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Full text of "Pavement Drainage and Pavement-Shoulder Joint Evaluation and Rehabilitation : Final Report"

SCHOOL OF 
CIVIL ENGINEERING 

INDIANA 

DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS 



r 



JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT 

FHWA/IN/JHRP-93/2 2- 
Final Report 

PAVEMENT DRAINAGE AND PAVEMENT - 
SHOULDER JOINT EVALUATION & 
REHABILITATION 



Zubair Ahmed 
T. D. White 
P . L . Bourdeau 



f 



>♦ < 




** %_ 




UNIVERSITY 



JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT 

FHWA/IN/JHRP-93/2 
Final Report 

PAVEMENT DRAINAGE AND PAVEMENT - 
SHOULDER JOINT EVALUATION & 
REHABILITATION 



Zubair Ahmed 
T. D. White 
P. L. Bourdeau 



Final Report 



PAVEMENT DRAINAGE AND PAVEMENT-SHOULDER 
JOINT EVALUATION & REHABILITATION 



by 

Zubair Ahmed, 
T. D. White, and P. L. Bourdeau 



Joint Highway Research Project 

Project No.: C-36-15J 
File No. : 6-9-10 



Prepared as Part of an Investigation 

Conducted by the 

Joint Highway Research Project 

Engineering Experiment Station 

Purdue University 



In cooperation with the 

Indiana Department of Transportation 

and the 

U.S. Department of Transportation 

Federal Highway Administration 



The contents of this report reflects the views of the author who is 
responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented 
herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views 
or policies of the Federal Highway Administration. This report does 
not constitute a standard specification or regulation. 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

March 1993 
Revised February 1994 



-••'• ---.- *•.".£-'. T»7 - -*' : 



!. Repor* No. 



?. Govefnmont Accel: - 



FHWA/IN/JBRP-93/2 



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~> g - - » - • • .;■:-- Mg 



4. T.:!a onJ Subtitle 

PAVEMENT DRAINAGE AND PAVEMENT-SHOULDER JOINT 
EVALDATION AND PvEHABILITATION 



March 1993 



; c. reforming Of Mili IQ1 p*l CoC< 



7. Au'no-'s' 



Zubair Ahmed, T. D. White and P.L. Bourdeau 



. .. -,■_.■■ Na 



JHRP-93/2 



5. Performing Crgonizotion Nome and Address 

Joint Highway Research Project 
Civil Engineering Building 
Purdue University 

West La fayette i Indiana — 479Q7 



■ ; ; . Cor. tree? or j> '£«"■* * s. 

I Indiana-HPR-2018 



12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Addres" 

Indiana Department of Transportation 
State Office Building 
100 North Senate Avenue 
Tndianapolis. Indiana 46204 



13. Type of Repc- 



'••;i wO»e*ei 



Draft Final Report 



•4- Sponsoring Agency wOde 



15. Supplementory Notes 



16. Abstroct 



The objectives of this research were i) to evaluate the performance of pavement subdrainage systems 
ii) study the behavior of moisture conditions below pavements and iii) provide recommendations for unproved 
drainage criteria based on analysis of field data. 

Existing and retrofitted subdrainage collector systems were inspected through external visual inspection 
in combination with a probe for internal inspection. Distresses and deficiencies in construction observed were 
listed and compiled on video. A methodology for inspection is presented that can be used by highway agencies 
in monitoring the condition, need for maintenance, and performance of collector systems. 

Pavements with various types of subdrainage systems were instrumented to monitor the effects of 
different parameters influencing flow. The instrumentation package included pressure transducers, moisture 
blocks, thermistor probe, rain gauge, tipping bucket flow meter and a data recording and storage system. 
Laboratory investigations were conducted on subgrade and subbase samples collected from instrumented sites 
to assess their material and hydraulic properties. Parameters obtained by fitting Brooks & Corey's model and 
Van Genuchten's model to experimental data have shown good correlations with measured values. 

Data collected from instrumented sites show varying response rate and time of outflow with respect to 
precipitation for different types of pavements and collector systems. Statistical Analysis has shown significant 
influence of base permeability in addition to pavement and drain types on pavement outflow. High correlations 
exist between precipitation and pore pressure underneath pavements. Data from instrumentation and laboratory 
tests will help in calibrating and validating an analytical seepage program developed separately as part cf this 
research project. 



17. Key words 

pavement subdrainage, collector 
systems, inspection, instrumentation 
permeability, precipitation, outflow, 
seepage program 



i 18. Distribution Statemen* 

I No restrictions. This document is avail- 
| able to the public through the National 
! Technical Information Service, 
; Springfield, CA 22161 



| 19. Security Closslf. (of this report) 
i 

Unclassified 



20. Security Clossit. 's' 'his page 1 

Unclassified 



21. No. o' ragae 



Form DOT F 1700.7 te-ss) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation; Indiana Department of Transportation 



http://www.archive.org/details/pavementdrainageOOahme 



ii 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
The authors wish to acknowledge the Program Development 
Division, the Research and Training Center, and the Materials 
and Test Division of Indiana Department of Transportation for 
providing invaluable assistance during the data gathering and 
planning phase of the research. Special thanks are due to Mr. 
David Andrewski, Mr. Firooz Zandi and Ms. Becky McDaniel of 
INDOT for their assistance and advice in this study. 
Additionally, thanks are due to the District Offices of 
Crawfordsville, Fort Wayne, Greenfield, Laporte and Vincennes 
for their help during pavement instrumentation. 

Thanks are extended to Dr. Eileen Kladivko and Cliff 
Keifer of the Agronomy Department, and to Tom Cooper of the 
Civil Engineering Department for their help in laboratory 
testing and field instrumentation activities. Special thanks 
go to Dr. Ahmed El-Sharief for sharing information on fin 
drains and conceiving the idea of the constant head head 
permeameter, and to Dr. T. Kuczek and Dr. C. F. Scholer for 
offering valuable input at various times during the study. 

The financial support for this research project was 
provided by the Federal Highway Administration and the Indiana 
Department of Transportation through the Joint Highway 
Research Project, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 



Ill 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

LIST OF TABLES vi 

LIST OF FIGURES viii 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xv 

IMPLEMENTATION REPORT xvii 

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1 

Problem Statement 1 

Research Objectives 2 

Outline of Report 3 

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW 5 

Historical Review 6 

Elements of Subdrainage 15 

Drainage Layers 15 

Pavement-Shoulder Joints 24 

Collector System Components 2 6 

Drainage Design Criteria 31 

Environmental Effects on Subdrainage 3 6 

Moisture Movement Underneath Pavements 40 

Saturated and Unsaturated Flow 41 

Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity 46 

Measurement of Moisture Content 50 

Measurement of Soil Suction 56 

Chapter Summary 59 

CHAPTER 3 - COLLECTOR SYSTEM INSPECTION METHODOLOGY 61 

Background °± 

Study Objectives 62 

Inspection of Existing Subdrainage Systems 63 

Site Information 63 

Condition Evaluation 66 

Equipment for Inspection 67 

Bore Hole Camera System 67 

Auxiliary Equipment 73 



IV 



Page 

Visual Observations 75 

Outlet Pipe Slope 75 

Outlet Condition 77 

Markers and Rodent Screens 77 

Vegetation 77 

Headwall and Erosion Control Apron 81 

Camera Observations 81 

Joint Connections =83 

Flow of Water 83 

Pipe Corrosion 85 

Sedimentation in Fin Drains 88 

Fin Drain Buckling 88 

Connector Angle 90 

Subdrain Inspection Process 92 

Site Information 93 

Condition Evaluation 93 

Visual and Camera Observations 93 

Information Logging 94 

Chapter Summary 94 

CHAPTER 4 - FIELD TESTING AND INSTRUMENTATION 97 

Background 97 

Overview of PURDRAIN 98 

Test Site Selection 100 

Subdrainage Instrumentation 101 

Description of Instruments 117 

Data Acquisition Systems 117 

Pressure Transducer 118 

Gypsum Blocks 121 

Temperature Probe 124 

Rain Gage 124 

Outflow Measuring Device 126 

Instrumentation Setup 126 

Programming and Data Retrieval 133 

Instrumentation Problems 136 

Field Surveys 138 

Profile Survey 138 

Visual Survey 138 

Chapter Summary 140 

CHAPTER 5 - LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 142 

Background .142 

Conventional Material Tests 143 

Density and Moisture Content 143 

Grain Size Distribution 145 

Atterberg Limits 145 

Specific Gravity 145 

Test Results 146 



Page 

Soil-Moisture Properties Tests 160 

Suction-Moisture Test 160 

Sample Preparation and Testing Eguipment. . . .160 

Test Procedure 164 

Discussion of Results 166 

Parameter Development for Infiltration Models .... 170 

Permeability 17 6 

Constant Head Permeameter 179 

Falling Head Permeameter 131 

Field Permeability Testing Device (FPTD) .... 183 

Operation of FPTD 136 

Functional Problems of FPTD 13 6 

Discussion of Results 183 

Chapter Summary 190 

CHAPTER 6 - DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 191 

Precipitation vs Outflow 19 3 

Statistical Analysis 214 

Moisture Variation Below Pavement 217 

Piezometric Head Variation 219 

Moisture Tension Variation 238 

CHAPTER 7 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 245 

Inspection Process Conclusions 245 

Specific Findings 245 

Recommendations 247 

Field and Laboratory Testing Conclusions 248 

Recommendations for Further Study 250 

LIST OF REFRENCES 252 

APPENDICES 

Appendix A - Sample CR-10 Datalogger Program 263 

Appendix B - List and Cost of Instrumentation 27 6 

Appendix C - Condition Survey Data Sheets 279 

Appendix D - Soil Properties and Soil-Moisture 

Characteristics Data 345 

Appendix E - Regression Output and Figures for 

Parameter Estimation 3 62 

Appendix F - Data from Instrumented Sites 382 

Appendix G - Statistical Analysis Printouts 418 



VI 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Page 

2.1 Effect of underdrains and precipitation 

onpumping 9 

2.2 Field permeability test data for two-layer 

drainage system study 18 

2.3 Selected BSOG and NSOG gradation range for 

New Jersey concrete pavements 19 

2 . 4 Subbase material properties for Pennsylvania 
drainage study 20 

2 . 5 Quality of drainage for pavement sections 34 

2 . 6 Methods of measuring hydraulic conductivity 48 

3.1 Summary of collector systems inspected in Indiana 63 

4 . 1 Instrumented Target Sections 106 

4 . 2 Test Section 1 Design Features 107 

4 . 3 Test Section 2 Design Features 108 

4 . 4 Test Section 3 Design Features 109 

4 . 5 Test Section 4 Design Features 11° 

4 . 6 Test Section 5 Design Features HI 

4 . 7 Test Section 6 Design Features 112 

4 . 8 Test Section 7 Design Features 113 

4 . 9 Test Section 8 Design Features 114 

4 . 10 Test Section 9 Design Features H 5 

4.11 Test Section 10 Design Features 116 



Vll 



Table Page 

4.12 Polynomial Coefficients for Converting Sensor 

Resistance to Bars and Resulting Polynomial Error 123 

4 . 13 Wiring Connections for CR-10 Datalogger 134 

4.14 PCI Values and Ratings for Instrumented Sections 140 

5 . 1 Classification of subgrade soil samples 159 

5 . 2 Hydraulic parameter values of subgrade soils 174 

5.3 Goodness of fit values for estimated parameters 175 

5 . 4 Permeability values of INDOT base materials 177 

5.5 Permeability values of subgrade and subbase soils 189 

6 . 1 Information on precipitation and outflow volumes 192 

6.2 Definition Matrix for Statistical Analysis 216 

6 . 3 Analysis of Variance for Experimental Design 218 



vm 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Page 

2 . 1 Effect of subdrainage on pumping 3 

2 . 2 Water seeping from overlaid concrete pavement 12 

2 . 3 Drainage Rehabilitation Decision Tree 13 

2.4 Experimental and control sections for two-layer 

drainage system study 16 

2 . 5 Pennsylvania open graded subbase gradation curve 21 

2.6 Effect of joint sealing on moisture 

content variation 24 

2.7 Typical cross sections of underdrain trench 2 6 

2.8 Core structural profiles for prefabricated 

edge drains 2 8 

2 . 9 Sources of moisture in pavement systems 31 

2.10 Drainage criteria for granular layers 3 3 

2.11 Moisture content variation for airfield pavements 37 

2 . 12 Variation in moisture content compared with 
fluctuations in groundwater table 38 

2 . 13 Base Drainage Model 42 

2.14 Pavement cross section for infiltration analysis 44 

2.15 Soil moisture characteristics 4 6 

2.16 Hysteresis effects of drying and wetting 

on matric suction 47 

2.17 Permeability and gradation of base and 

filter materials 50 



IX 



Figure Page 

2.18 Nomograph for estimating coefficient of 

permeability of granular materials 51 

2 . 19 View of a standard Tempe cell 52 

2.20 A permeameter for measuring unsaturated 

hydraulic conductivity 53 

2.21 Block diagram of Time-Domain Ref lectometer 56 

2.22 Schematic illustration of parts of a tensiometer 57 

2.23 Schematic illustration of pressure chamber 

apparatus 59 

3 . 1 Cross section of underdrain used in Indiana 64 

3 . 2 Cross section of fin drain used in Indiana 64 

3.3 A sample condition survey form 67 

3 . 4 Inspection system for pipe edge drains 68 

3 . 5 Inspection system for prefabricated edge drains 70 

3.6 PLS inspection system for pipe drains 70 

3 . 7 Cues inspection system for pipe drains 71 

3.8 Types of guide sleeves used 73 

3 . 9 Clearing vegetation 75 

3 . 10 View of exposed and damaged outlet pipe 77 

3.11 View of crushed outlet pipe 77 

3 . 12 Mesh rodent screen 78 

3 . 13 Spear type rodent screen 78 

3 . 14 Spiral rodent screen 79 

3.15 Clearing grass at outlet pipe 81 

3.16 Erosion around newly constructed outlet pipe 81 

3 . 17 Setup of Olympus borescope system 83 

3 . 18 Water flowing freely from an outlet pipe 85 



X 

Figure Page 

3 . 19 Gravel from a punctured outlet pipe 8 6 

3.2 Sedimentation deposits in an exposed fin drain 3 6 

3.21 Fine deposits on outer fabric of fin drain 33 

3.22 Roll over and fabric intrusion in fin drain 90 

3.23 Exposed fin drain indicating J-buckling 90 

3 .24 Sample of completed inspection report form 94 

4 . 1 Geographic location of instrumented sections 102 

4 . 2 Typical cross section of flexible pavement 103 

4 . 3 Typical cross section of rigid pavement 104 

4 . 4 Typical cross section of overlaid pavement 105 

4 . 5 View of CR-10 datalogger and component systems 118 

4.6 DruckPDCR-831 depth/ level transducer 118 

4.7 Modified gypsum block and circuit diagram 121 

4.8 View of rain gage i24 

4 . 9 View of outflow measuring device I 26 

4 . 10 Schematic of instrumentation layout at test sites 127 

4.11 Sawcut in pavement for routing wires 

to datalogger 129 

4.12 Depth/ level transducer installation in core hole 129 

4 . 13 Enclosure housing the monitoring instruments 131 

4 . 14 Connections for outlet pipe and lead wires 13 3 

4 . 15 Auger boring for soil sample collection 13 3 

4 . 16 Profile levelling plan for instrumented sites 138 

5 . 1 Cutting shelby tube with mechanical saw 144 

5.2 As-sampled gradation of US-31, Hamilton County soil. . .147 



XI 

Figure Page 

5.3 As-sampled gradation of SR-37, Hamilton County soil. . .148 

5.4 As-sampled gradation of SR-37, Lawrence County soil. . .149 

5.5 As-sampled gradation of US-41, Sullivan County soil. . .150 

5.6 As-sampled gradation of US-30, Laporte County soil. . . .151 

5.7 As-sampled gradation of US-31, St. Joseph County 

soil 152 

5.8 As-sampled gradation of SR-9, Noble County soil 153 

5.9 As-sampled gradation of SR-43, Tippecanoe County 

soil 154 

5.10 As-sampled gradation of SR-63, Vermillion County 

soil 155 

5.11 As-sampled gradation of US-36, Hendricks County 

soil 156 

5.12 Gradation and specification limit for 

#5D stabilized subbase 157 

5.13 Gradation and specification limit for 

#53 aggregate subbase 158 

5 . 14 Setup of pressure chambers with manifold system 162 

5. 15 Subbase samples on soaked ceramic plate 162 

5. 16 Sectional view of pressure chamber apparatus 163 

5 . 17 Packing soil samples with surcharge weight 165 

5 . 18 Sample data form for soil-moisture tests 167 

5.19 Soil-moisture characteristics curves of 

subgrade soils from instrumented sites 168 

5.20 Soil-moisture characteristic curves of 

base and subbase soils 169 

5.21 Measured vs Estimated Brooks & Corey function 172 

5.22 Measured vs Estimated Van Genuchten function 173 

5.23 Range of permeability for soils and rocks 177 



Xll 

Figure Page 

5.2 4 Setup of the constant head permeameter 18 

5. 25 Flexi-wall permeameter cell and control column 132 

5.26 Schematic of Field Permeability Testing Device 134 

5.27 Setup of the Field Permeability Testing Device 137 

5 . 28 Measurement subsystem of FPTD 187 

6.1 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 1) 194 

6.2 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 2) 195 

6.3 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 3) 196 

6.4 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-3 6, Hendricks County; Data Set 1) 197 

6.5 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-36, Hendricks County; Data Set 2) 198 

6.6 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-36, Hendricks County; Data Set 3) 199 

6.7 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-41, Sullivan County; Data Set 1) 200 

6.8 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-41, Sullivan County; Data Set 2) 201 

6.9 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(SR-63 , Vermillion County; Data Set 1) 202 

6.10 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(SR-63, Vermillion County; Data Set 2) 203 

6.11 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(SR-9 , Noble County) 204 

6.12 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-3 0, Laporte County; Data Set 1) 2 05 

6.13 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 2) 206 



XX11 



Figure 



Page 



6.14 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 3) 207 

6.15 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 4) 208 

6.16 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 5) 209 

6.17 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, St. Joseph County; Data Set 1) ...210 

6.18 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, St. Joseph County; Data Set 2) 211 

6.19 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 

(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 3) .212 



6.2 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.21 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.22 Piezometric head variation in subbase 
6.2 3 Piezometric head variation in subbase 
6.24 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.2 5 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.26 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.27 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.28 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.29 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

6.3 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 2) 

6.31 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 3) 

6.32 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 5) 
6.3 3 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 6) 

6.34 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 8) 

6.35 Piezometric head variation in subgrade (Section 9) 



(Section 1) 220 

(Section 2) 221 

(Section 3) 222 

(Section 4) 223 

(Section 5) . . . . .224 

(Section 6) 225 

(Section 7) 226 

(Section 8) 227 

(Section 9) 228 

(Section 10) 229 

. .232 
. .233 
. .234 
. .235 
. .236 
. .237 



XIV 

Figure Page 

6.36 Suction variation at Section 2 235 

6.37 Suction variation at Section 3 240 

6. 38 Suction variation at Section 6 241 

6.39 Suction variation at Section 8 242 

6.40 Suction variation at Section 10 243 



•jCJ 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Abbreviation 

AADT 

AASHO 

AASHTO 

APTM 

ASTM 

BSOG 

FHWA 

FPTD 

GLM 

IDOH 

INDOT 

NCHRP 

NSOG 
OECD 

OGDL 
PCC 
PCI 
Penn DOT 



Description 

Average Annual Daily Traffic 

American Association of State Highway 
Officials 

American Association of State Highway and 
Transporation Officials 

Asphalt Treated Permeable Material 

American Society For Testing And Materials 

Bituminous Stabilized Open Graded 

Federal Highway Administration 

Field Permeability Testing Device 

General Linear Model 

Indiana Department of Highways 

Indiana Department of Transportation 

National Co-operative Highway Research 
Program 

Non-stabilized Open Graded 

Organization for Economic Co-operation 
and Development 

Open Graded Drainage Layer 

Portland Cement Concrete 

Pavement Condition Index 

Pennsylvania Department of Transporation 



XVI 



Abbreviation 

PFED 

TDR 

USGS 

WASHO 



Description 

Prefabricated Edge Drain 

Time-domain Ref lectometry 

United States Geological Survey 

Western Association of State and Highway 
Officials 



XV11 



IMPLEMENTATION REPORT 

An extensive field inspection of subsurface edge drains 
in Indiana was carried out through visual observations and use 
of camera systems for internal inspection. The investigation 
pointed out numerous problems and distresses which result in 
poor performance of edge drain systems. These included 
improper construction practices, deficiencies in system 
design, deficiency of presently used prefabricated edge drain 
product and lack of inspection and maintenance procedures . An 
inspection methodology was developed which includes a 
collector system inspection form (attached) to aid in future 
inspection of edge drain systems by the Indiana Department of 
Transportation (INDOT) . A video has also been prepared showing 
various inspection process steps and setup of the camera 
system, which will help in a systematic evaluation of edge 
drain performance. 

An intensive research was conducted in the form of field 
instrumentation and laboratory investigations to identify the 
pattern of moisture movement beneath pavements. Data analysis 
from instrumented sites show outflow to be affected by base 
permeability and edge cracking. The analysis also indicated 
high pore pressure buildup in subbase layers in the absence of 



XV111 

a positive drainage system. Laboratory investigations were 
conducted on ten subgrade soils and five subbase materials to 
determine material and hydraulic properties. 

Based on this research effort, specific recommendations 
suggested to INDOT for implementation include: 

1. Use of the camera system as a post construction 
inspection tool and for periodic inspections of existing 
edge drains. 

2 . Treatment of the area around outlet pipes through rip-rap 
protection and provision of a minimum of 4 inch 
freeboard. This will minimize vegetation growth, 
sedimentation and erosion around the outlet area as well 
as protect the outlet pipe from damage caused by mowing 
equipment. 

3. Use of a clean-out assembly employing high water pressure 
to jet clean clogged edge drains, especially on flat 
grades. This will assist in preventing pumping and other 
forms of distresses to occur in the pavement subbase, 
through reduced pore pressure buildup. 

4 . Use of an improved prefabricated edge drain product as 
the type of fin drain inspected in this study has a 
tendency to buckle under load. 

5. To facilitate cleaning and inspection, Y or L outlet to 
pipe connections be used, and no T-connections be 
allowed. 



XIX 



6. Use of a filter material as trench backfill instead of 
recompacted excavated earth to prevent external caking 
and internal clogging of edge drains. 

7. Proper sealing of pavement-shoulder joints to reduce 
moisture infiltration and use of a permeable subbase to 
rapidly remove entrapped water is recommended. 

8. Use of developed hydraulic parameter values of subgrade 
soils and subbase materials with PURDRAIN program. 

9. Incorporation of the findings of this research into 
appropriate INDOT specifications and guidelines for 
improved subdrainage performance. 

For further questions or information, contact Zubair 
Ahmed at (317)494-6243 or Prof. T. D. White at (317)494-2215 
or Prof. P. L. Bourdeau at (317)494-5031. 



CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 



Problem Statement 



Moisture accumulation in pavement base and/or subbase 
layers, either due to the absence of a positive drainage 
system or due to the material characteristics of the drainage 
layer leads to damage, and in some cases, complete failure of 
the pavement structure. This is true for both asphalt and 
concrete pavements. 

Providing pavements with efficient internal drainage 
systems significantly reduces water related damages, which not 
only increases the pavement life, but also minimizes 
maintenance and rehabilitation costs. Moisture damage is 
directly related to the length of time moisture is retained in 
the pavement system. The effect of moisture is significant 
enough to warrant the inclusion of specific factors in the 
AASHTO Guide for Pavement Design (1986) . These factors apply 
not only to the design of new pavements, but also to the 
evaluation of existing pavements. 



A research program was developed to obtain information on 
the performance of subsurface drainage systems. This program 
included obtaining specific drainage data, developing an 
analysis procedure, and providing recommendations on 
materials, inspection and maintenance of subsurface drainage 
systems . 

Research Objectives 

The major objective of this study is to assess for the 
first time, the performance of the contemporary drainage 
schemes in use, and suggest ways and means of improving the 
existing drainage systems as well as to provide a tool by 
which the performance of new and retrofit drainage systems 
could be evaluated. 

The following major areas were studied in detail: 

1. study of the conditions and performance characteristics 
of existing pavement subdrainage systems in Indiana. 
This involved inspection and condition assessment of 
various types of pavement subdrainage systems by the use 
of borehole cameras, and identification of factors 
involved in the performance of these systems. 



2. development of a methodology for inspection of 
collector systems. Routine inspection would aid INDOT in 
scheduling maintenance and evaluating long term 
performance of pavement subdrainage collector systems. 

3 . development of an analytical model of subsurface systems 
accounting for different geometric and material 
characteristics of the sections comprising a pavement 
system. 

4. obtain specific drainage data for calibration and 
validation of the analytical model through on-site 
pavement instrumentation. 

5. determine in the laboratory, soil-water and other 
properties of base/subbase materials and subgrade 
soils for use in the analytical model. 

The third objective is being accomplished by Mr. David 
Espinoza and is being reported in a separate report 
(Espinoza et al., 1993). 

Outline of Report 

With the objectives stated in the previous section, this 
report is presented in seven chapters. The first chapter 
states the problem and objectives, while the second chapter 



reviews the literature on present state-of-practice for 
subdrainage evaluation, design and material requirements and 
pavement instrumentation and inspection techniques. 

Chapter three deals with the inspection and condition 
assessment of existing subdrainage systems in the state 
through the use of a videoimagescope and a borehole camera, 
and identification of factors involved in the performance of 
these systems. A methodology for inspection of collector 
systems is developed and described in the same chapter. 

Chapter four describes the development and implementation 
of a plan for on-site subdrainage instrumentation on existing 
pavement sections, with the objective of collecting site 
specific data for use in the validation of the subsurface 
drainage computer program as well as in the evaluation of 
subsurface flow for different conditions. 

Chapter five deals with the laboratory testing procedures 
undertaken to classify subgrade and subbase materials from 
pavement test sections. The chapter also contains test result 
values of parameters influencing flow in the drainage layer. 

Chapter six uses the results of data collected from on- 
site instrumentation in making statistical and engineering 
analyses of the influence of various factors on pavement 
drainage. Finally, in Chapter 7 the summary and conclusions of 
the study are presented. 



CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW 

There is significant literature available on various 
aspects of subdrainage. Cedergren and O'Brien (1971) have 
listed 225 abstracts related to pavement subdrainage. 
Dempsey, Darter and Carpenter (1971) have presented a 
comprehensive state-of-the-art review of existing literature 
and current practices pertaining to subdrainage and moisture 
movement in pavement systems. Within the scope of this report, 
only the salient points from selected publications are 
summarized. The review deals with the historical development 
of drainage practice, field and laboratory studies conducted 
specifically with respect to the development of drainage 
layers and materials and moisture movement in pavement 
systems . 



Historical Review 

The benefits of rapid internal drainage of pavements and 
the detrimental effects due to its absence have been known 
since the early part of 16th century. Bruce (1932) credits 
Tresaguet with first applying a scientific approach to road 
improvement in France about 1764. He specified a base layer of 
large stones covered with a thin layer of smaller stones to 
provide better subsurface drainage. 

John L. Macadam (1820) in an address to the London Board 
of Agriculture commented that: "If water passes through a road 
and fills up the native soil, the road, whatever its 
thickness, loses support and goes to pieces". Various types of 
pavements carrying his name and based on his philosophy have 
been built and used over the years. This philosophy still 
guides pavement design and construction in many areas of the 
world. 

J.W. Gregory (1931) stated the chief source of weakness 
in a road to be stagnant water. He advocated the use of 
coarse, closely packed gravel as a foundation for ordinary 
roads, reasoning that it distributed the weight of the road 
evenly on the underlying material and was easily drained. 



Two well known road tests, the WASHO Road Test (1955) and 
the AASHO Road Test (1962) proved that excess water was the 
prime factor in the failure of pavements, with the damage to 
pavements being greater in wet periods than in dry. 

Highway researchers and practitioners are in agreement on 
the effect of water on pavement distresses (Yoder,1946; 
Barenberg et al.,1974; OECD,1978). In flexible pavements, the 
continued presence of moisture in conjuction with heavy 
vehicle loads may result in stripping of asphalt from 
aggregate, potholes and alligator and cracking. In concrete 
pavements, moisture may result in loss of support, degradation 
of the base material and concrete deterioration. 

The major distress associated with absence of subdrainage 
in concrete pavements is 'pumping'. Trapped water in 
conjunction with moving wheel loads on the pavement surface 
produces high pore pressures in the base/subbase layers of the 
pavement system. If not dissipated within a reasonable time 
frame, such pressures cause pumping of material from the base 
and ultimately failure of the pavement. 



8 



Van Wijk and Lovell (1984) identified water in the 
pavement as one of the three components necessary for pumping 
in concrete pavements to occur. They also stated the results 
of a survey, in which almost 60% of the 46 states questioned 
indicated that pumping is a serious problem. 

Figure 2 . 1 shows the results of a study made by Darter et 
al. (1983) on the effects of positive drainage on pumping. A 
low pumping level is reached in only 8 years for a concrete 
pavement without underdrains, whereas the same section with 
underdrains takes 30 years to reach the same pumping level. 
Data from the study indicated that for sections showing high 
severity pumping, most did not have underdrains (Table 2.1). 
Dempsey (1982) studied conditions which causes pumping and 
channeling in pavement systems through field and laboratory 
studies and concluded that the use of non-erodible base 
materials and good drainage practices can lead to improved 
performance of pavements during the design life. 

Cedergren (1970, 1973, 1989a) has been a major proponent 
in emphasizing the design of pavement based on drainability 



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TIME Cyear3) 



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1983) 



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rather than on density and stability. He established the scope 
and provided the basis for modern subdrainage design for both 
highway and airfield pavements by describing procedures for 
estimating water inflows and outflows in pavement systems 
(Cedergren, 1974; Cedergren et al., 1972). Moulton (1930) 
presented a detailed analysis and design of highway 
subdrainage system including material requirements, 
groundwater control techniques and construction procedures. 

Ridgeway (1982) has provided a comprehensive discussion 
of subsurface drainage design as well as installation of 
subdrainage as part of pavement rehabilitation projects. Ray 
and Christory (1989) presented observations conducted on the 
concrete pavements in the Paris region in France, and 
recommended full-width drainage layers with a high percentage 
of voids for satisfactory performance. 

Carpenter et al. (1981) have given a procedure for 
classifying pavements as to the potential for moisture 
accelerated damage to occur. The analysis aids in evaluating 
drainage problems of particular materials and in developing 
maintenance strategies to alleviate moisture related problems. 
Woodstrom (1983) described improved base designs and pavement 
drainage systems in California for both new construction and 
rehabilitation. Majidzadeh (1976) evaluated subsurface 
drainage conditions underneath concrete pavements in Ohio and 
indicated that moisture and drainage related problems are 
quite significant. 



12 

When distressed concrete pavements are overlaid with 
asphalt layers without providing for the removal of entrapped 
water, the problem persists in the form of wet spots on the 
overlaid pavement. Figure 2.2 shows a section of Interstate I- 
64 in Indiana where entrapped water in the pavement started 
seeping out of the asphalt overlay within one year of 
construction. Kandhal et al. (1989) have presented three case 
histories of water damage to asphalt overlays over portland 
cement concrete (PCC) pavements in Pennsylvania. They found 
significant amount of free moisture in the pavement layers and 
damage due to stripping on asphalt overlays. Asphalt treated 
permeable material (APTM) was proposed to provide an effective 
subsurface drainage system for new pavements. 

Economic studies (Cedergren, 1978, Forsyth et al., 1987) 
have shown that billions of dollars could be saved by the use 
of good drainage systems. Mathis (1989) has reviewed and 
compared the practices of ten states on the design, 
construction practices, use and cost performance of permeable 
bases. The Asphalt Institute (1966) and Portland Cement 
Association (1984) have incorporated methods for drainage and 
erosion analysis as part of the overall design process for 
flexible and rigid pavements. 

Hall et al. (1989) have developed rehabilitation 
strategies for concrete pavements with consideration of 
drainage (Figure 2.3), joints and other pavement features. 
FHWA has conducted a special project (Baumgardner and Mathis, 



13 




Figure 2.2 Water seeping from overlaid concrete pavement 



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15 

1989) with the objective to evaluate the effectiveness of 
retrofit longitudinal edge drains to remove water from PCC 
pavements. The study will also evaluate various non- 
destructive methods for monitoring pavement drainage systems. 

Elements of Subdrainaqe 

Most of the roads built during the past several decades 
were built with emphasis on strength and not on drainage for 
performance. The effect of moisture trapped inside the 
pavement and its rapid drainage from the system was never 
given the importance it deserved. This outlook changed in the 
early 1970 's and a significantly different pavement design 
philosophy with emphasis on drainage was accepted. 

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and 
Development (OECD) (1973) has summarized research work carried 
out in participating countries to predict moisture content of 
road subgrades. A number of field and laboratory studies 
combined with theoretical analysis have been conducted on the 
material characteristics of elements of subdrainage and on the 
extrinsic and intrinsic factors which influence subdrainage. 
A brief review of these studies follow. 

Drainage Layers 
The use of open graded drainage layers (OGDLs) has gained 
acceptance as a means of rapidly draining infiltrated water 



16 

from pavement structures, and represents a careful balance of 
permeability and stability of the base course material. These 
types of base and subbase layers have limited fines. The 
suggested range of OGDL permeabilities is quite wide, ranging 
from 1000 ft/day to 20,000 ft/day (Mathis, 1989). 

Strohm et al. (1967) conducted laboratory permeability 
tests on four gradations of base course materials. These tests 
indicated that the permeability decreased significantly with 
the increase of density and hydraulic gradient. They concluded 
that the gyratory compaction procedure developed in the 
investigation could be used to obtain uniformly prepared 
specimens for use in the evaluation of drainage 
characteristics of base course materials. 

Barenberg and Tayabji (1974) tested six pavement sections 
with open-graded bituminous aggregate drainage layers. To 
simulate infiltration, water was passed through the drainage 
layers and dynamic loading applied to the test sections. 
Results from the study indicated a high permeability for the 
drainage layers. 

Smith et.al (1970) reported the findings of a field 
evaluation study of a two-layer highway drainage system 
(Figure 2.4) . The experimental section consisted of a flexible 
pavement over a two-layer drainage blanket. The drainage 
blanket consisted of an asphalt treated permeable material 
over a well graded aggregate layer. The performance of this 
two-layer system was compared to a control section which had 



17 




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18 

a flexible pavement over a layer of permeable base course 
material. Field permeability tests from the study (Table 2.2) 
indicated that the drainage capacity of the two-layer system 
to be three to nine times that of the standard underdrain 
section, though both sections effectively drained all 
subsurface water at the site. 

Kozlov et al. (1983) investigated drainage conditions and 
frost action due to surface water underneath concrete 
pavements. Different gradations of base course materials were 
tested in the laboratory to identify optimal materials for 
pavement drainage layers. Two types of drainage layer 
materials, a bituminous stabilized open graded material (BSOG) 
and a non-stabilized open graded material (NSOG) were 
developed. Gradation specifications for both materials are 
shown in Table 2.3. 

Highlands and Hoffman (1987) described a project 
undertaken by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 
(PennDOT) in which five sections of base/subbase materials 
representing a range of permeability conditions were 
constructed (Table 2.4). Test results indicated that open- 
graded subbases have higher permeabilities as compared to 
dense graded subbases. Based on the results of the study, Penn 
DOT changed its specifications to require an open-graded 
subbase (Figure 2.5) as an inter layer between rigid pavements 



19 



Table 2.2 Field permeability test data for two-layer 
drainage system study (Smith et al., 1970) 





Perme 


:ability (gal/min) at 






Station 


43-: 


in. Constant Head 




Remarks 




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Control 




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Average 



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spring— probably 
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3 Average of low values 0.96. 



20 



Table 2.3 Selected BSOG and NSOG gradation range for 

New Jersey concrete pavements (Kozlov et al. , 1983) 



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23 

and dense graded aggregate subbases. Raad (1932) 
investigated the significance of permeability, 
compressibility, loading conditions and drainage efficiency on 
pumping of base course materials. He found that pore pressure 
increases as the base course permeability decreases. Also, he 
found the base course compressibility increases. Crovetti and 
Dempsey (1991) investigated the permeability of the standard 
Illinois base course materials. Two of these standard 
materials have permeabilities in excess of 5000 fpd. They 
recommended the use of Portland cement or asphalt as 
stabilizing agents if the materials were to be trafficked 
prior to final paving. 

Hajek et.al (1992) in a field study of five paving 
projects incorporating asphalt treated and untreated open 
graded drainage layers (OGDLs) conclude that the existence of 
OGDLs alone does not guarantee better pavement performance. 
The OGDLs should also be combined in a total internal drainage 
design consisting of a permeable base and collection system. 

The studies listed above underscore the fact that the use 
of an open graded material in combination with a subdrainage 
collection system is effective in increasing pavement service 
life. INDOT has recently developed standards for aggregate 
subbases, which require the use of open graded granular or 
stabilized layers in both asphalt and concrete pavements 
(INDOT, 1992) . This will lead to an increase in the cost 
effectiveness of the highway network and to less frequent 



24 
maintenance and rehabilitation for highways in the state. 

Pavement-Shoulder Joints 

Improperly sealed or unsealed pavement-shoulder cracks 
and joints are entry points for moisture into a pavement. If 
a drainage system is not provided, the result will be 
premature deterioration of the pavement. 

Research conducted on German motorways (Sulten, 1983) 
revealed that water penetrates through joints and stagnate at 
the slab-subbase interface resulting in disintegration of the 
bond between the slab and the hydraulically bound subbase. 
Barksdale and Hicks (1977) stated that it is possible for as 
much as 70 to 97 percent of rainfall to enter open joints with 
openings of 0.035 to 0.125 inch, when dry conditions existed 
beneath pavements. They indicated that deterioration of 
shoulders in the vicinity of the longitudinal joint was 
considerably more severe, when a significant quantity of water 
existed beneath the pavement and the shoulder. 

Ring (1977) found that water entering through joints and 
cracks of concrete pavements is trapped causing high 
hydrostatic pressure. As a result, there is a loss of subgrade 
support and faulting due to redistribution of subbase 
materials. Guinnee and Thomas (1955) stated that the amount of 
water entering pavements at the edges is greater than that 
from any other source. Observations by Ridgeway (1976) 
indicated infiltration rates of up to 0.08 ft 3 /hr/ft of crack 
through joints and cracks in concrete pavements. Figure 2.6 



25 



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26 

shows a survey of lane-shoulder joints in Illinois (Dier stein 
and McKenzie, 1974) where moisture content was found to be 
higher under longitudinal unsealed lane-shoulder joints than 
sealed joints. This higher pressure was associated with 
premature failure of pavements. Dempsey and Robnett (1979) in 
a study of test sections in Georgia and Illinois found edge 
joint sealing of pavements reduced outflow by 11.6 percent in 
jointed concrete pavements and by 16.4 percent in continuously 
reinforced concrete pavements. Carpenter et al. (1987) stated 
that there is no consensus around the United States as to what 
constitutes an adequate lane/shoulder joint seal. The practice 
is performance dependent and varies from one area to another. 

Collector System Components 

A pavement subdrainage collector system collects water 
from the pavement drainage layers and conveys it outside the 
roadway limits through outlets. It consists of a perforated 
drainage pipe placed inside a trench with a filter envelope 
surrounding the pipe. Figure 2.7 shows a typical cross section 
of a drainage trench. The composition of the pipe and the 
envelope material play an important role in the efficiency of 
the subdrainage system. 

Clay and concrete tiles and pipes were used in earlier 
drainage systems. These type of pipes have now been replaced 
with perforated corrugated metal or plastic pipes. The plastic 
pipes are flexible conduits and if improperly placed, they 



IdycA PCC 
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NoU: S«« Tnxco) Cro«« Stclioo (or Umlle ond IhtckiwM el pov«m«ol and bet* 

TYPE J EDGE DRAIN 
(FOR EXISTING HWY. FAC1UTY) 



27 



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TYPE 2 EDGE DRAIN 

(NEW CONSTRUCTION) 

*(S«« typical aoti itctlons tor lhtcJtrxs« ol povenxnl ond bate.) 



Figure 2 . 7 Typical cross sections of underdrain trench 
(Wells, 1985) 



28 

deflect excessively. NCHRP Project 4-11 (1980) discusses 
standards for evaluating plain and corrugated plastic pipes. 
Also, various state DOTs have their own specifications for the 
use of different materials for pipes. 

The introduction of prefabricated edge drains (PFEDs) or 
fin drains, consisting of an inner polymer structural core 
around which a geotextile membrane is wrapped, has been an 
important development for both new and retrofitted pavement 
systems. Figure 2.8 shows some designs of fin drains used in 
highway subdrainage systems (Frobel, 1991) . Proponents of 
prefabricated edge drains have listed ease of placement and 
relatively low cost as the major advantages over conventional 
pipe edge drains. 

Koerner and Hwu (1991) presented a rational design 
procedure which can be used for a variety of fin drain 
products. Dempsey (1988) conducted a study to determine the 
core flow-capacity requirements of prefabricated edge drains. 
Six different fin drain materials were tested in a laboratory 
channel and their core flow capacities compared with 
conventional pipe edge drain systems. Results from the study 
indicate that flow zone capacities in excess of 200 gal/hr are 
required for fin drains to compare with standard pipe edge 
drain systems. 

Studies have been conducted to evaluate and compare the 
effectiveness of pipe and prefabricated edge drain systems 
(Hinshaw, 1988; Allen and Fleckenstein, 1988; Highlands et 



29 



CORE PROFILES 



DESCRIPTIONS 




double cuspates (169/ft each side) 



LDPE 

Double cuspated 
perforated core 
color - black 
weight 150 gm/ft' 



B 



conical cuspates 
(100/ft 2 ) 




-1 r - 3 " 

perforated base 



HDPE 

Conical Cuspated 
perforated base 
color - yellow „ 

weight 181 gm/ft 



18 corrugations per foot 




column supports 
throughout (IB/It* ) 



HDPE 

Oblong corrugated 
pipe section 
slotted perforations 
color - black 2 

weight 377 gm/ft 



slotted perforations 
in bottom corrugation 



-' '-.25" -J 



—.75" 



D r l Hill 

- ill 1 1 1 I i 



hollow columns 
(225/ft 2 ) 

perforated base 




LDPE 

High profile columns 
perforated base 
color - black ~ 

weight 223 gm/ft 4 



Figure 2.8 Core structural profiles for prefabricated 
edge drains (Frobel, 1991) 



30 

al., 1991). The general conclusion is that performance 
problems exist with both systems. It is also difficult to 
isolate the effect of a subdrainage collector system from the 
overall pavement system performance. 

The second component of a drainage trench is the envelope 
material. The primary reasons for placing envelope materials 
around edge drains as listed by Dempsey et al. (1971) are as 
follows: 

1. to prevent the migration of soil particles into drains to 
prevent clogging the drain. 

2 . to provide a material in the immediate vicinity of drain 
openings which is more permeable than the surrounding 
soil. 

3. to provide a suitable bedding for drains. 

4. to stabilize the soil on which drains are being laid. 
Cedegren and O'Brien (1971) and Moulton (1980) have 

recommended the following design criteria for drainage 

envelope materials for proper functioning: 

(D, 5 ) backfill < 5 (D 85 ) protected soil (2-1) 

(D 50 ) backfill < 25 (D 50 ) protected soil (2-2) 

(D 85 ) backfill > 1.2 (slot width of pipe) (2-3) 

(D 85 ) backfill > 1.0 (hole diameter of pipe) (2-4) 

trench width > QU / 2 (k,) (2-5) 

where: D x = the particle size for which x percent of the 
material will be smaller 
q d = design drainage rate 



31 

k, = permeability of backfill material 
The protected soils specified in the above equations are 
the base/subbase and subgrade, as water from these layers are 
expected to flow into the trench. Three placement locations of 
the trenches have been practiced; 

1) at the pavement edge, which is more common for fin 
drains, 

2) under the shoulder at some distance from the 
pavement edge which is more common for pipe edge 
drains, 

3) at the shoulder outer edge. 

Procedures for analysis and design of pipes and prefabricated 
edge drains have been given by Cedergren (1974), Moulton 
(1980) and Carpenter (1990) . 

Drainage Design Criteria 
Design and performance of drainage layers and collector 
systems are not exercises in isolation. Rather, they are tied 
to an overall approach of draining water from various sources 
(Figure 2.9) out of the pavement system. To this end, two 
basic design philosophies are practiced (Ridgeway, 1982) . 

a) Time required for a certain percentage of drainage of a 
saturated base or subbase should not exceed a certain 
value. 

b) An inflow-outflow criteria where the outflow rate is 
greater than or equal to the inflow rate. 



32 




Through Permeable Surface 



Pave;: \ment 



////Compacted, Subgrade///V 
/a// / /y / / /\, / , , ///A.- 



J§) From Water- Table 




High Ground 



r® 



(§) Vapor Movements 



(2) Upward Movement 
V Of Water-Table 



-—Water- Table 



Figure 2 . 9 Sources of moisture in pavement systems 
(Low and Lovell, 1959) 



33 

To meet the first criteria, Casagrande and Shannon (1951) 
and Barksdale and Hicks (1977) have given procedures for 
estimating the time required to remove 50 percent of the 
drainable water from the pavement system. The Corps of 
Engineers (1946) recommend a time of 10 days for airport 
pavements, whereas Barksdale and Hicks (1977) suggest a time 
of 2 to 6 hours for highway pavements. Darter and Carpenter 
(1987) have proposed a time of 5 hours as acceptable to reach 
an 85 percent saturation level (Figure 2.10). AASHTO Design 
Guide (1986) lists the times corresponding to different levels 
of drainage for improved performance (Table 2.5). 

For the second criteria, there are two approaches to 
estimate infiltration of water through a pavement surface. 

a) The first approach by Cedergren et al. (1972) is based 
on the intensity of precipitation. A 1 hour/1 year 
frequency precipitation is multiplied by a coefficient to 
achieve a design infiltration rate. Suggested 
coefficients range from 0.3 3 to 0.5 for bituminous 
pavements and from 0.5 to 0.67 for concrete pavements. 

b) The second approach by Ridgeway (1976) is based on the 
duration of precipitation and the estimate of the water 
carrying capacity of a pavement crack or joint. For 
design purposes, an infiltration rate of 0.1 ft 3 /hr/ft of 
crack is recommended. 

Moulton (1980) has summarized the recommended design 
criteria for drainage systems into the following five steps: 



34 



20 



15 



co 

O 

X 
CD 



J- 



10 







Unacceptable 




Satisfactory 



80 



85 



90 



95 



100 



Saturation, % 



Figure 2.10 Drainage criteria for granular layers 
(Darter and Carpenter, 1987) 



35 



Table 2.5 Quality of drainage for pavement sections 
(AASHTO, 1986) 



Quality of Drainage 


Water Removed Within 


Excellent 
Good 
Fair 
Poor 
Very Poor 


2 hours 
1 day 
1 week 
1 month 
Will not drain 



36 

1. Assemble all available data on highway and subsurface 
geometry, soil and material properties, and factors 
contributing to the quantity of moisture in pavements. 

2. Determine the quantity of water that must be removed by 
the pavement drainage system. 

3. Design the pavement drainage layers for rapid removal of 
the net inflow. 

4 . Design the collector system for removal of water from the 
drainage system. 

5. Conduct a critical evaluation of the design with respect 
to expected long term performance, maintenance and cost. 

Environmental Effects on Subdrainage 
Climate, geologic location and other environmental 

factors have considerable influence on pavement performance. 

Precipitation and temperature control soil moisture conditions 

and influence the type and thickness of pavements required for 

roads and airfields. 

A number of researchers have discussed the effects of 

these variables on moisture conditions in pavement systems 

(Eno, 1930; Coleman and Russam, 1961; Fang, 1969) . In the 

words of Eno (193 0) , 

"One of the very important, if not the most important 
phases of climate relative to its effects upon the 
highway is the amount, distribution, intensity, 
character, and disposition of precipitation". 

A field study conducted by the Corps of Engineers (1955) 

at different airfield pavements shows the influence of high 



37 

precipitation on the moisture content of base and subgrade 
materials (Figure 2.11). Investigations by Marks and 
Haliburton (1969) indicated precipitation has a major effect 
on moisture variation in pavements with poor condition 
ratings. Stevens et.al (1949) stated that high precipitation 
during the fall season tended to saturate the subgrade and 
base and was related to the spring pavement breakup in 
Virginia. 

Groundwater conditions may contribute to accumulation of 
moisture in a pavement system. A high groundwater table can 
allow both capillary water or water in vapor form to migrate 
towards the surface. Turner and Jumikis (1956) in a study of 
six New Jersey soils showed that precipitation could change 
the water table level and correspondingly the subgrade 
moisture content. Melting snow was more significant than rain. 
Chu et al. (1972) found a positive correlation between 
subgrade moisture content and high groundwater table for 
pavement systems in South Carolina (Figure 2.12). 

The severity of the problem of moisture increases in 
areas where frost penetration or freeze-thaw cycles occur. 
Freezing temperatures during winter months result in the 
formation of ice crystals from the various sources of water 
which infiltrate and get trapped in the pavement layers. 
During spring-thaw periods, water from the melting crystals 
contribute to moisture content increase, which in turn results 
in early deterioration of the pavement. In a study of AASHO 



38 



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b) Kirtland Air Force Base (15 in. of rainfall/year) 



Figure 2.11 Moisture content variation for airfield pavements 
(Corps of Engineers, 1955) 



39 



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40 

Road Test results on flexible pavements, Benkelman (1962) 
found the detrimental effects of ground freezing and moisture 
to be the greatest during spring months. 

There are several reports which describe the effects of 
temperature and frost on pavement performance (Johnson, 1952; 
Johnson and Lovell, 1953; Low and Lovell, 1959; OECD, 1974). 
The US Army Corps of Engineers (1959) has criteria and 
procedures for the design and construction of pavements for 
frost conditions. Moulton and Schaub (1969) developed a 
rational approach to the design of flexible pavements for 
resisting the detrimental effects of frost action. More 
recently, Chisholm and Phang (1983) undertook a 5 year program 
of measuring and predicting frost penetration in pavement 
structures across Ontario and developed a computer program 
capable of predicting the depth and time pattern of frost 
penetration beneath pavement structures. 

Experiments conducted by the Ontario Ministry of 
Transportation (McMaster et al., 1982) show that surface water 
infiltration in frost areas has a detrimental effect on 
pavement performance. Removal of moisture from pavements 
through plastic pipe edge drains resulted in reduced heaving 
and distortion of asphalt pavements. 

Moisture Movement Underneath Pavements 
Moisture is a fundamental variable in all problems of 
soil behavior. It has special significance in highway 



41 

pavements. Highways are thin structures built on a soil 
foundation. Also, subbase and base layers are soil materials. 
These soils or subgrades may be subjected to large variations 
in moisture contents. Consequently, the control of moisture is 
of prime importance in pavement design, construction, behavior 
and performance. 

Saturated and Unsaturated Flow 
Moisture movement in underlying layers of pavements can 
be generalized into two systems. Saturated, in which all the 
voids are filled with water, and unsaturated, in which both 
air and water are present. The latter is the more common kind 
of flow in soils, as even in the case of practically saturated 
flow, one can expect about 2-10% of air voids. Both types of 
flow are caused by a driving force due to a potential 
gradient, with flow taking place in the direction of 
decreasing potential. For the same elevation, it is the 
gradient of a positive pressure potential for saturated flow, 
whereas in case of unsaturated flow, it is the negative 
pressure potential often termed as 'matric potential' , 
'moisture tension' or simply 'suction'. 

Saturated flow is best described by Darcy's Law for flow 
in porous media, and for a one-dimensional flow may be given 
as: 

q = k i A (2-6) 

where: q = specific discharge rate 



42 

k = constant, defined as "hydraulic conductivity" 

i = dh/dx = hydraulic gradient 

A = cross-sectional area normal to flow direction 

h = piezometric head = z + u/7„ 

z = elevation of the point of interest 

u = water pressure 

7 W = unit weight of water 

x = direction of flow 

For unsaturated flow, the above equation is extended and 

expressed as: 

q = - [k(0)] vh (2-7) 

where: q = specific discharge rate 

k(0) = hydraulic conductivity as a function of 
unsaturated moisture content 

v = Laplacian operator 

h = piezometric head = z - yp 

z = elevation head 

$ = matric potential or suction 

Casagrande and Shannon (1951) presented a theoretical 
analysis of moisture movement through a saturated base course. 
The model considers both horizontal and sloping bases and a 
linear free water surface that changes with time (Figure 
2.13). They defined the progress of drainage in terms of two 
dimensionless parameters: 

a) Degree of Drainage 'U' defined as the ratio of drained 
area to total area. 



43 




Time. { 



Time (t+dt) 



Drain 




(a) V EQUAL TO OR W ^QUAL TO OR 

GREATER THAN 50% LESS THAN 50% 

•ASSUMED PROGRESS OF FREE WaTEB SURFACE— HORIZONTAL P>AflE 




Drain 



(a) U EQUAL TO OR (« » E Q UAL T0 0R 

GREATER THAN 50% LESS THAN 50% 

Assumed Progress of Free Water Surface— Sloping Base 



Figure 2.13 Base Drainage Model (Casagrande & Shannon, 1951) 



44 

b) Time factor 'T' which depends on the properties of the 

base material. 

Liu et al. (1983) developed a model based on Casagrande 
and Shannon's work replacing the linear free water surface 
with a parabolic surface and incorporated other variations 
which make the model more suitable to field conditions. 
Cedergren (1989) has used the technique of flow nets for 
infiltration studies of base courses on impermeable 
foundations using Darcy's Law. 

The main limitations of the methods described above are 
the assumptions that the base is fully saturated and that 
water is readily drained out from the system. As soil 
desaturates, some of the pores become air filled and suction 
develops, entailing a steep drop in hydraulic conductivity. 
This may result in very long times for any appreciable flow to 
occur. Still, the methods are a good first approximation in 
the design of pavement drainage systems. 

Though soil physicists have been dealing with unsaturated 
moisture movement in soils for quite sometime, Wallace (1975, 
1977) was the first to apply the concepts to pavement systems. 
A one-dimensional infiltration model based on finite 
difference approximation was introduced to analyze a simple 
pavement cross-section (Figure 2.14) and study the 
effectiveness of alternative forms of pavement subdrainage. 
Moisture movement profiles for various cross section designs 
were given therein. The seepage model 'PURDRAIN' developed in 



45 



Rain saturates shoulder 
surface for a given 
period, then rain ceases 
and water redistributes 
and drains during the 
subsequent period 



Sealed pavement base 

Unsealed 
shoulder 






1 in 19 


\ 


crossfall 


Pavement base 




thickness. D 





Subgrade 
(in some case» chc subgrade is overlain 
by a relatively permeable sub-base) 



Figure 2 . 14 



Pavement cross section for infiltration analysis 
(Wallace, 1975) 



46 

parallel to the present study (Espinoza et al., 1993) is based 
on the work performed by Wallace. 

The two fundamental relationships affecting moisture 
movement in unsaturated pavement systems are a) hydraulic 
conductivity-moisture content and b) suction-moisture content. 
This is due to the fact that hydraulic conductivity does not 
remain constant, but decreases as the degree of saturation 
decreases, or as suction increases as shown in Figure 2.15. 

A moisture content-suction relationship can be defined by 
a characteristic curve as shown in Figure 2.16. The 
hysteretical nature of the relationship between moisture 
content and matric suction shows that the process of wetting- 
up and drying depends on the initial conditions and moisture 
content at a given point. The relationships between hydraulic 
conductivity, moisture content and suction are not unigue. It 
is therefore necessary to obtain values of these parameters in 
forming relationships for different types of base/subbase 
materials and subgrade soils. 

Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity 
Various field, laboratory and analytical methods exist 
for evaluating saturated and unsaturated hydraulic 
conductivities (Bouwer and Jackson, 1974; Klute and Dirksen, 
1986; Cedergren, 1989b). Table 2.6 summarizes these methods. 
Moulton and Seals (1979) developed a prototype field device 
for measuring in-situ horizontal permeability of saturated 



47 



CHARACTERISTIC^ 
CHARACTERISTIC 




-5 



*: ^;?:^i> Volumetric Moisture Content 181 



Figure 2.15 Soil moisture characteristics (Wallace, 1977) 



48 



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CO 

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DE SORPTION 




SORPTION- \; 

SATURATION- 



WATER CONTENT 



Figure 2.16 Hysteresis effects of drying and wetting 

on matric suction (Janssen and Dempsey, 1980) 



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50 

base and subbase courses. A number of charts and nomographs 
have been developed to estimate permeability based on material 
properties. Two of the most frequently used in drainage design 
were developed by Cedergren (1974) (Figure 2.17) and by 
Moulton (1980) (Figure 2.18). 

Elzeftway and Dempsey (1976) developed a method to 
predict the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of pavement 
subgrade soils. This method utilizes moisture content -matric 
suction relationship of soils determined in the laboratory 
using 'Tempe' cells. Figure 2.19 shows a standard 'Tempe' 
cell. El Tani (1991) developed a permeameter for unsaturated 
soils by observing the way in which pore water recovers 
hydrostatic equilibrium. A cylinder containing unsaturated 
soil is supplied with two pressure transducers which indicate 
pressure values of pore water at the top and bottom of the 
sample. The cylinder is turned upside down every time the 
state of reference (or hydrostatic equilibrium) is reached. 
Hydraulic conductivity is deduced from curves of which 
represent pressure as a function of time at the top and bottom 
of the sample. The permeameter makes it possible to measure 
the hydraulic conductivity at very low degrees of saturation. 
A schematic of the permeameter is shown in Figure 2.20. 

Measurement of Moisture Content 
Moisture content can be expressed either in terms of 
gravimetric moisture content 'w' or volumetric moisture 



51 



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materials (Cedergren, 1974) 



52 



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54 




Hydraulic circuit" 




Pressure transducer 



^ 







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conductivity (El Tani, 1991) 



55 

content '0'. There are direct and indirect methods of 
measuring soil moisture content (Gardner, 1965; Curtis and 
Trudgill, 1975; Hillel, 1982). The direct method called 
'gravimetric method' is based on weighing a sample of a moist 
soil and drying it to a constant weight in an oven. The 
gravimetric moisture content, then is the ratio of the weight 
loss on drying to the dry weight of the sample. 

Two common methods of measuring moisture content 
indirectly are through the use of electrical resistance blocks 
or by neutron moisture probes. The electrical resistance block 
consists of a gypsum cast around two electrodes. The gypsum 
block is wetted thoroughly and buried in the soil to ensure 
good contact between the soil and block. At equilibrium, 
resistance measurements are made using an ohm meter and 
converted to water content values using calibration curves. 

In the neutron probe method fast neutrons are emitted 
into the soil through a probe. The fast neutrons collide with 
hydrogen atoms of water and are scattered. The proportion of 
neutrons returning to the probe is related to the water 
content. The probe method is more accurate but the electrical 
resistance method is more convenient for long term monitoring 
of soil moisture. 

Time-domain ref lectometry (TDR) is a relatively new 
technique being used to monitor soil water content. The 
technique involves measuring changes in the apparent 
dielectric permittivity of soil which in turn is related to 



56 

volumetric water content. Soil solids have a dielectric 
constant of 2 to 5 compared to water which has a value of 80. 
Thus a measure of the dielectric constant of soil is a good 
measure of its water content. A schematic of the system is 
shown in Figure 2.21. Topp et al. (1980) used a time-domain 
ref lectometry (TDR) technique to measure the dielectric 
constant of a wide range of granular soils. They also 
developed an empirical relationship relating the dielectric 
constant to the water content of soils. 

Measurement of Soil Suction 

Suction is a stress property which expresses the 
attraction that soil has for capillary water. Evaluation of 
soil suction is as important as determining soil water 
content. Richards (1949) and Gardner (1965) described various 
methods of measuring soil suction. Fredlund (1989) presented 
a state-of -development in soil suction monitoring for roads 
and airfields. 

Tensiometers are the most common and widely used devices 
for measuring of suction in the field. Such devices are 
illustrated in Figure 2.22. A tensiometer essentially consists 
of a fine porous ceramic pot connected by a tube to a 
manometer or vacuum gage. The porous pot is placed in intimate 
contact with the soil so that water passes through the pot 
until equilibrium is achieved between suction on the gage and 
the soil. To measure suction in a laboratory, use is made of 



57 



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59 

tempe cells for low suction ranges and of a pressure membrane 
apparatus for high suction ranges. A schematic of the pressure 
membrane apparatus is shown in Figure 2.23. 

Janssen and Dempsey (1980) determined soil-moisture 
relations of 24 soils in Illinois using the above eguipment 
and discussed the influence of soil type on matric suction and 
hydraulic conductivity. ASTM (1991) has set standards for 
measuring moisture-suction relationships for various soils. A 
detailed procedure is described in Chapter 5. 

Chapter Summary 

The concept of positive pavement drainage though not new 
was slow in being accepted and implemented. During recent 
years, considerable progress has been made in the use of new 
materials and in the analysis, design and performance of 
pavement subdrainage systems. 

A better understanding of the moisture movement in 
pavement systems and the hydraulic properties controlling it 
has been achieved. The use and proper design of new drainage 
materials for base/subbase courses and edge drains to 
facilitate flow of moisture out of the pavement system will in 
the long run benefit the highway system in this country 
through reduced cost of maintenance and longer service life. 



60 



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61 



CHAPTER 3 - COLLECTOR SYSTEM INSPECTION METHODOLOGY 

Background 

A subdrainage system may be considered to include two 
basic components, drainable base/subbase layers and a 
collector system comprised of an edge drain and outlet pipe. 
In older pavements, the subdrainage system consists of only an 
edge drain and outlet pipe. 

As referenced in Chapter 2, a number of research studies 
have been conducted to improve material properties associated 
with base/subbase layers. These studies have resulted in the 
development of permeable open graded drainage layers having a 
low percentage of fines. Edge drains receive water from the 
base/subbase layers and discharge it outside of the pavement 
system through outlet pipes. Cedergren et al. (1972) and 
Moulton (1980) have prepared guidelines and procedures for the 
design and construction of collector systems. But, literature 
on inspection procedures, cleaning and maintenance of edge 
drains is limited. Dempsey et al. (1982) described a system 
for jet cleaning conventional pipe edge drains. California 
(Wells, 1985) and Iowa (Steffes et al., 1991) have standard 
plans incorporated into their specifications for the cleanout 
and inspection of pipe edge drains. There are no cleaning 



62 

procedures for prefabricated edge drains (PFEDs) . 

To maintain subdrainage effectiveness, edge drains should 
be inspected both inside and outside. This chapter describes 
the inspection of existing subdrainage collector systems 
through external visual inspection in combination with a probe 
for internal inspection. 

Study Objectives 

This task was aimed at observing and recording distresses 
both around and within existing subdrainage collector systems. 
Results of the study will help the Indiana Department of 
Transportation (INDOT) better plan the construction and 
maintenance of edge drains. 

The objectives of this study included: 

1. inspecting existing types of edge drains in Indiana 
with regard to their performance and operation, 

2 . monitoring conditions inside edge drains by means of a 
video probe, 

3 . preparing a video of significant observations made during 
inspection, and 

4. developing a methodology for inspection of underdrains. 
For the study, a comprehensive field survey was initiated 

to locate sections with the two basic types of subdrainage 
collector systems used in the state. These are the perforated 
pipe edge drains and geotextile fin drains. To achieve a 
comparative evaluation of performance, drains ten years and 



63 

older and drains placed for newly built road sections less 
than four years old were incorporated into the study. A total 
of seventy underdrains and fin drains were inspected through 
their outlet pipes. Visual and camera observations were 
recorded for these drains. A list of the surveyed sections and 
their corresponding type of collector systems is given in 
Table 3.1. 

Inspection of Existing Subdrainage Systems 

Site Information 

Prior to inspection of the edge drains, specific 
information was needed for the selected sites. This was 
achieved through Project Log Records and Construction Plans. 
Log Records contain information on highway classification, 
route number, county and district in which the section is 
located, project and contract numbers, contract length and 
project location. 

Construction plans helped in determining edge drain 
locations in the pavement sections and in determining types 
and sizes of these edge drains. Additionally, information on 
pavement cross sections and grades were also obtained from the 
construction plans. Edge drain design, placement and 
construction details used by different state highway agencies 
vary. In Indiana, a typical pipe edge drain design used for 
both old and new construction projects is shown in Figure 3.1. 



64 



Table 3.1 Summary of collector systems inspected in Indiana 



ROUTE NUMBER 


COOHTY 


TYPE OP 
COLLECTOR 


NO. OP DRAINS 8 

INSPECTED 1 


1-64 


CRAWFORD 


PIPE 


12 | 


1-164 


VANDERBURG 


FIN 


4 


1-65 


SEYMOUR 


FIN 


• 


US-30 


LAPORTE 


FIN 


• 


US-31 


ST. JOSEPH 


FIN 


3 I 


US-31 


HAMILTON 


PIPE 


8 


US-36 


HENDRICKS 


PIPE 


5 




US-41 


SULLIVAN 


FIN 


9 


US-50 


DAVIESS 


PIPE 


3 


SR-3 


ALLEN/ DEKALB 


PIPE 


4 


SR-9 


NOBLE 


PIPE 


3 


SR-3 7 


HAMILTON 


PIPE 


12 


SR-3 8 


TIPPECANOE 


PIPE 


3 


SR-63 


VERMILLION 


PIPE 


4 


SR-469 


ALLEN 


PIPE 


5 



65 



Edge of Pavement 



Bituminous Base 



Seal Coat on Shoulder 




Subbase 



Corrugated 

Steel or 

Plastic Pipe 

6" dia. 



h- 14 "-H 



Figure 3.1 Cross section of underdrain used in Indiana 



Overlay 



Seal Coat on Shoulder 




Bituminous Base 



Recompacted 

Excavated 

Material 



Prefabricated edge drain 
or Fin drain 



3 



h- 



4" 



h- 



Figure 3.2 Cross section of fin drain used in Indiana 



66 

This consists of a trench 18 inches wide by 30 inches deep. A 
perforated pipe is placed at the bottom of the trench to a 
required depth and the trench backfilled with Indiana size 
No. 8 aggregate. Use of a geotextile filter as a trench liner 
or pipe wrap were not encountered in the sections included in 
this study. For retrofit and overlay projects, a 
prefabricated edge drain or fin drain is used and is connected 
to the outside by a 4 inch diameter plastic outlet pipe 
(Figure 3.2) . Pipe underdrains are either located at the edge 
of the pavement under the shoulder or at any intermediate 
point beneath the shoulder, whereas fin drains are located 
next to the pavement at the pavement-shoulder joint. Location 
of the drain helps in determining in advance the length of the 
outlet pipe the inspection probe has to traverse before making 
a bend into the collector pipe. 

Condition Evaluation 
As part of the edge drain inspection process a pavement 
condition survey was conducted. The objective of these 
condition surveys was to quantify the extent of pavement 
deficiencies as related to the condition of the drainage 
facilities. Evidence of distresses such as pumping, alligator 
cracking and joint cracking could be related to poor 
subdrainage. Information gathered would supplement the 
inspection of edge drains in setting maintenance strategies 
for subdrainage rehabilitation. 



67 

Condition surveys was performed using the distress 
identification procedure developed by Shahin, et al. (1979). 
For newly constructed or overlaid sections, it would have been 
trivial to survey these pavements, therefore only edge drains 
were inspected. Pumping stains and bleeding of water from 
overlaid concrete pavement sections were noted at sites where 
edge drain outlets were either buried or clogged. A sample of 
the condition survey forms is shown in Figure 3.3. 

Equipment for Inspection 

Bore Hole Camera System 

Internal inspection of edge drains is conducted with a 
videoimagescope or borehole camera. For this project, a market 
survey was made to find a camera system that would allow 
effective inspection of either four or six inch diameter edge 
drains and/or outlet pipes. Four systems were considered. 

Two Olympus camera systems were evaluated. The first 
system consists of a 3/4 inch (20mm) diameter videoimagescope 
that is pushed inside a pipe edge drain through the outlet 
pipe to a working length of 70 feet (22 m) . It has an interior 
100 degree field of view that can be recorded on video. The 
light guide is built around the scope and is controlled by a 
portable light source. The system is shown in Figure 3.4. 

