Boo k • *\ylj
COL. W. R. STUART,
(The father of Pecan culture.)
Ocean Springs, Miss.
THE PECAN, ttr
AND HOW TO GROW IT.
WHERE THEY GROW WILD
WHERE THEY ARE BEING CULTIVATED
WHAT LANDS ARE BEST AND ALL ABOUT IT
BY THE STUART PECAN COMPANY,
OCEAN SPRINGS, MISSISSIPPI.
WOMAN'S TEMPERANCE PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION,
By the Stuart Pecan Co.
To the father of Pecan culture,
Col. TO. 1R. Stuart,
who has done so much for the people of the South,
and humanity at large,
by his numerous repetitions of success,
showing the practicability of growing and improving the Pecan,
this work is most respectfully dedicated.
Col. W. P. Stuart Frontispiece
Plate I. Stuart Pecan Company's exhibit at
World's Fair, Chicago, 1893 - 8
Plate II. Trees with Tap-root Cut - 38
Plate III. Branch of Pecan Tree - - :>4
Plate IV. Pecan Nuts 59
Plate Y. Pecan Tree - - 60
History of the Pecan Tree - - - - 9
Copy of the Letter Addressed - - - 13
The Answers .... - 15
Tropical and Semi -Tropical Fruits and Nuts
in America - - - - - -32
Selecting a Site for the Grove - - 33
Setting Out the Grove - - - 35
Age of Trees for Setting Out - - 37
Cutting the Tap-root - ... 37
Care of Trees After Setting - - 40
Planting the Nuts -42
Will the Nuts Come True - 44
Grafting or Budding, the Remedy - 45
How to Secure Grafting Wood - - 50
The Fruitful and the Barren Pecan Trees - 51
Enemies of the Pecan - - - - 53
Fertilizers for the Pecan - - 56
The Ideal Pecan Nut - - 58
The Number of Trees per Acre - - - 59
What Others Say - - - 62
Tins treatise has been written and prepared by
us because the demand for this knowledge has been
persistent. We have been flooded with letters ask-
ing the questions herein answered. We fully real-
ize that it is very important to be able to have a
text-book for reference when engaging in any im-
portant industry ; which can be relied upon. Here
is our own experience, as well as a great many
others right to the point, and will be invaluable to
all who are not thoroughly posted. By all means
start aright; it will save years of time, as well as
money and perplexities. We wish to acknowledge
with gratitude the valuable assistance rendered us
by Col. W. R. Stuart, while preparing this work.
May 1st, 1893.
= i[6TUART\ ISVTS
THE STUART PECAN COMPANY'S EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S FAIR, CHICAGO, 1893.
the rrain nriD now to qeqw it.
HISTORY OF THE PECAN TREE.
The Pecan tree is found growing wild only in
North America, and that principally between lati-
tude twenty-five to forty; therefore we have right-
fully a monopoly upon the nut. The trees grow
in greater abundance along the streams, in sags or
depressions, scattered here and there over the face
of the country, most probably from the fact that
there is more fertility and moisture in such loca-
tions than upon higher grounds. The tree resem-
bles very closely the Hickory (especially at the
age of ten or twelve years) by the fragments of
scale bark upon the surface of its trunk. The
limbs and foliage are almost identical in their
general appearance with the Hickory, the leaves
having that same pungent odor when bruised. It
is characteristic of the tree, when growing where
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
it lias plenty of room, to be quite spreading in its
branches, forming a symmetrical head and making
a dense shade. Growing in the forest it attains a
height of sixty to one hundred feet, and from one
to four feet in diameter at its base, with a straight
trunk, presenting altogether a very pretty appear-
ance. The wood is quite valuable on account of
its great strength, it being about the same heft as
that of Hickory. It is used for tool handles, wagon
axle-trees, etc. ; in fact takes the place of Hickory
in the land of its nativity, although not considered
quite as reliable. The nuts are quite small,
usually; they are borne upon the extreme end of
the twig of the preceding year's growth, in clus-
ters of from two to eight.
It usually requires from eighty to one hundred
and twenty-five to weigh one pound; although
occasionally, a tree is found with large nuts, of
which forty to sixty will weigh a pound, and if
soft shell so as to crack readily by pressing two
together in the hand, they are held in high esteem,
as that is the variety sought after by those who
contemplate setting out a grove with an especial
view of growing nuts for market. When the wild
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 11
Indian had this country all to himself and roamed
through these vast forests, the Pecan tree furnished
him a very reliable source from which to lay up a
store of most excellent food. The white man has
never paid much attention to the nut until within
the last few years, and now they are proving them-
selves more worthy of cultivation each succeeding
year on account of their superior excellence. No
other nut, either native or imported, can compare
with it in flavor. And the end is not yet; by
making choice selections and giving them proper
cultivation, both size and flavor can be very ma-
terially advanced, judging from what has already
been done in that direction. There is a loud call
for further light upon Pecan culture, for general
information bearing upon it of a reliable charac-
ter, whereby the diligent may be hopeful of suc-
cess. Herein lies the true secret of writing and
compiling this book, inasmuch as we are propaga-
tors of this particular nut, it is our specialty; we
are making a determined effort to draw out the
very best results attainable in this line. Bearing
in mind the accepted truth of a noted writer who
said, " He who makes two blades of grass to grow
1 2 THE PECAN AND HO W TO GRO W IT.
where but one grew before, is a public benefactor."
We plant only the very choicest nuts; and when
grafting or budding use scions from trees which
have borne the largest, thinest shell, richest rneatecb
finest flavored nut now known ; and by feeling our
way along with care, a crowning success must be
assured. Experience is the great teacher; with this
thought in view, we addressed the following letter
(which will explain itself,) to men in nearly all
the States to which the Pecan is indigenous; these
men all have some knowledge of the Pecan in both
its wild and cultivated state, the most of them
being the owners of tame groves. We sincerely
trust that the information received in answer will
be something of a help to those who contemplate
setting out a grove to start aright, that being a
very important point to insure success.
Copy of Letter Addressed
Oceax Springs, Miss., Dec. 26, 1892.
Dear Sir: — Will you kindly reply to this in-
quiry, by furnishing us with what knowledge and
statistics you can in regard to the Pecan tree and
its nut in your State. In what part of the State
do they grow wild ? to what extent over the State ?
How large do the trees grow? Do they hear reg-
ularly, or do they miss some years ?
What number will it take to weigh a pound of
the largest you have ever seen growing there?
Are there any shipped out of the State? If so,
where do they go ? What is the wholesale price?
Are they usually thin or thick shell? What is the
character of the land where the trees thrive best?
Is it bottom or high land? To what extent will
they live with the land flooded? Can you esti-
mate the annual value of the crop in your State?
Is the Pecan tree cultivated in your State with a
14 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
view of producing nuts? If so to what extent?
Are there any grafted or budded trees, or any
apparent interest in that direction when setting out
groves? The information herein ashed for will be
gratefully received, as we want to incorporate it in
a book which we are now preparing for publica-.
tion, bearing upon the Pecan nut industry of the
United States. Yours very truly,
Stuart Pecan Co.
Manhattan, Kan., Jan. 2, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Dear Sirs : — The Pecan tree grows wild in the
southeast corner of this State, the largest growth is
three feet at the base, and sixty feet in height.
They do not bear full every year; there are no
large nuts — they would grade medium or small.
Think there are none shipped out of the State.
Do not know the wholesale price. They are thick
shell. The trees grow in the valleys bordering the
streams. The lands are frequently flooded, but the
water does not remain long. Cannot estimate the
annual value of the crop, it is not large, however.
There are no cultivated groves here yet. Some
have saved the Pecan trees, cutting away the other
timber. There are no grafted or budded trees.
This information was given me by my assistant,
16 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
who recently traveled through the Pecan region in
search of general information on forest topics.
The trees you sent me last year have grown finely.
I should like to try them more fully.
Yours very truly,
E. A. Popenoe,
Professor of Horticulture and Entomology,
Kansas State Agriculture College.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 17
Bluffton, Mo., Jan. 3, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Dear Sirs: — I will answer your questions to
the "best of my ability. The Pecan tree grows
wild on all the bottom lands along the Missouri
River, but few are found elsewhere. I have
known trees three feet through, and one hundred
and forty feet high. They bear nearly every year.
