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5^ 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



THE PEASANT SPEECH 



OF 



DEVON. 



AND OTHER MATTERS CONNECTED 
THERE WITH. 



BY 

SARAH HEWETT, 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. 

1892. 

\_All rights reserved. ,] 



if 7/ 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The unexpected rapidity with which the first edition of my 
unpretending book was taken up has made it necessary to 
prepare a second for the press within some six months, 
Though much pressed for time, I have made a careful 
revision of the whole work, and many slight defects which 
had inevitably crept in have been removed. For those 
which still remain I ask the reader's indulgence. 

The kindly welcome which ' The Peasant Speech of 
Devon ' has received on all hands has been a source of 
deep pleasure to me. Her Majesty the Queen was graciously 
pleased to accept a copy for the Royal Library at Windsor : 
and from all ranks of society the book has met with gratify- 
ing evidence of sympathy. I have also to thank the press, 
both London and country, for many kind notices and appre- 
ciative criticisms ; and if some of my reviewers' suggestions 
have not been adopted, it is not for want of careful con- 
sideration. Some, in themselves valuable, would have 
required an extension of the scale of my book, for which my 
time is, alas ! utterly insufficient. To exhaustiveness it 
makes no pretensions. Its sole claim is as a faithful record 
of the homely Devonshire speech, and that as such it has 
been accepted by Devonians all the world over, cannot but 
fill a Devonshire woman with some pardonable pride. If it 



8699G5 



vi PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

leads those who have left their native county in search of 
success elsewhere, to think again of the home of their child- 
hood, and to recall its racy accents to their ears, the leisure 
of many years will not have been spent in vain. 

Sarah Hewett. 
Tiverton. 

October, 1892. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



I have spent a quarter of a century in collecting the words 
and sentences of which this work is composed. No attempt 
is made to claim the prerogative of using them in Devon 
alone, for it is certain that the people of East Cornwall and 
West Somerset speak the same ' heathenish jargon '; but 
having moved about amongst the people in every corner of 
'dear old Devon,' I record that which I have heard without 
desire to claim originality or exclusiveness. 

There are many books written in the dialect in a more 
popular form, yet I venture to hope that this will find 
readers among Devonshire men and women throughout the 
world, and those who are interested in the study of dialect 
as a science. 

The speech of the peasantry of Devon and the adjacent 
counties is undoubtedly the purest remains of the Anglo- 
Saxon tongue extant in England at the present time. Many 
words are almost as pure as when spoken by our Saxon 
ancestors. Compare for example : 



DEVONIAN. 




ANGLO-SAXON, 


Dring 
Bide 


with 


thringan 
bidan 


Wap 
Athurt 


11 
11 


waepan 
thweorh 


Cussen 


11 


cursen, etc. 



viii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

Changes have been introduced and modifications wrought, 
but in the dialect of the people inhabiting the villages im- 
pinging on Haldon, Dartmoor, Exmoor, Gibbetmoor, and 
Blackdown is identified the Anglo-Saxon of the ninth 
century. 

In some parishes family surnames retain their original 
spelling. The Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard are proud to 
add their name to the list. ' Cruwys, Coplestone, and 
Crocker were found at home when the Conqueror came.' 

For high buoyant spirits and dare-devil recklessness, no 
county can produce a race to surpass, or even equal, the 
youth of both sexes in Devon. Nor is this elasticity of 
temperament confined to the peasant population. High 
and low, rich and poor, all are brimful of fun, and bubble 
over with laughter-provoking jokes. In most of the men, 
and not a few of the women, this may arise from the effects 
of the genial climate and the out-of-door life led by them 
in the pursuit of ' sport ' across their breezy moors and 
heathery wilds. Travel from the Blackdown Hills on the 
east, to Barum town on the west, a-foot, a-horse, or on 
wheels, meet man, woman, or child, a smile and a warm 
clasp of the hand will be given to you, and ' Gude marning, 
zir ! fine marning 's marning !' will greet you as you pass on. 

If it be warm, and you a pedestrian, some hospitable 
farmer will accost you with : ' 'Tez mortel 'ot tii-day, zir ; 
wantee plaize tii come inside an' 'a' a drap ov zyder ? Ours 
be a prime zort, I zuree !' 

Devonians are very keen in their superstitions; they 
believe in ' whitwitches,' ' charms,' and ' magic' Persons 
of good position, and presumably of education, are ready 
to engage the services of the white witch (vide Tiverton 
Gazette, January 6th, 1891). 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. ix 

In years gone by, not unfrequently has Caulks, of Exeter, 
been waited upon by people from distant towns and villages 
wishing to obtain advice as to how their ' awverliiked ' cattle, 
children, friends, or wife, may be cured. Many country 
lads and lasses have consulted Caulks as to their future 
wife and husband, and to know ' Whot's agwaine tii 'appen 
tii 'm bimbye.' Many a bright sovereign has been added 
to Caulks' store on Exeter market-days by the charming 
way in which he ' Cast the Future,' ' Ruled the Planets,' 
and ' Put the Cards ' for the fair maids of Kirton, Woolsery, 
and Ban'ton. He sold charms to release ' all ' and ' every- 
thing' from the mischievous effects of the ' Evil Eye.' Did 
a ghost appear, a cow withhold her milk, a pig have staggers, 
a sheep become maze-headed, a child fall down in a fit, a 
bird nutter against the window, the chimney smoke, the 
dog howl, and a thousand and one other disagreeable 
things happen, then old Caulks was consulted and prayed 
to cure them, which for a cotisideration he would obligingly 
do. To effect a cure he would teach a prayer (N.B., repeat 
the Lord's Prayer backwards) to be said over the head of 
the afflicted • give a charm to tie round the neck of the 
victim, or to be nailed against the wall, or placed in the 
chimney ; or would, for an extra fee and a few days' free 
board and lodgings, obligingly put himself to the incon- 
venience of going into the country to personally superintend 
the cure. 

The charms were to be sewn up singly in a linen or silk 
bag one inch square^ and worn about the person or attached 
in some convenient way to the animal or place ' awverliiked." 
The charm itself consisted of either : 

The forefoot of a toad. 
The head of a snake. 



x PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

The liver of a frog. 

The tongue of a viper. 

The front tooth of a dead child. 

Or a piece of rag saturated with dragon's blood. 

Pixies, too, hold a high place in the imaginations of 
Devonians. The villagers around Haldon and Dartmoor 
assert that these little people have their homes among the 
tors, and keep their houses spotlessly clean ; that they 
enjoy mad gallops at night on colts, making stirrups in their 
manes and weaving them so tightly that it is impossible for 
mortal man to comb them out. If a horse be seen going 
at a madder pace than usual, the farmer who owns it will 
say, ' Bagger they pixies, if they bant at they colts again ! 
Zee 'ow they be a-tearing acrass tha moor !' 

Again, these pixies are supposed to make raids on the 
dairies and larders, coming and going through the keyholes. 
They hold their revelries at midnight, and should they 
encounter a belated traveller they at once trot him round 
and round a dreary waste until there is no more ' sproil ' 
left in him. A wise traveller always provides against these 
machinations by wearing at least one garment wrong side 
out. Should this precaution be omitted at the outset, it 
is advisable to turn a garment immediately on becoming 
fogged. I have known persons wear one stocking inside 
out when on a journey to prevent being pixy-led, or at least 
for 'good-luck.' 

Educated people who have lived only in cultured, refined 
homes can never understand the music of the 'Peasant 
Speech of Devon,' unless they have been reared in the 
county. A knowledge of the tone is as important as of 
the words themselves. The inimitable pathos of such 
sentences as : 'Aw, my dear sawl !' 'Aw, my eymers, whot 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. xi 

'avee a diied now ?' ' dude Lord, whot a cautch thee 'st a 
made now !' must be heard to be thoroughly appreciated. 

Gentlemen of the old-school type make it a practice to 
speak the native dialect when they meet at convivial re- 
unions. Officers have been known to give the word of 
command, when they wanted particularly to impress their 
orders, in the same sweet tongue. A North Devon Colonel 
of Militia on seeing a hare jump up in the midst of a 
regiment he was reviewing, exclaimed : ' There 'e go'th, 
bwoys ! a lashing gert shaver !' On another occasion when 
he ought to have ordered a retreat, he shouted : ' Charge, 
bwoys, charge ! us bant voxes and they bant 'ounds, us '11 
veace um like meyn !' Think of the confusion which 
resulted ! 

The so-called ' higher education of the working classes ' 
is swiftly and surely banishing the Saxon element from our 
midst. Whether the new mis-pronounced ' words ' are an 
improvement on the old must await the verdict of the 
future. Here are a few examples of modern words : 

Assiniate instead of assassinate. 
Reno7'/ate ,, renovate. 

Depraw'/)/ ,, deprivation. 

Presbeterian ,, perspiration. 

The Wilderness School, Tiverton. 
May, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



B. Remarks on Pronunciation and Construc- 

tion .... 

C. Anecdotes, etc. 

D. Superstitions and Customs 

E. Old-Fashioned Rectors and thei 

F. Songs and Children's Play-Dit'i 

G. Prayers 

H. Local Phraseology . 

/. Glossary 



. 


i 


. 


14 


. 


26 


lir Doings 


32 


n es 


36 


• 


42 


• 


45 


. , 


• 157 



PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



B. REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION AND 
CONSTR UCTION 



A FEW HINTS ON PRONUNCIATION. 

In most words ' oo ' takes the sound of the modified 
German 'u.' 

boot, pronounced biite. 
foot, , , fiite. 

cook, ,, ciike. 

to „ tii, etc. 

But when 'oo' is followed by 'r,' the second ' o ' is 
changed into 'a,' as : 

door, pronounced doar. 
poor, „ poar. 

moor, ,, moar. 

floor, ,, floar, etc. 

' Eau ' takes the sound of the modified German ' ii ' in 

beauty, pronounced biity. 
beautiful, „ biitivul. 

As also does the ' iew ' in view, as : 

view, pronounced vii. 

This sound of u is a remnant of Old Anglo-Saxon. 



2 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Much stress is laid on ' ii ' in all words, sometimes appear- 
ing as almost a double sound, and rhymes with ' ew ' in 
dew, as : 

pure, pronounced pewer. 
sure, „ shewer. 

future, ,, fewture. 

' Fe ' and ' a ' take ' y ' to prolong and emphasize them, as : 

fever, pronounced feyver. 
feeble, ,, feybul. 

eat, „ ayte. 

meat, „ mayte. 

' F ' is frequently changed into ' v,' as : 

father, pronounced vather. 
faith, ,, vath. 

fester, ,, viister. 

' V ' again is changed into ' f,' as : 

very, pronounced fery. 
view, ,, fii. 

A coachman driving over Haldon once remarked to me : 
' Yer 'pin 'tap ov Aldon, mum ; yu get'th a fery fine fii o' tha 
country right away awver Dartymoar an' tha zay.' 

' A ' takes a very long sound, as : 

skat, pronounced skaat. 
clat, „ claat. 

fat, „ faat. 

want, „ waant. 

' H ' before ' e ' is sometimes changed into ' y,' as : 

heat, pronounced yett. 
heath, ,, yeth. 

Before ' sh,' 'a ' and 'e ' become 'ai,' as : 

flesh, pronounced vlaish. 
fresh, „ fraish. 

mesh, „ maish. 

S ' is pronounced as ' z,' as : 

said, pronounced zed. 



seems, ,, • zims. 
see, „ zee. 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION. 



' ee ' is joined to verbs, as in 




hop, 

laugh, 

tell, 




hoppee. 
laughee. 
tellee. 


sit, 




zittee. 


' ed ' is used to form the 


past 


tense : 


gone, 
do, 




goed. 
diied. 


came, 




corned. 


die. 




divered. 


drowned, 




drownded. 


hurt, 




hurted. 


lost, 




lewsed, or loozed 


bought, 




buyed. 



' The ' is changed into ' tha,' or ' th'.' ' Th ' is also added 
to the present tense, as : 

go'th. 



go, 
do, 
grow, 



dii'th. 
graw'th, etc. 



THE VERB 'TO BE.' 



INDICATIVE. 



Sing. 
I be, or I'm. 
Thee 'rt. 
'E, or 'er's. 



I wuz. 

Thee 'st. 
'E or 'er wuz 



Present. 



Plural. 

Us be. 

Yii be, yii'm. 

They be, they'm. 



Imperfect. 

Us wuz. 
Yii wuz. 
They wuz. 

Future. 

I be agwaine vur to be. Us chell go vur to be. 
Thee wi 't ago vur to be. Yii wull go vur to be. 

They'll go vur to be. 
i — 2 



' E or 'er will ago vur to be 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Perfect. 

I've abin. Us 'ave abin. 

Thee 'st abin. Yii 'ave abin. 

'E or 'er 'th abin. They 'ave abin. 

Pluperfect. 

I 'ad abin. Us 'ad abin. 

Thee 'st abin. Yii 'ad abin. 

'E'd abin. They 'ad abin. 

'Er 'th abin. 

Future Perfect ! ! ! 

I chell 'ave abin 'an gone vur tii dii 't. 

Thee shet 'ave abin an' gone vur tii dii 't. 

'E will 'ave abin an' gone vur tii dii 't. 

Us chell 'ave abin an' gone vur tii dii 't. 

Yii chell 'ave abin an' gone vur tii dii 't. 

They will 'ave abin an' gone vur tii dii 't. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Present {very irregular /). 

Ef zo be as I be. 

Ef zo be as yii be there, wullee tell'n ? 

Spose 'er be day'd, whot then ? 

S'pose us be. 

S'pose yii be. 

S'pose they'm. 

Imperfect (very). 

I mid, or mit be. Us mid, or mit be. 

Thee midst, or mit be. Yii mid be. 
'E or 'er mid, or mit be. They mid be. 

Perfect and Pluperfect (same). 

I mid 'ave abin. Us mid 'ave abin. 

Thee midst 'ave abin. Yii mid 'ave abin. 

'E or 'er mid 'ave abin. They mid 'ave abin. 

Imperative (mixed). 

Yii let 'er be. Let 's 'lone. 

Letten 'lone. Diiee be. 

Layve un bide. Layve'm be. 

Letten bide. Bide there. 

Lettum bide ! wi't ? 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION. 5 

Infinitive. 

Pres. Vur tii be. 

Past. Tii 'ave abin. 

Future. Tii be agwaine vur tii be. 

Gerund. Bound vur tii be. 



MISCELLANEOUS FORMS — NEGATIVES, INTER- 
ROGATIVES, ETC. 

These miscellaneous forms have been inserted higgledy- 
piggledy from the impossibility of classification. 



Bel? 




Be us? 


Who be yii ? 


Art thee ? 




Be yii ? 


Who wuz 'er ? 


Is 'er ? 




Be they ? 


Who'rt thee ? 


Midden 'er i 


> 


Ciidden 'er ? Shudden 'er ? 


Noa I bant. 




Noa thee shetten. 'E or 'er shas'n. 


Us bant. 




Yii bant. 


They bant. 


I wunt. 




Us wunt. 


Yii wunt. 


Thee'd best 


ways 


not. 


They wunt. 


'E or 'er shudden 




G'wan ! 


Whot's 'e atelling 


about ? 


Whot's 'er adiiing ov ? 


What be'm 


'bout : 


? 


Where's 'n tii ? 




Auxiliary Verbs. 


Present. 


Past. 


Past Participle. 


Do 


dii 


adiied 


adinned. 


Am = 


'm 


wuz 


bin. 


Have = 


'a' 


'ad 


'ad. 


Shall = 


chell 


, 




May = 


mid 


or mit. 






Interrogative Form. 


Diiee ? 




Be-ee ? 


Bantee ? 


Avee? 




Chellee ? 


Midden ? 


Willee ? 




Widden ? 


Wunt ? 



Negative Form. 
Dawntee. Shant, shetten, or shessent. 

Interrogations. 

This mode of double questioning is very common 
throughout the county. 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



'Ave ? Ant 'er ? 
Ciide ? Ciidden 'er ? 
Did ? Didden 'er ? 
'Gwaine ? Idden 'er ? 
Is ? Idden 'er ? 
Out? Idden 'er? 
Mid ? Midden 'er ?' 
Must ? Mussen 'er ? 
Tidden ? Is it ? 



Be ? Bant 'er ? 
Can ? Cant' 'er ? 
Got'n? Ant'er? 
'Ad'n ? Didden 'er ? 
In ? Idden 'er ? 
Will? Wunt'er? 
Wid ? Widden 'er ? 
Twidden ? Wid it ? 



Her is used irrespective of sex. Even a tom-cat is her ; 
indeed, in speaking of persons, animals, and things, her is 
the generally used pronoun. 

Yes is pronounced iss or ess, giving the 'e' a very long 
sound, as in heed. 

Irregular Verbs (very !). 



Present. 


Past. 


Participle. 


Take 


tooked 


tooked. 


Wear 


weared 


weared. 


Draw 


dra.de 


drade. 


Fall 


vailed 


vailed. 


Bleed 


blooded 


blooded. 


Freeze 


vreezed 


vreezed. 


Forgot 


vurgot 


vurgot. 


See 


zeed 


zeed. 


Begin 


beginned 


beginned. 


Stick 


sticked 


sticked. 


Swim 


swimmed 


swimmed. 


Blow 


blawed 


blawed. 


Run 


urned or rinned 


urned or rinned, 


Come 


corned 


corned. 




Contracted Verbs. 


Burst 


busted 


busted. 


Hit 


hat 


hat. 


Hurt 


hurted 


hurted. 


Shut 


shet 


shet. 



Auxiliary Verbs. 
Dii, be, 'ave, chell, will, mid, ciide, let, must. 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION. 7 

Adverbs. 

Avore, arter, ziine, bimeby, tii-wance, wance, bit-ago, yer, 
) an, vur, forrads, backsivore, ezackally, 'ess, no-tino-by. 

Interjections. 

Aw ! G'wan ! Harkee ! Listenee ! Liikee ! Aw my ! 
My Eyemers ! Loramassy ! Crimminy ! Cry ! Oh crickoo ! 
Ullaw ! Jimminy ! Wurrah ! 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

Awl, inny, boath, zartin, vew, minny, mutch, noan, wan, 
uther, a-nuther, wan-nth er, aitch-uther, ziveral, zom, zitch. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Sing. Phi?: 

Thease-wan. Theys yer. 

Thick-wan there. Thickee-there. 
Or, 

Thease. Thews. 

Thickee. Theys. 

Distributive Pronouns. 
Aitch, ivery, uther, nuther. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 
Whii, whiise, whiim, witchee, whot (or 'ot). 

Numerals. 
Wan, tii, dree, vowr, vive, zix, zebben, aite, nine, tayne, 
lebben, twalve, score, 'underd. 

Personal Pronouns. 
Nom. 3rd sing. : Her. Norn, istfihtr.: Us. 

Adjectives. 

Positive. Comparative. Stifie?'lative. 

Bad I wuss wust 

( wusser wustest. 

Far (var) varder vardest. 

Good (giide) glider giidest. 

Little littler littlest. 

What is pronounced whot in Devon generally. In the 
extreme north and north-west it becomes ' 'ot.' I have 



8 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

omitted this form, that it might not be confounded with 
' 'ot,' signifying ' hot? 

The substitute for ' you ' and ' he ' is often "e ' ; as : 

Ef 'e (you) zit'th 'pon therns, they'll urn intii 'e (you). 

I tells 'e what tez, I want du't, than. 

I zed 'e (he) shiidden go ! 

Again, ' 'er ' is used instead of ' he' ; as : 

When did 'er (he) zay 'er'd (he would) come ? 

Where's 'er (he) agone tii ? 

Inelegant Expressions. 

i. I bant agwaine tii be put upon. 

2. There ! ef I wadden hiking out vur yii. 

3. I tellee 'e stiide tii 't yii zed zo. 

4. 'Er 'th a-zot 'erzel agin 'n. 

5. 'E urn 'th intii debt tii iverybody. 

6. Us be corned zame purpose vur tii zee 'e. 

7. Come out therevrom thease minit. 

8. Tha vaece aw'n shin'th like a barn's doar agin tha 
miine-light. 

9. My Eyemers ! yer's a go ! 

10. My ivers ! liikee zee 'ow 'e urned ! 

11. Ef zo be 'er'll let mer, I'll come bimeby. 

12. I zed 'e wuz tii come tii wance ef 'e wanted ort ov us. 

13. I zay, Dick ! Come in yer an' wet thee wizzul. 

14. Aw 'ess, min ! I zee whot yii be up tii ; yii want 'th 
me tii git stogged in the bog, dissent ? 

15. Thickee baggering dunky tost she off 'pon tap she's 
back and made she mud all awver ! 

16. Deth 'er knaw'n ? 'Ess, I zim 'er dii. Aw 'ess, fath, 
'er knawth 'n za well's a bagger knawth es bag. 

1 7. Aw Loramassy ! ef 'e athen a-broked awl tha cloam 
'pon tap tha dresser. 

18. Now then liikee zee, an' veel ef that idden right. 

19. I'll warndee I be za 'onest as inny chap thease zide o' 
Lunnun. 

20. 'Er grinn'th like a Chister cat ! 

21. Aw ! dally buttons ! yer's a-hollerballoo ! 

22. Come, sose, let's awl vail tii. 

23. The hailer is zo bad as tha stailer. (This is almost 
identical with the German proverb ' Der Hehler ist so gut 
wie der Stehler.') 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION. 9 

24. I tellee what tez, thee shetten adiied et then. 

25. Diiee bide quiet a bit an' zee ef yii can yer'n 
ahollering ! 

26. I 'ave adiied a little tii twice. 

27. I vatched 'n a clout in tha hayd, I did. 

28. Twidden be right vur tii dii 't. 

29. Beyiiagwaine? No. Than more bant I. 

30. Thease prop helps holds 'n. 

31. Well, yii be a rigler ole zebben zlaper. 

32. Whot's take notice ov zich a norting gert theng as 'er 
is vor ? 

^^. 'Er 's a vigger ov nort, 'er is. 

34. They've a putt poar ol' Bill Hill tii beyd wi' a showl 
tii-day. 

35. I'll be burned ef I dii. 

36. I'll be blamed ef I dii. 

37. I'll be dalled ef I dii. 

38. Listenee, Sue, an' zee ef yii can yer a rittling in 'er 
inside, et zim'th tii me 'er's cruel bad. 

39. Yii walk intii 'ouze thease minit. 

40. Ef thee dissent come intii ouze d'rectly minit, I'll tan 
thee tii tha truth of music. 

41. 'Tez fery on'andsome ov 'e tii try tii chayte wan 
'tother zo. 

42. Why dithen a dii 't than? 

43. 'Ess, 'tez, missis, a fery purty zmil (smell). 

44. Thickee cheel grawth like ol' fun. 

45. Cantee zettle thease bill all tii wance, then ? Noa, yii 
must bide a bit, an' mayhap I can payee a little tii twice. 

46. Let's zee ef thee canst veel 'n. 

47. Thee wissent go, I tellee. 

48. I be dry jist achucked. 

49. Thickee colly (blackbird) 'atha ayte a gert worm, a 
viite long, ivery bit an' crime aw'n. 

50. Putt thee nawze tii thease bottle an' zee ef yii can 
zmil what's abin in 'n last. 

51. Ullaw, Jeames, 'ow be 'e? Aw, I dunnaw, I bant 
zackly vittee 'et. 

52. Now dawntee cock yer nawse sa 'igh, Jinny. Dissent 
knaw that pride wi'out profit es like pudden wi'out fat? 

53. I zay, Bill, ef yii be mind tii be a urch man zome day, 
take my advice, vur 



io THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

1 Airly tii beyd an' airly tii rise, 
Will make a man 'ealthy, wulthy, an' wise.' 

Dawntee be like old Solomon Wise — 

' Lof tii go tii beyd, 
And lof tii rise.' 

Cuz then yiill ziine be 

' Out tii elbaws, 
Out tii toes, 
Out ov money, 
An' out ov cloase.' 

54. Whot a bitzen little maiden thickee cheel is, 'er's tii 
small tii car about a babby, idden 'er ? 

55. Hi-i ! Ess-ess ! yii wadden there ! ye didden zee ! 
yii dunnaw nort 't-al-'bout-et ! 

Comparisons. 

Zo black 's a craw. 

Zo black 's a sweep. 

Zo black 's tha dowl. 

Zo black 's my hat. 

Zo black 's a coal. 

Zo black 's a bag. 

Zo black 's night. 

Zo bare 's the palm ov m' 'and. 

Zo bold 's a badger 

Zo bitter 's gal. 

Zo big 's bulls' beef. 

Zo big 's a 'ouze. 

Zo busy 's a riike (rook). 

Zo busy 's a bee. 

Zo blue 's tha sky. 

Zo blind 's a bat. 

Zo biitivul and zo purty like baynes (beans). 

Zo bold 's brass. 

Zo clayne 's a whistle. 

Zo crooked 's a ram's horn. 

Zo cold 's ice. 

Zo cross 's tii sticks. 

Zo cold 's death. 

Zo cold 's a vrog. 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION, u 

Zo dry 's a stick. 

Zo dark 's a hadge. 

Zo drunk 's a lord. 

Zo dead 's a hammer. 

Zo dead 's a door-nail. 

Zo dead 's ditch-watter. 

Zo dear 's saffern. 

Zo dapper 's a vlay. 

Zo dry 's dust. 

Zo deep 's tha say. 

Zo deave (deaf) 's a post. 

Zo deave 's a haddock in changee weather. 

Zo deep 's Garrick. 

Zo dead 's a stone. 

Zo dry 's a bone. 

Zo fat 's a whale. 

Zo fidgetty 's a maggot. 

Zo vlat-vuted 's a duck. 

Zo fat 's a fiile. 

Zo fine 's Billy Riike's wive. 

Zo firm 's a rock. 

Zo fine 's a fiile. 

Zo gray 's a badger. 

Zo green 's a lick (leek). 

Zo gay 's a lark. 

Zo 'eavy 's lead. 

Zo 'ard 's iron. 

Zo 'ungry 's a 'unter 

Zo 'appy 's a bird. 

Zo 'ot 's toast. 

Zo 'ot 's love. 

Zo 'appy 's a biddy. 

Zo itemy 's a bear wi' a zore 'ead. 

Zo jolly 's a zan' bwoy. 

Zo lame 's a craw (crow). 

Zo light 's day. 

Zo long 's m' leg. 

Zo light's a vether (feather). 

Zo lively 's a cricket. 

Zo limp 's a dish-clout. 

Zo mild 's milk. 

Zo maze 's a sheep. 



12 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Zo mad 's a March 'are. 

Zo mad 's a 'atter. 

Zo nayte 's ninepence. 

Zo old 's tha 'ills. 

Zo peart 's can be. 

Zo poar 's a church mouze. 

Zo poar 's a craw. 

Zo proud 's tha dowl. 

Zo proud 's a louze. 

Zo plump 's a pattridge. 

Zo poar 's Job. 

Zo plain 's a pike-staff. 

Zo plim 's a want. 

Zo quiet 's a mouze. 

Zo quick 's lightning. 

Zo rich 's a Jew. 

Zo rough 's a grater. 

Zo risty 's a badger. 

Zo round 's a 'oop. 

Zo rough 's a badger. 

Zo savage 's a bear. 

Zo sick 's a 'ound. 

Zo sure 's a gun. 

Zo stupid 's a owl. 

Zo stiff 's a poker. 

Zo snug 's a bug in a rug. 

Zo sly 's a vox. 

Zo sharp 's a needle. 

Zo strong 's a ox. 

Zo smooth 's glass. 

Zo thick 's mud. 

Zo thick 's forty thieves. 

Zo tired 's a dog 

Zo tatchee 's a old broody 'en. 

Zo tough 's leather. 

Zo thin 's a griddle. 

Zo thick 's stodge. 

Zo thin 's a rake. 

Zo thick 's a stick. 

Z' urd (red) 's blid. 

Zo urd 's a turkey-cock. 

Zo ugly 's the dowl. 



REMARKS ON PRONUNCIATION, CONSTRUCTION. 13 

Zo vain 's a peacock. 

Zo wayke 's a winnel. 

Zo wayke 's a rabin. 

Zo wayke 's a cat. 

Zo wet 's dung. 

Zo white 's a 'ound's tiithe. 

Zo white 's a sheet. 

Zo yark 's a maggot. 

Zo yellow 's a kit's viite. 

Zo zound 's a bell. 

Zo zour 's a grab. 

Zo zwete 's a nit (nut). 

Zo zaft 's a want (mole). 

Zo zleapy 's a owl. 

Her rinn'th like a long-dog. 

Her rinn'th like a skitty. 

Her stare'th like a gladdy. 

Her zleap'th like a top. 

It stink'th like a fitch. 

Her tongue 's like a mill-clapper. 

Her 's wan-zided, like a peg wi' wan yer (ear). 

The faece aw 'n is like a Death's 'ead 'pon a mop-stick. 

He smawk'th like a furnace. 

Her 'opp'th like a cat 'pon 'ot bricks. 



Months of the Year. 




Jan-e-raree. 
Feb-e-raree. 
March. 
Ap-prul. 


May. 
June. 

July. 
Augist. 


Septemmer. 
October. 
November. 
Dayzember. 


The Seasons. 




Cursemas. 
Lady-day-day. 


Midzummer. 
Maykilmus , 


Days 


of the Week. 




Munday. 
Tewsday. 


Wensday. 
Thezday. 
Zinday. 


Vriday. 
Satterday. 



C. ANECDOTES, ETC. 



NURSE GARNSWORTHY'S VISIT TO LONDON. 

Nurse Garnsworthy travelled from a West-country town 
to London, to be a consolation to her daughter during a 
critical illness. This daughter lived in a narrow street in 
the crowded East-end. The morning after Garnsworthy's 
arrival the following incidents occurred : 

Getting up early, as is the custom with Devon folk, she 
began to ''right up the place] for ' Lunnon is a drefful 
smeechy twoad ov a hole] and she found ' the ouze was in a 
turrabul jakes dt.' In primitive days it was usual for women 
to work in their petticoats, with bare neck and arms, cover- 
ing the shoulders with a small square shawl. The day 
gown was hung on a peg behind the door, and only assumed 
when all the work was over. Garnsworthy was so attired 
when she commenced her day's work, and she was no better 
clothed when she had completed it. 

She found the cupboards minus the necessary materials 
for rubbing, scrubbing, and washing ; hence she took money 
in hand, and sallied forth, heedless of appearances, to make 
sundry purchases. In her haste she took turning after turn- 
ing till she came upon a grocery store, where she filled her 
arms with small packages, and began to retrace her steps. 
Alas, poor countrywoman ! she tramped on, and on, and 
on, and on, hoping every new turning would land her safely 
at her daughter's house. 

Then she appealed to a policeman, but he could not tell 
her where Mrs. Pearse lived. ' Didn't she know the name 
of the street ?' 

' No, I tellee, I dawn't knaw her draxions a bit.' 



ANECDOTES, ETC. 15 

' But surely you know where the cab took you and your 
box?' 

' I tellee I dawnt, then ! I corned up yisterday from 
Debbenshire, and got tii Paddin'ton Station 'bout aite 
o'clock ; and as I can't vind out yer where Polly Pearse 
liv'th, I jist go 'ome again, vur I got tha draxions 'ome tii 
Kirton, tap a piece ov papper in tha taypot, on the dresser 
shelve.' 

Forthwith she started in a cab to Paddington, whence she 
took a return ticket, went down to her home in the far 
West, found the ' draxions,' and returned triumphant to her 
daughter in town. Her Kirton friends were astonished 
when they saw her in deshabille, and ever after told the tale, 
with some additions, much to Garnsworthy's disgust. 

GUY FAWKES. 

On November 4th it was at one time customary for village 
children to canvass the neighbourhood for subscriptions, for 
materials to make a Guy Fawkes' ' momet ' to burn on the 
night of the fifth. They paraded the streets, singing : 

' Wul 'e plaize tii remimber 

Tha veefth ov Novimber, 
Tha gunpowder trayson an' plot ; 

I dawnt zee no rayson 

Why gunpowder trayson 
Shiide iver be vurgot.' 

After obtaining sufficient funds they proceeded to make 
the ' momet,' which they carried through the streets on the 
evening of the fifth, singing : 

' Guy Fawkes, Guy ! 
He and 'is companions did contrive 
Tii blaw all Englan' up alive, 
With a dark lantern an* a match, 
By God's massy 'e wuz catched.' 

Then setting fire to the ' momet ' they danced round and 
round it, singing : 

' A tuppeny loave tii veed tha Pope, 

A pound ov cheese tii chuck 'n, 

A pint ov beer tii make 'n drunk, 

An' a vaggot ov vuzz tii burn 'n. 

Wurrah ! wurrah ! wurrah !' 



1 6 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

JOEY BOND AND HIS 'PEGS.' 

Standing one Tuesday morning in the garden, I observed 
Joey Bond driving a herd of young swine through William 
Street. On reaching Barrington Street chiiggies were puzzled 
which way they were expected to go. Some trotted to the 
right, a few to the left, two or three stood still and grunted, 
while others rushed into the opposite garden. When Joey 
reached the scene he was perplexed — it seemed so impos- 
sible to get them together again. Several urchins standing 
by caught the spirit of the scene, and by adding a few 
derisive shouts to Joey's 'crooked words,' made the next 
few minutes a time of indescribable tumult and fun ; boys 
and pigs becoming inextricably mixed, while Joey mopped 
his brow, and appealed to all within call to come 'an' 'elp 'n 
wi' thease baggering pegs.' After ten minutes of wild com- 
motion, the erratic chiiggies were reduced to order, and 
Joey about to start in a happy frame of mind towards 
Lowman Green, when a frolicsome ' nestletripe ' turned 
quickly round, dashed between Joey's feet, and sent him 
flat on his face. Joey picked himself together with a look 
of being utterly ashamed of his unruly crew, then suddenly 
dashing hat and stick at the flying frisky porker, exclaimed : 
'There, yii umman-tempered twoad ! yii can go tii the dowl 
vur ort I cares ;' then turned away, and left the truant to his 
own devices. 

MRS. MARY CHUBB AND HER PONY. 

After the blizzard in March, 1891, Mary Chubb, of 
Gibbetmoor, told me, with tears in her eyes, how she found 
her pony in a snow-drift. 

' He was all zawking wet and purty nigh steeved tii death 
wi' tha cold, zo I rubbed the poor craycher's vace wi' my 
appern, an' gied 'n a drap ov brandy, an' he luked up in my 
vace za pittice-like an' bivered tii mowth like a Curschan ' 
(Christian). 

JIM SNOOKS AS OLIVER CROMWELL. 

On May 29th, 183 — , at Tiverton, Jim Snooks, young, 
fleet of foot, strong and agile, was chosen to represent Oliver 



ANECDOTES, ETC. 

Cromwell. A thick coating of greased lampblack over- 
spread his face, neck and hands. From his shoulders de- 
pended a very tattered cloak, around his waist hung a big 
bag of soot, and trailing yards behind was a long tail made 
of hempen rope. Crowds of youngsters awaited Jim's exit 
from the old Bampton Inn at Town's End. All at once 
there arose a deafening shout of ' There 'e is, bwoys ! there 
go'th Oliver Cromwell ! Urn, urn, bwoys, urn !' for Jim had 
started like a hare down the street, with a mad, uproarious 
crew at his heels. The fun raged fast and furious, till 'there 
wadden a whit bwoy among urn, vur Oliver 'ad a-catched 
most on um,' and blackened them beyond recognition. To 
his honour it must be added that he ' didden titch any ov 
tha maidens.' On turning into Fore Street they were met 
by a procession of a totally different character. Here was 
' King Charles ' sitting in an oak-bedecked chair, borne on 
the shoulders of two stalwart burgesses, followed by a choir 
of maidens sweetly singing an appropriate ditty. 



MAGICAL EFFECTS OF A SOVEREIGN. 

Scene : Board-room at country workhouse. Noble lord 
in the chair. Enter poor labourer, recently become a 
widower, who approaches noble lord, and pulls his forelock 
humbly. 

Noble Lord. ' Good-morning, my good man. I hear 
you have recently had the misfortune to lose your wife.' 

Man. ' 'Ess, mi lord, an' a vury bad job tez, tii, vur me.' 

N. L. ' How many children have you ?' 

M. 'Zebben, mi lord.' 

N. L. ' Dear me ! dear me ! it is indeed a very sad case. 
I deeply sympathize with you, and I am sure the guardians 
will do all they can to assist you.' 

M. ' Thankee-zhure, mi lord, tez a vury bad job, vur 
tha poar dear craycher did aim zummat a week tii chiiring. 
I dawn't knaw whotiver will become of the chillern, an' I be 
put tii a pass tii knaw 'ow tii bury she.' 

N. L. 'The guardians have decided to give you a little 
help.' 

M. ' Thankee, mi lord. Tez turrabul lonely an' dismal 
wi'out Liza.' 



18 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Hereupon he again gives his forelock a vigorous pull, and 
is about to retire, when his lordship says : 

' Here, my good man, is a sovereign for you, and I hope 
you will try to bear your sorrow manfully.' 

Man (steps briskly back, takes the sovereign, and with a 
broad grin on his face exclaims :) ' Thankee-zhure, mi 
lord, my oP dummon's ago, an' God A'mighty's vury wel- 
come tii 'er, vur her tvnz a cranky-tempered old twoad, I can 
tellee !' 

FARMER TATCHELL'S INITIALS. 

A pressman one day called at a farmhouse and asked to 
see Mr. Tatchell. The wife said 'maister wadden 'ome; he 
was a-go tii market.' 

' Never mind,' replied the pressman, 'if you will give me 
his initials, I will not trouble you farther.' 

The ' missis,' with a troubled look, said : ' Diiee plaize tii 
come intti 'ouze, an' zit down while I luk'th vor um.' 

Pressman scenting refreshments complied, and was re- 
galed with ' a crub ov burd an' cheese an' a mug of zider,' 
while Mrs. Tatchell went in search of the initials. After an 
interval of a few minutes she returned with a look of deep 
dejection, and said : 

' I be turrabul zorry, zur ; I've a-liiked every place an' 
can't vind um. I've a-turned out maister's box, an' hiked 
inside awl 'es pockets, but they bant there. I warndee 'e 
'th acard um tii town, an' I shiidden winder ef they bant in 
'es gert-coat pocket !' 

A CONVERSATION OVERHEARD IN A BOOT- 
SHOP IN A NORTH DEVON TOWN. 

Mrs. Docker. ' Good-morning, Mrs. Bell. What can I 
show you to-day ?' 

Mrs. Bell. 'My veet be za bad, diiee zee if yii've a-got 
ort'll dii vur me.' 

D. ' Yes, these boots are strong.' 

B. ' Well, 'ess, theys'll dii jist thoft they wuz a-made vur 
me.' 

D. ' Will you carry them ?' 

B. ' 'Ess, plaize. I be out's ciike now, an' I likes it ; they 
be zich giide livyers.' 



ANECDOTES, ETC. 19 

D. ' I hope you will try to keep your situation. 

B. ' Why, I be voced tii stop, cuz my ol' feller ant got 
nort but whot I sars. I tell'n he shiide ax vur parish pay, 
but 'e wunt ! He's a o' viile ; 'e's aveared they'll make 'es 
darter pay tun. I tells 'n they can't make maidens main- 
tain vathers, yii knaw. No, fath ! Tez lucky vur 'e I can 
dii ort, idden et ?' 

SATAN. 

A north Devon countryman entering a draper's shop, 

said: 

' Plaize, zur, I've a-vurgot whot missis zend me vur, but tez 
whot they cals tha devil bezides the devil.' 

Country Shopkeeper (a little deaf). ' How dare you, sir, 
allude to me and my goods as having anything to do with 
Satan ?' 