The second Olympus system allows a single lens reflex 
camera to be attached to a rigid borescope. The light guide at 



68 




ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH 
DATE 



Fotwd atk focm, «•» TW 1-833. »• proco m nt m'« i t U USACE. 



fr/in.'f,, 



SAMPLE UNIT. 



t 



siiBVPYrnR v 2,r-i~r+2-Q AREA OF SAMPLE 2^-'< in' 



Distress Types 

1. Alligator Cracking *IO. Long a Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching a W// Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation K. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
x 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

K 8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

I 

i 


EXISTING DISTRESS 7TP£\QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE 4-* * 


to 


V 








QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 
o ■ . ... . 


■ 2,3- L. 


/M *- 


«n>*-. 








'?/&> i_ 


>[l- 


TT>^ 








%-OL. ■ 


<*-- 


iu 
















































































o£<- 


} A-A- 


n g- 


fL 








II II 






r» 








k WH 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI=/0O-C0V = 

;■ -77 


1 


-2-33 


L- 


-A - 


1 


^ -o& 


H 


/2- 


8- 


(,. a 


L: 


/o 


/o 


ASi 


z_ 


II 


























' q=3 


\TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


37 


CORRE 


CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


.2-3 ._. 











Jo 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4%8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft', Distress 13 la Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 

i^jT-' ' I vi; ■> Figure E-t 









m 






Figure 3.3 A sample condition survey form 



69 




Figure 3.4 



Inspection system for pipe edge drains 
(photo, courtesy of Olympus Corporation) 



70 

the tip of the borescope is controlled by a portable light 
supply. This system can be used to pierce through the fabric 
of the fin drain and record an interior view of the drain. The 
system is shown in Figure 3.5. 

The PLS system uses a compact TV probe with an outside 
diameter of 1.62 inch (40mm) and length of 3 inches (76mm). It 
comes with 150 feet (46m) of camera cable, camera guide skids, 
push rod and reel and a control unit which includes a 9 inch 
color TV monitor /recorder. The system comes with two light 
heads, which are interchangeable. A view of the system is 
shown in Figure 3.6. 

The final system considered (Cues) has a black and white 
camera system with built-in, field replaceable lighting 
system. The camera is 2.75 inches (70mm) in diameter tapering 
to 0.82 inches (21mm) at the ends and is mounted on a skid 
assembly. This system also comes with 150 feet of push cable 
mounted on a rotating drum and has to be connected to an 
external video recorder to record the image seen from the TV 
housed in the control unit. The system is shown in Figure 3.7. 

A decision was made to purchase the PLS system and was 
based on the length of the cable available, the color image 
capability and the provision of the push rod and reel which 
would aid in pushing the probe manually through the pipe in 
the absence of a motorized unit. For inspection of fin drains, 
an Olympus borescope provided by Monsanto was used, as the 
company also wanted to evaluate the performance of their fin 



71 




Figure 3 . 5 



Inspection system for prefabricated edge drains 
(photo, courtesy of Olympus Corporation) 




Figure 3 . 6 



PLS inspection system for pipe drains 
(photo, courtesy of PLS Corporation) 



72 




Figure 3.7 Cues inspection systme for pipe drains 

(photo, courtesy of Cues System) 



73 



drain product. 

A trial run was made in the laboratory with a "T" type 
pipe joint prior to field application. This step was taken to 
develop techniques for camera operation, insertion and 
extraction. Two problems were encountered. One problem was 
that the guide attached to the camera head could not be easily 
manuevered through the 90 degree bend. The guide and attached 
camera was forced through the bend, but could not be 
extracted. The second problem was that the guide, because of 
its smaller diameter, "walked" up the sides of the pipe wall 
while being pushed. Another problem which was visualized was 
that for corrugated pipes, the probe would not ride smoothly 
over the corrugations, resulting in a distorted image. 
Modifications were subsequently made to the guides which are 
shown in Figure 3.8. 

Auxiliary Equipment 

Equipment used for field inspection, in addition to the 
camera system, were a qenerator, weed eater, metal detector 
and miscellaneous tools and equipment like shovels, crow bars, 
tapes, etc. To operate the camera with both types of light 
heads, a portable generator with a minimum rating of 750 watts 
is required. For this study, a Honda generator with a maximum 
output of 1000 watts was used. The unit is compact, quiet and 
easy to transport. 

A weed eater is effective in clearing the area around the 



74 




Figure 3 . 8 Types of guide sleeves used 



pipe outlet. For a majority of the drains inspected, tall 
grass and vegetation, as shown in Figure 3.9, were encountered 
that not only obstructed the flow of water but also made it 
difficult to inspect the outlet. 

During the initial survey to locate the underdrain 
outlets, considerable difficulty was encountered on highway 
sections in service for more than ten years. In some cases, 
outlets were not marked and were not found at the stations 
listed on the construction plans. Outlets were found buried by 
landscaping of adjacent areas. To offset this problem, a metal 
detector was used with success. 

Visual Observations 
Drain inspection is carried out through visual and camera 
observations. A visual observation is made of the condition of 
the outlet pipe opening and the surrounding area. A number of 
problems were encountered and are discussed. 

Outlet Pipe Slope 

A general check of outlet pipe slope was made by 
measuring the vertical depth of the outlet pipe from the 
pavement surface and checking this measurement with 
construction plans. In case of flat terrain or longitudinal 
grades less than 1%, the outlets were found to have a negative 
or reverse slope. For this condition, ponded water was 
observed inside the outlets in the camera inspections. 



76 




Figure 3 . 9 Clearing vegetation 



77 

Outlet Condition 

A frequent outlet condition found was that pipes were 
exposed for some length (Figure 3.10), or outlets were crushed 
(Figure 3.11). Crushed outlet pipes become clogged over time, 
rendering the drainage system ineffective. Crushing is 
associated with erosion of soil on flat slopes from around the 
outlet and operation of mowing equipment on the embankments. 

Markers and Rodent Screens 

In the majority of cases, outlet markers were not present 
or were bent or lying beside the outlet pipes. Rodent screens 
on outlet pipes were present in most of the sections 
inspected. Three outlet screen designs were found. The most 
common one was a mesh type screen (Figure 3.12), followed by 
a spear type (Figure 3.13) and a spiral type (Figure 3.14). 
The spear type screen did not cover the outlet pipe opening 
and could be easily lifted, allowing rodents and small animals 
to access the pipe. 

Vegetation 

A main difficulty in underdrain inspection is the growth 
of vegetation around outlet pipes. Moisture is retained around 
the pipe rendering placement of equipment for inspection 
difficult. Standing grass around outlets creates a barrier for 
flow from the pipes. Accumulation of sedimentation and 
vegetation growth progressively block the pipe from outside. 



78 




Figure 3.10 View of exposed and damaged outlet pipe 




Figure 3.11 View of crushed outlet pipe 



79 




Figure 3 . 12 Mesh rodent screen 




Figure 3 . 13 Spear type rodent screen 



80 




Figure 3 . 14 Spiral rodent screen 



81 

When vegetation was removed (Figure 3.15), any water standing 
in the outlet pipe started to flow. 

Headwall And Erosion Control Apron 

The presence of a headwall and an erosion control apron 
or rip-rap protection around outlet pipes was observed to have 
a positive effect on water outflow. In the absence of this 
protection, the soil around the outlet pipe erodes (Figure 
3.16), exposing the pipe. The connection between the outlet 
pipe and the headwall may also be broken. A headwall or lined 
ditch at the outlet was also found to be effective in 
restricting the growth of vegetation around the outlet. 

Camera Observations 

The second stage in the inspection process involved use 
of the camera systems for internal inspection of edge drains, 
geo-composite fin drains and outlet pipes. Pipe edge drains 
were inspected by the PLS camera system. The same system was 
used to inspect outlet pipes for fin drains. Different colored 
plastic tape was tied to the camera cable and push rod at ten 
feet intervals for the purpose of determining the length of 
probe travel. This helped in ascertaining the distance to 
distresses described later and to determine where resistance 
to further advance was met. 

Prefabricated edge drains (Monsanto) were inspected with 
the help of equipment and personnel provided by INDOT and the 



82 




Figure 3 . 15 Clearing grass at outlet pipe 



-...-, -<■■-': <>'<— &>-*3»5£S& , S ! **iS • -,lz 




c ■--.?-■ s- ■= r£ 



Figure 3.16 Erosion around newly constructed outlet pipe 



83 

Monsanto Company. First a section of the shoulder next to the 
pavement-shoulder joint, about 15 inches square, was 
excavated. The excavation was made to a depth just above the 
top of the drain and then manual excavation was used to expose 
the top of the fin drain. The shaft of the Olympus borescope 
system was then inserted through the fabric into the core. 
Visual inspection was made of the conditions inside the core 
and a photographic record was made with a reflex camera which 
was fitted to the borescope with an adapter. A setup of the 
borescope is shown in Figure 3 . 17 . 

The condition and distresses observed for both types of 
drainage systems are described hereafter. 

Joint Connections 

Inspection of pipe interiors revealed that the joint 
connections are the most distressed part of the system. 
Specifications require the coupling to be flush with the pipe, 
but inspections revealed in some cases the absence of 
couplings and connections made by bending the pipe ends and 
forcing the bent end into the adjacent section. Plant roots 
were often observed to be penetrating through such connections 
into the pipe. 
Flow of Water 

In newer sections, those built within the last two or 
three years, water was found to be flowing freely both inside 
the underdrain and the outlet pipes. In older sections, 



84 




Figure 3 . 17 Setup of Olympus borescope system 



85 

standing water with fine particles in suspension was observed 
where there was a sag in the pipe along its length, or due to 
negative slopes for some outlet pipes. These deficiencies 
could be attributed to improper care during construction, as 
a result of settlement, or loads from vehicles or mowing 
eguipment. Inspections made immediately after a rainfall event 
showed that water flows with high velocity in sections having 
a positive slope for outlet pipes or at sag points along the 
highway (Figure 3.18). This helped in flushing out fine 
particles entering the drain through slots and openings. 

Pipe Corrosion 

Most of the corrugated steel pipe underdrains viewed 
through the camera showed significant corrosion. This can be 
attributed to dissolved salts or other chemicals. This type of 
distress becomes more severe when there is standing water 
inside the pipe as it allows ample time for the dissolved 
chemicals to react with the pipe metal. In some of the 
inspected pipes, the corrosion severity had resulted in 
development of cavities and openings in the pipes. Ultimately, 
the pipe and without flow for a period of time, the pipe 
system becomes plugged. In one of the drains inspected, gravel 
used in the embankment was observed at the outlet (Figure 
3.19). Plastic pipes inspected were free from this form of 
distress. 



86 




Figure 3.18 Water flowing freely from an outlet pipe 



87 




Figure 3.19 Gravel from a punctured outlet pipe 




Figure 3.20 Sedimentation deposits in an exposed fin drain 



88 

Sedimentation In Fin Drains 

Some of the inspected fin drains showed sedimentation at 
the bottom of the fabric. Typically the fin drains are 12 
inches in height. However, in several cases, the shaft of the 
borescope could not be pushed beyond a maximum depth of 10 
inches. This was attributed to sedimentation. A section of the 
fin drain was removed from along Interstate 65. The cross 
section of the drain which had been inplace for four years 
showed sedimentation deposits to a depth of 3 inches (Figure 
3.20) . This section of 1-65 has a dense graded aggregate base. 
Fin drains installed along 1-65 having bituminous stabilized 
subbases showed less of this problem and water flowed freely 
immediately after rainfall events. 

Another form of sedimentation deposit observed was along 
the pavement side of the fabric. Migration of aggregate base 
fines had resulted in the formation of a filter cake along the 
fabric (Figure 3.21). As there is no technique yet to remove 
this sedimentation deposit, it would eventually affect the 
ability of the fin drain to remove water from the pavement 
system. 

Fin Drain Buckling 

Buckling was observed at most points along the fin drains 
with the aid of the borescope camera. The cuspations of the 
drain core would seem to arch along the horizontal plane. This 
was more pronounced at transverse joints along concrete 



89 




Figure 3.21 Fine deposits on outer fabric of fin drain 



90 

pavements. Section exposed at the joint showed the width of 
adjacent concrete slabs varying by as much as 1 to 2 inches. 
As the drain is placed immediately adjacent to the 
pavement/ shoulder joint, projection of adjacent slabs causes 
the drain to bend in a horizontal plane. As a result, 
cuspations of the drain core bend inwards as shown in Figure 
3.22, and tear or puncture the fabric. This in turn reduces 
the core flow capability of the drain. 

A form of fin drain distress observed in the vertical 
plane is termed J-buckling (Figure 3.23). This is attributed 
to the design of the Monsanto fin drain as shown earlier in 
Figure 2.9. The drain core has a perforated base on one side 
with cuspations projecting from the base. The fabric is 
wrapped around the core. The cuspated side of the core is 
susceptible to buckling when loaded vertically. Such a 
vertical load is applied during trench backfilling and 
compaction. Also, the outlet pipe connections are not made at 
the same time the drain is installed. Thus the trench has to 
be reexcavated at the point of joint connections in order to 
connect the outlet pipes. Backfilling and compaction results 
in the drain buckling along its bottom edge, especially at the 
joints. This was observed with the PLS camera system while 
checking the fin drain outlet pipes. 

Connector Angle 

The type of edge drain to outlet pipe connector has a 



91 




Figure 3.22 Roll over and fabric intrusion in fin drain 




Figure 3.23 Exposed fin drain indicating J-Buckling 



92 

significant impact on inspection, maintenance, and cleaning of 
subdrainage pipes. Connector angles have to be large enough 
to allow movement of the inspection camera probe. This is also 
true for injection cleaning equipment which may be utilized to 
clean the interior of the pipe. Evaluation of the existing 
drain connectors through the camera system has shown that the 
probe could be easily moved into an underdrain through the 
outlet connector if a Y-connector is used instead of a T- 
connector. For new underdrains inspected, it was observed that 
connectors sweeping an angle of 60 degrees on a horizontal 
plane proved to be the most efficient for movement of the 
camera through the joint. 

Subdrain Inspection Process 

A detailed account has been given of equipment and 
processes used to inspect subdrainage collector system. Also 
various types of distresses and deficiencies observed both 
visually and with the camera system have been described. This 
section logically summarizes the requirements of an inspection 
process. 

The requirements of an inspection process includes: 

a. Site information (inventory and as built records) . 

b. Condition evaluation of roadway. 

c. Visual and Camera Observations. 

d. Information logging. 



93 

Site Information 
Accurate site information is vital to the inspection 
procedure. Information on the route, location, direction, 
project and contract numbers and year of construction can be 
obtained through inventory data maintained by INDOT. 
Construction plans help in determining the exact locations of 
outlets. This information is useful for periodic inspections 
of the same section. 

Condition Evaluation 
General observation of a pavements condition prior to 
drainage inspection gives an indication of distresses 
associated with trapped moisture. Moisture related distresses 
can be isolated from the overall condition of the pavement and 
their effect on the performance of subdrainage system 
guantified. The observations will supplement those made by 
visual and camera observations. 

Visual and Camera Observations 
Features and the geometry of outlet pipes are observed 
visually and noted as well as any unusual feature which would 
help in assessing the effectiveness or problem areas 
associated with a collector system. Camera observations are 
made using the PLS system for pipe edge drains and the Olympus 
system for prefabricated edge drains. With the PLS system, 
observing and recording take place simultaneously, whereas 



94 

with the Olympus system, the conditions inside the drain core 
are observed through a view port attached to the borescope and 
then recorded with a camera. 

Information Logging 

For ease and convenience of recording information, a 
standard inspection report form has been developed. A 
completed sample form is shown in Figure 3.24. This form 
provides for an organized recording of the data. Supplemental 
information in the form of photographs also aids in 
documenting any deficiencies not listed or recorded to obtain 
an overall picture of the site conditions. 

A final report should include the inspection report form, 
photographs, narrative descriptions and other relevant 
information. This will provide a permanent record which can be 
used for reference in periodic inspections of both existing 
and retrofitted drains. 

Chapter Summary 
A method of inspecting subdrainage collector systems has 
been described. The method basically utilizes an imagescope to 
evaluate and monitor the performance of existing and 
retrofitted subdrainage systems. The information will lead to 
improved pavement maintenance, design, material 
specifications, construction specifications, and performance 
of subdrainage systems. 



COLLECTOR SYSTEM INSPECTION FORM 



95 



SITE INFORMATION 

DISTRICT l<r-JCCrjrj£ t COUNTY gg£w£g4?0 HVVY Na — ~ ^ ~ OIRECTCN 

PROJECT No. -T- ;■*-!/.?-' V CONTRACT No. Z-Ol -5 3 CONTRACT LENGTH ^ g 



="/S 



~ - I M ilss; 

project location caei-" re fgv - e£^o£g co -■"£ t° /-r/^--f.- >Jir- o~ r-<r-j-> 



DATE OF INSPECTION . 



«3 A? /<5^J 



DRAIN No. 



CRAIN LOCATION ~ 



INSPECTED BY ~2 ^■ L "~-e~ 1 a /"■/ ■ < - £-rJ 



7>g.A>~ P/lor" PSiZil* 



"5 £.,~r S>r. 



DISTANCE FROM PREVIOUS DRAIN . 



.(IN FEET). 



(IN MILES. 



OBSERVATIONAL INFORMATION 

LOCATION OF COLLECTOR: (jJeND OF PAVEMENT 2. END OF SHOULDER a INTERMEDIATE POINT 

TYPE OF COLLECTOR SYSTEM: <f/\ UNDERDRAIN OR K-PIPE [ ] FiN OR X-ORAIN 

TYPE OF UNOERDRAIN PIPE: (^CORRUGATED STEEL 2. BfTUMINOUS COATED CORRUGATED STEEL 
(CIRCLE ONE) 3. PLASTIC CORRUGATED 4. CLAY S. OTHER 



TYPE OF OUTLET PIPE: 
(CIRCLE ONE) 



1 . CORRUGATED STEEL ©BrTUMNOUS COATED CORRUGATED STEEL 
3. PLASTIC PLAJN 4. PVC CORRUGATED PLASTIC S. OTHER 



VERTICAL DEPTH OF OUTLET PIPE FROM PAVEMENT SURFACE 



as 



(FEE- 



SIZE OF OUTLET PIPE: ( 6" DIA. 

SLOPE OF OUTLET PIPE: FORWARD 

CONDITION- 'OF OUTLET OPENING: (FULL SEE 

SCREEN PRESENT: 

OUTLET MARKER PRESENT: 

HEAD WALL PRESENT: 

EROSION CONTROL 
APRON PRESENT: 

CONDITION OF VEGETATION 
ON EMBANKMENT: 




4" DIA. 

REVERSE 
PARTIAL 
NO 
NO 

"no~ 

NO 




DAMAGED 

Type /^£f»x- 



CONDmON _ L 3j=lt_ 

CONDITION 



TYPE L-i/^EO DiTc^J 



BLOCKED 



NOT MOWED 
MOVEMENT OF PROBE: FREE <^PARTTAL^) 

WATER PRESENT INSIDE DRAIN: ( YES^ ) NO 

IF YES: FREE FLOWING (^STA NDING ^) 

DISTANCE TRAVERSED BY PROBE fT- 4 - (FEET) 

CAMERA OBSERVATIONS: Cj^/C£cS'3^1 QS?S£/?!/£S) <£>/■! S'Q£ t~><«!.<-S .' S7~&~3>"V - 



J^ 


7S/L. /»7 


S*Z 


Q^L £>,?£ 


^/i-a/^i 


S~~5 ^~ 


s^ u/SvZ-O 'C . 


A'O 


/1>I-CCs<lA6£ 


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NS: 


£3£~T'o~i 


<*7 


" ST^/ZJ 


CF 


'DOl^fJ^'LL 


rejore 



ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS 

Figure 3.24 Sample of completed inspection report form 



96 

The camera system can serve as a valuable tool for 
inspection of newly built drains prior to the project being 
handed over by the contractor to the state agency. Damage or 
distress due to construction practices can be located. 
Modifications of the original camera equipment that have been 
described will result in more efficient and trouble free 
operation. Major findings of the study and recommendations for 
improvement are listed in Chapter 7. 



97 



CHAPTER 4 - FIELD TESTING AND INSTRUMENTATION 

Background 

A number of simulation studies have been made to assess 
pavement performance due to variation of moisture in subbases 
and subgrades (Corey, et al., 1965; Wallace, 1977; Dempsey, 
1979; Markow, 1982) . Models based on these studies tend to 
incorporate assumed values of parameters for evaluation. Such 
complex evaluation procedures for moisture movement have 
underscored the need of accurately determining moisture 
conditions in pavements. Data from on-site instrumentation can 
be used to validate analytical models as well as to calibrate 
model response variables. 

As part of this research study, a computer program 
'PURDRAIN' was developed (Espinoza et al., 1993) to provide a 
rational tool for the analysis of pavement drainage systems 
for varying geometric, material and boundary characteristics. 
This chapter describes the development and application of 
various instruments to field sections. The purpose of 
instrumentation was to monitor moisture movement in pavement 
layers and to provide data for validation and calibration of 
the program 'PURDRAIN'. 



98 

Overview of PURDRAIN 

PURDRAIN is a computer program which can analyze moisture 
flow in an unsaturated porous media. The program is written in 
PASCAL (Borland Int. , 1988) and provides a user friendly 
environment for defining input parameters and generation of 
moisture migration predictions. 

The numerical model implemented in the program is based 
on the theory of transient moisture flow in unsaturated porous 
media. The method of analysis incorporates two models of soil- 
water retention and conductivity. These are the Brooks & Corey 
Model (Brooks & Corey, 1964) and the Van Genuchten Model (Van 
Genuchten, 1980) . 

Brooks and Corey (1964) described the relationship 
between effective degree of saturation ' S/ and matric suction 
'\J/' by: 

. __i 
s e =(JL) v for y^ pB 4.1 

S e =l for l|r<PJ5 4.2 

where: PB = bubbling pressure of the soil 
v = pore size distribution index 
The effective degree of saturation 'S/ is related to the 
volumetric moisture content '6' by 



S = 



<e-e ) 4.3 



(0 r -e o ) 



•x "0' 

where: 6 T = volumetric moisture content at resaturation 



99 

O = irreducible volumetric moisture content 

The values of 0, r , and 6 Q can be obtained by determining 

capillary-moisture relationships of soils. Laboratory tests to 

obtain these parameters are described in detail in Chapter 5. 

Van Genuchten proposed the following empirical relation 

between matric suction '\J/' and effective degree of saturation 

5= — — for i|r*0 4 * 4 

e (l+(af)»)i 

S e =l for i|f<0 4 ' 5 

where a has the units of inverse of piezometric head whereas 
/3 and 7 are dimensionless parameters. Evaluation of the 
dimensionless parameters is described in Chapter 5 . 

PURDRAIN is able to handle one and two-dimensional 
analyses of moisture infiltration and subsequent 
redistribution in a multi-layer system. The program evaluates 
relative degrees of saturation, piezometric heads and moisture 
contents. Pavement systems with various geometry, material and 
hydraulic properties can be modeled. Outflow from a pavement 
subdrainage system can also be predicted for precipitation 
events on a time basis. 

Performance criteria of existing pavement subdrainage 
systems can be evaluated and prediction made of the behavior 
of new systems before implementation. A detailed description 
of the program and the mathematical formulation of the 



100 

numerical model is given in a separate report (Espinoza, et 
al., 1993). 

Test Site Selection 
Drainage studies were conducted to determine the 
influence of precipitation, pavement type and collector system 
configuration on subsurface drainage. This was achieved by 
instrumenting and measuring subbase and subgrade moisture 
profiles and system flow volumes. Pavement test sections that 
were instrumented were selected based on the following 
criteria. 

1. Locating sites in the northern and southern climatic 
regions of the state (Yoder and Colucci-Rios, 1980) . 

2. Considering of pavement sections with Average Annual 
Daily Traffic (AADT) greater than 3000 and daily truck 
traffic greater than 1000. These criteria were selected 
because of the effect of high traffic volumes and heavy 
wheel loads on the development of moisture accelerated 
distresses. 

3. Including asphalt and concrete pavements. 

4. Including sections incorporating pipe edge drains and 
prefabricated edge drains. 

The Indiana Road Inventory database was studied and a 
preliminary random selection made for sections meeting the 
above criteria. Information on base courses, drainage systems 
and highway profiles for the selected sections were obtained 
from Log Reports and Construction Plans available through 



101 

INDOT Program Development Division. Ten target sections were 
finally selected for which complete pavement and material 
information was available (Table 4.1). The candidate sections 
included two sections without edge drains. Figure 4.1 shows 
the selected section locations. Site specific information on 
the target sections is given in Tables 4.2 to 4.11. The target 
sections incorporate flexible, rigid and overlaid pavements. 
Typical cross sections of each pavement type are shown in 
Figures 4.2 to 4.4. 

Subdrainaqe Instrumentation 
Instrumentation was selected to achieve the modeling goal 
and to measure associated responses of hydraulic parameters to 
infiltration of moisture into the pavement system. As 
described earlier in Chapter 2, a literature review was 
conducted to identify instruments which could be used in 
monitoring pavement response to moisture infiltration. The 
instrumentation was selected based on precision, compatibility 
with the monitoring system, cost and field worthiness. It is 
always advantageous to select instruments which have been 
proven in the field, and to this end, recommendations on some 
of the instruments were taken from an experimental project 
sponsored by the FHWA to study drainage characteristics of 
concrete pavements (Baumgardner and Ma this, 1989) . The present 
study is broader than the FHWA study and considers asphalt, 
concrete and composite pavements as well as pipe and 



102 














-1^W\ s£p&P? \S^/S.A 



lU fe Jy j^rrb -^p^2y ; ^w^^E -ggsir 




Figure 4.1 Geographic Location of Instrumented Sections 



103 



S 



es s-i 



en 



<N 



f 




104 



1 



> 
















<D 






o 


^ 






oo 


3 






£ 






o 


b 


^kN^ 




Z 




' vv^ 












.s 






V5 


C3 






M 


b* 






t> 


Q 














03 








O 








o 







C 

<D 

e 
o 
> 

& 

■O 
•H 
CT> 

-H 
« 

O 

c 
o 

-H 

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o 

w 

tn 
w 
o 
^ 



(0 

o 
ft 



105 



v© 



f 



ts 



i 




+J 

C 

e 

0) 

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PL, 

T3 
•H 
(0 
iH 

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o 

O 

c 
o 

-p 

o 
d) 
co 

w 

10 

o 
u 

u 

rH 

(0 

o 

-H 

a 

>i 

E-i 



o 


cu 


ca 


L) 




3 


n 


B» 


H 


-h 


•— ' 


b 


o 




Z 




on 




c 








$ 




fi 




Q 





Table 4.1 Instrumented Target Sections 



106 



SECTION 
NUMBER 


ROUTE NUMBER 


COUNTY 


DISTRICT 


1 


US-31 


HAMILTON 


GREENFIELD 


! 2 


SR-37 


HAMILTON 


GREENFIELD 


3 


SR-37 


LAWRENCE 


VINCENNES 


4 


US-41 


SULLIVAN 


VINCENNES 


5 


US-30 


LAPORTE 


LAPORTE 


6 


US-31 


ST. JOSEPH 


LAPORTE 


7 


SR-9 


NOBLE 


FORT WAYNE 


8 


SR-43 


TIPPECANOE 


CRAWFORDSVILLE 


9 


SR-63 


VERMILLION 


CRAWFORD SVILLE 


10 


US-36 


HENDRICKS 


CRAWFORDSVILLE 



107 



Table 4.2 Test Section 1 Design Features 



Instrumented Section Information 

County /District; HamiltonJGreenfield R(MU , N(J . US-31. NB 

Contract No: (Old) R-9357 

(New) Max. Grade : 

Location: 



Project No: ST-F-222(9) 
3.00% 



0.4 miles north of 1-465 J a in Carmel near Indianapolis 



Station to Station: 283+60.00 546+52 57 



Length;. 



4383 Miles 



Year of Construction; 1975 
AADT/Year 220300385. 



Year of last major activity 
%Truck 15 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section : 1. Asphalt (!) JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
Material 



(Circle one) 
Layer 



Overlay 

Surface 

Base 

Subbase 

Shoulder 

Joints Sealed: Yes 

Longitudinal Slope . 



Concrete 

Bit. Stabilized 
BitBaselAgg. 

No | Shoulder Sealed; 



Type 

JRCP 

#5D 
#5IType 



Thickness 



ir 



4" 
679" 



1.2 



Yes 



% Cross Slope 



No Tvpe: /(#/2j 
1.3 



<* 



Subgrade Information: 

Soil Type Sandy loam 



Depth 



24-48 inches 



Unified Classification SM ' SC 



AASHTO Classification A-4(0) 



Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains ( 2.)Underdrains 3. X-Drains (Geo-comp) 

lOOOjeet 



Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 



Downstream outlet 212 feet 



Special features - Upstream and downstream sections slope towards inst. outlet 



108 



Table 4.3 Test Section 2 Design Features 

Instrumented Section Information 

County /District: Hamilton/Greenfield Route No: SR ' 37 - SB 

Contract No: (Old) R-3928 Project No: F-824(3) 

_ T , R-12196 .. _ . 0.80% 
(New) Max. Grade : 



Location - Section North ofSR-32 Jet in Noblesville 

Station to Station: 910*00-1049*85 Length: 2545 Miles 

Year of Construction: 1956 Year of last major activity 1981 

AADT/Year 91RW1Q8S %Truck 10 

Design Information 

Pavement X-section : (~\ Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/IRCP 
(Circle one) ^~^ 

Layer. Material Type Thickness 

Overlay 

Surface Asphalt HAE 4" 

Base Macadam Waterbound 83/4" 

Subbase Aggregate #2stone 8" 

Shoulder BuBaselCrushed Agg #5ITypeP 3" 16" 

Joints Sealed: Yes | No | Shoulder Sealed: | Yes | No Type:H 



Longitudinal Slope °- 07 % Cross Slope 1J % 

Subgrade Information: 

Soil Type Sandy loam Depth 24-36 inches 

Unified aassification SM SC 



AASHTO Classification A-2-4 



Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains ( 2.^Underdrains 3. X-Drains (Qeo-comp) 

Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 600feet 

Downstream outlet 1000 feet 

Special features: Groundwater flow at inst. section 



109 



Table 4.4 Test Section 3 Design Features 



Instrumented Section Information 

County /District L™rence/Vincennes Routfi No: SR-37, SB 

Contract No: (Old) RS886 Project No: ST-FS19(2) 

w _ 3.00% 
(New) Max. Grade : 



Locali . b/w Bedford and Oolitic (inst. section near SR-58 Jet) 

Station to Station: i£^-486+64___ ^^ 2993 Miles 

Year of Construction: 1974 Year of last major activity 

AADT /Year mnniKMS %Truck is 

Design Information 

Pavement X-section: 1. Asphalt Q) JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) 

Layer Material Type Thickness 

Overlay 

Surface Concrete JRCP 10112" 

Base 

c .. Bit. Stabilized #5D 41/2" 

Subbase 

Shoulder BitBaselAgg. ftSITypcO 3"I5" 



Joints Sealed: Yes | No ] Shoulder Sealed: | Yes | No Type: II(#12) 



Longitudinal Slope 2 ' 9 % Cross Slope J % 

Subgrade Information: 

Soil Type SUty Clay Depth 16-40 inches 

Unified Classification CZ " CH 

AASHTO Classification A-6(15), A-7-6(34) 
Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one/ 1 J No drains 2. Underdrains 3. X-Drains (Oeo-comp) 
Distance of instrumented oudet from: Upstream outlet 

Downstream outlet 

. , , Cut section with clay backfill over limestone bedrock 
Special features: 



110 



Test Section 4 Design Features 



Instrumented Section Information 



County /District . 



Sullivan/Vincennes 



Route No: US ^ 1 - SB 



Contract No: (Old) R-8955 

(New) 

Location: South of Sullivan/Vigo County Line in Farmersburg 



Project No: F-35(ll) 
Max. Grade : 7 ?72<>, 



Station to Station: 212 + 00-222 + 10 
Year of Construction: 1975 
AADT/Year IMODIUM 



Length:. 



0.483 Miles 



Year of last major activity . 
%Truck 20 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section : 1. Asphalt C$S JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) ^"^ 



Layer 


Material 




Type 




Thickness 


Overlay 












Surface 


Concrete 




Jointed Reinf 




101/2" 


Base 












Subbase 


Bit. Stabilized 




5D 




4" 


Shoulder 


BitBaselComp. Agg 


erSe 
% 


#5 /Type P 


Typ 
1.3 


3"/9" 


Joints Sealed: 


Yes | No ! Should 
Slone ° 65 


ale± Yes No 


<r.H#12) 


Longitudinal 


Cross Slope 


% 


Subgrade 


Information: 










Soil Type 


Siltv Clay 




Depth 29-40 inches 




CL 
Unified Classification 










AASHTO Classification A-6(8) 







Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains 2. Underdrainsf 3.V-Drai 



Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet . 



Drains (Geo-comp) 
380feet 



Downstream outlet 197 feet 



Snec'al f ti • UP stream an ^ downstram sections slope towards inst. outlet 



Ill 



Table 4.6 Test Section 5 Design Features 



Instrumented Section Information 

County /District- LaportelLaporte Routfi Nq . US-30, WB 

Contract No: (Old) R-4303 

(New) RS-173 Max. G 

Location: 



Project No: F-77(18&20) 



i no% 



Section blw Wanatah and H 'anna 



Station to Station: 560+88-879+52 



Length: 



6.05 Miles 



Year of Construction: 1959 
AADT/Year 1677011987 



Year of last major activity jjj£ 
%Truck 20 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section: 1. Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP (1) Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 



(Circle one) 
Layer 



Material 



Type 



Overlay 

Surface 

Base 

Subbase 

Shoulder 



Asphalt 
Concrete 

Fine Sand 
BitJSase/Comp. Agg 



HAE 

Jointed Reinf 



#5IType O 



Thickness 

6" 
9" 

5" 
2" 16" 



Yes 



Joints Sealed: Yes | No j Shoulder Sealed- 
Longitudinal Slope °- 2 % Cross Slope 



No Type: K#12) 
2.4 



% 



Subgrade Information: 

So* 1 Type Fine Sar i 



Depth 



24-35 inches 



Unified Classification SP ' SM 
AASHTO Classification ^-3(0) 



Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) l. No drains 2. Underdrains (^3?V-Drams (Geo-comp) 
Distance of instrumented outlet from: UDStream outlet 500 feet 



Special features: 



Upstream outlet . 

Downstream oudet 500 feet 
Fill section 



Table 4.7 Test Section 6 Design Features 



112 



Instrumented Section Information 

County /District StJasepMLaporte Route No: US-31, NB 



Contract No: (Old) R-5464 

(New) RS - 17563 



Project No: F-720(5) 



Max. Grade : 



2.5.2% 



Location- ^ ectlon °' w Mayflower Rd. and SR-2 Intter change on South Bend Bypass 



Station to Station: HS+OO -210+00 
Year of Construction: 1 963 
AADT/Year 110X0110*7 



234 Miles 



Length: 

Year of last major activity 1989 
%Truck 70 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section: 1. Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP (3) Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) v ^ 



Layer 


Material 


Type 




Thickness 


Overlay 


Asphalt 


HAE 




3 lf2"" 


Surface 


Concrete 


Jointed Reinf 




9" 


Base 










Subbase 


Crushed Agg. 


Type II 




5" 


Shoulder 


BitJBasefComp. Agg 


miTypeP 


Typ 

13 


575" 


Joints Sealed: 


Yes | No j Shoulder Sei 
Slone 06 % 


iled: Yes No 


r.imi) 


Longitudinal 


Cross Slope 


% 


Subgrade 


Information: 








Soil Type 


Poorly graded Sand 


Depth 30-54 inches 




CD 

Unified Classification 








AASHTO Classification A-3(0) 





Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains 2. Underdrainsf 3.V-Drains (Geo-comp) 
Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 937 feet 



Downstream outlet 937 feet 



Special features: . 



Upstream outlet distance approximated (location buried) 



Table 4.8 Test Section 7 Design Features 

Instrumented Section Information 

County /District: Noble/Ft.Wayne Route Nq . _ SR-9. NB 

Contract No: (Old) R-7475 

(New) Max. Grade 



Project No: S-412(9) 
5.83% 



Location: Section b/w Merriam and Albion (new Chain-o-Lakes State Park) 



113 



Station to Station: 527+83.70-953+55 
Year of Construction: 1964 
AADT/Year =1910/1987 



Length: 



7.644 Miles 



Year of last major activity . 
%Truck 20 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section : C\ Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) v -' 



Layer 


Material 






Type 




Thickness 


Overlay 














Surface 


Asphalt 






HAE 




31/2"" 


Base 
Subbase 


Asphalt 
Crushed Gravel 






HAEU5 
TypeP 




6" 
6" 


Shoulder 


BitBase 


ler Sealed: 
% Cro 


U53B 


Type 
3.0 


9" Avg. 


Joints Sealed 


: Yes | No Shoul< 
Slot* 012 


Yes No 


v. IKU 12) 


Longitudinal 


ss Slope 


% 


Subgrade 

Soil Type 


Information: 

Sand and gravelly sand 




Dep 


th 24-40 inches 




^ w 
Unified Classification 












AASHTO Classification A-i-fl 







Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains ( 2.\jnderdrains 3. X-Drains (Geo-comp) 
Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 600 feet 



Downstream oudet 200 feet 



Special features: 



Groundwater present at instrumented site 



114 



Table 4.9 Test Section 8 Design Features 

Instrumented Section Information 

County /District Tippecanoe/Crawfordsvil le Route Nq . SR-43, NB 

Contract No: (Old) Force Account Project No: M-6262 

(New) RS-IUOZ Max. Grade : fl MK 

Location: North of West Lafayette; either side of US-52 overpass 

Station to Station: 0+00-228+50 Length: 2.62 Miles 

Year of Construction: 1926 Year of last major activity 1985 

AADT/Year 4S5n/19X5 %Truck in 

Design Information 

Pavement X-section:Q) Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) ^""^ 

Layer Material Type Thickness 

Overlay 

Surface Asphalt HAE 51/2" 

Base Ballast Road Mix 6" 

Subbase Gravelly Sand Type P 5" 

Shoulder Crushed Agg. 9" 

Joints Sealed: Yes | No j| Shoulder Sealed: Yes | No | Type: 

Longitudinal Slope % Cross Slope \^_ % 

Subgrade Information: 

Soil Type Siltv loam Depth 24-48 inches 

Unified Classification CL 



AASHTO Classification A-4(4) 
Collector System Information: 



,0. 

Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 



Type: (Circle one)( L)No drains 2. Underdrains 3. X-Drains (Geo-comp) 



Downstream outlet 



Special features: Two lane f acilit y sloping towards Wabash River 



115 



Table 4.10 Test Section 9 Design Features 
Instrumented Section Information 

County /District VermUlion/CrawfordsvUle Rout£ Nq . SR-63, SB 

Contract No: (Old) R-10093 

(New) Max. Grade 

Location: 



Project No: ST-F -305(22) 
3.00% 



Section blw US-36 and SR-71 near Newport 



Station to Station: 



724+65.00 - 925+24.68 



Length: 



2279 Miles 



Year of Construction: 1977 
AADT/Year 79MI19R8 



Year of last major activity . 
%Truck 20 



Design Information 

PavementX-section:Q) Asphalt 2. JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) ^^ 



Layer 



Material 



Type 



Thickness 



Overlay 






Surface 


Asphalt HAE 


3" 


Base 


Asphalt HAE#5 


91/2" 


Subbase 


Crushed Agg. #53 


4112" 


Shoulder 


BitBase #53B 




9" Avg. 


Joints Sealed: 


Yes | No Shoulder Sealed: 


Yes 


No 


Tvpe: // 


54 
Longitudinal Slope % Cross Slop 




08 % 


Subgrade 


Information: 




Soil Type 


Gravelly sand Depth 26-50 inches 


Unified Classification 






AASHTO Classification A ' 1 - a 





Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains ( 2.\jnderdrains 3. X-Drains (Geo-comp) 
Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 248 feet 



Downstream outlet 352 feet 



Special features: 



Special subgrade treatment; inst. section on hilltop 



116 



Table 4.11 Test Section 10 Design Features 



Instrumented Section Information 

County /D^tnct ^endricks/CrawfordsvUle Route Nq . US-36. WB 

Contract No: (Old) R-13110 Project No: F-076-2(4) 

(New) Max. Grade : 2 91% 

Location: 



From East of Danville to West ofSR-267 in Avon 



Station to Station: ^+70 - 356+83 .19 
Year of Construction: 1987 
AADT/Year 12WM1QR7 



Length:. 



5263 Miles 



Year of last major activity . 
%Tmck 75 



Design Information 

Pavement X-section: 1. Asphalt C% JPCP/JRCP 3. Asp. Overlay on JPCP/JRCP 
(Circle one) W 



Layer. 



Material 



Type 



Thickness 



Overlay 

Surface 

Base 

Subbase 

Shoulder 



Concrete 

Bit. Stabilized 
BitJBase 



Joints Sealed: Yes | No | Shoulder Sealed: 



Longitudinal Slope 



0.6 



% Cross Slope 



JRCP 81/2" 

U53B 6 " 

#5 8" 

No Tvpe: //(#72) 
1.3 



Yes 



Subgrade Information: 

Soil Type Loam 



Depth 



30-54 inches 



Unified Classification 



CL 



AASHTO Classification A-4(3) 



Collector System Information: 

Type: (Circle one) 1. No drains ( 2.\jnderdrains 3. X-Drains (Gec-comp) 
Distance of instrumented outlet from: Upstream outlet 800 feet 



Special features: 



Upstream outlet. 

Downstream outlet 500 feet 
Special subgrade treatment at section 



117 

prefabricated edge drains. Also, the main emphasis was tp 
acquire data for calibration of the computer program PURDRAIN. 

The instrumentation package utilized consisted of depth 
level pressure transducers to measure pressures in terms of 
hydraulic heads, gypsum blocks to measure availability of 
moisture in terms of moisture tension in the subbase and 
subgrade material, a thermistor probe to measure temperature 
variation within the subbase, a rain gage to measure 
precipitation, and a tipping bucket outflow measuring device. 
A battery powered data acquisition system was used to record 
the data. 

Instrumentation was carried out over a period of two 
years between 1990 and 1991. Initially, a single set of 
instrumentation package was purchased and used for 
instrumentation of a pilot test site on US-31, Hamilton 
County. Subsequently two additional instrumentation packages 
were purchased. As a result, three sites could be instrumented 
and data collected at the same time. 

Description of Instruments 
Data Acquisition System 

A Campbell Scientific CR-10 programmable measurement and 
control module with its supporting software was used to 
acquire and store data. The control module is compact, rugged 
and waterproof, and runs on a 12V battery power supply. It can 
be programmed for different instruments, either through its 



118 

keyboard display or through any IBM compatible computer using 
the software provided with the system. The program consists of 
a series of instructions designed to perform measurement, data 
processing, data storage, and logical control functions. 

Program development is accomplished either with a prompt 
sheet and keyboard or through a prompt-driven, computer based 
datalogger program editor. A program written by USGS (Scott, 
1989) was used with modifications for the instruments in this 
study. The program had to be modified for each site as a 
result of changes in the calibration constants of various 
instruments. A sample program is shown in Appendix A. 

There are several data retrieval options available with 
the CR-10 datalogger. In this study, a storage module was used 
to store and retrieve the data from the site. The storage 
module is connected to the datalogger at the test site, and 
can be removed and brought to the laboratory for downloading 
the data into a personal computer. Figure 4.5 shows the CR-10 
control module with its keyboard display and power pack. 

Pressure Transducer 

A depth/ level pressure transducer was used to determine 
the hydrostatic pressure in pavements. The pressure transducer 
used is the Druck PDCR831 depth/ level type transducer and is 
shown in Figure 4.6. The operating temperature range of the 
transducer is -5° to +175° F and the operating pressure range 
is ±2.5 psi. A hydraulic damper is incorporated in the 



119 




Figure 4.5 View of CR-10 datalogger and component systems 




Figure 4.6 Druck PDCR-8 31 depth/ level transducer 



120 

transducer to protect the device from high pressure pulses. 

Each pressure transducer was calibrated by connecting it 
to the datalogger. The pressure range, supply voltage and span 
in mV was noted. Pressure is converted into piezometric head 
in terms of feet of water and a multiplier value is found by 
the use of the expression: 

Multinlier = P ressure (psig) x conversion factor 

span/ supply voltage 

Once the multiplier is determined, it is read into the 
data acquisition program in the datalogger. Initially the 
offset representing deviation from zero gage pressure for each 
transducer value is set to zero in the program. The diaphragm 
of the transducer is wetted by inserting it into a graduated 
cylinder filled with water. The transducer is removed from the 
cylinder after few seconds and the offset value is recorded. 
The new offset value is then entered into the program instead 
of the previous zero value. 

The transducer is again inserted into the graduated 
cylinder to a certain depth, and the height of water from the 
tip of the diaphragm to the surface is recorded. The height of 
water should correspond to the reading displayed on the 
datalogger keyboard within a small deviation (1/100 th of an 
inch) . The transducer is removed from the cylinder, held in 
the atmosphere and reading on the datalogger display checked. 
It should read zero. If not, the transducer vent pipe is 
checked for blockage, and the procedure repeated. 



121 

G ypsum Blocks 

Soil moisture blocks were used in this study for 
estimating soil moisture potential. One inch diameter 
cylindrical blocks made of gypsum cast around two concentric 
mesh electrodes were used. This confines current flow to the 
interior of the block. With time, the pore water pressure in 
the gypsum reaches equilibrium with the soil surrounding it. 
The determination of moisture is made by relating the change 
in moisture tension to change in resistance of the block. The 
gypsum blocks are manufactured by Delmhorst and were modified 
for the pilot test section by adding four tantalum 100 mfd 
capacitors and a 1 Kohm metal film resistor to block galvanic 
action due to the differences in potential between the 
datalogger earth ground and electrodes in the block. Without 
it, there would have been rapid block deterioration. The block 
and its circuit diagram is shown in Figure 4.7. These 
modifications were also necessary because of configuration 
requirements with the datalogger system. Blocks for the 
remaining sections were factory modified to be compatible with 
the datalogger program. 

Soil moisture potential is predicted by utilizing a 5th 
order polynomial processing instruction supplied by the 
datalogger manufacturer. The datalogger outputs sensor 
resistance which is converted to moisture potential using the 
polynomial coefficients listed in Table 4.12. 

Conditioning of the gypsum block unit was done by first 



122 




m. 






1 Kfl 



EXCITATION 




wh — iV-iV-A 



HI OR LO 



ANALOG GROUND 



Tantalum 
100 JI fd 



onnections to Datalogger 



V. 



Gypsum Block 




Rs 



Figure 4.7 Modified gypsum block and circuit diagram 



123 



Table 4.12 Polynomial Coefficients for Converting Sensor 

Resistance to Bars and Resulting Polynomial Error 
(Campbell Scientific, Inc.) 



BARS = Cq + C^Rs) + C 2 (R s ) 2 +C 3 (rX s ) 3 + C 4 (R s ) 4 + C s (R s ) S 
(BARS) MULT. fR O C £1 C2 £3 C4 



0.1-10 
0.1-2 



0.1 
1.0 



.15836 6.1445 -8.4189 9.2493 -3.1635 333S2 

.06516 .95117 -.25159 -.03736 .03273 -.0039^ 



Polynomial Error - 2 Bar Range 



BARS 


YsZYx 


Es 


BARS COMPUTED 


ERROR 


0.1 


0.0566 


0.06 


0.1213 


0.0213 


0.2 


0.115 


0.13 


0.1845 


-0.0155 


0.3 


0.2063 


0.26 


0.2949 


-0.0051 


0.4 


0.2701 


0.37 


0.3813 


-0.0187 


0.5 


0.3506 


0.54 


0.5021 


0.0021 


0.6 


0.4286 


0.75 


0.6307 


0.0307 


0.7 


0.4624 


0.86 


0.6894 


-0.0106 


0.8 


0.5238 


1.1 


0.7989 


-0.0011 


0.9 


0.5833 


1.4 


0.9057 


0.0057 


1.0 


0.6296 


1.7 


. 9889 


-0.0111 


1.5 


0.7727 


3.4 


1.506 


0.006 


1.8 


0.8 


4.0 


1.7977 


-0.0023 


2.0 


0.8333 


5.0 


2.005 


0.005 



Polynomial Error- 10 Bar Range 



BARS 


v s ZYx 
0.0566 


Es 

0.006 


BARS COMPUTED 


ERROR 


0.1 


0.1949 


0.0949 


0.2 


0.115 


0.013 


0.2368 


0.0363 


.0.3 ' 


0.2063 


0.026 


0.3126 


0.0126 


0.4 


0.2701 


0.037 


0.3746 


-0.0254 


0.5 


0.3506 


0.054 


0.4670 


-0.0330 


0.6 


0.4286 


0.075 


0.5756 


-0.0244 


0.7 


0.4624 


0.086 


0.6302 


-0.0698 


0.8 . 


0.5238 


11 


0.7442 


-0.0558 


0.9 


0.5833 


C 14 


0.8778 


-0.0222 


1.0 


0.6296 


17 


1.0025 


0.0025 


1.5 


0.7727 


0.34 


1.5970 


0.0970 


1.8 


0.8000 


0.40 


1.7834 


-0.0166 


2 


0.8333 


0.50 


2.0945 


0.0945 


3 


0.8780 


0.72 


2.8834 


-0.1166 


6 


0.9259 


1.25 


6.0329 


0.0329 


10 


0.9444 


1.70 


9.9928 


-0.0072 



NOTE: ERROR (BARS) = ACTUAL -COMPUTED 



124 

letting the unit go through two cycles of wetting and drying. 
Each cycle consisted of soaking the gypsum block in water for 
one hour and then air drying it. This ensures block 
uniformity. 

Temperature Probe 

Variation in the subbase temperature was measured with a 
thermistor. Either a thermistor or a thermocouple would have 
given the same results. However, the thermocouple requires a 
reference thermocouple and would use two analog input terminal 
strips of the datalogger wiring panel. A thermistor probe 
makes a single ended measurement, and only one terminal strip 
is required. 

Rain Gage 

Precipitation was measured with a dual-chamber tipping 
bucket rain gage manufactured by Texas Instruments, shown in 
Figure 4.8. Rainfall at rates up to 2 inches per hour can be 
measured with an accuracy of ±1%. The bucket empties with each 
0.01 inch of rainfall, and a signal is transmitted to the 
datalogger which is programmed to record the number of tips 
and convert it to inches of rainfall. A time base allows the 
duration of precipitation to be determined. The raingage was 
factory calibrated. 



125 



1 




Figure 4 . 8 View of rain gage 



126 



Outflow Measuring Device 

Edge drain outflow was also measured with a dual chamber 
tipping bucket device, shown in Figure 4.9. The tipping bucket 
works the same way as the raingage. Specifications for the 
outflow measuring device were obtained from the Wisconsin DOT. 
However, some modifications were incorporated prior to its 
fabrication by the Purdue University Central Machine Shop. 
Rubber pads were added at the base of the bucket to absorb 
impact when chambers tilt. Also the top portion of the bucket 
was modified to stop water spilling over the sides. 

A laboratory calibration check was made of each outflow 
device prior to field use. Water was introduced into the 
chamber and the volume of water for each tip was recorded. 
Three readings were made for each chamber and the average 
value for both chambers was programmed into the datalogger. A 
list of the instruments and support systems and their 
respective costs are attached as Appendix B. 

Instrumentation Setup 
Pavement instrumentation was carried out with the 
assistance of the Indiana Department of Transportation 
personnel. A schematic of the instrumentation layout is shown 
in Figure 4.10. For the pilot test site on US-31, Hamilton 
County, four inch diameter cores for pressure transducers and 
two inch diameter cores for moisture blocks were removed from 
the pavement to the subbase and shoulder base levels. These 



127 




Figure 4.9 View of outfl 



ow measuring device 



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129 

holes were connected through a sawcut in the pavement and 
shoulder, so that lead wires from various instruments could be 
routed to the edge of the pavement and eventually to the 
datalogger (Figure 4.11). 

Two changes were made in coring the remaining test 
sections. Four-inch diameter cores were also drilled for the 
moisture blocks to counter difficulty of removing the two-inch 
cores and placing the gypsum blocks. To obtain a better 
profile of moisture variation beneath the pavement, it was 
decided to place a transducer and moisture block at the 
subgrade level. Limitations of the datalogger channels 
precluded the use of additional sensors. As data from the 
pilot test site did not indicate a pronounced moisture change 
in the shoulder section, sensors from the shoulders were 
transferred to the pavement subgrade for the remaining nine 
test sections. 

Pressure transducers were inserted into the 4 inch 
diameter holes as shown in Figure 4 . 12 . Each transducer was 
wrapped with a permeable geofabric to shield the sensor 
diaphragm from soil contamination. The transducers were placed 
vertically in the holes which were backfilled with pea gravel. 
Care was taken to ensure that all the pressure transducers 
were at the same depth in the subbase. A temperature probe was 
placed along with the second pressure transducer. 

The gypsum blocks were conditioned prior to placement by 
packing them in excavated subbase material. They were then 



130 




Figure 4.11 Sawcut in pavement for routing wires to datalogger 





Figure 4.12 Depth/ level transducer installation in core hole 



131 

allowed to saturate by placing them along with the packing 
material in a pan of water for 10 minutes. While still encased 
in the subbase material, the blocks were inserted into the 
cored holes which were then backfilled with excavated 
material. To cover the exposed sensor cables in the sawcut, 
first a cylindrical joint backer rod was placed in the cut 
which was then backfilled with asphalt mix. At some sites, use 
was made of asphalt felt for covering the sensor cables. For 
transducers and blocks placed at the subgrade level, the cores 
were sealed at the subgrade/ subbase interface with a slurry of 
bentonite clay. The purpose of this step was to prevent water 
from infiltrating from the subbase, which otherwise would have 
resulted in a biased reading for the transducers and moisture 
blocks. 

A custom built enclosure to house the datalogger, 
precipitation gage and outflow tipping bucket was fixed to a 
concrete pad on the embankment slope of each instrumented 
section (Figure 4.13). Lead wires from the instruments were 
run through the saw cuts and a trench in the embankment to the 
enclosure housing the datalogger. The datalogger control 
module, storage module and battery power pack were housed in 
a plastic box inside the enclosure. 

The raingages were placed in the upper portion of the 
enclosure with their top open to the atmosphere. The outflow 
tipping buckets were placed in the lower portion of the 
enclosure and connected to the underdrain outlet pipe by means 



132 




Figure 4 . 13 Enclosure housing the monitoring instruments 



133 

of a connecting pipe and boot (Figure 4.14). Lead wires from 
the instruments were connected to the CR-10 wiring panel 
terminals. The connection diagram is shown in Table 4.13. 

Subgrade soil samples were collected from test sites 
through auger borings, shelby tubes and split spoon samplers 
using a hydraulic coring rig (Figure 4.15) . These samples were 
brought to Purdue University for determination of various soil 
properties as described in Chapter 5. 

The instruments were left at each site for a period of 
two to three months to record at least one major precipitation 
event. Subsequently, the instruments were removed for 
installation at the next site. Prior to reinstallation, depth 
level transducers, raingage and outflow tipping bucket were 
checked and re-calibrated. A new set of moisture blocks were 
used for each site. 

Programming and Data Retrieval 
The data collection program was loaded through the 
datalogger keyboard. A variable sampling rate was used. For a 
rainfall event, data was recorded at five minute intervals, 
with cumulative values being recorded on fifteen minutes, 
hourly and daily basis. Data from other instruments were based 
on average values for the above time periods. In the absence 
of rainfall and flow, data is recorded on a daily basis to 
save battery power. 

Data was retrieved on a monthly basis by disconnecting 



134 




Figure 4 . 14 Connections for outlet pipe and lead wires 




Figure 4.15 Auger boring for soil sample collection 



Table 4.13 Wiring Connection for CR-10 Datalogger 



135 



1H Druck $ 1 Fob ni pnal (yellow) 

11 Druck & 1 Neg Rignai (blue) 

2H Druck 9 2 Pob signal (yellow) 

2L Druck j 2 Nes> si°na1 (blue) 

3H Druck j 3 Pob signal (yellow) 

3L Druck £ 3 Neg signal (blue) 

AG - 

AG Delmhors t Grour.d (barp wire) 

E2 Delmhorst Excitat ion (3 black) 

El Druck Excitation (A red) 

AG Druck Ground (h white) 

AG 



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P2 Flow tipp ing bucket (red) 
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136 

the storage module and transporting it to Purdue University 
for downloading to a computer. A fresh storage device was left 
in the field so that data collection was uninterrupted. The 
datalogger has adequate internal memory storage capacity, such 
that data is not lost while the storage module is being 
replaced. For sections with continuous outflow from the 
drainage system, data retrieval was done on a bi-weekly basis. 
Data acquired from instrumented sites was reduced through 
a software program supplied by Campbell Scientific and 
analyzed immediately to observe any suspect or missing data. 
This helped in identifying problems of instrument malfunction 
described in the following section. 

Instrumentation Problems 

A number of problems were encountered at various sites 
because of instrument malfunction, field conditions and human 
errors . 

At some sites, flow tipping buckets stopped working a few 
days after installation. Inspections revealed microswitch 
problems, jamming of the lever on which bucket chambers were 
mounted, stones from punctured pipes blocking water from 
flowing into the chambers and rodents chewing away cables. At 
the SR-37, Hamilton County site, installation conditions 
resulted in reverse flow of water into the bucket immediately 
after a rainfall event. These problems resulted in missing 
data for outflow on some sections, which could only be 



137 

detected during data reduction. Actions were subsequently 
taken to rectify these problems with mixed results. 

Problems with depth level transducers were primarily due 
to punctured lead wires. The wires were covered with roofing 
felt and asphalt mix in sawcuts, but stresses due to vehicle 
loads resulted in small cuts in the wires. The cuts could not 
be detected during recalibration, as only the depth end cone 
of transducers was immersed in water and values of constants 
checked. After reinstallation at the next site, water 
penetrated through the cuts and damaged the sensing element in 
the transducers which resulted in erratic data. At some sites, 
cuts in the lead wires were the result of improper removal 
methods for the sensors. The damaged transducers in these 
cases were shipped to the manufacturer for repairs, but 
without any success. Due to time and cost constraints, 
additional transducers were not purchased and at some sites 
data was obtained from a reduced number of sensors. 

The use of fresh moisture blocks for each site avoided 
the problems of lead wire cuts. Instead, difficulty in 
achieving full contact between the block and the surrounding 
soil, especially for stabilized subbases resulted in erroneous 
data. In addition, saline and acidic soils degraded the blocks 
within one month at some sites. At some site only the block 
electrodes remained. 



138 

Field Surveys 
Field surveys of instrumented sites were conducted to 
ascertain the profile of the section and to quantify the 
condition of pavement distress. 

Profile Survey 
Profiles of the instrumented sections helped in 
determining longitudinal and cross slopes of the road section. 
The method of differential leveling was used to determine 
differences in elevation between selected points on the 
pavement surface. An automatic level and a graduated measuring 
rod was used for this purpose. The level was set up at a short 
distance away from the instrumented outlet. Elevations of the 
surface at cored points were taken to determine the cross 
slope of pavement sections. Elevations of three additional 
points 200 feet upstream and downstream of the instrumented 
section were also recorded to determine the longitudinal slope 
of pavement at the instrumented site. An odometer was used for 
measuring the distance between selected elevation points. A 
schematic of the leveling plan is shown in Figure 4.16. 

Visual Survey 

Concurrently with field instrumentation, condition 

surveys were performed on each pavement section. These surveys 

determined the extent and severity of pavement surface 

distresses and pavement-shoulder joint conditions. The PAVER 



139 




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140 

(Shahin and Kohn, 1981) condition survey method was used with 
minor adjustments. The purpose of inspection was to identify 
moisture related distresses and pavement-shoulder joint 
conditions around the instrumented area. Therefore, instead of 
conducting a condition survey of the entire section, a 
sectional length of 500 feet on either side of the 
instrumented area was surveyed. This sample unit length was 
applied for both flexible and rigid pavements and provided 
data on the number and location of cracks between two 
consecutive outlets. This information was needed for 
calibration of the PURDRAIN program. 

Table 4 . 14 gives a summary of the Pavement Condition 
Index (PCI) values and ratings for target sections surveyed. 
Completed inspection sheets are attached as Appendix C. 

chap ter Summary. 
The process of field instrumentation and surveys carried 
out as part of this research project were described in this 
chapter. The nature and magnitude of the experimental program 
conducted for the first time in Indiana, imparted considerable 
experience in the use of various eguipment and installation 
procedures. Data from some sites were lost due to instrument 
malfunctioning and field conditions. However, significant data 
was collected and will aid in calibrating the PURDRAIN program 
and in analyzing the pattern of moisture changes in the 
pavement systems from precipitation. 



141 



Table 4.14 PCI Values and Ratings for Instrumented Sections 



SECTION 
NUMBER 


ROUTE/ 
COUNTY 


PCI 
(Average) 


RATING 
(Average) 


1 


US-31 
HAMILTON 


71.1 


V.GOOD 


2 


SR-37 
HAMILTON 


75.4 


V.GOOD 


3 


SR-37 
LAWRENCE 


86.9 


EXCELLENT 


4 


US-41 
SULLIVAN 


79.2 


V.GOOD 


5 


US-30 
LAPORTE 


86.3 


EXCELLENT 


6 


US-31 
ST. JOSEPH 


77.0 


V.GOOD 


7 


SR-9 
NOBLE 


94.6 


EXCELLENT 


• 


SR-43 
TIPPECANOE 


73.8 


V.GOOD 


9 


SR-63 
VERMILLION 


36.8 


POOR 


10 


US-36 
HENDRICKS 


96.6 


EXCELLENT 



142 



CHAPTER 5 - LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 

Background 

Laboratory testing in this study was undertaken to 
determine the soil-moisture characteristics and saturated 
hydraulic conductivities of subbase materials and subgrade 
soils present at the instrumented sites. The specific 
objective to be achieved was to provide information on soil 
properties to be used in the PURDRAIN program. This chapter 
describes test methods used in the course of laboratory 
investigations . 

There were three tasks associated with the laboratory 
testing. The first task involved classification of subbase 
materials and subgrade soils through conventional material 
tests. A number of conventional and non-conventional methods 
were used in this step, described later in this chapter. The 
second task consisted of testing each classified soil to 
determine the suction-moisture relationship and hydraulic 
conductivity. Finally, index parameters were determined for 
Brooks and Corey's and Van Genuchten's models. This was 
achieved using laboratory data and iterative procedures 
described later. 



143 

Conventional Material Tests 
Tests performed included density and moisture content, 
grain size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific 
gravity. Standard ASTM or AASHTO methods were employed except 
for density measurements, where a non-conventional method was 
used to determine in-situ density of subgrade samples. A 
minimum of three replicate samples were prepared for each 
test. 

Density and Moisture Content 

Because the pavements included in the study were in 
service, standard methods such as sand cone tests or nuclear 
gages could not be used to determine in-situ density of 
subgrade soils. Shelby tube samples of subgrade soils were 
therefore collected from each site and brought to the 
laboratory for density measurements. The samples were stored 
in a controlled temperature and humidity chamber to minimize 
moisture loss prior to testing. 

The samples while still in the tubes were cut at measured 
points with a mechanical saw as shown in Figure 5.1. The 
diameter of the cut samples was measured at two to three 
points and an average was determined. The length and weight of 
the samples were also recorded. Subtracting the weight of 
hollow tube from the overall weight of sample and tube 
provided data for determining in-situ density. 

Moisture contents were determined by ASTM Method D-2216. 



144 




Figure 5.1 Cutting shelby tube with mechanical saw 



145 

Grain Size Distribution 
Particle size analysis was performed on subgrade samples 
according to the ASTM Method D-422. Soil aggregate samples 
were prepared by the method prescribed in the AASHTO T-87. 
Washed sieve analysis of fine grained and cohesive soils were 
carried out using ASTM C-117. Sieve analysis was also 
performed on #5D bituminous stabilized and #53 crushed 
aggregate samples recovered from the sites. These are the 
predominant subbase materials used in Indiana. 

Atterberg Limits 
Atterberg limits of subgrade soils were determined using 
ASTM Method D-4318. Soil samples were prepared using 
demineralized water and allowed to stand 16 hours prior to 
testing. Liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index 
values were determined for each subgrade soil. 

Specific Gravity 
Specific gravities of soil samples were determined using 
two methods. AASHTO T-100 was used for fine grained soils. For 
samples composed of particles larger and smaller than the #4 
(4.75mm) sieve size, apparent specific gravity of coarse 
particles was determined using AASHTO Method T-85. A weighted 
average specific gravity was then calculated using the 
following equation: 



146 



lOOGi 100G 2 

where: G, vg = weighted average specific gravity of soils 
R, = percent of soil particles retained on #4 

sieve 
P, = percent of soil particles passing #4 sieve 
G, = apparent specific gravity of soil 

particles retained on #4 sieve 
G 2 = specific gravity of soil particles passing 

#4 sieve 

Samples of clay soils for specific gravity measurements 
were prepared using the dispersing equipment specified in 
AASHTO T-88. Entrapped air was removed by boiling and then 
subjecting the contents to vacuum. 



Test Results 
The results of various laboratory tests on the subbase 
and subgrade soils are presented in Appendix D and include a 
sample description and soil properties for each of the soils 
tested. Graphical presentation of gradation analysis are shown 
in Figures 5.2 to 5.13. Subgrade soils were classified using 
the Unified Classification Method (ASTM D2487) and the AASHTO 
Method (AASHTO M-145) . Table 5.1 lists the resulting 
classification by both methods. 

Gradation of #5D bituminous stabilized subbase and #53 
crushed aggregate subbase materials were compared with 
specification limits provided by the Indiana Department of 
Transportation. The stabilized subbase satisfied the gradation 
and binder specification ranges. Gradations of crushed 
aggregate samples obtained from two sites fell outside the 



147 



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159 



Table 5.1 Classification of subgrade soil samples 



Section 
Number 


Route 


County 


uses 
Classif .* 


AASHTO 
Classif.* 


1 


US-31 


Hamilton 


SM-SC 


A-4(0) 


2 


SR-37 


Hamilton 


SC, SM-SC 


A-4(0) f 
A-2-4(0) 


3 


SR-37 


Lawrence 


CL, CH 


A-6(15) f 
A-7-6(34) 


4 


US-41 


Sullivan 


CL 


A-6(8) 


5 


US-30 


Laporte 


SP-SM 


A-3(0) 


6 


US-31 


St . Joseph 


SP 


A-3(0) 


7 


SR-9 


Noble 


SW 


A-l-a(O) 


8 


SR-43 


Tippecanoe 


CL 


A-4(4)/A-6(5) 


9 


SR-63 


Vermillion 


GW 


A-l-a(O) 


10 


US-36 


Hendricks 


CL 


A-4(3) 



* Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM, 1991) 
b AASHTO Classification System (AASHTO, 1986) 



160 

specification limits for the fine sizes. This can be 
attributed to excess pore water pressure displacing the fines 
towards the pavement edge. This was further confirmed by 
clogged edge drains at these sites. 

Soil-Moisture Properties Tests 
Tests of soil-moisture properties were conducted to 
obtain hydraulic parameters for analysis of moisture migration 
in pavement layers. Parameters that were determined are a) 
ma trie suction/moisture content {^/B) and b) hydraulic 
conductivity/moisture content (K/0) . Ten subgrade soils and 
five subbase materials were tested. 

Suction-Moisture Test 
Soil suction-moisture tests were carried out according 
to ASTM D-2325 and D-3152. These tests were conducted at the 
Purdue University Soil Physics laboratory of the Agronomy 
Department. The two test methods provide for determining 
capillary-moisture relationships for coarse and fine textured 
soils, respectively. Tests were determined on disturbed soil 
samples from auger ing and Shelby tube sampling. 

Sample Preparation and Testing Equipment 

Soil samples were prepared by air drying, pulverizing, 
and sieving through a No. 10 (2.00mm) sieve. For stabilized 
subbase materials, two inch diameter undisturbed samples were 



161 

used. The soil suction-moisture content tests were conducted 
using a commercially available pressure membrane apparatus. 
The equipment operates in the 0-1 bar and 3-15 bar pressure 
ranges. In conducting the tests, soil samples were placed on 
a porous ceramic plate which is mounted in the extractor. The 
low pressure membrane apparatus can hold three ceramic plates, 
and the high pressure apparatus can hold one plate for each 
run, respectively. Figure 5.14 shows the setup of the two 
apparatuses with the pressure manifold system. The ceramic 
plates are approximately 10 inches in diameter, and have a 
metal screen and neoprene sheet backing to keep the bottom 
portion of the plate in contact with atmospheric pressure 
(Figure 5.15). On application of pressure in the chamber, a 
pressure difference is maintained across each porous plate. 
Water from the soil is forced out of the extractor through the 
ceramic plate and outflow tube due to the pressure 
differential. Flow ceases when an equilibrium moisture state 
is reached. Figure 5.16 shows a cross sectional view of the 
system. 

