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Ldlhcr bcmg scarce mosl <■( Nnrth C'liina's shncs arc made of clolh. Water 
■a hard on ihem, sc in wel wratbcr it ii a chuicc of slay home, ruin your 
ihoei ai Hear heavy itaaes wilh wood suits. 



Conducted under the auspices of 













Andhv:?- Harvard 
:;;L'.!.r.v.;iC)^f. Ubra'^'i 

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comuGBT, 1921, 







The social survey of Peking marks a milestone of advance 
for the Continent of Asia. Constantinople and other centers are 
already following the example of Peking in making thorough 
social surveys. We must know our problems before we solve 
them. We must know the present reality before we seek to 
rebuild in the light of an ideal 

The timeliness of this survey is significant. China is in the 
midst of a vast transition, and it is essential that the Orient, as 
far as possible, be saved from the costly mistakes made by the 
Occident. We have learned after slow centuries of eflFort to 
coordinate the personal and the social. Between these two poles 
of truth flows the current of life, and we must recognize this 
polarity. It is not enough to change the social environment, 
wages, hours, conditions, and material prosperity. If the hearts 
of men are selfish and sordid, no change in outward environment, 
no program or panacea of social reform can regenerate the 
nation. We must change the heart, regenerate the individual and 
also change the environment, and both processes must be simul- 
taneous and continuous. Neither the personal nor the social 
transformation alone will be sufficient. It is not enough, for in- 
stance, to save the souls of a few slaves if the social institution 
of Slavery is dragging down its millions. It is not enough to save 
a few drunkards, if the social evil of drink is ruining multitudes. 
It is not enough to save a few individuals from the gutter or the 
city slum, or the abyss of social injustice, if the social evils of 
poverty, child labor, inhuman conditions for women and the 
ruin of manhood continue in a social order fundamentally in- 
human and un-Christian. Mr. Gamble, Mr. Burgess, and the 
leaders of the social survey in Peking recognize this polarity of 
truth, this relation of the personal and the social. This survey 
is the result. 

An army of more than six thousand missionaries and 23,000 
Chinese workers is striving to change the hearts of men, and 
in the evangelistic and educational missions in China the primary 
emphasis is placed upon personal regeneration. There is urgent 
need, however, for the social application of Christian principles 
upon the mission field. First of all, the membership of the infant 



Church needs a social Gospel both as a field and as a force for 
social service. The Christian forces must be the leaders in the 
development of new and higher types of life in other lands. The 
timeliness of the Peking Survey is further emphasized by the 
fact that the Church at home is beginning to realize the impor- 
tance of social and industrial problems and by the rapid social 
changes occurring in China itself, of which the following pages 
give evidence. 

Occupied, as most missionaries are, with their own important 
evangelistic, educational, medical or personal service, and busy as 
the members of the native Church are in the struggle for sub- 
sistence, it is imperative that specially trained men and women 
should be set apart for social service, for the making of surveys, 
the creation of a new social consciousness, the imparting of social 
dynamic, and for leadership in the transformation of these con- 
gested centers of Oriental life. Thoroughly trained leaders are 
needed to develop practical programs and to furnish the Church 
with an adequate social expression. They are also needed to 
furnish an invaluable point of contact with the educated leaders 
of the non-Christian community and other forces willing to 
cooperate for social betterment and for the work of social reform 
so deeply needed in China and other lands to-day. It is neces- 
sary that trained specialists be set apart for this task, as the 
present missionary force has neither the time nor training for 
the work, and it is not likely that American methods can be 
directly applied to China, but will have to be modified and 
adapted to the different conditions of the Orient. The field is 
wide open to-day. Will the Church and mission forces occupy 
that field or will they forfeit their opportunity and let civiliza- 
tion develop without Christian leadership? 

If the missionary goes not merely to rescue a few individuals, 
but with the wide vision and the bold faith of seeking first noth- 
ing less than the Kingdom of Grod, that His will may be done 
on earth as it is done in Heaven, that the whole Gospel may be 
applied to the whole of life and all its relationships — ^political, 
social and industrial, as well as religious — the significance of this 
social survey will be apparent to its readers. May it be the fore- 
runner of many similar undertakings, and may these surveys lead 
to action, to reform, to social reconstruction, to the building of 
the City of God in the midst of the poverty, the slums, and the 
wreckage of manhood and womanhood and childhood in the vast 
coi^fested population of the cities of the Orient. 

G. Sherwood Eddy. 


This ordered study of realities in the great capital of the 
Orient will serve to bring its ongoing life within range of all who 
are familiar with the point of view of the social constructors. 
It clears away much of what has seemed to be inscrutable. It 
brings surprise not so much by what is strange as by the 
essentially familiar human lineaments which it discloses. It offers 
many interesting points for comparison with western ways. The 
student of social evolution will find the like of many ethical 
and industrial institutions and customs as they flourished at 
various stages of European history. If we can believe that a 
nation can progress without a military front, and can pass from 
the gild system over into a cooperative form of industry, here 
is the beginning of the method. Some of the right starting points 
are set out for what may be the most momentous racial develop- 
ment of the third millennium of the Christian era, as that of the 
Anglo-Saxon has been of the second. 

It is certain that this presentation, with the organization of 
forces to which its preparation has already led, will find a clear 
and sure welcome from the increasing number of modem-minded 
leaders in the organized life of the Chinese cities upon whom, 
whether as officials or private citizens, the reconstruction of the 
nation so largely depends. The preparation of the study itself 
has opened the way in Peking for new common interests among 
many organizations and many kinds of people ; and its inevitable 
indications must lead to many more of such new common tmder- 
standings and enterprises as will make a basis not only for local 
well being but for that national coherence upon which the future 
of the four hundred millions so largely depends. 

The Survey comes at a moment of peculiar exigency and 
potency. The broad wave of the new learning is spreading over 
the land. The first fruits of modem education, in the impartation 
of which America has had so large and fine a share, are beginning 
to be apparent and influential. The present patient, luminous 
disclosure of opportunity of many sorts for the advancement of 
the cause of the people and for equipping them with more of the 
resources of life, must give not a few clues to a new generation 
of educated young men and women with a zest for patriotism 


of which the rest of the world at this moment cannot present the 

Those who have prepared the Survey have worked in the 
light of a peculiar and well justified confidence. They know that 
China is in the deepest need of that to which this diagnosis 
should lead ; and they know equally well that a great part of the 
capable leadership of the Chinese people not only is conscious of 
the need, but is ready to welcome right-minded help from the 
West in meeting it. It is indeed a moving experience to find how 
simply and ingenuously the friendly and informed American 
overture is received by the best of the Chinese. 

Surprisingly often this recognition of need goes with an 
acknowledgment of Christian motive as the power through which 
the need can be met. It cannot be doubted that the introduction 
of well considered social work into the missionary program in 
China represents the next step in the strategy of a cause before 
which lies an available opportunity comparable to that which 
was presented by the later Roman Empire. These pages suggest 
the attitude of a large proportion of the members of the mission 
staffs, their eagerness to adapt every working principle and method 
to the spirit and habit of the country, to join hands with every 
person of good will, and to go to the help of all who are burdened. 
Readers of this book will begin to appreciate Professor Ross's 
estimate of the American missionaries in China : "picked, trained 
men, equal in character and learning to any body of apostles that 
ever carried a faith to an alien people."* 

The human reconstruction of China must engage a varied 
leadership: missionaries who, deeply convinced, may return for 
special study and preparation ; new recruits from among trained 
social workers in America who shall feel that they serve their 
own country none the less in going as its representatives in a 
great moral adventure ; established Chinese citizens, and especially 
Christian laymen who shall come to have concrete, living ex- 
perience of the meaning of their faith ; above all, Chinese students, 
men and women, in American colleges and in those several spirited 
reproductions of them which are being built up in China. The 
Survey represents one example, of many that might be given, to 
show that such different approaches are already leading into a 
common loyalty. It is particularly interesting that all of these 
types of persons are already joined together in a project for cen- 
tralizing the study of social conditions and preparation for social 
work for Peking in the noble university which is being built up 
by the united Christian forces in the capital city. 

* The Changing Chinese, p. 25& 


The great humanitarian demands of Europe upon America 
are subsiding. The awakened instinct for world service must 
not and will not subside. China is calling. The vastest of the 
republics is in the making. The United States has proudly 
espoused the duty of protecting China. She must above all te 
protected from within. 

Robert A. Woods. 


"People often say that they are talking against a background 
of facts. In China there is no background and there are no facts." 
So says Dr. Arthur H. Smith after forty-seven years' resi- 
dence in China, and it takes only a slight experience to make one 
believe that Dr. Smith is correct. There is a wealth of generality 
concerning things Chinese but very little detail. It was with the 
hope of supplying some of this missing detail that this survey was 
undertaken. But how to get the facts ? General observation had 
been used with the above result. The survey method had been 
successful in American cities, but so far as we could find no one 
had ever tried to use this method in studying an oriental city. 
Can it be used in a Chinese city? Will the people answer cor- 
rectly the many questions that will have to be asked ? In the past 
the Chinese have been suspicious of the foreigner and all his 
ways. It used to be a superstition that it was bad luck to give 
information concerning your family or business to a stranger or 
even to a government official. But do these conditions still pre- 
vail ? Haven't the many changes of the past years made it possible 
for foreigners to use successfully a foreign method in making a 
study of a far eastern city? These were the questions that we 
faced as we considered making a survey of Peking. However, 
the thought of making a study of the temple and palace filled, 
walled city that had been the capital of the old Chinese Empire 
and was still the center of Chinese political and educational life 
made the experiment seem worth while even though it might 
secure only a small amount of information. 

Peking was chosen for study because it is the capital of China 
and the center of so much Chinese life ; because, if we should be 
successful, our experiment would probably have a nation-wide 
influence and the chances of success seemed to be better there 
than in any other Chinese city. In Shanghai, Hankow, Tientsin 
and some of the other treaty ports, the people had perhaps had 
more contact with foreigners than in rekmg, but those could 
hardly be called Chinese cities. In this connection it must be 
remembered that what is true of Peking is not necessarily true of 
other parts of China. Conditions are very different in different 
parts of the country. 



The Peking survey in its inception was very frankly an experi- 
ment, though one or two small studies, one of the labor gilds in 
Hangchow, Chekiang, and the other of some ricksha coolies in 
Peking, made us feel certain that we could secure some informa- 
tion in three or four fields. It was such an experiment that it 
could not command either a large budget or a large staff. We 
could not ask that other people be released from their regular 
work to assist in it and even we could not give our entire time to 
it. All expenses had to be met privately except for one contribu- 
tion of $ioo. The work was done, however, under the auspices 
of the Peking Chinese Young Men's Christian Association and 
the Princeton University Center in China. 

In making the survey we found the foreigners interested and 
glad to cooperate and the Chinese most willing to give us detailed 
information concerning the various phases of their life. Officials 
gave us every opportunity to investigate the work of the govern- 
mental agencies and access to much of their information concern- 
ing the city. Business men and others answered numerous de- 
tailed questionnaires. As the work progressed we found fields 
opening to us that originally we had not planned to attempt. 
More and more people were enlisted to help in gathering data and 
it seemed best to enlarge the scope of the survey and extend the 
time for its completion. Field work started in September, 1918^ 
and was finally completed in December, 1919. 

It was evident from the start that, aside from special calls and 
interviews, we personally would not be able to do any g^eat 
amount of field work, and that most of the material would have 
to be gathered by Chinese investigators working with question- 
naires. We were fortunate in securing as our chief field workers, 
Mr. C. H. Chen, an American returned student, who had been in 
business in Peking and was in close touch with the industrial life 
of the city, and Mr. Liang Tsai Chih, who as a member of the 
local Board of Education was familiar with the educational life 
of the city, and as author of the Peking Guide Book could give 
us many valuable facts. On special studies, we were assisted by 
the officers and members of the Congregational churches, by the 
students of the Peking (Union) University and by a seminar of 
the students of the North China Union Language School, for- 
eigners stud)ang the Chinese language preparatory to active mis- 
sion work. We were also given access to the reports of some of 
the Government Boards, and from these secured many funda- 
mental statistics concerning the life of the city. In order that 
full statistical tables may be available they have been put in the 
appendix rather than in the text, and the figures for the different 
police districts, etc., are given so that those who are working in 
different parts of the city may have the figures for their own 


particular district and be able to plan their work aocordii^ly. 

Other problems connected with the survey were those always 
present where work must be done in two languages. Question- 
naires had to be translated into Chinese and reports into English. 
The terms on one questionnaire were discussed for over two 
hours by a group of Chinese who knew English well, and for- 
eigners who were expert in the Chinese language, and even then 
the results showed that the entire meaning of the English terms 
had not been put into Chinese. It was also difficult to find men 
who could make accurate tabulations, figure percentages, etc, and 
practically all of that detail had to be carried by the authors. 

As the survey has been a study of present day social condi- 
tions, we have made practically no attempt to go into the records 
of the past. A personal study of the Chinese documents was 
impossible because of the language barrier. Material concerning 
Peking, in a language other than Chinese, is scarce, and practically 
none is of recent date. The study of published material concern- 
ing other cities in China would be of little value. Where we have 
induded historical data we have had to depend for most of it 
upon those who have made special studies of the records. We 
have, however, found valuable material in the following books : 
Favicr, Peking; Morache, Pekin et ses Habitants; Encyclopedia 
Simca; China Year Book 1919; 1919 and 1920 Supplements of the 
Pdcing Leader; Thomas Cook and Sons, Peking; Imperial Jap- 
anese Railway Guide, China, The article by Macgowan on the 
Chinese gilds in the Journal of the North China branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1886, and Morse's book. The Gilds of 
China, have only been suggestive as they deal with the gilds of 
Central China. 

We have used the silver dollar as the standard of value tmless 
otherwise noted as it is the standard ordinarily used in Peking. 
The tael is an uncoined standard used in commerce. Its value 
in terms of the dollar fluctuates somewhat but is ordinarily be- 
tween $1.35 and $1.45. In terms of the gold dollar the value of 
the silver dollar is constantly changing. The usually accepted 
standard value is 50 cents but during Sie making of the survey 
varied from 80 cents to $1.33. 

We have tried to judge the social conditions in Peking accord- 
ing to the progress that they show. Since China is in a period of 
transition, and one cannot help marveling at the changes that began 
with the Revolution of 191 1, it would not be fair to judge 
her life according to western ideals. If we have compared Uiings 
in Peking with the best in western life, it is not to criticize so 
much as to point out what we would like to see done in China. It 
is our hope that Peking and China may profit by the experience 
of other countries and be saved many of their mistakes. Since 


so much progfress has been made in the past few years, the Chinese 
ought not to be willing to stop short of the best. 

Our study has given us a great love for the Chinese and the 
firm belief that if given time and friendly help they will be able 
to work out the many social problems they are now facing. The 
pressing questions to be answered by those of the west are : Will 
American and European nations help or hinder Chinese social 
progress in this transitional stage? Will methods and ideas 
crystallize in China before we of the west have made our best 
contribution to her changing social life, a contribution based on 
the knowledge gained from our mistakes as well as our successes ? 

Although many people have been interested and helped with 
the survey, we feel that for the best results it has been too much 
in the hands of one or two people. This, however, was necessary 
as the first survey of a Chinese city was an experiment that had 
to be worked out by a few people before others could be asked to 
help. In any study the detail must be looked after by one or two 
persons, but if a group of people do not become vitally interested 
in the problems studied the survey will be productive of only small 
results, particularly if the one directing the study leaves after its 
completion and there is no one to continue working on the prob- 
lems that the survey has discovered. If another Chinese city is 
surveyed we hope that the study will be made by a fairly large 
and representative committee and that the various fields will be 
studied by small groups. In this way the problems of the city will 
be investigated and there will be groups of people interested in 
seeing that some solution is worked out for them. The mechanics 
and details of the survey can be handled by a director ; but only 
when the conclusions are based upon the experience and knowl- 
edge of a fairly large number of people as well as on the reports 
of technical investigation will they have their highest practical 
value. Our experience with a group of Peking (Union) Univer- 
sity students is a case in point. They were not only able to gather 
valuable information, but at the same time they had a glimpse of 
what life means for some unfortunates. We certainly hope that 
the making of the survey of the church members has given those 
who helped in the study a greater interest in the church and its 

It is our hope that this is the first of many studies of Chinese 
cities. The west needs to know more about China and Chinese 
life, and those who are living and working in the country need 
accurate information in order to wisely plan their work. We 
realize that a complete survey of a city involves not only consider- 
able time and expense, but many of the more particularly valuable 
studies, survey of church membership, the study of a small dis- 
trict, an investigation of the amount of poverty and philanthropy 


can be made fairly easily and with little expense, some for print- 
ing and, if necessary, some for the translation of official docu- 
ments. We have included copies of our questionnaires in the 
appendix with the hope that they may be useful to others. A 
ereat many suggestions for survey work can be found in the 
books and pamphlets listed in the survey bibliography of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation. 

We want to acknowledge our indebtedness to Dr. G. D. 
Wilder, the missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions and the officers and members of the Teng 
Shih K'ou, Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men Churches, who made 
possible the survey of the membership of the three churches ; to 
Mrs. Fannie S. Wickes and The Survey for permission to use the 
article, "My Nearest Neighbors in Peking," which gives a de- 
tailed description of some families living near the American Board 
church in the district for which we were able to secure the general 
statistics ; to Mr. C. B. Malone of the Department of History of 
Tsing Hua College for the outline of his lecture, "The History of 
Peking" ; to Dr. L. K. Tao of the Department of Sociology of the 
Peking (Government) University for material concerning the 
background of Chinese philanthropy ; to Prof. C. G. Dittmer and 
the Harvard University Press for permission to quote from "An 
Estimate of the Chinese Standard of Living," Quarterly Journal 
of Economics, November, 191 8; to Dr. W. G. Lennox for per- 
mission to use the figures in his article, "Some Vital Statistics," 
China Medical Journial, July, 1919; to Mrs. A. E. St. Clair, Miss 
Vera Holmes, Mr. L. G. Bates and Mr. H. Ray Sweetman for 
valuable seminar material; to Dr. Hu Suh of the Government 
University, for valuable material and information concerning the 
Rennaissance Movement; to the students of the Peking (Union) 
University who helped in the study of the philanthropic institu- 
tions of the city ; to Gen. Wu Ping Hsiang, the head of the Police 
Board, for a copy of the police report ; to Mr. Shen, Captain of 
Police District Inside Left 2, for a transcript of the census 
statistics of the Teng Shih K'ou district; to Mr. Teng Yu An, 
Captain of Police District Inside Left i, for valuable assistance; 
for special permission to print the national regulations for Cham- 
bers of Commerce translated by W. S. Howe of the American 
Consular Service; to Dr. W. B. Hill for help in preparation of 
the manuscript, and to many others who by their interest and help 
have made the survey possible. 

S. D. G. 
J. S. B. 




Woods vii 

Prbfacb xiii 

I Introduction and Conclusions 25 

II History 44 

III Geography 51 

IV Governmbnt • • 6s 

V Population • • • 91 

VI Health 114 

VII Education 128 

VIII Commercial Ljfb 163 

IX Recreation 223 

X The Social Evil 242 

XI Poverty and Philanthropy 264 

XII Prisons 307 

XIII Tbng Shih K'ou District 321 

XIV My Nearest Neighbors in Peking • • • • 331 
XV Church Survey 335 

XVI Reugious Work 368 

XVII Peking Community Service Group • • • • 393 


I: Geography 405 

II: Government 406 



III: Population 412 

IV: Health 417 

V: Education • • • 420 


VII: Recreation 475 

VIII: The Social Evil 477 

TX : Poverty- and Philanthropy • . . • 486 

X: Teng Shih K'ou District • • • • 488 

XI: Church Survey 497 

XII: Religious Work 511 

XIII: Questionnaires 517 

Index 525 


Stitching Soles Frontispiece 


Dressed for the Dragon Festival 30 

A Well-to-do Aristocrat ., 31 

Peking Wall and Moat 46 

Gateway to Former Imperial Palace 46 

T'ai Ho Tien. Imperial Throne Room 47 

Gateway to Forbidden City 47 

Mule Litter 62 

One of Pddng's 4,198 Indestructible Carts 62 

Camel Transportation • 63 

Student Demonstrations, June 4th and 5th, 1919 • • • . 78 

Arrested Students Going to Jail 79 

Student Guard at Government Law School, the Student Jail • 79 

One of Peking's Smdls 118 

Old Style "Running Water" System 118 

A Professional Beggar 119 

The Blind Working for the Blind 150 

Spreading Modem Ideas Among the Common People • • • 150 

Industrial Education. National Teachers' College • • • 151 

Cloissone Making 206 

Not Even a Potter's Wheel to Make Stoves 206 

Government Uniform Factory 207 

Wondering Which Girl He Would Like to Have for a Wife 254 

Rescued Slave Girls 254 

Prostitutes' Advertising 255 

Sure of One Hot Meal on a Cold Day 270 

A Tjrpical Beggar Family 270 

Moving Day 271 

The Foundlings' Home >•»»•• 286 



The Five Nations Poor House 286 

Industrial Training 287 

Rickshaw Shelter 302 

Reform School Dormitory joa 

No More Worries. Cared for by the Poorhouse • • • • 303 

Old Style Prison Cell 310 

Maicing Match Boxes. Model Prison Workshop • • • • 310 

Peking Model Prison, the First of 39 in China . . . . 311 

The Five Teachers, Christ, Lao Tze, Confucius, John Howard* 

Mohammed 311 

The Slaughter House Sign, Pig Bladders 326 

Delivering Live-stock in Peking 326 

Teng Shih K'ou Church 327 

Bow and Arrow Street 327 

Yellow Lama Priest 382 

The Temple Court— Quiet Save for the Tinkle of the Wind 

Bell 383 

Street Chapel 398 

The Peking Chinese Young Men's Christian Association • • 398 

Two Little Maids from School 399 



1 Peking Under Di£Eerent Dynasties' 47 

2 Chihli Province 53 

3 City Districts 57 

4 Government 67* 

5 Population — Density 95 

6 Percent Male 100 

7 Peking and American Cities— Ages by Five-Year Age 

Groups 103 

8 Peking Churdi Families — Percent in Five-Year Age 

Groups 104 

9 Boston. Age and Sex. Number in Five-Year Age 

Groups lOS 

10 Philadelphia. Age and Sex. Number in Five-Year 

Age Groups 106 


11 Pddng Population. Age and Sex. Number in Five- 

Year Age Group 107 

12 Church Families. Age and Sex. Number in Five-Year 

Age Groups 108 

13 Sewers 123 

14 Higher Schook 135 

15 Boys' Primary School 137 

16 Girls' Primary School 139 

17 Extension Education 149 

18 Banks, Markets and Factories 214 

19 Recreation 225 

20 Hotels 231 

21 Poverty 272 

22 Philanthropic Institutions 284 

23 Teng Shih K'ou District 323 

24 Churdi Survey Card 337 

25 Number of Families and Individuals 339 

26 Size of Families 340 

27 Distribution by Race 341 

28 Distribution by Sex 342 

29 Age Distribution • • • • • • 343 

30 Age and Sex 345 

31 Marital Condition • • • • .• • :•:••• 346 

32 Incomes • 350 

33 Rent Per Room Per Mondi • • . 355 

34 Persons Per Room •••;•• -• • ;•; . . 357 

35 Education 359 

36 Churdi Relationships • • 362 

37 Temples . • • • •: • • > • >; > > • 371 

38 Mission Work . • • .; . r.; .; . >: . . 379 




China is a big question mark and a tremendous challenge ! 
A question mark for those who want an accurate knowledge of 
social conditions and a challenge to those who, watching a nation 
in transition, would help her develop along the best possible lines. 