'Aw 'ess, zur, that's it, that's it! Sattan ! A yard-an- 
dree-quarters ov black sattan, at dree-an-sixpence a yard, an' 
missis zeth yii must cut et 'pon tha crass.' 

AN INQUEST. 

The people speak of an inquest as a 'crowner's quest,' a 
coroner being called a ' crowner.' 

' They've a'crowned Joey Tapp, who hanged 'iszell yister- 
day ;' or, ' They've a-zot upon thicker poar blid that was 
a-drownded.' 

AN INN SIGN. 

Yer is cider tii cheer 
And fery giide beer, 
And ef yii wanth mayte 
To make up a trayte 
There be rabbits tii ayte. 

A boy on a racecourse said : ' Ef thickee there gray 'os 
'ad abin dree or vowr yards varder vore, he'd a-winned !' 

A magistrate reproving a man for being drunk and dis- 
orderly told him he got so by taking his liquor the wrong 
way ; for said he : 

' Cyder 'pon beer is very good cheer, 
But beer 'pon cyder is a bad rider ! 



20 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



' Remember this : 

' When the cyder's in the can, 
The sense is in the man ! 
When the cyder's in the man, 
The sense is in the can !' 



A BILL SENT TO SQUIRE B. BY THE VILLAGE 

SHOEMAKER. 



Squire B- 



To George G 



Clogged up miss 

Mended up miss 

Tapt maister 

Heel-tapt and bound up madam 

Turned, clogged, and mended the maid 

Heel-tapt maister 

Lined, bound, and put a piece 'pon madam 

Stitched up Miss Kitty 

Sauling the maid 

Tapping madam til twice ... 

Putting a piece 'pon maister 



There is still room for increased educational eCort in 
rural parishes, as the following extracts from a village 
carpenter's bill for work done on a neighbouring farm may 
serve to indicate : 





s. a. 


o 10 




O 2 




o 8 




on 




I o 




o 8 




4 3 




o 3 
o 8 




o 8 




O 2 


10 3 


la 


[ effort 



bording up stol ; finding alam bars making a dor 

reperring dors 

tan pounds of nils 

making frince fram 

reperring sider hous 

making furinicer cuver 

making wheel baro 

reperring close hors and char 



s. 

i3 
5 

2 

4 

2 

2 

lO 

O 



d. 

o 
o 
6 
6 
6 
6 
o 
6 



For the benefit of the uninitiated it may be mentioned 



ANECDOTES, ETC. 21 

that by ' stol ' is meant stall ; 'alam,' elm ; and ' frince ' and 
' furinicer ' both stand for furnace. The other eccentrici- 
ties of orthography explain themselves. From a phonetic 
point of view there is something to be said for ' baro,' ' dor,' 
' fram,' ' sider,' ' cuver,' ' hors,' and ' char ;' but they cannot 
be recommended for general use until the recognised 
authorities on English spelling revise their standards. — 
Tiverton Gazette, August, 1891. 

AN INVITATION TO SPEND SUNDAY IN THE 

COUNTRY. 

' Guzemoor Barton, 

' Thongsleigh Bottom, 
'Nr. Holsery, R.S.O., 

' April St/i, 1888. 

' Deer Bill, 

' i now zits down and takes up my pen tii rite yii 
thease vew lines, oping it wil fine yii quit wel, as et layves 
me at preysint, thank God vor et. 

' Us've a-killd a peg, 'ers aiteen scor, an' us wants yii an' 
Sara tii com out next Zindy an' 'ave a bit an' a drap wi' us. 
Tez a fery long time agone yii com'd awver yer, an us dii 
zim yii mid com an' 'ave zom diner. Ef yii 'ave a-got zoin 
airly tatties that be a prim zort bring um along wi 'e an' i 
can changee 'cuz i've a-got zom biities ov Abrim i can letee 
'ave insteyd. Zo no mor vrom your's trewly 

' Naboth Baker : 'e's X. 

' Pleze tii hexciise papper tez awl us goten 'ouze.' 

THE INVITATION ACCEPTED. 

On Sunday morning on arriving at Guzemoor, Mrs. 
Hodge and her husband were hospitably entertained by 
Mr. and Mrs. Naboth Baker. 

Mrs. Baker. ' Aw, my dear life, yii be com'd tii last ! I 
be zo glad tii zee 'e. Us ! ad a-gived 'e up ; thort yii wadden 
a-coming at aw ! Where's Bill gone tii ?' 

Mrs. Hodge. ' Aw, 'e's a-coming ; 'e's behind telling tii 
Mr. Baker.' 

Mrs. B. ' Niver min' 'e ; com' along upen chimmer, and 
take off yer bunnit.' 

Mr. Baker to Mr. Hodge. ' Ullaw, Bill ! howst a-gitting 



22 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

on? Com' in 'ouze, diiee. Yer, yer ! 'ang up yer 'at, an' 
bring a cheer awver 'side tha vire. I zim 'tez cowld nuff 
for snaw !' 

Mr. Hodge. ' In tha zin 'tez turrabul 'ot, but tha wind 
blaw'th cowld in tha shade an' roun' tha cornders, tho' 'tez 
fery fine vur tha time o' yer. Purty gude sayzon.' 

Mr. B., calling upstairs, says : ' Now then, missis, bantee 
coming down tii take up tha dinner ? Tha crock is purty 
near bowled dry.' 

Mrs. B. ' Aw 'ess, I be coming ; duee 'ave pashins vur a 
minit till Mrs. Hodge 'ave a righted herzel up a bit.' 

Mrs. Baker having dished up the dinner, arranges 'tha 
mayte, pudden, greens, and tatties, pours out tha zider,' 
when Mr. Baker says : 

' Now than, sose, zit round. Yii, Bill, zit next tii my 
missis, and Mrs. Hodge diiee com' up yer aside o' me. I'll 
take care ov yii, an' Bill, yii liike arter my missis. A 
chaange 's giide vur boath o' us !' 

Mr. H. ' 'Ess, tii be sure ! 'Ot yii say 'bout it, Mrs. 
Baker ?' 

Mrs. B., blushing. ' Git 'long wi' yer rummage, dii ! Yii 
tii ol' fellers be like tii bwoys, thof yii be zo gray's badgers.' 

Mr. H. ' Zo yii've killed yer peg, I zee. 'Ow did 'er turn 
out?' 

Mr. B. 'Aw, us didden wey en, but shud thenk 'e wuz 
between vifteen an' twenty scor. 'Tez licking gert 'ams.' 

Mr. H. ' Howzimever, this yer is a rare bit ov pork. 
'Tez rich an' tasty-like.' 

Mrs. B. ' I tellee 'ot 'tez. I'll gie 'e zom ov tha nattlings 
tii take 'ome wi' 'e. Yii nidden be aveard they bant clayne, 
vur I wash'd um m' ownzel.' 

Mr. H. "Ow 'bout they tatties yii wrote about ? I've a 
brot a few elefants an' skiilmaisters tii changee vur your 
biities ov Abrim.' 

Mr. B. ' Thankee ! thankee ! I 'opes as 'ow us chell 
'ave a giide crap ! I 'ad dree score tii tha yard last yer. 
'Ot's become ov your Charlie ? I ant a-zeed 'n vur a brave 
while now ?' 

Mr. H. ' Aw ! he's gone tii zey aboard a-man-e-war, 
bound vur tha Hinges, an' Silas is a-go vur a hoss-sodger.' 

Mr. B. ' Aw ! poar blids, I zim 'tweel be a longful time 
avore yii zee'th uther wan ov um again !' 



ANECDOTES, ETC. 23 

The men, having finished dinner, retire to the ' chimbly 
cornder ' to smoke and drink. The women clear the table, 
tidy up the room, and saunter about the garden, having 
a gossip until it is tea-time, when Mrs. Baker, coming into 
the room, says in a bright cheery voice : 

' Now, then, yii men-vokes, put up yer churchwardins 
(pipes), an' zit vore an' 'ave zom tay. Yii be like a passel 
ov ol' wimmen when yii git'th tiigether. Yii tell'th, tell'th 
till awl's blue !' 

Mr. H. ' Well, us dawnt meet vury offen, an' when us 
dii us vurgits tha time ! 'Nuther theng, us bant fond ov 
tay. I niver titches et ef I can git a drap ov giide zider, 
an' maister's yer be a prime zort.' 

As soon as tea was over and twilight set in, a move was 
made to put on ' bunnit an' coat.' Mrs. Hodge said to her 
husband : 

' Now, then, Bill, let's shet away 'ome avore dark.' 

Mr. B. ' 'Ot's yer hurry, missis ? Yii midden niver 
come again.' 

Mrs. H. ' Aw ! niver mind that ; us '11 be agwaine now, 
plaize. Us chell be very glad tii zee yii and Mrs. Baker 
awver tii zee us zoon ; yii'll be very welcome. Dare zay us 
'11 be able to vind zommat tii aite an' drink !' 

Mrs. B. ' Thankee, thankee-zhure ! Us'll come zom day 
when tez vull miine ; then us chell 'ave et light coming 'ome. 

All shake hands two or three times over, and seem never 
to be able to say ' Good-bye,' till Mr. Hodge starts off in 
boyish style, exclaiming : 

' Nightee giide wishee ! Nightee giide wishee ! I'll urn 
'ome and leave tha tii wimmin-vokes tii tell out their tale. 
Now, than, Polly, come on, diiee !' 

AT A TITHE DINNER. 

A certain rector at his tithe dinners made it a practice to 
give each farmer two glasses of gin-and-water, remaining in 
the room and talking cordially with everyone whilst the first 
was being drunk. He then wished them good-night, leaving 
them to enjoy their own chat as it seemed best to them. 
No sooner was he out of earshot than they began heartily 
to abuse him and all the ' passens ' in the county. ' They 
be a d grasping, skinflint set, and wrings a tenth ov 



24 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

everything out o' us now,' said one stalwart old yeoman ; 
' an' by Gor, ef us dawnt liike shaarp they'll zune 'ave a 
twentieth ! ! !' 

COPIES OF LETTERS. 



' Okehampton, Devon, 

'April loth, 1876. 
' Dear Mrs. Chown, 

' I be most mortle plazed wi' yer vury 'anzome an' 
iizevul weddin pressent yii 've a-zend me, an' I now rites tii 
thank yii vury much vor'n, and also your kind letter wi' al 
tha glide wishes in un. I zim tez a zerious theng, arter al, 
tii get maryed, an' I 'opes me and my man will live 'appy 
an'" pazible tugither. Anyways, us'll try and not 'ave no 
quarling and viting arterwards. 

' I be glad tii yer that yii and your ole man gits on zo 
vittee, and I 'opes us chell dii tha zame tii and not 'ave 
upstores wen us be got iized tii wan tuther. 

' Now giide bye, dear Mrs. Chown, and thanking yii 
wance moar vur yer kindness, wi' much love, and 'oping yii 
will henjoy yerzel tii Plymouth, 

' I remains, 

' Your vecshinite vrend, 

' A. A. 

' P.S. — I 'opes as 'ow yii'l plaze tii hexciise al bad 
spulling, but my eddication idden vury giide, they tells me. 
I can talk vast nuff, but I can't rite vury wul' 

11. 

' Dribblecomhe Crass, 
' Nr. Hatherley, Devon, 

' March iTth, 1839. 

' Dear Madam, 

' I sow 'pon tha papper you want a puppil. I got a 
doughter of 12 that you can heave. She as ben to schol 
for the lass 5 yers, and she go to schol nough. She is good- 
liiking, and can reed and right well. If you like, I will 
bring she in so that you may see she on Vriday. I am 
nn well, otherways I wud have broughft she in instid of 
rightting. 

' Your obedint sirvent, 

'James Cligg.' 



ANECDOTES, ETC. ^ 

III. 

' Brok strete, 1874, 

' Chawleigh. 

' Umble gantlemen of the bord of gardents i beg to tender 
for the suply of cofins for the parish of reigney for the sum 
of 14 shillen and 3 pence and for baw for the sum of 
14 shillen and for sanford for the sum of 18 and 6 pence 
i remain your umble servent 

' Dick Pitman. 

' Brok .Street, Chawleigh.' 

IV. 

' Lew, Nov. i$t/i. 

'Sir, 

' Will you pleas to pay Mrs. Webber my Money next 
Friday it his She were i used to Lodge, she his goin to 
come to you for it for me it his the Boot Money to i am sir 
Your humble sert. 

' Thomas Mundy. 

' Lew Farm, 
' Near Chittlehampstead, Devon.' 



D. SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS. 



SUPERSTITION REGARDING CHILDREN'S 
BIRTHDAYS. 

Munday's cheel is fair in tha face. 
Tewsday's cheel is vull of grace. 
Wensday's cheel is vull ov woe. 
Thezday's cheel hath var tii go. 
Vriday's cheel is loving and giving. 
Satterday's cheel work 'th 'ard vur a living. 
Zinday's cheel's a gentleman. 
Cheel born upon old Kursemas day 
Es giide, and wise, and fair, and gay. 

MAGPIES. 

To see 

Wan is vur zorrow. 
Tii is vur mirth. 
Dree is vur a wedding. 
Vowr is vur death. 

CHRISTENING THE APPLE-TREES. 

On old Christmas Eve it is customary for farmers to pour 
large quantities of cyder on the roots of the primest apple- 
trees in the orchard, and to place toast sops on the branches, 
all the while singing the following : 

Yer's tii thee, old apple-tree, 

Be zure yii bud, be zure yii blaw, 



SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS. 27 

And bring voth apples giide enough, 

Hats vul ! Caps vul ! 
Dree-bushel bags vul 
Pockets vul and awl ! 

Urrah ' Urrah ! 
Aw 'ess, hats vul, caps vul, 
And dree-bushel bags vul. 

Urrah ! Urrah ! 

When enough of this serenading has been accomplished, 
guns are fired into the branches. 

When asked why this ceremony was gone through, a 
labourer said to me : ' Yii knaw, mum, us be in 'opes ov 
'aving a 'bundant crap ov awples next yer, an' tha trees 
widden giidy a bit ef us didden holly tii 'm !' 

SUPERSTITION WITH REGARD TO EGGSHELLS. 

As soon as a Devonian has eaten a boiled egg, he thrusts 
a spoon through the end of the shell, opposite the one at 
which it was begun to be eaten. When I inquired why this 
was done, the reply given was : ' Tii keep they baggering 
witches vrom agwaine to zay in a egg-boat.' It is supposed 
that the witches appropriate the unbroken shells to sail out 
to sea to brew storms. 

' You must break the shell to bits, for fear 
The witches should make it a boat, my dear ; 
For over the sea, away from home, 
Far by night the witches roam.' 

THE NEW MOON. 

It is deemed unfortunate to see the new moon through 
glass, or over the left shoulder. When in the open air one 
must turn the purse three times round the pocket, at the 
same time courtseying and saying : ' Welcome, new moon ! 
welcome, new moon !' to insure crood luck. 



'> 



TO CURE HERNIA. 

If a baby-boy suffers from this, and the parents pass him 
three times through the split stem of an ash-tree, he is sup- 
posed to be cured. 



28 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

REMEDY FOR SNAKE-BITES. 

Make a circlet of ashen twigs, and tie it round the neck 
of the person or animal bitten^ and 'they'll be zartin tii be 
cured.' 

TO CURE FITS. 

Persons suffering from fits are advised to go to the parish 
church at midnight on June 23rd, and walk through each 
aisle, then crawl three times from north to south under the 
communion-table exactly as the clock strikes twelve. 

TO CHARM WARTS. 

Steal from a butcher's stall a very small piece of lean 
meat, rub the warts three times from left to right with this ; 
immediately bury the meat and say : ' As you rot, so depart 
my warts !' 

TO CURE WHOOPING-COUGH. 

Carry the child afflicted into a sheep-fold, and let the 
sheep breathe on its face, and then lay the child on the 
spot of ground from which a sheep has just arisen. Con- 
tinue this daily for a week. ' 'Tez a zartin cure, mum, I 
zhuree !' 

A CHARM USED TO STANCH BLOOD. 

Jesus wuz borned in Buthlem, 
Baptized in tha Jardan, when 
Tha watter wuz wild in tha 'ood, 
Tha passen wuz jist an' giide, 
God spoked and watter stride, 
An' zo chell now thy blid. 

In the name of the Father, etc. 

Amen. 

A CHARM TO CURE A BURN. 

Dree angels corned vrom North, East, West, 

Wan got vire, wan got ice, 

Tha third brot tha Holy Ghost ; 

Zo, out vire, in vrast ! 

In the name of the Father, etc. 

Amen. 



SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS. 29 

TO DETECT A THIEF. 

As soon as a theft is discovered, suspicion immediately 
falls on some unfortunate person in the parish whose 
reputation is perhaps a little shady. The suspected person 
is at once brought to trial, not in person, but in secret, by 
means of his or her name being written on a slip of paper, 
which is placed within the leaves of a Bible. The key of 
the front-door is placed beside it, with the wards resting on 
the eighteenth verse of the fiftieth Psalm. Both are kept 
in position by tying the left leg garters of two persons around 
the Bible. These two place their rig/it hand fore-fingers 
under the bow of the key, and repeat in monotone the 
verse above named. If the Bible moves to the right or left 
the suspected person is condemned ; if it remains stationary, 
he is acquitted. 

WEATHER RHYMES. 

The west wind always brings wet weather, 
The east wind cold and wet together, 
The south wind surely brings us rain, 
The north wind blaw'th it back again. 

Ef tha zin in urd shiide zet, 
Tha next day surely will be wet. 
Ef tha zin shiide zet in gray, 
Tha next will be a rainy day. 

Urd in tha night is tha shipperd's delight, 
Urd in tha marning is tha shipperd's warning. 

ST. SWITHIN'S DAY. 

On St. Swiftin's day ef et dii rain, 
Yor vorty days et weel remain. 
On St. Swiftin's day ef et be fine, 
Yor vorty days 'tweel be zin-shine. 

MIDSUMMER-EVE. 

In some districts the young folks believe that their 
future husbands prowl round their homes at midnight on 
June 23rd. To make sure that 'He' is there, one will 
rush into the nearest meadow, and while the clock is 
striking twelve, scatter hemp-seeds, singing as she runs : 



30 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

' 'Emp zeed I throw, 
'Emp zeed I sow ; 
'E that's my true-love, 
Come arter me an' mow.' 

Then, casting hurried backward glances, scampers off to 
her home as fast as feet can fly, expecting ' Him ' to pursue, 
scythe in hand ! 



HARVEST CUSTOM IN DEVON. 

When the last sheaf of wheat is cut at the end of harvest, 
the reapers plait the ends, and tie it with a piece of bright- 
coloured ribbon ; then, lifting it high above their heads, 
wave their sickles frantically and f-hout : 

We-ha-neck ! We-ha neck ! 
Well-a-cut ! Well-a-cut ! 
Well-a-bound ! Well-a-bound ! 
Well a zot upon tha ground ! 
We-ha neck ! We-ha-neck ! 
Wurrah ! wurrah ! wurrah ! 

After this ceremony, the never-to-be-lost-sight-of ' verkin ' 
is passed from ' mouth to mouth ' till all the cyder is 
' adiied.' Then a start is made for the master's house, 
where a heavy meat and pudding supper is washed down 
with more ' zyder :' then follow indescribable tableaux 
vivants ! 

LENTEN OBSERVANCES. 

Niver wash cloase upon a Goody Vriday, ef zo be yii dii 
zornebody in yiire 'ouze '11 die avore the year's out. 

Ef yii wants a giide crap, zaw 'pon Goody Viiday. All 
zeeds zawed thickee day ull be zure to graw. 

Wean yer cheel 'pon Goody Vriday, then 'e'll graw peart 
an' strong. 

On Shrove Tuesday children run from door to door, 
throwing stones and singing : 

Us zees by tha latch 
There's zummat to catch. 
Us zees by tha string 
Tha old dummon's within. 



Or, 



SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS. 31 

Gie us a pan-cake, now us be come ! 
Or tii yiire doar goes a gert stone. 
Zo yii be a-bound vur tii gie us wan. 



Tippity, tippity, tidy-oh ! 

Gie me a pancake an' I will go ; 

Gie me zome, or gie me noan, 

Then tii yiire doar will go a gert stone. 

BRIDAL RHYME. 

Ef tha zin 'pin tap 'er shine, 

Then 'er '11 'ave boath cake an' wine ; 

Ef 'e dii but 'ide 'is heyd, 

There'll be no wine, an' little breyd. 



E. OLD-FASHIONED RECTORS AND THEIR 

DOINGS. 



A bishop of Exeter visiting an outlying village church was 
astonished by hearing the following sung in his honour : 

' Why skip ye zo, ye leetle 'ills (hills) ? 
Why skip ? Why skip ? Why skip ? 
Why ? 'Tez becuz we'm glad tii zee 
His grace tha lard bissh/p ! 

' Why 'op ye zo, ye leetle lambs ? 
Why 'op ? Why op ? Why 'op ? 
Why ? 'Tez becuz we'm glad tii zee 
His grace tha lard bissh/p !' 

THE HUNTING PARSON*. 
Passen R was asked to do duty for the Rev. 



at  . This was in the days when all kinds of music 

made up the choir of village churches. The psalm was 
given out, and the musicians began to tune their instru- 
ments. Somehow or other the fiddles and bass viols, etc., 
would not be obliging, and some delay occurred before they 
were in accord. Said ' passen ' got impatient, and leaning 
over the rostrum, exclaimed : ' Hark away ! Hark away, 
Jack ! Hark away ! Tally-ho ! Tally-ho !' 

THE SICK VICAR. 

The Rev. F. B , of A , having offended the bishop 

was once or twice reproved by his diocesan, and finally 
his lordship decided to call at the vicarage on a Sunday 
afternoon to give reproof. The vicarage stands on an 
eminence, from whence all persons approaching it can be 



OLD-FASHIONED RECTORS AND THEIR DOINGS. 33 

easily seen. The bishop drove slowly, and was recognised 
by the vicar, who happened to be dressed for hunting, as 
the meet was to be an early one next morning at Dunkerry, 
whither the vicar intended to start immediately after service. 
At sight of the bishop he rushed to his bedroom, and 
nestled cosily between the sheets. The bishop was met at 
the door by Mrs. Vicar, who, with a sad face and a troubled 
voice, excused her husband's absence by saying he was ill in 
bed, laid up with scarlet fever. Whereupon the bishop beat 
a hasty retreat. 

CONFIRMATION CLASS. 

The Rev. J. R was holding a confirmation class. 

One of the candidates was the daughter of the village inn- 
keeper, and when it came to her turn to be questioned, the 
following query was addressed to her, with a not very 
pleasant reply, at least to the parson : 

Parson. ' What is your name ?' 

She (holding her head on one side, and looking roguishly 
at him). ' As ef yii didden knaw ! when yii comes intii the 
bar dree or vowr times aday, an' zeth, " Now then, Polly, 
my dear, gie me anuther quart," an' now yii pertend'th yii 
dawnt knaw me !' 

THE PARSON'S WIFE. 

The same rector was asked by a parishioner why he had 
not married a lady instead of taking to wife the daughter of 
a farmer. 

' Why, man-alive, diiee zim I want'th tii die avore mi 
time ?' 

' How zo, how zo, passen ?' said his interrogator. 

' Why, if I'd a-married a vine-vingered lady, her mid 'ave 
a-zend tha game tii table in a most unstomickable fashion. 
Now, thease dii knaw stuffing vrom nattlings.' 

THE CAREFUL PARSON. 

A hunting parson was requested by his bishop to discon- 
tinue his custom of hunting and keeping hounds, as he 
thought it wrong for a clergyman to devote so much time to 
sport. 

' I do not keep hounds, my lord,' said the parson ; ' every 



34 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

dog in the kennel is my wife's. I take them out for exercise 
frequently, and if they will run after a fox I am bound to 
follow them, to make sure that the fox does no harm to my 
wife's property !' 

THE FISHING PARSON. 

Rev. John C , who was asked to officiate for Rev. 

I. G at Dawlish on a certain Sunday, requested his 

clerk to give notice that there would be no service at B. N. 
in consequence. The clerk accordingly told the congrega- 
tion that there would be ' no-a zarvis yer next Zinday, cuz 
maister wuz agwaine vishing tii Dawlish vur passen G .' 

THE FOX AND THE PARSON. 
A hunting parson of North Devon was officiating at 



for the Rev. , who was laid up with gout. Just as the 

Psalms were finished the sexton popped his head inside the 
church, and giving the parson a wink, said in an audible 
whisper, 'Plaize tii make 'aste, zir, or 'e'll be a-go avore 
yii've a-dued.' The ' passen ' nodded, and raising his eye- 
brows in a questioning way, the sexton shouted : ' 'E's urned 
intii tha vuzz bushes, down in teyn acres. Diiee hike sharp, 
zir !' The congregation were as much interested as 'passen,' 
and immediately after service a ' meet ' was arranged for the 
next morning at 9.30, in ten acres. It has been hinted that 
said passen was doing duty in ' pink ' under his surplice. 

ORTHODOX ! 

The curate of Swimbridge having left, Mr. Russell adver- 
tised for another. The parish clerk, William Chappie, was 
asked by a farmer, ' Hath tha passen got a new curate 'et ?' 

' Not 'et, zir,' replied Chappie ; ' maister's nation pertikler. 
Tidden this, tidden that, as ull plaize 'e. Yer's his adver- 
tize-ment, zo I reckon 'e'll zoon git wan. 

' " Wanted, a curate for Swimbridge ; must be a gentleman of 
moderate and orthodox views." ' 

' Orthodox ! why whot's that, Mr. Chappie ? 
' Well, I can't ezackally zay whot 'e mayn'th be that, but 
I reckon 'tez a feller that can ride purty well tii 'ounds !' 



OLD-FASHIONED RECTORS AND THEIR DOINGS. 35 

The rector of a rural parish issued the following notice to 
his flock : 

' There will be no sarvice held in thease church next 
Sunday, as I have a hen sitting in the pulpit, an' I dii not 
want her disturbed.' 

A high church dignitary addressing a meeting of young 
people said : 

' It is yiire duty tii render obedience to yiire parents, and 
tii pray to Gad unceasingly. If yii don't say yiire prayers 
night and marning the Lard Gad will not bless yii.' 

A rector who was asked to judge the dogs at a show said 
in reply to 'Where are you off this morning?' : 'Oh, I'm off to 
Whipshire tii judge tha dugs. I dawnt knaw nort about lap- 
dugs an' mastiffs, but if 'twas a vox-'ound, or a tarrier dug, I 
ciide a diied it w' any man in the country; but sheep dugs 
an' tha rest aw'm, why, I knaw'th jist so much about um as 
a cat knaw'th about his grandfather ! ' 



3—2 



F. SONGS AND CHILDREN'S PLAY -DITTIES. 



GILES WHAPSTRAW, THE TURNIP-HOER. 

I be a turmit hawer. 

From Debbenshire I dii come : 
My parents be 'ard-working vokes, 

An' I be jist tha zame. 

Chorus : An' tha vly, ha ! ha ! 

Tha vly, ha ! ha ! 
Tha vly be on tha turmits, 
An' tez awl my eye vur me tii try 
To keep min off tha turmits. 

[I have also heard the following chorus : 

The vly gee hoppee 

An' the vly gee whoppee, 
Tha vly be on tha turmits ! 
An' tez awl my eye that thick there vly 
Can ayte up awl tha turmits.] 

'Twas on a Vriday marning, 

Avore tha break ov day, 
That I tiiked up my turmit haw, 
An' tridged dree miles away. 
Chorus: Tha vly, etc. 

I ziine did git a place ov wurk — 

I tiiked et by tha job — 
An' ef I 'ad my time again, 

I'd ziinder go tii quod. 
Chorus: Tha vly, etc. 



SONGS AND CHILDREN'S PLAY-DITTIES. 

Tha next I tiiked et by the yard, 
'Twas vor ol' Varmer Viewer, 

Who vowed an' zwared as how I were 
A ripping turmit hawer. 
Chorus : Tha vly, etc. 

There's zome delights in haymaking, 
An' a few delights in mawing, 

But ov awl the trades that I like best 
Gie me tha turmit hawing. 
Chorus : Tha vly, etc. 



THE PARSON'S SHEEP. 

Vather stawl the passen's sheep, 

A murry Cursmus us'll keep, 

Vur us chell 'ave boath vittals an' drink, 

But dawnt zay nort about et. 

I zinged it up an' down awl day, 
An' passen yerd whot I did zay, 
An' ax'd me in a civil way 
Tii zing et awver again, zir ! 

'E zed 'e'd gie me 'a'f-a-crown, 
A suit ov cloase an' munny down, 
Ef in tha church I'd go along 
An' zing et tii tha people. 

But I went 'ome and told me muther whot the passen 'ad 
a-zed. ' Aw giide gracious, whot iver ail'th tha bwoy? I be 
zure 'e is agwaine mazed,' zed muther. ' Ef 'e zeth wan 
wurd moar thee't 'ang theezel and vather tii.' ' Aw ! vary 
well then, mawther,' zeth I, ' I'll turn tha tale 'pun passen.' 
So: 

As I wuz in tha veald wan day 
I zeed tha passen vury gay, 
A tummulling among tha hay, 
In a vury, vury undaycint way. 



38 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



A LOVE SONG. 

As I wa'ked out wan eveling, 

Down by tha river zide, 
I gazed awhile around me 

An' a purty maid I spied. 

Zo rid an' rosy wuz 'er chicks, 

An' curdly wuz 'er 'air, 
An' costly wuz tha robes ov gold 

Thease purty maid did wear. 

'Er shews wuz made ov satin black, 

Besprunkled wi' tha dew. 
'Er wrunged 'er 'ands, 'er tord 'er 'air, 

An' cried ' Whot chell I dii ? 

' I'm agwaine 'ome ! I'm agwaine 'ome ! 

I'm agwaine 'ome !' she cried. 
' Why wull 'e go a-roving, 

An' slight thease lovely maid ? 

1 Tha vury last time I zeed m' love 
'E cried wi' might an' main. 

Oh love ! et is a killing theng, 
Didee iver veel tha pain ?' 

I wish thease maid wuz a rid rid rose 

That in m' geardin grew ; 
An' I tii be tha geardiner, 

I knaws whot I wid dii. 

I'd garnish 'er wi' lilies O ! 

Zweet-williams, tyme an' rue. 
I'd zing all night till tha marning light, 

An' ov she I wid tak' kear O ! 



THE RED HERRING. 

I boft a penny urd 'erring, 

Penny an' 'erring an' iverytheng, 

I thenks I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 



SONGS AND CHILDREN'S PLAY-DITTIES. 39 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole heyd ? 
Why za giide a oven as iver baked breyd. 
'Erring an' breyd an' ivery theng, 
I thenks I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole tail ? 
Why za glide a ship as iver zot zail. 
'Erring an' zail an' ivery theng, 
I thenks I diied well wi' my -penny 'erring. 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole ? 

Why za giide a drashel as ever drashed wuts. 

'Erring an' wuts an' ivery theng, 

I thenk I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole bones ? 
Why za glide a 'ammer as iver cracked stones. 
'Ammer an' stones an' ivery theng, 
I thenk I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole skin ? 
Why za giide a blanket as iver man lied-in. 
'Erring an' blanket an' ivery theng, 
I thenk I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 

'Ot's thenk I made ov my 'erring's ole fins ? 
Why za giide a billises as iver blawed winds. 
Billis an' winds an' ivery theng, 
I thenk I diied well wi' my penny 'erring. 



CHILDREN'S PLAY-SONGS. 

One, two, three, four, five, 
Catching fishes all alive ; 
Six, seven, eight, nine, ten, 
I let them go again. 

Why did yii let them go ? 
'Cause they bit my finger so. 
Which finger did they bite ? 
Little finger on the right. 



40 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

TOUCH. 

I sent a letter to my love, 
And carried water in my glove, 
And on the way I dropt it. 
Some of you have picked it up, 
And put it in your pocket. 
'Tissent you ! 'Tissent you ! 
But 'tez you, you, you ! 

LAST TACK ! 

Ena, mena, mona, mite ! 
Caska, lena, lona, lite, 
Elga, belga, bo ! 
Eggs, butter, cheese, bread ! 
Stick, stock, stone dead ! 
O— u— t, out! 

THE BROKEN EGG. 

Humpitty-dumpitty 

Zot 'pon a wall, 
H umpitty-dumpitty 
'Ad a gert vail. 
An' all tha docters in tha Ian' 
Cudden make Humpitty-dumpitty stan'. 

THE FAT HEN. 

Hicketty-spicketty my fat hen, 
Her lays eggs vor gentlemen. 
Gentlemans comes ivery day, 
Tii zee ef my fat hen dii lay. 

RING OF ROSES. 

A ring, a ring of roses ! 
Pocketful of posies. 
A-tcshm ! A-tcshm ! 
We all fall down ! 



SONGS AND CHILDREN'S PLAY-DITTIES. 41 

THE ROSE-BUSH. 

Round and round the rosy bush, 
Flowers in the middle ; 
We curtsy up, and curtsy down, 
And curtsy all together. 

NUTS IN MAY. 

Yer us come gathering nuts in May, nuts in May, nuts in 
May j 
Yer us come gathering nuts in May. 
Zo early in tha marning. 

Now who willee 'ave vur nuts in May, nuts in May, nuts 
in May ? 
Now who willee 'ave vur nuts in May, 
Zo early in tha marning ? 

Aw ! us'll 'ave Kitty Hodge vur nuts in May, vur nuts in 
May, vur nuts in May ; 
Aw ! us'll 'ave Kitty Hodge vur nuts in May, 
Zo early in tha marning. 

Who willee zend tii vatch 'er away, tii vatch 'er away, tii 
vatch 'er away ? 
Who willee zend tii vatch 'er away, 
Zo early in tha marning ? 

Us'll zend Billy Rooks tii vatch J er away, tii vatch 'er away, 
tii vatch her away ; 
Us'll zend Billy Rooks tii vatch 'er awaj - , 
Zo early in tha marning. 

{Repeat) 



G. PRAYERS. 



A PRAYER. 

This prayer was in general use among farm labourers 
about twenty years ago, when I frequently heard it in the 
neighbourhood of Dawlish and Teignmouth. 

' Matthew, Mark, Liike, and John, 
God bless tha beyd that I lies on. 
Vower cornders tii my beyd, 
Vower angels lie aspreyed. 
Tii tii viite, and tii tii heyd, 
An' vower tii car me when I'm deyd. 
An' when I'm deyd an' in m' grave, 
An' all my boans be ratten, 
Tha greedy wurms my vlaish will ayte, 
An' I chell be vurgotten. 

Amen.' 



A PRAYER. 

A woodcutter at Bickleigh being asked if he ever prayed, 
replied : ' 'Ess, I dii zay zom prayers now and agin ;' and 
when requested to repeat them, said : 

' Our Father bless me an' my wive, 
My zin Jan, an' 'is wive ; 



Us vour, no more. 



Amen.' 



PR A YERS. 43 

ANOTHER. 

I lay my body down to rest, 
I pray the Lord my soul to bless ; 
And if I die before I wake, 
I pray to God my soul to take. 

Amen. 

A PRAYER. 

This was repeated to me by a labourer over eighty years 
of age. I refrain from giving it in pure vernacular. With 
tears in his eyes he said : ' My dear old mawther tayched 
un tii me za zune's I ciide spake.' 

• O blessed Lord God, I now come before Thee with a 
heart truly thankful for all Thy goodness and mercy towards 
me, particularly in preserving me this day from so many 
dangers as I have been liable to ; and now that I am going 
to lay down to rest, let this remind me how long my body 
must lay down in the grave, and my soul must enter upon 
an eternal state. Oh, let not sickness or death find me 
unprovided, but grant, O Lord, that I may finish the great 
work of my salvation before the night cometh, in which no 
man can work ! I confess that I have been too careless 
about the one thing needful, and have minded the business 
of this world more than Thy service, and the great concerns 
of my soul. O Lord, be merciful unto me a sinner, for Thy 
Son Jesus Christ's sake ! Pardon and forgive me for all 
that is past, and give me grace to amend my life for the 
time to come, that I may avoid all such things as are sinful 
and displeasing to Thee, and be comfortable in all those 
religious duties which Thou hast commanded me to do. 
Make me careful so to live now, as I should wish I had 
done when I come to die. Lord receive me, and all my 
relations and friends under Thy protection; let Thy holy 
angels pitch their tents around about my bed, that I may 
be safely delivered through all the perils and dangers of this 
night ; that I may be refreshed with a comfortable moderate 
sleep, and that I may rise in the morning fit for Thy service, 
and the duty of my calling. Lord, hear my prayer, and 
grant me my request in whatever Thou seest best for me to 
do, I humbly beg, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.' 



44. THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

MATT. XIII. 3-9. 

(as read by an old man.) 

Be'old a zawer went voth vur tii zaw ; 

An' when 'e zawed zom zeeds vailed by tha wayzide, an' 
tha vowls corned an' picked um awl up : 

Zom vailed up, pintap ov stony places, where they hadden 
a-got much airth : an' vothwith they springed up, 'cuz they 
hadden a-got no deepness ov airth : 

An' when tha zin wuz up, they wuz searched : an' cuz 
they hadden a-got no riites they wuthered away. 

An' zom vailed amung therns, an' tha therns springed up, 
an' chucked um : 

But uthers vailed intii giide groun', an' brat voth friite, 
zom a 'underedvold, zom zextvvold, zom thertyvold. 

He that 'ath yers tii yer, lett 'n yer. 



H. LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 



A. 

'A' = an abbreviation of have. 

' Willee plaize tii 'a' zom ov this, miss ? Missis zeth 'tez 
vornoons time.' 

Aboard (val) = to attack furiously. 

"Tez a glide job yii comed when yii did, or I shiide 
a-valled aboard aw'n in quick-sticks.' 

Abroad (val) = to split open. 

' Ef theyse yer tatties dii bowl inny longer they'll val awl 
abroad.' 

A-chucked = choked, thirsty. 

' They poar chicken be a-chucked tii death vur want ov 
watter. Diiee git um zom, 'Liza.' 

Aginst = (to go) towards. 

1 'Tez gitting dark ; us 'ad better go aginst Jenny, or 'er'll 
be a skeard out ov 'er life.' 

Agging = provoking to anger. 

' Diiee be quiet ! Yii be always a-agg, agg, agging, vrcm 
cockcraw tii zinzet.' 

Ago = finished. 

'Awl tha tatties be ago, missis; there idden wan a-layved.' 

Agone = time past. 

' 'Twas zome time agone her went up tii gert ouze.' 

Aight or ayte = eat. 

' Ht:r '11 aight crayme za vast za dug '11 aight whitpot. 



46 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Aight'th = eats. 

A gentleman of West Devon trained a stable-boy to wait 
at table. One evening at dinner a gentleman, whose appetite 
was remarkably good, attracted the lad's attention. When 
the host intimated that this particular visitor should be 
given more wine, the boy whispered loud enough for others 
beside the master to hear : 

' Diiee main thickee there gennelman, zir, that aight'th za 
much ?' ! ! 

Aimeth = aims. 

' He's a 'igh-stummicked chap, 'e is ; 'e aimeth tii gert 
thengs, an' belikes 'ell git urn, tii !' 

Aimses = iron horse-collars. 

' Where 's ta put tha aimses tii, Tom ?' 

Airth or yarth = earth. 

' An' tha airth awpened an' zwallered um up.' 

' Put um down in thickee cornder, an' hale 'm up wi' 
yarth.' 

Aiven = even. 

' I'm baggered ef I wunt be aiven wi' yii avore long.' 

Alwes = always. 

• Her's alwes a-trying tii dii tii thengs tii wance, 'er is.' 

Ammil = hoar-frost, when it settles on trees and shrubs. 