I think of the very largest nuts, sixty would weigh
a pound. Some go out of the State, but mostly
find a market at home. The price paid is about
five cents per pound. Some are thick, and some
are thin shell, they also vary in quality, some being
very fine flavored, some are very smooth shell,
while others are rough. I know of no groves
being set out here. They are all wild, but some
men have had sense enough to spare the tree when
clearing the land. A friend of mine has eighty
trees in a field, the nuts from which brought him as
much money as the wheat off the field which the
1 8 THE PECAN A ND HO W TO GROW IT.
trees occupy. Have known water to cover the
land three feet deep around the trees, for a week
at a time, without their showing any injury. I
know of only a few grafted trees and these were
grafted upon small Hickory sprouts. I have tried
grafting them upon Hickory limbs, but only two
lived out of seven. I have two trees of a hybrid
Pecan grafted on Hickory trees that are large
enough to bear; they are grafted in the crown
system upon limbs an inch thick. Hoping this will
be of some use to you, I am yours truly,
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 19
Bradfordton, III., Jan. 9, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan grows wild here in
the southern half of the State, in the valleys;
have seen them three feet in diameter. There is a
failure of nuts some years; it takes about one
hundred to weigh one pound; they are all used in
the State; the wholesale price is six to seven cents
per pound. The land is sandy where the tree
thrives best. Flooding the land does not seem to
hurt them. I think I am the only one that has
started a Pecan orchard here. Many who own the
land where the wild trees grow are beginning to
guard them with care. There are no grafted or
budded trees here that I know of.
Jas. A. Stone.
20 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
ANOTHER ANSWER FROM ILLINOIS.
Flora, III., Jan. 14, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Dear Sirs: — The Pecan tree grows wild in
spots and patches upon most of the bottom lands
in the southern part of the State. The finest ones
are in the extreme southern part, and the farther
south, the more numerous the trees; some are three
feet in diameter. There are some nuts every year,
but the bearing is irregular; the nuts are of fair
size and good flavor. There are some sold in
Chicago and St. Louis, but mostly are used at
home. The price is from eight to ten cents per
pound. Some are thin shell, can be crushed in
the hand, are also rich and of fine flavor. The
trees do best on sandy land; flooding does not
seem to hurt them. The crop will average thirty
thousand dollars annually. Until within the last
five years there has been very little effort to save
the wild trees, much less to start new ones. I
know of no grafted or budded trees; I have a few
trees which grew from the nuts I bought of you
last year. Yours truly,
L. A. Michels.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 21
Gaines Landing, Ark., Jan. 4th, 1898.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan tree is indigenous to
this State. It is usually found in the valleys of the
streams. Some of the trees attain a diameter at
the base of five feet. They bear a full crop about
every three years. It would require of the largest
sized nuts, from seventy-five to one hundred for a
They sell at wholesale for live to twelve cents
per pound. They are usually thick shell. I think
they make the best growth upon alluvial soil. If
the young trees are flooded during their first year's
growth from the nut, while in leaf, they are killed,
but after first year, overflow does them no apparent
harm. Can give no estimate of the value of the
crop. Orchards are being planted here. There
are no grafted or budded trees.
AV. G. McLendon.
22 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
Dallas, Texas, Jan. 13th, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan grows wild upon the
valley lands along the streams; also upon the hill-
sides and the heads of streams. Large quantities
are shipped out of the State. Can give no definite
figures as to the amount. Many thousand bushels
go to the Northern States every year. Price aver-
ages from one -fifty to three dollars jDer bushel.
They mostly have a thick shell, although in some
localities very good thin-shelled ones are found.
Some trees grow to be three feet through and
seventy feet high. A few groves have been set
out in different parts of the State, but none are yet
in full bearing. There are some few grafted trees
in different parts of the State although none are
bearing yet. The tree does not bear full every
year as a rule. The desire for groves is increasing.
A. A. Pillock.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 23
Okoloxa, Miss., Jan. 2, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan grows wild and bears
an abundance of fruit in this latitude, eighty miles
south of the Tennessee line, the presumption is
that they grow all over the State. I see no reason
why the tree should not keep company with the
Hickory. I have seen them eighteen inches in di-
ameter, five feet from the ground. They bear every
year. The tree is rarely seen upon hills, or prai-
ries. Eighty to one hundred of the nuts will weigh
a pound; they are mostly used at home. There is
quite a manifest desire for groves. In the year
1860 I had made up my mind to clear and plant
one half section with walnuts, but my wise neigh-
bors actually laughed me out of the project; the
overflow spoiled it; if I had executed my project,
I should now be the owner of 320 acres of land
worth $200.00 per acre.
Dr. J. II. Greex.
94 THE PECAN AND HO W TO GRO W IT.
ANOTHER ANSWER FROM MISSISSIPPI.
Hollendale, Miss., Jan. 4th, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Dear Sirs: — The Pecan tree grows wild all
over the Delta section of this State. Some of the
trees grow very large and produce good size nuts
with fine flavor. The best bearing trees grow upon
the ridges which are sand loam. I am sorry to say
that it is a common way when gathering the nuts
to cut the tree. Flooding the ground does not hurt
the tree. There is now an effort being made here
as well as in other parts of the State, to propagate
a large, thin-shelled variety, the seed and trees of
which are obtained from the Stuart Pecan Co., at
Ocean Springs, this State; but as yet that is its
incipiency. I think there will be a growing de-
mand for trees, as they do so well here, and if fchey
can be grown successfully upon the Gulf coast, in
the sand, they ought to do wonders here when cul-
tivated, as the wild tree is often the monarch of the
forest. I have no grafted trees.
' I. T. Casey.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. !>o
Eufaula, Ala., Jan. 13th, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — I do not think there are any
wild Pecan trees in this State. Cultivated ones
grow very finely and bear nuts every year. I
think seventy -five would weigh a pound, as an
average; but there are some very large soft shell.
The nuts sell at wholesale from ten to fifty cents
per pound. The trees mostly grow upon sandy
soil. There are no grafted or budded trees here.
There is some interest beino; shown in starting
Pecan groves. I have planted a four-acre grove.
Cliff. A. Locke.
26 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
Anthony, Florida, Jan. 1st, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Dear Sirs: — The Pecan tree does not grow
wild in any part of this State; but there
are some cultivated groves here. They are
mostly thin shell; there are not enough
raised yet to supply home demand; they
grow upon both low and high lands, but bear
earlier and produce better on upland. Cannot esti-
mate the value of the crop ; the industry is new. I
know of one tree growing on poor sandy soil fifteen
years old, which produces an average of three
bushels of nuts per year. I also know of trees
twenty years old producing as high as ten bushels
per year on clay land. There is a growing desire
for groves manifested. I have the largest grove in
the State; containing four thousand trees, all
grafted, now five years old; they are seventeen feet
high, and bear a few nuts; think they will bear
profitably in three more years. This grove is in
northwestern Florida, upon high clay land.
. H. S. Kedney.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 27
Moscow, Ky., Jan. 16th, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan tree grows wild in the
western part of the State. It bears very well, bat
the nuts are small ; not many sold out of the State.
Don't think the overflow of water hurts the tree,
excepting when in leaf. Cannot estimate the value
of the crop. They are rarely cultivated; do not
think there are any grafted trees here.
James L, Beckham.
28 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
Evansville, Ind., Jan. 12th, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — The Pecan tree is indigenous to
the southern part of this State ; the trees bear very
well, but the nuts are small. Of the crop, several
hundred barrels are shipped out of the State every
v ear; they go to Chicago, New York, and St. Louis,
They sell at from five to twelve cents per pound.
No groves are being set out here. Most of the
trees grow upon low land, yet I know of some
growing upon high land. I have never seen any
grafted trees, excepting in Florida. I have three
small trees in my yard which grew from large nuts
sent me by Colonel Stuart of your place.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 29
Bain-bridge, Ga., Jan. 12, 1893.
Stuart Pecan Co.
Gentlemen: — Many cultivated groves of the
Pecan tree are to be found in this State. Mr.
Averitt of this county has one of forty acres, of
which two hundred trees bore last year. Some of
the trees yielded four bushels, and the nuts sold at
from fifteen to twenty cents per pound. This grove
is on high land. I have a grove, the trees of which
are three, four and iive years old, also upon high
land. New groves are being set out every year,
and so far as I can learn they all do well.
Jno. D. Wood.
SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE.
We have a communication also from Mr. Henry
E. Dosch, of Hillsdale, Oregon, who lias a few trees
growing there. He reports they do nicely. We
also have one from Gen. John Bidwell, of Chico,
California, a place in the Sacramento Valley. He
says he has trees thirty years old, and that they
nourish finely in that locality.
Verily it does look as though the planting of
Pecan groves would prove to be the solution of the
hitherto difficult problem of what to do with a cer-
tain vast acreage of land in the Great Golden State,
notably the San Joaquin, and Sacramento Valleys,
which are visited by an overflow every winter. The
soil is rich and deep, affording just the home in
which the Pecan is bound to nourish, and yield a
rich return to its cultivator.