With the country changing from an ancient empire to a mod- 
em democracy, with the ancient gilds beginning to feel the 
pressure of new industrial methods, with the passing of the old 
education and the coming of the new, with the gradual discarding 
of the age long primitive methods of philanthropv and the opening 
of new, well organized institutions, one can harcUy imagine a situ- 
ation where accurate detailed facts and a strong social program are 
more important or more necessary for those who would help 
China, whether they be students, officials, social workers, educa- 
tors or missionaries. 

That there are crying social needs, vast ignorance, appalling 
poverty, a striking lack of wholesome recreation, is very evident ; 
and it is also apparent that there are many people of wide and 
divergent interests, Chinese and foreigners, missionaries and 
workers of the Protestant, Catholic and Gredc churches, officials, 
social workers and private individuals who might help in carryiiq^ 
out an effective social program but who for the most part are not 
now at work. 

^ Before these people and problems can be brought together two 
things must be done : scientific studies must be made of concrete 
facts and situations, and definite social programs must be worked 
out on the basis of the findings of the studies. 

There are two movements in Peking and China: the Renais- 
sance or New Thought Movement among the educated classes, 
and Protestant Christianity reaching all classes ; and both of diese 
movements have been taking an increasing interest in practical 
community service enterprises. The Renaissance Movement, 
whose motto is "Save the country through science and democ* 



racy," has concentrated the attention of the thinking young men 
of China on social questions. The term "social reconstruction" 
is probably the most popular term among young Chinese to-day, 
who with their professors have set themselves the task of critically 
analyzing all the old customs of China with the aim of destro)ring 
those that are considered harmful, whether they have to do with 
family, industry or state. They have been doing some practical 
service, teaching in free night schools and helping improve the in- 
dustrial gilds' methods of training apprentices, but, for the most 
part, their activities have been literary rather than practical, have 
changed the thought life of China rather than developed a prac- 
tical program. They have been so successful in a relatively short 
time that they have very nearly reached the point where if they 
are to make the most of their opportunity they must apply their 
social theories to concrete situations, and by actual experiment 
make sure that their program is fitted to Chinese life. There is 
some danger that there will be too much emphasis put on social 
theory from the west, which, growing out of a social and indus- 
trial situation different from that prevailing in China, will not be 
fitted to Chinese life unless modified by study and practical 

It has been the conviction of many of the leaders of the Chris- 
tian movement in China that the next important step in the prog- 
ress of Christianity in that nation should be in the general field 
of the more comprehensive application of Christian principles to 
the social life of the people. 

One of the principal causes of this conclusion has been the 
series of evangdistic campaigns conducted by Dr. Mott in 1913, 
Sherwood Eddy in 1914 and 1918, and Frank Buchman in 
1916 and 1918. The net result of these has been an awakened 
interest in Christianity among hundreds of students and officials, 
a class hitherto but little affected by the Christian movement. 
Especially in the addresses of Dr. Eddy, Christianity was pre- 
sented not only as a power to transform individual character but 
as a force that would save the nation. With the present temper 
of the young men of China, the call to national and social salva- 
tion was the strongest possible challenge. Hundreds joined Bible 
classes and discussion groups in order to learn how Christianity 
could save the nation. For the most part the only concrete and 
definite reply they received was that Christianity by its power to 
transform individual lives from selfishness to service would g^d- 
ually leaven the nation with right-minded people in all walks of 
life and thus eventually and automatically transform Chinese 
society and national life. 

However true this reply may be and however essential indi- 
yfdual transformation of character is in a social program, it is 


not sufficient for the demands of the hour in Peking. The right 
spirit and attitude are not alone sufficient to transform the nation. 
The spirit of love, the general social principles of Christianity and 
even the far-off aim of the Kingdom are desired by the young, 
intelligent future leaders of China, but they also demand that 
definite methods and processes be used in applying these new 
principles and realizing these new ideals. One young man who 
recently became a Christian joined the church with the belief that 
it was a group of men and women banded together with the 
purpose of bringing in a new social order founded on the prin- 
ciples laid down by Jesus Christ. Two months after he was 
baptized he came to the person who had introduced him to the 
pastor and said, "What sort of an institution is this that you 
recommended to me to join ? I thought you said it was a group 
of men and women whose main business it was to bring in the 
Kingdom of God in Peking. It was with that object that I joined 
the church. I have been there now for two months and have 
done nothing but listen to sermons on Sunday ! So far they have 
given me nothing to do !" The lack of a comprehensive Christian 
social program, pioneered by the church, is due not so much to 
definite neglect of this important field by the Chinese and Foreign 
church leaders, as to the lack of accurate scientific knowledge of 
social conditions and methods of community service. 

In one sense, of course, the Christian forces. Catholic, Prot- 
estant, Greek Orthodox, have been engaged in various forms of 
social service for years. The missionaries and churches have 
pioneered in modem education from kindergarten to university. 
Through their efforts hospitals have been established and medical 
colleges opened. Doctors and nurses by the hundreds are carry- 
ing on their work of healing and prevention throughout the nation. 
The first schools for the blind, rescue homes for fallen women, 
scientific famine relief work, modem athletics, physical education 
and a long list of other social movements have been started by the 
missionaries and native leaders of the Chinese church. Christian 
evangelistic work has also had a large indirect influence on the 
social life of the Chinese. A new estimate of womanhood, the 
greater valuation of children, a deeper interest in the poor and 
oppressed classes and a higher estimate of the value of personality 
are some of the marked results of Christian missions. But per- 
haps the greatest contribution of the Christian movement to the 
future social program of China is the earnest and unselfish desire 
to serve their fellow men that has been given thousands of men, 
women and children. To do full justice to the social effect of 
foreign missions one ought to enumerate many more social results 
of Christianity in China, but even so it cannot be said that the 
Christian movement has as yet formulated a definite constructive 


{Mt)fram of social welfare for China that will vitalize this desire 
to serve. Great good has been done by the foreign missionaries 
aad die salaried Chinese of the missions in evangelistic, medical 
and educational work, but the laymen of the churches, with few 
exceptions, are not engaged in any active church service. Those 
who are engaged in voluntary service are devoting their time 
almost exclusively to evangelistic work. The church members as a 
whole either have not connected in their thinking the principles of 
Christianity and the social needs of China or else do not know how 
to apply those principles. 

This survey has been made with the hope of discovering the 
fundamental social conditions in Peking, the capital of the coun- 
try, and of making available material which may be of use to the 
Renaissance movement, the Protestant churches and other move- 
ments and individuals in working out a practical expression of 
their interest in social problems and developing a social program 
that will influence the life of Peking and all of China. The big 
problem of the future is to relate social experience to the needs 
of the Chinese and help them in these days of transition to make 
tiie greatest amount of progress with the least number of mistakes. 


The outstanding facts discovered by the survey, the various 
problems to be faced and some of the conclusions drawn there- 
from are given in the following paragraphs : 


The history of Peking covers more than three thousand years, 
the records showing that in 1121 B. C. there was a city on the 
site of the present Peking which is the sixth city built on the 
same site. Peking has be^ the capital of China almost continu- 
ously for 1,000 years, and within its walls are to be found the 
palaces, temples, and homes that the Emperors have built for 
themselves and the members of their courts. Now that the Em- 
pire is gone these are kept as government property, most of them 
as parks or museums, although some of the palaces are occupied 
by the President and the old imperial families. The National 
Assembly and various government boards are housed in large 
modem buildings. 


_ is made up of five walled districts, three of which are 
concentric The Forbidden City, the old home of the Emperor, 
is in the center, cut off from the rest of the city by a wall and 
moat Around it lies the Imperial City, the old home of the lesser 


members of the Court. Outside of this is the North or Tartar 
City, surrounded by a wall 41 feet high and 50 feet across at the 
top. The South or Chinese City joins the North City on the 
south, its north wall being the south wall of the North City. The 
Legation Quarter, the home of the official representatives of the 
foreign countries, is a small district in the southern part of the 
North City. It is walled because of the experience of 1900, when 
the foreigners in the city were besieged by the Boxers. For ad- 
ministrative purposes, Peking has been divided into twenty police 
districts. The Central Districts are in the Imperial City, the 
Inside Districts in the North City, and the Outside Districts in 
the South City. The Left Districts are on the east, and the Right 
Districts on the west side of the city. The area of the city is 
24.75 square miles. 


The Government of Peking is a Chinese puzzle. Many differ- 
ent boards and agencies, including the National Government, with 
its President, Cabinet and Parliament, the Metropolitan District, 
and two of its 20 hsien, the Military Guard under the Board of 
War, the Municipal Council and Police Board, both of which are 
responsible to the Minister of the Interior, are all functioning in 
the city. The powers of the various boards are determined by 
custom rather than by law, so it is practically impossible to 
describe their relationship under all conditions. The oflBdals, 
however, claim that each one knows what he is to do in any emer- 
gency. The police, whose organization is modeled after that of 
Japan and Germany, are responsible for most of the work done 
in the city and touch almost every side of the life of the people. 
They exercise the usual police functions, and those of the Board 
of Health, Fire Department and Census Bureau as well. They 
have also taken over the management of most of the charitable 
institutions in the city. In spite of their many ramifications the 
police with a force of 9,789 men are doing very efficient and 
creditable work, and Pelang is well called one of the best policed 
cities of the Orient. The 1917 police report is the basis of many 
of our statistics. 

Because Peking is the capital of the country, the officials have 
made many improvements in the city. An extensive sewer sys- 
tem has been built, the main streets have been paved, begging has 
been greatly restricted, the sanitary condition has been tremen- 
dously improved. Most of the expense — and the police alone are 
spending over two and a quarter million dollars a year — ^has been 
met from the revenue of the National Government, rather than 
from taxes collected from the inhabitants of the city. What is 
perhaps the most serious social problem of the city arises through 


Peking's connection with the Government Official posidoii is 
sought after by the Oiinese that, although there arc oaif 
5,000 positions in the Government, it is estimated that tiwre iie 
over 110,000 "expectant officials" in the cihr — men who hfelte 
come to Peking with the hope that they will be able to 
some office. Away from home, without employment, these 
are a serious problem, not only because of the numbers invaliiBC 
but because they are some of the best men of the countrjTf iiC, 
living in idleness, are subject to the evil influences of a hag *^' 
Furthermore, they expect that the perquisites of their 
will repay them for their present expenditure of time and 
and so help to continue the system of "squeeze" and comsptioaL 


The population of Peking is 811,556. Of these, S^SMS 
(63.5 percent) are males and 296,021 (36.5 percent) are ieaSS» 
In some police districts, yy percent of the population are mtHm^ 
These figures are almost enough to tell the story of the social Itte 
and problems of Peking, especially since a very large proportioa 
(61.7 percent) of the men are less than 35 years old. It is Cft 
dent, from the figures giving the ages of the people, that the 
population of Peking is largely made up of immigrants, most of 
whom come to the city when they are between 15 and 30 years of 
age. They come seeking education, business training and offidWI 
position. Consequently, most of them come without their 
ilies. Many are married, but those seeking official position 
tate to bring their families with them until they are sure d 
success, a student finds it practically impossible to live with Ua 
wife and family, while for those who go into business the loof 
hours, low wages and the fact that they are given their room and 
board as part of their wages, make it best, if not almost necessary^ 
for them to leave their families with their parents rather thiui 
bring them to the city where they would have to be alone a great 
deal of the time. 

The average population density is 33,626 per square mile, or 
approximately three times that of American cities of similar size. 
In the police districts where business predominates, the number of 
people per square mile varies from 72,136 to 83,823. Those in 
which residences predominate have from 30,000 to 40,000 per 
square mile, while those in which there are less than 20,000 
persons per square mile are really agricultural districts, even 
though they are inside the walls. 

The foreign population of Peking, exclusive of those living in 
the Legation Quarter, is given for 1917 as 1,524. Of these, 595 
were Japanese, 281 Americans and 230 English. 


Pckins bu no nml ilums; both rich uid poor lin 



The health of Peking is on the whole very good. The climate 
is naturally healthful, even though there are two months of 
freezing weather, and the summer temperatures are accompanied 
with high humidity. With practically no precipitation during the 
winter months, there is brilliant sunshine day after day, unless 
the sky is overcast with one of the dust storms for which Peking 
is famous. The average precipitation, most of which comes 
during the summer months, is about 20 inches. The police have 
dean^ up the city ; there are some 46 hospitals and 1,098 doctors, 
109 of whom have had training in western medicine. The won- 
derful staff and equipment of the hospital and medical school of 
the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation gives 
Peking as fine a hospital as can be found anywhere, the buildings 
and equipment alone representing an investment of some 
$7/xx),ooo gold. 

The birth rate according to the police statistics is 11.8 per 
IfiOO persons, or 32.6 per 1,000 females, but the police officials 
say that this is much too low. The study of a group of church 
families and of a group living just outside the city found birth 
rates of 26.5 and 36.5. In all probability the rate for the city is 
between 18 and 20 per 1,000 persons, or 55 and 60 per 1,000 
females. The death rate, which is much more accurate, is 25.8 
per 1,000 — ^21.6 for males and 33.2 for females. 

There is a modem water system in Peking, but the cost of 
the water, one copper for ten gallons, is prohibitive for most of 
the Chinese families. They secure their water from wells or 
from one of the 2,500 water-carriers who distribute water 
throughout the city in wooden tanks, mounted on big wheel- 
barrows. The sewer system that covers most of the city is 
designed to carry off only drainage and waste water. The daily 
collection and dryings for fertilizer, of the night soil gives employ- 
ment to some 5,000 men. 


Peking is the educational as well as the political center of 
China. Within its walls are the most important educational insti- 
tutions of the country, the University of the National Govern- 
ment, the National Teachers' College, the Higher Technical 
School, while the students in middle and higher grade schools 
number 16,879, more than twice as many as in any other city in 
the country. And these students come from every province and 
almost every large city in China. The Renaissance or New 
Thought Movement that has swept over the entire country was 


pioneered and stimulated by the students and educational leaders 
of Peking. 

When it is remembered that modem education did not really 
begin in China until 1905, the building of this new educational 
system stands out as one of the great educational achievements of 
history, particularly as the country has been so disturbed with 
revolution and political turmoil. 

Educational progress for men has been particularly rapid, 
there being some 48,000 men and boys in the schools of Pekmg. 
For women the development has been much slower as there are 
only some 7,000 female students in the schools of the city. This 
prc^ess, however, compares favorably with that in other cities 
m China. Only recently have the Government University and 
the graduate department of the National Teachers' ColI^;e begun 
to admit women, coeducation in higher schools being practically 
unheard of in China until 1920. 

A very complicated system of control is one of the striking 
features of the educational work in Peking. The majority of the 
schools are under either the National or Local Board of Educa- 
tion, but 12 other governmental agencies are also maintaining 

The missions, Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Protestant, 
have schools of all grades from kindergarten to university and 
there are many that are privately run. 

The ideals and aims of the primary and middle schools are 
for the most part distinctively modem with plans for industrial 
education, interest in science and experimental methods of teach- 
ing and emphasis on the all-round character development of the 
students. Mr. David Yui, after an investigation of Chinese educa- 
tion, points out many defects in carrying out these ideals. Most 
of those, however, are the result of the influence of the ancient 
classical traditions or of the rapidity of the development of the 
vast new and modem system of education. 

The lack of vocational and technical education is most notice- 
able, but a start is being made along those lines. The Higher 
Technical College and the industrial department of the National 
Teachers' College are giving good training in more advanced lines, 
lower vocational schools are being established, and some schools 
are beginning to adopt the cooperative system, half time study 
and half time work. 

Amon^ the special schools in Peking^^ the First Public School 
for the Blmd, founded by E. G. Hillier, Esq., is of special interest, 
for it was one of the first schools to make use of the system of 
Chinese Braille devised by Mr. Hillier. This is based on a 
phonetic system of writing with sixty-two characters, twelve 
{luetics and fifty radicals. It is also striking to find the police 


maintainiiig fifty-three half-day schools with four thousmd 

A very excellent system for social or mass education has been 
planned with lecture halls, libraries, and newspaper reading 
rooms. There are ten lecture halls scattered throughout the city 
in which lectures on patriotism, observance of law, morality, com- 
mon knowledge, friendly and philanthropic relations are given 
for two hours a day by men specially trained by the Board of 
Education. Lecture bands are also sent to the temple markets. 
Unfortunately the scheme does not work as well as it might The 
men in charge, inadequately prepared and poorly paid, are not 
able to make the lecture halls the educational centers they might 
well be. The one exception is the Model Lecture Hall, which is 
carrying on a valuable program of lectures with a well trained 
corps of lecturers. 

Small libraries are kept in most of the lecture halls. Besides 
these there are five pubUc libraries. Those containing the old 
classical books are not used extensively, but the relatively small 
amount of modem literature is being eagerly devoured by thou- 
sands of readers. In none of the Ubraries is the colleraon of 
modem books nearly as large as it ought to be. 

The Renaissance Movement, started in Peking in 1919 as m 
literary revolution to introduce the use in writing of the spoken 
language rather than the ancient classical mode of expression, has 
spread over the entire country and has developed an enlarged and 
well defined program with a distinctly social aim. The object of 
the movement is "To save the nation through science and democ* 
racy," and its method is first to destroy the harmful features of 
the old family, economic and political system and then build a 
new society. The necessary intellectual equipment for this task is 
to be gained by the study of the writings of a group of European 
and American democratic and socialistic thinkers, translations of 
which are being spread over the country by modem periodicals 
and books. Already the movement has had a profound effect on 
the viewpoint of Young China. 


Commercial and labor gilds, each representinc^ one industry 
but including all those engaged in that line, employers and em* 
ployees, are the basis of the commercial life of Peking. With 
their rules and regulations, close membership and the requirement 
which most of them have, of a three-year apprenticeship, before 
a man is digible to join, the gilds have, maintained a fairly static 
industrial situation. Ordinarily they have not, according to west-* 
em ideab, made for progress. The members of a gild sul have to 



abide by the gild rules that fix prices, wages, terms of credit, etc 
Those who break them are subject to reprimand, fine or even ex- 
pulsion and boycott. The power of the group is so strong that 
the individual must conform. Where so many men are involved 
and where so few have any financial reserve and labor has prac- 
tically no mobility, any dislocation of industry means sufiFering 
for many. Consequently, the Chinese have come to believe in 
combination and the maintenance of the status quo rather than 
in competition. Ordinarily the gilds do not even allow a man 
who develops a new idea to have the exclusive use of his invention. 

Since 1900 chambers of commerce have been organized in 
many Chinese cities. The influential men and directors of the 
Peking Chamber are all representatives of various gilds, though 
ordinary merchants are admitted to membership. The chamber 
of commerce is takin^^ over many of the functions common to all 
of the gilds. The chief of these is deciding many of the disputes 
that arise over industrial and commercial matters. Courts have 
been established by many gilds, but these ordinarily hear cases 
that involve only members of the gild. Those that include men 
belonging to more than one gild are usually heard by the chamber 
of commerce court. This is an extra legal institution, but is 
recognized by the officials and the regular law courts, who usually 
refer to it for decision any cases that come before them having 
to do with business or business procedure. Because there is but 
little national law and customs are so different in different parts 
of the country, these chamber of commerce courts decide the 
cases that come before them acording to the customs prevailing 
in each locality. The decision of a chamber of commerce court 
is never binding unless it is accepted by the interested parties or, 
if the case has been referred from a law court, has been reviewed 
by the court. 