Ceramic plates come with different pore size openings, 
permitting the tests to be run in 0-1 bar, 3, 5, and 10-15 bar 
pressure ranges. Prior to testing, the ceramic plates are 
soaked 3-4 days to ensure that all pores are filled with water 
which maintains a constant pressure difference through the 
plate. 



162 




Figure 5.14 Setup of pressure chambers with manifold system 




Figure 5.15 Subbase samples on soaked ceramic plate 



163 



Pressure container! 
with porous 
plate Instal led 
inside k 



Valve D 



Mercury or water 

nanometer 

Pressure 
regulator 



Cover: wit' 
hole for 
drain hose 




Graduated cylinder for 
measuring overflow 



\~J "V, Air-line filter 



Figure 5.16 Sectional view of pressure chamber apparatus 
(ASTM, 1991) 



164 

Test Procedure 

The general test procedure carried out for both pressure 
plate apparatuses was as follows: A soaked ceramic plate was 
mounted in the chamber. Soil samples weighing approximately 
25 grams each were were poured into rigid plastic rings, 10mm 
(0.4 inch) in height with a 50mm (2 inch) inside diameter. 
Samples were levelled by pressing the top surface with a 
packer disk using an applied force of 9000 grams (Figure 
5.17). Deaired water was added around the sample rings to 
saturate the samples for a 24 hour period. 

At the end of the soaking period, excess water was 
removed with a pipette, and the extractor lid closed tightly 
to prevent air leakage. The end of the outflow tube was kept 
under water in a beaker to ensure a constant outflow 
environment and to check against air leaks from around the lid 
or through cracked ceramic plates. On initiation of the 
required pressure, water starts flowing into the beaker 
through the outlet tube. The equilibration time for each 
pressure was set to 3 days. Initial trials showed that no 
additional water draining after this period. 

Pressures of 0.1, 0.33, 0.67, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 15 bars 
were applied. Six replicates of each soil sample were tested 
for each pressure. At the end of each run, the outflow tube to 
the beaker was clamped to prevent water backflow and the 
pressure was slowly released. The specimens were transferred 
to containers and weighed. The specimens were then dried in an 



165 




Figure 5.17 Packing soil samples with surcharge weight 



166 

oven at 110 °C for a 24 hour period and weighed. Moisture 
content values were calculated for each applied pressure and 
its relationship with matric potential was plotted. A data 
form for recording of the laboratory test results is presented 
in Figure 5.18. Figure 5.19 shows suction-moisture 
characteristic curves for the ten subgrade soils tested and 
Figure 5.20 shows similar curves for the subbase samples. 
Results of suction-moisture tests on subgrade soils and 
subbase materials are presented in Appendix D. Variability of 
the test results is also reported in the appendix. 

Discussion of Results 

ASTM does not give precision and accuracy statement for 
these tests. However, the variability between replicates was 
found to be within an acceptable range of moisture content for 
most sandy and clayey soils. Variability of results was more 
pronounced between auger samples and Shelby tube samples of 
granular soils. This can be attributed to the larger top size 
of these soils. Shelby tubes are 3 inches in diameter and may 
not provide a representative sample for coarse grained soils. 

The shape of soil-water characteristics curves in Figure 
5.19 indicate the sensitivity of soils to moisture changes. 
Cohesive soils retain more moisture than cohesionless soils 
even at high suction ranges. High plasticity clays retained 
the highest irreducible moisture content whereas poorly graded 
sands retained the lowest. Loams have irreducible moisture 



167 



CAPILLARY-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP 

FGR 

EASE AND SUEGRADE SAMPLES 

"PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT" 



ROUTE NO: i^_ldD COUNTY _^&JJJ-J=S^LBSi 

CONTRACT NO: jEzJiSL^iO SECTION Se> 

LOCAT ION _jSe<T_Ti^lfJ ^Jc.OTH__J^f _J^ASf^2SfiyC.6N. 

SOIL TYPE: Sli2tL_ < L v cf_±Zt5. l i : ^ CLASSIFICATION C< _ ; A-fcCs) 

IN-SITU MOISTURE CONTENT: lJ>_;C •/. SAMPLE TYPE 5l^]^£fi?JL. 

IN-SITU DENSITY: L^-l2§ PCF » POROSITY __XL3 ''■ 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Z.2-3S- REMARKS: 



(1) Tension, » -O &>*£■__ '' AA I AS I GA ! GS j CfljCSJ 



j (2) Container Number 



r 



1 & j 1 



I <3) Wt . of container, 
j. _+wet sample, g 



.^•Sl | 2<\Sl\ 2T-4"? 2^-31 I2/7-S1 i i^-42. ; 



(*t) Wt. of container, 
+dry sample, g 



2.S"-4-l !2S"-V) I 2S-2^i 1S-CA i2b-34- ! ZS". (g 



5 

; <5) Ut . of moisture, a 



(3 - 4) 



A-\ \ 4-2C i4-X\ | 4-21 I 4-23 j 4-24 j 

1 j i j : ! 



(6) Wt . of container 

Q 



1-31 i \-2>\ J.3\ i >06 i 1-21 ! o-^tS i 

I ! ! : i i 



(7) Wt. of dry sample, g \i A . i0 j ^4-o6J2i-^S 
(^ - 6) i 



25-1S 2-4-O.T I Z^-- 20 



<8) Moisture content, j \\1-M, IlKS l>gi MI-SI j 1>SZ j 

X (4).(5 t 7) x-lOO i ' i i l | J 



(9) Unit wt. of dry 
sample, y d 



( -66 i 



(10) Moisture content, 
vol. percent ( jg) 
(8 y. 9) 




•Sf-n-ry. 



Figure 5.18 Sample data form for soil-moisture tests 



168 




Route, Soil Type 

— 37HAM.SM-SC 

-i-Syiawrn.CH 

-*-31 josh, SP 

-°-36hend,CL 

-*-41sulvn,CL 

^-30lprt,SP-SM 

-*-63verm,SW 

-^9noble,SW 

-*^43tipcn,CL 

-^Slham^M-SC 



2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 
Suction in bars 



Figure 5.19 Soil-mo isture characteristic curves of subgrade 
soils from instrumented sites 



169 



1 bar = 1220 cm of water 




Base/Subbase 

— #24 Sand 
^#53 Agg. 
*■ #73 Agg. 

— #53B Stab. 
-*- #5D Stab. 



Figure 5.20 Soil-moisture characteristic curves of base and 
subbase soils 



170 

contents between the clays and sands. This can be attributed 
to the nature of the pore system. Sandy soils are composed of 
macroscopic particles and drain readily. Clayey soils, 
composed of microscopic particles, are highly impervious. 
However, some similarities are observed for all soils. The 
curves show a substantial drop in moisture content when the 
suction is increased to 1 bar. The curves then show a gradual 
decrease of moisture content until the suction reaches 5 bars. 
There is minimal water content decrease beyond the 5 bar 
range. 

For subbase materials, the variation in moisture content 
for a large suction increase is low. The number 7 3 crushed 
aggregate and the 5D bituminous stabilized subbase had the 
highest and lowest variation in moisture content between 
suctions of zero and 15 bars, respectively. In general, the 
suction-moisture characteristics of unstabilized subbase 
materials are similar to sandy soils. 

Parameter Development for Infiltration Models 
Results of the laboratory measurements of soil-moisture 
characteristics of subgrades and subbase materials were used 
to obtain soil parameter values for the Brooks & Corey and Van 
Genuchten models incorporated in the PURDRAIN program. These 
models were described in Chapter 4 . 

Typical values for the fitting parameters PB and v for 
the Brooks and Corey Model were determined by utilizing 



171 

suction and moisture content values for each subgrade and 
subbase type. The effective degree of saturation corresponding 
to each suction value was found using Equation 4.1. An 
iterative procedure was applied to determine the parameter 
values. The values were then fitted into the model and checked 
against experimental results. A similar procedure was adopted 
for the determination of a, j8 and y values for the Van 
Genuchten model using Equation 4.4. 

Table 5.2 lists the parameter values for both models and 
Figures 5.21 and 5.22 provide a comparison of the measured vs 
estimated \f/(d) function for one subgrade soil using Brooks & 
Corey and Van Genuchten models, respectively. Comparisons for 
other soils are shown in Appendix E. The plots show the 
estimated values are in close agreement with measured values 
for both models at low suction values. Similar results were 
obtained for the remaining subgrade soils and subbase 
materials. As most of the moisture movement takes place at low 
suction or at higher moisture contents, the results seem to be 
valid. A regression analysis was conducted for calibration 
purposes between measured values of effective degree of 
saturation and values predicted by Brooks & Corey's and by Van 
Genuchten 's models for subbase materials and subgrade soils. 
High correlations were obtained for both models as shown in 
Table 5.3. Regression results are included in Appendix E. 



172 



Effect. Deg. of Resat. 'Se' 




SM-SC soil 
**■ Measured 
+ Brooks & Corey 



10 100 1,000 10,000 

Matric Suction in cm 



Figure 5.21 Measured vs Estimated Brooks & Corey function 



173 



Effect. Deg. of Resat. 'Se' 




10 100 1,000 10,000 

Matric Suction in cm 



SM-SC soil 
■*■ Measured 
* Van Genuchten 



Figure 5.22 Measured vs Estimated Van Genuchten function 



174 



Table 5.2 Hydraulic Parameter Values of Subgrade Soils 



Route/ 
County 

or 
Base # 


Soil 

Type* 

or 
Base 
Tvpe b 


Brooks & 
Corey Model 


Van 


Genuchten 
Model 


PB 
cm 


"d 


a 
cm" 1 





7 


US-31 
Hamilt 


SM-SC 


52 


3.1 


.008 


1.45 


0.31 


SR-37 
Hamilt 


SC 


68.5 


3.18 


.0054 


1.46 


0.315 


SR-37 
Lawrnc 


CH 


67.5 


2.8 


.0048 


1.665 


0.399 


US-41 
Sullvn 


CL 


60 


3.0 


.008 


1.48 


0.324 


US-30 
Laprt 


SP-SM 


87 


2.6 


.0029 


1.80 


0.444 


US-31 
StJosh 


SP 


78 


2.34 


.0048 


1.665 


0.339 


SR-9 
Noble 


SW 


82 


3.2 


.00245 


1.87 


0.465 


SR-43 
Tippcn 


CL 


61.5 


3.0 


.013 


1.35 


0.259 


SR-63 
Vermil 


GW 


80 


2.31 


.0048 


1.68 


0.405 


US-36 
Hendrk 


CL 


72 


2.78 


.00625 


1.502 


0.334 


Basel 


#24 


73 


2.5 


.0064 


1.569 


0.363 


Base2 


#53 


79 


1.92 


.0052 


1.735 


0.423 


Base3 


#73 


85 


3.15 


.0028 


1.55 


0.355 


Base4 


#53B 


122 


2.3 


.0028 


1.685 


0.4065 


Base5 


#5D 


88 


2.11 


.0028 


1.685 


0.4065 



* Unified Soil Classification System 
b Standard Specifications (IDOH,1988 



) 



(ASTM, 1991) 



175 



Table 5.3 Goodness of fit values for estimated parameters 



Route/ Cnty 

or 

Base No. 


Soil Type* 
or 
Base Type b 


Goodness of Fit 'R 2 ' values 


Brooks & Corey 
Model 


Van Genuchten 
Model 


US-31 
Hamilton 


SM-SC 


0.929 


0.912 


SR-37 
Hamilton 


SM-SC 


0.724 


0.879 


SR-37 
Lawrence 


CH 


0.815 


0.976 


US-41 
Sullivan 


CL 


0.729 


0.895 


US-30 
Laporte 


SP-SM 


0.908 


0.991 


US-31 

St . Joseph 


SP 


0.846 


0.851 


SR-9 
Noble 


SW 


0.750 


0.996 


SR-43 
Tippecanoe 


CL 


0.890 


0.866 


SR-63 
Vermillion 


GW 


0.927 


0.978 


US-36 
Hendricks 


CL 


0.870 


0.948 


Base No.l 


#24 


0.965 


0.961 


Base No. 2 


#53 


0.919 


0.944 


Base No. 3 


#73 


0.670 


0.867 


Base No. 4 


#53B 


0.940 


0.965 | 


Base No. 5 


#5D 


0.829 


0.934 | 



* Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM,1991) 
b Standard Specifications (IDOH,1988) 



176 

Permeability 

As described in Chapter 2, Darcy's Law is used to 
estimate the hydraulic conduct ivity or permeability of 
saturated materials. Permeability is the only property which 
varies widely for a given material, and cannot be considered 
to be a constant for a given type of subbase or subgrade. A 
range of expected values for permeability of different soils 
have been given by Lambe (1951) , Terzhagi and Peck (1967) , and 
Freeze and Cherry (1979). Figure 5.23 shows typical ranges for 
soils and rocks. 

Permeability measurements were made on soil samples 
obtained from test sites using constant head and falling head 
permeameters which are described below. A constant head 
permeability test was used for coarse grained soils, whereas 
falling head method was employed for fine grained soils. 
Undisturbed soil samples could not be obtained for granular 
soils and therefore the constant head permeability test was 
run on disturbed soil samples. Tests of cohesive soils were 
made using Shelby tube samples. 

INDOT Division of Materials and Tests had performed tests 
to determine permeability of typical base and subbase 
materials used in the state. To avoid duplication of effort, 
permeability tests on base and subbase materials were not 
performed and results obtained by INDOT were used, see Table 
5.4. A field permeability testing device (FPTD) on loan from 
the FHWA was used to carry out permeability tests on #53 



177 



Rocks 



<u 

c — 
o o 

— tn 
0) ^ 
.§• I 

--S" ' 

0.0,0 



<3> Q.T3I 

>- CI 

•O O O 

m g a, a, 

3 □ C - d) 

o e «> O O 

U. I = T3 T3 

C 

o 
co 



Unconsolidated 
deposits 






CO 



-o a 5 
2! o"5 



-a' .^ 

QJ >. O 

o a, 
a, c 

c o 



A- /C 



K 



♦2, 



(dorcy) (cm 2 ) (cm/s) (m/s) (gal/day/ft ) 



10 3 r'C" 1 rlO 



!0* 

-lO 5 
-10' 



■10" 



10 



■ to 



10" 



-5 



10 r i0" 7 

I 

.i ho" 8 
| i 

j-10"' -10" 9 

-10" 2 ho"' 

10" 2 -10"" 



10" 



10" 



-10" 



-10 



■5 



-10" 



,-12 



I 



10" 5 pio"' 3 

,-14 



->-6 



10 



-7 



■10 



10" 7 



-15 



-10 



10 



-8 



to" 8 L 10"' 6 



10 



-10"' 


■1C C 


-10" 2 


-lC 5 


-1C" 3 


-10" 


-10" 4 


-1C 5 


-I0" 5 


-10 2 


-10" 6 


-1C 


-«T 


_ 1 


-10" 3 


-1C" 


-10" 9 


-1C" 2 


-ic" !0 


-10" 3 


-10"" 


- 10"~ 


-io- 2 


-1C" S 




.o-S 



L 10" 



10 



•13 



L 1C" 



Figure 5.23 Range of permeability for soils and rocks 
(Freeze and Cherry, 1979) 



178 



Table 5.4 Permeability Values of INDOT Base Materials* 



Material 


Pemeability 

12" head 

cm/sec 


Permeability 

24 M head 

cm/sec 


Average 

Permeability 

ft/day 


#24 Sand w/ 
3% passing 
#200 sieve 


0.96X10" 3 


l.lxlO" 3 


1.4 


#24 Sand w/ 
6% passing 
#200 sieve 


4.1x10" 


4.5x10" 


1.2 


#53 Stone w/ 
5% passing 
#200 sieve 


- 


- 


0.10 


#53 Stone w/ 
10% passing 
#200 sieve 


- 


- 


0.12 


#53 Special 
Subbase 
100% Crushed 


- 


- 


499 


#73 Stone w/ 
7%% passing 
#200 sieve 


7.03X10" 2 


6. 53X10 2 


192 


#73 Stone w/ 
10% passing 
#200 sieve 


4.22X10" 2 


3.29X10" 2 


106 


#53B base w/ 
2%% passing 
#200 sieve 


2.98X10' 2 


2. 23x1 2 


74 


#53B base w/ 
5% passing 
#200 sieve 


0.95X10" 2 


0.84X10" 2 


25 


#5D HAC base 


2.02X10"* 


1. 93x10" 


0.6 



a Source: INDOT Division of Materials and Testing 



179 

subbase. Permeability values obtained were compared with 
results achieved by INDOT on similar sample. The FPTD is 
described later. 

Constant Head Permeameter 

A constant head permeameter was fabricated at Purdue 
University for testing granular soils with larger aggregates. 
The permeameter is rigid-wall type and has an 8 inch (20 cm) 
internal diameter. Specimens can be placed to a height of 12 
inches inside the cylinder. The height of the inflow chamber 
is fixed, whereas the outflow chamber height can be adjusted 
prior to testing. This ensures that a desirable height 
difference can be achieved between the two chambers. A series 
of manometers are connected to the permeameter at various 
points. A setup of the permeameter is shown in Figure 5.24. 

Soil samples obtained from test sites were air dried and 
pulverized with a wooden mallet. Care was taken to avoid 
crushing particles. The samples were wetted uniformly in 
stages to the desired moisture content using a spray bottle, 
and placed in a temperature controlled chamber prior to 
testing. The prepared soils were then placed in the 
permeameter and compacted with a standard compactive effort of 
12,375 ft-lb (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981) using a sliding weight 
tamper. Permeability tests were run according to ASTM D-2434. 
Coefficient of permeability of the samples were calculated 
using the relation: 



180 




Figure 5.24 Setup of the constant head permeameter 



181 



Jc _ QL 5.2 

ACh 

where: k = coefficient of permeability 
Q = quantity of flow 
L = height of compacted specimen 
A = cross-sectional area of specimen 
h = head difference between upper and lower chambers 
t = time of discharge measurement 



Falling Head Permeameter 

Falling head permeability tests were conducted on four 
subgrade soil types using a flexi-wall permeability cell. The 
cell and its permeameter control column are shown in Figure 
5.25. Soil samples were extruded from Shelby tubes using a 
hydraulic sample extruder. For each sample, a latex membrane 
was fitted inside a plastic cylinder equal in diameter to the 
shelby tube. A vacuum of 2 psi was employed to remove air 
trapped between the membrane and the cylinder. The sample was 
placed inside the cylinder and the top and bottom surfaces 
levelled. On releasing the vacuum, the membrane adjusted to 
the contours of the soil sample. This was necessary to avoid 
piping around the edges during permeability testing. 

Samples were subsequently placed inside the permeability 
cell and tubing connections made to the regulator valves. 
Sample saturation was initiated by first applying a vacuum of 
11 psi to remove entrapped air from the sample. This was 
followed by applying an initial backpressure of 5 psi and 
recording the water intake. When water intake stopped, 
backpressure was raised another 5 psi and the process 



182 




Figure 5.25 Flexi-wall permeameter cell and control col 



umn 



183 

repeated. The elapsed time between increments depend entirely 
on the permeability of the sample. The backsaturation process 
was terminated when less than 0.1 cc of water intake was 
recorded for a 5 psi increment in backpressure. According to 
information supplied with the permeameter, this criteria 
results in a state close to 100% saturation. 

Permeability measurements were made by recording the drop 
in water level for a suitable time interval. Three tests were 
conducted on each sample and the average water drop 
determined. These data are used in equation 5.3 (Holtz and 
Kovacs, 1981) to evaluate permeability. 

.,,31, ^i 5.3 

At h 2 



where: k = coefficient of permeability 

a = cross sectional area of standpipe 
L = length of soil specimen 
A = cross sectional area of specimen 
t = time of water drop measurement 
h x = initial height of water column 
h 2 = final height of water column 



Field Permeability Testing Device (FPTD) 

The Field Permeability Testing Device (FPTD) was 
developed by Moulton and Seals (1979) for the Federal Highway 
Administration (FHWA) . Use of the device involves: 
i) establishing a saturated, steady state flow in the 

base or subbase layer by injecting water through a port 
located at the center of a circular plate. Water is added 
until the layer becomes fully saturated. Figure 5.26 



184 



1 




Figure 5.2 6 Schematic of Field Permeability Testing Device 
(Moulton and Seals, 1979) 



185 

shows a schematic of the permeability device. 

ii) determining flow velocity from the time of seepage along 
a streamline or flow path between two points that are a 
known distance apart. This is achieved by injecting an 
electrolytic solution (Ammonium Chloride mixed with 
water) through the injection port. The time for the 
electrolytic solution to flow between two points on a 
streamline is sensed by means of electrical probes. 

iii) determining the head loss between the sensing probes by 
measuring fluid pressures with differential pressure 
transducers at the ends of the electrical conductivity 
probes . 
The coefficient of permeability is calculated by the 

relation (Moulton and Seals, 1979) : 

k L2n 5 * 4 

t(AA) 

where: k = coefficient of permeability 
L = probe spacing 
n = porosity of the material 
t = time of flow between probes 
Ah = head loss between two points 

The FPTD was acquired from FHWA for a limited time to 

determine in-situ permeabilities of base materials used in 

Indiana. Unfortunately, during this period, no base course was 

exposed on any ongoing highway project. It was therefore not 

possible to use the device on field projects. A decision was 

made to test base samples in the laboratory using the FPTD 

device. 



136 

Operation of FPTD 

As shown in Figure 5.27, a 4 ft x 4 ft x 1 ft height test 
chamber was fabricated with drain outlets at one end. Indiana 
#53 crushed aggregate material was placed in the chamber and 
compacted with a tamping rod to a depth of six inches. The 
horizontal plate of the FPTD was positioned on the aggregate 
surface with the water injection and sensing probes inserted 
through the plate into predriven holes. A surcharge weight was 
placed on the plate and transducer and electrical connections 
made. Water flow was initiated through the system. A steady 
state flow was indicated by water flowing out of the drain 
tubes at the bottom of the chamber. 

A charge of electrolytic solution was introduced into the 
subbase through the water injection port. When the 
electrolytic solution passes the upstream probe the timing 
mechanism is triggered. Time of flow is determined when the 
solution passes the downstream probe, and head differential is 
displayed on the measurement subsystem (Figure 5.28) . The test 
is completed by flushing the system with fresh water. 

Functional Problems of FPTD 

Several problems were encountered during operation of the 
FPTD. The nature of the material tested made driving and 
removing the rods used to form the holes for the injection and 
sensing probes difficult. Piping was observed around the plate 
with the water supply valve full open. The function of the 
sensing probes was also erratic. In some cases, neither probe 



187 




Figure 5.27 Setup of Field Permeability Testing Device 




Figure 5.28 Measurement subsystem of FPTD 



133 

triggered the timing mechanism and in others, only one probe 
functioned. This could be attributed to the electrolytic 
solution bypassing the upstream or downstream probe. 

To overcome problems with the probe, they were placed one 
inch apart and away from the central injection port. Water 
flow was initiated slowly to avoid piping. This resulted in 
better response. 

After five runs were made, the differential pressure 
transducer stopped working. Problems were noted and the unit 
was returned to FHWA. 

Discussion of Results 

Results from the constant and falling head permeability 
devices on subbase materials and subgrade soils and from the 
Field Permeability Testing Device on the #53 subbase are 
listed in Table 5.5. The measured coefficients of permeability 
were compared with the values given by Freeze and Cherry 
(1976) for soils and with INDOT values for the #53 subbase. It 
is observed that laboratory determinations of permeability for 
the subgrade soils lie within the range specified for each 
soil type. Permeability value for the #53 subbase is also 
close to the INDOT specified value. Permeability of other 
bases could not be tested with the FPTD because of functional 
problems. 



189 



Table 5.5 Permeability values of subgrade and subbase soils 



Route/ County 
or 
Base Type 


Soil Type* 


Permeameter 
Type 


Coefficient 

of 

permeability 

cm/ sec 


US- 31 
Hamilton 


SM-SC 


Flexi-wall 


2.44X10" 6 


SR-37 
Hamilton 


SM-SC 


Flexi-wall 


1.31x10^ 


SR-37 
Lawrence 


CH 


Flexi-wall 


2 . 10X10" 7 


US-41 
Sullivan 


CL 


Flexi-wall 


6.03X10 - * 


US-30 
Laporte 


SP-SM 


Constant Head 


1.05X10" 3 


US-31 
St. Joseph 


SP 


Constant Head 


2 . 09X10" 3 


SR-9 
Noble 


SW 


Constant Head 


3.37X10" 3 


SR-43 
Tippecanoe 


CL 


Flexi-wall 


5.09X10" 5 


SR-63 
Vermillion 


GW 


Constant Head 


5.97X10" 3 


US-36 
Hendricks 


CL 


Flexi-wall 


1.10x10 s 


Subbase 


#53 b 


FPTD 


0.168 



* Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM, 
b Standard Specifications (IDOH, 1988) 



1991) 



190 

Chapter Summary 
A comprehensive laboratory investigation was completed to 
identify the subbase materials and subgrade soils obtained 
from instrumented test sites. Permeability measurements were 
made using specially designed constant head and state-of-the- 
art flexi-wall permeameters . The FHWA Field Permeability 
Testing Device was evaluated. Determination of the hydraulic 
properties of a wide variety of subbase materials and subgrade 
soils has resulted in development of a database, which can be 
used with the PURDRAIN program in analyzing moisture 
infiltration in pavement structures. Parameters were estimated 
for foundation soils and subbases for the two constitutive 
models built into the PURDRAIN program. 



191 



CHAPTER 6 - DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 

The drainage study incorporated ten pavement sections. 
Two of these sections did not have edge drains. Outflow 
volumes could not be recorded for SR-37, Hamilton County test 
site due to malfunctioning of the tipping bucket flow meter as 
described in Chapter 4. Data from test sections were reduced 
to a spreadsheet format. The data was further analyzed to 
isolate individual precipitation events and corresponding 
outflow volumes for each test site. 

Each test section length was selected to correlate with 
the distance between the instrumented and upstream outlets, as 
obtained through profile readings. For sections on sag curves, 
the length considered was between outlets, preceding and 
following the instrumented outlet. Water obviously would flow 
from both directions towards the instrumented outlet. The 
width of the section was taken as the distance to the trench 
for pipe edge drains, and to the pavement-shoulder joints for 
prefabricated edge drains . Table 6 . 1 shows precipitation and 
outflow data from seven test sections, for which outflow 
volumes were recorded. Condition of the pavement-shoulder 
joints are also displayed for analysis purposes. For 
consistency, the sections are numbered in the same order as in 



192 



Table 6.1 Information on precipitation and outflow volumes 



ROUTE 


SECT 


PVMT. 


DRAIN 


CUMUL 


CUMUL 


PCI/ 


OFLOW/ 




No. 


TYPE 


TYPE 


PRECP 
eft 


FLOW 
eft 


DISTRESS 


PRECP. 
VOLUME 
% 


US-31, 


1 


CONC. 


PIPE 


665 


36.8 


71.1 


5.53 


HAMILT 








2815 


1137 


EDGE 


40.40 










2042 


542.0 


CRACK/JT 

SEAL 

DAMAGE 


26.52 


US-36, 


10 


CONC. 


PIPE 


251 


175.5 


96.6 


69.82 


HENDRK 








502 
377 


161.5 
127.5 


EDGE CRK 


32.12 

33.83 


US-41, 


4 


CONC. 


FIN 


347 


208.1 


79.2 


59.92 


SULLVN 








179 


61.9 


EDGE CRK 

/SHLDR. 

DAMAGE 


34.63 


SR-63, 


9 


ASP. 


PIPE 


69 


34.9 


36.8 


50.64 


VERMLN 








120 


50.0 


MAJOR 

DISTRESS 


41.72 


SR-9, 


7 


ASP. 


PIPE 


1479 


389.2 


94.6 


26.31 


NOBLE 












EDGE CRK 




US-30, 


5 


OVRLY 


FIN 


150 


2.0 


86.3 


1.35 


LAPORT 








1520 


36.5 


EDGE CRK 


2.40 










2290 


8.1 


/REFLEX. 


2.84 










75 


1.7 


CRK 


2.21 










1030 


29.1 




2.82 


US-31, 


6 


OVRLY 


FIN 


1845 


4.4 


77.0 


0.24 


STJOSH 








768 


4.0 


EDGE CRK 


0.51 










974 


1.0 


/REFLEX. 
CRK 


0.10 



193 

Table 4.1. Figures 6.1 to 6.19 show precipitation and outflow 
as functions of time for the test sections. Data sets for the 
test sites are listed in Appendix F. 

Precipitation vs Outflow 

A study of Figures 6.1 to 6.19 show the outflow response 
to be instantaneous with precipitation for all test sites, 
except for data set 1 at US-31, Hamilton County. For this 
recorded precipitation event, pipe outflow lags by several 
hours. This might be attributed to the low precipitation 
intensity as well as the base being in a relatively dry 
condition prior to the rainfall event. These figures also 
indicate that 40 to 60 percent of the cumulative outflow 
volume takes place within the first four hours. The outflow 
volumes then continue to diminish over a period of 24 hours 
except when there is a second rainfall event within this 
period. This triggers an immediate rise in outflow volumes. 

The immediate response to precipitation is attributed to 
the pavement-shoulder joint condition at these sites. 
Condition surveys indicated edge cracking, longitudinal and 
transvers cracks or poorly sealed pavements at all the test 
sites. This resulted in higher percent of water infiltrating 
through the cracks and joints at the start of a precipitation 
event. Once the pavement cracks and pores of the subbase 
become saturated, the infiltration into the pavement layers 
will depend upon the rate at which water flows laterally in 



194 



US-31, Hamilton County (Data Set 1) 




Precip = 


= 664 


eft 


Outflow 


= 37 


eft 


% outfl 


3W = 


5% 



Time in hours 



46 51 56 61 66 



3.5 



3 
a 



-as 



| precip. -Ar flow 



Figure 6.1 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 1) 



195 



035- 



o 025- 



Q. 



US-31 , Hamilton County (Data Set 2) 




Precip = 2815 eft 
Outflow = 1138 eft 
% outflow = 40% 



TTITTTT 



1 1 1 MM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 ! i i 1 1 



W"""M 



-35 



•30 



-15 



Time in hours 



| precip. -dr flow 



Figure 6.2 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 2) 



196 



US-31 , Hamilton County (Data Set 3) 



0.5 

0.45 

0.4- 

0.35" 

g 0.3- 

£ 025- 
a. 

B. 02- 

0.15- 

0.1- 

0.05- 



Precip = 


2042cft 


outflow = 


542 eft 


% outflow 


= 26% 




w Mti'i'iVi f ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 u 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 u 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 ii 1 1 ii 1 1 1 1 f\ ftTWIWfW WTWHffHPBTW 
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 

Time in hours 



-40 



35 



s: 



25 



i: 



-15 



-: 



-: 



| precip. 



■flow 



Figure 6.3 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, Hamilton County; Data Set 3) 



197 



0.1 
0.09 
0.08 
0.07- 

g 0.06 

o 

_c 

£ 0.05 

d. 

o 

o 

5.0.04- 

0.03" 

0.02- 

0.01 

0+ 



US-36, HENDRICKS COUNTY (Data Set 1) 



Precip. = 251 eft 
Outflow = 175 eft 
% outflow = 70% 




Time in hours 



■30 



■25 



•20 



-15 



-10 



-5 



i precip. -+- flow 



Figure 6 . 4 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-36, Hendricks County; Data Set 1) 



198 




US-36, HENDRICKS COUNTY (Data Set 2) 



Precip . = 


502 


eft 


Outflow = 


161 


eft 


% outflow 


= 32% 



i ' * ' 'J " ' ' ' " '77 i *' ' ' , ' , ' , ivi ' iTivivri i i i fi i iri 'i- i ' i - pi , ) , ^'i l riTri ' i - i 1 1 r 

1 6 " 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 



Time in hours 



| precip. -+- flow 



-40 



-30 



25 = 



-15 



-10 



TO 



Figure 6.5 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-36, Hendricks County; Data Set2) 



199 



0.18 



0.16 



0.14- 



0.12- 



0.1- 



| 0.08- 

Q. 

0.06- 



0.04- 



0.02- 



US-36, HENDRICKS COUNTY (Data Set 3) 



Precip. = 377 eft 
Outflow = 127 eft 
% outflow = 34% 




•30 



'25 



■20 



■15 



10 



| precip. -+- flow 



Figure 6.6 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-3 6, Hendricks County; Data Set 3) 



200 



0.12 



0.1 



0.08' 



0.06 



0.04- 



0.02" 



US-41 , SULLIVAN COUNTY (Data Set 1 ) 



50 



-4Q 



30 



■20 



10 




Precip.= 347 eft 
Outflow = 208 eft 

% outflow = 60% 



ii i i i i i i i i i I'litiiii lit n i i i i i i i i ii ii iii i i i . i 



6 11 16 



21 26 

Time in hours 



31 36 41 46 



| precip. -Jk- flow 



Figure 6.7 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-41, Sullivan County; Data Set 1) 



201 



0.16 



0.14- 



0.12 



0.1- 



£ 0.08- 



0.06- 



0.04- 



0.02- 



US-41 , SULLIVAN COUNTY (Data Set 2) 



precip. =179 eft 
outflow = 62 eft 
% outflow =35% 



I 

■FTTH 




I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I 1' 



■nmn I I l 1 I I I i I I n I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 i"i i"i i i I i I 1 I I I I 1 I TTTTTTT - ^ 

1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 

Time in hours 



14 



12 



10 



8 _ 



-2 



| precip. -sk- flow 



Figure 6.8 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-41, Sullivan County; Data Set 2) 



202 



0.12 



0.1 



0.08 
w 



SI 

g 

■£ 0.06 
.ri. 

Q. 

0.04 



0.02- 



SR-63, Vermillion County (Data Set 1) 




Precip = 6S c£- 
Outflow = 25 eft 
% ou-fiow = 50% 



T I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 r 

6 11 16 

Time in hours 



1 



14 



-•2 



-•: 






5 

c 



r4 



-o 



21 



| pnecip. -A- flow 



Figure 6.9 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(SR-63, Vermillion County; Data Set 1) 



203 



025 



0.15 



0.05 



SR-63, Vermillion County (Data Set 2) 




-1 r 

5 6 7 

Time in hours 



| precip. -+- flow 



Figure 6.10 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(SR-63, Vermillion County; Data Set 2) 



204 



0.9 



SR-9, NOBLE COUNTY 



0.8- 



0.7 



0.6- 



g OS 



f 0.4- 



0.3- 
02- 
0.1 




precip. = 


1479 eft 


outflow = 


389 eft 


% outflow 


= 26% 



-* — • — » — * — *-. 



n i i i i i i i i i i i i i — i — i — i — i — ; — i — i — i — i — i — i — | — r 

1 6 11 16 21 26 

Time in hours 



•100 

■90 

80 

70 

60 



50 | 
o 



-40 

-30 

-20 

10 



| precip -±- flow 



Figure 6.11 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(SR-9, Noble County; Data Set 1) 



205 



0.12 



0.1- 



0.08- 



o.oe- 



0.04- 



0.02- 



US-30, Laporte County (Data Set 1) 



Precip. = 150 eft 
Outflow = 2 eft 
% outflow =1.4% 




1 

-0.9 
-0.8 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
02 

ho.i 
o 



[ precip. -*- flow 



Figure 6.12 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 1) 



206 



0.6- 



0.5- 



0.4i 

<D 

£ 0.3H 



0.2- 



0.1 



US-30, LAPORTE COUNTY (Data Set 2) 




Precip. = 1520 eft 
Outflow = 36 eft 
% outflow =2.4% 



' n i i i n i i i i rii i in i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 

Time in hours 



25 



15 i 

o 



0.5 



| precip. -*- flow 



Figure 6.13 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-3 0, Laporte County; Data Set 3) 



207 



1.2- 



0.8- 



0.6- 



a. 

8 



0.4- 



02- 



US-30, LAPORTE COUNTY (Data Set 3) 



* 



Precip. = 2290 eft 
Outflow = 65 eft 
% outflow =2.8% 




mm irfnTl I ll I I I li ft fifin Ti in 1 1 fin fin f m I I II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 . 66 

Time in hours 



4.5 
-4 
-35 
-3 
-25- 

2 

-15 
-1 
-05 





] precip. -Jk- flow 



Figure 6.14 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-30, Laporte County; Data Set 3) 



208 



0.7 



0.6- 



0.5" 



■S 0.4- 



O. 

% 0.3- 



02- 



0.1- 



US-30, L^PORTE COUNTY (Data Set 4) 




Precip . = 


75 


-.-:-. 


Outflow = 


1.7 


eft 


% outflow 


= 2 


.2% 



t l ( l I I I I I i i I i i r 



■0.35 

0.3 

■0.25 

02 _ 
o 

_c 

? 

o 
-0.15- 

0.1 

0.05 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
Time in hours 



| precip. -^r flow 



Figure 6.15 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-3 0, Laporte County; Data Set 4) 



209 



0.5 



0.45H 

0.4- 

0.35- 



S 0.3i 

•£ 0.25" 
d. 

5. 0.2" 



0.1 5i 
0.1 
0.05- 




US-30, UXPORTE COUNTY (Data Set 5) 



Precip. = 1030 eft 
Outflow = 29 eft 
% outflow =2.8% 





JwwiIiA 



2.5 



-2 



15 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
Time in hours 



-1 



05 



| precip. -Tkr flow 



Figure 6.16 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, Laporte County; Data Set 5) 



210 



US-31 , ST.JOSEPH COUNTY (Data Set 1 ) 




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1£ 

Time in hours 



| precip. -*- flow 



Figure 6.17 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, St. Joseph County; Data Set 1) 



211 



0.35 



US-31 , ST.JOSEPH COUNTY (Data Set 2) 




6 7 8 9 
Time in hours 



| precip.-*- flow 



Figure 6.18 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, St. Joseph County; Data Set 2) 



212 



0.6- 



0.5- 



0.4- 



0.3- 



Q. 



0.2- 



0.1 



US-31 , ST. JOSEPH COUNTY (Data Set 3) 



-c^ r . 




i ■ i * i 




Precip. = 974 cfc 
Outflow = 1 eft 
% outflow =0.1% 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

Time in hours 



-02 



-0.15 



I 



-0.1 



-0.05 



-HJ 



| precip. -+- fow 



Figure 6.19 Influence of precipitation on outflow volume 
(US-31, St. Joseph County; Data Set 3) 



213 

the subbase layer towards the drain. The rate of flow in turn 
will depend upon pavement geometry, hydraulic properties of 
the pavement layers and condition of the edge drains. 

A study of Table 6.1 shows high outflow volumes for both 
concrete and asphalt pavements as compared to overlaid 
pavements. In fact, the percentage of outflow volume for 
overlaid pavements is negligible. Overlaid pavement sections 
5 and 6, have the same type of edge drains, and the outflow 
percentage is lower for section 6. The lower permeability of 
the base layer is considered to be the reason for reduced flow 
for this section. 

Sections 9 and 7 are asphalt pavements with edge drains. 
However, both outflow response is faster, with outflow 
percentage higher for section 9. This is attributed to the 
difference in pavement condition of the two sections. Both 
sections had edge cracking, but section 9 had higher levels of 
longitudinal and transverse cracking. The increase in the 
number of surface cracks would contribute to higher surface 
infiltration and subsequently higher outflow. For concrete 
pavements of sections 1, 4 and 10, there is no marked 
difference in the performance of the subdrainage systems. The 
minor difference in outflow volumes is attributed to the 
degree pavements are saturated at the start of a precipitation 
event. Section 10 incorporating a fin drain also exhibited 
high outflow volumes. The poor condition of shoulder seal and 
the presence of an impermeable subgrade would increase the 



214 

lateral flow towards the drain. 

Field data collected in the current study does not 
indicate a trend of higher outflow volume with increased 
rainfall intensity. At most of the sections, a lower intensity 
of precipitation yielded similar outflow volumes. For concrete 
pavements, the percentage outflow from edge drains are between 
0.05 and 0.70. For asphalt pavements, the ouflow percentage 
lies between 0.2 6 and 0.50. For overlaid pavements, the 
outflow percentage is still lower. Outflow data shows, that 
the concept of pavement subsurface drainage criteria based on 
design precipitation rates only (Cedergren, 1973) is 
conservative. The actual infiltration of water is a complex 
phenomenon. Pavement type and condition, edge drain type and 
layer properties have an effect on the amount of water 
entering and exiting a pavement. 

Statistical Analysis 
In an effort to determine the effect of precipitation and 
pavement factors on outflow volume, a statistical analysis was 
conducted using the method of least squares as outlined in the 
SAS General Linear Models (GLM) procedure (SAS Institute, 
1985) . The GLM procedure was used because of missing and 
unequal number of observations for the different combinations 
of pavement and edge drain types. For example, there is no 
combination existing for some of the levels, as fin drains are 
not used with full depth asphalt pavements in Indiana. For 
some sites, data from only a single precipitation event was 



• 215 

recorded because of instrument malfunction. 

Pavement and edge drain types were considered as class 
variables. Three pavement types: asphalt, concrete and 
composite pavements, were included. Pipe and fin drains 
comprise the two qualitative levels of edge drains. The 
response variable is the ratio of outflow to precipitation 
volume expressed as a percentage. Permeability of the 
base/subbase layer was included in the model as a covariate 
for increased precision in determining the effects of pavement 
and edge drain types on the outflow volume. Logarithmic 
transformation of the response data was carried out to achieve 
normality. The resulting definition matrix is shown in 
Table 6.2. 

Analysis of covariance technique was used to reduce the 
error term variability and make the statistical analysis more 
robust for comparing pavement and edge drain effects. The 
analysis of co-variance model based on the above design is 
expressed as: 

Y ijk = n.. + ttj + jSj + y(X^-X...) + e ijk 6.1 

where: Y ijk = value of the response variable (%outflow) 
/n . . = constant 

a ; = main effect of pavement type at i* level 
/3j = main effect of drain type at j* level 
7 = regression coefficient for relation 

between Y and X 
^ = regressor observations assumed as constants 
X. . = overall mean 

e ijk = the experimental error; independent N(0,a 2 ) 
i = 1..3; j = 1,2; k = 1..18 

The GLM procedure was run in two stages. In the 

first stage, the regressor variable was not included. The 



216 



Table 6.2 Definition Matrix for Statistical Analysis 



Factor A 
(Pavement 
Type) 


Factor B (Drain Type) 


Pipe Edge Drain (j=l) 


Fin Drain (j=2) 


% outflow 


base perm. 
(X) 


% outflow 
(Y) 


base pern. 
r/., 


Concrete 
i=l 


5.53 
40.40 
26.52 

69.82 
32.12 
33.83 


0.6 
0.6 

0.6 

0.6 
0.6 
0.6 


59.92 
34.63 


74 
74 


Asphalt 
i=2 


50. 64 
41.72 

26.31 


0.12 
0.12 

0.12 


* 


* 


Overlay 
i=3 


* 


* 


1.35 
2.40 
2.84 
2.21 
2.82 

0.24 
0.51 
0.10 


1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 

0.12 
0.12 
0.12 



combination does not exist 



217 

resulting analysis showed the pavement type to be significant 
at 95% confidence interval (a=0.05) with an F-value of 11.74, 
whereas the edge drain type was insignificant. The goodness of 
fit value was 0.79. In the second run, base permeability was 
included as a regressor variable. The corresponding analysis 
showed base permeability in addition to pavement and edge 
drain types to be significant at 95% confidence interval. The 
goodness of fit value in this case was 0.92. Table 6.3 shows 
the correponding F-values for pavement type, edge drain and 
base permeability. Appendix G contains the statistical input 
and output files for the SAS program. 

The statistical analysis confirms and complements the 
engineering analysis described earlier. There is a significant 
effect of pavement and edge drain types on the amount of water 
being removed from a pavement system. It is an accepted fact 
that higher base permeabilities result in less water being 
trapped in the pavement subsystems for extended periods of 
time. The statistical significance of base permeability on 
percentage of water coming out of the pavement system 
reinforces this issue. 

Moisture Variation Below Pavements 

Results of instrumentation yielded considerable data on 

piezometric head variation and suction changes in pavement 

subbases and subgrades. At some sites, reduced numbers of 

sensors and poor performance of soil moisture blocks resulted 



218 



Table 6.3 Analysis of Variance for Experimental Design 

Case 1; Without Reqressor Variable 

Source DF Typelll SS Mean Square F-Value Pr>F 
PVMT 2 4.57029000 2.28514500 11.74 0.0009 
DRAIN 1 0.07150417 0.07150417 0.37 0.5536 

Case 2: With Base Permeability as Reqressor Variable 



Source DF 

PVMT 2 

DRAIN 1 

BASEK 1 



Typelll SS 
1.79637403 
1.81297567 
1.82533333 



Mean Square 
0.89818702 
1.81297567 
1.82533333 



F-value Pr>F 
11.48 0.0011 
23.18 0.0003 
23.33 0.0003 



219 

in missing or erratic data. Analysis of moisture variation is 
restricted to reasonable data sets. 

Piezometric Head Variation 

Figures 6.20 to 6.29 show piezometric head variation in 
subbase layers for the instrumented sites. All sections show 
similar trend of head buildup immediately after a 
precipitation event. The immediate response can be partly 
attributed to the condition of the core holes. After placement 
of sensors, the cores were backfilled with pea gravel and 
topped with asphalt mix. The discontinuity of pavement and 
patch materials resulted in water infiltrating into the core 
holes through the cracks. Additional sources of intrusion were 
surface cracks and pavement-shoulder joint openings. 

A comparison of head buildups in Sections 1 and 3 shows 
a constant pressure head at the subbase level for a 
considerable period of time at Section 3, whereas it gradually 
decreases at Section 1. Both sections are concrete pavements 
and have identical subbases. The prolonged head buildup at 
Section 3 can be attributed to a number of factors. The 
section was in a cut and did not have an edge drain. The base 
was not daylighted. The subgrade permeability was very low and 
prevented vertical migration of moisture. Thus water was 
trapped in the subbase layer resulting in pore pressure 
buildup. The pressure head was confirmed by the presence of 
moisture when the sensors were removed from Section 3 . 



220 



Section 1 (US-31, Hamilton County) 




85 106 127 

Time in hours 



prectp. inner center outer 



Figure 6.20 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 1) 



221 



Section 2 (SR-37, Hamilton County) 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I M II I M I I II I I I I I I I I I I I M I 1 1 I I I I M I I I 



8 15 22 



29 36 43 50 57 
Time in hours 



64 71 



| predp. inner center 



Figure 6.21 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 2) 



222 



0.25 



0.15 






0.05- 



Section 3 (SR-37, Lawrence County) 




Time in hours 



| precsp. inner center 



Figure 6.22 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 3) 



223 



0.3- 



0.25- 



02- 



c 

d. 0.15- 

u 

8 

a. 

0.1- 



0.05- 



Section 4 (US-41 , Sullivan County) 



v. 



concrete 






u 



subcase 



M 



1—1 — , I I iT T T T TlTT*T 7 l 7 T1 I i .......... l . i j — 1,11,1 — r~T 

1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 

Time in hours 



'14 



■12 



10 



•6 X 



-2 



| precip. center outer 



Figure 6.2 3 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 4) 



224 



Section 5 (US-30, Laporte County) 




I predp inner center outer 



Figure 6.24 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 5) 



225 



0.9- 
0.8- 
0.7- 
0.6- 



u 0.5H 



$ 0.4i 
Q. 

0.3- 
02- 
0.1- 



Section 6 (US-31 , St Joseph County) 



0"H — l — l — l — l — l — l — l — I T T I T 





overlay 



•40 



-35 



■30 



concrete 



subbase 



-25 

-20 I 

c 
■o 

CO 

•15 jB 

Mo 

5 




T T ' I I 1 I I I I I 1 I r ""T " I I I I 1 I I f - "™". -5 

16 21 26 31 36 41 

Time in hours 



| precip. inner center outer 



Figure 6.25 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 6) 



226 



2.5-r 



1.5- 



Q. 



0.5- 



Section 7 (SR-9, Noble County) 




~ i 

11 



16 
Time in hours 



asphait 



-tc 



-3C 



/ ' s 



2C = 



-15 



subbase 



11 



II 



-10 



21 



26 



| predp. center outer 



Figure 6.2 6 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 7) 



227 



1.4- 



1.2- 



0.8- 



£ 0.6- 



0.4- 



0.2- 



Section 8 (SR-43, Tippecanoe County) 



J 



\ 

\ 



r, a 

I' ;\ 

,i . \ 
i ' / 
i 1/ 



i «; 



••-^ 




It 



v A v 



\T 




ill 



•25 



-20 



■15 



asphalt 



subbase 



— i i i i i i i i i i i i i mn i i ri n rfn n"i in i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i — 
1 6 1129 343944 49 54596469 

Time in hours 



•10 



a> 

X 



-5 



-5 



[ precip. inner center outer 



Figure 6.27 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 8) 



228 



Section 9 (SR-63, Vermillion County) 



O.fr 



0.7- 



0.6- 



0.5" 




0.4- 



Q. 



0.3- 



02- 



0.1- 




— i i i i i i i i i ffrm i i i i i i i i i i i i i i H i i i i i i fm i i i i i i i i i i i i i i r 
1 12 23 34 45 56 

Time in hours 



| predp. inner center 



Figure 6.28 Piezometric head variation in subbase (Section 9) 



229 



1.2- 



Section 10 (US-36, Hendricks County) 



0.8- 



0.6- 



0.4- 



M! 



I 

t 

I \ 



V 



I 



!l 



1 1 



p 

g 

c: 

c 
li! 

CI 
l :■ 
CI 



concrate 



subcase 



Liii l n!'fi! i ii ii iiii i i i ii i i i i i niiiiiiMi ii iiiiui i iiii H iliii i i i i i iiii i ii i iiiiuiiiiuinii i Nii i ii'iffiii,iiiii i il"Hi.'.,!ii 
1 22 43 64 85 106 127 

Time in hours 



-2 



| precip. - 



■ center outer 



148 



Figure 6.29 Piezometric head variation in subbase 

(Section 10) 



230 

Section 2, an asphalt pavement with a large stone 
aggregate subbase, did not indicate significant head 
variation. The top size of aggregate for the subbase was found 
to be 2 inches. It is likely that the open graded nature of 
the subbase resulted in rapid removal of water from the 
pavement system and consequently low piezometric head. 

Significant head buildup was recorded in sections 4 and 
10, which are concrete pavements having different edge drain 
types. The piezometric head dissipates much slower at section 
4 having a fin drain as compared to section 10, which has a 
pipe edge drain. This is apparently due to the higher flow 
capacity of pipe edge drains. 

Sections 5 and 6, which are overlaid pavements 
incorporating fin drains do not indicate a substantial 
variation in head. The slightly higher head at Section 5 is 
believed to be related to the higher precipitation intensity 
during data collection. Once rainfall ceased, there was an 
immediate drop in the head. Both sites have sandy subgrade, 
which allows for vertical movement of infiltrated water at 
these sites. This also accounts for the low outflow volumes 
recorded at these sites. 

A high intensity precipitation event was recorded within 
a 24 hour period. The constant nature of piezometric head at 
this site is attributed to the presence of groundwater. Each 
precipitation event produced an immediate rise in groundwater 
elevation. Additional moisture resulted in the drainage 



231 

capacity of the edge drain being exceeded. As a result, 
moisture is retained in the subbase and causes head buildup. 

Section 8 is an asphalt section with an unsealed 
aggregate shoulder and without edge drains. Piezometric head 
variation is not significant at this site. It is believed that 
the positive surface drainage (site is adjacent to the Wabash 
River) and the aggregate shoulder contributes to minimal head 
buildup. 

A study of the figures indicates that piezometric head 
across a section varies. For a majority of the instrumented 
sections. The area around the lane center showed the highest 
head buildup as compared to the wheel paths. This could be 
attributed to the flowpath of moisture within the subbase 
layer. The source of entry for water is at the inner and outer 
pavement edges. When the drainage capacity is exceeded, 
additional moisture infiltration results in the formation of 
a perched water table in the subbase. The crest of the 
piezometric surface is believed to be formed within an area 
around the lane center. 

For Section 9, densif ication indicated by rutting has led 
to reduced permeability and is believed to be responsible for 
a prolonged head buildup. 

Only limited data was obtained for subgrade moisture 
variations because of transducer malfunctions. Figures 6.30 to 
6.35 show piezometric head variations in the subgrade at six 
sites. The figures indicate a rise in pressure head 



232 



Section 2 (SR-37, Hamilton County) 



ii i i i ii ii iiii i iiniiii iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiniiiiMiiiiiii .nl ii . i 

1 8 15 2229364350576471 

Time in hours 



i precip. subgrade 



rie 




Figure 6.3 Influence of precipitation on subgrade 
(Section 2) 



233 



0.25 



0.2- 



0.15- 



0.1- 



0.05- 



Section 3 (SR-37, Lawrence County) 



subgrade 



X 



-30 



-25 



-20 



-15 



-10 



-5 



JL 



i i * i i i i i i i i 'i i i i i i i i i i i i i t i n i i pi i ' i i r i i i i i * i i i i i i i i i i i t i 
1 12 23 64 75 86 

Time in hours 



-5 



| precip. subgrade 



Figure 6.31 Piezometric head variation in subgrade 
(Section 3) 



1.4- 



\2r 



H 

E 

£ 0.8" 

c 

.p 

3=1 

| 0.6H 
0.4- 



0.2- . 



Section 5 (US-30, Laporte County) 



nn i in i in i mi inn i rrrr 
6 11 



k^ 



u 



i i ii i i i i iir 



subbase 



subgrade 



234 



•35 
-30 

-25 

-20 

E 
u 

15 | 
a 
o 

-10 



16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 



-5 



Time in houre 



precip subgrade 



Figure 6.32 Piezometric head variation in subgrade 
(Section 5) 



235 



Section 6 (US-31, StJoseph County) 




20 5 



15 -£ 



Figure 6.33 Piezometric head variation in subgrade 
(Section 6) 



236 



Section 8 (SR-43, Tippecanoe County) 




■ ''■''''''i'i i i i i i i n ii ni l nn in i i i j i i i i i i i i i i j i i i i i i i 1~ -5 

1 6 11293439444954596469 

Time in hours 



| prerip. subgrade 



Figure 6.34 Piezometric head variation in subgrade 
(Section 8) 



237 



Section 9 (SR-63, Vermillion County) 




Time in hours 



| predp. subgrade 



Figure 6.3 5 Piezometric head variation in subgrade 
(Section 9) 



238 

immediately following a precipitation event. The head then 
continues to dissipate typically over a period of 2 4 hours. 
The maximum head in the subgrade at the test sites did not 
increase beyond the subbase-subgrade interface. This suggests 
that most of the head buildup in the subbase layers is due to 
the development of a perched water table. The low pore 
pressures in the subgrade would not be expected to promote 
intrusion of fines into the subbase. 

Moisture Tension Variation 

Moisture tension variation at test sites measured with 
the gypsum blocks is shown in Figures 6.36 to 6.40. As 
described in Chapter 4 , erratic suction were recorded at most 
of the sites due to poor block performance. Only data from the 
test sites where consistent data was achieved is shown in the 
figures. 

As the soil becomes saturated from surface infiltration, 
its moisture content increases with a corresponding decrease 
in suction. Once precipitation ceases and with drainage, 
suction values tend to increase. Analysis of results from the 
test sites are in agreement with this concept. A study of the 
suction-moisture characteristics of subbase and subgrade soils 
(Appendix D) shows that moisture content changes associated 
with corresponding suction variation is insignificant. 

Moisture variations in pavement layers do not indicate a 
specific trend. This is due to the short time period in which 



239 



Section 2 (SR-37, Hamilton County) 



0.7- 

0.6- 
0.5- 

| 0.4- 

c 
ri. 

I 0.3- 
02-\ 
0.1- 




i i n 1 1 1 I i n i m m 1 1 i n i u 1 1 i M i 1 1 i n 1 n i n 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 i u 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 n I 1 i i i 1 1 M r 



1 8 15 22293643505764 71 

Time in hours 



-5.6 
-5.5 
-5.4 
-5.3 

-5.1 | 

U 

L 5 m 

-4.9 
-4.8 
-4.7 
-4.6 



| pnecip. center outer subgrade 



Figure 6.36 Suction variation in Section 2 



240 



0.25 



0.15 



D. 
0. 



0.05- 



Section 3 (SR-37, Lawrence County) 




23 64 

Time in hours 



[ preap. 



center outer subgrade 



Figure 6.37 Suction variation in Section 3 



241 



Section 6 (US-31, StJoseph County) 




16 21 26 

Time 'm hours 



precip. outer 



subgrade 



Figure 6.38 Suction variation in Section 6 



242 



Section 8 (SR-43, Tippecanoe County) 




. y 1 / 



,1/ 



\ 






V 



/ \ 



J ^-> tA 



Figure 6.39 Suction variation 



in Section 8 



243 



Section 10 (US-36, Hendricks County) 



1-2-1 



1- 



0.8- 



d.0.6- 

a 

0.4^ 



0J2- 



-14 
-13 
-12 
-11 
-10 




mi iflnffn in mi l mi ii im u m m n uu iijij i j jiii ffini in in in u mi n nu mil m m mi u n i l i im n un iraffui n i fn n »n u m i n in i n 
1 22 43 64 85 106 127 148 

Time in hours 



-6 
-5 



| precip. center outer subgrade 



Figure 6.40 Suction variation in Section 10 



244 

investigations were carried out at each site. A more complete 
picture of the moisture variation can be obtained if studies 
are conducted over an annual cycle to account for the effects 
of freeze thaw. 



245 



CHAPTER 7 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

Research was conducted on the performance characteristics 
of existing pavement subsurface drainage systems through 
inspection of collector systems and using instrumentation 
techniques for monitoring the effects of moisture movement. 
Subgrade soils from the instrumented sections were studied in 
the laboratory to provide a data base on material properties, 
with special emphasis on application to the computer program 
PURDRAIN . 

Inspection Process Conclusions 

Specific Findings 
Inspection of both old and new edge drain installations 
have resulted in the following conclusions: 

1. Edge drains are effective in removing infiltrated 
water if care is taken during construction regarding 
slope, backfill compaction and outlet treatment. 

2 . Mesh type screens are more effective than other designs 
in preventing rodents and small animals from getting into 
the outlet pipes. 

3 . Treatment of the area around outlet pipes contribute 



246 

significantly to the proper functioning of collector 
systems. Vegetation growth, sedimentation and erosion 
around the outlet area reduce effectiveness of the 
system. 

4. Edge drains on flat grades or at minimum slopes were 
observed to have the most problem with clogging. The 
outlet pipes at these points were partially buried due to 
absence of a freeboard between the outlet and roadside 
surface drainage, 

5. Smooth walled plastic outlet pipes perform better than 
corrugated steel pipes as corrosion and sedimentation are 
more pronounced in the latter. 

6. Care is required in backfilling and compacting trenches 
to avoid sags and collapse of the underdrain pipes and 
buckling of geotextile drains. 

7. The type of fin drain inspected in this study has a 
tendency to buckle, as evident by camera observations and 
field excavations. 

8. Infiltration of fines from base and subgrade soils 
surrounding the trench have resulted in clogged pipes, 
especially on flat slopes. 

9. Most of the damage to outlet pipe openings result from 
mowing equipment. 

10. T-connections are an impediment to inspection of pipe 
edge drains. 

11. Backfilling around prefabricated edge drains with 



247 

excavated material results in an impervious layer coating 
the outside of the filter fabric. This tends to restrict 
water from entering the edge drains. 

Recommendations 
The following recommendations should be considered in 
performance improvment of collector systems: 

1. The inspection methodology developed is recommended for 
use by INDOT in scheduling maintenance on edge drains. 

2 . The video imagescope serves as a valuable tool and its 
use is recommended for periodic inspection of collector 
systems . 

3 . Provide rip-rap protection or concrete pads to prevent 
erosion around the outlet area and damage by mowing 
equipment. 

4 . The outlet pipe should extend to the drainage ditch with 
a minimum freeboard of six inches. 

5. Employ proper backfilling and compacting procedures be 
during construction to prevent sags and collapse of edge 
drains. 

6. Use of a clean-out port and assembly using high water 
pressure is recommended for preventing sedimentation 
build-up and for clearing clogged pipes. The hose can be 
attached to a push rod as used with the camera system and 
inserted into the pipe from the outlet end. 

7 . Use is recommended of an improved product for 



243 

prefabricated edge drains. 

8. Connect outlet pipes to edge drains with a 60 degree Y- 
connection to facilitate inspection and cleaning. 

9. Backfill prefabricated edge drain trench with filter 
material to prevent clogging of drains. 

10. Preparation of appropriate guidelines and directions by 
INDOT to incorporate, where appropriate, the findings of 
this research into the construction, inspection, 
maintenance and long term performance evaluation of edge 
drains. 

Field And Laboratory Investigation Conclusions 
The analysis of field and laboratory data has resulted in 
the following conclusions: 

1. Pavement instrumentation can be used effectively in 
monitoring response of subdrainage systems to moisture 
infiltration. The selection of appropriate instruments is 
a key factor in acquiring good data on pavement 
subdrainage performance. 

2. Gypsum moisture blocks used in the study, deteriorate 
rapidly in constant wet conditions or if placed in 
materials having high salt content. Results of 
performance of this study indicate it is not appropriate 
for pavement moisture studies. 

3 . Comprehensive laboratory testing has resulted in the 
development of a database on the hydraulic properties of 



249 

base/subbase materials and subgrade soils. This will 
help in calibrating and validating the computer program 
PURDRAIN and also in the analysis of new or retrofitted 
subdrainage systems by state highway agencies. 

4. Measured values of the soil-moisture characteristic 
function '\l/(8) ' compare very well with those estimated by 
Brooks and Corey's and Van Genuchten's models for subbase 
materials and subgrade soils. High correlations between 
measured and estimated values were obtained for both 
models. 

5. The constant head permeameter used in the study is 
suitable for measuring permeabilities of cohesionless 
subgrade soils and base course materials having large 
size aggregates. 

6. Edge drain outflow increases immediately for a 
precipitation event for pavements with unsealed edge 
joints. This indicates the pavement- shoulder joint to 
be a major source of surface moisture infiltration. 
Sealing edge joints will reduce this form of moisture 
infiltration. 

7 . Drainage outflow volumes are not solely influenced by 
intensity of precipitation. Material behavior and 
environmental conditions also affect the flow 
from the pavement subdrainage system. 

8 . Pavement and edge drain types have significant effects on 
the response of drainage outflow to precipitation. 



250 

9. The nature of the base/subbase layer has a major effect 
on the drainage outflow volumes. For identical pavement 
geometry, sections with more permeable base layers 
exhibited higher outflow volumes. 

10. Most of the head buildup in subbase layers is due to 
development of a perched water table. Higher head values 
were recorded under pavement centers as compared to 
wheel paths. 

11. Prolonged head buildup underneath pavements can lead to 
pumping. 

12. Suction variation at test sites was insignificant due to 
fully or partially saturated condition of pavement layers 
and shorter duration of measurement. 

13. Datalogger requirements restricted the number and 
placement depth of sensors in this study. Replicate 
sensors placed at various depths in pavement layers 
would provide better information on moisture movement. 

Recommendations for Further Study 
During the course of the project, the following areas 
were identified for further research. 

1. Evaluation of suitable filter materials for trench 
backfills to address the problem of edge drain clogging. 

2 . Further research on monitoring pavement response to 
moisture infiltration using promising methods like Time- 
domain ref lectrometry (TDR) . 



251 

Development of a laboratory device to measure horizontal 
permeability of base layers. The permeameter should 
incorporate provisions for applying surcharge loads to 
simulate field conditions. 

Studies on controlled test sections incorporating open 
graded and filter layers to optimize pavement subdrainage 
performance . 



252 



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APPENDICES 



262 



APPENDICES 



Appendix A - 
Appendix B - 
Appendix C - 
Appendix D - 

Appendix E - 

Appendix F - 
Appendix G - 



Sample CR-10 Datalogger Program 263 

List and Cost of Instrumentation 276 

Condition Survey Data Sheets 279 

Soil Properties and Soil-Moisture 

Characteristics Data 345 

Regression Output and Figures for 

Parameter Estimation 362 

Data from Instrumented Sites 382 

Statistical Analysis Printouts 418 



263 



Appendix A 
Sample CR-10 Datalogger Program 



264 



Program: PAVEMENT SUBDRAINAGE STUDY 

JOINT HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROJECT 
PURDUE UNIVERSITY 

Site: US-31, HAMILTON COUNTY IN CARMEL 
Written: 10/20/90 

Flag Usage: 1 - ACTIVATE 15 MINUTE OUTPUT 
2 - ACTIVATE HOURLY OUTPUT 

Input Channel Usage: 

ID - DRUCK PDCR 831 PR. TRANSDUCER 
S/N 340581, 2.5 PSIG 
HOLE # 1, 14.50" DEPTH 
2D - DRUCK PDCR 831 PR. TRANSDUCER 
S/N 340582, 2.5 PSIG 
HOLE # 3, 14.25" DEPTH 
3D - DRUCK PDCR 831 PR. TRANSDUCER 
S/N 340583, 2.5 PSIG 
HOLE # 5, 14.50" DEPTH 
4D - DRUCK PDCR 831 PR. TRNASDUCER 
S/N 340584, 2.5 PSIG 
HOLE #6, 14.50" DEPTH 
9S - DELMHORST SOIL MOISTURE BLOCK 
HOLE # 2, 14.5" DEPTH 
10S - DELMHORST SOIL MOISTURE BLOCK 

HOLE # 4, 14.00" DEPTH 
IIS - DELMHORST SOIL MOISTURE BLOCK 

HOLE # 7, 14.50" DEPTH 
12 S - THERMISTOR SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE 

HOLE # 3, 14.50" DEPTH 
NOTE: D = DIFFERENTIAL; S = SINGLE ENDED INPUTS 

Excitation Channel Usage: 

1 - DRUCK PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS, 2500 MILLIVOLTS 

2 - DELMHORST SOIL MOISTURE BLOCKS, 2500 MILLIVOI 

3 - THERMISTOR TEMPERATURE PROBE, 2000 MILLIVOLTS 

Control Port Usage: 

Pulse Input Channel Usage: 

1 - RAIN GAGE, 0.01" PER TIP 

2 - FLOW TIPPING BUCKET, 1.1 LITERS PER TIP 

Output Array Definitions: 
FIVE MINUTE OUTPUT 

1 - ARRAY ID (0001) 

2 - STATION ID 

3 - DAY OF YEAR 

4 - TIME (hhmm) 

5 - RAIN (inches) 

6 - AVG. FLOW FOR 5 MINUTES (gallons/minute) 

FIFTEEN MINUTE OUTPUT 

1 - ARRAY ID (0002) 

2 - STATION ID 

3 - DAY OF YEAR 

4 - TIME (hhmm) 

5 - RAIN (inches) 



265 



6 - AVG. FLOW FOR 15 MINUTES (gallons/mm) 

7 - DRUCK #1 (FT) 

8 - DRUCK #2 

9 - DRUCK #3 

10 - DRUCK #4 

11 - DELMHORST #1 

12 - DELMHORST #2 

13 - DELMHORST #3 

14 - SOIL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES FARnNhEITj 
HOURLY OUTPUT 

1 - ARRAY ID (0003) 

2 - STATION ID 

3 - DAY OF YEAR 

4 - TIME (hhmm) 

5 - RAIN (inches) 

6 - AVERAGE FLOW FOR 1 HOUR (gallons/mm) 

7 - DRUCK #1 (FT) 

8 - DRUCK #2 

9 - DRUCK #3 

10 - DRUCK #4 

11 - DELMHORST #1 

12 - DELMHORST #2 
-jo _ nPLiMHORST i^3 
14 - SOIL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES FARENHEIT) 

DAILY OUTPUT (AT 2400 HOURS) 

1 - ARRAY ID (0004) 

2 - STATION ID 

3 - DAY OF YEAR 

4 - TIME (hhmm) 

5 - RAIN (inches) 

6 - AVERAGE FLOW FOR 24 

7 - DRUCK #1 (FT] 

8 - DRUCK #2 

9 - DRUCK #3 

10 - DRUCK #4 

11 - DELMHORST #1 

12 - DELMHORST #2 

13 - DELMHORST #3 

14 - SOIL TEMPERATI 
15 



HOURS (gallons/min) 



- BATTERY (VOLTS DC) 



(DEGREES FARENHEIT) 



* i Table 1 Programs 

01: 300 Sec. Execution Interval 

01: P30 Z=F 

01: 3129 F 

02: 00 Exponent of 10 

03: 1 Z Loc [:STAT'N ID] 

02: P78 Resolution 

01: 1 High Resolution 



266 



03: P3 
01: 1 
02: 1 
03: 2 
04: 2 
05: 1 
06: 0.0000 


04: P37 
01: 2 
02: 0.01 
03: 3 


05: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P33 

3 
4 
4 


06: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P33 
3 

5 
5 


07: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P33 
3 
6 
6 


08: 
01: 
02: 
03: 
04: 
05: 
06: 


P3 

1 
2 
2 

7 
1 



09: 
01: 
02: 
03. 


