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Full text of "Peasant art in Sweden, Lapland and Iceland;"

Lihrmry 



I' ■Ir'^ 



SOUTHERN BRANCH, 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 

LIBRARY, 

U^S ANGELES, CALIF. 



All 



PEASANT ART 

IN SWEDEN, LAPLAND 
AND ICELAND 




EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME 









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LONDON, 


PARIS, NEW YORK 










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PREFATORY NOTE. 

The Editor desires to acknowledge, in the first instance, his 
indebtedness to Dr. Bernhard Salin, the Director of the Northern 
Museum, Stoclcholm, who has rendered most valuable assistance in 
the compilation of this volume by placing at the Editor's disposal, 
for purposes of illustration, the splendid collection of peasant-work 
which he has under his care. Also to Mr. Ferdinand Bobey, 
Madame Anna Bobey, Mr. Robert K. Burt, Mr. C. A. Lowenalder 
(Honorary Secretary of the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in 
London), Count Louis Sparre, Mr. E. Stenberg, the Consulate 
General of Denmark, and the Swedish Touring Club for the help 
they have given in various ways. 

Art 
Library 



m 



ARTICLES. 



SWEDEN. By Sten Granluno (translated by E. Auams-Ray) 

LAPLAND. By Jarno Jessen 

ICELAND. '„ „ „ 



PAGE 

35 
43 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR, 

SWEDEN. 



Interior of a Peasant's Cottage 
Exterior of a Peasant's Cottage 

Painted Cupboard from Skiine... 

Woollen Tapestry Bed-cover from Jamtlani 

Woollen Bed-cover from Ostergotland 

,, ,, ,, okane 

Embroidered Carriage Cushion from Skane 
Applique Cushion from Smaland 
Embroidered Cushion from Jamtland... 
Tapestry Cushion from Jamtland 
„ „ ,, Smaland 

Silk Embroidered Women's Gloves from Skane 

„ ,, Woman's Glove from Ostergotland 

„ „ Scarf-end from Skiine 

Church Dress from Dalarne 
Bridesmaid's Dress from Dalarne 
Summer Dress from Dalarne ... 
Church Dress from Dalarne 
Girl's Dress from Sodermanland 
Festival Dress from Vastergbtland 

„ „ „ Helsingland 

Church Dress from Dalarne ... 



Frontispiece 

facing p. 1 6 
Nos. 

J' 

35° 

363 

364 

374 

3»9 

390 

391 

410 to 412 
414 

41J 
460 
461 
462 

463 
470 

471 
472 

473 



LAPLAND. 

Embroidered Reindeer-harness ... ... ... ...25&26 

Woman's Embroidered Collar and Front, with Silver and 

46 



Gilt Ornament 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN MONOTONE. 



SWEDEN. 

Peasant Houses. 

A Farm in Skanc ... facing p. 8 

Old Peasant House, Dalarne 

facing p. 24 

The Oktorp Farmhouse from nos. 
Halland ... ... i, 2 & 4 

Living-room from Transtrand 
in Dalarne ... ... 3 

Interior from Blekinge ... 5 

Peasant's House from Mora, 
Dalarne ... ... 6 & 7 

Exterior and Interior of a 
Peasant's House ... 458 & 459 

Furniture and Wood-carving. 

Batlet 181 

Bedpost ... ... ... 49 

Bedstead ... ... ... 42 

Beer-cans ...87-89,91, 102-106 

„ stoops ...83-86, 90, 92 & 93 

Bench ... ... ... 41 

Bowls ... ... 107-117 

Boxes 24 & 25, 53-62, 66-70 

Box-lid ... ... ... 65 

Butter-tubs 81 & 82 

Candlesticks ...50 & 52, 220 & 22 1 
Chairs ... ... 8-23 & 47 

Cigar-cases ... ... 7'-74 

Clock-case ... ... ... 43 

Clothes-rail ... ... ... 182 

Cupboards ... ... 26-358^39 

DistafFs 148-166 

Door-handles ... 75-77 

Handmangles ... 173-180 

Hanging-cupboard ... ... 40 

Hanging-shelves ... 37 & 44 
Harness-saddles ... 183-206 
vi 





NOS. 


Horned Beaker 


... lOI 


,, Bowls 


94-100 


Horse-collars 


207-215 


J«r 


... 121 


Lantern 


118 


Meat-stands ... 


638164 


Porringers ... 


78-80 


Puzzle-cups 


... 1 20 & 122 



Scutching-knivcs ... 140 &: 141 

Sofa-beds ... ... 36 & 38 

Spinning Implements (miscel- 
laneous) ... ... 167-172 

Spoon-rack ... ... ...119 

Spoons ... ... 123-139 

Stools ... ... 48 & 51 

Temples ... ... ... 142 

Watch-stands ... 45 & 46 

Weaving Implements (miscel- 
laneous) ... ... 143-147 

HORN-CARVING. 

Harness-pins,2 19,21 9a,2 2 2 & 2 2 2a 



Saddles 



216-218 
... 223 



Powder-horn 

Pottery. 

Earthenware Candlesticks, 224, 
226, 227 & 229 

„ Jars ... 225 & 230 

„ Puzzle-jug ... 228 

Metal-work. 

Bowls ... ... 231-237 

Candlesticks ... 238, 240-250 

Chandelier ... ... ... 239 

Clasp-knife and Fork ... 251 

Door-locks and Keys, 261, 262, 
267, 268 & 271 

Door-mounts ... 272-276 







NOS. 




NOS. 


Fire-Steel 


. 


252 


Embroidery and Appliqu£. 


Grave Crosses 


. 


277-295 


Belt 


... 420 


Padlocks and Keys . 


.. 253-260, 


Bridegroom's Shirt 


435 






263-266 


Cap ... 




Scutcheons ... 




269, 270 


• 437 








Cushions, 372-384, 387-388 & 393 


Jewellery. 






Gloves 


415, 416, 419 


Belt-buckle ... 


3' 


5, 333 & 339 


Hanging-pockets 407-409 & 429 


Bridal-belt ... 


• 


•• 334 & 335 


Jacket 


430 


Bridal-crown 




336 


Knife-sheat ... 


434 


Brooch 




337 


Neck-scarves 


421-428 


Buttons, 313, 


314, 


316-318 & 


Needle-case ... 


434 






326-330 


Shoes 


417-418 


Clasps 


296- 


3°S' 310-312 


Stocks for Women 


's Head- 


Cross 


• 


332 


gear 


.. 405, 406 


Dress-ornament 




340 


Towel 


404 



Eyes... ... 306, 308 & 309 

Neck-ornaments ... 307 & 338 

Necklaces ... 331 & 341-343 

Studs ... ... 319-325 

Textile Fabrics. 

Bench-cover ... ... 395 

Chair-covers ... 398-400 

Coverlets ... ... 355-358 

Cushions, 360-362, 365, 365-371, 
3^5) 386, 394, 396, 397 & 401-403 
Old Loom at the Northern 
Museum ... ... ... 345 

Table-cloth ... ... ... 359 

Wall-hangings, 344, 346-349 & 

351-354 



Lace. 



Bonnet-ties, 442, 444, 445 & 453 
Caps, 43 1 -433, 440, 441,443, 446- 

452 
Ceiling-cloths ... 456 & 457 



Collar 

Hanging-cloth 
Miscellaneous Examples 
Rafter-fringe 
Shelf- fringe 



436 

455 
438 
454 
439 



Costumes 



464-469 & 474-477 



Wall-paintings 



478-480 



vu 



LAPLAND. 

" On the March" ... facing p. 36 
"Milkins the Reindeer" „ 38 



Horn-carving 

Bag-locks 

Belt-clasps . 

Flasks 

Knife-handles 

Knives 

I-adles 

Match-boxes. 

Needle-cases. 

Spoons 

Silver-gilt Spoons .. 

Wooden Horned Bowl 



NOS. 

54-59 

38,40.42, 51-53 

23 & 24 

27-36 

19-22 

1-3 

3". 39, 4J> 43-45 

47-50 

4-»5 

16, 18 
... 17 



Wood-carving. ^'o^- 

Bed-boards ... 34-49. 5' ^^ 5^ 
Boxes 1-19. ^2. 3033 & 5° 

Box-lids ... 20,21,23-29 

Cases for Knitting-needles 53-62 
Handmangles ... 66-70 

Snuff-box 71 

Winding-pins ... 63-65 



ICELAND. 

Scenery. 

The Almannagja ... facing p. 43 
View near Mount Heckla „ 44 
Vayrnapjedwr)' ... „ 46 

The Strokr in eruption „ 48 



Horn-carving. 






Powder-horns 


. . . 


7^-74 


Spoons 


75.76& 


78, 79 


Metal-work. 






Crown-pieces 


... 


86-92 


Harness Ornaments... 


93-97 


Key-chatelaine 





.. 98 


Panel, brass ... 


... 


•• n 


Jewellery. 






Belts 




82-84 


Clasps 


...80,8 


I & 85 



Vlll 



SWEDEN 




From a famliiii; hy E. Slenberg 



SWEDEN— INTERIOR OF A PEASANT'S COTTAGE 



SWEDEN 

WHEN Artur Hazelius, with glowing patriotism and 
indomitable energy, slowly but surely laid the ground- 
work of the Swedish nation's widely renowned Northern 
Museum, he dreamed of creating for coming generations 
a living picture of the Sweden of by-gone days. He had not in his 
thoughts merely a museum in the ordinary sense of the word, with 
show-case after show-case, but he wished to clothe the museum-idea 
in a form that should be more easily understood by the multitude ; 
his museum was to be a place where every object should be in its 
proper milieu ; be, as it were, a living unit. It was in agreement 
with this idea that the first room-interiors arose, and, later on, 
when his creation had grown sufficiently strong, the picture of 
Scandinavian folk-life thus presented was supplemented by the 
" open-air " museum of Skansen, dear to every Swedish heart, 
the greatest attraction Stockholm can boast of, and one that no 
visitor to that city ever omits seeing. 

A visit to Skansen calls forth many emotions ; or at least it 
does so should the visitor be a Swede. Here are the ancestral 
homes of the sons of those fathers whose names were never inscribed 
in the pages of history, but without whose aid this Sweden would 
perhaps never have been a land. Here we can follow the course ot 
their lives amid their toil and their pleasures, through solemn and 
mirthful hours, in cottages they themselves built with hands long 
ago laid to rest. We see the furniture they used, the very dresses 
they wore : all this recalls to new life the vanished past. Best it is 
to wander about Skansen some beautiful autumn evening, when the 
yellow leaves rustle on the winding paths. As twilight deepens and 
the lights begin to glimmer in the little cottages, it is as though we 
heard the quiet rhythm of a mighty song, the song of a people 
telling of the generations that have gone, and of days long since 
reckoned with the past. 

But it is not emotions only the creation of Hazelius means 
to give us. It aims, above all, at spreading an all-round 
knowledge of Swedish culture, its origin and its development, and 
to this end the extraordinarilv rich material which has been 
collected has been arranged in .accordance with two different 
principles. On the one hand, old typical buildings have been 
obtained and re-erected at Skansen, and the rooms of these buildings 
have then been furnished in strict accordance with the customary 
arrangement of such houses ; while in the magnificent Northern 
Museum at Lejonsliitten on Djurgarden, furniture and articles of 
domestic use have been brought together in such a way as to form 

3 



SWEDEN 

typical interiors. Rooms have also been arranged after the 
ordinary methods of museums, in which objects have been placed 
with respect to their relationship to each other, while at the same 
time the rooms retain their character as divisions representative of 
the various provinces of Sweden. If, therefore, one wishes to 
study the history of Swedish culture, as told by the treasures in the 
Northern Museum, and especially that side of it illustrating its 
development among the peasantry, a visit should be paid to Skansen 
for the purpose of gaining a general view of the whole subject, 
after which the studies should be pursued in detail in the museum 
buildings at Lejonslatten. There is no great distance between the 
two places, for they are situated on either side of a little level 
stretch of open ground. 

Ancient Farm Houses. 

First of all, then, we shall pay a flying visit to Skansen, where, 
in the midst of a beautiful park-like landscape these old cottages 
stand— peasants' cottages, militiamen's cabins, cottars' dwellings and 
charcoal-burners' huts, church-belfries and Laplanders' huts. They 
lie close to each other, but, as one wanders from one to the other, 
a strong feeling comes over one that Sweden is, in a most 
extraordinary degree, a land of contrasts. This character is, in a 
great measure, the result of its being a country whose length 
extends over fourteen degrees of latitude, where the conditions of 
landscape and climate show every grade of variation, from the 
wide-stretching wastes where the Laplanders live their nomadic 
life, to plains where the climate is the same as that of the great 
level lands of Central Europe. It follows, as a matter of course, 
that such variations in the character of the country and in the 
conditions of life must, especially in the case of an agricultural 
population so strongly attached to the soil as that of Sweden is, 
necessarily create very striking differences in temperament, manners 
and customs, in ideas and in needs. That " triunial " cottage from 
the province of Halland (Nos. i, 2 and 4), a wonderful block of 
buildings with the " low-loft cottage " (Jagloftstuga) to the right, the 
" high-loft cottage " (Jioganloftstugan) to the left, and with the "high 
house" {ryggasstugan, the chamber ceiling-less and open up to the 
ridge tree) as the connecting link, bear witness to the solid affluence 
of the South Swedish farmer. Large, shining copper pans dazzle the 
eyes of the visitor. The walls are hidden behind woven or painted 
hangings, and on the table stands the mighty "welcoming-bowl" 
iydlkomman). Through the small, diamond-shaped windows one 
catches a glimpse of the little garden, where peonies flame round 

4 



SWEDEN 

the bee-hives. Everything breathes a solid opulence, a secure 
comfort. 

A few steps away we see the "Mora" house (Nos. 6 and 7), 
as it is called ; the type is older and more confined than that of 
the house from Halland, and everything — both furniture and 
domestic utensils — differs noticeably from the Halland type. Similar 
distinctions can be seen in every building one goes into, until we 
finally reach the Laplander's primitive hut {lappkata), where the 
watch-dogs bark at the visitor, the reindeer move quickly or lazily 
about on their rocky home, and we are able to form some faint idea 
of the fell-people's world, where the wastes are white with snow 
and the northern lights flash in the cold winter sky. 

But it is not geographical distances alone that have created 
differences in buildings, furniture and domestic utensils. Sweden has 
been, and, in some measure, still is, the land of almost impenetrable 
forests, and consequently a land where there was formerly little 
communication between the different provinces. Thus it is that 
peculiarities in house construction arose in districts quite near to 
each other, peculiarities which have been retained until our own days. 
Not only in separate provinces, but in the different hundreds, and 
parishes even, a varying development has taken place, and on this 
account very distinct peculiarities can be pointed out. Within a 
certain tract — and especially in the parishes of northern Dalecarlia — 
even the larger villages present such marked diversities in culture 
that a trained eye and an accustomed ear can tell to which villages 
people belong, merely by observing the differences in dress, dialect, etc. 

It is just the peculiarities in building in the various districts of 
the same province that it is necessary to keep in mind when we 
endeavour to illustrate the objects which are given here dealing 
with the life of the Swedish peasant. 

Even the methods of building make an interesting contribution 
to the illustration of the differences and cast of mind among the 
Swedish country-folk. Amongst the ancient forms of house still con- 
structed are that of the fire-house, with the hearth in the centre of 
the room {eld-huset)^ and the high-house — the house whose ceiling 
went up to the ridge-pole (ryggasstugan), representing the dwellings 
in use in heathen times and in the middle ages. The fire-house, which 
can still be found in Norrland and in Dalecarlia, has the open hearth 
in the middle of the floor, with a hole in the roof above, through 
which the smoke is carried off. The high-house, in which the hearth 
has become a corner fire-place with a chimney, and where the smoke- 
hole has been turned into a window, probably occurs in its original 
form only in the ancient Swedish-Danish border provinces of Smaland, 



SWEDEN 

Blekinge, northern Scania, Halland and Vastergotland. As an ancient 
feature it may be noted that the cottage must always he sol-rdtt, i.e., 
with its gable-ends due east and west, and with the roof-window and 
the door towards the south. In the erection of church-buildings in 
the country this custom is still strictly observed. 

It would take too long if, during this cursory visit, we should 
go into all the cottages at Skansen. We must be contented with 
peeping into one or two of them, which will enable us to assure 
ourselves that the most minute care has been taken to make the 
picture lifelike and exact in the very smallest detail. The typical 
room-interiors in the Museum will give us a better opportunity of 
examining, undisturbed, the interior of a Swedish peasant home. We 
see there, for example, the Ingelstad cottage, representing a Skanian 
farmer's home of the decade 1820-30, and which, on the whole, is 
typical of south and south-west Skane or, in other words, ot the 
populated tracts in the plains. 

