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Full text of "The peaches of New York"

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State of New York — Department of Agriculturl 

Twenty-Fourth Annual Report Vol. 2 Part II 



THE 

PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



BY 
U. P. HEDRICK 

ASSISTED BY 

G. H. HOWE 
O. M. TAYLOR 
C. B. TUBERGEN 



Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1916 
II 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN . 

ALBANY 

J. B. LYON COMPANY. PRINTERS 

1917 



,77 
H45- 



NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, 

Geneva, N. Y., January 31, 1917. 

To the Ilfliiorahlc Board of Control of the Netv York Agricultural 
Ex/yi'rimriit Stat!0)i : 

(Gentlemen: — I have the honor to transmit herewith the manu- 
script of the fifth in our series of fruit-pubUcations, to be known as 
" The Peaches of New York," and to constitute Part II of the report 
of this institution for 1916. 

Peach-growing is an important industry in the State of New York. 
In certain counties the production of this fruit has been a main factor in 
the well-known prosperity of man}^ owners of peach-orchards. More- 
over, the peach, when at its best, is a luscious article of food and adds 
greatly not only to the enjoyment, but to the healthfulness, of our diet. 

The commercial and dietary importance of the peach is, therefore, 
the justification for the preparation of this volume. 

Because the numerous varieties of peaches differ greatly in quality 
and in their adaptation to varying conditions, a comprehensive study of 
those varieties which are, or which may be, grown in this State seemed 
greatly worth while. 

It is with a feeling of satisfaction, even of pride, that I submit 
to you the accompanying manuscript. Its preparation reflects great 
credit upon Prof. Hcdrick and his associates and upon the makers of 
the plates. 

W. H. JORDAN, 

Director. 



PREFACE 



The present volume is the fifth in the plan of the New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station to make a more or less complete record of all 
of the different fruits grown in this region. This work differs from the 
preceding fruit-books but little or not at all in nature and purposes, yet a 
statement of its contents, even though it be almost identical with that in 
the prefaces of the preceding volumes, is necessary for those who may not 
have the other books and may be a convenience to those who have all of 
the series. 

The title implies that The Peaches of New York is written for the con- 
fines of a state; but all varieties of the peach grown in North America, as 
well as many known only in other continents, Europe especially, have been 
considered, under the supposition that all might be grown in New York and 
are therefore of interest to the peach-growers of the State. Broadly speak- 
ing, then, the design is to make the book as complete a record as possible 
of the development of the peach, wherever grown, up to this time. 

The book contains: An account of the history and uses of the peach; 
a discussion of the botanical characters of the species of cultivated peaches; 
an account of the peach-regions and of peach-growing in New York with 
the most important statistics relating to this fruit; and, lastly and in 
greatest detail, the synonymy, bibliography, economic status, and full 
descriptions of all the most important cultivated peaches, with briefer 
notices of varieties of minor importance and of those appearing in peach- 
literature which are now no longer grown. In foot-notes running through 
the text, biographical sketches are published of the persons who have done 
most in America toward improving the peach. Incidentally, all that was 
thought would be helpful in breeding peaches was included. So, too, 
whatever appeared to be of interest to students of ecology has been given 
a place. 

As in the preceding books, color-plates occupy prominent places in 
this volvune. Pains and expense have not been spared in the attempt to 
make the plates the best possible with the present knowledge of repro- 
duction in colors. All who have seen the plates in this and the first four 
fruit-books of the series will agree that the reproductions of peaches are 



more accurate than those of the apples, grapes, pliims or cherries, and yet 
these are not as exact as might be wished. Although most carefully 
selected, an illustration of one or two fruits does not give an adequate picture 
of a variety. Neither does the camera take colors quite as the eye sees 
them nor can the plate-maker quite reproduce what the camera takes. 
The illustrations are of life-size as the peaches grow on the grounds of this 
Station and represent specimens of average size and color. The fruits, 
as shown in the plates, look small for the reason that a fiat picture of a round 
object minifies .size. 

In all of these fruit-books it has been difficult to decide what varieties 
merit color-plates and full descriptions. Briefly, the choice of sorts to be 
illustrated and described in detail has been determined by the following 
considerations: (i) By the value of the variety for home or commercial 
orchards; (2) the probable value if the peach is a new sort on probation; 
(3) its desirability as a parent in breeding new peaches or to show combina- 
tions of varieties, to illustrate new characters, or to show the range in varia- 
tion — in a word to enlighten the peach -breeder ; (4) not a few varieties 
are described and illustrated to show the trend of peach -evolution — for 
their historical value; (5) to show relationships of varieties. 

The peach is profoundly influenced by soil, climate and culture, and a 
discussion of its .status is not complete without taking full account of the 
environment in which it is growing. For this reason, chiefly, the peach- 
regions and peach-growing in New York are discussed as fully as space 
permits. This part of the book is designed, also, to serve the prospective 
peach-planter in this State in the selection of locations and soils and in the 
culture of the peach. Since the cultivation of any plant changes from year 
to year, though, experiment station bulletins and circulars and treatises 
on the culture of the peach should supply growers of this fruit with better 
information on the year-to-year management of the peach-plantation. 

The botany of the peach, as compared with its congeners, the plum and 
the cherry, is simple, indeed, and is well agreed upon by botanical writers, 
so that this book may be said to be almost wholly a horticultural one. 
Yet the few pages devoted to the botany of the peach may make plainer, 
to the horticulturist at least, the botany of this fruit. 

The chief contribution The Peaches of New York makes to pomology 
is in the descriptions of varieties it contains. All who grow or use peaches 
are dependent on descriptions of fruit and tree for the identification of 
varieties. From a well-written description one should get an exact mental 



picture of the fruit — we try to present such a pen-picture. With a few 
exceptions the descriptions of major varieties have been made from peaches 
growing on the Station grounds, though in many cases fruits from several 
locaHties have been compared with those grown at home. 

The fruits, it must V)c said at once, have been described with other 
ends in view than identification. Chief of these is the effort to set forth 
the elementary characters, or unit-characters, of the peach. It is now cer- 
tain that the characters of plants are independent entities thrown into 
various relationships with each other in individual plants. On this con- 
ception of unit-characters the improvement of plants is founded. An 
important part of the work in describing fruits has been to discover what 
seem to be unit-characters in peaches, thereby aiding in building a foun- 
dation in breeding peaches. To improve the peach we must combine the 
characters of species and varieties; we must know what these are before we 
can rearrange them in an improved peach. 

In the marked attention paid to the improvement of plants, following 
the work of Mendel and others, the peach is bound to receive consideration. 
Never was information more needed in regard to the processes that have 
brought peaches from their primitive condition to their present perfection. 
We have done our utmost to give all that could be learned of the origin and 
history of varieties with the hope that such knowledge may be helpful to 
those who are trying to improve the peach. 

We wish again to call attention to the great value of definite knowledge 
regarding the soils, climates and other environmental conditions under 
which species and varieties of fruits thrive. It is obvious to all thinking 
pomologists and biologists that, when the ecological conditions imder 
which the several fruits and their many varieties are grown can be 
accurately specified, valuable generalizations can be made regarding life- 
zones and plant-distribution. In The Peaches of New York, as in the 
preceding books, we state as accurately as possible the regions in which, 
and the conditions under which, species and varieties of the peach are 
successfully grown. 

So few species have been considered in The Peaches of New York that 
we have had no need to refer to codes of botanical nomenclature. In the 
use of horticultural names, lacking a better code, we have kept before us 
the revised rules of the American Pomological Society though in many 
cases we have not seen fit to follow these rules as the changes required by 
their strict obser\-ancc woiild augment rather tlian diminish confusion. 



The references given are those that have been used in ascertaining the 
history and the economic status or in verifying the description of the 
variety that follows. All of the synonyms created by pomologists to whose 
works we have had access have been noted but in no case have we pub- 
lished synonyms quoted by other writers. The work of reading references 
and seeking out synonyms is a tremendous one, involving nearly three 
years' work for several persons. We hope that this work sets straight in 
high degree the great confusion in the names of peaches, but that we, no 
matter how painstaking, could bring perfection out of chaos, no one could 
expect. 

Again we call attention to the biographical sketches found in the 
foot-notes. Some men in ever\' profession surpass their fellows in true 
greatness. Such men there are in pomology, and a knowledge of their 
career is indispensable to a full comprehension of the industry of growing 
fruit. In the conquest of America we have honored, so far, only the men 
who have expressed their energy in conquering the mines, the forests, the 
fisheries and to a small degree those who have developed the soils; we have 
shamefully neglected the great men who have developed our native fruits 
and vegetables and adapted to the conditions of the New World the agri- 
cultural products of the Old World. The brief biographical sketches in 
these fruit-books are written in an effort to give in some measure the credit 
and honor due to those who have improved fruits. 

In the preparation of The Peaches of New York, besides those whose 
names appear on the title page, I am indebted to R. D. Anthon>-, for 
reading proof; to the Station editor, F. H. Hall, for his assistance; to the 
Zeese-Wilkinson Company, New York City, for the beautiful color-plates 
of peaches; and to the J. B. Lyon Company, Albany, New York, for good 
workmanship in printing the book. 

U. P. HEDRICK, 
Ilorlicitllurist, New York Agricn/lural ExpcriDient Station. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface v 

Index to Illustrations xi 

Chapter I. — History of the Peach i 

Chapter II. — Botanical and Horticultural Classifications 

of the Peach 68 

Chapter III. — Commercial Peach-growinc; in America 98 

Chapter IV. — Peach-(;rowing in New York 131 

Chapter V. — Leadinc; Varieties of Peaches 178 

Chapter VI. — Minor Varieties of Peaches 291 

Bibliography, References and Abbreviations 499* 



Index. 



511 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Portrait of Andrew Jackson Downing Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Description of a Peach 76 

Map Siiowin<; Peach Regions in New York 134 

VARIETIES 

Admiral Dew^ey 178 

Alexander 1 80 

Alton 1 80 

Arp 182 

Belle 1 84 

Bequette Free 1 84 

Berenice 1 86 

Blood Cling 188 

Blood Leaf 188 

Brigdon 190 

Canada 190 

Captain Ede 193 

Carman 194 

Chairs 1 94 

Champion 196 

Chili 198 

Chinese Cling 198 

Climax 200 

Crosby 202 

Davidson 204 

Early Crawford ^ 206 

Early York 208 

Edgemont 208 

Elberta 210 

Engle 212 

Eureka 212 

Family Favorite 214 

Fitzgerald 214 

Foster 216 



Xii 1NDI:X TO ILLUSTRATIONS 

FA(IN(; PAGE 

Gexkral Lee 216 

Geor(;k IV 218 

Gold Drop 220 

Governor Hock; 220 

Greensboro 222 

Hale Early 222 

Heath Cling 224 

Heath Free 226 

Hiley 226 

Hynes 22S 

Illinois 230 

Imperial 230 

Iron Mountain 232 

J. H. Hale 234 

Jennie Worthen 236 

Kalamazoo 236 

Kentucky (Nectarine) 84 

Lamont 238 

Late Crawford 240 

Late Rareripe 242 

Lemon Free 244 

Lola 246 

Mamie Ross 246 

May Lee 248 

Morris White 250 

Mountain Rose 250 

MuiR i 252 

Newton (Nectarine) 84 

Niagara 254 

Oldmixon Cling 254 

Oldmixon Free 256 

Pallas 258 

Pearson 260 

Peento 260 

IReproduceil from Transactions of the 11 irticultural Society of London IV : 512. 1822. 1 

Prolific 262 

Pr UN us Da vidia na 86 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS XUl 

FACING PAGE 

Ray 262 

Red Cheek Melocoton 264 

Reeves 266 

Rivers 266 

Rochester 268 

St. John 270 

Salwey 272 

Schumaker 274 

Smock 274 

Stevens 276 

Stump 278 

Summer Snow 278 

SuRPASSE 280 

Thurber 280 

Triana 282 

Triumph 282 

Waddell 284 

Wager 286 

Waterloo 288 

Wheatland 288 

Yellow Rareripe 290 

PEACH BLOSSOMS 

Alton (Large Flowered) 78 

Blood Leaf 78 

Chinese Free (Medium Flowered) 80 

Crosby (Small Flowered) 80 

Kentucky (Nectarine) 82 

Summer Snow (White Flowered) 82 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



CHAPTER I 

HISTORY OF THE PEACH 

The history of the peach follows step by step the history of agriculture. 
The beginning of agriculture, as depicted in the traditions and embellished 
in the poetry of ancient peoples, was the creation of useful plants by some 
Divinity. But, counting unwritten history and poetic fancy as naught 
and coming to recorded facts — those of history as we now have it — the 
beginning of agriculture is marked by two recorded events. The first 
occurred 2700 years B. c. when Emperor Chenming, Ruler of China, 
instituted ceremonies for the sowing of various vegetables and grains. The 
second event was the building of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh by some 
ruler who lorded it over Egypt between 2500 to 2000 years b. c. and who 
ornamented his handiwork with drawings of figs. 

Yet these early records in China and Egypt were not made at the 
beginnings of agriculture in those countries. Plants were undoubtedly 
cultivated centuries before it occurred to Emperor Chenming that rice, 
wheat and other crops deserved ceremonial sowings. The pyramids of 
Gizeh could only have been built by an organized, civilized people with 
cultivated fields on which to levy toll for the dormant season and lean 
years — pyramids could hardly be raised by a people forced to skim a 
day-to-day existence from wild plants. " Art is long and time is fleeting " 
in agriculture, and between the obscure beginnings of this ancient art, 
when naked men following the chase began to vary a meat diet with fruits, 
grains and roots plucked from the wild, and the regular cultivation of 
useful plants, as implied by these old records from China and Egypt, there 
are many steps and thousands and thousands of years. 

If, then, the history of the peach begins with the histor>' of agri- 
culture, and the beginnings of agriculture are lost in the obscurity of 
antiquity, it is useless to speculate as to how long the peach has been culti- 
vated. The statements of the early historians as to the age of the domesti- 
cated peach are so at variance that they serve only to confuse. Indeed, 
were we to attempt to bring into agreement the diverse assertions of 



2 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

historians we should never know even the place of origin of the peach; 
for it is upon data from botany that we must depend most in determining 
the habitat of our fruit. This subject we now come to discuss in detail. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE PEACH 

Names frequently breed misunderstandings and in the case of the 
peach a fine brood of mistakes as to the origin of the fruit has come from 
the name. As all know, " peach " and most of its equivalents in the 
countries of Europe are derived from " Persia " and this has given rise to 
the supposition that the original habitat of the fruit is Persia. The ancient 
authors who mention the peach, as Theophrastus, Columella and Pliny, 
agree that the home of the peach was Persia and, even until our own time, 
to be written in any of these worthies is proof conclusive. While negative 
evidence counts for but little, the notion is so firmly fixed that some, at 
least, of the races of peaches are Persian products that it seems best to 
clear the way for positive evidence by first proving that the first home 
of the peach was not Persia. 

Persia is pictured as a land of fruits before agriculture had begun in 
Greece and Rome. The quince and the pomegranate probably originated 
here and, with the olive, grape, almond, and, to the north at least, the 
cherry and plum, have been cultivated from three to four thousand years. 

At very early times the quince, pomegranate, olive and grape were 
introduced from Persia, according to De CandoUe, still our best authority, 
into Greece and Rome and even the cherry and plum, from countries to 
the north if not from Persia, reached southern Europe long before the 
peach. It seems certain, as De CandoUe suggests,^ that if the peach had 
been a native of Persia, had it existed there during all time, so beautiful 
and so delectable a fruit would have been taken earlier into Asia Minor 
and Greece. As gratifying to all the senses by which we judge fruits as 
any other product of the orchard, as easily transported and propagated 
as any — more so than most — it cannot be believed that the other fruits 
named would have been given preference over the peach by conquerors or 
travelers carrying Persian luxuries to westward countries. 

Moreover, as De CandoUe further points out, the several Hebrew and 
Sanskrit peoples did not speak in sacred or vulgar writings of the peach 
as they did many times of the olive, quince, grape and pomegranate. Yet 
these peoples radiated from the valleys of the Euphrates and were at all 



De CandoUe, Alphonse Or. Cult. Plants 222. 1885. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 3 

times in close communication with Persia. Since, according to the authori- 
tative De CandoUe, Xenophon, who retreated with the ten thousand 
401 B. c, does not mention the peach, this fruit probably did not reach 
Greece until Alexander's expedition and was first mentioned by Theo- 
phrastus 332 b. c. (if the fruit mentioned by Theophrastus is the peach) 
and did not reach Rome until after the beginning of the Christian era. 

The more one examines historical records the more evident it becomes 
that Greek and Roman writers assumed that the habitat of the peach, 
which they called the Persian apple, was Persia because it came thence 
to their ■ countries. Ancient historians very commonly and very con- 
fusingly made the assumption that the region from which a plant product 
came to their country was its first habitat. 

The best means of establishing the origin of a plant is to discover in 
what country it grows spontaneously. This would be a simple matter, 
indeed, if one could be sure that a given plant found growing wild is not 
an escape from cultivation. Here is the trouble in the case of the peach. 
According to the botanists the tree is now growing wild in Persia, as it is 
in nearby countries, and for that matter in other parts of the Old World 
and in many places in the New World. The painstaking De CandoUe, 
who has carefully sifted the evidence of the leading botanists until his time 
of writing, 1882, concludes that the peach has never been truly wild in 
Persia. An examination of the works of botanists writing since De Can- 
dolle's study of the subject does not show that any offers proof that the 
peach was originally wild in Persia. 

Without going into the matter further it seems safe to say that the 
Greek and Roman writers were at fault in naming Persia as the home of the 
peach. To summarize: its late distribution.as compared with that of other 
Persian fruits argues against such an origin; philology, which usually 
affords indications touching the habitat of a species, is against the Persian 
theory of origin since neither Hebrew nor Sanskrit names the peach; 
lastly, botany, the most direct means of discovering the geographic origin 
of a plant, offers no positive evidence that Persia is the home of the peach. 
The fallacy that the peach comes from Persia, written in nearly all horti- 
cultural and botanical works for 2000 years, now being disposed of, we 
may take up the claim of China that the peach is another of its great gifts 
to the world. 

A survey of the subject is convincing that the peach comes from 
China. Necessarily, such a survey must be brief, yet it is important 



4 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

that no doubt be left as to the origin of the peach, thus freeing pomological 
literature from the train of misunderstandings following the current opinion 
that part of our peaches, at least, come from Persia. The terms " Persian 
peaches " and the " Persian race of peaches " are misleading and should 
be discarded. Data from botany and history furnish the chief proofs 
that the fruit of this discussion is of Chinese origin. 

Botany and history are a hard team to drive but when the two do 
travel together in determining the origin of a plant the matter, as a rule, 
is settled. Does botany accord with history in placing the original peach 
in China? Botanists and explorers from first to last agree that the peach 
is, and long has been, wild in China but there is no agreement as to the 
nature of its wildness. Some say it is indigenous and others that it may 
be an escape from cultivation. The peach pins wild so quickly in countries 
to which it is adapted that it is almost impossible to say, from the evidence 
to be found, whether it is an original or only a naturalized inhabitant of 
China. But it seems more nearly to approach a truly feral condition in 
China than in any other country unless it be America and all know that 
in the New World it is an introduced plant. 

Of the botanists and explorers who report finding the peach wild in 
China, Frank N. Meyer ' of the United States Department of Agricialture 
is most explicit. Meyer, in sending seeds of wild peaches from China, 
accompanies them with the following remarks: 

"40001. Wild peaches having larger fruits than the ordinary wild 
ones, said to come from near Tze Wu, to the south of Sianfu, but some 
also probably collected from trees in gardens which were raised from wild 
seeds. When seen wild this peach generally assumes a low bush form of 
spreading habit ; when planted in gardens and attended to, it grows up into 
a small tree, reaching a height of 1 2 to 20 feet, with a smooth trunk of dark 
mahogany-brown color. The leaves are always much smaller and more 
slender than in cultivated varieties, while their color is much darker green. 
They seem to be somewhat less subject to various diseases than the culti- 
vated sorts and they are most prolific bearers, although the fruit is of very 
little value on account of its smallness and lack of flavor. In gardens 
around Sianfu this wild peach is utilized as a stock for improved varieties. 
It is also grown as an ornamental; said to be literally covered in spring with 
multitudes of shell-pink flowers." 

" 40002. Wild peaches, occurring in the foothills of the higher 
mountains at Tsing Ling Kang, Shensi, at altitudes from 2000 to 3000 feet, 
generally found at the edges of loess cliffs and on rocky slopes. Tliere is 



Meyer, Frank N. U. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants No. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 5 

a great deal of variation to be observed as rej^ards size and shape of leaves, 
density of foliage and general habits." 

" 40003. Wild peaches found on a mountain side, near Pai dja dien, 
Shen.si, at an elevation of 4000 feet; these small trees and bushes had borne 
such a heavy crop that the ground beneath them was covered with a layer, 
a few inches thick, of the small, yellowish, hairy fruits. The local inhabit- 
ants didn't consider them worth collecting even, and they were rotting 
and dr}4ng up." 

" 40004. Wild peaches occurring as tall shrubs in loess cliffs, at the 
Tibetan frontier, Kagoba, Kansu, at elevations of 6000-8000 feet. Save 
for some children who eat these wild peaches, they are otherwise considered 
worthless wild fruit. Local name Yeh t'ao, meaning ' wild peach,' and 
Mao t'ao, meaning ' hairy peach.' " 

" 40005. Wild peaches found on stony mountain slopes in a wild, 
very sparsely populated country, near Kwa tsa, on Siku River, Kansu. No 
fruit trees whatsoever are cultivated by the local settlers in the mountains, 
and the way some of these peach bushes grow excludes them from ever 
having been brought there by any man or even any quadruped; only birds 
might have transported them." 

In a letter to the author,' Mr. Meyer says further: 

" Where did I find the peach wild? Well, I first came across it in loess 
cliffs in southern Shensi at an elevation of about 4000 feet above sea. Later 
on I found plenty of them in central Shensi, in southern Kansu and in 
the Tibetan borderland, up to 7000 feet elevation above sea. All the 
plants I found were freestone types, and according to the natives they all 
have shell-pink flowers. In the mountains of the Chekiang Province, 
however, I found a type which seems to be clingstone." 

In still another letter sent me from the United States Department 
of Agriculture, Mr. Meyer says: 

" It is about one month ago since I wrote you last, and so far as real 
distance is concerned, I have not advanced much, but we went over some 
very interesting territory and I was lucky enough to discover the real wild 
peach, growing in loess ravines some 2-3 days to the East from here, near a 
village called Tchao yu. The plants are of smaller dimensions than our 
cultivated strains, and the stones are somewhat different as regards shape 
and grooves, but still on the whole there is little difference between a very 
poor seedling-peach and this wild one. 

" These wild peaches are locally cut for firewood, for the fruits are 
pretty near inedible, being small and having hard, sourish flesh. They 
grow at the edges of deep loess ravines and on the steep, sloping bottom 
of such ravines. The Chinese locally do not call this peach ' yeh tao ' 

' Feb. 4, 1916. 



6 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

or ' shan tao ' but ' Mao fao,' meaning ' hairy peach.' In the vicinity 
where they grow, no peaches are cultivated although half a day's journey 
lower down, one meets with some poor looking trees in gardens. 

" The elevation I found them was almost exactly 4000 feet above sea. 
I gathered some fruits, but they are not quite ripe; I am trying to ripen 
them off, however, so that we may obtain at least a few ripe seeds. As a 
stock, however, it has not the value the Davidiana peach has, not being as 
vigorous and apparently being attacked by the same pests that infest 
cultivated peaches. This ' find ' is of great interest, however, showing 
that wild peaches exist much nearer the coast than we suspected, and that 
the peach naturally is a native of semi-arid regions." 

The explorations made by Mr. Meyer cover, of course, but a small 
part of the vast empire of China. Further search will, no doubt, show 
many other localities in Central and Eastern Asia where the peach grows 
naturally and has probably done so from time immemorial. 

As all who consult them know, ancient authors are often at fault in 
matters of history in determining the origin of cultivated plants but they 
are usually fairly accurate in stating the date of culture of a plant in a 
country. In the case of the peach the date of culture can be established 
as so much earlier in China than elsewhere that history alone all but proves 
its previous existence there in the wild state. In short, the peach was a 
cultivated fruit in China before there were other agricultural communities 
from which it could come; for, be it remembered, in China, according to 
De Candolle, our best authority, agricultural and horticultural arts 
flourished long before they had even begun elsewhere, unless, possibly, 
Egypt be excepted, and here the peach, where it may be grown at all, is 
surely an introduced plant. 

A statement of the first known dates of peach-culture in various 
countries is strong proof that its cultivation began in China. According 
to De Candolle' the culture of the peach was " spoken of 2000 years before 
its introduction into the Greco-Roman world, a thousand years before its 
introduction into the lands of the Sanskrit-speaking race." As we have 
said, the Bible and other Hebrew books do not mention the peach and there 
is no Sanskrit name for it. Of the Greeks, Xenophon, 401 B. c, makes 
no mention of the peach but Theophrastus, a little later, 322 b. c, speaks 
of it as a fruit of Persia. Coming to the Romans, no mention is made of 
the peach by Cato, 201 b. c, nor by Varro, 117-27 e. c.but Pliny, a. d. 

> De Candolle, Alphonse Or. Cull. Plants 228. 1885. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 7 

79, expressly states that the peach was imported by the Romans from 
Persia not long before. 

De Candolle gives no authority for his statement that the peach was 
spoken of 2000 years before its introduction into Europe and I cannot 
verify it ; but a search through even such Chinese literature as is accessible 
to one who does not read the Chinese language shows that the peach was 
commonly spoken of in the literature of China several hundred years before 
the Christian era. Two examples must suffice, taking those that seem 
most authentic as to the identity of the peach. In the Shi-King, or book of 
poetry, a collection of ancient Chinese poems made by Confucius (551-478 
B. c.) the peach, in common with the plum, pear, jujube and other fruits, 
is several times mentioned. According to the translator all of these poems 
were written before the Sixth Century b. c, the oldest dating back eighteen 
centuries. Thus in Book I,' Odes of Chow in the South, is the following 
bit of verse: 

In Praise of a Bride 
" Graceful and young the peach-tree stands; 

How rich its flowers, all gleaming bright ! 

This bride to her new home repairs; 

Chamber and house she'll order right. 

Graceful and young the peach-tree stands; 
Large crops of fruit it soon will show. 
This bride to her new home repairs; 
Chamber and house her sway shall know. 

Graceful and young the peach-tree stands; 
Its foliage clustering green and full. 
This bride to her new home repairs; 
Her household will attest her rule." 

Other references to the peach may be found in Book IX,^ The Odes 
of Wei, and Book XIII,^ The Odes of Kwei. 

Superstitions and legends throw light on the antiquity of the objects 
with which they are connected. It is significant that the Chinese alone 
ascribe miraculous powers to the peach, their traditions of the properties 
of different forms of this fruit being both numerous and very ancient. 
M. Cibot, a French missionary among the Chinese, in a series of cyclopedic 



' Chinese Literature, Edited by Epiphanius Wilson Bk. I:i26. 1902. 
'Ibid. Bk. IX:i48, 149. 1902. 
>/*«/. Bk. Xni:i6i. 1902. 



8 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

volumes on China, devotes a chapter to the peach in which, after describ- 
ing the peaches of the country and giving a full discussion of methods of 
culture, he mentions numerous Chinese superstitions concerning this fruit. 
He writes:' 

" The Chinese have for a long time preserved the history of the first 
ages either in their books or in their traditions. The oldest of their books 
have perished. They have saved only a part of their ancient national 
works on the great wars and general uprisings, and the original traditions, 
changed in a thousand ways, made into fables, finally corrupted by idolatry, 
are today only chaos; but this chaos is not without any ray of light. Many 
of these traditions, although disfigured, bear back too ex;actly to the 
marvelous tales of the lost books to be able to mistake the beliefs of the 
early ages. Thus, there are many traditions referring to the peach. Some 
call it the tree of life, others the tree of death. Peaches lengthened to a 
point, of large size, and colored red on one side, are regarded by the 
Chinese as the symbol of a long life. In consequence of these ancient 
national superstitions, peaches enter into all the ornaments of painting 
and sculpture. They are saved for the salute to the new year. Here are 
several ancient texts on the peach and its fruits: 

"From Chin-non-King: 'The peach ' Yu ' signifies death and 
eternal life. If one has been able to eat it enough times, it saves the body 
from corruption till the end of the world.' From Chin-y-King: ' There 
is in the Orient a peach whose almond, eaten, makes eternal life.' From 
Chou-y-Ki : ' Whoever eats this fruit (the peach ' Yu ' from the Koue- 
liou Mountain) obtains immortal life.' 

" Still other texts could be cited but I will merely remark that in all 
the peach is connected with immortality. Again we find that certain 
peaches can not be offered by the ancients in sacrifice, and that the pre- 
mature blossoming of another peach signifies great calamities. To quote 
again: From Sin-lin: ' In the garden of Yang was the peach of death; 
whoever approached it must die.' From Fong-fou-teng : ' It is said in 
the book of Hoang-ti that two brothers found on a mountain a peach tree 
under which were a hundred demons to cause death to men.' From 
Lietchouen, on the subject of the evils which aflfiict the earth: ' the tree 
of Knowledge is the peach.' " 

Very interesting and illuminating as to the age of the peach in China, 
is an account given by Dr. Yamei Kin - who was asked by a member of 
the staff of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction, United 
States Department of Agriculture, for information concerning the peach- 
blossoms. After describing the several kinds of blossoms borne by Chinese 

' Cibot, Pierre Martial Mem. concernant I'hisl. les sciences etc. des Chinois. 11:280-293. 1777. 
2 U. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants. No. 102:823-825. 1914. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 9 

peaches, the writer gives some of the superstitions and legends which the 
Chinese connect with the peach. 

" The ordinary name for pink is peach flower color, and notwithstand- 
ing the love of Chinese for color, it is used sparingly, in fact, owing to its 
being associated with the peach blossom, seems to have an unsavory signifi- 
cance, as I found when I came home one day with a pink satin brocade 
gown that I had just purchased. My people held up their hands in horror, 
and exclaimed it was a mercy that I did not intend to wear that here, it 
would only do for outside countries that did not know about peach flowers, 
which remarks led me to leave it in America when I came back, though 
it was a very lovely delicate color and one of my prettiest gowns. 

" The reason for this prejudice is owing to its symbolism. Just as 
the violet is considered in western lands to be the symbol of modest worth, 
so the pkmi is that of feminine virtue in China and the peach flower the 
opposite. Not even the beauty of its color, whether delicate pink or deep 
cerise, redeems it from this fatal significance. In order that there may 
be no possible opportunity for a ' peach flower heart ' to spring up 
unawares in some girl of respectable family, it is not considered wise to 
plant a peach of any kind near the bed room windows of the court yards 
inhabited by the women, yet peach wands are supposed to be especially 
useful to beat ofif all evil spirits, only they must be plucked during a solar 
eclipse and a hole bored through one end for hanging up by, during a lunar 
eclipse, which perhaps accounts for their fewness, as during those times 
in the old days the people were generally busily occupied in beating gongs 
and firing off crackers to drive away the heavenly dogs which were supposed 
to be devouring those luminaries, and no one had time to think of making 
peach wands. The lucky possessor of an efficacious peach wand is sup- 
posed to be able to sleep at night w4th it under his pillow in full confidence 
that no evil spirits can harm him. 

" Taoism from early days has taken the peach as its particular fruit, 
signifying longevity, much as the apples of Hesperides were symbolic in 
the Grecian mythology. 

" Ftirthermore peach stones are often made into rosaries which are 
considered specially fine. There is a collection of tales by one Cornaby 
to be found in almost every library called ' A String of Peach Stones.' 
And a host of legends cluster around the tale of Sun, the stone monkey, 
eating the peaches of immortality stolen from the gardens of the genii, 
whereby he attains immortality. This theme is seen elaborated in many 
scenes, that decorate pottery, textiles, and congratulatory scrolls. 

" I wish that I were not tied down so much by tedious detail in the 
medical work, as there is a most interesting book that needs to be trans- 
lated telling much of the folk lore of the peach interwoven with the plot, 
which is supposed to be the journey of Hsien tsang to bring back the 



10 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

sacred sutras of Buddha from India. It is said that this is an actual 
historic occurrence, but this tale is evidently semi-religious and allegorical, 
as well, combining in itself the characteristics of Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress, Hans Christian Andersen, and the Arabian Nights, if you can 
imagine such a mixture, yet giving graphic pictures of Chinese life in 
various phases that are as true as when the book was written. 

" One of the most charming legends of peach flower lore is that of 
the ' Peach Blossom Fountain,' an allegory written by T'ao Yuan Ming 
between A. D. 365-427, describing how a fisherman got lost one day and 
penetrating up a river finds himself in a creek bordered with many peach 
trees full of bloom, at the end of which he comes upon a small mountain 
in which is a cave which he traverses and enters on a new country where 
there is every sign of prosperity, every one is courteous to each other, 
kindliness and contentment prevail, but they wear the garb of the times of 
the First Emperor some five centuries previous and have been lost to the 
rest of the country ever since. The fisherman returns after a sojourn 
with them, and tells his fellow villagers of this wonderful country and stirs 
up so much interest that finally the governor of the province joins in the 
search for this wonderful country, but it is all of no avail and at last the 
fisherman realizes that he will never more see the peach blossom days of his 
youth with its rosy dreams and ideals that come but once in a lifetime." 

Lastly, a significant fact suggesting the Chinese origin of the peach 
is found in the behavior of this fruit in America. The peach is more at 
home in North America than in any other part of the world unless it be 
China. Now, that there is a pomological alliance between eastern Asia 
and eastern America is well known. The remarkable relationship between 
the plants of the two regions was first set forth by Asa Gray and subsequent 
writers have added much to what he told us. The explanation lies, as 
all agree, in similarities in climate. Now, with this relationship of the 
wild and cultivated floras of eastern America and China in mind, the rapid 
acclimation and acclimatization of the peach in the United States are 
readily understood if we accept China as the habitat of this fruit. On 
the other hand, the natural plant-products of Persia find life anything 
but easy in eastern America. 

There is but one further consideration before beginning the history 
of the peach as a cultivated fruit. Thomas Andrew Knight and Charles 
Darwin contended that the peach is a modified almond. This hypothesis 
would scarcely deserve consideration were it not for the high authority 
of the men who espoused it — the judgments of a Knight and a Darwin 
cannot be overlooked. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK II 

HAS THE PEACH COME FROM THE ALMOND? 

In the light of evolution every plant has been preceded by another 
and since the peach and almond have many characters in common, one 
may have descended from the other. But as to which, if either, is the 
parent species it would seem idle to speculate with the shreddy and patchy 
knowledge we now possess of the descent of plants. Yet Thomas Andrew 
Knight, the greatest horticultural authority of his time and one of the 
leading experimenters of all time in this field of agriculture, maintained 
that the peach is a modified almond. His theory received the support of 
several of the leading English horticulturists of the last century and Darwin 
gave it credence to the extent of collecting data for its substantiation. 

Knight believed that the almond and the peach constituted a single 
species and that by selection under cultivation an almond could ulti- 
mately be turned into a peach.^ He sought proof for his theory in 
hybridization and on a tree raised from the seed of an almond fertilized 
by peach-pollen produced a fruit with soft and melting flesh and in all 
characteristics more like the peach than the almond. This experiment, 
which in the light of our present knowledge of the laws of inheritance does 
not in the least illuminate the hypothesis with which Knight started, 
carried on in the medieval days of plant-breeding, convinced not only 
Knight in his belief that the peach may be bred from the almond but 
led others, even down to our own time, to accept the theory. 

Thus, a writer, presiunably Lindley, in The Gardener's Chronicle ^ in 
1856 says " we are justified in the conclusion that the Almond bears about 
the same relation to the Peach that the Crab bears to the Cultivated 
Apple." Later, in the same article, the descent is pictured as follows: 

" I. Almond became more fleshy — • Bad clingstone. 

2. Bad clingstone became more fleshy — Good clingstone. 

3. Good clingstone became more fleshy — Our soft peaches. 

4. Soft peach sported, receding toward the original fleshy type 

and lost its wool — Nectarine." 
Another high authority in his time, Thomas Rivers,^ in 1863, held that 
peaches, if left to a state of nature would degenerate into thick-fleshed 
almonds and makes the positive statement that he has " one or two seed- 
ling peaches approaching very nearly to that state." 



' Knight Thomas Andrew Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 3:1. 
'Card. Chron. 531. 1856. 
' Card. Chron. 27. 1863. 



12 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Darwin/ in 1868, considers Knight's supposition at length and while 
he does not positively accept it, yet lends it his support by quoting several 
authors who put forth proofs in favor -of it. His most positive statement 
in discussing the theory referring to facts regarding the origin of the peach 
is: " The supposition, however, that the peach is a modified almond 
which acquired its present character at a comparatively late period, would, 
I presume, account for these facts." 

Carriere,^ one of the most eminent French pomologists of the last 
century, is the chief French champion of the theory that the peach came 
from the almond and devotes several pages in his estimable work, Vnrictcs 
De Peckers, in demonstrating that the one is a form of the other. His 
arguments, however, are but amplifications of those of Knight and Lindley 
though he cites more intermediate forms than either of the English writers 
— so many that they go far toward convincing one of the correctness of 
his views. There is the feeling, however, in the case of Carriere, in the 
light of present knowledge, that his botanical evidence is pushed a little 
too far for full credulity. 

Knight, Lindley, Rivers, Darwin and Carriere, the men holding the 
theory whose opinions are most worthy consideration, fell into error, as 
we think, through attaching too much importance to likenesses in the 
fruits of the peach and almond and because they became confused in 
following the behavior of the two fruits under hybridization. As we shall 
show later in discussing the characters of the peach, this fruit differs from 
the almond in other characters than those of the fruit — characters not at 
all likely to be changed by cultivation and selection as would all those of 
the fruits. Knight's proof from hybridization was purely speculative. 
The fact that the peach and almond may be crossed, giving intermediate 
forms, nowadays would not be looked upon as proof that the two neces- 
sarily belong to one species. However, in the light of the knowledge in 
existence at the beginning of the last century regarding the crossing of 
plants, we need not apologize for the inference that Knight drew from his 
simple experiment. 

Students of heredity would find almost conclusive proof that the 
peach is not a modified almond — a descendant, say, in this geologic period 
at least — in the fact that there is no recorded case of a peach fertilized 
by a peach producing an almond, or vice versa. If the relationship were 

'Darwin Arts, and P!s. Domesl. 1:^57. 1868. 

- Carriere, E. A. Varietes De Peckers 25-33. 1867. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



13 



at all close, if the two species had had a common origin even though in 
rather remote times, if they were nearly enough related readily to hybridize 
or be hybridized, it would be expected that now and then, as in the case 
of a nectarine, the peach would produce an almond or the almond a peach. 

Geographical botany also opposes Knight's hypothesis, as De Can- 
dolle' points out, for, as he plainly shows, the almond had its origin in 
western Asia, it being found truly wild in many parts of south-western 
Asia and having been cultivated many centuries before the peach was 
known in these regions. On the other hand, the almond was not known 
in China before the Christian era whereas the peach had been cultivated 
tliere at least 2000 years anterior to the introduction of the almond. With 
such widely separated habitats, the two fruits can hardly be considered as 
parent and offspring. 

We cannot close our eyes to the patent relationships of the peach and 
the almond. That the two constitute but one species, as we now consider 
species, or that they bear the close relationship of the peach and the 
nectarine, probably no one now in high authority will concede. But for 
the weight of the names we have used, and the fact that the theory still 
finds supporters. Knight's hypothesis, the outcropping of a speculative 
mind in a speculative age, might have been overlooked or dismissed with 
a word. 

THE PEACH IN ASIA 

We must have more knowledge of the peach in Asia than the bare 
fact that it originated somewhere in the vast empire of China. We want, 
first, to know what the characters of the prototypal peach were. If we 
can get some idea of the original wild peach of China we shall know some- 
thing of how this fruit has been improved by man and, perhaps, some- 
thing of its future potentialities. Second, though not essential to this 
study, it will be profitable to peach-growers to inquire whether there are 
types of peaches still remaining in China that might be improved under 
western cultivation. If so, we want them, since our cultivated peaches 
are not free from faults, some of which we might get rid of by the inter- 
jection of new blood. It is now about seventy years since Robert Fortune, 
the adventurous English plant-collector, began dipping into the horti- 
cultural treasures of China; and recent explorations make plain that there 
are still riches in plants in that country — the fact that they can now be 
brought through the " open door," instead of as spoils to be smuggled 

' De CandoUe, Alphonse Or. Cull. Plants 229. 1885. 



14 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

out, makes it easier to obtain any new types of peaches that may now be 
found. 

What were the characters of the prototypal peach in China? The 
few records that have come down through the ages do not enable us to 
form much of a picture of the primitive peach. But plants do not change 
quickly in China, for their orchard-cultivation is not as intensive nor 
selection as assiduously practiced as in western countries, so that we are 
warranted in assuming that cultivation for forty centuries has not greatly 
changed this fruit. Besides, it is probable that the wild forms, whether 
truly wild or reverted escapes from cultivation, now represent closely 
the original indigenous stocks of the peach. Luckily, we have trustworthy 
sources of information in regard to both the wild and the cultivated peaches 
as they now grow in China. We are at this time concerned, it should be 
said, only with the common peach, Primus persica. 

Fortune began botanical explorations in China in 1844, since which 
time one enthusiast after another, thirsting for botanical spoils and honors, 
has brought from eastern Asia and Europe to America, varieties and species 
of ornamental and agricultural plants. In the accounts of these exploring 
and collecting expeditions, there are many records of peaches, wild and 
cultivated, that are now growing in China and from these we may piece out 
a fair description of the original races of this fruit. The United States 
Department of Agriculture, through its agricultural explorers, collaborators 
and correspondents in the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction, 
has given special attention to agricultural plants and from the accounts 
of the workers in this department alone, we can get a good picture of the 
peach of the Twentieth Century in China which, as we think, will represent 
very well the original stock from which all peaches have come. 

It is now almost the unanimous judgment of scientists that the char- 
acters of plants are independent entities which are thrown into various 
relationships with each other in individuals and groups of individuals as 
varieties and species. This conception of unit-characters lies at the 
foundation of botanical and horticultural descriptions and of plant-breeding. 
It is more important, then, to know what the characters of Chinese peaches 
were and are than to attempt to describe in full the wild and cultivated 
peaches of China. In this, a horticultural study, it answers our purpose 
to consider chiefly the characters of the fruits. 

The fruit-characters that differentiate races and varieties of culti- 
vated peaches in America are ten, as follows: Downy skin; smooth skin; 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 5 

white flesh ; yellow flesh ; red flesh ; flesh clinging to the stone ; flesh free from 
the stone ; shape more or less round ; shape roundish but decidedly beaked ; 
shape distinctly flat. Let us see by direct quotations from the workers 
in the United States Department of Agriculture how many of these ten 
fruit-characters are named in the wild and cultivated Chinese peaches 
of today. 

Downy skin. — A downy skin is the normal condition of the peach. 
This character is found in all of the peaches to be mentioned in this dis- 
cussion except those under the next heading. 

Smooth skin. — " 28963 — From Samarkand, Turkestan.' 

" A small nectarine of very firm flesh and of subacid flavor; red 
throughout; from a distance resembles a crab apple more than anything 
else. Said to come from Chartchui." 

"29227- — From Samarkand, Russian Turkestan. A yellow cling- 
stone nectarine of medium size; meat very firm and of medium sweet taste, 
not melting." 

" 30325 ^ — From Khotan, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called 
Dagatch. Fruits red, of medium size, clingstone." 

" 30332 ^ — From Karghalik, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called 
Anar-shabdalah. Fruits rather small, whitish pink in color, and of sweet, 
aromatic flavor. This is a medium-late ripener and a rare local variety." 

"30334* — From Shagra-bazar, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine 
called Kizil-dagatch. Fruits small, red; medium early." 

" 30335 ° — From Upal, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called 
Ak-tagatch. Fruits large, white; a late ripener; of good keeping and 
shipping qualities." 

" 30336 ^ — From Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called 
Ak-dagatch. Fruits medium-sized, of white color; clingstone; late in 
ripening; of good keeping and shipping qualities." 

" 30341 ** — From Upal, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called Kizil 
tagatch. Fruits large, red throughout; meat firm; of good keeping and 
shipping qualities." 

" 30359 ^ — From Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. A very large, red, 

■ V. S. D. A. Bu. of PL Ind. Bui. 227:20. lyi i. 

' Ibid. 227:47. 191 1. 

' Ibid. 233:76. 1912. 

'Ibid. 233:77. 191 2. 

» Ibid. 

« Ibid. 

^ Ibid. 233:78. 1912. 

■^ Ibid. 

''Ibid. 233:80. 191 2. 



l6 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

clingstone nectarine; late ripener; can be kept for several weeks after being 
fully ripe." 

" 30647 ' — From Khotan, Chinese Turkestan. A nectarine called 
Togatch Moneck." 

" 30648 - — From Guma, Chinese Turkestan. A small late variety 
of nectarine, white in color, of fresh, sweet taste and good keeping 
qualities." 

White flesh. — "27iii'' — Chinese name Ta po tao. A large white 
peach, native in Shantung Province, China (Chef 00 district)." 

" 30324 ■' — From Khotan, Chinese Turkestan. A peach called Ak-shab- 
dalah. Fruits large, white, juicy, and aromatic; an early ripener." 

"30337'' — From Shagra-bazar, Chinese Turkestan. A peach called 
Kok-shabdalah. Fruits medivim large, of greenish-white color; taste 
sweet; medium late; not a keeper." 

" 30338 '"' — From Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan. A peach called Taka- 
shabdalah. Fruits very large, of whitish color with a slight blush; late in 
ripening; can be kept for several weeks." 

" 30339 ' — From Karawag, Chinese Turkestan. A peach called 
Ak-shabdalah. Fruits large, white in color; flavor very sweet and pleasing; 
early in ripening." 

" 17167 * — From Tung-chow. A large, white peach, considered a 
fine fruit by the Chinese. Non-melting flesh." 

" 20239 " — From Kirin. A pale colored, medium-sized peach. Kirin 
is the most northern locality where I have as yet found peaches." 

" 271 1 1 '° — Chinese name Tah-biiy-toiver. A large white peach native 
in Shantung Province, China." 

Yellow flesh. — " 30333 " — From Shagra-bazar, Chinese Turkestan. 
A peach called Serech-shabdalah . Fruits very large, of yellow color 
throughout; meat very firm; clingstone. Stands shipping well, but does 
not keep long; late in ripening (October)." 

" 35201 *- — From Mengtsz, Yunnan, China. Seeds of Mengtsz white 
peach and yellow free peach. This fruit is grown all over this province 



■ u. s 


. D. 


.A. 


Bu. of PI. 


hid. 


Bui. 


242: 


27, 




191 


,. 


' Ibid. 






















'Ibid. 


207 


:62, 


1911. 
















' Ibid. 


233:76- 


1912. 
















' Ibid. 


233 


78. 


1912. 
















6 Ibid. 






















' Ibid. 






















'Ibid. 


106 


:26. 


1907. 
















' Ibid. 


132 


:8o. 


1908. 
















'« U. S. D. 


.4. 


Bui. of Ft 


•r. PI 


. Int. 


No. 


32 


:iq 




1910. 


" U. .S. D. 


.4. 


Bu. of PI 


. Ind. 


Bui. 


233 


:77 




191 


2. 


■■- U. S. 


D. 


.4. 


Bu. of PI. 


lod. 


Im: of S. 


0- 


P. 


/. 


21. 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK 1 7 

and occasionally attains an enormous size, and in tliat respect could easily 
compete with the best French peaches.' 

Red flesh. — " 6543 ' — From Sai Tseo. Long, rather pointed, red- 
fleshed, freestone." 

" 34275 - — From Soochow, China. This is a mixed lot of peach seeds 
containing some from red clingstones and some from white freestones." 

" 17728 ^ — From Matou. A peach described to me by the natives as 
very large, red meated, and juicy." 

" 21991 * — From Hangchow, Chehkiang, China. A flat, red-meated 
peach, not very sweet in taste. Chinese name Iliiug pien tao." 

Clingstone. — " 30340 * — From Karawag, Chinese Turkestan. A peach 
called Ais-shabdalah. Fruits large, pinkish -white; meat firm, sweet; 
clingstone. It is said here that it can be kept for several months." 

"21989'' — From Feitcheng, Shantung, China. The most famous 
peach of northern China, called the Fei tao. The fruits grow as heavy as 
one pound apiece and are pale yellowish colored, with a slight blush; meat 
white, except near the stone, where it is slightly red; taste excellent, sweet, 
aromatic, and juicy. Is a clingstone. Has extraordinary keeping and 
shipping qualities. The branches need propping up on account of the 
weight of the fruits." 

" 29991 ' — Seeds of a peach from Tsinanfu, Shantung, China. It is 
a cling and though rather inconvenient for eating, is very large and luscious, 
coming into market about the middle of September and lasting for a month 
or more." 

Freestone. — " 6635 * — From mountains near Ichang. Flowers late, 
fruit ripens in September. Freestone. Fruit small and quite hairy." 

"30357' — From Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. A large, red, free- 
stone peach, fine flavored; a medium-late ripener, and a most prolific 
bearer." 

" 30358 '" — From Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. A large, pale reddish, 
freestone peach of very fine flavor; medium-late ripener; not a keeper." 

"39428" — Amygdalus sp. — Seeds of a wild peach from Sianfu, 
Shensi, China. Stones of the real wild peach, growing in the mountains, 



' U. S. D. A. Bu. of PI. Ind. Bui. 66:95. 1905. 

^ U. S. D. A. Bu. of PI. Ind. I>,v. of S. & P. I. 32. 

' U. S. D. A. Bu. of PL Ind. Bui. 106:50. 1907. 

*Ibid. 137:31. 1909. 

''Ibid. 233:78. 191 2. 

«7W(f. 137:31- 1909- 

' U. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants No. 59:404. 1911 

' U. S. D. A. Bu. of Pi. Ind. Bui. 66:102. 1905. 

^ Ibid. 233:80. 1 91 2. 

'" Ibid. 233:80. 19 1 2. 

" V. S. D. A. Plant Immii^mnts 103:828. 1914. 



l8 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

one day's journey south of Sianfu. The fruits are small, hard and sourish, 
but there is considerable variation in them as regards size and taste. They 
are apparently all freestones and while some have red flesh near the stone, 
Others are white throughout." 

Round peaches. — Roundness is one of the characteristics of the peach 
and it but labors the argument to give space to show that this character 
is found in Chinese varieties. All peaches mentioned in this discussion 
are round or roundish except those coming under the heading " flat." 

Round and beaked. — " 8331 to 8334 ' — Eagle Beak peach from Canton, 
China. From orchard trees growing near the Great North Gate of Canton, 
at Ngau Ian Kong, of the Ying tsui t'o or Eagle Beak peach. This variety 
resembles the Honey closely, except that the pointed tip of the fruit is 
more curved, according to Dr. J. M. Swan, of the Canton Hospital." 

"9805^ — From Canton, China. Hung Wat tint. A variety of the 
' Honey ' type, reported to be good for preserves and not so sweet as the 
Ying tsui or Eagle Beak variety. It is medium early." 

"22650' — Shanghai. These peaches are called the Honey peach, 
and I think are very fine." 

Flat. — " 6541 "^ — From Sai Tseo, above Hankow. Flat, freestone, 
ripens in May." 

" 6542 ^ — From near Sai Tseo, above Hankow. White, fine fleshed, 
flat, freestone, ripening the middle of May." 

" 6544 ^ — From Sai Tseo. Medium size, flat, freestone, ripening in 
May." 

" 6545 ' — From Sai Tseo. Flat, freestone, quality very good. Ripens 
in June." 

" 29991 * — Chinese Flat Peach. From Tsinan, Shantung, China. 
Called Feicheng. It is a cling and, though rather inconvenient for eating, 
is very large and luscious, coming into market about the middle of Sep- 
tember and lasting for a month or more." 

" 30482 ^ — From about 50 miles southwest of Tsinan, Shantung, 
China. Feicheng. Chinese flat peach. This is a large, luscious cling, 
very much esteemed by the Chinese." 



> u. s 


D..I. Bu.of PI 


Ind 


Bui 


66 


2 Ibid. 


66:306. 


1905- 








^ Ibid. 


142:21. 


1909. 








> Ibid. 


66:95. 


1905. 








'- Ibid. 


66:95. 


1905. 








" Ibid. 












• Ibid. 












« Ibid. 


233:47. 


1912 








Ubid. 


242:12. 


1912. 









THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 9 

"21990' — From Kianchau, Shantung, China. A flat, juicy, white 
peach of fine taste. Chinese name Pai pien kio." 

"21992^ — From near Chiningchou, Shantung, China. A flat, pale- 
fleshed peach, juicy but somewhat insipid." 

" 22352 ' — From Shifengtse Temple, west of Peking, Chihli, China. 
Said to be medium sized, very flat, and of reddish color. Chinese name 
Pien tan." 

White stone. — "8340* — From Canton, China. Pak Wat tint t'o. 
A slightly sweet, white stone variety of rather small size, preferred by some 
to the Ying tsui t'o, which, it is said, has too sweet a flavor. It has no 
beak like the latter, but is a typical south Chinese shape, according to 
Dr. J. M. Swan, of the Canton Hospital, who very kindly described this 
variety." 

" 24915 * — Hufjg zvat to (red-stone peach)." 

" 24916 " — Paak wat to (white-stone peach)." 

"The Hung wat to is a new variety and so recognized by the Chinese. 
From what I can gather they believe the Paak wat to to be the best, but 
have some trees of the Hung wat to. The Hung wat to seems to blossom 
much quicker than the Paak wat to.'' 

Winter peaches.'' — " The so-called winter peaches they have here are 
all clingstones, somewhat watery and not very fine in general." 

" 30340 * — From Chinese Turkestan is said locally to keep for several 
months." 

" Cuttings of nectarines from Chinese Turkestan. Among these are 
some from an altitude of 5000 feet, large, late ripeners, and keeping and 
shipping well, and one, number 30359,^ recommended by the British consul, 
Mr. Macartney, is said to keep for several weeks after being fully ripe." 

"30482'° — Cuttings of the Feitcheng peach from about fifty miles 
southwest of Tsinan, Shantung, China. It is a late variety, coming into 
market about the middle of September or October. It is reported to have 
such unusual keeping qualities, that it can be kept, when wrapped in tissue 
paper, until February. Though a cling stone it is luscious, sweet and 
aromatic, and of unusual size, reaching a pound in weight and is so prized 
by the Chinese that as much as 15 cents apiece is paid for it in the region 

' U. S. D. A. Bu. of PL hid. Bui. 137:31- '909- 
^Ibid. 

' Ibid. 137:46. 1909. 
' Ibid. 66:191. 1905. 
''Ibid. 162:50. 1909 
nbid. 

' U. S. D. .1. Platil Immigrants 51:4. 1910. 
^ Ibid. 60:411. 191 1. 
^ Ibid. 60:412. 1911. 
"Ibid. 62:431. 1911. 



20 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

where it is grown; every year the Feitcheng peaches are sent as a present 
to the Imperial court in Pekin." 

The evidence given encourages the beUef that in the native peaches 
of China may be found all of the characters that distinguish cultivated 
peaches wheresoever grown. The smooth-skinned peach, or nectarine, 
from the evidence at my command, is not common in eastern China but in 
Chinese and Russian Turkestan it is evidently one of the commonest fruits. 
Neither does yellow flesh appear to be a common character of peaches of 
eastern China but is now and again mentioned so that it may be put down 
as existing in the peaches of the region. Bear in mind that the accounts 
given are but random ones taken by persons not more interested in peaches 
than in other agricultural products and covering, of course, but a very small 
part of the vast region under the dominion of China. There is, no doubt, 
much to be learned about the peaches of Asia in future explorations.^ 

In America, at least, certain characters of peaches, as flatness, smooth 
skin, red flesh and prolonged beak are looked upon as comparatively new 
in this fruit. At any rate, varieties having these relatively rare char- 
acters are spoken of as sports and pomologists, as we shall see, not infre- 
quently announce the date of birth of one or another of these characters. 
Now, a careful examination of the evidence, scant though it is, will carry 
conviction to all that none of the prominent characters of peaches have 
originated within the period covered by history — all exist in China and 
probably have so existed since time beyond record. 

The size and color of the blossoms are distinguishing characters of 
races and varieties of cultivated peaches, less valuable in classification than 
the fruit-characters we have been discussing only because they are less 
numerous. Peach -blossoms fall into four very distinct kinds: Petals 
large and pink; petals intermediate in size and pink or red; petals small 
and red or reddish, and petals large and white. Through the United 
States Department of Agriculture, I am in possession of copies of nine 



' M. Cibot, a French missionary, writing nearly a century and a half ago in his memoirs concerning 
the Chinese (11:280-293. 1784), gives the following account of peaches with which he was familiar in 
China at that time: — 

" Peaches are distinguished by size and color, the shape and earliness of their fruit. Tliere are some 
whose flesh is white, some greenish, some a delicate yellow, some a yellow orange and some marble; some 
are round, some oval, some lengthened to a point like a crow's beak. Peaches are heard of weighing two 
pounds or even more. The largest ones I have seen were scarcely three and a half inches in length and 
diameter; as to earliness, in the middle provinces there are peaches almost as soon as cherries. It is still 
more astonishing that some varieties do not ripen here till October, and that there is a secret by which 
they can be kept till January, just as fresh, just as beautiful, and just as delicious as if right off the tree." 



THK PEACHKS OK NEW YORK 21 

letters from Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction correspondents of the 
United States Department in China who had been asked to report on the 
size and color of peach -blossoms in the parts of China in which they lived. 
The information thus obtained is most interesting but space forbids con- 
sidering it further at present than to say that it indubitably establishes 
the fact that peaches with the four kinds of blossoms are found in China. 
This further encourages the belief, just set forth, that the essential cliar- 
acters of peaches are old, of great fixity and originated in China at a time 
in the past on which it would be idle to conjecture. 

It is interesting to note that there are peaches in China with at least 
two characters not found in any American varieties. Two varieties are 
mentioned as having " white stones." There is no peach in America with 
stones that could be described as white though several early white-fleshed 
peaches have light-colored stones. This character is unimportant and 
seems, from the brief descriptions of the varieties having such stones, not 
to be correlated with other especially desirable characters, yet such a peach 
would, at least, add an interesting novelty to the flora of this fruit. The 
other character, that of late keeping, appears to have more value. A 
peach that would " keep for several months " or one ripening in September 
" that can be kept, when wrapped in tissue paper, until February," is 
highly desirable. No doubt through the efforts of the workers in the 
United States Department of Agriculture we shall sooner or later be grow- 
ing these peaches in America. 

As the probable home of the peach, we have given China so much 
space in this discussion of the peach in Asia that we can now but briefly 
summarize what is known of this fruit in other Asiatic countries. 

The peach in Japan. — From Fruit Culture in Japan ' it is patent that 
the peach is one of the leading fruits of the country. In number of varieties 
of the several fruits grown in Japan the peach is exceeded only by the 
persimmon — ninety-five peaches and two nectarines being listed, all 
having Japanese names. The following account gives some idea of the 
peach -industry as carried on in Japan: 

" There are a number of varieties of our native peaches and nectarines. 
From the extreme south of Formosa to Hokkaido, local forms are cultivated 
side by side with Western and Chinese varieties, which are all much 
superior to ours in all respects. During the past twenty years, the grow- 
ing of introduced peaches has replaced the native one with striking rapidity. 

' Ikeda, T. The Fruit Culture in Japan 32, 33. 1907. 



22 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Their growing seems to be naturally limited in Hokkaido to the south part 
up to about 43 degrees N. L. The midseason and late varieties do not 
properly ripen there and peach growing consequently does not develop to 
be a profitable industry in Hokkaido. Peaches are rather easy to culti- 
vate and seem to be less susceptible to the effects of climate, than apples, 
provided suitable sites and soil be given. Consequently peach orchards 
are found scattered here and there all over the country. For the peaches 
there is no difference between the two longitudinal halves of Japan. At 
present, large orchards of peaches, regularly planted and trained, are 
found on the alluvial lowlands and hillsides. The heav>' rainfall during 
June and July causes an overluxuriance of growth and considerable portion 
of the fruits drop down without reaching maturity. To prevent the damage 
from the parasites our people have learned through experience the impor- 
tant operation of bagging. On the loamy soils, good qualities of fruits 
may be attained, but the growers are accustomed to prefer light sandy soils 
to insure success. Sometimes rather dry hillsides give good results." 

The peach in Turkestan and Persia. — We shall become too deeply 
involved if we attempt to trace the cultivation of peaches in all of the 
countries of Asia. A sentence each suiffces for other regions than China 
and Japan, excepting Turkestan, where the peach seems preeminently at 
home, and must therefore have more than a word. 

The peach is commonly grown in Mongolia and Cochin China. ^ Several 
kinds of peaches are cultivated in the north of India. ^ The peach requires 
the greatest care to ensure success in the north-east of India.^ A cor- 
respondent of the United States Department of Agriculture at Kashgar, 
British India, describes a nectarine grown there wanting " a hot but only 
a short summer."^ Meyer, Agricultural Explorer for the United States 
Department of Agriculture, found a variety of peach growing at Kirin, 
Mongolia, not far from Vladivostock, which he says " is the most northern 
locality where I have yet found peaches."^ These references might be 
multiplied but enough are given to show that the peach grows wild or 
cultivated wherever the climate permits in central and eastern Asia. 

The peach seems to be quite as much at home, as highly prized and as 
commonly grown in Russian Turkestan, northern Persia, Trans-Caucasia 
and Asia Minor — the countries of western Asia — as in the eastern part 



Loureiro, Fl. Cochin. 315. 
■ Royle, Illust. Bot. Himal. 204. 
' Hooker, Sir Joseph, Jour, of Bol. 54. 1850. 

'Hendricks, P. J. P. U. S. D. .1. Bur. PI. Ind. Bui. 97:72. 1905. 
s Meyer, F. W. V. S. D. A. Bur. PI. Ind. Bui. 132:80. 1908. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 23 

of the continent. The Chinese early discovered trade routes over the 
mountains from the center of Asia to Kashmir, Bokhara and northern 
Persia. What more probable than that in remote times the seeds of peaches 
should have been carried westward from China and the peach thus have 
been introduced into western Asia where it at once found a congenial soil 
and climate. The peach-tree is so easily raised from the pit that its dif- 
fusion along routes of travel must have been very rapid. 

Of many accounts of the peaches of this region, long and short, perhaps 
the following from Mr. Albert Regel gives, in the space to be spared, the 
best idea of the extent of the peach-region in western Asia and the races 
represented — races rather than varieties, for of the latter there must be 
legions since we are told the trees are grown from seed. Regel,' a physician 
by vocation, lived in Turkestan for nine years and collected fruits and 
flowers as an avocation. He seems to have penetrated every nook and 
corner of Turkestan and adjacent regions. Of peaches and nectarines he 
says: 

" Next to the pomegranate, the Asiatics prize the peach, and the 
Oriental poetry compares its lusciousness to the fruits of Paradise. The 
culture of the peach reaches its northern limit in the district of the Hi. 
The young plants, which, as throughout Asia, are grown from the seed, 
without grafting, suffer greatly there from frost and require careful cover- 
ing; nevertheless the large, smooth, red and the rough, hairy, yellow fruit 
of the Chinese varieties develop excellent characteristics. According to 
the observations of the naturalist Wilkins, there are 40 varieties in the 
Kokan district, among them some Chinese ones. In the South the peach 
extends to Afghanistan and Tshotral ; its proper home, however, is Northern 
Persia to the Caucasus. In Darvas the peach forms trees 30 feet high with 
broad tops. The rough-skinned giant peaches of the garden of Kalai- 
chumb are of unsurpassed lusciousness and aroma, and most inviting 
bloom (tinting of the cheeks). They attain the size of an average apple. 
The fruitfulness of this variety is so great that the leaves seem to be con- 
cealed by the peaches. The Bokhariots prize the smaller rough skinned, 
and red cheeked variety at Tchaspak, which is distinguished by strong 
aroma and firm, almost astringent flesh. The yellow peaches are especially 
sweet. The number of rough -skinned kinds at Kalaichumb is considerable. 

" The smooth -skinned nectarines of this region, among which there are 
smaller, pale yellow varieties and very large red cheeked ones, are of 
unusually fine flavor and melting flesh; but they are equalled by the 
nectarines of Samarkand. There are also small sweet yellow kinds, which 
stand half way between the rough coated and smooth coated peaches. 

1 Montreal Hort. Soc. Rpt. 12:64, 65. 1886-87. 



24 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Such an one grows in the exposed region of Paendish. In Jasqulam, a 
small rough-skinned, red peach with astringent flesh and musky aroma, 
flourishes. Roshan, the district of Barpaendsha, and Surshan on the lower 
Hund, produce later ripening and less valuable varieties, than the territory 
of the lower Paendish." 

Another quotation shows the intensity of the orcharding in some parts 
of this favored land of fruits. In his chapter on the Zarafshan \'alley, 
Schuyler says: ' 

" The gardens constitute the beauty of all this land. The long rows 
of poplar and elm trees, the vineyards, the dark foliage of the pomegranate 
over the walls, transport one at once to the plains of Lombardy or of 
Southern France. In the early spring the outskirts of the city, and indeed 
the whole valley, are one mass of white and pink, with the bloom of almond 
and peach, of cherry and apple, of apricot and plum, which perfume the air 
for miles around. These gardens are the favourite dwelling-places in the 
summer, and well may they be. Nowhere are fruits more abundant, and 
of some varieties it can be said that nowhere are they better. The apricots 
and nectarines I think it would be impossible to surpass anywhere. These 
ripen in June, and from that time until winter frviit and melons are never 
lacking. Peaches, though smaller in size, are better in flavour than the 
best of England, but they are far surpassed by those of Delaware. The 
big blue plums of Bvikhara are celebrated through the whole of Asia. The 
cherries are mostly small and sour. The best apples come either from 
Khiva, or from Suzak, to the north of Turkestan, but the small white 
pears of Tashkent are excellent in their way. The quince, as with us, is 
cultivated only for jams or marmalades, or for flavouring soup." 

West-central Asia, " the cradle of races," is, as well, the cradle of 
fruits and vegetables and he who would know more of its orchards, gardens 
and vineyards should read Schuyler's Turkestan and Lansdell's Russian 
Central Asia. We have quoted from the first-named book and now close 
the discussion of peaches in Asia by a few brief quotations from Lans- 
dell, taking a few from many to bring out points worth noting. We 
usually think of flat peaches as belonging to southeastern Asia, yet Lans- 
dell found them in west-central Asia:- " Here we bought our first ripe 
grapes and nectarines. Apricots ripen at Kuldja at the beginning of July, 
and we were, therefore, too late for them, but of late peaches, that ripen 
early in Augtist, we came in for the last, flat in form, about an inch and 
a half in diameter and half an inch in thickness. They tasted fairly well, 
but there was little flesh on the stone." 



'Schuyler, Eugene Turkestan 1:296, 297. 1876. 

■ Lansdell, Henry Russian Central Asia 1:223. 1885. 



THK PKACHES OF NKW YORK 2$ 

Nectarines, as we have mentioned before, seem to be especially ])lenti- 
ful in this region: ' " In the market (Vierny) we also bought grapes, and, 
still better, small but luscious nectarines, the latter for a halfpenny each, 
of which, as I sat over my writing at night, I ate so many as to alarm 
Mr. Sevier, whose medical instincts led him to fear for the consequences. 
All went well, however, and I never stinted myself from that time onward 
from Central Asian fruit, and I am thankful to say was not once 
inconvenienced thereby." 

As throwing light on the wild fruits of this region, we have Lansdell's 
statement that there are whole forests of almond trees and many species 
of cherries, plums, apples, pears and apricots, but wild peaches are not 
mentioned. - 

On another page we are told that peaches in Bokhara are of three 
varieties, red, white and green, and in a foot-note that they are grown as 
follows:' " When sown, the stone is put in the earth two fingers deep, 
before the frosts set in ; water is then let in and allowed to freeze ; after that, 
earth is put over it and left till the following spring, when the young shoots 
are transplanted at intervals of four paces. The best peaches are said 
to come from Samarkand." 

One is tempted to enlarge upon fruit-possibilities in these west-Asiatic 
valleys. Without much strain upon the imagination it is easy to conjure 
up visions of great fruit-industries in west Asia rivaling those of our own 
Pacific Coast when communications with European markets are opened 
and if the people now there or those who may migrate there begin to make 
use of their opportunities and to take advantage of the best that art and 
science now ofifer horticulture. In the event of such a development, 
peaches, fresh and dried, will not be the least of the products of the region. 

THE PEACH IN EUROPE 

One finds treasures of experience and inspiration for narrative in the 
history of the peach in Europe. But to present a systematic record of 
the peach as it traveled from country to covmtry after its introduction into 
ancient Greece would require a volume and a long one, which, interest- 
ing and profitable as it might be, could hardly be justified in this work. 
Present purposes are best served by attempting only to point out the 
landmarks in the history and development of the peach from the time it 



' Lansdell, Henry Russian Central A s 
■Ibid. 1 :6o8. 1885. 
Ibid. 2:8,^. 1885. 



26 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

left Asia until it reached America. The first landmark is in the intro- 
duction of the peach into Greece. 

The peach in Greece. — As to the approximate date and the manner 
in which the peach reached Greece, there is now common accord among 
those who may be considered authorities on the history of fruits. Theo- 
phrastus (332 b. c.) was the first Greek to mention the peach, speaking of 
it as a " Persian fruit." It may be, of course, that the peach came to 
Greece from Asia Minor or Persia at an earlier date. One might well 
suspect that if peaches were growing in Persia at the time of the retreat 
of the Ten Thousand (401 b. c), since the army must have traversed the 
country in which, according to some, the peach is native and at least had 
probably then been introduced, the taste of so pleasant a frmt would have 
inspired some soldier of the retreating Greeks to carry seeds to his western 
home. But Xenophon, historian of the retreat and a writer on agriculture 
as well as of war, does not mention the peach as he almost certainly would 
have done had it occupied a prominent place among the agricultural 
products of his time. 

There is another story of the introduction of the peach into Greece 
that may be mentioned to separate fact from fable. Some of the .old 
writers assert that the peach came to Greece from Persia by the way of 
Egypt. Such statements are foionded on a traditionary tale first printed 
by Pliny to the effect that this fruit was sent into Egypt by the kings of 
Persia to poison the Egyptians. Pliny ^ denies that the kings of Persia 
had the peach transplanted into Egypt from motives of revenge but 
evidently is under the belief that the peach came from Egypt for he 
says: 

" As to the peach-tree, it has been only introduced of late years, and 
with considerable difficulty; so much so, that it is perfectly barren in the 
Isle of Rhodes, the first resting-place that it found after leaving Egypt." 

We would like to amplify the bare statement that Alexander brought 
the peach to Greece 332 b. c, but this single fact, if it be a fact, seems to 
constitute the recorded history of the peach in Greece before the Christian 
era. Dioscorides, about 64 A. d., was the next Greek to mention the peach 
but he discusses it with reference to its medicinal properties and does not 
enlighten us greatly as to its horticultural standing. The fact that the 
several Greek writers whose books have come down to us from the period 
vinder consideration do not mention the peach does not argue that this 



Bostock and Riley Nat. History oj Pliny y.2<)(>. 1855. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 27 

fruit was not then growing in Greece; for classicists, then as now, seldom 
got down to earth and the things growing in it. 

The peach in Italy. — Naturally one goes to the oldest book in Latin 
literature on agriculture to look for the beginnings of peach-culture in 
Italy. This, as every student knows, is De Re Rustica, a work on farming, 
gardening and fruit-growing by Cato (235-150 b. c.) on whom posterity 
has bestowed the appellation " Sturdiest Roman of Them All." Cato 
mentions most of our common orchard-fruits, as well as our field crops and 
garden-plants, but the peach is not in his list of fruits; neither does Varro 
(117-27 B. c), the next great Roman writer on agriculture, seem to have 
known the peach though he mentions choice varieties of cultivated cherries, 
which at his time had but newly been introduced into Rome. 

To Vergil (71-19 b. c), we are indebted for the first reference to the 
peach in Roman literature. The " Prince of Latin Poets," writing on 
agriculture, orcharding and gardening, in the Georgics, mentions the peach 
in these graceful lines: 

" Myself will search our planted grounds at home. 
For downy peaches and the glossy plum." 
Columella, writing in the next generation after Vergil, about 40 A. d., 
adopts or starts the story of the peach being a poisonous gift sent from 
Persia to Egypt : 

" And apples, which most barbarous Persia sent, 
With native poison arm'd (as fame relates) : 
But now they've lost their pow'r to kill, and yield 
Ambrosial juice, and have forgot to hurt ; 
And of their country still retain the name." 
Some hold, however, that Columella refers not to the peach, " persica " 
but to " persa " a quite different fruit. But unquestionably, according 
to commentators. Columella has the peach in mind in these lines: 
" Those of small size to ripen make great haste; 
Such as great Gaul bestows observe due time 
And season, not too early, nor too late." 
By these tokens do we know that the peach was cultivated in Italy 
some years before the Christian era. 

In Pliny's remarkable compend of the natural history lore that existed 
at the beginning of the Christian era, we have the first information worthy 
of note on the peach in Italy. His statements, though they throw more 
light on what the peach then was than the writings of any one until his 
time, taking a more utilitarian turn than those of the Greeks, are con- 



28 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

fusing and do not enlighten us greatly either as to the history of the peach, 
or as to its pomological standing. Still, Pliny's observations constitute 
an important landmark in the history of this fruit and we must give them 
full consideration. First, let us give attention to Pliny's account of the 
introduction of the peach into Italy. He devotes Chapter 13, Book XV, 
to " The Peach " confining his observations to historical references but in 
it so confounds peaches, plums and other trees that we learn but little as 
to when, whence or how the peach came to the Romans. Since this refer- 
ence is much quoted, however, despite its indefiniteness, we give it in full.' 

" The name of ' Persica,' or ' Persian apple,' given to this fruit, 
fully proves that it is an exotic in both Greece as well as Asia, and that 
it was first introduced from Persis. As to the wild plum, it is a well- 
known fact that it will grow anywhere; and I am, therefore, the more sur- 
prised that no mention has been made of it by Cato, more particularly 
as he has pointed out the method of preserving several of the wild fruits- 
as well. As to the peach-tree, it has been only introduced of late years, 
and with considerable dififictilty; so much so, that it is perfectly barren 
in the Isle of Rhodes, the first resting-place that it found after leaving 
Egypt. 

" It is quite tuitrue that the peach which grows in Persia is poisonous, 
and produces dreadful tortures, or that the kings of that countr>-, from 
motives of revenge, had it transplanted in Egypt, where, through the nature 
of the soil, it lost all its evil properties — for we find that it is of the 
' persea ' that the more careful writers have stated all this, a totally 
different tree, the fruit of which resembles the red myxa, and, indeed, 
cannot be successfully cultivated anywhere but in the East. The learned 
have also maintained that it was not introduced from Persis into Egypt 
with the view of inflicting punishment, btit say that it was planted at 
Memphis by Perseus; for which reason it was that Alexander gave orders 
that the victors should be crowned with it in the games which he insti- 
tuted there in honour of his ancestor; indeed, this tree has always leaves 
and fruit upon it, growing immediately upon the others. It must be quite 
evident to every one that all our plums have been introduced since the 
time of Cato." 

Our author's discussion of the kinds of peaches and of their market 
value is somewhat more satisfactory. In Chapter 11, Book XV, entitled 
" Six Varieties of the Peach," Pliny again discusses several fruits but in 
the last paragraph confines himself to the peach and puts on record the 
first account of varieties of this fruit. The chapter follows in fvdl: - 



' Bostock and Riley Nat. History oj Pliny 3 -.iqb. 1 855. 
2/Wd. 3:293, 294. 1855. 



THE PEACHKS OF NEW YORK 29 

" Under the head of apples, we include a variety of fruits, although 
of an entirely different nature, such as the Persian apple, for instance, 
and the pomegranate, of which, when speaking of the tree, we have already 
enumerated nine varieties. The pomegranate has a seed within, enclosed 
in a skin; the peach has a stone inside. Some among the pears, also, known 
as ' libralia,' show, by their name, what a remarkable weight they attain. 

" Among the peaches the palm must be awarded to the duracinus: 
the Gallic and the Asiatic peach are distinguished respectively by the 
names of the countries of their origin. They ripen at the end of autumn, 
though some 'of the early kinds are ripe in the summer. It is only within 
the last thirty years that these last have been introduced; originally they 
were sold at the price of a denarius apiece. Those known as the ' super- 
natia ' come from the country of the Sabines, but the ' popularia ' grow 
everywhere. This is a very harmless fruit, and a particular favourite 
with invalids: some, in fact, have sold before this as high as thirty 
sesterces apiece, a price that has never been exceeded by any other fruit. 
This, too, is the more to be wondered at, as there is none that is a worse 
keeper: for, when it is once plucked, the longest time that it will keep is 
a couple of days; and so sold it must be, fetch what it may." 

The first of Pliny's six varieties is the " Persian Apple " — " malum 
persicum " in the original text. It is well to note the author's statement 
that " Under the head of apples, we include a variety of fruits." A literal 
translation of the Latin word malum in Pliny has brought about many 
misunderstandings. Beside the peach, pear and pomegranate grouped 
here as " apples," the apricot, orange, citron and no doubt other fruits 
come " under the head of apples." The " Persian apple," then, must be 
counted as one of Pliny's " six varieties of peaches." From the name we 
know whence the Romans had the peach. 

The second variety is the duracinus, to which, among peaches, " the 
palm must be awarded." The name translated literally is " hard-berry " 
and must refer to the firmness of the flesh. Despite the fact that De Can- 
doUe ' and others hold that Pliny does not mention the nectarine, " dura- 
cinus " can hardly be other than the nectarine — at least the name fits 
the nectarine better than it does any peach. 

The third and fourth of Pliny's peaches are the " Gallic " and 
" Asiatic," " distinguished respectively by the names of the countries of 
their origin." Can it be possible that there is a peach native to France? 
We should say at once that this is but one of Pliny's inaccuracies were it 
not for the fact that several of the highest French pomological authorities 



De CandoUe .Mphonse Or. Cult. Plants 225. 1885. 



30 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

State that certain races of the peach are natives of southern France. 
Duhamel Du Monceau ' and Leroy ^ are chief champions of this beUef and 
the latter says that Mayer, Calvel and Carriere, other French authorities, 
are of the same opinion. These French writers offer no substantial proofs 
and botanists do not agree with them; it seems, weighing the evidence 
at this distance, as if they had copied Columella and Pliny too closely. 
The fact that the peach is a perfectly naturalized denizen of parts of France, 
of course, gives color to the belief that it is a native and not an exotic in 
that country. Quite similarly, our early botanists, including so careful 
an observer as Bartram, were of the opinion that the peach belonged to 
America for the reason that they found it growing wild in our southern 
woods — an escape from early Spanish settlers. Pliny's Gallic peach, 
probably, was a descendant of an early introduction from some outside 
source. How the " Asiatic peach " of our quotation differs from the 
" Persian apple " does not appear except in its origin, it probably having 
come more or less directly from Asia Minor which in Pliny's time seems 
to have been Asia. 

The last two of Pliny's six varieties are those known as " supernatia " 
which " come from the country of the Sabines " and the " popularia " 
which " grow everywhere." Whether supernatia, meaning " from above," 
refers to the fact that this peach grows in the high and mountainous country 
of the Sabines or to its being a choice variety, cannot be said. Probably, 
however, it designates choice peaches while the " popularia " which grow 
everywhere refers to the common run of this fruit. 

Peaches were profitable in Rome in Pliny's time, for they sold " as 
high as thirty sesterces apiece." A sesterce is four and one-half cents 
so that the possible price of a peach in Rome 1900 years ago was $1.35. 
The Roman peach-grower was at the mercy of the seasons as are those 
of nowadays for we read that when once plucked the peach could be kept 
but a couple of days, " so sold it must be, fetch what it may." 

The statement that the peach is a " particular favorite with invalids," 
reminds us that the ancients ascribe various medicinal properties to 
nearly all plants and Pliny sets forth those of the peach as follows:^ 

" Peaches, again, are more wholesome than plums; and the same is 
the case with the juice of the fruit, extracted, and taken in either wine or 



Duhamel Du Monceau Trait. Arh. Fr. 2:1-2. 1768. 
'Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:10. 1879. 
' Bostock and Riley Nat. History of Pliny 4:508. 1856. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 31 

vinegar. Indeed, what known fruit is there that is more wholesome as 
an aUment than this? There is none, in fact, that has a less powerful 
smell, or a greater abundance of juice, though it has a tendency to create 
thirst. The leaves of it, beaten up and applied topically, arrest haemor- 
rhage: the kernels, mixed with oil and vinegar, are used as a liniment for 
head-ache." 

One other consideration, and we are done with Pliny. In Chapter 
13, quoted on page 28, we are told that the peach " has been only intro- 
duced of late years." This can hardly mean during the day of the author. 
The peach had probably been cultivated in ancient Rome for a consider- 
able length of time before Pliny wrote. Vergil and Columella had men- 
tioned it as a planted plant; Pliny, himself, speaks of the " popularia " 
as being grown " everywhere; " and the facts that it was a common article 
of food and used in medicine argue an earlier date of introduction than 
we might be lead to suppose from Pliny's statement " introduced of late 
years." Indeed, knowing the great length of time it takes in our days of 
rapid transportation and quick diffusion of knowledge to accustom our- 
selves to new food-plants and to persuade agriculturists to grow them, 
we should say that the peach must have been grown in Rome at least two 
or three centuries to have become so well known as it seems to have been 
in Pliny's time. The chief point established by these quotations is that 
the peach was well established in Italy at the beginning of the Christian 
era. 

After leaving Pliny there is a boundless, uncharted waste before we 
find another landmark in the history of the peach. In all matters relating 
to agriculture and natural history Roman writers for several centuries 
but copied the men from whom we have quoted and it was not until the 
Sixteenth Century that we have any substantial account of the further 
progress of this fruit. During this centiu-y, curiously enough, about the 
only books on botany and horticulture were commentaries on Dioscorides, 
the Greek botanist, who lived and made his reputation in Christ's time 
and who for 1600 years thereafter was the sole authority on botany. Of 
the ten or twelve commentaries, that of Matthiolus is most replete with 
information on the fruits of the times and especially in the matter of 
varieties, which he describes in greater detail than any other man since 
Pliny. It must be remembered that at this time, the closing years of the 
Middle Ages, there was a great awakening in agriculture and horticulture 
in southern and western Europe. As the second descriptive list of peaches 



32 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

we might well quote what Matthiolus wrote, but, as in Pliny, few of his 
varieties can be made out, and Gerarde, writing later in English, amplifies 
the Latin author so well that we shall wait for his account. 

The peach in France. — Peach-culture in France probably began about 
as early as in Italy, for both Columella and Pliny, as we have seen, mention 
the peaches of Gaul with those of Rome. Introduced thus early, finding 
suitable soil and climate and easily propagated, so delicious a fruit as 
the peach must at once have become a prime favorite in the orchards of 
the monasteries, where, tended by monks who were the most skilled horti- 
culturists of the times, the peach was disseminated throughout France 
with the spread of Christianity. France was the foster-mother of the 
peach in Europe — from her nurseries the Belgians, Dutch, Germans and 
English had their first peach-trees. The history of the peach in France, 
then, is an important chapter in the history of this fruit. 

Andre Leroy, author of the great French work, Dictionnaire de 
Pomologie, gives in considerable detail the history of the peach in France 
and from him we briefly summarize the material he has brought together 
in regard to this fruit up to 1600 after which our purposes are best met 
by quoting directly from the originals. 

According to Leroy ' only peaches with a downy skin and soft flesh 
which adhered to the stone came from Asia — all others, in his belief, 
originated in southern France. That any peach came originally from 
France we do not agree, for reasons given on a foregoing page. Leaving 
the statements of origin in dispute, the first records of peaches in France 
are to be found in the quotations from Columella and Pliny which we 
have already discussed. Leroy rrientions as the second record a reference 
to the peach by Bishop Fortunat of Portiers in 530; a third from the four- 
teenth Abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis near Paris in the year 784; 
while the great Charlemagne, who in 800 mentions " peaches of different 
kinds," furnishes the fourth of Leroy 's early records; the fifth account is 
taken from the letters of Lupus, Abbot of Ferrieres, near Amiens, who 
sent several varieties of peaches to a brother with instructions as to how 
to plant the pits, the approximate date being 860. 

After these Leroy gives several references to show that the peach was 
commonly cultivated from the Ninth Century on but none of the writers 
whom he quotes gives a recognizable picture of the kinds of peaches in 
their day until we come to the epoch-making agricultural book of Olivier 



Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:io. 1879. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 33 

de Serres, who, in his Theatre de Agriculture, published in 1604, names and 
describes twelve kinds of peaches. While these descriptions are so incom- 
plete as to be most tantalizing to one trying to recognize varieties, yet 
Olivier de Serres is one of the outstanding historians of agriculture and his 
few paragraphs on the peach constitute a prominent landmark in the 
history of this fruit because he names a considerable number of sorts and 
makes it plain that the peach is no longer grown as a species but that 
varieties are receiving recognition, though, sorry to say, we cannot be sure 
from the fragmentary description whether or not any of his kinds have come 
down to our time. 

From the beginning of the Seventeenth Century the history of the 
peach in France is common property to students of pomology. Botanists 
and agriculturists by this time had begun to break away from Dioscorides, 
Pliny and the other ancients of Greece and Rome; and in France, Germany 
and England one herbal after another was beginning to appear in nearly 
all of which the peach received attention. Perhaps, since France plays 
so important a part in the development of the peach, a brief recapitulation 
from French pomological authorities following Olivier de Serres, showing 
the increase in varieties of this fruit and bringing to mind the men who 
have written in pomology, may be of interest and profit. 

Lectier, agent of the King at Orleans, in a catalog of an orchard in his 
charge, published a list of 2^ varieties of peaches in 1628. Thirty-nine 
years later, 1667, Merlet in his Abrege des hons fruits names 38 siorts of 
this fruit. For the next hundred years the increase in number seems to 
have been small, for in 1768 Duhamel du Monceau in Traitc des arbres 
fruitiers, the first great pomological work to be published, describes but 
43 peaches. This century, however, was one in which peach-culture 
increased enormously throughout France. At the beginning of the period 
peaches began to be grown in the shelter of walls — a method the results 
of which greatly increased the culture of this fruit. Calvel, in 1805, names 
60 varieties; Louis Noisette, 1839, lists 60 sorts; Andre Leroy, 1852, names 
but 41 varieties, but in an edition of the same work in 1865, describes 148 
peaches; lastly, O. Thomas in Guide pratique (1876) publishes a list of 
355 peaches. 

The peach in Belgium, Holland, Germany and Spain. — In the search 

for prominent events in the development of the peach, we are absolved from 

the task of tracing in detail the history of this fruit in the countries named 

in the heading of this paragraph. These nations have furnished no land- 

3 



34 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

marks in the history of the peach. France has provided all with their 
varieties of this fruit. Indeed, in none, unless perhaps it be Spain, does 
the peach find a congenial climate and certainly in none is the crop of any 
considerable commercial value. Amateurs, too, in all but Spain at least, 
give their attention to its orchard-associates rather than to the peach. 
It is true, as we shall see, that the peach first came to America from Spain 
and a considerable number of our varieties are now grouped in what is 
called the " Spanish race." But horticulture in Spain, from the few 
accounts to be had, is primitive in the extreme — there are no Spanish 
pomologies and one cannot conceive that this country has aided appreciably 
in the development of the peach. 

It is possible — ' would that we could know the facts — that Spain 
may have played an important part in introducing peaches into Europe. 
For the earliest Spanish gardens were the work of the Moors and since 
Moorish gardens, wonderful in beauty of design, show a strong resemblance 
to the gardens of Persia, what more probable than that the Moor, half- 
Asiatic, early brought the peach from Persia to Spain. 

The peach in England. — The peach and the gooseberry do not thrive 
side by side. England grows the gooseberry to highest perfection, fogs, 
rains and cloudy weather seemingly ministering to its wants. But the 
peach loves sun, heat and clear skies and if these come not naturally the 
peach-tree must be artificially grown. The peach is not, after centuries 
of cultivation, acclimatized in England. But in all times, and of all people, 
the English have been most fond of gardens and orchards and so beautiful 
and delectable a fruit as the peach could not escape their attention. And 
so, though under the necessity of growing this fruit on walls or under glass, 
England, since the Middle Ages, has done much toward the development 
of the peach, the difficulties of culture seeming to stimulate interest. Her 
pomological literature is particularly rich in references to this fruit. We 
in America, too, are greatly indebted to England for many varieties of 
peaches. The history of the peach in England, then, should aflford much 
interesting and profitable material in this discussion. 

There seems to be no record of the Romans having brought the peach 
to England, yet there can be little doubt that they did so. The remains 
in England of Roman houses, baths, roads, pavements and bridges, very 
similar if not quite so well built as those of Italy, suggest that there were 
Roman gardens about these early houses and villas in England just as 
there were about those in the great Empire on the Mediterranean. More- 



THK PEACllKS OF NICW YORK 35 

over, there was an early Saxon name for the peach. The Latin is 
" Persica; " the early Anglo-Saxon is " Persoc treou; " the English, 
"peach." ' But gardening in England for most part went as it came, 
with the Romans, and, during nearly a thousand years of struggling with 
barbarians after the fall of the Roman Empire, the peach, in common with 
all other garden-plants needing culture, seems to have disappeared and 
was not reintroduced until in the Thirteenth Century. 

That the peach came to England, as a permanent asset, from France, 
is so certain from the general history of English horticulture, though there 
be no authentic record to substantiate the statement, that we need con- 
sider no alternative. One looks in vain for a satisfactory date for the 
beginning of peach-culture in England. In France the monastic orders, 
as we have seen, were the conservators of horticulture, as they were of all 
arts excepting war, and we feel sure that, as the Church reached England, 
some good bishop, father or brother planted peaches in a monastery garden. 
Yet our quest of a date is rewarded with nothing earlier than 1216, in which 
year, according to the Chronicle of Roger of Wendover,^ " King John, at 
Newark, in the midst of his despair and disappointment, hastened his 
end by a surfeit of peaches and ale." From this we may certainly say 
that peach-culture was established in England at least as early as the 
beginning of the Thirteenth Century. 

Two hundred years elapse before we find another reference to the 
peach in England. Lydgate, English monk and poet (1375- 1440?), as 
quoted by the Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil, ^ mentioned peaches among " the 
fruits which more common be." Possibly an earlier reference is found in 
Chaucer's Roma nut of the Rose: 

" And many hoomely trees there were 
That peches, coynes, and apples bere." 

English fruit-books commonly accredit the introduction of the peach 
in England to a certain Wolf, gardener to Henry VHI, and fix the date at 
about 1524, but the quotations given show that this fruit was probably 
well established long before the Sixteenth Century. Perhaps it suffices 
to say that the peach began to be cultivated in England at the close of the 
Middle Ages — a time suflficiently vague to be convenient in the state of 
inexactness of our knowledge. 

' Cecil, Hon. Mrs. Evelyn A Hist, of Card, in Eng. 3. 1910. 
^Jbid. 38. iQio. 
' IhH 48. 1910. 



36 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

In the Sixteenth Century references to the peach become so numerous 
that one cannot reckon with all of them. Selecting only a few notable 
names of writers on plants, we have Turner, one of the first and perhaps 
the greatest of British herbalists, who mentions the peach in his Herball 
of 1 55 1, though rather disparagingly, for he says: " The peche is no great 
tre in England that I could se — the apples are soft fiesshy when they are 
rype, something hory without." Tusser, author of Five Hundred Points 
of Good Husbandrie, 1573, the best-known work on farming of the times, 
gives a list of fruits to be transplanted in January among which are 
" Peaches, white and red." Lastly, the century ends with John Gerarde's 
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes, 1597, in which the peach is 
treated at greater length and to better advantage than by any previous 
English author. An improved edition of Gerarde's herbal was brought 
out in 1633 by Thomas Johnson who adds very materially to the discussion 
of the peach in the first edition and from this we quote in full all that 
pertains to varieties: ^ 

" There are divers sorts of Peaches besides the foure here set forth 
by our Author, but the trees do not much differ in shape, but the difference 
chiefely consists in the fruit, whereof I will give you the names of the choice 
ones, and such as are to be had from my friend Mr. Miller in Old-street, 
which are these; two sorts of Nutmeg Peaches; The Queenes Peach; the 
Newington Peach; The grand Carnation Peach; The Carnation Peach; 
The blacke Peach; The Melocotone; The White; The Romane; The 
Alberza; The Island Peach; Peach du Troy. These are all good ones. He 
hath also of that kinde of Peach which some call Nucipersica or Nectorins, 
these following kindes; the Roman red, the best of fruits; the bastard 
Red; the little dainty greene; the Yellow, the White; the Russet, which is 
not so good as the rest. Those that would see any fuller discourse of these 
may have recourse to the late worke of Mr. John Parkinson, where they 
may finde more varieties, and more largely handled, and therefore not 
necessary for me in this place to insist upon them. 

" I. The Peach tree is a tree of no great bignesse: it sendeth forth 
divers boughes, which be so brittle, as oftentimes they are broken with 
the weight of the fruit or with the winde. The leaves be long, nicked in 
the edges, like almost to those of the Walnut tree, and in taste bitter: 
the floures be of a hght purple colour. The fruit of Peaches be round, and 
have as it were a chinke or cleft on the one side; they are covered with a 
soft and thin downe or hairy cotton, being white without, and of a pleasant 
taste; in the middle whereof is a rough or rugged stone, wherein is contained 

• Gerarde Herball 1446, 1447. 1633. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 37 

a kernell like unto the Almond ; the meate about the stone is of a white color. 
The root is tough and yellowish. 

"2. The red Peach tree is likewise a tree of no great bignesse; it 
also sendeth forth divers boughes or branches which be very brittle. The 
leaves be long, and nicked in the edges like to the precedent. The fioures 
be also like unto the former; the fruit or Peaches be round, and of a red 
colour on the outside; the meate likewise about the stone is of a gallant 
red colour. These kindes of Peaches are very like to wine in taste, and 
therefore marvellous pleasant. 

"3. Persica praecocia, or the d'avant Peach tree is like unto the 
former, but his leaves are greater and larger. The fruit or Peaches be of 
a russet colour on the one side, and on the other side next unto the Sun of 
a red colour, but much greater than the red Peach: the stones whereof 
are like unto the former: the pulpe or meate within is of a golden yellow 
colour, and of a pleasant taste. 

" 4. Persica lutea, or the yellow Peach tree is like unto the former in 
leaves and flours, his fruit is of a yellow color on the out side, and likewise 
on the in side, harder than the rest : in the middle of the Peach is a wooddy 
hard and rough stone full of crests and gutters, in which doth ly a kernel 
much like to that of the almond, and with such a like skin: the substance 
within is white, and of taste somewhat bitter. The fruit hereof is of 
greatest pleasure, and of best taste of all the other of his kinde; although 
there be found at this day divers other sorts that are of very good taste, 
not remembered of the ancient, or set down by the later Writers, whereof 
to speake particularly would not bee great to our pretended purpose, con- 
sidering wee hasten to an end. 

"5. There is also kept in some of our choice gardens a kind of Peach 
which hath a very double and beautifull floure, but it is seldom succeeded 
by any fruit: they call this Persica flore plena, The double blossomed 
Peach." 

In the first edition Gerarde describes but four peaches, but Johnson, 
36 years later, says " there are divers sorts besides the foure here set forth 
by our Author " and then names thirteen " choice ones, such as are to be 
had from my friend Miller in Old-street," who " hath also " six varieties 
" of that kinde of Peach which some call Nucipersia or Nectorins." Either 
Gerarde neglects the peach or varieties increased greatly in 36 years — 
probably the former. We have not found the nectarine mentioned before 
Johnson's revision of Gerarde in 1633 and probably this fruit was not well 
known in England long before, for Parkinson, discussing them in 1629, 
says " they have been with us not many year*;." This brings us to Parkin- 
son's list of peaches, which contains, as Johnson says, a " fuller discourse," 



38 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

than Gerarde. John Parkinson (1567- 1650), another British herbaUst, 
who also cultivated a famous garden in London, devotes a chapter to 
the peach and another to the nectarine. These being short, and every' 
word pertinent, we publish them in full: ' 

" The great white Peach is white on the outside as the meate is also, 
and is a good well rellished fruit. 

" The small white Peach is all one with the greater, but differeth in 
size. 

" The Carnation Peach is of three sorts, two are round, and the third 
long; they are all of a whitish colour, shadowed over with red, and more 
red on the side is next the sunne: the lesser round is the more common, 
and the later ripe. 

" The grand Carnation Peach is like the former round Peach, but 
greater, and is as late ripe, that is, in the beginning of September. 

" The red Peach is an exceeding well rellished fruit. 

" The russet Peach is one of the most ordinary Peaches in the King- 
dome, being of a russet colour on the outside, and but of a reasonable rellish, 
farre meaner then many other. 

" The Island Peach is a faire Peach, and of a very good rellish. 

" The Newington Peach is a very good Peach, and of an excellent 
good rellish, being of a whitish greene colour on the outside, yet halfe 
reddish, and is ripe about Bartholmew tide. 

" The yellow Peach is of a deepe yellow colour; there be hereof divers 
sorts, some good and some bad. 

"The St. James Peach is the same with the Queenes Peach, here 
belowe set downe, although some would make them differing. 

" The Melocotone Peach is a yellow faire Peach, but differing from 
the former yellow both in forme and taste, in that this hath a small crooked 
end or point for the most part, it is ripe before them, and better rellished 
then any of them. 

" The Peach du Troas is a long and great whitish yellow Peach, red 
on the outside, early ripe, and is another kinde of Nutmeg Peach. 

" The Queenes Peach is a faire great yellowish browne Peach, shadowed 
as it were over with deepe red, and is ripe at Bartholmew tide, of a very 
pleasant good taste. 

" The Romane Peach is a very good Peach, and well rellished. 

" The Durasme or Spanish Peach is of a darke yellowish red colour 
on the outside, and white within. 

" The blacke Peach is a great large Peach, of a very darke browne colovir 
on the outside, it is of a waterish taste, and late ripe. 

" The Alberza Peach is late ripe, and of a reasonable good taste. 



Parkinson Par. Ter. 580, 582. 1629. 



I'EACIIKS OK NEW YORK 



39 



" The Almond Peach, so called, because the kernell of the stone is 
sweete, like the Almond, and the fruit also somewhat pointed like the 
Almond in the huske; it is early ripe, and like the Newington Peach, but 
lesser. 

" The Man Peach is of two sorts, the one longer then the other, both 
of them are good Peaches, but the shorter is the better rellished. 

" The Cherry Peach is a small Peach, but well tasted. 

" The Nutmeg Peach is of two sorts, one that will be hard when it is 
ripe, and eateth not so pleasantly as the other, which will bee soft and 
mellow; they are both small Peaches, having very little or no resemblance 
at all to a Nutmeg, except in being a little longer than round, and are early 
ripe." 

" Many other sorts of Peaches there are, whereunto wee can give no 
especial name; and therefore I passe them over in silence." 

Agricultvire seems to have received a great impetus in England about 
the middle of the Seventeenth Century, possibly with the beginning of 
Cromwell's Protectorate in 1653. Toward the end of the century the 
momentum began to carry pomology with it, the most apparent results 
of the movemerit at this distance, as it afTects the peach, being a great 
output of new varieties and of fruit-books in which the new offerings were 
described. From this time the progress of peach-culture in England 
assumed so great proportions that space does not permit following it 
further in this brief account — a task unnecessary, too, for the pomological 
works of Lawrence, Switzer, Langley, Brookshaw, Miller, Rea, Hitt, 
Abercrombie and Forsyth, to select the most prominent names, cover the 
century well and are still accessible in large libraries. Moreover, by this 
time the peach was well established in America and we must take up its 
history there. 

THE PEACH IN AMERICA 

One of the first fruits of the heroic age of Spanish discovery in America 
was the naturalization in the New World of animals and plants which the 
discoverers brought with them. Most notable of these are the wild horses 
of the western plains and the Indian peaches of southern forests. Long 
before the English, Dutch, French or Swedes planted colonies in America, 
peaches, introduced by Spaniards, were common property of the Indians 
in southeastern and southwestern America. The Spaniards came to the 
New World to conquer and brought swords more often than fruits, but a 
cheery note in the long dirge of human woes suflfered by the Aztecs is found 
in the rapid dissemination of the peach, among other domesticated plants, 



40 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

at an early period in Mexico. Which of the Spanish conquerors brought 
the peach or when it came does not appear but we have record that less 
than fifty years after Cortez conquered the country the peach was, appar- 
ently, commonly grown in Mexico. The beginnings of peach-culture on 
this continent are, then, to be sought in the region south of the Rio Grande. 

The peach in Mexico. — Authority for the statement that the peach 
was cultivated in Mexico less than fifty years after the Spanish conquest 
is found in a Spanish book published by Molina in 1571, in which three 
peaches are described in Hispano-Aztec compound words as follows: 
" xuchipal durazno, ' red-colored peach,' cuztic durazno, ' yellow peach,' 
and xocotlmelocoton, ' peach fruit.' " ' That the peach is to be found 
everywhere in Mexico, cultivated and as an escape from cultivation, where 
climate permits is common knowledge to pomologists, explorers having 
from time to time brought to light sorts worthy of introduction in our 
southern states, and frequent mention is made of this fruit by visitors to 
that country. 

These Mexican peaches become of special interest to American fruit- 
growers because they constitute, with the offspring of early introductions 
in Florida, what pomologists call the " Spanish Race " of this fruit. 
" American Race " is a more fitting name, for these peaches are an 
American product. Four centuries of reproduction from seed, in a climate 
and soil different from any previously imposed upon them, and abnormally 
short generations have given to this continent a group of peaches with 
many characters in common. 

Tracing further the history of the peaches that early came to Mexico, 
we find evidence that in a comparatively short time they had been taken 
northward into New Mexico, Arizona and the Califomias. It is barely 
possible that from the same source the peach was eventually carried as far 
eastward as the Mississippi, for early explorers found naturalized peaches 

'This early Spanish publication is to be found in the Library of Congress under the title Molina's 
Vocubalario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana (1571). Mr. W. E. Safford, economic botanist in the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has been kind enough to translate Molina's reference to the peach. 
Mr. Safford writes: — 

" On page 83a (the pages of Molina are numbered only on one side, and this is the reverse of page 83) 
I find as a definition of the fruit of Melocoton (Peach) the following: — xuchipal durazno (red peach), 
cuztic durazno (yellow peach), xocotl melocoton (plum peach). I translate xocotl " plum ", because the 
Mexicans applied this word to many plum-like fruits, or fruits more or less acid in distinction to tzapotl, 
the general term applied to sweet soft fruits. The words cited are all hybrid compounds of Nahuatl and 
Spanish. Whatever may be the value of these citations, they establish the fact that the peach was 
undoubtedly introduced into Mexico before 157 1." 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 4I 

in the valley of this great river. No doubt the Jesuit and Franciscan 
fathers, chief representatives of the Roman Catholic Church in the early 
settlement of Mexico and southwestern America, early carried the peach 
from place to place, for, as advance guards of civilization, these men usually 
planted fruits, grains, vegetables and flowers at the missions they founded. 
Therefore, it is hardly too much to say that the history of the peach in the 
southwest follows the establishment, one after another, of the old missions, 
beginning in America with the settlement of Sante Fe in 1605 and con- 
tinuing until Spanish rule passed into that of the United States. 

That the padres of the early religious orders planted gardens and 
orchards as they planted the cross of Christianity among the Indian tribes 
in the southwest may be seen from such accounts of the mission as the 
following, written by a Spanish officer traveling in what is now New Mexico 
in 1799: ^ " The Moquinos are the most industrious of the many Indian 
nations that inhabit and have been discovered in that portion of America. 
They till the earth with great care, and apply to all their fields the manures 
proper for each crop. The same cereals and pulse are raised by them, 
that are everywhere produced by the civilized population in our provinces. 
They are attentive to their kitchen gardens, and have all the varieties of 
fruit-bearing trees it has been in their power to procure. The peach tree 
yields abundantly." 

The antiquity of peach-culture among southern Indians, from Mexico 
to Florida, is shown by the fact that, among the prominent tribes of this 
region, there is a distinct name for the peach but the names of other intro- 
duced frmts, and of some native ones, are derived from that of the peach. 
Thus, according to W. R. Gerard,^ who gave careful study to Indian names 
of plants in at least four Indian languages, the name of the peach is the 
radical while that of several plums is the equivalent of " little peach," 
" deer's peach " and " barren peach " while the cultivated apples and 
pears were by some Indians called " big peach." 

As these Indian peaches have cut a prominent figure in furnishing 
stocks for American peach-orchards, are the source from which came a 
number of varieties, and, more than all else, gave inspiration for planting 
permanent orchards of this fruit on American soil, we may well consider 
them at greater length. 

Indian peaches. — In many parts of the South, from the Ohio to the 

• Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, War 
Department 3:122. 1854. 

' Bui. Tor. Bat. Club 12:85-86. Aug. iSS- 



42 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Gulf and from the Atlantic to the Great Plains, the peach is naturalized 
and has run into many varieties of a peculiar and well-recognized type. 
This is the " Indian Peach " of this vast region, the chief distinguishing 
characters of which are: Trees with long, spreading limbs; young growth 
witli purplish bark; small, flat, comparatively persistent leaves; blossoms 
large; season sometimes covering several weeks; fruit small, streaked with 
red beneath the skin, giving it a striped appearance, heavily pubescent; 
flesh usually yellow ; ripening very late, season long, and of poor or indiffer- 
ent quality. The trees of these Indian peaches have a smack of wildness 
which the best of pruning does not wholly subdue. The aborigines 
undoubtedly obtained peaches from Spaniards settling in both Mexico and 
Florida. The first source we have discussed. We come now to the 
second. 

No doubt the Spaniards planted peaches in their first settlement of 
Florida at Saint Augustine in 1565. We have no record of the fact but 
early Indian traders found the natives of northern Florida and the neighbor- 
ing states growing peaches in and about their villages in such quantity and 
with such familiarity as to suggest that the several tribes had long known 
this fruit. Hilton, an Englishman, who visited Florida a hundred years 
after the Spaniards established themselves at Saint Augustine, records that 
" the country abounds with grapes, large figs and peaches." ' The 
besetting sins of our early explorers were hasty generalization and exag- 
geration, and since the Indian peach, in what is now Florida at any rate, 
does not " abound " we must believe that Hilton was either farther north or 
was dissembling. Of the abundance of Indian peaches in the other Gulf 
States, there can be no doubt, for John Bartram, America's first great 
botanist, a man of note among all American naturalists, in the account 
of his travels through this region in 1 765-1 766 frequently mentions the 
peach as wild or as having been cultivated by the Indians. 

Thus, Bartram says, speaking of the Cherokee town of Sticoe, on or 
near the Savannah River:'' " On these towering hills appeared the ruins 
of the ancient famous town of Sticoe. Here was a vast Indian mount or 
tumulus and great terrace, on which stood the council-house, with banks 
encompassing their circus; here were also old Peach and Plumb orchards; 
some of the trees appeared yet thriving and fruitful." And again, dis- 



' Hilton, William, A Relation of a Discovery lately made on the Coasts of Florida. 1664, Force 
Hist. Tracts. IV: No. 2:8. 

- Bartram, William Travels through North and South Carolina. Ceorqia, East and West Florida 
3+.V 1791- 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 43 

cussing the ruins of a French town near Mobile, Alabama, he says: ' "I 
ascended the bank of the river, and penetrating the groves, came presently 
to old fields, where I observed ruins of ancient habitations, there being 
abundance of Peach and Fig trees, loaded with fruit, which afifording a 
very acceptable dessert after the heats and toil of the day, and evening 
drawing on apace, I concluded to take up my quarters here for the night." 
And still again, he found on Pearl Island: - " Besides the native forest trees 
and shrubs already noted, manured fruit trees arrive in this island to the 
utmost degree of perfection, as Pears, Peaches, Figs, Grape Vines, 
Plumbs, &c." 

Bart ram in his travels found the peach so widely and abundantly 
naturalized that he was inclined to believe America to be its habitat. 
At least Kalm,^ the Swedish naturalist, who visited Bartram in 1 748-1 749 
reports that Bartram " looked upon peaches as an original American 
fruit, and as growing wild in the greater part of America." 

In 1758 Le Page Du Pratz, who lived on a plantation in Louisiana for 
several years and wrote a history of the French colony, says that the natives 
had peaches and figs when the French settled in Louisiana in 1698. He 
probably errs, however, in stating that the natives got their trees from the 
English colony of Carolina since the English did not settle in Carolina 
until 1670. No doubt the Indians had long before had peaches and figs 
from the Spaniards of Florida or Mexico. The account which this historian 
gives of early peach-culture in Louisiana is worth printing in full: * " The 
natives had doubtless got the peach trees and fig trees from the English 
colony of Carolina, before the French established themselves in Louisiana. 
The peaches are of the kind which we call alberges; are of the size of the 
fist, adhere to the stone, and contain so much water that they make a kind 
of wine of it. The figs are either blue or white; are large and well enough 
tasted. Our colonists plant the peach stones about the end of February, 

' Bartram, William Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida 405. 1791. 

'Ibid. 421. 1791. 

' Kalm, Peter Travels into North America 3:127. 1771. 

Peter Kalm is so often mentioned in the fruit-books published by this Station that readers are entitled 
to know something about him. Kalm was a Swede, born in 1715, died in 1779, who was sent by the 
Swedish government to travel in North America. He landed in 1748 and spent the next three years in 
travel in the settled parts of the New World devoting himself to the study of the plant and animal life, 
the natural phenomena, resources and agriculture of the Middle and Northern States and Canada. On 
his return to Sweden, Kalm published an account of his travels in America which was afterward trans- 
lated into German and then into English. To him we are indebted for much valuable information in 
regard to the beginnings of agriculture and horticulture in the middle of the Eighteenth Century in America. 
Kalm was a student of Linnaeus and the great botanist perpetuated his memory by naming our beautiful 
mountain laurel, Kaltnia. 

■> Le Page Du Pratz, Hist. La. 2:17. 1763. 



44 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

and suffer the trees to grow exposed to all weathers. In the third year 
they will gather from one tree at least two hundred peaches, and double 
that number for six or seven years more, when the tree dies irrecoverably. 
As new trees are so easily produced, the loss of the old ones is not in the 
least regretted." 

There are many nidirect references to peaches in the Mississippi 
Valley most of which can be traced to Father Hennepin's account of peaches 
in Louisiana. He says: ^ "The peaches there are like those of Europe 
and bear very good fruit in such abundance that the savages are often 
obliged to prop up the trees with forked sticks." It tiu-ns out, however, 
that Father Hennepin was the Baron Munchausen of the early French 
explorers, it being doubtful whether he was ever farther down the Missis- 
sippi than the mouth of the Illinois. Probably, therefore, we must put 
much of what early writers say of the great abundance of peaches in this 
region to the soaring imagination of this early religious explorer. Yet 
these reports are credited by so carefiol a man as Kalm, who writes: ^ "I 
have been told by all those who have made journies to the southern parts 
of Canada, and to the river Mississippi, that the woods there abound with 
peach-trees, which bear excellent fruit, and that the Indians of those parts 
say that those trees have been there since times immemorial." 

A little later we have reliable information that the peach was 
naturalized in parts of the Mississippi Valley at least, for Thomas Nuttall, 
leading botanist of his time and a thoroughly reliable reporter, traveling 
in Arkansas in 1819, writes: ' "The thermometer towards noon rises to 
seventy degrees and the peach and plum trees, almost equally naturalized, 
have nearly finished blooming." And, again,* " The peach of Persia is 
already naturalized throughout the forests of Arkansa." From this we 
may picture wild peaches as having grown for generations in parts of 
Arkansas and, no doubt, of the now famous Ozark region, where, we are 
told, peach-trees in abundance now decorate, with flower and fruit, primeval 
forests. 

Reserving the best description of Indian peaches to the last we now 
turn from Arkansas to the Carolinas. Here, in 1700, John Lawson, a 
surveyor, who in his work had ample opportunity to know the country, 
wrote about the wild and cultivated plants of the region. Lawson, although 

' Hennepin Nouvelle dicouverte d'un Iris grand pays etc., etc. 300. 1697. 

^ KaXm, Peter Travels into North America 3:79. 1771. 

' Nuttall, Thomas A Journal of Travels into the Arkansa Territory During the Year iSiQ, 79. 1821. 