In the past the gilds have been powerful even over the officials 
and they still maintain much of this power. In Peking, however, 
there are signs that they are not as strong as they have been, 
that the police and officials are taking over more and more control 
of the business life of the city. So far the government forces 
have usually moved only after conference with the chamber of 
commerce or the individual gild affected. As far as we can find, 
there never has been a real test of strength between the gilds and 
the Government. In one or two instances, where the officials 
have tried against the wishes of the gilds to increase the taxes, 
tfie gilds have retaliated by a strike that has been maintained 
until the unacceptable taxes have been removed. These, however, 
have been minor matters rather than any question of ultimate 
control. Just what will happen when a real test comes, no one 
knows, but there is every indication that the power of the gilds 


is going &> grow less and less as modem industrial conditions 

Although Peking is a very large banking center, modem in- 
dustry as yet has not secured much of a foothold in the city. The 
local octroi taxes make it practically impossible to establish 
factories inside the walls. The next few years will probably see 
the establishment of a large number of small fairly modem shops 
rather than large factories. Even so, it looks as though China 
would have to go through an industrial revolution with its many 
problems, and although she may go through the process faster 
than other countries she is going to have the troubles that go 
with long hours, child labor, and the exploitation of workers. 


Recreation in Peking reflects very clearly the transitional 
stage through which the people of China are passing and the 
possibilities and dangers of the change from the old to the new. 

The old amusements which have characterized the life of the 
capital for generations, theater-going, feasting, listening to 
story-tellers, Chinese horse-racing, and entertainment by the 
singsong girls or public entertainers, can still be found in much 
the same form as in ancient days. For the most part they are 
highly commercialized and are often in close connection with or 
at least located near the prostitute quarter. Gambling and some 
drinking frequently accompany the feasting in the hotels and tea 
houses of the southem city. 

Even in these ancient forms of amusement, many modifica- 
tions are beginning to appear. New style plays are being put on, 
crude copies of western theatrical performances given in the 
mandarin or spoken language rather than the old literary style 
of the ancient plays. The Board of Education is working with 
the Story-Tellers Gild and is encouraging them to use new 
educational stories as well as the old historical tales. 

Totally new forms of amusement, imported from the west, 
pool and billiards, moving pictures, public parks, a new recreation 
center known as "The New World'* — ^the Coney Island of 
Pdcing — ^have also been introduced. 

The twenty-two regular theaters and eight mat shed theaters 
of Peking, crowded every night with thousands of people, are 
the most popular recreation places in the city. Up to 1912 no 
actresses were allowed on the stage. Now they are playing in 
eleven of the theaters, but they do not appear on the same stage 
with men. Their coming has changed somewhat the character of 
the plays. 

The many restaurants, provincial halls and hotels of the 


capital afford a great opportunity for social life. The gild 
halls, representing every province and nearly every large city 
in Qiina, are natural meeting places for f eTIow-provincials who 
have come to the capital on official or business trips. 

Up to the present the seventeen pool and billiard parlors have 
kept tree of any close connection with gambling or the near-by 
red light district and for the most part afford wholesome recrea- 
tion. The first movine picture theater was opened in 1912. Now 
there are six, attended by approximately three thousand people a 
night. Unfortunately, many of the pictures are very old and 
many have failed to pass the censor in western countries. 

With the coming of the new regime, many of the open places 
in Peking that formerly belonged to the court and so were closed 
to the people, have been opened as public parks. The grounds 
of the Temple of Heaven, the Temple^ of Agriculture, the 
Zoological Gardens and even parts of the Imperial Palace itself 
give Peking a fine park system, and to those who can pay the 
entrance fee of a few coppers an opportunity for healthful 
recreation, but the fee keeps out many who need most the recrea- 
tion afforded by the park grounds. The new recreation centers — 
the New World and the South City Amusement Park — ^are highly 
commercialized enterprises with distinctly middle grade enter- 
tainments, some western and some Chinese. 

Modem athletics, track, baseball, volley ball, association foot- 
ball, tennis are about the only non-commercialized, helpful form 
of modem amusement that has been introduced, but unfortu- 
nately they have been confined almost exclusively to the student 
group. The results of modem athletics on the carriage and 
deportment of the students of China are most apparent to any one 
familiar with that class ten or fifteen years ago. 

Modem playgrounds and recreation centers where people of 
all ages, with or without money, can find wholesome recreation 
are greatly needed, as are new and better types of moving pictures 
that have a real educational and recreational value. 

The place given to women in Chinese society and the lack of 
wholesome home life necessarily makes impossible what from 
the western point of view would be termed wholesome and 
natural social relations between men and women. The indirect 
result of this situation is the close connection of many of the 
amusements for men with the segregated district where natural 
social instincts have a means of expression. This lack of oppor- 
tunity for wholesome association with women also explains in 
a measure why a very large proportion of those who visit the 
houses of prostitution go there not for the purpose of illicit 
relations but to drink tea and talk with the girls. Among a 
limited mmiber of the students and retumed students new forms 


of social amusements, dances and parties, for men and women, 
are gradually being introduced, but the movement has not gone 
far. It cannot go far without introducing new and delicate prob- 
lems and situations, but the tendency for the most part is most 
hopeful. Wholesome amusements of this sort will meet what is 
perhaps the greatest need in the recreational life of the capital. 


The social evil in Peking cannot fairly be judged by western 
standards, for the situation as shown by our investigation is 
entirely different from any found in western cities. In forming 
any estimate of this feature of Chinese life one must keep in 
mind the low position of women, the lack of wholesome social 
recreation, the lack of what, from a western viewpoint, would be 
called normal social relationships between young men and young 
women, the conditions in the Chinese clan home, the organization 
of Chinese official life which makes it very difficult for an in- 
dividual to stand against social pressure, the new spirit of free- 
dom that has swept the country since the Revolution in 191 1, the 
fact that in Peking 63.5 percent of the population are male. 
Economic pressure has often caused parents to sell their daugh- 
ters to the brothels or to enter an agreement whereby they share 
with the brothel keeper the profits if the girl is bought as a 
concubine by some wealthy man. 

The opinions of competent Chinese and foreign observers 
vary as to the extent of the social evil in Peking. There seems 
little doubt that for clean wholesome living there have been few 
if any races that have had a higher moral standard than the 
country peasants of North China, and the country standards are 
maintained by many city families. Among the officials and 
students the social evil is wide-spread and increasing. It is also 
said to be very prevalent in the army. 

In 1912 under Yuan Shih K'ai the Government licensed the 
prostitutes and gave public recognition to the s^^egated district. 
At present there are 377 brothels and 3,130 registered prostitutes 
divided into four classes, from the young, pretty, well trained 
girls between sixteen and twenty years of age found in the first- 
class houses to the older and coarser women in those of the 
fourth class. 

The by-products of the social evil in Peking are becoming 
increasingly apparent. Venereal infection is spreading especially 
among the official and educated classes and the harmful effect of 
the ""fast life" and the keeping of several wives can be plainly 


A unique piece of "rescue work" has been instituted by the 




police in the Chi Liang So (Door of Hope), an institution to 
which prostitutes may be sent or come of their own free will. 
But once in the home the women are not allowed to leave unless 
they are married or taken by their family. 

The efforts of the Social Reform Association have revealed 
the difficulties connected with any attempt to change a system 
that is so thoroughly established and against whidbi there has 
been but little organized public opinion. 


Next to ignorance, poverty is the most serious of the Pekingf 
problems. A Chinese family of five can be ^elf-supporting on an 
income of $ioo silver a year, but, even so, the police list 11.95 
percent of the population as "poor" or "very poor" — really 
below the subsistence minimum, the "very poor" practically on thie 
verge of starvation. Poor relief is far from adequate. Many 
families have to go through the winter without warm clothes, 
and some do not even have enough to give each member of the 
family a thin suit. For food, many of these families depend 
upon private or government charity. The Metropolitan District, 
the Military Guard, and the police have established 13 centers in 
and around the city where during the cold months a few ounces 
of hot porridge are given to all who come. During some months, 
over 700,000 meals are given away. The average cost of each 
meal is 1.2 cents. Such help, however, is entirely palliative. No 
effort is made to determine whether or not the recipients are 
worthy; the fact that they apply is taken as evidence of their 
need, and nothing is done to remove the cause of their destitution. 

There are various philanthropic institutions in the city, but 
these are unable even to begin to meet the need. They serve rather 
as demonstrations of what can be done and at best care for only 
a few of those who ought to have institutional care. Since the 
establishment of the Republic, the police and other official boards 
have taken over the management of practically all the charitable 
institutions; so at present private philanthropy is doing only a 
minimum of institutional work. Many new private institutions 
will in all probability be opened in the near future, and the great 
question now is: What will be the methods and aims of these 
new institutions? Will they follow the old Chinese system, or 
will they adapt successful western methods to Chinese life? 

The problem of raising the general standard of living and 
removing many of the underlying causes of destitution will be 
solved only as China develops, as education becomes more wide- 
spread, and as there are more and more industrial opportunities. 



The model prison movement is one of the most hopeful of 
the many that are developing in Peking. A few men working 
toward an ideal have accomplished great things in spite of the 
disturbed conditions of the country. 

The movement began in 1903 when the Viceroy of Shensi 
memorialized the throne against the flogging, banishment and 
transportation of prisoners. The first model prison in Peking 
was started only in 1909, but there are now 4 in the city 
with accommodations for 2,127 prisoners, while throughout China 
there are 39 capable of caring for 14,085 men. In these prisons 
the men are given good physical surroundings — clean, well venti- 
lated, well lighted cells, in well built buildings, clean beds, clean 
clothes, a diet adjusted to their physical condition and the type 
of work they are doing, good industrial training in trades they 
can use after they are released, and educational and moral train- 
ing. Furthermore the wardens of the various prisons have organ- 
ized a society to care for the prisoners after their release and 
until they are readjusted to normal life. 

It is one of the paradoxes of Chinese life that one can find in 
the same city model prisons and those in which the old conditions 
still prevail. Several prisons in Peking are old style with poor 
living quarters, no work, and bad sanitary conditions. But even 
these are called "reformed prisons," for they are much better than 
they used to be. 

The success of the model prison movement ought to encour- 
age those who would start other reform movements in Peking 
and China, for even a few men working together can influence 
the entire country. 


The study of the Teng Shih K'ou district is the beginning of 
a complete community survey. The district, a small section of 
Peking set off from the rest of the city by four loo-foot high- 
ways, has within its boundaries stores, workshops, residences, 
young and old, rich and poor, and practically all the social prob- 
lems that one can find in any city. Peking has no real slums, but 
in almost any district rich and poor can be found living close 
together. Chinese homes are surrounded by walls and the people 
ordinarily pay but little attention to the way their neighbors 

The fundamental figures, based on the police census, show 
that 7,945 persons are living in the district, or an average of 
639OOO per square mile. The most crowded conditions are nat- 


urally found on the business streets. On one of them 63 percent 
of the buildings have a frontage of less than 13 feet and only 
6 percent have over 24 feet. Of the population of the district 
754 percent are males. As few women are in industry, the pro- 
portion of men is particularly high on the streets where business 
predominates, over 82 percent on all of the eight business streets 
and on some a complete 100 percent. On the streets where 
residences predominate there is a much larger proportion of 
women. On two they are in a majority (53.5 percent and 50.5 
percent), while on most of the other residence streets between 
40 and 50 percent are females. 

Forty-six of the families (233 persons) are listed by the 
police as destitute. Almost 70 percent of these families are on 
three streets, but some poor families can be found on nine of the 
twenty-eight streets of the district. Nearly three-quarters of 
the poor families are Buddhists, and only 22 percent are Con- 
fucianists. Of all the families in the district 63 percent are 
Confucianists and only 25 percent Buddhists. Qmfucianism is 
very evidently the religion of those with education and financial 

The detailed study of the people living on one street made by 
Mrs. Fannie S. Wickes shows a need for every sort of social 
agency. There are poverty, ignorance, disease, feeble-minded- 
ness, immorality, on one street fifty yards long. 


The survey of the families of the Teng Shih K'ou, Pei T'ang 
and Qi'i Hua Men churches of the American Board Mission 
gives the sociological statistics for a group of Chinese families 
and shows to what extent the churches are reaching the members 
of the families with which they are in touch. The 325 families 
have on the average 3.7 members — z total of 1,217 persons. Only 
52 percent of this group are males, whereas the population of 
Peking is 63.5 percent male. The study shows that practically 
all Chinese are married at some time, as only 25 percent of 
those over 15 vears of age are unmarried, and of these 83 percent 
are under 26 years of age and 92 percent are still under 
31. The birth rate is 26.5 and the death rate is only 13 per 
thousand, though this latter is undoubtedly too low. Only 6.8 
percent of the uimilies reported that their income was over $1,000 
a year, while 28.6 percent received less than $100 a year. The 
latter may be poor but they are not necessarily destitute, as it is 
possible for a family of five to live on $100 a year. The average 
money income of the Ch'i Hua Men families is $1.96 per person 
per month. Only 22 percent of the church families own tfieir 


homes. The average rent paid is $1.25 per room per month. 
The Ch'i Hua Men families spend an average of 15 percent of 
their money income for rent. The literacy of the church fam- 
ilies is very high and shows the result of the educational work of 
the missions. Ten persons have studied abroad, while only 15 
percent of those who are over nine years of age are known to be 
unable to read. The maximum possible amount of illiteracy is 
33 percent; for males, 19 percent; and for females, 50 percent. 
723 persons (60 percent) are related to the church as inquirers, 
probationers or baptized members, a remarkably good record 
when it is remembered that the church has been in touch with 
some of these families but a short time. Of those who belong 
to the church 60 percent say they are attending service at least 
once a month, 50 percent are contributing regularly once a 
month, and 34 percent are attending Sunday School. Only 10 
percent of those who are related to the church are giving it any 
voluntary service. These are preaching, teaching or acting as an 
officer of the church. There is no social work that the people 
think of as church work and it is in this field that there seems to 
be the greatest need in the mission program if the church mem- 
bers are to be able to give expression to the desire for service 
that is developed by their Christian experience. 


Peking is an important center for the ancient religions of 
China — Confucianism, Buddhism, Lamaism, Taoism, and Mo- 
hanmiedanism — and is one of the principal centers of Roman 
Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Protestant missionary effort. 

Among Peking's 936 shrines and temples are some of the 
finest and best known in the country, particularly the Temple 
and Altar of Heaven, and the wonderful Temple of Confucius. 
Just how many adherents these old religions have it is impossible 
to say as a man can be a good Confucianist, Buddhist and Taoist 
2dl at the same time. Even so, they seem to be losing their hold 
on the people. 

Although Mohammedanism has been in China for a thousand 
jrears, the Mohammedan conununities have not been absorbed as 
have the Jews. They still have some twenty mosques in Peking 
and observe the distinctive customs of the faith of Islam. It is 
estimated that there are 25,000 Mohammedans in the city. 

The oldest Christian mission in Peking was founded in 1293 
by Giovanni Di Monte Corvino of the Jesuit Order of the Roman 
cSaithoHc Church. The Pei T'ang (North Cathedral), a beautiful 
stone building with a wonderfully fine compound, is the most 
striking of Peking's churches. This and the four other Catholic 


churches have a membership of 9,744. The Sisters of Charity, 
the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, and the Sisters of St. 
Joseph are in Peking working in churches, schools, orphanages, 
their Jenzeutang Orphanage being one of the best conducted 
philanthropic institutions in China, old people's homes, dispen- 
saries and hospitals. Some of the sisters are also nursing in one 
of the government hospitals. 

The Russian Orthodox Mission began work in Peking in 
1685, when a priest was brought captive from Albazin on the 
Amur River, and has been there ever since, as it did not share in 
the hatred of the court that drove out the Catholic missions 
between 1722 and 1735. The total number of converts in China 

is 5»587. 

Protestant missions have been in Peking only since 1861. 
Ten mission boards and 7 religious societies are now repre- 
sented in the city by 188 foreign men and women and 346 cm- 
ployed Chinese workers. The 22 churches and chapels of Peking 
have a membership of some five thousand. 

The Chinese have organized three independent churches with 
a membership of 783, and 120 on probation. 

The educational work of the missions and Chinese churches 
is being carried on in no schools of all grades with 7,644 stu- 

A tendency towards union is one of the outstanding features 
of the mission work in Peking. Not only are three or more 
missions working together in many of the educational institu- 
tions, Kindergarten Training School, Bible Teachers' Training 
School, Nurses' Training School, Normal School, Women's Col- 
lege, Men's University, Women's Medical College, Theological 
Seminary, Language School, but they have even joined in evan- 
gelistic work. The Peking Christian Student Work Union was 
organized in 1918 to direct the work of the various missions and 
churches for middle school and college students. The committee 
is made up of seventeen Chinese and foreign workers, repre- 
sentatives of five mission boards, the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the China Medical Board and the independent 
Chinese churches. The program of the committee includes social 
meetings, educational classes, lectures, religious discussion groups 
and Bible classes in twelve centers. 

The Peking branch of the "China-for-Christ" movement is the 
latest development in union effort. It is directed by a demo- 
cratically elected executive council of 15, but the final authority is 
in the hands of a representative committee of 100. The plans of 
the movement cover city-wide evangelization, religious education, 
social service, systematic giving. 



The Community Service Group of Police District Inside 
Left 2, consisting of 225 volunteer workers organized to develop 
a social program for a part of the police district, is a small but 
significant outgrowth of the survey, particularly of the intensive 
studies of the Teng Shih K'ou District and the membership of 
the Teng Shih K'ou Church. During the year 1919-20 the group 
developed work along several lines. Two free night schools, one 
for boys and one for girls, were taught by college men and 
women; two free (daygrounds, one for boys and one for girls, 
were conducted by leaders who were given special training by 
the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. physical directors. A public 
health campaign carried on by 80 volunteer lectures reached over 
8,000 people in two weeks; an industrial workshop for women 
and a poorhouse for men were run during the wmter; a com- 
munity newspaper, printed in the vernacular, was published every 
ten days. A start was made in the development of organized 
charity. But even more important than the actual work accom- 
plished was the interest taken by a great many of the volunteer 
workers in the problems of their community and city, and the 
community spirit that was engendered in the district. It was a 
small demonstration but it showed the value of the survey and 
confirmed our conviction that there are, in Peking and in China, 
a large number of people who are willing and even eager to unite 
on constructive social work once the facts are known and a 
definite program is. developed. 



The beginnings of Chinese history are hidden in the mists of 
four thousand years, and to accurately trace the story of any one 
locality through all that time is well-nigh impossible. Kingdoms 
have risen and fallen; dynasty has succeeded dynasty; cities have 
been built and destroyed, records have been lost and tradition 
forgotten until now no one can say how many villages or cities 
have occupied the site of the present city of Peking. The books 
and records that are still left, however, do tell of six different 
cities, whose walls have inclosed some of the land now within 
the walls of Peking, and these six, in their history, tell the story 
of what over three thousand years have brought to the place 
now occupied by China's capital. 

The first city that is mentioned as having been built on the 
site of the present Peking is the city of Ch'i. In 1121 B. C. it 
was given by the head of the newly founded Chou Dynasty to 
the descendants of the famous Emperor Yao, the first ruler of 
China. The exact location of this city of Ch'i cannot now be 
determined from the old records, but the Emperor Ch'ien Lung 
(1735-1765), from a study of the documents available in his day, 
satisfied himself that he had found the exact location of the 
ancient city, and on the earth wall five li ^ north of the present 
Peking he erected a white marble tablet on which he stated that 
that was the location of one of the gates of the ancient city of 
Ch'i. Practically nothing is known of this city except that it 
was the capital of the feudal state of Yen, the most northerly 
district under the control of the Chou Emperors. Yen acted as 
a buffer state against the nomad tartar tribes of the north and is 
particularly spoken of in the records of 539 B. C. as possessing 
a great number of horses. But the records also say that the 
state never was strong even though it had many horses. 

In 221 B. C. Prince Chung, a ruler of a state on the western 
frontier, marched east, attacked the "Seven States" or small 
countries into which China had divided at the end of the Chou 
ID)ntiasty in 249 B. C, brought an end to the feudal war and 
anarchy, secured control of a united China and established him- 
self as the first Emperor of the Chin Dynasty. During his reign 

> Five li = 1.78 milet. 



the scattered fortifications of the north were united into the Great 
Wall of China. But though military monuments grew, Prince 
Chung, or Emperor Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, as he was later called, 
made every effort to remove all literary monuments of the past. 
He ordered all books and records to be destroyed so that Chinese 
history might start from the beginning of his reign. It is only 
because some of the old scholars hid their books and suffered 
punishment for their acts that many of the classics and records 
of old China are preserved. Ch'in Shih Huang Ti captured, 
pillaged and completely destroyed the city of Ch'i and made the 
state of Yen one of the thirty districts of his new Empire. 

History does not again mention any particular city on the 
site of Peking until 70 A. D., when under the Han Dynasty the 
city of Ch'i was rebuilt. The new city at first was also called the 
City of Yen, in memory of the former kingdom, but later was 
given the name of Yu Chou. Yu Chou is definitely located by 
existing records, for it is stated that the present Hsi An Men or 
West Gate of the Imperial City is five li northwest of the city of 
Yu Chou and that the temple Min Chung Ssu, now called Ta 
Yuan Ssu, was built in the southeast comer of Yu Chou in 645 
A. D. during the T'ang D3masty. 