P37 
7 

.2683 
8 


10: 
01 
02 
03 


P33 
: 8 
: 9 
: 9 


11: 
01 
02 
03 


P33 
: 8 
: 10 
: 10 


12: 
01 
02 
03 


P33 
: 8 
: 11 
: 11 



Pulse 

Re P 

Pulse Input Chan 

Switch closure 

Loc [:RAIN TIPS] 

Mult 

Offset 

Z=X*F 

X Loc RAIN TIPS 

Z Loc [:RAIN/5MIN] 

Z=X+Y 

X Loc RAIN/5MIN 

I III f?RAlN/15MN] Rain(inches)for 15 rainute c« 

Z=X+Y 

X Loc RAIN/5MIN 

I loc [?Hfiyum ] Rain(inches) for hourly out?, 

z=x+y 

X Loc RAIN/5MIN 

I III ^RAlS/DAY ] Rain (inches) for daily outpu: 

Pulse 

Rep 

Pulse Input Chan 

Switch closure 

Loc [:FL0W TIPS] 

Mult 

Offset 

Z=X*F 

X Loc FLOW TIPS 

Z Loc [:FLOW/5MIN] (converts tips to gallons) 

Z=X+Y 

X Loc FL0W/5MIN 

I £c ™0W/?5MN] Flow(gal) for 15 minute out?; 

Z=X+Y 

X Loc FL0W/5MIN 

I Sc [^OW/lV] flow(gal) for hourly output 

Z=X+Y 

X Loc FL0W/5MIN 

I Eoc [:?£oWDAY ] Flow (gal) for daily output 



267 



13: 
01 
02 
03 
04 


P89 
: 2 
: 3 
: 1 
: 30 


14: 
01 


P86 
: 1 


15: 


P94 


16: 

01 
02 
03 
04 


P89 
: 7 
: 3 
: 1 
: 30 


17: 
01 


P86 
: 1 


18: 


P95 


19: 


P95 


20: 

01: 
02: 


P91 
: 11 
: 30 


21: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P92 
: 
: 15 
: 30 


22: 

01: 


P32 
: 12 


23: 
01: 


P86 
2 


24: 
01: 


P8 6 
3 


25: 


P95 


26: 


P9 5 


27: 
01: 
02: 


P91 
12 
30 


28: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P92 


60 
30 


29: 
01: 


P32 
23 



If X<=>F 

X Loc RAIN TIPS 

>= 

F 

Then Do 

Do 

Call Subroutine 1 

Else 

If X<=>F 

X Loc FLOW TIPS 

>= 

F 

Then Do 

Do 

Call Subroutine 1 5 minute output 

End 

End 

If Flag/Port 

Do if flag 1 is high 

Then Do 

If time is 
minutes into a 
minute interval 
Then Do 

Z=Z+1 

Z Loc [:TIMER 15M] Keeps 15 min. output active 6 hrs 

Do 

Call Subroutine 2 DELMHORST AND DRUCK SENSING 

Do 

Call Subroutine 3 15 MINUTE OUTPUT 

End 

End 

If Flag/Port 

Do if flag 2 is high 

Then Do 

If time is 
minutes into a 
minute interval 
Then Do 

Z=Z+1 

Z Loc [:TIMER 1HR] Keeps 1 hour output active 24 hrs 



268 



30: 
01: 

31: 
01: 

32: 

01: 

33: 

34: 

35: 
01: 

02: 
03: 

36: 
01: 

37: 
01: 

38: 
01: 

39: 
01: 

40: 

41: 
01: 

42: 



P86 
2 



Do 

Call Subroutine 2 



P86 Do 

; 4 Call Subroutine 4 

P86 Do 

; 5 Call Subroutine 5 

P95 End 

P95 End 

P92 If time is 

; minutes into a 

; 1440 minute interval 

; 30 Then Do 

P10 Battery Voltage 

: 27 Loc [: BATTERY ] 

P8 6 Do 

: 2 Call Subroutine 2 

P86 Do 

: 4 Call Subroutine 4 

P86 Do 

: 6 Call Subroutine 6 

P95 End 

P96 Serial Output 

: 71 SM192/SM716 

P End Table 1 



DELMHORST AND DRUCK SENSING 



TEMPERATURE SENSING 



HOURLY OUTPUT 



Monitors battery voltage 



DAILY OUTPUT (at 24 00 hrs) 



* 2 Table 2 Programs 

01: 0.0000 Sec. Execution Interval 



01: 



End Table 2 



01: P85 
01: 1 

02: P37 
01: 8 
02: .2 
03: 13 

03: P86 
01: 10 



Table 3 Subroutines 

Beginning of Subroutine 
Subroutine Number 



Z— X*F 

X Loc FL0W/5MIN 

F 

Z Loc [:flowl GPM] 



5 MINUTE OUTPUT 



Average 5 min. flow in gal/min 



Do 

Set high Flag (output) 



269 



04: P80 Set Active Storage Area 

01: 1 Final Storage Area 1 

02: 1 Array ID or location 

05: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 1 Loc STAT'N ID 

06: P77 Real Time 

01: 220 Day, Hour-Minute 

07: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 3 Loc RAIN/5MIN 

08: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 13 Loc flowl GPM 



09: P86 Do 

01: 11 Set high Flag 1 

10: P30 Z=F 

01: F 

02: Exponent of 10 

03: 12 Z Loc [: TIMER 15M] 

11: P30 Z=F 

01: F 

02: Exponent of 10 

03: 23 Z Loc [: TIMER 1HR] 

12: P95 End 



Reset Timer while rain occurs 



Reset Timer during flow periods 



13: P85 
01: 2 



14: 



01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 



15: 
01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 



P6 
4 

23 
1 
1 

2500 
14 
1 




P53 
14 

2.3586 
-.0556 
2.3347 
-.0978 
2.3328 
-.433 
08: 2.3395 
09: -.1915 



Beginning of Subroutine 

Subroutine Number DELMHORST AND DRUCK SENSING 

Full Bridge 

Reps 

25 mV 60 Hz rejection Range 

IN Chan 

Excite all reps w/EXchan 1 

mV Excitation 

Loc [ : DRUCK #1 ] 

Mult 

Offset 

Scaling Array (A*loc +B) 

Start Loc [: DRUCK #1 ] 

Al Druck 1 (340581) Multiplier 

Bl Druck 1 Offset 

A2 Druck 2 (340582) Multiplier 

B2 Druck 2 Offset 

A3 Druck 3 (340583) Multiplier 

B3 Druck 3 Offset 

A4 Druck 4 (340584) Multiplier 

B4 Druck 4 Offset 



270 



16: P53 Scaling Array (A*loc +B) 
01: 14 Start Loc [:DRUCK #1 ] 
02: 1 Al J 

03: Bl Druck 1 Datum Correction 
04: 1 A2 

05 : ° B2 Druck 2 Datum Correctior 
06: 1 A3 

07: B3 Druck 3 Datum Correction 

08: 1 A4 

09: B4 Druck 4 Datum Correction 

17: P5 AC Half Bridge 
01: 3 Reps 
02: 15 2500 mV fast Range 
03: 9 IN Chan 

04: 2 Excite all reps w/EXchan 2 
05: 2500 mV Excitation 
06: 18 Loc [:DELM SM 1] 

07: 1 Mult J 

08: Offset 

18: P59 BR Transform Rf[X/(l-X)l 

01: 3 Reps 

02: 18 Loc [ : DELM SM 11 

03: 1 Multiplier (Rf) 

19: P55 Polynomial 

01: 3 Reps 

02: 18 X Loc DELM SM 1 

£? : 18 ^^ F W Loc [:DELM SM 1] 

04: .06516 CO 

05: .95117 CI 

06: -.25159 C2 

07: -.03736 C3 

08: .03723 C4 

09: -.00394 C5 

20: P53 Scaling Array (A*loc +B) 

01: 18 Start Loc [ : DELM SM 1] 

02: 33.456 Al Bars to feet conversion factor 

U J • U B 1 

04: 33.456 A2 Bars to feet conversion factor 

Uj • U B2 

06: 33.456 A3 Bars to feet coversion factor 

u / I (J B3 

08: 1 A4 

09: B4 

21: P95 End 

22: P85 Beginning of Subroutine 

01 : 3 Subroutine Number 15 MINUTE OUTPn 



271 



23: 
01: 
02: 
03: 
04: 


P89 
12 
4 

25 
30 


24: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P30 
15 

21 


25: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P38 
9 

21 
22 


26: 
01: 


P86 
10 


27: 
01: 
02: 


P80 

1 
2 


28: 
01: 
02: 


P70 

1 
1 


29: 
01: 


P77 
220 


30: 
01: 
02: 


P70 

1 
4 


31: 
01: 
02: 


P7 

1 
22 


32: 
01: 
02: 


P70 

7 
; 14 


33: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P30 
: 
: 

: 4 


34: 
01: 
02: 
03: 


P3 
: 
: 
: 9 


35: 

01: 


P86 
: 12 



For 15 minute flow calculations 



Average 15 minute flow in GPM 



output 



36: 



P94 



If X<=>F 

X Loc TIMER 15M 
< 

F 

Then Do 

Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [: FACTOR 15] 

Z=X/Y 

X Loc FL0W/15MN 
Y Loc FACTOR 15 
Z Loc [:FLOW2 GPM] 

Do 

Set high Flag (output) 

Set Active Storage Area 

Final Storage Area 1 

Array ID or location Sets ID for 15 mi 

Sample 

Reps 

Loc STAT'N ID 

Real Time 

Day , Hour-Minute 

Sample 

Reps 

Loc RAIN/15MN 

Sample 

Reps 

Loc FL0W2 GPM 

Sample 

Reps 

Loc DRUCK #1 

Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [:RAIN/15MN] 

Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [:FLOW/15MN] 

Do 

Set high Flag 2 

Else 



272 



37: P86 Do 

01: 21 Set low Flag 1 

38: P95 End 

39: P95 End 

40: P85 Beginning of Subroutine 

01: 4 Subroutine Number TEMPERATURE SENSING 

41: Pll Temp 107 Probe 

01: 1 Rep 

02: 12 IN Chan 

03: 3 Excite all reps w/EXchan 3 

04: 24 Loc [ : temp' ture] 

05: 1.8 Mult 

06: 32 Offset CONVERTS DEGREE CELSIUS INTO FARENHEII 

42: P95 End 

43: P85 Beginning of Subroutine 

01: 5 Subroutine Number HOURLY OUTPUT 

44: P89 If X<=>F 

01: 23 X Loc TIMER 1HR 

02: 4 < 

03: 25 F 

04: 30 Then Do 

45: P30 Z=F 

01: 60 F 

02: Exponent of 10 I 

03: 25 Z Loc [-.FACTOR 1H] For hourly flow calculatic.i 

46: P38 Z=X/Y 

01: 10 X Loc FLOW/1 HR 

02: 25 Y Loc FACTOR 1H 

03: 26 Z Loc [ : FLOW3 GPM] Average hourly flow in GPM 

47: P86 Do 

01: 10 Set high Flag (output) 

48: P80 Set Active Storage Area 

01: 1 Final Storage Area 1 

02: 3 Array ID or location Sets ID for hourly output 

49: P7 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 1 Loc STAT'N ID 

50: P77 Real Time 

01: 220 Day, Hour-Minute 

51: P7 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 5 Loc RAIN/1HR 



273 



52: P70 
01: 1 
02: 26 


Sample 

Reps 

Loc FL0W3 GPM 


53: P70 
01: 7 
02: 14 


Sample 

Reps 

Loc DRUCK #1 


54: P70 
01: 1 
02: 24 


Sample 

Reps 

Loc temp'ture 


55: P30 
01: 
02: 
03: 5 


Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [:RAIN/1HR ] 


56: P30 
01: 
02: 
03: 10 


Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [:FL0W/1 HR] 


57: P94 


Else 


58: P86 
01: 22 


Do 

Set low Flag 2 


59: P30 
01: 
02: 
03: 23 


Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [ : TIMER 1HR] 


60: P95 


End 


61: P95 


End 


62: P85 
01: 6 


Beginning of Subroutine 
Subroutine Number 


63: P30 
01: 1440 
02: 
03: 28 


Z=F 

F 

Exponent of 10 

Z Loc [: FACTOR dy] 


64: P38 
01: 11 
02: 28 
03: 29 


Z=X/Y 

X Loc FLOW /DAY 

Y Loc FACTOR dy 

Z Loc [:FL0W4 GPM] A 


65: P86 
01: 10 


Do 

Set high Flag (output 


66: P80 
01: 1 
02: 4 


Set Active Storage Area 
Final Storage Area 1 
Array ID or location 



DAILY OUTPUT 



For daily flow calculations 



Average daily flow in GPM 



Sets ID for dailv outrut 



274 



67: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 1 Loc STAT'N ID 

68: P77 Real Time 

01: 321 Day, Hour-Minute 

69: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 6 Loc RAIN/ DAY 

70: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 29 Loc FL0W4 GPM 

71: P70 Sample 

01: 7 Reps 

02: 14 Loc DRUCK #1 

72: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 24 Loc temp'ture 

73: P70 Sample 

01: 1 Reps 

02: 27 Loc BATTERY 

74: P30 Z=F 

01: F 

02: Exponent of 10 . „„^s 

03: 6 Z Loc [: RAIN/DAY ] Reset ram counter 

75: P30 Z=F 

01: F 

02: Exponent of 10 

03: 11 Z Loc [: FLOW/DAY ] Reset flow counter 

76: P95 End 

77: p End Table 3 

* A Mode 10 Memory Allocation 
01: 29 Input Locations 

02: 64 Intermediate Locations 
03: 0.0000 Final Storage Area 2 

* c Mode 12 Security 
01: LOCK 1 

02: LOCK 2 

03: 0000 LOCK 3 



275 



Key: 

T=Table Number 
E=Entry Number 
L=Location Number 



T 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

1 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

1 

3 

3 



E: 

1: 

3: 

4: 

5: 

33: 

6: 

55: 

7: 

74: 

8: 

9: 

10: 

34: 

11: 

56: 

12: 

75: 

22: 

10: 

2: 

14: 

15: 

16: 

17: 

18: 

19: 

20: 

24: 

25: 

29: 

11: 

59: 

41: 

45: 

46: 

36: 

63: 

64: 



L 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

5 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

9 

10 

10 

11 

11 

12 

12 

13 

14 

14 

14 

18 

18 

18 

18 

21 

22 

23 

23 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 



Z Loc [ :STAT'N ID] 
Loc [ :RAIN TIPS! 



Z 

z 
z 
z 
z 
z 
z 



Loc 
Loc 
Loc 
Loc 
Loc 
Loc 
Loc 



RAIN/5MIN 
:RAIN/15MN 
:RAIN/15MN 
:RAIN/1HR 
:RAIN/1HR 
: RAIN/ DAY 

RAIN /DAY 



Loc [:FLOW TIPS] 
Z Loc [:FLOW/5MIN] 
Z Loc ^FLOW/ISMN" 1 
Z Loc ' :FLOW/15MN 
Z Loc ':FLOW/l HR 
Z Loc ':FLOW/l HR' 
Z Loc ': FLOW /DAY 
Z Loc ' : FLOW/ DAY 
Z Loc ' : TIMER 15M 
Z Loc [: TIMER 15M' 
Z Loc f :flowl GPM 
Loc f: DRUCK #1 ] 
Start Loc [ : DRUCK 
Start Loc [ : DRUCK 
Loc [:DELM SM 1] 
Loc [ :DELM SM 1] 
F(X) Loc [:DELM SM 1] 
Start Loc [:DELM SM I] 



Rain ( inches) for 15 minute output 

Rain (inches) for hourly output 

Rain (inches) for daily output 
Reset rain counter 



(converts tips to gallons) 
Flow(gal) for 15 minute output 

flow(gal) for hourly output 

Flow (gal) for daily output 
Reset flow counter 

Keeps 15 min. output active 6 hrs 
Reset Timer while rain occurs 
Average 5 min. flow in gal/min 

?1 ] 

! 1 



Z Loc [ : FACTOR 15 
Z Loc ' :FLOW2 GPM' 
Z Loc [ : TIMER 1HR 
Z Loc [ : TIMER 1HR 
Z Loc " : TIMER 1HR 
Loc [ : temp ' ture ] 
Z Loc [ : FACTOR 1H ] 
Z Loc [ :FL0W3 GPM] 
Loc [ : BATTERY 1 
Z Loc [ : FACTOR dy] 
Z Loc [ :FL0W4 GPM] 



For 15 minute flow calculations 
Average 15 minute flow in GPM 
Keeps 1 hour output active 24 hrs 
Reset Timer during flow periods 



For hourly flow calculations 
Average hourly flow in GPM 

Monitors battery voltage 
For daily flow calculations 
Average daily flow in GPM 



276 



Appendix B 
List and Cost of Instrumentation 






277 



Item 



DATALOGGER SYSTEM 
Description Qty. 



Unit 
Price 



Total Cost 



1 Campbell Scientific CR10 
Measurement and Control 
Module w/WP Wiring Panel 

2 CR-10 Keyboard and Display 

3 Solid State Storage Module 
(96,000 data values) for 
CR-10, SM#192 

4 Peripheral Connector Cable 
for Datalogger, #SC12 

5 C-Cell Battery Pack for 
CR-10, #10ALK/C (12volts) 

6 Clock-S.O Tape Read Card 
and software for IBM-PC 
#PC20 

7 PC-201 Storage Module 
Connector Cable, #SC 209 

8 Datalogger Support Software 
#PC 208 



20.00 



1010.00 

250.00 
450.00 

40.00 

50.00 

500.00 

25.00 
200.00 



MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 

1 Delmhorst Gypsum Moisture 5 
Blocks, #GB-1 

2 Tantalum 100 microfarad 20 
capacitors for gypsum blocks . 

3 1 kohm resistors for gypsum 5 

4 Druck Depth/Level Pressure 4 
Transducer PDCR831 w/300 feet 
additional lead cables 

5 Campbell Scientific Thermistor 1 
Temperature Probe w/additional 
lead cable, #107B 



7.00 

2.50 

0.60 
656.00 



35.00 

60.00 

3.00 
2624.00 

57.00 



278 



Item Description Qty Unit 

■ , Price 



6 Texas Instrument Raingage l 
#TE525 

7 Outflow Tipping Bucket, Purdue 1 
University Central Machine 

Shop 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Wooden Enclosure House, Purdue 1 
University Physical Plant, 
Carpentry Section 



)tal Cost 
246.00 
400.00 



400.00 



2 PVC Junction Box with l 32 OO 
removable lid 

3 PVC Flexible Coupling 4"x6" 

4 PVC Pipe 2" diameter 

5 PVC Fittings 2" dia. 



1 




20.00 


50' 


0.50 


25.00 


12 


0.50 


6.00 



279 



Appendix C 
Condition Survey Data Sheets 



280 



r 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um of this form. ••• TM 6-633: tho proponent *o>ncv It USACE. 



RRANHH 'J :'-.£•.' •- 




. f ■ 


pA T f toll!*". 


<Z1 IRVFYFD RY 1 ■ 


,•>..■ r-' 


' -> 



SECTION 



rf* 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SLAB SIZE 7-4- * 40 



&* 



tf> 



^ 



c 



^ 



*? 







1 f ^ 



(5 



(t) 







o 







.3 



* 4// Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-BySlab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slob a „ 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling /Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 37. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


77777777 /}/////>>>> > > >>> > 


//////// 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


L- 


V///A 


V///A 




•j-r 


L. 


5" 


# 




27 


u- 


/■? 


£} 




>S 


L~ 


/ 


5 




lA 


r* 


6 


?o 




31 


L 


li 


sr 




37 


t- 


2- 


/o 




2-7 


L. 


/ 


r 
























• 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 -CDV 


— 


RATING 


- 











u 



& 



DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



l\^, OCT =n\-oiC 



G 



# £Lt^f> - &»£ 



Figure E-J. 



:-<!?-L , -0 - 6 3 - :i 



r 



C 



O 



281 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For vm o< ZhH lorm, •** TM 6-623; tht p w »— — I towncy U USACC. 



BRANCH. 
D47E 



/ ' >■ 



SURVEYED BY Lii^ 



£. 


_ 7 


^' * 


T 


^V.*~ 


_ # 


2 'I— 
2.-7 L-- 


9 

8 

• 


3W 

2-£M 


2JL. . 

• • 

• • 


7 


v u 


5>L- 


• 
6 


7-trt- 


• — • 
-211 

3.1- 


• 




• . • 


5 


1PL- 


J;L.- 


4 




M/4 


3 

• - 





-1-7L! 

• • 



• 4-0 • 



3' 

- •2-S1 -2.-7 U 



2.7L • 



>|J- I 



SECTION 



rf/,3 



OP^ir 



SAMPLE UNIT 



SLAB SIZE 



2-4- vr ^2_« 



Distress Types 

£/. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slob, , 3 3. Pumping 

24. Durability ("o") 34. Punchoul 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Crocking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


Y//s;s;jss?s/?/ss//;ss//;;;sssrrA 


DIST. 

TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 

SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


L 


'/////< 


Y///A 




11 


L 


/r 


7T 




>1 


r* 


1 


£ 




it 


L, 


2_ 


/O 




W 


M 


7 


\< 




31 


L. 


S 


4° 




3* 


L 


l- 


f° 




31 


ri 


2- 


fo 
























q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 - CDV 


- 


RATING 


z 











X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-J. 



;«?-v.o - si - :i : (li 



282 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um o< tht* form. ••• TM 5-623; ttw propo w nt agency H USAGE. 



BRANCH 


j\ 


~ ^ ■ 




n/iTF 'J- 


-! ! 


■* j 




SURVEYED BY. 


-z 


A'- 


Cri 



SECTION. 



/"Ok 



SAMPLE UNIT =2 
SL/J6 S/ZE 2 ^*J»'' 



~JC-C.fi 



c 






'*u- 



VV_ 



Vu 



J'L- 



ZSi- 



Distress Types 

2/. Blow-Up . 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Stab, (( 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large B 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal, Joint 


r7>>j*/i>>>>>***jj.JJJ>J* 


ssssssss 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


u- 


y////, 


'////// 




I? 


L. 


z 


4° 




^Z 


1_ 


"7 


%< 




7X 


iM 


/ 


r 




JO 


L- 


/ 


r 




3 1 


L 


14 


7D 




37 


L- 


+ 


>o 




31 


L 


4- 


-*o 




2>1 


tA 


/ 


s 














• 

q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 - CDV 


s 


RATING 


— 











<j 



» Alt Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-l. 



3^7-ilC - fcl - :i : l?l 1 



283 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For v*m Of thto focrw. *— TM 5-633; m« proponent »>%-«- f m USAGE. 



BRANCH 


»-■ 




JJ ,1 r-* - * 


'-/■• 


oarr • I 


n 


<f V 






SURVEYED BY. 


- 


*d 


->■ ■ \i 





SECTION 



//fi 



~1c/ 



SAMPLE UNIT : 

SL4S SIZE 2 ^ 



C 



-I - 



O 



/0' z^ 1 - 



j,i_ 



3fi- 



v>-L. 



j 1_"> <— 



2*1 I JJKf 



52- L- 



32- 1- 






f 
TO/ 

4 



*4// Distresses Are Counted On A Slob-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31 Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab 33. Pumping 

24. Durability (' D ) 34. Pjnchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large S 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


;;;;;;;/<>;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;/;;///; 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 

SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


1— ■ 


w//< 


'////// 




ri 


L 


1 


5j 




2-$ 


u 


L~ 


/3 




£? 


M 


A 


> J 




31 


I. 


I 


i 




31- 


L 


/£> 


S" 8 




3 * 


L 


3 


/r 




31 


U 


5" 


xf 
























q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 - CDV 


— 


RATING 


= 











3<»?-!.lC 0-63 



284 



r 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um of thi« form, •** TM 6-623: ttw proponent •coney it USAGE. 



BRANCH. 
DATE 



!/5 3' 



'J/VC-li \,' • • 



o»- 



St> 



SURVEYED RY Z .**"**>. 



SECTION. 



/tf/5 



"3 rX.cS> 



SAMPLE UNIT . 
SLAB SIZE 



2*5- < a.* 



10 \ 



; 3?h 

9 1?M 






JM 



tv 






c 






J - - 



o 



I 



ZSL 



I 31 Z_. 
2 I i*i-- 



3Ti_ 

5iu 



3T-. 
igtf 



31 U 



JTL-. 



i7l 



• • 


Distress Types 




21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 




Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 


» • 


22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 




23. Divided Slob, , 33. Purging 




24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchoui 




Cracking 35. Railroad 


» • 


25. Faulting , Crossing 




26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Seating /Map 


27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 




28. Linear Cracking 37. Shrinkage Cracks 


t • 


29. Patching, Large B 38. Spoiling, Comer 




Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 




30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


• 


?s/ss;;s//?///;;/ssss/////Sy>;s//; 




DIST. 




NO. 


% 


DEDUCT 




TYPE 


SEV. 


SLABS 


SLABS 


VALUE 


» • 


26* 


I— 


w/A 


'////// 






t-7 


L 


3 


w 






>Z 


U 


J 


l\ 






2* 


M 


r 


*r 






3> 


U 


/ 


r 






31 


K 


2. 


iO 






31 


u 


S" 


*r 






><? 


u 


a- 


Jy° 






31 


rt 


i 


*T 






11 


fa 


3-~ • 


/O 






• 

q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 






CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 






PCI = 100 - CDV 


61-11. 




RATING 


• 


^<M^ . 


► • 









• 6-*~*Z 



X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. - - 






DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



4-ro 

n - is- ?i 



) 






Figure E-J. 



eH- <-» 



3^ 



k> u -=^— 



?<»7-bl0 0-83 



'1 



285 



r 



-L 



;*fc 



fL- 



ASPHALT PA VEMENT INSPECTION SHF FT 

*<>* UN Oi TTi to form »_ T»J UM. -^ — 



*» — <rt M ta,. ~ T*. MJ3: «. .^.o^, ^J J ^^^ 



BRANCH 

DATE 

SURVEYEDBY 2. 



tint to 



A** •L' r osJ 



SECTION 



S /l 



— SAMPLE UNIT ' 

— ARE A OF SAMPLE t-f- ■'■ 



Distress Types 
/. Alligator Cracking *I0. LongBTrans Cracking 

II. Patching a Util Cut Patch ng 
IZ Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 
M, Railroad Crossing 
15. Rutting 
- . — , _„...„ IB. Shoving 

* f • ? Ref ' ecti ° n Crocking IT. Slippage Crocking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell ra " y 

======= ___^ /9. Weathering and Ravel ktg 



Z Bleeding 
3. Block Cracking 
*4. Bumps and Sogs 

5. Corrugat ion 

6. Depression 
m 7. Edge Cracking 



SKETCH. 










~2xf3 




i 1 




- 


«•— 2-4 








-V 



H££_-fc± 



ID 



>- •— i 

•—ua J 
f— =» ' 

rz UJ 
S I/O 

cr«3 






?-4-\.;i. l. 



i^Vjt /^ 



2^o ; j_. 



<r' 



EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY & SEVER! Tr 



5" £_~ 



/r 



_2^>>cV i 



2-5-3 



<?6 



5" 



<J50 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



-7 



/0 



/Q 



DENSITY 



t-IOJf- 



S--2-) 



/2-r 



PCI CALCULATION 



SEVERITY 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



H 



q- 3 froXdl, DEDUCT VAI [IF 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



// 



3o 



5~5~ 



■^1 



PCI =100 -CDV = 
6S 



RATING = ^ oot> 



^™t $&T ama ' a "*""'• Dis,ress e*"***?* 

DA FORM S146-R, NOV 82 



286 



r 






m 









£-C 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For urn of thU form, no TM V-C23: th. oc op on o m Miner * UUCt 



BRANCH ££: 37 

£M7-f __Z/Z2Zl2 



SECTION ^ -S ^ 



7_ 



sunvrYFnn Y ->..A 



SAMPLE UNIT. 

AREA OF SAMPLE ±g£2. -JL 



Distress Types 

1. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags 13. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
K 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

/" I 

/ 

1 








I 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE-r-» "7 


1^ 


10 


il 


/ 


/7 


QUANTITY 
6 SEVERITY 


30 f\ 


T-n '« a' Z. 


2* ; vA i- 


1*0' x?'L 


/2/x. -*' Z_ 


j'< r /. 


it- M 




%A-' * 1 H 


«r' Ito^i-'L 






lev t- 




1j»'*3 Z- 












/ Jtf' L_ 






























Aix^r 1*>" 






































j^ L 


/oo 


.oo 


3/e 


lee- 


-4-t? 


.4 


11*1 


S"^ 




3v»- 








*~*H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVCT/7Y 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = 100- CDV = 


1 


1 


/_ 


II 


7 


7--0S 


L- 


-Q 


7 


1-0% 


ft 


K 




Ch 


lo 


t-efr 


L. 


ll 




to 


O-S 


r* 


*■ 


RATING = ^ onn 


/s- 


/2,-r 


L- 


2~°! 


11 


Z4--6 


t—- 


& 


CORRL 


|r074/. DEDUCT VALUE 


.73 






~CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


3? 














X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8^ 
and tO Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 

Figure E-t 

* Dp?™ met ^€i^mJ *h~f ■*•'•&■ ^ SkZuJJiu.. «-^ -v~sJ-±^ 
-t 7viv-,veAx- Cna-cL? Ji: -e*~, /f-i ~Xo *~ C^j-^tAm-JcL fj*#cst 



•cJZ 



i:.-~ 



237 



r 



<«! 






■-C 



—--■?* 



c C 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Ftw u«« of ttita fttrm, m TM (-C23: »*• pnx>o«^m 



££~ 37 



BRANCH _ 



SECT ION 'JiiiJL 



SURVEYED BY— JtJL 



SAMPLE UNIT 

AREA OF SAMPLE 



( 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long a Trans Cracking 

II. Patching autil Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 
K. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

17. Slippage Cracking 

18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



Z Bleeding 
3. Block Cracking 
*< Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
*7. Edge Cracking 
*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 



sketch: 



i 









HEE 



ip 



/*■ l+-< / L. 



— ■ uj , 
I— :» 



£T 






1 1- 



zw 



31-v 



EXISTING D ISTRESS rrP£\ QUANTITY 4 SEVERITY 

~n 



■&&'*a-- u 



St?0 



!•> 



l-t» ' k UL 



A-OO 



/3 



>o+2.' L 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



to 



lb 



15- 



II 



DENSITY 



Ai-jf 



6-1 



Q-OX- 



i-ih 



/L-e>7 



PCI CALCULATION 



SEVERITY 



L. 



L. 



q=S^ \TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



IX- 



/3 



2-& 



• 6A- 



33 



PCI = 100- CDV = 
61 



RATING = 



£253 



* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4Z8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 

FigunE-t 






288 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For mm of o>n form, mm TM (-S23: «• ptopono nt mnri' b USACE. 



. f 



?>"■: 



PS 



S§* 






BRANCH 

04Tf_ 



/2-n 



7777 



^& 



RimvFYFnR Y 1^'* 



spr/rinKi 2 £/^ 




<mmp/ r /y/vrr 


A- 


AREA OF SAMPLE . 


A £•«: ; : *- 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long S Trans Cracking 

II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
•13. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

17. Slippage Cracking 

18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



2. Bleeding 

3. Block Cracking 
*4. Bumps and Sags ' 

5. Corrugat ion 

6. Depression 
*7. Edge Cracking 
m 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 
* 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 



sketch: 



if 



-z& 






1 



EXISTING DISTRESS TrPC. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 



TYPE , 



i-c: 

r-> N 

•a: to 

0-«3 



ifT 



!£m 



2SJL 



73" 



;o' 



rx'~^- 



/c' 



l%IO^L~ 



Lsl£1 



T.0' 



L. 



2-0 > 



1 



1*1. 



•w- I 



22- 



121 



1o 



PCI CALCULATION 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



IO 



DENSITY 



0-A{? 



I<a-l> 



4-2- 



SEVERITY 



L- 



l— 



•2, \tOTAL DEDUCT VALUE* 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



13 



PCI =100 -CDV = 
21 



RATING = l/.&oop 



w 



'-. v 



* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£3£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 It Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R, NOV 82 



«SLU, 



!-^r*-~. -'{Jr~^Ut*> 






/ r 



-J*p** 



r 



m 



m 



•-C 



•^ 



235 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHFFT 



BRANCH _S£^12— 
DATE itnlCfo 



SECTION '-2-' 



/? 



SURVEYED R Y Z--A- 



SAMPLE UNIT £_ 



AREA OF SAMPLE ASc 



Distress 



/. Alligator Crocking 
Z Bleeding 
3. Block Crocking 
*4. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
*7. Edge Crocking 
*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 
*9. Lone/Shldr Drop Off 



Types 

*I0. Long 8 Trans Crading 
II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

'7. Slippage Cracking 

18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 




1jz + 



TYPEirL 



I— > 

cr«3 



-j£ L_ 
1% M 



'JUL 



2LL 



2-J 



EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 



iO 



il 



£'•«. I' L- 



10' t- 



lev ' c ■ 



/■f^ 



<■=) 



'Vi'» ^-L 



A-\0 



/S 



/O'x / 



IO 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



ID 



IT 



n 



l<i 



> 



DENSfTY 



0- ■*-*- 



3-i-l 



O-Xl 



0'l?-S~ 



10 



PCI CALCULA TION 



SEVERITY 



L- 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



7 



TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



• 7V 



75" 



PCI =100- 



CDV = 

8r<: 



RATING = i/.^osz 



* A " £i s ""* ss «s Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4JIS3 
DA FORM 6146-R, NOV 82 



L 



*-<& 



H 



C^j^fcl 



FigunE-i. 



ii.^v, >X-Aw' <; >^. 



<r*f 



s~.fcoC^>. 



-J~£> 



r~ 



290 



i 



2>i 



■.m. 



"1; 






c 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH 
DATE _ 



For im of tfifc form, ••* TM S-C23; tfM propone n t fncy * USaCE. 

?£ -1,7 /&■*>/*" tTiv * SECTION U~l__ 

2jj5H° sample unit 



5 A. 



SURVEYED BY— L^J^- 



AREA OF SAMPLE ££2 LJ£ 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking */0. Long Q Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation W. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking J6. Shoving 

*8. J1 Reflection Cracking IT. Slippage Cracking 
*9.Lane/Sh!dr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

■fv 

1 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE-t— •• r 


/l> 


7 








>■ 

t— 
>- •— 
\—cc 

— Ltd , 

t— =» 

su 
«t to 

cr«S 


• &' x 3'i. 


3' /-I 


ffo' t_ 








/o' ",'1. 


Z2-' L. 


3v>' i— 








>,<r '■> r L. 


ro ' I— 










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-!»' *>' t- 


I- ^-'vCL 








- 




2 -li?: **- 












i*V 7. i- 








y 


























jg L 


/2-3> 


/38 


//D 








11* 




3 










K fcH 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = ICC -CDV = 


1 


2*5-6 


L-- 


/%■ 


1 


2.-2<9 


L- 


A- 


lo 


2-fg 


L- 


c 




7^ 


ID 


<7.<?6 


M 


e> 












RATING = l/-AOoj) 


















CORRl 


Jror^i. DEDUCT VALUE 


•zr 






:C7f0 DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


2-1 












X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4,Z8,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



•* -S"/^y^~~ 7 5* 



^siO y-£-- 



Figure E-i. 
._- &^£~cJv jz-'ze-f^ ekjsM -4 :~ro ■■,-,.! 



rr-i' 






r 



a 



c 



291 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Foe wm of thta form, m* TM S-C23: th* i 



BRANCH 
G4r£ 



Sfl- 11 



<TA 



~7//->/3„ 



SURVEYED BY— 2-^- 



SECTION_L 
SAMPLE UNIT J 

AREA OF SAMPLE _±£l 



f 



Distress Types 
/. Alligator Cracking *10. Long 8 Trans Cracking 



II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 
* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



2, Bleeding 

3. Block Cracking 
*4. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
m 7. Edge Cracking 



sketch: 



1F> 

: ( 



I 



jibe 



10 



' n ~>*- r* 



t—cc 
zr uj 



j^L 



B" 



l&H. 



j£_ 



2~*- 



EXI STING DISTRESS 7 mr, QUANTITY & SEVERITY 



/7 



V v i _ 



'I - I L. 



67- 



If 



VJ •'. 2-'t- 



At? 






DISTRESS 
TYPE 



IP 



IO 



n 



I'n 



PCI CALCULATION 



DENSITY 



htf 



o-sr 



o- 04- 



CSi 



SEVERITY 



L 



M 



q=/ [TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



/>- 



If 



IB 



PCI =100 -CDV = 
SI- 



RATING = 



V- AOOo 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8^ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured ki 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



c 



Figure E-Z 



Sko-JcL- 7-i**,^ .C*.-J~ -w ftjFtf- ~j 



<4p*s*&j ^ 



„J- - 



292 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um o< Tfilt form. m« TM G-623; th« Droponwis •0*ncv U USACE. 



BRANCH _>/Z 



1 . fiETjfort-O 



SURVEYED BY 



-2. fi,^^tc.~ 



SECTION 



r/* 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SLAB SIZE II * ^ 



10 



»* 



.*_ 



i< 



!% 



r 



T7 



1 .. i 



'2- 






4 



v 



'V 



7« 
• — 



Distress Types 


2/. Blow-up 31. Polished 


Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 


22. Comer Break 32. Popouts 


23. Divided Slab 3 3. Pumping 


24. Durability ( 'D ) 34. Punchout 


Cracking 35. Railroad 


25. Faulting Crossing 


26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 


27. Lane/SMdr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 


28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 


29. Patching, Large B 38. Spoiling, Corner 


Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 


30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


>s?ss/s?j>>?>?sss?s;s?j?js?ss/??> 


DIST. 




NO. 


% 


DEDUCT 


TYPE 


SEV. 


SLABS 


SLABS 


VALUE 


26* 




'////// 


'/////> 




31 




-^ 


/ CO 




■ 

q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 - CDV 


— 


RATING 


- 











fhM 



X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 






DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-J. 



'■>-.:'* - i, - :'. 



293 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For us* of tMi to*m. •** TM &-6S3: tt«« »JHp mi l »o— icy *■ U^ACE- 



RPAurH <-/-? n gcVg^j SECTION 



ifi. 



DATE 



SAMPLE UNIT 



£. 



SURVEYED fly O- - gg^l£2 :*■'-*'-"; SLAB SIZE 



I; * ~-J 



10 



c 




Distress Tyoes 

2/. Blow-Up 3L Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32 Popouts 

23. Divided Slab 33. Pumping 

24. Durability { ' D ) 34. Punchout 
Crocking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Seating/Map 

27. Lone/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Crocks 

29. Patching, Large B 38. Spelling, Corner 
Util Cuts 3 9. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


Y///s;/>>>>??>>>?>>>>>;s; 


s/////// 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


% 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 




'/////> 


'////// 




•?/ 


L- 


">a 


in 




5o 


L 


1 


*r 




2-9 


L- 


J 


r 




V? 


ff 


2- 


to 






















































q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI - 100 - CDV 


- 


RATING 


5 











* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



G 



DA FORM 514SR. NOV 82 



Ut£e~ ***" VP .SU-A^A 



Figurr E-L 



■»?-i'.C - S3 - ;i : OL 1 



294 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For tiM of this form. *m TM 6-623; tfM p c opOWM agoncy hi USACE. 



BRANCH |lllL £££2££ 



SECTION 






SURVEYED BYj_ 



n .-■■*" -J 



SAMPLE UNIT . 
SLAB SIZE 



C 



/o 



I 

1 






i 

i 
i 

| 

i 

i 
i 












fl 




uisTress i ypes 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab,, 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling /Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking /Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


• 




1? 


1- 


r 
| 



• • 

i° 


r- ' 

i 
1 


4 


1 


MJJJ/J.. 




////■/ / / / 




DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


• 


26* 




'/////> 


'/////< 






3 / 


L~ 


~<U? 


ica 






























i 


2 


i 
1 

L 












1 ^ 












1 - 












i 


6 














K 
























1 


(-I 




■ 

q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 






CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDVl 






i 






PCI = 100 -CDV 


— 


! ^ 


RATING 


- 




I 











c 



m All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-l. 



?s?-i'-0 o - 63 - :i : CL l 



29! 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For «*■ of This form. *++ TM 6-C23; tf>« PWPW W I ■^■Mf I* t/SACE. 

BRANCH <£lH2 MJszi: SECTION _<J^___ 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SURVEYED fly ? A-f^T); H-. Cos^c S LAB SIZE ' l * 2f 



/0 



c 




Distress Types 

2/. Blow-Up 31 Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab u 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ("D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Crocking 3 7. Shrinkage Crocks 

29. Patching, Large 3 38. Spelling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


/jjjjjjjjjjjjjjsjjjjsjj'jj 


/////>/' 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


*7 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 




Y///A 


W//A 




V 


L- 


1* 


in 




Ik 


r* 


1 


C 




3S-& 


L- 


1 


r 




ZT 


L- 


4-. 


■yo 






















































- 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 - CDV 


- 


RATING 


= 











L 



X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-J. 



9?-sL0 - 63 



296 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For uw of this form, —m TM &-€33; th« proponent •qotcy '« USACE. 



BRANCH_i£^_2_Lii£2ff£f 
047E 



SECTION. 



:/S 



=*hfhi 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



S" 



SURVEYED BY h^lH^n. '' u - g°-^° SL46 S/ZE . 



/I <1<g 



10 



n 



n 



1 1 



1 



-) 



f 



T, 



T^> 



/* 



/1> 



/l) 



Distress Types 

2/. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchoui 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


1/S//.M. 


;;;;;/;,/ ■ ,■ .- / ,• . / 


////// //- 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


% 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 




V//A 


y///// 




y\ 


l~ 


7^> 


/to 




3? 


L- 


1 


<r 




7--I 


u- 


1 


r 
































































• 

q= . 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 




CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 




PCI = 100 -CDV 


- 


RATING 


— 











X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-J- 



^?-b!.0 O - tJ - :i : OL J 



297 



(' 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um Of tTiJi form. <-** TM 6-623: JT— prooonont aovncY l * USAGE. 



BRANCH U ^-41 .^uuuvw^n 
DATE _Ml<hl 



SURVEYED BflJSSE&L 



SECTION 



2fi 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SLAB SIZE *- y *g 



/0 



c 




-2 





7">L 


in L 


r" 






1.7 1- 








It L. ■ 
















27 V 








T-SL- 






v>t 


■s^u 






V-L 


Ja^ 






i,o£- - 


*&' 








1 < 


► 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 

Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 
22 Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab 3 3. Pumping 

24. Durability ("o") 34. Punchoul 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large a 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuis 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


v/sysj- 


///;/// 


//////// 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 

SLABS 


°7 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


L- 


y///// 


'/////> 




in 


L- 


s 


If 


2- 


2-3 


L- 


2 


ft 


£ 


2J) - 


u 


s 


2S 


9 


>o 


L- 


& 


3t 


2— 




















































q=^ 1 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


M 


CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/& 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


S^ 


RATING 


= V 


■■ CmJ 






■' 



c 



*f All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figvrr E-l. 






-.' 



PCI- 79 -n 

=, ZOOS 



298 



r 



C 



5 

r 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For v— of thta form, m TM S-623; tft« proponent agoncy to USACE. 



BRANCH i A- 4-i ■ gouuAvygg 



SURVEYED RY ~Z -Ar^&P 



10 



2-*<- 



»*L- 



Z,»^ 



**<- 



i££- 



ZoL- 



if*- L 



^ L 



2SZ- 



i*i- 



>^<^ 



M 1 - 






Zjl^ 



f\u- 



3K All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab 
Distress 26, Which Is Rated For the En 



SFCTION SG 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



T- 



SLAB SIZE n y Zf 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab u 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 3 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


rssvSy> t >;;;s////s//ss/s?/s 


/;////// 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 

SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


U 


V//A 


Y///A 


2_ 


2>» ' 


L- 


Z 


^-0 


/3 


28 


L. 


~) 


^<~ 


/a- 


2^ 


L. 


1 


S" 


o 


?° 


U 


3> 


i$ 


o 




















































q=i 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


1A 


CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


i-3 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


11 


RATING 


= 


i/^roff . 









By-Slab Basis Except 
ire- Sample Unit. 



G 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-l. 



J^J-V-O - ts 



299 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um Ql thU foitn, •*-. TM 6-633; -)■-. propwwit ■^■— » to UCACE 



BRANCH U?-4-i iULL-^fr^ 



SURVEYED BYj^fHt^R. 



SECTION 



<^ 



SAMPLE UNIT - 
SL/5S S/ZE 'l' T 



/0 



r # . 



F 








i 1 

22-1- 




ZJ-L 




7^- j 




•■ j 




2XZ- | 

i 




• 

1-fi- j 

' 1 

! 


VU 


.ML I 


?a U= 




7 2.^ 


21 L 


* < 


• 



Distress Tvoes 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab, 3 3. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchoul 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling /Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large B 38. Spelling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spelling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


ZZZZjEZ 


//////, 


DIST. 

TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


7 
SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


L— 


'/////, 


V///A 


•2- 


z^ 


L- 


% 


^; 


3- 


2-^ 


i_ 


i 


r- 


z. 


a-* 


** 


i 


r 


r 


2 ? 


L. 


3 


/C 


& 


Z-S 


1*1 


/ 


i 


z 


20 


I— 


a- 


"i'O 


i 


Jo 


H 


I 


f 
> 


~^~ 






















q = > - 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


r 


CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


33 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


&1 


RATING 


= 


tooo 









c 



* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figurr E-l. 



3W-iiO - £3 - *.: : OL J 



300 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For uh of Tt\H form. ••• TM 6-633: th« p ropownt somcy It USACE, 



D4r____il__l___ 



SURVEYED BY 



X-A^f-!£c> 



SECTION. 



Cfi 



SAMPLE UNIT. 



SLAB SIZE 



IZ 



L 



J, 



/o 



2-^- 



1T.1- 



2.g-L. 



if- 



XtL- 






U-t- 



w»f 



<,U_t 



Distress Types 



21. Blow-Up 
Buckling/Shattering 

22. Corner Break 

23. Divided Slab 

24. Durability ( D ) 
Cracking 

25. Faulting 

26. Joint Seal Damage 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 

28. Linear Cracking 

29. Patching, Large S 
Util Cuts 

30. Patching, Sma!. 



31. Polished 
Aggregate 

32. Popouts 

33. Pimping 

34. Punchout 

35. Railroad 
Crossing 

36. Seating /Map 
Cracking /Crazing 

3 7. Shrinkage Crocks 

38. Spoiling, Corner 

39. Spoiling, U 
Joint 



{ / Z Z 2 



DIST. 
TYPE 



26* 



it 



zg 



SEV. 



77777, 



>;;?;>;>ttt7 



NO 
SLABS 



ZZZZZZZ2 



% 
SLABS 



______ 



/ _- 



/r 



q= 3 " TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE KDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



n 



n 



PCI = 100 - CDV = _____ 
RATING = V-Suoo* 



SI 



t 



* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-J. 



?^?-b*„0 - S3 - :i : OL J 



301 



C 



For um of tTUa rorm. mm TM 5-C2 3 . 0*» 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

-• prooorMAt «o*ncv -» U3ACL 

SECT ION SA 



BRANCH UW ,.Su'.juwr<~ 



SAMPLE UNIT 



SURVEYED BY 2-#2*2S2> 



SLAB SIZE (2l*J£ 



10 



I 4 

3 - 

U-D. * 





> 

JlL- 

i 

3<w- 


» • 

lit- 




l*L- 




?JU 




?oL 






>«i~ 


JJ^ 












22^-" 


< 






* , 




•■ 


4 


J_ 



2 3 



Distress Tvoes 

2/. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32, Popouts 

23. Divided S/o6 J J. Pumping 

24. Durability ("D") 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling /Map 

27. Lane/ShJdr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large B 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


.rrrrrr f s / / r e / n 

% DEDUCT 
SLABS VALUE 


26* 


U 


V//A 


W//A 


a. 


T-t- 


L- 


i 


s~ 


A- 


2-A- 


L. 


2> 


/r 


& 


Z1 


L- 


i 


g" 





3o 


L. 


2 


>«; 


2_ 


3? 


L 


/ 


r 












































q= / ■ 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


/S" 


CORRECTi 


EC DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/S~ 


PCI - 100 -CDV 


sr 


RATING 




r- -w 









* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-I. 



c. 



"U-l'.O - [3 - :i : JL ! 



302 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For un Of thb form, mm TM 6-623; «m proponent aoVtev *• US ACE. 



BRANCH 'J±L±1 ±j ±t-±L±Z. 



DATE 



SURVEYED fly 7.-A»>^» 



SECTION. 



5"A 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



6 



SLAB SIZE 



n '-,->, 



C rJ 



1 uo. 



10 



c 



l£L 






%ls 



ri-.L 




Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab, 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


>*/>JJJ/>>/>*///SJJJJJJJJ 




DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 

SLABS 


*7 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


t- 


'/////, 


'////// 


2. 


11 


u 


2- 


/0 


8 


27 


L. 


T 


2-r 


i_ 


7? 


L. 


> 


fS 


g 


Z-f 


U 


2_ 


V) 


0- 


3 9 


L. 


2- 


fO 


2- 










































q=^ 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


1A- 


CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


t°l 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


9< 


RATING 


- 


V-$„J ■ 









I 2 

x All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. . Mt hA 



DA FORM S14S-R, NOV 82 



J>t<t£> CA'ci-) 




■ M- 



&JZ . 






2BJ 



*X> 



?«?-i:c o-t3 



103 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH 
DATE 



f~o* wm of OM» form. Ma TM C-«2J; m« oraMnwn it i_ j M USAC£. 

ty? : 3^ LfiflQl-?L section _^_i^L 



/«; 



77JM 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



( 





SURVEYEDBY 2 


■A/lffo . 


U . Col /"o 


AREA OF SAMPLE 


2-J-', 


m> ' 




Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long S Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding ft Patching a IW/ Ctrf Patching 
3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugat ion 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression IS. Rutting 
*?. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*$. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


s ketch: 

r 


tea 




7-* 


V- 




EXISTING DISTRESS ^/Pf. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 




TYPF+-* 7 


tO 














QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


'.IfD'L- 


•}■£■' i_ 














r? i- 


IS L- 












-* 


tOL 














/ro i— 






















































































-j£ L 


US' 


'+*> 












H M 
















^H 














PCI CALCULATION 




DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 




7 


tr-% 


L- 


1 




10 


<£■ t 


L* - 


/J, 














9° 
























RATING? c....t/^Jh 














<l = 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


X? 








CORREX 


^"£0 DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


' /o 









X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8^ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft', Distress 13 Is Measured h 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R, NOV 82 

FtgurrB-i. 




304 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For um of trite form, «m TM I-C23: tfw propo w m w^unef to USaC£. 



BRANCH 
£W7£_ 






SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT. 



1^6 



t- 



<iiif>vrrYFna^l-^f^^ ,' ± c*^ AREA qf SAMPLE ^±*J£J 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long & Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching SUtil Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags */3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Crocking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

'/-■ 

ft* 

I ( 




^a 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE.QUMTITV & SEVERITY 


TYPFH-* I* 


-i 










- 

■>- 

i— . 
>- —i 
I— es 

-r uj 

C7«3 


/<?' L, 


/r<- ■ 










2./H- ■ 


a-^a- L. 












iro l. ■ 












3<rt_ 






































































-j£ L. 


$A 


ll*r 










|| M 














M*H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 - CDV = 


7 


1-4 


L- 


3-r 


to 


7- 3 


L- 


J4- 
































RATING = „.r,.-.J 


















CORRE 


[total deduct value 


n-< 






CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


'/7-r 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft} Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-t 



305 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



f-o* wm of fftta form. «m T14 %-*Zul DSo HWPO — I 



BRANCH W>' ~>° <-*/>**'*£■ 
DATE 



SECTION 



U//S 



roAl /*> 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



' 



SURVFYFnR Y I Ajt£& : V ■ Cc<s" > AREA OF SAMPLE *■ *-"*»' 



Distress Types 


sketch: 


/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long B Trans Cracking 


__£i— 


Z Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 


f 1/ * 


3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 


1 • I " * 


*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 


/ "" 


5. Corrugal ion 14. Railroad Crossing 


[! 


6. Depression 15. Rutting 


1 i 


*"7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 


I M 


* 8. Jt Reflection Crocking 17. Slippage Cracking 


! f* 


*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 




19. Weathering and Raveling 




EXISTING DISTRESS TYPEMMTITY S SEVERITY 


TYPF-r-* 10 


n 


r 








QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


/*-£- 


lu 


■2-4- 








2.2-t-- 












ItL. 












ZL- 












Tx+fSL- 












Kl~ 












It. ■ 




































^ L 


?e> 


3 


7+ 








o!** 














k s« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 






DEDUCT 




TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 
91 


7 


o- 1 


L-. 





8 


1 


b- 


2- 


/o 


3-8 


L^ 


? 










RATING = r.../; *- 


<J= 

CORRE 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


// 






CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


II 









*r All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£3£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R. NOV 82 



Fi&m E-i. 



306 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

for am Qt «iti farm, mm TW «-«23: «<• pt op — n ■■r :v to USACE. 



BRANCH 



US^}n Lsi*fc>/17£ 



SECTION . 
SAMPLE UNIT. 



u/4 



SURVEYEDBY 2 


■ A^r^fl ', 


c/. <r*;^o abf-a nc CAUDI P 


La- * 'ri 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. LongBTrans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation K Pail rood Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

r ' 

i 

i ; 


!■> 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY S SEVERITY 


TYPFH-* IO 


I 


8 








QUAMTITY 
ft SEVERITY 


■3-f-L- 


iOL.- 


ZJ-L- 








lo L-- 












-}>u ■ 












?ou- 












IffOL- ■ 












/ft- ■ 
















































ofei. 


n°i 


C° 


T-& 








Ii w 














•-Sw 












PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI -100 -CDV = 


7 


2-T 


L- 


A- 


i 


/ 


L. 


1^ 


to 


7-r 


L- 


1+ 




F> 




















RATING = ., , , 


















CORRE 


\tOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


1& 




v 'Suva 


CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


■yO 









x All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4?jB$ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



Figurt E-i. 



307 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For im ©I thli form. «m tu t-*i23 m prooo«vw , 



BRANCH 
DATE 






SECTION 



Lsrt, 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



( 



SURVEYEl 


■>ryX- 


,/*<5~"C> / ■tJ~C&<- 




iff Fa DP SAUPI F l+C"3f 




Distress Types 


sketch: 


/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long B Trans Cracking 




2. Bleeding II. Palching BUui Cut Patching 




3 Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 




*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 


i r* 


5. Corrugation K. Railroad Crossing 


i '- 


6. Depression 15. Rutting 


i 


*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 


L___L 


* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 


*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 


^l 


19. Weathering and Raveling 




EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf. QUANTITY S SEVERITY 


TYPF4-+ -7 


10 










* f 

>- 


30 i— • 


Z-*L- 










<T0U 


z*^- 










tL 


' <rz- • 










>- «l 














•— • ud J 

r- > 


























n uj 
































































->?"£ 


&<> 


3«- 










|| u 














•-»« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 






DEDUCT 




TYPE 


DENS/TY 


S£"WE7?/7T 


VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


"7 


3-6 


Z_ 


C 


/O 


/■(> 


£- 


A- 


















RATtNGs B<uU^ 








<?= 

C0W7£ 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


ID 






7TF0 OEDCCT VMtC£ (CDV) 


/o 









X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-S. 



308 









^ \ 




ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Formd Otla farm. ~ TW *433: nm procan ml —I C| it USACE. 



BRANCH W 
DATE _ 



3i flriwi . iiKi*-- "f *> SECT ION 



Nfh 



ZhnM 



SAMPLE UNIT. 



I 



SURVEYED BY-J^J±±ZL&Q AREA OF SAMPLE 2A-</fp' 



Distress Types 


sketch: 

A- 

1 .1 

i.jo ! ■ 

1 \ 
■ 

la \ 


/. Alligator Cracking K I0. Long 6 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching & Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

K 8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
* 9. Lone/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


EXISTING DISTRESS TITT. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-K* * 


JO 


7 








QUANTITY 
6 SEVERITY 


' 2J. L. 


/99*~ 


K»L~. 








/17> l- 


I2.L- 


<n>** 








T-O-U- ■ 


< !—• 


£U 




































































. t 












-j£ L 


jA.4- 


II t 


?t> 








28j« 






JT> 








"fi« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 

v, 77 


1 


a- 33 


L- 


•4 


"7 


r-o& 


rt. 


/2- 


8" 


(,■ o 


Ll 


/O 


'/D 


Afl 


t- 


/I 


























q=3 


\rOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


- 37 


CORRE. 


VTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


23 











* All Distresses Are Measured Jn Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8& 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



..Co 



7VV**"- 



z^r 



\\: i* 



J — f - 



Figure E-i. 






{ 



tK*~r e ~~U.d &M- . 



309 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



f-O* wm o-f th* form. 



BRANCH ^-3.' totem 

rmTF ffn7±i 



jas7* Ae,j *> SECTION 



fjfii 



SURVEYED BY JLl^22^1IL 



SAMPLE UNIT - 

AREA OF SAMPLE 3^=d /^ 



f 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long 3 Trans Cracking 
2. Bleeding 11. Patching autii Cut Patching 


SKETC 


. 1 

7-* 


3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railrood Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
* 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 




EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf. QUANTITY S SEVEf-TTY 


TYPF-f-* 7 


* 


16 


1 






QUANTITY 
6 SEVERITY 


■ 7V«- 


2-* IAL 


A U ■ 


Axl L. 






zr^i 


/fO u 


/rot— 




























































































^ 


7r 


l*Z 


IOA- 


8 






Si" 


7-r 












^H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = 100- CDV = 


1 


f~33 


L- 


sr 


7 


3.1 


i— 


5~ 


1 


/■ 


M 


2T 




71 


B 

/O 


6 ■ 1 / 




II 












RATING * 1/ /-. j 










q= 2- 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


- 3n 




v ■ jfiir- 


CORRB 


TTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


-& 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 I* Measured m 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R. NOV 82 

Figure E-i. 






£&- 



<Jf 



*& 



310 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For im o* Mi form. •*• TM t-023: «m proponent ^ icy to I HAC E. 



BRANCH >J2^ £*£f£ j ■■Ta-J^A^? SECTION 

G47E HnJSl SAMPLE UNIT 



*"b 



SURVEYEDBY 


~2r- 


ftl*T-<l£r? 


AREA OF SAMPLE 




Ufrctiit 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. LongBTrans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 
3. Block Crocking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation W. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

x 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Crocking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

! [' 


EXISTING DISTRESS 7 rP£. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TY pF-|— > 1 


c 


10 








QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


• fsvt. ■ 


fro L- 


S-L. 








■AL- ■ 


•LjU- 












■Z^t-L- 


















































































*I L 


10A . 


l«t 


r 








11 M 














MS« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


~7 


A-y 


L, 


g 


■i 


£-2- 


L- 


ii 


/o 


0.11 


L- 


1 




sr 





















RATING = &*cdb-£ " 


















CORRE 


[total deduct value 


2-0 







CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/r 









X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses <7fiJ9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-i. 



;ii 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Fo* vm «f V*M t+rm. 



BRANCH oi ' il ±r&K} Si2gS a *SECTI0N 

CWTE SlUllL SAMPLE UNIT 



hJfi? 



SURVFYFDRY 2- - S*tr*ep Aar& ntr saup( f 


2"^~^ tj\ 




~ 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long a Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching autil Cut Patching 
3. Block Crocking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation K. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression IS. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Crocking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE.QUAHTIT1 & SEVERITY 


TY PF-+-» 7 


5? 


10 








>- 

>- — • 
t— a. 

— ud J 

t— =» 

ZZ UJ 
<X. IS) 

=> 

0-«3 

> 


IffVL. 


tJU- 


<ri~- 








?L- 


ImL. 


I1~L- 










1*L- 


wt 












li A-- 




































































^ t 


f02> 


IAS 


*<7 








11 if 














-*H | 










PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


Jf-3 


L 


$ 


5? 


tf.2- 


f- ■ 


II 


12. 


3-1 


t- 


<z 




8* 




















RATING = V^nJ 










' q= > 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


-VJ 


CORREi 


TTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/(, 













X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4J2BJ3 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft', Distress 13 Is Measured *i 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



^Wv-*^U.' 



FigareE-1 



312 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For u~ ci «|M tomt. •— TM (-SZ3: ttv> PWOOMI n Wi ne r H USACE. 

BRANCH t/J - 3> /37/^y ^ou^gfw g SECTION ^^ 

04 rE rtiih' SAMPLE UNIT . 

gj/pi/rvrncv 2 ./ttV^ 



X. 



4/?E4 CF SAMPLE 



-atmVt 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching SUtil Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate . 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation M. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
K 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

/ i 




EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY J SEVERITY 


TVPF-H-* id 


~7 


& 








QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


<&U 


iroU ■ 


fKL 








fruU- 


■s&u- 


■2-a-U ■ 








Pr- 




i-+L- 
















































































-j£ L 


Sf 


IJ>o 


i4-e 








11" 














k s« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


S + 


L-. 


8 


g 


6-Z. 


i. — 


II 


10 


3-61 


L— 


t 




fif 




















RATING = yjfnj. 


















CORRB 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


11 


7TED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


t& 













* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4 £8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft) Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-i. 



313 



c 



C 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SH EET 

^ 



BRANCH ggif. >;or-,uf 
DATE ZJJZ M ' 



SURVEYEDBY. 



At-'z-irp 



SECTION il>* £%/**£* > f-U- : 
SAMPLE UNIT ' 



AREA OF SAMPLE 



~L-a-t- .'.7- 



Distress Types 
Alligator Cracking */ . Long Q taj Cr acking 

II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 
M. Railroad Crossing 
15. Rutting 
w- ■ — 57.T" — ■— s» 16. Shoving 

9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



2. Bleeding 

3. Block Cracking 
*<. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 

,7. Edge Cracking 



sketch:,,^ 


r 


i 


* 


tr* 




c 2* 





EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY j SEVERITY 







DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



1 







-*&-*" A-iCC^ $C~*-£-J CK^^S 



±t~ 



J 3 



A - 



314 



c 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um of thla form, m* TM 5-623; trw proponent •o*ncv f* USACE. 



BRANCH 5£zl 
DATE _ 



/t/»/5 i_^" 



*JnJ_±i 



SECTION >/.< H ux'-.'Sk* >±- At£-\.i 
SAMPLE iifjir 2- 



siwvfyEOfly 


1 -fi- 




ARFA DF <iAMP\ F ^^^ ***' 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long 3 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags X I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*S. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
* 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


SKETCH 

' 1 

\ 


\ 


EXISTING DISTRESS 7TPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-4-+ 11 


1 • 










QUANTITY 
6 SEVERITY 


■ fZ'tJh'L. 


(/' L. . 










































































































-£*- 


o-rir 


II 










11 * 














*-&!" 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


o-*l 


L- 




n 


oZ- 


L 


































RATING = 




















TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 








CORRE 


"C7 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











T "<* 



UO 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4?,8J9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 

FigunE-2. 



o 



315 



c 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Foe um of thta form. 



i TM &-623: th« proponent 



BRANCH^/?" ' *">^€ 



4 h-ul 



* i 



SURVEYED R Y 2 ■ fix t^£? 



section ihs. £to*z£z v 

SAMPLE UNIT I 



:'/- 



■-- 



AREA OF SAMPLE **** 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding //. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
* 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

r 


i 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY 4 SEVERITY 


TYPF-K 7 












QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


' Icro 1 l_ ■ 












































































































^£ L 


/oo 












%$M 












^H 












PC J CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


4-10 


L~ 











































RATING = 










CORRE 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 








CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4?,8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 

FigunE-S. 



G 



316 



c 



c 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For un of thU lorm, mm TM fr-623; t»w proponent •Qttcy * USACC. 



BRANCH f* 
DATE 



1 /^af>u£ 



hi/ 



Q I 



SECTION blzi H& *~** 
SAMPLE UNIT £_ 



■ <tSJr 



{'-13"- 



SURVEYED BY -L^^Hl^- 



AREA OF SAMPLE l*" : Jt 



Distress Types 


SKETCH '. fS .f,^ 


/. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 


i 


j Z Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 


r^^ 


3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 


c 




*4. Bumps and Sags 13. Potholes 






5. Corrugation 14. Rail rood Crossing 






6. Depression 15. Rutting 


/ 


Tj 


x 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 


/ 




K 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 


/ 1 


*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 




19. Weathering and Raveling 




EXISTING DISTRESS T YPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-f-* 7 












>- 


■ 7.4- l~> 












itro i— 
























>-i-i ■ 














— . UJ J 

1— =» 


























ZUI 


























cr«3 






































"!j^ l 


ISO 












1§M 


±4- 












*-^H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 






DEDUCT 




TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


1 


A~n 


U 




7 


l-o 


r* 












RATING = 




TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 








CORRE 


CI 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses <7,8$ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 

Figure E-2. 



•X^-d*-^ 



317 



c 



c 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH 
DATE _ 



Fo* mm of tt.w form, •«• TM S-623: t>>« p n opoWrH *9mv M <JSACE. 



g/itJi i 



SECTION £i 
SAMPLE UNIT 



SURVFYFDRY 2 ^M«« ^pr/1 HP <^> 


\APIE 


i&-?s r - 




Distress Types 

/. Alligator Crocking *10. Long 3 Trans Crocking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching QUtil Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sogs X I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugaf ion M. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Crocking 17. Slippage Crocking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


SKETCH! rJ-.v 

1 ' f . 

J ' ['" 

J • 


<L 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE- QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-r-> 7 












QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 

* in 


' 10 L. 












/A> 1— 
































































































-£1 


110 












II « 














HgH 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = 100- CDV = 


7 


A.fg 


L- 










































RATING = 


















CORRl 


\total deduct value 








XTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











AS /I, 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^,8^ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-2. 



XJL 



ls*^A~, r> 



/-. i/_ -«C 






£*~~" A- C^r^ 



7 



318 



c 



o 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um of iftta form, tmm TM 6-<523; trw proponent «0«ncv f« USACE. 

BRANCH ">£_z£ /ASOALfL SFCTinhl hLj M£h*a~ /- /^ fr>- 



04 7E 



q I njg> 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SURVEYEDBY > 


L - <P~>+r~l£f) 


AREA OF SAMPLE 


J. u yi jff- 

j 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags X I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation W. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

j 






EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY S SEVERITY 


TYPE 4-* -7 












- f 

>■ 
i— 

>- ■-■ 

I-CE 

MIU < 

1— =» 

zu 

0-«3 


■ TO*-- 












































































































^'i- 


7o 












|| M 














k !SH 














PC J CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE ! 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


2--1X. 


Lr 










































RATING = 


















q= 

CC«W£ 


|r074t DEOUCT VALUE 








■CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











x All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4,7,8,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



FigurcE-2. 



frj- €J}<- ^^ *~ &* ?JA 



319 



c 



o 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

F«* «•• oi ttita lomt, •*- TM 6-423: «*• proponent • 9 *oc r * USAGE. 

BRANCH ft?-?. vO/%c£ SFCTinN blv> £U*JU*~ V ftfr 

p^rr fj/ifci sampi f unit 

SURVEYEDR Y ~? ■f"'~<& 



AREA OF SAMPLE ?£*jH: 



1. Alligator Croct 
Z Bleeding 


Distress Types 

•ing *IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 

II. Patchina autil Cut Potchina 


sketch: 


3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 




j 


I 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrP£. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-+-* 1 












QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


' -LfToL. 












)*D 1^ 
































































































o£ L 


1VT> 












11* 














H«« 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = 100- CDV - 


- -7 


S-33 


L- 










































RATING = 










q= 

CORRE 


\total deduct value 








CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


• 









UJ> 



IK All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4J8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R. NOV 82 



FigunE-2. 






Ty L u»~' s^~ 



c~r 9^-- 



320 



c 



G 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For uaa o> mh «orm. mm TM S-623: ttta proponent mncy U USACE. 



BRANCH S#-f , £g*jjg 



?//>.A?/ 



SECTION 
SAMPLE UNIT . 