But, while admirably fitted for the Pecan, the
land is too bountifully supplied with moisture for
fruit trees in general, and is altogether too wet for
creals. It will be readily seen on a careful review
of the foregoing, that the information covers a
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 31
broad field, extending as it does from Ocean to
Ocean, and latitudinally, from the Gulf to the
fortieth parallel, in a large portion of which the
Pecan tree is indigenous to the soil. We further
learn that the tree, when not in leaf, will survive the
floods ; that it thrives upon clay, sand, and alluvial
soils; and moreover that the people are becoming
interested in the Pecan, and are planting groves
with full confidence in a future and abundant re-
ward. It is also dawning upon the perception of
those interested in this subject, that the nut is capa-
ble of vast improvement, through wise cultivation,
in the line of grafting and budding, and that such
cultivation must yield rich returns in the enhanced
market value of the nut which is certain to follow.
In fact there is no ground for discouragement
appearing in the evidence. Taking it all in all, it
adds an encouraging chapter to the history of the
enterprise already so full of promise to the invest-
ors in the Pecan industry.
32 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
TEOPICAL AND SEMI-TROPICAL FEUITS
AND NUTS IN AMEEICA.
Perhaps the extent of our resources in tropical
fruits and nuts, as reported by the Census Bureau,
will be something of a surprise to many. At the
time of the last census, there were exclusive of or-
chards intended only for private use, 13,515 acres
of almonds, 677 of bananas, 169 of citron, 9,864 co-
coanuts, 4,477 of figs, 550 of guava, 1,362 of kaki,
7,256 of lemons, 495 of limes, 12,181 of madeira-nut,
7,097 of olive, 184,003 of orange, 2,189 of pine-
apple, 171 of pomelo, and 27,419 of pecan trees ;
a total acreage of 221,068 given to tropical and
semi-tropical fruits and nuts. The reports on val-
uation of crops for the same year amounted to $14,-
116.59, divided as follows : Almonds, $1,525,109;
banana, $280,653; cocoanut, $25,217; fig, $307,271;
lemon, $988,099 ; lime, $62,496 ; madeira-nut,
$1,256,958; olive, $386,368; orange, $6,603,098; pine
apple,$812,159 ; pomelo, $27,216 ; pecans,$l,616,576.
In nearly every case the number of non-bearing
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 33
was double the number of bearing trees. Pecan
culture is recommended in the report, as an indus-
try from which future developments of a wonder-
ful nature may be expected.
SELECTING A SITE FOR THE GROVE.
A deep sand-loam is probably the best, as that
kind of soil is usually fertile, and the roots pene-
trate it quickly and with ease. Consequently, it
will grow very rapidly, and with the fertility such
soils usually have, you will save the expense of fer-
tilizing your grove for a good many years. Next
in order is clay-loam with a porous subsoil.
Many of those soils hold a rich store of fertility
for several feet in depth; although the roots are
liable to meet with much more resistance while work-
ing their way downward ; hence, growth may be
Next come common sandy soils, such as grow
the pine ; it is not uncommon to see fine cultivated
Pecan trees in bearing upon these lands ; but it
34 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
must be borne in mind that all such lands will give
better results if they are fertilized a little each year;
but as soon as they come into bearing you will not
feel the expense, as they are sure to pay their own
way with half a chance, and leave a fine profit be-
sides. Groves will do nothing upon springy, boggy
soils, where the water stands near the surface ; the
roots will not penetrate the water ; they will only
shoot out laterals, which are not the main reliance
of the Pecan. Its stronghold is its tap-root, which
will go right into the bowels of the earth thirty
feet, and send out laterals all the way down. They
are diligent in their search after food, and the more
porous the soils the quicker they will find it. In
loose porous soils the feeding roots are much more
numerous than in the hard ; the farther down to
standing water, the better for the Pecan tree.
Neither will it do to set trees where there is
ledge rock near the surf ace, especially if solid, but
the tap-root will work its way down through frag-
mentary rock in a zigzag way ; it will also pene-
trate very hard clay, although slowly. There is no
limit to the growth of the roots laterally.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 35
SETTING OUT THE GROVE.
Pecan trees should be set from forty to
eighty feet apart, being equal distance from each
other, in straight rows both ways, standing north
and south, east and west. The distance must de-
pend upon the natural fertility of the ground, or
the anticipated treatment you propose to bestow
upon them year by year, as their interests demands;
always bearing in mind, the poorer the land, the
farther the trees should be apart. Even though
they stand at the farthest distance apart here
given, the feeding roots will in time, carry home to
the parent stem, plant food from the utmost limit.
Now measure off your ground^ the distance between
trees being decided upon, make' a hole where the
first tree is to stand, with an iron bar, four feet
deep, into which drive a stake eight feet long, leav-
ing three or four feeVabove the surface ; do the
same where each tree is to stand, over the whole
plat of ground ; this is your guide by which to set
your trees. Now take out the ground three or four
feet deep, and two feet each side of the stake all
around ; then fill in the bottom of this hole with
36 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
surface dirt or good dirt drawn for that purpose, so
that the end of the tap-root after being trimmed,
when resting upon it will show the distance re-
quired for the root to set in the ground, when the
hole is filled to the surface. Now cut off the end
of the tap-root also those of the laterals with a
sharp knife, so as to leave a smooth surface ; don't
peel up the bark, nor let any bruised part remain.
Good work right here is very important to insure
new roots coming out from the end at the surface
so prepared. When all things are ready, take out
the stake, stand the tree where the stake stood, fill
in with good dirt, packing moderately, have the
lateral roots lay straight out, do not pack them
down against the tap-root. By this manner of
measuring off and preparing the ground you can
have them all straight in row and nice with very
little extra trouble.
The time to set out the trees is soon after they
shed their leaves in the fall, or just after the cold of
winter has passed. The tree rarely needs a stake
to hold it in an upright position, but in case one is
found leaning, give it attention immediately; keep
them growing; straight.
O O O
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 37
AGE OF TREES FOE SETTING OUT.
The Pecan tree if set out at the as;e of one and
two years is more likely to live and prosper than if
older. At that age they are easy to handle, also
cost less, and will make a larger tree at the age of
ten years, than if it was older when transplanted.
CUTTING THE TAP-EOOT.
This subject deserves more than a mere passing
notice, inasmuch as some people apprehend that
cutting the tap-root is injurious, when in reality the
reverse is true; it being a benefit according to ex-
perience and evidence. It is a well-known fact
with vegetable growers, that such as cabbage, cel-
ery, lettuce etc., will grow much stronger and larger
when transplanted, than if allowed to mature
where the seed was sown; as there will be numer-
ous new roots shoot out from the end of each
broken one. It is the same with corn in the early
stages of its growth. The Pecan is no exception to
this ru - - — : a more
thorough and _ - _
smooth cut of the ta aving
hes long, and there
r threi :.• tap-i ts tak< its |
shooting from the end whore cut S S
rhis sh - a photographic view of two
s, which had their tap-roots cut during
- ar of tl dsl i the nut: this
skive evid< I si s wheretln
- cut: also that one of the trees has thrown out
theri w tap-roots; such we be-
: W. R Stuart. "The Fath< iij cult-
the trees in lii> _ had their
tap-i ts at; and he is s has been a benefit
to them. Mr, 11. C. Di ks a of G _ . writes.
that of I trees ] urchased from us tin
one ha ina ' s) rtesl *. has made
the best fi :li.
*: four hundred taken up out of our nur>-
set out _ . and then taken up to sell,
show there is not a failure to re< one of
- ade a new tap-root. There is id to
40 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
the evidence in this line from all quarters, and not
a single failure from the thousands of trees which
we have sold, consequently it is a settled conviction
with us, that it is just as well, if not better, to
transplant the tree when one or two years old than
to have it mature directly from the seed without
CAEE OF TKEES AFTER SETTING.
For the first two or three years it will be best
to cultivate the land; don't crop heavy, but by all
means keep it free from weeds. It is best to grow
some hoed crop such as corn, cotton, beans, or pota-
toes one year, then the next, sow to clover or to
cow-peas, and plow under; be sure to keep the fer-
tility of the land well up; keep your thoughts
upon the interest of the Pecan tree; in starting
them you have laid the foundation of a great suc-
cess ; don't draw the fertility from close around the
tree by growing crops too near. When plowing,
turn the furrow towards the tree until the land is
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 41
well rounded up, so as to leave the dead furrows,
half way between the rows, two feet deep that the
water may drain away freely. This applies more
particularly where the land is flat with hard sub-
When the trees are four years old seed down to
orchard grass, or whatever kind does Lest upon
your land for permanent pasture. As soon as it
has made sufficient growth turn in sheep and calves,
as they cannot hurt the tree now by browsing it;
in this way whatever is taken of the land's produc-
tion, will be left upon it; don't take off a crop of
hay unless the soil should be rich enough to spare
it; otherwise you will be robbing the trees of what
they will need to carry on their growth and fruit
production. It is well to have a light mulch around
the trees, just enough to keep the grass and weeds
down. If the land should be rather poor sand,
draw in marsh muck six inches deep around each
tree ; the rains will carry its fertility down to the
roots of the trees and greatly stimulate their growth.
