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THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



THE PECAN AND 
ITS CULTURE 



BY 

H. HAROLD HUME 



SECOND EDITION 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 
1910 



7U 



H 9> 

Copyright, 19U0. 



Second odition, 
Copyright, 1910, by H. Harold Hujue 



^cunt pleasant Press 

J. Horace McFarlaxid Company 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

In the horticultural development of the country, new 
fruits, new groups of fruits, new fruit industries are 
coming into prominence. Our native fruits in particu- 
lar are now receiving, in many parts of the country, a 
larger share of the attention which they have always 
merited, and none has proven itself more worthy of 
careful study and painstaking care than the pecan. 

Within the last ten or fifteen years, it has rapidly 
emerged from a wild or semi- wild condition to the 
status of an orchard nut. The foundations of its culture 
were laid a considerable time ago, but only now is it 
coming to its own, — its well-merited standing among 
the fruits of the country. 

In any horticultural industry, many questions must 
be asked of the plant, the soil, the climate, — in short, of 
the plant in its environment. They must be answered 
aright, if the industry is to succeed. The newer the 
plant in cultivation, the more numerous the questions 
are, the more difficult to answer. 

In an endeavor to aid in solving some of the prob- 
lems connected with the culture of the pecan, this small 
volume has been prepared. Pecan culture has been 
the subject of careful study, observation and experi- 
mentation on the part of the author for a number of 
years, and the results of these studies are presented in 
the following pages. 

To the many who have so kindly and willingly 
assisted in its preparation, my thanks are herein 
expressed. ^ Harold Hume. 

Raleigh, N. C, 
August 1, 1906. 

(vii) 

35950 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

Since the first edition was published in 1906, a great 
deal of new information has been secured on the culture 
of pecans. Our knowledge concerning the behavior of 
varieties in different regions has become more definite, 
the range of possible pecan culture has been more 
clearly defined, and a more intimate knowledge of its 
general requirements has been secured. Meanwhile, 
its consumption and the number of uses to which the 
pecan nut is put have increased manyfold. The 
status of the pecan in relation to the horticulture of a 
very large portion of the country has greatly increased 
in importance, though it has been plainly shown, at 
the same time, that its culture requires as much care- 
ful attention as does any other fruit. We can now look 
forward to the development of the pecan industry 
along stable and definite fines. 

It is hoped that this new edition may assist greatly 
in the successful culture of this valuable nut, and that 
it may prove of practical value to the planter. It 
has been largely re-written, and a number of new il- 
lustrations have been added. For some of these new 
illustrations, I am indebted to Prof. P. H. Rolfs, Di- 
rector Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla., 
and to Mr. Wm. N. Roper, of the American Fruit and 
Nut Journal, Petersburg, Va., and my thanks are here- 
by expressed. ^ Harold Hume. 

Glen Saint Mary, Fla. 
June 13, 1910. 



(viii) 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

Pages 

Importance of the Pecax 1-9 

Present Production — Nut Exports and Imports — Tables. 

CHAPTER II 

Pecan Botany 10-16 

Pollination. 

CHAPTER III 

Pecan Geography 17-21 

Native Pecan Range — Cultural Area. 

CHAPTER IV 

Propagation of the Pecan 22-42 

Seedling Versus Grafted Trees — Pecan Stocks — Storing 
and Planting Seed Nuts — -Cultivation of Nursery Seed- 
lings — Necessary Materials and Tools — Selection of 
Scions — Time — Budding — After-care — Grafting, 

CHAPTER V 

Top-working Pecans 43-54 

Methods of Operation — Top-working by Budding — 
Top-working by Grafting. 

CHAPTER VI 

Soils and Their Preparation 55-58 

Preparation. 

(ix) 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VII 

Purchasing and Planting Pecans 59-75 

Detecting Bogus Trees — What Kind of Trees to Plant — 
Cost of Nursery Stock — Planting Time — How Far 
Apart — Planting Systems — Laying Out Before Plant- 
ing — Planting the Trees. 

CHAPTER VIII 

Cultivation and Fertilizers 7G-S2 

Benefits of Cultivation — Cultivating Old Orchards — 
Tools — Fertilizers — Applying Fertilizers. 

CHAPTER IX 

Cover and Other Crops 83-89 

Advantages of Cover Crops — Kinds of Cover Crops — 
Catch Crops — Double Plantings. 

CHAPTER X 

Pruning and Surgery 90-101 

High- Versus Low-Headed Trees — Root-Trimming 
Before Planting — Pruning Tops of Young Trees — Nur- 
sery Root-Pruning — How to IMake the Cuts — When to 
Prune — Treatment of Wounds — Crotched and Broken 
Trees — Pruning Tools. 

CHAPTER XI 

Fungous and Other Diseases 102-109 

Pecan Leaf Blight — Pecan Scab — Pecan Rosette — Bor- 
deaux Mixture — Lime-Sulphur — General Remarks. 

CHAPTER XII 

Insects Attacking the Pecan 110-121 

Feeding Habits of Insects — Insects Attacking Buds and 
Leaves — Insects Attacking the Trunk and Branches — 
Insects Attacking the Fruit. 



CONTENTS XI 

CHAPTER XIII 

Harvesting and Marketing the Crop 122-137 

Picking Equipment — Time to Gather — Picking — Shuck- 
ing — Curing — Grading — Packages — Packing — Storing — 
Marketing, 

CHAPTER XIV 

Pecan Kernels 138-144 

Packing Experiments — Nut-Crackers — Pecan Oil. 

CHAPTER XV 

Pecan Judging 145-146 

CHAPTER XVI 

What Varieties to Plant 147-153 

Ideals — Personal Preferences — Commercial Plantings — 
How Many Nuts in a Cluster — Varieties Recom- 
mended. 

CHAPTER XVII 

Varieties 154-189 

Classification of Varieties — Varieties Described — 
Hybrid Pecans. 

CHAPTER XVIII 
Pecan Literature 190-192 

INDEX 193-195 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



CHAPTER I 
IMPORTANCE OF THE PECAN 

In all-round excellence, the pecan is equaled by 
none of the native American nut-bearing trees, and cer- 
tainly it is surpassed by no exotic species. It stands 
in the list of nut trees with but few equals and no 
superiors. With this fact known and admitted by all, it 
is reasonable to beheve that the pecan will become a 
valuable addition to our list of cultivated fruits. 
Because of its intrinsic worth, it deserves a large share 
of attention, more than it has received. At present, it is 
gaining a position of so much importance as an orchard 
tree that, ere long, it will become an extremely import- 
ant item in the horticultural wealth of the southern 
and southwestern states. 

Large quantities of pecans are sold in our markets. 
These are the product of uncultivated or forest trees. 
Many orchards of consideral)le size, planted with 
meritorious budded and grafted varieties, are now in 
bearing, but the product of these plantings is used en- 
tirely by what may be termed a private trade, — either 
by seedsmen, or by private individuals for dessert pur- 
poses. Some clay, varieties of pecans will become known 
in the markets, just as varieties of grapes, apples or 
pears are known. People ask for Niagara or Concord 
grapes, Northern Spy or Greening apples, Bartlett or 
Seckel pears — ask for what they want, and know what 
they are getting. The day is far distant when Frotscher, 

A (1) 



Z THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Schley, Van Deman, Stuart, Curtis, or other varieties 
of pecans, will be known by name by the purchasing 
public, asked for in the markets, and recognized when 
procured. But that time must and will come, and until 
then there is no danger of the industry being overdone, 
— and not even then, because our population is con- 
stantly growing, because the pecan nut is being put 
to a variety of new uses, and as yet the export trade 
is entirely undeveloped. It would appear also that the 
pecan might reasonably be expected to replace, to a 
certain extent, the foreign nuts in our own markets. 

According to the investigations of Woods and Mer- 
rill,* the pecan has a higher food value than either the 
walnut, filbert, cocoanut, almond or peanut. The 
results of their analyses are as follows: 



Pecans, kernels . . . . 
Walnuts, kernels . . . 
Filberts, kernels. . . . 
Cocoanuts, shredded 
Almonds, kernels . . 
Shelled Peanuts. . . . 







Per cent 


100.0" 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Edible Portion 





o 


Fat 


Per 


Per 


Per 


cent 


cent 


cent 


2.9 


10.3 


70.8 


2.8 


16.7 


64.4 


3.7 


15.7 


65.3 


3.5 


6.3 


57.3 


4.8 


21.0 


54.9 


1.6 


30.5 


49.2 









Per 


Per 


cent 


cent 


14.3 


1.7 


14.8 


1.3 


13.0 


2.4 


31.6 


1.3 


17.3 


2.0 


16.2 


2.5 



Calories 

3445 
3305 
3290 
3125 
3030 
2955 



t Calculated from analysis. 

It is a fact worthy of note that the average man 
requires 3,500 calories of energy each day, an amount 
which must be secured from food consumed. One 
pound of pecan kernels, according to the above analysis, 
would supply 3,445 calories, or only 55 calories less 
than the amount required per day. We are not, be it 
understood, pointing out this fact because we believe 

* See Index of Literature. 




An avenue shaded by pecan trees. 



4 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

that the pecan alone would be a satisfactory food, — 
though it is wholesome, nourishing and palatable, and 
should be used in larger quantities than is usually the 
case, — but simply to emphasize its high food value. 

According to the foregoing analyses, the pecan is 
richer in fat than any of the other nuts. Seventy per 
cent, of the kernels is fat. The pecan may at some 
time be in requisition as a source of oil, — an oil which 
would doubtless be useful for salad purposes, — but it is 
never likely to be converted into oil until the present 
prices of nuts are greatly reduced. 

If we turn from the dietary value of the nut to the 
ornamental value of the tree, we cannot but be forcibly 
impressed with its value as a shade and ornamental 
tree. For these purposes, it may be planted far out- 
side the area in which fruit may be reasonably ex- 
pected. If given good soil and sufficient plant food, it 
grows quite rapidly, making a stately, vigorous, long- 
lived tree. In its native forests it is a giant tree, some- 
times reaching a height of upward of two hundred feet, 
with a trunk diameter of six feet. Isolated specimens, 
grown in the open, come to maturity wdth wide-spread- 
ing branches, and the whole tree has an exceedingly 
graceful appearance. In the pecan area there is no 
deciduous shade tree, neither oak nor elm nor maple, 
and certainly not the catalpa, poplar, nor paulownia, 
which surpasses the pecan either in beauty or in length 
of life. There are reasons why a person would some- 
times rather plant an evergreen tree, — a live oak, 
camphor or magnolia for instance — but why the pecan 
should not be given preference over every other tree 
which sheds its leaves in autumn is something which 
we cannot quite understand. Wh}' should not our 
streets and roads, our avenues and boulevards be lined 
with stately pecans rather than with shorter-lived and 
(judged by every standard) far less handsome trees ? 
To our profit and the country's advantage, we may well 




Pecan tree twice struck by lightning. 



6 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

. follow the example of France, Germany, and other 
European countries, in the planting of nut trees for 
shade and ornament, as well as for revenue. The objec- 
tions urged against this plan are not real, they exist 
only in the minds of a short- sighted and thoughtless 
people. Wherever it will succeed, no other shade tree 
is so worthy of attention as the pecan, and, in the fruit- 
ing area, beauty and healthful shade may be combined 
with utihty. 

While it must be conceded that the pecan is not 
comparable with some other fruits in yielding quick 
returns, yet, on the other hand, the fact must not be 
overlooked that it is a long-lived tree. It will, under 
proper conditions of soil, climate and treatment, con- 
tinue to bear fruit longer than almost any other tree 
which we cultivate. It will supply nuts for the tables 
of generations yet unborn, and cast its grateful shade 
o'er the path of the wayfarer hundreds of years hence. 
It has a possible productive period of centuries. 

The amount of abuse which a healthy pecan tree 
will withstand is phenomenal, and is certainly indic- 
ative of great endurance and vitaUty. Trees have 
been injured by fire, flood and high winds, and yet have 
survived. The accompanying illustration shows one 
which has been struck twice b}^ lightning. The tree is 
still in healthy condition, except for the rotting of the 
trunk, and is bearing a good crop of nuts. A broad, 
flat top has been produced in its effort to repair the 
damage. 

As an orchard tree, it is well worth planting. The 
ground in which the trees are planted may be culti- 
vated in other crops for a number of years, thus reducing 
to a minimum the cost of maintaining the planting; 
and, when the trees have come into bearing, the same 
area in trees will yield manyfold more in net returns 
than the same area in cotton or corn at the usual 
market prices. 



IMPORTANCE OF THE PECAN 7 

PRESENT PRODUCTION 

Definite statistics on the present output of pecan 
nuts are hard to secure. Most of the crop, which finds 
its way into the open market, is produced by native 
trees in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Of these 
three states, Texas produces by far the greatest number 
of pounds. Even there, the waste is great, and it is 
doubtful whether more than three-quarters of the crop 
is ever marketed. The census estimate in 1899 was 
3,206,850 pounds, and of this amount Texas was 
credited with 1,810,670 pounds. It is probable that 
the census figures have been greatly exceeded. In fact 
the crop has been estimated in some seasons at as much, 
as 900 cars, or 18,000,000 pounds, for Texas alone, 
which would make the total Gulf States crop something 
over 20,000,000 pounds. 

The present pecan orchards of improved varieties 
in different parts of the country total many thousands 
of trees. Extensive plantings have been made in 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, 
and lesser areas in nearly all the other states mentioned 
in Chapter III. But there is no doubt that, even when 
the present plantings — or such of them as are cared 
for — come into bearing, the growers will be as far short 
of supplying the demand as they are now; much less 
able to take care of a large export trade, which can 
undoubtedly be developed. 

NUT EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

The import trade in different nuts has growm to 
enormous proportions. In 1908, the amount paid for 
foreign-grown nuts was $9,643,943.00. Of the nuts 
imported, walnuts and almonds are the most important, 
as they are comparable with the pecan in their uses. 
The amount of almonds brought into the United States 



8 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

in 1908 was 26,738,834 pounds; and of walnuts, 
28,887,110 pounds. These figures are important, in- 
dicating, as they do, the large amounts of nuts con- 
sumed (to say nothing of the home-grown product). 
Moreover, it is not improbable that a large portion of 
the domestic consumption in these nuts might be sup- 
planted by the pecan. Besides, they show what might 
be done in the export trade. As the pecan is pecu- 
liarly an American product, there would be no com- 
petition in marketing it other than what would come 
from other species of nuts. 

Allien pecans were shown at the Paris Exposition, 
they called forth very favorable comment; and the 
few which have been placed on the European markets 
have commanded three or four times the price paid for 
other nuts commonly sold in the same markets. How- 
ever, it will be some time yet before we can take care 
of our own markets. 

At this time, as shown in the accompanying table, 
our nut exports, consisting mostly of peanuts, are 
unimportant as compared with our imports, and give 
an idea of the great undeveloped market which may 
some day be supplied. 

EXPORTS OF NUTS FROM UNITED STATES FOR YEARS 
1900-1908 INCLUSIVE 

Value 

1900 $156,490 

1901 218,743 

1902 304,241 

1903 299,558 

1904 330,360 

1905 309,195 

1906 416,886 

1907 382,165 

1908 373,024 

Considered from whatever standpoint we may choose, 
the pecan is a valuable tree, whether cultivated for its 
nuts or planted for shade or ornamental effect. 





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CHAPTER II 
PECAN BOTANY 

The aborigines of the country used hickory nuts of 
different kinds as food, and, in the region in which the 
pecan grows as a native tree, it was valued by them 
above all its relatives. Penicaut found in his travels 
that the Indians stored large amounts of pecans for 
winter use. The scientific name of the pecan is appro- 
priately derived from two Indian words, "powco- 
hiccora" and ''paean." There is no reason to doubt but 
that the Indians were instrumental in distributing it 
m the different parts of the country. Doubtless they 
carried the nuts with them on their journeys and planted 
them intentionally or unintentionally in their ramb- 
lings. The Indians have had much to do with the dis- 
tribution of such plants as were useful to them. 

In 1785, the pecan was described under the name 
Juglans Pecan, by Marshall, in his Arboretum Ameri- 
canum. In 1818, Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist, 
separated the hickories from the walnuts and butter- 
nuts, putting them under a new genus which he called 
Carya, naming the pecan Carya olivwformis. Nuttall's 
classification was followed for many years until in 1888, 
it was pointed out by Dr. Britton* that in the year 
previous to the publication of Nuttall's work, 1817, 
C. S. Rafinesque, a French naturahst, had separated 
the hickories along the same lines as Nuttall, and pub- 
lished them under the name Hicoria. In accordance 
with the laws of priority, Rafinesque's name, Hicoria^ 
takes precedence over Carya. 

* Bulletin Torrey Bot. Club, XV, p. 277. 

(10) 



PECAN BOTANY 11 

The family JuglandaceoB embraces but two genera, 
Juglans and Hicoria, the former including the walnuts 
and butternuts, and the latter the pecan and other 
hickories. With the exception of the Shellbark hickory, 
Hicoria ovata Britton, and the Big shellbark, Hicoria 
laciniosa Sargent, the pecan is the only one of the genus 
worthy of cultivation. 

In 1896, Dr. WiUiam Trelease,* in a study of "Jug- 
landacece, of the United States," divided the genus 
Hicoria into two sections, Pacania and Euhicoria. In 
the first of these he placed the pecan and three of its 
nearest relatives, myristio'formis, aquatica and minima. 
This division is useful in showing the relationship of 
the different hickories. 

Family. — Juglandacese Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 180. 
1836. Trees with alternate pinnate leaves and mon- 
oecious bracted flowers. Staminate flowers in long, 
drooping catkins, provided with three or more stamens, 
and occasionally with an irregular-lobed perianth 
adnate to the bractlet and a rudimentary ovary. 
Anthers erect, wdth short filaments, two-celled; dehis- 
cent longitudinally. Pistillate flowers bracted with a 
three to five, normally four-lobed calyx and sometimes 
with petals. Ovule solitary, erect, styles two, stigmatic 
along the inner surface. Fruit a bony nut, incom- 
pletely two to four-celled. Seed large, two to four-lobed, 
cotyledons corrugated, oily, without endosperm. 

Genus.— mcorisi Raf. Med. Rep. (II) 5:352. 1808. 
Trees, with close or scaly bark, odd-pinnate leaves and 
serrate leaflets. Staminate flowers in slender drooping 
catkins, borne in groups of three, occasionally on the 
new shoots, but usually from buds just back of the 
terminal buds on last year's shoots, calyx naked, 
adherent to the bract, unequally two-third lobed or 
cleft; stamens \^^th short filaments, three to ten in 
number. Pistillate flowers, two to nine, produced on a 

* Report Mo. Bot. Garden, VII, pp. 32-36. 




Pecan tree at twenty years. 



PECAN BOTANY 13 

terminal peduncle, calyx four-parted, petals none, 
styles two to four, short, papillose. P>uit oblong, or 
obovoid, the husk separating into four parts; nut 
smooth or angled, bony, incompletely two to four-celled. 
Seed oily, sweet, edible, or bitter and astringent. 
Natives of eastern North America and Mexico. 

Species. — H. Pecan (Marsh.) Britton. Bull. Torr. 
Club, 15: 282. 1888. Pecan, Illinois nut. A large tree, 75 
to 170 feet in height and a diameter reaching 6 feet, 
with rough-broken bark. Young twigs and leaves pubes- 
cent, later nearly or quite glabrous; leaflets seven to 
fifteen, falcate, oblong — lanceolate, sharp-pointed, ser- 
rate, green and bright above, lighter below; staminate 
catkins five to six inches long, sessile or nearly so, 
sometimes borne near the base on the young shoots 
but usually from the uppermost lateral buds on last 
year's shoots; pistillate flowers terminal on shoots 
of the current season's growth, produced singly or in 
clusters of two to nine; fruit oblong cylindrical; husk 
four-valved; nut three-fourth to two and one-half 
inches in greatest diameter, roundish, or cylindrical 
and pointed, two-celled at the base, partition thin, 
bitter, seed deliciously sweet. Found native on the 
moist bottom lands along streams from Indiana south to 
Kentucky and Alabama, and from Iowa south to Texas, 
])rincipally along the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
the Colorado river in Texas, and along some of its 
tributaries into Mexico. 

POLLINATION 

Since two kinds of flowers are produced on the pecan, 
one bearing the pistils, the other stamens, the pollen 
must be transferred from the latter to the former in 
order that pollination may take place. In many plants, 
the pollen is transferred from one plant or flower to 
another by means of insects; but in the pecan there are 



14 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

no bright colors, no nectar, no scent to attract insects 
to carry pollen, but, instead, the wind is the carrying 
agent and it needs no attractions. Pollen is produced 
in large quantities, necessarily so, since much of it is 
wasted. 

Unfavorable weather conditions at time of blooming 
may interfere seriously with pollination. Heavy winds 
or wind-storms, and rains of several days duration, 
may prevent the necessary and desired distribution 
of the pollen, as a result of which no fruit is formed. 

Sometimes the staminate blooms are destroyed by 
frost, while the pistillate ones escape. It makes little 
difference which are destroyed, however, as in either 
case the result is the same — no fruit sets. 

The staminate flowers push out from the lateral buds 
at the same time the new shoot develops from the ter- 
minal one. The pistillate blossom does not appear 
until the terminal shoot has grown six or eight inches, 
and in the meantime it is protected by the unfolded 
leaves. The staminate bloom, on the contrary, is ex- 
posed from the first, having no leaves to protect it. In 
consequence, it is much more likely to be cut off by 
frost. Dr. Trelease refers to several observations on 
proterandry (maturing of the pollen before the stigmas 
of the pistils) in the pecan. This, together with the 
unprotected condition of the staminate blooms, we 
believe, accounts in a large measure for the non-setting 
of fruit on the northern boundaries of the pecan area. 

The artificial, or hand pollination, of the pecan is an 
easy matter, and offers an inviting field for those inter- 
ested in plant breeding. Emasculation, or the removal 
of the stamens from the flowers necessary in breeding 
so many plants, is not necessary in the pecan. All 
that is needed is to cover the pistillate blossoms with a 
sack until they are matured. At this time the inner or 
stigmatic surfaces of the pistils will be exposed and 
ready for the pollen. The pollen, collected from adjoin- 




Pecan flowers. Pistillate flowers enlarged below. 



16 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

ing trees in bloom or brought from a distance, can 
then be placed upon the stigmas and the sack replaced. 
When the fruit is set, the paper sack should be replaced 
by one of mosquito netting. Some careful work has 
already been done along this line, and it is hoped that 
many more vAW take up the work. Much yet remains 
to be desired, and varieties may be better adapted to 
different sections. The very best, large, fuU-meated, 
thin-shelled, prolific and precocious variety of pecan 
for each section has probably not yet been brought 
forward. It may be accidentally discovered; it may be 
produced and can be produced by systematic, pains- 
taking work in V^reeding. It is hoped that the number 
of workers in this inviting field may be increased. Some 
may be deterred by the fact that it will take the seed- 
lings so long to come into bearing. But scions may be 
taken from the seedlings raised from cross-bred nuts, 
top- worked on large trees, and fruit could be obtained 
in many cases in a period not exceeding five or six years 
from the seed. Those which would not produce fruit 
in six years in this way might perhaps as well be 
discarded. 



CHAPTER III 
PECAN GEOGRAPHY 

Most of the tree fruits, cultivated on an extensive 
scale in North America, are exotics. The orange, apple, 
peach and English walnut, for instance, are all strangers 
from other lands, which have found a congenial home 
in the soil of this continent. But few native species 
have been brought into cultivation for their fruits. 
The only ones worthy of note are the mulberry, plums, 
persimmon, shellbark hickory, big shellbark hickory' 
and the pecan. While the native American plums are 
very important in some sections of the country, yet 
it is not too much to say that the pecan far surpasses, 
both in present and in prospective value, any of the 
other native fruit trees. It has a wide native and cul- 
tivated range, and, while the area to which it is adapted 
as an orchard tree may not equal that of the apple, 
yet it closely approximates it. The two areas do not 
overlap to any great extent, except on the northern 
and western boundaries of the present pecan area. 

NATIVE PECAN RANGE 

The pecan is found as a forest tree in the moist 
l^ottom lands along the Mississippi river and its tribu- 
taries, from Indiana southward to Mississippi, and 
from Iowa to Texas and Mexico. 

This region in which the pecan is, cr has been 
found native, reaches its northern limit at Daven- 
port, Iowa. It skirts the Wabash as far north as 
Terre Haute, Indiana, and along the Ohio river nearly 

B (17) 



18 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

to Cincinnati, Ohio. From thence its range extends 
south to Chattanooga, Tenn., and on to Vicksburg, 
Miss. From Vicksburg it skirts the Gulf of Mexico at 
a distance of seventy-five to one hundred miles to La- 
redo, Texas; thence along the Salado river into Mexico. 
The western boundary embraces the headwaters of 
the Colorado river, and returns more or less directly to 
Davenport, Iowa. The area in which the pecan is indi- 
genous embraces portions of Iowa, Ilhnois, Indiana, 
Ohio, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Indian 



(Jld iX'faii trci'> on tin- \'>]-a/j>- ri\-(T, 'I'fxa-i. 

Territory, Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas and Mexico. On the outskirts of this 
area, it extends farthest in all directions along the 
streams and rivers, while, on the drier intervening 
ground, the line does not extend so far from the center 
of the region. Particularly is this true in southwestern 
Texas, where the pecan is confined almost solely to 
river-bottoms. 

It has not been generally kno^\Tl that the pecan is 
native in Alabama, and, therefore, the following item 
from the pen of the late Dr. Charles Mohr on the 
Mesophile forests of Alabama* will be interesting: 

*" Plant Life of Alabama," pp. 100-101, 1901. 



PECAN GEOGRAPHY 19 

"The pecan (Hicoria Pecan) and nutmeg hickory 
(Hicoria myristicceformis) are frequently scattered 
among the oaks throughout the woodlands of this 
region in the basin of the Alabama and Tombigbee 
rivers. There can be no doubt about the pecan being 
indigenous to this region, although heretofore not 
regarded as a native of the eastern gulf region outside 
of the Mississippi and Yazoo deltas. Groves of full- 
grown trees, which must have been in existence before 
the arrival of the first white settlers, are remembered 
by very old inhabitants. A few of these landmarks 
of the original forest growth still survive, surrounded by 
their offspring of succeeding generations, notably on 
a plantation near Faunsdale, Dallas county. Generally 
this tree has disappeared with the oak forest on the 
fertile lands, and is at present found only in the small 
groves of oaks saved from destruction, to shade the 
grounds around the dwellings of the planters." 

Moisture has been a factor in determining the native 
range of the species. The rivers have been the dis- 
tributing agents, and it is along their banks that this 
hickory has been principally found in a state of nature. 
The flood waters have often planted the seed far out- 
side the immediate vicinity of the banks of the streams. 
Along their shores, the Indians camped, and doubtless 
on many occasions dropped pecans from their store, 
thus assisting nature in her planting. 

CULTURAL AREA 

The region in which the pecan is cultivated as an 
orchard tree is not confined to the limits of its natural 
range. Plantings have been made outside its native 
area in the states and territories already mentioned, 
and besides, its cultivation, in some measure, has been 
undertaken in the states of Virginia, North CaroHna, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, New Mexico, Cali- 



20 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

fornia and Oregon. In many other states, experimental 
plantings have been made. Leaving these out of con- 
sideration, however, it ^vill be seen that in about 
twenty-three states the pecan is either found as a 
native tree in the forests or is cultivated in orchard 
form, or both. The area corresponds in some measure 
with that in which cotton is grown, though it extends 
farther north and west than the cotton region. 

The attempts which have been made from time to 
time to cultivate the pecan in the more northerly 
states have not proved successful, though the author 
has received pecan nuts from Mr. H. F. Ruhl, Manheim, 




Pecan nuts from Pennsylvania, natural size. 

Lancaster county, Pa., which were grown near that 
place. The nuts were small, but plump and of good 
quality. 

In many instances, however, the tree has grown 
well, but fruit has not been produced. The pistils and 
stamens of the pecan are not found in the same flower, 
but in different flowers, borne some distance apart 
on new and one-year-old wood, respectively. Con- 
sequently, it frequently happens that the flowers are 
not matured at the same time, as a result of which 
polUnation cannot take place. Moreover, late spring 
frosts often destroy one or both sets of flowers, and 
the result, as far as fruit is concerned, is the same in 
either case. As a result of these experiences, the pecan 
cannot be recommended as a nut-bearing tree north 
of its natural range in the Mississippi valley, neither 



PECAN GEOGRAPHY 21 

will it succeed at high elevations in the Allegheny 
mountains. On the grounds of the Mimosa hotel, near 
Tryon, N. C, there is a seedling pecan which bears 
well. The elevation is about twelve hundred feet. It 
reaches its most northerly cultural extension in the 
Mississippi valley and in the coastal plain of the Atlantic 
seaboard. But it grows well and makes a good shade 
tree farther north, and at elevations far above its 
native range. Even then, however, the nuts from 
which these seedling shade trees are grown should be 
brought from the northern sections of its natural dis- 
tribution. They are much more likely to withstand 
the rigorous cold of winter, and to escape frost injury 
to the blooms in spring. In extending the pecan area 
northward, the seedling pecans of Indiana, or some 
similar region, should be used as stocks, and the best 
of the seedUng varieties from this same region could 
be budded or grafted on them. An investigation of the 
Indiana trees has already been made by Mr. Mason 
J. Niblack.* 

Frequently, the question is asked as to whether the 
pecan can be grown in a certain given locality. Such 
a question can be answered only in the most general 
way. The presence of the larger species of hickories in 
the vicinity may be used in some parts of the country 
as an indication of the success which might attend the 
planting of pecan trees, but such a guide should not be 
followed too impHcity, and, even if the pecan tree 
should grow well, fruit might not be secured. 

The presence of pecan trees, single specimens per- 
haps, or two or three, in yards or about buildings here 
and there throughout a region, may be taken as a guide 
in the matter of planting, and no better can be had. 
Nothing will take the place of a practical demonstra- 
tion in the way of a vigorous fruiting tree. 

* See chapter on Pecan Literature. 



CHAPTER IV 
PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 

It is difficult to propagate the pecan either by 
budding or by grafting. During some seasons, nearly 
every bud or graft inserted grows, and in others nearly 
all fail. Skilled propagators are satisfied with seventy- 
five per cent, of living buds or grafts, but this result 
can be obtained only when conditions are just right. 
Many have to be content with less satisfactory results. 
The difficulty may be due in part to lack of skill, in 
part to lack of judgment in selecting good material 
with which to work, or in part to untoward weather 
conditions and improper condition of the stocks. 
In some regions, the poor stand of living grafts is due 
to the attacks of the bud-worm, Proteopteryx deludana, 
more than to anything else. The buds are eaten out 
and destroyed by this insect at the time they start 
into growth. In certain sections, spring working of 
pecans has been abandoned entirely, ow4ng to the 
destruction wrought by this pest. But, notwith- 
standing all these drawbacks, pecan trees can be, should 
be, and are propagated in large numbers by budding 
and grafting, and the seedhng is becoming more and 
and more a thing of the past. 

SEEDLINGS VERSUS GRAFTED TREES 

It is a fact worthy of note that the beginning of 
every tree-fruit industry is marked by the use of seed- 
hng trees. In the later stages of the development of 
the industry, the seedling, owing to a more intimate 

(22) 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 23 

knowledge of its failings and shortcomings, gives 
way to the grafted* tree. This stage has already been 
reached in pecan orcharding. 

It has been stated that a certain percentage of 
pecan trees would produce nuts identical with those 
of the parent tree. The author has yet to find the first 
instance in which this was the case. This truth is 
borne out by the observations of others. 

From whatever standpoint one may view it, the 
seedhng, up to the time it comes into bearing, is an 
unsatisfactory and unknown quantity. After it comes 
into bearing, in the majority of instances, it continues 
to be unsatisfactory. There is the remote chance, of 
course, that the seedhng tree may prove meritorious; 
but even then large numbers of them are not likely 
to behave themselves in any way superior to varieties 
we already have. The risk in planting them for com- 
mercial purposes is too great. 

In view of the fact just stated, if a planter desires to 
secure a certain definite fixed variety of pecan, it can 
be done only by planting grafted or budded trees. 
Even though all the scQdling nuts produced were of 
good size, yet the variation in time of ripening, quahty, 
prohficness, form and size, would be against them. 
Take a certain quantity of each of a number of our 
largest pecans, — Stuart, Van Deman, Delmas, and 
Frotscher, for instance, — mix them together, and 
under average circumstances the mixed lot will sell, in 
the open market, for less money than the same varie- 
ties and the same nuts would if marketed separately. 
Mixed nuts, no matter how good the quahty, cannot 
compete successfully in the market with a single uni- 
form sample of the same or nearly the same quality. 

Grafted trees will come into bearing at an earlier 
age than seedlings. In the case of seedhngs, it is very 
difficult to say when they will begin to bear, while 

*The term grafted, as here used, embraces budded trees as well. 



24 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



grafted trees of nearly all varieties may be expected to 
bear a small crop of fruit in six or eight 3'ears (less or more, 
depending upon the variety) from the time of planting. 
The great objection to grafted trees is the first 
cost; and yet, in the face of this, it is best to plant 
grafted trees, even if fewer of them are planted. If 
grafted trees are out of the question, then plant seed- 
lings and top-work them. Grow the seedlings from 
nuts, if necessary; but, to those who live in sections 
where pecans can be grown, let me say, plant pecan 
trees; plant budded or grafted trees, if you can — but 
plant pecan trees. 



PECAN STOCKS 

Nursery trees are propagated entirely on pecan 
stocks, and, in the present state of our knowledge, it 
is the best stock to use. Moreover, since pecan nuts 
for raising seedlings are much 
more easily secured than other 
hickory nuts, they are not likely 
to be readily displaced in nur- 
sery work. It may be that the 
pecan will grow and thrive as 
well on a number of different 
species of hickory, but definite 
information bearing on this point 
is lacking. Hicoria tomentosa, 
H. alba, and H. aquatica, have 
been used for stocks in North 
Carolina, Florida, and other 
states, the pecan being top- 
worked upon them. But for the 
present, at least, until our ex- 
perimental knowledge is farther 

advanced, the safest advice is Pecan nut germinating. 

1. „ „ i. 1 1 P- plumule ; c. cotyledons ; 

to use pecan stock only. r. tap-root. 