SURVEYED BY-2—d^f^£2 AREA OF SAMPLE 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation M. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
x 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

x 8. J t Ret lection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

Of' 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE 4-* 7 












QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 

* 


<+'t- ■ 












































































































^ L 


s> 












£§** 














^H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI = 100- CDV = 


7 


i-ir 


L— 










































RATING = 


















...... 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 








CORRE 


'C7 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


, 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 47,8,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



CUr*i 



^U 



&uf&~- 



FxgunE-i. 



c 



321 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Foe um of thto form, mm TM 6-«23. o-* proponvm 



BRANCH 
DATE 






SURVEYEDR Y 1 - fi-U^Cf 



SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT 

AREA OF SAMPLE 



Distress Types 
/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long a Trans Cracking 



Z Bleeding 
3. Block Cracking 
*4. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
x 7. Edge Cracking 
*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 



II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*13. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

17. Slippage Cracking 

18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



sketch: 



IIEE 



"7 



r. 2.G6- 



>--H 

i— a. 

— < LW J 

I— > s 

«t 1/1 
Cr«3 



jr^ 






3o 



EXISTING DISTRESS T YPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



PCI CALCULATION 



DENSITY 



hit 



SEVERITY 



TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



q= __ _ 

CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



PCI - 100- CDV = 



RATING = 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4?,8£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



o 



L-Qbz c* • i\u^\ I 



Figure £-« 



A^c j^vCo^- <k_ y^K *&&-*. 



£vv^£* 0^\as~- 



r* 



^e 



322 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



C 



U 



For iM of thto form. ■** TM 6-623; tf*» pcopoaw w *Qw>cy to USACE. 



BRANCH 
DATE _ 






SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT . 



10 



SllRVFYFnR v Z ■/*+*/*£ O /!/?£» of SAMPLE 



Distress Types 


SKETCH.' 


/. Alligator Crocking X I0. Long 8 Trans Cracking 


Z Bleeding II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 


<""" ... 




3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 




j 




*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 






. 