' Diiee liikee ; zee tha trees be Hiking biitivul 's marning. 
Lukes 'z ef they wuz covered wi' dimonds. Us dawnt offen 
zee tha ammil za thick, dii us ?' 

Ampassy = the sign &. 

Andugs = fire-dogs. 

'Ankicher = handkerchief. 

' I broft vive or six 'ankichers yer long wi' me when I 
corned ; now there idden wan tii be vound. Thickee Ellen 
hath a-stawled um vur zartin.' 

Ansell = an earnest given on completion of a bargain. 

' Tellee whot 'tez, min, thee shedstiia-anselled 'n wi' a 
shilling, an' made zure aw 'un.' 

Ansteeve = the handle of a flail. 

A poor-come-a-long-o'-t' = disastrous in results. 

' I be terrabul aveared 'twill be a poor-come-along-o'-'t 
now maister 's dead. The missis is a poar tool ; her athen 
a-got no notion about nort' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 47 

Appledrane or wopsy = a wasp. 

My little serving-boy said to me : 

' There's a appledrane's nist down in the cassia-tree moot. 
May me an' my brither burn en out ?' 

When asked how he knew the nest was there, he replied : 

' Aw ! cuz I've a-zeed um, an' a appledrane stinged me 
'pon tha vinger !' 

Apporn = apron. 

c Put Polly on a clayne apporn avore 'er go'th tii skiile.' 

Appinces = halfpence. 

' Is that a beggar tii tha doar ?' 

"Ess.' 

' Wull, then, gie 'n a vew appinces, an' 'e '11 ziine go !' 

Apsen = fasten. 

' Apsen thickee geat there, or us chell 'ave the cows awl 
awver the place avore marning. 

Aquott = sitting on a low seat. 
' 'Er 's agone aquott, I dii zim.' 
' Tha hare 's aquott in six acres.' 

Argify = to dispute with. 

' 'Tidden no use tii argify no longer. I tellee 'tez, then, 
an' there's an end o't ! !' 

Arm-wrist = wrist. 

Mrs. G. ' Whot's the matter wi' tha babby ?' 
Nurse. ' I can't ezackally zay, but 'e zims tii be a- 
scrammed in 's arm-wrist. Liiketh 's ef 'e 'd a-broked 'n.' 

Arrish. or errish = stubble-field. 

' Turn tha chickens out in tha arrishes ; they'll vind 
'nough mayte vur tii-day.' 

Arter = after. 

' Thee'st best urn arter she, an' tell 'er 'er 'th a-layved 'er 
pattens behind.' 

Assiniate = assassinate. 

' Aw, 'Liza, whotiver diiee think ? Why, ef they Rooshans 
ant a-tried tii assiniate tha Ce-zar ! !' 

Athist = thirsty. 

' I be terrabal athist ! Let's 'a' zome zyder tii wet my 
missel !' 



48 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Aveard = afraid. 

' Whot's aveard o' now, yli stupid ? Dith zim he '11 bite 
thee ?' 

Avire = on fire. 

' Urn, Zue, vatch zom zalt ! Tha chimbly 's avire !' 

Avore = before. 

' Go avore 'n shipperd !' 

Aw ! daily-buttons ! = a joyful exclamation. 

' Aw ! daily-buttons ! yer com'th like a 'ouze avire !' 

Awkard = awkward. 

' Her's ciichy-pawed, an' dii'th thengs oncommon awkard- 
like.' 

Aw'min = of them. 

' Ow minny aw'min 'ast-agot ?' 

Awn = oven. 

' Now, then, Kezia, diiee hike sharp an' yett tha awn. 
'Tez niest 'pon lebben a'clock.' 

Awnly = only. 

' Thickee there is tha awnly wan aw 'm I've agot a-layved.' 

Awn-zel = ownself, selfish. 

' Er's wan ov tha awn-zel zort, 'er is.' 

Awpels = apples. 

' What iver diiee mayne, miss ? Is et awpels yii want'th ? : 

Awpen = open. 

' Aw ! diiee plaize tii awpen tha winder an' let out tha 
zmoak? I'm niest 'pon chucked.' 

Aw 'un = of him. 

' Tha faace aw 'un 's za yeller 's a kit's viite.' 

Awverliiked = bewitched. 

A man came to me one day and said : 

' Lor, missis, my poar wive is in a brave mess o' 't. Vur 
dree weeks her ant abin able tii zlape a wink nor aight zo 
much as wid kep a mouze alive. Her is aivverliiked, zartin 
zure ! ! About dree a'clock in tha marning her git'th such 
a pricking, an' sticking, an' yetting, an' burning in 'er 'ead, 
that 'er can't bide still tii minits tugether. 'Er's awver- 
liiked, za zure 's a gun !' 

It transpired that the woman was suffering from a very 
acute attack of neuralgia. 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 49 

Ax = ask. 

' Diiee plaize tii urn in an' ax missis tii give 'e a crub ov 
burd an' cheese vur Joey Chubb's vorniins.' 



B. 

Backalong = homeward. 

' How long avore yii be a-gwaine backalong, Bill ?' 

'Aw ! dreckly minit ; ziines I've a-had a jiig ov zyder.' 

Backbar = An iron bar fixed inside the chimney, stretching 
from side to side, to support the barcrooks. 

Backsivore = hind side front. 

' Aw yii stupid cheel, theest a-put thee apporn on back- 
sivore.' 

Baist = beast. 

' 'Ow minny baistes avee a-tiiked up tii Zmithveeld thease 
yer then, maister ?' 

' Aw ! I tiiked zebbenteen, an' zold ivery wan aw'm !' 

Bal = to shout. 

1 Whot's stan' there a-haling an' a-baling vur ? Come 
intii ouze dreckly minit.' 

Ballet = a song. 

' Kassent thee gie us a ballet or tii avore yii go'th ?' 
1 Us'll try whot's ken dii.' 
' Strike up then, Jim !' 
' Whot chell I zing ?' 

'Whot thee'st a-mind tii; unly let et be zommat 
lively !' 

Ballyrag = to scold. 

'Whotiver diiee kep on zo vor? Yii bant niver 'appy 
lest yii can ballyrag zombody. Diiee bide quiet vur a 
bit!' 

Banging-gert = very large. 

' I've jist a-zeed a banging gert otter down tha river. Us 
chell 'ave brave sport ef yii tellth Maister Colyer 'bout ! n.' 

Bant = am not. 

' Yii bant agwaine. I bant agwaine, an' nobody else idden 
agwaine. No fay ! noan aw us !' 

4 



50 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Barley-ile = the beard of ripe barley. 
' Yii can't use barley-dowst vur bedties, 'cuz tha iles wid 
urn intii 'e.' 

Barm, or Bourm = yeast. 

In N. Devon, close on Exmoor : ' Dawntee vurgit tha 
bourm when yii go'th intii town.' 

In other parts of the county : ' Yii must vatch zome barm 
tii-day or us shan't be able to bakee tu-morrer.' 

Barrow-pig = a gelt pig. 

' Now, vather, when yii go'th tii market, dawntee vurgit tii 
buy a peg. Have a barrow-peg, not a zow.' 

Bar-re-el = barrel. 

' I zay, Bertie, yer ! Us 'ave a-got a dizen of tar bar-re-els 
vur tii burn tii-night. Myimers ! whot a spree us chell 'ave 
if they bobbies '11 let us alone. I'm baggared ef wan aw'm 
tiches me, ef I dawnt skat un intii tha vire.' 

Barras-apporn, or Cuse-apporn = Hessian. 
' Alwes put on a barras apporn tii kip yer cloaths clayne 
when yu'm tii work.' 

Baste = to beat. 

' I'll baste thy hide vur thee ef thee dissent come intii 
ouze dreckly minit. 

(i) Bate, (2) Baty, (3) Batyn = to decrease. 

(1) 'I won't bate wan more steech. 

(2) ' I be agwaine to baty dree more times.' 

(3) ' I be batyn the ca've now.' 

Bawked-up = shut off from sight. 

1 Aw ! 'es I zee whot yii mayn'th, mum. Yii want'th me 
tii plant thickee biish between tha rockery an' tha cassia 
tree, zo that tha workshop winder chell be a bawked-up.' 

Bayte = to beat, or thrash. 

A wumman, 

A spanyel, 

And a vrench-nit tree, 

The oftener yii bayte um 

Tha better they'll be.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 51 

Baynes = beans. 

' Rub tha bee-butts wi' zome bayne-stalks.' 
An admiring lover said of his sweetheart : ' Why her's za 
biitivul and za purty, like baynes.' 

Beam, or Beem = a binder. 

'Put a straw beam round yer viite avor yii go'th out 
thease morning. Tha rawds be a zlippery 's glass.' 

' Whot a fat ole siss 'tez. Why her liiketh like a bunnel 
ov straw tied up wi' a hay-beem.' 

Be-ats-'twill = anyhow. 

' Her'th a-married tii last then, be-ats-'twill.' 

Bedlier = an invalid. 

' Why, ole Jack Maunder broked 'is leg in dree places, 
and I knaw he'th abin a bedlier niest upon vorty year.' 

Begurge, or Begridge = begrudge. 

Scene — A sick room ; a bunch of grapes. 
Dramatis Persona — Doctor, nurse, patient. 

Doctor. Good-morning, Daddy, how are you to-day ? 

Patient. Aw, thankee kindly, zir, I rekkon I be a bit 
oetter. Midden I aight wan or tii ov they there berries 
{pointing to the grapes). 

Doctor. No, I think not to-day. To-morrow you may 
have as many as you like. 

Patient. Well, zir. yii nidden begurge um tii me ; vur 
passen gied um tii me. 

Nurse {looking into the doctor's face). Plaize to excuse 'en, 
zir. He said ' begurge] but he mayn'th begridge. 'E ant 
abin vury well edecated. 

Bettermost = of a higher order. 

' Now dii yii zim that tha passen's wive and tha better- 
most zort ov vokes be agwaine tii 'ave ort tii zay tii they ? 
No, tanoby, they be awnly cattle-daylers ! They'll 'ave tii 
knaw tha varmering vokes ef they wants inny company at 
awl, I tellee !' 

Beznez = business. 

' Hold thee tongue wi' 't ? Whot beznez is it ov thine 
who I spaykth tii ?' 



52 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Bias (out of) = out of reckoning. 

' I tellee whot 'tez, they've a made a mistake ; they'm out 
ov their bias thease time.' 

Bides = remains, stays. 

' Her is cruel wisht I suree, zince 'er mawther died, 'er 
dawnt zim tii care vur nort, but 'er bides in ouze, moping 
about awl day azifing an' azighing. 

Biggin — a tin coffee-pot. 

' I ciide, now 'tez za 'ot, drink a whole biggin-vul ov 
coffee.' 

Billises = bellows. 

' Mary, diiee take tha billises away vrom thickee cheel. 
Her'th aput tha nawse aw'm in 'er mowth an' made 'erzel 
za beastly 's a peg. Hang urn up in cornder, dii !' 

Bimbye = by-and-bye. 

' Us be agwaine up tii zee gran'fer bimbye.' 

Bimbye-night = late in the evening. 

' I wish bimbye-night yii'd go za var 's Bolham and meet 
little Jinny Tapp, cuz 'er 'ell be aveared in tha dark.' 

Bit-ago = lately. 

'They can't be agone var, cuz they awnly layved tha ouze 
a bit-ago.' 

Bit = a small piece. 
' Give me a bit ov sugar.' 

' I can't tellee, I dawnt knaw a bit, when or how 'twas a 
dued.' 

Bittel = a wooden hammer. 

' Plaize tii vatch in tha bittel an' wadges, I wan'th tii slat 
thease moots.' 

Biver = to tremble. 

' ^'hen I zeed um bring tha corpse out ov tha river, I 
bivered all awver.' 

Black army = fleas. 

A servant girl once said to me : 

' Dawntee plaize tii awpen yer beydriime winder tii-day, 
missis, cuz ef yii dii tha black army '11 come in ; an' us shan't 
git a wink ov zlape all drii tha zummer vur tha vleys. I've 
a-yerd tell 'ow they comes down Ex'ter 'ill in zwarms 'pon 
tha fust ov March, alwes !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 53 

Black-head = an inflamed sore. 

' Whot's tha matter wi' yer ole man now than, Mrs. Ash ?' 
' Aw, nort much, unly 'e 'th agot a black-head pon 'is leg, 
an' that maketh 'en cruel tayjus.' 

Blaked-away = cried till breathless. 

' Sally, urn up an' tell mawther that tha cheel 's a-blaked 
away ; 'er's black in tha vace — urn, vur God's sake, or 'er 
'11 be deyd avore 'er com'th.' 

Blamed = a polite swear. 

'I'll be blamed ef 'er chell iver 'ave wan appenny more out 
ov me !' 

Blare = to shout loudly. 

' Yii should 'ave ayerd urn blare ! They blared an' hollied 
till they purty nigh bust theirselves.' 

Blawcawl or Blawcoal = a sheet of tin placed before the 

fire to cause a draught. 
' Ef thease grate smawk'th like this us must 'a' a blawcawl 
made avor winter, else there'll be no living yer !' 

Blazing = (i) shouting loudly, (2) spreading abroad. 

(1) ' Whot's Bet blazing about now, then?' 

' Aw, I dawn't know ; 'tez the likes ov she tii holly za 
'ard's 'er can.' 

(2) ' Ef you've a-told Alice James about yer uncle gieing 
'e that stub ov money, her'll be blazing it awl awver tha 
place. ' 

Blid = (i) blood, (2) a decrepit person, (3) bled. 

(1) ' Tha blid wuz awl awver tha place.' 

(2) ' Poor old blid ! he'th azeed his best days, he 'ath !' 

(3) ' His vinger blid a stream.' 

Bliddy-waryers = wallflowers. 

' I've agot a 'mazing crap ov bliddy-waryers thease yer.' 

Blooth = blossom. 

The apple-blooth is biitivul thease spring. Ef tha vrast 
dawnt titch tha trees, us chell 'ave a brave crap.' 

Bluemould or Bluevinnied = mouldy — said of cheese when 

ripe. 
' Diiee like bluevinnied Darset cheese ?' 
' No, I dawnt, nur 'et maggoty Cheddar.' 



54 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Blunk = spark. 

' There idden a blunk ov vire yer, an' us ant agot no 
lucifers. I can't tell whotiver tii dii tii yett tha kittle.' 

Bobbery = an uproar. 

' There's a purty bobbery up tii ouze. The young miss 
'ath amarried tha groom all unbeknown to innybody.' 

Bobbing- Joan = a gay, sprightly girl. 

' Aw, whot a bobbing-Joan thee art, Polly ! Wait a bit, 
m' dear, till yii'm married ; yii'll 'ave tii stap they hantics. I 
tellee wedlock an' winter tameth maids an' baistes.' 

Bobs-a-dying = a big row. 

' Luke zee yer, ef thee arten ago out tii work avore yer 
vather cometh intii ouze, there'll be bobs-a-dying wi' 'e. 
Diiee, diiee urn along, there's a glide bwoy.' 

Bocked = baulked, prevented. 

' I wuz abocked ov my holiday yisterday, an' I bant 
agwaine tii be sard like that again, I'm baggered ef I be !' 

Boneshave = sciatica. 

' I be main sartin I got tha boneshave in my hip, vur I 
can't git up nur zit down.' 

Through a small hamlet not far from Nymet Roland 
meanders a small rivulet, which with some trouble to itself 
manages to join the main river. On the bank of this 
stream, on a bitterly cold winter night, old John Roden, a 
martyr to sciatica, stretched himself out, head against 
stream, in the hope that ' tha watter wid car tha boneshave 
down tii tha zay.' At his side was laid an ashen staff. Two 
women on opposite banks, with joined hands stretched over 
Jack and the stream, chanted in monotone : 

' Boneshave right, 
Boneshave strite ; 
As tha watter rins by tha stave, 
Zo follow boneshave.' 

Then silently departed in opposite directions, leaving 
John Roden to get home ' za zune as his boneshave wuz 
ago.' Needless to state, ' boneshave sticked tii en,' and ere 
daylight death had carried him away to a painless home. 

Bootivul or Biitivul = beautiful. 

' 'Tez a biitivul morning, 's marning, zir !' 

' 'Ess 'tez, Jan, biitivul.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 55 

Bowled = boiled. 

1 Be they tatties a ciiked 'et ?' 

"Ess.' 

' Well, than, drain um off or they'll be bowled all abroad.' 

Brad = a thick stick. 

Brandires = an iron three-legged trivet. 

'Stand tha brass milk-pan 'pon the brandires and put 
zome live cawls under 'n. The milk will yettee alright 
then.' 

Brath = broth. 

' Brath ! whot, brath again ! Why, 'twas brath yisterday ! 
brath tha day avore ! brath tii-day ! an' mayhap 'tweel be 
brath again tii-morrar ! I'll be darned ef I'll be keep'd 'pon 
brath !' (Said by a schoolboy when sick with measles. ) 

Braund = a log of wood. 

' 'Tweel be cruel cold bimbye. There's a sight ov snaw 
in tha elements ; yii'd best ways bring in a giide stug ov 
braunds, or yii'll git no vire when tha snaw dith come.' 

Brave = (i) excellent, (2) fine, (3) good. 

(1) ' Thease yer is brave good tay. Where didee git it ?' 

(2) 'There's a brave lot ov vokes ago to Danish by 
'scurtion train tii-day.' 

(3) ' Aw, well dun, than ! well dun ! Yii be a brave 
chap, sure 'nuff.' 

Brawked or Broked = broken. 

' Bill How corned 'ome bosky last night an' brawked awl 
tha dome 'pon dresser — I min', awl up tii snickets. I'm 
'nation zorry !' 

Brekzis = breakfast. 

' How long avore brekzis will be ready, missis ? I've been 
waiting a brave while.' 

Brimbly = full of brambles. 

' Didee iver zee sich a stivery head as 'er'th agot. 'Er 
liiketh 's-of 'er'd been drawed drii a brimbly 'adge 
back'ards.' 

Brimmels = brambles. 

' Thickee cheel 's availed intii tha brimmel-bush, an' 
scratched herzel purty well, I warndee.' 



56 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Brin = strong linen. 

' Ef yii wants inny new shirts, Ned, yii'd best git zome 
brin ; tez 'mazing strong stuff, an' 'tweel bear a rug an' 
a tug.' 

Brish = brush. 

' Where's ta put tha brish tii, Bill ?' 

Brit = to dent. 

' Now jist liikee zee whot yu've adiied now ! Thee 'st 
abritted thease bestest taypot, yii gert shacklebrained 
twoad !' 

Broft = brought. 

' Urtched Downe drink'th za hard that 'e 's niver zober. 
He 'ath abroft all 'is vokes tii ruin, 'e 'ath.' 

Brownkitty = bronchitis. 

' I been most mortal bad thease winter, wuss than iver I 
wuz avore. I've ahad tha brownkitty drefful bad, an' bin 
za tizzicked up I elide 'ardly breathe.' 

Browsy = robust. 

' 'Avee zeed Aryott (Harriet) Wobb's little maid since 'er 
corned back vrom skule ? Well, idden 'er a dear browsy 
cheel ? 'Tath adiied 'er giide gwaine away.' 

Bucky = sour. 

Said of milk when turned sour, or has a bitterish taste 
from being put into an unclean vessel. 

Buckle-tii = to work with a will. 

' Now I say, Peter, diiee buckle-tii wi' a giide listy will, or 
us shan't 'a' tha hay 'ouzed avore tha rain com'th. I zee 
tha clouds hiking cruel 'eavy an' gathering up tii westward.' 

Biike = book. 

' Yii'll 'a' both forrels off thickee biike ef yii mal'th en 
about zo.' 

Bulkee = to eructate. 

' Dawnt yii bulkee in my veace again, dist yer ! or I'll 
plim thy 'ead vur thee.' 

Bull-'baggar = one who causes a scare. 

' Betty Vowler 'th a-bin yer again an' purty nigh scared 
tha cheel tii death ! 'Er's za ugly "s a witch. I'll hat 
thickee ole bull-baggar a skat in tha 'ead ef 'er cometh yer 
again. Darned ef I dawnt !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 57 

Bullums = sloes. 

' Bullums gin is giide vur tha colic' 

Bungy = short and stout. 

' He's a nice little chap, sure 'nuff; a proper little bungy. 
He's like a Dutchman. 

' Bungy 'pon truckles, 
All vlaish an' no knuckles.' 

Burd = bread, and bird. 

' Yii didden put barm enough in tha daw tii-day, vur tha 
burd's a clit, an' 'tez 'eavy 's lead.' 
' Thease little burd's deyd.' 

Burdge = bridge. 

'Urn, Tom, diiee ; little Teddy Ciike 'th availed awver 
tha burdge intii tha Exe. He'll be adrownded ef yii dawnt 
Hike sharp.' 

Burkee = to cough. 

' 'Er cough is terrabul bad, an' 'er dii burkee like a 
dug.' 

Burned — an oath. 

' No, I'm burned ef I'll dii 't !' 

Burtches or "britches = breeches. 

' He 'th atored his burtches in tha brimmel bushes.' 

Busky-eyed = intoxicated. 

' Liikee zee tit Billy Blake ! I'm baggared ef 'e idden 
busky-eyed again, an' 'e tiiked tha pledge only last week. 
There's yer taytottallers again ! They taketh kindly tii 
liquor.' 

Butt = a kneeling pad. 

Buttwoman or Buttywoman = a sextoness, female verger. 

In many churches a woman is employed to keep the 
interior of the edifice clean, to show strangers into pews, 
wash the surplices, and beat the butts (hence buttwoman). 
At quiet weddings she gives away the bride and signs the 
register, and often stands sponsor at christenings. 

Butt = a straw beehive. 

It is not unusual in country places, on the death of a 
member of a family possessing bees, to go into the garden, and 
tap the butt three times, saying : ' Father's dead ! Father s 
dead ! Father's dead !' or any other member of the family 



5* 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



as the case may be. In the event of this announcement to 
the bees being omitted, the fear is that other members of the 
household will die before the expiration of the year. 

The following from the Tiverton Gazette, published by 
Gregory, Son, and Tozer, on Tuesday, August nth, 1891, 
is interesting : 

' The old custom " of turning the bees " at a funeral has 
not yet died out in Devonshire. Only a few days ago, as a 
funeral was leaving a cottage in a village not far from 
Tiverton, the ceremony of turning round the hives was gone 







& A J "' 



BEE- BUTT. 



through, and in the process some of the bees escaped, 
stinging the bearers, who were forced to retire into the house 
and have their faces dressed before they could proceed. 
This is not the first time that such a mishap has occurred. 
A similar incident was recorded some years ago in one of 
Cassell's publications, as follows : 

' " A curious superstitious custom formerly prevailed in 
Devonshire of turning round the beehives that belonged to 
the deceased— if he had any — at the moment the corpse 
was carried out of the house. Some years ago, at the 
funeral of a rich old farmer, a painful circumstance occurred. 
Just as the corpse was placed in the hearse, and the visitors 
(a large number) were arranged in order for the procession 
of the funeral, a person called out ' Turn the bees !' A 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 59 

servant who had no knowledge of such a custom, instead of 
turning the hives round, lifted them up, and laid them down 
on their sides. The bees, thus suddenly invaded, instantly 
attacked and fastened on the visitors. It was in vain they 
tried to escape, for the bees precipitately followed, and left 
their stings as marks of their indignation. A general con- 
fusion took place, and it was some time before the friends 
of the deceased could be rallied together to proceed to the 
interment." 

'There is a tradition that if the hives be draped with 
crape the bees will take their turning quietly, especially if 
the crape is so arranged that no opening is left for them to 
get out.' 

Buzzom = bosom. 

' Havee a yerd about poor 'Liza Turner ?' 
' No. Whot es et ?' 

' Why, tha poor dear sawl hath abin foced tii 'ave 'er 
buzzom atiiked off, cuz her got a cancer in un.' 

1 Aw, poor blid ! 'er want live very long now, than ?' 
: No, I rekkon !' 

Buzzymilk = The first milk given by a cow after calving. 
' No, mum, us niver useth tha buzzymilk. Tidden glide 
vur nort.' 

Bwoy = boy. 

' I've agot dree bwoys an' dree maidens — six aw'm alto- 
gether. My man awnly arns a pound a week, an' I can 
tellee I offen got tii take tha zoap and tha biites out ov tha 
vittels.' 

Bwoy's-love = southernwood. 



C. 

Cab = dirt adhering to plates when not properly washed ; 
a clot of mud. 

' There's cabs awl awver thease yer plate ; dawnt yii niver 
bring sich a beastly cabby theng tii me again.' 

Cabbage — to purloin. 

A farmer's wife once asked a dressmaker, ' How much of 
this dress material have yii cabbaged? I'm sartin there 
idden vowerteen yards in thease scrimpy little tail' 



60 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Cabbical = very good, capital. 

' Well, I will zay this vur thee, Jim, thee art a cabbical 
feller !' 

Caddling = loafing about. 

' Now then, Harry, whot be yii caddling about vur ? 
Diiee go tii work an' 'am yer zalt, ef yii get'th yer mayte vur 
nuthing.' 

Cadge = to loaf, for the purpose of obtaining alms. 
' Dick Small do'th nort but cadge about vrom 'ouze tii 'ouze. 
I widden gie 'n nort ef I zeed 'n starving in tha hadge-traw.' 

Cal-home = to remember. 

' No, fath ! I can't, jist thease minit, cal-t-home when 'e 
died. Ax Liza !' 

Car = to carry. 

' Canst car thickee bag ov tatties awver tii squire's ?' 

' No, I'm burned ef I can.' 

Canst — Can you. 

' Canst catch yett, Sam ? 'Tez oncommon cold 's marn- 



ing.' 



'Ess, I zim.' 

Cautch = mess. 

' Whot a cautch thee art amaking ov that pudden. Git 
along, dii ; I'll finish 'n.' 

Cautcheries = medicines. 

He. ' Well, whot cautcheries hath Mackenzie zendee now?' 
She. ' Aw, 'tez zomthing tii miive tha pain, 'e zaith.' 
He. ' 'Tez awl me eye ! he awnly wan'th tu urn up a bill. 
I tellee there idden no vartu in the d stuff.' 

Cawed = diseased. 

Sheep are said to be cawed when in wet seasons they 
contract lung disease, and cough incessantly. 

'I be zo zorry tii tellee that maister's bound vur tii be 
ruined. Every sheep he'th agot is acawed.' 

Cess = happiness. 

' Giide cess tii his sawl, poor blid ! He hadden much ov 
thease world's giides yer. He died game, 'e did, arter awl !' 

Changes = underlinen. 
When my maid went tii sarvice I gied 'er plenty ov 
nges, an' now 'er ant a-got a screed tii 'er back.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 61 

Chap = a young man, a sweetheart. 

' Wanted at once, indoors, chap able to plough ; no 
swearing. Also a young nurse girl. — Apply, J. Sweet, Beer- 
down, Uplowman.' 

'Plaize, missis, may I go tii zee tha wild baistes? My 
chap zaith 'e'll pay vur me.' 

Chat (to) = to kitten. 

' Our old cat chatted yisterday, an' us be agwaine tii 
drownd um awl. Never keep May chats, cuz they brings 
varmints intii 'ouze, zo they zay.' 

Chaynee-eyed = squinting. 

' Whot, is Joe Strike agwaine tii marry thickee chaynee- 
eyed baggage, old pumplee Trude's darter ?' 

"Ess, I zim.' 

' Well, I'm baggared ef I wid, than, wi' awl tha dubs 'er'll 
'ave.' 

Cheel = child. 

1 Well, miss, whot'th tha missis got thease time than ? A 
bwoy or a cheel (daughter) ?' 

' I niver did zee sech a cheel as Zacky Arters is ; 'e's niver 
plaized wi'out 'e's tormenting zommat.' 

Chillern = children. 

' They chillern be za vinnied they 'ool go uppen 
chimmer.' 

Chimber or chimmer = bedroom, chamber. 
' Us ant got but wan chimber vur vower aw us tii 
zlape in.' 

Chitter = chatter. 

1 They chillern chitter like a tree vull ov sparrars.' 

Chitterbox = chatterbox. 

' Du shiite up yer tattie-trap ! Yii be sich a chitterbox 
nobody else can't git a word in edgeways.' 

Chockling = cackling. 

' Urn, Evie, an' zee whot ole Polly's a chockling vur ! 
I zim her 'th astawled her nist, and layed uppen tha hadge.' 

Chollers = The wattles of a cock. 

' Liikee, zee tii our ole barn-door cock, ef tha chollers 
aw'n bant za rid's blid.' 



62 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Chow = to chew. 

Said at Christmas, by a recipient of a squire's annual gift 
of mutton : ' Missy, plaize tii come yer an' liike tii thease 
piece of mayte that squire zend me. 'Tez a bit ov mutton ; 
I've a bowled it an' I've a bowled et, I've a chowed et an' 
I've a chowed et, me an' my ole man tii, an' us ciidden git 
et abroad, chow za hard 's us ciide. I rekkon 'tez a bit ov 
tha tail end, missy.' 

Chubble-headed or chuckle-headed = silly, foolish. 
' Now, diddee iver zee sich a chubble-headed viile 's 'er is 
in awl yer born days? I niver didden.' 

Chuckvull = quite full, intoxicated. 

' Thickee bottle is chuckvull ; 'e'll urn awver zoon.' 

' Jack Radford hath abin guzzling awl day ; 'e must be 

chuckvull by this time. Won't be able tii stand vur a week, 

I'll warndee.' 

Chuff = ill-tempered. 

' Ef yii spayk'th za chuff as that tii me again, I'll hat thee 
upendown !' 

' Whot be yii za chuff about now, than ? I ant adiied 
nort tii agervate 'e.' 

Chucks = cheeks. 

' 'Er chucks be za rid as a rose, bant um ?' 

Chure = char, to do odd jobs. 

' Now than be peart, Sallie ; there's plenty ov chures tii 
be adiied tii-day.' 

' 'Er's gammy-handed, but 'er can churee about a-bit.' 

Clam = to maul. 

' I'll be jiggered ef yii'm agwaine tii clam en about zo ; 
yii'll make'n muck awl awver !' 

Clapper-claw = to scold. 

'Well, thee can'st clapper-claw purty tight, when thee'st 
a-mind tii !' 

Clat = a cob. 

' I'll henn thease clat at thy 'ead ef thee zaith that again !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 63 

Clathopper = clodhopper. 

'There never wuz sich a gert 'eavy viited clathopper as 
thee'rt, George. Thee can'st niver zee where thee'rt agwaine 
tii.' 

Clatting = fishing for eels. 

' Mawther, where's vather ?' 

' Why, dissent knaw ?' 

' No, I dawnt !' 

' Well, than he's agone up tha river clatting !' 

Clayned = cleaned, dressed. 
Visitor. ' Can I see Mrs. Smith ?' 

Servant. ' No, mim, not jist 'et, 'er idden clayned ; 'er 
wunt be very miny minits now. I'll tell she yii be coined.' 

Cledgee = sticky. 

Here is a letter from a man excusing himself for not 
having sent butter as usual to a customer in Exeter in which 
the word ' cledgee ' occurs. 

' Barton, 

' North Tawton, 

'March iyh, 1891. 

' Sir, 

' i ham main zory i cudden ind yer buter as per 
usal. the snaw was so dep, and know the rawds be so 
cledgee us kin arly git dru them ver jakes. hopping you 
heave not ben incomoded, i ham, 

' Your's truely, 

'Peter Brown.' 
Clink = prison. 

' Idden this a brave job o't ? Tha jistices 'ave 'a clapped 
Tom Pearce intii clink vur stayling ferrits. A fine tale 
that'll make in tha parish.' 

Clint = to bend the point of a nail after it has been driven 
through a hard substance. 

A story is told of two men who made a bet as to which 
could tell the biggest lie. 

Joe said : ' I droved a nail drii tha miine.' 

Tom replied : ' I went t'other zide and dinted un.' 

Clipper = a knock on the head. 

' I can tellee, I gied'n a dazzed glide clipper in his 'ead, 
an' 'e ant been niest me zince.' 



64 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Clit = heavy ; applied to bread when it has not risen 
properly. 

'Thease loave ov breyde a-clit. I 'spose tha flour wuz 
a-melted.' 

Clitched-hold = caught. 

'Ef 'e hadden a-clitched-hold vast tii me, 'e'd availed 
skat intii tha watter.' 

Cloam = crockery-ware. 

' Yer's a tiidii again ! Bill Vrast hath a-tanned 'is wive, 
an' broked ivery iotum of cloam in tha 'ouze.' 

Clockee = to cackle as a hen. 

' Thickee hen have a-layed a egg. I yerd 'er clockee 
avore brekzis. Urn uppen taller., Zacky, an' zee ef 'e can 
vind 'er nist.' 

Clovel = the beam across the front of the chimney, found 
only in old farm-houses. 

'Maister, diiee plaise tii come yer an' liikee tii thease 
clovel ? I zim 'e's purty nigh burned drii.' 

' 'Ess, by gor, zo 'er is !' 

Cob = a dry ball of earth. 

' 'E henned a gert cob at 'er 'ead, an' hat 'er a dowst ov 
a whack in tha eye.' 

Cob = a composition of straw, lime, small gravel, and clay, 
from which the walls of houses were up to the seventeenth 
century built. Some of these walls are from two and a 
half to four feet thick. 

Colly = a blackbird. 

'There's a colly's nist in thickee bush.' 

' I dii yer tell that tha squire shiite a white colly yisterday. ' 

Conkerbils = icicles. 

' Diiee lukee zee how tha conkerbils be ahanging tii tha 
oaths ; bant um biitivul !' 

Coord = cord. 

'Yer, Charlie, urn down tii Bert Toller's an ax un tii 
lettee 'ave vower yards ov box-coord. Dawntee gie moar'n 
dree 'appence a yard vor't.' 

Cornder = corner. 

' The warmest cubby-hole, this zort ov weather, is the 
chimbley-cornder.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 65 

Cotton = to beat lustily. 

' I'll cotton thy hide vur thee ef thee dissent come yer 
dreckly minit' 

Cow-comforts = stone pillars erected on pasture lands 
against which cattle rub themselves. (None as yet have 
been heard to say : ' God bless the Duke of Argyle !' though 
they may experience a sense of inward gratitude.) 

Cowcumber = cucumber. 

' I be that fond ov cowcumbers, I ciide aight um tii ivery 
meal ; but I can't disgest um.' 

Cow-hocked = thick at heel. 

' I dawnt thenk much ov 'er. They did zay 'er was 
purty, but I dawnt zee 't ! 'Er's cow-hocked ! My ole 
dummon 's worth a dozen aw that zort.' 

Craking = complaining. 

' Whot's tha use ov craking about et ? Why dissent go 
an' git zome work tii dii ?' 

' Yii've adiied nort but crakee awl day, an' I be most 
mazed wi' 'e.' 

Cralers = lice. 

' 'Er 'ead 's za vull ov cralers as iver 'e can 'old.' 

Crams = creases. 

' My gown is crams awl awver ; that's cuz 'Liza packed 'n 
za tight tiigether.' 

(Another example, which may perhaps be amusing, was 
said by a farmer's wife while unpacking her daughter's box 
on returning from school.) 

' Yii've a cramed yer vroks purty well ; I can tellee they 
liike's thof they'd been drawd drii a ca've's mouth.' 

Crams = fidgets. 

Daughter. ' I dawnt like that ; I wish I ciide 'ave 'n 
made as I wants tii.' 

Mother. 'Git along, dii! Yii got za minny crams, yii 
dawnt knaw whot yii want'th.' 

Crap = crop. 

' Us got a 'cabbical crap ov tatties thease yer !' 

Craw = crow. 

'Whot's about now? Picking a craw? Why, thee 
kassent ayte a craw ! 'Tez a carrion burd ! Draw 'n away 
diiee.' 



66 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Crayme = cream. 

' 'Er will ayte crayme za vast as a dug will ayte whitpot.' 

Crayturs = creatures, persons. 

' Poor ole craytur, 'er's pin tap ov' er last legs, 'er is.' 

I (i) to shiver. 
Creem= < (2) to mash. 

( (3) to squeeze. 

(1) 'When I zeed the wheel go awver 'n it made me 
creem awl awver.' 

(2) 'Lizzie, diiee creem up tha tatties tii-day vur dinner ; 
they '11 Hike iver zo much better.' 

(3) ' Havee a creemed up tha cheese ready vur tha 
press ?' 

' 'Ess, 'tez diied.' 

Cricket = a three-legged stool. 

' Zo then 'tez true that poor ole maister's gone tii kingdom 
come ?' 

' 'Ess, sure ! I've a jist layved missis zitting a-ziffing 
an' a-sighing 'pon tha cricket in tha chimbley-cornder. 
'Er's fit tii break 'er 'art, vur 'er did analyze (idolize) the 
poor dear blid ! Aw well, tez whot us must all come tii.' 

Crimminy = an interjection. 

' Aw crimminy ! I zeeth 'n ; 'e's croped behind tha peg's 
lews wall.' 

Crinkum-cranklums = fidgets. 

' 'Er's wan ov tha right zort, 'er is ; 'er ant agot no 
crinkum-cranklums about 'er, 'er 'athen't.' 

Crint = to groan. 

'Whotiveris tha use ov zitting there a-crinting ? Ef zo 
De yii've agot tha tiitheache, diiee go an' 'ave 'n out !' 

Crips = crisp. 

'Thease piece o' 'ood es tii crips vur curving, missy; yii 
must 'a' box-'ood or oak.' 

Crooked words = swear-words. 

A man at Chudleigh Knighton was in the habit of inter- 
larding his conversation with oaths. His wife, getting weary 
of it, begged him to give up using they ' terrabul crooked- 
words.' Observing her tears, he instantly turned, took her 
in his arms, and said : ' I'm darned ef iver I zays ort again 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 67 

but " Rams-horn !" za long as I liv'th, I'm darned ef I dii !' 
and he kept his word. 

Oroped-behind = hiding in a stooping position behind an 
object. 

' 1 vound thease beastly little twoad of a cheel outzide 
croped-behind tha back'ouze door — a drabbitted little 
haggage !' 

Crowner = coroner. 

' They be agwaine tii vatch tha crowner, 'cuz they saith 
Bill Veysey 'ath a-powzened hiszel. They'll zit 'pon 'n 
down tii tha Merry Aryers tu-night.' 

Crowdie = to fiddle. 

At a charity school, not many years ago, the master was 
fond of imbibing too freely at a small inn opposite the 
school-house. When the boys discovered that ' maister wuz 
agone tii 'ave a drap,' they would rush wildly from the 
schoolroom, shouting : 

' Crowdie, crowdie Kit ! 
Holiday yisterday, 
And zo 'tez 'et !' 

The master was quite content to let them go, for their 
absence gave him a capital excuse to spend the rest of the 
day in the company of ' a churchwarden ' and a foaming 
pot. 

Crowder = a fiddler. 

' There go'th tha crowder ! I warndee 'e's off tii Worling- 
ton Revel ! Come along, Jenny, let's go tii, an' 'ave a try 
at Roger de Coverley wance more.' 

Crub = a crust. 

'Yer, Kezia, come in 'ouze an' cut a crub ov burd an' 
cheese vur Jack Mayne's supper avore 'e go'th 'ome.' 

Crub = the trough into which chaff and other fodder is 
put to feed cattle. 

' Ef yiire bwoy go'th upen tha linhay, 'e'll vind tha crub 
vull ov tha cob that tha rats 'ave a-digged out ov tha wall, 
'tez prime stuff tii put intii vlower-nats.' 

5—2 



68 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Criiel = very. 

(i) ' Zims tii me yu 'm criiel quiet. VVhot's tha metter 
wi' 'e ?' 