The farm buildings erected in this old-fashioned way consisted 
in these districts of a collection of houses arranged in a group, and 
forming a square frame about a yard which, as a rule, was paved. 
One side of this square was called the '■'■ stue/angan'' (the main 
building) and contained the large dwelling-room of the family, 
and was flanked by the " back-house " or box-room, the " cellar- 
house " {kallarhuset), the porch, and the kitchen. From the 
porch, which was towards the yard, one came in through a door 
into the dwelling-room, where both the farmer's family and the 
servants lived. 

When we have crossed the threshold, we have the front part of 
that room before us. At the far gable-end is the door leading to 
the box-room, which formed both a spare bedroom and also a kind 
of strong room, in which the farmer kept his great chests full of 
linen, figured woven materials and the like, cushions, ornaments and 
clothes. To the right of the door we see the end table-bench, 
which was also called the seat of honour, the corner cupboard, and, 
supported against one of the long walls, " the bench along the wall " 
{bakbords b'ankeri) ; to the left is the clock in its case, and the curtained 
four-post bedstead with its " bed-help strap " {s'anghjulprein), a rope 
round which was twisted gaily-coloured yarn, with a kind of holds 
for the hands. This rope hung from the top of the bed and served 
to help the old and the sick to raise themselves, or to turn over in 
bed. The curtain in front of the long side of the bed dates from 
heathen times. Amongst the other furniture of the room may be 
noted the characteristic table on trestles called the " table chest " 
{bordkistan), the " goose-bench " (for the geese when sitting on their 

6 



1 



SWEDEN 

eggs), and the armchairs with straw seats. The floor is made of 
well-pounded clay and is strewn with sea-sand. 

The white-washed walls are generally bare, but perhaps the 
room has been arranged for some festive occasion. The figured 
woven cloth or a piece of tapestry covers the walls, the chairs and 
benches have large and small cushions, and the table is laid for the 
banquet with peculiar bread-baskets and candlesticks. 

From the house from the plains we now betake ourselves to 
one representative of the forest districts. This presents an example 
of a large farm in the parish of Lima in Dalecarlia, and consists 
of a hall with outhouses, living-room and "best-room" {'■'■ nystuga") 
a kind of fine room used on great occasions, and a " chamber " taken 
off from the hall. Two doors lead from the living-room, one to 
the " chamber," the other to the hall. There is a window in each 
of the long walls and at the gable-end. The fire-place embraces 
the oven, with a niche outside the mouth of the oven, and the fire- 
place proper. At the side of the fire-place, which is towards us, 
there is seen a door which closes the entrance to a chamber above 
the roof of the oven ; this forms a sleeping-place very much 
appreciated by the old. The stands around the fire-place are drying- 
places for wet clothes. The furniture consists of two beds, one at 
each end of one of the long walls, the space between them being taken 
up by a bench fastened to the wall and shelves for cooking utensils 
and the like ; here too is the place for the water-pail. On the floor 
in front of the bench there is a stone on which the pots and 
pans are placed on being lifted from the fire, and which therefore 
had the name of " pot-stone " (grytsten). Along the gable-end and 
the other long wall are benches fastened to the walls, and, in the 
angle between these walls, a table. 

This short description gives some idea of the appearance of 
a couple of typical peasants' houses. In order to get a more de- 
tailed picture of the various objects that furnished these homes we 
will turn to the numerous illustrations which accompany this article. 

The furniture in olden times was very simple and the con- 
cessions to comfort strikingly few. With a few exceptions the 
furniture was fastened to the walls, the only movable pieces consisting 
of a few stools and other seats. The table was originally nothing 
but a wide board without legs, which, when it was to be used, 
was laid across a couple of large blocks of wood, and afterwards 
hung up on the wall by means of iron rings. A probable ancient 
form of bench is that still used under the name of '■'■ kracken" (a stool, 
the legs of which were the natural branches of the piece of timber), 
which formed part of the furniture of the fire-house [e/J/ius), and 

7 



SWEDEN 

which is, perhaps, a descendant of the krokpall mentioned in the 
ancient Scandinavian legends. It not infrequently took very 
hintastic forms. The peasant found in the forest a curious tree-root. 
His imagination was awakened and he fashioned his find into a 
" krack " having the shape of some animal (No. 51) or other object. 
There is, for example, in the collections of the Northern Museum, 
a " krack " which bears a wonderful likeness to a gigantic molar 
(No. 48). Another very ancient form is the " block-chair" (kiihh stole 11) 
(No. 47), consisting of a hollowed-out short tree-trunk. It was 
sitting in such a chair that the celebrated astrologer, Tycho Brahe, 
made his wonderful discoveries. The prototype of the block chair 
was known in ancient times and has, tor example, been often found in 
Etruscan caves. In the Museum there is one from Norway which 
very probably dates from early mediaeval times, if not actually from 
the Viking period. 

The chair in the house of the peasant seems, too, to have been 
regarded with a kind of solemn reverence. It was used as the seat 
of honour, "high-seat," and its stately title was "the wedding-stool " 
or "bride-stool" [brudstolen), "justice's chair" {domarestol\ etc. 
(Nos. 12, 20, 22 and 23). Such chairs, of a manifestly mediseval 
type, were in use in northern Sweden and in Dalecarlia until 
comparatively recent times. 

With the growing demand for comfort, the benches which 
were fastened to the wall were gradually replaced by chairs. The 
earlier forms are often characterized by varying taste, and show how 
the peasant cleverly managed to make an independent use of the 
styles of art prevailing at different periods (Nos. 9, 13 to 19, and 21). 
Even such an exclusive form as the Chippendale chair has been 
reproduced in rather remote villages. But the renaissance type was 
the one most adopted, and it was reproduced until far into the 
beginning of the 19th century. A very individual form, with a strong 
local character, is the three-legged Blekinge chair, with a back and 
a circular seat (Nos. 8 and 10). The chairs in Scania are often 
provided with seats of straw-rope, plaited or twisted together. On 
solemn occasions, the seats were covered with woven or embroidered 
cushions. 

Peculiar hybrid forms of chair and bench are the chair-table 
(No. I i) and the so-called " vdndbanken" (turn-over bench), the back 
of which is attached to two side-posts or legs, and can thus be let 
down on either long side (No. 41). This is a type which was very 
common in the north of Europe, and was observed by Linneus 
everywhere in the peasants' houses in Gotland during his tour 
through that island in 1741, and it was still to be found in Sweden 

8 




V. 



x: 



r. 



I 



SWEDEN 

and the neighbouring countries for some time in the early part of 
last century. 

The sleeping places in the old Swedish peasants' houses were 
either built into the wall and provided with shutters, or else were 
benches attached to the walls. In the interior of a cottage in 
Dalecarlia, in the parish of Rattvik, pulled down some time during 
the seventies of last century, the long wall in the background was 
occupied in its entirety by a " built-in " bed (" closet-bed "), provided 
with shutters and arranged in three tiers. The whole arrangement 
was of a most remarkably old-fashioned character, reminding one of 
the '•'■luckhvUa'''' or '■' /okrekkja" of legendary times. 

Movable beds are found at an early period however. A very 
peculiar one is that in the iMuseum, an oak bedstead from Fars 
hundred in Scania (No. 42), which is clearly of a mediaeval type both as 
regards construction and decoration, the latter having late Gothic 
motives, although the bed was made as late as 1734 — this being 
speaking evidence of that tenacious conservatism with which the 
Swedish peasantry have clung to traditionary forms and usages. It 
is remarkable that this type of bed has been in general use within 
the limits of a little district in Scania, but that it is altogether absent 
in the rest of Sweden, with the exception, perhaps, of Dalecarlia. 
At least a so-called s'angstake (bed-post), from the last-named 
province (No. 49), shows a very evident relationship to the perpen- 
dicular corner-parts of the Scanian bedstead. 

A form of bed which at once gained the approval of the 
practical peasant was the '■'■ utdrags-sdng" (sofa-bed) (Nos. 36 and 
38), which was introduced in the i8th century, and is still in use 
amongst the peasantry. The latter, a magnificent piece of work in 
its way, which has been acquired by the Museum, is a Louis Seize 
bed, decorated with carved ornamental work glued on. The bed 
has been adorned with paintings in many and brilliant colours on a 
blue-white ground. 

Cupboards scarcely ever formed a part of the fittings of 
the mediaeval peasant's house. It was the demand made by 
the Gothic for greater conveniences and profusion in the arrange- 
ment of the home, that gave rise to the cupboards, as it had 
done in the case of chairs, and then the renaissance also leaves 
its mark on them. Different districts adopted different types. 
Thus, for example, the Dutch renaissance was predominant in 
Angermanland, while in Scania the deepest traces were left by 
the German type. Native individuality was, however, always 
conspicuous. Illustration No. 27 shows a cupboard in use about 
the end of the i8th century. 

9 



SWEDEN 

The cupboards were sometimes fastened to the wall and 
provided with a grille or rail. A beautiful type of cupboard is the 
skdnken or skaphyllan (No. 26), on which were placed the more 
decorative domestic utensils. This type has been developed out of a 
Gothic cupboard-form, and has been retained longest in western 
Dalecarlia. Another article of furniture is the buffet-cupboard 
(skdnkskap) with reminiscences of renaissance furniture types, but 
here decorated with carvings in relief which have markedly Gothic 
motives (No. 39). Very common pieces are the corner-cupboard 
(Nos. 29, 30 and 34), which stood in the angle between the front 
gable-end and the north long wall ; and the cupboard which had 
its place on the long wall (Nos. 28, 32 and 33), some feet from 
the corner-cupboard, and which, together with the last-named 
article of furniture, bounded a bench-place, the " high bench " or 
bench of honour (Jiogbdnken), which was reserved for the master of 
the house. 

Allied to the cupboards were the hanging-shelves {ydgghyllorthi), 
on which the mistress of the house set out her silver beakers and such 
other valuable chattels as could give the house the appearance of 
being owned by well-to-do people (Nos. 37 and 44). These shelves 
are also called tavletter (Fr. tavlettes) and are to be found everywhere, 
from Smaland to beyond the polar circle. Very often an amount 
of labour and time appears to have been expended on these hanging- 
shelves that is quite incomprehensible nowadays, as, for example, 
when the pillars or columns supporting or joining the shelves are 
carved out of a single piece of wood (No. 44). A kind of 
hanging-shelf is the spoon-rack (skeJliyllanJ, where the family 
kept its wooden spoons. 

An article of furniture often mentioned in the Swedish popular 
ballads of the middle ages is the chest or box {skrinet). Whenever a 
peasant wished to express an idea of something valuable or precious, 
he spoke of a " chest of jewels " (fbrgyllande skriii). And, thanks to 
this poetical nimbus, perhaps, the making and decoration of a 
chest became a work of love for the peasantry. The forms of 
the numerous chests vary very much (Nos. 53 to 62, and 65 to 70). 
Sometimes they are related to the Gothic, growing narrower down- 
wards ; sometimes they borrow their form from the Renaissance, 
having perpendicular straight sides and standing on feet, but still 
retaining Gothic motives in their ornamentation. Some again have 
taken their flat carving from the German renaissance, while others 
have retained the straight lines but have added a rounded lid. 

When, during the course of the 17th century, the plan was 
hit upon of placing the casket on feet, a piece of furniture was 

10 



SWEDEN 

thus obtained which, in general, was called by the name of 
'■'■ nattlada'''' (Nos. 24 and 25). It was a common object in the old 
peasants' houses, and served as a depository for the women's finery. 
These boxes can be regarded as a direct link between the 
" chest of jewels " of the mediaeval and the early renaissance 
periods, and the chest of drawers and the chiffoniers of rococo and 
later times. 

Clocks made a somewhat late appearance in the houses of the 
peasants, but when they once became known, they soon came into 
general use (No. 43). Carl von Linne, the great naturalist, the first 
Swede who made tours of this country, and who had a most observant 
eye for all that was to be seen, does not, in his account of his journey 
through Dalecarlia (about 1735), say a single word about any 
manufacture of clocks which existed there. On the other hand, 
Hiilphers, a well-known writer on Swedish country districts, who 
travelled through the same tract some thirty years later, mentions a 
number of parishes where the manufacture of clocks was carried on 
by the peasants as a home-industry or by-trade. The parish of 
Mora in Dalecarlia became celebrated for its clocks, which were 
afterwards hawked about for sale in all parts of Sweden. The 
manufacture continued until our own days, but is now dying out. 
Anders Zorn's brush has immortalised one of the last village clock- 
makers of Dalecarlia. 

A Peasant's Cottage in Festal Guise. 

The everyday appearance ot a Swedish peasant's home was 
chilling and stiff, but this appearance was altogether changed on the 
occasion of a festival ; Yule-tide, for example, the celebration of 
which in the north of Europe was always preceded by many prepara- 
tions, when the floor was strewn with rye-straw ; or a wedding or 
the like, when the walls and ceiling were covered with woven 
or painted hangings (Nos. 344, 346 to 354). These hangings were 
either of linen, woven, painted or embroidered, or else of paper on 
which figures were depicted (Nos. 478 to 480). The woven 
cloths were adorned with geometrical designs, or with patterns 
of severely conventional floral motives. The women when weaving 
sometimes attempted to reproduce in their hangings figures ot ships, 
houses, men and animals, patterns greatly reminiscent of the textile 
work of the medieval and renaissance periods. This resemblance is 
easy to explain when we remember the immense length of time dur- 
ing which weaving had been carried on as a home industry. As tar 
back in past ages as our records go, we know that Swedish women 
wove and sewed figured work. The maidens of the ancient legends 

1 1 



SWEDEN 

reproduced the features and made eternal the exploits of their heroes, 
while waiting for their return from a Viking raid on some foreign 
coast. Woven hangings were used, too, to decorate the timbered 
walls of the halls in the times of the Vikings ; they were hung over 
the temples and they decorated the timber sepulchres of the dead. 
Thus, when the timbered grave of the Danish queen Tyra Danabode 
(who died about the year a.d. 950) was opened, remains of woven 
woollen cloth were found, which had at one time covered the inner 
oak panels of the tomb. In the hero-rhymes of the Edda, in the 
song about Gudrun, it is related how in the hangings were woven 
the warlike games of the heroes, the likenesses of the king's men, 
ships, far-off halls, swans and other animals. The famous tapestry ot 
the 1 1 th century at Bayeux, also bears witness to the height to 
which the art of embroidery had reached amongst those descendants 
of the Vikings of the north, the Normans. The taste for hangings 
was everywhere retained during the middle ages and until as late a 
date as the 17th century, when these wall decorations disappeared 
from the homes of the higher classes. In the houses of the peasantry, 
however, they were held in favour for a couple of centuries more. 

With respect to the painted hangings, we know that they date 
back to the 15th century. When, during the course of the 19th 
century, these hangings were produced in large numbers, they began 
to use grey paper instead of linen. It is quite amusing to study 
these peasant-artists' productions, of which the Northern Museum has 
a rich collection, the oldest specimen dating back to 1639, and the 
latest to the last quarter of the 19th century. The sphere in which 
the imagination of these peasant-artists moved was an extensive one. 
They depicted both worldly and scriptural subjects, allegories dealing 
with Christian and general motives, historical episodes and genre; some- 
times they gave the reins to their imagination and ventured into the 
realm of personal satire. Motives from the Old Testament were very 
popular, such, for example, as: Joseph's dreams, Joseph and Potiphar's 
wite, Elias in the chariot of fire, David and Bathsheba, and the story 
of Susanna. The New Testament also supplied subjects : the Adora- 
tion of the Magi and the Marriage at Cana occurring very frequently. 
From a historical point of view the dresses portrayed are very droll, 
as they usually are in such naive artistic productions. The children 
ot Israel are dressed like the men and women of Dalecarlia ; Joseph, 
as the governor of Egypt, has a three-cornered hat and smokes a 
meerschaum pipe ; the Apostles have pea-jackets, loose collars and 
jack-boots ; the Saviour wears a clergyman's gown. The drawing is 
bold and trained, for the most part summary, often full of mannerisms 
in consequence of a shortness in the proportions. Trees, when they 

12 



SWEDEN 

occur, are represented with large clusters of leaves, very much in the 
style of the wood-cuts and drawings of the later middle ages. The 
artists by no means objected to architectural motives, the buildings 
being many stories high and adorned with towers and spires. The 
airy expanse is filled with conventional flowers. At the top, the 
painting is rounded off with festooned and be-tasselled drapery, or with 
a cleverly invented border composed of an alternation ot flowers and 
leaves. The colours are bright-red, blue, green, and yellow. Of very 
great historical interest are the painted hangings where the artist has 
chosen scenes from the home or public life of the peasantry, and these 
productions make valuable contributions to our knowledge ot the 
manners and usages of former times. 