26 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Too little attention on the part of propagators has 
been given to the kind, source and quality of the seed 
used to raise stocks for propagation work. The main 
object held in view in making a selection for seed pur- 
poses is to get just as many nuts as possible in a pound. 
The result of this policy is, that, without question, 
inferior seedlings are often used for stock; they lack 
stamina and vigor. Frequently, in a nursery of budded 
or grafted stocks, or in a young pecan orchard, a wide 
variation in the size and vigor of the trees can be 
noticed. No satisfactory explanation has ever been 
offered, but there seems little reason to doubt that it is 
due to the use of heterogeneous lots of seed for stock 
purposes. The point must he emphasized, that greater 
care should be exercised in the selection of the seed used 
in nursery work. Nuts from rapid-growing, vigorous, 
healthy trees only should be used, and these nuts should 
be of good size for the variety to give the young seed- 
ling a fair start in life. Many nurserymen follow the 
plan of rigidly cutting out of their seedUng rows all 
seedHngs which do not make satisfactory vigorous 
growth. This policy is to be commended, as a much 
higher grade of grafted or budded trees is thereby 
insured. 

As already pointed out in regard to pecan shade 
trees for more northerly regions, so in the case of pecan 
nuts for use in raising stocks in northern sections, it 
is best to secure nuts from trees near the northern 
limits of nut production. The successful development 
of pecan growing in the northern sections, in some of 
which the pecan may even be indigenous, must be 
based upon hardy varieties worked on stocks raised 
from nuts grown in these same regions, or in regions 
having the same climatic conditions. The soundness 
of this advice, given several years ago, is borne out by 
the misfortune which befell the fine collection of young 
shagbark hickories belonging to Dr. Robert T. Morris, 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 27 

of New York. In the spring of 1910, it was found that 
many of these trees, worked on southern pecan stocks, 
had the bark burst open for a distance of two or three 
inches above the ground, completely girdling them. 
At the same time, several hundred pecan stocks of 
smaller size, grown from Indiana nuts, were uninjured. 

STORING AND PLANTING SEED NUTS 

If pecan nuts, intended for seed purposes, are stored 
and kept as nuts are ordinarily kept, they become 
dried out. Before they will germinate the following 
spring, they should be soaked in water for two or three 
days, as they must absorb all the moisture lost and con- 
siderably more. In consequence of this, they are slow 
in starting. If too thoroughly dried out, many may 
fail to germinate. 

To obviate this, when nuts must be stored for some 
time, and to insure better and more prompt germi- 
nation, it is best to keep the seed nuts in moist sand or 
clay during the winter months. Procure a sufficient 
number of shallow boxes or trays; three feet by one 
and a half feet by six or eight inches \n\\\ answer nicely 
These are to be used in stratifying the nuts. The 
earth to be used should preferably be good, clean sand, 
free from organic matter, or, if this cannot be secured, 
clay will answer. Place a layer of the earth about one 
inch deep in the bottom of the boxes, then a single 
layer of nuts, then a two-inch layer of earth, and so on 
in alternating layers until the boxes are filled. These 
should then be slightly moistened and set aside in a 
sheltered place, and covered with pine needles, leaves 
or straw. In spring, when germination has just begun 
in the nuts and the tiny sprouts are beginning to ap- 
pear, they should be planted in rows. 

In the more southerly sections, there is no good rea- 
son why the nuts should not be planted as soon as the 



28 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



crop IS matured. By doing this, all expense and trouble 
of storage is avoided, and as good or a much better 
stand of seedhngs will be secured. It is a safe plan to 
follow, when cHmatic conditions do not render a de- 
viation from the rule necessary, to plant all nursery 
seeds as soon as the crop is matured. 




A pecan nursery. 

. The ground for nursery seedhngs should be deeply 
plowed, well broken up, pulverized, and made moder- 
ately rich. Ground which produced a heavy crop of 
cowpeas, velvet beans or beggarweed the previous 
season, is excellent for the purpose. Farm-yard manure 
well decomposed and plowed in, the autumn previous, 
is one of the best manures to use. The ground should 
be lined off in perfectly straight rows four feet apart. 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 29 

The cultivation of the seedUngs is greatly facihtated by 
having them in straight rows. 

The nuts should be planted three or four inches 
deep, depending upon their size and the character of 
the soil. Large nuts should be planted deeper than 
small ones, and, in heavy soils, nuts may be planted 
somewhat nearer the surface than in light sandy ones. 
The rows may be opened with a small turning plow or 
bull-tongue, or, for lesser areas, with a hoe. Place the 
nuts four to six inches apart, to allow for selection by 
cutting out the feeble seedlings. They may be planted 
by hand or with a planter. Cover with a small plow, if 
planted by hand, roll the ground if the weather is dry, 
and then scarify the surface with a weeder or a light 
harrow, to prevent evaporation of the soil moisture. 
If the season is dry, it is often a good plan to ridge up 
a little over the seed row before rolling. This surplus 
earth should be r.emoved in spring with potato-forks, 
about the time the nuts begin to germinate; or the 
ground may be mulched with pine-straw, grass, leaves, 
or other suitable material. 

CULTIVATION OF NURSERY SEEDLINGS 

If the ground has been slightly ridged over the seed 
rows, cultivation should begin with its removal. Even 
before the tiny shoots appear above the surface, it is 
advisable to start cultivation, using a very light harrow 
or a weeder. From the time the young shoots begin to 
appear above the surface, frequent shallow cultivation 
should be given. Once every ten days or two weeks is 
not too often, and the ground should be broken to a 
depth of one inch or so after every shower of rain. 
During dry weather, more frequent cultivation once 
every week will be well repaid in the additional growth 
and vigor of the seedlings. The best implements for 
cultivating the seedlings are the weeder, Planet Jr. cul- 



30 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

tivator, and the sweep. A good commercial fertilizer, 
analyzing 5 per cent, phosphoric acid, 6 per cent, 
potash, and 4 per cent, nitrogen, may be applied to 
advantage, at the rate of one thousand to fifteen hun- 
dred pounds per acre, in two or three applications. If 
leaf-blight and scab make their appearance, the seed- 
lings should be sprayed promptly wdth Bordeaux mix- 
ture. 

By the following autumn, the better seedlings will 
have ten or twelve inches of top, and two and a half 
or three feet of tap-root. The succeeding spring many 
may be whip-grafted at the crown, and by July and 
August of the following year most of those not grafted 
should have attained sufficient size for budding. Those 
which are not of sufficient size at this time can be 
worked the next spring and summer. 

NECESSARY MATERIALS AND TOOLS 

The materials and tools used in grafting and budding 
are: a grafting-iron, a mallet, budding-knives, grafting- 
wax, strips of waxed cloth and twine. 

Of grafting-irons there are a number of different 
kinds, but one after the general type illustrated here 
works very well. It will be noticed that the blade is 
curved at the corners, and the edge, 
instead of being straight, is curved 
downward in the center. This type 
Grafting iron. ^£ blade in somc measure prevents 

the bruising of the bark when splitting a branch or 
stock in cleft-grafting. Such a grafting-iron may be 
made by almost any blacksmith. However, a good 
stout knife may be used instead. 




Common budding knife. 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 



31 




Double-bladed budding knife 



For use in grafting, an ordinary budding-knife, such 
as is illustrated on page 30, is well-nigh indispensable. 
No other knife is so well adapted to making smooth, 

sloping cuts on the 
scions. 

Some persons 
can insert annular 
and veneer - shield 
Inids rapidly and well with nothing but an ordinary 
budding-knife. In general, however, a budding-knife 
having two blades, 
placed parallel, uith a 
space of three-quarters 
of an inch or an inch 
between, is best. A 
very satisfactory knife 
may be made by fast- 
ening the blades of 
two ordinary station- 
ary-blade budding- 
knives on the sides of 
a piece of wood seven- 
eighths of an inch 
square, or a little more, 
if the blades are de- 
sired further apart, 
and four inches in 
length. The blades 
can be firmly held in 
place by means of two 
rivets. 

Three special bud- 
ding-knives, for use in 
pecan budding, have 
been introduced, one 
by Mr. Herbert C. ^^^^^^^^^ 

White, DeWltt, Ga., Budding tools. Nelson, Galbreath, White. 




32 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

one by Mr. D. Galbreath, New Orleans, La., and the 
other by Mr. Wm. Nelson, New Orleans, La. In these 
knives the blades are fixed seven-eighths of an inch, 
one and one-eighth inch, and three-fourths of an inch 
apart, respectively. These make it possible to cut the 
buds and the place where they are to be inserted on 
the stock exactl}' the same size, an essential point in 
pecan budding. They have not yet come into general 
use, although well recommended by some who have 
used them. The White budding-tool is said to be well 
adapted for use in top-working trees. 

A good grafting-wax may be made according to a 
number of different formulas. Either of the following 
will be found satisfactory : 

{Resin 6 pounds 
Beeswax 2 pounds 
Linseed oil 1 pound 

{Resin 4 pounds 
Beeswax 1 pound 
Linseed oil 1 pint 

Break the resin and cut the beeswax into small pieces. 
Place in an iron vessel, pour the oil over them and melt 
over a slow fire. Stir slightly, to insure their being well 
mixed together, pour out into a bucket of cold water, 
grease the hands, and, as soon as the mass is cold enough 
to handle, pull until it becomes light yellow in color. 
The wax may be made up in quantity and stored in 
greased tin or wooden boxes for future use. 

To prepare waxed cloth, roll the cloth, in seven- 
inch rolls, about three inches thick. Place the wax in 
an iron kettle and melt. As soon as well heated up, 
place the rolls of cloth in the wax and withdraw the fire 
from under the pot. Stir the cloth about frequently to 
prevent burning. It takes about an hour to thoroughly 
saturate the cloth with wax. 

For use, the cloth may be torn into strips of desired 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 



33 



width and wound about a stick eighteen inches or so 
in length, or carried in a box or basket. Use a Httle 
grease, to prevent the grafting-wax and grafting-cloth 
from sticking to the hands. 




Making waxed cloth. 



For waxed twine, procure No. 18 knitting-cotton, and 
drop the balls into the melted wax and stir them about 
until the wax penetrates them. 



SELECTION OF SCIONS 

Great care should be exercised in the selection of 
scions for use in budding and grafting. Much of the 
immediate success of the work depends upon the char- 
acter of the scions, while the health and longevity of 
the future tree may be materially influenced by the 
kind of wood used in propagating work. Every pro- 
pagator should make absolutely certain that the scions 
he is using, whether for buds or grafts, are of the va- 
rieties he desires to increase. If the scions are to be cut 
from old bearing trees, the tree should be cut back, to 



34 



THE PEC AX AXD ITS CULTURE 



produce good vigorous shoots, suitable for the work. In 
any case they should be cut only from thrifty, vigorous, 
prolific trees. Even trees of the same variety differ in 
these things, and a thorough knowledge of what a tree 
\\ill do and has done is the only true guide in the selec- 
tion of scions. It is a well-known fact that desirable 
qualities can be reproduced and perpetuated by grafting. 




itjft 



Scions : 1-3 Curtis, 4-G Van Deman, 7-8 Stuart. I. Poor scion, slender 
and pithy. 2, 4, 5, 7, 8. One-year scions. 3. Scion partly one- ami partly 
two-year-old. 8. Scion which bore fruit at a. 

Grafts should be selected from well-matured branches 
of one year's growth. No. 1, above, shows an undesir- 
able scion. The wood is angular, small, the inter- 
nodes long, and the pith large in proportion to the di- 
ameter. Either terminal portions of twigs may be 
used or portions back of the tip. but the buds should 
alwa^'s be well developed, full and plumj^ — Nos. 2 to 
6 are good. For this reason, grafts should not be cut 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 3.5 

from wood far back from the tip of the branch. As 
stated, twigs of the previous season's growth are gener- 
ally used, but scions composed partly of two-year-old 
wood may be used, provided the growth is not too 
large. Scion No. 3 shows one of these. Grafts are 
generally cut about five or six inches long, and should 
i)e from one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch in 
thickness. 

Grafts must be cut while still in a dormant state, and 
inserted in the stocks before growth starts. The scions 
may be kept for a considerable length of time by 
placing them, loosely packed, in damp moss or saw- 
dust, in a box. The box should be covered over, and 
the scions kept sufficiently moist to prevent drying out. 

For bud sticks well developed one-year-old branches, 
three-eighths to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and on which the buds are well formed, may be used. 
Such sticks frequently show three buds at a node, and, if 
some misfortune should overtake one or two of these, 
there is still a chance of success, though the upper one, 
being the strongest, is generally the one which starts, 
provided it is uninjured and the bud takes. The de- 
gree of maturity of the bud is important, and care 
should be exercised that only those Avhich are plump, 
full, and well developed, are used. As soon as removed 
from the tree, all bud sticks and grafts should be 
wrapped in damp newspapers, to prevent drying out. 

TIME 

Grafts should be inserted in spring, or late winter 
while the trees are still dormant. Generally speaking, 
January and February are the best months for grafting 
in the more southerly sections, though the season may be 
extended from December first to March first. February 
and March are best for those farther north. Buds may 
be inserted at any time during the period when the 



36 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

bark will slip readily. Last year's dormant buds may 
be carried in storage, and inserted early in the season. 
They can sometimes be carried through in good shape 
in small quantities, in an ordinary refrigerator. They 
must be removed from storage, and kept under proper 
conditions of heat and moisture, for a little time before 
they are to be used. When the bud sticks are cut during 
the dormant season, the bark adheres tightly to the 
wood and remains so during storage. When removed 
from storage and kept in good, warm, moist condition 
for a time, the bark slips readily. Buds of the current 
season's growth may be used during July, August, and 
even September. Usually by July they are sufficiently 
matured for the work, especially in the southernmost 
parts, of the Gulf states. Very many of the later-in- 
serted buds remain dormant during winter and begin 
growth in spring. It is preferable that they should 
behave in this way. 

The condition of seedlings in which buds are to be 
inserted must be carefully watched. They must not 
be allowed to stop growth, else the bark will tighten, 
but must be kept in thrifty, growing condition. The 
ideal time to insert the buds is when the sap becomes of 
a syrupy consistency. Needless to say, if large numbers 
of buds are to be inserted, this condition cannot be se- 
cured for all of them. But it should be, if possible. If 
frequent showers come during the budding period, the 
results are often very unsatisfactory, as the moisture 
running down the trunks, when the work is being done, 
makes it impossible to secure good unions. 

BUDDING 

Annular Budding. — A ring of bark about one inch in 
length is removed from the stock. A bud stick of the 
same or nearly the same size is selected, and from it a 
similar ring ^vith a good bud on it is removed by cutting 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 



37 



around the bud stick and slitting down the back or side 
opposite the bud. This bud is then placed in position 
on the stock, and securely wrapped wdth strips of 
waxed cloth, being careful to cover all cut surfaces. 
Sometimes the bud is covered, but usually it is allowed 
to stick out between the wraps just a little. After the 
buds are in place, some operators place in position a 
piece of stiff wrapping-paper, tied around the stock 
just above the bud and allowed to flare out over the 
bud to protect it from the sun and wind. In general 
nursery practice, how- 
ever, this is not feasi- 
ble. Preferably, all 
buds should be inserted 
on the north side. 

Stocks from three- 
eighths to three-quar- 
ters of an inch may 
be worked by this 
method. 

Veneer Shield-bud- 
ding. {Patch-budding.) 
— This method differs 
from the last only in 
that the piece of bark 
removed from the 
stock and the piece 
with the bud attached 
are not complete rings, but only parts. A rectangular, 
or even a triangular, piece of bark is taken out of the 
stock, a similar piece with a bud in its center taken 
from the bud stick is fitted in its place and wrapped 
as already described. 

Mr. George W. Oliver, of the Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, Washington, D. C, has described* a mocUfied 
method of veneer shield-budding, which has given 

*Bulletin No. 30, Bureau Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1902. 




Verneer shield-budding. 



38 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



good satisfaction in his hands. Instead of removing the 
patch from the stock, it is sUt down the center from top 
to bottom and the edges are hfted back, the buds in- 
serted beneath, and the side flaps are then tied down 
over it. He has also found that dormant buds of last 
year's growth give better results than buds of the cur- 
rent season. 

The use of these buds has not, however, come into 
general use; first, because of the large amount of 
wood which must be destroyed to secure them; and 
second, because, in those sections where bud-worms are 

prevalent, their larvae are 
to be found clustered about 
the buds until quite late 
in the season, and make 
their attack as soon as the 
buds start to grow. 

Chip-budding. — Mr. E. 
W. Kirkpatrick,* McKin- 
ney, Texas, has described 
a method successfully used 
by him, as follows: "We 
prepare the stock to re- 
ceive the bud by cutting 
out a section of bark and 
wood, as shown herewith. 
The bud is cut from 
the scion in the same way 
the cut on the stock is 
made. It should be about the same length, width, 
thickness and shape of the bark removed from the 
stock, so that the bud will fit the stock. . . . The 
])ud should be firmly tied until growth begins, usu- 
ally about twenty-five days, w^hen the string should 
be cut and the stock also cut just above the bud. . . . 
All shoots must be kept rubbed off, so as to give the 

*"Farm and Ranch. " Dec. 3, 1904. 




Chip -budding. Bud cut, .stock pre- 
pared, bud in place. 



PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 



39 



buds the right of way. The small buds about the base 
of the scions or those on the two-year-old wood are 
preferred. Where the buds are small and in a cluster, 
several may be included in one set, and the thinning 
done after the growth starts." 



AFTER-CARE 

In from ten days to three weeks, the buds should 
unite. They should be examined, and if union — indicated 
by the full, plump condition of the buds or the com- 
mencement of growth — has taken place, the wrappings 
may be removed. It is best to leave them on a little 
longer than may be actually necessary, to insure a 
more certain union. Usually the tops are not removed 
or cut back until the following spring. About the time 




Whip-grafting underground in the nursery row. The earth has been re- 
moved and stocks cut off iu front of workman; the man behind is filling in 
the earth. 



40 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



growth starts, the budded trees will require attention. 
They should be carefully examined, and the tops of all 
trees in which buds have taken should be cut back to 
within about an inch of the bud. Under proper grow- 
ing conditions, the buds, both the one inserted and 
others on the stock, will shove out. The latter should 
be removed, from time to time, as the sprouts formed 
from them will rob the buds of sap, thereby preventing 
growth. Later, the stocks are cut close to the bud. 



GRAFTING 

Cleft-grafting. — Having selected the branch for 
cleft-grafting and the point at which the scions are to be 
inserted, the branch should be carefully 
and smoothly cut off. The limb is then 
split by using the grafting-iron. If rapid 
work is to be done, grafts should be 
prepared beforehand and carried to the 
field, wrapped in damp paper. In pre- 
paring the scion, a sloping cut should 
be made about one and one-half inches 
long, cutting into the pith from a point 
one-half wa}^ up the cut down to the 
lower end. On the opposite side, the cut 
should not be made to touch the pith, 
but should be confined to woody tissue 
throughout its whole length. The knife 
should have a keen, sharp edge. The 
cut should be clean, smooth and straight, 
and the scion should be left wider on 
the outer side. Start the cuts on each 
side of, and just at a bud, as illustrated 
here. Having made the cleft, it is 
Cleft - grafting. oDcncd with thc wcdgc on the end of the 

1. Scion. 2. Scion ^«. • ii- • i i- 

inserted ready for graftmg-irou and the sciou IS placcd m 
showung^ciea^''^' position. The cambium layers should be 




PROPAGATION OF THE PECAN 



41 



in contact. Slip the scion well down until the whole 

of the cut surface is within the cleft. If the stock is 

large enough, insert two scions. After 

inserting the scion, it should be firmly 

held in place by binding the stocks with 

strips of waxed cloth, after which a 

covering of wax may be placed over the 

cloth if deemed necessary. The cut end 

of the stock should be covered, and, if 

the scion be other than a terminal shoot, 

its upper end should be waxed also. 

This is the method followed in top- 
working by grafting. 

In nursery work, the ground is re- 
moved from the stocks, either with a 
plow or potato fork, and the unions are 
made, either by cleft- or whip-grafting, 
four or five inches below the ground- 
level. The ^vrapping is done wdth four- 
ply waxed or unwaxed cotton twune, 
which rots away after a time. The earth 
is carefully packed around the unions 
by hand and hoed up to the scions, 
covering them nearly to their tops. This 
work must be followed up, as sometimes 
the earth settles or is washed away by 
rain, and must be replaced 

Whip -grafting. — Branches which are 
to be worked by whip-grafting should 
be less than one inch in diameter. The 
method is shown in the illustration. A sloping cut, an 
inch and a half long, is made diagonally across the 
stock. A corresponding cut is made on the scion, 
a tongue is raised about the center of each cut by 
making another cut with the budding-knife held almost 
parallel to the sides of the wood. The tongue is raised 
a little on both stock and scion and the two are shoved 



V% 



Whip - grafting. 
1. Stock, showing 
cut. 2. Scion. 3. 
United, ready for 
tying. 



42 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



together. If the 
union is made 
above ground, it 
should be se- 
curely bound 
with a strip of 
waxed cloth, and 
a layer of wax 
should be spread 
over the whole, 
covering up all 
the cut surfaces 
to the exclusion 
of water, air and 
the germs of de- 
cay. In grafting 
under ground in 
nursery work the 
plan is followed 
as described un- 
der cleft - graft- 
ing. 

The scion and 
stock are pre- 
ferably chosen 
of nearly the 
same size, but a 
scion somewhat 
smaller than the 
stock may be 
used, in which 
case the cambium layer along one side of the surfaces 
in contact should be placed opposite each other, and 
the projecting portion of the stock is sometimes 
trimmed off. 




One-year pecan in fruit (unusual). 



CHAPTER V 
TOP-WORKING PECANS 

Most of the early orchard plantings were made with 
seedUng pecans. It is needless to say that many of 
these trees have not fulfilled the hopes of those who set 
them out. These trees, raised, it is true from the very 
best selected nuts for which the planters paid a dollar 
or more per pound, have not come true to name. They 
have not borne nuts like those planted. In many years 
of careful investigation covering this point, the writer 
has not yet been able to find a single pecan tree which 
bears nuts exactly like the one from which it was 
grown. Variations from the parent tree may occur in 
many important directions other than in the nuts 
themselves. Some are irregular, shy bearers; some are 
extremely slow in coming into bearing; others, when 
they do condescend to produce a few nuts, bear small- 
sized inferior ones, not larger than ordinary playing 
marbles, while some produce large crops of marketable 
nuts. Some are unhealthy, subject to the attacks of 
rosette and scab. It goes without saying that such 
]:)ecan plantings are unprofitable. What is to be done 
with them? Briefly, this: Cut out and destroy those 
affected by genuine rosette, those which are unhealthy, 
and top-work the remainder of those which do not pro- 
duce a sufficient quantity of marketable nuts of good 
quality. 

In relation to the control of scab by top-working, 
an experiment carried out by the author may be of 
interest. It is a matter of common observation that 
some varieties, nondescript seedlings and named varie- 

(43) 



44 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



ties as well, are subject to scab. For a number of years 
a seedling was under observation which never pro- 
duced any perfect nuts because of attacks of this fungus, 
Fusicladium effusum Wint. Adjoining seedhngs in the 
same row showed no signs of attack. In March, 1908, 
the top was cut back, and the sprouts thrown out were 

very severely 
attacked by the 
disease, some 
being killed out- 
right. In Au- 
gust it was top- 
worked, using 
Curtis buds, of 
Avhich forty- 
seven were in- 
serted. An im- 
perfect stand 
was secured, 
about half the 
number of buds 
grew. Seedling 
shoots were 
allowed to come 
out again for 
budding in 1909. 
Hence the Cur- 
tis shoots and 
seedhng shoots grew side by side in the top during the 
season of 1909. The seedling shoots were as badly at- 
tacked as ever, yet the Curtis branches, twigs and 
leaves, showed no signs of the disease, and at this date, 
August, 1910, the}^ are entirely free from the disease. 
The shoots were rebudded in August, 1909, and it is 
now carrying a complete Curtis top, one seedling 
branch excepted. The latter is still diseased. 

The question naturally arises, how many crops will 




Top-working by budding. Tree at right just cut 
back. Second tree from right, one-year top and also 
new buds just starting to grow. 



TOP-WORKING PECANS 45 

be lost in top-working a bearing pecan tree? In case of 
nearly all varieties, grafts inserted in spring or buds in- 
serted in summer will bloom, and occasionally hold 
some fruit the second season following, and quite a 
number of nuts can be gathered the fourth October 
following. In the writer's experience, for instance, buds 
inserted in the tops of trees in August, 1907, produced a 
few nuts in October, 1909, and have set a very fair 
crop for harvesting October, 1910. In some cases this 
may be improved upon, but the above results are a 
fair average of what may be expected. Generally the 
blooms produced the first season are nearly all staminate, 
and it is not until the second season of blooming that 
a sufficient number of pistillate blooms are produced 
to yield a crop of any size. 

Top-working may be profitably applied to another 
class of trees; pecan trees in their native woods and 
thickets, and in some cases hickories, viz: Hicoria 
tomentosa, H. alba, and H. aquatica, may be top-worked. 
In the river bottoms of Texas as well as in other states, 
there are large numbers of pecans which bear small and 
inferior nuts which can be worked to good advantage. 
Of course, the very large trees would be alm^ost out of 
the question. But there are small and medium-sized 
trees which can be easily handled. The very large trees 
can, of course, be top-worked. Mr. E. E. Risien has 
been successful with trees of quite large size, but trees 
not exceeding thirty feet in height, with a diameter of 
twelve to eighteen inches, are much more, easily man- 
aged. If of too large size, they may lack the power to 
make vigorous growth in the buds or grafts placed in 
in their tops. 

Our knowledge is not sufficiently advanced in re- 
gard to top-working on hickory to warrant us in 
making any very strong recommendations, but the 
author has seen a large number of pecans worked on 
hickory, a few of which were in bearing, and all appeared 



46 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

healthy and vigorous. There is no good reason why 
hickories cannot be top -worked to advantage, and 
attempts in this direction will amply repay the amateur 
nut culturist for the trouble taken. 

Again, seedling trees may Ije grown or purchased and 
set out in orchard form, with the express purpose of 
working them over. When these have grown to an 
inch or two in diameter and have developed several 
branches, they may be top-worked. This method of 
securing an orchard of good varieties is somewhat slow, 
and is open to the objection that the buds or grafts 
frequently fail to take, and, in consequence, the task of 
top-working extends over a number of years, resulting 
in trees with tops of irregular size and shape and of 
different ages. But by this plan an orchard of de^rirable 
varieties of pecans can be secured at little expense, and, 
provided time is not a consideration, the plan will work 
out satisfactorily. It should not be attempted, however, 
unless the owner is able to do the top-working him.self. 
It is not so good a plan as to plant good budded or 
grafted trees to start with, but it is immeasurably 
better than planting seedlings with the intention of 
allowing them to remain common seedlings. 

METHODS OF OPERATION 

Trees may be top-worked either by budding or l)y 
grafting, and it will be best to consider these separateh'. 
If the trees are to be grafted, the work must be done 
before growth starts in spring, and, in most localities 
where pecans are grown, February is an excellent time 
at which to graft. If the trees are to be worked over by 
budding, they should be cut back at this same time; for, 
though buds may be inserted directly into smooth- 
barked branches in the heads of vigorous, growing 
trees, it is best to develop new shoots in which to insert 
them. 



TOP-WORKING PECANS 47 

It is not advisable to top-work the lower branches 
of trees subject to overflow. There is danger of the 
buds or grafts being broken off by the current or by 
floating driftwood. Generally, in such cases, it is best 
to top-work only that portion of the tree which is 
above high-water mark. 

In removing large branches, there is always danger 
of splitting because of their heavy weight. This may be 
entirely obviated by sawing upward from the under 
side of the branch, cutting up through the branch 
as far as possible, then cutting from the upper side down- 
ward. The cut from the lower side should be made 
further out on the branch, the one from the upper 
side being made at the point where it is desired to re- 
move the branch. In cutting off the branches, lower 
ones should be removed first, and the work continued 
toward the top of the tree. All cut surfaces should be 
well covered with white-lead paint, to prevent decay. 
When the older and larger trees are top-worked, only 
a portion of the branches should be removed at one 
time. If the whole top be removed at once, the tree 
suffers a severe shock. Two or three years may be 
necessary to top-work a large tree, a half or a third of 
the top being removed and replaced each season. If 
the trees are of smaller size, thirty feet or so in height 
and less, the whole top may be cut off and worked at 
one time. It is not l)est to insert grafts in very large 
branches, as it is difficult to get them to heal over 
properly. 

TOP-WORKING BY BUDDING 

In favor of the method of top-working by cutting 
back and budding, attention may be called to the 
following: The original form of the seedling tree is 
preserved, and, since the larger branches are generally 
well placed on seedling trees, a well-shaped head is 
secured. No attention need be given the buds more 



48 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



than to remov 
thrown out on 
top-worked by 
shoots either to 
pose, or to each 
is troublesome 
trees in the tops 



e the seecUing sprouts that may be 
the trunk and branch stubs. In trees 
grafting, it is necessary to tie the 
branches or posts placed for the pur- 
other, or to the trunk of the tree. This 
and expensive. In handling seedling 
of which several hundred buds had been 

inserted, the 
loss by breaking 
off by wind and 
rain has been 
less than one 
per cent. The 
work can be 




Top-worked pecan. Four buds inserted. 



more economi- 
cally done in this 
waj' than by 
grafting, and 
the time re- 
quired to form 
a good head is 
decidedly less. 
To give, in 

detail, the cost of the work, it will be interesting to 
introduce, at this point, the actual cost of top-work- 
ing eight seedling trees in 1908. The trees were 
between twenty-five and thirty feet high, and from 
ten to twelve inches in diameter, eighteen inches from 
the ground. They were about fourteen years old. Some 
of them had never borne, others had borne a few inferior 
nuts, and one was affected with scab to such an extent 
that very few perfect fruits had ever been produced. 

The cost of cutting back the eight trees and painting 
the stubs was as f ollow^s : 

March 3, 1908, one man one-half day, at $2 $1 00 

March 4, 1908, one man one day, at SI. 65 1 65 

Total $2 65 



TOP-WORKING PECANS 49 

The average cost was thirty-three cents per tree. All 
branches of good size, an inch and over in diameter, 
were cut back. Smaller branches, i. e., those less than 
an inch in diameter, were removed entirely, as they 
would not produce strong shoots. As soon as removed, 
a good coat of thick white-lead paint was applied to the 
cut surface. 

The spring and summer months were very favorable 
for growth, and a good crop of sprouts was produced. 
Some of them were an inch in diameter in August. 
These trees were budded as follows: 

Tree No. Date Variety No. of buds 

1 August 5, 1908 Success 48 

2 August 12, 1908 Delmas 47 

3 August 12, 1908 Stuart 33 

4 August 12, 1908 Schley 29 

5 August 13, 1908 Van Doman 51 

6 August 13, 1908 Teche 51 

7 August 13, 1908 Curtis 50 

8 August 14, 1908 Curtis 47 

Total buds .3.56 

356 buds at 1 cent each S3 56 

The expense of inserting the buds was as follows: 

One man one-half day at $1.35 $0 67^ 

One man one-half day at $1.65 82^ 

One man two days two and three-fourths hours at S2 . . . 4 55 

Total S6 05 

To the items already enumerated must be added the 
following items for removing the wraps, cutting off the 
ends of the budded branches, and removing the sprouts : 

August 26, 1908, one man, two hours at 20 cents SO 40 

September 3, 1908, one man, three-fourths day at $1.65. . . 1 24 
April 15-16, 1909, one man, one and one-half days at $2. . . 3 00 

Total $4 64 

D 



50 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



Taking the total of the above items, we have a cost 
of $16.90 for top-working the eight trees, or an aver- 
age of $2.12. Besides this, some Httle time additional 
was given, which would have run the cost up to 
approximately $2.25 per tree. 




A two-year top-worked Van Deman pecan tree. 

The work could undoubtedly have been done, and 
well done, for less than this amount. If the trees had 
been budded with a single variety, a saving would 
have been made, as the above included the cost of 
cutting the buds and everything, and besides a lesser 
number of buds could have been used. 

When the heads were removed, the stubs were left 
from twelve to eighteen inches in length. After paint- 



TOP-WORKING PECANS 51 

ing, which was done immediately after cutting them 
off, no subsequent attention was given until August, 
when the buds were inserted. 

As a larger number of shoots developed than we 
desired to bud, it was necessary to thin them out. The 
plan followed was to leave from one to three or four 
shoots on each stub, the number depending upon the 
diameter. Roughly, the rule followed was to leave one 
shoot for each inch of stub diameter. In thinning out, 
preference was, of course, given to the largest, best- 
placed and best-attached shoots, these being allowed 
to remain. It was found best to begin at the bottom of 
the tree and thin out toward the top. It is much easier 
to get up into the top after the shoots are thinned, and 
there is much less danger of injuring them. 

When the buds were inserted, the work was begun 
at the top of the tree and finished at the bottom. This 
plan avoided injury to the buds already put in, for it 
is impossible to climb about on the stubs among the 
shoots, hanging on almost like our pre-historic ances- 
tors, without undoing some of the work already done. 
As soon as the work was finished on each tree, a label 
was attached, and note made of the variety, its loca- 
tion, and the number of buds inserted. 

Two ladders were used — a long one and an ordi- 
nary step-ladder. The latter was found to be the more 
useful, as most of the higher shoots were worked by 
climbing about on the stubs. 

The ordinary annular or ring bud was used, the 
buds being inserted as close as possible to the end of 
the stubs. It was usually found that the shoots were 
curved and not quite round close up to the stubs. 
Hence, the point of insertion was usually about four 
or five inches from the base of the shoot. The buds were 
put in rings one inch long, the rings removed on the 
shoots being of exactly the same length. Particular 
care was taken in tying the buds in place, two wrap- 



52 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

pings being frequently used. In fact, careful wrapping is 
a most important item in pecan propagation, and poor 
wrapping is a frequent cause of failure. Air and mois- 
ture must be excluded if successful results are to fol- 
low. A knife made by riveting two blades on opposite 
sides of a piece of tough wood, one inch wide and one- 
half inch thick, was used throughout. 

TOP-WORKING BY GRAFTING 

This method has the advantage of saving one season 
of growth, as the grafts are inserted immediately fol- 
lowing the removal of the branches in February, instead 
of waiting until August, as is the case in budding. 
Some have followed the plan of combining both 
methods, and this has its advantages. The disadvan- 
tages of the grafting method are that, in some sections, 
it is extremely difficult to get the grafts to unite, and 
budding appears to be the more certain method. Where 
this difficulty is not encountered, the grafts make a vigor- 
ous growth, but are very prone to injury from heavy 
winds or, more particularly, winds accompanied by rain. 

Cleft-grafting is the method best adapted to large 
branches, while the whip-graft may be used on smaller 
ones, not exceeding three-quarters of an inch or an 
inch in diameter ; any branch larger than this should 
be cleft -grafted, and it is open to question whether 
branches exceeding two and a half or three inches in di- 
ameter should be grafted, for reasons already mentioned. 
The method of procedure should follow the general 
rules laid down for budding. The work of grafting 
should begin at the top of the tree and progress down- 
ward. The cut and split surfaces, after insertion of the 
scions, must be carefully covered ^^^th grafting-wax and 
waxed cloth. The writer has had excellent results in 
cleft-grafting small branches by simply using waxed 
cloth. 