(2) 'I tellee whot 'tez. 'tez criiel kind ov 'e tii take za 
much trubbei vur me ! I bant worth et !' 

Criinee = to whine. 

"Tez brave an' dismal 'ome tii 'ouze zince Annie hath 
adied ; tha chillern criinee an' criinee all day long vur 'er. 
j be aveared tha babby will pine hiszel tii death.' 

Cubburd = cupboard. 

'Theys yer new 'ouzes be most onconveyniant ; there 
idden no cubburds tii 'm like there was in tha old coo walls 
'ouzes.' 

Cubby -hole = a cosy corner. 

Two little girls of seven and eight years of age were 
missed for many hours, and were at last found fast asleep 
in a haypook. When remonstrated with for causing their 
parents alarm, the younger said : ' Oh, us only made a dear 
little cubby-hole in tha pook, and I 'spose us vailed asleep ; 
us didden knaw us shiide be alost !' 

Ciichy-pawed = left-handed. 

' Git away, dii, yii ciichy-pawed little twoad ! Thee 
kessent dii nort vittee.' 

Cuddie = the wren. 

Cuddie-bum = short tailed. 

'Whot iver 'avee adiied now? Why, yii've a-pulled awl 
tha tail aw'n out ! A purty shaw 'e'll be now ! A proper 
cuddie-bum fright !' 

Ciireyus = very particular in the execution of work. 

'I've aturned the legs ov tha stiile voree, missis, an' 
'opes yii'll like um. I was terrabul ciireyus about um tii 
make um vittee.' 

Cursemas = Christmas. 

'Cursemas com'th but wance a year, 
And when 't com'th it bring'th giide cheer !' 

Cussen = to train. 

' Ef yii want'th a cheel tii dii ort, yii must cussen 'n up 
proper when 'e's young ; tidden wan iotem ov use tii layve et 
till 'e's old/ 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 69 



D. 



Daffadowndillies = daffodils. 

These grow in wild profusion in orchards and meadows 
throughout the county. 

Dahngerous = dangerous. 

' That's a drefful dahngerous stile tii zit 'pon. 'Addenee 
best vind a zaffer sayte ?' 

Dallee and dalled = an oath. 

(1) 'Dallee! Whot's about now making awl this yer 
upstore ?' 

(2) ' I'll be dalled ef I pays 'n wan varden more !' 
Dallylaw = a spoilt child. 

She. ' Glide marning, Maister Gollop. 'Ow's thee 
missis ?' 

He. ' Aw ! 'er's za well 's can be expected arter awl tha 
trubbel us 'ave a-had.' 

She. ' Aw ! I ant ayerd nort about that. Whot's tha 
metter now, then ?' 

He. ' Why, yii zee my wive 'ave alwes zot gert store by 
thickee bwoy ov ours. 'Er made sich a dallylaw ov 'n 
that when 'e went vur a hoss sodger, 'e wadden vit vur 
much ; an' when 'e vailed bad 'e hadden got nobody tii 
nuss 'n, an' zo I zim 'e pined away like, an' died. 'E was 
alwes a miity-hearted zort ov a chap. Poor blid ! us chell 
niver zee 'e no more. My missis dii crint an criinee awl 
day long about et !' 

Dandy-go-rissit = rusty brown. 

' I widden wear thickee vrock again ef I wuz you. 'E 
wuz black wance, but now 'e's dandy-go-rissit colour.' 

Dang-my-ole-wig ! = a swear. 

' Dang-my-ole-wig vur me ! Ef yer idden a purty jakes 
o' 't ! Tha babby's a-valled intii tha plump-traw. What 
chell I dii way min ?' 

Dap = (i) a sharp slap, (2) to drop quickly. 

(1) 'What's stan' there a-baling vur? I ciidden a-hurted 
thee, vur I awnly gied thee a little dap in tha niddick.' 

(2) ' Mr. Smith, I found a bunch of violets on the ledge 
of my dining-room window. Did you put them there ?' 

' 'Ess, mum, I did. I thort yii'd like a fii, an' as nobody 
wadden about, I jist dapped um inzide tha winder ? 



70 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Dapper = sprightly, quick. 

' I be za dapper 's a vlay when I'm mind tii.' 

Daps = likeness. 

' Thickee cheel's tha very daps ov 'es vather, idden 'er ?' 

Darnee = an oath. 

' Darnee ! Ef 'e com'th yer again min, I'll leather 'n !' 

Dashell = the thistle. 

' Maister Tapp idden a very giide varmer. 'Is ground 's 
za viile ov dashells as et can hold.' 

Dashed = an oath. 

' Dash yer ole 'ead vur 'e ! Whot's put thee viite out in 
my ravvd vur ?' 

' I'm dashed ef I du !' 

Dashus = audacious. 

' Ef yii spak'th tii me like that again, I'll hat thee down, 
thee 'dashus little hussy !' 

Datch. = thatch. 

' 'Tez mostly cob 'ouzes that be datched. The new wans 
builded wi' brick be mostly slatted.' 

Datcher = thatcher. 

' They ricks '11 git wet drii. Yii'd bestways zend vur tha 
datcher tii come airly tii-morrer marning.' 

Dawbwoys = dough dumplings. 

These are delicious little dumplings made of flour, milk, 
eggs, and suet. When well boiled they are eaten with 
sugar or cream and jam. 



Dawcake = a silly person. 

She. ' My dear sawl, I've meet with zich a misfortin' ! 
Polly Blackmore 'ath a-broked my best chinnee tay-pot.' 

He. ' Well, I bant zorry vuree. Yii shudden a-let zichee 
dawcake hannel tha taythengs at all.' 

Dawy = silly, daft. 

' I can't taych thews chillern very much. They zim tii 
be dawy. Put in wi' tha loaves and tiiked out wi' tha 
caakes !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 71 

Debbenshire = Devonshire. 

Devil's-coach -hoss = a large beetle found among the heath 
growing in N. Devon (possibly on all heathery hills). 

Dicky = a linen shirt front. 

' Willie, urn down town an' ax Maister Webb tii send me 
a dicky wi' a stan'-up collar — sixteen inches round tha 
neck.' 

Dieted = addicted. 

' 'E wance wuz dieted to drink, but 'e's grawd za zober's 
a jidge latterly.' 

Diffarns = difference. 

' Whot's tha differns tii yii whot I dii ?' 

Dimmits, Dimpsy = twilight. 

(1) ' 'Ess sure ! I'll be 'ome avore tha dimmits.' 

(2) ' Dawntee bide out late, come in 'ouze avore 'tez 
dimpsy.' 

Diraxions = directions, address. 

(1) ' Ef yii'd a listeneed tii my diraxions, yii widden 'ave 
tuked tha wrong rawd.' 

(2) 'Plaize tii give me Jane's diraxions.' 

Dishwasher = the wagtail. 

Divered = dead. 

' Theys vlowers be awl divered ; chell I draw 'm away ?' 

Doateth. = dotes. 

' I shiidden winder ef thickee cheel dithen die airly 
becuze 'er mawther doateth upon 'er zo.' 

Doed or Diied = done. 

1 I've a diied awl my work, zo I chell go upen chimmer 
an' clayne myzel.' 

Do'ff=(i) to extinguish, (2) to take off. 

(1) ' Do'ff the kannel an' go tii beyd.' 

(2) ' D'off thee 'at when thee zees a leddy !' 

Doiled = silly. 

' Thee'rt agoed doiled tii-day by tha liik es o't ! Whot 
iver 'ast abin adiiins: wi' theezel ?' 



72 THE PEASANT SPEECH OE DEVON. 

Dollop = a big lump. 

'Whot iver didee put zich gert dollops ov suet intii the 
pudden vur, Lizzie ?' 

Doomshaw, or Diitnesliaw = a procession, circus. 

I once heard this word applied to the Lord Mayor's 
procession : 

'Well, I tellee I wuz up tii Lunnon last week, jist in time 
tii zee tha Lord Mayor go out in his carridge, and a brave 
ol' dumeshaw 'twuz sure nuff. Yii niver zeed sich a rally as 
'twuz. I widden like tii be gapped at like 'e wuz, I c;m 
tellee !' 

Dotty = half-witted. 

4 Poor old Mrs. Fangdin is getting dotty, th'of 'er Ve a 
knaw'd a theng or tii in 'er life-time za well's Dr. liudd !' 

Douted = extinguished, put out. 

Maid : ' I've a douted tha fire an' tha kannels, mum !' 
Mistress : ' Say " extinguished," not " douted," Jane.' 
Maid : "Ess, mum ! plaise tii zay thickee word again.' 
Mistress : ' Ex — tin — guished !' 

Maid : ' Thankee, mum ! chell I sting guish tha cat, 
mum ?' 

Dowl = devil. 

' Whot tha dowl be 'bout now than ?' 

Down-'ouze = down-stairs. 

' We 'ave abin foced tii zlape down-'ouze iver zince tha 
datcher corned. Tha rain corned in pin-tap tha beyds, 
right drii tha datch.' 

Dowst = the husks of oats and wheat. 

By small tenant-farmers, and the peasantry generally, 
dowst-beds were not long ago more commonly used than 
feather-beds. 

Dowst-a-bit = deuce-a-bit. 

' Dowst-a-bit ef I cares who zeeth whot I dii'th ! I bant 
ashamed ov nort I dii.' 

Dowsty-poll = a head covered with flour (as a miller's). 
' Miller, O miller, O dowsty poll ! 
How minny zacks hast thee a-stawl ?' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 73 

Drabbitted = bad-tempered. 

'Awl I can zay vur tha drabbitted little twoad is that 'er 
i^hetten come yer again vur zome time tii come, I warndee !' 

Drade = (i) drawn, or drew, (2) threw. 

(1) ' I drade a whacking gert badger out o' tha hadge 
down by Barn's Close thease marning. Thickee Trim is a 
tidy dug tii tackle a badger !' 

(2) ' I zeed 'ow Ted Tripe drade sheep's eyes tii she in 
church last Zinday arternoon.' 

Draining = drawling. 

' VVhotiver be yii a-draining out yer words like that there 
vur? Duet try tii spake up peart.' 

Drangway = a narrow passage. 

'Urn up thickee there drangway, Polly; there's a wild 
bullick coming awver drii tha strayte.' 

Drash = to belabour. 

' Ef I catch thee in my orchit again, I'm burned ef I 
dawnt drash thee black an' blue.' 

Drashel = a thrashel. 

This was the instrument used to thrash out grain previous 
to the introduction of the steam thrashing-machine. 

Dread = thread. 

' Willie, just urn down tii shop an' git a pennerd of kiise 
dread. 

Dree = three. 

' My cheel will be dree yers ol' tu-morrer.' 

Drexil = threshold. 

' Ef I catch thee awver tha drexil ov my door again, I'll be 
dalled ef I dawnt gie thee what vur than /' 

Dring = (i) to crowd, (2) to push. 

(1) ' Whot tha d diiee dring in 'pon tha chillern like 

that vur? Yii'll squatt um tii death.' 

(2) 'Who be yii a-dringing ov ? Keep back, willee !' 

Drip-my-bit = a threepenny-piece. 

' Liikee zee ! 'er'th agied me a drip-my-bit vur diiing dree 
houro' work, a skinflint old twoad !' 



7 4 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Drippence = threepence. 

' Bill, I want'th a drink. Canst lend me drippence ?' 

' No, by Gor ! I ant got nort tii lend !' 

Drish. = the thrush. 

' I got a biitivul drish ; 'e zing'th better agin rain !' 

Droat = the throat. 

' I zim Benny idden very well ; 'e zeth 'is droat's zore. I 
du 'ope 'e idden agwaine tii 'av tha feyver.' 

Drone = to drawl. 

'Diiee read vittee, an' not drone your words like that.' 

Drowed = dried. 

' Us 'ad a lot ov rain last night, but tha zin shined out 
bright this marning, an' 'tez drowed up biitivul.' 

Droweth = dries. 

'Tvveel be a cabbical day vur tha revel, thoft 't'ave 
arained tii-night ; tha wind droweth up tha rawds purty 
quick.' 

Drii and drii = through and through. 

A clergyman having forgotten his sermon, said to the 
clerk : ' I've forgotten my sermon, Shopland.' 

'Aw, niver mind, zur; za ziine's 'e can, yii jist urn 'ome 
and vatch 'n ; I'll keep tha vokes busy while yii be agoed.' 

Thereupon he stood up in his desk, and after sundry 
coughs, blowings of the nose, and other fussy impromptu 
movements, he adjusted his spectacles, fumbled over the 
leaves of his psalter, then, in a very sonorous voice, said : 

' Let us zing tii tha praise an' glawry of God, tha wan 
'undered an' nineteenth psalm. Avore yii begin'th tii zing, 
I'll read 'n drii an' drii.' 

Needless to add, the people were amused, but ' passen 
corned back avore 'twuz drii and drii.' 

Druel = to allow the saliva to flow over the under lip. 
' Babbies always driiel, an' yii can't keep um dry about 
tha ching (chin) unless yii put um on a giide thick bib.' 

Drummeldrane = bumble-bee. 

'Thews drummeldranes can't sting; they ant agot no 
spear ; they awnly buzzeth around. I dawnt zee whot they 
wuz a-made vur, they bant no airthly use.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 75 

Dry = thirsty. 

'Aw, diiee let me drink. Innything '11 dii, vur I be dry, 
jist a chucked.' 

Dubbed = blunted. 

'Zee whot dubbed little vingers her 'th agot.' 

Dugged = muddy. 

' Now diiee liikee zee there ! Yii've a-dugged yer tail 
purty fine, I can tellee.' 

Dugged-tail = muddied skirts. 

'Yii beastly dugged-tailed little varmint. Zee whot a 
muck yii be in !' 

Dummon = woman. 

A man agreed to give a woman ^5 for the loan of a field 
in which to hold a large picnic. After this he was offered a 
field free of cost. Wishing to save ^"5, he sent to ask her 
to cancel the agreement. On the return of the messenger 
he said : 

' I've a lewsed me labour by agwaine tii she, vur tha ol' 
dummon stick'th tii tha bargain !' 

Dumphead = the miller's thumb, or bull-head. 

' Havee got any fish, Bill ?' 

' No ! Nort but tii or dree dumpheads.' 

It is also a term applied to persons whose intellects are 
below the average. 

'Us can't zay much vur she; 'er's a bit ov a dumphead, 
'er is !' 

Dunky = donkey. 

'Vather 'ath a-gied us a brave strong dunky, awl vur 
ourzels.' 

Durns = door-posts. 

' 'E'th ahat 'is 'ead agin tha durn ov tha door.' 

Dwalee = to talk inconsistently. 

"Er is mortal bad, I'm aveard : 'er ant adiied nort but 
dwalee awl drii tha night. 'Er is nigher tii 'er end than 
yii zims 'er 'es, I'm zartin !' 



76 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Ekal = equal. 

' 'Er's a bad lot, 'er is ; 'er's ekal to ort, 'er is.' 

Errish = stubble fields. 

'The fezens be out in tha errishes feeding; there'll be 
rare glide sport vur squire in October.' 

'Ess = yes. 

' Is that yii, mawther ?' 

' 'Ess, cheel.' 

'Ess, fay = yes, by my faith. 

' I 'spose yii be agwaine tii Susie Tucker's wedding, 
bantee ?' 

' 'Ess, fay ; every wan ov us !' 

'Ess, sure =yes, certainly. 

Two very old gentlemen, dining together, were overheard 
to remark : 

First O. G. ' Do you remember when we were boys, we 
stole a goose from a farmer living on Exeter Hill, and got 
Mrs. Folland to cook it for us ? 

Second O. G. ' 'Ess, sure !' 

'Et = yet. 

' I 'opes tii come an' zee 'e zune, vur I ant a-had noan ov 
thickee bride-cake 'et !' 

'Et-a- whiles = not yet. 

' I tellee I bant agwaine 'et-a-whiles.' 

Ezakally zo = just so. 

First Lady. ' My opinion is that Mrs. Short talks much 
too fast, and is too busy about what does not concern her.' 
Second Lady. ' Ezakally zo !' 



Fainty = oppressive weather. 

' I zim tha weather is cruel fainty tii-day, zir. There's 
thlnder about. I veels wangery.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 77 

Fake-up = to renew. 

' Annie, vvillee jist urn in ouze an' fake up tha vire ?' 

Fakement = to muddle. 

' I niver did zee sich a fakement in awl my life. I layved 
tha 'ouze za nayte za new pin, an' now tidden fit tii be 
zeed.' 

Fanty-sheeny = extremely fanciful. 

' Dawntee let me zee no more ov yer fanty-sheeny ways 
yer, or I'm burned ef I dawn't draw thee out ov 'ouze neck 
an' crap.' 

Fardle or fardel = a package. 

' Now then, out ov 'ouze yii goes thease blessed day, pack 
an' fardel.' 



Fath or fey = faith. 
"Ess, fath, I be agwaine.' 
'No, fey, I bant agwaine.' 



Fawny = a finger-ring. 

' Diiee zee 'ow fine Uncle Tom is ? 'E's sporting a fawny. 
Where's 'n gwaine tii ?' 
' Aw ! that's tii telling !' 

Fegs = an interjection. 

' Aw fegs ! 'tez a brave bad job !' 

Fess = proud, vain. 

' Lukee zee, 'er 'th agot a new bunnet. Why, 'er's za fess 
as a paycock.' 

Fewster = fester. 

' Ef yii dawnt pull out thickee thern vrom yer vinger 'e'll 
fewster.' 

Feybul = feeble. 

' 'Er wunt live long I'm aveard ; 'er git'th more feybul 
an' feybul ivery day.' 

Feychers = features. 

' Plaize tii obsarve, mum, 'ow 'is blessed feychers be 
aweard away wi' tha weather.' 



7 S THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Fezens = pheasants. 

'Tha fezens up tii Ugborough Park be za thick 's tha 
grass in tha ground ; I'll be blamed ef I dawnt think I ciide 
catch um wi' my tii 'ands.' 

Figgy = full of raisins. 

Christmas puddings are said to be figgy. 

Figgy-pudden = Christmas pudding. 
A woman placed this notice in her shop-window : 
' Figgy pudden wan appenny a slice ; 
More figgier w r an penny a slice.' 

Fillyloo = uproar. 

This must be an old Saxon word, which has remained 
almost as pure as it was spoken by our ancestors, for the 
peasantry in the neighbourhood of the Black Forest still use 
' pfilulu,' as in 'Was fiir einen pfilulu ihr macht.' 

Our own people say, ' When us corned 'ome vrom church 
thease marning there wuz Anna Maria a holling, an' a baling, 
an' a yalling, an' a crying fit tii drive a feller mad. Yii niver 
did zee sich a fillyloo in yer born days !' 

Fippence = fivepence. 

"Ow much didee <:ie vur thease wan?' 

' Awnly fippence a yard. Cheap, wadden 'er ?' 

Fitch = polecat. 

' 'E stink'th like a fitch.' 

Flickermayte = mixture of flour and milk. 
^ lb. of flour, i quart new milk, 2 oz. treacle. Mix to- 
gether, and bake in a well-buttered dish for half an hour. 

Flickets = blushes. 

' Whot's the metter now, missie? I zim yer flickets 
rawzed a bit when young squire liiked thease way.' 

Flink = (i) to sprinkle, (2) to throw, (3) to shake out. 

(1) ' 'E'th a fiinked tha watter awl awver tha room.' 

(2) "E fiinked the dist in my eye.' 

(3) 'Flink out yer apporn till 'e's dry.' 

Flinktail-comb = ordinary dressing-comb. 



LOCAL rHRASEOLOGY. 79 

Flip about = to move quickly. 

'Come now, flip about, Susie, or us shan't get diied avore 
dark.' 

Flip-stick = a thin flexible wand. 

' I want a nice little flip-stick to tickle tha hide ov thease 
yer dug. 'E will keep urning awver tha planche dreckly 
minit I've a-scrubbed 'n.' 

Flower-nat = flower-bed. 

'They pegs have abin in an' skammelled awl awver my 
flower-nat, an' spoweld ivery wan ov thews bliddy-waryers.' 

Forrel = cover ov a book. 

"Er'th atored off tha forrels ov grammer's Bible. There'll 
be a dowst ov a upstore 'bout that bimbye.' 

Fowsty = musty. 

' Pu-h, pu-h ! Diiee awpen tha winders, an' let out this 
fowsty ole zmell. The winders ant abin awpen vur a week, 
I shiide thenk.' 

Frawsy = a dainty feast. 

' Now awl tha vokes be ago tii races, us'll 'ave a frawsy 
awl tii ourzels. Whot chell us 'ave ?' 

' Aw, let's 'ave a fowl an' a figgy pudden.' 
' Zo us will.' 

French-nits = walnuts. 

Master. ' I think 'tis time to pick the French-nits.' 

Man. ' 'Ess, zir, 'tez, vur I zee tha chaps 'ave abeginned 

hatting aw 'm down. I'll git the line-prop, an' git za minny 

down as I can thease eveling.' 

Frill-de-dills = frills and embroidery. 
' Thews frill-de-dills be oncommon itemy tii iron. 'Tez 
nort but proudness tii put za much o't pin cloase.' 

Frizz = to fizz. 

' Aw ! I zmell'th zommat giide. Winder whot 'tez a 
frizzing in tha pan? Make'th me 'ungry tii thenk about 't.' 

Ful tii me = this is an abbreviation of ' God be merciful 
to me.' 

An old nurse had charge of a few very high-spirited 
children. Donald, the brightest and merriest, was often the 
cause of much anxiety to her. At times, when his hilarity 
and perversity were more than she could endure, she would 



So THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

lift her eyes to heaven, clasp her hands in prayer, and 
murmur, ' Fill til me ! ful til me ! ful til me ! Amen !' 

Furridge = (i) to purloin, (2) to ransack 

(i) 'Barber Bennett cut my 'air yisterday, an' I ciide 
swear he furridged half ov what he thinned out.' 

(2) ' 'Er's gone uppen chimmer, an' I'll warndee 'er'll 
furridge out ivery 'ole an' cornder avore 'er com'th down 
again.' 

Fussocky = to bustle about quickly. 

' There idden wan bit ov peace tii be 'ad in thease 'ouze, 
Charlotte, vur yii be vur everlasting fussocking about wan 
theng or tuther. Diiee bide still.' 

Tustled up = wrapped up. 

' I niver zeed anybody a-fustled up like yii be. Yii've 
a-got 'angkerchers enough on vur dree !' 



G. 

Gal = to vex. 

' Yii zay sich drefful unkind thengs tii me, that yii gal me 
more'n I can tellee.' 

Gaily = to scare. 

' They've gallied tha old feller tii death purty near.' 

Gally-bagger = person fond of gadding about. 
'Mrs. Broom is a rigler ol' gally-bagger, 'er urn'th from 
'ouze to 'ouze wi' awl tha news ov tha parish.' 

Gally-bagger = scare-crow. 

The three qualifications of an Exmoor pony are : 

(1) ''E'll car drink.' 

(2) ' Can smil a pixy.' 

(3) ' Widden cockee tii a gally-bagger.' 

Gallyment = alarm. 

' Whot's awl this gallyment about ? There's nort tii 
frighten 'e.' 

Gallytraps = signs. 

' When 'e told yer fortin didder make any gallytraps 'pon 
tha tabul !' 

' No, 'e didden, but made zum scratches wi'is vinger 'pon 
tha papper !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 81 • 

Gaily vanting = going from home. 

"Er's vur everlasting gallyvanting about ; better fit 'er'd 
bide 'ome an' mind 'er work.' 

Gammetting = frolicking. 

'Stap yer gammetting for giideness sake, there's a dear 
cheel, an' go tii work.' 

Gammuts = games. 

' I wunt believe wan word yii zay, vur I knaw yii be 
awnly making gammuts ov me.' 

' Stap thews gammuts thease minit !' 

Gammy-handed = hands incapable of much movement. 
' 'E'th a squot 'is 'and in tha door, an' 'e'll be gammy- 
handed vur a brave while.' 

Gappee = to gape. 

' Whot's gappee tii me vur ? I bant a Otteneetot !' 

Gapping = gaping. 

' Whot's gapping at ? I bant a doomshaw made vur a 
gapsnest !' 

Gapsnest = a pretty sight. 

' Whot gapsnest be yii a-gwaine tii zee now ?' 

' Aw ! awnly Bostock's wild beastes.' 

Gawked-up = sitting on a very high seat. 
' Lor-a-massy, missus ! us be a-^awked-up 'nation 'igh. 
Ef tha 'oss wuz tii trip us shiide be scat vore intii tha rawd.' 

Gawkim = a fool. 

' Well-a-day, that iver I shiide 'ave abin born tii be tha 
mawther ov sich a gawkim as thee art !' 

Gee-wug = get away from. 

Gee-up = step out. 

These are very familiar expressions to all who know any- 
thing of farm horses and their grooms. 

Gert = great. 

' Rin, little veard ; gert veard's arter thee !' 

Gibby-lambs = very young lambs. 

' Aw, my dear sawl ! 'avte azeed whot amazing lot ov 

6 



82 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

gibby-lambs butcher Cuke 'ath agot. I rekkon 'e's gitting 
stocky ; 'e'll be a urch man avore long !' 

G-iglet = a merry young girl. 

' Mary, my dear cheel, ef yii dawnt give awver being sich 
a giglet y'iill niver be worth yer zalt.' 

Giglet-market = a hiring-place for servants. 

From time immemorial, to within the last fifty years, on 
Lady Day young girls have been in the habit of standing in 
the market-places awaiting a chance of being hired as ser- 
vants. The custom prevailed very recently at Holsworthy, 
Okehampton, and South Molton, but has now quite fallen 
into desuetude. 

Gladdie = a fool. 

' By Gor ! missis, I knaw 'e's a fool, a rigler gladdie ! 
Listenee tii 'n 'ow 'e chitter'th tii hiszelf.' 

Gladdy = the yellow-hammer. 

' There is sich a purty little gladdy out yer. The 'ead ov 
'n is jist like a canary's.' 

Glazeth = to look intently. 

' 'Er glazeth at me, 'z ef 'er ciide liike me drii an' drii.' 

Glowring = staring rudely. 

' Whot art glowring tii me vur now, then ?' 

Glumping = sulking. 

'Tidden no use tii go about 'ouze aglumping like that; 
twant make thengs better by putting out yer piitch and 
luking ugly !' 

Glumpy = sulky. 

' Yii nidden be glumpy wi' me. I ant adiied nort tii 'e.' 

Go = gone. 

' Awl tha bwoys and maidens in tha parish be go tii 
Poughill revel, I rekkon.' 

Go-avore = go before. 

' Go-avore um ship !' is said to sheep-dogs when working 
the flock. 

Go-against = (i) to go to meet, (2) to inform against. 
(1) ' Jane is late home tii-night, and 'tez very dark coming 
down Shute Hill. I wish, Jimmy, yii'd go against her !' 
' Awl right, mum ; I'm arter 'er in tii shakes \\ 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 83 

(2) 'Squire Stephens tanned Dick Carter last night 
up tii tha Cat and Fiddle, and I be summoned tii-day tii 
go against un ; but I'll be blamed if they chell zee me inzide 
tha court-'ouze !' 

Goar = secretion. 

Mother. ' Dii yii mayn tii zay yii've a-washed yer veace 
thease marning?' 

Daughter. ' 'Ess, I 'ave.' 

Mother. ' Dawntee tell me no lies. I be zartin yii ant, 
vur I can zee tha goars in both yer eyes, za plain as a pike- 
stav. Go an' clayne um thease minit.' 

Gob = a large lump. 

' I can't ayte thease piece ov pudden, there's za minny 
gert gobs ov fat in un.' 

Goetb. = goes. 

' Et goeth agin tha grain tii 'ave tii zay ort tii she, arter 
awl 'er 'th adiied tii try tii hurt us.' 

G'wan = go on. 
' G'wan, I tellee.' 

God-a'mighty's-cow = the ladybird. 

A servant came in from the garden one evening, bringing 
a bunch of flowers, on which she had placed several lady- 
birds. Coming near me, she said : 

' Yer's tii or dree dear little God-a'mighty's cows. Bant 
um purty little craychers ?' 

Goodger = the devil. 

s Tha goodger take tha theng, I can't dii nort wi' 'n !' 

Goodied = benefited. 

1 Vokes be zaying that Mr. Moral Mackanzie is ago awver 
tii zee tha emperor. I'll warndee he'll goody purty much 
by thickee job, ef 'e ant agoodied a'ready !' 

Gornied = an oath. 

' Yii want'th me tii zill my 'oss, diiee ? I'm gormed if I 
dii ! 'E's worth more'n yii can gie vur'n.' 

Goyal or Goyle = a ravine. 
Smalacombe Goyal is near Dawlish. 

On September 13th, 1889, it was reported in the Tiverton 

6 — 2 



84 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Gazette that F. P., of Clayhanger, went scaring rooks, and 
'zeed a deyd sheep down the goyle pin tap 'is back.' 

Grainy = proud. 

' Yii take my word vur 't, they be got terrabul grainy 
since they had thickee stub ov money alayved tii um.' 

Gramfer-long-legs = long-legged spiders and flies. 

' Whot's thenk ov Jack Clatworthy ? Why, 'e 'th 
acatched some gramfer-long-legs, an' is apulling off their 
legs za vast as 'e can.' 

Grammer's-pin = a long blanket-pin. 

' Yer, I say, Jim, I'll gie thee thease gert quarrender vur 
thickee grammer's-pin. I want 'th 'n tii prick eggs right 
drii wi'.' 

Grapshold = to grasp. 

' Yii wunt be drownded ! No, tinoby ; grapshold ov tha 
end ov thease pole and clitch tii 'n wi' both 'ands.' 

Greyburd = a thrush. 

' They greyburds be a steeved tii death wi' tha cold. 
Scores ov um will perish thease winter, vur sure.' 

Greysedaisy = daffodils. 

' Aw, my dear, what a brave crap ov greysedaisies yii've 
a got ! I'd zend um up tii Lunnun ef I wuz yii.' 

Griddle = a gridiron. 

Grits = groats. 

'Thews grits be vul ov weavils. Car um back tii shop 
an' change um.' 

Grizzlee = to laugh derisively. 

'Ef yii dii grizzlee tii me again like that, I'll hat thee down.' 

Growed = grew. 

' Tha gearden trade dii git on fine now. Zince tha rain 
corned 't 'ave agrowed like winkey.' 

Giide — good. 

' If yii dawnt get no giide vrom yer physic, whot's tha use 
ov taking ort ?' 

Gulging = drinking greedily. 

' Freddy, if yii go'th on gulging like that, yii'll chuck 
yerzel.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. $$ 

Gulk = to drink quickly. 

' He gulked down tha zyder 's-off 'e 'adden adrinked a 
drap vur a week.' 

Gii-kii = cuckoo. 

' In Apprul tha gii-kii comes, 
In May he zings awl day, 
In Jiine he alter'th his tiine, 
In July away he'll vly, 
In August go he must.' 

Gii-kii lambs = Lambs yeaned in April. 

Gushed = startled. 

' Lor ! yii 've agushed me out ov my life, yii stupid ol' 
gallybagger !' 

Guttering = eating greedily. 

' Why, thee 't chuck theezel ef thee aytes za vast. Whot's 
tha giide ov guttering yer mayte like that ?' 

Guze = a goose. 

' Whot's giide vur that giize is giide vur tha gander.' 

Giize-gobs = gooseberries. 

' Thews giize-gobs be ripe. Let's 'ave a giide tuck-in 
ov' W 

Guzzle = to drink heavily. 

' Shiidden winder if 'e idden bosky-eyed avore night, 'e 
'th adiied nort but guzzle awl day.' 

Gwaine or Agwaine = going. 
' Where be'st agwaine tii ?' 



Hackmal = tomtit. 

' There's a hackmal's nest out in a hole in the awpel 
tree.' 

Hadge = hedge. 

' Yii can take a short cut acrass the barton ; there's a gap 
in tha hadge that yii can git drii.' 

Hadge-tacker = a repairer of hedges. 

' Varmer Bulley's acomed tii zomtheng; they say 'e's 



86 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

nort but a hadge-tacker now, an' work'th vur his dairyman 
that wuz.' V 

Haggage = an untidy woman. 

' Dawnt 'a' nort tii zay tii thickee slammicking gert 
haggage !' 

Hagged = pulled at with strength. 

' Missis, I've abin awver tii Mr. Broom's, an' 'ad out my 
tiithe, an' 'e hagged tii 'n zo I thort 'e 'd abroked my jaw.' 

Haggee = to argue. 

' When they beginn'th tii haggee I turns tail an urn'th 
'ome.' 

Hal = to tug, to pull. 

' Hal tii 'n, Jack ! 'E'll be foced tii come tii 'e.' 

Hale = to cover up. 

' There'll be a purty 'ard vrast tii-night, Bill ; thee'st best 
ways hale up tha tatties, or they'll be spowled.' 

Hange, or Hanje = the purtenance of a sheep. 
Butchers sell ' sheep's-head and hange ' for a few pence, 
and from them is made very nourishing food. 

Hand- wrist = the wrist. 

' Poor little Clara West 'ath a- vailed down pin tap tha ice 
an' brawked 'er 'and-wrist, an' I dii zim 'er 'th ahat 'erzel 
purty 'ard bezides.' 

Hannel = handle. 

' Us chell want a new hannel tii tha frent doar zune.' 

Hantecks = antics. 

' I niver did zee nobody za vull ov hantecks as 'er is. 
Tell about er gitting married ! Why, 'er's more fit vur tha 
silam, a poor jimcrack viile !' 

Hapmy = halfpenny. 

' Aw ! 'er's a poor tupny-hapmy twoad !' 

' Canst gie me tii hapmy bits vur a penny ?' 

Happerd = halfpenny worth. 

1 Plaize tii give me a happerd ov twine ; I want'th tii tie 
up tha burchen.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 87 

Harrest = harvest. 

' Za zune's the harrest is avvver ; us'll awl come an' 
zee 'e. 

Hat = knock. 

' If yu stands there a-grizzling tii me like that I'll hat thee 
'long tha 'ouze.' 

Hatch = half-door of a cottage. 

' Shiit tha hatch, Sallie, that tha wet midden come in.' 

Hatchmouthed = coarse, vulgar in speech. 

' I 'opes our Anna Maria won't graw up sich a hatch- 
mouthed maid as Amy Keslake is, var ov awl the ciise 
open-mouthed hussies that ever lived her beats tha lot !' 

Haypook = a mound of hay. 

' Now tha rain's awver yii'd better draw they haypooks 
abroad ; us wid be able to save zome now better'n us 
thort.' 

Heaving, or Sweating = said of floors and walls when they 
throw out damp. 

Heft = (i) to lift, (2) weight, (3) to throw. 

(1) 'Diiee, plaize, tii heft thea.se flasket up 'pon my 
showlder; 'e's drefful 'eavy. : 

(2) 'Dawntee vind thickee maid a purty glide heft tii car 
var?' 

(3) 'Take an' heft tha bagger intii tha river. A giide 
dowsing 'ull take tha liquor out o' 'n.' 

Hellins = roofing slates. 

This is properly a Cornish word, though it is frequently 
used in the south-west of Devon when speaking of roofing- 
slate. I once heard the term used at Tiverton by a gentle- 
man who had once held a Cornish living. 

Heliums = Haulms of peas, beans, and potatoes. 

' Us 'ad best w r ays burn up awl tha heliums and rubbage 
that's lying about, or tha gearden '11 be vull ov slugs come 
spring.' 

Henn = to throw at. 

' Ef zo be thee dissent be quiet, I'll henn thease gert cob 
tii thy heyde !' 



88 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Her = the 'indifferent' pronoun; substitute for 'she' 
and ' he.' 

' Where's 'er agwaine tii ?' is used for 'Where is he, or she 
going?' 

A tom-cat having brought a rat into the kitchen, the 
boot-boy said : ' Liikee zee tii 'er, 'er'th agot a rat ! My 
eymers, 'ow 'er shak'th 'n !' 

Herzel = herself. 

' Poor little blid, zee 'ow 'er'th a-hat herzel.' 

Heytters, or Yetters = smoothing-irons. 
'Us shan't a finished i-oring tii-day. Thews blessed 
yetters (or heytters) won't yettee !' 

Hide = to beat. 

' I'm burned ef I dawnt hide thee, ef thee dissent come 
in 'ouze ! Mind, when I wance begin'th I'll hide thee tii 
tha truth ov music' 

Hide-nur-tide = news. 

He. ' Well, Bet, 'ows Jack a-gitting on by thease time ?' 

She. ' Aw, dawntee ax me nort about 'e ! I ant a-yerd 
hide-nur-tide aw'n vur a giiddish bit.' 

He. ' 'Ow's that than ?' 

She. 'Aw ! I dawnt knaw — "out ov zight out ov mind " 
I spose.' 

High-de-lows = vulgar actions. 

' I can't abide sich high-de-lows. Tidden modest like 
vur maidens an' bwoys tii go rumpsing about zo ! I shiide 
be asheamed o't, I shiide !' 

Hiszel = himself. 

' Aw, crimminy ! Hike sharp diiee! Jack 'th availed down, 
an' I'm aveared he'th a-hurted hiszel.' 

Hoaks = clubs in cards. 

Being asked, at a farm-house, to take a hand at whist, I 
was amused to hear the following : ' Now, Bill, tez your 
"put" (deal). Now, missis, yii "peart" um (cut). Jimmy 
yii "pitch" (lead). Your turn tii "shake um " (shuffle). 
There, I'm beggared ef hoaks bant trumps again ! Why, 
that's dree times urning !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 89 

Hollee = to scream. 

' I graps-en za 'ard, I made 'en hollee tii't.' 

Hollen = calling loudly. 

' Whotiver be 'e a-hollen vur now, than ?' 

Holmbush = holly-bush. 

Holm-screech = the missel-thrush. 

Holt = hold. 

' Yer, gie me up tha cloase line; I've a lost holt ov tha 
bucket ; I mid be able to catch holt ov'n wi' thickee.' 

Homalong = homeward. 

' Now than, sose, 'tez time vur us tii shett away homalong.' 

Homeby = close to. 

' Jenny Brook's 'ouze is homeby ours.' 

Hookem-snivey = deceitful actions. 

' I tellee 'onesty is tha best policy. Niver yii be up tii 
hookem-snivey ways, twant answer in tha long-rin !' 

Hoosky = hoarse. 

' I be aveared that tha mare's bad ; 'er's oncommon 
hoosky tii-night. I thenk I'll gie 'er a bran mash.' 

Hoozee = hoarse. 

' This yer east wind 'ath a-gied me a zoar droat, an' I be 
gitting hoozee. Shudden winder if I dawnt 'a' brownkitty 
avore tez awver.' 

Hoppee = to caper. 

' They youngsters be a 'appy lot. They dii hoppee an' 
skitteree about awl day long. 'Tez giide tii veel young, 
idden et?' 

Hotted = made hot. 

' If yii widden mind a scrap-dinner yii ciide have tha 
cold beef hotted up intii a hash tii-day.' 

Hozeburd = a term of mild and playful abuse. 

' Diiee zee whot thickee young hozeburd's about ? 'E'th 
broked awl tha eggs Polly zot upon, tii let tha chicken out ! 
'E zed there wadden no chicken there, an' yii told stram- 
mers when yii said Polly wid hatch out a biitivul brood ! 
Thickee bwoy's alwes up tii zome murchy.' 



go THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Huckmuck = untidy. 

' Well, 'er 'ouze is alwes za cautchee I'd be aveard tii zit 
down in 'n. I niver did zee sich a huck-muck place in awl 
my born days.' 

Huds = shells of beans and peas. 

' Gie awl they pea-huds tii tha pegs bimbye, Lucy.' 

Hugger-mugger = thriftless, untidy. 