When the Han Djmasty ended in 221 A. D., Yu Chou was 
handed about from kmgdom to kingdom and was for some 200 
years under the control of the tartars. The city survived this 
"Period of Darkness," however, and when China was once more 
united under the Sui and T'ang Dynasties, Yu Chou served as 
the residence of a military governor. 

Yu Chou again came under the control of the barbarians 
when, during the first half of the Tenth Century, a Chinese 
Emperor ceded sixteen districts to the Khitans in gratitude for 
their help in placing him upon the throne. Later, under the Sung 
Emperors, the Chinese attempted to regain these lost districts 
but were only partially successful. Their armies came as far as 
the Kao Liang River, which is now the canal from the new Sum- 
mer Palace to the moat around the walls of Peking, but failed in 
their attempt to capture the city. The Chinese were badly de- 
feated and the Sung Emperor was forced to flee for his life. 
Later attempts to regain this territory were even less successful 
and soon the army of the Khitans invaded the territory of the 
Sungs and forced them to pay tribute to the emperors of the 

The city of Yu Chou was made one of the capitals of the 
Liao (Iron) Dynasty established by the Khitans, and in 937 
A. D. was given the name of Nan Ching or South Capital. It 
was also known by the name of Hsi Chin Fu. Unsatisfied with 
the old city of Yu Chou the Khitans destroyed it in 986 A. D., 


and built a larger and more beautiful city for their capital This 
was located west and south of the old city of Yu Chou. The 
new walls were thirty-six li (thirteen miles) in length and thirty 
feet high, with two gates on each side; three lines of canals 
surrounded the city; the Emperor's Palace was located in the 
southwest comer of the city ; and there were 910 buildings inside 
the walls that were forty feet or more in height. Even to-^y 
remains of the old walls can still be seen near the temple of Pb 
Yun Kuan, while the Liu Li Ch'ang of the present Pekingused 
to be a suburb called Hai Huang Ts'un on the east of Nan CUngy 
or Yen Ching, as the city was called after 1013 A. D. 

The Liao or Iron Dynasty was called upon to defend itself 
in 1 1 14 when Akuta, a chief of a northern tribe of Manchuria, 
established the Chin or Gold Empire. The Iron went down to 
defeat before the Gold, and their capital. Yen Ching, was cap- 
tured by Akuta in 1122. Being occupied with incursions into l£e 
territory of the Sung Emperors to the south, Akuta found Yen 
Ching well fitted to be the capital city of his empire and made 
his home there. He did not destroy the old Liao city of Yen 
Ching, but added to it on the east a city that was nearly as large 
as the old one. Fan Ta Chung in his book, Lao P'ei Lu, says 
that in the building of the new city 800,000 coolies and 400,000 
soldiers were employed and that many of them died because of 
the strenuous work. The palace of the new capital was decorated 
with gold and magnificent colors. One beam is said to have cost 
the Emperor $20,000. The Emperor's carriage was so large and 
heavy that it required five hundred men to draw it. Not only 
was the city itself beautified and made suitable for the residence 
of an emperor, but to the north of the walls a large summer 
palace and gardens were laid out on what is now the site of 
Central Park and the President's Palace. Chung Tu or Middle 
Capital was the name given to this new city, to distinguish it 
from the other Chin capitals, which were Shan Ching on the 
north and Pien Ching or the modern K'ai Feng Fu on the soutili. 

The wealth and luxury of the capital of the Golden Empire 
attracted the eyes of the Mongolian tribes of the north, and 
Jenghiz Khan, though at first bought off with presents and 
tribute, laid siege to Chung Tu in 12 15, captured the east and 
west cities, looted the palaces and treasury, and set them on fire. 
The buildings burned for over a month. Chung Tu was made 
the capital of a new Mongolian province by Jenghiz Khan, who 
then turned to his invasion of central Asia and Russia. Kubkd 
Khan, the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, completed the destruction 
of the Chin Empire and established the Yuan Dynasty. 

Chung Tu having been destroyed, the Khans built for them- 
selves a new capital larger and more glorious than anything ever 

Figure I : Peking under Different Dynasties 

On or Ch'i. 

Foonded iiai B.C Destroyed 
221 B.C 

Cwhal of Kingdom of Yen 
(72$-aai B.C.) under Chon 
DynuW (II22-3SS B.C.). 

Oty ot Vu Chou. 

Foonded 70 A.D. by Han Dy- 
nasty <ao6 B.C.-221 A.D.) 
and called Yen. 

Called Yu Chou under T'ang 
Dynasty (fii&go?). 

Deatr^ed by Liao Dynasty glB6. 

BniItgB6. FirstnaniedNanCbinff. 

Called Yen Ctaing after 1013. 

" ' i b7 AkaU iiaa. 

Chim Capital. 
Founded 1151. Named OiungTu. 
Captured by Jenghiz Khan 1215. 
Yuan Cafttau 
Made the Yuan Capiul by Ku- 

blai Khan in 1264 and named 

Called Ta Tu by the Chinese. 
Captured by Mings 1368L 
Present Day Peking (1919). 
Founded by Ming Emperor 

Hung Wu {1368-1399)- 
Walls covered with bricks 1435. 
Chinese City built 1564. 
Captured by Ch'ings 1044. 


seen before in that district. The new city was located to the 
north of Chung Tu. Its east and west walls were built on the 
site of the walls of the present city, while the north wall was 5 li 
(i^ miles) and the south wall i li (l^ mile) north of the location 
of the corresponding walls of the North City of the present 
Peking. To this new walled city the Mongols gave the name 
Khanbalig, or the city of the Great Khan. The Chinese called it 
Ta Tu or Great Capital. 

Three events stand out among those of the reign of the Great 
Khan. The first was the visit of the Venetian traveler, Marco 
Polo, who has given in the story of his adventures in China 
such a wonderful description of the court and capital of the 
Khans. The second was the coming in 1293 of the Catholic 
missionary, Giovanni Di Monte Corvmo, who brought with him 
letters of introduction from the Pope to the Great Khan. He was 
received by the court, permitted to build a church in the capital 
and met with such success that he was made Archbishop of 
Khanbalig in 1307. The third was the extension of the Grand 
Canal to Peking, thus giving the city for the first time water 
connection with the rest of the Empire. 

The rule of the foreigner, the decadence of the court and the 
corruption of the Government constantly irritated the native 
Chinese, but they could not gather sufficient strength to success- 
fully rebel until 1368. Then Chu Yuan Chang led his forces 
north from the Yangtze, captured Ta Tu and drove the Mongols 
from the country. Successful in his attempt to gain control of 
China, Chu established the Ming Dynasty and took for himself 
the title of Huan Wo. Under his rule Peking for a time was 
made the capital of one of the provinces of the Empire and the 
city was given the name of Pei Ping Fu (City of the North 
Place). The capital city of the Khans was larger than could be 
well occupied by the military garrison of the Kingdom of Yen, 
so the north and south walls were moved, the north wall five li 
and the south wall one li to the south, and the walls were built 
as they are now found in the North City of Peking. The first 
two Ming Emperors made Nanking or Nan Ching (Southern 
Capital) their residence ; but Yung Lo, the third Ming Emperor, 
moved his court to the north in 142 1, changed the name of Pei 
Ping Fu to Pei Ching (North Capital) and made it once more 
the capital city of the Empire. 

Under the Ming Emperors an extensive building program was 
carried on; the Wu Ta Ssu or Five-Tower Pagoda, the Temple 
of Heaven, the great Bell Temple, all date from this period. In 
1435 the earth walls of the capital were faced with brick and 
finished as we now find them, ^i feet high, 60 feet thick at the 
base and 50 feet across at the top. In 1524 Lou Pei Yuan, the 


Minister of the Emperor Chia Ching, built the South City. 
To make room for it, the walls of the old city of Yen Ching 
(986-1215), which had stood even after the city had been aban- 
doned, had to be taken down. In 1564 the South City was inclosed 
with walls and Peking was given its present form. 

In 1644 the Ming Dynasty came to an end. A rebel, Li Tzu 
Ch'eng, secured possession of Peking, through the treachery of 
a eunuch who opened to him the gates of the city, but his control 
of the city was short. The Manchus came in from the north 
and forced him to retreat into Shansi, but before leaving he 
looted the city, carried off everything of value in the Ming palaces 
and fired the buildings. 

When the Manchus came into Peking they rebuilt the palaces 
and made the city their capital. They set aside the inner or 
Forbidden City for the exclusive use of the Emperor and his 
court. The Imperial family had their homes in the district just 
outside the Forbidden City and in the part of Peking now known 
as The Imperial City. The rest of the North City was reserved 
for the Manchu Bannermen, while the South City was designated 
as the place of residence for the subject Chinese. 

In i860 the influence of Europeans was brought into Peking 
to compHcate the relations of the various peoples in the capital! 
British and French troops came to punish China for her dis- 
regard of treaty obligations, and Peking was besieged. In order 
to force the city to surrender, the foreign forces destroyed the 
Yuan Ming Yuan, or old Summer Palace, and the Hunting 
Park. Fearing a similar fate, the city capitulated and turned 
over to the attacking forces the An Ting Men or Northeast Gate. 
By the treaty of peace, foreign countries were given the right 
to have their diplomatic ministers live in Peking and the Legation 
Quarter was set aside as their place of residence. Foreign 
missionaries for the first time in modern times were given 
permission to live in the capital. Thus foreign ways and thought 
began to influence the very center of Chinese official life. 

In 1900 China made a last violent effort to throw off all 
relations with the outside world. The Empress Dowager sent 
out a decree that all foreigners in the country should be killed, 
and bands of Boxers roamed the country seeking the for- 
eigners and those who had adopted any of their hated ways. 
Many of the missionaries and native Christians were killed and 
more would have suffered had not one of the officials had the 
bravery to alter the Imperial decree so that it read, when first 
sent out, "protect the foreigners" instead of "destroy the for- 
eigners.'' The delay thus given made it possible for many to 
escajpe. The official was sawn asunder. 

In Peking the Boxers took possession of the city and for 


eight weeks (June 13-August 16) besieged a group of foreigners 
and Chinese shut up m the Legation Quarter and in the compound 
of the Catholic Cathedral. Lack of unanimity on the part of 
the Chinese prevented an overwhelming assault by the besiegers 
and made it possible for the small forces of the foreigners to 
hold out until relief could be brought by armed forces that had 
to fight their way from Tientsin to Peking. When the foreign 
armies captured the city the Empress Dowager fled, leaving one 
of the princes to meet, as best he migEt^ the hard demands of the 

In 191 1 the Chinese revolted against the rule of the Manchus 
and succeeded in deposing the Emperor. Then, instead of estab- 
lishing another Chinese Dynasty, they set up the Republic of 
China, in which Chinese, Manchus, Mongolians, Tibetans and 
Mohammedans might all share on an equal footing. Sun Yat 
Sen was elected Provisional President of the Republic and an 
elected and representative Parliament met in Peking. Yuan 
Shih K'ai, a former adviser of the Emperor, was elected as the 
first President of the new Republic. In 191 5 he dissolved the 

Erovisional Parliament and attempted to make himself Emperor, 
ut the entire country flamed into revolt and he had to relinquish 
the crown. 

In 1917 Chang Hsun, a general of the old Empire, made an 
attempt to restore the ex-Emperor Hsuan T'ung, who had been 
living quietly in the Forbidden City since the revolution in 1912, 
but the coup d'etat was a complete failure. Chang Hsun received 
no assistance from the Republican troops and twenty-four hours 
of street fighting and one or two bombs from an aeroplane con- 
vinced him that the country did not desire the return of the 

Revolution and gradual change have altered tremendously 
the political aspect of Peking in the past few years, but the 
material conditions have changed perhaps even more, though the 
change has been slow and gradual. Instead of a city that would 
well pass as the ancient capital of an old Empire, Peking is 
rapidly adopting modem ways. Electric lights and running 
water, paved streets and sewer systems, railway trains, auto- 
mobiles and even aeroplanes can be found in the city, and Peking 
is more and more the capital dty of a present day Republic. 


Peking, and the cities that have w-eceded it, Khanbalig, 
CThung Tu, Yen Ching, Yu Chou and Ch'i, have all been built 
in latitude 39'' 54' N., longitude 116** 28' E. This is the same 
parallel as San Francisco and Philadelphia, a little south of 
Madrid and Naples and just half way around the world from 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Peking is situated in almost the exact center of the Province 
of Chihli, the most northeasterly of the 18 provinces of China 
proper. To the south and east of the city stretches a flat, level, 
coastal plain, built up by the Pai Ho (White River) and the 
Huang Ho (Yellow River), the two chief rivers of North China. 
This plain is so level that, in the 91 miles from the coast of the 
Bay of Chihli to Peking, it rises only 122.3 ^^et, and the summer 
floods of 1917 covered parts of 103 of the 120 hsien (counties) 
of the province, but its loose, easily worked, water laid soil 
makes possible the crops that feed the twenty millions of people 
living m the province. To the north and west of the city, the 
land rises rapidly, so that within 15 miles on the west and 25 
miles on the north are hills 2,600 feet high, while 35 miles to the 
northwest is the Great Wall of China, built on the top of moun- 
tains over 4,000 feet high. 

This combination of hills and plains gives Peking a climate 
that, although it has extremes of temperature, is healthful be- 
cause of its dryness and large amount of sunshine. The Mon- 
golian Rateau to the northwest acts as a reservoir of cold that 
starts the wind blowing from the north and northwest in winter 
and from the south and southwest in summer. The direction of 
the wind changes with such regularity that the Chinese have a 
saying that the wind follows the season ; that it blows from the 
north in winter, from the east in the spring, from the south in 
the summer and from the west in the fall. 

Inasmuch as the winter winds come almost constantly frwn 
the plains to the north and northwest, Peking has little or no 
precipitation during the months of cool weather. Day after day 
is clear and bright; and, although the thermometer sometimes 
registers o** F. and there are two months of steady freezin^^ 
weather during the winter, the warmth of the sun makes it 



possible for the population, many of whom are lacking in clothing 
and fuel, to endure the cold that would otherwise be fatal. 

The winds that come from the ocean in summer time bring 
with them large amounts of moisture, and durinc; the months 
of June, July and August rain falls on more than half the days. 
This moisture, combined with the heat, the thermometer some- 
times reaching 104** F., makes the summer climate of Peking 
moist and uncomfortable. The foreigners all have to be careful 
to protect themselves from the sun, but there is but little sun- 
stroke or heat prostration among the Chinese. 

Peking is supposed to be the dryest place in Chihli Province, 
for tradition says that, before building the first city that occupied 
the site of Peking, the ruler of the country had the astrologers 
discover the dryest point in the Province, so that he might build 
his capital there. The average rainfall for the city is approxi- 
mately 20 inches, though for the year 1918-19 the precipitation 
was only 15.52 inches. Twelve and forty-two hundredths inches 
of this fell on 49 days during the months of June, July and 
August, and during the year there was some rain or snow on 92 
days. February was the only month of the year during which 
there was no precipitation. 

The dryness of the winter, the constant winds and loose, light 
soil combine to give Peking its world famous dust storms. Local 
storms come often, but seldom last more than part of a day. A 
strong wind picks up the soil of the surrounding country or the 
dust of the city streets and whirls it toward the southeast comer 
of the city. Even though these storms are short, they manage 
to cover everything with a layer of grayish-black dust, and make 
traveling on the streets most uncomfortable. Big storms, some- 
times lasting three days, bring with them, not the black and 
grayish dust of Peking, but a yellow dust from the north and 
northwest. The sky turns yellow, the sun is lost in the haze, 
and everything in the city is covered with a thick layer of fine 
yellow dust. Travel on the streets is anything but pleasant, and 
sometimes is almost impossible, the air is so filled. Layer after 
layer of dust laid over the city gives it a grayish color and rapidly 
dulls and deadens the brilliant colors of the palaces and temples. 

While the diflference between maximum and minimum tem- 
peratures is over 100** F., the average temperature for the entire 
year is 53** F., the average for the different months ranging from 
18.9** F. for January to 78** F. for July. The average £ily range 
of temperature is 20** F. ; January has an average daily dif- 
ference between maximum and minimum of 15.5^ F., and 
October 24.5**. Q)mplete Meteorological Tables are given in the 

Peking is one of the few capitals of the world that is not 


Fignre 2: Province of Chihli 

tocated on a river of considerable size. A small stream, the 
Hu Cheng Ho, does flow through the moat around the dty 
walls, but it has been brought to Peking by artificial means. 
The nearest river of any size is the Hun Ho, nine miles to the 
southeast, while the nearest navigable stream is the Pai Ho or 
White River, fifteen miles to the east. 

Peking had no water communication with the rest of China 
until the reign of Kublai Khan. In 1280-1283, he extended the 
Grand Canal from the Yellow River to Tientsin, and connected 
it with Peking t^ means of the Pai Ho and a small canal that 
extends the fifteen miles from Peking to the river. In this way, 
it was possible for the tribute rice from the provinces to be 
shipped to Pekine by boat, while goods from the capital could 
go 900 miles soum to the southern terminus of the Grand Canal 


at Hangchow in Chekiang Province, or, as the canal crosses the 
Yangtze River, to any point on the 2,000 navigable miles of that 

During the thousand years that Peking has been the capital 
of China, roads have been built connecting it with the rest of 
the country. Now, thirteen National highways radiate from it 
to the chief cities of the provinces. The longest of these roads 
stretches 3,439 miles west to Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan. 
Others lead to Lhasa, Yunnanfu, Canton, Foochow, Hangchow, 
Hankow. Throughout North China, where horses and camels 
are used for transportation, the roads are traveled by pack trains 
and narrow-tired, two-wheeled springless carts. Travel is far 
from comfortable as little or no effort has been made to improve 
or even keep the roads in repair, and the carts are not built so 
that they ease any of the bumps. The saying is that the Chinese 
could not make a good road so they made an indestructible cart. 
Throughout South China, particularly in the districts where 
water transportation is available, the roads are little more than 
footpaths winding in and out among the rice fields; carts and 
wheeled vehicles are not used for transportation, and everything 
is carried by water or on the shoulders of men. Consequently, 
the narrow roads, many of them stone paved, are able to care for 
all the traffic, yet take practically none of the land of the rice 

As modem railroad communication has developed, Peking 
has maintained her place as the center of transportation. Most 
of China's 6,000 miles of railroad are connected with the capital, 
either directly or by river ferry. Peking is the terminus of the 
Peking-Mukden Railroad, 606 miles in length, the Peking- 
Suiyuan Railroad of 289 miles and the Peking-Hankow Line of 
817 miles. The Tientsin-Pukow Railroad, 289 miles in length, 
runs its trains into Peking over the 84 miles of the Peking- 
Mukden line between Tientsin and Peking, and so gives direct 
express service between Shanghai and Peking, except for the 
break at the Yangtze River. 

When the railroads were first built, it was impossible, because 
of the superstitions of the people and the feelings of the Manchu 
Court, to bring the railroads into Peking, and the terminus was 
first established four miles outside of the city. However, there 
has been such a big change in recent years that now two of the 
lines have their terminal stations inside of the walls of the South 
City, and just outside the Ch'ien Men (Main Gate) of the North 
City, while the third, the terminus of the Peking-Suiyuan Line, 
is just outside Hsi Chih Men, the Northwest Gate of the North 
City. The three stations are connected by means of a track 
that runs around the wall of the North City. These railroads, 


with their express trains carrying dining cars, first and second 
class sleepers, as well as the regular first, second and third class 
coaches, make travel throughout the country easy, comfortable 
and comparatively cheap, bring Peking into close touch with 
other parts of the country, and also bring a large amount of 
business to a city that is otherwise almost entirely non-productive 
and official. 

Telegraph and telephone lines put Peking in still closer con- 
nection with the country. Telegraph lines reach out to all of 
the provincial capitals, and long-distance telephone lines are 
gradually being installed. At present, Peking to Tientsin is about 
the limit for long-distance conversation. Chinese messages are 
sent over the telegraph wires as a series of numbers. So many 
of the characters have the same sound and tone that it has been 
impossible to develop a phonetic alphabet that will g^ve the accu- 
rate meaning of the words transmitted. Consequently, the vari- 
ous Chinese characters have been given numbers, written mes- 
sages are translated from characters to numbers, the numbers 
are sent over the wire and then the message is re-translated 
from numbers to characters by the receiving office. Messages 
in English can be sent to any of the telegraph stations through- 
out the country. For such messages, the rates are 9 cents a 
word inside the province and 18 cents a word outside the province. 
In Peking, these charges are payable in the bank notes of the Bank 
of China and the Bank of Communications, whose value in silver 
varies from 50 to 65 cents. 

Peking was a worthy home for the Emperors of the Ancient 
"Middle Kingdom," for he who planned the city laid out one of 
the most imperial of all the capitals of the world. In the very 
center of the city, facing due south, the cardinal point of the 
Chinese compass, stands uie T'ai Ho Tien or throne room of tiie 
Dragon Emperor. With its high curving roof and brilliant 
oriental coloring of yellow tile, red walls and columns, and blue 
and green decorations in the shadow of the eaves, it stands as 
the heart and center of old China. 