An old pecan, top-worked by grafting in the branches. 



54 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

For several months after the scions have commenced 
to grow, they have only a very sHght hold on the stock. 
As the growth is usually very vigorous and the leaf 
surface is great, considerable injury may be done by 
wind and rain. To prevent this, the young shoots may 
be tied together or fastened to other portions of the 
stock. When this is done, care should be taken that 
the twine used does not do injury by cutting into the 
wood. To prevent this, a piece of burlap should be 
placed around the branch beneath the twine, and the 
twine should be removed as soon as it has served its 
purpose. 

The top may also be supported by lashing a pole 
against the side of the trunk and fastening the grafts 
to the upper portion of this, or a pole may be driven 
into the ground at some distance from the trunk, bound 
to a branch or stub above and used to support the fast- 
growing shoot. After the top has grown sufficiently to 
take care of itself, these posts can be removed. 

The cost of top-working by grafting is somewhat in 
excess of the budding method, because of the consider- 
able amount of care which must be given the new top 
after it has started to grow. 



CHAPTER VI 
SOILS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

The pecan succeeds on such a wide range of soils 
that it is really easier to list those on which it should 
not be set than it is to enumerate those on which it 
may be planted. Of the soils not adapted to it, deep 
sandy lands, soils underlaid with quicksand close to 
the surface, soils with hardpan subsoil, wet, sour, 
poorly-drained lands, and stiff, pasty clays, may be 
mentioned particularly. 

If pecans are planted on land with a quicksand sub- 
soil, the roots are unable to make their way downward 
through the quicksand. So far as being able to take a 
downward direction is concerned, they might as well 
be planted on top of a plate of metal. The writer once 
planted a few nuts on such a soil, to see what they 
would do. At the end of three years the tops were 
about two feet in height; the tap-roots, while thick and 
stocky, were not more than six inches long. They stopped 
abruptly after numerous efforts to penetrate the quick- 
sand. In normally developed trees of the same age, 
the tap-roots would have been three or four feet long. 
The same objections hold against soils underlaid with 
a hard, impervious layer. 

While the pecan is at home on rich, alluvial river- 
bottoms, subject to overflow, yet it will not grow suc- 
cessfully on damp, soggy lands. It should not be 
planted on such soils unless they can be well drained, 
and not then until they have been limed and cultivated 
for some time, to counteract the acidity of the land. 

We can definitely say that the pecan will do well on 

(55) 



56 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

alluvial river-bottoms, on sandy, loamy soils with 
a clay or sandy-clay foundation, on sandy-clay lands 
with clay predominating, on the flat woods sandy lands 
so common in the southeastern Gulf states, and on the 
higher uplands, where hickory, dogwood, holly and 
oak abound. 

It is a fact worthy of note, however, that on ex- 
tremely rich soils the pecan will make wood growth at 









J 








\N ,i. 


-''^ 


?V 


5^g 










--— '•'***'^ * 


^ ...^^P 


Av 4^^^^^^l 


^f ^ 






rfi^-^"^ 


i 


S 


1 




P 


^ 



Pecan tree grown on quicksand. Note the tap-root. 

the expense of fruit, while on lands containing less fer- 
tility less growth is developed with a proportionately 
large amount of fruit. 

Choose not the poorest soil, by any means, but a 
good, sandy loam in which there is a considerable 
amount of humus. A subsoil containing a very consider- 
able amount of clay is to be preferred, by all means, for 
such a soil, with intelligent management, will gain 
rapidly in fertility. 

Since there is so much good land in the pecan area, 
land thoroughly adapted for the best culture of the 



SOILS AND THEIR PREPARATION 



57 



tree, it seems too bad that trees should be set on soils 
not suited to their requirements. 



PREPARATION 



The preparation of the soil should be complete and 
thorough. It may be stated, as an axiomatic truth, 
that the soil cannot be prepared for trees so well after 
they are planted as it can before; and nothing is to be 




Velvet beans, to improve the soil. 

gained by planting the trees in poorly prepared land. 
Better, by all means, to spend a year or more in getting 
the land in shape. 

If the land is covered with a growth of timber, this 
should be cleared away, and the ground cultivated for 
a year at least before the trees are set. Corn is proba- 
bly the best crop to grow on new land, and at the last 
working cowpeas should be sowed. On fairly good 
land this will be sufficient, but on poorer ground the 
land should be continued in cultivation another year, 



58 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

sowing it down in beggarweed, cowpeas, soja beans, or 
velvet beans. These crops should be plowed into the 
soil in autumn or early winter, after they are dead and 
dry. 

On lands which have been cultivated for some time, 
these same crops should be sowed for one season, at 
least, previous to planting. Every effort should be made 
to insure a good stand and a good growth. Inoculation 
of the seed with nitrogen-gathering germs will help, 
and a good fertilizer, such as the one recommended 
for these crops elsewhere, should be applied. Noth- 
ing will insure a good growth in the young trees so 
well as the nitrogen and humus added to the soil by 
leguminous crops. Stable manure ma}^ also be used to 
advantage. 

The ground should be deeply and thoroughly broken 
with a two-horse plow. In many cases, the soil condi- 
tions will be greatly improved by the use of a sub- 
soil plow, running it after the ordinary plow, so as to 
break and loosen the soil to a depth of twelve or fifteen 
inches, or even more. 



CHAPTER VII 
PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 

Since, in most cases, the trees are to be set in late 
autumn and early winter, these trees should be purchased 
in late summer and early autumn. Do not leave 
the purchasing; of the trees until the last week, or the 
last minute, before planting, but buy in good season, 
i. e., several months before planting time. Too many 
forget about the trees \mtil the time for setting them 
out has come, and not infrequently the matter is for- 
gotten until after the season for planting is long since 
past. 

The number of varieties in the commercial orchard 
should not be large. No greater mistake can be made 
than that of planting a few trees each of a large num- 
ber of different varieties. Four or five, at most, are 
sufficient; get fewer varieties, rather than more. One 
variety alone should not be planted, as it is generally 
b(4ieved that something is to be gained by having two 
or three varieties to provide for cross pollination. This 
perhaps rests more on theory than on actual demonstra- 
tion, but it is not a dangerous theory, at least, but 
one that will put the planter on the safe side of the 
question. 

Trees can be purchased in two ways: They can be 
secured direct from the nurserymen (usually by cata- 
logue), or they can be purchased from agents. By far 
most of the pecan trees are bought from the nursery, 
and by many this method is preferred. If trees are 
secured from agents, be certain that they are responsi- 
ble persons, representing responsible firms; be certain 

(59) 



60 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



that they are properly accredited, i. e., have certificates 
to show whom they represent, and, if they have not 
these, then send them off down the road, and the dog 

with them for com- 
pany, if necessary. 
This may seem 
to be harsh advice, 
but, had it been 
followed by many 
purchasing pecan 
trees in recent 
years, it would 
have been much 
to their advant- 
age. Plenty of 
seedUng trees have 
been bought and 
planted in the 
behef that they 
were good grafted 
or budded stock. 

But agents with 
all sorts of creden- 
tials have repre- 
sented firms which 
were not honest. 
Budded and 
grafted trees of 
certain well-known 
varieties of pecans 
have been sold, 
which were not 
these varieties. 

There is every 
reason to believe 
that scions have 
been taken from 

Nursery pecan tree. Good root system. 




PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 



61 



ordinary seedling trees of any kind, inserted in stocks, 
and sold for the best varieties, and that a large num- 
ber of trees have been substituted and sold for what 
they were not. The prospective planter must depend 
upon the honesty and integrity of the nurseryman, and 
should inform himself on this point. 

The Na- 
tional Nut 
Growers' As- 
sociation has 
done no 
greater ser- 
vice to the 
pecan indus- 
try than that 
which they 
have rendered 
in protecting 
the public 
from fraud- 
ulent agents 
and nursery- 
men. Happy 
is the nur- 

seryman whose reputation for square dealing merits 
the trust and confidence of tree-planters throughout 
the country. 




External and longitudinal interior view 
of bud union. 



DETECTING BOGUS TREES 

How may budded or grafted trees be distinguished 
from ordinary seedlings, or from "doctored" seedling 
trees? Many people have purchased seedling trees at a 
dollar or so per tree, under the supposition that they 
were budded or grafted stock. It is well to know 
something of the distinctions between them. 

If the trunks are straight and smooth, with bark 



62 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



uniform in appearance throughout; the trees have not 
been budded or grafted, unless the point of union is at 
the ground, and, the trees having been grafted, a term- 
inal bud on the graft has grown. If the young trees have 
been budded, the trunks will not be straight; a bend 
will be seen at the point where the bud was inserted, 
and the scars of the union of the veneer - shield 

or annular bud and the 
point at which the stock 
was cut off will be dis- 
tinctly noticeable. The 
bark above the point of 
union on the grafted or 
budded stocks will be dif- 
erent from that below. 
There is something charac- 
teristic about the color 
and appearance and the 
number, size and shape of 
the lenticles of each va- 
riety of pecan, and while 
it is impossible to describe 
this difference in appear- 
ance (it can be learned 
only after a large amount 
of experience and observation), yet the very striking 
difference between the seedling stock and the wood of 
the variety worked upon it will serve as a useful index 
to the genuineness of the tree in question. 

If the trees have been grafted instead of budded, the 
same statement will be true of the appearance of the 
bark. But the tree will be more nearly or quite straight, 
and the marks and scars at the point of union will be 
different. If the trees have been propagated by whip- 
grafting, the scar will be shaped like the letter N, the 
scar on young trees covering nearly or quite the whole 
distance across the stock. If the trunk of a whip-grafted 




External and longitudinal interior 
view of whip-graft union. 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 



63 



tree is split throught the point of union, the N-shaped 
mark in the form of a dark Hne may be distinctly made 
out, as shown in the illustration. In trees propagated 
by cleft-grafting, the union scar will be long, slim and 
V-shaped. 

But, to make the similarity between the bogus and 
the genuine trees more striking, the practice has been 
resorted to of scarring the stocks, so as to make them re- 
semble the genuine article. This we have known to be 




Annular bud growing (left). Split through same (center). A normal branch 
union (right). Pith non-continuous (center); continuous (right). 

done, more particularly in the case of budded trees. In- 
cisions were made in the trunks of seedling trees, to re- 
semble those made in inserting a veneer-shield or an 
annular bud. The incisions were made so as to in- 
clude a bud, and the top of the seedling tree was then cut 
off just above the bud. A tree doctored in this way 
makes a very close imitation of the real article, and 
the buyer needs to be on his guard. But the appear- 
ance of the bark, as already noted, will serve as a 
guide. If in doubt, it may be well to sacrifice a few 
trees and cut them carefully open down to the pith just 



64 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

through the point of union. // the trees have been doc- 
tored, the tissues of the wood and the pith will he continu- 
ous; but, if the trees are genuinely budded or grafted, the 
tissues and pith will not be continuous. 

Finally,if still in doubt, send two or three trees to 
the botanist or horticulturist of the Experiment Sta- 
tion of your state, and ask his opinion. 

WHAT KIND OF TREES TO PLANT 

It is important that the trees planted should be of 
good quality. The three things requisite as a foundation 
for success are good land, good trees, careful planting, — 
and not the least important of these is good trees. It 
is a mistake to plant trees of poor quality and give 
them the care and attention that might as well be 
bestowed on good ones. The cost of maintenance 
is the same in either case, and the initial cost of the 
trees is not to be considered when the after-cost and 
future welfare of the trees are counted at their true 
value. 

Pecan trees are usually graded by nurserymen in 
about the following sizes : 1-2 feet grade ; 2-3 feet grade; 
3-4 feet grade; 4-5 feet grade, and 5-7 feet grade. These 
grades, in good, thrifty stock, are usually one-year buds; 
though some of the 5-7 feet grade may be two-year 
buds, having made but a small growth the first season 
and reached the largest grade the second. The dif- 
ference in the size of these trees is caused by differ- 
ence in the size and vigor of the stocks, the vigor of 
the scions or buds used in propagation, the distance 
apart in the nursery roAVs, and the care, fertilizer and 
cultivation they have received. The basic difference, 
however^ is vigor and thrift whether of scion or stock. 
The most desirable of these sizes for the planter 
are the 3-4 feet, 4-5 feet and 5-7 feet grades. The 
smaller sizes do not represent in themselves the best 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 



65 



qualities desired in a tree, and they are much more 
subject to accidents after planting, because of their 
small size. The age of the tree is worth considering. 
In nursery work, the age 
of the tree is counted from 
the number of seasons of 
bud growth. One - year 
grafts are often sold on 
two-year stocks, but may 
be on three-year stocks, 
while one-year buds are 
usually on three- or four- 
year stocks. In the au- 
thor's opinion, three- or 
four-year stocks are best, 
as the age of the root has 
an influence on the time 
at which the tree will 
come into bearing. At the 
same time, the root must 
not be too old and too 
large, else the danger of 
loss in transplanting is 
materially increased. Old 
trees are difficult to trans- 
plant and, except in small 
plantings where they can 
be given special care, they 
are not best. For general 
field plantings, the larger 
grades of one-year buds 
are preferable, though the 
author has had most ex- 
cellent success in planting out thrifty two-year buds of 
7-9 feet grade. Much depends upon the tree and how 
it has been grown. 

Needless to say, the stock should be thriftv and 




Young Schley pecan tree. 
Well started. 



E 



66 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

vigorous, with well-developed and matured wood and 
buds. Nothing is to be gained by planting stunted, 
hidebound trees. The condition of a tree can be readily 
determined by the fresh condition of the bark and the 
character of the buds. 

Freedom from insects and diseases is also a matter of 
importance, and, in this particular, thrifty one-year 
buds are best, as they are less likely to carry any in- 
fection. As a matter of fact, however, well-conducted 
nurseries are not likely to send out diseased trees. 

COST OF NURSERY STOCK 

At present, the prices quoted for one- and two-year- 
old stock of standard varieties varies from 50 cents to 
$2 per tree, in small numbers, with considerable re- 
duction for trees in lots of one hundred or one thou- 
sand. It is not improbable that these prices may be 
somewhat reduced within the next decade, as greater 
efficiency is gained in propagating. 

The price charged by different nursery firms is, of 
course, not always the same. In some measure, these 
differences in prices are due to economies in growing, 
but, in other cases, the increased price represents 
greatly increased care in growing the stock. 

PLANTING TIME 

The best time to plant pecan trees is during the 
months of December, January and February. Planting 
should not be delayed until late in spring, as the percent- 
age of loss will be very materially increased. Preference 
must be given to the earlier portion of the planting sea- 
son, as the wounds on the roots will have had time to 
callus over, and the ground will be firmly packed about 
the roots by the winter rains. Then, with the opening of 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 67 

the growing season in spring, the trees will be ready to 
make a good, vigorous start. 

HOW FAR APART 

The number of trees which may be set to advantage 
on any given piece of ground is governed by the quahty 
of the land, the amount of plant food, the amount of 
moisture, and the individuality of the grower. As 
a matter of fact, no distances can be set which will 
answer the needs of trees under all conditions, and the 
problem should be carefully considered in relation to 
the grower's objects and the piece of ground on which 
he may be working. 

On land of good quality — rich soil — the trees should 
be set farther apart than on poorer soil, for they 
will grow to larger-tree size and should be given suf- 
ficient room for their best development without crowd- 
ing either tops or roots. It is plain that in orchard 
planting there is competition at both ends of the trees — 
at the roots for food and moisture and at the top for 
light, and this competition should be reduced to a 
minimum. This will result in more vigorous trees and 
larger crops of fruit of better quality. But the crowding 
of the tops may be governed by judicious pruning, and 
root competition may be equalized by the addition of 
plant food and water to the soil. Frequently, however, 
the fact is overlooked that what may be ample distance 
apart for trees the first ten years after planting will not 
be sufficient the second ten years, or the succeeding 
twenty, forty or fifty years as the case may be. We 
must look ahead. And, again, manj- of us plant trees 
closer together than we know to be best, with the 
avowed intention of giving space later on by removing 
every other tree. ' When the time comes, however, that 
the thinning out should be done, we haven't the nerve 
to do it. 



68 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



In old orchards of most fruits, it has been proven by 
careful observations that trees given a good distance are 
in better health and give larger yields than those closely 
set. Yet it must be admitted that in the case of varieties 
which are precocious, i. e., come into bearing early, close 
planting is an advantage. The plan might be followed if 
we would only do the necessary thinning at the right 
time. 

The best straightforward advice that can be given is 
to give the trees a good distance, and make the mistake 
on the side of planting too far apart, rather than too 
close. Unfortunately, nurserymen and tree sellers often 
urge too close planting, for the simple reason that more 
trees will be required for the planting. This is not fair, 
and every planter should know something about the 
tree's habit of growth and its requirements. 

It is dou])tful whether pecan trees should ever be 
planted closer than forty feet apart, even on light lands; 
while, on heavier soils, this distance should be increased 
to sixty, seventy-five or eighty feet. 



TABLE OF DISTANCES 



Distance 


No. of trees 
Rectangular system 


Xo. of trees 
Hexagonal system 


38 X 40 feet 


28 
27 
22 
27 
25 
22 
21 
20 
18 
17 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 




38 X 42 " 




38 X 50 " 




40 X 40 " 


31 


40 X 42 " 




40 X 48 " 




40 X 50 " 




40 X 54 " 




40 X 60 " 




50 X 50 " 


19 


50 X 54 " 




50 X 60 " 




60 X 60 " 


13 


60 X 70 " 




70 X 70 " 


9 


80 X 80 " 




100 X 100 " 









PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 69 

To find the number of trees that can be set on an acre 
for any distance not given in the above table, multiply 
together the distances apart in feet, and divide the prod- 
uct into 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre. 
The result will be the number of trees which can be put 
on an acre of ground. 

PLANTING SYSTEMS 

For setting orchards, a number of different systems 
may be used, but the two best adapted to the pecan 
orchard are the square, or rectangular, and the hexago- 
nal, or septuple. If mixed plantings, such as pecans 
and peaches or figs, are to be made, then the quincunx 
system should be used, and a ''filler" tree set in the 
center of the square or rectangle formed by every four 
pecan trees. 

If the trees are to be given entire possession of the 
ground from the beginning, the hexagonal system is 
preferable; but, if inter-cropping cultivation is to be 
followed, the rectangular plan is the better one on which 
to plant. 

Square, or Rectangular System. — In this system are 
included only the methods of setting trees in rectangles, 
either square or oblong. It is by far the most commonly 
used of all the systems, and the ease with which a field 
can be laid off in rectangles, is greatly in its favor. 

The rows of trees intersect each other at right angles, 
and cultivation may be carried on conveniently either 
crosswise or lenght\Aase of the orchard. The planter has 
the choice of placing the trees the same distance apart 
both ways, or of planting them closer together in the 
rows than the distance between the row^s. 

It has been argued that space is not equally divided 
among the trees, and, while this is apparently true, yet, 
on the other hand, the roots of pecan trees, in most 
cases, penetrate and permeate all the space allowed in 



70 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



ordinary distances. The roots will certainly secure all 
the food and moisture in the top two or three feet of 
soil. 



■9 r- 



¥ r - 



* 



■-■^ -f 



--4- 4--— 



.^ ^ -^-.^.^ 



--• ^ « « — -— ^ 



-•4 4 



- 4-- 



Rectangular planting system 

When trees are to be planted by this system, the 
stakes must be set so as to be exactly in hne, whether 
viewed from the end or from the side of the field. 

Hexagonal, Septuple, or Equilateral-triangle System. 
— By this system six trees are set equidistant from a 
seventh placed in the center. The basis of the system is 
not the square, but the circle, since the radius of the 
circle is approximately equal to one-sixth of the cir- 
cumference of the circle. The name septuple, sometimes 
applied to this system, refers to the fact that the num- 
ber of trees in each group-unit is seven. Equilateral-tri- 
angle system refers to the planting of the trees in 
equilateral triangles, but is identical ^vith the hexagonal 
or septuple. 

It is the only system whereby each tree is placed 
equally distant from each of its adjoining neighbors, 
and the only system which equally divides the space 
among the trees. By this method about fifteen per cent, 
more trees can be set per acre than by the rectangular. 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 



71 



For permanent plantings, at regular distances, this 
system and the rectangular should be recommended 
before other systems 



LAYING OUT BEFORE PLANTING 

Level and smooth the ground, harrow and pulverize 
thoroughly, then proceed to stake the ground off, pla- 
cing a stake for every tree. 

Laying Out Squares or Rectangles with the Plow. — If 
a good plowman can be secured, very satisfactory work 
can be done with the plow. In some cases, a man can be 
found who needs nothing in the way of a guide except 
two or three stakes. But with a sufficient number of 
stakes and a marker attached to the plow, good results 
can be secured by almost any plowman. 





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♦ 


•--: T 


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---:--- 


1 

■•-T-- 




-i--- 


-■■■i 4 


f 








h 


< 


* 




• 


H- 


— •- 


— _-_ 


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1 

- —0 — 




4- - 


u j 


¥ 




• 




• 




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4 


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------ 


---r- 4 


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4 
1 


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i- 


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----•■ 


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_.^.,. 


... 4- - 


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. — ^......~.^ 



Hexagonal planting system. 

Furrows should be run both lengthwise and crosswise 
of the field, their intersections marking the place where 
the trees are to stand. At each one set a stake. 

It is essential that a true, square corner should be 
secured. This may be done by sighting with an ordinary 
carpenter's square set upon three posts. 



72 THE PECAN AND ITS, CULTURE 

Laying Out m Rectangles with a Wire. — A wire, long 
enough to reach down one side of the field, should be 
provided. Stretch this straight out between two posts 
and mark off upon it the distance which the trees are 
to stand apart. At each point marked, firmly twist a 
piece of small \vire about the larger one. These should 
then be soldered in place. It will not do to have them 
shift. This ^\dre may be rolled upon a roller when not in 
use. 

Measure off along both ends of the field, and set small 
stakes on the tree rows at the marked places on the 
wire. Tightly stretch the wire down the first tree row 
attaching it firmly at the ground level to a pair of good, 
stout posts. Then plant a lath stake at each mark on 
the wire. Set all of them on the outside of the wire, 
so as not to interfere with moving it. When this row 
is completed, lift the end stake with the wire attached, 
stretch on the second row, set the stakes as before, and 
repeat the operations until the work is completed. 

Laijing Out in Hexagons. — Stretch the wire down 
one side of the field and firmly set the tree stakes, or 
stake out the base line by any method, firm.ly setting 
a stake for each tree. Then procure two pieces of wire 
with rings at each end, the length of each ware and ring 
to be exactly the distance between the stakes as set on 
the base fine. Stretch these wires out toward the side 
where the next tree row is to stand. At the point where 
the rings overlap, set a stake for a tree. Remove wire 
number one and set it on the third stake in the base 
line, stretch the two tight and set a tree stake. Repeat 
as often as necessary. In setting the third row of 
stakes, use the second as a base line, and so on. 

PLANTING THE TREES 

Too often but slight attention is given to this impor- 
tant piece of work. There is too frequently a disposi- 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 73 

tion on the part of the person setting trees of any kind 
to do the work as rapidly as possible, without consider- 
ation for the future welfare of the trees. Few realize 
that time spent in careful, intelligent preparation of 
the soil and in setting the trees is time well spent, and 
well paid for in the after development of trunk and 
branch. Better a month spent in preparing the future 
home of the young tree than years of its life spent in 
an unequal struggle for existence. More than that, 
the tree may die outright, and a year must elapse be- 
fore it can be replaced. It is generally stated that the 
pecan is a slow grower, and yet I have seen trees from 
twelve to fourteen years old which measured from thir- 
ty-five to fifty-seven inches in circumference at the 
base, while, under less favorable circumstances, others 
stood still for a period of six or seven j'ears, or until 
they had accumulated sufficient energy to overcome 
the untoward conditions of their environments. 

After setting a stake for each tree, the ground is 
ready for digging the holes and setting the trees. A 
planting-board, such as is shown in the accompanying 
illustration, should be provided. It is made of a piece 
of inch ])oard, four or five inches wide and five feet long. 
The ends may be notched or holes may be bored in 
them. In the center of one side, a notch, one and a 
half inches deep, should be cut. Provide a large number 
of small wooden pins or sticks, about one foot long and 
well sharpened. 

When ready to 



dig a hole, place the 

planting -board so Planting board. 

that the notch in the side fits against the tree stake. 
Then place one of the small pins in each of the holes 
or notches at the ends of the board. Allow these to re- 
main in the ground. Remove the board and the tree 
stake, and dig the hole. 

The hole should preferably be dug just before setting 



74 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

the tree. In some cases, however, it may be necessary 
to have all the holes dug in advance. Make them wide 
and deep, six or eight inches wider than the extended 
lateral roots and eight inches deeper than the length 
of the tap-root. 

In setting the tree, place the planting board back on 
the pegs and place the tree at the right depth, against 
the notch in the side. It will then stand exactly where 
a stake stood, and, if the stakes were in Hne, the trees will 
be also, if they are kept perpendicular while the earth is 
being filled in. The earth should be packed close about 
the roots by hand, the tree being set no deeper than it 
stood in the nursery. To finish up, tread the earth firm 
and tight. Loosely planted trees will not live. 

To start the trees off well, one pound to one pound 
and a half of good fertilizer, analyzing about six per 
cent, potash, five per cent, phosphoric acid, and four 
per cent, nitrogen, should be thoroughly mixed with 
the earth that is used in filling in the hole. Preferably, 
only surface soil should be used to place about the 
roots. 

When the hole is filled in about three-fourths, water 
may be applied to advantage, particularly if the weather 
is dry. A good apphcation should be given after the 
work is completed, so as to estabhsh the capillary move- 
ment of the water in the soil. 

The greatest care should be taken to prevent the 
roots from becoming dry; if they do, the chances of 
their living, after plantin,g are very greatly reduced. 

From the time the trees are lifted from the nursery 
row until they are set in the orchard, the sun should 
never be allowed to shine on them. Neither should they 
be exposed to hot or drying winds. Should it happen 
that the trees are received before everything is ready 
for planting them, they should be unpacked and 
heeled-in in a shady place. 

The roots of the trees must be pruned before plant- 



PURCHASING AND PLANTING PECANS 75 

ing, but this should be done under a shed. All broken 
parts of roots should be carefully cut off, leaving good, 
smooth surfaces, and the tap-root cut or pruned back, as 
described in the chapter on pruning. When the prun- 
ing is finished, the trees should he wrapped in a damp blan- 
ket or in damp sacks and taken to the field. When needed 
for planting, they should be removed one by one and 
set out. 



CHAPTER VIII 
CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZERS 

As in the cultivation of many orchard fruits, there 
if-' difference of opinion on the subject of pecan cultiva- 
tion. There are those who recommend sod or grass cul- 
ture, and those who believe that clean culture for a por- 
tion of the growing season, at least, is the best and 
safest system to follow. 

BENEFITS OF CULTIVATION 

Cultivation is beneficial in the following ways: It 
increases the water-holding capacity of the soil and 
conserves moisture, both by allowing the rain water 
to sink more freely into it and by checking evaporation. 
It pulverizes the soil and allows the air to penetrate, 
thus supplying oxygen to the roots. It assists in setting 
free plant food, and makes the soil fine, thus enabling 
the roots to reach all parts of it. In cultivated soils, 
decomposition and nitrification go on much more 
readily, and if the materials are present from which 
nitrates can be made, their formation takes place much 
more rapidly than if the soil be left uncultivated. 

Generally speaking, cultivation should begin a little 
in advance of the starting of growth in spring. If weeds 
are present, it is best to get them destroyed and out 
of the way in good season. Plowing should be done, in 
most cases, either when preparations for planting are 
being made in spring or the ground should be broken 
some time during the winter. 

If the season is dry, then give cultivation just as 

(76) 



CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZERS 77 

often as can be done. Every week or ten days, between 
the first of April and the first or middle of July, the 
ground should be stirred in young orchards. Shallow 
cultivation is all that is necessary after the first plow- 
ing. A weeder or light harrow will do the work. This 
shallow cultivation will preserve a dust mulch, a couple 
of inches or so in depth, and the loss of soil moisture 
by capillary action and evaporation will thereby be 
prevented; more moisture will be retained in the soil, 
and the trees will be benefited accordingly. 

Whether the orchard is planted in a crop or not, cul- 
tivation should begin about the time growth starts in 
spring. The ground should be plowed and leveled 
with a cultivator. After that, frequent shallow culti- 
vation should be given wdth a light harrow or weeder. 
Once every week or ten days, if the weather is dry, will 
result in much good to the trees. If a shower should 
fall during one of these dry periods, the ground should 
be cultivated just as soon as it can be worked. A light 
harrow, which will break up the surface crust formed 
by the rain and leave instead a shallow mulch of pul- 
verized soil, will go a long way toward conserving and 
holding the water which has been added by the recent 
rainfall. 

CULTIVATING OLD ORCHARDS 

The cultivation of old orchards may vary somewhat 
from that given younger ones. Some recommend that 
the old orchard be seeded to grass (Bermuda or John- 
son grass) and used as a pasture. This may answer in 
some cases, particularly on very rich, alluvial soils, 
but, in general, it will not do as a definite policy year 
in and year out. Those orchards planted in grass 
which the author has had an opportunity to examine 
have usually shown a large percentage of trees with 
branches dead at the tips, ^'stagheaded," with yellow 
leaves and a general appearance of unthriftiness. It 



CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZERS 79 

may have been that these orchards were planted in grass 
while the trees were too young. The better treatment, 
and the safest method to follow in old orchards, is to 
cultivate the ground in spring and sow down in cow- 
peas or some other legume. Beggarweed, velvet beans 
or soja beans will answer well in many localities. Allow 
these to make what growth they will, and, when dead 
and dry, plow them back into the soil. It may seem 
strange to cultivate a forest tree, but it is the plan 
to follow to get results. Good results could doubtless 
be secured by seeding the pecan orchard in alfalfa and 
using it for a hog pasture up to the ripening season. 

Cultivation should not be prolonged too late. If it 
be, the trees will continue to grow later than they 
should. Enough time will not be left in many sections 
before the coming of the first frosts. If the immature, 
sappy wood is caught by an early frost, severe injury 
may result. In the more southern extension of the 
pecan area cultivation can be carried on later than to- 
ward the northern limits of the region. Ordinarily, it 
is safest to cease cultivation not later than July the first 
to July the fifteenth. 

TOOLS 

The tools used in handling the cultivation of the 
orchard will have to be varied to suit the soil conditions. 
Under most conditions, a good plow, cutaway or disc 
harrow, and an acme harrow answer all pur]:>oses. As the 
branches of the trees spread out, almost or quite reaching 
the ground, the disc harrow and acme harrow should be 
provided with extensions, to allow them to be shoved 
apart for cultivating close up to the trunks of the trees. 

FERTILIZERS 

On deep, rich, alluvial soils the trees may not need to 
be fertilized; but many of the soils on which pecans 



80 THE' PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

have been set in orchard form, require to be fertilized, 
to secure the best results. The three important plant 
foods required by plants and most frequently deficient 
in soils are nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. One oi 
two, or all three, of these substances may have to be 
supphed. 

Nitrogen, which is used by the trees largely in mak- 
ing growth of leaf and wood, may be supplied from a 
number of different sources, viz: stable manure, cot- 
ton seed, cotton-seed meal, dried blood, fish scrap, sul- 
phate of ammonia and nitrate of soda. These substances 
are the principal commercial sources of nitrogen. 
Large amounts of nitrogen are gathered by leguminous 
crops: cowpeas, vetch, beggarweed, velvet beans, alfalfa 
and others, may be planted to advantage, resulting in a 
great saving in fertilizer bills, and, besides, adding the 
necessary vegetable matter and humus. 

The most common source of phosphorus, usually re- 
fered to as phosphoric acid, is acid phosphate. Some 
is obtained from bone, and bone meal is a good fertilizer 
to use among pecan trees. The results obtained from 
its use are not immediate, but, since the bone does 
not decay rapidly, they extend over a considerable 
period. On the whole, acid phosphate is as satisfactory 
as any material as a source of phosphoric acid, and the 
goods with the highest percentage are usually the most 
economical in the end. A good grade is that analyzing 
fourteen per cent. 

Potash may be purchased, as kainit, the raw salt, or 
as muriate of potash, low-grade sulphate of potash and 
high-grade sulphate of potash. Of these the sulphates 
are usually given the preference in fruit-growing. Of the 
domestic sources of potash, wood-ashes are important. 

The amount of fertilizer which it is best to apply is 
difficult to decide upon; much depends on the char- 
acter of the soil, what crops are cultivated, and whether 
a crop of legumes is grown or not. 



CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZERS 81 

If legumes are grown for the benefit of the orchard, 
they should be fertilized, and, if the crop is turned back 
into the soil, this may be sufficient for the trees, par- 
ticularly while they are young. For the legumes, a 
good fertilizer to use per acre is : 

Kainit, 100 lbs.; Acid Phosphate, 200 lbs. 
or, High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 50 lbs. 
Acid Phosphate, 200 lbs. 

In any case, some allowance should be made for the 
amount of nitrogen collected by the legumes. When 
corn, cotton or some other crops are grown in the orch- 
ard, fertilizing may simply consist in distributing an 
additional amount of the crop fertilizer for the benefit 
of the trees. 

P'or the growth of the young trees, a larger amount 
of nitrogen and a relatively smaller amount of phos- 
phoric acid and potash are required; while, for older 
trees, the reverse is true. Phosphoric, acid and potash 
are required by bearing trees for the formation of fruit. 
Consequently, when the pecan orchard comes into 
bearing, these materials should be increased in the fer- 
tilizer applied. If the soil is not very rich at the time 
of planting, good results will follow the use of a pound 
of good commercial fertihzer at this time. 

A good fertilizer for young trees should analyze five 
per cent, phosphoric acid, six per cent, potash, and four 
per cent, nitrogen. For bearing trees, one analyzing 
eight per cent, phosphoric acid, ten per cent, potash, 
and four per cent, nitrogen will give good results. If 
so desired, well-known brands of commercial fertilizers, 
having approximately the above analysis, can be pur- 
chased in the markets; but, if preferred, the several ma- 
terials may be purchased separately, then mixed and 
applied. 

Well-rotted stable manure may be used as a surface 
dressing to advantage. It should be applied preferably 

F 



82 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

during the winter months, not piled against the tree 
trunks, but spread over the ground at some dis- 
tance back from them. It is well, to remember that 
stable manure is deficient in potash, and it is well on 
some soils to supplement the application of manure with 
potash in some form. 

