle was his wife and he had Andromedas 
by her. 

^ " Inventus forsan eodem modo est quo Eurotas, iii. i." Siebelis. 
« Iliad, ii. 571. 



BY the return of the Heraclidae all the Peloponnese 
was disturbed except Arcadia, for many of the cities 
had to take Dorian settlers, and frequent changes of in- 
habitants took place. The following were the changes 
at Phlius. Rhegnidas a Dorian (the son of Phalces the 
son of Temenus) marched against it from Argos and 
Sicyon. And some of the Phliasians were content with 
his demands, that they should remain in their own land, 
that he should be their king, and that the Dorians and 
he should have lands assigned to them. But Hippasus 
and his party stood out for a vigorous defence, and not 
for yielding up to the Dorians their numerous advan- 
tages without a fight. But as the people preferred the 
opposite view, Hippasus and those who agreed with him 
fled to Samos. And the great grandson of this Hippasus 
was Pythagoras, surnamed the Wise : who was the son 
of MHesarchus, the son of Euphron, the son of Hippasus. 
This is the account the Phliasians give of their own 
history, and in most particulars the Sicyonians bear them 

The most notable public sights are as follows. There 
is in the citadel at Phlius a cypress grove, and a temple 
hoary from old antiquity. The deity to whom the temple 
belongs is said by the most ancient of the Phliasians 
to have been Ganymeda, but by later ones Hebe : of 
whom Homer has made mention in the single combat 
between Menelaus and Paris, saying that she was the cup- 
bearer of the gods, and again in the descent of Odysseus 
to Hades he has said that she was the wife of Hercules. 
But Olen in his Hymn to Hera says that she was reared 
by the Seasons, and was mother of Ares and Hebe. And 
among the Phliasians this goddess has various honours and 
especially in regard to slaves ; for they give them entire 
immunity if they come as suppliants here, and when pri- 
^ners are loosed of their fetters iJiey hang them up on 
I he trees in the grove. And they keep a yearly feast 


which they call Ivy-cuttings. But they have no statue in 
any secret crypt, nor do they display one openly : and they 
have a sacred reason for acting so, for on the left as you go 
out there is a temple of Hera with a statue in Parian 
marble. And in the citadel there are some precincts sacred 
to Demeter, and in them a temple and statue of Demeter 
and Persephone, and also a brazen statue of Artemis, 
which seemed to me ancient. And as you go down from 
the citadel there is on the right a temple and beardless 
statue of ^sculapius. Under this temple is a theatre. 
And not far from it is a temple of Demeter, and some old 
statues of the goddess in a sitting posture. 

And in the market-place there is a brazen she-goat, 
mostly gilt. It got honours among the Phliasians for 
the following reason. The constellation which they call 
the She- Goat does continuous harm to vines at its rise. 
And that no serious detriment might result from it, they 
paid various honours to this brazen goat, and decked its 
statue with gold. Here too is a monument of Aristias the 
son of Pratinas. The Satyrs carved by Aristias and Pra- 
tinas are reckoned the best carving next to that of ^chy- 
lus. In the back part of the market-place is a house called 
by the Phliasians the seer's house. Into it Amphiaraus 
went (so they say) and lay all night in sleep before giving 
his oracular responses : and according to their account he 
for some time lived there privately and not as a seer. 
And since his time the building has been shut up entirely. 
And not far off is what is called Omphalus, the centre 
of all the Peloponnese, if indeed their account is correct. 
Next you come to an ancient temple of Dionysus, and an- 
other of Apollo, and another of Isis. The statue of Dio- 
nysus may be seen by anybody, as also that of Apollo : but 
that of Isis may only be seen by the priests. The follow- 
ing is also a tradition of the Phliasians, that Hercules, 
when he returned safe from Libya with the apples of the 
Hesperides, went to Phlius for some reason or other, and 
when he was living there was visited by Q3neus, who was 
a connexion by marriage. On his arrival from ^tolia 
either he feasted Hercules, or Hercules feasted him. How- 
ever this may be, Hercules struck the lad Cyathus, the 
cupbearer of CEneus, on the head with one of his fingers, 

BOOK n. — COBIKTH. 117 

not being pleased with the drink he offered him : and as 
this lad died immediately from the blow, the Phliasians 
erected a chapel to his memory. It was built near the 
temple of Apollo, and has a stone statue of Cyathns in 
the act of handing the cup to Hercules. 


NOW Celeae is about live stades from Phlius, and they 
sacrifice to Demeter there every fourth year and not 
annually. Nor is the presiding priest appointed for life, 
but a different one is chosen on each occasion, who may 
marry if he chooses. In this respect they differ from 
the Eleusinian mysteries, though generally speaking, as the 
Phliasians themselves admit, their mysteries are an imi- 
tation of those. They say that Dysaules the brother of 
Celeus came to their country and established these rites, 
when he was driven from Eleusis by Ion the son of 
Xuthus, who had been chosen commander in chief by 
the Athenians in the war against the people of Eleusis. 
This statement of the Phhasians I cannot assent to, that 
an Eleusinian should have been conquered in battle and 
gone into exile, when before the war was fought out the 
m^atter was submitted to arbitration, and Eumolphus re- 
mained at Eleusis. But it is quite possible that Dysaules 
may have gone to Celese for some other reason, and not 
that which the Phliasians allege. Nor indeed had he, as 
it seems to me, any other relation with the Eleusinian 
chiefs than as brother of Celeus, for else Homer wotdd 
not have passed him over in his Hymn to Demeter : 
where in his list of those who were taught the mysteries 
by the goddess he ignores Dysaules. These are his Knes. 
" She shewed Triptolemus, and Diodes tamer of horses, 
and powerful Eumolpus, and Celeus leader of the people, 
the due performance of her rights and mysteries." ' How- 
ever, according to the Phliasian tradition, this Dysaules 
established the mysteries here, and also gave the name 
Celeae to the place. There is also here as I have said 

^ Hymn to Demeter, 474-476. 


the tomb of Dysaules, but subsequent to the date of the 
tomb of Aras : for according to the Phliasian account 
Dysaules came after the days when Aras was king. For 
they say Aras was a contemporary of Prometheus the 
son of lapetus, and lived three generations earlier than 
Pelasgus the son of Areas, and those who were called 
the Autochthons at Athens. And they say the chariot of 
Pelops is attached to the roof of the temple called the 
Anactorum. Such are the most important traditions of 
the Phliasians. 


ON the road from Corinth to Argos you come to the 
small town of Cleonae. Some say Cleone was the 
daughter of Pelops, others that she was one of the 
daughters of Asopus, the river that flows by Sicyon : how- 
ever the town got its name from her. There is a temple 
of Athene there, and a statue of the goddess by Scyllis and 
Dipcenus, pupils of Daedalus. But some say that DaBdalus 
took a wife from Gortyns, and that Dipoenus and Scyllis 
were his sons by her. At Cleonae beside this temple is the 
tomb of Eurytus and Cteatus, who had gone from Elis to 
be spectators of the Isthmian games, and whom Hercules 
shot with arrows there, charging them with having fought 
against him in the battle with Augeas. 

From Cleonae there are two roads to Argos, one conve- 
nient for rapid walkers and the shorter route, the other 
called Tretus (Bored), more convenient for a carriage, 
though it too is narrow and has mountains on both sides. 
Among these mountains is still shown the lair of the 
Nemean lion, for Nemea is only about 15 stades distant. 

At Nemea is a temple well worth seeing of Nemean 
Zeus, only the roof has tumbled in, and there is no 
longer any statue there : but there is a cypress grove near 
the temple, where they say that Opheltes, placed on the grass 
there by his nurse, was devoured by a dragon. The 
Argives also sacrifice to Zeus at Nemea. and select the 


priest of Nemean Zeus, and have a contest in running 
for men in armour at the winter meeting at Xemea. 
Here too is the tomb of Opheltes, and round it a wall 
of stones, and altars within the precincts : and there is 
a piled up mound of earth as a monument to Lvcurgus 
the father of Opheltes. And the fountain they call Adras- 
tea, whether for some other reason or because Adrastus 
discovered it. And they say the name Xemea was given 
to the place by Xemea the daughter of Asopus. And 
above Nemea is the Mountain Apesas, where they say 
Perseus sacrificed first to Apesantian Zeus. And as vou 
go up to Argos by the road called Tretus you will see on the 
left hand the ruins of Mycenae. All Greeks know that 
Perseus founded Mycenas, and I shall relate the circum- 
stances of the fotinding, and why the Argives afterwards 
dispossessed the old inhabitants. For in what is now 
called Argolis they mention no older town, and they say 
that Inachus the king gave his name to the river, and 
sacrificed to Hera. They also say that Phoroneus was 
the fii'st mortal in this land, and that Inachus his father 
was not a man but a river : and that he and Cephisus 
and Asterion were the arbitrators between Poseidon and 
Hera in their dispute about the land : and when they 
judged that it was Hera's, then Poseidon took away all 
their water. And this is the reason why neither Inachus 
nor any other of these rivers mentioned have any water 
except after rain. And in summer their streams are dry 
except at Lema. And Phoroneus the son of Inachus first 
Lrathered men together in communities, who before lived 
scattered and solitary : so the city in which they wer 
first gathered together was called Phoronicum. 



AND ArgOB his daughter's son, who reigned after Phoro- 
nens, gave Argos his own name. And to Argos were 
bom Pirasus and Phorbas, and to Phorbas Triopas, and to 
Triopas lasus and Agenor. lo the daughter of lasus went 
to Egypt, either as Herodotus tells the story or as the 
Grreeks tell the story, and Crotopus the son of Agenor had 
the rule after lasus, and the son of Crotopus was Sthenelas. 
And Danaus sailed from Egypt against Grelenor the son of 
Sthenelas, and expelled from the kingdom the descendants 
of Agenor. All the world knows the history, how his 
daughters acted to their cousins, and how after his death 
Lynceus had the kingdom. And his grandsons, the sons of 
Abas, divided the kingdom, Acrisius remained at Argos, 
and PrcBtus had Heraeum and Midea and Tiryns and all the 
maritime parts of Argolis : and there are to this day 
remains of Prcetus' palace at Tiryns. And some time 
afterwards Acrisius, hearing that Perseus was alive and 
a mighty man of valour, retired to Larissa by the river 
Peneus. And Perseus, as he wished excessively to see 
his mother's father and greet him with kind words and 
deeds, went to him to Larissa. Aiid being in the prime of 
life, and rejoicing in the invention of the game of quoits, 
he displayed his prowess to all, and by fatality Acrisius 
was unintentionally killed by the throw of his quoit. Thus 
was the prophecy of the god fulfilled to Acrisius, nor did 
his contrivances against his daughter and her son turn 
away his fate. But when Perseus returned to Argos, for he 
was ashamed of the infamy of this murder of his grandfather, 
he persuaded Megapenthes the son of Proetus to exchange 
kingdoms with him, and founded Mycenas, where the scab- 
bard of his sword fell off, for he thought this an indi- 
cation that he should build a city there. Another tradi- 
tion is that when thirsty he took up a fungus from the 
ground, and when some water flowed from it he drank it 
and was pleased, and called the name of the place Mj-cenes 
[which means both scahhard andi fungus. '\ Homer indeed in 


the Odyssey ' has recorded the lady Mycene in the follow- 
ing line, 

" Tyro and Alcmene and Mjcene adorned with garlands ;" 

and the poem called the Great Eceae, by Hesiod, represents 
her as the daughter of Inachus and the wife of Arestor: 
and from her some say the city got its name. But the 
ti-adition of Acusilaus which they also add, that ^Myceneus 
was the son of Sparton, and Sparton the son of Phoroneus, 
I could not accept, far less would the Lacedemonians. 
For they have at Amyclae the image of a woman called 
Sparta, and if they heard that Sparton was the son of 
Phoroneus they would marvel at once. 

Now the Argives destroyed Mycene in jealousy. For 
though they took no part against the Medes, the people of 
Mycenae sent to Thermopylae 80 men, who shared in the 
glory of the famous 300. This public spiiit brought about 
their destruction, by provoking the Argives to jealousy. But 
there are still some remains of the precincts and the gate, 
and there are some lions on it : which were they say executed 
by the Cyclopes, who built the wall at Tiryns for Prcetus. 
And among the ruins at Mycenae is a fountain called Per- 
seus', and some underground buildings belonging to Atreus 
and his sons, where their treasures were. And there is the 
tomb of Atreus, and of those whom ^gisthus slew at a ban- 
quet on their return from Ilium with Agamemnon. As to 
Cassandra's tomb the Lacedaemonians of Amyclae claim 
that they have it. And there is the tomb of Agamemnon 
there, and that of Etirymedon the charioteer, and the 
joint-tomb of Teledamus and Pelops, who were twins of 
Cassandra, and were butchered by ^gisthus (while still 
babes) after their parents. There is also the tomb of 
Electra, who married Pylades, and Orestes gave her away. 
And Hellanicus has recorded that Medon and Strophius 
were the issue of the marriage. And Clytaemnestra and 
-iJ^gisthus were buried a Httle outside the walls, for they 
were thought unworthy to lie within the city, and mingle 
their ashes with Agamemnon and those who were murdered 
with him. 

' iL 120. 



ABOUT fifteen stades from Mycenae on the left is a 
temple of Hera. By the road flows the river Elen- 
therius. And the priestesses use it for lustrations and 
for private sacrifices. And this temple is on the more 
level part of Euboea, for Eubcea is a mountain, and they 
say the daughters of the river god Asterion were Euboea 
and Prosymna and Acraea, and that they were nurses of 
Hera. And Acraea gave her name to all the mountain 
opposite the temple of Hera, and Euboea to the mountain 
near the temple, and Prosymna to the ground below the 
temple. And this Asterion flows above the temple of Hera 
and falls into a ravine and so disappears. And the flower 
called Asterion grows on its banks : they carry this flower 
to Hera and plait her crowns of its leaves. The architect 
of the temple was they say Eupolemus the Argive : and all 
the carved work above the pillars relates partly to the birth 
of Zeus and the gods and the battle with the Giants, and 
partly to the Trojan war and the capture of Ilium. And 
there are some statues in the porch, of the priestesses of 
Hera, and of Orestes and other heroes. Eor they say the 
one bearing the inscription that it is the Emperor Augus- 
tus is really Orestes. In the Ante- chapel are some old 
statues of The Graces, and on the right hand the bed of 
Hera, and a votive offering, the spear which Menelaus took 
from Euphorbus at Ilium. And there is a huge statue of 
Hera seated on a throne, in gold and ivory, the design of 
Polycletus. And she has a crown on her head composed 
of Graces and Seasons, and in one hand she has the fruit 
of the pomegranate, and in the other her sceptre. As to 
the pomegranate let me pass that over, for I am forbid to 
speak of it. But as to the cuckoo which sits on the sceptre, 
they say that Zeus, when he was enamoured of Hera while 
still a maid, changed himself into that bird, and that Hera 
chased the supposed cuckoo in sport. This tradition and simi- 
lar ones about the gods I do not record because I believe 
them, but I record them just the same. And near Hera is 


a statue of Hebe said to be by Naucydes, this too in ivory 
and gold. And near it on a pillar is an old statue of 
Hera. But the oldest statne of Hera was made of wild 
pear tree, and was placed at Tiryns by Pirasus the son of 
Argus, and the Argives when they took Tiryns conveyed it 
to the temple of Hera, and I myself have seen it, a statue 
not very large seated. And the votive offerings worthy 
of record are a silver altar, with the legendary marriage of 
Hebe and Hercules carved npon it, and a peacock of gold 
and precious stones, an offering of the Emperor Adrian : 
he made this present because the peacock is sacred to Hera. 
There is also a golden crown and purple robe, the offerings 
of Nero. And there are above this temple the foundations 
of an older one and whatever the flames have spared. That 
temple was bnrnt by Chryseis, the priestess of Hera, falling 
asleep, and her lamp first setting fire to the decorations. And 
Chryseis went to Tegea and supplicated Alean Athene : 
and the Argives, although such a misfortune had befallen 
them, did not remove the effigy of Chryseis, bnt it is there to 
this day in front of the burnt temple. 


AND as you go from Myceme to Argos there is on the 
left hand a hero-chapel of Perseus near the road. He 
has honours here from the people in the neighbourhood, 
but the greatest honours are paid him at Seriphus, and he 
has also a temple among the Athenians, and in it an altar 
to Dictys and Clymene, who are called the Saviours of 
Perseus. And as you advance on the road to Argos a little 
way from this hero-chapel is the tomb of Thyestes on the 
right hand : and on it is a ram in stone, for Thyestes 
stole the golden sheep, when he seduced his brother's wife. 
And Atreus could not be satisfied with the law of Tit for 
Tat, but slaughtered the children of Thyestes and served 
them up to him at table. But afterwards I cannot pronounce 
decidedly whether ^gisthus began the injury, or whether 
it began with the murder of Tantalus the son of Thyestes 
by Agamemnon : for they say he married Clytsemnestra as 


her first husband having received her from Tyndareus. 
And I do not wish to accuse them of wickedness incarnate. 
But if the crime of Pelops and the ghost of Myrtilus haunted 
the family so ruthlessly, it reminds one of the answer of the 
Pythian Priestess to Glaucus the son of Epicydes the Spar- 
tan, when he purposed perjury, that punishment would 
come on his descendants. 

As you go on a little to the left from the Bavis, for so 
they call the tomb of Thyestes, is a place called Mysia, 
and a teruple of Mysian Demeter, so called from a man 
called Mysius, who was as the Argives say a host of De- 
meter. It has no roof. And in it is a shrine of baked 
brick, and images of Proserpine and Pluto and Demeter. 
And a little further is the river Inachus, and on the other 
side of the river is an altar of the Sun. And you will go 
thence to the gate called from the neighbouring temple, 
the temple of Ilithyia. 

The Argives are the only Greeks I know of who were 
divided into three kingdoms. For in the reign of Anax- 
agoras, the son of Argos, the son of Megapenthes, a mad- 
ness came on the women, they went from their homes and 
wandered up and down the country, till Melampus the son 
of Amythaon cured them of that complaint, on condition 
that he and his brother Bias should share alike with Anaxa- 
goras. And five kings of Bias' race reigned for four 
generations to Cyanippus the son of -^Egialeus, being all 
descended from Neleus on the mother's side, and from 
Melampus six generations and six kings to Amphilo- 
chus the son of Amphiaraus. But the native race, the 
descendants of Anaxagoras, reigned longer. For Iphis, the 
son of Alector, the son of Anaxagoras, left the kingdom to 
Sthenelus the son of his brother Capaneus : and Amphilo- 
chus after the capture of Ilium having migrated to what is 
now called Amphilochi, and Cyanippus dying childless, 
Cylarabes the son of Sthenelus had the kingdom alone. 
And he too had no children, and so Orestes the son of Aga- 
memnon got Argos, as he was a near neighbour, and besides 
his hereditary sway had added to his dominions much Ar- 
cadian territory, and as he had also got the kingdom in 
Sparta, and had ever ready help in the alliance of the 
Phocians. And he was king of the Lacedsamonians at 


their own request. For ttey thought the sons of Tyndareus' 
daughters better entitled to the kingdom than Nieostratus 
and Megapenthes, the sons of Menelaus by a bondmaid. 
And when Orestes died Tisamenus, the son of Orestes by 
Hermione the daughter of Menelaus, had the kingdom. 
And Penthilus, Orestes' bastard son by Erigone the daughter 
of ^gisthus, is mentioned by Cinsethon in his Verses. It 
was in the reign of this Tisamenus that the Heraclidae re- 
turned to the Peloponnese, viz. Temenus and Cresphontes 
the sons of Aristomachus, and, as Aristodemus had died 
earlier, his sons came too. And they laid claim to Argos 
and its kingdom on it seems to me the justest grounds, 
for Tisamenus was a descendant of Pelops, but the He- 
raclidae derived from Perseus. And they represented that 
Tyndareus had been turned out by Hippocoon, and they 
said that Hercules had slain Hippocoon and his sons, and 
had given the country back to Tyndareus. Similarly they 
said about Messenia, that it was given to Nestor as a 
charge by Hercules when he took Pylos. They turned out 
therefore Tisamenus from Lacedaemon and Argos, and the 
descendants of Nestor from Messenia, viz. Alcma?on the son 
Sillus the son of Thrasymedes, and Pisistratus the son of 
of Pisistratus, and the sons of Paeon the son of AntilochHS, 
and besides them Melanthus the son of Andropompus, the son 
of Boms, the son of Penthilus, the son of Periclymenus. 
So Tisamenus and his sons went to whatis now called Achaia 
with his army : and all the other sons of Neleus but Pisis- 
tratus, (for I don't know to what people he betook him- 
self), went to Athens, and the Paeonidae and the Alcmae- 
onidae were called after them. Melanthus also had the 
kingdom, after driving out Thymoetes, the son of Oxyntas, 
who was the last of the descendants of Theseus that 
reigned at Athens. 



AS to Cresplionfces and the sons of Aristodemus there 
is nothing pressing to narrate about them. But 
Temenus openly made use of Deiphontes (the son of Anti- 
machns, the son of Thi^syanor, the son of Ctesippus, the son 
of Hercules) as general for his battles instead of his sons, and 
made him his associate in all things, and gave him as wife 
his daughter Hymetho whom he loved more than all his 
children, and was suspected of intending to make her and 
Deiphontes his heirs in the kingdom. And for these 
reasons he was slain by his sons, and Cisus the eldest of 
them became king. But the Argives, who had from the 
most ancient times loved equality and home rule, reduced 
the kingly power so low, that Medon, the son of Cisus, 
and his descendants were left the royal title only. And 
Meltas the son of Lacedas, the 10th descendant of Medon, 
the people sentenced to deprivation of his kingdom alto- 

Of the temples in the city of the Argives the most notable 
is that of Lycian (Wolf -God) Apollo. The Statue in our day 
was the work of an Athenian, Attains, but originally the 
temple and wooden statue was the offering of Danaus. I 
think all statues were wooden in those days, and especially 
Egyptian ones. Now Danaus built a temple to Apollo the 
Wolf- God for the following reason. When he came to 
Argos, he and Gelanor the son of Sthenelas were rival com- 
petitors for the kingdom. And many ingratiating words 
having been spoken by both of them to the people, and 
Gelanor's speech seeming rather the best, the people, 
they say, put off the decision to the next day. And at 
break of day a wolf attacked a herd of cattle that were 
feeding near the walls, and had a fierce encounter with 
the bull, the leader of the herd. And it occurred to 
the Argives that Gelanor was like the bull, Danaus like 
the wolf, for just as this animal does not live with human 
beings so Danaus had not up to that time lived with them. 
And as the wolf mastered the bull, so Danaus got the 
kingdom. And he thinking that Apollo had sent that 

BOOK n. COEEtTTH. 127 

wolf against the herd, built a temple to Apollo the Wolf- 
God. In it is the throne of Danans, and an image of 
Biton, the man who carried a bull on his shoulders (as 
Lyceas has represented), for, when the Argives were sacrific- 
ing to Zeus at Xemea, Biton took up a bull bv sheer strength 
and carried it to the altar. And they light the fire close to 
this image, and they call it the fire of Phoroneus : for they 
do not j jjtnjt- th n t. Prometheus gave fire to men, but ther 
attribute the invention of fire to Phoroneus. Here also are 
wooden statues of Aphrodite and Hermes, the latter the 
work of Epeus, and the former the offering of Hypemmestra. 
For she, the only one of his daughters who disobeyed his 
cruel order, was brought to trial by Danaus, partly because 
he thought his own safety compromised by that of Lynceus, 
and partly because her not joining with her sisters in their 
atrocious deed augmented the disgrace of the contriver of 
the deed. And, being acquitted by the Argives, she erected 
as a votive offering in this temple a statue of Victoriou;? 
Aphrodite. And there is inside the temple a statue of 
Ladas, who excelled all his contemporaries in fleetness of 
foot, and one of Hermes making a lyre out of a tortoise. 
And there is in front of the temple an amphitheatre with a 
representation of the fight between the bull and the wolf, 
and a maiden throwing a stone at the bull. They think 
this maiden represents Artemis. Danaus had all this con- 
structed, and some pillars near, and wooden statues of Zeus 
and Artemis. 

Here also are the tombs of Linus the son of Apollo, and 
of Psamathe the daughter of Crotopus, and this is that 
Linus they say who wrote poetry. I pass him by now 

ts more meet to be discussed in another place, and as 
regards Psamathe I have already given a full account 
of her in what I have written about Megara. Next is 
:* statue of Apollo the Guardian of the Streets, and the 

tltai- of Rainy Zeus, where those who conspired the return 
of Polynices to Thebes swore that they would die if un- 
successful in taking Thebes. As to the sepulchre of Pro- 
'iietheus, the Argrives seem to me to give a less credible 

iccount than the Opuntians, but they stick to their account 
all the same. 



A ND passing by the effigy of Creux the boxer, and the 
-^*- trophy erected over the Corinthians, you come to the 
statue of Milichian Zeus seated, the work of Polycletus in 
white stone. I ascertained that the following was the 
reason why it was made. When the Lacedfemonians began 
the war with the Argives, they continued hostilities till 
Philip the son of Amyntas compelled them to remain 
within their original boundaries. For during all previous 
time the Lacedsemonians never interfered outside the Pelo- 
ponnese, but were always cutting a slice off Argolis, or the 
Argives, if the Lacedaemonians were engaged in war, would 
at such a time make a swoop on their borders. And when 
their mutual animosity was at its height, the Argives re- 
solved to keep a standing army of 1000 picked men, 
and their captain was Bryas the Argive, who in other re- 
spects was insolent to the people, and outraged a maiden, 
who was being led in procession to her bridegroom's house, 
tearing her away from her escort. But during the night 
catching him asleep she blinded Bryas : and being arrested 
at daybreak implored protection from the people. As 
they would not abandon her to the vengeance of the thou- 
sand, there ensued a fight, and the people were vic- 
torious, and in the heat of victory left not one of the 
1000 alive. But afterwards they made expiation for this 
shedding of kinsmen's blood, and erected a statue to Mili- 
chian Zeus. And near are statues in stone of Cleobis and 
Bito, who themselves drew the car with their mother in it 
to the temple of Hera.^ And opposite these is the temple 
of Nemean Zeus, and in it a brazen statue of the god erect, 
the design of Lysippus. And next to it, as you go forward, on 
the right hand, is the tomb of Phoroneus : to whom they 
still offer victims. And opposite the temple of Nemean 
Zeus is a temple of Fortune of most ancient date, since 
Palamedes the inventor of dice made a votive offering of 
his dice to this temple. And the tomb near they call 
that of the Maenad Chorea, who they say with the other 
women accompanied Dionysus to Argos, and Perseus being 
' See the story told by.Addison, Spectator, No. 483. 


victorious in the battle slew most of the women : the others 
they buried all together, but for her they had a tomb sepa- 
rately, as she excelled the others in merit. And at a little 
distance is a temple of the Seasons. And as you go on 
there are some full-length statues of Polynices, the son of 
CEdipus, and all the chief warriors that died with him in 
battle fighting against Thebes. These men ^schylus has 
described as only seven in number, though more must have 
come from Argos and Messene and Arcadia. And near 
these seven, (for the Argives also follow the description of 
^schylus), are the statues of those that took Thebes, 
-iSlgialeus the son of Adrastus, and Promachus the son of 
Parthenopaeus the son of Talaus, and Polydorus the son of 
Hippomedon, and Thersander, and Alcmaeon and Amphi- 
lochus the sons of Amphiaraus, and Diomede and Sthenelus : 
also Euryalus the son of Mecisteus, and Adrastus and 
Timeas, the sons of Polynices. And not far from these 
statues is exhibited the sepulchre of Danaus, and a cenotaph 
of the Argives whom fate seized in Ilium or on the journey 
home. And there is here also a temple of Zeus Soter, at 
a little distance from which is a building where the Argive 
women bewail Adonis. And on the right hand of the 
entrance a temple has been built to the river Cephissus : 
the water of this river they say was not altogether dried 
up by Poseidon, but flowed under ground on the site of 
the temple. And near the temple of the Cephissus is a 
head of the Medusa in stone : this also they say is the work 
of lihe Cyclopes. And the place behind they call to this 
day Judgement Hall, because they say that Hypermnestra 
was put upon her trial there by Danaus. And not far dis- 
tant is a theatre : and in it among other things well worth 
seeing is Perilaus the Argive, the son of Alcenor, slaying 
Othryades the Spartan. Perilaus before this had had the 
good luck to carry off the prize for wrestling in the Xemean 
games. And beyond the theatre is a temple of Aphrodite, 
in front of which is a statue of Telesilla the poetess on a 
pillar : at her feet lie her volumes of poetry, and she her- 
self is looking at a helmet, which she holds in her hand 
and is about to put on her head. This Telesilla was other- 
wise remarkable among women, besides being honoured 
for her poetic gifts. For when upon the Argives fell 



disaster untold at the hands of Cleomenes (the son of 
Anaxandrides) and the Lacedeemonians, and most of 
them perished in the battle, and when all that fled for 
refuge to the grove at Argos perished also, at first coming 
out for quarter, but when they found that the promised 
quarter was not granted, setting themselves and the grove 
on fire together, then Cleomenes led the Lacedaemonians 
to an Argos stript of men. Then it was that Telesilla 
manned the walls with all the slaves who through youth or 
age were reckoned unfit to carry arms, and herself getting 
together all the arms which were left in the houses or the 
temples, and mustering all the women in the prime of life, 
armed them, and drew them up in battle array where she 
knew the enemy would approach. And when the Lace- 
deemonians came up, and the women so far from being dis- 
mayed at their war cry received their attack stoutly, then 
the Lacedaemonians considering that if they killed all the 
women their victory would be discreditable, and if they 
themselves were beaten their reverse would be disgraceful, 
yielded to the women. Now the Pythian Priestess had 
foretold this, and Herodotus, whether understanding the 
oracle or not, had recorded it as follows.^ " But when the 
female conquering the male shall drive him out and win 
fame for the Argives, then shall the god make many of 
the Argive women wretched." These words of the oracle 
describe the action of the women. 


AND as you descend from thence and turn to the market- 
place you see the tomb of Cerdo, the wife of Phoro- 
neus, and the temple of -^sculapius. And the temple of 
Artemis, under the name Persuasion, was erected also by 
Hypermnestra, when she was victorious over her father 
in the trial about Lynceus. There is also a brazen statue 
of ^neas, and a place called Delta, but why it is called 
Delta I purposely pass over, for I didn't like the explana- 
tion. And in front of it is a temple of Zeus Promoter of 

1 Hdt. vi. 77. 


Flight, and near it is the sepulchre of Hypermnestra the 
mother of Amphiaraus, and the sepulchre of Hypermnestra 
the daughter of Danaus, who lies in the same grave with 
Lynceus. And opposite them is the tomb of Talaus the son 
of Bias, about whom and his descendants I have spoken 
already. And there is a temple of Athene under the name 
of Tnimjjet, which they say Hegeleus built. This Hegeleus 
they say was the son of Tvrsenus, who was the son of 
Hercules and a Lydian woman, and Tyrsenus was the first 
who invented the trumpet, and Hegeleus his son taught the 
Dorians who followed Temenus the use of it, and that was 
why he called Athene Trumpet. And before the temple of 
Athene is they say the tomb of Epimenides : for the Lace- 
daemonians when they fought against the Gnossians took 
Epimenides alive, but killed him afterwards because he did 
not prophesy auspiciously for them, and they say they 
brought his remains, and buried them, here. And the 
building of white stone, nearly in the middle of the market- 
place, is not a trophy over Pyrrhus the king of Epirus, 
as the Argives say. but a memorial that his body was burnt 
here, inasmuch as elephants and all other things which he 
used in battle are represented here. This was the buildincf 
for his funeral pyi'e : but his bones lie in the temple of 
Demeter, where in my account of Attica I have shown 
that he died. And at the entrance of this temple of 
Demeter you may see his brazen shield hanging over the 

*• And not far from the building in the marketplace of the 
Ai'gives is a mound of earth. They say the head of the 
Gorgon Medusa lies under it^ To omit fable, it has been 
recorded of her that she was the daughter of Phorcus, and 
that after the death of her father she ruled over the people 
that live near the Tritonian marsh, and used to go out 
hunting and led the Libyans in battle, and moreover resisted 
with her army the power of Perseus, though picked men 
followed him from the Peloponnese, but she was treache- 
rously slain by night, and Perseus, marvelling at her beautv 
even after death, cut her head ofE and brought it home to 
display to the Greeks. But Procles the Carthaginian, tlie 
son of Eucrates, has another account more plausible than 
this one. The desert of Libya produces monsters scarce 


credible to those that hear of them, and there both wild men 
and wild women are born : and Procles said he had seen one 
of those wild men that had been taken to Rome. He con- 
jectured therefore that Medusa was a woman who had 
wandered from them, and gone to the Tritonian marsh, 
and illtreated the inhabitants till Perseus slew her : and 
Athene he thought -assisted Perseus in the work, because 
the men in the neighbourhood of the Tritonian marsh 
were sacred to her. And in Argos close to this monument 
of the Gorgon is the tomb of the Gorgon-slayer Perseus. 
Why she was called Gorgon is plain to the hearer at once.^ 
They say she was the first woman who ever married a second 
husband, for she married one OEbalus, when her husband 
Perieres the son of -.iEolus was dead, with whom she had 
lived from her virginity. Previously it was customary for 
women to remain widows if their husband died. And be- 
fore this tomb is a trophy erected in stone to the Argive 
Laphaes, whom, according to the Argive tradition, the 
people rose up against and expelled when he was king, and 
when he fled to Sparta the Lacedaemonians endeavoured to 
restore him, but the Argives being victorious in the battle 
slew Laphaes and most of the Lacedaemonians. And not 
far from this trophy is the temple of Leto, and a statue of 
her by Praxiteles. And the figure near the goddess is the 
maiden they call Chloris, who they say was the daughter of 
Niobe, and was originally called Melibcea. And when the 
children of Amphion and Niobe were slain by Apollo and 
Artemis, she alone and Amyclas were saved alive, as they 
supplicated Leto. But fear turned Melibcea so pale that 
she remained so all the rest fef ier life, insomuch that her 
name was changed from Melibcea into Chloris (pale). This 
Chloris and Amyclas the Argives say built the original 
temple of Leto. But I myself am of opinion, (for I lean 
more than most people to the authority of Homer,) that 
none of the children of Niobe survived. The following 
line bears me out. 

" Two arrows only slew the whole family." * 

Homer therefore describes the whole family of Amphion 
as cut off. 

1 The word Gorgon means ffrim, terrible. * II. xxiv. 609. 



NOW the temple of Floweiy Hera is on the right hand 
of the temple of Leto, and in front of it is the tomb of 
the women who fell in the fight between the Argives and 
Perseus, and had marched with Dionysus from the islands 
in the ^gean, and who were called Marines from that cir- 
cumstance. And right opposite the sepulchre of those 
women is the temple of Demeter, surnamed Pelasgian be- 
cause Pelasgus the son of Triopas built it, and at no great 
distance from the temple is Pelasgus' tomb. And beyond 
the tomb is a brazen shrine not very large, which contains 
old statues of Artemis and Zeus and Athene. Lyceas in his 
verses has represented it as a votive offering to Zeus the 
Contriver, and said that the Argives who went on the expedi- 
tion to Ilium swore here that they would not give over fight- 
ing, till they should either capture Ilium or be killed fighting 
there. But others have said that the remains of Tantalus 
are in that brazen shrine. I will not dispute that the Tan- 
talus who was the son of Thyestes or Broteus, (for both 
traditions are current), who manned Clytsemnestra before 
Agamemnon, was buried here. But the Tantalus who was 
said to be son of Zeus or Pluto was buried at Sipylus in a 
very handsome tomb which I have myself seen. Aiid more- 
over there was no necessity for him to flee from Sipylus, as 
happened afterwards to Pelops when Lus the Phrygian 
came against him with an army. But let the enquiry pro- 
ceed no further. As for 'the rites which take place at 
the neighbouring ti-ench, they say they wex'e instituted by 
Nicostratus, a man of those parts. To this day they place 
in the trench lighted torches to Proserpine the daughter of 
Demeter. There too is a temple of Poseidon under the 
name of the Flood-god — for Poseidon flooded most of the 
region, because Inachus and the other arbitrators decided 
that the land was Hera's and not his. But Hera after- 
wards got Poseidon to draw the water off : and the Argives, 
at the place where the stream retired, built a temple to 
Poseidon the Flood-god. And as you go a little further is 
the tomb of Argos, who was reputed to be the son of Zeus 


and Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus : and next is the 
temple of the Dioscuri. And there are statues of them and 
their sons, Anaxis and Mnasinus, and with them their 
mothers Hilaira and Phoebe, in black ebony wood, by 
Dipoenus and Scyllis. Even the horses are mostly made of 
ebony, though partly of ivory. And near this temple of the 
Dioscuri is a temple of Ilithyia, the offering of Helen, when 
Theseus went with Pirithous to Thesprotia, and Aphidna 
was captured by the Dioscuri, and Helen was taken to Lace- 
dasmon. For they say she was pregnant by Theseus, and 
bare a child in Argos and built this temple to Ilithyia, and 
gave the child to Clytsemnestra, who was now the wife of 
Agamemnon, and the child afterwards became the wife of 
Menelaus. Euphorion the Chalcidian and Alexander the 
Pleuronian have mentioned it in their poems, and still 
earlier Stesichorus of Himera, and they say like the Argives 
that Iphigenia was the daughter of Theseus by Helen. 
And beyond the temple of Ilithyia is the temple of Hecate, 
and the statue is the work of Scopas. It is of stone and 
right opposite are two brazen statues of Hecate, one by 
Polycletus, and the other by his brother Naucydes the son 
of Mothon. And as you go straight for the gymnasium, 
which is called Cylarabis after Cylarabus, the son of 
Sthenelus, you come to the tomb of Licymnius the son of 
Electryon. Homer says he was slain by Tleptolemus the 
son of Hercules, who had to fly from Argos in consequence 
of this murder. And, as you turn off a little towards 
Cylarabis and the gate in this direction, is the sepulchre of 
Sacades, who was the first who played the Hymn to Apollo 
at Delphi on the flute : and it seems the anger of Apollo 
against fluteplayers (which he had in consequence of the 
contest with Marsyas the Silenus) was appeased by this 
Sacadas. In this gymnasium of Cylarabus is a bust of 
Athene Capanea, and they show the tomb of Sthenelus, and 
of Cylarabus himself. And not far from this gymnasium 
is a monument to the Argives who sailed with the Athenians 
to reduce Syracuse and Sicily. 



AS you go thence on the road called the Hollow "Way, 
there is on the right hand a temple of Dionysus : the 
statue of the god they say came from Euboea. For when the 
Greeks returning from Ilium were shipwrecked at Cap- 
hareus, those of the Argives who contrived to escape to 
shore were in evil plight from cold and hunger. But when 
they prayed that one of the gods would save them in 
their present emergency, immediately as they went forward 
they saw a cave of Dionysus, and a statue of the god in the 
cave, and some wild goats that had taken refuge from the 
cold were huddled together in it. These the Argives killed, 
and eat their flesh, and used their skins for clothing. And 
when the winter was over, they repaired their vessels and 
sailed homewards, and took with them the wooden statue 
from the cave, and worship it to this day. And very near 
the temple of Dionysus you will see the house of Adrasttis, 
and at some distance from it the temple of Amphiaraus, 
and beyond that the tomb of Eriphyle. And next these is 
the shrine of ^sculapius, and close to it the temple of 
Bate, who was of the family of Amphiaraus and one of the 
Melampodidse, and was Amphiaraus' charioteer when he 
went out to battle : and when the rout from Thebes came 
about, the earth opened and swallowed up Amphiaraus and 
the chariot and Bato all together. And as you return from 
the Hollow Way you come to the reputed tomb of Hymetho. 
If it is a cenotaph and merely in memory of her, their 
account is probable enough, but if they say that the body 
of Hymetho lies there I cannot believe them, but let him 
believe them who knows nothing about Epidaurus. The 
most famous of the temples of ^sculapius at Argos has a 
statue still to be seen, ^sculapius seated, in white stone, 
and next to him a statue of Hygiea. There are also seated 
near them those who designed these statues, Xenophilus 
and Strato. That temple was originally built by Sphyms, 
the son of Machaon, and the brother of the Alexanor who 
has honours among the Sicyonians at Titane. And the 


statue of Pheraean Artemis, (for the Argives worship 
Pherasan Artemis as well as the Athenians and Sicyonians,) 
was they say brought from Pherse in Thessaly. But I 
cannot agree with the Argives who say that they have at 
Argos the tombs of Deianira the daughter of CEneus, and of 
Helenus the son of Priam, and that they have the statue of 
Athene that was carried away from Ilium, and whose loss 
caused its fall. The Palladium, for that is its name, was 
certainly carried by -^neas to Italy. As to Deianira, we 
know she died at Trachis and not at Argos, and her tomb 
is near that of Hercules on Mount CBta. And as to Helenus 
the son of Priam, I have already shown that he went with 
Pyrrhus the son of Achilles to Epirus, and married Andro- 
mache, and was Regent for the sons of Pyrrhus, and that 
Cestrine in Epirus took its name from his son Cestrinus. 
Not that the Argive antiquarians are ignorant that all 
their traditions are not true, still they utter them : for it is 
not easy to get the mass of mankind to change their pre- 
conceived opinions. There are other things at Argos worth 
seeing, as the underground building, (in which is the 
brazen chamber which Acrisius formerly got constructed 
for the safe custody of his daughter, Perilaus deposed and 
succeeded him,) and the tomb of Crotopus, and the temple 
of Cretan Dionysus. For they say that Dionysus, after he 
had warred with Perseus and got friendly again with him, 
was highly honoured by the Argives in various respects, 
and was given as a special honour this enclosure. And 
afterwards it was called the temple of Cretan Dionysus, 
because they buried Ariadne here. And Lyceas says that 
when the temple was restored an earthenware cinerary urn 
was found that contained the ashes of Ariadne : which he 
said several Argives had seen. And near this temple of 
Dionysus is the temple of Celestial Aphrodite. 



AXD the citadel they call Larissa from the daughter of 
Pelasgus, and from two cities of that name in Thes- 
saly, one on the coast, and one hj the river Peneus. And 
as you go up to the citadel there is a temple of Hera 
Dwelling on the Heights, there is also a temple of Apollo, 
which Pythasus, who first came from Delphi, is said to 
have erected. The statue is of bi-ass erect, and is called 
Apollo of the Ridgeway, for the place is called Ridge. 
Oracular responses, for there is an oracle there even to our 
day, are given in the following manner. The prophetess is 
debarred from marriage : and when a lamb is sacrificed 
every month, she tastes of the blood and becomes possessed 
by the god. And next to the temple of Apollo of the 
Ridgeway is the temple of Athene called Sharp-eyed, the 
votive offering of Diomede, because when he was fighting 
at Hium the goddess upon one occasion took a mist from 
his eyes.* And close by is the race-course where they hold 
the games to Xemean Zeus and to Hera. On the left of 
the road to the citadel is a monument to the sons of 
.^gyptus. Their heads are here apart from their bodies, 
for the bodies are at Lema where the murder of the young 
men was perpetrated, and when they were dead their 
wives cut their heads off, to show their father their des- 
p3rate deed. And on the summit of Larissa is the temple 
of Larissaean Zeus, which has no roof to it : and the 
statue, which is made of wood, stands no longer on its 
base. And there is a temple of Athene well worth seeing. 
There are several votive offerings there, and a wooden statue 
of Zeus, with the usual two eyes, and a tliird in the fore- 
head. This Zeus they say was the tutelary god of Priam 
the son of Laomedon. and was placed in his hall in the 
open air, and when Ilium was taken by the Greeks, it was 
to his altar that Priam fled for refuge. And when they 
divided the spoil Sthenelus the son of Capaneus got it, and 
placed it here. One might conjecture that the god has 
three eyes for the following reason. That he reigns in 

> See D. r. 127, 128. 


heaven is the universal tradition of all mankind. And that 
he reigns also under the earth the line of Homer proves, 
speaking of him as 

" Zeus the lord of the under world, and dread Proserpine."^ 

And -^schylus the son of Euphorion calls him also Zeus of 
the sea. The sculptor therefore whoever he was repre- 
sented him with three eyes to denote that the god rules 
in these three departments of the universe. 

Among the roads from Argos to various parts of the 
Peloponnese, is one to Tegea a town in Arcadia. On the 
right of this road is the mountain Lycone, full of cypress 
trees. And on the top of the mountain is a temple to 
Orthian Artemis, and there are statues of Apollo and Leto 
and Artemis in white stone ; said to be by Polycletus. And 
as you go down from the mountain there is on the left of 
the road a temple of Artemis. And at a little distance on 
the right is the mountain called Chaon. And underneath 
it trees are planted, and manifestly here the Erasinus has 
its rise : for a while it flows from Stymphalus in Arcadia, 
as the Rheti flow from Euripus to Eleusis and so to the 
sea. And where the river Erasinus gushes out on the 
mountain-side they sacrifice to Dionysus and Pan, and keep 
the feast of Dionysus called Medley. And as you return 
to the Tegean road, you come to Cenchreee on the right 
of what is called Trochus. Why it was called Cenchrew 
they do not tell us, except the name came from Cenchreus 
the son of Pirene. There is here a general tomb of the. 
Argives who conquered the Lacedaemonians in battle near 
Hysise. I ascertained that this battle was fought when 
Pisistratus was ruler at Athens, and in the 4th year of the 
Olympiad in which Eurybotus the Athenian won the prize 
in the course. And as you descend to the plain are the 
ruins of the town Hysiae in Argolis, and here they say the 
reverse happei^d to the Lacedeemonians. 

' II. ix. 457. 



THE road to Mantinea from Argos is not the same as 
the road to Tegea, but you start from the gates near 
the ridge. And on this road there is a temple with a double 
entrance, one facing west, another east. At the east end 
is a wooden statue of Aphrodite, at the west one of Ares. 
These statues are they say votive offerings of Poljnices and 
the Argives who were associated with him in his expedi- 
tion. And as you go on from thence after crossing the 
winter torrent called Ravine you come to CEnoe, which 
gets its name (so the Argives say) from ffineus, who was 
king in ^tolia, and expelled they say from his kingdom 
by the sons of Agrius, and went to Argos to Diomede. 
And he helped him somewhat by leading an army into 
Calydonia, but he couldn't he said stay there : but recom- 
mended him if he Hked to accompany him to Ai'gos. And 
when he went there, he treated him in all respects well, as 
one would expect a person to treat his grandfather, and 
when he died he buried him here. The place got called 
CEnoe by the Argives after him. And above Qi]noe is the 
Mountain Artemisium, and a temple of Artemis on the top 
of the mountain. And on this mountain are the sources 
of the Inachus : for it has its rise here, though it flows 
underground for some way. There is nothing else to see 

And another road from the gates near the Ridge goes to 
Lyrceia. This is the place to which Lynceus alone of all 
the 50 brothers is said to have escaped, and when he got 
there safe, he held up a lighted torch there. For it was no 
doubt agreed between Hypermnestra and him that he should 
do so as a signal, if he should escape from Danaus and get 
to a place of safety. And she also they say kindled another 
at Larissa, manifestly to show that she too was in no 
danger. And in memory of this the Argives every year 
have a torch procession. And in those days the place was 
called Lynceia, but afterwards, because Lyrcus an illegiti- 
mate son of Abas lived there, it got the name Lyrceia from 
him. There is nothing very notable among the ruins but 


the efl&gy of Lyrcus on a jjillar. Prom Lyrceia to Argos 
is about 60 stades, and it is about the same distance 
from Lyreeia to Orneae. Homer has made no mention of 
Lyrceia in his catalogue, as the city was already depopu- 
lated at the time of the expedition to Ilium : but Ornese, 
which was still inhabited, Homer ^ has recorded before 
Phlius and Sicyon, according to its geographical situation 
in Argolis. And it got its name from Orneus the son of 
Erechtheus : and this Orneus had a son Peteos, and he had 
a son Menestheus, who aided Agamemnon with a force from 
Athens to put down the dominion of Priam. From Orneus 
then the city got its name, and the Argives afterwards dis- 
possessed the people of Ornese ; and when they were dis- 
possessed they were naturalized among the Argives. And 
there is at Orneae a temple of Artemis, and a wooden statue 
of the goddess in an erect posture, and another temple to 
all the gods in common. And beyond Ornese are Sicyonia 
and Phliasia. 

And as you go from Argos to the district of Epidaurus 
there is a building on the right hand like a pyramid, with 
some Argolic shields worked on it as a design. Here 
Prcetus fought with Acrisius for the supremacy, and their 
contest was they say drawn, and they had a peace after- 
wards, as neither of them could conquer the other. And 
they say that they engaged first with shields, and then they 
and the army on both sides in full armour. And those 
who fell on both sides, as they were. fellow citizens and 
kinsmen, had one tomb and monument in common. And 
as you go on from thence and turn to the right you come 
to the ruins of Tiryns. And the Argives dispossessed the 
inhabitants of Tiryns, wishing to take them in as settlers to 
aggrandize Argos. And they say the hero Tiryns, from 
whom the city got its name, was the son of Argus the son 
of Zeus. And the walls of the city, which are the only 
ruins left, are the work of the Cyclopes made of rude stones, 
each stone of so gigantic a size that the smallest of them 
could hardly be moved by a pair of mules. And in ancient 
times small stones were inserted so as to dovetail in with 
the large stones. And as you go down to the sea, are the 
chambers of the daughters of Proetus. And when you 
1 Iliad, ii. 571. 

BOOK n. — CORINTH. 141 

return to the high road you wiU come to Midea on the left. 
They say that Electryon the father of Alcmena was king of 
Midea. But now nothing is left of Midea but the site. And 
on the direct road to Epidaurus is the village Lessa, and 
there is a temple of Athene in it, and a wooden statue very 
similar to that in the citadel at Larissa. And above Lessa 
is the Mountain Arachneeum, which in old times in the days 
of Inachus had the name of Sapyselaton. And there are 
altars on it to Zeus and Hera. They sacrifice to these gods 
here when there is a deficiency of rain. 


AND near Lessa is Epidaurus in Argolis, and before you 
get to the town itself, you will come to the temple of 
^sculapius. I do not know who dwelt in this place before 
Epidaums came to it : nor could I learn from any of the 
people of the neighbourhood anything about his descen- 
dants. But the last king they say before the Dorians came 
to the Peloponnese was Pityreus, the descendant of Ion the 
son of Xuthus. He they say gave up the land without 
fighting for it to Deiphontes and the Argives : and retired 
to Athens with his subjects and dwelt there, and Dei- 
phontes and the Argives who espoused his cause occupied 
Epidauria. For there was a split among the Argives at the 
death of Temenus, Deiphontes and Hymetho being hostile 
to the sons of Temenus, and the army with them favouring 
Deiphontes and Hyrnetho more than Cisus and his brothers. 
Epidaurus, from whom the country got its name, was, as 
the people of Elis say, the son of Pelops : but according to 
the opinion of the Argives, and the poem of Hesiod called 
The Great Eceae, the father of Epidaurus was Argus the 
son of Zeus. But the Epidaurians make Epidaurus the 
son of Apollo. And the district was generally held sacred 
to ^sculapius for the following reason. The Epidaurians 
say that Phlegyas came to the Peloponnese on the pretext 
of seeing the country, but really to spy out the population, 
and see if the number of fighting men was large. For 
Phlegyas was the greatest warrior of that day, and, who- 


ever he attacked, used to carry off their corn and fruit and 
booty of all kinds. But when he came to the Peloponnese 
his daughter followed him, who though her father knew 
it not was with child by Apollo. And when she bore 
her child on Epidaurian soil, she exposed it on the 
mountain called in our day Titthion, but which was then 
called Myrgion. And as he was exposed there one of the 
she-goats feeding on the mountain gave him milk, and tlie 
watch -dog of the flock guarded him. And Aresthanas, for 
that was the name of the goat-herd, when he found the 
number of the goats not tallying and that the dog was also 
absent from the flock, went in search everywhere, and 
when he saw the child desired to take him away, but when 
he got near saw lightning shining from the child, and 
thinking there was something divine in all this, as indeed 
there was, he turned away. And it was forthwith noised 
abroad about the lad both by land and sea that he could 
heal sicknesses, and raise the dead. There is also another 
tradition told of him, that Coronis, when pregnant with 
-<Esculapius, lay with Ischys the son of Elatus, and that 
she was put to death by Artemis who thus punished her 
unfaithfulness to Apollo, and when the funeral pyre was 
already lighted Hermes is said to have plucked the child 
from the flame. And a third tradition is as it seems to me 
the least likely of all, which makes ^sculapius the son of 
Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus. For when Apolio- 
phanes the Arcadian went to Delphi and enquired of the 
god, whether ^sculapius was the son of Arsinoe and a 
citizen at Messene, Apollo answered from his oracle, " 
^sculapius, that art born a great joy to all mortals, 
whom lovely Coronis, the daughter of Phlegyas, bare to 
me the child of love, at rocky Epidaurns." This oracular 
response shows plainly that ^sculapius was not the son of 
Arsinoe, but that Hesiod, or somebody that interpolated 
Hesiod, inserted that legend to please the people of Mes- 
sene. And this too bears me out that -^sculapius was 
born at Epidaurus, that his worship is derived from 
thence. For the Athenians call the day on which they 
worship ^sculapius Epidauria, and they say the god is 
worshipped by them from Epidaurus ; and also Archias the 
son of Aristflftohmus, being healed in Epidauria of a con- 

BOOK n. — CORINTH. 143 

nlsion that seized him when he was hnnting near Pin- 
asus, introduced the worship of the god at Pergamum. 
Lnd from the people of Pergamum it passed in our time 
3 the people of Smyrna. And at Balagrae amongst the 
lyrenseans the Epidaurian -<:Esculapius is called Doctor. 
md from the Cyreneeans -lEsculapius got worshipped in 
iabene among the Cretans. And there is this difference 
etween the C}Ten£ean and Epidaurian customs of wor- 
tiipping ^scnlapius, that the former sacrifice goats, 
'•hich is not customary with the latter. And I find that 
Esculapius was considered as a god from the beginning, 
nd not merely as he got fame as time went on, from other 
roofs, and the testimony of Homer in what Agamemnon 
lys about Machaon, 

" Talthybius, call here as quickly as possible Machaon the mortal, 

the son of .Esculapius," 

8 if he said the man the son of the god.* 


rHE sacred grove of Esculapius is walled in on all 
sides : nor do any deaths or births take place in the 
recincts of the god, just as is the case at the island 
)elos. And the sacrifices, whether any native of Epi- 
aurus or stranger be the sacrificer, they consume in the 
recincts. The same I know happens at Titane. And 
be statue of -Esculapius is in size half that of Olympian 
Jeus at Athens, and is made of ivory and gold : and the 
iscription shows that it was by the Parian Thrasymede 
tie son of Arignotus. The god sits on a seat holding a 
taff in one hand, and the other hand he has on a 
ragon's head, and a dog is seated at his feet. And on 
lie seat are represented the actions of Argive heroes, as 
Jellerophon killing the Chimaera, and Perseus with the 

1 Iliad, ir. 193, 194. Is Pausanias nodding here ? 


head of Medusa. And beyond the temple is a sleeping- 
place for suppliants. And a round building has been 
built near well worth seeing, of white stone, called the 
Rotunda. And in it there is a painting by Pausias of Cupid 
throwing away his bow and arrows and taking up a lyre 
instead. There is also here a painting of Drunkenness, alsc 
by Pausias, drinking out of a glass bowl. You may see ii 
the painting the glass bowl and in it a woman's face re^ 
fleeted. And six pillars to this day stand in the precincts 
but in old time there were more. On these are recordec 
the names of men and women healed by ^sculapius, anc 
the complaint from which each suffered, and how they wer( 
cured, written in Doric. And apart from the rest is ai 
ancient pillar, which states that Hippolytus offered 2( 
horses to the god. And the people of Aricia have a tradi 
tion corresponding to the inscription on this pillar, that 
when Hippolytus died in consequence of the imprecations 
of Theseus, ^sculapius restored him to life again : anc 
when he came to life again, he refused to pardon his 
father, and disregarding his entreaties went into Italy to 
the people of Aricia, and there became king and built a 
temple to Artemis, where in my time the prize for victory 
in single combat was to become the priest of the goddess.' 
But the contest was not for freemen, but for slaves who 
had run away from their masters. And the Epidaurians 
have a theatre in their temple, especially well worth seeing 
in my opinion : for the Roman theatres beat all in the world 
in magnificence, and for size the Arcadian theatre at Mega- 
lopolis carries the day : but for beauty of proportion what 
architect could compete with Polycletus ? And Polycletus ^ 
it was that designed this theatre and round building, i 
And within the grove there is a temple of Artemis, and a] 
statue of Epione, and a temple of Aphrodite and Themis 
and a stadium, as generally among the Greeks, consisting 
of a mound of earth, and a fountain well worth seeing 
for its roof and other decoration. And Antonine the 
Senator constructed in our days a bath of ^sculapius, and 
a temple of the gods they call the Bountiful Gods. He 
built also a temple for Hygiea and for ^sculapius and 
for Apollo under the title of Egyptian gods. He re- 
stored also Cotys' porch for the roof had fallen in and it 


had all come to ruin as it had been built of unbaked brick. 
And the Epidaurians who lived near the temple were espe- 
cially unfortunate, for their women might not bear children 
under a roof but only in the open air. But Antonine set 
this right and erected a building where it was lawful 
both to die and bear children. And there are two moun- 
tains above the grove, one called Titthion and the other 
Cynortion, and on the latter a temple to Maleatian Apollo. 
The building is ancient, but everything else in connection 
with the temple, as the reservoir e.g. in which rainwater 
is stored up, was put there by Antonine for the benefit of 
the Epidaurians. 


NOW all kinds of dragons, and especially those which 
incline to tawny in colour, are considered sacred 
to ^sculapius, and are tame, and the Epidaurian cotmtry 
alone breeds them. I find similar phenomena in other 
countries. Thus Libya alone breeds land crocodiles no 
smaller than two cubits, and from India alone come parrots 
and other birds. For the great snakes in size as big as 30 
cubits, which are produced in India and in Libya, the Epi- 
daurians say are not dragons but another species altogether. 
And as you ascend the mountain called Coryphon there is 
an olive tree called Twisted, its having been so moulded by 
Hercules' hand is the origin of the name. I can hardly 
believe that he meant this for a boundary for the Asinaei in 
Argolis, for , as the countiy on both sides lies waste one 
could find no clear botmdary here. And on the top of the 
mountain Coryphon is the temple of Artemis, which Tele- 
silla has mentioned in a poem. And as you go down to 
the city of the Epidaurians is a place, called Hymethium, 
full of wild olives that grow there. I shall record the 
Epidaurian tradition and the probable truth. Cisus and 
the other sons of Temenus knew that they would greatly 
vex Deiphontes, if they could by any means get Hymetho 
from him. Cerynes and Phalces therefore went alone 
to Epidaurus : for Argaeus the youngest did not approve 


of their plot. And they leaving their travelling carriage 
near the walls sent a messenger to their sister, wishing 
they said to have a conversation with her. And when 
she complied with their invitation, the young men at 
once brought various charges against Deiphontes, and 
begged her earnestly to return to Argos, making various 
promises, and that they would give her in marriage to a 
man in every respect better than Deiphontes, to the ruler 
of a larger population and a more fertile country. And 
Hyrnetho vexed at their words gave them back as good as 
they brought, and said that Deiphontes was acceptable to 
her as a husband, and that to be Temenus' son in law v^as 
not to be despised, but they ought to be called rather 
Temenus' murderers than his sons. And they made no 
reply to her, but took hold of her, put her into the travel- 
ling carriage, and drove off. And an Epidaurian took the 
news to Deiphontes that Cerynes and Phalces had gone off 
with Hyrnetho against her will. And he came to the rescue 
with all speed, and the Epidaurians when they heard what 
the matter was came to the rescue with him. And Dei- 
phontes when he came up with Cerynes shot at him and 
killed him with an arrow, but as Phalces was close to 
Hyrnetho he did not dare to shoot at him, lest he should 
miss him and kill her, but he closed with him and endea- 
voured to get her away. But Phalces resisting and pulling 
Hyrnetho too violently killed her, for she was pregnant. 
And he perceiving what he had done to his sister, drove 
the travelling carriage at full speed, hastening to be off 
before the Epidaurians could come up : and Deiphontes 
with his sons (for he had had by Hyrnetho Antimenes and 
Xanthippus and Argeus, and one daughter Orsobia, who 
afterwards married Pamphylus the son of ^gimius), took 
the dead body of Hyrnetho and conveyed it to the place 
which is now called Hyrnethium. And they built a 
chapel to her memory and paid her other honours, and 
with regard to the olive trees that grow in her grove, or 
any other trees there, it is an established custom that 
no one should break pieces of them off and carry them 
away, nor use them for any purpose, but leave them intact 
as sacred to Hyrnetho. And not far from the city is the 
sepulchre of Melissa, who was the wife of Periander the 


8011 of Cypselus, and the sepulchre of Proclees the father 
of Melissa. And he was king at Epidaurus, as his son in 
law Periander was at Corinth. 


EPIDAURUS has the following things most worthy of 
record. There is a temple of ^scnlapius, and statues 
of ^sculapius and Epione, who they say was his wife. 
These are in the open air, and are of Parian marble. And 
there are temples of Dionysus and Artemis, the latter as a 
Huntress. There is a temple also Ijuilt to Aphrodite : and 
near the harbour on the cliff jutting out into the sea is they 
say one of Hera. And the Athene in the citadel, a wooden 
statue well worth seeing, they call Cissasan Athene. 

The ^ginetans inhabit the island opposite Epidauria. 
And they say there were no inhabitants there originally, 
but Zeus having taken ^gina the daughter of Asopus 
there to that desert island, it was called ^gina after her 
instead of its old name CEnone, and when -iiEacus was 
grown up he asked of Zeus for settlers, and then they say 
that Zeus produced men from the soil. And they can tell 
of no king reigning there but .^acus, for we know of none 
of the sons of ^acus continuing there, for Peleus and Tela- 
mon had to flee for the murder of Phocus, and the sons of 
Phocus again dwelt near Parnassus in what is now called 
Phocis. And the name Phocis was given to the district 
when Phocus of the family of Omytion first came to it. 
In the days of this Phocus the country near Tithorea and 
Parnassus was called Phocis : but in the days of ^acus 
the name Phocis included everybody from Minyee near 
Orchomenus to Scarphea in Locris. And Peleus' sons 
were kings in Epirus, and of Telaruon's sons the family of 
Ajax was rather obscure (as he lived in a retired way 
privately), except Miltiades, who led the Athenians at 
Marathon, and his son Cimon, both of whom were ex- 
ceedingly illustrious. And the descendants of Teucer were 
kings of Cyprus down to Evagoras. And according to the 
poet Asius Phocus' sons were Panopeus and Crisus : and 


the son of Panopeus was Epeus, who according to Homer 
was the contriver of the wooden horse, and the grandson of 
Crisus was Pylades, the son of Strophius, the son of Crisus 
by Anaxibia the daughter of Agamemnon. Such is the 
pedigree of the so-called -^acidas, but they branched oii 
from the beginning into other directions. And in after 
time a part of the Argives that had occupied Epidanrus 
with Deiphontes crossed over to ^gina, and, mixing 
among the old settlers at -i^gina, introduced into the island 
the Doric language and manners. And the ^ginetans 
became a great power, so that they were even a greater 
naval power than the Athenians, and in the Persian War 
furnished the greatest number of vessels next to the 
Athenians, but their prosperity did not last, for they were 
turned out of -^gina by the Athenians, and went and 
dwelt at Thyrea in Argolis, which the Lacedaemonians gave 
them. They recovered -^gina indeed, when the Athenian 
triremes were captured at the Hellespont, but never re- 
gained their former wealth and power. Of all the Grreek 
islands ^gina is the most difficult of access. For there 
are rocks under the sea all round it, and sunken reefs. 
And they say that ^Eacus contrived this on purpose from 
fear of pirates, and that he might not be exposed to 
enemies. And near the chief harbour is a temple of 
Aphrodite, and in the most conspicuous part of the city 
what is called the Hall of -^acus, a square court of 
white stone : at the entrance of which are statues of the 
envoys who were sent by the Greeks to ^ac\is. All 
give the same account of this as the -^ginetans. A 
drought for some time afflicted Greece, and there was no 
rain either beyond the Isthmus or in the Peloponnese, 
until they sent messengers to Delphi, to enquire the cause, 
and at the same time to beg to be rid of the evil. The 
Pythian Priestess told them to prbpitiate Zeus, and that, 
if he was to listen to them, ..^acus must be the suppliant. 
Accordingly they sent envoys from every city to beg 
^acus to do so. And he offered sacrifices and prayers to 
Pan-Hellenian Zeus and caused rain to come on the earth : 
and the -iiEginetans made these effigies of all the envoys 
that had come to him. And within the precincts are some 
olive trees planted a long time ago, and an altar not much 


higher than the groxmd, which it is secretly whispered is 
a memorialof ^acus. And near the Hall of ^acus is 
the tomb of Phocus, a mound of earth with a base in the 
shape of a circle, and on it is a rough stone : and when 
Telamon and Peleus invited Phocus to the contest of the 
pentathlum, and it was Peleus' turn to throw the stone, 
which served them for a quoit, he purposely threw it at 
Phocus and hit him. And in this they gratified their mother, 
for they were the sons of Endeis the daughter of Sciron, 
and Phocus was the son of her sister Thetis, if the Greeks 
speak the truth. And Pylades appears to me for this 
reason, and not merely in friendship to Orestes, to have 
contrived the death of Neoptolemus. But when Phocus 
was stmck by the quoit and fell down dead, then the sons 
of Endeis got on board ship and fled. And Telamon later 
on sent a messenger, and endeavoured to clear himself of 
having contrived the death of Phocus. But ^acus would 
not let him land on the island, but bade him if he liked 
pile up a mole in the sea and make his defence there. 
Accordingly he sailed to the harbour called Secret, and by 
night produced a mole, which remains to this day. And 
being pronounced guilty of the death of Phocus he sailed 
back again to Salamis. And not far from this harbour 
Secret is a theatre well worth seeing, in size and workman- 
ship very similar to the one at Epidaurus. And behind it 
is built one side of a stadium, upholding the theatre and 
serving as a prop for it. 


AND near one another are temples of Apollo, and Arte- 
mis, and Dionysus. The wooden statue of Apollo is 
naked and of native art, but Artemis and Dionysus are 
draped, and Dionysus is represented with a beard. But 
the temple of ^sculapius is on the other side and not here, 
and the statue of stone, seated. And of all the gods the 
people of ^gina honour Hecate most, and celebrate her 
rites annually, saying that Orpheus the Thracian intro- 
duced those rites. And within the precincts is a temple. 


containing a wooden statue of Hecate by Myron, with only 
one head and one body. Alcamenes as it seems to me was 
the first who made the statue of Hecate with three heads and 
three bodies which the Athenians call Hecate Epipurgidia : 
it stands near the temple of Wingless Victory. And in 
^gina as you go to the mountain of Panhellenian Zeus is 
the temple of Aphaea, about whom Pindar wrote an ode for 
the ^ginetans. And the Cretans say, (for her worship 
is indigenous among them too), that Eubulus was the son 
of that Carmanor who purged Apollo of the murder of 
Python, and that Britomartis was the daughter of Zeus 
by Carme the daughter of Eubulus : and that she rejoiced 
in races and hunting, and was a very great friend of 
Artemis. And fleeing from Minos, who was enamoured of 
her, she threw herself into some nets set for catching 
fish. Artemis made her a goddess, and she is worshipped 
not only by the Cretans but also by the -lEginetans, who 
say that Britomartis was seen in their island. And she is 
called Aphgea in ^gina, but Dictynna in Crete. And the 
mountain Pan-hellenium has nothing of note but the 
temple of Zeus, which they say -^acus erected. As to 
what concerns Auxesias and Lamias, how there was no 
rain at Epidaurns, and how after receiving olive trees from 
Athens they made wooden statues according to the bid- 
ding of the oracle, and how the Epidaurians did not pay 
to the Athenians their charge for the -^ginetans having 
these statues, and how the Athenians who crossed over to 
^gina to exact payment perished, all this has been told 
accurately and circumstantially by Herodotus. I do not 
therefore care to write again what has been so well told be- 
fore, but this much I may say that I have seen the statues 
and sacrificed to them as they are accustomed to sacrifice at 

Let so much suflice for ^gina, and -^acus and his ex- 
ploits. And next to Epidauria come the people of Troezen, 
who are proud of their country if any people are. And 
they say that Orus was a native of their country. To me 
however the name Orus seems decidedly Egyptian and not 
at all Greek. However they say he was their king, and 
that the country was called Orsea after him, and Althepus 
the son of Poseidon by Leis the daughter of Orus, sue- 


ceeding to Orus, called the country Althepia. When he 
was king they say that Athene and Poseidon had a dispute 
about the country, and resolved to hold it in common, 
for so Zens ordered them to do. And so they worship 
Athene under the names Polias and Sthenias, and Poseidon 
under the name of king. And so their ancient coins have 
on them a trident and the head of Athene. And next to 
Althepus Saron was king, who they say built the temple 
to Saronian Artemis near the sea where it was muddy 
on the surface, insomuch that it was called the Phoeb?ean 
marsh. And it chanced that Saron, who was very fond 
of hunting, was pursuing a stag and followed it to the 
sea as it fled. And it swam further and further from the 
land, and Saron continued to follow it up, till in his im- 
petuosity he got out to open sea, and, as he was by now 
tired, and the waves were too much for him, he was 
drowned. And his dead body was cast on shore on the 
Phoebaean marsh, and they buried him in the grove of 
Artemis, and they call the sea here after him the Saronian 
marsh instead of the Phcebsean. The names of the kings 
that followed him they do not know till Hyperes and 
Ajithas, who they say were the sons of Poseidon by 
Alcyone the daughter of Atlas, and built the cities in that 
country called Hyperea and Anthea. And Aetius the son 
of Anthas, succeeding his father and uncle in the king- 
dom, called one of these two cities Poseidonias. And 
when Trcezen and Pittheus joined Aetius, there were three 
kings instead of one, and the sons of Pelops were the 
stronger. And this proves it. After the death of Trcezen 
Pittheus joined together Hyperea and Anthea, and com- 
bined the inhabitants into one city, which he called Trcezen 
from the name of his brother. Aiid many years afterwards 
the descendants of Aetius, the son of Anthas, were sent on a 
colony from Trcezen, and colonized Halicamassus in Caria, 
and Myndus. And the sons of Trcezen, Anaphlystus and 
Sphettus, migrated to Attica, and gav etheir names to two 
townships. And as regards Theseus the son of Pittheus' 
daughter I do not write to people who know all the history. 
But I must narrate thus much. When the Heraclidae re- 
turned to the Peloponhese the people of Trcezen received as 
colonists the Dorians from Argos, having been formerly 


subject to the Argives. And Homer in his catalogue says 
that they were under the rule of Diomede. Diomede at 
least and Euryalus the son of Mecisteus, who were Regents 
for Cyanippus the son of ^gialeus, led the Argives to 
Troy. But Sthenelus, as I have shown before, was of more 
illustrious birth, being of the family of the Anaxagoridse, 
and the kingdom ofthe Argives was more his by right. 
Such are all the historical details about Troezen, except a 
list of the cities which are said to have been colonized 
from Troezen. I will now describe the contents of the 
temples and other notable things in Troezen. 