* Ibid. lOT. iS?l. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 45 

not a trained naturalist, was a keen observer, a lover of nature and much 
interested in the agricultural development of the Carolinas. Moreover, 
he writes so simply, directly, and in a tone so temperate, in contrast to the 
declamatory style of the times, that one accepts without question what 
he says. We feel we are justified in quoting at some length Lawson's 
description of Indian peaches: ' 

" All peaches with us are standing; neither have we any wall fruit 
in Carolina, for we have heat enough, and therefore do not require it. We 
have a great many sorts of this fruit, which all thrive to admiration, peach 
trees coming to perfection, with us, as easily as the weeds. A peach falling 
to the ground brings a peach tree that shall bear in three years, or some- 
times sooner. Eating peaches in our orchards makes them come up so 
thick from the kernel, that we are forced to take a great deal of care to 
weed them out, otherwise they make our land a wilderness of peach trees. 
They generally bear so full that they break great part of their limbs down. 
We have likewise very fair nectarines, especially the red, that clings to 
the stone; the other yellow fruit, that leaves the stone. Of the last I have 
a tree that most years brings me fifteen or twenty bushels. I see no 
foreign fruit like this, for thriving in all sorts of land, and bearing its fruit 
to admiration. I want to be satisfied about one sort of this fruit, which the 
Indians claim as their own, and affirm they had it growing amongst them 
before any Europeans came to America. 

" The fruit I will describe as exactly as I can. The tree grows very 
large, most commonly as big as a handsome apple tree; the flowers are of 
a reddish, murrey color, the fruit is rather more downy than the yellow 
peach, and commonly very large and soft, being very full of juice. They 
part freely from the stone, and the stone is much thicker than all the other 
peach stones we have, which seems to me that it is a spontaneotis fruit of 
America; yet in those parts of America that we inhabit, I never could hear 
that any peach trees were ever found growing in the woods; neither have the 
foreign Indians, that live remote from the English, any other sort. And 
those living amongst us have a hundred of this sort for one other. They 
are a hardy fruit, and are seldom damaged by the north-east blast, as 

' Lawson, John History of Carolina, 181-183. 1714. Reprinted at Raleigh, i860. Lawson's 
History of CaroUna contains the best description of the natural resources of the southern Atlantic sea- 
board published in colonial times. It is a book of nature rather than of history and one of fascinating 
interest which cannot be read without admiring and loving the author and mourning his sad fate. Poor 
Lawson was burned at the stake by the Indians in 1711. We cannot refrain from quoting his description 
of North Carolina as printed on page 79 of his history: " A delicious country, being placed in that girdle 
of the world which affords wine, oil, fruit, grain, and silk, with other rich commodities, besides a sweet 
air, moderate climate, and fertile soil. These are the blessings, under Heaven's protection, that spin out 
the thread of life to its utmost extent, and crown our days with the sweets of health and plenty, which, 
when joined with content, render the possessors the happiest race of men upon earth." 



46 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Others are. Of this sort we make vinegar; wherefore we call them vinegar 
peaches, and sometimes Indian peaches. 

" This tree grows to a vast bigness, exceeding most apple trees. They 
bear well, though sometimes an early spring comes on in February, and 
perhaps when the tree is fully blown, the cloudy, north-east winds, which 
attend the end of that month, or the beginning of March, destroy most 
of the fruit. The bigest apricot tree I ever saw, as they told me. was 
grafted on a peach stock in the ground. I know of no other sort with us, 
than the common. We generally raise this fruit from the stone, which 
never fails to bring the same fruit. Likewise our peach stones effect the 
same, without so much as once missing to produce the same sort that the 
stone came from." 

Peaches in the colonies.— The first peaches in the American colonies 
must have been planted at Jamestown for, in 1629, Captain John Smith 
writes of " peaches in abundance." • The trees, however, seem to have been 
neglected for, continuing. Smith says: "Apples, Peares, Apricocks, Vines, 
figges, and other fruits some have planted, that prospered exceedingly; 
but their diligence about Tobacco left them to be spoiled by the cattell; 
yet now they beginne to revive." The settlement in Virginia at that time, 
so soon after the Indian massacres, was small and there could have been 
but few trees so that Smith's " abundance " was but as a grain of sand on 
the seashore with the many thousands of bushels required to make an 
abundance at the present time. 

Despite the neglect of fruit to attend to tobacco which Smith 
laments, the planting of orchards must have gone on apace, for in 1633 a 
Dutch sea-captain named De Vries visiting Virginia describes the Menife 
plantation, famous in the colony at that time, as having a garden con- 
taining rosemary, sage, marjoram and thyme, the apple, pear and cherry 
while the house itself was surrounded by peach-trees.^ Three years later. 
1642, Berkeley became governor of the colony and we are told that about 
his house at Green Spring there were fifteen hundred apple, peach, apricot, 
quince and other fruit-trees.^ Robert Evelyn, writing forty years after 
the settlement of Jamestown says: " Peaches better than Apricocks b>- 
some doe feed hogs, one man hath ten thousand trees." ^ 

Fruit-growing in colonial Virginia was not without promoters and one, 
a Colonel Norwood, had the persuasive eloquence of the barkers for get- 



Works of Captain John Smith, Ed. by Edward Arber, 887. 18I 
De Vries, David Peterson Voyages from Holland to America 50. 
' Neil, Rev. E. D. Virginia Carolorum 50. 1869. 
Evelyn, Robert New Albion, Force Hist. Tracts. II: No. 7:31- 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 47 

rich-quick orchard-planting concerns of our own times. Colonel Norwood, 
an Englishman, visited Virginia in 1649 and on his return wrote:' 
" Oranges, Lemons, Pine-aples, Plantanes, Peaches, Apricocks, Peares, 
Apels, in a word all sort of excellent Fruits will grow there in full perfection: 
you may sleepe whilst they are growing, after their setting or engrafting, 
there needes no more labour but your prayers, that they may prosper, and 
now and then an eye to prevent their casualties, wounds or diseases." 
No doubt Norwood is over enthusiastic in his praises and yet it is true 
that there were few pests of the peach at this time, most of these coming, 
one by one, with the development of the fruit-industry. About alj that 
any fruit needed at this time was, to use a modern political phase, " watch- 
ful waiting." 

Considering the agricultural efforts that must have been required to 
produce tobacco, then the medium of exchange at home and abroad, and 
of com, which in Virginia was the staff of life, one wonders that fruit 
received the attention indicated by the following account written in 1656 
of a still earlier period: ^ " The Country is full of gallant Orchards, and 
the fruit generally more luscious and delightful than here, witnesse the 
Peach and Quince, the latter may be eaten raw savourily, the former 
differs as much exceeds ours as the best relished apple we have doth the 
crabb, and of both most excellent and comfortable drinks are made." 
Perhaps the explanation of the popularity of fruits in Virginia is to be 
found in the statement that from fruits are made " most excellent and 
comfortable drinks." On the word of Captain John Smith we have it 
that " few of the upper-class planters drink any water." ^ Wine was not 
made in quantity in the colonies and liquors distilled from grains were 
not known so that thirst, in this case the mother of invention, caused 
the colonists to turn to peaches and apples for strong drink. 

Prohibition was not preached in the colonies nor in the states until 
long after the Revolution and King Alcohol dominated every part of the 
New World. Distilling spirituous liquors from rye and corn seems not 
to have been practiced, if the art were known, until the beginning of the 
Nineteenth Centur}^ The upper classes drank wine, but cider, perry, 
peach-vinegar and similar fermented fruit-juices were in common use by 

» Norwood, Col. A Voyage to Virginia, Force Hist. Tracts. Ill: No. 10:5. 

'Hammond, John Leah and Rachel or The Two Fruitful Sisters of Virginia and Mar>'land 1656, 
Force Hi5^ Tracts. UI: No. 14:13. 

' Works of Capt. John .Smith Ed. by Edward Arber, 886. 1884. 



48 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the middle and lower classes while the carousing population of the whole 
country, and there seems to have been many liberal tipplers, slaked their 
thirst with rum, apple-jack and peach-brandy. So much on drinking, 
not to point a moral or adorn a tale, but to bring out the fact that fruit- 
growing in America had its beginning and for two hundred years had 
almost its whole sustenance in the demand for strong drink. This is shown 
in almost every page of the horticultural literature of the times and in the 
laws of the colonies restricting prices and levying taxes on liquors made 
from fruits. Peaches were grown in quantities wherever they could be 
made to succeed in the colonies, not for the fruit itself, but for the making 
of peach-vinegar, a sort of cider, and peach-brandy, a distilled liquor. 

By the end of the first hundred years in America the English seem to 
have brought orcharding to a fine state of perfection in Virginia, the peach 
succeeding then, by all accounts, rather better than now. Bruce ' gives 
an admirable summing-up of orchard-conditions at the end of the period 
named: " In the closing years of the seventeenth century, there were 
few plantations in Virginia which did not possess orchards of apple and 
peach trees, pear, plum, apricot, and quince. The number of trees was 
often very large. The orchard of Robert Hide of York contained three 
hundred peach and three hundred apple trees There were twenty-five 
hundred apple trees in the orchard of Colonel Fitzhugh. Each species of 
fruit was represented by many varieties; thus, of t^he apple, there were 
mains, pippins, russentens, costards, marigolds, kings, magitens and 
batchelors; of the pear, bergamy and warden. The quince was greater in 
size, but less aciduated than the English quince; on the other hand, the 
apricot and plum were inferior in quality to the English, not ripening in 
the same perfection. Cherries grew in notable abundance. So great was 
the productive capacity of the peach that some of the landowners planted 
orchards of the tree for the mere purpose of using the fruit to fatten their 
hogs; on some plantations, as many as forty bushels are said to have been 
knocked down to the swine in the course of a single season." 

Treasure after treasure of experience and narrative may be found in 
tracing the history of the peach in Virginia but space permits only the 
references that best illuminate the development and culture of this fruit 
in America. Two accounts must serve to give an idea of the peach in 
Virginia in the Eighteenth Century. Robert Beverly, in his History of 
Virginia gives a good idea of the culture, kinds and uses of peaches in the 
early part of the Eighteenth Century:- " Peaches, nectarines and apricots, 

' Bruce, Philip Alexander Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century 1:468, 469. 
- Beverly Robert History of Virginia. 259, 260. 1722. Reprinted in Richmond 1855. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 49 

as well as plumbs and cherries, grow there upon standard trees. They 
commonly bear in three years from the stone, and thrive so exceedingly, 
that they seem to have no need of grafting or inoculating, if any body would 
be so good a husband ; and truly I never heard of any that did graft either 
plum, nectarine, peach or apricot in that country, before the first edition 
of this book. 

" Peaches and nectarines I believe to be spontaneous, somewhere or 
other on that continent, for the Indians have, and ever had greater variety, 
and finer sorts of them than the English. The best sort of these cling 
to the stone, and will not come off clear, which they call plum nectarines, 
and plum peaches or clint stones. Some of these are twelve or thirteen 
inches in the girt. These sorts of fruits are raised so easily there, that 
some good husbands plant great orchards of them, purposely for their 
hogs; and others make a drink of them, which they call mob by, and either 
drink it as cider, or distill it off for brandy. This makes the best spirit next 
to grapes." 

The text for the only other account we have space to publish for the 
period under consideration is found in Washington's diary for February 22, 
1760. " Laid in part, the Worm of a fence around the Peach orchard." 
The information in Washington's short statement is inconsequential but 
from it we form a pleasant picture of peach-growing at Mount Vernon. 
Washington owned a distillery and in another place we learn that " the 
distiller made every fall a good deal of apple, peach and persimmon brandy." 
To supply the needs of the plantation in fruit and brandy, there must 
have been a considerable nvimber of trees, all seedlings, but set in straight 
rows, for Washington, the surveyor, would have no botch work in align- 
ing and spacing. The fence, the worm of which Washington was laying 
on his twenty-eighth birthday, if typical of the times, was of split walnut- 
rails, laid zigzag. Eventually it became trellised with wild grapes, Virginia 
creepers, honeysuckles and morning-glories. The comers grew up to 
sassafras, brambles and other plants of the region. In spring, we picture 
then, the pink-petalled trees, in the peach-orchard at Mount Vernon, 
making obeisance to the Father of his Country as he rode the rounds of 
the plantation; in summer the shady shrub-grown corners of the worm- 
fence, sweet-scented with honeysuckle or aromatic with sassafras, furnished 
refreshing resting places as Washington watched his harvest; later, the 
orchard, voluptuous with fruit, gave gustatory promises of products to eat 
and drink and dazzled the eye with autumn colors of Virginia creeper, wild 
grape and sassafras. The peach-orchard not only served the appetite at 
Mount Vernon but was one of the most picturesque spots on the plantation. 



50 



1'I';A( IIICS OF N'ICW YORK 



Let the foregoing accounts of Smith, Bruce and Beverly suffice to give 
status to early peach-growing in Virginia. They apply equally well to 
Maryland, these neighboring colonies, it will be remembered, being called 
by one of our authors, " Leah and Rachel or the Two Fruitful Sisters." 
Of the peach in the states to the south at least a few words ought to be 
said. 

In the discussion of Indian peaches we have had a good account of the 
early history of the peach in the Carolinas by Lawson. We now show the 
status of peach-growing in this region at a later period. In an account 
of South Carolina and Georgia, said to have been written by General 
Oglethorpe, printed in London in 1733, we find the following: ' 

" Mulberries, both black and white, are natives of this soil, and are 
found in the woods, as are many other sorts of fruit trees of excellent kinds, 
and the growth of them is surprisingly swift; for a peach, apricot, or 
nectarine tree will, from the stone, grow to be a bearing tree in four or five 
years' time. 

" They have oranges, lemons, apples and pears, besides the peach 
and apricot mentioned before. Some of these are so delicious that whoever 
tastes them will despise the insipid, watery taste of those we have in 
England ; and yet such is the plenty of them that they are given to the hogs 
in great quantities." 

A little later, 1740, Mr. Thomas Jones of Savannah wrote to Mr. John 
Lyde concerning the contents of his town-garden as follows: ^ 

"As to our fruit, the most common are peaches and nectarines (I 
believe that I had a hundred bushels of the former this year in my little 
garden in town) ; we have also apples of divers sorts, chincopin nuts, walnut, 
chestnut, hickory, and ground nuts." 

The third writer is Sir John Oldmixon who quotes a Mr. Archdale 
in regard to the fruits of Carolina. He writes : ^ 

" Everything generally grows there that will grow in any part of 
Europe, there being already many sorts of fruits, as apples, pears, apricots, 
nectarines, etc. They that once taste of them will despise the watery, 
washy taste of those in England. There's such plenty of them that they 
are given to the hogs. In four or five years they come from a stone to be 
bearing trees." 

The same author is worth quoting in regard to the early culture of the 

' A New and Accurate Account of the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia. Reprinted in Collections 
of the Georgia Historical Society i :50-5i . 1840. 

' An Impartial Inquiry into the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia. Reprinted in Collections 
of the Georgia H storicat Society 1:199. 1840. 

'Oldmixon, John The British Empire in America 2nd Ed. 1:515. 1741. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 5 1 

Melocoton peach in Virginia.' " Here is sucli plenty of peaches that they 
give them to their hogs; some of them, called malachotoons, are as big 
as a lemon and resemble it a little." The history of the word melocoton, 
by the way, is interesting. It comes from the Latin melum coloneum, 
literally, apple-quince. The corruption is of Spanish origin and in Spain 
" melocoton " is a common name for the peach. The word, however, 
is now common enough in English, no less than 29 variant spellings being 
found in the dictionaries and every extensive list of peaches having a 
number of varieties with melocoton as a prefix or an affix to the name. 

Passing now to the northern colonies we find that the history of the 
peach in Pennsylvania begins with the history of the State. William 
Penn founded Philadelphia in 1682 and a year later, in describing the new 
country, names the peach as one of its assets: ^ " There are also very good 
peaches, and in great quantities; not an Indian plantation without them, 
but whether naturally here at first, I know not. However, one may have 
them by bushels for little; they make a pleasant drink; and I think not 
inferior to any peach you have in England, except the true Newington." 

It would be hard to find a part of the earth better fitted in soil and 
climate for sure and abounding harvests of peaches than the Chesapeake 
peach-belt extending up through Maryland and taking in Delaware, New 
Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. We may be sure, then, that if the 
Indians were growing peaches in the abundance described by Penn in what 
is now Philadelphia, peach-orchards were not less common in all of the 
Chesapeake belt. That the whole region was bountifully supplied with 
this delicious fruit when settled by whites is further indicated, however, 
in a letter written by Mahlon Stacy from the " Falls of the Delaware," 
New Jersey, in 1680, to his brother Revell in England. He says:^ 

" I have travelled through most of the places that are settled, and 
some that are not ; and in every place I find the country very apt to answer 
the expectation of the diligent. I have seen orchards laden with fruit 
to admiration; their very limbs torn to pieces by the weight, and most 
delicious to the taste and lovely to behold I have seen an apple tree from 
a pippin kernel yield a barrel of curious cider, and peaches in such plenty 
that some people took their carts a peach gathering; I could not but smile 
at the conceit of it; they are very delicate fruit, and hang almost like oiir 
onions that are tied on ropes." 

' Oldmixon, John The British Empire in America 2nd Ed. London. 1:440. 1 741. 

2 Watson Annals of Phila. i :46. 1856. 

' Raum, John O. History of Ne%v Jersey, 108. 



52 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

We are told in Watson's Annals of Philadelphia ' that one of the 
remarkable characteristics of German town, Pennsylvania, in 1700 was 
that the whole of the main street, one mile in length, " was fronted with 
blooming peach trees." 

An account of peaches in the Delaware region as late as the middle of 
the Eighteenth Century shows that even then the peach was regarded as 
indigenous "like maize and tobacco." This quotation, too, is interesting 
because it gives a glimpse of cultural methods, kinds, uses and danger from 
frost. The author was a Swedish clergyman, a resident of the region for 
some years. He writes: - 

" Peach trees stand within an enclosure by themselves; grow even in 
the stoniest places without culture. The fruit is the most delicious that 
the mouth can taste, and often allowable in fevers. One kind, called 
clingstones, are considered the best; in these the stones are not loose from 
the fruit as in the others. Many have peach orchards chiefly for the 
purpose of feeding their swine, which are not allowed to run at large. They 
first bloom, in March, the flowers coming out before the leaves, and are 
often injured by the frosts; they are ripe toward the close of August. This 
fruit is regarded as indigenous, like maize and tobacco; for as far as any 
Indians have been seen in the interior of the country these plants are 
found to extend." 

Pressed for space, we must conclude the discussion of early peach- 
growing in this region by quoting an account of the industry as it existed 
in 1750 when the Swedish naturalist, Kalm, visited the colonies and spent 
some time in Pennsylvania and neighboring states. Writing of orchards 
he says:^ " Every countryman, even a common peasant, has commonly 
an orchard near his house in which all sorts of fruit, such as peaches, apples, 
pears, cherries, and others, are in plenty. The peaches were now almost 
ripe. They are rare in Europe, particularly in Sweden, for in that country 
hardly any people besides the rich taste them. But here every countryman 
had an orchard full of peach trees, which were covered with such quantities 
of fruit, that we could scarcely walk in the orchard, without treading on 
those peaches which were fallen off ; many of which were always left on the 
ground, and only part of them was sold in town, and the rest was con- 
sumed by the family and strangers; for every one that passed by, was at 
liberty to go into the orchard, and to gather as many of them as he wanted. 
Nay, this fine fruit was frequently given to the swine. 



■ Watson Annals of Phila. i :46. 1856. 

' Acrelius, Israel The History of New Sweden, or the Settlements on the River Delaware. Stockholm, 
1759. Translated from the Swedish by William M. Reynolds, D. D., Philadelphia, 1876, Vol. XI of the 
Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 151, 152. 

'Kalm, Peter Travels into North America 1:71-7;^. 1770. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 53 

" This fruit is, however, sometimes kept for winter use, and for this 
purpose they are prepared in the following manner. The fruit is cut into 
four parts, the stone thrown away, and the fruit put upon a thread, on which 
they are exposed to the sunshine in the open air, till they are sufficiently 
dry. They are then put into a vessel for winter. But this manner of 
drying them is not very good, because the rain of this season very easily 
spoils and putrifies them, whilst they hang in the open air. For this reason 
a different method is followed by others, which is by far the most eligible. 
The peaches are as before cut into four parts, are then either put upon a 
thread, or laid upon a board, and so hung up in the air when the sun shines. 
Being dried in some measure, or having lost their juice by this means, they 
are put into an oven, out of which the bread has but just been taken,, and 
are left in it for a while. But they are soon taken out and brought into the 
fresh air; and after that they are again put into the oven, and this is 
repeated several times until they are as dry as they ought to be. For if 
they were dried up at once in the oven, they would shrivel up too much, 
and lose part of their flavour. They are then put up and kept for the 
winter. They are either baked into tarts and pyes, or boiled and pre- 
pared as dried apples and pears are in Sweden. Several people here dry 
and preserve their apples in the same manner as their peaches. 

" The peach trees have, as I am told, been first planted here by the 
Europeans. But at present they succeed very well, and require even less 
care than our apple and pear trees." 

Kalm ' also gives an account of the colonists' method of making peach- 
brandy, which, as we have seen, plays so important a part in the peach- 
industry of the times. Brandy-making, according to Kalm, was sim- 
plicity itself and it is not to be wondered that in those days of strong drink 
peach-brandy was popular. The following is Kalm's description: " They 
make brandy from peaches here, after the following method. The fruit 
is cut asunder, and the stones are taken out. The pieces of fruit are then 
put into a vessel, where they are left for three weeks or a month, till they 
are quite putrid. They are then put into the distilling vessel, and the 
brandy is made and afterwards distilled over again. This brandy is not 
for people who have a more refined taste, but it is only for the common 
kind of people, such as workmen and the like." 

Kalm, travelling from Trenton to Princeton, found the country thickly 
settled and full of orchards : ^ 

" During the greater part of the day we had very extensive com 
fields on both sides of the road. * * * Near almost every farm was 
a spacious orchard full of peach and apple trees, and in some of them 



Kalm, Peter Travels into North America 1:94. 
■ Drii. 1:222-223. '770- 



54 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the fruit had fallen from the trees in such quantities as to cover nearly 
the whole surface. Part of it they left to rot, because they could not 
take it all in and consume it. Wherever we passed by we were always 
welcome to go into the fine orchards and gather our hats and pockets full 
of the choicest fruit, without the possessors so much as looking after it." 

The soil and climate of Long Island and the lower reaches of the 
Hudson, similar to those of the Chesapeake peach-belt, are so well adapted 
to peaches that we may be sure that the early settlers in New York eked 
out their scanty fare with this fruit soon after settlements were made. 
Trade with the colonies to the south, where peaches were common before 
the Dutch were established on Manhattan Island, began almost imme- 
diately after the arrival of the Hollanders in America, and knowledge of 
the adaptability of peaches to conditions in the New World was no doubt 
quickly acquired from Virginia, if, indeed, the aborigines were not culti- 
vating this fruit in the region as Penn found them doing on the site of 
Philadelphia. Yet careful search in the colonial records of New York 
shows no early accounts of peaches, there being few such accounts, by the 
way, of any agricultural product, no one having undertaken the task of 
describing the natural and agricultural resources of this State as was done 
by several able observers for Virginia and the New England states. 

No doubt, however, orchard-planting as a general practice was long 
delayed in New York because of political and economic conditions. The 
Dutch came to America as traders and not as home-makers, and almost 
from the day they landed were in trouble with both their savage and their 
civilized neighbors so that actual or petty warfare prevented them from 
planting orchards until in 1647 when the reins of government were taken 
in hand by Peter Stuyvesant, a farmer as well as a soldier, who at once 
set about encouraging the planting of fields, gardens and orchards. He 
brought, we are told, fruits, flowers, farm and truck-crops from the neighbor- 
ing colonies and Holland and these he not only planted on Manhattan 
Island but sent to the settlements up the Hudson. The peach may readily 
be grown in suitable soils from Albany down the river to New York, and, 
by the end of the Seventeenth Century, we are told by travelers, naturalists 
and missionaries that this fruit was in common cultivation by the whites 
and was even rudely tilled by the Indians of the Hudson Valley. 

But, in eastern New York, away from the coast, the peach did not 
find the climate as congenial as in the colonies to the south and then, too, 
from the following record, the peach-borer early became troublesome. 



THE PKACHKS OF NEW YORK 55 

Kalm says: ' " Peach-trees have often been planted here (Albany, New 
York) and never would succeed well. This was attributed to a worm 
which lives in the ground, and eats through the root, so that the tree dies. 
Perhaps the severity of the winter contributes much to it." We have 
another reference to show that winter-killing must have been a discouraging 
factor in peach-culture in this part of New York in early days as it is now. 
Cadwallader Golden, appointed first surveyor- general of New York in 
17 19, and in 1761 lieutenant-governor of the Province, a botanist of note, 
who had a patent of land in what is now Orange County, wrote in 1737 
that cold had killed the peach-trees the previous winter. 

The traveler who visits New York today finds many orchards on the 
Hudson but in them he sees comparatively few peaches. The peach is 
much more at home two hundred miles west about the Central Lakes and 
along the shores of Lake Ontario Here, it is interesting to learn, peaches 
were grown in considerable quantities long before the region was settled 
by the whites — how long we have no record nor do we know much of the 
character of the fruit. John Bartram in his Travels from Pensilvania to 
Onondago, Oswego and the Lake Ontario, an account of a journey made in 
1743, mentions apples, peaches, plums and grapes growing about the 
Indian villages passed through on his route. Whether these peaches came 
from the white settlements nearer the Atlantic, or at a much earlier date 
from the Indians to the South, or both, we cannot even surmise. 

Sullivan's army, which came to this region in 1779 to chastise the 
Indians, found and destroyed considerable numbers of fruit-trees, among 
them many peaches. After Sullivan's raid the region was qitickly settled 
by whites who, following the examples of the Indians, planted apples and 
peaches, the orchard soon becoming a prominent asset to every farm. 
Collections of pioneer papers frequently mention the great adaptability 
of these lake-regions to peaches. In Conover's History of Kanadasaga 
and Geneva ^ there are sixteen references to the peach-orchards about Seneca 
and Cayuga lakes in and about the year 1 800. As in the South, the products 
seem to have been used chiefly in making peach-brandy. 

David Thomas,^ Aurora, Cayuga County, New York, was the pioneer 



' Kalm, Peter Travels into North America 2:244, 245. 1771. 

' Mss. in the library of Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. 

' David Thomas is now scarcely known in horticulture except as he is spoken of as the father of 
America's well-known agricultural, horticultural and pomological writer, John Jacob Thomas. Yet the 
father merits recognition for his work in agriculture and horticulture. David Thomas was a Quaker, 
born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in 1776 Tie became a civil engineer and moved to Aurora, 



56 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

horticulturist, fruit-grower and nurseryman in this part of the State and 
soon after coming to New York in 1805, we learn from several references 
to his orchards and nurseries in his own writings, began planting peaches. 
All of the named varieties from the South and East were tried in his orchard 
and if valuable were propagated and sold from his nursery. According 
to his son, John Jacob Thomas, the pomologcial writer, he had in 1830 " the 
most extensive and valuable collection of bearing trees west of the Hudson." 
Through him the western counties of the State were stocked with named 
peaches and other fnxits. 

Of peaches in the New England colonies, we need say but little. Except 
in favored parts of Connecticut and Massachusetts, this fruit was little 
grown in these northern colonies. It is not at all probable that New 
England Indians ever planted peaches and for a generation after the whites 
came the struggle for the necessities of life kept them from indulging in so 
great a luxury as a peach-orchard. Strong drink was as commonly used 
by the Puritans as by the Churchmen in Virginia and peach-brandy would 
have been as acceptable but it was easier to produce cider, and rum from 
the West Indies could be had with little trouble. Still, peaches were 
sparingly grown in the New England colonies. 

The Massachusetts Company in 1629 sent peach-pits, along with seeds 
of other fruits, to be planted by the colonists.' Twelve years later George 
Fenwick, Saybrook, Connecticut, writes to Governor Winthrop that he is 
" prettie well storred with chirrie & peach trees." "^ Justice Paul Dudley,^ 
who seems to have been the leading horticulturist in Massachusetts in his 
time, writes in 1726: " Our Peaches do rather excel those of England, and 
then we have not the Trouble or Expence of Walls for them ; for our Peach 



Cayuga County, New York, in 1805 and began to practice his profession. Later he became one of the 
engineers in charge of the construction of the Erie Canal and still later performed a similar service in 
building the Wetland Canal. Soon after, we find him a nurseryman and fruit-grower at Aurora. Through- 
out his entire life, his son writes, he was interested in horticulture, pomology and botany and by his writ- 
ings on these subjects, published principally in the Genesee Farmer, then the leading agricultural paper 
in western New York, and in Travels in the Western Country in 1816, published in Auburn in 1819, David 
Thomas performed most valuable services in forwarding the cultivation of fruits. He was a corresponding 
member of the London Horticultural Society and of the Linnaean Society of Paris. His articles in the 
Genesee Farmer and other agricultural papers furnish the most authoritative statements we have in regard 
to the early history of fruit-growing in western New York The name of David Thomas ought long to 
be preserved by horticulturists of the State and country together with that of his illustrious son, John 
Jacob Thomas. 

' Mass. Records 1:24. 

« Mass. Hist. Collections 4th Ser. VI:499. 

» History of the Mass. Horl. Soc. 16. 1 829-1 878 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 57 

Trees are all Standards, and I have had in my own Garden seven or eight 
Hundred fine Peaches of the Rare-ripes, growing at a Time on one Tree." 
From another statement made by Justice Dudley ' we learn that peaches 
were still being grown from the stone and may assume that budding was 
not known or so careful a horticulturist as our author would have men- 
tioned it. He says: " Our Peach Trees are large and fruitful, and bear 
commonly in three Years from the Stone. I have one in my Garden of 
twelve Years Growth, that measures two Foot and an Inch in Girt a Yard 
from the Ground, which, two Years ago, bore me near a Bushel of fine 
Peaches." 

SEEDLINGS GIVE WAY TO BUDDED TREES 

About the close of the Eighteenth Century the planting of pits for 
permanent trees began to give way to budding. It does not appear who 
began budding peaches on this side of the Atlantic but the desirability of 
budded stock was discussed as early as 1736, for in that year we find the 
English botanist, Peter CoUinson, urging his American colleague, John 
Bartram, to " graft Plums and Nectarines on Peach stocks." ' The matter 
had evidently been under consideration before for Collinson tells Bartram 
" Pray try; I have great opinion of its succeeding." ^ Bartram is hard to 
convince and ten years later Collinson is still urging him to bud, for, in a 
letter of April 26, 1746, he writes, rather impatiently, " Though thou canst 
not see, yet I have told thee what inoculating a Peach stock may do." ^ 

Probably the Princes, pioneer nurserymen in America, in their nurser}' 
at Flushing, Long Island, first began to bud the peach, for in their catalog 
of 1 77 1 they offer 29 sorts though most of these appear to be types rather 
than varieties. Twenty years later they list 35 varieties with the state- 
ment that all " are inoculated." John Kenrick,^ father of William Ken- 



' Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 17. 1829-1878. 

' Darlington, Wm. Memorials of Bartram 81. 1849. 

^Ibid.gz- 1849. 

* Ibid. 177. 1849. 

' John Kenrick, one of the pioneer nurserymen on American soil, began his business career by raising 
peach-seedHngs. His nursery was situated in the towns of Newton and Brighton, Massachusetts, and 
was founded in 1790. As we have stated in the text, he early acquired the art of budding and possibly 
was the first, or at least one of the first, nurserymen to offer budded peach-trees for sale. In 1823, he 
advertised in the New England Farmer thirty varieties of budded peaches five to eight feet high at thirty- 
three and one-third cents each. These thirty varieties must have included practically all of the named 
sorts then grown in America. It is interesting to note that he states in the advertisement that the trees 
were packed with clay and mats. It was in this year that William Kenrick, son of John Kenrick, became 
a partner of his father. Beside growing peaches, the Kenrick nurseries offered for sale other trees, vine 
and bush-fruits and ornamentals as well. The Kenricks were also extensive growers of currants from which 



58 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

rick,' the pomological author, who for years was Prince's chief competitor, 
his nurseries being located at Newton, Massachusetts, began business in 
1790 by planting a quantity of peach-stones the trees from which he did 
not bud. Four years later, we are told, he learned to bud and greatly 
extended his assortment of varieties, making a specialty of budded peach- 
trees.' 

Until the middle of the next century, peaches were nevertheless com- 
monly grown from the pits. It is probable that never before nor since, the 
world over, have seedling peaches been raised on so extended a scale as in 
America during the half-century following the Revolutionary war. The 
country between the Atlantic seaboard and the Mississippi was being rap- 
idly settled and on nearly every farm from the Great Lakes to the Gulf, bar- 
ring a few in the northernmost parts of this great area, peaches were planted. 
They furnished food not only for the pioneers but were used in fatten- 
ing pigs and in the earlier part of the period, at any rate, were, with apples, 
the chief supply of ardent spirits which every farmer then kept on hand fqr 
daily use. There were millions of peach-trees in America before 1825 
but until that time there were but few named varieties. Then the art of 
budding began to spread; nurseries sprang up; this vast collection of 



they made currant-wine, their output in 1824 being 1700 gallons; in 1825, 3000 gallons and in 1826, 3600 
gallons. The date and place of John Kenrick's birth cannot be learned. His death occurred in 1833 in 
the Kenrick mansion, built in 1720, standing near the nurseries. New England, and peach-growers 
everywhere, owe him a debt of gratitude for his services in horticulture. 

' William Kenrick, son of John, of whom we have just written, was bom in 1 795 in the family mansion 
on Nonantum Hill in the town of Newton, Massachusetts. He was trained by his father as a nurseryman 
and in 1823 became a partner in the Kenrick nurseries, of which he soon after appears to have assumed 
control. The Kenrick nurseries, at this time, were probably the most extensive and the best known of 
any in New England. Besides growing the fruit-bearing plants of the time and such ornamentals as were 
then to be found in America, the Kenricks seem to have taken an enthusiastic part in the craze for the 
Lombardy Poplar which was then raging in America. The elder Kenrick must have been one of the early 
growers of this popular plant for in 1797 two acres of his nursery was appropriated to the Lombardy Poplar. 
The son, in his turn an enthusiast, succumbed to the silk-culture fad and seems in 1835 to have been one 
of the leading growers of the mulberry, Morus multicaulus, for feeding silkworms. In this year Mr. Ken- 
rick published the American Silk Growers Guide, which is, in essence, a treatise on mulberry-culture. 
William Kenrick's most notable pomological achievement, however, was the publication of the New 
American Orchardist which appeared in 1833. While not the best of the pomological manuals of the time, 
it is ;i valuable contribution to American pomology because of its full descriptions of the fruits of that date. 
Beginning with his father in 1823, WiUiam Kenrick continued in the nursery business for twenty-seven 
years, probably growing, importing and disposing of more fruit and ornamental trees than any other 
nurseryman in New England during this time. He died in February, 1872, at the ripe age of 77, having 
lived to see the orchards planted from his nursery come to full fruition and every part of New England 
made more beautiful by the ornamental trees and shrubs grown under his care. 

2 Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 33. 1880. 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK 59 

peaches was passed through the sieve of selection; local varieties quickly 
acquired fame; and, as means of communication developed, the new varieties 
began to be disseminated, until, in 1850, American nurseries were selling 
over 400 varieties, a number which at the close of the century had increased 
to over 1000. 

THE CARE OF THE PEACH IN COLONIAL TIMES 

Peach-growers, in the period under consideration, gave their trees 
much the same care as is given in the present time except that they did not 
spray. Pests were fewer and yet some were especially troublesome, notably 
the peach-borer, the remedies for which were as numerous as today. 
Curculio, then as now, almost prohibited the cultiire of nectarines. A rot, 
the brown-rot, without doubt, did much damage. Peach-yellows, as yet, 
was not the scourge it now is but, as we shall see, was well in evidence. 
There were faddists in those days as in these. Thomas Coulter of Bedford 
County, Pennsylvania, was one of the original " sod-mulchers " — at least 
year in and year out he inveighed against cultivation. He managed to get 
himself in all of the publications of the times for a period of a half-century. 
We find his method discussed in Volume V of the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society, in the Domestic Encyclopaedia ' in 1803 
and, as late as 1821, a full account was published in the American Farmer. - 
We quote the article in full, as it came out in the three publications named, 
as a record of the times and because it contains a number of novel ideas 
some of which may commend themselves to modern orchardists of the 
sod-mulch school who want a cheap and easy way of growing peaches. 

" Transplant your peach-trees, as young as possible, where you mean 

them to stand; if, in the kernel, so much the better because, in that 

case, there will be no check of growth, which always injures peach-trees. 
Plant peach-trees 16 feet apart, both ways, except you would wish to 
take your waggon through the orchard to carry the peaches away; in that 
case, give 24 feet distance to every fifth row, one way, after transplanting. 
You may plough and harrow amongst your peach-trees, for two years, 
paying no regard to wounding or tearing them, so that you do not take 
them up by the roots. In the month of March, or April, in the third year 
after transplanting, cut them all off by the ground; plough and harrow amongst 
them as before, taking special care not to wound or tear them in the smallest 
degree, letting all the sprouts or scions grow that will grow; cut none away, 
supposing six or more should come from the old stump; the young scions 



WiUich Dom. Eric. 4:244-246. 1803. 
.Im. Farmer 1:406, 407. 1821. 



6o THK PEACHES OF NEM' YORK 

will grow up to bearing trees on account of the roots being strong. Let 
no kind of beasts into peach-orchards, hogs excepted, for fear of wounding 
the trees; as the least wound will greatly injure the tree, by draining away 
that substance which is the life thereof; although the tree may live many 
years, the produce is not so great, neither is the fruit so good. 

" After the old stock is cut away, the third year after transplanting, 
the sprouts or scions will grow up, all round the old stump, from four to 
six in number; no more will come to maturity, than the old stump can sup- 
port and nourish ; the remainder will die before ever they bear fruit. These 
may be cut away, taking care not to wound any part of any stock, or the 
bark. The sprouts growing all round the old stump, when loaded with 
fruit will bend and rest on the ground in every direction, without injuring 
any of them, for many years, all of them being rooted in the ground, as 
tho' they had been planted. The stocks will remain tough, and the bark 
smooth for 2 years and upwards; if any of the sprouts or trees from the 
old stump should happen to split off, or die, cut them away, they will be 
supplied from the ground, by young trees, so that you will have trees from 
the same stump for 100 years, as I believe. I now have trees, 36, 20, 10, 
5 and down to one year old, all from the same stump. 

" The young trees coming up, after any of the old trees split ofT or die, 
and are cut away, will bear fruit the second year; but this fruit will not 
ripen so easily as the fruit on the old trees from the same stem. Three 
years after the trees are cut off by the ground, they will be sufficiently 
large and bushy, to shade the ground so as to prevent grass of any kind from 
matting or binding the surface, so as to injure the trees; therefore; plough- 
ing is useless, as well as injurious; useless, because nothing can be raised 
in the orchard, by reason the trees will shade all the ground, or nearly 
so; injurious, because either the roots, stocks or branches will be wounded: 
neither is it necessary ever to manure peach-trees, as manured trees wiU 
always produce less and worse fruit, than trees that are not manured; 
although by manuring your peach-trees, they will grow larger, and look 
greener and thicker in the boughs, and cause a thicker shade, yet on them 

will grow very little fruit, and that little will be of a very bad kind 

generally looking as green as the leaves, even when ripe, and later than 
those that never have been manured." 

None of the varieties that we now grow was then cultivated. Taking 
the sorts described in 1800 we find that four were red-fleshed; eight, yellow- 
fleshed; thirty-four, white-fleshed; eighteen, freestones; nineteen, cling- 
stones, and twelve nectarines. There were no flat, or Peento, peaches 
but a sort known as Venus' s Nipple was seemingly a typical beaked peach. 

In 1800, Baltimore w^as the best market for peaches in America and 
was near the Chesapeake peach-belt. We are forttmate in having a descrip- 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 6 1 

tion of peach-growing around Baltimore at about that time. Richard 
Parkinson, an English farmer and agricultural writer, came to America 
to rent one of George Washington's farms in 1798. The two could not 
agree and Parkinson rented a farm near Baltimore on which was a peach- 
orchard. He published an account of his experiences in two very readable 
volumes and from this work we quote in part the story of his peach-orchard. 
Perhaps allowances should be made, for Parkinson seems to have been 
soured by failure and some of his expressions are such as might be expected 
from an opinionated Englishman undergoing new experiences in America 
just after the Revolution. Parkinson says: ^ 

" It would astonish a stranger to see the quantity of fruit in these 
parts, which makes the country to look beautiful twice a-year, when the 
trees are in blossom, and when the fruit is on the trees ripe. But the fruit 
is chiefly for the use of hogs and can be applied to no better purpose. 

" On my farm at Orange-Hill, only three miles from Baltimore, the 
last year I was there, I sold all my peaches to two men at four pence per 
peck, and let them have a cart and a horse to take them into the city to 
sell, knowing I had only made four pence per peck on the average the year 
before, and gathered them myself. These men agreed to pick them, and 
feed the horse in town at their expence. It was the opinion of every one 
that they had got a great bargain, and many others wished they had had 
it. They picked about one-half of them, and carried them to Baltimore: 
but, alas! they gave up the business, saying they could not make wages, 
although they at first had said that they would certainly take every peach, 
intending, if the market should not suit, to carry them to the stills, &c. 
I was in hopes all this exertion would make this bargain successful, as four 
pence per peck would pay much better than to give them to hogs, as I have 
no knowledge of what number a hog will eat. Seeing this scheme frustrated, 
and thinking it a sin and a shame to see such a number of fine peaches 
rot on the ground, I mounted my horse and rode to the stills, as there were 
many small ones within three or four miles of me in the country. They 
have been erected for this use; but many of them are never used after the 
first year; and I am of the opinion that they will not pay expences. The 
men at the stills were civil enough; they offered to lend me the still, and 
let me find a man to work it, &c. or they would work it for me; but, from 
every information I could obtain, I found that my peaches would not more 
than pay the carriage to the stills and hardly that; and after selling them 
to the owners of the stills, they would not give me so much for my fruit, 
as would pay me for my trouble ; nor will peaches pay the farmer, to be given 
to the hogs, if they be not so situated that the hogs can run where they are; 
and that happened not to be my case. 

• Parkinson . 4 Tour in America i:2t2-2i(). 1S05. 



62 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

" As a striking instance of the little profit of stills, Mr. O'Donnel, 
at Canton, had planted an orchard, of great extent, of red peaches, for the 
purpose of making peach-brandy. The red peach is reckoned much 
superior to any other for brandy. Although Mr. O'Donnel's orchard had 
grown to bear in great perfection and he had a still and the other necessary 
apparatus, the profit proved so small, that he suffered the whole to go 
waste, and his pigs consumed the produce; and, in the winter, rooted up 
all those fine peach trees, and planted the ground with Indian com, having 
previously manured the land with dung from Baltimore for the purpose 
of an orchard. Now this gentleman had some hundreds of acres of wood- 
lands unimproved in this plantation; therefore, the cause could not be for 
want of land. 

" My fine turnips, Indian com, potatoes, &c. were in the field by the 
orchard without any fence. Indeed hogs are not allowed to run at large 
within five miles of Baltimore, by an act of assembly; and mine were too 
valuable to risk such a misfortune; and especially as I was a great hog- 
shooter myself, it would have been fine diversion for any of my neighbours 
to have shot one of my fifty-dollar pigs. Seeing that these plants would 
not succeed, all that remained was to fatten my own hogs with them. I 
had but seven hogs; and they would have employed a man with horse and 
cart half a day to feed them; for, after a short time, they will only eat the 
best peaches, and refuse the others as a man would. I found this plan 
would not answer; and the consequence was, that, after every trial and 
exertion, they rotted on the ground. Now my farm was so situated that 
the great road through the heart of the country went through it, five or six 
stage-coaches, and great numbers of other carriages of all kinds. In all 
probability some of my own countrymen as merchants (for there begin to 
be many of these gentlemen to settle their accounts with the American 
merchants, and I suppose they will increase) seeing this waste committed, 
would, on returning to England, relate their story in this way — That 
when at the tavern at Baltimore on the same day, the fruit-people were 
asking eleven pence apiece f,or peaches. An Englishman says to himself, 
' What idle fools those Americans are ! and I think all the English, when 
they get to America, are as bad: but, when I get there, I will set them the 
example.' But when there, he finds himself much disappointed, and does 
not know how it is that he does not increase in riches, while neither him- 
self nor his family enjoys any comfort. He at last finds out that the 
Americans are not a set of fools as he once thought: and, as he must have 
a name for them, perhaps he calls them rogues; which, if Lord Chester- 
field was right in his observation, pleases a man the best of the two. 

" When I took this farm, I had not a doubt, that, by some extra- 
ordinary exertion, I should be able to make something handsome from 
peaches, and so near Baltimore. Before I took the farm, when I enquired 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 63 

how peaches sold in the market, perhaps they would tell me eleven pence 
apiece, and eleven pence a peck on the same day. That used to stagger 
me very much: but it is so: and the man who ofifers you a fine Newington 
peach for eleven pence or a five-penny bit, sells but few each day; and lives, 
although very poorly, at a very great expence; consequently his profit 
must be great on each article. The man who sells the peaches at eleven 
pence each, will not grow rich by his business, any more than the grower. 
Then we come to the calculation of my profit at four pence per peck, which 
is the best and greatest price. Could the scheme be put in execution, it 
will, generally speaking, require two men and one horse and cart each day, 
to pick thirty pecks and carry them to market; and thirty peeks are more 
than any white man can sell one day with another. A black man is much 
better for this business than a white man; although they are in general 
ignorant, they are impudent: thirty pecks of peaches, at four pence per 
peck, is just ten shilUngs per day for peaches; and the two men's wages are 
worth, at that season of the year, one dollar per day each, and one pint of 
whiskey, which will be sixteen shillings for the men: the cart and horse are 
worth one dollar and a half per day ; but you could not hire it for less than 
two dollars. Now the expences on this business are one pound seven 
shillings and three pence per day, and the produce is ten shillings. But 
as I sold them, I made profit each day on thirty pecks of peaches two 
shillings and nine pence: the reader may plainly see that there could not 
be any thing done better. This shews in this part of the work where 
I am on the Eastern Shore, one hundred miles and upwards from market, 
that the reader will be convinced the cherries and peaches pay the best for 
hogs." 

ADAPTABILITY AND VARIABILITY IN THE PEACH 

In the preceding pages our narrative has flitted from continent to 
continent and country to country in a belt encircling the earth. Few other 
fruits are found under such varied conditions and over such extended areas. 
We have seen that peaches are found wild and cultivated over much of 
Japan; as far north as Vladivostock in Korea; once a wild inhabitant of 
some part of China it is now cultivated in nearly every section of that 
vast empire where agriculture is an industry; the trees are so abundant 
and so much at home in the orchards and forests of the Turkestans and 
Persia as to have given rise to the belief that they have always grown 
there. While not so common as in Asia, yet peaches thrive in all of 
southern Europe and readily submit to artificial culture in pots and on 
walls in northern European latitudes. Coming to America with the first 
Spaniards, the peach found such congenial surroundings that it spread 
rapidly, freely and widely, leading botanists tlirec centuries later to call it 



64 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

a native. In the fruit-areas of the United States, after two centuries of 
cultivation, though sometimes a luxury and the crop often a speculation, 
the peach is so perennially plentiful that it is to be found, fresh, canned or 
evaporated, in every home in the land and the species is represented in 
American pomologies by over looo sorts which have originated in this 
country. 

However, in tracing the history of the peach from China to America, 
we have not wholly shown the range of adaptability of this fruit The 
peach has become adapted to the clear skies, strong light, long seasons and 
hot climate of northern Africa, where, under modified cultural treatment, 
it is a common fruit in Egypt ' and the other states bordering on the 
Mediterranean. It thrives on the islands in the Mediterranean and on 
those of the North Temperate zone almost to the tropics in the Atlantic 
and the Pacific, as the Azores, Canaries, West Indies and Hawaiian group. 
As long ago as 1649 the Azores were famous for peaches and Colonel 
Norwood, author of A Voyage to Virginia,- in a gustatory reminiscence 
tells us that they were of so good quality that he " did not fail to visit 
and revisit them in the dead of night to satisfy a ravenous appetite nature 
has too prodigally given me for that species." In the sub-tropic climate 
of Guadeloupe Islands, French West Indies, there is a peach peculiar to 
the region differing in shape, flavor and in heat-resisting qualities from 
the common run of this fruit. ^ 

The Aryan race has taken the peach across the equator in the path- 
ways of discovery, conquest and civilization, and made it a favorite fruit 
in the gardens and orchards of the South Temperate as well as in those of 
the North Temperate zone. In the colonies of South Africa the peach 
seems to be as common as any deciduous fruit, native sorts being planted 
with those from Europe and America. Of the Transvaal Yellow Peach, 
R. A. Davis, horticulturist of the colony, says:" "Generally speaking, 
it is the fruit most commonly grown in the Transvaal, and it may safely 
be said that where it will not grow no other peach stands much chance of 
thriving. The writer has seen them flourishing by the side of the rail- 
road amongst granite boulders, the result of a chance pit thrown from the 
window of a railway carriage. It is also extensively grown as a hedge 



'An interesting account of peach-culture in Egypt is to be found in Agr'l Jour, of Egypt 3: Pt. 2: 
134-137- 1914- 

'A Voyage to Firgi'ni'a Force's Hist. Tracts 3: No. 5:10. 
^U. S. D. A. Invent, of Seeds and Plants No. 32:14- I9I4- 
• Transvaal Agr. Journal No. 10, 3:336. 1905. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 65 

around homesteads, having been planted after the primitive method of 
turning a furrow where the hedge was wanted and simply dropping the 
seeds in after the plough. It is commonly recognised that the peach 
hedge should duly appear and bear fruit in two years from planting the 
seed. The writer has also seen them growing by the side of water-furrows 
and dams, with the whole of the roots on one side of the tree at least 
immersed in water." 

The Spaniards, no doubt, planted the peach in parts of South America 
soon after the discovery of the continent and it now runs wild on both 
coasts. Thus, Darwin in his famous voyage found the islands at the 
mouth of the Parana River, Argentina, " thickly clothed with peach and 
orange trees carried there by the waters of the river." ^ Many references 
to wild peaches on the Pacific Coast may be found, as interesting as any 
being one from Bertero who says that on Robinson Crusoe's island, Juan 
Fernandez,^ ' The peach is so abundant that one can scarcely form an 
idea of the quantity of fruit that it bears. They are in general of good 
quality despite the state of wildness." According to OakenfuU,^ in Brazil, 
" Of all the fruits introduced from abroad, the peach has made itself more 
at home than any." Wight * reports the peach and nectarine in Argentina, 
Chile, Peru and Bolivia under cultivation and as escapes from cultiva- 
tion in seemingly all degrees of evolution. The peach-drying industry 
is important in the province of Coquimbo, Chile. According to Louns- 
bury the peach is the most common fruit-tree in Argentina. He says:^ 
" It grows almost everywhere most luxuriantly, bears heavily and as yet 
no very serious insect or fungus pest for it has become widespread. Solid 
blocks of thousands of trees are not uncommon about Buenos Ayres. 
Most of the choice varieties of Europe and America have been introduced." 
The culture of this fruit in South America falls short of that in North 
America only because of the lack of advancement in horticulture — the 
one continent is a century behind the other in this field of agriculture. 

In temperate Oceanica the peach plays as important a part in horti- 
culture as any other of the deciduous tree-fruits. In early days in New 
Zealand, " vast groves of peaches existed, sometimes, as in the Waikato, 
extending for miles, where magnificently grown trees cropped without 

' Darwin, Charles Voy. of a Nal. 1:154. 
' Bertero, Ann. Sc. Nat. 21:350. 
' Oakenfull, J. C. Brazil 358. 1913. 
•Wight, W. F. Proc. .Sor. Hort. .Sci. 10:122-133. I9'3- 
^ Agr. Journal of the Cape of Good Hope No. 2, 27:197. 1905. 
5 



66 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

limit." ' Both the peach and nectarine are grown in the horticultviral 
regions of the island. Wherever the fruits of temperate climates are culti- 
vated in Australia, there may the peach be found. If one may judge from 
the attention given this fruit in the agricultural literature of New Zealand 
and Australia, it holds the same high place in the horticulture of these 
islands in the Pacific that it has in Ettrope and America. 

The types of peaches are almost as diverse as the regions in which the 
fruit is an inhabitant. The 2181 varieties described in The Peaches of 
New York attest the variability of the species in America and Europe, 
many of our sorts having come from the Old World. This great number 
of kinds can be distinguished by reason of differences in skin, flesh, flavor, 
aroma, stone and season, the attributes of which have been mentioned 
several times in foregoing paragraphs. The structure of leaf and tree 
offers as many more taxonomic characters. It is interesting to note the 
extreme forms in fruit and tree the peach has taken on in its centuries of 
world-wide wanderings. 

Round, flat, beaked, free or clingstone peaches with smooth or downy 
skins and red, yellow or white flesh, sweet, sour or bitter, in all combina- 
tions, and each often modified by soil and climate, are known to American 
growers of this fruit. But there are many peaches with less well-known 
characters. Thus, a peach in China bears fruits as heavy as one pound 
apiece with extraordinary keeping and shipping qualities; ^ another Chinese 
peach of the Honey type has a tree with a maximum height of only seven or 
eight feet;^ growing in the same locality, Poliping, China, is a variety with 
extraordinarily long leaves;^ the Paak wat to peach from China is a white- 
stoned sort; ^ a variety in the French West Indies has fruits that peel easily 
and withstand a continuous temperature in ripening season of 76 to 90 
degrees; ^ from Kashgar comes a peach that will keep for several months; ' 
in Chinese Turkestan there is a nectarine " said to keep for several weeks 
after fully ripe;" ^ even more remarkable is the Feitchen peach which 
ripens in ate September and can be kept, if wrapped in paper, until Feb- 

' Boucher, W. A. Con. New Zeal. Fruit Growers 89. 1901. 

2 U. S. D. A. Bur. of PI. Ind. Bui. 137:,^!. 1909. 

'Ibid. 137:48. 1909. 

< Ibid. 

' U. S .D. A. Bur. of PL Ind. Bui. 162:50. 1909. 

« U. S. D. A. Invent, of Seeds and Plants No. 32:14. 1914. 

' U. S. D. A. Bui. of For. Plant Int. No. 60:411. 1911. 

«/6i(i. No. 60:412. 1911. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 67 

nxary;' as remarkable as any is the Transvaal Yellow of South Africa 
which we have seen in a foregoing paragraph grows " amongst granite 
boulders," " as a hedge aroimd homesteads " and " beside water furrows 
and dams, the roots of one side of the tree immersed in water; " the Fra- 
grant Peach and the Firm Peach from China are not yet known in America; ^ 
another Chinese peach is a dwarf, " grown in pots indoors, which fruits 
at a height of fifteen inches and bears peaches on the main trunk though 
the stem be scarcely larger than a lead pencil." ^ Most of the examples 
named are from China but others can be found in every distinct region in 
which peaches have long been grown. 

Every well-marked geographical region in which the peach is grown 
comes, sooner or later, to have a type of varieties of its own; yet the uni- 
versal stamp of the peach — of cultivated Primus persica — is on them all. 
These facts imply two important things. First, the peach is an exceedingly 
flexible fruit, capable of being moulded to fit many conditions of environ- 
ment; and, under cultivation, training, feeding and culture in unlike regions, 
soils and climates, may still be greatly improved and the improvements 
all intensified and augmented by crossing and selecting. Second, the peach, 
a gift to the world from China, has seemingly, in its centuries of cultiva- 
tion by the Orientals, taken on sufficient immutability to make it one of 
the most stable of species, especially in its fruits. The many races and 
thousands of varieties are all best put in one species; many varieties come 
true to seed; and peaches from seed seldom " revert " to worthless forms 
as so many seedling fruits habitually do. Cultivated plants, as all who 
work with them know, differ widely in variability. Some, as corn, the 
cucurbits, and grapes and plums with their many species, are so variable 
as to be almost unmanageable in attempts to improve them; others, as the 
cereals, are quite too immutable for the best work of the breeder. The peach 
is neither a stone wall nor shifting sand in the matter of variability. 



^U. S. D. A. Bur. of For. 'Plant Int. No. 60:431. 1 
- U. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants No, 113:920. 191 1. 
'/6td. No. 114:929. 1911. 



68 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

CHAPTER U 

BOTANICAL AND HORTICULTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF 
THE PEACH 

PLACE OF THE PEACH IN THE GENUS PRUNUS 

The genus Prunus is without peer in the number of distinct, natural, 
esculent products it furnishes man. Here belong the stone-fruits — peaches, 
plums, cherries, almonds and apricots, represented by some forty edible 
species, which, through long domestication, have been broken up into not 
less than 5000 orchard-varieties, of which at least 3000 are now under 
ctdtivation. Of the two-score cultivated species of this genus, Prunus 
persica, the common peach, is easily the most remarkable when judged 
either by the senses which make foods palatable and pleasant or by the 
criteria that establish the commercial worth of a product. As virtues 
which give the peach leading place among stone-fruits, we may specify: 
Wider distribution and consequently commoner cultivation and a greater 
number of varieties; larger size, greater beauty, pleasanter and more 
diversified taste, and more culinary uses than other stone-fruits; and 
greater productiveness, more rapid growth and earlier fruiting of the trees 
than most of the species of the genus. The place of the peach in the genus 
Prunus is thus easily established from a horticultural point of view, but it 
is a much more difficult matter to make clear its botanical standing among 
the species with which it is considered botanically related. 

The botanical relations of the several stone-fruits to each other have 
been set forth in the foregoing books of this series on plums and cherries, 
but, for the convenience of those who may not have these treatises, a 
summary of the relationships of the species of Prunus is presented. 
Besides, greater emphasis on several differences between the peach and its 
congeners is needed. In particular, since some notable naturalists have 
held that the peach is a modified almond, the differences between these 
two fruits must be more clearly set forth. 

Nearly every botanist who has done much towards classifying plants 
has grouped the stone-fruits according to a plan of his own and there are, 
therefore, many classification schemes and consequently a most confused 
nomenclature for this genus. Happily, the pitfalls in synonomy dug by 
botanists need not worry horticulturists; for each of the stone-fruits con- 
stitutes a distinct horticultural group. In tree or fruit of peach, plum, 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 69 

cherry, apricot, or almond, who could mistake one for another? For 
horticultural purposes we accept as best one of the oldest and yet one of 
the most commonly used classifications which places in one genus all of 
the stone-fruits. What are the lines of cleavage between the several stone- 
fruits of common cultivation? 

Stone-fruits fall naturally into two distinct groups. In the first the 
leaves are rolled in the buds — convolute. The plums and the apricots 
belong to this section. In the buds of the other group the leaves are folded 
lengthwise along the midrib — conduplicate. To this section belong 
almonds, peaches and cherries. The two sections seem to be united in this 
matter of disposition of leaves in the bud, it should be said in passing, by 
a few species of American plums which are conduplicate in vernation. 
The second section is further subdivided by very marked differences in the 
fruits. The fruits of the peach and almond are larger than those of the 
cherry, less juicy, — in the case of the almond almost dry, — hirsute (except 
in the nectarine), and are borne without stems; and the blossoms usually 
appear long before the opening of the leaves. Cherry-fruits are always 
juicy, usually glabrous, and are borne on more or less distinct stems; 
and the blossoms appear with the leaves. Botanists who put these fruits 
in one genus usually redivide according to the characters given so that the 
plum and apricot stand in one sub-genus (Euprunus), the almond and 
peach in another (Amygdalus), and the cherry in a third (Cerasus). 

Differentiating more closely, we find that it is not so easy to dis- 
tinguish between the peach and the almond. The likenesses are so many 
and so apparent that it is not to be wondered that Knight, whose theory 
we have discussed on a foregoing page, came to the conclusion that the 
peach is a modified almond, or that Darwin, with his belief that plants 
came sooner or later to express their environmental conditions, should be 
inclined to believe that the peach is an evolution from the almond. It is 
easy to imagine that countless ages ago — how long since is but an invitation 
to argue — the two species merged into one. Offspring of the parent-species 
once established in distinct soil and climatic conditions — the peach in 
China, the almond in southwestern Asia — differentiation began and in 
time each region was represented by a species of its own. Such an occur- 
rence is but one of the commonplaces of evolution; but Knight, Lindley 
and Darwin thought they saw evidence that the separation came after the 
almond, the supposed parent-species, had been domesticated, the steps 
being from fleshy almond to bad clingstone, to good clingstone, to free- 



70 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

stone, to nectarine. The arguments against such a descent have been given 
elsewhere. 

The chief differences between the two species are to be found in the 
matured fruits though, at first thought, it might appear that these are not 
greater than those found in widely separated varieties of either of the two 
species. The fruits of the peach and the almond are, however, much more 
widely separated than any of the varieties of either species, inasmuch as 
the differences are several and have to do with parts not usually affected 
by cultivation and not the subject of selection by the cultivator. Thus, 
the fruit of the peach is a delectable esculent; that of the almond inedible; 
the flesh of the peach, the mesocarp, is soft, fleshy, juicy; that of the almond 
thin, tough and leathery; the pit of the peach must be removed while that 
of the almond drops naturally from the hard flesh which splits at maturity. 
The differences between the pits of the two species are quite as marked as 
in the flesh of the fruit. The pit of the peach is deeply sculptured, pitted, 
and of a bone-like consistency; that of the almond is nearly smooth and in 
most varieties is much thinner and of softer texture. The differences in 
the kernels are such as could easily be brought about by selection, some 
peach-kernels being sweet and edible and some almond-kernels being too 
bitter to be palatable. 

Coming to the tree-characters we find that there are several which 
differ sufficiently to give each of the two fruits distinct specific rank. The 
winter aspect of the two trees is wholly different. The almond resembles 
a young apple tree in color of bark more than it does the peach and has, 
too, a head much like that of a broad-topped, much-branched apple. In 
foliage the distant aspect is much the same, but examined closely there are 
several distinctions that hold in comparing the two species. The leaves 
of the peach are more broadly lanceolate than those of the almond, coarsely 
serrate or crenate while the margins of almond-leaves are finely serrate. 
The glands on the leaf-stalk or leaf of the peach are globose, reniform or 
mixed; on the almond, the glands are globose. The flowers in the t\^o 
species are similar but the time of flowering is markedly different. The 
color of the petals in both varies from pale pink to deep pink with occasional 
pure white forms; the flowers of true almonds are always large while those 
of the peach are about equally divided between large and small. The 
almond, in New York, is out of bloom before flowers of the peach appear, 
the difference in blooming-time being from one to three weeks. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 7 1 

TREE- AND FRUIT-CHARACTERS OF THE PEACH 

Fruit-growers must largely depend on printed descriptions for 
knowledge of varieties. A well-made description of tree or fruit, to one 
mentally equipped to interpret it, is second only to having the real objects 
at hand. But the difificulty is that few excepting professional pomologists 
know the characters of even the common fruits and their relative impor- 
tance. Before taking up either botanical or horticultural descriptions of 
peaches, then, it is necessary to direct attention to the characters of the 
peach, diflferences in which distinguish species and varieties. Be it 
remembered in this study of the characters of the peach, however, that, 
as fields and woods offer better facilities for the botanist than the her- 
barium, so the peach-orchard is a fitter place to study the characters of 
the peach than a printed page. 

The single species of the peach in which we are greatly interested has 
a very characteristic tree, the variations in which are, however, less well 
marked than those of the tree of any other of our common fruits. The 
peach-tree is distinguished by its low, roundish and never pyramidal head. 
Of its gross characters, size is most important in distinguishing varieties, 
the several more or less distinct types in the species usually being separable 
by size alone. In considering size, proper allowance must, of course, always 
be made for environment. There are no true dwarfs among the varieties 
of Primus persica cultivated in America. 

Habit of growth is nearly as important as size of tree in determining 
varieties. Thus, a variety may be round-topped, upright-spreading or 
drooping in habit; the head may be open or dense; the branches long or 
short, stout or slender; the trunks may be short or long, straight or crooked, 
much branched or little branched. These habits of growth serve not 
only to distinguish sorts but often determine whether the tree is sufficiently 
manageable to make a good orchard -plant. 

Hardiness is an important character both in classifying and in deter- 
mining the orchard-value of a variety. All peaches are tender to cold as 
compared with other tree-fruits of temperate climates but there is suffi- 
cient difference in varieties to permit the designations hardy, half-hardy and 
tender In the classificatory scheme in most common use in America, 
that of Onderdonk and Price, variation in hardiness is the chief determinant 
of groups. 

All peaches come in bearing so early and bear so regularly that varietal 
differences in these characters scarcely count in classifying, but pro- 



72 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

ductiveness varies very characteristically in dififerent varieties. Environ- 
ment and care greatly influence fruitfulness yet, notwithstanding, the 
quantity of fruit borne is often a means of identifying a variety and, of 
course, must always be considered by the cialtivator and the breeder. 

Resistance to disease and insects is a taxonomic and an economic 
character of much importance. Thus there are great variations among 
varieties in resistance to peach-yellows, brown-rot and leaf-curl, the three 
commonest diseases of this fruit in New York, as there is also in resistance 
to San Jose scale, the worst insect-pest of the peach in this region and 
to the peach-borer, the commonest. These examples are multiplied 
in the discussions of varieties, pains having been taken in the peach- 
orchards at this Station to determine the relative resistance of all varieties 
to the pests of this region. 

But little attention need be paid to the old bark on peach-trees, since 
in all varieties it is much the same and is unimportant to the ctiltivator. 
The bark of all varieties varies in color on different soils and is always 
of a lighter hue in cold than in warm regions, in dry than in wet situations. 

The branches and branchlets of varieties are very characteristic. The 
length, thickness, direction, rigidity and the branching angle are all stable 
characters of varieties, changing but little with differences in soil and 
climate. The length of the internode is important as is also color, smooth- 
ness, amount of pubescence, size and appearance of the lenticels, and the 
presence of excrescences, — though all are exceedingly variable. 

Both leaf-buds and fruit-buds are used in separating groups of peaches 
but are too nearly alike in the several groups to be of aid in distinguishing 
the varieties of any group. Fruit-buds are borne in pairs on the wood of 
the previous year with a leaf-bud separating the members of the pair. 
The only characters of buds worth noting are size, shape, color and the 
angle at which the buds stand out from the branches. 

After the fruits, the leaves offer the best means of determining groups 
and varieties of peaches. Leaves are variable, it is true, but usually within 
limits quite easily set, since the conditions causing the variations are easily 
discovered. The most usual ones are extremes in soil, moisture, light, 
heat and the age of the wood upon which the leaves are borne. Much 
care has been taken to illustrate as accurately as possible the leaves of the 
varieties given color-plates in this text, size and form being reproduced 
exactly and color as nearly as color-plate printing permits. 

Leaf-size and leaf-form are the first characters of the foliage to study 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 73 

in determining varieties. The former varies somewhat in accordance 
with the conditions named in the foregoing paragraph but the shape of 
the leaf changes but little. Fortunately for the student of varieties, leaves 
differ most in relative length and breadth so that the shape may be 
accurately indicated by figures which are used in most of the descriptions 
in The Peaches of New York. Comparisons of the bases and the apices 
of leaves of different varieties often show distinguishing marks. 

The color of leaves in varieties is very constant for both surfaces. 
The color of the foliage gives an aspect to peaches whereby a variety may 
often be distinguished in its summer dress at considerable distance. Unfor- 
tunately, the colors of leaves in the color-plates in this book cannot be 
relied upon to give much help in studying this character. Autumnal 
tints are uniformly the same in peaches and not to be relied upon in classi- 
fying varieties. 

Several other characters of the leaves must be studied by the syste- 
matic pomologist. The leaves of some varieties are thinner than those of 
others, hence thickness becomes a distinguishing character. Venation 
of leaves — size and arrangement of veins — is important. Pubescence 
of leaves cuts quite a figure in the descriptions of many fruits but in the 
peach is of minor importance because the leaves are not very hairy and the 
quantity and character of the pubescence is exceedingly variable. Some 
varieties have relatively few leaves — others many. The leaves of some 
varieties fall early — others relatively late. 

The margins of peach-leaves offer valuable evidence in determining 
varieties. They may be serrate or crenate, doubly or singly divided, 
glandular or glandless. Both serrations and glands are best studied in the 
middle of the sides of leaves, those at the base or apex often being crowded 
or wanting. 

Petioles differ in length, thickness, rigidity, pubescence and color, 
so that this organ is often a substantial help in identifying varieties. Some 
say the color of the petiole is correlated with that of the fruit, as it certainly 
is in such extreme sorts as Snowball and Indian Cling, but it is doubtful 
whether this correlation goes further than groups and even here does not 
always hold Stipules offer no distinguishing marks of importance. 

Much use is made in classifying peaches of the presence or absence, 
the size, color, shape, position and number of glands on the base of the leaf 
or on the leaf-stalk. These glands may be either stalked or sessile. The 
terms used in describing glands are easily understood and need no definition 



74 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

unless it be a few words in regard to the shape. Globose glands are small 
globes, reniform glands are kidney-shaped. In determining the form of 
glands examinations must be made several times in the season, the end 
of the summer offering the best opportunity and even then care must be 
taken to secure old leaves. Glands are less variable in adult trees than in 
trees not yet in bearing. Pomologists for a hundred years have noted the 
fact that peaches with glandless leaves are very susceptible to mildew. 
We find this to be the case on the grounds of this Station. This correla- 
tion between glandlessness and mildew may account for the fact that 
peaches with glandless leaves are rapidly disappearing from American 
peach-lists. Wickson says it has been found that peaches with glandless 
leaves resist leaf -curl." 

Gregory has made a careful study of the glands on peach-leaves.- We 
publish here the most important facts he brings out. 

" In a large number of cases the glands are stable and can be safely 
used to aid in the identification of certain varieties. There are also varieties 
in which the glands are exceptionally unstable, being on the border line 
between the two types — reniform and globose — and having what might 
be termed mixed glands. These mixed glands are of two kinds: one in 
which the majority of the glands are reniform, with some globose inter- 
mingled; the other in which the globose form predominates. It would be 
quite possible, as Carriere (1867) suggests, to distinguish a third type of 
glands — the mixed type. 

" It is important that leaves should be chosen from healthy branches 
on bearing trees. It is also best to obtain a large number of leaves or to 
examine the tree carefully before making the final selection of leaves. 
Mature leaves are best because their glands are full-sized and correctly 
shaped, while on young leaves the form of the glands is usually obscure. 
This is particularly true of the reniform glands. On the other hand, old, 
partly decayed, globose glands frequently have much the appearance of 
reniform glands. 

" The structure of the glands shows that they are true glands, having 
an upper layer of long, rectangular, secretory cells that produce a sweet 
substance, the function of which is not apparent. After the glands have 
ceased secreting they begin to decay, becoming brown on the upper surface 
and slowly disappearing until almost nothing is left. This decaying is 
a very complicated process, being preceded in every case by a suberization 
and thickening of the cell walls. 

" The spines of the leaf are very similar to the glands in structure. 



' Wickson, E. J. Cat. Fruits 308. 1889. 

= Gregory, C. T. Cornell Bui. 365:219-220. 1915. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 75 

having the same upper layer of long cells, but with much more heavih- 
cutinized walls. A study of the transitional forms indicates that the 
glands are merely modified leaf spines. 

" The leaves with reniform glands are apparently the highest type 
and the glandless leaves the lowest, with the transition through the globose 
type. In support of this view is the fact that whenever typically glandless 
leaves become possessed of glands they are always of the globose type. 

" The serrations of the glandless leaves are very strikingly different 
from those on a leaf with glands. The former leaves are deeply and doubly 
serrate, while the margins of the latter are always single and crenate- 
Almost invariably, when glands develop on a normally glandless leaf, the 
serrations are transformed to crenations, indicating that there is a very 
close correlation between the glands and the crenations on the edges of the 
leaves." 

The French pomologists, Poiteau and Turpin,^ seem to have first 
made note of the glands in describing peaches, recording their discovery 
by M. Desprez in the nurseries at the Luxembourg in 1810, after which, 
for a half-century, French, English and German pomologists regarded 
them as an infallible means of distinguishing varieties. But, by the middle 
of the Nineteenth Centur}', classifiers began to give them up because of 
their variability on leaves of trees of the same variety or even on the same 
tree. Even Darwin made note of their insufficiency in taxonomic work.^ 
Now, no one familiar with any considerable number of varieties of peaches 
would attach very great importance to glands in a system of classification. 

The flowers of peaches are very characteristic, helping to delineate 
the groups in the several classificatory schemes of various pomologists and 
being ample to identify not a few varieties. Peach-flowers differ in time of 
appearance; in length of blooming-season; they may be large, medium or 
small; pink, rose and rarely white; borne on pedicels of varying length, 
thickness, color and pubescence; and both the floral and reproductive 
organs have modifications of their several structures. The size, color and 
shape of peach-flowers are well shown in the first six color-plates. In 
some species of Prunus, as some of the plums, the reproductive organs 
differ greatly in ability to perform their functions, but the blossoms of 
edible peaches are seemingly always self-fertile and there are less often the 
mal-formations found in the reproductive organs of some plums. 

A well-marked correlation ^ between the color in the inside of the 



Trait. Arb. Fr. 35. 1807. 

Darwin .4ms. and Ph. Dottiest. 2nd Ed. 2:217. 1893. 

Hedrick, U. P. Science 37:917. 1913. 



76 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

calyx-cup and the color of the flesh of the fruit is one of the distinguishing 
features of peaches. Yellow-fleshed peaches develop from blossoms in 
which the inside color of the calyx-cup is orange; white-fleshed peaches 
develop from those in which the color is greenish or greenish-yellow some- 
times approaching a very light orange easily distinguished from the dark 
orange of the other group. Since the discovery of this correlation in the 
Station orchards by Mr. Charles Tubergen it has been in yearly use and 
has enabled us to tell a year or two in advance the flesh-color of seedling 
peaches, since the first peach-blossoms seldom set fruit. 

The fruits, however, furnish by far the best characters upon which 
to fotmd a classification of peaches. The simplest classification of peaches 
begins by separating them into smooth-skinned and pubescent sorts; each 
of these divisions is redivided into clingstones and freestones; these foiir 
groups may then be separated into yellow-fleshed, white-fleshed and 
red-fleshed peaches; still further, most, not all, of the twelve groups made 
in the first three divisions, separate into round, flat or beaked peaches. 
These are the major characters of the fruits, little influenced by cultiva- 
tion or environment, after which there are many minor characters such as 
size, shape, color, quality and season, all very responsive to changed con- 
ditions, that help to describe definitely the many varieties of P run us 
pcrsica. The most variable of the minor characters is shape, all peaches 
tending to lose rotundity in southern climates and to become oblong and 
beaked. The length and quantity of the pubescence on peaches vary 
considerably in different soils — the warmer and lighter the soil, the less 
pubescence. The skin adheres closely to the flesh in some varieties; in 
others it is non-adherent. 

The characters fovmd in the stones of the many species of Prunus 
are of great value in determining species but they help but little in deter- 
mining the horticultural varieties of any one species. The stones of the 
peach do vary, however, very materially in size, shape, grooves and ridges, 
pitting and in characteristics at base and apex. The color-plates in this 
text illustrate these differences very well. One may generalize and say 
that the stones of the freestones are more deeply furrowed and that the 
sides are smoother than in the clingstones. 

The characters of the peach are set forth on the opposite page by 
reproducing a description as made at this Station in describing a variety 
for The Peaches of New York. Such a description is, however, but a skele- 
ton, as dead as dry bones, unless a living picture of the variety be made by 



N..n. ..Q,j.A.£j(jt^ 

TREE 

Muked Characteristics 




HARDINESS 
PRODUCTIVENESS 

SUSCEPriBILlTY 



To Diieun .... 
LONGEVITY 



BRANCHES 
Diameter 



Surlace 



^^ 



' t l^ ^^ U ^, ^ 



g..,,jh.„«d *4>-c., ^.t^/«, teum ^4^* 



f€Z£*^.. 



^ *Try<*<^y ' i;;;^;'^^,;;ji; ™"^ '^ 






H'.,..., 



-^" 



"■^'^-/t/t^^U/i 



i^t^c 



i-.uo:::z^ : ^z'^^^vn 






SEASON 
— ft^ 



Ripens 
Flavor 



-feS^ 



1 o.,„o„ Cu^^^:,^^...., - >''-*^. 



^!e^'i^T'/^3,/f 



/7^, //// 






NU.MBER OF PICKINGS, 
KEEPING QUALITY ._ 
SHIPPING QUALITY . 
SUSCEPTIBILITY lu 



Quality 



Thorn"; _ /, 'CdMLLi^^^ 

■-^^, Ungth 

BRANCHLETS j'm'iiS, ^5 



SIZE 



STONE 

AdlKSioi 

-4S^ 



^2:^t^fe 



M.^',um Oj Xl/f jliJ— (Ux^J^^ tJ Annress,.! 
Length I 

Internodes 



,f4/»^ 



'^^^Creal.st d.arotUr'^J???' 






Date of Bloom . /."^ f / f .S~~. . 

Season of Bloonl 



CAVITY 
Depth ^ 



aoytk^..' A^Ay CtK ^^yy,^/^ Length of Blooming Season 



Ventral Suture y<<*JyMi' f(^^2^^ 



^^^*^. 



Smnothncss 

— patwih 



Fertile or Sterili :*^ . .-^''r^f:^ 



General Arrangement . 



CLASSIFICATION ^-^ 



P"''"'"" -Clabrou! 









A' 



Raised ^j^ t.^ '£«-^t^ 
LEAVES FALL 



ly».|(lb.- 



'iLL£al^ 



DtSIKAIilLlTY JliM«f^6<WlwL^ 






THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 77 

filling out and covering the skeleton with ample remarks made as the 
describer studies the plant in the field. 

A more detailed discussion of the horticultural and botanical characters 
of the peach logically follows here. 

PRUNUS PERSICA Stokes. 

1. P. Persica Stokes Bot. Mai. Med. 3:100. 1812. 

2. P. Persica var. vulgaris Maximowicz Mel. Biol. 11:668. 1883. 

3. P. Persica var. necturina Ma.ximowicz 1. c. 669. (nectarine) 

4. P. Persica var. laevis Gray 

5. P. Persica var. nucipersica Dippel Handb. Laub. 3:606. 1893. (nectarine) 

6. P. Persica var. platycarpa Bailey Cyc. Am. Hort. 1456. 1901. (Flat Peach, Peento) 

7. Amygdalus Persica Linnaeus Sp. PL Ed. 1:472. 1753. 

8. A. Persica var. nucipersica Linnaeus 1. c. 676. (nectarine) 

9. A. nectarina Alton Hort. Kew Ed. 2, 3:194. 1811. (nectarine) 

10. A. Nuci-persica Reichenbach Fl. Germ. Exc. 647. 1832. (nectarine) 

11. /I. /omi Dietrich 5yK. W. 3:42. 1852. (nectarine) 

12. Persica vulgaris Miller Card. Diet. Ed. 8: No. i. 1768. 

13. P. nucipersica Borkhausen Forslb. Beschrb. 205. 1790. (nectarine) 

14. P. laevis De Candolle Fl. Fran. 4:487. 1805. (nectarine) 

15. P. platycarpa Decaisne Jard. Fr. Mus. (Pechers) 42. 1872-75. (Flat Peach, Peento) 

Tree low, attaining a height of thirty feet, diffuse, open-headed, broad-topped, often 
without a central leader; trunk at maturity sometimes a foot in diameter; bark dark 
reddish-brown, in old trees rough and scaly; branches spreading, slender and sometimes 
drooping; twigs round, rather slender, glabrous, glossy green changing to shades of red, 
with numerous, large or small, conspicuous, usually raised lenticels. 

The leaves are alternate, simple, four to seven inches long, one to two inches wide. 
broad-lanceolate or more often oblong-lanceolate; upper surface dark green, smooth, dull 
or shining, some rugose along the midrib; lower surface paler, with Httle or no pubescence; 
ape.x long-tapering, base abrupt or acute; margins coarsely or finely serrate, or crenate, 
sometimes doubly toothed, teeth tipped with glands or sometimes glandless; petioles 
stout, from a quarter-inch to an inch long, grooved, glandless or more often with from 
one to eight globose or reniform glands, sometimes mixed, a part of which may be on the 
base of the leaf. 

The flowers develop from scaly buds on the wood of the previous season; flower-buds 
plump, conical or obtuse, free or appressed and usually appearing before the leaves; flowers 
of two distinct sizes, with some intermediates, the smaller size ranging under an inch in 
diameter, the larger, an inch and a half or more; the floral color ranges from an occasional 
pure white through shades of pink to deep red; fragrant and always pleasantly so; pedicels 
very short, sometimes seemingly wanting, glabrous, green; caljTc-tube urn-shaped, usually- 
smooth but sometimes pubescent without, green overlaid with red outside, greenish- 
yellow or dark orange within; calyx-lobes five in nimiber, short, broad, glabrous within, 
pubescent without; petals ovate, five in ntmiber, rounded at the apex which is sometimes 
notched, tapering to a claw, sometimes notched at the base; stamens twenty to thirty, 
about one-half inch long, slender, distinct, usually colored; anthers yellow; ovary sessile. 



70 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

pubescent, one-celled, surmounted by a simple style which is terminated with a small 
stigma, the whole pistil equaling the stamens in length or longer. 

Fruit a fleshy drupe, sub-globular but much modified in shape and size under culti- 
vation; suture usually distinct; cavity well marked, abrupt; apex with a mamelon or 
mucronate tip; color varying from greenish- white to orange-yellow, usually with a red 
cheek on the side exposed to the sun, sometimes covered with red; \'ery pubescent except 
in the nectarine; skin adherent or free from the pulp; flesh greenish- white or yellowish, 
often stained with red at the pit, occasionally red, sweetish, acidulous, aromatic; stone 
free or clinging, elliptic or ovoid, sometimes flat, compressed, pointed; outer surfaces 
wrinkled and pitted, inner surfaces polished; ventral and dorsal sutures grooved or fur- 
rowed, sometimes winged; the seed almond-like, aromatic, bitter. 

The characters given in the foregoing description are those of the 
cultivated peach — the consummate fruit of Pninus persica. The generic 
name, Prunus, is the ancient Latin name of the plum, Pninus domestica, 
the type species. The specific name, persica, commemorates the old 
belief that the peach came from Persia. The common name, peach, in 
English, as in most European languages, is a derivative from persica. 
Amygdalus, found several times in the synonomy, is the Syrian name of 
the almond. The drupe-fruits are put in two, three and sometimes four 
genera by various botanists but in the fruit-books issued by this Station, 
following most botanists and pomologists, all are put in a single genus, 
Prunus. Such lumping of several distinct fruits into one genus has its 
disadvantages but the several fruits cannot be reasonably separated because 
outliers closely connect all. Hybridization between the cultivated stone- 
fruits adds to the perplexities of classification. 

Prunus persica is variously divided by botanists and pomologists. 
Quite commonly two botanical varieties of edible peaches are split off, 
as shown in the synonomy, to separate the nectarine and the flat peaches 
from the pubescent and globular peaches. But these sub-species, originat- 
ing over and over in the case of the nectarine as a bud or seed-mutation 
and the flat peaches probably having originated as a mutation, are not 
more distinct from the parent species than the red-fleshed sorts, the snow- 
ball peaches, the Yellow Transvaals from South Africa, the nippled peach, 
the cleft peach, the beaked peach, the winter peaches of China, or the 
pot-grown dwarfs from China; in fact, are not more different from other 
peaches than a clingstone is from a freestone, a yellow flesh from a white 
flesh or a large-flowered from a small-flowered sort. All constitute merely 
pomological groups, which, more and more, are becoming interminably 
confused by hybridization. 




ALTON (Large Flowered) 



-:^ 




BLOOD LEAF 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 79 

We name but one sub-species of Pniniis persico, and that doubtful. 
Mr. Frank N. Meyer of the United States Department of Agriculture has 
recently introduced into the United States cuttings of a wild peach from 
the province of Kansu, China, which he thinks has horticultural value. 
The peach is Prunus persica potanini Batalin {Act. Hort. Petrop. 12 :i64. 
1892) which Mr. Meyer describes as follows: ' 

" A wild peach of the davidiana type, but differing from it in various 
points. Collected at the base of sheltered mountains at an elevation of 
4300 feet. A tall shrub or even small tree, up to 30 feet in height, bark 
of stem or trunk dark reddish -brown and quite smooth in the younger 
shoots; leaves like those of Amygdalus davidiana but often broader in the 
middle and always less pointed. Fruits of round-elongated form; skin 
covered with a heavy down, no edible flesh; stones of elliptical shape, grooves 
longer than in A. davidiana, shells very hard and thick, kernels elongated 
and relatively small. Found growing at elevations from 4000 to 7000 
feet, in side valleys away from the Siku river; thrives especially well in 
sheltered and warm mountain pockets. Of value especially as a stock 
for stone-fruits and possibly able to stand even more dry heat than 
A. davidiana; also recommended as an ornamental spring-flowering tree, 
especially for the drier parts of the United States. Chinese name Mao t'ao, 
meaning ' hairy peach.' " 

There are many ornamental forms of the peach-tree — sorts with single 
or double flowers, white, pink or red in color, normal, red or variegated 
foliage and standard or dwarf trees. The best-known named ornamental 
peaches are camelliaeflora with large, carmine flowers and its sub-variety, 
plena, with double flowers; versicolor with different colored flowers on 
branches of the same tree; atropurpurea with brownish-red foliage; foliis 
rubris, similar or possibly the same as the preceding, the color in both 
extending to the fruit; magnifica, a semi-double with brilliant carmine- 
crimson flowers; pyramidalis,a pyrimidal form; pendula, a weeping peach; 
and still others, of the distinctness of which we cannot be certain, as dianthi- 
alba-plena, nibro-plena, and coccineo-plena. With these ornamentals we 
are not to be further concerned. 

Of Japanese garden-forms the following varieties have been described: 
P. Persica var. densa Makimo Tokyo Bot. Mag. 16:178. 1902. P. per- 
sica var. vidgaris, f. stellata Makimo 1. c. 22:119. 1908. P. Persica var. 
vulgaris, f. praematura Makimo 1. c. 22:119. 1908. 

Species are but convenient groups, their limits reflecting the judg- 

V. S. D. .A. Plant Immigrants No. 106:858. 1915. 



8o THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

ment of the species-maker. Were the authors of this text to divide Prunus 
persica, the cleavage hnes would be other than those indicated in the fore- 
going paragraphs. Pruniis persica might be divided, though there is no 
intention of furthering confusion by the addition of new names, into two 
species. One would include the white-fleshed, clingstone peaches, with 
large flowers and calyx greenish -yellow inside; the other the yellow- 
fleshed, freestone peaches, with small flowers and calyx-cups orange 
inside. Primitive forms in China indicate such a division, the evolution 
of varieties suggests it and the present disposition of the characters named 
as separating these theoretical species attest the reasonableness of such a 
separation. The primitive forms have been described and the descent 
of varieties may be traced in the last two chapters, so that we need only 
amplify the statement as to the present disposition of characters. 

The characters in the two hypothetical species have been thoroughly 
shuffled by hybridization but even if there is not correlation, as there 
certainly is between color in calyx-cup and color of flesh, it might be 
expected that those associated in the primitive plant, the Adam of the race, 
would, despite the shuffling, still be most often associated. What are the 
facts? In the Station orchard are 109 white-fleshed peaches; 40 per ct. 
of these are semi-cling or clingstones leaving 60 per ct. nearly or quite free 
(there is constant selection for freestones); 64 per ct. have large flowers; 
all have calyx-cups yellowish-green inside. There are in this orchard 
106 yellow-fleshed peaches; but 17 per ct. of these are cling or semi-cling, 
the remainder being either quite free or nearly so; 73 per ct. have small 
or medium-sized flowers; all have calyx-cups deeply colored with orange 
inside. 

Similarities in characters indicate so close a relationship between the 
almond and the peach that one might well suspect many hybrids between 
the two. Yet there appear to be but few clear cases of peach and almond 
crosses. Knight ^ reports crossing the two, the doubtful results of which 
led him to believe, as we have seen, that the peach is but a modified almond. 
Several such crosses are indicated in botanical literature - but whether all 
refer to one or several supposed crosses there is no way of knowing — 
probably to one. The almond blooms so much earlier than the peach 
that crosses could hardly occur in nature. A hybrid between the two 

' Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 3:1. 1820; 4:396. 1822. 

■ See Duhamel Traile Arb. Ed. 2, IV: 112. 1809; Seringe in DC. Prodr. II: 531. 1825; Reichenback 
Fl. Cer. Exc. 647. 1830-32. 




CHINESE FREE (Medium Flowered) 




CROSBY (Small Flowered) 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 8l 

from which could be evolved a late-blooming almond is a consummation 
to be wished. 

THE NECTARINE 

The nectarine is a hairless peach. The tree differs in no respect from 
that of the peach and besides the absence of pubescence the only other 
distinguishing marks between the fruits are smaller size, firmer flesh, greater 
aroma and a distinct and richer flavor in nectarines. Even the varieties 
of the two fruits correspond in characters. Thus, there are clingstone and 
freestone sorts of each; both may have red, yellow, or white flesh; the 
flowers of both may be large or small; nectarine leaves, in one variety or 
another, show all the variations in glands and serrations known to the 
peach; and the stones and kernels are indistinguishable. There seem to 
be no records so far, however, of flat or beaked nectarines, abnormalities 
each represented in several varieties of peaches. The two fruits are adapted 
to the same soil and climatic conditions and wherever the peach is grown, 
the world over, the nectarine is found. 

The established history of the nectarine goes back 2000 years and 
then merges into that of the peach. Despite the fact that De Candolle ' 
" sought in vain for a proof that the nectarine existed in Italy in the time 
of ancient Rome," we are convinced that Pliny's " duracinus " is the 
nectarine. Matthiolus - in 1534 discusses Pliny's statements concerning 
the kinds of peaches at length and concludes that the author's " duracinus " 
is the peach. Dalechamp, in 1587, and J. Bauhin, in 1650, both describe 
nectarines after which botanists and pomologists invariably include this 
fruit. In the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries the nectarine was 
called " nucipersica " because it resembled in smoothness and color of the 
outer skin as well as in size and shape, the walnut. " Nectarine," the 
meaning of the word obvious, appears first to have been used for this fruit, 
in the English language at least, by Parkinson in 1629 who describes six 
varieties ^ and gives us the information " they have been with us not many 

• De Candolle Or. Cull. Plants, 225. 1885. 

2 Commentaries on Dioscorides, French Ed. of 1572. 159-160. 

•' Parkinson Par. Ter. 582, 583. 1629. 

" I presume that the name Xiicipersica doth most rightly belong unto that kinde of Peach, which 
we call Nectorins, and although they have beene with us not many yeares, yet have they beene knowne 
both in Italy to Matthiolus, and others before him, who it seemeth knew no other then the yellow Nectorin, 
as Dalechampius also: But we at this day doe know five severall sorts of Nectorins, as they shall be 
presently set downe; and as in the former fruits, so in this, I will give you the description of one, and 
briefe notes of the rest. 

" The Nectorin is a tree of no great bignesse, most usually lesser then the Peach tree, his body and 



82 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

years." Gerarde, the great English herbahst, 1597, does not mention them. 
We find the nectarine first mentioned in America in 1 722 by Robert Beverly 
in his History of Virginia, who, after discussing the culture of peaches, 
nectarines and apricots, says (pages 259, 260): " Peaches and nectarines 
I believe to be spontaneous, somewhere or other on that continent, for the 
Indians have, and ever had greater variety, and finer sorts of them than the 
English." 

The nectarine is one of the most interesting phenomena in horticvilture. 
It is the classical example of bud-and seed -variation, furnishing more 
instances of mutation, and these more instructive, than have yet come from 
any other fruit. Darwin, with the magnificent exhaustiveness which 
characterized his method, brought together in Animals and Pla?its tinder 
Domestication ' a striking array of facts which leaves nothing to be added 
as to the manner in which the peach and nectarine are reciprocally repro- 
duced the one from the other. He shows by numerous examples : ( i ) 
That nectarines may spring from peach-stones and peaches from nectarine- 



elder boughes being whitish, the younger branches very red, whereon grow narrow long greene leaves, so 
like unto Peach leaves, that none can well distinguish them, unlesse it be in this, that they are somewhat 
lesser: the blossomes are all reddish, as the Peach, but one of a differing fashion from all the other, as I 
shall shew you by and by: the fruit that foUoweth is smaller, rounder, and smoother than Peaches, with- 
out any cleft on the side, and without any douny cotton or freeze at all; and herein is like unto the outer 
greene rinde of the Wallnut, whereof as I am perswaded it tooke the name, of a fast and firme meate, and 
very delicate in taste, especially the best kindes, with a rugged stone within it, and a bitter kernell. 

" The Muske Nectorin, so called, because it being a kinde of the best red Nectorins, both smelleth 
and eateth as if the fruit were steeped in Muske: some thinke that this and the next Romano N'cctorin 
are all one. 

" The Romane red Nectorin, or cluster Nectorin, hath a large or great purplish blossome, like unto 
a Peach, reddish at the bottome on the outside, and greenish within: the fruit is of a fine red colour on the 
outside, and groweth in clusters, two or three at a joynt together, of an excellent good taste. 

" The bastard red Nectorin hath a smaller or pincking blossome, more like threads then leaves, neither 
so large nor open as the former, and yellowish within at the bottome: the fruit is red on the outside, and 
groweth never but one at a joynt; it is a good fruit, but eateth a little more rawish then the other, even 
when it is full ripe. 

" The yellow Nectorin is of two sorts, the one an excellent fruit, mellow, and of a very good rt-llish; 
the other hard, and no way comparable to it. 

" The greene Nectorin, great and small; for such I have .scene abiding constant, although both planted 
in one ground: they are both of one goodnesse, and accounted with most to be the best rellished Nectorin 
of all others. 

" The white Nectorin is said to bee differing from the other, in that it will bee more white on the out- 
side when it is ripe, then either the yellow or greene: but I have not yet scene it. 

The Use of Nectorins. 
" The fruit is more firme then the Peach, and more delectable in taste; and is therefore of more 
and that worthily." 
Darwin Ans. and Ph. Domesl. 2nd Ed. 1:357-365. 1893. 




KENTUCKY (Nectarine) 




SUMMER SNOW (White Flowered) 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 83 

Stones. (2) That peach-trees produce nectarines by bud-variation and 
nectarine-trees likewise produce peaches, and that either the nectarines or 
peaches so arising will come true to seed. (3) That either peach or 
nectarine-trees may produce individual fruits half-nectarine and half- 
peach. (4) A case is cited of a nectarine tree bearing a half-and-half fruit 
and subsequently a true peach. 

It must be noted that in all of the variations so far recorded there 
are no intermediate forms between the two fruits. The peach produced 
in these bud-variations is a peach and nothing but a peach ; the nectarine, 
a nectarine and nothing but a nectarine. Even in those remarkable 
phenomena, of which several are recorded, in which the fruits are divided 
into halves or quarters, one or more segments being peach and one or more 
nectarine, there can be no mistake as to peach and nectarine in pubescence, 
color or flavor. The nectarine from the peach, thus becomes as clear- 
cut a case of discontinuous variation as can be. If we accept the mutation 
theory of the origin of species — new species arising suddenly at a single 
step — the nectarine is a species in process of birth. 

As yet we are entirely ignorant in regard to the conditions under whicli 
the peach or the nectarine sports, the one producing the other. It is wholly 
a natural phenomenon, for no one has been able to cause the peach to 
produce the hairless form or the nectarine to bring forth a downy fruit. 
The relations of the two fruits have furnished a fertile field of inquiry for 
over a century but the problem is one of those mysterious ones in which 
there are many facts that cannot be fitted into a theory, so that our ignor- 
ance is as profovmd now as ever. There are, however, several theories 
which, without going into full detail, need to be stated. 

The oldest notion is that the production of a nectarine on a peach- 
tree is due to the direct action of pollen from some nearby nectarine-tree 
on the ovary of the peach. This theory, wholly at variance with present 
knowledge, is also discredited by the many instances in which the sports 
occur when the two fruits are not growing in the same neighborhood 
or even region. Thus, within ten years, several cases of nectarines on 
peach-trees have occurred in this State where the nectarine is scarcely 
known. Besides, crossing these fruits shows no direct effect of pollen — ■ 
as is true with nearly all other plants. Still further, when a branch of a 
peach has borne a nectarine it usually goes on year after year producing 
nectarines; and certainly impregnation of a flower by foreign pollen could 
not so profoundly modify a branch. There is so little foundation for this 



84 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

belief that it would not be mentioned were it not that many fruit-growers 
still look to the action of pollen as the explanation of the phenomenon. 

Another, and a much more probable explanation, is that every sport- 
ing peach or nectarine-tree is a more or less remote hybrid. There is 
a growing belief that species are fixed and that crossing is the only source 
of new seed- or bud-forms. Certainly all who have crossed plants in any 
considerable numbers know that hybridity is at least one cause, and a 
frequent one, of mutations. It is possible that sometime in the past the 
peach and the nectarine were crossed, the offspring showing no trace of the 
cross, and that now there is an occasional disassociation of the characters 
brought together by such crossing. There are several objections to this 
hypothesis. One is that two forms sufficiently distinct to induce so striking 
a variation as a nectarine from a peach, must have differed in tree as well 
as in fruit-characters and that these differences would crop out just as 
smoothness of fruit so frequently does. Another, and less potent objec- 
tion, is that the nectarine has never been found wild, that it never becomes 
naturalized, that it is shorter-lived and less vigorous and behaves in general 
like an artificial plant. 

The third, and at present the most acceptable theory, is that we have 
in the nectarine from the peach what De Vries calls a retrogressive muta- 
tion. That is, an active character, in this case pubescence on the fruit, 
becomes latent and appears to be lost — a type of mutation frequent 
among cultivated plants. The nectarine, then, is a peach with one char- 
acter subtracted. When the nectarine yields a peach, the character is 
restored. The one is a negative, the other a positive step; one is retro- 
gressive, the other progressive mutation. The speculations as to what 
causes these mutations are as yet too vague to be profitable. Probably 
we can never make use of the cause by which mutations arise or of the con- 
ditions leading to them until we can induce these strange variations. 
That they are due to disturbances in the processes of cell-division is the 
theory now current — sufficiently comprehensive and sufficiently vague 
to be a most convenient explanation, at any rate. 

Nectarines do not attain the perfection in New York reached west 
of the Rocky Mountains. The trees, possibly, are a little less manageable 
in the orchard, less vigorous and certainly more susceptible to pests. 
Nectarines, in particular, suffer more than peaches from the scoiirge of the 
crescent sign, curciilio, a pest which finds all smooth-skinned stone-fruits 
much to its taste and the nectarine more than others. Then, too, whether 




KENTUCKY (Nectarine) 




NEWTON (Nectarine) 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 85 

fresh, canned or dried, fruit-buyers in America prefer the peach. This 
discrimination in favor of the peach is largely due to lack of knowledge of 
the nectarine, which, though different from the commoner fruit, is equally 
delectable, fresh or preserved, and certainly is a handsomer product pre- 
served either by canning or evaporating. Indeed, the dried nectarine, 
with its beautiful, translucent, amber hue is the most attractive of all 
cured fruits. The nectarine-industry, however, belongs to California, 
where all conditions favor production, canning and curing. 

PRUNUS DAVIDIANA (Carriere) Franchet 
P. Davidiana Franchet Noiw. Arch. Mus. Paris ser. 2, V:255 {PI. David. 1:103). 1883. 
Persica Davidiana Carriere Rev. Hort. 74. 1872. 
Prunus Persica var Davidiana Maximowicz Bill. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29:81 ; Mel. Biol. 11:667. 1883. 

Tree attaining a height of twenty-five feet on the Station grounds, vigorous, upright, 
with sHght spreading tendency, dense-topped, hardy in tree but not in flower-bud, unpro, 
ductive; trunk stocky; branches thick, smooth, bronze-colored; branchlets slender- 
inclined to rebranch, long, with rather short intemodes, ash-gray mingled toward the 
base with dark brown, glabrous, with inconspicuous, small, slightly raised lenticels. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and one-eighth inches wide, curled down- 
ward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick; upper surface smooth, dull, dark green; lower 
surface grayish-green; margin coarsely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole 
five-eighths inch long, glandless or with one or two small, globose, reddish glands at the 
base of the leaf. 

Flower-buds tender, small, pointed, plump, appressed, brownish-red; flowers appear 
very early, a few days earlier than Prunus tomentosa, usually on short spurs; blossoms 
one and five-eighths inches across, whitish, tinged with pale pink near the margins, well 
distributed, usually singly; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, 
orange-colored within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, narrow, glabrous within and 
without; petals widely spaced, oval, shallowly dentate, tapering to long, white claws; 
filaments .shorter than the petals; pistil red, heavily pubescent at the ovary, as long as 
the stamens. 

Fruit less than one inch in diameter, nearly spherical; cavity medium in width and 
depth; suture shallow, deeper toward the base; apex mucronate; color grayish-white 
turning yellow at maturity ; pubescence downy ; skin wrinkles and roughens before matu- 
rity and soon decays; flesh very thin, rather dry, tasteless and insipid, lacking almost 
entirely the flavor of the peach; not edible; stone separates from the pulp readily even 
before ripe, nearly spherical, plump, very blunt at base and apex; surfaces deeply pitted. 

Father David's peach, Prunus davidiana, has been grown in Europe 
since 1865 as an ornamental, seeds of it having been sent from China to 
France in that year by Father David, a missionary traveler.' The species 

• Bretschneider E. 5o<. JS;ic/)/or. in CAina 2 :86o. 1898. 



86 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

is described as flowering in America in the Arnold Arboretum as early 
as 1888,' seeds from which the trees grew having been sent from China. 
Some ten or twelve years ago the species was distributed by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, trees being received at this Station in 
the spring of 1906. Meanwhile, agricultural explorers representing this 
country in China have discovered that the species is much used by the 
Chinese as a stock upon which to work other species of Prunus. Where- 
upon, new distributions were made through seeds and plants to nearly 
every fruit-growing state in the Union. We are, therefore, now able to 
speak of the behavior of the Davidiana peach in America with some degree 
of confidence as to its future as a stock for peaches. But, first, a word as 
to its habitat and uses in China. 

The several importations of seeds recorded by the United States 
Department of Agriculture seem all to have been made from the province 
of Chili in China and from the cities of Pekin and Tientsiii in the neighbor- 
hood of which' the tree is commonly found wild. According to Bret- 
schneider,^ the species was first discovered by Bunge near Peking in 1831 
who took it to be an almond. The same authority says that Father David's 
seeds came from wild trees growing in the mountains near Jehol, and that 
the species is much cultivated in the gardens of Peking, there being two 
varieties, one with rose-colored and the other with white flowers. At the 
time of its introduction into Europe, it was considered, by some, the wild 
form of the cultivated peach. The fruit of David's peach is not edible and 
peach-growers would have but passing interest in the species as a very 
attractive ornamental were it not for the fact that it is a common and 
most valuable stock, vised for centuries in China for several of the stone- 
fruits. 

It is, then, with a view to its fitness as a stock that the Davidiana 
peach must be discussed. Its characters in several respects indicate that 
it may make an invaluable stock in America as it has long been in China. 
For this purpose it seems possible to use it equally well for several stone- 
fruits. 

As it grows on the Station grounds the most experienced fruit-grower 
cannot guess whether Prunus davidiana is a peach, nectarine, almond, 
apricot or plum. As we shall show later, too, it hybridizes with several 
other species of its genus. Its similarities to all of these stone-fruits give 

^ Card, and For. \:i$T,. 1888. 

2 Bretschneider E. Bot. Rxphr. in China 2:860. 1808. 




PHVXrs DAlinilXA 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 87 

a clue to its value as a stock — ■ it may be used for all. It is the commonest 
stock for all of these fruits in parts of China and is sometimes used for the 
cherr)' as well. It is reported by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture ' to have been tried in commercial plantings of peaches, plums, 
apricots and almonds in California and Texas and for all is " unusually 
promising." 

The trees are vigorous, healthy, hardy, and resistant to drouth. Con- 
sorted with any stone-fruit it should impart these qualities in some degree 
to the resulting tree. On the Station grounds, Primus davidiana is growing 
with vigor and health despite the fact that in the ten years of its existence 
here we have had all but record-breaking extremes of cold, heat, drouth and 
rain — a decade long to be noted for its extremes of weather. It seems 
to stand the heat of Texas, and in Minnesota has withstood cold as low 
as forty degrees below zero, a temperature which kills commercial varieties 
to the ground. It cannot be fruited, however, in cold climates as its buds 
swell quickly with rises of temperature and succumb to subsequent cold; 
neither will it fruit in regions of late frost since it is one of the earliest species 
in the genus Prunus to flower. In Texas and southern California, accord- 
ing to the United States Department of Agriculture, it is proving resistant 
to drouth and in the latter region to alkali as well. In very dry and exposed 
places, it is said to lose its tree-characters and to become a thrifty shrub. 

Present nursery practices in growing peaches are unsatisfactory in 
the extreme. More and more, pits from canneries are being planted for 
stocks. The pits come from a great diversity of varieties and the resulting 
seedlings are variable in vigor, health, size and capacity to take the bud. 
Should no un surmountable weaknesses appear in Prunus davidiana it is 
almost certain that its seedlings will be more satisfactory as stocks for 
the peach than those from either cannery pits or from pits grown on 
southern wild trees. The trees do not fruit well in this climate, even 
when buds and flowers escape the cold, possibly because of infertility of 
bloom, and for this reason, the chief objection so far, some favorable region 
would have to be discovered in which to grow the pits. 

As one might suspect from its similarities to the several stone-fruits, 
Prunus davidiana gives promise of being a go-between in hybridization. 
I. V. Mijurin, a noted Russian hybridist of Kozloo, Russia, has crossed the 
Davidiana peach and the dwarf almond, Prunus nana, with the idea of 
getting a hardy fruit for central Russia. The resulting offspring, accord- 

' V. S. D. A. Plant Immii^rauls No. ii5:m'). i ■-. 



88 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

ing to Mr. F. N. Meyer,' looks in tree like the peach-parent but the fruit 
is more like that of the almond-parent. The fruit of the hybrid is inedible 
but the plant is a handsome ornamental. Mr. Mijurin states that while 
neither of the two parents will hybridize with the common peach, this 
hybrid does. Priinus davidiana, then, like the Sand Cherry of the Western 
Plains, may prove to be a valuable go-between in hybridizing species of 
Prunus. 

The fruit has no comestible value. It is small, less than an inch 
in diameter, nearly round, very downy, yellow at maturity, with thin, 
dry, tasteless flesh which parts readily from the stone even before fully 
ripe. As if to complete its worthlessness as an edible product, it begins 
to shrivel as matvirity approaches and soon decays. In fruit, even more 
than in tree, it is an intermediate between the peach and the almond. 

A word must be said as to the merits of Prunus davidiana as an orna- 
mental. It is the first harbinger of spring in the great family to which it 
belongs, bursting into a profusion of white or pinkish flowers with the 
approach of. warm weather even before forsythias are in flower. Its thickly 
set, erect branchlets are wands of pinkish-white two feet in length, making 
a handsome tree and furnishing beautiful cut-flowers. If grown for its 
flowers, however, one must be content in northern climates to have it in 
bloom only about one season out of three but even so it repays culttare. 
The Chinese cultivate dwarf specimens, possibly a dwarf form, for winter- 
flowering and the plant, it would seem, would readily lend itself to winter- 
forcing in American floriculture. The tree, quite aside from its flowers, 
is handsome at all times. A form with pure white flowers is a very desirable 
ornamental.- On the Station grounds this white-flowering peach has a 
fastigiate habit of growth and resembles' somewhat a small Lombardy 
poplar. 

PRUNUS MIRA Koehne. 
P. mira Koehne Plant. Wilson. Pt 2, No. 4:272. iqi2. 

Tree thirty feet in height; trunk si.xteen inches in diameter; branches very smooth, 
those of the current year's growth green, the older ones dark reddish-yellow; flowering- 
season short; stipules lacking or obscure; petioles five-sixteenths to ten-sixteenths of an inch 
long, with from two to four glands toward the apex, the glands broadly elliptical, disc- 
shaped ; leaf at the base usually roundly lanceolate, two to four inches long, nine-sixteenths 
to one and one-sixteenth inches broad, gradually narrowing toward the apex; margin 



' V. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants No. 72:516. 1912. 

* Prunus Davidiana alba Bean Garden 50:165. 1896; Persica Davidiana alba Carriere Rei\ 
76. 1872; Prunus Daridiana fiore alba Wittmack GartenR. 44:i2g. 1895. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 89 

broadly crenulate-serrulate, tapering upward without division; teeth crowned with small, 
soot-colored, mucronate glands; upper surface clear green, glabrous; lower surface paler, 
villous along both sides of the lower ribs and the rest glabrous; veins on both sides twel\-e 
to sixteen, the veinlets somewhat raised on the under side. 

The pedicels of the single or twinned fruits two-sixteenths to three-sixteenths of an 
inch long, very thick, glabrous; drupes somewhat dry, sub-globose, one and one-eighth 
inches long, one inch in diameter, densely tomentose, edible; stone ovate, somewhat com- 
pressed, dimensions three-fourths by one-half by three-eighths inches; dorsal suture keeled, 
the ventral surface covered with narrow ridges, the ridges at the base of the keel nearly 
disappearing, the rest inconspicuous. 

Primus inira is a nev^^ peach discovered in China by Mr. E. H. Wilson 
of the Arnold Arboretum. The foregoing technical description is a trans- 
lation from the original description by Koehne. Mr. Wilson describes 
for The Peaches of New York the outstanding botanical and horticultural 
characters of Primus mira as follows: 

" Prunus mira is a small bushy tree, growing about 6m. tall, with a 
trunk about im. in girth and a crown some 8m. through. The branches 
are relatively slender and the branchlets twiggy, and these, together with 
the narrow, lance-shaped, long-pointed leaves, give the plant a very distinct 
appearance. The fruit is roundish oval, about 4.5 cm. high and 3.5-4 cm. 
broad, downy on the outside, with white flesh and a free stone. The flavor 
is the same as that of fruits from the semi-wild plants of the Common Peach 
{P. Persica). The stone is 2 to 2.2 cm. high and 1.3-1.4 cm. broad, and 
in shape is flattened ovoid and pointed. The flowers are unknown 
to me. 

" This plant grows wild on rather barren mountain slopes at about 
3000m. altitude north of the town of Tachienlu on the China-Thibetan 
borderland, where it was first detected by me on July 9, 1908, and from 
whence I introduced it by means of seeds in the autumn of 19 10. I saw 
only a few trees, but have reason to believe that it is fairly common, and 
also that it is thereabouts cultivated for its fruit. In the Arnold Arboretum 
this species has proved no more hardy than the Common Peach, though 
from the altitude at which it grows naturally it ought to be the hardier 
plant. Our largest specimen is 2.5m. high and crown 3m. through. It 
starts into growth and leafs out much later than the Common Peach, and 
is therefore much less liable to be affected by late frosts. This is the one 
advantage so far evident in our experience with this new Peach under 
cultivation. Undoubtedly it possesses important horticultural possi- 
bilities, and especially should it be valuable to the hybridist on account of 
its small and smooth stone. Indeed, it requires no imagination to realize 
the advantage to be gained by supplanting in our present day race of 



90 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

garden peaches for the large and deeply furrowed stone one that is quite 
smooth and small." 

Primus mini is now under cultivation at the Arnold Arboretum near 
lioston, in the parks at Rochester, New York, on the grounds of this Station 
and at Brookville, Florida, in charge of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. No doubt within a few years we shall have positive evidence 
of its horticultiiral value. 

PUBESCENT-FRUITED SPECIES OF PRUNUS FROM THE UNITED STATES 

Seven pubescent-fruited species of Prunus are found in the South- 
western States. From reading the descriptions, it is hard to tell whether 
these plants, unique in more than one respect, are most closely related to 
peaches, plums, apricots or almonds. Professor S. C. Mason of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, who has studied these fruits,' thinks 
that some if not ^ all of them may have horticultural value, at least in the 
Southwest where fluctuations of heat and cold are great and drought and 
alkalinity of soil must be endured by plant-life. They deserve brief mention 
in The Peaches of Neiv York because of the possibility that some of them 
can be used as dwarfing-stocks for the peach and possibly that some may 
be hybridized with cultivated peaches. The species, with brief notes 
taken for most part from Mason, are as follows: 

Prunus texana Dietrich, the " wild peach " of Texas, is a plum-like 
fruit from eastern Texas of which there are already several hybrids with 
the wild plums of the region. Prunus andersonii Gray is the " wild 
almond " or " wild peach " of Nevada. The species is found in western 
Nevada and eastern California in a region subject to severe cold in winter 
and extreme drought and heat in summer. One cultivator of this species 
suggests it as a good stock for the peach and the almond and thinks it has 
possibilities for hybridization.-' The " desert apricot," Prunus eriogyna 
Mason, comes from a very restricted region in southern California. The 
characters of this species should fit it to endure the environment on the 
desert slopes of mountains. The " desert almond," Prunus fasciculata 
Torrey, sometimes called " wild peach " and " wild almond," ranges much 
farther sovith and east than Prunus a)idcrso)ui in southern Nevada and 
southern California, crossing into southwestern Utah and northwestern 
Arizona, and grows in gravels and sands where its roots penetrate to great 



Jottr. Agr. Research 1:147-177. igi.v 
r. .S', P. A. .Seeds a-id Plants Imported Invent. 13: 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK QI 

depth. Prunus minutiflora Engelman, the "Texas almond," is found in 
southwestern Texas, a shrub which, Hke the former species and the one 
following, is dioecious, a marked and unique peculiarity of these three 
species. The " Mexican almond," Prunus microphyUa Hemsley, is found 
in the high mountain region of Mexico. Prunus havardii Wight, is known 
only in a restricted region in western Texas. The last two species are so 
little known that one cannot even surmise whether they may have 
horticultural possibilities. 

HORTICULTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE PEACH 

The opening years of the Nineteenth Century mark the first attempts 
at classifying peaches. By 1818 as many as three classificatory schemes 
had been proposed, all being modifications of the same general arrange- 
ment. July 7, 1818, John Robertson read a paper on classifying peaches 
and nectarines before the Horticultural Society of London. Later, this 
was printed in the Transactions of the Society,' together with a classifi- 
cation by M. Poiteau from the Bon Jardinier and another by Count Lelieur 
from his Pomone Franca ise. In January, 1824, George Lindley read before 
the same society a classification which was but an extension of the older 
arrangements. - 

Robertson separated peaches into true peaches and nectarines and 
these in turn into Classes, Divisions and Sub-divisions. He founded the 
two classes on the presence or absence of glands; for each of his classes 
he made two divisions distinguished by the size and color of the flowers; 
each of the four divisions is once redivided into a sub-division in which 
the flesh parts from the stone and another in which the flesh adheres to the 
stone. The two French writers use the same characters but found their 
second division on the adherence or non-adherence of the flesh to the 
stone; their third on the size of the flower but making three partitions as 
to size; and their fourth on the presence or absence of glands which they 
divide into globose and reniform. Lindley created three classes dependent 
on the presence or absence and the character of the glands and the char- 
acter of the serrations; three divisions of each class in accordance as to 
whether the flowers are large, medium-sized or small; two sub-divisions of 
each division to agree with the presence or absence of down; and for each 
sub-division two sections, one for clingstones and one for melters. 



' Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 3:380-387. 1820. 
= 76/^.5:525-560. 1S24. 



92 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

This was the age of the classifier and other classifications, all similar 
in plan, rapidly followed in England, France, Belgium and Germany. No 
one at this time seems to have attempted a natural classification of 
peaches. 

Of the nine leading American pomological writers of the Nineteenth 
Centviry, Coxe, Prince, Cole, Hooper, Elliott and Barry either do not 
attempt to classify or make but one or two simple divisions. Kenrick, 
1832, follows Lindley in part but makes use of season in his classification. 
Downing in his first edition, 1845, divides peaches into freestones with 
pale flesh, freestones with deep yellow flesh and clingstones. This simple 
arrangement by Downing is notable only because it is the first time color 
of flesh is made use of as a distinguishing mark, the Europeans probably 
not having done so because yellow-fleshed varieties are rare in Europe 
whereas in America they are as common or more so than white-fleshed 
sorts. Thomas, in 1846, did not classify but in later editions divided peaches 
into two divisions, founded on adherence of flesh to the stone; two classes 
for each division in accordance with color of flesh ; and three sections founded 
on leaf-serrations and glands. 

These Nineteenth Century classifications are artificial. That is, 
they single out a few points of resemblance and difference and arrange 
varieties in accordance with them, convenience and facility of use being the 
controlling principles. They are natural to a degree, however, because 
varieties agreeing in one point of structure commonly agree in other char- 
acters. With the peach, more than in the artificial classification of most 
other fruits, the characters are readily distinguished and are stable. Yet 
most English pomologies now arrange varieties of peaches alphabetically, 
while the American texts do the same or use the pseudo-natural system 
of Onderdonk. His classification we are about to discuss. The early 
artificial arrangements failed to stand the test of time because classifiers 
could not agree upon any one arrangement and added confusion by the 
multiplicity of them; and, because the new varieties of the last half-century, 
coming in great numbers, are so poorly described that the great majority 
of them could not be classified from the data at hand. 

In 1887 Gilbert Onderdonk,' a special agent of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, published a natural classification of peaches.^ 

' For a brief history of the Ufe and pomological work of Gilbert Onderdonk, the reader is referred to 
The Plums of New York, page 392. 

2 U.S. D. A. Rpt. 648-651. 1887. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 93 

He put varieties of peaches into five groups whieh he called races and 
to which he gave the names: Persian, Northern Chinese, Spanish, Southern 
Chinese and Peento. He bounded peach-culture in America on the 
north by the Great Lakes and on the south by the Gulf and divided this 
great region into five zones to each of which he assigned one of his races. 
Onderdonk studied peaches in Texas and found there remarkable dis- 
tinguishing characters; as, in adaptations to southern climates, in length 
of the rest-period, in differences in leafing, blooming and fruiting-time, 
and in the organs of the plants. Professor R. H. Price, working with a 
large number of varieties at the Texas Agricultural College, verified and 
greatly extended Onderdonk's observations.^ Eventually, Price became 
the pontifical authority in this country on the classification of peaches 
and in numerous articles and addresses set forth the Onderdonk grouping 
of varieties so convincingly that it was adopted by practically all American 
pomologists and at present is in use, to some degree at least, in nearly all 
of our horticultural literature. It becomes necessary, therefore, to scrutinize 
closely this natural classification of Onderdonk and Price. 

The end to be attained in a classification of peaches, as in classify- 
ing natural objects of any kind, is to provide an epitome of the knowledge 
of the fruits classified. Incidentally, a classification helps in the identi- 
fication of varieties of peaches. Does the Onderdonk classification serve 
these purposes? We have not found that it does. In most arduous 
attempts to arrange the sorts of peaches growing on the Station grounds 
according to the Onderdonk plan, we have wholly failed. Even the varie- 
ties named as types do not fit, as they grow in the north, in the places pro- 
vided for them by these southern classifiers. Indeed, we have wasted so 
much time and patience in attempting to group varieties according to 
Onderdonk and Price, and with so little success, that the Onderdonk 
classification seems to us to be cursed with the confusion of Babel. Since 
pomologists so generally accept this classification, these words demand 
that it be shown wherein this attempt at a natural arrangement of varieties 
fails. 

In the first place the basis of Onderdonk's classification, as the names 
suggest, is regional variation. Each race stands for a region, the Peento 
included — for the name is very obviousl}^ Chinese. Incompleteness, then, 
is the first fault of this system for there are other regions in which races of 



Tex. Sla. Bui. 39:826-832. 1896. 



94 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

peaches just as distinct as those named have developed : as, for examples, 
the Bokhara represents a hardy " Russian race; " Yellow Transvaal belongs 
to the very peculiar " South African race; " in the rich alluvial lands of 
Egypt, the " Egytian race " has developed; still another regional race is 
found in the evergreen peach of the West Indies. We have no doubt 
that distinct races of peaches may have originated or will arise in the 
Canary Islands, Hawaii, New Zealand, Argentina, Chili and Mexico, to 
mention only countries spoken of in the foregoing pages. The Onderdonk 
classification can, of course, be extended to take in these new races, most of 
which are now represented in America, but eventually such a classification 
would become too cumbersome for use. It must not be overlooked that 
the Onderdonk classification should be doubled to apply to the nectarine, 
the other division of Primus per ska, which the present classification wholly 
ignores. 

If the variations are stable, and all regions represented, the likenesses 
and dififerences brought about by regional environment may well be used 
by classifiers. But in the Onderdonk classification unstable variations 
due to climate are too largely used ; as, dififerences in the succession of life- 
events, in the rest-period, in the capacity to endure heat and drought, and 
in minor modifications of organs, as color of foliage and shape of fruit. 
All of these are variations that fluctuate with even slight changes in the 
climate. We have said that this classification, though constantly referred 
to by northern fruit-growers, is not satisfactory in New York. Professor 
Price, too, found as he went northward that his classificatory scheme was 
less dependable. He says: ' " Some of the distinctions made in this'classifi- 
cation cannot be noticed with decisive clearness a few hundred miles farther 
north." A further objection to this regional classification of Onderdonk 
is that, in the numerous distinct peach-regions of America, new regional 
variations are arising which make it impossible to classify in accordance 
with characters that appeared before the peach came to America. 

These " races " of Onderdonk and Price, then, by leaving out the 
peach-floras of many regions, are too exclusive, but it is no less true that 
they are too inclusive. Thus, the many varieties of the historic peach of 
western countries are put by the Onderdonk classification in the Persian 
race. So considered, this Persian race contains types quite as widely 
separated from each other as are the five " races " of the Onderdonk classifi- 
cation. In one great group are collected early, late, white-fleshed, yellow- 

' Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. no. 1887. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 95 

fleshed, red-fleshed, globular, oblong, beaked, hardy and tender, vigorous 
and dwarfish peaches. Persian peaches run the whole gamut' of peach- 
characters, the flatness of the Peento possibly excepted, and from the 
several hundred sorts a score of " races " might be made. These peaches 
are noted by Price and Onderdonk as requiring a long period of rest and as 
succeeding only in northern climates. Yet to this group belong the peaches 
of France, Spain and Italy; those of the warm parts of Africa, South America 
and Oceanica; and most of the varieties that thrive at the most northern 
limits of peach-growing in Europe and America. 

The Onderdonk classification, in assigning zones to each of its five 
races, misleads peach-growers as to the hardiness of varieties. It makes 
the Peento and honey-flavored peaches much more tender in tree than they 
are. Varieties of both groups grow as far north as this Station and Waugh 
reports that one of the Peento varieties " was discovered growing thriftily 
and fruiting nicely on the grounds of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, Amherst, Massachusetts." * Of the score of descendants of the 
Honey, several are fruiting well on our grounds, four being illustrated and 
described in The Peaches of Neiv York. If there were a demand for honey- 
flavored peaches, climate would not prevent their culture in New York. 

The name used for the Peento group, if it be worth while keeping 
these peaches in a group, is inapt. It gives the impression that all, like 
Peento, are flat peaches — in fact Price several times so publishes them — 
whereas of the twenty-three sorts described by Hume,- though nearly all 
are seedlings of Peento, only Peento is flat. We must look upon the 
Peento as a peach-monster similar to the cleft peach. Emperor of Russia, 
the nippled peach, Teton de V^enus, the Perseque with its teat-like pro- 
tuberances, or the more familiar snow-white and blood-red varieties. 

We are not able to see where the Peento group leaves off and the Honey 
group begins in the Onderdonk classification, though, since varieties of the 
Peentos have not fruited at Geneva and the several Honey-flavored 
peaches, though both thrifty in tree and fruitful, are possibly not typical- 
we ought not to be too critical. As we read the descriptions made by 
others, however, we are struck by the fact that there are more similari- 
ties than differences in the two groups and that the differences are rapidly 
disappearing through hybridization. 

^VJiMgh,T. k. Systematic Pomology, \~'?>. 1903. 
2 Hume H. Harold Fla. Sta. Bui. 62: 1902. 



96 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

But the obstacle which most effectually blocks the use of Onderdonk's 
classification in the systematic arrangement of peaches is the brood of 
hybrid seedling peaches annually brought forth by fruit-growers. No 
doubt the classification is workable, to a degree, with the type- varieties and 
a few carefully selected progeny but after the practical peach-grower, 
with a devil-may-care attitude toward classification, crosses and recrosses 
the types, the several races become hopelessly interlocked. The char- 
acters chiefly used by Onderdonk, as has been said, are fluctuating variations 
and these do not descend according to Mendelian laws. And so the great 
out-pouring of varieties during the past quarter-century has literally 
swamped a classification which served only fairly well when it included 
but the pioneer varieties. In the trituration of the thousand and more 
varieties of peaches now going on, the Onderdonk classification will be less 
and less useful. 

In dismissing the Onderdonk scheme as having but limited application 
for classificatory purposes, acknowledgment is made that it serves other 
purposes very well. It calls attention to the history of the peach; it shows 
that racial strains of the peach are arising; it brings out valuable informa- 
tion in regard to hardiness and the rest-period of peaches ; it offers instances 
of modification of the peach by climate; and it shows the capacity of the 
peach to vary. For thus illuminating the natural history of the peach, 
more especially the climatology of the peach, pomology is much indebted 
to Onderdonk and Price. 

A key to varieties of peaches. — A natural classification of peaches to 
show the relationships of varieties is seemingly impossible. The deluge 
of new varieties, which growers continue with cheerful optimism to pour 
out, overwhelms the classifier with diiflculties. About the best that can 
be done is to arrange varieties, for convenience in identifying, according 
to some of the artificial systems of a century ago when the cvilt of the 
classifier was at its height. These were really synoptical keys rather than 
biological classifications. If such a key is to be used very generally by 
fruit-growers, only characters of the fruit are admissible, thereby attain- 
ing necessary simplicity and providing that all data can be had at one 
examination. 

The first division of a synoptical key would of course be founded on 
the absence or presence of pubescence on the skin ; these two great divisions 
would then be separated into freestones and clingstones; these, in turn, 
divided in accordance to color of flesh — white, yellow, red; the Peento and 



THK PKACIIES Ol" NKW YORK 97 

honry-flavored peaches make necessary a division in regard to siiape 
globular, flat, beaked; a further separation into early, medium and late sorts 
could then be made. A great merit in this extremely simple classification 
is that the language of the layman fits it. As examples: Greensboro would 
follow the key from bottom to top — an early, round, white-fleshed, free- 
stone peach; or Salwey, a late, round, yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. 
This key provides for seventy-two groups, fifty-four for the peach and 
eighteen for the nectarine, the latter having but the globular form. Other 
characters, of less general application in the key than those so far used, 
as size, flavor, adherence or non-adherence of the skin, suture, apex, and 
stone, could be used to carry this classification still further. 
7 



98 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

CHAPTER m 
COMMERCIAL PEACH-GROWING IN AMERICA 

Commercial peach-growing began in America early in the Nineteenth 
Centiiry. About this time, it will be remembered, budded trees began to 
take the place of seedlings. Named varieties appeared as a consequence 
of budding and, as nurseries sprang up in the settled parts of the country, 
varieties multiplied at a rapid rate. After the year 1 800 we read less about 
peaches as food for hogs and less about peach-products for assuaging the 
thirst for strong drink. As cities and towns built up, market demands 
increased and money-making began to quicken the charms of peach - 
growing. With the coming of extensive plantings and intensive culture in 
commercial orchards, new and menacing pests and other problems began 
to appear at every turn. Before the middle of the century, commercial 
peach-growing was in full swing in the Chesapeake peach-belt and in its 
infancy in several westward regions. Stories of great success now filled 
the papers, " peach kings " abounded, and, with the return of good times 
following the Civil War, fruit-growers indulged in a saturnalia of peach- 
tree planting. The rouge of speculation made the industry doubly attrac- 
tive. An account of the rise of commercial peach-growing in America 
cannot help but be of interest and, besides, it is only by the study of the 
past of the industn,- that we can draw safe conclusions for the future. 

Peach-growing on a commercial scale in the United States began in 
what is known as the Peninsula, consisting, technically, of the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey but horticulturally, 
because of similitude of soil, climate and products, taking in a bit of Vir- 
ginia, touching eastern Pennsylvania and running up to Long Island. 
All of this region, including the southern reaches of the Hudson, may be 
considered as one commercial territory. The peach began its undis- 
puted supremacy among fruits in the orchards of the Peninsula as early 
as orchards were planted but, beginning with 1800, the industry pushed 
ahead with leaps and bounds so that the figures at times remind one of 
Alice in Wonderland when she drank from the magic bottle and immedi- 
ately grew to gigantic proportions. 

In 1800 an orchard of 20,000 trees was set in Anne Arundel County, 
Maryland, the product to be used in brandy-making.^ The last peach- 

' Gould, H. P. Md. Sla. Bui. 72:129. 1901. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 99 

grower to engage in the liquor business seems to have been a certain Mr. 
Bayley in Accomack County, Virginia, the tip of the Peninsula, who in 
1 8 14 planted 63,000 trees which six years later yielded fifteen gallons of 
brandy per 100 trees, worth $2 per gallon — not profitable unless the 
seed were sown in rows, as was probably the case, and the seedlings per- 
mitted to crowd rather closely.^ One of the first large orchards planted 
in this region to supply city peach-markets was that of a Mr. Cassidy who 
set an orchard of 50,000 trees in Cecil County, Maryland, about 1830.* 
The product of this orchard went to market in sailboats and large wagons. 
The industry was not in full swing in this region until the fifties when 
orchards were planted all along the water courses in Cecil, Kent and Queen 
Anne counties, making a continuous forest of peach-trees two miles back 
from the rivers.' 

The peach -industry in Delaware seems to have begun, according to Mr. 
Charles Wright,'' in 1832 at Delaware City, when a twenty-acre orchard of 
budded trees was set by Messrs. Reeves and Ridgeway, which by 1836 had 
increased to 1 10 acres. The receipts from this orchard in a single season were 
as much as $16,000, the fruit bringing in Philadelphia from $1.25 to $3 per 
three-peck basket. Other notable orchards of these early times mentioned 
by Mr. Wright are those of Major Philip Reybold and Sons who, beginning 
in 1835, by 1846 had 117,720 trees on 1090 acres near Delaware City 
from which 63,344 baskets of peaches were shipped in August, 1845; in 
Kent County, John Reed began planting as early as 1829 and several years 
later had 10,000 trees of Red Cheek Melocotons. In 1848 the peach- 
crop in Delaware was estimated at 5,000,000 baskets, chiefly from New 
Castle County. Peach -yellows, first a serious pest around Philadelphia 
about 1800, became epidemic in northern Delaware in 1842 and, little by 
little, the center of the peach-industry shifted southward from Middle- 
town in the late sixties to Smyrna; a few years later it had reached Wyoming 
and in the nineties it was as far south as Bridgeville. 

It is interesting to follow the ups and downs of the peach-industry 
in the Peninsula. Epidemics of yellows, a succession of cold winters, 
over-production, transportation difficulties or expense, San Jose scale, 
have all been factors powerful enough at various times to make or mar the 

' Wright, Charles Cyc. of Am. Hort. 3:1240. 1900. 
' Gould, H. P. Md. Sta. Bui. 72:130. 1901. 

' .Shallcross, J. T. Md. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1:17. 1898. 

'Wright Charles Or. o/>lm. //or/. 3:1238. 1900. 



lOO THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

fortunes of those engaged in growing peaches. Indeed, in following the 
history of this fruit on the Peninsula, one is forced to declare that peach - 
growing is gambling pure and simple. Take, for example, the building 
of the Delaware railroad. Peaches were scarcely planted in the interior 
parts of the Peninsula, away from water-ways, until the building of this 
road in the sixties and seventies, when the yield increased so rapidly that 
4. 1 75.500 baskets were shipped by rail in 1875, the total yield being 8,782,716 
baskets ' — fortunes followed the completion of the railroad only to be 
lost in subsequent over-production. 

New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and southeastern New York rather 
slowly followed the lead of Delaware in commercial peach-growing. New 
Jersey, according to census reports, reached her zenith in peach-growing in 
1899 when there were 4,413,568 peach-trees in the State which produced 
2,746,607 bushels of fruit giving her third rank among the states of the 
Union in production. Ten years later the State had dropped to fourteenth. 
The peach seems to have been neglected in eastern Pennsylvania as a 
commercial crop, possibly because a good start was never made on account 
of the early appearance of yellows. In southeastern New York and on 
Long Island, peach-growers have usually followed the fortunes of their 
neighbors in New Jersey who have ever grown on a much larger scale. 

■ To show how quickly the peach gives returns and how great the return 
from the capital invested, the following figures, savoring a good deal of 
American boastfulness of dollars and cents, are illustrative: ^ " The peach 
farms in Upper Delaware and Maryland have returned to their owners 
the most fabulous amounts for their investments far exceeding in profit 
any other staple crop that has been raised in the Middle States, and on a 
scale never before heard of in this or any other country. Some of the 
orchards containing from 1000 to 1300 acres have netted their owners from 
$20,000 to $30,000 annually. A peach orchard in New Castle county, 
Delaware, of 400 acres, netted the owner in one crop, $38,000. One in 
Kent county, Maryland, of some 600 acres, produced a crop paying $31,000, 
and the same orchard in 1879 yielded $42,000. In 1873, the Delaware 
Peach Growers' Association reported that there were sent from the 
Delaware peninsula to the northern markets of Philadelphia and New 
York 1,288,500 baskets of peaches, or 2577 car-loads by the railroad. 
Adding the quantity shipped by steamers and sailing vessels, and the 
amount canned, the actual quantity amounted, in the aggregate, to 
2,000,000 of baskets. In 1872, the whole district, comprising the Eastern 



• Am. Farmer July, 1878. 

* Rutter Cull. & Diseases of the Peaih 8 1, 82 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK ID I 

Shore of Maryland, marketed 3,500,000 baskets. The late Col. Wilkins, 
on Chester river, Kent county, Maryland, had 1350 acres in with peach 
trees, numbering 137,000, producing in bearing years from $30,000 to 
$40,000 annually." 

Commercial peach-growing in the South is of recent development — 
its history is known to all pomologists of the present generation. It began 
in the seventies, the impetus being given by the introduction of a number 
of early, bright-colored, very showy peaches that could be marketed in 
northern cities in May and June. It took years, however, to develop means 
to send these peaches to market and it was not until in the nineties that the 
perfection of refrigerator cars and rapid transportation was such that the 
southern crop cut any figure in the peach-markets. The introduction 
of the Elberta in the seventies may be said to be another stone in the founda- 
tion of the peach -industry in the South. After Georgia became a factor 
in the culture of this fruit in America in the nineties, the State was followed 
in lesser degree by South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and 
Texas. In most of these southern states the peach-orchard is so near the 
cotton-plantation — often the two are interplanted — that the owners 
rob Peter to pay Paul in the care of the two crops. But this is not always 
the case, and at its best the southern peach-orchard is the consummate 
flower of modem commercial peach-growing. 

The peach-industry in Connecticut is a recent development, as in the 
South. As late as 1880 the crop was negligible in the State; in 1889, 
37.295 bushels were grown; 61,775 in 1899; a^rid 417-918 bushels in 1909. 
This, considering the smallness of the State and the very uneven surface 
of much of it, is a rather remarkable development. Winter-killing, which 
takes place about one winter out of four, is the chief drawback but the high 
prices received from nearby markets make the peach, despite the occasional 
off-year, a profitable crop. Connecticut peaches are characterized by large 
size, bright color and good quality. From Connecticut the industry has 
spread into Massachusetts where all conditions are essentially the same. 

Peach-growing in New York has never been spectaciilar. Along the 
lower Hudson before the Civil War and again a decade after it there was a 
thriving peach-industry such as there was in New Jersey and Delaware. 
A peach-industry is first of all dependent on quick transportation — the 
fruit must move. This meant in early days that there must be nearby 
markets and water transportation — western New York had the latter 
but not the former. Peaches, however, were early grown, in fact, as we 



102 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

have seen, were cultivated by the Indians, in the lake regions of western 
New York. In 1828 the Domestic Horticultural Society, the third such 
organization in America, was organized in Geneva, having for its field ten 
counties in western New York.' The Monroe County Horticultural 
Society was organized in 1830,- and in 1831 the Genesee Farmer avd 
Gardener' s Journal came into existence. These institutions bore fruit, 
more literally bore orchards, and a taste for horticulture, which, together 
with the nurseries that by this time were being established in the salubrious 
climate and excellent soil of western New York, gave a perfection in fruit- 
growing long unrivalled in America and now equalled only in California. 

Of the history of commercial peach-growing in western New York, 
it can only be said that there has been such an industry since 1800. The 
product of the orchards of the first quarter-century went, for most part, 
to the brandy-still, for the second quarter it was used at home and for 
local markets and from then on, since 1850, or a little before, the region 
has been well to the front in the peach-markets of eastern United States. 
Changes in the commerce of the continent have made great changes in the 
peach-industry in New York. In 1825 the opening of the Erie Canal made 
western New York the granary of eastern United States — wheat was 
more profitable than peaches. Twenty-five years later millions of bushels 
of wheat from the plains, carried through the Great Lakes and the Erie 
Canal to the sea, began to drive wheat out of western New York and make 
the peach more profitable. This is a fine illustration of the fact that 
transportation is often as important a factor as soil or climate in the profit- 
able production of a crop. Until figures were taken by census enumerators, 
the history of the peach-industry could be written only by giving innumer- 
able items taken at random from newspapers of the times. The present 
status of peach-growing in this region is to be discussed in a future chapter. 

Another large commercial peach-region is to be found along the shore 
of Lake Erie in Ohio. The peach has been cultivated very generally in 
Ohio since the first settlements there more than a century ago and the 
industry assumed commercial importance in a dozen or more centers as 
early, at least, as 1867, when the assessors' returns showed a total crop for 
the State of 1,402,849 bushels.^ But what is now known as the peach- 
belt along the shores of Lake Erie is largely a growth of comparatively 



' New England Farmer 7 : 
2 Mag. Hort. 5:12. 
^Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 61. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YOKK IO3 

recent times, much of the land now covered with peach-orchards having 
been originally planted to vineyards Possibly the region was at its zenith 
in the nineties, the plantings here contributing greatly to putting Ohio in 
third place at this time among the states of the Union in the production 
of peaches. 

Michigan furnishes an interesting chapter in the history of the peach - 
industry. The industry was started in what is now the Michigan peach- 
belt by an Indian trader who planted a pit in 1775 near St. Joseph. From 
this tree sprang seedling orchards, one of which, near Douglas at the mouth 
of the Kalamazoo River, numbered 300 trees. There were no budded 
trees until 1 834. A conjunction of several factors now gave peach-growing 
a tremendous impetus in the State. Chicago, growing with leaps and 
bounds, demanded peaches; the soil and climate of western Michigan were 
found to be ideal for this fruit; between the supply and demand was quick 
and cheap transportation by water. Shipments began in 1834 to Chicago 
and, as this and other western cities grew, peach-planting in Michigan 
progressed as probably never before in any other part of the world. In 
the seventies peach-yellows swept like a wave of fire over the southern 
portion of what is now the belt, driving the industry northward until at 
Traverse City the peach reached its highest northern limit in the eastern 
states. With better control of the yellows, peach -orchards were again 
planted in the southern parts of the belt and the industry continues to 
thrive, though with the vips and downs incident to this fruit wherever 
grown. 

Another large peach-growing area lies in southern Illinois extending 
across the Mississippi into Missouri and Kansas. Westward, in Colorado, 
Utah, California, Oregon and Washington, are the world's newest peach- 
orchards, all of which have arisen to commercial importance within recent 
times. In southern Illinois and Missouri, however, even before the Civil 
War, peach-growing had assumed sufficient magnitude to be called an 
industry. The present standing of these later peach-areas maj'- best be 
compared with that of the older regions by a tabulated report from the 
United States Census Reports which is herewith printed. In the fluctuat- 
ing figures of this table one sees the exploitation of the peach. What 
other tree-crop in the whole world could show more ups and downs in the 
brief space of thirty years? No state holds first rank two decades in 
succession; in fifteen states in 1910 there were more trees not of bearing 
age than there were in bearing; there were more peach-trees in the United 



104 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK 



States in 1900 than in 19 10; the figures most graphically attest the shiltnig 
of peach -regions; decreasing numbers represent misfortunes — most often 
yellows, or San Jose scale, a freeze, or overproduction; increasing numbers 
stand for a newly discovered advantage. By these tokens we better realize 
the speculative nature of peach-growing. 



Peach-Production in the United States, 1890-191 





Number of trees of bearing age — 


Trees not 

of bearing 


States 


Eleventh 

Census, 

1890 


Twelfth 

Census, 

1900 


Thirteenth 

Census, 

1910 


age. 

Thirteenth 

Census, 

1910 


New England: 

Maine 


1 .607 
19.057 

1.966 
87,004 
11,816 
88,655 

1,014,110 
4.413.568 
1.146,342 

1,882,191 
9.53.980 
783.910 

1,919.104 

387 

334 

82,238 

1,999.474 

78 

144,701 

4,876,311 

4.521.623 

6,113.287 

I.. 521 

I .218,219 

450,440 
2.133.004 

711.138 
2,787,546 

235.936 

1,205,866 

2.347.699 

1,280,842 

878,569 


9.592 
48,819 
4.993 
.301,405 
48,063 
.522,726 

2,522,729 
2.746,607 
3.521.930 

6,363.127 
2.925.526 
2,448,013 
8.104,415 
6,967 

1,626 

516,145 

4.557.365 

2 

1,080 

1.055.959 

5,098,064 

2,441.650 
4.017.854 
149 
1.939,113 
1,695,642 
2.773.788 
1.136.790 
7,668,639 
354.208 

2,884,193 
2.749.203 
2,690,151 
1,856,748 


5.102 
57. .571 
5.492 
1.54.592 
39.342 
461,711 

2,457.187 
1,216,476 
2,383.027 

3.133.368 
2,130,298 
2,860,120 
2,907,170 
4.163 

'I, ,571 
1,090,749 
6,588,034 
90 
1,815 
1,188,373 
4,394,894 

1,177,402 
1,497.724 
330 
1.. 585. 505 
1.424.582 
2,661,791 
1,336,142 
10,609,119 
290,850 

2,245,402 
3.163.737 
3.177.331 
1,726.298 


3.320 
35-213 

2 187 




Vermont 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 


162,114 
.^0.795 
3^8,608 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


2.216.907 
1.363,632 




East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 


2,092,300 

1.145,479 

7,39-3.58 




Wisconsin 

West North Central: 


4.-48 

3.837 
283 . 308 


J 


Missouri 




North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 


604 

5.259 

263,882 


South .Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 


212,117 
805,063 


Virginia 




West Virginia 


1,441,188 


North Carolina 
South Carolina 

Georgia . . 

Florida 

East South Central: 


861,042 

349.790 

1.531.367 

156,782 

I ,110,744 




1.190,727 
838,866 




Mississippi 


724.895 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 
Peach-Production in the United States 1890-1910 — Con/intt^d 



105 





Number of trees of bearing age — 


Trees not 










of bearing 


States 








age. 




Eleventh 


Twelfth 


Thirteenth 


Thirteenth 




Census, 


Census, 


Census, 


Census, 




1890 


1900 


1910 


1910 


West South Central: 










Arkansas 


■;.7<'9,052 


4,062,218 


6.859.962 


2,884.927 


Louisiana 


.SI7.I32 


75«.877 


903,352 


316,132 


Oklahoma 


206 


5,848,808 


4.783.825 


2,574,680 


Texas 


4.4«(>.90i 


7.248,358 


9,737.827 


2,958,813 


Mountain. 










Montana 




1 ,670 


538 


3.386 


Idaho 


13.639 


79.757 
9 


73.080 
46 


212.995 
419 


Wyoming' . - 


Colorado 


8,204 


31.998 


793.372 


606,001 


New MexiLO ... 


23,081 


117.003 


136,191 


184.466 


Arizona 


24.954 


67.073 


51,415 


32 . 562 


Utah . . 


68,121 


409 . 665 


544.314 


651.233 


Nevada 


3.996 


9,136 


6.329 


5.049 


Pacific: 










Washington 


72,701 


226,636 


536.875 


1 ,028,141 


Oregon.... 


115.244 


281,716 


273,162 


508,179 


California 


2,669,843 


7.472,393 


7,829,011 


4,409,562 


Total 


53.885.597 


99.916,598 


94,506,657 


42,266,243 



NEW TYPES OF PEACHES 

The capacity of species to split into types, using types in a broad 
sense, is, we all agree, one of the greatest assets of ciiltivated plants. 
Through diversity of types come adaptabilities to soils and climates and 
variety in the crop, to mention but two of the essentials of standard crop- 
plants. New types afford the material from which greatest progress comes 
in fruit-growing. In common with all fruit-growing, peach-growing has 
received impetus from time to time from the introduction of new and 
distinct types. In the middle of the Nineteenth Century, three previously 
unknown types of peaches, each divisible into horticultural varieties, were 
brought to America. All three have had important effects on the peach - 
industry in America. 

North China peaches. — Not very distinct from the Persian peaches 
at the outset, its outliers nmning into some of the other groups as well, 
" North China " is now but little more than a name for a conglomerate 
lot of varieties grown everywhere in America except in the sub-tropic parts 
of the Gulf States. The North China race includes varieties characterized 



106 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

by fruits of large size, great beauty, tender skin and llesh, good quality and 
vigorous trees which bear abundantly and regularly. The group has 
received careful study at the Delaware Experiment Station, an account 
of it by G. Harold Powell having been published in the Thirteenth Annual 
Report from that Station in 1901. Powell prefers to call the group Chinese 
Cling rather than North China. 

The peaches put in the North China group are so nearly akin to those 
in the Persian group that it is difficult to place varieties. All agree, how- 
ever, in taking the European Shanghai, the American Chinese Cling, as 
the type- variety and, though it is probable that travelers or missionaries 
brought pits of some of these peaches from northern China a century or 
more ago, the known history of the group begins with the variety just 
named as the type. It is a pleasure to give Robert Fortune, the inde- 
fatigable collector of Chinese plants for the London Hortictaltural Society, 
credit for introducing these peaches into western countries. In 1844 
Fortune collected a fine, large, delicious peach near Shanghai and in the 
autumn forwarded pits and a plant in a pot to London. The pits were 
sown and the seedlings produced fruit in 1852 and from among these a sort 
was selected and called Shanghai.' Pits from this first collection were 
probably sent to France, for the name appears in the early fifties in the 
pomological literature of this country. 

The first American reference to the Shanghai is found in 1S51 - when 
fruits were exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in Boston 
by R. Choate with the statement " peach from a tree imported from 
Shanghai." More definite are the facts of an importation made by Charles 
Downing in 1850. Early in that year Downing received potted peach-trees 
from the British consul at Shanghai under the names " Chinese Cling " 
and " Shanghai," supposed to be two sorts but proving to be identical. 
One of these trees was sent to Mr. Henry Lyons, Columbia, South Carolina, 
and this bore fruit in 1851.^ From Downing's stock the variety was 
quickly and widely distributed and the horticultural magazines of the 
time gave the new peaches wide publicity, so that, from this and other 
importations which were made from time to time by various persons, these 
peaches from northern China were universally grown in the peach -orchards 
of America within a quarter of a century of their introduction. 



Jour. Land. Hort. Soc. 22\. 1846; 1. c. 265. 1852. 
■ Mag. Hort. 475. 1851. 
' Horticulturist 286, 472. 1853. 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK IO7 

South China peaches. — Those who have read the descriptions of 
Chinese peaches in Chapter I (pages 14 to 21) recognize at once the beaked 
varieties of South China, especially thbse growing about Canton. These 
peaches, common enough in China and cultivated there for centuries, 
reached occidental countries only in the middle of the Nineteenth Century. 
They came to America as seeds from Dr. J. T. Devan, Canton, China, to 
Mr. John Caldwell, Newburg, New York,' and were introduced into Europe 
probably by M. Montigny, French Consul at Shanghai, who sent seeds 
to the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, in 1852.- In recent years a number of 
fresh importations of seeds and plants of these honey-flavored, beaked 
peaches have been made by the United States Department of Agriculture. 

A composite picture of South China peaches shows the following 
characters : 

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading; branches leaving the trunk 
at an angle of about fifty degrees and curving upward; buds quite 
prominent; flowers always large and very abundant, pale pink, base of petals 
darker pink; leaves small, long, narrow, pointed, finely serrate, conduplicate, 
distributed all along the limb, dark green, in fall slightly tinged with red. 
Fruit small, oval, yellow or white blushed with red, slightly flattened; 
skin adhering to the flesh; suture very deep in basin, but does not extend 
more than one-third the way down; apex long and recurved; flesh white 
or yellow; flavor a peculiar honey-sweet; stone free or cling, long-pointed, 
generally curved. 

As yet these honey-fiavored peaches are grown commercially only in 
the Gulf States, the notion prevailing that they cannot be grown in the 
North. Quite to the contrary they do exceedingly well as far north as 
Geneva, though undesirable because of smallness of fruit and lateness in 
ripening. Of the score of the descendants of the original Honey, several 
are in bearing on the Station grounds. Climax, Imperial, Pallas and Triana 
being illustrated in The Peaches of New York. All but two or three of the 
varieties that are put in this group originated in Florida and most of them 
come from the grounds of G. L. Taber, Glen Saint Mary, of that 
State. An excellent bulletin, No. 73, from the Florida Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, published in 1904, by F. C. Reimer, gives a full account of 
these peaches. 

Is the beaked character permanent? That regions in time give rise 

^ Horticulturist I ■.5fi2. 1847. 
^ Rev. Hort. 11. 1861. 



108 THE PEACHES OF NEW VOKK 

to racial strains must have occurred to all who have read the preceding 
pages. The peach acquires distinct varietal characters in every great 
geographical region in which it is grown. Possibly in no other character 
is the change greater than in the long, pointed, erect or recurved apex in 
common parlance called the beak. As a rule, the farther south the more 
pronounced is the beak and the more oblong is the fruit. In this respect, 
southern peaches, taking them as a whole, are as markedly different from 
New York peaches as are the long, crowned, angular-topped apples of the 
Pacific Northwest from the rotund fruits of the Atlantic Northeast. The 
iouT sorts of honey-flavored peaches described and illustrated in The 
Peaches of New York, named in the foregoing paragraph, illustrate this 
well, none of them being nearly so abruptly conical as specimens coming 
to us from the South. Peaches in China, evidently, show the same modifi- 
cation, for those discussed in the previous group are as markedly rotund 
as those in this group are conic and beaked. It is a fair inference, then, 
that the beaked character of the peach, counting time in generations of the 
tree, is permanent only in southern climates. 

Peento peaches. — -Another group of these Chinese peaches, not very 
different from the South China varieties we have just given an account 
of, is composed of the score or more sorts showing relationship to the 
variety, Peento. These may be rather indefinitely described as follows: 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading; branches willow-like, branch- 
ing at an angle of about forty degrees; flowers large, pink, opening early, 
often at a low temperature and very irregularly; leaves narrow, long, 
finely serrated, with reniform glands; incHned to be evergreen; fruit sub- 
globose except in Peento which is flattened endwise ; skin white and mottled 
with carmine, parting readily from the flesh; flesh white or yellow; flavor 
sweet, with a peculiar almond taste; stone occasionally flattened endwise, 
either free or cling. This race is adapted to sub-tropical parts of the Gulf 
States where it ripens from May ist to June ist. 

The Peento, which gives name to this group, is without doubt a 
descendant of the fiat peaches of China, common enough as we have seen. 
The first tree, however, came from Java to England where it was first 
grown by John Braddick under the name Java peach.' William Prince, - 

' Trans. Ilorl. Soc. Land. 4:512-513. 1822. 

= Prince, \Vm. Treat, on Hort. 16. 1828. 

William Prince, second of the name in American pomology and third proprietor of the celebrated 
Prince nurseries at Flushing, Long Island, was bom November 10, 1766, and died April 9, 1842. His 
grandfather, a French Huguenot, was the founder of the establishment of which he became owner, and 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK IO9 

Flushing, Long Island, imported the variety to America some time 
previous to 1828 and grew it to the number of twenty trees. The peaches 
from Prince's importation seem to have been lost and the variety did not 
appear again in America until 1869 when P. J. Berckmans,' Augusta, 
Georgia, brought seed from China, from one of which came the Peento. 
Peento peaches in America are peculiar to Florida, where all of the score 
or more varieties but the Peento have originated. This group of peaches 
has been well described by H. Harold Hume in Bulletin 62 of the Florida 
Experiment Station from which the description given above is an 
adaptation. 

PEACH-PRODUCTS 

The magnitude of the peach-industry in the United States is better 
appreciated if figures showing values are given. The value of peaches 
and nectarines in 1909, for the United States, was $28,781,078, an amount 
surpassed by only one other fruit, the apple. The highest value for a 
geographical division is reported for the East North-Central States, the 
amount being $5,173,000, followed by the South Atlantic States with 
$4,888,000 and the Pacific States with $4,887,000. Of individual states, 
California with her enormous area, over most of which the peach thrives, 
ranks first, the value of the crop in 1909 reaching $4,574,000; the next 
most important State is Georgia, $2,183,000; the third. New York, 
$2,014,000; these followed in order of value by Michigan, Arkansas, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, Kentucky, Alabama, Tennessee and 
North Carolina, each with a crop of more than $1,000,000 in value. 

The peach has greater commercial value in the United States than 



in which he made his reputation. Under his father, the first William Prince, the nursery at Flushing 
developed into a great commercial nurserj', a private experiment station, a testing ground for American 
and foreign fruits and a botanic garden of American plants. The mantle dropped by William Prince, 
the father, at his death in 1802, fell upon the shoulders of William Prince, subject of this sketch, then just 
reaching the prime of life and one of the most brilliant and versatile pomologists the cpuntry has known. 
William Prince continued most successfully the work of his father in breeding new varieties, domesticating 
native plants and importing foreign fruits and ornamentals. During his supervision the Prince Nursery 
reached the height of its fame. It was conducted less for money than for love of the work. An attempt 
was made to grow every American and European plant-species having horticultural value. The catalogs 
published from the nurserj' by William Prince are among the best horticultural and botanical contribu- 
tions of the first half of the Nineteenth Century. Besides these, William Prince is the author of the 
Treatise on Horticulture, published in 1828, and gave assistance to his son, William Robert Prince, in pre- 
paring his Pomological Manual published in 1832. In the description of varieties in this text it will be 
found that many varieties of peaches were originated, introduced, imported or first described liy William 
Prince. 

' For a brief history of the life and horticultural activities of Prosper Julius A. Berckmans, the 
reader is referred to The Plums of New York, page 159. 



I lo THE PEACHES OE NEW YORK 

all other stone-fruits combined, the value of the crop in 1909, as we have 
seen, amounting to $28,781,078 while the value of the plum was $10,299,495; 
of the cherry, $7,231,160; of the apricot, $2,884,1 19; of the almond, $712,000. 
The consumption of peaches is increasing year by year. Until recently 
the peach has been considered a fruit of luxury, but large plantations, 
good care, quick and safe transportation and wide distribution now provide 
peaches for all who can afford to eat fruit. 

The profits of peach-growing are occasionally so enormous that the 
publication of the figures is usually followed by excessive planting, with 
consequent over-production and low prices, followed, in tvu-n, by scarcity 
and high prices. So, too, the peach is more at the mercy of the seasons 
than any other standard tree-fruit and winter freezes and spring frosts 
ruin crops in some part of the country every year and often such disasters 
are widespread. These ups and downs, however, instead of decreasing, 
seem to stimulate the peach-trade, probably, on the part of the grower, 
because gambling is a universal vice; on the part of the consumer, because 
he better appreciates peaches when the blessing is occasionally withdrawn. 

The chosen use for any choice fruit is to eat it as it comes from the 
tree or as prepared fresh fruit for dessert. So the peach is chiefly used the 
world over. Refreshing and delectable as any other fruit, it has another 
quality, appreciated by those who sell as well as by those who consume — 
it does not cloy the appetite. The insatiable longing of the great lexi- 
cographer, Johnson, for peaches is common to all lovers of this fruit. 
Boswell, Johnson's biographer, gives this gustatory reminiscence of his 
famous patron: " He would eat seven or eight large peaches of a morning 
before breakfast began, and treated them with proportionate attention 
after dinner again, yet I have heard him protest that he never had quite 
as much as he wished, except once, in his life." In America the greater 
part of the crop is, no doubt, eaten out of hand but peach-pie and peaches 
and cream, and peach-butter are national dishes, while marmalades, 
jellies, pickles, preserves and sauces are as common to this fruit as to any 
other. Besides the innumerable cooked products, several refreshing domes- 
tic drinks are made from the juice of peaches, as shrub and peach- wine, or 
it may be frozen into sherbet or ice cream. Waste peaches are used with 
more or less success as stock for vinegar. Peaches are canned and evap- 
orated in the United States on an enormous scale, nearly one-half the 
crop being so utilized. 

Canned peaches. — Canning is conservation In e.xcelsis. It is modem 



THE PEACH KS OF NEW YORK III 

compliance to the command, " Gather up the fragments that remain, 
that nothing be lost." Without this method of preserving crops the com- 
mercial culture of fruits and vegetables as carried on nowadays would be 
ruined and no fruit would suffer as would the peach, since it leads all others 
in quantity and value of the canned pack. The value of canned peaches 
in the United States in 1909 was $3,753,698 or nearly one-seventh the 
total value of the crop and one may roughly estimate the fruit canned at 
home to be half as much as that canned in the factories. The product was 
put up in states, named in order of value of the pack as follows : California, 
$3,013,203; Michigan, $175,386; Maryland, $158,839; Georgia, $156,282; 
New York, $141,142. These canned peaches go to every part of the world 
to which they can be cheaply carried and are fit for consumption any 
time within two or three years after being put up. The canning factory 
has revolutionized the peach-industry in the United States by giving its 
products access to the world-market. 

Commercial canning is a specialist's business into which we cannot 
go. The processes, essentially, are the same as those used in domestic 
canning and consist in destrojdng all bacteria by heat and then hermetically 
sealing the product in cans. In canning factories the work is nearly all 
done by machinery, including peeling, pitting and cutting the fruit, solder- 
ing the cans and putting on labels. To purchase proper machinery, hire 
labor and manage both to secure uniformity and cheapness in the product 
requires large capital and keen business ability. Peaches are easy to 
handle in factories and the work can be done so cheaply and the product 
is so acceptable that the factory-canned fruit is rapidly taking the place 
of that which a quarter of a centiuy ago was almost wholly put up in the 
kitchen. The canning industry originated, has been perfected and is now 
chiefly carried on in the United States and Canada, though rapidly being 
introduced elsewhere. The aid afforded the peach-grower in this country 
by the canneries has been a great stimulus and makes the possibilities of 
profitable production of this fruit in the future certain. 

Orchard-canning on a small scale seldom proves feasible, succeeding 
best, if at all, in a home industry to provide a special product for a fancy 
or private trade. Occasionally, associations can command capital enough 
to compete with the large business enterprises but as a rule the peach- 
grower's interests are served best by the production of acceptable fruit 
for those who are engaged in the canning industry. 

In the East, New York for example, all surplus peaches of standard 



112 THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

varieties go to the cannery, though certain sorts have preference, but on 
the Pacific Coast where peaches are grown for canning, the trade demands 
a special type. The choice of varieties dififers in different locaUties so that 
a prescription of sorts to grow for the canning trade cannot be made. 
Canners accept only yellow-fleshed peaches and usually prefer clingstones 
since these stand up better in the can. This preference is well shown in 
figures from California, where in 1913 only 583,800 cases, 24 cans to the 
case, of freestones were canned as against 1,630,255 cases of clingstones. 
Fashion now demands varieties red at the pit. Most cans in the great 
pack coming from California are labeled " Lemon Cling," but this is really 
now but a trade name, the old Lemon Cling, the pioneer sort in the canning 
trade, being little grown, a dozen or more similar but improved peaches 
having taken its place. The nectarine is canned in California but is not 
yet popular with consumers despite the fact that the product is most 
appetizing and very pleasing in appearance. Its smooth skin makes it 
one of the easiest of all fruits to can. 

Evaporated peaches. — In regions distant from the markets evapora- 
tion is an even richer resource of the peach-grower than canning. Thus, 
in California in 1909, the value of the peaches canned was $3,013,203 while 
the dried product was valued at $2,333,137. The figures are greater for 
canned peaches, but be it remembered that the canners' profits and the cost 
of the cans must be deducted, whereas evaporated peaches are almost 
wholly a home product, the grower receiving all of the proceeds. The 
dried product is pure peach, almost devoid of water. Peaches may be 
cured as dry as a bone and as hard as wood so that the product will keep 
indefinitely in the temperate zone, and in this super-dried state is shipped 
to the tropics. The apple is evaporated in large quantities but is a 
by-product while the cured peach is usually a primary product — a differ- 
ence worth noting, for, with the apple, the cream of the crop goes to the 
fresh fruit-market while the cured peach is of the same grade as the dessert 
and canned fruit. 

The dried-peach industry thrives only in regions, as California, where 
the summers are sunny and rainless. The product is shipped so cheaply 
that peach-growers in cloudy and hiunid climates, as in New York, cannot 
use artificial heat in evaporators and compete with the cured peaches from 
the Pacific Slope. In times past when commvmities were more dependent 
on local resources, the farmer living almost wholly off of his farm, peaches 
were cured in humid America though the product, in appearance at least, 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I I3 

was much inferior to that from regions havinj^ favorable conditions for 
the evaporation of fruit. New York can hardly hope to compete with 
California in curing peaches but two factors make it barely possible that 
this State might make a minor industry out of curing peaches. The factors 
are the enormous production of peaches in the State, over-production being 
frequent, and the existence of a great number of apple-evaporators which 
might be utilized in curing the earlier ripening peaches. It seems worth 
while, therefore, to go rather fully into the details of curing peaches as 
practiced in California with the hope that their methods may be modified 
for use in New York evaporators. The subjoined footnote gives the 
best account we are able to find of the dried-fruit industry in California 
and of curing peaches in particular.' 



' Wickson Co/. Fruils 430-456. 1914. 

" Trays for Drying. — The fruit is placed upon trays for exposure to the sun. There is great varia- 
tion in the size of the trays. The common small tray is made of one-half inch sugar-pine lumber two feet 
wide and three feet long, the boards forming it being held together by naiUng to a cleat on each end, one 
by one and a quarter inches, and a lath or narrow piece of half-inch stuff is nailed over the ends of the 
boards, thus stiffening the tray and aiding to prevent warping. 

■' A large tray which is used by some growers is four feet square, and is made of slats three-eighths of 
an inch thick, and one and a half inches wide, the slats being nailed to three cross slats three-eighths of 
an inch thick and three inches wide, and the ends nailed to a narrow strip one-half inch thick by three- 
quarters of an inch wide on the other side. 

" Since large drying yards have been supplied with tramways and trucks for moving the fruit instead 
of hand carriage, larger trays, three feet by six or three feet by eight, have been largely employed. These 
tramways lead from the cutting sheds to the sulphur boxes and thence to various parts of the large drying 
grounds, making it possible to handle large amounts of fruit at a minimum cost. 

Protecting Fruit front Dew. — In the interior there are seldom any deposit of dew in the drying season 
but occasionally there are early rains before the drying season is over. The fruit is then protected by 
piling the trays one upon another, in which operation the thick cleats serve a good purpose. In dewy 
regions the trays are piled at night, or cloth or paper is sometimes stretched over the fruit, thus reducing 
the discoloration resulting from deposits of moisture upon it. 

" Drying Floors. — For the most part the trays are laid directly on the ground, but sometimes a staging 
of posts and rails is built to support them, about twenty inches from the ground. The drying trays arc 
sometimes distributed through the orchard or vineyard, thus drying the fruit with as little carrj'ing as 
possible. Others clear off a large space outside the plantation and spread the trays where full sunshine 
can be obtained. Drying spaces should be selected at a distance from traveled roads, to prevent the 
deposit of dust on the fruit * * *. 

" Grading. — It is of great advantage in drying to have all the fruit on a tray of approximately the same 
size, and grading before cutting is advisable. Machines are now made which accomplish this very cheaply 
and quickly. 

" Cutting-Sheds. — Shelter of some kind is always provided for the fruit-cutters. Sometimes it is only 
a temporary bower made of poles and beams upon which tree branches are spread as a thatch; sometimes 
open-side sheds with boarded roof, and sometimes a finished fruit-house is built, two stories high, the 
lower story opening with large doors on the north side, and with a large loft above, where the dried fruit 
can be sweated, packed, and stored for sale. The climate is such that almost any shelter which suits the 
taste of the purse of the producer will answer the purpose. 



114 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

The most obvious change which takes place in curing peaches is the 
loss of water but several other important changes occur which even more 



" Sulphuring. — The regulations promulgated under the pure food law enacted by Congress in 1906 
established an arbitrary limit to the percentage of sulphur compounds in evaporated fruits, which was 
shown by producers to be destructive to their industry, and otherwise unwarranted and unreasonable. 
As a result of their protest the enforcement of such regulations was indefinitely postponed, pending the 
results of scientific investigation which began in 1898. 

" From the point of view of the California producer it must be held that before the employment of the 
sulphur process, California cured fruits were suitable only to the lowest culinary uses. They were of 
undesirable color, devoid of natural flavor, ofTensive by content of insect life. They had no value which 
would induce production and discernible future. Placing the trays of freshly cut fruit in boxes or small 
' houses,' with the fumes of burning sulphur, made it possible to preserve its natural color and flavor 
during the evaporation of its surplus moisture in the clear sunshine and dry air of the California summer. 
It also prevented .souring, which with some fruits is otherwise not preventable in such open air drying, 
and it protected the fruit from insect attack during the drying process. By the use of sulphur and by 
no other agency has it been possible to lift the production of cured fruits of certain kinds from a low-value 
haphazard by-product to a primary product for which Califomians have planted orchards, constructed 
packing houses and made a name in the world's markets. 

" The action of sulphuring is not alone to protect the fruit, it facilitates evaporation so that about one- 
half less time is required therefor. Not the least important bearing of this fact is the feasibility of curing 
fruits in larger pieces. The grand haU-peaches, half-apricots, half-pears of the CaUfomia cured fruits 
are the direct result of the sulphur process. Without it the fruit must be cut into small sections or ribbons, 
which in cooking break down into an uninviting mass, while, with the sulphuring, it is ordinar>- practice 
to produce the splendid halves with their natural color so preserved that they lie in cut glass dishes in 
suggestive semblance to the finest product of the canners, and are secured at a fraction of the cost. 

" There are various contrivances for the application of sulphur fumes to the freshly-cut fruit. Some 
are small for hand carriage of trays; some are large and the trays are wheeled into them upon trucks. The 
most common is a bottomless cabinet about five or six feet high, of a width equal to the length of the tray 
and a depth a little more than the width of the tray. The cabinet has a door the whole width of one side, 
and on the sides within cleats are nailed so that the trays of fruit .slip in like drawers into a bureau. Some 
push in the trays so that the bottom one leaves a little space at the back, the next a little space at the 
front, and so on, that the fumes may be forced by the draft to pass between the trays back and forward. 
The essentials seem to be open holes or dampers in the bottom and top of the cabinet so that the fumes 
from the sulphur burning at the bottom may be thoroughly distributed through the interior, and then all 
openings are tightly closed. To secure a tight chamber the door has its edge felted and the cabinet is 
made of matched lumber. The sulphur is usually put on a shovel or iron pot, and it is ignited by a hot 
coal, or a hot iron, or it is thrown on paper of which the edges are set on fire, or a little alcohol is put on 
the sulphur and lighted, etc. The sulphur is usually burned in a pit in the ground under the cabinet. 
The appUcation of sulphur must be watchfully and carefully made, and the exposure of the fruit should 
only be long enough to accomplish the end desired. The exposure required differs for different fruits, 
and with the same fruits in different conditions, and must be learned by experience. 

" Grading and Cleaning. — After the fruit is sufficiently dried (and it is impossible to describe how this 
point may be recognized except by the experienced touch), it is gathered from the trays in to large boxes 
and taken to the fruit house. Some growers put it into a revolving drum of punctured sheet iron, which 
rubs the pieces together and separates it from dust, etc., which falls out through the apertures as the drum 
revolves. Others empty the fruit upon a large wire-cloth table and pick it over, grading it according to 
size and color, and at the same time the dust and small particles of foreign matter fall through the wire 
cloth. The fanning mill for cleaning grain may also be used for rapid separation of dirt, leaves, etc., with 
proper arrangement of metal screens. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK II5 

materially alter the flavor of the product. According to C. F. Lang- 
worthy,' Chief of the Office of Home Economics, United States Department 
of Agriculture, the carbohydrates which make up the largest part of the 
solid matter of fruits imdergo greatest changes. The crude fibre, too, is 
reduced in amount or softened. Much of the starch is changed into some 
form of sugar and the less soluble sugar may be reduced to a more soluble 
form. Some of the volatile oils and other ethereal bodies, so important in 

" Sweating. — All fruit, if stored in mass after drying, becomes moist. This action should take place 
before packing. To facilitate it, the fruit is put in piles on the floor of the fruit house and turned occa- 
sionally with a scoop shovel ; or, if allowed to sweat in boxes, the fruit is occasionally poured from one box 
to another. The sweating equalizes the moisture throughout the mass. Some large producers have 
sweat-rooms with tight walls, which preserve an even temperature. No fruit should be packed before 
' going through the sweat.' If this is not done, discoloration and injury will result. 

"Dipping before Packing. — All fruits except prunes can be packed in good condition without dipping, 
provided the fruit is not over-dried. Efforts should be made to take up the fruit when it is just sufficiently 
cured to prevent subsequent fermentation. If taken from the trays in the heat of the day and covered 
so that the fruit moth can not reach it there is little danger of worms. The highest grades of fruit are made 
in this way. If, however, the fruit has been over-dried or neglected, it can be dipped in boiling water to 
kill eggs of vermin and to make the fruit a little more pliable for the press. The dipping should be done 
quickly, and the fruit allowed to drain and then lie in a dark room, carefully covered, for twenty-four 
hours before packing. 

"Packing. — To open well, packages of dried fruit should be ' faced." The many fine arts of pajjer 
lining, etc., must be learned by observation. Flatten some fair specimens of the fruit to be packed (and 
reference is especially made to such fruits as apricots, peaches and nectarines) by running them through 
a clothes wringer or similar pair of rollers set to flatten but not crush the fruit. Do not face with better 
fruit than the package is to contain. It is a fraud which will not in the end be profitable. Lay the flattened 
fruit (cup side down) neatly in the bottom of the box. Fill the box until it reaches the amount the box 
is to contain, and then apply the press until the bottom can be nailed on. Invert the box and put on the 
label or brand; the bottom then becomes the top. 

" Many different kinds of boxes are used. A very good size is made of seasoned pine, six inches deep 
by nine inches wide by fifteen inches long, inside measurements, and it will hold twenty-five pounds of 
fruit. * » * 

"Peaches. — Take the fruit when it is fully ripe, but not mushy; cut cleanly aU around to extract the 
pit and put on trays cup side up; get into the sulphur box as soon as possible after cutting. Peaches are 
dried both peeled and unpeeled, but drying without peeling is chiefly done. Peeling is done with the 
small paring machines or with a knife. Peeling with lye has been generally abandoned because of dis- 
coloration of the fruit after packing, although it can be successfully done by frequently changing the lye 
and using ample quantities of fresh water for rinsing after dipping. 

" CUngstone peaches are successfully handled with curved knives and spoon-shaped pitters in con- 
junction with ordinary fruit knives. Different styles are carried at the general stores in the fruit districts, 
and individuals differ widely in their preferences. 

"The weight of dried peaches which can be obtained from a certain weight of fresh fruit, depends 
upon the variety; some varieties yield at least a third more than others, and clings yield more than free- 
stones as a rule. Dry-fleshed peaches, like the Muir, yield one pound dry from four or five pounds fresh, 
while other more juicy fruits may require six or seven pounds. 

"Nectarines. — Nectarines are handled like peaches; the production of translucent amber fruit 1:1 
the sun depends upon the skillful use of sulphur." 

' U. S. D. A. Yearbook 505. iyi2. 



H6 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

giving flavor to fruits, pass off or are modified by the curing processes. 
These changes insure longer keeping in the product, give it greater food 
value than fresh fruit, pound for pound, leaving it quite as digestible, but 
not as refreshing and palatable. 

Peach-leather was a common dried peach-product in the old domestic 
epoch before the coming of railroads, steamboats and the establishment 
of canning and drying industries. Though not now common, peach- 
leather is still made in many communities in the East, more particularly 
in the southeastern states. The peaches are peeled, pitted and then 
mashed into a thin layer which is dried in the sun or an oven, the resulting 
product taking on the appearance of leather. Peach -leather is said to keep 
indefinitely, this being its chief merit. 

Peach-brandy is still a commercial product of considerable importance 
though the amoimt made nowadays, as compared with that made a hundred 
years ago before prohibition began to be preached, is but a drop in the 
bucket when the number of bushels raised is considered. According to 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue,' the quantity of peach-brandy made 
in 1908, the last year reported, was 13,649.5 gallons, most of which came 
from California. Peach-brandy is made by converting the sugar of the 
fruit into alcohol and then distilling. The finished liquor contains about 
50 per ct. alcohol. In European countries, peach-kernels are much used 
in flavoring a liquor called Eau de Noyau. 

According to Bulletin 133, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States 
Department of Agriculture, valuable fixed and volatile oils can be produced 
from the kernel of the peach. Peach-stones are now burned as fuel by 
most canneries, excepting small quantities sold to nurseries for propagation. 
The possibility of producing oils from the kernels seems well worth looking 
into, since there is now an enormous waste of this part of the fruit by 
canneries. Oils extracted from peach-kernels may be used for the same 
commercial purposes as the almond oils; namely, in medicine, for soaps, 
cosmetics, perfumes and confections. The processes of extraction and 
distillation are not complex and establishments equipped with steam 
would have little difficulty in extracting these oils. It is said, too, that the 
press-cake from which the oils have been extracted makes valuable stock- 
foods or fertilizers owing to its high content of nitrogenous matter. It is 
estimated that in California alone the quantity of peach-pits obtained as 
a by-products of canneries amounts to 10,000 tons in a normal year; that 

' Information supplied by letter. 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK II7 

these would yield from 600 to 1,200 tons of kernels from which 210 to 420 
tons of oil could be extracted. The wholesale price of bitter-almond oil, 
or oils purchased under this name, for which peach-oil could be substituted, 
is from $3.25 to $4.75 per pound. 

Pliny named several medicinal uses for the peach and from his time 
down the flesh, kernels, leaves, bark and blossoms have had a place in the 
pharmacopoeia of various countries though nowadays little used except in 
domestic therapeutics. All of the structures named abound in a bitter 
and astringent principle and most of them produce hydrocyanic acid upon 
maceration with water. The peach might have value in medicine for 
this acid were not the chemical more easily obtained elsewhere. The oils 
from the kernels, as we have seen, may be used in medicine. Noting the 
medicinal uses to which peach-products have been put by various peoples 
in various times we find: The leaves are pounded and boiled in vinegar 
for a liniment, an eye-wash, a cure for " scurf," a preventive of bald heads, 
and as an insecticide on the heads of children. The blossoms, treated in 
various ways, have been used for the same ailments and also as a febrifuge. 
The burned pits are also used in making lampblack for paints. 

For more than two thousand years stories have been rife of the poison- 
ous properties of peach-pits and peach-leaves. In a careful perusal of 
peach-literature for this period and in several languages we have not found 
a single case cited of fatal results to man or beast from eating the leaves or 
kernels of peaches. No doubt these stories arise from common knowledge 
that parts of the peach, as the kernels and possibly the leaves, contain 
prussic acid though in so minute quantities as never to be toxic in any 
quantity likely to be eaten by humans or animals. No doubt, too, the 
myth that the Persians sent the peach to the Egyptians as a deadly poison 
is still perpetuated. 

The wood of the peach is fine-grained and takes a beautiful polish and 
in Europe is used somewhat in cabinet-work and toy-making. Its numerous 
reddish -brown veins make it a most beautifvd wood but the trees seldom 
attain sufficient size to give the species value as a lumber-product. 

The peach is attractive to the eye at all seasons. A tree or an orchard 
in bloom is a strikingly beautiful sight while a panorama in a peach-cotmtry 
in flowering-time is one of the most beautifiil scenes in nature. There is a 
great difference in the floral beaut}' of varieties, some sorts having very 
inconspicuous flowers while others rank with our finest ornamentals when in 
bloom. Several types of Prunus persica are planted for beauty of flower 



I 1 8 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

and foliage but the fruit-producing peaches are almost never planted for 
landscape effect though their peculiarly sunny expression in leaf and flower, 
one of the best types of cheerfulness among trees, should make them useful 
either standing alone or in mass for ornamental planting. Those who 
have seen the wild wayside peaches of Kentucky or Tennessee in bloom 
will always think of the species as an ornamental as well as a fruit-tree. 

PEACH- YELLOWS 

Yellows is a disease or malignant condition, it is not known which, 
virulent and contagious whatever it may be, and is the possession pri- 
marily of the region north of the Ohio and Potomac and east of the 
Mississippi. At one time or another it has been a cause of decline of 
the peach-orchards in every part of the region outlined. Epidemics of 
yellows have wholly obliterated thriving peach -industries which in some 
cases covered counties. The changes wrought by yellows come so quickly 
and are so final, so complete and so widespread in their consequences 
that the disease stands alone among the troubles of plants in the extent 
of its influence on the crop affected. Under somewhat better control 
now, its havoc is less than formerly, but in the past it has outdone all 
other accidents combined that have happened to peaches in America., 
including frosts, floods, drought, insects, fungi and injuries due to man and 
quadrupeds. The mystery of yellows in most of its aspects makes its 
known history all the more significant. We lack knowledge of what it is, or 
whence it came, nor do we know of any cure; we know only some of the 
circumstances and the terrible consequences to the peach. Yellows began 
its siege of the peach in the very beginning of commercial peach-growing 
in America. Much of the history of the peach is written in the hundred- 
years-warfare that has ensued. 

Judge Richard Peters of Philadelphia first described and gave name to 
peach-yellows. February ii, 1806, he read a paper "On Peach Trees" 
before the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture. In this paper 
we have the first clear account of yellows: ' 

" About fifty years ago, on the farm on which I now reside, my father 
had a large peach orchard, which yielded abundantly. Until a general 
catastrophe befell it plentiful crops had been for many years produced 

' Smith, Erwin F. U. S. D. A. Dtv. of Bot. Bui. No. 9:17, 18. r888. 
. This reference as well as most of those that follow, was found in Bulletin 9, Division of Botany, 
United States Department of .Agriculture, the most complete account we have of peach-yellows, whether 
of historical facts or of natural history. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



119 



with very little attention. The trees began nearly at once to sicken, and 
finally perished. Whether by the wasp then undiscovered, or by some 
change in our climate, I know not. For forty years past I have observed 
the peach trees in my neighborhood to be short-lived. Farther south, 
in the western country, and, it seems, in some parts of New Jersey they 
are durable and productive as they had been formerly here. * * * 'pj-^g 
worm or grub, produced by the wasp depositing its progeny in the soft 
bark near the surface of the ground, is the most common destroyer. 
* * * When trees become sickly I grub them up. I find that sickly 
trees often infect those in vigor near them by some morbid effluvia. 
Although I have had trees twenty years old, and knew some of double 
that age (owing probably to the induration of the bark rendering it 
impervious to the wasp, and the strength acquired when they had siorvived 
early misfortunes), yet in general they do not live in tolerable health after 
bearing four or five crops. * * * Fifteen or sixteen years ago I lost 
one hundred and fifty peach trees in full bearing in the course of two 
summers by a disease engendered in the first season. I attribute its origin 
to some morbid infection in the air. * * * f^g disorder being gen- 
erally prevalent would, among animals, have been called an epidemic. 
From perfect verdure the leaves turned yellow in a few days, and the 
bodies blackened in spots. Those distant from the point of infection 
gradually caught the disease. I procured young trees from a distance in 
high health and planted them among the least diseased. In a few weeks 
they became sickly, and never recovered. * * * After my general defeat 
and most complete overthrow, in which the worm had no agency, I recruited 
my peaches from distant nurseries, not venturing to take any out of those 
in my vicinity. I have since experienced a few instances of this malady, 
and have promptly, on the first symptoms appearing, removed the subjects 
of it, deeming their cases desperate in themselves and tending to the other- 
wise inevitable destruction of others." 

In the last few lines of this account. Judge Peters gives the only means 
so far discovered to check the spread of the disease — the prompt destruc- 
tion of affected trees — a striking commentary on the baffling nature of 
yellows when we consider what science has done, since Judge Peters wrote, 
toward the control of other plant-diseases. In a note of later date, page 
23 of the same article. Judge Peters speaks of " the disease I call the 
yellows," thus giving name to a trouble that until then had been known as 
" decay " or " degeneracy " in the peach. 

Later Judge Peters writes: ' "I am pursuing my old plan of re-in- 
stating my peach trees lost last season (1806 or 1807) by my unconquer- 



Smith, Erwin F. U. S. D. A. Div. of Bot. Bui. No. 9:18, 19. ifi 



I20 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

able foe, the disease I call the yellows. I obtain them from different 
nurseries free from this pestiferous affection. The worm or wasp (^geria) 
I have in complete subjection. I should be perfectly disinterested in pro- 
posing that the society oflfer a premium for preventing the disease so fatal; 
for I shall never gain the reward." 

And again : ' "I still think that the disease so generally fatal (more 
so this year than any other in my memory), called the yellows, is atmos- 
pherical. * * * Compare this account (of thrifty orchards in 
Delaware) with the actual state of the peach in our country^ and judge 
whether we live in a region favorable to its growi:h. Mr. Heston's attempt 
at cultivating this tree in the Southern manner begins already to fail. His 
trees are evidently infected, and many are on the decline. The yellows are 
universally prevalent this season throughout the whole country {i. e., 
around Philadelphia)." 

We have given but little out of much that Judge Peters wrote on 
yellows, his observations and experiences covering nearly a generation. 
We have quoted suflficiently from his accounts, however, indubitably to 
establish the fact that peach-yellows was rampant about Philadelphia at 
least as early as 1800. Smith" puts the appearance of yellows in this 
region as probably some time prior to 179 1. By this time there was a 
considerable body of scientific and practical agricultural literature in 
America, and we may assume, since no trouble that could possibly be 
identified as yellows had been described as existing elsewhere in America, 
though the peach-borer is frequently discussed, that the disease at this 
period, about 1800, was restricted to the neighborhood of Philadelphia. 

We now find the yellows gradually extending into neighboring states — 
Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland and New York. Wm. Coxe of New 
Jersey who in 1807 wrote Judge Peters, " I am perfectly ignorant of the 
disease to which you give the name yellows," in 1817 knew it only too well 
as " a malady which no remedy can cure nor cultivation avert," and devotes 
nearly two pages in his Fruit Trees to a discussion of its nature.^ Refer- 
ences to yellows in all of the states named by this time had become general. 
Our purpose to show the spread, eflfects, and early treatment of the disease 
is fully served by quoting at length from a single author — a keen observer, 
careful writer and the most notable horticultural and botanical authority 
of his time, Wrri. Prince, of Flushing, Long Island.* To Prince, by the 



' Smith, Erwin F. U. S. D. A. Div. of Bot. Bui. No. 9:19. 

'Ibid. 19. 1888. 

'Coxe, Wm. Cull. Fr. Trees 215-217. 1817. 

'Prince, Wm. Treat. Ilort. 14, 15. 1828. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 121 

way, we are indebted for the first reference to what is now considered the 
most certain symptom of yellows — premature ripening of fruit. Prince 
says: 

" This disease, which commenced its ravages in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania about the year 1797, and in New York in 1801, and has 
spread through several of the states, is by far more destructive to peach 
trees than the worm, and is evidently contagious. This disease is spread 
at the time when the trees are in bloom, and is disseminated by the pollen 
or farina blowing from the flowers of diseased trees, and impregnating the 
flowers of those which are healthy, and which is quickly circulated by the 
sap through the branches, foliage, and fruit, causing the fruit, wherever the 
infection extends, to ripen prematurely. That this disease is entirely 
distinct from the worm, is sufficiently proved by the circumstance, that 
peach trees which have been inoculated on plum or almond stocks, though 
less affected by the worm, are equally subject to the yellows — and a 
decisive proof of its being contagious is. that a healthy tree, inoculated from 
a branch of a diseased one, instead of restoring the graft to vigour and 
health, immediately becomes itself infected with the disease. As all efforts 
totally to subdue it must require a long course of time, the best method 
to pursue towards its eventual eradication, is to stop its progress, and 
prevent its farther extension — to accomplish which, the following means 
are recommended, which have been found particularly successful. 

" As soon as a tree is discovered to possess the characteristics of the 
disease, which is generally known by the leaves putting on a sickly yellow 
appearance — but of which the premature ripening of the fruit is a decisive 
proof — it should be marked, so as to be removed the ensuing autumn, 
which must be done without fail, for if left again to bloom, it would impart 
the disease to many others in its vicinity; care is also necessary, in its 
removal, to take out all the roots of the diseased tree, especially if another 
is to be planted in the same place, so that the roots of the tree to be planted 
may not come in contact with any of those of the one which was diseased. 

" If your neighbour has trees infected with the yellows in a quarter 
contiguous to yours, it will be necessary to prevail on him to remove them, 
that yours may not be injured by them. By being thus particular in 
speedily removing such trees as may be infected, the disease is prevented 
from extending itself to the rest of the orchard, and the residue will con- 
sequently be preserved in perfect health at the trifling loss of a few trees 
annually from a large orchard." 

The influence of yellows on the peach-industry of the country is shown 
by indicating when it appeared in the various states in which peaches are 
grown in eastern America and by noting the effects of epidemics of the 
disease. 



122 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

In Pennsylvania, following the first outbreak, peach-growing all but 
disappeared, to reappear again from time to time in new regions or in old 
ones following an interval of years after a plague had passed. Periods and 
places of epidemics are indicated by such quotation as follow: Wm. G. 
Warren, Centre County, reports in 1851: "A majority of the peach 
trees have been destroyed by the yellows." ' In the proceedings of the 
American Pomological Society for 1852, a Pennsylvanian reports for the 
State: " Peaches have done but ill with us for some years past. The 
yellows have swept off thousands of trees." - In 1880 in a book on the 
peach, Rutter devotes many pages to yellows in Pennsylvania and speaks 
of " thousands of trees dead and dying from the disease in Chester and 
Delaware counties." '* The epidemic in the eighties seems to have been 
particularly severe, there being at the end of the decade but 1,146,342 bear- 
ing trees in the State which by 1900 had increased to 3,521,930 trees. 

Perhaps of all states, in proportion to area planted, New Jersey has 
suffered most from yellows. Beginning with the epidemic mentioned by 
Coxe in 1817, there have been several disastrous irruptions of the disease 
in that State. A partictilarly destructive epidemic must have raged in the 
early forties, for in 1846 W. R. Prince, Flushing, Long Island, says:'' 
" Any one who visits the once splendid peach orchards in various parts of 
New Jersey will be struck by the desolate aspect of inniimerable planta- 
tions of dead trees, with only here and there a sprig of verdure amid the 
mighty mass." Another writer. Colonel Edward Wilkins, says: " Fifty 
thousand acres in peach trees, in two counties only, had been destroyed 
by the yellows prior to 1850; " and in 1858, he further states that " at that 
time nearly the whole of the peach orchards of New Jersey had been 
destroyed by yellows." ■' He concludes, in the same article, that " in 
New Jersey the peach belongs to the past." We choose as the last of the 
many accounts of disaster from yellows in this State two quotations from 
Professor P. D. Penhallow written in 1882: " 

" In New Jersey, where the ravages of the disease have been more 
seriously felt than elsewhere, the southern counties were formerly the 
center of the peach industry for the entire State, but, owing to the preva- 



Report of U. S. Com. Patents 242. i«5i. 
'Am. Pom. Soc. Kept. St. 1852. 
'Rutter Cult. &■ Diseases of the Peach 70. 1880. 
' Uortictdlurisl 1:318. 1846. 

■ .In;. Farmer 100-102. 1875. 

■ Peach Yellnws, Iloughtoii Farm Experiment Department Ser. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I23 

lence of the yellows the peach orchards have been gradually moving north- 
ward, until at the present time the counties of Morris and Hunterdon have 
the largest interest involved, and the prospect is that a few more years 
will see even these localities deprived of the industry." 

" The peach growers of New Jersey consider an orchard worth nothing 
after the age of nine years. At that time they root out all the trees as 
they would so many corn stumps, and use the land for general crops, plant- 
ing a young orchard of seedlings each year to make good the loss." 

Still passing northward from the first center of infection, we come to 
New York, where, according to Wm. Prince, in a foregoing quotation, the 
disease appeared as early as 1801. The son of this writer, W. R. Prince, 
in the continuation of the article quoted on page 121, written in 1846, says: 
" In this island the malady became exhausted some years since by the 
utter destruction of the old orchards, and the determination not to plant 
new ones until it became extinct. This proved most fortunate as the 
disease has been for years banished from Long Island, and now new orchards 
are springing up everywhere, and every garden is becoming readorned 
with the finest varieties of the Peach ' redolent with health.'" A. J. 
Downing,' writing in 1849, reports: " Fifteen years ago there was scarcely 
a tree in the vicinity of Newburgh that was not more or less diseased with 
the yellows. By pursuing the course we have indicated (destruction by 
burning), the disease has almost disappeared." Thirty years later, Charles 
Downing, writing from Newburgh, states: " We have had the yellows 
here at intervals for over sixty years, some times continuing for five or 
six years and then several years free from it." 

At present, 1916, peaches are freely planted along the Hudson in 
the region of which the Downings wrote, and, whether from following the 
method of A. J. Downing in burning the trees, or whether we are in one of 
the intervals of immunity noted by Charles Downing, peach -yellows, 
while present, causes but small losses. One might enlarge at length on 
the vagaries of yellows but we can concern ourselves only with the main 
facts of its history. We now follow the disease from eastern to western 
New York. 

Looking through the records of the himdred years of peach-growing 
in western New York, we find little to indicate that yellows has ever been 
the scourge in this region that it is pictured to have been eastward and 
southward or even westward in Michigan. The explanation? Growers, 



Horticulturist 503. 1849. 



124 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

cis a rule, promptly cut out diseased trees. Here there has been less dilly- 
dallying and fewer hocus-pocus remedies in treating yellows. Western 
New York, more than other regions, has been favored in the century past 
by its many eminent horticulturists, several fruit-growers' societies and by 
farmers' publications. The result is that there is an enlightened and 
energetic body of peach-growers, who, instead of catching and catching 
at every will-o-the-wisp notion about yellows, have prevented its spread 
by proper orchard-sanitation. Yet the yellows is here and has been since 
1824 at least. In that year David Thomas, father of J. J. Thomas, the 
pomological writer, planted peaches from Flushing, Long Island, on the 
shore of Cayuga Lake, which developed yellows with the resulting loss of 
every tree.' But in 1844 John J. Thomas records: " In Western New 
York it is comparatively unknown, and great care should be used by 
ciiltivators that it be not introduced by importations." * In New York 
the depreciation of real estate caused by yellows has not been nearly so 
marked as in other peach-regions because of the greater diversification of 
fruit-growing than in other eastern states. 

This region not only has not had yellows continuously but has never 
had the sudden and violent invasions of the disease that have laid waste 
the orchards in other communities of intensive ctilture of this fruit. The 
one exception, possibly, was in the decade rxinning from 1875 to 1885. 
A. M. Smith,^ writing in 1878, says that hundreds of bushels of high- 
colored, insipid, premature peaches were sold in western New York in 1877, 
that one orchard in Niagara County was destroyed by the disease and that 
others in the vicinity were badly affected. Charles W. Garfield, a promi- 
nent Michigan horticulturist, reported in 1880 that J. S. Woodward of 
Lockport, New York, had a young orchard of peaches, covering thirty 
acres, so badly diseased that the trees would have to be taken out before 
having produced a crop. Later, 1887,* Mr. Woodward, speaking for 
his neighborhood, says that yellows has " nearly finished the orchards." * 
To conclude as to the conditions of orchards at the close of this epidemic, 
we have from Col. F. D. Curtis'^ the report, in 1887, that yellows had 
destroyed whole orchards in the western counties of New York especially 



N. Y. Farmer and Ilort. Repository 46. 1831. 
' Cultivator 255. 1844. 
> Can. Ilort. 15-16. 1878. 

Mich. Ilort. Soc. Rpt. 275. 1880. 

U. S. D. A. Condition of Growing Crops August. 
■ Ihid. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 25 

in Niagara and Ontario. At this writing, 19 16, yellows may almost be 
said to be a minor difficulty in peach-growing in western New York. 

Peach-culture has been comparatively unimportant in Connecticut 
and Massachusetts until recent years but the toll taken by yellows has been 
proportionately as high as elsewhere in the hundred years of its trespassing. 
The history of its ravages is told in such statements as follows: " Yellows 
appeared in the vicinity of New Haven in 1820 and destroyed thousands 
of trees nearly putting an end to peach growing." ' " The yellows are 
destroying our peach trees." - " Peaches are infected with yellows and 
are generally things of the past." ^ " Cultivation of the peach is now 
abandoned in consequence of that scourge to that fruit known as yellows." '' 
The foregoing accounts apply to Connecticut but reports are much the 
same for Massachusetts, the following being typical: A writer in 1882 
declares that yellows about Boston was unknown in 1837 but that " when 
it came it swept everything." ^ " Thirty or forty years ago (1842- 1852) 
peaches were grown in great abundance in this vicinity (northeast Massa- 
chusetts) but for the last twenty years have been almost abandoned." '^ 
" In former years (said in 1854) peach trees have rarely suffered from 
yellows in this neighborhood (Cambridge) where now many trees are 
affected by it." ' 

Sweeping westward from New York, yellows appeared in Ohio about 
the middle of the Nineteenth Century, for, in 1851, an orchard of 600 trees 
at Saint Clairsville was said to have been destroyed by it.** In the same 
year the report came from Richard County: " Our peach trees are some- 
what affected by yellows." ' In the years that follow, down to the present 
time, the presence of yellows, its symptoms, affects and treatment are 
discussed in the voluminous records of agriculture in Ohio as a common- 
place part in the culture of the peach though the disease seems not to have 
been quite so virulent nor so often epidemic in Ohio as in other prominent 
peach -growing states. 

Nowhere has the haste and waste of yellows been more apparent than 

'A'. Y. Farmer and Hort. Repository g. 1831. 

« Yoemans, John L. Rpl. of U. S. Com. of Patents 166. 1852. 

' Conn. Bd. Agr. Rpl. 169. 1867. 

'Ibid.nz. 

' Trans. Mass. Hort. Soc. Pt. 1:140. 1882. 

<^ Houghton Farm Exp. Dept. Ser. 3. No. 2:27. 1882. 

' Proc. Am. Pom. Soc. 212. 1854. 

" Rpt. U. S. Com. Patents 369. 1851. 

' Ibid. 378. 



126 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

in the peach-belt of western Michigan. The history of the disease is well 
estabUshed in this region, the main facts being: The disease appeared 
about Saint Joseph and Benton Harbor, Berrien County, in the late sixties 
of the last century. At first spreading slowly, its movement became more 
rapid " until by 1877-78 it was destructively prevalent in nearly every 
orchard in the county." ' " The peach industry was literally swept out 
of Berrien County in one decade. There can be no doubt of this. From 
being the foremost peach county in Michigan, with an acreage more than 
equal to that of all other counties combined (6000 acres in 1874), it became 
ninth in order, and could boast of only 503 acres." - In 1877, T. T. Lyon 
declares:^ " This violent and contagious disease has nearly destroyed the 
peach orchards at Saint Joseph." Three years later in the annual report 
of the State Pomological Society, Charles W. Garfield, secretary, says " there 
are scarcely any peach orchards left at Saint Joseph." ^ The depreciation 
of peach-lands at this time, due to yellows, was so great as to threaten the 
community with bankruptcy. 

Pitiful was the case of the growers in Berrien County; pitiful enough 
that of those in Van Buren County, next on the north, but not so bad owing 
to the timely and strict enforcement of a " yellows law " early passed by 
the State legislature. The disease seems to have become established in 
Van Buren County about 1870 but did not become rampant until four or 
five years later " when about five per cent of the trees were found diseased 
and were taken out." ^ Then came such reports as these: " At least 5,000 
trees have been destroyed by this disease the past season in this county 
alone." " " That dreaded ravage of the peach-grower, yellows, has made 
slow but marked progress during the years in this locality." ^ "If the 
yellows continues to spread, it will be only a question of years when peach- 
growing will cease on the lake shore." ^ These three reports, out of many 
such, give the condition of the peach-orchards in western Van Buren. 
In the eastern part of the county, especially about Lawton where the peach 
is largely grown, the disease was later in appearing, cutting out was more 
strictly attended to, and the damage, therefore, was markedly less. 



' Smith, Ervvin F. U. 5. D. A. Div. of Bot. Bui. 9:42. 

' Ibid. 45. 

' Cull. & Count. Cent. 765. 1877. 

' Ibid. 275. 

' Mich. Hon. Soc. Rpl. 274. 1880. 

' GuUey, A. G. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 249. 1878. 

' Ramsdell, J. G. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 306. 1882. 

' Lannin, Joseph Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 11. 1884. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 27 

Allegan County, north of Van Buren, along the lake shore at least, 
sufifered from yellows rather less, though nearly as badly as the region to 
the south. The disease was less and less virulent as the peach-belt extends 
northward. At Traverse City, the most northern point in the peach- 
belt, yellows has never been epidemic. Passing eastward, the disease 
appeared about Grand Rapids, the center of peach-culture in Kent County, 
in 1883 and in the decade that followed took from peach-growers the toll 
usual in western Michigan. Eastward from Kent County, however, in the 
several small and rather isolated cases of peach-growing yellows either has 
not appeared or has been an unimportant factor. 

The lowest ebb in Michigan orchards from yellows was reached in the 
eighties after which new plantings increased remarkably, the number of 
bearing trees in 1889 being but 1,919,104 and in 1899, 8,104,415. The 
disease still persists in Michigan wherever in former times it became 
established. Yellows seems, however, to have lost much of its old time 
virulency; or, perhaps, the fact that peach-growers are more prompt and 
thorough in destroying diseased trees accounts for the decrease of the 
disease. Then, too, the Michigan peach-belt has had the bitter experi- 
ence in the last decade or two, of several winter freezes which have wiped 
out whole orchards, discouraged many planters, and, together with the 
keen competition of new peach-regions, reduced the size of orchards and 
scattered the plantations so that, in the lessened communal intensity, 
yellows has less opportunity. 

Going back, now, to the place of first infection and passing southward, 
we find that yellows, though not more virulent in Delaware than in Michigan, 
was much more devastating. Destruction is the only efficient method in 
treating yellows. The necessity of this drastic measure has been pro- 
claimed by every authority from Judge Peters, discover of yellows, down. 
The strong arm of the law in many states enforces destruction. In Dela- 
ware, however, growers were more dilatory in destroying yellows-trees 
than elsewhere — in fact for the first half-century made little attempt 
so to check the disease. When the scales fell from the eyes of orchard- 
owners in this State the industry was already ruined. From hundreds of 
accounts, the ups and downs of peach-growing in Delaware as caused 
by yellows may be shown by a few brief statements. 

The peach-industry began' in Delaware about 1 830 and there are few 
references to peach -yellows until a decade or two after that time, though 
Dr. John J. Black says that the disease had been known in the State " since 



128 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the war of 1812." ' The yellows-sweep really began in the northern part 
of Delaware in New Castle County, in the early forties, when, according 
to John Delano, Isaac Reeves' peach-trees were dying of yellows by the 
score " maugre all his care, cultivation and circumspection."'- In 1846, 
James W. Thompson, in a splendid account of the peach-industr^' in 
Delaware, names the borer and yellows as the two devastating enemies 
of this fruit and speaks of the latter as a " constitutional, consumptive or 
marasmatic disease for which no other remedy is known or to be practiced, 
but extirpation and destruction." ^ "By 1855 the yellows had taken 
possession of nearly all the orchards, and peach culture in this section was 
at an end." ^ Yet in the same coimty, about Middletown, but a few 
miles to the south, the disease though present was not epidemic nor did it 
become so until twenty years later. 

With the passing of the orchards in northern New Castle, the southern 
part of the county became the center of the industry in Delaware. Here, 
in the early seventies, there were from 1,000,000 to 1,750,000 trees covering 
from 10,000 to 17,500 acres. ^ Yellows, according to numerous accounts, 
became virulent about 1870, was at its height in 1875, after which the 
progress and outcome of the epidemic is essentially the same as in the 
northern part of the county — the yellows-sweep was driving slowly but 
surely southward. Thus, in 1880, the center of the industry was in Kent 
County, second south of the three covmties in Delaware, there being in 
1879, according to the census of 1880, nearly 2,000,000 trees covering nearly 
20,000 acres in this county. Yellows, present and widespread at an early 
date in Kent, was not alarmingly destructive until the summers of 1886 
and 1887, when in the northern two-thirds of the county the disease " spread 
Hke wild fire." At this time and as late as 1890, there was little yellows in 
southern Kent and northern Sussex, but before the end of the century the 
whole State had been swept by yellows. There are no census figures for 
peaches until 1890 when the number of bearing trees in Delaware was 
4,521,623. The toll taken by yellows, augmented by San Jose scale, is 
indicated by the falling off in number of trees in the next decade, at the 
end of which there were 2,441,650 trees and after another decade, 1909, 
but 1,177,402 trees. 



Black, John J. Cult. Peach &■ Pear, 81. 1886. 

* Cultivator 167. 1843. 

' Horticulturist 37. 1846. 

' Dimlap, Dr. F. S. U. S. D. A. Div. of Bot. Bui. No. 9:57. 

• Smith, Erwin F. U. S. D. A. Div. of Bot. Bui. No. 9:61. 1 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 29 

Beginning late in the last century, however, there was a revival in 
peach-planting in Delaware, especially the northern part of the State, 
and now a new peach-industry seems well started in which, through 
energetic orchard-sanitation and diversified horticulture, yellows, for the 
present at least, is held at bay. The palmy days of fabiilous prices for 
peaches and peach-lands, however, are past in Delaware. Here, as in 
other communities ravaged by yellows, the value of lands has sunk to a 
half or a quarter of what it would have brought a generation ago in the 
height of peach-culture. In some cases property, formerly valuable, has 
lost all value — a peach-farm will not sell at any price. The best peach- 
lands are seldom fit for other crops, so that in Delaware, New Jersey and 
Michigan the whole community, including railroads and steamboat lines, 
suffers to the verge of bankruptcy when yellows exterminates the orchards. 

Probably in no other State in the Union is the peach more perfectly 
at home than in Maryland, it having held undisputed supremacy among 
fruits in that State for over a century and a half. Yellows, though always 
menacing, has not been so devastating as in Delaware to the north. Erwin 
F. Smith thinks that yellows has been present in the northern counties of 
eastern Maryland for many years — since 1844 or 1845. In his detailed 
account of the disease in this State ' he records but one destructive out- 
break of yellows, this occurring in the summers of 1886, 1887 and 1888 in 
the northeastern part of the State where in two counties along the whole 
length of the Sassafras River it was destructively present. Smith notes 
that yellows, at this time, " is moving southward on the peninsula.' Since 
Smith's account, 1888, reports from Maryland show that, while the disease 
is still present and is now in practically all parts of the State, either it is 
not now so virulent or is kept in check by extirpating diseased trees. Still, 
however, the great decrease in the number of peach-trees in Maryland in 
the last twenty years is largely due to yellows, there being 6,1 13,287 bearing 
trees in 1889, but 4,017,854 in 1899, and only 1,497,724 in 1909. 

In the South, west of the Mississippi, and on the Pacific Coast, yellows 
does not exist or if so is not epidemic. 

Would that it could be recorded, as we conclude this brief account of 
yellows and its plague-spots in America, that in the hundred years of con- 
flict some headway had been made in ascertaining from whence the disease 
came, what its cause and what the cure. Would, too, that we could believe 
that the final holocaust has passed. But we cannot bandage our eves 

' Smith, Erwin P. U. S. D. A. Div. oj Bot. But. No. 9:68-7^. 1888. 
9 



I30 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

against the facts. We are as profoundly ignorant of yellows as at the 
start. And, while New York at the moment is nearly free from yellows, 
everywhere the sinister reminders of ancient epidemics, like skeletons 
at a feast that are never out of sight, bid us be on our guard for new 
outbreaks. 

PEACH-BREEDING 

But little effort has been made, as the histories of its varieties show, 
to breed peaches. All but a very few varieties have come from chance 
seedlings. Peaches were grown from seed for centuries and many types 
now come true when seeds are planted. After budded trees became the 
vogue, until Mendel's great discovery, breeding the peach consisted in 
selecting an occasional meritorious tree, mioltiplying it by budding and, if 
it had pronounced merit, turning it over to a ntirseryman for the trade. 
The art progressed no further because selection was thought to be the 
fundamental process in improving plants and breeders preferred to work- 
in fields where the harvests were more immediate than in tree-fruits. Now 
that plant -breeding centers around controlled hybridization, plants propa- 
gated vegetatively should receive quite as much attention as those grown 
from seed. Mendel has opened the door to intimate familiarity with some 
of the fundamental phenomena of hybridization, and, despite the difficult 
and complex literatiire the professionals are imposing on the art, chiefly 
discussions of methods and disputations about principles, the layman 
finds Mendelian laws easy to put in practice ; and peach-breeding is certain 
to go forward in leaps and bovmds as the irresistible fascination of the 
subject seizes peach-growers. 

Meanwhile, as a foundation for future work, it becomes highly 
important to know how the varieties we have came into existence. The 
known histories of the many diverse kinds of peaches show that this fruit 
has been improved almost wholly through new varieties by chance hybridi- 
zation — self -fertilized seed, selection and mutations are almost negligible 
factors. The following are the data: No case is recorded in The Peaches 
of New York of a variety known to have come from a self-fertilized seed. 
The seed parent is given for 214 varieties; the seed and pollen parents 
of 37 varieties. But 4 varieties are reported to have come from bud- 
mutations. Of chance seedlings, sorts from seed with neither parent 
known, there are 161. The origins of 1765 of the varieties described 
in The Peaches of New York are unknown. The total number of peaches 
described is 2 1 8 1 . 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK I3I 

CHAPTER IV 
PEACH-GROWING IN NEW YORK 

The histon' of the peach, whether narrative or natural, shows that 
this fruit succeeds commercially only in restricted areas under special soil 
and climatic conditions. In the United States, as we have seen, the peach- 
industr}'^ has sprung up in a dozen or more distinct geographical regions, 
three of which are in New York. In discussing peach-growing in New 
York we must, first, determine the boundaries of its peach -regions; second, 
show the relative importance of the peach-industry in each; and, third, 
note the determinants that make favored parts of the State peach-regions. 

The three main peach-areas in New York are the Hudson River Valley, 
the shore of Lake Ontario and the lands surrounding the Finger Lakes. 
The relative importance of these areas is shown by the number of trees in 
the regions. More than half of the peach-trees in New York are along 
the south shore of Lake Ontario, the total number in bearing for the region 
in 1909 being 1,271,514. The two counties of the State leading in number 
of trees are in this belt, Niagara with 591,350 and Monroe with 339,375, 
while of the other three in the belt there are 166,584 in Wayne, 157,934 ^^ 
Orleans and 16,271 in Oswego. The Hudson River Valley district is second 
in importance, with a total of 679,662 trees, of which Ulster Coimty, 
ranking third in the State, has 313,971, and Orange, with fourth rank, has 
212,879, while Dutchess has 63,741, Columbia 51,818, Rockland 21,081 and 
Westchester 16,172. The Finger Lakes region, with a much smaller area 
of suitable land, has but 322,179 trees, of which Seneca County has 
81,440, Ontario 56,495, Schuyler 51,993, Yates 48,350, Tompkins 34,090 
and Livingston, a little to the west of this region proper, 19,251. 

Long Island, once the seat of a considerable peach -industry, now has 
but 34,348 trees, 30,333 in Suffolk County and 4,015 in Nassau. There 
is a large area on the shore of Lake Erie suitable for peaches but land here 
is mainly planted with grapes; yet Chautauqua County has 32,377 and 
Erie 10,987 trees. Beside these main and subsidiary peach-regions there 
are many localities in which peaches arc grown for local markets or home 
use. Peach statistics for the State emphasize strikingly the fact that the 
peach is a specialist's crop and that it can be grown only in special environ- 
ments. Thus, compare the figures given for peach-growing counties with 
these: In two counties in New York there is not a peach-tree; in six counties 



132 THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 

there axe less than twenty-five trees each; in twenty-two counties there 
are fewer than five hundred trees or less than five acres in any one; of the 
sixty-one counties in the State, only twenty-foxir average more than one 
hundred acres planted to peaches and but six have more than a thousand 
acres. There are still, however, acres beyond calculation, fecund for 
peaches, many lying fallow, upon which peaches can be grown when the 
markets warrant. 

The acreage for the State and its peach-regions may be determined, 
approximately, by dividing the number of trees by lOO. In 1909 there were 
2,457,187 bearing trees and 2,216,907 trees not of bearing age, a total of 
4,674,094 trees covering 46,740 acres in the State. At this writing, 19 16, 
the acreage is larger. In 1909, along the Ontario Shore there were 12,715 
acres planted to bearing peaches; in the Hudson Valley, 6,796; about the 
Finger Lakes, 3,221 ; on Long Island, 343; on the shores of Lake Erie, 433. 
These figures for districts cover bearing trees only, but holding the pro- 
portion the same for the districts as for the State, the total acreage for each 
district should be doubled for 1909 and, we are sure, much more than 
doubled for 191 6. The statement that the number of bearing trees has 
doubled in the past five years is supported by figures furnished me by 
F. S. Welsh,' Agriculturist of the New York Central Railroad Company. 
The New York Central handles at least 95 per centum of the peaches grown 
in New York and shipped to the markets; in 1910 this railroad handled 
1,341 carloads of peaches, 4,419 carloads in 191 5. 

New York ranks third among the states of the Union in the production 
of peaches, the value of the crop being but a little less than that of Georgia 
though only about half as much as that of California. The number of 
bearing trees and the yield in bushels of fruit are given in the census report 
of 1 910 so that the average production per bearing tree in the several peach- 
belts of the country may be computed, throwing light on the condition of 
the orchards in the different regions. California leads with an average 
production of 37.8 quarts per tree; New York follows with 22.6 quarts; 
after which comes Michigan with 18.5; Pennsylvania, 13.7; New Jersey, 
1 1.6; Ohio, 10.5; Georgia, 7.7; and Delaware, which must have had an oft" 
year in 1909, but 5 quarts. 

Perhaps it is worth while putting on record an opinion as to the status 
of peach-growing in the State at present, 19 16 The acreage is certainly 
the greatest yet planted in the State — as has been said nearly or quite 



Welsh, F. S. Letter June 9, 1916. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



33 



double the number of trees bearing in 1909 which the last census gives as 
1,014,110. Certainly, too, orchards were never as well cared for as now. 
Yet the percentage of unprofitable peach-orchards in the State is high — 
at least fifty per centtim — for which several causes can be named; as, com- 
petition and over-production with consequent low prices, poor distribution, 
a series of seasons with much winter-killing, and a succession of cold, wet 
springs. These are episodes in the industry hard to overcome. Of the 
avoidable causes of the present high percentage of unprofitable orchards 
perhaps the most common is the attempt to do too much whereby many 
eventually come to bankruptcy. Another reason for the many unprofitable 
orchards of the present is that the peach is a favorite fruit for beginners. 
Profits in peach-growing are often liuing, the peach is an attractive fruit, 
it seems easy to grow and the fruit-grower plants, to learn by experience 
that peach-growing is not, as so often pictured, a pleasant and profitable 
avocation but a most exacting vocation. 

Why is the peach so localistic? In particular, what has set the bounds 
of the three restricted peach-areas in New York? To some extent, of 
course, man-governed agencies have determined where peaches may or 
may not be grown in the State. Peaches must move quickly and the 
carriers must not dip too deeply in the grower's pockets; therefore markets 
must not be too distant and transportation must be cheap and eflScient. 
Again, peach-growing is a fine art and becomes thus a specialist's business 
that must be learned in the peach-orchard ; therefore, even if soil and climate 
be favorable, the industry lags if it lacks leaders to teach and to set the pace 
in orcharding. But, outranking by far the agencies depending on man, 
are natural conditions, two of which, climate and soil, predetermined where 
peach-industries were to stand in New York. 

CLIMATE 

When are plant and climate trvily congenial? Perhaps the best test 
is the degree to which the plant spontaneously accommodates itself to all 
climatic conditions. Thus, the peach is ideally suited to climates in which 
it maintains itself without the aid of man. The peach is perfectly at home, 
then, in America only where it runs wild, — in parts of the South. In 
the North, East and the far West, peaches seldom grow spontaneously; 
and the cold of winter, the frosts of spring and the drouths of summer, 
in these regions, yearly remind us that notwithstanding the generations the 
tree has been grown in America it is still a stranger in a foreign country — 



134 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

an exotic from warm and sunlit Mid-Asia. Yet with a little help from man 
the peach takes kindly to many climates in which it does not grow spon- 
taneously. Under what climatic conditions does the peach grow spon- 
taneously? And under what climatic conditions can the peach be grown 
with the aid of man as a commercial success? These questions can be best 
answered by discussing the two constituents of climate, temperature and 
rainfall, in relation to the peach. 

Of the several phases of temperature only extremes in cold are deter- 
minants in peach-growing in New York. The peach stands for all that is 
tender and effeminate in a fruit-tree and fares so ill in winter's cold that the 
limits of peach-culture are set in all northern states by the winter climate. 
The undomesticated peach is at the mercy of the winter wherever the 
temperature falls below zero and seldom grows spontaneously where the 
mercury drops even to this point. By selecting hardy varieties and follow- 
ing careful cultural methods, however, peaches may be grown profitably 
in climates where it is occasionally as cold as ten degrees below zero. An 
isothermal line passing through points in New York where the thermometer 
marks — io° in an occasional winter sets the limits of peach-growing in 
New York. The red line in the accompanying map shows the territorv* 
in which peach-growing is reasonably safe in New York while the green 
line shows the outside limits of the industry as determined by cold. 

Even in the favored peach-regions of New York, winter-injury is 
a matter of vital importance to the peach-industry and growers seek means 
to avoid or check it. The problem is not an insurmountable one, for here 
and there are orchards and varieties which siiffer little injury though 
possibly adjoining others in which trees or buds are wholly or partially 
killed. There must be reasons for the injury in the one and not in the 
other. These, the New York Agricultural Experiment Station made an 
attempt to discover a few years ago in letters addressed to the peach- 
growers of the State.' From the information received, and that gained 
by observation, we may lay down the following propositions regarding 
hardiness of the peach in New York. 

First. — The soil has much influence on hardiness. The peach must 
have a warm, dry soil to secure the hardiness inherent in the species. Only 
in such a soil can trees make a strong, firm, well-matured growth, which is 
conducive to hardiness. Bottom-heat seems especially necessary to secure 



' For a full report of this investigation see the Report of the New York State Fruit-Growers Associa- 
tion 180-187. 1908. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I35 

a growth that will withstand cold and for this reason gravelly and stony 
soils, since they hold heat well, make good peach-lands. So, too, a gravelly 
subsoil seems to provide the proper root-environment for the peach-tree 
and if this be present it matters little, so far as hardiness is concerned, 
whether it be overlaid with sand, gravel, loam, a light clay or combinations 
of these. 

Second. — The amount of moisture in the soil in the winter affects the 
hardiness of the peach. Either extreme of moisture, excessive wetness or 
excessive dryness, gives favorable conditions for winter-killing. A wet 
soil freezes deeply and trees standing in it are sappy throughout the winter. 
Cold, alternating with warm weather, or accompanied with dry winds, 
causes excessive evaporation from trees and if the soil be so dry as not to 
furnish moisture to replace the water evaporated, winter-injury ensues. 
When twigs and buds shrivel in winter, whether from lack of water or lack 
of maturity, winter-injury almost invariably follows. 

Third. — Fertilizers may have a helpful or a harmful effect as regards 
hardiness of tree. When fertilizers cause a heavy, rank, soft growth, they 
undoubtedly make the trees more susceptible to winter-injury. On the 
other hand, trees suffer as much or more from cold if underfed than if 
overfed. Nothing is more certain than that vigorous growth in early 
summer can be made of great service in counteracting cold and that half- 
starved trees, or those which have been allowed to bear too heavily, siiffer 
most from freezing. 

Fourth. — Cover-crops protect trees from cold. Case after case can 
be cited of orchards with cover-crops surviving a cold winter when 
nearby orchards without the muffler of vegetation, leaves and snow were 
killed. Possibly the cover-crop is the most effective treatment of the 
peach-orchard to avoid winter-killing, acting as a cover to protect the 
roots from cold, causing the trees to ripen their wood quickh^ and thoroughly 
and assisting in regulating the supply of moisture. 

Fifth. — Low-headed trees suffer less in both trunks and branches from 
winter-injury than high-headed trees. Buds, however, often survive on 
the higher branches and not on the lower ones. The low-headed trees are 
less injured probably because the wood loses less moisture by the evapora- 
tion from the effects of winds than do high-headed trees; because the trunk 
at least is better protected from the sun and hence suffers less from sun- 
scald, one of the effects of freezing and thawing; and because, for some 



136 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

reason or other, low-headed trees seem to be more vigorous than high- 
headed trees. 

Sixth. — Wind-breaks furnish small protection against cold to either 
trees or buds. The value of a wind-break depends largely upon the 
topography of the land. A wind-break so planted as wholly to check 
currents of air is detrimental so far as cold is concerned; so planted as to 
deflect the current of air they may become of value in keeping off frosts. 
More often than not, however, they seriously check atmospheric drainage 
and the damage by frost is greater. 

Seventh. — Young peach-trees suffer more than old trees, probal^ly 
because the young trees do not mature their wood as well as the older 
ones. There are, however, many exceptions to the statement that young 
trees are less hardy to cold than old ones. Old trees are often forced to 
produce large quantities of new wood susceptible to winter-killing, while, 
on the other hand, the superabundant growth of young trees can be kept 
down by orchard-treatment. Old trees possessing low vitality are less 
hardy than vigorous, young trees. Thus, trees suffering from the ravages 
of borers, leaf-curl or other fungus troubles suffer most from cold. While 
young trees are more susceptible to freezing than old ones, yet they are 
much more likely to recover, if recovery be possible, and their return to a 
normal condition is more rapid. 

Eighth. — What degree of cold will kill peach-trees? Twenty degrees 
below zero under the best of conditions kills the peach. Depending upon 
the condition in which the trees begin the winter, however, the trees may 
be killed by any temperature between zero and — 20°. The following 
are the conditions unfavorable to withstanding cold, in about the order of 
importance: Immaturity of wood; lack of protection of roots by snow or 
cover-crop; poor drainage; overbearing in the preceding year; lack of 
vitality from ravages of insects, or fungi or from infertility of soil; suscepti- 
bility of variety to cold. 

Ninth. — What degree of cold will kill peach -buds? Much depends 
upon the condition of the buds. Fifteen degrees below zero seems to be 
the limit that peach-buds can stand even when all conditions are favorable. 
The chief factors influencing tenderness of buds are mattuity of buds, 
variety, and the time at which buds finish their resting period. 

Tenth. — Small-growing varieties with compact heads are hardier than 
the free-growing sorts with large heads. The following varieties are named 



THE PEACHKS OF NKW VOKK 1 37 

as compact in growth and hence hardier than the average: Chili, Crosby, 
Gold Drop, Barnard, Kalamazoo, Triumph, Wager and Fitzgerald. 

Eleventh. — In New York the varieties Crosby, Chili, Stevens, Gold 
Drop and Elberta are named as most hardy in wood. As most tender in 
wood Early Crawford, Late Crawford, Chairs, St. John and Niagara are 
named. Crosby, Chili, Triumph, Gold Drop, Stevens and Kalamazoo are 
most hardy in bud. Early Crawford, Late Crawford, Chairs, Reeves and 
Elberta are most tender in bud. 

The average date at which the last killing frost occurs in the spring 
also determines the limit in latitude or altitude at which the peach can be 
grown. Even in the favored peach-regions of New York, records bring 
out the fact that killing frosts must be expected occasionally to destroy 
the peach-crop and there are few years indeed in which frost does not take 
heavy toll in the State as a whole. In the twenty-five year period begin- 
ning with 1 88 1 and ending with 1905, the peach-crop was destroyed or 
seriously injured over a large part of New York in thirteen seasons.' Little 
or nothing is done in New York to protect the peach from frosts. Truth 
is, not much can be done. Whitewashing trees delays blooming time and 
in some seasons might prevent injury from late frosts but it is too uncertain 
and too costly to be worth putting in practice. Wind-breaks as often favor 
the frost as the tree. Smudging is too expensive for the extensive system 
of peach-orcharding practiced in the East. Failure due to frost may be 
expected, then, when the commonly recognized precautions in selecting 
frost-proof sites are not recognized. 

The limits of peach-culture in New York are also determined by early 
fall frosts and by the length of the growing season, though both are less 
important than the winter-climate and late frosts in the spring. The 
peach-grower must be able to synchronize three of these phases of climate, 
spring frosts, fall frosts and length of summer season, with the blooming 
and ripening of peaches, — to do which he must have weather data and the 
dates of blooming and ripening of varieties of peaches. The necessary 
data as to the average dates of spring and fall frosts and the length of the 
growing season can be obtained from the nearest local weather bureau and 
in the accompanying table the blooming and ripening seasons of 181 
varieties of peaches grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station are given for the years 1910 to 1914. Blooming and ripening 

' Hedriek, U. P. N. Y. Sla. Bui. 299: 190H. 



138 



THE PEACH KS OF NEW YORK 



dates vary in the several peach-regions in the State so that to make use 
of the data from this Station consideration must be given to the latitude, 
altitude and local environment of the peach-orchard. 

The latitude of the Smith Astronomical Observatory, a quarter of a 
mile from the Station orchards, is 42° 52' 46.2"; the altitude of the orchards 
is from five hundred to five hundred and twenty-five feet above the sea 
level. The soil is a loamy but rather cold clay; the orchards lie about a 
mile west of Seneca Lake, a body of water forty miles in length and from 
one to three and one-half miles in width and more than six hundred feet 
deep. The lake has frozen over but a few times since the region was 
settled, over a hundred years ago, and has a very beneficial influence on 
the adjacent country in lessening the cold of winter and the heat of summer 
and in preventing early blooming. 

The blooming period is that of full bloom. The data were taken from 
trees grown under normal conditions as to pruning, distance apart, and 
as to all other factors which might influence the blooming period. There 
is a variation of several days between the time of full bloom of the differ- 
ent varieties of peaches. These differences can be utilized in selecting 
sorts to avoid injury from frost. 

Blooming Periods and Season of Ripening of Peach-Varieties 



Abundance . . . . 
Admiral Dewey 

.\ilsworth 

Albright Cling . 

Alexander 

Alton 

Amelia 

■^meliaberta . . . 

Arkansas 

Arp 

Athens 

Augbert 

Banner 

Barber 

Beatrice 

Belle 

Bequette Free. . 



Blooming period 



Very- 
early 



Early 



Very 
late 



Season of ripening 



Very 
early 



Very 
late 



THK PKACIIKS C)l- NKW YORK 139 

Blooming Periods and Season of Ripening of Peach-Varieties — Continued 



Very- 
early 



Blooming period 



Early 



Very 
late 



Season of ripening 



Very 
early 



Very 
late 



Berenice 

Bilyeu 

Bishop 

Blood Cling 

Blood Leaf 

Bokhara 

Bonanza 

Brandywiiie . . . , 
Bray Rareripe . . 

Brigdon 

Briggs 

Burke 

Butler Late 

Buttram 

Canada 

Capps 

Captain Ede. . . . 

Carman 

Champion 

Chairs 

Chili 

Chinese Cling. . . 

Chinese Free 

Christiana 

Clarissa 

Clifton Park 

Conkling 

Connecticut 

Connet 

Coolidge 

Crosby 

Crothers 

Davidson 

Delaware 

Denton 

Dr. Burton 

Dulce 

Early Charlotte . 
Eaily Crawford . 
Early Michigan . 

Early York 

Edgemont 

Elberta 

Emma 

Engle 

Eureka 

Family Favorite 

Fitzgerald 

Ford Late 



140 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Blooming Periods and Season of Ripening of Peach-Varieties — Continued 



Very 
early 



Blooming period 



Early 



Very 

late 



Very 
early 



Season of ripening 



Early 



Very 
late 



Foster 

Fox 

Frances 

Frederica 

Geary 

General Lee 

George IV 

Gold Drop 

Gold Dust 

Gold Mine 

Gordon 

Governor Garland . 
Governor Hogg . . . 

Greensboro 

Guinn 

Hale Early 

Heath Cling 

Heath Free 

Hiley 

Honest John 

Horton River 

Hynds Yellow 

Hynes 

Illinois 

Ingold 

Iron Mountain . . . . 

Jackson 

Jennie Worthen . . . 

Jennings 

Kalamazoo 

Klondike 

Lamont 

Large York 

Late Crawford . . . . 

Late Elberta 

Late Rareripe 

Levy 

Lodge 

Lola 

Lord Palmerston . 

Lorentz 

McCollister 

McKay Late 

Mamie Ross 

Markham 

Mathews 

May Lee 

Maule Early 

Millhiser 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 14 I 

Blooming Periods and Season of Ripening of Peach- Varieties— Cow/i«tted 





Blooming period 


Season of ripening 




Very 
early 


Eariy 


Mid- 
season 


Late 


Very 
late 


Very 
early 


Early 


Mid- 
season 


Late 


Verv 
late 




. 


* 


* 


• 


• 


• 


'* 


• 


• 




Moore Favorite 

Morris White 








Munson Free 




Niagara 




Oldmixon Cling 








Opulent 




Oriole 


, 


Orleans '. . . 


• i '. 


Parson Early 


. 




Pearce Yellow 






Pearson 












, 


Picquet 

Potter 

Prolific 


* 


Ray 






Red Bird 




Red Bird Cling 












Rivers . . . 








Russell 


• 1 
i 




St. John 






, 


Schumaker 


' 1 




1 , . 