' They be a hugger-mugger lot, I can tellee ; they live awl 
ov a heap like pegs.' 

Hulch = a thick slice. 

' I be most mortal 'ungry. I can ayte a giide hulch ov 
burd an' cheese ; wan za big's my tii vistes.' 

Hummun, or Dummun = woman. 

She. ' 'Ow's yer ole hummun agitting on, Charlie ? I 
yerd 'er wuz bad.' 

He. 'Thankee, 'er'th agiidied bravely thews last vew 
days. I 'ope 'er'll be down ouze purty zoon now.' 

Humsoever = whomsoever. 
' Humsoever will, let 'n come.' 

Hunks = thick pieces. 

' Dawntee cut sich gert hunks ov mayte 's that; tha chillern 
can't ayte um.' 

Hu-u-u = to hold obliquely, or carelessly, any article. 
' Thease yer post is awl ov a hu-u-u ! 'E won't keep up- 
right, dii whot I will tii uphold 'n.' 

' Why dawntee hold 'en straight ? 'Es awl ov a hu-u-u !' 



Idden = is not. 

' I tellee whot 'tez, than, 'e idden agwaine vur tii dii 't.' 

Idden 'er = is she not. 

' Idden 'er purty nigh steeved wi' tha cold ?' 

Iked-up = puckered. 

' Now, diiee zee how yii've iked-up thease zeam ? I ciide 
sew better'n this when I wuz ten year old.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 91 

In coose = of course. 

1 Be yii gwaine tli be married thease yer ?' 
' 'Ess, in coose us be.' 

' Well, 'tez time tli ! Yii be sich gert loblollies, 'tez tha 
best theng tu du.' 

Ingyens = onions. 

' Whot a fine crap ov ingyens yii've agot thease yer, tu be 
sure ! I dawnt thenk I iver zeed sich whackers.' 

Inse-tez = how it is. 

She. 'Jim Stubbs 'ave a lewzed awl 'is money, and 
they'll be foced tii go tli workouze.' 
He. 'Aw, that's inse-tez, than.' 

Iotum = iota. 

' Plaize, missis, I du zim our Ellen is a proper viile ; 'er 
ant agot wan iotum ov sense. Yii may tell tii 'er till yii 'm 
black in the veace, an' 'er idden wan bit tha better. Darned 
ef I dawnt thenk 'er's wuss !' 

Iss, or 'Ess = yes. 

Some contend that this word is pronounced c iss,' but 
' 'Ess,' seems to me the more correct form, sounding the ' e ' 
long as in heed. 

Item = trick. 

' Her's za vull ov items as a egg's vull ov mayte.' 

Itemy = tricky. 

' Thease mare's za itemy I be aveared vur little Jacky tii 
ride 'n. Best ways not.' 



Jackie-twoad = will-o'-the-w r isp. 

'I bant coming acrass the moor awl be myzel tii-night. I 
be aveared ov the Jackie-twoads. I zeed scores aw'm when 
I went acrass Dartymoor last autumn.' 

Jakes = mess. 

' Ef yii'd azeed tha jakes 'er made wi' thickee there 
pudden, yii widden ayte wan mossel aw'n.' 



92 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Jan Vaggus = a noted highwayman. 
' Jan Vaggus zeth, 

" Less stap a minnit an' vetch breth ; 
I'm dry, jist chucked." ' 

Nathan Hogg's Letters and Poems 
in Devonshire Dialect. 

' Ef yii maketh a noise Jan Vaggus will 'ave 'e,' is often 
said to frighten children, or to subdue their boisterous 
spirits. 

In South Devon he is called 'Jack,' in North Devon 
' Tom.' 

' Tom Vaggus, the great highwayman, and his young 
blood-mare, the Strawberry !' — Blackmore's Lorna Doone. 

Jib = a wooden stand for barrels, milk -pans, and cider 
casks. 

Jibes = an eccentrically dressed woman. 
' Mrs. Snooks is a rummee old jibes ; 'er cloase is za old 's 
aldon an' awl tha colours ov tha rainbow.' 

Jibber-ugly's-fiile = a selfish person. 
' 'Er is like jibber-ugly's-fiile — 'er knaws whot's glide vur 
erzel, 'er dii.' 

Jiggered = an oath. 

' I'm jiggered ef I'll dii 't tii plaize yii ur innybody else.' 

Jimcrack = fragile. 

' That's a rigler jimcrack ol' twoad ov a tabul. 'E '11 
break down tha fust time 'e 's used.' 

Jimmery cry ! — an interjection. 

' Aw ! jimmery cry! Whot's thur adiied now, than ?' 

Jimmies = door hinges. 

' Tha jimmies ov they new doors craketh ; yii'd best ways 
graise (grease) um !' 

Jit = an upward twitch. 

She. ' Diiee want a bit ov tha vlax between tha eyes ov 
thease yer vox ?' 
He. ' 'Ess, I dii.' 
She. ' What vur, than ?' 
He. ' Aw, tii make vishing vlies !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 93 

She. ' Well, then, 'elp yerzel. Jist take a pinch between 
yer vinger an' thumb there, jist atwixt tha eyes avv'n, an' gie 
un a jit upwards.' 

He. < Will 'er bite ?' 

She. ' Bite ! No, tinoby. Didee iver knaw a dog vox 
bite when 'e was a-chained up ?' 

He. ' Well, then, yer's at un !' 

He gave a jit upwards, but the result was unsatisfactory. 

Jit = a push. 

' Gie 'n a little jit ; he'll go vast 'nuf than !' 

Jit = a sharp slap. 

' I ant a-hurted tha bwoy. I only gied 'n a jit in tha 
niddick.' 

Johnny Vortnight = a packman. 

These men call from house to house once a fortnight 
selling drapery goods or tea. Hence the name 'vortnight.' 

Joneys = ornaments — earthenware dogs, cats, cocks, 
shepherds, shepherdesses, etc., seen in cottagers' houses. 

' Loramussy, whotiver diiee squander yer money 'pon 
thease old joneys vur ? Shiide save it vur a rainy day !' 

Jonic = truthful, honest. 

' Yii may trist " she" I tellee 'er's jonic tii tha back- 
bone !' 

Junket = a favourite Devonshire delicacy. 

Put three quarts of new milk into a china bowl, add three 
teaspoonfuls of rennet and place it on the hob to 'set.' 
When thick enough to bear put a layer of scalded cream on 
the top, with a little nutmeg and castor sugar to taste. Do 
not stir it. Add a wine-glassful of either rum, brandy, or 
sherry. (Omit for T.T.'s.) 

K. 

Kaddy-ball = a tennis-ball. 

' Charles Orger hath agicd me thease kaddy-ball. 'E zeth 
'e idden no glide vur tennis, cuz 'e's za beastly !' 

Kannel = a candle. 

I think the following letter rather amusing, and it will 
throw some light on the use of the word 'kannel ' : 



94 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

' Beescombe Bartin, 

' Lowton, S. Devon, 

' Oct. gi/i, 1857. 

'Dear Miss Rudd, 

' My poar dear wive ave abin dead dree yers come 
Cursemass, and now the Evelings be gitting long i do vind 
et cruel wisht zure nuff to sit by myzel arter the kannels be 
alight. Bant you terrabul dismal too, all by yerzel? I do 
zim you be, and I thinks aboutee often. I spose you've a 
saved up a glide stub ov money, and if zo be you thinks wan 
kannel wid do to light us up stairs with, why zay the word 
and I'll come in to town tewsday and us'll zee what can be 
adiied about gitting married sharp. 

' I am your effecshinet lover, 

'Abraham Hodge.' 

Kayning = looking. 

' Didst iver zee inny body Hike like 'e dii ? 'E is alwes 
a-kayning about yer, 's-of 'e 'ad a-lewsed zomtheng !' 

Keive = a mash-tub. 

' Clayne out tha keive well avore you go tii mash that 
malt.' 

Keive = cave in which to store mangold or any other root 
crops. 

' I rekon us 'ad better hale up tha keives wi' plenty ov 
straw an' heliums vur us chell 'ave a 'ard vrast avore long.' 

Kerning = ripening. 

' 'Tez a cabbical saison thease yer vur tha corn tii kernee. 
'Tez za dry an' 'ot' 

Kerpee = to find fault. 

' I ciidden live wi' Bill Cox's wive vur a year tii zave my 
life. 'Er dawnt dii nort but kerpee, kerpee vrom wan 
week's end tii anuther. I'd ziinder 'ang myzel than put up 
wi t. 

Keslings, or Gristlings = wild plums. 

' I zay, Jack, min ! let's go upen Lang's Copse ; there's 
tii or dree kesling trees breaking down wi' ripe wans. Luke 
sharp !' 

Kibbed-heel = sore heels. 

' 'Er can't put on 'er biite ; 'er 'ath agot a gert crack right 
acrass 'er heel ; kibbed, I zim.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 95 

Kickhammer = a stammerer. 

' Spake up, diiee, Mai ! Yii be sich a kickhammer, nobody 
can catch yer mayning. Spake slaw (slow) !' 

Kindiddle = to entice. 

' Now, liikee, zee yer, Maister Dick ! I bant agwaine tii 
'ave yii yer za offen. Yii wunt come yer a-kindiddling my 
maid out arter dark.' 

Kitch. = roll of offal fat. 

' How minny kitches ov fat willee 'ave tii spare tii-day 
than, butcher ?' 

' Dunnaw ! Mayhap a dizen or zo !' 

Knaw-nort = ignorant. 

"E's a knaw-nort gert viile, 'e is. I'm cussed ef 'e 
idden !' 

Kommical = curious. 

c I'm burned ef twadden a kommical sight ! : 
Kootch = coarse grass. 

' Awl that zmoak com'th vrom tha kootch-heaps they be 
burning upen Blackdown.' 

L. 

Lablolly = A silly person. 

' Whot's take notice ov ort sich a hollow-pated lablolly as 
'er is vur ? Thee kissent git no sense out ov tha likes ov she.' 

Lace = to beat with a stick. 

' Now yii liikee, zee yer ! Ef yii du'th that again, I'll lace 
thee till thee kissent stand !' 

Lackee = to lack. 

''Er ant a-got but one drawback, an' that is 'erdii lackee 
common sense, 'er dii !' 

Lambfashion = in youthful style. 

An elderly lady, very much over-dressed, called one day 
on a friend. As soon as she left the house, a bright little 
maid said to her mistress : 

'Mrs. Hodge is a fine-looking ole dummun, but I dii 
zim 'er dresses 'erzel oncommon fine, 'er's like a oPyaw (ewe) 
dressed up lambfashion !' 

Lang ciise = long passage. 

' I've clayned tha 'ouze from tap tii bottom. I've unly 
got tha lang ciise alayved tii scrubee.' 



96 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Larrup = to beat. 

' Ef thee com'th niest me vur awhile tii come, I'll larrup 
thy hide vur thee !' 

Larrupping = untidy, thin, tall. 

' I can't zee that yii've adiied wan bit ov work all thease 
blessed day, yii larrupping gert haggage !' 

Lattin-plate = tin-plate. 

' Tha babby 'ave abroked dree or vower plates. I wish 
when yii go'th tii Dallish again, yii'd buy a lattin-plate 
vur'n.' 

Laurence = laziness. 

It has been suggested that ' Laurence ' is synonymous 
with 'the devil of laziness? People say, 'Aw 'es I zees 
whot 'tez Laurence hath agot holt ov thee tii-day. Thee 
witten dii nort that yii bant afoced tii, I warndee.' 

Lay = as lief. 

'I'd za lay die 's dii V 

Leary = (i) empty, (2) hungry. 

'Leer' is a common German adjective, e.g., ' mit leeren 
Handen ' = empty-handed. 

(1) ' Yer, Emma, dawntee go intii tha dairy leary-'anded. 
Car thews pans wi' 'e.' 

(2) 'I zeed Varmer Ayre agwaine 'ome wi' a leary cart.' 

(3) ' Aw, my dear cheel, diiee gie me zome vorenoons. I 
be that leary, I dawnt knaw whot tii dii wi' myzel !' 

Leasing = gleaning. 

' They've agived tha chillern holiday tii-day, tii go leasing 
upen Squire Poland's arrishes.' 

Leather = to beat. 

' I'll leather thee za long's I can stand ef thee zeth or 
diith ort tii 'er again, d'st yer what I zay?' 

Leastwise = at least. 

' I be agwaine tii 'ave a new frock, leastwise mother 
zed zo.' 

Leechway = the path to a graveyard. 

Le' 'm — let them. 

' Le' 'm bide ! tidden your place tii titch urn.' 

Lef =to leave off. 

' Yii can lef work now, vur tez gitting dimpsy.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 97 

Lenge = to loll. 

'Dawnt lenge agin tha chimbly-piece Vilet, diiee, diiee 
kirn tii stand vittee.' 

Lerrick = to beat. 

' I'll lerrick thee tii-tha-truth-ov-music ef thee dissent go 
tii skiile thease minit' 

'Stand wan zide, or I'll lerrick thee.' 

Lew = sheltered. 

'Tha wind blawth like gert guns. Let's git tha tuther 
zide tha hadge ; tez lew there.' 

Lewzide = to leeward. 

' Tellee whot 'tez, yii'd bestways git tha lewzide ov tha 
hadge gwaine 'ome-along.' 

Lewze = pigs' house. 

' Put tha pegs intii tha lewze and hale um up wi' plenty 
ov straw, nice an' hot, or they'll be scrammed wi' tha cold 
avore marning.' 

Libbits = rags. 

(1) 'Why, Polly, yii've atored yer frock tii libbits !' 

(2) 'Tha vire's za fierce, tha mayte's bowled to libbits.' 

Licky brath = broth flavoured with leeks. 

The following is told of a West Devon farmer. His 
landlord occasionally invited one or two tenants to dine 
with him, and talk over matters agricultural. One evening 
he noticed Mr. Tibbs did not take his soup (vermicelli), but 
stirred it backwards and forwards with the spoon, and a 
look of disgust overspread his face. The host, addressing 
him, said : 

' I fear you do not care for your soup, Tibbs. Let John 
remove your plate.' 

Mr. Tibbs smiled somewhat grimly and replied : 

' Well, zir, I likes a dish of licky-brath or taykittle-brath 
ov a vrasty marning, but, burnish it awl ! I niver ciide 
stomick maggoty brath like this es.' 

Like winky = very quickly. 

' Urn out therevrom like winky, Dick, an' yii'll ziine 
overgit um !' 



98 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Lime-ash = concrete. 

In the neighbourhood of Bampton lime-ash floors are laid 
in kitchens and cottages. This concrete consists of two- 
thirds of Sampford Peverel lime ashes, mixed with one- 
third of chippings or sharp sand. It is spread quite 
smoothly for about the depth of five or six inches, and 
beaten until it is settled. In time it becomes a hard, firm 
floor, and is easily swept and washed. Though cold in 
winter, it is cleaner and better for cottage floors than wood. 

Linhay = an outbuilding. 

' I've aput the sheep intii tha linhay, 'tez nice an' lew 
there. I s'pose they mid bide there till marning.' 

Lippitty-lop = limping. 

' Aw, Loramassy ! Why, yii be gwaine awl lippitty-lop 
like a lame craw !' 

Lipsy = lisping. 

' Whot be yii about now, than ? Nobody can't understand 
'e, yii dii lipsy zo !' 

Listy = (i) lusty, (2) strong. 

(1) 'Us 'ad tii or dree giide listy showers while yii wuz 
intii tay.' 

(2) ' Well, 'ess, I 'spose Will Kibbey 's za listy a chap as 
yii'll zee again in a day's march.' 

Loblolly = food made with flour and milk. See also 
Whitpot and Flickermayte. 

Lob's pound = jail. 

She. ' Canee tell me whot's become ov Jack Vowler ? I 
ant azeed 'n this longful time.' 

He. ' Why, dissent knaw ? He stawled Passen Short's 
ducks, and they send 'n tii lob's pound vur dree yers. Sar'n 
right tii !' 

Lock ! lock ! = an interjection. 

' Aw, lock ! lock ! 'tez a mess o' 't, sure nuff !' 

Longful = lengthy. 

' How d' dii, Mrs. White ? Why, I ant azeed 'e thease 
longful time. Wheriver 'avee akeeped yerzell ?' 

Longcripple = a viper. 

' Zims 'tez signs ov fine weather when tha longcripples 
scralee out.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 99 

Long-dog = greyhound. 

' Aw, my eymers ! 'e urn'th like a long-dog 1' 

Loozed or Lewsed = lost. 

'Mother, whotiver chell I dii ? I've alewsed vather's 
baccy-pipe.' 

Loramassy ! = an interjection. 

' Loramassy upon us ! Who'd iver athort ov zeeing yii 
thease way, sich a mizzling day as this is tii!' 

Lost holt = let go. 

' He hal'd tii 'n za tight that I lost holt o' 'n in a jiffey.' 

Lowster = to work laboriously. 

' I got tha best wive in tha worr'ld. 'Er's wan that 
lowsters about tha 'ouze awl day long. None ov yer 
squatting about till tha work's adiied.' 

Lundge = to loll, to loaf. 

' Whyiver diiee lundge about zo vor, diiing ov nort, when 
yii knaw how I be adringed up wi' work ?' 



M. 

Maid or Maiden = (1) a young girl, (2) a sweetheart, 
(3) a woman-servant, (4) a daughter. 

(1) ' There's lots of little maids out there tii play.' 

(2) ' Ah ! yer com'th Bill Rooks an' 'es maid?* 

(3) ' I yer Mrs. Small keep'th dree maids now. I winder 
'ow 'er can afford that !' 

(4) ' I be most mazed my youngest maid 'th got tha 
feyver, and I be aveared 'er wunt git awver 't.' 

Mainzorry = very sorry. 

'They dii zay that Betty Gribble, old Jinny Gollop's 
darter, 'ath a drownded 'erzel. I be mainzorry vur Jinny, 
poor oP sawl ! Betty wuz tha best ov tha bunch.' 

Mai or Mull = to maul. 

' Dawntee go vur tii mal'n about zo.' 

' Whot's mull'n like that vur ?' 

Mallywallops = a tall, untidy woman. 
' Didee iver zee sich a mallywallops avore ? I niver 
didden.' 

7—2 



ioo THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Malscral = caterpillar. 

'Tha giizeberry bushes be acovered awl awver wi' 
malscrals.' 

Manangle = to maul, to tear. 

' They baggering 'ounds manangled tha vox all tii pieces 
avore I ciide stap urn.' 

Mapsing = smacking the lips with relish. 

' 'Er dawnt zim tii 'ave iver 'ad a bit or a croon of glide 
mayte avore ; jist liike, zee 'ow 'er's a mapsing 'erlips awver 
'er vittals.' 

Mashmallys = marsh-mallows. 

'Now, ef yer ladyship will unly (only) make a mashmally 
poultice an' put up tii yer veace, 'tweel dra' out awl tha 
'flammation avore marning.' 

' Mashmally-tay is very giide vur colds in the heyde !' 

Masts = acorns. 

'Turn they pegs out in the copse ; there's a brave lot ov 
masts ablavved down thease marning.' 

Maygames = frolics. 

' Yii niver did zee sich a feller in yer life. 'E dawnt dii 
nort vrom cockcraw tii zinzet, but be up tii awl zorts of may- 
games. There idden a bit ov harm in 'en tho'.' 

Mayhap = perhaps. 

' Well, loramassy ! whot a gert maid yii be agrawed ! 
Mayhap yii work'th in tha mill?' 
' No, I dawnt; I be out tii sarvice.' 

Mazards = black cherries. 

This fruit is largely grown in north Devon, viz., at 
Braunton, Landkey, Barnstaple, and South Molton. 

Mazed-finch = the wagtail. 

It is so named because of its incessant motion. 

Mazed-head = dizzy. 

' How are you this morning, Mrs. Sims ?' said the rector's 
wife to a parishioner. 

'Aw, mum, I dawnt knaw 'ardly. I bant very well; I 
veel za mazed-headed as a sheep !' 

Mickled = choked with thirst. 

! I'm niest 'pon mickled ! Diiee gie me a jiig ov zyder !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 101 

Mid = may. 

Midden = may not. 

' Diiee knaw that Jim Liizemore is agwaine to Woolfardis- 
worthy revel ?' 

' Well, 'ess, 'e zaid zo ; but yii can't depend 'pon 'e. 'E 
mid or 'e midden go, jist as tha maggot bit'th.' 

Midst = may. 

Son. ' Vather, mid I 'a' a new pair of biites ?' 

Father. ' 'Ess, thee midst if thee widst.' 

Mimpy-pimsy = dainty. 

' Whot a poor mimpsy-pimsy craycher 'tez, tii be sure !' 

Min = an interjection. 

' VVhot's thenk, min ? There's 'underds ov rats up tii our 
ouze, min ! Us yers um squirling 'round vur 'ours arter us 
be agone tii bed ; and a dowst ov a racket they maketh tii !' 

(An interesting paper on this word has been written by Mr. 
Elworthy, of Wellington, and published in the ' Transactions 
of the Devon Association of Literature, Science and Art.') 

Minds = remembers. 

' Why, 'ess, tii be sure ; I minds yii when yii lived tii 
Yarnscombe, 'long a Varmer Muxworthy.' 

Minit = moment. 

' I be acoming thease minit !' 

Minnit = a tiny thing. 

' Havee yerd tell that Mrs. Blampey 'ave agot a new 
zarvint ?' 

' 'Ess, I 'ave ; but 'er idden no bigger than a minnit.' 

Mist = must. 

This is a mispronunciation of ' must,' or 'may.' 
' Her mist go, I tell 'ee !' 
Mitch, or Meech = to play the truant. 
Master. ' Billy Skedgell, where is your brother to-day?' 
Pupil. ' Piaize, zir, mawther zend 'e tii skiile, but 'e's ago 
mitching up tii Waglands wi' Joey Grills.' 

Mizmaze = perplexity. 

' I dii veel quare ; my head is awl in a mizmaze like.' 

Mizzle = a mist. 

' I zim arter thease mizzle us chell 'ave a thinder, vur 'tez 
very fainty zort ov weather !' 



102 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Moar-an'-mewl = root and branch. 
' Ef yii pull'th like that, yii'll tear'n up moar-an'-mewl.' 
' 'Er's combing thick cheel's 'air za 'ard, 'er '11 pull't out 
moar-an'-mewl.' 

Mommet or momet = a scarecrow. 

' A man named Morrish came along and said defendant's 
little girl was a " mommet." Mrs. Berry accused him of 
calling her (defendant) that name. He said he had not, 
and then she said he had called her shadow a "mommet." 
The male defendant came out and began to abuse them. 
Both were much the worse for liquor. He could not say 
that they were sober. — Cross-examined : There was a brass 
band there. 

' Mr. Watkins. " What was there at Halberton on Mon- 
day night ?" 

'Witness. " I don't know." 

' Mr. Watkins. " What was there on Wednesday ?" 

' Witness. " Halberton and the people, I suppose." 
(Laughter.) 

'Witness was sure defendants were " perfectly " drunk. 
The last witness did not speak the truth if she said they 
were sober. 

'William Morrish, thatcher, of Halberton, said he went 
through the village about ten o'clock on the night in ques- 
tion. When near the Swan he saw five or six men listening 
to a row. Thomas Gray was with witness, and as they went, 
down the road he saw something standing against the wall. 
It gave him a " bit of a turn," and he said, " Oh, what 
mommet is that ?" He found that it was a child. Mrs. Berry 
directly after began to abuse him for calling her a " mommet." 

' Rev. R. B. Carew. " What is a ' mommet ' ? A scare- 
crow ?" 

'Mr. Watkins. " I am equally ignorant. Perhaps witness 
can give a definition." 

'Witness. "We stick it up in a cornfield to frighten the 
birds." 

' The Chairman. "Now we understand." (Laughter.)' — 
From the Tiverton Gazette, June, 1891. 

Moot, or Mute = root of tree. 

A farmer at Frithelstock, wishing to please his landlord's 
wife, said : 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 103 

' Ef yii'll plaize to zend a 'oss an' kert down tii copse, I 
got wan or two whacking gert ulkers ov mutes yii can 'ave, 
mum, vur yer vlowers !' 

Mort = lard. 

' Aw Lor ! missis, dawntee tell me nort about butter ! 
Poor vokes' chillern be fo'ced tii ayte burd-an'-mort now 
times be za bad.' 

Mucks, or Mux = wet mud. 

A young lady once inquired, ' What is mucks f when a 
countryman replied : 

' Why, pillum a-wet, missy !' 

Muggetee = sullen. 

' Us dawnt git on well tiigether, 'er's a very muggetee- 
tempered body.' 

Mugguts = intestines. 

' Us be gwaine tii 'ave ca'ves' mugguts vur dinner tii-day.' 

Mull, or Mai = to maul. 

' Dawntee mull 'n about zo.' 

Mullygrub = an ill-natured person. 

' Her's a proper old mullygrub ; her niver spakes a civil 
word to nobody, her dawnt.' 

Mump = (i) to loaf, (2) to beg. 

(1) 'Old Varmer Smart dawnt dii nort but mump 'bout 
vrom 'ouze tii 'ouze, jist tii zee what 'e can cadge.' 

(2) 'Dawntee gie thick feller nort, he'th abin mumping 
about drii tha village awl day.' 

Mumpchance = heavy witted. 

' Now than, git out ov this, yii gert thick-headed mump- 
chance. I'd dii 't twice over while yii be fumbling about 
trying tii begin.' 

Mumphead = a foolish person. 

' Out o' this, mumphead ! Whot art up tii now ? Zome 
o' yer viile's errants again, I rekkon.' 

Mun = them. 

' Gie mun tii me.' 



104 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Murchy = mischief. 

' Thickee young hoseburd ov a squire is up tii a burned 
sight more murchy than 'is vather wuz. That's needless tii, 
I'm dalled ef ridden.' 

Murrie-man = a merry-Andrew or a clown. 

' Aw, diiee come yer, Dick ! Lookee zee tii thickee chap. 
'Tez tha murrie-man in Sanger's Circus. 'E's gwaine tii 
trat round tha town 'pon a jackass.' 

Mutch = to smooth. 

' Ef yii will mutch thickee cat down awver tha veace an' 
eyes za offen 'er'll scratch thee zaf 'nuff.' 



Miity-hearted = sensitive. 



: Little Wormhill, 

' Zeal Monachorum, 
' Devon. 



' Dear Miss Galliford, 

' I have sent Emily to your school to-day, and I do 
hope you will do your best to yummer her a little, for her's 
a poor miity-hearted little thing, and I'm afraid her will be 
crying a goodish bit to-night, but p'r'aps her'll soon git over 
that, but if her shiiden, plese to drop me a line, and I'll rin 
up and see she. 

' I am, your's truely, 

'Susan Pugsley.' 

Muzzle = unscientific boxing or fighting. 

' Ef 'e wid fight like a man twidden be za much odds, but 
tii go an' scrammellee about and muzzle a feller like that, 
why tidden right I zay. I call'th et unperncible-like (un- 
principled).' 



N. 

Napper = a boy. 

'Yer's bones vur thee, napper; they be giide 'nuff vur 
bwoys.' 

Napper-case = the head. 

' Ef 'e idden quiet purty zoon I'll vatch 'n a dap in 'es 
napper-case.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 105 

Nat-sheep = a horned sheep. 

' Varmer Bowden 'th been out to Simonsbath, an' bought 
a sight ov nat-sheep. 'E'll make a giide stub out ov thickee 
bargain, I warndee.' 

Natteral = (i) a fool, (2) natural. 

(1) ' He ant agot no more sense than plaize God 'e shiide 
'ave. I dii zim 'e is a proper natteral, 'e is.' 

(2) ' Tidden natteral tii quarlee wi' yer awn vlesh and blid 
like they dii.' 

Nattled = contracted. 

' I zay, Dick, canst catch yett ? No, us can't ; us be 
nattled up wi' tha coald.' 

Nattlings = the intestines of the pig prepared for food. 

These are sold in all west-country markets, and by some 
are esteemed toothsome morsels. 

In several parts of the county they are known as ' chitter- 
lings.' 

Nayte = neat, tidy. 

' My wive is nayte and tidy 'bout tha heels. 'Er idden 
wan ov the cowhocked zort. No, by gor ! 'er's za straight 
as a line !' 

Nayte but not gaudy. 

Nayte but not gaudy. The common misquotation of 
Polonius, 'Rich, not gaudy,' Hamlet, Act I., Scene iii., 
line 71. 

A girl having bought a somewhat pretty, though showy, 
dress and hat, asked her mother whether she approved of 
her taste. 

' Well, tellee whot 'tez, Liza,' said the mother, ' 'tez nayte, 
but not gaudy, as they said of tha devil when they painted 
es body paygreen, an' tied up 'es tail wi' urd ribbings.' 

Nestletripe = the smallest of a litter. 

'Why, butcher, I zee yii've got a biitivul lot o' pegs. 
Diiee gie me thickee smal wan 'er '1 niver giidee. An' yii 
wunt miss 'n, 'e 's nort but tha nestletripe ; 'er cant raytch 
that raw tii ayte 'er mayte.' 

Niash = delicate. 

' Zince 'er 'ad tha fayver 'er's za niash I'm foced tii kep 
'er warm. I'm most aveard vur tha wind tii blaw 'pon 'er.' 



106 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON, 

Nibs, or Nibbly = small pieces, small. 
' Cuke, diiee want inny cawl up avore I go tii church ?' 
"Ess, tii be zure I dii. Gie me a bucketvul or tii ov 
nibbly cawl. Now, mind, I dawnt want no big nibs, cuz I 
wants a giide yett tii cuke thease ulking gert piece of mayte 
wiV 

Nickies = small faggots of sticks and brambles. 
These are used to make the brick ovens hot, which are 
built in back-kitchen chimney corners. 

Nickling = making short steps. 

' Whotiver be yii nickling along like that vur ? Diiee 
stap out, or us shan't git 'ome avore dark. I can't abide zich 
mimpsy-pimsy ways/ 

Niddick = the nape of the neck. 

' I wuz za 'ot yii ciide 'ave bowled a egg in my niddick.' 

Niest = near. 

' I tehee ! I'll niver go a niest that 'ouze again za long 's 
I liv'th. I'm baggered ef I dii.' 

Niffed = offended. 

'Whot's niffed about now than? I ant a diied nort tii 
'fend thee, tii my knolledge.' 

Nimmits = lunch. 

' Car out tha nimmits tii tha meyn za quick's yii can, 
else they'll be famished tii death and dry jist chucked.' 

Nimpingang = a fester under the finger nail. 

1 Poor old Betty Butt is 'bliged tii lie abed. 'Er 'th agot 
a nimpingang 'pon 'er vinger, an' tha 'fiammation isurned up 
tii 'er elbow.' 

Ninnyhammer = a foolish person. 

' Git along wi' 't ! I niver did zee sich a gert ninny- 
hammer in awl my life !' 

Nippence = ninepence. 

' Eggs be awnly nippence a dizen tii-day in tha market.' 

Nitch = a bundle of reed. 

' Wanted, a hundred Nitches of good Reed for thatching. 
State lowest price. — Cundy and Sons, Devonport.' 

Nive = knife. 

1 He'th a-urned tha nive intii 'is leg right up 'ome tii tha 
hannel.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 107 

No fay, or No fath = no, by my faith. 
' Be yii agwaine tii tha zarvints' ball tii Powderham, Jane ?' 
' No fay, I ant agot no toggery or frill-de-dills vittee vur 
that zort ov theng.' 

No, ne ti = contraction of No, not I. 

Nort = nothing. 

' Dawnt zay nort more tii me about that !' 

No-tany-by, or No tino by, or No-tano-by = no, of course 
not. 

Some think it is a contraction of ' Not that I know by,' 
as ' No' V I 'no' by.' 

' I zay, Bill, yii bant agwaine tii church thease marning, 
be 'e ?' 

' No-tany-by ! tidden wo'th while tii go tii listenee tii 
sich a old drummeldrane as 'e is.' 

Nub = a knob. 

'Poor little blid, 'er 'th availed downstairs an' hat 'er 
'ead. There's a nub za big's a 'en egg jist above 'er niddick.' 

Nubby = full of knobs. 

' I wid like a giide sized black-thern walking-stick, ef I 
ciide git wan, wi' a giide nubby head tii 'n.' 

Nubby = nose. 

A child having fallen down and hurt his nose, his mother 
in trying to comfort him, said : 

' What's the matter then, my dear ? Did 'ee hat 'is poor 
little nubby ? niver mind ! Mawther'll kis 'n and make 'n 
well' 

A very popular admiral at Plymouth, whose nose was 
somewhat more prominent than most men's, was always 
known among the Jacks as ' Nubby G 1.' 

Nubly = same as Nibly. 

Nug = a bunch. 

c Didee iver zee zich doomshaws as tha maidens be ? they 
dii 'th their 'air pin tap ov their 'eads in nugs ! wan awver 
tuther.' 

Nuther = neither. 

' Yii bant agwaine nuther !' 
' No, nur yii wunt nuther !' 



io8 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Nuzzling = poking the nose in. 

' They there pegs be out in tha gearden anuzzling up awl 
tha tatties.' 



Oakweb or Oakubs = cockchafers. 

' I zay, Polly, diiee put a pin drii thease oakweb's tail, 
an' yii '11 zee 'ow 'e '11 buzzee when I spin 'th 'n roun' my 
'ead wi' thease bit ov coord.' 

Onlight = to dismount. 

' Now, Mrs. Bright, diiee plaize tii onlight ! Chell I 
bring 'ee a cheer ? Tha trap's za 'igh, I'm aveared yu '11 val !' 

'Ood = wood. 

' Us liv'th tii near tha 'oods tii bevrightened by tha owls.' 

Ope = interval. 

A gardener said one day : ' Yii zee, mum, I keep's thews 
yer cabbages straight an' vittee in line, by planting um wan 
in t'other's ope. Yii can zee tha rills stand whichee zide 
yii 'in amind tii.' 

Ope or opeway = a passage. 

' Mr. James B. Babb begs to remind his Pupils that owing 
to the alterations in the Public Hall (now the Y.M.C.A.), 
Fore Street, Devonport, their entrance to the Drawing Class 
will be from the Princess Street Ope.' — Western Morning 
News. 

'Opes = hopes. 

' I 'opes tii come tii town tii zee 'e ziine. Yii knaw I 
ant ahad none ov thickee currantty caake 'et.' 

Organtay = decoction of pennyroyal. 
' Organtay sweentened wi' 'oney is a cabbical cure vur a 
cold, ef yii putt 'th a drap ov zomtheng short in 't.' 

Ort = anything. 

' Ef yii ant got ort better tii dii, yii can come awver an' 
'elp me tii-day.' 

Ortch = to probe with horns. 

' Poor dear oP blid, 'er wuz coming up Smalworthy 'ill 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 



109 



when Varmer Tapper's bull urned out an' ortched 'er in tha 
zide. 'Tweel be tha death o' 'er, vur sure.' 

Orts = leavings. 

' I tehee 1 bant agwaine tii ayte your orts, nuther !' 

Other = either. 

' Aw 'es, yii can 'ave other wan aw 'm. I bant perticler 
whichee 'tez.' 

Ouze = a house ; a room. 

This word forms part of many common compound nouns. 
The prefix shows the purpose for which each 'ouze' is used. 



Ash-ouze. 

Back-ouze. 

Bake-ouze. 

Caaves'-ouze. 

Call-ouze (coal). 

Chickens'-ouze. 

Ducks'-ouze. 

Dogs'-ouze. 

Fowl-ouze. 

Giize-ouze. 

Gert-ouze. 

Gearden-ouze. 

Hen-ouze. 

Overgit = overtake. 
' Yii make haste 'long 'ome. 
raytch Dallish Watter.' 



In-ouze. 

Little-ouze 

Out-ouze. 

Pigs'-ouze 

Plump-ouze. 

Pound-ouze. 

Riite-ouze. 

Tattie-ouze. 

Trap-ouze. 

Turmit-ouze. 

Wash-ouze. 

Zummer-ouze. 



I chell overgitee avore yii 



Paixy - untidy, dirty. 

At South Brent a woman said to me, on a very wet day : 

' Lor ! mum, 'tez a dirty day ; the rawds be cruel paixy.' 

Palsh = to walk slowly through mud. 

' Now diiee zee ! Thickee cheel is palshing drew tha 
lane wi' 'er bestest biites, wi' tha watter purty nigh up tii 'er 
knees. Thews biites will be aspowled.' 



no THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Palshing= Patching clothes untidily. 

' Bless my sawl ! Whyiver dawntee try tii zaw vittee, an' 
not go palshing tha hawls in tha thengs up like that ! 
'Tez a proper botch aw't.' 

Pame = a square of velvet, or satin, used as a christening 
wrap. 

' 'Twuz squire's fust babby that wuz a cursened tii-day. 
Hadden 'er a-got a biitivul pame ? By Gor ! 'twuz a satan 
wan, wi' gold fernge.' 

Panking = panting. 

' Thickee dug's a-thist. Diiee zee 'ow the poor craycher 
is a-panking vur life ?' 

Parfuse = profuse. 

At Belstone a man noted for his love of intoxicants said, 
when a lady was about to mix a glass of gin and water for 
him : 

' I wunt trubbel yii tii make it, missis ; yii wunt be parfuse 
enough.' Whereupon he mixed his grog half and half. 

Passel = many. 

' Sir Thomas Flew is a rare giide landlord, 'e is ! 'E'th 
agied us Butling fields, and agied out a passel ov plots vur 
geardens to tha work-vokes. 'E an't charged much a yard 
vur't nuther !' 

' There's a fine passel ov vokes gone tii tha gearden party 
thease arternoon !' 

Passen = parson. 

The ' passens ' are the targets, in Devon, for everybody's 
arrows. There are hundreds of anecdotes extant, which 
one quotes, unfavourable to the profession. The following 
is perhaps not complimentary : 

At a tithe dinner a farmer was requested to give a toast, 
when, in a distinct, hearty voice, he said : ' Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, God bless her ! May 'er be plaized tii 
zend us more pegs and less passens !' 

Pattridge = partridge. 

' I tellee whot 'tez, missis, I zim arter yii been twenty-vive 
years a tenant in wan 'ouze 'tez time squire zend yii a 
pattridge or tii, idden it ?' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. m 

Paunch = to handle unnecessarily. 

' Ef yii dii paunch 'n about like that, yii '11 proper spowl 
'n. Thengs bant made tii be maled about zo much.' 

Pawking = walking leisurely. 

' Aw 'es, tii be zure ; I've zeed 'en ! 'E's pawking along 
wi' 'is 'ands in 'es pocket, an' 'es maid titched up tii 'es zide. 
I 'opes passen wunt meet 'um. Ef 'e dii there'll be a dowst 
ov a racket.' 

Pay-cods = pea-kids. 

' I wish yii wid draw awl they paycods intii tha pegs- 
lewze, 'twill gie 'm zomething to chow, an' mayhap they'll 
stap making sich a row.' 

Pays = peas. 

' 'Avee got a giide crap ov pays thease yer ?' 

' Aw 'ess, middling-like.' 

Peart = sprightly. 

' Dawntee thenk 'er's agwaine vur tii kick tha bucket jist 
'et. 'Er wuz luking za peart 's a rabbin thease marning. 
'Er idden agwaine tii die 'et. No, tinoby !' 

Peek = to pick. 

1 'Tez time tii peek tha pays, or yii wunt git um kidded 
avore 'tez time tii ayte 'um.' 

Peek = a two-pronged fork, a pick. 
Used in making hay. 

Peel = pillow. 

' I want'th zom giize-vethers tii make a couple ov beyde 
peels wi'.' 

Peg = pig. 

' Thews pegs be fit tii kill : the fattest is 'bout lebben 
score.' 