IN the market place is a temple, and statues, of Artemis 
the Saviour. And it is said that Theseus built it and 
called her Saviour, when he returned from Crete after 
having killed Asterion the son of Minos. This seems to 
me to have been the most notable of all his exploits, not 
so much because Asterion excelled in bravery all who were 
killed by Theseus, but because he escaped the hidden 
snares of the labyrinth, and all this makes it clear that 
Theseus and his companions were saved by providence. In 
this temple are altars of the gods said to rule in the lower 
world : and they say that Semele was brought here from 
Hades by Dionysus, and that Hercules brought Cerberus 
here from Hades. But I do not think that Semele died 
at all, as she was the wife of Zeus : and as to Cerberus I 
shall elsewhere tell what I think. 

And behind the temple there is a monument of Pittheus, 
and three seats are on it of white stone : and Pittheus and 
two others with him are said to be giving sentence on these 
seats. And at no great distance is a temple of the Muses, 
built they say by Ardalus, the son of Hephsestus : who they 
think discovered the use of the flute, and so they call the 
Muses Ardalian after hira. Here they say Pittheus taught 
the art of language, and I have' myself read a book 
written by Pittheus, that was given me by an Epidau- 


rian. And not far from the temple of the Muses is an 
ancient altar, erected as thev say also by Ardalus. And 
they sacrifice on it to the Muses and Sleep, saying that 
Sleep is the god most friendly to the Muses. And near 
the theatre is a temple of Lycean Artem^is, which Hippolytus 
built. Why the goddess was so called I could not find 
from the antiquarians, but it seems to me it was either be- 
cause Hippolytus drove out the wolves that rav£^ed 
Trcezen and the neighbourhood, or that it was a title of 
Artemis among the Amazons, of whom his mother was 
one. Or there may be some other explanation which I 
do not know. And the stone in front of the temple called 
the holy stone was they say the stone on which formerly 
the 9 men of Trcezen cleared Orestes of the murder of 
his mother. And not far from the temple of Lvcean 
Artemis are altars at no great distance from one another. 

The first of them is one of Dionysns, called Saviour in 
accordance with some oracle, and the second is called 
Themidon, Pittheus dedicated it they say. And they very 
likely built an altar to the Stm the Liberator when they 
escaped the slavery of Xerxes and the Persians. And they 
say Pitthetis built the temple of Thearian Apollo, which is 
the oldest of all I know. There is indeed an old temple 
of Athene among the Phocians iu Ionia, which Harpagus 
the Persian burnt, old also is the temple of Pythian Apollo 
among the Samians, but far later are both than this one at 
Trcezen. And the statue of the god is stiU to be seen, the 
votive offering of Auliseus, and the design of Hermon of 
Trcezen, who also made wooden statues of the Dioscuri. 
Antl there are also in the porch in the market-place stone 
statues of the women and children whom the Athenians 
committed to the charge of the people of Ti*oezen, when 
they resolved to leave Athens, and not to encotmter the 
attack of the Mede with a land force. And thev are said 
to have put here statues not of all those women, for they 
are not many here, but only of those who wei-e especially 
remarkable for merit. And there is a building in front of 
the temple of Apollo, called the tent of Orestes. For 
before he was cleared of his mother's blood, none of the 
people of Troezen would receive him in their houses : but 
they put him here and gradually cleared him and fed him 


here, till the expiatory rites were completed. And to this 
day the descendants of those that cleared him feast here on 
appointed days. And the expiations having been buried 
not far from this tent, they say a laurel sprang up from 
them, which is still to be seen in front of the tent. And 
they say that Orestes among other purgations used water 
from Hippocrene. For the people of Troezen have a well 
called Hippocrene, and the tradition about it is the same 
as the Boeotian tradition. For they too say that water 
sprang up from the ground when Pegasus touched the 
ground with his hoof, and that Bellerophon came to 
Troezen to ask for ^thra as his wife from Pittheus, but it 
so chanced that before the marriage came off he fled from 

And there is here a statue of Hermes called Polygius, 
and they say Hercules offered his club to it, and the club 
was of wild olive, and, (believe it who will,) sprouted in 
the earth and grew, and is now a tree, for Hercules they 
say discovered the wild olive in the Saronian marsh and 
cut a club of it. There is also a temple of Zeus Soter, 
built they say by King Aetius the son of Anthas. And 
they call their river Chrysorrhoe (golden stream), for when 
there was a drought in the land and no rain for nine 
years, and all other water they say dried up, this Chry- 
sorrhoe continued to flow as usual. 


AND Hippolytus the son of Theseus has precincts and 
a temple in them and ancient statue. Diomede they 
say erected all these, and was the first to sacrifice to 
Hippolytus : and the people of Troezen have a priest of 
Hippolytus who serves for life, and they have yearly 
sacrifices, and the following custom. Every maiden cuts 
off a lock of her hair before marriage, and takes it and 
offers it at this temple. And they don't represent Hip- 
polytus as having died through being torn in pieces by his 
horses, nor do they point out his tomb if they know it : 

BOOK II. — CORINTH. 155 ^^^ 

but they try to make out that Hippolytus is <^all_-. . _gg 
heaven the Charioteer, and has this honour from th ,, • • j 
And within his precincts is the temple of Apollo \ ^f.^rdinflv 
terius, the votive offering of Diomede when he escapt t called 
storm which fell on the Greeks as they were returning 1^ j ,1 
Ilium: they say also that Diomede first established th _^^ 
Pythian games in honoui" of Apollo. And as to Lamia 
and Auxesia (for they also have their share of honour) 
the people of Troezen do not give the same account as the 
Epidaurians and xEginetans, but say that they were virgins 
who came from Crete, and in a general commotion in the 
city were stoned by one of the rival factions, and they 
have a festival to them called Stonethrowing. And in 
another part of the precincts is what is called Hippolytus' 
racecourse, and overlooking it a temple of Peeping Aphro- 
dite : where, when Hippolytus was training, Pheedra would 
gaze at him in her love. Here too grows the myrtle with 
the leaves pricked, as I described before : for when Phaedra 
was in despaii' and found no relief for her love-pains, she 
wreaked her agony on the leaves of the myrtle. And 
Phgedra's tomb is here, not very far from the monument of 
Hippolytus, or that myrtle tree. And there is a statue of 
^sculapius by Timotheus, but the people of Trcezen say it 
is not ^sculapius but Hippolytus. I saw also the house of 
Hippoljtus, and in front of it is what is called the Well of 
Hercules, the water (as the people of Trcezen say) which 
Hercules discovered. And in the citadel there is a temple 
of Athene Sthenias, the wooden statue of the goddess is 
by Callon of ^gina ; who was the pupil of Tecteeus and 
Angelion, who designed the statue of Apollo at Delos ; and 
they were pupils of Dipoenus and ScyUis. And as you go 
down from thence you come to the temple of Pan the 
Deliverer, for he shewed dreams to the chief people of the 
Trcezenians which brought about deliverance from the 
plague, which pressed so hard on the Athenians. And in 
the environs of Trcezen you will see a temple of Isis, and 
above it one of Aphrodite of the Height : the temple 
the Halicamassians built for Trcezen their mother city ; 
but the statue of Isis was a votive offering of the people of 

As you go along the mountains to Hermione you see the 



^ of the river Hyllicus w^- i 
here, till the exfS and a rock called tWn«''^'''i°'^§^^"^^^y ea] 
day the descenr times to be called the ahT% "?."?' "^^"^^ ^sec 
appointed dsf iiame changed to Theseiis' . f^^^^^^n Zeus, 
not far frr^d under it the shoes and ? ^ °/^ ^^^^use Thes. 

the- bu It by Theseus when he marrl^ TT P^""^^^*^' ^^^ch ., 

' ^^eS^ trr?^ ^-don^^r;: 

f-itless, by castlVbrine tT'^^*^ -ake theX 
plants, till niollifiel by ?heiV sac^r^' "^^ ^«°*« of th 
brxne on their land no^ Wer fc^ '^^ Players he se 
i'oseidon IS Law-s-ivin^. r£ "^ ''"^'^^^ *lie temnle r 

«a7 by Althepus. XI ,^^^;„^-^ -l^ieh was buKh 

-ear wi^at is called CeleXifSth??^ to the harbou 
J^, because thev sav T) ! ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ti^ey cal 
"1 front of this place is a SX '/? ^^' ^'^^^ ^^^re. \n 
Theseus conquered the AmZl. tT,°^ *^^ «Pot wher 
been some of that band wt Cif ""A" " ^^^J^usthav 
and the Athenians. And «= ^ * '"^ "^^^^^'-^ ^ith The.en 
sea there is a wild n],V ^ ^""^ S^o towards the Psinh 
people of T:Zenfw:ZT^''''''^'^^^^^^^^^^ 
that bears no fruit^ whe her T' '° "^""^ ^^^d of olive 

tbe reins catching in it twi'^.''^? '^ *^^«ted because 

^„,, . 'CHAPTER XXXm. 

O land! St t"r.l™r <•"'= - - <"- to the „ain 
waa called SphLiaTn fortrdL*" '* !,' '"^ «terft 
following reason. It oonZZlJl"' ^""^ -^^'-rf for tlw 
ttey sa, was the charioteTom 1*™^ ."'/P;--- -io 

e'ops. He had a dream from 


Athene, that ^thra crossed over into the island with offer- 
ings for the dead, and when she crossed over there 'tis said 
that Poseidon had an intrigue with her. Accordingly 
^thra built a temple here to Injurious Athene, and called 
the island Sacred instead of Sphseria : she also imposed the 
custom on the maidens of Trcezen that they should before 
marriage dedicate their maiden-girdle to Injtirious Athene. 
And they say the island Calaurea was in ancient days 
sacred to Apollo, when Delphi belonged to Poseidon, it is 
also said that they exchanged these places with one another. 
And they produce in support of their statement the follow- 
ing oracle, 

" It is all one whether you dwell at Deles or Calaurea, 
At sacred Pytho or the wind-swept Taenams." 

There is also at Calaurea a sacred temple to Poseidon, and 
the priestess is a maiden till the period for marriage. And 
within the precincts is the tomb of Demosthenes. Fortune 
seems to have shown especial malignity to Demosthenes 
as earlier to Homer, since Homer was not only blind but 
overwhelmed by such poverty that he was a strolling beggar 
on every soil, and Demosthenes in his old age had to taste 
the bitterness of exile, and came to a violent end. Much 
has been said about Demosthenes by others and by himself, 
by which it is clear that he had no share in the money 
which Harpalus brought from Asia, but what was said 
afterwards I will relate. Harpalus, after having fled from 
Athens and crossed over with the fleet to Crete, was mur- 
dered not long afterwards by some of his attendant slaves : 
but some say he was treacherously murdered by the Mace- 
donian Pausanias. And the dispenser of the money fled 
to Rhodes, and was arrested by Philoxenus the Macedonian, 
who had also demanded the extradition of Harpalus from 
the Athenians. And getting this lad he cross-questioned 
him, until he obtained full intelligence of those who had 
had any money from Harpalus : and when he ascertained 
their names he sent letters to Athens. Although in those 
lettfers he enumerated the names of those who had had any 
money from Harpalus, and the precise sum which each of 
them had, he made no mention whatever of Demosthenes, 
though he was most bitterly hated by Alexander, and 


although Philoxenus himself was privately his enemy. 
Demosthenes had honours paid to him in other parts of 
Greece also as well as by the inhabitants of Calaurea. 


IN" the Troezenian district there is an isthmus jutting 
out some way into the sea, and on it has been built a 
small town near the sea called Methana. And there is a 
temple of Isis there, and a statue in the marketplace of 
Hermes, and another of Hercules. And at the distance 
of about 30 stades from this small town are some warm 
baths. And they say that water first appeared there when 
Antigonus, the son of Demetrius, was King of the Mace- 
donians, and water did not first appear, but fire bubbled up 
from the ground, and when this burnt itself out then water 
began to flow, which bubbles up even to this day warm and 
very salt. And if one bathes here the water is not cold 
near the shore, but if you go well out to sea swimming is 
dangerous, for there are many kinds of sea-monsters and 
especially sea dogs. But the most wonderful thing at 
Methana I will now record. The South West Wind when 
the vines are growing blows upon them from the Saronic 
Gulf, and scorches them up. And when the wind is still 
sweeping down on them, two men take a cock with white 
feathers only, and tear it in half, and run round the vines in 
different directions, each with half the cock, and when they 
come back to the place where they started, they bury it 
there. This is their invention and contrivance against the 
South West Wind. The little islands, which lie just off tbe 
coast, 9 in number, they call the islands of Pelops, and 
they say when it rains rain never comes on one of them. 
Whether this is so I do not know, but the people about 
Methana say so, and I have heard of people trying to avert 
hail by sacrifices and incantations. Methana then is an 
Isthmus in the Peloponnese : and inside the Troezenian 
Isthmus is the neighbouring town of Hermione. And the 
people of Hermione say that the founder of the old city 


was one Hermion the son of Europs. And this Europs, 
who was certainly the son of Phoroneus, was said bj Hero- 
phanes of Trcezen to be illegitimate, on the ground that the 
kingdom of Argos would not have come to Argus the 
daughter's son of Phoroneus, had Phoroneus had a legiti- 
mate son. But, even if Europs was legitimate and died 
before Phoroneus, I know very well that a son of his would 
not have been considered equal to Niobe's son, who was 
reckoned to be the son of Zeus. And afterwards Dorians 
from Argos colonized Hermione, but amicably I think, for 
had there been a war it would have been mentioned by the 

And there is a road to Hermione from Troezen along the 
rock which was formerly called the altar of Zeus Sthenius, 
but after Theseus removed the shoes and sword of ^geus, 
it was called Theseus' rock. As you go by this rock on the 
mountain side, you come to the temple of Apollo called The 
God of the Planetrees, and the hamlet is called Ilei, and in it 
are temples of Demeter and her daughter Proserpine. And 
near the sea, on the border of the territory of Hermione, is 
a temple of Demeter under the title Thermasia. And at 
the distance of about eighty stades is the promontory called 
Scylleeum from Scylla, the daughter of Xisus. For after 
Minos took iXisaea and Megara through her treason, he 
refused to marry her though he had promised, and even 
ordered the Cretans to throw her overboard, and the tide 
washed her dead body on to this promontory. And they 
exhibit no tomb of her, for they say that her body was 
neglected, and carried away by sea birds bit by bit. And 
as you sail from Scyliseum in the direction of the city is 
another promontory called Bucephala, and next to it 3 
islands, of which the first is Haliusa, which affords a con- 
venient harbour for ships to ride at anchor, and next is 
Pityusa, and the third they call Aristerae. And as you 
coast along by these islands, there is another promontory 
called Colyergia jutting out from the mainland, and next it 
an island called Tricrana, and a mountain Buporthmus 
jutting out into the sea from the Peloponnese. And at 
Buporthmus is a temple of Demeter and Proserpine, and 
also one of Athene under the title Promachorma. And in 
front of Buporthmus lies an island called Aperopia. And 


at no great distance from Aperopia is another island called 
Hydrea. And the shore on the mainland opposite these 
islands extends in a crescent shape, and is rocky from the 
easterly direction close to the sea as far as the temple of 
Poseidon, but slopes at the westerly end of the bay, where 
it has its harbours. The length of this rocky headland is 
about seven stades, and the breadth in the broadest part 
about three stades or a little more. Here was the old town 
of Hermione. And even now there are several temples 
there, one of Poseidon at the commencement of the head- 
land, and as you go from the sea to the heights a temple of 
Athene, and near it some remains of a racecourse, where 
they say the sons of Tyndareus used to practise. There is 
also another small temple of Athene, but the roof has fallen 
in. And there is a temple to the Sun, and another to the 
Graces, and another to Serapis and Isis. And there is a 
circle of huge unhewn stones, and inside this circle they 
perform the sacred rites of Demeter. Such are the objects 
to be seen at the old town of Hermione. But the new town 
is at about four stades' distance from the promontory on 
which there is the temple of Poseidon, and it lies on a 
gentle slope as you ascend the hill called Pron, for that is 
its name. There is a wall all round Hermione. And it 
has various objects of interest, but what I select as most 
worthy of record are the temple of Marine Aphrodite and 
Aphrodite of the Harbour, and a statue of white stone of 
huge size, and a work of art. And there is another temple 
of Aphrodite, which has other honours from the people of 
Hermione and this special one, that maidens or widows 
intending to marry must all sacrifice here before their 
marriage. And Thermasian Demeter has two temples, one 
on the borders of TrcBzen as I have before said, and one 
in new Hermione. 



AXD next is a temple of Dionysus Melansegis, in whose 
honour they hare a musical contest every year, and 
give prizes for diving and rowing. And there is a temple 
of Artemis under the name of Iphigenia, and a statue 
of Poseidon in bronze with one foot on a dolphin. And 
as you proceed to the temple of Vesta, you find no statue, 
but an altar on which they sacrifice to Vesta. And there 
are three temples and three statues of Apollo : one has 
no title, the second is called Pythaean Apollo, and the 
third Apollo of the Borders. The name Pythaean they bor- 
rowed from the Argives : for Telesilla says that to their 
country first of all the Greeks came Pytheeus the son of 
Apollo. But why they call the god Apollo of the Borders 
I cannot precisely tell, but I conjecture that having 
obtained victory either by war or litigation in reference to 
the borders, they honoured for this Apollo of the Borders. 
And the temple of Fortune is they say the latest one that 
the people of Hermione have, the statue is colossal in 
Parian marble. And they have two wells, one an old one 
into which the water flows by a hidden channel, but it 
wotild never grow dry, not even if all the population were 
to come and drink of it : and another dug in our day, and 
the name of the place from which the water flows into it is 
Meadow. But the temple most worthy of notice is that of 
Demeter on the Pron. This temple the people of Hermione 
say was built by Clymenus, the son of Phoroneus, and by 
Chthonia the sister of Clymenus. And the Argives say, 
when Demeter came to Argolis, that Atheras and Mysius 
offered the goddess hospitality, but Colontas would neither 
receive her into his house, nor pay her any other attention : 
and in this he acted very much against the wish of his 
daughter Chthonia. And Colontas they say for this con- 
duct was burnt house and all, but Chthonia wes conveyed 
to Hermione by Demeter, and built the temple there to 
Demeter. And Demeter is called Chthonia there, and the 
annual festival held in her honour in the season of summer 
is called Chthonia too. And they keep the festival in this 



wise. The priests of the gods and all the town authorities 
for the year lead the procession, and the women and 
men follow. It is customary for boys too to honour the 
goddess by a procession, in which they take part clothed 
in white, and with garlands on their heads plaited of the 
flower which they call here cosmosandalum, but which seems 
to me from size and colour to resemble the hyacinth, it has 
also on its petals the same mournful letters. And the pro- 
cession is followed by some people who lead a full grown 
heifer from the herd, tightly bound with ropes and curvetting 
wildly. Some drag this heifer to the temple and unfasten 
the ropes so as to let it inside, while others keep the doors 
open till they see the heifer inside, and then shut them. 
And four old women are waiting inside, and they finish the 
heifer. For whoever can get the chance cuts its throat 
with a sickle. And afterwards the doors are opened, and 
those who have this duty drive up a second, third, and even 
fourth heifer. The women finish them all ofE in the same 
way, and then this fresh wonder is added to the sacrifice : 
on whichever side the first heifer *falls all must fall. This 
is the way in which the sacrifice is performed by the people 
of Hermione. And in front of the temple there are a few 
statues of women who have been priestesses of Demeter, 
and as you enter in there are seats on which the old women 
sit, waiting for each heifer to be driven in, and there are 
some statues not very old of Athene and Demeter. But the 
special object of their worship neither have I seen nor any 
man, whether stranger or native of Hermione. These old 
women only know what it is. 

There is also another temple : and there are statues all 
round it. This temple is opposite the temple of Chthonia, 
and is called the temple of Clymenus. to whom they sacri- 
fice here. I don't think Clymenus is the name of an Argive 
that came to Hermione, but the title of a god who accord- 
ing to the tradition was a king in the infernal regions. 
Hard by is another temple and statue of Ares. On the 
right of the temple of Chthonia is a porch, called by 
the natives Echo, as a man's slightest whisper is repeated 
thrice. And behind the temple of Chthonia are some places 
which the people of Hermione call, one Clymenus' place, 
and another Pluto's place, and a third the Achernsian 

BOOK II. — COBDfTH. 163 

marsh. They are all fenced in with a wall of stone : and 
in Clymenus' place there is a hole in the ground, through 
which Hercules brought up Cerberus according to the 
tradition of the people of Hermione. And near the gate 
from which the road leads straight to Mases, is a temple 
of Ilithvia within the walls. They propitiate the goddess 
Ilithyia in various ways every day with sacrifices and 
incense, and to her are most of the votive offerings given, 
but her statue no one may look at except her priestesses. 


A BOUT seven stades on the high road to Mases, as you 
-^^ turn to the left., is the road to Halice. Halice in our 
days is deserted, but it was formerly inhabited, and is men- 
tioned on the pillars of the Epidaurians, which record the 
cures wrought by ^sculapius. I know of nothing else 
worthy of record, either of the place or its population. 
And the road that leads to it passes between Pron and 
another mountain that in old times was called Thomax. 
But because of the legendary change of Zeus into the 
cuckoo they say its name was changed to Coccygium 
(Cuckoo-mountain). And there are temples on the tops 
of both these mountains, one of Zeus on the top of Coccy- 
gium, and one of Hera on the top of Pron. That at 
Coccygium is at the end of the mountain, and it has neither 
doors nor roof, nor any statue in it, and it was said to be 
Apollo's temple. And near it is a road to Mases as you 
take the turn to the right. And Mases was a town in old 
times, as Homer has mentioned it in his catalogue of the 
Argives, and the people of Hermione use it as their port 
now. And from Mases there is a road on the right to the 
promontory called Struthus, and it is about 250 stades 
from this promontory along the mountain passes to what is 
called Philanorium and to Bolei. Bolei consists of layers 
of unhewn stones. And another place which they call 
Didymi is 20 stades from Bolei. At Didymi there is a 
temple of Apollo, and another of Poseidon, and another of 
Demeter : and their statues are erect, in white stone. 


As you go from thence you come to the district of the 
Argives formerly called Asinsea from its chief town Asine, 
the ruins of which are near the sea. And when the Lace- 
daemonians under their king Nicander, the son of Charillus, 
the son of Polydectes, the son of Eunomus, the son of Pry- 
tanis, the son of Eurypon, invaded Argolis with an army, the 
people of Asine joined them, and ravaged with them the 
territory of the Argives. But when the Lacedaemonian 
force went home again, then the Argives and their king 
Eratus marched against Asine. And for some time the 
people of Asine defended their walls, and slew several of 
the most valiant of the Argives and among them Lysis- 
tratus, but when their walls were carried, then they put 
their wives and children on shipboard and left the town, 
and the Argives razed it to the ground, and added it to their 
territory, but they left the temple of Apollo standing, and 
it is now to be seen, and they buried Lysistratus near it. 

Now the sea at Lerna * is about 40 stades from Argos. 
And as you go down to Lerna you first come to the river 
Eraainus, which flows into the Plirixus,and the Phrixus into 
the sea between Temenium and Lerna. And as you turn 
from the Erasinus about 8 stades to the left there is a 
temple of the Dioscuri called the Kings : and their statues 
are of wood just like those in the city. And as you turn to 
the right you cross the Erasinus, and come to the river 
Chimarrus. And near it is a circle of stones, and here (so 
the story goes) Pluto, after the Rape of Proserpine the 
daughter of Demeter, descended to his supposed under- 
ground realms. Now Lerna is, as I have previously said, by 
the sea, and they have rites here to Demeter of Lerna. 
And there is a sacred grove beginning at the mountain 
which they call Pontinus. And this mountain Pontinus 
does not let the rain flow off, but absorbs it. Though the 
river Pontinus does indeed flow from it. And on the top 
of the mountain is the temple of Saitian Athene, only ruins 
now, and the foundations of the house of Hippomedon, 
who accompanied Polynices the son of (Edipus in his 
attempt against Thebes. 

^ Qu. "Now Lerna by the sea" (17 Kara Qakairaav Atpva). Cf. a 
little below. 

BOOK n. — COEINTH. 166 


AND the grove of planetrees beginning at this mountain 
extends most of the way to the sea, bounded on 
one side by the river Pontinus, and on the other by the 
river Amymone, which gets its name from the daughter of 
Danaus. And inside the grove ai'e statues, of Demeter 
Prosymne and Dionysus, and the statue of Demeter is 
seated and not a large one. These are of stone : but in 
another temple there is a wooden one of Dionysus the 
Saviour seated ; and a stone statue of Aphrodite near the 
sea, which they say was a votive offering of the daughters 
of Danaus, and Danaus himself erected the temple of 
Athene near the Pontinus. And they say that Philham- 
mon was the founder of the rites at Leraa. The traditions 
about these mysteries are manifestly not very ancient. 
And what I have heard was written on a heart made of 
orichalcum ; this Arriphon could not have got from Phil- 
hammon, for Arriphon was a native of Triconium in 
^tolia, and held in most repute of all the Lycians in our 
time, and a clever fellow at finding out what nobody before 
knew, and who no doubt found this out for himself. The 
verses and all the prose mixed up with the verses were in 
Doric : but before the return of the HeraclidEe to the 
Peloponnese the Argives used the same dialect as the 
Athenians, And in the days of Philhammon I do not 
believe that even the name of Dorians was known through- 
out all Greece. This proves my case. 

And near the source of the Amymone grows a planetree, 
under which they say the hydra was reared. I believe that 
this beast was larger in size than other water-snakes, and 
that its poison was so venomous that Hercules dipped the 
points of his aiTOws in its gall, but I cannot help thinking 
it had only one head and not more. But Pisander of 
Camirus, that the beast might appear more formidable and 
so add lustre to his poem, described it as having many 
heads. I have seen also the well of Amphiaraus and the 
Alcyonian marsh, by which the Argives say Dionysus 
descended to Hades to fetch up Semele, for Polymnus 


shewed him the descent. There is indeed no end to the 
depth of the Alcyonian marsh, nor do I know of any man 
who by any device ever got to the bottom of it, since 
even Nero, though he got and fastened together ropes 
many stades long, and put a piece of lead and other 
apparatus for sounding at the end, never could arrive at 
an accurate knowledge of its depth. I have also heard 
that though the water of the marsh, as you would infer 
from looking at it, is calm and quiet, if anyone ven- 
tures to swim in it, it is sure to drag him down and suck 
him underneath to the bottom. The circuit of the lake is 
not large, only about a third of a stade, and on its banks 
are grass and reeds. But the nightly rites which take 
place near it annually I am not permitted to write for 
public reading. 


AND as you go from Lerna to Temenium — now Teme- 
nium belongs to the Argives, and gets its name from 
Temenus the son of Aristomachus : for he occupied and 
fortified the place, when he fought with the Dorians against 
Tisamenus and the Achseans from this base — the river 
Phrixus has its outlet into the sea, and there is a temple of 
Poseidon at Temenium and another of Aphrodite, and 
there is a monument of Temenus which is honoured by the 
Dorians at Argos. And about 50 stades I should say 
from Temenium is Nauplia, deserted in our day, it was 
founded by Nauplius who is reputed to have been the son 
of Poseidon and Amymone. Ajid there are still some re- 
mains of walls at Nauplia, and a temple of Poseidon and 
a harbour, and a well called Canathus : in which the 
Argives say Hera bathes every year and becomes a virgin 
again. This is a tradition in connection with the secret 
rites which they perform to Hera. And the traditions of the 
people of Nauplia about the ass, that by gnawing twigs off 
the vine it makes the produce more abundant, (and con- 
sequently they have an ass carved on the rock as having 
taught ttie art of pnining vines), I pass over deeming them 


unworthy of mention. There is also another road going 
from Lema by the seaside to a place which they call Gene- 
sium : and near the sea close to Genesium there is a small 
temple of Poseidon. And close to this is another place 
called Landing-place : for according to tradition this was 
the first place in Ai'golis where Danaus and his sons landed. 
And as you go on from thence is a place called Anigrsea, 
on a road narrow and difficult of access. It is on the left 
hand and extends to the sea, and is a good soil for trees 
especially olive trees. And as you go up to the mainland 
there is a place called Thyrea, where 300 picked men of the 
Argives fought with 300 picked men of the Lacedeemonians 
for the possession of the land . And as they were all killed 
except one Spartan and two Argives, the tombs of those 
that fell in the action were piled up here, but the Lacedae- 
monians afterwards got a firm footing at the place, as they 
fought in full force with the Argives, and enjoyed it them- 
selves for a time, and afterwards gave it to the JEginetans 
who had been driven out of yEgina by the Athenians. And 
in my day the Argives inhabited the district of Thyrea, 
and they say that they recovered it justly by conquest. 
Next to that burial-ground you corue to Athene, where 
those -^ginetans dwelt, and another village Neris, and a 
third Eua, the largest of the three villages, and Polemo- 
crates has a temple in it. He was the son of Machaon, and 
brother of Alexanor, and he heals the people here, and has 
divine honours from the inhabitants. And beyond these 
villages extends Mount Pamon, which is the boundary 
between the Lacedaemonians and Argives and people of 
Tegea. And some stone Hei^mje stand as border stones to 
mark the boundaries, and the place gets its name from 
them. And there is a river called Tanaus, the only river 
which flows from Mount Pamon. It flows through Argive 
territory into the Thyreatic gulf. 



NEXT to the Hermse comes Laconia on the West. And 
according to the Lacedasmonian tradition Lelex the 
autoclithon first reigned in this land, and the people over 
whom he ruled were called after him Leleges. And Lelex' 
sons were Myles and a younger son Polycaon. Where 
Polycaon went to and why I shall relate elsewhere. But 
on the death of Myles his son Eurotas succeeded, him in 
the kingdom. He diverted to the sea by a canal all the 
stagnant water that filled the plain, and as it flowed to the 
sea in mighty volume and became a noble river, he called it 
the Eurotas. As h6 had no male children he left the 
kingdom to Lacedaemon, whose mother was Taygete, (who 
gave her name to the mountain Taygetus), and reputed 
father Zeus. And Lacedaemon married Sparta the daughter 
of Eurotas, and when he succeeded to the kingdom he first 
gave the country and inhabitants his own name, and then 
built and gave his wife's name to the city Sparta, which is 
so called even to our day. And Amyclas his son, wishing 
also himself to leave a memoi-ial behind him, built the little 
town Amyclae in Laconia. And of his sons Hj-acinthus, 
the youngest and most handsome, died in his father's life- 
time, and there is a monument of him at Amyclae close to 
the statue of Apollo. And on the death of Amyclas the 
succession devolved upon Argalus his eldest son, and after 
the death of Argalus upon Cynortas. And Cynortas had a 
son called (Ebalus. He married Grorgophone the daughter 
of Perseus from Argos, and had a son Tyndareus, with 
whom Hippocoon contended for the kingdom, claiming it on 
the ground of seniority. And Icarius and his party espous- 
ing Hippocoon's cause, he far exceeded Tyndareus in power, 
and compelled him to retire from fear to Pellene, according 


to the Lacedaemonian account. But the account of the 
Messenians is that Tyndareus fled to Aphareus in Messenia, 
and that Aphareus was the son of Perieres and the uterine 
brother of Tyndareus : and they say he dwelt at Thalamse 
in Messenia, and had sons bom to him there. And some 
time afterwards he was restored by Hercules and recovered 
his kingdom. And his sons reigned after him, as well as 
his son-in-law Menelaus the son of Atreus, and Orestes the 
husband of Hermione the daughter of Menelaus. But 
when the Heraclidas returned in the reign of Tisamenus the 
son of Orestes, one party in Messene and Argos made 
Temenus king, and another section Cresphontes. And in 
Lacedaemon as Aristodemus had twins there were two royal 
houses, and they say this was in accordance with the oracle 
at Delphi. And they say that Aristodemus died at Delphi 
before the Dorians returned to the Peloponnese. Some 
indeed, magnifying their own history, say that Aristodemus 
was shot with an-ows by Apollo, because he had not gone 
to the oracle, but consulted Hercules whom he chanced to 
meet first, as to how the Dorians should return to the Pelo- 
ponnese. But the truer account is that the sons of Pylades 
and Electra, who were cousins of Tisamenus the son of 
Orestes, murdered Aristodemus. The names of his two 
sons were Procles and Eurysthenes, who though they were 
twins were in most respects very unlike one another. But 
though they hated one another very cordially, yet they 
jointly combined with Theras, the son of Autesion, their 
Argive mother's brother, and their Regent, in esta- 
blishing a colony at the island which was then called Cal- 
liste, Theras hoping that the descendants of Membliarus 
would abandon the kingdom of their own free will, as in 
fact they did, reckoning that Thei-as' pedigree went up to 
Cadmus, whereas they were only descendants of Mem- 
bliarus, a private individual whom Cadmus left in the 
island as leader of the colonists. And Theras gave his own 
name to the island instead of Calliste, and the people of 
Thera even now yearly offer victims to him as their founder. 
And Procles and Eurysthenes vied with one another in 
their zeal for carrying out the wishes of Theras, but in all 
other respects were at variance together. Not that, even if 
they had been one in heart and mind, I could have put all 


their descendants into one common pedigree, as cousin with 
cousin, and cousins' children, with cousins' children, and so 
on, that to the latest posterity they should arithmetically 
dovetail in with one another. I shall therefore pursue the 
history of each family separately, and not mix up the two 
tosrether in one account. 


EURYSTHENES, the eldest of the sons of Aristode- 
mus, had a son Agis they say : (and from him they 
call the descendants of Eurysthenes Agidse) . During his 
reign, when Patreusthe son of Preugenes founded the city 
in Achaia called to this day Patrge after him, the Lacedae- 
monians took part in that colony. They co-operated also 
with Grais, the son of Echelas, the son of Penthilus, the son 
of Orestes, who was sailing with a fleet to make a colony 
somewhere or other. And he indeed was destined to 
occupy the country between Ionia and Mysia, which is in 
our day called JEoHs : his grandfather Penthilus had 
already occupied Lesbos, the island opposite this mainland. 
And during the reign of Echestratus the son of Agis at 
Sparta the Lacedaemonians expelled all the Cynurians that 
were in their prime, alleging as their excuse that robbers 
from Cynuria ravaged Argolis, and the Argives were their 
kinsmen, and that the Cynurians themselves made open 
incursions into Argolis. If tradition speaks true the Cynu- 
rians were originally Argives, and they say their founder 
was Cynurus the son of Perseus. And not many years 
afterwards Labotas the son of Echestratus was king at 
Sparta. This Labotas, as we are told by Herodotus in his 
account of Crcesus, had during his minority the famous 
legislator Lycurgus as his Regent, only Herodotus calls 
him Leobotes instead of Labotas. In his days first did 
the Lacedaemonians make war against the Argives, and 
they alleged as their reasons for declaring war that the 
Argives when they invaded Cynuria took a slice of Lace- 
daemonian territory, and tried to stir up their neighbouring 
subjects to revolt. In this war they say nothing very 

BOOK III. — LACOinA. 171 

notable was done on either side : and those of this family 
who sncceeded one another as kings, viz. Dorjssus the son 
of Labotas and Agesilaus the son of Doryssns, both died at 
no great interval after one another. And it was when Agesi- 
laus was king that Lycurgus legislated for the Lacedsemo- 
nians, and some say that he derived his laws from Crete, 
others that he was instructed by the Oracle at Delphi. 
And the Cretans say that their laws come from Minos, who 
received divine assistance in codifying them. Audit seems 
tome that Homer has hinted as much in the following lines 
about the legislation of ^iinos, " There too is Gnossus, the 
great city where Minos reigned nine years, the bosom- 
friend of great Zeus." ' But of Lycurgus I shall have 
more to say hereafter. And the son of Agesilaus was 
Archelaus. In his reign the Lacedtemonians conquered in 
war and enslaved one of the neig'hbouring cities called 
vEgys, suspecting that the people of it had an understand- 
ing with the Arcadians. And Charillus, the king of the 
other family, assisted Archelaus against ^gys, and his 
own separate doings as leader of the Laceda?monians I 
shall relate later on when I come to the so-called Eury- 
pontidse. And the son of Archelaus was Teleclus. In 
his reign the Lacedaemonians took in war the neighbour- 
ing cities of Amyclfe and Pharis and Greranthrse, which 
were then in the possession of the Ach^eans, and razed 
them to the ground. The inhabitants however of Pharis 
and Geranthrte, being terrified at the approach of the 
Dorians, agreed to evacuate the Peloponnese upon con- 
ditions : but the people of Amyclae they could not drive out 
at first assault, but only after a long siege and the greatest 
exhibition of valour. And the Dorians themselves shewed 
this by erecting a trophy after the conquest of Amyclae, as 
thinking that conquest no small feather in their cap. And 
not long after all this Teleclus was killed by the Messe- 
nians in the temple of Artemis in the town of Limnte, on 
the borders between Laconia andMessenia. And after the 
death of Teleclus Alcamenes his son succeeded him, and 
during his reign the Lacedaemonians sent to Crete Char- 
midas the son of Euthys, one of the most famous men in 

* Odyssey, xix. 178, 179. 


Sparta, who put down the insurrection at Crete, and per- 
suaded the Cretans to abandon the cities which were inland 
and in other respects weak, and to inhabit instead those 
which were conveniently situated on the coast. The Lace- 
daemonians also depopulated Helos, a city by the sea in the 
possession of the Achseans, and defeated the Argives who 
came to the help of the people of Helos. 


AND after the death of Alcamenes Polydorus his son suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom, and the Lacedaemonians sent 
a colony into Italy to Croton, and to the Locrians at the pro- 
montoiy Zephyrium : and the war that was called the war 
with Messene was at its height when Polydorus was king. 
The Lacedemonians and Messenians give different reasons 
for this war. Their different accounts, and the progress 
of the war, will be set forth by me in their turn : but thus 
much will I record at present that Theopompus the son of 
Nicander had the greatest hand in the first war with the 
Messenians, being the king of the other house. And after 
the end of the war, when Messenia was already conquered 
by the Lacedaemonians, and Polydorus was in good repute 
at Sparta, and popular with the LacedEemonians and espe- 
cially with the populace, for he exhibited no violence either 
in word or deed to anyone, and in legal cases tempered 
justice with mercy, when in short he had a brilliant fame 
throughout all Greece, he was murdered by Polemarchus a 
man of no mean family in Lacedaemon, but hotheaded, as 
indeed he shewed by this murder. And after his death 
Polydorus received many notable honours from the Lace- 
daemonians. Polemarchus also had a monument at Sparta, 
whether being judged to have been a good man previously, 
or that his relatives buried him privately. During the reign 
of Eurycrates the son of Polydorus the Messenians patiently 
endured the Lacedaemonian yoke, nor was any revolution 
attempted by the Argive people, but in the days of Anax- 
ander the son of Eurycrates — for fate was already driving 
the Messenians out of all the Peloponnese — the Messenians 


revolted from the Lacedaemonians, and fought against them 
for some time, but were eventually conquered, and evacuat-ed 
the Peloponnese upon conditions of war. And the remnant 
of them became slaves on Lacedaemonian soil, except those 
who inhabited the maritime towns. All the circumstances 
of this war and revolt of the Messenians I have no need to 
recount in detail in the present part of my history. And 
Anaxander had a son Eurycrates, and this second Eurycrates 
a son Leo. During their reigns the Lacedaemonians met with 
the greatest reverses in fighting against the people of Tegea. 
And in the reign of Anaxandrides the son of Leo they over- 
came the people of Tegea, and in the following way. A 
Lacedgemonian by name Lichas came to Tegea at a time 
when Lacedaemon and Tegea were at peace together. And 
on Lichas' arrival they made a search for the bones of 
Orestes, and the Spartans sought for them in accordance 
with an oracle. And Lichas discovered that they were 
lying in the shop of a blacksmith, and he discovered it in 
this way : all that he saw in the blacksmith's shop he com- 
pared with the oracle at Delphi, thus he compared the 
blacksmith's bellows to the winds, because they produce a 
strong wind, the hammer was the blow, that which resists 
the blow was the anvil, and that which was a source of woe 
to man he naturally referred to iron, for people already 
began to use iron in battle, for the god would have spoken of 
brass as a source of woe to man in the days of the heroes. 
And just as this oracle was given to the Lacedaemonians 
about the bones of Orestes, so afterwards the Athenians 
were similarly instructed by the oracle to bring . Theseus' 
bones to Athens from Scyrus, for otherwise Scyrus could 
not be taken. And Cimon the son of Miltiades discovered 
the bones of Theseus, he too by ingenuity, and not long 
after he took Scyrus. That in the days of the heroes all 
arms alike were brass is borne witness to by Homer in the 
lines which refer to the axe of Pisander and the arrow of 
Meriones. And I have further confirmation of what I 
assert in the spear of Achilles which is stored up in the 
temple of Athene at Phaselis, and the sword of Memnon in 
the temple of ^sculapius at Nicomedia, the former has its 
tip and handle of brass, and the latter is of brass through- 
out. This we know to be the case. And Anaxandrides 


the son of Leo was the only Lacedasmonian that had two 
wives together and two households. For his first wife, 
excellent in other respects, had no children, and when the 
ephors bade him divdrce her, he would not consent to this 
altogether, but only so far as to take a second wife as well. 
And the second wife bare a son Cleomenes, and the first 
wife, though so long barren, after the birth of Cleomenes 
bare Dorieus, and Leonidas, and Cleonibrotus. And after 
the death of Anaxandrides, the LacedaBmonians though 
they thought Dorieus the better man both in council and 
war, reluctantly rejected him, and gave the kingdom to 
Cleomenes according to their law of primogeniture. 


AND Dorieus, as he would not remain at Lacedsemon 
subject to Cleomenes, was sent to form a colony. And 
Cleomenes commenced his reign by an inroad into Argolis, 
gathering together an army of Lacedaemonians and allies. 
And when the Argives came out to meet him armed for 
battle, he conquered them, and when they were routed 
about 6,000 of them fled into a neighbouring grove, which 
was sacred to Argus the son of Niobe. And Cleomenes, who 
often had a touch of the mad, ordered the Helots to set this 
grove on fire, and the grove was entirely consumed, and all 
these fugitives in it. He also marched his army against 
Athens, and at first, by freeing the Athenians from the yoke 
of the sons of Pisistratus, got for himself good fame among 
the Lacedaemonians and all the Greeks, but afterwards in 
his favour to an Athenian called Isagoras, tried to get for 
him the dominion over the Athenians. But failing in this 
expectation, and the Athenians fighting stoutly for their 
freedom, he ravaged various parts of their territory, and 
they say laid waste a place called Orgas, sacred to the gods 
at Eleusis. He also went to ^gina, and arrested the lead- 
ing men there for their support to the Medes, as they had 
persuaded the citizens to supply King Darius the son of 
Hystaspes with earth and water. And while Cleomenes was 
staying at-^gina, Demaratus the king of the other family 


was calumniating him to the multitude at Lacedoemon. AnJ. 
Cleomenes on his return from ^gina contrived to get De- 
maratus ejected from the kingdom, and bribed the priestess 
at Delphi to utter as oracular responses to the Lacedaemo- 
nians about Demaratus whatever he told her, and also 
instigated Leotjchides, one of the royal house and same 
family as Demaratus, to be a rival claimant for the king- 
dom. And Leotychides caught at some words, which 
Aristo formerly had foolishly thrown out against Demaratus 
at his birth, saying that he was not his son. And when the 
Lacedaemonians took this question about Demaratus, as 
they took all theii* questions, to the oracle at Delphi, the 
priestess gave them as repHes whatever Cleomenes had told 
her. Demaratus therefore was deposed from his kingdom 
by the hatred of Cleomenes and not on just grounds. And 
Cleomenes after this died in a fit of madness, for he seized 
his sword, and stabbed himself, and hacked his body about 
all over. The Argives say he came to this bad end as a 
judgment for his conduct to the 5,000 fugitives in the 
grove, the Athenians say it was because he ravaged Orgas, 
and the Delphians becatise he bribed the priestess at 
Delphi to tell falsehoods about Demaratus. Now there 
are other cases of vengeance coming from heroes and gods 
as on Cleomenes, for Protesilaus who is honoured at Eleus, 
a hero not a whit more illustrious than Argus, privately 
punished the Persian Artayctes, and the Megarians who 
had dared to till the holy land could never get pardon from 
the gods of Eleusis. Nor do I know of anyone that ever 
dared to tamper with the oracle but Cleomenes alone. 
And as Cleomenes had no male children the kingdom de- 
volved upon Leonidas the son of Anaxandrides, the brother 
of Dorieus on both sides. It was in his reign that Xerxes 
led his army into Greece, and Leonidas with his 300 Lacedae- 
monians met him at Thermopylae. There have been many 
wars between the Greeks and barbarians, but those can easily 
be counted wherein the valour of one man mainly contributed 
to glorious victory, as the valour of Achilles in the war 
against Ilium, and that of Miltiades in the action at Mara- 
thon. But indeed in my opinion the heroism of Leonidas 
excelled all the great deeds of former times. For Xerxes, the 
most sagacious and renowned of all the kings that ruled over 


the Medes and Persians, would have been prevented, at the 
narrow pass of Thermopylae, by the handful of men that 
Leonidas had with him, from seeing Greece at all, and from 
afterwards burning Athens, had it not been for a certain 
Trachinian who led round by a pass on Mount (Eta, the army 
of Hydarnes so as to fall on the Greek flank, and, when 
Leonidas was conquered in this way, the barbarians passed 
into Greece over his dead body. And' Pausanias the son of 
Cleombrotus was not king after Leonidas, but was Regent 
for Plistarchus Leonidas' son during his minority, and he led 
the Lacedaemonians to Plataea and afterwards passed over to 
the Hellespont with a fleet. I especially admire the conduct 
of Pausanias to the Coan lady, who was the daughter of a 
man of no mean note among the Coans, viz. of Hegetorides 
the son of Antagoras, and against her will the concubine of 
Pharandates the son of Teaspis, a Persian : and when Mar- 
donius fell in the battle at Platsea, and the barbarians were 
annihilated, Pausanias sent this lady home to Cos, with the 
ornaments and all other apparel that the Persian had given 
her. Moreover he would not suffer the dead body of Mar- 
donius to be outraged, though the .^Eginetan Lampon 
urged it. 


PLISTARCHUS the son of Leonidas died soon after 
succeeding to the kingdom, and Plistoanax the son of 
of Pausanias, the hero of Platsea, succeeded him. And 
.Plistoanax was succeeded by his son Pausanias. This is 
that Pausanias who led an army into Attica, ostensibly 
against Thrasybulus and the Athenians, but really to esta- 
blish the dominion of the Thirty Tyrants who had been set 
over Athens by Lysander. And he conquered in an engage- 
ment the Athenians who guarded the Piraeus, but directly 
after the battle he took his army off home again, not to 
bring upon Sparta the most shameful disgrace of establish- 
ing the power of unholy men. And when he returned from 
Athens with nothing to show for his battle, his enemies 
brought him to trial. Now a king of the Lacedaemonians 
is tried by a court composed of twenty-eight Seniors, and 

BOOK in. — LACONIA. 177 

the Ephors, and the King of the other family. Fourteen 

of the Seniors and Agis, the King of the other family, con- 
demned Pausanias, the rest of the Court acquitted him. 
And no long time after the Lacedaemonians gathering to- 
gether an army against Thebes, the reason for which war 
we shall relate in our account about Agesilaus, Lysander 
marched into Phocis, and, having mustered the Phocians in 
full force, lost no time in advancing into Bceotia, and 
making an attack upon the fortified town Haliartus, which 
would not revolt from Thebes. Some Thebans however 
and Athenians had secretly entered the town, and they 
making a sally and dra^ving up in battle array, Lysander 
and several of the Lacedaemonians fell. And Pausanias, 
who had been collecting forces from Tegea and the rest of 
Arcadia, came too late to take part in the fight, and when 
he got to Boeotia and heard of the death of Lysander and 
the defeat of his army, he nevertheless marched his armv 
to Thebes, intending to renew the fight there. But when 
he got there he found the Thebans drawn up in battle 
array against him, and it was also reported that Thrasy- 
bulus was coming up with an Athenian force ; accordingly, 
fearing to be taken between two fii"es, he made a treat v 
with the Thebans, and buried those who had fallen in the 
sally from Haliartus. This conduct of his did not please 
the Lacedaemonians, but I praise his determination for the 
following reason. "Well knowing that reverses always found 
the Lacedemonians surrounded by a swarm of enemies, 
what happened after Thermopylae and in the island of 
Sphacteria made him afraid of causing a third disaster. 
But as the citizens accused him of slowness in getting 
to Boeotia he did not care to stand a second trial, but the 
people of Tegea received him as a suppliant at the temple 
of Alean Athene. This temple was from time immemorial 
venerated throughout the Peloponnese, and afforded safety 
to all suppliants, as was shewn by the Lacedaemonians to 
Pausanias, and earlier still to Leotychides, and by the 
Argives to Chrysis, who all took sanctuary here, and were 
not demanded up. And after the voluntary exile of Pausa- 
nias, his sons Agesipolis and Cleombrotus being quite younc, 
Aristodemus the next of kin was appointed Regent : and the 
success of the Lacedaemonians at Corinth was owing to his 


generalship. And when Agesipolis came of age and took 
over the kingdom, his first war was against the Argives, 
And as he was leading his army from Tegea into Argolis, 
the Argives sent an envoy to negotiate peace with him on 
the old conditions established among all Dorians. But he 
not only declined these proposals, but advanced with his 
army and ravaged Argolis. And there was an earthquake, 
but not even then would Agesipolis draw off his forces, 
though these tokens of Poseidon's displeasure frightened 
the Lacedaemonians especially, [and also the Athenians.] 
And Agesipolis was now encamped under the walls of 
Argos, and the earthquakes ceased not, and some of the 
soldiers died struck by lightning, and others were dis- 
mayed by the thunder. So at last he returned from 
Argolis sorely against his will, and led an expedition against 
the Olynthians, and having been successful. in battle, and 
taken most of the other cities in Chalcidice, and hoping to 
take Olynthus also, he was carried off by a sudden disease 
and died. 


AND Agesipolis having died childless, the succession de- 
volved upon Cleombrotus, under whom the Lace- 
daemonians fought against the Boeotians at Leuctra, and 
Cleombrotus, exposing himself too freely, fell at the com- 
mencement of the action. Somehow or other the Deity 
seems to like to remove the Greneral first in great reverses, 
as from the Athenians he removed Hippocrates (the son of 
Ariphron) their General at Delium, and later on Leosthenes 
their General in Thessaly. 

The elder son of Cleombrotus, Agesipolis, did nothing 
worthy of record, and Cleomenes the younger succeeded 
after his brother's death. And he had two sons, of 
whom the eldest Acrotatus died before his father, and 
when later on the younger Cleomenes died, there was a 
dispute who should be king between Cleonymus the son of 
Cleomenes and Areus the son of Acrotatus. The Senate 
decided that to Areus the son of Acrotatus and not to 


leonymus belonged the hereditary office. And Cleonymus 
got mightily enraged at being ejected from the kingdom, 
though the Ephors endeavoured to induce him by various 
honours, and by making him commander-in-chief of the 
army, not to be an enemy to his country. But in spite of 
this he eventually injured his country in various ways, and 
even went so far as to invite in Pyrrhns the grandson of 

And dui'ing. the reign of Areus the son of Acrotatus, 
Antigonus the son of Demetrius made an expedition against 
Athens both by land and sea. And an Egvptian fleet 
under Patroclus came to the aid of the Athenians, and the 
Lacedaemonians came out in full force with Ai-eus the king 
at their head. And Antigonus having closely invested 
Athens, and barring the Athenian allies from every ap- 
proach to the city, Patroclus sent messengers and begged 
the Lacedaemonians and Areus to begin the battle against 
Antigonus, and when they began he said he would fall on 
the rear of the Macedonians, for it was not reasonable that 
his force should attack the Macedonians first, being Egyp- 
tians and sailors. Then the Lacedemonians were eager to 
bear the brunt of the battle, being animated by their friend- 
ship to the Athenians, and the desire to do something that 
posterity would not wilHngly forget. But Areus, as their 
provisions had been consumed, led his army home again. 
For he thought it sheer madness not to husband their re- 
sources, but lavish them all on strangers. And Athens 
holding out for a very long time, Antigonus made peace 
on conditions that he might have a garrison at the Museum. 
And some time after Antigonus himself withdrew the 
garrison there. And Areus had a son Acrotatus, and he 
had a son Areus, who was only 8 when he fell sick and 
died. And as now Leonidas was the only male left of the 
family of Eurysthenes, though quite an old man, the Lace- 
daemonians made him king. And it so chanced that 
Lysander, a descendant of Lysander the son of Aristocritus, 
especially disliked Leonidas. He associated vrith himself 
Cleombrotus, the son in law of Leonidas, and having won 
him over brought against Leonidas various charges, and the 
oath he had sworn to Cleonvmus his father while quite a 
boy that he would destroy Sparta. So Leonidas was 


deposed from the kingdom, and Cleombrotns reigned in 
his room. And if Leonidas had given way to temper, 
and (like Demaratus the son of Aristo) had gone and 
joined the king of Macedonia or the king of Egypt, he 
would have got no advantage from the subsequent repent- 
ance of the Spartans. But as it was when the citizens 
exiled him he went to Arcadia, and from thence not many 
years afterwards the LacedEemonians recalled him, and 
made him king the second time. And all that Cleomenes 
the son of Leonidas did, and all his boldness and bravery, 
and how the Spartan kings came to an end with him, I 
have previously recorded in connection with Aratus of 
Sicyon. Nor did I omit the details of Cleomenes' death in 


OF the family of Eurysthenes then, called the Agiadte, 
Cleomenes the son of Leonidas was the last king at 
Sparta : but as to the other branch this is what I have 
heard. Procles the son of Aristodemus had a son called 
Sons, whose son Eurypon attained such glory that the 
family were called Eurypontidas from him, though till his 
time they were called Proclidas. And Eurypon had a son 
Prytanis, and it was in his days that animosity broke out 
between the Lacedaemonians and Argives, and even earlier 
than this quarrel they fought with the Cynurians, but 
during the succeeding generations, when Eunomus the son 
of Prytanis and Polydectes the son of Eunomus were kings, 
Sparta continued at peace. But Charillus the son of Poly- 
dectes ravaged the Argive territory, and made a raid into 
Argolis, and under his leadership the Spartans went out 
to Tegea, when the Lacedaemonians hoped to take Tegea 
and slice the district off from Arcadia, following a beguil- 
ing oracle. And after the death of Charillus Nicander his 
son succeeded to the kingdom, and it was in his reign that 
the Messenians killed Teleclus the king of the other family 
in the temple of Artemis Limnas. And Nicander invaded 
Argolis with an army, and ravaged most of the country. 
And the Asinaeans having taken part with the Lacedse- 


monians in this expedition, not long afterwards paid the 
penalty to the Argives in the destruction of their country 
and their own exile. And Theopompus the son of 
Nicander, who was king after his father, I shall make 
mention of when I come to the history of Messenia. 
During his reign came on the contest for Thyrea between 
the Lacedaemonians and Argives. Theopompus himself 
took no part in this, partly from old age, but still more 
from sorrow at the death of his son Archidamus. I^ot 
that Archidamus died childless, for he left a son Zeuxi- 
damus, who was succeeded in the kingdom by his son 
Anaxidamus. It was in his reign that the Messenians 
evacuated the Peloponnese, having been a second time 
conquered in war by the Spartans. And Anaxidamus 
had a son Archidamus, and he had a son Agesicles : and 
both of them had the good fortune to spend all their life in 
peace and without wars. And Aristo the son of Agesicles 
having married a girl who they say was the most shame- 
less of all the girls in Lacedsemon, but in appearance the 
most beautiful girl next to Helen, had by her a son Dema- 
ratus seven months after marriage. And as he was sit- 
ting with the ephors in council a servant came and told 
him of the birth of his son. And Aristo, forgetting the 
lines in the Iliad ^ about the birth of Eurystheus, or 
perhaps not knowing them, said it couldn't be his child 
from the time. He was sorry afterwards for these words 
which he had spoken. And when Demaratus was king 
and in other respects in good repute at Sparta, and had 
cooperated with Cleomenes in fi-eeing the Athenians from 
the Pisistratidse, this thoughtless word of Aristo, and the 
hatred of Cleomenes deprived him of the kingdom. And 
he went to Persia to king Darius, and they say his de- 
scendants continued for a long time in Asia. ^And Leoty- 
chides, who became king in his place, shared with the 
Athenians and their General Xanthippus, the son of 
Ariphron, in the action at Mycale, and also marched into 
Thessaly against the Aleuadae. And though he might have 
reduced all Thessaly, as he was victonous in every battle, 
he allowed the Aleuadas to buy him off. And being im- 

^ Iliad, xix. 117. 


peached at Lacedsemon he went voluntarily into exile to 
escape trial, and became a suppliant at Tegea at the temple 
o£ Alean Athene there, and as his son Zeuxidamus had 
previously died of some illness, his grandson Archidamus 
succeeded him, on his departure to Tegea. This Archi- 
damus injured the Athenian territory excessively, invading 
Attica every year, and whenever he invaded it he went 
through all the country ravaging it, and also captured 
after a siege the town of Plataea which was friendly to the 
Athenians. Not that Platrea had ever stirred up strife 
between the Peloponnesians and Athenians, but as far as 
in its power lay had made them both keep the peace. But 
Sthenelaidas, one of the Ephors, a man of great power at 
Lacedsemon, was mainly the cause of the war at that time. 
And this war shook Greece, which was previously in a 
flourishing condition, to its foundation, and afterwards 
Philip the son of Amyntas reduced it completely, when it 
was already rotten and altogether unsound .y 


AND on the death of Archidamus, Agis the elder of his 
sons being of age succeeded, and not Agesilaus. 
And Archidamus had also a daughter called Cynisca, who 
was most ambitious in regard to the races at Olympia, 
and was the first woman who trained horses, and the first 
woman who won the prize at Olympia, though after her 
several women, especially Lacedasmonian ones, won the 
prize at Olympia, though none came up to her fame in 
these contests. But the Spartans seem to me to admire 
least of all men the glory that proceeds from poetry, for 
except an epigram on Cynisca composed by some one or 
other, and still earlier one on Pausanias, composed by 
Simonides, inscribed on the tripod erected at Delphi, there 
is no record made by any poet on any of the Lacedaemonian 
kings. And in the reign of Agis, the son of Archidamus, 
the Lacedaemonians brought other charges against the 
people of Elis, but were especially annoyed at their being 



shut out of the contest at Olympia, and the privileges of the 
temple there. They therefore sent an envoy with an ulti- 
mattini to the people of Elis, bidding them allow the people of 
Lepreum, and all other resident aliens who were subject to 
them, to live according to their own laws. And the people 
of Elis making reply that, when they saw the subject cities 
of Sparta free, they would immediately set their own free, 
the Lacedaemonians under King Agis at once invaded 
Elis. On that occasion the army retired in consequence of 
an earthquake, when they had advanced as far as Olympia 
and the River Alpheus, but next year Agis wasted the 
country and carried off much booty. And Xenias a man 
of Elis, who was privately friendly to Agis and publicly a 
champion of the Lacedaemonians, conspired against the 
populace with the men who were wealthy, but before Agis 
and the army could come up and cooperate with them 
Thrasydseus, who was at this time the leader of the popu- 
lace at Elis, conquered Xenias and his faction in battle and 
drove them from the city. And when Agis led his 
army home again, he left Lysistratus the Spartan with a 
portion of his force, and the refugees from Elis, to co- 
operate with the men of Lepreum in ravaging the district. 
And in the third year of the war the Lacedaemonians and 
Agis made preparations to invade Elis : but the people 
of Elis and Thrasydaeus, who had been reduced by the 
war to the greatest extremity, made a convention to give 
liberty to their subject cities, and to raze the fortifica- 
tions of their town, and to allow the Lacedaemonians to 
sacrifice to the god at Olympia and to contend in the 
games. After this Agis kept continually attacking Attica, 
and fortified £)ecelea as a constant menace to the Athe- 
nians : and after the Athenian fleet was destroyed at 
-^gos-potamoi, Lysander the son of Aristocritus and Agis 
violated the solemn oaths which the Lacedaemonians and 
Athenians had mutually sworn to observe, and at their 
own responsibility, and not at the bidding of the Spartan 
community, made an agreement with their allies to cut off 
Athens root and branch. These were the most notable 
exploits of Agis in war. And the hastiness of speech of 
Aristo about the legitimacy of his son Demaratus Agis also 
imitated in regard to his son Leotychides^, for some evil 


genius pnt it into his head in the hearing of the Ephors to 
say that he did not think he was his son. He repented 
however of his speech afterwards, for when he was carried 
home sick from Arcadia and had got to Herasa, he solemnly 
declared before a multitude of witnesses that he did verily 
believe that Leotychides was his son, and conjured them 
with entreaties and tears to report what he had said to the 
Lacedaemonians. But after his death Agesilaus drove 
Leotychides from the kingdom, reminding the Lacedae- 
monians of Agis' former speech, though the Arcadians 
came from Heraea, and bare witness what they had heard 
about Leotychides from Agis on his death-bed. And the 
variance between Agesilaus and Leotychides was heightened 
by the oracle at Delphi, which ran as follows : — 

" Sparta, beware, although thou art so gi'eat, 
Of having king o'er thee lame of one leg. 
For unexpected woes shall then prevail, 
And mortal-slaying wave of troublous war." 

Leotychides said that this oracle referred to Agesilaus, for 
he limped on one leg, but Agesilaus said it referred to 
Leotychides' not being the legitimate son of Agis. And 
the Lacedaemonians did not avail themselves of their privi- 
lege to refer the question to Delphi : but Lysander, the son 
of Aristocritus, seems to have prevailed upon the people to 
unanimously choose Agesilaus. 


SO Agesilaus the son of Archidamus was king, and the 
Lacedaemonians resolved to cross over into Asia with 
their fleet to capture Artaxerxes the son of Darius : for 
they had learnt from several people in authority, and espe- 
cially from Lysander, that it was not Artaxerxes that had 
helped them in the war against the Athenians, but Cyrus 
who had supplied them with money for their ships. And 
Agesilaus, after being instructed to convey the expedi- 
tion to Asia as commander of the land forces, sent round 
the Peloponnese to all the Greeks except at Argos and 


outside the Isthmus urging them to join him as allies. 
The Corinthians for their part, although they had been 
most eager to take part in the expedition to Asia, yet, when 
their temple of Olympian Zeus was suddenly consumed by 
fire, took it as an evil omen, and remained at home sorely 
against their wUl. And the Athenians urged, as pretext 
for refusing their aid, the strain of the Peloponnesian war 
and the city's need of recovery from the plague : but their 
having learnt from envoys that Conon the son of Timotheus 
had gone to the great king, was their main motive. And 
Aristomenidas was sent as ambassador to Thebes, the father 
of Agesilaus' mother, who was intimate with the Thebans, 
and had been one of the judges who, at the capture of 
Platsea, had condemned the garrison to be put to the 
sword. The Thebans however cried off like the Athe- 
nians, declining their aid. And Agesilaus, when his own 
army and that of the allied forces was mustered and his 
fleet ready to sail, went to Aulis to sacrifice to Artemis, 
because it was there that Agamemnon had propitiated the 
goddess when he led the expedition to Troy. And Agesi- 
laus considered himself king of a more flourishing state 
than Agamemnon, and that like him he was l^^ading all 
Greece, but the success would be more glorious, the hap- 
piness greater, to conquer the great King Artaxerxes, and 
to be master of Persia, than to overthrow the kingdom 
of Priam. But as he was sacrificing some Thebans at- 
tacked him, and threw the thighbones of the victims 
that were burning off the altar, and drove him out of 
the temple. And Agesilaus was grieved at the non-com- 
pletion of the sacrifice, but none the less he crossed 
over to Asia Minor and marched for Sardis. Now Lydia 
was at this period the greatest province in Lower Asia 
Minor, and Sardis was the principal city for wealth and 
luxury, and it was the chief residence of the sati*ap by the 
sea, as Susa was the chief residence of the great king. 
.And fighting a battle with Tissaphemes, the satrap of 
Ionia, in the plain near the river Hermus, Agesilaus de- 
feated the Persian cavalry and infantry, though Tissa- 
phemes' army was the largest since the expedition of 
Xerxes against Athens, and earlier still the expedition of 
Darius against the Scythians. And the Lacedsemonians, 


delighted at the success of Agesilaus by land, readily made 
him leader of the fleet also. And he put Pisander his 
wife's brother, a rery stout soldier by land, in command 
of the triremes. But some god must have grudged his 
bringing things to a happy conclusion. For when Ai*ta- 
xerxes heard of the victorious progress of Agesilaus, and 
how he kept pushing on with his army, not content with 
what he had already gained, he condemned Tissaphernes 
to death, although he had in former times done him signal 
service, and gave his satrapy to Tithraustes, a longheaded 
fellow and very able man, who greatly disliked the Lace- 
demonians. Directly he arrived at Sardis, he forthwith 
devised means to compel the Lacedaemonians to recall their 
army from Asia Minor. So he sent Timocrates a native of 
Rhodes into Greece with money, bidding him stir up war 
against the Lacedaemonians in Greece. And those who 
received Timocrates' money were it is said Cylon and Soda- 
mas among the Argives, and at Thebes Androclides and 
Ismenias and Amphithemis : and the Athenians Cephalus 
and Epicrates had a share, and the Corinthians with Argive 
proclivities as Polyanthes and Timolaus. But the war was 
openly commenced by the Locrians of Amphisse. For the 
Locrians had some land which was debated between them 
and the Phocians, from this land the Phocians, at the in- 
stigation of the Thebans and Ismenias, cut the ripe corn and 
drove off cattle. The Phocians also invaded Locris in full 
force, and ravaged the territory. Then the Locrians in- 
vited in the Thebans as their allies, and laid Phocis waste. 
And the Phocians went to Lacedaemon and inveighed 
against the Thebans, and recounted all that they had suf- 
fered at their hands. And the Lacedaemonians determined 
to declare war against the Thebans, and among other 
charges which they brought against them was their insult 
at Aulis to the sacrifice of Agesilaus. And the Athenians, 
having heard of the intention of the Lacedaemonians, sent 
to Sparta, begging them not to war against Thebes, but to 
submit their differences to arbitration. And the Lace- 
daemonians angrily dismissed the embassy. And what 
happened subsequently, viz. the expedition of the Lace- 
daemonians and the death of Lysander, has been told by 
me in reference to Pausanias. And what is known to 

BOOK in. — LACOXIA. 187 

history as the Corinthian war began with this march into 
Boeotia of the Lacedaemonians, and grew into a big war, 
and compelled Agesilaus to bring his army home from 
Asia Minor. And when he had crossed over in his ships 
from Abydos to Sestos, and marched into Thessaly through 
Thrace, the Thessalians attempted to bar his way to in- 
gratiate themselves with the Thebans, partly also in con- 
sequence of their long standing friendship with Athens. 
And Agesilaus having i-outed their cavalry marched through 
Thessaly, and then through Boeotia, having conquered the 
Thebans and their allies at Coronea. And when the Boeo- 
tians were routed, some of them fled to the temple of 
Athene Itonia : and though Agesilaus was wounded in the 
battle, he did not for all that violate their sanctuary. 


A XD not long afterwards those Corinthians who had 

■^^ been exiled for their Lacedfemonian proclivities esta- 
blished the Isthmian games. But those who were at this 
time in Corinth remained there from fear of Agresilaus, but 
when he broke up his camp and returned to Sparta, then 
they also joined the Argives at the Isthmian games. And 
Agesilaus came again to Corinth with an army : and, as the 
festival of Hyacinthus was coming on, he sent home the 
natives of Amyclae, to go and perform the customary rites 
to Apollo and Hyacinthus. This detachment were attacked 
on the road and cut to pieces by the Athenians under 
Iphicrates. Agesilaus also marched into ^tolia to help 
the -^tolians who were hard pressed by the Acamanians, 
and compelled the Acarnanians to bring the war to an 
end, when they had all but taken Calydon and the othei* 
fortified towns in ^tolia. And some time afterwards he 
sailed to Egypt, to the aid of the Egyptians who had re- 
volted from the great king : and many memorable exploits 
did he in Egypt. And he died on the passage home, for 
he was now quite an old man. And the Lacedfemonians, 
when they got his dead body, buried it with greater honours 
than they had shewn to any of their kings. 


And during the reign of Archidamus, the son of Agesi- 
laus, the Phocians seized the temple of Apollo at Delphi. 
Offers of mercenary aid came privately to the Thebans to 
fight against the Phocians, and publicly fvom the Lace- 
daemonians and Athenians, the latter remembering the old 
kindnesses they had received from the Phocians, and the 
Lacedaemonians under pretext of friendship, but really as I 
think in hostility to the Thebans. And Theopompus, the 
son of Damasistratus, said that Archidamus also had a 
share of the money at Delphi, and that also Dinichas, his 
wife, had received a bribe from the authorities of the 
Phocians, and that all this made Archidamus more willing 
to bring the Phocians aid. I do not praise receiving 
sacred money, and assisting men who made havoc of the 
most famous of oracles. But this much I can praise. The 
Phocians intended to kill all the young men at Delphi, and 
to sell the women and children into slavery, and to raze 
the city to its foundations : all this Archidamus success- 
fully deprecated. And he afterwards crossed over into 
Italy, to assist the people of Tarentum in a war with their 
barbarian neighbours : and he was slain there by the bar- 
barians, and his dead body failed to find a tomb through 
the wrath of Apollo. And Agis, the elder son of this 
Archidamus, met his death fighting against the Macedo- 
nians and Antipater. During the reign of Eudamidas the 
younger one the Lacedaemonians enjoyed peace. All about 
his son Agis, and his grandson Eurydamidas, I have already 
related in my account of Sicyonia. 

Next to the Hermae ^ is a place full of oak trees, and the 
name of it Scotitas (dark place) was not derived from the 
thickness of the foliage, but from Zeus surnamed Scotitas, 
whose temple is about 10 stades as you turn off the road 
to the left. And when you have returned to the road, and 
gone forward a little, and turned again to tlie left, there is 
a statue and trophy of Hercules : Hercules erected the 
trophy it is said after killing Hippocoon and his sons. 
And a third turn from ihe high road to the right leads to 
Caryae and the temple of Artemis. For Caryae is sacred to 
Artemis and the Nymphs, and there is a statue of Artemis 

' Mentioned ii, 38 ; iii, i. Pausanias now returns to topography. 


of Caryre in the open air, and here the Lacedfemonian 
maidens have a festival every year, and hold their national 
dances. And as you return to the high road and go 
straight on you come to the ruins of Sellasia, which place 
(as I have mentioned before) the Achteans reduced to 
slavery, when they had conquered in battle the Lacedae- 
monians and their king Cleomenes the son of Leonidas-. 
And at Thomax, which you next come to, is a statue of 
Pythsean Apollo, very similar to the one at Amyclae, which 
I shall describe when I come to Amyclfe. But the one at 
Amyclae is more famous than the Lacedeemonian one, for 
the gold which Croesus the Lydian sent to Pythaean Apollo 
was used to adorn it. 