, 


Slappey 






, 


Sneed 




Steadly 


, 


Strout 

Stump 


. 


Summer Snow 


.1 


, 






• 




Surprise 














Thurber 




Tiebout 












Troth 





142 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Blooming Periods and Season of Ripening of Peach-Varieties — Conlinued 





Blooming period 


Season of ripening 






Very 
early 


Early 


Mid- 


Late 


Very 
late 


Very 
early 


Early 


Mid- 
season 


Late 


Veo' 
late 








* 


* 




* 










Waddell 


. 




Wager 

Walker 


• 






Ward 




Waterloo 






/ t 






Wilkins 




Willard 




Williams 


* 


Wonderful 


. 


Worrell 




Yellow Rareripe 

Yellow Swan. 









The peach seldom suffers from hot weather in New York. The fruit 
is sometimes injured in the full blaze of the svm but the foliage usually 
furnishes ample protection against such injury. On the other hand, for 
a finely finished product the peach must have an unclouded sun and ample 
air, these conditions giving high color and full flavor. 

The peach requires less moisture than most other fruits — its original 
home was on the desert's edge in Asia. In New York the rainfall is usually 
quite sufficient in all peach-regions for this crop, the exception being^ 
possibly, in the southern part of the Central Lakes region, where, in the 
lands adapted to the peach, the soil is often thin and drought, season after 
season, lays heavily on the land. The peach in New York more often 
suffers from too much rain than too little. Cold, wet weather in blooming 
time is the fruit-grower's vernal bane in this State and rain not infre- 
quently prevents a set of peaches even in localities where the spring rain- 
fall is light. Monthly and seasonal " means " of precipitation, especially 
of the month of May, are of considerable importance in determining the 
desirability of a locality for peaches. 

There are several other phases of climate visually of but local appli- 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I43 

cation which sometimes become of vital importance to the peach-grower 
and must receive attention in selecting an orchard-site. The direction, 
force and frequency of prevailing winds during the blooming and ripening 
periods; the liability to hail storms; the amount of cloudiness in the summer 
months; the nature and degree of seasonal variations; the degree of 
humidity of the atmosphere as related to fungus diseases, especially the 
dreaded brown-rot; and the frequency of drouths are all problems to be 
solved before planting the peach. 

SOILS FOR PEACHES 

After climate, soil has been the next most potent natural influence 
in determining the location of the peach-regions of the State and of indi- 
vidual orchards in the several regions. The peach, of all fruits, is most 
particular as to soils; though, and this seems not generally understood, 
the physical condition of the land is quite as important as the kind of 
soil. That is, the peach grows well on a rather wide range of soils if the land 
be well drained, well aerated and if it hold heat. All subsequent treatment 
fails, whatever the soil, if the root-run be impeded by water or lack of 
air and if there be not the stimulus of considerable bottom-heat. These 
physical conditions modify greatly what is to be said in the next paragraph 
in regard to the kind of soil. 

In New York the peach thrives best on a light, free-working sandy 
or gravelly loam but there are many good peach-orchards in gravelly and 
stony clays — gravel and stone furnishing drainage and aeration and hold- 
ing heat. Perhaps, in this State, the light types of soil are too often chosen 
on the theory that the peach will grow on any light, sandy soil. Not so. 
for the peach will not grow on wind-blown, water-washed sands; on sand 
banks, in sand pits, on quicksands, on old sandbars or on pure quartz sands, 
though it is to be found planted on all of these. Nor will the peach flourish 
on sandy soils at all unless there be a fair admixture of clay and decom- 
posed vegetable matter and the whole underlain at a depth of not more 
than three or four feet with a clay subsoil or stone which must have natural 
drainage. The clay subsoil must not come nearer to the surface than ten 
or twelve inches while bed rock ought not, at the very least, be nearer than 
twenty inches. So qualified, sandy soils are ideal soils for peaches in 
New York. Some of the best peach-lands in the State are exceedingly 
stony, the stones being no detriment except in making the land difficult 
to till. 



144 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

The peach is conspicuous among fruits for its abiUty to nourish itself 
where the food supply is meagre — indeed it is the richest resource of 
fruit-growers on soils deficient in the most important elements of plant- 
food. This does not mean that peach-soils are cheap soils. Few other 
crops thrive on peach-soils, which make them of little value except for this 
fruit, but good peach-soils are so scarce that once their adaptabilities are 
discovered they are seldom cheap. Peach-soils, as a rule, are but 
moderately fertile. When too fertile, especially when rich in nitrogen, 
the foliage is dense, the wood-growth is great, the season's wood does not 
mature, the set of fruit is small, and the peaches lack size, color and flavor. 
But if not rich, never poor. On a good peach-soil the trees should make 
a relatively small, compact growth of firm wood which each season ripens 
thoroughly; and, barring accidents, they should be annually fruitfvil of 
large, highly-colored, well-flavored, properly-shaped peaches covered with , 
sparse and short pubescence. The fertilization of peach-soils is to be 
considered in a separate topic. 

We have been generalizing as to the adaptabilities of peaches to soils. 
Peach-growing, through keen competition and the great pleasure that a 
finely finished product gives the grower, has become a fine art. Now, in 
the refinement of the industry, generalizations as to peach-soils are not 
sufficient. Growers must find out what particular varieties grow best in 
their particular soil. To be sure, there are cosmopolitan varieties, Elberta 
for example, which thrive in a diversity of soils, but, for most part, each 
distinct variety or type of varieties has special soil preferences the discovery 
of which has often made a man a successful peach-grower. The pecul- 
iarities which adapt a soil to a variety are not analyzable but appear he 
peach-growers through intuition or experiment. 

Some fruits are made to grow in uncongenial soils by working them on 
stocks adapted to the soil. Thus, the peach may be worked on plum- 
stocks for heavy, clay soils. Little, however, has been done in forcing 
the peach to adapt itself to a soil by consorting varieties and stocks. There 
is no doubt, however, but that' much may be done when the adaptabilities 
of cions to stocks and stocks to soil are better known. 

LOCATIONS AND SITES FOR PEACH-ORCHARDS 

That peach-growing is not capable of equal development in all of the 
agricultural regions of the country and State appears in page after page 
of the history of this fruit. Climate and soil, as we have tried to show, 



THE PEA( 1IP:s OK NEW YORK I45 

are the great determinants of the large geographical peach-areas bvit beside 
these there are several other factors influencing the formation of peach- 
growing communities; as, transportation facilities, markets, labor, ability 
to make and dispose of by-products, selling organizations, local climate 
and so on. The economic factors just mentioned, as they apply to the 
establishment of peach -belts, have received sufficient ^lotice in the history 
of the peach-industry in the United States, but these, together with several 
nattiral factors, need a few words in their local application to individual 
plantations under the head of locations and sites for peach-orchards — 
the location having to do with the general surroundings and the site with 
the particular piece of land to be planted. 

The dominant considerations in placing commercial peach-orchards 
in the peach-zones in New York seem now to be economic ones. Natiiral 
conditions are so favorable in any of the recognized peach-districts of the 
State and obstacles so easily overcome by those who possess common 
knowledge of peach-growing, that a crop comes almost as a gift from 
nature. Natural advantages are more common than man-made ones; 
so that suitable locations are mostly to be sought for in the centers of 
peach-growing near a shipping point where the haul is short, the freight 
service prompt, regular, efficient, with low freight rates and refrigerator 
service, where labor, is abundant, and, lastly and very important, where 
the markets are so placed that they are not controlled by growers in regions 
more advantageously situated. 

Advantages ofifered by local markets now determine the placing of 
a good many peach-orchards in New York. A location where there is a 
good local market and at the same time ample facilities for shipping to 
distant markets is ideal, for it enables the grower to dispose of over-ripe 
and second-rate peaches that otherwise go to the dump. The local con- 
sumer, however, usually suffers. Prosperous towns and cities have added 
much to the prosperity of nearby peach-districts in this State but generally 
these local markets have not received the attention from growers they 
deserve. The product sent to the local markets is usually much poorer 
than that shipped to a distance. On the other hand, growers maintain that 
customers in towns in the peach-belts will not pay for good fruit. 

Nowhere are the favorable influences of water more, admirably illus- 
trated than in the peach-orchards of New York, all of the peach-districts 
being bounded on one or more sides by bodies of water. The great majority 
of the orchards arc planted on the shores of one of the two Great Lakes. 



146 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

slope toward one of the several Finger Lakes, or are near flowing water 
in the Hudson. The equalizing eft'ects of bodies of water on temperature — 
warmer winters and cooler summers — and the effects of the air-currents 
from bodies of water are so well known that comment is not necessary. 
It is worth while noting, however, the distance to which the benign 
influences of water are felt in the New York peach-districts. In the Hudson 
Valley the peach can be grown only a mile or two from the river with 
safety from frosts and freezes. With few exceptions, the peach-orchards 
about the Central Lakes overlook the water. On the Great Lakes peach- 
plantations are found from one to six or eight miles from the water, depend- 
ing upon' the height of the land, and the amount and direction of the slope. 

Usvially the peach-plantations are some distance above the lakes or 
river, generally from one hundred to three hundred feet. When the alti- 
tude is much higher, immunity from frost and winter freezes ceases, 
probably because the atmosphere is rarer and no doubt drier so that heat 
radiates from the land rapidly inducing frostiness rather than frostlessness. 
As the height increases, too, the sweep of the wind increases. But still, 
one is often surprised to find vigorous orchards perched high above the 
water, the sport of every wind, so that altitude in peach-growing must be 
determined by experiment. 

The site, as we choose to consider it, is the situation with especial 
regard to the particular plot of ground set aside for the peach-orchard — 
altitude, soil, slope, exposure, local climate and all of the natural factors 
which favor peach-growing. All these have been touched upon in their 
relation to peach -districts and locations within the districts but we need 
to particularize a little more closely to show how some of these factors 
affect individual orchards. 

The best peach-orchards in New York are invariably higher than the 
surrounding coimtry, such orchards having the two great advantages of 
soil-drainage and atmospheric drainage. Rolling land seems not to be at 
all essential, for many splendid plantations are on flat lands which, how- 
ever, in all cases have an elevation on one or more boundaries above the 
surrounding country. The more pronounced the elevation, within limits, 
the better, though sharp declines of a few feet, ten or fifteen, serve for small 
orchards as do gentle slopes of slightly higher elevation. Ideal spots where 
the peach never fails are found in bits of tillable land, usually too small 
for large commercial ventures, in the rough and steep gtdches running 
down from the highlands to the lakes, occasionally on the Ontario and 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I47 

Erie shores, but more often in the more broken cowntry about the Finger 
Lakes. In such cases the rigors of seasons are seldom felt. We do not recall 
seeing a single successful peach-orchard in the State shut in on all sides by 
higher land — frosts and freezes would soon play havoc in such a situation. 

The exposure of a peach-plantation is, without doubt, a matter of some 
importance in choosing* a site but the value of particular exposures to avoid 
frosts and secure early, late, or highly colored fruits has been greatly over- 
emphasized by horticultural writers if New York orchards be taken as 
criteria. The theory is most plausible. It runs, in brief: Northward 
slopes are best for peaches in frosty regions since on such slopes plants 
remain dormant longest thereby often escaping spring frosts. Southward 
slopes should be selected for early varieties, the sun and warmth of such 
an exposure supposedly hastening the ripening time. Now the facts are, 
as we observe them, the peach blossoms with the first burst of spring 
warmth whether the slope face north or south ; and whether north or south 
makes little difference in ripening because the intense heat of our New York 
summers submerges slight differences appearing early in the season because 
of exposvire. About all that shows in the matter of exposure for peach- 
orchards, in this State is that the best slopes are toward the water to secure 
the effects that dictate the location of orchards near water. 

One comes across many peach-orchards in New York in the shelter of 
high hills or heavy forests for which the trees usually show gratitude in 
vigor and fruitfiilness, provided hill or wood does not shade the orchard 
too much. Hills and woods provide desirable shelter only when so situated 
as to protect against winter winds and summer storms. A most remark- 
able example of winter protection by- a forest was to be seen a few years 
ago on the somewhat noted fruit-farm of Mr. Grant Hitchings near South 
Onondaga where peaches are at the limit as regards temperature. Here 
was a peach-orchard half of which was terribly injured by winter-killing 
and the other half, protected by a forest a quarter-mile away, was wholly 
unhurt. Yet windbreaks have seldom proved satisfactory, usually develop- 
ing as many or more disadvantages than advantages. 

STOCKS AND THE PROPAGATION OF PEACHES 

The peach-tree, in common with all other fruit-trees, is a consort of 
two individuals — a named variety budded on an unnamed seedling. 
So far, the industry has been carried on with little or no regard to the 
effects the seedling may have on the variety to which it is budded, yet 



148 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

there can be no doubt but that the fruiting-top is influenced by the stock 
upon which it is worked. The present nursery practice is to buy peach- 
pits, whatsoever they may be, at the lowest price, sow them in nursery 
rows and at the proper time bud to named varieties. Time was, in the 
East at least, when the pits came from the nm-wild peaches of the southern 
states from which grew vigorous,, healthy and fairly uniform seedlings but 
it is to be feared that most of the pits, the country over, now come from 
the canneries and from varieties so diverse in vigor, habit and season that 
the resulting seedlings are variable and must make variable the trees grown 
upon them. It is greatly to be regretted that the practice of growing peach 
stock from southern wild seed has been departed from though even a better 
practice might be to grow trees from some vigorous variety or, possibly, 
a different species, as Primus davidiana, which is now largely used in China. 

Prunus davidiana has, as we have stated in discussing the species, 
been tried very widely in the United States and seems to have many 
excellent qualities for a stock. The seedlings are vigorous, healthy, hardy, 
bud readily and the seeds keep well and sprout very imiformly so that 
usually there is a good stand. Perhaps the character that commends it 
most highly at present, however, is the hardiness of the species. It is 
proving hardy in colder regions than those where the peach is now a com- 
mercial crop, so that, wherever this fruit as now grown is at the mercy of 
the winter, Prunus davidiana is a promising substitute for the hit-and-miss 
stocks now used. The drawbacks to the use of the Chinese species are that 
it does not bear fruits of any value whatsoever so that the crop woiild 
have to be grown for the pits alone and, because of very early blossom- 
ing, the trees bear only in most favored situations as regards spring frosts. 

Peach-on-peach is now the rule in eastern America but in Europe, and 
to a lesser extent on the Pacific slope, several other species are used. Thus, 
the hard-shelled Sweet Almond has long been used in Europe and is found 
to make a hardy, strong stock in dry soils in California. The Damson 
and St. Julian plums have been used with varying satisfaction in moist 
and heavy soils in America; and in Eiu-ope, these, with the Muscle and 
Pear plums, are common stocks for the peach. Peaches are dwarfed 
somewhat by all plum-stocks. The Myrobalan plum, very commonly 
used for nearly all cvdtivated plums, was at one time recommended for the 
peach but turned out to be very unsatisfactory and is now practically 
never used. The nectarine, Peento and Honey peaches are budded upon 
seedling peaches. 



THK pi>:ac:hks ok new vork 149 

A stock greatly desired in peach-growing is one that will dwarf the 
tree sufficiently so that winter-protection for buds and wood is practicable. 
The late E. S. Goff of Wisconsin tried for some years to find such a stock. 
He reports ' working several hundred buds on the dwarf Flowering- Almond 
without a single union. Better success attended efiforts with the peach 
on the dwarf Sand Cherry, Prunus besseyii, of the Rocky Mountains. 
Of the results, as he dismisses the flowering-almond, he says: 

" I next tried a form of the Sand Cherry, grown from pits procured in 
western Iowa. This shrub is quite dwarf, attaining a height of only two 
or three feet. With this stock I have been more successful. I inserted 
a few buds in it in 1893, and while I had less expectation of success than 
with the Flowering Almond, I succeeded much better. The Peach grew 
vigorously on this stock, and by the second year had attained the height 
of about five feet. The past season, although the best growing season we 
have had for some years, the Peach-trees on this stock have scarcely 
increased in height. They have branched rather thickly, and at present 
are well filled with flower-buds, from which I infer that they will probably 
not grow larger than they now are. At this height the trees are readily 
protected by digging away sufficient earth from the roots, so that the 
trunk may be bent down readily, when the whole is covered with earth. 
The trees blossomed the past spring and set some fruit, though the fruit 
failed to mature." 

In the same report, Professor Goff mentions trying Prunus suhcordata 
and a dwarf form of Prunus maritima as stocks for the peach but with 
what success does not appear. Dwarf stocks for peaches ofifer an invitation 
to experiment which it is hoped some one will accept. Such an experiment 
requires little more than land, time and material, for it is one of those cases 
in which nothing succeeds like success and nothing fails like failure so that 
he who runs would be able to read. 

Tied up with stocks is another problem. Much is being said about 
the necessity of selecting buds from trees having certain characters best 
developed — as vigor or productiveness; large, handsome or weU-fiavored 
fruits; or immtmity to some disease. As yet there is no body of facts to 
substantiate the claims of those who maintain that fruits can be improved 
by bud-selection nor does present knowledge suggest that such a procedure 
is a means of fruit-improvement. Quite to the contrary the histories of 
varieties of peaches, as they may be read in this text, suggest that, " Like 
begets like," while in the light of science a plant propagated by buds is 



' Goff, E. S. Card. & For. 9:448. i8q6. 



150 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

essentially complete in its heredity. Yet the whole question is still an open 
one and fruit-growers are waiting to know whether putting buds through 
the sieve of selection is worth while. The advocates of improving orchards 
by bud-selection say little, however, about selecting stocks. There is 
nothing more certain than that the stock greatly influences the character 
of the tree. The modifications so brought about probably appear and 
disappear with the individual — at least we should be the last in the world 
to hold that peaches could be permanently modified by the stocks. The 
point is, if buds are selected for the tops, the stocks should be selected 
also. To do otherwise is to imitate the ostrich — head in the sand, body 
exposed. 

The peach is easy to propagate. Let it be said before going into the 
matter, however, that practically all of the trees in the peach-orchards 
in New York were grown in nurseries and that it is probably best to let 
the propagation of trees continue a business for the specialist. Still, it is 
well that the grower know in a general way the operations in the propa- 
gation of the peach-tree. We wish, too, to put on record the nursery 
methods used in propagating this fruit at this period in the history of 
the peach. 

In planting peach-pits, art imitates and quickens nature. In nature 
the seeds are self-sown as they ripen, the succulent coat keeping the hard 
envelope containing the kernel from becoming stony so that the young 
plant bursts forth at the proper season. But in cleaning and drying seeds 
for sale and transporta,tion, they become hard and dr>' and must be subjected 
to somewhat special treatment before planting. In mild climates the pits 
are soaked or kept moist in sand, earth or other medium until softened 
and are then planted in the fall in rows where the trees are to be grown. 
In cold climates the stones are subjected to freezing, thereby cracking 
them, after which the kernels are sown in the spring. To freeze, the seeds 
are placed in strata with moist sand, saw-dust, straw or other material 
supplying an abundance of moisture, and exposed to the freezing weather 
of winter which usually frees the kernel from its envelope. The kernels 
are then sifted from the stones and sand and sowed in rows four feet apart. 
Pits which the frost does not open must be cracked by hand, though this 
tedious operation is usually omitted by large nurseries. 

The seeds are planted in a rich, well-drained soil, preferably a light 
loam with good bottom. By late mid-summer in New York the stocks 
are ready to bud, though often the operation extends into September. 



THh: I'KACMHS OF NKW YORK I5I 

The peach is universally' budded in America, grafting being most difficult, 
though trees can be grown from root-cuttings. The method of budding 
is the common T, or shield-bud. The buds " take" in a week or two, 
but remain dormant until the next spring when the top of the stock above 
the bud is removed to give the cion right of way. At one year from the bud, 
two years from the seed, in northern climates, the trees are ready to be 
transplanted in the orchard. In the South and on the Pacific Slope, bud- 
ding may be done in June, thereby saving a season. These " June buds," 
however, excepting under the most favorable conditions, in the East at 
least, are weaklings not nearly so desirable as " summer buds." Occasion- 
ally, more particularly in California, summer-budded stocks are planted 
in the fall or the next spring as " dormant buds." In New York, trees older 
than one year from the bud are seldom worth planting though occasionally 
it is necessary to save stocks until their second season before budding. 

In budding, the bud-sticks are cut as needed, after which the leaves 
are trimmed leaving about a quarter of an inch of the stem as a handle 
to the bud. After trimming, the sticks are wrapped in damp burlap and 
are taken to the field — once dried, they are worthless. The buds at the 
end of the bud-stick are discarded, the plump, hard buds near the middle 
of the stick being the most vigorous. At the point where the bud is to be 
inserted a T-shaped incission is made, the transverse cut being secured by 
a rocking motion of the knife and the vertical one by lightly drawing the 
knife upward from a point about an inch below the first cut. Before 
removing the knife a slight twist of the blade loosens the edges better to 
receive the bud. 

The bud is cut from below upward with a drawing motion of the 
knife. Nearly the entire thickness of the bark is cut at the point of the 
bud so that it will not crumple when inserted into the stock. Almost 
no wood is taken with the bud but on the other hand the bud must not be 
so thin that the soft growing tissue between the bark and wood is injured. 
The bud is taken between the thumb and forefinger and lifted free from the 
wood. With the leaf -stem as a handle the bud is inserted into the T-shaped 
incision and pushed down until its " heel " is flush with the transverse cut. 
Waxing is not necessary but the bud must be securely tied. 

For this purpose raffia is now almost universally used. It is cut into 
lengths of eighteen or twenty inches and moistened to make it soft and 
pliable. The strand is first brought firmly across the upper end of the bud 
to keep it from working out. Beginning tlicn at the bottom of the slit, 



152 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the raffia is wound smoothly upward covering everything but the " eye " 
and is tied in a single square knot. This winding must be tight to hold the 
bud immovably in place. In from two to four weeks, depending on the 
growth of the stock, the raffia should be cut to prevent its girdling the 
tree. 

In the nursery trade, peach-trees are graded according to caliper or 
according to height — rarely both since there is a very definite relation 
between the two. The common sizes by caliper, or diameter of the trunk, 
are five-, seven- or nine-sixteenths of an inch. According to height, the 
grades are " three to four foot," " four to five foot," or " five to seven foot." 
The medium-sized grade is usually the best since fewer trees die in trans- 
planting, they are much easier to handle and, more important, provide a 
better opportunity for the grower to form the head as he wants it. The 
smallest grade often has many stunted trees. A first-class tree is free from 
insects and fungi or the effects of either. Other things being equal, a short, 
stocky tree is better than a tall, spindling one; one with many branches 
better than one with few. The best stamp on a peach-tree, however, is 
a well-developed root-system — many -branched, well-distributed, fibrous, 
fresh roots. Practically all peach-trees in New York are dug in the fall 
and kept in storage through the winter. 

THE PEACH-ORCHARD AND ITS CARE 

The peach-orchard is the consummation of modern fruit-growing. 
It is more than a plantation of peach-trees, for it personifies ideals and 
reflects the personality of the owner. A glance at a peach-orchard and 
one knows whether the proprietor is lazy or industrious, slovenly or orderly, 
procrastinating or prompt. An orchard of dingy, unhappy peach-trees is 
an odious sight in the eyes of a good fruit-grower accustomed to nurturing 
and fondling his own trees. Tenants seldom succeed in peach-growing. 
Here is a case in which Cato, the sturdy old Roman farmer, is surely right : 
" The face of the master is good for the land." The peach in our climate 
is least able of all fruits to subsist without the aid of man The best trees 
in the best soil, if neglected, have a short, miserable and profitless existence. 
These considerations, then, must bring us to the conclusion that growing 
peaches differs somewhat from growing other fruits. If not more difficult 
it is at least a finer and more delicate affair in which the laborer and crafts- 
man working by rule give way to men of higher degree who put thought, 
intelligence and taste into their work. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



153 



New York is very fortunate in having much land in all of its peach- 
districts that is easily prepared for planting. Growers are not called upon 
to profane the peach by planting it in a field of boulders as in New England 
nor amongst stumps as in some southern peach-regions. Growers in the 
State long ago learned that it is an up-hill task to grow the peach in land not 
thoroughly fitted at the start. Usually the land is prepared a year in 
advance by putting in a hoed crop, after which it is plowed deeply in the 
fall, pulverized thoroughly in the spring and then planted as promptly 
as possible. Fall-planting is not practicable because of severe losses follow- 
ing from winter-killing. 

The peach-orchard is usually laid out in meridians and parallels in 
New York at intervals of 18 by 18 or 20 by 20 feet, the former requiring 
134 and the latter 108 trees. The topography of the land sometimes gives 
preference to the triangular system of setting and rich soils or large grow- 
ing varieties indicate greater distance while poor soils and small trees 
suggest closer planting. One thing certain, it is poor orcharding to set the 
trees too closely. Peaches picked in the pleached alleys of a closely set 
orchard are few, small and poor in quality. Pride in appearance and 
convenience in working the trees make perfect alignment imperative. 
The peach readily self-pollinates so that interplanting varieties is not 
practiced, but, rather, for convenience in harvesting, varieties are set in 
solid blocks, growers seldom, nowadays, planting more than three or four 
sorts. Laying out the land, digging holes, trimming roots, setting trees 
are all kindergarten operations in fruit-growing, well understood by any 
one qualified to go into peach-growing. 

As to varieties, Elberta is now the mainstay of all the peach-districts, 
coming in as the mid-season crop. Greensboro, Carman, Champion, and 
Belle, all white-fleshed; and St. John, Fitzgerald, Niagara and Early 
Crawford, all yellow-fleshed, the two series named in order of ripening, 
are standard varieties preceding Elberta in the markets. Standard sorts 
following are, Oldmixon Free, the only white-fleshed sort, and Crosby. 
Late Crawford, Kalamazoo, Chili, Smock and Salwey, these also named in 
order of maturity. A large number of new varieties are on probation in 
the State of which Arp, Lola, Edgemont, Rochester, J. H. Hale and Frances 
are now most conspicuous. The peach-flora changes rapidly and many of 
these favorites of today will be the cast-ofifs of tomorrow. 

In the early life of the orchard, until bearing is well established, an 
inter-crop is a valuable asset in New York peach -orchards; on the other 



154 '^^^ PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

hand, planted in bearing orchards, any other crop than the peach is a heavy 
liabiUty. While inter-cropping is not peculiar to New York orchards it 
is probably more practiced in this State than in any other. Few, indeed, 
are the plantations in this region that do not sustain themselves for the 
first three or four years of their existence on the crops grown between the 
trees. These are, or should be, hoed crops like potatoes, cabbage, beans 
and cannery crops. He is a sloven, indeed, who would crop his peach - 
orchard with grass or grain. Along the Hudson, small-fruits are looked 
upon as permissible, but are everywhere discountenanced in western 
New York. 

Occasionally the peach itself is planted as an inter-crop in apple- 
orchards. The custom has little to recommend it and is not as common 
now as it was a few years ago. The objection to the peach as a catch- 
crop in the apple-orchard is that serious complications arise in orchard- 
operations, the two fruits often requiring quite different treatment in their 
care and, in spraying the apple, the peach is almost certain to be more or 
less injured. 

In the matter of cultivation, peach-growers are not in the fog that 
envelopes and befuddles apple-growers in New York. The peach so luxuri- 
ates under thorough cultivation and, on the other hand, the jaundiced leaves 
and hectic flush of the fruit speak so plainly of evil days when the trees 
are in sod or unbroken ground that cultivation is universal. Cultivation, 
as practiced by the best growers, consists of plowing the land in the spring 
and then frequently stirring the soil until late July or early August. The 
tools are as diverse as the kinds of soil. Whatever the details, the surface 
must be kept level, covered with a dust-mulch and free from weeds. In 
soils that are light, therefore hungry and thirsty, cultivation in the best 
orchards is almost continuous. To do full duty in such a soil many men 
cviltivate weekly. Disking is sometimes substituted for plowing but this 
is usually poor policy for the plow buries the mummied peaches that drop 
in every orchard to scatter countless myriads of spores of brown-rot and so 
perpetuate this plague of the peach-grower. Winter retreats so sullenly 
in New York that it is sometimes difficult to find time and weather for 
early spring plowing so that increasing numbers of peach-growers are 
plowing their orchards in the fall. 

The cover-crop follows the last cultivation. There is a growing 
suspicion in the State that the value of cover-crops in orchards has been 
magnified. Comparative tests do not show that trees or small-fruits 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 55 

respond to cover-cropping to as great an extent as from theory one might 
expect them to do. Thus, in several experiments being conducted b\- 
this Station, apples and grapes give no very appreciable response to the 
various cover-crops — at least pay but doubtfully for the expense of seed 
and seeding. While there are no very satisfactory experiments to confirm 
the assumption, it would seem, however, that the peach of all fruits would 
he most benefitted by cover-crops. It is patent to all who have had 
orchard-experience that land is in better tilth when some green crop is 
lurned under in fall or spring; so, too, all know that a cover-crop sowed 
in mid-sumnier causes the peach to mature its wood and thus go into the 
winter in better condition; it is not unreasonable to assume, though it is 
impossible to secure reliable experimental data to confirm the belief, that 
cover-crops protect the roots of peaches from winter-killing. Leaving 
out, then, the doubtful value of the cover-crop in furnishing plant-food 
to the peach, at least three sufificient reasons make it a necessary adjunct 
of a peach-orchard. 

Several cover-crops are now in general use in the peach-orchards of 
New York, in order of frequency of use about as follows: Clover, vetch, 
oats, barley, cow-horn turnip, rape, rye, buckwheat. Combination cover- 
crops are less popular than formerly, cost of seed being the deterrent. 
Yet many years of experience at this Station and wide observation in the 
State, unsubstantiated, however, by any experimental work, lead to the 
conclusion that some combination of a leguminous and a non-leguminous 
crop makes the most satisfactory cover-crop for the peach. A half-bushel 
of oats or barley plus twenty pounds of winter vetch or twelve pounds 
of red clover is possibly the most satisfactory of all cover-crops for this 
fruit in New York. Occasionally a change from oats to barley, and clover 
to vetch should be made and once in four or five years rape or cow-horn 
turnip should be worked into the rotation. 

In the matter of fertilizers, the peach-grower early learns humility. 
He is no sooner certain that his trees must be fertilized and that he has 
at last hit upon the right formiola than his check plats or his neighbor's 
orchard convince him that he is not getting the worth of his money in 
fertilizers. In eastern New York, peach-orchards are very generally 
fertilized and rather heavily, the amounts and formulas being nearly as 
diverse as the men applying them. In western New York, commercial 
fertilizers are comparatively little used in peach-orchards. Experiments 
in fertilizing peaches in progress at this Station are inconclusive and there 



156 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

is nothing to offer from the work here us to what the peach needs in ihe 
way of plant-food. In the present state of our knowledge, about the best 
the peach-grower can do is to assume that, if his trees are vigorous, bearing 
well and making a fair amoimt of growth, they need no additional plant- 
food. If they are not in the condition described, look to the drainage, 
tillage and health of the trees first and the more expensive and less certain 
fertilization afterward. More and more, in western New York at least, 
growers are carrying on simple experiments to obtain positive evidence 
as to what elements of plant-food their trees need. 

The following is an example of such an experiment: (i) Acid phos- 
phate to give about 50 lbs. of phosphoric acid to the acre; (2) phosphate 
as above and muriate of potash to give 100 lbs. of potash to the acre; 
(3) phosphate and muriate as above and nitrate of soda and dried blood 
to give 50 lbs. of nitrogen per acre; (4) six tons of stable manure is applied 
on a fourth plat; (5) a similar plat is left unfertilized for a check. 

No fallacy dies harder than that fertilizers will cure yellows. Nitrate 
of soda is a great rejuvenator of trees sviffering from yellows brought on 
by sod or lack of tillage but no fact in peach -orcharding has been more 
thoroughly demonstrated than that neither this fertilizer nor any other 
will in the least benefit trees stiffering from true yellows or from the some- 
what similar trouble, little-peach. 

Of all fruit-trees, pruning is most used with the peach in regulating 
the development of the tree. In its early years, we may almost say that 
the peach " lives by the knife." At all stages of growth the vigorous 
use of the knife is indispensable in keeping the peach in proper bounds, 
and yet, rather paradoxically, knife and saw must be used sometime or 
other in the life of every peach-orchard to stimulate growth or at least 
to force out new growths. Indispensable as a certain amount of pruning 
is in training the peach, there is no question in the minds of those who 
have studied the subject but that it is much more often overdone than 
underdone. There are no fixed rules in prvuiing peaches and to discuss 
in full the diverse theories and practices is not within the range of this 
exposition. All that can be attempted is briefly to set down what the 
present practices are in the State. 

In transplanting, the peach suffers severe root-pruning, an operation 
that it does not bear well. Thus deprived of its roots, the young tree 
must have its top correspondingly diminished. Two practices are in vogue 
in New York in this curtailment of the top as the trees go from the nursery 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 57 

to the orchard. The most common practice is to cut the young tree back 
to a whip and then shorten-in the whip. New branches spring freely from 
this bare stub but these do not always come where they are wanted and 
often the new wood comes only from the stock. These objections to 
pruning to a whip have brought about a modification in which the branches 
are cut back to stubs of two or three buds. In a series of experiments 
now in progress on the Station grounds it seems certain that the second 
method is better than the first. 

Two forms of top are open to choice — the vase-form, or open- 
centered tree, and the globe-form, or close-centered tree. In the first the 
framework of the tree consists of a short trunk, surmounted by four or 
five main branches ascending obliquely. In the second the trunk is con- 
tinued above the branches, forming the center of the tree, and, later being 
headed in, a globe-like head is formed. In New York the vase-form is 
nearly always chosen. In neither case is the task difficult since the peach 
springs almost at once into tree-form with a full complement of branches. 
Beginning with the second year the main branches are shortened back 
from one-third to one-half their growth, if heading back seem necessary, 
cutting to upper and inner buds so that the oblique ascending vase-form 
is maintained. The pruning of the third season is much the same, except 
that some of the interior branches should be removed to open up the 
heads to air and sunshine. The third season's pruning is repeated from 
year to year, having in mind that the slow-growing, hardy, productive 
sorts can be pruned much more severely than the free-growing, tender 
kinds. Open forks are a serious menace and are carefully avoided to 
lessen the danger of splitting when branches are heavily laden. About 
the most common mistake is that of cutting out too much wood, thereby 
inducing so heavy a growth in the parts that remain that winter-killing 
takes place; at best it makes necessary continued heavy pruning for several 
seasons to keep the trees in manageable size and shape. 

Heading-in as described in the foregoing paragraphs is necessary 
because the peach bears the bulk of its crop high up on its branches, which 
are often broken by the weight so that after a bountiful harvest the orchard 
looks as if a cyclone had swept through it. As the limbs lengthen, too, 
it becomes increasingly difficult to pick the peaches. Even with annual 
heading-in the bearing wood eventually gets too far from the ground and 
the grower may have to resort to decapitating the trees — an operation 
commonly known by the inapt term " dehorning." When old trees are 



I5« THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

thus to be rejuvenated the limbs are sawed off during the dormant season 
to within two feet or thereabouts of the trunk. The tree will then form 
a new head which will in a season or two set fruit-buds and bear a crop. 
The orchard may thus very often be renewed or even re-renewed, lengthen- 
ing its life by several seasons. In thus decapitating trees, however, one 
season is always lost, sometimes two, and the writer questions if it is not 
better to give the peach a " merry life and a short one " rather than resort 
to decapitation to prolong its days. Most growers may well throw dehorn- 
ing into the rubbish-heap of the not-worth-while. 

Occasionally one sees in the State orchards in which the top is sheared 
to a level plane. This shearing follows a fashion, now happily going out, 
as it cannot come from any well-thought-out design. It takes but a 
moment's study of the sheared tree to see the faults of the method. Strong 
shoots are cut back too much, weak ones not enough; superfluous shoots 
are not removed but, to the contrary, multiplied as in shearing a hedge. 
Heading-in some or all of the shoots may be very necessary but shearing 
to a line — never. 

Summer-pruning is not practiced in New York peach-orchards. No 
doubt every grower, however, as he goes about among his trees in the 
growing season cuts back a branch outstripping its neighbors, removes 
an occasional unruly member or one out of place, pinches here and rubs 
there, better to train his trees to the ideal he has in mind. Certainly no 
harm is done by such summer-pruning when the trees are strong and 
vigorous. 

This record of pruning practices in New York cannot be closed witliout 
stating that there are growers who do not prune — not only through 
neglect but as a matter of principle. Chiefly, these are men more accus- 
tomed to the other tree-fruits — most of which make a fair showing without 
priming — than to the peach. The peach can go a few years unpruned 
without becoming an abnormal orchard-specimen but left to itself to the 
prime of life without the reinvigorating and form-giving knife a peach- 
orchard becomes a woeful spectacle. The limbs crowd, choke and kill 
each other, except the strongest or those most fortunately placed, which 
push aloft, bearing at their extremities sparse-foliaged, parasol-like canopies 
of jaundiced foliage which furnish no protection from the blaze of the 
sun to the bare, bark-burned, gum-covered tnmk and branches. The 
tree-tops are populous with dead and dying twigs and do not furnish 
sufficient nutriment for the normal development of fruit or tree. These 



THK PKACHKS OF NiCW YORK 1 59 

unpruned peach-orchards, come to old age, are the saddest sights of the 
country. After the first few crops, when the flush of vigor has passed, 
they cannot be profitable and it would seem the sooner the axe lays them 
low the better for the owner. Not to prune the peach is consummate 
neglect. 

Peaches are thinned to improve the fruit that remains, to save the 
vigor of the tree, and destroy insect- or disease-infected fruits. Commend- 
able as these objects are, the practice is all too seldom observed in New 
York. The objections are scarcity and high cost of labor. Still the best 
growers always thin, doing the work soon after the summer drop which 
usually occurs six to eight weeks after the blossoming-time and just as 
the pits in the embryonic fruits begin to harden. It requires good judgment 
to tell at the time of thinning what will prove superfluity at the harvest. 
Vigor of tree, variety, fertility and moisture in the soil, the season, diseases 
and insects, all must be considered. The common advice is to thin the 
fruits so that they will not be nearer together than from four to six inches 
but the skillfiil growers adjust the size of. the crop to the orchard and 
seasonal conditions. Thinning really begins, it should be said, in the 
winter when the trees are dormant and redundant branches and superfluous 
wood on the parts remaining are cut out. By delaying winter-pruning 
untn danger of winter-killing is passed many growers save labor in 
summer- thinning, since, as early as this, fruit-prospects are fore-shadowed. 

It is interesting to record that peach-orchards are never top-grafted 
in New York though it seems to be a matter of rather frequent practice 
in the South and far West. There are plenty of occasions for working 
over peach-trees in this State; as, when poor varieties are substituted, 
or in changes in fashion in peaches, or on finding a variety poorly adapted 
to orchard-conditions. But under any of these unfortunate circumstances 
in New York the axe and the grub-hoe make way for a new planting rather 
than trust to the skill of the grafter. Old peach-trees can, of course, be 
either budded over or grafted over to a new variety but we take it that 
a century of experience has demonstrated that changing the whole tree 
is better than changing the top. 

« 

HARVE.STING, MARKETING AND PROFITS 

The beginning of the Twentieth Century is marked as a period in 
which commercial affairs in agriculture are being more highly developed 
than ever before. Temporarily, the idea of making two blades of grass 



l6o THK PliACHES OF NEW YORK 

grow where one grew before is eclipsed by the idea that success in agri- 
culture is quite as much dependent on business management as on large 
production. We need, then, in The Peaches of New York to set down as 
precisely as possible, as a record of the times, the business side of peach - 
growing. This we conceive, so far as the fruit-grower is concerned, consists 
of matters having to do with growing, picking, grading, packing, cooling 
and shipping, while the affairs of the several go-betweens from producer 
to consumer belong to merchanting rather than orcharding. Not that the 
grower is without interest in the selling of his products — far from it. 
There is no better ballast to keep the fruit-dealer steady than knowledge 
of all of his dealings on the part of the fruit-grower. 

Among Caucasians green peaches have a bad reputation. Adage, 
prose and poetry bear witness that any curtailment of the sun's maturing 
function in this fruit is going against nature and makes an altogether 
unwholesome product. But in China and Japan the peach is habitually 
eaten green and hard. Fungi play such havoc with peaches in Oriental 
countries that the fruit must be devoured ' green or the crop is lost. A 
green peach is quite as palatable, nutritious and wholesome as a green 
olive. The ripe prodvict of the one is just as superior to the green as is 
the other. All this not to point a moral or adorn a tale but to bring 
out the fact that the green peach is an edible fruit and that the annual 
performance of health inspectors in all large markets in condemning car- 
loads of green peaches as unfit for food while green olives, apples, pears, 
plums, cherries and grapes pass muster, is an unjust discrimination against 
the peach. The peach is, of course, best when ripe, soft, melting and 
luscious, but so are all other fruits and all should be accorded the same 
treatment by consumers and health inspectors. 

The peach in western countries is picked for market when it has 
attained full size and is passing from the hard state of the green peach to 
the softer mature condition. The picker tells by eye and by pressure 
of the peach between thumb and finger when a peach is ready for picking. 
White-fleshed peaches are green in color when picked but turn to greenish- 
white or yellowish-white as maturity proceeds; yellow-fleshed turn from 
yellowish-green to lemon or orange-yellow. The full flavor of the ripe 
peach develops only when the fruit ripens on the tree but ripe fruit cannot 
Vje shipped and peaches are therefore picked at the stage in advance of 
full maturity that will permit them to reach the market at matvirity — one 
or two days in New York, six or seven in California. Peach-picking is 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK l6l 

a delicate business for it is equally disastrous to gather the crop before 
it is ripe enough or to delay a day or two too long. 

Few picking appliances are needed for the peach in New York since 
the trees are trained so low most of the fruit can be picked from the ground 
or from a short step-ladder. The knack of peach-picking consists of tipping 
the fruit sidewise with a light twist which releases it from the branch 
without the bruise of a direct pull. The care in handling depends largely 
on the temperament of the picker — a coarse, careless rufifian cannot handle 
the tender-fleshed peach with the consideration it deserves. Women are 
much employed in picking peaches. Two systems of managing pickers 
are in vogue: They are employed by the day in charge of a competent 
foreman; or the picker is supplied with tickets or tally cards and is paid 
by the basket. The day-system is commonest and most satisfactory. 
When peach-picking is in full swing a man can pick loo half-bushel baskets 
in a day of sorts like Elberta in which the fruits ripen at the same time, 
but the quantity grows smaller and smaller as the varieties decrease in 
size and increase in length of ripening-time. Peaches are usually graded 
and packed indoors, being brought under cover in special picking receptacles 
into which the fruit is put as it comes from the tree. Packing indoors 
is a comparatively modern innovation, the method a decade or two ago 
being to pack in the field as is occasionally done now, more especially 
for local markets. 

Grading peaches is still a matter of local or personal practice in New 
York as it is the country over. No state seems yet to have regulated by 
law the grading of peaches, as several have done with the apple. The 
need is quite as great for such laws for one fruit as for the other, and no 
doubt grading peaches in New York will soon be regulated by the strong 
arm of the law as is grading apples. The essentials in good grading as 
now practiced are fair or large size for the variety, high and characteristic 
color, uniformity in size and color, freedom from bruises and insect and 
fungus injuries, and full and characteristic flavor for the variety. Peaches 
vary much in shape and pubescence depending on soil and climate — so 
much that through variations in these characters the identity of varieties is 
sometimes lost — but grading is not yet sufficiently refined to take note 
of either character. Good growers sort into at least three grades, 
counting culls. 

Not solely as a matter of record but to inspire further progress as 
well, we record the fact that New York is behind the times in the package 



1 62 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

used in sending peaches to market. The antiquated Delaware package, 
a truncated cone holding a third- or a half-bushel, is now the most popular 
package with growers. This package is a poor carrier, clumsy and easily 
tipped over, its sides are so thin that the fruit bruises, it is easily opened 
by thieves and it is unattractive. The reason for its popularity among 
growers may be guessed when its sole merit is named — peaches need 
less sorting and are easily packed in this Delaware package. The grand 
jury of consumers, the country over, has declared for a smaller package 
for dessert peaches than the Delaware truncated cone and a larger one 
for culinary peaches. Better in every way, and more and more used by 
growers in the State are the several sizes of climax baskets. The best 
of all peach-packages, the Georgia carrier, is just coming into use in New 
York. It is a crate holding six four-quart till-baskets. These till-baskets 
are dainty and attractive, fulfilling well the adage " good goods come 
in small packages." The Georgia carrier is conceded by all to hold the 
palm of merit for long-distance shipments of dessert peaches. The bushel 
and half -bushel, round -bottom, farm type, the substantial cover supported 
by a stout peg between cover and bottom, are being more and more used 
for shipping the home canning supply. In western New York the bushel 
basket, if not now, promises soon to be the most popular of all peach- 
packages. 

Our common commercial container, the Delaware basket, is seldom a 
packed package. The peaches are turned in, assorted somewhat as to size, 
and the top layer faced with the red cheek up. The climax basket requires 
more care in packing. The fruit must be arranged in layers and tiers 
according to the size of peach and basket. Skill and not a little ingenuity 
are displayed in packing the dainty till-baskets for the Georgia carrier, 
all depending on the size, uniformity and shape of the peach. The peaches 
are placed in rows and tiers which regularly alternate and cover much 
as in a box of packed apples. The peach-harvest in New York usually 
comes in pleasant weather so that the packing house is generally but a 
screen from the blaze of the sun, put up in the orchard. The packages, 
both before and after filling, are, of course, kept clean and dry under per- 
manent cover. 

The peach is so handsome and delectable, for that matter so pleasing 
to all of the senses, that every fruit-grower takes special pride in a finely- 
finished product going to market and more often than with any other 
fruit advertises his wares with a label. These show original ownership. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I63 

where grown, often the variety, always the grade and usually advertise 
the whole farm and its product. Some growers have their labels registered 
in the United States Patent Office. 

New York peach-growers profit more and more from cold-storage. 
Peaches can be kept for a few weeks in storage at the freezing point or just 
above but they soon lose texture and flavor on coming out and cannot com- 
pete with fresh peaches which reach the markets every day from some 
source from May until November. Precooling before shipment, now but 
coming into practice, is of inestimable value in the heat of the summer. 
The fruit is quickly packed and then cooled to 40° F. in a central station or 
by forcing cold air through loaded cars, and then goes under refrigeration 
to destination. In eastern New York peaches go mostly to New York 
City by night-boat but refrigerator service is an absolute necessity for 
western New York and has been very generally installed by the railroads 
of the region. The precooling station is to be the next step in advance. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEW YORK PEACH-CROP 

In the past the great problems of peach-growers, as of those who 
grow other agricultural products, have been cultural in their essential 
character. Attention to problems of distribution have had to do with 
the opening up of new regions of production — the expansion of the agri- 
cultural domain ; with developing means of transportation — railroad lines, 
steamboat service, canals; and in developing centers of consumption in 
the cities and towns which have been springing up everywhere in the 
habitable parts of America. Until recent years, little has been done in 
studying the commercial disposition of agricviltural products. Now, how- 
ever, studies are being made everywhere of the distributive systems by 
which products get to market and to determine what share of the con- 
sumer's price should go to the producer and what to the distributor. 
Everywhere the importance of these economic studies is recognized and 
no producer sees more clearly than the New York peach -grower the need 
of improvement in handling products to distribute risks, reduce risks, 
decrease the numbers in the vast armies of middlemen and in every way 
improve defective distribution. But these questions belong to specialists — 
economists. We wish here only to furnish a few fundamental data which 
may be of use to all concerned in the distribution of the peach-crop. 

In the economic study of the peach-industry in the State it is essential 
to know the volume of the product in the State; what proportion of the 



164 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



tolal different sections produce; how the crop is distributed in consump- 
tion; and the movement of the peacli-crop from competing peach-states. 
These data we undertake to furnish for the year 19 15, a normal peach- 
year, taking the figures from the transportation Hnes handling peaches in 
New York so far as obtainable. The volume of the product for western 
New York is shown by figures taken from the New York Central Railroad ' 
and the Lehigh Valley Railroad. Peaches were shipped from towns as 
follows : 



Adams Basin 26 Cars 

Albion 41 " 

Appleton 108 " 



Asnwooa 


19 

261 " 


Barnard 








Brighton 


3 " 




116 " 






Burt 


. . . 244 " 






Caywood 


16 " 


Charlotte 


88 " 


Covert 


21 " 


E Williamson 


.... 52 " 


Elberta 




Elm Grove 1 " 






Fruitland . . . 


48 " 




loS " 






Greece 


.... 14 " 




216 " 


Hector 


28 " 


Hilton 




Hollev .... 




Junius 


61 " 



Kendall 

Lewiston 

Lockport 119 

Lodi 3 

Lyndon ville 171 

Medina 76 

Middleport 36 

Millers 87 

Model City 156 

Morton 188 

North Rose 2 

Ontario 43 

Pittsford 2 

Ransomville 38 

Rochester 214 

Rush ville 3 

Sodus 126 

Spencerport 91 

TrumansburR 11 

Union Hill i 

Valois 5 

Wall<er 168 

Waterport 15 

Waverh- i 

Webster 3 

Williamson 371 

Wilson 126 

Wolcott 15 



70 Cars 
432 " 



Total 



.4568 Cars 



These figures include plums but the shipment of plums in 191 5 was so 
insignificant as to be negligible and more than offset by shipments of peaches 
not accounted for by the earners named. 

In addition to the above the American Express Company took out of 
this territory about 173 cars, mostly in less than car-lot shipments. 



Welsh, F. S. and .\ndcrson, E. H. The Markethi" of Xt~:v Ynrk SUile Peaches 5. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 65 

Accurate figures could not be obtained from the Hudson River Valley 
and Long Island shipping points as so much of the fruit is shipped by 
water, but, basing the yield in 1915 on the census reports of 1909 as to 
yields and number of trees as compared with similar data for these years 
from western New York, a rough approximation of the number of car- 
loads in eastern New York is 600. From reports received from the chief 
Hudson River navigation lines it would seem that they probably carried 
about one hundred carloads. 

Practically all of the 600 carloads grown in eastern New York were 
consigned to New York City or nearby towns. From the above table 
we may assume that about 5000 carloads were produced in the rest of the 
State and we are fortunate in having a record as to where 4419 of these 
were consigned. The New York Central Railroad distributed the number 
of carloads named as follows: ' 

No. of Percentage A'o. 

Cars of Crop Destination Towns 

1 ,628 36 Buffalo and points west, including Pittsburgh 96 

906 20 Pennsylvania and points south of Newberry Junction. 72 

222 5 Points east of Albany 25 

986 22 ..^ Points north of New York City 145 

677 IS . 7 New York City i 

4.419 339 

Analyzing these figures we find that the 4,419 carloads reached 339 
destinations grouped as follows: - 

9 cities took 2,378 cars, over one-half of the crop, 

21 cities took 3,018 cars, two-thirds of the crop, 

59 cities took from 4 to 10 cars each, 
231 cities took from i to 3 cars each, 
62 per cent of the crop went outside of the State, 
22.3 per cent went to points in New York north of New York City, 
15.7 per cent went to New York City 

The nine cities which took over one-half of the crop are: 

New York 677 Cars Cincinnati 116 Cars 

Pittsburgh 555 " vSyracuse 109 " 

Philadelphia 418 " Columbus 109 " 

Cleveland 156 " Detroit 103 " 

Boston 13s " 

Total 2,378 Cars 



' Welsh, F. S. and Anderson, E. H. The Marketing of New York Slate Peaclies 5. 191 6. 
■ Ibid. 6-7. 1916. 



l66 TlirC I'RACMF.S OF NEW YORK 

While these nine cities took over one-half the 191 5 peach-crop, twenty- 
one cities took 3,018 carloads. In addition to those already named, these 
cities are as follows: 

Newark, N. J 77 Cars Wilkes-Barre 50 Cars 

Dayton, 69 " Schenectady 46 " 

Albany 67 " Watertown 44 " 

Utica 64 " Indianapolis 43 " 

Baltimore SS " Toledo 37 " 

Troy 52 " Providence 36 " 



Total 3,018 Cars 



COSTS IN GROWING PEACHES 

Peach-growing is a game of chance from start to finish; advantages 
and disadvantages in location are exceedingly changeable; risks to tree 
and crop attendant on weather are many; the trees are beset on all sides 
by diseases and parasites for two of which in New York, yellows and little- 
peach, there is no preventive, antidote nor alleviation; transportation is 
perilous, competition keen, and markets fitful. Add variability in invest- 
ment and the difficulties in calculating profits in peach-growing are 
apparent. On the other hand, keeping accounts in peach-growing is not 
as difificult and complicated as in growing other fruits. The peach is not 
as long-lived, barring accidents the trees bear more regularly, the crop is 
quickly disposed of, orchard-operations among growers are more uniform, 
and, no doubt, the very fact that the peach partakes so much of specula- 
tion makes growers a little keener on striking balances at the end of the 
season. At any rate there is a great body of material in the reports of the 
horticultural societies in New York on costs in peach-growing and from 
these data, together with notes taken for several years, we venture to esti- 
mate the present costs per acre of the several items entering into peach- 
production. To attempt to go further and calculate profits, with all of the 
inconstant factors of yields and markets, would be guessing pure and 
simple. 

Let us consider the cost of production in a ten-acre orchard. This 
unit is now, however, rather too small, for more and more growers are 
giving up general farming, finding peach-growing an exacting, full-time 
vocation. Often enough it is successfully combined with the growing of 
other fruits, but less and less so with the growing of farm-crops. The 
first item in cost of production is interest on investment. What value is 
to be placed on a New York peach-orchard? 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I67 

The value must be calculated from the cost of land and trees and tlie 
labor and the deferred dividends until the orchard comes into profitable 
bearing. Selling price is never a safe gauge with the peach, sales usually- 
being made under conditions more abnormal than in almost any other 
phase of farming and showing great variability in every locality. Suppose 
we place the value at $400 per acre, a sum sufficiently high to cover, besides 
the cost of the orchard, the overhead expenses of houses and barns that 
would fall to ten acres of a New York farm. Interest now runs at five 
percentum so that the first expense item is $20.00 per acre on investment. 
Assessment rates on land so valued would bring taxes up to $1.00 per acre. 

The equipment needed to care for a peach-orchard is quite uniform 
the State over and the cost of the several items varies scarcely at all, so 
that a very close approximation may be made of the total cost. The 
items run about as follows: Team and harness at present price, $500; 
spraying outfit, $250; wagon, plow, harrow, ladders, crates, pruning tools, 
etc., $250; total, $1,000. These figures are below the mark rather than 
above but the instances are few in which the equipment itemized would 
be used exclusively for a ten-acre peach-orchard; in fact, with this equip- 
ment thirty acres could be cared for. It is not total cost, however, but 
depreciation and interest on money with which we are concerned. Setting 
these at 20 percentum, we have $20.00 per acre to charge to maintenance 
of equipment. 

Year in and year out, tillage is the most costly ingredient in the 
making of a good peach -orchard. It consists of plowing once a year, fall 
or spring, and harrowing on the average at least ten times a season. High 
cost of labor brings this item up to $10.00 per acre which includes seeding 
the cover-crop but not the cost of seed, for which an additional charge of 
$2.50 must be made for a combination crop of red clover and oats or of vetch 
and barley. 

It would seem easiest of all to ascertain the cost of fertilizers for the 
peach but the practices are so diverse and fertilizers are applied so irregu- 
larly by those who use them at all that the data at hand are almost worth- 
less. Those who plow under cover-crops regularly, spend little for fer- 
tilizers; an occasional dressing of stable manure answers for fertilization 
with many; still more, so uncertain of results as to feel they are " buying 
a pig in the poke," spend nothing for fertilizers. We shall enter a charge 
of $5.00 per acre for fertihzers though this is without question above the 
average even if only successful orchards be considered. 



1 68 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

A more certain charge is that for pruning. The problems in pruning 
are more of the mind than the hand and once the work is laid out it goes 
along rapidly. An acre-average of $3.00 is sufficient to cover the expense of 
pruning and thinning may be done, year in and year out, at the same cost. 

The peach-orchard is customarily sprayed but once in New York, 
an application of the lime-sulphur wash being made to prevent leaf-curl 
and to destroy San Jose scale. The cost of this single spray cannot be 
more than $4.00 per acre but to this must be added a charge for protection 
against mice and rabbits, destruction of borers and cutting out trees 
infected with yellows or little-peach, averaging, all told, at least $S.oo for 
keeping under pests. 

The services of a peach-grower are worth more than the time of the 
men who do the actual labor. It is but fair, then, that an allowance be 
niade for superintending the work. Since a competent orchardist can 
superintend a farm enterprise of several times the magnitude of a ten-acre 
orchard, but part can be allowed for superintendence, $300 for the season 
being a fair price, or $30.00 per acre. 

Picking, grading, packing and hauling are all operations that cost no 
two men the same for any one. Without attempting to segregate these 
items an approximation of the total cost of all, based on a considerable amount 
of data, is $30.00 per acre. This sum does not include the cost of packages. 

This brings us to a summary of the cost sheet in growing the average 
acre of peaches: 

Interest on investment 

Taxes 

Depreciation in equipment and interest 

Tillage 

CoN-er-croj) seed 

Fertilizers 

Pruning and thinning 

Keeping pests under 

Superintendence 

Picking, grading, packing and hauling 



Pushing this calculation further, the cost per tree runs at $i.32§, there 
being 100 trees to the acre in the average orchard in the State. Peach- 
growers expect 150 bushels per acre during the bearing time of the peach, 
and dividing 132.50 by 150 we have 885 cents as the average cost, exclusive 



S20 


00 


I 


00 


20 


00 


10 


00 


2 


50 


5 


00 


6 


00 


8 


00 


30 


00 


.5° 


00 


$132 


50 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 69 

of the package, per bushel of peaches in New York. In this calculation 
it is assumed that the peach comes in profitable bearing at five years after 
setting and that the orchard is on the home stretch in the fifteenth lap, 
giving ten bearing seasons, at least three of which will be fruitless. 

Peach-growers to whom this cost sheet has been submitted say 88 cents 
is too high a cost for producing a bushel of peaches but asked to consider 
the several items agree that most of them are too low. No doubt few who 
figure the cost of production include the item of superintendenc\- which 
increases the cost for each bushel 20 cents. So, too, the average yield given 
is considered high. Granting that they may be high, all of the figures are 
permitted to stand, on the theory that the yield bears a close relationship 
to the expense of production — increased costs stand for increased yields. 
In tabulations of this kind much is usually made of the cost of bringing 
the orchard in bearing. In this calculation the high charge of invest- 
ment goes to cover the cost of the first five years, the period of incubation, 
so to speak, and it is certain that this, with the sale of inter-crops, covers 
all expenditures for the first five years. ■ 

DISEASES OF THE PEACH 

The peach is attacked by a half-score or more diseases in New York, 
two of which, yellows and little-peach, have this fruit quite at their mercy, 
there being no preventive, antidote, nor means of alleviation for either. 
Two other diseases, brown-rot and leaf-curl, are always present and often 
bring disaster, their virulency depending on locality, season, weather and 
variety, but both are amenable to treatment and at most destroy only 
foliage and fruit, while yellows and little-peach take their toll in trees. 
The several other diseases to be discussed are either easily controlled or are 
of minor importance. 

Yellows is a malignant disease or condition of the peach, very con- 
tagious, usually virulent, of which we know neither cause, origin nor cure. 
We know only its unmistakable symptoms, its terrible consequences. 
The history of yellows, the circumstances of its coming and its effects have 
been given in a foregoing chapter so that we need to discuss now only the 
symptoms and means of preventing the direct results of the disease. 

In its later stages the symptoms are characteristic enough and cannot 
be confounded with those of any other malady or condition of the tree. 
The marks of yellows are: (i) Premature ripening of the fruit accom- 
panied by red blotches over the surface and red streaks rvmning through 



l-jO TEIK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the flesh; (2) premature unfolding of leaf-buds into willowy growths of 
tips and the production of shoots upon the trunk or ma n branches with 
growths developing into bunchy tufts of yellow or reddish foliage ; (3) total 
discoloration of the foliage. 

Prematureness in ripening varies from a few days to several weeks; 
the earlier it occurs, the smaller the fruit. When diseased fruit ripens near 
the normal season the peaches may be full size, showy to voluptuousness 
and marked outwardly only by the hectic red of the disease. The taste 
indicates the disease — in insipid, mawkish or bitter specimens which show 
the red color and undersize of prematured peaches. During the first season 
prematured fruit may show only on particular Vjranches or even on a single 
shoot which may not differ in appearance from other parts of the tree. 
Prematureness, unaccompanied by other symptoms of yellows, may be 
due to borers, drought, neglect, girdling or similar causes. 

The second symptom is the opening of winter-buds out of season. 
This usually occurs a year later than the appearance of prematured, red- 
colored fruits. The buds may push forth shortly after they have formed 
in mid-summer while the tree-top is still bearing its fruit and foliage or they 
may delay until the next spring, to appear a few days in advance of normal 
leafing-time. Very often these buds begin growth in the autumn after 
healthy leaves have fallen. Such diseased buds may develop on tips of 
branches, especially water-sprouts, but feeble, sickly shoots due to the 
disease usually appear in considerable numbers on main limbs and on the 
trunk, no doubt under the influence of the yellows on old resting buds 
buried deep in the bark of the wood. Sometimes these yellow shoots are 
unbranched but oftener they are much branched and frequently but 
bunchy tufts of foliage, stems slender, leaves pale green, small, narrow and 
standing out stiffly at nearly right angles to the stems. 

In the final stage of the disease the trees assume the yellowish leaves 
which give name to the trouble, though sometimes the yellow is tinged 
with red. Yellows is an unfortunate name since so many other troubles 
of the peach cause the foliage to take on the jaundiced appearance of this 
disease. The third stage marks the beginning of the end — sometimes 
three years, sometimes five or six, but always death sooner or later, there 
being no instance on record of a diseased tree having been cured. 

This, in brief, is the usual course of yellows, but it follows no invariable 
rule in its development. Yellows is known to be spread as a contagion 
bv affected buds in nursers^ stock, bv nurserv'-trees, bv orchard-trees, and 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I7I 

may even be communicated by pits from affected trees. That it must be 
caused or transmitted in still other ways is apparent to all who have had 
experience with the disease. It seems not, however, to linger in the soil, 
for trees may be set in the very spots from whence diseased plants have been 
removed without danger to the newcomer. " War to the knife and the 
knife to the hilt" — absolute extermination, root and branch, by ax 
and fire, is the only known method of subduing yellows. 

Little-peach is possibly a variant of peach-yellows or, at least, is very 
similar in nature. It seems to have been described first in Michigan in the 
early nineties of the last century but had attacked orchards in New York 
before that time so that it is now impossible to say where it first appeared. 
Be that as it may, the disease is not now the exclusive possession of either 
state but in the twenty years of its history has become as widely distributed 
as yellows, covering about the same territory, and seems now to be equally 
destructive. Outwardly the disease differs from yellows chiefly: (i) In 
delayed rather than premature ripening of the under-sized fruits of little- 
peach; (2) the leaves usually show more green than in yellows and show a 
decided tendency to droop or roll; (3) little-peach, as a rule, appears later 
in the season than yellows; (4) the characteristic, sickly, wiry shoots of 
yellows are seldom present in little-peach. Little-peach is kept at bay, 
as in yellows, by extermination of affected trees. 

Rosette, though distinct in most of its symptoms from yellows and 
little-peach, is clearly similar in nature, is just as virtilent and contagious, 
is communicated in the same ways and requires the same treatment. On 
trees affected with rosette the fruits shrivel and drop and tufts or rosettes 
of leaves develop freely. Rosette is not found in New York nor north 
of the Potomac and hence is of but passing interest to peach-growers in 
this State. 

Brown-rot {Sclerotinia fructigena (Persoon) Schroeter), known also 
as fruit-mold and ripe-rot, attacks flowers and shoots of the peach, but is 
most conspicuous on the ripe or ripening fruits. Here its presence is 
quickly detected by a dark discoloration of the skin which is afterwards 
partly or whoUy covered with pustule-like aggregations of gray spores. 
The decayed fruits fall to the ground or more often hang to the tree, 
becoming shriveled mummies, each mummy being a storehouse of fungus 
threads and spores from which infestation spreads to the next crop. The 
rot spreads with surprising rapidity on the fruits in warm, damp weather 
either before the fruit is picked or in baskets while being shipped or stored. 



172 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Preventive remedies have so far met with but indifferent success; probably 
the best method of control is to destroy the mummy-like fruits and all 
other sources of infection either by picking them from the trees, or much 
better by plowing them under deeply. Even so it is impossible to exter- 
minate all of the countless myriads of brown-rot spores. Spraying with 
the self-boiled lime-sulphur mixture three times at intervals of three weeks, 
beginning as the calyxes drop, is the appointed preventive but the results 
are uncertain, as this is one of the diseases in which it is difficult to touch 
the spot in spraying. Varieties of peaches show various degrees of sus- 
ceptibility to brown-rot. 

Peach leaf-curl (Exoascus deformans (Berk.) Fuckel) is the best- 
known and probably the most prevalent fungus disease of the peach in 
New York. The disease appears in early spring as the leaves unfold and 
continues until warm, dry, summer weather prevails. The name describes 
the disease so that all may know it — the leaves curl, then become puckered, 
distorted and much thickened, turn from normal green to yellow, tinged 
with red, and finally fall. In severe cases the trees may be defoliated, 
though a second covering of leaves almost always comes out. Leaf -curl 
is most prevalent and most virulent in cool, moist weather. The disease 
is easily controlled by spraying with lime-sulphur, bordeaux mixture or 
any other good fungicide applied while the trees are dormant. 

In common with other species of Prunus the foliage of peaches is 
attacked by several fungi which produce diseased spots on the leaves, the 
dead areas usually dropping out leaving holes as if punctured by shot, 
giving the names " shot-hole fungvis," " leaf-spot " and " leaf -blight." 
Two fungi are in the main responsible for these leaf -troubles, Cylindros- 
poriiim padi Karsten and Ccrcospora cirauiiscissa Saccardo. The ravages 
of these fungi are prevented by the use of the self-boiled lime-sulphur 
mixture. With these, as with other fungi, cultivation has a salutary 
effect as it destroys diseased leaves which harbor the fungi during their 
resting period and keeps the trees vigorous enough to resist the fungi. 

Peach-scab {Cladosporiiim carpophiUim Thiim.) is a common and 
destructive fungus in peach-growing districts on the Atlantic seaboard 
and is found rather frequently in New York but seldom does much injur>^ 
in the State. It appears in sooty, black spots and blotches on the surface 
of the peach, causing atrophy and hardening of the parts aflfected which, 
in severe cases, crack badly. Twigs and leaves may be affected. White- 
fleshed sorts suffer most and are ruined for the market even in mild attacks. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 73 

Sclf-boilcd lime and sulphur, if it does not wholly prevent infections, at 
least alleviates the trouble. 

Peach-growers in New York are much plagued by a mildew yet suffer 
small loss from it, though the disease greatly injures peach-foliage in some 
regions. The delicate, white or grayish powder, giving the name " powdery 
mildew," consists of the spores and mycelium of a fungus (SphcBrotheca 
pannosa (Wallroth) Leveille) which attacks the leaves of several species 
of Prunus causing them to curl and crinkle and sometimes to drop. It 
occtirs most often when there are sudden changes in temperature. When 
treatment is necessary, the self-boiled lime-sulphur mixture is used. 

In common with all tree-fruits, the peach is attacked by crown-gall 
{Bacterium tiimefnciens Smith and Townsend). In New York crown- 
gall seldom greatly injures old trees but nursery plants arc sometimes 
girdled by the galls, seriously injuring them. Badly diseased young plants, 
therefore, should not be planted. The galls are tumor-like structvires, 
usually at the juncture of top and root, which vary from the size of a pea 
to that of a large egg, forming at maturity rough, knotty, dark-colored 
masses. Neither preventive nor cure is known. Planting diseased trees 
is not a safe practice, nor should the peach be set in groimd known to have 
recently had trees badly infected. The raspberry is a common carrier of 
crown-gall and should not be planted as an inter-crop in a peach-orchard. 

The peach suffers more or less from an excessive flow of gum. This 
gumming is usually a secondary effect of injuries caused by fungi, bacteria, 
insects, frost, sunscald, and mechanical agencies. There is a good deal 
of difference in the susceptibilities of varieties to this trouble, sorts having 
hard wood suffering less than those having soft wood. There is less 
gumming, too, on trees in soils favoring the maturity of wood, under con- 
ditions where sun and frost are not injurious, and, obviously, in orchards 
where by good care the primary causes of the diseases are kept out. 

INSECTS ATTACKING THE PEACH 

The peach has its full share of troublesome insects, entomologists 
listing about forty species, at least half of which are either destructive or 
annoying in New York. The peach cannot undergo hardships and once 
it is beset by parasites, it does not prosper. No small part of the peach- 
grower's time, therefore, is spent in combating the insect-pests of his trees. 
The several pestiferous species vary greatly in importance, the peach- 
borer probably holding first place in destructiveness. 



174 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

The peach-borer {Sanninoidea exitiosa Say) is probably the commonest 
and is certainly the most ancient enemy of the peach in America. It is 
found everywhere east of the Rocky Mountains and, since it is a native, its 
natural host being the wild species of Prunus, it has been a parasite on the 
peach from the earliest introduction of this fruit. All in all, it is the most 
destructive insect-pest of the peach, its presence always endangering the 
life of the tree. All peach-growers know the peach-borer. It is a white, 
grub-like caterpillar with a yellowish, shield-like head, which lives and 
feeds in the trunk of the peach just below the surface of the ground, eating 
out irregular chambers and galleries underneath the bark, sometimes 
girdling the trees. The pest is easily discovered through the exudation 
from the infested part of gum mixed with borings and excreta. The 
borers are found at all times in the summer, usually very small in late 
summer and autumn but an inch or more in length in early summer. The 
borer is a larva of a wasp-like moth which lays its eggs in early summer; 
these hatch in from seven to ten days and the minute borers work their 
way into the tree. The moth may be deterred somewhat from depositing 
her eggs by thorough cultivation, mounding the trees and, according to 
some, by the use of obnoxious coverings or poisonous washes on the trunk. 
Preventive measures are seldom sufficiently effective, however, and the 
borers must be destroyed. This is best done by digging them out with a 
knife or wire — " worming " in the parlance of the peach-grower. 

The lesser peach-borer {Sesia pictipes Grote & Robinson) is rather infre- 
quently found infesting the peach in New York. It usually attacks only 
old trees or those showing injury from freezing or other causes. The borer 
is much like the common peach-borer, described in the foregoing para- 
graph, but is smaller, seldom reaching the length of four-fifths of an inch. 
Unlike the true borer, it infests the trunks as well as the crowns of peach- 
trees, feeding in much the same way. Fortunately the pest is not common 
in the State, for it is rather difficult to control, since not only the crown 
but the trunk must be reached in worming for the pest. 

The plum-curculio {Conotracheliis nenuphar Herbst) is sometimes a 
troublesome pest of the peach. It is a rough, grayish, hump-backed 
snout-beetle somewhat less than a quarter of an inch in length, an insect 
so familiar to fruit-growers as hardly to need description. The female 
beetle pierces the skin of the young peaches and places an egg in the 
puncture. About this cavity she gouges out a crescent-shaped trench, 
the puncture and trench making the star and crescent of the Ottoman 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 75 

Empire, hence the common name, " Little Turk." The egg-laying process 
may be repeated in a number of fruits and from each egg a larva hatches 
within a week and burrows to the stone, making a wormy fruit. Most of 
the infested fruits drop. Poisoning with an arsenate is the chief means 
of combating the pest. Rubbish and vegetation offer hiding places and 
hibernating quarters for the insects and hence cultivated orchards are 
most free from curciilio. The thin-skinned nectarines are damaged most 
b}' the insect but peaches are attacked rather freely. Early peaches suffer 
much more than late ones from curculio; thus, of standard sorts in New 
"S'ork, Greensboro and Carman are usually injured more or less while 
Salwey and Chili seldom show a puncture. The plum-orchard is usually 
the source of supply of curculio and early peaches ought not, therefore, 
be set with or near plums. 

San Jose scale {Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) is as harmful to 
peaches as to any other tree-fruit. The insect is now so well known in all 
fruit-growing regions as scarcely to need description. It is usually first 
recognized by its work, evidence of its presence being dead or dying twigs' — 
oftentimes the whole tree is moribund. Examination shows the twigs or 
trees to be covered with myriads of minute scales, the size of a small pin- 
head, which give the infested bark a scurfy, ashy look. If the bark be 
cut or scraped, a reddish discoloration is found. Leaves and fruit as well 
as bark are infested, the insidious pest, however, usually first gaining a 
foothold on the trunk or a large branch. Reproduction is continuous 
throughout the summer in this climate so that the insects multiply by 
leaps and bounds. The peach, possibly, succumbs more quickly than any 
other fruit, three years sufficing for the destruction of a young orchard 
if the pest be brought in on nursery stock. The rougher-barked, older 
trees resist longer and suffer less injury. Still, old orchards are irre- 
trievably ruined in one or two seasons of unrestricted breeding. Peach- 
growers, in common with all fruit-growers, find the lime-sulphur solution 
applied in the dormant season the most effective spray in combating this 
insect. There are several insect-enemies of the scale that are valuable 
allies and entomologists say that the insects seem more susceptible to the 
climatic condition of the country than formerly but still natural checks 
are far from sufficient and the peach-grower should quickly attack with 
the spray-nozzle at the first appearance of scale. 

Besides the San Jose there are several other scales more or less 
abundant in New York orchards, two of which make the peach their favorite 



176 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

host. These are the West Indian peach-scale {Aidacas[?is pentagova 
Targioni) and the Peach-Lecanium {Eulecanium nigrofasciatiim Pergande). 
Neither, however, is very troublesome as far north as New York and both 
are kept well under control by the treatment for the more common San 
Jose. The Lecanium is responsible for the discolored, sooty peaches 
occasionally found in parts of the State; for, though the discoloration 
is caused by a soot-fungus, the fungus lives in the honey-dew of the 
scale. 

The black peach-aphis {Aphis persica-niger E. F.Smith) is sometimes 
a serious pest in light peach-soils in New York but is not nearly as trouble- 
some here as it is in states having a larger proportion of sandy land since 
it seems to find life easiest in light, warm soils. The insect is an intensely 
black, shining louse with brownish legs. It lives underground m.ore than 
above ground, maintaining itself for most part on the tender roots of newly 
set or nursery trees, being found only occasionally on shoots and foliage. 
An expert eye detects the presence of the lice by the sparse and jaundiced 
foliage of young trees which an untrained eye would say were down with 
incipient yellows — indeed countless numbers of young trees have been 
sacrificed to the yellow's pyre when they suffered only from lice on the 
roots. The pest is easily detected on stock received from niirseries — the 
chief source of infestation — and the trees may be dipped or fiunigated 
as for San Jose scale, thus completely exterminating the aphids. Good 
culture and a dressing of some fertilizer will help to carry young orchards 
through an infestation though treatment to a dose of a pound of ground 
tobacco stems worked in the soil about the roots may be necessary. 

There is, too, a green plant-louse {Myzus persicae Sulzer) more or less 
common on peaches in the State every season. It is very similar in appear- 
ance to the green aphis of the apple and other plants and makes its presence 
known by much the same effect on the leaves. It works on the under- 
side of the leaves along the veins, causing the leaves to pucker, curl and 
crinkle much as with leaf-curl. This green louse, however, is seldom 
numerous or liarmful enough on peaches to require treatment. Should 
treatment be required, no doubt nicotine, now the standard remedy 
for aphids on foliage, would keep the pest under. 

The frtiit-tree bark-beetle {Eccoptogaster rugulosus Ratzeburg), known 
in New York as the shot-hole borer, is often a serious menace to old or 
decrepit peach-trees. The beetle is a small, cylindrical insect an eighth 
of an inch long, one-third as wide, the body uniformh- black and the surface 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 77 

closely and deeply pitted and punctured, the punctures on the wing-covers 
arranged in rows. Injury to the peach by this insect is first indicated by 
exudation of gum from trunk and branches and later by numerous small, 
round holes as if the tree had been struck by shot. Healthy, vigorous trees 
are seldom attacked and if so the larvae do not develop, but a peach-tree 
suffering a decline from any cause whatsoever is open to immediate attack 
and once the pest gains foothold the plant is doomed. Here, indeed, an 
ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, for keeping the orchard 
constantly in healthy, vigorous condition to avoid accidental introduction, 
and prompt removal and destrviction of infested trees, both preventive 
measures, constitute the only satisfactory treatment. 

The peach twig-borer {Anarsia lineatella Zell.) imported from Europe, 
has at times been a troublesome pest of the peach in parts of the United 
States but causes little injury in New York. Still, it can be found every 
year in nearly every peach-district in the State and needs, therefore, to be 
guarded against since it may some time appear in sufficient numbers to 
become formidable. The adult is a moth the larva of which is about 
one-half inch long, pinkish in color. This larva is the borer and in early 
spring attacks tender shoots boring down into the pith. It passes from 
one succulent shoot to another so that often many wilted shoots may be 
examined before the borer is found. Fortunately peach-trees send out 
shoots about as rapidly as this pest can destroy them so that in New York, 
at least, unless the tree is much weakened in vitality, not much harm is 
done. The twig-borer has small chance in a well-kept orchard, but, should 
it attain headway, prompt treatment with arsenate of lead will at once 
cut short its career. 

Occasionally complaints come that the common rose-bug or rose- 
chafer {Macrodactylus subspinosus Fabricius) is at work on the peach. 
Leaves, flowers and fruits are eaten. The fuzz on the epidermis of the 
fruit is a deterrent but once a beetle gets through into the flesh, a dozen 
more join in the banquet and the peach is quickly ruined. Now and then 
one hears of a crop destroyed by the beetle. Insecticides seldom avail, 
for the insects are very resistant to poisons. The insects breed only in 
waste places and hence they may be looked for in the orchards of the sloven 
or where slovenly kept fields adjoin. Cultivation and sanitation are, then, 
the preventives. In New York rose-bugs are abundant only in warm, 
sandy soils. 



178 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

CHAPTER V 

LEADING VARIETIES OF PEACHES 

ADMIRAL DEWEY 

I. Ca. Sta. Bui. 42:232. i8g8. 2. Mirli. Sla. Sp. But. 30:14. 1905. 3. Albertson-Hobbs Cat. 
29. 1906. 

.Admiral. 4. Budd-Hansen .Iw. //or/, .l/a/;. 2:335. '903. 

Dewey. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 6. Waugh .Am. Peach Onh. 201. 1913. 

Perhaps the peach most of all desired nowadays by peach-growers 
is a very early, yellow-fleshed freestone. For years Admiral Dewey and 
Triumph, both seedlings of Alexander, have been grown to fill this place 
and both, in the main, fail. Admiral Dewey, while early, yellow in flesh 
and good in quality, is not always a freestone and has several other defects 
which make it nearly worthless as a commercial fruit. Thus, though the 
trees arc very productive, the peaches run small, are so heavily pubescent 
as to be unattractive, are very susceptible to brown-rot and are often dis- 
figured with the peach-scab. The trees, too, sufifer much from leaf-curl. 
With Alexander as the parent, the trees should be hardy, and from 
behavior elsewhere, must be so rated; but they have not proved excep- 
tionally so on our grounds. While nowhere largely planted, Admiral 
Dewey is often set, as no doubt it should be, for an early peach in the 
home orchard. Of the two early sorts, this variety stands shipment 
rather better than Triumph. The varieties are of about the same season, 
both coming a week or thereabouts later than the well-known Alexander. 

Admiral Dewey was grown from a seed of Alexander by J. D. Husted, 
Vineyard, Georgia, in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century. It was 
introduced in 1899 by Mr. Husted and has since been grown commercially 
east and west, north and south. The American Pomological Society 
placed the variety on its fruit-list in 1909 as Dewey but the full name 
bestowed to commemorate the great Admiral should, we think, be retained. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk thick, smooth; 
branches stocky, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, long, 
olive-green overspread with dark red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous lenticels, 
raised near the base. 

Leaves six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, oval to obo\-ate- 
lanceolate, thin; upper surface olive-green, smooth except near the midrib; lower surface 
Hght grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipfjed with reddish-brown glands; petiole one- 
fourth inch long, with one to seven large, reniform, greenish-yellow glands variable in 
position. 




ADMIRAL DEWEY 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 79 

Flower-buds small, short, conical, pubescent, plump, free; blossoms appear in mid- 
season; flowers pink, one and one-half inches across, well distributed, usually in twos; 
pedicels short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, orange-colored within, 
campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, broad, obtuse, glabrous within, slightly pubescent 
without; petals round-ovate, tapering to short, broad claws red at the base; filaments 
one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, equal to the 
stamens in length. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-fourth inches long, two and one-half inches wide, 
round-oblate, slightly compressed; cavity deep, wide, abrupt, with tender skin; suture 
shallow, becoming deeper at the extremities; apex roimdish or flattened, with mucronatc 
tip variable in size; color deep orange-yellow, blushed with dark red, indistinctly splashed 
and mottled; pubescence heavy; skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, 
tinged with red near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, melting, sweet but sprightly; good in 
quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, 
oval to obovate, flattened at the base, tapering to a short point, with grooved surfaces; 
ventral suture deeply grooved along the sides, wide; dorsal suture a deep, wide groove. 

ALEXANDER 

I. Cult. &f Count. Gent. 38:598. 1873. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpl. 263, 26.i. 1874. 3. Card. .Mon. 
17:367, 368. 1875. 4. .4»i. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1877. 5. Card. Mon. 19:147, 303. 1877. 6. Hojrg 
Fruit Man. 4i6. 1884. 7. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 424. 1886. 8. r?i. 5;o. B»/. 39:809, figs. 5 &■ 9. 1896. 
9. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 6:21 fig. 1899. 10. Fulton Peach Cult. 173. 1908. 11. Waugh -Im. Peach 
Orch. ig8. 1913. 12. U. S. D. A. Plant Immigrants 117:958. 1916. 

Alexander's Early. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75, 76. 1873. 14. Horticulturist 28:224. 1873. 

For nearly a half-century Alexander has been one of the notable early 
peaches on this continent, hardiness and vigor of tree contributing with 
earliness to make the variety popular. Unfortunately, there are few 
fruit-characters to commend Alexander; the peaches run small, the flesh 
clings to the stone and is so tender that the two can be separated only with 
difficulty, and the quality is poor. Added to the defects of the fruit the trees 
have the grave fault of being unproductive. The fruits, too, are very sus- 
ceptible to brown-rot but to offset this weakness, the trees are more resistant 
to leaf -curl than those of the average variety. Alexander has been more or 
less grown in every peach-region on this continent, sometimes attaining 
considerable commercial importance, but is now widely cultivated only on 
the Pacific Slope, and even here it is evidently destined to pass out before 
many years in the competition with newer and better sorts. It is often 
confused with Amsden though the two are quite distinct. 

Alexander originated soon after the Civil War on the farm of O. A. 
Alexander, Mount Pulaski, Illinois. Since 1877 it has been on the fruit- 
list of the American Pomological Society. It has been the parent of a 
score or more of meritorious extra-early peaches. 



l8o THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, unproductive; trunk stocky, smooth; 
branches reddish-brown overlaid with Hght ash-gray; branchlets medium to long, olive- 
green overlaid on the sunn\' side with dark red, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, large, 
raised lenticels. 

I eaves six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, oval-lanceolate, 
thin, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light grayish-green; margin 
finely serrate, tipped with dark red glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or 
with one to four small, usually globose, greenish-yellow glands tipped with red, variable 
in ijosition. 

Flower- buds oblong-conic, pubescent, usually free; blooming season early; flowers 
pale pink, one and seven-sixteenths inches across, in well-distributed clusters; pedicels 
very short, thick, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube dull green, light yellowish within, cam- 
panulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, broad, acute, glabrous within, slightly pubescent 
without; petals roundish, often broadly notched near the base, tapering to short, broad 
claws marked with red; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil pubescent at the ovary, 
equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures very early; two and one-eighth inches long, two and one-fourth inches 
wide, round, slightly compressed, with sides nearly equal; cavity deep, abrupt or slightly 
flaring; suttire shallow; apex depressed, ending in a mucronate or small, mamelon, 
recurved tip; color greenish-white becoming creamy-white, blushed and blotched with 
dark red, mottled; pubescence short; skin separates readily from the pulp; flesh greenish- 
white, juicy, stringy, sweet, very mild; fair to good in quality; stone clinging, one and 
one-fourth inches long, five-eighths inch thick, oval, plump, faintly winged, abruptly 
pointed at the apex, with slightly pitted surfaces and with a few grooves; ventral suture 
deeply grooved along the sides, bulged; dorsal suture deeply furrowed, faintly winged. 

ALTON 

I. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. l8l. 1898. 2. Rural N. V. 60:726, 774. 1901. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat 3^. 
1909. 4. N. Y. Slate Fr.Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 2\. 1912. 

Minnie. 5. Mich. Sla. Bui. 118:30. 1895. 6. Tex. .Sta. Bui. 39:813. 1896. 7. ///. Horl. Soc. 
Rpt. 53. 1896. S. Mick. .Sta. Bui. j6g:220. 1899. 9. Budd-Hansen Im. //or/. .1/aw. 2:351, 352. 1903. 

Alton is everywhere held in high esteem as a ■ early mid-season, white- 
fleshed, semi-free peach. It merits the esteem bestowed upon it by virtue 
of large size, handsome appearance and high quality of the peaches and 
hardiness and productiveness in the trees. It ripens a little earlier than 
Champion, long the favorite white-fleshed peach of its season, does not rot 
so readily when brown-rot is rife and hangs longer on the tree in good 
condition. It is not, however, quite so choicely good in quality as 
Champion, nor, on the Station grounds at least, are the trees quite as 
productive. Other faults of Alton are that leaf-ctirl takes heavy toll on 
unsprayed trees, the blossoms open so early as often to be caught by spring 
frosts, and the peaches show great variation in size and shape and even in 




ALEXANDER 




^ ^i^ 








THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK l8l 

texture and flavor. The accompanying cut shows the beauty of the out- 
side but unfortunately on the grounds of this Station the variety is almost 
a clingstone so that the stone could not be separated to permit photograph- 
ing the creamy-white flesh, red at pit, and, all in all, most tempting to the 
eye. Alton seems to be most at home in the Middle West and South and 
is not a familiar inhabitant of eastern orchards as a commercial product. 
This variety originated with T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, a quarter- 
century ago and was introduced by him under the name Minnie. By 
some it is supposed to have come from Alton, Illinois, and to have been 
introduced as Emma but this is an error. Munson's Minnie was tested 
at the Illinois Experiment Station from which place Stark Brothers Nursery 
Company, Louisiana, Missouri, received it and propagated it under the 
name Alton. In 1909 the American Pomological Society placed the variety 
upon its list of fruits as Alton, a name which usage makes preferable to 
the first one, Minnie. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, hardy, medium in productiveness; trunk very stocky; 
branches thick, reddish-bronze overlaid with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, long, 
olive-green mingled with dull red, smooth, glabrous, with many small, inconspicuous 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward, oval-lanceolate, broad; upper surface dark green, rugose at the base; lower surface 
light grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark glands; petiole three-eighths 
inch long, with two to four reniform glands, greenish-yellow, tipped \vith dull red, variable 
in [)osition. 

Flower-buds small, short, conical, usually appressed, heavily pubescent; season of 
bloom early; flowers pale pink, nearly two inches across; borne usually singly; pedicels very 
short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, tinged with greenish-yellow within, 
campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute to slightly obtuse, glabrous within, heavily 
pubescent without; petals roundish-oval, with blunt apex, frequently notched near the 
base, tapering to narrow claws; filaments one-half inch long; pistil pubescent at the ovar\-, 
as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matiires in early mid-season; two and five-sixteenths inches long, two and five- 
eighths inches thick, round-oblate, slightly compressed, with unequal halves; cavity abrupt 
or slightly flaring; suture of medium depth; apex roundish, mucronate; color creamy-white 
overspread with dull red, dotted and splashed with carmine; pubescence thin, short; skin 
tough, adhering slightly to the pulp; flesh white, juicy, stringy, tender, pleasantly subacid; 
fair in quality; stone semi-cling, one and three-eighths inches long, seven-eighths inch 
wide, obovate, plump at the apex, winged near the base, with pitted surfaces; ventral 
suture deeply grooved along the sides, narrow; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 



1 82 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



ARP 



I. N. Y. Stale Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 24. 1913. 

Arp Beauty. 2. .V. J. Ilort. So,. Rpt. lou. lyii. 3. A^. Y. State Fr. Cr. Assoc. Rpt. 21,^. 1913. 
4. N. Y. Sta. Bill. 364: iH:^. 1913. 

Arp is the earliest good yellow peach. This is the chief reason for its 
cultivation though it has other good characters beside earliness to give it 
a place among yellow peaches. At this Station the trees are healthy, 
vigorous, productive and hardier in bud than the average, the buds having 
withstood the cold of two test winters. The round-oval shape and shallow 
suture give it a pleasing appearance of rotundity. To its shapeliness, add 
a skin creamy-yellow, heavily blushed with red and covered with short, 
thick pubescence with the sheen of velvet, and you have a beautiful 
peach — well shown in the color-plate. The flesh is light yellow, firm, 
juicy, sweet, rich, and of excellent quality, but unfortunately clings rather 
tenaciously to the stone. The season of Arp is from a month to five weeks 
earlier than Elberta and for so early a peach is remarkably long. It is 
somewhat susceptible to brown-rot. We do not know from experience 
how the fruit will ship but believe it will stand the wear and tear of trans- 
portation and markets as well as any of the standard peaches. Arp ought 
to be in every home orchard. Attention is called to the fact that the 
June Elberta. in the hands of some growers is Arp. 

Arp originated with C. P. Orr, Arp, Texas, about 1897. Elberta is 
supposed to have been one of the parents while the other may have been a 
peach of the Indian type. The variety was introduced by the originator 
about 1902. 

Tree rather large, vigorous, spreading, hardy, productive; trunk stocky, intermediate 
in smoothness; branches thick, smooth, reddish-bronze overlaid with light ash-gray; branch- 
lets with intemodes intermediate in length, pinkish-red mingled ^\■ith green, smooth, 
glabrous, with many smallish lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
ovcJ -lanceolate, sometimes inclined to obovate, thin, somewhat leathery; upper surface 
dark green; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-browm 
glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to three large, reniform, greenish-yellow 
or reddish-brown glands usuall}- at the base of the leaf. 

Flower-buds intermediate in size and length, plump, oblong-conic, pubescent, 
appressed; blossoms opening in mid-season; flowers light pink, one and three-fourths 
inches across; borne seldom in twos; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dark 
reddish-green, dull orange within, campanulate, glabrous; cah-x-lobes long, medium in 
width, obtuse to acute, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals round-obovate. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 83 

usually broadly notched on each side of the base, tapering to short, narrow claws; filaments 
one-half inch long; pistil glabrous, pubescent at the ovary, equal to the stamens in length. 
Fruit matures early; two and one-sixteenth inches long, two and one-eighth inches 
wide, oval to round, compressed, the halves unequal; cavity medium to deep, wide, abrupt; 
suture shallow, deeper at the base; apex roundish or depressed, with a mucronate tip; 
color greenish-yellow changing to deep yellow, heavily blushed with red, indistinctly 
striped, with conspicuous, large dots; pubescence short, stiff, thick; skin thick, tough, 
adhering to the pulp; flesh light yellow mingled with faint stripes of red radiating from the 
pit, juicy, stringy, tender, sweet, highly flavored; very good in quality; stone clinging, 
one and three-sixteenths inches long, three-fourths inch wide, narrow-oval, plump, with 
short, acute apex, the surfaces pitted and with few short grooves; ventral suture slightly 
winged, rather widely furrowed ; dorsal suture a deep, narrow groove. 

BELLE 

I. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:233. 1898. 2. Am. Card. 21:852. 1900. 3. Ga. Sta. Rpl. 13:308. 1900. 
4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 35. 1909. 

Belle of Georgia. 5. Am. Card. 17:67. 1896. 6. 0/iio 5ta. S«/. 170: 172, 173 fig. 1906. 
Georgia. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 8. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:99, 100 fig. 5. 1901. 

Belle elicits praise from all who know it because of the great beauty 
of its fruits. At its best it is one of the glories of the peach-orchard, the 
fruits being large, trim in contour, creamy-white, with a beautiful crimson 
cheek — truly voluptuous in form and color. The color-plate — made in 
a poor season — falls far short of doing the fruits justice in size and art 
cannot depict the soft tints of red and cream which make Belle so beautiful. 
The fruits are as enticing to the eye inwardly as outwardly, the white 
flesh being deHcately marbled, tinted with red at the pit and the flesh and 
pit usually part cleanly. Unfortunately, appearance misrepresents quality; 
for the variety, while good, falls short in flavor, and the flesh is stringy so 
that it must be rated as not above the average for its type. The trees are 
large, open-headed, a little straggling, fast-growing and hardy, though, 
like most of its type, easy prey to leaf-curl. Belle prefers a southern 
climate and in the South is often a good commercial sort but in New York 
is grown only for local markets and home use, hardly equalling Champion 
as a white-fleshed peach for distant markets. 

Belle came from a seed of Chinese Cling planted in 1870 by L. A. 
Rumph, Marshallville, Georgia. The other parent is unknown but it is 
supposed to have been Oldmixon Free, a tree of which stood near the 
Chinese Cling tree. The variety came to notice about the same time 
as Elberta and has been thought by some to be a seedling of Elberta. 
The American Pomological Society listed Belle in its catalog in 1899 as 



1 84 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Georgia but in 1909 changed the name to Belle and it is so designated in 
horticultural treatises but popularly it is " Belle of Georgia." 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk thick; 
branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets thick, 
medium to long, olive-green overlaid with dark red, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
conspicuous, rather small lenticels. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
oblong-lanceolate, somewhat leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface 
light grayish-green; margin coarsely serrate, tipped with dark red glands; petiole three- 
eighths inch long, with two to six large, reniform or globose, greenish-yellow glands variable 
in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, oval, very plump, strongly pubescent, usually appressed; 
blooming season early ; flowers pale pink but deeper in color along the edges, one and three- 
eighths inches across, often in twos; pedicels long, thick; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, 
yellowish within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes medium in length and width, acute 
to obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals roundish-oval, tapering to 
short, broad claws red at the base; filaments nearly one-half inch long; pistil pubescent 
at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-sixteenth inches long, two and one-eighth 
inches wide, roundish-oval, often bulged near the apex, somewhat compressed, with halves 
nearly equal; cavity abrupt or somewhat flaring, red, with tender skin; suture shallow, 
deepening toward the apex; apex roundish to slightly pointed, with a mucronate tip; color 
greenish-white changing to creamy-white, blushed with red, with faint stripes and splashes 
of darker red, mottled; pubescence short, fine, rather thick; skin thin, tender, adherent 
to the pulp; flesh white, tinged with red at the pit and with radiating rays of red, juicy, 
stringy, tender, sweet, mild; good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-eighth 
inches long, thirteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval, bulged near the apex, blunt at the base, 
with short, sharp point at the apex, with deeply-pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply 
furrowed along the sides, wide ; dorsal suture a narrow groove. 

BEQUETTE FREE 

I. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:32. 1895. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 35. 1909. 

Beg^uctl Free. 3. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpi. 41. 1895. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 5. Budd- 
Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:337. '903- 

Becquette Free. 6. Tex. Sla. Bui. 3g:8o6. 1896. 7. Del. Sta. Rpt. I3:()i. lyoi. 

As it grows at this Station, Bequette Free makes a favorable impression 
because of the flavor and attractive appearance of the fruit. It is not a 
new variety, however, and the fact that it seems to have been rather widely 
and well tested without receiving general commendation except on the 
Pacific Slope is against its having- a place in the list of desirable peaches 
for the Eastern States. The trees are fast-growing, very vigorous, hardy 
and densely clothed with foliage but cannot be called fruitful and are. 




BEQUETTE FREE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 85 

possibly, a little too susceptible to leaf-curl. The color-plate shows the 
fruit to be a little more irregular than it is in nature. 

This variety originated about i860 in a seedling orchard of Benjamin 
Bequette, Yisalia, California. J. H. Thomas of the same place named 
the sort and first propagated it about 1877. In 1899 the American 
Pomological Society added the variety to its list of fruits under the name 
Bequett Free but in 1909 corrected the spelling to Bequette Free. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, rather unproductive; trunk- 
thick, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddirh-brovm mingled with light ash-gray; 
branchlets slender, long, olive-green mingled with dark red, smooth, glabrous, with 
numerous large and small, inconspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves very numerous, six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches 
wide, folded upward, oval-lanceolate inclined to broad-obovate, leathery; upper surface 
very dark green, smooth or slightly rugose; lower surface light ;^ayish-green ; margin 
coarsely serrate, tipped with dark glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with two to five 
large, reniform, greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, oblong-conic, plump, pointed, heavily pubescent, usually 
appressed; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers light to dark pink, nearly one and one- 
fourth inches across, borne in ones and twos; pedicels short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx- 
tube reddish-green, light yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes rather short, 
medium to narrow, nearly acute, pubescent within, heavily pubescent without; petals 
roundish-oval, slightly notched near the base, tapering to short, narrow claws tinged with 
red at the base ; filaments nearly one-half inch long, shorter than the petals ; pistil heavily 
pubescent at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths 
inches wide, round-oval, compressed, often with unequal sides; cavity small, deep, abrupt 
or flaring, often tinged with red; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex; apex roundish, 
depressed at the center, with a small, recurved, mamelon tip; color greenish-white mingled 
with yellow, blushed, splashed and blotched with dark red; pubescence thick, long, coarse; 
skin thin, tough, separates readily from the pulp; flesh white, slightly tinged with red 
near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender and melting, pleasantly flavored, sprightly; good to 
very good in quality; stone nearly free, one and three-eighths inches long, seven-eighths 
inch wide, oval, with a short-pointed apex, medium in plumpness, with deeply pitted 
and slightly grooved surfaces; ventral suture slightly bulged near the apex, deeply furrowed 
along the edges, narrow; dorsal suture grooved. 

BERENICE 

I. La. Sta. Bui. 3:44. 1890. 2. Ibid. 27:941. 1894. 3. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:806. 1896. 4. Ca. 
.Sla. Bui. 42:233. 1898. 5. Del. .Sta. Rpl. 13:9- '90'- 6. Mich. .Sta. Bui. 194:45. 1901. 
7. Berckmans Cat. lo. 1912-1.V 

When at its best Berenice is hardly surpassed in quality by any other 
peach but it seems capricious, in the North at least, and this, with the 



I8b THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

fact that it is none too attractive in coloring, is probably the reason wh\- 
the variety is not more grown. The trees are about all that could be 
desired, falling short chiefly in not being as productive as several other 
peaches of its season and in being a little susceptible to leaf -curl. The 
variety has been offered to fruit-growers a sufficient length of time to 
have had its merits well tried as a commercial peach and the fact that 
it is not now largely grown is presumptive evidence that it has little 
commercial value. Its high quality makes the variety a good sort for 
the home collection at least. 

Berenice originated some thirty or more years ago with the late Dr. 
L. E. Berckmans of Augusta, Georgia. It is supposed to have sprung 
from the pit of a General Lee tree which grew in one of Mr. Berck- 
mans' test orchards. In the Berckmans nursery catalog it is stated of 
Berenice that after thirty years' trial " there is nothing equal to it in the 
same season." 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, hardy, medium to productive; trunk 
stocky; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets 
with short intemodes, dark red overlaid with olive-green, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
large and small lenticels raised at the base. 

Leaves six inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate- 
lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light grayish-green; 
margin coarsely serrate, tipped with dark glands; petiole one-fourth inch long, with two 
to ten large, reniform, yellowish-green glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, oblong, slightly pointed, heavily pubescent, usually appressed; 
blossoms appear in mid-season ; flowers one and three-sixteenths inches across, pale pink, 
tinged darker along the edges, well distributed; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube 
red mingled with dull, dark green, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; cah-x- 
lobes often broad, acute to obtuse, glabrous within, slightly pubescent or heavily pubescent 
without; petals round-ovate, broadly notched, tapering to short claws red at base; 
filaments three-eighths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and five-eighths inches long, two and one-half 
inches wide, round-oval, with halves often unequal; cavity deep, medium to wide, con- 
tracted around the sides, with tender skin, often blushed with red; suture shallow, deepening 
toward the apex; apex roundish or depressed, with a mucronate or mamelon tip; color 
greenish-yellow, blushed and splashed with red; pubescence short, medium fine; skin tough, 
separates from the pulp; flesh yellow, faintly tinted with red near the pit, string^', tender 
and melting, sweet, mild, pleasant flavored; good in quality; stone nearly free, one and 
three-eighths inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval, plimip, drawn out at the ends, 
usuall\- with pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed along the edges; dorsal suture 
deeply grooved, with sides slightly win;:'-liko. 




BERENICE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK ly- 

BLOOD CLING 

I. Bridgeman Card. Ass'l Pt. 3:109. 1857. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 3. Waugh Am 
Peach Orch. 199. 19 13. 

Blood Clingstone. 4. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 17. 1820. 5. Floy Am. Fruits 411. 1825. 6. Down- 
ing Fr. Trees Am. 493, 494. 1845. 7. Ibid. 601. 1869. 8. Fulton Peaeh Cull. 201. 1908. 

Blood Peach. 9. Kenrick Am. Orch. 197. 1841. 

Indian Blood Cling. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 1871. 

Indian Blood. 11. Ga. Sla. Bui. 42:237. 1898. 

Blood Cling is the favorite curiosity of the peach-orchard and as 
such we accord it a color-plate and a full description in The Peaches of 
New York. Unfortunately, the beet-red color of the flesh could not be 
reproduced with sufficient accuracy to make the attempt satisfactory. It 
is a pleasant peach to eat out of hand and is much used for pickling and 
preserving, for which purposes it has real merit. The round-headed, com- 
pact tree might make the variety a desirable parent in breeding new 
peaches. 

This peach is an American seedling raised many years ago from the 
Blood Clingstone of the French. The fruit is much larger than that of 
the parent sort bvit otherwise is much the same. The Blood Free raised 
by John M. Ives of Salem, Massachusetts, while somewhat of the nature 
of Blood Cling, is, nevertheless, a different sort. The American Pomo- 
logical Society listed Blood Cling in its catalog in 1871 under the name 
Indian Blood Cling. In 1897 this name was changed to Blood Cling. 

Tree large, vigorous, round, compact, hardy, unproductive; trunk thick; branches 
stocky, reddish-bronze, with a light ash-gray tinge; branchlets slender, long, with short 
internodes, olive-green overlaid wath dark red, smooth, glabrous, with numerous usually 
small, inconspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
oval-lanceolate; leaves thin, somewhat leathery; upper surface dark green, varying from 
smooth to rugose ; lower surface light grayish-green ; margin finely serrate, with dark 
brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with two to five reniform, light or dark 
green glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, plump, oblong-conic, pubescent, free; flowers open in mid- 
season; blossoms pink, one and three-eighths inches across; pedicels short, glabrous, pale 
green; calyx-tube dull, speckled greenish-red, light greenish-yellow within, campanulate, 
glabrous; calyx-lobes long, narrow, acute, glabrous wdthin, heavily pubescent without; 
petals oval to ovate, crenate near the base, tapering to short, narrow claws white at the 
base; filaments three-eighths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent, seven- 
sixteenths inch long, equal to or shorter than the stamens. 

Frait matures very late; one and three-fourths inches long, one and seven-eigliths 
inches thick, compressed, with unequal halves often giving a lopsided appearance; cavity 



l88 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

narrow, abrupt, usually white; suture shallow; apex round, with a mucronatc tip; color dull 
greenish-white, entirely overspread with dingy pink mingled with splashes and stripes 
of darker, clouded red, mottled; pubescence long, coarse; skin tough, adherent to the pulp; 
flesh red, becoming lighter colored next the stone, juicy, coarse, string}', tough and meaty, 
brisk, pleasantly flavored; fair in quality; stone clinging, one and one-fourth inches long, 
seven-eighths inch wide, oval to slightly obovate, short-pointed, strongly bulged near the 
apex, with grooved and pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed at the sides, 
narrow; dorsal suture deep, medium in width. 

BLOOD LEAF 

I. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:33. •895- 

Blood-leaved Peach. 2. Card. Mon. 13:206. 1871. 3. Ibid. 14:316, PI. 1872. 4. Ibid. 15:142, 
183. 1873. s. Horticulturist 28:155. i873- 6. Card. Mow. 17:58, 59. 1875. 

Blood Leaf is a handsome ornamental. Its beet-red leaves in early 
spring and its pink blossoms, borne in great profusion, entitle it to esteem 
for both foliage and flowers. It is vi^orth growing as well for its fruits. 
The color-plate opposite page 78 shows the flowers and the accompanying 
illustration depicts the fruit-characters. The peaches are in no way 
remarkable and yet they please some as a dessert fruit. Seedlings springing 
up under two trees of this variety in the Station orchard in 19 13, furnished 
interesting data on the inheritance of the blood-red color in the leaves; 
of this peach. Out of 252 young trees, 189 were red-leaved and 63 green- 
leaved — an exact three-to-one ratio to show that the green color is carried 
as a recessive. 

Several stories are told of the origin of this peach. One is that on 
the battlefield of Fort Donelson, Kentucky, a southern general, fatally 
wounded, sucked the juice of a peach and threw the stone into the little 
pool of blood which flowed from his side. From this pit in its bloody 
seed-bed sprang the tree with its blood-red leaves. John L. Hebron, in 
a letter published in Gardener's Monthly, 1873, tells a different tale. 
According to Hebron the variety was found by P. I. Connor in 1866 at 
Champion Hills, Mississippi, on the battlefield where General Tilghman 
was killed, a tree having sprung up close to the spot where the General 
died. The variety is sometimes called the General Tilghman peach. Leav- 
ing fable and coming to facts, we find that the variety originated in 
Mississippi in the sixties and was introduced to the trade in 1871. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, willowy in growth, open-topped, hardy, 
unproductive; trunk thick, rough; branches smooth, reddish -bronze overspread with light 
ash-gray; branchlets slender, long, with short intemodes, dull green overlaid with dark 
red, smooth, glabrous, w\th numerous small, inconspicuovis lenticels. 




BLOOD CLING 




BLOOD LEAF 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 89 

Leaves four and three-fourths inches long, one and one-fourth inches wide, folded 
upward, oval-lanceolate with tendency to obovate, thin; upper surface when young 
purplish-red but changing to green, smooth or rugose; lower surface purplish-olive; margin 
finely serrate, tipped with small, dark glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with two 
to five small, reniform, greenish-yellow, red-tipped glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, oblong-conic, plump, pubescent, appressed; blossoms appear in 
mid-season; flowers one and one-half inches across, pale pink, occasionally in twos; pedicels 
nearly sessile, glabrous, greenish ; calyx-tube dark, dull red mingled with green, yellowish 
within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobe? long, narrow, acute, glabrous within, slightly 
pubescent to heavily pubescent without; petals oval, slightly contracted toward the apex, 
tapering to short claws; filaments three-eighths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil 
equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures verj' late; one and five-eighths inches long, nearly one and five-eighths 
inches wide, roundish-oval, slightly compressed, with unequal sides, with prominent bulge 
near the apex; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt, contracted about the sides, marked with 
narrow, radiating stripes of pale red ; suture very shallow, becoming deeper toward the 
apex; apex roundish or slightly depressed, with a small, mucronate or recurved, mamelon 
tip; color greenish-white and pale yellow, lightly washed with dull pink which changes 
to dull brown, in some cases deepening to a reddish blush; pubescence thick, short, fine; 
skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh white to the pit, juicy, coarse, meaty but 
tender, sweetish, with some astringency; poor in quality; stone clinging, over one inch 
long, three-fourths inch wide, oval, very plump, tapering to a short, blunt point at the 
apex, with grooved surfaces; ventral suture lightly furrowed along the sides, rather wide; 
dorsal suture with narrow groove, slightly winged. 

BRIGDON 

I. Am. Card. 11:244, 378. 1890. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. 
Man. 2:340. 1903. 4. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 199. 1913. 
Garfield. 5. Can. Hort. 26:441, fig. 2665. 1903. 

Brigdon is a local variety which possibly local pride puts too much 
in evidence in assigning it a place among the major varieties in The Peaches 
of New York. Still, it belongs with the Crawfords, aristocrats among 
peaches, and this is enough to give it standing in a home collection at 
least. In tree and fruit it is similar to and a worthy rival of Early Craw- 
ford and has the same two fatal faults to bar it from commercial planta- 
tions — the trees are capricious as to soils and are often tmproductive. 
On the other hand, a character of the tree to commend it to the amateur 
is that it is one of the least susceptible of all peach-trees to leaf-curl. The 
variety is well known only in western New York and is going out in this 
region. 

Brigdon originated more than a quarter-century ago in Cayuga County, 
New York, and has been grown since more or less extensively on the shores 



190 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

of Seneca Lake. The name Garfield was given to this peach by some 
one but why or when does not appear. The variety was added to the 
American Pomological Society's recommended list of fruits in 1899, a 
distinction it has since held. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, unproductive; trunk 
thick; branches stocky, rather smooth, reddish-brown overlaid with light ash-gray; branch- 
lets slender, with tendency to branch, long, olive-green overlaid with dark red, smooth, 
glabrous, with numerous large and small, inconspicuous, irregiilarly shaped and often 
raised lenticels, the expansion of which causes a cracking of the bark. 

Leaves five and seven-eighths inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded 
upward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface 
light grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark glands; petiole nearly one-half 
inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose, greenish-yellow glands variable 
in position. 

Flower-buds oblong-conic, pubescent, somewhat shrunken, usually free; blossoms 
open in mid-season. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-fourths 
inches wide, round-oval to cordate, compressed, bulged beak-like near the apex; cavity 
deep, medium to wide, abrupt or flaring, often colored with red ; suture shallow, becoming 
deep near the apex ; apex roundish, with a pointed or recurved, mamelon tip ; color greenish- 
yellow changing to pale orange-yellow, speckled and splashed with dull red which often 
extends over nearly the whole surface ; pubescence long, thick, woolly ; skin thin, somewhat 
tough, separates from the pulp only when fully ripe ; flesh j-ellow, juicy, coarse, firm, tender, 
sweet, mild, pleasant flavored; very good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one- 
fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval, decidedly bulged on one side, with a 
rather long and slightly curved point, with pitted and grooved surfaces; ventral suture 
deeply furrowed along the edges, medium in width; dorsal suture grooved, slightly winged. 

CANADA 

1. Mich. Sla. Bui. 118:33. 1895. 

Early Canada. 2. Card. Mon. 20:237. 1878. 3. Ibid. 27:144, 145. 1885. 4. Mich. Hort. Soc. 
Rpt. 80. 1897. 5. Bogue Ca;. 25. 1905. 

Canadische FrUhpfirsich. 6. Mathieu iVo/n. Pom. 391. 1889. 

Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, Canada has been 
a standard early peach in the northern states and more particularly in 
the peach-growing region along Lake Ontario in Canada where it originated. 
The variety has few characters to commend it excepting earliness and 
hardiness though the trees often load themselves with fruit. The peaches, 
though small, are attractive in color which is bright red on a light back- 
ground. The red is well shown in the color-plate though the fruits 
illustrated are rather smaller than usual. Canada is about the poorest 
of all peaches in flavor. The fruits are firm and ship well for a white- 





w 




THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I9I 

fleshed peach making, so many maintain, a better commercial variety 
than its rival, Alexander. On our grounds Canada is freer from rot than 
Alexander and the flesh does not cling as tightly. All agree that the tree 
is very hardy. However, there ought to be but small place in the peach- 
lists of nowadays for a variety so poor in quality and with fruits of such 
inferior size as those of Canada. 

The variety originated as a chance seedling more than a quarter- 
century ago with A. H. High, Jordan, Ontario, Canada. It is often known 
as Early Canada and is not infrequently confounded with Amsden and 
Alexander, varieties of the same season. 

Tree large, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk thick; branches 
stocky, smooth, reddish-brown overspread with light ash-gray; branchlets with internodes 
medium in length, dark red, with a slight tinge of green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, slightly 
curving, \^^th numerous conspicuous, large, raised lenticels. 

Leaves folded upward, six inches long, one and one-fourth inches wide, oval to obovate- 
lanceolate, medium in thickness; upper surface pale olive-green, smooth or rugose; lower 
surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole 
one-fourth inch long, with one to four small, globose, greenish-yellow glands variable in 
position. 