5. Corrugation W. Railroad Crossing 








6. Depression 15. Rutting 








x 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 


)f0 






*S. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 




\ 




*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 


' ) - 


~~~'.j 


19. Weathering and Raveling 


>^£Zr "> »" 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-4-+ IP 












* ' 

>- 


■jt-' L- ■ 




































>-** 














1— s» 


























zu 


























O"o3 






































^t 


* 












|S« 














•-5KH 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 






DEDUCT 




TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


to 


o-n 


U - 




















RATING = 




TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 








CORRE 


"C7 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


• 









Us* 1 



* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4Ji8,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



FigunE-2. 

9 OJr u^- - ^* ~^ 



^ _fX2^ *~/» 



323 



% 



6 
5 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For um of WiU form, m* TM t-CZ3, «m , 



[ av^cr * U&ACE. 



BRANCH _ 

Q47"£- -7 '' *? f ^ 



t 'T&^i.-c/^ k- L*+- 



C(Z -3-1 



SURVEYED BYJL±. 



o 



SECTION . 

SAMPLE UNIT 

AREA OF SAMPLE 






( 



J-trt ^ -<- 



Distress Types 

" /. Alligator Cracking K I0. Long fl Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding li. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 

3. Block Crocking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippoge Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

,r i V 

a \ ■ r 


£. — i.,2 — 


EXISTING DISTRESS 7WE.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF4-* 4 


r 










QUANTITY 
6 SEVERITY 


2A>'M 


3,0* 2o' 










































































































-j£ l 














11 « 


M 


L- 










^H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = fc? 


«? 


4-/£ 


M 


<? 


1* 


ti-'S' 


t- 


I 




















- 












RATING - , 










CORRE 


\total deduct VALUE 


/$" 




c«-t«-e»/T 


CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/o 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8^ 
and K) Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R, NOV 82 



^ 



Figure E-i. 



324 



% 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH 
DATE 



For uh of thto form, mm TM t-«23: Om proponom oj w i c i Is USACC 



y/^i^c 



SAMPLE UNIT h. 



SURVEYED BY2-±^ 



AREA OF SAMPLE «*-to-o $tt " 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking X I0. Long S Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching autil Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

x 8. J t Reflection Cracking IZ Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

1 r n 


EXISTING DISTRESS rrPE.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPr-4-» 4 




i-> 


ID 






QUAMTITY 
& SEVERITY 


■mo 1 L. 




3 V r't- 


T*T>'L, 






•a-«r/-t 






3.4- * t* U 


























































































-j£ L 


"3-0-0 




IS 


612. 






|| M 

Haw 


VjT 


— - . 






















PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSrTY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV - 


1 


+-n 


L- 


& 


7 


O-SI^ 


M 


■A- 


I* 


»-2) 


- L. 


3- 




"70 


to 


l+'+ 


u 


31 












RATING = u,„„» 


















CORRL 


\rOTAL DEDUCT 


VALUE 


' 43 


. 




XT ED DEDUCT V/ 


\LUE (CDV) 


■<3o 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8& 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 It Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



Figurr-B-t 



% 



a 



I • 



325 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHFFT 



BRANCH / 

DATE *hfao 



SECTION S/L--+J 



SURVEYEDBY. 



2-A- 



SAMPLE UNIT . 

AREA OF SAMPLE 4£»g 



/ 



■/- 



Distress Types 
/. Alligator Cracking *10. LongSTrans Cracking 

II. Patching autil Cut Patching 
IZ. Polished Aggregate 
m l3. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

r lr\ Slippage Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



2. Bleeding 

3. Block Crocking 
*4. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
m 7. Edge Cracking 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 



sketch: h 

. T 



V 



J t 



TYPE.J-* g 



• uu , 






Ao'rt 



A-a 1- 



i¥<- 



5 5 M 

OS — 
h.C u 



_S2_ 



6s 



EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 



/o 



cyt> t- 



S?3- 



/9 



t- 



>OiD 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



JSL. 



n 



Jl. 



DENSITY 



o-j-j, 



/<3-r 



//.?; 



0. 0V 



/%■ 



PCI CALCULA TION 



SEVERITY 



fU 



TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



T 



IA 



-3 b 



!/& 



1 



PCI =100 -CDV = 

8L- 



RATING = tfr& W/ j 



* A 'L S^JfSfi* 8 MeaMred *> Si7«"-« Feel £xc«p/ Distresses 47,83 
and K) Whtch Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured ki 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM S146-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-i. 



326 



I 



a 



I 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For on of this form, m tm C-C23; tho pf o powo m ■ooney to USACE. 



BRANCH 
047E 



I 



7 Mi 



SECTION 
SAMPLE UNIT. 



<C-J>~- 



SURVEYEDBY- 



;-. fr . 



AREA OF SAMPLE *■**<> 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *IO. LongSTrans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation ht. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
x 7. Edge Cracking J6. Shoving 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: sj 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE-4-+ r* 


O) 


IO 


n> 


\<=t 


i 


QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


■ofro'* 


no'U 


f~r* L- 


r <- 


IZ L- 


- /-i 






/(.OL- 
































































































7© 


3 to 


1 . 


/2- 




7<ro 










7 


S &H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI - 100- CDV ' = 


1 


o-iC 


M 


A 


* 


l*4-(> 


L. 


■3 


1 


4-n 


M 


1 




-7S j 


/o 


IT'O 


L, 


29 




/2> 


o-OX. 


L 


* 


RATING = , nAti j 
V ' 6 00 o 


/^ 


cvZ~ 


L 


/ 










CORRl 


\TOTAL DEDUCT 


VALUE 


~+2> 


■CTED DEDUCT Vt 


\LUE (CDV) 


IS 











*r All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£8,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-i. 



327 



1 



9 
a 



■ [ \ 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For wm of tfilt form, •*• TM »-C23. ttw proporwn aovncr 1* L*AC€. 

/ 



BRANCH 
DATE _ 



SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT . 






f 



SURVFYFDRY "2, 'A 






AREA OF SAMPLE 4£cns ''- 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation M. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Putting 
*7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: rJ 

. f 

"2.30 


1A- 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY fi SEVERITY 


TYPE-t-+ <? 


10 


to 


2- 


\S 




QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


•vtt L~- 


4 >_> ^J-iJi-it 


•-98 'H 


^<j^ sl 


z tui> 2 • ^_ 






l~ 






























































































.j£ L 


>&0 


S?}> 




£»0 


*©0 




ijs » 






41 








. <n G 










- 




PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENsmr 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI=/O0-C0V = 


2- 


/O'A^- 


t- 


3 


f 


+ -n 


L. 


<L 


/o 


Z2--33 


L. 


il 




fh, 


to 


l-o 


t* 


f 




IS 


/j-.r 


C 


•3*1 


RATING = ^nors 


















CORRB 


\TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


- ft 






'CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


37 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4£3£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
■ Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-i. 



328 



?5 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



i -i 



i : 



For um of VtH form. •*• TM t-S23; tfM propowom f ft c y It USACE. 



BRANCH 

0ATE-2L9I2L. 



SURVEYED BY— 2l£- 



SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT. 

AREA OF SAMPLE A>*o* ' 



t, ( 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking K I0. Long S Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
x 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

K 8. Jt Reflection Crocking IT. Slippage Cracking 
*S. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: ., 

! -^ * , 

x4 ; 


EXISTING DISTRESS TyPE.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE 4-* 2- 


-7 


<* 


/ 


n 


: iJ 


QUAMTITY 
& SEVERITY 

IV, i .. „ 


■2S-DT<%'rt 


A-to' L~ 


-z-ra U- 


■wnf-s'i 


2-ro' <M 


?5~'*_ 


































































































-jfe L 


- 


4o 


tea- 


STD 




35 


§g« 


t&*o 








r xro 




k S« 














PCI CALCULATION \ 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


• 
PCI=/OO-C0V = 


1 


/O-A-l 


L 


33 


2- 


3 vis 


M 


-a^^ 


"7 


0-*2> 


U 


3 i 




4r 


9 


4'il 


l~ 


& 




to 


0>~I2> 


u 


t 


RATING = t£6,,j? 


IS 


4~>i-> 


Nt 


3> 










CORRi 


- \total deduct value 


• 4 ? 






~CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


>5T 









* 4// Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8,9 
...and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft', Distress 13 Is Measured In 
■':'' -y Number of Potholes. -t ; -:.-- 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 

Figure E-i. 



329 



I 



<5 

a 



3 s 






ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



Fo» «•* of thli fo«m. 



i TM 1-623; th* prepo«Mnt a**ncv * UtACE. 



BRANCH ~L- 



SECTION 



VZ - 4-1* 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



( 



SURVEYEDBY. 



rj.fi, 



a r*- 



AREA OF SAMPLE *Jr2* 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
K 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

m 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

_ •! "Krviif .'A 

i i i 

2*0 


EXISTING DISTRESS T/PE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF+-* <=» 


IO 




& 






QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


e>io rt 


IP firs* 


. 


{,0- L- 








■K 3--*-' L. 












Am> L- 


















































































-j£ L 




CC4- 




^ 






111 


fo 












-Sh 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


<t 


hrS 


U 


3 


f 


l>Z<& 


Af 


<S 


to 


/V2> 


L. - 


->o -.*■ 




7f 















— 




----#-„'- 


RATM= v ,^ 00O 






- ■- 


■ " '- 












TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


~7f) 


CORRL 


-C7 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


<IA^ 











* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4Jfi£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft) Distress 13 Is Measured In 
■ Number of Potholes. ^i\-~^'r^--'*'^^f' ''---- 

DA FORM E146-R. NOV 82 



^1 JWA 



Figure E-t 



9-y^ /f>>— ' 



,/£*— U s ^ 



*U*~ 



T 



IpztA 



330 



?-■?■-.. ^f 'S~-*': 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For km of nil. form, mm TM S-S23: th» proponent ibiii c i to USACE. 



BRANCH 
DATE 



2- 



SECTION. 



- _i- 



-7 I /->yf > 



SAMPLE UNIT. 



SURVEYED 


BY 








d 


1PP4 fTF fiAUPI F 3- ?» r i- ; 




Distress Types 

1. Alligator Cracking K I0. Long a Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching 8UUI Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Ji Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: * 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE.QMHTlVf J SEVERITY 


typf4-» 11 


1- 


cts 








* 

>- 

t— . 
>-■— i 
t—cc 

—> Ud 4 
1— 5» 

=: lj 
<to 

Cr«3 
__^_ ) 


• Zsos i' L. 


%^,'<l' L. 


«' f* 












/OA i- 




























































































-j£ L 


2-Oo 


Zb-o 


/o a- 


■ - * 






II" 






*7 








2 &H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI=/00-C0V = 


2- 


6-1Z 


l~ 


■3— 


tO 


a../:7 


U 


ST 


/o 


o./<, 


M 


/ 




■ %°1 


11 


4-'!-) 


fa- 


3 












RATING = t/r£.oon 


















CORRE 


[total deduct value 


. // 






'CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


/i 









K All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4^8^ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 It Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 









/ligwe £-5 



' £^1 



^ 



p?*^~i. «— ^ W>*^^1 



rzA-icA-^ 



331 



J 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

f©f «•• •* tt»*i form, m» TM t-€2J. tfw pfooonwrt |p| | to UCACC 

2- crrnnw "5/2 - .£- 



BRANCH ( 



SECTION 

SAMPLE UNIT . 



SURVEYED BY -Jk^L. 



( 



AREA OF SAMPLE ££** jjt 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking */0. Long a Trans Cracking 

II. Patching BUtil Cut Patching 
12. Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 
K Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 

17. Slippage Cracking 

18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



2 Bleeding 
3. Block Crocking 
*4. Bumps and Sags 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
x 7. Edge Cracking 
*8. J I Reflection Cracking 
m 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 



sketch: 



+ . 
.i 



< i_*-5 



4. 



IIEt: 



<s> 



EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE.QUAHTlTf & SEVERITY 



t-a. 

•— Ual J 
I— > 

*Z UJ 

<n 

0-«3 



rr 






%n 



*bo 



/r 



T 



zo- 



JZ. 



•70 'y I ' L. 



&o' a-* 



I HO 



± 



(a 



iO 



UfO- 



DISTRESS 
TYPE 



IV 



tf 



_£_ 



DENSITY 



6-lS 



t'>r 



3.o 



0'4-i. 



3-Ofr 



PCI CALCULA TION 



SEVERITY 



\TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



*£ 



it 



PCI =100 -CDV = 

82. 



RATING = 



V-C~OOd 



* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 47£3 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. — 

DA FORM S14fi-R, NOV 82 



*£h 



pe-^- c«^' 



tu- 



•X Co-* , o,- -fsw^, 



FigunE-i. 

. " J f 



i 



£.c*Z c*g£^z> 



332 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



J 



F«<mg1 ttUa torn, »• TM «-«23; M pnwiam Winer H USACE. 



BRANCH 
04TE 



2_, 



n/'7.'/ c "- 



SECTION _ 
SAMPLE UNIT. 



C/2. --»-> 



SURVEYEDBY ' l 


■A 




t*-*' ABFA DF GAUPI F +*OQ fff 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking *I0. Long B Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching & Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation M. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: f 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPE 4-* «* 


<* 


1 


13 


1 




- t 

>- 

►- 
>-•-■ 
i— a. 

«— ilAI * 

1— > 
H UJ 

r> 
o-«s 


' loo " 5 * 


1 n> ' t* 


IsfO '£_ 


1_ L 


3o u 




































































































-jg L 






V^O 


-L. 


SUD 




25 M 


6crt> 


ItVo 










»8h 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


7 


0-6JVS" 


U 


3 


*r 


4--I7 


,L- 


s& 


1 


t--at 


M 


6 




si 


)2> 


O'OJf- 


L. 


II 




(1 


il'X 


M 


& 


RATING = „ , „ 


















CORRE 


\TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


• 3t- ■ 


" 




CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


:/3 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses <£/BJ9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. . :- 

DA FORM S146-R, NOV 82 

flguir B-S. 

*■ Gz^^ Ty?sU- P^i. 2*£-Vb aJ- £C- s-ccA-^. 



333 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For um of tM» form. am» TM S-G3: »m ( 



t 



? 



i 
3 



k: 






1 ^ 



BRANCH 
DATE 



SECTION 
SAMPLE UNIT . 



( 



SURVFYFnnv 1 £ 




t > > • 


AREA OF SAMPLE _ 


~4foo< "■ 


Distress Types 

/. Alligator Crocking m l0. Long B Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching B Util Cut Patching 
3. Block Crocking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation K. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
K 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

*& Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
K 9. Lane /Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 

, » 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY £ SEVERITY 


type4-> '*» 


\i 


7- 


'5 






■ 

>• 

»— 

>-— 

i— a. 

MlN, 

t— :» 
= lu 
< f> 

■ 


' ,vu * a ■ i_ 


~Uk> ^c '' 'r* 


■7-rn ~ r 'U 


itrfo i. 






































































































jg L 


%Loo 




7^> 


4&o 






II* 




1*00 










^H 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


2. 


+'l1 


L- 


1 


/S~ 


BL>3a 


U ■■ 


2* 


'1 


ns>o 


L- 


1+ 




tl 


11 


4~n 


M 


/2- 













RATING = x „„* 


















| CORRE 


[TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


- *3 






CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


3i 









X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses <Z8£ 
and K> Which Are Measured In Linear Ft) Distress 13 Is Measured In 
Number of Potholes. — 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 



flgurtS-S. 

Tic &~J£ £**-J U- '■: -f^ <&£ 



./ 



eJt jtU Jiw**- 



.',L 



-1^<<. 



i) 






334 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



For vm of tr>to form, mm TM S-623; «n pcopowm « 



BRANCH 



I O o 



SECTION . 
SAMPLE UNIT. 



S/l -J-"* 



SURVEYED BY ^ 


- £ 


; 


--' J- 


ARFA OF SAUPI F J&Oe \ K 


Distress Types 

1. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 3 Trans Cracking 
i Z Bleeding II. Patching a Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking IZ Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
*7. Edge Crocking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 'r 


EXISTING DISTRESS TrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


TYPF-4-* -7 


at 


\<* 


•t 


10 




QUAMTITY 
& SEVERITY 


m o- * 


n--> ' 1— 


Z^wTL** 


-70 'x -z-L 


zr' U 








fc ^ *-"/«* 




6a- l. 
























































































*§*- 




/S"0 




ta-o 


8* 




oi w 


rhb 




<960 








-Sh 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV = 


1 


Z-$A 


M 


IS 


*) 


Z.fXZ 


l~ 


■ «" 


to 


/■ef 


L. 


A 




57 


'T 


■L-ll^ 


L. 


IC 


■ 


n 


W.. 


Af 


1-*c 


RATING = , n „*. 




















\TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


• 67 


. 


HKVU 


CORRE 


CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


+3 









* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4/^,9 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft', Distress 13 It Measured In 
Number of Potholes. . — 

DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 

Figure E-i. 



335 



ASPHALT PAV EMENT INSPFrrnnM curr T 



, — . ip. MJJ. t~ oraoonm —I - UtA.CE 



BRANCH 
DATE 



10 1 2.W ° ' 



SECTION . 
SAMPLE UNIT . 



Sf> 



SURVEYEDBY ?■"'■'"€■>/<■•■ a*-* AREA & ^^ ^_ 



r 



Distress Types 
I moat* Cracking *, . Long B Trans Cracking 

i Block Crocking » Polished Aggregate 

*4. Bumps and Sags */J. Pot holts 

6 aZ'SLfJ!^ "■ R °" rood Crossing 

6. Depression /5 . Rutting 

*7. Edge Crocking 16. Shoving 

8. J t Reflection Cracking 17. Slippaae Crackma 

*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell Crack '»° 

19. Weathering and Raveling 



sketch: 



EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE .QUANTITY i gVEBITT 




3^^a?^ssB»: 



Number of Potholes. 
DA FORM 5146-R, NOV 82 



*f 



/ 
/ 

FipinE-1. 



' i/hr J Jh 






/'cr - 36-is. 



-- <"<rs-~ 



AA^-, r;,A- JZ-rC^-Z 



r 



iAm/v"" 



&~<-Cs 









336 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For um of ***** form, •*• TM S-633; «m proponent ■owcy U USACE. 



BRANCH ££^JL { J£'^-<^">- 
DATE I O \ -l-?s{ $ r 



<;<*-, 



SECTION . 

SAMPLE UNIT ±_ 



siiBVFYrnav 0. ■ /»*-v-"-> /<*- Qi^o ^£4 of SAMPLE Z*L * '" 





Distress Types 


sketch: 


1. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 
Z Bleeding II. Patching QUtil Cut Patching 
3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate 
* '4. Bumps and Sags m l3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
K 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. J t Reflection Cracking IT. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off IB. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 




I'" 

.__J 


EXISTING DISTRESS T YPE. QUANTITY & SEVERITY j 


TYPF-4-* ' 


IO 


-$ 


/C 


i<? 




QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


' fro L-- 


HI— 


iru'x. /2, ' 


^?#r3'^ 


203*2.' L- 






TO 1— ■ 




/C ■*■>,' f- 








7,0 L- - 




'o' * l' P- ' 








ZL-U l_ 




to * 1 f- 












70 ' v 21* 






















































o£ L 


ilTo 


f0% 


1 >0<> 




4-IF> 




11 * 








^9v 






-§H 








[W 






PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 -CDV: 


■7 


*-Z- 


L. 




/0 


A- 


f 


^ 




S> 


5Q: 


l~ 








/f 


yo 


M 






it 


r;- 


hi-. 




RATING = 


11 


it-n 


u- 












CORRE 


\rOTAL DE 


DUCT VALUE 






— — — ^-^^^— 


CTED DEDUC 


rr VALUE (CDV) 








1 



K All Distresses Are Measured m Square Feet Except Distresses ,4^8^ 
and K> Which Are Measured In Linear Ft; Distress 13 It Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-Z 



ft Q.t£-fr~ \~a^ut- 



1) 



UP 



337 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



fwuMOl Otto form. •*. TM M23. «w | 



BRANCH 



:/i-6' 



•/£*** 



SECTION 



;/> 



>/• 



./v 



SURVEYEDBY2- 



j t'r-;.~lu <o (/■*••< 



SAMPLE UNIT I 

AREA OF SAMPLE "k±L 



( 



Distress Types 

/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long S Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching autil Cut Patching 

3. Block Crocking 12. Polished Aggregate 
*4. Bumps and Sags K 13. Potholes 

5. Corrugation 14. Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Rutting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

x 8. J i Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
x 9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


sketch: 


EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY 


5 SEVERITY 


TYPE.4-* /r 


> 


10 


7 


n 




• 

>- 
i— . 

t— CC 

t— ■ uj y 
i— =» 

^Z UJ 

=> 
0-«3 


' /trPff £4 


n-'* 


A) L, 


Z& /*■ 


C 1— 


' r. ■■ : 


L - 




«K> V;'m 




TO' t~ 


<=l L- 






io '* vtH 




lo L- 


Wt_ ■ 










10 L. 


/it- - 










K> L~ 


io L- 










i°L- ■ 












































jgl 




A&o 


no 


ft 


7/jv 




|| M 


S"l° 




10 








HSW 


?" 












PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


PCI =100 


-CDV = 


/S~ 


7-i-<i 


/-? 




ti 


/■h 


/4- 




3> 


yo . 


L~ 








/o 


2-r 


i- 








/o 


o-t)> 


A 1 




RATING = 


1 


i-f- 


t— 




ri 


S-3 


L^ 




9r 

CORRE 


\rOTAL DEDUCT 


VALUE 








VTED DEDUCT W 


LUE (CDV) 













* All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses <7fi£ 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 Is Measured *i 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 5146-R. NOV 82 

IXgurrE-t 

# sa*+- „ ^ ^ ^ i^r—si- . * n* ^-^ — e. 



338 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For un of thM form, »m TM f-S23; tho propofwm mmtef to USAC C 



^-iljAc^l 



BRANCH 



S>4 



SECTION . 
SAMPLE UNIT. 



tuiavrrYtrnp Y 1- ■ ^^ft/^-o^ 4/?£4 OF SAMPLE Sk±- 



Distress Types 


sketch: 


/. Alligator Cracking m IO. Long 8 Trans Cracking 

2. Bleeding II. Patching 8 Util Cut Patching 

3. Block Cracking 12. Polished Aggregate - 
*4. Bumps and Sags *I3. Potholes 

5. Corrugation ML Railroad Crossing 

6. Depression 15. Ratting 
m 7. Edge Cracking 16. Shoving 

* 8. Jt Reflection Cracking 17. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell 

19. Weathering and Raveling 


a 


EXISTING DISTRESS rrPf.QUANTITY & SEVERITY 


typf-4-» /r 


10 


5 


/i 


7 




QUANTITY 
& SEVERITY 


' Kpa'i i' f 


y n 


**'*6'*4. 


te>'*l l_ ■ 


<r-c 




1 VO '■* \ f 


i ' u ■ 












g-'** C 












t£>' *- 












/»'/^ 












tC' L. ■ 












IS L-- 












/fO r* 












X*> L-- 










*£ L 




Z-C 




ZJV 


i 




gB« 


6fb 


i>y 


ZIP 








u Sw 














PCI CALCULATION 


DISTRESS 
TYPE 


DENSITY 


SEVERITY 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


■ 

PCI =100 -CDV = 


tr . 


It 


M 




10 


3 -^ 


L> 




fP 


4-7 


rA 








1 


//■ > 


tf 






if 


g'i 


L^ 




RATING = 


1 


O-A- 


U • 














\rOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


- 






CORRE 


CTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 











_0ii 



X All Distresses Are Measured In Square Feet Except Distresses 4Ji8& 
and 10 Which Are Measured In Linear Ft ; Distress 13 1* Measured In 
Number of Potholes. 

DA FORM 6146-R NOV 82 



CcJCv 



FigunE-Z 



uo 



339 



ASPHALT PAVEMENT INSPFmnN SHEET 



*or wm of tr.N form, m* TM t-C23; 



BRANCH 
DATE 



SURVEYED BY JLJLZl 



<Z/l-£?. <y-c^-cc, ^ SECTION '_ 

SAMPLE UNIT 



A 



w. 



-"• cor^s 



( 



AREA OF SAMPLE 



Distress Types 
/. Alligator Crocking *I0. Long a Trans Cracking 

II. Patching autil Cut Patching 
IZ Polished Aggregate 
*I3. Potholes 

14. Railroad Crossing 

15. Rutting 

16. Shoving 
* 8. Jt Reflection Crocking IT. Slippage Cracking 
*9. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 18. Swell ™ K * m * 

^ 19. Weathering and Raveling 



Z Bleeding 
3. Block Crocking 
*4. Bumps and Sogs 

5. Corrugation 

6. Depression 
*7. Edge Cracking 



I sketch: 

1 Jb>~* 



JL?~, /*». i«£» 



llfj 



V* 



HE£.l-» ,/r 

■ r to*? j) 



EXISTING DISTRESS TYPE. QUANTITY t, SEVERITY 




CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



*ZL D J?wl SS Z S A A ' e J" eC *"' ed ln Square Feef G*** Distresses 4J0BS 
N^rZftotZJes. e ° SUre<i ' nUnearFr ' 0i *"- ****«^ 
DA FORM 6146-R. NOV 82 



^k£ <2> & 



Figure E-i. 



340 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For vm of thl* form. ••* TM 5-633; tft* prooontm aovncy It USAGE. 



rramp.h Ui- ?6 "-Z^n'CfH SECTION, 

IMTT J II hi. 

SURVEYED RY ? ■yru r --rO SLAB S , ZE 



>•"% 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



fl ■< / 2 



c 



fit 



1 






c 



10 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up . 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab 33. Pumping 

24. Durability I'D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling/Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large B 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 3 9. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


>J>JJJt>>>)>>>>JJ>>>JJJ)}>JJJ)>*J 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


op 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26 X 


L~- 


w//, 


'/////, 


2— 




























































































q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


2- 


CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


2- 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


1? 


RATING 


s 


j£*££t^c£*sr 









4- oUJ-Z E«~4- cfo u> 



X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 

0i/£A*CC~ PCZ-* 96 ■£ 



4U?A ~* &#* ***** ^ ^ 

Figure E-T. 



?*»?-S1.0 0-83 









cd^or *6>^~£ 







*~7j' 



jS /a. r/!9t 



341 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHF FT 

For vv. of v,i. lom. ~ TM 6-623. ov. p^,,^, , 



BRANCH ^- K ^ts'v.-i'cc *, 
DATE tfl^hh. 



SURVEYED BY l *2±^£a 



SECTION 



*vA 



L- 



SAMPLE UNIT 

SLAB SIZE ( I « ( 



L 



-i 



c 



10 



•- 



Distress Types 



21. Blow-Up 31. 
Buckling/Shattering 

22. Corner Break 32. 

23. Divided Slab 3 3 
?4. Durability ("o") 34. 

Cracking 3$ 

25. Faulting 

26. Joint Seal Damage 3 6. 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off 

28. Linear Cracking 37. 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. 
Util Cuts 39. 

30. Patching, Smal. 



Polished 

Aggregate 

Popovts 

Pumping 

Punchout 

Railroad 

Crossing 

Scaling/Map 

Crocking/Crazing 

Shrinkage Crocks 

Spoiling, Corner 

Spoiling, U 

Joint 



TZZZZZZZZZZZ 



DIST. 
TYPE 



26 * 



7ZZZZZZ2ZOEZZZZZ Z ZZ2 



SEV. 



NO. 
SLABS 



U 77777, 



9 

SLAB S 

77777* 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



PCI = 100 - CDV = "S 

RATING = £kC£uc£~T 



* A" Distresses Are Counted C* A Slab.8y-SlobZsTEx1e7t ^^ ^ SU*~ *~^J>_ 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. ^/^ — ^ jJ ~ C '^*~ ^ 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figun E-l. 



'?>-■-■-£ - 63 



342 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For «h of thl« form. *•* TM 5-623: rl>* proponent •o*ncy *• USAGE. 



BRANCH 


//i 


-?c 


tf£rsOASC/LS 


DATF 


<7/3 


41- 




SURVEYED BY. 


7 - fi-i-h^ "^ 



SECTION. 



^3 



SAMPLE UNIT . 



SLAB SIZE 



I2r'*>(if'-rf'' ) 



10 



i 



: • ' •' 



?*U 



Jm- 



ZkL. 



>SU 



?tL 



"4t<- 



zzzzzz 



Distress Types 



3/. 



2/. Blow-Up 

Buckling/Shattering 

22. Corner Break 

23. Divided Slab „ 
». Durability ( D ) 

Cracking 

25. Faulting 

26. Joint Seal Damage 

27. Lone/Shldr Drop Off 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. 

29. Patching, Large B 38. 
Util Cuts 39. 

30. Patching, Smal. 



32. 
33. 
34. 

35. 

36. 



Polished 

Aggregate- 

Popouts 

Pumping 

Punchout 

Railroad 

Crossing 

Scaling/Map 

Cracking/Crazing 

Shrinkage Cracks 

Spoiling, Corner 

Spoiling, U 

Joint 



zzzzz 



DIST. 
TYPE 



26 * 



34 



ZZZZZZ2 



SEV. 



77777, 



NO. 
SLABS 



zzzzzz 



("""> 



SLABS 



7ZZ7Z 



/r 



2^2^ 



TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 



%fj> CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 



DEDUCT 
VALUE 



7 



PCI = 100 - CDV = ^1 

RATING = /2*C£u~£rS7 



c. 



* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R. NOV 82 



Figure E-l. 



?*»?-blo o - el 



343 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 



BRANCH. 
DATE 



Fo< uM Of Ml form. ■•« TM f>-<23: tTM pfoeofM^t ao«nCY *■ LTSACE. 






SURVEYED BY 



? •y**' A" ?.•) 



SECTION 



SAMPLE UNIT 



SLAB SIZE 



1Z- v 'i 







-U 



/o 




Distress Types 

2/. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slob, 3 3. Pumping 

24. Durability ("D ) 3 4. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 3 6. Scaling /Map 

27. Lone/Shldr Drop Off Cracking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching, Large 8 38. Spelling , Corner 
Util Culs 3 9. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Small Joint 


Y7/?//ss?j;s?/??s///s?/s? 


rss/s/rs 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


% 

SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26* 


L. 


Y//M 


V///A 


2— 




























































































q= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


*£l 


CORRECT 


ED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


*X~- 


PCI = 100 - CDV 


ft 


RATING 


£%C£c<s£s^T 









I 2 

X All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Ftg'urr E-l. 



c 



?*?-atO - 83 - :i ; ;lj 



344 



c 



CONCRETE PAVEMENT INSPECTION SHEET 

For wm of Oils form, mm TM 6-623; Th« proponent agency I* USACE. 



BRANCH </l ?< U±£z££*y tJ SECT ION 

n/iTF <fl\ff± SAMPLE UNIT. 



<T 



SURVEYED BY JLj-dJd^LLL 



10 



SLAB SIZE 



a * 



fs-'*y 



Distress Types 

21. Blow-Up 31. Polished 
Buckling/Shattering Aggregate 

22. Corner Break 32. Popouts 

23. Divided Slab lt 33. Pumping 

24. Durability ( D ) 34. Punchout 
Cracking 35. Railroad 

25. Faulting Crossing 

26. Joint Seal Damage 36. Scaling /Map 

27. Lane/Shldr Drop Off Crocking/Crazing 

28. Linear Cracking 3 7. Shrinkage Cracks 

29. Patching , Large 8 38. Spoiling, Corner 
Util Cuts 39. Spoiling, U 

30. Patching, Smal. Joint 


v-??///// ' >>>/?>>'>>>">>>' f ? >> * 


DIST. 
TYPE 


SEV. 


NO. 
SLABS 


SLABS 


DEDUCT 
VALUE 


26 * 


L- 


Y///A 


V///A 


2- 


































































! 


























<>= 


TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE 


2- 


CORRECTED DEDUCT VALUE (CDV) 


2^ 


' PCI = 100 - CDV 


18 


RATING 


— 


&*. cet^-G^7 









c 



* All Distresses Are Counted On A Slab-By-Slab Basis Except 
Distress26, Which Is Rated For the Entire Sample Unit. 



DA FORM 5145-R, NOV 82 



Figure E-l. 



?^?-'.'.0 - B3 - *.l : OL J 



345 



Appendix D 
Laboratory Data on Soil-Moisture Properties 



346 



Sample Site: 

Project No: 
Pavement Type: 
Joint Condition: 
Sample Depth: 
Parent Material: 
Soil Association: 
Int. Drainage: 
Groundwater : 



SITE DESCRIPTION 

US-31, NB; Hamilton County, Greenfield District; 
Section at Carmel near St. Vincent Hospital 

ST-F-222(9) 

11" JRCP over 4" Bituminous Stabilized Subbase /5D 

Unsealed 

24-48 inches from surface 

Loamy and silty soils in glacial till 

L 

Well drained 

Not present 



ROADBED SOII. PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



20 



Plasticity Index: 6 
AASHTO Class: A-4(0) 
Unified Class: SM-SC 



In-situ Density: 130.63 pcf 

Dry Density: 94.40 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 9.0 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.83 

Permeability: 



Porosity: 



USDA Text. Class: Sandy loam 
% Passing #200: 47 

MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



2.4 x 10" 6 cm/sec 
6.0 x 10" 3 ft/day 

29.3 % 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm Hfi) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 

403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








19.4 


17.63 


13.95- 


12.67 


11.43 


8.66 


7.12 


6.27 


e % 








29.3 


26.6 


21.1 


19.1 


17.3 


13.1 


10.8 


9.5 


Sr, % 








100.0 


90.9 


71.9 


65.3 


58.9 


44.6 


36.7 


32.3 


Se, 








1.00 


0.86 


0.58 


0.49 


0.39 


0.18 


0.06 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '8 r ': 0.095 Vol. Water Capacity '0,-6/: 0.198 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 52 cm v d : 3.1 ij: 9.2 
Van Genuchten: a: 0.008 cm" 1 |5: 1.45 yi 0.31 



347 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



Sample Site: 



SR-37, SB; Hamilton County, Greenfield District; 
Section at Noblesville, north of SR-32 Jet. 



Project No: 

Pavement Type: 

Joint Condition 

Sample Depth: 

Parent Material 

Soil Association: A 

Int. Drainage: Well drained 

Groundwater: Present 



F-824(3) 

9h" Full Depth Asphalt over 8" /2 Aggregate Subbase 

Unsealed 

24-36 inches from surface 

Loamy silt on flood plain 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



20 



Plasticity Index: 6 

AASHTO Class: A-2-4(0), A-4(0) 

Unified Class: SM-SC, SC 

USDA Text. Class: Sandy loam 
% Passing #2 00: 35 



In-situ Density: 127.65 pcf 

Dry Density: 111.38 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 13.0 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.81 

Permeability: 



Porosity: 



1.3 x 10"* cm/ sec 
0.325 ft/day 

20.2 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm HjO) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








11.75 


10.91 


8.82 


7.72 


7.0 


4.17 


3.77 


2.97 


6 % 








20.2 


18.8 


15.2 


13.28 


12.0 


7.2 


6.5 


5.1 


Sr, % 








100.0 


92.9 


75.1 


65.7 


59.6 


35.5 


32.1 


25.3 


Se, 








1.0 


0.90 


0.67 


0.54 


0.46 


0.14 


0.09 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 



Irreduc. Moist. Content '6 r ': 0.051 Vol. Water Capacity '8,-6 r ': 0.151 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 68.5 cm v d : 3.18 i\ : 9.36 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0054 cm" 1 p: 1.46 y: 0.315 



348 



Sample Site: 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



SR-37, SB; Lawrence County, Vincennes District: 
Section on uphill terrain at Jet SR-58 near Bedford. 



Project No: ST-F-819(2) 

Pavement Type: lOV JRCP over 4Jj" Bit. Stabilized Subbase #5D 

Joint Condition: Unsealed 

Sample Depth: 16-40 inches from surface 

Parent Material: Silty and clayey soils in loess and weathered limestone 

Soil Association: Q 

Int . Drainage : Moderate 

Groundwater: Not present 



ROADBED SOU. PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



36, 52 



Plasticity Index: 16,30 

AASHTO Class: A-6(15), A-7-6(34) 

Unified Class: CL, CH 



USDA Text. Class: Silty clay loam/silty 

loam 



% Passing #200: 



>50 



In-situ Density: 123.83 pcf 
Dry Density: 99.63 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 25.0% 

Specific Gravity: 2.70, 2.82 

Permeability: 



Porosity: 



2.1 x 10" 7 cm/ sec 
6.0 x 10-" ft/day 

65.9 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suet 


;ion 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm Rf>) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 










42.25 


39.62 


33.18- 


31.12 


28.84 


23.32 


22.68 


21.22 


6 % 










65.9 


61.8 


51.8 


48.6 


45.0 


36.4 


35.4 


33.1 


Sr, 


% 








100.0 


93.8 


78.5 


73.7 


68.3 


55.2 


53.7 


50.2 


Se, 










1.00 


0.87 


0.57 


0.47 


0.36 


0.10 


0.07 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 
Irreduc. Moist. Content '6 r ': 0.331 Vol. Water Capacity '9.-8/: 0.328 



Brooks & Corey: 
Van Genuchten: 



PB d : 67.5 cm 



a: 0.0048 cm 



v d : 2.8 



B: 1.665 



r\: 8.6 
y: 0.399 



349 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



Sample Site: 



US-41, SB; Sullivan County, Vincennee District; 
Section at Farmersburg, south of Terre Haute. 



Project No: 
Pavement Type: 
Joint Condition: 
Sample Depth: 



F-35(ll) 

10J$" JPCP over 3-4 inches Bituminous Stabilized Subbase 

Unsealed 

29-40 inches from surface 
Parent Material: Silty soils in loess 
Soil Association: I 
Int. Drainage: Poor 
Groundwater: Not present 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



15 



Plasticity Index: 17 

AASHTO Class: A-6(8) 

Unified Class: CL 

USDA Text. Class: Silty clay loam 

% Passing #200: 62 



In-situ Density: 134.08 pcf 

Dry Density: 113.99 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 16.0 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.75 

Permeability: 



Porosity: 



6 x 10"* cm/sec 
1.5 ft/day 

51.9 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm Hp) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15. C 
18300 


o % 








31.25 


28.97 


23.38 


21.12 


17.50 


15.73 


13.92 


12.85 


e % 








51.9 


48.1 


38.8 


35.1 


29.1 


26.1 


23.1 


21.4 


Sr, % 








100.0 


92.7 


74.82 


67.58 


56.0 


50.34 


44.54 


41.25 


Se, 








1.00 


0.88 


0.57 


0.45 


0.25 


0.15 


0.06 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 



Irreduc. Moist. Content '6,': 0.214 Vol. Water Capacity '8,-6/: 0.305 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 60 cm v,,: 3.0 r\: 9.0 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.008 cm" 1 0: 1.48 y: 0.324 



350 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



Sample Site: 

Project No: 
Pavement Type: 
Joint Condition: 
Sample Depth: 
Parent Material: 
Soil Association: 
Int. Drainage: 
Groundwater : 



US-30, WB; Laporte County, Laporte District 
Section b/w Wanatah and Hanna near KOA campground. 

F-77(18 & 20) 

6" Asphalt overlay over 9" JRCP over 5" sandy subbase 

Unsealed 

24-35 inches from surface 

Sandy soils 

B 

Poor 

Not present 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



N/A 



Plasticity Index: NP 
AASHTO Class: A-3(0) 
Unified Class: SP-SM 

USDA Text. Class: Fine Sand 
% Passing #200: 6 



In-situ Density: 136.92 pcf 

Dry Density: 123.33 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 7.8 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.67 

Permeab i 1 ity : 



Porosity: 



1.1 x 10' 3 cm/sec 
2.63 ft/day 

18.3 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 
(in cm Rfi) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 


10.42 


10.15 


8.45 ' 


6.66 


5.95 


4.44 


3.99 


2.88 


6 % 


18.3 


17.9 


14.9 


11.8 


10.5 


7.8 


7.0 


5.1 


Sr, % 


100.0 


97.41 


81.09 


63.92 


57.10 


42.61 


38.29 


27.64 


Se, 


1.00 


0.96 


0.74 


0.50 


0.41 


0.21 


0.15 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6 r ' : 0.051 Vol. Water Capacity '9,-8/: 0.132 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 87 cm v d : 2.6 r\: 8.2 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0029 cm" 1 fi: 1.80 Y : 0.444 



351 



Sample Site: 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



US-31, NB; St. Joseph County, Lapoirte District: 
Section on US-31 Bypass b/w Jet SR-2 and Mayflower Rd. 



Project No: F-720(5) 

Pavement Type: 3J5- Asphalt Overlay on 9" JRCP over 5" Crushed Agg. Base 

Joint Condition: Unsealed 

Sample Depth: 20-42 inches from surface 

Parent Material: Loamy sand 

Soil Association: F 

Int. Drainage: Well drained 

Groundwater: Not present 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



N/A 



Plasticity Index: NP 
AASHTO Class: A-3(0) 
Unified Class: SP 

USDA Text. Class: Sand 
% Passing /200: < 1 



In-situ Density: 115.96 pcf 
Dry Density: 103.51 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 8.0 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.66 

Permeability: 2.1 x 10" 3 cm/sec 

5.23 ft/day 



Porosity: 



12.1 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm HjO) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








8.25 


7.71 


5.67 . 


5.25 


4.62 


2.91 


2.83 


2.74 


e % 








12.1 


11.3 


8.3 


7.7 


6.8 


4.3 


4.2 


4.0 


Sr, % 








100.0 


93.5 


68.7 


63.6 


56.0 


35.3 


34.3 


33.2 


Se, 








1.0 


0.90 


0.53 


0.46 


0.34 


0.03 


0.02 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '8 r ' : 0.04 Vol. Water Capacity '6.-6/: 0.081 

Brooks & Corey: PBd : 78 cm v d : 2.34 t,: 7.68 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0048 cm' 1 p: 1.665 T : 0.339 



352 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



Sample Site: 



SR-9, NB; Noble County, Fort Wayne District; 
Section between Albion and Merrian near Burr Oaks. 



Project No: 
Pavement Type: 
Joint Condition 
Sample Depth: 
Parent Material 
Soil Association: M 
Int. Drainage: Poor 
Groundwater : Present 



S-412(9) 

9%" Full Depth Asphalt over 6" Type P gravelly subbase 

Dnsealed 

24-40 inches from surface 

Clayey soils in glacial till 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



N/A 



Plasticity Index: NP 
AASHTO Class: A-l-a(O) 
Unified Class: SW 

USDA Text. Class: Sandy/gravelly sand 
% Passing #200: < 1 



In-situ Density: 
Dry Density: 



131.35 pcf 
110.40 pcf 



In-situ Moisture: 9.70 % 
Specific Gravity: 2.70 
Permeability: 



Porosity: 



3.4 x 10' 3 cm/ sec 

8.5 ft/day 

20.3 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 
(in cm HX>) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 


11.48 


11.35 


9.69 - 


8.55 


7.54 


5.86 


5.33 


4.54 


e % 


20.3 


20.1 


17.1 


15.2 


13.3 


10.4 


9.4 


8.0 


Sr, % 


100.0 


98.9 


84.4 


74.5 


65.7 


51.0 


46.4 


39.5 


Se, 


1.0 


0.98 


0.74 


0.58 


0.43 


0.19 


0.11 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6,': 0.08 Vol. Water Capacity '6,-6/: 0.123 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 82 cm v,j: 3.2 t): 9.4 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.00245 cm" 1 0: 1.87 y: 0.465 



353 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



Sample Site: 

Project No: 
Pavement Type : 

Joint Condition: 
Sample Depth: 
Parent Material: 
Soil Association: 
Int. Drainage: 
Groundwater : 



SR-43, NB; Tippecanoe County, Crawfordsville District. 
Section near US-52 overpass in W. Lafayette. 

M-6262 Force Account 

61j" Asphalt over 2-3 inches Ballast mixed with road oil 
over 4" crushed aggregate 

ensealed (Aggregate shoulder) 

24-36 inches from surface 

Loamy soils on flood plains 

A 

Moderately drained 

Not present 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit: 



25 



Plasticity Index: 10-11 

AASHTO Class: A-4(4) /A-6 (5 ) 

Unified Class: CL 

DSDA Text. Class: Silty loam 
% Passing /200: 70 



In-situ Density: 
Dry Density: 



133.68 pcf 
116.84 pcf 



In-situ Moisture: 16.0 % 
Specific Gravity: 2.77 
Permeab i 1 ity : 



Porosity: 



5.1 x 10" 3 cm/ sec 
0.128 ft/day 

38.6 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm EjD) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 

403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18301 


u % 








23.25 


20.71 


16.73- 


15.08 


13.67 


11.04 


10.18 


7.8 


6 % 








38.6 


34.4 


27.8 


25.0 


22.7 


18.3 


16.9 


12.9 


Sr, % 








100.0 


89.0 


71.9 


64.9 


58.8 


47.5 


43.8 


33.5 


Se, 








1.00 


0.84 


0.58 


0.47 


0.38 


0.21 


0.15 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 
Irreduc. Moist. Content '6/: 0.129 Vol. Water Capacity '6,-6/: 0.257 



Brooks & Corey: 
Van Genuchten: 



PB d : 61.5 cm 
a: 0.013 cm' 1 



3.0 



p: 1.35 



t): 9.0 
y: 0.259 



354 



Sample Site: 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



SR-63, SB; Vermillion County, CrawfordBville District. 
Section near Newport past JCT SR-71 on uphill terrain. 



Project No: ST-F-305(22) 

Pavement Type: 12" Full Depth Asphalt over 4%" crushed aggregate subbase 

Joint Condition: Unsealed 

Sample Depth: 26-50 inches from surface 

Parent Material: Loamy and silty soil in glacial till 

Soil Association: L 

Int. Drainage: Well drained on sloping surface 

Groundwater: Not present 



ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liquid Limit; 



N/A 



Plasticity Index: NP 
AASHTO Class: A-l-a(O) 
Unified Class: GW 



USDA Text. Class: stratified sand/ 

gravelly sand 



In-situ Density: 132.74 pcf 

Dry Density: 121.72 pcf 

In-situ Moisture: 9.76 % 

Specific Gravity: 2.73 

Permeability: 



Porosity: 



6 x 10" 3 cm/ sec 
15 ft/day 

29.4 % 



% Passing #200: 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suctior 


i (in 
(in 


bars) 
cm B^O) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








20.30 


19.29 


14.64. 


13.62 


11.92 


9.42 


8.41 


7.82 


e % 








29.4 


27.9 


21.2 


19.8 


17.3 


13.7 


12.2 


11.3 


Sr, % 








100.0 


95.0 


72.2 


67.1 


58.7 


46.4 


41.4 


38.5 


Se, 








1.00 


0.92 


0.55 


0.46 


0.33 


0.13 


0.05 


0.00 



Model Parameter Values 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6/s 0.113 Vol. Water Capacity '6,-6,': 0.181 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 80 cm v d : 2.31 ij: 7.62 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0048 cm" 1 B: 1.68 y: 0.405 



355 



Sample Site: 



SITE DESCRIPTION 



US-36, WB; Hendricks County, Crawf ordsville District; 
Section near Danville just pass CR-300 



Project No: F-076-2(4) 

Pavement Type: 8*j" JPCP over 6" Bit. Stabilized Subbase 

Joint Condition: Unsealed 

Sample Depth: 30-54 inches from surface 

Parent Material: Loamy and silty soil in glacial till 

Soil Association: L 

Int. Drainage: Poor 

Groundwater: Not present 

ROADBED SOIL PROPERTIES 



Liguid Limit: 



23 



Plasticity Index: 8 

AASHTO Class: A-4(3) 

Unified Class: CL 

USDA Text. Class: Loam 

% Passing #200: 58 



In-situ Density: 
Dry Density: 



130.78 pcf 
111.74 pcf 



In-situ Moisture: 11.5% 
Specific Gravity: 2.64 
Permeability: 



Porosity: 



1.1 x 10~ 3 cm/ sec 
2.8 x 10" : ft/day 

32.8 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm HjO) 


0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








21.75 


20.11 


16.82 - 


13.45 


12.89 


9.99 


8.52 


7.14 


e % 








32.8 


30.4 


25.4 


20.3 


19.5 


15.1 


12.9 


10.8 


Sr, % 








100.0 


92.5 


77.3 


61.8 


59.3 


45.9 


39.2 


32.8 


Se, 








1.00 


0.89 


0.66 


0.43 


0.39 


0.20 


0.09 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6/: 0.108 Vol. Water Capacity '6.-6/: 0.22 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 72 cm v^: 2.78 r\: 8.56 

Van Genuchten a: 0.00625 cm' 1 p: 1.502 y: 0.334 



356 



BASE\SUBBASE #1 



TYPE: FINE AGGREGATE #24 



SOIL PROPERTIES 



GRAIN SIZE: 








% PASSING 


( 3/8 in. 


| 100 






( #4 


| 95-100 






( #8 


» 70-100 






( #16 


) 40-85 






( #30 


| 20-60 






( #50 ; 


7-40 






( #100 


1-20 




' 


( #200 


0-6 




Density (dry) : 


115 pcf 






Opt . Moisture : 


2.5% 






Sp. Gravity: 


2.66 






Permeability: 


1.1 x 10 3 cm/sec (1.2 


ft /day) 


Porosity: 


4.8 % 







MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 0.0 
(in cm Kfl) 



u % 
8 % 
Sr, % 
Se, 



0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
1S300 


2.6 


2.44 


1.79 


1.68 


1.64 


1.38 


1.23 


1.12 


4.8 


4.5 


3.3 


3.1 


3.0 


2.5 


2.3 


2.1 


100 


93.8 


68.8 


64.2 


63.1 


53.1 


47.3 


43.1 


1.00 


0.89 


0.45 


0.38 


0.35 


0.18 


0.07 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6 r ': 0.0021 Vol. Water Capacity '6,-6/: 0.0027 

Brooks & Corey: PB^: 73 cm v,,: 2.5 q: 8.0 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0064 cm 4 (J: 1.569 y: 0.363 



357 



BASE\SUBBASE #2 



SOIL, PROPERTIES 



TYPE: COARSE AGGREGATE /53 (Type O) 



GRAIN SIZE: 






% PASSING 


( 1 1/2 in.) 


100 




(1 in.) 


80-100 




( 3/4 in.) 


70-90 




( 1/2 in.) 


55-80 




( /4 ) 


35-60 




( #8 ) 


25-50 




( «0 ) 


12-30 




( /200 ) 


5-10 


Density (dry) : 


143 lb/ft 3 




Opt . Moisture : 


7.08% 




Sp. Gravity: 


2.53 




Permeability: 


3.6 x 10" 5 cm/ 


sec (0.J 



0.15 cm/sec (499 ft/day) for /53 special subbase gradation 



Porosity: 



10.8 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 0.0 
(in cm H 2 0) 



a % 
6 % 
Sr, % 
Se, 



0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 
732 


31.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


7.86 


7.19 


4.21 


3.77 


3.3 


2.38 


1.45 


1.37 


10.8 


9.9 


5.8 


5.2 


4.6 


3.3 


2.0 


1.9 


100 


91.5 


53.6 


47.9 


41.9 


30.3 


18.4 


17.4 


1.00 


0.89 


0.44 


0.37 


0.30 


0.16 


0.01 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6/: 0.019 Vol.- Water Capacity '6,-6/: 0.089 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 79 cm v„: 1.92 r\: 6.84 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0052 cm" 1 ft: 1.735 Y : 0.423 



BASE/SUBBASE #3 



SOIL PROPERTIES 



358 



TYPE: COARSE AGGREGATE #73 



GRAIN SIZE: 








% PASSING 


( 1 in. 
( 3/4 in. 
( 1/2 in. 
( #4 
( #30 
( #200 


) 
•) 
■) 
) 
) 
) 


100 

90-100 

60-90 

35-60 

12-30 

5-10 


Density (dry) : 


132 pcf 






Opt. Moisture: 


7.1% 







Sp . Gravity : 

Permeability: 

Porosity: 



2.72 

7.03 x lO 2 cm/ sec (192 ft/day) 

13.6 % 



MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 
(in cm HjO) 

<•> % 

6 % 

Sr, % 

Se, 



0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.6 

732 


31.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


9.9 


9.44 


7.73 


7.31 


6.49 


3.32 


3.17 


2.39 


13.6 


12.9 


10.6 


10.0 


8.9 


4.6 


4.3 


3.3 


100 


95.4 


78.1 


73.8 


65.6 


33.5 


32.0 


24.1 


1.00 


0.94 


0.71 


0.66 


0.55 


0.12 


0.10 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist . Content '6 r ': 0.033 Vol. Water Capacity '6,-6/: 0-103 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 85 cm - v d : 3.15 ip 9.3 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0028 cm" 1 P: 1.55 y: 0.355 



3 5S 



BASE/SUBBASE #4 



SOIL, PROPERTIES 



TYPE: BITUMINOUS STABILIZED BASE /53B 

GRAIN SIZE: 

% Passing ( 1 1/2 in.) - 100 



( 1 
( 3/4 
( 1/2 
( #4 
( #8 
( #30 
( /200 



in. 
in. 
in. 



90 
80 
68 
48 
38 
21 
8 



Asphalt Content: 4% 

Density: 140 lb/ft 3 

Bulk Sp. Gravity: 2.37 

Permeability: 2.23 x 10" 2 cm/sec (74 ft/day) 

Porosity: 5.2 % 

MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction 


(in 
(in 


bars) 
cm HjO) 


0.0 



0.33 
403 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


10.0 
12200 


15.0 
18300 


u % 








2.28 


2.18 


2.01 


1.98 


1.90 


1.86 


e % 








5.15 


4.80 


4.54 


4.47 


4.29 


4.20 


Sr, % 








100 


93.2 


88.2 


86.8 


83.3 


81.6 


Se, 








1.0 


0.76 


0.36 


0.28 


0.11 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content '6/: 0.042 Vol.- Water Capacity '6.-6/: 0.0095 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 122 cm v„: 2.3 n: 7 . 6 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0028 an" 1 f: 1.685 y: 0.4065 



360 



BASE/SUBBASE #5 



SOU. PROPERTIES 



TYPE: Bituminous Stabilized Subbase #5D 



GRAIN SIZE: 








% PASSING 


( 1 1/2 in.) 100 






( 1 in. 


| 80-99 






( 3/4 in. 


) 68-90 






( 1/2 in. 


| 54-76 






( 3/8 in. 


45-67 






( #4 


i 35-45 






( #8 


20-45 






( #16 


) 12-36 






( #30 


| 7-28 






( #100 


1-12 






( #200 


i 0-4 




Asphalt Content: 


4.2% 






Density (Dry) : 


144.8 lb/ft 3 




Opt . Moisture : 


0.5% 






Sp. Gravity: 


2.33 






Permeability: 


2.1 x 10"* 


cm/sec (0.6 


ft/day) 


Porosity: 


3.37 % 







MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS DATA 



Suction (in bars) 
(in cm Bfi) 

u % 

e % 

Sr, % 
Se, 



0.0 



0.1 
122 


0.33 
403 


0.60 
732 


1.0 
1220 


3.0 
3660 


5.0 
6100 


15.0 
18300 


1.48 


1.43 


1.38 


1.35 


1.24 


1.21 


1.18 


1.15 


3.37 


3.26 


3.15 


3.08 


2.83 


2.76 


2.70 


2.62 


100 


96.7 


93.5 


91.4 


83.9 


81.9 


80.1 


77.7 


1.00 


0.85 


0.71 


0.-61 


0.28 


0.19 


0.11 


0.00 



MODEL PARAMETER VALUES 

Irreduc. Moist. Content *6/: 0.0262 Vol. Water Capacity '0.-6/: 0.0075 
Brooks & Corey: PB d : 88 cm v,,: 2.11 tp 7.22 

Van Genuchten: a: 0.0028 cm' 1 f$: 1.685 y = 0.4065 



361 



Mean and Standard Deviation Values for Gravimetric Moisture Content 



Route, County 


Soil Type 


122 


403 


732 


Pressure in err 
1220 


i of water 
3660 


6100 


1S30C 


US-31, Hamilton 


SM-SC 


17.63 
1.6 


13.95 
1.37 


12.67 
124 


11.43 
1.17 


8.66 
0.82 


7.12 
0.8 


627 
0.72 


SR-37, Hamilton 


SM-SC 


10.91 
0.02 


8.82 
0.43 


7.72 

0.42 


7 
028 


4.17 
0.16 


3.77 
0.15 


257 
029 


SR-37, Lawrence 


CH 


39.62 
4.81 


33.18 
426 


31.12 
4.16 


28.84 
4.19 


23.32 
3.48 


22.68 
3.05 


2122 
4.14 


US-41, Sullivan 


CL 


28.97 
0.75 


23.38 
0.46 


21.12 
028 


17.15 
0.26 


15.73 
0.75 


13.92 
0.4 


1289 
074 


US-30, Laporte 


SP-SM 


10.15 
2.4 


8.45 
2.43 


6.66 
1.8 


5.95 
1.52 


4.44 
1.01 


3.99 
0.71 


288 
0.37 


US-31,St.Joseph 


SP 


7.71 
0.72 


5.67 
0.56 


5.25 
0.56 


4.62 
0.71 


2.91 
0.41 


2.83 
0.32 


274 
0.59 


SR-9, Noble 


SW 


11.61 
227 


11.35 
2.12 


8.55 
2.15 


7.54 
1.9 


5.86 
1.52 


5.33 
1.48 


434 
135 


SR-43, Tippecanoe 


CL 


20.7 
1.12 


16.73 
0.98 


15.08 
0.97 


13.67 
0.95 


11.04 
1.1 


10.18 
0.96 


7.8 
1.14 


SR-63, Vermillion 


GW 


1929 
0.97 


14.64 
0.65 


13.62 
0.76 


11.92 
0.82 


9.42 
0.41 


8.41 

0.34 


7.82 
037 


US-36, Hendricks 


CL 


20.11 
1.4 


16.82 
125 


13.45 
1.06 


1289 
0.72 


9.9 

0.78 


8.52 
0.73 


7.14 
0.76 


BaseNo.1 


No24 


244 
0.15 


1.79 
0.007 


1.68 
0.02 


1.64 

0.007 


1.38 
0.008 


123 

0.008 


1.12 
0.02 


BaseNo.2 


No.53 


7.19 
0.06 


421 
0.5 


3.77 
• 0.38 


3.3 
027 


238 
0.03 


1.45 
0.1 


1.37 

0.06 


BaseNo.3 


No.73 


9.44 
0.16 


7.73 

0.09 


7.31 
0.41 


6.49 
0.32 


3.32 
0.007 


ai7 

0.08 


2.39 
0.007 


Base No.4 


No.53B 


228 
02 


218 
0.18 


* 
* 


2.01 
0.3 


1.98 
0.18 


1.9 
02 


1.86 
0.19 


Base No.5 


No.5D 


1.43 

0.54 


1.38 
0.53 


1.35 

0.53 


124 

0.42 


121 
0.43 


1.18 

0.43 


1.15 

0.43 



No. of observations: n=6 for subgrade soils; n=2 for base types 



;62 



Appendix E 
Regression Output and Figures for Parameter Estimation 



Measured vs Estimated Soil-Moisture Characteristics 



363 



suction 


ham31 


ham31 


ham31 


ham37 


ham37 


ham37 


lawmc37 


Iawmc37 


Iav/mc37 




measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


122 


0.86 


0.759504 


0.811019 


0.9 


0.834014 


0.872168 


0.87 


0.809458 


0.871826 


403 


0.58 


0.516569 


0.560832 


0.67 


0.572773 


0.64058 


0.57 


0.528271 


0575155 


7732 


0.49 


0.199187 


0.156471 


0.54 


0226218 


0.179498 


0.47 


0.183928 


0.090549 


1220 


0.39 


0.361368 


0.355126 


0.46 


0.404304 


0.412096 


0.36 


0255673 


0.302798 


3660 


0.18 


0.253536 


0218662 


0.14 


02862 


0252513 


0.1 


0240243 


0.148466 


6100 


0.06 


0.215018 


0.174011 


0.09 


0243728 


0200064 


0.07 


0200179 


0.105945 


18300 





0.150857 


0.10629 





0.172531 


0.120894 





0.135213 


0.051125 


suction 


Iprt30 


Iprt30 


Iprt30 


josh31 


josh3l 


josh31 


sullvn41 


sultvn41 


sultvr>41 




measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


122 


0.96 


0.878057 


0.938353 


0.9 


0.826001 


0.889996 


0.88 


0.789339 


0.803476 


403 


0.74 


0.554534 


0.687697 


0.53 


0.495689 


0.625039 


0.57 


0.530008 


0.541131 


7732 


0.5 


0.178021 


0.083141 


0.46 


0.140257 


0.12994 


0.45 


0.197979 


0.138256 


1220 


0.41 


0.362166 


0.348782 


0.34 


0.308767 


0.362389 


025 


0.366379 


0.331734 


3660 


0.21 


0.237355 


0.15045 


0.03 


0.193078 


0.197785 


0.15 


0254033 


0.197607 


6100 


0.15 


0.195017 


0.100398 


0.02 


0.155212 


0.148486 


0.06 


021426 


0.154854 


18300 





0.12781 


0.041817 





0.097057 


0.079951 





0.148559 


0.091515 


suction 


noble9 


noble9 


noble9 


tippcn43 


tippcn43 


tippcn43 


vermil63 


vermS63 


vermil63 




measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


122 


0.98 


0.883241 


0.954823 


0.84 


0.795863 


0.761465 


0.92 


0.833033 


0.870851 


403 


0.74 


0.608008 


0.728468 


0.58 


0.534388 


0.545871 


0.55 


0.496605 


0.568676 


7732 


0.58 


0.241533 


0.077333 


0.47 


0.199616 


0.199387 


0.46 


0.138231 


0.085445 


1220 


0.43 


0.43011 


0.364749 


0.38 


0.369407 


0.378138 


0.33 


0.307441 


0294387 


3660 


0.19 


0.305126 


0.147337 


0.21 


0256132 


0258749 


0.13 


0.19108 


0.141798 


6100 


0.11 


0.260107 


0.094937 


0.15 


0216031 


0216577 


0.05 


0.153171 


0.100356 


18300 





0.184523 


0.036616 





0.149787 


0.147579 





0.095199 


0.047579 


suction 


hendrk36 


hendrk36 


hendrk36 


base24 


base24 


base24 


base53 


base53 


base53 




measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


122 


0.89 


0.827211 


0.843349 


0.89 


0.814301 


0.82866 


0.89 


0.797447 


0.853359 


403 


0.66 


0.538202 


0.58399 


0.45 


0.504902 


0.541377 


0.44 


0.427974 


0.523442 


7732 


0.43 


0.185968 


0.142783 


0.38 


0.397672 


0.402364 


0.37 


0.313628 


0.359827 


1220 


0.39 


0.36133 


0.355389 


0.35 


0.324179 


0.305849 


0.3 


0240363 


0252927 


3660 


0.2 


0.243376 


0207367 


0.18 


0208899 


0.1655 


0.16 


0.135634 


0.114431 


6100 


0.09 


0.202524 


0.160749 


0.07 


0.170293 


0.123897 


0.01 


0.103949 


0.078731 


18300 





0.136411 


0.092744 





0.109736 


0.066333 





0.058657 


0.035146 


suction 


base73 


base73 


base73 


base53b 


base53b 


base53b 


base5d 


base5d 


base5d 




measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


measurd 


B&C 


VanG 


122 


0.94 


0.891615 


0.940335 


1 


1 


1 


0.85 


0.856564 


0.940242 


403 


0.71 


0.610145 


0.755137 


0.76 


0.594801 


0.722356 


0.71 


0.486199 


0.722356 


732 


0.66 


0.50483 


0.609085 


0.57 


0.458853 


0.550069 


0.61 


0.36641 


0.550069 


1220 


0.55 


0.429257 


0.4842 


0.36 


0.367466 


0.410758 


028 


0287625 


0.410758 


3660 


0.12 


0.302866 


0275276 


028 


0227915 


020151 


0.19 


0.170884 


020151 


6100 


0.1 


0.257527 


0208901 


0.22 


0.182523 


0.142669 


0.11 


0.134141 


0.14266S 


18300 





0.1817 


0.114536 





0.113207 


0.067417 





0.079696 


0.067417 



364 



Measured vs Estimated Soil-Moisture Characteristics 



Regression Analysis For Base #24 



Brooks&Corey 

Regression Output 
Constant 





Sid Err of Y Est 




0.053472 


R Squared 

No. of Observations 




0565107 

7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficients) 
StdErrofCoef. 


0.99698 
0.048052 





Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 
Constant 





StdErrofYEst 




0.059796 


R Squared 

No. of Observations 




0.961388 

7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficientfs) 
StdErrofCoef. 


1.051916 
0.053736 


> 



Brooks & Corey 
Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 

R Squared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 



Regression Analysis For Base #53 



X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 




0.074983 
0.919174 

7 
6 



1.057428 
0.065795 



Van Genuchten 

Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 0.066116 

R Squared 0544211 

No. of Observations 7 

Degrees of Freedom 6 



XCoeffidentfs) 
StdErrofCoef. 



1.049181 
0.058014 



Brooks&Corey 
Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 

R Squared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 



Regression Analysis For Base #73 




0.149321 
0.669958 

7 
6 



XCoefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 



0.940962 
0.101832 



Van Genuchten 

Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 0.111032 

R Squared 0.867406 

No. of Observations 7 

Degrees of Freedom 6 



X Coefficients) 
StdErrofCoef. 



1.041759 
0.075719 



Brooks&Corey 
Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 

R Squared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 



Regression Analysis For Base #538 



X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 




0.073936 
0.940141 

7 
6 



0.935289 
0.05032 



Van Genuchten 

Regression Output 

Constant - 

StdErrofYEst 0.063138 

R Squared 0565001 

No. of Observations 7 

Degrees of Freedom 6 



XCoefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 



1.012422 
0.042971 



Brooks&Corey 
Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 

R Squared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 



Regression Analysis For Base #50 

Van Genuchten 

Regression Output 

Constant 

0.122469 StdErrofYEst 0.083827 

0.829899 R Squared 0534177 

7 No. of Observations 7 



X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 



0.905366 
0.093238 



Degrees of Freedom 

X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 



1.106527 
0.063819 



■'. f. 5 



Measured vs Estimated Soil-Moisture Characteristics 



Regression Analysis for SP-Sotl (US-31 . SUIoseph County) 



Brooks & Corey 




Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.107916 


StdErrofYEst 




0.114383 


RSquared 




0.845961 


RSquared 




0.851323 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficient(s) 


0.994909 




X CoeffibenKs) 


1.099939 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.09058 




Std Err of Coef. 


0.096009 





Regression Analysis for SM-SC Soil (US-31, HamBton County) 



Brooks & Corey 




Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.054318 


StdErrofYEst 




0.075897 


RSquared 




0529678 


RSquared 




0511972 


No. of Observations 




5 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




4 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coeffo'ent(s) 


0.957485 




XCoeffident(s) 


1.004577 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.044342 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.061883 





Regression Analysis for SM-SC Soil (SR-37, Hamilton County) 



Brooks & Corey 




Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.12714 


StdErrofYEst 




0.09445 


RSquared 




0.723978 


RSquared 




0.879563 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


XCoefficient(s) 


0373431 




X Coetfkaent(s) 


1.017807 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.095034 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.070599 





Regression Analysis for OH Soa (SR-37, Lawrence County) 



Brooks & Corey 
Regression Output 
Constant 





Van Genuchten 
Regression Output 
Constant 





StdErrofYEst 




0.107274 


StdErrofYEst 




0.047179 


RSquared 

No. of Observations 




0.815088 

7 


RSquared 

No. of Observations 




0S75803 

7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 


1.017196 
0.089172 




XCoefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 


1.038063 
0.039218 





Regression Analysts for SP-SM Soil (US-30, Laporte County) 



Brooks & Corey 
Regression Output 
Constant 





Van Genuchten 
Regression Output 
Constant 





StdErrofYEst 




0.084914 


StdErrofYEst 




0.031992 


RSquared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 




0.9O78O8 
7 
6 


RSquared 

No. of Observations 

Degrees of Freedom 




0591057 
7 
6 


X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 


0.939057 
0.060748 




X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 


1.000122 





366 



Measured vs Estimated Soil-Moisture Characteristics 



Regression Analysis for CL Soil (US-4 1 , Sullivan County) 



Brooks & Corey 




VanGenuchten 




Regression Output 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.122624 


StdErrofYEst 




0.083921 


R Squared 




0.729074 


R Squared 




0.895427 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X CoeffictenKs) 


1.025082 




X Coefficients) 


1.010887 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.103993 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.071171 





Regression Analysis for SW Soil (Noble County) 



Brooks & Corey 




VanGenuchten 




Regression Oulput 




Regressior 


i Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.127734 


StdErrofYEst 




0.022466 


R Squared 




0.750042 


R Squared 




0.995912 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficient(s) 


0.961473 




XCoefficient(s) 


1.004715 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.088621 




SldErrofCoel. 


0.015586 





Regression Analysis for CL Soil (SR-43, Tippecanoe County) 



Brooks & Corey 

Regression Output 

Constant 

StdErrofYEst 0.078693 

R Squared 0.890243 

No. of Observations 7 

Degrees of Freedom 6 



X Coefficient(s) 
StdErrofCoef. 



1.022122 
0.064819 



Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Sid En- of Y Est 




0.080947 


R Squared 




0.865933 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficient(s) 


0.99955 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.066676 





Regression Analysis for GW Sob (SR-63, Vermiion County) 



Brooks & Corey 




VanGenuchten 




Regression Oulput 




Regression Output 




Constant 







Constant 


■ m 





StdErrofYEst 




0.075233 


StdEn-ofYEst 




0.045025 


R Squared 




0.927156 


R Squared 




0.978158 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficients) 


0.988881 




X Coefficients) 


1.015568 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.061658 




StdErrofCoef. 


0.036901 





Regression Analysis for CL Soil (US-36, Hendricks County) 



Brooks & Corey 




Van Genuchten 




Regression Output 




Regressior 


i Output 




Constant 







Constant 







StdErrofYEst 




0.092131 


StdEn-ofYEst 




0.062525 


R Squared 




0.870245 


R Squared 




0.947696 


No. of Observations 




7 


No. of Observations 




7 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


Degrees of Freedom 




6 


X Coefficient(s) 


0.989204 




X Coefficientis) 


1.000653 




Std Err of Coef. 


0.072547 




Std En of Coef. 


0.049234 





367 



SM-SC SOIL 
US-31 , Hamilton County 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



i 
12 



T 

14 



I 
16 



18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey =*= Van Genuchten 



] 



368 



SM-SCSOIL 
SR-37, Hamilton County 




i 
10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



measured 



Brooks & Corey *= VanGenuchten 



369 



CH SOIL 

SR-37, Lawrence County 




1 
2 


1 
4 


1 
6 


i 
8 


l 

10 
Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 


i 
12 



16 



18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey * VanGenuchten 



370 



CLSOIL 

US-41, Sullivan County 




I 
2 


1 
4 


1 
6 


1 
8 


l 

10 
Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 


i 
12 


I 
14 


I 
16 


H 

18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey *6 Van Genuchten 



371 



SP-SM SOIL 

US-30, Laporte County 




:•: 



(Thousands) 



measured 



Brooks & Corey *Z VanGenuchten 



372 



SP SOIL 

US-31 , StJoseph County 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



measured 



Brooks & Corey 3* Van Genuchten 



373 



SWSOIL 

SR-9, Noble County 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



12 



~i — 
14 



16 



18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey * VanGenuchten 



374 



CLSOIL 

SR-43, Tippecanoe County 




T" 

10 

Suction mem 
(Thousands) 



measured 



Brooks & Corey ^ VanGenuchten 



375 



GWSOIL 

SR-63, Vermillion County 




T 

10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



■5 



:: 



measured 



Brooks & Corey 3* VanGenuchten 



376 



CLSOIL 

US-36, Hendricks County 




T 

10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



measured 



Brooks & Corey a* VanGenuchten 



377 



BASE/SUBBASE #24 




1 
2 


1 
4 


1 

6 


I 
8 


i 

10 
Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 


l 
12 



1 
14 



T 

16 



18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey 3K VanGenucftten 



378 



BASE/SUBBASE#53 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey %Z VanGenuchten 



379 



BASE/SUBBASE #73 




i 

10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey *= Van Genucnten 



380 



BASE/SUBBASE #53B 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



r 
12 



T 

14 



I 
16 



20 



measured 



Bnx)ks& Corey ** VanGenuchten 



331 



BASE/SUBBASE #5D 




10 

Suction in cm 
(Thousands) 



12 



14 



16 



18 



20 



measured 



Brooks & Corey 3* VanGenuchten 



332 



Appendix F 
Data From Instrumented Sites 



UO 31. Hamilton County (DATA SET 1 for Rain and Flow) 



333 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM. RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CU M.FLO 










INCHES 


en 


clt 


gpra 


en 


eft 


1 


3129 


32S 


2400 


0.04 


48.3332 


48.3332 











2 


3129 


326 


100 


0.07 


84.5831 


132.9163 











3 


3129 


326 


200 


0.11 


132.9163 


265.8326 











4 


3129 


326 


300 


0.06 


72.4998 


338.3324 











S 


3129 


326 


400 


a oo 


36.2499 


374.5823 











6 


3129 


326 


500 


0.11 


132.9163 


507.4986 











7 


3129 


326 


600 


0.06 


72.4998 


57a 9984 











8 


3129 


326 


700 


a oo 


36.2499 


616.2483 











9 


3129 


326 


800 


0.02 


24.1666 


640.4149 











10 


3129 


326 


900 


0.02 


24.1666 


664.581 5 











11 


3129 


326 


1000 








664.5815 











12 


3129 


326 


1100 








664.S81S 











13 


3129 


326 


1200 








664.5815 











14 


3129 


326 


1300 








664.S81S 











15 


3129 


326 


1400 








664.S81S 











16 


3129 


326 


1S00 








664.5815 











17 


3129 


326 


16O0 








664.5815 











18 


3129 


326 


1700 








664.581 S 











19 


3129 


326 


1800 








664.581 S 











20 


3129 


326 


1900 








664.5815 











21 


3129 


326 


2OO0 








664.5815 











22 


3129 


326 


2100 








664.5815 











23 


3129 


326 


2200 








664.S815 











24 


3129 


326 


2300 








664.5815 











2S 


3129 


326 


2400 








664.581 S 











26 


3129 


327 


100 








664.5815 











27 


3129 


327 


200 








664.5815 











28 


3129 


327 


300 








664.5815 











29 


3129 


327 


400 








664.S81S 











30 


3129 


327 


500 








664.S815 











31 


3129 


327 


600 








664.S815 











32 


3129 


327 


700 








664.5815 











33 


3129 


327 


BOO 








664.5815 











34 


3129 


327 


1500 








664.5815 


0,00447 


0.035877 


0.03S877 


35 


3129 


327 


1600 








664.S815 


0.38469 


3.087599 


3.123476 


36 


3129 


327 


1700 








664.S815 


0.33549 


2.69271 


5816186 


37 


3129 


327 


1800 








664.5815 


0.30418 


2.44141 


8^57595 


38 


3129 


327 


1900 








664.5815 


027734 


2.225986 


1048358 


39 


3129 


327 


2000 








664.5815 


0L2S497 


2.04644 


12.53002 


40 


3129 


327 


2100 








664.5815 


OJ20577 


1.6S1SS1 


14.18157 


41 


3129 


327 


22O0 








664.5815 


O20129 


1.615594 


1579717 


42 


3129 


327 


23O0 








664.S81S 


0.19682 


1.579717 


17.37688 


43 


3129 


327 


24O0 








664.S815 


a 18787 


1.S07882 


1888477 


44 


3129 


328 


100 








664.5815 


0.17445 


1.4O0171 


20-28494 


45 


3129 


328 


200 








664.S815 


0.16SS1 


1.328416 


21.61335 


46 


3129 


328 


3O0 








664 5815 


a 14761 


1.184747 


22.7981 


47 


3129 


328 


400 








664.5815 


0.13419 


1.077036 


23.87514 


48 


3129 


328 


500 








664.S81S 


0.13419 


1.077036 


24.95217 


49 


3129 


328 


6O0 








664.5815 


0.13419 


1.077036 


26.02921 


SO 


3129 


328 


700 








664.5815 


a 12078 


0.9694O4 


26.99861 


51 


3129 


328 


800 








664.S815 


0.1163 


0.933447 


27.93206 


S2 


3129 


328 


900 








664.5815 


0.10736 


0.861693 


28.79375 


S3 


3129 


328 


1000 








664.5815 


0.10288 


0.82S73S 


29.61949 


54 


3129 


328 


1100 








664.581 S 


0.09841 


0.789858 


30.4O935 


SS 


3129 


328 


1200 








664.S815 


0.09841 


0.789S58 


31.1992 


56 


3129 


328 


1300 








664.5815 


0.O9S41 


0.789858 


31.98906 


S7 


3129 


328 


1400 








664.581 S 


010288 


0.825735 


32.8148 


58 


3129 


328 


1500 








664.5815 


0.09841 


0.7898SS 


33.60466 


59 


3129 


328 


1600 








664.5815 


0.09394 


0.7S3981 


34.35864 


60 


3129 


328 


1700 








664.SS1S 


0.08946 


0.718024 


3S.07666 


61 


3129 


328 


1800 








664.5815 


0.0S36S 


0.43O846 


35.50751 


62 


3129 


328 


1900 








664.5815 


0.0492 


0.394889 


35.9024 


63 


3129 


328 


2OO0 








664.581 5 


O0492 


0-394889 


36^9729 


64 


3129 


328 


21O0 








664.S81S 


0.04473 


0.359012 


36.6563 


65 


3129 


328 


22O0 








664.5815 


0.01789 


0.143S89 


36.79989 


66 


3129 


328 


23O0 








664.S81S 








36.79989 








CUMUL 


0.SS 


664.5815 




4.58497 


36.79989 






VOLUME IN CFT 


664.5830 






36-79989 








Outflow voL «a 


pefcerr 


t»g€ of pr« 


3p. volume 






5537287 







US-31 , Hamilton County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



384 



TOT.HRS F 


tTE/CNJT Jl 


JLN0AY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM.RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 










INCHES 


en 


eft 


gpa, 


eft 


eft 


1 


3129 


331 


100 


0.01 


12.0833 


12.0833 





O 





2 


3129 


331 


200 


0.41 


495.4153 


507.4986 


0.42048 


3.374857 


3.374857 


3 


3129 


331 


300 








507.4986 


1.8832 


1511494 


1&4S96 


4 


3129 


331 


400 


0.1 


120.833 


628.3316 


2J797 


19.099SS 


37.S8974 


S 


3129 


331 


500 


a 22 


265.8326 


894.1642 


42316 


33.96367 


71.55341 


6 


3129 


331 


600 


0.12 


144.9996 


1039.1638 


4.4776 


3S.93811 


107.491 S 


7 


3129 


331 


700 


0.08 


96.6664 


1135.8302 


4.5045 


36.15402 


143.6455 


8 


3129 


331 


800 


005 


60.4165 


1196.2467 


4.4911 


36.04647 


179.692 


9 


3129 


331 


900 








11962467 


3.9453 


31.66577 


211.3S78 


10 


3129 


331 


1000 


0.15 


181.2495 


1377.4962 


3.7932 


30.44498 


241.8022 


11 


3129 


331 


1100 


0.04 


48.3332 


1425.8294 


4.4553 


35.75913 


277.S619 


12 


3129 


331 


1200 


0.04 


48.3332 


1474.1626 


4.008 


32.16901 


309.7309 


13 


3129 


331 


1300 


0.01 


120833 


1486.2459 


3.9006 


31.307 


341.0379 


14 


3129 


331 


1400 








1486.2459 


3.4667 


27.82443 


368.8623 


IS 


3129 


331 


1S00 








1 486.2459 


3.1044 


24.91654 


393.7789 


16 


3129 


331 


1600 








1486.2459 


2.9255 


23.48065 


4172SSS 


17 


3129 


331 


1700 








1486.2459 


2.836 


22.7623 


440.0218 


18 


3129 


331 


1800 








1486.2459 


2.7644 


22.18763 


4622094 


19 


3129 


331 


1900 








1486.2459 


Z6168 


21.00296 


4832124 


20 


3129 


331 


2000 








1486.2459 


2.4647 


19.78218 


502.9946 


21 


3129 


331 


2100 








1486.2459 


23931 


19.207S 


5222021 


22 


3129 


331 


2200 








1486.2459 


22768 


18.27405 


540.4761 


23 


3129 


331 


2300 








1486.2459 


2.1829 


17.52039 


557.9965 


24 


3129 


331 


24O0 


0.0S 


60.4165 


1546.6624 


21158 


16.98183 


574.9783 


2S 


3129 


332 


100 


0.23 


277.91S9 


1824.S7S3 


32609 


26.17264 


601.151 


26 


3129 


332 


200 


0.21 


2S3.7493 


2078.3276 


4.3792 


35.14834 


636.2993 


27 


3129 


332 


300 


0.26 


314.1658 


2392.4934 


4.S3SS 


36.40S24 


672.7046 


28 


3129 


332 


400 


0.3 


362499 


2754.9924 


4.7147 


37.84113 


710.S4S7 


29 


3129 


332 


500 


0.0S 


60.4 165 


281 S. 4089 


4.4195 


3547179 


746.01 7S 


30 


3129 


332 


600 








281S.4089 


4.0348 


32.38411 


778.4016 


31 


3129 


332 


700 








281 5.4089 


3.2654 


26.2087S 


804.6103 


32 


3129 


332 


800 








2815.4089 


2836 


22.7623 


827.3726 


33 


3129 


332 


900 








2815.4089 


26431 


21.2S418 


848.6268 


34 


3129 


332 


1000 








2815.4089 


2.5139 


20.17706 


868.8039 


35 


3129 


332 


1100 








2815.4089 


241 SS 


19.38729 


888.1912 


36 


3129 


332 


1200 








28154089 


22276 


17.87916 


906.0703 


37 


3129 


332 


1300 








2815.4089 


21695 


17.41284 


923.4832 


38 


3129 


332 


1400 








28154089 


2.0219 


16.22817 


939.7113 


39 


3129 


332 


1S00 








28154089 


1.91 45 


1536616 


955.0775 


40 


3129 


332 


1600 








2815.4089 


1.8027 


14.46883 


969.5463 


41 


3129 


332 


1700 








2815.4089 


1.7311 


1389415 


983.440S 


42 


3129 


332 


1800 








2815.4089 


1.6282 


1306826 


996.S088 


43 


3129 


332 


1900 








2815.4089 


1.4896 


11.95583 


1008. 46S 


44 


3129 


332 


2000 








2815.4089 


1.4135 


11.34 S03 


1019.81 


45 


3129 


332 


2100 








2815. 4089 


1.3241 


10.62749 


1030.437 


46 


3129 


332 


2200 








2815.4089 