ON going forward from Thomax, you come to the city 
which was originally called Sparta, but afterwards 
Lacedasmon, which was once the name of the whole dis- 
trict. And according to my rule which I laid down in my 
account about Attica, not to give everything in detail but 
to select what was most worthy of account, so I shall deal 
in my account of Sparta : for I determined from the out- 
set to pick out the most remarkable of the particulars which 
tradition hands down. From this determination I shall 
on no occasion deviate. At Sparta there is a handsome 
marketplace, and a councilchamber for the Senate, and 
public buildings in the marketplace for the Ephors and 
guardians of the laws, and for those who are called the 
Bidisei. The Senate is the most powerful governing body 
in Sparta, but all these others take part in the govern- 
ment : and the ephors and the Bidisei are each five in 
number, and are appointed to preside over the games of 
the young men in the Platanistas and elsewhere, and the 
Ephors manage all other important matters, and furnish 
one of their number as the Eponymus, who like the magis- 
trates of the same name at Athens presides over the rest. 
But the most notable thing in the marketplace is what 
they call the Persian Portico, built of the spoils taken from 


the Medes : and in time tliey have brought it to its present 
size and magnificence. And there are on the pillars statues 
in white stone of Mardonius, the son of Gobryas, and other 
Persians. There is also a statue of Artemisia, the daughter 
of Lygdamis, who was Queen of Halicarnassus : and who 
they say of her own accord joined Xerxes in the expedition 
against Greece, and displayed great valour in the sea fight 
at Salamis. And there are two temples in the market- 
place, one to Ctesar, who was the first of the Romans that 
aimed at Autocracy, and established the present regime, 
and the other to Augustus his adopted son, who confirmed 
the Autocratic rule, and advanced further in consideration 
and power even than Csesar had done. His name Augustus 
has the same signification as the Greek Sebastus. At the 
altar of Augustus they exhibit a brazen statue of Agias, 
who they say foretold Lysander that he would capture all 
the Athenian fleet at ^gos-potamoi but ten triremes : they 
got off safe to Cyprus, but the Lacedaemonians took all the 
rest and their crews. This Agias was the son of Agelo- 
chus, the son of Tisamenus. This last was a native of Elis 
of the family of the lamidae, who was told by the oracle 
that he should win the prize in 5 most notable contests. 
So he trained for the pentathlum at Olympia, and came off 
the ground unvictorious in that, though he won the prize 
in two out of the five, for he beat Hieronymus of Andros 
in running and leaping. But having been beaten by him 
in wrestling, and losing the victory, he interpreted the 
oracle to mean that he would win five victories in war. 
And the Lacedasmonians, who were not ignorant of what 
the Pythian priestess had foretold Tisamenus, persuaded 
him to leave Elis, and carry out the oracle for the benefit 
of the Spartans. And Tisamenus had his five victories, first 
at Platsea against the Persians, and secondly at Tegea in a 
battle between the Lacedaemonians and the people of Tegea 
and the Argives. And next at Dipeea against all the 
Arcadians but the Mantinaeans : (Dipaea is a small town 
of the Arcadians near Maenalia.) And the fourth victory 
was at Ithome against the Helots that had revolted in the 
Isthmus. However all the Helots did not revolt, but only 
the Messenian portion who had separated themselves from 
the original Helots. But I shall enter into all this more 


fully hereafter. After this victoiy the Lacedaemonians, 
listening to Tisamenus and the oracle at Delphi, allowed 
the rebels to go away on conditions. And the fifth victory- 
was at Tamagra in a battle against the Argives and Athe- 
nians. Such is the account I heard about Tisamenus. 
And the Spartans have in their market-place statues of 
Pythaean Apollo, and Artemis, and Leto. And this place 
is called Dance-ground because during the Festival of 
Gymnopfedia,^ (and there is no feast more popular among 
the Lacedaemonians,) the boys have dances here in honour 
of Apollo. And at no great distance are temples of Earth, 
and Market Zeus, and Market Athene, and Poseidon whom 
they call Asphalius, and Apollo again, and Hera. There is 
also a huge statue of a man to represent the People of 
Sparta. And the Destinies have a temple at Sparta, near 
to which is the tomb of Orestes the son of Agamemnon : 
for they say his bones were brought from Tegea and buried 
here in accordance with the oracle. And near the tomb of 
Orestes is an effigy of Polydoms the son of Alcamenes, 
whom of all their kings they so extolled that the govern- 
ment seal all their public documents with Polydorus' 
image. There is also a Market Hermes carrying a little 
Dionysus, and some antiquities called Ephorea, and among 
them memorials of Epimenides the Cretan, and of Apha- 
reus the son of Perieres. And I think the Lacedaemonian 
account of Epimenides truer than the Argive one. Here 
also are statues of the Destinies, and some other statues. 
There is also a Hospitable Zeus and a Hospitable Athene. 


AS you go from the marketplace on the road which they 
call Apheta (starting-place), you come to what is 
called Booneta, (Ox-purcha^ed). I must first explain the 
name of the road. They say that Icarius proposed a race 
for the suitors of Penelope, and that Odysseus won the 
prize is clear, and they started they say at the road called 

^ Gymnopcsdia, as its name denotes, was a yearly festival at which 
Ijoys danced naked and went through gymnastic exercises. 


Apheta. And I think Icarius imitated Danaus in proposing 
this contest. For this was Danaus' plan in regard to his 
daughters ; as no one would marry any of them because 
of their atrocious crime, Danaus made it known that he 
would marry his daughters to any one who should select 
them for their beauty without requiring wedding-presents, 
but when only a few came to apply he established a race, 
and the winner might take his pick of the girls, and the 
second the next, and so on to the last in the race : and 
the girls still remaining had to wait for a second batch of 
suitors and a second race. And what the Lacedaemonians 
call Booneta on this road, was formerly the house of king 
Polydorus : and after Polydorus' death they bougtt it of 
his widow for some oxen. For as yet there was no coinage 
either in silver or gold, but in primitive fashion they gave in 
barter oxen and slaves, and silver or gold in the lump. And 
m.ariners to India tell us the Indians give in exchange for 
Greek commodities various wares, but do not understand 
the use of money, and that though they have plenty of 
gold and silver. And opposite the public Hall of the 
Bidiaei is the temple of Athene, and Odysseus is said to 
have put there the statue of the goddess, and called it 
Celeuthea, when he outran the suitors of Penelope. And 
he built three temples of Celeuthea at some distance 
from one another. And along the road called Apheta 
there are hero-chapels of lops, who is supposed to have 
been a contemporary of Lelex or Myles, and of Am- 
phiaraus the son of CEclees, (and this last they think the 
sons of Tyndareus erected as Amphiaraus was their uncle), 
and also one of Lelex himself. And not far from these is 
the shrine of Teenarian Apollo, for that is his title, and at 
no great distance a statue of Athene, which they say was a 
votive offering of those who migrated to Italy and Taren- 
tum. And the place which is called Hellenium is so called 
because those of the Hellenes (Greeks), who strove to 
prevent Xerxes' passing into Europe, deliberated in this 
place how they should resist him. But another tradition 
says that it was here that those who went to Ilium to 
oblige Menelaus deliberated on the best plan for sailing to 
Troy, and exacting punishment of Paris for the rape of 
Helen. And near Hellenium they exhibit the tomb of 


Talthybins : as do also the people of ^gae in Achaia in their 
marketplace, who also claim the tomb of Talthybius as 
being with them. And the wrath of this Talthybius for 
the mnrder of the envoys, who were sent by King Darius 
to Greece to ask for earth and water, was publicly mani- 
fested to the Lacedaemonians, but on the Athenians was 
visited privately, and mainly on the house of one man, 
Miltiades the son of Cimon, for he was the person responsible 
for getting the envoys that came to Attica put to death by 
tiie Athenians. And the Lacedaemonians have an altar of 
Apollo Acritas, and a temple of Earth called Gaseptum, and 
above it is Apollo ^laleates. And at the end of the road 
Apheta, and very near the walls, is the temple of Dictynna, 
and the royal tombs of the Eurypontidae. And near Hel- 
lenium is the temple of Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus, 
and the sister of the wives of Polydeuces and Castor. And 
at what is called Garrison there is a temple of Artemis, 
and as you go on a little further there is a monument 
erected to the prophets from Elis who are called lamidae. 
And there is a temple of Maro and Alpheus, who, of the 
Lacedaemonians that fought at Thermopylae, seem to have 
been reckoned most valiant nest to Leonidas. And the 
temple of Victory-giving Zeus was erected by the Dorians, 
after a victory over the people of Amyclse and the other 
Achaeans,who at this time occupied Laconia. And the temple 
of the great Mother is honoured especially. And next to 
it are hero-chapels of Theseus, and the Arcadian Aulon, and 
the son of Tlesimenes : some say that Tlesimenes was the 
brother, others the son, of Parthenopaeus the son of Melanion. 
And there is another outlet from the marketplace, where 
is built the place called Scias, where even now they hold 
meetings. This Scias was they say built by the Samian 
Theodorus, who was the first discoverer of fusing, and 
making statues, in iron. Here the Lacedaemonians hung 
up the harp of Milesian Timotheus, censuring him for 
adding four chords in harpistry to the old Seven. And 
near Scias there is a round building (in which are statues 
of Olympian Zeus and Olympian Aphrodite) constructed 
they say by Epimenides, of whom they give a different 
account to that of the Argives, since they say that the 
Argives never fought with the Gnossians. 



NOT far from Scias is the tomb of Cynortas the son of 
Amyclas, and the monument of Castor, and a temple 
to him over it. Castor and Pollux were not they say 
reckoned gods till the fortieth year after the battle between 
Idas and Lynceus, whose tombs are exhibited at Scias, 
though a more probable tradition states that they were 
buried in Messenia. But the misfortunes of the Messenians, 
and the long time they were away from the Peloponnese, 
have made many of their old traditions unknown to pos- 
terity, and since they do not themselves know them for 
certain, any one who chooses can doubt. Right opposite 
the temple of Olympian Aphrodite the Lacedaemonians have 
a temple of Saviour Proserpine, erected some say by the 
Thracian Orpheus, others say by Abaris who came from 
the Hyperboreans. And Carneus, whom they surname 
CEcetes, had honours in Spai'ta even before the return of 
the Heraclidae, and a statue was erected to him in the 
house of Crius, the son of Theocles the prophet. As the 
daughter of this Crius was drawing water, some Dorian 
spies met her and had a conversation with her, and went 
to Crius, and learnt of him the way to capture Sparta. 
And the worship of Carnean Apollo was established among 
all the Dorians by Carnu s, an Acarnanian by race and the 
prophet of Apollo : and when he was slain by Hippotes the 
son of Phylas the heavy wrath of Apollo fell upon tli! 
camp of the Dorians, and Hippotes had to flee for thi 
murder, and the Dorians determined to propitiate the 
Acarnanian prophet by sacred rites. But indeed it is not 
this Carnean CEcetes, but the son of the prophet Criii 
that was honoured while the Achseans still held Spart;. 
It has indeed been written by Praxilla in her verses thru 
Carneus was the son of Europa, and that Apollo and Letn 
brought him up. But there is another tradition recorded 
of him, that the Greeks cut down on Trojan Ida some 
cornel trees that grew in the grove of Apollo to make the 
Wooden Horse : and when they learnt of the anger of the 
god against them for this sacrilege, they propitiated him 

BOOK m. — LACONIA. 195 

with sacrifices and called him Camean Apollo from these 
cornel trees, transposing the letter p according to ancient 

And not far from Camean Apollo is the statue of Aphe- 

tseus : where they say the suitors of Penelope started for 

their race. And there is a place which has porticos forming 

a square, where nicknacks in old times used to be sold : at 

this place is an altar of Ambnlian Zeus and AmbuHan 

Athene, and also of Ambulian Castor and Pollux. And 

right opposite is what is called Colona (Hill), and a temple 

of Zeus of Colona, and near it the grove of the hero, who 

they say showed Dionysus the way to Sparta. And the 

women called Dionysiades and Leucippides sacrifice to this 

hero before they sacrifice to the god himself. But the other 

eleven women, whom they also call Dionysiades, have a race 

pecially appointed for them : this custom carae from Delphi. 

And not far from the temple of Dionysus is that of Zeus 

Euanemus, and on the right of this is the hero chapel of 

Pleuron. On the mother's side the sons of Tyndareus were 

descended from Pleuron, for Areus says in his poems that 

Thestius, the father of Leda, was the son of Agenor and 

vrandson of Pleuron. And not far from this hero chapel is 

% hill, and on the hill is a temple of Argive Hera, erected 

Hiey say by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedsemon, and the 

wiie of Acrisius the son of Abas. And the temple of 

Eyperchirian Hera was built according to the oracle, when 

ie Eurotas overflowed a considerable part of the country. 

^d tae old wooden statue they call that of Aphrodite Hera, 

ind when a daughter is married it is customary for mothers 

o sacrifice to that goddess. And on the road to the right 

If this hill is an effigy of Et<Bmocles. He and his father 
lipposthenes won prizes for wrestling at Olympia, the 
ather on eleven occasions, the son on twelve. 
^ The cornel tree is in Greek Kpavfux. Transposition of the p will 
ive KOfjvtios as the title of the god. This will explain text. 



AS yon go westwards from the marketplace is the 
cenotaph of Brasidas the son of Tellis, and at no 
great distance a theatre in white stone well worth seeing. 
And opposite the theatre are the tombs of Pausanias the 
General at Platsea, and of Leonidas : and every year they 
have speeches over them, and a contest in which none but 
Spartans may compete. The remains of Leonidas were 40 
years after his death removed from Thermopyl^ by Pa.u- 
sanias, and there is a pillar with the names and pedigree 
of those who fought against the Medes at Thermopylae. 
And there is in Sparta a place called Theomelida, where 
are the tombs of the kings descended from Agis, and at no 
great distance is what is called the Lounge of the Crotani ; 
who belong to the Pitanatae. And not far from this 
Lounge is the temple of ^sculapius, called the temple 
among the tombs of the descendants of Agis. And as you 
go on you come to the tomb of Tasnarus, from whom they 
say the promontory Tsenarum gets its name. And there 
are temples of Hippocurian Poseidon and ^ginetan Arte- 
mis. And as you retrace your steps to the Lounge is the 
temple of Artemis Issora, they also call her Limnaea, though 
she is not called Artemis but Britomartis by the Cretans, but 
about her I shall speak when I come to JEginsb. And very 
near the tombs of the descendants of Agis you will see a 
pillar, and inscribed on it are the victories which Chionis a 
Lacedaemonian carried off in the course, and others which 
he won at Olympia. For there he had seven victories, 
four in the course, and three in the double course. The 
shield race at the end of the sports was not then instituted. 
Chionis also took part they say with Therasan Battus 
in founding Cyrene, and in ejecting the neighbouring 
Libyans. And they allege the following as the reason why 
the temple of Thetis was built. "When they were fighting 
against the Messenians who had revolted, and their king 
Anaxander invaded Messenia and took captive some women, 
and among them Cleo the priestess of Thetis, Anaxander's 
wife Leandris begged Cleo of her husband, and she found 


ieo in possession of a wooden statue of Thetis, and joined 

-r in building a temple to the goddess : and Leandris 

lilt this according to the pattern which she saw in a 

dream : and the old wooden statue of Thetis they keep in 

;i private place. And the Lacedaemonians say they were 

ught to worship Demeter Chthonia by Orpheus, but I 

a of opinion that the temple at Hermion taught them this 

orship of Demeter Chthonia. The Spartans have also a 

- cry recent temple of Serapis, and another of Olympian 


And the Lacedaemonians give the name Dromus to the 

place where it is customary still for the young men to 

lactise in running. As you go to this Dromus from the 

mb of the descendants of Agis you see on the left hand 

e sepulchre of Eumedes, who was the son of Hippocoon, 

id an old statue of Hercules, to whom the Spartan youths 

died Sphcerei sacrifice. This name is given to the lads 

ho are just growing to manhood.^ There are also gym- 

isiums in Dromus, one the offering of the Spartan 

arycles. And outside Dromus, and opposite the statue 

• Hercules, is a house which now belongs to a private 

ei*son, but was of old the house of Menelaus. And 

- you go on from Dromus you come to the temples of 

astor and Pollux, and the Graces, and Ilithyia, and 

amean Apollo, and Sovereign Artemis. And on the right 

Dromus is a temple of jS^sculapius surnamed Agnitas 

ViJImt'i/), because the god's statue is made of willow, of 

ae same kind as that called rhamnus : and at no great 

stance is a trophy, which they say Poly deuces put up 

"ter his victory over Lynceus. And this confirms in my 

[linion the probability that the sons of Aphareus were 

not buried at Sparta. Near the beginning of Dromus are 

Castor and Pollux of the Startingpoint, and as you go a 

little way further is the hero-chapel of Alco, who they say 

was the son of Hippocoon. And next to the hero-chapel of 

Alco is the temple of Poseidon whom they surname Doma- 

tites. And there is a place called Platanistas from the 

plane-trees which grow high and continuous round it. And 

this place, where it is customary for the young men to have 

' It means boxers, or football players. 


their fights, is surrounded by water as an island is by the 
sea, and you enter it by bridges. On one side of these 
bridges is a statue of Hercules, and on the other one of 
Lycurgus, who not only legislated for the state generally 
but even for the fights of the youths. And the youths have 
the following customs also. They sacrifice before their 
fights in the temple of Phoebus, which is outside the city 
and not very far from Therapne. Here each division of 
the young men sacrifice a puppy dog to Enyalius,^ deeming 
the most valiant of domesticated animals a suitable victim 
to the most valiant of the gods. And I know no other 
Greeks who are accustomed to sacrifice puppy dogs except 
the Colophonians, who sacrifice a black puppy to Enodius. 
The sacrifices both of the Colophonians and also of these 
young men at Lacedsemon take place by night. And after 
their sacrifice the young men pit together tame boars to 
fight, whichever boar gets the victory, the party to which 
it belongs are generally victorious at Platanistas. This 
is what they do in the temple of Phoebus : and on the next 
day a little before noon they cross the bridges to Plata- 
nistas. And the approach for each division is appointed 
by lot the night before. And they fight with hands and 
feet, and bite and tear one another's eyes out. So they 
fight, and violently attack one another full tilt, and push 
one another into the water. 


NEAR Platanistas there is a hero-chapel of Cynisca, the 
daughter of Archidamus king of Sparta : she was 
the first woman who trained horses, and the first woman 
who won the chariot-race at Olympia. And behind the 
portico near Platanistas are several other hero-chapels, one 
of Alcimus, and another of Enaraephorus, and at no great 
distance one of Dorceus, and above this one of Sebrus. 
These they say were sons of Hippocoon. And from Dorceus 
they call the fountain near the hero-chapel Dorcea, and 
from Sebrus they call the place Sebrium. And on the 

'■ A name for Ares the god of war, the Latin Mars. 



right of Sebrixun is the sepulchre of Alcman, the sweet- 
ness of whose poems was not injured by the Lacedsemonian 
dialect, though it is the least euphonious. And there are 
temples of Helen and Hercules, hers near the tomb of 
Alcman, and his very near the walls with a statue in it of 
Hercules armed : Hercides was so represented in the statue 
they say because of his fight against Hippocoon and his 
sons. The animosity of Hercules against the family of 
•Hippocoon originated they say in that, after killing Iphitus, 
when he came to Sparta to clear himself, they refused to 
clear him. The following matter also contributed to the 
beginning of strife. CEonus a lad, and nephew of Hercules, 
for he was the son of Alcmena's brother, accompanied 
Hercules to Sparta, and as he was going round and looking 
at the city, when he was opposite the house of Hippocoon, 
a watch dog jumped out on him, and (Eonus chanced to 
throw a stone and hit the dog. Then the sons of Hippocoon 
ran out, and struck CEonus with clubs till they had killed 
him. At this Hercules was furious against Hippocoon and 
his sons, and immediately (so angry was he) attacked them. 
For the moment he retired as he was wounded, but after- 
wards he brought others with him to Spai-ta to avenge 
himself on Hippocoon and his sons for the niurdei* of 
CEonus. And the sepulchre of CEonus was erected near the 
temple of Hercules. And as you go eastwards from Dromus 
there is a path on the right hand to the temple of Athene 
und3r the title of Exactor of due punishment. For when 
Hercules took on Hippocoon and his sons adequate ven- 
geance for what they had done, he built this temple to 
Athene under the title of Exactor of due punishment, for 
the old race of men called revenge punishment.^ And there 
is another temple of Athene as you go on another road from 
Dromus, erected they say by Theras the son of Autesion, 
the son of Tisamenus, the son of Thersander, when he sent 
a colony to the island which is now called Thei"a after him, 
but was of old called Calliste. And hard by is the temple 
of Hipposthenes who carried off most of the wrestling prizes, 
and whom they worship according to the oracle, as if they 
were awarding honours to Poseidon. And right opposite 

' So Bacon calls revenge •' a kind of wild justice." Essai/ iv. 


this temple is Enyalius in fetters, an old statue. And the 
opinion of the Lacedaemonians about this statue and about 
that of the Athenians called Wingless Victory is the same, 
viz. that Enyalius will never depart from the Lacedsemo- 
nians as being fettered, just as Victory will always remain 
with the Athenians because she has no wings to fly away. 
Athens and Lacedsemon have erected these statues on 
similar principles and with a similar belief. And at Sparta 
there is a Lounge called the Painted Lounge, and various 
hero-chapels near it, as of Cadmus the son of Agenor, and 
his descendants, CEolycus the son of Theras, and ^geus the 
son of CEolycus. And they say these hero-chapels were 
built by Maesis, Laeas, and Europas, who are said to have 
been the sons of Hyreeus and grandsons of -ZEgeus. And 
they built also a hero-chapel to Amphilochus, because their 
ancestor Tisamenus was the son of Demonassa, the sister of 
Amphilochus. And the Lacedaemonians are the only Greeks 
with whom it is customary to call Hera Goateater and 
to sacrifice goats to her. And Hercules they say built 
a temple and sacrificed goats to her first, because when 
he was fighting against Hippocoon and his sons he met with 
no obstacle from Hera, though he thought the goddess 
opposed him on all other occasions. And they say he 
sacrificed goats to her as being in difficulty about getting 
any other victims. And not far from the theatre is the 
temple of Tutelary Poseidon and hero-chapels of Cleodasus 
the son of Hyllus, and of CBbalus. And the most notable of 
the Spartan temples of ^sculapius is at Booneta, on the 
left of which is the hero-chapel of Teleclus, of whom I 
shall give an account when I come to Messenia. And 
when you have gone forward a little further there is a hill 
not very high, and on it an old temple and wooden statue 
of Aphrodite in full armour. This is the only temple I 
know which has an upper story built above it, and in this 
upper story is a shrine of Aphrodite under the title of The 
Shapely, the goddess is seated with a veil on and fetters on 
her feet. They say Tyndareus added the fetters, symbo- 
lising by those bonds the bonds of love, that unite men 
so powerfully to women. For as to the other tradition, 
that Tyndareus punished the goddess by fetters, because 
he thought his daughters' disgrace had come from the 

BOOK ni. — LACOSU. 201 

goddess, this I don't at all accept : for it would have been 
altogether childish to make a small figure of cedar- wood 
and call it Aphrodite, and then think in punishing it one 
was punishing the goddess ! 


AND hard by is the temple of Hilaira and Phcebe, who 
the writer of the Cjprian poems says were the 
daughters of Apollo. And their priestesses are maidens, 
called also Leucippides as well as the goddesses. One of 
their statues was touched up by a priestess of the goddesses, 
who with an art not unknown in our days put a new face 
on the old statue, but a dream prevented her treating the 
other statue in the same way. Here is hung up an egg, 
fastened to the roof by fillets ; they say it is the egg which 
Leda is said to have laid. And every year the women 
weave a coat for Apollo at Amyclae, and they call the place 
where they weave it Coat. Near the temple is a house 
which they say the sons of Tyndareus originally lived in, 
but afterwards Phorm^io a Spartan got possession of it. 
To him Castor and PoUux came as strangers, they said 
they had come from Cyrene and desired to lodge at his 
house, and asked for a chamber, (with which they were 
greatly pleased), as long as they should remain at Sparta. 
But he bade them go to some other house where they 
might like to dwell, he could not give them that chamber, 
for it was the apartment of his daughter a maiden. And 
the next day maiden and her attendants had all vanished, 
but statues of Castor and Pollux were found in the 
chamber, and a table with some assa-foetida on it. Such 
at least is the ti-adition. 

And as you go to the gates from the place called Coat 
there is a hero-chapel of Chilo, who was accounted one of 
the seven wise men, and of an Athenian hero who accom- 
panied Dorieus, the son of Anaxandrides, on the expedition 
to colonize Sicily. And they put in at Eryx thinking that 
district belonged to the descendants of Hercules, and not 


to barbarians who really held it. For there is a tradition 
that Eryx and Hercules wrestled on the following condi- 
tions, that if Hercules conquered the land of Eryx should 
be his, but if Eryx conquered the oxen of Geryon, (which 
Hercules was then driving,) should be his, for these oxen 
had swum across to Sicily from the promontory at Scylla,^ 
and Hercules had crossed over after them to find them, and 
Eryx should have them if he came oif victor. But the 
good will of the gods did not speed Dorieus the son of 
Anaxandrides as it had done Hercules, for Hercules killed 
Eryx, but the people of Segeste nearly annihilated Dorieus 
and his army. And the Lacedaemonians have built a 
temple to their legislator Lycurgus as to a god. And 
behind this temple is the tomb of Eucosmus, the son of 
Lycurgus, near the altar of Lathria and Anaxandra, who 
were twins, (and the sons of Aristodemus who married 
them were also twins), and the daughters of Thersander 
the son of Agamedidas, the king of the Cleestouaeans, and 
the great grandson of Ctesippus the son of Hercules. And 
right opposite the temple are the tombs of Theopompus the 
son of Nicander, and Eurybiades, who fought against the 
Medes in the Lacedaemonian gallies at Artemisium and 
Salamis. And hard-by is what is called the hero-chapel • 
of Astrabacus. 

And the place called Limnseum is the temple of Orthian 
Artemis. The wooden statue of the goddess is they say 
the very one which Orestes and Iphigenia formerly stole 
from the Tauric Chersonese. And the Lacedaemonians say 
it was brought to their country when Orestes was king 
there. And their account seems to me more probable than 
the account of the Athenians. . For why should Iphigenia 
have left the statue at Brauron ? And when the Athenians 
were preparing to leave the place, would they not have put 
it on board ship ? And so great still is the fame of Tauric 
Artemis, that the Cappodocians who liVe near the Euxine 
claim that the statue was theirs, and the Lydians who 
have a temple of Anaitian Artemis make the same claii 
But it appears it was neglected by the Athenians and 
became a prey to the Medes : for it was carried froi 

' Reading the emendation of Sylburgius Kara to ^kvWcuov 



Brauron to Susa, and afterwards the Syrians of Laodicea 
received it from Seleucns and still have it. And the 
following facts plainly prove to me that the Orthian 
Artemis at Lacedaemon is the same wooden statae which 
was taken from the barbarians : that Astrabacns and 
Alopecus, (the sons of Irbus, the son of Amphisthenes, the 
son of Amphicles, the son of Agis), when they found the 
statae immediately went mad ; and also that the Limnatae 
among the Spartans, and the people of Cynosura, Mesoa, 
and Pitane, who were sacrificing to Artemis, had a quarrel 
and even went so far as to kill one another, and after 
many were killed at the altar a pestilence destroyed the 
rest. And after that an oracle bade them sprinkle human 
blood over the altar. And instead of a person drawn by 
lot being sacrificed, Lycurgus changed it to flogoring the 
young men there, and so the altar got sprinkled with 
human blood. And the priestess stands by during the 
opei-ation, holding the wooden statue, which is generally 
light from its smallness, but if the scourgers spare any 
young man at all in his flogging either on account of his 
beauty or rank, then this wooden statue in the priestess' 
hand becomes heavy and no longer easy to hold, and she 
makes complaint of the scourgers and says it is so heavy 
owing to them. So innate is it with this statue, in con- 
sequence of the sacrifices at the Tauric Chersonese, to 
delight in human blood. And they not only call the 
goddess Orthia, but also JBound-tcith-tcillmv-hcigs, because 
the statue was found in a willow bush, and the willows 
so tenaciously twined round it that they kept it in an 
upright posture. 


A XD not far from that of Orthian Artemis is the temple 
-^ *• of Ilithyia : this temple they say was built, and 
Ilithyia accounted a goddess, in obedience to the oracle at 
Delphi. And the Lacedaemonians have no citadel rising to 
a notable height, as the Cadmea at Thebes, or Larissa 
among the Argives : but as there are several hiUs in the 


city the highest of these is called the citadel. Here is 
erected a temple of Athene called Poliachus and Chalcice- 
cus. And this temple began to be built they say by 
Tyndareus : and after his death his sons wished to finish 
the building, and they had an opportunity in the spoils 
from Aphidne. But as they too died before the conclusion 
of the work, the Lacedsemonians many years afterwards 
completed the temple, and made a statue of Athene in brass. 
And the artificer was Gritiadas a native of Sparta, who also 
composed Doric poems and a hymn to the goddess. Many 
too of the Labours of Hercules are delineated in brass, and 
many of his successes on his own account, and several of 
the actions of Castor and Pollux, and their carrying ofE 
the daughters of Leucippus, and Hephaestus freeing his 
mother from her bonds. I have given an explanation of 
all these before, and the legends about them, in my account 
of Attica. There too are the Nymphs giving Perseus, as 
he is starting for Libya and Medusa, the invisible cap, 
and the sandals with which he could fly through the air. 
There too are representations of the birth of Athene, and 
of Amphitrite, and Poseidon, which are the largest and as 
it seems to me finest works of art. 

There is also another temple there of Athene the Worker. 
At the South Porch there is also a temple of Zeus called 
the Arranger, and the tomb of Tyndareus in front of it. 
And the West Porch has two Eagles and two Victories 
to correspond, the votive offering of Lysander, and a 
record of his two famous exploits, the one near Ephesus 
when he defeated Antiochus, the pilot of Alcibiades, and the 
Athenian gallies, and the other at ^gospotamoi where he 
crushed the Athenian navy. And at the left of Athene 
Chalcicecus they have built a temple of the Muses, because 
the Lacedaemonians do not go out to battle to the sound of 
the trumpet, but to the music of flutes and lyr-e and harp. 
And behind Athene Chalcicecus is the temple of Martial 
Aphrodite. Her wooden statues are as old as any among 
the Greeks. 

And on the right of Athene Chalcicecus is a statue of 
Supreme Zeus, the most ancient of all brass statues, for 
it is not carved in one piece, but forged piece by piece 
and deftly welded together, and studs keep it together 


from falling to pieces. The artificer was they say Clearchus 
a man of Rhegium, who some say was the pupil of Dipoenus 
and Scyllis, others say of Daedalus. And at what is called 
the Scenoma there is a figure of a woman, the Lacedas- 
monians say it is Euryleonis, who won the prize at Olympia 
with a pair of horses. 

And near the altar of Athene Chalcioecus are erected 
two figures of Pausanias the General at Platsea. His fate 
I shall not relate to people who know it, for what I have 
written before is quite sufficient. I shall merely therefore 
state what I heard from a man of Byzantium, that Pausanias 
was detected plotting, and was the only one of those that 
took sanctuary with Athene Chalcioecus that did not get 
indemnity, and that for no other reason than that he could 
not clear himself of the guilt of murder. For when he 
was at the Hellespont in command of the allied fleet, he got 
enamoured of a Byzantian maiden called Cleonice, and at 
nightfall a detachment of his men brought her to him. 
And Pausanias had fallen asleep, and when this maiden 
came into the room she knocked down inadvertently the 
light that was burning, and the noise woke him. And 
Pausanias, whose conscience smote him for having betrayed 
Greece, and who was therefore always in a state of nervous 
alarm and panic, was beside himself and stabbed the maiden 
with a scimetar. This guilt Pausanias could not clear 
himself from, though he endeavoured in every way to 
propitiate Zeus the Acquitter, and even went to Phigalia 
in Arcadia to the necromancers, but he paid to Cleonice 
and the deity the fit penalty. And the Lacedaemonians 
at the bidding of the oracle made brazen statues for the 
god Epidotes, and otherwise honoured him, because he it 
was who in the case of Pausanias turned aside the wrath 
of Zeus the god of Suppliants. 


IVTEAR the two figures of Pausanias is a statue of Youth- 
■»- ^ prolonging Aphrodite, made at the bidding of an 
oracle, and statues of Sleep and Death. People have 
reckoned them to be brothers according to Homer's lines 


in the Iliad.* And on the way to Alpium as it is called 
you come to the temple of Athene the Eye-preserver, 
erected they say by Lycurgus who had one of his eyes 
knocked out by Alcander, because he did not find Lycur- 
gus' legislation agreeable. And he took refuge at this 
place, and the Lacedfemonians prevented his losing his 
remaining eye, so he built a temple to Athene the Eye-pre- 
server. And as you go on froru thence you come to the 
temple of Ammon. The Lacedfemonians seem from time 
immemorial to have used his oracle in Libya most of all the 
Greeks. And it is said that, when Lysander was besieging 
Aphytis in Pallene, Ammon appeared to him by night, and 
told him it would be better for him and Lacedaemon to 
raise the siege. And accordingly he did so, and induced the 
Lacedemonians to honour the god even more than before. 
And the people of Aphytis honour Ammon as much as the 
Ammonians themselves in Libya. And the following is 
the tradition about Cnagian Artemis. Cnageus they say 
was a native of Sparta, and went on the expedition against 
Aphidna with Castor and Pollux, and was taken prisoner 
in the battle and sold into slavery in Crete, and was slave 
at the temple of Artemis in Crete, and in course of time 
ran off with the priestess who also took with her the image 
of the goddess. This is why they call her Cnagian Artemis. 
But I cannot help thinking this Cnageus must have gone 
to Crete in some other way, and not as the Lacedaemonians 
say, for I do not think a battle was fought at Aphidna, as 
Theseus was detained in Thesprotia, and the Athenians 
were not unanimous for him, but inclined rather to Menes- 
theus. Not but that, if a contest took place, one might 
readily believe that prisoners were taken by the conquerors, 
especially as it was a decisive victory, for Aphidna was 
captured. Let this suffice for the subject. 

On the road from Sparta to Amyclse you. come to the 
river Tiasa. Tiasa was they think the daughter of Eurotas, 
and near the river is a temple of the Graces Phaenna and 
Clete, whom Alcman has celebrated. And they think that 
Lacedasmon erected this temple to the Graces and gave 
them these names. The things worth seeing at Amy dee are 

1 Iliad, xiv. 231. 


the statue of ^netus on a pillar (he won all the prizes in 
the pentathlum, and died they sav directly after being 
crowned for his victory at Olympia,) and some brazen 
tripods, three ^ of which are older they say than the 
Messenian War. Under the first of these is a statue of 
Aphrodite, under the second one of Artemis, both the design 
and work of Gitiadas. And the third is by Gallon of -^gina, 
and under it is a statue of Proserpine the daughter of 
Demeter. And the Parian Aristander has represented a 
woman with a lyre to signify Sparta no doubt, and Poly- 
cletus the Argive has represented Aphrodite called the 
Aphrodite near Amyclaean Apollo. These 3 tripods are 
bigger than any of the rest, and were dedicated in conse- 
quence of the victory at -(Egos-Potamoi. And Bathycles 
the Magnesian, who made the throne of Amyclaean Apollo, 
also carved some of the Graces on the throne and a statue of 
Artemis Leucophryene. Who he learnt his art from, or 
in whose reign he made this throne I pass by, but I have 
seen it and will describe it. Befoi*e and behind it are two 
Graces and two Seasons, on the left is the Hydra and 
Typhos, and on the right the Tritons. But to narrate 
every detail of this work of art would tire my readers, to 
make therefore a short summary, since most are well 
known, Poseidon and Zeus are carrying ofE Taygetes, the 
daughter of Atlas, and her sister Alcyone. There also is 
Atlas delineated, and the combat between Hercules and 
Cycnus, and the fight of the Centaurs with Pholus. There 
too is the Minotaur represented by Bathycles (I know not 
why) as fettered and led alive by Theseus. And there is a 
dance of Pheeacians on the throne, and Demodocus is 
singing. There too is Perseus' victory overMedusa. And 
not to mention the contest of Hercules wdth the giant 
Thurius, and of Tyndareus with Eurytus, there is the rape 
of the daughters of Leucippus. And there is Hermes 
carrying to heaven Dionysus as a boy, and Athene taking 
Hercules to dwell among the gods. And there is Peleus 
handing over Achilles for his education to Chiron, who is 
said to have been his tutor. And there is Cephalus carried 
off by Aurora for his beauty. And there are the gods 

^ Reading rptig with Facius. 


bringing their gifts at the wedding of Harmony. There 
too is the single combat between Achilles and Memnon, and 
Hercules slaying Diomede, King of Thrace, and Nessus by 
the river Evenus, and Hermes bringing np the goddesses 
to Paris for the trial of beauty, and Adrastus and Tydeus 
stopping the fight between Amphiarus and Lycurgus the 
son of Pronax. And Hera is gazing at lo already changed 
into a heifer, and Athene is running away from the pursuit 
of Hephaestus. There too is Hercules fighting with the 
hydra, and bringing up Cerberus from Hades. There too 
are Anaxis and Mnasinous each of them on horseback, and 
Megapenthes, the son of Menelaus, and Nicostratus both on 
one horse. And there is Bellerophon killing the Chimeera 
in Lycia, and Hercules driving off the cattle of Geryon. 
And on each side of the upper portions of the throne are 
Castor and Pollux on horseback : under their horses are 
some Sphinxes and some wild beasts running above, on 
Castor's side a leopard, but near Pollux a lioness. And at 
the very top of the throne is a company of the Magnesians 
who assisted Bathycles in this work of art. And if you go 
under the throne to see its interior parts where the Tritons 
are, there is the boar of Calydon, and Hercules slaying the 
sons of Actor, and Calais and Zetes driving away the 
Harpies from Phineus, and Pirithous and Theseus carrying 
off Helen, and Hercules throttling the Nemean lion. And 
there are Apollo and Artemis transfixing Tityus. And 
there is the contest of Hercules with the Centaur Oreus, 
and of Theseus with the Minotaur, and the wrestling of 
Hercules with Achelous, and Hera bound by Hephsestus as 
the story goes, and the games established by Acastus in 
memory of his father, and what we read in the Odyssey 
about Menelaus and the Egyptian Proteus. Lastly there 
is Admetus yoking to his chariot a boar and a lion, and the 
Trojans making their offerings at the grave of Hector. 

BOOK in. — LAComA. 209 


AS to the seat for the god on this throne, it is not 
one continuous surface but has several partitions with 
intervals between them. The largest partition is in the 
middle, where there is a statue about 30 cubits high I con- 
jecture, for no one has taken its measure. And this is not 
by Bathjcles but an ancient and inartistic production, for 
except the face toes and hands it resembles a brazen pillar. 
There is a helmet on its head, and a lance and bow in its 
hands. And the base of the statue is like an altar, and 
they say Hyacinthns is buried there, and at the festival of 
Hyacinthus, before they sacrifice to Apollo, they make offer- 
ings to Hyacinthus on this altar through a brazen door which 
is on the left of the altar. And carved upon this altar are 
effigies of Biris and Amphitrite and Poseidon, and Zeus 
and Hermes talking together, and near them Dionysus and 
Semele, and near Semele Ino. On this altar too are effigies 
of Demeter and Proserpine and Pluto, the Destinies and 
the Seasons, Aphrodite and Athene and Artemis ; and they 
are carrying to heaven Hyacinthus and his sister Polybcea 
who they say died a virgin. Hyacinthus has a small beard, 
and Nicias the son of Xicomedes has represented him as 
very handsome, hinting at the love of Apollo for him. 
There is also a representation of Hercules being taken to 
heaven by Athene and the other gods ; as also effigies of 
the daughters of Thestius and the Muses and the Seasons. 
As to the Zephyr, and the story of Hyacinth having been 
accidentally slain by Apollo, and the legends about the 
flower Hyacinth, the traditions may possibly be baseless, 
but let them stand. 

Amyclae was destroyed by the Dorians, and is now only 
a village, which contains a temple and statue of Alexandra 
well worth seeing, (by Alexandra the people of Amyclae 
mean Cassandra the daughter of Priam). 

There is here also an e&gj of Clytasmnestra, and a statue 
of Agamemnon, and his supposed tomb. And Amy cl jean 
Apollo and Dionysus are the chief gods worshipped here, 
the latter they call very properly in my opinion Psilax 



(^Winged). Psila is the Dorian word for wings, and wine 
elevates men and lightens their judgment just as wings 
elevate birds. And such is all that is memorable about 
Amy else. 

Another road from Sparta leads to Therapne. And on 
the way is a wooden statue of Athene Alea. And before 
you cross the Eurotas a little above the bank stands the 
bemple of "Wealthy Zeus. And when you have crossed the 
Eurotas, you come to the temple of Cotylean -^sculapius 
built by Hercules, who called -i^sculapius Cotylean because 
in the first conflict with Hippocoon and his sons he received 
a wound on his cotyle or hip. And of all the temples built 
on this road, the most ancient is one of Ares, on the 
left of the road, and the statue of the god was they say 
brought by Castor and Pollux from Colchi. And Theritas 
gets its name they say from Thero, who was the nurse of 
Ares. And perhaps they got the name Theritas from the 
Colchians, for the Grreeks know nothing of a nurse of Ares 
called Thero. But I cannot but think that the name 
Theritas was given to Ares not on account of his nurse, 
but because in an engagement with the enemy one must be 
mild no longer, but be like the description of Achilles in 
Homer, " as a lion he knows savageness." ^ 

Therapne got its name from Therapne, the daughter of 
Lelex, and it has a temple of Menelaus, and they say that 
Menelaus and Helen were buried here. But the Rhodians 
have a different account to that of the Lacedaemonians, 
and say that Helen after the death of Menelaus, while 
Orestes was still on his travels, was driven away by Nico- 
stratus and Megapenthes and went to Rhodes, as she was a 
connection of Polyxo the wife of Tlepolemus, for Polyxo 
was of Argive descent, and being the wife of Tlepolemus 
fled with him to Rhodes, and there became Queen, being 
left with one fatherless child. This Polyxo they say desired 
to avenge on Helen the death of Tlepolemus, and when she 
got her in her power sent to her as she was bathing some 
attendants dressed like the Furies, and they laid hold of 
Helen and hung her on a tree, and for this reason the Rho- 
dians have a temple to Helen Hung on the Tree. And I will 

' Iliad, xxiv. 41. Pausanias derives from Biip or Qqpiov. 

BOOK in. — LACONIA. 211 

record the tradition of the people of Croton about Helen, 
which is the same as that of the people of Himera. There is 
in the Euxine sea, near the mouth of the Ister, an island 
sacred to Achilles called Leuce. It is 20 stades in extent, 
entirely thick forest and full of beasts domesticated and wild, 
and contains a temple and statne of Achilles. They say 
Leonymus of Croton was the first that ever sailed to it. For 
when there was a war between the people of Croton and 
the Locrians in Italy, and the Locrians invited in Ajax the 
son of Oileus to aid them because of their kinsmanship to 
the Opuntians, Leonymus the general of the Crotonians 
attacked that part of the enemy's army where he was told 
that Ajax was stationed, and got wounded in the breast, 
and, as he suffered very much from his wound, went to 
Delphi. And the Pythian Priestess sent him to the island 
Leuce, and told him that Ajax would appear there and heal 
his wound. And in process of time getting well he retmmed 
from Leuce. and said that he had seen Achilles, and Ajax 
the son of Oileus, and Ajax the son of Telamon, and that 
Patroclus .and Antilochus were in the company, and that 
Helen was married to Achilles and had told him to sail to 
Himera, and tell Stesichorus that the loss of his eyesight 
was a punishment to him from her. In consequence of 
this Stesichorus composed his palinode. 


AT Therapne too I saw the fountain Messeis. Some of 
the Lacedaemonians say that the fountain called in 
our day Polydeucea, and not this one at Therapne. was 
called by the ancients Messeis. But the fountain Poly- 
deucea, and the temple of Polydeuces, are on the right 
of the road to Therapne. And not far from Therapne 
is a temple of Phoebus, and in it a shrine of Castor and 
Polydeuces, and the youths sacrifice here to Enyalius. 
And at no great distance is a temple of Poseidon under 
the name of the Earth-holder. And as you go on thence 
on the road to Taygetns yon come to a place they call 


Alesise (i.e. Mill-toion), for they say that Myles the son of 
Lelex was the first that discovered the use of mills, and 
first ground here. At Alesise there is a hero-chapel to 
Lacedasmon the son of Taygete. And as you go on from 
thence and cross the river Phellias, on the road from 
Amyclae to the sea you come to Pharis, formerly a popu- 
lous town in Laconia, and leaving the river Phellias on the 
right is the way to Mount Taygetus. And there is in the 
plain a shrine of Messapian Zeus. He got this title they 
say from one of his priests. As you go thence towards 
Mount Taygetus there is a place called Brysese, where was 
formerly a town, and there is still a temple of Dionysus 
and his statue in the open air. But the statue in the temple 
only women may look upon : and women only conduct the 
ritual in connection with the sacrifices. The highest point 
of Mount Taygetus is Taletum above Bryseae. This they 
say is sacred to the Sun, and they sacrifice there to the 
Sun horses and other victims, as do also the Persians. 
And not far from Taletum is the forest called Evoras, which 
supports several wild beasts and especially wildgoats. In 
fact Mount Taygetus throughout affords excellent goat- 
hunting and boarhunting, and superfine deerhunting and 
bearhunting. And between Taletum and Evoras is a place 
they call Theras, where they say Leto came from the heights 
of Taygetus. And there is a temple to Demeter under 
the name Eleusinia. Here the LacedEsmonians say Her- 
cules was hidden by ^sculapius, while he was being cured 
of his wound. And there is in it a wooden statue of 
Orpheus, the work as they say of the Pelasgi. And I 
know that Orphic rites take place here also. Near the sea 
is a town called Helus, which Homer has mentioned in his 
catalogue of the Lacedaemonians, 

' Those who dwelt at Amyclae and Helus the city by the sea.' ^ 

It was founded by Helens the youngest son of Perseus, and 
the Dorians in after days reduced it by siege. Its inhabi- 
tants were the first slaves of the Lacedaemonian com- 
monalty, and were the first called Helots from the place of 
their birth. Afterwards Helot was the general name the 

1 Iliad, ii. 584. 

BOOK m. — LACONU. 213 

Dorians gave their slaves, even when thej were Messe- 
nians, just as all the Greeks are called Hellenes from Hellas 
in Thessaly. From Helus they bring on stated days the 
wooden statue of Proserpine, the daughter of Demeter, to 
Eleusinium. And 15 stades from Eleusinium is the place 
called Lapithasum from a native called Lapithus. It is on 
Mount Taygetus, and not far from it is Dereum, where is 
a statue of Derean Artemis in the open air, and near it a 
fountain which they call Anonus. And next to Dereum, 
about 20 stades further on is Harplea, which extends as 
far as the plain. 

On the road from Sparta to Arcadia there is a statue of 
Athene called Parea in the open air, and near it a temple of 
Achilles, which it is customary to keep shut. But those of 
the youths who intend to contend at Platanistas are wont 
to sacrifice there to Achilles before the contest. And the 
Spartans say this temple was built for them by Prax, who 
was the great grandson of Pergamus, the son of Neop- 
tolemus. And as you go on you come to the tomb called 
The Horse, for Tyndareus sacrificed a horse here and put 
an oath to all the suitors of Helen, making them stand by 
the horse's entrails. And the oath was to aid Helen, and 
whoever should be chosen for her husband, if they were 
wronged. And after putting this oath to them he buried 
the remains of the horse here. And at no great distance 
there are seven pillars set there after some ancient custom, 
I suppose, to repi'esent the seven planets. And on the 
road there is a grove of Camean Apollo called Stemmatius, 
and a temple of Mysian Artemis. And the statue of 
Modesty, about 30 stades' distance from Sparta, is the votive 
offering of Icarius, said to have been made on the following 
occasion. When Icarius gave Penelope in marriage to 
Odysseus, he endeavoured to persuade Odysseus to live at 
Lacedaemon, but failing in that he begged his daughter to 
remain with him, and when she set out for Ithaca followed 
the chariot, and besought her earnestly to return. And 
Odysseus for a time refused his consent to this, but at last 
gave Penelope permission either to accompany him of her 
own volition, or to go back to Lacedsemon with her father. 
And she they say made no answer, but, as she veiled her 
face at this proposal, Icarius perceived that she wished to 



go ofB with Odysseus, and let her go, and dedicated a statue 
of Modesty in the very place in the road where they say 
Penelope had got to when she veiled herself. 


AND 20 stades further you will come to the Eurotas 
which flows very near the road, and to the tomb of 
Ladas, who surpassed all his contemporaries in swiftness of 
foot. At Olympia he received the prize for the long race, 
but I think he was tired out after his victory, for he died 
on this spot and was buried above the public road. Another 
Ladas, who also was a victor at Olympia but not in the long 
race, was they say an Achaean from ^gium, according to 
the archives of Elis about the victors at Olympia. And if 
you go on you come to the village called Characoma, and 
next to it is Pellana, formerly a town, where they say 
Tyndareus lived, when he fled from Sparta from Hippo- 
coon and his sons. And the notable things I have myself 
seen there are the temple of -^Esculapius and the fountain 
Pellanis, into which they say a maiden fell when she was 
drawing water, and after she had disappeared her veil was 
found in another fountain called Lancea. And about 100 
stades from Pellana is a place called Belemina : best off for 
water of all Laconia, for not only does the river Eurotas 
flow through it, but it has also fountains in abundance. 

As you go down to the sea in the direction of Gythium, 
you come to the Lacedaemonian village called Croceae. The 
stonequarries here are not one continuous piece of rock, 
but stones are dug out of them like river stones, rather 
difficult to carve, but when they are carved admirably 
adapted to adorn the temples of the gods, and add very 
greatly to the beauty of fishponds and ornamental waters. 
And in front of the village are statues of the gods, as Zeus of 
Croceae in stone, and at the quarry Castor and Pollux in 
brass. And next to Croceae, as you turn to the right from 
the high road to Gythium, you will come to the small town 
called ^giae. They say Homer mentions it under the 
name Augeae. Here is a marsh which is called Poseidon's 

BOOK m. — LACONIA. 216 

marsh, and the god has a temple and statne near it. The 
natives are afi-aid however to catch the fish, for they say 
that whoever fishes there becomes a fish and ceases to be 
a man. 

Gythium is about 30 stades from -^giae, and is near the 
sea, and is inhabited by the Eleutherolacones, whom the 
Emperor Augustus liberated from the yoke of slavery im- 
posed on Them by the Laceda?monians of Sparta. All the 
Peloponnese except the Isthmus of Corinth is surrounded 
by water : and the maritime parts of Laconia furnish 
shell fish from which purple dye is obtained, next in ex- 
cellence to the Tyrian purple. And the Eleutherolacones 
have 18 cities, first Gythium as you descend from ^giae 
to the sea, and next Teuthrone, and Las, and Pyrrhichus, 
and near Tfenarum Caenepolis, and (Etylus, and Leuctra, 
and Thalamae, and Alagonia, and Gerenia : and opposite 
Gythium Asopus near the sea, and Acriae, and Boeae, and 
Zarax, and Epidaurus called Limera, and Brasiae, and 
Geronthne, and Marius. These are all that remain of what 
were once 2-4 cities of the Eleutherolacones. And the other 
six, which I shall also give an account of, are tributary to 
Sparta and not independent as those we have just spoken 
of. And the people of Gythium assign no mortal as their 
founder, but say that Hercules and ApoUo, when their con- 
test for the tripod was over, jointly built their town. In 
the marketplace they have statues of Apollo and Hercules, 
and near them Dionysus. And in a different part of the 
town is Camean Apollo, and a temple of Ammon, and a 
brazen statue of -^Esculapius ; his shrine has no roof to it, 
and there is a fountain of the god, and a temple sacred to 
Demeter, and a statue of Poseidon the Earth-holder. And 
the person that the people of Gythium call the old man, 
who they say lives in the sea, is I discovered Nereus, and 
this name Homer gave him in the Iliad in the speech of 
Thetis. ' Ye now enter Ocean's spacious bosom, to visit 
the old man of the sea and the homes of our sire.' ' And 
the gates here are called Castorides, and in the citadel there 
is a temple and statue of Athene. 

* Iliad, xviii. 140, 141. 



AND about 3 stades from Gythium is the White Stone, 
where they say Orestes sat to cure himself of his 
madness. In the Doric tongue the stone was called Zeus 
Cappotas. And opposite Gythium lies the island Cranae, 
where according to Homer Paris first carried off Helen. 
Facing this island on the mainland is the temple of Aphro- 
dite Migonitis, and the whole place is called Migonium. 
The temple they say was built by Paris. And Menelaus, 
returning home safe 8 years after the capture of Ilium, 
placed near the temple of Aphrodite Migonitis statues of - 
Thetis and Praxidice. There is a mountain too above 
Migonium sacred to Dionysus, which they call Larysium : 
and here at the commencement of spring they have a feast 
to Dionysus, alleging among other reasons for the festival 
that they found here a ripe cluster of grapes. 

On the left of Gythium about 30 stades' distance you 
will see on the mainland the walls of Trinasus, which 
seems to me to have been a fort and not a town. And I 
think it got its name from the three small islands which 
lie here near the mainland. And about 80 stades from 
Trinasus you come to the ruins of Helus, and 30 stades 
further to Acriee a city on the sea, where is a handsome 
temple of the Mother of the Gods, and her statue in stone. 
And the inhabitants of Acriee say that this is the oldest of 
all the temples of this goddess in the Peloponnese : though 
the Magnesians who live north of Sipylus have on a rock 
called Coddinus the most ancient statue of the Mother of 
the Gods ; and the Magnesians say it was made by Broteas 
the son of Tantalus. Acriee once produced a victor at 
Olympia in Nicocles, who carried off at two Olympiads five 
victories in the chariot race. His tomb is between the 
gymnasium and the walls near the harbour. It is about 
120 stades from Acriss to Geronthrae. Geronthree was 
inhabited before the HeracHdaB came to the Peloponnese, and 
the inhabitants were driven out by the Dorians of Lacedea- 
mon, who, when they had driven out the Achoeans from 


Geronthrae, put in colonists of their own. But Geronthrae 
now belongs to the Eleutherolacones. On the road from 
Acriae to Geronthrse there is a village called Palaea, and 
at Geronthrae there is a temple and grove of Ares, whose 
festival they celebrate annually, when women are forbid- 
den to enter the grove. And near the market place are 
fountains of drinkable water. And in the citadel there is 
a temple of Apollo, and the head of his image in ivory : all 
the rest of the image was destroyed by fire when the 
old temple was burnt. Another town belonging to the 
Eleutherolacones is Marius, 100 stades from Geronthrae. 
There is an old temple there common to all the gods, and 
round it a grove with fountains, there are also fountains 
in the temple of Artemis. Marius indeed has plenty of 
water if any place. And above Marius is a village called 
Glyptia in the interior of the country. And there is 
another village called SeHnus about 20 stades from 

So much for the interior of Laconia from Acriae. And 
the town Asopus on the sea is about 60 stades from Acriae. 
In it is a temple of the Roman Emperors, and inland from. 
Asopus about 12 stades is a temple of ^sculapius, they 
call the god Philolaus there. And the bones that are 
honoured in the gymnasium are exceedingly large, but not 
too big for a mortal. And there is a temple of Athene 
called Cyparissia in the citadel : and at the foot of the citadel 
there some ruins of a town called the town of the Paracy- 
parissian Achaeans. There is also in this district a temple 
of ^sculapius about 50 stades from Asopus, and they call 
the place in which this temple is Hyperteleatum. And 
there is a promontory jutting out into the sea about 200 
stades from Asopus, which they call Ass' jaw-hone. This 
promontory has a temple of Athene, without either statue 
or roof, said to have been built by Agamemnon. There is 
also a monument of Cinadus, who was the pilot of Mene- 
laus' ship. And next to this promontory is what is called 
the Bay of Boefe, and the city Ba?£e is at the head of the 
bay. It was built by Boeus, one of the sons of Hercules 
who is said to have peopled it from the three towns Etis, 
Aphrodisias, and Sida. Two of these ancient towns are 
reputed to have been built by ..^neas, when he was fleeing 


to Italy and driven into this bay by storms, his daughter 
Etias gave her name to Etis, and the third town was they 
say called after Sida the daughter of Danans. Those who 
were driven out of these towns enquired where they should 
dwell : and the oracle told them that Artemis would shew 
them where to dwell. On their starting their journey a 
hare sprung in view, this hare they made their guide : and 
as it hid in a myrtle tree they built their city on the site of 
the myrtle tree, and they still venerate the myrtle tree, and 
call Artemis their Saviour. There is also a temple of 
Apollo in the marketplace of Boese, and in another part of 
the city temples of ^sculapius and Serapis and Isis. The 
ruins of the three towns are not more than 7 stades from 
Boeae, and on the road you see a stone statue of Hermes 
on the left, and among the ruins can trace temples of 
-^sculapius and Hygiea. 


AND Cythera lies opposite Bceae, and to the promontory 
of Platanistus — the point where the island is nearest 
to the mainland — from the promontory on the mainland 
called Ass' jawbone is about 4 stades' sail. And at Cythera 
there is a station for ships called Scandea, and Scandea is 
about 10 stades from the town of Cythera as you go along 
the cliffs. And the temple of Celestial Aphrodite is the 
most holy and most ancient of all the, temples the Greeks 
have of Aphrodite, and the statue is an old wooden one, 
the goddess is in complete armour. 

As you sail from Boeae to the promontory of Malea there 
is a harbour called Nymphasum, and a statue of Poseidon 
erect, and a cave very near the sea, and in it a spring of 
fresh water, and many people live in the neighbourhood. 
And as you double the promontory of Malea, and sail 
about 100 stades, you come to a place called Epidelium on 
the borders of Boe«, where is a temple of Apollo. It is 
called Epidelium because the wooden statue of Apollo 
there now was formerly at Delos. For Delos being for- 

BOOK ni. — LACOJflA. 219 

merly an emporiam for the Greeks, and being thought 
likely to give security to commerce because of the god, 
Menophanes a General of Mithridates, either of his own 
insolence or obeying the orders of Mithridates, (for to a 
man looking only to lucre divine things come after gain), 
seeinsr that Delos had no fortifications and that the in- 
habitants -were unarmed, sailed to it and slew all the 
resident aliens, and the Delians also, and robbed the mer- 
chants of much money, and carried off all the votive 
offerings, and also enslaved the women and children, 
and razed Delos to the ground. And during the sack and 
plunder one of the barbarians in very wantonness threw 
this wooden statue into the sea, and the waves landed it 
here at the place called Epidelium in the district of Bceae. 
But the fierce wrath of the god failed not to pursue Meno- 
phanes and Mithridates himself, for Menophanes, when he 
put to sea again after laying Delos waste, was lain in wait 
for by the merchants who had escaped, and his vessel sunk, 
and IMithridates subsequently was compelled by the god to 
be his own executioner when his power was entirely de- 
stroyed, and he driven hither and thither by the Romans. 
And some say that he found a violent death as a favour at 
the hands of one of his mercenaries. Such was the end of 
these men for their impiety. 

And adjacent to the district of Boeie is Epidaurus Limera, 
about 200 stades from Epidelium. And they say that it 
was colonized and inhabited not by the Lacedaemonians 
bit by some Epidaurians that lived in Argolis, who, sailing 
to Cos to see ^sculapius on public business put in at 
Laconia here, and according to visions they had continued 
here. And they say that the dragon which they had 
brought with them from Epidaurus escaped from the ship 
and dived into a hole not far from the sea, and according 
to their visions and the wonderful behaviour of their dragon 
they determined to dwell there. And at the point where 
the dragon dived into a hole they erected altars to ^scu- 
lapius, and some olive trees grow in the vicinity. About 
two stades further there is on the right hand some water 
called the water of Ino, in size only a small lake, but it 
goes very deep into the ground. Into this water on tho 
festival of Ino they throw barley cakes. If the water 


absorbs them it is thought a lucky sign for the person who 
throws them in, but if they float on the surface it is judged 
3> bad sign. The craters at -^Sltna have the same prophetic 
power. For they throw into them gold and silver vessels, 
and offerings of all kinds. And if the fire absorbs them 
they rejoice at it as a good sign, but if it rejects them they 
regard it as a sure sign of misfortune for the person who 
has thrown them in. And on the road from Boeae to Epi- 
daurus Limera there is a temple of Artemis called by the 
Epidaurians Limnas. The town is at no great distance 
from the sea, and is built on an eminence : and the sights 
worth seeing here are the temple of Aphrodite, and a statue 
of ^sculapius in stone erect, and a temple of Athene in 
the citadel, and in front of the harbour a temple of Zeus 
Soter. And into the sea near the town juts out the pro- 
montory Minoa. And the bay is very similar to all the 
others in Laconia made by the encroaches of the sea. And 
the seashore has pebbles beautiful in shape and of all kinds 
of colours. 


ABOUT 100 stades from Epidaurus Limera is Zarax, in 
other respects convenient as a harbour, but especially 
ravaged of all the towns of the Eleutherolacones, for 
Cleonymus, the son of Cleomenes, the son of Agesipolis, 
razed to the ground this alone of the Laconian towns. But 
I have elsewhere spoken of Cleonymus. And at Zarax 
there is nothing remarkable but a temple of Apollo at the 
end of the harbour, and a statue of the god with a lyre. 

And as you go along the coast from Zarax about 6 stades, 
and then turn and strike into the interior of the country 
for about 10 stades, you come to the ruins of Cyphanta, 
where is a temple of ^sculapius called Stethaaum, and the 
fitatue of the god is of stone. And there is a spring of 
cold water bubbling out from the rock. They say Atalanta 
was parched with thirst hunting here, and struck the 
rock with her lance and the water gushed forth. And 
Hrasiae near the sea is the last place which belongs to the 


Eleutherolacones here, and it is about 200 stades" sail 
from Crphanta. And the natives here have traditions 
different to all the other Greeks, for they say that Semele 
bare a son to Zeus, and that she and her son Dionysus were 
spirited away by Cadmus and put into a chest, and this 
chest -was they say carrie d by t he waves to Brasiae, and 1 
they say they buried"laagnIHcenlIy'"Semele who was no | 
longer alive, and reared Dionysus. And in consequence i 
of this the name of their city, which had been hitherto I 
called Oreatje was changed to Brasice, because of this land- ' 
ing from the chest. To this day in fact most people speak 
of things cast ashore by the waves as trashed ^ ashore. The \ 
people of Brasise say further that Ino came to their land on '■■ 
her travels, and when she came there wished to be the nurse 
of Dionysus. And they show the cave where she reared 
Dionysus, and they call the plain Dionysus' garden. And 
there are temples of ^sculapius and Achilles there, and 
they have an annual feast to Achilles. And there is a 
small promontory at Brasiae, which slopes gently to the sea, 
and there are some brazen statues on it not more than a 
foot high with hats on their heads, I know not whether they 
are meant for Castor and Pollux or the Corybantes, how- 
ever there are three figures, and there is also a statue of 
Athene. And on the right of Gythium is Las, ten stades 
from the sea, and forty from Gythium. And the town is 
now built on the ground between the three mountains 
called respectively Ilium and Asia and Cnacadium, but it 
was originally on the crest of Asia : and there are still ruins 
of the old town, and before the walls a statue of Hercules, 
and a trophy over the Macedonians, who were a portion of 
Philip's army when he invaded Laconia, but wandered 
from the rest of the army, and ravaged the maritime parts 
of the country. And there is among the ruins a temple of 
Athene under the title of Asia, erected they say by Castor 
and Pollux on their safe return from Colchi, where they 
had seen a temple of Athene Asia. I know that they took 
part in the expedition with Jason, and that the Colchians 
honour Athene Asia I have heard from the people of Las. 
And there is a fountain near the new town called from the 

' We coin a word to keep the Paronomasia. 


colour of its water Galaco {milky), and near the fountain 
is a gymnasium, and an ancient statue of Hermes. And 
on Mount Ilium there is a temple of Dionysus, and on the 
top of the hill one of -^sculapius, and on Cnacadium Car- 
nean Apollo. And if you go forward about 30 stades from 
Carnean Apollo there are at a place called Hypsi, on the 
borders of Sparta, temples of ^sculapius and of Daphnean 
Artemis. And on a promontory near the sea is the temple 
of Artemis Dictynna, whose feast they keep annually. Arid 
on the left of this promontory the river Smenus discharges 
itself into the sea. The water is fresh to drink, and rises 
on Mount Taygetus, and is not more than five stades 
distant from Hypsi. And in the place called Ara'inum is 
the tomb of Las, and over his tomb a statue. This Las 
they say was the founder of the town, and was killed by 
Achilles, who they say came to their town to ask Helen in 
marriage- of Tyndareus. But to speak truth it was Patro- 
clus that killed Las : for it was he that wooed Helen. 
For that Achilles is not represented as one of Helen's 
suitors in the Catalogue of Women, would indeed be no 
proof that he did not ask for Helen's hand : but Homer 
has stated very early in the Iliad ^ that Achilles went to 
Troy to gratify the sons of Atreus, and not bound by any 
oath to Tyndareus, and has represented Antilochus in the 
Games saying that he was younger than Odysseus,'^ and has 
described Odysseus as discoursing about what he had seen 
in Hades and other things, and how he wished to see 
Theseus and Pirithous, who were older men than himself, 
and we know that Theseus ran away with Helen. So it is 
hardly permissible at all to think that Achilles could have 
been a suitor of Helen. 

1 Iliad, i. 158-160. 

^ Is this a slip of Pausanias for JHenelaus? See Iliad, xxiii. 587, 



NOT far from the tomb of Las the river called Scyras 
falls into the sea ; it had no name for a long time 
and was called Scvras because Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, 
put in there with his fleet, when he sailed from Seyms to 
marry Hermione. And when you have crossed the river 
there is an ancient temple at some distance from an altar 
of Zeus. And at forty stades' distance from the river is 
Pyrrhichus in the heart of the country. Some say the 
town was so called from Pyrrhus the son of Achilles, others 
say Pyrrhichus was the god of the Curetes. There are 
some even that say Silenus came from Malea and dwelt 
here. That Silenus was brought up at Malea is plain from 
these lines of Pindar,' 

' The mighty, the dance-Ioring Silenus, 
Reared by the Malea-bom hosband of Nais.' 

That Pyrrhichus was his name has not been told us by 
Pindar, but is a tradition of those that live at Malea. And 
there is at Pyrrhichus a conduit in the marketplace, which 
they think they owe to Silenus : and if the conduit were to 
fail them they would be short of water. And the temples 
at Pyrrhicus are two, one of Artemis the Putter-of-an-end- 
to-War, because here the Amazons were stopped from any 
further warfare, and one of Apollo Amazonius. Both have 
wooden statues, and tradition says they were votive offer- 
ings of the women that came from Thermodon. 

As you go towards the sea from Pyrrhichus you come 
to Teuthrone, vriiich they say was built by Teuthras an 
Athenian. And of all the gods they pay most honour 
to Issorian Artemis, and they have a fountain called Naia. 
And a hundred and fifty stades from Teuthrone is the 
promontory of Taenarum jutting out into the sea, and the 
harbours Achilleus and Psamathus. And on the pro- 
montory there is a temple like a cave, and before it a statue 
of Poseidon. And some of the Greeks have represented 

> Only found as a fragment now. 


that it was here that Hercules brought up Cerberus from 
the lower world, though there is no underground road 
leading up to the cave, nor could one easily believe that 
the gods have any underground dwelling, where departed 
souls congregate. But Hecataeus the Milesian has a pro- 
bable legend, that a dreadful serpent called Cerberus was 
reared at TEenarum, and that whoever was bitten by it 
was sure to die, so venomous was its bite, and this serpent 
was dragged by Hercules to Eurystheus. Homer, who first 
spoke of the dog being dragged from Hades by Hercules, 
gave him no name, nor complete description as he did of 
the Chimaera.^ But others afterwards called the dog Cer- 
berus, and said he was like a dog in all respects except that 
he had 3 heads, though Homer said no more that he was 
the domestic animal called the dog than if he had called a 
real serpent the dog of Hades. There are several works of 
art at Tgenarum, and among others the harper Arion in 
brass riding on the dolphin's back. As to Arion and the 
dolphin Herodotus * has given the tradition as he heard it 
in his history about Lydia. I have myself seen at Poro- 
selene a dolphin so full of gratitude to a boy, by whom he 
had been healed of wounds received from some fishermen, 
that he was obedient to his call, and carried him on his 
back over the sea whenever he wished. There is also a 
fountain at Tsenarum, which now presents nothing marvel- 
lous, but in former times they say gave to those who looked 
into it the sight of harbours and ships. This peculiarity 
of the water was stopt for all time by a woman's washing 
her dirty linen in it. 

About 40 stades' sail from the promontory of Tasnarum 
is a place called Csenepolis, which was also formerly called 
Taenarum. And in it is a chapel of Demq^er, and a temple 
of Aphrodite near the sea, and a stone statue of the god- 
dess erect. And 30 stades thence is Thyrides the top- 
most peak of Taenarum, and the ruins of the town of Hip- 
pola, and among them the temple of Athene of Hippola, 
and at a little distance the town and harbour of Messa. It 
is about 150 stades from this harbour to CEtylus. And 

1 In Odyssey, xi. 623, he is simply called Kvva, in Iliad, viii. 368, 
Kvva (TTvytpov 'AtSao. And kv(ov has various senses. 
=2 Herodotus, i. 23, 24. 


the hero from whom (Etylas got its name was originally 
from Argos, being the son of Amphianax, the son of Anti- 
machus. The most notable things to see in CEtylus are 
the temple of Serapis, and a wooden statue in the market- 
place of Caraean Apollo. 


FROM CEtylus to Thalamae the distance by road is 
about 80 stades, and by the roadside is a temple and 
oracle of Ino. They get their oracular responses asleep, 
for whatever they want to know the goddess shews them in 
dreams. And there are two brazen statues in the open air 
part of the temple, one of Pasiphae, and one of the Sun. 
What tbe statue in the temple is made of is not easy to see 
from the quantity of the garlands, but they say that it too 
is of brass. And fresh water flows from a sacred fount, 
called the water of the Moon. Pasiphae indeed is not the 
indigenous goddess of the people of Thalamae. 