Amongst the other things that decorated the cottage on festal 
occasions were gaily-coloured coverlets and cushions, the patterns ot 
which show how highly developed the peasant's sense of colour was, 
and to what a degree of excellence this home-weaving industry had 
reached (Nos. 355 to 403). These coverlets and cushions were used 
to cover the beds, benches and even the tables of the cottage. The 
patterns adopted in this work were probably an inheritance from 
the middle ages, which is shown by the lily motive, amongst other 
things, and the employment of figures of animals alternating with 
flower-urns, motives met with in medieval decoration and probably 
borrowed from the East. 

Another thing that brightened these festivities was the lighting 
of the cottage. On ordinary occasions, people were content with 
the gleam from the open hearth and with the light from 
the splint-wood torches [pertstickor), which were stuck in 
especially-made holders fastened to the wall, or in stands on 
the table or floor, or, in some places in western Sweden, with 
clay-lamps filled with train-oil and a wick made of grass. In 
Bohuslan they had a kind of double-bowled type of lamp made 
of iron, something resembling two spoons one above the other, 
with a lamp-screen of plaited straw. The well-known naturalist. 
Per Kalm, who travelled through Bohuslan in 1742, relates amongst 
other things that " lamps are used here instead of candles, and in 
these they put train-oil and a wick, either of flax or ot hemp, or, still 
better, the inner part of a kind otjuficus, a species of herb resembling 
a sedge, which is found almost everywhere in marshy places. These 
lamps give a light as clear as that given by an ordinary candle ; one 
could, perhaps, distinguish some little smell when they were burning." 
But on the occasion of a feast neither splint-wood torches nor clay- 
lamps were good enough. Then home-made wax and tallow candles 
were brought out, and to hold these they had more or less decorative 

13 



SWEDEN 

chandeliers and candlesticks, differing in shape, and possessing certain 
very defined peculiarities in each district. As a rule the stateliest of 
them was of wrought iron adorned with suspendent, jingling bits of 
metal, rings, reels, etc. (Nos. 238 to 250). Not infrequently they 
were crowned by a movable figure of a cock, the symbol oi light, 
and one which plays an important role in the ancient religion ot 
the Scandinavian peoples, and which was never absent from the old 
church belfries. The sense of humour of the peasantry found vent 
in the making of a kind of wooden candlestick (Nos. 50 and 52), 
more for a joke than for use. They were made of a number of 
pieces loosely put together, fitting in each other and held together 
by the candle-pipe. To take this thing to pieces was a matter of 
no little difficulty, but to put it together again was still harder. 

When speaking of the lighting used in the Swedish peasant- 
homes it may be mentioned that the Northern Museum possesses a 
most interesting typological collection of the systems used, in which 
it is possible to trace their development step by step. Amongst the 
lanterns may be noticed some where the light is allowed to stream 
out through horizontal rows of goose-quills placed close to each 
other. En passant it may be mentioned that this substitute for glass 
was adopted for windows too, and that it was still in use in some 
parts of northern Vastergotland as late as about 1850. 

Now that the cottage is dressed in festal attire and is brilliantly 
illuminated, it remains to devote a little attention to the banqueting 
table. The meats themselves and the laying of the table were plain 
enough (Nos. 63 and 64, 81 and 82, 114 and 117). Soups, gruel 
and porridge were eaten together for the first course, served 
in large earthenware dishes. For the fish, there were used 
in some places earthenware or wooden dishes with a basin in the 
middle. The basin was intended for the sauce, and the fish, cut 
into pieces, was arranged round about it. In front of the guests 
were placed dishes on feet, with herring and other food {"■sove/"), 
which dishes may be regarded as the prototypes and intermediate 
forms of the plate. The trenchers were made of long or short 
narrow planed pieces ot wood, according to the number of persons 
who could find room along one side ot the table. By degrees it was 
found more convenient for each person to have his own dish, and so 
the big family trenchers were sawn into several pieces. By sawing 
off the corners of the pieces, they got the many-sided plate-form 
which finally became circular. The guest took his own knife and 
fork to the feast (No. 251). The spoons were always of wood, richly 
carved and often marked by a defined local individuality (Nos. 123 
to 139). 



SWEDEN 

The food was prepared very plainly but abundantly, and was 
kept in different vessels (Nos. 121, 225, and 230). The Swede 
loves superfluity, and even to-day at a feast at a farmer's house, 
the table must groan under the number of the dishes, if things 
are to be done properly. A large part of the eatables was brought 
by the guests and was called '■'•forning." This is a very ancient 
custom and, during the early middle-ages, gave much trouble to the 
makers of sumptuary laws. At the beginning of the i 3th century 
this '■'■ forning " was forbidden by the Gotland Legal Code, but the 
custom has survived to the present day. A festal dish common 
over the whole country was the '■'■Jirning" porridge of barley, which 
was served up in porringers (Nos. 78 to 80) especially made for 
the purpose. A custom inherited from pagan times, of taking 
porridge to women in confinement — a dish offered to the Norfia or 
goddesses who direct the fate ot men — still exists in some country 
districts. If the meats were provided abundantly at a Swedish 
peasant party, this was still more the case with the liquor. The 
ancient inhabitants of the far north were, like their Germanic 
relations, great lovers of a grand carouse, and much magnificence 
was displayed both at the meals and in the drinking vessels used. 
In the Icelandic stories, which often enough give very drastic 
descriptions of the table-manners of the Vikings, there are 
mentioned quite a number of different drinking vessels, such as 
bowls, cans, beakers, cans with handles and horns. 

In the Olof Tryggvason's saga it is related how the king made 
fun of the ancient Swedish custom of " licking their sacrificial 
bowls." This ancient northern custom of emptying these bowls of 
ale to the honour ot the gods and of the dead was transformed 
during the middle ages into festive meetings of churchmen and 
laymen, and that of drinking bowls of ale to the health and 
prosperity of friends present or absent has long survived as a kind 
of religious ceremony, it may almost be called, amongst the popular 
customs of the country. This is probably one of the reasons why 
drinking vessels occupied the place of honour amongst the family 
treasures, and possessed such beauty and wealth of form. 

The Northern Museum possesses an extraordinarily rich 
collection of ancient drinking vessels. Amongst these may be 
mentioned first of all the peculiar type called '•'■ kdsa^' or beakers with 
horns, which were originally large ale-bowls of wood, but which, 
during the course of the middle ages, were altered in form and 
decorated with one or several perpendicular prongs, handles or horns, 
beautifully carved with scrolls and floral motives. When these 
beakers were used, the horns were carried over the head, round 

15 



SWEDEN 

which they formed a fantastic wreath. The Swedish historian Olaus 
Magnus (d. 1558) has left us a wood-cut representing a carouse, 
where two couples of guests vie with one another in the emptying of 
these enormously large ale-bowls (No. loi) which are provided 
with branching horn-shaped appendages, while the drawers re- 
plenish the beakers out of yard-high cans or jugs which stood on 
the floor, and for that reason were called '■'■ standkar" or '■'■ stdnka'"'' 
(Nos. 87 to 89). Olaus Magnus affixes to his drawing a Latin text 
which can be translated as follows : 

" It seemeth meet for me also to inform the curious of the right 
manner of drinking amongst the dwellers in the North. Foremost 
is the custom, which is observed with religious reverence, namely 
that of showing veneration for higher beings and also for princes, 
great and noble men, by rising when drinking to their honour. 
Moreover there be drinking-matches between men, who contend as 
for a matter of life and death, and who can empty a great horned 
bowl of ale at one or two draughts. Here the reader may see them 
in the picture seated at table as if with wreaths or horns about their 
heads, drinking out of vessels of the form mentioned above, such as 
could easily awaken the wonder of those who have not themselves 
witnessed it. But still more marvellous must it appear to see the 
drawers, like unto shepherds keeping a herd of deer, move forward 
in crowds to keep these drinking-vessels of the guests filled with ale. 
Nor are these customs enough. The drinkers vie with each other 
also to show how much they may endure in drinking, by dancing 
round about, with the deep and filled ale-vessels balanced on their 
heads. In like manner they come forward to their drinking mates 
in order to empty with them a bowl, carrying in each hand other 
kinds of vessels, filled with wine, mead, must or unfermented ale." 

It may interest our readers to read this lively description of a 
Swedish drinking-bout of the i6th century, as it gives contrast to 
later drinking customs amongst the peasantry of our country. Old 
authorities agree in stating that, as a rule, the country people lived a 
very temperate life, but at these carouses they cast all restraint aside. 
Then it became a point of honour honestly to empty one's glass at a 
draught, and " to get thoroughly drunk " was praiseworthy rather 
than shameful. 

After this little digression we can return to the horned drinking 
bowls. In the Northern Museum there is preserved a collection 
of them, a number of which belonged originally to noble families, 
whose arms may be seen on the vessels, and which afterwards 
found their way to peasant homes, where they were used on solemn 
occasions. Thus, for example, they were carried on the saddle of 

16 




Fioni ii paintins: by E. Stnib^r^' 



SWEDEN— EXTERIOR OF A PEASAXT'S COTTAGE 



SWEDEN 

the outrider at wedding processions and funerals, both the outrider 
and the guests refreshing themselves out of them on the way. In 
this connection it may be mentioned that in the Museum there are 
some smaller drinking vessels (Nos. 94 to 100, and 231 to 237), 
also known by the name of horned bowls {kasor). They are of 
great antiquity, dating back to the 17th century — and often very 
beautiful in form and richly carved. 

The liquors used were almost exclusively ale and spirits (gin). 
They were brought in sometimes in the high cans mentioned by Olaus 
Magnus, and also in enormous vessels called bowls [bollar). The latter, 
which not infrequently were of astounding dimensions, were round 
and deep-turned wooden vessels, usually painted red, with figures in 
black or striking colours. The peasantry loved to adorn them with 
rhyming proverbs, which often displayed popular humour, and are 
interesting both from a literary and historical point of view. It is, 
however, impossible to translate them into a foreign language. From 
these tubs, large bowls or high cans, which were placed on the table 
or on special "ale side-boards" {kannskdnketi), the guests helped them- 
selves to the liquor, with the assistance of smaller cans, bowls, beakers 
and tumblers, which they often took with them to the place where 
the feast was held (Nos. 83 to 86, 90 to 93, 102 to 108, i 10, 
III, 113, and I I 5 and 116). It was also the custom to drink deep 
draughts direct from the big four-mouthed bowls [snipaska/nrne) or 
{snackeskalarne) (Nos. 109 and 112), by means of a ladle, which on 
this account was called "the drinking-spoon " [supsked). 

Most of the home-made drinking utensils of the peasants were 
of wood, some put together in ribs, some carved out of a single 
piece, while others were made of horn. A curious thing is the 
proneness to make the handle of the drinking utensil in the shape 
of an animal, a feature that can be traced far back into pagan times. 
There are gold vessels dating from the bronze age with handles 
shaped like horse-heads, and the handle of a Danish utensil of wood, 
from the iron age, resembles a bird's head. It is not improbable, 
of course, that the horned bowls described above are later forms of 
prehistoric drinking-vessel types. 

At the feasts, there were also found vessels intended to puzzle 
the drinking champions, and so awaken and sustain mirth and jollity 
at the table. There was the puzzle-jug {gyckclkruseri) with the 
perforated rim (Nos, 120, 122 and 228). If anybody tried to drink 
in the ordinary way out of such a jug, the vessel emptied its con- 
tents over his head while nothing came into his mouth, this very 
naturally awakening the mirth of the company. If he was wide- 
awake, or was already acquainted with the trick, he knew that in 



SWEDEN 

order to be able to get a drink, he would have to suck up the 
liquor out of one of the mouth-pieces arranged round the rim. It 
could happen, however, that he drew in vain, for several of these 
were false openings (which had to be stopped with the fingers) 
over the draw-pipe going through the hollow cavity and the pipe- 
shaped rim, down to the bottom of the inner part of the jug. 

These were some of the customs of a Swedish peasant-drinking 
feast, in the days when ale was brewed with the addition of home- 
grown hops, and when spirits (gin), the right of making which was 
a privilege of the Swedish peasant as that of making wine is of the 
French, were distilled on each hearth. But while the old men drank 
and chatted, the tones of the fiddle were heard, and the young men 
and women joined in dancing those peculiar dances in which the 
temperament of the Swede is shown in mingled melancholy and mirth, 
and which the stranger can still see at Skansen, danced by young men 
and women in the old gaily-coloured national costumes. For the aim 
of the Northern Museum is not only to preserve ancient typical 
buildings, and to collect articles of furniture and domestic utensils that 
can give us a picture of what life was like in olden days. Its task is 
also to rescue from oblivion the dances and melodies in which the 
soul of the Swedish peasantry has found such characteristic expression. 

WOOD-SLOYD.* 

The Swedish peasant was, and, to some extent, still is his own 
smith, carpenter, joiner and painter. During the long winter months, 
when the snow lies deep on the ground, he has little to do out-doors. 
The axe, big pocket-knife and plane provide him with work then, 
while the women of the family sit at their looms. And when the 
■dark comes on early, everyone assembles in the cottage, where big logs 
crackle on the open hearth. But no one is allowed to sit idle. The 
women spin and sew, the master of the house and the farmer's men 
work at their sloyd, while the boys take their pocket-knives and make 
. a first attempt at forming an axe-helve. There is no hurry, for 
winter lasts four or five months, and for that reason they endeavour 
with inexhaustible patience to produce a wealth of most beautiful 
carving even for the most every-day objects. When we nowadays 
examine these sloyded things from our forefathers' times, we hardly 
know which to admire most ; the vast length of time that was 
spent on the decoration of the various articles, or the original 
manner in which every peasant sought to employ in his own 
compositions the styles of art that prevailed at different periods. 

^- Sloyd is an English term adopted from the Swedish "slojd." It is applied to the making of 
things by individuals or families in the home, as opposed to the mass-production in factories. 

i8 



SWEDEN 

A great wealth of material for our study of the art-loving 
nature and artistic taste of the Swedish peasant exists in the 
Northern Museum's collection of harness-saddles [sel-krokar) and 
horse-collars {bog-triin), in which all styles are represented, from the 
animal figures of Viking times, down to flourishes of the rococo 
period (Nos. 183 to 219 and 222). It was, of course, with no little 
pride that the peasant, when driving to church, let everybody see 
what brilliantly coloured and finely ornamented carriage-gear he had. 
And if there happened to be snow on the ground, he could show 
his neighbours a sledge grandly carved and displaying all the 
colours of the rainbow. 

Still greater artistic skill was expended on the implements 
employed by the women for preparing flax ; on spinning-wheels 
and on looms. After the flax had been gathered, freed from the 
seed-pods, macerated and dressed, it was scutched in order to free 
the broken flax from the boon, a process that took place as follows. 
A handful of flax was held in the left hand over the edge of a 
scutching block, and there dressed by means of a rapid succession 
of blows with the knife until the boon had fallen off^. After 
preparation in this way, it was hackled with a flax-comb and was 
then ready for spinning. The scutching-knife was often dis- 
tinguished by its gay colours and elegance of form (Nos. 140 
and 141), and it was the same with the temples (No. 142), on 
which the web was stretched, the batting-staff^, used when washing 
clothes (No. I Hi), the mangling-board or calender (Nos. 173 to 180), 
and other implements employed in women's sloyd. The calenders 
or mangling-boards occupy a prominent place in the Museum's 
collections, both on account of their great number and also from 
the manifold types represented. This domestic utensil, which was 
used before the invention of the modern mangle, was a necessary 
article in every household. The mangling implement in question 
consists of an oblong rectangular board, the width of which varies 
between one-fourth and one-ninth of the length. It is provided 
with one, sometimes two handles, and a cylindrical rod or roller 
forms part of the apparatu-s. The linen was wound round the 
roller, which was then rolled backwards and forwards on the table 
by means of the board. The upper surface and the edges were 
richly decorated, in accordance with the prevailing style or the 
taste of the maker, and the handles, which often have the form of 
a conventional horse, were the object ot the special care of the 
sloyder. The oldest mangle in the possession of the Museum — it 
dates from the beginning of the 17th century — is, on the whole, 
a rudely-made and somewhat clumsy implement, with renaissance 

19 



SWEDEN 

ornamentation, a style of decoration which prevailed for about a 
hundred years, but which, towards the close of the 17th century, 
was gradually superseded by a newer one. It seems as if the home- 
sloyd artists had a difficulty in following the development of the 
renaissance into the baroque, rococo, etc., and had, instead, retraced 
their steps and once more adopted ornamental motives which, it is 
quite certain, were derived from medieval times. In this manner 
the village craftsmen have developed that characteristic geometrical 
style of decoration which, in our days, has been revived under the 
name of " the peasant style." The smooth, flat upper surface of 
the mangling-board, is, too, very suitable for this kind of 
ornamentation. In order to improve the general effect, the carvings 
were often painted in simple, unmixed colours which, used in 
moderation, quite attained the end for which they were employed. 
Besides the scutching-knives and temples other implements used in 
spinning and weaving are shown here (Nos. 143 to 172). 