APPLYING FERTILIZERS 

The roots of young trees do not extend to any great 
distance away from the trunk. In distributing the fer- 
tilizer, this fact should be remembered. A safe rule for 
all small-sized trees is to commence just outside an im- 
aginary circle of two feet radius, and apply the fertilizer 
in a circular band extending out some distance be- 
yond the spread of the branches. Old trees, or those 
having a considerable spread of top, when planted in 
orchard form, should be fertilized by broadcasting the 
fertilizer over the ground. In the northerly pecan sec- 
tions, all the fertilizer should be given in one applica- 
tion, about the time growth starts in spring, and 
plowed in; while, farther south, two applications may 
be made, one at the time mentioned above, the other 
from the first to the middle of June. 

It will be noted that young pecan trees in the lower 
South usually make two distinct growths. The first 
starts during April and the second during June. The 
time at which these growths begin may be taken as a 
guide for applying the fertilizer. It should be put on 
some time in advance of the starting of growth, to give 
time for it to become dissolved and in position for the 
roots to take it up. Bearing trees usually make but 
one growth, as their surplus food is taken up in de- 
veloping the crop. The winter or late spring applica- 
tion of fertilizer given bearing trees should be for 
growth, and the second application for the benefit of 
the crop. 



CHAPTER IX 
COVER AND OTHER CROPS 

Too many of our ideas of fruit culture are borrowed 
from the woods, from the trees in the pasture lands, 
and uncultivated places generally. As the pecan is a 
forest tree in many sections of the country, the infer- 
ence is, that it needs no cultivation, no fertilizer, — in 
short, is amply able to take care of itself. So it is, but 
not able to yield, at the same time, the large crops of 
nuts that are the object of its being planted. 

From the woods, there is one lesson which it would 
be well for every one to learn; a lesson, not of the trees, 
but of the soil, of the dense mass of mold, of partially 
decayed leaves, of vegetable matter, of humus that cov- 
ers the forest floor. The soil in the pecan orchard 
needs humus, vegetable matter; so does the soil in any 
other kind of orchard, and, to obtain results, it must be 
provided. 

Now, it is a well-known fa(;t that a number of years 
must elapse before a pecan orchard will begin to give 
adequate returns for the time and care bestowed upon 
it and the money invested in it. During this period, 
if rightly handled, the ground may be made to produce 
something else than pecan trees, and that, too, without 
injury to them. But, in growing a crop in the orchard, 
bear in mind that the trees need, and are benefited by 
cultivation, and that fertilizer will make them grow. 

The crops grown in the orchard may be divided into 
two classes: "Cover crops" and ''Catch crops." Since 
these are grown with two different objects in view, it 
will be best to discuss them separately, though some of 

(83) 



84 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

the most important cover crops may be used as ''catch 
crops," as well. 

ADVANTAGES OF COVER CROPS 

The cover crop is grown for the good of the trees, 
to add plant food to the soil, and to put it in better con- 
dition, that the orchard may be kept in healthy, vigor- 
ous growth. Generally, the cover crop occupies the 
ground for a portion of the season only, being in most 
cases allowed to grow from about the first of July until 
autumn, or until the nut crop is ready to harvest, as 
the case may be. In some locations, it is dangerous to 
leave a mass of dry grass, weeds or other plants in the 
pecan orchard during winter. The author has many 
times seen trees badly injured by fires, which damage 
could have been entirely obviated by cleaning up the 
ground in the fall. Besides this, the trees are less likely 
to winter-kill if the ground around them is clean during 
cold weather. If the grove is in bearing, the cover 
crop should be disposed of in advance of harvesting, 
to facilitate the gathering of the pecan crop. 

In many sections of the South, where the ground is 
roUing, the lands are subject to great injury from wash- 
ing, particularly during the summer months. The 
cover crop is an important factor in preventing this. 
It helps to hold the water, allowing it to sink more 
gradually into the soil, and the vegetation prevents it 
from carrying away the surface earth. 

Two of the most necessary materials, in a pecan soil, 
are nitrogen (ammonia) and humus. If a leguminous 
crop is planted, the nitrogen content of the soil will be 
greatly increased, and, on most soils, to the great bene- 
fit of the trees. In fact, a leguminous crop can be used 
to supply all the nitrogen which the trees will require 
for a considerable number of years after planting. 
Humus is of great value, as it improves the texture of 



COVER AND OTHER CROPS 85 

the soil, helps to hold moisture, and, by making the soil 
capable of retaining more water, further assists in pre- 
venting washing. 

The cover crop growing during the summer months 
has an influence in checking the growth of the trees by 
using the moisture and food in the soil. This is an im- 
portant feature, as it is necessary to have the trees go 
into winter perfectly dormant and with the wood well 
hardened up, as a safeguard against the cold. As soon 
as the cover crop is turned into the soil and decayed, 
the plant food contained in it is available for the trees. 

KINDS OF COVER CROPS 

In the pecan area, a consi(lera))le number of cover 
crops may be grown. In some instances, it may be well 
to use rye as a winter cover crop; but we shall consider 
only the leguminous ones, the most important of which 
are cow-peas, beggar-weed, velvet beans, so] a beans, 
crimson clover, hairy vetch, and bur clover. It is 
not to be understood, of course, that all of these can be 
grown, wherever pecans are grown, but a selection can 
be made from the above list. 

The cow-pea may be grow^n throughout the whole 
region, while the velvet bean and beggar-weed are 
limited to the lower Gulf section. The crimson clover, 
hairy vetch and bur clover are winter cover crops, 
better adapted to more northerly sections. 

The cow-pea is so well and favorably known that 
little need be said about it. Generally, on old lands, the 
Iron variety should be given preference, as it is not 
injured by root-knot. Beggar-weed is excellent in the 
region to which it is adapted, and, if carefully managed, 
it requires seeding but once. It will re-seed itself. It 
lends itself well to clean cultivation in spring, as a suf- 
ficient quantity of seed remains dormant during this 
period, to give a good stand after cultivation ceases, 



86 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



about the middle of June or the first of July. Should the 
velvet bean be used, it must be carefully watched, to 
see that it does not climb into and over the trees and 
break them down. In its region, it is a splendid humus- 
and nitrogen-producing plant. All cover crops should 
be dead and dry before they are incorporated with the 
soil, to prevent making the land sour. If they are not 
in this condition at the time desired, they may be cut 
with a mowing-machine and, after drying on the sur- 
face for some days, plowed under. 




Method of cultivating and growing a cover crop. 

Sometimes a condition has to be met, brought about 
by there not being enough water in the soil for the best 
welfare of the trees, and the growth of the cover crop. 
Again, it is sometimes desired to continue cultivation, 
particularly of young trees, even after the time the 
cover crop should be given possession of the ground. 
The plan which the writer has usually followed in this 
latter case, and which can also be used in the former 
instance, is to cultivate a strip along each side of the 
rows of trees, and allow the cover crop to grow on the 



COVER AND OTHER CROPS 87 

remainder of the ground. This strip should have a 
total width of eight to twelve feet in the case of young 
trees, depending upon their size. Among older trees, 
or even in the case of younger ones, some of the cover 
crops mentioned, particularly the cow-peas and soja 
bean, may be sowed in drills, and these, cultivated from 
time to time with a cultivator, would give the trees a 
longer period of cultivation, if desired. 

CATCH CROPS 

Catch crops are sown in the pecan orchard, to have 
the ground produce an income in addition to growing 
trees. The crops which can be used to advantage in this 
way are some of those mentioned under cover crops, — 
but grown for the hay they will make, — truck crops of 
different kinds, corn and cotton. It is not good policy 
to continue the cultivation of corn and cotton in the 
orchard, year after year. They are clean-culture crops, 
and leave little behind them to make humus after they 
are removed. They should be rotated with the legumes. 
An excellent three-year rotation, for example, would 
be: first year, cotton; second year, corn; third year, 
corn and cow-peas. Cow-peas may be sown at the last 
working of the corn, and, in some sections, crimson 
clover or bur clover could be put in at the last working 
of the cotton crop. Truck crops may be followed with 
legumes the same season. With a little forethought and 
care on the part of the grower, a number of crop com- 
binations can be worked out which will allow him to 
take something from the soil, and yet keep it in good 
condition for the trees. When cotton, corn or truck 
crops are planted, leave out a row or two where the 
tree row is, let the trees have feeding-space, but culti- 
vate all the ground. If fertilizer is used in growing the 
catch crops, add a little for the trees. Labor must be 
carefully watched, as great injury may be done the 



88 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

trees by careless cultivation. An awkward mule and a 
careless plow-hand may ruin more trees in a little while 
than would pay their wages for a year. Some one has 
said that we may continue to farm the pecan orchard 
just as though the trees are not there; but it is well to 
remember, and to have every laborer remember, too, 
that the trees are there. 

DOUBLE PLANTINGS 

There are some fruit trees which we may plant 
on a piece of ground, plant nothing else, cultivate the 
soil and give it up entirely to the orchard. But, in 
view of the time which must elapse between planting 
and bearing and the distance apart at which the trees 
must be set, the best plan for managing the pecan 
orchard, from the standpoint of the fruit-grower, is to 
make a double planting. We know that this plan, as 
applied to other fruit trees, has not met with unqualified 
success, yet we know, on the other hand, that it can 
be successfully done with the pecan. The difficulty 
usually is that the secondary trees, the ''fillers," 
are left too long, to the injury of the permanent trees. 

Holding in mind, then, that they may do injury to 
the pecan trees, and that we attach no value to the 
fillers when we see they are likely to injure the per- 
manent part of the orchard, we are prepared to recom- 
mend the system of double planting. The fruits which 
may be used for inter-planting will depend upon the 
location and the character of the soil. Among those 
which we would suggest are: peaches, plums, figs, 
grapes, dewberries and strawberries. Utilizing the 
ground in this way, it may be used to good advantage. 
The product from the ''fillers," if successfully managed, 
will more than pay for the expenses of the double plant- 
ing of pecans and other fruits, the care and mainte- 
nance of the orchard, and leave a profit besides. It is 



COVER AND OTHER CROPS 89 

a plan which is being followed by a large number of 
planters, and we can recommend it to the careful con- 
sideration of the prospective pecan planter. At 40 
feet apart, for instance, one filler can be placed between 
each two pecan trees, each way, with one filler in the 
center of the square formed by each four pecan trees. 
While it may not always be so, yet the author's general 
observation is that the fillers suffer from the inroads 
of the pecans rather than the pecans from the fillers. 



CHAPTER X 
PRUNING AND SURGERY 

Up to date, no definite system has been worked 
out for pruning" the pecan. The tree reaches such a large 
size that, except during the first fifteen or twenty years 
of its hfe, it does not lend itself readily to regular 
pruning treatment. Even during its initial period of 
growth, Httle appears necessary except to cut back a 
branch here and , there, that the trees may develop 
well-rounded, symmetrical tops. All the dead or in- 
jured branches should be removed, and all wounds 
should be promptly and carefully treated. The natural 
life of the pecan tree covers a period of several hundred 
years, and, to have it live out its usual period of time, 
it is well to give it the most careful, treatment. The 
germs of decay, entering through dead branches or ex- 
posed wounds, may subject it to further and increased 
injury from high winds and storms. 

HIGH- VERSUS LOW-HEADED TREES 

There has been much discussion as to the proper 
height at which the heads of pecan trees should be 
formed, and there api^ears to be no immediate danger 
of the controversy being ended. So long as all pecans 
are not grown by one person, so long will there be dif- 
ferences of opinion; and, covering this point, as well 
as many others, there are likely to be nearly as many 
opinions as growers. There are, of course, conditions 
which have to be met. Where trees are planted on 
lands subject to overflow, for instance, it may be best 

(91) 



92 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

to have the trees headed high, as low branches, in some 
cases, would be subject to injury. 

In all lines of fruit-growing, the modern tendency, 
however, is toward low-headed trees, and that this 
style of tree has distinct advantages cannot be gainsaid. 
The principal argument advanced in favor of high- 
headed trees and accompanying bare, unshaded trunks 
is that this style of tree is necessary to allow of crops 
being grown under the trees, or because it is desired 
to use the ground as a cattle pasture. These considera- 
tions should not weigh against the welfare of the trees. 
As much ground can be cropped around low-headed 
trees as is good for them, and, in brief, the cows should 
be pastured elsewhere. 

Frequently trees are so pruned that their first 
branches are eight or ten feet from the ground. Even 
young trees are pruned to slim, stems, surmounted by a 
small, umbrella-like top. Such trees frequently have to 
be tied to a post to keep them upright until such time as 
they attain sufhcient size to support themselves. Such 
pruning should not be countenanced. The trees will 
make a much more rapid and satisfactory growth, and 
their trunks will be less affected by the hot sun, if the 
branches are allowed to develop lower down. Diseases 
or insects attacking the trunks are much less likely to 
begin work in low-headed trees. 

Ordinarily, the top of the tree should be so shaped 
that the lower branches will be four to six feet from the 
ground The former distance is best adapted to those 
varieties which tend to develop their branches in an 
upright position, while those of spreading or somewhat 
drooping habit should be headed at six feet. A row of 
pecans headed at six feet is shown in the accompanying 
plate, and it will be noted that the branches touch the 
ground. By allowing the branches to form low down, 
the trunk will be shaded and protected, the crop will 
be nearer the ground, and the low tops will be less 



PRUNING AND SURGERY 93 

subject to the destructive force of heavy winds, so in- 
jurious to both fruit and branches. If spraying has to 
be done on young trees, they are much more easily 
handled when the heads are low. 

To start the trees at four or six feet, the tops must be 
cut back to that height at the time the trees are set, or, 
if smaller, when they have grown to that height. Four 
or five buds nearest the top should then be allowed to 
develop and form the main framework of the tree. 
After this the trees will need little or no pruning, ex- 
cept the cutting back of straggling branches, and the 
removal of dead or broken ones. 

Some writers have advised the persistent and 
severe cutting back of the tops, from time to time, so as 
to keep them small, compact and low, but such a sys- 
tem of pruning must be put into practice on a consider- 
able scale for a number of years before it can be recom- 
mended. Such a plan might prove useful where the trees 
are subject to the force of strong winds, but other- 
wise it is of doubtful value. 

ROOT TRIMMING BEFORE PLANTING 

Two-year-old tap-roots should be cut to eighteen or 
twenty-four inches; larger ones, in proportion. The 
old idea that transplanted pecan trees, the tap-roots of 
which have been cut back, will not live and bear, is not 
borne out V)y experience. They are in nowise injured 
by its partial removal, and it might all be removed 
were it not that so many would die in transplanting. 

On page 94 are shown two pecan trees at two years. 
The one on the right was carefully lifted, so as to pre- 
serve as much as possible of the tap-root, while the one 
on the left had the tap-root cut when it was transplanted 
at one year. In the latter, six small roots from four and 
one-half to eight inches in length had grown out to re- 
place the tap-root, these doubtless having supplied the 



94 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



tree with as much nourishment as would have been 
collected by its single tap-root. If one tap-root is good, 
then, by the same rule, six should be better. Furthermore, 
without doubt, one of these roots would 
have grown so as to replace the tap-root. 
The advice has been given to cut the 
tap-roots back to five or six inches, but, 
under general average climatic condi- 
tions throughout the pecan region, any 
one who follows this advice will have 
reason to regret it. Our experience in 
transplanting pecan trees has been such 
as to indicate the necessity of having a 
well-branched, well-developed root sys- 
tem, and a tap-root, when present, 
should be left at least as long as already 
indicated. All broken and injured side 
roots should be pruned back, leaving 
good, smooth surfaces. 

A long tap-root is objectionable on 
account of the additional cost and labor 
entailed in digging holes of sufficient 
depth for planting. To shorten the 
length of the tap-root, Mr. E. E. Risien, 
of San Saba, Tex., has patented a 
method which has given satisfactory 
results. The nuts from which the stocks 
are grown are planted over strips of 
mosquito-netting, the netting being some distance be- 
low the level of the nuts. When the tap-roots have 
penetrated to the netting, their growth is stopped, 
and the lateral roots develop better in consequence. 




Tap-root cut at 
one year. Tap-root 
not cut. 



PRUNING TOPS OF YOUNG TREES 



The practice of not pruning the tops of young pecan 
trees at the time they are set out has been quite gen- 



PRUNING AND SURGERY 95 

erally followed. That it is the best plan is by no means 
certain, and it appears that better results are obtained 
by cutting back the tops of even the smaller sizes of 
pecans at the time they are planted. The top of the 
pecan bears the same relation to its roots that any 
other tree bears to its root-system, and the same rule 
applies. The greater portion of the pecan's roots are 
left in the ground when the tree is dug, and the top 
should, therefore, be cut back proportionately. Four- 
to five-fv?et trees should have about ten inches of their 
tops removed, and other sizes in proportion. 

NURSERY ROOT-PRUNING 

Too frequently, the root-system of pecan trees in- 
tended for planting is but poorly developed. The root 
consists almost entirely of one large tap-root, desti- 
tute of laterals. Such trees are slow in starting and 
are hard to transplant. A pecan tree should be al- 
most as easily transplanted as an apple tree. A little 
more care on the part of nurserymen would insure good 
root-systems. 

In a former publication it was suggested that the 
young seedlings intended for stocks be root-pruned ''in 
the fall, after the trees are one year old. It could 
easily be accomplished by running the tree-digger 
down the row at a depth of nine or ten inches. The 
tap-roots could thus be severed, and the following 
spring, or summer, the trees could be worked (budded 
or grafted). This course of treatment would insure 
greater success in transplanting, as it would have a, 
tendency to develop the lateral roots; and, in addition 
to that, it would, in all probability, induce earlier 
fruiting." 

HOW TO MAKE THE CUTS 

The sign of the careless or ignorant pruner is the 
presence of stubs four inches, six inches, or some 



96 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



other length, in the top of the tree. All branches 
should be cut back close to the trunk or branch from 
which they start. If allowed to remain, the wound can- 
not heal over, the stub rots away, and the decay ex- 
tends into the trunk of the tree. It has been amply 







Rotten hole due to careless 
pruning. 



Properly made wound ready 
for painting. 



proven that wounds heal over much more readily and 
satisfactorily if the branches are cut back close. Avoid 
large wounds as much as possible, and especially on 
older trees, as they do not heal over readily. 



WHEN TO PRUNE 

There are tw^o seasons better suited for pruning than 
almost any others, — during the winter dormant season, 
and in spring, after the leaves are fully developed and 
the crop has set. By many, the ^vinter season is pre- 
ferred, as there is more time to give to the work, and 
there is less danger of injury to the tree top, and no 
risk of injuring tender branches or the young crop of 
nuts. On the other hand, if pruning is done after the 



PRUNING AND SURGERY 



97 



trees are in leaf, dead branches are much more readily 
detected, and the wounds heal over very satisfactorily. 
Winter pruning generally promotes growth of new 
shoots, while, if pruning is done in early summer, the 
energy of the tree is directed into branches already 
formed, and may have a distinct effect on future crops. 
Pruning should not be done during the period of rapid 
sap movement, in spring, as the wounds become wet and 
cannot be painted satisfactorily. 

TREATMENT OF WOUNDS 



It is needless to say that all wounds made on 
branches or trunks should be protected. It is now gen- 
erally conceded that white-lead paint, with enough 
lampblack added 
to make it about 
the color of the 
bark is the best 
covering to use. 
This precaution 
must not ])e 
neglected on 
wounds of any 
considerable size, 
else rotting of 
the exposed wood 
will take place, 
resulting in weak- 
ening the tree 
and shortening 
its life. 

If the wood 
exposed by a 
wound has de- 
cayed and ex- 
tended toward or Cleaning a wound before filling with (.innu 




G 



98 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



into the heart of the branch or trunk, it requires 
careful treatment. All the decayed wood must be cut 
away with chisel and mallet, until the last particle of it 
is removed. Paint the fresh wood surface with carbol- 
ineum, or some other good wood preservative. Then 
fill up the hole with cement, round it off so that it 
will not hold water, and cut around the edges of the 
wound with the knife, to help in healing it over. 





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Hastening healing of wound by cutting the callus. 

Old wounds, and particularly those on old trunks or 
branches, are frequently slow in healing over. The first 
year, the amount of callus formed is quite large; but it 
takes several seasons to heal a large wound, and the 
callus formed each succeeding year is less than that 
made during the previous one. The bark becomes 
thicker, the sap has to travel further and the w^ound is 
consequently left uncovered for a number of years. 
The rapidity with which a wound will heal may be 
increased by supplying more food to the tree, or by 



PRUNING AND SURGERY 99 

means of better general care and cultivation. But 
a little assistance can be given with the knife, used as 
shown in the accompanying illustration. The point of 
the blade should be inserted through the bark 
close to the inner edge of the callus and a cut made all 
around the wound. This will relieve the pressure of 
the bark, and the amount of callus formed will be 
greatly in excess of what it would otherwise be. 

CROTCHED AND BROKEN TREES 

In a pecan-tree top, a forked or crotched develop- 
ment of the branches is very objectionable. If the trees 
are regularly pruned, this can be prevented by removing 
one of the branches before it becomes too large. Strong 
winds very frequently break off one of the branches, 
resulting in a large wound on the trunk. It is a dif- 
ficult type of wound to heal over, and the symmetry of 
the top is almost certain to be destroyed. The best 
plan is to bolt the two branches together to prevent 
their splitting apart. A half- or three-quarter inch 
hole should be bored through the branches two and a 
half or three feet above where they separate, using a 
long bit or auger. Place a good-sized washer over the 
hole, and drive in a bolt of the right size. Place another 
washer over the protruding end and screw on the 
nut. Paint the places where the bark has been injured. 
A piece of wire or chain should not be tied around 
crotched branches, as it cuts into the wood and inter- 
feres with normal growth A branch may sometimes be 
bent over from one branch to another and inarched, to 
form a living brace. 

Sometimes a branch is nearly split off and bends 
over until it rests on the earth. If promptly attended 
to, it may often be saved. Lift the branch back into 
place and tie it there with a stout rope. A block and 
tackle may be necessary, if the branch is large. Pro- 



100 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



cure two bolts, and pass one through about five or six 
inches above the bottom of the spht, the other two or 
three feet above this, and turn the nuts up tight, to 
bring the branch back to its original place. Remove the 
rope, paint the edges of the wound, and wrap the 
wounded part vnih burlap to prevent drying out. 
This burlap should be removed after a time. Usually 
the parts will make a good union if the injury receives 
prompt attention. 




Preventing splitting by an iron bolt and a living brace. 



PRUNING TOOLS 

In pruning pecan, as well as other trees, the tool 
most commonly used throughout the country is an ax. 
We admit that the ax is useful ; useful for making fire- 
wood; and, if that is what you wish to make of your 
trees, then by all means use it. But, in pruning, the ax 
is the tool which goes with knot-holes, decayed trees and 
neglect. It is the index of careless, ignorant methods. 
Leave it at the wood-pile, and provide a good pruning- 



PRUNING AND SURGERY 101 

saw and a pair of shears for pruning work. Get the 
best. 

The best saws for small branches are the pruning- 
saws generally sold under the names, California, Cli- 
max and Pacific Coast. They are made like an ordinary 
hack- or butcher-saw. The blade is placed on a s\\'ivel 
and can be turned at any angle, thus making it possible 
to remove branches from narrow angles or other awk- 
ward positions. When old blades are broken or worn 
out, they may be replaced at small cost. For heavier 
work, one of the ordinary pruning-saws with straight 
or curved blades is best. 

Of pruning-shears, there is an endless variety, good, 
bad and indifferent. The J. A. Henckle shears are 
among the good ones, and the author has used them 
with much satisfaction. 

For cutting back long straggling branches, a pair of 
treo-pruners, of the Waters' type, will be found very 
use^ful. These are provided with a handle, six, eight or 
ten feet long, and are very useful for removing branches 
otherwise out of reach. 



CHAPTER XI 
FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES 

The fungous diseases attacking the pecan have not 
been thoroughly investigated. Up to this time, how- 
ever, they have not become so numerous or trouble- 
some as to cause serious damage, except in a few in- 
stances. Those which have attracted most attention 
are the pecan leaf blight and the pecan scab. The 
former has been most noticeable on young pecan seed- 
lings, and the latter has appeared here and there on 
nursery and other seedlings, and also on some budded 
sorts. 

Fungous diseases are usually propagated and dis- 
seminated by means of spores, and the most effectual 
method of control generally consists in spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture, lime-sulphur, or some similar 
fungicide. For all fungous diseases of the pecan which 
may be controlled by spraying, no substances will give 
better results than those just mentioned. Directions 
for preparing them are given at the end of this chapter. 
To either of these, arsenate of lead or Paris green may 
be added for the destruction of biting insects. 

The spra\ing of young pecan trees can be easily 
done. For effectual work in spraying somewhat larger 
trees, a platform may be erected on the wagon-bed, to 
make it possible to reach the higher branches ^vith the 
spray. But the control of diseases by spraying is not 
feasible in the case of large trees, and methods of con- 
trol by means of immune varieties, keeping the trees 
well cultivated and well fed, by cleaning up, and prun- 
ing out dead or injured parts, must be used. 

(102) 



FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES 103 

Pecan Leaf Blight {Cercospora Halstedii) . — This 
disease of pecan leaves causes them to turn brown, 
wither up and drop prematurely. At first, small browTi 
spots are noted. These become larger, and at length, 
the whole leaf is destroyed. When attacked by this 
disease, the tree makes no progress. An examination of 
the discolored areas, under a microscope, shows the pres- 
ence of tuft-like growths of spores upon short conidio- 
phores. As they become matured, the spores are 
scattered by the rain or wind, and so the disease is 
spread. It probably hves over from one season to another 
on the diseased leaves. 

As already stated, this disease is essentially a trouble 
found among nursery seedlings, and the author has 
not noted its doing serious damage elsewhere. After the 
trees are grafted or budded, they do not appear to be 
affected by it. The destruction of the leaves of the 
seedlings interferes seriously with their growth, and 
it is best to protect them against injury by spraying 
with Bordeaux mixture. The first application should be 
given just \vhen the leaves are expanding, and, as each 
new^ set of leaves starts out, another application should 
given. The 4-4-50 Bordeaux formula has been found 
very effective. A power-sprayer which will cover four 
rows at once is most economical, if large areas are to 
be sprayed. Sprayed seedlings will make practically 
double the growth of unsprayed. 

Pecan Scab. — This is a disease caused by a fungus 
{Fusidadium effusurn Wi7it.) which attacks the im- 
mature nuts, leaves, twigs and branches. It first makes 
its appearance in the form of very small black specks or 
dots. Under a higher-power lens, these appear velvety 
and are found to be slightly elevated. 

The number of black dots, each of w^hich probably 
represents a starting point of the disease, is sometimes 
so great on the husk of a single diseased nut that it is 
impossible to count them. Later, they enlarge and 



104 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



join one another, thus covering the whole surface. As 
the season advances, hard, diseased areas form on the 
husk. These crack open, showing Hght-brown colored 
cracks at first. The nuts fail to fill, and generally drop 
prematurely. Sometimes, however, they hang on the 
trees even into the following August and September. 




Two healthy pecans in shucks on the left. Five pecads affected 
by scab on the right. 

On affected trees sometimes the whole crop is destroyed, 
and in other cases only a certain percentage is injured. 

On the leaves, the dark areas are irregular in shape 
and of considerable size, particularly when located on 
one of the veins. The petioles of the leaflets and the main 
petiole are also attacked, and eventually the whole leaf 
is destroyed, turns brown and drops off. 

How the fungus is carried over from one season to 
another has not been determined definitely, but we 



FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES 105 

believe it exists through the winter in another state 
on the twigs, or on the old nuts, either on the tree or 
on the ground, or both, and on the old, dead leaves. 

Thus far, the disease has been observed mostly upon 
seedling pecans, though a few budded and grafted 
varieties have been noted which are subject to it. 
Among these latter may be mentioned Georgia, and 
in the southeastern states, San Saba. ]\Iany trees show a 
well-marked resistance to the disease. Of four seed- 
ling trees standing in a row, which have been under 
observation for a number of years, only one was af- 
fected by scab, the others have never shown the least 
sign of it. For further information, see chapter on Top- 
Working. Frotscher, Curtis and Schley appear to be 
immune, though there are many others not subject to 
the disease. 

In view of these facts, two lines of control are open 
— top-work to resistant varieties, or spray with fungi- 
cides. Unless a variety has some very special point of 
merit, or is exempt from the disease in some localities, 
it should be struck out of propagation lists, if severely 
attacked by the disease in any pecan-growing region. 

When control by spraying is undertaken, the first 
application of lime-sulphur spray should be made before 
groAvth starts in spring. This should be followed by 
the second one of Bordeaux or lime-sulphur when the 
leaves are half grown, and a third application after the 
fruit has set. Where trees are badly affected, the only 
satisfactory thing to do is to top-work the affected ones 
with resistant sorts, spra^dng is not practicable. 

Pecan Rosette.* — "The earliest symptoms are a 
peculiar crimping of the leaves at the ends of the 
branches. These leaves are smaller, ^vith crimped mar- 
gin, and, when held to the light, show light green or 
yellow streaks between the veins. The leaf tissue in 

*Orton, W. A., proceedings second annual convention National Xut Grow- 
ers' Association, 1903, p. 32. 1904. 



106 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

these light-colored areas is thin and undeveloped, and 
often breaks away, leaving angular holes in the leaves. 
A tree usually shows the disease over the whole top at 
once, though sometimes only a single branch is affected 
at first. As the disease progresses, the foliage assumes 
a bunched appearance, due to the formation of tufts 
of leaves at the ends of the branches. This characteris- 
tic has led us to use the term "Rosette" as a name for 
the malady. 

The next stage of the disease, which is observed the 
second year or later, is a dying-back of the branches 
from the tips. This is followed by the development of 
numerous small, lateral branches from adventitious 
buds. These are short, producing thick clusters of 
small, unhealthy leaves, sometimes reduced to mere 
skeletons, so that the rosetted appearance of the tree 
is intensified. This goes on from year to year. The 
gro\\i:h of the tree is checked, and these abnormal 
branches are formed only to die back each year. Trees 
in the earliest stages of rosette have been observed to 
have hght crops of nuts, but, when badh^ diseased, are 
barren and unsightly or worse. Rosette has been found 
in all ages, from nursery stock to trees forty feet high. 

'The cause of the disease remains a mystery. No 
fungous or other parasite can be detected in the earliest 
stages. The appearance of the trees leads us to infer 
that the trouble is internal, due to some derangement of 
the nutritive or assimilative functions of the plant, but 
we are unable to correlate this with any corresponding 
external conditions. That is to say, so many cases have 
been observed on fertile soil, when cultivation, drainage 
and plant food had all been provided, that it is impossible 
to conclude that the disease could be due to starvation 
or to the lack of any single element in the soil, nor can 
it be due to over-feeding, since it occurs in light soils 
and in neglected orchards. 

"It seems probable that it will be classed by the plant 



FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES 107 

pathologist with peach rosette, peach yellows, and re- 
lated diseases, the causes of which still remain un- 
known after years of investigation. The indications are 
that it is contagious, though a complete demonstration 
of this point remains to be made; at any rate, it must 
be regarded with concern until more knowledge is 
available." 

The best recommendation that can be made in re- 
gard to pecans affected by this disease is to dig them up 
and burn them. 

BORDEAUX MIXTURE 

Copper sulphate 5 pounds. 

Lime (unslaked) 5 pounds. 

Water 50 gallons. 

Dissolve the copper sulphate in two gallons of 
water, place it in barrel No. 1 and add water to make 
twenty-five gallons. Slake the lime, reduce it to a very 
thin paste, place it in barrel No. 2 and add water to 
make twenty-five gallons. To mix the solutions of lime 
and copper sulphate, dip a bucketful from each barrel, 
and pour together into the barrel of the spray pump. 
The two mixtures should flow together as they are poured 
into the barrel. This is one of the secrets of making a 
first-class mixture. The best arrangement is to have 
the barrels, Nos. 1 and 2, elevated, and use a piece of 
rubber hose to run the liquids into the pump barrel. 

If a large amount of spraying is to be done, a some- 
what different policy should be pursued. Too much time 
would be taken up in preparing the ingredients in small 
quantities. Instead, large amounts of copper sulphate 
should be dissolved and large quantities of lime slaked 
beforehand. This may be done as follows: 

In a fifty-gallon barrel place about forty gallons of 
water. Put one hundred pounds of copper sulphate in a 
sack and suspend it in the water. As soon as dissolved, 



108 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

fill up to the fifty-gallon mark. When well stirred, each 
gallon will contain two pounds of copper sulphate. 
Each time some of the solution is dipped out, the height 
of the remaining portion should be marked on the in- 
side of the barrel. Before taking more of the solution out 
of the barrel, any amount of water lost by evaporation 
should be made good by filling up to the mark last 
made. 

As soon as procured, the lime should be slaked, 
placed in a l:)arrel, and kept covered with an inch or 
two of water. In this wa}^ it can be kept indefinitely. 

To prepare Bordeaux mixture from these stock solu- 
tions, dip out two and a half gallons of the copper-sul- 
phate solution, place it in barrel No. 1, and dilute to 
twenty-five gallons. From the slaked lime take fifteen 
pounds, or thereabouts, to allow for the w^ater it con- 
tained, reduce to a thin paste, place it in barrel No. 2, 
and add water to make twenty-five gallons. Pour the 
contents of barrels Nos. 1 and 2 together, as already 
directed. 

Tests. — If free copper be present, severe injury may 
be done to the foliage or other tender parts of the plants. 
Sufficient lime should be added to neutralize it. 

Dip out a small quantity into a porcelain saucer or 
shallow bowl, and, holding it on a level with the mouth, 
blow the breath gently into it. If the mixture is prop- 
erly made, a thin pellicle, or scum, will begin to form 
on the surface. If this pellicle does not form, milk of 
lime must be added until it does. 

Another test is to dip the blade of a clean knife into 
the mixture. If a thin film of copper forms on it after 
holding it there a minute or so, more lime must be 
added. 

LIME-SULPHUR 

Recently a mixture discovered by Prof. W. M. Scott, 
of the Department of Agriculture, has given most ex- 



FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES 109 

cellent results against apple scab and some other dis- 
eases; and this mixture, made from 10 pounds of sul- 
phur and 10 pounds of fresh stone hme, to 50 gallons of 
water, will doubtless prove as effective against pecan 
scab and other pecan fungous diseases as it has against 
apple diseases. 