1.2078 


9.694044 


1040.131 


47 


3129 


332 


2300 








2815.4089 


1.0959 


8.79S913 


1048.927 


48 


3129 


332 


24O0 








2815.4089 


1.0154 


8.149803 


10S7.077 


49 


3129 


333 


100 








2815.4089 


0.90358 


7252314 


1064.329 


SO 


3129 


333 


200 








2815.4089 


0.84096 


6749713 


1071.079 


51 


3129 


333 


300 








28154089 


O 68887 


5.529008 


1076.608 


52 


3129 


333 


4O0 








2815.4089 


0.62177 


4.9904S 


1081.598 


S3 


3129 


333 


500 








28154089 


0.58151 


4.667316 


1086.266 


54 


3129 


333 


600 








28154089 


a 53678 


4.308304 


1090.574 


S5 


3129 


333 


700 








281 5.4089 


0.48758 


3.913415 


1094.487 


56 


3129 


333 


800 








2815.4089 


0.43837 


3.S18445 


1098.006 


57 


3129 


333 


900 








28154089 


0.39811 


3.19S31 


1101201 


58 


3129 


333 


1000 








28154089 


0.35338 


£836299 


1104.037 


59 


3129 


333 


1100 








2815.4089 


0.30865 


£477287 


1106.515 


60 


3129 


333 


1200 








2815 4089 


0.27286 


2.190029 


1108.705 


61 


3129 


333 


1300 








28154089 


0.24155 


1.938729 


1110.643 


62 


3129 


333 


1400 








2815.4089 


0.22366 


1.79514 


1112439 


63 


3129 


333 


1500 








28154089 


0.20577 


1.651551 


1114.09 


64 


3129 


333 


1600 








2815.4089 


a 18787 


1.507882 


111S.598 


65 


3129 


333 


1700 








2815.4089 


0.17445 


1.4O0171 


1116.998 


66 


3129 


333 


1800 








28 IS 4089 


0.1S2O9 


1220705 


1118.219 


67 


3129 


333 


1900 








2815.4089 


0.12S2S 


1.005282 


1119.224 


68 


3129 


333 


2000 








28154089 


0.1163 


0.933447 


1120.158 


69 


3129 


333 


2100 








2815.4089 


0.11183 


0.89757 


1121.055 


70 


3129 


333 


2200 








2815.4089 


0.08946 


0.718024 


1121.773 


71 


3129 


333 


2300 








2815.4089 


0.09394 


0.7S3981 


1122.527 


72 


3129 


333 


2400 








28 15 4089 


0.09394 


0.753981 


1123.281 


73 


3129 


334 


100 








281 5.4089 


0.08499 


0-682147 


1123.963 


74 


3129 


334 


200 








2815.4089 


0.07157 


0.S7443S 


1124.538 


7S 


3129 


334 


300 








2815.4089 


0.0671 


0.538558 


112S.076 


76 


3129 


334 


400 








2815.4089 


0.04473 


0.359012 


1125.435 



335 



US-31, Hamilton County (DATA SET 2 lor Rain and Flow) 
77 3129 334 SOO 





28IS.4089 


0.04473 


0.359012 


1125 794 


78 


3129 


334 


600 








281S.4089 


0.02237 


0.179546 


1125.974 


79 


3129 


334 


700 








2815.4089 








1125.974 


80 


3129 


334 


800 








2315.4089 








1125.974 


81 


3129 


334 


900 








2815. 4089 


01785 


0.143589 


1126.118 


82 


3129 


334 


1000 








231S.4089 


0.O5815 


0.466724 


1126.584 


83 


3129 


334 


1100 








281S.4089 


0.07157 


0.574435 


1127.159 


84 


3129 


334 


1200 








281 S.4089 


0.0671 


0.538558 


1 1 27.697 


85 


3129 


334 


1300 








2815.4089 


0.05815 


0.466724 


1128.164 


86 


3129 


334 


1400 








281 5. 4089 


0.07157 


OS7443S 


1128.738 


87 


3129 


334 


1500 








2815.4089 


0.07157 


OS7443S 


1129 113 


88 


3129 


334 


1600 








2815.4089 


0.0492 


0.394889 


1129.708 


89 


3129 


334 


1700 








281 S. 4089 


0.06262 


OSO2601 


1130.21 


90 


3129 


334 


1800 








2815.4089 


0.06262 


0.502601 


1130713 


91 


3129 


334 


1900 








2815.4089 


0.06262 


OS02601 


1131.216 


92 


3129 


334 


2000 








2815.4089 


0.0671 


0.538558 


1131.7S4 


93 


3129 


334 


2100 








281S.4089 


.0671 


0538558 


1132.293 


94 


3129 


334 


2200 








2815.4089 


0.0671 


OS38SS8 


1132.831 


95 


3129 


334 


2300 








2815.4089 


0.0581 S 


0.466724 


1133.298 


96 


3129 


334 


2400 








2815.4089 


0.0492 


0394889 


1133.693 


97 


3129 


33S 


100 








281 S.4089 


0.0492 


0.394889 


1134.088 


98 


3129 


33S 


200 








2815.4089 


0.03S79 


0.287258 


1134.375 


99 


3129 


33S 


300 








2815.4089 


0.04026 


032313S 


1134.698 


100 


3129 


33S 


400 








281 S.4089 


0.04473 


0359012 


1135.057 


101 


3129 


33S 


500 








281 S. 4089 


0.03S79 


0287258 


1135.344 


102 


3129 


33S 


600 








2815.4089 


0.03S79 


0287258 


1135.632 


103 


3129 


33S 


700 








2815.4089 


04026 


0323135 


1135.955 


104 


3129 


335 


800 








281 S.4089 


004026 


0323135 


1136-278 


10S 


3129 


335 


900 








281 S. 4089 


0.04026 


0.32313S 


1136.601 


106 


3129 


335 


1000 








2815.4089 


0.03131 


0.2513 


1136.852 


107 


3129 


33S 


1100 








2815.4089 


0.03131 


0.2S13 


1137.104 


108 


3129 


335 


1200 








2815.4089 


0.03S79 


02872S8 


1137.391 


109 


3129 


33S 


1300 








281 S. 4089 


0.02684 


0.21 5423 


1137.606 








CUMUL 


2.33 2815.409 




141.7366 


1137.606 






VOLUME IN CFT 


2815.417 






1137.606 








Outflow vol 


. as percei 


-ttagc at pt 


eeip. volume 






40.40632 







,; 



US-31 . Hamilton County (DATA SET 3 lor rain and flow) 



386 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNT JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM. RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM. FLO 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3129 


337 


100 


0.02 


24.1666 


24.1666 


0.00447 


0.035877 


0.035877 


2 


3129 


337 


200 


0.15 


181.2495 


205.4161 








0.035877 


3 


3129 


337 


300 


0.3 


362.499 


S67.91S1 








0.035877 


4 


3129 


337 


400 


0-26 


314.1658 


882.0809 








0.035877 


S 


3129 


337 


soo 


0l23 


277.9159 


11S9.9968 








0.035877 


6 


3129 


337 


600 


a 48 


579.9984 


1739.9952 


0.402S8 


3-2311S8 


3.267065 


7 


3129 


337 


700 


0.09 


108.7497 


1848.7449 


4.6655 


37.44624 


40.7133 


8 


3129 


337 


800 


0.01 


12.0833 


1860.8282 


4.5045 


36.15402 


76.86732 


9 


3129 


337 


900 


0.01 


12.0833 


1872.91 1S 


3.7127 


29.79887 


106.6662 


10 


3129 


337 


1000 


0.12 


144.9996 


2017.9111 


3.2296 


25.92142 


132.5876 


11 


3129 


337 


1100 


a 02 


24.1666 


2042.0777 


38067 


30.55334 


163.1409 


12 


3129 


337 


1200 








2042.0777 


28986 


23.26474 


186.4057 


13 


3129 


337 


1300 








2042.0777 








186.4057 


14 


3129 


337 


1400 








2042.0777 


1.588 


12.74561 


199.1513 


1S 


3129 


337 


1500 








20420777 


24781 


19.88973 


219.041 


16 


3129 


337 


1600 








2042.0777 


23753 


19.06463 


238.1057 


17 


3129 


337 


1700 








2042.0777 


Z2813 


1831017 


256.4158 


IS 


3129 


337 


1800 








2042.0777 


21695 


17.41284 


273.8287 


19 


3129 


337 


1900 








20420777 


20934 


16.80205 


290.6307 


20 


3129 


337 


2000 








20420777 


20442 


1640716 


307.0379 


21 


3129 


337 


2100 








2042.0777 


1.9369 


15.54595 


3225838 


22 


3129 


337 


2200 








2042.0777 


1.834 


14.72005 


337.3039 


23 


3129 


337 


2300 








20420777 


1.749 


14.03782 


351.3417 


24 


3129 


337 


2400 








2O42.0777 


1.6819 


13.49927 


364.841 


25 


3129 


338 


100 








20420777 


1.6103 


12.92459 


377.7655 


26 


3129 


338 


200 








2O42.0777 


1.S3S8 


12.35072 


390.1163 


27 


3129 


338 


300 








20420777 


1.4S38 


11.66849 


401.7847 


28 


3129 


338 


400 








20420777 


1.3S98 


10.91403 


412.6988 


29 


3129 


338 


SOO 








2042.0777 


1.2S2S 


10.05282 


422.7S16 


30 


3129 


338 


600 








2042.0777 


1.1S8S 


9.298353 


432.0499 


31 


3129 


338 


700 








2042.0777 


1.0SS7 


8473259 


440.5232 


32 


3129 


338 


800 








20420777 


0.95278 


7.647203 


448.1704 


33 


3129 


338 


900 








2042.0777 


0.88569 


7.10872S 


4S5.2791 


34 


3129 


338 


1000 








20420777 


0.81 SS9 


6.570167 


461.8493 


35 


3129 


338 


1100 








20420777 


0.75596 


6.067486 


467.9168 


36 


3129 


338 


1200 








20420777 


0.72913 


5.852143 


473.7689 


37 


3129 


338 


1300 








2042.0777 


0.69781 


5.600763 


479.3697 


38 


3129 


338 


1400 








20420777 


0.65308 


5^41751 


484.6114 


39 


3129 


338 


1500 








20420777 


0.58598 


4.703193 


489.3146 


40 


3129 


338 


1600 








2042.0777 


O.SOS47 


4.057003 


493.3716 


41 


3129 


338 


1700 








2042.0777 


0.47416 


3.805703 


497.1773 


42 


3129 


338 


1800 








2O420777 


0.43837 


3.51844S 


500.695S 


43 


3129 


338 


1900 








2O42.0777 


0.38917 


3.123556 


503.8193 


44 


3129 


338 


2000 








20420777 


0.35338 


2.836299 


S06.6SS6 


4S 


3129 


338 


2100 








20420777 


0.32207 


2.S84998 


509.2406 


46 


3129 


338 


2200 








20420777 


0.29076 


2.333698 


S1 1.5743 


47 


3129 


338 


2300 








2042.0777 


0.25497 


2.04644 


51 3.6208 


48 


3129 


338 


2400 








2042.0777 


0.2326 


1.866894 


515.4877 


49 


3129 


339 


100 








20420777 


0.21024 


1.687428 


517.1751 


SO 


3129 


339 


200 








20420777 


0.18787 


1.507882 


518683 


51 


3129 


339 


300 








20420777 


0.16998 


1.364293 


520.0473 


S2 


3129 


339 


400 








20420777 


0.1S6S6 


1.256582 


521.3039 


S3 


3129 


339 


SOO 








2O420777 


0.15209 


1.220705 


S22.S246 


S4 


3129 


339 


600 








2O420777 


0.12972 


1.041 1S9 


S23.S6S7 


55 


3129 


339 


700 








20420777 


0.12972 


1.041 1S9 


524.6069 


56 


3129 


339 


800 








2042.0777 


0.1163 


0.933447 


S2S.S403 


57 


3129 


339 


900 








2O420777 


0.11183 


0.89757 


526.4379 


58 


3129 


339 


1000 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


S27.2996 


S9 


3129 


339 


1100 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


528.1613 


60 


3129 


339 


1200 








20420777 


0.10288 


0.82573S 


S28.987 


61 


3129 


339 


1300 








20420777 


0.10288 


0.82S73S 


529.8128 


62 


3129 


339 


1400 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


530.6744 


63 


3129 


339 


1500 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


S31.S361 


64 


3129 


339 


1600 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


532.3978 


65 


3129 


339 


1700 








20420777 


0.10736 


0.861693 


533^595 


66 


3129 


339 


1800 








2042.0777 


0.11183 


0.897S7 


534.1571 


67 


3129 


339 


1900 








20420777 


0.10288 


0.82S735 


534.9828 


68 


3129 


339 


2000 








20420777 


0.09394 


0.753981 


535.7368 


69 


3129 


339 


2100 








20420777 


0.08946 


0.718024 


S36.4S48 


70 


3129 


339 


2200 








2O420777 


0.07604 


0-610312 


S37.06S1 


71 


3129 


339 


2300 








20420777 


0.0671 


0.S38SS8 


S37.6037 


72 


3129 


339 


2400 








20420777 


0.05815 


0.466724 


S380704 


73 


3129 


340 


100 








20420777 


0.04473 


0.359012 


S384294 


74 


3129 


340 


200 








2O420777 


0.0492 


0.394889 


538.8243 


75 


3129 


340 


300 








20420777 


0.04026 


0.323135 


S39.1475 


76 


3129 


340 


400 








2042.0777 


0.02684 


0.215423 


S39.3629 



I! i 



337 



I.Hai 


nllton County (DATA SET 3 lor ro.n and flow) 












77 


3129 


340 


soo 








20420777 


001342 


0.107712 


539 4706 


78 


3129 


340 


600 








20420777 


0.00895 


0.071834 


S39.S424 


79 


3129 


340 


700 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


539.6501 


80 


3129 


340 


800 








20420777 


001342 


0.107712 


S39.7S79 


81 


3129 


340 


900 








20420777 


000895 


O071334 


539.8297 


82 


3129 


340 


1000 








204 2.0777 


000447 


0.03S877 


539.8656 


83 


3129 


340 


1100 








20420777 


002237 


0.179546 


540.0451 


84 


3129 


340 


1200 








2O420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


540.1528 


es 


3129 


340 


1300 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


540.26O5 


86 


3129 


340 


1400 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


540.3682 


87 


3129 


340 


1S0O 








20420777 


0.00447 


0.035877 


S40.4041 


88 


3129 


340 


1600 








2O420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


S40.5118 


83 


3129 


340 


1700 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


S40.619S 


90 


3129 


340 


1800 








2O420777 


0.02237 


a 179546 


S40.7991 


91 


3129 


340 


1900 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


540.9068 


92 


3129 


340 


2000 








20420777 


0.02237 


a 179546 


S41.0864 


93 


3129 


340 


2100 








20420777 


0.01789 


0.143589 


541.2299 


94 


3129 


340 


2200 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


S41.3377 


95 


3129 


340 


2300 








20420777 


0.02237 


0.179546 


S41.S172 


96 


3129 


340 


2400 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


541.6249 


97 


3129 


341 


100 








20420777 


0.01342 


0.107712 


S41.7326 


98 


3129 


341 


200 








20420777 


0.OO89S 


0.071834 


541.8045 


99 


3129 


341 


300 








20420777 


0.0089S 


0.071834 


S41.8763 


100 


3129 


341 


400 








20420777 


0.0O89S 


0.071834 


541.9481 


101 


3129 


341 


SOO 








20420777 


0.00895 


0.071834 


54202 








CUMUL. 


1.69 2042078 




67.53133 


54202 






VOLUME IN CFT 


2042.083 






S4202 






Outflow voL 


•a percentage of po 


ecip. volume 






26.S42S 







US-36, Hendricks County (DATA SET 1 for Rain and Flow) 



388 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 



TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW 
gpm 



FLOW CUM.FLO 
en eft 



1 


3632 


2 


3632 


3 


3632 


4 


3632 


5 


3632 


6 


3632 


7 


3632 


8 


3632 


9 


3632 


10 


3632 


11 


3632 


12 


3632 


13 


3632 


14 


3632 


15 


3632 


16 


3632 


17 


3632 


18 


3632 


19 


3632 


20 


3632 


21 


3632 


22 


3632 


23 


3632 


24 


3632 


25 


3632 


26 


3632 


27 


3632 


28 


3632 


29 


3632 


30 


3632 


31 


3632 



331 
331 
331 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
332 
333 
333 
333 
333 



2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 

1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 



0.01 
0.01 
0.06 
0.06 
0.02 
0.09 

0.01 


























9.6667 

9.6667 

58.0002 

58.0002 

19.3334 

87.0003 



9.6667 













































o 



9.6667 
19.3334 
77.3336 
135.3338 
154.6672 
241.6675 
241 .6675 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251 .3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251 .3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251.3342 
251 .3342 









0.95325 

3.1852 

2.967 

2.8023 

2.5535 

1.5734 

1.1944 

0.95708 

0.80395 

0.69293 

0.6087 

0.52831 

0.47471 

0.42494 

0.37135 

0.31392 

0.29095 

0.27947 

0.26415 

0.25267 

0.21822 

0.08422 

0.03828 

0.02297 

0.00766 









c 

7.650975 
25.56505 
23.81374 
22.49162 

20.4949 
12.62842 
9.5864S3 
7.681715 
6.4526S3 
5.561595 
4.88554S 
4.240322 
3.810117 
3.410653 
2.980529 
2.519555 
2.335223 
2243052 
2.120121 

2.02795 
1.751477 
0.675957 
0.307243 
0.184362 
0.061461 








7.650975 
33.21 6D3 
57.02S76 
79.52158 
100.0165 
112.6449 
122.2314 
129.9131 
136.3658 
141.9274 
146.8129 
151.0532 
154.8634 
158274 
1612545 
163.7741 
166.1094 
168.3524 
170.4726 
172.5005 
174252 
174.928 
1752352 
175.4195 
175.4811 
175.4811 
175.4811 
175.4811 



CUMUL. 0.26 

VOLUME IN CFT 251 .3333 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



21 .86353 
175.4811 
69.82005 



US-36, Hendricks County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



339 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUMFLO 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


9P"i 


eft 


eft 


1 


3632 


334 


200 


0.03 


29 0001 


29.0001 


0.0268 


0215102 


0-215102 


2 


3632 


334 


300 


0.45 


435.0015 


464.0016 


4.7012 


3773277 


37 94767 


3 


3632 


334 


400 








464 0016 


54171 


43 47873 


81 4266 


4 


3632 


334 


500 


0.01 


9.6667 


473 6683 


2.5076 


20 1265 


1013531 


5 


3632 


334 


600 








4736683 


1.4203 


11.3996! 


112-9527 


6 


3632 


334 


700 








473.6663 


1.0336 


8.29588 


121.2486 


7 


3632 


334 


BOO 








473 6683 


82692 


6 637025 


127 8856 


8 


3632 


334 


900 








473.6683 


066996 


5 377233 


133 2629 


9 


3632 


334 


1000 








473.6683 


0.56276 


4 516824 


137 7757 


10 


3632 


334 


1100 








473.6683 


049768 


3 9S4479 


141 7742 


11 


3632 


334 


1200 








473.6683 


0.43643 


3502874 


145.277 


12 


3632 


334 


1300 








473 6683 


0.35986 


2883308 


148 1653 


13 


3632 


334 


1400 








473.6683 


0.29861 


2.396704 


150 562 


14 


3632 


334 


1500 








473.6683 


0.22204 


1.782137 


152.3442 


15 


3632 


334 


1600 








473.6683 


16079 


1.290533 


153 6347 


16 


3632 


334 


1700 








473.6683 


009954 


0.798928 


154 4336 


17 


3632 


334 


1800 








473.6683 


0.06691 


0.553065 


154 9867 


18 


3632 


334 


1900 








473.6683 


0.02297 


0.184362 


155.1711 


19 


3632 


334 


2000 








473 6683 


001531 


0.122881 


155.294 


20 


3632 


334 


2100 








473.6683 


0.00766 


0061481 


155 3554 


21 


3632 


334 


2200 








473.6683 


000766 


0061481 


155416S 


22 


3632 


334 


2300 








4736683 


0.00766 


0061481 


155.4784 


23 


3632 


334 


2400 








473.6683 


000766 


0061481 


155.5395 


24 


3632 


335 


100 








473 6683 


000766 


0061481 


155.6014 


25 


3632 


335 


200 








473 6683 


0.00766 


0.061481 


155.6625 


26 


3632 


335 


300 








473.6683 


0.00766 


0.061481 


155.7243 


27 


3632 


335 


400 








473 6683 


0.01531 


122881 


155.8472 


28 


3632 


335 


500 








473.6683 


0.02297 


0.184362 


156.0316 


29 


3632 


335 


600 








473.6683 


0.0268 


0.215102 


156.2467 


30 


3632 


335 


700 








473.6683 


0.0268 


0.215102 


156.4618 


31 


3632 


335 


800 








473.6683 


0.02297 


184362 


156.6461 


32 


3632 


335 


900 








473.6683 


0.02297 


0.184362 


156.8305 


33 


3632 


335 


1000 








473.6683 


0.02297 


184362 


157.0149 


34 


3632 


335 


1100 








473.6583 


0.01914 


0.153621 


157.1685 


35 


3632 


335 


1200 








473.6663 


0.01914 


0.153621 


157.3221 


36 


3632 


335 


1300 








473.6683 


0.01531 


122881 


157.445 


37 


3632 


335 


1400 








473.6583 


002297 


184362 


1S7.62S4 


38 


3632 


335 


1500 








473 6683 


0.03063 


0-245843 


157 8752 


39 


3632 


335 


1600 








473.6683 


000766 


0061481 


157 9367 


40 


3632 


33S 


1700 








473.6683 








157.9367 


41 


3632 


335 


1800 








473.6583 








157.9367 


42 


3632 


335 


1900 








473,6663 








1S7.9367 


43 


3632 


335 


2000 








473.6683 








157.9367 


44 


3632 


335 


2100 








473.6683 


0.02297 


184362 


158 121 


45 


3632 


335 


2200 








473.6683 


0.03445 


0.276SC3 


156.3975 


46 


3632 


335 


2300 


0.01 


9.6667 


483 335 


0.03063 


0.245843 


158.6434 


47 


3632 


335 


2400 








483.335 


0.03445 


0-276503 


158.9199 


48 


3632 


336 


100 


0.01 


9.6667 


493.0017 


0.03445 


0.276S03 


159.1964 


49 


3632 


336 


200 


0.01 


9.6667 


502.6684 


0.03063 


0.245843 


159.4422 


50 


3632 


336 


300 








502.6684 


0.0268 


0215102 


159.6573 


51 


3632 


336 


400 








502.6684 


0.O2297 


0.184362 


159 84:7 


52 


3632 


336 


500 








502.6684 


0.0268 


0.215102 


160.056S 


53 


3632 


336 


600 








502.6684 


0.0268 


0215102 


160.2719 


54 


3632 


336 


700 








502 6684 


0.0268 


0215102 


160 487 


55 


3632 


336 


800 








502 6684 


0.0268 


0.215102 


160.7C2: 


56 


3632 


336 


900 








502.6684 


0.0266 


0.215102 


160.9172 


57 


3632 


336 


1000 








502 6684 


0.02297 


184362 


161.1016 


58 


3632 


336 


1100 








502 6684 


0.026S 


0215102 


161 3167 


59 


3632 


336 


1200 








502 6684 


0.02297 


184362 


161 501 








CUMUL 


0.52 






20-12173 










VOLUME IN OFT 


502.6667 






161.501 








Outflow vol 


as percenta 


ge of precip 


i. volume 






32.12885 







US-36, Hendricks County (DATA SET 3 for Rain and flow) 



390 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM.RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3632 


336 


1400 


0.01 


9.6667 


9.6667 


0.00766 


0.061481 


0.061481 


2 


3632 


336 


1500 


0.05 


48.3335 


58.0002 


0.00766 


0.061481 


0.122961 


3 


3632 


336 


1600 


0.17 


164.3339 


222.3341 


1.2404 


9.955698 


10.07866 


4 


3632 


336 


1700 


0.11 


106.3337 


328.6678 








10.07866 


5 


3632 


336 


1800 


0.03 


29.0001 


357.6679 


2.2357 


17.94418 


28.02284 


6 


3632 


336 


1900 








357.6679 


3.2388 


25.99526 


54.01809 


7 


3632 


336 


2000 








357.6679 


1 .9333 


15.51705 


69.53514 


8 


3632 


336 


2100 








357.6679 


1.4012 


11.24631 


80.78146 


9 


3632 


336 


2200 


0.01 


9.6667 


367.3346 


1.1791 


9.463692 


90.24515 


10 


3632 


336 


2300 








367.3346 


1.0298 


8.265381 


98.51053 


11 


3632 


336 


2400 








367.3346 


0.93794 


7.528094 


106.0386 


12 


3632 


337 


100 


0.01 


9.6667 


377.0013 


0.9188 


7.374473 


113.4131 


13 


3632 


337 


200 








377.0013 


0.92263 


7.405213 


120.8183 


14 


3632 


337 


300 
CUMUL 








377.0013 


0.8384 


6.729166 


127.5475 




0.39 






15.89139 










VOLUME IN CFT 


377 






127.5475 








Outflow vol. 


as percentac 


je of precip 


. volume 






33.83222 







US-41. Sufcvwi County (DATA SET 1 for FU« «nd Flow) 



391 



TOT MRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAV 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM RAIN 


FLOW FLOW 


CUM FLOW 










INCHES 


Ctl 


eft 


gpm cfi 


eft 


t 


4177 


2 


300 


ait 


50.27 


50 27 


019927 1.59938087 


1 5*93*087 


2 


4177 


2 


400 


0.07 


31 00 


8226 


1 3601 10 8361726 


1Z4366636 


3 


4177 


2 


500 


04 


1828 


100 54 


13706 109099071 


23.4364806 


4 


4177 


2 


600 


aoi 


4. 57 


106.11 


16966 1361083 


37 0462906 


S 


4177 


2 


700 


aoa 


1171 


118.82 


1 8219 146229338 


51 8862243 


6 


4177 


2 


800 








118.82 


1.403 112607586 


629299823 


7 


4177 


2 


900 


02 


S14 


127.96 


0244 1.9683328 


648883757 


8 


4177 


2 


1000 


0.02 


914 


137 1 


7666 6.16893732 


7t 0673131 





4177 


2 


1100 


0.05 


22 85 


159 95 


20293 162875677 


67 34486C7 


10 


4177 


2 


1200 


007 


3199 


191.94 


14315 It 4896063 


98.834366 


11 


4177 


2 


1300 


a ot 


4.57 


196.51 


1 7324 139045889 


112738975 


12 


4177 


2 


1400 








186. 51 


04636 372094632 


116.45*921 


13 


4177 


2 


1500 


0.01 


4 57 


201 08 





116459921 


14 


4177 


2 


1600 


0.03 


1371 


21479 


082553 662566889 


12308579 


IS 


4177 


2 


1700 


0.07 


31.99 


246.76 


12076 9.09404436 


132. 779834 


16 


4177 


2 


1800 


007 


31-99 


278 77 


1 2363 992279106 


1427Q2626 


17 


4177 


2 


1900 


aos 


2285 


301.62 


13096 105103089 


151212334 


18 


4177 


2 


2000 


002 


914 


310 76 


1.3176 10.5753211 


163.788256 


10 


4177 


2 


2100 


aos 


2285 


333.61 


14477 11.6196297 


175.407785 


20 


4177 


2 


2200 








33361 


15169 121749428 


187.582728 


21 


4177 


2 


2300 


001 


457 


33818 


38633 310076185 


190 68349 


22 


4177 


2 


2400 


0.01 


457 


34275 


37413 300284221 


193.686332 


23 


4177 


3 


100 








342.75 


027247 218689871 


195.873231 


24 


4177 


3 


200 


0.01 


4.57 


347.32 


0.22367 1.79622015 


197.668451 


2S 


4177 


3 


300 








347.32 


02074 1.66463388 


199.333085 


26 


4177 


3 


400 








347.32 


01S453 1.24028863 


20OS73374 


27 


4177 


3 


500 








347 32 


11793 0.94652977 


201.519903 


28 


4177 


3 


600 








34732 


010573 0.84861013 


202368513 


29 


4177 


3 


700 








347.32 


05693 45633157 


20282S44S 


30 


4177 


3 


800 








347.32 


002033 016317265 


202968616 


31 


4177 


3 


900 








347.32 


0244 019583926 


203.184457 


32 


4177 


3 


1000 








347,32 


03253 0261 09229 


203.445649 


33 


4177 


3 


1100 








347.32 


Q 03253 0-26109229 


203.706642 


34 


4177 


3 


1200 








34732 


02847 022850591 


203.336147 


36 


4177 


3 


1300 








347 32 


02847 22850591 


204.163653 


36 


4177 


3 


1400 








347.32 


002033 0.16317265 


204 326826 


37 


4177 


3 


1500 








347 32 


0.0244 019583926 


204522665 


38 


4177 


3 


1600 








347,32 


O02847 0.22650591 


204751171 


39 


4177 


3 


1700 








347 32 


00244 ai9SS3S2S 


20494701 


40 


4177 


3 


1800 








347.32 


003253 0l261 09229 


206208103 


41 


4177 


3 


1900 








347 32 


003253 O26109229 


206.469195 


42 


4177 


3 


2000 








347.32 


00244 019583328 


205665034 


43 


4177 




2100 








347.32 


002847 022850591 


20689354 


44 


4177 




2200 








347 32 


002033 Q1631726S 


206.056713 


45 


4177 




2300 








347 32 


0244 a 19583328 


206252552 


46 


4177 




2400 








347.32 


001627 Q13068627 


206383138 


47 


4177 




100 








34732 


02033 016317265 


206546311 


48 


4177 




200 








34732 


001627 013058627 


206676897 


49 


4177 




300 








347,32 


01627 13058627 


206807484 


50 


4177 




400 








347 32 


01627 a 1*3058627 


206.93807 


SI 


4177 




500 








347.32 


00122 009791964 


207.03599 


52 


4177 




600 








347.32 


00122 O09791964 


207.133909 


S3 


4177 




700 








347 32 


00122 009791964 


207.231829 


54 


4177 




800 








347.32 


000813 006525301 


207.297062 


56 


4177 




900 








347 32 


000813 006525301 


207.362335 


56 


4177 




1000 








347.32 


00613 0.06525301 


207.427588 


57 


4177 




1100 








347 32 


000813 O06S253O1 


207.492841 


S8 


4177 




1200 








347.32 


000613 006525301 


207.SS8094 


59 


4177 




1300 








347.32 


000813 006S2S301 


207.623347 


60 


4177 




1400 








347.32 


00122 O09791964 


207,721266 


61 


4177 




1500 








34732 


000613 006525301 


207.786519 


62 


4177 




1600 








347,32 


000813 006525301 


207.851772 


63 


4177 




1700 








347.32 


00813 O06S253O1 


207.91 7025 


64 


4177 




1600 








347 32 


000813 Q0652S3O1 


207.982279 


65 


4177 




1900 








347 32 


000813 O06S25301 


208.047532 


66 


4177 




2000 








347 32 


00407 O03266663 


2O&060196 


67 


4177 




2100 








347 32 


000407 003266663 


208.112865 




CUMUL 


76 






25 92919 






VOLUME IN CFT 


347 32 






206 112865 




Outflow vol «s 


p*rc«ntag* o* 


pr*cc voutm 






59 91 9631 7 





US-41, Sullivan County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



392 



TOT.HRS RTErCNTY JULNDAY 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW 
gpm 



FLOW CUM.FLO 
eft eft 



1 


4177 


2 


4177 


3 


4177 


4 


4177 


5 


4177 


6 


4177 


7 


4177 


8 


4177 


9 


4177 


10 


4177 


11 


4177 


12 


4177 


13 


4177 


14 


4177 


15 


4177 


16 


4177 


17 


4177 


18 


4177 


19 


4177 


20 


4177 


21 


4177 


22 


4177 


23 


4177 


24 


4177 


25 


4177 


26 


4177 


27 


4177 


28 


4177 


29 


4177 


30 


4177 


31 


4177 


32 


4177 


33 


4177 


34 


4177 


35 


4177 


36 


4177 


37 


4177 


38 


4177 


39 


4177 


40 


4177 


41 


4177 


42 


4177 


43 


4177 


44 


4177 


45 


4177 


46 


4177 


47 


4177 


48 


4177 


49 


4177 


50 


4177 


51 


4177 


52 


4177 


53 


4177 


54 


4177 


55 


4177 


56 


4177 


57 


4177 


56 


4177 


59 


4177 


60 


4177 



8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

e 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 

1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 

1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 

1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 



0.02 
0.06 
0.14 
0.02 
0.05 







0.01 



0.01 














































11.54 
34.62 
80.78 
11.54 
28.85 







5.77 



5.77 














































11.54 
46.16 
126.94 
138.48 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
167.33 
173.1 
173.1 
173.1 
173.1 
178.87 
178.67 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178 87 
178.87 
178.87 
178 87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 
178.87 





0.0488 

1.7161 

1.4152 

1.4925 

1.0167 

0.23587 

0.15047 

0.11387 

0.06913 

0.0244 

0.0244 

0.03253 

0.10167 

0.13827 

0.11387 

0.1342 

0.12607 

0.07727 

0.0244 

0.02847 

0.02847 

0.02033 

0.02847 

0.02847 

0.02847 

0.03253 

0.0244 

0.02847 

0.02033 

0.0244 

0.02033 

0.02033 

0.01627 

0.01627 

0.0122 

0.0122 

0.0122 

0.00813 

0.0122 

0.00813 

0.00813 

0.00813 

0.0V627 

0.0244 

0.01627 

0.01627 

0.01627 

0.0122 

0.0122 

0.0122 

0.00813 

0.0122 

0.00813 

0.0122 

0.0122 

0.00813 

0.01627 

0.00407 

0.00813 





0.391679 

13.77376 

11.35868 

11.9791 

8.160238 

1.89314 

1.207702 

0.913943 

0.554851 

0.195839 

0.195839 

0.261092 

0.816024 

1.109763 

0.913943 

1.077116 

1.011863 

0.620184 

195839 

0.228506 

0.228506 

0.163173 

0.228506 

0.228506 

0.228506 

0.261092 

0.195839 

0.228506 

0.163173 

0.195839 

0.163173 

0.163173 

130586 

0.130586 

0.09792 

0.09792 

0.09792 

0.065253 

0.09792 

0.065253 

0065253 

0.065253 

0.130586 

0.195839 

130586 

130586 

130586 

0.09792 

0.09792 

0.09792 

0.065253 

0.09792 

0.065253 

0.09792 

0.09792 

0.065253 

0.130586 

0.032667 

0.0652S3 




0.391679 
14.16544 
25.52412 
37.50322 
45.66346 

47.5566 

48.7643 
49.67825 

50.2331 
50.42894 
50.62477 
50.88587 
51.70189 
52.81167 
53 72562 
54.80273 

55.8146 
56.43478 
56.63062 
56.85913 
57.08763 

57.2508 
57.47931 
57.70782 
57.93632 
58.19741 
58.39325 
58.62176 
58.78493 
58.98077 
59.14394 
59.30712 

59.4377 
59.56829 
59.66621 
59.76413 
59.86205 

59.9273 
60.02522 
60.09047 
60.15573 
60.22098 
60.35157 
60.S4741 
60.67799 
60.80858 
60.93916 
61.03708 
61.135 
61.23292 
61.29818 

61.3961 
61.46135 
61.S5927 
61.65719 
61 72244 
61.85303 
61.88569 
61.95095 



CUMUL 0.31 

VOLUME IN CFT 178.87 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



7.71859 
61.95095 
34 63462 



iMi 



393 



•• 



SR-9, Noble County (DATA SET for Rain and Flow) 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM. RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


rfr. 


eft 


1 


957 


277 


200 


0.59 


427.75 


427.75 











2 


957 


277 


300 


0.88 


638 


1065.75 


0.3373 


2.707237 


2.707237 


3 


957 


277 


400 


0.21 


152.25 


1218 


0.05741 


0.460734 


3.163C21 


4 


957 


277 


500 


0.26 


188.5 


1406.5 


0.05741 


0.460764 


3.628cO£ 


5 


957 


277 


600 


0.08 


58 


1464.5 


C.06818 


0.547226 


4.176C32 


6 


957 


277 


700 


0.01 


7.25 


1471.75 


0.40189 


322565 


7.401 SET 


7 


957 


277 


800 


0.01 


7.25 


1479 


0.75355 


6.048143 


13.44952 


8 


957 


277 


900 








1479 


1.0155 


8.150606 


21.6000 


9 


957 


277 


1000 








1479 


1.2774 


10.25267 


31.8531 


10 


957 


277 


1100 








1479 


1.5071 


12.0962S 


43.94938 


11 


957 


277 


1200 








1479 


1 .6255 


13.04659 


56.99SS7 


12 


957 


277 


1300 








1479 


1.6722 


13.42141 


70.41738 


13 


957 


277 


1400 








1479 


1.6901 


13.56508 


83.982-16 


14 


957 


277 


1500 








1479 


1 .6793 


13.4784 


97.46066 


15 


957 


277 


1600 








1479 


1.6578 


13.30583 


1 1 0.7567 


16 


957 


277 


1700 








1479 


1.6363 


13.13327 


123-9 


17 


957 


277 


1800 








1479 


1.5968 


1281621 


136.7162 


18 


957 


277 


1900 








1479 


1.5609 


12.5281 


14924^3 


19 


957 


277 


2000 








1479 


1.4999 


12.0385 


1612825 


20 


957 


277 


2100 








1479 


1.4497 


11.63558 


172.916-1 


21 


957 


277 


2200 








1479 


1.3994 


1123185 


184.15C2 


22 


957 


277 


2300 








1479 


1.3456 


10.80005 


194.95C3 


23 


957 


277 


2400 








1479 


1.2954 


10.39714 


205.3474 


24 


957 


278 


100 








1479 


1.2523 


10.05121 


215.3385 


25 


957 


278 


200 








1479 


1.1985 


9.619401 


225.01 8 


26 


957 


278 


300 








1479 


1.22 


9.791964 


234.81 


27 


957 


278 


400 








1479 


1.2846 


10.31046 


245.1 205 


28 


957 


278 


500 








1479 


1.2595 


10.109 


255.22S5 


56 


957 


279 


900 








1479 


0.3423 


2.747368 


257.S75S 


97 


957 


281 


300 
CUMUL 








1479 


0.006 


0.048157 


258.025 




2.04 






32.14784 










VOLUME IN CFT 


1479 






258.025 








Outflow vol. 


as percentac 


je of precip 


. volume 






17.44591 







SR-63, Vermillion County (DATA SET 1 for Rain and Flow) 



394 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 



TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW FLOW CUM.FLO 

gpm eft eft 



1 


6383 


2 


6383 


3 


6383 


4 


6383 


5 


6383 


6 


6383 


7 


6383 


8 


6383 


9 


6383 


10 


6383 


11 


6383 


12 


6383 


13 


6383 


14 


6383 


15 


6383 


16 


6383 


17 


6383 


18 


6383 


19 


6383 


20 


6383 


21 


6383 


22 


6383 



276 


200 


0.07 


20.9769 


20.9769 











276 


300 


0.11 


32.9637 


53.9406 


0.50512 


4.054194 


4.054194 


276 


400 


0.03 


8.9901 


62.9307 


1.5924 


12.78092 


16.83512 


276 


500 


0.01 


2.9967 


65.9274 


0.63448 


5.092463 


21.92758 


276 


600 








65.9274 


0.4774 


3.831708 


25.75929 


276 


700 








65.9274 


0.38808 


3.114808 


28.87409 


276 


800 








65.9274 


0.24948 


2.002376 


30.87647 


276 


900 








65.9274 


0.15092 


1.211314 


32.08778 


276 


1000 








65.9274 


0.09856 


0.791062 


32.87885 


276 


1100 








65.9274 


0.07392 


0.593297 


33.47214 


276 


1200 








65.9274 


0.01232 


0.098883 


33.57103 


276 


1300 








65.9274 


0.02464 


0.197766 


33.76879 


276 


1400 








65.9274 


0.01848 


0.148324 


33.91712 


276 


1500 








65.9274 


0.02464 


0.197766 


34.11488 


276 


1600 








65.9274 


0.02464 


0.197766 


34.31265 


276 


1700 








65.9274 


0.01848 


0.148324 


34.46097 


276 


1800 








65.9274 


0.01848 


0.148324 


34.6093 


276 


1900 








65.9274 


0.01232 


0.098883 


34.70818 


276 


2000 








65.9274 


0.00616 


0.049441 


34.75762 


276 


2100 


0.01 


2.9967 


68.9241 


0.00924 


0.074162 


34.83178 


276 


2200 








68.9241 


0.00308 


0.024721 


34.8565 


276 


2300 








68.9241 


0.00616 


0.049441 


34.90594 



CUMUL. 0.23 

VOLUME IN CFT 68.92333 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



4.349 

34.90594 

50.6446 



SR-63, Vermillion County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



395 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 



277 
277 
277 
277 
277 
277 
277 
277 
277 
277 



TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW FLO* OJM.F_0 

gpm cr ■?• 



1 


6383 


2 


6383 


3 


6383 


4 


6383 


5 


6383 


6 


6383 


7 


6383 


8 


6383 


9 


6383 


10 


6383 



500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 



0.29 
0.09 
0.02 










CUMUL 0.4 

VOLUME IN CFT 119.8667 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



86.9043 
26.9703 
5.9934 










86.9043 
1 1 3.8746 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 
119.868 



0.63992 
3.0122 
1.3675 
0.48356 
0.32648 
0.19096 
0.09856 
0.03383 
0.02156 
0.00616 



6.23078 
50.0094S 
41.72093 



5.5374>: 
24.17652 
10.97523 
3.831 14S 
2.6203=-* 
1.5326C 
0.791062 
0.27192: 
0.173045 
0.04944: 




US-30, Laporte County (DATA SET 1 for Rain and Flow) 



396 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 




TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM.RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 














INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3046 




275 




2200 


0.04 


20 


20 











2 


3046 




275 




2300 


0.1 


50 


70 











3 


3046 




275 




2400 


0.08 


40 


110 











4 


3046 




276 




100 


0.07 


35 


145 


0.0467 


0.374824 


0.374S24 


5 


3046 




276 




200 


0.01 


5 


150 


0.09729 


0.780869 


1.155633 


6 


3046 




276 




300 








150 


0.05837 


0.468489 


1.624182 


7 


3046 




276 




400 








150 


0.01946 


0.15619 


1.780372 


8 


3046 




276 




500 








150 


0.01167 


0.093666 


1 .874037 


9 


3046 




276 




600 








150 


0.00778 


0.062444 


1.936481 


10 


3046 




276 




700 








150 


0.00389 


0.031222 


1.967703 


11 


3046 




276 




800 








150 


0.00389 


0.031222 


1.998325 


12 


3046 




276 


CUM 


900 








150 


0.00389 


0.031222 


2.030147 




0.3 






0.25294 










VOLUME IN CFT 




150 






2.030147 








Outflow vol. 


as p 


■ercenta 


geof 


precip 


. volume 






1.353431 







US-30, Laporte County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



297 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW FLOW CUM.FLO 

gpm eft eft 



1 


3046 


2 


3046 


3 


3046 


4 


3046 


5 


3046 


6 


3046 


7 


3046 


8 


3046 


9 


3046 


10 


3046 


11 


3046 


12 


3046 


13 


3046 


14 


3046 


15 


3046 


16 


3046 


17 


3046 


18 


3046 


19 


3046 


20 


3046 


21 


3046 


22 


3046 


23 


3046 


24 


3046 


25 


3046 


26 


3046 


27 


3046 


28 


3046 


29 


3046 


30 


3046 


31 


3046 


32 


3046 


33 


3046 


34 


3046 


35 


3046 


36 


3046 


37 


3046 


38 


3046 


39 


3046 


40 


3046 



276 2300 

276 2400 

277 100 
277 200 
277 300 
277 400 
277 500 
277 600 
277 700 
277 800 
277 900 
277 1000 
277 1100 
277 1200 
277 1300 
277 1400 
277 1500 
277 1600 
277 1700 
277 1800 
277 1900 
277 2000 
277 2100 
277 ■ 2200 
277 2300 

277 2400 

278 100 
278 200 
278 300 
278 400 
278 500 
278 600 
278 700 
278 800 
278 900 
278 1000 
278 1100 
278 1200 
278 1300 
278 1400 





0.13 

0.07 

0.1 

0.27 

0.47 

0.07 

0.03 

0.01 







0.01 

0.13 





0.01 

0.03 







0.03 

0.3 

0.38 

0.3 

0.5 

0.11 

0.08 

0.01 



























65 

35 

50 

135 

235 

35 

15 

5 







5 

65 





5 

15 







15 

150 

190 

150 

250 

55 

40 

5 



JO 























65 

100 

150 

285 

520 

555 

570 

575 

575 

575 

575 

580 

645 

645 

645 

650 

665 

665 

665 

665 

680 

830 

1020 

1170 

1420 

1475 

1515 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 

1520 





0.05448 
0.08951 
0.19069 
0.25296 
0.29966 
0.24128 
0.1868 
0.11675 
0.06616 
0.06227 
0.04281 
0.05448 
0.12842 
0.08172 
0.06227 
0.05448 
0.06616 
0.04281 
0.01557 
0.01557 
0.03113 
0.14399 
0.23739 
0.31912 
0.36971 
0.35414 
0.31522 
0.24128 
0.17123 
0.08951 
0.05837 
0.03502 
0.01557 
0.01167 
0.01167 
0.00778 
0.00778 
0.00389 





0.437267 
0.718425 
1.530516 
2.030308 
2.405131 
1536562 
1.499294 
0.937059 
0.531013 
0.499791 
0.343602 
0.437267 
1.030725 
0.655901 
0.499791 
0.437267 
0.531013 
0.343602 
0.124968 
0.124968 
0.249856 
1.155693 
1.90534 
2.561321 
Z967366 
2.842398 
2.530019 
1.936562 
1.374326 
0.718425 
0.468489 
0.281078 
0.124968 
0.093666 
0.093666 
0.062444 
0.062444 
0.031222 





0.437267 
1.155693 
2.63620S 
4.716516 
7.121647 
9.058209 
10.5575 
11.49456 
12.02558 
12.52537 
1Z86897 
13.30624 
14.33636 
1459286 
15.49265 
15.92992 
16.46093 
16.80454 
16.9295 
17.05447 
17.30433 
18.46002 
20.36536 
22.92668 
25.89405 
28.73644 
31.26646 
33.20302 
34.57735 
35.29578 
35.76427 
36.04534 
36.17031 
36.26398 
36.35764 
36.42009 
36.46253 
36.51375 



CUMUL 3.04 

VOLUME IN CFT 1520 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



4.54543 
36.48253 
2.400166 



US-30. Lapon. County (DAT* SET 3 tor ftain and Flow) 



398 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNOAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLOW 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


flpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3046 


298 


500 


0.01 


5 


5 











2 


3046 


298 


600 


1.17 


58S 


590 


0.0467 


037482354 


037482364 


3 


3046 


298 


700 


0.06 


25 


61 S 


0.15177 


121813637 


1.S929S991 


4 


3046 


298 


600 


0,33 


165 


780 


0.16291 


1.46807224 


3.06103216 


6 


3046 


298 


900 


0.89 


44$ 


1225 


022572 


1.81167386 


4.87270602 


6 


3046 


298 


1000 








1225 


0.26852 


215519522 


7.02790124 


7 


3046 


298 


1100 


02 


10 


1235 


02335 


1.8741177 


8.90201894 


8 


3046 


298 


1200 


0.13 


66 


1300 


0.20626 


1 .65548401 


10567503 


9 


3046 


298 


1300 


09 


45 


134S 


0.24128 


1.93666154 


124940645 


10 


3046 


298 


1400 


02 


10 


1355 


0.22961 


1.84289578 


14.3369603 


11 


3046 


298 


1500 


0.06 


30 


1385 


0.19069 


1.53061606 


15.6674764 


12 


3046 


298 


1600 


04 


20 


1405 


0.20626 


1.65648401 


17.S229604 


13 


3046 


298 


1700 








1405 


0.17902 


1.43685032 


18.9698107 


14 


3046 


298 


1800 








140S 


010507 


084331283 


19.6031236 


15 


3046 


298 


1900 








1405 


0.06837 


046848929 


20.2716128 


16 


3046 


298 


2000 








1405 


0.05448 


043726738 


207066802 


17 


3046 


298 


2100 








1405 


0.03632 


03123797 


21 0212599 


18 


3046 


298 


2200 








1405 


0.02335 


018741177 


21 -2086717 


19 


3046 


298 


2300 








1405 


0.01567 


12496793 


21.3336396 


20 


3046 


298 


2400 


0.17 


85 


1490 


0.01 567 


O 12496753 


21.4586075 


21 


3046 


299 


100 


0.69 


345 


1635 


0-1401 


1.12447062 


22S830782 


22 


3046 


299 


200 


0.03 


IS 


18S0 


0.22961 


1.64289578 


24.4258739 


23 


3046 


299 


300 








1850 


022961 


1.84289578 


26.2688697 


24 


3046 


299 


400 


0.01 


s 


1S55 


194S6 


1.561738 


27.8306077 


25 


3046 


239 


500 


004 


20 


1875 


0.16734 


1.34310431 


29173712 


26 


3046 


299 


600 


0.01 


5 


1880 


0.19847 


1.59295991 


30 7666719 


27 


3046 


259 


700 


0.03 


15 


1895 


018291 


1.46807224 


322347442 


28 


3046 


299 


800 


0.02 


10 


1905 


016734 


1.34310431 


33.5778485 


29 


3046 


299 


900 


04 


20 


1925 


0.16345 


1.31186239 


34.8897309 


30 


3046 


299 


1000 


0.1 


50 


1975 


0.19847 


1.59295991 


36.4826908 


31 


3046 


299 


1100 


01 


5 


1980 


0.21793 


1.74914977 


38-2318406 


32 


3046 


299 


1200 








1980 


0.20237 


1.62426209 


39.8561027 


33 


3046 


299 


1300 








I960 


0.16345 


1.31188239 


41.167985 


34 


3046 


299 


1400 








1980 


0.10657 


067461501 


420426001 


35 


3046 


299 


1SO0 


01 


5 


1985 


006227 


45979147 


425423915 


36 


3046 


299 


1600 


01 


5 


1990 


0467 


037482354 


429172151 


37 


3046 


299 


1700 








1990 


0.05448 


043726736 


43. 3544824 


38 


3046 


299 


1800 


01 


5 


1995 


0.04281 


034360162 


43.6960841 


39 


3046 


299 


1900 


0.22 


110 


2iOS 


0.OS837 


046S4S929 


44 1 6657 34 


40 


3046 


299 


2000 


013 


65 


2170 


Q17902 


1.43685032 


45,6034237 


41 


3046 


299 


2100 


0.03 


IS 


2185 


02336 


1.8741177 


47.4775414 


42 


3046 


299 


2200 


0.01 


5 


2190 


0.24126 


1.93656154 


49.4141029 


43 


3046 


299 


2300 


0.03 


IS 


2205 


0.2101S 


1.68670593 


51.1006069 


44 


3046 


299 


2400 


0.13 


65 


2270 


02335 


1.8741177 


52.9749266 


45 


3046 


300 


100 


0.03 


IS 


2285 


026852 


215519522 


55.1301218 


46 


3046 


300 


200 








2285 


26074 


209275139 


S7.2228732 


47 


3046 


300 


300 


0.01 


S 


2290 


023736 


190533962 


59.1282128 


48 


3046 


300 


400 








2290 


0.20626 


1.65546401 


60 7836968 


48 


3046 


300 


500 








2290 


0.17512 


1.40654814 


621892449 


50 


3046 


300 


600 








2290 


10897 


O87461501 


6306386 


51 


3046 


300 


700 








2290 


0.03113 


024985561 


63.3137156 


52 


3046 


300 


800 








2290 


O0467 


0374623S4 


636886391 


S3 


3046 


300 


900 








2290 


03832 


03123797 


64.0009188 


54 


3046 


300 


1000 








2290 


0.02335 


018741177 


641883306 


55 


3046 


300 


1100 








2290 


0.01557 


0.12496793 


64.3132985 


56 


3046 


300 


1200 








2290 


O01557 


O 12496793 


64.4362664 


57 


3046 


300 


1300 








2290 


0.01167 


009366575 


64.5315322 


58 


3046 


300 


1400 








2290 


001167 


009366575 


64.6255579 


59 


3046 


300 


1500 








2290 


01167 


008366575 


64.7192637 


60 


3046 


300 


1600 








2290 


0.00778 


006244384 


64.7817075 


61 


3046 


300 


1700 





a 


2290 


000778 


O06244384 


64.8-441514 


62 


3046 


300 


1800 








2290 


00389 


O03122192 


64.8753733 


63 


3046 


300 


1900 








2290 


000778 


006244384 


64.9378171 


64 


3046 


300 


2000 








2290 


000389 


O03122192 


64.969039 


65 


3046 


300 


2100 








2290 


000389 


003122192 


65 000261 


66 


3046 


300 


2200 








2290 


00389 


0.03122192 


65.0314829 


67 


3046 


300 2300 
CUMUL 








2290 


00389 


O03122192 


65.0627O4S 




456 






810629 










VOLUME IN CFT 


2290 






65 0627048 








Outflow VOt J 


c. p«rc*niaQe ol 


precip vofcrrw 






2 841 16615 







US-30, Laporte County (DATA SET 4 for Rain and Flow) 



399 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 



TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW 
gprn 



FLOW CUM.FLO 
eft eft 



1 


3046 


2 


3046 


3 


3046 


4 


3046 


5 


3046 


6 


3046 


7 


3046 


8 


3046 


9 


3046 


10 


3046 


11 


3046 


12 


3046 


13 


3046 


14 


3046 


15 


3046 


16 


3046 


17 


3046 


18 


3046 


19 


3046 



301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 



1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 



0.02 

0.06 

0.02 

0.02 



















0.01 





0.02 







10 

30 
10 
10 









5 


10 





10 
40 
50 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
65 
65 
65 
75 
75 
75 




0.00389 
0.03892 
0.04281 
0.03502 
0.01167 
0.01557 
0.01167 
0.00778 
0.00778 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 
0.00389 




0.031222 
0.31238 
0.343602 
0281078 
0.093666 
0.124968 
0.093666 
0.062444 
0.062444 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 
0.031222 




0.031222 
0.343602 
0.687203 
0.968281 
1.061947 
1.186914 

128058 
1.343024 
1.405468 

1.43669 
1.467912 
1.499134 
1.530356 
1.561577 
1.592799 
1.624021 
1.655243 
1.686465 



CUMUL 0.15 

VOLUME IN CFT 75 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



0.20623 
1 .655243 
2.206991 



US-30, Laporte County (DATA SET 5 for Rain and Flow) 



400 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 


TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM.RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 










INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3046 


302 


2000 


0.06 


30 


30 








• 


2 


3046 


302 


2100 


0.05 


25 


55 











3 


3046 


302 


2200 


0.45 


225 


280 











4 


3046 


302 


2300 


0.21 


105 


385 











5 


3046 


302 


2400 


0.09 


45 


430 


0.03892 


0.31238 


0.31 238 


6 


3046 


303 


100 


0.41 


205 


635 


0.22572 


1.811674 


2.124054 


7 


3046 


303 


200 


0.06 


30 


665 


0.26852 


2.155195 


4.279249 


8 


3046 


303 


300 


0.1 


50 


715 


0.28409 


2.280163 


6.559412 


9 


3046 


303 


400 


0.07 


35 


750 


0.29577 


2.373909 


8.933321 


10 


3046 


303 


500 


0.05 


25 


775 


0.27631 


2.217719 


11.15104 


11 


3046 


303 


600 


0.07 


35 


810 


0.28409 


2.280163 


13.4312 


12 


3046 


303 


700 


0.06 


30 


840 


0.26852 


2.155195 


15.5864 


13 


3046 


303 


800 


0.08 


40 


880 


0.26074 


2.092751 


17.67915 


14 


3046 


303 


900 


0.05 


25 


905 


0.25296 


2.030308 


19.70946 


15 


3046 


303 


1000 


0.02 


10 


915 


0.22572 


1.811674 


21.52113 


16 


3046 


303 


1100 


0.05 


25 


940 


0.19847 


1.59296 


23.11409 


17 


3046 


303 


1200 


0.1 


50 


990 


0.1868 


1.499294 


24.61339 


18 


3046 


303 


1300 


0.06 


30 


1020 


0.21404 


1.717928 


26.33131: 


19 


3046 


303 


1400 


0.02 


10 


1030 


0.20626 


1.655484 


27.9868 


20 


3046 


303 


1500 








1030 


0.12064 


0.968281 


28.95508 


21 


3046 


303 


1600 
CUMUL 








1030 


0.01167 


0.093666 


29.04874 




2.06 






3.61924 










VOLUME IN CFT 


1030 






29.04874 








Outflow vol. 


as percentac 


je of precip 


. volume 






2.820266 







US-31 , St Joseph County (DATA SET 1 for Rain and Flow) 



401 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY TIME 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW FLOW 

gpm dr. 



1 


3171 


2 


3171 


3 


3171 


4 


3171 


5 


3171 


6 


3171 


7 


3171 


8 


3171 


9 


3171 


10 


3171 


11 


3171 


12 


3171 


13 


3171 


14 


3171 


15 


3171 


16 


3171 


17 


3171 


18 


3171 



220 600 

220 700 

220 800 

220 900 

220 1000 

220 1100 

220 1200 

220 1300 

220 1400 

220 1500 

220 1600 

220 1700 

220 1800 

220 1900 

220 2000 

220 2100 

220 2200 

220 2300 



0.05 

0.05 

0.41 

0.35 

0.64 

0.37 

0.08 











0.02 













46.85 

46.85 

384.17 

327.95 

599.68 

346.69 

74.96 











18.74 













46.85 

93.7 

477.87 

805.82 

1405.5 

1752.19 

1827.15 

1827.15 

1827.15 

1827.15 

1827.15 

1827.15 

1845.89 

1845.89 

1845.89 

1845.89 

1845.89 

1845.89 




0.00753 
0.01129 
0.04518 
0.1393 
0.15436 
0.071 53 
0.04518 
0.01882 
0.01129 
0.00753 
0.00753 
0.00376 
C.00753 
0.00376 
0.00376 
0.00376 




0.060452 
0.09063c 
0.362714 
1.1ie322 
1.239233 
0.574257 
0.36271 4 
0.1510S1 
0.090638 
0.060452 
0.060452 
0.030186 
0.060452 
0.030186 
0.030186 
0.030186 




CUM.FLO 
eft 


0.060452 
0.1510S1 
0.51 3806 
1.632133 
2.871366 
3.445623 
3.808337 
3.95942S 
4.050066 
4.11051S 
4.170971 
4.201157 
4.261609 
4.291795 
4.321931 
4.352168 
4.352168 



CUMUL 1 .97 

VOLUME IN CFT 1845.89 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



0.54211 
4.351083 
0.235717 



US-31 , StJoseph County (DATA SET 2 for Rain and Flow) 



402 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY JULNDAY 



TIME 



1 


3171 


2 


3171 


3 


3171 


4 


3171 


5 


3171 


6 


3171 


7 


3171 


8 


3171 


9 


3171 


10 


3171 


11 


3171 


12 


3171 


13 


3171 


14 


3171 



RAIN 
INCHES 



RAIN CUM.RAIN 
eft eft 



FLOW FLOW CUM.FLO 

gpm eft eft 



231 


1000 


0.06 


56.22 


56.22 











231 


1100 


0.07 


65.59 


121.81 


0.01506 


0.120875 


0.12O875 


231 


1200 








121.81 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.151053 


231 


1300 


0.17 


159.29 


281.1 


0.03012 


0241749 


0.392802 


231 


1400 


0.33 


309.21 


590.31 


0.07906 


0.634551 


1.027354 


231 


1500 


0.08 


74.96 


66527 


0.11671 


0.936738 


1.964091 


231 


1600 


0.06 


56.22 


721.49 


0.079O6 


0.634551 


2.598643 


231 


1700 


0.05 


46.85 


768.34 


0.07906 


0.634551 


3.233194 


231 


1800 








768.34 


0.04894 


0.392802 


3.625996 


231 


1900 








768.34 


0.01506 


0.120875 


3.746871 


231 


2000 








768.34 


0.01129 


0.090616 


3.837487 


231 


2100 








768.34 


0.00376 


0.030179 


3.867665 


231 


2200 








768.34 


0.00376 


0.030179 


3.897844 


231 


2300 








768.34 


0.00376 


0.030179 


3.928022 



CUMUL. 0.82 

VOLUME IN CFT 768.34 

Outflow vol. as percentage of precip. volume 



0.4894 
3.928022 
0.511235 



US-31 , St Joseph County (DATA SET 3 for Rain and Flow) 



403 






TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


JULNDAY 




TIME 


RAIN 


RAIN 


CUM.RAIN 


FLOW 


FLOW 


CUM.FLO 












INCHES 


eft 


eft 


gpm 


eft 


eft 


1 


3171 


246 




700 


0.5 


468.5 


468.5 


0.01129 


0.090616 


0.090616 


2 


3171 


246 




800 


0.14 


131.18 


599.68 


0.03012 


0.241749 


0.332365 


3 


3171 


246 




900 


0.01 


9.37 


609.05 


0.00753 


0.06O437 


0.392802 


4 


3171 


246 




1000 








609.05 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.422981 


5 


3171 


246 




1100 








609.05 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.4531 59 


6 


3171 


246 




1200 








609.05 








0.453159 


7 


3171 


246 




1300 








609.05 








0.453159 


8 


3171 


246 




1400 








609.05 








0.453159 


9 


3171 


246 




1500 








609.05 








0.453159 


10 


3171 


246 




1600 


0.28 


262.36 


871.41 


0.01506 


0.120875 


0.574O34 


11 


3171 


246 




1700 


0.09 


84.33 


955.74 


0.02259 


0.181312 


0.755346 


12 


3171 


246 




1800 








955.74 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.785524 


13 


3171 


246 




1900 


0.02 


18.74 


974.48 


0.00753 


0.060437 


0.845961 


14 


3171 


246 




2000 








974.48 


0.00753 


0.060437 


0.90639S 


15 


3171 


246 




2100 








974.48 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.936577 


16 


3171 


246 




2200 








974.48 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.966756 


17 


3171 


246 


2300 
CUMUL 








974.48 


0.00376 


0.030179 


0.996334 




1.04 






0.12421 










VOLUME IN CFT 




974.48 






0.996934 








Outflow vol. 


as percentage ol 


precip. 


volume 






0.102304 







HOURLY DATA (US-31, Hamilton County) 



404 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNT 



RAIN FLOW HEA01 HEA02 HEAD3 TENSION TENSION TENSION TEMP. 

inner center outer inner center outer subbaae 

[cm] [cm3] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] Jem] [cm] deg, T 



1 


3129 


1600 





101S.2SS 


1.48529 


1.052779 


6.605626 


6.906727 


7.4S2892 


9.329343 


50.831 


2 


3129 


1700 





101S.2S5 


1.697126 


0.21336 


7.000951 


6.623929 


7.314781 


9.16104 


S1.302 


3 


3129 


1800 





1015.255 


1.486205 


0.610819 


6.518148 


6.486716 


7211348 


8.044453 


51.694 


4 


3129 


1900 








1.487119 


O 425 196 


6.45383S 


6.432607 


7.1SS74S 


8.965262 


51.985 


5 


3129 


2000 





101S2S5 


1.465174 


a 263652 


6.3471 SS 


6.419454 


7.174877 


a9S5368 


52.101 


6 


3129 


2100 








1.4892S3 


0.007315 


6209995 


6.406301 


7.199091 


8-941019 


52.163 


7 


3129 


2200 








1.466393 


-0.2255S 


6.238342 


6.411383 


7204771 


8.336834 


52.059 


8 


3129 


2300 








1.490777 


-o.sosos 


6.12S566 


6.429618 


7232872 


8.95208 


S1.859 


» 


3129 


2400 








1.51 4551 


-0.78S47 


6.103315 


6.434102 


7284887 


8.967027 


51.655 


10 


3129 


100 








1.491386 


-0.99517 


6.082284 


6.438586 


7270538 


8.S8735S 


51.353 


11 


3129 


200 








1.467612 


-1.25212 


6.059119 


6.471171 


7.351551 


9.018445 


51.073 


12 


3129 


300 








1.515161 


-1.60264 


6013399 


6.502858 


7.3943 


9.043556 


50.763 


13 


3129 


400 








1.51 S466 


-2.06959 


6.086246 


6534845 


7.398784 


9.058503 


S0.453 


14 


3129 


500 








1.515466 


-2.35001 


6.015533 


6.539628 


7.427482 


9.088995 


50.121 


IS 


3129 


600 








1.51 S466 


-2.81727 


5.82869 


6.585366 


7.422699 


9.104241 


49.825 


16 


3129 


700 








1.350264 


0.196901 


6.039917 


6594633 


7.498929 


9.124569 


49. S3 


17 


3129 


800 








1.515466 


0.313639 


6.063082 


6.617951 


7.47053 


9.145495 


49271 


18 


3129 


900 








1.51577 


0.360578 


6.204204 


6.645453 


7.541976 


9.160143 


48.975 


19 


3129 


1000 








1.515161 


0.266395 


6526682 


6.649937 


7.S94S9 


9.185553 


48.765 


20 


3129 


1100 








1.491082 


0242621 


6.337402 


6.663091 


7.617608 


9.194521 


48.557 


21 


3129 


1200 








1.490472 


0.288646 


6.216701 


6.695376 


7.58891 


9.20468S 


4S.412 


22 


3129 


1300 








1.489558 


0.241097 


6211214 


6.68581 


7.607743 


9.18914 


48.484 


23 


3129 


1400 








1.488948 


0.263957 


6255715 


6.68581 


7.60296 


9.16373 


48.637 


24 


3129 


1500 








1.51 1S03 


0.309372 


6.270955 


6.666977 


7.640627 


9.127259 


48.893 


25 


3129 


1600 








1.605382 


0.308762 


6.38S2SS 


665771 


7.578447 


9.076439 


49.201 


26 


3129 


1700 








1.605077 


0.448666 


6.618122 


6.6391 7S 


7.626278 


9.025619 


49.586 


27 


3129 


1800 








1.534363 


0.285598 


6431 S85 


6.611673 


7.5354 


8.970315 


49.947 


28 


3129 


1900 








1.535278 


0.332842 


6.342583 


6.597922 


7.52135 


8.935339 


50.236 


29 


3129 


2400 


0.1016 





10.74207 


27.95961 


1385011 


6.047273 


6.972195 


7.909674 


56.212 


30 


3129 


100 


0.1778 





12.01583 


28.732S8 


14.3192 


6.029635 


6.959042 


7.895922 


56.184 


31 


3129 


200 


0.2794 





19.88729 


28.94716 


20.33565 


6.047871 


6.940209 


7.87679 


56.197 


32 


3129 


300 


0.1524 





10.53602 


28.13761 


1390985 


6.133368 


6.963526 


8.061536 


56.148 


33 


3129 


400 


0.0762 





7.331659 


28.51252 


14.28415 


6.16924 


6.944992 


8.164072 


56.13 


34 


3129 


500 


0.2794 





11.26785 


28.16413 


17.31S69 


6.232616 


6.986843 


8.267207 


56.073 


35 


3129 


600 


0.1524 





8.1S67S3 


28.14005 


1683024 


6.300475 


7.000894 


8.321016 


55.984 


36 


3129 


700 


0.0762 





6672986 


27.74716 


17.10903 


6.377901 


6.991627 


8.39037 


5S.927 


37 


3129 


800 


0.0S08 





5.800954 


27.74716 


16.03644 


6.451142 


7.028994 


8.434913 


55.838 


38 


3129 


900 


0.0SO8 





6414516 


27.42377 


1 5.33997 


6.515414 


7.062177 


8.474971 


SS.698 


39 


3129 


1000 








3067507 


25.93299 


14.45666 


6.607189 


7.071444 


8.514431 


55.503 


40 


3129 


1100 








1.865376 


24.766S2 


14.01409 


6.639474 


7.118676 


8.SS9S71 


55341 


41 


3129 


1200 








1.370381 


23.71801 


13.73581 


6.718096 


7.071743 


8.584383 


55.162 


42 


3129 


1300 








1.20S179 


22.94778 


1333927 


6.764133 


7.090576 


8.594248 


55.005 


43 


3129 


14O0 








1.157935 


22.10623 


13.01161 


6.81 49S3 


7.165311 


8.588867 


54.932 


44 


3129 


1500 








1.204S7 


21.21408 


1277264 


6860989 


7.141695 


8.568838 


S4.927 


45 


3129 


1600 








0.733044 


19.86168 


1235385 


6.907624 


7.12764S 


8.S43727 


S4.999 


46 


3129 


1700 








1.298753 


19.37126 


1223681 


6.907923 


7.127944 


8.529378 


5S.08S 


47 


3129 


1800 








1.370076 


18.34774 


11.96096 


6954259 


7.179361 


8.529079 


SS.162 


48 


3129 


1900 








1.441094 


17.46321 


11.7537 


6.978174 


7.184742 


8.539841 


55.178 


49 


3129 


2000 








1.583131 


16.76766 


1 1.45621 


7.0,10759 


7.184443 


8.549407 


SS.129 


SO 


3129 


2100 








1.347826 


15.6719 


11.24803 


7-067259 


7.184742 


8.579899 


55.018 


SI 


3129 


2200 








1.34813 


14.78737 


10.99505 


7.086391 


7.170991 


8.615174 


54.844 


52 


3129 


2300 








1.324966 


13.99581 


10.78809 


7.133324 


7.166208 


665015 


54.643 


S3 


3129 


2400 








1.32527 


13.27404 


10.62807 


7.184742 


7.227192 


8.694692 


54.33 


54 


3129 


100 








1.349045 


12.59738 


10.41928 


7.227491 


724184 


8.744914 


53.993 


55 


3129 


200 








1.231697 


12.0399 


10.33059 


7.24184 


7.265456 


8.785271 


53.641 


56 


3129 


300 








1.137209 


11.40958 


10.19099 


7.303422 


7.256189 


8.835792 


53.257 


57 


3129 


400 








1.444142 


10.82528 


10.07364 


7.322853 


7289969 


8.886612 


52.868 


58 


3129 


500 








1.349654 


10.24128 


9.910877 


7.38921 8 


7.351252 


8.921887 


52.482 


59 


3129 


600 








1.373429 


9.727387 


9.957206 


7.441532 


7.322853 


6962244 


S2.06 


60 


3129 


700 








1.326185 


9.190025 


9.863938 


7.4SS882 


7.394O01 


8.997S19 


S1.694 


61 


3129 


800 








1.278941 


8629193 


9.72373 


7.S41976 


7.417916 


9.023228 


51.304 


62 


3129 


1500 





101S.2SS 


1.133856 


5.302301 


3.S07S78 


7.620897 


7.468138 


8.838781 


S0.702 


63 


3129 


1600 





87373.28 


1.180795 


4.99841 S 


8. 482584 


7.621495 


7.47322 


8.763747 


S1.084 


64 


3129 


1700 





76198.66 


1.2S1509 


4.718609 


8.273186 


7.S82931 


7.430173 


8.693496 


51.519 


65 


3129 


18O0 





69087.33 


1.369466 


4.S32071 


8.36737 


7.573066 


7.4301 73 


8.638491 


51.907 


66 


3129 


1900 





62991.26 


1.370076 


4.113581 


8277758 


7.526133 


7.392805 


8.S84682 


S2.191 


67 


3129 


2000 





57910,44 


1.300277 


3741725 


8.097012 


7.540183 


7.3S4S41 


8.564354 


52.329 


68 


3129 


2100 





46735.81 


1.3240S1 


3.34579 


7.983017 


7.540482 


7.34S273 


8.554788 


S2.332 


69 


3129 


2200 





4571829 


0.758647 


2.57617 


7.869326 


7.564995 


7.379054 


8.560169 


52.262 


70 


3129 


2300 





44703.03 


1.324966 


2646883 


7.754722 


7.584127 


7.40267 


8.570333 


52.069 


71 


3129 


24O0 





42670.25 


1.32527 


246065 


7.7343 


7.603259 


7.369488 


8.S8S28 


51.859 


72 


3129 


100 





39622.21 


1.301801 


2. 1 5707 


7.641336 


7.617608 


7.421802 


8.60501 


51.632 


73 


3129 


200 





37S91.7 


1.278026 


1.900123 


7.431024 


7.641225 


7.383538 


862474 


SI .369 


74 


3129 


300 





33526.14 


1.301801 


1.596542 


7.408164 


7.660656 


7.407453 


8.649851 


51.16 



HOURLY DATA (US-31. Hamilton County) 



405 



7S 


3129 


4O0 





3047S.1 


1.278331 


1.339901 


7.3ISSOS 


7.689653 


7.440636 


MMM 


SO*99 


76 


3129 


500 





30478.1 


1.254862 


0.98999 


7.340194 


7.718949 


7.446016 


0.680343 


SO. 635 


77 


3129 


600 





30478.1 


1.231392 


0.802843 


7.270O9 


7.723135 


7.474117 


8.704&S6 


50 461 


78 


3129 


700 





27432.34 


1.254862 


0-335S8S 


7.199376 


7.747648 


7.488466 


8.725184 


S0.2O1 


7» 


3129 


800 





26414.81 


1.2S4SS7 


n TISSff'f 


7.128053 


7.756915 


7.459768 


8.744615 


50.0O9 


SO 


3129 


900 





24384.3 


1.207313 


0.312115 


7.128053 


7.771264 


7.S4SS64 


8.754779 


49 833 


81 


3129 


1000 





23366.77 


1.231087 


0.335585 


7.267956 


7.795478 


7.50281S 


8.770025 


45.676 


82 


3129 


1100 





22351.52 


1.230173 


0J112O1 


7.215226 


7.800261 


7.526432 


8.784972 


49 521 


•3 


3129 


1200 





22351 .52 


1.206O94 


0.287122 


7.117994 


7.79488 


7.540183 


8.779292 


49.538 


84 


3129 


1300 





22351.52 


1.157935 


0-285902 


7.064045 


7.804446 


7.S44966 


8.758964 


49.602 


85 


3129 


1400 





23366.77 


1.157326 


0-262128 


7.014667 


7.770367 


7.515969 


8.728472 


49.862 


86 


3129 


1500 





22351.52 


1.204265 


0l261823 


7.0S9168 


7.731206 


7J01321 


8.677951 


50248 


87 


3129 


1600 





21336_26 


1.179576 


a 266604 


7.0O4914 


7.702807 


7.501619 


8.618462 


50.677 


88 


3129 


1700 





20318.73 


1.48SS9S 


0.3S3873 


6.9342 


7.668727 


7.463056 


8.553293 


51.149 


89 


3129 


1800 





12192.15 


1.061618 


-0.25268 


7.120128 


7.640328 


7.401474 


8.504267 


51.624 


80 


3129 


1900 





11174.62 


1.238143 


0.331318 


6916217 


7.606847 


7.41 S823 


8.449561 


52027 


91 


3129 


2000 





11174.62 


1.251509 


0.285598 


6.85099 


7.563799 


7.373075 


8.423831 


S2309 


92 


3129 


2100 





10159.37 


1.1811 


0J62433 


6.852514 


7.563582 


7.373075 


8.415182 


52453 


93 


3129 


2200 





4063^293 


1.205179 


0.309372 


6. 7851 S3 


7.SS4831 


7.364107 


8.40S91S 


52.519 


94 


3129 


2300 








1.535278 


0729691 


7.416394 


7.559315 


7.368591 


8.40S317 


5254 


95 


3129 


2400 








1.18171 


0.263042 


6670548 


7.554233 


7.316276 


8.405317 


52491 


96 


3129 


100 








1.205179 


a 236 207 


6.646164 


7.S68B81 


7.321358 


8.405616 


S243S 


97 


3129 


200 








0.710184 


-0.11034 


6.250229 


7.573963 


7.359623 


8.410698 


S2.364 


98 


3129 


300 








1.205789 


0.287122 


6534302 


7.568881 


7.330924 


8.420563 


52.28 


99 


3129 


400 








1.229563 


0.263652 


6441034 


7.568881 


7.335707 


8.430428 


52.157 


100 


3129 


500 





1015.255 


1.206094 


0i310591 


6. 27 8575 


7.568312 


7.331223 


8.435809 


52012 


101 


3129 


600 








1.229563 


0.333756 


6.208166 


7.602661 


7.34049 


8.445375 


51.891 


102 


3129 


700 








1.229563 


0.287122 


6044489 


7.612228 


7.330924 


8.460322 


51.751 


103 


3129 


800 








1.229868 


0.35753 


60231 S3 


7.611929 


7.368591 


8.474971 


51.558 


104 


3129 


900 








1.229868 


0.334366 


5.907634 


7.631659 


7-340789 


8.480352 


51.404 


105 


3129 


1000 








1.206398 


0.310896 


6.000902 


7.640627 


7.354541 


8.484836 


51.243 


106 


3129 


1100 








1.205789 


0.287122 


5.834177 


7.645709 


7.378456 


8.499783 


S1.105 


107 


3129 


1200 


51.045 


1015.255 


1.1811 


0285902 


5.757062 


7.650492 


7.373374 


8.S04S66 




108 


3129 


1300 








1.157021 


0285293 


573024 


7.63SS45 


7.353943 


8.484 23S 


51.188 


109 


3129 


1400 








1.297534 


0.284074 


5678119 


7.611032 


7.353644 


8.454045 


51.433 


110 


3129 


1500 








1.155802 


0.283464 


S.860999 


7.596683 


7.339295 


8.409204 


51.777 


111 


3129 


1600 








1.178966 


02S9934 


S. 906414 


7.548852 


7.31089S 


8.36496 


52214 


112 


3129 


1700 








1.202436 


0.283464 


5975909 


7.524638 


7.28696 


8.315336 


S2641 


113 


3129 


1S00 








1.202741 


0.259994 


S.976S18 


7.481889 


7.211647 


8.26631 


S3 082 


114 


3129 


1900 








1.156106 


0.284074 


5980786 


7.477704 


7.197896 


8^37313 


S1419 


115 


3129 


2000 








1.20426S 


CL331927 


5.848198 


7.472921 


7.197896 


8.20771 S 


53685 


116 


3129 


2100 








1.1811 


0.332S37 


5.827166 


7.439739 


7.202679 


8^03233 


S3 793 


117 


3129 


2200 








1.205179 


0.356311 


5713781 


7.425689 


7.1S1S6 


8.193667 


53.863 


118 


3129 


2300 








1.182319 


0357226 


5695188 


7.449903 


7.189S2S 


i208913 


53.833 


119 


3129 


2400 








1.277112 


0.404165 


4.180942 


7.44S12 


7.156343 


8^13995 


S3. 743 


120 


3129 


100 








1.206398 


0.310896 


S.S34&63 


7.450202 


7.175475 


8.23372S 


53602 


121 


3129 


200 








1.182929 


0.311201 


5419649 


7.459768 


7.184742 


8.24359 


S3 423 


122 


3129 


300 








1.13599 


0.31 1 201 


5233111 


7.474117 


7.147375 


8.2534 55 


53-226 


123 


3129 


400 








1.136294 


0.31181 


5001768 


7.483683 


7.180258 


8^68403 


53021 


124 


3129 


500 








1.11252 


0.31 1S06 


5.163617 


7.S07S98 


7.180258 


8^97998 


S2.767 


125 


3129 


600 








1.159459 


0J11201 


5163312 


7.521947 


7.217925 


8.312646 


52.579 


126 


3129 


700 








1.1S91S4 


0.334366 


504444 


7.S213S 


7.203277 


8.321913 


52437 


127 


3129 


800 








1.13538 


0.334061 


5042916 


7.530916 


7.170393 


8.321913 


SZ36S 


128 


3129 


900 








1.13538 


0.3337S6 


4.995367 


7.SS0048 


7.231 97S 


8.326995 


52-233 


129 


3129 


1000 








1.111301 


0.286817 


4.85394 


7.559614 


7.293258 


8.33686 


52243 


130 


3129 


1100 








1.086917 


0309372 


4.895698 


7.S44966 


7.217327 


8.326397 


S2274 


131 


3129 


1400 


0.0254 





3.SS4143 


O3081S3 


6544361 


7.425091 


7.193113 


8-276474 


52.73 


132 


3129 


1500 








1.580998 


a 261516 


661446S 


7.4062S7 


7.09924S 


8^42395 


52909 


133 


3129 


1600 








1.344778 


0.91 409S 


7.287463 


7.316276 


7.174578 


8-222964 


53134 


134 


3129 


1700 








1.132942 


0^61214 


672907 


7.3SS427 


7.240345 


8.193069 


53385 


135 


3129 


1800 








1.061923 


0L26O9O9 


6.820205 


7.32076 


7.18833 


8.173339 


S3 683 


136 


3129 


1900 








1.061923 


0284378 


6843674 


7.325244 


7.136613 


8.14SS26 


S3 845 


137 


3129 


2000 








0.991 SI 4 


0L214274 


6.7S071 


7.373075 


7.132129 


8.134477 


54.059 


138 


3129 


2100 








1.014679 


0.26O9O9 


6.749491 


7.377858 


7.118078 


8.109964 


S4.23S 


139 


3129 


2200 








1.014679 


O260909 


6 843065 


7.301 628 


7.22S996 


8.104SS2 


54.396 


140 


3129 


2300 








0,99121 


O284074 


6748272 


7.292361 


7.11329S 


aiosisi 


S4.537 


141 


3129 


2400 








0.990905 


0-260604 


6.794297 


7.315977 


7.174279 


8.030234 


54.659 


142 


3129 


100 


0.0254 





0.96713 


0.23683 


6.814718 


7.277713 


7.164414 


8.07O2O5 


S4.874 


143 


3129 


200 


1.0414 


95502.14 


26.26584 


28.S2044 


2340346 


7.268745 


7.132129 


7.64S1 1 1 


55-21 


144 


3129 


300 





427724.6 


5.254142 


27.07356 


10 91489 


7.140798 


7.107914 


8.011612 


SS.352 


145 


3129 


400 


0.254 


S40492.9 


1286256 


2a 44973 


17.50832 


7.18833 


7.13183 


7.963483 


5S.572 


146 


3129 


500 


0.S5S8 


961108.4 


1684386 


28.07757 


20.841 


7.178763 


7.052013 


7.909973 


55.691 


147 


3129 


600 


0.3048 


1016981 


14.27744 


28.59298 


21.02998 


7.127047 


7.080113 


7.3341 S7 


S5.S3S 


148 


3129 


700 


0.2032 


1023O91 


10.34339 


27.7S356 


16 8594 


7.26874S 


7.071145 


7.339269 


55.946 


149 


3129 


800 


0.127 


1020O48 


8.835647 


27.21773 


15.461S9 


7.207462 


7.03856 


7.939S6S 


55.938 


ISO 


3129 


900 





836082.1 


3.959047 


27.28631 


14.78463 


7.169795 


7.136912 


7.97S43 


SS.107 


1S1 


3129 


1000 


0.311 


861536.1 


27 11653 


28.54635 


23 313S4 


7.31 5678 


6.977277 


7.89S623 


56 196 


152 


3129 


1100 


0.1016 


1011917 


10.814 


27.26284 


1560027 


7.183845 


7.122563 


7.929703 


56.287 


153 


3129 


1200 


0.1016 


910322.9 


12.2267S 


27.56428 


16.99626 


7.301628 


6.976978 


7.900107 


56.473 


154 


3129 


1300 


0.0254 


88S92S.S 


5701589 


27.07386 


14.68892 


7.310895 


6381761 


7.900107 


56.662 


1SS 


3129 


1400 





787379.3 


3.81731S 


26.88763 


14.27013 


7.193113 


7.009862 


7.914756 


56.663 



HOURLY DATA (US-31. Hamilton County) 



406 



156 


3129 


1500 





705091.4 


2.521915 


25.76932 


13. SOS 


7.268446 


7.131S31 


7.885758 


S6.915 


157 


3129 


1600 





664458.5 


2.02692 


24.64857 


1352398 


7.348562 


6.953362 


7.860946 


57.084 


158 


3129 


1700 





644130.7 


1.579169 


23.6665 


1321826 


7.192515 


7.079515 


7.870S12 


S7.243 


159 


3129 


1800 





627868.4 


1.484681 


228947S 


1102959 


7.296S46 


6.925561 


7.841814 


57.438 


160 


3129 


1900 





S94344.S 


1.343558 


22.19889 


1273028 


7.244231 


7.089081 


7.846298 


57.709 


161 


3129 


2000 





559798.6 


1.48529 


21.38477 


1261598 


7.291763 


6.948878 


7.832248 


S7.891 


162 


3129 


2100 





543536.4 


1.24968 


20.52249 


1238341 


7.225697 


7.03288 


7.841814 


58.021 


163 


3129 


2200 





517121.5 


1.014374 


19.73001 


1210422 


7.2S3798 


6.916293 


7.841814 


58.074 


164 


3129 


2300 





495794.4 


a 96713 


18.91375 


11.87105 


7.188031 


6.930344 


7.856462 


58.199 


16S 


3129 


2400 


0.127 


480554-2 


11.07277 


28.89413 


17.09014 


7.211647 


6.911809 


7.837031 


S8L277 


166 


3129 


100 


0.5842 


'740636.7 


27.46766 


28.80025 


23.8695 


7.169197 


6.869659 


7.78382 


5A277 


167 


3129 


200 


0.5334 


994632-2 


29-23276 


28.72923 


29.66923 


7.131S31 


6.897759 


7.808034 


58.37 


168 


3129 


300 


0.6604 


1030200 


2&24068 


28.94716 


29.35376 


7.141396 


6.944693 


7.837629 


58.391 


169 


3129 


400 


0.762 


1070833 


2&50464 


28.9752 


29.31 3S3 


7.240345 


6.907325 


7.861843 


58.333 


170 


3129 


500 


0.127 


100378S 


14.07201 


27.50942 


16.12575 


7.259477 


6.926158 


7.862142 


58.241 


171 


3129 


600 





916409.9 


6.931457 


26.81112 


14.70508 


7.221512 


6.95396 


7.905488 


58.043 


172 


3129 


700 





741658.8 


4.339742 


24.99482 


13.98575 


7.302226 


6.935725 


7.954216 


S7.901 


173 


3129 


BOO 





644130.7 


3.42138 


23.60097 


1147917 


7.302525 


7.024809 


8.013107 


57.669 


174 


3129 


900 





601 451 6 


3.186989 


22.58111 


1120637 


7.307308 


6.968907 


8.106078 


57.412 


175 


3129 


1000 





570973.2 


297S4S8 


21.44116 


1286073 


7.417019 


7.011357 


817035 


57.194 


176 


3129 


1100 





548624 


2692908 


20.2058 


12S5989 


7.379054 


6.889987 


8.258537 


S6.761 


177 


3129 


12O0 





S05946.9 


2457907 


19.0423B 


1230782 


7.421 802 


6.946188 


8.322511 


56.436 


178 


3129 


1300 





492750.9 


2127504 


17.7S826 


11.88811 


7.4S0202 


7.185041 


8391566 


56.081 


179 


3129 


1400 





4S9227 


1.891589 


16.59087 


11.63208 


7.38862 


7.14737S 


84 SI 055 


55.688 


180 


3129 


1500 





434833.6 


1.797406 


15S4114 


11.33033 


7.40267 


7.100441 


8 SO 5463 


55.222 


181 


3129 


1600 





409440.9 


1.561795 


14.35059 


11.0048 


7.407453 


7.133324 


8560169 


54.886 


182 


3129 


1700 





393178.6 


1.420368 


13.32403 


10.74969 


7.531514 


7.063073 


8610391 


54. 563 


183 


3129 


1800 





369807.3 


1.278941 


12S0777 


10.4016 


7.641823 


7.O63073 


865015 


54.164 


184 


3129 


1900 





338327.6 


1.043026 


11.64306 


10.28395 


7.6038S7 


7.204472 


8.7057S3 


S1749 


185 


3129 


2000 





321043.3 


0.972007 


11.19896 


10.6107 


7.560212 


7.12884 


8.76016 


51413 


186 


3129 


2100 





300738.2 


0.688848 


10.24098 


10.0267 


7.622989 


7.21 4038 


8785869 


S1118 


187 


3129 


2200 





274323.4 


a 61 8439 


9.611868 


9.98281 


7.695034 


7.2S6488 


8.780787 


52638 


188 


3129 


2300 





248907.9 


0.547726 


8.958986 


9.938614 


7.699817 


7.312988 


8.845956 


52273 


189 


3129 


2400 





230624.2 


0.406298 


8.304886 


9.77SS46 


7.743761 


7.332718 


8.912321 


51.799 


190 


3129 


100 





205226.9 


0264S66 


7.814462 


9.683191 


7.830155 


7.327636 


8941916 


S1.399 


191 


3129 


200 





191004.3 


0.123139 


7.278319 


9.545422 


7.805941 


7.394001 


9.002601 


50.976 


192 


3129 


300 





156460.6 


a477317 


6.740652 


9.358274 


7.844505 


7.388919 


9.032495 


50.472 


193 


3129 


400 





141220.4 


1.04394 


6.203594 


9.219286 


7.888449 


7.427482 


908899S 


S0.092 


194 


3129 


500 





132076.3 


1.02047 


5.712866 


9.032443 


7.888449 


7.432265 


9.109323 


49.723 


195 


3129 


600 





121916.9 


0.997306 


5270297 


8.873338 


7.966173 


7.570675 


9.134434 


49.307 


196 


3129 


700 





110742.3 


0.9S0062 


4.896307 


6 639556 


a029848 


7.489662 


9.114405 


48.908 


197 


3129 


800 





99565.43 


0.973836 


4.452518 


8.384134 


7.976038 


7.S3241 


9.124569 


48.577 


198 


3129 


900 





90421.32 


0.78486 


4.288536 


7.98606S 


7.951824 


7.685767 


9.124569 


48.184 


199 


3129 


1000 





80261.95 


0.902513 


3563417 


8240878 


8.141951 


7.51 8061 


9.11440S 


47.805 


200 


3129 


1100 





70102.58 


0.854659 


2954426 


7.90895 


8.08276 


7.709383 


9.154463 


47.S62 


201 


3129 


1200 





61973.73 


0.901294 


2625852 


7.833665 


8.146136 


7.617907 


9.144598 


47.332 


202 


3129 


1300 





S48624 


0.877214 


2227478 


7.66572 


8.150321 


7.646008 


9.06209 


47.243 


203 


3129 


1400 





50799.11 


0.900379 


1.969618 


7.637678 


8.140755 


7.646307 


9.031897 


47.36 


204 


3129 


1500 





46735.81 


0.970483 


1.758696 


7.4712S8 


8.14S837 


7.627175 


8.991 S4 


47.598 


205 


3129 


16O0 





42670.2S 


0.89977 


1.431646 


7.3S360S 


8.100996 


7.717754 


8.96045 


47.945 



HOURLY DATA (SR-37. Hamilton County) 



407 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNT 



TIME 



RAIN FLOW HEA01 HEAD2 HEA03 HEAD4 TENSION TENSION TEKStON 
inner center outer vubgraoe oerrte* outer 



(cm) 



[cm3] 



[cm] 



(cm] 



[cm] 



|cm) 



[cm] 



(cm) 



[c»] Ooj. T 



1 


3129 


100 





1539.917 


-4.84967 


0.258 77S 


47.60671 


-O 04511 


5.078882 


5.001768 


5_ZD0O63 


a. ,-,'. 


2 


3129 


200 





1539.917 


-1*9722 


0.25908 


47.49698 


-0.1143 


5.08315 


5.018837 


5^4317 


CXI 


3 


3129 


300 





1539.917 


-4.837S3 


0.21 275 


47.40859 


-006736 


S.088O26 


5.023403 


1 7-r*?n7 


r7.441 


4 


3129 