Around this throne room are the courts and palaces of the 
Emperor's family and the officers of the court, all with the 
imperial yellow tiled roofs, but of a lesser glory than that of the 
throne room. Surrounding these buildings are a high wall and a 
moat that have isolated the Emperor from the life of the city. 
This part of Peking is known to the foreigners as the Forbidden 
City, as for many years no foreigners were allowed to enter its 
gates, and only the most specially privileged of the Chinese. 
It was within the walls of this city that the official ceremonies, 
connected with the raising of the siege of Peking, were held 
in 1900, and it was there that the official celebration of the sign- 


itig of the Armistice was held in 1919. The first was the mark 
of the passing of ancient China, the second the rejoidi^ of the 
new RepubUcan China over the downfall of militarism and 

Surrounding and protecting the home of the Emperor, is 
another walled city. It cannot compare in splendor or b^uty 
with the Forbidden City, but it, too, has its palaces, pavilions, 
yellow and green tiled temples, besides government offices and 
military supply buildings. As it was the home of many princes 
and others of the royal family, it is generally known as the 
Imperial City. 

Outside of these two cities, some distance from them and 
entirelv inclosing them, is a third wall much larger and stronger 
than those of the Forbidden and Imperial Cities. It is designed 
to give the entire city protection against any invading forces. 
The land inclosed by this wall, outside of the Imperial City, 
was set aside for the exclusive use of the Manchu Bannermen 
when the invading Manchu tribes captured Peking in 1644 and 
put their Emperor on the throne as the founder of the Ch'ing 
Dynasty. The conquered Chinese were all required to move out- 
side of the waU. This exclusion of the Chinese was not long 
continued, but, even so, this part of Peking is now known by 
many as the Tartar City. 

When the Chinese were forced to leave the Tartar City, 
they went to still another walled district just south of the other 
three cities. The northern wall of this district is the southern 
wall of the Tartar City. Here, in this South City, the 
Chinese established their business and made their living by trade. 
The Manchus of the Tartar or North City, being soldiers and 
retainers of the Emperor, lived on the bounty of the Government 
and were forbidden to engage in business. Even now, most of 
the business of Peking is concentrated in the South City. As it 
was^ for a time the exclusive home of the Chinese, this part of 
Peking is sometimes also known as the Chinese City. The 
Chinese know the Tartar City as Nei Ch'eng or the District 
Within the Walls, while the Chinese City is called by them 
Wai Ch'eng or the District Outside the WaUs, a reminder of the 
days before the South City was surrounded by a wall. 

The Inner or Forbidden City occupies an area of 5 square li * 
or .64 square miles. It is surrounded by a crenolated wall 2}i 
miles in length, 22 feet high and 30 feet thick. The faces of this 
wall are covered with a plaster in which a violet colored mortar 
is used. This color gives this dty its Chinese name, Tzu Chin 
Ch'eng or Purple Forbidden City. The moat surrounding this 
dty is 200 feet wide. 

'One tqnare 11 = 3,556,966 tqiiare feet, 0.1276 ■quare inile& 

Figure 3 

The Imperial City, built by the Mii^ Emperors in 1406 to 
I437< occupies an area of 15.1 square U (i-93 square miles). 
The wall surrounding it is 18 li' (644 miles) m length, is 6J6 
feet throu^ at the base, 5 feet across at the top and t8 feet high. 
This was originally pierced by only four gates, but lately addi- 
tiooal gates have been opened so that traffic can move with 
greater ease and long detours can be avoided. The faces of the 
wsJl are covered wiUi a red plaster. The Chinese name of thb 
dty is Huang Ch'eng. 

The Tartar, or the outermost of the three cities, has an area 


of 91.6 square li (11.68 square miles). Its wall, specially 
designed for protection, is 62 feet thick at the base, 50 feet wide 
at the top, 41 feet high and 41.26 li (14.73 miles) in length. 
Buttresses 65 feet wide and 650 feet apart have been built on the 
outside of the wall, as additional protection. The wall is pierced 
by nine gates, two on the north, two on the east, two on the west 
and three on the south. These last lead into the South or 
Chinese City. Each one of the gates was formerly protected by 
a semi-circular encient or curtain wall pierced by an outer 
gate, but modem progress and the railroad around the city have 
made it necessary to cut through some of these curtain walls. 
Over the main gates and the outer gates and at the comers of 
the city, large four story gate-houses have been built. They were 
formerly used as quarters for troops, for the storage of grain 
and as points of vantage for those firing at attacking forces, but 
now are unused and are falling to pieces. Several of them still 
show the effects of the guns used in the attack of 1900. These 
houses are all 49 feet high. The combined height of the wall 
and gate-house never reaches 100 feet, for the Chinese believe 
that the Good Spirits fly at an elevation of 100 feet and must 
not be disturbed by any buildings of that height. 

The South City was first built in the 23rd year of the Ming 
Emperor, Ch'ia Ch'ing (1545). It was started as a suburb 
outside the walls of the North City, but grew so rapidly that 
walls were built around it in 1564. These are 20 feet thick at the 
base, 14 feet across at the top, 25 feet high and 14.02 miles long, 
including 4.15 miles of the south wall of the North City. They 
are pierced by ten gates, three on the south, one on the east, 
one on the west and five on the north. Three of these five are 
the gates in the south wall of the North City. The other two 
open to the north just east and west of the outer walls of the 
North City. The area inclosed is 82.3 square li or 10.5 square 

Peking has never been made a treaty port and no countries 
have been given concessions there, but by the Peking Convention 
of i860 the foreign nations were given the right to send their 
official representatives to Peking and a special district known by 
the Chinese as Tung Chiao Mm Hsiang, was set aside for the 
residence of these ministers and diplomats. This Legation 
Quarter is just north of the south wall of the Tartar City and 
extends from the Ch'ien Men or Center Gate of that wall east 
almost to the Hatamen (East Gate), a distance of about a mile. 
From north to south, the Quarter is approximately half a mile 
wide, its total area being 041 square miles. 

^ Within this Legation Quarter, eleven of the foreign coun- 
tries represented in Peking have built residences and offices for 


their ministers and barracks for their legation guards. These 
nations are: 

Austria Great Britain Russia 

Belgium Italy Spain 

France Japan The United States 

Germany The Netherlands of America 

Other foreign nations are represented in Peking, but they either 
maintain a rented legation, some of which are outside the Lega- 
tion Quarter, or their representatives have their headquarters in 
one of the hotels of the city. Within the Legation Quarter 
are also found the foreign banks and many of the foreign busi- 
ness houses. 

It was in the Legation Quarter that most of the foreigners 
and many of the Chinese Christians sought refuge during the 
Boxer uprising of 1900. There they were besieged from June 
20th to August 14th, when they were relieved by the foreign 
expeditionary force that had fought its way up from Tientsin. 

In order that a place of refuge may be available for the for- 
eigners, in case of any future disturbance in Peking, the Legation 
Quarter has been surrounded on three sides by a strong loop- 
holed wall, the fourth side being protected by the high south 
wall of the Tartar City. Where roadways go through the walls, 
steel gates have been built so that all entrances may be closed 
in time of trouble. Just outside the loop-holed wall is a dry 
moat, and beyond that a wide open space or glacis is main- 
tained as additional protection. In order that the Legation 
Quarter might not be fired on again from the 50-foot wall of 
the North City, as it was during the siege of 1900, the foreign 
nations have demanded and been given control of the wall where 
it adjoins the Legation Quarter. Men from the Legation Guards 
are now constantly on watch on top of the wall. 

The administration of the Legation Quarter is entirely in 
the hands of the diplomatic corps, who pass their own regulations 
and maintain their own force of Chinese police. 

For the purpose of police administration, Peking has been 
divided into 20 districts. The Central districts are in the Imperial 
City, but do not include the Forbidden City, which is special 
government property, not open to the general public and not 
part of the area under the direct supervision of the oolice. The 
Inside districts are in the North City and the Outside dis- 
tricts in the South City. The Left districts are on the east 
and the Right districts on the west side of the city. South is 
the cardinal point of the Chinese compass, so right and left hand 
directions are given with reference to a person facing in that 
direction rather than north, as is customary in western countries. 



Sq. 11} 5«L Jflkt 

Cestral i im l4^ 

« S7 I5J -C 

I 14^ iJHj^ 

4 m;7 

I &9 I-I3 

3 103 L31 

4 L2L7 9l6 uSi iiA 

3 SI iSS 

4 IS4 \JSff 

5 M ^ 
I sB J0 

- - a 4^ « 

" • 3 7^9 u» 

4 iSS M)B 

• • 5 194 &3 a-4S 1055 

5«. U Sq. MOis 

Forbidden Gty 5i> ii4 

Ccntial DittTicts (Imperial Gty) 15J i^ 

Inride Dotricts (Tartar Cjtj) gi£ iij6B 

Total North Gty iii^ 14^ 

Ontside Dotricts (Sondi Qtj) &3 1050 



E=a»ssMii it«R tet. 

The entire area of the North Gty is 111.7 sqcare fi (14^5 
square miles), that of the Soatfi Gty 82.3 square U (10.5 square 
mOcs), so that the total area inside the w^ of Peking is 194 
square li or 24.75 square miles. 

Arotmd the four walls of the North Gty and outside the 
walls of the South City, flows a moat some 75 fc9t wide, filled 
with water brought from the Jade Fountain, a spring six miles 
northwest of Peking. In former davs it was the first line of 
defense for the capital, and in case of siege insured a supply of 
water for those living inside the walls. Now it serves as part 
of the dnunage system of the dt}r and also sui>plies the canal that 
gives Pddng water connectioo witfi T'tmg Hsaen and odier parts 
of China. 

As Peking is located on the coastal {Jain, there is but little 
d iffe rence in elevation between the various parts of the city* 


What slope there is, runs irom northwest to southeast, the north- 
west comer of the North City being 45 feet higher than the land 
inside the southeast comer of the South City. 

There is but one outstanding hill inside the walls and it is 
artifidaL It lies just north of the back wall of the Forbidden 
City and is known b^ the Chinese as Ching Shan (Prospect Hill) 
or Met Shan (Coal Hill). One tradition has it that this hiU 
was built by the Mongol emperors when they were storing a large 
supply of coal for use in case of siege, while another says that 
the hill was built entirely with the silt dug from the beds of the 
artificial lakes that are inside the city walls. This hill is one of 
the beauty spots of the city as it has long been part of the 
Imperial Garden. It is 150 feet high and gives a commanding 
view of the entire city, particularly of the yellow-roofed palaces 
of the Forbidden City lying just to the south. There can now 
be seen the palace occupied by the deposed Manchu Emperor 
Hsuan T'ung and his mother, the Dowager Empress. For this 
reason, but few people are allowed to visit the hill and the park 
surrounding it. Coal Hill was particularly connected with the 
history of the Ming Dynasty, as it was there that the last of the 
Ming emperors committed suicide when the gates of the city 
were treacherously opened to the invading rebels. 

Running water has had to be brought to Peking by artificial 
aieans, as the citv is not located on any natural stream. The 
waters of the Cn'ing Ming Yuan or Jade Fountain, 6 miles 
northwest, first flow through the lake of the Emperor's Summer 
Palace and then are brought by canal to the city. There they 
fill the moat outside the walls, and coming under the walls 
through watergates supply a series of artificial lakes, the moat 
around the Forbidden City, a canal in the West City, one inside 
the wall of the Imperial City and the moat outside the south 
wall of the NcMth City. 

The seven artificial lakes are a striking part of the Peking 
landscape, lying as they do in a chain, from the north wall of the 
Tartar City to the south wall of the Imperial City. The southern 
three, extending from the north to the south wall of the Imperial 
City, are called the San Hai or Three Seas, by the Chmese, 
and are individuallv known as Pei Hai (North Sea), Chung Hai 
(Middle Sea), and Nan Hai (South Sea). Around these three 
lakes have been built imperial palaces, gardens and temples, 
known by some as the Winter Palace, or more correctly as the 
Sea Palace. The buildings around the South and Central Sea are 
now occupied by the President of China and his suite, while the 
North Sea and surrounding grounds are kept as a park open 
to the Chinese only on special occasions and to foreigners only 
after they have secured a pass from their legation. 


As Peking was the home of the Emperor, the main tiiorough- 
fares of the city were laid out so that they would be suitable for 
an imperial progress. These roadways are all lOO feet wide, 
and are in reality three roads side by side. The road in the 
center is reserved for special traffic, while the heavy carts moving 
the business of the city are required to go on the side roads. In 
the olden days nothing was done to pave any of the roads, and 
the center one was in better condition simply because it had less 
use. Even the roads used by the Emperor were full of ruts, 
bumps and dust. Some travelers tell of roads in Peking that 
used to have from i8 to 36 inches of dust on them in winter 
and that, in summer, during the rainy season, were impassable 
lakes in which horses and mules were sometimes drowned. 
Nothing was done to change this condition until after the Boxer 
uprisinc^ in 1900. Since that time, the center roads of all the 
main moroughfares have been surfaced with a good heavy 
macadam pavement, but nothing has been done toward paving 
the side roads, even though some of the less frequented streets 
of the city are being graded and paved. All cart traffic is 
required to keep to the side roads, and as the Peking carts all 
have narrow tired wheels it is practically impossible to put in any 
paving that they would not quickly cut to pieces. It is also 
impossible to require the carts to use broad tired wheels, as then 
they would be useless on the unpaved roads outside of the city, 
especially in the rainy season. The narrow tired wheels qut 
through the mud and do not become clogged with it as do tfie 
wheels with broad tires. So even now in Peking the carts wallow 
through the mud during the rainy season and raise a cloud of 
dust when the roads are dry. 

As the North City was the home of the Emperor and the 
court, a great majority of the loo-foot roads have been built in 
that part of Peking. AH nine of the gates of the North Qty have 
these wide highways running to them and there are four roads 
running across the city from north to south and four from east 
to west In the South City there are only two main highways. 
One connects the center gates in the north and south walls, while 
the other joins the center gates in the east and west walls. The 
North City has a total of 29 miles of the lOO-foot roads, while 
the South City has but 8.25 miles. 

In the olden days the opportunity for trade with those that 
traveled along the highways was so great that many shopkeepers 
used to encroach upon the roads and egtablish small temporary 
shops on the line dividing the central road from the two side 
roads. This was overlooked by the officials, for a consideration, 
the understanding being that any time the Emperor went out all 
the shops had to be removed. Consequently, word was sent out 

For Comilry Ti 

U; 17,aU0 ncksbai. The 

Wcwern MilLi railriu 
wwf, four nilroid* 
Ika NM of Chins. 

t bnipcb oC the 

Grand Ci 



before the Emperor did any traveling in the city, the merchants 
f c n iovcd didr ^ps and their goods, and the Emperor never knew 
but what the roads were always unobstructed. Now, a well-built 
gutter, which drains the high crowned macadam pavement, 
dtvkles the center from the side roads, and the police allow no 
one to encroach upon the public highway. 

These highways and the smaller roads or Hut'ungs are 
used fay a tremendous stream of traffic. The police report that 
in Maichy 191 9> there were 519 automobiles, 2,222 carriages, 
4,198 carts and 17J&IS rickshas in the city. By December, 1919, 
the munber of automobiles had risen to 645, even though gaso- 
fine was 80 cents a gallon. Mule litters or palanquins are seen 
on the streets only occasionally as they are used almost exclu- 
sively for country travel, and come into the city but seldom. 
Chairs are seen only in wedding or funeral processions. Electric 
cars are running in Peking according to several of the books on 
Chinay but as yet none can be found in the city. The concession 
to build the electric lines has been given to the French, but the 
war has prevented them from carrying out their plans. Not only 
are the roads crowded with vehicles, but traffic is further con- 
gested by the pedestrians all walking in the streets. There are 
no side-walks. In spite of the crowd, the traffic is well handled 
by a laive and efficient force of traffic police, who see that every- 
body "Ketfs to the Left" and gives the automobile the right of 

It is the rickshas that carry most of the passenger traffic. 
They can be found almost anywhere in the city, day or night, 
except in the worst weather, can be engaged for a short or long 
nm and are comparatively cheap in spite of the fact that one 
mnner seldom pulls more than one passenger. For the foreigner, 
the charge is ordinarily about 16 cents an hour, but for the 
Chinese it is considerably less. One fixes tbe price by bargaining 
with the ricksha coolie, and the price depends upon the length 
of the run, the time of day, the weather, the number of rickshas 
around, and how far from his regular stand the coolie is to be 
dismissed. Prices advance rapidly in bad weather as the coolies 
fear the wet much more than they do the cold. The mud of 
the unpaved streets makes heavy pulling, and water quickly 
ruins their cloth shoes. The straw sandal of Central China is 
unknown in Peking; the men seldom run barefooted and many 
times the shoes they spoil are worth more than the fare they 

Modem Pdcing is greatly in need of more gates in its walls. 
The present number confines the traffic to a few highways, and 
not only makes detours necessary but also produces great con- 
gestion. To go from a point just inside the wall to one just out- 


side the wall, an actual distance of perhaps loo yards, may mean 
a trip of 2j4 miles. Going from the North to the South City often 
involves a wait at the gate because of the congestion of traffic. 

It will be a long time before it will be at all necessary to 
take down the walls of Peking. Much of the land inside of 
the walls is still unoccupied, and the city can grow for many 
years before it will have to spread outside of its present bounda- 
ries. Something, however, will have to be done to relieve the 
congestion at the gates between the North and South City. The 
North City is primarily a residence district, the business and 
recreational life is centered in the South City, and the traffic 
between the two is constantly growing. The opening of new 
gates and the enlargement of the present ones will do much to 
relieve the present congestion. 

The problem of the traffic in the South City is even more 
serious. There, Peking has grown up much like the other cities 
of China, with narrow, twisting streets and closely packed build- 
ings. What lOO-foot highways there are run around the outside 
of the congested districts, and are consequently not a great relief 
to the traffic. What with rickshas, carriages and automobiles 
all traveling on roads that are barely wide enough for two 
streams of traffic, jams are frequent, and if it were not for the 
fact that the rickshas are slow moving, many accidents would 
be inevitaWe. Some of the streets will undoubtedly have to be 
widened, in spite of the large cost of such an improvement, 
others will have to be made "one way" streets, and automobiles 
and carriages will have to be restricted to certain streets. It 
seems as though the limit of traffic had been reached on many of 
the streets and that even the merchants would be glad to see 
some change made. 



Peking's greatness and glory are the result of its connection 
with the Government of China. Except for the fact that it has 
been the capital of the country for almost i,ooo years, there is 
little reason why it should be a great city. It is not surrounded 
bjr any special natural resources, it has never been an industrial 
city, road communication has been notoriously bad, and before 
the coming of the railroads the Grand Canal was the principal 
connection with the rest of the country. It is one of the great 
dties^ of the world because it has been the capital. Under tlie 
Empire, it was the source of all power for the entire country. 
The Emperor was the Son of Heaven and responsible for the 
welfare of his people. He delegated to the officials whatever 
power they might have. Peking was his home. From it came 
the decrees that affected the life of all the people. To it 
turned those seeking political preferment, as there they might 
reach those who had the appointive power. The city has not only 
been the home of the Emperor, his court and omdds, but of 
thousands and even hundreds of thousands of men who have 
come from even the most distant provinces hoping that they 
might secure some political office. 

That Peking has been the educational as well as the political 
center of the country has also added to its growth and glory. 
Under the old system of education, the examinations for the 
highest literary degrees were held in the capital, and thousands 
of men came to the city for such examinations. But these men 
were seeking political preferment as well, for high literary attain- 
ment nearly always meant official position. 

The government of Peking is literally a Chinese puzzle. As 
one officii expressed it, "The government of the city is not based 
on law, but entirely on custom and precedent." Through the 
two hundred and fifty years of the Manchu reign, it was possible 
to work out the relationship of the various boards and depart- 
ments, but since the establishment of the Republic many of the 
old governmental organizations have disappeared and new ones 
have been created, and it is hard to believe that they all know 
just what they are supposed to do in a case of emergency. The 
head of one of the boards that had not been reorganized said, 



"When anything happens, each one of us knows just exactly 
how far his power extends and what he can do in any situation." 
With all the changes that have come in recent years, it hardly 
seems that it could be as simple as that, for the National Govern- 
ment, the Provincial Government, the Military Guard, the 
Municipal Council and the Police Board are all exercising various 
governmental functions in the city. 


The National Government consists of the National Assembly 
with two houses — Senate and House of Representatives, Presi- 
dent, Cabinet and numerous official boards. The members of the 
Senate are elected by the Provincial Assemblies, those in the 
House of Representatives by the qualified voters who must have 
an education equivalent to that given in the Higher Primary 
School and who must pay $2 a year in taxes or have $500 
of immovable property. The Senators are elected for a six-year 
term, one-third retiring every two years. The Representatives 
are elected for a three-year term. The President is elected for 
a five-year term by a joint meeting of the houses of the 
National Assembly. The Cabinet, consisting of the Min- 
isters at the head of the nine boards of Foreign Affairs, Interior, 
Finance, War, Navy, Justice, Education, Agriculture and Com- 
merce, Commtmications, is appointed by the President with the 
consent of the Assembly, and can be removed by him. One of the 
Cabinet Ministers also holds the office of Premier. 