Flower-buds small, short, narrow, pointed, not very plump, dark colored, appressed; 
blossoms appear in mid-season ; flowers dark pink at the center, bordered with lighter pink, 
one and one-half inches across; pedicels very short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish- 
green, lemon-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, obtuse, glabrous within, 
slightly or heavily pubescent without; petals roundish-ovate, widely notched at the base, 
tapering to long, broad claws red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than 
the petals; pistil equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures ver>' early; two inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, round- 
oblate, slightly compressed, with unequal sides; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow to 
deep ; apex ending in a mucronate, recurved tip ; color creamy white, blushed with red and 
mottled and splashed with darker red; pubescence short, thick; skin thin, tender, separates 
from the pulp; flesh white, juicy, fine-grained, meaty but tender, sweet yet sprightly; 
fair in quality; stone semi-clinging, one and one-eighth inches long, seven-eighths inch 
wide, round-oval to elliptical, plump, abruptly pointed, with small grooves in the surfaces; 
ventral suture very deeply grooved along the sides, narrow; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

CAPTAIN EDE 

I. Lovett Cat. 29. 1897. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 12. 1907. 

Ede. 3. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 183. 1888-89. 4. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:212. 1899. 5. Del. Sta. 
Rpt. 13:96. 1900. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Though Captain Ede has been under cultivation forty-six years it 
has but recently come into prominence and seems now to find favor quite 



192 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

generally as a money-making peach. Those who recommend it say that 
the trees are vigorous, heavy bearers and that the crop is uniform and 
always fair, smooth and without culls. The crop matures in a short time, 
ships well and is in demand in the markets either as a dessert peach or 
for culinary purposes. On the Station grounds, Captain Ede comes up 
to the reputation given it in all respects excepting productiveness — here 
it is a shy bearer. The peaches, as the color-plate shows, are beautiful, 
the flavor is subacid but rich, with a distinct smack of the almond. Captain 
Ede ripens with Early Crawford, a week or ten days before Elberta. 
The tree, as it grows here, can hardly be distinguished from that of Elberta. 
We should unhesitatingly recommend Captain Ede to New York peach- 
growers, were it not for the fear that it does not accommodate itself to 
a diversity of soils and climates. It does rather better farther south. 

Captain Ede originated in 1870 as a seedling in the door-yard of 
Captain Henry Ede, Cobden, Illinois. Later, it was introduced by George 
Gould and Son, Villa Ridge, Illinois. The parentage of the variety is 
unknown. By some, Chinese Cling is supposed to have been one of the 
parents and others give the same credit to Honest John. The American 
Pomological Society added Captain Ede to its fruit-list in 1909. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, not always productive; trunk thick; 
branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown overspread with very light ash-gray; branchlets 
slender, olive-green more or less overspread with dark red, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
large or very small, inconspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate ; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light grayish- 
green; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark red glands; petiole one-fourth inch long, 
with two to six, reniform, greenish-yellow glands medium in size and variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, oblong-conic, plump, usually appressed; blossoms open very 
late; flowers three-fourths inch across, dark pink; pedicels short, glabrous, pale green; 
calyx-tube dull, dotted reddish-green, orange-red within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx- 
lobes short, broad, obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals rotmdi&h- 
ovate, notched near the base, tapering to short, narrow, white claws; filaments one-fourth 
inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent toward the base, equal to the 
stamens in legth. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; about two and one-fourth inches in diameter, roundish- 
cordate to somewhat oval, verj' slightly compressed, with nearly equal halves, bulged 
near the apex; cavity wide, abrupt or flaring, often tinged with red and with tender skin; 
suture variable in depth, extending more than half-waj' around; apex roundish, with a 
prolonged, recurved, mamelon tip; color orange-yellow, with specks and splashes of red, 
blushed with darker red; pubescence thick, short, variable in coarseness; skin tough, 









CAPTAIN EDE 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK I93 

adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, stained red at the pit, dry, stringy, tender, somewhat 
meaty, strongly aromatic, pleasanth- flavored; good in quality; stone free, one and one- 
fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval, bulged along the ventral suture, with 
pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeph' furrowed along the edges, narrow; dorsal suture 
grooved, somewhat flattened. 

CARMAN 

I. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 25. 1894. 2. Rural N. Y. 54:235, 619. 1895. 3. Ga. Sta. Rpt. 
13:308. 1900. 4. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:92, 93 fig. 3. 1901. 5. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 385, 386, PI. 
XLVIII. 1901. 6. ir. .V. r. Hon. Sor. Rpt. II. 1907. 7. Aw. Pom. .Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Among the many white-fleshed peaches of recent introduction, few 
hold a more conspicuous place than Carman. Possibly its chief asset 
is a constitution which enables it to withstand trying cHmates, both north 
and south, and to accommodate itself to a great variety of soils. Thus, 
we find Carman a very general favorite in nearly every peach-region on 
this continent. Besides its cosmopolitan constitution, there is much merit 
in the fruits especially for a peach ripening so early. While of but medium 
size (the color-plate does not do justice in showing the size of Carman) 
the peaches are most pleasing in appearance. The color is a brilliant red 
splashed with darker red on a creamy-white background. The shape is 
nearly round and the trimness and symmetry of the contour make the 
variety, especially when packed in box or basket, one scarcely surpassed 
in attractiveness of form. Carman is rated as very good in quality for 
a peach of its season though a smack of bitterness in its mild, sweet flavor 
condemns it for some. The habit of growth is excellent, peaches are borne 
abundantly, brown-rot takes comparatively little toll and in tree or bud 
the variety is remarkably hardy. All in all, Carman is one of the mosc 
useful peaches of its class and season for either home or commercial 
planting. 

Carman grew from a seed planted in 1889 by J. W. Stube:, auch. 
Alexia, Texas. The tree fruited in 1892 and its earliness anc' freedom 
from rot so pleased Mr. Stubenrauch that he at once began p jpagating 
the new variety, naming it Pride of Texas. Later, in 1894, th( name was 
changed to Carman in honor of the late E. S. Carman, long e litor of the 
Rural New Yorker. In 1909 the American Pomological SG:iety added 
Carman to its list of fruits as one of its recommended vari( ties. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading or somewhat upright, open-topped .lardy, very pro- 
ductive; trunk thick; branches stocky, smooth, bright red overspread witl ash-gray; branch- 
lets Ion , olive-green overspread with dark red, glabrous, smooth, glos y, with nimierous 
small, inconspicuous lenticels. 
13 



194 '^'^^ PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Leaves five and seven-eighths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward, oval to obovate-lanceolate ; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface light 
grayish-green ; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark red glands ; petiole one-fourth inch 
long, with thr ee to five reniform glands mediiun in size and variable in position and color. 

Flower-buds oval, pointed, plump, heavily pubescent, appressed; blossoms open in 
mid-season; flowers one and one-fourth inches across, pink; pedicels short, glabrous, pale 
green; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, speckled, yellowish-green within, campanulate, 
glabrous; calyx-lobes short, acute to obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; 
petals oval to ovate, with distinct notches near the base, tapering to narrow, white claws 
of medium length ; filaments three-eighths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent 
near the base, shorter than the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; about two and one-fourth inches in diameter, round-oval, com- 
pressed, with unequal sides, bulged near the apex; cavity abrupt or flaring, tinged with 
pink and with tender skin ; suture shallow, becoming deeper at the cavity ; apex roundish 
or depressed, with a somewhat pointed or mucronate tip; color creamy- white more or less 
overspread with light red, with splashes of darker red; pubescence very thick, short; skin 
thin, tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh white, red at the pit, juicy, tender, sweet, mild, 
pleasant flavored; very good in quality; stone nearly free, about one and one-half inches 
long, one inch wide, oval, plump, with thickly-pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved 
along the edges, thick, furrowed and winged; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

CHAIRS 

1. Mich. Sla. Bui. 169:209. 1899. 2. Rural N. Y. 59:642 fig. 236. 1900. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. 
Hort. Man. 2:340. 1903. 

Chairs' Choice. 4. N. C. Sta. Rpl. iiwo'i. 1889. $. 'Wa.ngh Am. Peach Orch. 200. 1913. 

Cluiir's Choice. 6. Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpl. 151. 1893. 7. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 166. 1895. 8. Ibid. 
26. 1899. 

Chair Choice. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Chairs is a select fruit in the Crawford group, in its turn the most 
select of the several groups of peaches. In quality Chairs is unapproach- 
able by varieties outside of its own family and is not svirpassed by any 
within its group. The variety was at one time a standard late, yellow- 
fieshed, freestone, market peach competing in popularity with Late Craw- 
ford over which it often held ascendency because less subject to brown-rot. 
The coming of the showier and more productive but less well-flavored 
varieties of the Elberta type has driven the Crawford group from the 
markets and Chairs is now known only in collections where it will long be 
treasured for its delectable quality. Unproductiveness and capriciousness 
in soil and climate, faults of all Crawford-like peaches, are marked in 
Chairs. The fruits are usually larger than the specimens shown in the 
accompanying illustration. 

Chairs originated about 1880 in the orchard of Franklin Chairs, Anne 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 1 95 

Arundel County, Maryland. First called Chairs' Choice, the apostrophe 
was dropped in 1891 by the American Pomological Society and still later 
the same organization shortened the name to Chairs. Its horticultural 
value was early appreciated by all pomologists and it has long been a prime 
favorite. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, unproductive; trunk stocky; branches 
thick, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets inclined to rebranch, 
short, with long intemodes, olive-green overlaid with dark red, smooth, glabrous, with 
numerous large and small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth or somewhat rugose'; 
lower surface light grajdsh -green ; margin coarsely serrate, often in two series, tipped with 
reddish-brown glands ; petiole one-fourth inch long, with two to six small, globose, greenish- 
yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, oblong-obtuse, ven,' plump, usually free; season of bloom late; 
flowers dark pink fading toward the whitish centers, three-fotuths inch across; pedicels 
short, glabrous, pale green; calyx-tube dull, dotted reddish-green, orange-red within, 
campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, glabrous \vithin, heavily pubescent without; 
petals oval or ovate, nearly entire, often notched near the base, tapering to claws of medium 
width, white at the base; filaments one-fourth inch long, equal to the petals in length; 
pistil pubescent near the ovary, usually longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in late mid-season; two and three-fourths inches long, two and seven- 
eighths inches thick, roimdish-oval, irregxdar, bulged beak-like along one side toward the 
apex, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity deep, wide, abrupt or flaring; suture shallow, 
deepening toward the apex and extending slightly beyond ; apex roundish, with a mucronate 
or small, recurved, mamelon tip; color golden-yellow, blushed and splashed with dull red; 
pubescence short, fine; skin thin, tough, free; flesh yellow, faintly stained with red near 
the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, subacid or sprightly, pleasantly flavored; very good in 
quality; stone free, one and three-fourths inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, 
large, broadly oval, bidged along one side, pliunp, with surfaces deeply pitted and with 
short grooves; ventral sutitre wide, deeply fuirowed along the sides, winged; dorsal suture 
a deep, wide groove inclined to wing. 

CHAMPION 
I. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 392. 1891. 2. Mich. Sla. Bui. 118:33. ■SqS- 3- Ont. Ft. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 
1:57 1895- 4- Am- Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 5. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:233. 1898. 6. iiich. Sta. But. 
169:209,210. 1899. 7. Kan. Horl. Soc. Rpt. 4S. 1901. i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. \\2. 1903. 9. Can. 
Hort. 27:97, 98, fig. 2746. 1904. 10. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 478, 479, PI. XLV. 1908. 11. Waugh 
Am. Peach Orch. 200. 1913. 

Champion is the white-fleshed peach par excellence in quality — rightly 
used as the standard to gauge the quality of all other white-fleshed peaches. 
The fruits are nearly as attractive to the eye as to the palate but unfortu- 
nately nm small ruid off color in all but choiceh' good peach-soils. The 



196 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

peaches are not only very good in the characters that make up quality — 
tender flesh, juiciness, pleasant flavor — but there is a peculiar honeyed 
sweetness possessed by few other peaches which gives the Champion 
individuality. The color, barring a slight excess in yellow, is well shown 
in the color-plate but the size as shown is small. The tree of Champion 
is almost perfect from the ground up, few other varieties surpassing it in 
height and girt and none, on the Station grounds at least, equalling it 
in the quantity and the luxuriant green of its foliage. A Champion tree 
is known by its foliage as far as the eye can distinguish color. As would 
be expected from the tree-characters given, in soils to which it is suited, 
Champion rejoices in vigor and health as do few other varieties. The 
variety surpasses most of its orchard-associates in productiveness but the 
peaches are inviting prey to brown-rot and the trees are sometimes 
defoliated with leaf-curl so that, with its capriciousness as to soils, it has 
grave faults as a commercial variety. Because of high quality of the 
fruit and the beauty of the tree, Champion should have a conspicuous 
place in the orchard of the amateur. 

Champion is a seedling of Oldmixon Free supposedly fertilized by 
Early York. The original seed was planted about 1880 by I. G. Hubbard, 
Nokomis, Illinois, and the variety was introduced by him and by the 
Dayton Star Nurseries in 1890. In the early years of its dissemination 
Champion was confused with an early, semi-cling variety which originated 
in western Michigan and which was locally sold for a time imder the same 
name. The American Pomological Society added Champion to its fruit-list 
in 1897. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, very productive; trunk thick; branches 
stocky, sniooth, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray; branchlets thick, very long, with 
short internodes, oHve-green overspread with dull red, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
large lenticels, inconspicuous except toward the base. 

Leaves five and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate ; upper surface dark green, rugose along the midrib; lower surface 
^ayish-green ; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark red glands; petiole three-eighths 
inclj long, with two to five small, globose, greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, medium in length, plimip, conical, pubescent, free; blossoms 
appear in mid-season; flowers pink, less than one inch across, well distributed; pedicels 
short, glabrous, pale green; calyx-tube dark, mottled reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, 
obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, broad, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without, 
slightly reflexed ; petals round-oval to ovate, tapering to narrow, short, white claws; filaments 
three-eighths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent about the ovary, 
equal to the stamens in length. 




CIIAMI'ION 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK I97 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, two and three- 
eighths inches wide, round or roimd-oval, somewhat truncate, with halves usually equal; 
cavity shallow, narrow, abrupt or flaring, contracted ; suture shallow; apex roundish, usualh- 
with a slightly recurved, mucronate tip; color pale green changing to creamy-white, with 
splashes of carmine mingled with a blush of darker red; pubescence short, thick; skin 
tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh white, tinged red at the pit, very juicy, markedly tender, 
sweet, pleasant flavored; very good; stone semi-free to free, one and one-half inches long, 
about one inch wide, oval, long-pointed, with deeply grooved surfaces; ventral suture 
furrowed deeply along the sides, wide; dorsal suture deeply furrowed, rather wide, witli 
sides slightly wing-like. 

CHILI 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 2. Budd-Hanscn Am. Horl. Man. 2:340. 1903. 

Hill's Chili. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 184, 211. 1856. 4. Elliott Fr. Book 298. 1859. 5. Downing 
Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 142, 143. 1872. 6. Am. Pom. .Soc. Cal. 28. 1873. 7. Mich. Ilort. Soc. Rpt. 
483, 484. 1873. 

Sugar. 8. Card. Mon. 11:148. 1869. 

Stanley Late. 9. Ibid. 14:347. 1872. 10. Mich. Sla. Sp. Bui. 44:62. 1910. 

Jenny Lind. 11. Mich. Horl. Soc. Rpt. i id. 1872. 

Cass. 12. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 14, 15. 1899. 

Chili, long familiar to the older generation of peach-growers as Hill's 
Chili, is now waning in popularity though for nearly a century it was one 
of the mainstays of peach-growing, having been widely and commonly 
planted in commercial orchards the country over. Chili, in its day, was 
one of the notable culinary peaches, being especially desirable for canning 
and curing because of its firm, dry, but well-flavored flesh, and, besides, 
it ripened late in the season when cool weather gave storage conditions 
and made culinary work more agreeable to housewives. The peaches are 
not at all attractive in size, color or shape, are quite too dry of flesh to 
eat with pleasure out of hand and are made even less agreeable to sight 
and taste by pubescence so heavy as to be woolly. The trees of Chili 
are about all that could be desired, for, while of but medium size, they 
are vigorous, very hardy, long-lived and, barring injury from cold or 
frost, are annually fruitful, though the variety has the fault of ripening 
its crop unevenly — an asset in home orchards, a liability in commercial 
plantings. 

Chili came into cultivation early in the Nineteenth Centiuy, the first 
tree probably having appeared in the orchard of Deacon Pitman Wilcox, 
Chili, Monroe County, New York. It comes almost true to seed and 
several seedlings have sprvmg up which are almost indistinguishable from 
it. Among these are Sugar, Stanley Late, Jenny Lind and Cass. Chili 
was mentioned by the American Pomological Society in 1 856 as a worthy 



198 THE PEACIIKS OF NEW YORK 

sort under the name " Hill's Chili "; placed under this name on the fruit 
list in 1873; and changed to Chili in 1897. 

Tree medium in size, compact, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, i^roductive; trunk 
thick, shaggy; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; 
branchlets unusually long, with spur-like branches near the tips, dark reddish-green, glossy, 
smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves folded upward and recurved, six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, 
long-oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dark, dull olive-green, smooth; lower 
surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole 
three-eighths inch long, with two to seven small, usually reniform, reddish-brown glands 
mostly on the petiole. 

Flower-buds small, short, obtuse, plump, pubescent, nearly free; blossoms appear 
in mid-season; flowers pink, one and one-half inches across, well distributed; pedicels 
short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube red at the base, orange-colored within, campanulate, 
glabrous; calyx-lobes short, medium to broad, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals oval, faintly notched near the base, tapering to short claws of medium width, tinged 
with red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent 
near the base, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit late; two and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, oblong- 
conic, somewhat angular, compressed, with imequal halves; cavity imeven, shallow, medium 
to wide, contracted, abrupt or flaring, the skin tender and tearing easily; suture shallow, 
sometimes extending beyond the apex ; apex slightly pointed ; color greenish-yellow changing 
to orange-yellow, with a dark red blush, splashed and mottled with red; pubescence long, 
thick, coarse; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh stained red at the pit, yel- 
lowish, dry, string>', firm but tender, mild but sprightly; good in quality; stone free, one 
and one-half inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, flattened wedge-like at the base, 
oval to obovate, winged, usually without bulge, long-pointed at the apex, with pitted 
surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed, wide; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

CHINESE CLING 

1. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 636. 1857. 2. Horticulturist 14:107. 1859. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 
18. 1871. 4. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:85, 86, 95, 107, fig. 4. 1901. 

Shaiighae. 5. Mag. Hort. 17:464. 1851. 6. Card. Chron. 693. 1852. f. Downing Pt. Trees Am. 
641. 1857. 

Chinese Peach. 8. Horticulturist N. S. 3:286, 472. 1853. 

Shanghai. ^. Hogg Fruit Man. 22,1. 1866. 

De Chang-Hai. 10. Mas ie Ferger 7:211, 212, fig. 104. 1866-73. 

Chinese Cling holds a high place in the esteem of American pomol- 
ogists for its intrinsic value, because it was the first peach in one of the 
main stems of the peach-family to come to America, and because it is the 
parent, or one of the parents, of a great number of the best white-fieshed 
peaches grown in this country. The variety is not now remarkable for 




CHINESE CLING 



THE I'EACHES OF NEW YORK 



199 



either fruit- or tree-characters, being surpassed in both by many of its 
offspring, except, possibly, in quality. The flavor is delicious, being finely 
balanced between sweetness and soiimess, with sweet predominating, and 
with a most distinct, curious and pleasant taste of the almond. The fruits 
are too tender for shipment and very subject to brown-rot. The trees 
are weak-growers, shy-bearers, tender to cold and susceptible to leaf-curl. 
Chinese Cling created a sensation in pomology when it was brought to 
America because it was very different from any other peach then here 
and was superior to any other in several characters. Its seedlings quickly 
came into prominence with the result that possibly a hundred or more 
of the varieties named in The Peaches of New York have descended from 
it. The attempt to hold it and its seedlings in a distinct group fails, as 
we have tried to show in discussing groups of peaches, because through 
hybridization they are hopelessly confused with other stocks. The color- 
plate is an excellent illustration of Chinese Cling. 

Chinese Cling was found growing in the orchards south of the city 
of Shanghai, China, by Robert Fortune, the indefatigable English botanist, 
who was sent to China by the London Horticultural Society to collect 
useful and ornamental plants. Fortune sent the peach to England in 
1844 under the name Shanghai, a name which it retains, with variable 
. spellings, in Europe. Chinese Cling was imported as potted plants to 
America in 1850 by Charles Downing through a Mr. Winchester, British 
consul at Shanghai, China. Downing forwarded one of the trees to Henry 
Lyons, Laurel Park, Columbia, South Carolina, with whom the variety 
first fruited in America. Lyons called the new fruit " Chinese Peach." 
In 1 87 1 the American Pomological Society placed Chinese Cling on its 
recommended list of varieties, a place it still holds. 

Tree rather weak in growth, upright-spreading, round-topped, not very hardy, medium 
in productiveness; trunk thick; branches stocky, reddish-brown mingled with light ash- 
gray; branchlets with short intemodes, olive-green more or less overlaid with dark red, 
smooth, glabrous, with numerous large and very small, inconspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves seven and one-half inches long, two inches wide, folded upward, broad oval- 
lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth, becoming slightly rugose 
along the midrib; lower surface light gra^^sh-g^een ; margin coarsely crenate to fineh^ 
serrate, tipped with dark red glands; petiole one-half inch long, with two to five reniform, 
greenish-yellow, dark-tipped glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, obtuse, pliunp, very pubescent, somewhat appressed; blossoms 
appear in mid-season; flowers pink, one and one-half inches across, well distributed; 
pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green; calyx-lobes medium to broad, 



200 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent near the outer edges; petals ovate, irregularly 
notched near the base, tapering to short, white claws; filaments one-fourth inch long, 
shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and five-eighths inches long, two and nine-sixteenths inches 
wide, round-oval, compressed; cavity deep, contracted, narrow, abrupt, faintly tinged with 
red ; suture deep, extending beyond the apex ; apex roundish or flattened, with a mucronate 
tip; color greenish-white changing to creamy-white, blushed on one side with lively red, 
splashed and marbled with duller red ; pubescence thick ; skin tough, adhering to the pulp ; 
flesh white, tinged with red near the pit, juicy, meaty, tender, sweet but sprightly, aro- 
matic; good in quality; stone clinging, one and three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, 
oval, conspicuously winged, bulged on one side, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply 
furrowed along the sides, rather narrow; dorsal suture large, deep, wide, winged. 

CfflNESE FREE 

I. Ala. Sta. Bui. n:;, ii. iHgo. 2. Am. Pom. So( . Cal. 44. 1891. 3. Ga. Sla. Bui. 42:234. 
1898. 4. Del. .Sta. Rpl. 13:95. 1901. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 6. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 
200. 191 3. 

Perhaps it is enough to say that Chinese Free is Chinese CUng with 
a free stone — at least it has been so heralded. On our grounds, however, 
leaves, flowers and fruits are all smaller and the quality of the fruit is 
not nearly as good while the tree runs a little better in most characters. 
This, perhaps, is a good example of many of the seedlings of Chinese 
Cling — the influence of another parent and the stimulus of hybridization 
are apparent. Chinese Free is surpassed by many other white-fleshed 
peaches of its season for both home and market. Doubt has arisen 
as to whether the tree on the Station grounds is the true Chinese Free. 
yet we think it is the variety now commonly going under this name. 

This variety grew from a seed of Chinese Cling in the orchard of 
W. P. Robinson, Atlanta, Georgia, nearly forty years ago. Mr. Robinson 
first exhibited it before the Georgia Horticultural Society in 1881 as an 
unnamed seedling. Thereafter it was sometimes known locally as Robinson 
but commercially it has always been called Chinese Free. In 1891 the 
Georgia Horticultural Society formally adopted the latter name. The 
American Pomological Society listed Chinese Free on its fruit-list in 1891 
but dropped it in 1897. In 1909, however, another change in heart caused 
the Society's officials again to list it in the catalog where it still remains. 
Tree above medium in size, vigorous, spreading, the lower branches slightly drooping, 
open-topped, neither very hardy nor very productive; trunk thick; branches stoclc},', 
smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, inclined to rebranch, 
long, dark red intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, vnth. numerous 
large, conspicuous lenticels raised toward the base. 




M 

\^^^"' 





THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 201 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded 
upward, oval-lanceolate, medium in thickness and toughness; upper surface dark green, 
rugose along the midrib; lower surface dull grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with dark red glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with two to six rather large, reni- 
foi-m, greenish-yellow, dark-tipped glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds usually obtuse, plump, very pubescent, somewhat appressed; blooming 
season early; flowers ])ale pink, darker along the edges, one and one-fourth inches across, 
often in twos; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dull, dark reddish-green, light 
yellow within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals oval or ovate, tapering to small, narrow claws tinged with red at the base; filaments 
one-half inch long, usually shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, often 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-fourths 
inches wide, roimdish-oval, bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity 
narrow, abrupt, tinged with red, with tender skin; suture shallow but deepening at the 
apex; apex roundish or pointed, with a mucronate tip; color greenish- white changing to 
creamy-white, blushed with red, mottled and striped with darker red ; pubescence very short, 
thin; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh greenish-white or whitish, stained 
with red at the pit, juicy, tender, melting, subacid, sprightly; fair to possibly good in 
quality; stone free, one and one-fourth inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval, 
I)lump, abruptly pointed, with purplish-brown, pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply 
furrowed along the sides, winged near the base, rather wide; dorsal suture deeply grooved, 
wing-like. 

CLIMAX 
i.Am.Pom.Soi.Cat.44. 1891. 2. Tex. Sla. Bui. 3g:>i04. 1S96. 3. Glen St. Mary Cai. 1 1. igoo- 
4. Fla. Sia. Bui. 73:143- 1904. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Climax is a honey-sweet, freestone peach supposedly adapted only 
to the far south. The trees on the grounds of this Station seem as hardy 
as the average and are as productive. Whether or not the peaches are 
as large and as attractive here as in Florida, where the variety is a com- 
mercial sort, we cannot say but certain it is, Climax has no commercial 
value in New York. The peaches are small, unattractive in color, drop 
badly, are disfigured by peach-scab and have only honeyed sweetness to 
recommend them. We figure and describe the variety in full only to 
show that honey-fleshed peaches can be grown this far north and to call 
attention to the possibility and desirability of using peaches of this stock 
in breeding to improve the quahty or give new flavors to northern peaches. 
It would, too, give pleasant variety and add quality to the home orchard. 

Climax is a seedling of Honey but neither the date of origin nor the 
name of the originator is known. The variety was introduced by G. L. 
Taber, Glen Saint Mary, Florida, in 1886. The American Pomological 



202 THE PEAt:HES OF NEW YORK 

Society added Climax to its fruit-list in 1891 but dropped it in 1899. ^^ 
1909, however, the variety was replaced in the Society's catalog as a peach 
of merit for the South. 

Tree small, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped, dense, Tjroductive; trunk 
roughish; branches roughened by the lenticels, reddish-brown covered with gray; branchlets 
very slender, long, with short internodes, olive-green overspread v/ith darker red, smooth, 
glabrous, with very few small, inconspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, flattened, lanceolate, thin, 
leathery; upper surface dull, medium green, smooth; lower surface olive-green; margin 
bluntly serrate, glandular; petiole three-eighths inch long, slender, glandless or with one 
to four small, reniform glands usually at the base of the leaf. 

Flower-buds small and short, conical, plimap, pubescent, appressed; blooming season 
late; flowers pale pink, one inch across; pedicels slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dotted 
reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute or obtuse, 
glabrous within, pubescent without, partly erect ; petals ovate or oval, tapering to narrow 
claws whitish at the base; filaments shorter than the petals; pistil shorter than the stamens. 

Fruit mature? in mid-season; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-eighth 
inches thick, oval, but slightly compressed, with unequal sides; cavity usually shallow 
flaring, splashed with red; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex; apex conic, with 
a long, swollen, often recurved tip; color greenish-white or creamy-white, occasionaIl\- 
with a blush or faint mottlings of red toward the base; pubescence short, thick; skin thin, 
adherent to the pulp; flesh white, stained with red near the pit, juicy, stringy, melting, 
very sweet, mild; very good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-foiuth inches 
long, thirteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval, plump, bulged on one side, long-pointed at the 
apex, with pitted and grooved, reddish-brown surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed 
along the sides, narrow; dorsal suture grooved. 

CROSBY 

I. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 391, PI. VIII. 1.S91. 2. Oiil. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 2:58. 1895. 3. Minn. Ilort. 
Soc. Rpt. 224 fig. 1896. 4. Ohio Hon. Snc. Rpt. 58, 59. 1896-97. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 
6. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:211. 1899. 7. Can. Ilort. 23:379. 1900. 

Excelsior. S. Am. Card. I2:6()g. 1891. 9. /?;ira/ ,V. K. 50:736. 1891. 10. Am. Card. 13:47. 1892. 

Of the several virtues which entitle Crosby to the esteem of fruit- 
growers, possibly the most notable is hardiness in tree and bud so marked 
that it is often called the " frost-proof " peach. It is doubtful, however, 
whether it is hardier than other peaches of its kind as Chili, Smock and 
Heath Cling. Besides hardiness, the trees have to recommend them 
vigor, health and productiveness, the latter character offset somewhat 
by small size. The quality of the fruit is excellent. The rich, yellow, 
freestone flesh is delicious to the taste either as a dessert or as a culinary 
fruit. In these days of showy fruits, however, Crosby falls far short in 
appearance, the peaches running small, being somewhat irregtilar and 



THE PKACHKS OF NEW YORK 203 

covered with dense tomentum. Still, at its best, in soils to which it is 
perfectly suited, the peaches are often handsome. But there lies another 
fault, the variety accommodates itself but poorly to trying soils and 
climates, failing especially in hungry soils and dark climates. The variety 
is noted for its willowy growth, small leaves, small flowers, small pits and, 
as has been said, hardiness. It is an ideal home sort. 

Crosby was sent out about 1876 by a Mr. Crosby, a nurseryman of 
Billerica, Massachusetts. Later the Massachusetts Agricultiu-al College 
propagated and distributed it in a small way in northern Massachusetts 
where it was known as Excelsior. The fact that there was another variety 
called Excelsior made a change necessary and the peach was renamed in 
honor of Mr. Crosby. The American Pomological Society placed Crosby 
on its list of recommended varieties in 1897. 

Tree small, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, with lower branches slightly drooping, 
unusually hardy, very productive ; trimk thick ; branches of medium size, smooth, reddish- 
brown overspread with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, inclined to rebranch, long, 
olive-green almost overspread with dark red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
large and small, conspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves rather small and narrow, five and three-fourths inches long, one and one-fourth 
inches wide, folded upward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dark green, 
smooth; lower surface light grayish-green; margin finely serrate or crenate, tipped with 
dark brownish-red glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with two to seven rather small, 
reniform, greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds small, short, conical, pubescent, appressed; flowers appear in mid-season; 
blossoms pale pink, darker near the edges, nearly one inch across, well distributed; pedicels 
very short, thick; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, orange-colored within, campanulate, 
glabrous; calyx-lobes short, narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals 
oval, tapering to long, narrow claws often red at the base; filaments three-eighths inch 
long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the ovary, equal to or sometimes 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and three-fourths inches long, two and three-eighths inches 
thick, roundish or roundish-oblate, slightly compressed, bulged near the apex, with 
unequal sides; cavity deep, abrupt or flaring, sometimes splashed with red; suture shallow, 
becoming deeper near the apex and extending beyond; apex roundish, with a simken, 
mucronate tip; color orange-yellow, often blushed over much of the surface with dull red, 
splashed and striped with darker red; pubescence long, thick, coarse; skin thick, tough. 
adherent to the pvilp; flesh deep yellow, stained with red near the pit, jviicy, stringy, firm 
but tender, sweet, mild, pleasant flavored; very good in quality; stone free, one and five- 
sixteenths inches long, one inch wide, oval, plump, bulged near the apex, with pitted and 
grooved surfaces ; ventral suture with shallow furrows along the sides ; dorsal suture deeply 
grooved, \vnnged. 



204 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



DAVIDSON 

I. Harrison & Sons Cat. i6. 1905. 2. Mn. Slate Fr. Sta. Rpt. 12. 1905-06. 3. Mich. Stu. Sp. 
B!</. 44:35 fig., 36. 1910. 

Davidson is on probation as an early peach for northern cUmates 
with the chances greatly against its ever proving worthy the attention 
of New York peach-growers. Still, it comes so highly recommended that 
we give it a place among the major varieties in The Peaches of New York 
hoping that the growers of the State will at least try it out. It is a white- 
fleshed peach similar to the well-known Rivers, larger in size, but not quite as 
early. The trees are very hardy, come into bearing early and bear heavily 
but ripen their crop unevenly. The peaches, as the color-plate shows, are 
handsome, and for a variety of early season they are particularly good 
in quality but are very susceptible to brown-rot, peach-scab, leaf-curl and 
seemingly all the other ills peach-flesh is heir to. 

Davidson originated with G. W. Davidson, Shelbj', Michigan, and 
is supposed to be a sport of Early Michigan, being very similar to that 
sort in all respects except season, Davidson being two weeks earlier. It 
is often confused with Eureka. 

Tree large, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; trunk thick; branches stocky, 
smooth, reddish-brown covered with ash-gray; branchlets dull red strongly colored with 
olive-green, smooth, glabrous, with numerous small, conspicuous lenticels raised toward 
the base. 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded 
upward, oval to obovate-lanceolate; upper svirface dark green, smooth or slightly rugose; 
lower surface light grayish-green; margin broadly crenate or coarsely serrate, tipped with 
dark red glands; petiole one-half inch long, glandless or \^ath one to five small, reniform, 
greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds conical, pubescent, plump, appressed; blooming season early; flowers 
pink, one and three-fourths inches across, well distributed; pedicels nearly sessile, glabrous, 
green; cal37X-tube dull reddish-green, yellowish-green within, campanulate, glabrous; 
calyx-lobes meditim in length, narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals 
roundish-ovate, often broadly notched near the base, tapering to short, broad claws 
occasionally with a red base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil 
pubescent at the ovary, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths inches mdc, 
roundish, bulged near the apex, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity contracted, 
deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, becoming deep at the extremities; apex roundish, 
with a small, mucronate tip; color creamy- white blushed with dull red, indistinctly striped 
with darker red; pubescence short, thick; skin tough, separates from the ptilp; flesh white, 
juicy, stringy, tender, melting, sweet or with some sprightliness; fair to good in quality; 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 205 

stone semi-free to free, one and three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, oval, ijlumj), 
tapering to a short, abrupt point, bulged near the apex, contracted toward the base, with 
grooved, light-colored surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed along the sides, narrow, 
winged; dorsal suture winged, groowd 

EARLY CRAWFORD 

I. Kenrick Am. Orcli. 184. 1841. 2. Hovcy Fr. .l»i. 1:29, 30, I'l. 1851. 3. Waugh Am. Peach 
Orrh. JOI. 1913. 

Crawford's Early Melocotov. 4. Downing /•>. Trees Am. 490. 1845. 5. Mas Le Verier 7:45, 46, 
fig. 21. 1 866-73. 

Cra-d'ford's Early. 6. Elliutt /■>. BooA- 272, 273. 1854. •;. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 2i\. 1856. %. Am. 
Pom. Soi. Rpl. 42, 43. 1856. 9. Leroy Did. Pnni. 6:104 ^g-. lo.S- 1879. 10. FulUin Peach Cull. 
192, 193. 1908. 

IVillermoz. II. Carriere Var. Pcchers 76, 77. 1867. 12. Pom. France 6: No. 10, PI. 10. 1869. 
13. Lauchc Pent. Pom. VI: No. 22, PI. 1882. 14. Mathicu Nom. Pom. 418. 1889. 

Unproductiveness and uncertainty in bearing keep Early Crawford 
from being the most commonly grown early, yellow-fleshed peach in 
America. In its season, when well grown, it is unapproachable in quality 
by any other peach and is scarcely equalled by any other of any season. 
The peach has all of the characters that gratify the taste — richness of 
flavor, pleasant aroma, tender flesh and abundant juice. Besides being 
one of the very best in quality it is one of the handsomest peaches. 
Unfortunately, this Station is one of the many places in which Early 
Crawford is not at home and the accompanying illustration is far from 
doing the variety justice in size, shape or color. At their best, the fruits 
are larger, more rotund and more richly colored than shown in The Peaches 
of New York. In soils to which it is well adapted the peach is large, 
often very large, roundish-oblong, slightly compressed, distinguished by 
its broad, deep cavity, rich red in the sun, splashed and mottled with 
darker red, and golden yellow in the shade. The flesh is a beautiful, 
marbled yellow, rayed with red at the pit and perfectly free from the 
stone. The trees are all that could be desired in health, vigor, size and 
shape but are unproductive and uncertain and tardy in bearing. Yet 
with these fatdts Early Crawford, for at least a half-centur>% was the 
leading market peach of its season giving way finally to white-fleshed sorts 
of the Belle, Carman and Greensboro type. Fast passing from commer- 
cial importance. Early Crawford ought long to be grown in home 
plantations because of the beauty and unexcelled quality of the fruit. 

Early Crawford came into existence in the orchard of William Craw- 
ford, Middletown, New Jersey, early in the Nineteenth Century. Its 
merits were first set forth by William Kenrick in the American Orchardist 



206 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

in 1832. The variety in some manner found its way to Europe and came 
into the hands of Ferdinand Gaillard, a nurseryman at Brignais, Rhone, 
France, but without a name. Gaillard, believing it to be a new sort," 
gave it the name Willermoz in honor of M. Willermoz, Secretary of the 
Pomological Congress of France. Later, French pomologists decided that 
Gaillard's peach and Early Crawford were identical. The American 
Pomological Society put this peach on its fruit-list in 1856 under the name 
Crawford's Early. The name has several times been varied but today 
the variety is listed as Early Crawford. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, round-topped, often unproductive; trunk 
thick ; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown very lightly tinged with ash-gray ; branchlets 
with intemodes of medium length, pinkish-red intermingled with darker red, glossy, smooth, 
glabrous, with numerous large and small, conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

IvCaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward 
and recurved, oval to obovate-lanceolate, medium in thickness, leathery; upper surface 
dark green, usually smooth except along the prominent midrib; lower surface light grayish- 
green; margin finely serrate, often in two series, tipped with very fine, reddish-brown 
glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to five small, globose, greenish- 
yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds conical, heavily pubescent, free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers 
pale pink, less than one inch across, well distributed; pedicels very short, thick, glabrous, 
green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-colored within, obconic; calyx-lobes short, medium 
to narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval, broadly notched near 
the base, tapering to broad claws red at the base; filaments one-fourth inch long, equal 
to the petals in length; pistil often longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and nine-six- 
teenths inches wide, round-oval or cordate, bulged near the apex, compressed, with unequal 
halves; cavity deep, wide, abrupt; suttue shaDow, becoming deeper near the apex; apex 
variable in shape, often with a swollen, elongated tip; color golden-yellow, blushed with 
dark red, splashed and mottled with deeper red; pubescence thick; skin separates from 
the pulp; flesh deep yellow, rayed with red near the pit, juicy, tender, pleasantly sprightly, 
highly flavored; very good in quality; stone free, one and one-half inches long, one inch 
wide, oval or ovate, bidged along one side, medium plump, with small, shallow pits in the 
surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed along the sides, mediiom in width, winged; dorsal 

suture grooved, slightly winged. 

EARLY YORK 

I. Kenrick Am. Orch. 220. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 475, 476. 1845. 3. Horticulturist 
2:399. 1847-48. 4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 37, 38, 51. 1848. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 1:45, PI. 1851. 
6. EUiott fr. Booyfe 273. 1854. 7. Hooper W. Fr. BooA 221. 1857. 8. Ifog. ifort. 23:518. 1857. g. Fhr. 
& Pom. 24, PI. 1862. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 446. 1884. 11. Fulton Peach Cult. 184. 1908. 

Serrate Early York. 12. Thomas ylm. Fruit Cull. 290 fig. 1849. 13. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 334. 1856. 

York Prhoce. 14. Mas Le Verger 7:115, 116, fig. 56. 1866-73. 15. Leroy Did. Pom. 6:308, 309 
fig- 310. 1879- 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 207 

Early York is entitled to a place among the leading varieties of 
peaches only because of the part it played in the beginning of the peach- 
industry in America. As the history which follows shows, it was one of 
the first named varieties to be grown in this country. It is of more than 
passing interest, too, because it is one of the few sorts with glandless leaves. 
The fruits of Early York are insignificant, though the color-plate hardly 
does the variety justice, but the vigorous, healthy, compact trees have 
much to recommend them so that the variety might be used as a stepping- 
stone in improving tree-characters of peaches. 

No doubt several distinct varieties have been grown as Early York. 
Large York, for example, which originated with Prince at Flushing, New 
York, has probably been more often sold for Early York than any other 
sort. Early Purple, a very old peach of European origin, was introduced 
to America about the time Early York came to notice. In some manner 
this variety has been confused with Early York, the name often being 
given as a synonym of that variety. The two sorts, however, are distinct 
and the error of connecting the name has led to much misiinderstanding. 
Early Purple disappeared from American cultivation soon after its intro- 
duction and peaches sold under this name today are probably Early York. 
A controversy has arisen as to the origin of Early York, both America and 
England having been given as its home. That Early York is of American 
origin, however, there can be little doubt. Its parentage, the time and 
place of origin, however, are unknown. It may have come in existence 
in New York, or possibly New Jersey or, as some have thought, near 
York, Pennsylvania. The variety was sent to Eiu-ope about the middle 
of the Nineteenth Century where Thomas Rivers grew it at Sawbridge- 
worth and from it raised several promising seedlings. The leaves of the 
variety are distinctly serrated, giving rise to the name Serrate Early York. 
Red Rareripe, another variety having serrated, glandless leaves, has often 
been confused with Early York. The two are very similar but the fruit 
of Red Rareripe is larger, broader and ripens about a week later. Early 
York was placed on the list of recommended fruits at the National Con- 
vention of Fruit-Growers in 1848 and since that time has had a place on 
the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society. 

Tree large, compact, upright-spreading, unproductive; trunk stocky; branches thick, 
smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; branchlets ver>' long, dark pinkish-red 
with some green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels variable in 
size, numerous at the base and well scattered along the branches. 




EDGEMONT 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 209 

Edgemont, shortened from Edgemont Beauty, in accordance with the 
rules of the American Pomological Society, is of rather recent origin, having 
been introduced by the Miller Orchard Company, Edgemont, Maryland, 
in 1902. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk stocky, smooth; branches 
thick, smooth; branchlets mediiim in thickness, purpHsh-red mingled with brown. 

Leaves large, obovate, medium in thickness; upper surface yellowish-green, some- 
what wrinkled; margin crenate; glands globose. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, medium in size; flowers appear in mid-season, small, dark 
pink, well distributed, single; pedicels short, somewhat slender; petals ovate, entire; 
filaments long, sometimes longer than the petals. 

Fruit matures in late mid-season; large, irregular, roundish-ovate, truncate at the 
base, with unequal halves; cavity rather deep, medium to narrow, regular, abrupt; suture 
shallow; apex mucronate; color light yellow or orange-yellow, with a bronze blush often 
deepening to an attractive carmine blush; pubescence short, medium in thickness; skin 
thick, somewhat tough, separates from the pulp ; flesh yellow, stained red at the pit, very 
juicy, slightly coarse and stringy, meaty, mild subacid or sprighlty; very good in quality; 
stone free, large, oval, plump, pointed, with corrugated surfaces. 

ELBERTA 

1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1881. 2. .Im. Card. 9:391 fig. 1888. 3. Can. //or/. 11 :28i, 282. 1888. 
4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 30. 1889. 5. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 382, PI. i. 1891. 6. Can. Hort. 17:305, PI. 
1894. 7. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 272, 273. 1896. 8. Tez. Sta. Bui. 39:807 fig. 1896. 9. Can. Hort. 
23:131, 132, fig. 1769. 1900. 10. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13 = 97 fig- 98- 1900. 11. Rural N. Y. 60:54. 'goi- 
12. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:343, 344 fig. 1903. 

Elberta leads all other peaches in number of trees in New York and 
in America. It is, too, the most popular of all peaches in the markets. 
A study of the variety, though it reveals some shortcomings, justifies its 
popularity with orchardists and marketmen. The preeminently meritorious 
character of Elberta is its freedom from local prejudices of either soil or 
chmate — it is the cosmopolite of cultivated peaches. Thus, Elberta is 
grown with profit in every peach-growing state in the Union and in nearly 
all, if not all, is grown in greater quantities than any other market peach. 
The second character which commends Elberta to those in the business 
of peach-growing is fruitfulness — barring frosts or freezes the trees load 
themselves with fruit year in and year out. Added to these two great 
points of superiority are ability to withstand, in fair measure at least, 
the ravages of both insects and fungi, large size, vigor, early bearing and 
longevity in tree, and large, handsome, well-flavored fruits which ship 
and keep remarkably well. 



2IO THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Elberta, however, is not without faults and serious ones. The trees 
are not as hardy in either wood or blossom as might be wished. In northern 
regions peaches of the Crosby, Chili, Smock and Wager type stand winter 
freezes and spring frosts much better. The blossoms open rather too 
early in New York. The peaches also fall short in quality. They lack 
the richness of the Crawfords and the sweetness of the white-fleshed Cham- 
pion type. Moreover, the pronounced bitter tang, even when the peaches 
are fully ripe, is disagreeable to some. Picked green and allowed to ripen 
in the markets, Elberta is scarcely edible by those who know good peaches. 
The stone is large but is usually wholly free from the flesh. With these 
faults, the dominance of Elberta is not wholly desirable as growers have 
a feeling of sufficiency with the one variety and consiimers are forced to 
put up with a peach none too high in quality. Still, since no other variety 
is so reliable for the trade, this, by the way, being about the only variety 
suitable for export by reason of shipping qualities, Elberta promises long 
to continue its commercial supremacy. 

Elberta was grown by Samuel H. Rumph, Marshall ville, Georgia, 
from a seed of Chinese Cling planted in the fall of 1870. The Chinese 
Cling tree stood near Early and Late Crawford trees and trees of Oldmixon 
Free and Oldmixon Cling. Mr. Rumph believed that the Chinese Cling 
blossom which produced Elberta was fertilized by pollen from Early 
Crawford. The seedling was named Elberta in honor of Mr. Rumph 's 
wife, Clara Elberta Rumph. An interesting coincidence connected with 
the origin of Elberta is that another stone from the same Chinese Cling 
tree was given to L. A. Rtrniph and from this grew Belle, the splendid 
white-fleshed, freestone peach. Nurserymen and growers frequently pro- 
duce strains of Elberta which they think superior to the older sort but 
the several strains which have been tested on the grotmds of this Station 
have not proved to differ a whit from the old variety. From the number 
of so-called " Early Elbertas " and " Late Elbertas " it may be suspected 
that occasionally Elberta, because of some local condition, ripens its fruit 
prematurely, or that ripening may be delayed; when removed from the 
particular local environment, ripening time seems to occiar normally. 
Elberta was placed on the American Pomological Society's fruit-list in 1889. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk 
thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown intermingled with light ash-gray; branchlets 
with tendency to rebranch, with long intemodes, olive-green lightly overspread with 
dark red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous lenticels variable in size. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 211 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches lonj^, one and three-fourths inches wide, oval tc 
obovate-lanceolate; upper surface dull, dark olive-green, mottled and somewhat rugose; 
lower surface grayish-green; margin finely to coarsely serrate, often in two series, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to six reniform, 
greenish-yellow glands medium in size and variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, pubescent, conical or obtuse, plump, appressed; flowers appear 
in mid-season; blossoms light pink near the center, darker pink toward the edges, one and 
one-foiu-th inches across; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange- 
colored within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals oval to ovate, bluntly notched near the base, tapering to broad, short claws red at 
the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and three-fourths inches long, two and one-half 
inches wide, roimdish-oblong or cordate, compressed, usually with a slight bulge at one 
side; cavity deep, abrupt to flaring, often mottled with red; suture shallow, deepening 
toward the apex; apex roundish, with a mamelon or pointed tip; color greenish-yellow 
changing to orange-yellow, from one-fourth to three-fourths overspread with red and 
with much mottling extending sometimes over nearly the entire surface; pubescence thick 
and coarse; skin thick, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh yellow, stained with red near 
the pit, juicy, stringy, firm but tender, sweet or subacid, mild; good in quality; stone free, 
one and eleven-sixteenths inches long, one and one-sixteenth inches wide, broadly ovate, 
varying from flat to plump, sharp-pointed, decidedly bulged on one side, with pitted sur- 
faces; ventral suture deeply furrowed along the sides, narrow, winged; dorsal suture deeply 
^T-ooved. strongly winged. 

ENGLE 

1. Mick. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 192, 296, 299. 1893. 2. Mich. Sla. Bui. 169:213. 1899. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 4. Mich. Shi. Sp. Bui. 44:39, 40. 1910. 

Engol's Mammoth. 5. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sla. Rpt. 2:5s. 1895. 6.7^.6:43. 1899. 

Engle is almost a cotinterpart of the well-known Late Crawford from 
which it differs essentially in earlier ripening fruit and more productive 
trees. Before Elberta became the vogue, Engle stood high in the esteem 
of commercial planters in Michigan and its culture was rapidly spreading 
into other states but the coming of Elberta stopped its career. There 
seems little doubt but that Engle is more productive than either of the 
two Crawfords, splendid peaches which fail because of unproductiveness, 
and for those who want the best it is as good as any of this group — 
quite too good to be lost. One of the faults of the two Crawfords is that 
the trees are tardy in coming in bearing. Engle is said to bear younger. 
On the Station grounds the fruit drops rather too readily but we do not 
find this fault mentioned by others. 

Engle was grown some forty years ago by C. C. Engle, Paw Paw. 




/ 



f 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 213 

than it now receives — the peaches are exceptionally uniform in size. 
The color-plate, by the way, shows shape and color very well but does not 
give a fair idea of the size, as the peaches grow larger in average years. 
Though long grown. Eureka is worthy further trial in New York. 

Eureka is a seedling of Chinese Cling found nearly half a century ago 
in Bossier Parish, Louisiana. It was introduced by L. T. Sanders and 
Son, Plain Dealing, Louisiana. 

Tree above medium in size, upright-spreading, round-topped, semi-hardy to hardy, 
very productive; trunk thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown overspread with 
very light ash-gray; branchlets with long intemodes, reddish lightly intermingled with 
olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large lenticels. 

Leaves five inches long, one and seven-sixteenths inches wide, folded upward, variable 
in shape, leathery; upper surface dark green intermingled with olive-green, smooth becoming 
rugose near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green, with a prominent midrib; margin 
finely or coarsely serrate, glandular; petiole five-sixteenths inch long, with two to six large, 
reniform glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds somewhat tender, small, short, heavily pubescent, obtuse or conical, 
plump, usually appressed; blossoms open early; flowers one and thirteen-sixteenths inches 
across, pink, well distributed; pedicels very short, medium to thick, glabrous, green; calyx- 
tube reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, obconic; calyx-lobes usuaUy broad, obtuse, 
glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval or ovate, entire, broadly and shallowly 
crenate, tapering to long claws reddish at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter 
than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; about two and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, round or 
round-oval, bulged on one side, compressed, with tmequal halves; cavity shallow, abrupt; 
suture shallow, deepening at the apex; apex flattened or more or less rounded, with mucro- 
nate tip; color greenish-white or creamy-white, often with a distinct, bright red blush 
overspreading one-third of the surface, with faint mottlings; pubescence fine, thick, short; 
skin thin, tender, separates from the pulp; flesh white, tender and melting, very juicy, 
pleasant flavored, good; stone free, one and one-half inches long, one inch wide, ovate 
to oval, tapering to a long point, with corrugated and deeply pitted surfaces; ventral 
suture winged, deeply groo\'ed along the edges, narrow; dorsal suture a narrow groove. 

FAMILy FAVORITE 

I. Card. M,m. 22:304. 1880. 2. W. N. Y. Ilorl. Soc. Rpl. 114. 1880. 3. Tex. Sla. Bui. 39:807 
fig. 7. 1896. 4. Del. Sla. Rpt. li-.qq. 1901. 5. Budii-Hanscn .Ihi. //or/, .lifun. 2:344. [903. 6. .I/ii. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1909. 

Family Favorite is one of the well-known peaches in the South-Central 
States but in most respects falls far short of Champion, with which it must 
compete, in New York. The tree is doubtfully hardy and the fruit scabs 
badly. The variety has two characters to commend it and to give it 



214 THE PEACHP:s of new YORK 

standing among commercial peaches in New York: Compared with that 
of Champion, the fruit stands shipment much better and when brown-rot 
is rife, does not suffer nearly as much. In selected locations, then, 
when a mid-season, white-fleshed peach is wanted, this variety is worth 
trying. 

Family Favorite is a seedling of Chinese Cling, possibly crossed with 
Oldmixon Free. It was raised by the late William H. Locke, Bonham, 
Fannin County, Texas. The exact date of its origin is unknown. The 
variety was named and introduced by T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas. 
The American Pomological Society added Family Favorite to its list of 
fruits in 1909. 

Tree of medium size, spreading, inclined to droop, open-topped, productive; trunk 
and branches intermediate in thickness; branches reddish-brown with a tinge of very 
light ash-gray; branchlets rather short, with intemodes dark red intermingled with olive- 
green, glossy, smooth, curving, with numerous medium to small, conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves folded upward, six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, ovate-lanceolate; 
upper surface a dull, mottled, dark green mingled with olive-green, rugose along the mid- 
rib; lower surface light grayish-green; margin finely serrate, often in two series, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to four small, globose, 
greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds smaU, obtuse to pointed, \'er>^ plump, heavily pubescent, appressed; 
season of bloom early; flowers light pink at the center, darker pink along the edges, one 
and one-eighth inches across; pedicels short, glabrous; calyx-tube reddish-green, cam- 
panulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, pubescent within, heavily pubescent toward 
the edges; petals oval to ovate, usually entire, tapering to narrow claws; filaments one- 
half inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths 
inches wide, roundish-oval to strongly oval, bulged near the apex, compressed, with unequal 
sides; cavity contracted, narrow, abrupt; suture a line, deepening toward the apex; apex 
roundish, with a small, mucronate tip set in a depression; color creamy-white, with a few 
splashes of red showing through a dull and mottled blush; pubescence short, thin; skin 
thin, tough; flesh greenish-white, strongly stained with red at the pit, very juicy, tender 
and melting, sweet or subacid, aromatic; good in quality; stone semi-free to free, tinged 
with red, one and one-half inches long, one inch wide, flattened near the base, elliptical, 
plump, winged on one side, with roughish and usually pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply 
furrowed along the sides, narrow ; dorsal suture grooved, irregular. 

FITZGERALD 

I. Can. Hon. 18:417. 1895. 2. Onl. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 2:57. 1895. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpl 
-35i 236. 1896. 4. .Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:344. •903- 
6. Can. Hort. 27:195 fig. 1904. 7. VVaugh .Am. Peach Orch. 196, 202. 1913. 




♦ 










FAMILY FAVORITE 




FITZGERALD 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 215 

Compare the color-plates of Fitzgerald and Early Crawford and it 
is seen at once that the two peaches are almost identical in fniit and foliage. 
There could be no use in growing Fitzgerald in this State, so similar is it 
to the better-known Early Crawford, were it not for the fact that the two 
diflfer in season a few days and that possibly Fitzgerald is the more pro- 
ductive of the two. Fitzgerald ripens a few days earlier than Early 
Crawford though in some of the references given it is said to ripen a few 
days later. Canadian peach-growers claim that Fitzgerald, besides being 
more productive and extending the season of Early Crawford, is hardier. 
In the effort to maintain peaches of the Crawford family in commercial 
plantations it may be worth while to try Fitzgerald. 

Fitzgerald originated a quarter of a century or more ago at Oakville, 
Ontario, but who the originator or what the parentage is not known. 
The American Pomological Society placed Fitzgerald on its list of recom- 
mended fruits in 1899, a place it still holds. 

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, round-topped, hardy, not verj' productive; 
trunk smooth; branches smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branch] ets 
long, with inclination to develop short, spur-like branchlets, pinkish-red or dark red inter- 
mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, rather small lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward but recurved, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate; upper surface dark green tinged with olive-green, rugose; lower 
surface light grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; 
petiole one-half inch long, glandless or with one to five small, globose, greenish-yellow 
glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, conical, pubescent, plump, free; blossoms appear in mid-season; 
flowers pale pink varjdng to a deeper red along the edges, seven-eighths inch across; pedicels 
very short, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-colored within. 
obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; 
petals roundish-oval to ovate, white at the center, tapering to narrow claws often red 
at the base; filaments one-fourth inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent 
at the ovarj', equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, more than two and one- 
half inches wide, roimdish-oval to cordate, somewhat compressed, with unequal halves, 
bulged at one side; cavity medium to deep, wide, abrupt or often flaring, marked with 
radiating streaks ; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex ; apex roimdish, ending in a 
recurved, mamelon point; color golden-yellow more or less overspread with a dull red blush, 
with splashes and mottlings of deeper red; pubescence long, thick; skin thin, tough; flesh 
yellow, rayed with red at the pit, juicy, rather firm, tender, sweet or mildly subacid, 
pleasant flavored; very good in quality; stone free, one and one-half inches long, one inch 
wide, ovate, plump, flattened near the base, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture very 
deeply furrowed along the sides; dorsal suture slightly winged. 



2l6 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

FOSTER 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1869. 2. Am. Ilorl. .-inn. 82 fig. 39. 1870. 3. Card. Mon. 12:371. 
1870. 4. Downing Fr. Treci id m. 1st App. 121. 1872. 5. Mich. Ilorl. Soc. Rpl. t,2, 260. 1874. 6. Cull. 
& Count. Gent. 44:678. 1879. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hart. Man. 2:345. I903- 8. Waugh Am. Peach 
Orch. 202. 1913. 

Foster's .Seedling. 9. Am. Jour. Horl. 2:277 fig. 1867. 

Foster is another very good peach of the Crawford type and at one 
time was widely grown in all northern peach-regions. It is so similar 
to Late Crawford that even experienced growers can hardly tell them 
apart. Those who grow the two in the same orchard find the essential 
differences to be: Foster is the larger peach, is more rotund, somewhat 
more flattened at the base, is a little earlier, possibly handsomer and is 
even of better quality than Late Crawford; the trees of Foster, however, 
are hardly as productive as those of either of the two unproductive Craw- 
fords. This unproductiveness is the fault that keeps the variety in the 
background as a commercial peach. The variety is well worth planting 
in any home orchard. 

Foster originated about 1857 with J. T. Foster, Medford, Massa- 
chusetts, from the stone of a peach purchased by him in a Boston market. 
It was awarded a place on the American Pomological Society's list of recom- 
mended fruits in 1869. 

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, variable in productiveness; trunk 
thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown intermingled with light ash-gray; branch- 
lets spur-like, long, dark pinkish-red mingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, 
with numerous large and small lenticels raised at the base. 

Leaves six inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, folded upward, oval to 
obovate-lanceolate, intermediate in thickness, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth 
becoming rugose near the midrib ; lower surface grayish-green ; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with small glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, with one to four small globose 
glands variable in color and position; flower-buds somewhat tender, conical or pointed, 
pubescent, free; blossoms appear in mid-season. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and seven-sixteenths inches long, more than two 
and one-half inches wide, round-cordate, often bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal 
sides; cavity deep, wide, flaring or somewhat abrupt, often splashed with red; suture shal- 
low, becoming deeper at both apex and cavity and extending slightly beyond the point; 
apex roundish or pointed, with a recurved, mamelon or occasionally mucronate tip; color 
deep yellow overspread with dark red, with a few splashes or stripes of red; pubescence 
long, thick; skin thick, tough, separates from the pulp when fully ripe; flesh deep yellow, 
faintly stained with red near the pit, juicy, coarse and stringy, firm but tender, sweet, 
mild, spicy; very good in quality; stone free. 




GENERAL LEE 



GENERAL LEE 














2. Am. 


Pom. Soc. Cat. 30. 


1889. 


3- 


Budd-Hansen 


Am. 


Horl 


Rpt. 21. 


1877. 5. Card. Mon 


27:275- 


1885 


6. Go 


Sta. 


Bill 


. 1897. 


8. Del. Sta. Rpi. 13: 


104. 


1901. 9. 


Budd-Hansen 


Am. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 217 



1. Card. Mon. 29:271. 1887. 
Man. 2:346. 1903. 

R. E. Lee. 4. Ga. Hart. Soc. 
42:240. 1898. 

Lee. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22, 
Hort. Man. 2:349. 1903. 

General Lee is a white-fleshed cUngstone, the fruit none too attractive 
and surpassed by that of other varieties of its season in quaUty. It is 
without value in the North. Southern growers say General Lee is an 
improved Chinese Chng and as such well worth growing under some con- 
ditions. It has the reputation of being quite susceptible to brown-rot. 
The variety is offered by a good many nurserymen and we discuss it only 
to condemn it for planting in New York. The variety, as its history 
shows, really belongs to eastern Asia and thus arouses interest. 

General Lee originated with Judge Campbell, Pensacola, Florida, 
from pits brought from Japan in i860. In 1864 P. J. Berckmans received 
buds from R. R. Hunley of Alabama and in 1867 introduced the sort under 
the name General Lee. The American Pomological Society listed this 
peach in 1889 as General Lee but in 1897 shortened the name to Lee and 
so it appears in the Society's catalog at the present time. We prefer the 
old name since when shortened it loses all significance as a commemorative 
appellation. 

Tree very large, \'igorous, spreading, unproductive; trank thick, rough; branches 
reddish-brown tinged wth Hght ash-gray; branchlets slender, with intemodes dark red 
mingled with considerable green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous inconspicuout, 
raised lenticels variable in size. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, flat or folded 
downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark, dull green, 
smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin coarsely serrate, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole nearly one-half inch long, with one to four large, 
reniform, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds somewhat tender, large, conspicuous, very plump, conical to obtuse, 
strongly pubescent, appressed or slightly free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers 
one and thirteen-sbcteenths inches across, pink, well distributed; pedicels short, glabrous, 
green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, greenish-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; 
calyx-lobes narrow, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals narrow-oval, 
tapering to short, broad claws occasionally with reddish base; filaments seven-sixteenths 
inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent near the base, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and five-eighths inches long, two and one-half 



2l8 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

inches wide, round or roundish-oval, compressed, with halves equal; cavity deep, medium 
to wide, contracted around the sides, abrupt or flaring, often mottled with red; suture 
medium to deep, extending beyond the tip; apex mucronate, mamelon; color greenish-white 
changing to creamy-white, with a dull or lively red blush in which are intermingled a few 
splashes of duller red; pubescence coarse, long, thick; skin thick, tough, clings to the pulp; 
flesh white, stained with red near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, sweet but sprightly, 
pleksantly flavored; good in quality; stone clinging, one and five-sixteenths inches long, 
one inch wide, bulged on one side, broadly oval to ovate, flattened, short-pointed at the 
apex, with pitted surfaces; ventral suture winged, narrow, deeply grooved along the 
edges; dorsal suture grooved. 

GEORGE IV 

I. Mas Lf Verger 7:49, 50, fig. 23. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6: 129 fig. 1879. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 4. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 202. 1913. 

George the Fourth. 5. Land. Hort. Sue. Rpl. 6:413. 1826. 6. Pom. Mag. 3:105, PI. 1830. 
7. Prince Pom. Man. 1:192, 193. 1831. 8. Downing fr. Trees Am. 47S. 1845. 9. Mag. Hort. 13:120. 
121, 122. 1847. 10. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 38, 51. 1848. 11. Carrifere Var. Peckers 70. 1867. 
12. Hogg Fruit Man. 4i\7. 1884. 13. Budd-Hansen >lw. /foW. il/a«. 2:346. 1903. 

Once one of the mainstays of American peach-growing, George IV 
is now of but historical interest. This variety was one of the first named 
American peaches and had the honor of being placed on the recommended 
list of fruits at the first meeting of the National Convention of Fruit- 
Growers, an organization which became the American Pomological Society, 
in 1848. George IV is not worth planting now and is illustrated and 
described in The Peaches of New York only that fruit-growers may note 
progress in the development of peaches. It is interesting to note that this 
old American peach is still widely grown in Evirope. 

George IV has been confused with several other sorts, particularly 
Morris Red. Prince, in the Magazine of Horticulture, writes that Morris 
Red is an old Red Rareripe brought to America from Evirope by Huguenot 
emigrants and that George IV came from buds of the original tree of this 
variety. The consensus of opinion, however, among those who early 
knew both peaches, is that Morris Red and George IV are distinct and that 
both are of American origin. George IV, the best authorities say, sprang 
up as a chance seedling, about 1821, in the garden of a Mr. Gill, Broad 
Street, New York City. After fruiting, the variety rapidly grew in favor 
and within a few years was everywhere grown in eastern America. Taken 
to Europe, it soon became one of the standard European peaches. From 
the first it was on the list in the American Pomological Society's fruit- 
catalog but was dropped in 1897 to be replaced in 1909. We doubt if it 
now deserves to be recommended on any list of fruits. 




gkorgp: IV 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 219 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, unproductive; trunk thick; branches 
stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets dark red, with 
faint traces of green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, smaU lenticels. 

Leaves seven inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward and recurved, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, rather thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth except 
near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin sharply serrate, red; petiole three- 
eighths inch long, glandless or with one to three small, globose, reddish-brown glands 
usually at the base of the blade. 

Flower-buds short, obtuse, plump, heavily pubescent, appressed; blossoms appear 
in mid-season; flowers pale pink, with white centers and edged with darker ]Dink, nearly 
one inch across; pedicels nearly sessile; calyx-tube reddish-green, light yellow within, cam- 
panulate, glabrous; caljTc-lobes medivmi in length and width, obtuse or acute, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals roundish-oval, tapering to claws red at the base; 
filaments one-fourth inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil longer than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and five-sixteenths inches long, two and seven- 
sixteenths inches wide, roundish-oblate, bulged near the apex, oblique, with unequal sides; 
cavity slightly contracted, deep, wide, abrupt, with tender skin; suture shallow, becoming 
deeper at both apex and cavity and faintly showing beyond the tip; apex roundish, with 
a mucronate tip; color greenish-white changing to creamy-white, with a pink blush and 
sometimes with faint mottlings of red; pubescence short, thick, fine; skin thin, tough, 
variable in adherence to the pulp; flesh whitish, deeply tinged with red near the pit, juicy, 
stringy, tender, mild, pleasantly flavored; good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and 
one-eighth inches long, three-fourths inch thick, roundish-oval, very plump, flattened at 
the base, tapering to a short, rounded point, with grooved surfaces; ventral suture \vinged, 
rather narrow; dorsal suture grooved. 

GOLD DROP 

I. Kan. Hon. Soc. Peach, The 142. 1899. 2. Mich. Sla. Bui. 169:214. 1899. 3. Budd-Hansen 
Am. Hor't. Man. 2:347. 1903. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Golden Drop. 5. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 298. 1855. 6. Mich. Hart. Soc. Rpl. 243. 1886. 7. Onl. 
Fr. Exp. Sta.Rpt. 2:5s fig. 1895. 8. Jl/JcA. 5/o. 5p. 5«/. 44:42, 43 fig., 44, 45. 1910. 

Gold Drop, long a familiar variety in ' Michigan peach-orchards, is 
not much grown elsewhere. It is doubtfully worth planting in New York 
as a peach of commerce but should find a place in ^vcry home orchard. 
The variety has several distinctive peculiarities which make it a pleasing 
variation in the peach-orchard and add to its merits as a home fruit. 
Thus, its transparent, golden skin and flesh make it one of the handsomest 
of all peaches; add to handsome appearance a somewhat distinctive 
flavor — vinous, rich, refreshing — and the peach becomes one that all 
agree is ver}^ good and one that, were the size larger, would sell in any 
market. Gold Drop is further characterized by great hardiness in tree 



220 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

and bud and by remarkable productiveness. Indeed, it loads itself so 
heavily that the peaches invariably run small unless the trees are heavily 
pruned and the crop thinned — small size of fruit is the greatest defect 
of the variety. Besides being one of the hardiest of all peaches it is also 
about the least susceptible to brown-rot and leaf-curl, the two worst 
scourges of the peach when yellows permits the trees to live. Earliness 
in coming in bearing 's another admirable character. The trees are of 
but medium size, are dainty in habits with clean, fresh foliage so that 
the variety is an attractive ornamental. All in all, Gold Drop is ideal 
for the home garden and has many good characters which can be used 
as stepping-stones in breeding peaches. 

The origin of Gold Drop is unknown. It is evidently an old sort 
and some horticultvuists believe it to be an old variety renamed. The 
variety has been cultivated in Michigan orchards for many years under 
the name Golden Drop given it by George W. Griffin, Casco, Allegan 
County, Michigan, who introduced it. The variety was at one time 
supposed to be the peach which is grown in Michigan as Yellow Rareripe 
but it is not the Yellow Rareripe cultivated today. The American Pomo- 
logical Society listed it in its fruit-catalog in 1909 under the name Gold 
Drop. 

Tree of medium size and vigor, spreading, rather open-topped, hardy, very productive; 
tnmk thick and smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with a covering of light 
ash-gray; branchlets slender, with intemodes dull pinkish-red intermingled with green, 
smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leave five and one-half inches long, one and one-fourth inches wide, folded upward 
and recurved, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark green, mottled; 
lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with red along the edge; petiole 
three-eighths inch long, with two to nine large, reddish-brown or grapsh. mixed glands 
usually on the leaf. 

Flower-buds long, conical or obtuse, plump, somewhat appressed, pubescent; season 
of bloom early; flowers pale pink, one "and three-fourths inches across, well distributed; 
pedicels short, medium to slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-colored 
within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, usually acute, glabrous within, pubescent 
without; petals ovate, notched near the base, tapering to long, narrow claws variable 
in color at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent 
at the ovary, equal to or longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and seven-sixteenths inches long, nearly two and one-half inches 
wide, roundish-oval, bulged at one side, with unequal halves; cavity deep, abrupt, twig- 
marked; suture very shallow, extending beyond the apex; apex roundish, \^dth a slightly 
mamelon or mucronate tip; color greenish or golden-yellow, with a dull blush on one side; 




GOLD DROP 




GOVERNOR HOGG 



THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK 221 

pubescence thick, coarse; skin adhering to the pulp; flesh pale yelIo\\- to the pit, variable 
in juiciness, pleasantly sprightly; good in quality; stone free, one and nine-sixteenths 
inches long, one and one-sixteenth inches wide, broadly ovate, bulged at one side, with 
a pointed apex and deeply grooved surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved at the sides, 

rather narrow; dorsal suture with a deep groove, wing-like. 

GOVERNOR HOGG 

n. Pom. Sor. Oil. 37. 



I. Brown Bros. Cat. 27. 1906. 


2. Ga. Ilorl. .Soc 


Rpi. 65, 6(). 1907. 


909. 4. ,V. /. Ilort. Soc. Rpi. 37. 


1912. 5. Waugh 


Am. Peach Orch. 20. 


Gmcnior. 6. Del. Sta. Rpi. 13: i 


01. 1901. 





Were it not that Governor Hogg must compete with the well-estab- 
lished Greensboro and Carman, we should say at once that it was well 
worth tr\4ng in commercial planting in New York as an early, white- 
fleshed peach. In the Station orchard, Governor Hogg ripens a few days 
after Carman, is larger, handsomer and as good in quality. In both 
appearance and quality, Governor Hogg excels Greensboro, the size, shape 
and color of the two, as the illustrations show, being much the same 
though the color of this variety runs more to reds and soft tints of red. 
The flesh is firm, though tender and delicate, and the peaches ought to 
stand shipment well. As with all of these early, white-fleshed peaches. 
Governor Hogg is quite susceptible to both leaf-curl and brown-rot. 

The parentage of this peach is unknown. It seems to have originated 
with a Mr. McClung, Tyler, Texas, about 1892, and was disseminated 
by Messrs. Sneed and Whitaker of the same place. The American Pomo- 
logical Society placed Governor Hogg on its fruit-list in 1909. 

Tree large, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, variable in productiveness; trunk 
thick, reddish-brown intermingled with light ash-gray; branches slender, with short inter- 
nodes, brownish mingled with red and ash-gray, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with man\- 
conspicuous, large and small, lenticels. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward 
and slightly recurved, usually oval-lanceolate, medium in thickness, leathery; up]ier surface 
dark oli\-e-green, smooth; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with 
reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to five reniform, 
reddish-bro\vn glands of medium size, variable in position; flower-buds conical, plump, 
pubescent, appressed; blossoms open in mid-season. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-fourth inches long, more than two inches wide, 
oblong-oval, compressed, oblique; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, becoming 
deeper at the, cavity; apex depressed, with a mucronate tip; color creamy-white, blushed 
with red ; pubescence short ; skin thin, separates from the pulp ; flesh white, juicy, stringy, 
meat_\', rather tough; good in quality; stone clinging, one and three-eighths inches long, 
seven-eighths inch wide, obovate, piixmp, strongly bulged on one side, conspicuously winged. 



222 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

pointed at the base, with the surfaces grooved and pitted; ventral suture winged, narrow, 
with furrows of medium depth along the sides. 

GREENSBORO 

I. Mich. Hon. Soc. Rpt. 2,^8. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. .Sot. Cat. 33. [899. 3. Kan. Hort. Soc. Peach, 
Ttu- 49, 143. 1899. 4. Del. Sla. Rpt. 13:101 li};. (>, 102. 1901. 5. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 9:37, 38. 
1902. 6. IF. N. Y. Ilorl. Soc. Rpt. 11. 1907. 7. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 202. 1913. 8. .V. Y. State 
Fr. Cr. Assoc. Rpt. 16. 1915. 

Balsey. 9. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 289. 1893. 

Greensboro is one of the leading early, white-fleshed peaches. It 
takes high place because of its showy fruits and its large, vigorous, healthy, 
early-bearing and prolific trees. In the last character, in particular, 
Greensboro is almost supreme — year in and year out, barring accidents, 
its trees are fruitful. Possibly, too, no other white-fleshed peach is adapted 
to a greater variety of soils than Greensboro which, with fair capacity to 
stand heat and cold, makes it suitable for wide variations in peach-regions. 
The peaches, while handsome, as the color-plate shows, are in no way 
remarkable, the quality, if anything, being rather inferior, so that it is 
the tree that gives Greensboro its standing. The variety is well thought 
of by fruit-dealers not only on account of the attractive product but 
because the fruits carry well and keep long. Possibly the peaches are 
less susceptible to brown-rot than most other varieties of Greensboro's 
season but to offset this advantage there are many cracked pits and 
accompanying mal-formed fruits. Picked green the stone clings; picked 
at maturity the variety may be called a freestone. AU in all, Greensboro 
is one of the best early, market peaches for New York. 

Greensboro is a seedling of Connett grown by W. G. Balsey, Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, about 1891. It was introduced by John A. Young 
of Greensboro as Balsey, this name being changed to Greensboro in 1894. 
Greensboro was added to the list of fruits recommended by the American 
Pomological Society in 1899. 

Tree very large, spreading, open-topped, hardy, very productive; trunk thick, shaggy; 
branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, 
long, with short intemodes, dark red intermingled with oli\^e-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, 
with very small, conspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
recurved, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth, 
rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with 
reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, with one to five reniform, reddish-brown 
glands usually at the base of the blade. 




GREENSBORO 




HALE EARLY 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 223 

Flower-buds hardy, large, medium to long, conical or obtuse, very plump, strongly 
pubescent, usually free; season of bloom early; flowers pale pink, one and three-fourths 
inches across, usually in twos; pedicels very short, glabrous; calyx-tube dull reddish-green, 
lemon-yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes very broad, obtuse, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals round-ovate, tapering to short, narrow claws red at the 
base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the base, 
equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths inches wide, 
oblong-oval, often oblique, bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal sides; cavity 
deep, narrow, abrupt; suture shallow, deepening toward the cavity; apex roundish, with 
a small, mucronate tip; color creamy-white, blushed red, with a few stripes of darker red 
intermingling; pubescence heavy, nearly tomentose; skin rather tough, separates from the 
pulp; flesh white, very juicy, tender and melting, mild, sweet, sprightly; fair in quality; 
stone semi-clinging, one and seven-sixteenths inches long, one inch wide, winged on both 
sides, ovate, strongly bulged along one side, with short grooves on the surfaces; ventral 
suture narrow, deeply grooved along the sides; dorsal suture grooved, winged. 

HALE EARLY 

I. Mag. Hort. 27:65, 66. 1861. 2. Am. Pom. .Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 3. Card. Mon. 5:68, 69, 198, 
277, 278. 1863. 4. Horticulturist 18:63, 64, 197. '98, 242, 243 fig., 244. 1863. 5. Downing Fr. Trees 
Am. 615. 1869. 6. Horticulturist 27:23, 304. 1872. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Precoce de Hale. 8. Mas Lc Ffrg^r 7: 193, 194, fig. 95. 1866-73. 

Hale. 9. Am. Pom. .'ioc. Cat. :^:i. 1891. 10. .l/;c/!. .S/o. Bm/. 169:215. 1899. 

In the middle of the last century. Hale Early was considered the 
best peach of its season for home and market. Even now it has several 
characters to recommend it; as, large, vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive 
trees, fruits handsome in color, uniform in size and shape, with flesh more 
than ordinarily free from the stone for an early peach, fair quality for 
the season and extreme earliness. The chief fault is that the peaches run 
small in size, scarcely exceeding large marbles, which they resemble in 
roundness. The variety must be grown in the best of peach-lands, heavily 
thinned, and the trees severely pruned. The peaches, besides being small, 
are very susceptible to brown-rot. Nowhere very commonly planted, the 
variety is still widely distributed, a fact, in view of the competition with 
many early peaches, which speaks well for a peach introduced more than 
fifty years ago. It is interesting to note that Hale Early was introdu^^ed 
into Europe many years ago and that European pomologists still speak 
highly of it. 

Hale Early grew from a seed planted in 1850 by a German named 
Moas at Randolph, Portage Covmty, Ohio. A few years later the attention 
of a Mr. Hale, Summit County, Ohio, was called to the seedling and he. 



224 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

impressed with its earliness, began to propagate it. About 1859 the 
variety was introduced by Hale and Jewett, nurserymen in Summit County, 
as Hale's Early German. In some localities it became known as Early 
German but finally the name Hale's Early was adopted. It was so listed 
in the American Pomological Society's fruit-catalog in 1862 but in 1891 the 
name was changed to Hale so to remain until 1909 when it appeared 
in the Society's catalog as Hale Early. The adoption of the last name 
is warranted, possibly, from the fact that another peach named Hale 
existed several years before the origin of the present sort. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, variable in productiveness; tnmk 
thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with ash-gray; branchlets long, 
dark pinkish-red with a trace of olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrouf , with rather few large, 
conspicuous lenticels. 

Leaves flat or curled downward, six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-fourth 
inches wide, long-oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dark green, 
smooth; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, often in two series, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to four 
small, globose, reddish-brown glands usually at the base of the blade. 

Flower-buds conical or pointed, plump, pubescent, usually free; blossoms appear in 
mid-season; flowers dark pink at the center, with lighter pink toward the margin and 
with streaks of light pink along the veins, one and one-half inches across, usually single ; 
pedicels short, glabrous, green, with a few reddish dots; cahTC-tube dull green mottled 
with red, with varying shades of orange within, campanulate, glabrous; calyTc-lobes broad, 
usually obtuse, pubescent within and without, with longer hairs along the edges, erect; 
petals round or inclined to oval, entire, notched on both sides near the claws which are 
short, broad and tinged with red near the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than 
the petals; pistil finely pubescent at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; one and three-fourths inches long, one and seven-eighths inches 
wide, round, slightly compressed, with imequal halves; cavity regular, medium to deep, 
wide, flaring; sutiu-e shallow, with a slight bulge near the apex; apex roundish or flattened, 
ending abruptly in a short, sharp, recurved point; color creamy-white, with an attractive 
blush extending over one-half of the surface; pubescence short, thick; skin tough, free; 
flesh white, juicy, tender, sweet, with some astringency; good in quality; stone semi-free, 
one and five-sixteenths inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, ovate or oval, plump, 
with a short-pointed apex, surfaces marked by short grooves; ventral sutixre deep along 
the sides, narrow; dorsal suture deeply grooved, winged. 

HEATH CLING 

I. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 17. 1820. 2. Kenrick Am. Orcli. 234. 1832. 3. Proc. Nal. Con. Fr. 
Gr. 51. 1848. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 5. Fulton Peac/j Ctt/«. 197, 198. 1908. 

Heath. 6. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 228. 1817. 7. Land. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 97. 1831. 8. Prince Pom. 
Jl/(iH. 2:29, 30. 1832. 9. Downing Fr. rrecT .Iw. 494, 495. 1845. 10. Floy-hindley Guide Orch. Card. 




HEATH CLING 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 225 

187,188. 1846. u. Elliott Fr. Boo* 274, 275. 1S54. 12. Mas Z,e Ferger 7:207, 208, fig. 102. 1866-73. 
13. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

White English. 14. Horticulturist N. S. 7:178, 179. 1857. 

Heath Cling is unquestionably the oldest named American peach 
now under cultivation. Its antiquity constitutes about its only claim to 
recognition though for its tree-characters and for at least one fruit- 
character it ought to be retained for breeding. Few varieties have larger, 
healthier, hardier trees than Heath Cling, the fact that the oldest of our 
peaches has from the first retained theSe characters in pristine vigor 
confuting the notion thtit varieties degenerate. In the descriptions of 
Chinese peaches in Chapter I, we read of winter peaches — sorts that 
could be kept for three or four months after picking. Of all American 
peaches. Heath Cling, possibly, most nearly approaches these Chinese 
winter peaches. It has been known to keep in good condition from 
October to December. Its quality, at best, is good but often it runs poor. 
Well grown, the peach has a sweet, rich, vinous taste but the flesh adheres 
so tightly to the stone that it is not pleasant eating out of hand though 
splendid cooked, preserved or pickled, the stone in culinary operations 
imparting a pleasant flavor of peach-pit bitterness. It is the best of all 
peaches to preserve or pickle whole. The color-plate shows the blushed 
sides of Heath Cling and therefore too much red for typical specimens 
of this variety. 

Just how old Heath Cling is no one knows but it probably was grown 
in the colonies before the Revolution. Two accounts are given of its 
origin. According to one it originated with Daniel Heath of Maryland 
from a pit brought from the Mediterranean. Another is that the honor 
of originating this peach belongs in the Prince family and that the first 
William Prince discovered the variety growing wild on the farm of Judge 
Willet, Flushing, New York. The Princes, according to this account, 
gave it the name Heath because it was found on a barren heath. It 
seems fairly well established that the variety was in the Prince orchards 
before the Revolutionary War whether or not it was found and named 
by them. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, unproductive; trunk shaggy; branches 
stocky, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets long, dark red intermingled 
with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large, raised 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward, 
recurving, oval to obo\^ate-lanceolate, leathery- ; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower 



226 TIIK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole 
one-half inch long, with two to seven small, mostly reniform, reddish-brown glands usually 
at the base of the leaf. 

Flower-buds tender, mediimi to small, short, conical or pointed, plump, pubescent, 
free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers a faded pink, white at the center of the petals, 
about three-fourths inch across; pedicels short, mediiun to thick, glabrous, green; calyx- 
tube reddish-green; calyx-lobes short, broad, obture, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals roundish-oval, tapering to short, broad claws occasionally with a red base; filaments 
one-fourth inch long, shorter than the petals; j^istil pubescent near the base, longer than 
the stamens. 

Fruit matures very late; two and one-eighth inches long, two and one-fourth inches 
wide, round-oval, compressed and somewhat angular, with unequal sides; cavity variable 
in depth and width, abrupt or flaring; suture shallow, extending beyond the apex; apex 
ending in a swollen, pointed tip; color creamy-white, blushed with red, splashed and mottled 
with darker red; pubescence short, thick, fine; skin thin, adhering to the pulp; flesh white, 
juicy, firm and meaty but tender, sweet or somewhat sprightly; good in quality; stone 
clinging, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval, plump, flattened 
and pointed toward the base, tapering to a short point at the apex, with dark brown, grooved 
surfaces; ventral suture deep along the s-ides, thick, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved. 

HEATH FREE 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 37. 1909. 2. Waugh Am. Peach Onh. 203. 1913. 

Kenrick Ilcath. 3. Prince Trea/. //or/. 17. 1828. 4. Prince /"oni. -l/a/i. 2:30, 31. 1832. 5. Down- 
ing Fr. Trees Am. 479. 1845. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 
2:348. 1903. 

Heath. 8. Kenrick Am. Orch. 226, 227. 1832. 

Heath Free is now rarely planted, being replaced by better sorts — in 
fact it was out of date a quarter-century ago when the American Pomo- 
logical Society dropped it from its fruit-list. We can see no justification 
of the Society's action in restoring the variety to its list ten years later. 
The tree-characters of Heath Free seem to be, in the main, very good 
but the peaches are not at all attractive in appearance and none too good 
in quality — at best it is but a culinary sort. Possibly it is worth growing 
under some conditions as a late, white-fleshed peach. 

Heath Free is another old variety, a native of New England. Kenrick, 
one of the first American pomologists, received the variety from General 
Heath, Roxbury, Massachusetts, early in the Nineteenth Centur>'. Later, 
Kenrick sent it to Prince at Flushing, New York, who is credited with 
having distributed it. The variety should not be confused with Heath 
Cling. Ripening at the latter end of the peach-season, the term " Late " 
is often attached to the name. In 1862 the American Pomological Society 




HEATH FREE 




I. 



% 





#^ 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 227 

put this peach on its fruit-hst under the name Kenrick Heath but dropped 
it from the hst in 1S99. Ten years later, 1909, the variety was replaced 
in the Society's catalog as Heath Free. 

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, unproductive; trunk thick, 
somewhat shaggy; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with very light ash- 
gray; branchlets long, with many short, spur-like branches near the tips, with internodes 
dark red intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous con- 
spicuous lenticels, raised near the base and tip. 

Leaves seven and one-eighth inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward, recurved slightly, long-oval to obovate-lanceolate, rather thin; upper surface 
dark green, smooth becoming rugose near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin 
finelj- serrate, with reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, with two to five 
reniform, reddish-brown glands usually on the petiole. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, conical or pointed, very pubescent, free; blossoms appear in 
mid-season; flowers dark pink along the margins of the petals changing to white toward 
their centers, well distributed; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, 
yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, narrow, acute to obtuse, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals small, narrow-oval, often broadly notched near the 
base, tapering to short, broad claws red at the base; filaments one-fourth inch long, equal 
to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in late mid-season ; two and one-eighth inches long, two and one-fourth 
inches thick, roundish-oval to oblong-oval, often strongly compressed, with halves nearly 
equal; cavity meditmi to shallow, wide, flaring, contracted along the sides, with tender 
skin; suture shallow; apex roundish, with a depressed, mucronate tip; color creamy-white, 
blushed or mottled with red, with splashes of deeper red; pubescence rather coarse, thick; 
skin thick, tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh white, bronzed at the pit, juicy, coarse, firm 
but tender, mild subacid with some astringency; good in quality; stone free, one and three- 
eighths inches long, one inch wide, flattened near the base, oval, with long grooves deeply 
sunken in the surfaces; ventral suture deeply furrowed along the edges, wide; dorsal suture 
grooved, faintly winged. 

HILEY 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpl. 170. 1899. 2. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:102 fig. 7, 103. 1901. 3. U. S. D. A. 
Yearbook 271, 272, PI. 34. 1903. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. 37. 1909. 

Early Belle. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:342. 1903. 6. \V. N. Y. Ilort. Soc. Rpl. 12. 
1907. 

In spite of keen competition with many other early, white-fleshed 
peaches, there seems to be a place for Hiley. Two characters make it 
notable in its class. It is the earliest commercial freestone, white-fleshed 
peach and it is rather better in quality than most of its competitors. Well 
grown, the peaches are large in size and handsomely colored but the 
fruits are not quite as uniform in either size or color as could be desired 
for a commercial variety. The trees, while productive, are neither large 



228 THE PEACHES OV NEW YORK 

nor sufficiently hardy and vigorous to make an ideal commercial sort. 
Still, we must end as we began, with the statement that there is a place 
for Hiley because of earliness and high quality. The fruits, unfortunately, 
are easy prey to brown-rot. 

Hiley originated with Eugene Hiley, Marshallville, Georgia, about 
iS86. Seeds of several varieties, including Belle and Elberta, were planted 
and from these sprang one tree which bore the fruit under discussion. 
R. A. Hiley, who seems to have first discovered its value, is of the opinion 
that this variety is a seedling of Belle crossed with Alexander. The new 
peach was first named Early Belle and the first crops were shipped under 
this name. Later the name was changed to Hiley. The American Pomo- 
logical Society placed the variety on its fruit-list in 1909. 

Tree medium in size, lacking in vigor, upright-spreading, open-topped, very pro- 
ductive; trunk thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; 
branchlets with short intemodes, brownish-red heavily overlaid with olive-green, smooth, 
glabrous, with conspicuous lenticels variable in number and size. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upwards 
to nearly flattened, narrow-oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark 
green, mottled, nearly smooth; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to eight 
small, globose and reniform, greenish-yellow glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, obtuse, plump, heavily pubescent, appressed or nearly so; 
blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers pink, one and seven-eighths inches across, often 
in twos; pedicels glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube dull, dark reddish-green, greenish-yellow 
within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent 
without; petals roundish-ovate, tapering to long, broad claws red at the base; filaments 
one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, equal to or often 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-fourth 
inches thick, roundish-conic to oblong-conic, bulged near the apex, with unequal halves; 
cavity abrupt, the skin tender and tearing easily; suture shallow, deepening toward the 
apex; apex pointed; color greenish-yellow with a dull blush often extending over one-half 
the surface, more or less mottled; pubescence thick, fine, short; skin thin, tough, separates 
from the pulp when fully ripe; flesh creamy-white, stained red at the pit, stringy, firm 
but tender, with a distinct, pleasant flavor, sprightly; good in quality; stone semi-free 
to free, one and three-eighths inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, elliptical to ovate. 
pointed at both ends, with nearly smooth surfaces; ventral suture rather wide and with 
deep furrows along the sides; dorsal suture a small groove. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 229 

HYNES 

I. Tex. Sla. Bui. 39:812. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 3. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 
8:14 liR. 1901. 4. Buiid-Hansen .1 m. //or/. .Uan. 2:348. 1903. 

Ilynes Surprise. 5. W. N. Y. llorl. .S'oi . Rpt. 50. 1879. 6. Ibid. in. 1880. 7. U. S. D. .'I. 
Pom. Rpt. 42. 1895. 

Coming at a season when there are several very good, white-fleshed 
peaches, we doubt whether Hynes can establish itself in the peach-list 
for New York. The peaches are not quite large enough and the stone 
dings a little too tenaciously for a first-class early peach. The flavor 
is good for an early peach and when large enough the fruits are attractive, 
shape and coloring being particularly pleasing. Hynes was at one time 
highly recommended, widely advertised and largely sold in New York by 
nurserymen and fruit-growers in this State. We doubt if many are now 
planting it. The color-plate is an excellent reproduction of the variety. 

Hynes was grown about 1877 by E. F. Hynes, West Plains, Missouri. 
Its parentage is unknown. The variety soon became disseminated as a 
valuable early, commercial peach. At first it was known as Hynes Surprise 
but gradually the name has been shortened to Hynes. The late S. D. 
Willard, Geneva, New York, grew and recommended this variety for a 
number of years and by some has been given the credit of having originated 
and introduced it. The American Pomological Society put Hynes on its 
fruit-list in 1899. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, medium in productive- 
ness; tnmk thick; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with a small amount of ash-gray ; 
branchlets long, with intemodes of mediirai length, dark red intermingled with oli\-e-green, 
glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, large lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, about one and one-half inches wide, oval to 
obovate-lanceolate, leather}', dull, dark green, smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex 
tapering to a long, narrow jjoint; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; 
petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to five small, globose, brownish-yellow glands 
variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, small, short, obtuse, plump, slightly pubescent, usually appressed; 
blossoms appear in mid-season ; flowers dark pink at the center, light pink near the edges, 
often in twos; pedicels short, medium to thick, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube reddish- 
green, greenish-yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, medium to broad, 
obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals broadly oval, irregular in outline, 
tapering to claws often red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the 
petals; pistil pubescent near the base, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth inches wide, 
round-oblate, with halves usually equal; cavity wide, flaring; suture shallow, becoming 



230 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

deeper near the tip; apex flattened or roundish, ending abruptly in a short, sharp point; 
color greenish or creamy-white, with a dull, dark red blush, splashed and mottled with 
carmine; pubescence thin, short, fine; skin thin, tender, variable in adherence to the pulp; 
flesh greenish-white, with a red stain vmder the skin and often rayed with red about the 
pit, juicy, stringy, tender and melting, sweet, mild; fair to good in quality; stone nearly 
free, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, bulged on one side, ovate, 
very plump, with surfaces pitted and with short, narrow grooves; ventral suture furrowed, 
very deeply grooved at the edges; dorsal suture wide, deeply grooved. 

ILLINOIS 

I. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 36. 1912. 2. Stark Bros. Cat. 37 fig. 1913. 3. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 
203. 1913. 4- Stark Bros. Cat. 43. 1914. 

Illinois is a mid-season, white-fleshed, freestone peach, still on pro- 
bation with what result as to commercial possibilities we should not like 
to predict. It has been little tried in New York and growers in other 
peach-regions are not in accord as to its value. In size, color and shape 
of fruit, as the color-plate shows, Illinois is one of the beauties of the 
orchard. Yet, all things considered, the new variety is not as good 
as Champion with which it would have to compete. Neither tree- nor 
fruit-characters are quite satisfactory as the variety grows on the Station 
grounds. It must be apparent, too, to all peach-growers that the industry 
is overloaded with white-fleshed peaches which at best must be sold in 
nearby markets or grown for home use. 

Illinois originated about 1910 on the grounds of E. H. Riehl near 
North Alton, Illinois. It is supposed to be a cross between Stark Heath 
and Washington. 

Tree medium in size and vigor, upright to spreading, hardy, very productive; trunk 
thick; branches stocky, smooth, dark reddish-brown overlaid by ash-gray; branchlets 
slender, short, with intemodes dark red and olive-green, smooth, glabrous, with a few 
inconspicuous, raised lenticels variable in size. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, curled under at 
the tips, ovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, rugose along 
the midrib; lower surface olive-green; margin deeply and sharply serrate, the serrations 
often in two series, tipped with small glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless. 

Flower-buds mediimi to large, obtuse or conical, plump, pubescent, appressed; 
blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers variable in color, over one inch across, often in 
twos; pedicels short, greenish, glabrous; calyx-tube reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, 
campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes mediiun to broad, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent 
wnthout; petals oval, crenate, often broadly notched near the base, tapering to narrow 
claws with a tinge of red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, equal to the petals in 
length; pistil pubescent at the base, as long as the stamens. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 23I 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-fouith inches long, two and one-half 
inches wide, round-oblate, compressed, the halves usually unequal; cavity deep, abrupt, 
often tinged with red; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex; apex roundish, with 
a mucronate tip; color creamy-white, blushed with dull, dark red and mottled with splashes 
of brighter red; pubescence heavy; skin tough; flesh white, stained red near the pit, juicy, 
tender and melting, sweet; good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-fourth 
inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval or obovate, not bulged, slightly elongated 
toward the base, plump, short-pointed at the apex, with grooved and pitted surfaces; 
ventral suture winged, of medium width, deeply grof)\-ed along the edges; dorsal suture 
deeply grooved. 

IMPERIAL 

I. Lrt. .S7(i. B»/. 27:94;,. 1894. 2. Tex. Sla. Bill. 3g:X[<). 1896. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1897. 
4. Alii. Sla. Bui. ii?:.^"?. i^oi. 5. Flu. Sta. Bui. 73: 148, Pis. 3 &• 4. 1904. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 
37. 1909. 7. Ala. Sta. Bid. 156:133. 191 1. 

Of the several honey-flavored peaches fruiting on the Station grounds, 
Imperial is probably the best. The fruit is not easily distinguished in 
appearance -from that of Climax, at least by those unfamiliar with southern 
peaches, and is also rather closely allied to Honey in outward character but 
has a somewhat distinct flavor in which it surpasses Climax and Honey. 
It differs from both, too, in time of ripening. The peaches of this, as of 
other honey-flavored sorts, drop badly as they mature. It is doubtful 
if we shall ever grow pure-bred peaches of the Honey type in New York 
for the markets, but Imperial, at least, is worth a place in every home 
orchard where it does not have to brave too great a degree of cold; and 
peach-breeders should seize the opportunity to cross it with our less richly 
flavored northern varieties. 

Imperial is a seedling of Honey grown in 1890 by G. L. Taber, Glen 
Saint ]\Iar>', Florida. This variety has been much confused with White 
Imperial, a sort grown in New York many years ago but long since out of 
cultivation. Pomologists frequently list White Imperial as a synonym 
of Imperial, giving the origin as New York, when the variety in mind is 
the true Imperial of southern origin. Imperial was listed in the American 
Pomological Society's catalog in 1897 but was dropped in 1899. It 
appears again, however, in the Society's catalog in 1909 under the name 
Imperial with White Imperial incorrectly given as a synonym. 

Tree medium in size or small, upright-spreading, round-topped, productive; trunk 
thick, rough; branches stocky, roughened, reddish-brown intermingled more or less with 
ash-gray; branchlets slender, often rebranching, long, with intemodes dark pinkish-red 
mingled with varying shades of olive-green, and with conspicuous, numerous, raised 
lenticels. 



232 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK • 

Ivcaves six and one-fourtli inches long, one and one-half inches wide, flattened, lanceo- 
late, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green; lower surface olive-green; margin finelj- and 
shallowly serrate, tipped with glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to four 
small, reniform glands usually at the base of the blade. 

Flower-buds small, medium to short, conical or obtuse, pubescent, plump, usually 
appressed; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers medivmi in size, showy, light pink, 
usually single; pedicels medium in length and thickness, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, 
orange-green within, obconic; calyx-lobes acute or obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent 
without; petals roundish, tapering to claws tinged with red at the base; filaments equal 
to or shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent. 

Fruit matures late; two and one-half inches long, two and three-sixteenths inches 
wide, oval, with unequal halves; cavity shallow, medium in width, flaring; suture very 
shallow, often indistinct toward the cavity; apex distinctly elongated; color pale green 
becoming whitish, with faint mottlings and with a distinct or faint blush; pubescence 
short, thick; skin tough, adhering to the pulp; flesh white, stained with red near the pit, 
juicy, fine-grained, tender and melting, very sweet and of a delightful flavor; very good to 
best; stone free, one and three-eighths inches long, thirteen-sixteenths inch wide, oval 
or ovate, not very plump, bulged at one side, long and pointed at the apex, with roughish 
and pitted surfaces, dark brown mingled with purplish-red; ventral suture rather narrow, 
often winged, deeply grooved along the edges; dorsal suture grooved. 

mON MOUNTAIN 

1. Mich. Sla. Bui. 152:197, 200. 1898. 2. Ibid. 169:217. 1899. 3. Rural N. V. 58:738 fig. 271. 
1899. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 5. Waugh .Im. Peach Orch. 203. 1913. 

Hardiness is the outstanding character which has brought Iron 
Mountain into prominence. The introducer and many growers claim 
extreme hardiness of wood and bud for the variety — others say that it 
is surpassed by Crosby, Wager and other varieties of their type. The 
trees on the Station grounds turned out not to be true to name so that 
we can offer no data as to hardiness. Iron Mountain is a very late, white- 
fleshed, freestone peach well adapted for extending the commercial limits 
for this frtiit in regions where fall frosts hold off sufficiently long for the 
fruit to ripen. The tree-characters are reported by most growers as very 
satisfactory and the peaches serve very well for culinary purposes but 
are not sufficiently attractive for a dessert fruit though the quality is 
excellent. There seem to be two varieties, much alike in fruit, passing 
under this name; one is large-flowered, the other small-flowered. This 
variety might well be planted in New York for some markets; as, for 
example, near towns and cities where it is desirable to extend the local 
market as late as possible. 

Iron Mountain seems to have originated in New Jerse>- about a 




V 




^■" 



.^.. 




IRON MOUNTAIN 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 233 

quarter-century ago but nothing is known of its parentage or by whom grown. 
The variety was introduced by J. H. Lindley, Whitehouse, New Jersey. It 
was put on the fruit-Hst of the American Pomological Society in 1909. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped not always productive; trunk 
thick; branches smooth, dark ash-gray mingled with reddish-brown; branchlets medium 
to slender, with internodes of medium length, greenish-brown, smooth, glabrous, with 
numerous small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward and recurved, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, medium in thickness, leathery; upper surface dark green, 
smooth; lower surface light green, with a prominent midrib; margin glandular, finely 
serrate; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to six reniform glands of medium size, 
usually on the petiole; flower-buds medium to small, conical, free; season of bloom late; 
flowers small. 

Fruit matures very late ; two and three-fourths inches long, two and five-eighths inches 
thick, oblong-oval, often bulged on one side, compressed; cavity contracted, below medium 
in depth, flaring; suture shallow, extending only to the tip; apex distinctly mucronate 
or roundish, sometimes tapering; color pale greenish or creamy-white, occasionally with 
a light blush; pubescence heavy; skin medium to thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh 
white, stained brown next to the pit, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; quality good; stone semi- 
free one and five-eighths inches long, more than one inch wide, somewhat wedge-like 
at the base, obovate, pliunp, long-pointed at the apex, winged, with large, wide and deep 
grooves in the surfaces; ventral suture with wide, deep furrows; dorsal suture grooved 
deeply, winged. 

J. H. HALE 

1. W. p. Stark Cat. 45-55. 1913. 2. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 203. 1913. 

Of many new peaches, J. H. Hale is now the leading aspirant for 
pomological honors. Indeed, it is one of the sensations of the pomo- 
logical world, the variety having many merits to commend it and the 
name and fame of the originator and of the introducers, together with 
extensive advertising, helping much to bring the peach to the attention 
of fruit-growers. Elberta is now the standard commercial peach and, 
since J. H. Hale must make its way in competition with the variety in 
command of the markets, we can best set forth the characters of the new 
sort by comparing it with Elberta with which all are familiar. The 
comparison is easy to make, for the two peaches are of the same general 
type, Elberta, probably, being' one of the parents of J. H. Hale. 

In size of fruit, J. H. Hale averages larger — all things considered 
a trifle too large when the trees are at their best. The flesh of J. H. Hale 
is firmer and heavier and the peaches will ship and keep longer than those 
of Elberta. In shape, the fruit is almost a perfect sphere, its symmetry 



234 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

being scarcely marred by the suture so that it is more shapely than the 
oblong Elberta and can, of course, be packed to better advantage. The 
color-plates of the two peaches show the differences in shape very well. 
In color of fruit there is no choice — both peaches are voluptuously 
handsome. The skin of J. H. Hale is less pubescent and possibly a little 
firmer and tighter, characters adding to the appearance and shipping 
qualities of the fruit. It is but an invitation to argument to say which 
is the better in the characters that go to please the palate — flavor, aroma, 
texture and juiciness. Neither, in comparison with many other peaches, 
can be rated as extra good. 

Unfortunately we cannot be as certain of the merits of the trees of 
the two varieties as we are of the fruits. This much we know, J. H. Hale 
is a few days earlier than Elberta and its trees and buds are hardier than 
those of Elberta. Which is the more productive is not certain and this 
can be ascertained only when data can be had from a large number of 
growers since productiveness in both is bound to vary with the soil. The 
greatest asset of Elberta is its ability to adapt itself to diverse soils ; whether 
J. H. Hale is equally elastic in constitution remains to be seen. The 
variety is still on probation in New York with the chances growing stronger 
each year that it will take high place among commercial peaches. We 
do not expect it to drive Elberta from the markets but the markets will 
be shared between the two, J. H. Hale reaching the fruit-stands several 
days in advance of Elberta. Would that there were as good a commercial 
variety to follow Elberta. 

This remarkable variety is a chance seedling found by J. H. Hale, 
South Glastonbury, Connecticut. From its characters, one sees at once 
that it is either an offspring or is very closely related to Elberta — at 
first many thought the two were identical. After having thoroughly 
tested the new^ variety in commercial orchards in both Connecticut and 
Georgia, Mr. Hale decided that it was worth introducing and sold the 
new peach to the William P. Stark Nurseries, Stark City, Missouri. The 
distribution of the variety was begun in 191 2 and possibly no other tree- 
fruit has ever been so rapidly propagated and so widely distributed as 
has the J. H. Hale in the past four years. 

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; trunk of medium thick- 
ness, smooth; branches smooth, ash-gray overspread with dark reddish-brown; branchlets 
medium in thickness and length, with long intemodes, olive-green overspread with red, 
smooth, glabrous. 




J. H. HALE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 235 

Leaves six and three-fourtlis inches lon^, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward, recurving at the tip, lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth 
becoming rugose along the midrib; lower surface olive-green, with prominent midrib; 
margin singly or doubly serrate; petiole five-sixteenths inch long, thick, with one to five 
reniform, dark brown glands of medium size; flowers appear in mid-season. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; three inches long, three and one-fourth inches wide, 
regular, round, with equal halves; cavity deep, wide, regular; suture a mere line, very 
shallow or with almost no depression ; apex roundish, with a small tip set in a depression ; 
color lemon-yellow overspread with attractive dark red and with mottlings and splashes 
of carmine; pubescence light; skin thick, tough, separates but poorly from the pulp; flesh 
yellow, red around the pit, juicy, fine-grained, sweet or somewhat sprightly; good in 
quality; stone free, one and three-fourths inches long, one and one-fotuth inches wide, 
oval, plump, flattened at the base, pointed at the apex, with grooved and pitted surfaces; 
ventral suture furrowed, deeply grooved along the sides; dorsal suture winged, deeph- 
grooved. 

JENNIE WORTHEN 

1. Mich. Sla. Bui. 31:58. 1887. 2. Munson Cal. 8. 1890-91. 3. ///. Ilorl. Soc. Rpt. 183. 1898. 
Worthen. 4. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. ^. 1895. 5. -l/iV/i. .S/a. Sh/. 169:229. 1899. 
Jennie. 6. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:812. 1896. 

Jennie Worthen is given a place among the major varieties in The 
Peaches of New York with the hope that New York growers may be 
induced to try it as a high-grade, yellow-fleshed, freestone variety to 
precede Elberta. It is enough to say that it is very similar to Early 
Crawford — best of all early peaches — and on the Station grounds is 
more productive, unproductiveness being the fault that keeps Early 
Crawford from being a money-making variety. Whether or not Jennie 
Worthen can be grown commercially, it is well worth planting in the 
home orchard. 

But little is known of the history of this variety. According to a 
letter from the late T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, it originated in Illinois 
with a Mr. Worthen and was named for his daughter. The Munson 
Nursery grew the variety for a few years after its introduction but has 
since discontinued its propagation. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, hard}', productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches 
thick, nearly smooth, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets of medium 
thickness, tending to rebranch near the tips, with intemodes of medium length, dark 
pinkish-red intermingled with green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, 
small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, curled both 
upward and downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dark green, 
rugose near the base of the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, 



236 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, glandless or with one to six 
reniform, reddish-brown glands of medium size, variable in position. 

Flower- buds hardy, usually obtuse, sometimes conical, jilump, very pubescent, free; 
blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers pale pinkish, darker pink near the margins, well 
distributed; pedicels short, medium to thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dull, dark reddish- 
green, orange-red within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, narrow, usualh- acute, 
glabrous within and without; petals oval, often broadly notched near the base, tapering 
to long, narrow claws occasionally tinged with red at the base; filaments three-eighths 
inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the ovary, equal to or longer 
than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season ; two and seven-eighths inches long, two and five-sixteenths 
inches wide, irregular, roundish-oval, bulged at one side, considerably compressed, with 
unequal sides; cavity medium to deep, abrupt, with tender skin; suture shallow, deepening 
toward the tip; apex elongated; color greenish-yellow changing to orange- yellow, with 
stripes and splashes and mottlings of deeper red; pubescence thick, long; skin thin, tough, 
separates from the pulp; flesh deep yellow, stained with red near the pit, juic\-, slightly 
stringy, tender, sweet, very pleasantly flavored, sprightly; good to very good in quality; 
stone free, one and three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, ovate, plump, bulged at one 
side, the surfaces grooved; ventral suture narrow, winged, deeply grooved near the edges; 
dorsal suture grooved. 

KALAMAZOO 

I. Mich. Ilorl. Soc. Rpt. 27, 28, 192. 1893. 2. Ibid. 143. 1894. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 
4. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:217. 1899. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 2:348. 1903. 6. Mich. Sta- 
Sp. Bill. 44:49 fig., 50. 1910. 7. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 203. 1913. 

Before peach-growers had Elberta, Kalamazoo was a promising yellow- 
fleshed, freestone variety. The fruit is better in quality than Elberta but 
not as showy in appearance and the trees are not quite as productive. 
Kalamazoo ripens with Late Crawford and could well compete with that 
variety for the trees are hardier in wood and bud and are much more 
productive. The variety falls short, however, in the size of the peaches, 
these running no larger than a medium Late Crawford, though possibly this 
defect could be remedied by thinning. The fruits are of highest quality 
either for dessert or culinary purposes. The trees are susceptible to leaf- 
curl and must be thoroughly sprayed for this fungus. The variety is grown 
rather extensively in Michigan and is well known in parts of New York. 

Kalamazoo originated with J. N. Steams, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
about 1869, as a sprout from below the bud on a Yellow Alberge tree. 
It first fruited in 1871 and was exhibited that year at the Michigan State 
Fair where it received a premium as the best seedling peach. The 
American Pomological Society placed Kalamazoo in its fruit-list in 1899 
where it still remains. 








JENNIE WORTHEN 




KALAMAZOO 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 237 

Tree large, spreading, vigorous, open-topped, very productive; trunk meaium in 
thickness and smoothness; branches stocky, nearly smooth, reddish-brown mingled with 
light ash-gray; branchlcts long, with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish-red with 
a small amount of olive-green, smooth, glabrous, with lenticels of medium number and 
size. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and three-eighths inches wide, nearly flat 
or curled downward, o\-al to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark olive-green, 
smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex narrow-acuminate; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to six small, reniform, 
reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, conical, somewhat pointed, pubescent, partly appressed ; blossoms 
appear in mid-season; flowers pale pink, white at the center of the petals, one and one- 
eighth inches across; pedicels short, medium to slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish- 
green, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes medium to narrow, 
acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval to somewhat ovate, irregular in 
outline near the base, tapering to narrow claws occasionally reddish at the base; filaments 
one-half inch long; pistil pubescent at the base, equal to or shorter than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and three-eighths inches long, two and seven-sixteenths 
inches wide, roundish-oval, often compressed, with unequal sides; cavity rather wide, 
flaring to abrupt; suture indistinct becoming more pronounced toward the tip; apex ending 
in a small, elongated point; color greenish-yellow becoming yellow, with a faint or distinct 
blush usually extending over one-fourth of the surface, mottled; pubescence thick, fine; 
skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh light yellow, stained with red near the 
pit, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; good in quality; stone free or nearly so, one and one-half 
inches long, one and one-sixteenths inches wide, oval to ovate, bulged on one side, winged 
near the base, the surfaces pitted and grooved near the apex; ventral suture very deeply 
grooved at the sides, medium in width; dorsal suture winged, grooved deeply. 

LAMONT 

I. Cornell Sta. 8111.74:^,72. 1894. 2. N. Y. State Fr.Cr. Assoc. Rpl. m. 1910. i. Ibid. 21. 1912. 
4. Van Dusen Nur. Cat. 21. 1913. 

Though long grown in parts of western New York, Lamont has not 
been sufficiently well tested by the peach-growers of the State. It is a 
yellow-fleshed, freestone peach, much like Early Crawford in appearance 
and quality, which ripens from one to two weeks after Elberta. It is 
more productive than either of the Crawfords and if it does as well else- 
where as about Geneva, the place of its origin, it ought to take high place 
in the list of commercial peaches for this State. Several large growers 
in this region speak well of it as a market fruit. As a garden variety for 
its season, it can hardly be surpassed. 

The original Lamont tree grew as a chance seedling on the grounds 



238 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

of Charles Lament, Geneva, New York, first fruiting about 1884. It 
was introduced by E. Smith and Sons, Geneva, New York, soon after its 
discovery. The variety is offered by several Geneva nurserymen. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk thick, nearly smooth; 
branches stocky, smooth, reddish -brown with light ash-gray; branchlets with intern odes 
of medivun length, dark pinkish-red intermingled with green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, 
with inconspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves seven inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward and curled 
downward slightly, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark olive- 
green, smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin finely and sharply 
serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, with one to six reni- 
form, dark brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, large, long, conical or pointed, pubescent, free; blossoms appear 
in mid-season; flowers thirteen-sixteenths inch across, white at the center of the petals 
becoming dark pink near the edges; pedicels short, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at 
the base, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, medium to broad, obtuse, glabrous within, 
heavily pubescent without; petals roundish-oval, somewhat irregular in outline near the 
base, tapering to long, narrow claws occasionally with a red base; filaments three-eighths 
inch long, equal to the petals in length ; pistil pubescent near the base, as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures late ; about two and seven-eighths inches in diameter, roundish-cordate, 
compressed, with unequal sides; cavity deep, usually abrupt; suture indistinct, becoming 
deeper near the tip; apex roundish or pointed, usually with a noticeable mamelon or 
sometimes mucronate tip; color golden-yellow, blushed and faintly striped and splashed 
with carmine; pubescence hea\'>', long, coarse; skin thick, tough, adherent to the pulp; 
flesh light yellow, stained with red near the pit, juicy, coarse, tender, pleasantly sprightly; 
good in quality; stone free, one and five-eighths inches long, one and one-eighth inches 
wide, oval to obovate, flattened near the base, often bulged at the apex, winged, with 
grooved surfaces; ventral suture deeply marked along the edges, narrow, winged; dorsal 
suture grooved, the sides wing-like. 