And about twenty stades from Thalamse is a place called 
Pephnos, by the sea. There is a little island in front of it 
not greater than a big rock, which is also called Pephnos, 
and the people of Thalamas say that it was the birthplace 
of Castor and Pollux. Alcman also gives us the same 
account I know in one of his poems. But they do not say 
that they were brought up at Pephnos, for Hermes took 
them to Pellana. And in this island there are brazen 
statues of Castor and Pollux about a foot high in the open 
air. These the sea cannot move from their position, 
though in winter time it dashes violently over the rock. 
This is indeed wonderful, and the ants there are whiter in 
colour than ants generally. The Messenians say that the 
island originally belonged to them, so that they claim 
Castor and Pollux as theirs rather than as deities of the 

About twenty stades from Pephnos is Leuctra. Why it 
was so called I do not know : but if it was from Leucippus 
the son of Perieres, as the Messenians say, this wiU be whv 
they honour ^Esculapius hove most of all the gods, as 


the son of Arsinoe the daughter of Leucippus. And there is 
a statue of ^sculapius in stone, and one of Ino in another 
part of the town. There is also a temple and statue of 
Cassandra the daughter of Priam, who is called Alexandra 
by the people of Leuctra : and there are some wooden 
statues of Carnean Apollo, who is worshipped in the same 
way as by the Lacedemonians at Sparta. And in the 
citadel there is a temple and statue of Athene. And there 
is a temple and grove of Eros, and in winter-time water 
flows through the grove : but the leaves that fall from 
the trees in autumn could never be carried away by the 
water even if it were very plentiful. But what I know hap- 
pened in my time at a part of Leuctra near the sea, I will 
now relate. The wind fanned a fire in the wood so that it 
burnt down most of the trees : and when the spot became 
bare, there was a statue of Ithomatan Zeus discovered 
which had been erected there. The Messenians say that 
this is a proof that Leuctra was originally part of Mes- 
senia. But Ithomatan Zeus might have received honours 
from the Lacedaemonians as well, if they originally lived at 

And Cardamyle, which Homer '^ has mentioned in the 
promises of gifts made by Agamemnon, is subject to 
Sparta, as the Emperor Augustus detached it from Mes- 
senia. It is eight stades from the sea, and sixty from 
Leuctra. And not far from the seashore is a grove sacred 
to the daughters of Nereus, for the story goes that they 
climbed up to this place from the sea to see Pyrrhus the 
son of Achilles, when he went off to Sparta to marry Her- 
mione. In this small town there is a temple of Athene and 
Carnean Apollo, whom they worship according to the 
Dorian fashion. 

And the city called by Horner^ Enope, the inhabitants 
of which are Messenians though they join the Council of 
the Eleutherolacones, is called in our time Grerenia. Some 
say Nestor was brought up in this city, others that he fled 
here when Pylos was taken by Hercules. Gerenia contains 
the tomb and temple of Machaon the sou of -^Esculapius : 
from whom men may have possibly learnt the healing of 

1 Iliad, ix, 2P2. 

BOOK ni. — ^LACOHIA. 227 

diseases. The sacred place they call Rhodon, and the 
statue of Machaon is erect in brass. And on its head 
is a garland, which the Messenians call ciphos ^ in their 
country's tongue. The writer of the epic poem called 
the Little Iliad says that Machaon was killed by Eury- 
pylusthe son of Telephus. That is why (as I myself know) 
in the rites in the temple of wiEscnlapius at Pergamum, 
they begin with the Hymns of Telephus, but make no re- 
ference in their singing to Eurypulus, nor will they name 
him at all in the temple, because they know he was the 
murderer of Machaon. And the tradition is that Nestor 
recovered the bones of Machaon. And Podalirius, when 
the Greeks were returning after the sack of Ilium, was 
carried they say out of his way to Syrnum a place in the 
Continent of Caria, and getting there safe built a town 

In the Gerenian district is the mountain Calathiam, and 
on it is a temple of Cl^ea and a grotto near the temple, with 
a narrow entrance : within there are several objects worth 
seeing. And from Gerenia to Alagonia in the interior is 
about 30 stades, but that town I have already mentioned 
amongst the Eleutherolacones. And the sights best worth 
seeing there are the temples of Dionysus and Artemis. 
* Our coif. 



THE border of Messenia towards Laconia, as fixed by 
Augustus, is at Gerenia, and in our time is called the 
Choerian dell. This country, originally without inhabi- 
tants, is described to have been inhabited by the first colo- 
nists in the following manner. After the death of Lelex, 
who reigned in what is now called Laconia, but was then 
called Lelegia after him, Myles who was the elder of his sons 
succeeded him, and Polycaon the younger was only a private 
person till he married the Argive Messene, the daughter of 
Triopas, the son of Phorbas. But Messene, being full of 
pride owing to her father, who was foremost of all the 
Greeks in merit and power, did not think it tolerable that 
her husband should be a private person. So they gathered 
together an army from Argos and Lacedeemon and invaded 
this country, and the whole district was called Messene 
from her. And several other cities were built, as well as 
the place where the royal head-quarters were established, 
viz. Andania. Before the battle which the Thebans fought 
with the Lacedaemonians at Leuctra, and the building of 
Messene in our day close to Ithome, I know of no city that 
was previously called Messene. My inference is very much 
confirmed by Homer. For in the catalogue of those who 
went to Ilium, when enumerating Pylos and Arene and 
other cities, he mentions no Messene. And in the Odyssey 
he shews that by this time the Messenians were a race 
and not a city, 

' For the Messenians took cattle from Ithaca,' ' 
and clearer still in speaking of the bow of Iphitus, 
^ Odyssey, xxi. 18. 



' They two in Messene met one another, 
In the honse of Ortilochus.'^ 

By the house of Ortilochus in Messene he meant the town 
of PherjE, as he has shewn in the visi1» of Pisistratus to 

' They went to Pherse to the house of Diocles, 
The son of Ortilochus.'* 

However the first rulers of this country were Polycaon 
(the son of Lelex) and his wife Messene. Gaucou, the 
son of Celsenus, the son of Phlyus, introduced here from 
Eleusis the mysteries of the Great Goddesses- Phlyus was 
according to the Athenian tradition the son of Mother 
Earth. And this tradition of theirs is confirmed by the 
Hymn of Musseus made for the LycomidaB in honour of 
Demeter. And the rites of the Great Goddesses were held 
in greater honour many years afterwards, owing to Lycus 
the son of Pandion, than in Caucon's days. And they still 
call the place where he purged the initiated the oak coppice 
of Lycus. That there is an oak-coppice in this land called 
Lycus' is also borne out by Rhianus the Cretan, 

' By rocky Elaeum and beyond the oak-coppice of Lyctis.* 

And that this Lycus was the son of Pandion is plain by the 
inscription on the statue of Methapus. This Methapus 
reformed some of the rites. He was an Athenian by 
race, an organizer of all sorts of mystic rites. He it 
was who established also among the Thebans the rites 
of the Cabiri. And he erected near the enclosure of 
the Lycomida3 a statue with an inscription which con- 
firms my account. " I have purified the home and 
paths of Hermes and the firstborn daughter of Demeter, 
where they say Messene established games to the Great 
Goddesses, owing to the son of Caucon, the illustrious 
descendant of Phlyus. But I wonder that Lycus the son 
of Pandion should establish the sacred rites of Atthis in 
venerable Andania." This inscription shews that Caucon 
who came to Messene was the descendant of Phlyus, and 
confirms all the other facts about Lycus, and that the 

^ Odyssey, xxi. 15, 16. * Ibid. iii. 488, 489. 


mysteries in aBcient times were celebrated at Andania. 
And it seems also common sense that Messene would not 
establish the mysteries in any other place than where she 
and Polycaon lived. 


AND being very anxious to know accurately who the 
sons of Polycaon were by Messene, I perused the poem 
called the Great Eceoe and the Naupactian poems, and also 
all the genealogical information of Cinsethon and Asius. 
And yet I did not discover anything in them except 
that the Great Eoece say that Polycaon the son of Butes 
married Eusechme, the daughter of Hyllus the son of 
Hercules, but they make no mention of either Messene 
or her husband. But in after time, when none of the de- 
scendants of Polycaon survived, they continued five gene- 
rations and no more, they introduced as King Perieres the 
son of ^olus. To his court came as the Messenians say 
Melaneus, a skilful archer and for that reason thought to 
be the son of Apollo, and Perieres assigned to him Cama- 
sium to dwell in, which was formerly called CBchalia from 
the wife of Melaneus. But the Thessalians and Eubceans — for 
there are almost always disputed accounts of most Grecian 
events — give different accounts. The former say that Eury- 
tium a place deserted in our days was a city in old times and 
called CEchalia : but Creophylus in his Heraclea has written 
what corresponds with the account of the Euboeans. And 
Hecat^us the Milesian writes that CEchalia is in Scium a 
part of Eretria. But the Messenians seem to me to give 
the most probable account, especially about the bones of 
Eurytus, which I shall touch upon later. And Perieres 
had by Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus Aphareus and 
Leucippus who, on his death, succeeded their father as 
kings of the Messenians, but Aphareus had most power. 
During his reign he built the city Arene which got its 
name from the daughter of CEbalus, his wife and uterine 
sister. For Gorgophone was married to CEbalus, as I have 
already mentioned, in my account of Argolis, and also in 


my acconntof Laconia. Aphareus then built the city Arene 
in Messenia, and received into his honse his cousin J^eleus, 
the son of Cretheus, the son of ^^olus (who was sumamed 
Poseidon), when he fled from Pelias at lolcus, and gave 
him the maritime parts of the land, among which were 
several other cities besides Pylos, where Neleus dwelt, and 
made it his seat of government. And Lycus the son of Pan- 
dion came also to Arene, when he also fled from Athens 
from his brother ^geus. And he taught the mysteries of 
the Great Goddesses to Aphareus and his sons and his wife 
Arene. And he introduced them into Andania, for Caucon 
there initiated Messene. And the elder and more manly of 
Aphareus' children was Idas, and the younger was Lyn- 
ceus, of whom Pindar said, believe it who will, that he had 
such keen eyesight that he could see through the trunk of 
a tree. We do not know of Lynceus having had a son, 
but Ides had by Marpessa a daughter Cleopatra, who 
married Meleager. And the writer of the Cyprian Poems 
says that the wife of Protesilaus, (who when the Greeks 
got to the Troad was the first who ventured to land), was 
by name Polydora, and he also says that she was the 
daughter of Meleager the son of CEneus. If this be correct 
then all these three women, beginning with Marpessa, com- 
mitted suicide after the death of their husbands. 


"D UT when between the sons of Aphareus and Castor and 
-L' Pollux (their uncles) a quarrel arose about cattle, and 
Lynceus was slain by Pollux, while Idas died smitten -with 
lightning, the house of Aphareus was entirely deprived of 
male offspring, and upon Nestor the son of Neleus devolved 
the kingdom of the Messenians, over all whom Idas 
reigned over and others besides, except those who followed 
the sons of ^sculapius. For they say that the sons of 
w^sculapius that went on the expedition to Ilium were 
Messenians : for ^sculapius was the son of Arsinoe the 
daughter of Leucippus, and not the son of Coronis. And 
they call a deserted place in Messenia Tricca, it is men- 


tioned by Homer in the passage where Nestor is consoling 
Machaon, who was wounded with an arrow. He would not 
have exhibited such kindness except to a neighbour and 
king of the same tribe. They confirm also greatly this 
account about the children of ^sculapius by showing 
at Gerenia the monument of Machaon, and at Pharse the 
temple of the sons of Machaon. 

And after the end of the war against Ilium, and the 
death of Nestor after his return home, the expedition of 
the Dorians and return of the Heraclidae two generations 
afterwards drove out the descendants of Neleus from 
Messenia. And this was as it were the climax of the doings 
of Temenus which I have already described. But I will 
narrate this much more. When the Dorians assigned 
Argos to Temenus, Cresphontes asked of them Messenia, 
on the ground that he was older than Aristodemus, 
who had just died. But Theras the son of Autesion 
vehemently opposed Cresphontes ; he was of Theban 
ancestry and fifth descendant of Polynices the son of 
CEdipus, and at this time Gruardian of Aristodemus' 
sons, as he was their uncle on the mother's side, for Aris- 
todemus had married the daughter of Autesion, whose 
name was Argia. But Cresphontes, for he was determined 
to have Messenia, begged of Temenus to decide the 
question by lots. And Temenus put into a water-pot 
which had water in it the lots of Cresphontes and the 
eons of Aristodemus separately, so that he who's lot 
came up first' should have Messenia. Temenus prepared 
both the lots, the lot of the sons of Aristodemus he made 
of clay dried in the sun, and Cresphontes' lot of clay that 
had been baked in the furnace : and the lot of the sons of 
Aristodemus melted, and stuck to the bottom of the water- 
pot, so that Cresphontes (for his lot came out) got posses- 
sion in this way of Messenia. And the old Messenians 
were not turned out by the Dorians, but agreed to Cres- 
phontes being their king, and to the partition of the land 
among the Dorians. And they were brought over to 
this compliance by suspicion of their former kings, be- 
cause they were Minyee who had originally sprung from 
lolcus. And the wife of Cresphontes was Merope the 
daughtcj- of Cypselus (who was at that time king of the 


Arcadians), bj whom he had several children and the name 
of the youngest was ^pytns. And his palace, where he 
himself and his sons meant to live, he built at Stenyclerus : 
for in ancient times Perieres and the other kings lived at 
Andania, and after Aphareus had built Arene he and his 
sons lived there, and in the reign of Nestor and his descen- 
dants the Court lived at Pylos, but Cresphontes changed 
the roval residence to Stenyclerus. And, as he chiefly 
ingratiated himself with the people, the wealthy classes 
rose up in insurrection against him and killed him and 
all his sons except ^pytus, who being quite a boy was 
brought up by Cypselus, and alone survived of all the 
house, and when he grew to man's estate the Arcadians 
restored him to Messene. And the other kings of the 
Dorians, the sons of Aristodemus, and Isthmius the son of 
Temenus, joined in bringing him back. And when -^pytus 
became king he punished his father's murderers, and all 
those who had instigated the crime : and bringing over to 
his side by his attentions those who were in high position 
among the Messenians, and the populace by gifts, he arrived 
at such a pitch of honour that his descendants were called 
.ZEpytidse instead of Heraclida?. 

And Glaucus the son of ^pytus, who succeeded his 
father, in aU other respects imitated his father bcth in 
public and private, but far exceeded him in piety. For 
when the sacred enclosure of Zeus on the summit of 
Ithome did not receive honoui's among the Dorians, through 
the neglect of Polycaon and Messene, Glaucus restored 
his worship : and was the first to sacrifice to Machaon the 
son of ^sculapius at Gerenia, and awarded such gifts to 
Messene the daughter of Triopas as are usually bestowed 
on heroes. And Isthmius Glaucus' son also built a temple 
to Gorgasus and Nicomachus at Pharse. And the son of 
Isthmius was Dotadas, who, though Messenia had several 
other havens, constructed one at Mothone. And Sybotas 
the son of Dotadas decreed that annually the king should 
sacrifice by the river Pamisus, and offer victims to Eury- 
tus the son of Melaneus in CEchalia, before the rites of the 
Great Goddesses that are still celebrated in Andania. 



AND in the reign of Phintas, the son of Sybotas, the 
Messenians first sent to Apollo at Delos sacrifices and 
a choir of men. And their processional Hymn to the god 
was composed by Eumelus, and these are considered the only 
genuine lines of Eumelus. It was during the reign of this 
Phintas that a disagreement for the first time came about 
between the Lacedaemonians and the Messenians. The 
cause is doubtful, but is traditionally as follows. On the 
borders of Messenia is a temple of Artemis Limnas, in 
which the Messenians and Lacedaemonians were the only 
Dorians that had a, share. The Lacedaemonians say that 
some maidens of theirs who were present at the feast 
were violated by some Messenians, and that their king 
Teleclus, (the son of Archelaus, the son of Agesilaus, the 
son of Doryssus, the son of Labotas, the son of Echestratus, 
the son of Agis,) was slain in endeavouring to prevent this 
outrage. They also say that the maidens who were vio- 
lated put themselves to death from shame. But the Mes- 
senian account is that Teleclus plotted against their persons 
of quality that came to the temple, on account of the excel- 
lence of the Messenian soil, and picked out some beardless 
Spartans, and, dressing them in female attire and ornaments 
like maidens, introduced them armed with daggers among 
some of the Messenians who were resting : but the other 
Messenians came up to the rescue, and killed the beard- 
less young men and Teleclus himself. And the Lacedae- 
monians — for their king had not contrived all this with- 
out the common consent — knowing that they had begun 
the wrong, did not demand vengeance for the murder of 
Teleclus. These are the different accounts the two nations 
give, let everyone accept the view he prefers. 

And a generation afterwards, when Alcamenes the son of 
Teleclus was king at Lacedaemon, and the king of the other 
family was Theopompus, the son of Nicander, the son of 
Charillus, the son of Polydectes, the son of Eunomus, the 
son of Prytanis, the son of Eurypon, and Antiochus and 
Androcles the sons of Phintas were kings of the Messenians, 


strife arose between the Lacedaemonians and Messenians, and 
the Lacedaemonians began hostilities, availing themselves, as 
they were full of animosity and very warlike, of an adequate 
and even specious pretext. But had their disposition been 
more peaceable it would have been settled by arbitration. 
This is what happened. Polychares a Messenian in other 
respects not obscure was a victor at Olympia in the games, 
when the people of Elis were celebrating their 4th Olympiad 
and competed only in the race in which Polychares was victor. 
This man had much cattle and, because he had not sufficient 
land to pasture them upon, he handed them over to Euaeph- 
nus a Spartan to feed on his land, on condition that he 
should have a share in the produce of the cattle. Xow 
Euaephnus was a person who preferred unrighteous gains 
to acting with integrity, and was generally speaking a wheed- 
ling fellow, so he sold the oxen of Polychares to merchants 
who sailed to Laconia, and went himself to Polychares and 
reported to him that some pirates had landed on the spot, 
and violently robbed him both of cattle and herdsmen. 
And while he was deceiving Polychares one of the herdsmen 
fled from the merchants, and coming back to Polychares 
found Euaephnus with him, and accused him to his master. 
And being detected and having no defence, he earnestly 
begged for pardon from Polychares and his son : en the 
score that, among the elements in human nature whereby 
we become unjust almost by compulsion, the love of gain is 
the most powerful. And he stated the sum which be had 
received for the cattle, and asked Polychares' son to go 
with him and carry it back to his father. And when they 
went on their journey and got to Laconia, Euaephnus dared 
a deed more unholy than the former, he slew the son of 
Polychares. And when Polychares knew of this last mis- 
fortune, he went to Lacedfemon to the kings and Ephors, 
and went wailing through the multitude, reckoning up 
what he had suffered at the hands of Eueephnus, whom he 
had treated as a friend, and trusted more than all the Lace- 
daemonians. And when he got no redress, though he went 
continually to the authorities, then he went off his head, 
and giving way to his anger, and being perfectly reckless 
of the consequences, endeavoured to kill every Lacedaemo- 
nian he met. 



THE Laced asmonian account is that they went to war 
because Polychares was not given up to them, and 
because of the murder of Teleclus, and because they 
were suspected earlier still of having had a hand in the 
villany of Cresphontes about the lots. But the Messenians 
contradict what I have already said about Teleclus, and 
point to the fact that ^pytus the son of Cresphontes was 
restored by the sons of Aristodemus, which they would 
never have done had they been at variance with Cresphontes. 
And they say that they did not give up Polychares to the 
Lacedaemonians for punishment, because neither would 
they give up Eueephnus, but they were willing that sentence 
should be given by the Argives (who were the kinsmen of 
both) at Amphictyonia, or that the case should be submitted 
to the Court at Athens called the Areopagus, because that 
court seemed from ancient times appointed for murder 
cases. They also say that the Lacedaemonians did not go 
to war on this account, but in consequence of their ambition 
plotted against their land and did various things, alleging 
at one time the condition of Arcadia, at another the state 
of Argos, for they were never satisfied with slicing off from, 
time to time the territory of both of those people. And 
they were the first to become friends of the barbarian 
Croesus who sent them gifts, at the time when he reduced 
to slavery all the Creeks in Asia Minor, and all the Dorians 
that dwelt in the mainland of Caria. And they declare 
that, when the Phocian leaders plundered the temple at 
Delphi, the kings at Sparta and other noblemen privately, 
and the Ephors and senators publicly, had a hand in it. 
And above all, to shew that the Lacedaemonians would 
stick at nothing for lucre, they twitted them with their 
alliance with Apollodorus the tyrant of Cassandrea. Why 
indeed the Messenians consider this such a bitter taunt, I 
cannot now discuss : for except that the courage of the 
Messenians and the length of time they fought differed 
from the tyranny of Apollodorus, they suffered nearly as 
much as the people of Cassandrea. These are the causes 
which each nation assisn for the war. 


And now an embassy of Lacedaemonians came to demand 
the extradition of Polychares. The kings of the Messenians 
however answered the embassy that after deliberation with 
the people they wonld send an answer to Sparta, and accord- 
ingly after the departure of the embassy they convened the 
citizens to a general assembly. And different opinions were 
bandied about ; Androcles thought they ought to give up 
Polychares as having acted impiously and most savagely, 
Antiochus took the opposite view, and maintained that it 
wonld be most distressing if Polychares should suffer before 
the eyes of Euaephnus, and enumerated the harrowing de- 
tails of what his punishment would be. And eventually the 
rival parties of Androcles and Antiochus proceeded to such 
lengths that they took up arms. However their strife was 
not long continued, for the party of Antiochus, being far 
superior in numbers, slew Androcles and the most illustrious 
of his partizans. And Antiochus being now the only king 
sent letters to Sparta, to say that he would submit the 
matter to the arbitration of the courts I have mentioned. 
But the Lacedaemonians are said to have given no 
answer to the bearers of these letters. And not many 
months afterwards Antiochus died, and Euphaes his son 
succeeded him. And the Lacedaemonians not only sent 
no herald to proclaim war with the Messenians, nor 
openly renounced friendship with them, but made their 
preparations as secretly as possible, and previously bound 
themselves by oath that neither for length of war (if 
it should not be decided speedily), nor for reverses (if 
they should meet with even great ones), would they leave 
off till they had won Messenia by the fortune of war. 
After taking this oath they made a night-attack on 
Amphea, having appointed Alcamenes the son of Teleclus 
as their General. Amphea is a small town in Messenia 
but near Laconia, situated on a high hill, and well supplied 
with water. And in other respects Amphea seemed a very 
convenient base for their war. So they captured the town, 
the gates being open and no garrison there, and killed all 
the Messenians that they took in the town, some even in 
their beds, and others as they found them sitting as sup- 
pliants at the temples and altars of the gods, and only a 
few escaped. This was the first attack the Lacedaemonians 


made upon 3»Iessenia, in the second year of the ninth 
Olympiad, in which Xenodocus the Messenian was victor in 
the race. And at Athens there were not as yet yearly 
magisti'ates appointed by lot : for the descendants of 
Melanthus, who were called Medontidas, had at first much 
of their power taken away by the people, and instead of a 
kingdom their power became limited, and afterwards their 
authority was definitely restricted to ten years. At the time 
of the capture of Amphea ^simides, the son of ^schylus, 
was in the fifth year of his government over the Athenians. 


BUT before I write the history of this war, and the 
actions and sufferings entailed by it upon both parties 
by Providence, I wash to relate in their order the exploits 
of Aristomenes the Messenian hero. For this war between 
the Lacedaemonians and their allies and the Messenians 
and their mercenaries did not get its name from the attack- 
ing force, as the Persian and Peloponnesian wars, but was 
called the Messenian war from the disasters which befell the 
Messenians, just as the war at Ilium got called Trojan and 
not Grecian, so it was in this war, which Rhianus of Bene and 
Myron of Priene have celebrated, the former in poetry, the 
latter in prose. Neither of them however have narrated 
fully the events of the war from beginning to end, but 
Myron has described the capture of Amphea and its conse- 
quences up to the death of Aristodemus, and Rhianus has 
not touched at all the commencement of the war, but only 
what eventually happened to the Messenians in consequence 
of their quarrel with the Lacedaemonians, and he has not 
described even the whole of this, but only what took place 
after the battle which they fought at what was called tlte 
(jreat trench ; and the hero Aristomenes on whose account 
only I mentioned Rhianus and Myron, and who was the first 
and foremost in bringing the name of Messene to honour, 
this hero (I say) has been introduced by Myron into his 
history, and by Rhianus into his poem, in which Aristomenes 
is as much lauded as Achilles by Homer in the Iliad. As 


these two have given such different accounts, I am obliged 
to accept one of them and not both together. Rhianus ap- 
pears to me to speak more probably about the age of Aris- 
tomenes. But Mvron, as one can learn in other particulars 
and not least in the history of this Messenian war, does not 
with sufficient accuracy test the truth or at least probability 
of what he relates. For he states that Aristomenes slew Theo- 
pompus, the king of the Lacedaemonians, a little before the 
death of Aristodemus, whereas we know that Theopompus 
did not die in battle or in any other way before the end of 
the war. And in fact Theopompus concluded the war, as 
the elegiac lines of Tyi-tf^us bear me out, 

' To our king Theopompus god-beloved, 

Through whom we took ^Messene spacious town.' 

Aristomenes therefore in my opinion was in the second 
Iklessenian war, and I shall relate in detail all about him 
when I come to that part of my subject. 

Now the Messenians, when they heard all that had hap- 
pened at Amphea from those who escaped from its capture, 
convened delegates from all their towns at Stenyclerus. 
And when the people were gathered together in the assembly, 
several of those in authority, and last of all theking, exhorted 
them not to be dejected at the fall of Amphea as if all the 
war were decided thereby, and not to fear the preparations 
of the Lacedsemonians as more formidable than their own, 
for although they had had longer experience in war, yet 
the Messenians would find necessity a great spur to brave 
men, and would meet with greater favour from the gods as 
defending their country, and not commencing hostilities. 


"\ 1 riTH these words Euphaes dismissed the assembly, 
* ^ and from that time forward kept all the Messenians 
under arms, compelling those that did not know to learn the 
art of war, and making those that did practise more fre- 
quently than before. And the Lacedaemonians made incur- 
sions into Messenia, but did not injure the country inas- 


much as they considered it their own, neither did they cut 
down trees nor pull down houses ; but they drove ofE what- 
ever cattle they found, and carried off the corn and all 
frait. They likewise made attacks on some of the towns 
but took none, inasmuch as they were strongly fortified and 
carefully guarded, and after much loss they desisted from 
the attempt, and ceased attacking them. And the Messe- 
nians plundered the maritime parts of Laconia, and all the 
farms in the neighbourhood of Mount Taygetus. And in 
the 4th year after the capture of Araphea Euphaes, full of 
zeal from the ardour of the Messenians who were boiling 
over with rage at the Lacedeemonians, and at the same time 
thinking their training complete, ordered a march, and 
bade the slaves follow with wood and all other things 
necessary for entrenching a camp. And the Lacedaemo- 
nians heard from the garrison at Amphea that the Mes- 
senians were on the march, and they too marched out to 
battle. And at a place in Messenia very convenient for a 
battle, with a deep ravine in front of it, Euphaes drew up 
the Messenians in battle array, having appointed Cleonnis 
to the chief command : the cavalry and light-armed troops, 
which were both less than 500, were under Pytharatus and 
Antander. And when the two armies engaged the ravine 
prevented the heavy-armed troops from encountering, though 
they advanced against one another eagerly and impetuously 
in their mutual hatred, but the cavalry and the light-armed 
troops engaged above the ravine, and they were equally 
matched in numbers and skill, and consequently the battle 
was evenly poised. But while these were engaged, Euphaes 
Ordered the slaves first to fortify the rear of the army and 
then the flanks with stockades. And when night overtook 
them and the battle was stayed, then they fortified also the 
front of the camp opposite the ravine, so that next day the 
tactical skill and foresight of Euphaes dawned upon the 
Lacedaemonians, and they found that they could not fight 
against the Messenians if they would not come out of their 
entrenchments, and they despaired of besieging them as 
they had no siege train. 

And so they returned home : and a year afterwards, when 
the old man reviled them and taunted them with cowar- 
dice and disregard of their oath, they openly made pre- 


parations for a second campaign against the Messenians. 
And they were led by both their kings, Theopompns the 
son of Nicander, and Polydorns the son of Alcamenes, for 
Alcamenes was now dead. And the Messenians made 
counter-preparations, and when the Spartans marched to 
battle moved out to meet them. And the Lacedaemonians 
were led by Polydorus on the left wing, and Theopompus 
on the right, and in the centre by Euryleon, a Lacedae- 
monian for the nonce but originally a Theban descended 
from Cadmus, the fifth descendant from ^geus, the 
son of (Eolycus, the son of Theras, the son of Autesion. 
And opposite the right wing of the Lacedaemonians were 
the Messenians under Antander and Euphaes, and on the 
wing opposite Polydorus under Pytharatus, and in the 
centre under Cleonnis. And as they were just going to 
engage, the kings came up and exhorted their men. To 
the Lacedaemonians Theopompus made a short harangue 
according to the custom of his country, reminding them of 
their oath against the Messenians, and how noble an ambi- 
tion it was to shew themselves more capable of brilliant 
exploits than their fathers who subjugated their neigh- 
bours, and to acquire a richer territory. Euphaes spoke at 
greater length than the Lacedaemonian king, but not more 
80 than the occasion warranted. For he shewed that the 
contest was not only for land or possessions, but they knew 
clearly he said what misery would come upon them if they 
were conquered : their wives and children would be led ofE 
into captivity, the lightest punishment for their young men 
would be death, perhaps not unaccompanied by outrage, 
their temples would be plundered, their country destroyed 
by fire. He was not he said merely making suppositions, 
what those who were taken at Amphea had suffered was 
proof positive of all that he said. Rather than bear such 
ills it would be preferable to die nobly, and it would 
be much easier (when they were yet unconquered and as 
bold as the enemy) to vanquish their adversaries by their 
courage, than to retrieve their ruined fortunes if they were 
faint-hearted now. Such was the speech of Euphaes. 



A ND directly the leaders on either side gave the signal 
■^*- for battle, the Messenians came on at the double, and 
exposed themselves freely as men dealing death in their 
rage at every blow, and everyone was anxious to begin the 
fight. And the Lacedaemonians rushed out to nieet them 
with equal ardour, but took care not to break their line. 
And when they got to close quarters, they threatened one 
another, rattling their arms, and looking fiercely at one 
another, and proceeded to abuse, the Lacedaemonians say- 
ing that the Messenians were already their slaves, and 
that they were not a whit freer than the Helots, and the 
Messenians replying that they were impious in what they 
were attempting, viz. in attacking kinsmen for the sake 
of gain, and were profane to the national gods of the 
Dorians and especially to Hercules. And by this time 
they followed up words with blows, and rushed on one 
another pell mell (with greatest vigour the Lacedsemo- 
nians), man attacking man. From their long experience 
and practice in war the Lacedaamonians had the advantage, 
and also from their numbers, (for the neighbouring nations 
who were subject to them they had with them in their 
army, and the Asineei and Dryopes, who a generation 
earlier had been driven by the Argives from their own land 
and had come to Lacedaemon as suppliants, were now com- 
pelled to swell their army), and against the lightarmed 
troops of the Messenians they had Cretan archers, merce- 
naries. And the Messenians were animated equally by 
despair and contempt of death, and all their sufferings 
they looked on as necessary rather than di-eadful to those 
who loved their country's honour, and the more vigorously 
they fought the harder they thought would things go for 
the Lacedaemonians. And some of them advancing in front 
of their lines exhibited brilliant bravery, and others badly 
wounded and scarce alive were animated by desperation. 
And they cheered one another on, those who were alive and 
yet unwounded encouraging the wounded to receive with joy | 
their fate, and sell their lives as dearly as possible : and the] 


woxinded, (when they perceived their strength failing, and 
that thej would soon yield up their breath), urging on the 
unwounded to shew as mnch courage as themselves had 
shewn, and not to let their death be useless to their 
country. But the Lacedaemonians at first made no 
harangues to their men, and were not as ready as the 
Messenians to display heroic courage : but being accus- 
tomed to war from boys their formation in line was deeper, 
and they expected that the Messenians could not hold out 
as long as they could, nor stand the strain of their heavy 
armour, nor their wounds. Such were the peculiar features 
of each army in respect to both the behaviour and feel- , 
ings of the combatants : what was common to both was 
that no quarter was asked for, perhaps this was despaired 
of from their fierce hatred, and they felt the greatest self- 
indignation that they had not sold their lives dearer : and 
those that killed their man abstained both from boasting 
and reproaches, being uncertain which party would win. 
And most unexpectedly fell those who were endeavouring 
to plunder some of the dead bodies, for either by disclosing 
some naked part of their body they got pierced with darts, 
not on their guard in their thirst for plunder, or they 
were killed by some of those whom they were attempting 
to rob who were stQi alive. The kings also fought right 
valiantly, and Theopompus rushed with ungovernable i-age 
against Euphaes, intending to kill him. And Euphaes 
seeing him rushing on said to Antander that Theopompus 
was displaying as much bravery as his ancestor Polynices : 
for Polynices led an army from Argos against his own 
country, and he and his brother mutually slew one 
another : and Theopompus (he added) wished to load 
the family of the HeracHdae with the same guilt as that 
of the family of Laius and CEdipus : he would not how- 
ever go with joy from the battle. With these words he 
himself went forward to meet Theopompus. Hereupon 
the battle, which had rather flagged, took up fresh vigbur 
again, and their bodies were renewed as it were, and the 
fearlessness of death on both sides was increased, so that 
one might have thought the battle had only just com- 
menced. And eventually Euphaes' division, nearly mad 
with desperate valour and stoutheartedness, for the King's 


bodyguard were all picked men, broke tbe enemy's line, 
routed Theopompus, and put the Lacedaemonians in that 
part of the field to flight. But the other wing of the 
Messenians was hard pressed, for Pytharatus their General 
was dead, and without a leader they became disordered 
and dejected. But neither did Polydorus pursue the 
fleeing Messenians, nor Buphaes the fleeing Lacedaemo- 
nians. For Euphaes and his staff thought it better to 
come to the aid of their vanquished friends : nor did 
they engage with Polydorus and his troops : for by this 
time it was already dark, and the Lacedaemonians were 
prevented from following the fugitives not least by their 
ignorance of the country. It was also their country's 
custom not to pursue an enemy too hotly, being more 
anxious not to break their line than to annihilate the 
enemy. And in the centre on both sides, the Lacedaemo- 
nians under Euryleon, and the Messenians under Cleonnis, 
the fight was pretty equal, till the approach of night put 
an end to the contest. 

This battle was fought on both sides mainly by the heavy 
armed infantry. Some cavalry there was indeed, but they 
had no great influence on the fortunes of the day, for the 
Peloponnesians of that day were not good horsemen. And 
the light armed troops of the Messenians and the Cretans 
on the Lacedaemonian side did not come to the encounter at 
all : for they were posted in ancient fashion among the 
infantry. And on the following day neither party were 
minded to renew the battle nor to erect a trophy of victory, 
but as the day wore on they sent out heralds to treat of the 
burying of their dead, and as this was agreed to on both 
sides, they began to bury their dead immediately. 


BUT the Messenians after the battle began to find their 
affairs in a deplorable condition : for they were nearly 
ruined by their outlay in money expended in keeping 
garrisons in the towns, and their slaves deserted to thej 
Lacedaemonians. Also a pestilence fell upon them, which i 


troubled them greatly being like the plague, though it did 
not prevail universally throughout their country. And 
after deliberation about their present condition they deter- 
mined to abandon their towns in the interior of the country, 
and dwell in the mountain district of Ithome. And there 
was a small town at Ithome which Homer has m.entioned 
in his catalogue, 

' And rocky Ithome.' ' 

To this town they repaired, extending its ancient limits so 
as to make it a sufficient defence for all of them. And the 
place was in other respects a strong position : for Ithome 
is as high as any of the mountains within the Isthmus, and 
in this respect most difficult of access. They thought they 
would also send an envoy to Delphi, and they selected for 
this mission Tisis the son of Alcis, who in general merit 
and in divination was considered inferior to nobody. This 
Tisis on his return from Delphi was laid in wait for by the 
Lacedaemonians who were in garrison at Amphea : but he 
would not be taken alive, so valiantly did he defend himself 
against those that had lain in ambush, in spite of the wounds 
he received from them, till a voice was heard without any 
appearance of the speaker, " Let the bearer of the oracle 
go." And Tisis, directly he got safe to Ithome, and had 
delivered his oracle to the king, fell down dead of his 
wounds. And Euphaes collected the Messenians together 
and recited the oracle. " Sacrifice a pure virgin (selected 
by lot out of the family of the ^pytidse) by night to the 
gods below. But if you cannot find one of the yEpytidae, 
then sacrifice anyone else who offers himself as a willing 
victim." This being the utterance of the god, forthwith all 
the maidens of the family of the ^pytidae drew lots. And 
when the lot fell upon the daughter of Lyciscus, Epebolus 
the seer said it would not do to sacrifice her ; for she was 
not really the daughter of Lyciscus, but a girl that the wife 
of Lyciscus being barren had palmed off as hers. While he 
was making this revelation, Lyciscus took off the girl and 
fled to Sparta. And the Messenians being very dejected 
at finding out the flight of Lyciscus, Aristodemus, a man 
of the family of the .^pytidas, and in other respects and in 

' Iliad, ii. 729. 


war more illustrious than Lyciscus, offered to sacrifice his 
own daughter. But the affairs of mankind, and not least 
their desires, are secretly directed by Fate, just as the 
bottom of a river has pebbles, so that Aristodemns on this 
occasion, endeavouring to save Messene, was prevented by 
the following circumstance. A Messenian, whose name 
is not known, happened to be deeply in love with the 
daughter of Aristodemus, and was on the eve of marry- 
ing her. He at first disputed the right of Aristodemus to 
the maiden as he had betrothed her to him, and argued 
that he being her betrothed alone had right to her. And 
afterwards, when he found this argument unavailing, he 
invented a shameful story, that he had had an amour with 
her and that she was pregnant by him. And at last he 
wrought up Aristodemus to such a pitch, that driven to 
madness in his anger he killed his daughter, and afterwards 
cut her up and found she was not pregnant. And Epebolus 
who was present bade somebody else give his daughter as a 
victim, for the daughter of Aristodemus (he said) could be 
no more use to them now she was dead : for her father had 
indeed killed her, but not sacrificed her to the gods as the 
Pythian oracle ordered. When the seer had said this the 
mass of the Messenians rushed forward to kill the girl's 
lover, as he had caused Aristodemus to commit a useless 
crime, and had rendered doubtful the safety of the com- 
munity. But this man was a very great friend of Euphaes. 
Buphaes accordingly persuaded the Messenians that the 
oracle was fulfilled by the death of the girl, and that what 
Aristodemus had done was sufficient. And when he had 
said this all the -^pytidee agreed with him : for each was 
anxious to have his fears removed about having to sacrifice 
his own daughter. So they hearkened to the advice of the 
king and broke up the assembly, and afterwards turned 
their attention to the sacrifices and festival of the gods. 



BUT the Lacedaemonians on hearing the oracle of the 
Messenians were "very dejected, both they and their 
kings, and henceforth shrank from resuming the war. But 
in the sixth year after the flight of Lyciscus from'Ithome 
the Lacedsemonians (as their sacrifices were auspicious) led 
an army to Ithome. But the Cretans chanced to be absent, 
and the allies of the Messenians were also behindhand. For 
the Spartans were an object of suspicion to other Peloponne- 
sians and especially to the Arcadians and Argiyes. The 
Argives indeed were going to come to help the Messenians 
secretly without the knowledge of the Lacedaemonians, 
privately rather than from public decree. But the Arca- 
dian expedition was publicly announced, though they were 
behindhand too. But the Messenians were induced by 
confidence in the oracle to hazard war even without allies. 
In most respects the battle was no different from the former 
one, for daylight on this occasion too failed the combatants : 
it is not however mentioned that either wing or division 
were broken, for they say the troops did not remain in the 
order in which they were placed at first, but the bravest men 
came from the wings in both armies into the centre, and there 
was the strain of battle. For Euphaes was more ardent in 
fight than one would have expected from a king, and reck- 
lessly rushing upon Theopompus and his staff, received many 
mortal wounds. As he fainted away and fell to the ground, 
and could scarce breathe, the Lacedaemonians strove with 
might and main to drag him to their army. But their pre- 
vious goodwill to Euphaes, and their future disgi-ace if ihej 
abandoned him, roused the Messenians, and it appeared 
better to them to give up their lives for their king rather than 
purchase safety by abandoning him. Accordingly the peril 
of Euphaes prolonged the battle, and added to the bravery 
exhibited on both sides, and afterwards he revived, and saw 
that his men were fighting as valiantly as the foe, and not 
many days afterwards he died, having been king of the 
Messenians for 13 years, and having been at war with the 
Lacedaemonians during all his reign. And as he had no 


children lie left the choice of his successor to the people, 
and Cleonnis and Damis were rival competitors with Aris- 
todemus, being considered superior to him both in other 
respects and in war. And Antander had been killed in the 
battle jeoparding his life for Euphaes. And the opinions 
of the seers, Epebolus and Ophioneus, were both similar, 
that the kingdom of ^pytus and his descendants should 
not be conferred upon a man polluted with the murder of a 
daughter. Nevertheless Aristodemus was elected and be- 
came king. And Ophioneus the Messenian seer was blind 
from his birth, and had the following mode of divina- 
tion. By enquiring into a person's private and public for- 
tune in the past he informed them what it would be in the 
future. This was his divination, and Aristodemus having 
become king through the people was desirous to gratify 
them in all that was reasonable, and of those in authority 
he held Cleonnis and Damis in special honour. He also 
paid great attention to the allies, and sent gifts to the 
most influential Arcadians both at Argos and Sicyon. And 
in the war which was carried on in the reign of Aristode- 
mus they pillaged from time to time, and in the summer- 
time made incursions into one another's country. There 
were counter-incursions into Laconia on the part of the 
Arcadians with the Messenians. But the Argives did not 
think it well openly to proclaim their hostility against the 
Lacedsemonians, but made their preparations so as to strike 
in when the fray begun. 


IN the fifth year of the reign of Aristodemus, when both 
nations were about to take the field again after open 
proclamation of war, both very much weakened by the 
length and expenses of the war, then allies came to both, 
to the Lacedaemonians the Corinthians alone of all the 
Peloponnesians, and to the Messenians the Arcadians in 
full force, and picked men from Argos and Sicyon. The 
Lacedaemonians placed the Corinthians and Helots and the 
provincials in the centre, and themselves with their kings 
took up their position on the wings, in deeper and 


fuller formation than was ever before adopted. And the 
dispositions of Aristodemus and his staff for the battle 
were as follows. For aU the Arcadians or Messenians that 
were strong in bodv and stout of heart, but had not good 
weapons, he picked out the best arms, and when the action 
became hot. posted them among the Argives and Sicyo- 
nians : and extended his line so as not to be taken in flank 
by the enemy. And he took care that his men were so 
placed that they had the mountain Ithome in their rear. 
And he appointed Cleonnis to the command here, and 
himself and Damis stayed with the light-armed troops, 
and a few slingers and archers : most in this j)art of the 
army were well adapted physically for attack and retreat, 
and lightly armed. Each had a breastplate or shield, 
but such as were deficient in this i"espect had goatskins 
and sheepskins, or the skins of wild beast-s, the Arcadian 
mountaineers in particular had the skins of wolves and 
bears. And each had several javelins, and some had lances. 
And these lay in ambush in Ithome where they could be 
best concealed from sight And the heavy armed troops of 
the ^lessenians and the allies stood the first onset of the 
Lacedsemonians, and afterwards were in all respects full of 
bravery. They were outnumbered by the enemy, but being 
picked men they fought against an armed mob and not 
against men of equal discipline to themselves, consequently 
they held out much longer through their bravery and 
skill. Moreover the light-armed troops of the Messenians, 
when the signal was given, rushed against the Lacedaemo- 
nians and hemmed them in, and hurled their javelins at 
their flanks, and the bolder of them rushed in and fought 
hand to hand. And the Lacedaemonians, though they saw 
before them a second danger and so hopeless a one in the 
same place, yet were not in despair, but turned upon the 
light-armed troops and tried to repel them, but as because 
of the lightness of their armour they easily ran away, the 
Lacedaemonians were both perplexed and irritated. Some- 
how or other men are apt to be especially vexed at what 
happens contrary to their expectation. And so here those 
of the Spartans who were already wounded, and those who 
were nearest to the light-armed troops, as their comrades 
lay dead, rushed out of their ranks wherever they saw the 


light-armed troops pressing on, and in their heat pursued 
rather too far as the enemy retired. Then the light-armed 
troops of the Messenians, as they had done at first, struck 
them, and hurled their javelins at them as they stood their 
ground, and when they pursued made a feint to flee, and 
attacked them as they tried to rejoin their men. And 
this they did in various parts of the field, and at different 
points in the enemy's lines. And the heavy-armed ox the 
Messenians and the allies at this juncture pressed more 
boldly right at the foe. And eventually the Lacedasmo- 
nians, spent with the length of the battle and their wounds, 
and at the same time harassed beyond measure by the light- 
armed troops, broke their ranks. And in the rout the 
light-armed troops harassed them all the more. Of the 
Lacedaemonians who were cut to pieces in the battle, I 
could not ascertain the number, but I believe it was very 
large. And the return home to some was easy, but to the 
Corinthians it was sure to be dangerous, for, whether they 
returned through Argolis or by Sicyon, they had equally to 
pass through hostile country. 


THE Lacedeemonians were troubled at this reverse that 
had befallen them, and at the many excellent warriors 
they had lost in the battle. And they despaired of success 
in the war, so they sent envoys to Delphi. And this was the 
oracle the Pythian Priestess gave. ' Phoebus bids you not 
only apply yourselves to warlike deeds, but as it was by 
cunning that the people got the Messenian land, by the 
selfsame cunning as it was got shall it be taken.' The 
kings and Ephors, though they were very anxious to do 
so, could not find out a good plan till they imitated the wili- 
ness of Odysseus at Ilium. They sent 100 men to Ithome 
to spy out the enemies' designs, who were to pretend to be 
deserters. And to keep up the cheat these men were pub- 
licly condemned at Sparta as deserters. But on their 
arrival Aristodemus sent them home again at once, saying, 
" The injuries done to the Lacedaemonians are recent, their 


craft ancient." The Lacedaemonians having failed in this 
manoeuvre next attempted to tamper with the allies of the 
jSIessenians. But as the Arcadians rejected their overtures, 
for to them the envoys went first, they did not proceed to 
Argos. And Aristodemus hearing of all these intrigues on the 
part of the Lacedaemonians sent himself messengers to con- 
sult the oracle at Delphi. And this was the answer of the 
Pythian priestess. " The glory in the war the god gives you, 
but take care that the treacherous hostile ambush be not too 
much for you through Spartan wiles ; for if Ares is to have 
their well-wrought armour, and the garlands of their dances 
are to belong to son-owing owners, then must they avoid the 
appearance of two hidden things. Xor shall the sacred light 
of day behold the end of all this till fate shall come to the 
things that change their nature." Aristodemus however 
and the seers could not understand what was meant : but 
a few years afterwards the god threw light on it and 
fnlfilled it. Remarkable things too happened at this time 
to the Messenians. As Lyciscus lived as a resident alien 
at Sparta his daughter, whom he had taken with him 
in his flight from Messene, chanced to die. And. as he 
often went to visit his daughter's grave, some Arcadian 
cavalry lay in wait for him and carried him off. And he 
was taken to Ithome, and being brought before the assembly 
he made his defence ; he had not left his country he said 
intending treason, but in consequence of believing the asser- 
tion of the seer that she was not his genuine daughter. In 
this line of defence he was not believed, to be speaking the 
truth till a woman, who was at that time the priestess of 
Hera, came into the theatre. And she confessed that the child 
was hers, and that she had given it to the wife of Lyciscus 
to palm off as her own. And now (she continued) by re- 
vealing my secret I shall depose myself from my priesthood. 
This she said because it was a custom in Messene that, if 
any of the children of a priest or priestess died, the priest- 
hood should pass to somebody else. Thinking therefore 
that the woman was speaking the truth, they chose for the 
goddess a priestess in her place, and said that Lyciscus had 
acted in a pardonable way. 

And after that they resolved, for it was the 20th year of 
the war, to send again to Delphi to enquire about their 


chance of victory. And to their enquiry the Pythian 
Priestess returned this answer. " To those who shall first 
set up 100 tripods at the altar of Zeus of Ithome the god 
will give the Messenian land with fame in war. This is 
the will of Zeus. But guile moves you on, and behind is 
vengeance, and you cannot deceive the god. Act as fate 
shall determine. Ruin takes people by turns." When 
they heard this they thought the oracle was in their favour, 
and promised them victory in. the war ; for as they were in 
possession of the temple of Zeus within the walls of Ithome, 
they thought the Lacedasmonians could not be beforehand 
with them in erecting tripods. And so they intended making 
wooden tripods, f oj:' they had not means enough to make 
tripods of brass. But somebody from Delphi reported the 
oracle at Sparta. And the Spartans had a public consulta- 
tion about it, but could hit upon no plan, but CBbalus, a 
man. of no great repute but evidently possessed of good 
judgment, made 100 tripods of clay roughly, and took 
them with him and nets as if he were a hunter. And 
being unknown even to most of the Lacedcemonians he 
easily escaped the detection of the Messenians. For joining 
himself with some countrymen he went with them into 
Ithome, and directly night came on he offered these clay 
tripods to the god, and returned to Sparta and told the 
Lacedsemonians what he had done. And the Messenians 
when they saw what had happened were terribly upset, 
and guessed (as indeed was the case) that it was a trick of 
the Lacedaemonians : however Aristodemus consoled them 
with arguments suited to the present conjuncture, and 
placed their wooden tripods which were already made at 
the altar at Ithome. It happened also that Ophioneus, 
the seer who was blind from birth, greatly to the surprise 
of all men recovered his sight : for he had a sharp head- 
ache and recovered his sight after it. 



AND thenceforward — for fate already turned the scales 
towards the capture of Ithome — the god gave them 
various predictions of their coming destiny. For the statue 
of Artemis, which was of brass as well as the armour, 
dropt its shield ; and as Aristodemus was about to sacrifice 
the victims to Zeus at Ithome, the rams of their own accord 
violently dashed their heads against the altar, and were 
killed by the blow. And a third phenomenon happened. 
Some dogs assembled in the same place and howled all 
night, and eventually went off in a body to the camp of the 
Lacedaemonians. This troubled Aristodemus, as also the 
following vision of the night. He dreamed that he was 
going out to battle fully ai"med, and saw lying on a table 
the Arictims' entrails, and his daughter appeared to him in 
a black dress with her breast and belly ripped up, and he 
thought she threw away what was on the table, and took 
away his armotir, and instead of it put upon him a golden 
crown and white robe. And as Aristodemus was dispirited, 
for he thought the dream annoanced to him the end of his 
life, (for the Messenians buried their notable men in white 
raiment with crowns on their heads), somebody brought 
him word that Ophioneus had suddenly become blind again 
as before. Then he understood the hidden sense of the 
oracle, that by the pair who appeared after being hidden, 
and returned again as fate necessitated, the Pythian 
Priestess meant the eyes of Ophioneus. Thereupon Aristo- 
demus laying to heart his domestic misfortunes, that he had 
been the murderer of his daughter to no purpose, and 
seeing no future hope of safety for his country, cut his 
throat at his daughter's grave, being such an one as would 
in all human calculation have saved his country had not 
fortune brought to nothing his plans and actions. And he 
died after a reign of six years and a few months. And to 
the Messenians their affairs now seemed desperate, so that 
they were very near sending a supphcatory embassy to the 
Lacedaemonians, though pride restrained them from actually 
doing so, so much did they feel the blow of Aristodemus' 

L_, no 



death. And when they gathered together in their assembly 
they did not choose another king, but appointed Damis 
dictator. And he, having selected Cleonnis and Phyleus 
as his coadjutors, made preparations for the campaign 
according to his best ability under the circumstances : for 
he was pressed hard by the siege, and not least by famine 
and the fear that famine inspired that they could not hold 
out from want of supplies. There was no deficiency 
of bravery or venturesomeness on the part of the Mes- 
senians : all their generals and notables were killed. For 
about five months they held out, and towards the close of the 
year evacuated Ithome, having been at war for full twenty 
years, as the lines of Tyrtseus testify : " They in the 
twentieth year left the rich pastures, and fled from the 
high hills of Ithome." This war came to an end in the 
first year of the fourteenth Olympiad, in which Dasmon 
the Corinthian was victor in the stadium, the Medontidse 
at Athens being still in possession of their ten year office, 
and at the completion of the fourth year of office of 


AND the Messenians who had friends at Sicyon and at 
Argos and amongst the Arcadians retired to those 
places, and those of the family of the priests who performed 
the mysteries to the Great Groddesses went to Eleusis. And 
the multitude dispersed to their several nationalities. And 
the Lacedeemonians first razed Ithome to the ground, and 
afterwards attacked and captured the other cities. And 
out of the spoils they set up to Apollo of Amyclse some 
brazen tripods : under the first tripod is a statue of Aphro- 
dite, and under the second one of Artemis, and under the 
third one of Proserpine the daughter of Demeter. These 
they erected there. And of the Messenian land they gave 
to the Asinsei, who had been ejected by the Argives, the 
territory by the sea that they still have : and to the de- 
scendants of Androcles, (for Androcles had a daughter 
and she had sons, and 'after the death of Androcles they I 
fled to Sparta), they gave what is called Hyamea. And, 


the following conditions were imposed on the Messenians 
by the Lacedaemonians. First of all they bound them by 
oath, not to revolt or to attempt any revolutionary move- 
ment. And next they appointed no stated tribute, but they 
were to bring to Sparta from the land half its produce. 
"With respect too to the burials of kings and other people 
in authority, provision was made that the men and women 
in Messenia should wear black raiment, and a punishment 
was ordained for those who violated this rule. And as to 
their exactions from the Messenians they have been de- 
scribed by Tyrtaeus : " As asses worn out by long continued 
toil, carrying to their masters from bitter necessity half of 
all the fruit the country yields." And that necessity was 
laid on them of mourning for their masters' deaths he has 
manifested in the following lines, " They and their wives 
together wailing for their masters, when baneful death 
seized on any one." 

The Messenians in these circumstances, and with no hope 
of any kinder treatment from the Lacedaemonians, and 
thinking death in battle or a wholesale migration from 
the Peloponnese preferable to their present condition, 
resolved upon a general rising. And they were mainly 
induced to this by the young men, who had had no ex- 
perience of war, and were ambitious, and preferred death 
in a free country to happiness in all other conditions with 
slavery. These youths were reared in various parts of 
Messenia, but the bravest and most numerous were in the 
neighbourhood of Andania, and among them Aristomenes, 
who is still honoured among the Messenians as a hero : 
and the circumstances attending his birth they think rather 
remarkable. For they say that a demon or god in the form of 
a dragon had an intrigue with Nicoteleahis mother. I have 
heard the Macedonians say similar things about Olympias, 
and the Sicyonians about Aristodama. But the difference 
is that the Messenians do not claim that Aristomenes was 
the son of Hercules or Zeus, as the Macedonians say 
that Alexander was the son of Amnion, and as the people 
of Sicyon say that Aratus was the son of ^sculapius, but 
most of the Greeks say that Pyrrhus was the father of 
Aristomenes, though I know that the Messenians call 
Aristomenes the son of Nicomedes at the libations. He 


then, being in full vigour of age and boldness, and other 
influential persons tried to bring about a general rising. 
And this was not at first done openly, but they sent secretly 
to Argos and the Arcadians, to see if they would assist 
them as energetically as they had done in the former 
war, bond fide and not half-heartedly. 


AND when they had made all their preparations for 
war, and their allies were even more zealous than they 
had expected, for the hostility between the Arcadians and 
Argives and the Lacedaemonians had blazed out fiercely, 
then in the thirty-ninth year after the capture of Ithome 
they rose in insurrection, in the fourth year of the 23rd 
Olympiad, in which the Hyperesian Icarus was victor 
in the stadium. And at Athens there were now annual 
archons, and the archon this year was Tlesias. Who were 
kings at Lacedaemon at this time has not been recorded by 
Tyrtseus, but Rhianus in his poem has said that Leotychides 
was king during this war. I cannot agree with him in this : 
as to Tyrtseus, though he has not mentioned expressly the 
time, yet one may suppose he has hinted it in the following 
passage, — in the elegiac lines he wrote about the former 
war. " Nineteen years unceasingly they fought for their 
country, ever with stout heart, those warriors the fathers of 
our fathers." Manifestly then it was in the third genera- 
tion after the former war that the Messenians commenced 
this war, and the period is marked by the fact that the 
kings then at Sparta were Anaxander the son of Eury crates 
the son of Polydorus, and of the other family Anaxidamus 
the son of Zeuxidamus, the son of Archidamus, the son of 
Theopompus. I go as far as the fourth descendant of 
Theopompus, because Archidamus the son of Theopompus 
died in his father's lifetime, and the kingdom devolved upon 
Zeuxidamus his grandson. And Leotychides clearly was 
king after Demaratus the son of Aristo, and Aristo wasl 
seventh descendant from Theopompus. 

And now in the first year after their insurrection the^ 
Messenians engaged with the Lacedaemonians at a place inj 


their country called Derae, and neither side had allies. And 
the battle was an undecided one, but they say Aristomenes 
exhibited in it preterhuman bravery, so that they elected 
him king after the battle, for he was of the family of the 
^pytidae, and though he was for refusing they also 
appointed him commander in chief. He was inclined to 
let them disown no one who had done valiantly in war : 
and for himself thought it right first and foremost (as the 
war with the Lacedaemonians was only just begun) to 
thoroughly frighten them by some bold stroke, and so to 
awe them more for the future. Accordingly he went by 
night to Lacedaemon and hung up a shield at the temple 
of Athene Chalcicecus, and on it was the inscription, " Aris- 
tomenes offers this to the goddess from Spartan spoils." 

The Lacedaemonians also had an oracular answer from 
Delphi, that an Athenian would give them good advice. 
They sent therefore envoys to the Athenians to report the 
oracle, and to ask for the man who was to give them this 
good advice. And the Athenians neither wishing that the 
Lacedaemonians should get the best part of the Peloponnese 
without great danger, nor to disobey the god, took counsel 
accordingly, and sent to Sparta one Tyrtaeus a school- 
master, who was thought to have very little intelligence 
and was lame in one foot. And he on his arrival there 
recited his elegiac verses and his anapaests privately to 
the authorities, and publicly to all whom he could collect 
together. And a year after the battle of Derae, when both 
nations had now allies, they prepared for battle in a 
village called Boar's Memorial. The Messenians had the 
men of Elis and Arcadia as their allies in the action, and 
had moreover help from Argos and Sicyon. There were also 
present all the Messenians that had fled voluntarily, both 
those from Eleusis who were the hereditary priests of the 
mysteries of the Great Groddesses, and the descendants of 
Androcles : for these too hastened to their assistance. And 
to the help of the Lacedaemonians came the Corinthians, 
and some of the people of Lepreum from hatred to the men 
of Elis. The Asinaei were neutral. Boar's Memorial is 
near Stenyclerus in Messenia, and was so called because 
. they say Hercules had a mutual covenant there with the 
sons of Neleus over a boar's entrails. 



AND when the seers in both armies had commenced by 
sacrifice, the Lacedaemonian seer being Hecas, the de- 
scendant and namesake of that Hecas who had come to 
Sparta with the sons of Aristodemus, and the Messenian seer 
being Theoclus, a descendant of Eumantis (a native of Elis 
and one of the lamidae whom Cresphontes had introduced 
into Messene), both armies were with more confidence stirred 
up to battle. And there was ardour exhibited by several ac- 
cording to their age and prowess, but notably by Anaxander, 
the king of the Lacedaemonians, and the Spartans in his divi- 
sion : and in the Messenian army Phintas and Androcles, 
the descendants of Androcles, and the men who were posted 
with them, strove to show their valour. And Tyrtffius and 
the priests of the Great Groddesses took no part in the 
action but that of cheering on the rears of their respective 
armies. And this was the disposition of Aristomenes. 
Eighty picked men of the Messenians about the same age 
as himself were in close attendance upon him, and each of 
them thought himself highly flattered to be posted near 
Aristomenes : and they were very keen at detecting in a 
glance one another's ideas and especially their leader's plans 
in the very germ. They and Aristomenes had the brunt of the 
battle, being posted opposite to Anaxander and the bravest 
of the Lacedaemonians. And receiving wounds fearlessly, 
and rushing on with the greatest recklessness, in time, they 
routed by their boldness Anaxander 's division. As these 
fled Aristomenes commanded another Messenian regiment 
to pursue them : and himself rushed into the thick of the 
fight, and routed the men there, and then again turned to 
some other part of the field. And having driven these 
also from their positions he hurried on, charging those that 
were left, until he had thoroughly beaten all the Lace-^ 
dsemonian force, allies and all. And as they felt some 
shame in fleeing, and yet could not stand these frequent 
charges, he dashed in amongst them with more formidable^ 
fury than one could have expected from one man. Bui 
near a wild pear tree that grew in the plain Theoclus triec' 


to prevent his passing : for he said Castor and Pollux were 
seated on the pear tree. And Aristomenes giving way to 
passion, and not hearing all the words of the seer, when 
he got to the pear tree dropt his shield, and this loss of 
Aristomenes gave the Lacedaemonians breathing time to 
stop from their flight : for he lost some time trying to ftnd 
his shield. 

And when the Lacedaemonians were dispirited at this 
blow, and were minded to finish the war, Tyrtaeus put heart 
into them by reciting his verses, and got some Helots en- 
rolled into the regiments in place of the dead men. And 
when Aristomenes returned to Andania, the women wel- 
comed him with ribands and pelted him with flowers, 
and sang for him a song not forgotten even in our days, 
" To the mid plain and high mountain at Stenycleras did 
Aristomenes pursue the Lacedsemonians." And he after- 
wards recovered his shield by going to Delphi, and, as 
the Pythian Priestess ordered him, by descending to the 
sacred shrine of Trophonius at Lebadea. And afterwards 
he took the shield, and hung it up as a votive offering at 
Lebadea, and I have myself seen it hanging up there. Its 
design is an eagle with its wings extended at the upper 
part of the shield. And now Aristomenes on his return 
from Bceotia, having recovered his shield at the shrine 
of Trophonius, immediately went in for further action. 
And, having gathered together a levy of Messenians be- 
sides his own bodyguard of picked men, he marched at 
nightfall to a city of Laconia, whose old name was Pharis 
as in Homer's catalogue, but it was called Pharae by the 
Spartans and other neighbouring people. Marching there 
he cut to pieces those who attempted to defend them- 
selves, and after carrying off much booty returned to Mes- 
sene. And the Lacedaemonian hoplites under Anaxander 
their king attacking him on the road, he routed them also, 
and was fain to pursue Anaxander. But being wounded 
in his hinder quarters with a javelin he stayed the pursuit, 
without losing the plunder he had got. And after waiting 
sufl&cient time for his wound to be healed, he intended to 
enter Sparta by night, when he was prevented by the appa- 
rition of Helen and Castor and Pollux, and lay in ambush 
at nightfall for some maidens who were dancing to Artemis 


at Caryae, and arrested all who were remarkable for the 
wealth and position of their fathers, and brought them by 
night to a village in Messenia and went to rest, having 
committed the custody of them to some men of his regiment. 
Thereupon the young men in drink I suppose, and other- 
wise unable to control their passions by reason, endea- 
voured to violate the maidens, and when Aristomenes for- 
bade them to act in a manner not customary for Greeks, 
they took no notice of hiru, so that he was obliged to kill 
the most unruly of them. And the maidens he had taken 
captive he let go for a good ransom with their honour 


AND there is a place in Laconia called ^gila, where is 
a temple of Demeter. There Aristomenes and his sol- 
diers, knowing that the women were keeping festival to 
Demeter, wished to seize them : but as these women in- 
spired by the goddess made a bold defence, most of the 
Messenians received wounds with the swords which they 
used to sacrifice the victims with, and the sharp pointed 
spits on which they stuck their meat to roast it. And 
Aristomenes they struck with their torches and took him 
alive. However he escaped the same night to Messenia. 
They say that Archidamea the priestess of Demeter had the 
guilt of letting him escape. But she did not let him go 
for money, but was an old sweetheart of his, and made out 
that Aristomenes had escaped by burning ^ his bonds. 

And in the third year of the war, when an engagement 
was about to take place at what was called The Great 
Trench, and when the Arcadians had come from all their 
cities to help the Messenians, the Lacedaemonians bribed 
Aristocrates, the son of Icetas, a native of Trapezus, king 
and general of the Arcadians at this period. The Lacedaemo- 

' This seems strange. Ingeniosissime SiaKotpac Corayus. Siebelis 
defends the text. " Sacerdos, quo majus esset miraculum, videtur 
dixisse, eum se advolvisse igni, eique admovisse vincula, usque dum 


nians are the first we know of that bribed an enemy, and 
the first that made renown in arms a thing to be purchased 
by money. For before the Lacedaemonians violated honour 
in their war with the Messenians, in regard to this treason 
of Aristoci-ates the Arcadian, their fighting men were dis- 
tinguished for bravery, and good fortune from the deity. 
Afterwards too at ./Egospotamoi, when they opposed the 
fleet of the Athenians, they certainly bribed Adimantus 
and other Athenian Admirals. But in process of time 
upon the Lacedaemonians came what is called the Retribu- 
tion of Neoptolemus. For Neoptolemus the son of Achilles, 
having slain Priam at the altar of Household Zeus, was him- 
self also slain at Delphi at the temple of Apollo, and — in 
consequence of that — suffering what one had inflicted on 
another got called the Retribution of Neoptolemus. For 
when the Lacedaemonians were at the zenith of their power, 
and had destroyed the fleet of the Athenians, and Agesi- 
laus had reduced most of Asia Minor, then it was not possible 
to strip the Mede of all his power, because the barbarian 
circumvented them by sending money to Corinth and Argos 
and Athens and Thebes, and what was called the Corinthian 
war was brought about by this money, so that Agesdaus 
was compelled to leave Asia Minor. Aad so the deity made to 
recoil upon themselves the wiliness that the Lacedaemonians 
had displayed to the Messenians. And Aristocrates when 
he had received money from Lacedaemon, at first hid his 
plans from the Arcadians, but when they were on the eve 
of an engagement, then he threw them into consternation, 
by telling them they were in difficulty and straits and had 
no means of retreat if they should be beaten. He also said 
the sacrifices were not auspicious. He ordered everyone 
therefore to run away when he gave the signal. And when 
the Lacedaemonians began the engagement and the Messe- 
nians were opposite to them, thereupon at the commence- 
ment of the battle Aristocrates led off the Arcadians, and 
thus the Messenian centre and left wing was left exposed. 
For the Arcadians had occupied both these parts of the field, 
as the people of Elis were not present at the battle, nor the 
people of Argos and Sicyon. And Aristocrates put the 
finishing touch to his treason by fleeing through the 
Messenian Hnes. And they were quite bewildered at the 


unexpected state of affairs, and were disturbed by the pas- 
sage of the Arcadians through their lines, so that most 
of them nearly forgot what they were about : for in- 
stead of the Lacedaemonians pressing on against the 
Arcadians they saw them fleeing, and some begged them 
to stand their ground, others reviled them as traitors and 
covenant-breakers. And for the Lacedaemonians to sur- 
round the Messenians who were now left alone was easy 
enough, and with the greatest ease they won a victory that 
was a foregone conclusion. And though Aristomenes and 
his division bravely stood their ground against the multi- 
tude of the Lacedaemonians that pressed against them, and 
endeavoured to keep them in check, yet they were too few 
to avail much. And such a quantity of Messenians were 
cut to pieces, that they, who had expected to be masters 
of the Lacedaemonians, now instead of having slaves had 
hardly any hope of safety. And of their leaders fell Andro- 
cles and Phintas and others, and Phanas, (who fought espe- 
cially bravely, and had been victor at Olympia in the double 
course). And Aristomenes after the battle collected the 
Messenian fugitives, and persuaded them to leave Andania 
and any other towns in the heart of the country, and to 
take up their residence on the mountain Eira. And when 
they assembled there they were besieged by the Lacedemo- 
nians who wished to take them. However they resisted 
and held out for eleven years after the disaster at The Great 
Trench. That that was the time the blockade lasted is plain 
from the verses of ilhianus about the Lacedsemonians, 

" Along the ridges of the mountain wliite 
Twenty-two summers and winters did they fight." 

The word used for sv/mmers in the line just above is a word 
properly meaning the grass when it is ripe, or a little before 
hay harvest. 



AND the Messenians when they were hemmed in at 
Eira, and debarred the rest of their country, except 
what was occupied by the people of Pylos near the sea, and 
the people of Mothone, plundered Laconia and their own 
country, which they now regarded as enemy's country. 
And several joined them in these raids, as chance brought 
it about, and Aristomenes got together some picked men in 
number about 300. They harried and carried ofi from the 
Lacedaemonians whatever they could, corn and flocks and 
wine, but furniture and human beings they ransomed for 
money. So that the Lacedaemonians made a decree, inas- 
much as they were farming for the benefit of the people of 
Eira rather than their own, not to cultivate Messenia and 
the neighbouring parts of Laconia till after the war. And 
from that time there was scarcity in Sparta, and with 
the scarcity came riots, for those who got their money by 
farming could not bear to see their lands lie fallow, but 
their vexation was checked by the verses of Tyrtaeus. And 
Aristomenes with his picked men made a sally when the 
night was considerably advanced, and stole a march upon 
the enemy by getting to A my cite before daybreak, and 
seized the fort and plundered Amyclae, and was off again 
before help could come from Sparta. And he afterwards 
overran the whole country, till making an attack on more 
than half the Lacedaemonian army under both their kings, 
he received several wounds as he defended himself 
valiantly, and as he was struck on the head by a stone his 
eyes got dizzy, and the Lacedemonians rushing at him all 
together took him alive. Fifty of his men also were cap- 
tured. These were all condemned by the Lacedaemonians 
to be thrown into their underground cavern called Ceadas ; 
where they throw in their greatest malefactors. The other 
Messenians who were thrown in were killed instanta- 
neously : but Aristomenes had some good genius who both 
now and on all occasions looked after him. Those who 
exaggerate everything about him say that, when he was 
thrown into Ceadas, an eagle flew under him and supported 


him with its wings, so that he reached the bottom safely 
without a wound or scratch. The god on this occasion must 
have also shown him some outlet. For when he got to the 
bottom of the cavern, he sat down and muffling his head in 
his cloak expected death which he felt certain. But on the 
third day after he heard a noise, and unveiled his face, and 
when his eyes got accustomed to the darkness, saw a fox 
preying on the dead carcases. And reflecting that it must 
have an outlet somewhere, he waited till the fox came near 
and when it came near seized hold of it, and in one of his 
hands, when the fox turned on him, held his cloak that it 
might bite that and not him. As it ran he ran with it, and 
was dragged by it along a very difficult path. At last he saw 
a little hole, just big enough for a fox to pass through, and 
light glimmered through it. And the fox, directly it was 
liberated by Aristomenes, betook itself to its hole. And 
Aristomenes, as the hole was too small to let him through, 
enlarged it with his hands and got home safe to Eira, 
having had most remarkable good fortune in respect to his 
capture, (for his spirit and bravery were such that no one 
could have expected to take him alive), and stranger still 
and most plainly not without divine assistance was this 
getting out safe from Ceadas. 