It will probably awaken astonishment that so much care and 
taste were devoted to these objects of daily use. The reason lies in 
the fact that these things were lover's presents. When a young 
man fell in love with a lass he set to work to sloyd a present for 
her. If she accepted it, it was a sign that she was favourable to 
him, and then he could take steps for pressing his suit in real 
earnest. The twists and turns on the scutching-knife or mangling- 
board are, therefore, emblematic of the tortuous dreamland ways 
along which the lover's thoughts wandered while he plied his knife, 
and the chips fell fast to the floor. The human heart is pretty much 
the same, however times and manners may change. 

Popular Costumes and Ornaments. 

The artistic labours of the Swedish peasant woman, whose 
sense of beauty and technical ability we have had occasion to admire 
in the woven hangings and other textile productions for the 
decoration of the home, found a rich and fruitful field in the adorn- 
ment of the popular native costumes, which display an astonishing 
wealth of colour and variety in design. It was not the various 
provinces alone whose dresses differed totally in design and adorn- 
ment ; the hundreds within each province, the parishes within each 
hundred, nay, the very villages in those parishes, not infrequently 
had each a pronounced type of dress, distinct in colours and design 
from that of the others. 

It is not easy to say when the custom arose of wearing these 
local dresses, as they may be called. That they existed and had 
been observed at an early date is proved, amongst other things, by 

20 



SWEDEN 

the remarkable proclamation issued to the clergy by Gustavus Adol- 
phus the Great in 1630, to make a note of the dresses, customs, 
etc., of the people. In the dresses of a number of districts we 
find clear evidence that they gained their uniformity of character 
towards the close of the 15th, or the beginning of the i6th century. 
Like everything else, however, these national dresses have experienced 
the influence of development and frequent changes in style, but the 
results of this influence have been very varied in different parts of 
the country. Thus we find dresses which, when worn as they still 
were even in the 19th century, retained with wonderful tenacity 
their mediaeval character, while the dresses of other country districts 
showed a touch, here of renaissance and there of rococo, but still 
without entirely destroying the local character of the costumes. A 
remarkable thing is, that it is the women's dresses that have most 
faithfully retained their original type, whilst the dresses of the men 
have been more easily influenced by the changing fashions ot the time. 

These local dresses were long held in reverence, and the elders 
of the parish watched with jealous eye to prevent the intrusion of 
any foreign touch in the costumes. A number of minutes of 
meetings of parish authorities bear witness to the care with which 
this watch was kept. The youths of both sexes were strictly 
enjoined to keep to the dresses of their forefathers, and to beware of 
imitating the innovations prevalent amongst neighbouring parishes. 
In the parish of Vingaker, in 1769, complaints were made of "that 
evil thing," that people began to use broader heels to their boots 
than belonged to the proper dress of the district ; and it was enacted 
that those daring to go to church wearing heels broader than the 
customary ones were to be mulcted to the amount of sixpence. On 
another occasion the shoemakers and the tailors were solemnly 
admonished not to venture to make clothes of other fashion than 
those approved of by the pastor and the 24 elders of the parish. 
Should they dare to do otherwise, they lost all right of demanding 
payment, and were also to be severely admonished and reprimanded 
at the meeting of the vestry. 

These peasant-dresses were worn pretty generally until the first 
few decades of the 19th century, when they began to disappear, 
and now they are scarcely worn anywhere except in Dalecarlia. In 
spite of all the efforts that are being made to re-introduce the use of 
these dresses, the time is probably not far distant when they will be 
found only in museums as relics of bygone days. Here they will 
form interesting material for the antiquarian who, in their cut, 
patterns and colours, will be able to study, not only an important 
link of the cultural development of the Swedish people, but also the 

21 



SWEDEN 

differences of character of the people inhabiting the various 
provinces of the country. 

Space will not permit any very detailed account of that very 
interesting subject, Swedish peasant-dresses ; they can be mentioned 
here only as far as they tend to illustrate the subject of peasant-art in 
our country (Nos. 405 to 453, and 460 to ^Jj). In former times, 
the daughter in a Swedish peasant's home was obliged to have made 
a certain number of hangings, and to have woven a certain amount 
of linen, before she was permitted to marry. It was by the number 
of these, and the labour expended in such artistic work to which 
they bore witness, that she was deemed to possess those qualities 
which serve to transform a domesticated and industrious girl into a 
capable housewife. Most assuredly we have to thank, this custom 
for a great deal of the woven and sewn handiwork which nowa- 
days is so highly prized by collectors and lovers of art, and which 
is referred to with grateful reverence by those who now labour to 
bring about a revival of the ancient Swedish home-sloyd. 

The richly coloured peasants' dresses, the women's as well as 
the men's, with their vast numbers of different articles of apparel, 
intended for various occasions, afforded plenty of opportunity, as has 
already been said, for decoration and embroidery. Knitting and 
lace-making, hem-stitch and flat embroidery here played prominent 
parts. Great luxury was often displayed in the matter of embroidered 
linen and lace, and the so-called "bridegroom's shirts" (No. 435) 
are really magnificent specimens of such work. An almost incredible 
amount of labour has been expended on this article of dress. It was 
not enough to adorn both collar and cuffs with the richest 
embroidery, but the shirt-front too, of which, of course, the 
greater part was hidden beneath the waistcoat, was decorated 
with the most wonderful, most skilfully and tastefully executed 
artistic needlework. 

The reason of this luxuriance in the embroidery of such articles 
was, most certainly, the custom which had come down from the 
middle ages, that the betrothed maiden should present her sweet- 
heart with a shirt as a wedding gift. As a proof of the great 
importance that was attached to this custom in some places, anti- 
quarians relate that prudent mothers let their daughters get these 
bridegroom-shirts in order, long before the girls had reached a 
marriageable age, so that the present might be ready when it was 
needed. 

It is chiefly in Scania and Dalecarlia that lace-making and 
linen-embroidery still follow the old traditionary technique and 
patterns, and where modern work can still be seen which is fully 

22 



SWEDEN 

comparable with the best embroidery and lace-making of former 
times. In general, lace-making, which in Sweden is considered, 
with or without reason, to be a branch of the art-industry pursued 
by the Vadstena nuns, in its most flourishing period reached a very 
high standard, and could boast of a remarkably great wealth of 
patterns, copies sometimes of accepted artistic styles, and sometimes 
the artistic creations of the peasant women themselves. They did 
not content themselves with merely borrowing old designs and 
reproducing such patterns from memory, but they often designed, or, 
as they themselves pregnantly said, "composed" (the word is used 
here in the same sense as when employed by a poet) new patterns, 
which afterwards became traditionary in their families, or in the 
district. A brilliant specimen of such " composed " lace is 
the Rattvik lace which was made within a very circumscribed tract 
in Dalecarlia, and which seems to have arisen quite spontaneously. 
In the domain of Swedish lace-making, at least, this pattern is 
altogether unique. 

In this connection may also be pointed out the plaited fringes, 
although in Scandinavia they did not belong to the decoration of the 
dress. The plaiting of which these fringes usually consisted was 
made of unravelled pieces of web, or of that part of the warp in a 
web by means of which the latter was fastened to the loom. There 
were often many such fringes or laces in a house (Nos. 454 to 457). 
They were used to form the ends of towels, to cover the principal 
rafter of the old ceiling-less cottages, the shelves, cupboards, etc. 
The work was done, either by the women-folk of the house or by 
old women who went from farm to farm, and gave their artistic 
services in return for food or a small sum of money. 

The holiday attire of the women was completed by the number 
of ornaments which decorated them. These ornaments, which are 
of great interest both from an artistic and an historical point of view 
were, as late as 1856-60, considered as absolutely necessary for the 
proper adornment of a dress. 

In many branches of the decoration of the attire, or of the 
dwelling, we have met with motives which clearly recall that 
dragon-ornament which was so long considered as specifically 
Scandinavian. If we examine the old examples, however, we 
cannot discover any obvious connection with the most ancient 
northern types of ornaments, although on the other hand, the former 
are both ancient and thoroughly Swedish in character. 

The material of which these ornaments are made is always 
silver, and the work has been executed by silversmiths. Gilding 
was nearly always replaced by a coating of a kind ot yellow colour 

23 



SWEDEN 

applied to those parts which were to give the appearance of gold. 
As regards technique, the simplest methods were employed ; casting, 
filigree and the use of dies. These ornaments can be divided into 
two chief groups ; those which formed a more or less integral part 
of the attire, and such as were purely and simply decorative, and were 
used only on especially festive occasions, at weddings and the like. 
Old, wealthy peasant families often possessed quite a store of these 
ornaments, which had been acquired during the course of generations, 
and went from father to son, and these, as a rule, were taken out 
only when a bride was to be dressed for her wedding. Between 
these occasions they were kept in a chest, which was often richly 
ornamented, and this, in its turn, was preserved in the house- 
mother's linen-coffer. 

We shall turn our attention first to the ornaments which can be 
considered as necessary appendages of the attire. Here we find the 
"eyes" {sndrm'arlor) for the stay-laces (Nos. 306, 308 and 309), of 
which there were usually six pairs, and which were sewn edge to 
edge over the breast and were used to keep the under bodice 
together. These "eyes" were in use as early as the close of 
mediaeval times, but it was probably during the renaissance period 
that they attained their greatest development both in size and 
beauty. In their older forms they were often cast and adorned, 
sometimes with Gothic foliage, sometimes with mediaeval lettering, 
e.g. A.M. (Ave Maria), or with figures of saints. At a later 
period these " eyes" grew larger and a predilection was shown for 
employing monograms, as, for example, those of the reigning 
monarch, copied perhaps from some copper coin. Filigree work 
was often employed with glass prisms to further enhance their 
beauty. Sometimes these " eyes " were rectangular in form, and 
were adorned with pendants, acanthus leaves and other Gothic 
motives of varying design. 

A type of ornament which was very common in women's 
dresses on festive occasions was the double clasp (Nos. 296 to 
305, and 310 to 312). It varied very much, both in form and 
size, and was used both for fastening the jacket and cloak, and 
also simply as an ornament for the breast, where it was worn over 
a red ground sewn fast to the jacket. 

The bell-buttons (Nos. 313, 316 to 318, and 326 to 330) recall 
ancient modes of attire, and are, without doubt, representative of the 
silver bells of the dresses used in mediaeval times. They were usually 
worn, sewn fast to the edges of the jacket, and were in use far into 
the igth century, but only in the most southern part of Sweden. 
Another form of button is the neck-button (Nos. 314 and 319 

24 



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SWEDEN 

to 325), which was employed by both men and women to fasten 
the collar of the shirt. 

All the ornaments mentioned can be considered as necessary 
parts of the dress. Merely ornamental, on the other hand, were the 
rings, belts, ornaments for the breast, necklets or necklaces (Nos. 
307, 315, and 331 to 343), which were worn only on very festive 
occasions, but above all, as we have already said, when a bride was 
being adorned for her wedding. If there was any family that 
happened to possess no store of such ornaments, they borrowed 
from friends and relations on such occasions. A Swedish peasant- 
bride in olden times somewhat resembled a jeweller's shop window, 
so covered was she with silver ornaments from top to toe. To 
wear such a festal dress was often enough a trial of strength, and 
it sometimes happened that the bride sank beneath the burden. And 
what are we to say ot the poor brides on the island of Oland 
who, in accordance with an ancient custom, had to run on foot 
all the way from the house where the wedding was to be held to 
the church ? *' The quicker the bride runs, the greater the honour 
in which she shall be held," says an account of Oland written soon 
after 1760, and the writer continues : " And the running is trouble- 
some enough, for she wears a silver crown on her head, weighing 
two or three pounds, besides having several kirtles on, and a number 
of jewels, consisting of glass or bits of a broken mirror set in pewter 
or lead. A number of bridesmaids fell behind in the race, and so 
the bride had time to recover breath in the church porch before 
these attendants were all assembled again. After the marriage 
ceremony, the journey home was made on foot, but this time, how- 
ever, the bride was not obliged to run." 

In order to get an idea of the glory of a peasant bride, we may 
look at a maiden from Inglestad in Scania, after she has been dressed 
for the wedding. To see her, we need not go farther back than to 
the "seventies" of last century. Under the chin she wore a 
rectangular plate of pressed or perforated silver, fastened round the 
neck by means of a silk ribbon drawn through a couple of clamps on 
the back of the plate. In a ring or chain fastened to the lower edge 
of the ornament there hung a pendant which, in spite of its circular 
form, had the name of " cross." This pendant (No. 307) is either 
cast or pressed, but in either case it is decorated with the initials 
I. H. S. (Jesus Hominum Salvator). 

Around the collar of the bride's jacket lay a chain of links 
or plates, which was often so long that it went round the neck a 
couple of times and still had enough to hang a good way down 
over the breast. On this chain hung a decoration which had a more 

25 



SWEDEN 

or less pronounced cross-form. The oldest examples were cast, and 
were decorated on both sides with filigree work. In those which are 
somewhat younger, the filigree decoration has been replaced by a 
crucifix, a floral or foliage motive (No. 332), a lozenge motive, etc. 

The most recent, which probably represent the decadent period 
of peasant ornaments, were of silver lamina, very large, and 
absolutely overloaded with filigree work and cut-glass imitation 
jewels of various colours. Quite often, the brides had two such 
crosses, on separate chains. In such cases they had received one 
from their parents, and the other from their sweetheart. When 
this was the case, the chains were fastened to either shoulder, and 
were stitched to the dress so as to form designs, some in the shape 
of an hour-glass, some in the form of a heart, etc. An ancient 
peculiar custom, was that of the Ingelstad bride who had to carry 
her own and the bridegroom's wedding-spoons stuck in between 
these chains, so as to have them at hand at the wedding feast. 

Another feature of the bridal-dress was the silver belt which 
was clasped round the waist. As a rule it consisted of a number of 
round or long, narrow, four-sided silver buckles of pressed work, 
fastened to a list of red cloth, one of the silver-edged ends of which 
hung down against the border of the kirtle. Belts of this kind 
were often distinguished by very beautiful goldsmith's work in late 
gothic or in renaissance. 

The wedding-ring was of silver-gilt, seldom of gold. It is, 
too, a remarkable fact that ornaments of gold scarcely ever occurred. 
The bride did not always wear the ring on her finger, but sometimes 
had it attached to her silver chain ; by Oland brides it was fastened 
to one corner of the neckerchief. In olden times, cast rings were 
used, made in the styles prevailing in the 15th and i6th centuries, 
and very often possessing great artistic value. But other rings of 
varying form were also used, such as spiral and " heel " (seal) rings. 
At a later date, rings were made with a lozenge-shaped plate, 
decorated on top with jingling small rings, or with prisms ot flux- 
glass in blue and red. 

The most important decoration of the bride's attire was, how- 
ever, the open bridal-crown of silver-gilt (No. 336), which was often 
richly ornamented with a renaissance design. Rich families had in 
their possession a special crown which was allowed to be worn only 
by daughters of the family, or by brides who by their marriage 
entered the family. Other brides were obliged to borrow the bridal- 
crown belonging to the whole parish, which was kept in the church. 
As we have before mentioned, these crowns not infrequently 
weighed a couple of pounds. 

26 



SWEDEN 

What we have just described may be called an Ingelstad bride's 
dress, but brides in other parts of Sweden were quite richly 
bedecked with ornaments. Nor was it only at weddings that 
ornaments were worn ; these rings, belts, ornaments for the breast, 
and necklaces, were produced on other occasions. The belt 
especially was the proudest and most valuable of the women's 
possessions. In Delsbo, in Helsingland, the belt consisted of die- 
pressed silver-gilt plates sewn fast to a cloth-sash which was usually 
of a bright red colour, or else of cast rectangular-shaped plates, 
which were coupled together in various ways, and were distinguished 
by most tasteful designs. A frequently occurring form of this latter 
type of belt was the beautiful open-work clasp with a silver chain 
which ended in a ball, or in a cast, silver-gilt commemorative 
medal. It is from Delsbo that the most valuable woman's belt in 
the possession of the Northern Museum comes (Nos. 334 and 335). 
It is known to have been inherited by several generations of a well- 
to-do Delsbo family, and the people in the parish considered it to be 
a very ancient piece of work. The design employed points to the 
style in vogue during the latter half of the i6th or the beginning of 
the 17th century. 