LARGE YORK 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1897. 2. ///. Horl. Soc. Rpl. 26. 1899. 

New York Rareripe. 3. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 220. 1817. 4. BlWott Fr. Book 277. 1854. 

Large Early York. 5. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 16. 1820. 6. Proc. Sat. Con. Fr. Or. 39, 51. 1848. 
7. Cole .Im. Fr. Book 192. 1849. 8. Cultivator 6:308 fig. 1849. 9. .Im. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 44. 1S56. 
10. Elliott Fr. Book 288. 1859. 11. Horticulturist 16:245. 1861. 12. Card. Mon. 5:13. 1863. 
13. Downing /^r. Trees .4 OT. 619. 1869. 14. Fulton PeacA Cm//. 185, 186. 1908. 

Large Early Rareripe. 15. Prince Pom. Man. 2:25. 1832. 

Large York long ago lost all value for either home or commercial 
plantings but it is still listed in a few nursery catalogs and is still in the 
fruit-list of the American Pomological Society. It is one of the old 
American sorts and has been much confounded with several other peaches. 
We place it among the major varieties in The Peaches of Xew York chiefly 





A ^ h, .:"- \ 




THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 239 

to Straighten out the nomenclatorial tangle involving it and the several 
varieties with which it is commonly confounded. 

Large York has been more often confused with Early York than 
any other sort. George IV, Haines and Honest John have also been 
listed time and again as identical with Large York. While the sorts 
mentioned have many resemblances, there are distinguishing characters 
for all of them. Large York, known also as Large Early York and Large 
Early Rareripe, originated with William Prince,' Flushing, New York, 
some time in the Eighteenth Century, probably from a pit of Red Rareripe. 
The variety was at first called Early York but to distinguish it from 
another Early York the term Large was added. Prince sent the variety 
to William Forsyth of England about 1790. Forsyth grew it in the Royal 
Kensington Gardens and later renamed it Royal Kensington under which 
name it is frequently sold in England. While Large York and Early 
York are closely related, the leaves of the latter are glandless while those 
of the former have globose glands. At the National Convention of Fruit- 
Growers held in 1848, Large York was put on the list of recommended 
varieties under the name Large Early York. The peach has remained 
on the American Pomological Society's fruit-catalog since the date given, 
the name being shortened in 1897 to Large York. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, rather unproductive; tnnik 
thick; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown intermingled with light ash-gray; branchlets 
with long intemodes, dark red with some green, somewhat russetted, glossy, smooth, 
glabrous, with conspicuous, numerous, large, raised lenticels; leaves six and one-half inches 
long, one and one-half inches wide, variable in position, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, 
leathery, dark green tinged with olive-green; margin finely serrate; petiole three-eighths 
inch long, glandless or with one to six small, globose, reddish-brown glands; flower-buds 
small, short, pointed, not very plimip, pubescent, appressed; flowers small, appearing 
in mid-season. 

Fruit ripens in mid-season; one and seven-eighths inches long, two and one-sixteenth 
inches wide, round-oblate, bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity 
narrow, abrupt, faintly splashed with red; suture shallow, becoming deeper toward the 
apex and extending considerably beyond; apex roundish or depressed, with a mucronate 
tip; color greenish- white or creamy-white, blushed and mottled with red; pubescence 
short, thick, fine; skin thin, tender, adheres to the pulp; flesh white, rayed with red near 
the pit, juicy, string^-, tender, sweet, mild, pleasant flavored, aromatic; good in quality; 
stone nearly free, one and one-eighth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval, plumj), 
short-pointed at the apex; ventral suture medium in width; dorsal suture grooved. 

' For a brief history of William Prince, the first, and his contributions to American pomology, the 
reader is referred to The Plums of New York, page 389. 



240 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

LATE CRAWFORD 

1. Mas LeVerger 7:231, 232, fig. 114. 1866-73. 2. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 204. 1913. 

Crawford's Superb Malacatune. 3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 191, 192. 1S41. 

Crawford's Late Melocoton. 4. Horliculturist 1:12. 1846-47. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 491. 
1845. 6. Cole Am. Fr. Book 197. 1849. 

Crawford's Late. 7. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 8. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:9, 10, PI. 1851. 
9. Elliott Fr. Book 273. 1854. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 43. 1836. 11. Fulton Peach Cull. 194. 1908. 

Late Crawford is at the head of the Crawford family, long dominant 
among the several groups of American peaches and not yet equalled by 
any other yellow-fleshed peaches in quality. Late Crawford, a quarter- 
century ago, began to give way to Elberta because of the greater 
productiveness of the Elberta tree and the showier Elberta fruits and 
now, though widely distributed, is nowhere largely planted and seems 
destined to pass out of cultivation as a peach of commerce. Unproduc- 
tiveness and tardiness in coming in bearing are the faults on account of 
which Late Crawford is failing. Itself adapted to a wide range of soil 
and climatic condition. Late Crawford, through the recurring variations 
from seed, has made the Crawford family the most cosmopolitan of the 
several distinct races of American peaches. Of all the family it is most 
virile, more than a score of its offspring being described in The Peaches of 
New York. 

Compared with other Crawford-like peaches. Late Crawford is possibly 
the best in fruit-characters, the peaches being unsurpassed in appearance 
and scarcely equalled in texture of flesh and richness of flavor. The 
peaches, too, are more shapely and more uniform in shape than fruits of 
other Crawford varieties, being rounder, trimmer in contour and having 
a suture that scarcely mars the symmetry of the peach. In color, Late 
Crawford runs the whole gamut of soft tints of red and yellow that make 
Melocotons and Crawfords the most beautiful of all peaches. The trees 
are as vigorous, hardy, healthy and as little susceptible to disease as 
any of the varieties near of kin, failing only, as has been said, in produc- 
tiveness and in coming in bearing rather tardily. Evidently destined to 
pass from commercial cultivation, Late Crawford ought long to remain 
one of the treasures of the home orchard. 

Late Crawford was raised by William Crawford, Middletown, New 
Jersey, at least a hundred years ago, the exact date of origin, as well as 
its parentage, being unknown. The variety was first brought to notice 
by William Kenrick, Newton, Massachusetts, who described it in the 




LATE CRAWFORD 



THE PKACHKS Or NKW YORK 24 1 

Amcricau Orchardist under the name Crawford's Superb Malacatune. No 
doubt it has a worthy line of ancestors in the old seedling orchards of the 
early colonists, the fact that it is the founder of a race indicating long- 
continued reproduction from seeds with little interposition of budding. 
At the National Convention of Fruit-Growers held in 1848, Late Crawford 
was placed in the list of recommended fruits and since that time has held 
a place on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society. It was 
first listed as Crawford's Late; later as Crawford's Late Melocoton and 
now appears as Late Crawford in accordance with the Society's rules of 
nomenclature. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, not very productive; trunk 
stocky, smooth; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; 
branchlets long, somewhat twiggy, dark reddish-brown overlaid with olive-green, 
smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, numerous, small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves si.\ and seven-eighths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward and curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface 
dark olive-green, smooth becoming rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; 
margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, with 
one to six small, globose, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, large, above medium in length, obtuse or conical, plump, very 
pubescent, appressed or free; blossoms open in mid-season; flowers one and one-eighth 
inches across, pink, well distributed; pedicels short, medium to slender, glabrous, green; 
caly.x-tube reddish-green, orange-colored within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes mediiun 
to broad, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without, becoming heavily pubescent near 
the edges; petals oval to ovate, notched at the base, tapering to narrow claws which are 
reddish at the base; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil 
pubescent near the base, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and three-fourths inches long, two and eleven-sixteenths 
inches wide, roundish-oval, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity deep, medium to 
narrow, abrupt or flaring; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex; apex roundish, 
with a slightly pointed and swollen beak-like tip; color deep yellow, dully or brightl\- 
blushed, with the red cheek splashed with darker red; pubescence short, fine; skin thick, 
tough, separates readily from the pulp ; flesh yellow, strongly stained with red at the pit. 
juicy, firm but tender, sweet but sprightly, richly flavored; very good in quality; stone 
free, one and three-fourths inches long, one and one-eighth inches wide, ovate, flattened, 
bulged on one side, blunt-pointed, flattened near the base, with surfaces deeply pitted 
and grooved; \-entral suture deeply grooved along the edges; dorsal suture a deep, wide 
groove, winged. 

LATE RARERIPE 
I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. i«97. 2. Waugli .Im. Peach Orcli. J04. 1913. 
Prince Red Rareripe. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:16. 1832. 4. Elliott Fr. Book 278. 1854. 
Late Red Rareripe. 5. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 486. 1845. 6. Am. Pom Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 
16 



242 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Rareripe Rouge Tardive. 7. Mas Le Verger 7:217, 218, fig. 107. 1866-73. 8. Leroy Did. Pom. 
6:255 fig-. 256. 1879. 

Prince. 9. Mich. .Sla. Bui. 169:223. 1899. 

Late Rareripe is a white-fleshed, late freestone. It is of value now only 
because of its historical interest though its high quality makes it well 
worth growing in gardens. Its position as a milestone in the progress of 
peaches is better marked if we quote A. J. Downing ' who wrote in 1845 
when Late Rareripe was in its prime and one of the leading varieties: 
" Unquestionably one of the very finest of all peaches. Its large size, 
great excellence, late maturity, productiveness, vigor, all unite to recom- 
mend it to universal favor. We cannot praise it too highly." 

This old variety is certainly of American origin but the originator, 
the time and place of origin are all unknown. It has been cultivated more 
than a hundred years. Prince believed it to be a seedling of Red Rare- 
ripe but there is nothing to be found now to verify this belief. Late Rare- 
ripe was sent to France in 1855 where it has since been grown as a satis- 
factory commercial sort. The American Pomological Society listed this 
variety in its catalog in 1862 under the name Late Red Rareripe. In 
1897, the name was shortened to Late Rareripe as it now appears. 

Tree often very large, vigorous, spreading, open-topped, of medium productiveness; 
trunk stocky, nearly smooth; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light 
ash-gray; branchlets long, with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish-red inter- 
mingled with dull green, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large lenticels raised at 
the base. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, folded upward 
and curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface smooth 
becoming rugose at the midrib; lower surface pale green; apex acimiinate; margin finely 
and often doubly serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch 
long, glandless or with one to four small, globose, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, conical to pointed, plump, pubescent, free; blossoms appear 
in mid-season; flowers one and three-sixteenths inches across, white at the center of the 
petals changing to pink toward the margins, well distributed; pedicels short, glabrous, green; 
calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, greenish-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; calyx- 
lobes acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval, faintly notched near the base, 
tapering to narrow claws of medium length tinged with red at the base; filaments three- 
eighths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent near the base, usually 
as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures late ; two and five-eighths inches long, two and eleven-sixteenths inches 



' For a brief history of the Hfe and horticultural activities of .\ndrew Jackson Downing, whose likeness 
is shown in the frontispiece of The Peaches of New York, the reader is referred to The Cherries of New 
York, page 244. 




LATE RARERIPE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 243 

wide, roundish-cordate, with unequal surfaces; cavity variable in depth and width, abmpt 
or flaring, often with twig-mark across the cavity; suture variable in depth, extending 
beyond the tip; apex roundish, mamelon or mucronate, recurved; color greenish or creamy- 
white, sometimes with a lively red blush, mottled and splashed with darker and duller 
red; pubescence thick, coarse; skin tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh white, stained with 
red near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, pleasantly flavored, sweet or somewhat sprightly; 
good to very good in quality; stone free or nearly so, one and one-half inches long, one 
and one-sixteenth inches wide, oval to ovate, plump, with deeply grooved surfaces; ventral 
suture deeply grooved along the edges, strongly furrowed; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

LEMON FREE 

I. Wickson Cal. Fruits 313. 1889. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 3. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:218. 
1899. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Matt. 2:349. 'goS- 5- Waugh Atti. Peach Orch. 204. 1913. 

Lemon. 6. Rural N. Y. 47:131. 1888. 7. Atti. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1889. 8. Otit. Fr. Exp. Sta. 
Rpt. 2:59. 1895. 

Lemon Free is a yellow-fleshed, freestone, lemon-shaped, lemon- 
colored peach ripening in late mid-season. The fruit is not sufficiently- 
attractive in appearance to sell vi-ell in the markets and, besides, is too 
thin-skinned to ship or keep well. The quality is very good, the flavor 
being sweet, rich and delicious, though possibly the flesh is a little too dry 
to permit the variety being ranked as " very good." It is an excellent 
peach for culinary purposes having the reputation of making a handsomer 
canned product than any other peach. Lemon Free is little grown in the 
eastern states but it is one of the leading sorts of its season in parts of 
California. The color-plate shows the shape very well but the color is 
not quite that of the real peach. 

This variety seems to have originated in Ohio about 1885 but nothing 
is known of its parentage, originator or introducer. Wickson, in California 
Fruits, claims California as its birthplace but this, we think, is an error. 
In 1889 the American Pomological Society placed Lemon Free in its fruit- 
catalog as Lemon but in 1899 changed the name to Lemon Free. 

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, hardy, rather unpro- 
ductive; trunk thick, smooth to medium; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown tinged 
with light ash-gray ; branchlets often very long, with a tendency to rebranch, with mediimi 
to long intemodes, pinkish-red with but a trace of green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with 
large, raised, russetty lenticels mediimi in number. 

Leaves seven inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward and 
curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark olive- 
green, smooth becoming rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin 
finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with 
tv\"o to six rather large, reniform, reddish-brown glands variable in position; flower-buds 



244 "^"^ PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

intermediate in size and lenj^th, conical to pointed, slightly pubescent, usually free; flowers 
appear in mid-season. 

Fruit matures in late mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and five-sixteenths 
inches wide, roundish-oval; cavity medium to deep, wide, flaring, often mottled with red; 
suture shallow, becoming deeper at the apex and extending beyond; apex mucronate to 
roundish-mamelon, recurved; color green or golden-yellow, with a faint blush and mottled 
with red; pubescence fine, long, thick; skin thin, tender, variable in adhesion to the pulp; 
flesh yellow, juicy, stringy, tender and melting, sweet to sprightly, pleasantly flavored; 
very good in quality; stone semi-free to free, one and one-fourth inches long, nearly one 
inch wide, oval, plump, flattened near the base, short-pointed, the surfaces usually grooved 
and with few pits; ventral suture winged, deeply marked along the edges, narrow; dorsal 
suture winged grooved. 

LEVY 

I. Card. Mon. 23:82. 1881. 2. Atn. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 3. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 204. 

1913- 

Henrietta. 4. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 380. 1858. 5. Cult. &■ Count. Gent. 45:649. 1880. 6. Tex. 
Sta. Bui. 39:807. 1896. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 8. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 203. 1913. 

Levy Late. g. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. g2, gi,. 1881. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. ird App. lyi. 1881. 
II. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:349. 1903. 

This variety ripens quite too late for any but the most favorable 
peach-sections in New York. It is a round, yellow-fleshed clingstone of 
very good quality and might be planted in the parts of New York, where 
the season permits it to mature, for a very late culinary peach. It is one 
of the favorite peaches to close the season in Southern fruit-growing sections. 

The history of Levy is badly confused. More than half a century 
ago a peach called Henrietta was cultivated. Where or when the variety 
originated no one can tell. In 1881, Downing mentioned a peach imder 
the name Levy Late as being a new, late clingstone originating in the 
garden of W. W. Levy, Washington, District of Columbia. Downing 
gave Henrietta as a synonym of Levy Late, as have several pomologists 
since. From these facts, it seems safe to say that the variety is old, that 
it was first introduced as Henrietta and that the peach which Mr. Levy 
claimed to have originated was Henrietta. The American Pomological 
Society, in 1899, added this peach to its fruit-list as Henrietta but in 1909 
changed the name to Levy, giving Henrietta as a synonym. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright to quite spreading, hardy, productive; trunk thick, 
rough; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown intermingled with very light ash-gray; 
branchlets slender, with intemodes dark red or purplish-red mingled with light green, 
smooth, glabrous, with small, numerous, conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, oval to obo\-ate- 




LEMON FREE 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 245 

lanceolate, of medium thickness, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth becoming 
rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin finely 
serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole five-sixteenths inch long, with one to 
six small, globose, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, conical to pointed, pliunp, pubescent, free; blossoms appear in 
mid-season; flowers seven-eighths inch across, with varying shades of pink, sometimes- 
in twos; pedicels short, medium to thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at 
the base, orange-colored within, somewhat campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, 
medium to narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval, notched near 
the base, tapering to long, narrow claws often tinged with red at the base; filaments five- 
sixteenths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent near the base, as- 
long as or longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures very late ; about two and one-half inches in diameter, roundish-cordate, 
compressed, with very unequal halves; cavity medium to deep, wide, abrupt to slightly 
flaring, with tender skin and often twig-marked; suture deep, extending beyond the tip; 
apex mamelon, recurved, a few fruits with very large, mucronate tips; color greenish or 
golden-yellow, with splashes of dull red and a lively blush covering one cheek; pubescence 
short, thick, fine; skin thick, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, juicy, stringy, meaty, 
mild or somewhat astringent, pleasantly flavored; fair to good in quality; stone clinging, 
one and one-half inches long, one inch wide, bulged on one side, ovate to oval, pliunp, 
winged, with surfaces marked by short, red grooves; ventral suture deeply furrowed along 
the edges, wide; dorsal suture a deep groove. 

LOLA 

1. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:104. 1901. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Lolo. 3. Cornell Sta. Bui. 74:373- 1894- 4- -l'"- Pom. Soc. Cat. 33. 1899. 5. Budd-Hansen 
Am. llort. Man. 2:349, 350. 1903. 

Miss Lola. 6. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 43, Vh IV. 1895. y. Rural N. V. 60:67s. 1901. 8. A^. 1'. 
Sla. Bui. 364:184. 1913. 

Miss Lulo. 9. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:808. 1896. 

Lola is a popular peach in parts of the South but is hardly known in 
New York. On the Station grounds it is the best of its season and one of 
the best of all white-fleshed peaches. Moreover, it fills a gap in the peach 
procession that ought to make it valuable in this State. It follows Mamie 
Ross and Greensboro, both of which it surpasses in appearance and quality. 
It precedes Champion and is even better than that handsome and delicious 
peach. Since it ripens with the well-known Carman, fruit-growers will 
want to know how it compares with that variety. It is hardier in bud 
than Carman, that sort not having a single fruit after the cold winter 
of 1911-12 while Lola bore a fair crop; the fruit is of better quality, larger, 
hardly as well colored and on the Station grounds the tree is more productive. 
Attention of New York peach -growers was called to Lola, in words almost 



246 THE PEACIII'S OF NEW YORK 

identical with those here used, in Bulletin 364 from this Station, published in 
19 1 3, with the result that it is now being tried in several parts of the State 
and we shall soon know what its commercial value is this far north. 

The parentage of Lola is unknown. The variety originated from 
seed planted in 1876 by J. W. Stubenrauch, Alexia, Texas, who named 
it Miss Lola in honor of his daughter. The American Pomological Society 
listed Lola in its catalog in 1899 as " Lolo." In 1909, however, the spelling 
was changed to Lola as it is correctly written. • 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, open-topped, hardy, productive; trunk thick, 
smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with a light tinge of ash-gray; 
branchlets very long, with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish-red intermingled 
with pale green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, numerous, small, raised 
lenticels. 

! Leaves six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, variable in position, oval to 

obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dull, dark green; lower surface silvery-green; 
apex acuminate; margin finely serrate to nearly crenate, glandular; petiole three-eighths 
inch long, with one to five reniform glands usually on the petiole. 

Flower-buds hardy, obtuse, very plump, heavily pubescent, appressed or free; 
blossoms open early; flowers nearly two inches across, light to dark pink, usually in twos; 
pedicels short, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, greenish- 
yellow within, somewhat campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals ovate, deeply indented near the base, faintly crenate, 
tapering to narrow claws; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil, 
pubescent near the base, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and three-eighths inches long, two and 
one-half inches wide, round-oval, usually somewhat oblique, compressed, with nearly 
equal halves; cavity deep, wide, abrupt, with tender skin; sutiu-e shallow, deepening toward 
the tip; apex small, mucronate, roundish or somewhat depressed; color creamy-white 
blushed with carmine deepened by a few dark splashes; pubescence short, thin; skin thin, 
tough, separating from the pulp; flesh white, rayed with red near the pit, very juicy, 
tender and melting, sweet, with a pleasant sprightliness ; good in quality; stone semi-free 
to free, one and three-eighths inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, obovate, plump, 
abruptly pointed, with corrugated and pitted surfaces; ventral suture wide, winged, deeply 
furrowed along the edges; dorsal suture a deep, narrow groove. 

MAMIE ROSS 

I. Com. //or/. 17:346. 1894. 2. Tea-. 5/a. B;*/. 39:807, 808 fig. 8. 1896. 3. Ga. 5/a. S»/. 42:238. 
189S. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cal. :-,j. 1899. 5. Del. Sla. Rpl. 13:104, 105. 1901. 6. Budd-Hansen .4hi. 
Horl. Man. 2:351. 1903. 7. W'augh Am. Peach Orch. 205. 1913. 

Mamie Ross seems to have a very good reputation as a table and 
market peach in Texas and other parts of the South but is hardl\- worth 



I 




/■' 





^t 




y 





MAMIE ROSS 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 247 

growing in New York. The fruit has two bad t'avdts : The quality is not 
high — the flesh being coarse, juicy and insipid in flavor; and the peaches 
bruise with the least possible handling so that they cannot be shipped to 
advantage. On the Station grounds the pubescence, too, is so abundant 
as to be objectionable. Mamie Ross comes at a season when there are 
many other good mid-season, white-fleshed peaches and may, therefore, 
be thrown out of the list for this region. It is, as the color-plate shows, 
a very handsome peach. 

Mamie Ross is probably a seedling of Chinese Cling. It originated 
about 1 88 1 with Captain A. J. Ross, Dallas, Texas. The variety soon 
attracted attention and neighbors began propagating it. Later, Mr. Ross' 
brother named the peach after the originator's youngest daughter. In 
1899, the American Pomological Society added the variety to its fruit-list. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading to somewhat drooping, open-topped, hardy, 
productive; trunk thick, .smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with light 
ash-gray; branchlets very long, with long intemodes, dark red with considerable olive- 
green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with nimierous conspicuous, raised lenticels variable 
in size. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, variable 
in position, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper surface dark green, smooth 
becoming rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, 
tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with none to five small, 
globose and reniform, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds semi-hardy, obtuse to pointed, plump, heavily pubescent, free or 
appressed; blossoms open early; flowers one and three-fourths inches across, pink, single; 
pedicels very short, medium to thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the 
base, greenish-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute or obtuse, glabrous 
within, heavily pubescent without; petals oval to obovate, entire except near the base, 
tapering to narrow claws often red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than 
the petals; pistil pubescent at the base, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matiu-es in early mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and seven- 
eighths inches wide, roundish-oval to oblong, often bulged on one side, compressed, 
usually with sides equal; cavity deep, abrupt, often marked with streaks of red; suture 
variable in depth; apex small, mucronate, set in a slight depression; color pale yellowish- 
cream, with more or less dull or bright red in which are splashes of darker red ; pubescence 
short, fine, thick; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh white, streaked with 
red near the pit, very juicy, stringy, tender, melting, sweet or somewhat sprightly, 
pleasantly flavored; good in quality; stone semi-cling or cling, one and five-eighths inches 
long, one inch wide, ovate to long-elliptical, plump, long-pointed, bulged on one side, 
with pitted and grooved surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along the edges, na row, 
winged ; dorsal suture grooved. 



248 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

MAY LEE 

I. Del. Sla. Rpt. 13:105. 1901. 2. Stark Bros. Oil. lig. 1904. 3. Ibid. 62 fig. 4, 63. 1910. 

May Lee is a very early white-fleshed, clingstone, pink-cheeked peach 
introduced to rival Alexander, Triumph and other extra early sorts. It 
fails, on the Station grounds at least, because the peaches run small, the 
flesh clings too tenaciously and the stones crack. Neither is the fruit 
attractive in color nor high in quality. It may be as good in quality as 
Alexander or Triumph- but is no better. The variety is but doubtfully 
worth planting in New York. 

May Lee originated with E. W. Kirkpatrick, McKinney, Texas, from 
a seed of Mamie Ross planted in 1896. 

Tree large, spreading, low-growing, very productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches 
stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, often incHned 
to rebranch, medium to long, with intemodes dark pinkish-red intermingled with olive- 
green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with nimierous conspicuous, raised lenticels medium 
in size. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flattened 
or curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, rather thick, leathery- ; upper surface 
dark green, smooth becoming rugose along the midrib; margin crenate, tipped with small, 
reddish glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to five large, reni- 
form glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds hardy, small, short, conical, plump, very pubescent, appressed or free; 
blossoms open in mid-season; flowers nearly two inches across, light pink; pedicels 
very short, of medium thickness, glabrous; calyx-tube greenish-red, campanulate; calyx- 
lobes obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals round or broadly ovate, notched 
near the base, tapering to claws red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than 
the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; about two and three-fourths inches in diameter, round, com- 
pressed, bulged along one size, with unequal halves; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt; suture 
variable in depth, extending beyond the tip; apex small, mucronate, depressed; color 
creamy-white, usually with a blush toward the apex; tomentose; skin thick, tough, semi- 
free to free; flesh white, ver>' juicy, tender and melting, sweet, mild, pleasantly flavored; 
good in quality; stone semi-clinging to clinging, one and nine-sixteenths inches long, one 
and one-eighth inches wide, oval, conspicuously winged, flattened near the base, with 
deeph' grooved surfaces; ventral suture thin, winged, very deeply grooved along the edges; 
dorsal suture grooved. 

MORRIS WHITE 

1. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Cr. 39, 51. 1848. 2. EUiott Fr. Book 276. 1854. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat_ 
22. 1897. 4. Mich. Sla. Bui. 169:220. 1899. 5. Fulton Peach Cult. 190, 191. 1908. 

Whilr Rareripe. 6. Coxe Cull. Fr. Trees 222. 1817. 7. Prince Pom. Man. 2:26. 1832. 



^ 



i 





THE PEACHKS OF NEW YORK 249 

Morris While Freestone. 8. Lond. Ilort. Snc. Rpt. 6:410. 1826. 9. Floy-I.indley Guide Orch. Card. 
189. 1846. 

Morris White Rareripe. 10. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 481. 1845. 
Btanclie de Morris, n. Mas Le Verger 7:171, 172, fig. 84. 1866-73. 
Morris Blanche. I2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:171 fig., 172. 1879. 

Morris White is one of the ancients of American peach-orchards worth 
noticing now only because of its worthy past. It is distinguished among 
peach varieties by its white flesh — white clear to the pit with no trace 
of red even on the surface or next to the stone. It is further distinguished 
by its sweet, rich flavor — giving it high rank among the best of peaches — 
and by the great productiveness of the trees. Though undoubtedly the 
day of Morris White is passed for either commercial or home orchards, it 
might still be used advantageously in breeding late, white-fleshed, free- 
stone peaches. 

William Robert Prince,' in his Pomological Manual, describes a White 
Rareripe which he claims originated in the nursery of his grandfather and 
which can be no other than the Morris White under discussion. The 
origin of the variety will always be in doubt but probably the elder Prince 
originated it in the latter part of the Eighteenth Century. Leroy has 
confused the history of Morris White with that of Red Rareripe, commonly 
called Morris Red Rareripe, which probably originated with Robert Morris, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Leroy questions the identity of the White 
Rareripe mentioned by Coxe but, although the season of Coxe's sort is a 
trifle earlier than Leroy's, the two are probably the same. There was a 
White Rareripe grown for a short time in America many years ago which 
proved to be the old French Nivette renamed. Nivette was not widely 
disseminated and probably has long since passed from cultivation in 
America. Morris White was reported upon at the National Convention of 
Fruit-Growers in 1848 and received a place in the list of recommended 
fruits. It continued to be listed in the American Pomological Society's 
fruit-catalog until 1891 when it was dropped but was replaced in 1897 and 
still remains there. 

Tree large, ^•igorous, upright-spreading to drooping, dense-topped, productive; trunk 
intermediate in thickness and smoothness; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with 
very light tinge of ash-gray; branchlets long, with long intemodes, dark red mingled with 
green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with many conspicuous, small, raised lenticels at the base. 

' The Plums of New York is dedicated to William Robert Prince through the likeness shown of him 
in the frontispiece. A brief history of his life is given on page 21 of The Crapes of New York and reprinted 
on page 24 of The Plums of New York. 



250 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flat or 
curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolatc, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, 
smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex long, acuminate; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to five small, globose 
and reniform glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds tender, obtuse to conical, plump, very pubescent, usuallj- free; blossoms 
appear in mid-season; flowers less than an inch across, pale pink, deepening in color along 
the edges; pedicels short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube greenish-red, greenish-yellow 
within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals oval, narrow; filaments three-eighths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil 
longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and one-sixteenth inches long, two and one-eighth inches 
wide, cordate-oval or oblate, compressed, with halves nearly equal; cavity abrupt or 
flaring; suture a line, becoming deeper toward the tip; apex roundish, depressed in the 
suture, with mucronate tip; color pale white, usually without blush or with a faint bronze 
blush; imbescence heavy, long and coarse; skin thin, tough, somewhat adherent; flesh 
white, juicy, tender and melting, sweet, pleasantly flavored; good in quality; stone semi- 
free to nearly free, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval to 
slightly obovate, flattened near the base, with deeply grooved surfaces- ventral suture 
with deep grooves along the edges, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved. 

MOUNTAIN ROSE 

I. Tilton Jour. Uort. 7:339 fig. 1870. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 1871. 3. Downing Fr. Trees 
Am. ist App. 121. 1872. 4. Mich. Horl. Soc. Rpt. 33, 261. 1874. 5. N. J. Horl. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1878. 
6. Ca. Sla. Bui. 42:239. 1898. 7. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:220. 1899. 8. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 
2:352. 1903. 9. Fulton Peack Cult. 174. 1908. 

For many years Mountain Rose was preeminent among white-fleshed, 
freestone peaches by virtue of high quality and handsome appearance. 
It has a distinct and curious but deHcious flavor — a sort of scented sweet- 
ness that appeals to all who appreciate choicely good fruit. Unfortunately, 
it fails in the chief requirement for popularity in these days of commercial 
fruit-growing — the trees are unproductive, a fattlt so marked that the 
variety is rapidly passing from cultivation. Mountain Rose sells well 
in all markets where it is known, usually bringing a fancy price because of 
its extra good quality and because it follows closely after the dozen or 
more white-fleshed, clingstones of poorer quality. 

The variety originated about 1851 on the farm of a Dr. Marvin, 
Morristown, New Jersey. Of its parentage nothing is known. Mountain 
Rose has always been considered a good market variety and has been widely 
disseminated. The American Pomological Society added this peach to 
its fruit-list in 1871, a place it has since held. 




MORRIS WHITE 



1 




#^ 



MOUNTAIN ROSE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 25 1 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, low-growing and dense-topped, rather 
unproductive; trunk thick, medium in smoothness; branches stocky, smooth, rerldish- 
brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets thick, long, with intemodes of medium 
length, dark red intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous 
conspicuous, large and small lenticels raised near the base. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, flattened 
or curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick, leathery; upper siuface dull, dark 
green; lower surface grayish-green; apex long-acuminate; margin finely serrate, tipped 
with reddish-brown glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, with two to four small, 
globose, reddish-brown glands variable in position ; flower-buds conical to pointed, plump, 
very pubescent, usually appressed; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers small. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-eighth inches long, two and one- 
fourth inches viide, roundish-oblate to slightly cordate; cavity intermediate in depth 
and width, flaring to abrupt, often twig-marked; suture shallow, becoming deeper toward 
the tip; apex roundish, depressed in the suture, with mucronate or sometimes mamelon 
tip; color creamy- white blushed with deep red, with a few splashes of darker red; 
pubescence long, thick; skin thin, tough, variable in adhesion; flesh white, stained red 
near the pit, juicy, tender and melting, sweet, mild, pleasantly flavored; good to very 
good in quality; stone free, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval 
to ovate, plump, bulged on one side, contracted toward the base, tapering to a short point, 
usually with small pits in the surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along the sides, 
furrowed; dorsal suture groo\'ed, faintly winged. 

MUIR 

I. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 314. 1889. 2. Wickson Cal. Fruits 312, fig. 1889. 3. Ga. Sla. Bui. 42:239. 
1898. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 34. 1899. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:221. 1899. 6. Budd-Hansen .Iw. 
Hort. Man. 2:352. 1903. 

As a rule, peaches originating in California find small favor in New- 
York. California peaches are selected for canning, evaporating and ship- 
ping, whereas New York varieties are dessert fruits. Muir is a California 
sort suitable only for culinary purposes — attractive enough inside but so 
unattractive externally that it could tempt no one who did not know the 
fruit to be sweet and delicious in flavor. It is a late mid-season, yellow- 
fieshed, freestone peach much used by canners on the Pacific slope. It 
ought to be more generally grown for the same purpose in the East; for, 
as a canned product, it is hardly surpassed in appearance or quality. The 
trees are vigorous, productive and little subject to leaf-curl but the fruits 
in New York are often marred by peach-scab. The variety seems per- 
fectly at home in this State as, seemingly, it is in most peach-regions. 
In fruit-characters, Aluir is very similar to Wager. 

The variety was found more than twenty-five years ago on the farm 



252 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

of John Muir, near Silveyville, California. G. W. Thissell, Winters, 
California, named and introduced Muir. The American Pomological 
Society added this peach to its fruit-list in 1899. 

Tree vigorous, upright or somewhat spreading, hardy, productive; trunk rough; 
branches smooth, ash-gray over reddish-brown; branchlets slender, long, with short inter- 
nodes, dark pinkish-red with but a trace of green, smooth, glabrous, with inconspicuous, 
small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves fall early in the season, six and three-fourths inches long, one and three- 
eighths inches wide, flat or somewhat curled downward, oval-lanceolate, leathery; upper 
surface dull, dark green, nearly smooth; lower surface olive-green; apex acuminate; margin 
bluntly serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, 
with one to five large, reniform glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds small, short, obtuse, very plump, heavily pubescent, appressed; blossoms 
open late; flowers seven-eighths inch across; pale pink, darker about the edges, usually 
singly; pedicels short, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-red within, campanulate, 
glabrous; calyx-lobes short, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals narrow- 
oval or ovate, tapering to claws of medium width; filaments three-eighths inch long, equal 
to the petals in length ; pistil as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season ; two and three-fourths inches long, two and three-eighths 
inches wide, roundish-cordate or oval, slightly angular, compressed, with unequal halves; 
cavity shallow, contracted about the sides, abrupt or flaring; suttue medium in depth; 
apex pointed, with a large, reciu-ved, mamelon tip; color greenish or lemon-yellow, with 
little if any blush; pubescence heavy, long; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp 
when fully ripe; flesh yellow, faintly tinged with red near the pit, dry, coarse, tender, 
sweet, mild; good in quality; stone free, one and seven-sixteenths inches long, fifteen- 
sixteenths inch wide, ovate, flattened, wedge-shape toward the base, tapering to a long 
apex, with large pits and a few small grooves in the surfaces; ventral suture deeply 
grooved along the sides, very wide, deeply furrowed; dorsal suture widely and deeply 
grooved. 

NIAGARA 

I. W. N. Y. Horl. Soc. Rpl. 115. 1900. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 2:352, 353. 1903. 
3. W. N. Y. Horl. Soc. Rpl. 24. 1904. 4. .4w. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1909. 5. .V. Y. Sla. Bui. 403:213, 
214, PI. 1915. 

Newark Seedling. 6. Del. Sla. Rpl. 5:99. 1892. 

Niagara is a variant of a peach which all growers lament as being less 
and less grown, the Crawford. The Crawford group, though a dominant 
type, is, as we have several times pointed out, a little too capricious as to 
soil and climate to suit the needs of commercial peach-growers, failing 
to bear regularly or abundantly in most soils. For this reason the once 
very popular Early and Late Crawfords are now seldom grown. All who 
know these varieties regret that a sort of their type, without their faults. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 253 

has not yet come to light. In New York the best of the comparatively- 
new Crawford-like peaches is Niagara, said to be a seedling of one of the 
Crawfords. The fruit ripens later than Early Crawford, averages larger. 
is borne more abundantly and holds its size better to the end of the season. 
But Niagara's great point of merit, as compared with Crawford, is that it is 
more dependable in all tree-characters, being, especially, less capricious 
as to soil and climate. Niagara, as the color-plate shows it, is a beautiful 
fruit, yellow, with a handsome over-color of red. The flesh, too, is 
attractive and delectable — yellow, thick and firm, with a rich, sweet 
flavor which makes it one of the most palatable peaches of its season. 
It is, as are most of its type, a freestone. Niagara fails in productiveness 
in some localities, having in this respect the faxolt of all its tribe; but it 
should have a welcome place in any home collection and, where it proves 
productive, is one of the best for general market. 

Niagara probably came originally from Maryland to Julius Harris, 
Ridgeway, New York. Later it was sold to a grower near Lockport, New 
York, who disposed of it to a Mr. Corwin, Newfane, Niagara County, New 
York, who called it Corwin's Crawford. It then came into possession of the 
Rogers Nurseries, Dansville, New York, from whom this Station received 
its trees under the name Niagara. It is probably a seedling of Early 
Crawford. Niagara was added to the fruit -list of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society in 1909. 

Tree large, upright-spreading, hardy, medium in productiveness; trunk thick and 
smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets 
thick, red intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, 
large, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flattened 
or curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dvdl, dark green, 
rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin finel\- 
serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or 
with one to five small, globose, raised, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, conical or pointed, very pluriip, pubescent, usualh- free; 
blossoms open in mid-season; flowers one inch across, white near the center of the petals 
changing to dark pink near the edges; pedicels very short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube 
reddish-green, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, 
glabrous within, pubescent without; petals roimd-oval, tapering toward the apex, broadlv 
notched near the base, contracting to claws red at the base; filaments three-eighths inch 
long, equal to or shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, longer than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths 




OLDMIXON CLING 



THE PEACHES OF Ni:\V YORK 



255 



duced from Europe by Sir John Oldmixon but Downing believes that it 
was the pit and not the tree which Oldmixon brought to America. At any 
rate the variety takes its name from its supposed introducer. If the pit 
were planted by Sir John Oldmixon, this must be the oldest of our peaches 
for Oldmixon came to America nearly 200 years ago. He was, by the way, 
the author of one of the early and notable books on America, The British 
Jim pin- in America, published in London in 1741. Pomologists from 
time to time have made two words of the name making it appear that 
old and new Mixon peaches existed. Oldmixon Cling was placed in the 
fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1856 and ever since has 
retained a place there. In 1881 the Society changed the name from Old 
Mbcon Cling to Oldmixon Cling. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, rather unproductive; trunk mediiun 
to thick, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; 
branchlets of medium thickness and length, with tendency to rebranch, red intermingled 
with dull green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large, raised 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and one-half inches wide, flattened 
or curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark green, 
smooth becoming rugose along the midrib; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish- 
brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to four small, globose glands 
variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds large, conical or pointed, plump, pubescent, appressed or somewhat 
free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers three-fourths inch across, light pink at the 
center deepening to darker pink at the margins, often in twos, sometimes in threes; 
pedicels short, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, greenish-j'ellow within, 
obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes short, narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals round-oval, nearly entire, tapering to claws tinged with red at the base; filaments 



one Daniel Smith in what, for the times, was an extensive fruit-tree and ornamental nursery. Demands 
for information became so frequent that he determined to put his knowledge in print and his Fruit Trees 
was the result. The objects he sought to obtain in writing are well set forth in the title page as follows: 
'• .\ VIEW of the CULTIVATIO.N of FRUIT TREES, and the Management of Orchards and Cider; 
with Accurate Descriptions of the Most Estimable Varieties of NATIVE AND FOREIGN APPLES, 
PEARS, PEACHES, PLUMS, AND CHERRIES, Cultivated in the Middle States of America; lUustrated 
by Cuts of two hundred kinds of Fruits of the natural size; Intended to Explain Some of the errors which 
exist relative to the origin, jwpular names, and character of many of our fruits; to identify them by accurate 
descriptions of their properties, and correct delineations of the full size and natural formation of each 
variety; and to exhibit a system of practice adapted to our climate, in the Successive Stages of 
A NURSERY, ORCHARD, AND CIDER ESTABLISHMENT." He was at one rime a member of 
the State Legislature and later a Congressman intimately associated with Daniel Webster. He was, also, 
an honorary member of the Horticultural Society of London to which during many years he was a faithful 
correspondent. It was Coxe's privilege to see the very beginnings of commercial peach-growing in America 
and through his nurserj-, his orchard and his book he contributed much to American peach-culture. 



256 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

three-eighths inch long, equal to or longer than the petals; pistil pubescent near the base, 
usually equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures late; about two and one-half inches in diameter, round or roundish- 
oval, bulged along one side, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity medium to deep, 
wide, variable in shape; suture shallow, becoming deeper toward the apex and extending 
beyond; apex round, with a recurved, mucronate or prominent and prolonged mamelon 
tip; color creamy-white, with a blush of lively red and faint splashes of darker red; 
pubescence fine, short, thick; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh white, faintly 
stained with red near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, melting, sweet but sprightly, 
pleasantly flavored; very good in quality; stone clinging, one and seven-sixteenths inches 
long, one and one-eighth inches wide, ovate to oval, bulged on one side, flattened near the 
base, plump, long-pointed, with grooved surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along 
the edges, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved, with tendency to wing. 

OLDMIXON FREE 

1. Kenrick Am. Orch. 221. 1832. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:23. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 
484. 1845. 4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51. 1848. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 278. 1854. 6. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Rpl. 45, 183, 211. 1856. 7. Fulton Peach Cull. 187, 188. 1908. 8. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 
205. 1913- 

Oldmixon Ctearstone. 9. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 222. 181 7. 

Oldmixon Free is a variant of Oldmixon Cling, differing, essentially, 
as the name implies, in having a free stone; it is, also, more sprightly 
in flavor and not quite as well endowed with the characters that consti- 
tute high quality. Side by side, outwardly, the two peaches can hardly 
be told apart. Since Oldmixon Cling is sometimes semi-free and Old- 
mixon Free often clings more or less, the two are often confused in 
orchards and markets. Both of these Oldmixons, as those who live in regions 
where cold and frost do frequent damage should know, are as hardy in wood 
and bud as any of the white-fleshed varieties. The blossoms of both, too, 
appear in late mid-season, thereby often escaping frosts. The trees of 
Oldmixon Free, like those of Oldmixon Cling, have the fault of being 
unprodtictive. 

Oldmixon Free is supposed to be an American seedling of Oldmixon 
Cling, a fruit for the introduction of which we are indebted to Sir John 
Oldmixon of early colonial fame. At the Convention of Fruit-Growers 
held in 1848, Oldmixon Free was placed on the list of recommended peaches. 
In 1856 it appeared in the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society 
where it still remains. 

Tree \'ery large, vigorous, upright to spreading, hardy, rather unproductive; trunk 
thick, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; 




OLDMIXON FREE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 257 

branchlets of medium thickness and length, with tendency to rebranch, dark, deep red 
intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, wth conspicuous, numerous, raised 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and seven-eighths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, curled 
downward or flattened, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery, dull, dark green, smooth; 
lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margins finely serrate, tipped with reddish- 
brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose 
glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, conical to pointed, plimip, pubescent, free; blossoms appear 
in mid-season ; flowers three-fourths inch across, pale pink near the center becoming darker 
jiink at the outside, often in twos; pedicels very short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish- 
green at the base, greenish-yellow within, obconic; calyx-lobes short, obtuse, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals oval, faintly notched near the base, tapering to 
narrow, long claws tinged with red at the base; filaments three-eighths inch long, equal 
to the petals in length; pistil pubescent near the base, equal to or longer than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and one-half inches long, two and three-fomths inches wide, 
round-cordate, usually bulged on one side, often compressed, with unequal sides; cavity 
meditmi to deep, abrupt or flaring, tinged with red; suture shallow, becoming deeper 
toward the apex and extending beyond; apex roundish, with a mucronate or recurved, 
mamelon tip ; color creamy- white more or less overspread with a lively red blush in which 
are faint splashes and mottlings of darker red; pubescence coarse, thick; skin thin, tcntgh, 
separates from the pulp; flesh white, deeply tinted with red near the pit, juicy, string\-, 
tender and melting, sweet, with more or less sprightliness; very good in quality; stone 
free or nearly free, one and three-eighths inches long, one and one-eighth inches wide, 
oval to ovate, bulged, flattened near the base, with grooved and purplish-brown surfaces; 
ventral .suture deeph- grooved near the edges, furrowed, faintly winged; dorsal suture 
grooved. 

OPULENT 
I. III. Hort. Soc. Rpl. 20<). 1906. 2. Fancher Creek Nur. Cat. 31. 1907. 3. Burbank Ca/. 5. 191 1 

Opulent is a white-fleshed, freestone peach of very mediocre char- 
acter as it grows on the Station grounds. The fruits are attractive in 
appearance but not uncommonly so and are often marred, as they grow in 
New York, by peach-scab. The quality is scarcely better than the average 
and is ruined for most peach-lovers by a bitter tang, though to others 
this almond-like bitterness in the flavor may be a commendation. The 
variety ripens in mid-season. The trees are scarcely more satisfactory' 
on the Station grounds than the fruits, being unproductive and none too 
vigorous. The chief claim this peach has to public notice is that it is a 
cross between a peach and a nectarine. Though as yet not thoroughly 
tried in New York, it is safe to say that it is worthless for this region. 



25^ THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Opulent was sent out several years ago by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, 
California, as a hybrid between the Muir peach and New White Nectarine. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading with a tendency to droop, mediiam in pro- 
ductiveness; trunk smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with a light ash- 
gray tinge ; branchlets slender, long, with medium to long intemodas, dull red intermingled 
with green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, large, raised lenticels few in 
ntimber. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, flattened or curled 
downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery, dark green, smooth becoming rugose 
along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish- 
brown glands; petiole one-half inch long, with one to six small, globose and reniform, 
reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, large, long, conical or obtuse, pubescent, pltmip, free; blossoms 
appear in mid-season ; flowers one and one-eighth inches across, white at the center of the 
petals becoming dark pink near the margins; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube 
reddish-green, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; cal^Tc-lobes short, narrow, 
acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval or roundish, broadly notched, 
tapering to long, narrow claws red at the base; filaments five-sixteenths inch long, equal 
to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and seven- 
sixteenths inches wide, round-oval, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity deep, abrupt, 
often marked with red; suture a mere line or very shallow, often a slight depression just 
beyond the point; apex roundish, with a mucronate and recurved tip; color creamy- 
white, with a faint blush, speckled and striped with darker red; pubescence short; skin 
tough, separates from the pulp; flesh white, juicy, stringy, tender, melting, sweet but 
sprightly; fair in quality; stone free, one and five-sixteenths inches long, seven-eighths 
inch wide, ovate to slightly oval, flattened at the base, plump, short-pointed, with pitted 
surfaces marked by few grooves; ventral sutvu-e deeply furrowed along the edges, medivmi 
in width, furrowed; dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

PALLAS 

I. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1885. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 46. 1891. 3. La. Sta. Bui. 17:499. 1891. 
4. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:805. 1896. 5. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:239, 240. 1898. 6. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:222. 
1899. 7. Budd-Hansen .'Im. Ilort. Man. 2:353. 1903- 8. Fla. Sta. Bui. 73:150. 1904. 9. .l/o. Sta. 
Bui. 156:134. 1911. 

Pallas Honeydeiv. 10. Ohio Sta. Bui. 170:178. 1906. 

Pallas is about the best of the several honey-flavored, beaked peaches 
that have fruited on the Station grounds. This is one of the sorts supposed 
to thrive only in warm climates but here, in a location none too favorably 
situated as to climate, the trees are vigorous, appear to be hardy and differ 
from northern varieties, so far as life events are concerned, only in holding 
their leaves longer. The fruits run small and lack miiformity in size, 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 259 

faults that ■will not permit Pallas ever to become a commercial sort in New 
York. Moreover., the peaches are not attractive in appearance, suffer 
terribly from brown-rot and do not ship well — further disqualifications 
for competition in commerce. In quality, especially, to those who have 
a taste for sweets, Pallas is almost unapproachable — so rich, sweet, 
aromatic and delicious as well to justify the sobriquet, " Honeydew," 
frequently bestowed itpon it. This variety might well be planted in every 
home orchard. 

Pallas is one of the many seedlings of Honey and originated in 1878 
with L. E. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia. In 1891 the American Pomolog- 
icaJ Society added Pallas to its list of fruits as a noteworthy variety for 
southern fruit-districts. 

Tree medium in vigor, upright-spreading, rovmd-topped, productive; trunk rough; 
branches roughened by the lenticels, brownish intermingled with ash-gray and a little 
red; branchlets slender, with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish-red mingled 
with green, smooth, glabrous, with nimierous conspicuous, small, raised, russet-colored 
lenticels. 

Leaves fall late in the season, six inches long, one and one-half inches wide, variable 
in position, ovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface diill, dark green, smooth; lower 
siuface olive-green; margin sharply and often doubly serrate, glandular; petiole three- 
eighths inch long, stout, glandless or with one to three small, globose glands usually at 
the base of the leaf. 

Flower-buds large, long, conical, plump, pubescent, conspicuous, usually free; flowers, 
appear in mid-season, light pink changing to darker red; pedicels thick, glabrous, green; 
calyx-tube red, yellowish-green within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes obtuse, glabrous 
within, heavily pubescent without; petals oval, entire, red at the base; filaments shorter 
than the petals; pistil pubescent, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, two inches wide, 
pointed-oval, compressed, with halves equal; cavity shallow, flaring, with tender skin; 
suture shallow; apex a characteristically long, straight tip; color pale white or greenish- 
white occasionally with a bright red blush but mostly with dull mottlings; pubescence 
mediimi in amoimt; skin thick, tough; flesh white, scarcely stained at the pit, very juicy, 
sweet, tender and melting, high-flavored; very good in quality; stone free, one and five- 
sixteenths inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval to ovate, slightly wedge-shaped at 
the base, pliunp, conspicuously winged, long-pointed, with pitted and grooved surfaces; 
ventral sutiu-e narrow, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved. 

PEARSON 

1. Dd. Sla. Rpt. ly. 105. 1901. 2. N. Y. Stale Fr. Cr. Assoc. Rpt. 21. 1912. 

Pearson is a newcomer among peaches which will bear watching if 
it does as well in other parts of New York as on the Station grounds. It 



260 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

is a large, handsomely-colored, white-fleshed, freestone peach of good 
quaUty which ripens ten days before Champion. There are, it is true, a 
good many white-fleshed peaches at this season but Pearson is an exception- 
ally good one, much excelling Mamie Ross with which it might have 
to compete although the latter ripens a little later. The trees are very 
vigorous, productive and, so far, about as healthy as any on the Station 
grounds. 

Pearson originated with J. M. Pearson, McKinney, Texas. Its 
parentage is unknown. The variety was introduced by E. W. Kirkpatrick 
of McKinney, who thinks it may be a seedling of Chinese Cling. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, the lower branches drooping, very productive; trunk 
mediiun in thickness, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with 
light ash-gray; branchlets slender, sliort, with short intemodes, dark red mingled with 
olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with few inconspicuous lenticels variable in size 
and raised toward the base 

Leaves seven inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, variable in position, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark, dxill green, smooth becoming 
rugose along the midrib ; lower surface grayish-green ; apex long and narrow ; margin finely 
serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or 
with one to four small, globose, reddish-brown glands usually at the base of the blade. 

Flower-buds hardy, long, heavily pubescent, conical to obtuse, plump, appressed or 
partly free; blossoms appear very early; flowers nearly two inches across, pink, usually 
single; pedicels short, of medium thickness, glabrous, green; calyx-tube dark, dull 
reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, often 
emarginated, acute or obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals oval to 
roundish-obovate, tapering to long, narrow claws; filaments about one-half inch long, 
shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent only at the base, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, two and three- 
sixteenths inches wide, round-oval or somewhat cordate, compressed, with imequal halves, 
bulged near the apex; cavity medium to deep, abrupt or flaring, with tender sldn; suture 
quite variable in depth; apex rovmd or depressed, with a small, mucronate or recurved, 
mamelon tip; color greenish- white, with a blush covering much of the surface, more or 
less mottled; pubescence thin, fine, short; skin thin, tough, semi-free; flesh white, faintly 
tinged with red near the pit, juicy, string>% tender and melting, pleasantly flavored; good 
in quality; stone semi-clinging or free, one and three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, 
oval, flattened at the base, winged, with pitted surfaces; ventral suttu-e deeply grooved 
near the edges, narrow; dorsal suture grooved, winged. 

PEENTO 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1877. 2. Gar(f. ifo«. 19:114, 301. 1877. 3- Gard. Man. 26:61. 1884. 
4. r. S. D. A. Rpt. 650. 1887. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1889. 6. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. H4-116. 
1889. 7. Fla. Sla. Bui. 62:506-509, PI. i. 1902. 8. Fulton Peach Cult. 202. 1908. 




PEARSON 




cil from Traiisa 



PEENTO 

; ^li tl'.c llorliculmral Society of I.oiuloii 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 26l 

Chinese Plat. 9. Prince Treat. Hort. 16, 17. 1828. 10. Kenrick Am. Orch. 225, 226. 1832. 
Flat Peach 0/ China. 11. Lindley Guide Orch. 247, 248. 1831. 12. Horticulturist 1:383, 384, fig. 92. 
1846-47. 13. Fla. Sla. Bui. 62:512, 513. igo2. 

Piatt Pfirsich. 14. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 410. 1889. 

For the history and a discussion of the hortictilttiral characters of 
Peento, the reader is referred to page io8. The variety is too tender to 
cold to be grown in New York; in fact it succeeds only in Florida and the 
warmest parts of the other Gulf States. The American Pomological 
Society listed Peento in its fruit-catalog in 1889. The following descrip- 
tion, as it applies to the tree, has been compiled: 

Tree vigorous, open-topped, too tender for the North, variable in productiveness; 
leaves mature late, four and one-half inches long, one and seven-sixteenths inches wide, 
oblong-oval, thin, leathery; upper surface light olive-green, smooth; lower surface grayish- 
green; margin coarsely serrate, tipped with dark glands; petiole with two or three reni- 
form glands of medium size, gray or greenish-yellow, usually at the base. 

Fruit matures early; one and three-eighths inches long, two and seven-sixteentlis 
inches wide, strongly oblate; cavity shallow, very wide, flaring, twig-marked; suture 
deep, wide, extending two-thirds aroimd the fruit; apex depressed, set in a large, wide, 
flaring basin; color creamy-yellow, mottled and delicately pencilled with red, often 
blushed toward the apex; pubescence short, thick; skin thick, tough, nearly free; flesh 
white, stained red at the stone, juicy, stringy, tender and melting, sweet, mild, with an 
almond-like flavor; very good in quality; stone clings, red, one-half inch long, fifteen- 
sixteenths inch wide, strongly oblate, with corrugated surfaces; ventral suture very deep 
at the edges, narrow at the base, becoming wide at the apex; dorsal suture a wide, 
deep groove, merging into a line at the apex. 

PROLIFIC 

I. Ca. Sta. Bui. 42:240. 1898. 

New Prolific. 2. Col. O. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1892. 3. Mick. Ilorl. Soc. Rpl. 190. 
1895. 4. Ohio Ilort. Soc. Rpt. 59. 1896-97. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:221. 1899. 6. Budd-Hansen 
Am. Hort. Man. 2:352. 1903. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1909. 

Prolific was heralded a quarter-century ago as one of the great 
acquisitions to the peach-flora of the coimtry. Time has not dealt kindly 
with the variety and it is doubtful if it is as popular now as it was a few 
years after its introduction. The trees are very satisfactory, excelling most 
of their orchard-associates in vigor, size, health, hardiness and productive- 
ness but the peaches fall below the mark in several characters. The fruits 
are of but medium size and not vmcommonly attractive in color, though 
handsome enough, but too poor in quality to rate high among the peaches 
of its season which is a few days before Elberta. The flesh is yellow, firm, 
dry and little attacked by rot. With the qualities just named, the variety 



262 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

is, of course, a good shipper and mij^ht l)c in demand in the markets for 
culinary purposes. We doubt whether the peach should be largely planted 
in New York. 

Further than that Prolific comes from Michigan, nothing is known of 
its parentage, the originator or the date of origin. It was introduced about 
1890 by Greening Brothers, Monroe, Michigan, vmder the name New 
Prolific. In 1909 the American Pomological Society added this peach 
to its fruit-list as New Prolific. 

Tree large, vigorous, spreading, becoming drooping, open-topped, very productive; 
trunk rough; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with a very light tinge of ash-gray; 
branchlets deep, dull red intermingled with green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with con- 
spicuous, nimierous lenticels raised near the base. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and one-half inches wide, variable in position, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, smooth, becoming 
rugose near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; apex long-acuminate; margin finely 
serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with from 
one to five small, globose glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds hardy, conical to obtuse, plump, somewhat pubescent, appressed or 
free; blossoms open early; flowers one and five-sixteenths inches across, white near the 
center becoming pink along the edges; pedicels very short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube didl, 
dark reddish-green, orange-colored within, campanvdate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, 
acute, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals roundish-ovate to oval, broadly 
notched near the base, tapering to narrow claws red at the base ; filaments seven-sixteenths 
inch long, equal to the petals in length ; pistil pubescent at the ovary, as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, two and three-eighths 
inches wide, round-oval to cordate, bulged on one side, compressed, with tmequal halves; 
cavity deep, usually abrupt, frequently mottled with red; suture a line, becoming deeper 
toward the tip; apex round or somewhat pointed, with a recurved, mamelon tip; color 
light orange, mottled and blushed with red; pubescence thick, fine; skin thin, tough, sep- 
arates from the pulp ; flesh light yellow, stained with red near the pit, medium juicy, coarse, 
stringy, tender, sweet, mild, pleasantly flavored; good in quality; stone free, one and 
three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, ovate, bulged on one side, plump, with long, 
pointed apex, with surfaces grooved and marked by small pits; ventral suture deeply 
grooved along the sides, slightly winged near the base ; dorsal suture a deep groove, faintly 
winged. 

RAY 
I. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:106. 1901. 2. Aw. Pom. Soc. Cat. 38. 1909. 3. !f. J. IJort. Soc. Rpt. 35. 
1912. 4. Harrison Cat. 27. 191 5. 

This is another of the many early, white-fleshed, freestone peaches 
which are competing for favor among peach-growers. We doubt if Ray, 
however, shoidd find a place on the peach-list for New York. Several 




i I 



PROLIFIC 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 263 

faults condemn it; worst of all, the trees are not productive. Add to 
unproductiveness, lack of uniformity in size, shape, color and flavor and 
the variety is out of the race as a commercial sort. This far north, too, 
the trees suffer from winter injury. The variety is remarkable for its 
foliage. Were it not for the fact that Ray is well spoken of in several 
other states, and the possibility that it might do better in other parts of 
New York than on the Station grounds, we should not place it among the 
major varieties in The Peaches of New York. It is said to be an excellent 
shipper. 

This peach is occasionally confused with Raymond Cling, which 
originated in Mississippi many years ago and which has long since passed 
from cultivation. The present variety originated with D. Ray, Tyler, 
Texas. Its parentage is unknown. The American Pomological Society 
placed Ray on its fruit-list in 1909. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, the lower branches drooping, medium in 
productiveness; trunk thick, nearly smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown 
with a light tinge of ash-gray; branchlets slender, dark red intermingled with olive-green, 
glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous raised lenticels variable in size. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, flattened or 
curled downward, oval to obovate lanceolate, leather^'; upper surface dark green, smooth; 
lower surface medium green; margin fineh' serrate, tipped with reddi?h-brown glands; 
petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to three small, globose glands variable 
in position. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, short, heavily pubescent, conical to pointed, plump, usually 
appressed; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers one inch across, light pink becoming 
darker pink along the edges; pedicels short; calyx-tube reddish-green, greenish-yellow 
within, obconic; calyx-lobes long, narrow, obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent 
without; petals ovate, with claws medium in length and width; filaments three-eighths 
inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent at the base, longer than the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season ; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-half 
inches wide, rotmdish-conic to oblong-conic, slightly compressed, with nearly equal halves; 
cavity narrow, abrupt, with tender skin; suture shallow, deepening toward and often 
extending beyond the tip ; apex round, with a mucronate tip ; color greenish-white changing 
to white, scarcely blushed or with a bright pinkish-red blush varying from a small amount 
to about one-third of the surface, faintly mottled; pubescence coarse, thick, long; skin 
very thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh greenish-white, stained with red near 
the pit, juicy, stringy, firm but tender, aromatic, sprightly; good in quality; stone semi- 
free to free, one and seven-sixteenths inches long, slightly more than one inch wide, oval 
to ovate, plump, with short point at the apex, with grooved and pitted surfaces; ventral 
suture deeply grooved along the edges, narrow, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved. 



264 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



RED CHEEK MELOCOTON. 

I. Prince Pom. Man. 2:31, 32. 1832. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 492. 1^45. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat. 32. 1867. 

Red Cheek Malacotnn. 4. Coxe Cull. Fr. Trees 225. 1H17. 5. Floy-Limiley Guide Orch. Card. 
186. 1846. 

Early Yellow Malacalune. 6. Kenrick Am. Orch. 220. 1832. 
Yellow or Rd Cheek Malacalune. 7. Ibid. 225. 1832. 

Hogg's Malacalune. 8. Ibid. 190. 1841. 

Red Cheek. 9. Elliott Fr. Book 288. 1854, 10. .Mich. .Sla. Bui. 169:223, 224. 1899. 11. Budd- 
Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:354. 1903. 12. Fulton Peach Cult. 195, 196. 19ns. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat. 39. 1909. 

Malacalune. 14. Hooper W. Fr. Book 225. 1857. 

For nearly a century, beginning soon after the Revolutionary War, 
Red Cheek Melocoton had few rivals among yellow-fleshed, freestone 
peaches. Even yet it is surpassed in quality only by members of the 
Crawford family of which, by the way, it is supposed to be the immediate 
ancestor — certainly all Crawford-like peaches resemble it in both fruit 
and tree-characters. Lack of vigor and unproductiveness have driven 
Red Cheek Melocoton from common cultivation — indeed it is now almost 
impossible to obtain the trees. We give the variety attention in The 
Peaches of New York, not because of present worth, but because of the 
prominent part it has played in the peach-industry of the country in the 
past. The color-plate is an admirable reproduction of this old peach 
though possibly the fruits run a little larger than in the illustration. 
The derivation of " Melocoton," so often used in this text, is given on 
page 51. 

Red Cheek Melocoton is an American seedling which, according to 
William Prince, sprang from a bud of a stock on which Lemon Cling had 
been grafted, at the Prince farm. Flushing, New York. The Princes 
were so impressed with the seedling that they propagated it, giving it the 
name Red Cheek Malacatune, the name Malacatune at that time being 
given to all yellow peaches having little red. The discovery of the variety 
in the Prince orchards dates back considerably over one hundred years. 
From Red Cheek Melocoton the Crawfords and several other notable 
peaches are said to have come. In 1867 the American Pomological Society 
placed this variety in its catalog as Red Cheek Melocoton but in 1909 
shortened the name to Red Cheek. We prefer to preserve the old name. 

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreadiiifj, lacking in productiveness; tnmk 
intermediate in thickness and smoothness; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled 




RED CHEEK MELOCOTON 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 265 

with light ash-gray; branchlets thick, variable in length, with medium to long internodes, 
deep, dark red intermingled with green, glossy, roughened by the lenticels, glabrous, 
with a few smallish, inconspicuous lenticels which are raised toward the base. 

Leaves seven and one-fourth inches long, nearly two inches wide, variable in position, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, medium in thickness, leathery, dark olive-green, smooth, 
becoming rugose toward the midrib; margin sharply serrate; petiole three-eighths inch 
long, glandless or with one to three small, globose, alternate glands variable in color and 
in their position; flower-buds intermediate in size and length, conical or pointed, j:)limip, 
free ; blossoms appear in mid-season ; flowers small. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, about two and one- 
half inches wide, roundish-cordate, compressed, with halves nearly equal; cavity wide, 
deep, flaring or abrupt; suture shallow; apex roundish, with a mucronate or mamelon 
tip; color deep golden-yellow, splashed, blushed and mottled with red; pubescence heavA'; 
skin thick, tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh rayed with red near the pit, yellow, juicy, 
firm but tender, sweet, pleasantly flavored; good in quality; stone free, one and one-half 
inches long, one inch wide, ovate, more or less bulged at one side and drawn out near the 
base, plimip, rather long-pointed, with short grooves and pits in the surfaces; ventral 
sutm"e winged, medium in thickness, deeply grooved and furrowed along the edges; dorsal 
suture a narrow groove, winged. 

REEVES 

I. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:814. 1896. 2. Mich. Sta. Bid. 169:224. 1899. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. llorl. 
Man. 2:354. 190,1. 4- ^^ni. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1909. 

Reeves' Favorite. 5. Elliott Fr. Book 288. 1854. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 633. 1857. 7. .!«;. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 30. 1875. 8. Fulton Peach Cult. 193. 1908. 

Reeves' Late. 9. Jifich. Ilort. Soc. Rpt. 458. 1883. 

Reeves is another of the old favorites now rapidly passing out of 
ctdtivation. In its day it was justly celebrated for the high quality of its 
yellow-fleshed, freestone fruits which are as handsome as they are palatable. 
The peaches have but two minor defects to keep them from perfection — 
they are a little too irregular in shape and sometimes fall short in size. 
In textiare of flesh, juiciness-, taste and aroma they are scarcely surpassed. 
The fault that condemns the variety is unproductiveness in the trees. 
Under average conditions, Reeves is scarcely as productive as the Crawford s 
which are rated by all as about the poorest bearers. Making up in some 
degree for unfruitfulness, the trees are vigorous and more than usually 
hardy. It can hardly be expected that so poor a bearer will prove profit- 
able in commercial plantations but Reeves is worthy of perpetuation for 
home orchards. 

This attractive peach came from a chance seedling foimd about sixty 
years ago by Samuel Reeves, Salem, New Jersey. The variety has for 
many years gone under the name Reeves' Favorite and was so listed in 



266 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

the fruit-catalog of the American Pomological Society in 1875 but in 1909 
the name was shortened by the Society to Reeves. 

Tree meditim to large, vigorous, upright-spreading, hardy, rather unproductive; 
branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown with Hght ash-gray; branchlets intermediate 
in thickness and length, with a tendency to rebranch, dark pinkish-red with some oHve- 
green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with moderately conspicuous lenticels raised and breaking 
the bark near the base. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, variable 
in position, oval to obovate-lanceolate ; upper surface dark olive-green, smooth becoming 
rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin finely ser- 
rate, with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one 
to three small, globose glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, medium in size and length, pubescent, conical or pointed, plump, 
free; blossoms open late; flowers seven-eighths inch across, light and dark pink, well dis- 
tributed; pedicels very short, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, 
orange-colored within, obconic, glabrous; calyx-lobes medium to narrow, acute, glabrous 
within, pubescent without; petals oval to ovate, tapering to claws red at the base; fila- 
ments three-eighths inch long, equal to the jjetals in length; pistil pubescent near the 
base, as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-half 
inches wide, round-cordate, bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity 
often very deep, flaring or abrupt, the skin tender and often marked with red; suture 
shallow, sometimes extending beyond both cavity and tip; apex pointed or rounded, with 
a prominent, recurved, mamelon tip; color deep yellow, blushed with dull red, striped, 
splashed and mottled with brighter red; pubescence thick, long; skin thick, tough, sepa- 
rates from the pulp; flesh yellow, tinged with red near the pit, juicy, string}% tender and 
melting, pleasantly flavored, mild, sweet; very good in quality; stone free, one and three- 
eighths inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, ovate to oval, more or less biilged near 
the apex, sometimes winged along the ventral suture, with pitted and grooved surfaces; 
ventral suture deeply furrowed along the sides, narrow, grooved; dorsal suttu-e small, 
grooved. 

RIVERS 

I. Am. Pom. ^oc. Cat. 34. 1883. 2. Onl. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpl. 6:22 fig. 1899. 3. Del. Sla. Rpt. 
13:106. 1901. 4. Com. 7/or/. 25:464. 1902. 5. Budd-Hansen .4m. /ior/. jl/a«. 2:354. 1903. 

Early Rivers. 6. Jour. Ilorl. N. S. 17:38, 58. ' 1869. 7. Downing Fr. Trees .Am. 1st App. 120, 
121. 1872. 8. Card. Citron. 1262. 1872. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 10. Hogg Fruit Man. 
445. 1884. II. Rev. Hort. 388. 1890. 12. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 98 fig. 1906. 

Rivers' Fruhe. 13. Lauche Dent. Pom. VI: No. 9, PI. 1882. 

Prccoce Rivers. 14. Baltct Cult. Fr. 239 fig. 138. 1908. 

Rivers and one other, Salwey, are the only foreign peaches now com- 
monly cultivated in America. The peach, of all tree-fruits, best proves 
the general rule that American varieties of frtiits are best adapted to 
American conditions. Perhaps to Rivers may be added three or four more 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 267 

exotic peaches which are now and then planted in this country but all are 
passing out so rapidly that we shall soon be standing on a basis in peach- 
growing which is wholly American. Earliness and high quality of fruit 
keep Rivers alive in private places in America. No one would think of 
planting it in a commercial orchard because of its small fruit, tender skin 
and flesh which show every bruise, and its susceptibility to brown-rot. 
It is a white-fleshed freestone, tender, juicy and with an exceedingly rich, 
sugary flavor with a savoring smack of the nectarine. This variety stands 
almost alone in beauty of flesh which is white to the stone, translucent 
and more or less mottled and interspersed with white veins. At its best 
the fruits are rather large and quite handsome as they grow in America, 
but even so they are but a shadow of the peach described under this name 
in European fruit-books. The trees are fairly satisfactory in all essential 
characters. 

Rivers originated with Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, 
about 1865 as a seedling of Early Silver. Soon after its introduction in 
England it was brought to America. The American Pomological Society 
listed the variety in its fruit-catalog in 1875 as Early Rivers but in 1883 
changed the name to Rivers though it is still popularly known as Early 
Rivers. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, with incHnation to droop, round-topped, 
hardy, productive; trunk thick; branches stocky, smooth, dark reddish-brown overspread 
with light ash-gray; branchlets long, with intemodes olive-green overlaid with thin brownish- 
red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large and small lenticels. 

Leaves five and three-fourths inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded 
upward and somewhat recurved, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery, dark green, 
smooth or sometimes rugo?e; lower surface grayish-green, not pubescent, with a promi- 
nent midrib; apex acuminate; margin finely serrate, tipped with fine, reddish-brown 
glands; petiole one-fourth inch long, with one to six reniform, greenish-yellow glands 
variable in position. 

Flower-buds large, long, conical, heavily pubescent, appressed; season of bloom early; 
flowers pink, one and one-half inches across, often in pairs; pedicels short, glabrous, green; 
calyx-tube dtdl reddish-green, light yellow within, campaniilate, glabrous; calyx-lobes 
short, narrow, acute to obtuse, glabrous within, heavily pubescent without; petals roimd- 
ovate, bluntly notched near the base, tapering to long, narrow claws occasionally with 
a reddish base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at 
the ovary, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures early; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-fourth inches 
wide, roimd-oval, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity shallow, contracted, irregular, 
abrupt; suture medium to shallow; apex roundish, somewhat mucronate; color creamy- 



268 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

white, blushed with red; pubescence short, heavy; skin thick but tender, adherent to 
the pulp; flesh white, translucent, veined, juicy, melting, sweet or mildly sprightly; good 
in quality; stone nearly free, one and five-sixteenths inches long, one inch wide, oval, 
plump, bulged on one side, light colored, short-pointed at the apex, with grooved sur- 
faces; ventral suture very deeply grooved along the sides, narrow, winged; dorsal suture 
grooved, more or less winged. 

ROCHESTER 

I. Heberle Bros. Cat. ii, 23. 1915. 2. .V. Y. Sla. Bui. 414:6. 7. P'- I9i6- 3- -V. Y. Slate Fr. 
Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 18. 1916. 

Fruit-growers have long desired an early, yellovi', freestone peach 
with suitable tree-characters for a commercial plantation. There are 
several competitors for the place, the latest of which is Rochester, a member 
of the Crawford group and in several respects a marked improvement on 
the well-known Early Crawford. Rochester, in season, regarding the crop 
as a whole, certainly precedes Early Crawford several days, ripening soon 
after the middle of August. The introducers say that it is two weeks 
earlier, a statement made possible by the fact that its season is very long, 
a few specimens ripening extremely early. The great length of season of 
this variety under some circumstances may be an asset, tinder others a 
liability. As the color-plate shows, the peaches are large, yellow, with a 
handsome over-color of mottled red, more rotund than either of the two 
Crawfords or Elberta, making, all in all, a strikingly beautiful peach. 
The flesh, too, meets all the requirements of a good peach — thick and 
firm, marbled yellow, stained with red at the pit, juicy, rich, sweet and in 
all respects fully up to the high standard of palatability found in peaches 
of the Crawford group. While the variety must be classed as a freestone, 
yet there is a slight clinging which may disappear under some conditions 
and may be augmented tinder others. Rochester seems to be sufficiently 
productive for a good commercial fruit but it remains to be seen how 
generally it is adapted to soils and climates. Should its range of adapta- 
bility be great, Rochester, by virtue of earliness, good quality and handsome 
appearance, at once takes a high place in commercial peach-growing in 
New York. 

Rochester came from a seed planted about 1900 on a farm owned by 
a Mr. Wallen, near Rochester, New York. It was introduced by the 
Heberle Brothers Nurseries, Brighton, New York, in 1912. 

Trees large, vigorous, upright-spreading, more upright than Elberta, productive; 
trunk medium to thick, somewhat shaggy, branches stocky, smooth, ash-gray over red; 




H 



ROCHESTER 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 269 

branchlets slender, long, with long intemodes, green mottled with brownish-red, smooth, 
glabrous, with nimierous inconspicvious, small lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward and slightly 
recurled, oval to ovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dark green but often 
with a lighter tinge, smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin 
shallowly crenate; petiole one-half inch long, thick, with two to eight large, reniform 
glands variable in position. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; variable in size, the largea- specimens varying 
from three to three and one-half inches in diameter, round-oblate, compressed, with 
unequal halves, often bulged near the apex; cavity wide, deep, flaring; suture shallow, 
becoming deeper near the tip; apex variable, often with a mucronate tip; color lemon- 
yellow changing to orange-yellow, blushed with deep, dark red, mottled; pubescence 
heavy; skin thick, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh yellow, stained with red near the 
pit, very juicy, tender and melting, sweet, highly flavored, sprightly; very good in quality; 
stone free, one and three-eighths inches long, more than one inch wide, oval, pltunp, flat- 
tened near the base, with roughened surface marked by large, deep pits and short grooves; 
ventral suture deeply furrowed along the edges, rather wide; dorsal suture grooved 
deeply, wide. 

ST. JOHN 

I. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpl. 320. 1890. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 46. 1891. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 
68. 1891. 4. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:814. 1896. 5. Out. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpl. 9:8 fig. 1902. 6. Waugh 
Am. Peach Orch. 207. 1913. 

Plater's St. John. 7. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 613. 1869. 

Vellow St. John. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 1871. 9. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpl. 64. 1871. 10. Ohio 
Sta. But. 170:182. 1906. 

Fleitas St. John. 11. Pa. Bd. Agr. Rpt. 586. 1878. 12. Ca. Sla. Bui. 42:235. 1898. 

May Beauty. 13. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 148. 1883. 

Crane. 14. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:34. 1910. 

Unproductiveness and uncertainty in bearing keep this magnificent 
yellow-fleshed dessert fruit from being one of the most popular early 
peaches. Even with these handicaps, to which may be added small size 
in many situations, St. John has maintained great popularity for home 
orchards and in many peach-regions is grown for the markets. It is one 
of the earliest of the Crawford-like peaches, a perfect freestone, handsome 
in appearance, sweet, rich and delicious in flavor and pleasing in all of the 
flesh attributes of a good dessert peach. St. John resembles Early Craw- 
ford in size and shape but is a little more rotund, runs somewhat smaller, 
is not qtiite as high in quality and ripens several days earlier. The trees 
are all that could be asked for in size, vigor and hardiness, falling short 
only in the characters noted in the opening sentence. St. John should 
always be planted in the home orchard and it would seem that it is more 
often worth planting in commercial orchards. The color-plate does not 



270 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

do the variety justice in size, color or shape, the Station grounds being 
one of the many places in which the variety cannot be had at its best. 

Where, by whom and when St. John originated and what its parentage, 
are unknown. It is more than half a century old, came from the South, 
and has been widely planted in southern peach-districts, especially along 
the southern coast of Alabama. The variety reproduces itself from seed 
and this fact has led to its being distributed under a number of different 
names as is shown by the synonyms listed in the references. In Michigan 
the variety was grown for some time as Crane, or Crane's Early Yellow, 
having come from the orchard of Charles G. Crane of Fennville. 
Mr. Crane, it appears, had lost the true name of the peach and after fruit- 
ing his supposed seedling for a time it was discovered by T. T. Lyon ' to be 
identical with St. John. In 1871 the American Pomological Society added 
this peach to its fruit-list as Yellow St. John but dropped " Yellow " from 
the name in 1891, the variety having appeared since that time in the 
Society's catalog as St. John. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous, upright-spreading, with the lower branches drooping, 
unproductive; tnmk stocky, medium to smooth; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown 



' Theodatus Timothy Lyon, fruit-grower, experimenter and writer, was for many years the leading 
pomological authority of his adopted State, Michigan. T. T. Lyon, as he always signed his name, was 
born in Lima, New York, January' 13, 1813, and died in South Haven, Michigan, February 6, 1900. At 
the age of fifteen he moved with his parents to Michigan where until his thirty-first year, in 1844, he 
worked at most of the arts and crafts practiced by pioneers in a new country. In the year named, he 
began the career of horticulturist, by planting a nursery at Plymouth, Michigan. In the nearby regions 
French missionaries had early planted orchards and old settlers had long been importing varieties of fruit. 
The nomenclature of these fruits was in uttermost confusion. T. T. Lyon set himself the task of ascertain- 
ing the correct names of these varieties in the old settlements of the State. The result was he became 
the pomological authority of the State. In 1874 Mr. Lyon moved to the famous " peach-belt " of western 
Michigan, where he lived until his death. Here, at first, he was president of a prominent nursery company. 
In 1876 he was elected president of the State Horticultural Society and continued as its active president 
until 1891 and from then on until his death was honorary president. In 1888 T. T. Lyon wrote a History 
of Michigan HorlkuUure which was published in the Seventeenth Report of the State Horticultural Society. 
From the beginning of his interests in horticulture in southwestern Michigan Mr. Lyon was particularly 
interested in peaches — growing seedlings, testing new varieries, planting orchards and in every way 
helping to forward the great peach-industr>' of the region. He was probably, in his time, the best informed, 
the most accurate and the most critical judge of peaches in this country. In 1889 he was given charge 
of the South Haven Sub-station of the Michigan Experiment Station which gave him added facilities 
for studying and describing fruits and a means of pubUshing, through his connection with the Experiment 
Station, bulletins on fruits. These, for accurary of description of varieties, are still imsurpassed among 
American pomological publications. Besides these bulletins, the fruit-lists in the reports of the Michigan 
Horticultural Society and in the American Pomological Society, during the last half of the Nineteenth 
Century, show the results of his accurate judgment of fruits. A modest man, shrinking from publicity, 
his printed works but poorly represent his vast knowledge of fruits and his great influence in the betterment 
of American pomology. 




ST. JOHN 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 271 

(X)vered with light ash-gray; branchlets with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish- 
red with a trace of green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with a few lenticels variable in size, 
raised at the base. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flattened or 
slightly curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick; upper surface dull, dark 
green, smooth; lower surface grayish-green; apex acimiinate; margin finely serrate, often 
in two series, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless 
or with one to five small, globose glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds obtuse, pubescent, plump, appressed or free; blossoms appear in mid- 
season; flowers seven-eighths inch across, white toward the base of the petals, becoming 
dark pink near the edges; pedicels short, glabrous, pale green; calyx-tube reddish-green, 
orange-colored within, obconic; calyx-lobes obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals small, ovate to oval, notched near the base, tapering to narrow olaws; filaments 
seven-sixteenths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent near the base, 
as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; two and one-half inches long, two and three-fourths inches 
wide, roimd-oval, often bulged near the apex, usually compressed, with oblique sides; 
cavity medium to deep, wide, abrupt or flaring, often tinged with red; suture deep near 
the tip; apex round or depressed, with a mucronate or pointed tip; color deep yellow, 
blushed and splashed with carmine; pubescence thick and long; skin mediimi to thick, 
tough, variable in adherence to the pulp; flesh light yellow, tinged with red near the pit, 
juicy, tender, pleasantly sprightly, highly flavored; very good in quality; stone free, one 
and one-fourth inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, ovate, plump, tapering to a long 
point, with rough surfaces marked by large and small pits; ventral suture deeply grooved 
along the edges, furrowed ; dorsal suture a large, deep groove 



SALWEY 

I. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:270, 271 fiK- 1879. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 460. 1884. 3. Bunyard Cat. 36. 
I9I3-I4- 

Salway. 4. Horticulturist N. S. 8:168. 1858. 5. Card. Chron. 944. 1861. 6. Mas Le Verger 
7:51. 52, fig- 24. 1866-73. 7. ^m. //oW. ^ren. 80, 81 fig. 38. 1870. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpl. 56. 1871. 
9. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 1st App. 122. 1872. 10. Horticulturist 27:248. 1872. 11. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat. 30. 1875. 12. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:225. 1899. 13. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 48, 49. 1901. 
14. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:355. •903- iS- Cat. Cong. Pom. France 114 fig. 1906. 

Salwey is one of the two Etoropean peaches cultivated on a commercial 
scale in America, Rivers being the other. Both find their greatest useful- 
ness in extending the peach-season, this variety being one of the latest 
and Rivers one of the earliest sorts. It is a yellow-fleshed, freestone peach 
of attractive appearance and of good quality, neither handsome enough 
nor good enough in quality, however, to be considered a first-class dessert 
fruit. On the other hand it is one of the best sorts for canning, preserving 
and evaporating. The trees are vigorous, hardy, healthy and very pro- 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 273 

wide, round-cordate, bulged near the apex, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity deeiJ, 
abrupt, often splashed with red; suture shallow, often extending beyond the tip; apex 
usually a small, elongated point; color greenish-yellow, usually with a brownish-red 
blush splashed dark red; pubescence short, thick, fine; skin thin, tough, adherent to the 
pulp; flesh golden-yellow, faintly tinged with red near the pit, juicy, stringy, tender, 
becomes dry with age, sweet, pleasantly flavored, aromatic; good to very good in quality; 
stone free, one and one-half inches long, one and one-sixteenth inches wide, oval to 
roundish-oval, very plump, pointed at the base, with large pits and short grooves in the 
surfaces; ventral suture narrow, deeply furrowed along the edges; dorsal suture winged, 
a narrow groove. 

SCHUMAKER 

I. Card. Mon. 22:276. 1880. 2. W. N. Y. Ilorl. Soc. Rpl. 115. 1880. 3. Card. Mon. 25:111 
lig. 1883. ^. Mich. Hon. Soc. Rpl. :^n, T,i^. 1889. 5. R. I. Sla. Bui. 7:41 . 1890. 6. Budd-Hansen 
Am. Hort. Man. 2:356. 1903. 

Shoemaker's Seedling. 7. Cull. & Count. Gent. 41:631. 1876. 

Schumaker, now grown only in western New York and Pennsylvania, 
for a long time was described as the earliest of the white-fleshed, clingstone 
peaches. There are other peaches as early but, on the Station grounds, 
this is the best flavored of the early peaches. Moreover, when fully ripe 
it is almost a freestone. It is a handsome peach in color and shape but 
the fruits are too small though this can be remedied in part by thinning. 
The trees are large, hardy, vigorous and productive to a fault. With all of 
these good qualities, the wonder is that Schumaker is not more popular as a 
commercial variety to open the season but for some reason peach-growers 
are not pleased with it — probably because of the small size of the peaches. 
For a peach of its season, Schumaker is remarkably free from brown-rot. 
Nurserymen often substitute Alexander for this variety and vice versa. 

This variety originated as a seedling with Michael Schumaker, Fair- 
view, Erie County, Pennsylvania. Its parentage is unknown. It fruited 
for the first time in 1877 and was for a few years grown commercially but 
its popularity has long been on the wane. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, becoming drooping, open-topped, productive; 
trunk thick, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; 
branchlets long, pinkish-red with but a trace of green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with 
large, conspicuous, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, variable in 
position, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, smooth; 
lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; 
IJetiole seven-sixteenths inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose, reddish- 
brown glands variable in position. 



274 THE PHAdiES OF NEW YORK 

Flower-buds hardy, pubescent, conical or jjointed, i:)lumiJ, usually free; blossoms 
appear early; flowers one and one-half inches across, pink; pedicels very short, glabrous, 
green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the base, greenish-yellow within, obconic, glabrous; 
calyx-lobes short, acute, glabrous w4thin, pubescent without; petals oval to ovate, tapering 
to claws sometimes red at the base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; 
pistil pubescent at the base, as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures very early; about two and one-eighth inches in diameter, round, com- 
pressed, with unequal halves; cavity deep, flaring; suture shallow; apex ending in a 
recurved, mucronate tip but variable; color creamy-white, heavily blushed and often 
mottled with dark red; pubescence short, thick; skin thin, tender, separates from the 
pulp when fully ripe; flesh white, very juicy, stringj% tender, sweet, aromatic, highly 
flavored; very good in quality; stone clinging, becoming semi-cling when fully mature, 
one and one-fourth inches long, three-fourths inch wide, oval, plump, inconspicuously 
winged, with corrugated surfaces. 

SMOCK 

1. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 193, 194. 1865. 2. Mas /,<• Verger 7:75, 76, fig. 36. 1866-73. 3. Am. Pom. 
Soc. Cat. 28. 1873. 4. Leroy ^tci. Pom. 6:279 fig., 280. 1879. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui. i6g:22=,, 22h. 1S99. 
6. Fulton Peach Cult. 196, 197. 1908. 

Saint George. 7. Kenrick Am. Orch. 193. 1841. 

Smock Freestone. 8. Downing Fr. Trees .4m. 492. 1845. 9. Bridgeman Card. Ass't Pt. 3:108. 
1857. 10. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 

Though Httle grown now, during the last half of the last century 
Smock was one of the leading commercial peaches of its season. The 
variety has so little to recommend it, however, that we cannot but believe 
that reputation more than merit kept up its popularity. The trees are 
about all that could be desired but the peaches are of but mediocre quality 
and not at all attractive in appearance, lacking in size and color, are ungainly 
in shape and have but little uniformity in size, color or shape. It is one of 
the latest yellow-fleshed peaches and is said to be excellent for all culinary 
purposes. With so many better varieties of late yellow-fleshed, freestone 
peaches. Smock is not worth planting for any purpose. 

Smock originated three-quarters of a century or more ago with a 
Mr. Smock, Middletown, New Jersey. Variations imder such names as 
Smock X and Smock (Hance) have arisen as distinct varieties but all 
have proved to be identical with the old sort. The name Smock CUng 
appears in peach-literature but whether the peach was distinct we cannot 
say. Years after the introduction of Smock a peach was put out under 
the name " Beers Smock." The differences claimed are that Beers Smock 
runs larger and is better in quality than Smock. All descriptions of the 
two sorts, however, are so nearly identical that we believe that the two 
names are given to the same peach. In 1862 the American Pomological 




SCHUMAKER 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



275 



Society listed Smock in its catalog as Smock Freestone. In 1873 the name 
was shortened to Smock and it so appears today. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, somewhat drooping, dense-topped, tall, usually 
very productive; trunk medium to thick, rough; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown 
with very light ash-gray tinge; branchlets slender, medium to long, with short intemodes 
tlark red intermingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with large, raised 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and one-half inches wide, flattened or 
curved downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thick; upper surface dull, dark green; 
smooth; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with dark red glands; 
petiole three-eighths inch long, with none to five small, globose or reniform glands variable 
in color and position. 

Flower-buds tender, conical or pointed, slightly pubescent, appressed or free; blossoms 
appear in mid-season; flowers less than one inch across, white at the center of the petals, 
light or dark pink near the edges, often in twos; pedicels short, glabrous, greenish; calyx- 
tube reddish-green at the base, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes 
broad, acute, serrate, glabrous within, pubescent without, partly reflexed; petals oval, 
irregular in outline near the base, tapering to long, narrow claws often- reddish at the 
base; filaments three-eighths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil pubescent 
near the base, equal to or longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures very late; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths inches 
wide, oval, irregular, often btilged near the apex, compressed, with halves imequal and 
somewhat angular; cavity narrow, abrupt, contracted around the sides, twig-marked; 
suture a mere line, becoming deeper toward the apex; apex roundish, with a recurved, 
mucronate tip; color greenish-yellow or sometimes orange-yellow, specked and mottled 
with dull, dark red or sometimes faintly tinted with a bronze blush; pubescence very 
heav>', thick, fine; skin thin, tough, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, faintly tinged with 
red near the pit, variable in jtiiciness, tender, sprightly, pleasantly flavored; good in quality ; 
stone free, one and five-eighths inches long, one and one-sixteenth inches wide, oval or 
obovate, bulged near the apex, flattened toward the base, with deeply grooved surfaces; 
ventral suttire narrow, winged, deeply grooved along the sides; dorsal suture a wide and 
deep groove, winged. 

STEVENS 

I. Budd-Hanscn Am. Ilort. Man. 2:356, 357. 1903. 

Slevens Rareripe. 2. N. J. Horl. Soc. Rpt. 42. 1878. 3. ArK. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1889. 4. Ont. 
Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 22:31, 32. 1890. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:227. 1899. 6. Ont. Pr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 
9:38. 1902. 7. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 207. 1913. 

Stevens is one of the fruits of the generation just past — a large, white 
and red, white-fleshed, freestone peach. The variety is best known 
as Stevens Rareripe but the last part of the name is inapt for the 
true rareripes are earlier ripening peaches while with Stevens latenes:; 
is one of its prime assets. In quality the fruits are extra good, the flesh- 



276 THE PKA( HES OF NEW YORK 

characters pleasing in every respect. The flavor is a pleasing mingling of 
sweet and sour not found in many other peaches so late in the season. 
The appearance of the peach is as alluring as the taste. The color-plate 
shows the variety almost perfectly in color and shape but the peaches as 
depicted are rather smaller than the average. These late, white-fleshed 
peaches now seldom sell well, usually reaching the markets in poor con- 
dition, but they are choice fruits for home use and for this purpose Stevens 
should be planted in every home orchard. The variety has the reputa- 
tion of being hardy in both wood and buds. 

Stevens originated about 1858 on the farm of B. Stevens, Morris- 
town, New Jersey. Its parentage is unknown. It was listed in the 
American Pomological Society's catalog in 1889 as Stevens Rareripe. 
Later the name was shortened to Stevens in accordance with the Society's 
rules of nomenclature. 

Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, with the lower branches inclined to droop, pro- 
ductive; trunk of medium thickness, rough; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown 
mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets thick, dark reddish-brown with but little green, 
glossy, smooth, with niimerous large and small lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward and slightly 
recurled, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark green, glossy, rugose 
along the midrib; lower surface light green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish- 
brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to six small, reniform 
glands usually at the base of the leaf; flower-buds intermediate in size and length, conical 
to pointed, somewhat appressed, pubescent; flowers small. 

Fruit matures late; about two and eleven-sixteenths inches in diameter, round to 
round-oval, with nearly equal sides; cavity deep, wide, flaring to abrupt; suture medium 
to deep, often extending beyond the tip; apex roimdish, with a strongly mucronate and 
recurved tip; color greenish-white overlaid with attractive purplish-red, often mottled 
or splashed with darker red; pubescence short, fine; skin thick, tough, adherent to the 
pulp; flesh white, tinted with red near the pit and reddish underneath the deepest surface 
blush, juicy, coarse, sweet, sprightly; good in quality; stone nearly free, one and five- 
eighths inches long, one and one-eighth inches wide, obovate, flattened at the base, plump, 
with grooved surfaces; ventral suture mediiun to deeply grooved along the edges, inter- 
mediate in width, furrowed; dorsal suture deeply grooved, winged. 

STUMP 

I. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:817. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1897. 3. Mich. Sta. Btil. 169:227 
1899. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:357. 1903. 

Slump the World. 5. V. S. Pal. Off. Rpl. 299. 1854. 6. Elliott Fr. Book 304. 1859. 7. Horti- 
cullurisl 14:106, 107, PI. 1859. 8. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 80. 1862. 9. U. S. D. A. Rpl. 193. 1865. 
10. HoKg Fruit Man. 232. 1866. 11. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 633. 1869. 12. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:242. 
1898. 13. Fulton Peach Cul . 189, 190. 1908. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 277 

Stump-of-the-World. 14. X. J. Hort. Soe. Rpl. ^i, 42. 1878. 
Peche dit New-Jersey. 15. I^roy Diet. Pom. 6:t<)s,, 196 fig. 1879. 
Late Slump. 16. Ark. Sta. Bui. 43:102. 1896. 

Stump has long been a favorite white-fleshed, freestone, late peach 
of the Oldmixon type. It is not a handsome fruit, the color-plate flattering 
rather than detracting from its appearance, but makes up in quality what 
it lacks in looks. The flesh is melting, juicy, sparkling, rich and good 
though dry and very mediocre if permitted to overripen. The peaches 
are too tender for distant shipment and the variety is of value only for 
local markets and home use. The trees are large, vigorous, hardy, healthy 
and productive, with a shapely, upright-spreading, dense-topped head — - 
about all that could be desired in a peach-tree. In spite of the high 
quality of the peaches and the splendid tree-characters. Stump is steadily 
waning in popularity and will, no doubt, soon pass from cultivation. 

We can say little of the history of Stump other than that it originated 
in New Jersey at least three-quarters of a century ago. A Mr. Brant, 
Madison, New Jersey, in a report on peaches at the meeting of the New 
Jersey Horticultural Society in 1878 mentions a variety as Stump-of-the- 
World which originated on the farm of Samuel Whitehead in Middlesex 
County, New Jersey, about 1825. Mr. Brant, however, considered this 
sort distinct from Stump although very similar to it. From the description 
he gives it seems certain that he was describing the true Stump. In 1862 
the American Pomological Society listed this sort in its catalog as Stump 
the World. The name was shortened to Stiunp in 1897 by the committee 
on nomenclature in accordance with pomological rules. 

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, dense-topped, productive; trunk 
medium in diameter, smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown tinged with 
light ash-gray; branchlets thick, inclined to rebranch, long, with intemodes dark red 
mingled with olive-green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with many conspicuous, small, raised 
lenticels. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
downward, broad-oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, 
rugose along the midrib ; lower surface grayish-green ; margin finely serrate, often in two 
series, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, with one 
to four globose glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds semi-hardy, pubescent, conical to pointed, pltunp, usually more or less 
free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers thirteen-sixteenths inch across, white at the 
center, becoming pink near the margin; pedicels long, slender; calyx-tube dull reddish- 
green, yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, obtuse, glabrous within, 
pubescent without : petals oval, faintly notched near the base, tapering to very short claws 



278 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

tinged with red near the base; filaments five-sixteenths inch lonj;, equal to the petals in 
length; pistil pubescent at the ovarj', longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures late ; about two and one-half inches in diameter, round-oval to cordate 
bulged near the apex, compressed, with markedly unequal halves; cavity shallow, wide, 
uneven in outline, flaring or abrupt, with tender skin; suture shallow, often extending 
beyond the tip; apex round or pointed, with a recurved, mucronate tip; color creamy-white, 
blushed, mottled and splashed with red; pubescence long, thick, coarse; skin thin, tough, 
separates from the pulp; flesh white, strongly stained with red near the pit, juicy, tender 
and melting, sweet, rich, pleasantly flavored, aromatic; very good in quality; stone nearly 
free, one and one-half inches long, one and one-sixteenth inches wide, ovate to oval, 
plump, flattened toward the base, tapering to a long point, with grooved surfaces; ventral 
suture deeply marked along the edges, narrow, sometimes winged; dorsal suture grooved. 

SUMMER SNOW 

I. Okla. Sta. Bui. 2:15. 1892. 2. Mich. 67a. Bui. 118:31. 1895. 3. Thomas Am. Fruit Cult. 
691. 1897. 4. Mich Sta. Bui. 169:227. 1899. 5. Ont. Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 7:55. 1900. 

Summer Snow is a ctiriosity with some value for culinary purposes 
Its distinctive peculiarities are a skin almost pure white and flesh white 
as snow from skin to pit. The quality is poor and the flesh clings to the 
pit so tenaciously that the variety has no value, whatsoever, for dessert 
but is said to be excellent for pickling and to make a very good and a very 
distinctive canned product. 

There are no records of the origin of this peach but it is doubtful if 
it dates back more than a quarter of a century. The variety is very 
similar to the old Snow, which was probably its prototype, differing 
essentially in having a clinging stone while the stone of Snow is free. In 
New York the name is a misnomer as the fruit does not ripen until the 
last of September or early in October. Albino peaches date back to the 
early records of this fruit and seem to be known wherever peaches are 
grown. Whenever seedling peaches are grown in large numbers, an 
occasional albino appears. 

Tree large, vigorous, upright-spreading, slightly drooping, productive; trunk thick 
and smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with very light ash- 
gray; branchlets very long, inclined to rebranch, with internodes of medium length, 
olive-green intermingled with light brown, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, russet- 
colored lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, flattened or 
curved downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin; upper surface dull green, smooth; 
lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; 
petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to six small, globose and reniform 
glands variable in color and position. 




SUMMER SNOW 



THE PKACHKS OK NKW YORK 279 

Leaf-buds semi-hardy, small, short, variable in shape, plimip, appressed or slightly 
free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers one and five-eighths inches across, white, 
sometimes in twos; pedicels short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube tinged with green, 
yellow within, campanidate, glabrous; calyx-lobes variable in length, medium to narrow, 
acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals often pointed at the apex, round-ovate, 
broadly notched at the base, tapering to broad, short claws; filaments seven-six- 
teenths inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent near the base, as long as the 
stamens. 

Fruit matures late; two and three-eighths inches long, two and five-sixteenths inches 
wide, round-cordate, somewhat angular, bulged at one side, compressed, with unequal 
sides; cavity deep, narrow, abrupt, contracted about the sides, twig-marked; suture 
shallow, becoming deeper toward the tip; apex roundish or depressed, with a mucronate 
or sometimes a small, mamelon tip; color greenish-white changing to creamy-white, 
without blush; pubescence long, thick, coarse; skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; 
flesh white to the pit, juicy, meaty, mildly sweet to sprightly; fair in quality; stone firmly 
clinging, one and nine-sixteenths inches long, one and one-eighth inches wide, broad-oval, 
often bulged near the apex, winged, with pitted surfaces marked with short grooves; 
ventral suture rather narrow, winged, with furrows of medium depth along the sides; 
dorsal suture grooved, with winged sides. 

SURPASSE 

I. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:227. 1899. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 2:357. 1903. 
Surpasse Melocoton. 3. Mich. Horl. Soc. Rpl. 33. 1874. 4. Barry Fr. Garden 407. 1883. 5. R. I. 
Sta. Bui. 7:41. 1890. 

As Surpasse grows on the Station grounds, it has most of the quahties 
of a first-class yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. The fruits are large, 
handsome and of excellent quality, while the trees are satisfactory in every 
respect except, possibly, in productiveness. The variety has been grown 
sufficiently long in New York to have been well tested and has not found 
favor, so that we must conclude that it does not do as well elsewhere as 
here and that it is doomed to go into the discard. 

Surpasse originated more than forty years ago on the grounds of 
Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York, and has long been sold by 
this nursery firm. It has never been widely nor largely grown commercially 
but is not uncommon in western New York. 

Tree above medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, with a tendency to droop, 
rather unproductive; tnmk thick and smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-browai 
mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets thick, inclined to rebranch, long, dark pinkish- 
red with some green, smooth except for the lenticels, glabrous, with ver>' conspicuous, 
numerous, large and small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, variable in position, oval 



28o THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dark olive-green, rugose along the midrib; 
apex acuminate; marjrin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole seven- 
sixteenths inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose glands variable in color 
and position. 

Flower-buds tender, pubescent, conical to pointed, plump, usually free; blossoms 
open in mid-season; flowers seven-eighths inch across, light pink but darker along the 
edges, usually single; pedicels short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange- 
colored within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes long, narrow, acute, glabrous within, 
pubescent without; petals ovate, with short, indistinct claws; filaments three-eighths inch 
long, equal to the petals in length; pistil as long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and three-eighths 
inches wide, round-cordate, irregular, compressed, much bulged near the apex, with 
unequal halves; cavity deep, wide, flaring to abrupt, with tender, reddish skin; suture 
a line becoming deeper toward the tip; apex pointed, usually with an erect, mamelon 
tip; color pale yellow or orange-yellow, mottled and splashed more or less with red and 
overspread with a lively, dark red blush; pubescence medium in length, thick, fine; skin 
thin, separates from the pulp; flesh light yellow, red near the pit, very juicy, rather coarse, 
stringy, tender and melting, sprightly, highly flavored; good to very good in quality; 
stone free, one and three-eighths inches long, fifteen-sixteenths inch wide, ovate, rather 
plimap, tapering to a long point, sometimes slightly winged along the ventral suture, with 
pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along the edges, below medium in width, 
furrowed; dorsal suture grooved, winged. 

THURBER 

I. Am. Fom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1873. 2. Card. Mon. iT-175- '875- 3- Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd 
App. 144. 1876. 4. Atn. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1881. 5. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:109 fig. 8, no. 1901. 
6. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 2:357. 1903. 

Thurber is mediocre in all of its characters in New York, though 
perhaps it is a little better in quality than the average white-fleshed, 
rnid-season freestone. In the South, however, it seems to be considered 
one of the best of its class not only in quality but in size and appearance. 
The fruits are small in New York, as the color-plate shows, while all 
descriptions of them in the South say they are large. The variety is 
possibly worth planting, because of good quality, in home orchards in this 
State. 

Thurber is a seedling of Chinese Cling grown by L. E. Berckmans, 
Rome, Georgia, more than forty years ago. The variety was named in 
honor of Dr. George Thurber, American botanist, naturalist and editor. 
It is similar to its parent but is a freestone and the trees are more com- 
pact and thrifty than those of Chinese Cling. The American Pomologicai 
Society added Thurber to its fruit-list in 1881, a place it still holds 




THURBER 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 28 1 

Tree above metHum size, vigorous, upright-spreading, productive; trunk thick and 
smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with hght ash-gray; branchlets 
slender, often very long, olive-green with some red, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with 
numerous conspicuous, raised lenticels variable in size, usually russetted toward the 
base. 

Leaves six inches long, over one and one-half inches wide, flattened or cnirled down- 
ward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, smooth 
becoming rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, 
tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one 
to four small, globose glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds tender, large, medium to short, heavily pubescent, obtuse, very plump, 
usually free; blossoms open in mid-season; flowers one and one-eighth inches across, light 
pink, darker along the edges, usually single; pedicels long, slender, glabrous, greenish; 
calyx-tube reddish-green, greenish-yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes 
acute, glabrous within, lieavily pubescent without, flattened; jjetals ovate, tapering to 
short, narrow claws; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long, equal to the petals in length; 
pistil longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and three-eighths inches long, two and one-eighth 
inches wide, round-oval, somewhat compressed, with unequal halves; cavity shallow, 
narrow, flaring or abrupt, often tinted with red, compressed about the sides; suture a line 
or very shallow, often extending beyond the tip; apex round, with a recurved, mucronate 
or mamelon tip ; color green or creamy-white, with few splashes of dull red over a livel^• 
red blush; pubescence long, coarse, thick; skin thin, tough, variable in adherence to the 
pulp; flesh white, deeply stained with red near the pit, juicy, tender and melting, 
pleasantly sprightly, aromatic; good in quality; stone free, one and one-half inches long, 
more than an inch wide, red, obovate to oval, flattened toward the base, plvunp, tapering 
to a short point, often winged on the ventral suture, with surfaces pitted and marked 
by short grooves; ventral suture deeply grooved along the edges, narrow; dorsal suture 
grooved, slightly winged. 

TRIANA 

I. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:^19. 1S96. 2. Fla. Sta. Bui. 73:i.S-. 1904. 3. Glen St. Mary Nur. Cut. 
23. 1906. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1909. 

Triana is another of the honey-fleshed, beaked peaches supposed to 
thrive only in the far South. It can be grown, however, with about as 
much certainty in New York as many of the standard varieties of the North. 
Its small size and poor shipping qualities debar it from competing with 
commercial peaches in this region but it is well worth planting in home 
orchards for the sake of variety and because of its delicious flavor — a 
sort of scented sweetness wholly unknown in northern varieties. The 
good health, vigor, size and hardiness of these honey-peaches on the Station 
grounds is a constant surprise to those who have believed that they could 
be grown only in the Gulf States. 



282 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Triana originated a quarter of a century or more ago at the Glen 
Saint Mary Nurseries, Glen Saint Mary, Florida. It was introduced in 
1 892 by the originators. The American Pomological Society added Triana 
to its fruit-list in 1 909. 

Tree of medium size, upright-spreading, open-topped, productive; branches greenish- 
red; Vjranchlets slender, long, with a tendency to rebranch, dark red with some olive- 
green, rough, glabrous, with numerous conspicuous, large, raised lenticels. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, folded upward 
and recurled, slightly lanceolate, thin, leathery ; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower 
surface grayish-green, with prominent mid-rib; margin finely serrate; petiole three-eighths 
inch long, with one to five small, reniform glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, short, pubescent, conical, plump, usually appressed; blossoms 
one and one-half inches across, pale red, in dense clusters, usually single; pedicels long, 
slender, glabrous, greenish; calyx-tube reddish-green, dark greenish-yellow within, cam- 
panulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals oval 
to long-ovate, tapering to short claws; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long, shorter than 
the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, often longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in late mid-season; two and one-eighth inches long, one and thirteen- 
sixteenths inches wide, oval, compressed, with unequal halves; cavity shallow, flaring; 
suture of medium depth; apex a long, mucronate tip; color creamy-white, blushed, 
splashed and mottled with bright red; pubescence short, fine; skin thin, tender, adhering 
to the pulp; flesh white, faintly stained with red near the pit, tender, sweet, mild; good 
in quality; stone nearl}' free, one and one-fourth inches long, one and three-fourths inches 
wide, oval or elliptical, usually with pitted surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along 
the edges; dorsal suture grooved. 

TRIUMPH 

I. Card. & For. 8:20. 1895. 2. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 44. 1895. 3. Kan. Hort. Soc. Peach, 
The 49. 1899. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 34. 1899. 5. Can. Hort. 24:401, fig. 2158. 1901. 6. Ont. 
Fr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 9:38. 1902. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:358. 1903. 8. Ohio Sta. Bui. 
170:182. 1906. 9. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 196, 208. 1913. 

Triomphe. 10. Rev. Hort. 79. 1895. 

Triumph is an extra early, yellow-fleshed peach so inferior in 
appearance and quality of fruit and so subject to brown-rot that it is not 
worth growing in any but the most northern peach-regions where, because of 
great hardiness in wood and bud, it becomes a valuable variety. It is grown 
more or less, however, both north and south because it is one of the earliest 
yellow-fleshed sorts and because the trees bear regularly and abundantly. 
The dark color and the great amount of fuzzy pubescence detract materially 
from the appearance of the peach. The specimens shown in the color- 
plate are from unthinned trees; the size can be increased by thinning. 
Small pits somewhat offset the small size of the fruits. The peaches, if not 



./: 



i 





I A ^ 



> 



THK PKA( HKS OF NEW YORK 283 

attacked by brown-rot, stand shipment splendidly, a character which adds 
to its value for early markets. Though often put down as a clingstone 
it is, when well grown, a semi-cling and sometimes the stone is free. 

Triumph is one of several seedlings grown by J. D. Husted, Vineyard, 
Georgia. It is supposed to be an offspring of Alexander. The date of 
origin is unknown but references go back to 1895. Triumph was placed 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1899. 

Tree of medium size, vigorous, upright-spreading, with lower branches drooping, 
hardy, very productive; tmnk intermediate in thickness and smoothness; branches 
stocky, smooth, reddish-brown intermingled with very light ash-gray; branchlets slender, 
long, with intemodes of mediimi length, dark pinkish-red with some green, glossy, ver>' 
smooth, glabrous, with many conspicuous, small, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six inches long, one and five-eighths inches wide, flattened or curled down- 
ward, o\-al to obovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dull, dark olive-green, 
rugose near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely and shallowly serrate, 
tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one 
to four very small, globose glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, small, short, pubescent, obtuse or pointed, plump, appressed 
or free; blossoms unfold early; flowers one and five-eighths inches across, dark pink, 
sometimes in twos; pedicels short, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at 
the base, orange-colored within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, 
glabrous within, pubescent without; petals broadly oval to ovate, widely notched near the 
base, tapering to claws with reddish base; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long, shorter 
than the petals; pistil pubescent near the base, equal in length to the stamens. 

Fruit matures early; two inches long, two and one-eighth inches wide, roundish-oval, 
compressed, vnth unequal sides; cavity deep, abrupt, with tender skin; suture shallow; 
apex roundish, with a mamelon and recurved tip; color pale yellow overlaid with dark 
red; pubescence thick and long; skin thin, adherent to the pulp; flesh yellow, stained with 
red near the pit, juicy, firm until fully ripe, sprightly; fair in quality; stone semi-free to 
free when fully ripe, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, obovate, 
flattened wedge-like at the base, bulged at one side near the apex, plump, with deeply 
grooved surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along the edges, furrowed; dorsal suture 
winged, deeply grooved, rather wide. 

TROTH 

I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 7,5. 1899. 2. Mich. Sla. But. 169:22s. 1899. 3. Am. Card. 24:417,. 1903. 
Troth's Early Rareripe. 4. Kenrick Am. Orch. 183. 1841. 

Troth's Early Red. 5. Elliott /^'r. Boo* 304. 1859. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 634. 1869. 
Troth's Early. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 80. 1862. 8. Am. Jour. Ilort. 3:341. 1868. 9. Fulton 
Peach Cult. 183, 184. 1908. 

Troth, the standard early peach in the middle of the last century, is 
now all but out of cultivation. It is still listed in a few nurser>^ catalogs 



284 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

and is still on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society. Among 
the multitude of early peaches now grown, Troth cuts but a sorry figure 
in either tree- or fruit-characters. It is worth discussing here only because 
it is a milestone in the evolution of cultivated peaches. 

Troth, first known as Troth's Early Red, originated in the first years 
of the Nineteenth Century, probably in New Jersey. Nothing is known 
of its parentage or of the originator. It ripens with Early York and some 
pomologists have confused it with this variety and also with Haines but, 
while similar to both. Troth is distinct. The American Pomological Society 
placed the variety upon its fruit-list in 1862 under the name Troth's Early 
Red but dropped it in 1891. In 1899 it was once more recommended by 
the Pomological Society, being listed as Troth. 

Tree above medium in size, vigorous, upright-spreading, the lower branches drooping, 
very productive; trunk somewhat stocky; branches thick, smooth, reddish-brown covered 
with light ash-gray; branchlets slender, long, with short intemodes, dark pinkish-red 
intermingled with green, with conspicuous, very numerous, large and small lenticels; 
leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flattened and 
slightly curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery, dark, dull green, smooth 
becoming rugose near the midrib; margin finely and shallowly serrate, tipped with 
reddish-brown glands; petiole seven-sixteenths inch long, with one to five very small, 
globose, reddish-brown glands; flower-buds half-hardy, of medium size and length, more 
or less pubescent, obtuse or conical, plump, usually appressed; blossoms small, appear 
in mid-season. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two inches long, two and one-eighth inches wide, 
roundish-oblate, slightly bulged at one side, somewhat compressed, with halves decidedly 
unequal; cavity of medium depth and width, abrupt, somewhat irregular, contracted 
about the sides, often dotted and striped with red; suture rather shallow, extending con- 
siderably beyond the point; apex roundish or depressed, with a mucronate or slightly 
pointed tip; color greenish-white or creamy-white, blushed with dark, dull red and with 
more or less heavy mottlings extending over more than half of the surface; pubescence 
thick, short; skin thin, tender, adheres somewhat to the pulp; flesh whitish, tinged with 
red near the pit, variable in juiciness, tender, nearly melting, pleasant flavored; fair to 
good in quality; stone free, one and one-eighths inches long, seven-eighths inch wide. 
oval, flattened toward the base, acute at the apex, with grooved surfaces; ventral suture 
mediimi in width; dorsal suture grooved. 