AND it was almost immediately reported to the Lacedae- 
monians by deserters that Aristomenes had got home 
safe : but being considered as incredible as if anyone were 
to say that a dead man had come to life again, it was only be-j, 
lieved in consequence of the following transaction on th»| 
part of Aristomenes. The Corinthians sent a force to helpT 
the Lacedaemonians to take Eira. Aristomenes, learning 
from his scouts that they were marching rather carelesslyjj 
and that their camps were negligently made up, attackec 
them by night, and as they were asleep slew most of them,| 
and among others their leaders Hypermenides, and Achla- 
daaus, and Lysistratus, and Sidectus. He plundered also! 
the tent of the generals, and the Lacedaemonians soon sa^ 


that it was Aristomenes aad no other Messenian that had 
done all this. He sacrificed also to Zeus of Ithome the 
sacrifice which they call Hecatomphonia. It was of very 
remote antiquity, and any Messenian who had killed 100 
enemies had a right to offer it. And Aristomenes first 
offered this sacrifice when he fought the battle at Boa/s 
Memorial, and the slaughter of these Corinthians by night 
gave him the right to offer this sacrifice a second time. 
They say also that he offered the sacrifice a third time as 
the result of various raids. But the Lacedaemonians, as 
the festival of Hyacinthus was now coming on, made a truce 
of 40 days with the inhabitants of Eira, and returned home 
and kept the festival, and some Cretan bowmen, who had 
been sent for as mercenaries from Lyctus and other towns, 
made incursions into various parts of Messenia. And as 
Aristomenes was at some distance from Eira, feeling per- 
fect security as it was truce time, seven of these bow- 
men lay in wait for him, and took him prisoner, and bound 
him with the bands of their quivers, j^nd it was evening. 
And two of them went to Sparta, and announced the cap- 
ture of Aristomenes to the Lacedaemonians : and the re- 
maining five retired to a farm in Messenia, where a father- 
less maiden lived with her mother. The night before this 
maiden had had a dream. Some wolves (she dreamed) 
brought a lion to the farm bound and without claws, and 
she freed the lion from its bonds and got it claws, and then 
the wolves were torn in pieces by it. And now when 
the Cretans brought in Aristomenes, the maiden remem- 
bered her dream of the previous night, and asked her 
mother who he was : and when she learnt who he was she 
took courage, and looked earnestly at him, and understood 
the meaning of the dream. She therefore poured out wine 
freely for the Cretans, till drink overpowered them, and 
then withdrew the sword of the one who was fastest asleep. 
Then she cut the bonds of Ai'istomengs, and he took the 
sword and killed all 5. And Gorgus'the son of Aristo- 
menes took the maiden to wife. And thus Aristomenes 
requited to the damsel her saving of his life, and Gorgus 
was only 18 when he married her. 



BUT in the 11th year of the siege it was fated that Eira 
should fall, and that the Messenians should be dis- 
persed, and the god accomplished what had been oracularly 
foretold to Aristomenes and Theoclus. Por when they went 
to Delphi after the disaster at tJie Great Trench, and enquired 
as to their safety, the Pythian Priestess replied as follows, 

" When hegoat drinks of Neda's winding stream, 
I cease to guard Messene. Her end is near." 

Now the Neda rises in Mount Lycseus : and the river 
flows through Arcadia and into Messenia again, and divides 
the maritime parts of Messenia and Elis. And now they 
were afraid of their he-goats drinking of the Neda : but 
the god had quite a different meaning which I will unfold. 
The wild fig tree, which some of the Greeks call Olynthe, 
is called by the Messenians Tragus (that is He-Goat). At 
this time there was a wild fig tree on the banks of the 
river Neda which did not grow upright, but bent into the 
stream and touched the water with its topmost boughs. 
And the seer Theoclus having noticed it conjectured that 
by the he-goat drinking of the Neda the Pythian Priestess 
meant this wild fig, and that therefore the fate of Messene 
was imminent. And he preserved silence on the matter to 
everyone else, but he took Aristomenes to this figtree, and 
pointed out to him that their period of safety had passed. 
And Aristomenes was convinced by him that it was as he 
said, and that that there was no room for delay, and he 
adopted the following contrivance under the present 
conjuncture. The Messenians had some sacred records, 
which if lost would ruin Messene and keep her under for 
ever, but which if preserved would, according to the 
oracular utterances x)f Lycus the son of Pandion, give the 
Messenians a chance one day to recover their country, and 
Aristomenes knowing these oracular utterances conveyed 
away by night these arcana : and going to the most un- 
frequented part of Mount Ithome buried them there, and 
prayed to Zeus of Ithome and to the gods who had hitherto 


Ijefriended the Messenians to be witnesses of this deposit, 
and not to allow the Lacedaemonians to rob them of their 
only hope of returning home again one day. And after 
this trouble came to the Messenians, as earlier still it did 
to the Trojans, from adultery. They occupied the moun- 
tainous district all round Eira as far as the Neda, and 
some lived outside the gates. And no other deserter came 
to them from Laconia, but a herdsman, a slave of Empera- 
mus who was a man of some note at Sparta. This herds- 
man lived not far from the Neda. There he saw the wife 
of one of the Messenians who lived outside the walls coming 
to draw water : and he got enamoured of her, and ventured 
to talk with her, and overcame her chastity by gifts. And 
from that time forward this herdsman watched when her 
husband went upon garrison duty. Now the Messenians 
had to go on guard by turns in the citadel : it was here 
that they were chiefly afraid of the enemy getting into the 
place. And whenever the husband mounted guard, this 
herdsman used to go and visit his wife. And on one occa- 
sion he and others had to mount guard at night, and it 
chanced to be a very wet night. And the Messenians left 
their guard. For the quantity of rain pouring dovm almost 
forced them in, as they had no battlements or turrets in 
their improvised fortifications, and at the same time they 
did not expect that the Lacedaemonians would attack them, 
in a night so wild and dark. And Aristomenes had been 
wounded a few days previously in rescuing a Cephallenian 
merchant and his goods, (he was a friend of his and used to 
introduce into Eira all necessary supplies, but had been 
captured by the Lacedaemonians and some Apteraean bow- 
men under Euryalus a Spartan), and therefore could not as 
usual go his nightly rounds. This was the chief reason 
why the citadel was abandoned by the guard. And as 
each of them went off from his post so did the hus- 
band of the woman who had this intrigue with the herds- 
man. And she at this time had the herdsman at her house, 
but perceiving the return of her husband quickly concealed 
him, and welcomed her husband rather more than usual, 
and asked him the reason of his return. And he, ignorant 
that she was unfaithful to him and had her paramour there, 
told her the truth, and said that, on account of the violence- 


of the rain, and other circumstances which he mentioned, 
they had left their posts. And the herdsman overheard, 
and immediately, when he understood the condition of 
affairs, deserted the Messenians for the Lacedaemonians. 
The Lacedaemonian kings were at this time absent from 
the camp : but Emperamus the master of the herdsman 
was commander in chief of the forces that were besieging 
Eira. The herdsman then went to his master, and first 
begged pardon for his absence from home, and next showed 
him how they could capture Eira, mentioning all the cir- 
cumstances which he had heard from the Messenian. 


WHAT the herdsman said seemed trustworthy, and he 
led Emperamus and the Spartan foi'ce. Their march 
was difficult owing to the darkness and steady down- 
pour. Still they advanced with alacrity, and, as soon as 
they got to the citadel of Eira, fixed scaling ladders and 
got over the walls with all dispatch. And the Messenians 
had several indications of their coming trouble, especially 
the unusual barking of the dogs, who barked fiercely and 
continuously. Perceiving then that the final struggle 
had come upon them, they had no time for arming them- 
selves properly, but each seized what weapon he could find 
to defend their last possession out of all Messenia, their last 
inch of fatherland ! The first who noticed that the enemy 
had got inside the walls, and who rushed up to the fray, 
were Grorgus the son of Aristomenes, and Aristomenes him- 
self, and Theoclus the seer and Manticlus his son, and 
with them Euergetidas a man held in especial honour at 
Messene, who had improved his fortunes by his marriage 
with Agnagora, the sister of Aristomenes. And all the 
others at this time, though they perceived that they were 
in a trap, yet had a little hope in spite of the outlook : 
but Aristomenes and the seer knew that it was all up 
with the Messenians, remembering the Pythian Priestess' 
oracle about the he-goat, but they concealed none the less 
the true state of aifairs, and were silent about it to every- 

BOOK rv. — MESSEN'IA. 269 

bodj. And thev went all round the town energetically 
and exhorted every Messenian they met to play the man, 
and called from their honses those that yet remained in 
them. During the night nothing very notable was done 
on either side, for the attacking party were hindered 
by their ignorance of the ground and the boldness of 
Aristomenes, and the Messenians were rather backward 
in taking the word from their generals, and if anyone 
lit a torch or struck a light, the rain immediately put 
•it out. And when day broke and they could see one 
another clearly, then Aristomenes and Theoclus endea- 
voured to nerve the Messenians to desperate courage, by 
giving them the necessary directions, and reminding them 
of the heroism of the people of Smyrna, who, though they 
were only lonians, by their boldness and vigour drove out 
of their city Gyges, the son of Dascylns, and the Lydians who 
were in possession of it. And the Messenians hearing this 
were animated with the courage of despair, and forming 
what ranks they could rushed against the Lacedfemonians. 
And even the women eagerly hurled tiles, and whatever each 
could lay hold of, at the enemy : but they were partly pre- 
vented doing this from the slippei-iness of the roofs through 
the frequent rain : but they seized arms and thus kindled 
still more the courage of the men, when they saw that even 
the women preferred perishing with their country to being 
led off as slaves to Lacedsemon, insomuch that had it been 
possible they would have given destiny the go-by. And 
the downpour of rain continued all day, and there was 
thunder and lightning, and they could hardly see for the 
lightning that flashed in their faces. And all this inspired 
courage in the Lacedaemonians, who thought that the god 
was visibly helping them, and as the lightning was on their 
right the seer Hecas announced that the omen was auspi- 
cious. He also devised the following stratagem. The 
Lacedaemonians were far the most numerous, but inas- 
much as the battle was on a limited area and not fought 
tactically, but various bodies of men fought haphazard in 
various parts of the city, it happened that the rearmen of 
each division were useless. He therefore ordered them to 
retire to the camp and get some food and sleep, and come 
back again before evening to relieve their companions, who 


had borne the burthen and heat of the day. And thus by- 
fighting and resting by turns they held out the longer, but 
the Messenians were getting entirely woi'n out, for it was 
now the third night that they had been fighting day and 
night continuously. And when the next morning came, 
and they were suffering from sleeplessness and constant 
rain and cold all combined, hunger and thirst assailed them 
too. Their women especially were ready to faint by reason 
of being unused to war, and by the long continuance of 
their efforts. Then the seer Theoclus came up and spoke* 
to Aristomenes. " Why do you continue in vain this 
struggle ? It is decreed that Messene must perish, long 
ago did the Pythian Priestess foretell this imminent ruin, 
and lately did the wild figtree teach the same lesson. To 
me the god assigns an end with my country : but you may 
save the Messenians and yourself." When he had spoken 
thus to him, he rushed against the foe, and said to the 
Lacedaemonians in a loud voice, " You shall not for long 
joy in your conquest of Messene." After that he fiercely 
attacked those who were opposite to him and slew them, 
and was himself wounded, and breathed out his last having 
first glutted his soul with slaughter. And Aristomenes 
called all the Messenians back from the fight, except those 
who were fighting with remarkable bravery, whom he 
allowed to remain fighting. And the rest he ordered to 
follow where he should lead, with the women and children 
in their lines. To the command of this portion of the army 
he appointed Gorgus and Manticlus : and himself took up 
a position in the front rank, and by the motion of his head 
and the waving of his spear plainly showed that he was 
asking for a passage through, and already meditated retreat. 
Emperamus and the Spartans on the spot were right glad 
to let the Messenians through their lines, and not to irritate 
too much men who were mad in rage and desperate to the 
last degree. And Hecas the seer also bade them act so. 



DIRECTLY the Arcadians heard of the capture of Eira, 
they at once begged Aristocrates to lead them to save 
the Messenians or perish with them. But he having been 
bribed by the Lacedaemonians refused to lead them, and 
said that he knew none of the Messenians were alive for 
them to assist. But when the Arcadians received more 
certain intelligence that some survived who had been com- 
pelled to leave Eira, they set out to meet them at Mount 
Lycaeus, having got ready both food and raiment, and sent 
certain influential persons to comfort the Messenians and 
guide them on their march. And when they got safe to 
Mount Lycaeus the Arcadians welcomed them, and treated 
them kindly in other respects, and invited them to dwell in 
their cities, and said they would give them a share of the 
land. But Aristomenes in his grief for the capture of Eira 
and his hatred to the Lacedaemonians contrived the follow- 
ing plan. He selected from the whole body 500 Messe- 
nians, who he knew were prodigal of their lives, and selected 
them in the hearing of the other Ai-cadians and Aristo- 
crates, not knowing that he was a traitor — for he thought 
Aristocrates had fled through cowardice and want of man- 
liness rather than in treason — and he asked the 500 in his 
presence, whether they would die with him to avenge their 
country. And when they said they would he revealed his 
whole plan, that the following evening he intended to lead 
them to Sparta. For at this time most of the Lacedae- 
monians were at Eira, and others were busy in plundering 
the property of the Messenians. " And if we should capture 
Sparta and keep it," continued Aristomenes, " we shall be 
able to exchange it for Messene : and if we fail we shall 
die together, having done deeds that posterity will not 
forget." After he had made this speech, about 300 of the 
Arcadians wished to join him in his desperate undertaking. 
And for the moment they delayed their departure, as the 
victims were not auspicious. On the following day how- 
ever they knew that their secret had been revealed to the 
LacedsDmonians, and that they had been betrayed by Aristo- 


crates for the second time. For Aristocrates had at once 
disclosed by letter the design of Aristomenes, and given 
the letter to his most trusty slave, and sent it to Anaxander 
at Sparta. And on his return this slave was intercepted 
by some Arcadians who had previously been hostile to 
Aristocrates, and were now rather suspicious about him. 
And having intercepted this slave they brought him before 
the Arcadians, and showed the people the answer of Anax- 
ander from Lacedaemon. It was to the effect that, just as 
Aristocrates' flight at an opportune moment from the Great 
Trench had not been unrewarded by the Lacedaemonians, 
so he should not be without further reward for his present 
information. And when this was reported to them all, 
the Arcadians began to stone Aristocrates, and urged the 
Messenians to do the same. But they looked at Aristo- 
menes. And he looked on the ground and wept. So the 
Arcadians stoned Aristocrates to death, and cast him un- 
buried out of their borders, and put up a pillar in the temple 
of Lycsean Zeus with the following inscription, " Time 
is sure to bring justice at last to an unjust king, and 
time with Zeus' cooperation has easily found out Messene's 
traitor. It is difficult for a perjured man to escape the god. 
Hail, royal Zeus, and save Arcadia." 


AND all the Messenians that were captured at Eira, or 
in any other part of Messenia, were incorporated by 
the Lacedaemonians among the Helots : and the people of 
Pylos and Mothone and all the maritime towns removed 
in ships, after the capture of Eira, to Cyllene the arsenal of 
Elis. And from there they sent to the Messenians in 
Arcadia, wishing them to join them in an expedition to seek 
some city to dwell in, and bade them make Aristomenes 
the founder of the colony. But he said that for his part 
as long as he lived he would fight against the LacedsB- 
monians, and that he knew very well that Sparta would 
always have trouble through him : but he gave them Gorgfus 
and Manticlus as their leaders. Euergetidas also retired to 


MouBt Lycaeus with the rest of the Messenians : and from 
thence, when he saw that Aristomenes' plan about the cap- 
tnre of Sparta had fallen through, having got together 
about 50 of the Messenians he made a raid against the 
Lacedemonians at Eira, and faUing in with them still plun- 
dering he turned their chant of victory into a dirge. And 
fate seized him there, and Aristomenes ordered the leaders 
of the Messenians, and whoever wished, to take part in the 
colony to go to Cyllene. And all took part in it, except 
those that were prevented by old age, or were destitute of 
means for dwelling abroad. And these remained where 
they were among the Arcadians. 

Eira was taken, and the second war between the Lacedae- 
monians and the Messenians finished, in the Archonship 
over the Athenians of Autosthenes, in the first year of the 
28th Olympiad, in which Chionis the Laconian was victor. 
And when the Messenians had got together at Cyllene, 
they resolved to winter there for that winter, and the people 
of Ehs provided them with supplies and money : but 
directly Spring came they deliberated where they should 
go. And the view of Gorgus was that they should occupy 
Zacynthus beyond Cephallenia, and become islanders in- 
stead of dwelling on the mainland, and shotdd sail in their 
ships to the maritime parts of Laconia and ravage their 
tenitory. Manticlus on the other hand exhorted them to 
forget Messene and their animosity to the Lacedaemonians, 
and sail to Sardinia and occupy that large and fertile island. 
Meantime Anaxilas sent a message to the Messenians in- 
viting them to Italy. He was King at Rhegium, and fourth 
in descent from Alcidamidas, who had migrated from 
^lessene to Rhegium, after the death of King Aristodemus 
and the capture of Ithome. This Anaxilas then invited the 
Messenians, and when they went to Rhegium he told them 
that the people of Zancle were at variance with him, and 
that they had a fertile country and a city in the rich part 
of Sicily, all which he said he would give them, and help 
them in conquering the country. And as thev eagerly ac- 
cepted his offer, Anaxilas conveyed them over into Sicily. 
Now Zancle was a place which had originally been occupied 
by pirates, and, as the land there was then unoccupied, 
they built a fort near the harbour, and made Zancle their 



headquarters for expeditions both by land and sea : and 
their leaders were Cratsemenes the Samian and Perieres 
from Chalcis. And eventually Perieres and Crataemenes 
resolved to invite in other colonists from Grreece. But now 
Anaxilas conquered the people of Zancle who put out to sea 
in their fleet, and the Messenians conquered them on land. 
And being blockaded by land by the Messenians and simulta- 
neously by sea by the people of Rhegium, when their fort 
was taken, they fled for refuge to the altars of the gods 
and to the temples. Anaxilas however urged on the Mes- 
senians to slay the suppliants, though they prayed hard for 
quarter, and to enslave the rest together with their women 
and children. But Gorgus and Manticlus begged that 
Anaxilas would not compel them, who had been shamefully 
treated by their fellow-countrymen, to act with equal cruelty 
to Greeks. And after that they took the people of Zancle 
from the altars, and having mutually given and received 
pledges dwelt together as one people. But the name of 
the town they changed from Zancle to Messene. All this 
took place in the 29th OljTupiad, in which Chionis the 
Laconian was victor the second time, and Miltiades was 
Archon at Athens. And Manticlus built a temple of Her- 
cules for the new colony, and a statue of the god was 
placed outside the fort called Hercules Manticlus, just as 
Belus at Babylon got its name from an Egyptian called 
Belus, and Ammon in Libya from the name of the shep- 
herd who built the temple. This was the end of the wan- 
dering of the Messenian exiles. 


MEANTIME Aristomenes, when he refused the leader- 
ship of those who were going on the new colony, 
married his sister Agnagora to Tharyx of Phigalia, and 
his two eldest daughters to Damothoidas of Lepreum 
and Theopompus of Herseum. And he himself went to 
Delphi and consulted the oracle. "What answer was re- 
turned is not recorded. But Damagetus a native of Rhodes, 
the King of lalysus, had also at this time come to consult 


the oracle as to where he should marry a wife from, and 
the Pythian Priestess replied that he was to marry the 
daughter of the noblest of the Greeks. And Aristomenes 
had a third daughter, and he married her, thinking her 
father far the noblest Greek of his time. And Aristomenes 
went to Rhodes with his daughter, and from thence he 
intended to go to Sardis to Ardys the son of Gyges, and to 
Ecbatana the royal residence of the Medes to the Court of 
King Phraortes, but before he could carry out this inten- 
tion he chanced to die of some illness, so that the fates did 
not permit him to wreak his vengeance on the Lacedaemo- 
nians. And Damagetus and the people of Rhodes built a 
splendid monument to him, and paid honours to his memory. 
The traditions about those who are called the Diagoridap 
in Rhodes, (who were descended from Diagoras, the son of 
Damagetus, the son of Dorieus, the son of Damagetus by 
the daughter of Aristomenes), I have omitted, that I might 
not appear to have introduced irrelevant matter. 

And the Lacedaemonians, when they had made them- 
selves masters of Messenia, shared it out among themselves 
all but the territory of the Asineei, and Mothone they gave 
to the people of Nauplia who had recently been ejected by 
the Argives. 

And the Messenians who were captured at Eira, and 
compulsorily incorporated among the Helots, revolted again 
from the Lacedaemonians in the 79th Olympiad, in which the 
Corinthian Xenophon was victor, and Archimedes Archon 
at Athens. And they seized the following opportunity. 
Some of the Lacedaemonians, on a charge for which they 
were condemned to death, fled to Taenarum as suppliants ; 
and there the Ephors took them from the altar and slew 
them. And the wrath of Poseidon came upon those 
Spartans who had violated his rights of sanctuary, and he 
adjudged the town to be utterly razed to the ground. And 
it was after this calamity that the Helots who were Messe- 
nians revolted and went to Mount Ithome. And the 
Lacedaemonians sent for several allies to help to subdue 
them, and among others for Cimon (the son of Miltiades) 
their friend, of whom they also begged some Athenian 
troops. But when these Athenian troops came they sus- 
pected them as likely to introduce revolutionary ideas 


among their own men, so in their suspicion they soon sent 
them home again from Ithome. But when the Athenians 
observed that suspicion on the part of the Lacedaemonians 
they were indignant and became friendly to the Argives, and, 
when those of the Messenians who were besieged at Ithome 
were allowed to surrender upon conditions, gave Naupactus 
to them, (having taken it from the Locrians in ^tolia 
called Ozolas). And the Messenians were allowed to sur- 
render partly because of the strength of the place, partly 
because the Pythian Priestess prophesied to the Lacedeemo- 
nians that there would be vengeance from Zeus of Ithome 
if they violated his right of sanctuary. So they were 
allowed to evacuate the Peloponnese upon conditions for 
these reasons. 


AND when they got Naupactus, they were not content 
with the town and region that they had got through 
the Athenians, but a strong desire came upon them to get 
a place for themselves by their own valour. And as they 
knew that the (Eniadae, who had a rich soil in Acarnania, 
had been for all time at variance with the Athenians, they 
marched against them. And being not superior in point 
of numbers, but far superior in respect to bravery, they 
won a victory over them, and shut them up in their fort 
and blockaded them. And the Messenians employed 
every human invention for taking cities, they tried to get 
over the walls by scaling ladders, and undermined the fort, 
and bringing up such engines as they could get at short 
notice kept battering away at the walls. And those in the 
town, fearing that if the town was taken they would be un- 
done, and their wives and children sold into slavery, pre- 
ferred to surrender upon conditions. And for about a year 
the Messenians occupied the town and enjoyed the produce 
of the country, but the year after the Acarnanians gather- 
ing a force together from all their towns planned a march 
upon Naupactus. But they changed their minds about 
this when they saw that their march would be through 
the country of the ^tolians, who were alway.s hostile to 


them, and at the same time they expected the Naupactians 
had a navy, as indeed they had, and as thev were masters 
of the sea it would not be possible to subdue them with a 
land army. So they changed their plan with alacrity, and 
marched against the Messenians at CEniadce. And they 
began to lay siege to the town : for they did not suppose that 
so few men would come to such a pitch of recklessness as 
to sally out and fight against them. And the Messenians 
had got together a store of corn and other provisions, ex- 
pecting a long siege : but they thought before the blockade 
commenced they would have one good fight in the open, 
and as they were Messenians, who had only been inferior to 
the Lacedasmonians in luck not in courage, they would not 
be frightened at this mob that had come from Acamania. 
And the Athenians remembered the action at Marathon, 
how thirty mvriads of Medes were slain by less than 
10,000. So they determined to fight the Acarnanians, and 
the battle was fought as follows. The Acarnanians inas- 
much as they were far more numerous easily surrounded 
the Messenians, except where the gates at the back of the 
Messenians checked them, and the men on the walls 
stoutly defended their comrades. Here they could not be 
surrounded. But both their flanks were sore pressed by 
the Acarnanians, and they shot at them from all sides. 
And the Messenians being a compact body, wherever they 
made a general attack on the Acarnanians, threw the 
>2nemy's ranks into confusion, and killed and wounded 
many, yet could not bring about a complete rout. For 
wherever the Acarnanians observed that their lines were 
pierced by the Messenians, there they brought up large 
detachments of men, and beat the Messenians back by sheer 
force of numbers. And whenever the Messenians were un- 
successful in an attack, and tried in some other place to 
break the Acarnanian line, the same result would follow. 
At whatever point they attacked they produced confusion 
and something like a rout, but the Acarnanians came 
swarming up, and so the Messenians had very unwilUngly 
to retire. And the struggle being very evenly poised till 
night came on, and the attacking force of the Acarnanians 
being augmented the following evening from several 
towns, a regular blockade of the Messenians commenced. 


And they had no fear that the town would be taken by 
storm, either by the Acarnanians getting over the walls, or 
by their being compelled to desert their garrison duty. 
But by the 8th month all their supplies were consumed. 
To the Acaraanians they jeeringly cried out that their pro- 
visions would last even a ten years' siege : but about the 
time of first sleep they quietly slipped out of (Eniadoe, and 
being compelled to fight their way through directly the 
Acarnanians got to know of this flitting, lost about 300 but 
killed a still greater number of the enemy, and most of 
them succeeded in cutting their way through, and by the 
assistance of the ^tolians who were friendly to them got 
safe to Naupactus. 


AND from this time forward their hostility to the Lace- 
demonians increased, as they notably shewed in the 
war between the Peloponnesians and Athenians. For they 
made Naupactus a base against the Peloponnese, and when 
the Spartans were cut off at Sphacteria some Messenian 
bowmen from Naupactus assisted the Athenians. But 
after the reverse of the Athenians at -^Egospotamoi, the 
Lacedsemonians being masters of the sea drove the Messe- 
nians from Naupactus, and some went into Sicily to their 
kinsmen at Zancle and Rhegium, but most to Libya to 
the Euesperitas, who being hard pressed in war by some of 
the neighbouring barbarians invited in the Greeks as 
colonists. To them went most of the Messenians under 
Comon, who had been their General at Sphacteria. 

And a year before the Theban victory at Leuctra, the 
god foretold to the Messenians their return to the Pelopon- 
nese. For the priest of Hercules (they say) in Messene at 
the Sicilian Strait saw in a dream Hercules Manfciclus in- 
vited in a friendly way by Zeus to Ithome. And among the 
Euesperitas Comon dreamt that he had dealings with his 
dead mother, and that subsequently his mother came to life 
again. And he hoped as the Athenians were now powerful 
at sea that they would be restored to Naupactus : and the 


dream seemed to indicate that Messene would revive. And 
no long time after carje to the Lacedaemonians at Leuetra 
the disaster that had long: been fated : for the coneludinor 
words of the oracle given to Aristodemus the king of the 
Messenians were, 

" Do as fate bids : woe comes to all in turn.* 

As at that time it was fated for him and the Messenians 
to be nnfortunate, so in after time was it fated for Lace- 
daemon when her day had come. And now the Thebans 
after the victory of Lenctra sent messengers to Italy and 
Sicily and to the Euesperitae. to recall the Messenians from 
tbeir wanderings to the Peloponnese. And they gathered 
together quicker than anyone would have thought, from 
yearning affection to their fatherland, and from their 
abiding hate to the Lacedaemonians. And Epaminondas 
was in doubt what city he should build as a base against 
the Lacedaemonians, or where he should find a site, for the 
Messenians wotdd not dwell again at Andania and CEchalia, 
because they had been so unlucky when they lived there 
before. As he was in this doubt they say an old man, very 
like a priest of the mysteries, appeared to him in a vision of 
the night, and said to him, " My gift to you is universal 
conquest in war : and when you shall leave this earth I will 
make your name, Theban, immortal and ever glorious. 
But do you in return restore to the Messenians their 
country and cities, for the wrath of Castor and Pollux 
towards them is now appeased." These were his words to 
Epaminondas, who revealed the dream to Epiteles the son 
of -lEschines, whom the Argives chose as their Greneral and 
the restorer of ]\!essene. This man was bidden in a dream, 
in the place where he should find at Ithome an ivy and 
myrtle tree growing, to dig between them and recover an 
old woman who was ill and confined there in a brass coflfin 
and already near to death's door. And Epiteles when day 
broke went to the appointed place, and dug up a cinerary 
um of brass, and took it at once to Epaminondas and nar- 
rated his dream, and he told him to remove the lid and see 
what was in it. And he after sacrifice and prayer to the 
person who had sent him this dream opened the um, and 
found some tin beaten very thin, and rolled up like a book. 


On it were written the mysteries of the Great Goddesses, and 
it was in fact what Aristomenes had])uried. And they say 
the person who appeared to Epiteles and Epaminondas in 
their dreams was Caucon, who formerly came from Athens 
to Andania to Messene the daughter of Triopas. 


THE wrath of Castor and Pollux against the Messenians 
began before the battle at Stenyclerus, and I conjec- 
ture it to have originated in the following way. Panormus 
and Gonippus, two lads of Andania in the bloom of youth, 
were great friends, and used jointly to make incursions and 
raids into Laconia. And as the Lacedaemonians in camp 
were keeping the festival of Castor and Pollux, and after 
the banquet were full of wine and merrymaking, Gonippus 
and Panormus, clad in white tunics and purple cloaks, well 
mounted, with hats on their heads and spears in their 
hands, presented themselves to the Lacedaemonians. And 
when they saw them they bowed down before them and 
worshipped them, thinking they were Castor and Pollux 
who had come to the sacrifice. But these young men mixed 
up with them and rode through them and stabbed many 
with their lances, and, after many of them had fallen, rode 
back to Andania, having thus outraged the festival of 
Castor and Pollux. This is what I think made the Twin 
Brethren hate the Messenians. But now, as was hinted to 
Epaminondas in his dream, the Twin Brethren had no 
objection to the return of the Messenians. And Epaminon- 
das was very greatly encouraged also to the restoration of 
Messene by the oracles of Bacis, who had been driven mad by 
the Nymphs and had given various prophetic utterances to 
several of the Greeks, and amongst others this one about 
the return of the Messenians : 

" And then shall Sparta lose her glorious flower, 
Messene built again be for all time." 

I find also that Bacis foretold the manner in which Eira 
would be taken : this is one of his prophetic lines, 

" Those from conquered Messene with its splashing fountains." 

BOOK rv. — MISSEKIA. 281 

And as the records of the Mysteries had been recovered, 
the priests entered them in books. And Epaminondas, 
as the place where the Messenians now have their capital 
seemed most convenient to settle in, bade the seers 
examine if the gods were favourable to the spot. And on 
their replying that the omens were favourable, he at once 
made preparations for bnilding the town, ordering a large 
supply of stone, and sending for builders who should artisti- 
cally lay out streets and build houses and temples and lines 
of walls. And when all was in readiness the Arcadians 
furnished victims, and Epaminondas and the Thebans 
sacrificed to Dionysus and Apollo Ismenius in the accus- 
tomed manner, and the Argives to Argive Hera and 
Nemean Zeus, and the Messenians to Zeus of Ithome and 
Castor and Pollux, and the priests of the Mysteries to the 
Great Groddesses and Caucon. And with one consent they 
invoked the heroes to come and dwell with them, especially 
Messene the daughter of Triopas, and Eurytus and Apha- 
reus and his sons, and of the Hei-aclidfe Cresphontes and 
^pytus. But most unanimous of all was the cry for Aristo- 
menes. And that day they devoted to sacrifices and prayers, 
and on the following days they raised the circuit of the walls, 
and began to btiild their houses and temples inside the 
walls. And they carried on this work only to the music of 
Boeotian and Argive flutes, and the tunes of Sacadas and 
Pronomus now first came into competition. And they 
called the capital Messene, and they restored others of 
their towns. But the people of Nauplia were not turned 
out of Mothone, the Asinaei also were allowed to remain 
where they were, the latter out of gratitude because they 
had refused to join the Lacedaemonians against them. And 
the people of Nauplia, when the Messenians returned to 
the Peloponnese, had brought them as gifts whatever they 
had, and had continually prayed to the deity for their 
return, and had also made many requests to the Messenians 
for their own safety. 

Thus the Messenians returned to the Peloponnese, and 
were restored to their country, 28/ years after the capture 
of Eira, when Dyscinetus was Archon at Athens, and in 
the third year of the 102nd Olympiad, in which Damon of 
Thurii won the second prize. It was indeed no short 


time that the Plataeans were exiles from their country, or 
the Delians when (expelled from Delos by the Athenians) 
they dwelt at Adramyttium. The Minyse from Orcho- 
menus also, having been driven out by the Thebans from 
Orchomenus after the battle of Leuctra, were restored to 
Bceotia by Philip the son of Amyntas, as the Plateeans also. 
And although Alexander stript Thebes of Thebans, yet 
not many years afterwards Cassander the son of Antipater 
rebuilt it. The exile from Platsea seems to have been the 
longest of those which I have recorded, however it was 
not longer than two generations. But the Messenians were 
wanderers from the Peloponnese for nearly 300 years, 
during which time it is evident that they abandoned none 
of their national customs, nor did they change their Doric 
dialect, but even to our day they preserve it purer than 
any other of the Peloponnesians. 


ON their return no apprehension was felt by them at first 
about the Lacedaemonians : for they, being afraid of 
the Thebans, did not interfere with the rebuilding of Mes- 
sene, nor the gathering of the Arcadians into one town. 
But when the Phocian War, otherwise called the Holy 
War, withdrew the Thebans from the Peloponnese, then 
the Lacedaemonians pricked up their courage, and could no 
longer keep their hands off the Messenians. And the 
Messenians bore the brunt of the war alone, except the 
assistance they got from the Argives and Arcadians ; they 
also begged for help from the Athenians, — but they replied 
that they could not join them in an incursion into Laconia, 
but if the Lacediemonians were the aggressors and carried 
the war into Messenia, then they promised that they would 
not fail them. And eventually the Messenians got the 
help of Philip, the son of Amyntas, and the Macedonians, 
and this they say prevented them from participation in 
the struggle of the Greeks at Chseronea. Not that they 
would ever have been inclined to take up arms against the 


Greeks. But after the death of Alexander, when the 
Greeks commenced a second war against the Macedonians, 
the Messenians took their part in this, as I have before 
shewn in my acconnt of Attica. But they did not join 
the Greeks in fighting against the Galati, as Cleonymus 
and the Lacedfemonians would not make a treaty with 

And not long afterwards the Messenians occupied Elis, 
partly by cunning partly by audacity. The people of Elis 
in ancient times were the most orderly of all the Pelopon- 
nesians, but when Philip the son of Amyntas did all that 
harm to Greece that we have mentioned, and corrupted by 
bribes the most influential of the people of Elis, then for 
the first time in their history the people of Elis took up arms 
and became factious. And after they had taken the first 
plunge, they were likely with less reluctance to go into 
future civil strife, inasmuch as through the Lacedfemonians 
their policy had been shifted, and they had drifted into 
civil war. And the Lacedismonians hearing of the factions 
at Elis made preparations to assist those who were for their 
party. And while they were drilling and mobilizing their 
forces, about 1000 picked men of the Messenians secretly 
approached Elis, with Lacedaemonian colours on their 
shields. And when the men in EKs who were friendly to 
the Spartans saw their shields, they concluded they had 
come to help them and admitted them within the walls. 
But when the Messenians got in, in the way I have de- 
scribed, they expelled from the town the Laceda?monian 
party, and entrusted the town to their own friends. Their 
stratagem was Homeric, and the Messenians seem to have 
imitated Homer for the nonce, for Homer has represented 
in the lUad Patroclus wearing the armour of Achilles, and 
how the Trojans, thinking that Achilles was leading the 
attack, were thrown into confusion in their van. Other 
stratagems of war are found in Homer, as when he describes 
two Greek spies coming to the Trojans by night instead of 
one, and afterwards a supposed deserter coming to Troy 
really to spy out the weak points. Moreover he represents 
those Trojans who were either too young or too old to fight 
as manning the walls, while those of a suitable age took 
the field against the Greeks. And those of the Greeks 


that were wounded gave their armour to other fighting 
men, that their services too might not be altogether 
lost. Thus Homer's ideas have been generally useful to 


AND no long time after this action at Elis the Macedo- 
nians under Demetrius, the son of Philip the son of 
Demetrius, attacked Messene. Most of the audacity dis- 
played by Perseus against Philip and his son Demetrius I 
have already described in my account about Sicyon : and 
the capture of Messene took place as follows. Pliilip was 
in need of money, and, as he must have it by hook or by 
crook, sent Demetrius with a fleet to the Peloponnese. And 
Demetrius chanced to put in at one of the least frequented 
harbours of Argolis : and without losing time he led his 
army by the shortest cuts through the country to Messene. 
And having posted in the van all his light-armed troops, 
as he was well acquainted with the road to Ithome, he got 
stealthily into the town a little before dawn, and took up 
his position between the town and the citadel. And when 
day broke and those in the town perceived their imminent 
peril, their first thought was that the Lacedgemonians had 
got into the town, so they rushed against them with the 
greatest alacrity owing to their ancient animosity. But 
when both from their arms and language they discovered 
that they were Macedonians under Demetrius the son of 
Philip, a panic came over them, when they considered the 
military renown of the Macedonians, and the good fortune 
which they had invariably had. However the magnitude 
of the impending danger suggested to them an almost 
supernatural bravery, and at the same time the hope to see 
better days supported them : for they could not but think 
their return to the Peloponnese after so long an exile was 
not against the will of the Deity. The Messenians there- 
fore in the town rushed against the Macedonians with 
impetuosity, and the garrison in the citadel galled them 
from their higher position. The Macedonians from their 


courage and tactical skill fought at first like lions : but at 
last spent vrith their long march, and not onlj pressed 
hard by men, but pelted with tiles and stones by the 
women, fled in disorder. And most of them perished 
miserably, being pushed down the rocks, for Ithome was 
very precipitous here, but a few threw away their arms and 
got off safe. 

What prevented the Messenians from joining at first the 
AchseanLeague was as follows. They had of their own accord 
gone to the aid of the Lacedfemonians when they were at- 
tacked by Pyrrhus the son of -.-Eacus, and for this good ser- 
vice there were already friendlier relations between them- 
selves and Sparta. They did not therefore wish to revive 
the old feud by going to the Acha?an League, as the 
Achaeans were most openly hostile to the Lacedasmonians. 
And what has not escaped my notice, and cannot have 
escaped the notice of the Messenians is that, even had there 
been no Achaean League, the Achaeans would have been 
hostile to the Lacedaemonians, for among the Achseans the 
Argives and Arcadians were no small element. In pro- 
cess of time however the Messenians joined the Achaean 
League. And not long afterwards Cleomenes, the son of 
Leonidas and grandson of Cleonymus, took Megalopolis the 
chief town of the Arcadians in trace time. In the capture of 
the town about a third of the inhabitants were captured or 
slain, but Philopcemen the son of Craugis and those who 
escaped with him (and they say that rather more than two 
thirds of the people of Megalopolis got away) were kindly 
received by the Messenians, partly on account of the 
ancient friendliness which the Arcadians had first exhi- 
bited in the days of Aristomenes, and partly in consequence 
of the part they had taken in the rebtiilding of Messene. 
The Messenians even went so far as to assign to the Arca- 
dians equal rights to themselves. Such \-icissitudes and 
changes are there in all human affairs, that the deity put it 
into the power of the Messenians to preserve in turn the 
Arcadians, and (what was still less to be expected) one 
day to capture Sparta. For when they fought against Cleo- 
menes at Sellasia they joined Aratus and the Achaeans in 
taking Sparta. And when the Lacedemonians had got rid 
of Cleomenes, there rose up against them the tyrant 


Maclianidas : and after liis death Nabis spi'ung up as tyrant 
over them. And, as he not only plundered men but also 
sacrilegiously robbed the holy places, in no long time he 
amassed considerable sums of money, and got together 
with this money an army. And when he occupied Messene 
Philopoemen and the people of MegalopoHs made a sally by 
night, and the Spartan tyrant departed on conditions. And 
the Achseans after this, in consequence of some difference 
with the Messenians, marched out against them in full force, 
and ravaged their territory. And again about harvest time 
they collected a force for the purpose of attacking Mes- 
senia, but Dinocrates a prominent man among the people, 
who had been recently elected ruler of the Messenians, 
forced Lycortas and the army with him to retire without 
effecting their object, and having occupied the byroads 
between Messenia and Arcadia he protected^ the Messe- 
nians in their town and in all the neighbouring districts. 
And when Philopoemen with a few cavalry came a little 
later than the army of Lycortas, not having been able to 
gather any tidings about them, the Messenians having the 
advantage of ground beat them in battle, and took Philo- 
pcemen alive. And the manner of his capture and his death 
I shall relate hereafter in my account of Arcadia. Suffice 
it here to state that those Messenians who were guilty of 
the death of Philopoemen were punished, and Messene again 
joined the Achaean League. 

Hitherto I have had to deal with the many sufferings of 
the Messenians, and to describe how the Deity, having 
scattered them to the ends of the earth, and to places most 
remote from the Peloponnese, restored them to their own 
country a long time afterwards. And now let us turn to 
a description of the country and its towns, 

^ Reading jy/xwvEv. 



THERE is in our days in Messenia, about 20 stades 
from the Choerian dell, a town bj the sea called Abia. 
They say in old times it was called Ire, and that it was 
one of the seven towns, which Homer represents Agamem- 
non as promising to Achilles. And when Hyllus and the 
Dorians were conquered in battle by the Acheeans, then 
they say Abia, the nurse of Glenus the son of Hercules, 
went to Ire, and there lived, and built a temple of Her- 
cules, and for that reason Cresphontes afterwards assigned 
her several honours, and changed the name of the town to 
her name Abia. There were notable temples there both to 
Hercules and ^sculapius. 

And Pharae is distant from Abia about 80 stades, and 
the water by the road is salt. The Emperor Augustus 
ordered the Messenians at Pharae to be ranked under 
Laconia. The founder of the city was they say Pharis, the 
son of Hermes by Phylodamea the daughter of Danaus. 
And Pharis they say had no male children, but only a 
daughter Telegone. The direct line of genealogy has been 
given by Homer in the Iliad, who says that the twins 
Crethon and Ortilochus were the sons of Diodes, and that 
Diodes himself was the son of Ortilochus, the son of 
Alpheus. But he has said nothing about Telegone, who 
according to the Messenian tradition was the wife of 
Alpheus and mother of Ortilochus. I have also heard at 
Pharae that Diodes had a daughter Anticlea as well as his 
twin sons, and that she bare Nicomachus and Gorgasus to 
Machaon the son of -^sculapius : they lived at Pharae, and 
after the death of Diodes succeeded to the kingdom. And 
a constant tradition about them has prevailed even to this 
day, that they have the power of healing illnesses and 
people maimed in body. And because of this the people 
sacrifice to them and offer votive offerings. At Pharae 
there is also a temple and ancient statue of Fortune. The 
first person that I know of that has mentioned Fortune is 
Homer. He has mentioned her in his Hymn to Demeter, 


when enumerating tlie other daughters of Oceanus, how 
they played with Demeter's daughter Proserpine, and 
among them Fortune, also a daughter of Oceanus. These 
are the lines.^ " We all were in the pleasant meadow, 
Leucippe, Phaeno, Electra, and lanthe, Melobosis, and 
Fortune, and Ocyroe of the beautiful eyes." But he has 
said nothing further about her, how she is the greatest 
goddess in human affairs and has the greatest influence, as 
in the Iliad he represented Athene and Enyo as supreme 
in war, and Artemis as dreaded in childbirth, and Aphro- 
dite as the goddess of marriages. He has not symbolized 
Fortune in this way. But Bupalus, a man of wonderful 
ability in building temples and making models of animals, 
is the first person we know of that made a statue of Fortune. 
His was for the people of Smyrna. Fortune has a globe 
on her head, and in one of her hands what is called by 
the Greeks the horn of Amalthea. Thus did he typify 
the actions of this goddess. Pindar also subsequently 
wrote various lines about Fortune, and named her City- 


NOT far from Pharae is the grove of Carnean Apollo, 
and a fountain of water in it, and Pharas is about six 
stades from the sea. As you go from thence into the in- 
terior of Messenia about 80 stades you come to the town of 
Thuria, — which they say Homer called Anthea in his verses. 
And Augustus gave Thuria to the Spartans. For when the 
future Emperor of Rome was at war with !Mark Antony, 
several Greeks and especially Messenians fought for Antony 
because the Lacedaemonians espoused the side of Augustus. 
Accordingly Augustus punished the Messenians and others 
who had opposed him, some more some less. And the people 
of Thuria left their ancient city which was built on a height, 
and went and dwelt in the plain. Not that they altogether 
abandoned the upper city, for there are ruins of their walls 

' Hymn to Demeter, lines 417, 418, 420. 


and a temple there called the temple of the Syrian goddess. 
And a river called Aris flows bj their town in the plain. 

And there is in the interior a village called Calamae and 
a place called Limnae : in the latter place is a temple of 
Artemis of Limnas, where they say Teleclus the king of 
Sparta was killed. And as you go from Thuria in the 
direction of Arcadia are the sources of the river Pamisus, 
in which small boys by being dipped are cured of diseases. 
And as you go to the left from these sources of the river 
and go forward about 40 stades, you come to the city of 
the Messenians under Mount Ithome : which is encircled 
not only by Mount Ithome but also in the direction of 
the Pamisus by Mount Eva. The mountain they say was 
caDed Eva from the Bacchic cry Evoe, which Dionysus and 
his attendant women first uttered here. And round Mes- 
sene is a circular wall entirely constructed of stone, and 
towers and battlements are built on it. As to the walls of 
the Babylonians, or those called Memnon's in Susa amongst 
the Persians, I have neither seen them nor heard anything 
of them from eye witnesses : but I can confidently aflfirm 
that the wall round Messene is stronger than those at Am- 
brosus in Phocis or at Byzantium or at Rhodes. And 
in the marketplace at Messene there is a statue of Zeus 
Soter, and a conduit called Arsinoe, which got its name 
from the daughter of Leucippus, and water flows under- 
ground to feed it from a well called Clepsydra. And the 
gods who have temples are Poseidon and Aphrodite. And 
the most notable thing is a statue of the Mother of the 
Gods in Parian marble by Damophon, who most artisti- 
cally rivetted the Zeus at Olympia when the ivory got 
loose. And honours were bestowed upon him by the people 
of Elis. He too designed the statue that the people of 
Messene call Laphria : whom they are accustomed to 
worship for the following reason. Among the Calydonians, 
who worship Artemis most of all the gods, her title is 
Laphria. And the Messenians who received Naupactus 
from the Athenians, and lived consequently very near to 
-iEtolia, borrowed the worship of Artemis Laphria from the 
Calydonians. The statue I shall describe elsewhere. Tht 
title Laphria is only given to Artemis by the Messenians 
and the people of Patrse in Achaia. Ephesian Artemis is 



the title which all cities recognize, and by which men 
privately worship her as greatest of the gods ; partly 
from the fame of the Amazons, who are said to have 
established the worship of her image, partly because she 
had a temple at Ephesus from time immemorial. And 
three other things contributed to her glory also, the size 
of the temple which exceeds all other human structures, 
the celebrity of the city of Ephesus, and the splendour of 
the goddess' shrine. 

At Messene there is also a temple and stone statue of 
Ilithyia. And hard by is a hall of the Curetes, where they 
sacrifice all kinds of living things alike. Beginning with 
bulls and goats, they even go as far as to cast birds into 
the flames. There is also a temple sacred to Demeter, 
and statues of Castor and Pollux represented as carrying 
ofE the daughters of Leucippus. I have already shown 
in a previous part of my work that the Messenians assert 
that Castor and Pollux are indigenous with them and not 
with the Lacedaemonians. And they have many statues 
well worth seeing in the temple of ^sculapius. For besides 
the statues of the god and his sons, and besides those of 
Apollo and the Muses and Hercules, there are statues of 
Thebes and Epaminondas the son of Cleommis, and of 
Fortune and of Lightbringing Artemis. Those in stone are 
the work of Damophon, the only Messenian statuary that 
I know of that has produced any remarkable statues. The 
effigy of Epaminondas in iron is by another hand. There 
is also at Messene a temple of Triopas and her statue in 
gold and Parian marble : and the paintings at the back of 
the temple are Aphareus and his sons, the kings of Messene 
before the expedition of the Dorians to the Peloponnese, 
and after the return of the Herachdse Cresphontes, the 
leader of the Dorians, and of those that dwelt at Pylos 
Nestor and Thrasymedes and Antilochus, who were pre- 
ferred to the sons of Nestor partly because they were older, 
partly because they had taken part in the Trojan ex- 
pedition. There are paintings also of Leucippus the 
brother of Aphareus, and of Hilaira, Phoebe, and Arsinoe. 
There are paintings also of -^sculapius, (the son of Ar- 
sinoe according to the tradition of the Messenians,) and 
Machaon and Podalirius, for they also had a share in the 


expedition to Ilium. These paintings were executed by 
Omphalion, the pupil of Nieias the son of Nicomedes : some 
say that he was also the slave of Nieias and his favourite. 


THE temple at Messene called the Sacrificial Chamber 
has statues of the gods generally worshipped among 
the Greeks, and also an effigy of Epaminondas in brass. 
There are also some ancient tripods, such as Homer de- 
scribes as not having experienced fire.^ And the statues 
in the gymnasium are the work of Egyptians, and are 
Hermes Hercules and Theseus, who are wont to be held 
in honour at gymnasiums and palaestras by all Greeks and 
by many barbarians. I also noticed a statue of ^thidas 
who was a contemporary of mine but older, and as he was 
very wealthy the Messenians paid him honours as a hero. 
None of the people of Messene deny that ^thidas was 
wealthy, but some say it is not that ./Ethidas who has a 
statue on the pillar, but a namesake and ancestor. And 
this earlier .^thidas was they say the General of the Mes- 
senians, when Demetrius the son of Philip and his army 
stole into the town by night when they little expected it. 

There is here also the tomb of Aristomenes, and not a 
mere cenotaph, if their account is correct. But when I 
inquired how and from what place they brought home 
Aristomenes' remains, they replied that they sent for them 
from Rhodes, obeying the direction of the God at Delphi. 
They also informed me of the sacrifices at this tomb. 
The bull they intend to sacrifice they bring to the tomb, 
and fasten it to a pillar near the tomb. And it being 
wild and unused to bonds is reluctant to remain there. 
And if by its struggles and mad bounds the pillar is 
moved, it is an auspicious omen to the people of Messene, 
but if it is not moved it is an omen of misfortune. And 
they amuse themselves with the fancy that Aristomenes 
though no longer alive was present at the fight at Leuctra, 
and they say he fought for the Thebans, and was the main 

^ See Horn. D. ix. 122 ; xxiii. 267. 

292 PAusANUs. 

cause of the Lacedaemonian defeat. I know that the 
Chaldsean and Indian astrologers were the first who taught 
that the soul of man is immortal, and several Greeks 
credited their assertion, and notably Plato the son of Aristo. 
And whoever are willing to believe this cannot deny the 
fact that the hatred of Aristomenes to the Lacedtemonians 
was eternal. And what I heard in Thebes lent probability 
to the tradition at Messene, though it does not altogether 
agree with their account. The Thebans say that on the eve 
of the battle at Leuctra they sent to several oracles, and 
among others to that of Trophonius at Lebadea. The 
answers are extant which were received from Ismenian 
and Ptoan Apollo, as also from Abae and Delphi. But the 
response of Trophonius was in 4 hexameter verses. " Be- 
fore contending with the foe erect a trophy, decking out 
the shield, which the ardent Aristomenes of Messene placed 
in my temple. I will assuredly destroy the host of hostile 
warriors." And on the arrival of this oracular response they 
say that Epaminondas prevailed with Xenocrates to send for 
the shield of Aristomenes, and he decked it out as a trophy 
in a place where it would be visible to the Lacedsemonians. 
And some of them recognized the shield as they had seen it 
in time of peace at Lebadea, and all knew of it by report. 
And after the Thebans won their victory, they offered 
Aristomenes' shield again to Trophonius as a votive offer- 
ing. There is also a brazen statue of Aristomenes in the 
racecourse at Messene. And not far from the theatre is 
the temple of Serapis and Isis. 



ND as you go towards the hill of Ithome, where the 
■ Messenians have their citadel, is the spring called 
Clepsydra. However willing one may be it is a matter of 
no small difficulty to enumerate all the people who put in 
the claim that Zeus was born and bred among them. The 
people of Messene have this tradition among others. They 
say that Zeus was reared among them, and that Ithome 
and Neda were his nurses, and that Neda gave her name to 


the river, and Ithome hers to the mountain. And these 
Nymphs they say, when Zeus was stolen away by the 
Curetes from fear of Cronos, washed him here at Clepsy- 
dra, and the spring got its name from the theft of the 
Curetes : and every day they take water from this spring 
to the temple of Zeus of Ithome. And the statue of Zeus 
is the work of Ageladas, and was made originally for the 
Messenians that dwelt at Naupactus. And a priest chosen 
annually keeps the statue in his house. And they have an 
annual feast at Ithome, and originally they had a musical 
contest, as one may infer from other sources, but especially 
from the lines of Eumelus, which are part of his Proces- 
sional Hymn at Delos, " Welcome to Zeus of Ithome was 
the pure muse with free sandals." I think from these 
verses that Eumelus knew that they had a musical contest 
at the Feast of Zeus of Ithome. 

At the gates in the direction of Megalopolis in Arcadia 
there is a statue of Hermes of Athenian design : the 
busts of Hermes among the Athenians are square, and 
others have borrowed this design from them. And if you 
go about 30 stades down from these gates you come to the 
river Balyra. It was so called they say because Thamyris 
threw his lyre away there in his blindness, Thamyris the 
son of Philammon and the nymph Ai'giope. Ai^iope they say 
lived at Parnassus for a while, but when she became preg- 
nant removed to Odiysse, because Philammon would not 
marry her. And this is the reason why they call Thamyris 
Odrysian and Thracian. And the rivers Leucasia and 
Amphitus are tributaries of the Balyra. 

Aiter you have crossed these yon come to the plain called 
the plain of Stenyclerus ; this Stenyclerus was a hero. And 
right opposite the plain is what was called of old (Echalia, 
but in our day the Carnasian grove, mostly of cypress 
trees. And the gods who have statues are Camean Apollo 
and Hermes carrying a ram. And the daughter of De- 
meter is here called the Virgin, and near her statue water 
wells from a spring. But the rites of the Great Goddesses, 
who have their Mysteries at the Carnasian grove, I must 
not reveal : but they are in my opinion second only in sanc- 
tity to the Eleusininian Mysteries. I am also prevented by 
a dream from revealing to the public all about the cinerary 


urn of brass found by the Argive General, in which the re- 
mains of Eurytus the son of Melaneus are kept. And the 
river Charadrus flows along the Carnasian grove, and as you 
go on about 8 stades to the left you come to the ruins of 
Andania. That the town was so named from a woman called 
Andania is admitted by the antiquarians : I know however 
nothing about her parents, or who she married. And on 
the road from Andania to Cyparissiae you come to a place 
called Polichne, where the rivers Electra and Coeus flow. 
Perhaps the names of these rivers refer to Electra the 
daughter of Atlas and to Coeus the father of Leto, or Electra 
and Coeus are possibly some local heroes. 

And after crossing the Electra you come to the well 
called Achaia, and the ruins of the city Dorium. And it is 
here at Dorium that Homer has described Thamyris as 
having been stricken blind, because he said he could excel 
the Muses in singing.^ But Prodicus the Phocaean, (if the 
poem called the Minyad is indeed his), says that punish- 
ments were reserved for Thamyris in Hades because of his 
boastful language to the Muses. But I am of opinion that 
Thamyris lost his eyesight through disease : as indeed 
happened to Homer subsequently. But Homer went on 
composing all his life, for he did not yield to his misfor- 
tune, whereas Thamyris wooed the Muse no longer, com- 
pletely overcome by his ever-present trouble. 


FROM Messene to the mouth of the Pamisus is about 80 
stades, and the Pamisus flows clear and limpid through 
arable land, and is navigable some 10 stades inland. And 
some seafish swim up it especially at the season of spring, 
as they do also up the rivers Rhenus and Mjeander : but 
mostly do they swim up the river Achelous, which has its 
outlet near the islands called the Echinades. And the fish 
that swim up the Pamisus are finer in appearance, because 
the water is clear, and not full of mud like the other rivers 

> Iliad, ii. 694-600. 


I have mentioned. And mullets, being fishes that love 
mnd, are fond of muddy rivers. Now the Greek rivers do 
not seem to produce beasts dangerous to man's life, like the 
Indus, and the Nile in Egypt, and the Rhenus, the Ister, 
the Euphrates, and the Phasis. For they produce beasts that 
devour man, in appearance like the Grlanides at Hermus 
and Maeander, except that they have a darker skin and 
more strength. In these respects the Glanides are defi- 
cient. And the Indus and Nile both furnish crocodiles, 
and the Nile hippopotamuses also, which are as destructive 
to man as the crocodile. But the Greek rivers are not for- 
midable for wild beasts, for even in the river Aous, that 
flows through the Thesprotian mainland, the dogs are not 
river dogs but sea dogs that swim up from the sea. 

On the right of the Pamisus is Corone, a town near the 
sea, and under the mountain Mathia. And on the road 
to it is a place near the sea, which they think is the temple 
of Ino : for they say that the goddess landed here from the 
sea, and was worshipped by the name of Leucothea instead 
of Ino. And at no great distance the river Bias discharges 
itself into the sea, which river took its name they say from 
Bias the son of Amythaon. About 20 stades from the road 
is the well Plataniston, the water flows from a plane tree, 
broad and hollow inside, and like a small cave, and fresh 
water flows from thence to Corone. The name of the town 
was of old ^pea, but after the Messenians were restored 
to the Peloponnese by the Thebans, they say that Epime- 
lides, who was sent to rebuild it, called it Coronea, after 
Coronea in Bceotia where he came from, but the Messe- 
nians mispronounced the name Corone from the first, and 
in process of time their mistake became prevalent. There 
is also another tradition that when they were digging the 
foundations of their walls they found a brass crow.^ The 
gods here who have temples are Artemis called the Rearer 
of children, and Dionysus, and -^sculapius. The statues of 
-^sculapius and Dionysus are of stone, and there is a brazen 
statue of Zeus Soter in the marketplace. There is also a 
brazen statue of Athene in the citadel in the open air, 
with a crow in her hand. I also saw the tomb of Epime- 

* Crow in Greek is Corone. Hence the Paronomasia. 


lides. Why they call the harbour the harbour of the 
Achasans I do not know. 

As you go on about 80 stades from Corona you come to 
a temple of Apollo, near the sea, which is held in high 
honour : according to the Messenian tradition it is the most 
ancient of all Apollo's temples, and the god heals diseases. 
They call the god Corydus.^ His statue here is of wood, 
but there is a brazen statue the work of Argeotas, a votive 
offering they say of the Argonauts. And near the town of 
Corone is Colonides. Its inhabitants say they were not 
Messenians but were brought by Colsenus from Attica, who 
according to an oracle followed the crested lark there. And 
in process of time they picked up the Dorian dialect and 
customs. And the town of Colonides is on a height not far 
from the sea. 

And the people of Asine were originally neighbours of 
the Lycoritse, and dwelt near Mount Parnassus. They were 
then called Dry opes from their founder, which name they re- 
tained when they came to the Peloponnese. But in the 
third generation afterwards, when Phylas was king, the 
Dryopes were beaten in battle by Hercules, and were taken 
to Delphi and offered to Apollo. And being brought back 
to the Peloponnese by the oracle which the god gave Hercules, 
they first occupied Asine near Hermion, and, having been 
expelled thence by the Argives, they dwelt in Messenia by 
permission of the Lacedaemonians, and when in process of 
time the Messenians were restored they were not turned 
out by them from Asine. And the account the people of 
Asine themselves give is as follows. They admit they were 
conquered in battle by Hercules, and that their town on 
Mount Parnassus was captured, but they deny that they 
were led captive to Apollo, but when their walls were 
taken by Hercules, they left their town they say and fled 
for refuge to the heights of Parnassus ; and afterwards 
crossing over in ships to the Peloponnese became suppliants 
of Eurystheus, and he being a bitter enemy of Hercules gave 
them Asine in Argolis to dwell in. And the Asinsei are tlie 
only descendants of the Dryopes that still plume themselves 

^ That is, crested lark. The explanation of this title is given 8om« - 
what lower down. 


on that name, very unlike the Euboeans that live at Styra. 
For they too are Dryopes by origin, who did not participate 
in the contest with Hercules but dwelt at some distance 
from the town. But they despise the name Dryopes, 
just as the inhabitants of Delphi object to be called 
Phocians. Whereas the Asin^i rejoice in the name of 
Dryopes, and have evidently made the holiest of their 
temples an imitation of those they formerly erected at 
!Mount Parnassus. They have not only a temple of Apollo, 
but a temple and ancient statue of Dryops, whose mysteries 
they celebi*ate annually, and say that he was the son ef 
ApoUo. And Asine lies by the sea just as the old Asine in 
Argolis did, and the distance from Colonides is about 40 
stades, and at about the same distance in the other direc- 
tion is the Promontory of Acritas, just in front of which is 
the deserted island of Theganussa. And not far from 
Acritas is the harbour of Phcenicus and some islands called 
CEnussse opposite the harbour. 


AND Mothone, which before the expedition against Troy 
and even subsequently to that war was called Pedasus, 
afterwards changed its name to Mothone from the daughter 
of (Eneus as the inhabitants say : for (Eneus the son of 
Porthaon after the capture of Ilium retired they say with 
Diomede to the Peloponnese, and had by a concubine a 
daughter Mothone. But in my opinion the Rock called 
Mothon gave its name to Mothone, a rock which constitutes 
a natural harbour, for being much of it sunken under 
the water it narrows the entrance for ships, and at the 
same time is a kind of breakwater against the violence of 
the waves. I have already described how the Lacedaemo- 
nians, in the days when Damocratidas was king at Argos, 
gave Mothone to the people of Nauplia, who had been ex- 
pelled from their city for their Laconian proclivities ; and 
how even after the restoration of the Messenians they were 
not interfered with. The people of Xauplia were I imagine 
in ancient times Egyptians, and, having, come to Argolis in 


their ships with Danaus, they formed three generations 
afterwards a colony at Nauplia under Nauplins the son 
of Amymone. And the Emperor Trajan granted the 
people of Mothone a free constitution. But in older 
days they alone of all the Messenians had the following 
serious misfortune. Thesprotia in Epirus was in a ruinous 
condition from anarchy. For Deidamia the daughter of 
Pyrrhus had no children, and on her death handed over 
the government to the people. She was the daughter 
of Pyrrhus, the son of Ptolemy, the son of Alexander, 
the son of Pyrrhus : of this last Pyrrhus the son of 
-^acides I have given an account earlier in my description 
of Attica. Procles the Carthaginian has given Alexander 
the son of Philip more praise for his good fortune and 
the lustre of his exploits, but for the disposition of an 
army and strategical tactics in the face of an enemy he 
says Pyrrhus was the better man. And when the people of 
Epirus became a democracy, they shewed a want of ballast 
in several respects, and entirely disregarded their rulers : 
and the Illyrians that dwelt north of Epirus by the 
Ionian sea became their masters by sudden attack. For 
we know of no democracy but Athens that ever rose to 
greatness. The Athenians indeed rose to their zenith by 
democracy : but in native intelligence they were superior 
to the other Greeks, and obeyed the laws more than de- 
mocracies generally do. 

And the Illyrians, when they had once tasted the sweets 
of conquest, longed for more and still more, and equipped 
a fleet, and made piratic excursions everywhere, and sailed 
to Mothone and anchored there as with friendly intent, and 
sent a messenger into the town and asked for some wine for 
their ships. And when a few men brought this wine, they 
paid for it the price the people of Mothone asked for it, and 
sold them in turn some of their cargoes. And on the fol- 
lowing day more came from the city and a brisker traffic 
ensued. And at last women and men came down to the 
ships, and sold wine and received goods in turn from the 
barbarians. Then the Illyrians in the height of their daring 
captured many men and still more women, and clapped 
them on board, and sailed away for the Ionian sea, having 
half stripped the town of its population. 

BOOK lY. — MESSESIA. . 299 

At Mothone is a temple of Athene the Goddess of Winds, 
Diomede they say dedicated the statne of the goddess 
and gave her that title, for violent winds and unsea- 
sonable used to blow over the place and do much harm, 
but after Diomede prayed to Athene, no trouble from 
winds ever came to them thenceforward. There is also a 
temple of Artemis here, and some water mixed with pitch 
in a well, in appearance very like Cyzicenian ointment. 
Water indeed can assume every colour and smell. The 
bluest I have ever seen is at Thermopylfe, not all the water 
but that which flows into the swimming-bath which the 
people of the place call the women's Pots. And reddish 
water very like blood is seen in the land of the Hebrews 
near Joppa : the water is very near the sea, and the tradi- 
tion about the spring is that Perseus, after killing the sea 
monster to whom the daughter of Cepheus was exposed, 
washed away the blood there. And black water welling up 
from springs I have seen at Astyra which is opposite 
Lesbos, the warm baths are in a village called Atameus, 
which was given to the Chians by the Medes as a reward 
for giving up to them the suppliant Pactyas the Lydian. 
This water is black : and not far from a town across the 
river Anio the Romans have some white water : and when 
one bathes in it it is at first cold and makes one shudder, 
but if one stays in it a little time it is hot as fire. All 
these wonderful springs I have myself seen, and those of 
lesser wonder I purposely pass over, for to find water salt 
and rough to the palate is no great wonder. But there are 
two very remarkable kinds of water : one at Caria in the 
plain called White, near a village called Dascylus, warm 
and sweeter to drink than milk : and the other Herodo- 
tus describes as a spring of bitter water discharging itself 
into the river Hypanis. How then shall we refuse to credit 
that warm water is found at Dicaearchia ^ among the Tyr- 
rhenians, so hot that in a few years it melts the lead through 
which it flows ? 

^ Futetii is the Latin name. 



FROM Mothone to the promontory of Coryphasium is 
about 100 stades, and near it is Pylos, which was founded 
by Pylos, the son of Cleson, who brought from Megaris 
the Leleges who then occupied Megaris. But he did not 
enjoy it long, being turned out by Neleus and the Pelasgians 
of lolcus. And he went away to the neighbouring country 
and occupied Pylos in Elis. And king Neleus advanced 
Pylos to such renown that Homer in his Iliad calls it 
the city of JSTeleus.^ There is a temple there of Athene 
called Coryphasia, and a house called Nestor's house, 
in which is a painting of Nestor, and there is his tomb 
inside the city, and at a little distance from Pylos is 
(they say) the tomb of Thrasymedes. And there is a 
cave inside the city, which they say was the stall of the 
oxen of Nestor and still earlier of Neleus. The breed of 
these oxen would be Thessalian, of the herd of Iphiclusthe 
father of Protesilaus, for Neleus asked them as wedding 
presents from the wooers of his daughter, and it was on 
their account that Melampus to gratify his brother Bias 
went to Thessalia, and was bound by the herdsmen of 
Iphiclus, but eventually by answering the questions which 
Iphiclus put obtained these oxen as a reward. The men 
of that day were anxious to amass wealth in the shape of 
herds of horses and oxen, for not only did Neleus desire 
for his own the oxen of Iphiclus, but Eurystheus ordered 
Hercules, in consequence of the fame of those oxen in Spain, 
to drive off the herd that belonged to Geryon. And Eryx, 
who was at that time king in Sicily, was manifestly so 
keenly in love with the oxen from Erythea, that when he 
wrestled with Hercules he staked his kingdom against 
them. And Homer in the Iliad has represented Iphi- 
dimas, the son of Antenor, giving 100 oxen as the first 
wedding present to his father in law.^ All this confirms 
my theory that the men of those days were especially fond 
of oxen. And the oxen of Neleus grazed I imagine mostly 
over the borders, for the district of Pylos is mostly sandy, 

1 Iliad, xi. 682. ^ Iliad, xi. 244. 


and unable to afford sufficient pasture. My authority is- 
Homer -who, whenever he mentions Nestor, always calls 
him the king of sandy Pylos. 

Before the harbour is the island Sphacteria, situated 
very much as Rhenea is in reference to the harbour of 
Delos. It seems the destiny of both men and places to 
be for a while unknown and then to come to renown. 
Such was the case with Caphereus, a promontony in Euboea, 
by a storm which came there upon the Greeks returning 
with Agamemnon from Ilium. So too with Psyttalea off 
Salamis, where we know the Medes perished in great 
numbers. So too the reverses of the Lacedaemonians at 
Sphacteria made the place world-famed. And the Athenians 
erected a brazen statue of Victory in their Acropolis as a 
record of their success at Sphacteria. 

And as you go in the direction of Cyparissise from Pylos 
there is a spring under the city close to the sea. They say 
the water welled up in consequence of Dionysus striking 
the ground with his thyrsus, and so they call the spring 
Dionysus' spring. There are also at Cvparissiae temples of 
Apollo and Cyparissian Athene. And at the place called 
Anion there is a temple of ^sculapius, and a statue of 
Aulonian ^sculapius. From this place the river Neda, 
till it falls into the sea, is the boundary between Messenia 
and EHs. 