Directions for its preparation are given by Mr. A. L. 
Quaintance, in the Yearbook of the Department of 
Agriculture for 1908. "Place the lime in a 50-gallon 
barrel, and pour 2 or 3 gallons of cold water over it. 
Immediately add the sulphur and 2 or 3 gallons mxore 
of cold water. The heat from the slaking lime will boil 
the mixture violently for several minutes. Some 
stirring is necessary, to prevent burning, and more water 
should be added if the mass gets too thick to stir; but 
the cooking is more effectual when the minimum quan- 
tity of water is used, usually from 6 to 8 gallons being 
required. When the boiling ceases, dilute with cold 
water to make 50 gallons, stir thoroughly and strain 
through a sieve of about 20 meshes to the inch, in order 
to take out coarse particles of hme, but all the sulphur 
should be carefully worked through. '^ 

GENERAL REMARKS 

Use good materials and prepare the mixtures 
thoroughly. 

In making up the various mixtures, never use iron 
vessels, but use glass, wood or crockery receptacles 
instead. 

Strain all mixtures thoroughly into the spray-pump, 
to prevent clogging of the pump or nozzles. 

Spray thoroughly and in good season. Be in time. 

Do not use mixtures which have been left over and 
allowed to stand for some time. 



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CHAPTER XII 
INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 

Some time ago the statement was occasionally made 
that the pecan had no known enemies. This, to think- 
ing and observing persons, was too good to be true, 
and fortunately the words, ''no kno^\^I," were inserted, 
for later investigations, particularly on the part of 
Profs. Gossard and Herrick, have revealed the fact that 
the pecan, in common with all other fruit trees, is sub- 
ject to the attacks of insect and other enemies. But 
the outlook is hopeful, for we know of the abandon- 
ment of no fruit industry because of the attacks of in- 
sect pests, and the pecan industry is in no ^\dse in dan- 
ger of being abandoned because of their inroads. 

FEEDING HABITS OF INSECTS 

If an insect is to be successful!}^ controlled, the grower 
must know something of its life-history, and partic- 
ularly of its feeding habits. Ciircful observation of the 
insect, while at its work of destruction, will frequently 
give a clue to the method of control. ]\Iany insects, 
like the caterpillars of the pecan, bud-moth and case- 
worm, obtain their food by biting off pieces of the 
leaves or other parts of the tree and swallowing the 
soUd particles. On the other hand, a number of in- 
sects, such as the scales and plant -lice, obtain their 
food by thrusting their small, bristle-like sucking tubes 
into the tissues of the leaves and sucking out the juices 
contained in the cells. 

It is quite obvious that these two classes of insects 

(111) 



112 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

cannot be controlled or destroyed in the same way. 
Those which eat sohd particles of food may, in most 
cases, be destroyed by applying some poisonous sub- 
stance, such as arsenate of lead or Paris green, to the 
food which they eat. But those which obtain their 
food by sucking cannot be killed in this way. They 
can be destroyed, however, by spraying over their 
bodies some substance, such as kerosene emulsion, 
which will penetrate their bodies and so kill them. Or, 
they may be killed by suffocating them with a gas or by 
stopping up their breathing pores with some powdered 
substance, such as pyrethrum. Some insecticides, 
such as resin wash, act both as a caustic application 
and a suffocating covering. The spraying of pecan trees 
while they are young and of small size, even up to 
twenty feet or more, is entirely feasible; but the spray- 
ing of large trees is out of the question, because of the 
expense and labor involved, besides, it can not be thor- 
oughly done, if undertaken. We must, in the case of old 
trees, depend upon sanitary precautions and insect para- 
sites to control some insect enemies; and fortunately 
these insect parasites do gain the upper hand of some 
of the worst pecan enemies. Give them a chance. 

For convenience in referring to insects which attack 
the pecan, we have grouped them as follows: (1) In- 
sects attacking buds and leaves; (2) insects attacking 
the trunk and branches; (3) insects attacking the fruit. 

INSECTS ATTACKING BUDS AND LEAVES 

The Bud Worms. — At least two species of caterpillars are 
known by this name. The moth of one has been called the bud- 
moth. The caterpillar of the other has been called the case 
worm. Professor Gossard writes that he unexpectedly found 
adult moths of Proteopteryx deludana, November 28th, 1905, 
and therefore believes, from this observation and other circum- 
stantial evidence, that he was "mixed" regarding the autumn 
life-history of these insects, as set forth in bulletin 79 of the 



INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 113 

Florida Experiment Station. He furnishes the following para- 
graph as a summary of what he can say of the bud worms: 

"The Bud Moth, Proteopteryx deludana, is a serious pest, 
especially in young orchards. Sometimes, in such orchards, even 
when large, scarcely a tree can be found during the month of May 
that does not contain one or several nests. The caterpillars are 
usually found singly, each with one side of a leaf folded over it 
and fastened to form a tube, or sometimes two leaves are fastened 
together with silken bonds and the caterpillar feeds between 
them. As fast as the leaves it has attacked become brown and 
die, it draws fresh leaves to the dead ones and fastens them 
there, thus gradually making a very conspicuous nest. The 
caterpillar is full-grown during the last of May and the first of 
June, when they transform into moths. Their pupae cases 
are formed of silk and excrement, smoothly lined with silk and 
snugly hidden away in a nest of leaves. In about two weeks from 
the time of pupation, the moths appear. Early specimens have 
sometimes been hatched from buds, only partially expanded. 
They are small, about five-sixteenths of an inch in length and 
five-eighths of an inch across the expanded wings. In general 
color they are grayish, streaked and dotted with blackish-brown. 
A characteristic habit is to alight and rest on the tree trunk, head 
downward. The moths have again been observed in November, 
suggesting that there are two broods a year. Thorough, persistent 
spraying with arsenate of lead or Paris green, in April and May, 
ought to control this species." 

The Case Worm (Acrobasis nehulella). — This insect, often 
found associated with the bud-moth, probably does more dam- 
age than any other pecan insect. The caterpillars are about 
five-eighths of an inch in length, a dirt}' brownish green in color, 
and live in silk-lined cases or tubes attached to the petioles 
of the leaves. From these they protrude themselves to feed. 
Frequently a pair of leaflets are tied together, and between these 
the caterpillars live and feed upon the tips of the protecting 
leaflets. Opening buds, partially developed and full-grown 
leaves, alike are destroyed. Earlier in the season, characteris- 
tic nests of partially eaten leaves, petioles and excrement, are 
formed by several caterpillars tying the mass together with silk. 
In this nest they live and develop. The caterpillars pupate within 
their silken tubes, and the small gray moths (five-eighths to 
three-fourths of an inch in length) emerge about two weeks after 
pupation, chiefly in June. The small, hibernating "cocoons" 
found on and around the buds in winter, and the tortuous tubes 
observed on the leaves in summer and fall, which have been re- 
ferred to {Proteopteryx deludana), probably belong to this species. 
At least, caterpillars, one-fourth grown, and contained in cocoons 

H 



INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 115 

apparently not essentially different from the smaller ones, con- 
tain worms having the characteristic appearance of the grown 
Acrohasis Spraying with arsenicals in April, May and June 
should destroy this pest. Spraying in late July and August 
would also promise results of value. 

The bud and case worms can be handled economically' on 
small trees by hand-picking. Both these species do harm, mostly 
to young trees. 

The Catocalas (Catocala pialrix and C. triduata). — The 
caterpillars of these insects are frequently found during April, 
May and June feeding upon the leaves of the pecan. They are 
ravenous feeders, and, if present in sufficient numbers, consider- 
able damage is done. The caterpillars are from two to two and 
a half or three inches in length when fully extended, gray and 
striped, leathery in appearance, very closely resembling the bark 
of the tree upon which they rest when not feeding. Having at- 
tained its full growth as a caterpillar, it ties together two or three 
leaves with strands of silk, thus making a loose cocoon within 
within which it pupates. ^Fhe pupa is dark brown, covered with 
a whitish or bluish-white bloom. In about one month the moths 
emerge. They are large in size, the body being one to one and 
one-fourth inches long and the expanded wings two and one- 
half to three inches across. When at rest, they are a dull gray in 
in color, more or less marked with irregular waving lines. The 
hind- or under-wings are strikingly different from the fore-wings. 
In C. pialrix they are deep orange-yellow, marked from side to 
side with two black bands. The hind-wings of C. viduata are 
dark brown and edged with a narrow white band. 

The caterpillars may be destroyed by spraying with some one 
of the arsenical poisons, or they may be removed by hand and 
destroyed. Prof. Gossard recommends the tying of a piece of bur- 
lap around the trees. Beneath this the caterpillars hide during 
the night, and they may then be destroyed. 

The Fall Web-Worm {Ilyphantria cunca). — The caterpillars 
of this insect begin work early in spring, shortly after the leaves 
are full grown. They work in colonies, and the leaves on which 
they feed are enclosed in a web, which is extended as the caterpil- 
lars grow or as they require additional leaves to feed upon. 
When full grown, the caterpillars measure about one inch in 
length, and are covered with hairs both long and short. The 
matured caterpillars leave the webs and crawl down the trees, 
to hunt for places beneath the bark, under sticks, weeds and 
trash, in which to pupate. A light, flimsy cocoon, composed of 
silk and the hairs of the larva, is made. From this, in due time, 
a beautiful moth, an inch and a quarter across the wings, emerges. 
The wings arc pure white or white spotted with black or brownish- 




A pecan catocala (C jnatrix.) 
Caterpillar, cocoon, chrysalis and moths about one-half natural size. 



INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 



117 



black. The eggs are laid in 
masses of four or five hun- 
dred on the leaves. These 
hatch in about ten days, 
and the colonies of young 
caterpillars begin their work 
of destruction. There are 
two broods in the South 
each summer; the first ap- 
pearing in May and June, 
the second in August and 
September. The fall brood 
hibernates in the pupa state. 

The caterpillars may be 
destroj'ed on small trees by 
removing the webs and kill- 
ing the larvae. On large 
trees, a torch of some sort 
may be used to burn the 
web and the caterpillars 
within it. They may be also 
held in check by applying 
a spray of Paris green or 
arsenate of lead at the time 
the broods are feeding. 

The Pecan Caterpillar 
( Datana iniegerrima ).■ — -A 
buff-colored moth, having a 
body about one -half inch 
long and a wing expanse of 
one and three-fourths 
inches, with four transverse 
brown stripes on the front 
wings, lays its greenish or 
white eggs in clusters of five 
hundred to twelve hundred 
on the underside of the 
lower leaves of the pecan 
trees. These eggs hatch in 
less than a week, and the 
colonies of young caterpillars 
at first feed upon the under 
sides of the leaves. They 
cast their skins four times, 
each time increasing in size 
and changing their color 
somewhat. The last molt, 




Pecan Datanas. 



118 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

and sometimes the last two, take place on the trunk of the 
tree, and the clusters of discarded skins frequently remain for 
several months afterward. After the last molt, they ascend 
the trees, remain feeding for a short while, then go down to the 
ground to pupate. When disturbed, the larvae raise both ends of 
their bodies from the twigs or leaves, on which they rest. They 
are easily recognized by this habit. When full grown, they are 
one and one-half to one and three-quarters of an inch in length, 
covered with dirty white hair, and marked with two conspicuous 
longitudinal white lines, one on each side of the body. There are 
two broods, the last one hibernating in the ground in the pupa 
state. 

The leaves on which the eggs are laid may be gathered and de- 
stroyed, or the colonies of young caterpillars may be gathered 
and burned. Later they may be burned off with a torch, killed 
when clustered on the trunk during the last molt, or poisoned 
with an arsenical spray. 

INSECTS ATTACKING THE TRUNK AND BRANCHES 

The Twig Girdlers {Oncideres cingulalus and O. texana). — 
These two insects frequently do considerable damage to pecan 
trees in late summer by cutting off the smaller branches. 
Branches from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch are usually 
the ones attacked. The insect is a beetle, and the two species 
closely resemble each other. They are dark gray in color, one-half 
to five-eighths inch in length, with antennae longer than the body, 
They are provided with stout, powerful mandibles. The female 
insect cuts the branch by working round and round it until it is 
almost entirely severed. She then lays a number of eggs in it, 
usually one or two being placed near each bud. A small cut is 
made and the egg is inserted between the bark and the wood, 
and the opening is then sealed up with a gumm}^ substance. As 
the insect moves along the twig, series of transverse cuts are 
made in the bark. The twigs usually drop to the ground. The 
eggs hatch as soon as the weather becomes sufficiently warm in 
spring, and the larva? feed in the twigs, making tunnels through 
them as they grow. Later, they pupate within the tunnels, and 
emerge during August and September as fully developed insects, 
havmg spent one year in their growth from egg to mature insect. 
It is believed that, in some cases, the life cycle lasts two years. 

The best and most effective treatment is to gather and burn 
all the twigs which have been cut from the trees. This should be 
done, preferably late in the autumn after the leaves have fallen, 
as there is greater certainty of getting all the severed twigs than 
if left until a later date. 



INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 



119 



The Oak Pruner {Elaphidion villosum) . — Sometimes* pecan 
twigs, when smartly bent, will snap off with a clean, square cut 
across the branches, as if they were hollow-glass tubes, breaking 
at cracked or weakened places. An examination of such a broken 
stem shows "that its woody part, with the exception of a few 
fibers and the bark, has been cut across as if with a saw by a soft, 
yellowish-white grub, which can often be found in a burrow in 
the severed part. Since the uncut bark is the chief support left 
for the branch, any stiff wind, or even its own weight, will break 
it off as soon as it has become deadened 

"The adult is a longicorn beetle, of slender, cylindrical form, 
over one-half inch in length and about one-eighth of an inch in 




Eggs and punctures of twig girdler. 

width. It is of a dull, black color, tinged with brown on the wing- 
covers, especially toward their tips. The underside of the body 
and legs are chestnut colored. Over all parts of the body can be 
found short, grayish hairs. Some small gray spots on the wing- 
covers and a whitish dot on each side of the thorax are formed by 
dense collections of gray hairs at these points. Coarse, round 
punctures are thickly sprinkled over the upper surface of the 
thorax and wing-covers. 

"The larva, when grown, is about three-fifths of an inch long, 
tapering backward from the neck. The body is divided by deep 
grooves into twelve rings or segments. There are three pairs of 
feet. The color is yellowish white, the front of the head being 
blackish. Probably, about midsummer, with a possible variation 
of two months in each direction from this date, the parent beetle 
deposits her eggs, pre^ferably on a small twig of the preceding 
year's growth. Tpon hatching, the young larva commences to 

*Gossarfl. 



120 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

eat the tender wood just beneath the bark, and then later enters 
the center of the twig and works toward its base. In this manner 
it works its way into the main limb, which may be of considerable 
size, and feeds within it for a period of about three years. The 
burrow thus becomes several inches in length, in many cases. 
Just before transforming to pupse, some, but not all, of the larvae, 
cut the wood for the purpose of dropping the branches, as before 
described. Limbs in which the immature larvae are working often 
break off with ragged end, when bent with the hand. 

". . . Pick up and burn all fallen branches. Similar attention 
should be given nearby oak and hickory limbs which have fallen." 

The Pecan Tree Borer (Sesia scitula). — The moth of this 
insect is clear-wdnged and closely resembles the moth of the 
peach-tree borer. Little is known of its life-history. 

"It* is probable that the eggs are deposited by the female 
moth on the bark of a tree near a fresh wound; for example, 
near newly set buds. The eggs hatch and the larvae bore into the 
bark, and there live for a time, eating out the soft inner bark and 
tender wood. It is certain that the borers live in these situations 
over the winter, and change to pupae in the spring, from which the 
moths emerge in April. The moths I reared appeared April 3d, 
4th and 6th. The pupae are in cocoons, just under the bark. The 
cocoons are made from excrement and bits of bark that have 
been fastened together with silk similar to the cocoons of the 
peach-tree borer. Whether these moths, that emerge in the 
spring, lay eggs and produce a brood in the summer, that in 
turn develops a fall brood of larvae, I am unable to say." 

"Thef young borer is apt to gain entrance to the sap wood 
through some wound in the bark, such as graft-union, and here 
it feeds, sometimes completely girdling the sapwood above and 
below the wound. It is said to prefer to attack buds that have 
been budded on old, large trees. As a general rule, the burrows as- 
cend the tree in a spiral about the trunk, so, complete girdling is 
unusual, but growth sometimes ceases above the groove, new 
limbs being shot out from below." 

The only satisfactory means of controlling this pest is to go 
carefully over the tree and dig out the borers. The trees should 
be examined from time to time, in order to keep them free from 
borers. 

INSECTS ATTACKING THE FRUIT 

The Pecan W'ebyit. (Balantinus caryce) . — In some localities, 
considerable damage has been caused by the pecan weevil. The 
insect is a small, brownish-black snout beetle, somewhat less than 

*Hedrick. (See index of literature.) 
tGossard. (See index of literature.) 



INSECTS ATTACKING THE PECAN 121 

one-half inch in length. The proboscis, or snout, is slender and as 
long as the body. With this proboscis the beetle bores a very 
small hole through the husk and shell of the immature pecan to 
the kernel, and at the bottom deposits an egg. This egg hatches 
into a larva, which feeds upon the kernel of the nut. In autumn 
the larvae, when full grown, bore holes through the shells of the 
pecan and enter the ground, in which they pass the winter. The 
next season, they emerge from the earth as fully matured insects, 
and about the month of August deposit their eggs in the nuts. 

After the harvesting of the crop, the hogs should be allowed 
to feed under trees in which the weevil is present, so as to devour 
any infested nuts which may have been left on the the ground. 
Poultry may also be of assistance in destroying the insects after 
they have entered the ground to pupate. It is probable that the 
larvae in the nuts may be destroyed by fumigating with carbon 
bi-sulphide. The nuts should be placed in a tight box, and one- 
half pound for each five hundred cubic feet of space used, allow- 
ing them to remain for forty-eight hours. 

The Hickory-Shuck Worm (Grapholitha caryana). — Some- 
times pecan nuts are attacked, as they approach maturity, by a 
small white caterpillar, which mines its way through the shucks 
of the nuts. This caterpillar is the hickory-shuck worm, the larva 
of a small moth. 

But little is known of its life-history, and, until more is known 
of its habits, the best advice that can be given is to gather 
and destroy the infested nuts by burning them. 



CHAPTER XIII 
HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 

While, in preparing a crop of pecan nuts for market, 
such extreme care need not be exercised as in handling 
a crop of peaches, pUmis or oranges, still there are 
a number of details which require careful attention, to 
secure the best results. Careful attention to these few 
points is quite as necessary as in handling any other 
fruit crop, though it might appear otherwise. 

PICKING EQUIPMENT 

The necessary equipment for handling the crop is 
neither great nor expensive. Good, high step-ladders 
should be provided. These should be of the three-legged 
type, as they stand firm and solid on uneven ground 
much better than those with four legs. Other light, 
strong ladders of different lengths should be on hand, 
and among these one or two extension ladders, such as 
are used b}' painters, well-made and of good length. A 
number of bamboo poles, for getting at inaccessible nut 
clusters, are necessary. Hooks for drawing in branches 
to the picker, made of light poles about six feet long, 
with a small iron hook in one end, are very convenient. 
Picking-sacks of good stout duck are best for working in 
the tree tops, as they do not upset, and can be carried 
about, at the same time giving the picker free use of 
of both hands. Strong Avicker-work or split-wood 
baskets, holding a bushel or two, are excellent for 
handling the crop from the orchard to the curing- 
room. 

(123) 



124 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



TIME TO GATHER 



As a rule, the bulk of the nut crop must be disposed 
of before Thanksgiving, and there is, in consequence, a 
strong disposition to gather the crop anyway, whether 
ready or not. Much might be said on both sides of 
the question, but, in general, it must be granted that 
gathering the crop while still somewhat immature, and 
beating the trees to cause the nuts to drop, cannot 
be commended. 

When the great majority of nut husks are open, the 

crop of the tree 
is ready to be 
harvested and 
should be picked 
clean at one pick- 
ing. It will not 
do to wait until 
every bur is open 
(some varieties 
never open, but 
such are ex- 
tremely undesir- 
able), for it will 
usually be found 
that by far the 
most of those 
which do not open 
on trees which 
open their burs 
uniformly are 
faulty, and it will 
not pay to wait 
for them. Neither 
should such be 
left on the tree, 
but the whole 

A nuL picker at work 




HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 125 

tree should be stripped at the time already indicated. 
If the closed burs open during curing, well and good; 
if not, it is best to place them with the culls, as they 
are likely to be faulty. 




Ready to be harvested 
PICKING 

The nuts must either be picked by hand or knocked 
off the trees onto the ground with sticks. From what- 
ever standpoint we may regard the gathering of the 
crops, in orchards of good varieties, the best plan for 
the removal of the nuts is to take them off, in so far as 
possible, by hand. Men should climb the trees and col- 
lect the nuts in sacks. Men provided with sacks can, 
with the help of a good extension ladder, and the hooks 
already mentioned, reach most of the nuts on ordi- 
nary trees, up to forty or fifty feet in height. A good 
man will pick one hundred pounds of the shelled 
nuts in a day, at a cost of a dollar or a dollar and a 
quarter a day, — or one to one and a quarter cents per 
pound. 

But why not have the men climb the trees and knock 
down the nuts, either by shaking the trees or by beat- 



126 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

ing the clusters with the bamboo poles? Nuts otherwise 
out of reach have to be beaten off with poles, and very 
large trees have to be handled in this way; but where 
the practice of hand-picking can be followed, it is best 
to do so. When the nuts are beaten or shaken down, 
they are scattered in every direction under adjoining 
trees (perhaps of other varieties, and sorting is compli- 
cated), and often so far away that they are not imme- 
diately, and perhaps never, recovered. It does not take 
many lost dessert nuts to pay for the difference between 
the two methods of gathering, if there is any. Greater 
damage is done to the limbs and twigs than if the crop 
is hand-picked. Of course, when the trees reach very 
large size, other methods must be adopted. 

In gathering the crop, the product of each individual 
tree, in the case of heavy-bearing seedlings, or of each 
group of trees of a single variety of grafted trees, should 
be kept in a single pile or lot. It will not to do to mix 
nuts of different sizes, shapes and colors, if the best 
price is to be hoped for. 

Following the picking, the broken twigs, branches 
and leaves should be carefully gathered and burned. 
Even where the best of care is exercised, there will be 
some debris on the ground. 

SHUCKING 

As soon as the nuts are carried to the curing- and 
packing-house, the shucks should be removed. Even 
when the shucks open well, many of the nuts will still 
remain attached by the inner membranes, and must 
be removed from their partly opened coverings. This 
work, at the present time, is done by hand; but doubt- 
less, before long, machinery will be introduced to 
handle it. In the course of shucking, the unopened 
burs should be placed by themselves. If they open 
readily after a little drying, the nuts are probably good; 




Chucking pecans. 



128 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

but, if they do not, it is safest, in the interest of a high- 
grade product, to discard them. If there is any doubt 
about them, throw them out. 

The shucks, if no insects are present among them, 
may be scattered around the trees, but if they are in- 
fested with shuck worms, it is best to burn them and 
return their ashes to the soil. 

Shucking costs about fifty cents per hundred pounds 
of nuts removed from the husks. 

CURING 

As soon as the nuts have been separated from the 
hulls, they should be spread out in shallow trays for 
curing. These trays should be two and one-half or 




A corner in the curing-room. 



three feet wdde and four or five inches deep. The bot- 
toms are best covered with wire netting, with meshes 
about one-half inch square. They may be arranged 
around the walls of the curing-room, one tier above 



HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 129 

another. The room should be provided with good venti- 
lation, so as to give a free circulation of air. In the 
trays the nuts may be placed two or three layers deep; 
if placed too deep, there is danger of their molding. 
They should be turned over from time to time, and, 
under average conditions, two weeks will be sufficiemt 
to cure them thoroughly. To further facilitate the 
curing process, the trays may be lifted from their racks 
and carried into the open air during the day and re- 
turned to the house at night. Curing is sometimes satis- 
factorily done by spreading the nuts on canvas sheets 
on the ground. Needless to say, they should not be 
exposed to rain or dew. 

The curing-house should be absolutely rat-proof, 
well-lighted, and should afford ample space for handling 
the crop. 

GRADING 

Before packing for market, the nuts should be care- 
fully graded. Too much attention cannot be given to 
this detail. Rigid grading pays — it pays handsomely, 
and, the more abundant the supply, the better it pays. 
All culls and small, imperfect or broken specimens 
should be thrown out. 

It ^vill not do to mix together nuts of all sizes, shapes, 
and colors — some small, some large, some pointed, 
some blunt, some dark, some light, some streaked, and 
then expect to get the full value of the crop. It cannot 
be done with a good grade of pecans. 

Perhaps in no kind of fruit which is placed on the 
market can a more nearly absolutely uniform grade be 
made (see Frontispiece). The variety should be the 
basis of the grade. In gathering the crop, each variety 
should be put by itself as it is gathered. In most 
varieties the size is quite uniform, and little else need 
be done; but if there is any considerable variation in 
size, the small ones should be removed from the first 



130 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

grade of nuts either by hand-picking or by screening 
through suitable screens. 

Pohshing and staining should not be done. It is al- 
ways best to let each variety retain its own individual 
marks and characteristics. These are a part of the 
market quality of the variety and should, by all means, 
be retained. Mixed lots of seedling nuts may be pol- 
lished to render them more uniform, but the staining is 
an abomination, though some people would rather have 
it, not knowing, perhaps, what a pecan looks like 
without it. 

PACKAGES 

The packages used for marketing pecans should be 
light, strong and attractive. The right sort of package 
goes a long way in securing satisfactory returns for 
its contents, and, in handling so valuable a product as 
the pecan crop, no pains should be spared in putting up 
a package that will meet the approval of the consumer. 
We are, at the present time, a long way from any sort of 
standardized package for pecan nuts, but something 
of this sort must eventually be worked out. 

Pecan nuts have been shipped, from time to time, 
through the mails, or by express and by freight, packed 
in sacks, and when they reached their destination a 
portion of the contents w^as missing. We have the ut- 
most sympathy with human weaknesses and no one 
was to blame but the shipper, who should have lost all 
he forwarded for not knowing better. Barrels for larger 
shipments, and wooden boxes for smaller lots, are the 
best and most satisfactory packages, and afford the 
necessary protection. 

Gift packages should be neatly made. The smaller 
sizes may be made of half-inch planed lumber through- 
out, — the medium sizes of half-inch sides and three- 
quarter-inch ends, and the larger sizes with inch ends. 
They should be made well, and well nailed or mortised 




A barrel of Van Deman pecans. 




Gift packages, Teche pecans. 



132 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



together. Roughly speaking, a pound of nuts well 
cured and shipped shortly after harvesting can be 
packed in about sixty cubic inches. If the nuts have 
been kept for a considerable length of time, they may 
require more space. The following box dimensions, in- 
side measurements, are close approximations : 

5 pounds 10 X 6 x 5 inches 

10 pounds 10 X 12 X 5 inches 

15 pounds 15 X 12 X 5 inches 

20 pounds 15 X 8 x 10 inches 

25 pounds. ... 15 x 10 x 10 inches 

30 pounds 15 X 12 X 10 inches 

40 pounds 16 X 15 X 10 inches 

In making up boxes for special varieties, it is best to 
make a test before making up the boxes in quantity. 
If any variation is made, it should be on the side of 
making them a little larger, as the space not filled with 
nuts can be filled with a piece of cardboard or a paper 
pad, to prevent shaking. It is, however, best that the 

package should 
appear full when 
opened up. The 
weight of pecan 
nuts varies con- 
siderably. For in- 
stance, Randall 
weighs 41 pounds 
per bushel, while 
Van Deman and 
Teche weigh 40 
pounds per bushel, 
2150.4 cubic 
inches. 

To add to the neatness of the package, it should be 
lined with paper, and the smaller sizes may be wrapped 
in paper before shipment. If the boxes are stained 
brown or light green, using one of the ordinary shingle 
stains, it will add much to their appearance. 




Corrugated paper box for gift package. 



HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 133 

For mail shipments, a corrugated pasteboard box 
may be used. Such a box, to hold three pounds of 
nuts, should measure inside about 5x6x6 inches, and, 
when made up and wrapped for shipment, w\\\ weigh 
a little less than the regulation four pounds. In hand- 
ling the smaller lots of nuts, five, ten, or fifteen pounds, 
these same pasteboard boxes, made in proper sizes, 
could be used. 

The package should be neatly marked, outside, 
with the grower's name and address, the name of the 
variety, and the number of pounds. A neat card may 
be enclosed, placed on top of the nuts, as an additional 
advertising feature. 

PACKING 

The packing of pecans is not a difficult task, yet, 
like every other operation, it requires its share of care- 
ful attention. The box packages for the individual 
trade should be neatly lined with paper. Carefully 
weigh the package and place in it the exact number of 
pounds it is to contain. Place the box on a sohd foun- 
dation, shake down thoroughly, fold over the lining 
paper, place the cover in position and nail do^vn. If 
the package is designed for display in the market, the 
cover should not be so tightly nailed down that the 
box must be broken or injured to show its contents; 
at the same time, it should be securely enough fastened 
to protect the nuts. 

STORING 

There is a mistaken idea, that, unlike fruits, the 
pecan can be kept indefinitely under ordinary conditions, 
and still retain its edible quality. So far as rotting is 
concerned, this is true, but heat and light work havoc 
with the quafity of the kernel. 



134 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

During the cold weather following the gathering of 
the crop, little or no change takes place in the flavor 
of the kernels. During the heat of summer, however, 
they deteriorate. The natural amount of moisture in 
them is reduced, the air enters, oxidation takes place 
and the flavor becomes rancid. 

These changes can be prevented if the nuts are kept 
in cold storage, say, at a temperature of from thirty-five 
to forty degrees. When nuts are kept in the house, they 
should be stored in the coolest possible place, in sealed 
jars or tight boxes. 

MARKETING 

The Private Trade. — As it is at present, so will it 
be for many years to come, — strictly first-class pecans 
will be handled almost entirely by or through a private 
trade. We know of several growers who dispose of their 
crops of several thousand pounds annually to private 
customers, who have learned the value of good nuts. 
So greatly has the demand increased that, in no single 
instance, is any one of these men able to supply the de- 
mand — the natural outgrowth of his own work, — and 
orders are usually booked a year or more in advance. 
This is the ideal method of handling the crop, and the 
one method which enables the grower to secure the best 
price for his product. 

In building up such a private trade, advertising must 
be resorted to, either through the newspapers, maga- 
zines and other channels, or by distributing samples of 
nuts. ''Once a customer, always a customer" should 
be the motto for the grower to hold in mind, and every 
effort should be made and every precaution taken to 
see that the nuts, from year to year, are absolutely uniforin 
in size, shape, and quality. Do not send a customer one 
size, shape, or quality one year, at a certain price, and 
the next year vary it. Such treatment will tend to 



HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 135 

make customers dissatisfied, and the grower may lose 
them entirely, This point cannot be too strongly em- 
phasized. 

A good, liberal price should be fixed for the product, 
different sizes or varieties at different prices, and these 
prices should not be varied. In case of a short crop, it 
is best to pro-rate the output, giving each private cus- 
tomer a portion of what he desires, thus holding 
the trade from year to year. 

High-Class Grocery Trade. — Strictly first-class nuts 
may be disposed of to advantage to the first-class 
grocery or fruit trade in the larger cities. In cities 
of any considerable size, there will always be found a 
grocer or fruiter who is willing to take a first-class 
article at a price considerably above the usual market 
price of ordinary nuts. Some years ago, the writer sub- 
mitted samples of nuts of medium, but uniform size, 
and good quahty, to a grocery firm in New York. They 
replied that they would take nuts like the samples at 
twelve and a half to fifteen cents a pound, in carload 
lots, when the common run of pecans could be pur- 
chased at four or five cents per pound. This difference 
in market value still exists, and, as the common nuts 
have risen in price, so has the price of the better grades 
risen. Ten years ago, ordinary seedling nuts could be 
purchased at from three to five cents per pound. Now, 
the price at wholesale has risen to fourteen and sixteen 
cents per pound, with no immediate possibility of lower 
prices prevailing. This has been brought about by the 
natural increase in demand, owing to the greater variety 
of uses to which the nuts are put and to larger con- 
sumption, and not by any market combination made 
to force the prices up. 

Selling on Commission. — It may be advantageous, at 
times, to handle the pecan crop through a commission- 
merchant. The plan has its advantages and disadvan- 
tages; and, until the pecan output of the country, from 



136 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

cultivated orchards, is in the hands of good growers and 
at the same time, good business men, it will be necessary 
to use the commission-merchant. We hear much about 
the dishonest commission-merchant; we hear less about 
the dishonest or ignorant and careless shipper. An 
honest commission-merchant and an honest shipper 
make a good and satisfactory combination, — one hard 
to find at times, but, when found, it works well in the 
interest of both parties. 

If the crop is to be marketed through the commission- 
merchant, his honesty, integrity and financial standing 
should be carefully ascertained. Rightly so, for the 
crop is entrusted to his care, with these as the sole 
guarantee of honest returns. Don't split the shipments 
in one town or city. Let one merchant handle your 
output for that city. Work with your commission- 
merchant. Your interest, if he is of the right sort, is his 
interest. Ship him in the quantities he can handle, 
and send him the product when he wants it. He is on 
the ground, and knows the market conditions better 
than you do. 

Remember, too, that it takes some time to build 
up a trade in any center. It is an excellent plan to 
begin in a small way in a market, and gradually in- 
crease the shipments from year to year, as the demand 
increases and j^our product becomes known. 

Associations. — Selhng through an exchange or as- 
sociation has been worked out very satisfactorily in 
the handling of many fruit crops. The author pre- 
dicts that the time will come when this method of 
selling the pecan crop will be put into effect. There are 
centers where local association may become a necessity 
at no far distant date, and if these are formed, as they 
doubtless will be, they will eventually be organized 
into one central association, handling the crop of many 
different states. It will require careful thought and 
most excellent management, but both these requisites 



HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE CROP 137 

can be supplied. Such an association could be modeled 
after the California or Florida Citrus Exchange. 

By this method, better freight rates can be secured, 
claims can be collected better, a more uniform product 
can be handled, and better distribution can be secured. 
''Over supply" is usually lack of proper distribution. 
Those who have the best interest of the industry at 
heart should carefully consider these suggestions, both 
for their own immediate localities and for the industry 
as a whole, from Virginia to Texas, from Indiana to 
Louisiana. 



CHAPTER XIV 

PECAN KERNELS 

Pecan nuts are used in a great variety of ways. Not 
so many years ago, they were used almost entirely for 
dessert purposes, now they are used in the making of 
confections, pastries and foods of various sorts. The 
large candy manufacturers use the kernels by the ton 
and are not able to secure enough for their trade. It is 
probably not an over-statement of fact to say that 
nuts of some sort, and pecans largely, enter into com- 
position of fifty per cent, of all the higher-grade candies. 