The consent of the Assembly is required for certain of the 
actions of the Cabinet, and the Ministers are supposedly respon- 
sible to the Assembly but their responsibility cannot be definitely 
determined as the permanent Constitution has not been adopted. 
The powers of the Government are supposedly based on the pro- 
visional Constitution promulgated in 19 12, but in reality much of 
the government is carried on by agreement, the ofncials con- 
cerned settling the matter, sometimes with but little regard for the 
wishes of the people who are supposed to be the final source of all 
power in the country. Practically, the government is in the 
hands of the President, the Cabinet and the Military Governors 
of the provinces, for although the National Assembly must 
give its consent to certain actions of the Cabinet, declaration of 
war, etc., it is not always consulted before the decision is put 
into eflFect. The declaration of war with Germany was approved 
by the National Assembly only three days before the signing of 
the Armistice. 

All but one of the Cabinet ministries have established schools 
in Peking. The Board of War controls the Military Gtiard, the 


H  HtiMi Hmm . t 
 - Cmlnr't 
i - TtkphoM Dfflcci - 5 

B O'pMiOtlicn -» 

Figure 4 


Ministry of Finance is called upon to furnish a large part of 
the money needed to carry on the city government, the Local 
Board of Education is responsible to the National Board, while 
the heads of the Municipal Council and of the Police Board — 
the two agencies that are carrying on most of the governmental 
work in the city — are responsible to the Minister of the Interior, 


although they are appointed by the President upon the recom- 
mendation of the Minister. 

CHING CHAO (metropolitan DISTRICT) 

Some three hundred years ago, the Emperor of China felt 
that the district around his capital should be specially organized 
so that he might be properly protected and immediately advised 
of any unusual occurrence. Instead of making it one of the 
regular "Fu" Districts (one of the large political sub-divisions) 
of Chibli Province, he made it a special district, and instead of 
having the official in charge appointed by the Provincial Governor 
and required to send all reports and recommendations through 
the Governor's hands, the Emperor appointed him himself and 
gave him rank equal to that of a Provincial Governor and the 
right to approach the throne at any time. This special district 
organization was continued by the Manchus and by the Republic. 
The Governor of the district is now appointed by the President 
and can report to him at anv time. 

The Hsun T'ien Fu (Ooedient to Heaven District), as it was 
tailed by the Manchus, or Ching Chao (Metropolitan District), 
as it has been known since 1914, includes the territory that is 
within seventy-five miles of Peking. It takes in Tientsin to 
the southeast, the Eastern Tombs of the Manchu Emperors on 
the northeast and goes about half way from Peking to Pao Ting 
Fu. For governmental purposes it is divided into twenty hsien 
(count3r^ districts, the officials of which are appointed by, and 
responsible to, the Governor. The Yamens (omdal headquar- 
ters) of the Governor and two of the hsien magistrates are in 

As Peking is inside the Ching Chao, the Governor puts his 
seal on all proclamations affecting the city, collects, through the 
hsien magistrates, certain taxes, and is responsible for the 
organization of the voting districts for the Provincial Assembly 
and National Assembly elections. His officers have the right to 
pursue any criminals that may have fled to the city. While these 
are his powers and duties tmder ordinary conditions, we could 
not determine what they would be under extraordinary condi- 
tions. They vary with the gravity of the situation and the issues 
involved and are based entirely on custom rather than law. 

In his work outside of the city, the Ching Chao Governor 
has shown that he is anxious to improve the general conditions 
of the people. The pupils in his schools in Peking come from the 
different hsien, and the course in the industrial school is par- 
ticularly planned to train the boys so that after thev have finished 
their work they can go back to their districts to help teach others. 


In the school, they study half a day and work half a day, bemg 
taught carpet making, machine work, carpentering, printing and 
weaving. Over 200 li of roads in the district have been macad- 
amized and additional improvement is delayed only because of 
the lack of available funds. Some 200,000 calendars, designed 
to teach the people the new phonetic script and the regular 
Chinese characters, were distributed in 1919. These calendars 
contained a page for every day in the year and on each page 
were three new characters. The Governor also had the char- 
acters displayed in the villages and the people were given free 
instruction concerning the characters and the new script. Yearly 
examinations are to be held covering the characters on the 
calendars and prizes are to be given to those who excel. 

The attitude of the Governor toward the question of democ- 
racy and the improvement of the condition of the people was 
most interesting. He said he felt that the people, because of 
their lack of education and experience, were not able to help 
themselves, and that they had to depend upon the officials to 
initiate reforms. The higher officials were the ones to whom 
the people had to look for help, as most of the better element 
kept out of office and the lower positions were in the hands of 
those who were not particularly qualified to act as leaders. 

In discussing the situation in Peking, the great activity of the 
officials and the very small amount of interest taken by the 
citizens, the Governor said that in Peking the gentry took prac- 
tically no interest in the affairs of the city and had very little 
power. What little they had had in the past, they had been 
willing to turn over to the officials as there was practically no 
commtmity spirit in the city. Most of the men of position and 
influence were retired officials, natives of other provinces who 
did not want to be bothered with any of the problems of the 
city. Then, too, the citizens of Peking furnish such a small 
amount of the money needed to rtm the city that the officials 
have naturally taken over all the improvement work. 

Most of the detailed work of the Ching Chao is carried on 
by the hsien magistrates. Two of these have their Yamens in 
Peking, as the boundary line between Ta Hsing Hsien and 
Wan r'ing Hsien runs north and south through the center of 
the city. As far as Peking is concerned, the work of the hsien 
magistrates consists in the preparation of the voting lists, the 
establishment of the election districts and the collection of cer- 
tain taxes. The Ching Chao collects a license tax from those 
engaged in certain forms of business, the selling of oil and wine, 
etc., and a tax on land that is used for agricultural purposes. 
Land in Peking used for residences pays no tax. The stores 
pay taxes to the city Government, while the taxes on lands grow- 


ing crops are collected by the hsien officials. The rq^ular land 
taxes are collected by the hsien only on land that is more than 
one li (H niile) from the city walls. 

The hsien magistrates have their prisons in Peking but they 
are for criminals captured outside of the city. These are old 
style Chinese prisons and even though they have been so 
improved that the Chinese call them Reformed Prisons, they are 
very different from the model prisons. They show that it is still 
possible for two different government organizations to be doing 
similar work in the same city in very diflFerent ways, and that 
certain ideas can influence one group of officials and leave 
another group untouched, for the Ching Chao prison is one of the 
Pddng model prisons. 


A second protective district for the capital was created by 
the Manchu emperors, when they put the territory immediately 
around the city under the control of the Military Guard, a body 
of troops that is now under the Board of War. The boundaries 
of this district are anywhere from 4 to 40 li from the city walls, 
although the average distance is about 20 li. The district goes 
half way to T'ung Hsien on the east, takes in Tsing Hua (The 
American Indemnity College) and the old and new summer 
palaces on the north, a large section of the western hills to 
the northwest, while on the southeast it goes almost to the city 
of Feng T'ai. For administrative purposes, the district has been 
sub-divided into four departments, Central, North, Left and 
Right, each of which is again sub-divided into four or five smaller 
districts. The Military Guard is entirely responsible for the 
administration and policing of these districts, except that the land 
taxes are collected by the hsien officials. The Military Guard has 
recently (1919) established a tax on all stores doing business in 
the territory under its control. The maximum tax is $1.50 a 
month and is graded according to the amount of business done 
by the store. 

In the days when Peking had no regular police force, the 
South City was under the control of the Military Guard and was 
the 5th or South Department of the Guard. Now, the South 
City is under the police, but even so, the Military Guard still 
mamtains its organization for that department. 

The principal duties of the Military Guard in Peking are put- 
ting its seal on all proclamations for the city, guarding all the 
city gates and posting extra guards on the main highways. These 
guards are allowed to make arrests without first notifying the 
police, if they find the offender in the North City, but they can- 


not do to in the South City. The police are jealous of the power 
that the Military Guard used to have in the South City, and so 
insist that no arrests be made without their having been notified. 
They want to make sure that the Military Guard is not using the 
organization that it still maintains for the South City. 

The guards at the city gates and throughout the district 
outside the walls keep a careful lookout for opium, morphine, 
cocaine, etc. Any that is found is confiscated, if it does not 
belong to an ofiBcial too high in rank, and later on is publicly 
destroyed. At the opium burning in October, 1919, over 7,000 
ounces of opium were destroyed, while the total value of opium, 
morphine, pipes, needles, etc., was approximately $50,000. 

When there are disturbances in the city, the Military Guard 
is greatly increased, there being always a large number of troops 
camped outside the city that can be called on, and although the 
Police, Gendarme and Military Officials work together in handling 
the situation there seems to be a tendency for the military to 
assume control, largely because of the larger forces at their 
command. During the student demonstrations of 1919, it was 
apparently the Military Guard that forced the arrest of the 


The ordinary municipal business of Peking is carried on 
under the direction of the Minister of the Interior, who is in full 
charge of all the municipal governments in China. The actual 
work is done by the Municipal Council and the Police Board. 

The Minister of the Interior is concurrently president of the 
Municipal Council but of necessity must delegate most 
of the work. The first vice-president is really the one in charge. 
He is appointed by the President of China on recommendation 
of the Minister of the Interior and with the approval of the 
Chamber of Commerce. As far as can be learned, this is the 
only place where the citizens of Peking have any participation 
in or control over the Government, except, of course, that exerted 
by the force of public opinion. Changes and improvements are 
made, not because the people want and demand them, but because 
tfie officials believe that they ought to be made for the benefit of 
the capital. 

The other officers of the Council consist of a second vice- 
president appointed by the President of China, four heads and 
four vice^heads of departments, forty secretaries, two to four 
engineers, four to eight architects and six to twelve investigators, 
besides clerks and minor employees. The principal sub-officers 
are appointed by the head officers of the Council; the minor 
employees of the various departments, by the departmental heads. 


For administrative purposes the Municipal Council is divided 
into four departments in charge of the following work : 

Department One. 

I. Correspondence Division, Receipt and mailing of all cor- 
respondence, the publication of notices and proclamations, the use 
of the Council seal, filing. 

II. Accounting Division, Preparation of the budget, receipt 
and disbursement of all money, auditing of claims and accounts. 

III. Editing Division, Preparation of reports, editing of the 
Municipal Council Magazine, keeping of the minutes of the 
meetings of the Council, care of the maps and books belonging 
to the Council. 

IV. Miscellaneous Division, Purchase and storing of ma- 
terials and supplies, supervision of clerks, guards and servants, 
general miscellaneous matters not definitely belonging to other 

Department Two. 

I. Political Division. Things having to do with communi- 
cation, industry, public health, relief, city business. 

II. Property Division, Care of city property, revision of 
regulations dealing with city affairs. 

III. Investigation Division, Laying out and changing city 
streets, investigation of the use of private property by the govern- 
ment, building permits, buying and selling of property. 

Department Three. 

I. Construction Inspection Division, Inspection of all con- 
struction work, examination of all estimates for engineering 
work, preparation of list of kinds and amounts of material 

II. Surveying Division, Surveying of new and old roads, 
bridges, sewers, making a map of the city, special surveying for 
other boards. 

III. Engineering Division, Planning of all engineering 
work, making of maps, designs, sketches, working drawings. 

Department Four. 

L Construction Division. Construction work connected 
with roads, bridges, sewers and other city work. 

This Division is in charge of one head man and five assist- 
ants. It employs two recording secretaries, ten foremen, two 


htmdred hborers. The six steam rollers are in charge of fifteen 

IL EsHmating Division. Superintending of work to be done 
by the city, superintending of all work done by contract, prepara- 
tkm of estimates for construction work. 

III. Material and Supply Division, Purchase of all mate- 
rials, the lending and sale of construction materials, issuing of 
materials to the construction division. 

Purchases amounting to over $500 must be advertised and 
bids must be called for. On amounts less than $500, the estimates 
of four or more stores are reported to the Council for its con- 
sideration, and advertising is not required. 

The hospital for contagious diseases and a reform society 
for industry and conunerce are also maintained by the Munidpau 

The income of the Council is derived from taxes levied on 
stores* vehicles, theaters, prostitutes and brothels, the sale and 
mortg^iging of property and from rent paid for the use of the 
dty property. 

The store taxes are based on the business done by the stores 
and amount to from J4 to ^ of i percent of their income. They 
are grouped into fourteen different classes, paying from 10 cents 
to over $20 a month. The total tax collected amounts to some 
$31,000 a month, a monthly average for the stores of the city of 
approximately $1.25. 

A total of $11,000 a month is collected from the 377 brothels 
and 3,130 registered prostitutes of the city. The brothels pay 
^14, $14, $6 or $3 a month, and the prostitutes $4, $1.50, $1 or 
$0.50 a month, depending upon the class in which they are 

The taxes on vehicles amount to some $11,000 a month. 
Automobiles pay $4, carriages $2, passenger carts 60 coppers, 
rickshas 40 coppers, freight carts 100 coppers, and hand push 
carts 60 coppers a month. Carts that come into the city only 
OGcasionally pay four coppers a day. When the taxes are paid 
for the entire year, one month's taxes are rebated, except on 
hand carts for which the tax is only $1 a year even though the 
monthly tax is 60 coppers. 

The Magazine published by the Municipal Council contains 
some hundred pages and now appears monthly. It was first 
started in the nth month of the 3rd year of the Republic 
(November, 1914) and appeared approximately three times a 
moothy Series I that ended in the 3ra month of the 5th year of 
the Republic (March, 1916) containing 32 numbers. Series II 
hegam in March, 191 7, and since then has appeared approximately 


once a month, the issue for June, 1919, being Number 21. The 
magazine contains articles that describe city administration in 
foreign countries, that give the history of cities in China and 
that discuss various municipal problems. Those that deal with 
the problems of foreign countries are, for the most part, trans- 
lations of articles published in foreign magazines. Various 
reports concerning Pekmg are also included. These give the 
figures for the chou ch'ang, or soup kitchens, reported births 
and deaths, building permits issued, the monthly report of the 
hospital for contagious diseases, and occasional estimates of 
sewer and street work. In practically no case, however, are 
the reports on any one subject complete and continuous for any 
length of time. 

Residences in Peking pay no taxes. In the past, the city 
was not only the home of the Emperor, but many of those who 
have lived there have been either government officials or 
Manchus, who have been supported by a government pension. 
Consequently, no land taxes were collected in the city and the 
cost of the city government was paid from the income received 
from the provinces. This exemption has been continued under 
the Republic, but a tax has been levied on the sale and mortgaging 
of all real estate. This amounts to 6 percent of the sale price of 
the land unless the seller is a Manchu noble, in which case the 
deed for the property is made on special red paper and the tax is 
4j^ percent. If the land is a gift or the price is below the 
regular market price, the value of the sale for tax purposes is 
estimated at $70 a ''cUlen" (room) if the house is of brick, and $20 
a "chien" if the building is made of earth. When the land is 
mortgaged the tax is 3 percent of the amount of the mortgage. 
Deeds and mortgages to be legal and binding must be stamped 
by the tax bureau, showing that taxes have been paid. 

Before the taxes will be accepted by the tax bureau, the 
deeds must be ratified by the Municipal Council. The buyer 
and seller sign a joint petition to the Council, asking for the 
approval of the deeds, and file the petition with the police who 
forward it to the Council. The property is inspected by a repre- 
sentative of the Council, in order that the description of the 
property and all buildings may be properly entered on the deed, 
and any encroachments on public property, etc., may be discov- 
ered. The deed, as ratified, is returned to the police for delivery 
to the purchaser of the property, who can then pay the purchase 
price of the land. The taxes must be paid within six months. 
Whenever any new buildings are erected or the outlines of old 
buildings are changed, the deeds for the property have to be 
returned to the police and be re-issued, so that they will show 
accurately all the buildings on the land. 


The ri|;ht of Eminent Domain has been given to the Munici- 
pal Counal and can be used for any public purpose, though it is 
ordinarily invoked in the improvement of communication and 
the development of markets. Land can be condemned by the 
promulgation of a resolution of the Municipal Council and court 
proceedings are apparently unnecessary. Pajrment is made for 
the land taken from citizens or private organizations according 
to the amount taken and the damage done, but the amount is 
determined according to a fixed scale rather than the appraised 
value of the property. First class houses, those made of good 
material and with rooms that are more than 14^ x 11^, are paid 
for at the rate of $100 a "chien" when bought outright, and 
$50 a "chien" if the owner is required to remove them from 
ibt land. Second class houses, those built of good materials, 
with rooms less than 14^x11^ and more than 12^x10^ and 
those of first class dimensions made of inferior material, are 
bought for $70 a "chien" and moved for $30. Third class 
houses, those of first and second class dimensions but built of 
inferior material, and those of first class construction with rooms 
less than 12' x 8' are bought for $50 a "chien" and moved for 
^o a "chien." 

Two-story houses are considered to contain one-and-a-half 
times the number of "chien" on the first floor. 

When only part of a piece of property is taken, the amount 
to be paid is determined by the Municipal Council but is never 
more than the buying or moving fee for the class of building 

. It has been impossible for us to determine the size of the 
budget of the Municipal Council. Various reports are published 
in the Municipal Council Magazine, but they do not appear 
regularly. One report gave the expenditure for the last half 
of the 3rd year of the Republic (1914) as $104,650, including 
$39,839 for street repair and $27,575 expenses of the tax bureau. 
The amount collected by the tax bureau is undoubtedly more 
than is needed for the work of the Municipal Council, but is 
far from enough for the entire city government. The deficit 
is made up by the Minister of the Interior from the funds of 
the National Government. 


Peking has well been called the best policed city in the Orient. 
Any one visiting the city is struck by the large number of traffic 
officers on the streets, one every few hundred jrards on the busy 
thoroughfares, while those who live in the city are constantly 
amazed at the extent and efficiency of the work done by the 


poHce. A minor traffic accident is sure to bring five or six 
officers together, while if one wants any information concerning 
the lite or government of the city, the police are the best ones 
to consult. The Peking Police Board not only exercises the 
ordinary police functions, control of traffic, arresting of crimi- 
nals, etc., but it also discharges the duties of the Board of Health, 
the Fire and Street-Cleaning Departments and the Census 
Bureau. It is also in Charge of two hospitals and most of the 
charitable institutions of the city. Almost 10,000 men are con- 
nected with the Peking Police force, while the annual bud^ 
is over two and a quarter million dollars. See statistics of Police 
Reports, in Appendix. 

The Police Board, as now constituted, is organized according 
to the terms of a Presidential Mandate issued in August, 1914, 
which provided that local police departments should be estab- 
lished in the provincial capitals and commercial centers, to take 
charge of all matters relating to policing, public health and fire 
protection. Even prior to that time there were police in Pricing, 
for as nearly as we could learn the police organization was 
first established in 1902. We have not been able to secure any 
information concerning the powers and dirganization of the 
police force under the Empire, but we have been fortunate in 
procuring from the Chief of Police a very complete report of 
the present-day organization and work of the Board. 

The Chief of Police, who is appointed by the President of 
China upon the request of the Minister of the Interior, is under 
the direct supervision of, and responsible to, the Ministry of 
the Interior. He appoints his immediate subordinates, heads 
of departments, and with them constitutes the Police Board that 
decides all questions of policy and the course that shall be pur- 
sued in case of any unforseen emergency. 

For administrative purposes, the Police Board is divided into 
two departments. Inside and Outside. 

The Inside Department, which is responsible for all general 
administrative and headquarters work, is organized with seven 
departments : 

I. Secretarial, 

II. General Management, In charge of all correspondence, 
the preparation of the budget, the handling of all moneys, the 
control of all under-officers and men. 

III. Political Affairs. Responsible for the preservation of 
peace, the reform of customs, the control of the streets and street 
lighting, the taking of the census, the oversight of the business 
of the city and the issuing of building permits. 

IV. Legal Matters. Including the carrying out of all pun- 
ishments, the supervision of the jails, the management of the 


detective force and the preparation of regulations and ordinances. 

V. Hygiene. This Department is really the Board of 
Health. The first of its three sub-divisions is responsible for 
the roads, sewers and public toilets of the city; the second is in 
charge of the general health and the prevention of disease; the 
third supervises the hospitals of the city and licenses all doctors, 
midwives, and the sale of medicines. 

VI. Outside Work, In charge of the guarding of streets, 
the prevention of gambling, etc. 

VII. The Fire Department, 

The Outside Department, which is responsible for the 
actual work throughout the city, has three sub-divisions: 

I. The 20 Police Districts, into which the city is divided : 
Central i and Central 2 are on the east and west sides of 

Imperial City. The Districts Left Inside i to 4 and Right Inside 
I to 4 are on the east and west sides of the North or Tartar City, 
while Outside Left i to 5 and Outside Right i to 5 are in the east 
and west halves of the South or Chinese City. The areas of the 
Districts vary from 3.5 sq. li (0.45 sq. miles) in Outside Left 

I to 194 sq. li. (248 sq. nules) in Outside Right 5. The popula- 
tion of the Districts varies from 10,124 in Central 2 to 67,762 in 
Left Inside 2. 

II. Other Departments, including the Gendarmes, the Cav- 
alry, the Detectives, the Firemen and the Band. 

III. The Miscellaneous Organizations, that are in charge 
of the institutions run by the police, including the three Police 
Schools for officers, men and recruits, the department for the 
registration of prostitutes, the Yu Ming Workhouse, the Door 
of Hope, the Reform School, the two City Hospitals, the 
Women's Industrial Home, the Tung An and Kuang An Mar- 
kets and the Museums. 