Pennerd = pennyworth. 

' I want'th dree pennerd ov nits, plaize, missis. Dawntee 
let there be no deave wans wi' 'um.' 

Penny-brick = penny-loaf. 

These were originally made exactly the shape of a brick, 
hence the name, and sold at a penny each. 

Pick = to strip off feathers. 

' Luke sharp, Jane, and pick tha vowls. Yii knaw there's 



H2 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

zebben geeze and dree turkeys 'et tii be picked. Us chell 
ave tii bide up till owly light.' 

Pickle = condition. 

' Well, crimminy ! yer's a go ! Yii be in a drefful pickle ! 
Whot the dowst 'avee a-diied now ?' 

Pilgarlic = person worthy of pity. 

Two young ladies being caught in a thunderstorm near 
Ilfracombe, took refuge in a cottage, when the good old 
dame said : 

' Oh, yii tii dear pilgarlics ! Come in 'ouze dii an' drow 
yerzels. I be aveard yii'll catch yer death ov cold !' 

Pillion = a double saddle. 

On this, two persons used to ride on one horse, the 
woman behind the man. 

Pillum = dust. 

She. ' My dear, whot a vellum of pillum there is on tha 
Holserry rawd !' 

He. ' " A vellum of pillum !" Whot's that, Mrs. Hose- 

giide ?' 

She. 'Why, dawntee knaw "vellum" is volume, and 
" pillum " is mucks adrowed ?' 

He. ' Oh, yes ! but what is " mucks "?' 

She. 'Oh, yii poor gladdie, why "pillum" a-wet tii be 
sure !' 

Pillum is said by some to be a corruption of ' pulverem,' 
the ace. of ' pulvis,' dust. 

Pilth = fluff. 

' When yii'm sewping out tha chimmer, 'Liza, diiee mind 
an' sewp up awl tha pilth vrom under tha beyds.' 

Pindy = musty, mouldy. 

Maid. • Missis, diiee plaize tii come yer; thease piece ov 
beef es tii pindy tii ayte ef tez ciiked.' 

Mistress. ' Nonsense ! 'tis only a little high. Cook it, 
and we can smother the pindiness with a sauce.' 

Pinnicking = wan, pale. 

' I'm sure thickee poor little cheel wunt live long, 'er's za 
pinnicking an' delicate-like. 'Tez a poor pittice object, that's 
zartin.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 113 

Pinny = pinafore. 

' Yer, be quick. Yii bant 'af dapper 'nuff ; urn upen 
chimmer an' put on a clayne pinny, then go tii skiile.' 

Pinswill = a fester, a boil. 

' Poor old Naboth Daker wadden tii church thease marn- 
ing. Winder whot ail'th 'n ?' 

' Aw, they zeth he'th got a pinswill in 'is niddick.' 

Pittice = feeble, delicate. 

' Lor, cheel, yii be aliiking drefful pittice ! Be 'e bad ? 
Mayhap yii be steeved wi' the cold. Make 'aste an' urn intii 
'ouze by tha vire.' 

Pixy = a fairy. 

' They tell'th that Varmer Lambshead tii Ringmore wuz 
a pixy-led last night coming 'crass Milbern Down. 'E wuz 
gallied out ov 'is life. They tried tii kindiddle 'n 'crass 'Aldon, 
but 'e managed tii turn 'is coat, and they vanished like 
winky. Mak'th me creem awl awver to thenk 'bout 't.' 

Planche = board floors. 

' Us dii thenk ourzels mortel fine now us 'ave agot planche 
floors awl drii tha 'ouze. 'Tez 'otter tii tha veet.' 

Platter-viited, or vooted = flat-footed. 

' Aw, 'ess, boath 'er veet be za flat's a pancake, an' 'er 
turns 'um boath out. Luk'th like quarter tii dree by 'um. 
Whot I call'th platter-viited.' 

Plim = to increase in bulk. 

' Thews loaves 'ave a plimed well. I dawnt think I've 'ad 
sich giide plim burd out ov thease grist avore.' 

Plum = warm, comfortable. 

' My beyd is biitivul an' plum. I zlaped last night za 
zound 's a bug in a rug.' 

Plump = the pump. 

4 I dii wish they baggering ol' watter-works wuz tii tha 
dowl ! Us ant 'ad a drap ov watter fit tii drenk zince they 
diied away wi' our plump.' 

Pook = a mound of hay or turf. 

'Tha wind'th ablawed tha pooks awl awver tha place.' 

Pote = to kick about in bed. 

' Mawther, I can't zlape no longer wi' sister 'Lizabeth, vur 
'er dii pote zo I can't tine my eyes awl night.' 

8 



U4 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Poteing-stick = a thick stick used to turn the clothes when 
in the furnace boiling. 

' 'Avee zeed that poteing-stick, Mary ?' 

'No, I ant. I rekkon 'e's aburned. Us must git 
anuther.' 

Power = very much. 

' I can't tell whot thee'st diied tii 'n, but thee'st adiied 'n 
a power ov glide.' 

Prate-a-pace = talkative. 

'Didee iver yer sich a prate-a-pace little 'aggage ? 'Er 
tell'th twenty tii tha dizen !' 

Primrosen = primroses. 

There is a superstition attached to these flowers. Should 
afewbe brought into the house for the first time in the early 
spring, the goodwife will say : 

' Whot a viile yii be tii bring in tii or dree primrosen ! 
Now us shan't a' no chicken vur a brave while, and they 
that be a-hatched '11 die ov tha gaps.' 

If a large bunch had been gathered and brought in, the 
results with regard to chicken hatching and rearing would 
have been quite satisfactory. So goes the belief. 

Prinked = dressed smartly. 

' Well, I dii zim yii'm a-prinked out purty-fine ! Where't 
agwaine tii ?' 

' Aw, tii Kirton fair !' 

' Well, take kear o' theezel' !' 

Proper-terrified = frightened. 

' 'Er zeth 'er zeed tha dowl coming down Kenton Rawd. 
'Er wuz proper-terrified, I can tellee ! Tha preservation 
stude out ov her vor'ead like gert pays.' 

Proudness = pride. 

' I tellee whot 'tez, missis, there's that proudness about 
varmers' daughters nowadays, they wunt milkee, nur zar tha 
pegs, nur stan' in tha market, nur car a basket drii tha 
straytes ! Their poor old grammers used tii dii 't awl ! But 
no ! they be tii fine-vingered ; they can't dii nort but play 
tha peannee an' rayd biikes ; nuther wan o'm bant no giide 
tii 'm vor zartin. Purty pass us be corned tii !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 115 

Puggy = short and stout. 

' Now, I dawn't cal 'er a fine ummon. 'Er idden no bigger 
than Joan Tapp, an' I cals 'er a puggy little theng.' 

Pummel = to beat unmercifully. 

'There wuz a owl's nist under tha oaffis ov tha ol' barn, 
an' Bill'th a-pulled 'n out. I'm burned ef I dawnt pummel 
tha hide o'n, wance let me git holt o'n !' 

Pumple-viited = malformation of foot. 

' My dear sawl, 'avee a-yerd tell 'bout Jinny Parr's 
babbies ? They be tii twins, an' both of 'um be pumple- 
viited. They be gwaine to take 'um up tii Westminster 
'Orspital tii zee if Dr. Davy can put 'm vittee.' 

Pussy = short-winded, puffed. 

"Er's drefful pussy tii-day, an' can't walk vast nur var. 
Tha weather's agin 'er, tii, 'tez za fainty-like.' 

Piitch = pouting lips. 

' My eymers ! there's a piitch ! Whot's 'er sticked out 
like that vur ?' 

Putt = a heavy cart. 

' Put a hoss in tha putt an' go upen six acres vur tha 
turmits. Yii can layve tha wuzzels vur tii-morrer.' 

Q. 

Quaddle, or Quaddlee = to waddle. 

Mrs. B., a very stout woman, applied for the situation of 
laundress at a private house. The cook begged the mistress 
not to engage her, as she said : ' Mrs. B. wid take a vort- 
night to quaddle up tii the drying-ground tii 'ang out tha 
clothes.' 

Mrs. B. was, however, engaged, but was often assailed by 
the other servants with, ' Diiee zee now, Mrs. B., ef yii can't 
be dapper vur wance, and not quaddlee about za slow !' 

Quarl = quarrel. 

' Why diiee quarl zo, yii chillern?' 

Quarrenders = red apples peculiar to Devonshire. 
' The quarrenders be ripe, midden us 'ave zome ?' 
' 'Ess, ef yii be mind tii.' 

Quelstring = sweltering. 

' Aw, Jimminy ! idden et a quelstring 'ot day ? I'm za 'ot's 
Mally Palmer, an' 'er ciidden zay 'er prayers vur tha yett.' 

8—2 



n6 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Qnerking = grunting. 

' Whot's tha metter wi' 'e now than ? I zim yii'm alwes a 
querking an' a crinting !' 

Quott = to sit on the haunches. 

' Diiee urn an' git yer gun, there's a brave gert hare 
urned intii tha hadge down zebben acres. 'Er's go quott 
in the stroil.' 

R. 

Rabbit = an oath. 

' Rabbit yer 'ead vuree ! Darn'd ef I dawnt lerrickee ef I 
catchee at they maygames a^ain.' 

Ragrowstering = romping. 

' Whot tha dowl diiee mayn by awl this ragrowster- 
ing noise ? Zit down thease minit, an' hold yer row !' 

Raked up = (i) recriminated, (2) rose hastily. 

(1) ' Whot iver is tha giide ov raking up awl 'es vaults vur? 
'e's a changed carictur. Like 'nuff yii'm wuss than 'e.' 

(2) ' When 'e zeed me a-coming 'e raked hiszel up an' 
sinned vur's life !' 

Rally, or Rolley = a crowd. 

' There's a turrabul rally aw'm down there. Niver zeed za 
minny vokes tii a burrying avore.' 

Ram-cat (mas.) = a tom-cat. 
Yaw-cat (fcm.) = female. 

' Ef yii likes tii gie me a ram-cat I'll 'a' 'n, but I wunt 'ave 
a yaw-cat about tha 'ouze.' 

Ramshakelled = rickety. 

He. ' Whot didee gie vur thews ramshakelled old cheers ?' 

She. ' Vifteen shillen apiece.' 

He. ' Well, whot a viile yii mist abin; I ciide 'ave got urn 
vur haf tha money !' 

She. ' 'Ess sure, yii be tha peart wan ov tha family ! 
Ciide lick Solymon !' 

He. ' Whew ! I didden knaw that avore.' 

Ramzacking = romping. 

' I'm purty near mazed, vur thews yer vokes 'ave at/in 
ramzacking tha 'ouze awl awver awl the arternoon !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 117 

Ranticumscour = an uproar. 

'Now than, yii rascals, whot's awl this ranticumscour 
about ?' 

Rawee = annoyed, sore. 

"Er made me that rawee I ciide 'ave hat 'er down.' 

Raw-milk = new milk. 

'The Plymouth Dairy Company require fourteen gallons 
raw milk delivered on Saturday mornings. For particulars 
apply 1 98, Union Street.' 

Rayme = to stretch. 

' Ef thee pull'th like that, thee'lt pull 'n up moar-an'-mewl, 
an' rayme 'n tii, then 'e wunt be vit vur nort.' 

Raymes = (i) a skeleton, (2) a very thin person. 

(1) 'Why, thee'st ayte awl tha duck an' awnly layved tha 
raymes vur me.' 

(2) "Er'th a bin cruel bad I kin tellee ; 'er's nort but 
tha raymes ov whot 'er wuz.' 

Raymy, or Ropy = said of cider when thick and sour. 
' Us cant drink no more ov this yer zyder, 'tez raymy.' 

Renoviate = renovate. 

' I ciidden go inside tha cathedral 'cuz they'm renoviating 
tha inside.' 

Rexens = rushes. 

' Bill, put tha mare in tha putt, and go down in tha 
meaders an' git in a giide lot ov rexens. They'll dii vur 
bedding come winter.' 

Rid = red. 

' 'E'th 'a' had mor'n 'e can car. Tha brandy 'th made 'is 
veace za rid's blid.' 

Rills = rows. 

' The tatties 'ill ivery wan o'm be spowled. They wuz up 
in rills, an' now Hike zee tii 'm.' 

' For such weather in May inhabitants of Uffculme, in 
East Devon, have to go back at least fifty years. Crops 
which a week ago were growing fast are now at a complete 
standstill. On Monday night potatoes which were up in rills 



n8 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

looking healthy and promising were cut down by a severe 
frost. Last evening a strong wind was blowing from the 
north-east, and threatening snow.' — Western Morning News, 
May, 187 1. 

Rimlets = remnants. 

' I've picked up zom cheep rimlets tu shop ; 'nuff tu 
make my little maid a tidy vrok or tii.' 

Rinagate = a gadabout. 

' I niver did zee sich a rinagate, yii'm niver in 'ouze when 
us wants 'ee.' 

Rinner = a round towel. 

In some places it is called a ' rinner,' in others a jack 
towel. 

Ripping hark = taking off bark. 

In North Devon the stripping off oak-bark for the purpose 
of making tan is called ' bark-ripping,' but in South Devon 
the process is known as 'rinding.' 

'Wanted, twenty men for rinding oak timber. Apply 
Edred Marshall, Sutton Road, Plymouth.' — Western 
Morning News, Feb., 189 1. 

Ripping-gert = very large. 
' Yer's a ripping gert awpel.' 

Ripping-up = recalling. 

' I zay now, dawntee go ripping-up vather's vaults. Us 
'ave got zome our zide tha 'ouze tii, I rekkon.' 

Rishlight = rushlight. 

The night-light of ' long ago.' It was made by stripping 
a rush of all its rind except one thin straight line, which was 
dipped into tallow many times, until of the required thick- 
ness. It gave a very feeble light, and was known by the 
peasantry as a ' varden dip.' 

Rittelling = wheezing. 

' I bant very well ; I got such a rittelling in my droat. I 
be aveard I'm agwaine tii 'ave tha brownkitty.' 

Rogue's-roost = an accumulation of dirt and odds and 
ends. 

' 'Avee sewpt out tha pilth vrom behind tha chest ov 
drawers, Polly ?' 

' 'Ess I 'ave, an' a purty rogue's-roost aw 't 'twuz.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 119 

Rory-tory = gaudy-gay. 

' I'll be upzides wi' thee, min. Ef thee keeps ballyragging 
me, thee shetten 'ave a new rory-tory gown thease summer, 
I warndee.' 

Round-shave = to scold. 

' Darn my ole wig, ef I dawn't round-shave thee bimbye ef 
'e dawnt du thee work.' 

Rowstering = romping. 

' Now, yii chillern, be quiet dreckly minit ; yii've been 
rowstering about long 'nuff.' 

Rummage = nonsense. 

' Whot's tell up that rummage vur ; larn yer biike, that's 
best vur thee.' 

Rumped up = humped. 

' I be zartin zomtheng's tha metter wi' old Polly. 'Er's 
out in tha rawd awl rumped up, luke'th as if 'er'll die.' 

Rucky = to crouch. 

' Ef yii rucky down yer nobody can't zee 'e.' 

Rumbullioning — making an uproar. 
' Whot's all this rumbullioning about ? Tha 'ouze is alwes 
in a uproar ef my back's aturned vur a minit or tii.' 

Runkle = to fester. 

' 'Er'th a-pricked 'er vinger wi' a thern, an' 'tweel be 
zartin tii runkle.' 

S. 

Sally Hatch = an over-dressed woman. 

' Havee azeed Mrs. Bond tii-day ?' 

' 'Ess, by Gor ! 'er's dressed tii death like Sally Hatch.' 

Sar = (i) to earn, (2) to serve. 

(1) ' 'Ow much diiee sar a week tii tatty-diggin' ?' 
' Aw ! awnly teyn shillen.' 

(2) ' Plaize tii sar tha pegs za ziine 's 'e can, cuz I wants tii 
go upen chimmer an' clayne mysel.' 

Sass = impertinence. 

' Ef yii use inny more ov yer sass tii me, I'll gie thee a 
stramming gert whisterpoop that'll make yer 'ead ring.' 



'«' 



120 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Sasst>ox = an impertinent person. 

' Thickee 'Liza James is a dashus young sassbox : dawntee 
a.' nort tii zay tii' 'er.' 

Sawk = a timid person. 

' What a sawk thee'rt ! Pull yerzel tiigether. Thee'rt no 
pearter than a gladdie !' 

Sayson = season. 

' Zee if 'tez tha sayson vur salmon ; I dawn't 'zim tez 'et.' 

Scads or Scats = passing showers. 

' On Friday crowds of people assembled at Cloutsham. 
There was a cold pressing wind and a few scats during 
the day. A stag harboured in Sweet Tree gave a lot of 
trouble ere he was forced away, continually finding substi- 
tutes in the shape of younger deer. At last he was induced 
to ascend Dunkerry, on the crest of which the pack was 
laid on, and ran their deer into the Cutcombe coverts. 
Here hounds got scattered on other deer, and by an acci- 
dent a three-year-old was killed. The stag was lost in ex- 
tensive woods, and a return and further search along the 
eastern slope of Dunkerry failed to yield another. So we 
jogged homeward.' — Tiverton Gazette, Sept. 20th, 1889. 

Scawvy = smeary. 

' Go an' scrub thickee planche floor again ; 'tez za scawvy 
I'm ashamed tii zee'n.' 

Sclow or Sclum = to scratch like a cat. 

This is said of cats when in the act of scratching, as : 

' He sclowed (or sclummed) my hand.' 

' Whot a sclum 'e gied tha dog in tha veace.' 

Scraling = very small. 

' Thews be scraling little twoads ov awpels. 'Ow can I 
make dumplings wi' sich scrats as thews be ?' 

Scrall = to loiter. 

' Now diiee zee how 'er dii scrall along ; 'er dawnt go no 
vaster than a snail.' 

Screed = a remnant. 

' I gied Miss Bawden sebben yards ov sarge tii make me 
a frock wi', an,' 'er'th a-scrimped tha skirt an' ant a-zend a 
screed back.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 121 

Screwmouze = shrewmouse. 

' Yer's a screwmouze's nist wi' vive sich purty little naked 
yung uns in 'un.' 

Scrumps = small apples. 

1 There idden no sizable awpels 'pon thews trees ; they be 
most o'm scrumps.' 

Shabbed-off= sneaked off. 

' I tellee 'e shabbed off when nobody wadden Hiking, an' 
'e ant abin azeed zince.' 

Shan't = shall not. 

' I shan't go, I tellee, zo there !' 

Sharps = shafts. 

' Varmer Pearce hath a-drawed down 'es 'oss an' brawked 
'es knees, an' hat off both sharps ov tha trap !' 

She = substitute for 'her.' 

A man, on being asked if he had seen Mrs. Dunn in the 
town, replied : 

' No, mum, I ant azeed she.' 

Sheeny-shii-shan = shot silk. 

' 'Er've a-bought a vine sheeny-shii-shan silk gound tii 
be married in.' 

Shet = (1) to go, (2) to shoot. 

(1) 'Come along, sose; let's shet away 'ome avore dark.' 

(2) ' How minny pattridges 'ave 'e a-shet tii-day ?' 

Shetten = should not. 

'•Thee shetten a-diied et, then !' 

Shillerd = shilling's worth. 

' Plaize tii gie me a shillerd ov awpels, missis.' 

Shillet = shale. 

A man, on being asked the nature of the soil between 
Bampton and East Anstey, said : 

' Yii zee there's niithing very c^stantial about thease 
pearts. A man's liable tii be burried avore he knaw'th 
where 'e is, vur tha shillet com'th down by tha ton zome- 
times, and us be forced tii urn vor't tii save our lives.' 



122 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Shine = fine, well dressed. 

The question of clothing cropped up recently before a 
certain Board of Guardians in this district. An old man, 
who said his ' matics ' were so bad that he could not work, 
applied for outdoor relief. Rightly enough he was questioned 
as to the earnings of his sons ; and one of the Guardians 
asked : 

' Didn't I see one of them home a little while ago cutting 
a fine shine ?' 

' Well, sir,' was the old man's reply, ' I don't know about 
cutten a vine shine : 'e weer 'ome bad, and wore one of 
these 'ere coats wi' a cape to ; but they do say down our 
way as how poor vokes can wear um as well as rich uns. I 
can't say whe'er 'tis true or no; I bant eddicated up to 
that.' 

In the end the applicant got relief for a fortnight. — 
Tiverton Gazette, Atigust 2$t/i, 1891. 

Shivers = very small pieces. 

' I'll be dalled ef 'e hathen a-brawked en awl tii shivers.' 

Shords = broken earthenware. 

' Tha pit is vull ov shords. Whot a sight ov cloam they 
must have broked !' 

Showel = shovel. 

' Poor Zacky Budd is deyde, they zay. Poor old blid ! 
he'll zoon be put tii beyde wi' a showel.' 

Showlder = shoulder. 

' Put thee gun up tii thee showlder an' vire strite like a 
man !' 

Sich = such. 

' Aw, 'ess, 'er is sich a purty cheel.' 

Siss = a big fat woman. 

' 'Eth a-married a vine ol' siss ov a dummon now, than ! 
'Es fust wive wuz a vine, upstanding, giide-luking body ; 
but thease ! my eye ! 'er idden vit tii 'old a kannel to Bess.' 

Sissa = a fuss. 

' Well, yii dii make a purty sissa ivery time passen's wive 
com'th tii zee 'e. 'Er idden no better than nobody else !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 123 

Sitchy-wow = crosswise. 

' Her eyes be Hiking sitchy-wow. 'Er dii'th 'er work jist 
the same, nort straight, ivery bit o't sitchy-wow !' 

Skace = scarce. 

' I zim awpels be terrabul skace thease yer.' 

Skammel = to walk badly. 

' Diiee walk vittee and not skammelee along zo.' 

Skat = (i) to fling, (2) a slap. 

(1) ' I'll skat thease at 'ee ef yii bant quiet in a minit.' 

(2) ' Zay that again wi' 't, and I'll skat thy 'ead vur thee. 

Skeard = scared, frightened. 

1 Git out, yii gert viile, thee'st a-skeard me tii death, purty 
nigh !' 

Skivertimfoer = wood from which skewers are made. 
It is called also ' butcher's timber.' 

Skriddick = a remnant. 

' Well, they've ayte awl tha mayte ; there idden a skriddick 
alayved.' 

Skrumped-up = huddled up. 

' My dear cheel, be 'e cold ? Yii liiketh skrumped-up tii 
nuthing.' 

Skummer = mess. 

' Whot a skummer yii be a-making wi' that there traycle. 
Git along, dii.' 

Skun = to scold. 

' I tell 'ee whot tez, ef yii dii skun thickee tarrier dug zo, 
he wunt be vit vur nort.' 

Skiite = a reward. 

Tom. 'Whurst a-bin tii, Dick?' 

Dick. ' Up tii passen's.' 

Tom. ' Whot vur than ?' 

Dick. 'Aw, I've droved up tha bullicks.' 

Tom. ' Didder gie 'e a glide skiite vur't ?' 

Dick. ' No, a stingy ol' twoad, 'e didden. 'E unly gied 
me a dripmybit.' 

Tom. ' Well, I'm burned ef 'e idden like tha rest o'm — 
git'th awl 'e can, an' kep'th whot 'e got.' 

Slamicking = untidy. 

' Aw yii gert slamicking theng ! Yer clothes liikes s'off 
'twuz drawed on wi' a peek !' 



124 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Slatterpuche = pouch-liped. 

' I widden buy a slatterpiiched 'oss. I dawn't like tii zee 
tha lips aw'n hanging down like a bag !' 

Sleetstone = a round stone. 

This ' sleetstone ' was used before flat-irons were invented, 
or mangles were used to smooth clean linen. 

Slew = ostentatious show. 

' George Mogg hath a-married a wive wi' vower 'undered 
a yer ; an' idden 'er a-cutting a slew, that's awl ! Got Wel- 
lington butes an' a tap' at ! 'E es coming et, sure 'nuff.' 

Slewching = moving awkwardly. 

' 'Er can't walk vittee a bit, 'er's alwes slewching an' skam- 
melling along like a zore-viited mare.' 

Slob = to slop. 

' Zee what a slob yii be making wi' that watter ! Take 
tha clath an' wipe 't up.' 



Sloke = to hide. 

' 'Ave 'e a-zeed a gert 'ulking beggar-chap go by thease 
way? He sleeped upen tallet last night.' 

' 'Ess, I rekkon 'tez zame 's I zeed a-sloked gen'st the 
hadge upen Deepridge.' 

Sloke = to entice. 

' I 'opes Sid Chugg ant abin and sloked my bwoys off tii 
Sandford revel ? Eff 'e 'ath I'll hide 'n.' 

Slope = to rot. 

' Awl tha awpels upen chimmer be a-sloped away. I 
didden thenk they'd rat za zune.' 

Slouch = to wash one's self, using a good douche of water. 
' O Lor ! 'ow 'ot I be, tii be sure ! I'll go out to the 
plump-traw an' 'ave a giide slouch.' 

Slouger = a big thump. 

' I zay, mini, didn't I vatch 'n a rigler slouger ?' 

' 'Ess, I'm burned ef 'e didden, an' zared 'n right tii !' 

Smeech = dust, smoke, 

' I zay, yer's a dowst ov a smeech ! Where dii 't come 
vrom ?' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 125 

Smit-smats = little by little. 

He. ' Mrs. Clift awth me dree pound ten shilien', an' 'er 
dawnt zim likely tii aw me less.' 

She. ' Why, I thort 'er pay'dee zomtheng yisterday.' 

He. ' Zo 'er did, lebben an' sixpence. But I 'ates that 
zoart ov daylings. When yii gits yer money in they bagger- 
ing little smit-smats, tidden wan bit of giide tii 'e. Tellee 
tidden wo'th a cobbler's cuss !' 

Smurry = chemise. 

' Ef yii dii want a new smurry or tii, go intii shop an git 
a vew yards ov pulleree-alleree, 'tez za giide as old-fashioned 
brin.' 

Snaff=to snuff. 

' Why iver dawntee snaff tha kannel ? I can't zee wan 
bit awver yer thease zide ov tha tabul.' 

Snickit = a very small piece. 

' I unly wants jist a snickit. 'Tez tii match me bunnet 
strings tii me gownd. Tha leastest morsel '11 dii.' 

Snickitty = in tiny bits. 

' Thease es awnly a snickitty little twoad ov a piece, 'ot's 
tha use ov zending ort, ef 'erciidden zend zummat better 'n 
they vew crumbs.' [Said of a small piece of bride-cake 
which was sadly crushed in transit.] 

Sniffling = whining. 

"Ot's stan' sniffling there vur, ye gert stupid twoad?' 

Snigger, or Sniggeree = to laugh derisively. 

' If thee sniggers tii me again, I'll hat thee down !' 

"Ot's sniggeree vur ? I ant zaid nort tii make thee grin !' 

Snuggle, or Snugglee = to cuddle closely. 
' Come yer, my precious wan, an' snuggle intii me ; yii'll 
ziine catch yett ! Poor little blid, yii be cold sure 'nuff.' 

Smile = to slobber. 

' Diddee iver zee tii sich viiles ? They sniile wan an' 
tuther about zo, mak'th inny body sick tii liike at 'um. 
Darned viiles I cals 'um.' 

Sodgers = smoked salt herrings. 
Soldier. ' What 'ee ax vur yer sodgers, mum ?' 
Siiopkekper. ' Dree vur tuppence 'appenny.' 
Soldier. ' Gie's vower o'm.' 



126 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

S'off=as though. 

' Whot's tha metter wi' yii, than ? Yii liikes za whopper- 
eyed 's'off yii lewsed zummat.' 

Sose = good friends. 

' Well, sose, 'ow be yii tii-day !' 

' Purty well, thankee — 'ow's the missis ?' 

' Cabbical !' 

'Aw, that's awlright, than.' 

Spare = very slow. 

' I dii zim yii'm oncommon spare awver thickee job, diiee 
try vur tii be a bit spryer.' 

Spar-gads = thatching-pegs. 

' Wanted, fifty bundles of good spar-gads. — Apply John 
Osmond, thatcher, Brook, Cullompton.' 

Sparky = piebald. 

' Vather went to Holsery fair an' buyed dree sparky cows 
— two aw'm be Garnseys.' 

Spicketty = spotty. 

' Little Mary Stone 'ad on a new spicketty frock tii-day. 
Wadden 'er fine, that's awl ?' 

' I've a-bought zome fine Plymouth Rocks ; they'm 
rare wans tii lay. They'm spicketty awl awver, an' got 
yaller legs.' 

Spit (ov butter) = very small piece. 

' I always likes tii put a vew spits ov butter 'pon tha tap 
ov a rice pudden — et kep'th 'n vrom burning.' 

S'pose = suppose. 

' Cuddee lend me teyn shillen' till Zatterday, mawther ?' 

' 'Ess, I s'pose.' 

Spraddleth = straddles. 

' Yii mid be zartin Brownie want val coming down hill. 
Dreckly 'er veel'th 'erzel a-slipping, 'er spraddleth 'er legs 
abroad and stapp'th dead-still !' 

Spreety = ghostly. 

' I can't abide gwaine down Mill Lane, 'tez sich a terrabul 
spreety twoad ov a place.' 

Sproil = strength. 

1 Aw dear ! I be most a-diied up. I ant a-got wan bit ov 
sproil a-layved in me.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 127 

Spry = sprightly. 

1 Diiee liike spry now, or 'tweel be dimpsy avor yii be 
ready tii go, an' then yii'll be aveard tli muvvee.' 

Spudlee = to stir about. 

' Whot be spuddling there vur ? Yii won't vind nort, ef 
yii spudlee till Diimesday.' 

Squatt, Squab, Squob pie = favourite Devonshire pie. 

Ingredients : 3 lb. mutton or pork cutlets, 6 large apples 
sliced, 2 large onions sliced, ^ lb. salt fat bacon cut small, 
2 oz. castor sugar, A- pint of mutton broth, pepper and salt 
to taste. Place these in layers in a deep pie-dish, cover 
with rich paste and bake for an hour and a half, or place the 
whole in a crock and stew an hour and a half. Serve 
piping hot. I have seen clotted cream served and eaten 
with this ' delicacy.' 

Stand = to be industrious and reliable. 

'Wanted (indoors), a Man to stand to work. — Apply, 
E. Salter, Longhayne, Cove, Tiverton.' 

' Wanted, at Lady-day, Man to stand to work ; good 
cottage and garden and potato ground. — Mr. Lee, Priorton, 
Sandford.' — Tiverton Gazette, 1890-91. 

Stainted = short-winded. 

' Yii 'd better not drayve tha mare vast agin hill, or 'er 
'11 be stainted avore 'er git 'th tii tha tap ov Week Hill.' 

Standard = an oval salting-tub made of oak. 

These standards will hold the pork, bacon, hams and 
shoulders of two or three pigs, weighing from ten to fifteen 
score each when cut up for salting. 

Steeved = numbed. 

' Tha snaw is vive ur six veet deep out 'pon tha moors. 
I'm niest upon steeved wi' tha cold. Fake up tha vire.' 

Steffel = to stifle. 

' Diiee unhale my heyd, or yii'll steffel me.' 

Stertlee = to startle. 

' Aw, Loramassy, Joan, 'ow yii did stertlee me ! I've abin 
a-bivering an' a-wivering iver zince. Yii shiide be more 
thortvul.' 



128 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Stewer = dust, fuss. 

' What a dowst ov a smeech an' a stewer yii be making. 
Cantee sewp tha room stidy like ?' 

Steyan = an earthenware pot. 

' Ef I be tii put yii in zome butter, yii 'd better zend me 
a couple ov steyans ' (or ' steans '). 

Stickjaw = half-cooked suet pudding. 

This word is applied to any food difficult of mastication. 

Stid = to scheme. 

'Whot murchy be yii up tii now, nipper? I zim yii be 
mortal quiet ! Take kear whot thee 'rt arter ; yii 'ave tii 
stid 'ard tii outwit a old chap like me.' 

Stid = to study. 

On a boy returning from Blundell's School, Tiverton, 
to his home at Dawkridge, his fond mother asked the 
gardener how he thought Master Joe was looking. The 
gardener looked the lad up and down, then shaking his 
head, said : 

' Well, mum, 'e dii liike cruel wisht tii be sure, pale and 
pittice-like ; I zim 'e 'th a stid tii ard. I rekkon 'e 'th abin 
keept tii tight tii tha taskis.' 

Still-liquors = spirits. 

_ A coarse kind of spirit distilled from cider dregs. /^Illicit 
distillation of this spirit has up to a recent date been largely 
carried on in remote country districts. Still-liquors have 
the reputation of being 'rare giide physic vur 'osses and 
bullicks. 'T 'ath abin knawed tii cure tha boneshave in 
man ! 'Tez cabbical stuff tii zettee up 'pon a cold night.' 

Stirridge = commotion. 

' My ivers, whot a stirridge yii make vur nort at awl !' 

Stivver = to tousel. 

' Now dawntee stivver up my 'air. I've awnly thease 
minit a clayned myzel, an' yii mid be quiet vur wance.' 

Stodge = badly mixed paste, etc. 

' Lizzie, this yer milted butter id den made vittee ; 'tez za 
thick's stodge, nobody can't ayte et.' 

Stodgers or Busters = large satisfying buns. 
Mr. Tom Ward, of Tiverton, some years ago was in the 
habit of making once a week a batch of very large buns, 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 129 

which he sold at one penny each. Children on going into 
the shop would invariably say : ' Plaize I wants a penny 
stodger.' Others would ask for a 'penny buster.' 

Stomickable = agreeable to the taste. 

' Dist think I elide ayte ort 'er ciiked ? No tanoby, 1 
niver stomicked tha liike ov she, an' nort 'er ciiked idden a 
bit stomickable.' 

Stower = dust. (See Stewer.) 

Straky = in lines, or strata. 

Bacon is said to be ' straky ' when layers of lean and fat 
alternate. It is called also interlean bacon. 

A farmer's wife on being asked how there came to be 'some 
fat and some lean,' replied : 

' Yii zee, us feeds 'n wan day and starv'th 'n tha next, 
zo'e put'th on fat wan day and lean tuther.' 

Stram = to bang violently. 

' Now than, Jinny, dawntee stram tha doar zo, yii '11 hat 
tha 'ouze down.' 

Stram-bang = (to fling) violently. 

' I'm dashed ef I didden skat 'n stram-bang out ov 'ouze. 
'Twas windervul that I didden hurt 'n.' 

Strammer = a big lie. 

' I knawed yii ciide stratch a bit, but thee 'st a told a 
strammer now, by Gor !' 

Stramming gert = very big. 

' Well, sose, that's a stramming gert lie !' 

Strawmawt = straw. 

' Aw 'ess, I knaws tha way tii drink out ov a 'ogshead 
wi'out tappin' o'n ; make a hawl drii tha bung and ziike 
up tha zyder wi' a strawmawt.' 

Strip = sharp cut with a switch. 

'When 'e com'th 'ome I'll gie 'n a giide strip or tii. 
They tell'th me 'e 'th abin meeching.' 

Stub = hoard. 

' They dii zay oP Varmer Padden's deyde. I warndec 
e 'th alayved a giide stub in 'es stocking.' 

9 



130 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Stubberds = delicious apples. 

Stubby = short and fat. 

' Ess, 'er is a bit stubby. I thort 'e wid be sure tii marry 
zombody wi' a better figger than 'er 'th got. 'Er idden my 
fancy !' 

Stubs = roots of feathers. 

These are little black spots in poultry when not cleanly 
' picked.' 

' Well, Ann, I dii zim yii mid' a' picked tha duck clayne : 
yii 've alayved 'n vull ov stubs.' 

Stiideling = loafing, loitering. 

' Whotiver diiee dii awl tha day ? Stand stiideling 
about? Ugh ! yii bant wo'th yer zalt.' 

Stugged = stuck in the mud. 

' Urn, Zacky, an' git zome ropes ! tha mare is stugged in 
tha bog — urn !' 

Stuggy = short and stout. 

'They zay Passen Grey is amarried, an' I yer that 'is 
missis is a stuggy little body. Shiide 'ave thort a fine up- 
standing feller like 'e is wid a-had zommat tii Kike at. 
Widden yii ?' 

Suel = a plough. 

' They there suels shiide be a-tiiked in, ef they bides out 
in tha wet much longer they'll val awl abroad. Tha shares 
be aristed purty bad now min !' 

Silent = even. 

' Why iver dissent cut thickee loave siient? I 'ates lii 
zee tha breyde awl up in hummicks.' 

Suff=to sob. 

' Dawntee suff zo, my dear chiel ; yii'll break yer poor 
little 'art.' 

Surfing = sobbing. 

' Whot be yii surfing zo vor ? Diiee try tii stap, there's a 
dear little maid. Yii upzets me tii. Stap, diiee !' 

Stile = to loll. 

'Diiee, diiee git up an' not side about zo. Yii be alwes 
a-h nging agin zomtheng.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. i 3I 

Sutt = SOOt. 

c Tell tha sweep tii put tha sutt in tha garden.' 

Swale = to burn. 

' Make haste, bwoys, an' go uppen swale tha yeth and 
vuzz 'pon little 'aldon 'ill.' 

Swarze = rows. 

' Us 'ave alayved tha 'ay in swarzes vur tit-night. I 
dawnt rekkon 'tweel rain avore marning.' 

Sweel = to rinse. 

' Sweel out thickee glass avore 'e 's a-iised again. I zeed 
tha cat alicking aw 'n jist now.' 

Swill = to drink heavily. 

1 1 tellee whot 'tez, 'e liveth awver to tha public-'ouze. 
'E dawnt dii nort but swill, swill, awl day long.' 

Swop = to change. 

' Willee swop hats wi' me ?' 



Tack = to slap. 

' I'll gie thee a glide tack ef thee dii'th that again.' 

Tackle = (i) to overcome, (2) to punish. 

(1) 'Can't thee tackle 'e, Jack? Thee 'rt a gude listy 
chap, strong 'nuff vur ort. I'll gie thee a shillen' ef thee'lt 
gie'n a dowst ov a giide hiding vur me.' 

(2) ' Liikee, zee yer, Ted, I'll tackle thee tii-tha-truth-ov- 
music bimbye, zee ef I dawn't.' 

Tackylacky = a person at everyone's beck and call. 
' I say, Jack, 'ow minny zarvints dii Passen Wadow 
kep ?' 

' Aw, I dawnt knaw ezackally ! There's Bill Swam tha 
coachman, Dick Ley the grume, and George Urdood tha 
tackylacky, and tii or dree more besides.' 

Taffety = dainty. 

' I niver did zee nobody zo taffety as yii be ; yii can't ayte 
nort like nobody else.' 

Tallet = a loft, over a linhay. 

' Kissent zlape in tha tallet vur wan night ? Thee'st vind 
plenty ov straw there tii keepee 'ot.' 

9—2 



132 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Tankerabogus = a bogie. 

' Now, Polly, yii've abin a bad, naughtv maid, and ef yii 
be sich a wicked cheel again, I'll ze nd vur tankerabogus tii 
come and car yii away tii 'is pittee-'awl.' 

Tantara = an uproar. 

' There wuz a brave tantara up tii 'ouze za ziine as 'twuz 
knawed that Master Jack 'ad a-married Susie Garnsworthy 
on the sly ! 'Twas a dowst ov a smother, I can tellee.' 

Tap = to put new soles to boots or shoes. 
' Ef zo be yii taps thews biites, they'll least awl drii tha 
zummer.' 

Tatchy = touchy. 

' 'Er's bad tempered, an' no mistake ; I niver zeed zich a 
tatchy, ill-contrived little twoad in awl my life.' 

Tatties, or Tetties = potatoes. 