The baker now uses them in a variety of ways not 
dreamed of a few years ago, and the caterer compounds 
them into salads, uses them in cakes and in dishes of 
unknown composition but delicious flavor. The house- 
wife uses them in various ways in her kitchen and on 
her table. They enter into our daily living as never 
before. We dare to say that no fruits are now put to a 
wider range of uses than the nuts, and it does now ap- 
pear that through the medium of the extracted kernel, 
nuts will have their greatest sale. We are too lazy to do 
our own cracking or too much occupied with other 
things. 

This tendency has called into being two new in- 
dustries, the making of power nut-crackers and the 
extracting of nut kernels. Crackers are now made to 
be driven by electrical, steam or gas power, and the 
percentage of perfect half kernels turned out by them 
is very large. Factories have been established for the 
sole purpose of extracting kernels. Hence, we see that 
several industries of different . kinds have sprung into 

(138) 



PECAN KERNELS 139 

being as a result of the present day tendencies in this 
comparatively new field of horticulture. 

Today, the extracted pecan kernels are weighed 
out by the pound and sold over the counter in all large 
candy stores in the country, and in a large number 
of grocery stores they can likewise be secured. They 
are sold (salted and unsalted) in jars of various shapes, 
sorts and sizes. They are used in the making of candies 
and many different kinds of confections. They have 
found and are holding a place at the soda-fountain. 
Foods are manufactured from them, and they have 
become a source of fat for the vegetarian. The kernels 
placed on the market, in glass jars, usually retail at 
about seventy-five cents per pound. Unfortunately, the 
stock is not kept in such a way as to create a desire for 
more on the part of the consumer after he has tried one 
package. They are too frequently old, stale and rancid. 
When the kernels are carried through the heat of sum- 
mer in an ordinary jar, to the contents of which the air 
has access, this is invariably the case, and some new 
method of packing them must be introduced if this 
method of disposing of the product is to increase in 
favor, as it should. 

PACKING EXPERIMENTS 

In the spring of 1905. the author, through the kind- 
ness of the Beech-Nut Packing Company, Canajoharie, 
N. Y., was enabled to undertake some experiments 
which gave an indication, at least, of what may be 
done in keeping pecan nuts and meats in fresh condi- 
tion. In January, 1905, pecans of the previous October 
crop were secured and forwarded to the Packing Com- 
pany. They extracted the kernels from some of the 
nuts and, on February 2, 1905, placed extracted meats 
in one set of vacuum jars and nuts in the other A 
portion of each of these sets was forwarded to the author 



PECAN KERNELS 141 

for observation and examination. The vacuum was not 
absolute, though nearly so. Most of them were put up 
at -28tV, while the perfect vacuum under normal con- 
dition would be about -30. The jars were the ordinary 
ones used in putting up the Beech-Nut products. 
These jars were opened from time to time, the last of 
the extracted meats being opened about three years 
after they were put up. On April 22, 1910, the last jar 
of nuts was opened, and was pronounced by a number 
of competent judges to be at least as good as a large 
portion of the crop of October, 1909, kept under usual 
conditions. They had kept well, and, when one con- 
siders the fact that the nuts were exposed to ordinary 
air and climatic conditions from October, 1904, to 
February, 1905, then sealed up and kept under the 
same conditions until April, 1910, their state of preser- 
vation and freedom from rancidity was astonishing. 
The jars were kept under ordinary conditions, being 
placed on a shelf and subject to light and varying 
climatic changes. They were not covered in any way. 
This opens up an exceedingly interesting field for 
further investigation, but there is no question but that 
a vacuum glass jar will keep either kernels or nuts in 
good edible condition and free from rancidity for a 
very considerable time. Extracted kernels can be kept 
in cold storage in ordinary jars for a long time, but soon 
become off flavor when exposed to the usual summer 
heat. Pecan kernels held for sale in the ordinary way 
should be kept in cold storage, just as butter or cheese 
is kept. We are not aware that the kernels are being 
put on the market in the vacuum package at this time, 
and, for the present, at least, the only certain way of 
procuring good fresh pecan kernels is to secure fresh 
nuts, — those which have been kept over in cold-storage 
are good, — and crack them at the time when they are 
needed. For the household, an ordinary pair of nut- 
crackers will answer, but they should be of a particular 



142 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

type. The jaws should be formed with sharp-cutting 
edges. 

NUT-CRACKERS 

In the accompanying illustration, four kinds of nut- 
crackers are shown. The two at the right are reversible. 
The best pair is represented at the extreme left of the 
engraving. The bars are square, the grooves in them 
are curved inward leaving the teeth sharp and pointed 
out flush with the edge. 

To remove the kernels without breaking, grasp the 
nut wdth the crackers as close to the end as possible, 
and gently but firmly apply sufficient pressure to force 
the sharp teeth of the crackers into the shell. Revolve 
the nut and repeat the operation until the end is 
marked with a ring of indentations. Then apply a little 
greater pressure to start a slight crack, and follow the 
crack around until the end of the shell drops off. Treat 
the opposite end in the same way. Next, place the nut 
lengthwise between the crackers, so they wall grasp the 
side, having the backs of the two halves of the kernel, 
not the space between the halves, toward the bars. 
This must be emphasized, because, if pressure is ap- 
phed at right angles to the edges of the halves instead 
of against their backs, the chances are that they wall be 
broken when the shell is broken. Having the crackers 
in position, apply sufficient pressure to crack the shell. 
Shift the crackers a little to one side of the crack, apply 
pressure again and a piece of the shell breaks out. A 
few^ gentle squeezes will remove the remainder of the 
shell, and the kernel drops out intact. 

A hand-powTr cracker, capable of quite efficient 
work, is manufactured by Thomas Mills and Bro., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. It has a capacity of one hundred pounds 
per day, and is capable of giving ninety per cent, of 
perfect halves. 

For factory use, two machines for extracting kernels 




Nut-crackers of different types. 




Woodson's power kernel extraelor. 



144 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

at a rapid rate have been invented, one by Mr. Robert 
E. Woodson, St. Louis, Mo., and the other by Mr. 
Grim, New York City. These make it possible to ex- 
tract pecans in large quantities for commercial purposes. 
The nuts are fed into a hopper and the machine then 
takes care of them. In regard to the Woodson machine, 
shown in the adjoining illustration, the inventor says 
that ''in cracking one hundred pounds of nuts, there 
were obtained 39J pounds of perfect halves and 3| 
pounds of broken pieces. This test shows 92 per cent, 
of perfect halves. I do not claim that this result may 
be obtained at all times and under all conditions, for 
the hardness of the shell and the dryness of the nuts 
make a difference in the results." 

Pecans which have become somewhat dry should be 
soaked in water over night. This renders them much 
more easily cracked. 

PECAN OIL 

Oil extracted from almonds, peanuts, cocoanuts and 
other nuts is now used for various .purposes, and at no 
distant time it is probable that pecan oil may also be 
placed on the market. Only the cheaper, inferior 
grades of nuts can be used in oil-making, as the larger 
and better quality of nuts are worth too much for 
dessert purposes. 

Ordinary nuts wall run about fifty per cent, kernels, 
and these kernels analyze about seventy per cent, oil or 
fat. On this basis, one hundred pounds avouIcI give 
approximately thirty-five pounds of oil. Of course, the 
better grades of nuts will give sixty per cent, kernels, 
and would consequently yield more oil. 

Pecan oil might be used as a salad oil. It might be 
put to other culinary uses, as well as finding a possible 
place among medicinal oils. 



CHAPTER XV 
PECAN JUDGING 

Every grower of the pecan should be a judge of 
pecan nuts; and the ideas of growers, while they may 
differ on certain minor points, should agree on the more 
important characters of the nut. To enable growers, 
nurserymen and judges to work on a connnon standard 
of merit, a scale of points, in which each individual char- 
acteristic of the nut may receive a certain fixed number 
of credits, is indispensable. 

The scale of points adopted by he National Nut 
Growers' Association at the second annual meeting, held 
in New Orleans, La., in 1903, given below, is designed 
primarily to cover commercial dessert varieties, or those 
grown for the dessert trade. It is doubtful whether, 
from this standpoint, this schedule can be improved 
upon, but the amateur would be inclined to give greater 
weight to quality. Large size viewed from the dessert 
standpoint is highly desirable, but, for the confectioner's 
trade, small or medium-sized nuts are required. 

PECAN NUTS 

External characters. Points. 

Size 20 

Form 5 

Color 5 

Shell Characters. 

Thinness 10 

Cracking quality 20 

Kernel characters. 

Plumpness 20 

Color 5 

Quality 15 

Total 100 

J (145) 



146 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Tree Points 

Vigor 10 

Habit 10 

Toughness 10 

Resistance to disease, insects 10 

Precocity 10 

Uniformity of ripening 10 

Productiveness 40 

Total 100 

The rating of a variety to be determined by averag- 
ing the rating of nut and tree. 

EXPLANATORY NOTES, CHARACTER AND CONDITION 
OF SAMPLES 

All samples submitted for judging shall be fair aver- 
age samples of the crop, and not selected specimens. 
They should be tree-ripened, and should be thoroughly 
cured before judging. Polishing, coloring or other 
manipulation to disqualify : 

Size. — The nuts should be large and reasonably uniform in 
size; nuts running smaller than 100 per pound to be disqualified. 

Form. — The nuts should be symmetrical in form and reason- 
ably smooth of surface. 

Color. — The shell should be bright and clear in color, without 
excess of surface markings. 

Thinness. — The shell should be sufficiently thin in proportion 
to size of nut, to crush readily. 

Cracking Quality. — The shell should be brittle and should 
separate readily from the kernel, leaving it clean and in perfect 
halves. 

Plumpness. — The kernel should fill the shell and must be 
smooth externally, with solid meat of fine and uniform texture, 
free from internal cavities and with high relative weight of kernel 
to shell. 

Color. — The kernel should be uniformly bright and attractive 
in color. 

Quality. — The flavor should be sweet and rich, free from 
bitterness or astringency of either meat or skin. 



CHAPTER XVI 
WHAT VARIETIES TO PLANT 

What varieties shall I plant? An easy question to 
ask — a difficult one to answer; for, though the one at- 
tempting a reply may know something of varieties, their 
size, quality and prolificness, there is always an un- 
known personal equation entering into the problem. 

IDEALS 

Frequently we hear it stated that such and such a 
variety is the ideal pecan for planting. We trust we 
may be pardoned for sajdng so, but, usually we have to 
smile, inwardly of course, when the remark is made. 
Why? Is there not an ideal pecan? or can it not be 
found or produced or bred? Is there not an ideal 
thickness of shell and percentage of kernel and stand- 
ard of prohficness? To all of which we answer, ''Yes!" 

But man has chased the ideal up and down the ages, 
and never found it. He has worked and fought and 
died for it, still it ever has eluded his grasp. The ideal 
has been and is the lodestone of human progress, its 
pursuit the uplifting motive that has made for eleva- 
tion in the social scale and the betterment of humanity. 
Now, you're off the track; come back! 

Ideal pecans? Yours or mine or your neighbor's? 
Whose? — Ideal as a dessert nut or for commercial pur- 
poses? Which? — Ideal for Texas or Alabama or 
Georgia? Where? Ideal early, medium or late? When? 
Two inches long or three and a half? Don't you 
see that there may be as many ideals as conditions 

(147) 



148 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

to be filled, and that ideals exist mostly in men's minds? 
And more, set up your ideal and secure it. Tomorrow 
or sooner, a new ideal flits into the old one's place, and 
the pursuit goes on. It must always be so. If not, we 
sit down self-satisfied, — a dangerous condition. Yet, 
set up your ideal, whatever it may be, and work for it, 
search for it; it will be good for you and the industry. 
Every individual interested in the pecan should do so. 
Wonders will result. 

PERSONAL PREFERENCES 

Every variety of importance has its advocates. If 
a man has a preference for a certain variety, and is 
interested in it, let him plant that variety largely, if 
it is adapted to his soil and climatic conditions. He 
will be likely to give it better care and attention than 
he will a variety for which he has no particular liking, or 
one which he may regard even with disfavor. The 
commercial grower should confine himself to a few va- 
rieties. Three or four sorts are sufficient, and it is best 
to plant neither more nor less. It is not safe to plant 
one alone. The amateur, on the other hand, who grows 
pecans for the love of it, will naturally plant many 
varieties; for he is more interested in watching them 
grow than in what he expects to get out of them in a 
monetary way. 

It is a safe rule to grow what the market wants. It is 
a great deal easier to grow what people want than it 
is to get them to purchase what they don't want. 
The market for pecans is naturally divided into two 
sections: one wants large nuts of fine appearance 
and quality for the dessert trade, the other prefers 
small and medium-sized nuts for the usual commercial 
channels — the confectioners' and caterers' trade and 
kitchen use. A grower may, with certainty of success, 
direct his efforts in either of these directions; })ut he 



WHAT VARIETIES TO PLANT 149 

can not, with reasonable hope of gain, force his wares, 
grown for the commercial trade, into the dessert trade, 
or vice-versa. 

COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS 

In selecting varieties for commercial plantings, the 
first thing that must be carefully considered is the 
adaptability of the variety to the local conditions. It 
will not do to choose a variety just because it suits the 
planter's fancy or just because it does well somewhere 
else. The large grower must sometimes leave high qual- 
ity out of consideration, and plant varieties that will 
pay. His first consideration must be nuts and plenty of 
them. Some varieties may be grown almost anywhere, 
while others are much more limited in their range of 
successful culture. 

If an orchard of pecans is set out for home use, the 
first point to be considered is quality. Shy bearing and 
undesirable tree characteristics may be overlooked, 
and a considerable number of varieties should be 
planted. 

Not all varieties are equally hardy, and some may 
not ripen their wood and fruit early enough in autumn 
to avoid late kiUing frosts. Such varieties should 
not be selected for planting in sections where there is 
danger of such injury, viz., principally along the more 
northerly outskirts of the pecan area. In such regions 
early varieties should be planted, for early ripening 
of fruit and wood usually go together in the pecan. 

Many varieties are late in coming into bearing; 
others begin to bear while quite young. This difference 
in precocity is worthy of consideration. Other things be- 
ing equal, those varieties which begin to bear early and 
are prolific should by all means be given the preference. 
Three of the worst faults which a variety may have are 
partial barrenness or shy bearing, poor filling quality 



150 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

and susceptibility to disease. In the second particular 
the worst sinners are the larger varieties, and in point of 
filling quality, medium and small-sized varieties will, in 
nearly all cases, be found to have the greatest range of 
adaptabiUty. The larger varieties are more likely to 
succeed on rich lands where the rainfall, particularly 
during the summer months, is great. 

In addition to setting out an orchard of what he be- 
lieves to be the best varieties for his section, or which 
experience has taught to be the best, the grower should, 
if he is thoroughly interested in his work, plant a tree 
or two of a number of other different kinds, to test their 
merits and to learn something of their characteristics. 

HOW MANY NUTS IN A CLUSTER? 

The number of nuts borne in each cluster at the 
end of the fruit-spurs may or may not have a bearing 
on the quantity of nuts produced. Other things being 
equal, the more nuts in a cluster the greater the jdeld. 
This feature has not, however, been carefully worked 
out. The following records of ten clusters for each 
variety, counted without selection, may be taken as 
representing the average behavior of the varieties. In 
some seasons, and in certain localities, they may be- 
have differently: 

Bolton 3 12 2 5 2 5 14 1. Total 26 

Curtis ...443433543 3. Total 36 

Delmas ...5 44242344 3. Total 35 

Frotscher,..3 34432124 2. Total 28 

Rome 4 3 3 13 3 13 3 3. Total 27 

Russell ...1 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 34. Total 27 

San Saba.. 5 23243433 2. Total 31 

Schley 4 33442 5 43 3. Total 35 

Stuart ....3 33233223 3. Total 27 

Success ..3 54144344 3. Total 35 

Teche 6 22243444 4. Total 31 

VanDeman3 33223313 3. Total 26 




The rugged framework of a thirty-two years old pecan tree, m 
Captain Williamson's yard. Raleigh, N. C. Has borne 400 pounds 
in a single crop. 



152 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED 

The following recommendations for different sec- 
tions have been made by growers and others in touch 
with pecan culture in different parts of the cultural 
area. These lists may be changed with additional 
knowledge, but they represent fairly safe knowledge 
for present plantings. Our knowledge of the behavior 
of varieties in different localities is becoming more 
accurate. As many varieties have only recently been 
brought into cultivation, it is, of course, quite impossible 
to say what their behavior ^vill be in many places. Time 
alone ^vill prove their merit. 

Alabama. Prof. R. S. Mcintosh, Auburn, Ala., believes that 
Stuart, Van Deman, Pabst and Schley are good varieties for 
Alabama. 

Cliff A. Locke, Eufaula, Ala., is much pleased with Success, 
Stuart and Schley, and hopes for good results with Frotscher, 
Pabst and Alley. The last-mentioned three are too young yet. 

Florida. Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla., says: "I 
would plant only two varieties — Curtis and Teche." 

H. K. Miller, Monticello, Fla., recommends Schley, Delmas, 
Stuart, Success, Teche, Moore (long), Moore (round). 

Jas. A. Bear, Palatka, Fla., favors Curtis, Teche, Stuart and 
Moneymaker, for his section. 

H. S. Graves, Gainesville, Fla., says: ''The following have 
proven superior to date, — Curtis, Van Deman, Teche and 
Delmas." 

R. C. Simpson, Monticello, Fla., has given two lists for his 
immediate section; the first containing those which have made 
the best showing to date, and the second those which are very 
promising, and which may later be transferred to list number 
one: List 1, — Schley, Delmas, Stuart and Moore. List 2, — Curtis 
Success, Moneymaker and Teche. 

Georgia. J. B. Wight, Cairo, Ga., favors Frotscher as the 
best variety for his section, so far. Schley, Stuart and Van Deman 
are doing well. 

Dr. J. F. Wilson, Poulan, Ga., says: "Frotscher, Teche, Cur- 
tis and Schley are my choice, at present." 

Herbert C. White, Horticulturist, DeWitt, Ga., recommends 
Stuart, Schley, Alley, Frotscher, Delmas, Pabst, Teche, Russell, 
Russell No. 2 and Van Deman. 



WHAT VARIETIES TO PLANT 153 

liOUisiANA. Sam H. James, Mound, La., gives as his best list, 
Pabst, Moneymaker, Van Deman, Stuart, Carman, Success and 
Schley. 

Wm. Nelson, New Orleans, La., of the older sorts, recommends 
Frotscher, Centennial; and, of the newer ones, would plant Pabst, 
Success, Russell and Schley. 

Prof. H. E. Van Deman, Ferriday, La., says that Stuart and 
Van Deman are still first; with Claremont, a new variety, third. 
Success, Schley and Pabst he regards very favorably. 

W. G. Weeks, New Iberia, La., says: "To my mind, the best 
varieties for this locality are Frotscher, Stuart and Van Deman." 

A. K. Clingman, Keithville, La., says: "We consider the fol- 
lowing three varieties the best in our section, everything consid- 
ered, — Stuart, Schley and WilHams." 

John F. Jones, Jeanerette, La., advises planting Stuart, Schley, 
Frotscher and Russell, in his section. 

Mississippi. Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss., says he 
would plant Pabst, Stuart, Van Deman, Delmas and Success. 

Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, said in 1906: "My selection, at 
present, for this section, would be in the order named : Success, 
Stuart, Pabst, Frotscher, Russell, Van Deman;" and now he says 
he would add some Hall. 

North Carolina. W. N. Hutt, State Horticulturist, 
Raleigh, N. C, says: "I would recommend for growing in North 
Carolina, the following varieties, — Stuart, Van Deman, Mantura 
and Appomattox," 

South Carolina. John S. Horlbeck, Charleston, S. C, re- 
gards Van Deman as the best for his section, with Stuart second. 

Texas. E. E. Risien, Rescue, Texas, recommends San Saba, 
Texas Prolific (Sovereign), Colorado and Kincaid as the best four 
for his vicinity. 

E. W. Kirkpatrick, McKinney, Tex., writes that the native 
forms are best adapted, but regards Stuart highly. 

Virginia. Wm. N. Roper, Petersburg, Va., recommends 
Mantura, Appomattox, Indiana and Stuart. 

Northern Localities. The attention of those desiring 
pecan trees for the extreme northren and north-western edge of 
the pecan area is directed to such varieties as Appomattox, Hodge, 
Indiana, Hinton, Major and Mantura. 



CHAPTER XVII 
VARIETIES OF PECANS 

VVhile the list of varieties of pecans is comparatively 
small, yet a surprisingly large number of names has 
been used. The attempt has been made to collect all 
the names which have appeared in different publica- 
tions. These have, presumably, all been applied to 
some pecan at some time or other, but many of them 
have never been propagated by budding or grafting, 
and a very large proportion of them have been lost track 
of entirely. In short, they are now represented by 
names only. However, they are all given, for the reason 
that it would be well not to apply any of these names 
to other varieties. It might be well to emphasize the 
fact that many meritorious varieties would be the bet- 
ter for renaming. 

At this time, the following varieties of pecans are 
listed for sale in nursery catalogues : Alley, Appomattox, 
Attwater, Bolton, Bradley, Busseron, Capital, Carman, 
Centennial, Claremont, Clark, Colorado, Colhngwood, 
Concho, Curtis, Daisy, Delmas, Dewey, Early Red, 
Formosa, Fort Gaines, Frotscher, Georgia, Hadley, 
Halbert, Hale, Hall, Havens, Hinton, HoUis, Indiana, 
Jacocks' Perfection, James, Jerome, Kinkaid, Krak- 
Ezy, Longfellow, Louisiana, Major, Mantura, Mobile, 
Moneymaker, Moore (round), Moore (long). Nelson, 
Pabst, Pan-American, President, Randall, Riverside, 
Rome, Russell, San Marcos, San Saba, Schley, Sovereign, 
Sparta, Steckler, Stuart, Success, Teche, Van Deman, 
Young, No. 12. 

In the original descriptions, it will be noted that the 

(154)- 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 155 

thickness of the shell is given in millimeters. A piece 
of the shell, about the center of the side covering the 
back of the half kernels, was accurately measured. 
These measurements must not be regarded as absolute, 
but they are comparative. All nut illustrations are 
natural size. 

For the origin and synonomy of many varieties, 
credit must be given to the excellent work of Mr. Wil- 
liam A. Taylor, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, who has probably done more than any 
one else to straighten out the tangled nomenclature of 
the pecan. 

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES 

Heretofore, no attempt has been made to group or 
classify the different varieties of pecans. Classification 
does not become necessary until the number of varieties 
has increased sufficiently. The follo^^dng classification 
of the varieties with which the author is acquainted is 
based entirely upon the shape of the nuts. No classifi- 
cation of those varieties of which descriptions are 
copied has been attempted, as the descriptions are 
frequently so meager as to render it impossible : 

1. Varieties: Round or roundish oblong. Types. — Post, 
Hollis, Moneymaker. 

Bacon, Bolton, Extra Early, Georgia, Hinton, Hollis, Major, 
Moneymaker, Post, Randall, San Saba, Thomas. 

2. Varieties: Oblong, rounded at the base, blunt and quad- 
rangular at the apex. Types. — Pabst, Success. 

Frotscher, Pabst, Pegram, Perfection, Success, Sweetmeat. 

3. Varieties: Oblong in general outline, rounded, blunt and 
abruptly tipped at the base, and abruptly short -pointed at the 
apex. Types. — Russell, Stuart. 

Alley, Carman, Capital, Franklin, Havens, Jacocks, James 
No. 1, Kincaid, Lewis, Moore, Morris, Russell, Stuart. 

4. Varieties: Oblong cylindrical to almost conical, rounded 
at the base, sloping from the middle or above to the sharp- 
pointed apex. Types. — Jewett, Curtis, Schley. 

Clarke, Curtis, Daisy, Dalzell, Dewey, Hume, James' Giant, 
Jewett, Kennedy, Mammoth, Rome, Schley, ^^'illiams, Young. 



156 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

5. Varieties: Usually long in proportion to thickness, more 
or less pointed at both base and apex. Types. — Atlanta, Ideal, 
Schaifer. 

Atlanta, Centennial, Delmas, Domestic, Ideal, James' Paper- 
shell, Ladyfinger, Longfellow, Louisiana, Monarch, Moneymaker, 
Schaifer, Van Deman. 

6. Hybrid Varieties: Nussbaumer, McCallister, Schneck, 
Pooshee, Westbrook. 

VARIETIES DESCRIBED 

Alba. Size below medium, cylindrical, with pointed apex; 
cracking quality good; shell of medium thickness; corky shell 
lining thick, adhering to the kernel; kernel plump, hght colored; 
quahty good. (Report Secretary Agriculture, 1893; p. 295, 1894.) 

Alley. Size medium. If x | inches; form ovate; color gray- 
ish-brown with a few purplish-black markings about the apex; 
base rounded, tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, slightly four- 
angled; shell brittle, thin, .8 mm., partitions thin; cracking quality 
excellent; kernel full, plump, bright straw-colored, sutures nar- 
row, moderately deep, secondary sutures slightly marked ; texture 
firm; compact fine-grained; flavor sweet, delicate, pleasant; 
quality very good and a good keeper. 

Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, 
Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Appomattox. Small, 1^ x f inches, oblong; apex tapering, 
rather abrupt, sharp-pointed; base sharp-pointed; color light 
brown with few, small, dark markings, shell thin, cracking quality 
good; partitions thin; kernel slender, plump and full; sutures 
narrow and deep; color light, clear, brownish yellow; texture 
firm; quality very good. 

The parent tree is a seedling, thirty-five years old, at Peters- 
burg, Va. The nuts fill well, and the tree is an annual bearer. It 
was propagated and introduced by Wm. N. Roper, in 1906. It 
is recommended for trial in the colder pecan areas. 

Atlanta. Size medium. If x | x ie inches; ovate, compressed 
color dull gray, liberally specked with small, dark dots, splashed 
with purplish markings from middle to apex; base sloping, blunt- 
pointed; apex sloping, short-pointed; shell brittle, moderately 
thin; partitions rather thick, corky; crocking quality quite good; 
kernel full, plump; sutures narrow, of medium depth, secondary 
sutures lacking; color light yellowish brown, bright; texture solid, 
compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good. 

Originated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga., and first catalogued 
about 1900. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



157 



Bacon. (Syn.: Bacon's choice.) Size 
small, li X I inches; rounded, compressed 
toward the apex; color dull brownish gray, 
thickly dotted with dark specks, liberally 
splashed with purplish-brown markings to- 
ward the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly 
blunt-pointed; shell thin, .85 mm.; cracking 
quality excellent; partitions thin, papery; 
kernel roundish, bright, light brownish yel- 
low, plump, full, smooth, sutures broad, of 
medium depth; flavor sweet, nutty, good; 
quality very good. 

A small pecan of good quality, origi- 
nated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga., and 
introduced by him in 1900. 

Bartow. Medium size, thin shell and 
fine flavor. (Bacon's Catalogue, p. 29, 1904.) 

Beauty. Illustrated in "The Pecan 
and How to Grow It." (Stuart Pecan Com- 
pany, 1893, p. 59, Fig. 5.) 

Belle. Medium, ovate, quality very 
good. (J. V. Munson, "Farm and Ranch," 
Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

BiEDiGER. Listed in "Nut Culture in 
the United States," United States Depart- 
ment Agriculture, Division Pomology, p. 64, 
1896. 

BiLoxi. (W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, 
Miss.) Medium size, cylindrical, pointed at 
each end ; surface quite regular, light brown ; 
shell thin; cracking quality medium; kernel 
plump, with yellowish-brown surface; free 
from astringency, of good quality, and keeps 
well without becoming rancid. Introduced 
several years ago by W. R. Stuart as Mexi- 
can Paper-shell, but the name has since 
been changed to Biloxi. (Report Secretary 
Agriculture, 1893, p. 295, 1894.) 

Black Jack. Listed in "Nut Culture 
in the United States," United States De- 
partment Agriculture, Division Pomologv, 
p. 64, 1896. 

Bolton. Size medium. If x 1 inches; 







^Ioiic\iiiaker, 
Post, !>an 8aba, 
Half kernel of Bacon. 



158 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

ovate conical; color dull gray, marked with purplish-brown 
blotches about the apex; base rounded; apex angled, blunt, slop- 
ing gradually from the center; shell thick, 1.9 mm.; partitions 
thick; cracking quality medium; kernel brownish yellow, some- 
what wrinkled; sutures broad, deep, inner surface wrinkled, 
broadly oval in outline, texture rather open; flavor sweet, nutty; 
quality good. 

Originated in Jefferson county, Florida. Described from spe- 
cimens received from J, H. Girardeau, IVlonticello, Fla. 

Brackett. Named for our United States Pomologist. It is a 
very fine market pecan, unexcelled in richness of flavor, and 
has a thin shell. Trees are fine growers, heavy bearers, and 
with proper care and attention come into bearing at six years 
old. (Bacon's Catalogue, 1900.) 

Bradley.* Form long, oval to cylindrical, somewhat com- 
pressed, with a rather long, pointed base and long, angular apex; 
surface smooth; size medium, 65 to 80 nuts to the pound; color 
bright grayish brown with, dark reddish black markings near apex; 
shell thin, rather hard, cracking easily and releasing kernel 
readily; kernel brownish, plump, considerably corrugated and 
broadly grooved; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, quality very 
good. Season early. 

The tree resembles its parent, the Frotscher, considerably, 
is a vigorous grower, of erratic, spreading habit, with narrow, thin 
foliage and carrying its fruit-spurs well through the tree. The 
young wood is smooth and brown, with numerous large, light 
dots. Bradley was raised as aseedhng by Mr. C. D. Griffing, at 
Macclenny, Fla., about 1886. It was catalogued and introduced 
by the Griffing Bros. Company in 1898. 

Briden. Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," 
United States Department Agriculture, Division Pomologv, p. 
64, 1896. 

Bullets. A decided novelty in pecans. As its name in- 
dicates, it is of bullet shape, being almost perfectly round. It has 
a fine flavor, shell is very thin. (Bacon's Catalogue, 1900.) 

Capital. Size medium to large, 1| x | x f inches; ovate 
oblong, compressed with well-marked sutures; color light brown 
streaked and splashed with purplish brown markings from center 
to apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, 
nippled; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions 
of medium thickness; cracking quality very good; kernel plump, 
filling the shell, brownish yellow in color, primary sutures broad 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1909. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 159 

and fairly deep, secondary ones well defined, running almost the 
length of the kernel; texture rather open; flavor good; quaUty 
good. 

Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bechtel, 
Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Carman. Size medium, 1| x | inches; oblong, compressed; 
color light yellowish brown, marked with splashes and blotches 
of brownish black about the apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; 
apex abruptly-pointed, shouldered and four-angled; shell brittle, of 
medium thickness, 1.2 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very 
good; kernel long, slender, plump, straw-colored, sutures straight, 
narrow, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, pleasant; 
quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, 
Baton Rouge, La. Originated and introduced by Mr. S. H. 
James, Mound, La. 

Centennial. Size large, 2 x | x f inches; oblong, compressed, 
constricted in the middle, with well-marked sutures; color gray- 
ish brown, bright, marked with a few purplish markings in the 
grooves at the apex; base tapering to a blunt point; apex tapering, 
pointed, wedge-shaped, sometimes curved; shell medium thick, 
1.5 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality medium; kernel plump, 
full, brownish yellow, bright, sutures rather small, straight, sec- 
ondary ones marked by a line, surface rather wrinkled; flavoB 
sweet, dehcate; quahty very good. 

Described from specimens received from Mr. J. F. Jones, 
Monticello, Fla, "The original tree stood on the Anita plantation 
of Mr. Amant Bourgeois, on the east bank of the Mississippi 
river in St. James Parish, La."* It was destroyed March 14, 
1890, by the Anita Crevasse. Sixteen trees were grafted in 1846 
and 1847 by the slave gardener, Antoine, of Mr. Telesphore J. 
Roman, owner of Oak Alley plantation. Two of these earlier 
trees are still standing. Nuts were exhibited at the Centennial 
Exposition, Philadelphia, in 1876, by Hubert Bonzano. L'nder 
the name Centennial, it was probably first catalogued by the 
late Richard Frotscher, of New Orleans, in 1885. 

Chiquita. Small, ovate, shell medium, best, long keeper. 
(T. V. Munson, "Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

CLAREMONT.f Form roundish ovate, -^dth flattened base 
and short, blunt apex; size medium, 55 to 75 nuts to the pound; 
color dull grayish brown, with numerous purplish markings to- 
ward apex and scattered flecks over general surface, shell moder- 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1909. 
t Taylor. Yearbook, 1909. 



160 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

ately thick and rather hard, but cracking easily and releasing 
kernel exceptionally well; kernel plump, slightly corrugated and 
broadly grooved, of a pale yellowish color; texture compact, 
flavor sweet; quality good to very good. Season medium. 

The tree is a strong, symmetrical, upright grower, with fruit 
spurs well distributed, bearing clusters of from 1 to 8 nuts, usually 
3 or 4. The j^oung wood is smooth and browTi, '^'ith stubby, 
hairy buds. Though not yet fruited except on the original tree, 
the variety is apparently promising for the lower Mississippi 
valley. The original tree is a seedling about thirty years old, on 
Pecania Plantation, near Ferriday, La. The original tree has 
borne 450 pounds of nuts in a season. It was brought to notice 
and first propagated, in 1907, by Prof. H. E. Van Deman. 








Curtis pecan. 

Clark. Size medium to large. If x | inches; ovate oblong; 
color dull gray, with a few purplish spots about the apex; base 
rounded; apex blunt; shell brittle of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; 
cracking qualit}' medium; partitions thick, corky; kernel full and 
plump, with narrow sutures of medium depth, light yellow in 
color and marked here and there with black dots; texture rather 
open; flavor good; quality good. 

Obtained of J. H. Girardeau, Monticello, Fla. 

Colorado. Mentioned by Andrew Fuller in "The Nut- 
Culturist," 1896, p. 169. 

Curtis. (Syn.: Curtis No. 2.) Medium, If x | inches; ovate, 
conical, compressed; color brownish gray, marked throughout 
with dark specks and a few purplish specks about the apex; base 
rounded; apex sloping, pointed; shell thin, .7 mm.; cracking qual- 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



161 



ity excellent; partitions thin, smooth; kernel bright straw- 
colored, plump, full, with narrow sutures of medium depth; 
texture compact, firm; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality excellent. 
The original tree of this variety is to be found in the grove of 
Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. It was raised from seed 
secured from Arthur Brown, Bagdad, Fla., and planted in 1886. 
It is a meritorious variety, being prolific, of good appearance and 
excellent quality. 

Daisy. Medium to large, llxjlxf inches; oblong cyl- 
indrical ; color reddish brown, marked with a few purplish brown 
spots about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly tapering, 
rather short; shell brittle, thin .93 mm.; cracking quality fairly 




Mammoth. 



Dalzell. 