The men in charge of these various departments and their 
sub-divisions (the Police Districts have from 2 to 5 sub-divisions, 
the Gendarmes 4 and the Firemen 6) number 289 — 164 in the 
Inside Department and 125 in the Outside Department. Besides 
these, there are 245 Police Captains, 757 under-officers, 7,588 
men, a total of 8,590, an increase of 815 (10.2 percent) during 
the last five years. In 1910, the entire police force of New 
York City numbered 9,255. The Peking Fire Department 
employs 578 officers and men and the detectives 332, making the 
total number of men connected with the police force, 9,789. 
This is 12 police for every 1,000 inhabitants in the city and 50.5 
officers per square li (395 per sq. mile) of the city's area. In the 
different police districts the number per square li varies from 

II in Outside Left 4, the agricultural district east of the Temflt 


of Heaven, to 105 in Outside Left i, just outside Ch'ien Men, 
which is one of the most densely populated districts in the city 
and one that is primarily given over to business. In the different 
districts the number of police per 1,000 inhabitants varies from 
3 in Inside Left 4 to 19 in Central 2. 

The Gendarmes or special police, which are popularly known 
in Peking as "The White Leggings" (a part of tneir summer and 
winter uniform being a pair of white canvas leggings), are a 
special police force of 1,127 officers and men, that is inde- 
pendent of the regular force even though it is under the control 
of the Police Board. The Gendarmes are recruited from 
the members of the regular police force who show special ability, 
but before being finally accepted the men are given special 
training. As a consequence, they are older, better set up and 
appear to be somewhat more efficient in their work than the regu- 
lar police force. Under ordinary conditions, their principal duty 
is the stationing of special guards on the highways, while in time 
of trouble or when special work is required, they are the first 
ones called upon. Outside of Peking, the Gendarmes are often 
found engaged on matters that in America would be handled by 
the State police. The head of the Gendarmes is assisted by a 
foreign adviser. General Munthe. 

The regular police force includes one division of cavalry, 
composed of 106 men, but these appear on the streets only in 
times of disturbance or on special occasions. 

The detectives, a group of 336 men organized in three divi- 
sions, carry on a very extensive work and one that seems to be 
very thoroughly done, as the Peking police are able to keep in 
touch with everything going on in the city. 

The 578 firemen are organized into six divisions, each of 
which is responsible for a section of the city. As Peking has 
no general electrical fire alarm system, special watch towers 
have been erected, and from the tops of these guards are con- 
stantly on the lookout for fires. The fire-fighting equipment 
consists, for the most part, of old-style hand-operated engines 
that are able to throw only a small stream of water, but a high 
power automobile fire truck has recently been purchased and 
IS housed in one of the buildings near the Pei Hai or North Sea. 
Water is secured from the wells and also from the mains of the 
Peking Water Company. 

Any one who has seen a fire in a Chinese city is not apt to 
forget it very soon. The fire department comes pulling its 
engines by hand, and carrying flags in the day time or large 
lanterns at night. The men who are to carry water from the 
wells hurriedly put on the coats of the fire department, so they 
will be allowed inside the lines that are quickly established by 


AlthouEb tbe lovernmeni luardi wete removed the (tudent* refuKd tc leeve 

■heir jail until they received in tfolatl fron tbc (OTCrnineat ~~' '--' — 

M lactnra ea th» tUtalt, 


the police, and then rush buckets of water to the hand-pumped 
engines. While the men at the engines and hose are doing their 
best to put out the fire, the police stand around and blow their 
whistles, apparently doing their bit by scaring away the fire 

Peking does not give its firemen a great deal to do, as in 1917 
there were only 93 fires and these involved a total of only 154 
houses. Eighty-five of these were totally destroyed while 69 
were damaged. Fifteen houses were more or less demolished 
by the fire department in the fighting of fires. Peking is a city 
built of brick and mud walls, while the floors are ordinarily 
dirt or tile so that even though the houses are heated by small 
movable stoves, there are but few fires in the city and when one 
does start, the damage is small. If one of the cities of South 
China had the same number of fires, the result would be very 
different. There, the houses are built almost entirely of wood and, 
once a fire is started, it usually takes a large number of houses. In 
Peking, on the average, less than two houses were involved in 
every fire that occurred, and so the large burned districts that one 
often sees in the cities in South and Central China are seen but 
seldom in Peking. 

From the table (see Appendix) giving the police districts in 
which fires occurred, it does not seem that any one district of 
the city is particularly responsible for fires. There are four 
districts that have 10 or more fires during the year and the 
general character of these is very different. Inside Left i, in 
which 14 fires occurred, is a district where residences and shops 
are intermingled. Outside Right i and Outside Right 2, with 
10 and 16 fires respectively, are both business districts, while 
Outside Left 4, in which there were 10 fires, is primarily a resi- 
dence district. Over one- fourth of the fires (24) occurred in 
January, which is the month when, because of the cold weather, 
the largest amount of fire is required in the city, and also the 
month just previous to the Chinese New Year when every one 
is supposed to settle all of his accounts. A table of the number of 
fires by months is given in the Appendix. 

The annual expenditures (see tables in Appendix) of the 
Police Board amount to over two-and-a-quarter million dollars. 
In 1917 the amount was $2,235,934. Of this $2,209,824 was spent 
for the r^^ular police work, and $24,110 for work done for other 
organizations. The regular expenses, salaries, rations, office ex- 
penses, amounted to $1,612,435. Just what is included under sala« 
ries and rations is not clear, but apparently "salaries" represents 
the money paid the head men, while the allowances of the ordinary 
policemen are "rations." If this is so, the average salarv is 
approximately $1,300, while the wages and food allowance of the 


men average $i 13 a year. The ordinary patrolman is paid $6 to $8 
a month in money, besides being given a food allowance that 
amounts to something over $2 a month. 

Special expenses amounted to $377,760 including $300,000 
for uniforms, $20,194 for the police schools, $16,759 for the 
erection of buildings, $10,042 for fuel, $4,569 for house num- 
bers and census supplies (each house in the city is g^ven a blue 
and white enamel number plate on which appear the number of 
the police district, the name of the street and the house number) 
and $3,086 for charity. 

Other expenses totaled $221,629 and included $136,579 for 
street cleaning, $60,934 for the two hospitals run by the police, 
$3,936 for kung ch'ang (workshops), $3,473 for the poor- 
houses, $1,323 for registering the prostitutes. 

The $24,110 spent for other organizations included $8,910 
for food for officers of the Police Board and various amounts 
for the protection of the markets and mail, the care of flowers 
and trees, rewards paid to men who do not belong to the police 
force, food for those in jail, etc. 

The Peking police are annually spending an average of $2.75 
per person. When compared with the amounts that are being 
spent in cities of similar size in other countries, this does not 
seem to be very much, but when the Chinese standard of living 
is considered, it is really a large amount. Two dollars and 
seventy-five cents is not quite half the monthly money wage of 
the ordinary workman, and is approximately one-fourth of his 
money wage and food allowance. Consequently, the police are 
spending every year for a family of four, an amount equal to 
one month's income of the man employed as a clerk in a store 
or a workman in a shop. If this amotmt had to be furnished 
by those who live in Peking, it would be a tremendous burden, 
but, fortunately for them, most of it is supplied by the National 


During the last five years the police have been arresting an 
ever increasing ntunber of persons charged with crimes and 
misdemeanors (see, in Appendix, several tables of statistics on 
crimes and misdemeanors). In the 6th year of the Republic 
(1917), 3,886 were arrested for one of the more serious crimes, 
and 22,870 for misdemeanors. In the 2nd year of the Republic 
(i9i3)> the ntunber arrested for crime was 2,549 and for mis- 
demeanors 20,554. In both groups there has been a steady 
increase year by year, except for a small drop in the number 
of those arrested for crime in 1915. The crime rate per 1,000 
persons has increased from 3.51 to 4.78, while the misaemeanor 


rate is 28^, the same as it was in 191 3. The combined rate is 
32.98 per 1,000. 

Although the police do not give the detailed statistics, types 
of crimes, ages of criminals, etc.« for those who are charged with 
crime, they do give them for those charged with misdemeanors. 
Of the 22,870 misdemeanants, 2,925 ( 12.8 percent) were women. 
One thousand one hundred and thirty-three of these were 
charged with violating the regulations concerning general cus- 
toms, under which head are included clandestine prostitution, the 
staging of immoral plays, the destruction or defilement of tem- 
ples, ancestral halls, grave tablets and public works, scolding or 
making fun of others in public, refusing to stop yelling or scold- 
ing in the streets, conducting gambling or similar business in 
the streets or public places, and wearing clothes of such peculiar 
styles that they may have a bad effect on the customs of the 
people. Nine hundred and sixty-seven were offenders against 
the general police regulations. The largest number of men 
(7403) broke the general regulations, 4,005 offended against 
customs, 2,008 were arrested for not obeying the ordinances 
concerning communications and 2,076 for violating the health 
ordinances. Disturbing the peace is not indulged in by the 
Chinese to any extent, as only 479 persons were accused of this 

Three thousand and fifty of the misdemeanants were under 
II years of age. Of these, 1,349 (45 percent) were girls. Con- 
sequently, 46 percent of the female misdemeanants were under 
II, but only 8.5 percent of the males. The principal offenses of 
which the children were guilty were those concerning health, 
communication and customs, all but 207 of the 3,050 being 
included under these three heads. In case a child is arrested 
and brought into court, no penalty is imposed on the child even 
though it is guilty, but the parents or guardians are warned by 
the police that they must give their children more strict disci- 
pline. The same is true for those who are insane. If the child 
has no known parents or guardian, it is sent to the industrial 
school to be educated, while an insane person is sent to the 
asylum. In case those under 11 years of age or those who are 
insane violate the police rules the second time in six months, the 
penalty that would ordinarily be imposed on them is imposed on 
their parents or guardian. However, in such a case, the penalty 
is always a fine and never imprisonment. 

Among the male' misdemeanants, the largest proportion (33.5 
percent) are between 21 and 30 years of age, and except for the 
large group (46 percent) under 11 years of age, the same age 
group has the largest proportion of females, 19.6 percent. Of 
all the males in the city, 23.2 percent are in the 21-30 year group 


and 21.8 percent are in the 31-40 year group, while of the male 
misdemeanants, 33.4 percent are between 21 and 30 years of 
age, and 27.4 percent between 31 and 40. Of all the females 
in the city, 66 percent are less than 41 years of age, but 87.8 
percent of the female misdemeanants are under that age. The 
older age groups do not contribute their share of misdemeanants 
so that the problem of crime in Peking is largely one that 
involves men who are under 40. Peking is a city of men and 
of young men (see age and sex tables in Appendix), therefore 
any attempt to improve the crime situation must include the 
improvement of the influences around the young men, so many 
of whom are living away from home. 

Of the 22,870 misdemeanants, 17,150 were those who had 
committed the crime, 1,923 were accomplices, while 204 were 
instigators of the crime, 100 were insane and 81 intoxicated when 
they committed their crimes. 

From the table giving the convictions by months, it does not 
appear that there is any outstanding relation between the amount 
of crime and the time of year, except that there is less crime 
during the fall and winter months than there is during the spring 
and summer. From September to February, there were less than 
1,900 convictions per month, the maximum being 1,895 i^ Novem- 
ber and the minimum 1,511 in December. From March to 
August inclusive, there were over 2,100 convictions a month 
except in July when there were only 1,489, the smallest number 
of any month in the year. The maximum number (2,307) were 
convicted in May. The average per month was 1,906. 

The tables do not give the number of misdemeanants in each 
Police District, so it is impossible to determine whether or not 
the character of the different Districts or the density of the popu- 
lation has any influence upon the amount of crime. 

Three thousand eight hundred and eighty-six robberies and 
thefts were reported to the police during the year. Seven of 
these were robberies involving breaking in and stealing, 2490 
were thefts, 583 people had their pockets picked, while property 
was taken from 806 persons under false pretenses. The value 
of the articles taken amounted to $20,714, the average loss being 
$5.53. In 514 cases the thieves secured goods that were of no 
value. The thieves' market held outside of Ch'ien Men very 
early in the morning is one of the sights of the city and people 
who have lost goods are often able to find them offered for sale 
there. Through watching the pawn shops and the market, the 
police are wonderfully successful in tracing stolen goods. 

There is a tremendous variation in the number of robberies 
and thefts reported from the various police districts. Right Out- 
side 2, in which is centered much of the amusement life of the 


city and in which is the principal red light district, reported 1,379. 
The next largest number was 276 in Inside Left i. The smallest 
number (14) was reported from Central 2. Five of the 20 
Districts reported less than 50 each, while 4, Inside Left i and 
4 and Outside Right i and 2, each had more than 200. 

If the Police Report can be taken as any criterion, the Chinese 
are not a people who are careless with their belongings. Money 
and goods that were found by the police or found by private 
citizens and reported to the police were valued at only $i,i09.37' 
Six hundred and eighteen of the articles found had no value. 
Sixty-five percent of the money and 66 percent of the goods of 
any value were returned to their owners, but only 30 percent of 
the goods that had no value. 

Wherever possible, the police attempt to keep people out of 
court. The officers often stop a fight, find out what it is about, 
settle the matter and send the contestants on their way rather 
than arrest them. Even when men have taken too much liquor 
and are unable to get home, the police will help them home 
rather than arrest them. To us, it certainly was a strange sight 
to see three police officers taking home a man who was drunk. 

The police report that in 1917, they helped 5,267 persons. 
This number includes 1,561 who had been fighting, 466 lost chil- 
dren, 574 victims of accident or sudden sickness, 212 who were 
drunk, 150 who were poisoned and 84 who had attempted suicide. 
Of the total number, 857 were women and seven were foreigners. 

Besides the work connected with the prevention of crime, 
the direction of traffic, the recovery of lost or stolen goods, the 
police are engaged in many other activities closely connected 
with the life of the people. They take the census of the city 
once a year and must be notified of all removals, births, deaths, 
marriages, etc. Every store in the city is visited at least once 
every 10 days by an officer who is entitled to ask any questions 
that he sees fit. The police see to it that the shops and vehicles 
pay their monthly taxes, and once a month they inspect all 
vehicles for hire, particularly the rickshas. Burial permits must 
be secured from the police before a funeral can be held. All 
meetings must be reported to them and seats must be provided 
for their representatives who act as censors. In 1917, 961 such 
meetings were attended by the police. They are not only respon- 
sible for the cleaning, lighting and sprinkling of the main streets 
of the city, but they are also in charge of similar work on many 
of the smaller streets even though the expenses of such work 
are paid by the families living on those streets. In the past, this 
work was done by local committees, but since the police have 
been willing to collect the money and look after the work the 
citizens have gradually turned the work over to them. Conse- 


quently, the police officers are making monthly visits to many 
of the houses to collect the contributions for the lighting and 
sprinkling of the streets. On the small streets where the street 
cleaning work is not organized, the police require each family 
to clean the street in front of its door. 

Building regulations have been promulgated by the Police 
Board and the Municipal Council. These require that any one 
erecting a new building or changing the outline of an old one 
must secure a building permit from the police before starting 
any construction work. Applications for permits are received 
every Monday, and under ordinary circumstances are approved 
and returned the following Monday. If any of the buildings or 
walls touch the lot lines, the owner of the land must bring his 
deed to the property with him when he applies for a building 
permit, so that the police and Municipal Council can assure them- 
selves that the buildings are within the lot line. If the deeds 
cannot be presented because they are in the hands of the mort- 
gagor, or m some other province a permit will be issued, pro- 
viding the owner can get some shop or store to act as his guaran- 
tor. As changes have recently been made in the boundaries of 
some of the streets of the city, particularly those that have been 
improved, the police are especially careful to see that there are 
no encroachments on public property and that any houses now 
on public land are removed, whenever any new construction is 
being carried out. The petitions filed with the police are deliv- 
ered to the Municipal Council for its investigation and approval, 
as the land on the improved roads and at all corners is under 
the special jurisdiction of the Council. It is particularly careful 
to see that the corners are properly maintained. If the traffic 
demands it, the Council requires that the comers be rounded 
rather than square. According to the Council regulations, all 
down spouts must be constructed so that the water is carried 
into the earth and not discharged on the surface of the street. 
Buildings with three stories or that are apt to be especially 
crowded, must have special stairs and two or more special exits, 
while those over 50 feet high must be equipped with lightning rods. 

Ordinarily the Municipal Council investigation does not take 
more than two days and does not delay the issuing of the permit 
through the police. In case the owner of a piece of property is 
involved in a lawsuit concerning the location of the buildings 
relative to the lot line, the facts must be determined by the 
Municipal Council. A deed, showing the location of the buildings 
on the lot, is final evidence only when stamped by the Municipal 
Council. The police approval is not final. 

The Health Department of the police is of course responsible 
for the many things connected with the health of the city, includ- 


11^ not only the cleaning of the streets, the care of the sewers, 
but also the examination and licensing of doctors and midwives 
and the inspection of all medicines offered for sale. 

The managing of many of the institutions of the city is the 
most unusual work that is being done by the police. Since the 
Revolution of 191 1, they have tsdcen over more and more of this 
work until now they have some connection with practically all 
of the charitable institutions. They are in entire control of two 
hospitals^ the insane asylum, the poorhouses, the industrial 
schools, the reform schools and the rescue home for prostitutes. 
They have also opened 53 half-day schools in various parts of 
the city, and in these are giving some education to 4,000 poor 
children. A large part of the budget of these schools is con- 
tributed by the well-to-do people of the districts in which they 
are located. The more complete details of this part of the police 
work are given under the various headings of Education, Health, 
Population, Poverty and Philanthropy. 

Our experience with the police has shown that they are an 
efficient, well-trained body of men; that they know Peking 
thoroughly and have collected a great amount of information 
concerning the city. The traffic officers, although lacking the 
force and authority that would be exerted by officers in western 
countries, keep the traffic moving and well regulated. The ability 
of the police to find stolen goods is really remarkable, and shows 
how closely they are able to keep in touch with the life of the 
city. In making out the report of their work, the police have 
given us many statistics that are of great value, and while some 
of them may as yet be somewhat incomplete and inaccurate, they 
arc a start and a basis for further improvement. As the police 
have more and more experience with the use of statistics, they 
will undoubtedly realize the relation they bear to problems of the 
city ; and the tables will be more complete. At present our feel- 
ing is that the police are making many of the tables because they 
think it is the thing to do, rather than because they thoroughly 
understand the use of the statistics. 

In general, the Peking police system is a copy of those used 
in the large cities of Japan, which in turn are based on the 
German police system. It reaches out and touches practically 
every side of the life of the people, and during these years of 
transition has done wonderful things in improving and develop- 
ing the city. The only question that can be raised is : Will those 
at the head of the police work see the possibilities of future 
development, or will they try to use the close control given by 
the extensive system as a means of oppressing the people and 
smothering any democratic movement that may develop? 

In making a study of the government of Peking, we con- 


tinually came across traces of democratic and community con* 
trol — streets or districts with committees organized to look after 
the various public works, such as repairing, sprinkling and light- 
ing the streets, furnishing police protection, etc. Even in 1914 
the police regulations called for the organization of community 
control districts, but at the present time the functions of these 
democratic organizations are being taken over by the official 
boards, particularly by the police. This undoubtedly makes for 
efficiency in carrying out a city-wide program, but at the same 
time the people are losing control and are more and more at the 
mercy of the officials who are responsible not to the people but 
to ofBcials higher up. 

As the people become better educated and have more contact 
with democratic ideals, are they going to be able to gradually 
assume control of the government or will they be held down by 
autocratic officials in charge of the police? The experiences of 
the past few months have given us considerable cause to fear 
that there will have to be a struggle before the government of 
Peking is democratic as well as modern and efficient 


When the students of the country, under the leadership of 
those in Peking, formed in 1919 a nation-wide organization that 
was able to make definite demands upon the officials of the 
National Government, a new influence appeared in the govern- 
ment of China. This is not the first time that the students have 
taken a hand in the government, for in olden times, when the 
Court conditions became so corrupt that they were a national 
scandal, the Literati have united and either forced into retire- 
ment or have brought about the death of those who they felt 
were chiefly responsible for the corruption, but it is the first time 
in recent years that the students, as such, have attempted to 
influence the officials. 

The Student Movement of 1^19 really began in 1905, when 
by imperial edict the old educational system was abolished and 
modem learning was adopted. The establishment of the modem 
schools has of necessity been a slow process, but their number 
has been rapidly increasing in the last few years until now they 
can be found in all parts of the country and the student body is 
large enough to exert a real influence. Prior to 1912, although 
the students came in contact with western ideas, they were taught 
to be loyal to the Imperial Government and it was only after the 
Revolution of 191 1 that democratic ideas came into the schools. 
Democracy has appealed to the students of China, and as their 
number has increased they have been more and more anxious to 


see their Government become more democratic, but they have 
found it difficult to bring the necessary pressure upon the officials, 
as practically all of them are men who have held office under 
the Empire and whose attitude is therefore more imperial than 
democratic. Many of these men, because of their experience 
under the Manchu Government, have believed that it is the privi- 
lege of the officials to take public funds for private use, and while 
under the Empire there was a limit beyond which an official could 
not go without danger of losing his position and his head, under the 
Republic there has seemed to be no limit. Consequently, not 
only have public moneys disappeared, but many of the natural 
resources of the country have been sold directly or indirectly, 
and most of the privileges have been going into the hands of 

The students, seeing this official corruption and the continued 
encroachments of Japan, and realizing that the officials because 
of their personal interest would do nothing to check the weaken- 
ing of the country, have long felt that they should do something. 
But until 1919 there was no issue on which they could all unite. 
It was the Shantung question, the acquisition by Japan of the 
rights that Germany had had in that province, that furnished the 
cause that appealed to the students all over China. Shantung, 
the birthplace of Confucius, the sage of China, is considered the 
Holy Land of China. It is one of the rich provinces of the 
country and the Chinese — who had experience with the Japanese 
occupation when, during the war, they had landed troops on 
neutral Chinese territory, marched them overland to the railroad 
and established them in Tsinan-fu, the capital of the province, 
before going east to drive the Germans out of Tsingtao, and also 
with their handling of "Economic Rights" elsewhere in China — 
felt that they were really losing the province, when word came 
from the Peace Conference at Versailles that the German rights 
would probably be given to Japan. Feeling ran high all over the 
coimtry and, while the Chinese were greatly disappointed in not 
receiving the backing of other countries in what they felt was a 
matter of justice, they also felt that their own officials were 
largely responsible for the success of the Japanese. Three men, 
Tsao Ju Lrin, Minister of Communications and ex-Minister of 
Finance, Chang Chung Hsiang, ex-Minister of China to Japan, 
and Lu Cheng Yu, Director of the Currency Bureau, were looked 
on as the chief traitors and by pressure of public opinion were 
finally forced to resign. 