THOSE Greeks, who say that the Peloponnese is divided 
into five parts and no more, are obliged to admit that 
the people of Elis as well as the Arcadians dwell in the 
division of the Arcadians, and that the second division is 
Achaia, and that the Dorians have the remaining three. The 
indigenous races that inhabit the Peloponnese are Arca- 
dians and Achaeans. And the Acheeans were driven out of 
their own land by the Dorians, but did not however evacuate 
the Peloponnese, but dispossessed the lonians that lived in 
what was then called -i^gialus, but is now called after them 
Achaia. The Arcadians on the other hand have always up 
to this day remained in Arcadia. But the other parts of 
the Peloponnese are peopled by strangers. The latest im- 
portation were the present Corinthians, who were intro- 
duced into the Peloponnese some 217 years ago by the 
Roman Emperor, And the Dryopes came into the Pelopon- 
nese from Mount Parnassus, the Dorians from Mount 

We know that the people of Elis originally came from 
Calydon and other parts of -i:Etolia, And the oldest in- 
formation I have found about them is as follows. The 
first king in this land was they say Aethlius, the son 
of Zeus by Protogenea the daughter of Deucalion, and the 
father of Endymion. The Moon was they say enamoured 
of this Endymion, and had by him 50 daughters. But a 
more probable account is that Endymion married Asterodia, 
others say Chromia the daughter of Itonus the son of 4-^" 
phictyon, others say Hyperippe the daughter of Areas, and 
had three sons, Paeon and Epeus and -^tolus, and one 
daughter Eurycyde, Endymion also made his sons contend 
in running at Olympia for the kingdom, and Epeus won, 

BOOK T. — ELI3. 303 

SO the people over whom he ruled were first called Epeans. 
And of his brothers ^tolus they say remained at home, 
but Paeon vexed at his loss went as far away as possible, 
and the region beyond the river Axius was called 
Paeonia after him. As to the death of Endymion different 
accounts are given by the Heracleotae at Miletus and 
by the people of Elis, but the latter show the sepulchre 
of Endymion, while the former say that he retired to 
Mount Latmus, where is his shrine. And Epeus married 
Anaxiroe, the daughter of Coronus, by whom he had a 
daughter Hyrmina, but no male offspring. And these were 
the events of his reign. CEnomaus the son of Alxion, (or 
the son of Ares, as poets have sung, which is the prevalent 
tradition), being ruler of the country called Pissea, was de- 
posed from, his rule by Pelops the Lydian, who had crossed 
over from Asia Minor. And after his death Pelops occu- 
pied Pisaea and Olympia, slicing o£E from the territory of 
Epeus what bordered upon Pisaea. And Pelops (so the 
people of Elis say) was the first in the Peloponnese to 
build a temple to Hermes and sacrifice to him, thus turn- 
ing away the wrath of the god for the murder of Myrtilus. 

And ^tolus, the king after Epeus, had to flee from the 
Peloponnese, because the sons of Apis indicted him for the 
involuntary murder of their father. For Apis the son of 
Jaadn, a native of Pallantium in Arcadia, was killed by 
^tolus' driving over him in his chariot at the ftmeral 
games in memory of Azan. So -^Etolus the son of Endymion 
fled to the mainland, to the neighbourhood of the river 
Achelous, which was called ^tolia after him. And the 
kingdom of the Epeans was reigned over by Eleus, the son 
of Eurycyde, the daughter of Endymion and (if we may 
believe the tradition) Poseidon. And the people in his 
dominions now changed their names from Epeans to 
E leans. 

And Eleus had a son called Augeas. And those who 
want to exalt him change his father's name, and say that 
he was the son of Helius (the Su)i-god). The oxen and 
goats of this Augeas were so ntimerotis that most of the 
country could not be cultivated for their dting. Her- 
cules therefore, whether for a part of Elis or some other 
reward, was persuaded by him to clear the country of this 


dung. And he effected this by turning the river Menius on 
to it. But Augeas, because the work had been effected 
by ingenuity rather than toil, refused to give Hercules 
his reward, and turned out of doors the eldest of his 
sons Phyleus, because he told him he was not acting 
with justice to a benefactor. He also made several pre- 
parations to defend himself against Hercules, should he 
come into Elis with an army, and entered into an alliance 
with Amarynceus and the sons of Actor. N'ow Amarynceus 
had an especial acquaintance with military matters, and his 
father Pyttius was a Thessalian by extraction, and had come 
from thence to Elis. And to Amarynceus Augeas gave a 
share of his power at Elis ; and Actor and his sons also, 
who were natives of Elis, shared in the administration of 
the kingdom. The father of Actor was Phorbas the son 
of Lapithus, and his mother was Hyrmina, the daughter 
of Bpeus, and Actor built and called after her the town of 
Hyrmina in Elis. 


NOW in the campaign against Augeas Hercules had no 
opportunity to win laurels, for as the sons of Actor 
were in their prime for daring and vigour of youth, the 
allied forces of Hercules were constantly routed by them, 
until the Corinthians announced a truce during the Isth- 
mian games, and the sons of Actor went to see the games, 
and Hercules lay in ambush for them and slew them at 
Cleonee. And the perpetrator of the deed being unknown, 
Moline the mother of the lads took the greatest pains to 
discover their murderer. And when she discovered who it 
was, then the people of Elis claimed compensation for the 
murder from the Argives, for Hercules dwelt in Argolis at 
Tiryns. And as the Argives refused to give up Hercules, 
they next begged hard of the Corinthians, that all Argolis 
should be scratched from the Isthmian games. But being 
unsuccessful in this also, they say Moline put a curse upon 
the citizens if they went to the Isthmian games. And these 
curses of Moline are observed up to this day, and all the 
athletes at Elis make a practice of never going to the 

BOOK y. — ELIS, 305 

Isthmian contest. And there are two different traditions 
about this. One of them states that Cjpselus the tyrant at 
Corinth offered a golden statne to Zeus at Oljmpia, but, 
Cypselns dying before his name was inscribed on the votive 
oit'ering, the Corinthians asked the people of Elis to allow 
them to inscribe publicly the name of Coi-inth on the votive 
offering, and the people of Elis refusing they were angry 
with them, and forbade them to contend at the Isthmian 
games. But how would the Corinthians have been admitted 
at the contests at Olympia, if they had excluded the people 
of Elis from the Isthmian games ? But the other tradition 
states that Prolans, a man of much repute among the 
people of Elis, and Lysippe his wife had two sons Philan- 
thus and Lampus, and they went to the Isthmian games, 
the one intending to compete in the pancratium among the 
boys, the other in wrestling, and before the games came on 
they were strangled or killed in some way by their rivals : 
and that was why Lysippe imposed her curses on the people 
of Elis, if they would not of their own accord cease to 
attend the Isthmian games. This tradition too is easily 
shewn to be a silly one. For Timon a native of Elis had 
victories in the pentathlum in all the other Greek con- 
tests, and there is an effigy of him at Olympia, and some 
elegiac verses which enumerate the various crowns that he 
carried off as victor, and the reason why he did not partici- 
pate in the Isthmian contest. This is one couplet. " Our 
hero was prevented coming to the land of Sisyphus by the 
strife that arose in consequence of the sad fate of the sons 
of Molione." 


LET this suffice on the matter. To resume, Hercules 
afterwards captured and sacked Elis, having got to- 
gether an army of Argives Thebans and Arcadians : and 
the people of Elis were assisted by the men of Pylos in Elis 
and by the men of Pisa. And the men of Pylos were 
punished by Hercules, and he intended marching against 
Pisa, but was stopped by the following oracle from Delphi, 

" Dear to the Father is Pisa, Pytho has entrusted it to me." 


This oracle was the salvation of Pisa. And to Phyleus 
Hercules gave up Elis and other places, not so much wil- 
lingly as standing in awe of Phyleus, to whom he also 
granted the captives and forgave Augeas. And the women 
of Elis, as their land was stripped of young men through 
the war, are said to have prayed to Athene that they might 
conceive directly they married, and their prayer was 
granted, and they erected a temple to Athene under the title 
of Mother. And both the women and men being exces- 
sively delighted with their union called the place where they 
first met Bady (svjeef), and also gave the same name in 
their national dialect to the river flowing there. 

And when Phyleus, after setting things in order in Elis, 
returned to Dulichium, Augeas died being already ad- 
vanced in age, and was succeeded in the kingdom of Elis 
by his son Agasthenes, and by Amphimachus, and Thalpius. 
For the sons of Actor married two sisters, the daughters of 
Dexamenns who was king at Olenus, and the one had by 
Theronice Amphimachus, and the other Eurytus had by 
Thereephone Thalpius. Not that Amarynceus or Diores his 
son remained all their lives in a private capacity. As we 
know from Homer in his catalogue of the men of Elis, 
all their fleet was 40 sail, and half of them were nnder 
Amphimachus and Thalpius, and of the remaining half 
ten were under Diores the son of Amarynceus, and ten 
under Polyxenus the son of Agasthenes. And Polyxenus 
coming back safe from Troy had a son Amphimachus, (he 
gave his son this name I fancy from his friendship to 
Amphimachus the son of Cteatus who perished at Ilium), 
and he had a son Eleus, and it was when Eleus was king 
at Elis that the Dorian host mustered under the sons 
of Aristomachus with a view to return to the Pelopon- 
nese. This oracle came to the kings, that they must 
make a man with three eyes leader of the return. And 
as they were in great doubt what the oracle could mean, a 
muleteer chanced to pass by, whose mule was blind of one 
eye. And Cresphontes conjecturing that the oracle referred 
to this man, the Dorians invited him to be their leader. 
And he urged them to return to the Peloponnese in ships, 
and not force their way through the isthmus with a land 
force. This was his advice, and at the same time he piloted 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 307 

the fleet from !N"aupactus to Molycrium, and they in return 
for his services agreed to give him at his request the king- 
dom of Elis. And the man's name was Oxylus, he was the 
son of Haemon, the son of Thoas, who in conjunction with 
the sons of Atreus had overturned the kingdom of Priam ; 
and between Thoas and ^Etolus the son of Endymion there 
are six generations. And the Heraclidaa were in other 
respects kinsmen to the kings in ^tolia, besides the fact 
that the sisters of Thoas were mothers by Hercules of 
Andraemon and Hyllus. And Oxylus had to flee from 
^toHa in consequence of an accident, in throwing a quoit 
(they say) he missed his aim and unintentionally killed his 
brother Thermius, or according to some accounts Alcidocus 
the son of Scopius. 


THERE is also another tradition about Oxylus, that he 
suspected the sons of Aristomachus of an unwillingness 
to give him the kingdom of Elis, as it was fertile and well 
cultivated everywhere, and this was why he led the Dorians 
through Arcadia and not through Elis. And when Oxylus 
hastened to take the kingdom of Elis without contention 
Dius would not permit him, but challenged him not to a 
contention with all their forces, but to a single combat 
between two soldiers one from each side. And both agreed 
to this. And the men selected for this single combat were 
Degmenus a bowman of Elis, and Pyraechmes on the ^to- 
lian side a famous slinger. And as Pyraechmes was victorious 
Oxylus got the kingdom, and he allowed the ancient Epeans 
to remain there, but introduced ^tolians as colonists with 
them, and gave them also a share in the land. And to Dins 
he gave various honours, and observed the rights of all the 
heroes according to old precedents, and introduced sacrifi- 
cial offerings to Augeas which have continued to our day. 
It is said that he also persuaded the men in the villages, 
who were at no great distance from the walls, to come into 
the city, and thus increased the population of Elis and made 
it more powerful in other respects. And an oracle came to 
bim from Delphi to associate with him as colonist a de- 


scendant of Pelops, and he made diligent search, and dis- 
covered Agorins the son of Damasius, the son of Penthilns, 
the son of Orestes, and invited him from Helice in Achaia 
and with him a few Achaeans. And they say Oxylus had a 
wife called Pieria, but they record nothing further abont 
her. And the sons of Oxylus were they say ^tolus and 
Laias. And ^tolus dying in his father's lifetime, his 
parents buried him and erected a sepulchre to him by the 
gate, which leads to Olympia and the temple of Zeus. And 
they buried him there in accordance with the oracle, which 
said that his dead body was to be neither in nor out of the 
city. And annually still the master of the gymnasium 
offers victims to ^tolus. 

Oxylus was succeeded in the kingdom by his son Laias. 
I could not find that his sons reigned, so I purposely pass 
them over, for it has not been my desire in this narrative 
to descend to private personages. But some time after- 
wards Iphitus, who was of the same family as Oxylus, and 
a contemporary of Lycurgus the Lacedaemonian legislator, 
revived the contest at Olympia, and renewed the public 
gathering there, and established a truce as long as the games 
lasted. Why the meetings at Olympia had been discon- 
tinued I shall narrate when I come to Olympia. And as 
Greece at this time was nearly ruined by civil wars and by 
the pestilence, Iphitus bethought him to ask of the god at 
Delphi a remission from these ills. And they say he was 
ordered by the Pythian Priestess to join the people of Elis 
in restoring the Olympian games. Iphitus also persuaded 
the people of Elis to sacrifice to Hercules, for before this 
they had an idea that Hercules was hostile to them. And 
the inscription at Olympia says that Iphitus was the son of 
Hsemon, but most of the Greeks say he was the son of 
Praxonides and not of Haemon. But the ancient records 
of the people of Elis trace him up to a father of the same 
name as himself viz. Iphitus. 

The people of Elis took part in the Trojan war, and also 
in the battles against the Persians when they invaded 
Greece. And to pass over their frequent disputes with the 
people of Pisa and the Arcadians in respect to the re-esta- 
blishment of the games at Olympia, they joined the Lace- 
daemonians not without reluctance in invading Attica, and 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 309 

not long after thev fought against the Lacedsemonians^ 
having formed an alliance with the Mantineans the Argives 
and the Athenians. And on the occasion of Agis making 
an incursion into Elis, when Xenias played the traitor, the 
people of Elis were victorious at Olympia, and routed the 
Lacedaemonians, and drove them from the precincts of the 
temple : and some time afterwards the war came to au end 
on the conditions which I have mentioned before in my 
account of the LacedEemonians. And when Philip, the son 
of Amyntas, could not keep his hands off Greece, the 
people of Elis, worn out with intestine factions, joined the 
Macedonians, but not to the point of fighting against the 
Greeks at Chaeronea. But they participated in the attack 
of Philip upon the Lacedaemonians by reason of their 
ancient hatred to them. But after the death of Alexander 
they joined the Greeks in fighting against Antipater and 
the Macedonians. 


AND in process of time Aristotimus, the son of Damare- 
tus, the son of Etymon, obtained the sovereignty at 
Elis, partly through the assistance of Antigonus the son of 
Demetrius, who was king of the Macedonians. But when 
he had reigned only six months, Chilon and Hellanicus and 
Lampis and Cylon rose up against him and deposed him ; 
and Cylon slew him with his own hand when he had fled as 
suppliant to the altar of Zeus Soter. These are the chief 
wars the people of Elis took part in, just to glance at them 
briefly in the present portion of my work. 

Among the wonders of Elis are the flax, which grows here 
alone and in no other part of Greece, and also the fact that, 
though over the borders mares bear foals to he-asses, it is 
never so in Elis. And this phenomenon is they say the 
result of a curse. The flax in Elis in respect of thinness 
is not inferior to the flax of the Hebrews, but is not as 

And as you go from the district of Elis there is a place 
by the sea called Samicum, and beyond it on the right is 


the district called Triphylia, and the city Lepreus in it. 
The people of Lepreus think they belong properly to 
Arcadia, but it is manifest they were from time imme- 
morial subject to Elis. For the victors at Olympia that 
came from Lepreus were pronounced by the herald men of 
Elis. And Aristophanes has described Lepreus as a city 
in Elis. One way to Lepreus from Samicum is by leaving 
the river Aniger on the left, and a second is from Olympia, 
and a third from Elis, and the longest of them is only a 
day's journey. The city got its name they say from 
Lepreus the son of Pyrgeus its founder. There is a tradi- 
tion that Lepreus had an eating contest with Hercules, each 
killed an ox at the same time and cooked it for dinner, and 
(as he had betted) he was quite a match for Hercules in 
eating. But he had the hardihood afterwards to challenge 
Hercules to a contest in arms. And they say he was killed 
in that contest and buried at Phigalia, however his sepul- 
chre there is not shewn. And I have heard some who 
claim that their city was founded by Leprea the daughter 
of Pyrgeus. Others say that the inhabitants of this region 
were the first lepers, and that the city got its name from 
this misfortune of its inhabitants. And the people of 
Lepreus say that in their city they once had a temple of 
Leucaean Zeus, and the tomb of Lycurgus the son of 
Aleus, and also the tomb of Caucon. The last had they 
say as a design over it a man with a lyre. But in my time 
there is no remarkable tomb there, nor any temple of the 
gods except one of Demeter : built of unbaked brick, and 
containing no statue. And not far from the city Lepreus 
is a spring called Arene : it got this name according to 
tradition from the wife of Aphareus. 

And as you return to Samicum, and go through it, the 
river Aniger has its outlet to the sea. The flow of this 
river is often impeded by violent winds : for they blow the 
sand from the shore into it and dam up the flow of the 
river. Whenever then this sand becomes soaked with 
water, (outside by the sea inside by the river), it becomes a 
very dangerous place for carts and carriages and even for 
an active man to ford. This river Aniger rises in the 
Arcadian mountain Lapithus, and the water has an un- 
pleasant smell from its source. Before receiving its tributary 

BOOK T. — ELIS. 311 

the Acidas it is too fetid to have anv fish whatever, and aftet 
its confluence -with the Acidas, though it has fish that come 
into its waters from that tribntary, they are no longer eat- 
able, which they are when caught in the Acidas. That the 
ancient name of the river Acidas was lardanns I should 
not myself have conjectured, but I was so informed by an 
Ephesian. The unpleasant smell of the Aniger comes I 
believe from the soil through which the river flows, as is 
certainly the case with those rivers beyond Ionia, whose 
exhalations are deadly to man. Some of the Greeks say- 
that Chiron, others that Pylenor the Centaur, was wounded 
by Hercules, and fled and washed his sore in this river, 
and that it was from the Hydra's poison (in ichich. Her- 
cules' arrow had been dipped) that the Aniger got its un- 
pleasant smell. Others refer this condition of the river 
to Melampus the son of Amythaon, and to the fact that 
the purifications of the daughters of Proetus were thrown 
into it. 

There is at Samicum a cave, not far from the river, called 
the cave of the Nymphs of the Aniger. Whoever goes 
into it sufiering from either black or white leprosy, must 
first of all pray to these Nymphs and promise sacrifice to 
them, and aiterwards wdpe clean the diseased parts of his 
body. If he next swims across the river he leaves in the 
water his foul disease, and comes out of the river sound 
and with his skin uniformly clear. 


ON the high road, after crossing the Aniger in the direc- 
tion of Olympia, there is at no great distance on the 
right an eminence, and on it a town called Samia above 
Samicum. This town " they say was made into a sort of 
offensive fortress against the Arcadians by Polysperchon, an 

As to the ruins of Arene, none either of the Messenians or 
people of Elis could give me a clear account. As their 
explanations are different those who like to conjecture are 

* Reading ravrg ry ^afiic^ (altered into Sa^ur^ ducta literanun). 


at liberty to do so. The most credible account seems to me 
that of those who think that the ancient name of Samicum 
earlier than the time of the heroes was Arene. And these 
quote the lines in the Iliad. 

" There is a river Minyeius, 

That flows into the sea near to Arene." 

Iliad, xi. 722, 723. 

And these ruins of Arene are very near the Aniger. One 
might have doubted about Samicum having been called 
Arene, only the Arcadians admit that the ancient name of 
the river Aniger was Minyeius. And one would feel sure 
that the river Neda near the sea was the boundary between 
Elis and Messenia at the time of the return of the Hera- 
cliclse to the Peloponnese. 

And leaving the Aniger, and passing through a district 
generally sandy and full of wild pine trees, somewhat back 
to the left you will see the ruins of Scillus. Scillus was 
one of the towns of Triphylia : and in the war between 
the people of Elis and Pisa the people of Scillus openly 
allied themselves to the people of Pisa, and in return the 
men of Elis dispossessed them from Scillus. But the 
Lacedaemonians afterwards sliced Scillus from Elis, and 
gave it to Xenophon (the son of Gryllus), who was at that 
time exiled from Athens. He was banished by the Athe- 
nians for joining Cyrus (who hated their democracy) 
against the king of the Persians (who was their friend) : 
for when Cyrus was at Sardis he gave Lysander, the son of 
Aristocritus, and the Lacedaemonians some money for their 
fleet. This is why Xenophon was banished, and he lived at 
Scillus and built a temple and grove to Ephesian Artemis. 
And Scillus affords good hunting of wild animals, as 
wild boars and deer. And the river Selinus flows through 
the district. And the antiquarians of Elis say that the 
people of Elis recovered Scillus, and that Xenophon was 
tried in the Olympian council for receiving Scillus from the 
Lacedaemonians, but was acquitted and allowed to con- 
tinue there scot free. And at some little distance from the 
temple they show a tomb, and there is an efl&gy on the 
tomb in Pentelican marble, which the people of the place 
say is Xenophon. 

BOOK V. — KLIS. 313 

On the road to Olympia from Scillus, before crossing 
the Alpheus, is a monntain lofty and precipitous which 
is called Typaeum. From this mountain it is the custom 
to hurl all women of Elis who are detected as competi- 
tors in the Olympian contests, or who merely cross the 
Alpheus on forbidden days. Not that any one ever yet was 
so detected except Callipatira, whose name according to 
some traditions was Pherenice. She after the death of 
her husband dressed herself up like an athlete, and brought 
her son as a combatant to Olympia. And Pisirodus her 
son having been victorious, Callipatira in leaping over the 
fence which parted the athletes from the spectators, exposed 
her person, and though her sex was detected they let her 
go without punishment out of respect to her father and 
brothers and son, who had all been victors at Olympia, but 
they passed a law that henceforth all athletes should come 
to the contests naked. 


AND when you have got to Olympia immediately you see 
the river Alpheus, a full and very pleasant river, and 
no less than seven notable rivers are tributaries to it. For 
through Megalopolis the Helisson flows into it, and the 
Brentheates from the district of Megalopolis, and the Gorty- 
nius near Gortyna where is a temple of -^sculapius, and 
from Melseneae between the districts of Megalopolis and 
Hersea the Buphagus, and the Ladon from the district of 
the Clitorians, and the river Erymanthus from the moun- 
tain of the same name. All these flow into the Alpheus 
from Arcadia, and the Cladeus from Elis also contri- 
butes its stream. And the source of the Alpheus is in 
Arcadia and not in Elis. And there are several traditions 
about the Alpheus, as that he was a hunter and enamoured 
of Arethusa, and that she hunted with him. And as 
Arethusa was unwilling to marry him, she crossed over 
they say to an island near Syracuse, called Ortygia, and 
there became a spring : just as Alpheus in consequence of 
his love was changred into a river. This is the tradition 


about the Alpheus and the Ortygia. As to the river going- 
under the sea and coming up in another place, there is no 
reason why I should discredit that, as I know that the god 
at Delphi admitted it, seeing that when he sent Archias the 
Corinthian to establish a colony at Syracuse, these were 
some of the words he used, " Ortygia lies in the cloudy sea 
above Trinacria, where the mouth of the Alpheus mixes and 
flows with the springs of the broad Arethusa." From this 
circumstance of their union, and not any love passages, I 
imagine the traditions about the two rivers originated. 
And all the Greeks or Egyptians, that have penetrated into 
Ethiopia beyond Syene, and as far as the Ethiopian city of 
Meroe, say that the Nile enters into a marsh, and flows 
through it as if it were earth, and eventually through lower 
Ethiopia into Egypt to Pharos, where it has its outlet at 
the sea. And in the land of the Hebrews I know that the 
river Jordan flows through the lake of Tiberias, and into 
what is called the Dead Sea, by which it is absorbed. The 
Dead Sea has properties unlike any other water : living 
bodies can float in it without swimming, whereas dead 
bodies go to the bottom. And it has no fish, for from their 
evident danger they take refuge in water more congenial to 
them. And there is a river in Ionia similar to the Alpheus, 
its source is in the mountain Mycale, and it flows under the 
sea, and comes up again at Branchidae at the harbour called 
Panormus. All this is correctly stated. 

In regard to the Olympian Games those who are in pos- 
session of the most ancient archives of the people of Elis 
say that Cronos was the first king of Heaven, and that he 
had a temple built to him at Olympia by the mortals who 
then lived, who were called the golden age : and that, when 
Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the charge of the boy to the 
Idsean Dactyli, who were otherwise called the Curetes : 
who afterwards came to Elis from Ida in Crete, and their 
names were Hercules, and Epimedes, and Paeonseus, and 
lasius, and Idas. And Hercules the eldest of them chal- 
lenged his brothers in play to run a race together, and they 
would crown the victor with a branch of the wild olive : 
and there was such abundance of wild olive trees that 
they, strewed under them the leaves while they were still 
green as beds to sleep on. And they say that the wild olive 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 315 

was introduced to the Greeks by Hercules from the country 
of the Hyperboreans, who dwelt north of the wind Boreas. 
Olen the Lycian first mentioned in a hymn to Achjeia, that 
she came to Delos from these Hyperboreans, and when 
Melanopus of Cumae composed an ode to Opis and He- 
caerges, he mentioned that they too came from the Hyper- 
boreans to Delos before Achjeia. And Aristaeus of Procon- 
nesus, who has also mentioned the Hyperboreans, may per- 
haps have heard more of them fi'om the Issedones, to whom 
in his poems he says they went. At any rate to Idtean Her- 
cules belongs the glory that he first instituted and gave their 
name to the Olympian contests. He appointed them to be 
held every fifth year because he and his brothers v^ere five 
in number. And some say that it was there that Zeus 
contended with Cronos about the sovereignty of Heaven, 
others say he appointed these games after his success over 
Cronos. Other gods are said to have been victorious, as 
Apollo who outran Hermes, who challenged him to the con- 
test, and outboxed Ares. And this is the reason they say 
why the Pythian flateplaying was introduced in the leapn 
ing contest at the pentathlum, because the flute was sacred 
to Apollo, and ApoUo was on several occasions the victor at 
Olympia. ' 


AXD after this they say Cly menus the son of Cardys, (in 
the oOth year after Deucalion's flood), a descendant of 
Ideean Hercules, came from Crete and established games at 
Olympia, and erected an altar to his ancestor Hercules and 
to the other Curetes, giving Hercules the title of Assistant. 
But Endymion the son of Aethlius deposed Clymenus 
from the kingdom, and gave it to his sons as a prize 
for the best runner of them at Olympia. And a genera- 
tion after Endymion, Pelops made the contest to Olym- 
pian Zeus more famous than any of his predecessors. 
And when the sons of Pelops were scattered from Elis aU 
over the Peloponnese, Amythaon the son of Cretheus, uncle 
of Endymion on the father's side, {ior they say Aethlius 
was the son of -^olus sumamed Zeus), appointed games at 


OLympia, and after him Pelias and Neleus in common. So 
also did Augeas and Hercules, the son of Amphitryon, after 
the capture of Elis. And all that he crowned as victors 
were lolaus, who had borrowed the mares of Hercules for 
the race. It was an old custom to be a competitor with 
borrowed horses. Homer at least in the funeral games in 
honour of Patroclus has represented Menelaus as yoking 
together Agamemnon's horse ^the with one of his own.' 
lolaus was also Hercules' charioteer. He was the victor in 
the chariotrace, and lasius an Arcadian in the riding race, 
and Castor was successful in running, Pollux in boxing. 
It is also recorded of Hercules that he was victorious in 
wrestling and in the pancratium. 

And after the reign of Oxylus, who also established 
games, the Olympian games were suspended till Iphitus. 
And when he renewed the games as I have before stated, 
there was a general forgetf ulness about the ancient games, 
but in a short while they got remembered again, and when- 
ever they remembered any little feature of the games, they 
added it to the programme. And this proves my state- 
ment. From the time that the Olympian games were 
revived continuously, prizes were first instituted for run- 
ning, and Coroebus of Elis was the victor. His statue is at 
Olympia, and his grave is on the borders of Elis. And in 
the 14th Olympiad afterwards the double course was intro- 
duced : when Hypenus a native of Pisa won the wild 
olive crown, and Acanthus was second. And in the 18th 
Olympiad they remembered the pentathlum and the wrest- 
ling, in the former Lampis was victor, in the latter Eury- 
batus, both Lacedaemonians. And in the 23rd Olympiad 
they ordained prizes for boxing, and Onomastus was victor 
from Smyrna (which was at that day reckoned as Ionia). 
And in the 25th Olympiad they had a race of fullgrown 
horses, and the Theban Pagondas was proclaimed victor in 
this race. And in the eighth Olympiad later they intro- 
duced the pancratium and the riding race. The horse of 
Crannonian Crauxidas got in first, and the competitors for 
the pancratium were beaten by the Syracusan Lygdamis, 
who has his sepulchre at the stonequarries of Syracuse. 
And I don't know whether Lygdamis was really as big aa 
^ II. xxiii. 295. 

BOOKV. — ELIS. , 317 

the Theban Hercules, but tbat is the tradition at Syracuse. 
And the contest of the boys was not a revival of ancient 
usage, but the people of Elis instituted it because the idea 
pleased them. So prizes were institnted for running and 
wrestling among boys in the 307th Olympiad, and Hippos- 
thenes the Lacedaemonian won the wrestling prize, and 
Polynices from Elis the running prize. And in the 41st 
Olympiad afterwards they invited boxing boys, and the one 
who won the prize from all the competitors was Philetas 
from Sybaris. And the race in heavy armour was tried 
in the 65th Olympiad, as an exercise for war I think : 
and of those who ran with their shields Damaretus of 
Herseum was the victor. And the race of two fullgrown 
horses called a pair was established in the 93rd Olympiad, 
and Evagoras of Elis was the victor. And in the 99th 
Olympiad they had a fancy to contend with chariots drawn 
by colts, and the Lacedfemonian Sybariades had the prize 
for this contest. And they afterwards established races of 
a pair of colts and for riding a colt, and the victor in the 
former was Belistiche, a woman who lived in Macedonia 
near the sea, and in the latter Tlepolemns the Lycian in the 
lolst Olympiad, Belistiche's victory was in the 3rd Olym- 
piad before. And in the 145th Olympiad prizes were 
institnted for a pancratium-contest for boys, and Phaedimus 
an JEolian from the Troad was victor. 


AND some of the contests at Olympia were put an end 
to, the people of EHs having resolved to discontinue 
them. For the pentathlum for boys was established in 
the 38th Olympiad, but when the Lacedaemonian Eute- 
lidas had won the crown of wild olive, the people of 
Elis did not care that their lads should train for the pen- 
tathlum. So it dropped. And the chariot race and the 
trotting race, the former established in the 70th Olympiad 
and the latter in the 71st Olympiad, were both stopped by 
proclamation in the 84th Olympiad. When they were first 
instituted Thersius the Thessalian won the prize in the 
former, and Pataecns an Achaean from Dyme in the latter. 


In the trotting race the riders used to jump ofE towards the 
end of the course and run with the horses still holding the 
reins, as what are called professional riders do to this day, 
only the latter employ stallions and have their own colours. 
But the chariot race is not an ancient invention nor a 
graceful exhibition, and the people of Elis (who have 
always disliked the horse) yoke two mules together instead 
of horses. 

The order of the games in our day is to sacrifice vic- 
tims to the god, and then to contend in the pentathlum 
and horse-race, according to the programme established in 
the 77th Olympiad, for before this horses and men con- 
tended on the same day. And at that period the pancra- 
tiasts did not appear till night for they could not compete 
sooner, so much time being taken up by the horse-races and 
pentathlum. And the Athenian Callias was the victor of 
the pancratiasts. But for the future they took cai'e that 
neither the pentathlum nor horse-races should stand in the 
way of the pancratium. And as regards the umpires of 
the games, the original rules and those in vogue in our 
day are quite different, for Iphitus was the only umpire, 
and after Iphitus the posterity of Oxylus, but in the 
50th Olympiad two men picked by lot out of all Elis were 
entrusted with the stewardship of the contests, and this 
practice of two umpires continued for a very long time. 
But in the 25th Olympiad afterwards 9 general Umpires 
were appointed : three for the horse-race, three to watch the 
pentathlum, and three to preside over the remaining games. 
And in the 2nd Olmpiad after this a tenth Umpire was 
appointed. And in the 103rd Olympiad, as the people of 
Elis had 12 tribes, a general Umpire was appointed by 
each. And when they were hard pressed by the Arcadians 
in war, they lost a portion of their territory and all the 
villages in this portion, and so they were only 8 tribes in 
number in the 104th Olympiad, and had only 8 general 
Umpires accordingly. And in the 108th Olympiad they 
returned to the number of 10 general Umpires, and that 
has continued the number to our day. 

BOOK V. — ELI3. 319 


MANY various wonders may one see, or hear of, in 
Greece : but the Eleusinian mysteries and Olympian 
games seem to exhibit more than anything else the divine 
purpose. And the sacred grove of Zeus they have from 
old time called Altis, slightly changing the Greek word 
for grove ^: it is indeed called Altis also by Pindar, in 
the Ode he composed for a victor at Olympia. And the 
temple and statue of Zeus were built oat of the spoils of 
Pisa, which the people of Elis razed to the ground, after 
quelling the revolt of Pisa and some of the neighbouring 
towns that revolted with Pisa. And that the statue of 
Zeus was the work of Phidias is shown by the inscription 
written at the base of it, 

" Phidias the Athenian, the son of Charmides, made me." 

The temple is a Doric building, and outside it is a colon- 
nade. And the temple is built of stone of the district. Its 
height up to the gable is 68 feet, its breadth 95 feet, and 
its length 230 feet. And its architect was Libon a native 
of EHs. And the tiles on the roof are not of baked earth, 
but Pentelican marble to imitate tiles. They say such 
roofs are the invention of a man of Xaxos called Byzes, 
vho made statues at Naxos with the inscription, 

" Euergus of Naxos made me, the son of Byzes, and de- 
scended from Leto, the first who made tiles of stone." 

This Byzes was a contemporary of Alyattes the Lydian 
and Astyages (the son of Cyaxaras) the king of Persia. 
And there is a golden vase at each end of the roof, and a 
golden Tictory in the middle of the gable. And under- 
neath the Victory is a golden shield hung up as a votive 
offering, with the Gorgon Medusa worked on it. The in- 
scription on the shield states who hung it up, and the 
reason why they did so. For this is what it says. 

" This temple's golden shield is a votive offering from 
the Lacedaemonians at Tanagra and their allies, a gift from 


the Argives the Athenians and the lonians, a tithe offering 
for success in war." 

The battle I mentioned in my account of Attica, when 
I described the tombs at Athens. And in the same temple 
at Olympia, above the zone that runs round the pillars on 
the outside, are 21 golden shields, the offering of Mummius 
the Roman General, after he had beaten the Acheeans and 
taken Corinth, and expelled the Dorians from Corinth. And 
on the gables in bas relief is the chariot race between Pelops 
and ffinomaus, and both chariots in motion. And in the 
middle of the gable is a statue of Zeus, and on the right 
hand of Zeus is ffinomaus with a helmet on his head, and 
beside him his wife Sterope, one of the daughters of Atlas. 
And Myrtilus, who was the charioteer of (Enomaus, is seated 
behind the four horses. And next to him are two men 
whose names are not recorded, but they are doubtless 
(Enomaus' grooms, whose duty was to take care of the 
horses. And at the end of the gable is a delineation of the 
river Cladeus, next to the Alpheus held most in honour of 
all the rivers of Elis. And on the left of the statue of 
Zeus are Pelops and Hippodamia and the charioteer of 
Pelops and the horses, and two men who were Pelops' 
grooms. And where the gable tapers fine there is the 
Alpheus delineated. And Pelop's charioteer was according 
to the tradition of the Troezenians Sphaerus, but the custo- 
dian at Olympia said that his name was Cilia. The carvings 
on the gables in front are by Paeonius of Mende in Thracia, 
those behind by Alcamenes, a contemporary of Phidias and 
second only to him as statuary. And on the gables is a 
representation of the fight between the Lapithae and the 
Centaurs at the marriage of Pirithous. Pirithous is in the 
centre, and on one side of him is Eurytion trying to carry 
off Pirithous' wife and Caeneus coming to the rescue, and 
on the other side Theseus laying about among the Centaurs 
with his battle-axe : and one Centaur i^ carrying off a 
maiden, another a blooming boy. Alcamenes has en- 
graved this story, I imagine, because he learnt from the 
lines of Homer that Pirithous was the son of Zens, and 
knew that Theseus was fourth in descent from Pelops. 
There are also in bas relief at Olympia most of the Labours 
of Hercules. Above the doors of the temple is the hunting 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 321 

of the Erymanthian boar, and Hercules taking the mares of 
Diomede the Thracian, and robbing the oxen of Geryon in 
the island of Erythea, and supporting the load of Atlas, and 
clearing the land of Elis of its dung. And above the 
chamber behind the doors he is robbing the Amazon of her 
belt, and there is the stag, and the Cretan Minotaur, and the 
Stymphalian birds, and the hydra, and the Nemean lion. 
And as you enter the brazen doors on the right in front 
of the pillar is Iphitus being crowned by his wife Ecechiria, 
as the inscription in verse states. And there are pillars 
inside the temple, and porticoes above, and an approach by 
them to the image of Zeus. There is also a winding stair- 
case to the roof. 


THE image of the god is in gold and ivory, seated on a 
throne. And a crown is on his head imitating the 
foliage of the olive tree. In his right hand he holds a 
Victory in ivory and gold, with a tiara and crown on his 
head : and in his left hand a sceptre adorned with all 
manner of precious stones, and the bird seated on the 
sceptre is an eagle. The robes and sandals of the god 
are also of gold : and on his robes are imitations of flowers, 
especially of lilies. And the throne is richly adorned 
with gold and precious stones, and with ebony and 
ivory. And there are imitations of animals painted on it, 
and models worked on it. There are four Victories like 
dancers one at each foot of the throne, and two also at 
the instep, of each foot : and at each of the front feet 
are Theba'n boys carried off by Sphinxes, and below the 
Sphinxes Apollo and Artemis shooting down the children 
of Xiobe. And between the feet of the throne are four 
divisions formed by straight lines drawn from each of the 
four feet. In the division nearest the entrance there 
are seven models, the eighth has vanished no one knows 
where or how. And they are imitations of ancient con- 
tests, for in the days of Phidias the contests for boys were 
not yet established. And the figure with its head muffled 


up in a scarf is they say Pantarces, who was a native of 
Elis and the darling of Phidias. This Pantarces won 'the 
wrestling prize for boys in the 86th Olympiad. And in the 
remaining divisions is the band of Hercnles fighting against 
the Amazons. The number on each side is 29, and Theseus 
is on the side of Hercules. And the throne is supported 
not only by the four feet, but also by 4 pillars between the 
feet. But one cannot get under the throne, as one can at 
Amyclee, and pass inside, for at Olympia there are panels 
like walls that keep one off. Of these panels the one oppo- 
site the doors of the temple is painted sky blue only, but 
the others contain paintings by Panaenus. Among them 
is Atlas bearing up Earth and Heaven, and Hercules stand- 
ing by willing to relieve him of his load, and Theseus 
and Pirithous, and Grreece, and Salamis with the figure- 
head of a ship in her hand, and the contest of Hercules 
with the Nemean lion, and Ajax's unknightly violation 
of Cassandra, and Hippodamia the daughter of ffinomaus 
with her mother, and Prometheus still chained to the 
rock and Hercules gazing at him. For the tradition is 
that Hercules slew the eagle that was ever tormenting 
Prometheus on Mount Caucasus, and released Prometheus 
from his chains. The last paintings are Penthesilea dying 
and Achilles supporting her, and two Hesperides carrying 
the apples of which they are fabled to have been the 
keepers. This Pansenus was the brother of Phidias, and at 
Athens in the Painted Stoa he has painted the action at 
Marathon. At the top of the throne Phidias has represented 
above the head of Zeus the three Graces and three Seasons. 
For these too, as we learn from the poets, were daughters 
of Zeus. Homer in the Iliad has represented the Seasons 
as having the care of Heaven, as a kind of guards of 
a royal palace.' And the base under the feet of Zeus, 
(what is called in Attic Bpavlov), has golden lions engraved 
on it, and the battle between Theseus and the Amazons, 
the first famous exploit of the Athenians beyond their own 
borders. And on the platform that supports the throne 
there are various ornaments round Zeus and gilt carving, 
the Sun seated in his chariot, and Zeus and Hera, and 
near is Grace. Hermes is close to her, and Vesta close to 
' Iliad, viii. 393-395. 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 323 

Hermes. And next to Yesta is Eros receiving Aphrodite 
just rising from the sea, "svho is being crowned by Persna.- 
sion. And Apollo and Artemis Athene and Hercules are 
standing hy. and at the end of the platform Amphitrite and 
Poseidon, and Selene apparently urging on her horse. And 
some say it is a mule and not a horse that the goddess is 
riding upon, and there is a silly tale about this mule. 

I know that the size of the Olympian Zeus both in 
height and breadth has been stated, but I cannot bestow 
praise on the measurers, for their recorded measurement 
comes far short of what anyone would infer looking at 
the statue. They make the god also to have testified to 
the art of Phidias. For they say when the statue was 
finished, Phidias prayed him to signify if the work was to 
his mind, and immediately Zejs struck with lightning that 
part of the pavement, where in our day there is a brazen 
urn with a lid. 

And all the pavement in front of the statue is not of 
white but of black stone. And a border of Parian marble 
runs round this black stone, as a preservative against 
spilled oil. For oil is good for the statue at Olympia, as 
it prevents the ivory being harmed by the dampness of the 
grove. But in the Acropolis at Athens, in regard to the 
statue of Athene called the Maiden, it is not oil but water 
that' is advantageously employed to the ivory: for as the 
citadel is dry by reason of its great height, the statue being 
made of ivory needs to be sprinkled with water freely. 
And when I was at Epidaurus, and enquired why they use 
neither water nor oil to the statue of ^sculapius, the 
sacristans of the temple informed me that the statue of 
the god and its throne are over a well. 



THOSE who think that the parts of the elephant that 
project from the mouth are teeth and not horns, 
should consider the case of Celtic elks and Ethiopian bulls. 
For male elks have horns on their foreheads, but the female 
elk has none whatever. And Ethiopian bulls have horns 
growing in their nostrils. Who would therefore think it 
very wonderful after these examples that a beast should 
have horns growing out of its mouth ? One may also get 
further light from the following particulars. Horns in 
animals take a certain definite period to grow and grow 
more than once : and this is the case with stags and ante- 
lopes as well as elephants. But no animal after full growth 
has second sets of teeth. If they are teeth therefore and 
not horns that project from elephants' mouths, how could 
they grow a second time ? Moreover teeth are not acted 
upon by fire, but horns both of oxen and elephants can by 
the action of fire be made straight from round, and can in 
fact be turned into any shape. [But in hippopotamuses 
and boars the lower jaw has projecting teeth : and we do 
not see horns growing out of their jaws.] Let anybody be 
certain therefore that they are horns in the elephant that 
project and grow out from the temples. I don't make this 
assertion as mere hearsay, for I have seen the skull of an 
elephant in the temple of Artemis in Campania. The 
temple I refer to is about 30 stades from Capua, which is 
the chief town of Campania. And the elephant is not only 
different from other animals in the growth of its horns, but 
also in its size and appearance. And the Greeks seem to 
me to have shewn great munificence and an absence of par- 
simoniousness in respect to their worship of the gods, see- 
ing that they procured ivory both from India and Ethiopia 
for their statues. 

At Olympia also in the temple of Zeus is a woollen veil, 
adorned with Assyrian tapestry and dyed with the Phoeni- 
cian purple, the votive offering of Antiochus, who also gave 
to the theatre at Athens a golden eegis with the Gorgon's 
iiead on it. This veil is not drawn up to the roof as in the 

BOOK y. — ELIs. 325 

temple of Ephesian Artemis, but let down to the pavement 
bj ropes. And among the votive offerings in the temple or 
ante-chapel is the throne of Arinmestus king of the Tyrrhe- 
nians, (who was the first foreigner that offered a votive 
offering to Olympian Zeus,) and the horses of Cynisca in 
brass, the memorials of her victory at Olympia. These 
horses are rather smaller than life, and are on the right as 
you enter the ante-chapel. And there is a tripod covered 
with bi*ass, on which before the table was made the crowns 
for the victors were laid. And of the statues of the Empe- 
rors, Adrian's in Parian marble was a gift of all the cities 
that joined the Achfean league, and Trajan's a gift of all 
the Greeks. This last Emperor added the Getas beyond 
Thrace to the Roman Empire, and waged w;ir against 
Osroes (the descendant of Arsaces) and the Parthians. 
The most famous of all his works are the Baths which 
are known as Trajan's Baths, and a large theatre per- 
fectly round, and a building for horse-races two stades 
in length, and the forum at Rome well worth seeing for 
various beauties and especially its brazen roof. And there 
are two statues in the round parts of the building, one of 
the Emperor Augustus in amber, the other in ivory is 
said to be Xicomedes, the king of Bithynia : from whom the 
largest town in Bithynia, that had been previously called 
Astacus, got called Xicomedia. It was originally founded 
by Zypoetes, a Thi-acian as one would infer from his name. 
And the amber of which they made Augustus' statue, the 
native amber which is found in the sands of the Eridanus, 
is most rare and precious to man for many purposes. But 
the other kind of amber is gold mixed with silver. And in 
the temple at Olympia there are several of Nero's votive 
offerings, 3 are crowns to imitate the wild olive, the fourth 
is an imitation of oak. And there are 25 brazen shields to 
be worn by the competitors in the race in armour. And 
there are several pUlars, and among them one which 
has the covenant of the people of Elis and the Athenians 
Argives and Mantineans for an alliance for 100 years. 



AND within Altis there is a separate grove to Pelops : 
who of the heroes at Olympia is as much held in the 
highest honour as Zeus is among the gods. This grove 
is on the right of the temple of Zeus towards the North, 
just at such a distance from the temple as to admit of 
statues and votive offerings between, and it extends from 
the middle of the temple to the back, and is surrounded 
by a stone wall, and has trees planted in it, and statues. 
And the entrance to it is from the west. And it is 
said to have been dedicated to Pelops by Hercules the son 
of Amphitryon, who was fourth in descent from Pelops. 
And he is said to have sacrificed in the trench to Pelops. 
And the magistrates for the year sacrifice to him even 
now a black ram. The seer has no portion of this sacri- 
fice, the neck of the ram only is usually given to the 
person called the wood-cutter. He is one of the temple 
servants, and his function is to furnish wood for the sacri- 
fices at a fixed price, both to cities and to any private 
individual. And the wood is always of the white poplar 
tree. And whatever stranger or native of Elis eats the 
flesh of the victim sacrificed to Pelops may not enter the 
temple of Zeus. Those who sacrifice to Telephus at Pev- 
gamum North of the river Caicus are in a similar predica- 
ment : they may not enter the temple of ^sculapius till 
they have had a bath. And the following tradition is still 
told about Pelops. During the protracted siege of Ilium 
the seers are said to have prophesied that they would 
never capture the town till they procured the bows of 
Hercules and a bone of Pelops. So they sent it is said for 
Philoctetes to the camp, and the shoulder-blade of Pelops 
was brought from Pisa. And on the return home of the 
Greeks, the ship that had the shoulder-blade of Pelops was 
wrecked near Euboea. And many years after the capture 
of Ilium Damarmenus, a fisherman of Eretria, cast his net 
into the sea and fished up this bone, and marvelling at the 
size of it hid it in the sand. And eventually he went 
to Delphi, desiring to know who the bone belonged to. 

BOOK V. — £LIS. 327 

and what he should do with it. And it chanced provi- 
dentially that some persons of Elis, seeking a cure for 
the pestilence, were at Delphi at this period. And the 
Pythian Priestess told them to preserve the bones of 
Pelops, and told Damarmenus to give what he had found to 
the people of Elis. And when he had done so the people of 
Elis gave him several presents, and made Damarmenus and 
his descendants custodians of this bone. But this shoulder- 
blade of Pelops has not survived to our day, because in my 
opinion it was buried too deep, partly also from time and 
the action of the sea. And there are still traces even to 
our day of Pelops and Tantalus having brought colonies 
to Greece, as the marsh called after Tantalus, and his well- 
known grave. And the throne of Pelops is at Sipylus on 
the top of the moimtain above the temple of the Placianian 
mother, and after you have crossed the river Hermus there 
is a statue of Aphrodite at Temnus still in existence made 
of myrtle : and the tradition is that it was a votive offer- 
ing of Pelops to propitiate the goddess, before begging her 
help towards marrying Hippodamia. 

And the altar of Olympian Zeus is about equidistant 
from the grove of Pelops and the temple of Hera, and is 
situated in front of both. Some say it was erected by Idaean 
Hercules, others say by some heroes of the district two 
generations after him. It was they say made of the debris 
of the thigh bones of the victims sacrificed to Zeus, as 
the altar at Pergamum. The Samian Hera has also an 
altar made of similar material, an altar not a whit more 
handsome than those which in Attica they call extemporary 
altars. And the first base of the altar of Olympia, called 
the pro-altar, has a circumference of 125 feet, and above 
the pro-altar is a circumference of 32 feet. And the whole 
height of the altar is 22 feet. It is customary to sacrifice 
the victims at the lower part, at the pro-altar : but the 
thigh-bones they bring to the highest part of the altar and 
bum them there. And stone steps lead up to the pro-altar 
on both sides, but up to the high altar there are merely 
steps of debris. Maidens may ascend as far as the pro- 
altar, and likewise women at the seasons when tbey are 
allowed to be at Olympia, but men alone may ascend to the 
high altar. And private individuals, and the people of Elis 


daily, offer sacrifices to Zeus besides at the general Festival. 
And annually the seers observe the 19th day of the month 
Elaphius by carrying the debris from the Town Hall, and 
kneading it with the water of the River Alpheus, and thus 
construct their altar. No other water is ever used for this 
purpose, and that is why the Alpheus is considered more 
friendly to Olympian Zeus than any other river. There 
is also at Didymi (a town of the Milesians) an altar made 
by Hercules the Theban of victims' blood. So at least 
the Milesians say.. But the blood of the victims has never 
raised it to any great height even in these latter days. 


BUT the altar at Olympia has another wonder. Kites, 
which are by nature especially birds of prey, never 
harm the sacrificers at Olympia. And if on any chance 
occasion a kite touch the entrails or flesh of a victim, it is 
not considered a good omen for the sacrificer. And they 
say when Hercules, the son of Alcmena,. was sacrificing at 
Olympia there was a great plague of flies : when, either of 
his own idea or at another's suggestion, he sacrificed to Zeus 
the Averter of flies, and so they were driven to the other 
side of the Alpheus. On similar grounds the natives of 
Elis are said to sacrifice to Zeus the Averter of flies, be- 
cause he drove them from Olympia. 

The wood of the white poplar tree is the only wood that 
the people of Elis employ in the sacrifices of Zeus, giving 
that tree this especial honour, I imagine, because Hercules 
introduced it from Thesprotia into Greece. And I think 
there can be little doubt that Hercules himself, when he 
sacrificed to Zeus at Olympia, burnt the thighs of the 
victims on white poplar wood. Hercules found this tree 
growing near the Acheron a river in Thesprotia, and that 
is why they say it is called Acherois by Homer. "^ In all 
ages rivers have been celebrated for the growth of various 
srrasses and trees on their banks. Thus the Meeander is 

' Iliad, xiii. 389. xvi. 482. 

BOOK T. — ELIS. 329 

most famous for tamarisks, and the Asopus in Boeotia for 
immense reeds, and the Persea is found only on the banks 
of the Nile. Thus there is no wonder that bj the Acheron 
first grew the white poplar, and that the wild olive grows 
near the Alpheus, and that the black poplar grows on 
Celtic soil by the river Eridanas. 

Let us now, as we have made mention of the greatest 
altar, enumei-ate all the altars at Olympia. I will take 
them in the order the people of Elis are accustomed to 
sacrifice at them. They first sacrifice to Yesta, and next to 
Olympian Zeus in the altar inside the temple, thu'dly to 
Hermes, fourthly to Artemis, fifthly to Athene the Goddess 
of Booty, sixthly to Athene Ergane. To this Athene the 
descendants of Phidias, (called the cleansers because they 
received from the people of Elis the honour of cleansiag 
the statue of Zeus from anything clinging to it), sacri- 
fice before they commence poHshing up the statue. And 
there is also another altar of Athene near the temple, 
and near it a square altar of Artemis tapering up gradually 
at the top. And next to those we have mentioned they 
sacrifice to Alpheus and Artemis at one altar : the reason 
for this I learnt from one of Pindar's Odes, and I have re- 
corded it in my account of the Letrina?ans.^ And at no 
great distance from this is another altar to Alpheus, and 
near it an altar to Hephaestus, which some of the people 
of Elis say is the altar of Martial Zeus, at which (Eno- 
maus sacrificed when he proposed the horse-race for the 
suitors of his daughter Hippodamia. Next is an altar of 
Hercules under the title of Aider, and altars to Her- 
cules' brothers, Epimedes and Idas and Peeonaeus and lasus. 
I know that the altar of Idas is called the altar of Ace- 
sidas by some. And at the ruins of the house of (Eno- 
maus are two altars, one of Household Zeus, built appa- 
rently by CEnomaus, the other built afterwards I think to 
Zeus of the Lightning, when lightning had struck the 
house. With reference to the great ,altar, called the 
altar of Olympian Zeus, I have already spoken a little 
above. And near it is the altar to Unknown Gods, and 
next that of Zeus the Cleanser, and Victory, and next 
that of Zeus Chthonius. There are also altars of all the 
^ See Book vi. ch. 22, 


gods, and one of Olympian Hera also made of debris, the 
votive offering they say of Clymenus. And next to it is a 
joint altar to Apollo and Hermes, because the tradition in 
Elis is that Hermes was the inventor of the lyre, and 
Apollo the inventor of the lute. And next are altars of 
Harmony, and Athene, and the Mother of the Grods. And 
there are two altars very near the entrance to the race- 
course, one they say of Hermes the Athlete, and the other 
of Opportunity. Ion the Chian has I know written an 
Hymn to Opportunity, in which he traces his genealogy, 
and makes him the youngest son of Zeus. And near 
the treasure of the Sicyonians is an altar of Hercules, 
either one of the Curetes, or the son of Alcmena, for both 
traditions are current. And at what is called Gseum there 
is an altar to Earth, this too made of debris : and they say 
there was an oracle of Earth earlier still. And at the place 
called Stomium there is an altar to Themis. And before 
the altar of Zeus, the god of thunder and lightning, is a 
fence on all sides, and this altar too is not far from the 
great altar formed of debris. Let my reader remember 
that I have not enumerated these altars according to the 
position of their site, but taken them in a rambling order, 
according to the order in which the people of Elis sacrifice 
at them. And in the grove of Pelops there is a joint altar 
to Dionysus and the Graces, and next one to the Muses, 
and one to the Nymphs. 


OUTSIDE Altis there is a building called the workshop 
of Phidias, who used to work here at his statues, 
and there is an altar here to all the gods in common. As 
you turn back again to Altis you see straight before you the 
Hall of Leonidas. It is outside the temple precincts, and 
of the various approaches to Altis is the only one used for 
processions. It was built by Leonidas, a native of Elis, 
and now the Roman governors of Elis make it their head- 
quarters. It is separated by an alley from the approach 
used for processions : the people of Elis call alleys what the 
Athenians call bylanes. And there is in Altis to the left of 



the Hall of Leonidas, an altar of Aphrodite, and an altar of 
the Seasons next to it. And in the rear of the temple there 
>6 a wild olive tree growing on the right : it is called 
the olive beautiful for its crowns, and the victors at 
Olympia receive crowns of it. Xear this wild olive tree is 
a temple of the jS'ymphs, these too they call beautiful for 
their crowns. And inside Altis there is an altar of Arte- 
mis of the Market-place, and on the right of the Hall 
of Leonidas is an altar to the goddesses called Mistresses. 
Of the goddess whom they call Mistress the portion of 
my work about Arcadia will give complete information. 
And next is an altar of Zeus of the Market-place, and, in 
front of what is called the Seat of Honour, altars of Pythian 
Apollo, and Dionysus. This last they say was erected by 
private people not so long ago. And as you go to where the 
horses start is an altar, with the inscription The Decider of 
Fate. This is plainly a title of Zeus who fore-knows all 
human events, both what the Fates send, and others. And 
near this is an oblong altar of the Fates, and next one of 
Hermes, and next two of Zeus Supreme. And at the 
middle of the place whei*e the horses start are altars in the 
open air to Poseidon the Patron of Horses, and Hera the 
Patroness of Horses, and near the pillar an altar of Castor 
and Pollux. And at the entrance, near what is called the 
Rostnim, is an altar of Ares the Patron of Horses, and an 
altar of Athene the Patroness of Horses. And as you enter 
the Rostrum there are altars of Good Fortune, and of Pan, 
and of Aphrodite. And in the interior of the Rostrum 
the Nymphs called Acmena? have an altar. And as you 
return from the Portico which the people of Elis call 
Agnaptus' from the name of the Architect, there is on the 
right an altar of Artemis. And as you enter Altis again 
by the road used for processions there are altars behind the 
chapel of Hera of the river Cladeus and of Artemis, and 
next to them one of Apollo, and a fourth of Artemis Coccoca, 
and a fifth of Apollo Thermius. Thermius I conjecture at 
Elis will be the same word as Thesmius (Law-loving) in 
Attic. But why Artemis was called Coccoca I could not 
ascertain. There is a building in front of what they call the 
Priest's dwelling, and in the comer of it is an altar of Pan. 
And the Town Hall of the people of Elis is within Altis, 


near the outlet beyond the gymnasium, where the athletes 
have their races and wrestling-matches. And in front of 
the doors of the Town Hall is an altar of Artemis of the 
Market Place. And in the Town Hall itself as you pass 
into a room where there is a hearth, there is an altar of 
Pan on the right of the entrance. And the hearth itself is 
made of debris, and there is a fire on it burning continually 
day and night. From this hearth as I have already stated 
they remove the debris to the altar of Olympian Zeus, 
and the height of that altar is largely due to contributions 
from this hearth. 
y And once in every month the people of Elis sacrifice at 
the altars which I have mentioned. And they sacrifice in 
a certain primitive fashion ; for they burn frankincense on 
the altars and cakes kneaded with honey. And they deco- 
rate the altars with olive branches, and pour out libations 
of wine<^ But they do not offer libations of wine to the 
Nymphs, or the Mistresses, or at the joint altar of all the 
gods. And the sacrifices are conducted by the priest, who 
has office for one month, and by the seers, the libation- 
offerers, the Interpreter of Antiquities, the flute-player, and 
the wood-cutter. But the words that they use in the 
Town Hall, and the Hymns which they sing, I am not 
allowed to introduce into my account. And they pour 
libations not only to Greek gods, but to the god of Libya, 
and to Hera of Ammon, and to Parammon (a title of 
Hermes). It is manifest also that from time immemorial 
they have consulted the oracle at Libya, and there are altars 
in the temple of Ammon, votive offerings of the people of 
Elis : and there are inscribed on them the questions of the 
people of Elis, and the answers returned by the god, and 
the names of those who went to Ammon from Elis. All 
this is in the temple of Ammon. The people of Elis also 
pour libations to heroes, and the wives of heroes, who are 
honoured in Elis or -^tolia. And the Hymns sung in the 
Town Hall are in the Doric dialect, but by whom composed 
they do not tell us. The people of Elis also have a banquet- 
ing-hall, (inside the Town-Hall, opposite the room where the 
hearth is,) where they entertain the victors at Olympia. 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 333 


NEXT ought I to describe the temple of Hera, and all 
that is worth narrating in it. The people of Elis have 
a tradition that the people of Scillns in Triphylia built 
it about 8 years after Oxylus became king at EUs. Its 
architecture is Doric, there are pillars all round it. one 
pillar in a chamber at the back of the temple is of oak. 
And the length of the temple is 63 feet. The archi- 
tect's name is not recorded. And every fifth year 16 
matrons weave a shawl for Hera, and the same number 
preside over her games. And the contest is a race for 
maidens of various ages : in the first race are the yotmgest, 
and next those slightly older, and last of all the eldest. 
And they all run with their hair down their back, a short 
tunic below the knee, and their right shoulder bare to the 
breast. They use in this contest the regtilar race- course at 
Olympia, but make it a sixth part of a stade shorter. And 
the victors receive crowns of olive, and part of the heifer 
sacrificed to Hera : and paintings of them are made for 
Hera. And the 16 matrons who preside over the games 
have as many handmaids. They trace this contest of the 
maidens back to ancient times, saying that Hippodamia in 
gratitude to Hera for her marriage with Pelops selected 
16 matrons, and in concert with them inaugurated these 
games to Hera. And they record that Chloris (with the 
exception of one brother the only surviving child of 
Amphion) was the victor. And what I learnt about the 
children of Niobe I have narrated in my account about 
Argos. About these 16 matrons they have also the fol- 
lowing tradition. They say that Damophon, the tyrant 
at Pisa, did many grievotis injuries to the people of Elis, 
and on his death, as the people of Pisa had not publicly 
sanctioned his ill deeds, the people of Elis were walling 
to annul their charges against them, so 16 of the prin- 
cipal cities in Elis at that day selected each one mati-on 
of age and merit and good name to arbitrate on any 
claims. And the cities from which they selected matrons 
were Elis and 15 others, and thus their differences with 


the people of Pisa were arranged. And afterwards the 
same 16 were told off to make all the arrangements 
about the Hera Festival, and to weave the shawl for Hera. 
These 16 matrons also have two dances, one they call 
Physcoa's dance, and the other's Hippodamia's. Physcoa 
the tradition goes was from hollow Elis, and lived in the 
parish they call Orthia, and was mother by Dionysus of a 
boy called Narcseus, who, when he grew up, warred with 
the neighbouring tribes and came to great power, and built 
a temple of Athene Narcaea : and Dionysus was they say 
first worshipped by Narcasus and Physcoa. Physcoa had 
other honours besides the dance called after her name. 
The number of matrons is still kept up by the people of 
Elis, but they are somewhat differently chosen. For as 
they are divided into 8 tribes they select two matrons from 
each. And the functions of these 16 matrons and the 
Umpires of Elis are never commenced till after the sacri- 
fice of a pig and lustration with water. And the lustration 
takes place at the fountain Piera, which is situated in the 
plain between Olympia and Elis. All these things are as 
T have described them. 


AND in Hera's temple there is a statue of Zeus, and also 
one of Hera seated on a throne, and standing by is a 
person with a beard and helmet on his head. And the 
workmanship is very simple. And next them the .(Eginetan 
Smilis has delineated the Seasons sitting on thrones. And 
near them is a statue of Themis as the mother of the 
Seasons, the design of Doryclidas, a Lacedaemonian by 
race, and the pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis. And there 
are five Hesperides by Theocles, a Lacedaemonian also, 
the son of Hegylus, who is also said to have been a 
pupil of Scyllis and Dipcenus. And Athene with a helmet 
and spear and shield is they say by the Lacedaemonian 
Medon, who was the brother of Doryclidas, and learnt 
his art also from Scyllis and Dipoenus. And Proserpine 
and Demeter sit, Apollo an^ Artemis stand, opposite 

BOOK T. — S.L1S. 335 

one another. And there are statues also of Leto and For- 
tune and Dionysus, and a winged Victory, who designed 
them. I cannot tell, but they appear to me- very antique. 
What I have enumerated are in ivory and gold : but in 
later times there were other statues placed in the temple 
of Hera, as a stone Hermes carrying Dionysus as a babe, 
by Praxiteles ; and Aphrodite in brass, by Cleon of Sicyon, 
whose master was Antiphanes, of the school of Periclytus 
the pupil of the Argive Polycletus. And before Aphrodite 
there is a little golden boy seated, by the Carthaginian 
Boethus, which was brought here from what is called 
Philip's house, as well as some statues in gold and ivory, 
as Eurydice the wife of Philip, and Olympias. 

* * The chest is of cedar and has figures on it, some in 
ivoiy, some in gold, some carved on the cedar. In this chest 
Cypselus, the tyrant of Corinth, was hid by his mother at 
his birth, as the Bacchidse were eager to find him. On 
account of his safety his descendants, called the Cypselidjp, 
made the chest a votive offering at Olympia, and the 
Corinthians of that day called chests cypselae. : that is the 
origin of the name Cypselus given to the boy, so they 
say. And on the chest there are inscriptions in large 
letters in an old handwriting : some of this writiiig is 
straight, other parts are written in what the Greeks call ox- 
fashion. That is, when one line is finished the next begins 
where that left off and runs backward, and so on like the 
double course on the race ground. There are also inscrip- 
tions on the chest that are very puzzling and difficult to 
make out. And if you begin to examine the chest all over, 
beginning at the lower part, you will see first CEnomaus 
pursuing Pelops and Hippodamia. Each of them have a 
pair of horses but those of Pelops have wings. And next 
is the house of Amphiaraus, and some old woman is carry- 
ing Amphilochus the baby, and in front of the house is 
Eriphyle with a necklace, and near her her daughters Eury- 
dice and Demonassa, and the little boy Alcmason naked. 
Asius in his poems has also represented Alcmena as the 
daughter of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. And 5^ton, the 
charioteer of Amphiaraus, has the reins in one hand and a 
lance in the other. And one of Amphiarus' feet is in the 
chariot, and his sword is drawn, and he is turned towards 


Eriphyle, and in his rage can scarce refrain from rushing at 
her. And next to Amphiaraus' house are the games in 
memory of Pelias, and the spectators are looking on the 
contests. There is Hercules sitting on a seat, and his wife 
behind him, but her name is not given, she is piping with 
Phrygian and not Greek pipes. And there are Pisus the son 
of Perieres and Asterion the son of Cometes driving a pair 
of horses, the latter is said to have sailed in the Argo, and 
Pollux and Admetus, and Euphemus the son of Poseidon 
(according to the tale of the poets), and the companion of 
Jason on his voyage to Colchi, he also was victorious in the 
pair-horse-race. And there are Admetus and Mopsus, the 
son of Ampyx, both famous boxers. And in the midst is a 
man playing on the flute, as in our day they are still wont 
to do in the leaping contest in the pentathlum. And Jason 
and Peleus are wrestling, they are very evenly matched. 
And there is Eurybotas throwing his quoit, a man famous 
as a quoit-player whoever he was. And there are Melanion 
and Neotheus and Phalareus and Argeus and Iphiclus ready 
for the race : and Acastus is holding out the crown to the 
victor, who was Iphiclus, the father of Protesilaus who 
fought at Ilium. There are also some tripods as prizes for 
the winners, and there are the daughters of Pelias, of whom 
the name of Alcestis only is inscribed. lolaus too, who 
voluntarily shared in Hercules' Labours, is there, just 
having come in first in the chariot-race. And this is the 
last of the games in memory of Pelias. And there is 
Athene standing by Hercules who is shooting the hydra, the 
monster that infested the river Amymone. And because 
Hercules was well-known, from his great size as well as the 
nature of the contest, his name is not written underneath. 
And there is Phineus the Thracian, and the sons of Boreas 
driving away the Harpies from him. 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 337 


ON the second side of the chest, on the left, to take 
them in their order, is a woman supporting with her 
right hand a white child sleeping, and with her left a black 
child like the sleeping child, but with both its feet twisted. 
The inscriptions shew, what one would have inferred with- 
out any inscriptions, that thej are Death and Sleep with 
their nurse Night. And there is a comely woman dragging 
along an ugly one, with one hand holding her fast, and with 
the other beating her with a rod, this is Justice punishing 
Injustice. And there are two women pounding with pestles 
into mortars, apparently compounding drugs, but there is 
no inscription in reference to them. But r SDut the man 
and woman following him there are two hexameter lines 
as follows, " Idas is leading away from the temple by no 
means against her will Marpessa of the beautiful ancles, 
whom Apollo snatched away for himself." 

And there is a man clad in a tunic, with a cup in his 
right hand and in his left a necklace, and Alcmena is seizing 
them. According to the Greek tradition, Zeus assumed 
the appearance of Amphitryon, and so made Alcmena wel- 
come him as her husband. And there ia Menelaus with a 
breastplate and sword pursuing Helen to kill her, plainly 
during the sack of Ilium. And there is Jason on the right 
hand of Medea, who is sitting on a throne, and Aphrodite 
is standing by her. And the inscription relative to 
them is, 

" Jason is wooing Medea, Aphrodite is encouraging them." 
The Muses are also represented singing and Apollo lead- 
ing off, and the inscription is as follows, 

" Here is the king, the son of Leto, far-darting Apollo. 
And round him the Muses, a graceful band, whom he leads ia 
the songs." 

And Atlas is bearing up Heaven and Earth (according to 
the legend) on his shoulders, and in his hands are the apples 
of the Hesperides. And who the man is with a Bword ad? 
vancing to Atlas is nowhere written, but it is evident to all 
that it is Hercules. This is all the inscription, 



" Atlas here is bearing up Heaven, he will neglect the 

There is also Ares in full armour leading off Aphrodite. 
The inscription under him is Enjalius. There too is the 
maiden Thetis, and Peleus is laying hold of her, and from 
Thetis' hand a serpent is about to dart at Peleus. And 
there are the sisters of Medusa with wings pursuing the 
fleeing Perseus. His name only is given. 

The third side of the chest is devoted to military views. 
Most of the soldiers to be seen are infantry, but there are 
also some cavalry in two-horse war-chariots. And some 
of the soldiers are you can see engaging, while others are 
recognizing and greeting one another. The antiquarians 
have two explanations of this, the one party say that it is 
the -i^tolians with Oxylus and the ancient people of Elis, 
and that they are fraternizing and exhibiting friendliness 
to one another in remembrance of their ancient consan- 
guinity, the other party say that it is the people of Pylos and 
the Arcadians fighting near the town of Pheia and the river 
lardanus. No one would have prima facie expected that 
the ancestor of Cypselus, being a Corinthian and in pos- 
session of the chest, would have purposely passed over 
Corinthian history, and artistically portrayed on the chest 
foreign and even immaterial events. So the following is the 
view I am inclined to form. Cypselus and his ancestors 
came originally from Gonussa beyond Sicyon, and were de- 
scended from Melas the son of Antasus. And Aletes would 
not receive Melas and his army into the city, as I have 
stated before in my account of Corinth, thus disobeying the 
oracle at Delphi, until at last, as Melas paid every attention 
to him, and whenever he was rejected returned again with 
entreaty, Aletes admitted him but not with a good grace. 
One would conjecture therefore that the forces of Melas ai'e 
here portrayed. 

BOOK T. — ELIS. 339 


AND on the 4th side of the chest on the left Boreas is 
carrying off Orithjia, and he has serpents' tails in- 
stead of feet. And there is the fight between Hercules and 
Gerjon, who was three men in one. And there is Theseus 
with a lyre, and near him Ariadne wdth a garland. And 
Achilles and Memnon are fighting and their mothers are 
standing by. And there is Melanion, and Atalanta by him 
with a fawn. And Strife, looking most hateful, stands 
by the duel (after challenge) between Ajax and Hector. 
A very similar Strife has been depicted in the temple of 
Ephesian Artemis by the Samian Calliphon, who painted 
the battle at the ships of the Greeks. There are also on 
the chest figures of Castor and Pollux, one of them with- 
out a beard, and Helen between them. And ^Jlthra, the 
daughter of Pittheus, in a dark dress is prostrate on the 
ground at the feet of Helen. And the inscription is an 
Hexameter line and one word more. 

•• Castor and Pollux ran off with Helen, and dragged 
^thra from Athens." 

These are the very words. And Iphidamas the sen of 
Agenor is lying on the ground, and Coon is fighting with 
Agamemnon over his dead body. And Fear with the head 
of a lion is on Agamemnon's shield. And this is the in- 
scription over the corpse of Iphidamas, 

" This is Iphidamas, Coon bestrides him in the fight." 