Kennedy. 



good; partitions thick; kernel light brownish yellow, full, plump, 
with broad and very shallow sutures; texture firm and compact; 
flavor sweet, good; quality good. 

Obtained of S. W. Peek, Hartwell, Ga. 

The Daisy pecan was originated, about 1881, by Mr. F. R. 
Wagenfuehr, New Braunfels, Tex., and its propagation waa 
begun, in 1900, by J. F. Lyendecker, Frelsburg, Tex. It is a 
vigorous grower and is said to be free from pecan scab. 

Dalzell. Large, 2 x | x | inches; cylindrical flattened; dull 
graj'ish-brown, pebbled, marked with narrow splashes of pur- 
plish brown from center to apex; base rounded; apex abruptly 
sharp-pointed, four-angled and shouldered; shell rather thick, 
brittle, 1.4 mm.; cracking quality medium; partitions thin; ker- 



162 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

nel long, narrow with deep sutures, yellowish brown in color, 
texture firm and compact; flavor sweet, good; quality good. 

Obtained of S. H. Graves, Gainesville, Fla. The origi- 
nal tree* stands in a fourteen-acre grove, four miles south of 
Gainesville. The grove was planted in 1888, by Mr. J. R. Zetrour, 
now of Rochelle, Fla. 

Delmas. Size large, 1| x 1 inches; ovate, marked with four 
distinct ridges; color dull dark gray, marked with dark specks 
and blotches with purplish black from center to apex; base slop- 
ing, rounded, blunt; apex abruptly short-pointed, four-angled; 
shell thick, brittle, 1.4 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking 
quality good; kernel bright light yellow, sutures broad, open, 
shallow, secondary ones almost lacking, sometimes slack at 
bottom end; texture rather open; flavor sweet; quality good. 

Described from specimens received from Mr. Theo. Bech- 
tel, Ocean Springs, Miss. A large nut of fairly good quality, 
said in some cases to have been substituted for Schley, from which 
it is very distinct. 

Dewey. Medium to large, 1| x f inches; ovate pointed; 
color dull gray, marked with splashes of purplish brown; base 
rounded; apex sharp; shell brittle and thin, .88 mm.; cracking 
quality very good; partitions thin; kernel full, plump, smooth, 
bright light straw-colored, with narrow sutures of medium depth; 
texture firm and solid; flavor sweet, rich, good; quality very 
good. 

Specimens for description obtained of H. K. Miller, Mon- 
ticello, Fla. Originated in Jefferson county, Fla. 

DeWitt. An oddity, having the shape of a spinning-top. 
Shell is thin, and its rich meat is easily extracted on account of 
its peculiar shape. (Bacon's Catalogue, 1900.) 

Domestic. Large, 2 x f inches; oblong ovate, compressed 
toward the base; color light reddish brown, with splotches of 
purplish brown throughout; base sloping, pointed; apex four- 
angled, abruptly blunt-pointed; shell brittle, thin, .95 mm.; 
cracking quality good; partitions thick, red, corky; kernel brown- 
ish yellow, plump, full, wrinkled on the sides with straight 
narrow, deep sutures and secondary ones fairl^^ well developed; 
texture compact and fine-grained; flavor sweet, good; quality 
very good. 

Specimens for description obtained from Frank H. Lewis, 
Scranton, Miss. 

Early Texan. (Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex.) Size above 
medium, short, cylindrical, with rounded base and blunt conical 

♦Letter from Mr. S. H. Graves, dated June 19, 1905. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



163 



crown; shell quite thick, shell lining thick, astringent; cracking 
quality medium; kernel not very plump, of mild nutty flavor; 
quahty good. (Report Secretary Agriculture, 1893, p. 295, 1894.) 

Egg. (Syn.: Eggshell.) Medium; ovate; shell thin; parti- 
tions thin; kernel plump; quality good. D. L. Pierson, Monticello, 
Fla. Grown from seed procured from Louisiana in 1889. (Hume, 
Bulletin No. 54, Florida Experiment Station, p. 203, 1900.) 

Excelsior. A variety reported by Ladd Bros., Stonewall, 
Miss. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," United 
States Department Agriculture, Division Pomology, p. 64, 1896.) 

Extra-Early. Size medium to large. If x 1 inch; oblong 
ovoid abruptly-pointed; color grayish-yellow with small purplish 
blotches more or less over the whole surface; base rounded; apex 
abruptly-pointed, blunt; shell of medium thickness, 1.15 mm.; 




Russell. 



Franklin. 



Kincaid. 



partitions of medium thickness; cracking quality good; kernel fill- 
ing the shell, plump, smooth, sutures broad, open, deep, not 
clasping the shell, color brownish yellow, texture open; flavor 
ver}' good, quality fair. 

Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San 
Saba, Texas. 

Faust. (O. D. Faust, Bamberg, S. C.) A pecan of large 
size; very long in shape; quite thin shell; kernel separating readily 
from shell; qualitv best. (Report Secretarv Agriculture, 1891, 
p. ;^95, 1892.) 

Favorita. a variety named and grown at one time by 
Arthur Brown, Bagdad,' Yla. (Listed in ''Nut Culture in the 



164 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



United States," United States Department Agriculture, Division 
Pomology, p. 64, 1896.) 

Franklin. Size medium large. If x | inches; ovate; color, 
dull grayish brown splashed about the apex with purplish black; 
base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, four-angled; 
shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.32 mm.; partitions thick; 
cracking quality good; kernel full, plump, bright brownish yellow, 
primary sutures of medium width, deep, secondary ones almost 
lacking; texture rather coarse, fairly firm and compact; flavor 
sweet, good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from S. W. Peek, Hart- 
well, Ga. 





Frotscher pecan. 

Frotscher. (Syn.: Frotscher's Eggshell, Eggshell, Olivier, 
Majestic.) Large, If x 1| inches; cylindrical, ovate; color bright 
yellowish brown, with a few black splashes about the apex; 
base broad, rounded, .9 mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality ex- 
cellent; kernel brownish yellow, dark veined, frequently slack 
at one end; sutures of medium depth, rather narrow, secondary 
sutures well marked; texture dry, rather coarse; flavor good; 
quality fair to medium. 

The above description was made from specimens received 
from the J. Steckler Seed Company, New Orleans, La. The 
original tree stands in the garden of H. J. Pharr, Olivier, La.; 
the place was formerly owned by Oscar Olivier. The variety was 
first propagated by William Nelson, and catalogued as Frotscher's 
Eggshell, by Richard Frotscher, in 1885. The variety is preco- 
cious, productive, and succeeds over a wide range of country. 



Georgia. (Syn.: Georgia Giant.) Size large, 



Hx 



xl 



. VARIETIES OF PECANS 165 

inches; rounded ovate; color brownish gray marked with splashes 
and dots of dark brown covering a good part of the surface; base 
rounded; apex tapering, blunt; shell brittle, medium in thickness, 
1.3 mm.; cracking quahty medium; partitions thick, corky, red; 
kernel bright reddish brown, plump, full, rather deeply sutured, 
two secondary sutures fairly well developed; texture compact, 
fine-grained; flavor sweet, good; quality very good. 

Originated and introduced by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. 
Reported from different sections as being affected by scab. 

Georgia Melon. Size above medium, short, rather blunt 
at apex; cracking quality medium, shell thick; kernel plump, 
brown; meat yellow, moderately tender, pleasant, good. (Report 
Secretary Agriculture, 1893, p. 295, 1894.) 

Giant. Named, and at one time propagated, by Louis 
Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the United 
States," p. 64, 1896.) 

Gonzales. (T. V. Munson, Denison, Tex.) Above medium 
size, with firm, clean shell; quality excellent. Originated in 
Gonzales county, Tex. (Report Secretary Agriculture 1893, p. 
295, 1894.) 

Graff. Named, and at one time propagated, by Louis 
Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. (Listed in "Nut Culture in the L^nited 
States," p. 64, 1896.) 

Halbert.* Form short, roundish oval, compressed, with 
blunt base and very short, blunt, quadrangular apex; size 
medium, 65 to 70 nuts to the pound, color rather dull reddish 
brown with reddish black markings; shell very thin and rather 
brittle; cracking quality excellent, releasing the kernel easily and 
completely; kernel bright, very plump, deeply grooved, texture 
firm, oily; flavor sweet; quality very good. 

The tree is described as of willowy growth, with slender, long- 
jointed wood. It is reported to be a very heavy bloomer, with 
fruiting clusters of 3 to 5 nuts, with sometimes as many as 8 nuts. 
Mr. Halbert reports that it has borne twenty-two crops during the 
twenty three years he has had the tree under observation. 
This pecan was found as a native seedling near Coleman, Texas, 
by IVIr. H. A. Halbert, in 1886, and was named and introduced by 
him about 1901. 

Hamilton. (Syn.: R. Hamilton.) Illustrated in "Farm and 
Ranch," Vol. 23, No. 49, p. 1, Dec. 3, 1904. 

Harcourt. (Syn.: Helen Harcourt.) Size medium, short, 
slightly acorn-shaped; cracking qualities medium; shell rather 

♦Taylor. Yearbook, 1909. 



166 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

thick, but very smooth inside; kernel short, very plump; meat 
yellow; very tender ; rich ; very good. (Reports Secretary Agricul- 
ture, 1893, p. 295, 1894.) 

Havens. Large. 1| x 1 x | inches; ovate, compressed; 
color dull gray specked and splashed with purplish brown; base 
rounded, blunt-tipped; apex abruptly short-pointed, four- 
angled; shell brittle, thin, .85 mm.; partitions of medium thick- 
ness; cracking quality excellent; kernel very plump, full, brown- 
ish yellow marked with dark specks, primary sutures narrow, 
deep, secondary ones very slightly marked, bottom ends of 
halves of kernel divided; texture solid, compact, fine-grained; 
flavor sweet, good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Frank H. Lewis, 
Scranton, Miss. 

HiNTON. Medium or small size, 1x1 inch, rounded, some- 
what flattened, wdth rather lumpy surface; base rounded, apex 
wedged, blunt, somewhat quadrangular; color grajdsh brown, 
with small black markings from the apex backward; shell thin, 
easily cracked; kernel separates easily, fillmg the shell well, cor- 
rugated with narrow sutures and fairly well marked secondary 
ones; half kernel almost circular, color light brown, texture me- 
dium, fine-grained; quality very good. 

Hinton originated as a seedling in the S. L M. Major grove 
at Henderson, Ky. It is well worthy of trial in the northern pe- 
can areas. Introduced under the above name by Wm. N. Roper, 
Petersburg, Va. 

Hodge.* Form oblong, obovate, compressed, tapering to a 
very prominent point, at base, with a square-shouldered, quad- 
rangular, sharp-pointed apex; surface rather lumpy and some- 
what irregular; size variable, ranging from 60 to 100 nuts per 
pound; color dull grayish brown, with numerous broad and long 
black stripes from apex to middle of nut; shell quite thick 
and hard, but brittle, with thin and brittle partitions, cracking 
fairly well, kernel oblong, tapering rather deeply grooved, but 
releasing the shell rather easily; color rather bright yellowish 
brown; texture moderately fine-grained; flavor sweet, nutty, 
quality good. 

The Hodge nut originated as a seedling at York, Clark 
count}'. 111., and was brought to notice by the owner, Mr. H. G. 
Hodge. It is one of the varieties which will likely prove desirable 
for northern pecan planters. 

HoLLis. (Syn.: Post's 'Select in part.) Size medium, 11 xl 
inches; form roundish ovate, marked with four more or less prom- 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1908. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



167 



inent longitudinal ridges; color dull brownish yellow, slightly 
splashed with purplish brown about the apex; base rounded; apex 
roundish, blunt; shell thick, 1.6 mm.; partitions thick; cracking 
quahty medium; kernel plump, filling the shell, quite smooth, 
broadly and deeply grooved, oval in outline, light brownish- 
yellow in color; texture fine-grained; flavor delicate, good; quality 
good. 

Described from specimens received from Herbert Post, Fort 
Worth, Tex. The seed nuts of this variety have been sold under 
the name, "Post's Select." It originated at Bend, San Saba 
county, Texas. 

Hume. (Syn.: Curtis No. 5.) Size medium, 1^ x | inches; 
short, oblong cylindrical, marked with two longitudinal ridges; 
color grayish-brown marked with a number of short, narrow, pur- 
plish brown splashes; base rounded, very blunt-tipped; apex 
abruptly-pointed, flattened on two sides; shell thin, 8 mm.; parti- 
tions medium, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel full, 
plump, light yellowish brown, marked and dotted with dark 
spots, sutures straight, narrow, of medium depth; texture firm, 
compact; flavor sweet, pleasant; quality very good. 

The original tree of this variety stands in the grove of Dr. 
J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla. It was grown from seed 
secured from Arthur Brown, Bagdad, Fla., in 1886. It is a shy 
bearer. 

Ideal. Medium, 1| x f x f inches; oblong, somewhat com- 
pressed, slightly constricted in the middle; color bright grayish 
brown marked with narrow strips of purplish brown at the apex; 
base sloping, pointed; apex sloping, pointed; shell thin, brittle, 9 
mm.; partitions medium thick; cracking qual- 
ity good; kernel full, plump, smooth, bright 
straw-colored; sutures very narrow, shallow; 
texture compact, firm, flavor sweet, good; 
quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from 
S. W. Peek, Hartwell, Ga. 

Idlewild. Medium size, thick shell, ker- 
nel good. Louis Biediger, Idlewild, Tex. 
(Thomas' American Fruit Culturist, 21st Ed., 
p. 452, 1903.) 

Indiana. Medium, 1^ x f inches, 65 to 70 
nuts per pound, in size, oblong, carrying the 
greatest diameter well out to base and apex; 
apex quadrangular, abrupt, sharp, short- 
dointed, base rounded with small blunt point ; Indiana pecan. 




168 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

shell grayish brown, with a few narrow purplish black stripes at 
apex; shell thin, easily cracked; partition medium thin, with con- 
siderable corky material; kernel full, plump, light colored; sutures 
narrow and of medium depth. Texture solid, fine-grained, sweet, 
nutty and of very good quality. 

A seedling nut from Busseron township, Knox county, 
Indiana, first brought to notice by Mr. Mason J. Niblack,* 
Vincennes, Indiana. The original tree is fifty or sixty feet high 
and about five feet in circumference. 

Jacocks. (Syn.: Jacock's Mammoth.) Size large or very 
large, 1 1 x 1 inches ; ovate, long ; color bright yellowish brown ; 
base rounded, abruptly blunt-pointed; apex blunt, four-angled, 
shghtly wedged; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; 
partitions very thick, corky, red; cracking quality medium; kernel 
light yellowish brown, full or sometimes shrunken, sutures broad, 
of medium depth, secondary sutures well developed and fairly 
deep; texture open, rather coarse; flavor sweet, rather dry; qual- 
ity fairly good. 

Introduced by Mrs. C. W. Jacocks, Formosa, Fla., from whom 
specimens were received. 

James Giant. Medium to large, 2 x | inches; ovate cylin- 
drical; color brownish gray, marked with a few purplish splashes 
about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly sharp-pointed with 
four rather prominent ridges; shell thin, 1 mm.; cracking quality 
good; partitions medium thickness; kernel bright light yellow, 
with narrow deep sutures and well-defined secondary sutures; 
texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, good; quality very good. 

Obtained of Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. 

James No. 1. Size large, 2 x yf x f inches; oblong, ovate, 
compressed; brownish yellow in color with a few brownish 
streaks about the apex; base rounded, blunt-tipped; apex 
abruptly blunt-pointed, four-angled, nippled; shell thin, .8 mm. 
partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel straw-colored, 
usually full and plump, though sometimes shrunken at one end; 
primary sutures broad, shallow, secondary ones well defined; 
texture solid, fine-grained: flavor very good, sweet; quality very 
good. 

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, 
Baton Rouge, La. Originated and introduced by S. H. James, 
Mound, La. 

James Papershell. Medium to large, l|xf inches; cylin- 
drical or slightly quadrangular, slender; color yellowish brown 
marked with purplish splashes from center to apex; base rounded; 

* See index of Literature. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 169 

apex abruptly-pointed, four-angled; shell thin, .96 mm.; partitions 
thin; cracking quality very good; kernel sometimes slack at one 
end, usually plump, smooth, bright brownish yellow; sutures 
narrow, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor very good, sweet; 
quality very good. 

Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La., and described from 
specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, Baton Rouge, La. 

Jewett. Large, 1| x | inches; obovate, flattened, angular, 
frequently constricted at the middle; color dull reddish brown, 
marked with large purplish splashes; base rounded; apex blunt 
four-angled, frequently curved; shell brittle, thick; cracking qual- 
ity very good; partitions of medium thickness; kernel bright 
straw-colored, plump, smooth, somewhat triangular, with broad, 
open shallow sutures; texture firm, compact; flavor fair; quality 
medium. 

Obtained of Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Jumbo. Size large, If x | inches; ovate, slightly tapering; 
color grayish brown marked with a few narrow streaks about 
the apex; base rounded; apex four-angled, wedged, blunt-pointed; 
shell brittle, of medium thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions thick, 
corky; cracking quality medium; kernel full, plump, straw-yellow 
in color, primary sutures broad, deep, secondary sutures almost 
lacking; texture fairly solid, fine-grained; flavor sweet, good; 
quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, 
Monticello, Fla. 

Kennedy. Large, lfx| inches; ovate-conical, flattened; 
color dull brownish gray, marked with a few narrow streaks of 
purplish black about the apex; base rounded; apex sharp-pointed, 
flattened on two sides; shell of medium thickness, .98 mm.; 
cracking quality very good; partitions thin; kernel bright, plump, 
full, smooth with narrow sutures of medium depth and secondary 
ones marked by a line; texture firm and 
compact, flavor rich, sweet ; quality excel- 
lent. 

Described from specimens received 
from Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, 
Fla. Origin similar to Curtis. 

Kentucky Gem. Listed. (F. H. Bur- 
nette, Bulletin Louisiana Experiment Sta- 
tion, Sec. Ser. No. 69, p. 875, 1902.) 

KiDD. Iflustrated in "Farm and Ranch," 
Vol. 23, No. 49, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 1. Hinton pecan. 




170 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

King AID. Size medium to large, If x 1 inches; ovate com- 
pressed with well defined sutures; color hght brownish yellow, 
bright, marked with narrow splashes of purplish black at the 
apex; base almost flattened, blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, 
slightly wedged, four-angled; shell brittle, compact, thin, .98 
mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel 
very full and plump, smooth, bright, light straw-colored; primary 
sutures broad and deep, secondary sutures creased and very 
shallow; texture fine-grained, solid, compact; flavor sweet, rich, 
good; quality excellent; a good keeper. 

Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San 
Saba, Texas. This apparently is a very good variety of pecan. 

Krack-Ezy. Medium, ovoid, very thin shell, full of meat, 
best. (T. V. MrniRon, "Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 




Schaifer. Ideal. Ladyfinger. Kernel of Atlanta. 

Ladyfinger. Size small, H x | inches; ovate pointed at 
both ends; color grayish brown marked with a very few small 
narrow streaks about the apex; base pointed; apex pointed; 
shell thin, 1. mm.; partitions of medium thickness; cracking qual- 
ity excellent ; kernel small and narrow, plump full, smooth, sutures 
narrow and shallow; flavor sweet, good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from the Summit Nur- 
series, Monticello, Fla. Originated on the grounds of this nursery 
company in Jackson county, Fla. A small nut of very fine quaUty, 
but too small to be recommended for extensive planting. 

Lamar. Large, oblong, pointed, medium shell, full, best. 
(T. V. Munson, "Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 171 

Lewis. Large, If x 1 x | inches; ovate, compressed; color 
bright yellowish brown marked with purplish brown blotches 
three-quarters of the distance back from apex; base rounded, 
blunt-tipped; apex blunt-pointed, slightly wedged; shell thin, .98 
mm.; cracking quality good; partitions thick; kernel plump or 
sometimes shrunken at lower end, wrinkled on the sides, bright, 
light yellow in color; primary sutures broad, of medium depth, 
secondary ones very shallow, wrinkled; texture fine-grained, 
solid; flavor sweet, pleasant; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received fiom Frank H. Lewis, 
Scranton, Miss, 

Longfellow. Large, 1| x | inches; obovate, angular, 
sutured; color light yellowish brown strongly marked with pur- 
plish black splashes throughout; base sloping, rounded; apex 
shouldered, abruptly pointed, flattened and quadrangular; shell 
of medium thickness, LL5 mm.; partitions very thin; cracking 
quality good ; kernel full, plump, somewhat wrinkled ; light straw-- 
colored, sutures narrow of medium depth; texture fine-grained, 
compact; flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality excellent. 

Described from specimens received from E. E. Risien, San 
Saba, Texas. A pecan of good quality and an excellent keeper. 

Louisiana. Size medium. l|x|xf inches; oblong cylin- 
drical; color grayish brown, marked with splashes of purplish 
black towards the apex; base rounded, sloping; apex sloping, 
pointed; shell rather thick, 1.4 mm.; partitions of medium thick- 
ness; cracking quality very good; kernel full, plump, dark yellow, 
sutures broad, shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor sweet, 
good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, 
Monticello, Fla. 

Magnum Bonum. Medium, ovate; shell thin; partitions 
thin; kernel plump, sweet; quality verv good. (Hume, Bulletin 
No. 54, Florida Experiment Station, 1900, p. 207.) 

Major. Small, rounded, 1 x | inch; base rounded, apex 
wedged quadrangular, blunt; color grayish brown with a few 
narrow black stripes about the apex; shell thin, brittle, easih' 
cracked and the kernels broadly oval, come out unbroken in 
nearly all cases; light brown with narrow sutures of medium 
depth; texture moderately fine-grained, flavor sweet, nutty; 
good quality. 

The parent tree of this variety is in the pecan grove of the 
late S. I. M. Major, Henderson, Ky. The tree bears regularly 
and well, and the nuts are always well filled. It is a type which 
commends itself, for many purposes, to the confectioner's trade. 



172 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

This variety has been introduced and is being propagated by 
Wm. N. Roper, Petersburg, Va. 

Mammoth. (Syn.: Steckler's Mammoth.) Large to very 
large, 2x1 inches; form ovate; color dull gray, pebbled, with 
a very few dark lines at the apex; base rounded; apex flattened, 
four-angled, blunt; shell thick, 1.4 mm.; cracking quality very 
poor; partitions corky, very thick; kernel bright yellowish brown 
with broad, deep sutures and fuzzy lining adhering to kernel; 
texture coarse; flavor sweet and good; quality quite good. 

Obtained of J. Steckler Seed Company. 

Mantura. Size large, 2 x rl , If x | inches; oblong, oval; 
color dull reddish brown liberally marked with large, irregular 
black splashes; base tapered-point, blunt; apex sharp-pointed, 
nippled; shell very thin, .78 mm.; brittle, dense; cracking qual- 




Mantura pecmi. 

ity very good; partitions thin; kernel dark straw-colored, plump, 
smooth, oval, with open sutures of medium depth; texture firm, 
solid; flavor sweet, nutty; quality very good indeed. 

Described from specimens received from Wm. N. Roper, 
Petersburg, Va., by whom it was named and introduced in 1906. 

The original tree of this variety stands on the Mantura home- 
stead, in Surry county, Va., two miles south of the James river, 
now owned by W. P. Wilson. Mr. Wilson's mother planted four 
trees from nuts secured from a tree at Surry Courthouse, Va., the 
Mantura being one of the four. The parent tree measures about 
fourteen feet around the body, and bears crops of good-sized nuts. 
It stands about ten miles from the site of the Mantura tree. 

The Mantura tree is a large, symmetrical specimen with 
wide-spreading branches. It is about eighty feet high and 
measures about eleven feet around the trunk. It has been bear- 
ing for the last fifteen years, and in 1905 yielded 275 pounds 
of nuts. 

This variety will doubtless prove a valuable acquisition for 
planters on the northern limits of the pecan area, as the particular 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 173 

strain from which it comes has been growing in Virginia for more 
than sixty years. 

Mexican Paper-shell. (See Biloxi.) Reported by Ladd 
Bros., Stonewall, Miss. (Listed in ''Nut Culture in the United 
States," p. 64, 1906.) 

Meyers. The fruit of a variety of this name was distributed 
by Judge Samuel Miller, Bluff ton. Mo. (Andrew Fuller, in "The 
Nut Cuiturist," p. 170, 1896.) 

Mobile. Large, 2^x1 inches, long, slender, slightly con- 
stricted, near the middle, pointed sharply at both base and apex, 
the latter rather long; color bright light brown, with dark pur- 
plish black markings; shell thin, easily cracked; partitions thin; 
kernel slender, under some conditions not well filled, sutures 
deep; color light uniform yellow; texture fine-grained, crisp, 
flavor sweet and nutty, quality good. 

Specimens from Frank H. Lewis, Scranton, Miss. 

The Mobile pecan is said to have originated as a seedling at 
Bayou Labatre, Ala., about 1887, and was first propagated 
about 1900 by F. H. Lewis, and I. P. Delmas, Scranton, Miss. 
The original tree is said to have borne 400 pounds in a season. 

Monarch. (Syn.: DeWitt Mammoth.) Large, 2x| inches; 
ovate, sloping to base and apex; color dull gray strongly marked 
with purplish black splashes; base pointed; apex pointed, wedged; 
shell medium thick, 1.1 mm.; partitions thick, corky; cracking 
quality poor; kernel frequently badly filled at base, sutures of 
medium width and depth, color yellowish brown; texture firm; 
flavor good, rather dry; quality good. 

Originated by G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. (of the G. M. Bacon 
Pecan Company), and introduced about the year 1900. Owing 
to the preemption of the name Mammoth, by another variety 
introduced by the late Richard Frotscher, of New Orleans, La., 
the name DeWitt Mammoth was changed to Monarch.* 

Money. (Syn.: Senator Money.) Size large, 1 x | x | inches; 
ovate, somewhat four-angled; color light brown marked with 
blotches of purplish brown sometimes throughout ; base abruptly 
blunt-pointed; apex wedged, pointed; shell brittle, medium to 
thick, 1.3 mm.; partitions medium; kernel plump, full, bright 
fight yellow; sutures broad, shallow, secondary ones indistinct; 
texture rather open, of medium grain; flavor sweet, good; quality 
very good. 

A large, plump-meated pecan of very good quality, described 
from specimens received from Frank H. LewiS; Scranton, Miss. 

*"The Nut Grower," p. 119, March, 1904, 



174 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Moneymaker. Size medium, Its x 1 inches; ovate, oblong; 
color light yellowish brown with a few purplish brown marks 
about the apex; base rounded; apex abruptly rounded, slightly 
wedged; small nipples; shell of medium thickness, 1.1 mm.; parti- 
tions medium thick, corky; cracking quality very good; kernel 
full, plump and broadly oval; sutures straight, broad, shallow, 
secondary ones small; texture firm, solid; flavor sweet, good 
quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, 
Baton Rouge, La. This pecan was originated and introduced 
by S. H. James, Mound, La.; the quality is very good and the 
variety is precocious, prolific and hardy. 

Moore. Size small, If xf inches; ovate; color light yel- 
lowish brown marked with a few small purplish spots about the 
apex; base rounded; apex abruptly nippled, short; shell brittle, 
thin, 1.1 mm.; partitions rather thin; cracking quality very good; 




Pabst pecan. 

kernel dark yellow, plump, full; sutures narrow, shallow; texture 
firm, compact, solid; flavor sweet and good; quality very good. 
Described from specimens received from J. H. Girardeau, 
Monticello, Fla. This variety is attracting considerable attention 
for the general market trade. Extremely prolific. 

Morris. Size medium, Ifxf inches; ovate; color light 
brown, bright, clean; base sloping, rounded; apex tapering 
abruptly to a blunt point; shell brittle, of medium thickness, 
1.45 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quality very good; kernel 
plump, filling the shell, straw-colored; primary sutures broad and 
deep, secondary ones shallow; texture firm, compact; flavor 
sweet, good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, 
Monticello, Fla. 

Nelson. Nut the largest of all known; some specimens 
weighing nearly one ounce; elliptical-oblong in shape; medium- 
thin shell, clean, bright in color; kernel plump, sweet and rich; 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 175 

quality the very best, a quick grower; early bearer, very prolific; 
habit of growth like the Frotscher, forming a round-headed tree. 
(Catalogue J. Steckler Seed Co., 1905, p. 172.) 

Nigger. Medium, short oval, thin shell, full, excellent. 
(T. V. Munson, "Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

Pabst. Size large. If x | inches; oblong cylindrical; color dull 
gray marked with broad splashes of purplish black; base rounded; 
apex blunt, four-angled, grooved; shell of medium thickness, 
1.22 mm.; partitions rather thick; cracking quahty fair; kernel 
plump, large, thick with broad, shallow sutures, secondary su- 
tures short, shallow, bright yellow in color; texture fine; flavor 
good; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from Wm. A. Taylor, 
United States Department of Agriculture. The original tree, ac- 
cording to Mr. Taylor, is one of a number of seedlings on the 
grounds of the late William B. Schmidt at Ocean Springs, Miss. 
The original tree is now about thirty years old. Quite productive 
and recommended for planting by those who know it. 

Pan-American. Large, oblong, thick shell, full, best. (T. V. 
Munson, "Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

Pearl. (E. E. Risien, San Saba, Tex.) Medium size, thin 
shell, sweet kernel; no corky growth inside. A choice nut for 
family use, but said to be too small for market. (Thomas' Ameri- 
can Fruit Culturist, 21st Ed., 1903.) 

Pearl. This is a very productive pecan, originated by Mr. 
James. It is distinct from the Pearl, which originated in Texas. 
(Burnette, Bulletin Louisiana Experiment Station, Sec. Ser., No. 
69, 1902, p. 874.) 

Pegram. Size medium, 1^ x | inches; oblong; color light 
grayish brown marked with a few purplish brown markings at 
the apex; base rounded; apex blunt, quadrangular; shell creased, 
roughened, brittle, of medium thickness, 1.15 mm.; partitions 
medium thick, corky; cracking quahty medium; kernel plump, 
full, quite smooth, sutures narrow and of medium depth; texture 
firm, compact, solid; flavor sweet and good; quality good. 

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, 
Baton Rouge, La. Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La. 

Perfection. (Syn.: James' Perfection.) Size medium. If x | 
inches; oblong; color gra^nsh-brown marked well down the sides 
from the apex with purplish-black splashes; base flattened, 
rounded; apex abrupt, blunt; shell slightly ridged, of medium 
thickness, 1.3 mm.; partitions rather thick, corky; cracking 
quality medium; kernel full, plump, brownish yellow, narrow and 



176 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

moderately deep, sutures narrow, of moderate depth, secondary 
ones well defined; texture fairly solid; flavor sweet, good; quality 
very good. 

Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La. 

Petite. Small and plump; white hull; very desirable. (Helen 
Harcourt, Florida.) 

Post. (Syn.: Post's Select in part.) Size medium. If x 1 
inches; short, obovate, compressed on the upper half; color light 
brownish yellow, marked with a few purplish splashes about the 
apex; base rounded; apex blunt, abruptly shouldered; shell of 
medium thickness, 1.35 mm.; partitions thick; cracking quahty 
medium; kernel plump, bright straw-colored, deeply grooved and 
wrinkled, texture firm, soUd; flavor sweet, delicate; quality good. 

Described from specimens from the original tree, received 
from Wm. A. Taylor, United States Department of Agriculture. 
The original seedhng tree stands on H. B. Freeman's farm on 
the Colorado river bottom, San Saba county, Texas. It took 
its name from Mr. Post, a former owner of the place.* 

President, t (President Roosevelt.) Form oblong, com- 
pressed, with a rather sharply pointed base, and quadrangular 
apex with prominent point; color bright yellowish brown, with 
a few narrow and broken black stripes near apex; size large, 45 to 
50 nuts to pound; shefl of medium thickness for so large a nut, 
with thin and soft partitions, cracking easily; kernel long, rather 
deeply and narrowly grooved, but plump and releasing shell 
easily; kernel color bright and attractive, texture rather fine- 
grained for so large a nut; flavor pleasant, free from astringence; 
quality very good. 

The President pecan was grown as a seedling from nuts se- 
cured from Bagdad, Fla. The seedling tree was sold and planted 
by a customer in Jacksonvifle, Fla. It has borne as much as 120 
pounds in a season. Its propagation was undertaken and it 
was introduced in 1903 as President Roosevelt. This was changed 
to President in 1904. 

Primate. (W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, Miss.) Of medium 
size, slender, rather long; shell thin; quahty good; ripens in Sep- 
tember, thirty days before the other nuts. (Report Secretary 
Agriculture, 1893, p. 295: 1894.) 

Randall. (Syn.: Curtis No. 3) Small, If x 1 inches; ovate- 
oblong; color grayish brown splashed with broad marks of pur- 
phsh brown, and covered with small dots throughout; base 

♦Taylor, William A., Yearbook, United States Department Agriculture, 
1904. 

t Taylor. Yearbook, 1907. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 177 

rounded; apex abruptly blunt-pointed; shell rough, of medium 
thickness; cracking quality very good; partitions corky, of 
medium thickness, 1.25 mm.; kernel medium size, smooth, 
roundish sutures, reddish yellow in color; texture firm and com- 
pact; flavor sweet and good; quality very good. 

Specimens for description obtained of Dr. J. B. Curtis, 
Orange Heights, Fla. Origin similar to Curtis. 

Repton. Large, shell rather whitish; one end round, the 
other decidedly pointed; black points; meat sweet and tender; 
tree remarkably beautiful. From one Repton tree, said to be 
forty years old, over five hundred pounds of nuts were gathered 
the season of 1904. (Helen Harcourt, ''Florida Fruits and How 
to Grow Them," 1886, p. 212.) 

RiBERA. Size above medium; oblong-ovate; cracking qual- 
ity good; shell thin; kernel plump, light brown, free from the 
bitter red, corky growth which adheres to the shell; meat yellow; 
tender, with rich, delicate, pleasant flavor. (Report Secretary 
Agriculture, 1893, p. 295, 1894.) 

RisiEN. Large ovate; quality excellent. E. E. Risien, San 
Saba, Texas. (Thomas' "American Fruit Culturist," 21st ed., 
1903, p. 453.) 

RoBSON. A medium-sized, very thin-shelled nut; oblong- 
ovoid in shape. A comparatively new variety, but of consider- 
able merit. (Bacon's Catalogue, 1904, p. 28.) 

Rome. (Syn.: Columbia, Century, Columbian, Mammoth, 
Pride of the Coast, Southern Giant, Twentieth Century.) Size 
large to very large, l|xl to 2x1 inches; oblong-cylindrical or 
cylindrical-ovate; color grayish, dirty, much splashed and 
spotted with dirty, black marks sometimes throughout; base 
rounded; apex abruptly-pointed, flattened on two sides; shell 
hard, brittle, thick, 1.6 mm.; cracking qualitj- poor; partitions 
thick, corky; kernel frequently shrunken, bright yellowish in 
color, sutures of medium depth, secondary ones well marked, 
fuzzy material often adhering to lower end; texture coarse, rather 
dry; flavor dry, lacking in character; quality fair. 