Keep the trees trimmed to the height of eight or
ten feet before letting them branch; even at that
height, the weight of nuts in good bearing years
42 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
will weigh the ends of the lower limbs down near
the ground, after the trees have attained an age of
fifteen or twenty years. There were trees near here
last year presenting that appearance, and some
limbs higher up the trees actually broke under the
weight of nuts. The growth of the trees will
depend very much upon the care given them ; their
needs must be supplied from year to year. Do not
be half-hearted about it, enter right in with a vi^or-
ous determination to accomplish the end sought for
and your hope will blossom into a reality more
bright than you ever dreamed of; but you must
not be caught napping.
PLANTING THE NUTS.
In preparing the plot of land for planting nuts,
plow it deep, have it of fair fertility and in a loca-
tion free from pests of all kinds if possible. Mark
off the ground in rows four feet apart, then make a
furrow four inches deep, drop the nut in this,
twelve inches apart, and cover so the ground will
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 43
be level. In case rats or squirrels find tliem they
will dig them out ; then there is an ant that is at-
tracted to the nut as soon as it opens to let out the
shoot ; they will also eat the kernel entirely up.
Plant in the winter. Be sure to get nothing but
the large thin shell variety, which has grown upon
isolated trees, standing rods away from any of an
inferior kind. This way of doing is far preferable
to planting, where you want the grove to stand, for
you can protect them in a nursery much better than
when planted on a large area of ground. Keep
them free from weeds and grass, and they will
make a growth of eight to fifteen inches the first
Transplant them into the grove at the age of
one or two years, in case you are ready, but the
sooner, the better ; some report good success even at
the age of five and six years. All that are not set
at the age of one year should have the tap-root cut
fifteen to twenty-four inches below the surface of
44 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
WILL THE 1S T UT COME TRUE
The Pecan is no exception to the general rule
that seedlings are unreliable. It is now an estab-
lished fact that only a small per cent will come
true ; frequently the variation is very great; some-
times they degenerate ; then again, a better nut is
produced than the one planted. Col. AV. E. Stuart
says they will sport more or less, and his great ex-
jDerience cannot be questioned. The Pecan in-
dustry is not old enough yet to give even an
approximate estimate of just what can be depended
upon, yet when the best has been done in this line
of endeavor and it is not satisfactory, the question
is, what is the course to be pursued to make it sure
that the trees of your grove will produce what you
have worked for and expect.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 45
GRAFTING OR BUDDIXG IS THE
By using cuttings from cultivated trees that are
known to bear fine nuts, and graft or bud the seed-
ling, you are absolutely certain of reproducing the
same variety. This is a more difficult operation
with nut-bearing trees than ordinary fruit trees, and
only a very small per cent live, except from the
hand of an expert. Trees which produce a first-
class nut are very few in number, consequently the
work of propagating from them goes slowly, as
the supply of cuttings are limited, yet this work has
been going on for three or four years, so the newly
propagated trees are now producing some cuttings.
There is a method known as " annular budding "
which proves quite successful. Proceed as follows:
Take a sharp knife, make two cuts completely
around the stock about one inch apart, cut only
just through the bark; make a straight slit through
this bark between the two circles, now slip off this
ring of bark and use it for a pattern to cut the
ring of bark by from the scion, which must have a
46 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
well developed bud about in its center; cut close to
each end of the pattern ; now split this second ring
down as you did the first, slip it off from the scion,
put it in the place of the ring taken from the stock,
trim if necessary so that the fit will be perfect ;
now wrap with strips of waxed cloth all the
wounded parts, but do not cover the bud ; cover
over well the slit with wax, also tie two cords
around, one above and one below the bud, over the
waxed cloth just where the scion bark meets the
stock bark. In case it is a success, the bud will
show life in a few days, and after the shoot is out a
f ew inches, cut the cords, also the top, from the tree
a few inches above the bud ; let no sprouts grow on
the stock, as they would draw the support from the
bud. After the bud has grown ten inches, cut the
stock down to within one inch of the bud. Seed-
lings can be worked in this way after they are two
3^ears old up to live or six. The scion wood must
be full as large as the stock; the bandage and wax
must be well applied so as to exclude the air per-
fectly from the wound. In case new bark does
not form readily over the stock above the bud in
two years, trim down a little with a sharp knife.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 47
Some use the tongue graft ; it does very well
for one year old stock. The mode is to cut the
stock square off a little below the ground, place
your knife down on one side of the stock, one and
one-fourth inches from the end, draw upwards,
have the knife come out almost the center of the
stock at its top; this takes off a wedge-shaped piece;
now partly split, and cut a little across the grain
from the top of the stock down so far as the piece
is long that you shaved from the one side; thus you
have a wedge-shaped tongue upon one side of the
stock; now prepare the scion in a similar manner
only cut clear across the scion, having the knife
come out just at the inner edge of the bark at the
end; split the scion in the center, setting the knife
back from the end in commencing; now insert the
tongue of the scion into the cleft of the stock, being
sure that the edges of the bark of all meet nicely
upon one side, this makes it possible for a union of
the scion with the stock at four different* points.
Wrap with twine to hold the parts well together ;
bring up the earth to near the top of the scion all
around, no wax is needed. Scions should be cut
when the buds are dormant, and stored away in a
48 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
cool, moist place until used. Trees to be worked
this way must be upon high, dry ground, as stand-
ing water would be death to the scion at any time
for the first six months after the grafting was first
done. The old-fashioned cleft graft is fully as reliable
as any; trees one inch in diameter are very favor-
able for that style of work; saw off the stock just
at the surface of the ground, with a fine tooth,
sharp saw, split the stock in the center; now put a
wedge in the cleft to hold the splits apart just the
distance of the thickness of your scion when trimmed,
wedge -shape at one end, ready to be inserted into
the cleft of the stock; which needs to be done with
great nicety. Where the scions are small enough
so they will not crowd each other, it is best to put
in two for each stock. Wrap a cord firmly around
and tie ; also use a liberal amount of wax upon the
sides of the cleft, also upon the top of the stock ; in
fact cover all bare places well over; then bring
up the earth to near the top of the scion, leaving
one bud out. The limbs of the tree can be worked
in a similar manner, with this difference ; more wax
must be used, and each scion must have a terminal
bud, so as to prevent evaporation. The new
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 49
growth of limbs of course are preferable as the
bark is more pliable; also has more sap which cir-
culates very freely. The old style way of propagat-
ing, by budding as we bud the peach, is a failure
with the Pecan. There is no question but what it
richly pays any one who contemplates putting out a
Pecan grove, to do it with budded or grafted trees,
even though you go very much more slowly, as it
is not the number of trees that count so much as it
is the good ones. Ten grafted or budded trees are
of more value in starting a grove than ore hundred
of the best seedlings you can get ; in the one
case you are certain that your trees will bear fine
large soft shell nuts (in case your scions were of
that kind, which are the kind to secure by all
means), while with seedlings you do not know what
the nuts will be. It costs no more to care for the
grove of choice trees than of poor ones; then again
the grafted or budded ones comes into profitable
bearing three years earlier than the seedlings.
Here is a case in point; last November we paid in
cash, $248.00 for the nuts which grew upon one
tree, the crop of one year. The tree is twenty
inches through at its base and forty-five feet high;
50 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
such a size tree would grow in twenty or twenty-
five years. Now small nuts from the same size
tree will sell for not more than fifteen or twenty
dollars. Another tree only ten years old bore
$13.50 worth. These choice nuts are such as we
grow seedlings from, we sell a great many more
seedlings than we do grafted or budded trees, sim-
ply because they are so much cheaper, and people
in general do not realize that such a vast difference
exists between the profits of the seedling and the
grafted or budded; but such is the case, and such
it will always remain for aught that we can see.
HOW TO SECURE GRAFTING WOOD.
Those who contemplate establishing groves and
cannot afford to buy a sufficient number of grafted
trees with which to set it, can buy from one tree up
to as many as they can, according to their desire
and ability, of the very choicest variety, and a part
of each succeeding year's growth of new wood can
be trimmed off to craft or bud seedlings with. In
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 51
so doing you may be going a little slow, but you
can have the satisfaction of knowing that you are
on the right road, the one which leads to success;
you are growing your own wood for grafting and
may have some to sell, and it will sell at a good
price, because it is scarce; it need not be long be-
fore you will get back all your trees cost you, as
it is a very profitable business raising the trees,
just for the grafting wood alone. We appreciate
this condition perfectly, inasmuch as we never have
ben i able to get all the grafting wood which we
want to use in grafting and budding our seedlings.