WADDELL 
I. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:242. 1898. 2. Del. Sta. Rpl. 13:111 fig. 9. 1901. 3. .Am. Pom. .Soc. Rpt. 
249. 1903. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Horl. Man. 2:358. 1903. 5. Ohio Sta. Bui. 170:182. 1906. 
6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1909. 7. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 208. 1913. 

Waddell is an early mid-season, white-fleshed, semi-cling peach from 
Georgia, a very evident descendant of Chinese Cling. The variety is now 



THE PEACHP:S of new YORK 285 

widely grown and is everywhere esteemed as a commercial sort. Its chief 
competitor is Carman, compared with which the fruit differs in ripening 
a few days early; is handsomer, in color at least, the two, as the color- 
plates show, being very similar in size and shape; is of rather finer texture 
of flesh and is better flavored; and, lastly, according to most reports, 
Waddell is a better shipper than Carman. The variety has not been nearly 
as widely nor as generally planted as the better-known Carman but we are 
of the opinion that it has been a greater factor in the success of a score or 
more of the big commercial peach -orchards, North and South, of the last 
few years. It is a particularly pleasing peach in New York and ought to 
be considered for every commercial plantation where a variety of its 
season is wanted to precede or to compete with Carman. 

Waddell is a chance seedling found by William Waddell, Griffin, 
Georgia. The variety was introduced by J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, 
Connecticut. The American Pomological Society added Waddell to its 
fruit-list in 1909. 

Tree medium in size, vigorous, upright becoming spreading and with the lowei- 
branches inclined to droop, hardy, productive; trunk thick, smooth; branches stocky, 
smooth, reddish-brown tinged with light ash-gray; branchlets long, inclined to rebranch, 
dark pinkish-red overspread with green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, with numerous con- 
spicuous, raised lenticels variable in size. 

Leaves six inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded upward and curled 
downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark green, smooth; 
lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish- 
brown glands; petiole three-eighths inch long, with one to four small, globose, reddish- 
brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds hardy, conical or pointed, pubescent, usually appressed; blossoms appear 
in mid-season; flowers one and three-fourths inches across, red becoming pale pink, in 
clusters of twos; pedicels short, slender, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green at the 
base, greenish-yellow within, campanulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse, glabrous 
wathin, pubescent without; petals oval, crenate, irregular in outline near the base, tapering 
to claws with reddish base; filaments seven-sixteenths inch long, shorter than the petals; 
pistil pubescent near the base, equal to the stamens in length. 

Fruit matures in early mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, about two inches 
wide, oval to roundish-oval, compressed, bulged on one side, with unequal halves; cavity 
deep, abrupt, with tender skin, tinged with pink; suture shallow, deepening toward the 
apex and extending beyond; apex roundish, with a small, mucronate tip; color creamy- 
white, blushed with red and with a few dull splashes of darker red; pubescence thick; skin 
tough, separates from the pulp; flesh white, stained \vith pink near the pit, juicy, stringx- 
finn but tender, sweet but sprightly, aromatic; very good in quality; stone semi-free to 



286 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

free, one and thiee-eighths inches long, one inch wide, ovate; ventral suture deeply 
grooved along the sides, faintly winged; dorsal suture grooved, not winged. 

WAGER 

I. Cult. &f Count. Cent. 43:584. 1878. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113, 114. 18S0. 3. Cult. & 
Count. Gent. 4S: S22,. 1883. 4. Black Cull. Peacli & Pear iii. 1886. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 22. 1897. 
6. Kan. Hort. Soc. Peach, Tlu 148. 1899. 7. Budd-Hansen Am. Ilort. Man. 2:358, 359. 1903. 

Hardiness, productiveness and early bearing are the outstanding 
characters of Wager that give it a high place in the peach-list for New 
York. It is a yellow-fleshed, freestone peach none too attractive in color- 
ing, always rather small and of only fair quality as a dessert fruit but 
excellent for canning, drying and all culinary purposes. The variety comes 
true to seed, or nearly so. The fruits of Wager are not attractive enough 
and the trees are too small to make the variety of much value in com- 
mercial plantations but it is a very good peach for home orchards and one 
of the best of all where hardiness is a prime requisite. Several quite dis- 
tinct peaches are sold by nurserymen as Wager. 

Wager originated some time previous to 1870 with Benjamin Wager, 
West Bloomfield, Ontario County, New York. The variety was added to 
the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1897. 

Tree medium in ?ize or small, upright-spreading, hardy, productive; trunk inter- 
mediate in thickness and smoothness; branches stocky, smooth, reddish-brown overlaid 
with light ash-gray; branchlets rebranching near the tips, dark red with some green, 
roughened by the lenticels, which are medium in size and number. 

Leaves five and one-half inches long, one and one-fourth inches wide, flattened or 
curled downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, thin, leathery; upper surface dull, dark 
green, rugose along the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; apex acuminate; margin 
finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole five-sixteenths inch long, \\4th 
two to four small, globose or reniform glands variable in color and position. 

Flower-buds medium in size and length, heavily pubescent, conical, plump, usually 
free; blossoms appear in mid-season; flowers one and one-eighth inches across; pedicels 
very short, thick, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-colored within, cam- 
panulate, glabrous; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, glaljrous within, pubescent without; petals 
oval, broadly notched, tapering to claws red at the base; filaments three-eighths inch 
long, shorter than the petals; pistil pubescent at the ovary, longer than the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-half inches long, two and one-fourth inches 
wide, oval, bulged near the apex, sometimes conical, compressed, with unequal halves; 
cavity flaring or abrupt, often mottled with red and with tender skin; suture a line, 
becoming deeper toward the tip; apex roundish or pointed, usually with a mamelon, 
recurved tip; color orange-yellow, blushed and mottled with dark red; pubescence thick, 
long and fine; skin thin, tough, separates from the pulp; flesh yellow, faintly stained with 



1^ 




iisfs^w. 








>^' 




m 



THK PEACHES OF NEW YORK 287 

red near the pit, meaty but tender, sweet, mild; good in quality; stone free, one and 
three-eighths inches long, one inch wide, ovate, flattened near the base, with pitted sur- 
faces, marked with few short grooves; ventral suture deeply grooved along the sides, wide, 
furrowed; dorsal j'uture a wide, deep groove. 

WATERLOO 

I. Cult. &■ Count. Gent. 43:489. 1878. 2. W. N. Y. Ilort. Soc. Rpt. 51. 1879. 3. Hogp; Fruit 

Man. 463. 1884. 4. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat. 34. 1885. 5. Ibid. 22. 1897. 6. Garden 66:112. 1904. 

7. Budd-Hansen Am. Hart. Man. 2:359. 1903. 8. Fulton Peach Cult. 173. 1908. 9. Waugli Am. 
Peach Orch. 209. 191 3. 

Waterloo is without honor in its ovi^n country but is a standard peach 
in England. In spite of the fact that the variety originated within ten 
miles of the Station grounds it is all but worthless here as it is in most parts 
of New York. Waterloo is an extra-early, white-fleshed, semi-cling peach 
very similar to the better-known Canada. The faults that condemn it 
are small size, poor quality, susceptibility to brown-rot and a long period 
of ripening for the fruit and small size and unproductiveness in the tree. 
It is given prominence in The Peaches of New York only because it is so 
often noted in the horticultural press as a standard variety, an opinion, 
no doubt, reflected in America from European publications. 

Waterloo was first grown by Henry Lisk, Waterloo, Seneca County, 
New York, who brought it to notice in 1877. Thomas Rivers introduced 
it into England where it has long been grown and esteemed for its earliness 
and good quality. The American Pomological Society placed Waterloo 
in its fruit-catalog in 1885, where it remained until 1891 when it was 
dropped, but was replaced in 1897. 

Tree small, upright-spreading, sometimes productive; trunk smooth; branches stocky, 
smooth, reddish-brown covered with light ash-gray; branchlets very long, rebranching, 
with intemodes of medium length, dark pinkish-red mingled with green, glossy, smooth, 
glabrous, with few large lenticels. 

Leaves six and one-fourth inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, flattened, 
oval to obovate-lanceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, dark olive-green, smooth; lower 
surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with reddish-brown glands; petiole 
seven-sixteenths inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose and reniform, 
reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds half-hardy, obtuse or conical, plump, usually free, pubescent; flowers 
appear in mid-season; blossoms one and one-half inches across, light pink, usually single; 
pedicels very short, thick, green; calyTC-tube lemon-yellow wthin, campanulate, glabrous; 
calyx-lobes short, obtuse, glabrous within, pubescent without; petals ovate, tapering to 
claws with reddish base; filaments one-half inch long, shorter than the petals; pistil equal 
to the stamens in length. 



288 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Fruit matures very early; nearly two inches in diameter, roundish, with equal halves; 
cavity deep wide flaring; suture shallow; apex depressed, with a recurved, mamelon 
tip; color creamy-white, blushed and mottled with red; pubescence short, thick; skin thin, 
adherent to the pulp; flesh greenish-white, juicy, stringy, tender and melting, sweet, mild, 
fair to good in quality; stone semi-clinging, one and one-sixteenth inches long, three- 
fourths inch wide, oval, plump, acutely pointed at the apex, with pitted surfaces; dorsal 
suture slightly winging. 

WHEATLAND 
I. Thumas Am. Fruit Cult. 550. 1875-85. z. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpl. 113. 1880. 3. Downing 
/■>. yVirvylm. 3rd App. 173. 1881. 4. .im. Pom. .Soc. Cat. 34. 1883. 5. Tex. 5ta. 5»/, 39:815. 1896. 
6. Bu'lil-Hansen ^m. Ilorl. Man. 2:359. 1903. 7. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 209. 1913. 

Wheatland is a large, yellow-fleshed, freestone peach of excellent 
quality which ripens just before Late Crawford. Although the variety 
originated in this State it is little grown here now, being somewhat more 
popular westward in Michigan and very much grown in Colorado and 
Utah. The fruit is about all that could be desired in New York but the 
trees are so unproductive that the variety is nowhere grown in this region 
with profit. The beauty and high quality of the fruit might make it 
desirable for home orchards. 

Wheatland is a chance seedling found about 1870 on the grounds 
of Daniel E. Rogers, Scottsville, New York. The variety was placed 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1883. 

Tree medium to large, vigorous, upright-spreading, with the lower branches drooping, 
hardy, rather unproductive; trunk thick and smooth; branches stocky, smooth, reddish- 
brown tinged with light ash-gray; branchlets long, with long intemodes, inclined to 
rebranch, dark pinkish-red with but little green, smooth, glabrous, with conspicuous, 
large and small, raised lenticels intermediate in number. 

Leaves six and one-half inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward and recurved downward, oval to obovate-lanceolate, leather}^; upper surface 
dark green, rugose; lower surface grayish-green; margin finely serrate, tipped with 
reddish-bro^vn glands; petiole five-sixteenths inch long, with one to five small, globose 
and reniform, reddish-brown glands variable in position. 

Flower-buds tender, medium to small, pubescent, conical or pointed, plump, usually 
free; blossoms open late; flowers seven-eighths inch across, light pink becoming darker 
along the edges; pedicels very short, glabrous, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange- 
colored within, campanulate; calyx-lobes narrow, acuminate, glabrous within, pubescent 
without; petals ovate; filaments five-sixteenths inch long, equal to the petals in length; 
pistil as long as the stamens, sometimes defective. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; large, roimd; suture shallow; apex a small, acute point; 
color yellow, blushed and mottled with red; skin separates from the pulp; flesh yellow. 
stained red around the pit, juicy, fimi but tender, sweet, pleasantly flavored; good in 




WATERLOO 




WHEATLAND 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 289 

quality; stone free, one and seven-sixtcenlhs inches long, more than an inch wide, ovate, 
broad at the base, with pitted surfaces; \'enlral suture very deeply grooved at the edges; 
dorsal suture deeply grooved. 

YELLOW RARERIPE 

I. Loud. Ilort. Soc. Cat. 102. 1831. 2. Kenriuk Am. Orch. 229. 1832. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 
2:14, 15. 1832. 4. Downing Fr. rreci .4»i. 493. 1845. 5. Elliott /•>. Boa* 280. 1854. 6. Am. Pom 
Soc. Cat. 80. 1862. 7. Mich. Sla. Bill. 169:229. 1899. 8. Fulton Peach Cull. 193, 194. 1908. 

Marie Antoinette. 9. Kenrick Am. Orch. 187. 1S41. 

Early Orange Peach. 10. VXoy-LxndXey Guide Orch. Card. 187. 1846. 

Culler's Yellow. 11. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:59, 60, PI. 1 851. 

Rareripe Jaune. 12. Mas Lc IVrgcr 7:215, 216, fig. 106. 1866-73. 

A century ago Yellow Rareripe was at the head of the list of yellow- 
fleshed, freestone peaches — largest, handsomest, hardiest and best-fiavored 
of all. Even now in fruit- and tree-characters, with the single exception 
of productiveness, Yellow Rareripe holds its own very well with the peaches 
of its type and season. A glance at the color-plate shows the peach to be as 
attractive as any in color and shape; the size is above the average and in 
texture and flavor it is not often surpassed. Its fault is unproductive- 
ness, to make up for which the trees usually bear regularly and come in 
bearing early. The variety is now hardly worth planting commercially 
in New York, being equalled by several yellow-fleshed peaches in all 
characters and surpassed in productiveness by many, but, if the trees can 
be obtained, it might find a welcome place in home orchards. Yellow Rare- 
ripe seems still to have all of the vigor and vitality of the first trees, help- 
ing thereby to furnish evidence that varieties do not run out. 

This is another American peach the origin of which is involved in so 
much uncertainty that it is impossible to state where, when and by whom 
produced. Prince claims to have discovered the original Yellow Rareripe 
tree near Flushing, New York, over a hundred years ago. It was being 
grown in the vicinity of Boston early in the Nineteenth Century where 
it seems to have been first introduced by William Kenrick, Newton, Massa- 
chusetts, under the name Yellow Red Rareripe. Occasionally another and 
inferior peach, Yellow Melocoton, was substituted for Yellow Rareripe. 
Hovey received peach-trees from Kenrick under the name Cutter's Yellow 
which later proved to be Yellow Rareripe. Hovey retained the name 
Cutter's Yellow, because it was briefer. The Marie Antoinette, men- 
tioned by Kenrick in 1841, is without question Yellow Rareripe and has 
been listed as synonymous by several authors. Yellow Rareripe was 
placed in the American Pomological Society's fruit-catalog in 1862 where 
it has since remained as a recommended variety. 
19 



290 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Tree large, vijrorous, upright-spreading, rather unproductive; trunk stocky; branches 
thick, smooth, reddish-brown mingled with light ash-gray; branchlets with intemodes 
of medium length, dark pinkish-red tinged with pale green, glossy, smooth, glabrous, 
with conspicuous, numerous, large, raised lenticels. 

Leaves six and three-fourths inches long, one and three-fourths inches wide, folded 
upward and curled downward, oval to obovate-l,anceolate, leathery; upper surface dull, 
dark olive-green, smooth becoming rugose near the midrib; lower surface grayish-green; 
margin finely serrate and sometimes in two series, tipped with reddish-brown glands; 
petiole three-eighths inch long, glandless or with one to four small, globose glands \'ariable 
in color and position. 

Flower-buds conical or pointed, pubescent, plump, usually appressed; blossoms 
open in mid-season; flowers seven-eighths inch across, light pink but darker along the 
edges, usually single; pedicels short, green; calyx-tube reddish-green, orange-colored 
within, campanulate; calyx-lobes narrow, acute, glabrous within, pubescent without; 
petals oval to ovate, shallowly and widely notched towards the base, tapering to claws 
red at the base; filaments three-eighths inch long, equal to the petals in length; pistil as 
long as the stamens. 

Fruit matures in mid-season; two and one-fourth inches long, two and three- 
sixteenths inches wide, round-conic to round-cordate, compressed, with unequal halves; 
cavity contracted and wrinkled about the sides, abrupt or flaring; suture shallow; apex 
round or somewhat pointed, with a mucronate or mamelon tip ; color orange-yellow, with 
a deep red blush, splashed and mottled with red; pubescence thick, long, coarse; skin 
thin, tender, variable in adherence to the pulp; flesh yellow, tinged with red near the pit, 
juicy, fine-grained, tender and melting, sweet, pleasantly flavored; good to ver\- good 
in quality; stone free, one and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide, oval to 
ovate, bulged near the apex, plump, tapering to a short point, with grooved and pitted 
surfaces; ventral suture deeply grooved along the edges, furrowed; dorsal suture grooved, 
winging. 




YELLOW RARERIPE 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 29I 

CHAPTER VI 

THE MINOR VARIETIES OF PEACHES 

"A Bee. I. ./""'■• Hort. N. S. 3:370. 1862. 2. Uo^^^g Fruit Man. 212. 1866. 3. Pom. 
France 6: No. 11, PI. 11. 1869. 

Mignonne d bee. 4. Mas Le Verger 7:37, 38, fig. 17. 1866-73. 

Pourpree a. bee. 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:186. 1883. 

Schnabel Pfirsich. 6. Mathieu Norn. Pom. 414. 1889. 

The 'A Bee peach takes the name from its beak-like apex. It originated about 181 1 
at EcuUy, Rhone, France, with a M. Lacene. Tree hardy, vigorous, productive; leaves 
large; glands globose; flowers large, rose-colored; fruit very large, roundish, uneven in 
outline; apex terminates in a bold, blunt nipple; cavity narrow, deep; skin thin, tender, 
lemon-yellow, blushed and dotted with deep crimson where exposed; flesh white, with a 
shght tinge of red about the stone, tender, melting, sweet, aromatic; quality good; stone 
oval, furrowed, free; ripens the first half of August. 

Abbe de Beaxunont. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:35. 
36 fig. 1H79. 

This peach originated in Daumeray, France, in the Eighteenth Century but was not 
introduced until 1868. Tree vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit large, globular; 
suture a mark; cavity large, deep; skin heavily pubescent, white, marbled with carmine; 
flesh white, tinged with a rose color at the stone, juicy, sprightly; stone ovoid, free; ripens. 
at the end of July. 
Abbe Jodoc. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 47, 214. 1876. 

Abt Jodociis. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

A fruit of English origin. Flowers rose-colored; leaves glandless; fruit large, spherical, 
irregular; skin almost covered with small, bright red dots; flesh fine; ripens the last of 
August . 
Abundance, i. McKay Car 20. 1913. 

This variety as grown on the Station grounds is a type of Alexander. Introduced 
about 1907 by W. L. McKay, late proprietor of the Van Dusen Nurseries, Geneva, New York. 
Acampo. i. Leonard Coates Cat. 6. 1913. 

According to Leonard Coates, Morganhill, California, this \-ariety is a medium early, 
liigh-colored yellow peach of good quality; good for table and drying. 
Acme. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 

This variety was reported as growing in Texas. 
Acton Scot. I. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 254. 1854. 2. Mas Le Verger 7:93, 94, 
fig. 45. 1866-73. 

Acton Scot is the result of crossing Noblesse with Red Nutmeg; raised by Thomas 
Knight, Downton Castle, England, 1814. Leaves crenate; glands globose; flowers large, 
pale rose; fruit small, narrowed and depressed at the apex; cavity large, deep; skin woolly, 
])ale yellow, blushed, marbled with deeper red; flesh yellowish-white usually to the stone, 
juicy, sugary but .slightly bitter; quality medium; pit free, small, plump; ripens the end 
of August. 



292 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Adele Thirriot. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 47. 1876. 

Tree strong, productive ; flowers small ; glands reniform ; fruit verj- large, with a purplish 
blush; first quality; ripens in September. 

Admirable, i. Duhamcl Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:31, 32, PI. XXI. 1768. 2. Prince Pom. 
' Man. 1:196. 1831. 3. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:38 fig., 39, 40. 1879. 

Early Admirable. 4. Langley Pomona 103, PI. 30 fig. 2. 1729. 5. Lindley Guide 
Orch. Card. 256, 257. 1831. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 477. 1845. 7. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 30. 1877. 8. Hogg Fruit Man. 442. 1884. 

Wunderschoner Lackpfirsche. 9. 'DochnahX F iihr . Obstkunde 3: 2og, 210. 1858. 

According to Leroy, Admirable was first mentioned by Lectier in 1628, probably ha\-ing 
originated in France many years previous. Although not an extremelj- early peach it 
was long called Early Admirable to distinguish it from Late Admirable. The American 
Pomological Society listed Admirable in its fruit-list in 1877 but dropped it in 1897. Tree 
productive; flowers small; glands globose; fruit of medium size, roundish, pale yellowish- 
white, with a lively red cheek ; flesh white, red next the pit from which it readily separates, 
melting, juicy, with a good, rich, sweet flavor; ripens the first of September or later. 
Admirable Jaune. i. Noisette Mok. Comp. Jard. 2:478. i860. 

This variety should not be confused with Yellow Admirable described elsewhere. 
Variations in the size of the flowers cause writers to list more than one sort under this name- 
The peach listed here has mediimi-sized flowers and globose glands. 
Admirable Jaune Tardive, i. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:478. 1S60. 

Tree very vigorous; glands globose; flowers of mediimi size; fruit large, elongated, 
yellow; flesh }'ellow. slightly vinous; ripens late in October. 
Admirable Saint-German, i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:42, 43. 1879. 

This peach was obtained from seed by Charles Buisson, Tronche, Isere, France, in 
1863. Tree vigorous; glands small, globose; flowers medium in size, rose-colored; quality 
of first rank; ripens early in August. 
Adrian, i. Col., 0., Hort. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1892. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:207. 1899. 

Adrian originated in Louisiana. Tree vigorous, hardy, spreading, productive; glands 
globose; flowers small; fruit medium to large, roundish-oval; cavity abrupt; suture distinct 
near the apex; skin clear yellow, occasionally washed with red; flesh yellow, red at the pit, 
juicy, firm, vinous; quality good; pit free, oval, plump; ripens late in September. 
Advance, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 147. 1881. 2. Mich. Sta. Bid. 152:199. 1898. 
3. Ibid. 169:207. 1899. 

Advance is a seedling of Hale Early which originated with C. C. Engle, Paw Paw, 
Michigan. Tree spreading ; glands reniform ; flowers small ; fruit medium to large, roundish ; 
cavity deep; skin creamy- white, largely mottled with red; flesh creamy-white, juicy, 
tender, sprightly; quality good; pit semi-clinging; ripens earlj- in August. 
Aehrenthal. i. Mathieu No)n. Pom. 386. 1889. 

Achrenthal Lackpfirsich. 2. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:214. 1858. 

Originated about 1851. Tree vigorous, productive; glands reniform; flowers small; 
fruit large, roundish, slightly oblate; skin yellowish-white, blushed with lively red which 
becomes purplish; flesh white, vinous; stone small, oval; ripens at the end of August. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 293 

Aiken, i. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 301. 1890. 

Listed as growing in Canada. 
Ailsworth. i. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bid. 44:29. 1910. 

Ailsworth is a late, yellow-fleshed peach which originated near Benton Harbor, 
Michigan. The fruit as it grows on the Station grounds is not attractive in color but is 
pleasantly flavored. Tree vigorous, upright; leaves long; glands reniform; flowers small; 
fruit above medium in size, roundish-cordate; skin heavily pubescent, golden yellow, with 
a slightly mottled blush of red; flesh yellow, red at the pit, juicy, medium coarse, firm, 
pleasingly subacid; quality good; pit free, oval, winged; ripens the last week in September. 
Albatross, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 54. 1876. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 435. 1884. 
3. Bunyard Fruit Cat. 35. 1913-14. 

Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, grew Albatross from a stone of Princess 
of Wales about 1870. Leaves glandless; flowers large; fruit very large, roundish; suture 
distinct only at the apex ; skin pale yellow, blushed with crimson and mottled with darker 
crimson; flesh white, stained with red at the stone, juicy, melting; ripens the end of 
September. 
Albemarle. i..Langley Pomona 104, PI. XXXI fig. IL 1729. 

Skin yellowish-green overlaid with red; flesh vermilion about the stone, melting. 
vinous; ripens the first week in August. 
Alberge. i. Rea Flora 211. 1676. 2. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees. 

Purple Alberge. 3. Langley Pomona 104, PI. XXX fig. V 
Orch. Card. 267. 1831. 

Yellow Alberge. 5. Miller Card. Diet. 1752. 6. Prince 
1831. 7. DowningFr. Trees Am. 492, 493. 1845. 8. 

Gelbe Pfirsche. g. Sickler Teutsche Obst. 8:229-234, Tab. 

Rother Aprikosenpfirsch. 10. DochnahX Fiihr. Obstkiinde z:2\9,. 1858. 

Rossanne. 11. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:263, 264 fig., 265. 1879. 

Safraupfirsch. 12. Mathieu A'om. Pom. 413. 1889. 

Alberge is an old French sort, one of the earliest of the ^-ellow-fleshed peaclies. 
Probably from this variety have sprung the Melocotons and Yellow Rareripes of this 
country. Rossanna, though very similar to Alberge, differs from it in having reniform 
glands and in ripening about two weeks later. In some sections, especially around 
Rochester, New York, Alberge is known as Barnard's Rareripe. The variety was placed 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1862 but was dropped in 1891. 
Tree moderate in growth; leaves crenate; glands globose; flowers small, rose-colored; fruit 
medium in size, nearly globular; suture and cavitj- deep; skin yellow, almost entirely 
covered with deep red or purple; flesh deep \'ellow, red near the stone, melting, juicy, 
vinous; of second quality; pit large, oval, terminating in a short point, brownish-red, free; 
ripens in the middle of August. 
Albert, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1883. 

Early Albert. 2. Card. Chron. 1025. 1861. 3. Mag. Hort. 29:53. 1863. 4. Mas 
Le Verger T.ioT,, 104, fig. 50. 1866-73. 5- -"!'"• Po»i- Soc. Cat. 30. 1877. 

Albert was raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a pit of Grosse 



. 220. 1S17. 




J. 1729 4. L 


indley Guide 


e Pom. Man. 


1:182, J83. 


Rural K. V. 11 


:iii. i860. 


12. 1797. 





294 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Montagne Pr^coce. The variety appeared on the fruit-list of the .\merican Pomological 
Society in 1877 as Early Albert; later it -was changed to Albert and in 1891 was dropped. 
Tree vigorous, hardy; glands globose; flowers small; fruit medium in size, roundish, one 
side of the suture frequently higher than the other; skin greenish-yellow, deep crimson 
where exposed; flesh white, brick-red next to the stone, tender, melting, aromatic; of first 
quality'; ripens earl\- in August. 
Albert Late Rareripe, i. Horticulturist N. S. 7:178. 1857. 

Glands globose; fruit large, globular; skin yellowisli-white, marbled with red; flesh 
pale white, stained at the pit, very sweet, juicy; quality \'ery good; ripens early in 
September. 
Albert Sidney, i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 2. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:232. 1898. 

Johnson. 3. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:103. 1901. 

Albert Sidney was grown from seed received from Japan in i860 by Judge Campbell, 
Pensacola, Florida, and was introduced by P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia. Tree tall, 
spreading; leaves large; glands reniform; fruit large, oblong, greenish-yellow, blushed with 
red; flesh white, stained with red at the stone, juicy, melting; quality good; pit free; ripens 
late in July. 
Albertine Millet, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

A very early variety with globose glands and rose-colored blossoms. 
Alberza. i. Parkinson Par. Ter. 582. 1629. 

" The Alberza Peach is late ripe, and of a reasonable good taste." 
Albright. I. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 391. 1891. 2. Lovett Cat. 25. 1892. 3. Rural 
N. Y. 52:430. 1893. 4. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:207. 1899. 

Albright originated with a Miss Albright, York, Pennsylvania. Tree vigorous, 
upright; glands globose; flowers small; fruit large, faintly ovate; cavity narrow, deep; 
skin lightly pubescent, creamy-white, splashed and washed with red; flesh white, red at 
the pit, juicy, melting, vinous; quality good; pit oval, long, free; ripens the middle of 
September. 
Albright Cling I. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 35. 1909. 

Albright. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 97. 1887. 

Albright October. 3. A^. C. Sta. Rpt. 12:108. 1889. 

Albright Winter. 4. Franklin Davis Nur. Cat. 26. 1901. 

This Albright Cling is a white-fleshed peach from North Carolina. The variety 
appeared on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1899 as Albright but was 
later changed to Albright Cling. Tree large, vigorous, upright; leaves large; glands reni- 
form; flowers large; fruit of medium size, roundish, halves imequal in many; cavity nar- 
row; skin heavily pubescent, greenish- white, thick, tough; flesh whitish, meaty, tender, 
juicy, astringent; quality below fair; stone medium in size, oval, plump, clinging; ripens 
late. 
Albright Cling n. i. Wickson CaZ. Fn«fo 318. 1889. 

A yellow clingstone grown by a Mr. Albright, Placerville, California. The fruit is 
described as larger, more highly colored, and more productive than Orange Cling. It 
should not be confused with the white Albright Cling of the East. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 295 

Alexandra, i. Hogg Fruit Matt. 213. 1866. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Attt. 597. 1869. 
3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:336. 1903. 

Alexattdra Noblesse. 4. Card. Mon. 7:373. 1865. 

Noblesse Seedling. 5. Sac. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 318 fig., 319. 1904. 

This variety was raised many years ago by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridge worth, England, 
from seeds of the old Noblesse, a sort at one time prominent in the Old World. Curiously 
enough Alexandra has been many times confused with Alexander, a variety of American 
origin differing from the European sort both in color of skin and in season. Although of 
excellent quality Alexandra seems never to have found favor in America. Tree vigorous, 
healthy, productive; fruit large, round, marked with a deep suture; skin covered with a 
rough pubescence, pale, without any color except a few clusters of red dots on the side 
exposed to the sun; flesh white to the stone, tender, melting, juicy, richly flavored, vinous, 
sweet: quality verv' good; stone large, free; season the middle of August. 
Alexandre Dumas, i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 408. 1889. 

Listed as a clingstone in this reference. 
Alexiana Cherpin. i. Decaisne J ard. Frint. 7 -.PI. 1872-75. 

Tree vigorous; branches slender; leaves large; glands reniform; flowers large; fruit 
large, globular; suture more pronounced near the cavity; skin heavily pubescent, wine-red 
becoming \-iolet, marbled, adheres to the pulp; flesh blood-red, fibrous, melting, aromatic; 
stone large, ovoid, free; ripens early in October. 
Alexis Lepere. i. Rev. Hort. 471. 1892. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 84 fig. 1906. 

Alexis Lepere, Jr., Montreuil, France, grew this variety from seed about 1876. Tree 
vigorous, productive; leaves glandless; flowers small; fruit large, roundish, faintly conic; 
skin greenish-yellow, marbled with carmine; flesh white, tinged with red about the stone, 
fine, melting, juicy, aromatic; quality very good; stone free; ripens the last of August. 
Alger Winter, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 297. 1875. 

A yellow, freestone peach which ripens late and keeps long. 
Algerine. i. Peachland Nur. Cat. 12. 1892. 

The catalog of the Peachland Nurseries, Seaford, Delaware, describes this variety 
as a large, yellow-fleshed, clingstone peach. 
Alice. I. Munson Cat. 6. 1898-99. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:90. 1901. 

Alice Haupt. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 152. 18S3. 

Alice is a white-fleshed, freestone seedling of Chinese Cling raised b}' William W. 
Haupt, Kyle, Texas. 
Alice Free. i. Green River Nur. Cat. 14. 1899. 

The catalog of the Green River Nurseries, Bowling Green, Kentuck\-, states that 
J. W. Shalcross, Louisville, Kentucky, first grew Alice Free. Fruit very large; skin white, 
red where exposed ; quality good ; ripens late in October. 
Alida. I. Horticidtttrist 22:4s f^g- 1867. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 597. 1869. 

Alida originated wnth Charles Carpenter, Kelly Island, Ohio, and is probably a seedling 
of Late Crawford. Fruit large, round; skin blushed with dark red; flesh yellow, juicy; 
quality good; ripens in September. 
Allen L i. Cultivator N. S. 1:352. 1844. 2. Hooper IF. Fr. Book 212. 1857. 

Allen I reproduces itself from seed, having been so grown for a number of years by a 



296 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

community of Aliens in Walpole, Massachusetts. The variety was put on the fruit-list 
of the American Pomological Society in 1901. Tree hardy, productive; leaves with 
globose glands; flowers small; fruit small, roundish, blushed with red; flesh white, juicy, 
vinous; stone free; ripens in September. 
Allen n. I. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113. 1880. 

This is an early seedling raised by A. T. Allen, Willoughby, Ohio. 
Allen October, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1873. 2. Waugh ylw. Peach Orch. 198. 1913. 

This variety originated in Missouri and appears on the fruit-list of the American 
Pomological Society from 1873 to 1899. Fruit of medium size, round, yellow, blushed with 
red; flesh yellow, red at the pit; quality poor; freestone; ripens late. 
Allman Cling, i. ///. Uort. Soc. Rpt. 167. 1871. 

Allman Cling is recommended for the vicinity of Centralia, Illinois. 
Almond, i. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 243, 244. 183 1. 

Mandel-Pfirsiche. 2. Sickler Teutsche Obst. 12:260-264, Tab. 14. 1799. 

Amandter-Pecher. 3. Carri^re Var. Pechers 102, 103. 1867. 

Externally Almond resembles the almond but the characters of the flesh and stone 
are those of the peach. The variety was raised by T. A. Knight, Downton Castle, England, 
from a seed of the sweet almond which had been fertilized by a peach. Tree vigorous, 
bearing glandless leaves which are doubly serrate; fruit mediimi in size, roundish, with a 
slight suture; apex somewhat depressed; skin heavily pubescent, yellow, marbled with pale 
red in the sun; flesh pale yellow, bright red next the pit which is free, very juicy, melting, 
with a good flavor; season the middle of September. 
Alpha I. I. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 114. 1880. 

Alpha is thought to be a cross between Early Rivers and Foster, raised by T. Y. Munson, 
Denison, Texas. The fruit ripens before Alexander which it resembles very closely. 
Alpha II. I. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 166. 1895. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:207. 1899. 

Tree moderately \igorous, not \ery productive, roundish, upright; glands reniform; 
flowers small; fruit rather large, roundish, slightly compressed toward the suture which is 
indistinct; .skin rich, clear yellow, much overspread with dark red; flesh yellow, firm, juicy, 
nearly sweet; quality good; pit large, oval, plump, adherent; ripens the middle of 
September. 
Alpha in. I. Wood Cat. 7 fig. 19 10. 

A few years ago Allen Wood, Rochester, New York, introduced a white-fleshed \-ariety 
under the name Alpha but it was so similar to Champion that its propagation was dis- 
continued. 
Alto Pass. I. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 53, 207. 1896. 

This is a medium-sized, leather-colored peach under test in Illinois; flesh lemon- 
yellow; of good quality; freestone. 
Amande Douce, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

Listed without a description. 
Ambrosia, i. Continental PI. Cat. 14. 1913. 

Tliis variety is said by the Continental Plant Company, Kittrell, North Carolina, to 
be a productive, attractive fruit with tender, melting flesh of high flavor, ripening in Julv. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 297 

Amelia I. i. Mas Lc Verger 7:241, 242, fig. 119. 1S6O-73. 2. Gard. Mon. 10:126. 
iboS. 3. Downing /*>. Trees Am. 598. 1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. iS. 1871. 
5. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:207. 1899. 

This peach originated many years ago with a Mr. Stroman, Orangeburg, South 
Carolina. Tree moderately productive, vigorous; glands reniform; fruit large, roundish- 
oblong, with a large, deep suture extending nearly around the fmit; skin pale whitish- 
yellow, shaded and marbled wth a crimson blush; flesh creamy-wliilc, juicy, melting, 
sweet, rich, vinous; quality good; pit free; ripens the last of August. 
Amelia II. 1. Gard. Mon. 10:22. 1868. 2. Downing Fr. rr«'e5 .4m. 598. 1869. ^. Tex. 
Sta. Bill. 39:809. 1896. 

Pavie Amelia. 4. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:211 fig., 212. 1879. 

This variety, which originated in 1850 with George Husman, Hermann, Mi.ssouri, 
is supposed to be a seedling of Columbia. It has frequently been confused with the Amelia 
frcmi South Carolina. Tree vigorous, healthy; fruit large, round; suture distinct; apex 
roundish; color clear, rich yellow, marbled with dull red; flesh _\ellow, firm, juicy, .sweet or 
pleasantly subacid; stone large, free; season the last of September. 
Ameliaberta. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:90. 1901. 

Amcliaberta is a cross between Ameha II and Elberta. The variety has little or 
!io value in this State. It originated with J. H. Jones, Herndon, Georgia, and was 
introduced in 1893. In 1899, it was given a place in the fruit-list of the American 
Pomological Society where it remained until 1909. On the Station grounds the fruit 
ripens with Elberta and does not equal that variety. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading; 
leaves oval to obovate-lanceolate, usually with reniform glands; flowers appear late; fruit 
large, roundish; suture shallow, deeper at the ape.x; skin yellow, washed and splashed 
with crimson; flesh yellow, with red radiating from the pit, stringj', juicy, sprightly; 
quality good; stone free, large, broadly oval; ripens the first half of September. 
American Apricot, i. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:219. 1858. 2. Gard. Mon. 29:306 
fig. 1887. 3. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:207. 1899. 

Jaune d'Ameriquef 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:176. 1883. 

Northern Apricot. 5. Mich. Sta. Bui. 129:26. 1896. 

This variety, a seedling from South Carolina, as grown on the Station grounds is of the 
Crawford type, rather late in ripening and only fair in quality. 
American Pound, i. Gard. Mon. 7:372. 1865. 

A name applied to a large, American variety introduced into New Zealand. 
Ammirabile Belga. i. Gard. Chron. 907. 1858. 

An Italian peach exhibited at the Imperial and Royal Horticultural Society of 
Tuscany, Italy, in 1858. 

Amsden. i. Wogg Fruit Man. 437. 1884. 2. Rev. Hart. 506, 507, 508. 1893. 3. Cat. 
Cong. Pom. France 85 fig. 1906. 

Amsden June. /[. Cult. & Count. Gent. 39:472.486. 1874. z-^'^rd. Mon. 16:278. 
1874. 6. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 2nd App. 141. 1876. 7. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 
28. 1877. 

Amsden grew from a seed planted in i868 by L. C. Amsden, Carthage, Missouri. 



298 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

It first fruited in 1872; in 1877 the American Pomological Society added the variety to 
its fruit-list but dropped it in 1891. Tree vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit of 
medium size, roundish, slightly compressed, with a broad, shallow suture extending be\-ond 
the depressed apex; skin greenish-white, nearly covered with light and dark red, nearly 
Durple in the sun; flesh greenish-white throughout, tender, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous; 
quality good; stone small, nearly free when mature; season the last of June or early in July. 
Amsden Pine. i. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 416. 1899. 

Listed as growing in Canada. 
Ananiel. i. Mas Le Verger 7:187, 188, fig. 92. 1866-73. 2. Thomas Guide Prat. 45, 
215. 1876. 

Ananiel originated near Toumay, Belgium. Glands globose; flowers small, rose- 
colored; fruit large, irregular, spherical, truncated at the base; skin whitish-yellow, more 
or less covered with purple at maturity; flesh pale, purplish near the stone, melting, ver}- 
juicy; quality good; stone terminating in a long point, free; ripens the last of September. 
Andre Leroy. i. Mathieu Norn. Pom. 387. 1889. 

Listed but not described. 
Andrews, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:29. 1895. 

Andrews Mammoth. 2. Ibid. 31:58. 1887. 

Listed as growing in Michigan. 
Angel. I. Am. Pom. Sac. Cat. 44. 1891. 2. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:818 fig. 1896. 3. Fla. 
Sta. Bui. 62:509, 510, 519. 1902. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:336, 337. 
1903. 5. Ala. Sta. Bui. 156:132. 191 1. 6. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 198. 1913. 

Angel was grown from a Peento seed by Peter C. Minnich, Waldo, Florida, about 
thirty years ago. G. L. Taber, Glen Saint Mary, Florida, bought the original tree and 
introduced the variety in 1889. The American Pomological Society added Angel to its 
finit-list in 1891. Tree open, productive; fruit small, roundish; suture shallow, short; 
apex blunt or \-ery slightly tipped; skin light creamy-white, tinted and washed with 
attractive red; flesh white, reddish near the pit, firm, juicy, with a slightly acid, agreeable 
flavor; quality good; pit free; season the middle of June to the first of July in Florida. 
Angelle Lafond. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

Listed as a large and beautiful variety with reniform glands. 
Angers Large Purple, i. Horticulturist N. S. 5:70. 1855. 

Said to be one of the largest and finest of peaches; ripens with Chancellor 
Anna Ruffin. i. Van Lindley Cat. 19. 1892. 

Listed without description in the catalog of J. Van Lindley, Pomona, North Carolina. 
Anne. i. Langley Pomona 100. 1729. 2. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 27. 1803. 

Early Anne. 3. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 246, 247. 183 1. 

Green Nutmeg. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 2:23. 1832. 

Anne is an old English sort which for many years was the earliest of all peaches. The 
variety was named in honor of Mrs. Anne Dunch, Pusey, Berkshire, England. Tree 
not \ery vigorous; leaves doubly serrated, glandless; flowers large, nearly white; fruit 
roundish, medium in size; skin white, blush often lacking- flesh soft, melting, white to 
the stone, sugary; stone free; ripens very early. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



299 



Annie Laurie, i. Smith Brothers Cat. 16. 1899. 

It is stated in the catalog of Smith Brothers, Concord, Georgia, that this variety 
has been in cultivation fift\- years and comes true from seed. Fruit of medium size, bright 
red; flesh tender, .sweet,' juicy; quality best. 
Annie Trice, i. Green River Nur. Cat. 13. 1899. 

According to the catalog of the Green River Nurseries, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 
Annie Trice originated some forty years ago in Hopkinsville, Kcntuck}-. It is an early 
peach of the Hale Early type. 
Annie Wylie. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1877. 2. Ala. Sta. Bui. n:6. 1890. 

Annie W\lie originated at Chester, South Carolina. Fruit large; skin white, with 
a red blush; flesh white, red at the pit, fine-grained, melting, vinous; quality- very good; 
clingstone; ripens early in September in South Carolina. 
Antleys. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:90. 1901. 

P. j. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia, found this variet}- on the farm of a Mr. Antleys, 
Blackville, South Carolina. It is a ven- large and almost white Chinese Cling. 
Apex. I. Weber & Sons Cat. 11. 19 12. 

The catalog of Weber and Sons, Nursery, Missouri, states that Apex ripens with 
Alexander but is superior to it in size, color and flavor; skin yellow, mottled with red; 
flesh yellow; stone adherent. 
Arctic. I. Card. Moii. 12:156. 1870. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:208. 1899. 3. Rural 

X. y. 59:705. 1900. 

This is a hardy seedling said to have been introduced from the Isle of Man. Tree 
vigorous, not very productive, upright; leaves partially folded, with reniform glands; 
fruit medium in size, roundish-ovate; cavity rather broad; apex sunken; skin light yellow; 
flesh pale yellow, red at the pit, not very juicy, mild; quality fair; stone free, oval, plump; 
ripens early in October. 
Aremie. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 598. 1869. 

Aremie is a large, high-flavored, yellow-fleshed clingstone which originated in Pomaria, 
South Carolina. Fruit ripens in early August. 
Arietta, i. Ala. Sta. Bui. 47:11. 1893. 

This is a freestone peach resembling Stump; ripen.s the end of Jul}- in Alabama. 
Arkansas, i. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:337. 1903. 

Arkansas Traveler. 2. Mass. {Hatch) Sta. Bui. 2:14. 1888. 3. Harrison & Sons 
Cat. 16. 1904. 

Arkansas as it fruits at this Station resembles Alexander very closely in season, size 
and shape. It is distinct, however, being a seedling of Amsden. Like all other early, 
white-fleshed peaches it rots badly. Tree vigorous, hardy, moderately productive; leaves 
large ; glands globose ; flowers large, pale pink ; fruit about two inches in diameter, roundish- 
truncate; apex mucronate; skin thick, tough, covered with short pubescence, creamy-white, 
blushed with dark red, with few stripes and splashes; flesh white, stringy, juicy, sweet; 
quality fair; stone semi-free to free, oval, very plump; ripens the last week of Jul\-. 
Arlington. 1. Cal. Sta. Rpt. 408. 1892-93. 

Early Arlington. 2. Fla. Sta. Bui. 62:512. 1902. 

Listed as belonging to the Peento type. 



300 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Arthur Chevreau. i. Rev. Hort. 103. 1901. 

Arthur Chevreau, Montreuil, France, grew this variety from a seed of Bonouvrier. 
Tree vigorous, productive; glands globose; flowers small; fruit large, round; suture pro- 
nounced; cavity deep, large; flesh whitish-yellow, juicy, sugary, acidulated; stone large, 
free; ripens early in September. 
Artz. I. r. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 25. 1894. 

This is a large, handsome clingstone grown near Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
Fruit roundish-oval; cavity deep, abrupt; apex terminates in a mamelon tip; skin thin, 
tough, pubescent, creamy-white, blushed and marbled with crimson; flesh white, tinged 
with red about the pit, firm, juicy, mild subacid, sprightly; quality very good; stone oval. 
Asa Meek Seedling, i. J. R. Johnson Cat. 5. 1894. 

According to J. R. Johnson, Coshocton, Ohio, this is a seedling very closely resembling 
Globe. 
Ashby Early, i. IT. A'. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. iii. 1880. 2. .4))/. Pom. Sac. Cat. 32. 1883. 

This \'ariety, raised by G. W. Ashby, Charrute, Kansas, is said to be earlier and 
better than Amsden. In 1883 it was placed on the fruit-list of the American Pomological 
Society where it remained until 1891. 

Astor. I. Land. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 6:414. 1826. 2. Floy-Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 183. 
1846. 

Astor was found b}- Michael Floy in tlie yard of a Mr. Astor, New York Cit\-, about 
1820. Tree large, thrifty, productive; leaves broad, deeply serrated, with globose glands; 
flowers medium in size; fruit large, oblate; cavity deep; suture divides the fruit; skin pale 
yellow, with a deep red cheek; flesh melting, whitish-yellow, faintly red at the stone, very 
juicy, high in quality; stone small, roundish, free; ripens the last of August. 
Athenian Cling, i. Horticulturist N. S. 7:180. 1857. 

Fruit very large, oblong, depressed at the apex; suture a mere line; skin very downy, 
yellowish-white, marbled with dull red in the sun; flesh pale red at the pit, firm, rich, vinous; 
quality good; ripens in October. 
Athens, i. New Haven Nur. Cat. 6. 1901-02. 

This variety is briefly described in the catalog of the New Haven Nurseries, New 
Haven, Missouri. Athens on the Station grounds is a light bearer of fruit fair in quality. 
Tree vigorous; leaves thin; glands globose; fruit oval-cordate, about two and one-fourth 
inches high, halves unequal; suture shallow, deepening toward the apex; skin tough, 
golden yellow, with a lively red blush and a few darker splashes; flesh yellow, meaty, 
rather coarse, sweet; quality fair; stone clings, oval, noticeably bulged near the apex; 
ripens the second half of September. 
Atlanta, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. ist App. 120. 1872. 

As fruited on the Station groimds, Atlanta does not appear valuable for an}- purpose. 
The variety was raised by Dr. E. W. Sylvester, Lyons, New York. Tree vigorous; glands 
reniform; fruit of medium size, roundish; suture large, distinct; ca\dty deep; skin greenish- 
white, blushed with deep red; flesh white, usually stained with red at the stone, soft, juicy; 
stone nearly free; ripens the last of August. 
Atwater. i. EUiott Fr. Book 281. 1854. 

This is a variety of American origin closely resembling President. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 3OI 

Atwood. I. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 598. 1869. 

Atwood is a large, productive clingstone originating with Roscius Atwood, Newberrj-, 
South Carolina. 

Augbert. i. JJ. S. D. A. Yearbook 447, 448, PI. 44. 1908. 2. Am. Pmn. Sac. Cat. 35. 
1909. 

Augbert as it frails on the Station grounds is a disappointment in productiveness 
and in quality of fruit. It originated with Joel Boon, Lindale, Texas, about 1897, from 
a seed of Elberta, thought to have been fertilized with Salwey. In 1906 the name Augbert 
was registered as a trade-mark. In 1909 the variety was put on the fruit-list of the 
American Pomological Societj'. Tree vigorous; glands reniform; flowers medium in size; 
fruit large, oval, slighth- cordate; cavity abrupt, medium to deep, often marked with 
red; apex terminates in a noticeable mamelon tip; skin thin, tough, finely pubescent, light 
golden, with a few carmine splashes on a lighter red cheek; flesh yellow, stained with red 
at the pit, tender, fine-grained, juicy, vinous; stone large, oval, pointed at the ends, 
plump; ripens just before Salwey. 
Augusta. I. Ramsey Cat. 8. 1909. 

F. T. Ramsey and Son, Austin, Texas, state that Augusta is a large, yellow, freestone 
seedling of Elberta ripening a month later than its parent. 
Augusta Fau Jaune. i. Mathicu Norn. Pom. 408. 1889. 

Listed by Mathieu as a clingstone. 
Aurora, i. Bailey Ann. Hort. 184. 1892. 

This variety was introduced by J. H. Jones, Hemdon, Georgia, as a cross between 
Chinese Cling and Mar>' Choice. Fruit verj- large, creamy, with a dark cheek; freestone; 
ripens early in July. 
Austin. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Austins Late Red. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 292. 1859. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 598. 
1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 

Austin Cling. 5. Okla. Sta. Bui. 2:14. 1892. 

The cultivation of Austin is confined to the South. It first appeared on the fruit-list 
of the American Pomological Society in 1872; later it was listed as Austin Late and 
finally as Austin in 1891 in which year it was dropped from the list. Glands reniform; 
flowers large; fruit large, oblong; color white, with a red cheek; flesh white, juicy, vinous; 
clingstone. 
Australian Saucer, i. Oregon Nur. Cat. 28. 1903. 

According to the catalog of the Oregon Nurserj' Company', Orenco, Oregon, this 
variety is one of the Peento peaches and takes its name from its flat appearance, one side 
being hollowed like a saucer. Skin white, with a crimson blush; fle.sh white, sweet; pit 
verj- small, almost round. 

Avant-Peche Jaune. i. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:9, 10. 1768. 2. Lcroy Diet. Pom. 
6:48, 49 fig. 1879. 

Gelbc Friihpfirsche. 3. Liegel Anweisimg 69. 1822. 

Early Yellou.' Alberge. 4. Prince Pom. Man. 1:183, 184. 183 1. 

Friiher Aprikosenpfirsich. 5. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:218. 1858. 



302 THE PKACHES OF NEW YORK 

According to Leroy, this variety was mentioned as early as the Fourteenth Century. 
It has been much confused with Avant-Peche Blanche. Tree vigorous; glands reniform; 
flowers large; fruit medium in size, roundish; cavity deep; apex mamelon; skin thin, heavily 
pubescent, golden-yellow, mottled with dark brownish-red; flesh firm, yellow, carmine 
at the stone, juicy, sweet, aromatic; stone small, roundish, jjlump, strongly sutured, free; 
ripens the middle of July. 
Avant-Precoce. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:157, 158, fig- 15- 1883. 

(ilands reniform; flowers medium in size; fruit small to medium, nearly round; a]:)ex 
mucronate; suture deep; cavity narrow, small; skin firm, thin, heavily pubescent, whitish- 
yellow, purple where exposed; flesh white, stained with red at the stone, firm, sugary, 
juicy, aromatic; stone small, oval; ripens late in July. 
Avant-Precoce Pavie. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883- 

Listed but not described. 
Avocat CoUignon. i. Mathieu Norn. Pom. 387. 1889. 

Listed but not described. 
Azoo Cling. I. Tex. Sta. Bui. 8:34. 1889. 

Listed as growing in Texas. 
Babcock. i. A'. Y. Sta. Rpt. 15:289. 1897. 

Grown at one time on the Station grounds. 
Bagby Large, i. Elliott Fr. Book 293. 1859. 

The tree of Bagby Large has a peculiar, slender, drooping gi'owth. The fruit, which 
is esteemed for drying, is oblong, white and juicy; ripens the middle of August. 
Bailey, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 244. 1893. 2. Ibid. 417, 418. 1898. 3. Ibid. 89, 90. 
1899. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 35. 1909. 

Friday Seedling. 5. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 373, 377. 1896. 

Cedar County Hardy. 6. Ibid. 373. 1896. 

Bailey is a very hardy peach grown in southeastern Iowa. It was named after Dr. 
Bailey, West Branch, Iowa, who grew the variety most extensively. In Scott County, 
it is known as Friday seedling, after its originator, Jacob Friday. The variety was listed 
by the American Pomological Society in 1909. Bailey reproduces itself from seed and 
has been distributed throughout Iowa by this means, which accounts for the difTerences 
that appear in different localities. The variety as it grows on the Station grounds is very 
susceptible to mildew; leaves deeply serrated, glandless; fruit small, white; freestone; 
worthless for New York. 
Baker Cling, i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Listed in this reference. 
Baker Early, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 

Baker Early May. 2. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc: Rpt. 50. 1879. 

A very early freestone of southern origin which resembles Hale Early. 
Baldwin, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Baldwin October Free. 2. U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 279. 1854. 

Baldwin Late. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 1871. 4. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:233. 1898. 

Baldwin originated with Dr. William Baldwin, Montgomery-, Alabama. It became 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



303 



popular because of its late ripening and splendid keeping qualities and gained a place 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1871, which it held until 1897- 
Leaves large; glands reniform; fruit medium in size, greenish-white; flesh white, stained 
at the stone; quality fair; stone free, small. 
Baltet. I. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 86 fig. 1906. 

M. Baltet, Troyes, Aube. France, originated this variety about 1866. Leaves glandless; 
flowers medium in size; fruit large, roundish-oval, with a mamelon tip at the apex; skin 
creamy-white, reddish -purple where exposed; flesh tinged wnth red, deeper about the 
stone; quality excellent; stone elongated, with pointed apex; ripens early in October. 
Baltimore Beauty, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 490. 1845. 

Lea\'es with globose glands; flowers large; fruit small, roundish-oval; color deep 
orange, with a brilliant red cheek ; flesh yellow, red at the stone, sweet; ripens early in August. 
Baltimore Rose. i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 9. 1857. 

Very similar to Oldmixon Cling. 
Bandel. i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 279 1882. 2. Ibid. 197. 1883. 

This variety, grown from seed by a Mr. Bandel, Saugatuck, Michigan, closely resembles 
Early Crawford but ripens five days earlier. 

Banner, i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 5:107. 1898. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 3. Mich. 
Hort. Soc. Rpt. 107. 1903. 

Banner originated in Essex County, Canada, about 1880. At Geneva, the fruit is 
small, fair in quality and the tree an uncertain yielder. In 1899 it was added to the 
fruit-list of the American Pomological Society. Tree large, vigorous; leaves thin; glands 
reniform; flowers small, pink; fruit small to above, roundish, slightly cordate; apex 
rounded, with a mamelon tip; skin tough, with short, fine pubescence, deep yellow, 
mottled with deep red; flesh yellow, stained with red at the pit, moderately juicy, 
meaty, mild; quality fair; stone broadly oval, slightly flattened, deeply grooved; ripens 
about a week after the Elberta. 

Barber, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 104:88. 1893. 2. Ibid. 118:32. 1895. 3. Ibid. 152:200. 
1898. 

Hinman. 4. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:98. 1892. 

Barber is thought to have originated in Allegan County, Michigan. The trees at 
Geneva are not productive and the fruits are only fair in quality. Tree upright, slightly 
spreading, vigorous; glands usually reniform; flowers small; fruit large, roundish-oval, 
halves noticeably unequal; cavity wide, flaring; suture enlarged on one side; apex prom- 
inent, with a recurved, mamelon tip; skin tough, thickly pubescent, lemon-yellow, with 
a dull carmine blush giving a bronze effect; flesh yellow, tinged with red at the stone, 
melting, mild subacid, lacks character; stone oval, dull brown, free; ripens the middle 
of September. 
Barcelona Yellow Clingstone, i. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 17. 1820. 

A larj:;e clingstone rijjening in October. 
Barker No. 13. i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1901. 

This is a descendant of Golden Rareripe which originated with F. G. Barker, Salina, 
Kansas. Fruit large, downy, yellow, coarse. 



304 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Barnard, i. Elliott Fr. Book 281. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 3. Mich. 
Hart. Soc. Rpt. 32. 1874. 4. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:337. 1903. 

Early Barnard. 5. Mag. Hort. 14:538. 1848. 6. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:212. 1896. 

Barnard, once a favorite in Michigan, is a seedling of Alberge and is often confused 
with Yellow Alberge and Yellow Rareripe, all being similar to Alberge. The variety has 
held a place in the American Pomological Society's fruit-list since 1862. Tree vigorous, 
productive, slightly spreading; glands reniform; fruit large, roundish, with a distinct 
suture; ape.K small; skin yellow, nearly covered with dark purplish-red; flesh deep yellow, 
fed at the pit, juicy, tender, rich; quahty good; stone free; season the last of August. 
Barnes, i. Mun.son Cat. 6. 1893. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:809. 1896. 

Barnes originated in Bell County, Texas, with a Mr. Barnes Parker. Tree vigorous; 
fruit mediiun in size, yellow; flesh firm, subacid; clingstone. 
Baron Ackenthal. i. Guide Prat. 40. 1895. 

All Austrian variety with globose glands. 
Baron Dufour. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 39, 215. 1876. 2. Lauche Ergdnzimgshand 697 
fig., 698. 1883. 

This sort was found by Baron Dufour in his gardens at Metz, Germany; it is called 
b\- some Grosse Magdalene von Metz. In 1872 it was introduced as Baron Dufour. 
Tree vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit large, roundish; suture shallow; cavity 
wide, shallow; skin greenish-yellow, dark brownish-red in the sun; flesh clear yellow, 
tinged with red at the stone, juicy, melting, aromatic; stone large, oval, roundish at the 
base; ripens the last of August. 
Baron Pears, i. Carriere Var. Pechers 81. 1867. 

This variety was grown from seed by Baron Pears, Oostcamp, near Bruges, Belgium. 
Tree vigorous; leaves glandless; flowers large; fruit large, oblate, strongly sutured; skin 
pale vellow, striped with red where exposed; flesh white, tinged with red at the stone, 
firm, juicy, aromatic; stone free, bluntly oval; ripens the last of September. 
Baronne de Brivazac. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 387. 1889. 

Listed in the reference given. 
Barr Early, i. Fla. Sta. Bui. 14:6. 1891. 2. Ibid. 62:510. 1902. 

A seedling of Peento which originated with Colonel John Barr, Micanopy, Florida. 
Fruit medium in size, showy; semi-cling; matures a week later than Peento. 
Barr Late. 1. Fla. Sta. Bui. 14:6. 1S91. 2. Ibid. 62:^10. 1902. 

This is another of Colonel Ban-'s seedlings; it resembles Barr Early but matures two 
weeks later. Neither \-ariety is planted commerciall\-. 

Barrington. i. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. i:Pl. 23. 1S17. 2. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 
255. 1831. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 

Buckingham Mignonnc. 4. Kenrick Am. Orch. 226. 1832. 

Barringloner Lieblingspfirsich. 5. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:205, 206. 1858. 

A Mr. Barrington, Burwood, Surrey, England, grew this variety about iSoo. Barring- 
ton was entered on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Societ}^ in 1S62 but 
remained there only a few years. Tree hardy, prolific; glands globose; flowers large; fruit 
large, roundish, somewhat elongated; sldn pale yello^vish, \vith crimson stripes and 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 



305 



mottlings; flesh yellowish-white, tinned with red at the stone, melting, juicy; stone free; 

ripens late in September. 

Batchelder. i. Cole Am. Fr. Book 196. 1849. 

Batchelder originated in Haverhill, Massachusetts, with William Batchelder; it is 
said to reproduce itself from seed. Fruit large, round, white, with a deep blush; flesh 
white, melting, juicj-, vinous; ripens the last of September. 
Baugh. I. Downing Fr. Trees /Im. 608. 1857. 

Leaves with reniform glands; fruit medium in size, roundish; suture obscure; apex 
with a mucronate tip; skin pale yellow, with a slight blush towards the sun; flesh 
\-ellowish-white, melting, juicy, sweet; freestone; ripens the first of October. 
Baxter Cling, i. Wickson Ca/. Frwite 314. 1889. 

Wickson says this is a good cling similar to Orange Cling but earlier. It originated 
in Placer County, California, with William Baxter. 
Bayne Favorite, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 183. 1841. 

Introduced by a Dr. Bayne, Alexandria, Virginia, about 1843. Tree productive; 
fruit \ery large, oval, pointed; color pale yellow, pale red in the sun; flesh yellow, melting, 
juicy; freestone; ripens with Anne. 
Bayne New Heath, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 196. 1841. 

This is another of Dr. Bayne's seedlings which is said to be superior to Heath Cling 
with which it ripens. 
Beahnear Cling, i. J. R. Johnson Cat. 5. 1894. 

J. R. Johnson, Coshocton, Ohio, states that this variety is a yellow-fleshed seedling 
raised some years ago by a Dr. Bealmear, Nashport, Ohio. Tree strong, willowy; fruit 
large, oblong, juicy, sweet, chngstone; ripens the third week in September. 
Bear Early, i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 93. 183 1. 

Listed in this reference. 
Bear Late. i. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 3:63. 1900. 

Listed as a strong grower in Canada. 
Beatrice, i. Card. Man. 13:279. 1871. 2. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:809. 1896. 3. Budd- 
Han.sen Am. Hort. Man. 2:337. 1903- 

Early Beatrice. 4. Card. Chron. 1^2^. 1872. 5. Cart/. AfoH. 15:315, 339, 340. 1873. 

6. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 7. Hogg Fruit Man. 443, 444. 1884. 

This peach is a seedling of Rivers White Nectarine and was raised many years ago 
by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England. The American Pomological Society 
added Beatrire to its fruit-Hst in 1875 but dropped it in 1891. Fruit small to medium, 
round, a little pointed at the apex, marked on one side by a distinct suture; skin yellowish, 
almost covered with patches of bright red; flesh pale yellowish-white, melting, juicy, richly 
flavored, slightly adherent to the pit; season remarkably early, ripening in England in 
July. 
Beauchamp. i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:809. 1896. 

Tree rather weak in growth, unproductive; fruit medium in size, round, yellow, with 
a red cheek; flesh yellow, firm, mild acid; quality fair; freestone; ripens the latter part 
of August. 



3o6 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



Beaute de la Saulsaie. i. Thomas Cnide Prat. 51. 1876. 

A ^landless variety of doubtful merit. 
Beauty of Salisbury, i. Elliott Fr. Book 290. 1854. 

A foreign, freestone variety subject to mildew; fruit large, roundish, \-ello\vish-\vhite, 
blushed with red; ripens in September. 
Beaver No. 2. i. Am. Pom. Sac. Rpt. 45. 1897. 

Fruit roundish, above medium in size; skin thin, white, washed and splashed with 
red; ]jubescence short; flesh white, purplish at the stone, mild subacid; quality very good; 
stone free; ripens early in Augu.st. 
Beckwith Early, i. IT. A'. V. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1879. 

Beckwith Early is a large, early clingstone raised by a Mr. Beck"with, Olathe, Kansas. 
Beckworth. i. Cultivator 3rd Ser. 1:155. i853- 

A hardy, prolific seedling, immune to mildew, raised by Dr. Beckworth, Oswego, 
New York; flesh yellow; pit small; ripens the first of September. 
Becquett Late. i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:810. 1896. 

This variety may be identical with Bequette Free. Tree vigorous, productive; fruit 
medium to .small, oval, light yellow, subacid; quality good; freestone; season late in 
Texas. 
Beer Late White Cling, i. A'. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42. 187S. 

This variety originated with Samuel Beer, Keyport, New Jersey. Fruit large, rich, 
fine for brandying; ripens about the middle of October. 
Beers Late. i. Lovett Cat. 36. 1890. 

Beers Melcatoon. 2. ///. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 184. 1898. 

Beers Late Melocoton. 3. Okla. Sta. Bui. 2:14. 1892. 

Beers Late is a seedling of Late Crawford with which it ripens. Tree strong; fruit 
rather large, yellow, more or less red. 
Beers Late Red Rareripe, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 191. 1841. 

Beers Red Rareripe. 2. Bridgeman Card. Ass't Pt. 3: 105. 1857. 

Joseph Beers, Middletown, New Jersey, first grew this peach. Fruit ^-ery large, 
oblong; skin nearly white, red where exposed; flesh firm, juicy, high in quality; ripens 
the last of September. 

Beers Smock, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 299. 1875. 
3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:337. 1903. 4. Waugh Am. Peach Orcli. 198. 

1913- 

Beer. 5. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:815. 1896. 

Beers Smock and Smock are identical as grown at this Station. Pomological authorities 
now verj^ generally agree that the two names have been given the same fruit. For a 
description of Beers Smock see Smock. 
Bell Favorite, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:208. 1899. 

Tree fairly vigorous, upright, meditim productive; glands globose; flowers small; 
fruit large, oval, tapering; skin hght yellow, with a small blush of red, lightly pubescent; 
flesh yellow, stained with red at the pit, juicy, vinous; quality fair; pit nearly free; season 
towards the end of September. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 307 

Bell October, i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Kpt. 38. 1902-03. 2. Munson Cat. 7. 1904-05. 

Bell October is a large, yellow peach of fine flavor ripening after Sahvey and often 
keeping until November. It originated in Denton County, Texas. 
Belle de Bade. i. Guide Prat. 42. 1895. 

Fruit ver}- large, }-ellow; glands globose; flesh Ann, sweet, aromatic; matures in 
September. 
Belle de Beaucaire. i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 290. 1854. 

3. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:52, 53 fig. 1879. 

This variety originated near Beaucaire, Card, France. Glands small, globose; flowers 
small ; fruit large, roundish ; cavity narrow, deep ; apex with a mamelon tip ; skin greenish- 
yellow, spotted with carmine in the sun; flesh greenish-white, red at the stone, firm, juicy, 
pleasingly acidulated; stone free, brown; ripens the last of August. 
Belle Beausse. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:54 fig., 55, 56. 1879. 

Belle Beaiice. 2. Kenrick Am. Orcb. 212. 1832. 

Belle Baiisse. 3. Prince Pom. Man. 2:n, 12. 1832. 4. Mas Le Verger 7:163, 164, 
fig. 80. 1866-73. 5- Downing Fr. Trees Am. 599. 1869. 

Belle-Bauce. 6. Poiteau Pmn. Franc. i:No. 15, PI. 1846. 

Schone von Beauce. 7. Dochnahl Fiihr. Okstkunde 3:202, 203. 1S58. 

This variety was raised long ago by Joseph Beausse, Montreuil, Bellay, France. 
Because of its close resemblance to Grosse Mignonne the two have often been confused. 
Fruit large, somewhat flattened at the base and apex, with a distinct suture; skin thin, 
with fine pubescence, greenish-yellow, highly colored with deep red; flesh white, tinged 
with red around the pit, juicy, tender, melting, vinous; quality good; freestone; season 
early September. 
Belle Beaute. i. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 184. 1825. 

An excellent, scarlet-red freestone ripening the end of September. 
BeUe Cartiere. i. Pom. France 6:No. 8, PI. 8. 1869. 

Armand Jaboulay introduced Belle Cartiere which he found in the vineyard of Madame 
Cartiere, Oullins, Rhone, France. Glands reniform; flowers small; fruit large, globular; 
suture more or less pronovmced; skin heavily pubescent, white, almost entirely covered 
with reddish-purple; flesh white, with red radiating from the pit, melting, vinous, juicy; 
pit nearly free, obtuse, deeply grooved; ripens the first week in September. 
Belle de Charleville. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

Fruit \er\- large, of first quality; glands reniform; ripens in Sej^tember. 
Belle Conquete. i. Carriere Var. Peckers 74. 1867. 

Tree moderately vigorous; glands globose, small; flowers ver\- large; fruit large, round- 
ish, often flattened at the ends; skin heavily pubescent, whitish-yellow, mottled with 
carmine; flesh whitish, reddish at the pit, melting, sweet; stone large, oval, plump, free; 
ripens the last of August. 
Belle de la Croix, i. Hogg Fruit Man. 214. 1866. 2. Thomas Guide Prai. 44. 1876. 

This variety was first grown in Bordeaux, France. Tree hardy; glands reniform; 
flowers small; fruit large, round; skin white, washed with purple; flesh fine, reddish about 
the stone, sweet, aromatic; of first quality; ripens the end of August. 



308 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Belle de Doue. i. Hogg Fruit Man. 214, 215. 1866. 2. M;is Le Verger 7:139, 140, 
fig. 68. 1866-73. 3- Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:58, 59. 1879. 

Schone von Doue. 4. Lauche Deut. Pom. VI: No. 20, PI. 1882. 

This peach was grown from seed in 1839 by a M. Dimia-Chatenay at Doue-la-Fon- 
taine, Maine-et-Loire, France. Glands globose; flowers small; fruit medium to large, 
roundish, with a distinct suture; skin greenish-yellow, washed and mottled with red; flesli 
greenish-white, red at the pit, juicy, sweet, with a delicious, aromatic flavor; stone free; 
ripens about the middle of August. 
Belle Dupont. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Listed in this reference. 
Belle et Bonne, i. Ann. Pom. Beige 1:49, 50, PI. 1853. 

Schone Magdalene. 2. "Dochnahl Fuhr. Obstkundc ;i: igg. 1858. 

A. Bivort grew this seedling about 183 1 and, because of size and quality of fruit called 
it Belle et Bonne. Leaves glandless; flowers large; fruit large, roundish, deeply sutured; 
skin heavily pubescent, clear yellow, with a bright red cheek; flesh white, fine, melting, 
aromatic; freestone; ripens the latter part of August. 

Belle Henri Pinaud. i. Card. Chron. N. S. 18:472. 1882. 2. Soc. Nat. Hort. France 
Pom. 292 fig., 293. 1904. 

A French variety introduced to commerce about 1 88 1 . Tree vigorous ; glands renif orm ; 
flowers large; fruit large, roundish, slightly flattened at apex; skin greenish-yellow, deep 
red where exposed; faintly sutured; flesh whitish-yellow, fine, sweet; very good in quality; 
stone free, elongated ; ripens the middle of September. 
Belle Imperiale. i. Mag. Hort. 34:89. 1868. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 93 fig. 1906. 

Obtained by a M. Chevalier, Montreuil, Seine, France. Tree vigorous; glands 
globose; flowers medium in size; fruit large, spherical, slighth- oblique near the apex; 
shallowly sutured; skin heavily pubescent, yellow, blushed with deep red in the sun; flesh 
whitish-yellow, faint carmine near the stone, melting, vinous, sweet; quality good; ripens 
the middle of September. 
Belle de Liege, i. Thomas Cwzde Prat. 48. 1876. 

Belle dc Li^ge produces large, excellent fruit of first quality; glands absent ; flowers 
medium in size; ripens the end of August. 
Belle de Logelbach. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 388. 1S89. 2. Guide Prat. 40. 1895. 

Tree vigorous, productive; glands reniform; fruit very large, juicy, aromatic; ripens 
the middle of September. 
Belle de Mes Yeux. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

Described as a mediimi-sized peach, with a reddish-brown blush on a green ground; 
ripens early in September. 
Belle de Neuville. i. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 90 fig. 1906. 

A French seedling raised by C. Jacquet, Neuville, France. Tree ^^gorous; glands 
globose; flowers very large; fruit medium in size, roundish, faintly sutured; skin amber, 
washed with deep purple where exposed; flesh amber, tinged with red at the pit, juicy, 
sweet, sprightly; quality excellent; pit large, broad, plump, nearly free; ripens the last 
of August. 



THIi: PEACH I£.S OK NEW YORK 3O9 

Belle d'Orbassano. i. Thomas (Jitidc Prat. 48. 1876. 

Mentioned as a \-ery laic, but excellent, Italian variety with reniform glands. 
Belle de Saint-Geslin. i. Card. A/o«. 15:244. 1873. 2. Le Bon J ard. 326. 1882. 

A variety discovered some years ago in the ruins of the St. Geslin tower near Richelieu, 
Indre-et-Loire, France, by a M. Joutron. Fruit large, whitish-green, splashed with purple; 
flesh white, melting; very good; stone free; matures the latter half of October. 
Belle de Saint-Geslin Blanche, i. Card. Chroti. N. S. 22:472. 1884. 

A wliile-fruited .sj)orl from the Belle de Saint-Geslin, much esteemed by the French 
as a late peach. 
Belle de Toulouse, i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:60 fig., 61. 1879. 

Belle Toulousaine. 2. Carri6rc Var. Peckers 54. 1867. 

Schone Toulouserin. 3. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 414. 1889. 

Jean Rey, a nurseryman at Toulouse, Haute Garonne, France, raised this peach from 
seed in 1859. Leroy combines Souvenir de Jean Rey with this variety but the two are 
apparently distinct. Fruit large, roundish-oval, with a shallow suture; skin clear yellow, 
washed with dark red; flesh greenish-white, red at the pit, juicy, with a sweet, vinous 
flavor; stone free; season the first of September. 

Belle de Vitry. i. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:36, 37, PI. XXV. 1768. 2. Lindley 
Guide Orch. Card. 244, 245. 1831. 3. Downing Fr. frees Am. 472. 1845. 
4. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:61 fig., 62. 1879. 

Bellis. S. Miller Card. Diet. 1752. 

Beauty of Vitry. 6. Prince Potn. Man. 1:193. 1831. 

Schoner von Vitry. 7. Dochna-hl Fiihr. Obstkundc 3:210. 1858. 

According to Leroy this peach was raised more than two centuries ago at Vitry-sur- 
Seine, France, and was first mentioned by Merlet in 1675. Some writers have confused 
it with Admirable. Leaves glandless or with few globose glands; fruit of medium size, 
broad, with a deep suture; skin pale yellowish-white, tinged and marbled with bright 
and dull red; flesh greenish-yellow, red at the pit, firm, juicy, rich; quality good; stone 
free; season the last of September. 
Bellegarde. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:62, 63 fig. 1879. 

This name has been applied to another peach called Galande but the variety described 
by Leroy in this reference appears to be distinct. Fruit medium in size, roundish, com- 
pressed; skin covered with dark red in the sun; flesh whitish, juicy, sweet, with a pleasant 
flavor; stone free; ripens the first of September. 
Bellows. I. Langley Pomona 105, PI. XXXI fig. V. 1729. 

Bellows is a good bearer with fruit of fair quality. Color greenish-yellow, with a 
mottled blush; flesh white, with a trace of red at the pit; ripens the first of .August. 
Beltzar. i. Mag. Hort. 13:110. 1847. 

An early \-ariety originating in Coshocton County, Ohio. 
Beltzar Early Rareripe. 1. Mag. Hort. 13:110. 1847. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 291. 1854. 

Originated in Coshocton County, Ohio. Glands globose; fruit roundish, blushed with 
red in the sun; ripens in August. 



3IO THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Ben Hur. i. Mich. Sta. Sp. Btil. 44:30. lyio. 

A variety, thought to have originated in Michigan, which ripens just before Elberta- 
Benade. . i. Jotir. liort. N. S. 7:429. 1864. 

Benade is an American peach of medium size; yellow flesh; poor quality; ripening in 
August. 
Benango. i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:810. 1896. 

Listed as growing in Texas. 
Bennett Rareripe, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 291. 1854. 

Of American origin. Glands globose; fruit large, whitish-yellow, blushed with red; 
deficient in flavor; ripens early in August. 
Bequette Cling, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:32. 1895. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 

Bccqitctte Cling. 3. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:91. 1901. 

Bequette Cling originated about i860 in a seedling orchard belonging to Benjamin 
Bequette, Visalia, California. In 1877 J. H. Thomas of the same place gave the variety 
the name of the originator and commenced propagating it. This peach is similar to 
Bequette Free, see page 184, a variety of the same origin, except in the clinging tendenc\- 
of the stone. 
Berckmans. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:91. 1901. 

Dr. Berckmans. 2. Rural N. Y. 54:106. 1895. 3. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:235. 1898. 

Dr. L. E. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia, grew Berckmans from a pit of General Lee 
about 1880. Glands reniform ; fruit large, creamy-white, blushed and mottled with crimson ; 
flesh white, stained with red at the pit, melting, juicy, vinous; season follows Thurber. 
Bergame. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

Tree vigorous, productive; fruit very large, roundish, irregular; skin blushed with 
purple on a deep yellow ground; of first qiiality; ripens early in October. 
Bergen, i. Elliott Fr. Soo^ 272. 1854. 

Bergen Yellow. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 490. 
1845. 4. Proc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 51- 1848. 

Bergen is probably a native of Long Island. It resembles Yellow Rareripe but ripens 
about ten days later. The American Pomological Society added this variety to its list of 
fruits in 1848, a place which it still holds. Tree bears well; glands reniform; flowers small; 
fruit large, globular, depressed; suture distinct; skin deep orange, with a broad, dark red 
cheek; flesh yellow, melting, juicy, rich; matures early in September. 
Bermuda Cling, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 191. i860. 

Recommended for planting in Mississippi. 
Bernard Verlot. i. Carriere Var. Pechers 52, 53. 1867. 

A French 'variety obtained by a M. Carrelet, Paris, France. Tree vigorous; glands 
reniform; flowers small; fruit very large, roundish; cavity wide, shallow; skin with short 
pubescence, streaked and spotted with reddish- violet where exposed; flesh whitish, stained 
at the pit, melting, very juicy, aromatic; stone nearly free, obovate, deeply grooved at the 
sutures. 
Bemardin de Saint-Pierre, i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:65 fig., 66. 1879. 

An old, French seedling found growing about 1865 in the nurseries of Jamin and Durand 



THK I'KA( HKS OF NEW YORK 3II 

near Paris, France. Tree moderately productive; glands rcniform; flowers small; fruit 

above medium in size, roundish-oval; suture faintly marked; skin heavily pubescent, 

whitish-yellow, mottled with purple in the sun; flesh whitish, carmine at the stone, melting, 

very juicy, sweet, sprightly; quality good; stone small, free, ovoid, pliunp; ripens in 

September. 

Berry, i. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 41. 1895. 

Fruit roundish, mediiun in size; cavity wide, deep; suture distinct; apex swollen; skin 
thin, tough, covered with short pubescence, cream\'-white, washed with red; flesh whitish, 
tinged with red at the stone, meaty, tender for a cling, ver\' juicy, sweet, rich; quahty 
good; stone small, oval, clinging; ripens in the District of Columbia early in September. 
Bertholome. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

Barthelemy. 2. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 387. 1889. 

A very large, yellow, late peacli with small flowers and reniform glands. 
Bessie Kerr. i. J. S. Kerr Cat. 4. 1898. 

This variety is described briefly by J. S. Kerr, Denton, Maryland. Tree vigorous, 
upright, productive; fruit large, oblong, white; clingstone; matures in August. 
Best June. i. Ramsey Cat. 3. 191 2. 

According to F. T. Ramsey and Son, Austin, Texas, this peach was originated about 
1894 by John Burkhardt, Fayette County, Te.xas. It was introduced by F. T. Ramsey' 
and Son in 1906, and is said to excel Mamie Ross. Tree very productive; fruit light- 
colored, with a red cheek; stone semi-clinging; season the last of June in Texas. 
Besy Robin, i. Thomas Gtiide Prat. 52. 1876. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:66 fig., 67. 
1879. 

Raised by Besy Robin, Angers, Maine, France, about 1863. Tree productive; glands 
reniform; flowers small; fruit large, globular, truncate; suture prominent; skin thick, 
greenish-yellow, blushed with red, deeper where exposed; flesh whitish-yellow, stained at 
the pit, firm though melting, very juicy, sprightly; of first quality; stone free, very large, 
roundish-oval, pliunp; matures the middle of September. 
Beville. i. Mag. /for/. 15:503. 1849. 

Beville has a dwarfish, compact habit of growth and bears numerous, large blossoms. 
Grown only in the South. 
Bexar, i. Tex. Sta. Bid. 8:34. 1889. 2. Ibid. 39:810. 1896. 

Tree vigorous, moderately productive; glands globose; fruit ovate, light creamy; 
flesh slightly acid; freestone; ripens the middle of August. 
Bianci di Nizza. i. Card. Chron. 907. 1858. 

Exhibited at the Imperial and Royal Horticultural Society of Tuscany, Italy. 
Bickell. I. Mich. Sta. Bui. 104:88. 1894. 2. Ibid. 194:45- 1901- 

An undesirable, late, white freestone of mediiun size, ripening with Salwey. 
Biddle. i. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 167. 1895. 

A white-fleshed clingstone ripening the middle of Juh'. 
Bidwell Early, i. Card. Mon. 28:334. 18S6. 2. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 575. PL VI. 1S88. 
3. .4))!. Pom. .Soc. Cat. 44. i8qi. 4. Fla. .S'/a. Bui. 62:511. 1902. 

One of the seedlings of Peento raised about 1886 by A. I. Bidwell. Arlington, Florida. 



312 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

The variety was placed in the fruit-hst of the American Pomological Society in 1891. 
Fruit medium in size, oblong; cavity abrupt; apex rounded, with a small, recurved point; 
skin velvety, creamy-white, deep red where exposed; flesh firm, whitish, juicy; quality 
very good; stone oval, thick, clinging; season in Florida May 20th to June 15th. 
Bidwell Late. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 2. Fla. Sta. Bui. 62: sii- 1902. 

Another of A. I. Bidwell's seedlings of Peento that does well further north than some 
varieties of the same origin. Placed in the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society 
in 1 89 1. Fruit large, roundisli, yellowish-white; flesh meaty, juicy; quahty excellent; 
stone adherent; matures in Florida June i sth to July 1st. 
Bilice. I. Rea. Flora 211. 1676. 

" The Bilice peach is something like the Newington." 
Billmeyer. i. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:30- 1910. 

Billmeyer is a sprout from the stem of an old Crawford tree, raised by J. H. Bilhneyer, 
HoUoway, Michigan. Tree productive; fruit roundish-oblate, mediimi to large; cavity 
deep; skin thick, tough, with long pubescence, pale yellow, blushed with dark crimson; 
flesh yellow, stained with red at the stone, meaty, tender, juicy, sprightly; quality very 
good; stone oval, small, free; matures between the two Crawfords. 

Bilyeu. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:338. 
1903. 3. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 199. 1913. 

Bilyeu Comet. 4. Card. Mon. 18:14, 27, 140, 141. 1S76. 

Bilyeu' s October. 5. Fulton Peach Cult. 177. 1908. 

This peach seems to have originated more than forty years ago as a chance seedling 
in Caroline County, Maryland, having been found and propagated by a Mr. Bilyeu. It 
was once quite popular in Maryland. Tree moderately productive, vigorous; fruit 
medium in size, round; skin greenish-white, with a red cheek; flesh white, firm, sweet; of 
fair quality ; stone free ; ripens very late. 
Binney Large Red. 1. Thomas Guide Prat. 4&. 1876. 

Listed as having small flowers and globose glands. 
Bird Beauty, i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 77. 1893. 

Exhibited at the World's Fair in 1893, as having grown in Illinois. 
Bishop. 1. Okla. Sta. Bui. 2:14. 1892. 2. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 4^- 189s- 3- •■^'"■ 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1S99. 4. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:208. 1899. 

Bishop Early. 5. Ohio Sta. Bui. 170:172. 1906. 6. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 199. 

1913- 

According to Waugh, Bishop originated in California. Tree vigorous, hardy, pro- 
ductive; glands globose; fruit medium to large, round, with a distinct suture; color creamy- 
white, with a dark red blush; flesh white, juicy, tender, vinous; quality good; pit free; 
season the last of August. 
Black. I. .4;;;. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1897. 

Dr. Black. 2. Am. Card. 18:715. 1897. 

Black is a seedling of the Smock type, named in honor of Dr. J. J. Black, Newcastle, 
Delaware. Fruit large, round; skin heavily pubescent, yellow, with a blushed cheek; 
flesh yellow, red at the pit, rich subacid; quality very good; stone oval; ripens late. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 313 

Black Early, i. Card. Mon. 14:280. 1872. 

Black Extra Early. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. ist App. 120. 1872. 

A very early, white-fleshed seedling found on the farm of Dr. J. vSta\-man, Leavenworth, 
Kansas. The fniit is said to surpass Hale Early in size and quality. 
Black Seedling, i. Rural N. Y. 62:562. 1903. 

A seedling of Mamie Ross raised by J. H. Black, Hightstown, New Jersey. The 
fruit ripens with Sneed but is higher in quality and is more resistent to rot. 
Blacke. i. Parkinson Par. Ter. 582. 1629. 

" The Blacke Peach is a great large Peach, of a very darke browne colour on the out- 
side, it is of a waterish taste, and late ripe." 
Blake, i. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:30. 1910. 

A peach that William Blake, Niles, Michigan, says is the earliest, yellow freestone. 
Blanc de City. i. Decaisne Jard. Fruit. 7:P1. 1872-75. 

Tree moderately vigorous, very productive; glands reniform; flowers medium to large; 
fruit medium in size, globular; suture distinct; cavity wide; skin covered with short 
pubescence, whitish-yellow, dark red where exposed; flesh whitish, melting, juicv-; stone 
large, roundish, nearly free; ripens early in September. 
Blanchard. 1. Munson Cat. 7. 1904-05. 

The catalog of T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, states that this variety is a seedling 
originated and named by C. C. F. Blanchard, Runnels County, Texas. It is similar to 
Chinese Cling but ripens later. 
Blanche d'Ekenholm. i. Mag. Hori. 20:270. 1854. 

Fruit large, yellowish-white, hghtly marked with carmine; flesh whitish-yellow, sweet, 
sugary; stone free; ripens at the end of July. 
Blanche Enorme de Mezel. i. Carri^re Var. Peckers 64. 1867. 

Tree vigorous; glands reniform; flowers large, rose-colored; fruit large, spherical, 
rarely elongated; skin very pubescent, pale yellow, occasionally blushed in the sun; 
flesh yellow, stained at the pit, melting, sweet; stone oval, free; ripens the second half 
of August. 
Blanche Tardive de Sabarot. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 388. 1889. 

Listed in this reference. 
Blanton Cling, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. b^s. 1857. 

Ycllo'iv Blantoii Cling. 2. Elhott Fr. Book 277. 1854. 

A seedling of Lemon Cling and very similar to it but a few days later. Leaves large; 
glands reniform; fruit large, resembling Lemon Cling. Reproduces itself from seed. 
Bledsoe Early Cling, i. IF. A^ Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1879. 2. Ibid. no. 1880. 

A seedling raised by Ira L. Wood, Pleasant Hill, Missouri. Said to be earlier and better 
than Amsden. 
Bledsoe Seedling, i. Hooper IF. Fr. Book 214. 1857. 

A good commercial peach about Frankfort, Kentucky. Leaves glandle.ss; flowers 
large; fruit roundish-oblong, of medium size, yellow, with a red blush; flesh mild, sweet; 
ripens in September. 



314 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Blodgett's Seedlings, i. (/ard. Mon. 24:334, 335. 1882. 

The following are seedlings mentioned as having originated with a Lorin Blodgett: 
Blodgett Crimson Cling, 
Blodgett Crimson Freestone, 
Blodgett Golden Cling, 
Blodgett Golden Freestone, 
Blodgett Golden October Cling, 
Blodgett Golden Pointed Cling. 

These jieaches do not seem to have been recognized by other wpters. 
Blondeau. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 2. Soc. \'at. Hort. France Pom. 296 fig., 
297. 1904. 

Joseph Blondeau, Monlmeil, Seine, France, introduced this variety about 1856. Tree 
moderately vigorous, very productive; glands globose; flowers small, deep red; fruit large, 
roundish; cavity large, deep; skin milky-white, purple where exposed; flesh milk\--white, 
reddish around the pit, melting, sweet, aromatic; quality excellent; stone elliptical, plump, 
free; ripens late in September. 
Blood Free. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 

Blood Freestone. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 601. 1869. 

Indian Blood Freestone. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1873. 4. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt- 
25. 1876. 

Blood Free was probably raised by John M. Ives, Salem, Massachusetts, and is distinct 
from Blood Cling in having its stone free. The American Pomological Society placed the 
variety in its list of fruits in 1873 as Indian Blood Freestone but in 1897 shortened the name 
to Blood Free. Tree vigorous, hardy; fruit of medium size, compressed; apex roundish; 
skin greenish-white overspread with splashes and stripes of dark red ; flesh blood-red through- 
out, juicy, coarse, tough and meaty; quality fair; stone free; season very late. 
Bloor. I. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bid. 44:31. 1910. 

Named after the originator, John Bloor, Mears, Michigan. Tree upright, exceptionally 
hardy in bud and branch ; fruit resembles Kalamazoo with which it ripens but is superior 
to it. 
Blush. I. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:92. 1901. 

Beauty Blush. 2. Bailey Ann. Hort. 184. 1892. 

A little known seedling from Chinese Cling raised by J. H. Jones, Hemdon. Georgia. 
Fmit large, high-colored, melting, delicious; freestone; ripens in Georgia the last of June. 
Bogg Leviathan, i. IT. A'. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 114. 1880. 

Bogg Mammoth. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 

A very large peach of good quality, ripening three weeks later than Late Cra\\ford, 
excellent for drying and canning. Raised by a Mr. Bogg, Bonham, Texas. 
Boisselot. I. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:68 fig., 69. 1S79. 

Auguste Boisselot, Nantes, Loire-Inferieure, France, originated this variety. Glands 
reniform; flowers small, rose-colored: fruit large, roundish-oval; skin thick, whitish, marbled 
and streaked with red; flesh white, melting, rather firm, juicy, often disagreeable; stone 
elongated, free; ripens the last of August. 



THP; PEACHES OF NEW YORK 315 

Bokhara, i. Ja. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 377. 1896. 2. Ibid. 256. 1897. 3. Mich. Sta. Bid. 
187:68. 1901. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. igoy. 
Bokhara is remarkable for great hardiness but has Utile else to recommend it. It 
was introduced by the late J. L. Budd from pits received from Bokhara, Russia, about 1890 
and in 1909 was added to the frviit-list of the American Pomological Society. Several 
distinct peaches are grown under this name, probably all from the pits planted by Pro- 
fessor Budd. As Bokhara grows on the Station grounds the leaves are large; glands reni- 
form; flowers appear in mid-season, medium in size, pink; fruit of medium size, oblong- 
oval, bulged near the apex making the halves unequal; suture shallow; apex with a pro- 
longed tip; skin thin, tender, with a thick, short pubescence, greenish-yellow, pale, faintly- 
blushed and striped with dull red; flesh greenish-white, stringy, mealy, sweet; qiialit\' 
poor; stone oval, narrow, conspicuously winged; ripens late in August. 
Boley. I. New Haven A'tir. Cat. 6. 1899-1900. 

This variety is described in the catalog of the New Haven Nurseries, New Ha\-en. 
Missouri, as a large, white-fleshed variety rijjening in Missouri about August 20th. 
Bollweiler Favorite, i. Mas Le Verger 7:33, 34, fig. 15. 1866-73. 2. Lauche Deut. 
Pom. VI:No. 2, PI. 1882. 
Obtained by Eugene Baumann, Bollweiler, ELsass, Germany. Tree productive; 
glands reniform; flowers large; fruit large, roundish, flattened at the base; suture shallow; 
skin tender, whitish-yellow, blushed; flesh white, tender, sweet, pleasing; stone oval, free; 
ripens early in August. 

Bollweiler Magdalene, i. Kenrick .4 »;. Ore/;. 177. 1S35. 2. Dochnahl Fidir. Obstkunde 
3:197. 1S58. 
Bollwiller de Madeleine. 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 98. 1831. 
Grosse-Madeline. 4. Thomas 6"«n(i^ Prat. 40, 219. 1876. 

Another variety from the same source as above. Tree vigorous, productive; glandless; 
flowers large; fruit meditim in size, roundish; suture shallow; skin greenish-white; flesh 
very pleasing; stone free; ripens the last of August. 
Bonanza, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:208. 1899. 

Bonanza is of Texas origin and is planted only in the South. It is very late in ripen- 
ing and is not productive nor is the fruit high in quality on the Station grounds. Tree 
vigorous, hardy; glands reniform; flowers appear in mid-season, small, dark pink at the 
edges; fruit small to above, roundish-oval, with a prune-like neck, halves unequal; apex 
with a small, mamelon tip; skin tough, with long, coarse pubescence, creamy-white, with a 
small blush of lively red; flesh white, rather dry, stringy, with a slight astringency; .stone 
oval, slightly flattened, with a long, sharp apex; ripens the second week of October. 
Bonito. I. Tex. Sta. Bui. 8:34. 1889. 2. Ibid. 39:815. 1896. 

Vigorous, productive; glands reniform; fruit rather small, rovmdish, with an acute 
projection; color creamy-white; stone adherent; ripens Jul\- 25th. 

Bonlez. i. Mas Le Verger 7:43, 44, fig. 20. 1866-73. 2. Downing Fr, Trees Am. 606. 
1869. 
Bonlczcr Lackpfirsich. 3. Dochnahl Fnhr. Obstkunde 3:212. 1858. 
Bonlez was obtained by Bivort of Belgium about 1830. Tree moderately productive; 



31 6 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

glands rcniform; flowers large; fruit large, roundish, depressed, deeply sutured; skin downy, 
white, blushed; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet, aromatic; of first quality; stone oval, 
thick, free; ripens the middle of September. 
Bonne Dame de Laeken. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

A variety of Belgian origin; fruit large; tree productive. 
Bonne Gros de Noisette, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 601. 1869. 

Cuter grosser Lack'pfirsicli. 2. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:21 1. 1858. 

Originated with a M. Noisette, Paris, France. Fruit large, roundish, depressei; 
suture deep; color white, faintly marbled in the sun; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, \-inous, 
aromatic; freestone; ripens in September. 
Bonne Grosse. i. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:480. i860. 

Bonne Grosse originated about 1820 in France. Glands globose; flowers small; fruit 
very large, roundish, greenish, blushed with red; flesh firm, vinous, good; ripens at the 
end of September. 
Bonne-Julie, i. Thomas CrnVfe Prat. 52, 216. 1876. 

Fruit large; skin washed and spotted with carmine-red; flesh melting, very juicy, 
pleasing; ripens the second half of August. 
Bonneuil. i. Hogg Fruit Man. 227. 1866. 2. Carriere Var. Peckers 46. 1867. 

Bonneuil Lackpfirsich. 3. Doch.na.hl Ftihr. Obstkunde 3:216. 1858. 

This is a very late clingstone ripening the second week in November; a long keeper. 
Glandless; flowers large; fruit above medivmi in size, roundish, distinctly sutured; apex 
mamelon; skin greenish-white, with a faint blush in the sun; flesh firm, white, juicy; not 
highly flavored. 

Bonouvrier. 1. Mas Le Verger 7:147, 148, fig. 72. 1866-73. 2. Bobbink & Atkins 
Cat. 119. 1914. 

Bonouvrier originated with a M. Bonouvrier, Montreuil, Seine, France. Glands 
globose; flowers mediimi in size; fruit large, roundish, compressed; suture more pronounced 
at the apex; skin white, largely blushed with deep purple; flesh white, stained at the pit, 
melting, sweet; stone nearly free; ripens at the end of September. 
Boquier. i. Wickson Cal. Fruits 316. 1889. 

A large, yellow, Califomian variety with good shipping qualities. 
Bordeaux, i. Am. Pont. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 

Bordeaux Cling. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 635. 1857. 

Belle de Bordeaux. 3. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2d Ser. 3:63. 1900. 

Bordeaux was raised from a stone brought from Bordeaux, France. It held a place 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society from 1875 until 1891. Fruit large, 
oblong, a little one-sided; suture shallow; skin downy, lemon-yellow, with a red 
cheek; flesh yellow, red at the pit, juicy, melting, vinous; stone clinging; ripens early in 
August. 
Bottchers Friihpfirsich. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Not described in this reference. 
Bourdeaux. i. Rea F/ora 211. 1676. 2. Miller Cartf. Diet. 1752. 

Listed among yellow varieties of lesser merit. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 3I7 

Bourdine. i. Langley Pomotm 102, PI. 28 fi^j. 5- 1729. 2. Duhamel Trail. Arb. Fr. 
2:20, 21, PI. 12. 1768. 3. Lindley Guide Orch. Card. 245, 246. 1831. 4. Card. 
Chron. 152. 1865. 5. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:70, 71 fig., 72, 73, 74. 1879. 

Bourdin Lackpfirsich. 6. Dochnahl Fw/ir. O^s/^wMde 3:208, 209. 1858. 

Boudin. 7. Hogg Fr«i7 Mch. 215. 1866. 

Bourdine is an old French sort WTitten of by Merlet and Quintinj-e. It has been 
confused with Royale, Louis XIV having so named it on receiving it from his gardener, 
Bourdine. Duhamel maintains that these two are distinct varieties and we have followed 
him. Leaves with globose glands; flowers small, edged with carmine; fruit large, roundish, 
halves unequal; suture deep and wide; skin greenish-white, blushed and marbled; flesh 
white, melting, separates readily from the pit, sugary; quality good; stone small, nearly 
round; ripens the middle of September. 
Bourdine Royale. i. Loyid. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 

Listed in this reference. 
Bowers Early. 1. Card. Man. 19:274. 1877. 2. 11'. A'. V. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1879. 

A large, freestone peach, earlier than Amsden, said to have originated in Frederick, 
Maryland, in 1876. 
Bowslaugh Late. i. Can. Hort. 11:151. 1888. 

Bou'slaiigh. 2. Out. Fr. Cr. Assoe. Rpt. 22:31. 1890. 

A fine, late, yellow seedling of the Crawford type; originated in the Niagara district, 
Ontario, Canada. 
Boyd Early, i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Listed in this reference. 
Boyles. i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 1:51. 1894. 2. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:31. 1910. 

A variety found by James Boyles, Douglas, Michigan. A very good substitute for 
Early Crawford. Tree vigorous; fruit large, yellow, pleasing. 
Brackett. i. Berckmans Cat. 12. 1912-13. 

P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia, states that this variety was named in honor of 
the late Colonel G. B. Brackett. It is a yellow-fleshed freestone, a cross between Smock 
and Chinese Cling, ripening just after Elberta, said to be of best quality. 
Braddick American, i. Brookshaw //or/. Reposit. 1:59, PI. 29. 1823. 2. hmdXey Ciiide 
Orch. Card. 273, 274. 1831. 

Braddick' s North American. 3. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 

Leaves crenate, with globose glands; flowers small; fruit of medium size, slightly 
tapering towards the apex; deeply sutured; skin pale yellow, tinged with red; flesh pale 
yellow nearly to the stone, juicy; stone clings; ripens the middle of September. 
Braddick New York. i. Lo)id. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 

Braddick New York is a freestone of second size and quality, ripening early in Septem- 
ber; glands reniform; flowers small; color pale green, with a blush. 
Braddick Red. i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 183 1. 

Leaves serrate, glandless; flowers large; fruit large, pale green, blushed with dark red; 
flesh melting, free from the pit; of first quality; ripens at the end of August. 



31 8 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Braddick South American, i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 

\ot described in this reference. 
Braddick Summer, i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 183 1. 

Leaves with reniform glands; flowers small; fniit large, pale green; flesh melting; of 
second quality; pit free; ripens late in August. 
Bradley, i. Pa. Fr.Gr. Soc. Rpt. 39, PI. 1879. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Bradley originated in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Not generally disseminated. 
Tree vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit large; flesh white, firm, juicy; freestone; 
ripens after Late Crawford. 
Brainard Large Yellow, i. Kenrick Am. Orcli. 189. 1841. 

Fruit large, yellow in the shade ; of excellent flavor ; ripens in September. 
Brandy, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. 

Brandy is a round, medium-sized fruit, with crimson flesh; ri])ens in August. 
Brandywine. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 2. Rural X . Y. 46:352. 1887. 
3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 4. Mich. Sta. Bid. 169:208, 209. 1899. 
5. Budd-Hansen /Iw. //or^ MoH. 2:339. 1903. 6. Fulton Peac/i 0(/^ 175. 1908. 

According to the references, Delaware is the place of origin of this peach and Late 
Crawford may be its parent. Tree vigorous, moderately productive; glands globose; 
fruit large, flattened and ovate, compressed at the suture which is distinct ; apex prominent ; 
color yellow, washed and striped with red; flesh yellow, red at the pit, juicy, tender, mild 
but not rich; quality good; pit free; season the last of September. 
Brant, i. Utah Sta. Bid. 1%: 12. 1892. 

Listed as once grown in Utah. 
Bray Rareripe, i. A". ./. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 42. 1878. 2. Mo. State Fr. Sta. Rpt. 12. 
1905-06. 

Bray White. 3. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 243. 1886. 

This variety resembles Oldmixon Free except in season, being later. It originated with 
D. Bray, Monmouth County, New Jersey. The peach as it grows on the Station grounds 
is hardy but not productive; glands globose; flowers small, appear in mid-season; fruit 
large, roundish; cavity shallow; apex mamelon, recurved; skin tough, thick, heavily 
pubescent, creamy-white, blushed with lively red; flesh white, stained at the pit, juicy, 
tender, sprightly, pleasing; good in quality; stone free, broadly oval, flattened; ripens late 
in September. 
Braunauer Lackpfirsich. i. Dochnahl Fidir. Obsthindc 3:214. 1858. 

Braunauer Rote Frtihe Pfirsich. 2. Mathieu Nam. Pom. 389. 1889. 

A seedling of Gemeiner Lieblingspfirsich. Tree productive; glands reniform; fruit 
above medium in size, oval; skin heavily pubescent, greenish-}-ellow ; flesh reddish at the 
pit, aromatic; stone free; ripens the middle of September. 
Braunauer Magdalene. 1. Mathieu Xom. Pom. 389. 1889. 

Listed in the reference given. 
Brett. I. Card. Mon. 22:370. 1880. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Mrs. Brett. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:352. 1903. 

Brett was introduced by Joseph H. Ricketts, Newburgh. New York; listed by the 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 3I9 

American Pomological Society in 1909. It is earlier than Oldmixon Free and superior 

to it in color and quality. 

Brevoort. 1. Lond. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 6:^1^. 1826. 2. Downing Fr. 7ref5 i4»j. 472. 1845. 

Brcvoort Seedling Melter. 3. Floy-Lindley Guide Orclt. Card. 183. 1846. 

Raised by Henry Brevoort of New York, from Morrisania Pound. Leaves crenated; 
glands reniform; flowers small; fruit below medium in size, roundish; skin grayish-white, 
bright red where exposed; fle.sh firm, juicy, sugary; stone small, flat, free; ripens the middle 
of August. 
Brevoort Seedling Pound, i. Land. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 6:412. 1826. 

Anotlier seedling of Morrisania Pound, raised by Henr\- Brevoort Resembles its 
parent in shape and flavor, but ripens two weeks earlier. 
Brice Early, i. IT. A'. V. Hort. Soc. Rpi. 50. 1879. 2. Card. Mon. 25:272. 1883. 

Dr. S. M. Brice of Kansas originated this variety about 1S74; it is said to ri\-al other 
early, white clings. 

Briggs. I. Cole Am. Fr. Hook 193. 1S49. 2. Waugh Aui. Peach Orch. 199. 1913. 
3. Am. Pont. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Briggs' May. 4. Ibid. 28. 1877. 

Brigg's Early May. 5. ir. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113. 1S80. 

Rouge de Mai. 6. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 526. 1906. 

The name Briggs has been applied to three distinct varieties. This peach originated 
in Dedham, Massachusetts, many years ago. The American Pomological Society added 
it to its fruit-list in 1877 as Briggs' May, dropping it in 1891 but replacing it as Briggs 
in 1909. Tree hardy, reproducing itself closely from seed; fruit large, roundish-truncate, 
with a distinct suture; skin white, nearly covered with bright red; flesh white, tinged with 
red at the pit, juicy, with a rich, sweet, vinous flavor; quality good; pit free; season the 
first of September. 
Briggs Red May. i. Card. Mon. 18:145, 241. 1876. 2. Wickson Cal. Fruits 309. 1889. 

Briggs. 3. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:339, 340. 1903. 

This variety originated about 1870 as a chance seedling on the fann of John G. Briggs, 
near Yuba Cit}-, California. Fruit mediimi to large, round; skin white, with a rich red 
cheek; flesh greenish-white, melting, juicy, free; quality very good; season early. 
Bright. I. Can. Hort. 26:483. 1903. 

Charles E. Bright, Brampton, Canada, originated tliis variety about 1895. Fmit 
large, creamy-white; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; matures early in October. 
Brodie. i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 184. 1835. 

Fruit large, round, red in the sun; very juicy; clingstone. 
Bronough Cling, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 158. 1881. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:815. 1896. 

A very late variety with reniform glands. " Does not do well in Texas." 
Bronzee. i. Mas Patn. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Fruit not described in this reference. 
Brooks. I. Langley Pomona 104, PI. 31 fig. 3. 1729. 

Raised by Lord Brooks, Twickenham, Middlesex. England. Fruit large; flesh white 
to the stone, melting, juicy; freestone; ripens on a west wall about August 8th. 



320 THE PEACHES OP' NEW YORK 

Brown, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 170. 1882. 2. i'. S. D. A. Yearbook 273. 1903. 

This is a white-fl&shed seedling of Chili found by Orrin Brown, Berrien County, 
Michigan. Tree hardy, with the drooping habit of Chili. Fruit averages larger than 
Hale Early which it closely follows in ripening. 
Brown Choice, i. Black Cult. Peach & Pear 115. 1886. 

Brown Best. 2. Fulton Peach Cult. 177, 178. 1908. 

A large, white-fleshed variety ripening with Late Crawford. 
Brown Early, i. ir. A'. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 115. 1880. 

An early variety originated by W. L. Brown, Ashley, Illinois. 
Brown Nutmeg, i. Prince Pom. Man. 2:24, 25. 1832. 

This is a stray variety which has often been confused with Red Nutmeg but the two 
are distinct. Fruit much smaller than Red Nutmeg, somewhat oval, with a mamelon 
apex; skin yellowish, with considerable dingy red; flavor pleasant; ripens in July. 
Browns Friihpfirsich. i. StoU 0. U. Pom. PI. 52 fig. 4. 1888. 

A seedling of Hale Early ripening after it. Fruit globular, slightly compressed at 
the ends; skin woolly, whitish-yellow, spotted red where exposed; flesh white, adherent 
stone large for the size of fruit. 
Brunson. i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 79. 1889. 2. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:32, PI. 1910 

Brunson is a chance seedling found about 1880 by Rufus Brunson, Benton Harbor, 
Michigan. It is grown in Michigan but not as much as Kalamazoo which it closely 
resembles. On the Station grounds the trees are hardy, unproductive, large, with lower 
branches drooping. Glands reniform; flowers appear early, small; fruit large, cordate 
apex usually mamelon; skin tough, covered with short pubescence, lemon-yellow, splashed 
with dark, dull red on a lively blush giving it a bronze efifect; flesh yellow, firm, mild 
good; stone broadly oval, bulged near the apex, terminating in a long, sharp point; ripens 
the middle of September. 
Buck. 1. Wickson Cat. Fruits 318. 1889. 

A seedling grown by L. W. Buck, Vaca Vallej-, California; a good shipper. 
Buckeye, i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 4. 1855. 

A seedling from Clark County, Ohio, having pale yellowish-white flesh. It is 
inferior to Late Crawford and ripens ten days later. 
Buckinghamshire Minion, i. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. i:Pl. 23. 18 17. 

Skin thin; flesh red at the stone; ripens the middle of August. 
Bullard. i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 186. 1841. 

Originated with a Mr. Bullard, Framingham, Massachusetts. Fruit very large, 
round, deep yellow in the sun ; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet ; freestone ; ripens early in September. 
Bullard Cling, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 196. 1841. 

A large, round clingstone from Massachusetts. 
Bullmann Aprikosenpfirsich. i. Dochnahl Fuhr. Obstkunde 3:219. 1858. 

Leaves glandless; flowers small; fruit of mediimi size, somewhat oblate, faintly 
sutured; flesh yellow, sprightly; stone acutely pointed, free; ripens at the end of August. 
Buonaparte, i. Bridgeman Card. Ass't Ft. 3:105. 1857. 

A fine, early market variety introduced by Joseph Buonaparte, New Jersey. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 32 1 

Burchell Early, i. Loud. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 1831. 

Listed in this reference. 
Burdock, i. Langlej' Pomona 106, PL 33 fig. 2. 1729. 

Fruit large, blushed with vermilion-red; flesh firm, juicy; stone clinging; ripens on 
a south wall August 30th. 
Burford October Cling, i. Am. Poin. Soc. Rpt. 191. i86o. 

Reported as grown successfully in Mississippi. 
Burgess Beauty, i. Kenrick Am. Orcli. 183. 1841. 

A variety from Middletown, New Jersej-. Earlier, better, and more productive 
than Early York. 
Burke, i. Card. Mon. 27:79. 1886. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:92. 1901. 

Burke is of southern origin having come from Avo\-elles, Louisiana. The peaches 
ought to ship well as they are thick-skinned. On the Station grounds the fruit drops badly 
and lacks both color and quality. Tree vigorous, hardy, tmproductive; glands reniform; 
flowers appear iri mid-season, large; fruit large, oblong-oval, halves unequal, sides drawn 
up about the cavity, with a mucronate tip at the apex; skin thick, tough, covered with 
thick, coarse pubescence, creamy-yellow, with a slight blush of lively red; flesh white, 
stained at the pit, firm, juicy, tender, pleasing; quality fair; stone clinging, oval, pointed 
at the ends, plump on one side; ripens the first week in September. 
Burlington Large Early, i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 183 1. 

Listed in this reference. 
Bumap. I. Ramsey Cat. 3. 1912. 

This variety is described by F. T. Ramsey and Son, Austin, Texas, as a productive, 
white clingstone found by S. L. Bumap, Austin, Texas. 
Bums. I. Card. Mon. 20:273. 1878. 2. II'. A'. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 51. 1879. 

Bioms is claimed by its originator, T. F. Bums, Mt. Pulaski, Illinois, to ripen a month 
earlier than Alexander. 
Burrough. i. Del. Sta. Rpi. 5:97. 1892. 

Listed in this reference. 
Buski. I. Ariz. Sta. Bid. 15:67. 1895. 

Listed as ha\'ing been grown in Arizona. 
Bustian October, i. Card. Mon. 16:315. 1874. 2. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:233. 1898. 

Bustian October originated in Fayette County, Georgia. Ripens too late for the 
North. Tree spreading, dense; glands reniform; flowers conspicuous; frait large, sweet; 
clingstone; ripens the middle of October. 
Butler Late. i. A^. C. Sta. Rpi. 11:108. 1889. 2. Hood Cat. 30. 1905. 

Butler Late originated with J. T. Butler, Richmond, Virginia. The fruit on the 
Station grounds lacks in size and flavor. Tree hardy, not very productive; glands reniform; 
flowers appear in mid-season, small, margins deep pink; fruit medium in size, irregularly 
oval, angular; cavity shallow; suture extends nearly around the fruit, deepens near the 
apex; skin thin, tough, with thick pubescence, creamy-white, blushed with lively red, 
deepening to dark red; flesh white, rather dry, stringy, slightly sprightly; fair in quality; 



322 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

stone wedge-shape at the base, obovate, acutely pointed at the apex, semi-clinging; ripens 

the last of September. 

Butterpfirsich. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 391. 1889. 

Bcure. 2. Mas Le Verger 7:31, 32, fig. 14. 1866-73. 3- Carri^re Var. Peckers 
79. 1S67. 

Found in the village of Beure, Doubs, France. Tree productive; glandless; flowers 
small, deep red; fruit of medium size, halves unequal, depressed at the apex; cavity deep, 
narrow; skin marbled with deep red in the sun; flesh whitish, faintly red at the stone, 
melting, juicy, sugary; stone small, oval, nearly free; ripens August 15th. 
Buttram. i. Ramsey Cat. 8. 1909. 

F. T. Ramsey, Austin, Texas, introduced Buttram from Deaf Smith County, Texas. 
A large, yellow clingstone ripening in Texas about September 15th. 
C. Cling. I. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 15:288. 1897. 

Listed by this Station in 1897 ; received from the Farmers Nursery Company, Tadmar, 
Ohio. 
Cabin, i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 77. 1893. 

Exhibited at the World's Fair, 1893, as having been grown in Illinois. 
Cable. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Cable Late. 2. Elliott Fr. Book 282. 1854. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 602. 1869. 

Cable Late Malacatune. 4. Hooper W. Fr. Book 215. 1857. 