As an ornament for the breast the Delsbo women wore a cross, 
a round die-pressed silver plate or coin, hanging from a silver chain 
and resting on the breast. Such ornaments were still common 
during the decade beginning 1850, and often rivalled the silver belts 
in point of age. The principal ornament for the neck was the 
so-called locket-chain {laskedjan), which consisted of a larger or 
smaller-sized rectangular locket and three, five or seven links 
fastened to one of the short sides of the locket, and also to a plate 
with a spring which was inserted in a narrow opening on the other 
short side (Nos. 331 and 341 to 343). The locket-plate was orna- 
mented either with engraving, or hammered hearts, or the like, 
or else with coloured flux-glass, set in silver-filigree on a gilt 
ground. Under the cross there hung still another but smaller cross 
or a heart, on a chain of finer make. 

A pendant ornament which was in general use in Smaland, 
amongst other places, was the "thaler-chain" (dal-kedjan), consisting 
of a chain which could be as much as 2^ yards in length, on which 
the " thaler " or " daler " (an ancient Swedish coin) was hung. The 
"thaler" consisted either of an actual large silver coin, or else of a 
round silver plate, engraved on both sides ; in the middle ot the 
plate was set a hammered imitation of a medal or coin. Whether 
the " thaler " was a real one or not, it was surrounded by a thin 
twisted rod, and from this hung a large, or sometimes small, but 

27 



SWEDEN 

always uneven number of concave pendants, which, like the 
"thaler," were of gilt. The "thaler" was sometimes replaced by 
a moulded silver cross, which was ornamented with flowers and 
leaves in relief, or else by a crucifix. 

Not before a maiden was about to become a bride was she 
allowed to adorn herself with all this finery. Afterwards, as a 
married woman, she could wear the ornaments on special occasions, 
such as at other people's weddings, christenings, churching 
festivities, etc. Unmarried girls had to content themselves with an 
amber heart or a little silver cross, worn on a ribbon round the neck. 
Her youth and her innocence should be the only ornaments of a 
virtuous maiden. And such ornaments tar exceed all outward shows 
of silver and gold. 

Some further proofs of the Swedish peasant's artistic sense 
ought to be given in this connection. While ornaments of gold 
and silver were generally made in the towns bv craftsmen, the 
peasant himself made all the wooden and iron things which adorned 
his home. Fine specimens of his sloyd-work are the watch-stands 
and the clothes-rail reproduced here (Nos. 45, 46 and 182). To 
what extent the peasant decorated all his utensils may be seen from 
the richly carved and engraved powder-horn (No. 223). Amongst 
the different types of candlesticks already mentioned, there are some 
very fine specimens in wrought-iron. Every farmer generally had a 
smithy of his own, in which he made ornaments for church doors, 
scutcheons, door-locks, padlocks, etc. The iron grave crosses were 
probably made at the works. Several examples of iron-work are 
shown here (Nos. 238 to 295). 

Conclusion. 

• 

The remarks we have made during the course of this pere- 
grination could only be but brief. The subject is too vast, too 
rich, too comprehensive, to allow of more than a mere cursory 
treatment in these pages. It is the illustrations that must speak. 

Maybe these reproductions will serve to convince some of our 
readers that Sweden is something more than the dwelling-place of 
bears, aland of snow and winter darkness, a place where culture was 
slow to strike root, and where its development was retarded by an 
unpromising soil and intellectual night-frosts. It would be a good 
thing if this article and these illustrations had that result. For 
Sweden is in reality an ancient seat ot culture — a fact proved by 
modern anthropological and ethnological researches. Not the least 
important testimony to the same effect is that offered by Swedish 
peasant-art, the roots of which can be traced back to the times of 

28 



SWEDEN 

Viking legend, and which, in its later development, although not left 
untouched by the changing styles of the ages, has still retained 
ancient and characteristic features. This remark applies not least to 
the peasant textile productions. If we inquire into the reasons why 
textile art in Scandinavia can point to such rich development, an 
explanation may, perhaps, be found in the multifarious demands 
which at an early period were made on those who worked at the 
loom or the embroidery-frame. While in many other countries the 
attire was in olden times the only sphere which invited attempts 
at decoration by means of weaving and embroidery, here, in the far 
North, the imagination and manual dexterity were called upon for 
other purposes too. At an early period during heathen times, 
textiles became an indispensable handmaid in the service of architec- 
ture. Sometimes it was a question of making a frieze to run round 
the whole length of the walls ; sometimes hangings were wanted to 
cover large surfaces, or draperies, which should fall freely from the 
massive joists. In this manner the creative desire which was 
awakened by the sense of beauty inherent in the peasantry, found 
many difficult problems to solve. It encouraged the imagination, 
and sharpened the eye for the beauty of line, for colour and designs. 
Out of the motives they had inherited, the women of the people 
created new combinations, as varying as the forms seen in a kaleido- 
scope. When, during the course of time, fingers had grown more 
expert, they ventured on undertaking new tasks, where the impres- 
sions they could snatch from the productions of great, living art 
coalesced with their inherited ideas. It seems to the writer as if it 
was this organic development that gives to the textile art of the 
Swedish peasant what is, perhaps, its most interesting feature. 

When, in consequence of the Ruskin-M orris movement, the 
home-art culture had become an important factor in the development 
of modern art, it found a grateful soil in Scandinavia. Here, the 
link between the primitive peasant-art, so characteristic of the 
country, had never been entirely broken. There still survived in 
the village weaving-closets, an art acquired through long inheritance ; 
in the cottages the lace-makers, sewers and embroiderers still followed 
old designs that had been handed down from mother to daughter for 
many generations. The fire had not had time to become 
extinguished, the ashes still glowed. And when newly-awakened 
interest blew on the embers and the flames once more rose into life, 
there was no need to fumble in the darkness. 

But it was only just in time. Sweden may esteem herself 
fortunate that Artur Hazelius began his life's work just then. When, 
at the beginning of the decade 1 870-1 880, he commenced the 

29 



SWEDEN 

task, of" saving from annihilation and oblivion the relics of the lite, 
customs and manners of bygone days, it was at the very last minute. 
One or two decades later, and it would have been too late. One of 
his earliest assistants who was sent out on, what may be called, an 
exploring expedition, relates of one of his journeys through Smaland, 
that even then the country was a picture of olden times, where these 
cottages with the ceiling open to the ridge-pole, and the low-loft 
houses were to be seen in numbers, with all their antique state ot 
hangings, woven tapestries, ceiling hangings {takdukar), and house- 
hold utensils. The local peasant dresses had been so lately 
abandoned, that complete suits could be procured without any 
difficulty. It was a real pleasure, he says, to go, knapsack, on back 
and staff in hand, from cottage to cottage to ask for old things. 
There was never any thought ot anyone refusing to give the 
"rubbish," but much astonishment was expressed that "people 
with sense," and " young gentlemen from the universities," could 
devote themselves to anything so mad as to wander through the country 
and waste their money on such stuff. 

Who shall measure the debt of gratitude that Sweden owes to 
Hazelius and his enthusiastic "young guard," for their zeal as collectors 
of "unconsidered trifles" during this period; thanks to them, the 
present and coming generations, when visiting the Northern Museum 
and its open-air department at Skansen, will be able to put together, 
piece by piece, the living picture of the story of the progress ot 
Swedish culture through the ages that are gone. 

STEN GRANLUND. 
(Translated by E. Adams-Rav.) 



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SWEDEN— FURNITURE 




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37 PAINTED HANGING-SHELF FROM VASTERGOTLAXD 




38 PAINTED SOFA-BED (UTDRAGS-SANG) FROM ANGERMANLAND 



SWEDEN - FURNITURE 





39 CARVED CUPBOARD FROM DALARNE 



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SWEDEN— FURNITURE AND WOOD-CARVIXG 




47 BLOCK CHAIR (dATED 1 738) 
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48 WOODEN STOOI. (dATED 1645) 
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51 WOODEN STOOL (dATED 1843) 
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55 CARVED AND PAINTED BOX FROM 
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56 CARVED AND PAINTED BOX (dATF.I) I707J FROM VASTERGOTLAND 




57 CARVED BOX FROM BOllUSI.AN 



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SWEDEN'— WOOD-CARVING 




6s CARVED nOX-LID FROM HARJEDALEN 





66 CARVED BOX FROM DALAKNE 



67 CARVED AND PAINTED BOX FROM 
HARJEDALEN 




68 CARVED BOX FROM OSTERGOTI.AND 





69 & 70 CARVED BOXES FROM UPPLAND 



SWEDEN— WOOD-CARVING 







71 TO 74 CIGAU CASES OF PRESSED BIRCII-BAUK, FROM UPPLAND 






75 WOODEN DOOR-HANDLE FROM DALARNE 

SWEDEN— WOOD-CARVING 



76 & 77 WOODEN DOOR-HANDLES FROM 
HELSINGLAND 




78 WOODEN pork:nger from smai.and 





79 WOODEN PORRINGER FROM HALLAND 



80 PAINTED WOODEN PORRINGER 
FROM SMAI.AND 





3l & 82 WOODEN BUTTER-TUBS FROM DAI.ARNE 

SWEDEN— WOOD-CARVING 




83 WOODKN BEER-STOOP I-KOM 
DALSI.AND 




I 



I 



84 wooden beer-stooi' from 
osterg5tland 




85 PAINTED WOODEN BEER-STOOP FROM DALARNE 





86 WOODEN BEER-STOOP FROM 
HELSINGI.AND 



87 WOODEN BEER-CAN FROM DALARNE 



SWEDEN— DRINKING-VESSELS 






88 PAINTED WOODEN BEER- 
CAN FROM DALARNE 



89 PAINTED WOODEN BEER-CAN FROM 
VASTERGOTLAND 



90 WOODEN BEER- 
STOOP FROM 
OSTERGOTLAND 





92 WOODEN BEER-STOOP FROM 
VASTERGOTLAND 




91 PAINTED WOODEN BEER-CAN 
FROM DALARNE 



93 WOODEN BEER-STOOP 
FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— DKIXKING-VESSELS 





94 WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNF. 



95 WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNE 




96 WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNE 





97 WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNE 



98 WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM HARJEDALEN 



SWEDEN— DRIXKIXG-VESSELS 





g<J WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNE 



ICG WOODEN HORNED BOWL FROM DALARNE 




lOI WOODEN HORNED BEAKER FROM DALARNE 



SWEDEN— DRINKIXG-VESSELS 





I03 WOODKN BEER-CAK FROM 
DALAKNE 



I02 WOODEN BEER-CAN FROM 
DALARNE 



104 WOODEN BEER-CAN (dATED 
I716) FROM DALARNE 





'. ' -- 


- ~'^^m 


W-^."' 


"0" '* i^i 



105 WOODEN BEER-CAN FROM 
DALARNE 



106 WOODEN BEER-CAN FROM 
DALARNE 



SWEDEN— DRIN KING-VESSELS 





I07 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM 
SMALAND 



Io8 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM 
VASTERGOTLAND 




109 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM SMALAND 





I 10 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM 
VASTERGOTLAND 



III PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM 
SMALAND 





112 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL 
FROM SMALAND 



113 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL 
FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— DRINKIXG-VESSELS 







i 



I 



114 WOODEN BOWL FROM DALARNE 





115 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FRO^f BOHUSI.AN 1 16 PAINTED WOODEN BOWL FROM SMALAND 




117 WOODEN BOWL FROM DALARNE 



SWEDEN— DRIN KING-VESSELS 




Il8 WOODEN HAND-LANTERN 
FROM DAI.ARNE 





Iig PAINTED WOODEN SPOON- 
RACK FROM ANGERMANLAND 



I 20 PAINTED WOODEN PUZ2LE- 
CL'P FROM DALARNE 





121 WOODEN JAR FROM DALARNE 



122 PAINTED WOODEN PUZZLE-CUP 
FROM HALLAXD 



SWEDEN— MISCELLANEOUS UTENSILS 



1^ 





123 FKOM DAI.AUNK 



124 FRUM DALARNE 



125 FROM UPrLAND 





^7^ 





12b FROM UPPLAND 



127 FROM DALSLAND 



120 FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— WOODEN SPOONS 




129 Fl'"^' SMALAND - 





131 FROM BOHfSI.AN 



130 FROM UOHUSLAN 




1 ^2 FROM SMAI.AND 



133 FROM HARJEDALEN 

SWEDEN— WOODEN SPOONS 



134 FI'^I'M UPPLAND 




135 FROM DALARNE 





136 FROM DALARNE 




I 



137 FROM VASTERGOTLAND I38 FROM DALARNE 

SWEDEN— WOODEN SPOONS 



139 FROM BOHUSLAN 



'^. 






140 WOODEN SCUTCHING-KNIFE FROM OLAND 





141 WOODEN SCUTCHING-KNIFE FROM OSTERGOTLAND 





142 WOODEN TEMI'I.ES FROM SKANE 




143 TO 147 WOODEN WEAVING IMPLEMENTS (vAFLUNA) FROM UPPLAND 



SWEDEN— WEAVING IMPLEMENTS 






148 hROM UPPI.AND 



149 1-KOM UPPI.AND 



150 l-ROM UPPI.ANU 






151 FROM UPPLAND 



152 FROM UPPLAND 



153 FROM UPPLAND 



SWEDEN— CARVED AND PAINTED DISTAFFS 









154 I'l-iOM VASTER- 
DOTTEN 



I Si FROM L'PIM.AND 



156 FROM UPPLAND 




157 FROM LPPI.AND 





J 




158 FROM LPPI.AND I59 FROM LPPI.AND 

SWEDEN— CARVED AND PAINTED DISTAFFS 







l6o FROM I'PPLAND 





l6l FROM VASTliUnOTTEN 






162 FROM Ul'PI.AND 



i 




163 FROM UPPLAND 1G4 FROM UPPLAND ifjj FROM UPPI.AND 

SWEDEN— CARVED AND PAINTED DISTAP^FS 



166 FROM VASTER 
BOTTEN 



i 



f^ 






'ni'<»i 



VAV 



I 



167 FROM DALARNE 





168 FROM DAl.ARNE 




■u 


-^m 


km 




M^ 


. t''%^^r 




^«. sl^^p 


\ 





169 FROM DALARNE 






5"€ 



.VLtr.v. 