THE FRUITFUL AND THE BARREN
A Pecan tree standing alone may not bear nuts,
from the fact that it receives no pollen with which
to fertilize its blossoms. Herein lies the advantage
of having a number of trees together in the grove,
the wind and the bees carry the pollen from one
tree to another, the flowers are thereby fertilized
and production follows. Let one stalk of corn grow
52 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
by itself and but few kernels appear upon the
Mr. George Tyng, of Texas (who has for years
been an extensive cultivator of the Pecan) says,
" Most Pecan trees bear both male and female
flowers upon the same tree." The male flower is
about three inches long, borne upon twigs of the
preceding year's growth ; the female flower resem-
bles a leaf -bud, and appears on new twigs of the
current year. I believe (but do not assert) that
some Pecan trees are male trees, bearing male
flowers, but never bearing nuts ; also that there are
female trees producing nuts only when the spring
weather has not been too dry or too stormy to pre-
vent fertilization of their flowers by pollen carried
by breeze or insects.
Nuts will mix when the trees stand close to-
gether, the same as corn, upon the same principle,
through the distribution of the pollen from one tree
to another, either by the wind or insects, such as
work upon the blossoms. Therefore when setting
out your grove, set each variety by themselves, and
have a double distance between the rows of each
variety, setting the space so left, with fruit trees of
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 53
some kind ; as by so doing you can keep each
variety comparatively separate. There are two
kinds of blossoms, the stamen and pistil; now in
order for a tree to produce, some of the pollen from
the stamen, must come in contact with that of the
pistil, thus fertilization is produced, and the
embryo nut is formed ; hence, the larger groves will
be more likely to bear, and every tree in them, than
ENEMIES OF THE PECAN.
The Pecan has two enemies, the caterpillar, and
the saw-bug. The caterpillar forms webs around
among the smaller subdivisions of the boughs of
the trees. These webs are from one to two feet in
diameter. The caterpillars remain in these webs
some weeks, until nearly full grown, but eat only
few leaves. They then leave the web and come
down and settle in a mass on the body of the tree,
like bees on the outside of a hive in hot weather.
In this state they can be easily destroyed. After a
few days they ascend, and disperse themselves all
PLATE III. PECAN BRANCH WITH EMBRYO NUT.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 55
over the tree, and feed upon the leaves. These
worms must be destroyed, either while upon the
body of the tree, or in the web.
Make a ball of old clothing, attach to the end
of a pole, soak the ball in coal oil, then set it on
fire and hold under the webs, and but few, if any,
will survive. The saw- bugs begin their depreda-
tions late in the summer and continue until frost
comes. They saw off very neatly, by their peculiar
process, the smaller limbs from one to two feet from
their ends. These limbs sawed off are punctured
at different points and an egg deposited at each
puncture; the remedy is to gather all these limbs
and burn them. The Pecan tree has no disease; it
is very hardy, while nearly every other tree, plant
or shrub of any value has some enemies. In case
the tree is small, and the worm should attack its
leaves, it is well to spray with a weak solution of
paris green. Keep the tree Avell looked over, and
in case there is anything wrong, right it at once,
before it has had time to g-et a foothold.
56 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
FERTILIZER FOR THE PECAN.
Have a place to pile everything in a compost
heap that has any value as a fertilizer. The three
principal ingredients which the tree requires to
make its growth, also to produce well, is Potash,
Nitrogen and Phosphate. Potash is found in ashes
of all kinds; also kainite, a substance resembling
rock salt, which is shipped to this country from
Germany, contains about 14 per cent, of potash.
The cheapest source is to buy wood ashes even at
20 cents per bushel. Next comes kainite at about
$15.00 per ton. (Dealers in commercial fertilizers
usually handle it.) These should be sown in a
light dressing about the trees in the fall and
worked into the soil, then the fertilizer gets down
to the roots by tlie time the trees start to grow in
the spring. A little each year is better than a
large quantity at once.
Nitrogen comes from animal waste, guano, ni
trate of soda, blood, cotton -seed, etc. In case it exists
in quantity, it should not be composted, as the heat
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 57
that would be generated in the compost heap
would drive off a large per cent, of the nitrogen.
Such had better be mixed with marsh muck, leaf
mole, or humus of some kind, and kept under
rover. Apply this to the tree the same as the
Phosphate exists in the phosphate of lime, the
bones of all animals and the mineral phosphate
rocks, which are the ancient marine animals. The
last can be sown around the tree at any time and
worked into the soil, as there is no waste to it.
There is nothing better than barn -yard manure, but
as that is made only in limited quantities, and not
enough to go around, the deficiency must be supplied
from some other practical source. Your compost
heap will be a complete manure, having all the ele-
ments of plant growth. See that nothing goes to
waste that will add to the value of the compost
heap. Upon a farm of 160 acres there will be
enough each year to keep a good sized grove in tine
condition. It is only the naturally poor land that
requires to be fertilized; the valleys are always
rich enough in their natural state for the tree to do
its best both in growth of wood and nuts. The
58 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
thin sandy soils require to be fertilized; and the
tree appreciates such treatment as you can readily
see by the way it grows, also in the extra crop of
nuts which it will produce.
THE IDEAL PECAN NUT.
There are about six important points in the
make-up of a really good No. 1. O. K. Pecan nut.
These distinct qualities taken as a whole, necessarily
cut a very important figure in the case of each
person who contemplates growing nuts for profit.
First. Is size; the larger the better, other
points being equal, inasmuch as large products sell
best as a rule. The largest nuts that we have been
able to find measure exactly two and one- eighth
inches in length, and one inch in diameter.
Second. Its general appearance; the nut should
be symmetrical and well favored, so as to please the
Third. Thinness with firmness of shell; thus
FIG. I. STUART.
FIG. 2. VAN DEMAN.
FIG. t.. COLUMBIAN.
PLATE IV. PECAN NUTS.
THE PECAN AXD HOW TO GROW IT. 59
making the meat easy of access without hammer
or nut cracker.
Fourth. Fullness of the interior or plumpness
of the meat.
Fifth. Fineness of the kernel with an abun-
dance of oil, causing crispness and leaving no fibrous
residue in the mouth after mastication.
Sixth. Is flavor, which must be fine and please
the palate; a nut having all these qualities in a
marked degree is the nut of all nuts, and is here
NUMBER OF TREES PER ACRE.
We give in the following table the number of
trees or plants required for an acre of ground if
placed at an equal distance apart.
Distance apart each way No. of plan
1 foot 43,520
2 feet 10,880
3 feet 4,835
4 feet 2,720
5 feet 1,740
PLATE IV. PECAN TREE.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
, , t , ,
7 feet. ..
8 feet. . .
9 feet.. .
10 feet. . .
12 feet. ..
15 feet. . .
20 feet. . .
25 feet. . .
30 feet. . .
35 feet . . .
40 feet . . .
If other distances than those given are required,
multiply the distance in feet between the rows, by
the distance the plants are apart in the rows and
the product will be the number of square feet for
each plant or tree. Divide this number into the
number of square feet in an acre, 43,520, and the
result will be the number of trees or plants required
for an acre.
What Others Say,
Our twenty-five or thirty years experience in
transplanting nursery-raised Pecan trees has been
entirely different from that of our correspondent,
"W. E. Freeman, as detailed in a late issue of our
journal; and with others whose success has come
under our direct observation, the Pecan tree has
been no more difficult to transplant than the pear
under the same circumstances. In fact, our per-
centage of loss from transplanting lias been less
with the Pecan than with the pear. But we speak
wholly of nursery-raised trees that have been
properly managed, that have been grown in not too
deep and rich a soil, and that have been root pruned
or transplanted every two years while growing in
the nursery. Transplanting from the forest or
from deep alluvial or clayish soils, where but few
lateral or fibrous roots are developed, would of
course, be attended with general unsatisfactory
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 63
results, and so would it be with the pear. We
should not have recurred to this experience of our
old friend and correspondent, had his communica-
tion not been calculated to deter many inexperienced
cultivators from planting out trees of what we con-
sider the most profitable fruit tree in cultivation.
And we would here enter our protest to the pre-
vailing opinion in regard to the extreme tardiness
with which the Pecan comes into bearing. Properly
transplanted and cultivated, Pecan trees will, in
most cases, come into profitable bearing in from ten
to twelve years ; many in seven or eight years after
setting out. There are not many varieties of the
pear that will do better.
PLANTING THE PECAN.
Dick Naylor, of Scottsville, Texas, writes Farm
and R.aneh, that if any man in Texas upon the birth
of his first son would plant twenty acres of good
land in Pecan trees and set it aside for him, that
boy, when he attained to his majority, would have
64 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
an independent income of $5,000 a year, and merely
the trouble of picking it up. This might be a bad
thing for the boy, but the income would be there
all the same. When the universal popularity of the
Pecan nut is considered, he adds, we must conclude
that a grove of Pecan trees would be one of the
safest investments a Texas farmer could make. If
the land was not needed for other purposes, the
trees could be planted two or three times as thick
as they would stand when grown, and the surplus
trees cut out for fuel as they grow large enough.