And on Agamemnon's shield, 

"Here is what mortals call Fear, Agamemnon has got 

And Hermes is bringing to Paris, the son of Priam, the 
goddesses to the choice of beauty, and the inscription 
here is, 

" Here is Hermes showing to Paris the dainty sight of 
Hera and Athene and Aphi*odite in all their beauty." 

And Artemis — I know not why — has wings on her 
shoulders, and in her right hand she has a leopard, in her 
left a lion. And there is Ajax dragging Cassandra from 
the statne of Athene, and the inscription is, 

" Locrian Ajax is dragging Cassandra from Athene." 


And there are the sons of (Edipus, Polynices has fallen 
on his knees, and Eteocles is pressing him hard. And 
behind Polynices stands a monster with teeth as sharp as 
a wild beast's, and with crooked claws. And the inscrip- 
tion says that it is Doom, and that Polynices was carried 
off by Fate, and that Eteocles' end was just. And there 
too is bearded Dionysus lying down in a cave, clad in 
a long garment, with a golden bowl in his hand: and 
there are clusters of vine round him, and apples, and 

The topmost side of the chest, for there are five in all, 
has no inscription, but one can easily conjecture what the 
representations are. In a cave there is a woman sleeping 
with a man upon a bed, and we infer that they are Odys- 
seus and Circe from the number of handmaids in front 
of the cave, and from their tasks. For the women are four 
in number, and they are engaged just as Homer has 
represented. And there is a Centaur, not with all his feet 
horses' feet, for his forefeet are those of a man. And 
there are pair-horse chariots and women seated on the 
chariots : and the horses have gold wings, and a man is 
giving arms to one of the women. This is conjectured to 
refer to the death of Patroclus. For it is the Nereids on 
the chariots, and Thetis who is receiving arms from He- 
phaestus. For he who is giving the arms is lame, and 
behind is a servant with smith's tongs. And the tradition 
about Chiron the Centaur is that, though he had left this 
world and been received into heaven, he returned to earth 
to comfort Achilles. And there are two maidens in a 
carriage drawn by mules, one is driving and the other has 
a veil on her head, they are thought to be Nausicaa, the 
daughter of Alcinous, and her attendant driving to the 
wash. And the man shooting at the Centaurs and killing 
some of them is manifestly Hercules, for this was one of 
his great feats. 

Who it was that constructed this chest it is quite im- 
possible to conjecture : the inscriptions on it might have 
been composed by anybody, but suspicion points to Eumelus 
the Corinthian, both on other grounds, and because of the 
Processional Hymn which he composed in reference to 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 341 


THERE are also here besides the chest several votive 
offerings, as a bed of no great size adorned vrith much 
ivory, and the quoit of Iphitus, and the table on which the 
crowns for the victors are deposited. The bed was they 
say a plaything of Hippodamia : and the quoit of Iphitus 
has written on it the ai'mistice between the people of Elis 
and the Olympians not straight down it, but all round the 
quoit : and the table is of ivory and gold, the design of 
Colotes, who was they say a native of Heraclea. And 
those who take interest in artificers say that he was a Parian 
and the pupil of Pasiteles, who was himself the pupil of 
. . . .' There too are statues of Hera, and Zeus, and the 
Mother of the Gods, and Hermes, and Apollo, and Artemis. 
And behind is a representation of the games. On one side 
is .^sculapius and Hygiea, one of the daughters of uiEscula- 
pius, and Ares and Contest by him, and on another is Pluto 
and Dionysus and Proserpine and some Nymphs, one of 
them with a ball. And Pluto has his key, with which (they 
say) what is called Hades is locked, and then no one can 
return from it. 

An account which I received from Aristarchus, the In- 
terpreter of Antiquities at Olympia, I must not omit. He 
said that in his youth, when the people of Elis restored the 
roof of the temple of Hera, the body of a dead man in heavy 
armour, who had been badly wounded, was found between 
the sham roof and the roof on which the tiles lay. This 
man was a combatant in the battle fought inside Altis be- 
tween the Lacedaemonians and the people of Elis. For the 
people of Elis chmbed up to the temples of the gods, and 
all high buildings alike, for the purpose of defence. This 
man therefore probably got up into that place, in a fainting 
condition from his wounds, and, on his death, neither the 
heat of summer nor the chills of winter would be likely to 
injure his dead body, as he lay stowed away and covered up. 
And Aristarchus added, that they carried the corpse outside 
Altis and buried it armour and all. 

' Hiatus hie deflendus. 


And the pillar, which the people of Elis call the pillar of 
CEnomaus, is as you go from the great altar to the temple 
of Zeus, and there are 4 pillars on the left and a roof over 
them. These pillars support a wooden one worn out by 
age, and only held together by iron clamps. This pillar 
was once according to tradition in the house of CEnomaus : 
and when the god struck the house with lightning, the fire 
consumed all the house but this one pillar. And a brazen 
tablet contains some Elegiac lines referring to this. 

" I am the only vestige, stranger, of a famous house, I 
once was a pillar in CEnomaus' house, but now near Zeus I 
am in iron clamps in honour : the destructive fire has not 
consumed me." 

Another curious thing happened on the spot in my time. 
A senator of Rome won the prize at Olympia, and wishing 
some record of his victory to survive in the shape of a 
brazen statue with an inscription, dug for a foundation, 
close to this pillar of CEnomaus, and the diggers found 
fragments of arms and bridles and bits. These I myself 
saw dug up. 

The temple, which is large in size and of Doric architec- 
ture, they call to this day the Temple of the Mother, pre- 
serving its ancient name, though there is no statue in it of 
the Mother of the Gods, but only some statues of Roman 
Emperors. It is inside Altis, and there is a round building 
called Philip's House, on the top of which is a brazen poppy 
as a clamp for the beams. This building is on the left hand 
as you go to the Town Hall, an4 is built of baked brick, 
and there are some pillars round it. It was built for 
Philip after the fatal defeat of the Greeks at Chaeronea. 
And there are statues there of Philip, and Alexander, and 
Amyntas the father of Philip. They are by Leochares in 
ivory and gold, like the statues of Olympias and Eurydice. 

BOOK T. — BUS. 343 


AND now I shall proceed to the account of the statues 
and votive offerings, which I do not care to mix up 
together. In the Acropolis at Athens all the statues and 
everything else equally are votive offerings : but at Altis 
the votive offerings are in honour of the deity, but the 
statues of the prizemen are merely a memorial of the con- 
tests. Of them I shall speak hereafter : I shall now take 
the most remarkable votive offerings in order. 

As you go to the race-course from the Temple of the 
Mother there is on the left at the end of the mountain 
Cronius a basement of stone, near the mountain, and some 
steps to it. On this basement there are some brazen 
statues of Zeus, made with the money from a fine im- 
posed on some athletes who had behaved shamefully at the 
games. These statues are called in the national dialect 
Zanes. They were six in number at first and were put up 
in the 98th Olympiad. For Eupolus the Thessalian bribed 
his rivals in boxing to let him win the prize, Agenor from 
Arcadia, and Prytanis from Cyzicus, and Phormio from 
Halicamassus, who was the champion in the preceding 
Olympiad. This was the first foul play they say at the 
boxing matches, and Eupolus and those who had been 
bribed by him were fined by the people of Elis. Two of 
the statues are by Cleon of Sicyon, the modeller of the 
remaining four we do not know. And all these statues, 
but the third and fourth, have elegiac lines on them. The 
first says that not with money, but swiftness of foot and 
bodily vigour, ought one to win prizes at Olympia. And 
the second says that that statue is raised in honour to the 
deity, and from piety on the part of the people of Elis, 
and to inspire fear in such athletes as do not play fair. As 
to the fifth and sixth, the gist of the inscription on one is 
a panegyric of the people of Elis, and not least for their 
punishment of the cheating boxers, and on the other a 
didactic precept to all the Greeks that nobody is to bribe 
to win the prize at Olympia. 


And subsequently to Eupolus they say that the Athenian 
Callippus, when contending for the pentathlum, bribed his 
antagonists in the 112th Olympiad. And when he and his 
antagonists were fined by the people of Elis, the Athenians 
sent Hyperides to beg the people of Elis to remit the 
fine. And when the people of Elis refused this favour, the 
Athenians treated them with much hauteur, not paying the 
money and keeping away from Olympia, till the god at 
Delphi told them he would no longer give them any oi"acular 
responses, till they paid the fine to the people of Elis. And 
when they paid, six more statues were made for Zeus, with 
elegiac verses on them no less severe than those about the 
fine of Eupolus. And the purport of these verses on the 
first statue is that the statues are erected in accordance 
with the oracular direction of the god, who honoured the 
decision the people of Elis had come to about the competi- 
tors for the pentathlum. And the second and third like- 
wise praise the people of Elis for their conduct in the same 
matter. And the fourth desires to point out that the con- 
test at Olympia is one of merit and not of money. And 
the inscriptions on the fifth and sixth shew, one why the 
statues were made, and the other that the oracle came to 
the Athenians from Delphi. 

And next to those I have enumerated are two statues, 
made from a fine imposed on some wrestlers, whose names 
are unknown both to me and the Antiquarians of Elis. 
There are some inscriptions also on these statues, the first 
is that the Rhodians paid a fine to Olympian Zeus for the 
cheating of their wrestler. And the second is that the 
statue was made out of fines imposed on those who wrestled 
for bribes. And the Antiquarians of Elis say that the 
other statues in connection with athletes were erected in 
the 178th Olympiad, when Eudelus was bribed by the 
Rhodian Philostratus. I find a discrepancy between this 
account and the public records of the people of Elis as 
respects the victors at Olympia. For in these records 
they say that Straton of Alexandria in the 178th Olympiad 
won on the same day the prize both in the pancratium 
and in the wrestling. Alexandria, at the mouth of the 
Nile near Canopus, was built by Alexander, the son of 
Philip, on the site of a former town of no great size called 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 345 

Rhacotis. In the generation before Straton 3, and 3 after 
his day, are famous for having received the crown of wild 
olive both for the pancratium and the wrestling. The 
first was Caprus a native of Elis, and next of the Greeks 
beyond the ^gean the Rhodian Aristomenes, and next 
Protophanes of the Magnetes at Lethosus. And after 
Straton Marion, also from Alexandria, and Aristeas from 
Stratonice (both the region and city were anciently called 
Chrysaoris), and last Nicostratus from the Cilicians by the 
sea, though he had little in common with the Cilicians but 
nominally. For, when he was quite a child, he was kid- 
napped from Prymnessus a town in Phrygia by robbers, 
who took him to ^g^e and sold him to the highest bidder. 
He was of no obscure family, and some time afterwards 
his purchaser dreamed that a hon's whelp lay under the 
truckle bed on which he used to sleep. When Nicostratus 
grew to man's estate he had several other victories at 
Olympia in the pancratium and in wrestHng. 

And among others that were fined by the people of Elis 
afterwards was a boxer from Alexandria in the 218th 
Olympiad. His name was Apollonitis, his surname Rhantes, 
for it is customary among the people of Alexandria to 
have surnames. He was the first Egyptian condemned 
by the people of Elis for neither giving nor receiving 
money, but for the impropriety of coming too late, for 
which he was not allowed to take part in the games. As 
to his excuse that he was detained by contrary winds in the 
Cyclades, Heraclides, also an Alexandrian, proved it to be 
a falsehood : and said he was really too late because he had 
been collecting money from the games in Ionia. Accord- 
ingly Apollonius and all others not present at the appointed 
time for the boxing matches were not allowed by the people 
of Elis to take part in the games, but to Heraclides they 
gave a crown without a contest. Thereupon Apollonius, 
who had on his boxer's caestus, rushed at Heraclides, and 
attacked him fiercely, just as he had received his crown of 
wild olive, and he fled for refuge to the Umpires. This 
hotheadedness was severely punished. There are also two 
statues made in our own times. For in the 226th Olympiad 
they detected some boxers bribing to get the prize. The 
money of their fine went to make two statues of Zeus, one 


on the left of the entrance to the course, and the other 
on the right. Didas was the name of one of these 
boxers, and the other, who gave the bribe, was Sara- 
pammon, both were from the same district, the latest one 
formed in Egypt, called Arsinoites. It is wonderful indeed 
that from any quarter people should have been found to 
despise the god at Olympia, and to receive or give bribes in 
connection with the games, but still more wonderful that 
any of the people of Elis should have ventured to act in 
that manner. But it is said that Damonicus, a native of 
Elis, acted so in the 192nd Olympiad. For when Polyctor 
(the son of Damonicus) and Sosander (the son of Sosander) 
a native of Smyrna had descended to the arena for the 
wrestling match, Damonicus, being very anxious that his 
son should have the victory, bribed the younger Sosander. 
And when the circumstances got known, the Umpires fined 
the parents, turning their vengeance on them because they 
were really the guilty parties. Statues were made with 
this money too : one in the gymnasium at Elis, the other 
in Altis, in front of what is called the Painted Portico, 
because there were in ancient times paintings on the walls. 
This Portico is called by some the Portico of Echo, because 
in it a word is re-echoed 7 times, sometimes even more 

And they record that the pancratiast Serapion, a native 
of Alexandria, in the 201st Olympiad was so afraid of 
those who were to compete with him, that the day before 
the contest he absconded. He is the only Egyptian, or in- 
deed member of any nationality, that was ever fined for 
cowardice in the grames. 


SUCH are the statues made out of fines as far as I 
could ascertain. There are also other statues of Zeus, 
some erected publicly, some privately. There is also an 
altar in Altis near the entrance to the course. On this altar 
the people of Elis do not sacrifice to any of the gods, but 
the trumpeters and heralds stand here when they proclaim 

BOOK y. — ELis. 347 

the games. On the brazen base of this altar is a statue to 
Zeus, six cubits in height, with a thunderbolt in each hand, 
the votive offering of the people of Cynaetha. And the 
young Zeus with a necklace round his neck is the votive 
offering of Cleolas of Phlius. 

And near what is called the Hippodamium there is a semi- 
circular basement of stone, and statues on it of Zeus and 
Thetis and Aurora supplicating Zeus for their children. 
These are in the midst of the basement. And at each ex- 
tremity of the basement stand Achilles and Memnon in the 
attitude of antagonists. Similarly opposite to one another 
stand a Greek and barbarian, Odysseus opposite Helenus, 
for these are selected as most remarkable for wisdom in 
either army, and Paris is opposite Menelans from their old 
hostility, and ^neas opposite Diomede, and Deiphobus 
opposite Ajax the son of Telamon. These are all by 
Lycius the son of Myron, and are votive offerings of the 
people of Apollonia near the Ionian sea. And there are 
some elegiac lines in ancient characters under the feet of 

•' We are votive offerings from Apollonia, which long- 
haired Phcebus buUt near the Ionian sea Those who 
seized the borders of Abantis offered this spoil from 

Now the region called Abantis and the town in it 
called Thronium were in Thesprotia near the mountains 
Ccraunia. For when the Greek ships were dispersed on 
their return from Ilium, the Locrians from Thronium near 
the river Boagrius and the Abantes from Euboea in 8 ships 
put in to shore near the mountains Ceraunia. And there 
they dwelt and btiilt the town of Thronium, and by common 
consent called all the district they lived in Abantis, and 
were afterwards beaten in war and expelled by their neigh- 
bours of Apollonia. And Apollonia was a colony from 
Corcyra, and the Corinthians had a share in the spoil. 

And as you go on a little further there is a Zeus look- 
ing east, with an eagle in one hand and a thunderbolt in 
the other. And he has a crown on his head composed 
of lihes. This statue is the votive offering of the people of 
Metapontum, and the design of the .^ginetan Anstonous. 
But who Aristonous learnt his craft from we do not know. 


nor the period in which he flourished. The Phliasians also 
erected as votive offerings statues of Zeus and Asopus' 
daughters and Asopus himself. And this is the arrange- 
ment of the statues. Nemea comes first of the sisters, and 
Bext her is Zeus laying hold of -^gina. And next ^gina is 
Harpina, who according to the tradition of the Phliasians 
and the people of Elis had an amour with Ares, and bare to 
him CEnomaus, the king of the district of Pisa. And next 
to her are Corcjra and Thebe, and Asopus comes last. 
The tradition about Corcyra is that she had an amour 
with Poseidon, and a similar legend about Thebe and Zeus 
is sung by Pindar. 

The men of Leontini erected a statue to Zeus privately 
and not publicly. The height of it is 7 cubits, and Zeus has 
in his hands an eagle and javelin according to the descrip- 
tions of the poets. And it was erected by Hippagoras and 
Phrynon and ^nesidemus, not I think the ^nesidemus 
who was tyrant at Leontini. 


AND as you pass on to the entrance to the council 
chamber there is a statue of Zeus without an inscrip- 
tion, (and another as you turn to the North). This is 
towards the East, and was erected by the Greeks who 
fought at Plataea against Mardonius and the Medes. On 
the right of the basement are inscribed the states that took 
part in the action, the Lacedsemonians first, and next the 
Athenians, third the Corinthians, fourth the Sicyonians, 
fifth the ^ginetans, then the Megarians and Epidaurians, 
of the Arcadians the men of Tegea and Orchomenus, and 
in addition to these the inhabitants of Phlius Troezen and 
Hermion, and in Argolis the men of Tiryns, and of the 
Boeotians only the people of Plataea, and of the Argives 
the inhabitants of Mycenae, and the islanders from Ceos 
and Melos, and the Ambraciotes from Thesprotia, and 
the Tenii and people of Lepreum, the latter only from 
Triphyha, but the Tenii not only from the -^Egean and the 
Cyclades but also from Naxos and Cythnus, and the men 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 3-49 

of Styra from Euboea, and next to them the people of Elis 
and Potidaea and Anactorium, and lastly the people of 
Chaleis near the Enripus. Of these cities the following were 
unpeopled in my day. Mycenae and Tiryns were rased to 
the ground by the Argives after the Persian war. And the 
Ambraciotes and men of Anactorium, who were colonists 
from Corinth, were induced by the Roman Emperor Augus- 
tus to form the colony of Nicopolis near Actium. And the 
people of Potidaea were twice ejected from their country, by 
Philip, the son of Amyntas, and earlier still by the Athe- 
^nians, and though subsequently they were restored by 
Cassander, yet the name of their city was changed to 
Cassandrea in honour of their new founder. And the 
statue at Olympia, that was a votive offering of the 
Greeks, was by Anaxagoras the JEginetSkn, though those 
who have compiled a history of sculptors have omitted to 
mention him. 

There is also in front of this statue of Zeus a brazen 
pillar, on which are inscribed the conditions of peace for 
30 years between the Lacedaemonians and the Athenians, 
which was made by the Athenians after their second reduc- 
tion of Euboea, in the 3rd year of that Olympiad in which 
Crison of Himera won the prize. And this was one of 
the conditions specified, that the city of the Argives 
should have no share in this peace between the Athe- 
nians and Lacedaemonians, but that privately the Athe- 
n.'ans and Argives if they chose might be friendly to 
one another. This is plainly stated in the conditions. 
And there is another statue of Zeus near the chariot of 
Cleosthenes, (about which I shall speak later), the votive 
offering of the Megarians, and the design of the brothers 
Phyla cus and Onaethus and their sons : I cannot tell their 
period or country, or from whom they learned their craft. 
And near the chariot of Gelon there is an old statue of 
Zeus with a sceptre, the votive offering they say of the 
people of Hybla. There are two Hyblas in Sicily, one 
called Gereatis, and the other to this day called Hybla 
Major. Both are in the neighbourhood of Catana, Hybla 
Major is quite deserted, but Gereatis is still inhabited, 
and has a temple to the Hyblaean goddess who is wor- 
shipped in Sicily. And I think it was from there that the 


statue of Zeus^came to Olympia. For Philistus the son 
of Archomenides records that thej were the best inter- 
preters of portents and dreams, and the most noted for 
piety of all the barbarians in Sicily. And near the votive 
offering of the people of Hybla is a brazen pedestal and a 
Zeus upon it, eighteen feet high I conjecture. And who 
offered it to the god, and whose design it is, is stated in 
the following elegiac lines : 

" The people of Cleitor erected this votive offering to the 
god, with the tithe collected from many cities taken by 
storm by them. And the artificers were the Laconian 
brothers Aristo and Telestas." 

I do not think these Laconians could have been men well 
known in Grreece, for else the people of Elis would have 
had something to say about them, and still more the 
Lacedaemonians as they were their citizens. 


AND near the altar of Zeus Laoetas and Poseidon Laoetas 
there is a Zeus on a brazen basement, the gift of the 
Corinthian people, and the design of Musus, whoever Musus 
was. And as you go from the council chamber to the great 
temple there is on the left a statue of Zeus, crowned with 
flowers, and in his right hand a thunderbolt. This was the 
design of Ascarus a Theban, who was the pupil of the 
Sicyonian, * * and it was a votive offering of the people of 
Thessaly. But if the people of Thessaly offered it as n 
votive offering from spoil taken in a war with the Phocians 
it could not be what is called the Sacred War, for that 
was fought before the Medes and the great king came 
to Greece. And not far from this is a Zeus, which (as 
the inscription on it shews) was a votive offering of Psophi- 
dius after success in war. And on the right of the temple 
of great Zeus towards the east is a statue of Zeus 12 feet 
high, the votive offering it is said of the Lacedaemonians, 
after they had fought the second time with the Messenians 
who had revolted. And there is an elegiac couplet inscribed 
on it. 

BOOK V. — ELI3. 351 

" Receive Olympian Zeus, Cronus' great son, this noble 
statue from the Lacedaemonians with propitious mind." 

Of the Romans we know of none, either plebeian or 
patrician, earlier than Mummius who put up a votive offer- 
ing in any Greek temple, but he out of the spoils of 
Achaia erected a brazen Zeus at Olympia. It stands on 
the left of the votive offering of the Lacedaemonians, on the 
first pillar of the temple. But the largest of the brazen 
statues of Zeus is in Altis, and was a votive offering of the 
people of Elis after the'war with the Arcadians, it is 27 
feet high. And near the temple of Pelops there is a small 
statue of Zeus upon a not very lofty pillar, with one 
of his hands extended. And opposite it are some votive 
offerings in a row, statues of Zeus and Granymede. The 
account of Homer is that Ganymede was carried off by the 
gods to be cupbearer to Zeus, and that Tros his father had 
some horses given him for his son. And this was a votive 
offering of Gnathis the Thessalian, and the work of Aris- 
tocles the pupil and son of Clecetas. And there is another 
Zeus without a beard, among the votive offerings of Micy- 
thus. Who this Micythus was, whence he came, and 
why he offered these votive offerings at Olympia, will be 
described by me hereafter. And if you go on a little from 
the statue I have mentioned, there is straight before you 
another statue of Zeus without a beard, the votive offering 
of the Elaitae, who came down from the plain of Caicus to 
the sea, and were the first settlers in ^olis. Near this is 
another statue of Zeus, and the inscription on it is that 
the people of the Chersonese in Cnidos erected it as a 
votive offering after a triumph over their enemies. Thev 
erected also on one side of Zeus Pelops, and on the other 
the river Alpheus. And most of the city of the Cnidians is 
built on the continent of Caria, where they performed most 
of their most memorable deeds, and the Chersonese is an 
island lying near the continent, and connected with it by 
a bridge : and the votive offerings to Olympian Zeus were 
dedicated by the dwellers there, just as the Ephesians 
dwelling at Coressus could say that their votive offering 
was a gift of the Ephesians generally. There is also near 
the wall of Altis a statue of Zeus facing west without an 
inscription : but tradition says it was erected by Mnm- 


mius from the spoils of his war with Achaia. But the 
statue of Zeus in the Council-Chamber is of all the statues 
of Zeus most calculated to frighten wicked men, his Title 
is Zeus the God of Oaths, and he has a thunderbolt in 
each hand. At this statue it is customary for the athletes, 
their fathers and brothers, and also their trainers, to swear 
over the entrails of a boar that they will not cheat at the 
Olympian games. And the athletes make this further oath 
that they have carefully trained for the space of 10 months. 
And the umpires also, either of boys or the colts that com- 
pete in the races, swear to give their decisions honestly and 
without bribes, and not to reveal the reasons for their 
selection of the winners. What they do with the boar 
afterwards I forgot to ask, but it was the custom among 
all the more ancient sacrificers, that the victim over whom 
oaths were taken should not be eaten by anybody : as 
Homer's evidence very plainly shews, for the boar on whose 
entrails Agamemnon swore solemnly that Briseis was a 
maid as far as he was concerned, was thrown into the sea 
by the herald. Witness the following lines : 

" He spoke, and cut the crackling off the boar 
With ruthless knife. And quick Talthybius 
Whirled it away into the surging sea, 
As food for fishes." ^ 

Such was the ancient use. And before the feet of Zeus 
the God of Oaths there is a brazen tablet, on which some 
elegiac lines are inscribed, that are meant to inspire fear in 

» Ihad, xix. 266-268. 

BOOK T. — ELIS. 353 


SUCH are tie statues of Zeus inside Altis, all of which I 
have enumerated. For the statue near the great temple 
offered by a Corinthian, is not an offering of the old Corin- 
thians but of those who rebuilt the city in Caesar's time, and 
is Alexander the son of Philip to imitate Zeus. I shall 
also enumerate all the other statues which are not repre- 
sentations of Zeus. And the effigies not erected in honour 
of the deity, but in honour of men, I shall describe in my 
account of the athletes. 

The Messenians at the Sicilian Strait, who used to send 
to Rhegium, according to old custom, a chorus of 35 boys 
and a choir-master and a piper to the national feast, had on 
one occasion a terrible disaster, none of those that were 
sent were sayed, but the yessel that had the boys on board 
perished boys and aU in the depths of the sea. For the 
sea at this strait is a most stormy one ; for winds lash it to 
fury, and two seas meet, the Sicilian and the TjTrhenian : 
and eyen when the winds are calm, there is a tremendous 
swell in the Strait from the strong ebb and flow. And so 
many sea-monsters are there, that the air is tainted with 
their scent, so that the shipwrecked mariner has no chance 
of getting safe to shore. And if Odysseus had chanced to 
be wrecked here, one can never believe that he could have 
swum off safe to Italy. But a kind Providence in every 
conjuncture brings about some alleviation. And the Mes- 
senians sorrowing at the loss of the boys, besides other 
things to honour their memory, placed at Olympia brazen 
effigies of them and their choir-master and piper. The old 
inscription shewed that these effigies were votive offerings 
of the Messenians at the Sicilian Strait : and subsequently 
Hippias, who was called by the Greeks the "Wise, wrote 
some elegiac lines on them. The effigies were by Callon 
of Elis. 

And there is near the Promontory Pachynus, that faces 
towards Libya and the South, the town of Motye, peopled 
by Libyans and Phoenicians. And the people of Agrigen- 
tum were at war with the people of Motye, and out of the 

A A 


spoil and booty they took from them erected as votive 
offerings at Olympia some boys in brass, extending their 
right hands like people praying to the deity. They are 
on the wall at Altis. I conjectured they were by Calamis, 
and tradition states the same. The races that inhabit 
Sicily are the Sicani and the Siceli and the Phrygians, 
some of whom crossed over from Italy, and others came 
from the river Scamander and the Troad. And the Phoe- 
nicians and Libyans sailed to the island with a joint fleet, 
as a colony of the Carthaginians. Such are the barbarous 
races in Sicily. And of Greeks the Dorians and lonians 
dwell in it, and a few Phocians and Athenians. 

And on the same wall are votive offerings from Agri- 
gentum, two statues of boyish Hercules naked. The Her- 
cules shooting at the Nemean lion is the votive offering 
of the Tarentine Hippotion, and the design of the Maenalian 
Nicodamus. The other is the votive offering of the Men- 
daean Anaxippus, and was brought here by the people of 
Elis : it used to be at the end of the road leading from 
Elis to Olympia, called the Sacred Road. There are also 
statues, from the Achaean race in common, of those who, 
when Hector challenged a single Greek to single combat, 
drew lots who it should be. They are near the great temple 
armed with spears and shields. And right opposite on 
another basement is Nestor throwing the lots into his 
helmet. And the number of those that drew lots for the 
single combat with Hector are 8, for the 9th, which was 
Odysseus, they say Nero carried to Rome, and of the 8 Aga- 
memnon only has his name inscribed, and it is written from 
right to left. And the one with the device of a cock on 
the shield is Idomeneus, the descendant of Minos and Pasi- 
phae the daughter of the Sun. And the cock they say is 
sacred to the Sun and heralds his approach. The inscrip- 
tion on the basement is, 

" To Zeus the Achseans, descendants of the divine Pelops 
the son of Tantalus, erected these votive offerings." 

And the name of the artificer is inscribed on the shield 
of Idomeneus, 

'• This and many besides are the work of the skilful 
Onatas, the son of Micon of -^gina." 

And not far from the votive offerinsr of the Achseans is 

BOOK T. — ^BLIS. 355 

Hercules fighting with an Amazon on horseback for her 
belt. This is the votive offering of Evagoras of Zancle, 
and the design of Aristocles of Cydonia. Aristocles may 
be reckoned amongst the very ancient sculptors, for though 
one cannot state his period exactly, it is manifest that he 
lived before the change from the old name Zancle to its 
present one of Messene. 

The Thasians also (who were Phoenicians originally, and 
sailed from Tyre and other parts of Phcenice to Europe 
with Thasus the son of Agenor), made a votive offering of 
Hercules at Olympia, the base as well as the statue of 
brass. The height of the statue is 10 cubits, in the right 
hand he holds his club, and in the left his bow. And I 
heard in Thasos that they worshipped the same Hercules 
as the Tyrians worship, but afterwards, when when they 
became naturalized as Greeks, they worshipped Herctiles 
the son of Amphitryon. And the votive offering of the 
Thasians at Olympia has the following elegiac couplet 
attached to it, 

" Onatas the son of Micon made me, a dweller at JEginaL" 

This -^ginetan Onatas we should regard in the statuary 
art as second to none since Daedalus and the Attic school. 


THE Dorian Messenians also, who received Naupactus 
from the Athenians, erected at Olympia a Victory on 
a pillar, the design of the Mendaean Paeonius, and made 
from spoils taken from the enemy, I imagine, when they 
fought with the Acamanians and CEniadae. But the !Mes- 
senians themselves say that this Victory was erected for 
their share with the Athenians in the action at Sphacteria, 
and that they did not insert the name of the enemy from 
fear of the Lacedaemonians, and they cotQd have had no fear 
of the CEniadae and Acamanians. 

I found also many votive offerings of Micythus scat- 
tered about, and three of them together, next to the statue 
of Iphitus of Elis and Truce crowning him. viz. Amphi- 


trite and Poseidon and Vesta, by the Argive Glancus. 
And near the left side of the great temple he placed Pro- 
serpine the daughter of Demeter, and Aphrodite, and Gany- 
mede, and Artemis, and of the poets Homer and Hesiod, 
and of the gods again ^scnlapius and Hygiea. And among 
the votive offerings of Micythus is Agon with the dumb 
bells. These dumb bells are fashioned as follows. They 
are semicircular in shape though not a perfect semi-circle, 
and are so constructed that the fingers can pass through, 
as they do through the handles of a shield. And next the 
statue of Agon is Dionysus, and the Thracian Orpheus, and 
the statue of Zeus which I mentioned a little above. These 
are works of art of the Argive Dionysius. Others besides 
they say were given by Micythus, but were removed by 
N"ero. And the Argives Dionysius and Glaucus had no 
master in their craft that we know of, but the period 
when they flourished is shewn by the fact that Micythus 
placed their works of art at Olympia. For Herodotus in- 
forms us in his history that this Micythus was the slave of 
Anaxilas the king at Rhegium, and was afterwards his 
treasurer, and after his death went to Tegea. And the 
inscriptions on these votive offerings make Micythus the son 
of Choerus, and the Greek colony of Rhegium, or Messene 
near the Strait, bis native place. But they do not mention 
his ever living at Tegea, and these votive offerings at 
Olympia were the fulfilment of a vow for the recovery of 
his son, who was wasting away in a consumption. 

And near the larger votive offerings of Micythus, the 
work of the Argive Glaucus, is a statue of Athene with a 
helmet on her head and her -^Egis. This was made by 
Nicodamus the Msenalian, and is a votive offering of the 
people of Elis. And next to Athene is a statue of Vic- 
tory, an offering of the Mantineans, for what war is not 
specified in the inscription. And it is said to be an imita- 
tion by Calamis of the wooden statue at Athens of Wing- 
less Victory. And near the smaller votive offerings of 
Micythus made by Dionysius are the Labours of Hercules 
with the Nemean lion, and the hydra, and Cerberus, and the 
Erymanthian boar. They were brought to Olympia by 
the men of Heraclea, who overran the territory of the 
neighbouring barbarians the Mariandyni. Heraclea is a 



town near the Euxine, and was colonized by the Megarians. 
The Boeotians of Tanagra also had a share in the colony. 


AND opposite those I have mentioned are other votive 
offerings in a row, facing the South, and very near the 
enclosure sacred to Pelops. Among them are the votive 
offerings of ^Msenalian Phormis, who crossed over from 
Msenalus to Sicily to Gelon the son of Dinomenes, and in 
the army of Gelon, and afterwards in the army of Gelon's 
brother Hiero, displayed great valour, and advanced to 
such a pitch of fortune that he offered these votive offer- 
ings at Olympia, and also some others to Apollo at Delphi. 
His offerings at Olympia are two horses and two charioteers, 
a charioteer by each horse. The first horse and groom is by 
Dionysius the Argive, the second by the ^ginetan Simo. 
And the first has the following inscription on the side, the 
first line not in metre, 

" Phormis the Arcadian from Msenalus, now a Syracti- 
san, offered me." 

This is the horse about which the people of Elis have a 
tradition on the power of lust in horses. It is evident that 
several remarkable properties of this horse come from the 
cunning of a magician. In size and beauty it is inferior 
to many to be seen in Altis : it has also the tail knocked 
oft, which makes it more unsightly still. Nevertheless 
stallions not only in spring but all the year round are 
madly in lust after it. For they rush into Altis, breaking 
their reins or escaping from their drivers, and endeavour 
to mount this horse, with far greater impetuosity than 
they exhibit to the handsomest mare alive whom they had 
been accustomed to mount. And though their hoofs slip 
on the polished basement they do not cease to neigh 
fiercely, and try to mount this horse with frantic energy, 
till by whips or sheer strength they get pulled off. There 
is no other way of getting them away from this brazen 
horse.^ I have seen in Lydia a different kind of marvel to 
this horse of Phormis, but equally the cunning work of a 
^ Oq this curious storj see Bayle on Hippomcmes. 


magician. Among the Lydians called Persici there are 
temples at Hierocaesarea and Hypaepa, and in each of these 
temples there is a chamber in which are ashes on an altar, 
not like other ashes in appearance. And a magician enters 
into this chamber, and, after placing dry wood upon the 
altar, first of all places a tiara on his head, and then calls on 
the gods in a foreign tongue not understood by the Greeks. 
And this he chants from a book, and the wood gets lighted 
evidently without fire and a bright blaze shines forth from 
it. Let this digression suffice. 

And among these votive offerings is Phormis himself 
contending with an enemy, and fighting with a second 
and even a third. And there is an inscription stating that 
the soldier fighting is Maenalian Phormis, and that it is a 
votive offering of the Syracusan Lycortas, who plainly 
offered it out of affection to Phormis. The Greeks however 
call these votive offerings of Lycortas the votive offerings of 
Phormis. And the Hermes with a ram under his arm, and 
a helmet on his hedd, and a tunic and cloak on, is not one of 
the votive offerings of Phormis, but was offered to the god 
by the Arcadians of Pheneos. And the inscription states 
that Onatas the -^ginetan jointly designed it with Calli- 
teles, who must I think have been the pupil or son of 
Onatas. And not far from the votive offering of the people 
of Pheneos is another statue of Hermes with his herald's 
wand, and the inscription on it states that it was the votive 
offering of Glaucias of Rhegium, and the work of Gallon 
of Elis. And there are two brazen bulls, one the votive 
offering of the people of Corcyra, the other of the Bretri- 
enses, both by Philesius of Eretria. Why the Corcyraeans 
offered one bull at Olympia and another at Delphi, I 
shall relate in my account of the Phocians. And about 
the votive offering at Olympia I have heard the follow- 
ing circumstance. A little boy sitting down under this 
bull had stooped down and was playing, and suddenly lift- 
ing up his head dashed it against the brass, and not many 
days afterwards died from the blow. The people of Elis 
wanted to remove the bull from Altis as being blood guilty, 
but the god at Delphi ordered the same expiatory sacrifices 
for the bull as the Greeks ordain for involuntary homicide. 

There is under the plane trees at Altis in the middle of 

BOOK V. — ELIS. 359 

the grove a brazen trophy, and an inscription on the shield 
of the trophy, stating that the people of Elis offered it out of 
spoils of the Lacedaemonians. This was the battle in which 
the man lost his life who was found in his armour in my 
day, when the roof of the temple of Hera was being repaired. 
The votive offering of the Mendaeans in Thrace very nearly 
deceived me to think that it was the effigy of a competitor 
for the pentathlum. It is near Anauchidas of Elis, and 
has ancient dumb-bells. And the following elegiac couplet 
is wnntten on the thigh, 

" To Zeus, the king of the Gods, the Mendaeans put me 
here as firstfruits, after taking Sipte by storm." 

It seems that Sipte is a Thracian fort and city, and the 
Mendaeans are a Greek race from Ionia, and live a little 
inland from the sea, at the town of -^nus. 



NEXT to my acconnt of the votive offerings comes natu- 
rally mention of the horses that contended, and of the 
athletes, and of amateurs also. There are not statues of all 
the conquerors at Olympia, for even some who displayed 
great prowess in the contests, or elsewhere, have yet not 
obtained statues. These my subject bids me to pass over, 
for it is not a catalogue of all the athletes that were 
victors at Olympia, but an account of the statues and other 
votive offerings. Neither shall I mention all the statues, 
as I well know some who won the crown of wild olive 
from unexpected good fortune rather than their own exer- 
tions. I shall therefore merely mention those who had 
more renown or finer statues than others. 

On the right of the temple of Hera is a statue of the 
wrestler Symmachus, the son of ^schylus, a native of Elis. 
And near him, from Pheneos in Arcadia, is Neolaidas the 
son of Proxenus, who carried off the prize for boxing among 
the boys, and next Archedamus the son of Xenius, also a 
native of Elis, who beat all the boys in wrestling. These 
statues were made by Alypus the Sicyonian, the pupil of 
Naucydes the Argive. And the inscription on the statue 
of Cleogenes, the son of Silenus, says that he was of the 
district, he won the prize with a fast horse from his own stud. 
And next Cleogenes are Dinolochus, the son of Pyrrhus, 
and Troilus, the son of Alcinous. They too were natives of 
Elis, but their victories were not won in the same manner, 
for Troilus owed his victory to his perfect pair of horses 
and team of colts : partly also to his being umpire : and 
he was victor in the 102nd Olympiad. And from thence- 
forth there was a law among the people of Elis that the 
umpires' horses should not be admitted to the races. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 361 

His stattie was by Lysippus. But the mother of Dinolochus 
dreamed that she embraced her son after being crowned, 
and moved by this dream he trained, and outran the 
other lads : and his statue is by Cleon of Sicyon. As 
to Cynisca the wife of Archidamus, I have spoken pre- 
viously of her family and victories at Olympia, in my 
account of the kings of the Lacedasmonians. And near 
the statue of Troilus is a basement of stone, and a chariot 
and charioteer, and the effigy of Cynisca herself, by Apelles. 
There are inscriptions also in reference to her. And next 
her are some Lacedaemonians, who were victors in the 
horse-races. Anaxander was the first victor proclaimed in 
the chariot-race. And the inscription over him states that 
his grandfather was crowned earlier in the pentathlum. He 
is represented as praying to the god. And Polycles, sur- 
named Polychalcus, was victor in the chariot-race with 4 
horses abreast, and his effigy has in its right hand a riband. 
And by him are two boys, one holding the wheel, the other 
asking for the riband. And Polycles was victor with his 
horses, as the inscription over him states, in the Pythian 
Isthmian and Nemean games. 


AND the statue of the pancratiast next is by Lysippus. 
He carried off the victory as pancratiast from the rest 
of the Acarnanians, and was the first of his own country- 
men. Xenarches was his name and he was the son of Phi- 
landridas. And the Lacedaemonians, after the invasion 
of the Medes, turned their attention more than any other 
Greeks to breeding horses. For besides those that I have 
already mentioned, there are statues of several other Spar- 
tan horse-breeders, next to the effigy of the Acamanian 
athlete, as Xenarches, and Lycinus, and Arcesilaus, and 
Lichas his son. Xenarches also had further victories at 
Delphi and Argos and Corinth. And Lycinus brought colts 
to Olympia, and as one of them was rejected, he used his 


colts in the race of full-grown horses and won the prize. 
And he set up two statues at Olympia, by the Athenian 
Myro. And Arcesilaus and his son Lichas had two vic- 
tories at Olympia, and Lichas, as the Lacedaemonians were 
at that time excluded from the games, entered himself for 
the chariot-race as a Theban, and bound the victorious 
charioteer with a riband. For this the Umpires scourged 
him. And it was on account of this Lichas that the Lace- 
daemonians under Agis invaded Elis, when the fight took 
place at Altis. And at the end of the war Lichas erected 
his statue here, but the records of the people of Elis about 
the victors at Olympia say that the Theban people, not 
Lichas, won the victory. 

And near Lichas is the seer of Elis, Thrasybulus, the 
son of ^neas of the family of the lamidae, who practised 
divination for the Mantineans against the Lacedtemonians 
under Agis the son of King Budamidas, I shall enter into the 
circumstances more fully in my account about the Arca- 
dians. And on the effigy of Thrasybulus there is a spotted 
lizard creeping on his right shoulder, and a dog lies near 
him cut in half as a victim and shewing its liver. Divi- 
nation by kids and lambs and calves is clearly an old 
practice among mankind, the Cyprians seem also to have 
added divination by swine. But no nations are accus- 
topied to practise divination by dogs. Therefore it was 
apparently a peculiarity of Thrasybulus to introduce this 
kind of divination. And the seers called the lamidae were 
descendants of lamus, who, as Pindar tells us in one of his 
Odes, was the son of Apollo, and learnt his divination from 

And close to the effigy of Thrasybulus is one of Timos- 
thenes, a native of Elis, who won the prize for boys in the 
course, and one of the Milesian Antipater, the son of Clino- 
pater, who beat all the boys in boxing. And some Syra- 
cusans, who offered sacrifices at Olympia on behalf of 
Dionysius, bribed the father of Antipater to let his son be 
declared a Syracusan. But Antipater, despising the tyrant's 
bribe, declared himself a Milesian, and inscribed on his 
effigy that he was a Milesian, and the first Ionian that 
had had his effigy at Olympia. It was by Polycletus, and 
Timosthenes' was by Eutychides of Sicyon, a pupil of 

BOOK VI. — BUS. 363 

Lysippns. This Eutychides made a statue of Fortune for 
the Syrians by the Orontes, which is greatly honoured by 
the people of that district. 

And in Altis near the effigy of Timosthenes are statues 
of Tinion and his son ^sypus, the lad on horseback. For 
he won the prize on his racer, while Timon was pro- 
claimed victor in the chariot race. These statues were 
made by Daedalus of Sicyon, who also erected a trophy for 
the people of Elis, after their victory over the Laconians at 
Altis. And the inscription over the Samian boxer states 
that Myco was his trainer, and that the Samians are the 
best of the lonians both as athletes and naval heroes, but 
gives no information about the particular boxer. 

And next is the statue of the Messenian Damiscus, who 
was victor at Olympia when he was only 12. It is a very re- 
markable coincidence, that, when the Messenians were 
exiles from the Peloponnese, their luck at Olympia also 
failed. For except Leontiscus and Symmachus, who were 
Sicilian Messenians from the Strait, no Messenian either 
from Sicily or Xaupactus was victor at Olympia, and 
the Sicilians say they were not Messenians but old in- 
habitants of Zancle. However when the Messenians re- 
turned to the Peloponnese, their luck also at Olympia re- 
turned. For in the year after the restoration to Messene, 
when the people of Elis celebrated the Olympian games, 
this Damiscus won the prize from all the boys in the course, 
and afterwards won victories both at Xemea and at the 
Isthmus in the pentathlum. 


"\T EXT to Damiscus is the statue of a man whose name 
■*■ ^ is not recorded, the votive offering of Ptolemy the 
son of Lagus. Ptolemy calls himself a Macedonian in the 
inscription, though he was king of Egypt. There is an in- 
scription also over Chaereas of Sicyon a boy-boxer, stating 
that his father was Chaeremon, and that though young he 
was victor. The inscription also states that the statue 


was by Asterion, the son of -^schylus. And next to 
Cheereas there are statues of the Messenian boy Sophius, 
and of Stomius a man of Elis, Sophius outran all the boys, 
and Stromius won one victory in the pentathlum at 
Olympia, and three at Neniea. And the inscription on 
Stomius records further that as leader of the cavalry of 
the people of EKs he won a victory, and killed the com- 
mander of the enemy, who had challenged him to single 
combat. And the people of Elis say that he came from 
Sicyon and was ruler of the Sicyonians, and that they 
themselves went on an expedition against Sicyon in friend- 
ship to the Thebans together with a force from Boeotia. 
It would appear therefore that an expedition against 
Sicyon must have set out from Elis and Thebes after the 
reverse of the Lacedaemonians at Leuctra. 

Next is the statue of the boxer Labax, the son of Euphron, 
who was a native of Lepreus in Elis, and also one of the 
wrestlers from Elis, Aristodemus the son of Thrasis, who 
had two victories in the Pythian games. And the efl&gy of 
Aristodemus is by Daedalus the Sicyonian, who was the 
pupil and son of Patrocles. And the statue of Hippos of 
Elis, who beat all the boys in boxing, was by Democritus 
of Sicyon, who leamt his art from the Athenian Critias 
through 4 intermediate teachers. For Critias was the 
tutor of the Corcyraean Ptolichus, and Amphion was the 
pupil of Ptolichus, and Piso of Calauria was the pupil of 
Amphion, and Democritus was the pupil of Piso. And 
Cratinus from -^gira in Achaia was the most handsome of 
all his contemporaries, and the greatest wrestler. And as 
none of the boys could stand before him in wrestling he 
was appointed by the people of Elis as teacher of the boys. 
And his statue was by the Sicyonian Cantharus, whose 
father was Alexis, and teacher Eutychides. 

And the effigy of Eupolemus of Elis was by the Sicyo- 
nian Daedalus, and the inscription informs us about him 
that he was victor at Olympia over men in the course, he 
also won two crowns at the Pythian games in the pen- 
tathlum, and one crown at the Nemean games. It is further 
recorded about Eupolemus that of the three umpires in the 
race two adjudged the prize to him, and the third to the 
Ambraciote Leo, and that Leo at the Council of Olympia 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 365 

subsequently got indemnitv from both the umpires who had 
adjudged the prize to Eapolemus. 

And the statue of CE betas was set upbjthe Achseans in 
the 80th Olympiad in acordance with the oracle at Delphi. 
He had been victor in the course in the sixth Olympiad. 
How then could he have fought with the Greeks at Plataea ? 
For it was not till the 7oth Olympiad that Mardonius and 
the Medes met with the reverse at Plataea. I am bound 
to record the traditions of the Greeks, but I need not be- 
lieve all of them. All else that happened to CEbotas shall 
be told in my account of Achaia. 

And the statue of Antiochus was made by Xicodemus. 
Antiochus was a native of Lepreus, and won the prize at 
Olympia for the pentathlum for men once, and twice in the 
Pythian games, twice also at Nemea. For the Isthmians 
were not frightened by the people of Lepreus as they were 
by the people of Elis, for Hysmon of Elis, whose statue is 
next to Antiochus, being an athlete, and having won the 
prize for the pentathlum once at Olympia and once at 
Nemea, was plainly prevented, like all other people of Elis, 
from trying his fortune at the Isthmian games. It is also 
recorded of Hysmon that when he was a boy he had a dis- 
charge, and that was why he trained for the pentathlum, 
that he might become stronger in constitution, and free 
from disease. And this training was destined to get for 
him many notable victories. His statue is by Cleon, and 
he has in his hands some old-fashioned dumb bells. And 
next to Hysmon is the statue of a wrestling boy from 
Heraea in Arcadia, Nicostratus the son of Xenoclidas. It 
is by Pantias, who by six intermediate links was a pupil 
of Aristocles the Sicyom'an. 

And Dicon the son of Callibrotns won five races in the 
Pythian games, and three in the Isthmian, and four at 
Nemea, and at Olympia one for boys, two for men. And 
he has as many statnes as he won victories at Olympia. 
He was a native of Caulonia, and so proclaimed as a boy, 
though afterwards for money he proclaimed himself a 
Syracusan. Xow Caulonia is a colony of Achteans in Italy, 
its founder was Typhon of ^gium. And when Pvrrhus 
the son of ^acus and the Tarentines were at war with 
the Romans, and several cities in Italy were destroyed. 


some by the Romans, some by the people of Epirus, Cau- 
lonia was laid waste, after being captured by the Cam- 
panians, who were the chief allies of the Romans. 

Next to Dicon is a statue of Xenophon, the son of Mene- 
phylus, the pancratiast from ^gium in Achaia, also one 
of Pyrilampes the Ephesian, who obtained the victory in 
the long course. Xenophon's statue is by Olympus, Pyri- 
lampes' by a sculptor of the same name, not a Sicyonian, 
but from Messene near Ithome. 

The Samians also erected a statue at Olympia to the 
Spartan Lysander the son of Aristocritus. And the first 
of the inscriptions is, 

" In the conspicuous precincts of almighty Zeus I stand, 
the votive offering of all the Samians." 

This informs us who erected the statue. And the second 
inscription is a panegyric on Lysander, 

" Immortal fame, Lysander, on your country and Aristo- 
critus did you confer by your splendid merit." 

Manifest is it therefore that the Samians and other 
Ionian s, according to the Ionian proverb, whitewashed two 
walls. ^ For when Alcibiades had a strong Athenian fleet 
in the neighbourhood of Ionia, most of the lonians paid 
their court to him, and there is a brazen bust of Alcibiades 
in the temple of Hera among the Samians. But when the 
Athenian fleet was taken at ^gospotamoi, then the 
Samians erected this statue of Lysander at Olympia, and 
the Ephesians placed in the temple of Artemis statues of 
Lysander himself, and Eteonicus, and Pharax, and other 
Spartans of no great renown in G-reece. And when for- 
tune veered round again, and Conon won the sea-fight off 
Cnidus and Mount Dorium, then the lonians changed sides 
again, and you may see a brazen statue of. Conon and 
Timotheus at Samos in the temple of Hera, and likewise 
at Ephesus in the temple of Artemis, This has been the 
case in all ages, for all men, like these lonians, pay court 
to the strongest. 

1 This proverb means to play fast and loose, to be a turn-coat, a Vicar 
of Bray. The best illustration is Cicero ad Fam. vii. 29. " Noli banc 
epistolam Attico ostendere : sine eum errare et putare me virum bdhum 
esse nee solera duo parietes de eadem fidelia dealbare." See also 
Erasmus' Adagia. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 367 


AND next to Lysander is the efifigy of an Ephesian boxer, 
whose name was Athenaeus, and who beat all the boys 
that contended with him, and next him is the Sicjonian 
pancratiast Sostratas, whose surname was Acrochersites, 
because he laid hold of his adversary's fingers and tried to 
break them, and would not let go till he saw that he was 
going to give in. And he had 12 victories at Nemea and 
Isthmus both together, and in the Pythian games two, at 
Olympia three. The 104th Olympiad, in which this Sos- 
tratus was victor for the first time, the people of Elis do 
not record, because the games in that Olympiad were not 
instituted by them but by the Pisaeans and Arcadians. And 
next to Sostratus is the wrestler Leontiscus, a Sicilian 
from Messene by the Strait. And he is said to have been 
crowned by the Amphictyonians, and twice by the people 
of Elis, and his wrestling is said to have been somewhat 
similar to that of Sostratus of Sicyon in the pancratium, 
for he was not an adept at wrestling his antagonists down, 
but he used to beat them by trying to break their fingers. 
And his statue was by Pythagoras of Rhegium, an excel- 
lent sculptor if ever there was one. And he learnt his 
art they say from Clearchus who was also a native of 
Rhegium, and a pupil of Euchims. This Euchirus was a 
Corinthian, and pupil of Syadra and Charta, who were both 

And the boy with a fillet on his head must not be omitted 
by me, on Phidias' account and his fame as a statuary, for 
otherwise we don't know who it is a statue of. And there 
is a statue of Satyrus of Elis, the son of Lysianax, of the 
family of the lamidae, who five times won the prize for 
boxing at Nemea, and twice at Olympia, and twice at the 
Pythian games. This statue is by the Athenian Silanion. 
And another Athenian statuary Polycles, the pupil of the 
Athenian Stadieus, has made a statue of the Ephesian pan- 
cratiast, Amyntas the son of Hellanicus. 

And Chilon the Achaean of Patrae had two victories at 
Olympia in wrestling among men, and one at Delphi, and 


4 at Isthmus, and 3 at Nemea. And lie had a public funeral 
from the Achseans, as he was killed in war. The inscription 
at Olympia bears me out. 

" I won the prize from men in wrestling twice in the 
Pythian and Olympian games, three times at Nemea, four 
times at the Isthmus near the sea, I Chilon of Patrae the 
son of Chilon, whom the Achaeans gave a public funeral to 
for his valour as he was killed in war." 

Such is what the inscription records. And if one conjec- 
tures from the age of Lysippus, who made the effigy, one 
must infer that the war in which Chilon fell was either 
at Chaeronea when he fought in company with all the 
Achaeans, or that he alone boldly volunteered to fight at 
Lamia in Thessaly against Antipater and the Macedonians. 

And next to that of Chilon are two statues : one of Mol- 
pion, who the inscription states was croYned by the people 
of Elis, and the other, which has no inscription, is they say 
Aristotle of Stagira in Thrace, and it was erected to 
him by some pupil or soldier, as he was greatly honoured 
by Antipater and earlier still by Alexander. And Soda- 
mas from Assus in the Troas, near Mount Ida, was the 
first ^olian that won the prize for boys in the course at 
Olympia. And next to Sodamas is a statue of Archidamus, 
the son of Agesilaus, king of the Lacedemonians. Before 
the reign of this Archidamus I cannot find that the Lace- 
daemonians erected a statue of anyone beyond their own 
borders. But they sent I think a statue of Archidamus to 
Olympia, not only on other accounts but also because of his 
death, for he died fighting against the barbarians, and was 
the only one of the Spartan kings that lacked sepulture. I 
have narrated the particulars at full length in my account 
of Sparta. And Euanthes of Cyzicus had prizes for boxing, 
one at Olympia as a man, and at Nemea and the Isthmian 
games as a boy. And next to Euanthes is a horse-trainer 
and a chariot, and a girl mounting the chariot. The man's 
name is Lampus, and his native town was the most recent 
of the Macedonian towns, and got its name from its founder 
Philip the son of Amyntas. And the effigy of Cyniscus, the 
boy boxer from Mantinea, was by Polycletus. And Ergo- 
teles the son of Philanor, who carried off two victories at 
Olympia in the long course, and as many at the Pythian 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 369 

Isthmian and Nemean games, was not originally a native 
of Himera, as the inscription states, but is said to have been 
a Cretan from Gnossus : and being banished from thence 
in some faction he went to Himera, and obtained citizen- 
ship there, and had other honours. This is the probable 
explanation of his being proclaimed in the games as a native 
of Himera. 


THE statue which stands on a lofty pedestal is by Lysip- 
pus. It is the statue of Polydamas, the son of Xicias, 
the largest man of our times. There may have been larger 
men, but only the heroes or some mortal race of giants 
earlier than the heroes. Scotusa, which was the native 
place of Polydamas, is not inhabited in oui' day, for Alex- 
ander the king of the Pheraeans took it in time of peace, for 
when the people of Scotusa were all gathered together in 
the theatre, for they held their meetings there at that period, 
he surrounded it with targeteers and archers and shot them 
all, and slew all besides that were in their prime, and cold 
the women and children, and with the proceeds kept up a 
mercenary army. This disaster happened to the people of 
Scotusa when Phrasicb'des was Archon at Athens, in the 
102nd Olympiad, in the second year of which Damon of 
Thuria was victor for the second time. And those that 
escaped of the people of Scotusa were few, and even they 
were reduced still further and left the town, when Provi- 
dence brought a second reverse upon all the Greeks in the 
war with the Macedonians. In the pancratium several had 
notable victories, but Polydamas beside his crowns for the 
pancratium had further renown for the following remark- 
able exploits. The mountainous part of Thrace, inside the 
river Nestus that flows through the territory of the people 
of Abdera, rears several wild beasts and among them lions, 
who on one occasion attacked the army of Xerxes, and made 
havoc of the camels that carried the com. These lions also 
frequently prowled about the country in the neighbourhood 
of Mount Olympus, one side of which mountain faces Mace- 

B B 


donia, another Thessaly and the river Peneus. Polydamas 
unarmed slew a large and stout lion on Mount Olympus : 
moved to this exploit from a desire to emulate the actions of 
Hercules, who as the tradition goes vanquished the Nemean 
lion. Another memorable feat of Polydamas is on record. 
He approached a herd of cattle, and seized the strongest 
and wildest bull by one of its hind feet; and held on fast by 
its hoofs, and would not let it go though it kicked and 
struggled, till at last the bull exerting all its strength got 
away from him, and left its hoofs in his hands. . It is also 
recorded of him that he stopped a chariot which the driver 
was urging on at full speed, by laying hold of it behind 
with one hand, and thus stopped both horses and charioteer. 
And Darius, the illegitimate son of Artaxerxes, (who 
with the help of the Persian commonalty had deposed Sog- 
dius, Artaxerxes' legitimate son, and usurped his kingdom), 
when he became king sent messengers, for he had heard of 
the exploits of Polydamas, and by promising rewards at- 
tracted him to his court at Susa. And there he slew in 
single combat three of the Persians called Immortals who 
had challenged him. And some of the exploits which I 
have mentioned are recorded on the base of his statue at 
Olympia, others in the inscription. But eventually the pro- 
phetic utterance of Homer about trusting too much in one's 
strength proved true of Polydamas, for he too was destined 
to perish through too great confidence in his strength.' On 
one occasion with several boon companions he entered a 
cave in summer time, and somehow or other by some 
malign fortune the top of the cave cracked, and was evi- 
dently going to fall in in no long time. And when they per- 
ceived the impending disaster all his companions fled, but 
Polydamas determined to remain, and stretched out his 
hands in the intention of holding up this mass of rock and 
not being buried under it, but he was crushed to death. 

* The passage referred to is Iliad, vi. 407. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 371 


A'KD next to the statue of Polydamas are two Arcadian 
athletes, and one Athenian one. The first is the Man- 
tinean Protolaus, the son of Dialces, who beat all the boys 
in boxing, by Pythagoras of Rhegium, the second is Nary- 
cidas, the son of Damaretus, a wrestler from Phigalia, by 
the Sicyonian Daedalus, and the third is Callias, the Athe- 
nian pancratiast, by the Athenian painter Micon. And there 
is a statue, by Nicodamus of Meenalns, of the pancratiast 
from Maenalus, Androsthenes the son of Lochfeus, who 
carried off two victories from men. And next to these is 
the statue of Eucles the son of Callianax, a Rhodian by 
birth and of the family of the Diagoridse, (for Diagoras 
was his maternal grandfather), who won the prize for 
boxing among men at Olympia. His statue is by Nau- 
cydes. And Polycletus the Argive, a pupil of Naucydes, 
(not the Polycletus who made the statue of Hera), has 
made the statue of a boy-wrestler, the Theban Agenor. It 
was made at the expense of the Phocians, to whom Theo- 
pompus the father of Agenor had been friendly. And 
Nicodamus, the statuary from Mfenalus, made a statue of 
Damoxenidas, the man-boxer from Maenalus. There is also 
an effigy of Lastratidas the boy of Elis, who won the crown 
for wrestling, and also a victory at Nemea among boys and 
beardless youths. And Paraballon the father of Lastratidas 
won the prize in the double course, and excited the emula- 
tion of posterity, by writing up the names of the victors at 
Olympia in the gymnasium at Olympia. 

So far for these last mentioned : but I must not omit 
Enthymus the boxer, or his victories and other feats. He 
was an Italian from Locri near the promontory of Zephy- 
rium, and his father's name was Astycles. But the natives 
of that country say that he was not the son of Astycles but 
of the River Caecinus, which is the boundaiy between the 
districts of Locri and Rhegium, and has a peculiarity in 
respect to grasshoppers. For the grasshoppers in Locri 
up to the river Csecinus sing just as other grasshoppers, but 


after you cross the Ca3cinus they cease to sing in the dis-r 
trict of Rhegium. Eathymus then is said to be the son of 
this River, and he won a boxing prize at Olympia in the 
74th Olympiad, but was not equally successful in the fol- 
lowing Olympiad. For Theagenes from Thasos, wishing to 
win in the same Olympiad prizes both for boxing and 
the pancratium, outboxed Euthymus. Theagenes however 
could not receive the wild olive crown for the pancratium, 
as in the contest with Euthymus he was exhausted first. 
Moreover the umpires fined Theagenes a talent as a fine to 
the god, and a talent for the injury done to Euthymus, for 
they thought he insulted him in the boxing-match, there- 
fore they ordered him also to pay privately money to 
Euthymus. And in the 76th Olympiad Theagenes paid his 
fine to the god, and in his vexation would not again contend 
as a boxer : but Euthymus received the crown for boxing 
both in that and the next Olympiad. And his statue is 
by Pythagoras and is especially fine. And on his return 
to Italy he fought against a Hero. The particulars are 
as follows. When Odysseus was on his travels after the 
capture of Ilium they say he was driven by the winds to 
several towns in Italy and Sicily, and among others to 
Temesa ; there they say one of his sailors in drink violated 
a maiden, and for this outrage was stoned to death by the 
inhabitants. Thereupon Odysseus not troubling himself 
about his death sailed off, but the ghost of the man that 
had been stoned relentlessly continued to slay indiscrimi- 
nately the people of Temesa, pursuing all ages alike, till 
the Pythian Priestess, when they intended to make a 
wholesale flitting from Italy, forbade them to leave Temesa, 
and bade them propitiate the Hero, by building him a 
temple in a grove set apart for that purpose, and annually 
giving him as wife the handsomest girl in Temesa. As 
they obeyed the orders of the oracle they had no further 
trouble with the ghost. But Euthymus happened to arrive 
at Temesa at the time when this annual offering to the 
ghost was being made, and inquired into the matter, 
and had a strong desire to enter the temple and behold 
the maiden. And when he saw her, he was first moved 
with pity and then with love. And she swore that she 
would marry him if he saved her, and Euthymus armed 


BOOK 71. — ELIS. 373 

himself and awaited the approach of the ghost. In the 
fight that ensued he v/as victor, and the Hero left the 
country, dived into the sea and was never seen again, and 
the men of that region had henceforth no more trouble 
from him, and the marriage of Euthymus was celebrated 
with much pomp. I have also heard that Euthymus lived 
to advanced old age, and did not die, but left mankind 
some other way. I have also heard that Temesa is in- 
habited still, my informant was a merchant that sails in 
those parts. I also have seen a painting, which is an imita- 
tion of an older painting. In it is the young man Sybaris, 
and the river Calabrus, and the well Lyca, and a hero-chapel, 
and the town of Temesa. There too is the ghost whom 
Euthymus expelled, dreadfully swarthy and most formid- 
able in all his appearance, and dressed in a wolfskin. And 
the letters in the painting give his name, Lycas. So much 
for this legend. 


AND next to the statue of Euthymus is that of Pythar- 
chus of Mantinea, a runner in the course, and Char- 
mides a boxer of Elis, both of whom received prizes as 
boys. And when you have seen these you will come to the 
statues of the Rhodian athletes, Diagoras and his family. 
They are all together in the following order, Acusilaus with 
the prize for boxing among men, and Dorieus, the youngest, 
who won three prizes in succession at Olympia in the 
pancratium. Before Dorieus Damagetus, who comes next, 
had won the prize against all comers in the pancratium. 
Next to his 3 sons comes the statue of Diagoras, who won 
a victory among men in boxing. And the statue of Dia- 
goras is by the Megarian Callicles, the son of that Theo- 
cosmus who made the statue of Zeus at Megara. The sons 
also of Diagoras' daughters practised as boxers and won 
prizes at Olympia, among the men Eucles the son of Cal- 
lianax and Callipatira (the daughter of Diagoras), and 
among the boys Pisirodus, whose mother dressed him up 
like a man and brought him to the Olympian games, her- 
self disguised as a trainer. This Pisirodus also has a statue 


in Altis near his maternal grandfather. Diagoras they say 
also came to Olympia with his sons Acusilaus and Dama- 
getus. And the young men being victorious at the festival 
bore their father on their shoulders, who was pelted by the 
Greeks with flowers and congratulated on his sons. On 
the female side Diagoras was a Messenian by extraction, 
as he was descended from the daughter of Aristomenes. 
And Dorieus the son of Diagoras, besides his victories at 
Olympia, had 8 victories in the Isthmian games, and seven 
in the Nemean. It is said that he also won in the Pythian 
games without a contest. And he and Pisirodus were 
entered in the games as Thurians, because they were driven 
from Rhodes by faction and migrated to Thurii. But 
Dorieus returned to Rhodes subsequently. And of all men 
he manifestly was most devoted to the Lacedsemonian 
interests, for he fought against the Athenians with a fleet 
he had himself equipped, till he was captured by the 
Athenian triremes and taken prisoner to Athens. And the 
Athenians before Dorieus was brought before them were 
very angry against him and used threats, but when they 
came to the popular Assembly and saw there so great and 
renowned a man a captive, their intention about him 
changed and they let him go, and did no harm to him, 
while they might have done so with justice. The circum- 
stances of the death of Dorieus are told by Androtion in 
his history of Attica, viz. that the fleet of the great king 
was at Caunus and Conon was the Admiral, and the people 
of Rhodes were persuaded by Conon to revolt from the 
Lacedaemonians, and join the alliance of the Athenians and 
the great king, and that Dorieus was at the time absent 
from Rhodes in the interior of the Peloponnese, and was 
arrested by the Lacedaemonians and taken to Sparta, and 
condemned by the Laced£emonians for treason and put to 
death. And if Androtion's account be correct, he seems to 
be desirous of proving the Lacedaemonians as rash as the 
Athenians, for the Athenians are charged with acting rashly 
with respect to Thrasyllus and those who fought under him 
at Arginusae. To such a pitch of glory then did Diagoras 
and his posterity attain. 

Alcsenetus, the son of Theantus of Lepreus, and his sons 
also had victories at Olympia. Alceenetus himself won 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 375 

prizes for boxing araong the men as previonsly among the 
boys. And Hellanicus and Theantns, the sons of Alcas- 
netns, were pi-oclaimed winners in the boxing raatch for 
boys, Hellanicus in the 89th Olympiad, and Theantus in 
the following Olympiad. All three have statues at Olympia. 
And next to the sons of Alcaenetns are statues of Gnatho, 
the Dipaean from the country about Msenalus, and Lycinus 
of Elis : who also had prizes for boxing among the boys at 
Olympia. That Gnatho, when he conquered, was excep- 
tionally young is stated in the inscription, his statue is by 
Callicles the Megarian. And Dromeus from Stymphelus 
was as his name indicates a runner in the long course, and 
had two victories at Olympia, two at the Pythian games, 
three at the Isthmus, and five at ]Sremea. It is said also 
that he introduced eating flesh during ti"aining : for athletes 
in training before him used to eat only a particular kind of 
cheese. His statue is by Pythagoras, and the next to it is 
that of Pythocles of Elis, who won in the pentathlum, by 


WHO made the statue of Socrates of Pellene, who won 
the race for boys, is not recorded, but the statue of 
Amertus of Elis, who defeated in wrestling all the men that 
came to the Pythian games, was by Phradmon the Argive. 
And Euanoridas of Elis won victories in wrestling among the 
boys both at Olympia and at Nemea : and he became an 
Umpire and made a list of the victors at Olympia. 

As to the boxer Damarchus, a Parrhasian from Arcadia, 
I cannot credit, except the victory at Olympia, all the 
fictions about him made by boastful people, such as that he 
changed from a man into a wolf at the sacrifice of Zeus 
Lyc^us, and that 10 years afterwards he changed into a 
man again. Js"ot that this is the tradition apparently of the 
Arcadians about him. Else it would have been inserted in 
their inscription at Olympia, which runs as follows. 

" Demarchus the son of Dinnytas erected this statue, a 
Parrhasian from Arcadia." 

This is all the inscription. But Eubotas of Gyrene, as 


he had learnt beforehand from the oracle at Libya that 
he would gain the prize in the race at Olympia, had his 
statue made first, and on the same day was proclaimed 
victor and set up his statue. It is said also that he won 
the chariot race in that Olympiad which the people of Elis 
do not reckon because the Arcadians instituted the games. 

And the statue of Timanthes of Cleonse, who won the 
prize for men in the pancratium, is by the Athenian Myro, 
and that of Baucis of Troezen, who beat all the men in 
wrestling, is by Naucydes. The following was they say the 
end of Timanthes. When he ceased to be an athlete he con- 
tinued none the less to make trial of his strength, every 
day bending a huge bow : and he went away from home 
for a time, and during that period the use of the bow was 
suspended : and when on his return he found himself no 
longer strong enough to bend his bow, he lighted his funeral 
pyre and put himself alive on it. All actions of this kind 
whether in the past or in the future seem to me rather 
madness than bravery. 

And next to Baucis are some statues of Arcadian athletes, 
as Euthymenes of Msenalus, who won prizes among men for 
wrestling and still earlier among boys, and Philip the son of 
Azan from Pellene, who beat all the boys in boxing, and 
Critodamus from Clitor, who was himself also proclaimed 
victor in the boys' boxing match. That of Euthymenes was 
by Alypus, that of Critodamus by Cleon, and that of Philip 
the son of Azan by Myro. As to Promachus the pancra- 
tiast, the son of Dryon of Pellene, I shall state more about 
him in my account of Achaia. And. not far from Proma- 
chus is the statue of Timasitheus of Delphi, (by Ageladas 
the Argive), who won two victories in the pancratium at 
Olympia, and three in the Pythian games. He also ex- 
hibited brilliant bravery in war, and had constant good 
fortune till then. For his valour on that occasion cost him 
his life. For when Isagoras the Athenian occupied the 
Acropolis with the view of making himself master of 
Athens, Timasitheus joined him, and was one of those who 
were captured, and put to death by the Athenians for his 
share in the matter. 