J 



170 FROM DALARNE 



171 FROM DALARNE 



173 FROM DALARNE 



SWEDEN— CARVED AXD PAINTED SPINNING IMPLEMENTS 




173 FROM OLAND 



mm 




174 LiliTAlL OF SAMli 




^ 



175 FliOM UPP- 
LAND 



'm 









177 FROM VAST- 178 FROM HELS- 1 79 FROM UPP- 180 FROM UPP- 
MANLAND INGLAND LAND LAND 

SWEDEN— CARVED HAN DM ANGLES AND BATLET 



1 



176 FROM SMA- 
LAND 




t 



181 WOODEN BATLET 
FROM SKANE 



l82 WOODEK CLOTHES-RAIL FROM DALARNE 




185 FROM ANGERMANLAND 



186 FROM JAMTLAND 




187 FROM DALAHNi; 



I»8 FROM HELSINGLAND 



SWEDEN— CARVED CLOTHES-RAIL AND HARNESS SADDLES 





l8g FROM UPPLAND 



190 FROM GASTRIKLAND 





191 FROM JAMTLAND 



192 FROM UPPI.AND 




iMr 




193 FROM DALARNE 



194 FROM GASTRIKLAND 



SWEDEN— CARVED HARNESS SADDLES 




195 FROM HAKJEDALEN 



Ig6 FROM HEI.SINGLAND 





197 FROM HELSINGLAND 



198 FROM^HELSINGLAND 





199 FROM HELSINGLAND 



200 FROM HELSINGLAND 



SWEDEN— CARVED HARNESS SADDLES 





20I FROM UPPLAND 



202 FUOM HAUJKUALUN 





I 



203 FROM AXGERMANI.AND 



204 FUOM DALARNE 





20s FROM SODERMANLAND 



206 FROM DALARNE 



SWEDP:X— CARVED HARNESS SADDLES 




207 FKOM ANGERMANLAND 




208 FROM UPPLAND 




209 FROM SMAI.AN'D 




210 FROM DALARNE 



211 FROM JAMTLAND 



212 FROM UPPLAND 



SWEDEN— CARVED HORSE-COLLARS 






213 TO 215 CARVF.D HORSE-COLLARS FROM DALARNE 



^<r«?r 




216 ENGRAVED HORN HARNESS SADDLE FROM SMALAND 





!I7& 218 ENGRAVED HORN HARNESS SADDLES FROM DALARNE AND SMALAND 



SWEDEN— HORSE HARNESS 




219 & 2igA ENGRAVED HORN 

HARNESS-PINS FROM VARMLAND 

AND DALARNE 



220 & 221 WOODEN CANDLESTICKS 
FROM SMALAND AND BLEKINGE 



222 & 222A ENGRAVED HORN 

HARNESS-PINS FROM VARMLAND 

AND DALARNE 




223 ENGRAVED POWDER-HORN FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES 




225 tit-AZED EARTHENWAUE JAR FROM 
VASTMANLAND 




224 GLAZED EARTHENWARE 

CANDLESTICK FROM SMALAND 



26 EARTHENWARE CANDLE- 
STICK FROM HALLAND 





GLAZED EARTHENWARE PL'ZZLE- 
JUG FROM VASTMANLAND 



227 EARTHENWARE CANDLE- 
STICK FROM OSTERGOTLAND 




229 EARTHENWARE CANDLE- 
STICK FROM OSTERGOTLAND 



230 GLAZED EARTHENWARE JAR FROM HELSINGLAND 

SWEDEN— POTTERY 




231 REPOUSSE SILVER AND OILl IIDUL FROM JAMTLAND 





232 & 233 REPOUSSE SILVER BOWLS FROM DALAKNE 





234 & 235 REPOUSSE SILVER BOWLS FROM DAI.ARXE 





236 & 237 ENGRAVED SILVER AND GILT BOWLS FROM llELSINGLAND 



SWEDEN— METAL- WORK 




238 WROUGHT-IRON CANDLESTICK FROM 
SMALAND 



iHl^ 



239 WROUGHT-IRON CHANDELIER FROM 

DALARNE 






240 TO 242 WROUGHT-IRON CANDLESTICKS FROM HALLAND, DALARNE AND SKANE 



SWEDEN— M ETAL-WORK 





243 & 244 WROL'GHT-IRON CANDLESTICKS FROM DALARNE AND SKS 



1 

1 


■■■■■]■ 

1 





245 TO 247 WROIGHT-IRON CANDLESTICKS FROM SKANE AND VASTMANLAND 



SWEDEN'— METAL- WORK 






248 TO 250 WROUlilll-IUDN CANDLESTICKS l-UOM DA1-AKNI-; AND VARMl.AND 




251 CLASP-KNIFF. AND FORK FROM VASTMANI.AND 




252 CAST AND liNGRA\'i;D FIRK-STEl- I, FROM HELSINCiLAND 



SWEDEN— METAL-WORK 




253 ■"O 255 IKCIN I'ADI.OCKS FIMM VASTMANl.AND AND DAI.AUXE 






256 TO 25S IRON PADLOCKS AND KEYS FROM SMAI.AND, SODERMANLAND AND DALARNE 

S\VEDP:X— METAL-WOHK 





259 IliOX PADLOCK AND KEY FROM 
OSTERGOTLAND 



2bO IRON PADLOCK EKOM HALLAND 




261 IRON DOOR-LOCK FROM VASTMANLAND 



SWEDEN— METAL-WORK 



I 





262 IRON DOOR-LOCK FROM DALARNE 



263 IRON PADLOCK FROM SODERMANLAND 





264 & 265 IRON PADLOCKS FROM JAMTLAND AND OSTERGOTLAXD 



SWEDEN— METAL-WORK 





266 IRON PADLOCK AND KEYS FROM iJSTIiRGOTLAND 





267 ENGRAVKD IRON DOOR-LOCK (DATED 
1704) FROM SMALAND 




268 IRON DOOR-LOCK FROM GOTLAND 



269 IRON SCUTCHEON FROM IIARJEDALEN 




270 IRON SCUTCHEON (dated i666}from HARJEDALEN 




271 IRON door-lock from VASTMANLAND 



SWE D E N— M ETAL-WO R K 




en 

E- 

Z 
D 
O 

-1 O 



i^ 9 



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Q til 

5 S 



2: 



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'Si 

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I 

o 



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17 O 
v. 

Q 
o 
o 



7. 

Q 

7) 



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CO 

CO 
CO 

O 
Qi 
U 

> 

<; 

2i 
o 

2 

O 

X 

o 

O 




a 
z 

_) 
S 

B! 

> 

o 



2 

a 
Q 

C/3 




Q 
Z 

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S 
(/} 

s 

o 

a 




a 
z 

■■< 
s 

tn 

o 

OS 



W 

C/3 

O 

o 
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o 

I 

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O 
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XI 





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o 

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o 

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o 



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SWEDEN— 287 to 289 WROUGHT-IROX GRAVE CROSSES FROM SMALAND 









SWEDEN— 290 TO 295 WROUGHT-IROX GRAVE CROSSES FROM SMALAND 



296 SILVER CLASP FROM SKANE 



297 GOLD AND SILV1;R CLASP FROM SKANE 





298 GOLD AND SILVER CLASP FROM SKANK 



299 GOLD AND SILVER CLASP FROM SKANE 





300 SILVER-GILT CLASP FROM SKANE 



301 GOLD AND SILVER CLASP, SET WITH RED 
GLASS, FROM SKANE 





502 SILVER-GILT CLASP FROM HALLAND 



303 SlLVER-GlLT CLASP FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— JEWELLERY 




304 SILVER-GII/r JACKET CLASP FROM SKANE 




305 SILVER CLASP 
FROM SKANE 





307 SILVER-GILT NECK ORNAMENT SET 
WITH GLASS, FROM SKANE 




juS SILVER EYES 
FROM SKANE 




306 SILVER EYES 
FROM SKANE 



309 SILVER EVES 
FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— JEWELLERY 




3IO SII.VER-GILT JACKET CLASP FROM SKASE 





313 GOLD AND SILVER HANGING- 
BUTTON FROM SKANE 





311 GOLD AND SILVER JACKET CLASP FROM SKANE 



314 SILVER BUTTONS SET WITH GLASS, 
FROM BLEKINGE 






f^? 


^■4 


f*^^ 
















t; F^.^-.* 






^^1^^^^^^ 




■^JC^^j ^^^^^M 



312 SILVER-GILT JACKET CLASP FRONi, SKANE 3I5 GOLD AND SILVER BELT BUCKLE FROM 

SKANE 



SWEDEN— JEWELLERY 




""ff^^^^ - 









316 TO 318 SILVER 

HANGING-BUTTONS 
FROM SKANE 





319 TO 321 SILVER STUDS 

SET WITH GLASS, FROM 

SKANE AND SMALAND 







322 TO 325 SILVER STUDS SET WITH GLASS, 
FROM SKANE 




326 GOLD AND SILVER HANGING-BUTTONS 
FROM SKANE 




■VI 



329 GOLD AND SILVER HANGING-BUTTONS 
FROM SKANE 




327 & 328 GOLD AND SILVER HANGING-BUTTONS 
FROM SKANE 



330 SILVER HANGING-BUTTON SET 
WITH GLASS, FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— JEWELLERY 




331 SILVER-GILT NECKLACE FROM 
SMALAND. 




332 ENGRAVED SILVER CROSS FROM 
SKANE 






333 RED CLOTH BELT, WITH SILVER BUCKLE, 
FROM SODERMANLAND. 



:;34 & 335 SILVER-GILT "bride's BELT FROM 
HELSINGLASD 



SWEDEN—] EWELLERY 



i»' 


i 


J 


h>vib 






k 

T > 


111 





336 SILVER-GILT BRIDAL-CROWX FROM OSTERGOTLAND 






91^P 




1 
1 






1 


^g 


1 



337 SILVER BROOCH FROM HELSINGLAND 




339 RED SATIN BELT WITH SILVER BUCKLE, 
FROM BLEKINGE 



338 GOLD AND SILVER NECK ORNAMENT SET 
WITH GLASS, FROM SKAXE 




340 SILVER-GILT DRESS 
ORNAMENT FROM SKANE 

SWEDEN— JEWELLERY 




??-^OQe«^U''^>"'" 







2; 

Q 
















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o 

Oi 



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Id 
Z 



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rh 

O 
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wis 




344 LINEN AND COTTON WALL-HANGING FROM IIALLAND 




345 OLD LOOM AT THE NORTHERN MUSEUM, STOCKHOLM 



SWEDEN— TEXTI LES 




*" "»! i> x i» rfcgajiy OCTi Maxr>'4 uucaxtiynxiT 



isziiiniiiimiiiiiiisj 




^^■^'' ■' ■"^" ■■ ■■"■*1"""' l » '" """'" PP"«»3Cl F"T^^ »J m ! ■■ ■ ■■ ■■ "**»•'***** ■ ^X' " "" '' T , ' ii^« — 



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'=' £ 




a: o 




;- a 


1 


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- o 


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- z 


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''. y. 




ui -- 




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y. 


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Cd 



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nyMOo mjuum ixpi 



L-»pjj«3»«'mrta-.cccm«d»¥KMjx>Tm 



pr< • cc«]nr»TeMi3iJX.iMntinuJjiancriua^ 




•ii 




ig 








SWEDEN— 350 WOOLLI'N TAPESTRY 
BKD-COVER FROM JAMTLAND 




t#8#||#Sft88888P 







2^li^^ 




gJgjS''^g^§^SA.g^pil'l«<hl^ 



WMM^ 



.> 








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lit 

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ir, 

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SWEDEN— 355 to 358 LINSEY-WOLSEY COVERLETS 
FROM BOHUSLAN 




359 WOOLLEN TABLE-CLOTH FROM DALARNE 




360 WOOLLEN CARRL\GE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— TABLE-CLOTH AND CARRIAGE-CUSHION 




36r WOOLLEN CAUKLVGK-CUSHIOS- KKOM SKANE 




362 WOOLLEN CARRL\GE-CL'SHION I-ROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— CARRIAGE-CUSH IONS 




z 

■■< 

■7. 

a 



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H 

c 

C/5 



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SWEDEN— 365 TO 367 WOOLLEX CARRIAGE-CUSHIONS FROM SKANE 




368 WOOLLEN CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 




369 WOOLLEN TAPESTRY CARRL\GE-CUSH10N FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— CARRIAGE-CUSHIONS 




370 WOOLLEN TAPESTRY CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 




371 WOOLLEN TAPESTRY CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— CARRIAGE-CUSHIONS 




372 EMBROIDKWHI) CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANF. 




373 KMnROinERl£D CARRIAIili-CUSHION FROM SKANI-: 



SWEDEN— CARRIAGE-CUSHIONS 







O 

?: 

o 

IS) 

U 

I 

o 

< 
u 

Q 

U 
Q 

O 






Q 




375 EMBROIDERED CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 




376 EMBROIDERED CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— CARRIAGE-CUSHIONS 




377 EMBROIDERED CARRIAGE-CUSHION FROM SKANE 





378 EMBROIDERED CUSHION (dATED 1803) 
FROM SKANE 



379 EMBROIDERED AND APPLIQUE CUSHION 
FROM SMALAND 




^ 
^ 









/^< 






♦^y 




380 EMBROIDERED LINEN FROM HELSINGLAND 



SWEDEN— EMBROIDERY 




B'\ 



•^th^ii^^iu mf^ fiy**^ t^~.r~^ ^"^ 




381 & 382 EMBROIDERED CUSHIONS FROM SKANE 










^W^ '^t 



383 & 384 EMBROIDERED CUSHIONS FROM SKANE AND SMALAND 



SWEDEN— CUSHIONS 




385 & 3S6 WOOLLEN CUSHIONS FROM SKANE 





387 EMBROIDERED CUSHION FROM JAMTLAND 



388 APPLIQUE CUSHION FROM HALLAND 



SWEDEN— CUSHIONS 



1 




3Sc) APl'MQUK CUSHIOX FKO^L SM.U.ANP 



390 KMDRCUDKRKII Cl-SHION FROM JAMTLAND 




391 TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM JAMTLAND 



392 TAPESTRY CrsinON FROM SMALAND 



SWF.DEX— CUSHIOXS 



1 




393 EMBROIDERED CUSHION (DATED 1813) FROM 
SKANE 



394 TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM HALLAND 





395 PORTION OF TAPESTRY BEN'CH-COVER 
(dated 1 781) FROM SKANE 



396 TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— CUSHIONS AND BENCH-COVER 




397 TAriiSTRY CUSHION FROM SKANIi 



398 TAPESTRY CHAIR-COVER FROM SMALAND 





399 & 400 TAPESTRY CHAIR-COVERS FRCM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— CUSHION AND CHAIR-COVERS 





40I TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM SMALAND 



402 TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM OSTERGOTLAND 




403 TAPESTRY CUSHION FROM SKANE 



SWEDEN— CUSHIONS 







'^'4'.^\^^ 



'^^f^^^^^d^^^jii^i^Mu^^lu^S^^'^^^^ 




smmA 



404 PORTION OF EMBROIDERED TOWEL FROM HELSINGLAND 





405 EMBROIDERED STOCK FOR WOMAN S 
HEADGEAR FROM BLEKINGE 





406 EMBROIDERED STOCK FOR WOMAn'S 
HEADGEAR FROM BLEKINGE 




407 TO 409 EMBROIDERED HANGING-POCKETS FROM HELSINGLAND 

SWEDEN— EMBROIDERY 






SWEDEN— 410 TO 414 ^^ll-l< EMBROIDERED 
WOMEN'S GLOVES AND SCARF-END 
FROM SKANE AND OSTERGOTLAND 



\ 





415 woman's embroidered gloves from skane 



416 woman's embroidered gloves from 

SMALAND 






417 WOMAN S LEATHER AND BIRCH-BARK 
SHOES FROM SODERMANLAND 



418 EMBROIDERED 
SHOE FROM DALARNE 



419 WOMAN S EMBROIDERED 
GLOVE FROM DALARNE 




430 PORTION OF woman's EMBROIDERED BELT FROM SODERMANLAND 



SWEDEN— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES OF DRESS 





^v 







i ♦^^ 

k. V V J.- J, , y 1^ 





/_v:^:^-^v y Y V V vwx wy XV y^y v V 



SWEDEN— 421 TO 424 EMBROIDERED LINEN 
NECK-SCARFS FROM DALARNE 








L^^jLJWxr y yjr 



>«i!IW^>; 





; > X JOLXXXJC XJf j( t^ til I ;, '. j( Hit. , 



SWEDEN— 425 TO 428 EMBROIDERED LINEN 
NECK-SCARFS FROM DALARNE 




42g APPLIQUE POCKET FROM DALARNE 




430 woman's embroidered jacket from DALARNE 

SWEDEN— ARTICLES OF DRESS 




431 WOMAN S LACE CAP FROM SMALAND 




432 WOMAN S LACE CAP FROM DALARNE 



434 LEATHER KNIFE-SHEATH AND NEEDLE-CASE 
PROM DALARNE 



SWEDEN— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES 




435 BRIDEGROOM S SHIRT FROM SK.VNE 







^>M 





-^B^^- 




436 child's embroidered linen and lace collar 
from dalarne 



437 WOMAN S EMBROIDERED COTTON CAP FROM 
GOTLAND 



SWEDEN— EMBROIDERY AND LACE 





438 LACE FROM DALARNE 



wmmmmv-mm 



439 PLAITED SHELF-FRINGE FROM DALARNE 




440 LACE FOR WOMAN S CAP FROM DALARNE 



1 1 




'c '//■■' :^??f^?^?^-^?*3^^?:^^ 


y^^W •,.-':•■■: ■■■■•■- ; •. '■;"::•:■. , ,,■ 






441 LACE FOR WOMAN S CAP FROM DALARNE 




442 END OF BONNET-TIE FROM SKANE 



443 WOMAN S LINEN AND LACE CAP FROM 
DALARNE 




444 END OF BONNET-TIE FROM SKANE 



ir-;i>;:^2ES3^1|gi^l^^^ 




■Jkn ■-.■,■• x.>f ■ 




445 END OF BONNET-TIE FROM SKANE. 

SWEDEN— LACE 






IMM 



IMiiiiii 



iM 



'^iiiiiimm 






■»■ „■■ ' » . ■" ■ 



^*^^ "' .■'■:A.y^, 



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-▲.^▲^^▲^^A. .A....A. ^ ^ 





446 TO 451 LACE FOR WOMEN'S CAPS FROM DALARNE 




■■tij ••■'.<' :fy> ■-.'V' '■.*••,.•• '•;(".'*' ',•-•.•.'/■••'•>■. ,i',' ■ 
^f -^fc-t;! ■■■A^ Jto^ J;<:-Jki J.:-^. f AA! .^-^ 



452 LACE FOR WOMAN S CAP FROM DALARNE 




453 END OF BONNET-TIE FROM SKANE 




454 LINEN AND COTTON^THREAD-LACE RAFTER-FRINGE FROM SMALAND 

SWEDEN— LACE 



+w^ 



♦♦ ^H ♦i • ■ '" 




4t5 I'OKTION OF LINEN HANGING-CI.l JTH, WITH I.ALK IlllUDEH, FUOM SMAI.ANU 




456 PORTION OF LINEN AND COTTON THREAD-LACE CEILING-CI.OTH FROM SMALAND 




457 LINEN AND COTTON THREAD-LACE CEILING-CLOTH FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— LACE 




fiom Paintings by E. Slenberg 



SWEDEN— 458 & 459 EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 
OF A PEASANT'S COTTAGE 




402 ^1 M MI.i: MM -, 1 1,. iM 1. \I Al;.\L 



4"J 



I'KI>- VK'iM I'M \i;m 



SWEDEN— PEASANT DRESS 







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473 ClU'KCIl URIJSS FROM DALARNU 



SWEDKX— I'E ASA N T U R ESS 







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t'li^iu vj J. B. Philip, per Wilson, Aberdeen 



SWEDEN— 476 PEASANTS RETURNING 
FROM CHURCH, LEKSAND 




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47<^ FROM DAI.AUNE 



T^ti ftp Ji/iijifrm r},, 15 ,'ar_o.T<ni ^Nf a w' 



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479 FROM SMALAND 




480 FROM SMALAND 



SWEDEN— WALL-PAINTINGS 



LAPLAND 



LAPLAND. 