There is no better fuel than Pecan wood. A pecu-
liar advantage in planting such trees is found in the
fact that very little cultivation is necessary. Yet,
it might be better to use the land for crop purposes
while the young trees are growing, taking care not
to plow too close to them. Those who would start
a grove of Pecans should lose no time in getting
ready, as fall or winter is the best time to plant.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. (?o
I have been long impressed with the fact that too
many of our people are flocking to the cities and
towns, to the injury of health, to the hurt of morals
and the sacrifice of personal independence. If tens
of thousands now in the crowded cities were in the
country cultivating small farms, (such are in the
reach of nearly all,) they would have better sani-
tary conditions, less temptation to sin, and more
personal liberty. With these convictions, I am
prompted to write a brief article on one of the
methods of securing a comfortable support in the
country. Our country industries are not sufficiently
diversified in this South-land. We confine our
rural industries to too few things, to cotton, sugar
and rice, important but laborious and overdone prod-
ucts. Many, especially those of smaller means,
could find easier and more profitable modes of cult-
ure. Many things suggest themselves; but I will
confine myself in this article to the growing of
Pecans. The Pecan tree is indigenous to the Gulf
States, and found growing wild in Texas, Louisiana,
66 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT
Mississippi, and Alabama and Southern Arkansas.
In their wild state they are generally found on rich
and moist soils, which suggest that such soils are
the best for planting and rearing Pecans. These
trees will grow on clayey, sandy soil, and where the
land is quite free from much moisture and by fer-
tilizing will grow to a large size and yield profit-
able crops but they will do better on rich bottom
lands. Where the land is rich they ought to be
sixty feet distant from each other; certainly not less
than forty feet.
A plot of ground can be cultivated for several
years after the Pecans are planted before they will
shade the ground too much for croj3s; after that the
Pecan grove will be an excellent pasture. The
cattle must not be allowed to browse anions the
young trees, as they are fond of the leaves and
limbs, and will soon destroy them. Be sure to
plant the largest and best Pecans you can find.
Large Pecans will command in the market three
times as much per pound as the smaller ones. The
young Pecan tree needs little pruning, and if in rich
soil, only needs to be let alone. Pecans bear from
the planting from seven to twelve years. Now a
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 67
word as to the advantage of their peculiar cultiva-
tion : While the trees are growing to the bearing
period, they need almost no attention, and will not
occupy time or hinder any other business you may
wish to pursue. Trees after getting into bearing
will yield from a bushel to three barrels. Average
Pecans are worth from twelve to fifteen dollars per
barrel. If you raise peaches, pears, strawberries,
tomatoes, and the like, they must be handled with
great care, and promptly disposed of or they are
spoiled and lost. Pecans can be kept for months
and shipped anywhere without injury or loss. I
don't know anything that a young man who has a
few hundred dollars can do that will pay him so
well as to buy some good land near navigation or a
railroad, and plant it in Pecans. In a few years
when his domestic circumstances demand a lar^e
income, he will have it. It's light work; little
children can gather Pecans.
J. B. Walked
P. S. — I have no Pecan trees nor seed Pecans to
sell; — no axe to grind by this article.
68 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW III
THERE ARE MILLIONS IN IT.
To the Editor of the News and Courier:
There are more developed industries in the
South than are thought of, and it seems strange
that so few have thought of starting a Pecan grove.
The cultivation of the Pecan is not a new industry,
as many may suppose, as there are a great many
people in this country, and indeed all over the
State, who have a few bearing trees. Even in
Florida, where the golden fruit can be so profitably
raised, they are putting out Pecan trees. Two gen-
tlemen in the town of Micanopy, Fla., have each
several acres of Pecan trees adjoining their orange
groves. If Pecan culture did not pay, these gen-
tlemen would not set them on land that is so valu-
able for orange growing. There are a great many
varieties of the Pecan. One kind is so insipid that
it cannot be eaten. Hence it is of great importance
in securing trees to get the best varieties by pur-
chasing from reliable dealers. It has been fully
demonstrated right here, in Barnwell county, that
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 69
the native South Carolina Pecan is superior in size
and flavor to those grown West. It is therefore no
experiment to plant Pecan trees. I have seen vig-
orous trees, bearing plentifully, in the different
soils of this and adjacent counties. It succeeds ad-
mirably wherever the hickory grows, and it resem-
bles somewhat the latter. It is very tough and
hardy, and its long tap-root seems to render it inde-
pendent of the seasons. The young trees are not
troubled by stock of any kind. It can be planted
in a pasture if desired. It commences to bear at
seven or eight years old, and continues to increase
its stock every year thereafter. The trees are very
symmetrical in shape, and constitute as handsome
a^ I efficient shade tree as any other. A grove of
these valuable trees would add much to the beauty
of the home. Here is an opening for those who
own only a few acres of land, to plant trees that
will in a few years enable them to supply an ever-
increasino; demand. There is no danger of over-
supplying the market, there are too many " doubt-
ing Thomases " in every community to be in any
danger of planting too many. If Pecan trees could
be planted in the spring and a crop of nuts har-
70 THE PECAN AXD HOW TO GROW IT.
vested in the fall, the business might be overdone;
but as the harvest is eight years ahead, only those
who can " see ahead " and are willing to wait for a
good thing, will plant out Pecan nuts to any extent.
It is not likely that there will be a general' planting
of the trees for some time, until the doubting ones
see what their neighbors are doing. Corn, cotton,
or any other crop may be grown upon the land
until the trees pay enough to give the land up to
them. Who would want to plant the land in cot-
ton when it pays $200.00 per acre in Pecan nuts?
They bear paying crops as early as the pear, apple,
or orange, and a Pecan grove will be as valuable
here as an orange grove in Florida, and not liable
to the same disasters that afflict the orange.
My trees at ten years old bore at the rate of
$150 per acre, and at fifteen years old the yield was
$300 per acre. There is more money from a single
acre than a hundred acres of land would rent for.
But assuming the product is but half that, what
other crop affords so great and so reliable a profit ?
A ten -acre grove would pay better than a ten -horse
cotton farm, and a grove once set is a lifetime thing.
A gentleman who lives only a few miles from
THE PECAN AXD HOW TO GROW IT 71
this place has two bearing trees, from which he
gathered and sold last year 847.50 worth of nuts
with still enough left for family use. Think what
an acre of such trees would pay. It is surer than
life insurance or a hank account. You can't spend
it in a few years, nor do you have to die to win.
It pays an enormous interest and pays it promptly
and surely on the first day of every November.
Forty trees are usually put on an acre. My plan is
to check off the land thirty by thirty-five feet.
This gives about thirty-six trees to the acre, which,
in my opinion is near enough. They should be
set at one year old and not later than two, as it
is not unusual for a year-old tree to have a root
twice as Ions: as the tree is tall. Good mulching
and fertilizing is about the best thing; for the first
year or so. After that any of the high grade fer-
tilizers will produce astonishing results. Experi-
ence has proven the fall planted trees will grow
more in two years, than those planted in the spring
will in three. So the sooner they are set after they
stop growing in the fall the better. They will then
have formed new roots enough to enable them to
stand the summer. If any one will, for experi-
72 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
ment, take and transplant a tree in September and
dig it np in November, the number of small roots
that have been formed will surprise him. Com-
mence now young man, and put out a grove of the
best paying and most reliable of all trees, the Pecan.
Pecan nut& are not perishable like pears, plums,
oranges and other fruit. Ten years more, will pass
as swiftly as the past, and in all probability your
neighbor will have a bearing grove ahead of you.
In the South no industry pays better than a Pecan
grove. To give some idea of what I think of the
business after fifteen years experience, I will say
that I have a thirty-five-acre grove and am only
sorry that I did not put out one hundred acres in-
stead of thirty-five. I will put out sixty acres more
this winter, making one hundred acres in what I
consider the most valuable and reliable trees one
can plant. O. D. Faust,
Bamberg, S. C.
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 73
BY PROF. F. S. GARD.
Suppose a party with some means purchase
1,000 acres of good Pecan land at say $5 per acre
(and good lands at present can be had for that) the
cost of the land will he #5,000. To inclose this
with good cypress fencing, cost (material and work)
$4,000; seed, planting of the same 52 feet apart
each way (making 16 to the acre), and putting cy-
press stakes around the seed planted, $1,000; total,
A smaller grove might be taken as a sample, but
what is true of a large one will be more fully true
of a small one, which can be kept up in connection
with the regular work of the farm without the pur-
chase of additional mules or farming implements
for the special work of cultivating the grove. Thus
far we have the cost of land, fencing, and putting
the seed in the ground and proper guards around
it, at a cost of $10,000; size of grove, 1,000 acres;
trees in rows 52 feet apart, or 16 to the acre, giving
the whole grove 16,000 trees. Now, for the culti-
74 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
vation of the trees planted in a proper soil: The
Pecan needs no cultivation for its own sake; it will
grow from the seed to a full -sized tree without the
use of a plow or hoe.