' Us ant agot no more tatties alayved. Us chell 'ave tii 
borrer zom vrom Varmer Ridd awver tii Shute.' 

A story is told of a North Molton lad who took service in 
a titled family in the Midlands. On returning to his native 
\illage, he was surprised and annoyed to hear his father 
talk about the ' dayzays in tha tatties? Tapping his father 
on the shoulder, he said : 

'Fayther, pleeze toe remimber tha "per." Say pertatties. 
Tez fery fulgar to say " tatties." My lady niver doe.' 

Tattie-traw = potato-trough. 

' Poor little Teddy 'th vailed in tha tattie-traw. Duee 
come an' 'elp 'n out !' 

Taykittle = teakettle. 

' Put on the taykittle, 'Liza Jane, an' let's 'ave a airly cup 
ov tay.' 

Taykittle-brath = sop. 

Ingredients : i slice of bread cut in dice-shaped pieces, i 
spit-ov-butter, i tablespoonful of milk, i pint boiling water, 
pepper and salt to taste. Sometimes chopped leeks are 
added, when it is called Licky-brath. 

Tawsel = tassel. 

' When yii've adiied yer shawl, chellee put tawsels all 
around 'n ?' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 133 

Tearing = very excited. 

' I tellee whot 'tez, 'er wuz that tearing mad wi' me, that I 
widden go a stap varder wi' 'er, zo 'er 'ad tii trapsee 'ome in 
tha dark b' 'erzel.' 

Teehoss = to romp vulgarly. 

' Be quiet thease minit ! I niver did zee sich a gert 
teehossing viile as yii be !' 

Teel'd = tilled. 

' 'Avee teel'd tha wuzzuls 'et, Bill ?' 

' 'Ess, an' they'm coming up in rills fine !' 

Tervee = to struggle. 

' Now, be giide chillern, there's dears ! I zim when I'm 
bad yii makes more noise than iver. Yii nidden keep on 
trying to tervee with Jackie ; 'e'll be a giide bwoy ef yii 
lets 'n bide.' 

'Tez = it is. 

She. ' Good-morning, Holmes. It is a fine morning for 
the hay.' 

He. "Ess, 'tez, missis.' 

Thews = those. 

'Thews shoes be awear'd out.' 

Thickee = that one, or that. 

' Thickee there bwoy's 'nuff tii drave me mazed !' 

Things = cattle, farm property. 

' Wher'st abin tii, Sam ?' 

' Why, tii Chagford wi' tha bullicks, an' I'm scrammed wi' 
tha cold. Maister Short's things be awl a-zold ; there idden 
nort a-layved 'pon tha place, indoor nur out. That's wisht, 
surely !' 

Tho' = then, at that time. 

' Her corned tho', vur I zeed 'er. 'Twuz jist nine 
a'clock.' 

Thoight = to whittle. 

' Willee thoight tii or dree little flip-sticks vur me ?' 

Thorting = ploughing crosswise. 
' Whot's agwaine tii dii tii-day, Jacky ?' 
'Aw, I thort (thought) I'd go up thorting Barn's Close 
thease marning. Want'th et turrabal bad.' 



134 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Th'outs = without. 

' I bant agwaine vur tii dii't th'outs yii'll gie me zommat 
vur my trubbul.' 

Thumping = very big. 

' Well, than, ef 'er zaid that, 'er told a thumping gert lie !' 

Thung = a thong. 

' Thickee drashel want'th a new thung.' 

Thungy = tough, in threads. 
' Emma, 'avee made tha custards ?' 

' 'Ess, mawther • but tha milk wuz too 'ot, and they'm 
thungy.' 

Thurdled = meagre. 

' Aw, poor blid ! 'e's a poor thurdled-stommicked theng. 
Luke's 'z'of 'e wuz 'a'f-starved. ' 

Tidden = it is not. 

' If tidden 'ers, 'tez Abram 'Odge's, an' 'er'th a-stawled 'n ' 

Tiddivate = to bedeck. 

' Wher's Lena ?' 

' Aw, 'er's upen chimmer ; 'er went up tii clayne 'erzel an 
hour ago. 'Er du take a brave while tii tiddivate 'erzel. 
Dawnt liike much 6't, arter awl.' 

Tiddlee, or Tiddle tope = the wren. 

' There's a tiddlee-tope's nest upen tha datch ov tha pigs' 
lewze.' 

Tiffles = detached threads. 

' Dawntee draw awl they tiffles down 'pon tha floor, else 
yii'll 'ave tii pick um up wan by wan, an' that'll be a tayjus 
task.' 

Tin = to extinguish. 

' Tin tha kannels an' go to bed dreckly minit !' 

Tine = to shut to. 

'Tine tha geates as 'e com'th drii.' 

Tino, Tinoby, Tanoby, Tanyby = certainly not. 

' 'Er gie away a shillerd ov ort ? No, tino (or either of 
above) ; awl 'er giv'th away es Munday marnings, an' 'e 
com'th fust gits nort !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 135 

Tiss = to fizz. 

A clergyman preached a sermon on the sin of attending 
races. The next day two youngsters discussed the matter in 
the following way : 

Jack. ' Be yii agwaine tii races, Tom ?' 

Tom. 'No, I bant' 

Jack. ' Whot vur, than ?' 

Tom. ' 'Cuz passen zeth I chell go tii tha wicked place ef 
I goes tii um.' 

Jack. 'Es it 'ot down there ?' 

Tom. ' 'Ess, I rekkon.' 

Jack. ' Diiee think I shiide tissee ef I went there ?' 

Tom. ' 'Ess, ef yii be fat !' 

The clergyman's sister, who overheard this, gave me the 
above story. 

Titched = touched. 

' Yii speyk'th tha truth by accident most-times. Yii ant 
a-titched Jackie, I s'pose ?' 

' Aw no ! ciise not ! Leastwise, I zeedee gie'n a dap in 
tha heyde, zo there !' 

Tizzick = cold on chest, a wheeze. 

' I ant abin well latterly ; I bin tizzicked up upon my 
chest. 'Ad the brownkitty, I zim.' 

Tosticated = intoxicated. 

' Oh dear no ! I niver takes wine. Ef I did I shiide be 
tosticated, an' ciidden drive 'ome strite. Yii knaw tha rawd 
tii Chappletown es za dark's a hadge, an' I ant agot no 
lamps.' 

Tottling = decrepit. 

' I'm aveard 'e 've azeed 'is best days ; 'e's come tii a 
tottling ol' blid now.' 

Totty = (i) dizzy, (2) of bad character. 

(1) ' I be za totty-headed I can 'ardly stand.' 

(2) ' I tellee yii bestways 'ave nort tii dii wi' she; 'er's 
nort but a totty twoad.' 



Towser = a hard-working woman. 

' 'Er's a out-an'-out towser, 'er is ! Yii niver did zee any- 
body rout an' lowster about 'ouze as 'er dii.' 



136 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Toze = (i) to shake a feather-bed, (2) to comb wool. 

(1) ' Yer, Sissie, come an' toze up thease yer bedtie and 
make'n plum.' 

(2) 'I wish yii'd wash this yer lambs'-tail-'ool. Spreyd et 
abroad in tha zin, and when 'tez dry toze it well. 'Tweel 
make a biitivul kiishin.' 

Trade = (1) leavings, (2) food. 

(1) 'Whot's cal this trade? Orts vrom your dinner? 
Ayte it yerzel an' git me zummat else. 

(2) ' This trade idden tii my liking. Gie me a beef-stake 
and zom ingyens.' 

Trapes = an untidy woman. 

' I winder where thickee old trapes hath abin tii ! Liikee, 
zee tii 'er gown. Why, e's adugged up tii her knees.' 

Traps, or Trinkrums = household goods, plate. 

A debtor at East Budleigh, being pressed by the Official 
Receiver to say of what his assets consisted, replied in the 
following manner : 

Official Receiver. 'What traps had you ?' 

Debtor. ' I'm darned ef I knaw. They wuz put up in a 
little box.' 

O. R. ' Nonsense ! What was in the box ?' 

D. ' Twadden a box, I tehee.' 

O. R. ' You said it was just now. Was it a barrel ?' 

D. ' No. 1 put a vew trinkrums about a 'undered yers 
old in a smal box.' 

O. R. ' What were the trinkrums ?' 

D. ' Aw, nort much — awnly a leetle old zilver cup thing 
an' a vew spiines.' 

Tribbit = a trivet. 

' I zay, 'tez time tha mayte wuz cukin'. Gie me tha tribbit 
tii stan' tha drippin'-pan 'pon.' 

Trig = smart. 

' Whot's agwaine on tii-day, than ? I zim I niver zeedee 
za trig avore. Yii be agwaine coorting, I rekkon.' 

' No, I bant than ; I be agwaine tii Passen Shart's 
funneral' 

Trindle = a round salting-tub. 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 137 

Trubbul = trouble. 

' I thort I knavved whot trubbul wuz, but I didden avor I 
lewsed my two bwoys. Wan wuz drownded in tha Cappen, 
an' tuther wuz killed in Aygipt. I zim I chell niver 'old up 
my 'ead again. I dii veel drefful bad night-times.' 

Truck = trash. 

(1) 'Whot truck be yii telling up now? Diiee 'ol' yer 
tongue ef 'e can't spake zense.' 

(2) ' What truck 'avee a-ciiked vur dinner tii-day ?' 
' Tez whot tha gintry cal'th "kerry." ' 

' I bant agwaine tii ayte zich trade 's that es.' 

Tii = (i) to, (2) two, (3) at. 

(1) ' I be gwaine tii market.' 

(2) « I'll gie 'e tii shillen'.' 

(3) ' I chell knock tii tha door.' 
' Tii' always follows * going ' : 

' Wher'st agwaine tii ?' 

Tlibill = twibill. 

This implement of husbandry is called also ' bisgay,' or 
' visgay.' 

Tudouble = bent head and knees together. 
' Aw, my dear ! I got zichee pain in my chest, I be niest 
upon tudouble wi' tha angish (anguish) o' 't.' 

Tii-last = at last. 

'Well, sose, yii be agwaine tii-last. I thort yii wid.' 

Tummilled = tumbled. 

' There ! didst iver zee zichee upstore as 'er'th amade 
yer ? 'Er've a-tummilled up ivery theng an' crammed my 
frock tii death !' 

Tuppence = twopence. 

' I widden gie 'e tuppence vur 'n ! In vact, tidden wo'th 
nort now.' 

Turmits = turnips. 

' Vather, 'avee bin upen Long Close 'smarning ?' 

' No. Whot vur ?' 

' Cuz tha vlies be in tha turmits cruel bad.' 



1 38 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

' The vly gee hoppee, 
An' tha vly gee whoppee, 
An' 'tez awl my eye 
That thickee there vly 
Can ayte up awl tha turmits !' 

Turrabul = (i) terrible, (2) very. 

( 1 ) 'Us 'ave a-had a turrabul starm !' 

(2) 'Idden Mrs. Joss turrabul fine tii-day? 'Er cloase 
costs a main sight ov money. Where ciide 'er git et tii ?' 

Turves =^ square blocks of peat. 

These are cut on all moorlands and stacked to supply the 
peasantry with fuel during winter. 

Tii-tha-truth-ov-music = thoroughly. 

This sentence is used to impress on one the completeness 
with which a sound thrashing is to be administered, as : 
' I'll tan thee tii-tha-truth-ov-music' 
' 'E'll catch et bimbye tii-tha-truth-ov-music' 
' I'll makee holly tii-tha-truth-ov-music' 

Tu-wance - this instant. 

' Go thease minit ! Ef yii dawn't dii't tu-wance, I'll drash 
thee !' 

Twant, or Twunt = it will not. 

' J°y g° w i' ' ee an ' a Dunne l ov moss, 
Ef yii dawnt come back, twant be no loss.' 
' I tellee twunt be giide tii drink ef 'e yetts et zo 'ot.' 

Tweeny-maid = a general help. 

' Wanted, at once, a Tweeny-maid. —Apply, Mrs. Lewis, 
Tiverton.' 

'Wanted a young, strong girl as Tweeny-maid. — Apply 
Proprietor, Angel Hotel, Tiverton.' 

Twidden = it would not. 

' No, I tellee twidden be right vur tii dii't.' 

Twink = to chastise. 

' Zo yii bin stayling awpels, 'avee. Well, than, I'll twink 
thee purty tight vur that, sure 's a gun !' 

Twinkleth = short twitching of the tail. 

A shepherd was inspecting a flock of sheep for the purpose 
of selecting those afflicted with a disorder peculiar to them 
in hot weather, when his son said : 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 13 

' Thickee wan there, vather, that twinkleth 'is tail got um 
turrabul bad.' 

Twinkling = vibrating. 

This is applied to the quick twitching, or shaking, of the 
tails of animals, but especially of lambs when they are in the 
act of ' feeding.' 



Tyne. (See Tine.) 



Ud= would. 



U. 



' Whot ud 'e dii ef yii wuz me ?' 
' I thenks I ud zil 'n.' 

Ulker = great one, big and heavy. 

' That's a whacking gert ulker, idden et ?' 

Ummits = large pieces. 

'Willee plaize tii gie us zome tidy-zized ummits ov burd 
an' cheese vur vornoons tii-day. Us chell be mortal 'ungry 
avore dinner-time.' 

Umpsouze = almshouse. 

Mr. G. built a row of almshouses, and gave one to Betty 
Winnicombe, who came to tell me the good news. With a 
face beaming with happiness, and tears filling her eyes, she 
exclaimed : ' Oh, missis, missis ! whot diiee thenk ? Whot 
dike the?ik ? That dear old Mr. G. 'ath agied me a umps- 
ouze ! I be that glad I be zwetting vur thankvulness an' 

j'y.' 

Umsoever = whomsoever. 

' I'll gie 'n tii umsoever '11 'a' 'n.' 

Unbeknawn = unknown. 

' 'Ath mawther gied that young rascal 'is brekzis ?' 

' Dunnaw ; an' ef zo 'tez unbeknawn tii vather.' 

Unbethowted = remembered. 

' Well, I'm baggered ef I ant ajist unbethowted o' 't. I 
must go an' tell Bob tii gie tha mare zom wets.' 

Up-a-long = (i) up-hill, (2) towards home. 

(1) 'I be agwaine up-a-long direckly.' 

(2) 'Wait a bit, I chell shet away up-along purty ziine 
tii.' 



i 4 o THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

' Tam Pearce, Tam Pearce, len' me thy gray mare, 

Awl along, up-along, down-along lee, 

Vur I want'th vur tii go tii Widdicombe vair, 

Wi' Beel Brewer, Jan Stewer, Pet'r Davy. Pet'r Gurney, 

Dan'el Widden, 'Arry 'Awk, ol' Uncle Tom Cobley, an' awl.' 

Up-an'-down = upside down. 

4 I'd za ziine dii 't 's I turn my 'and up-an'-down.' 

Uphome and in-home = close to the hilt. 

' Shet'n in uphome tii tha hannel !' 

1 'E 've a-urned tha knive into his thigh, inhome tii bone.' 

Upizet = opposite. 

' Doctor Smale liv'th upizet the Ranters' chapel.' 

Upping-stock = stone steps. 

Three or four stone steps built against the court wall, 
from which ladies in the olden days mounted the pillion. 

Upstore = noise, quarrel. 

' Whotiver diiee make thease row vor? Awl tha upstore 
in tha wurdle wunt make et better. Nur awl yer hollin 
nuther.' 

Urn = run. 

Urning = running. 

' Urn, little veard, big veard 's arter thee.' 

' I be a urning, bant I ?' 



Vady = tainted. 

' Us can't ayte this yer mayte, 'tez za vady.' 

Vag = to trail on the ground. 

' Diiee 'old up yer frock, an' not let 'n vag along like that; 
tha bottom aw'n '11 be tiffled out, and covered wi' mucks.' 

Vair, or vairy = a weasel. 

' Mawther, yii'd best ways liike arter yer little ducks. I 
zeed a vairy urn intii tha linhay jist now.' 

Vailed = fell. 

'Jane Brook's babby 'ath a-valled intii tha vire an' scald 
'iszel.' 

Valled-vore = fell forwards. 

' Aw, min ! I got a drefful tale tii tellee. I be most 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 141 

mortal zorry tii tellee bad news. Yisterday yii zend me tii 
drayve Mrs. H. tii Bow Station. Well, jist as us wuz 
agwaine along Yeoford lane, Brownie put a viite 'pon a 
stone, and skammeled a giiddish bit. Well, Mrs. H. is a 
purty giide heft, an' us wuz agawked up za 'igh in tha dug- 
kert that us boath vailed vore skat intii tha rawd. I'll be 
burned ef 'er wadden in a dowst ov a smuther. 'Owdzim- 
iver, I brished tha mucks off 'er gownd za well's I cude, an' 
'er went 'ome. Ef 'er shiide write tii tellee about et, diiee 
plaize tii zay twadden no vault o' mine, mum.' 

Valled-vore-skat = fell forwards. 

v 'Er 'itched 'er viite in a gert stone, an' vailed vore skat 
in tha rawd.' 

Vallee = to value. 

' 1 wants tii buy a 'oss vur Maister Cruwys. Whot diiee 
ax vur thickee cob o' yours ?' 

' Aw, I bant agwaine tii peart wi' 'n. I vallee 'n in vifty 
pound !' 

Vamp = to sprinkle with water, the font, to increase in 
knitting. 

Vampdish, and Churchvamp = the font. 

There has been a good deal of controversy over this word 
and its compounds. 

A gentleman, writing to the Western Morning News, 
January 28, 1S89, says: 

' I was born within a score of miles of Cofton Church, 
near Starcross, Devon, and have spent my life (sixty years) 
in the neighbourhood. When I was a boy I knew the font 
by several names, viz. : Vamp, Churchvamp, Christening 
vamp.' 

Vamping was understood to mean sprinkling, just as 
dousing means the application of a more copious supply of 
water, as, 'Jist a leetle more may-watter tii make 'e graw a 
bit, my dear !' 

The word ' vamp ' is also used in the following sense : 

' Yii must vamp eight stitches in tha ca've ov yer stock- 
ing ef yii want'th tii make 'n a giide shape.' 

Vang = to stick close to, to close in a tussle. 
' Whot be yii tii 'bout now than ? Shet 'n up sharp, Bill. 
Vang 'n intii 'e tight, an' ave diied wi 'n.' 



142 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Vang-to = to act as sponsor. 

'Tidden no glide vur yii tii ax me tii come awver tii zee 'e 
next Zinday, 'cuz I'm agwaine tii 'Orsewellake tii vang-to 
Zue Ridd's babby.' 

Varden = farthing. 

' Liikee zee, Mr. Gammon 'ath agied me a plat of pins 
instid ov a varden change.' 

Varmint = reptiles, stoats, hedgehogs. 
' There's a sight ov varmints about tha varm, vather. 
I'm agwaine out tii try tii shet zome.' 

Varry = to farrow. 

Said of sows when they give birth to a litter of pigs. 
' 'Adden 'e better put thickee zow intii a warm lewze ? I 
zim 'er'll varry avore marning.' 

Vatched = fetched. 

' I tellee what 'tez, 'e gied me zich a whop that boath my 
eyes vatched vire.' 

Vatches = vetches. 

' Us got a giide crap ov vatches thease zayson.' 

Veaking = fretful. 

' 'Er dawnt dii nort but go veaking about, and suffing 
awl day long.' 

Vearns = ferns. 

Driving over Exmoor, I saw in the distance an extensive 
patch of dark-green foliage, quite different from the green high 
grass covering the moor. Pointing to this particular spot, I 
said to the coachman : 

' Is that a field of turnips away to the right ?' 

A smile flitted over his jovial, happy-looking face, and, 
pointing with his whip to the place indicated, said : 

' Diiee mayne awver there, mum ?' 

' Yes, there to the right,' said I. 

Then, shrugging his shoulders, he said : 

' Turmits ! turmits, mum ! why they be vearns, vearns 
vur tha deer tii lie in ! God bless us, missis ! inny viile 
wid aknawed that turmits ciidden graw yer pin tap ov 
Exmoor !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 143 

Veathervaw = feverfew. 

' Our gearden is 'awver-rinned wi' veathervaw, but I dawnt 
mind much, vur tez cabbical stuff tii rub intii tha chillern's 
necks night-times tii keep away tha vleys.' 

Vigging = spuddling. 

' Whot be yii vigging about they tatties vur ? Yii'm 
stayling tha new wans avore they be 'a'f corned.' 

' Diiee be quiet, an' not keep vigging there. Yii dawnt 
dii nort but vig, vig, vig, awl day long !' 

Viggle = to wriggle. 

' Thickee cheel 'II viggle about till 'er wunt be vit tii be 
zeed, an' 'er 'th agot on 'er best vrock.' 

Vinnied = (i) mouldy, (2) bad-tempered. 

(1) 'This yer cheese is biitivul now ; 'tez vinnied drii' an' 
drii.' 

(2) 'Yii vinnied little twoad, git out ov my zight thease 
minit !' 

Vire = fire. 

' There idden a blunk ov vire pon tha ya'th.' 

Vire-dugs = fire-dogs. 

Visgy, Bisgy, Tiibill = a mattock. 

' I zim I chell be voced tii use tha bisgy tii 'at thews clats 
abroad wi'.' 

Vlst (s.) or Vistises (pi.) = fist. 

'Tellee whot 'tez, Jack, ef 'e com'th niest thee agen, shet 
up yer tii vistises an' 'at un down.' 

Vittee = correctly, properly. 

' Diiee dii thengs vittee like ! I niver didden zee nobody 
za ciichypawed avor !' 

Vittels = victuals. 

' Be us agwaine tii 'ave inny vittels tii-day, mawther ? I'm 
burned ef I bant mortal wangery vur want o' 't.' 

Vlax = flax, fur of foxes, rabbits, etc. 

' They poachers bin at et again ! Liikee zee tii tha vlax 
in thease yer trap. They'm round 'bout yer again, I zim. 
There'll be blue murder avore 'tez awver !' 



144 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Vlail = flail. 

This implement has become obsolete, being superseded 
by the threshing machine. 




Vleys = fleas. 

' Yii must wash thease yer dug, Harry ; tha vleys be ayting 
aw 'n tii death. 'E dii'th nort but vig 'iszel.' 

Vollered = followed. 

1 1 can't get urds aw'n ; 'e 'th avollered me about awl day.' 

Vore = (i) before, (2) forth. 

(1) ' Ef yii'll go vore, I'll voller.' 

(2) ' 'E corned vore avore me.' 
Voreright = rude, vulgar, careless. 

' Ef yii want 'th vokes tii respect yii, yii must layve off 
awl they ugly voreright ways ov yours.' 

Voreteen = fourteen. 

At a country railway-station a woman asked for a ticket 
and a half for self and son. 

Ticket-Man. ' How old is the boy ?' 

Woman. ' 'E is nearly twelve.' 

Boy. ' Aw, mawther, whot a strammer yii dii tell ! Yii 
knaw I be voreteen come Tewsday !' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 145 

Voretoken = warning. 

' I'm zartin zomething is agwaine tii 'appen, vur I yerd 
tha death-watch atapping in my tester last night. 'Tez 
a voretoken ov death, I'm veard.' 

Vornoons, or Vorniines = lunch. 

' Come on intii 'ouze, plaize. Us be jist agwaine tii 'ave 
our vornoons, an' yii mid jist za well stap an' 'ave zome tii.' 

Vump = knock. 

' Aw, I knawed twuz yii, Mr. Shart ; ciide tellee by yer 
vump.' 

Vurgot = forgot. 

' Us 'ave avurgot tii vull tha verkins. Urn in an' git tha 
kay ov tha zeller, an' let Jack car um up tii barn like a shot 
avore vather com'th back, else 'e'll scollee, zure 'nuff !' 

Vustling = fussing. 

' 'Er ciidden zit still wan minit tiigether. 'Er keeped 
on vustling about till I wuz ready tii gie 'er a darned gu-ie 
scat in tha heyde.' 

Vuzz = furze, gorse. 

' I dii zim I niver did zee tha vuzz za vull ov vlowers as 
'tez thease yer.' 

Vuzz-chick = a species of finch. 

A small finch frequenting moors covered with furze and 
heath. 

Vuzz-poll = untidy hair. 

' Idden Gatty Stabb a vuzzee-poll ? 'Er 'ead is alwes 
a-stivvered up.' 

Vuzzy = covered with furze. 

' When Kirton wuz a borough town, 
Ex'ter wuz a vuzzy-down.' 



W. 

Wab = tongue. 

' Hold thy wab, wi't, Bet !' 

Wacking-gert = very big. 

' Yer's a wacking gert awpel vur 'ee ef zo be yii wunt cry 
no more.' 

10 



1 46 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Wallage = an untidy bundle. 

' What a wallage o't 'er 'th a made of tha gathers ov 
thease frock ! Tii zome places there idden wan, an' tuthers 
they'm awl tii a bunch.' 

Wallop = to beat. 

' Mr. Turner zeth that ef Sayzur (Caesar) com'th yer tii 
'ouze again, yii must plaize tii wallop 'n.' 

Wangary = limp, weary. 

' I bant fery well tii-day ; this 'ot wuther mak'th me veel 
uncommon wangary.' 

Want = a mole. 

• Us must 'ave tha old want-catcher yer next week. They 
baggaring wants be zaring that field ov young; grass turrabul 
bad.' 

Want-catcher = a mole-catcher. 

Wapsy = (i) ill-natured, (2) wasp. 

(1) 'There idden a bit ov payee in thease yer 'ouze. 
Yii'm za wapsy an' za tatchy there's no living vuree.' 

(2) 'A wapsy 'ath a stinged 'n 'pon tha veace.' 

Watter-swate = clean. 

' I ant a-scrubbed tha back-'ouze tii-day ; I've jist gied 'n 
a lick an' a promish till Zatterday. Tez watter-swate, anv- 

'ow !' 

Waxing-curls = swollen glands. 

' Why idden your little maid agone tii skiile tii-day, than ?' 

' Aw ! poar little blid, 'er idden very well. 'Er waxing- 

curls be down, an' I've abin rubbin' 'urn back wi' 'arts'orn 

an' oil. 

Weared = worn. 

In speaking of clothes, people often say: 'They be a- 
weared out;' and when one is exhausted they say: *'E's 
aweared out wi' tha yett,' 

Wee-wow = (i) crosswise, (2) puckered, (3) squinting. 
(1) 'Thease seam is awl wee-wow.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 147 

(2) ' Why, yii've got thease cloth awl wee-wow, nobody 
can't use et.' 

(3) "Er babby's eyes is drefful wee-wow-like.' 

Wets = oats. 

' Mind yii dawnt vurgit tii gie tha 'osses their wets.' 

Whatjecome = what's-his-name. 
' Who is living at the Hall now ?' 

' I can't zay vur zure, but 'tez zome Mr. Whatjecome or 
uther.' 

Whatzimiver = whatsoever. 

' Whatzimiver thee widst meyn shiid dii tii yii, dii yii unto 
they.' 

Whipshire = Tiverton. 

Tradition has it that, in ' olden time,' persons found 
guilty of minor offences were not sent to prison as at present, 
but were punished by being whipped at a cart's tail through 
the streets. This practice was at one time so common at 
Tiverton, that the name of ' Whipshire ' was applied to the 
town. An old man at the Warren, near Dawlish, told me 
that he ' larned cheermaking tii Kentisbeare, an' then zot 
up in businez tii Whipshire, but was a-foced tii layve tha 
place, cuz tha Latin-bwoys zot vire tii his 'ouze.' 

Whips-while = every few minutes. 

' I tellee 'ot 'tez, 'e 'idden a riglar drunkard, 'e dawnt zit 
tii't long 'nuff. 'E's 'ot I cal'th a zawker — 'e urn't tii tha 
pub ivery whips-while ef 'es ol' dummun's out chiiring. 
Dowst ef 'e dawnt spend a fortin in liquor !' 

Whisterclister and Whisterpoop = a backhand slap. 
' Well, sose, 'e did vatch 'n a brave gert whisterclister in 
tha chucks, I thort 'e 'd a-broked 'is jaw !' 

Whitstone Hills = the Blackdown Hills. 
These hills lie east of Cullompton, and are so called from 
the whetstones which are dug there. 



*& 



Whitwitch = a white (i.e. benignant) witch. 
Witchcraft is, up to this day, believed in by the peasantry 
rhey say ' this cheel,' ' thease 'oss,' ' thickee cow is, I'rr 



m 
10- 



148 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

zartin, awverliiked ' (bewitched or witched). ' Us must go 
tii Ex'ter or Kirton tii zee tha whitwitch, an' ax'n who'th 
a-diied et.' 

' " The White Witch of Exeter " at Dawlish. — At 
Dawlish, yesterday, before Mr. W. G. Brown (chairman), 
and Captain W. C. Strickland, Ovino Portsine, a French- 
man, was charged on remand with obtaining 3s. 6d. by 
means of palmistry from Richard and Emily Ware, of 
Dawlish, on September 26th. Defendant pleaded guilty. 
According to the evidence of Mrs. Ware, defendant met 
with Richard Ware at a public-house, on September 26th, 
and borrowed a shilling of him. He afterwards went to 
Ware's house in Alexandra Terrace, and asked Mrs. Ware 
for a glass of water and a Bible, from which he read Psalm 
Ixviii. Then he asked for three half-crowns, and she gave 
him one. Defendant told her he was a white witch of 
Exeter. P.C. Edwards, on apprehending the prisoner, 
asked his name and occupation. He said his name was 
Protector Portsine, and that his occupation was superior to 
that of witness, as he was in communication with " Jack the 
Ripper." Defendant denied having made such a statement. 
The chairman said it was a very extraordinary case, but 
there was a law to protect silly people against those who 
took advantage of their ignorance, as defendant had done to 
the fullest extent. He had also made a mockery of religion. 
He would be committed to Exeter prison as a rogue and 
vagabond for one month with hard labour.' — Western Morn- 
ing News, Sept. 29th, 1890. 

Whityeth = white heather. 

It is said by West-country folk that a person who gathers 
and preserves white heather when in early bloom, will have 
good luck so long as it is kept in possession. 

Whurts, Hurts = whortleberries. 
She. ' 'Ow be zillin' whurts tii-day, maister ?' 
He. ' Eve a-had fippence a quart vur'm, but as I've unly 
got a vew a-layved yii chell 'ave urn vur drippence a quart.' 

Whymsheet, or wimbingsheet = winnovving-sheet. 
' Car thickee drashel upen barn, an' hang up the whym- 
sheet agin tha wall.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 149 

Why vor ? = why. 

' Why vor be yu a-comed yer ?' 

Wimbing = winnowing. 

' Vather, whot be I tii go about than, tii-day ?' 
' Why, there's awl that weyt (wheat) tii be clayned. Yii'd 
best ways go upen barn wimbing, and take the bwoy wi' 'e.' 

Winders = windows. 

' I'm burned ef I dawntdraw doors tii winders ef yu zit'th 
up inny more upstore.' 

Winnels = thrushes. 

Wishee-washee = weak. 

' This tay is drefful wishee-washee stuff. 'Tez watter be- 
witched and tay begridged.' 

Wisht = ill, sickly. The word always implies compassion. 
' 'Er idden agwaine vur tii live very long. I never didden 
zee nobody liike za wisht in my life.' 

Wit-in-anger = hasty flight. 

' What 'ast a-diied wi' Polly, than ?' 

' I ant a-diied nort tii 'er, unly 'er's za uppish-like. Got 
tha munkey 'pon 'er showlder. I didden zay nort tii 'er, 
'cept thit I zim'd 'er wuz getting tii fantysheeny vur a poor 
body. 'Owzimiver 'er tiiked wit-in-anger and shabbed off— 
and jy go wi' 'er.' 

Wive = wife. 

She. ' How's yer wive, Lewis ?' 

He. ' 'Er's better, thankee. 'Er corned down ouze 
yesterday.' 

She. ' Well din, than !' 

Wivvery = dizzy, shivery. 

' I bant very well, tii-day. I'm za wivvery, I dawnt knaw 
whotiver tii dii wi' myzel.' 

Wob = a lump. 

' A slammicking young hussy ! 'Er'th a-got 'er frock awl 
up in a gert wob behind !' 



150 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Wod = a small wisp of hay or straw. 

' Shove a wod ov straw intii tha bunghawl, quick ! or awl 
tha zyder '11 be a-lewsed.' 

Wopper-eyed = tearful. 

' Oh, my dear cheel ! whotiver es tha metter ? Yii be 
hiking zo wopper-eyed tii-day.' 

Wopsy = a wasp. 

(See Appledrane.) 

Worrit = worry. 

' I do zim there's nobody za misfortunate as I be, vur 
wan or t'uther ov my chillern be alwes bad. They'm 'nuff to 
worrit me tii death !' 

Wraxling = wrestling. 

' Be yii agwaine tii Halberton revel ? There's a wraxling 
match between Joe Gooding and Dick Gollop. I'll lay ten 
tii wan 'pon Dick.' 

Wunt, or want = will not. 
' I wunt zay wan word more.' 
' I want gie 'm another shillin.' 



Y. 

Yaffer = heifer. 

' I've a-zold awl tha young stock — yaffers an' awl.' 

Yammets — ants. 

' Canee tell me 'ow tii git urds ov yammets ? They be 
awl^ awver tha place, in tha jam-pots an' the sugar, an' 'ave 
a-cared off half ov it.' 

Yan-zide = the other side. 

' Where 's 't 'n tii, vather ?' 

' Aw, 'e 's up yanzide ov tha hadge.' 

Yark = sprightly. 

' Aw, my bwoy, yii be Hiking yark 's marning. Whot 's up 
wi' 'e ?' 

Yaw = ewe. 

' Yii'd best ways go an' turn tha yaws intii tha yard. 'Tez 
tii cold vor um upen tha orchit' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 151 

Yaw = to hack. 

' Can't 'ee carve proper ? Yii dii yaw tha mayte zo, 
tidden vit tii be zeed tii tabul again.' 

Yawk = the unctuous secretion in sheep's wool. 
' Howiver be I agwaine tii git this yer yawk out ov yer 
cloaze, Jack ? Yii mid aweared a ol' garment to shearee in.' 

Yer=(i) here, (2) to hear, (3) year, (4) ear, (5) your. 

(1) 'Yer 'e com'th, Jack !' 

(2) 'Didst yer 'n?' 

(3) ' Polly's dree yer old.' 

(4) ' I'll gie thee a whisterpoop in thee yer, ef thee 
dissent a-diied.' 

(5) ' Gie me yer 'at.' 

Yeth = heath. 

' When be yii agwaine to swale tha yeth, vather ?' 

' Dun naw ! In a day or two, mayhap.' 

Yett = to heat. 

' Yett tha awn za ziine 's yii can, plaize !' 

' Canst catch yett ?' 

Yetters = flat-irons. 

' Put down tha yetters an' lets begin irking (ironing) zo 
zune 's can.' 

Yu'm = you are. 

1 Yu'm a viile, tii zay tha best about 'ee.' 

Yummer'th. = indulges. 

' No winder 'e's sichee ninyhammer, 'es mawther yum- 
mer'th 'n zo.' 

Yurdles = hurdles. 

1 Hast a-put tha yurdles up in a stack ?' 

' 'Ess, vather.' 

Z. 

Zad = ' Z.' 

Zaff = safe. 

' Aw 'es, they be a-comed zaff 'nuff, an' I wish tha Dowl'd 
agot urn avore they thort ov focing theirzels yer. I tellee 
whot 'tez, they be alwes a-mumping 'pon zomebody or 
nuther.' 

(Said of unwelcome visitors.) 



152 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

Zalt = salt. 

' This mayte's za zalt 's brine !' 

Zamzawd = sodden. 

' I bant agwaine tii ayte this mayte, I'm blamed ef I dii ; 
tidden 'a'f ciiked, 'tez beastly zamzawd trade.' 

Zaw = to sow. 

Zawd = did sow. 

' I've a-zawd tha wets. Willee zaw tha turmits ?' 

Zawk = a silly person. 

' I cal'th 'e a proper zawk, I dii ; 'e dawnt knaw great A 
vrom a 'oss's 'ead.' 

Zee = see. 

' Diiee zee'n ?' 

' No, not ezackally.' 

Zeed = (i) saw, (2) seed. 

(1) "Ess, byGor! I zeed'n a-drawing sheep's eyes tii she in 
church last Zinday arternoon !' 

(2) ' I've a-zawd awl tha zeed us 'ave a got.' 

Zieve = sieve. 

' Git tha zieve, Sallie, an' range out thease greast, cuz us 
must bake tii-morrer. 

Zife = to sigh. 

1 Now, my dear cheel, tidden a bit ov giide tii zit an' zife 
an' zigh awver yer trubbul ; that wunt du'n no giide. Stir 
yerzel up an' dawnt thenk nort more 'bout et.' 

Zim = to seem. 

' I dawnt zim yii be up tii tha mark tii-day, Jack ; yii 
liik'th cruel wisht. Like a 'apperd ov zoap arter a 'ard 
day's wash.' 

Zimmeth = it seems. 

' It zimmeth tii me yii'm best off yer.' 

Zin-bunnet = sun-bonnet. 

A country woman called at a shop in Plymouth, and, 
addressing an assistant, said : 

' Yer, missy, I want'th yii tii vind tha biggest zin-bunnet 
yii've agot. I be agwaine out tii Looe tii tha passen's 
'arresting, an' tha zin's 'ot 'nuff tii vry us.' 



LOCAL PHRASEOLOGY. 153 

Zogging = dozing. 

' I dawnt zim 'e's azlape, 'e'th abin zogging this longful 
time.' 

Zome = some. 

' Ef yii've agot a vew shillen' aboutee, lend me zome.' 

Zome-aw-'m, or Zome-aw-min = some of them. 
'There wuz zome-aw-'m there.' 

Zooker, or Zttker = a sucking pig. 

A gentleman, on remonstrating with a tenant for keeping 
so many pigs near the house, was appeased by the man 
saying : 

' Now, dawntee plaize tii zay nort more about et. I'll gie 
'e a little ziiker when tha old zow varrieth.' 

Zoop = to take long sips. 

' I niver did zee innybody zoop-zoop up their gin-and- 
watter like 'e dii. 'E'll git tosticated ef 'e dii'th that vur 
long.' 

Zot = sat. 

' I'll be dalled ef 'er 'athen azot down in a brimmel 
bush.' 

' Polly ought tii bring out 'er chicken tii-day ; her'th a zot 
a-brood vur dree weeks.' 

Zour-zab = sour-tempered. 

' Er 'th amarried a rigler oP zour-zab. I zim 'er '11 be 
zorry 'nuff vur that zome day.' 

Zwaller = (i) to swallow, (2) a swallow. 

(1) ' My droat is za zore I ant abin able tii zwaller ort vur 
tii or dree days.' 

(2) ' I've a zeed lots ov zwallers tii-day. Zim 'tez airly vur 
they tii come 'et.' 

Zwap = to exchange. 

' I'll zwap my watch vur thy gert-coat.' 

Zwetting = sweating. 

' Aw, zir, I be zwetting like a bear.' 

The word ' sweat ' has almost become obsolete, and the 
working-classes are fighting hard to substitute ' perspire.' A 
clergyman's daughter told me the following of her parish- 
ioners' shots at the word : 



154 THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 

(i) 'Lor, miss! I be za 'ot I'm awl awver in a pres- 
beterian' 

(2) ' 'Tez very 'ot tii-day, and I've walked za vast I'm in a 
turrabul preservation? 

(3) ' Idden et 'ot ? Et dii make anybody in a drefful 
presspration? 

(4) ' 'Tez 'ot 'nuff tu milt us ; I'm awl awver in a burning 
yett, a x\g\er pre ssation.'' 



& = ampassy. 






/ GLOSSARY. 



/. GLOSSARY. 