THE most northern parts of Sweden, Norway and Russia 
form the native country of those strange people the Lapps. 
We can reach them comparatively easily, but every 
traveller returns full of astonishing reports of these 
extraordinary fellow-mortals. Although scientific explorers have 
taught us during these later centuries that Lapland is by no means 
" Nifelheim or Muspelheim," and that its inhabitants are no frightful 
monsters or cyclops, we must own that their accounts introduce us 
to beings very unlike ourselves. In their country a pall of snow 
enwraps mountains and plains for almost eight months out of the 
year, and certain swamps do not thaw even in summer. Infinite 
solitude seems to reign in these regions, whose extent is greater 
than France and Belgium together, though they are only populated 
by about 20,000 inhabitants. There the midnight sun and the 
aurora borealis display their phenomenal beauties, sombre forests 
cover large areas, wild torrents are fed by the ice-fields, numberless 
waterfalls and lakes enliven the scenery, and a variegated flora live 
where the rays ot the sun brighten everything only for a few weeks 
during the year. 

The Lapps must be considered only the ruin of a nation. 
They appear to be members of the Mongolian race, and their 
language points to direct relationship with the Finns. They are 
very anxious to preserve the purity of their blood and do not mix 
with other nations. " No, thank you ; we wish to gnaw our own 
bones," was the answer a Lapp from the small island of Malm gave 
to a foreigner who had asked his daughter in marriage, for these 
Malm people disdain an alien son-in-law, even from one of the many 
neighbouring isles. It is also related that a young Laplander who 
had become a soldier in the Swedish army, under Gustavus Adolphus, 
was promoted to the rank of a captain of horse. But as soon as he 
returned to his native land and to his own people, he wanted then 
only to live as a Lapp. 

In the veins of these people the blood of primitive man is still 
circulating, and their language, manners and customs are of quite a 
peculiar stamp. Although the prophecy of Paracelsus has been 
fulfilled, and metals have produced much mining in Lapland, yet 
the people have remained peculiarly a cattle-breeding folk. The 
reindeer is their fate. It determines their residence when harbingers 
of Spring lure them to the grazing-places in the mountains, or when 
Autumn gusts drive them down to protected valleys. The reindeer 
furnishes their dress and food, it provides the walls for their tents, 
covers for their sledges, utensils and chattels. References to it have 

35 



LAPLAND 

enriched their language with many words, and when mountain 
Lapps meet, they greet each other with their "' puorist " (" good-day ") 
and the three standing questions: How do you do? Have the 
reindeer much food ? Is peace in the country? — which means. Did 
wolves attack the herds ? The nomad state of the life is due to the 
wanderin2;s of the reindeer. The houses can onlv be movable tents, 
for they must be put up where the reindeer decides to pasture. 

The Lapps are a very quiet people and can sit dozing like 
automata for hours round their fireplaces, yet their inner-life often 
betrays restlessness. Missionaries relate how they have seen them 
melting in tears at their prayers, and seduced to wrong-doings 
immediately afterwards. A kind of nomad-like fluctuation is shown 
also in their moral principle. The reindeer is, therefore, more to 
the Lapp than the camel is to the Arab, and the extensive possession 
of reindeer makes the rich man. This quadruped has caused the 
division of the people into Alp or Highland Lapps, and Sea or Coast 
Lapps, which form two totally different tribes. The mountain Lapp, 
the real nomad, looks down upon his settled brother who has given 
up roaming and is only fishing in the rivers or in the sea ; but his 
contempt is boundless when the latter becomes a servant ot the 
Scandinavian. Travellers agree in their characterization of the moun- 
tain Lapps as haughty, independent, quiet, dirty and suspicious, while 
they call the coast Lapps inoffensive, confiding, domestic and gay. 

A kind of patriarchal system is practised everywhere, and it is said 
that the family-ties of the Lapps are very strong. The Highlander is, 
by reason of his isolation, the purest exponent of the native character. 
Yet reports are very contradictory, and if we peruse statements made 
through the centuries, we have a feeling as if even the Lapps have 
gradually become more Europeanized, as if the whole register of 
vices and virtues, and all the complications and amiabilities of 
temper, are to be experienced in the company ot those inhabitants 
of the ultimate snow-land. No chronicle has adequately stated the 
march of Lapland's history. We have only very modest remnants 
of the country's literature, and they offer reminiscences of a long-past 
epoch of heroes, when the sun was the principal deity and giants and 
sorcerers were alive. The religion ot the early Lapps was heathenism, 
full ot superstitions, fetishes and ghosts. They worshipped the sun 
and an image of Thor, and believed in an after-life of the soul, in a 
realm of light where pleasure and drink were superabundant. In 
the 13th century Christianity was brought to them during the reign 
of Hakon Hakonsen, and since then missionary work has exerted a 
strong influence and brought about social reforms. Inspired by 
a Christian spirit, Maria Magdalena Mathsdotter, a Lapp woman of 

36 




X 



X 



y. 

< 



LAPLAND 

high reputation, a kind of Norse Jean d'Arc, went to the King in 
Stockholm, and stirred him to reforms in legislation and to the 
building of an infant-home. Queer things often happened among 
these Christians. Thus an old woman on her death-bed implored 
her pastor to help her rather into hell than into heaven, because he 
had told her so much about the fire there. " I have been freezing 
enough on this earth," she argued. 

Remnants of heathenish creed still linger in certain customs. 
Thus the magic drum is occasionally to be found. In former times 
it was secretly much in use as an oracle, and such an instrument is 
still considered so holy that it is carried as the last thing when the 
Lapps start, with all their property, on their marches. They wrap 
it up in lambskin, or in the soft feathers of a water-bird, and allow 
no marriageable maid to touch it, nor any woman to go the 
way it is carried, for this is said to portend harm. The drum is 
consulted on questions concerning hunting, diseases, sacrifices, and to 
obtain political and personal information. It is round or oval in 
shape, and is made out of the root-wood of pines, firs, or beeches, 
hollowed on one side over which a skin is stretched. Wooden 
pegs are used tor fastening, and the sewing is done with reindeer 
sinews. The skin is painted over with pictures representing 
different gods, an image of Christ, some apostles, birds, stars, the 
sun and the moon. Below the sun we discern all sorts ot terrestrial 
creatures, bears, wolves, reindeer, foxes and serpents, also marshes, 
lakes and rivers. The metal-rings of fate, which are shaped in 
different forms and decorated with chains, are laid upon the skin, 
and a hammer of reindeer-horn moves them by its beatings. All 
this is performed to the accompaniment of certain songs and the 
muttering of charms. The settling of the rings indicates the word 
of the oracle, and the Lapp who performs the ceremony falls down 
after it as in a trance. He sometimes lies for twenty-four hours, and 
when he rises is full of the spirit of prophecy. Travellers have 
brought such drums to the ethnographical museums, and even if we 
do not consider their historical meaning, they interest as works of 
handicraft, and testify to the manual skill and some primitive 
pictorial gifts of the Laplanders. Another superstition is connected 
with the magical darts, and with the wind-knots which are still to 
be found. The Lapp believes some sorcerers can cause wind, or 
stop it, by the mere opening or tying of certain knots. This belief 
is very old, and we find it mentioned in the ancient epic-poem, "Sons 
of the Sun," in which the eloping giant-bride undoes several wind- 
knots and thus compels her pursuing brothers to founder near the 
cliffs of the Lofoten Islands. 

37 



LAPLAND 



Lapp fingers are certainly skilful, and the divine gift of the 
sense of the beautiful has been distributed in that far north country. 
Not only the dress, but also all sorts of household goods and small 
articles, testify to the craftsman's talent and sense of esthetic necessity. 
The Laplanders use the skin of the reindeer and other furs for their 
garments, gloves, boots, shoes and caps, and they often adorn these 
possessions with charming embroideries. The coast Lapps also look 
very picturesque in snow-white or grey woollen frocks, ornamented 
with red or blue braid, girt with a coloured sash. The men 
mostly wear blue caps and the women red ones, and the gayness 
of colouration is often quite striking in those snowy regions. The 
bridal costume, with its crown and ribbons, displays real rainbow 
glories, in some parts of the country, and this triumphal colour- 
symphony betrays nothing of the prosaic customs which precede the 
business of coupling two young souls. In fact bride and bridegroom 
are entirely left out of the question at first, their two families 
meeting and settling the bargain, with great consumption of brandy. 

The Laplanders possess an instinct for decorating their persons 
with metal finery. Generally they keep such goods stored away in 
chests within their tents or shanties, but, especially on festive 
occasions, they love to make a display of their riches, quite like 
the peasants do in other parts of Europe. The Lapps wear broad belts, 
embroidered in silver, from which hangs a silver-adorned bag, 
containing a complete tinder-box, silver knives and spoons for the 
men ; while the women also carry knives, a bag for the fire utensils, 
another bag for spoons, and a large kind of scrip which contains 
needles, reindeer thread, scissors and thimbles for sewing. Their 
vestments have costly parts, glittering fillets, girdles, spangles, 
buttons and rings showing off the owner's wealth, as do the silver 
cups and tobacco boxes on their tables. On gala days even the 
sledges and the trappings for their reindeer bear remarkable 
adornments. 

The men, who are very intent upon their trade, and who are 
responsible for the cooking and dressing of the food, are clever in 
several handicrafts. This knowledge is not acquired from masters 
of the trade, but handed down directly from father to son as a 
heritage. They make two or four-oared boats, and their skill is the 
greater as they can only fasten the deal or pine parts together 
with roots, twigs or reindeer-nerves. They construct sledges in 
the form of boats, without wheels and with a sort of keel. These 
vehicles, drawn by the reindeer, are said to go lightly and rapidly, 
but rather jerkily. Lapp sliding-shoes are tamous for their 
practicableness, and help the wanderer to move nimbly over the 

38 




Pholo by J. B. Philip, ptr Wilson, Aberdeen 



LAPLAND— "MILKING THE REINDEER 



LAPLAND 



snowy deserts. The men also execute boxes and chests, preferring 
to give them an oval shape, lii<.e their boats, for they can thus hide 
pegs or twigs. Often they inlay such articles with pretty patterns 
of reindeer bone. Their cradles are very amusing ; they consist of a 
kind of case made of birch-bark, into which the little parcel of 
humanity is pushed. A hole is left on the top for the child's head, 
and the whole is covered with leather and lined with hairy reindeer 
skin. The child is wrapped up in very soft skins and packed so 
tightly that the custom of hanging up such precious parcels on 
sledges or reindeer-saddles, on a nail in the tent in summer, or on the 
branch of a tree, appears quite natural. Such appendages often look 
like strange fruits in the garden of Boreas. The Lapps are excellent 
rope-makers, and they can plait baskets of tree-roots, especially the 
birch, so firmly that water does not run through them. These 
baskets are of different shapes, round, square, or oblong, with or 
without a handle, and their exportation carries the fame of the 
Lapps' dexterity into distant parts. Also all sorts of useful things 
are executed in wood or bone by the Laplander. He makes the cards 
for his play in alder-bark, and paints the figures on them with blood. 
He makes the moulds for tin-ware and bullets. We come upon 
weaving implements, shuttles, and combs, which tell us that this 
glory of the Scandinavian world has found a modest echo even 
here. But Lapp craftsmen are especially ingenious in making horn- 
spoons, and it is remarkable how clever they are in trimming them 
and their small boxes with different pendants and rings. Tools 
in these regions are utterly primitive, yet we often find excellent 
decorations of ornamental designs, fioral and animal forms, executed 
by engraving or carving. 

The Lapp women, who are used to working hard with the 
children and the cattle, do all the tailoring and shoemaking. As 
flax does not grow in their country, they prepare a thread of 
reindeer sinew, which can only be of a limited length. They 
can also spin wool from hares' fur, and can knit gloves, caps and 
stockings with it; and we are sometimes astonished at the nicety 
of these articles, their softness, elegance, and the pretty ornamental 
figures which the women know how to work into them. A 
traveller compared a Lapp woman, whom he saw sitting on a log of 
birch in her smoky hut, spinning, whilst the fire was smouldering 
in the gloom, to some mysterious witch working the thread of fate. 
But, above all, Lapp women are brilliant in embroidery, for which 
they have to prepare their own tin-threads. With these they get 
quite the effect of our silver-thread. They have also to draw the 
wire themselves, and accomplish this by pulling the metal with their 

39 



LAPLAND 

teeth through holes in horn. By the help of the spindle these wires 
are twisted so tightly and evenly round the reindeer sinew, that each 
thread appears to be tin throughout. With these materials they 
embroider the different parts of their vestments, as well as the 
harness for their reindeer. 

The designs of Laplandish carvings and engravings do not show 
the " horror vacui " of primitive people, nor do they betray the 
strange northern propensity for interlacings and fantastic combina- 
tions. Rather are they marked by reticence and simplicity. Most 
frequently we meet plaited motives of all kinds, which either extend 
over the whole object or only fill a part of it. Also a kind of chess- 
board pattern occurs, fish scales, or graceful ornamental figures and 
borderings, even floral forms, like delicate tendrils. The spirit of 
Christianity, which has gradually taken hold of the people, shows 
itself by the appearance of the cross. Varieties in shape are more 
numerous than varieties in design, and these we can study in the 
illustrations which accompany this article. 

It was the opinion of Tacitus that only a native could like 
Lapland ; but the more we penetrate the darkness which is massed 
around our arctic brethren, the clearer we understand the injustice 
of applying to them our customary epithet " primitive." 

Jarno Jessen. 








I WOODEN LADLE WITH ORNAMENT OF CARVED REINDEER-HORN 








2 & 3 WOODEN LADLE WITH ORNAMENT OF CARVED REINDEER-HORN 



LAPLAND— DRINKIN'G-LADLES 





4 & 5 CARVED REINDEER-HORN SPOON 







6 & 7 CARVED REINDEER-HORN SPOON 



8 & 9 CARVED REINDEER-HORN SPOON 




lO CARVED REINDEER-HORN SPOON 



LAPLAND— SPOONS 




II CARVED ELK-HOR.V 
SPOON 




l6 ENGRAVED SILVER- 
GILT SPOON 




12 CARVED ELK-HORN 
SPOON 





13 CARVED REIN- 
DEER-HORN SPOON 




V 



14 CARVED REINDEER- 
HORN SPOON 



IS CARVI 



INDEER-HORN 



WEDDING-SPOON 





18 ENGRAVED SILVER- 
17 WOODEN HORNED UOWL GILT SPOON 

LAPLAND— SPOONS AND BOWL 




ig STEEL AND CARVIiD KKlNDEER-llORN KNIFE AND SHEATH 





20 & 21 CARVED REINDEER-HORN KNIVES (fOR WOMEN) 




22 STEEL AND CARVED REINDEER-HORN KNIFE AND SHEATH 





23 & 24 WOODEN FLASKS WITH CARVED ELK-HORN DECORATIi 



LAPLAND— KNIVES AND FLASKS 



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LAPLAND— 27 TO 36 CARVED REINDEER-HORX KNIFE-HANDLES 





38 CARVED REINDEER-HORN BELT-CLASP 



37 WOODEN MATCH-BOX 
WITH CARVED REINDEER- 
HORN DECORATION 




40 CARVED REINDEER-HORN BELT- 
CLASP 





41 WOODEN MATCH-BOX 
WITH CARVED REINDEER- 
HORN DECORATION 





39 WOODEN MATCH-BOX 
WITH CARVED REINDEER- 
HORN DECORATION 




42 CARVED REINDEER-HORN 
BELT-CLASP 




43 TO 45 WOODEN MATCH-BOXES WITH CARVED REINDEER-HORN DECORATION 

LAPLAND— MATCH-BOXES AND CLASPS 




LAPLAND— 4*5 WOMAN'S EMBROIDERED 
COLLAR AND FRONT, WITH SILVER AND 
SILVER-GILT ORXAMEiNT 




47 TO 50 CARVED REINDEER-HORN NEEDLE-CASES 





51 TO 53 CARVED REINDEER-HORN BELT-CLASPS 



LAPLAND— NEEDLE-CASES AND CLASPS 





LAPLAND— 54 TO 59 CARVED REINDEER-HORN BAG-LOCKS 



ICELAND 




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ICELAND. 