400 





3079.835 


-4.89783 


025969 


47.22876 


-O0667S 


S.10S09S 


5.03621 


1 7TS3Q2 


87.1*3 


S 


3129 


500 





3078.835 


-4.96854 


0-2831 59 


46.76546 


-037003 


S.113S34 


S.04S05 


5-247742 


•6.7*7 


6 


3129 


600 





1539.917 


-4.(9814 


0.21136 


46.90872 


-008931 


5.127041 


5.043317 


S-248046 


•6-25* 


7 


3129 


700 








-4.89814 


0-23683 


46.72584 


-011247 


5.131308 


5.062423 


IT**"*! 


•5X32 


8 


3129 


800 





3079.835 


-4.89814 


0.143256 


46.74413 


-011278 


5.126736 


5.066386 


5-2*7742 


tS-O 


9 


3129 


SOO 





3079.835 


-4.89661 


0.16S2O2 


46.7868 


-011SS2 


5-126126 


5.061503 


5-2*2965 


85X36 


10 


3129 


1000 





6159.67 


-4.91856 


0.187147 


46.92091 


-007132 


5.126431 


S.0S7S46 


S-23O063 


84X63 


11 


3129 


1100 





6929.629 


-4.87009 


0.162154 


46.89348 


-O097S4 


5.10479 


5.04444 


5-2*7437 


84X33 


12 


3129 


1200 





12319L34 


-4.89265 


0.161544 


46.80814 


■O09906 


5.082845 


5.022793 


S.2S5666 


84J* 


13 


3129 


1300 





16939.09 


-4.89265 


0.231038 


46.59782 


-0.09336 


5.061204 


4.396831 


S-242S6 


85.43 


14 


3129 


1400 





16939.09 


-4.91642 


0.208176 


46.43333 


-0.0384 S 


5.009938 


4.367021 


5.255971 


•6.14 


15 


3129 


1500 





16939.09 


-4.96397 


0.418186 


4644847 


-0.05O9 


4.992929 


4.924654 


•; -7-<r**.-\ 


«6_E 


16 


3129 


1600 





16169.13 


-4.91734 


0278892 


46-78375 


-007346 


4.941722 


4-894783 


S-24317 


S7X14 


17 


3129 


1700 





1S399.17 


-512317 


0.162458 


47.43298 


-0.14356 


4.941722 


4X73447 


S-208422 


•8.7X3 


18 


3129 


1800 





16169.13 


-4.91795 


0349301 


48.11878 


-004338 


4.903318 


4X60646 


5-22-1523 


•3 44.3 


19 


3129 


1900 





14629L22 


-4.91795 


0349606 


48.40224 


-0.04307 


4.903318 


4.856376 


5 206-422 


•SX31 


20 


3129 


2000 





14629.22 


-4.94203 


0350215 


48.36566 


-004816 


4.907S8S 


4.856378 


S-ia67S2 


90-22S 


21 


3129 


2100 





13859.26 


-4.94233 


0326746 


48^7422 


-O04785 


4.911547 


*X5iao€ 


S.18221 


90-356 


22 


3129 


2200 





13359.26 


-5.24927 


O420929 


48.40529 


0117043 


4.920082 


4X60341 


S.17367S 


90-395 


23 


3129 


2300 





11543.38 


-4.96672 


0.28133 


48.0822 


-006349 


4.332578 


4.864303 


5.163103 


30-258 


24 


3129 


2400 





11549.38 


-4.99049 


028133 


47.89932 


-003266 


4.941418 


4X81677 


S.160874 


9O047 


25 


3129 


100 





10009.46 


-4.9914 


023561 


47.74997 


-0.1146 


4.94599 


4.894783 


5163713 


83.6X2 


26 


3129 


200 





8469.5*6 


-4.9914 


0.25 90S 


47.66158 


-003083 


4.96763 


4.903318 


S.16S446 


89-297 


27 


3129 


300 





6929.629 


-4.99201 


023622 


47.60062 


-011333 


4.971838 


4.916424 


S.170018 


88X74 


28 


3129 


400 





6159.67 


-4.99232 


0.21 30 55 


47.48784 


-0 11 306 


4.989271 


4.923226 


5.161483 


88.432 


29 


3129 


SOO 





3849.794 


-5.03926 


021336 


47.3964 


-0 15972 


4.997806 


4.33776 


S.178SS2 


87 JK 


30 


3129 


600 





3079.835 


-5.03956 


023683 


47.28362 


-013S34 


S.01S179 


4.946599 


S.170018 


87.607 


31 


3129 


700 





2309.876 


-5.03956 


0.166726 


46.38187 


-0 13534 


S. 027381 


4.959401 


5.170018 


S7.102 


32 


3129 


800 





2309.876 


-5.03956 


0.120091 


46.63135 


-013S34 


S.023714 


4.963668 


5.183124 


86.6X9 


33 


3129 


900 





3079. 83S 


-5.01 S48 


0.166421 


46.62221 


-0.18349 


S. 031638 


4.363058 


S.163713 


86 71? 


34 


3129 


1000 





4619.752 


-4.99049 


0.1S8O62 


46.S9478 


-O. 18623 


5.009938 


4.362754 


S.177942 


85-901 


35 


3129 


1100 





4619.752 


-4.98397 


0.163373 


46.56734 


-018867 


S.014S7 


4.9S4S24 


S-165141 


85.759 


36 


3129 


1200 





1539.917 


-4.98775 


0185623 


46.52162 


-0.1207 


4.388662 


4.933188 


S.163713 


85-8S3 


37 


3129 


1300 





769.9587 


-4.98744 


02SS118 


46.42409 


-012131 


4.345685 


4.90728 


5.18221 


8624S 


38 


3129 


1400 








-4.98714 


0.278282 


46.30217 


-012132 


4.90728 


4.87741 


S.177942 


86-305 


39 


3129 


1SO0 








-4.9877S 


0.3O1 752 


46.49724 


-O097S4 


4.881382 


4.852111 


5.165141 


87.732 


40 


3129 


1600 





769.9587 


-S-24622 


0.115519 


46.96054 


-012101 


4.852111 


4.813706 


S.182514 


88.758 


41 


3129 


1700 








-4.98775 


0.348691 


47.61586 


-O037S4 


4.817974 


4.779569 


5-163713 


83-706 


42 


3129 


1800 








-S. 034 99 


0348691 


4 8.10658 


-003723 


4.813706 


4.758S3S 


5134966 


90*85 


43 


3129 


1900 








-4.98S0S 


0372161 


48.20412 


-003693 


4.79237 


4.7SOO03 


5.130698 


BUS 


44 


3129 


2000 








-4.98805 


0348996 


4&0852S 


-0.1204 


4.779569 


4.745736 


S.130698 


91.6*8 


45 


3129 


2100 








-4.98836 


0349301 


48.02124 


-009632 


4.796638 


4.745736 


S.10479 


9-LS11 


46 


3129 


2200 








-501244 


0326441 


48.00905 


-011887 


4.8O09OS 


4.75427 


S.10S362 


91 Sh£ 


47 


3129 


2300 








-4.98927 


0326746 


47.87738 


-014143 


4.817974 


4.762805 


S.100S23 


91X39 


48 


3129 


2400 








-4.99019 


0.32766 


47.84446 


-018684 


4.834738 


4.779264 


5.035951 


91X62 


49 


3129 


100 





763.3587 


-4.99019 


O30449S 


47.7073 


-018654 


4.830166 


4.783S31 


S.1067S3 


91.396 


SO 


3129 


200 








-4.99049 


032S27 


47.62195 


-0 16246 


4.847S39 


4.787796 


5.091684 


91X74 


51 


3129 


300 








-4.99049 


0.3048 


47.50613 


-O2094 


4.851 806 


4.79237 


S. 067417 


90.8*7 


52 


3129 


400 








-4.9911 


O30541 


47.44517 


-O18S01 


4.86918 


4.805172 


S-091989 


90-252 


S3 


3129 


500 








-4.9914 


028255 


47.31106 


-O 20787 


4.877714 


4.817974 


5.091389 


S9-*07 


54 


3129 


600 








-4.99171 


02S938S 


47.244 


-O207S7 


4.881982 


4X22241 


S.10S0SS 


•9-372 


SS 


3129 


700 








-5.06242 


0.282854 


47.13427 


-023043 


4.893355 


4.835347 


5.10O82S 


86XC3 


56 


3129 


800 








-4.99171 


0.329489 


46.92396 


-O23043 


4.907555 


4.83S042 


S.096256 


8S.*76 


S7 


3129 


900 








-S.014S7 


025847 


46.67402 


-CL20848 


4.903013 


4.833005 


5.100218 


88.06* 


58 


3129 


1000 








-4.94294 


0.281026 


46.58563 


-021031 


4.894478 


4X33005 


5.104486 


87.707 


59 


3129 


1100 








-4.98866 


02S6337 


46 51248 


-023S92 


4.89905 


4.83077S 


S.100S23 


87X18 


60 


3129 


1200 








-4.72867 


1.76845 


46.02785 


-072786 


4.873447 


4.S26S0S 


S-117B37 


S7.705 


61 


3129 


1300 








-4.98683 


0301142 


46.29912 


-O09S76 


4.864608 


4,809439 


S.113325 


88.077 


62 


3129 


1400 








-4.98714 


O301447 


46.30217 


-021S19 


4X43272 


4.787798 


S.1172S7 


88X16 


63 
64 


3129 
3129 


1500 
16O0 










-5.0103 


0301142 


46 46066 


-014539 


4.817669 


4.771034 


S. 11 3325 


89_2« 


-4.98744 


0324917 


46.77156 


-01682S 


4.77S302 


U33S08 


5.126431 


9O097 


65 


3129 


1700 








-4.98744 


0371551 


47.07636 


-0.144-18 


4.775302 


4.720133 


S.10OS23 


90963 


66 


3129 


1800 








-4.91703 


O39S021 


47.42688 


-014448 


4.741469 


4.699102 


5.1090SS 


91-77S 


67 


3129 


19O0 








-4.98744 


0371SS1 


47.56709 


-012101 


4.72S667 


4.690567 


S.109OS6 


92.465 


68 


3129 


2000 








-S. 03499 


032SS26 


47.SS18S 


-O1902 


4.728667 


4.6S6605 


S.0919S9 


32X8 


69 


3129 


2100 








-5.01152 


032SS26 


47.52746 


-021336 


4.732934 


4.690567 


S.067722 


33.1 


70 


3129 


2200 








-4.98836 


032SS31 


47 46346 


-0236S2 


4.737202 


4.694S34 


S.07461S 


»1« 


71 


3129 


2300 








-501244 


0.302971 


47.4025 


43.25908 


4.766767 


4.699102 


5. 052974 


93.125 


72 


3129 


24O0 








-503652 


O3270S 


4 7.344SS 


-0.23439 


4.762805 


4.703369 


5.0.81614 


32.57 


73 


3129 


21 O0 


0.6096 





2563063 


8.S6SS38 


47 34154 


lO 37966 


4.707636 


4.669536 


S.O3S906 


32.677 


74 


3129 


2200 


0.2032 


20018.93 


-1.69469 


0.465734 


•46.74413 


1.63066 


4.674108 


S.1S2S1S 


S- 0-44745 


92.774 



HOURLY DATA (SR-37, Lawrence County) 



408 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY 



TIME RAIN HEAD1 HEA02 KEAD4 TENSION TENSION TENSION TEMP 

inner center subgrade center outer subgrade subbase 

[cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [en] deg. *F 



1 


3747 


1300 


0.127 











1.863852 


1.8492216 


1.915668 





2 


3747 


1400 


0.2286 











1.8492216 


1.8342864 


1.915668 





3 


3747 


1500 








2.980944 


S.83692 


1.9860768 


1.8934176 


1.9488912 





4 


3747 


1600 





-0.283769 


7.8065376 


11250142 


6.8918328 


7.0506336 


6267272 


80.909 


5 


3747 


1700 


0.0762 


•0.612953 


8.1323688 


11226063 


6.9055488 


7.0878192 


6.4218312 


81.407 


6 


3747 


1800 





-0.824789 


8.3884008 


11272393 


6.9287136 


7.1253096 


6.4581024 


81.478 


7 


3747 


1900 





-1.083869 


8.5048344 


11295558 


6.9424296 


7.1484744 


6.4806576 


81232 


8 


3747 


2000 





-1.295705 


8.5746336 


11295253 


6.9610224 


7.16249S2 


6.5126616 


81.578 


9 


3747 


2100 





-1 .554785 


8.2716624 


11.442192 


6.9564504 


7.171944 


6.5495424 


81299 


10 


3747 


2200 





-1.766621 


82253328 


11.46S966 


6.966204 


7.1722488 


6.5681352 


81.532 


11 


3747 


2300 





-2.167433 


8.1558384 


11.512906 


6.9756528 


7.1725536 


6.595872 


81.46 


12 


3747 


2400 





-2.450287 


82030824 


11.536985 


6.97S9S76 


7.1774304 


6.600444 


81296 


13 


3747 


100 





-1.744066 


8.0168496 


11.584229 


6.9805296 


7.1728584 


6.6190368 


81.1 SI 


14 


3747 


200 





-1.744066 


7.99338 


11.583924 


6.9759S76 


7.1634096 


6.6144648 


80.9S5 


IS 


3747 


300 





-1.744066 


7.9702152 


11.607394 


6.9765672 


7.1S4S704 


6.6196464 


80.81 


16 


3747 


400 





-1.767535 


7.8537816 


11.6S4333 


6.9948552 


7.1402448 


6.6239136 


80244 


17 


3747 


500 





-1.79131 


7.7370432 


11.700967 


6.9762624 


7.1S426S6 


6.6284856 


80.354 


18 


3747 


600 





-1.79131 


7.6907136 


11.724437 


6.9811392 


7.1311008 


6.6287904 


80.12 


19 


3747 


700 





-1.814779 


7.5739752 


11.724437 


6.9671184 


7.1265288 


6.651 9SS2 


79.853 


20 


3747 


800 





-1.838249 


7.4106024 


11.724132 


6.9625464 


7.11708 


6.6101976 


79.649 


21 


3747 


900 





-2.851099 


6.6412872 


11.794236 


6.9527928 


7.1118984 


6.6193416 


79.448 


22 


3747 


1000 





-1.884883 


6.990588 


11.746687 


6.9384672 


7.097S72S 


6.586728 


79.344 


23 


3747 


1100 





-1.860194 


6.9424296 


11.791493 


6.9195696 


7.0878192 


6.5864232 


79.346 


24 


3747 


1200 





-1.882445 


6.9643752 


11.766194 


6.9012816 


7.069S312 


6.573012 


79.688 


25 


3747 


1300 





-1.92786 


6.8927472 


11.810086 


6.864096 


7.027164 


6.559296 


80.301 


26 


3747 


1400 





-1.950415 


7.0082664 


11.855196 


6.8311776 


6.9802248 


6.5403984 


81.174 


27 


3747 


1500 





-1.97358 


7.1240904 


11.831117 


6.8080128 


6.9290184 


6.5315592 


82.318 


28 


3747 


1600 





-1.878787 


7.6818744 


11.830202 


6.7385184 


6.905S488 


6.5266824 


83.68 


S9 


3747 


2400 


0.0254 


7.7196696 


33.384744 


12233453 


6.3172848 


6.3447168 


6.3310008 


88.148 


60 


3747 


100 


0.02S4 


23.326039 


32.385 


13.004597 


6.1990224 


62624208 


62715648 


87.907 


61 


3747 


200 





23208082 


32.128968 


13.54135 


6.1536072 


6.27126 


62349888 


87239 


62 


3747 


300 





24.622354 


32.595312 


13278586 


6.144768 


6.298692 


62170056 


87.12 


63 


3747 


400 


0.0508 


24.43SS11 


32.482536 


14289938 


6.144768 


62303912 


6.1990224 


86.491 


64 


3747 


500 





23.896015 


31.879032 


13.566648 


6.1490352 


6.3575184 


6.1853064 


86.038 


65 


3747 


600 





23.473562 


31.366968 


12.492838 


6.158484 


6.3898272 


6.1718952 


85.599 


66 


3747 


700 





23.096525 


30.644592 


12189257 


6.1673232 


6.4306704 


6.1S81792 


8S.14S 


67 


3747 


800 





22.884994 


29.689958 


12.002414 


6.1761624 


6.4715136 


6.1536072 


84.81 


68 


3747 


900 





25239878 


32.650176 


12.189257 


6.1853064 


6.5218056 


6.1444632 


84.422 


69 


3747 


1000 





23.921009 


31.601664 


12.30599S 


6.1990224 


6.5724024 


6.1359288 


84.112 


70 


3747 


1100 





24.48306 


32.366712 


12.165178 


62307216 


6.6138552 


6.1313568 


83.935 


71 


3747 


1200 





23.680826 


31.781496 


14.59291 


62127384 


6.6601848 


6.1405008 


83.655 


72 


3747 


1300 





23.936858 


31.473648 


14.428318 


62218824 


6.6879216 


6.1228224 


83.668 


73 


3747 


1400 





23.135539 


30.448301 


14211274 


62313312 


6.7113912 


6.1408056 


83.812 


74 


3747 


1500 





22.901758 


29.378453 


14.358518 


62307216 


6.7385184 


6.1313568 


84.067 


75 


3747 


1600 





22274402 


28.169616 


14.779752 


6.2352936 


6.7616832 


6.153912 


84.115 


76 


3747 


1700 





22.38817 


27.379879 


15.107412 


6.2349888 


6.7845432 


6.1267848 


84.137 


77 


3747 


1800 





22.154998 


26.450239 


15.038527 


62352936 


6.793992 


6.1359288 


84.059 


78 


3747 


1900 





21.897746 


25.403251 


14.82913 


62441328 


6.8171568 


6.1267848 


84.009 


79 


3747 


2000 





21.662746 


24.424843 


14261871 


62490096 


6.8406264 


6.1270896 


83.912 


80 


3747 


2100 





21.474379 


23.608894 


13.637971 


6.2487048 


6.8S43424 


6.1313568 


83.711 


81 


3747 


2200 





21.192744 


22.631095 


12167006 


62855856 


6.868668 


6.1228224 


83.488 


82 


3747 


2300 





20.936407 


21.747785 


11.396777 


6.2672976 


6.9153024 


6.1136784 


83.183 


83 


3747 


2400 





20.72579 


20.88642 


10.S32669 


6.2767464 


6.9247S12 


6.1228224 


82.885 


84 


3747 


100 





20.51365 


20.117105 


9.73836 


62816232 


6.9530976 


6.1231272 


82.508 


8S 


3747 


200 





20.750479 


19.801682 


9294876 


6.2950344 


6.986016 


6.1054486 


82.116 


86 


3747 


300 





20.045172 


18.603773 


8.6173056 


6.3087504 


7.0235064 


6.11886 


81.649 



HOURLY DATA (US-41, Sullivan County) 



409 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNT 


TIME 


RAIN 


FLOW 


HEAD2 


HEAD3 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TEMP. 












center 


outer 


center 


outer 


subgrade 


subbaae 








[cm] 


[cm3J 


lea.] 


(cm] 


[cn.1 


[cm] 


[cm] 


deg. F 


1 


4177 


1400 








0.893064 


4.11541 


6.S37237 


8.100697 


5.S89295 


93.183 


2 


4177 


1500 








0.868985 


4.112362 


6.474459 


8.0433 


S.S722S6 


101J3 


3 


4177 


16O0 








0.84S21 


4.109923 


6.425433 


7.981718 


5372555 


105.01 


4 


4177 


1700 








a 821 741 


4.109009 


6.38S37S 


7.929404 


S.S728S4 


104.15 


5 


4177 


1800 








0.891 235 


4.085844 


6.344719 


7.87679 


5.60783 


97.045 


6 


4177 


1900 








a 86 1303 


4.018483 


6.344121 


7.856761 


5.62457 


90.095 


7 


4177 


2000 








0.938784 


3.973678 


6.3345SS 


7.846896 


S-6284S7 


84.049 


S 


4177 


2100 





924.4047 


0.939698 


3.837432 


6.374912 


7.86S43 


5.623973 


80-44 


9 


4177 


2200 








0.917143 


3.816401 


6.365944 


7.870512 


S.6194S8 


86.572 


10 


4177 


2300 








0.940918 


36SS162 


6.388663 


7.894428 


S. 628457 


39 991 


11 


4177 


2400 








a 94 1222 


3.376574 


6424237 


7.922528 


S. 641311 


39.402 


12 


4177 


100 








0.941632 


3122066 


6.43739 


7.946144 


S. 632343 


3a 991 


13 


4177 


200 








0.918972 


2.959913 


6.486716 


7.988893 


S. 64 9383 


3a 595 


14 


4177 


300 








O 895807 


2.657246 


6.486417 


8.012509 


5.671205 


38^27 


15 


4177 


400 








0.918277 


2.098243 


6.509136 


8.051073 


S.679S76 


37^84 


16 


4177 


SOO 








a 342442 


1315466 


6.553977 


8.09412 


S. 69721 3 


37.487 


17 


4177 


600 








0.919277 


a 839724 


6.594932 


8.137466 


5.723221 


37^24 


18 


4177 


700 








0.919277 


0.140513 


6.635887 


8.190678 


5.749528 


36.927 


19 


4177 


800 








0.919277 


-0. 90661 


6.640371 


8.219675 


5.684359 


36.615 


20 


4177 


900 








0.919277 


1.562405 


6.662792 


8.243889 


5.732189 


36.301 


21 


4177 


1000 








0-896112 


1.492606 


6.676S43 


8.253022 


5.736374 


36.119 


22 


4177 


1100 








0.849478 


1.491996 


6.658308 


8.268104 


S. 701 697 


48.937 


23 


4177 


1200 








0.91 77S3 


1.535582 


6.668472 


8.288432 


5.71 S448 


7S.S31 


24 


4177 


1300 








0-824179 


1.463345 


6.6323 


1260331 


S. 676586 


75231 


25 


4177 


1400 








0.823265 


1.41 4S77 


6.S8716 


8.211604 


5.658949 


£2.363 


26 


4177 


1SO0 








0.84582 


1.436218 


6.528866 


8.149424 


5.62457 


85116 


27 


4177 


16O0 








0.86868 


1.435913 


6.479242 


a 086 945 


5.615901 


85.413 


28 


4177 


1700 








0.984504 


1.574902 


6.438586 


8.038816 


5.615901 


84.368 


29 


4177 


1800 








0.984504 


1.505712 


6.416166 


7.990985 


5611716 


80.836 


30 


4177 


1900 








0.915314 


1.506322 


6.406898 


7.966472 


S. 632941 


77.612 


31 


4177 


2O00 








0.985723 


1.50815 


6.397332 


7.956607 


S. 64161 


74.932 


32 


4177 


1900 


0.02S4 





0.939394 


1.S07846 


6.442771 


7.92342S 


S. 598264 


6S.296 


33 


4177 


2000 








0.939394 


1.508455 


6.415867 


7.903994 


S.S8511 


64.725 


34 


4177 


2100 








0.939693 


1.SSS394 


6.392848 


7.903695 


5.588996 


63.915 


35 


4177 


2200 








0.91 6S34 


1.53223 


6.379396 


7.903695 


5.59378 


63.278 


36 


4177 


2300 








0.91 6S34 


1.S32S34 


6.374912 


7.898912 


S.S93481 


62.885 


37 


4177 


2400 








0.916534 


1.4859 


6.379396 


7.908478 


S.S97666 


62.534 


38 


4177 


100 








a 9396 96 


1.S0937 


6.379097 


7.917745 


S. 632343 


62.074 


39 


4177 


200 








0.893369 


1.486205 


6.384179 


7.92761 


S_ 628457 


61.705 


40 


4177 


300 








0.91 6534 


1.50937 


6.388663 


7.927909 


5.628457 


61.435 


41 


4177 


400 








0.916838 


1.S09979 


6.368663 


7.932692 


5.624271 


61.1 


42 


4177 


500 








0.893674 


1.486S1 


6.397332 


7.941959 


5.623973 


60.645 


1 


4177 


600 








0.940308 


1.S33754 


6.406301 


7.951525 


S. 628457 


60.481 


2 


4177 


700 








0.893674 


1.510284 


6.411084 


7.966472 


5.628756 


60.064 


3 


4177 


800 








0.94030S 


1.S337S4 


6.4203S1 


7.976038 


5.624271 


59.991 


4 


4177 


900 








0.S93978 


1310589 


6.433803 


7.985903 


5.628756 


59.753 


5 


4177 


1000 








0.917143 


1.510894 


6.442173 


7.999356 


S. 628457 


59.525 


6 


4177 


1100 








0.893978 


1.510894 


6.447255 


&009S2 


5.628457 


59.468 


7 


4177 


300 


0.2794 


45259.49 


5.949391 


12.5669 


6.447255 


8.00952 


5.624271 


S9.57S 


8 


4177 


400 


0.1778 


306643.4 


5.184038 


10.98347 


6.4SS92S 


a 01 4004 


5.628457 


59.702 


9 


4177 


SOO 


0.1016 


311276.8 


4.S1134S 


1037783 


6.46O409 


8.018787 


5-632642 


S9.737 


10 


4177 


600 


0.0254 


385161.1 


3.9084S 


10-35556 


6.456224 


8.01 4O04 


5.632941 


59.7S5 


11 


4177 


700 


0.0762 


413801.7 


4.326026 


10.4714 


6.455625 


8.009221 


5.632642 


59.771 


12 


4177 


800 





318658.4 


3.81 S486 


10.07S47 


6460409 


8.008922 


5.64S79S 


59.701 


13 


4177 


900 


0.0508 


55418.86 


4.48818 


10.12241 


6.456224 


7.99965S 


5.637425 


59.37 


14 


4177 


1000 


a 0506 


174569.4 


4.882591 


10.75121 


6.438287 


7.71 83S2 


S.641909 


56.014 


15 


4177 


1100 


0.127 


460907.7 


4.697273 


10.54181 


6.433504 


7.718053 


S.59378 


55.891 


16 


4177 


1200 


0.1778 


325131.5 


5.091074 


10.63417 


6.406599 


7.69951 8 


5.567772 


5S.747 


17 


4177 


1300 


0.0254 


333473.9 


4.255618 


10.07394 


6.424S36 


7.703703 


5.567772 


SS.4S1 


18 


4177 


1400 





105295.8 


3.9S3866 


9.956902 


6.446956 


7.72732 


5.576441 


SS.167 


19 


4177 ' 


1SO0 


0.0254 





3.907231 


10.14283 


6.437988 


7.727619 


S.S719S7 


S4.873 


20 


4177 


1600 


0.0762 


187499.7 


4.9S0S62 


10.84052 


6.451441 


7.732402 


5.567473 


54.611 


21 


4177 


1700 


0.1778 


274323.4 


6.828739 


11.21237 


6.442472 


7.727619 


S.SS8603 


S4.348 


22 


4177 


1800 


0.1778 


280796.5 


4.64881 


10.39764 


6.4604O9 


7.746751 


5.558803 


54.19 


23 


4177 


1900 


0.127 


297422.1 


4.672279 


10.491S2 


6.465192 


7.746751 


S.SS0433 


54.203 


24 


4177 


2O00 


0.0508 


299261.8 


4.347667 


10.537SS 


6.465192 


7.737484 


S.S41764 


54.238 


25 


4177 


2100 


0.127 


328811 


4.718914 


10.63112 


6.460708 


7.727918 


S.S28909 


54313 


26 


4177 


2200 





344528.1 


3.930396 


10.00293 


6.4S203S 


7.713867 


5.533393 


54.232 


27 


4177 


2300 


0.0254 


87745.77 


1907231 


10.09589 


6.429319 


7.709084 


S.S33393 


S4.196 


28 


4177 


100 





61865.15 


3.420466 


9.886798 


6.438287 


7.709084 


S.S2024 


54.177 


29 


4177 


200 


0.0254 


50801 .38 


348996 


9.979762 


6.4382S7 


7.699817 


S.S2442S 


54-052 


30 


4177 


300 





47106.03 


3.211678 


9.816996 


6.438287 


7.69951 8 


5.52024 


S3. 656 


31 


4177 


400 





35097.85 


2.9S6S6 


9770669 


6.442771 


7.695034 


S. 52024 


S3- 342 


32 


4177 


500 





26785.02 


2771242 


9.7O0S7 


6.442771 


7.694735 


S.S160SS 


53.065 


33 


4177 


600 





24014.08 


2.748077 


9.607601 


6.46997S 


7.695034 


S. 524425 


S3. 66 



410 



HOURLY DATA (US-41, 


Sullivar 


34 


4177 


700 


35 


4177 


800 


36 


4177 


900 


37 


4177 


1000 


38 


4177 


1100 


39 


4177 


1200 


40 


4177 


1300 


41 


4177 


1400 


42 


4177 


1500 


43 


4177 


1600 


44 


4177 


1700 


45 


4177 


1800 


46 


4177 


1900 


47 


4177 


2000 


48 


4177 


2100 


49 


4177 


2200 


SO 


4177 


2300 



12930-31 
4617.481 
SS41.886 
7388.424 
7388.424 
6466291 
6466291 
4617.481 
5541.886 
6466291 
5541.886 
7388.424 



2.608783 9.S61271 

244663 9.491777 

2.37683 9.491 1 67 

2.121713 9.374734 

2,005889 9.281465 

1.820266 9.211666 



6.460708 7.690251 5.52024 52.632 



1.773631 9211056 

1.680667 9.093708 

1.37922 8.55787 

1.680667 893003 

1.610868 8.859622 

1.40208 8.836152 

7388.424 1.147267 1720633 

5541.886 0.776326 8.464601 

6466.291 0.776326 8.674608 

4617.481 0.452018 8.582863 

SS41.886 0.011582 8.560003 



HOURLY DATA (US-30, Lapodc County) 



411 



TOT.HRS 


RTEVCNTY 


TIME 


RAIN 


FLOW 


HEAD1 


HEA02 


HEA03 


HEA04 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TEMP 












innef 


center 


o«/tef 


•ubgrttde 


oenler 


---,•-- 


«.*.ci«e 








(CO,) 


[cm3] 


[cm] 


[emj 


[cm] 


(cm) 


(em| 


(«.] 


4-B.T 


1 


304« 


2200 


0.1016 





2.351227 


1.184758 


2.693822 


1.442923 


5192601 


5398571 


rua 


2 


3046 


2300 


0.254 





4.970983 


8.238744 


4.559808 


1.46365 


5195784 


5377845 


71.293 


3 


3046 


2400 


0.2032 





&228076 


10.14374 


8.123834 


1.416101 


517584 


S. 368976 


71.162 


4 


3046 


100 


0.1778 


10606.81 


11.15629 


9.040673 


3.381754 


1.414272 


5183932 


53S6122 


7a*»6 


S 


3046 


200 


0.0254 


22097.13 


8.749284 


1.938833 


1.611782 


1 .390498 


5196487 


53S1936 


70826 


e 


3046 


300 





13257.37 


6719316 


0.S98627 


0313639 


1.319784 


5209043 


5343566 


71691 


7 


3046 


400 





4418.881 


50673 


0410566 


1.140257 


1.31887 


5209043 


5343S66 


70.47 


8 


3046 


500 





2650.566 


3.793236 


0.269748 


1.141171 


1.340815 


5217114 


5339082 


70.292 


9 


3046 


600 





1767.044 


2447544 


0.505054 


1.283208 


1.34051 


5 779969 


5339082 


7U 093 


10 


3046 


700 





883.522 


1.432255 


0.034747 


1.118O06 


1.246327 


5 2-18339 


5334897 


69lI87 


11 


3046 


800 





883.522 


•O.0S517 


0.011278 


1.18872 


1.316431 


523804 


5326526 


ae.713 


12 


3046 


900 





883.522 


1.573987 


-0.31821 


1.18872 


1.269492 


52S0894 


5322042 


69-451 


13 


3046 


1000 








1.550213 


-0.41239 


1.118006 


1.222356 


525508 


5318156 


69,274 


14 


3046 


1100 





883.522 


1.S26438 


-0.55352 


1.093622 


1.294181 


5^259265 


5313971 


69.1 


15 


3046 


1200 








1.502664 


-0.62454 


1.092708 


1-22621 


5251193 


S.309786 


68.928 


16 


3046 


1300 








1.478585 


-0.64831 


1.067105 


1.370076 


5251193 


5.297529 


68-851 


17 


3046 


1400 








1.477975 


0.126797 


1.088441 


1.256995 


5251492 


5293344 


68.796 


18 


3046 


1500 








1.477366 


0.783336 


1.132942 


1.309116 


5242823 


528886 


68.796 


1B 


3046 


1600 








1.524305 


0665378 


1.107948 


1.28839 


5238937 


5284974 


6S.942 


20 


3046 


1700 








1.S4747 


0.429768 


1.412748 


1.267968 


5.23056* 


5310384 


69.092 


21 


3046 


1S00 








1.524 


-0.06309 


1.059485 


1 .360932 


S^SSOSI 


5314S69 


69-331 


22 


3046 


1900 








1.547774 


•0.22708 


T.061009 


1.358494 


5351492 


5322939 


69.611 


23 


3046 


2000 








1.S4S3S4 


-0.41422 


1.133S51 


1.143914 


S3S1492 


532264 


69-803 


24 


3046 


2100 








1.619707 


-0.55474 


1.136294 


1.466698 


S-272119 


5.33131 


69.985 


25 


3046 


2200 








1.620317 


-0.67178 


1.161593 


1.46365 


S-272119 


5.327124 


7ai14 


26 


3046 


2300 








1.620622 


-0.76S66 


1.139342 


1.274064 


5-276304 


5.327124 


70182 


27 


3046 


2400 


0.3302 





8.790528 


123572 


8.976665 


1.SS448 


526345 


5297S29 


7ai72 


28 


3046 


100 


0.1778 


12373.85 


8.985809 


&S47811 


2^0218 


1.319479 


SJ46709 


528467S 


69.838 


29 


3046 


200 


0.2S4 


20330.09 


13.68491 


14.73S2S 


4.422343 


1.458773 


5.267934 


528049 


6S.SC2 


30 


3046 


300 


0.6*58 


43310.75 


28.58414 


30.7787 


6.477305 


1.575S11 


528049 


S.276O05 


69.383 


31 


3046 


4O0 


1.1938 


S74S3.91 


30.1432 


30.7086 


8956 54S 


2.27899 


5284675 


SJ634S 


68.917 


32 


3046 


SOO 


0.1778 


68060.72 


28.3022 


24.8061 S 


3.172054 


1.739189 


5292447 


52631 SI 


68-532 


33 


3046 


600 


0.0762 


54801.07 


24.80767 


18.87779 


1.330452 


2.138172 


5309487 


52631 SI 


68.418 


34 


3046 


700 


0.02S4 


42427.22 


20.74682 


14.62004 


0.055474 


1.809598 


5322341 


5.2S926S 


68-34 


35 


3046 


800 





26517.02 


1574109 


9.421063 


1.070762 


1.269492 


5.34 77S! 


526345 


68-249 


36 


3046 


900 





15026.69 


1Z0S7S8 


5116068 


1.118006 


1.292962 


5.360008 


5258966 


68.149 


37 


3046 


1000 





14143.17 


9.389364 


2246071 


1.070762 


1.434084 


5377047 


5.258966 


68.044 


38 


3046 


1.100 


0.02S4 


9723.284 


7.429195 


2081 174 


1.070458 


1.317041 


5385418 


52SS08 


67.944 


39 


3046 


1200 


0.3302 


12373.85 


27.68468 


29.8832 


503621 


1.787347 


5402457 


525S08 


67.694 


40 


3046 


1300 





29167.S8 


19.467S8 


20.02597 


1.069543 


1.S7703S 


541S013 


5251193 


67.389 


41 


3046 


14O0 





18560.78 


14.50939 


1273424 


1.258214 


1.671218 


5427867 


5251193 


67.352 


42 


3046 


15O0 


0.0254 


14143.17 


11.15751 


8171688 


1.093013 


1.413053 


5440722 


5246709 


67.309 


43 


3046 


1600 


0.0762 


12373.85 


1644487 


11.08771 


2.485644 


1.S77645 


5461947 


5251193 


67.251 


44 


3046 


1700 





15026.69 


1Z76198 


7.418527 


1.068934 


1.S779S 


5465833 


5251133 


67.232 


45 


3046 


1800 





9723.284 


9.479585 


3.49026S 


1.068324 


1.438656 


5487656 


5247008 


67.182 


46 


3046 


1900 





3536.359 


6.552286 


1.984858 


1.06741 


1.43987S 


5S08S8 


5247008 


67.1S7 


47 


3046 


20O0 


0.0762 


3536.359 


4.050792 


1.514551 


1.043635 


1.440485 


550SSS1 


5246709 


67.133 


48 


3046 


2100 


0.762 


7070.447 


3a 0292 


30.68726 


12.84092 


1.1S9764 


5546846 


5251193 


67.023 


49 


3046 


22O0 


0.9652 


32703.94 


29.6988 


30.24165 


5620S17 


2.61366 


5529806 


5242524 


66-941 


SO 


3046 


2300 


0.762 


S3917.S5 


30.03164 


30.62021 


5244084 


2.94132 


55471 4S 


5242823 


66.871 


SI 


3046 


24O0 


1.27 


72 480.6 


29.96154 


30.50438 


6.4008 


3.808781 


5S4714S 


5243122 


66.796 


S2 


3046 


100 


0.2794 


83S70.93 


29.65856 


29 37937 


3.994709 


3.596945 


5542661 


5.242823 


66.725 


S3 


3046 


200 


0.2O32 


80434.57 


29.84937 


26.44201 


5.316931 


2.892552 


5.547145 


5247008 


66.61 


S4 


3046 


300 


0.0254 


71594.81 


27.20706 


1842394 


1.72974 


2.1177S 


5551031 


523S339 


66.599 


SS 


3046 


400 





54801.07 


21.66092 


1247485 


0.99S22 


1.812646 


5551031 


S. 242524 


66-S62 


56 


3046 


500 





38890.87 


17.39219 


7.655966 


a999439 


1.481938 


5563SS5 


5246709 


66-5S1 


S7 


3045 


600 





20330.09 


13.04971 


1186989 


1.000049 


1.691945 


5576441 


52SOS94 


66.S3S 


58 


3046 


700 





13257.37 


8683142 


201168 


1977494 


1.689811 


5S88996 


S.2SSOS 


66JC3 


58 


3046 


800 





7953.969 


4.7402S 


1.636166 


0.979018 


1.358494 


5622777 


5.2S47S1 


66.414 


60 


3046 


900 





3536.359 


2.37805 


1.236269 


1979627 


1.146048 


5631147 


5262852 


66^31 


61 


3046 


1000 





2650.566 


4X36241 


0977494 


0.979932 


1.02809 


5648 157 


S. 258687 


66.096 


62 


3046 


1100 





2650566 


1.433474 


0.860146 


0957072 


1.049731 


56S6S56 


5262SS2 


65S3S 


63 


3046 


1200 





1767.044 


1.433474 


0.64S31 


0.981151 


1.190244 


5673896 


525S667 


65732 


64 


3046 


1300 





1767.044 


1.456944 


0.506882 


1.O04011 


1.238707 


5665226 


52544S2 


65555 


65 


3046 


1400 





883.522 


1.43317 


0.247802 


a9323S3 


1.239622 


56S675 


5246111 


65«- 



HOURLY DATA (USJ1, SL Joseph County) 



412 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


TIME 


RAIN 


FLOW 


HEA01 


HEA02 


HEAD3 


HEA04 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TEMP 












inner 


center 


outer 


Mjbgrade 


center 


outer 


■abgrade 


■Mbbwc 








t«i] 


[cm3] 


. [«n] 


(cm) 


[cm) 


[cm) 


[cm] 


[cm] 


[cm] 


deo-T 


1 


3171 


100 








4.611734 


0.9183624 


0.7522464 


3.3881 S68 


3.3881568 


5.7817512 


53391816 


H0-S94 


2 


3171 


200 








-0. 635203 


0.9424416 


0.7531608 


3.0117288 


30117288 


S.7817S12 


53434488 


80.SS7 


3 


3171 


300 








-0.611429 


0.8958072 


0.7537704 


265938 


265936 


57991248 


53S655S2 


80.451 


4 


3171 


400 








-0.611429 


0.9192768 


0.7540752 


2.0961096 


2.0961096 


57948576 


S-3S19832 . 


•0312 


S 


3171 


soo 








-0.63S203 


0.9427464 


0.7S407S2 


1.5099792 


1.S099792 


5.8164384 


5156SSS2 


Sai72 


6 


3171 


600 








-a 587959 


0.9192768 


0.7306056 


0.618744 


0.6 18744 


5.8122312 


SJ6S0896 


79.988 


7 


3171 


700 








-0.587959 


0.9192768 


0.7S37704 


-0.06035 


-0.06035 


58293 


53733192 


79-802 


8 


3171 


800 








-0.611429 


0.9427464 


0.7303008 


-0.741274 


-0.741274 


585S208 


S 3X3504 


79.645 


9 


3171 


900 








-0.611429 


0.9195816 


0.707136 


-1.586179 


-1.S86179 


5.8463688 


5385816 


79.505 


10 


3171 


1000 


0.1524 





1.2057888 


2.6831 544 


6.4187832 


25402032 


7.5402032 


58207656 


53605176 


77.583 


11 


3171 


1100 


0.1778 


3420.5246 


-0.705612 


0.8726424 


0.0469392 


19.426428 


19.426428 


5.876544 


536448 


73.971 


12 


3171 


1200 





853.99553 


-0.587654 


0.943356 


07552944 


17.597628 


17.597628 


58896504 


5-3943504 


7&2S8 


13 


3171 


1300 


0.4318 


6841.0493 


6.8448936 


9.S2408S6 


9.2022168 


31.738824 


31.738824 


59670696 


"i3Wf7504 


68.492 


14 


3171 


1400 


0.8382 


17956.619 


57122568 


8.6S41S64 


8.6355936 


35.210496 


35.210496 


6.0935616 


53733192 


69-526 


IS 


3171 


1500 


0.2032 


26507.93 


0.9695688 


3.6466272 


56153304 


29.768597 


29.768597 


6-2069472 


54748176 


6S.996 


16 


3171 


1600 


0.1S24 


17956.619 


1.0162032 


3.857244 


59204352 


29.718305 


29.718305 


6-2246256 


55513224 


69-595 


17 


3171 


1700 


0.127 


17956.619 


-1.53162 


0.S663184 


4.2446448 


28.427172 


28.427172 


6-2288928 


5*150256 


70-522 


IS 


3171 


1800 





11115. 569 


-0.635203 


0.89SS024 


-2.478634 


25.637033 


25.637033 


6.1850016 


5.6704992 


7iS22 


19 


3171 


1900 





3420.5246 


-0.658978 


0.8951976 


0.6821424 


24.182832 


24.182832 


6.1673232 


5.7174384 


73-236 


20 


3171 


2000 





2564.2578 


-0.658978 


0.9186672 


a 6348964 


23.268432 


23.268432 


6.156484 


5756148 


73.71 


21 


3171 


2100 





853.99553 


-0.658673 


0.8955024 


0.6586728 


22.424746 


22.424746 


6.158484 


5.7860184 


74.034 


22 


3171 


2200 





853.99553 


-0.S87959 


0.9427464 


a7068312 


21.887383 


21.887383 


6.1587888 


58076592 


74.194 


23 


3171 


2300 





853.99553 


-0.634898 


0.943356 


0.6605016 


21.32S942 


21.325942 


61542168 


5824728 


74.3 


24 


3171 


2400 








-0.S87654 


0.96682S6 


a 66397 12 


20.974202 


20.974202 


6.1627S12 


5*463688 


74J323 


25 


3171 


100 








-0.S87654 


0.8964168 


a 6608064 


20.48256 


20.48256 


6.158484 


5*591704 


74.381 


26 


3171 


200 








-0.S87654 


0.9436608 


0.7083552 


20.107656 


20.107656 


6.1627512 


58677048 


74.35 


27 


3171 


300 





853.99553 


-O- 634594 


0.920496 


0.6623304 


19.78121S 


19.78121S 


6.171 5904 


58808112 


74JJ04 


28 


3171 


400 








-0.611124 


0.8973312 


0.6388608 


19.4O6006 


19.406006 


6.171 S904 


SJS36128 


74-288 


29 


3171 


SOO 








-0.611124 


0.9208008 


0.6623304 


19.007023 


19.007023 


61715904 


5.9021472 


74.179 


30 


3171 


600 





853.99553 


-0.634S94 


0.8973312 


0.6864096 


18.655894 


18.655894 


6.1801248 


59152536 


74.127 


31 


3171 


700 








-0.610819 


0.921 1056 


0.710184 


18.327624 


18.327624 


6.1801248 


5923788 


74.083 


32 


3171 


800 








-0.634594 


0.897636 


0.7104 8S8 


18.070068 


18.070068 


6.184392 


SJE77S04 


73.99 


33 


3171 


900 








-0.610819 


0.9211056 


0.66294 


17.717719 


17.717719 


6.1801248 


5S323224 


7X835 


34 


3171 


1000 








-0.634898 


0.8967216 


0.5910072 


17.45803 


17.45803 


6.188964 


5.9368944 


73.802 


35 


3171 


1100 








-0.6S8978 


0.8951976 


0.6821424 


17.196206 


17.196206 


6.1761624 


5-9326272 


73.717 


36 


3171 


1200 








-0.635813 


0.8939784 


0.679704 


16.935296 


16.935298 


6.1761624 


592836 


73.671 


37 


3171 


1300 








-0.6S9S87 


0.8924544 


0.6S28S16 


16.838066 


16.838066 


6.1725048 


59332368 


73.714 


38 


3171 


1400 








4.73091 


0.9147048 


0.67391 28 


16.788384 


16788384 


6.1770768 


5.9292744 


73.834 


39 


3171 


1SO0 








-0.73121S 


0.8668S12 


0.67 17792 


16.669207 


16.669207 


6.1728096 


59292744 


74.103 


40 


3171 


1600 








-0.707746 


0.866S464 


0.6711696 


16.434511 


16434511 


6.1642752 


5925312 


74.4 


41 


3171 


1700 








-0.707746 


0.9131808 


0.6946392 


16.411042 


16411042 


6.1688472 


5.9210448 


74-776 



HOURLY DATA (SR-9, Noble County) 



413 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY 



TIME 



RAIN 



[cm] 



FLOW 



[cm3] 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 



957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 
957 



100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

1300 

1400 

1500 

1600 

1700 

1800 

1900 

2000 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 





1.4986 

2.2352 

0.5334 

0.6604 

0.2032 

0.0254 

0.0254 



































0.4826 

0.4064 

0.1778 

0.1524 





76609.76 
13039.33 
13039.33 
15485.48 
91279.86 
171151.2 
230646.9 
290131.4 
342302.3 
369194.1 
379800.9 
383866.4 
381413.5 
376530.3 

371647 
362675.5 
354521.7 

340667 
329265.2 
317840.8 
305621 .4 
294219.6 
284430.5 
272211.1 
277094.3 
291766.7 
286065.8 



HEAD2 

center 

[cm] 

1 5.28938 
28.05806 
26.08417 
27.69078 
27.59903 
22.47748 
23.00508 
22.38573 
21.53534 
21.30461 
21 .25492 
21.02175 
20.81083 
20.68921 

20.6374 
20.54413 
20.51944 
20.33534 
20.06102 
1 9.83242 
1 9.53524 
19.28348 
19.00916 
1 8.80281 
18.71381 
23.14011 
27.54935 
21 .49693 
22.69571 



HEAD3 TENSION TENSION TENSION TEMP 

outer center outer •ubgrade »ubbe*e 

[cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] oefl. F 



7.155435 
15.17386 
13.28501 
14.7825 
14.3445 
12.93906 
13.12316 
1 2.68578 
12.22461 
1 1 .80948 
11.62355 
1 1 .48395 
1 1 .29802 
11.22609 
11.15477 
1 1 .0621 1 
10.87709 
1 0.69299 
10.5092 
10.41745 
10.14161 
9.888626 
9.681972 
9.405823 
9.176614 
13.64132 
15.30035 
12.42517 
1 3.74008 



6.220054 
6.251448 
6.269431 
6.305093 
6.341059 
6.372454 

6.40842 
6.440119 

6.46237 
6.480353 
6.498336 
6.498641 
6.471514 
6.444691 
6.422441 
6.381 902 
6.364224 
6.341669 
6.328258 
6.332525 
6.346241 

6.37733 
6.386474 
6.395314 

6.40019 
6.4221 36 
6.453835 
6.480658 

6.50748 



4.738421 
4.746955 
4.751222 
4.767986 

4.78475 

4.79228 
4.805782 
4.814011 
4.818278 
4.826508 
4.822546 
4.818278 
4.814011 
4.793285 
4.772558 
4.743298 
4.718304 
4.71 4037 
4.705807 

4.70977 
4.717999 
4.738726 
4.742993 
4.742993 

4.73903 
4.751 527 
4.764024 
4.776216 
4.78901 8 



4.843272 

4.843272 

4.843272 

4.847539 

4.843272 

4.851806 

4.864608 

4.864603 

4.877105 

4.885334 

4.889602 

4.893869 

4.902403 

4.898441 

4.898441 

4.889906 

4.894478 

4.898441 

4.894478 

4.894174 

4.894174 

4.8981 36 

4.889906 

4.885639 

4.881677 

4.889906 

4.898441 

4.898136 

4.893869 



72.093 
71.692 
71.283 

70.75 
70.234 
69.772 
69.332 
6837S 
68.678 
68.456 
68.255 
68.287 
68.485 
68.897 
69327 
70.165 

70.81 
71364 
71.654 
71.674 
71381 
71371 
71.234 
71.029 
70.809 
70.661 
70.426 
70.088 
69.635 



HOURLY DATA (SR-43, Tippecanoe County) 



414 



TOT.HRS 


RTE/CNTY 


TIME 


RAIN 


HEAOI 


HEAD2 


HEAD3 


HEAD4 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TENSION 


TEMP. 










inner 


center 


outer 


subgrade 


center 


outer 


subgrade 


subbase 








[cm] 


[cm] 


Icm] 


[cm] 


[cm] 


[cm] 


[cm] 


[cm] 


deg.T 


1 


4379 


100 





-0.267 


0.030785 


6504965 


-057584 


5500116 


5.831129 


4535042 


87.897 


2 


4379 


200 





-0.28986 


•0.01524 


6.78241 


-057584 


5517185 


5.8S3074 


4530775 


87508 


3 


4379 


300 





-0.38191 


-0.01494 


6.7S95S 


•052248 


5543093 


5.870448 


4560341 


87562 


4 


4379 


400 





-0.42763 


0.007925 


6.736994 


-0.34564 


5526024 


5.870448 


4.851806 


86.635 


5 


4379 


500 





-0.51907 


-0.01494 


6.714439 


-0.32278 


5534558 


S.87S02 


4543577 


86509 


6 


4379 


600 





-0.5651 


-0.01494 


6.783629 


-059992 


S.569306 


5.914339 


4572838 


85.781 


7 


4379 


700 





-058735 


-0.06066 


6.71 53S4 


-0.30023 


5.564734 


5.909767 


4.864303 


85.191 


8 


4379 


800 





-0.6794 


-0.06066 


6.715963 


-0.30053 


S.60801S 


5.971337 


4.906366 


84.735 


9 


4379 


900 





-0.6797 


-0.01494 


6.738214 


-050023 


S.616854 


5.976214 


4.906366 


84526 


10 


4379 


1000 





-0.70378 


-0.01494 


6.759854 


•057615 


5.616854 


5.980786 


4.90667 


83562 


11 


4379 


1100 





-0.68153 


0.053645 


657385 


-050635 


5.612892 


5.963412 


4.889906 


83.968 


12 


4379 


1200 





-0.70653 


0.0762 


6502222 


-057432 


S582717 


5.924093 


4573447 


84554 


13 


4379 


1300 





•0.63856 


0.12192 


6.777S33 


-052708 


S56S648 


5.889041 


4569485 


85.029 


14 


4379 


1400 





-052517 


0513055 


6.821424 


-059535 


5548884 


5.863133 


456S522 


85597 


28 


4379 


300 


1.3462 


1.183843 


4.619854 


13.61999 


16.91792 


554 3093 


5.826557 


4.902403 


86589 


29 


4379 


400 


0.5842 


1.207313 


7.420051 


14.42679 


16.91975 


5582107 


5.914644 


4.957267 


85.744 


30 


4379 


500 


0.1524 


1.184758 


7.879385 


1452014 


17.63817 


5.616854 


5.984748 


S.003597 


84.739 


31 


4379 


600 





1.116178 


5.975299 


13.66876 


15.64904 


5.660441 


6.01157 


5.024933 


84598 


32 


4379 


700 





1.024128 


3.978859 


13.16279 


14.4463 


S.72S973 


6.095695 


5.079797 


83.971 


33 


4379 


800 





0.817778 


2.716987 


1258885 


13.47582 


5.716829 


6.14873 


5.088331 


83549 


34 


4379 


900 


0.0508 


1.139952 


2.716987 


1253495 


13.66053 


S.734507 


6.184392 


5.130698 


82.951 


35 


4379 


1000 





1.000658 


1.338986 


11.98748 


12.50046 


5.765292 


6.27827 


5.152339 


82.474 


36 


4379 


1100 


0.9652 


1.344778 


8.106766 


14.74683 


22.60915 


S.787238 


6.305398 


S.1 90744 


81.949 


37 


4379 


1200 





1.229258 


5.743042 


13.0427 


15.54998 


5.787238 


6.291986 


5516347 


82 


38 


4379 


1300 


0.1778 


1.251814 


7.096354 


1253482 


17.53911 


5.782666 


6.336792 


S54195 


81.994 


39 


4379 


1400 


0.2032 


1.344168 


7.669987 


1350363 


21.01047 


5.800344 


6.412992 


5559019 


81512 


40 


4379 


1500 


0.9144 


157S283 


7.647432 


14.60784 


18.74368 


5.82229 


6.548323 


S51053 


80.898 


41 


4379 


1600 





1.183234 


6592214 


1359599 


16.10594 


5.831129 


6.503213 


5536134 


81586 


42 


4379 


1700 


0.0254 


1521308 


7.441082 


12.69766 


16.03644 


5.844235 


6.489497 


5548935 


81.14 


43 


4379 


1800 


0.0762 


1.275283 


7.142988 


12.83604 


17.00875 


5.857342 


6.548323 


S574843 


80.763 


44 


4379 


1900 





1229563 


6.041746 


12.42182 


155272 


5.883859 


6.543751 


5587645 


80.548 


45 


4379 


2000 


0.127 


1568552 


7.44291 1 


13.02228 


19.60382 


5.905805 


6.647993 


S.41782 


80502 


46 


4379 


2100 


0.0508 


1.276807 


6.800698 


12.70041 


16.36471 


5.92775 


6.675425 


5.456834 


79.715 


47 


4379 


2200 





1507922 


6.181344 


1258649 


15.25433 


S.954268 


6.675425 


5.473903 


79507 


48 


4379 


2300 





1.185062 


5.309616 


11.96431 


14.76878 


S.9S8S35 


6.688836 


5.491277 


79555 


49 


4379 


2400 





1.070153 


4.621378 


11.78082 


14.46855 


5.976214 


6.69798 


S5086S 


78.962 


50 


4379 


100 





0.932383 


4.185818 


11.66683 


1451S57 


6.011266 


6.7662SS 


5.534254 


78.685 


51 


4379 


200 





0.840638 


4.140403 


1152906 


13.9385 


6.024677 


6.7982S9 


5564734 


7852 


52 


4379 


300 





0.748589 


3.681374 


1159129 


13.59164 


6.02041 


6.775399 


5.S69001 


78.067 


S3 


4379 


400 





0.748894 


2.671267 


1155352 


1351458 


6.033516 


6.752539 


5595214 


77563 


54 


4379 


500 





0.656844 


1.730045 


115078 


12.80556 


6.05089 


6.784238 


5.612282 


77533 


55 


4379 


600 





0.656844 


0.673913 


11.09259 


1252675 


6.077712 


6.807403 


5.629961 


77508 


56 


4379 


700 





0.51877 


-052128 


10.95482 


11.48608 


6.077712 


6.816242 


5.651297 


77.131 


57 


4379 


800 





051877 


-1.00218 


10.90879 


10.76828 


6.081979 


6.83453 


5.655564 


76.904 


58 


4379 


900 





0.472745 


-1.3463 


10.3396 


10.14283 


6.086856 


6.848551 


S.673547 


76.724 


59 


4379 


1000 





0.448666 


-1.73645 


10.74542 


9.793529 


6.086856 


6.867144 


5.686654 


76.646 


60 


4379 


1100 





0.423977 


-1.85044 


10.62655 


9.511894 


6.060338 


6.83514 


5.677814 


76.714 


61 


4379 


1200 





0.399898 


-1.80411 


1055SS3 


9.301582 


6.042965 


6.794602 


S.678424 


77.132 


62 


4379 


1300 





0512674 


-1 .7S748 


105281 


9.20435 


5.999074 


6.708343 


5.661355 


77565 


63 


4379 


1400 





0511454 


-2.21 S29 


1052566 


9.086698 


5.950915 


6.640373 


5.635447 


78.882 


64 


4379 


1500 





055687 


-2.37S31 


10.47841 


9.108338 


5.889041 


6.S67526 


5.613502 


80.126 


6S 


4379 


1600 





0.60228S 


-2.12324 


10.50066 


8.96874 


5.840578 


6.490411 


S.S87289 


81513 


66 


4379 


1700 





0.SSS65 


-2.48961 


10.33851 


8.782812 


5.7881 52 


6.450178 


5.569915 


82.301 


67 


4379 


1800 





0.533095 


-1 .22987 


1057024 


8.667902 


S.7531 


6.418478 


5544007 


83.011 


68 


4379 


1900 





0.48768 


0.213665 


1057146 


8.414918 


S.7S31 


6.414211 


5.509565 


83.636 


69 


4379 


2000 





0.442874 


0.0762 


10.08918 


8.162544 


5.713781 


6.409639 


S.S1 3527 


83.932 



HOURLY DATA (SR-63, Vermillion County) 



415 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNTY 



TIME RAIN FLOW HEAD1 HEAD2 HEAD4 TENSION TENSION TENSION ~V- 

inner center subgrade center outer tu&grade njtMw 

[cm] [cm3] (cm) [cm] [cm] (cm) [cmj [cm] <J*g. ~f 



1 


6383 


1600 





699.5495 


-1.43226 


-1276S 


-0.54864 


6.770522 


633095 


e.009334 


nm 


2 


6383 


1700 








-1 31491 


-12S303 


-0.38496 


6.780276 


6363S63 


6318602 


76336 


3 


6383 


1800 








-1.26858 


-1.18262 


-029078 


6.789725 


6386728 


8301151 


76364 


4 


6383 


1900 








-124S41 


-1.1S88S 


-024354 


6.817462 


6.60S016 


8366632 


7731 S 


5 


6383 


2000 








-1.17561 


-1.15824 


-0.17252 


6.822338 


6.619037 


9.129674 


77.057 


6 


6383 


2100 








-1.17622 


-1.111 


-O.07864 


6.83S7S 


6.650736 


9379001 


77372 


7 


6383 


2200 








-1.15367 


-1.0637S 


-0.00732 


6.849466 


6.6SSO03 


93S1797 


76382 


8 


6383 


2300 








-1.15397 


-1.06345 


0.039929 


6.85861 


6.669024 


9.SS3854 


7S365 


9 


6383 


2400 








-1.13111 


-1.06284 


0.133807 


6.87324 


6.669329 


1C28121 


76.693 


10 


6383 


100 





699.5495 


-1.08417 


-1.086 


0.064313 


6.882384 


6.68335 


10.6332S 


76337 


11 


6383 


200 


0.1778 





28.92034 


30.99206 


21.83648 


6.444691 


6.453835 


7.196328 


75.064 


12 


6383 


300 


0.2794 


114726.1 


30.00268 


3330971 


43.14139 


6.458712 


6.495288 


6.716268 


7533 


13 


6383 


400 


0.0762 


3616762 


28.33634 


28.06141 


29.27177 


6.477 


6.541008 


6345808 


7S37 


14 


6383 


500 


0.0254 


1441072 


28.1495 


1937845 


21.11898 


6313576 


6387033 


6352793 


7S32S 


15 


6383 


600 





1084302 


27.53898 


14.12016 


1726509 


6.541618 


6.633362 


7.042099 


74.952 


16 


6383 


700 





8814324 


26.76418 


11.09045 


14.88369 


6373926 


6.670548 


7.103059 


74.672 


17 


6383 


800 





56663.51 


26.03632 


9.66917 


13.48313 


6.60S93 


6.69798 


7.1S9447 


7434E 


18 


6383 


900 





34277.93 


25.42367 


832617 


12.4081 


6.62879 


6.725717 


7.182917 


73.996 


19 


6383 


1000 





22385.58 


24.85796 


6217006 


11.68359 


6.651 9S5 


6.7534 S4 


7206691 


73.668 


20 


6383 


1100 





16789.19 


24.51933 


4.440631 


10.90574 


6.665062 


6.771132 


7210349 


7334 


21 


6383 


1200 





2798.198 


24.13345 


3.085186 


10.80607 


6.673596 


6.779971 


7.18627 


7320S 


22 


6383 


1300 





5596.396 


23.70064 


1.986991 


10.12241 


6.674206 


6.78972S 


7205472 


73356 


23 


6383 


1400 





4197.297 


23.3678 


1 240536 


9.863328 


6.674206 


6.7851 S3 


7205777 


73.706 


24 


6383 


1500 





S596.396 


23.1264 


0.819607 


9205874 


6.655613 


6.775704 


7219493 


74345 


25 


6383 


1600 





5596.396 


22.74936 


021397 


9.041892 


6.63702 


6.7S2S39 


7219493 


7S.09S 


26 


6383 


1700 





4197297 


22.40006 


-027402 


8.764524 


6.609S88 


6.7342S1 


722437 


75327 


27 


6383 


1800 





4197.297 


22.09861 


-0.8321 


8.277149 


6.581851 


6.701638 


7214921 


76.651 


28 


6383 


1900 





2798.198 


21.84075 


-1.34447 


7.927543 


6.559296 


6.6836S4 


7219798 


77241 


29 


6383 


2000 





1399.099 


21.56033 


-138001 


7.929067 


6.S3S826 


6.673596 


7219188 


77.607 


30 


6383 


2100 


0.0254 


2098.649 


2128357 


-1.83276 


7232294 


6321806 


6.669024 


7204862 


77.784 


31 


6383 


2200 





699.5495 


21.1202 


-1.66939 


7326478 


6312966 


6.669329 


7200595 


77.783 


32 


6383 


2300 





1399.099 


20.91294 


-1.78521 


7.37616 


6313271 


6.678778 


72009 


77.793 


33 


6383 


2400 





699.5495 


20.79498 


-1.99522 


7.165848 


6318148 


6.692798 


7.191756 


773S1 


34 


6383 


100 








20.S8284 


-222809 


6.S81851 


6327292 


6.706S14 


7.149389 


77306 


35 


6383 


200 








20.39447 


-230789 


S.437022 


6327292 


6.715963 


7.144512 


76374 


36 


6383 


300 








20.39447 


-2.7877 


4.17576 


6.540703 


6.71 56S8 


7.139635 


76.648 


37 


6383 


400 








20.25305 


-32S404 


1.442618 


6.54558 


6.7342S1 


7.13994 


76.423 


38 


6383 


500 


0.7366 


156699.1 


28.85023 


33.11347 


25.31791 


6317843 


6.71 56SS 


7.107022 


76.149 


39 


6383 


600 


02286 


684150.4 


2828422 


30.43276 


31.S31S6 


6.SS0152 


6.74339S 


7.102145 


7S3S2 


40 


6383 


700 


0.0508 


310595.4 


27.62524 


26.61026 


30.73603 


6.563868 


6.761988 


7.11647 


7S369 


41 


6383 


800 





109829.3 


27.20553 


1421069 


28.82737 


6377889 


6.794906 


7.116775 


75321 


42 


6383 


900 





7415225 


26.6889 


10.387S8 


27.17079 


6.59160S 


6.813194 


7.116775 


74.975 


43 


6383 


1000 





43372.07 


26.44993 


8.7S3SS1 


14.03604 


6396462 


6.827S2 


7.112203 


74.708 


44 


6383 


1100 





22385.58 


2S.99914 


7362698 


12-8653 


6.600444 


632691 


7.121042 


74.462 


45 


6383 


1200 





769S.045 


25.6157 


6.137758 


12.08959 


6.604711 


6.84977 


7.106412 


74332 


46 


6383 


1300 





4896.847 


25.32492 


4.619S49 


11.4998 


6.605321 


6.854647 


7.11647 


74334 


47 


6383 


1400 





1399.099 


2S.03627 


3.080004 


11.30899 


6.5913 


634977 


7.116166 


7433 


48 


6383 


1500 





6993495 


24.89027 


2.356409 


11.63208 


6.56813S 


6.836054 


7.12073S 


75.496 


49 


6383 


1600 








24.48885 


1.587703 


10.95451 


6.540398 


6317157 


7.134758 


76227 


50 


6383 


1700 








24.34803 


0.935736 


112S779 


6313271 


6.775704 


7.092696 


76389 


S1 


6383 


1800 








24.14077 


0308153 


11.77442 


6.481267 


6.7S2S39 


7.1021 45 


77.649 


52 


6383 


1900 








23.88382 


-027371 


10.3059 


6.458407 


6.724802 


7.106717 


7S231 


53 


6383 


2000 








23.60524 


-0.73914 


10.70519 


6.440119 


6.711086 


7.097573 


73623 


54 


6383 


2100 








23.22972 


-127467 


10.33242 


6.43097S 


6.71 1086 


7.097573 


7B.S79 


55 


6383 


2200 








23.06635 


-1.81021 


10.31016 


6.426403 


6.701638 


7.097266 


78.996 


56 


6383 


2300 


0.6096 





31.44317 


34.1376 


13.46119 


6.40781 


6.678473 


7.087819 


78.936 



HOURLY DATA (US-36, Hendricks County) 



416 



TOT.HRS RTE/CNT 



RAIN FLOW HEA02 HEADS HEA04 TENSION TENSION TENSION TEMP. 

center outer subgrade outer center subgrade subbaae 

[cm] [cm3] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] [cm] deg, "F 



1 


3632 


1600 





43476. 5S 


-1.23S05 


0.64069 


19.37492 


1345966 


8.2296 


12.69553 


40.609 


2 


3632 


1700 








-1.21188 


0.687324 


19.28073 


13.43101 


8.224723 


12.67297 


40.999 


3 


3632 


1800 








-1.23505 


0.663854 


19.11523 


1338651 


8215579 


12.65743 


41.357 


4 


3632 


1900 








-1.28199 


0.640994 


18-92808 


1335847 


SL211007 


12.63548 


41.691 


S 


3632 


2000 








-1.23S0S 


0.641299 


1890644 


1334719 


S.201SS8 


12.59647 


41.972 


6 


3632 


2100 








-1.23505 


a 665074 


18.76623 


1332464 


819211 


12.56904 


42.228 


7 


3632 


2200 


0.02S4 





-1.28199 


0-641604 


1871899 


1326185 


8186928 


12.52454 


42.384 


8 


3632 


2300 


0.0254 





-1.37S26 


0.079248 


18.27032 


111317 


8.139379 


12.44102 


42.535 


• 


3632 


2400 


0.1524 





-1.23535 


7.11 1S94 


24.60711 


1X16584 


805434 


12.41938 


42.601 


10 


3632 


100 


0.1524 


216508.3 


-1.2S8S2 


8.706917 


29.59821 


1310914 


8.049768 


12.38067 


42.666 


11 


3632 


200 


0.0S08 


72344X2 


-1.23S35 


7.441692 


28.46558 


1104757 


8.044891 


12.34775 


42.781 


12 


3632 


300 


0.2286 


673884.2 


1.732483 


10.65367 


32.01314 


1Z14S67 


7.90895 


11.60465 


42.781 


13 


3632 


4O0 





636476.5 


-0.48738 


7.113727 


281114 


12.18895 


7.932115 


11.67933 


42.88 


14 


3632 


500 


0.0254 


579967.4 


-1.23535 


4.980127 


23.78385 


12.61323 


8.06897 


1Z04234 


42.945 


IS 


3632 


600 





357360-8 


-1.25852 


2.916936 


22.27052 


12.71869 


8059522 


12.12403 


42.996 


16 


3632 


700 





271279.9 


-1.2S852 


1.650797 


21.39544 


12.7S679 


8058912 


12.16701 


41046 


17 


3632 


800 





217378*2 


-1.23535 


0.85344 


20.82698 


12.77386 


8054645 


12.18895 


4111 


18 


3632 


900 





182598.3 


-1.2S8S2 


0.173431 


20.56668 


12.79002 


805434 


12.20511 


41142 


19 


3632 


1000 





157382.7 


-1.2SSS2 


-0.45964 


2037588 


12.8019 


8.059522 


12.21669 


41204 


20 


3632 


1100 





138251.9 


-1.25852 


-0.97566 


20.04304 


12.79672 


8.050073 


12.22797 


41268 


21 


3632 


1200 





119993.2 


-1.28199 


0.61 7S2S 


19.9202 


1Z79581 


8040319 


1Z21059 


43355 


22 


3632 


1300 





107819.2 


-1.23S0S 


0.640385 


19.84644 


12.78423 


8.025994 


12.18834 


43523 


23 


3632 


1400 





96S1S.12 


-1.2S821 


0.68641 


19.77116 


12.74704 


s-ooeoi 


12.18468 


41752 


24 


3632 


1SO0 





84343.41 


-1.30515 


0.639166 


19.S8066 


12.71839 


7.983931 


12.15664 


44.073 


25 


3632 


1600 





71299.54 


-1.23474 


0.661111 


19.54957 


12.69157 


7.979664 


12.13013 


44.423 


26 


3632 


1700 





66082.45 


-1.25821 


0.660806 


19.42948 


12.66993 


7.975397 


12.09782 


44.793 


27 


3632 


1800 





63475.03 


-1.28138 


0.660806 


19.28805 


12.64188 


7.9S6499 


12.07587 


45^26 


28 


3632 


1900 





59995.46 


-1.18811 


0.684581 


19.24294 


12.60836 


7.951622 


12.05362 


45.58-1 


29 


3632 


2OO0 





57388.05 


-1.21 1S8 


0.638251 


19.10364 


12.S7483 


7.93242 


12.04265 


45.844 


30 


3632 


2100 





4956354 


-1.16495 


0.68519 


19.12772 


12.58062 


7.93272S 


12.01034 


46.092 


31 


3632 


2200 





19128.59 


-1.16495 


0.66233 


19.08353 


12.55837 


7.932725 


12.01003 


46.327 


32 


3632 


2300 





8694.401 


-1.18842 


0.662635 


1898995 


12.54191 


7.923276 


11.99388 


46.S14 


33 


3632 


24O0 





5217.095 


-1.14148 


0.662635 


18.96648 


12.53094 


7.914132 


11.98839 


46.676 


34 


3632 


100 





1739.789 


-1.14148 


0.66263S 


18.91985 


12.53094 


7.904683 


11.97224 


46.765 


35 


3632 


2O0 








-1.18842 


0.66294 


18.82597 


12.S2S15 


7.89S234 


11.9667S 


46.862 


36 


3632 


300 








-1.14148 


0.66294 


18.82597 


12.50838 


7.880909 


11.96675 


46.946 


37 


3632 


400 








-1.14148 


0.63947 


1873148 


12.49771 


7.876337 


11.96127 


46.993 


38 


3632 


SOO 





1739.789 


-1.14148 


0.66263S 


18.73087 


1249162 


7.862316 


11.95548 


47.026 


39 


3632 


600 








-1.1649S 


0.662635 


187071 


12.47516 


7.857439 


11.94999 


47.109 


40 


3632 


700 








-1.16495 


0.66263S 


18.68272 


12.46967 


7.843418 


11.93932 


47.192 


41 


3632 


800 





1739.789 


-1.21 1S8 


0.639166 


18.65925 


12.4587 


7.824826 


11.92S3S 


47.257 


42 


3632 


9O0 








-1.25821 


0.615696 


1858823 


12.44224 


7.81 S682 


11.92317 


47.37 


43 


3632 


1000 








-1.1649S 


0.66233 


18.63395 


12.43096 


7.81 S377 


11.89S73 


47.466 


44 


3632 


1100 





1739.789 


-1.18811 


0.638251 


18.60743 


12.40932 


7.792212 


11.89055 


47.S93 


45 


3632 


12O0 








-1.16495 


0.684276 


18.62663 


12.38311 


7.783373 


11.87013 


47.748 


46 


3632 


1300 








-1.21158 


0.613562 


18.60103 


12.35111 


7.76539 


11.84971 


47.987 


47 


3632 


1400 





1739.789 


-1.18811 


0.6827S2 


18.S7329 


12.33465 


7.746797 


11.80612 


48.295 


48 


3632 


1500 








-1.21128 


0.6S8673 


18.S6903 


12.29106 


7.728204 


11.79027 


48.643 


49 


3632 


1600 





1739.789 


-1.18811 


0.588264 


1852148 


12^S784 


7.709611 


11.75248 


49.03S 


SO 


3632 


1700 








-1.16464 


0.611429 


1847271 


12.2304 


7.714183 


11.72S66 


49.439 


S1 


3632 


1800 








-1.14148 


0.634898 


1844893 


12.20876 


7.705039 


11.6933S 


49.8S3 


52 


3632 


1900 





1739.789 


-1.00157 


0-729082 


1847637 


12.17524 


7.699858 


11.68207 


50.148 


S3 


3632 


2O00 





3477.306 


-1.11801 


0.683057 


1845625 


12.14262 


7.695286 


11.66592 


S0.416 


54 


3632 


2100 





4347.201 


-1.09484 


0.707136 


18.38828 


12.14841 


7.690714 


11.64488 


50-64 


55 


3632 


2200 





6086.989 


-1.11801 


0.683971 


18.29501 


12.12647 


7.672121 


11.62842 


50.757 


56 


3632 


2300 





6086.989 


-1.09484 


0.683971 


1831878 


12.1155 


7.653S28 


11.62324 


50.878 


57 


3632 


2400 





5217.095 


-1.04821 


0.707441 


18.3422S 


12.10361 


7.643774 


11.60617 


50.995 


58 


3632 


100 





6956.884 


-1.09484 


0.683971 


18.31848 


12.09385 


7.63493S 


11.S9642 


51.059 


59 


3632 


200 


0.0762 


6086.989 


-1.14148 


0.683666 


18.57786 


11.91463 


7.621219 


11.45743 


51.161 


60 


3632 


300 


1.143 


1067767 


8.097622 


1 1.26327 


32.59836 


9.868205 


7.0073S2 


9.686849 


54.141 


61 


3632 


4O0 





1230367 


0.048463 


660654 


26.41732 


10.65124 


7.1S7009 


10.40313 


S2.S99 


62 


3632 


500 


0.0254 


569542.3 


-1.11801 


3961486 


22.85299 


11.40287 


7.486498 


11.06394 


52.029 


63 


3632 


6O0 





322S87.7 


-1.11801 


1.995221 


21.93249 


11.47176 


7.495337 


11.14776 


51.849 


64 


3632 


700 





234757.9 


-1.09484 


0.965302 


21.27199 


11.5251 


7.481621 


11.17945 


51.767 


65 


3632 


800 





187815-4 


-1.07137 


0.145694 


21.08302 


11.56838 


7.S00214 


11.20628 


S1.7S1 


66 


3632 


900 





152165.6 


-1.07137 


-0.67361 


-96.8624 


11.S7874 


7.499909 


11.23249 


S1.702 


67 


3632 


1000 





127817.7 


-1.09484 


0.684276 


-148.837 


11.60556 


7.S04481 


11.24834 


S1.723 


68 


3632 


1100 





113036.3 


-1.02474 


0.707746 


-103. S68 


11.61075 


7.5O90S3 


11.26937 


51.684 


69 


3632 


1200 





99124.81 


-1.04821 


0.707746 


-3O47970 


11.S8941 


7.476744 


11.26419 


S1.662 


70 


3632 


1300 





8173373 


-1.04821 


0.73152 


-3O47970 


11.6107S 


7.481316 


11.26937 


S1.682 


71 


3632 


1400 





67822.24 


-1.07137 


0.70866 


-3047970 


11.61562 


7.481316 


11.26907 


SI. 775 


72 


3632 


15O0 





50431.16 


-1.07168 


0.686105 


-3047970 


11.62141 


7.485888 


11.29589 


S1.8S4 


73 


3632 


1600 





36519.67 


-1.09484 


0.686714 


-3047970 


11.6363S 


7.503871 


11.316 


51. 90S 


74 


3632 


1700 





22608.17 


-1.11831 


0.687324 


-3047970 


11.66287 


7.S13015 


11.32088 


51.88 


7S 


3632 


18O0 





15651.29 


-1.16495 


0.641299 


-3O47970 


11.66927 


7.51332 


11.34313 


51.844 



417 



HOURLY DATA (US-36, 
76 3632 


Hcndrtcka 
19O0 


County) 



5217.095 


-1.14178 


0.641909 


-1047970 


11.70706 


7.545914 


11.36447 


51.718 


77 


3632 


2O00 





3477.308 


-1.14178 


0.6894 S8 


1O47970 


11.7284 


7.S45629 


11.1*08 


51.531 


78 


3632 


2100 





1739.789 


-1.16525 


0.689762 


•304 7970 


11.74455 


7.55965 


11.41781 


51.33* 


79 


3632 


2200 





1739.789 


-1.16S2S 


0.666598 


•1O47970 


11.77595 


7.S6S489 


11.43821 


51 045 


80 


3632 


2300 





1739.789 


-1.14178 


711842 


3O47970 


11.80308 


7.58251 


11.46505 


50.82 


81 
82 


3632 
3632 


24O0 
100 






1739.789 
1739.789 


-1.16525 
-1.16S2S 


0.667207 
0.690677 


-3047970 
• 1047970 


11.82441 
11.86221 


7.591349 
7.596226 


11.4*675 
11.51809 


50.581 
SO. 322 


83 


3632 


200 





1739.789 


-1.16525 


0.667512 


-3047970 


11.87287 


7.609942 


11.55558 


50.05 


84 

as 


3632 
3632 


300 
400 






1739.789 
3477.306 


-1.16025 
-1.18872 


0.714451 

O 668122 


-3047970 
-3047970 


11.91616 
11.94328 


7.619066 
7.623962 


11.57143 
11.59825 


49.798 
49.514 


86 


3632 


500 





5217.095 


-1.18872 


O 6681 22 


-3047970 


11.95974 


7.637678 


11.62S07 


49.299 


87 
88 


3632 
3632 


600 
700 






6086.989 
6086.989 


-1.18872 
-1.18872 


0.668426 
0.692201 


-1047970 
•3047970 


11.99754 
12.0076 


7.656271 
7.651394 


11.641Z3 
11.68878 


49.05 
48.801 


89 


3632 


800 





5217.095 


-1.16525 


0.645262 


-1047970 


12.04021 


7.66511 


11.69944 


48.589 


90 


3632 


900 





5217.095 


-1.21219 


0.645566 


•3047970 


12.07343 


7.684O08 


11.72718 


48.342 


91 


3632 


1000 





5217.095 


-1.23566 


0.64SS66 


-3047970 


12.08959 


7.68858 


11.7S918 


46.107 


92 
93 


3632 
3632 


11O0 
12O0 






4347 .201 

4347.201 


-1.25882 
-1 .23535 


0.645262 
0.645262 


-3O47970 
-3O47970 


12.11092 
12.13287 


7.692847 
7.68827S 


11.76955 
11.7857 


47.872 
47.707 


94 


3632 


13O0 





3477.306 


-1 .23535 


0.668426 


-3O47970 


12.1283 


7.693457 


11.81892 


47.552 


95 


3632 


1400 





S21 7.095 


-1.28229 


0.668122 


•1O47970 


1216091 


7.702906 


11.81344 


47.401 


96 


3632 


1500 





6956.884 


-1.23S3S 


0.644042 


•1047970 


1216051 


7.71205 


11.82950 


47.333 


97 
98 


3632 
3632 


1600 
1700 






1739.789 



-1.25882 
-1.21188 


0.620S73 

0.644042 


-3O47970 
-1047970 


12.1S542 

12.17188 


7.707478 
7.730642 


11.85123 
11.85672 


47252 
47.205 


99 


3632 


1800 








-1.23S3S 


0.S971O3 


-3047970 


12.19383 


7.716622 


11.8S672 


47.169 


100 
101 


3632 
3632 


1900 
2000 











-1.21188 
-1.21188 


0.667S12 
0.690982 


-3047970 
-3047970 


12.2048 
12.21029 


7.730642 
7.744663 


11.86769 

11.8838S 


47.135 
47.067 


102 


3632 


2100 





5217.095 


-1.28229 


0.667817 


-3047970 


1223193 


7.763256 


11.89452 


47.002 


103 


3632 


2200 





7824.507 


-1.23S3S 


0.644652 


-1047970 


12.23742 


7.763256 


11.90549 


46.872 


104 


3632 


2300 


0.0254 


6956.884 


-1.28229 


0.621 792 


-3047970 


12.23681 


7.767523 


11.9317 


46.757 


105 


3632 


2400 





7824.507 


-1.25882 


0.645262 


-3047970 


1225906 


7.777277 


11.93749 


46.61S 


106 


3632 


100* 0Y0.02S4 


7824.507 


-1.28229 


0.621792 


-3047970 


1226972 


7.776972 


11.93719 


46.464 


107 


3632 


200 


0.0254 


6956.884 


-1.28229 


0.668731 


-3047970 


12.2S266 


7.767523 


11.95304 


46.3 


108 


3632 


300 





6086.989 


-1.28229 


0.645566 


•3047970 


1222S83 


7.762951 


11.94786 


46.086 


109 


3632 


400 





S21 7.095 


-1.30576 


0.645566 


-3O47970 


12.2203S 


7.753502 


11.95883 


45 874 


110 


3632 


5O0 





6086.989 


-1.28229 


0.645566 


-3O47970 


1223162 


7.776972 


11.97011 


45.706 


111 


3632 


6O0 





6086.989 


-1.28229 


0.64SS66 


-3047970 


12253S7 


7.790993 


11.97559 


4S.S42 


112 


3632 


700 





6086.989 


-1.28229 


0.645566 


-1047970 


1226942 


7.809S66 


11.98047 


45.362 


113 


3632 


800 





6086.989 


-1.56301 


0.45781 


-1O47970 


12.2746 


7.804709 


12O01S 


4S.197 


114 


3632 


900 





6086.989 


-1 .30576 


0.669036 


-3047970 


1229716 


7.814158 


1201857 


45-063 


115 


3632 


1OO0 





5217.095 


-1.30576 


0.S28218 


-3047970 


1230295 


7.81 9034 


1203533 


44.898 


116 


3632 


1100 





6086.989 


-1.28229 


0.645262 


-3047970 


1230843 


7.819034 


1205149 


44.781 


117 


3632 


1200 





5217.095 


-1.30S76 


0.645262 


■3047970 


1231422 


7.819339 


1207922 


44.713 


118 


3632 


1300 





3477 .306 


-1.28229 


0.621487 


-3047970 


1234714 


7.837932 


1206276 


44.665 


119 


3632 


1400 


0.0254 


1739.789 


■1 78779 


0.621487 


-3047970 


123413S 


7.8S1953 


120679S 


44.615 


120 


3632 


1500 


0.127 


1739.789 


-1.37587 


8.270748 


-3O47970 


1234135 


7.7724 


1201887 


43.251 


121 


3632 


1600 


0.4018 


281727.7 


13.61511 


12.11854 


-3047970 


1271077 


7.720889 


1227491 


41.309 


122 


3632 


1700 


0.2794 





8.330184 


11.46231 


-3047970 


12.72235 


7.68858 


122S61S 


42031 


123 


3632 


1800 


0.0762 


S07786.6 


3.1147S1 


7.449922 


-3047970 


1277234 


7.707173 


1231362 


42583 


124 


3632 


1900 





735617.2 


-0.74432 


5.971642 


-3047970 


1288451 


7.730642 


1241877 


43-223 


125 


3632 


2000 





439103.6 


-1.32893 


4.071214 


-3047970 


1109146 


7.7632S6 


12S949S 


43.552 


126 


3632 


2100 





318249.6 


-1.3S24 


3.10896 


-3047970 


13.18687 


7.7724 


126333S 


41549 


127 


3632 


22O0 


0.02S4 


267804.8 


-1.32893 


2.21742 


-3047970 


13.18687 


7.781849 


1265011 


41584 


128 


3632 


2300 





233894.8 


-1.32893 


1.794967 


•3047970 


13.18199 


7.786726 


1265621 


41533 


129 


3632 


2400 





213031 


-1.28229 


1.7242S4 


-3047970 


13.21 003 


7.786726 


1265621 


41465 


130 


3632 


100 


0.0254 


208683.8 


-1.30576 


2.310384 


-3O47970 


111987S 


7.786726 


1264493 


41432 


131 


3632 


200 





209SS17 


-1.30546 


1.301496 


•1047970 


1121003 


7.791298 


1266716 


41416 


132 


3632 


300 





190422.8 


-1.30546 


0.363017 


-3047970 


1323838 


7.800746 


1270071 


41414 


133 


3632 


400 





144338.9 


-1.3524 


-0.43434 


-3047970 


T12777 


7.814767 


1273973 


41368 


134 


3632 


500 








-1.30576 


-1.09118 


-1O47970 


13.31439 


7.823911 


1276746 


41337 


135 


3632 


600 








-1.30576 


0.668426 


-3047970 


13.36274 


7.842809 


1279SS 


43-27 


136 


3632 


700 








-1.28229 


0.668731 


-3047970 


1339078 


7.847381 


1282294 


41205 


137 


3632 


800 








-1.30576 


0.668731 


-3047970 


13.41882 


7.847076 


1285 5SS 


41123 


138 


3632 


900 








-1.30576 


0.668731 


-3047970 


13.470O3 


7.875422 


1285616 


41027 


139 


3632 


1000 








-1.32893 


0.669036 


-3047970 


134874 


7.865974 


1291194 


4296 


140 


3632 


1100 








-1.28229 


0.640666 


-3047970 


1152672 


7.87969 


1292291 


42849 


141 


3632 


1200 








-1.3S24 


0.645666 


•3047970 


13.55446 


7.884262 


12944 55 


42751 


142 


3632 


1300 








-1.28229 


640066 


-3047970 


13.57701 


7.907426 


1297229 


42671 


143 


3632 


1400 








-1.30576 


0.669036 


-3047970 


1362883 


7.912303 


1297838 


42607 


144 


3632 


1S00 








-1.28229 


0.71 S97S 


-3O47970 


116510S 


7.91 687S 


1301161 


42.S09 


145 


3632 


1600 








-1.25882 


0.715975 


-1047970 


1367942 


7.93546S 


1102807 


4241 


146 


3632 


1700 








-1.3S24 


0.64S566 


-3047970 


1214841 


7.341718 


10.40953 


42312 


147 


3632 


1800 








-1.3524 


0.69281 


-1O47970 


5.12826 


5. 540654 


4.669S41 


42231 


148 


3632 


19O0 








-1.16556 


0.810463 


-3047970 


5.207813 


S.S62295 


4.743602 


42104 


149 


3632 


2000 








-1.18872 


O.7403S9 


-304 7970 


5.041 0S7 


S.S2419S 


4.576267 


41.96 


150 


3632 


2100 








-1.25913 


0.74O664 


-3O47970 


S. 032858 


S. 53273 


4.SSSS46 


41.622 


151 


3632 


22O0 








-1.18902 


0.765658 


3047970 


5.065776 


S.5S3761 


4.SS845S 


41.601 


152 


3632 


2300 








-1.25913 


0.719633 


-3047970 


5.0740O6 


S.S62295 


4.SSJ192 


41.36S 



418 



Appendix G 
Statistical Analysis Printouts 



415 



drain*. in Tua Feb 16 16:13:46 1993 
drain S basek y @e,- 



dat 


a ■ 


drai 


nage; 






input 


pvmt $ 




( 


;a: 


rds; 




C 


p 





.6 


.74 


C 


p 





.6 1 


.61 


c 


p 





.6 1 


.42 


c 


p 





.6 1 


.84 


c 


p 





.6 1 


.51 


c 


p 





.6 1 


.53 


c 


F 


74 1. 


78 


c 


F 


74 1. 


54 


A 


P 





.12 


1.70 


A 


P 


0. 


.12 


1.70 


A 


P 


0. 


.12 


1.42 





F 


1, 


.2 


.13 





F 


1. 


,2 


.38 





F 


1. 


.2 


.45 


o 


F 


1, 


2 


.34 





F 


1. 


2 


.45 





F 


0. 


12 • 


-0.62 





F 


0. 


12 • 


-0.29 





F 


0. 


12 • 


-1.0 



title 'STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT' 
proc glm; 

class pvmt drain; 

model y-pvmt drain / solution; 

lsmeans pvmt drain / stderr pdiff; 

output out=draino p=yhat r=resid; 
proc plot; 

plot resid*yhat; 

plot re3id*pvmt; 

plot re3id*drain; 
proc glm; 

clas3 pvmt drain; 

model y - pvmt drain basek / solution; 

lsmeans pvmt drain / stderr pdiff; 

output out=drainol p=yhatl r=residl; 
proc plot; 

plot residl*pvmt; 

plot residl*drain; 

plot re3idl*basek='*' ; 

plot residl*yhatl; 
run; 



420 



ad-rain, o 



Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 1 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 
Class Level Information 



Class 


Levels 


Values 


PVMT 


3 


A C 


DRAIN 


2 


F P 



Number of observations in data set - 19 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 2 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 



Dependent 
Source 


Variable: Y 

DF 


Sum of 
Squares 


Mean 
Square 


F Value 


Pr > F 


Model 


3 


11.17332368 


3.72444123 


19.13 


0.0001 


Error 


15 


2.92055000 


0.19470333 






Corrected 


Total 18 


14.09387368 










R-Square 


C.V. 


Root MSE 




Y Mean 




0.792779 


50.41364 


0.4412520 




0.8752632 


Source 


DF 


Type I SS 


Mean Square 


F Value 


Pr > F 


PVMT 
DRAIN 


2 

1 
STATISTICAL 


11.10181952 
0.07150417 
ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT 


5.55090976 28.51 
0.07150417 0.37 
DRAINAGE PROJECT 


0.0001 

0.5536 

3 



03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 



General Linear Models Procedure 



Dependent Variable: Y 



Source 

PVMT 
DRAIN 



Parameter 

INTERCEPT 

PVMT A 

C 

O 

DRAIN F 

P 



DF Type III SS Mean Square 


F Value Pr > F 


2 4.57029000 2. 


28514500 


11.74 0.0009 


1 0.07150417 0. 


07150417 


0.37 0.5536 


T for HO: 


Pr > |T! 


Std Error of 


Estimate Parameter=0 




Estimate 


0.238333333 B -0.61 


0.5529 


0.39260685 


1.845000000 B 3.94 


0.0013 


0.46801843 


1.680000000 B 4.82 


0.0002 


0.34884034 


0.000000000 B 


, 


. 


0.218333333 B 0.61 


0.5536 


0.36028075 


0.000000000 B 


. 


m 



NOTE: The X'X matrix has been found to be singular and a generalized inverse 



421 



•drain. o 



Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 



was used to solve the normal equations. Estimates followed by the 
letter 'B' are biased, and are not unique estimators of the parameters. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 4 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 
Least Squares Means 



PVMT 




Y 
LSMEAN 




Std Err 
LSMEAN 


Pr > |T| 

H0:LSMEAN=0 


LSMEAN 
Number 


A 
C 



1 

1 
-0 


71583333 
55083333 
12916667 







31201229 
18014038 
23830332 


0.0001 
0.0001 
0.5958 


1 
2 

3 



Pr > |T| HO: LSMEAN (i) -LSMEAN (j) 

i/j 1 2 3 

1 . 0.6047 0.0013 

2 0.6047 . 0.0002 

3 0.0013 0.0002 

NOTE: To ensure overall protection level, only probabilities associated witi 
pre-planned comparisons should be U3ed. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 5 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 
Least Squares Means 



DRAIN 



Y 

LSMEAN 

1.15500000 
0.93666667 



Std Err 
LSMEAN 

0.23830332 
0.18749605 



Pr > |TI 
H0:LSMEAN=0 

0.0002 
0.0002 



Pr > |TI HO: 
LSMEAN1 =LSMEAN2 



0.5536 



RESID | 
0.5 + 



0.0 + 



-0.5 + 



-1.0 + 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 
Plot of RESID*YHAT. Legend: A 



03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 
1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc. 



C 
A 



5 A 



-0.25 



0.00 



0.25 



0.50 



0.75 
YHAT 



1.00 



1.25 



: . 5 : 



1.75 



422 



adrain.o Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 3 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 7 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

Plot of RESID*PVMT. Legend: A - 1 obs, B - 2 ob3, etc. 

RESID 1 

0.5 + B 

I A B 

I 

|B D A 

0.0 + A 

I A A 

I A 

I 
-0.5 + 



-1.0 + 
I 



C 
PVMT 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 8 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

Plot of RESID*DRAIN. Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc. 

RESID | 
0.5 + B 

I B A 

I 

I B E 

0.0 + A 

I A A 

I A 
I 
-0.5 + 

I A 

I A 

I 
-1.0 + A 

I 

y + — 

F P 

DRAIN 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 9 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 
Class Level Information 

Class Levels Values 

PVMT 3 A C 

DRAIN 2 F P 



423 



a drain. o 



Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 



Number of observations in data set 



IS 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 10 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 19S3 

General Linear Model3 Procedure 



Dependent 


Variable: Y 


Source 


DF 


Model 


4 


Error 


14 


Corrected 


Total 18 




R-Square 




0.922291 



Sum of 
Squares 

12.99865702 

1.09521667 

14.09387368 

C.V. 

31.95563 



Mean 

Square F Value 



3.24966425 
0.07822976 

Root MSE 
0.2796958 



41.54 



C.0001 



Y MP?-: 



0.8752632 



Source 

PVMT 

DRAIN 

BASEK 



DF 



Type I SS 



Mean Square F Value 



2 11.10181952 5.55090976 
1 0.07150417 0.07150417 
1 1.82533333 1.82533333 
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 

03:44 Wednesday, January 2' 



70.96 

0.91 

23.33 



0.0001 

0.3553 

0.0003 

11 

1993 



General Linear Models Procedure 



Dependent Variable: Y 

Source 

PVMT 

DRAIN 

BASEK 

Parameter 



INTERCEPT 



PVMT 



DRAIN 



BASEK 



A 

C 

o 

F 

P 



DF 


Type III SS 


Mean Square 


F Value Pr > F 


2 


1.79637403 


0. 


89818702 


11.48 0.0011 


1 


1.81297567 


1. 


81297567 


23.18 0.0003 


1 


1.82533333 


1. 


82533333 

« 


23.33 0.0003 






T foj 


: HO: 


Pr > |TI 


Std Error of 




Estimate 


Parameter— 




Estimate 


66. 


.09216049 B 




4.81 


0.0003 


13.73407615 


64. 


.59512346 B 




-4.70 


0.0003 


13.75771583 


65. 


.19864198 B 




-4.71 


0.0003 


13.8470651S 


0. 


.00000000 B 




. 


. 


. 


66, 


.83845679 B 




-4.81 


0.0003 


13.88405834 


0. 


.00000000 B 




. 


. 


. 


0. 


.91358025 




4.83 


0.0003 


0.18913052 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 



03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 

NOTE: The X'X matrix has been found to be singular and a generalized inverse 
was used to solve the normal equations. Estimates followed by the 
letter 'B' are biased, and are not unique estimators of the parameters. 



424 



adxain.o Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 13 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Model3 Procedure 
Least Squares Means 



PVMT 


Y 




Std Err 


Pr > IT I 


LSMEAN 




LSMEAN 




LSMEAN 


H0:LSMEAN=0 


Number 


A 


-24.3096637 


5. 


.3914595 


0.0005 


1 


C 


-24.9131823 


5 


.4798032 


0.0005 


2 





40.2854597 


8. 


.3680496 


0.0003 


3 



Pr > |T| HO: LSMEAN (i)=LSMEAN(j) 

i/j 1 2 3 

1 . 0.0149 0.0003 

2 0.0149 . 0.0003 

3 0.0003 0.0003 

NOTE: To ensure overall protection level, only probabilities associated with 
pre-planned comparisons should be used. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 14 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

General Linear Models Procedure 
Least Squares Means 

DRAIN 



Y 


Std Err 


Pr > IT] 


Pr > |TI HO: 


LSMEAN 


LSMEAN 


H0:LSMEAN=0 


LSMEAN1=LSMEAN2 


36.3983572 


7.7758100 


0.0004 


0.0003 


30.4400996 


6.1089935 


0.0002 





F 
P 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 15 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 

Plot of RESID1*PVMT. Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc. 

RESID1 | 
0.5 + 

I A A 

I 

IB D B 

0.0 + AC 



I A A 



-0.5 + 

I 
I 
I 
-1.0 + 
I 



A 
A 



_+ h + _ 

A C o 

PVMT 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 16 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 



425 



adrain . o 



Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 



Plot of RESID1*DRAIN. Legend: A - 1 ob3, B - 2 obs, etc. 

RESID1 | 
0.5 + 



C 

0.0 + C 
A 
A 
A 
-0.5 + 



-1.0 + 
I 



E 
A 
A 



DRAIN 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 17 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1S93 



Plot of RESID1*BASEK. Symbol used is '*'. 



RESID1 | 
0.5 + 



** 
0.0 + ** 



-0.5 + 



-1.0 + 



20 



40 
BASEK 



60 



80 



NOTE: 8 obs hidden. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PAVEMENT DRAINAGE PROJECT 18 

03:44 Wednesday, January 27, 1993 



Plot of RESID1*YHAT1. Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc. 



RESID1 | 

0.5 + 

I 

I 

I 

0.0 + 

I 



B 
B 



C B A 
A 

A & 



adrain.o Wed Jan 27 03:46:42 1993 

-0.5 + 
I 

I 



-1.0 + 



426 



y + h + (- _+ + — 

-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 

YHAT1 



a 
11 [ 
o 

ol 

o I 
Q I