A seedling of Red Cheek Melocoton, raised by E. Cable, Cleveland, Ohio. Resembles 
Late Crawford but the fruit is larger and earlier. 
Cable Early, i. EUiott Fr. Book 291. 1854. 

One of E. Cable's seedlings; glands globose; fruit large, yellow, subacid; ripens in 
September. 
Cable Medium Melocoton. i. Elliott Fr. Book 291. 1854. 

A yellow variety with globose, glands; ripening in September. 
Cabler Indian, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 2. Glen St. Mary Nur. Cat. 11. 1900. 

Cabler Indian originated in Texas. In 1891 it appeared on the fruit-list of the 
American Pomological Society where it remained about ten years. Fruit large; flesh 
purpHsh, rich, subacid; clingstone; ripens in Florida July 15th. 
California, i. Wickson Cal. Fruits 316. 1889. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

California originated in Sacramento, California; it is highly prized in its native state. 
It was entered on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Fruit 
large, round, orange-yellow, largely blushed with dark red; flavor delicate, rich, vinous; 
clingstone. 
Callie ScafE. i. Card. Mon. 20:237. 1878. 

A seedling of Early York from J. D. Scaff, Water ^'^alley, Kentucky. It is an early 
sort, said to excel Amsden. 
Calloway Cling, i. Card. Mon. 24:83, 148. 1882. 

Calaway. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:815. 1896. 

Introduced about 1875 by G. W. Stoner, Shrevesport, Louisiana. Remarkable for 
the size, quality, and lateness of the peaches. 



THIi PEACHES OF NEW YORK 323 

Camak Serrate, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 186. 1858. 

Camak Red Twigged. 2. Mag. Hort. 15:501, 502. 1849. 

This variety is grown more for its tree than for its fniit. The tree has vermilion- 
colored twigs in winter and golden foliage in summer. Fruit large, oval; suture distinct; 
apex noticeably mamelon; flesh yellow, juicy; flavor reminding one of an unripe pineapple; 
season very late. 
Cambria. 1. Brookshaw Hort. Reposit. 2:197, f- 103. 1823. 

Canibray. 2. Ixmd. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 1831. 

Cambria is a poor table-fruit but is one of the best for preserving. Leaves coarsely 
serrated; flowers large; fruit pale greenish-white, blushed; ripens the last of September. 
Cambridge Belle, i. Elliott Fr. .Boofe 282. 1854. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. -ji. 1862. 

Hovey Cambridge Belle. 3. Mag. Hort. 13:114. 1847. 

Cambridge Belle held a place on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society 
from 1862 until 1869. Fruit large, roundish, clear waxen, tinted where exposed; ripens 
early in September. 
Camden Superb, i. Mo. State Fr. Sta. Rpt. i:ii. 1901. 

Listed but not described. 
Camelia. i. Rural N. Y. 62:533. 1903. 

Camelia originated on the farm of a Mr. Wright, Randolph County, North Carolina. 
It is verj' similar to Carman. 
Campbell, i. Ala. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 106. 1908. 

Campbell is a strain of Chinese Cling raised by Judge Campbell, Pensacola, Florida. 
It is too tender for commercial purposes. 

Canary, i. Elliott Fr. i?oo^ 291. 1854. 2. Hogg FrmV Ma«. 215, 216. 1S66. 3. Down- 
ing Fr. Trees Am. 602. 1869. 

Canary takes its name from the peculiar coloring of its fruit; it is of American 
origin. Glands globose; flowers small; fruit medium in size, roundish-oblong; skin thin, 
bright yellow flesh melting, juicy, rich; stone free; ripens in the North in August. 
Canner Choice, i. Tex. Nur. Cat. $. 1913. 

Mentioned by the Texas Nursery Comjmny, Sherman, Texas, as a white clingstone, 
ripening in July. 
Cannon, i. Peachland Nur. Cat. ii. 1892. 

This variety, according to the Peachland Nurseries, Seaford, Delaware, is grown in 
Bridge\411e, Delaware, where it originated with H. P. Cannon. Tree vigorous, productive: 
fruit large, yellow; ripens late. 
Caper, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 164. 1899. 

Recommended for Delaware. 
Capital. I. U. S. D. A. Potn. Rpt. 25. 1894. 

Fruit above medium to large, roundish; cavity broad and deep; suture deep at the 
cavity; with a mamelon tip at the apex; skin velvety, thin, tenacious, yellow, with a 
slight blush; flesh lemon-yellow, stained at the stone, firm but tender, sprightly; quality 
very good; stone very small, oval, free; ripens the first of October. 



324 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Capps. I. Capps Bros. Cat. 1908. 

Capps was raised and introduced by Capps Brothers, Mt. Pulaski, Illinois, about 
1902. At this Station the trees are unproductive. Tree low, open; leaves large, with 
both globose and reniform glands; flowers appear in mid-season; fruit large, roundish-oval, 
halves unequal; cavity deep, wide; skin tough, covered with a thick, coarse pubescence, 
golden yellow, usually blushed with lively red; flesh yellow, stained at the pit, fine, tender, 
pleasing when fully ripe; quality variable; stone large, oval, pliimp, flattened and pointed 
at the base, with numerous pittings, free ; ripens the middle of September. 
Cardinale. i. Duhamel TrazV. >lr6. Fr. 2:43, PI. 31. 1768. 2. Christ Worterb. s 49- 1802. 
3. Prince Pom. Man. 1:199. 183 1. 4. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:82 fig., 83. 1879. 

Grosse Blutpflrsche. 5. Christ Handb. 595, 596. 181 7. 

Sanguine Cardinale. 6. Carri^re Var. Packers 65. 1867. 

According to Duhamel, this is a sub-variety of Sanguinole which it surpasses. It 
was brought to America by W. R. Prince as a curiosity. The flesh is dark purple; the 
quality is poor. In warmer climates, it does much better than here and is esteemed for 
preserves and compotes; ripens in October. 
Carey Mammoth Cling. 1. Horticulturist 2:400. 1847-48. 

This variety is not large as the name would indicate. Glands globose; flowers small; 
fruit oval; flesh white and well-flavored; ripens the last of September. 
Carl Late. i. Pa. Dept. Agr. Rpt. 149. 1895. 

Listed as having been grown in the Juniata peach-belt, Blair County, Pennsylvania. 
Carl Wredow. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 391. 1889. 

Listed but not described. 
Carlisle, i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 1:19. 1894. 2. Brown Bros. Cat. 32. 1900. 

A hardy, vigorous and productive peach originating in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada. 
Fruit with thin skin, considerably blushed; flesh deep yellow, firm, aromatic; pit small; 
ripens after Early Crawford. 
Carmine, i. Elliott Fr. Book 294. 1859. 

Carmine is a freestone peach of American origin, with reniform glands and small 
flowers. Fruit large, oblong, reddish, with sweet, juicy flesh; ripens in August. 
Carnation, i. Parkinson Par. Ter. 580. 1629. 

" The Carnation Peach is of three sorts, two are round, and the third long; they are 
all of a whitish colour, shadowed over with red, and more red on the side is next the simne ; 
the lesser round is the more common, and the later ripe." 
Caroline Beauty, i. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 12:612. 1893. 2. Hood Cat. 30. 1905. 

A white-fleshed clingstone from Caroline County, Virginia, where it is largely used 
for preserves. It matures on the Station grounds early in October. 
Caroline Incomparable, i. Carriere Var. Peckers 43. 1867. 

Tree vigorous; glands reniform; flowers small, pale rose; fruit large, irregular in 
outline, conical, mamelon at the apex; skin orange-j'ellow, blushed and marbled with 
deep red; flesh stained at the pit, firm, fibrous, sugar}', juicy; stone clinging, acutely oval; 
ripens the first of September. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 325 

Carolinen Hartling. 1. Mels Potn. Gcii. 12: iSs- 1883. 

Lisleil in this reference. 
Carpenter, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Carpenter Cling. 2. Ibid. 44. 1891. 3. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:91, 92. 1901. 

Carpenter is a seedling of Chinese Cling which originated with a Mr. Carpenter of 
Texas. It was put on the American Pomological Society's list of fruits in 1891 as Carpenter 
Cling, but was dropped in 1S97, reappearing in 1909 as Carpenter. Fruit large, white- 
fleshed, clingstone; ripens July 15th. 
Carpenter Red Rareripe, i. Hooper W. Fr. Book 215. 1857. 

Best known about Frankfort, Kentucky. Glands reniform; flowers small; fruit 
roundish, of medium size; flesh white, stained at the pit, melting, juicy; quahty fair; free- 
stone; ripens in September. 
Carpenter White, i. Downing Fr. Trees Aw. 609. 1857. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. jS. 1862. 

Carpenter Late. 3. Kan. Hort. Soc. Peach, The 139. 1899. 

William S. Carpenter, New York City, introduced this variety. It held a place on 
the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society from 1862 until 1869. Tree vigorous, 
productive; glands globose; fruit very large, round, white; flesh white to the pit, juicy, 
melting, separating from the stone, of excellent flavor; matiires the middle of October. 
Carroll Late. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Listed as growing at the Delaware Station. 
Carson, i. Berckmans Cat. 11. 1912-13. 

Carson came from Hancock County, Georgia, according to the catalog of P. J. 
Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia. Tree productive; fruit above medium in size; skin pale 
yellow, totally overspread with light carmine; flesh white, juicy, vinous; stone adherent; 
ripens late in July in Georgia. 
Carter Large, i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 7. 1857. 

A seedling from Pennsylvania, resembling Oldmixon Free. Tree hardy, proauctive; 
flowers large; valuable as a market sort. 
Caruth Late. i. J. S. Kerr Cat. 5. 1898. 

Caruth Late was introduced by J. S. Kerr, Sherman, Texas. The variety is very 
prolific, bright yellow, and a freestone. 

Catharine, i. Langley Pomona 107, PI. 33 fig. 6. 1729. 2. Pom. Mag. 1:9, PI. 1828. 
3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 

Catharinen-Lackpfirsich. 4. Dochnahl Ftihr. Obstkunde 3:216. 1858. 

This is an old variety long grown in England and France, in the latter country as 
La Belle Catharine. The fruit is sinailar to Incomparable but higher in flavor. It 
was placed on the list of fruits of the American Pomological Society in 1875 where it 
remained until 1897. Leaves crenate, with reniform glands; flowers small, reddish; fruit 
large, roundish, siirface uneven; color pale yellow, marbled with red; flesh white, strongly 
red at the pit, very firm, juicy ; stone chnging, roundish-oval ; ripens the last of September. 
Catline. i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 183 1. 

Leaves with globose glands; flowers small; fruit of mediimi size, pale yellow, blushed; 
stone adherent; ripens late in September. 



326 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Cecile. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

Glands rcnifoiTn; flowers small. 
Cecile Mignonne. i. Thomas Gtiide Prat. 53. 1876. 2. Leroy Dia. Pom. 6:85, 86 
fig. 1879. 

A seedlinj^ raised by Charles Buisson, Grenoble, Is6re, France. Tree productive, 
glands small, globose; flowers large, pink; fruit above medium in size, irregularly ovoid; 
skin tender, finely pubescent, yellowish-white, streaked and spotted with carmine; flesh 
white, faintly tinged at the stone, melting, juicy, sugary; of first quality; stone ovoid, 
free; matiu-es early in August. 
Celestin Port. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:86, 87 fig. 1879. 

A variety named after Cdestin Port, Angers, Maine-et-Loire, Prance, about 1870 
Tree productive; glands very small, globose; flowers of medium size, deep pink; fruit 
large, globular, flattened at the ends; suture narrow; skin thick, tough, heavily pubescent, 
greenish-yellow, with a dull red blush; flesh white, firm but melting, stained at the stone, 
very juicy, vinous; stone large, roundish-oval, free; matures early in Augiist. 
Centennial, i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 1:22. 1894. 2. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 1:13. 
1898. 

Centennial is a strong, round-topped grower; fruit large and late. 
Chalmer Yellow Free. i. Mo. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 178. 1903. 

A variety grown in Illinois, said to be earlier, larger, and better than Elberta It 
reproduces itself from seed. 

Champion (of Michigan), i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 143:187. 1897. 2. U. S. D. A. Yearbook 
479. 1908. 

This is an early variety which originated with Eugene Gibson in western Michigan 
and was introduced by him about 1887. The variety was subject to mildew and the 
fruit proved to be of so little value that the sort was soon dropped from cultivation. The 
leaves are serrate and the stone clings. Although ver>' different from the well-known 
Champion of Illinois, it was at first sold for the latter, much to the disappointment of 
buyers. 

Chancellor, i. Miller Card. Diet. No. 14. 1752. 2. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. i:Pl. 30 
fig. I. 1817. 3. 'LindleY Guide Orch. Gard. 255, 256. 1831. 4. Leroy Diet. Pom. 
6:88 fig., 89. 1879. 

Stewards Late Galande. 5. Loiid. Hort. Soe. Cat. 97. 1831. 

English Chanecllor. 6. Prince Pom. Man. 1:188, 189. 1831. 

KleinblUhender Kanzlerpfirsich. 7. Dochnahl FHhr. Obstkunde 3:214. 1858. 

This peach was named after Chancellor Pierre Seguier, Paris, France, in whose garden 
it grew about 1670. Leaves crenate, with reniform glands; flowers small, reddish; fruit 
large, oval, distinctly sutured; skin pale yellow, mottled with dark crimson; flesh yellowish- 
white, stained at the pit, juicy, melting; stone oblong, tapering, free; ripens the middle 
of September. 
Chapman, i. Little Price List 2. 1897. 

Chapman resembles Late Crawford of which it is a ueedling. Introduced by 
W. R. Little and Company, Rochester, New York. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 327 

Charles Ingouf. i. Rcik Hort. 113. 1906. 

Named after Charles Ingouf, a nephew of the pomologist, Charles Baltet, Troyes, 
France, in whose nursery this seedling was found. Fruit large, early, blushed with carmine 
on a creamy ground; ripens between Amsden and Hale Early. 
Charles Ronge. i. Mas Lc Verger 7:81, 82, fig. 39. 1866-73. 

Charles Rongc was introduced by a M. Galopin, Liege, Belgium. Glands small, 
globose; flowers of medium size; fruit large, spherical, compressed at the ends; noticeably 
sutiored; skin tender, covered with short pubescence, pale green, blushed with intense 
carmine; flesh white to the pit, melting, sugary; first quality; stone .small for the size of 
fmit, ovoid, semi-free; ripens early in August. 
Chas. Wood. i. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 404. 1894. 

Grown in Canada. 
Charlotte, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 2. Waugh Am. Peach Orch. 200. 1913. 

Charlotte should not be confused with the yellow-fleshed Early Charlotte. This 
variety is said to have originated in Europe and is a large, oval, white-fleshed freestone, 
ripening in early mid-season; it was added to the American Pomological Society's fruit- 
list in 1909. 
Chartreux. i. Carri^re Var. Peckers 67, 68. 1867. 

Chartreux was obtained from seed of either Brugnon Musque or Brugnon des 
Chartreux, planted in 1859. Tree vigorous; glands reniform; flowers very small; fruit 
medium to large, roundish, depressed; skin very pubescent, j^ellowish, streaked with dark 
red; flesh greenish-white, red at the pit; stone free, oval, roundish at the base; ripens the 
last of August. 
Chase Early, i. R. G. Chase Cat. 19, PI. 1900. 

Chase Early is a seedling of Mountain Rose according to R. G. Chase, Geneva, New 
York. On the Station grounds the fruit ripens with Elberta. Leaves large, with small, 
globose glands; flowers small, dark pink at the edge of the petals; frmt large, roundish- 
oblate; skin tough, thick, creamy-white, with a lively red blush and a few dull splashes; 
flesh white except at the pit, melting, juicy, sprightly; ?|uality good; stone oval. 
Chazotte. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 41. 1876. 

Chazottc is productive, vigorous; glands reniform; fruit very large, irregular in outline; 
flesh red at the pit, melting, juicy; ripens at the end of September. 
Chelcie Cling, i. Cult. & Count. Gent. 47:513. 1882. 

This variety, which reproduces itself from seed, is a seedling of Oldmixon Cling. 
Cherokee, i. Mo. State Fr. Sta. Rpt. 12. 1905-06. 

Fruit a straw-yellow color with a brownish-red blush; semi-free; ripens the latter 
part of July. 

Cherry Peach, i. Parkinson Par. Tcr. 582. 1629. 2. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 30. 
1803. 

Peche Cerise. 3. Duliamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:25, 26, PI. 15. 1768. 4. Poiteau Pom. 
Franc. i:No. 38, PI. 1846. 

Kirschpfirsche. 5. Christ Handb. 602, 603. 18 17. 

Fruit small, roundish, with a deep suture and a large, pointed apex; skin the color 



328 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

of wax, with a cherry-red blush, sometimes with very fine pubescence; flesh citron-yellow, 
line, melting, rather insipid; ripens the first of September. 
Chevreuse. i. Langley Pomona io6, PI. 33 fig. i. 1729. 

Belle Chevreuse. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:22, 2,5. 1768. 3. Poiteau Pom. 
Franc. i:No. 30, PI. 1846. 

Schone Perumanische. 4. Liegel Anweisung 69. 1822. 

Schoner peruanischer Lackpfirsich. 5. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:213. 1858. 

Chevreuse Hdtive. 6. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:91, 92 fig., 93. 1879. 

Chevreuse is an old French sort, Nicolas de Bonnefond having mentioned it in 1665. 
In 1 768 Duhamel failed to recognize the presence of the glands, thus causing some confusion 
between this and the variety he describes as Chevreuse Hdtive. Leaves crenate, witli 
•reniform glands; flowers medium in size; fruit of medium size, elongated; skin greenish- 
white, marbled and streaked in the sun; flesh white except beneath the blush and at the 
stone, melting, sweet, agreeable; stone free, large; ripens early in September. 
Chevreuse Clingstone, i. Prince Pom. Man. 2:33. 1832. 

A variety received by W. R. Prince from the Mediterranean region. Fruit of good 
size, oval, greenish-yellow; ripens at the end of September. 
Chevreuse a Feuilles Cloquees. i. CarriSre Var. Pechers 53. 1867. 

Freestone. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Although resembling Late Purple, this variety is distinct. Tree vigorous; glands 
reniform; flowers very small, deep pink; fruit large, irregular in outline; skin heavily 
pubescent, tender, deep red on a yellow groimd; flesh white except at the stone, melting, 
juicy; stone elliptical, free; ripens late in August. 

Chevreuse Hative. i. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:21, 22. 1768. 2. Poiteau Pom. 
Franc. i:No. 31, PI. 1S46. 

Fruhe Peruvianerin . 3. Liegel Syst. Anleit. 179. 1825. 

FrAher peruanischer Lackpfirsich. 4. Dochnahl FUhr. Obstkunde 3:212. 1858. 

Chevreuse Hative, although very similar to Chevreuse, is here listed separately. Some 
authors, including Christ and L5roy, combine the two varieties. The Chevreuse H4tive 
ripens from the middle of August to the beginning of September. 

Chevreuse Tardive, i. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:24, 25, PI. XIV. 1768. 2. Prince 
Pom. Man. 1:178. 1831. 3. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:93, 94 fig., 95. 1879. 

Spater peruanischer Lackpfirsich. 4. Dochnahl Fuhr. Obstkunde 3:212. 1858. 

This peach is often called Pourpr6e because of its color but it should not be confused 
with the old Late Purple. Tree vigorous, productive; glands reniform; flowers small, 
rose-colored; fruit large, roundish, often compressed; sutiire distinct, deep; with a mamelon 
tip at apex; skin thick, pale yellow, spotted and washed with reddish-purple; flesh white 
except about the pit, melting, fibrous, juicy, sweet, pleasing; stone elongated, free; matures 
at the end of September. 
Chick Early Cling, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1873. 

This variety originated with I. W. & R. S. Chick, Newberr\', South Carolina. Flesh 
white, vinous, juicy; ripens with Tillotson or before. 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 329 

Chili No. 2. I. Mich. Sta. Bui. 104:88, 91. 1894. 2. Ibid. 169:210. 1899. 

Engle-Chili. 3. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:40 fig., 41. 1910. 

This is a seedling of Chili raised by C. C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. Tree vigorous, 
spreading, productive; flowers small; fruit large, roundish-oval; cavity deep; apex promi- 
nent; skin thick, j-ellow, with a bright red cheek; flesh yellow, red at the pit, fine-grained, 
moderately juicy, tender, mild but rich; quality good; stone long, oval, pointed, free; 
season the last of September. 
Chili No. 3. 1. Mich. Sta. Btd. 104:8s, gi. 1894. 2. Ibid. 169:210. 1899. 

This is another seedling of the same origin as Chili No. 2. Tree moderately strong, 
spreading; flowers small or mediimi; fruit medium in size, roundish, slightly oblong, 
compressed; suture indistinct; apex not prominent; skin yellow, with a dark red cheek; 
flesh yellow, slightly red at the pit, moderately juicy, tender, mild, sweet; quality faii^to 
good; pit large, oval, pointed, free; season the last of September. 
Chilian, i. Elliott Fr. Book 291. 1854. 

This is an American peach of unknown origin. Fruit of meditmi size, yellowish- 
white, with a red cheek, lacking in flavor; freestone; season September. 
Chilow. I. Ramsey Cat. 9. 1909. 

According to F. T. Ramsey and Son, Austin, Texas, Chilow is a yellow-fleshed seedling 
of Chinese Cling, which ripens at this Station the latter part of September. Tree vigorous, 
moderately productive; glands reniform; flowers appearing in mid-season, large, showy; 
fruit medium in size, oblong-oval; suture deeper at the cavity, extending beyond the 
apex; skin thin, tender, with coarse pubescence, lemon-yellow, with a faint, dull blush 
near the cavity; flesh yellow, tinged at the pit, coarse, meaty, juicy, mild; fair in quality; 
stone below medium in size, oval, flattened, clinging. 
Chilson. I. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 44:33. 1910. 

N. and C. Chilson, Battle Creek, Michigan, first exhibited this peach in 1870. Described 
as a yellow-fleshed clingstone, of medium size. 
Chinese Blood, i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:816. 1896. 

Chinese Blood is of unknown origin; the fruit resembles Chinese Cling in flavor. 
Tree vigorous, moderately productive ; fruit small, ovate, with an acute apex; color yellowish- 
green, with a red blush; flesh clinging, moderately sweet, with a pleasant, vinous flavor; 
ripens in Texas the first of July. 
Chinese Crooked, i. Fulton Peach Cult. 202. 1908. 

A variety of unknown origin; so named because of its crooked fruits. The seed from 
which it sprang is supposed to have been brought from China. The fruit is very sweet 
but so small and unattractive as to be worthless. Grown under glass as dwarf trees, the 
variety fonns an attractive ornamental. 
Chinese Peach, i. Card. & For. 5:438, 439, fig. 72. 1892. 

Peach-pits were sent to Charles S. Sargent, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, 
Massachusetts, in 1879 from China and from one of these grew this peach. The tree is 
very vigorous and hardy. The fruit has a thick skin, white, juicy flesh ; is of good quality- 
and a freestone. Sargent behoves the variety may be valuable in breeding a new race 
of exceptionally hardy peaches. 



330 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Chisolm. I. Tex. Nur. Cat. 4. 1913. 

The Texas Nvirsery Company, Shennan, Texas, describes this variety as a yellow 
freestone grown by W. H. Chisolm, Grayson County, Texas; it ripens after Elberta. 
Christiana, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 603. 1869. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:810. 1896. 
3. Md. Sta. Bui. 159:155- 1911- 

Downing speaks of a white-fleshed Christiana from Pomaria, South Carolina. Other 
pomologists say it has yellow flesh. On the Station grounds the tree is vigorous and 
only moderately productive. Glands small, globose; flowers appear in mid-season, small; 
petals edged with a deep pink; fruit large, roundish-oval, with a beaked apex, angular; 
cavity deep; suture shallow; skin tough, covered with fine pubescence, golden-yellow, washed 
with deep red and with a few splashes; flesh light yellow, tinged with red about the pit. 
jv»cy, firm, stringy, sprightly; quality good; stone free, large, ovate, pltimp; matures the 
third week in September. 
Christmas Seedling, i. N Y. Sta. Rpt. 12:612. 1893. 

Received at this Station in 1893 from Warren Hartle, Covington, Ohio. 
Citry a Fruit Blanc, i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 392. 1889. 

Listed in this reference. 
Clara, i. Fla. Sta. Bui. 62:511, 512. 1902. 

Clara is a seedling of Waldo raised by T. K. Godbey, Waldo, Florida. Fruit large, 
roundish-oblong; suture nearly lacking; apex rormded, oblique, with a very small tip; 
skin velvety, yellowish-red in the sun; flesh firm, white, melting, juicy, with a slight 
almond flavor; quality very good; stone large, oval, pointed, free; ripens early. 
Clara Mayer, i. Guide Prat. 43. 1895. 

Tree productive; glands reniform; flowers double; fruit large, roundish-oval; skin 
greenish-yellow, faintly blushed where exposed; flesh greenish-yellow, juicy; freestone; 
an ornamental. 
Clarissa, i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:811. 1896. 

Clarissa seems to be well thought of in Texas, where it originated, but at Geneva it 
is unproductive; fruit of good quality. Glands large, reniform; flowers appear in mid- 
season, small; petals edged with dark pink; fruit above medium in size, oval-cordate, 
halves unequal, bulged at the apex; skin tough, covered with short, thick pubescence, 
golden-yellow mingled with lively red which deepens on the exposed side; flesh yellow, 
stained at the pit, juicy, rather coarse and stringy, sweet, pleasing; stone below meditun in 
size, oval, drawn in about the base, plimip, semi-free; ripens the second half of September. 
Clark Early, i. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 257. 1854. 

Originated with Lewis Clark, St. Louis, Missouri. Said to be one of the earliest to 
ripen. Tree a slow grower, productive; fruit small, of rich flavor. 
Clarke, i. Cole Am. Fr. Book 194. 1849. 

Clarke originated with A. Clarke, Sherburne, New York; fruit very large, rovmdish. 
yellow, blushed with red; flesh yellow except at the stone, juicy, sugary, aromatic; ripens 
September loth. 
Claudine Willermoz. i. Mathieu Nom. Pom. 392. 1889. 

Listed in this reference. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 33 1 

Cleffey Allen, i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 1:20. 1894. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:210. 1899. 

Tree strong, upright, fairly productive; glands renifonn; (lowers small; fruit medium 
to large, roundish, with a broad, deep cavity; suture indistinct; skin strongly pubescent, 
yello\\-, blushed with brownish-red; flesh juicy, tender, mild, not rich; quality good; pit 
oval, ijlump, pointed, free; ripens the middle of September. 

Clemence Isaure. i. Mas Le Verger 7:47, 48, fig. 22. 1866-73. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 
6:96, 97 fig. 1879 

Barthi^re Brothers, Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France, first fruited this variety in 
1854. Later it was named in honor of Cl<^mence Isaure. Glands globose; flowers small, 
with an intense rose-color; fruit large, globular, halves unequal, with a mamelon tip at the 
apex; suture distinct; skin tender, whitish-yellow, washed with carmine; flesh yellow, 
stained at the pit, melting, juicy, sugary; stone free, large, roundish-oval, plump; matuues 
early in September. 
Cleveland I. i. Peaehland Nnr. Cat. 11. 1892. 

Said to have originated at Salisbury, Maryland. The fruit excels Fox with which it 
ripens, according to the catalog of the Peaehland Nurseries, Seaford, Delaware. 
Cleveland n. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:95. 1901. 

Cleveland is a seedling raised and introduced by J- F- Lyendeckcr, Frelsburg, Texas, 
about 1 88 1. The tree came up between Thurber and Onderdonk trees; it was named 
after President Cleveland. Fruit large, cream-colored; clingstone; ripens with Honey. 
Clifton Cling, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 152:196. 1898. 2. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:234. 1898. 

Tree low and spreading in growth, vigorous; leaves small; glands reniform; fruit green- 
ish-yellow, faintly blushed with carmine; flesh greenish-yellow, red at the pit, granular, 
subacid; quality poor; ripens in Georgia the middle of August; very subject to rot. 
Clifton Park. i. Wiley Cat. 16. 1899. 2. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 30:14. 1905. 

William Palmer, Saratoga County, New York, first exhibited this seedling at the 
State Fair in 1897. The trees at this Station are not productive. Tree hardy, vigorous; 
glands renifonn; flowers appear early, large, show>', pale pink; fruit of medium size, roundish- 
oval, bulged near the apex; suture shallow; skin thin, with short, thick pubescence, pale 
yellow, blushed with dark, dull red; flesh white, tinged at the pit, juicy, stringy, pleasing, 
sweet; quality good; stone with a slight clinging tendency, above mediimi in size, plimip; 
ripens the second week in August. 
Clingman May. i. La. Sta. Bid. 27:942. 1894. 2. Ibid. 112:30. 1908. 

A large, white-fleshed clingstone; early but not very desirable. 
Clinton, i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 473. 1845. 

An American variety of second quality. Glands globose; fruit medium in size, round- 
ish; suture nearly lacking; skin pale yellowish-white, striped with dull red; flesh scarcely 
stained at the stone, juicy; ripens the last of August. 
Cobb Mignonne. i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 99. 1831. 

Listed in the reference as having globose glands. 
Cobbler, i. Okla. Sta. Rpt. 61. 1898-99. 2. Harrison Cat. 20. 1904. 

Yelloiu Cobbler. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 1881. 

From Grayson County, Texas. Large, yellow, freestone, ripening witli Smock. 



332 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Coe Golden Cling, i. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 3:64. 1900. 

A strong grower but does not ripen its fruit in Canada. 
Coggin Early, i. Ala. Sta. Bui. 11:7. 1890. 

Flowers larj^e; fruit medium in size; flesh white, firm, semi-clinging; matures early in 
June. 
Coigneau. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:97, 98 fig. 1879. 

Originated by P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia, but not described by American 
writers. Leaves with large, reniform glands; flowers small, with an intense rose-color; 
fruit of medium size, irregularly globular; suture distinct; skin thick, yellow, washed and 
striped with carmine; flesh orange-yellow, red at the pit, fibrous, melting, juicy, resembles an 
apricot in flavor; stone small, plump, free; ripens early in August. 
Cole. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Cole Early. 2. Ibid. 32. 1887. 

Cole Early Red. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 473. 1845, 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 
1862. 

Cole appeared on the fruit-list of the American Poxnological Society in 1862 as Cole 
Early Red but was dropped in 1891. Glands globose; flowers small; fruit of medium size, 
roundish; skin almost entirely overlaid with red; flesh white, melting, very sprightly; free- 
stone; ripens early in August. 
Cole Large Yellow, i. Card. Chron. 1251. 1864. 

Listed as an undesirable variety introduced into England from America. 
Cole White, i. Carri^re Var. Peckers 55, 56. 1867. 

According to Carriere this variety is distinct from Cole White Melocoion. Tree 
vigorous; flowers very small; glands reniform; fruit large, roundish, with a slight suture; 
skin yellowish-white, with a purplish-red blush; flesh yellowish-white, slightly stained 
with red at the pit, tender yet firm, juicy, very sweet; quality good; stone oval, free; ripens 
in France the first of September. 
Cole White Melocoton. i. Thomas Am. Fruit Cidt. 299. 1849. 

This peach is thought by most pomologists to be identical with IVlorris White but 
according to T. Hancock, in the American Fruit Culturist, it is distinc';, the peaches being 
larger, heavier, rounder and ripening two weeks later than Morris White. 
Coleman, i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:804. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Coleman is a variety of the Honey type originated by Thomas Coleman, Rockpori. 
Texas. It appeared on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Tree 
vigorous, productive; glands both reniform and round; fruit medium in size, ovate, cream- 
colored, with a red cheek; flesh white, sweet; freestone; ripens with Clima.\. 
Colerane. i. Rea Flora 211. 1676. 

" Colerane peach is a good red peach." 
Colmar. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:179. 18S3. 

Listed in this reference. 
Colon. I. Glen St. Mary Niir. Cat. 11. 1900. 2. Fla. Sta. Bui. 73:143. 1904. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

This is a seedling of Honey which was originated by G. L. Taber, Glen Saint Mary, 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 333 

Florida, about 1892. Fruit large, roundish-oblong; suture distinct; skin thin, tender, 
finely pubescent; flesh white, streaked with red at the stone, juicy, spicy, subacid; quality 
\'cry good; stone large, elliptical, sharply pointed, free; ripens in Florida the last of June. 
Colonel Ansley. i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 93. 1831. 

Resembles Harrington, the two being listed as the same by some writers. 
Colonel McFarland. 1. Card. Mon. 24:338. 1882. 

A seedling of Late Crawford originating in 1874 near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Tree 
strong, vigorous, spreading; fruit large, yellow, with a red cheek; flesh juicy, rich, high 
in quality; freestone; ripens the middle of October. 
Colonel Tom Ruff in. i. Van Lindley Cat. 16. 1892. 

An early, white-fleshed clingstone, ripening about July 20th, according to the catalog 
of the J. Van Lindley Company, Pomona, North Carolina. 

Columbia, i. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 226, fig. 10. 1817. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:19, 20. 
1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 491. 1845. 4. Hooper W. Fr. Book 216, 217. 
1857. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 6. Am. Jour. Hort. 3:343. 1868. 
7. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:99 fig., 100. 1879. 

Virginia. 8. Mo. Bd. Agr. Rpt. 1:411. 1865. 

This singular peach was raised more than a century ago by William Coxe from a pit 
brought to New Jersey from Georgia. While it reproduces itself from seed with consider- 
able exactness, most of the seedlings show variations in shape and color. Nurserymen 
have, therefore, grown many different types but all having the general characteristics of 
the original fruit. The American Pomological Society placed Columbia in its fruit-list 
in 1862 where it has since remained. Tree moderately hardy and productive; glands reni- 
form; fruit large, roimd, broad and considerably depressed, with a distinct suture; skin 
rough, thick, dingy red, sprinkled with spots and streaks of darker red; flesh yellow, often 
with a red streak next the skin, rich, juicy, melting, with the texture of a very ripe pine- 
apple; quality good; freestone; season the last of September. 
Columbus June. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 610. 1857. 

Fruit medium to large, flattened, with a shallow suture; skin pale yellowish-white, with 
a rich red cheek; flesh red at the pit, melting, juicy, pleasant-flavored; good; stone free; 
ripens in the South the middle of June. 

Comet. I. Mag. Hort. 29:52. 1863. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 216. 1866. 3. Tex. Sta. 
Bui. 39:811. 1896. 

Comet was raised from a pit of Salwey by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, 
fruiting for the first time in 1857, when the great comet of that year was in its zenith. 
Glands reniform; flowers small; fruit roundish; skin yellow, with a crimson cheek; flesh 
yellow, melting, jviicy; stone free; matxires early in October. 
Cornice d' Angers, i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:100 fig., loi. 1879. 

Jautie du Cornice. 2. Mas Le Verger 7:195, 196, fig. 96. 1866-73. 

Hdtive de Gascogne. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 52, 219. 1876. 

Madeleine du Cornice. 4. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:186. 1883. 

This variety, received from Angers, France, is grown commercially in that locality. 
Glands both reniform and globose; flowers small, with deep rose-color; fruit large, spherical. 



334 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

ending in a mamelon tip at the apex; suture distinct; skin tender, heavily pubescent, yellow, 
marbled and striped with purple on a deep carmine blush; flesh stained at the pit, melting, 
very juicy, sprightly; stone free, large, plump; ripens at the end of August. 
Cornice de Bourbourg. i. Brehaut Peach Pruner 173. 1866. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 
6: loi, 102 fig. 1879. 

A seedling from Bourbourg, Nord, France, first fruiting about 1850. Glands small, 
both reniform and globose; flowers of meditun size; fruit large, roimdish-oval, distinctly 
sutured; skin tender, light yellow, streaked with carmine; flesh white, melting, juicy, tinged 
about the pit, sprightly; stone free; ripens the middle of September. 
Compton Pure Gold. i. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 77. 1893. 

Exhibited from Illinois at the World's Fair, in. 1893. 
Comte d'Ansembourg. i. Mas, Pom. Gevi. 12:186. 1883. 

Listed in this reference. 
Comte de Neperg. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Listed in this reference. 
Comtesse de Hainaut. i. Ann. Pom. Beige 6:79, 80, PI. 1858. 

Of Belgian origin, being a seedling of Early Purple found near the Royal Chateau 
at Laeken. Flowers large; fruit large, roundish; suture distinct but not deep; skin clear 
yellow; flesh yellowish-white except at the pit; stone large, free; ripens the first half of 
September. 

Comtesse de Montijo. i. Thomas Gidde Prat. 53. 1876. 2. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 
524. 1906. 

Obtained about 1848 by a gardener, Gauthier, in Paris, France. Tree vigorous, pro- 
ductive; glands very small, globose; flowers of medium size; fruit large, roundish; skin 
creamy-white, with a blush, often streaked; flesh melting, sprightly; ripens the middle of 
September. 
Con Cling, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 26. 1873. 

Con Cling appeared on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society from 1873 
until 1883 without a description. Recommended for Oregon. 

Condor, i. Jour. Hort. N. S. 28:470. 1875. 2. Lauche Erganzung'iband 701 fig., 702. 
1883. 

A large and beautiful seedling of Early Silver. Tree vigorous, productive; glands 
reniform; flowers of medium size; fruit very large, globular, halves equal, distinctly sutured; 
skin greenish-yellow, blushed with pale red; flesh white, tinged at the stone, juicy, melting; 
stone oval, truncate at the base; ripens in August. 

Congress, i. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 17. 1820. 2. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 1831. 
3. Prince Povn. Man. 2:27. 1832. 4. Carri^re Var. Peckers 66, 67. 1S67. 

Beguine de Termonde? 5. ThomssGuide Prat. 21, 215. 1876. 

First cultivated by Alfred Livingston, Westchester County, New York. Leaves with 
reniform glands; flowers of medivmi size; fruit large, oval, pale yellow, blushed with red; 
clingstone; ripens in September. 
Conkling. i. EUwanger & Barry Cat. 33. 1S79. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

1-: M. Conkling, Parma Comers, New York, introduced this peach about 1877, having 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 335 

fruited it first in 1873. The fruits are small and the trees unproductive at Geneva. It was 
added to the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Leaves with small, 
globose glands; flowers late; fruit below medium in size, roundish-oval, bulged near the 
apex; halves unequal; apex with a mamelon, recurved tip; skin thin, tender, with long, 
thick pubescence, yellow, mottled with dark red over a lighter blush ; flesh stained at the 
pit, juicy, firm, stringy, sweet, pleasant; pit free; ripens early in September. 
Connecticut, i. Hale Cat. 29. 1898. 2. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 6:44. 1899. 

Connecticut originated at South Glastonbury, Connecticut, about 1885 from a seed 
of Pratt pollinized by Chili. The trees are unproductive at this Station. Tree willow>' 
in habit; glands small, both reniform and globose; flowers appearing in mid-season, small, 
edged with deep pink; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate; apex noticeably mamelon. 
recurved; skin thin, tough, adherent, thickly pubescent, orange-yellow, blushed with dull 
red; flesh tinged at the pit, rather firm, stringy, sweet; quality good; stone free, small, 
ovate, plump, bulged near the apex; ripens the last of August. 
Connett. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Connett Early. 2. AT. C. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 64. 1893. 3- -'I"*- Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 
1899. 4. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:96. 1901. 

Connett originated as Connett Southern Early with Rev. Alfred Connett, McLeans- 
ville. North Carolina, about 1880. In 1889 it was listed by the American Pomological 
Society as Connett Early, the name being changed in 1909 to Connett. At this Station 
it is a shy bearer; ripens the middle of August. Tree willow^' in growth; glands reniform; 
flowers appearing in mid-season, large; fruit above medivmi in size, roundish-oval; suture 
shallow; skin thin, tough, creamy-yellow, slightly blushed with dark red; flesh white except 
at the pit, firm, stringy, sweet, juicy; quality fair; stone nearly free, oval-elliptical, pointed 
at the ends. 
Connor White, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. js. 1873. 

Conner Clitig. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1883. 

Connor White is a southern variety which originated in Mississippi. The American 
Pomological Society listed it from 1883 until 1889. Fruit medium in size, slightly oblong, 
with a small, acute apex; skin white, nearly covered with crimson; flesh white to the stone, 
juicy, vinous, subacid; clingstone; matures the last of June in Mississippi. 
Conover. i. Mo. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 422. 1905. 

Conover is one of the best hardy peaches in Mi.ssouri. 
Cook Late. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1887. 

Cook Late White. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1877. 

A variety of American origin. Entered on the fruit-list of the American Pomological 
Society in 1877 where it remained until 1897. Fruit of medium size, white, freestone; 
ripens late. 
Cook Seedling, i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 6, 7. 1857. 

A seedling resembling Late Crawford grown by J. S. Cook, Walnut Hills, Ohio. 
Cooley Mammoth, i. Lovett Cat. 33. 1891. 2. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 451. 1896. 

Originated in Indiana where the fruit attracted attention because of large size and 
handsome color. Flesh yellow, juicy, sprightly; clingstone; ripens late in September. 



336 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Coolidge. I. Cole Am. Fr. Book 191. 1849. 

Cooledge''! Favorite. 2. Kenrick Am. Orch. 219, 220. 1832. 3. Downing Fr. Trees 
Am. 473. 1845. 4. Prcc. Nat. Con. Fr. Gr. 38, 51. 1848. 

Coolidge' s Favorite. 5. Hovey Fr. Am. 2:49, 50, PI. 1851. 6. Hooper W. Fr. Book 
216. 1857. 

For many years Coolidge was a favorite in New England and in nearly every orchard 
there were trees of this sort. Joshua Coolidge of Watertown, Massachusetts, raised the 
variety. The fruit-lists in the catalogs of the American Pomological Society from the first 
issue until 1899 contained the name of this peach. Fruit medium to large, roundish, with a 
shallow suture ; skin clear white, with a fine, mottled, crimson cheek ; flesh white, with red 
at the pit, melting, juicy, with a rich, sweet, high flavor; freestone; season the last of 
August. 
Coolidge Mammoth, i. Mich. Sta. Bid. 169:211 1899. 

Tree vigorous; foliage crimped, with globose glands; flowers small; fruit large, roundish- 
ovate; suture distinct; apex prominent; skin bright yellow, with a bright blush; flesh red at 
the pit, juicy, mild, vinous; pit large, oval, pointed, free; matures the middle of September. 
Cooner. i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 7,iS. 1890. 

A large-fniited, market variety from Allegan County, Michigan. 
Cooper Early, i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 183 1. 

Leaves with globose glands; flowers small; fruit of mediimi size, pale yellow; stone 
adherent; of third quality; ripens early in September. 
Cooper Late. i. Peachland Nur. Cat. 11. 1892. 

Cooper Late originated at New Castle, Delaware, and is a large, white-fleshed, pro- 
ductive peach, according to the catalog of the Peachland Nurseries, Seaford, Delaware. 
Cooper Mammoth, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 190. 1880. 

A yellow peach found near South Haven, Michigan. The variety is worthless because 
of unproductiveness. 
Cooper Manet, i. A''. Mex. Sta. Bui. 30:242. 1899. 

A variety being tested in New Mexico. 
Cora. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41. 1877. 2. La. Sta. Bid. 21:614. 1893. 

One of L. E. Berckmans seedlings of Lady Parham, from Rome, Georgia, about 1873. 
Fruit small, round; skin creamy-white, splashed with dull red; flesh white, stained at the 
stone, juicy, melting, subacid; freestone; ripens at the end of September. 
Cora Wright, i. Fulton Peach Cult. 175. 1908. 

A large, yellow peach from Caroline County, Maryland. 
Corbeil. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:102, 103. 1879. 

Corbeil is a name applied to peaches found near Corbeil, Seine-et-Oise, France; men- 
tioned first, according to Leroy, in 1540 by Charles Estienne. Fruits pubescent, white, 
juicy. 
Corlett. I. Can. Exp. Farms Rpt. 146. 1896. 

Produced by a Mv. Corlett, Olinda, Ontario, Canada; resembles Amsden. Fruit 
large, round; sutture shallow; skin yellow, partly covered with a pinl<; blush; flesh pale yellow, 
juicy, sweet; stone medium in size, free; ripens at the end of July. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 337 

Cornelia, i. Harrison Cat. 19. 1912. 

Listed by J. G. Harrison, Berlin, Maryland, as a vij^orous, productive, white-fleshed 
peach ripening at the end of Jul\-. 
Comer, i. Mich. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 197. 1883. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:211. 1899. 

Originated by William Corner, Ganges, Michigan, where it is grown locally. Tree 
\-igorous; glands reniform; flowers small ; fruit of medium size, oval to ovate; suture distinct ; 
skin brightly blushed on a yellow ground; flesh red at the pit, moderately juicy, tender, 
mild but not rich; pit free, oval, pointed; matures early in September. 
Corosa. i. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1907. 

According to the reference, Corosa ripens .soon after Mamie Ross which it excels. 
Corriell. i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 335. 1896. 

A very hardy variety grown in southeastern Iowa. 
Cothelstone Seedling, i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 95. 1831. 

Listed in this reference. 
Coulombier. i. Mathieu Noni. Pom. 392. 1889. 

Mentioned in this reference. 
Countess, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 2. La. Sta. Bui. 27:942. 1894. 3. Tex. 
Sta. Bui. 39:811. 1S96. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Countess is a southern variety of unknown origin. It appeared on the fruit-list of 
the American Pomological Society from 1891 to 1899, reappearing in 1909. The fruit is 
white-fleshed, juicy, nearly free; ripens early in July. 
Counts. I. Downing Fr. Trees .4)n. 605. 1869. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1877. 

Counts originated with H. H. Counts, Lylesford, South Carolina. It was on the 
fruit-hst of the American Pomological Society from 1877 until 1891. Fruit large, white, 
blushed; flesh white, rich, juicy; clingstone; matures in mid-season. 
Coupers. i. Am. Card. 24:414. 1903. 

Coupers is a heavy bearer; skin white, with a blush; ripens late in August. 
Cowan Late. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 186. i860. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:811. 1896. 

Glands reniform; fruit very small, round; ripens in September. 
Cox Cling. I. Wash. Bd. Hort. Rpt. 140. 1891-92. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 

Cox Cling appeared on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society from 1899 
until 1909. It is listed as a medium-sized, white-fleshed clingstone of fair quality; origi- 
nated in Texas. 
Cox October, i. U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 298. 1855. 

A choice variety grown at one time in Mississippi. 
Cream, i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 80. 1898. 

E. T. Daniels, Kiowa, Kansas, grew Cream from a stone of Marcclla. It resembles 
Late Crawford in size and color; ripens October isth. 

Crimson Beauty L i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 161. 18S1. 2. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:234. 
1898. 

Tree tall, erect; glands reniform; fruit of medium size, globular; skin greenish-yellow, 
overspread with carmine; flesh white except at the stone; clingstone; ripens at the middle 
of August. 



338 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Crimson Beauty II. i. Bailey Ann. Hort. 184. 1892. 

Tree with heavy, dark foliage; fruit large, highly colored; flesh firm, fine; freestone; 
ripens in November. 

Crimson Galande. i. Hogg Fruit Man. 217. 1866. 2. Mas Lc Verger 7:igi, 192, 
fig. 94. 1866-73. 3. Hogg Fruit Man. 441. 1884. 

Crimson Mignonne. 4. Jour. Hort. N. S. 5:188. 1863. 

Crimson Galande is one of the many seedlings raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridge- 
worth, England. Tree an abundant bearer; glands globose; flowers small; fruit large. 
roundish, uneven in outline, faintly sutured; skin almost entirely covered with very dark 
crimson; flesh white, purple about the pit, melting, juicy, sprightly; stone free, small, 
ovoid; ripens at the end of August. 
Crockett, i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:811. 1896. 

Crockett Late White. 2. Card. Mon. 2:335 fig. i860. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 
1877. 

Crockett Late. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1887. 

Crockett originated in New Jersey and was once popular as a late, market sort. In 
1877, it was added to the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society; in 1887, the 
name was changed to Crockett Late; the variety was finally dropped in 1891. Glands 
reniform; fruit medium to large, oblong, greenish- white, with an occasional blush; flesh 
pale, sweet, not very juicy; freestone; ripens the last of September. 
Crofts Golden, i. La. Sta. Bid. 3:44. 1890. 

Listed by the Louisiana Experiment Station. 
Cromwell Seedling, i. Card. Mon. 3:280. 1861. 

An early variety introduced by a Mr. Cromwell, Baltimore, Maryland. 
Crothers. i. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 289. 1893. 2. Rural N. Y. 59:626 fig. 1900. 

A Mr. Crothers of Neosho Falls, Kansas, found this variety on his farm. On the 
Station grounds it is very similar to Oldmixon Free. Tree fairly vigorous and productive ; 
glands small, globose; flowers small, appearing early; fruit above medium in size, roundish- 
oval, sometimes oblique, angular; apex often with a recurved, mamelon tip; skin thin, 
tough, with fine, short pubescence, creamy-white, mottled with dark red; flesh white, 
stained about the pit, juicy, stringy, sprightly; quality not as high as Oldmixon Free; 
stone nearly free, large, plump, broadly oval, with a long point at the apex; ripens the 
last of September. 
Crown. I. Kea. Flora 211. 1676. 

Listed as a fair fruit ripening with Newington. 
Cumberland, i. Am. Pom! Soc. Rpt. 151. 18S1. 2. Soc. Nat. Hort. France Pom. 300 
fig., 301. 1904. 

An American variety but little known. Tree moderately vigorous, productive; 
glandless; flowers large; fruit medium in size, somewhat oblate; skin creamy-white, marbled 
with deep red; flesh white to the stone, melting, juicy, sweet; quality very good; stone 
small, oval, acutely pointed, nearly free; matures early in July. 
Curtis. I. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:806. 1896. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 

A southern variety named after Professor G. W. Curtis, College Station, Texas. The 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 339 

American Pomological Society held it on its fruit-list from 1809 until 1909. Tree 
vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit of medium size, round to slightly oblong; skin 
clear yellowish-white; clingstone; matures early in July. 
Cutter. I. Cole Am. Fr. Book 194. 1849. 

Cutter is very similar to Lincoln but is a few days earlier. 
Dabezac. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

Fruit medium in size, cordate; of first quality: ripens the last of August. 
Dad. I. Kan. Hort. Sac. Rpt. $0. 1901. 

A seedling from F. G. Barker, Salina, Kansas. 
Dagmar. i. Jour. Hort. N. S. 9:190. 1865. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 217. 1866. 

A seedling of Albert raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England. Glands 
round; flowers small; fruit round; suture shallow; skin very tender, thickly pubescent, 
with a pale straw-colored ground, almost entirely overlaid with crimson; flesh white, 
tender, vinous; freestone; ripens in August. 
Darby, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 75. 1873. 

A seedling of the Heath type originated by I. W. and R. S. Chick, Newberry, South 
Carolina. Fruit large, round, with a well-marked suture; skin creamy-white, faintly 
washed with red; flesh white to the stone, fine, juicy, aromatic; quality very good; cling- 
stone; matures at the end of October. 
Daun. I. Thomas Guide Prat. 40. 1876. 

Glands globose; flowers large; fruit large, heavy, roundish, regular in outline; skin 
pale greenish-yellow, marbled with reddish-brown ; flesh fine, melting, very juicy, aromatic ; 
ripens before the middle of September. 
David Hill. i. Cultivator 3rd Ser. 6:283. 1858. 

According to this reference, David Hill was at one time valuable in western New York. 
Davidson No. i. i. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113. 1880. 

This variety was raised by M. B. Bateham, Painesville, Ohio. It is said to ripen 
a few days earlier than Alexander. The fruit is of mediimi size, attractive and equal in 
quality to most early peaches. 
Davidson No. 2. i. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 113. 1880. 

Another seedling raised by M. B. Bateham, Painesville, Ohio. Fruit medium in size, 
attractive, as good in quality as other early peaches. Ripens a few days later than the 
preceding sort. 
Dawson, i. Ala. Sta. Bui. 156:132. 191 1. 

Dawson is not recommended in the reference given. Tree slow growing; fmit of 
mediimi size, rotmd; skin rich yellow; flesh yellow; flavor excellent; ripens June isth; 
a poor shipper. 
Dawson Early, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 170. 1882. 

A white-fleshed variety, little known in Michigan; glands globose; flowers large; 
fruit roundish; ripens late in August; said to be free from rot. 
Day Yellow Free. i. Wickson Cal. Fruits 311. 1889. 

A California seedling ripening with and closely resembling Foster; a good market 
variety. 



340 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

De Citry. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. uS8,^. 

Listed in this reference. 
De Corsa Heath, i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Grown at one time near Seaford, Delaware. 
De Ferrieres. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 18S3. 

Listed but not described. 
De Gloria, i. Land. Hort. Sac. ('at. 97. 1831. 

Listed in this reference. 
De Grillet. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. ] 

Listed in this reference. .] 

De Halle, i. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 3:64. iqoo. \ 

A weak grower; planted in Canada. " | 

D'Ispahan a Fleurs Simples, i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. \ 

Listed but not described. ^ 

De Napier, i. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 3:64. igoo. j 

A mediimi-vigorous variety grown in Canada. ' 

De Thoissey. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. , 

Listed in this reference. ' 

De Tondensis. i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. | 

A large, moderately productive, first quality, red aad white peach, ripening in | 

September. . j 

De Trianon, i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. i88.?- ' 

Listed in this reference. \ 

De Tullias. i. Mag. Hort. 20:271. 1854. ' 

"A variety of the Egyptian peach with larger fruit, surpassing the original type." 
De Zelhem. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 606. 1869. 1 

Fruit of meditim size, roundish; suture deep; skin downy, yellow, with more or less < 

liright red; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet; freestone; matures in August. 
Deaconess, i. Can. Hort. 23:379, 380. 1900. ' 

A yellow variety said to be immune from yellows. i 

Dean Orange, i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Peach, The 140. 1899. j 

Named after its originator, Martin Dean, Bavaria, Kansas, about 1875. Another 
seedling that reproduces itself from seed. 
Dean Red Free. i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 16. 1896-97. 

Dean Brothers of southern Indiana originated this variety; tlesh white, freestone; 
ripens with Oldmixon Free. 
December, i. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 634. 1887. 2. Wickson Cal. Fruits 318. 1889. 

A white clingstone occasionally grown because of its extreme lateness. 
Decker, i. Wickson Cal. Fruits 201. 1908. 1 

Buck Prolific. 2. Ibid. 318. 1889. \ 

Decker is grown extensively for eastern shipmsnt in Sutter and Butte Counties, 
and in Vaca Valley, California. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 341 

Dekenhoven Pfirsich. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Madeleine d' Ekenholen. 2. Carri^re Var Pediers 80. 1867. 

Madeleine Dekenhoven. 3. Decaisne Jard. Fruit. 7:P1. 1872-75. 

Tree moderately vigorous; branches slender; leaves devoid of glands; flowers large; 
fruit large, roundish, .slightly depressed at the base, apex terminating in a small, mamelon 
tip; distinctly sutured; skin tender, almost entirely overlaid with reddish-black; flesh 
white except at the stone, melting, juicy, sweet; stone small, free; ripens the last of August. 
Delavan White, i. Mich. Horl. Soc. Rpt. 450. [879. 2. Ibid. 458. 1883. 

Of American origin, but not generally known or valued. Glands round; flowers 
small; fruit large, roundish-oval; skin white, with a red cheek; freestone; ripens early 
in October. 
Delaware, i. Lovett Cat. 18. 1898. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Delaware, or Delaware Rareripe as it is sometimes called, originated in Delaware 
as a seedling of Moimtain Rose. The variety is unproductive on the Station grounds. 
Tree large, vigorous; leaves large, with small, globose glands; flowers appear in mid-season, 
small, edged with deep pink; fruit medium in size, roundish-cordate, halves unequal; 
.skin thin, thickly pubescent, pale yellowish- white, blushed about the cavity; flesh white, 
stained at the pit, coarse, stringj-, .sweet; quality good but not high; stone free, small, oval, 
plimip; ripens the second half of August. 
Deming. i. Cultivator 3rd Ser. 4: 146. 1856. 2. Am. Pom. .Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 

Deming Orange. 3. Ibid. 28. 1875. 

Deming September. 4. Ga. Hort. Soc. Kpl. 24. 7876. 5. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:234. 1898. 

Deming is a southern variety which was i)laced on the fruit-list of the American 
Pomological Society in 1875 as Deming Orange, remaining until 1897, and reappearing 
as Deming in 1909. Tree open; glands reniform; fruit large, oblate; flesh yellow; cling- 
stone; ripens in mid-season. 

Demouilles. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 55. 1876. 2. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:106 fig., 107. 
1879. 

An ornamental peach originating with a M. Demouilles, Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, 
France. Glands usually reniform; flowers small; fruit of medium size, roimdish, generally 
depressed at the base; suture shallow; skin thick, orange-yellow, streaked and washed 
with deep red where exposed; flesh intense yellow, tinged with red at the pit, melting, 
juicy, vinous; stone free, small, ovoid, plump; ripens at the end of September. 
Dennis, i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:29. i895- 2. Ibid. 169:211. 1899. 

Tree strong, spreading, with drooping branches; glands globose; flowers large; fruit 
of medium size, roundish; suture distinct, two-thirds around; skin yeUow; flesh yellow, 
juicy, tender, highly vinous; pit large, roundish-oval, plump, free; ripens early in September. 
Denton, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1897. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:96. 1901. 

J, W. Kerr, Denton, Maryland, grew this peach in 1888 from a seed of Early Beauty 
(To.ssed with Elberta. Denton resembles Elberta very closely and on the Station grounds 
ripens a week later. Tree large, vigorous, moderately productive; glands large, reniform: 
flowers large; fruit large, oval; cavity deep; skin tough, covered with thick, coarse pubes- 
cence, lemon-yellow, with a few dark splashes; flesh yellow, with red radiating from the 



342 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Stone, juicy, firm, sprighlly but varying in flavor; quality good; stone large, obovate, 
flattened, decidedly bulged, nearly free; ri]:)ens the third week in September. 
Desire Vitry. i. Rev. Hort. 463. 1903. 

Listed in this reference. 
Despot. I. Rea Flora 211. 1676. 

Listed as a yellow peach spotted with red. 
Desprez. i. Poiteau Pom. Franc. i:No. 39, PI. 1846. 

Named after a M. Desprez, a judge at Alengon, Ome, France. Leaves carry from 
two to four reniform glands; flowers large; fruit variable, often large, roundish, with a 
small, mamelon tip at the apex; skin smooth, thick, yellow; flesh white, melting, vinous; 
stone plump, oval, pointed at the ends, free; ripens the last of August. 
Desse Tardive, i. Jour. Hort. N. S. 9:250. 1865. 2. Mas Le Verger 7:143, 144, fig. 
70. 1866-73. 3- Hogg Fruit Man. 218. 1866. 

Desse Tardive was named after its originator, a M. Desse of Chantecoq, Seine, France, 
about 1835. Glands rovind; flowers small; fruit large, round, flattened at the top, deeply 
sutured; skin thin, greenish-white, marbled with vermilion-red; flesh white, slightly 
colored with red at the stone, melting, juicy, sweet; stone plump, nearly free; ripens at 
the end of September. 
Dewey Cling, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1899. 2. Peyton-Barnes Cat. 19. 1912. 

Dewey Cling originated with H. W. Jenkins, Boonville, Missouri, in 1898. Tree 
vigorous, healthy, upright yet spreading, hardy; fruit of good size; skin smooth, creamy- 
white; flesh white, very juicy, rich; of good quality; ripens in Missouri the middle of 
September. 
Dey. I. Rttral N. Y. 41:864, fig. 1882. 

Named after a Mr. Dey, Newark, New Jersey, in whose yard it was found. Fniit 
large, greenish-white; sweet, rich, juicy; freestone. 
Di Carema Giallo. i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

A delicious, yellow peach from Italy. 
Diamond, i. Ohio Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1888-89. 2. Ibid. 16. 1896. 3. Ga. Sta Bui. 
42:235. 1898. 

Diamond originated in Athens County, Ohio. On the grounds of this Station it 
closely resembles Orange Cling. Tree low, spreading; leaves with globose glands; 
fruit large, globular; flesh pale yellow except at the pit; clingstone; ripens the first of 
October. 
Diana. 1. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 221. 1S17. 

According to Coxe, Diana is a large, oblong clingstone, with white flesh, ripening 
the first of September. 
Dix. I. Kenrick Am. Orch. 199. 1841. 

A large, productive, first-rate peach. 
Dixie. I. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 289. 1893. 

Fruit above medirnn in size, roundish; cavity deep, abrupt; skin thin, yellowish-white, 
with a blush ; flesh white, slightly tinged at the stone, firm, mildly subacid, slightly bitter ; 
stone oval, clinging. 



TIIIC I'KACIIKS OK Ni:\V YORK 343 

Docteur Burkard. i. Mathieu Noiti. Pom. .5(>3. 1889. 

Listed but not described. 
Docteur Lucas, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 53. 1876. 

Found at the Saint-Florian Abbey, Germany. Tree vigorous; fruit large, roundish- 
oblate, blushed with deep red on a green ground; of first quality; matures the middle of 
September. 
Docteur Krans. i. Mas Z-e Verger 7:1 it, 118, fig. 57. 1866-73. 

Introduced by a Dr. Krans, Liege, Belgium. Tree vigorous; glands reniform; flowers 
large; fruit of medium size, roundish-oval, flattened at the fends; suture pronounced; skin 
thin, tender, pale yellow, blushed with intense purple where exposed; flesh white, tinged 
about the pit, melting, juicy, sweet; of first quality; stone small, elliptical, nearly free; 
ripens at the end of August. 
Dr. Burton, i. Munson Cat. 6. 1905-06. 

According to T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, this \-ariety is a seedling grown by Dr. 
E. L. Burton, Grayson County, Texas. In the Station orchard it is a fairly good peach 
but not of superior merit. Tree productive; glands globose, small; flowers appearing 
in mid-season, large; fruit large, oval; cavity deep; apex often ends in a mamelon tip; 
skin tough, creamy-j^ellow, with few splashes of dark, dull red usually near the cavity; 
flesh white, with a trace of pink along the suture, juicy, tender, stringy, sprightly; stone 
oval, with a long point at the apex, plump; ripens just before Champion. 
Dr. Cummings. i. Rural N. Y. 61:734. 1902. 

A seedling of Early Crawford raised at Cayuga, New York, and disseminated by 
H. S. Wiley of the same place; a yellow freestone ripening about October ist. 
Dr. Graham White Freestone, i. Loud. Hart. Sac. Rpt. 6:412. 1826. 

Fruit large, perfectly white; juice rich and sweet; stone small; ripens the middle of 
September. 
Dr. Hogg. I. Jour. Hort. N. S. 9:190. 1865. 

This peach was grown by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a French 
peach. Tree a strong grower, vigorous, productive; glands reniform; flowers large; fruit 
large, roimd, with a distinct suture; skin thin, tough, lemon-colored, faintly crimson where 
exposed; flesh yellowish-white, deeply stained at the pit, firm but tender, sugary, brisk; 
stone free; ripens in August. 
Dr. Pilkington. i. Cal. Sta. Rpt. 393. 1895-97. 

An Oregon freestone seedling of promise. 
Dr. Tomlinson. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 5:97. 1892. 

Listed in this reference. 
Domergue. i. Rev. Hort. 156, PI. 1889. 2. Guide Prat. 42. 1895. 

Originated near Marseilles, Bouches du Rh6ne, France, by a M. Domergue. Tree 
vigorous, productive; glands globose; flowers of medium size; fruit large, well colored; 
ripens early in August. 
Donahoo. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 636. 1857. 

From a Mr. Donahoo, Clark County, Georgia. Glands reniform; fruit very large, 
roundish; suture visible around the entire fruit, deep on one side; skin creamy- white. 



344 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



tinged with red in the sun; flesh white to the stone, very juicy, excelling Heath Cling in 
tenderness and flavor; clingstone; ripens the second week in September in Georgia. 
Donegal, i. U. S. D. A. Pom. Rpt. 25. 1894. 

Fruit large, roundish; cavity large and deep; skin thin, tenacious, velvety, yellow, 
sprinkled with dark red; flesh yellow, tinged at the pit, tender, melting, juicy, subacid; 
quality good to above; stone small, oval, free; season follows Smock. 
Dorsetshire Mignonne. i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 99. 18,51. 

A large-sized fmit of second quality ripening at the end of September; glands rcni- 
form; flowers small; skin dark red on a pale yellow ground; flesh melting. 
Dorothy, i. Glen St. Mary Nur. Cat. 12. 1901. 2. Fla. Sta. Bui. 62:512. i()02. 
3. Am. Pom. Soc. CM. 36. 1909. 

A seedling of Angel grown by G. H. Norton, Eu.stis, Florida. In 1909, it was lisitHl 
by the American Pomological Society. Fruit large, nearly round; flesh yellow, rirli, 
subacid; freestone; ripens early in July in Florida. 
Double Blanche de Fortune. 1. Mas Pom. Gen. 12: 1S5. 1885. 

Listed in this reference. 
Double Cramoisie de Fortune, i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Listed in this reference. 
Double Jaune. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:165, 166, fig. 19. 1883. 

Originated in the vicinity of Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France. Leaves with 
reniform glands; flowers medium in size; fruit large, roundish-oval, ending in a mamelon 
tip; deeply sutured; skin thin, tender, canary-yellow, nearly covered with an intense 
reddish-brown; flesh yellow to the stone, melting, juicy, with an apricot flavor; of first 
quality; stone .small for the size of fruit, oval, freestone; ripens at the end of August. 
Double Mountain, i. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. i:Pl. 26. 181 7. 2. Christ Handb. 592. 
1817. i. Lindley Guide Orch. Gard. 246. 183 1. 

Sion. 4. Mi\lcr Gard. Diet. 1752. 

Doppelter Bergpfirsich. 5. Dochnahl Fuhr. Obstkuiule 3:198. 1858. 

An excellent French variety very similar to Noblesse but ripening a week earlier. 
Leaves doubly serrate, glandless, not as susceptible to mildew as most French varieties; 
flowers large; fruit of medium size, roundish, flattened at the apex; skin greenish-white, 
marbled with deep red on a soft red blush; flesh white to the stone, melting, juicy, 
highly flavored; stone mucronate, rugged, free; ripens from the middle to the last of 
August. 
Down Easter, i. Elliott Fr. Book 283. 1854. 

Hall Doum-Easiter. 2. Cole Am. Fr. Book 196, 197. 1849. 

This variety originated many years ago with M. Hall, Portland, Maine. It has 
long since passed from cultivation. Tree hardy and productive; fruit large, roundish, 
with a deep suture; skin yellow, with a broad, red cheek; quality fair; season the last of 
September. 
Downer, i. GarcJ. Mom. 19:115. 1877. 

A seedling of the old Red Rareripe, grown at Newburyport, Alassachusetts ; never 
dis-seminated. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 345 

Dowling. 1. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:811. i8g6. 

Dowling June. 2. Ibid. 8:34. 1889. 

Tree vigorous, productive; glandless; fruit of medium size, roundish, with a slight 
proiection at the apex ; color creamy, with a red cheek ; flavor subacid ; clingstone ; matures 
in Texas about July 8th. 

Downing, i. Card. Mon. 17:270. 1875. 2. Mich. Hort. .'^oc. Rpt. 462. 1885. 3. Cat. 
Cong. Pom. France 526. 1906. 

Downing originated about 1870 with H. M. linglc Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 
from a pit of Hale Early. Tree productive: fruit of medium size, roundish, with a distinct 
suture; skin greenish-white, mottled with red; flesh white, juicy, melting, sweet; quality 
good; ripens from the first to the middle of July. 
Drain Seedling, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 491. 1908. 

One of the early seedlings planted iti Iowa. 
Drap d'Or. i. Mag. Hort. 20:271. i8:;4. 2. .Im;. Pom. ficli^e 3:1, PL 1855. 

Drop d'or Esperen. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 52, 217. 1876. 

A variety of Belgian origin. Tree moderately vigorous, productive; glands small 
round; fruit large, roundish, depressed; skin thin, clear yellow, with spots of carmine 
noticeably sutured; flesh whitish-yellow, colored at the pit, fine, juicy, vinous; quality 
good; stone very large, roundish-oval, jjartly free; ripens September 20th. 
Druid Hill. i. Downing Fr. Trees .Am. 474. 1845. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 78. 1862. 
3. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:110 fig., in. 1879. 4. Fulton Peach Cult. 191. 1908. 

Druid Hill originated about 1840 with Lloyd N. Rogers, Druid Hill, Baltimore, 
Maryland. From 1862 until 1899 it was listed in the catalog of the American Pomological 
Society. Tree vigorous, productive; glands reniform; fruit large, round, with a slight 
suture; skin pale greenish-white, clouded with a red blush; flesh greenish-white, almost 
purple at the pit, very juicy, melting, with a rich, vinous flavor; stone free; season the 
last of September. 
Duboisviolette. i. Noisette Man. Comp. Jard. 2:476. i86o. 

This variety was brought to France from China by a M. Duboisviolette. The flowers 
are very large, semi-double, reddish-piu-ple ; glands reniform; fruit large, roundish, termi- 
nating in a mamelon tip; skin white except where exposed; flesh white, vinous. 
Duboscq. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 122. i860. 

Similar to Oldmixon Free; a very large, good, greenisli-whitc ])each. 
Duchess of Cornwall, i. Card. Chron. 59:446. 1901. 

Duchess of York. 2. Ibid. 58:59. 1900. 3. Ibid. 59:427. 1901. 

Originated and introduced by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England. Fruit of 
medium size; skin creamy-yellow, with a striped red blush; flesh melting, with a distinct 
nectarine flavor; freestone; ripens with Alexander. 
Duchesse de Galliera. i. Guide Prat. 40. 1895. 

Vigorous, productive; glands globose; fruit very large, compressed; apex mucronate; 
skin thin, reddish-purple in the sun; flesh white, violet at the pit, melting, very juicy; 
freestone; ripens the second half of September. 



346 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Duff. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Duveteuse Jamie. 2. Mas Le Verger 7:237, 238, fig. 117. 1866-73. 

Duff Yellow. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 608. 1869. 4. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 24. 
1876. 5. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1877. 

DufE is an early, market peach which appeared on the fruit-list of the American 
Pomological Society from 1877 until 1897. Glands globose; flowers small; fruit very large, 
round, with a sharp point; skin yellow, with a red cheek; flesh yellow, red about the stone, 
jmcy, slightly acid; clingstone; ripens the middle of July in the .South. 
Duggar. I. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:811. 1896. 

Duggar Golden. 2. Ala. Sta. Bid. 11:8, 11. 1890. 

Glands globose; flowers small; fruit large, roundish; color yellow, with a blush; flesh 
yellow, subacid, firm; clingstone; ripens the last of July. 
Duggar White, j. Ala. Sta. Bui. ii:%. 1890. 

F'lowers large, white; fruit medium in size; flesh white, very firm; quality good; ripens 
the middle of July; not very prolific. 
Duke of Marlborough, i. Brookshaw Pom. Brit. i:Pl. 27 fig. i. 1817. 

A variety resistant to mildew, found in the garden of the Duke of Marlborough, near 
Brentford, Middlesex, England. Flowers large; fruit large, slightly flattened about the 
base, heavily pubescent; ripens August loth. 
Duke of York. i. Can. Hort. 25:326. 1902. 2. Bunyard Cat. Fr. Trees 35. 1913-14. 

This variety is a cross between Early Rivers nectarine and Alexander peach, made 
by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England. Fruit large; skin brilliant crimson; flesh 
tender, melting, refreshing; ripens with Alexander. 
Du Lin. I. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

A variety from Aire, France, with reniform glands. 
Du Moulin, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 48. 1876. 

A \-ariety with reniform glands; recommended for central France. 
Du Quesnoy. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:155, 156, fig. 14. 1883. 

A variety of Belgian origin. Leaves with small, globose glands; flowers large; fruit 
large, roundish, depressed at the ends, faintly sutured; skin heavily pubescent, greenish, 
covered more or less with an intense purplish-brown; flesh white, purplish about the pit, 
melting, sweet; stone small for the size of fruit, nearly free; ripens the middle of August. 
Du Thiers, i. Thomas Guide Prat. 52. 1876. 

Glands reniform; flowers of medium size, pale rose-colored. 
Dtilany. i. Am. Pom, Soc. Rpt. 95. 1854. 

A seedling of Heath Cling; superior to its parent in Maryland. 
Dulce. I. Munson Cat. 7. 1904-05. 

On the Station grounds the trees of Dulce are weak and unproductive. The variet}-. 
according to T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, originated with B. C. Murray, Denison. 
Texas. Leaves with large, reniform glands; flowers appear late; fruit small, roundish- 
cordate, angular, halves unequal; cavity narrow, flaring; suture shallow; apex roimdish, 
usually with a small, mamelon tip; skin covered with heavy, coarse pubescence, tough, 
greenish-yellow, faintly blushed, with a bronze appearance; flesh yellow, stained at the 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 347 

pit, moderately juicy, fine-grained, mild, often astringent; stone below medium in size, 
ovate, pltmip, decidedly bulged, semi-clinging to free; ripens early in October. 
Dumont. i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 267. 1S85. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:212. 1899. 

Raised by Peter Dumont, Allegan, Michigan, from seed planted about 1835. Tree 
strong, very hardy, susceptible to leaf -curl; glands reniform; flowers small; fruit medium 
to large, roundish-oval, much compressed; cavity narrow; suture distinct, extending 
beyond the apex which terminates in a short, projecting tip; skin covered with dense 
pubescence, dark golden, usually blushed, thick, tough; flesh deep yellow, tinged at the 
pit, melting, moderately juicy, brisk subacid; stone oval, free; ripens the middle of 
September. 
Dim. I. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 97 fig. 1906. 

Dun originated in Austria. Leaves with small, globose glands; flowers large; fruit 
very large, roundish, with a mamelon tip at the apex; skin yellowish- white, marbled with 
dull red; flesh white, stained at the stone, melting, very juicy, aromatic; very good; stone 
ending in a long point, free ; ripens the middle of August. 
Dunlap. 1. Mich. Sta. Bui. 118:29. 1895. 2. Ibid. 169:212. 1899. 

Tree a strong grower, spreading; glands globose; flowers small; fruit large, roundish 
to occasionally ovate; cavity wide; suture distinct; color yellow, nearly covered with dark 
red; flesh yellow, stained at the pit, quite juicy, rich, vinous; pit large, plump, free; ripens 
the last of August. 
Dunnington Beauty, i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 96. 1831. 

Very much like Noblesse. Leaves serrate, glandless; flowers large; fruit large; skin 
pale greenish-red; flesh melting; quality good; ripens at the end of August. 
Duperron. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 608. 1869. 

A seedling raised by a M. Duperron. Glands globose; flowers small; frviit large to 
very large, roundish, depressed at the end; suture shallow; skin downy, golden vellow, 
more or less washed with pale red; flesh yellow; clingstone; ripens in October. 
Durasme. i. Parkinson Par. Tcr. 582. 1629. 

" The Durasme or Spanish Peach is of a darke yellowish-red colour on the outside 
and white within." 
Durchsichtiger Lieblingspfirsich. i. Dochna.h\ Fiihr. Obstkunde 3:202. 1858. 

Tree of medium size, productive; fruit large, roundish-oblate, yellowish- white, with 
a bright red blush ; flesh firm yet melting, with a sweet, vinous flavor ; quality good ; season 
early in September. 
Durham Favorite. 1. hui. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 52. 1867. 

Listed in this reference. 
Dutchess. I. Coxe Cult. Fr. Trees 22^. 18 17. 

A very large peach, with white skin, a red cheek and a clear stone ; ripens in August 
and September. 
Dwarf Aubinel. i. Ftor. t? Pom. 144. 1876. 

This variety is remarkable for the constancy with which it is reproduced from seed 
and for its dwarf, bushy habit of growth. Flowers large; fruit large, globular; skin pale 
orange, marbled with red near the apex; flesh yellow, red near the stone; quality good; 
freestone; ripens at the end of September. 



348 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Dwarf Champion, i. A'. Mex. Sta. Bid. 30:224, 225. 1S99. 

Listed as growing in New Mexico. 
Dwarf Cuba. i. Mich. Sia. Bui. 118:29. 1895. 2. Ibid. 129:23. 1896. 

A variety with small flowers and reniform glands. 
Dwarf Orleans, i. Prince Treat. Hort. 17. 1828. 

Main. 2. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:44, 45. PI. 32. 1768. 3. Leroy Diet. Pom. 
6:17s fig-. 176- 1879- 

Zwergpfirsich. 4. 'Doc\mah\ Fiihr. Obstktmde ^Wiyg. 1858. 

Italian Dwarf. 5. Am. Jour. Hort. 1:287, 288. 1867. 

Dwarf Orleans originated in Orleans, Loiret, France, early in the Eighteenth Centur3^ 
The tree attains a height of two or three feet and is used mostly as an ornamental; leaves 
long, pendent, glandless and much indented; flowers large, showy; irmt about two inches 
long, roundish, deeply sutured; skin white; flesh white, melting, with bitter juice; freestone; 
ripens early in October. 
Dyer June. i. Gard. Man. 24:18. 1882. 

A chance seedling found near Ava, Missouri. Fruit large; early; clingstone, 
Dymond. i. Jour. Hort. 3rd Ser. 3:331- 1881. 2. Hogg Fruit Man. 442. 1884. 

Said to have been introduced by a Mr. Veitch, Exeter, England. Leaves glandless; 
fruit large, roundish, with a deep suture; skin greenish-yellow, with a dull red cheek, 
mottled with brighter red; flesh white, slightly red at the pit, juicy, melting, with a 
high flavor; stone free; season the middle of September. 
Eagle Red. i. Kenrick Ajm. Ore/;. 199. 1841. 

Listed as a large, beautiful fruit, with a red blush, ripening in September. 
Earliest Mignonne. i. Land. Hort. Soc. Cat. 99. 1831. 

A variety with globose glands and small flowers. 
Early, i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 96. 1831. 

A variety with globose glands and large flowers. 
Early Alfred, i. Card. Man. 7:372. 1865. 2. Uogg Fruit Man. 2ig. 1866. 

Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, grew Early Alfred from a seed of Hunt 
Tawny nectarine. Glands round; flowers large; fruit large; suture deeply marked, higher 
on one side than the other; skin tender, pale straw-colored, somewhat mottled with bright 
crimson; flesh white, melting, brisk, vinous; ripens early in August. 
Early Ascot, i. Gard. Chron. 1474, 1506. 1870. 2. Flor. & Pom. i, PI. 1873. 

Early Ascot was raised from a seed of Elruge nectarine by a Mr. Standish of Ascot. 
England. Tree hardy, productive; glands small, roundish; flowers smaU; fruit medium in 
size, roundish, somewhat depressed, with a distinct suture; skin nearly smooth, almost 
entirely covered with red, becoming nearly black where exposed; flesh yellow, tinged at 
the stone, very juicy; partially freestone; ripens the second week in August. 
Early Avant. i. Forsyth Treat. Fr. Trees 27. 1803. 

An agreeable-flavored peach ripening m August. 
Early Beauty, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 314. 1889. 

This is a Texas variety. Fruit large, yellow; freestone; ripens very early. 
Early Bourdine. i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 94. 1831. 

Listed as having serrate, glandless leaves and small flowers. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 349 

Early Charlotte, i. R. G. Chase Cat. 20. i8g6. 2. Chico Nur. Cat. 25. 1904. 

A seedling of Early Crawford which originated about 1878 with O. Dickenson, Salem, 
Oregon. The variety has considerable merit as it grows on the Station grounds. Leaves 
with reniform glands; flowers appear in mid-season, small, faded, pale pink; fruit large, 
roundish-oval, often cordate, halves unequal; cavity deep; apex with a recurved, mamelon 
tip; skin covered with long, thick pubescence, thin but tough, pale yellow, splashed with 
lively red on a slight blush; flesh yellow, deeply stained at the pit, slightly stringy, tender, 
sprightly, rich, pleasing; quality good to above; pit broadly oval, plump, bulged, free; 
matures early in September. 

Early Chelmsford, i. Cole Ant. Fr. Book 190. 1849. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 614. 
1857- 

Tree vigorous, productive, hardy; leaves glandless; fruit large, roundish; suture 
encircling the fruit; skin white, with a bright red cheek; flesh white, melting, juicy, vinous; 
freestone; ripens the third week in August. 
Early Chevalier, i. Card. Cliron. N. S. 20:47. 1883- 

A Frencli peach in which carU- and late fruits are produced on different branches of 
the same tree. 
Early China, i. Tex. Sta. Bui. ^g: 804, 805. 1896. 2. .Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 21. 1897. 

Early China is a Honey-flavored peach which originated in southern Texas where it 
has proved vigorous and productive, gaining a place in 1897 on the fruit-list of the American 
Pomological Society. The glands are round, often lacking; fruit of medium size, oval;, 
apex with a sharply recurved point; color creamy, with a bright red cheek; flesh white, 
pinkish at the pit, very sweet; quality fair; freestone; ripens the middle of June in 
Texas. 

Early Crawford Seedlings Nos. i and 3. i. Mich. Sta. Bid. 118:29. 1895. 2. Ibid. 
169:212. 1899. 

Seedlings obtained by C. C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. 
Early Cream, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 2. Tex. Sta. Bui. 39:818. 1896. 
3. Fla. Sta. Bui. 73:144- 1904- 

Kite. 4. Ibid. 73:14s. 1904. 

Kite Honey. 5.7^^.73:149. 1904. 
Early Cream is a seedling of Honey. It appeared on the American Pomological 
Society's fruit-list from 1891 until 1897. Tree strong, productive; fruit larger than Honey 
and resembles it in shape but is not as shaqDly pointed at the apex; skin very smooth, 
yeUow, washed with red; flesh fine, sweet, juicy; flavor excellent; ripens the middle of June. 
Early Croneste3m. i. Can. Exp. Farm Bui. 2nd Ser. 3:64. 1900. 

Listed as a slow grower in Canada. 
Early Curtis, i. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 186. 1880. 

A seedling with reniform glands; very similar to Alexander but less inclined to adhere 
to the pit. 
Early Downton. 1. Lindlcy Guide Orch. Card. 247. 1831. 

Raised by Thomas Knight, Downton Castle, England, about 1815. Leaves crenate, 
with globose glands; flowers large, pale rose-colored; fruit narrowed at the apex, usually 



350 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

tenninating in an acute nipple; skin pale yellowish-white, bright red in the sun; flesh 
yellowish-white to the stone from which it separates, juicy; ripens at the end of August. 
Early Free. i. N. Y. Sta. Rpt. 15:289. 1897. 

Growing on the grounds of this Station in 1896. 
Early Imperial, i. Cal. Bd. Hort. Rpt. 241. 1890. 

W. W. Smith, Vacaville, California, grew Early Imperial from a pit of St. John open to 
cross-fertilization. It is highly recommended in California because of extreme earliness and 
its good drying qualities; flesh yellow; freestone. 

Early Leopold, i. Jour. Hort. N. S. 17:58. 1869. 2. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 34. 1874. 
3. T\\oma.s Guide Prat. 53. 1876. 

Raised by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a seed of Early York. 
Glands reniform; flowers small; fruit of medium size, pale yellow, rich; succeeds Rivers. 
Early Louise, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 609. 1869. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 28. 1875. 
3. Hogg Fruit Man. 444. 1884. 4. Cat. Cong. Pom. France 526. 1906. 

Louise. 5. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:350. 1903. 

Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, raised this peach from a seed of Early 
Albert and named it in honor of Queen Victoria's daughter. Princess Louise. From 1875 
imtil 1883 the variety maintained a place in the fruit-list of the American Pomological 
Society. Fruit of mediimi size, round, marked on one side with a deep suture; skin highly 
colored, with a bright red cheek; flesh yellowish-white, tender, richly flavored, partly 
adlierent to the pit; season early. 
Early Lydia. i. W. N. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. iii. 1S80. 

Early Lydia is said to be resistant to rot; a rose-colored freestone ripening with Hale 
Early. 

Early Michigan, i. Mich. Sta. Bid. 118:29. 1895. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 36. 1909. 
3. Mich. Sta. Sp. Bid. 44:38, 39. 1910. 

Confusion has arisen over two seedlings put out by J. D. Husted, Lowell, Michigan, 
as Husted No. 15 and 16. Eventually, No. 15 was introduced as Early Michigan but 
because of its similarity to No. 16, the latter is often substituted for it. The true Early 
Michigan is a cross between Hale Early and Chili. As it fruits at this Station, the peaches 
lack size and quality. In 1909 the American Pomological Society added it to its fruit- 
list. Tree vigorous, spreading; glands reniform; flowers appear early, large, showy; fruit 
of medium size, roundish-oval; cavity deep, narrow; apex with a large, mucronate tip; 
skin thin, tender, with long, thick pubescence, creamy, blushed with dull red, with a few 
deep red splashes; flesh greenish-white, tinged at the pit, juicy, stringy, melting, sweet, 
mild; stone free, broadly oval, plump; ripens the last of August. 
Early Miners, i. N. J. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 40. 1878. 

Not spoken of favorably in New Jersey. 
Early Newington Free. i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 476. 1845. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. 
Cat. 78. 1S62. 

This freestone should not be confused with the other Newingtons which are all clings 
and usually later in season. One characteristic of this variety is that fruits on the same 
tree are free or adhere partially or wholly to the stone. Tree a moderate bearer; glands 



THE PEACHES OK NEW YORK 351 

rcniform; flowers small; fruit large, round, distinctly sutured; skin pale yellowish-white, 
with a ricli red check; flesh white, tinged at the stone, juicy, melting, vinous; ripens late 
in August. 

Early Purple, i. Miller Card. Diet. 1752. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 1:189, 190. 1831. 
3. Kenrick Am. Orch. 211. 1832. 

Veritable Pourpree hdtive a grande Jlenr. 4. Duhamel Trait. Arb. Fr. 2:16, 17, PI. 
VIII. 1768. 

Fruhe Purp^firsehe. 5. Christ Handb. 593, 594. 1817. 

PourprSe Hdtive. 6. Poiteau Pom. Franc. i:No. 16, PI. 1846. 7. Leroy Diet. 
Pom. 6:241 fig., 242, 243. 1879. 

Weiniger Lieblingspfirsieh. 8. Dochnahl Fahr. Obstkunde 3:203. 1858. 

Desse Hdtive. g. Mas L^ Verger 7:201, 202, fig. 99. 1866-73. 

This variety originated far back in the Eighteenth Century. According to Mas, it 
was raised by a M. Desse, Chantecoq, vSeine, France, and passed for a long time under the 
name Desse Hitive. Early Purple long found favor in European orchards but is not much 
grown now, being surpassed by better sorts. It was brought to America by William Prince, 
Flushing, New York, early in the Nineteenth Centurj' and soon became confused with 
Early York. The true variety, however, quickly passed from cultivation and the name 
has ever since been confused with that of Early York. Fruit medium to large, roundish, 
flattened at the base; suture deep; color yellowish, blushed with dark red and dotted with 
red on the shaded side; pubescence thick, fine; flesh white, stained red under the skin on 
the side exposed to the sun, tinged with red next the pit, juicy, vinous, highly flavored, 
melting; very good in quality; stone semi-free to free, brownish-red; ripens early. 
Eai-ly Rareripe I. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 85. 1854. 

Dr. H. A. Muhlenberg, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, originated this freestone. 
Early Rareripe II. i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 50. 1901. 

Early Rareripe is an improvement on a seedling erroneously called Felt Rareripe, 
which was brought to Kansas from Illinois by F. G. Barker of Salina. Fruit large, deep 
yellow. 
Early Red I. i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 96. 183 1. 

Leaves with globose glands; flowers large; fruit of medium size; skin pale yellow, with 
a red blush; flesh melting; fair in quality; ripens at the end of August. 
Early Red n. i. Mich. Sta. Bui. 152:199. 1898. 

This Early Red originated with C. C. Engle of Paw Paw, Michigan. 
Early Red Cling, i. Prince Caf. Fr. rr^^5 24. 1823. 2. Prince Po;;;. Man. 2:27. 1832. 

Earliest Red Cling. 3. Prince Treat. Fr. Trees 16. 1820. 

This variety is thought to have been brought to Flushing, New York, by the French. 
The shoots are subject to mildew; flowers small. 
Early Rose I. i. Kenrick Am. Orch. 183. 1841. 

Of foreign origin. Fruit of medivim size; red where exposed; ripens in August. 
Early Rose U. i. Card. Mon. 22:338. 1880. 

This Early Rose is one of the so-called Spanish peaches and was found on the farm 
of Preston Rose, Mission Valley, Texas. It is described as a medium-sized, round, ros\- 
red fruit, with firm flesh, ripening Tune 2Sth; freestone. 



352 THE PEACHKS OF NEW YORK 

Early Rose III. i. W. P.. Stark Cat. 49, 50 fig. :91s. 

Early Rose III, according to W. P. Stark, Stark City, Missouri, was grown by John 
Keller, Fort Valley, Georgia, from the pit of a Honey-flavored peach crossed with one of 
the Indian peaches. Tree a moderate grower, rather small; flowers large; fruit of medium 
size, a rich, deep red; flesh white, rich, sweet; clingstone; ripens with Eureka. The fruit is 
handsomely colored and is said to sell for a fancy price wherever known. Unfortunately, 
it seems not yet to have lieen tried in the North. 
Early Royal George, i. Kenrick .4»(. Ore/?. 220. 1832. 2. Mag. //ori. 14:538. 1848. 

Early George. 3. Tex. Sta. Bui. ^giSii. 1896, 

This variety may be an American seedling of Royal George. Fruit large, roundish; 
skin yellowish-white, splashed with red in the sun; flesh juicy, tender, vinous, free; fair to 
good in quahty; ripens in August. 
Early Sam. i. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 

Listed in this reference. 
Early Silver, i. Hogg Fn/;7 Man. 220. 1866. 2. Budd-Hansen Am. Hort. Man. 2:343. 
1903. 

Argentee Precoce. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 43, 215. 1876. 

Silver. 4. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:107. 1901. 

This variety was grown by Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, in 1857, from a 
seed of White Nectarine. Fruit large, roundish-ovate, with a shallow suture; color creamy- 
white, slightly sprinkled with red; flesh entirely white, melting, juicy, with a vinous, 
pleasant, subacid flavor; stone free; quality good to very good; ripens from the middle to 
the last of August. 
Early Strawberry, i. Ariz. Sta. Bui. 15:62, 67. 1895. 

Grown at one time in Arizona. 
Early Tallman. 1. A'lich. Sta. Sp. Bui. 40:19. 1907. 

This is a small, white-fleshed peach of fair quality, ripening with Triiomph. It is a 
semi-clingstone and of no value. 
Early de Tours, i. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 96. 183 1. 

Listed but not described. 
Early Victoria, i. Card. Chron. 946. 1861. 2. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:143, i44. fig- 8. 
1883. 

Victoria. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 39. 1909. 

Early Victoria should not be confused with the Victoria of the South. This variet>- 
first fruited in 1854 with Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a stone of Earh- 
York. In 1909 the American Pomological Society added it to its fruit-list as Victoria. 
Leaves glandless; flowers large; fruit of mediimi size, rotmdish; skin pale yellow, with a 
maroon blush; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet; stone free, small; season very early, a 
week before its parent. 
Early Wheeler, i. U. S. D. A. Yearbook t,6o, i(>\.V\. 28. 1906. 

This is one of a large number of Heath Cling seedlings grown by E. W. Kirkpatrick, 
McKinney, Texas, about 1900. Tree moderately productive; glands reniform; blossoms 
very large; fruit medium to large, roundish-oblong; ca\-ity large, broad; apex protruding; 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 



353 



skin thick, lough, heavily pubescent, creamy-white, marbled and splashed with crimson; 
flesh white, stained with red near the skin, firm, meaty, juicj-, subacid; quality good to 
very good; stone adherent, oval; ripens with Alexander. 
Early White, i. .4m. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 85. 1.854. 

A large, fine-flavored freestone originating with Dr. H. A. Mutilenberg, Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Early White Cling, i. Prince Cat. Fr. Trees 24. 1823. 2. Prince Pom. Man. 2:35. 
1832. 

Fruit medium to small; skin pale >-ellow, marbled with red; flesh yellowish-green, 
juicy, pleasant; ripens early in September. 
Eastbum Choice, i. Hoffy Orch. Comp. i:Pl. 1841. 

The name is in honor of the originator, Rev. Joseph Eastburn, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, who planted a pit about 1825. The variety comes true from seed. Tree hardy, 
vigorous, productive; fruit large, nearly round; skin pale yellow, blushed on the sunny 
side; flesh yellowish-white, tinged about the pit, .sprightly, slightly acid, juicy; pit small; 
ripens late in September. 
Eaton. I. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 44. 1891. 

Eaton Golden. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 205. 1858. 3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 611. 
1869. 4. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 18. 187 1. 

Eaton originated in North Carolina and its planting is confined chiefl_\- to the South. 
In 1 87 1 it was placed on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society as Eaton 
Golden but in 1891 was changed to Eaton. Glands reniform; flowers large; fruit above 
mediimi in size, round; suture shallow; skin golden-yellow, with occasional pink spots 
near the base; flesh golden, sweet, juicy, with a marked apricot flavor; clingstone; ripens 
the middle of September. 
Edgar Late Melting, i. Lond. Flort. Soc. Cat. 96. 1831. 

Listed in this reference. 
Edith. I. Fla. Sta. Rpt. 8:89. 1896. 2. Griffing Bros. Cat. 12. 1900. 

Edith is a large, round, white-fleshed clingstone; ripens in Florida jul\- 25th. 
Edouard Andre, i. Rev. Hort. 87, 208, 209, PI. 1895. 

A French variety originating in the Department of Ain, France. Tree vigorous, 
productive; fruit roundish, compressed; cavity deep and narrow; distinctly sutured; skin 
deep reddish-purple on a yellow ground; flesh cream-colored, red at the pit, melting, juicy; 
stone plump, oval; ripens the middle of August. 
Eduard Lucas, i. Mathieu Nam. Pom. 394. 1889. 

Listed in this reference. 
Edward Late White, i. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 614. 1857. 

Raised by a Dr. Baldwin, Montgomery, Alabama. Fruit large, roundish, depressed 
at the apex; suture distinct; skin white, blushed with red; flesh white, stained at the pit, 
sweet, juicy; stone slightly adherent; ripens the first of October and continues all the 
month. 
Eladie. i. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1877. 

A seedling of Chinese Cling; fruit of large size and excellent quality. 
23 



354 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Elate. I. Out. Sta. Rpt. 1:22. 1894 

Mentioned Iml not described. 
Elberta (Hottes). i. Wivfidd Nur. Cat. 21 fig. 1912. 

This is a supposed strain of Elberta found in an orchard of Elbertas in drand Valley, 
Colorado, according to the catalog of the Winfield Nursery Company, Winfield, Kansas. 
The fruit is said to be larger and better in quality than Elberta but its other characters 
are similar. 
Elberta Cling, i. III. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 223. 1904. 2. Stark Bros. Cat. 42. 1914. 

This variety was brought to notice in Louisiana, Missouri, Stark Brothers having 
selected it from Elberta. Some pomologists rank it as identical with Elberta in growth 
and appearance except that it is a clingstone. As grown at this Station, however, it does 
not closely resemble Elberta in shape nor is it equal to that variety in quality. Tree 
vigorous, upright; glands usually reniform; fruit above medium in size, roundish-oblate, 
halves unequal, bulged near the apex; suture deepens toward the apex which is roundish; 
skin rich yellow, with an attractive blush of deep red; flesh yellow, deep red about the 
stone, juicy, meaty, often having a slight sprightliness, clinging; ripens the second week 
in September. 
Eldred. i. Gard. Mon. 18:15. 1876. 2. Mich. Sta. Bui. 169:212, 213 1899. 

Eldred was named after its originator, a Mr. Eldred of Washington County, Texas. 
It is one of the earliest clings to ripen; glands globose; flowers medium in size; fruit large, 
roundish-ovate ; skin creamy-white, with a red blush ; flesh white, firm, mild ; pit roundish- 
oval; ripens just before Hale Early. 
Elisabeth Bonamy. i. Thomas Guide Prat. ^g. 1876. 2. '\la.s Pom.Gen. i2:i-jb. 1883. 

A French variety introduced in 1868 and named after Madame Elisabeth Bonamy. 
Glands reniform; flowers small; fruit very large, roundish, irregular, with a mamelon tip 
at the apex; pale yellow, with a deep carmine blush; flesh yellow; matures the middle 
of September. 
Eliza I. I. Elliott Fr. Book 283. 1854. 2. Hofty N. Am. Pom. i:Pl. i860. 

Gerard Schmitz, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, exhibited this seedling in 1849. Leaves 
large, with reniform glands; fruit large, round; skin yellow, with a mottled red cheek; 
flesh yellow except at the stone; freestone; matures the last of September. 
Eliza n. I. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 187. 1880. 

This is a seedling of Late Crawford, originating with C. C. Engle, Paw Paw, Michigan. 
Foliage rather glaucous; fruit large, roundish, tapering at the apex; color yellow, blushed 
with red; flesh bright yellow, red at the pit, tender, juicy, rich, vinous; ripens after Late 
Crawford. 
Ellison. I. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 314. 1889. 2. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 510. 1900. 

Ellison is another variety that reproduces itself from seed. It originated in Ohio. 
As it grows at this Station its only value is for canning. Tree not very productive ; glands 
reniform; flowers small; fruit above medium in size, resembling Chili in shape; apex with 
a recurved, mamelon tip; skin covered with long pubescence, greenish-yellow, \\-ith nan-ow 
splashes of dull red; flesh yellow, faint red at the pit. rather dry, mild to sprightly; quality 
fair; stone free, small, oval, shortly pointed, plump; ripens the middle of October. 



THE PKACHHS OF NEW YORK 355 

Elma. I. Fla. Sta. Rpt. 8:89. 1896. 2. Griffing Bros. Cat. 12. 1900. 

A medium-sized clingstone of the Spanish type; ripens the last of July. 
Elmira. i. Horticulturist 3:251. 1S48-49. 2. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 636. 1857. 

Originated with Dr. M. W. Phillips. Edwards, Mississippi. Glands reniform; flowers 
small; fruit large, o\'al, depressed; suture shallow; skin heavily pubescent, creamy-white; 
flesh white, tinged with red at the stone to which it adheres, sweet, good; ripens early 
in August. 
Elmo. I. Fla. Sta. Rpt. 8:89. 1896. 

Listed as growing at the Florida Station. 
Elodie. I. Pa. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 586. 1878. 

A seedling of Chinese Cling not as susceptible to rot as its parent. 
Elriv. I. .4m. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 45. 1897. 2. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:96. 1901. 

J. W. Kerr, Denton, Maryland, produced Elriv by crossing Rivers with Elberta, in 
1888. Tree strong and producti\^e; flowers large; fruit large, roundish to slightly oblong; 
suture very distinct; skin thin, tender, nearly entirely overlaid with bright red; flesh white, 
red at the pit, juicj-, sprightly; quality good; pit large, oval, semi-clinging; ripens with 
St. John. 
Elrose. i. Del. Sta. Rpt. 13:98. 1901. 

Elrose is the result of a cross between Elberta and Mountain Rose made by J. W. 
Kerr, Denton, Maryland, in 1888. Flowers small; fruit oblong, irregular, large; sutiwe 
distinct; skin almost entirely marbled with pale red; flesh firm, white; quality fine; stone 
plump, large; ripens with Mountain Rose. 
Ely. I. Village Nur. Cat. 9. 19 14. 

El\- is a large, yellow-fleshed peach of good quality, ripening just before Carman, 
according to the catalog of the Village Nurseries, Hightstown, New Jersey. 
Emil Liebig. i. Mathieu Xom. Pom. 394. 1889. 

Listed in this reference. 
Emma. i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 134. 1897. 2. Ga. Sta. Bui. 42:235. 1898. 3. Am. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 32. 1899. 

Emma, on the Station grounds, is unproductive and of poor quality. It has had a 
place on the American Pomological Society's fruit-list since 1899. Tree upright, rather 
tall; branclilets inclined to throw out short, spur-like shoots; glands reniform; fruit small, 
roundish-cordate; apex usually with a mucronate tip; skin thin, tough, deep yellow, with 
a mottled blush of dull carmine; flesh yellow, stained at the pit, firm, string}', sprightly; 
l)it small, ovate, plump, free; ripens at the end of August. 
Emporia, i. IL. .V. Y. Hort. Soc. Rpt. iii. 1880. 

Emporia is a very early variety originated by Mrs. L. Burns, near Emporia, Kan.sas. 
Endicott. i. ///. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 159. 1889. 

A freestone seedling of Oldmixon Cling which it resembles in shape; ripens with Hale 
F.arly. 
English. I. 7V.V. Sta. Bid. 39:816. 1896. 

The tree of English is vigorous lout not iiroducti\-e. Glands globose; fruit medium 
in size, oval, with a pointed apex; flesh white, firm; quality fair; clingstone; ripens the middle 
of August. 



356 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

English Swash, i. Horticulturist. 2:401. 1847-48. 

Leaves globose; flowers small; ripens the middle of September; moderately productive. 
Enon. I. Ohio Sta. Bui. 170:174. 1906. 

Fruit of medium size, globular, often oblate; suture shallow but distinct; color greenish- 
white, shaded and splashed with carmine; flesh white, moderately firm, melting; quality 
,i;ood; pit oval, short, free; ripens August loth. 
Equinox, i. .An.'^tiu \'ur. Cat. 9. 1909. 

I A very large, yellow freestone, ripening about the third week in September, according 
to the Austin Nursery Company, Austin, Texas. 
Ermine, i. Ont. Fr. Gr. Assoc. Rpt. 28:83. 1896. 

Fruit of medium size, partially free; pit large; ripens early in August. 
Ernoult. i. Ann. Pom. Beige 2:71, PI. 1854. 

Ernoult originated about 1844 near Liege, Belgiiun. Tree vigorous, productive; 
glands globose; fruit large, roundish; apex with a peculiarly wrinkled depression; skin 
downy, clear yellow, shaded with deep reddish-purple in the sun; flesh white, stained at 
the pit, melting, juicy, rich; freestone; ripens the middle of September. 
Ernst. I. Ramsey Ca/. 1913. 

According to F. T. Ramsey and Son, Austin, Texas, Ernst originated with a Mr. Sur- 
ties, Bexar County, Texas, about 1905. Fruit of mediiun size, white; freestone; ripens 
the middle of July. 
Erzherzog Cari. 1. Tiochnshl Fuhr. Obslkunde ^-.20$. 1858. 

A seedling of Gemeiner Lieblingspfirsich with which it is similar but larger, more 
deeply sutured, less pubescent and not as dark red; ripens early in September. 
Erzherzog Johann. 1. TiocimahlFtihr. Obstkunde 1:20$. 1858. 

Archiduc Jean. 2. Thomas G^wide Prat. 48, 215. 1876. 

A productive seedling of Gemeiner Lieblingspfirsich which it resembles. It is larger, 
more pointed, more deeply sutured, less pubescent, and not as dark a red as its parent; 
ripens early in September. 
Espagne Jaune. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:115 fig- i879- 

This variety was found about 1840 in the vicinity of Bayonne, Basses-Pyrenees, 
F'rance. Some believe it to be a native of Spain. Tree vigorous; glands large, reniform; 
flowers of medium size; fruit mediiun in size, o\-oid, somewhat cylindrical, halves unequal: 
suture distinct; apex with a mamelon tip; skin thick, yellow, spotted and washed with 
red; flesh yellow^ tinged at the pit, fibrous, melting, very juicy, acidulated; stone adheres 
very slightly, small, ovoid, plump; matures the latter part of October. 
Essex Mammoth, i. Ont. Sta. Rpt. 7:53. 1900. 

Listed as having been grown in Canada. 
Estella. I. Fla. Sta. Rpt. 8:89. 1896. 2. Glen St. Mary Niir. Cat. 11. 1900. 3. .4;;;. 
Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Estella originated in western Florida. In 1909 it was added to the fruit-list of the 
American Pomological Society. Fruit almost round, very large; skin greenish-}-ellow, 
with a full, red cheek; flesh yellow; ripens in Florida early in September. 
Esther, i. Ga. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1877. 

A Chinese Cling seedling of large size and excellent quality. 



THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 357 

Esther Doom. i. Tex. Sta. Bui. 8:34. iSSg. 2. .Austin Nur. Cat. 9. igoy. 

Esther Doom originated with Judge Doom, Austin, Texas. A fine, productive, yellow 
clingstone, ripening July 25th. 
Evangelist, i. la. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 306. 1899. 

A hardy variety grown in Iowa. 
Evans, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 91. 1899. 

Evans No. j. 2. Mo. State Fr. Sta. Rpt. 12. 1905-06. 

Evans is said to have the good characters of Elberta; ripens just after thai variety 
is gone. 
Evans Cling, i. Kan. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 195. 1902-03. 

A hardy clingstone grown in Iowa. 
Everbearing. 1. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 51. 1897. 2. U. S. D. .4. Yearbook 498, 499, 
500, PI. 61. 1905. 3. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 

Everbearing originated in the garden of a Mrs. Page, Cuthbert, Georgia, in 1885, 
and was named and disseminated by P. J. Berckmans about 1897. A marked characteristic 
of this variety is that some trees have a long blossoming and fruiting period. It is too 
tender for the North but is recommended for southern peach-districts, having been placed 
on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1909. Tree vigorous, compact, 
productive; glands reniform; flowers large; fruit roundish-conical, large, the later-ripening 
fruits being smaller; cavity large, deep and abrupt; suture shallow, with a prominent 
apex; skin thick, tough, thickly covered with long pubescence, greenish-white, striped 
and mottled with purplish-red; flesh white, considerably stained and \-cined with red, 
meaty, juicy, subacid; stone oval, free; season July ist to September or later in southern 
Georgia. 
Excellente. i. Mas Pom. Ge«. 12: 185. 1883. 

Listed but not described. 
Excelsior, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 185. 1856. 2. Am. Pom. Soc. Cat. 37. 1909. 
3. Waugh Ain. Peach Orch. 201. 19 13. 

Prince's Excelsior. 4. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 6^2. 1857. 

Excelsior was grown more than half a century ago by William R. Prince, Flushing, 
New York. It has been confused with Crosby, this sort having been once known as 
Excelsior. Fruit large, roundish to roundish-oblate; suture a line, ending in a flattened 
depression at the base; color attractive, bright orange-yellow; flesh golden-yellow, very 
rich, juicy, aromatic, sweet, separating freely from the stone; quality \'ery good; season 
the middle of October. 

Exquisite, i. U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 380. 1858. 2. Jour. Hort: N. S. 7:152. 1864. 
3. Downing Fr. Trees Am. 612. 1869. 4. Card. Mon. 19:114. 1877. 

Pavie Georgia. 5. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:218, 219 fig. 1879. 

Exquisite originated in Georgia many years ago. It seems to have been sent to 
England and France by P. J. Berckmans, Augusta, Georgia. Leaves with globose glands; 
fruit large, roundish-oval, with a distinct suture; skin yellow, mottled with crimson in 
the sun; flesh yellow, red at the stone, free, tender, melting, juicy, vinous; ripens in 
September. 



358 THE PEACHES OF NEW YORK 

Extra Early, i. Card. Moit. 2:337. i860. 

A seedling of Fay Early Anne which precedes its parent by three weeks; the fruit is 
small and fleshy, with a small pit. 
Fabre. i. Carriere Var. Peckers 54. 1867. 

Tree moderately vip;orous, very productive; glands reniform; flowers verj' small; 
fruit large, roundish at the base; apex with a small, mamelon tip; skin blushed with deep 
red on a yellowish-white ground; flesh yellowish-white, coarse, melting, \ev\- juicy; pit 
large, oval, free; ripens early in September. 
Fahnestock. i. Mag. Hort. 13:111. 1847. 

A large-fruited seedling from A. Fahnestock, Lancaster, Ohio. 
Fahnestock Mammoth, i. Mag. H9rt. 13:111. 1847. 
•> A large, yellow clingstone which originated with A. Fahnestock, Lancaster, Ohio. 

Falcon, i. Tex. Sta. Bid. 39:816. 1896. 2. Rivers Cat. 28. 1909-10. 

Fattcoii. 3. Thomas Guide Prat. 55, 218. 1876. 

Falcon originated with Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, England, from a pit of White 
Nectarine. Fruit mediimi in size, roundish; cavity deep, wide; suture shallow; apex with 
a small, erect, mamelon tip; skin thin, creamy-white, blushed with dull red, with a few 
stripes, not very attractive; flesh white, tinged at the pit, meaty, sprightly; stone oval, 
moderately plump; ripens at this Station the middle of September. 
Fame. i. Ala. Sta. Btd. 156:133. 191 1. 

Fame is an upright-growing tree, bearing yellow, freestone fruits of medium size; 
ripens July 1 8th ; very susceptible to rot. 
Fanning, i. Am. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 92. 1883. 

Fanning was exhibited in Philadelphia in 1883 by J. H. Ricketts of Newburgh, New 
York. Fruit medium in size, globular; skin striped and splashed with brownish-red on 
a yellowish-white ground; flesh greenish-white, melting, juicy, vinous, sprightly; very 
good; stone moderately plump, free. 
Farmbacher Lackpfirsich. i. Dochnahl Fiihr. Obstkiinde 3:21s- 1858. 

Tree very jDroductivc; branches long and slender; glands reniform; flowers of medium 
size; fruit large, long, halves unequal; deeply sutured; skin whitish-yellow, washed and 
striped with red; flesh whitish-yellow, red near the stone, very tender, fibrous, vinous; 
freestone; ripens the middle of September. 
Faut. I. Am. Card. 12: $(>$■ 1891. 

A Southern seedling. Tree strong, vigorous; fruit large; clingstone. 
Favier. i. Prince Pom. Man. 2:34. 1832. 

Favier was introduced by William Robert Prince from the region of the Mediterranean. 
Blossoms small; fruit of medium size, roundish; suture usually but a line; skin overlaid 
with red, with a deeper hue in the sun; flesh pale yellowish-white, strongly colored at the 
l)it, melting, juicy; freestone; ripens September loth. 
Favourite, i. Coxe Cidt. Fr. Trees 219. 181 7. 2. Downing Fr. Trees A>ii. 477. 1S45. 

Favourite Large Red Clingsionef 3. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 96. 183 1. 

Favourite Red. 4. Prince Pom. Ma«. 2:23. 1832. 

Early Favourite? 5. Mas Pom. Gen. 12:185. 1883. 



TIIK PKACHKS OF NKW YORK 359 

Glands small, globose, often lacking; flowers small; fruit large, oblong; skin white, 
rather downy, covered with dark red where exposed; flesh red at the stone, somewhat 
firm, juicy, vinous but not rich; ripens early in August. 
Fay Early Anne. i. Cultivator ^rd ?<er. 1:91. 1853. 2. .4;;!. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 41. i'856. 

3. /;)/(/. 78. 1862. 

Anne Precoce dc Fay. 4. Mas Le Verger 7:101, 102, fig. 49. 1866-73. 

A seedling of Anne, grown by Lincoln Fay, Chautauqua County, New York. It held 
a place in the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society from 1862 until 1869. Tree 
hardy and productive; glands reniform; flowers small; fruit of medium size, roundish; skin 
creamy-white, sometimes faintly tinged with red where exposed; flesh white, juicy, rich; 
ripens two weeks before Early Crawford. 
Fei Tau. i. 11". .V. Y. Hart. Soc. Rpt. 21. 1909. 

Cions of the Fei Tau peach were brought to America by Frank N. Meyer, United 
States Department of Agriculture, from the province of Fei Tcheng, China. 
Felicie. i. Leroy Diet. Pom. 6:117, iiS fig. 1879. 

Charles Buisson, Tronche, Iserc, France, grew this variety in i86j. (jlands usually 
lacking; flowers small; fruit of medium size, roundish-oval, halves unequal, with a mamelon 
tip at the apex; faintly sutured; skin thick, heavily pubescent, whitish-yellow, washed and 
striped with carmine; flesh yellowish-white to the stone, firm, fibrous, juicy, vinous, with 
an after taste; stone small, ovoid, free; ripens the last of September. 
Felt Rareripe, i. Gregg Fruit Cult. 100. 1877. 

The chief characteristic of this variety is that it reproduces itself from seed. It 
originated with Cyrus Felt, Monte Bello, Illinois; fruit large, yellow-fleshed, freestone; 
ripens the last of August. 

Ferdinand, i. Fla. Sta. Rpt. 8:89. 1896. 2. Am. Pont. Soc. Cat. 22. 1897. 3. Fla. 
Sta. Bui. 73:144. 1904. 

Ferdinand is a seedling of Honey raised by G. L. Taber, Glen Saint Mary, Florida, in 
1892. It was entered on the fruit-list of the American Pomological Society in 1897 but was 
dropped in 1899. Fruit roundish, slightly flattened, bulged on one side, large; apex short, 
blunt, recur\'ed; suture but a line; skin velvety, thick, tough, dull yellow, well covered with 
dull red; flesh firm, meaty, white, streaked with red; flavor insipid, poor; stone clinging, 
o\-al, plvmip, short; season early in July. 
Fetters, i. Card. Mon. 16:313. 1874. 

John Fetters, Lancaster, Ohio, raised this white-fleshed freestone from a pit of Lemon 
Cling. 

Fine Ja