BOOK n. — ELis. 377 


AND the statue of Theognetus of ^gina, who was 
crowned for wrestling among the boys, is hj Ptolichus 
of -^gina, the pupil of his father Synnoon, who was him- 
self the pupil of Aristocles of Sicyon, the brother of Cana- 
chus and as famous as a statuary. But why Theognetus 
carries in his hand the fruit of the caltivated pine and 
pomegranate I cannot conjecture, perhaps among some of 
the -^ginetans there is some national legend about him. 
And next to the statue of the man who the people of Elis 
say was not registered with the rest, because he was 
proclaimed victor in the trotting-race,^ is the statue of 
Xenocles of Maenalus, who beat all the boys in wrestling, 
and Alcetus the son of Alcinous, who beat all the boys in 
boxing, an Arcadian from Clitor. His statue is by Cleon, 
and Xenocles' by Polycletus. And the statue of the Argire 
Aristeus, who won the prize in the long course, is by the 
Chian Pantias, a pupil of his father Sostratus : and next to 
him is the statue of Chimon, the father of Aristeus, who 
won the prize for wrestling. His statues are in my opinion 
the finest works of art of Naucydes, one is at Olympia, and 
the other was carried from Argos to the temple of Peace in 
Rome. It is also said that Chimon beat Taurosthenes of 
^gina in wrestling, and that in the following Olympiad 
Taurosthenes beat all comers in wrestling, and the same 
day an apparition very like Taurosthenes appeared at 
^gina and announced his victory. And the statue of 
Philles of Elis, who beat all the boys in wrestling, is by 
the Spartan Cratinus. As to the chariot of Gelon, I can- 
not agree with the opinion of those who have written 
before me, who say that it was a votive offering of Gelon 
the tyrant of Syracuse. The inscription says that it was a 
votive offering of Gelon of Gela, the son of Dinomenes, who 
was a victor in the 73rd Olympiad. But Gelon the tyrant 
of Sicily was master of Syracuse when Hybilides was 
Archon at Athens, in the second year of the 72nd Olympiad, 

* See Book v., ch. 9. 


in which Tisici.'ates of Croton won the race in the stadium. 
Manifestly therefore he would have been entered for the 
race as a Syracusan, and not as a native of Gela. So this 
Gelon would be some private person, having merely the 
same name as the Tyrant. And Grlaucias the ^ginetan 
made both the chariot and statue of Gelon. 

In the Olympiad previous to this they say that Cleo- 
medes of Astypaleea, boxing with Iccus from Epidaurus, 
killed him, and was condemned by the Umpires to be de- 
prived of his prize, and went out of his mind for grief, and 
returned to Astypalsea, and standing in a school when 
there were about 60 scholars pulled away the pillar which 
supported the roof, and when the roof fell in on the boys 
he was pelted with stones by the citizens, and fled for 
refuge to the temple of Athene : and getting into a chest 
which was lying in the temple, and clapping down the lid, 
the people of Astypalaea had immense labour to open the 
chest. At last they broke open the woodwork, and found 
no Cleomedes either alive or dead, and sent messengers to 
Delphi to inquire what had become of him. The Pythian 
Priestess they say returned this answer, 

" Last of the heroes is Cleomedes of Astypalaea, honour 
him with sacrifices as no longer a mortal." 
From that time forward the people of Astypalaea pay 
honours to him as a hero. 

And next to the chariot of Gelon is the statue of Philo 
by the -^ginetan Glaucias. On this Philo Simonides, the 
son of Leoprepes, wrote the very apt elegiac couplet : 

" My country is Corey ra, my name Philo. I am the son 
of Glaucus, and have won prizes for boxing in two Olym- 

There is also a statue of the Mantinean Agametor, who 
beat all the boys in boxing. 


ND next to those I have mentioned is Glaucus of Cary- 
stus, who they say was originally from Anthedon in 
Bceotia, and traced his descent from Glaucus the god of the 
sea. He was the son of Demylus, and they say originally 


BOOK TI. — ELI8. 379 

was a husbandman. And once when the ploughshare came 
off his plough, he put it on again using his hand instead of a 
hammer. And Demvlns marvelled at his son's strength, and 
in consequence sent him to Olympia as a boxer. And there 
Glaucus, being unpractised in that kind of contest, was 
badly handled by his antagonists, and, while boxing with 
the last remaining of them, seemed likely to faint away 
from his punishment. And they say his father cried out, 
My hoij, remember the plougJisliare. Then he put in a terrible 
blow at his antagonist, and won the prize. He is said also 
to have been twice crowned at the Pythian games, and 
eight times in the Nemean and Isthmian games. The 
statue of Glaucus was erected by his son, but was made by 
Grlaucias the ^ginetan. And the statue is in the attitude 
of one boxing, for Glaucus was the most clever of all his 
contemporaries in the noble Science. And after his death 
the people of Carystus say that he was buried in the island 
still called Glaucus' island. 

And Damaretus of Heraea, and the son and grandson of 
Damaretus, had two victories each at Olympia, Damaretus 
• in the 65th Olympiad, when first the race in heavy armour 
was instituted, and also in the next Olympiad. His statue 
has a shield Hke those in use in our day, and a helmet on 
the head, and greaves on the feet. This race in heavy 
armour was abandoned eventually by the people of Elis and 
all the Greeks. And Theopompus, the son of Damaretus, 
and afterwards his grandson of the same name won the 
prize in the pentathlum, and the grandson Theopompus 
won prizes also for wrestling ; who made his statue we do 
not know, but the statues of his father and grandfather 
were according to the inscription by the Argives Eutelidas 
and Chrysothemis. It does not however state from whom 
they learnt their art. This is the inscription. 

" The Argives Eutelidas and Chrysothemis made these 
statues, having learnt their art from former generations." 

And Iccus the son of ^ficolaidas the Tarentine won the 
prize at Olympia in the pentathlum, and afterwards be- 
came the best trainer of his day. And next to Iccus is the 
statue of Pantarces of Elis, who beat all the boys in wrest- 
ling, and was beloved by Phidias. And next to Pantarces 
is the chariot of Cleosthenes, a man of Epidamnus, by 


Ageladas, behind the Zeus erected by the Grreeks after the 
battle of Plat^a. He conquered in the 66th Olympiad, 
and he erected not only his own statue but also that of 
his charioteer and horses. And the names inscribed on 
the horses are Phoenix and Corax, and of those in the 
traces, on the right Cnacias, and on the left Samos. And 
there is this elegiac couplet on the chariot : 

" Cleosthenes the Pontian from Epidamnus erected me, 
after winning the prize with his horses in the noble contest 
of Zeus." 

And of all that reared horses among the Greeks this 
Cleosthenes was the first that erected his statue at Olympia. 
For the votive offering of Euagoras the Lacedasmoniau is 
only his chariot, and not Euagoras in it : and as to Mil- 
tiades the Athenian, what he erected at Olj^mpia I shall 
narrate elsewhere. And the Epidamnians have the saihe 
territory as formerly, but the town in our days is not the 
old one, but one at a little distance : and its name is now 
Dyrrhachium from its founder. 

And there is a statue of Lycinus, the native of Heraea 
who won in the race for boys, by Cleon, and of three who 
won victories among the boys for boxing, Epicradius of 
Mantinea by Ptolichus of ^gina, and Tellon the Ores- 
thasian by what statuary is not on record, and Agiadas of 
Elis by Serambus of ^gina. 


NEXT to these are votive offerings of the people of Elis, 
as Philip the son of Amyntas, and Alexander the son 
of Philip, and Seleacus, and Antigonus ; the statues of all 
but Antigonus are on horseback, he alone is on foot. 

And not far from these kings is a statue of Theagenes 
of Thasos, the son of Timosthenes. But the Thasians say 
that he was not the son of Timosthenes, who was a priest 
of Hercules at Thasos, but that Hercules disguised as 
Timosthenes had an intrigue with the mother of Theagenes, 
And when the lad was nine years of age, and was going 
home from school, he fancied they say the brazen statue 

BOOK YI. — ELIS, 381 

of one of the gods in the market-place, and seized it and 
put it upon one of his shoulders and took it home. And 
the citizens being angry with him for what he had done, a 
man of repute and advanced age would not let them kill the 
lad, but bade him restore the statue back to its place, and 
he did so. And immediately the fame of the lad for 
strength spread abroad, and his exploit was talked of all 
over Greece. The most notable of his exploits at Olympia 
I have already recorded, and how he beat Euthymus in 
boxing, and how he was fined by the people of Elis. At 
that time Dromens of Mantinea won the victory in the 
pancratium, for the first time on record without a con- 
test. But he was beaten by Theagenes the Olympiad after- 
wards in the panci-atium. And Theagenes had three vic- 
tories in the Pythian games for boxing, and 9 at Nemea 
and 10 at the Isthmus for the pancratium and boxing to- 
gether. And at Phthia in Thessaly he neglected boxing 
and the pancratium, and endeavoured to become illustrious 
among the Greeks in racing, and beat all comers in the 
long course. I cannot but think he was desirous of emu- 
lating Achilles, and to win in the race in the country of the 
swiftest of heroes. All the crowns he won were as many 
as l*iOO. And when he died, one of his enemies went up 
to his statue every night, and scourged the brass as if it 
were Theagenes alive he was maltreating. But at last the 
statue fell on him and killed him and so stopped his outrage, 
but after his death his sons indicted the statue for murder : 
and the Thasians threw the statue into the sea, obeying 
the code of Draco, who in legislating for the Athenians 
banished even inanimate things if they killed anyone by 
falling upon him. But in process of time, as the earth 
yielded no fruit to the Thasians, they sent envoys to 
Delphi, and the god bade them restore from exile those 
that had been banished. Some were accordingly recalled 
from exile, but the dearth was not removed. They went 
therefore a second time to Delphi, saying that, though 
they had done what the oracle ordered, yet the wrath of 
the gods remained. Then the Pythian Priestess answered. 

" Your great Theagenes you haye forgotten." 
And when they were quite in despair how to recover the 


statue of Theagenes, some fishermen (they say) putting 
out to sea for the purpose of catching fish caught the 
statue in their net and brought it to land. And the 
Thasians restoring it to its original site sacrificed to it as to 
a god. And I know that there are statues of Theagenes in 
various parts of Greece and among the barbarians also, and 
that he is reckoned to cure diseases, and has various 
honours from the people of Thasos. His statue in Altis is 
by the -^ginetan Grlaucias. 


AND at no great distance is a brazen chariot and a man 
in it, and some race-horses are on each side of it, and 
boys on the horses. They are memorials of the victories in 
the Olympian contests of Hiero the son of Dinomenes, the 
tyrant of Syracuse after his brother Grelon. They were not 
however sent by Hiero, but Dinomenes the son of Hiero 
offered them to the god. The chariot is by Onatas the 
^ginetan, and the horses on both sides and the boys on 
them are by Calamis. 

And next to the chariot of Hiero is Hiero the son of 
Hierocles, of the same name as the son of Dinomenes, and 
also himself tyrant of Syracuse. This Hiero after the 
death of Agathocles, the former tyrant of Syracuse, rose to 
the same power in the second year of the 126th Olympiad, 
in which Idaeus of Gyrene won in the stadium. This Hiero 
had friendly relations with Pyrrhus the son of ^acides and 
became his kinsman by marriage, Gelon his son marrying 
Nereis Pyrrhus' daughter. And when the Romans fought 
with the Carthaginians for the possession of Sicily the 
Carthaginians had more than half the island, and on the 
commencement of the war Hiero resolved to throw in his 
lot with the Carthaginians, but in no long time thinking 
the Roman power stronger and likely to be more lasting he 
joined them. He was assassinated by Dinomenes, a Syra- 
cusan who had an especial hatred to tyranny, and who 
afterwards endeavoured to kill Hippocrates the brother of 
Epicydes, who had just come to Syracuse from Erbessus 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 883 

and was endeavouriBg to talk over the people. But he 
defended himself, and some of his guards came up and cut 
Dinomenes to pieces. And the statues of Hiero in Olympia, 
one on horseback and the other on foot, were erected by 
his sons, and made hy the Syracusan Mico the son of 

And next to the statues of Hiero are Areus, the son of 
Acrotatus, king of the Lacedfemonians, and Aratus the son 
of Clinias, and a second one of Areus on horseback : that of 
Aratus is the votive offering of the Corinthians, that of 
Areus of the men of Elis. Of both Aratus and Areus I 
have given an account earlier in this work. Aratus was 
also proclaimed victor at Olympia in the chariot-race. And 
Timon, the son of -i^gyptus, who entered horses at Olympia, 
a native of Elis, has a brazen chariot, and on it a maiden who 
I think is Victory. And Gallon the son of Harmodius and 
Hippomachus the son of Moschion, both of Elis and victors 
among boys in the boxing, have statues, Gallon's is by 
Daippus, we do not know who designed Hippomachus', 
but they say he wrestled down three antagonists and re- 
ceived no blow or hurt. And the inscription on the 
chariot states that Theochrestus of Gyrene, (who trained 
horses according to the national custom of the Libyans), 
and his grandfather also of the same name, had victories 
with their horses at Olympia, and that the father of Theo- 
chrestus was victorious at the Isthmian games. And that 
Agesarchus of Tritaea the son of Hsemostratus beat men in 
boxing at the Olympian Js"emean Pythian and Isthmian 
games is stated in an elegiac couplet, which also states un- 
truly, as I have discovered, that the people of Tritaea are 
Arcadians. For of the towns that have attained celebrity 
in Arcadia all about their founders is well known, and those 
that were obscure from their origin, and lost their popula- 
tion through their weakness, were absorbed into Megalopolis 
by a decree from the commonalty of the Arcadians. Nor can 
we find any other Tritsea in Greece but the one in Achaia. 
One would infer therefore that the people of Tritaea were 
reckoned among the Arcadians, as now some of the Arca- 
dians are reckoned in Argolis. And the statue of Agesar- 
chus is by the sons of Polycles, of whom we shall make 
mention later on. 



AND the statue of Astylus of Croton is by Pythagoras, 
he was victorious at three Olympiads in succession in 
the stade and in the double course. But because in the two 
latter Olympiads he entered himself as a Syracusan, to in- 
gratiate himself with Hiero the son of Dinomenes, the 
people of Croton voted that his house should be turned into 
a public prison, and removed his statue from the temple 
of Lacinian Hera. 

There is also at Olympia a pillar which recounts the 
victories of the Lacedaemonian Chionis. They are simple 
who think that Chionis erected this statue himself, and not 
the Lacedaemonian public. For granted that there is on the 
pillar no mention of a race in heavy armour, how could 
Chionis know that the people of Elis would not one day in- 
stitute one ? They are still more simple who think that 
the statue on the pillar is by Chionis, seeing it is by 
the Athenian Myro. 

Very similar fame to that of Chionis was won by the 
Lycian Hermogenes Xanthius, who won the wild olive 
crown eight times in three Olympiads, and was nicknamed 
Horse by the Greeks. Polites too you would hold in great 
admiration. He was from Ceramus in Caria, and mani- 
fested great swiftness of foot at Olympia. For he won the 
longest race in the shortest time on record, and on the same 
day he won the long race, and the ra;Ce in the stadium, and 
the double race. And on the second day, when they only 
allow four chosen by lot to compete in the race and not all 
comers, and the victors in each department only contend 
for these prizes, Polites was victor again : for the person 
who is crowned for the race in the stadium will go off with 
two victories. However the most remarkable victories in 
the race were won by Leonidas of Rhodes, for in four 
Olympiads he was in his prime, and 12 times conqueror 
through his swiftness of foot. And not far from the pillar 
of Chionis at Olympia is the statue of Scseus the Samian, 
the son of Duris, who beat all the boys in boxing, his statue 
is by Hippias, and the inscription on it states, that Scseus 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 385 

was victor when the Samian populace fled from their island, 
and the statue was put up when they were restored. And 
next to the tyrant is a statue of Diallus the son of Poilis, a 
native of Smyrna, and the inscription states that he was the 
first Ionian that won the prize in the pancratium for boys. 
And the statues of Thersilochus of Corcyra, and Aristion of 
Epidaurns, the son of Theophiles, the latter victor in boxing 
among men, the former among boys, are by the Argive 
Polycletus. And the statue of Bycelus, who was the first 
of the Sicyonians to conquer among boys in boxing, is by 
the Sicyonian Canachus, who was a pupil of the Argive 
Polycletus. And next to Bycelus is the hoplite Mnaseas of 
Cyrene, surnamed Libyan, by Pythagoras of Rhegium. 
And the inscription on Agemachus of Cyzicus states that 
he came to Argos from the mainland of Asia Minor. As 
to Naxos in Sicily, which was colonized by some of the 
Chalcidians near the Euripus, there are no ruins even of 
the town in our day, and that its name has come down to 
posterity is mainly due to Tisander the son of Cleocritus. 
For 4 times he beat all the men in boxing at Olympia, and 
had as many victories in the Pythian games. There was 
not at that time any record of the victors in the Corinthian 
games, nor did the Argives keep any record of the victors 
in the Nemean games. 

And the mare of the Corinthian Phidolas, which was 
called as the Corinthians inform us Aura, though its rider 
fell off at the beginning of the race, yet ran straight and 
turned at the goal, and when it heard the sound of the 
trumpet ran on all the faster, and beat aU the other horses 
by the decision of the Umpires, and knew that it had come 
in first, and stopt running. And the people of Elis pro- 
claimed Phidolas victor, and allowed him to set up a statue 
of this mare. The sons of Phidolas also won victories on 
a race-horse, and a statue of the horse was put on a pillar 
with the following inscription. 

"Once in the Isthmian games, twice at Olympia, did 
Lycus the swift courser win the race, and honour for the 
sons of Phidolas." 

However this inscription and the records in Elis of the 
victors at Olympia do not tally, for in the 68th Olympiad 
only do those records record any victory of the sons of 

c c 


Phidolas, Let anyone inquire into this further who likes. 
And there are statues of Agathinus the son of Thrasybulus, 
and Telemachus who was victorious with his horses, the 
former was an offering of the Acheeans of Pellene. The 
Athenian people also set up a statue to Aristophon the 
son of Lycinus who beat all the men in the pancratium at 


A ND Pherias the -^ginetan, whose statue is next the 
■^^ Athenian Aristophon, was not allowed in the 78th 
Olympiad to enter the contest because he appeared very 
young, and was not thought fit to compete in the wrestling, 
but the following year he was allowed to wrestle among the 
boys and won the prize. A different fortune to this of 
Pherias was that of Nicasylus the Rhodian at Olympia. 
For being 18 he was not allowed to contend with the boys 
by the people of Elis, but was entered as a man and won the 
prize. He was proclaimed victor also at the Nemean and 
Isthmian games. But he died in his 20th year, before he 
could return home to Rhodes. But the feat of this Rhodian 
wrestler at Olympia was outdone in my opinion by Arte- 
midorus of Tralles. He was unsuccessful at Olympia 
in his endeavour to win the pancratium among the boys, 
but the reason of his failure was his excessive youth. 
Por when the season came for the contest which the 
lonians have at Smyrna his strength had become so great 
that he beat on the same day all his antagonists from 
Olympia in the pancratium, and all the boys that they call 
unbearded, and thirdly all the best of the men. And 
they say that he was cheered on by the trainer in the con- 
test with the boys, but that in the contest with the men he 
was reviled by the pancratiast. And Artemidorus won at 
Olympia the victory among men in the 212th Olympiad. 
And near the statue of Nicasylus is a small brazen horse, 
the votive offering of Crocon of Eretria when he won the 
victory with a race-horse, and near this horse is an e^gj of 
Telestas the Messenian, who beat all the boys in boxing, by 

BOOK YI. — ELIS. 387 

And the statue of Mile the son of Diotimns is by Dameas, 
both natives of Croton. This Milo had six prizes for wrest- 
ling at Olympia, one of them among boys, and at Pythia 
six among men and one among boys. And he came to 
Olympia to wrestle for the 7th time. But he could not 
beat in wrestHng Timasitheus, a citizen and quite young, as 
Timasitheus would not contend with him at close quarters 
in the arena at all. And Milo is said to have carried 
his own statue to Altis. There are also traditions about 
Milo in reference to a pomegranate and a quoit. He held 
a pomegranate so fast that nobody could get it from him, 
and yet he did not hurt it. And on one occasion standing on 
an oiled quoit he excited laughter among those who jostled 
him and tried to push him ofE it. And several other 
things he did in display. He tied a cord round his fore- 
head as if it were a fillet or a crown, and holding his 
breath and filling the veins of his head with blood he would 
snap the cord by the strength of his veins. It is recorded 
also that he would place against his side his right arm from 
the elbow to the shoulder, and stretch out the hand, and 
turn his thumb up while the fingers remained together, 
and no one could with any exertion move the little finger 
from its place. And they say he was killed by wild beasts. 
For he chanced in the country near Croton on a withered 
tree, in which some wedges were driven to separate the 
wood, and he took it into his head to keep the wood apart 
with his hands. And the wedges slipt out and he was im- 
prisoned in the tree, and became a prey to the wolves, which 
prowl about in great numbers in that neighbourhood. Such 
was the end of Milo. 

And Pyrrhus the son of ^acides having been king in 
Thesprotia in Epirus, and haying done many remarkable 
deeds, which I have described in my account of Attica, 
Thrasybulus of Elis erected his statue in Altis. And next 
to Pyrrhus is the statue of a little man with pipes in his 
hand on a pillar. This man had a prize for his piping, the 
first time such prizes were bestowed since the Argive 
Sacadas. Sacadas first conquered in the games established 
by the Amphictyonians (when no prize was given), and 
after that he won two prizes. And Pythocritus of Sicyon 
won in six of the Pythian contests successively, being the 


only piper. It is plain also at the contest at Olympia that 
he was piper six times in the pentathlum. For all this he 
had a pillar at Olympia with the inscription on it, 

'* This is the memorial of Pythocritus, (the son of Callini- 
cus), the piper." 

The -i^Etolians also erected a public statue to Cylon, who 
freed the people of Elis from the tyranny of Aristotimus. 
And Gorgus the Messenian, the son of Eucletus, who won 
the victory in the pentathlum has a statue by the Boeotian 
Theron, and Damaretus, also a Messenian, who beat all the 
boys in boxing has a statue by the Athenian Silanion. 
And Anauchidas of Elis, the son of Philys, won a wrestling 
prize among the boys and afterwards among the men. 
Who his statue is by we do not know. And the statue of 
Anochus the Tarentine, the son of Adamatas, who won the 
victory both in the stadium and in the double course, is by 
Ageladas the Argive. And the boy seated on a horse and 
the man standing by the horse are as the inscription says 
Xenombrotus of Cos in Meropis, who was proclaimed 
victor in the horse-race, and Xenodicus who was proclaimed 
victor in the boxing matches for boys, the latter is by Pan- 
tias, and the former by Philotimus of ^gina. And the 
two statues of Pythes, the son of Andromachus, an Abderite, 
were made by Lysippus, but his soldiers had them made. 
Pythes seems to have been a leader of mercenaries, or 
in some other way to have shewn himself a good soldier. 

Here are also statues of those who won prizes in the 
course for boys, as Meneptolemus from Apollonia on the 
Ionian gulf, and Philo from Corcyra, and Hieronymus from 
Andros, who beat Tisamenus of Elis in the pentathlum at 
Olympia, that Tisamenus who was afterwards a prophet 
for the Greeks against Mardonius and the Medes at Plat89a. 
And next to the statue of Hieronymus is the statue of a boy- 
wrestler also from Andros, Procles the son of Lycastidas. 
Stomius made the statue of Hieronymus, and Somis that 
of Procles. And -^schines of Elis had two victories in the 
pentathlum, and has two statues. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 389 


AND Archippns of Mitylene, who beat all comers at 
boxing, had according to the Mityleneeans this further 
fame, that he was crowned at the Olympian Pythian 
Nemean and Isthmian games when he was only 20. And 
the statue of Xenon, the son of Calliteles, of Lepreus in 
Triphylia, who beat all the boys in the stadium, was made 
by the Messenian Pyrilampes ; we do not know who made 
the statue of CHnomachus of Elis, who was proclaimed 
victor in the pentathlum. And the inscription of the 
Achaeans on Pantarches' statue states that he was a native 
of Elis ; he made peace between the Achaeans and people 
of Elis, and all the prisoners who were captured on both 
sides were let go mainly through him. He won his victory 
on a race-horse, and there is a record of his victory at 
Olympia. And the statue of Olidas of Elis was set up by 
the ^tolians. And Charinus of Elis has a statue for the 
double course and for a victory in heavy armour, and near 
him is Ageles the Chian, who beat all the boys in boxing, 
by Theomnestus of Sardis. 

And the statue of Chtomachus the Theban was erected 
by Hermocrates his father. His exploits were as follows. 
In the Isthmian games he beat all comers in wrestling, and 
on one day won prizes from all competitors in boxing and 
in the pancratium. And all his 3 victories in the Pythian 
games were in the pancratium. And at Olympia he was 
proclaimed second to Theagenes of Thasos in the pancra- 
tium and in boxing. And in the 141st Olympiad he won 
the prize in the pancratium. And the next Olympiad found 
him a competitor in the pancratium and in boxing, and 
Caprus of Elis was on the same day anxious to compete in 
the pancratium and in wrestHng. And when Caprus had 
won the wrestling-prize, Clitomachus hinted to the umpires 
that it was only fair to call for the pancratium before he 
was battered about by boxing. What he said seemed 
reasonable, and when the pancratium was called on he 
was beaten by Caprus, though he exhibited afterwards in 
the boxing a stout heart and untired body. 


And the lonians of Erythrae erected a statue to Epi- 
therses the son of Metrodoras, who won two victories in 
boxing at Olympia, and two at each of the Pythian Nemean 
and Isthmian games, and the Syracusan public erected two 
statues to Hiero, and his sons erected a third. As I stated 
a little above this Hiero had the same name as the son of 
Dinomenes, and was like him Tyrant of Syracuse. And 
the inhabitants of Pale, one of the four tribes in Cephal- 
lenia, set up a statue to Timoptolis of Elis the son of 
Lampis. These people of Pale were originally called 
Dulichii. There is also a statue of Archidamus the son of 
Agesilaus, and a man like a hunter. And the statues of 
Demetrius, who led an army against Seleucus and was 
taken prisoner in the battle, and of Antigonus the son of 
Demetrius, were let any one know votive oiferings of the 
Byzantians. And the Spartan Eutelidas had two victories 
for wrestling among the boys in the 308th Olympiad, and a 
third in the pentathlum : at that time the boys were called 
on first, and last in the pentathlum. And there is an 
ancient statue of Eutelidas, the writing on the base is ob- 
scure through lapse of time. And next to Eutelidas is 
another one of Areus, the king of the Lacedemonians, and 
next him Gorgus of Elis, who is the only man up to my 
day who had four victories at Olympia in the pentathlum, 
and one victory for the double course, and one for the race 
in heavy armour. 

And the person by whom some boys are standing is they 
say Ptolemy the son of Lagus, and next him are two statues 
of Caprus of Elis, the son of Pythagoras, who won on the 
same day for the first time on record prizes for wrestling 
and the pancratium. I have already shown how successful 
he was against Clitomachus in the pancratium, and he 
beat in wrestling Paeanius of Elis, who had carried off the 
prize for wrestling in former Olympiads, and had been 
crowned in the Pythian games on the same day for boxing 
among boys, and for wrestling and boxing among men. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 391 


CAPRUS won his victories not -without great effort and 
mighty energy : and Ananchidas and Pherenicus, who 
were natives of Elis, had statues at Olympia, and won prizes 
for wrestling among the boys. And the Thespians erected 
the statue of Plistfenus, the son of Enrydamus, who was 
the general of the ^tolians against the Galati. And Tydeus 
of Elis erected statues to Antigonus, the father of Deme- 
trius, and to Seleucus. And the name of Seleucus was 
noised abroad among all men on other accounts but chiefly 
for his capture of Demetrius. And Timon won victories 
in the pentathlum in all the Greek games but the Isthmian 
(for like all the other men of Elis he was shut out of com- 
petition in them), and the inscription on his statue mentions 
this further particular about him, that he took part in the 
expedition of the ^tolians against the Thessalians, and 
out of friendship to the ^tolians was leader of the gar- 
rison at ^N^aupactus. And not far from the statue of Timon 
are statues of Greece and Elis in juxtaposition : Greece 
with one hand crowning Antigonus, the Regent for Philip 
the son of Demetrius, and with the other Philip himself ; 
and Elis crowning Demetrius, who marched against Seleu- 
cus, and Ptolemy the son of Lagus. 

.■\nd the inscription on his statue states that Aristides of 
Elis won a victory in heavy armour at Olympia, and in the 
double course in the Pythian games, and as a boy in the 
horse-race at Nemea. The length of the horse-race is 
twice the double course. This race, which had fallen into 
desuetude at the Nemean and Isthmian garces, was restored 
by the Emperor Adrian to the Argives at the winter games 
at Nemea. 

And next to the statue of Aristides is Menalcas of Elis, 
who was proclaimed victor at Olympia in the pentathlum, 
and Philonides the son of Zotus, who was from the Cretan 
Chersonese, and the courier of Alexander the son of Philip. 
And next is Brimias of Elis, who beat all the men in box- 
ing, and the statue of Leonidas from Naxos in the -iEgaean, 
the votive offering of the Psophidian Arcadians, and the 


statue of Asamon who beat all the men in boxing, and that 
of Nicander, who had two victories at Olympia in the 
double course, and six at Nemea for racing generally. 
Asamon and Nicander were both natives of Elis, and the 
statue of the latter was by Daippus, that of the former by 
the Messenian Pyrilampes. There are statues also to 
Eualcidas of Elis and Seleadas the Lacedeemonian, the 
former was victor among the boys in boxing, the latter in 
wrestling among the men. Here too is the small chariot of 
the Lacedemonian Polypithes, and on the same pillar 
Calliteles (the father of Polypithes) the wrestler, who won 
victories by his wrestling, as Polypithes by his horses. 
And the statues of some private individuals of Elis, as 
Lampus the son of Arniscus, and the son of Aristarchus, 
were erected by the Psophidian Arcadians, either because 
they were their Consuls, or were otherwise friendly to them. 
And between them is Lysippus of Elis, who beat all boys who 
contended with him in wrestling, his statue is by Andreas 
the Argive. 

And the Lacedaemonian Dinosthenes won a victory over 
men at Olympia in the course, and set up a pillar in Altis 
next to his statue : the distance from this pillar by road 
to another pillar at Lacedsemon is 660 stades. And Theo- 
doras, who was victor in the pentathlum, and Pyttalus, 
the son of Lampis, who beat all the boys in boxing, and 
Nicolaidas, who carried off the victory in the course and 
in the race in heavy armour, were let any one know natives 
of Elis. As to Pyttalus they record still further that, when 
there was a dispute between the Arcadians and the men of 
Elis about their borders, he was made the arbitrator. 
His statue is by the Olynthian Sthennis. And next is a 
statue of Ptolemy on horseback, and by him the athlete of 
Elis Pseanius the son of Demetrius, who won one prize for 
wrestling at Olympia, and two in the Pythian games. 
There too is Clearetus of Elis, who won in the pentathlum, 
and the chariot of the Athenian Grlaucon (the son of Eteo- 
cles), who was proclaimed victor in the chariot race with 
a full-grown horse. 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 393 


WHAT I have just mentioned are the most notable 
things as you approach Altis, but, if you go on the 
right from the monijment of Leonidas to the great altar, you 
will behold the following memorable objects. There are 
statues of Democrates of Tenedos and Criannius of Elis, the 
latter victor in the contest in heavy armour, the former in 
wrestling among men. The statue of Democrates is by the 
Milesian Dionysicles, that of Criannius by the Macedonian 
Lysus. And the Clazomenian Herodotus, and the Coan 
Philinus, the son of Hegepolis, have statues erected to them 
by their native cities, to Herodotus because he was the first 
Clazomenian pronounced victor (his victory was among 
boys in the course), and to Philinus because of his renown, 
for he had five victories in running at Olympia, and four 
in the Pythian games, four in the Nemean, and eleven in 
the Isthmian. And the statue of Ptolemy, the son of 
Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, was the offering of Aristolaus a 
Macedonian. There is also a statue of a boxer who was 
victorious over boys, Butas the Milesian, the son of Poly- 
nices, and Callicrates from Magnesia near the river Lethseus, 
who won two victories in the race in heavy armour. His 
statue is by Lysippus. And there are statues of Emaution 
and Alexibius, the former victor in the course for boys, the 
latter in thepentathlum. Heraea in Arcadia was the native 
place of Alexibius and his statue is by Acestor, where 
Emaution came from the inscription does not state, it only 
declares he was an Arcadian. And the Colophonians Her- 
mesianax the son of Agoneus, and Icasias the son of Lyci- 
nus by the daughter of Hermesianax, beat all the boys in 
wrestling, and Hermesianax had his statue erected by the 
Colophonian community. 

Next to these are natives of Elis that beat all the boys in 
boxing, Chcerilus by the Olynthian Sthennis, and Theo- 
timus by the Sicyonian Dajtondas. Theotimus was the son 
of Moschion, who joined Alexander the son of Philip in 
his expedition against Darius and the Persians. And next 
are two from Elis again, Archidamus who conquered in 


the four-horse-race, and Eperastus (the son of Theogonus) 
who was victor in the race in heavy armour. And Eperastus 
states that he was a seer, and descended from the family of 
the Clytidae, at the close of the inscription on his statue. 

" I boast to be a seer of the family of the holy-mouthed 
Clytid^, of the blood of the godlike descendants of Me- 
lampus." • 

Mantius was the father of (Ecles, and the son of Me- 
lampus the son of Amythaon. And Clytius was the son of 
Alcmgeon, the son of Amphiaraus the son of OEcles. And 
Alcmgeon was father of Clytius by the daughter of Phegeus, 
and he changed his residence to Elis, objecting to live with 
his mother's brothers, because he knew that they had con- 
trived the murder of Alcmjcon. 

And there are some statues interspersed among some not 
very remarkable votive offerings, as Alexinicus of Elis (by 
the Sicyonian Cantharus), who won a wrestling prize among 
the boys, and Gorgias of Leontini, whose statue was placed 
at Olympia by Eumolpus, great-grandson of Deicrates 
who had married Grorgias' sister. So Eumolpus himself 
tells us. This Gorgias was the son of Carmantides, and 
is said to have been the first to have practised Rhetoric, 
which had been altogether neglected and nearly come into 
desuetude among men. And they say Gorgias was famous 
for his eloquence at the public festival at Olympia, and went 
with Tisias on an embassy to the Athenians. Tisias too con- 
tributed something to oratory, and most plausibly did he 
plead in the case of a Syracusan woman touching some 
money, but Gorgias had still greater fame among the 
Athenians, and Jason the tyrant in Thessaly put him above 
Polycrates, who had the highest renown in the schools at 
Athens. And they say Gorgias lived 105 years. And the 
town of Leontini, which was dispeopled by the Syracusans, 
was in nay day colonized again. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 395 


AND there is the brazen chariot of Cratisthenes of 
Cyrene, and Victory and Cratisthenes on the chario^ 
Plainly then he won his victory is^hej&hariot race. There " 
is a tradition also that he was the sdnof"M«ft«eaa_therunner, 
who was sumamed by the Greeks Libyan^ And these 
votive offerings to him at Olympia are by Pythagoras of 

Here too I found the statue of Anaximenes, who wrote a 
History of all Antiquities in Greece, and of the exploits of 
Philip the son of Aniyntas, and afterwards of Alexander. 
This honour in Olympia he owed to the people of Lamp- 
sacus : for the following is recorded about him. He got 
round Alexander, who was by no means a mild king but 
excessively passionate, by the following contrivance. The 
people of Lampsacus having espoused the cause of the king 
of the Persians, or being thought to have done so by Alex- 
ander, he boiled over in anger against them and threatened 
them with the most condign chastisement. And they in all 
haste sent Anaximenes to supplicate for their wives and 
children and country, as he had been well known to 
Alexander and earlier still to Philip. And Anaximenes 
went to Alexander, who had learnt the motive of his errand, 
and had sworn they say by all the gods that he would do ex- 
actly contrary to what he entreated. Then Anaximenes said, 
" O King oblige me with this favour, enslave the women 
and children at Lampsacus, and rase the whole town to its 
foundations, and burn the temples of the gods." This is 
what he said, and Alexander having no contrivance to meet 
his cunning, and being compelled by his oath, very un- 
willingly pardoned the people of Lampsacus. Anaximenes 
seems also to have known how to punish an enemy very 
cleverly and exemplarily. He was naturally a sophist and 
a very good imitator of the arguments of the sophists. 
And having a quarrel with Theopompus, the son of Dama- 
sistratus, he wrote a book full of abuse against the Athenians 
and Lacedfemonians and Thebans. And as he had imitated 
his style very accurately, and put the name of Theopompus 


on the title page, and distributed the book about in various 
towns, though he himself was really the writer, general 
odium was stirred up throughout Greece against Theo- 
pompus. Nor did any one earlier than Anaximenes prac- 
tise extempore oratory. But \ cannot think that he was 
author of the verses about Alexander that run in his 

And Sotades, (who was proclaimed a Cretan, as indeed 
he was), won the prize in the long course in the 99th Olym- 
piad, but in the next Olympiad, being bribed by the Ephe- 
sian people, he registered himself as an Ephesian, and the 
Cretans exiled him for it. 

And the first athletes who had effigies at Olympia were 
Praxidamas the -^^Eginetan, who won the prize for boxing in 
the 59th Olympiad, and the Opuntian Rhexibius, who won 
the prize in the pancratium in the 61st Olympiad. And 
their effigies are made of wood, Rhexibius' of figwood, and 
the -(Eginetan's of cypress. This last has suffered less than 
the other. 


AND there is in Altis a base of tufa stone to the North 
of the temple of Hera, at its back is the mountain of 
Cronos. On this base are treasuries such as some of the 
Greeks have made for Apollo at Delphi. There is a 
treasury at Olympia called the treasury of the Sicyonians, 
the votive offering of Myron the King of the Sicyonians. 
It was constructed by Myron after his chariot victory in 
the 33rd Olympiad. In this treasury he constructed two 
chambers, one of Doric the other of Ionic architecture. 
I myself have seen them : they are of brass : but whether 
the brass comes from Tartessus, according to the tradition 
of the people of Elis, I do not know. The river Tartessus 
is they say in the country of the Iberes, and has two out- 
lets to the sea, and there is a town of the same name that 
lies between the outlets of the river. And it is the largest 
river in Iberia, and in later times was called Baetis from its 
ebb and flow. And the Iberes who inhabit the town of 
Carpia believe that their town was originally called Tar- 

BOOK Yl. — ELIS. 397 

tessus. And on tlie smaller of the two chambers at 
Olympia there are inscriptions, one on the lintel stating that 
there are 500 talents there, another as to the givers of the 
votive offering, stating that they were Myron and the 
people of the Sicyonians. In this treasury there are three 
quoits, which they use in the contest for the pentathlum. 
And there is a brazen shield curiously painted inside, and 
helmet and greaves to match. And there is an inscription 
on this armour that they are an offering to Zeus from the 
Myanes. As to who these Myanes were different people 
have different ideas. I remember that Thucydides in his 
account of the Locrians near Phocis mentions several 
towns, among others the Myones.^ These Myanes on the 
shield are in my opinion the same as the Myones in the 
Locrian mainland : and the letters on the shield are a little 
worn away, in consequence of its great antiquity. There 
are also here several other curious articles, as the sword of 
Pelops with golden hilt, and the horn of Amalthea in 
ivory, the votive offering of Miltiades the son of Cimon, 
who was the first of his family that reigned in the Thracian 
Chersonese : and this is the inscription on the horn in old 
Athenian letters, 

"I was offered to Zeus by the warriors that took the 
fort of Aratus on the Chersonese : their leader was Mil- 

There is also a statue of Apollo made of boxwood with the 
head gdt : the inscription states that it was a votive offer- 
ing of the Locrians at the promontory of Zephyrium, and 
by Patrocles of Groton, the son of Catillus. 

And next to the treasury of the Sicyonians is that of the 
Carthaginians, constructed by Potheeus and Antiphilus and 
Megacles. And the votive offerings in it are a huge Zeus 
and three linen breastplates, presented by Gelon and the 
Syracusans who beat the Phoenicians either on land or sea. 

And the third and fourth treasuries are the votive offer- 
ing of the people of Epidamnus. They contain the world 
upheld by Atlas, and Hercules and the apple tree in the 
garden of the Hesperides with the dragon coiled round it, 
carved in cedar-wood, the carving of Theocles (the son of 
Hegylus) who says his son joined him in the carving of the 
1 Thucyd. iii 101. 


world. And the Hesperides, which were removed by the 
people of Elis, were ia my time in the temple of Hera. And 
Pyrrhns and his sons Lacrates and Hermon made this 
treasury for the people of Epidamnus. 

The people of Sybaris also built a treasury next to that 
of the people of Byzantium. Those who have inquired 
most carefully into the history of Italy and its towns say 
that Lupise, which lies between Brundisium and Hydrus, 
has changed its name, and was originally called Sybaris. 
And the haven for ships was made by navvies in the reign 
of the Emperor Adrian. 

And next to the treasury of the people of Sybaris is the 
treasury of the Libyans at Cyrene, containing statues of 
the Roman kings. The Carthaginians expelled the Seli- 
nuntian Siceliotes in war, but before that disaster hap- 
pened to them, they had got together the treasury for 
Zeus at Olympia. Dionysus is there with his face toes and 
hands of ivory. 

And in the treasury of the people of Metapontum, which 
is next to that of the Selinuntians, is a statue of Endymion, 
all ivory but the dress. The cause of the ruin of Meta- 
pontum I do not know, but in my time nothing but the 
theatre and walls round the town was left. The Mega- 
rians also near Attica have a treasury and votive offerings in 
it, figures in cedar overlaid with gold, to represent the battle 
of Hercules and Achelous. There are Zeus and Deianira 
and Achelous and Hercules, and Ares is helping Achelous. 
And Athene stands as if in alliance with Hercules, near 
the Hesperides that are now in the temple of Hera. And 
on a gable of this treasury is the war between the gods and 
the giants : and over the gable is a shield, which states 
that the Megarians offered the treasury, after triumphing 
over the Corinthians. I think they won this victory when 
Phorbas was Archon at Athens, who was Archon all his 
life, for the Archonship was not yet a yearly office at 
Athens, nor were the Olympiads registered at this period 
by the people of Elis. The Argives are also said to have 
assisted the Megarians against the Corinthians. This 
ti'easury at Olympia was constructed by the Megarians 
some years after the battle. But the votive offerings they 
probably had from old time, since they were made by the 

BOOK yi. — ELI3. 399 

Lacedaemomaii Dontas, the pupil of Dipcenus and Scyllis. 
And the last of the treasuries is near the course, and the 
inscription on it states that it and its statues are the votive 
offerings of the people of Gela. The statues however are 
no longer there. 


CRONOS' mountain is, as I have already said, behind 
the base, and extends the length of these treasuries. 
And on the summit of the mountain those that are called 
Basil<B sacrifice to Cronos at the vernal equinox in the 
month of Elaphius. And at the North end of Mount 
Cronos there is between the treasuries and the mountain a 
t«mple of Ilithjia, and in it is honoured Sosipolis the 
tutelary deity of the people of EUs. Ilithyia they surname 
the Olympian, and select annually a priestess for her: 
the old priestess of Sosipolis also performs holy rites ac- 
cording to the custom of the people of Elis, brings lustral 
water to the goddess, and sets before her cakes kneaded 
with honey. In the vestibule of the temple is the altar 
of Ilithyia, as also the approach to the temple for people 
generally : inside Sosipolis is honoured, and no one but the 
priestess of the god must enter his sanctuary, with a white 
veil drawn over her head and face. And the maidens that 
reside in the temple of Ilithyia and the women sing hymns 
to Sosipolis, and burn incense to him, but are not accus- 
tomed to pour libations of wine to his honotir. And their 
most binding oath is by Sosipolis. And it is said that, 
when the Arcadians invaded Elis with an army, and the 
people of Elis were drawn up jn battle array against them, 
a woman came to the generals of Elis, with a baby boy at her 
breast, saying that she was mother of the boy, and offered 
him according to a dream she had had to help the people 
of EKs. And the authorities, crediting the woman's tale, 
put the child in the front of the army all naked as it was. 
And the Arcadians commenced the attack, and the child 
was changed into a dragon, and the Arcadians were troubled 
at the sight and began to flee, and the people of Elis pursued 


them hotly, and won a notable victory and called the god 
Sosipolis. And where the dragon appeared to glide off 
after the battle, they built a temple, and resolved to worship 
it and Hi thy ia jointly, for they thought it was she who had 
introduced the child into the world. And the Arcadians 
who were slain in the battle have a monument on the hill 
towards the west after you have crossed the Cladeus. And 
near Ilithyia there are ruins of a temple of celestial Aphro- 
dite, to whom they sacrifice on the altars which still remain. 

And inside Altis, at the processional entrance, is what 
is called the Hippodamium, surrounded by a wall, occupy- 
ing about an acre. This is the entrance every year for 
the women, who sacrifice to Hippodamia and pei-form other 
rites in her honour. They say Hippodamia fled to Midea 
in Argolis, when Pelops was especially angry with her 
owing to the death of Chrysippus : and they say that 
according to the oracle they afterwards placed her remains 
at Olympia. And at the end of the statues which they 
erected out of fines imposed on the athletes is the entrance 
which they call Private. For by it the Umpires and com- 
batants enter the course. There is also an embankment, 
and seats for the managers of the games. And opposite 
the Umpires is an altar of white stone, seated on which the 
priestess of Demeter Chamyne watches the Olympian 
games, an honour which different priestesses at different 
times have received from the people of Elis, for they do 
not prevent maidens from seeing the games. And at the 
starting-place is the tomb of Endymion, according to the 
tradition of the people of Elis. 

And near the place where the Umpires sit is the 
ground appointed for the horse-races and the starting-place, 
which is in shape like the prow of a ship with its beak 
turned to the course. And the prow is broad where it 
joins the Portico called Agnaptus. And there is a brazen 
dolphin upon a bar at the extremity of the beak. Each 
side of the starting-place is more than 400 feet in length, 
and there are some buildings there, which those who enter 
for the horse-races get by lots. And in front of the chariots 
and race-horses is extended a rope as a sort of barrier. 
And there is an altar of unbaked brick erected near the 
middle of the beak every Olympiad, whitewashed out- 

BOOK VT. — ELIS. 401 

side. And there is a brazen eagle on this altar with its 
wings stretched out wide. When the clerk of the course 
touches a piece of mechanism on this altar, the eagle is so 
constructed as to mount aloft so as to be visible to the 
spectators, while the dolphin falls to the ground. First 
the ropes on each side of the Portico called Agnaptus are 
slackened, and the horses in position there start first, and 
run on till thev come to the horses in the second position, 
and then the ropes there are slackened, and so on along the 
whole course where the horses are in position, till they 
can all start fair at the beak. Then commences the exhi- 
bition of the skill of the charioteers and the swiftness of 
the horses. Clecetas originally contrived this method of 
starting, and plumed himself upon his invention, as we find 
by the inscription on his statue at Athens, 

" I was made by Cleoetas the son of Aristocles, who 
invented at Olympia the start for horses." 

They say too that Aristides subsequently somewhat im- 
proved the invention. 

But the other side of the Hippodrome is more extended, 
being also of raised earth, and at its outlet is Taraxippns 
the terror of horses, which is in the shape of a circular 
altar, and as the horses run past it they are immediately 
seized with strong fear without any apparent cause, and 
this fear generates terror, insomuch that chariots are 
often smashed up, and the charioteers badly injured. And 
the charioteers sacrifice to avoid this, and pray that Taraxip- 
pns will be propitious to them. About Taraxippns the 
Greeks have various views ; some say it is the tomb of 
an Autochthon, famous for his skill with horses, whose name 
was Olenius, and say that the rock Olenia in Elis was named 
after him. Others say that Dameon the son of Phlius, an 
associate with Hercules in the expedition against Augeas 
and the people of Elis, was killed together with the horse 
on which he rode by Cteatus the son of Actor, and that 
this is the joint tomb of Dameon and his horse. Others say 
that Pelops erected here a cenotaph to Myrtilus, and sacri- 
ficed to him to avert his anger for his murder, and named 
him Taraxippns, because the horses of CEnomaus were dis- 
turbed by his contrivance. But some say that CEnomaus 
himself hindered the horses in the course. And I have 

D » 


heard the blame put upon Alcathous the son of Porthaon, 
who was buried here after having been slain by CEnomaus as 
one of the unsuccessful suitors of Hippodamia, and who, in 
consequence of his bad success in the Hippodrome, has an 
evil eye and is a malevolent demon to race-horses. But an 
Egyptian told me that Pelops received something from Am- 
phion and buried it on the spot called Taraxippus, and 
that in consequence of what was buried there the horses 
of CEnomaus formerly, and everybody's horses since, have 
been terrified. This Egyptian also thoiight that Amphion 
and the Thracian Orpheus were wonderful magicians, and 
that by their charms wild beasts followed Orpheus, and 
stones formed themselves into houses for Amphion. The 
most plausible account however of Taraxippus seems to 
me that which makes it a surname of Poseidon Hippius. 
There is also at the Isthmus a Taraxippus, Glaucus the 
son of Sisyphus, who they say was killed by horses, when 
Acastus was holding the funeral games to his father. And 
at Nemea in Argolis there is no hero that terrifies horses, 
but there is a gleam like fire from a red stone where the 
horses turn which frightens the horses. But Taraxippus at 
Olympia is far the most formidable panic-inspirer in horses. 
And at one of the goals there is a brazen statue of Hippo- 
damia with a fillet, about to bind Pelops with it for his 


AND the other part of the hippodrome is not an embank- 
ment, but a hill of no great size, on the top of which 
is a temple built to Demeter under the name of Chamyne. 
And some think that title of hers an ancient one, and that 
the earth opened there and took in the chariot of Pluto, and 
closed again. Others say that Chamynus of Pisa, (who 
opposed the dominion in Pisa of Pantaleon, the son of Om- 
phalion, and stirred the people up to revolt from Elis), was 
slain by Pantaleon, and that it was out of his property that 
the temple to Demeter was built. And in lieu of the old ones 
new statues of Proserpine and Demeter were erected in Pen- 


telican marble by the Athenian Herodes. And in the gym- 
nasiam at Olympia they practise for the pentathlum and 
the races. And in the open air there is a basement of 
stone, and originally on the basement there was a trophy 
for a victory over the Arcadians. On the left of the en- 
trance to the gymnasium there is a smaller enclosure where 
the athletes practise wrestling. And at the Portico of the 
gymnasium facing East are some buildings for the Athletes 
facing South and West. And after you have crossed the 
river Cladeus you come to the tomb of (Enomaus, a mound 
piled up with stones, and above the tomb are some remains 
of buildings where they say the horses of (Enomaus were 
stabled. And here are the boundaries towards Arcadia, 
which now belong to the people of Elis, but formerly be- 
longed to the people of Pisa. 

After you have crossed the river Erymanthus, near the 
ridge called after Saurus, is the tomb of Sau:Tis, and a 
temple of Hercules, ruins of which are to be seen in our 
day. Saurus they say used to molest wayfarers and the 
people of the country, till he was killed by Hercules. 
From the south side of the ridge called after this robber 
a river falls into the Alpheus nearly opposite Erymanthus. 
Its name is Diagon, and it divides the district of Pisa 
from Arcadia. And 40 stades onwards from the ridge of 
Saurus is the temple of ^scnlapius, surnamed Demaenetus 
from the name of the builder. It is in ruins too, and is 
built on the high ground along the Alpheus. And not 
far from it is the temple of Dionysus Lucyanites, hard by 
the river Lucyanias, which rises in Mount Pholoe, and flows 
into the Alpheus. When you have crossed the Alpheus you 
are in the district of Pisa. 

Here you will see a hill with a steep accHvity, and on it 
are ruins of the town of Phrixa, and a temple of Athene 
Cydonia, not in my time in complete preservation, there is 
only an altar. They say Clymenus, a descendant of Idasan 
Hercules, erected the temple to the goddess. He came 
from Cydonia in Crete and from the river lardanus. The 
people of Elis say also that Pelops sacrificed to Athene 
Cydonia before his race with (Enomaus. And as you 
advance a little further you come to the river Parthenia, 
on whose banks the horses of Marmax are buried. The 


Story is that Marmax was the first suitor of Hippoda- 
mia, and that he was slain before the rest by (Enomaus, 
and the names of his horses were Parthenia and Eripha, 
and (Enomaus cut their throats and buried them with their 
master, and the river Parthenia got its name from one 
of them. There is also another river called Harpinates, 
and at no great distance from it some remains of a town 
Harpina especially altars : they say that CEnomaus built 
the town and gave it its name after his mother Harpina. 

A little further is a lofty mound of earth, the tomb of 
the suitors of Hippodamia, CEnomaus did not (they say) 
bury them in the ground near one another as a mark of 
honour, but it was Pelops subsequently who gave them a 
common sepulchre, in honour to them and out of affection 
to Hippodamia, and I think also as a record to posterity 
how many worthy gentlemen (Enomaus had slain before 
he Pelops vanquished him. Indeed according to the poem 
called the Great Eoese the following were killed by 
(Enomaus, Alcathous the son of Porthaon next to Mar- 
max, and next to Alcathous Euryalus and Eurymachus 
and Crotalus. Their parents and native lands I could not 
ascertain. But Acrias, who was killed next, one would 
infer to have been a Lacedgemonian and the founder of 
Acrise. And next to Acrias (Enomaus slew Capetus and 
Lycurgus and Lasius and Chalcodon and Tricolonus, who 
the Arcadians say was a descendant as well as namesake of 
Tricolonus the son of Lycaon. And after Tricolonus fate 
overtook in this fatal race Aristomachus and Prias and 
Pelagon and Melius and Cronius; Some also add to the 
list I have given Erythras, the son of Leu con and grandson 
of Athamas, who gave his name to the town in Boeotia 
called Erythrse, and Eioneus, the son of Magnes and grand- 
son of Mollis. Here then is the tomb of all these, and they 
say Pelops offered them funeral rites every year when he 
was king of Pisa. 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 405 


AND if you go about a stade forward from this tomb 
there are traces of a tem^ple of Artemis sumamed Cor- 
dace, because the attendants of Pelops used to offer their 
sacrifices to the goddess there, and dance the national dance 
of Sipvlus called the cordax. And not far from the temple is 
a building not very large, and in it is a brazen coffer, in 
which are deposited the remains of Pelops. And there is 
no vestige of a wall or any other building, but vines are 
planted all over the site on which Pisa was built. The 
founder of the town was they say Pisus, the son of Perieres 
and grandson of -^Eolus. And the people of Pisa brought on 
their own misfortunes by making themselves objectionable 
to the people of Elis, and by their desire to start the Olym- 
pian games instead of the people of Elis, and in the 8th 
Olympiad they invited Phido the Argive, the most haughty 
of all the Greek tyrants, and made him the patron of the 
games. And in the 34th Olympiad the people of Pisa and 
their king Pantaleon, the son of Omphalion, assembled to- 
gether the neighbouring people, and instituted the Olym- 
pian games instead of the people of Elis. During these 
Olympiads, and also in the 104th Olympiad which was set 
on foot by the Arcadians, the people of Elis kept no register, 
nor do they include them in the Olympiads. And in the 
48th Olympiad Damophon the son of Pantaleon gave the 
people of Elis reason to suspect that he intended to act 
treacherously against them, so they invaded Pisaea, but did 
not at this time do any damage, because they returned 
home again being persuaded by entreaties and promises. 
But when Pyrrhns the son of Pantaleon succeeded his 
brother Damophon on the throne, then the people of Pisa of 
their own accord commenced war with the people of Elis. 
And the people of Macistus and ScUlus in Triphylia 
joined them in their revolt from the people of Elis, and of 
the other neighbouring people the Dyspontii, whose rela- 
tions had always been very friendly with the people of 
Pisa, and whose founder Dysponteus was they state the 
son of CEnomaus. And the people of Elis eventually rased 


Pisa to the ground and all the towns that had assisted her 
in the war. 

The ruins of Pylos in Elis are visible as you go over the 
mountains from Olympia to Elis. And from Pylos to Elis 
is 80 stades' distance. This Pylos was built, as I have 
already mentioned, by the Megarian Pylon the son of 
Cleson. And being destroyed by Hercules, and once again 
peopled by the people of Elis, it was destined once more to 
lack inhabitants. Near it the river Ladon flows into the 
Peneus. And the people of Elis say that it is about this 
Pylos that the lines of Homer' are. 

" He derived his origin from the rivtr Alpheus, which 
flows in broad volume through the territory of Pylos." 

And they persuaded me by what they said, for the 
Alpheus flows through this district, and the lines cannot 
refer to the other Pylos. For by the Pylos near the island 
Sphacteria the Alpheus does not flow at all, nor do we 
know of any town in Arcadia formerly called Pylos. And 
about 50 stades from Olympia is the village belonging to 
Elis called Heraclea, and near it is the river Cytherus. 
There is a well that flows into the river, and there is a 
temple to the Nymphs by the well. And the proper names 
of these Nymphs individually are Calliphsea and Synallaxis 
and Pegsea and lasis, and collectively lonides. And people 
bathing in this well get cured from pains and aches of all 
kinds. And they say the Nymphs got their name lonides 
from Ion, the son of Gargettus, who migrated to this place 
from Athens. 

But if you wish to go to Elis through the plain, it is 120 
stades to Letrini, and 180 from Letrini to Elis. Letrini 
was a small town originally founded by Letreus the son 
of Pelops, but now there are only a few buildings, and 
a temple and statue of Alphean Artemis. They give the 
following legend to account for the goddess being called 
Alphean. Alpheus they say was deeply in love with her, 
and when he found he could not marry her for all his 
wooing and vows, he had the boldness to try and force her, 
and went to a nightly revel at Letrini, which was to bo 
held by her and the Nymphs with whom she associated in 

1 Iliad, V. 544,, 545. 

BOOK TI. — ELIS. 407 

sport : and she, suspecting his plot, smeared with mud her 
own face and the faces of all the JTymphs present, and so 
Alpheus when he got there could not distinguish her 
from the Nymphs, and accordingly had to depart without 
effecting his object. So the people of Letrini called the 
goddess Alphean from Alpheus' passion for her. And the 
people of Elis, for they had an ancient friendship for the 
people of Letrini, say that they borrowed their worship of 
the Elaphiaean Artemis from them, and used to perforra 
rites to her as Alphea, but in process of time the name 
Elaphiaea prevailed. But in my opinion the people of Elis 
called Artemis Elaphiaea from her love of hunting deer : 
but their own tradition is that Elaphius was the name of a 
woman who was Artemis' nurse. And about six stades 
beyond Letrini is a perennial lake about three stades in 


AND the notable things in Elis are an old gymnasium, 
in which before they go to Olympia the athletes go 
through all the customary training. There are some lofty 
plane trees inside a wall growing all along the course, 
and the whole enclosure is called Colonnade, because Her- 
cules the son of Amphitryon used to exercise there, and all 
the thorns and weeds that grew th^re were plucked up 
every day. There is a course called by the people of the 
place sacred, set apart for the races, and there is another 
course where they practise for the i"aces and the pen- 
tathlum. There is also in the gymnasium a place 
called Plethrium, where the Umpires pit the athletes to- 
gether according to their ages or difference in their train- 
ing, and put them to wrestling to test their capaci- 
ties. And there are in the gymnasium altars to some of 
the gods, as Idaean Hercules under the title of Champion, 
and Eros, and the god whom the Athenians and people of 
Elis alike call Anteros, and Demeter and Proserpine. 
There is no altar to Achilles, but he has a cenotaph in 
accordance with an oracle. And at the commencement of 


the general festival on a given day, when the sun begins to 
set, the women of Elis among other rites in honour of 
Achilles are wont to wail and strike the breast. 

And there is another enclosure, smaller than the gymna- 
sium but adjacent to it, which they call from its shape the 
Square. And here the athletes practise their wrestling, and 
here they test the athletes who are past wrestling, sometimes 
even applying blows with mild whips. And one of the 
statues is erected here, which were made of Zeus out of the 
fine-money of Sosander of Smyrna and Polyctor of Elis. 
There is also a third enclosure used as a gymnasium, which 
is called Maltho from the softness of its flooj", and this is 
given up to the lads all the time the general festival lasts. 
And in a corner of Maltho there is a statue of Hercules, 
merely the head and shoulders, and in one of the wrest- 
ling-places is a figure of Eros and Anteros, Eros has 
a branch of palm which Anteros is trying to take away. 
And on each side of the entrance to Maltho is the statue of 
a boy-boxer, and the Gustos Rotulorum at Elis says that it 
is a native of Alexandria above the island Pharos, called 
Serapion, who came to Elis and gave the people food when 
they were short of corn. That was why he received these 
honours : and the date when he received the crown at 
Olympia, and did this kindness to the people at Elis, 
was the 217th Olympiad. In this gymnasium the people 
of Elis also have a Council Chamber, where they practise 
extempore rhetoric, and submit all kinds of writings to 
public criticism : it is called Lalichmium from the name of 
its originator. And round it are some shields hung up, 
well worth seeing, not made for purposes of war, but simply 
for ornament. 

You go from the gymnasium to the baths by the street 
called Silence near the temple of Artemis the Lover of 
Youths. The goddess was so called from her proximity to 
the gymnasium. And the street was called Silence from 
the following circumstance. Some men in the army of 
Oxylus being sent forward to reconnoitre Elis, and having 
cheered one another on the road, when they got near the 
walls, passed round the word for silence, and to listen if 
they could hear any sound within the town, anu so stole 
into the town without being observed by this street, and 

BOOK VL — ELIS. 409 

returned again to ^tolia after having got the wished for 
intelligence. And the street received its name from the 
silence of these spies. 


ANOTHER way out of the gymnasium leads to the 
market-place, and to what is called the Umpii-es' Hall 
beyond the tomb of Achilles, and it is by this way that the 
Umpires are accustomed to enter the gymnasium. And 
they enter the gymnasium to pit together the runners 
before the sun gets too powerful, and at noon they call the 
competitors together for the pentathlum and the arduous 

And the market-place at Elis is not like that of the 
lonians, or of the Greek cities in Ionia, but is built after a 
more antique type, with porticoes and streets at regular 
intervals. And the name of the market-place in our day is 
Hippodi-ome, and there the people of the place exercise their 
horses. The architecture of the portico facing South is 
Doric, and it is divided into 3 portions by pillars : it is 
there that the Umpires mostly spend the day. And there 
are altars erected to Zeus, and several other altars in the 
open air in the market-place, and they are easily removed as 
they are only improvised altars. And at the end of this 
portico, on the left as you go to the market-place, is the Um- 
pires' Hall, and a street separates it from the market-place. 
In this Umpires' Hall those who are chosen as Umpires live 
ten months together, and are instructed by the Custodes 
Rottilorum in all things that appertain to the games. And 
near the portico where the Umpires spend the day is 
another portico, called the Corcyrsean, and a street runs 
between the two porticoes. It was so called because when 
the Corcyneans invaded EHs in their ships, the people 
of Elis they say drove them off and took much booty 
from them, and built their portico with a tenth of the 
spoil. And the architecture of the portico is Doric : it has 
a double row of pillars, one towards the market-place, the 
other in the opposite direction. In the middle are no 


pillars, but a wall supports the roof, and there are statues 
on either side of this wall. And at the end of the portico 
near the market-place is a statue of Pyrrho the son of the 
Sophist Pistoerates, who had great persuasiveness on any 
topic. Pyrrho's tomb is at no great distance from Elis, at 
a place called Petra, an old hamlet according to tradition. 
And the people of Elis have in the open air near the market- 
place a most noble temple and statue of Apollo the 
Healer. This would probably be much the same title as 
his Athenian title of Averter of Evil.^ And on another side 
are stone statues to the Sun and Moon, she has horns on 
her head, he has his beams. There is also a temple to the 
Graces, and their wooden statues, their dresses gilt, and 
their heads hands and feet of white marble, and one of 
them holds a rose, the second dice, and the third a small 
branch of myrtle. The meaning of which things we may con- 
jecture thus. The rose and myrtle are sacred to Aphrodite, 
and have a place in the legend of Adonis, and the Graces 
have most intimate connection with Aphrodite : and dice 
are playthings of striplings and maidens, who have not yet 
lost all grace through old age. And on the right of the 
Graces is a statue of Eros on the same pedestal. There 
is also there a temple of Silenus, dedicated to Silenus 
alone, and not in common to him and Dionysus, and 
Drunkenness is filling his cup. That the Sileni are mortal 
we should infer from their tombs, for there is the tomb of 
one Silenus in the country of the Hebrews, and of another 
at Pergamum.'^ And in the market-place the people of Elis 
have the following remarkable thing, which I have myself 
seen, in the shape of a temple. It is no great height, and 
has no walls, and the roof is supported by pillars made of 
oak. The people of the country say that it is a monument, 
but whose they do not record, but if the account of the old 
man whom I asked be correct, it would be the monument 
of Oxylus. There is also in the market-place a room for the 
16 matrons, where they weave the shawl for Hera.' 

• See Book i. ch. 3. 

' One might also infer the same from the fate of Marsyas. 

• See Book v. ch. 16. 

BOOK VI. — BLIS. 411 


AND next the market-place is an ancient temple, a colon- 
nade with pillars all round. The roof is fallen in with 
age, and there is no statue remaining. It was dedicated to 
the Roman Emperors. 

And behind the Corcyraean Portico is a temple of 
Aphrodite, and a grove in the open air sacred to her, not 
far from the temple. The statue of the goddess in the 
temple is called Celestial Aphrodite, and is by Phidias 
in ivory and. gold, she has one foot on a tortoise. Her 
grove is surrounded by a wall, and inside the grove is 
a basement on which is a brazen statue by Scopas of the 
Pandemian Aphrodite sitting on a brazen he-goat. The 
meaning of the tortoise and he-goat I leave my readers tc 

And the sacred precincts and temple of Pluto (for the 
people of Elis have both) are opened once every year, but 
no one may enter them even then but the sacrificing priest. 
And as far as we know the men of Elis are the only ones 
that honour Pluto, for the following reason. When Her- 
cules led an army against Pylos in Elis they say Athene 
cooperated with him. Then it was that Pluto came and 
helped the people of Pylos out of hostility to Hercules, and 
was accordingly honoured at Pylos. And they cite as their 
witness Homer's lines in the Iliad. ^ 

" Mighty Pluto also endured the swift arrow, when this 
man, the son of -^gis-bearing Zeus, wounded him at Pylos, 
and gave him pain among the dead." 

Xor if in the expedition of Agamemnon and Menelaus 
against Ilium Poseidon, according to the tradition of 
Homer, helped the Greeks, was it against probability that 
Pluto should have helped the people of Pylos in the opinion 
of the same poet. Anyway the people of Elis erected this 
temple to Pluto as being friendly to them and hostile to 
Hercules. And once every year they are accustomed to 
open the temple to indicate, I think, that men once descend 
to Pluto's gloomy realm. The people of Elis have also a 

'■ T. 393-397. 


temple to Fortune, and in the portico of this temple is a 
huge statue of wood, gilt all over except the head the 
hands and the toes, which are of white marble. Here too 
Sosipolis is honoured on the left of Fortune, in a rather small 
shrine : represented, according to the appearance of him seen 
in a dream, as a boy with a particoloured cloak on covered 
with stars, and in one of his hands the horn of Amalthea. 

And in that part of the town where the people of Elis 
have most of their population, there is a statue not larger 
than life of abeardless man, whohas his feet crossed, and leans 
against his spear with both his hands, his dress is of wool 
and linen and flax. This statue is said to be of Poseidon, 
and was worshipped of old at Samicum in Triphylia, And 
it was honoured even still more when removed to Elis, and 
they give it the name of Satrapes and not Poseidon, having 
learnt this name from their neighbours at Patrse. And 
Satrapes is the surname of Corybas. 


AND the old theatre between the market-place and the 
temple of the goddess Mene is the theatre and temple 
of Dionysus, the statue of the god is by Praxiteles. And of 
all the gods the people of Elis honour Dionysus most, and 
say that he frequents their festival in his honour called the 
Thyia, a festival which they celebrate about 8 stades from 
the city. The priests deposit 3 empty flagons in the 
chapel, in the presence of the citizens and strangers who 
may chance to be at the feast, and the priests themselves or 
any others who like seal the doors of the chapel. And the 
next day they come to the chapel to observe the miracle, and 
on entering find the flagons full of wine. Those held in the 
highest repute at Elis, and strangers as well, have sworn 
that this is as I have said, I was not myself there at the 
time of the festival. The people of Andros also say that 
annually at the feast of Dionysus wine flows spontaneously 
from the temple. If one can believe the Greeks in this 
matter, one might equally credit the tradition of the 
Ethiopians beyond Syene as to the Table of the Sun. 

BOOK VI. — ELIS. 413 

And in the citadel at Elis is a temple of Athene, her 
statue is of ivory and gold, and said to be by Phidias, and 
on her helmet is a cock, because that bird is said to be 
most pugnacious, or perhaps because it is sacred to Athene 
the Worker. 

And about 120 stades from Elis is Cyllene, which faces 
Sicily, and is a fine harbour for ships. The dockyard 
belongs to the people of Elis but got its name from an 
Arcadian. Homer has not mentioned Cyllene in his Cata- 
logue of the people of Elis, but subsequently in the Iliad 
shews that he knew that there was such a town as Cyllene. 

" And Polydamas killed Otus of Cyllene, the companion 
of Phyleides, the leader of the brave Epeans." ^ 

The gods who have temples in Cyllene are ^sculapius 
and Aphrodite. Hermes also has an Ithyphallic statue, 
which the natives pay extravagant honour to. 

The country of EHs is fertile in fruits of all kinds but 
especially in flax. As to hemp and flax all sow them whose 
land is favourable to their growth. But the threads which 
the Seres make their garments of are not from any plant, 
but are produced in the following manner. There is an 
insect on the earth which the Greeks called Ser, but the 
Seres give it another name. Its size is about double that 
of the largest beetle, and in other respects it is like the 
spiders that weave their webs under trees, and has also 8 
feet like spiders. These insects the Seres breed, and put 
summer and winter into little domiciles specially constructed 
for them. And what these insects produce is a slender 
thread, which rolls round their feet. For 4 years they feed 
them on grain, and in the fifth year (for they know they 
will not live longer) they give them green reed to eat. 
This food is the most agreeable of all to this insect, and 
when it has taken its fill of this it bursts from repletion. 
And when it is dead they find the thread in its inside. It 
is well-known that the island Seria is in the Red Sea. But 
I have heard that it is not the Red Sea, but a river called 
the Ser that makes this island, just as in Egypt the Delta 
is formed by the Nile and not by sea. Such a kind of 
island is Seria. The Seres are of Ethiopian race, and so 

^ Iliad, XT. 618, 519. 


are those that inhabit the neighbouring islands Abasa and 
Sacaea. Some however say that they are not Ethiopians 
but a cross-breed of Scythians and Indians. Such are the 
various traditions. 

As you go from Elis to Achaia it is about 127 stades to 
the river Larisus, which is in our day the boundary between 
Elis and Achaia, but in ancient times the boundary was the 
promontoiy Araxus near the sea. 





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