It is a forest tree with long roots, and capable
of making their way through the soil, and gather-
ing up food like other forest trees, without the help
of man. But being comparatively a slow grower
at first and therefore liable to be smothered to
death by the rank growth of weeds, etc., natural to
our warm climate and prolific soil, the Pecan tree
for the first few years of its growth needs the assist-
ance of the plow and hoe to make it a decided suc-
cess. This assistance if given with reference to
nothing else than the keeping of the trees of the
grove clear will cost some money. But there is no
necessity that this outlay for cultivation should be a
dead expense, as the land planted to trees can be
planted in cotton, sugar, corn or almost anything
that will pay expense of cultivation; there is no
necessity that the Pecan grove should cost anything
more to its owner. Thus the first cost of the land,
fencing and planting, and even part of this, can be
made to come back before the trees can be bearing,
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 75
by the judicious management of the working or
leasing of the land planted in Pecan trees.
Assuming that $10,000 to be the first cost of the
16,000 tree grove, and that no further outlay is
needed, by a judicious management of the place, to
bring the grove up to bearing, Ave are theoretically
at least prepared to determine whether the enter-
J3rise will pay, and if so what per cent, on the cap-
ital invested. The money invested in a Pecan
grove will give no returns under twelve years from
the date of planting the seed. Some Pecan trees
bear before they are twelve years old, but not
enough to pay much. I have seen trees bear as
much as one-fourth of a barrel at twelve years from
the seed; at sixteen years from the seed a Pecan
tree will bear from one-half to a whole barrel of
Pecans; at a more advanced age the tree will
double or treble this amount. Put the gross prod-
uct of a Pecan tree at twenty years of age at $5 —
and this is about the average yearly crop for a
number of trees taken together — this gives for an
annual income from 16,000 trees, $X0,000. Before
the grove is twenty years old it will have yielded
fruit enough to repay first-cost of the orchard and
76 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
interest on the same up to that date. So that after
that time, the net income from an investment of
^10,000; or in other words, a net income of $40,000
on a capital of $10,000 invested. Will this pay?
This is not all theory. The figures can be realized
if the planting and cultivating be done on strictly
business principles. While some are developing
the corn, cotton, rice and sugar interests, let others
whose tastes lead in the direction of fruits, develop
the Pecan, orange and other fruit interests of our
INFORMATION OF VALUE TO PERSONS INTERESTED
IN THE CULTURE.
Rockingham, N. C, Aug. 22, '91.
Editor Morning Starr
Dear Sir: I notice a good deal being .said
about Pecan culture and would like to have my say,
too, and at the same time get all the information I
can. I got seed from Arkansas and planted about
twelve years ago and the trees are now from twenty
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 77
to twenty -five feet high, and from six to fifteen
inches in diameter, and have been bearing for four
years. I can say little about the profit of the crop
as I have only a few trees bearing and have put no
fruit on the market; but the nuts are fine and well
flavored. I send you by this mail an average sam-
ple of the nut at this stage of growth; there are
clusters on the trees having eii^ht nuts in a bunch.
The trees are planted in ordinary soil, with barely
ordinary cultivation. About four years ago I
planted a nursery, the seed also from Arkansas.
The trees are about a foot apart in the row and the
rows four feet apart. They are now an inch to two
inches in diameter and from ten to twelve feet
I transplanted fifty last spring without the loss
of a single tree. In every excavation from which
I took the tree to be transplanted have sprung up
three, four, and sometimes half a dozen young trees
from the roots of the adjacent trees left exposed.
The young trees are now two feet high, vigorous
and perfect in shape as if from seed. My bearing
trees and nursery are in the town of Rockingham,
and worth a visit of inspection to those interested.
78 THE PEC AX AXD HOW TO GROW IT
I expect to plant a grove of four or five hundred
trees; will begin this fall. I have seen a Pecan,
called the " paper-shell, " about twice the size of the
ordinary nut with thinner shell. I would like to
know if any one is familiar with the nut and where
to get the seed. I saw the nut at the Exposition in
I expect to have on exhibition at the fair in
Raleigh this fall a specimen of the nuts on my
trees. I can sit under Pecan trees of my own
planting and eat nuts of my own production and
clo not "mumble them without the teeth either."
Very respectfully yours,
T. J. Steele.
JS T UTS FOR PROFIT.
The Massachusetts Ploughman says: In the
South the raising of nuts for profit is a foregone
conclusion. The Pecan is the nut preferred, from
its large yield, and from the oil which the nut
holds. This when pressed can be used for table or
cooking purposes, and the demand for it is steadily
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 79
increasing. Chief Van Deman, of the Department
of Agriculture, believes firmly in the cultivation of
the nuts as a profitable industry. Colonel Stuart,
of Ocean Springs, Miss., who has made a wide rep-
utation as a successful cultivator, says: "I planted
those large paper-shell Pecan nuts when I was fifty-
seven years old, and now I am sixty-one, I tell you
they help me live. I got 117 pounds from one tree
last fall, sold 105 pounds for $105 and planted the
remainder of them, and have raised a fine lot of
young trees, which are for sale. Pecan culture,
planting the very large nuts, I consider one of the
safest and best paying industries a man can engage
in. One of the highest priced nuts in Europe is the
Pecan, shipped from New Orleans but grown in
Texas. This tree is the Hicoria Pecan, growing
from southern Indiana to the Gulf of Mexico.
New varieties are obtained by grafting, and these
bring fancy prices. The nuts are oblong, smooth
and thin -shelled, with sweet and delicious kernels.
The tree is beautiful, symmetrical, and rapid-grow-
ing, with abundant light green foliage, narrower
than that of the hickory. There is a tine specimen
tree in the grounds of the Capitol at Washington.
80 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
IS PECAN GEO WING PROFITABLE.
Our New Orleans market seems to be a favorite
for shippers of Pecans, as large quantities are re-
ceived at this point from various places throughout
the Gulf States, and especially the State of Texas,
where they are mostly gathered from natural groves.
These nuts range in size and quality from the small-
est, which sell at wholesale at about four cents, to a
fair quality, which range from seven to twelve and
a half cents per pound. In Louisiana and Missis-
sippi however, where the trees have been mostly
planted and cultivated, the product is generally of
a much better quality, and it is from these States
the large paper-shell variety come which sell at
wholesale from forty to fifty cents, and even more,
if very choice. This fact clearly demonstrates the
necessity to such readers of The Times- Democrat
as propose investing in a Pecan orchard, the wisdom
of propagating not from the medium but from the
very best nuts that can be purchased. To illus-
trate: A barrel of Pecans will weigh, let us say,
THE PECAN AXD HO IV TO GROW IT. 81
160 net. If tliey are small and inferior, the pro-
ceeds at 4 cents, will be $6.40; if medium, 7 cents,
or $11.20; if fairly large at 12 cents, or $19.20; if
very large with soft shells, the highest market price,
which we will say is 30 cents, or $48 per barrel.
And the latter, it must be remembered, cost no more
to grow than the most inferior sorts. Now there
are many persons who would plant Pecans but are
deterred from it, first, upon the area of land neces-
sary to establish a large orchard ; secondly, upon
the length of time elapsing before such an orchard
would produce a profit.
To the first objection we will say, there is no more
handsome ornamental tree than the Pecan, either
for the house, yard, or lawn, and it is always pref-
erable to grow a nut-producing tree, all things be-
ing equal, than one valuable for shade and ornament
alone. Again, there are very few farmers who do
not own a piece of land which is utilized as a past-
ure for stock, and which for argument's sake, we
will say contains ten acres. This planted in Pecans,
at the rate of sixteen trees to the acre, and protected
four or five years from browsing by cattle and sheep,
may be returned to its former use as a pasture to the
82 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
equal benefit of both trees and stock. To the sec-
ond objection, to wit, the length of time neces-
sary to wait before an orchard becomes profitable,
we answer: The Pecan being a forest tree and very
long-lived, its progress is necessarily slow. This is
especially the case with the natural growth. But it
is being clearly demonstrated that by selecting,
first, only the best varieties; second, by fertilizing
and cultivation this time may be reduced, say four
or five years, perhaps more. To illustrate: On our
little farm in the pine woods, was a group of three
trees fifteen years old, each producing three-quar-
ters ©f a barrel of superior nuts, the income from
which amply repaid for the room they occupid be-
side paying taxes upon the farm. Second, a lady
who resides in Plaquemines parish gave us a quan-
tity of Pecans produced from trees ten years old,
from the seed. Third, a gentleman living in the
vicinity of Mobile, reports several of his fifteen -
year-old trees yielding one barrel each. Fourth,
a correspondent of the Orlando (Fla.) Reporter
showed extra fine nuts from trees fifteen years old,
producing at the rate of two bushels each. Fifth,
Col. W. R. Stuart, of Ocean Springs, Miss., a gen-
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 83
tleinan well-known in New Orleans, lias quite a
number of fine trees from which he is receiving a
large income. These trees are quite large and
twelve years old from the seed. We might multi-
ply these instances, but they are sufficient data
upon which to calculate the age at which the Pecan
begins to become profitable. Lastly, a thrifty
Pecan grove upon the farm undoubtedly adds to its
value, whether the trees are large or small. It is
also an investment for the young man that will re-
turn him twenty -fold at middle age and fifty -fold
should he live to grow old; a future endowment
for his children and grandchildren, one that will
pay better and is more sure than stocks or bonds or
business enterprises of any kind, if ever so promis-
ing. — Editorial in The Time*-I>emocrat* New
84 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
PKOGKESSIVE PECAN CULTUKE.