A. 




A' 


. have. 




Aboard (val) 
Abroad (val) 
Achucked ... 


to attack furiously. 
.. to split open, 
thirsty. 




Aginst (to go) 


. . to go to meet. 




Agging 

Ago 


provoking to anger, 
finished. 




Agone 

Aight, or ayte 
Aight'th 


time past, ago. 
did eat. 
eats. 




Aimeth 


.. aims. 




Aimses 


. . an iron collar for a horse. 




Aiven 


.. even. 




Ammil 


.. hoar-frost on trees and shrubs. 




Ampassy 
Andugs 


.. &. 

fire-dogs. 




Ankicher 


.. handkerchief. 




Ansell 


.. a token given on completion 
bargain. 


of a 


Ansteeve 


handle of a flail. 




A poor-come-along-( 


)'t disastrous in results. 




Apporn 
Appledrane ... 
Appinces 
Apsen 


.. apron. 

a wasp. 

halfpence. 
. . fasten. 




Aquott 
Argyfy 
Arm-wrist ... 


sitting on a low seat. 
.. to dispute. 
.. wrist. 




Arrish 


. . stubble-field. 





1 58 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Arter 


. after. 


Assiniate 


. to assassinate. 


Athist 


thirsty. 


Athurt 


. crosswise. 


Aveard 


. afraid. 


Avire 


. on fire. 


Avore 


. before. 


Aw! daily-buttons! . 


. a joyful exclamation. 


Awkerd 


., awkward. 


Awles 


. . always. 


Aw-min 


.. of them. 


Awn 


oven. 


Awnly 


only. 


Awnzel 


ownself. 


Awpels 


. apples. 


Awpen 


open. 


Aw-un 


. of him. 


Awverliiked 


overlooked, bewitched. 


Ax 


.. to ask. 




B. 


Backalong ... 


backward, homeward. 


Backbar 


an iron bar fixed across 




of a chimney. 


Backsivore ... 


hind side front. 


Baist 


. beast. 


Bal 


to shout. 


Ballet 


a song. 


Ballyrag 


to scold. 


Banging-gert 


very large. 


Bant 


. am not. 


Barcrook 


a crook hung on backbar 


Barley-ile 


the beard of ripe barley. 


Barm 


. yeast. 


Barras 


. hessian. 


Bar-re-el 


barrel. . 


Barrow-pig ... 


• a gelt pig. 


Baste 


. to beat. 


Bate, batyn, baty 


. to decrease. 


Bawked-up ... 


shut off from sight. 


Baynes 


beans. 


Beam or beem 


. a binder. 



the inside 





GLOSSARY. 1 59 


Be-ats-will ... 


anyhow. 


Bedlier 


an invalid. 


Begurge, or begridge 


begrudge. 


Bettermost ... 


of a higher social class. 


Beznez 


business. 


Bias (out of) 


out of reckoning. 


Bides 


remains. 


Biggin 


a coffee-pot. 


Billises 


bellows. 


Bimbye 


by-and-by. 


Bitago 


a short time since. 


Bitagone 


lately. 


Bittel 


a wooden hammer. 


Biver 


to tremble. 


Black army ... 


fleas. 


Blackhead ... 


an inflamed sore. 


Blaked-away 


cried till breathless. 


Blamed 


a polite swear. 


Blare 


to shout loudly. 


Blazing 


shouting in a loud voice, to spread 




abroad. 


Blid 


blood, a decrepit person. 


Bliddy-waryers 


wallflowers. 


Blooth 


blossom. 


Blowcoal 


a piece of tin placed before the fire 




to cause a draught. 


Bluemould, bluevinied 


mouldy, blue-lined like ripe cheese. 


Blunk 


spark. 


Bobbery 


a great uproar. 


Bobbing Joan 


a gay, sprightly girl. 


Bobsadying 


a big row. 


Bocked 


baulked. 


Boneshave ... 


sciatica. 


Bootivul, or butivul 


beautiful. 


Bourm 


yeast. 


Bowled 


boiled. 


Brad 


a thick stick. 


Brandires 


an iron ring on which to stand a 




kettle, etc. 


Brath 


broth. 


Braund 


a log of fire-wood. 


Brave 


excellent. 



i6o 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Brawked, or broked. 


broken. 


Brekzis 


. breakfast. 


Brimbly 


. full of brambles. 


Brimmels 


brambles. 


Brin 


. strong linen. 


Brish 


brush. 


Brit 


to dent. 


Broft 


. brought. 


Brownkittee 


bronchitis 


Browsy 


. robust. 


Buckle-tii ... 


. to work with a will. 


Bucky 


sour. 


Biike 


. book. 


Bulkee 


. to eructate. 


Bull-baggar 


. one who causes a scare. 


Bullums 


. . sloes. 


Bungy 


short and stout. 


Burd 


. a bird. 


Burdge 


. bridge. 


Burkee 


. to cough. 


Burned ! 


an oath. 


Burtches 


. breeches. 


Busky-eyed ... 


. intoxicated. 


Butt-woman 


a sextoness — female verger. 


Butt 


a kneeling pad. 


Butt 


a beehive. 


Buttersteyan 


an earthen butter-pot. 


Buzzimilk ... 


. the first milk given by a cow after 




calving. 


Buzzom 


bosom. 


Bwoy 


. boy. 


Bwoy's-love ... 


southernwood. 


Ca-al home 


C. 

. to remember. 


Cab 


. a piece of dirt adhering to plates or 




dishes, or to other materials. 


Cabbage 


to purloin. 


Cabbical 


.. capital, very good. 


Caddling 


loafing about. 


Cadge 


.. to loaf. 


Canst 


can you ? 





GLOSSARY. 161 


Car or ca-ar 


to carry. 


Cautch 


mess. 


Cautcheries ... 


medicines. 


Cawed 


diseased. 


Cess 


happiness. 


Changes 


underlinen. 


Chap 


a young man. 


Chat 


to kitten. 


Chaynee-eyed 


squinting. 


Cheel 


child. 


Chillern 


children. 


Chimmer 


chamber. / 


Chitter 


chatter. 


Chitterbox ... 


chatterbox. 


Chockling ... 


cackling. 


Chollers 


wattles. 


Chow 


chew. 


Chubbleheaded or 




chuckleheaded . . . 


silly, foolish. 


Chucks 


cheeks. 


Chuckvull ... 


quite full, intoxicated. 


Chuff 


ill-tempered. 


Chure 


char. 


Clam 


to maul. 


Clapper-claw 


to scold. 


Clat 


cob. 


Clat-hopper 


a clod-hopper. 


Clatting 


fishing for eels with worm bait. 


Clayned 


cleaned. 


Cledgee 


sticky. 


Clink 


prison. 


Clint 


to bend the point of a nail. 


Clipper 


a knock on the head. 


Clit 


heavy. 


Clitched-hold 


caught. 


Cloam 


crockery. 


Clockee 


to cackle as a hen. 


Clovel 


the beam in a chimney. 


Cob 


a dry ball of earth. 


Cob 


a composition anciently used for 




building walls. 


Colly 


a blackbird. 



II 



1 62 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Conkerbils ... 


... icicles. 


Coord 


. . . cord. 


Cornder 


. . . corner. 


Cotton 


... to beat lustily. 


Cow-comforts 


. . . stone pillars erected on moorlands, 




against which cattle rub them- 




selves. 


Cowcumber 


cucumber. 


Cowhocked . . . 


... thick heeled. 


Craking 


complaining. 


Cralers 


... lice. 


Crams 


creases, fidgets. 


Crap 


. . . crop. 


Craw 


... a crow, or to crow. 


Cray me 


... cream. 


Crayturs 


... creatures, people. 


Creem 


... to shiver. 


Creem 


to mash. 


Cricket 


... a three-legged stool. 


Crimminy ! 


... an interjection. 


Crinkum-cranklurr 


is fidgets. 


Crint 


... to groan. 


Crips 


crisp. 


Croped-behind 


to hide in a stooping position behind 




an object. 


Crooked words 


swearing. 


Crowder 


... a fiddler. 


Crowdie 


... to fiddle. 


Crowner 


coroner. 


Crub 


a crust. 


Crub 


... a trough for feeding horses when in 




the stable. 


Cruel 


. . . very. 


Cruel-quiet ... 


. . . silent. 


Criiney 


to whine. 


Cubburd 


... cupboard. 


Cubby-hole 


... a cosy corner. 


Ciichy-pawed 


... left-handed. 


Cuddie 


the wren. 


Cuddie-bum 


. . . having a short tail. 


Cureyus 


neat in execution of work. 


Cursemas . . . 


Christmas. 


Cussen 


to train, to teach. 



GLOSSARY. 



163 



Daffadowndillies 

Dahngerous 

Dallee, dalled 

Dallylaw 

1 )andy-go-risset 

Dang-my-old-wig 

Dap 

Dapper 

Daps 

Darnee 

Dashed 

Dashell 

Dashus 

Datch 

Datcher 

Dawbwoys . . 

Dawcake 

Dawy 

Debbenshire 

Devil's-coach-hoss 

Dicky 

Dieted 

Differns 

Dimmits, dimpsy 

Diraxions 

Dishwasher ... 

Divered 

Doateth 

Doed (or diied) 

Do'ff 

Doiled 

Dollop 

Doomshaw ... 

Dotty 

Douted 

Dowl 

Down-'ouze ... 

Dowst 

Dowst-a-bit ... 

Dowsty-poll 



D. 

daffodils, 
dangerous, 
a mild oath, 
a spoilt child, 
rusty brown. 
a swear. 

to drop quickly, a sharp slap, 
quick, sprightly, 
likeness, 
a swear, 
a swear, 
the thistle, 
audacious. " 
thatch, 
thatcher. 
dough-dumplings 
a silly person, 
silly, soft. 
Devonshire. 

a beetle common in N. Devon, 
a white shirt-front, 
addicted, 
difference, 
twilight. 

directions, address, 
the wagtail, 
dead, faded, 
dotes, 
done. 

to extinguish, 
silly. 

a big lump, 
a procession, a circus, 
half-witted, 
extinguished, 
the devil, 
downstairs. 

husks of oats or wheat, 
deuce-a-bit. 

a head covered with flour or dust. 

11 — 2 



1 64 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Drabbitted ... 


.. bad tempered. 


Drade 


. .. drawn through. 


Draining 


. . . drawling. 


Drangway . . . 


... a narrow passage. 


Drash 


. .. to belabour, to beat. 


Drashel 


. . . a thrashel. 


Dread 


. . . thread. 


Dree 


. . . three. 


Drexil 


... threshold. 


Dring 


. . . to crowd, to push. 


Dripmybit . . . 


... a threepenny bit. 


Drippence . . . 


. . threepence. 


Drish 


. .. the thrush. 


Droat 


... the throat. 


Drone 


... to drawl. 


Drowed 


... dried. 


Droweth 


dries. 


Drii-an'-dru . . . 


... from beginning to end. 


Driiel 


... to allow the saliva to flow over the 




lips. 


Drummeldrane 


. . . the bumble bee. 


Dry 


... thirsty. 


Du 


. . . do. 


Dubbed 


... blunted. 


Diied 


... done. 


Dugged ... 


. . . muddy. 


Duggletailed 


... skirts covered with mud. 


Dummon 


... a woman. 


Dumphead ... 


... the miller's thumb, a foolish person. 


Dunky 


a donkey. 


Durns 


doorposts. 


Dwalee 


... to talk inconsistently. 


Ekal 


E. 
... equal. 


Errish 


see ' Arrish.' 


'Ess 


... yes. 


'Ess fay 


yes, by my faith. 


'Ess shure ... 


yes, certainly. 


'Et 


... yet. 


'Et-a-whiles ... 


not yet. 


Ezackally-zo 


... just so. 



GLOSSARY. 



165 



Fainty 

Fakement . . . 

Fake-up 

Fantysheeny 

Fardle 

Fath! 

Fawny 

Fegs ! 

Fess 

Fewster 

Fey 

Feybul 

Feychers 

Fezens 

Figgy 
Figgy-pudden 

Fillyloo 

Fippence 

Fitch 

Flickermayte 

Flickets 

Flink 

Flink-tail-comb 

Flip about . . . 

Flip-stick 

Flower-nat . . . 

Forrel 

Fowsty 

Frawsy 

Frenchnits . . . 

Frill-de-dills 

Frizz 

Ful-tii-me ! ... 

Furridge 

Fussocky 

Fustled-up . . . 

Gal 

Gallied 
Gallitraps ... 



close, oppressive. 
a muddle, 
to renew. 

extremely fanciful, 
a package, 
faith ! 

a finger ring, 
an interjection, 
proud, vain, 
to fester, 
faith, 
feeble, 
features, 
pheasants. 

full of figs or raisins. 
Christmas pudding, 
an uproar, 
fivepence. 
a stoat. 

mixture of milk and flour. 
blushes. 
to sprinkle. 

a long- handled comb, a dressing- 
comb, 
to move quickly, 
a flexible wand, 
a flower bed. 
cover of a book, 
musty. 

a treat, a dainty feast, 
walnuts. 

embroidery and frills, 
to fizz. 

abb. God be merciful to me ! 
to purloin, to ransack, 
bustling about quickly, 
wrapped-up. 

G. 
to vex. 

frightened, 
signs. 



1 66 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Gaily 


. to scare. 


Gally-bagger 


. a person fond of gadding about. 


Gallyvanting 


going from home. 


Gammetting 


frolicking. 


Gammuts ... 


. games. 


Gammy-handed 


. a hand incapable of much move- 




ment. 


Gapnest 


. to idle. 


Gapnistering 


. staring idly about. 


Gappee 


to gape. 


Gapping 


• gaping. 


Gawked-up ... 


sitting on a very high place. 


Gavvkim 


. a fool. 


Gee-up 


to make a horse move to right or left. 


Gee-wugg ... 


. addressed to a horse. 


Gert ... 


. large, big. 


Gibby-lambs 


very young lambs. 


Giglet 


a young girl full of fun. 


Giglet market 


. a market where maid-servants are 




hired. 


Gladdie 


. a fool. 


Gladdy 


the yellow-hammer. 


Glazeth 


looks intently. 


Glowring 


staring sulkily. 


dumping ... 


sour-looking, sulky. 


Glumpy 


sulky. 


Go .. 


. . gone. 


Go-against ... 


.. to inform against, to go to meet one. 


Goar 


secretion in the eyes. 


Go-avor 


. go before. 


Gob 


. a large lump. 


God-a'mighty's cow. 


the lady-bird. 


Goodger 


. . the devil. 


Goodied 


.. benefited. 


Gormed 


an oath. 


Go'th 


. . goes. 


Goyal, or goyle 


. . a ravine. 


Grainy 


. proud. 


Gramferlonglegs 


long-legged spiders and flies. 


Grammer's-pin 


.. a blanket-pin. 


Grapshold ... 


to grasp. 


Greybird 


. the thrush. 





GLOSSARY. 


Greysidaisy ... 


. daffodil. 


Gridle 


a gridiron. 


Grits 


groats. 


Grizzlee 


. to laugh derisively. 


Growed 


. grew. 


Glide 


. good. 


Gulging 


. . drinking greedily. 


Gulk 


.. to drink quickly. 


Gii-kii 


cuckoo. 


Gii-kii lambs 


. . lambs yeaned in April or Ma; 


Gushed 


. . startled. 


Guttering ... 


. . eating greedily. 


Giize 


. . goose. 


Giize-gobs ... 


.. gooseberries. 


Guzzle 


.. to drink heavily. 


Gwaine 


•• going. 


G'wan 


.. go on. 




H. 


Hackmal 


.. tomtit. 


Hadge 


. . hedge. 


Hadge-tacker 


. . a repairer of hedges. 


Haggage ... 


. . an untidy woman. 


Hagged 


. . pulled hard. 


Haggee 


... to argue. 


Hal 


.. to tug, to pull. 


Hale 


. . . to cover up. 


Hand-wrist ... 


... wrist. 


Hange, or hanje 


. . . the purtenance of sheep. 


Hannel 


. . . handle. 


Hapmy 


. . . halfpenny. 


Happerd 


. . . halfpenny worth. 


Harrest 


harvest. 


Hat 


... to knock. 


Hatch 


. . . half door of a cottage. 


Hatchmouthed 


. . . coarse, vulgar in speech. 


Haypook 


... a mound of hay. 


Heft 


... to lift, weight, to throw. 


Hellins 


. . . slates. 


Heliums 


... stalks of plants, haulm. 


Henn 


to throw at. 


Her 


... used instead of 'she.' 



167 



1 68 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Herzel 


herself. 


Heytters, or yetters 


smoothing irons. 


Hide 


to beat. 


Hide-nur-tide 


news. 


High -de-lows 


vulgar actions. 


Hiszel 


himself. 


Hoaks 


clubs in cards. 


Hollee 


to scream. 


Hollen 

Holm-bush ... 


calling loudly, 
holly-bush. 


Holm-screech 


the missel-thrush. 


Holt 


hold. 


Homalong ... 


homeward. 


Homeby 
Hookem-snivey 


close to. 
deceitful actions. 


Hooskey 

Hoppee 

Hotted 


hoarse. 
to caper, 
heated. 


Hozeburd ... 


a term of mild abuse. 


Hozee 


hoarse. 


Huck-muck... 
Huds 


untidy. 

shells of beans and peas. 


Hugger-mugger 


untidy, thriftless. 


Hulch 


a thick slice. 


Hummon ... 


woman. 


Humsoever... 


whomsoever. 


Hunks 
Hu-u 


thick pieces. 

held carelessly, or obliquely 

I. 

is not. 


Idden 


Idden 'er? ... 


is she not ? 


Iked-up 
Incoose 


puckered. 
of course. 


Ingyens 
Insetez 


onions. 

how 'tis done. 


Iotum 


iota. 


Item 


trick. 


Itemy 


full of tricks. 


Jackie-twoad 
Jakes 


will-o'-the-wisp, 
mess. 





GLOSSARY. 169 


Jan Vaggus ... 


a noted South Devon highwayman. 


Jib 


a stand, or rest. 


Jibber-ugly's-fule . . . 


a selfish person. 


Jibes 


an eccentrically-dressed person. 


Jiggered 


an oath. 


Jimcrack 


fragile, feeble. 


Jimmery-cry ! 


an interjection. 


Jimmies 


door-hinges. 


Jit 


an upward twitch. 


Jit 


a push. 


Jit 


a sharp slap. 


Joney 


an ornament. 


Jonic 


truthful, honest. 


Junket 


curds and cream. 




K. 


Kaddy-ball 


tennis ball. 


Kannel 


candle. 


Kayning 


looking. 


Keive 


a mash-tub. 


Keive 


a mound of earth in which mangold 




or potatoes are stored for winter 




use. 


Kerning 


ripening. 


Kerpee 


to find fault. 


Keslings, or gristlings 


wild plums. 


Kibbed-heel 


sore heel. 


Kickhammer 


one who stammers. 


Kindiddle ... 


to entice. 


Kitch 


a roll of offal fat. 


Knacked 


knocked. 


Knaw-nort ... 


ignorant. 


Kommical ... 


curious. 


Kootch 


coarse grass. 


Lablolly 


L. 
a silly person. 


Lace 


to beat. 


Lackee 


to lack. 


Lambfashion 


in youthful style. 


Langciise ... 


a passage. 


Larrun 


to beat. 



170 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Larrupping ... 


. . . gaunt and untidy. 


Lattin-plate ... 


... a tin platter. 


Laurence 


. . . laziness. 


Lay ... 


... as lief. 


Leary 


... empty, hungry. 


Leasing 


. . . gleaning. 


Leastwise 


... at least. 


Leather 


to beat. 


Leechway . . . 


. . . the path to a graveyard. 


Lef 


... to leave off. 


Le'm 


... let them. 


Lenge 


... to loll. 


Lerrick 


... to beat. 


Lew 


... sheltered. 


Lewze 


... pig's-sty. 


Lewzide 


to leeward. 


Libbits 


. . . rags. 


Licky-brath ... 


. . . broth flavoured with leeks 


Like winky . . . 


very quickly. 


Limeash 


concrete. 


Linhay 


... an outbuilding. 


Lippetty-lop 


. . . limping. 


Lipsy 


... to lisp. 


Listy 


... strong, lusty. 


Loblolly 


... spoon meat. 


Lob's pound 


... jail. 


Lock! 


... an interjection. 


Longcripple... 


... a viper. 


Long-dog . . . 


... a greyhound. 


Longful 


. . . lengthy. 


Loozed 


... lost. 


Loramassy ! . . . 


... an interjection. 


Lost-holt 


... let go. 


Lowster 


... to work laboriously. 


Lunge 


... to loll. 




M. 


Maid 


... a young girl. 


Main zorry ... 


... very sorry. 


Mai 


to maul. 


Mallywallops 


a tall untidy woman. 


Malscral 


a caterpillar. 



GLOSSARY. 



171 



Manangle 

Mapsing 

Mashmallys 

Masts 

Maygames 

Mayhap 

Mazards 

Mazed-finch 

Mazedheaded 

Mickled 

Mid... 

Midden 

Mimpsy-pimsy 

Min ... 

Minds 

Minit 

Mist . . . 

Mitch 

Mizzle 

Moar-an'-mewl 

Mommet, or momet 

Moot, or mute 

Mort 

Mucks 

Muggetee 

Mugguts 

Mull 

Mullygrub 

Mump 

Mumpchance 

Mumphead .. 

Mun 

Murchy 
Murrie-man . . 
Miityhearted 
Muzzle 



Napper 
Nappercase , 
Nat sheep , 
Natteral 



to maul, to tear. 

smacking the lips with relish. 

marsh mallows. 

acorns. 

frolics. 

perhaps. 

black cherries. 

the wagtail. 

dizzy. 

choked with thirst. 

may. 

may not. 

dainty. 

an interjection. 

remembers. 

a tiny thing. 

must. 

to play the truant. 

a mist. 

root and branch. 

a scarecrow. 

root of tree. 

lard. 

wet mud. 

sullen. 

intestines. 

to maul. 

an illnatured person. 

to loaf. 

heavy in wit. 

a foolish person. 

them. 

mischief. 

a merry-andrew. 

sensitive. 

unscientific fighting. 

N. 
a farm boy. 
the head, 
horned sheep, 
a fool, natural. 



172 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Nattled 


contracted. 


Nayte 


... neat. 


Niash 


delicate. 


Nibs 


... small pieces. 


Nibbly 


small. 


Nickies 


. . . small faggots. 


Nickling 


making short steps. 


Niddick 


... the nape of the neck. 


Niest 


near. 


Niffed 


. . . offended. 


Nimmits 


. . . lunch. 


Nimpingang 


... a fester under the finger-nail. 


Ninnyhammer 


... a foolish person. 


Nippence ... 


... ninepence. 


Nissel-tripe ... 


. . . the smallest of a litter. 


Nitch 


bundle of reed. 


No, fay! ... 


. . . no, by my faith ! 


Nort 


. . . nothing. 


No-tany-by ! 


... not that I know of. 


Nub 


... a knob. 


Nubby 


. . . full of knobs. 


Nubby 


... the nose. 


Nug 


a bunch. 


Nuther 


neither. 


Nuzzling 


... poking the nose into anything 




o. 


Oakweb 


cockchafers. 


Onlight 


... to dismount. 


'Ood 


wood. 


Ope ... 


. . . interval. 


Ope 


... passage. 


'Opes 


hopes. 


Opeway 


... an opening. 


Organtay 


... decoction of Pennyroyal. 


Ort 


. . . anything. 


Ortch 


... to probe with horns. 


Orts 


. . . leavings. 


Other 


. . . either. 


Overgit 


. . . overtake. 


Ouze 


... house. 








GLOSSARY. i 




P. 


Paixy 


untidy, dirty. 


Palsh 


... to walk slowly. 


Palshing 


walking slowly, patching cloth 




untidily. 


Pame 


... a satin, or velvet christening wrap 


Panking 


. . . panting. 


Parfuse 


... profuse, liberal. 


Passen 


parson. 


Passel 


... many, to divide. 


Passelled 


. . . divided. 


Pattridge 


. . partridge. 


Paunch 


. . to handle unnecessarily. 


Pawking 


. , walking leisurely. 


Paycods 


... pea-kids. 


Pays 


. . . peas. 


Peart 


. . . sprightly. 


Peek 


... to pick, a pick. 


Peel 


pillow. 


Peg 


... pig. 


Pennerd 


... penny worth. 


Pennybrick . . . 


. . . penny loaf. 


Pick 


... to strip off feathers. 


Pickle 


... condition. 


Pilgarlic 


... a person worthy of pity. 


Pillion 


a double saddle. 


Pi'ilum 


. . . dust. 


Pilth 


... fluff. 


Pindy 


musty, mouldy. 


Pinnicking ... 


wan, pale. 


Pinny 


. . . pinafore. 


Pinswill 


... a boil, a fester. 


Pittice 


... feeble. 


Pixy ... 


... a fairy. 


Planche 


... board floors. 


Platter-vooted 


. . . flat-footed. 


Plim 


to increase in bulk. 


Plum 


warm, comfortable. 


Plump 


... a pump. 


Pook 


... a mound of hay, or turf. 


Pote 


... to kick about in bed. 



17.5 



174 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Power 

Prate-apace ... 

Primrosen ... 

Prinked 

Proper-terrified 

Proudness ... 

Pummel 

Pumple-vooted 

Pussy 

Putch 

Putt 



Quaddle 

Quarl 

Quarrenders 

Quelstring ... 

Querking 

Quott 

Rabbit 

Ragrowstering 

Raked-up ... 

Rally 

Ram-cat 

Ramzacking 

Ranticomscour 

Rawee 

Raw-milk 

Ray me 

Raymes 

Raymy 

Renoviate 

Rexens 

Rid, urd 

Rills... 

Rimlets 

Rinagate 

Rinner 

Ripping bark 

Ripping-gert 

Ripping-up .. 



very much. 

talkative. 

primroses. 

dressed smartly. 

startled, frightened. 

pride. 

to beat unmercifully. 

malformation of foot. 

puffed, short-winded. 

pouting lips. 

a mud-cart. 

Q. 

to waddle. 

to quarrel. 

red apples peculiar to Devonshire. 

sweltering. 

grunting. 

to sit on the haunches. 

R. 

an oath. 

romping. 

recriminated. 

a crowd. 

a tom-cat. 

romping. 

an uproar. 

raw, sore. 

new-milk. 

to stretch. 

a thin person, a skeleton. 

said of cyder when thick and sour. 

renovate. 

rushes. 

red. 

rows. 

remnants. 

a gadabout. 

a round towel. 

taking off the rind. 

very large. 

recalling. 





GLOSSARY. 17 


ishlight 


. . rushlight. 


ogues' roost 


.. an accumulation of rubbish. 


oily 


. . a crowd. 


Cory-tory 


. . very gaudy. 


loundshave 


to scold. 


Rowstering ... 


romping. 


Rucky 


to crouch. 


Runkle 


to fester. 


Rummage ... 


nonsense. 


Rumped-up... 


humped. 

S. 
.. an over-dressed woman. 


Sally Hatch... 


Sar ... 


.. to earn, to serve. 


Sass ... 


impertinence. 


Sassbox 


.. an impertinent person. 


Sawk 


a timid person. 


Saysan 


. season. 


Scads 


. passing showers. 


Scats 


. dashing showers. 


Scawvy 


. smeary. 


Sclow 


. to scratch like a cat. 


Sclum 


to give long scratches with the nails 


Scraling 


. very small. 


Scrall 


. to loiter. 


Scrats 


. little things. 


Screed 


. a remnant. 


Screwmouze 


shrew-mouse. 


Scriddick 


. a remnant. 


Scrumps 


. small apples. 


Shabbed-off... 


went away ashamed. 


Shan't 


shall not. 


Sharps 


. shafts. 


She 


. substitute for ' her.' 1 


Sheeny-shu-shan 


shot silk. 


Shet 


. to go. 


Shet 


to shoot. 


Shetten 


should not. 


Shillerd 


. a shilling's worth. 


Shillet 


. shale. 


Shivers 


very small pieces. 


Shords 


broken earthenware. 



176 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Showl 


shovel. 


Showlder 


shoulder. 


Siss ... 


a great fat woman. 


Sissa 


a fuss. 


Sich ... 


such. 


Sitchy-wow ... 


crosswise. 


Skace 


scarce. 


Skammel 


to walk badly. 


Skat 


to fling, a slap. 


Skeerd 


scared. 


Skiver 


a skewer. 


Skivertimber 


wood from which skewers are made. 


Skummer ... 


mess. 


Skrumped-up 


huddled up. 


Skun 


to browbeat. 


Skute 


a reward. 


Slamicking ... 


untidy. 


Slatterpuche 


pouch-lipped. 


Sleetstone ... 


an old-fashioned smoothing-stone. 


Slew... 


ostentatious show. 


Slewching ... 


moving awkwardly. 


Slob 


to slop. 


Sloke 


to hide. 


Sloke 


to entice. 


Slope 


to rot. 


Slouch 


to wash one's self, using a good 




douche of water. 


Slouger 


a big thump. 


Smeech 


dust, smoke. 


Smitsmats ... 


little by little. 


Smurry 


chemise. 


Snaff 


to snuff. 


Snicket 


a very small piece. 


Snicketty ... 


very small. 


Sniffling 


whining. 


Snigger, or sniggeree 


to laugh derisively. 


Snuggle 


to cuddle closely. 


Sniile 


to slobber. 


Sodgers 


smoked salt herrings. 


'S-off 


as though. 


Sose... 


good friends. 


Spare 


very slow. 



GLOSSARY. 



177 



Spar-gad 

Sparky 

Spickitty 

Spit-ov-butter 

S'pose 

Spraddle 

Spreety 

Sproil 

Spry 

Spudlee 

Squab, or squob pie 

Stainted 

Stand 

Standard 
Steeved 

Steffel 

Stertlee 
Steyan 
Stewer 
Stickjaw 

Stid 

Still liquors 

Stirredge 
Stivver 

Stodge 

Stodger 

Stog 

Stomickable 
Stower 
Straky 
Stram 

Strambang ... 
Strammer ... 
Stramming-gert 
Strawmawt ... 
Strip 

Stub 

Stubberds 

Stubby 

Stubs 

Studding 

Stugged 



thatching pegs. 

piebald. 

spotty. 

small piece of butter. 

suppose. 

to straddle. 

ghostly. 

strength. 

sprightly. 

to stir about. 

pie of mixed ingredients. 

short-winded. 

to be industrious. 

an oval salting-tub. 

numbed. 

to stifle. 

to startle. 

an earthenware pot. 

dust, fuss. 

uncooked suet pudding. 

to scheme. 

spirit distilled from cyder dregs. 

commotion. 

to tousel. 

badly mixed thick paste. 

a large satisfying bun. 

to stick in the mud. 

agreeable to the taste. 

dust. 

in lines, or strata. 

to bang violently. 

(to fling) violently. 

a big lie. 

very big. 

straw. 

a sharp cut with a switch. 

hoard. 

delicious apples. 

short and fat. 

roots of feathers. 

loafing, loitering. 

stuck in the mud. 

12 



i 7 3 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Stuggy 

Siiel ... 

Siient 

Suff ... 

Suffing 

Siile ... 

Sutt ... 

Swale 

Swarze 

Sweel 

Swill 

Swop 



short and stout. 

a plough. 

even. 

to sob. 

sobbing. 

to loll. 

soot. 

to burn. 

rows. 

to rinse. 

to drink heavily. 

to change. 



Tack 

Tackle 

Tacky-lacky 

Taffety 

Tallett 

Tankerabogus 

Tantara 

Tap ... 

Tatchy 

Tatties 

Tattie-traw 

Taykittle 

Taykittle-brath 

Tawsel 

Tearing 

Teehoss 

Teel'd 

Tervee 

Tetties 

'Tez... 

Th ... 

Thews 

Thickee 

Things 

Tho' 

Thoight 

Thorft, or thort 

Thorting 



a slap. 

to beat, to punish. 

a person at everyone's beck. 

dainty. 

a loft. 

a bogie. 

an uproar. 

to put new leather on boot-soles 

touchy. 

potatoes. 

potato-trough. 

tea-kettle. 

sop. 

tassel. 

very excited. 

to romp vulgarly. 

tilled. 

to struggle. 

potatoes. 

it is. 

added to verbs in 3rd per. sin 

those. 

that one. 

cattle, farm property. 

then. 

to whittle. 

thought. 

ploughing crosswise. 






b - 





GLOSSARY. i7< 


Th'outs 


without. 


Thumping ... 


very big. 


Thung 


a thong. 


Thungy 


tough, in threads. 


Thurdled 


meagre, thin. 


Tidden 


it is not. 


Tiddivate ... 


to bedeck. 


Tiddlee, tiddlee-tope 


the wren. 


Tiffles 


detached threads. 


Tine... 


to shut-to. 


Tino, tino-by 


certainly not. 


Tiss ... 


to fizz. 


Titched 


touched. 


Tizzick 


cold on chest, a wheeze. 


Tosticated ... 


intoxicated. 


Tottling 


decrepit. 


Totty 


dizzy, of bad character. 


Towser 


a hardworking woman. 


Toze 


to shake a feather bed, to comb wool 


Trade 


leavings, rubbish. 


Trapes 


an untidy woman. 


Traps 


household goods. 


Tribbit 


trivet. 


Trig 


smart. 


Trindle 


a round salting tub. 


Trinkrums ... 


silver articles, jewellery. 


Trubble 


trouble. 


Truck 


trash. 


Tii 


to, two, at. 


Tiibill 


twibill. 


Tii-double ... 


head and knees together. 


Tii-last 


at last. 


Tummilled ... 


tumbled. 


Tuppence ... 


twopence. 


Turmits 


turnips. 


Turrabul 


terrible. 


Turves 


square blocks of peat. 


Tii-tha-truth-ov-music 


thoroughly. 


Tii-wance ... 


this instant. 


Twant, or twunt 


it will not. 


Tweeny-maid 


a maidservant. 


Twidden 


it would not. 



12- 



i8o 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Twink 

Twinkleth 
Twinkling 
Tyne 



to beat, to chastise. 

shakes quickly. 

vibrating. 

to close, to tie, to extinguish. 



Ud ... 

Ulker 

Ulking-gert 

Ummits 

Umps-ouze 

Umsever 

Unbeknown 

Unbethowted 

Up-along 

Up-an'-down 

Up-home 

Upizet 

Upping-stock 

Upstore 

Upzides with 

Urn 



U. 

would. 

big, heavy. 

very big. 

large pieces. 

almshouse. 

whomsoever. 

unknown. 

remembered. 

towards home, up-hill. 

up side down. 

close to the hilt. 

opposite. 

stone steps from which to mount. 

an uproar. 

revenged upon. 

run. 



V. 



Vady 

Vag 

Vaggus Jack 
Vair, vairy . . . 

Vail 

Vailed 

Valled-vore ... 
Valled-vore-skat 
Vallee 
Vamp 



Vamp-dish, or church- 
vamp 



Vang 



tainted. 

to trail on the ground, 
a highwayman, a bogie. 
a weasel. 
fall. 
fell. 

fell forwards, 
fell flat on face, 
value. 

to sprinkle with water, to increase in 
knitting, the font. 

the font. 

to slick close to. 





GLOSSARY. 


Vang-to 


... to act as sponsor. 


Varden 


farthing. 


Varmint 


. . reptile, a stoat, a hedgehog 


Varry 


... to give birth to. 


Vatch 


, . . fetch. 


Vatched 


. . . fetched. 


Vatches 


. . . vetches. 


Veaking 


. . . fretful. 


Vearns 


. . . ferns. 


Vethervaw ... 


. . . feverfew. 


Vigging 


... spuddling. 


Viggle 


. . . to wriggle. 


Vinnied 


... mouldy, bad-tempered. 


Vire... 


. . . fire. 


Vire-dugs 


. . . fire-dogs. 


Visgy, or bisgy 


. . . a mattock . 


Vist, or vistises 


. . . fist. 


Vittee 


... fit, proper. 


Vittels 


. . . victuals. 


Vlail 


. . . flail. 


Vlax 


flax. 


Vleys 


fleas. 


Voller'd 


. . . followed. 


Vore 


before. 


Vore-right . . . 


... rude, vulgar, careless. 


Voreteen 


fourteen. 


Voretoken . . . 


. . . warning. 


Vornoons . . . 


... lunch. 


Vump 


. . . knock. 


Vurgot 


. . . forgot. 


Vustling 


. . . fussing. 


Vuzz 


... gorse, furze. 


Vuzzy 


. . . full of furze. 


Vuzz-chick ... 


... a species of finch. 


Vuzz-poll 


... having untidy hair. 



181 



w. 



Wab 

Wacking-gert 
Wallage 



tongue. 



very big. 

an untidy bundle. 



182 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Wallop 

Wangary 

Want 

Wantcatcher 

Wapsy 

Watter-swate 

Waxing-curls 

Weared 

Wee-wow 

Wets 

Whatje-come 

Whatzim-iver 

Whipshire . . - 

Whips' while 

Whisterclister 

Whisterpoop 

Whit-pot 

Whitstone Hills 

Whitwitch 

Whit-yeth 

Whurts 

Whymsheet . . 

Why-vor 

Wimbing 

Winders 

Winnels 

Wishee-washee 

Wisht 

Wive 

Wivvery 

Wob 

Wod 

Wopper-eyed 

Wopsy 

Worrit 

Wraxling 

Wunt 



to beat. 

limp, weary. 

a mole. 

a mole-catcher. 

a wasp, cross, ill-tempered. 

clean. 

swollen glands of neck. 

worn. 

cross-wise, puckered, squinting. 

oats. 

what's -his-name. 

what-so-ever. 

Tiverton. 

every few minutes. 

a back-hand slap. 

a back-hand slap. 

hasty pudding. 

the Blackdown Hills. 

a white witch. 

white heather. 

whortleberries. 

winnowing-sheet. 

why. 

winnowing. 

windows. 

thrushes. 

weak. 

sickly, ill. 

wife. 

dizzy, shivery. 

a lump. 

a small wisp of hay. 

tearful. 

a wasp. 

worry. 

wrestling. 

will not. 



Yaffer 
Yammets 



Y. 



heifer, 
ants. 





GLOSSARY. 1 8 


Yanzide 


. . . the side beyond. 


Yark 


. . . sprightly. 


Yaw ... 


a ewe. 


Yaw ... 


to hack. 


Yawk 


... an unctuous secretion in wool whe 




first shorn off. 


Yer 


. . . here, in this place. 


Yer 


hear. 


Yeth 


... heath. 


Yett 


. . . heat. 


Yetters 


... flat smoothing irons. 


Yu'm 


you are. 


Yurner'th . . . 


. . . indulges. 


Yurdle 


... hurdle. 



z. 



Zad 


Z. 


Zaff 


safe. 


Zalt 


salt. 


Zamzawd 


sodden. 


Zaw ... 


to sow. 


Zawd 


did sow. 


Zavvk 


a silly person. 


Zee ... 


to see. 


Zeed 


seed. 


Zeed 


saw. 


Zieve 


sieve. 


Zife ... 


to sigh. 


Zim ... 


to seem. 


Zimmeth 


it seems. 


Zin-bunnet ... 


sun-bonnet. 


Zogging 


dozing. 


Zom-aw'm, or zom- 




aw-min 


some of them. 


Zonae 


some. 


Zooker, or zuker 


a sucking-pig. 


Zoop 


to take long sips. 


Zot 


sat. 


Zour-zab 


a sour-tempered person 



1 84 



THE PEASANT SPEECH OF DEVON. 



Zwaller 


to swallow. 


Zwaller 


... a swallow. 


Zwap 

Zwetting 


... to exchange 
... sweating. 


& 


... ampassy. 



THE END. 






J 






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