Described from specimens received from J. Steckler Seed Co., 
New Orleans, La. This much-named variety, according to 
Taylor, was originated by the late Sebastian Rome, at Convent, 
St. James Parish, La., about 1840. Catalogued by the late Richard 
Frotscher, under the name "Rome," in 1885. It cannot be recom- 
mended for planting. 

Russell. Size medium to large. If x| inches; form ovate, 
sUghtly compressed; color grayish brown with small specks and 



178 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

splashes of purplish black; base rounded, blunt-pointed; apex 
abruptly sloping; shell very thin, brittle, .74 mm.; partitions very 
thin; cracking quality excellent; kernel usually plump though 
sometimes shrunken at the base; sutures broad and shallow; 
texture fairly compact; flavor dry, sweet; qualit}^ good. 

Described from specimens received from Chas. E. Pabst, 
Ocean Springs, Miss. The original tree stands in the yard of 
Mrs. H. F. Russell, at Ocean Springs, and is one of a lot of seed- 
lings raised by the late Col. W. R. Stuart, about 1875. The tree 
was planted where it now stands by Peter Madsen. It was 
named by i\Ir. Pabst, and propagated by him in 1894. 

Russell No. 1. Large, long-ovoid, shell thin, plump, good. 
(T. V. Munson, ''Farm and Ranch," Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

Russell No. 2. Very large, ovoid, shell rather thick, very 
good. (T. V. Munson, "Farm and Ranch, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 2.) 

San Saba. Size small. If x | inches; ovate, slightly com- 
pressed toward the apex; color bright reddish yellow, marked 
with purplish brown splashes extending from about the middle of 
the apex; shell very thin and brittle; partitions thin; cracking 
quality excellent; kernel very plump, smooth, deepl}' and broadly 
grooved, bright straw-colored, oval in outline; texture solid, 
fine-grained; flavor rich, sweet, delicate; quality excellent. 

The San Saba maj' be regarded as a standard of quality 
among pecans, as the Seckel is among pears. Described from 
specimens received from E. E. Risien, San Saba, Texas. The 
variety was introduced by Mr. Risien about 1893. The original 
tree stands on the San Saba river near its intersection with the 
Colorado river in Texas. 

ScHAiFER. (Syn.: Kate Schaifer.) Size medium. If x f 
inches; cylindrical, slender; color light yellowish brown, marked 
with a few narrow, purplish splashes at the apex; base sloping, 
pointed; apex sloping, sharp-pointed; shell rather thick, 1.35 mm.; 
partitions thick, corky; cracking quality quite good; kernel bright 
yellowish, plump, filling the shell; smooth; sutures shallow of 
medium width; texture fine-grained; flavor sweet, good; quality 
very good. 

Described from specimens received from Prof. F. H. Burnette, 
Baton Rouge, La. Originated by S. H. James, Mound, La. Said 
to be prolific. 

Schley. Size large, 1| x | x f inches; oblong, oval, flattened; 
color light reddish brown, marked with small specks about the 
base and small splashes of purplish brown about the apex; base 
rounded, abruptly short nippled; apex abrupt, flattened on two 
sides and rather sharp-pointed; shell brittle, dense, thin, .75 mm.; 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



179 



cracking quality excellent, shell breaking easily and readily 
separating from the kernel; kernel very full and plump; smooth, 
with shallow sutures and almost entirely free from wrinkles; 
bright light yellowish brown in color; texture very firm; flavor rich 
sweet, nutty; quality best; season early. 

Obtained from Summit Nurseries, Monticello, Fla. Not so 
prolific as some varieties, but, in point of quality, unsurpassed. 




The Schley pecaii. 

Senator. Medium; ovate; shell and partitions thin; kernel 
full and plump; quality excellent. G. M. Bacon, DeWitt, Ga. 
(Hume, Bulletin No. 54, Florida Experiment Station, p. 204, 
1900.) 

Sovereign.* (Texas Prolific.) Size large, averaging 50 to 55 
nuts per pound; form oblong to oblong-obovate, compressed, 
with a full and smooth base and a blunt and usually symmetrical 
apex; surface quite lumpy, conforming to the undulations of 
the kernel; color bright, yellowish, with long, narrow, striped 
markings, ranging from bright red to reddish brown in color; 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1907. 



180 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



shell thin to medium for so large a nut; not a distinct paper 
shell, like San Saba, Russell, Young, and a few others, but brittle 
and cracking easily; kernel plump, rather narrowly and deeply 
grooved, and considerably convoluted, not releasing the shell as 
easily as some; kernel color bright and clear; texture very fine- 
grained and firm; flavor sweet, rich, nutty, quality very good. 

This variety originated at Rescue, Texas, and was intro- 
duced by Mr. E. E. Risien. It is w^orthy of trial in the western 
semi-arid pecan districts. 

Stevens. Named for Hon. O. B. Stevens, Commissioner of 
Agriculture. Not very large, but bright, pretty and neatly 
shaped. Very thin shell and always full of nice, rich meat, 




Stuart pecan. 



whether the seasons are wet or dry. Trees medium bloomers, 
and full bearers of nuts uniform in shape and size. (Bacon's 
Catalogue, 1900.) 

Stuart. (Syn.: Castanera.) Size large to very large, 1| x 1 
inches; ovate cylindrical; color grayish brown splashed and 
dotted with purplish black; base rounded, tipped; apex blunt, 
abrupt, somewhat four-angled; shell medium in thickness, 1.1 
mm.; partitions thin; cracking quality very good; kernel plump 
full, bright straw-colored; sutures moderately broad and deep, 
secondary sutures not well defined; texture solid, fine-grained; 
flavor rich, sweet; quality very good. 

Described from specimens received from the Stuart Pecan 
Company, Ocean Springs, Miss. This variety has been tested and 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



181 



found to succeed over a wide range of country. The original tree,* 
grown from a nut planted by John R. Lassabe, about 1874, stood 
in the garden now owned by Capt. E. Castanera, Pascagoula, 
Miss. It was blown down in October, 1893, but a new shoot, now 
in bearing, has sprung up from the roots. 

Success. Size large, Injxl inches; oblong-ovate, tapering 
from near base to apex; color hght yello^vish brown strongly 
marked with purplish brown splashes about the apex; base flat- 
tened, roundish; apex blunt, four-angled; shell thin, .93 mm.; 
cracking quahty very good; partitions thin; kernel large, full, 
plump, filling the shell, light yellow in color; sutures broad, of 




Success pecan. 

medium depth, inner surface wrinkled, oval in outline; texture 
firm, solid, compact; flavor sweet, rich; quality very good. 

The original tree was found "growing in a crowded row of 
seedlings planted at Ocean Springs, Miss., by the late W. B. 
Schmidt, about ten years previously. The original Success tree 
first attracted attention in the fall of 1901." Described from 
specimens received from Theo. Bechtel, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Sweetmeat. Size medium, 1| x | inches; color bright gray- 
ish brown marked with small streaks of purplish brown about 
the apex; abruptly blunt; shell thin, .8 mm.; partitions of medium 
thickness, corky; cracking quality good; kernel plump, full, light 
yellow; sutures broad, shallow; texture fine-grained, compact; 
flavor sweet; quality good. 

Described from specimens received from Summit Nurseries, 
Monticello, Fla. 

♦Taylor. Yearbook, 1904. 



182 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Taylor.* Form long, rather slender, constricted near middle; 
slightly curved, with pointed base and long sharp apex; color 
bright yellowish brown, with few and narrow black markings 
irregularly placed ; size rather large, 60 to 65 nuts per pound ; shell 
thin, with thin and soft partitions, cracking very easily; kernel long, 
slender, rather deeply grooved, but plump, smooth and releasing 
the shell easily; color bright yellowish, texture very fine-grained 
and crisp; flavor sweet, nutty, free from astringence; quality very 
good. 

The Taylor pecan was grown from a nut planted by the 
brother of the present owner of the tree. Miss Lulu Taylor, 
Handsboro, Miss., about 1885. It was first propagated by Mr. 
W. F. Heikes, Huntsville, Ala., at Biloxi, Miss., about 1901. It 
is well regarded as a desirable variety and is worthy of being 
tested over the lower pecan area. 

Texas. Quite large, some very long; white hull; black points. 
(Helen Harcourt, "Florida Fruits and How to Grow Them," 
1886, p. 212.) 

Thomas. Size small, 1| x 1 inches; short, roundish oblong; 
color brownish gray dotted with small specks throughout, 
marked with dark purplish splashes from middle to apex; base 
rounded; apex abruptly short, pointed, nippled; shell of medium 
thickness, 1.2 mm.; partitions thick, corky, reddish; cracking 
quality quite good; kernel plump, filling the shell, sutures of 
medium depth, narrow, texture compact, fine-grained, solid; 
flavor good; quality good. 

Described from specimens received from Walter Thomas, 
Palatka, Fla. 

Turkey Egg, Jr. Smaller and shorter than the above; 
cracking quality medium; shell of medium thickness; kernel 
plump, light colored; tender, oily, rich; good. (Report Secretary 
Agriculture, 1893, p. 296, 1894.) 

Turkey Egg, Sr. Large, long, pointed; cracking quality 
very good; shell of medium thickness; kernel long, plump; 
brownish yellow; separates readily from the shell; meat yellow, 
a little tough; not of highest quaUty. (Report Secretary Agricul- 
ture, 1893, p. 296, 1894.) 

Turner. Medium; elliptical oblong; shell thin; partitions 
slightly corky; kernel plump, sweet; quahty excellent. G. L. 
Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla. (Hume, Bulletin No. 54, Florida 
Experiment Station, p. 203, 1900.) 

Van Deman. (Syn.: Bourgeois, Duminie Mire, Southern 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1908. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 



183 



Beauty, Paragon in part.) Large to very large, 2| x 1 x | inches; 
oblong cylindrical; color reddish brown with splashes and streaks 
of purplish brown; base sloping, blunt-pointed; apex tapering, 
sharp-pointed; shell of medium thickness; cracking quality fine; 
partitions thick; kernel light brownish-yellow, sutures rather 
deeply and narrowly grooved with secondary sutures forming a 
mere line; kernel fine-grained and compact, sometimes slack at 
the end; flavor sweet and delicate; quality very good. 




i".\ 





Van Deman pecan. 

Specimens for description obtained of Dr. J. B. Curtis, 
Orange Heights, Fla. The original tree of this variety was 
grown from a nut plante-i by the late Duminie Mire of Union, 
St. James Parish, La., in 1836. The tree still stands, thrifty and 
vigorous, bearing 200 to 300 pounds of nuts yearly. It was first 
widely distributed by the late Col. W. R. Stuart, Ocean Springs, 
Miss., who gave it the name Van Deman. Previously it had been 
propagated and distributed locally by the late Emil Bourgeois.* 

Valsies. Reported by Ladd Bros., Stonewall, Miss., and 
listed in "Nut Culture in the United States," United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Division Pomology, 1896, p. 64. 

Williams. Medium to large size, lfx|, Hx| inches; oval 
in outline, marked longitudinally with either four or six well- 
defined ridges; rounded or bluntly tapered at the base, tapering 
abruptly to the blunt or medium blunt and somewhat quad- 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1904. 



184 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

rangular apex; color grayish brown with few small black mark- 
ings about the apex; shell medium thick, cracking easily and 
separating readily from the kernel; partitions medium thick, 
kernel light brown, oval, smooth; sutures broad, shallow, sec- 
ondary ones lacking; texture fine-grained; flavor sweet, nutty; 
quality very good. 

This variety was introduced by Mr. A. K. Clingman, Keith- 
ville. La., who named it for Capt. W. H. Williams, Shreveport, 
La. In December, 1897 or January, 1898, Capt. Williams 
planted five nuts grown at Bay St. Louis, Miss. In the fifth 
year one of them (the Williams) bore, and has done so regularly 
ever since, in 1909, producing twenty-seven pounds of nuts. 
The other four trees were worthless. The parent tree at Shreve- 
port, La., is about thirty feet high, symmetrical and thrifty. 

WiLLiNGHAM. Illustrated in "Farm and Ranch," Vol. 23, 
No. 49, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 1. 

WoLFORD. *Size medium or slightly below, averaging 75 to 
90 nuts per pound; form oval to oblong-oval, compressed, with 
a rather blunt, slightly curved, quadrangular apex; color rather 
bright yellowish brown, with few narrow velvet}^ black mark- 
ings; shell very thin and quite brittle, with thin and soft parti- 
tions, cracking easily; kernel plump, smooth and full to the tip, 
with rather narrow but shallow grooves, releasing the shell 
easily; kernel color bright golden brown; texture fine, meaty 
and solid; flavor rich, nutty and free from astringence; quality 
very good. 

This variety was found as a seedling in Wilson Creek bottom, 
near McKinney, Tex., by Mr. E. W. Kirkpatrick, about 1898, 
and its propagation was undertaken by IVIr. Kirkpatrick. It 
was named for the owner of the tree. 

Young. Medium to large, If xl inches; ovate cylindrical, 
rounded at the base; color grayish brown, splashed with purplish 
bro^Ti markings from center to apex; base rounded; apex sloping 
rather abruptly, nippled; shell brittle, thin, .76 mm.; cracking 
quality very good; partitions thin; kernel full, plump, slightly 
wrinkled with broad and shallow sutures; texture fairly solid, 
flavor sweet, rich, nutty; quality very good. 

Obtained from Chas. E. Pabst, Ocean Springs, Miss. Origi- 
nated by and named for B. M. Young, Morgan City, Louisiana. 

* Taylor. Yearbook, 1907. 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 185 

HYBRID PECANS 

The pecan appears to inter-pollinate freely with some 
of the other species of hickory, particularly H. minima, 
H. laciniosa and H. alba. A number of what are be- 
lieved to be well-marked hybrids of the pecan with 
these different species have been found, the most note- 
worthy of which, perhaps, are given below: 

McCallister. (Syn,: Floyd.) Received from O. L. Mc- 
Callister, Mount Vernon, Ind. This is probably a hybrid. It 
is the largest nut among all the hickories received at this office. 
The hull is about one-fourth of an inch thick when dry, and 
opens readily to the base with four valves. Nut 2| inches long, 
li\ inches wide, and Ir^ inches thick; base broad, rounded; 
apex broad, blunt, angular. In compressed form, in color of 
nut, also in the angularity and thickness of shell, it is quite sim- 
ilar to shellbark hickory. The kernel of a well-filled specimen is 
in color, consistency and flavor more like a shellbark of high 
quality than a pecan. The tree is reported to be "so similar to 
pecan in bark and leaf that it would be impossible to detect the 
difference," yet the buds and young wood more closely resemble 
shellbark. The tree was found many years ago on a farm now 
owned by Mr. McCallister. The nuts have httle pomological 
value, as grown on the original tree some years, the kernel being 
shriveled and not filling more than one-third of the space within 
the shell; yet nuts from the crop of 1893 have been received at 
the Division of Pomology which were well filled with a kernel of 
very pleasant flavor. Possibly it may become more uniform in 
maturing fruit in Mississippi or Texas, where the season is longer 
than in Indiana. It is well worth a trial by experimenters in 
those states. Sargent gives a short description of this nut under 
the name Floyd, and accredits the points of his description to 
A. S. Fuller, in New York Tribune, weekly edition, July 9, 1892, 
and says it is perhaps a hvbrid. ("Nut Culture in the United 
States," 1896, p. 63-4.) 

NussBAUMER. In the American Agriculturist for 1884, p. 
546, f. 1., A. S. Fuller published an account of a supposed hybrid 
between this species and the pecan, which has been called the 
Nussbaumer hybrid, after J. J. Nussbaumer, of Okawville, 111., 
who first brought it to the attention of Judge Samuel Miller, of 
Bluffton, Mo. Mr. Nussbaumer writes me that the original tree 
which stands in the bottom between Mascoutah and Fayette- 
ville, 111., in general appearance resembles laciniosa, though 



186 



THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 



the bark is intermediate between that of the Pecan and Mocker- 
nut. Professor Sargent states (Silva, vii, 158) that a small tree 
grown from this in New Jersey, by Mr. Fuller, cannot be dis- 
tinguished from laciniosa of the same age; and I should hardly be 
able to distinguish an imperfect twig from a small tree, culti- 
vated by Judge Miller, from laciniosa. The nut, however, is very 
peculiar, being more elongated than is usual in that species, and 
widened upwardly, less acutely angled, "as if the ridges had been 
sandpapered down," and so thin-shelled that it can be crushed 
easily by pressing two together in the palm of the hand. A some- 
what similar nut, originally from Indiana, was described by Mr. 





Piiotograph by Dr. Trelease 



The Nussbaumer hybrid. 

Fuller, in the "New York Weekly Tribune," July 9, 1892 (Sar- 
gent's Silva, 1. c), as cultivated by R. ISI. Floyd, of Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa. And in the autumn of 1895, Dr. J. Schneck sent me ample 
fruit, twig and leaf specimens of a similar hickory from Posey 
county, Indiana. The nut of this last is almost identical with a 
specimen of the Nussbaumer nut in the Englemann herbarium, 
while its twigs closely resemble those of laciniosa, and the leaves 
are decidedly of the pecan type. I am led to the conclusion, 
therefore, that these several forms really represent hybrids be- 
tween H. -pecan and H. laciniosa. In size, quality, and thinness 
of shell, they appear to be the most valuable of American nuts. 
(William Trelease, Seventh Report Missouri Botanical Garden, 
1896, pp. 40-41.) 

PoosHEE. Size small, 1^ x | x f inches; ovate, flattened, 
wedged, sutures prominent; color dull brown with a very few 
dark lines at the apex; base rounded; apex flattened abruptly 
short-pointed; shell medium in thickness, 1.5 mm.; partitions 
thin, four-celled at base; kernel rounded in outline, light yellow in 
color; sutures broad, shallow, halves indented at base; surface 
much wrinkled and corrugated; flavor sweetish. 




The Schneck hybrid. 



Photugrapii by Dr. TreUase 



188 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Specimens of this nut were secured from Dr. J. F. Wil- 
son, Poulan, Ga., who received them from Professor Burgess, 
Clemson College, S. C. The nut presents exactly the same char- 
acteristics as the Westbrook, except in flavor and color of kernel. 
It, too, is doubtless a hybrid, H. 7ninima X H. -pecan. The original 
tree of this variety stands by or in the old Ravenel cemetery, 
near Pinopolis, Berkely county, S. C. 

ScHNECK. In the autumn of 1894, Dr. J. Schneck, of Mt. 
Carmel, 111., and F. Reppert, of Muscatine, Iowa, sent to the 
herbarium twigs and fruit of bottom-land trees that appear to be 
hybrids of this species with the pecan. The bark of the Iowa 
tree is described as being much like that of the Mockernut, while 
the tree of Dr. Schneck is smooth-barked, resembhng the pecan. 
So far as I have seen them, the twigs of both might pass for those 
of alba, except that the outer scales of the terminal buds are per- 
sistent, while the foliage, though intermediate, is strongly sug- 
gestive of that of the pecan. The fruit is oblong, almost two 
inches long, the husk 6 mm., thick, parted nearly to the base, 
with strongly elevated margins to the segments, and rather per- 
sistent on the tree. The nuts are nearly as pale as in the Shag- 
bark, conspicuously brown-striped, slightly four-celled at the 
very base, and with a wall only 1 mm. thick. As is usual in Alba, 




H. minima and hybrids, Westbrook and Pooshee. 

they are upwardly attenuate, and frequently the kernel is abor- 
tive. (Wilham trelease. Seventh Report Missouri Botanical 
Garden, 1896, pp. 44-45.) 

Westbrook. Size small, If x | inches; ovate, flattened, 
prominently sutured; color brown with a few indistinct brownish 
streaks close to the apex; base rounded; apex wedge-shaped, 
ridge, abruptly-pointed; shell rough and irregular, thin, 8.5 mm.; 



VARIETIES OF PECANS 189 

partitions rather thin, four-celled at base; kernel reddish brown, 
much wrinkled, sutures of moderate width and depth, halves 
divided at the base, much corrugated in cross section; flavor 
decidedly bitter and puckery. 

The parent tree is one standing in the yard of J. S. Westbrook, 
Mt. Olive, N. C, and grew from what, to all appearances, was a 
pecan nut. The foliage and general aspect of the tree closely re- 
semble the pecan, though the serrations on the leaves are coarser 
and larger. The fruit resembles, in many respects, that of Hicoria 
minima, and, in short, it appears to be a well-marked hybrid be- 
tween that species and H. pecan. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
PECAN LITERATURE 

When the first edition of 'The Pecan and Its Culture" 
was issued, in 1906, the hterature on the subject was 
rather scant. The brief hst pubhshed at that time has 
been considerabl}^ increased, and important bulletins 
have been published by the Experiment Stations and 
Departments of Agriculture of a number of states. The 
list, brought up to date, is as follows: 

Budd, J. L. and Hansen, N. E. "The Hickory Nut." Pecan 
Propagation, in American Horticultural Manual. New York. 
John Wiley & Sons. Copyright, 1902, 1904. Part I, pp. 301-303. 

"The Pecan," in American Horticultural Manual. 

New York. John Wiley & Sons. Copyright, 1903. Part II, pp. 
452-454. 

Burnette, F. H., Stubbs, Wm. C, Morgan, H. A. "Pecans." 
Baton Rogue. Truth Book and Job Printing Office, 1902. Illus- 
trated. Bulletin No. 69, Second Series, Louisiana Agricultural 
Experiment Station, pp. 847-884. 

Close, C. P. "Nut Growing in Maryland." College Park, Md. 
1908. Bulletin No. 125, Maryland Agricultural Experiment 
Station, pp. 197-217. 

Corsa, W. P. "Pecan," in Nut Culture in the United States. 
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896. Illustrated. 
Bulletin Di\'ision Pomology, United States Department of Agri- 
culture, pp. 49-64. 

Fuller, Andrew S. "Hickory Nuts," in the Nut Culturist. 
New York. Orange Judd Company. Copyright, 1896. Illu.?- 
trated. Pp. 147-202. 

Goff, E. S.. "The Pecan," in Lessons in Commercial Fruit 
Growing. Madison. University Co-operative Association. 
Copyright, 1902. Pp. 110-114. 

Gossard, H. A. "Insects of the Pecan." St. Augustine. 
The Record Company, 1905. Illustrated. Bulletin No. 79, 
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 279-320. 

Hansen, N. E. See Budd, J. L. 

(190) 



PECAN LITERATURE 191 

Harcourt, Helen. ''The Pecan," in Florida Fruits and How- 
to Raise Them. Revised and Enlarged Edition. Louisville. J. 
P. Morton & Co. Copyright, 1886. Pp. 207-214. 

Heighes, S. B. See Corsa, W. P. 

Herrick, Glenn W. "Insects Injurious to Pecans." Agricultural 
College, Miss. Tucker Printing House, 1904. Illustrated. Bul- 
letin No. 86, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 42. 

Hume, H. Harold. "Pecan Culture: a Preliminary Report" 
Jacksonville. H. & W. B. Drew Co., 1900. Illustrated. Bulletin 
No. 54, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 181-212. 

"Top- working Pecans." Gainesville. Hill Printing 

Co., 1901. Illustrated. Bulletin No. 57, Florida Agricultural 
Experiment Station, pp. 357-380. 

"Pecans," in Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion Report; 1900-1901. Deland. E. O. Painter & Co., 1901. 
Illustrated. Pp. 77-84. 

"Second Report on Pecan Culture." St. Augustine. 

Fla.: The Record Company, 1906. Illustrated. Bulletin No. 
85, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 461 — 504. 

"Pecan Growing in the South," in Proceedings of 

the Seventh Annual Convention of the Southern States Associa- 
tion of the Commissioners of Agriculture, 1905. Raleigh, N. C: 
Edwards & Broughton, 1906. Pp. 84-87. 

Hutt, W. N. "Pecans." Raleigh, N. C, 1909. Illustrated. 
Bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. 
Vol. 30, No. 9, S., 1909, pp. 50. 

Jaffa, M. E. "Nuts and Their Uses as Food." Illustrated. 
United States Department of Agriculture, 1908. Washington, 
D. C. : Government Printing Office. Farmers' Bulletin No. 332, 
p. 28. 

McLin, B. E., Editor. "Pecan Culture in Florida," in Florida 
Quarterly Bulletin of the Agricultural Department. Tallahassee, 
Fla.: Capital Publishing Companv, 1909. Illustrated. Vol. 19, 
No. 4, Part II, pp. 23-48. 

Merrill, L. H. See Woods, Charles D. 

Milner, R. S., Editor. "Pecans, and Other Nuts in Texas." 
Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones Company, 1908. Texas Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 2, p. 48. 

Morgan, H. A. See Burnette, F. H. 

Niblack, Mason J. "Nut Orcharding," in the Eighth Annual 
Report of the Indiana State Board of Forestrv. Indianapolis, 
Ind.: W'm. B. Burford, 1908. Illustrated. Pp. 69-89. 

Oliver, George W. "Budding the Pecan." Washington: 
Government Printing Office, 1902. Illustrated. Bulletin No. 30, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, p. 18. 



192 THE PECAN AND ITS CULTURE 

Parry, John R. "Pecan" (Hicoria Pecan, etc.), in Nuts for 
Profit. Parry, N. J. : John R. Parry. Copyright, 1897. Illustrated 
Pp. 93-118. 

Risien, E. E. "Pecan Culture for Western Texas." San Saba: 
E. E. Risien. Copyright, 1903-1904. Illustrated. Pp. 6-55. 

Stuart Pecan Company. "The Pecan and How to Grow It." 
Chicago: Woman's Temperance PubHshing Company. Copy- 
right, 1893. Illustrated. Pp. 9-80. 

Stubbs, William C. See Burnette, F. H. 

Taylor, WilUam A. "Pecan," in Report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, 1893. W^ashington: Government Printing Office, 
1894. Pp. 295-296. 

"Pecan," in Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horti- 
culture. New York: The Macmillan Company. Copyright, 1901. 
Illustrated. Vol. Ill, pp. 1252-1256. 

• "Pecans," in Yearbook United States Department 

of Agriculture, 1904. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

1905. Pis. 2; pp. 405-416. 

"Pecans," in Yearbook United States Department 

of Agriculture, 1905. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

1906. PI. 1, pp. 504-508. 

"Pecans," in Yearbook United States Department 

of Agriculture, 1906. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

1907. PI. 1, pp. 365-370. 

"Pecans," in Yearbook United States Department 

of Agriculture, 1907. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

1908. PI. 1, pp. 315-320. 

"Pecans," in Yearbook United States Department of 

Agriculture, 1908. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

1909. PI. 1, pp. 485-490. 

Van Deman, H. E. "Nuts," in Report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, 1891. Washington: Government Printing Office, 
1892. P. 395. 

"The Pecan," in Report of the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, 1890. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1890. 
Pis. 2; pp. 415-416. 

Wickson, Edward J. "The Pecan," in California Fruits and 
How to Grow Them. Fourth Edition. Los Angeles, Cal.: The 
Kruckeberg Press, 1909. PI. 1, p. 361. 

Wood, Wm. H. S. "Pecans," in The American Fruit Cul- 
turist, by John J. Thomas. Twenty-first Edition. New York: 
Wilham Wood & Co., 1903. Illustrated. Pp. 449-453. 

Woods, Chas. D. and Merrill, L.. H. "Pecan" (Hicoria 
pecan). "Food Analysis" in Nuts as Food. Orono, 1899. Bul- 
letin No. 54, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 74-75. 



INDEX 



Page 

Analysis 2 

Annular budding 36 

Associations 136 

Beggarweed 58, 85 

Bogus trees 6 

Bordeaux mixture 107 

Borers 120 

Botany 10 

Broken trees 99 

Budding 36 

Annular 36 

Chip 38 

Veneer-shield 37 

Budding-knives 31 

Bud sticks 35 

Bud worms 112 

Care of buds 39 

Case worm 113 

Catch crops 87 

Caterpillar 117 

Catocala 115 

Cercospora Halsledii 103 

Commercial varieties 149 

Commission merchants 135 

Cost of trees 66 

Cover crops 83 

Cowpeas 58, 85 

Crops 83 

Crossing 14 

Crotched trees 99 

Cultivation 76 

Cultural area 19 

Curing 128 



Diseases 

Double plantings 

Exports 



102 



Fall web-worm 115 

Fertilizers 30, 74, 79 

Fillers 88 

Food value 2 

Fungous diseases 102 

Fusicladium effusum 103 

Geography 17 

Gift packages 130 

Grading 129 



Page 

Grafting 40 

Cleft 40 

Whip 41 

Grafting iron 30 

Grafting-time 35 

Grafting twine 33 

Grafting wax 32 

Grocery trade 135 

Harvesting 122 

Hicoria alba 24 

Hicoria aquatica 24 

Hicoria pecan 13 

Hicoria tomentosa 24 

Holes, digging 74 

Hybrids 185 

Ideals 147 

Implements 77, 79 

Imports 7 

Index 193 

Insects Ill 

Judging 145 

Kernels 138 

Kind of trees to plant 64 

Laying out 71 

Leaf-blight 103 

Literature 190 

Lime-sulphur 108 

Low-headed trees 91 

Marketing 134 

Mohr, Charles, quoted 19 

Native range 17 

Nitrates 76 

Nitrogen 80 

Number of varieties 59 

Nursery 28 

Nursery root pruning 95 

Nut clusters 150 

Nut-crackers 138, 142 

Oak pruner 119 

OU 144 



Packages 
Packing . 



130 
133 



(193) 



194 



INDEX 



Page 

Pecan botany 10 

Packing experiments 139 

Pecan caterpillar 117 

Pecan geography 17 

Pecan importance 1 

Pecan literature 190 

Pecan scab 43 

Pecan seedlings 22 

Pecan production 7 

Pecan weevil 120 

Phosphoric acid 80 

Picking 125 

Picking equipment 123 

Picking ladders 123 

Picking time 124 

Planting board 73 

Planting distances 67 

Planting systems 69 

Hexagonal 70 

Rectangular 69 

Septuple 70 

Square 69 

Equilateral triangle 70 

Planting time 66 

Planting trees 72 

Plowing 76 

Polishing 130 

Pollination 13 

Potash 80 

Preparation of soils 57 

Private trade 134 

Propagation 22 

Proterandry 14 

Pruning 91 

Pruning time 96 

Pruning tools 100 

Purchasing trees 59 

Quicksand 55 

Root pruning 74 

Root trimming 93 

Rosette 105 

Scab 103 

Scale 145 

Scions 33 

Seed nuts 27 

Seed planting 29 

Selecting scions 33 

Shears 101 

Shucking 126 

Shuck-worm 121 

Soils 55 

Soja beans 58 

Spraying 102 

Stable manure 81 

Stocks 24 

Storing 133 

Storing grafts 35 

Surgery 91 



Page 

Tap-root 94 

Top-working 43 

Top-working, cost 48-51 

By budding 47 

By grafting 52 

Methods 46 

Twig girdlers 118 

Varieties 156 

Alba 156 

Alley 156 

Appomattox 156 

Atlanta 156 

Bacon 157 

Bacon's Choice 157 

Bartow 157 

Beauty 157 

Belle 157 

Biediger 157 

Biloxi 157 

Black Jack 157 

Bolton 157 

Bourgeois 182 

Brackett 158 

Bradley 158 

Bullets 158 

Capital 158 

Castanera 180 

Carman 159 

Centennial 159 

Century 177 

Chiquita 159 

Claremont 159 

Clark 160 

Columbia 177 

Columbian 177 

Colorado 160 

Curtis 160 

Curtis No. 2 160 

Curtis No. 3 176 

Curtis No. 5 167 

Daisy 161 

Dalzell 161 

Delmas 162 

Dewey 162 

De Witt 162 

DeWitt Mammoth 173 

Domestic 162 

Duminie mire 182 

Early Texan 162 

Egg 163 

Eggshell 163 

Excelsior 163 

Extra-early 163 

Faust 163 

Favorita 163 

Floyd 185 

Franklin 164 

Frotscher 164 

Frotscher Eggshell 164 

Georgia 164 

Georgia Giant 164 



INDEX 



19i 



Varieties, continued. Page 

Georgia Melon 164 

Giant 165 

Gonzales 165 

Halbert 165 

Harcourt 165 

Havens 166 

Helen Harcourt 165 

Hinton 166 

Hodge 166 

Hollis 166 

Hume 167 

Ideal 167 

Idlewild 167 

Indiana 167 

Jacocks 168 

Jacocks' Mammoth 168 

James Grant 168 

James No. 1 168 

James Papersholl 168 

James Perfection 175 

Jewett 169 

Jumbo 169 

Kate Schaifer 178 

Kennedy 169 

Kentucky Gem 169 

Kidd 169 

Kincaid 170 

Krack-ezy 170 

Ladyfinger 170 

Lamar 170 

Lewis 171 

Longfellow 171 

Louisiana 171 

Magnum Bonum 171 

Majestic 164 

Major 171 

Mammoth 172 

Mantura 172 

McCallistcr 185 

Mexican Papershell 173 

Meyers 173 

Mobile 173 

Monarch 173 

Money 173 

Money-maker 174 

Moore 174 

Morris 174 

Nelson 174 

Nigger 175 

Nussbaumer 185 

Olivier 164 

Pabst 175 

Pan-American 175 

Paragon 183 

Pearl 175 



Varieties, continued. Page 

Pegram 175 

Perfection 175 

Petite 176 

Post 176 

Post Select 166, 176 

Pooshee 186 

President 176 

President Roosevelt 176 

Primate 176 

Pride of the Coast 177 

Randall 176 

Repton 177 

Ribera 177 

Risien 177 

Rome 177 

Russell 177 

Russell No 1 178 

Russell No. 2 178 

San Saba 178 

Schaifer 178 

Schley 178 

Schneck 188 

Senator 179 

Senator Money 173 

Southern Beaiity 182 

Southern Giant 177 

Sovereign 174 

Steckler's Mammoth 172 

Stevens 180 

Success 181 

Sweetmeat 181 

Taylor 182 

Texas 182 

Texas Prolific 179 

Thomas 182 

Turkey Egg Jr 182 

Turkey Egg Sr 182 

Turner 182 

Twentieth Century 177 

Van Deman 182 

Valsies 183 

Westbrook 188 

Williams 183 

Willingham 184 

Wolford 184 

Young 184 

Varieties classified 155 

Described 156 

Propagated 154 

Recommended 152 

Velvet beans 58 

Waxed cloth 32 

Wound protection 47 

Wound treatment 97