ICELAND, the Ultima Thule of the oldest Norwegians, has 
ever been a magnet tor lovers of ancient relics of northern 
folklore and antiquities. The inhabitants of that island of 

volcanoes and glaciers, of heaths and waterfalls and fogs, have 
preserved their independent character. Since the Norwegians, who 
were indignant at the keen Harald Harfagri's autocracy over their 
country, emigrated to these distant shores and thus discovered their 
existence, several other intruders have stepped on this ground. A 
pure German tribe thus settled here, and in the course of time 
became somewhat mixed with Celts, Laplanders and Finns. 

The peasants and fishermen on this rocky ocean-settlement found 
enough work in their respective professions. No pauperism needed 
to exist here, but many good gifts developed a race of high 
character and ability. More and more this race grew native to 
the soil, and the fact is known that the Icelander's love of home is 
considered stronger even than that of the Swiss. Here is the 
domain of real local-patriotism. This very quality has helped the 
population to maintain that independence of character, which wins 
the admiration of everyone who visits the island. 

At first a republic was formed, with a "Thing " or parliament. 
In the course of time Christianity was adopted, and Catholicism has 
certainly enriched the culture of the people. The civic wars that 
raged in the thirteenth century went on until the Norwegians settled 
the disunions and gave the island a king. The Danes appeared 
as the next conquerors, and they brought about a union between 
Iceland and Denmark. Under their government reformation 
spread, but their consolidation by the doctrines of Lutheranism 
could not prevent commercial thraldom. The Danes soon succeeded 
in monopolising commerce, and this gave birth to the antagonism 
of the Icelanders to the usurpers. In their national hymn, which is 
aglow with patriotic love for their island, " Hoary Isafold, the 
Mountain Queen," we hear them hint at "the country without the 
beauty of mountain scenery, the realm of fogs, without lace, nose 
and eye." This unlovely domain is the Icelander's conception 
of Denmark. His hatred towards the foreign master is here freely 
uttered, for his peaks and lakes are his pride. Through the strength 
of her sense of independence and perseverance Iceland finally won 
her victory over Denmark. She re-established her "Althing" in 
the middle of last century, and threatened emigration, until King 
Christian IX. granted a constitution in 1874. He linked this 
possession firmly with his domains, but Iceland gained privileges 
for herself and a yearly subvention from Denmark. The imposing 

43 



ICELAND 

work of consolidation has since then been uninterruptedly continued. 
Iceland steadily keeps pace with European civilisation, marching 
ahead in liberal measures, while the telegraph connects the island 
with the outside world. 

The visitor must be struck by the high average of culture 
which exists in this remote corner of the world. If he is conversant 
with the long history of patient endurance of the people, the present 
height of development is the more astonishing. It seems quite 
characteristic that the Icelandic peasant, in the interior of the 
country, sets his clocks generally two or three hours too fast. We 
need only look into the mirror of their literature to understand the 
self-assured and independent spirit of the people. 

The " Saga," in particular, is an unadulterated source of 
knowledge, and through the tales of heroic deeds which were achieved 
about the year looo, we become inhabitants of the heights and 
valleys and fjords, we live in Iceland's homes and witness the 
domestic lives, the aspirations and passions of their inmates. Every 
locality and every incident become a reality, for these national tales 
are related in the naive and objective style of Herodot. And no 
narrator has ever found a more interested or a wider public, for all 
Icelanders adore this national treasure of literature. Often the 
knowledge possessed by the simple peasant is quite a revelation. 
He finds a real pleasure in reading, and, as there are no schools, the 
parents are the teachers of their children. Many a native has 
acquired, by his own studies, an extensive knowledge of languages and 
literature ; thus the celebrated linguist and folklorist, Brynjulfur 
Jonson, from Minni Nu'pevi, is entirely self-taught. Some one came 
upon a shoemaker, on whose shelf he found a little library which 
included Homer's Odyssey ; another saw in a fisherman's cottage a 
woman's richly-wrought saddle, covered with the finest leather and 
decorated with silver embroidery on velvet and original ornamenta- 
tion. The " Saga " reports of quite unusual feats of skilled artisans. 
A turner is mentioned who excelled in goldsmith's work ; a 
carpenter who showed such ability as an architect that he became 
a builder of churches ; and a woman is extolled for her carvings in 
whalebone. This is testimony of artistic endowments, and fortu- 
nately enough proofs of the Icelander's cleverness in craftsmanship 
exist tor us to study. They hold a place of honour in Scandinavian 
peasant art. 

Although many of these treasures of old times have been taken 
from the island, a quantitv of them is still saved and stored away in 
the small museum of Reykjavik, in the National Museum of 
Copenhagen, the Northern Museum of Stockholm, and in private 

44 




X 



y. 



y. 



ICELAND 

collections in London and Edinburgh. To the lover of such works 
it is gratifying to know that peasant-hands are still eagerly occupied 
with this kind of production, although former zest has abated every- 
where at the touch of industrialism. Only in gold and silver filigree 
work retrogression is not visible, and the peasants still execute 
carving, metal-work, and, to some degree, weaving and embroidery. 
The Icelanders have never distinguished themselves as architects, like 
the Norwegians, their unwieldy building-material — wood, which 
they often cover with corrugated iron — has always been a hindrance to 
development. We must admire later examples of craftsmanship as 
well for their excellent technique as for the symmetry and grace ot 
their decoration. They often charm by finesse of style and bear 
quite an individual character, although Norse intiuence, and 
especially the ornament of Romaic and Gothic times, are distinctly 
evident. 

The wood-carver has been, since time immemorial, a typical 
figure in Norway. We do not, however, meet him in Iceland in the 
same way, with the short knife dangling on his left hip, or coming 
as the itinerant tradesman to the private houses to sell his wares ; but 
plenty of carved articles point to an equally deep-rooted instinct 
being alive in far-away Iceland. And the resolution to keep it alive 
is manifest bv the fact that the Government has now arranged for 
courses of lessons in wood-carving to be given, the State contributing 
I, GOO crowns annually towards the cost. Stefan Eiriksson, an artist, 
is appointed head-master. Throughout the island carved wooden 
and horn articles are on sale and in use. We find large pieces 
of furniture, like bedsteads, chests and chairs, as well as the utensils 
for eating — spoons, dishes and plates. Notching is much practised 
for purposes of decoration. We discover designs of real distinction 
carved on the boxes (Nos. i to 29), and on those in which the 
haymakers carry their breakfast to the meadows (Nos. 30 to 33). 
Lovers often display much skill in decorating the handmangles 
(Nos. 66 to 70), and the pretty little things they work for their 
sweethearts. We come across handmangles of quite astonishing 
construction, their bodies really architectural, with columns or 
elaborate ridges, their top-parts in the shape of the hand raised in 
oath-taking, or an animal's head. On them we can frequently read 
all sorts of inscriptions. We find delightful chests executed 
entirely in pierced wood-work, framed by pretty ornamental 
borderings, and often bearing the record of the year of their origin. 

In different corners of the country, especially in parts near the 
coast, we see wooden tubs and vats in use, also farming-tools 
which impress one as being particularlv indestructible, and as real 

45 



ICELAND 

types of practical handicraft. Their bodies are kept together by 
metal hoops, and the wooden parts, the lids and handles, often bear 
carved embellishments. Such classical cooper's work is of ancient 
date, the " Saga" speaks of it, and yet it is still executed, and its 
disappearance would be a real loss. Some wood-carvers are really 
sculptors, for they execute whole figures of gods, men and animals, 
also groups and reliefs with scenes. The dragon-head, from 
the middle-ages, appears frequently on choir-stalls, gala-chairs, and 
also on bedposts, and the wood-work often bears Christian emblems. 
Some old Icelandic beds are still preserved as fine examples of 
former handicraft. They have painted pictures on the side-posts, 
a prominent front part, and bear names in distinct lettering. We 
illustrate here some splendid examples of carved bed-boards (Nos. 34 
to 49, 51 and 52). The Northern museums and churches treasure 
sucli remnants, and their study often reveals the tendency to combine 
carving with colour. This polychromy is typical, and it gives 
quite an Oriental impression by its strong colour-notes. 

The Icelander, it must be owned, often fails when he attempts 
to render motives from nature, and his best work is to be found in 
Romaic and Gothic ornaments. In his inventiveness in this style of 
work he is the true German. We have also to take into account 
his insufficient tools and the want of metals, especially iron and 
copper. These artist-carpenters have no nails at their service. 
They often connect and fix their parts only by small wooden pegs, 
or with threads out of the roots of the whortle-berry and the dwarf- 
willow. Nowadays they sometimes seek for broken iron in foundered 
ships, and try to work with it, but on the whole they prefer bronze 
and copper to iron, yet neither copper nor its alloys are as satis- 
factory as iron to produce perfect art-joinery. 

Ancient wooden statues of gods testify to religious needs, and 
these strange idols are adorned, in Byzantine fashion, with gold and 
silver and fine apparel. Thus we can still see Thor sitting in a 
temple, or fixed on an arm-chair, as an ornament. The museum in 
Reykjavik contains a gorgeous throne from the twelfth century, 
with interlaced plants, dragons and human figures, quite as we are 
accustomed to see in old Scandinavia, and the name of Jesu is carved 
on the middle part. The supporting columns represent horsemen 
on their typical Icelandic ponies with strong bodies and small heads. 
Buying and selling these small, meek and enduring horses still form 
an important trade. 

Of great fame were the wainscotings in the house of Olafr 
Hoskaldsson, who bore the designation of " the peacock " among 
his fellow-men. He had erected a house as a wedding gift tor his 

46 







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ICELAND 

daughter in 975, in which the ceilings, as well as the walls, were 
adorned with coloured carvings of mythical character, instead of the 
usual pictures and tapestries. It had also pleased another ancient 
Icelander to have his own adventures carved on the shelves and 
chairs of his house ; but the finest example of artistic wood-work is 
the door of the church in Valjofsstadir. "Carving," related Ole 
Worm, one of the real connoisseurs of the island in the seventeenth 
century, " is a natural occupation here." He tells how he saw the 
natives in winter busy with such work in wood or whalebone, and 
cutting chessmen for their games. We can still find powder 
horns (Nos. 72 to 74) and snuff boxes (No. 71) with excellent 
ornamentations. Icelandic spoons (Nos. 75, 76, 78 and 79), 
which are generally executed in horn, offer rich material for the 
student of Northern ornamental design. They still form a much- 
sought-after object of trade, and bear the prettiest geometrical 
patterns and the number of the year, the initials of the maker or the 
property-mark of the possessor often being introduced. Large 
Latin letter initials occur and characteristic letterings, and it is 
deeply regrettable that this beautiful craft is visibly decaying. 

The " Saga " relates that among the treasures offered to 
Gudriin by Grimhildr, after the assassination of Sigurd, were some 
Prankish girls who could embroider in gold and weave on little 
slabs. This proves the long existence of such handicrafts in Iceland. 
The surplus of female population, caused by the many accidents to 
the men who go out fishing or seeking birds' eggs on the cliffs, had 
set the housewives and maidens plying their needles very busily. 
They mostly worked in cross-stitch, later in flat-stitch, and introduced 
interspersed gold threads into their designs. Some museums possess 
work of real distinction. A mass-vestment in brocade, dating from 
the time before the Reformation, bears a peculiar insertion on its 
back, a coloured picture representing the saving of a ship by a 
saint during a storm. 

A piece of tapestry in the Museum of Science and Arts in 
Edinburgh, dating from the time before the Reformation, comes 
from a tent for the Althing, in Pingvellir. The upper part has been 
worked by nuns, and the under part added later, and we can decipher 
on the top stripe a sentence from a psalm, which, even now, one 
still hears in the evening-prayer of the children. We sometimes 
come upon old embroideries on wool, linen and silk, in harmonious 
shadings, with gold and silver embellishments. They show compo- 
sitions of all sorts, birds, buildings, ships, weapons, even mythical and 
historical subjects. Alas, such domestic art is greatly diminishing 
in Iceland, and it is good that, at least in remote parts, the peasant 

47 



ICELAND 

dresses preserve something of the old aesthetic instinct. The dress 
of the bride, especially, sums up all the longing for beauty, and it is 
remarkable tor the grandeur and refinement ot its style. This gala- 
piece is accomplished with the help ot the bride's friends, and it 
makes its wearer assume somewhat the majestic aspect of the heroic 
Isafold of the " Saga." It is composed of a soft black woollen 
material, which is bordered round the neck, the shoulder and the 
sleeve-edges with silver and gold embroideries, mostly representing 
oak leaves or vine tendrils, like the pattern on the girdle No. 82. 
The whole end-part of the skirt is also encircled by broader garlands 
of the same type, and the ornamental motif' for the frontal velvet 
stripe of the head-gear consists of silver stars. The Icelandic bridal- 
hood, particularly, likens the women to Amazons or Minervas, as 
it is shaped like a helmet, from which the veil hangs. All this 
sublime splendour is produced for one day, and often, says a visitor, 
one can find it stored away later on in some shabby chest amidst 
cod-fish bundles and butter-tubs. 

Icelandish metal-work shows a highly developed skill in the 
craft. Filigree-work, like that on the clasps and buttons of the 
belts (Nos. 82 to 84), has much resemblance to Norwegian work. 
We see also the same taste for appendages in the shapes of leaves 
or hearts, for a combination of the quiet and the vacillating. 

A peculiar kind of weaving was much practised in olden times, 
and is still to be found. It is used on small articles, such as ribbons, 
garters, dress-suspenders, shoulder-straps, saddle-cushions and similar 
objects, and the close study of these fabrics reveals most variegated 
designs and a tcchnic of such simplicity that lovers of the weaving- 
craft must hail its renascence with joy. Not only geometrical 
patterns, but also figures of men and animals, as well as quotations 
and congratulations, are formed by the threads. The production of 
such ribbons is quite a Sunday amusement for the women in Iceland. 
This kind of weaving requires a quantity of small, thin, square 
beechwood slabs, which are put closely together. Each slab has a 
hole at each corner, and the linen threads for the weft are run 
through them. By turning and placing the boards the patterns 
can be very easily varied, and the women, who, during their work, 
keep their little weaving apparatus fastened to the girdle, are very 
inventive. The same kind of technic has been recognised in works 
from ancient Asia, Africa, and America. 

It is edifying to see that man, if even it has pleased Providence 
to isolate him in distant regions, can yet attain results of culture 
which are the envy of nations who are each others' teachers by 
constant contact. Jarno Jessen. 

48 




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ICELAND— I TO T, CARVED BOXES 






ICELAND— 4 TO 6 CARVED BOXES 





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ICELAND— 7 TO 9 CARVED BOXES 






ICELAND— 10 TO 12 CARVED BOXES 






ICELAND— 13 TO IS CARVKD BOXES 





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ICELAND— 16 TO 18 CARVED BOXES 







ICELAND— 19 TO 22 CARVED BOXES AND LIDS 






ICELAND— 23 TO 25 CARVED BOX-LIDS 










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ICELAND— 34 TO 37 CARVED BED-BOARDS 



ICELAND— 38 to 41 CARVED BED-BOARDS 




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ICELAND— 42 TO 45 CARVED BED-BOARDS 



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ICELAND— 63 to 65 CARVED WINDING-PINS 









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ICELAND— METAL-WORK 



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UNIVERSITY Ot- uAl iFORNlA, 

LIBRARY, 

., OS ANGEUL S.CALIF. 



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