THE GOOD POINTS OF A NEW INDUSTRY ABLY SET
FORTH. OF GREAT INTEREST TO TEXAS
A paper read by Col. W. R. Stuart, of Ocean Springs, Miss., before
the Mississippi S'ate Horticultural Society.
I have been requested by your honored secre-
tary to prepare a paper on " Progressive Pecan
Culture,'" to be read at the Ninth Annual Meeting
of your Society, which is ordered to convene at
Booneville, Mississippi, December 16, 17 and 18 ;
If I fail to interest you, please attribute the
failure to my inability to properly treat this impor-
tant subject, rather than lay the charge at the door
of that much -abused individual, " Old Father
Time," at whose threshold has been piled the short-
comings of many a brilliant orator and writer. And
I claim that the subject of " Pecan Culture " is an
important one. It is so recognized by very many of
the leading horticulturists of the South, and its im-
portance is further attested by thousands of enter-
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 85
juising men and women throughout the country,
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, who are eneraerinff
in the work. Besides, we have the unqualified in-
dorsement of Prof. H. E. Van Deman, the United
States Pomologist, Washington, D. C, as to the in-
comparable value of the Pecan. Fifteen years ago
(at the age of fifty-six years) I was impressed with
the belief that Pecan culture in the southern half
of the United States promised vast possibilities, if
due care and attention were given it.
I purchased and planted the largest and best
flavored Pecans that could be found, without regard
Experience lias demonstrated the correctness of
this theory. And it was in this way that a new
industry (Pecan culture) was begun; an industry
new not only to myself, but new to the country at
large. During the years that have followed I have
felt a deep interest in this work, and have used
every honorable means at my command to advance
the cause by improving the varieties grown and by
bringing the subject prominently before the Ameri-
can people. Some writers have been pleased to
call me " The Father of Pecan Culture." If my
86 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
humble efforts have been instrumental in giving
this branch of horticulture the prominence it has
attained, surely those years were well spent, and I
have reason to be proud of the distinction accorded
me. For the Pecan has taken its place in the front
rank as the best and most profitable nut-bearing
tree, while the nut itself, where its merits are fully
known, is pronounced superior to all others. And
this industry must go on from year to year increas-
ing in popular favor as well as in profit to those en-
gaged in its pursuit. The pride felt in this work
has been seasoned by a reasonable admixture of
profit and pleasure, but there is even greater pleas-
ure in the thought that I have rendered valuable
service to those of my fellow -beings whom I have
induced to engage in Pecan culture. Having on
former occasions given figures showing actual re-
sults of my experience, that feature will not be
treated in this paper. However, it is desired to
refer, in passing, to one tree of the variety known
as the " Stuart Pecan," soft shell, which has yielded
this year over $250 worth of nuts, at the price read-
ily obtained from them. What branch of horti-
culture will pay better? It is truly gratifying to
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT. 87
note the widespread and ever- increasing interest in
Pecan culture as well as the growing demand for
the l>est varieties. The tendency to-day is to begin
right. New beginners, real or prospective, are
seeking information as to the best varieties and the
best methods, so that no time or labor may be
wasted in unnecessary experiments. Nor do these
inquiries come from any particular locality, but
from all parts of the country, from Florida to Cali-
fornia and from Maryland to Texas.
In all portions of the United States, south of the
fortieth parallel of latitude, Pecan groves are being
started, and some enterprising gentlemen risk the
business even farther North. The importance of a
correct beginning cannot be overestimated. The
best results can only be had by planting the best-
varieties, and by thorough cultivation while the
trees are young. The grower's bank account will
be materially affected by the price obtained for the
product of the grove; there will be greater profit in
producing nuts that will find a ready market at one
dollar or more per pound, than in those which sell
for only ten cents per pound. I am selling one
variety at ten cents each and will not have half
88 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
enough to fill the orders that will be received dur-
ing the next sixty days. Mr. J. T. Quigley, of
Aransas Harbor, Texas, a gentleman of clear,
practical views, and who is a close student of Pecan
culture, recently procured some of my best varieties
for planting. Under date Dec. 7, he writes, u To
the investor of to-day these nuts are cheap at a dol-
lar a piece.' '
I could add dozens of similar testimonials, but
merely give the above as it forcibly expresses the
value of the best seed, and the importance of plant-
ing only the best. Hence it may be assumed that
the secret of success in Pecan culture is found in
planting the best varieties of Pecans in good soil,
and in the thorough cultivation of the trees until
they come into bearing. While the trees are young
they will not interfere with the growth of any crop
it is desired to cultivate. The Pecan tree thrives
best in a generous soil, and unless the soil is very
rich, it will be found advisable to stimulate the
trees by the use of muck, mulch or fertilizer. Bear
in mind that the attention bestowed upon your
young trees will be richly repaid in their rapid and
vigorous growth. But here we are met by the irre-
THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT 89
pressible croaker who, in tones of despair, exclaims.
" Oh, it is too long to wait; it will be eight or ten
years before we get any returns for the labor and
money expended." Too long to wait? Why, my
good friend, will you not have to wait whether or
not you plant the Pecan trees?
And your land will not produce less of the reg-
ular crop you rely on for a support, because of the
small trees, which will, with due attention, soon
grow into a bearing condition and render you inde-
pendent the balance of your life. As to transplant-
ing trees, my experience has convinced me that it is
better to transplant the Pecan tree at the age of one
or two years. Avoid older trees, for they are not
apt to do so well, unless they have been highly cul-
tivated and well cared for in the nursery.
Indeed the one-year-old trees are most desirable.
In conclusion, I desire to express a willingness to
impart in the future, as in the past, any information
or assistance in my power to those who exj^ect to
engage in this industry. I do not claim to know all
about Pecan culture, for I am learnino; something
new on the subject everyday. But what I do know
I have learned by practical experience, and I will
90 THE PECAN AND HOW TO GROW IT.
most cheerfully give my friends wlio are interested
in the subject the benefit of that experience if they
will apply to me. Pecan culture is in its infancy
to-day and will make rapid advancement within the
next ten years. There is no danger of overdoing
the business, for the demand will keep pace with
the production; and the man who plants now will
doubtless not only reap the reward in person, but
will leave a rich legacy to his children or those
who succeed him. We have record of one wild
Pecan tree which has produced more than 1,000
pounds of nuts in one season. Please estimate the
value of that tree had it been of the choice varie-
ties. Hence plant the best; it will repay you many
fold. "Progressive Pecan Culture " is a subject
that will soon interest the young and old through-
out our grand country. I confess that my interest
increases with each succeeding year. I am now in
the 7 2d year of my age, and as an evidence of my
faith in this industry, will state that I have just fin-
ished clearing up a piece of new ground in which I
will plant a young grove this winter.
Ocean Springs, Miss., Dee. 11, 1891.
Perhaps you are looking for a location upon which to
set a Pecan grove? In case you don't find what suits you
write us, we can give you points that may lead you to it.
Do you want to sell a Pecan grove ?
Do you want to buy a Pecan grove ?
Do you want anything that pertains to the Pecan in-
dustry ? If so, by all means write us without delay.
Tell us just what you want, and if we can't help you
out we will put you in correspondence with some one who
can, we are at your service. Address
The Stuart Pecan Co.
Ocean Springs, Mississippi.
REAL ESTATE AGENCY.
This agency is established to deal with
every class of Real Estate property...
LARGE TRACTS OF LAND
AT A FAIR flARKET VALUE.
It can undertake negotiations forthwith, and anyone placing
property in our hands, however small or large,
will always receive prompt attention.
GULF COAST LAND A SPECIALTY
LAND FROM THREE TO ONE HUNDRED
DOLLARS PER ACRE.
For further information call on or address
J. HARLAND COATES,
12 Godliman St., St. Pauls,
F. L. DRINKWATER,