The Student Movement started in Peking, Sunday, May 4th, 
1919, when a group of some three thousand students from the 
various colleges attempted to present a petition to the British and 
American Ministers, asking that the Peace Conference should 


return the German rights to China. The Chinese police would 
not allow them to enter the Legation Quarter, so the students 
went to the house of Ts'ao Ju Lin, damaged it and attacked 
Chang Chung Hsiang, whom they found on the premises. As 
the crowd broke up, thirty-three of the students were arrested 
and held for three days before being released on bail. The Gov- 
ernment was practically forced to release them, as otherwise 
there would have been a clash between the students and police 
on May 7th, the anniversary of the presentation, in 191 5, of the 
Japanese ultimatum concerning the Twenty-one Demands, and 
if some of the students had been killed there would in all prob- 
ability have been a revolution. 

In Peking the Government attempted to control the students 
of one of the schools by putting a guard of some two htmdred 
officers around the school buildings. The only trouble with the 
plan was that the guard had to be changed every four hours, or 
the students would have the men converted to their point of 

In K'aifeng, Honan, the officials tried to keep the students in 
two of the schools from striking by confining them in the school 
compounds and cutting them off from communication with the 
other students. To the boys in one school the girls sent a box 
in which was a skirt, with the note, "If this is what you need, 
we have one for each of you." This was enough to make them 
join the movement, while the others went on strike after they had 
been talked to by one of the girls who dressed up as an old lady 
and gained admission to the school compound by insisting that 
she must see her son. 

Working with the merchants, the students were able to 
inaugurate a boycott of Japanese goods that was far-reaching 
and effective, and not only cut off the supply of Japanese goods 
but also worked to satisfy the demand with Chinese-made goods. 
The students, particularly those of the technical schools, learned 
in their school shops how to make some articles and then went 
out and taught the workmen in other shops how to make them. 
Another group of students made themselves responsible for the 
selling of the goods turned out by the shops. 

The Government attempted to break up the student organiza- 
tions and stop the boycott, and finally in a Presidential Mandate 
issued on June ist made its attitude so plain that the Peking 
students felt they could make progress only by open defiance. 
Consequently, on June 4th and 5th, they instituted a campaign 
of street lecturing by which they attempted to tell the people 
about Shantung, the Student Movement and the actions of the 
three men who were looked on as the chief traitors. Wholesale 
arrests followed and in two days over nine hundred students 


were lodged in the buildings of the Government Law School 
that had been turned into a temporary jail. 

In connection with the student demonstrations in Shanghai 
the merchants organized a general strike, and business in the 
city came to a complete standstill. The strike was so complete 
that even the beggars' and the thieves' gild joined, and there 
was not a single robbery in the city for five days. With the 
strike spreading to other cities, the students causing trouble all 
over the country and the sons of many of the provincial authori- 
ties in jail in Peking, the pressure was too much for the Govern- 
ment and it had to yield to the demands of the students, apologize 
to them for their arrest, permit them to lecture on the streets 
and finally accept the resignations of the three men who were 
looked upon as the chief traitors. 

The students continued their work after their first victory 
and by their influence were able to maintain a long-continued 
and thorough-going boycott of Japanese goods. Their demon- 
strations later in June helped to encourage the Government in 
its refusal to sign the Versailles Treaty, while their reaction to 
the "Foochow Incident" in November, when a group of Japanese 
created a riot in Foochow, made it possible for the Government 
to take a firm attitude and demand that Japan accept the respon- 
sibility for the occurrence, which she finally did — after a year's 
time, the first time in recent years that she has admitted that her 
nationals have been responsible for disturbances in China. 

By a second and third strike carried on early in 1920, the 
students attempted to further force the hand of the Government, 
but they were unsuccessful in their demands. They did not 
have a strong public opinion behind them and the officials were 
able to stand their ground, break the strike, and also arrest and 
keep in jail for several months some of the student leaders and 
others who were arrested during demonstrations in connection 
with the boycott of Japanese goods. 

Although the spectacular side of the Student Movement has 
ceased, they are quietly working for the development of a more 
enlightened public opinion, and in their search for the system of 
thought that is best adapted to the new conditions of Chinese 
life, they are carefully studying those of other countries. The 
ideals of the past are gone and China has yet to find herself and 
the place that she is to take in the new life in the Orient, but 
her hope is in her students with their ideals of patriotism and 

In order that more and more of the people may be able to 
keep in touch with the events of the world, the students are 
quietly pushing a campaign for the teaching of the Kuei Tse or 
new alphabet fiiat was adopted and promulgated by the National 


Board of Education in 1918, thirty-nine characters instead of 
the many thousand different ideographs, and a system that the 
most ignorant coolie can learn to read in a month's time. 

To spread their new ideas and to aid in the discussion of 
philosophy, economics, religion and social life of other countries, 
the students are publishing a great many weekly and monthly 
magazines. Before June, 1919, La Jeunesse and The New 
Education were about the only student magazines, but now there 
are over four hundred published in all parts of the country. 
Eldited and supervised by men who have had the best training that 
western countries can afford, and written not in a high literary 
style but in everyday language, these magazines are having a 
tremendous influence upon the students who will be the future 
leaders of the country. 

When only eight years of contact with democratic ideals can 
produce a generation of students who are willing to meet the 
military and police forces unarmed, rather than give up their 
patriotic ideals, there is every reason to believe that a group of 
leaders will develop who will be able to translate their patriotism 
into action and gradually give China a set of oflicials who are 
interested in the welfare of the coimtry, rather than in personal 
gain, and that public opinion will be enlightened and organized 
so that it can make itself felt on various questions facing the 
country, for when once a united public opinion speaks, it must 
be listened to in China as well as elsewhere. The great problem 
now is to protect China from foreign aggression while she is 
working out, under the leadership of her students, her new 


An accurate census of all the individuals of China has been 
an impossibility in the past. The population of the provinces has 
been estimated, or at best the families have been counted. The 
total number of persons in the country has then been found by 
multiplying the number of families by the average number of 
persons per family, obtained by an intensive census of the in- 
dividuals of several small districts. The Ministry of the Interior 
of the Empire took such a census of the entire country in 1910. 
In that study the average family was found to contain 5.5 per- 
sons, except in the Province of Fengt'ien, where the number was 
8.38. The census covered the population of the provinces, but 
apparently did not make a detailed study of the people living in 
the large cities of the country. At least, the figures of such a 
study have never been published. Soon after the establishment 
of the Republic, plans were drawn up for gathering information 
on the population of the large cities, and the Department of the 
Interior promulgated special rules for the taking of the census 
in Peking, the provincial capitals, the commercial cities and 
others in which police departments had been organized. 

These rules make the head of the City Police Board, the 
Director General of the Census Bureau, while the heads of the 
different police districts are to be the directors of the census 
work in their respective districts. A census board is appointed 
for each police district of the city. The members of these are 
the persons who are really responsible for the census work. The 
number of men on each board is determined by the Director 
General and varies with the amount of work to be done. The 
board members are appointed by the Director and receive a 
salary for their work. The census data is gathered by a house 
to house investigation made for the most part by the police 
officers of the different police districts. As a preliminary, census 
blanks are distributed to each store and residence and the head 
of the house is required to fill them in as far as possible. The 
following questions are asked concerning each individual living 
in the house : 

1. Name. 

2. Sex. Marital condition, whether or not they have had 

any children. 



3. Age and birthday. 

4. Birth-place. 

5. Place of residence and how long they have lived there. 

6. Occupation. 

7. Religion. 

8. Education. 

9. Diseases and physical deformities. 

10. Number of years in Peking. 

11. Other necessary information. 

The individuals are grouped on the blank so that those belonging 
to the immediate family are together. The relatives or friends 
living in the house are in another group, and the servants in a 
third section. 

The Census Reports are all collected by the police on a 
given day. When the officers call for the blanks, they go over 
them with the householder and check all the information given. 
In many cases, of course, the officers have to fill out the blanks, 
as many of the people are unable to write. The police also 
make a note of any persons who have been convicted of 'crime, 
of any who are looked upon as suspicious characters, and of 
any house where there are a great many outsiders living with 
the family. 

The rules require that the police make a separate record and 
a separate study of the people living on boats, of monks living 
in the monasteries and of diose living in schools, prisons, fac- 
tories and other public institutions. This study is to be made 
on the same day as the house to house census. 

The census blanks, when collected, are turned over to the 
different census boards. They tabulate the information and 
prepare the report for their district This gives the numbers of 
the following: 

1. Houses. 

2. Males and females. 

3. Schoolboys from 6 to 13. 

4. Young men from 20 to 40 years of age. 

5. Those bom in Peking or in the different Provinces. 

6. Those employed in gainful occupations. 

7. Those ordinarily living in town but away when the 

census was taken. 

8. Those suffering from disease or physical deformity. 

9. Adherents of the different religions. 

10. Persons living on ships. 

11. Monks in monasteries. 

12. Those in prisons, schools, factories, etc 

13. Miscellaneous information. 


A copy of this report is sent to the Director General. He 
combines the figures of the different districts into a report for 
the entire city. A copy of this report is filed with the Ministry 
of the Interior. 

In order that the census records may be kept up to date, the 
regulations require that all removals, deaths, marriages, etc., shall 
be reported to the police within five days. The police districts 
must forward to the Director General monthly reports of all 
such changes. 

The expenses of the census are met from the local funds, or 
in case of necessity from the police funds, but only those who 
are especially appointed for the census work receive any pay. 
The taking of the census is part of the regular work of the police 
force, and the officers detailed for such work receive no extra 
pay. Reports of all income and expense are to be approved by 
the local authorities and then filed with the Ministry of the 

In the past, when the officials have taken the census, it has 
been the aim of many of the people to give a false report for 
their families. It is an old superstition of the Chinese that it is 
very unlucky for them to have anything pressing on their name. 
Consequently they do not want to have their names written in a 
book, for when it is closed the pressure of the leaves on their 
name will be sure to bring them bad luck, and so they have done 
their best to give a wrong report to the officials. This has been 
particularly true in the country districts where the people have 
but little touch with the officials. In the cities, where they are 
used to dealing with the police, the people are more accustomed 
to answering questions, and it is more difficult for them to give 
false information without having it discovered. Even so, the 
police feel it necessary to send out lecturers who explain to the 
people why the census is being taken and urge them to |^ve the 
correct information. Notices are also posted, forbidding any 
anti-census propaganda. 

Any one guilty of obstructing the census is punished with 
from nve to thirty days' imprisonment or with a fine of from 
$5 to $30. Those who refuse to answer the census questions or 
who give false answers are fined from $1 to $5. 

Some of the people may still attempt to give false informa- 
tion to the police, but five years' experience with the census has 
overcome the prejudice of most of them, and the police arc so 
well acquainted with their districts and in such close touch with 
the people that they are able to discover and correct most of the 
attempted mis-statements. Consequently, the Peking census can 
be considered as reasonably correct and accurate, in the taking 
of any census, errors are bound to occur, and the ignorance and 


the superstition of the population of a city like Peking are sure 
to increase the number of errors, but personal experience with 
the house to house census returns for a small section of the 
city has convinced us that the figures for Peking are well within 
the allowable limits of error and give an accurate report of the 
population of the city. 

The census report for the 6th year of the Republic (1917) 
gives Peking a population of 811,556.^ It is therefore the fourth 
city of China, Canton, Shanghai and Hankow having larger 
populations. Of the cities of the United States, New York, 
Chicago and Philadelphia are the only ones that are larger than 
Peking, while of the capitals of the world, Peking ranks seventh, 
some six of the European capitals reporting a population of a 
million or more. 

The census returns show that Peking is growing steadily, 
although it is an official and not a business or commercial city. 
The 2nd year of the Republic (1913) the population was 727,863. 
In four years there has been an increase of 83,693 persons, or 
11.5 percent of the population of 1913.^ Part of this growth is 
undoubtedly due to better census returns and not to an actual 
increase in the inhabitants of the city. Many mistakes are cor- 
rected as the police check over the returns each year, and people 
are listed who were previously missed. Even allowing for that, 
the figures show that there is a steady growth. 

As the area of Peking is 194 square li, or 24.75 square miles, 
the average density of population for the entire city is 4,289 
persons per square li, or 33,626 persons per square mile.* This 
is from two to four times as dense as the population in American 
cities of about the same size.' In those cities it varies from 
8,260 per square mile in Cincinnati, Ohio, to 15,600 per square 
mile in Boston, Mass. And it must be remembered that Peking 
is a city of one-story houses. 

While the average population density for the entire city is 
33,626 per square mile, there is, as would be expected, a tre- 
mendous variation in the densities reported by the different police 
districts.* The three large districts in the southern part of the 
South City are given over almost entirely to agriculture and have 
only 6,209, 1 1477 ^"d 18,244 persons to the square mile. In the 
five districts in the center of the north part of the South City, 
just outside Ch'ien Men, the main gate from the North City, 
there are from 72,136 to 83,823 per square mile. These are the 
districts where most of the business of the city is concentrated. 
The roads are narrow, every available lot has a building on it, 

*See Population Totals, 5 Yemr Table, in Appendix. 

' See Tables in Appendix, Area and Population of Peking and U. S. Citiet and 
Peidng Density Per Square Li. 

' See Table in Appendix, Population by Police 



I 1 COOO-IIjnO ^ 3g.00M3AII 

en] isooo-z<.oDD ^B K%m-^m 
^^28000 31.000 ^^Tim-nm 

Figure 5 

courtyards are reduced to a miiiimuin and a lai^e number of 
people live in each house. America can show much greater con- 
gestion in some of her business districts where the people are 
crowded into office buildings or factories during the day, but they 
return to their homes at night. In Peking a man usually lives 
where he works, and many of them in the smaller shops set aside 
their tools or simple machinery, and spread their blatikets where 
they have been working during the day. 


In the districts that are largely residential, the density varies 
from 22,078 to 55,914 persons per square mile, though in the 
most of them it is between 30,000 and 40,000. 

Although the Peking census shows a population density that 
is very much greater than that of American cities of the same 
size, the average number of persons per house is less in Peking. 
In Peking the average is 4.9, although for the individual police 
districts the number varies from 3.8 to 6.1. In Philadelphia the 
average is 5.2, while in Boston it is 9.1. In Pittsburg and St. 
Louis the numbers are 6.1 and 6.6, respectively. The smaller 
number for Peking is largely due to a difference in the size of 
the houses in the two countries. Peking is built almost entirely 
on one floor, and what in America would be one house, in 
Peking may be three, four or even more. Thus, a building con- 
taining five rooms, all of which open on to the same courtyard, 
is counted anywhere from one to five houses, depending upon 
the number of families living in it. Most of the rooms are 10x12 
or 12x12, a Chinese "chien," so in the one room "house" the 
people live in very close quarters. In the larger houses, and 
some of them have over 100 "chien," the people are far from 
crowded, but the number of persons per "house" will be large, 
as the families living in those houses include many relatives and 

The comparison of the 191 5 census with that of 191 7 shows 
that there has been an increase of 8,450 (5 percent) in the number 
of occupied houses, in spite of the fact that seven of the districts 
show a loss. The largest increase has been in the districts Inside 
Left 2, 3, and 4. District 2 shows an increase of 2,353 houses, 
21 percent of the number reported in the 191 5 census. This 
increase has made it possible for that district to have a 20 percent 
increase in population in two years, without any rise in the 
averap^e number of persons per house. The number of houses in 
the district Inside Left 4 has also increased 21 percent in two 
years, but the population of the district has increased only 13 
percent. The average number of persons per house has conse- 
quently fallen from 5.1 to 4.8. In only one district has there 
been an increase in population and a decrease in the number of 
houses. That is in Outside Right 2, one of the two districts 
where there are over 83,000 persons to the square mile. The 
population of that district has increased 3 percent, the houses 
have decreased 2 percent, and the number of persons per house 
reached 6.1, the maximum for Peking. In only three districts. 
Inside Rig^t 2, Outside Left 3, and Outside Right 3, has there 
been an increase in the number of houses and an actual decrease 
in the population. In the outside districts, the change in the 
ntmiber ot houses or population has not exceeded 3 percent, but 


in the inside districts the population has decreased 19 percent and 
the number of persons per house is only 3.8, the minimum for 

There has been a great deal of building in Peking, especially 
in the North City, and in traveling around the city one can sec 
many of the two-man sawmills at work, sawing out boards and 
timbers. The large squared logs are brought to the site of the 
work and are there cut by hand into the required sizes. While 
the carpenters prepare the wood, the masons are busy smoothing 
and preparing the brick and tile. The smoothing and any neces- 
sary shaping are also done by hand. In the houses of the poorer 
people, as little wood as possible is used, as it has to be brought 
long distances and is expensive, while brick and tile are easily 
made from the clay that is found near by, or even from the soil 
of the surrounding country. The bricks are soft, porous and 
gray, as they are not heated to as high a temperature as is usual 
in America, and water is thrown into the kiln as it is cooling. 


When China deposed the Manchu Emperor, she discarded the 
old Dragon flag and, with the establishment of the Republic, 
adopted one with five bars, symbolic of the five groups that make 
up the population of the country. Four of these, the Chinese, 
the Manchus, the Mongols and the Tibetans, are racial groups, 
while the fifth, the Mohammedans, are a religious group set 
apart from the rest of the population by the tenets of their faith. 
Representatives of all five groups are found in Peking. It is 
known they vary greatly in number, but the exact figures cannot 
be given, as race is not one of the questions asked by the 

The Chinese, of course, predominate, but as the Emperor was 
a Manchu and used his Nationals as retainers and soldiers, there 
are a large number of Manchus in the city. Although the exact 
number of Manchus cannot be determined, one of the officials 
stated that there are 5,000,000 "Ch'i Jen" or Manchu Bannermen 
in China and that of these, 80,000 are in or around Peking. They 
and their families undoubtedly make the total of Manchus in 
Peking and vicinity well over 300,000. 

Under the Empire, all Manchu men owed the Government 
military service. Those who lived in and around Peking were 
allowed to do nothing but work for the army. They could not 
own land, they could not learn a trade, and had to depend upon 
a state pension for their livelihood. Since the establishment of 
the Republic, this pension has been greatly decreased or entirely 

' For complete details see tables in Appendix. 


cut off, and the men have been forced to attempt to earn a live- 
lihood. They have been unfitted and untrained for any economic 
life and have been very conscious of their position as one of the 
ruling race, so many of them have held out against the change as 
long as possible and have been willing to sell the tiles from the 
floor of their house before they would go to work. Some have 
made an attempt at self-support and found the struggle too keen 
for them with their poor equipment. Only a few have been able 
to succeed in spite of the keen competition. In fact, practically 
all of the Manchu families have had to adapt themselves to a 
standard of living that is lower than that they had under the 
Empire, and poverty and destitution have come to so many of 
them that they constitute one of the big social problems of the 

The casual observer finds it almost impossible to tell whether 
a man is a Manchu or a Chinese, but the women are easily distin- 
guished. The Manchu women wear a long gown, similar to that 
of the Chinese men, while the Chinese women wear trousers and 
a short coat. On some occasions, the Manchu women wear a 
high black satin head-dress trimmed with artificial flowers and 
small shiny beads, and they paint and powder their faces. The 
Chinese wcwnen ordinarily wear nothing on their heads. In the 
past the Chinese women all had small feet, but now more and 
more of them have large feet, as the custom of foot-binding is 
disappearing, rapidly in the cities, more slowly in the country 
districts. The Manchu women have never bound their feet. 
Although the Manchus maintain certain distinctive racial cus- 
toms, such as their bow and their wedding and funeral cere- 
monies, in the ordinary life of the city they seem to be on an 
equal footing with the more numerous Chinese. 

The Mongols are a comparatively small group, while of the 
Tibetans there are probably less than i,ooo in the city. 

The Mohammedans have been fairly numerous in Peking 
ever since one of their faith was married by the Emperor and 
was allowed to build a mosque near the palace and have a troop 
of Mohammedan soldiers as her body-guard. As they are un- 
willing to eat with those who are not of their faith, their religion 
is something of a barrier to social relationship, but it does not 
seem to interfere with business or to keep them from official 

Ssition. One of the Mullahs estimated that there were 25,000 
ohammedans in Peking in 1919. The police census of 191 7 
gave the total as 23,524. In outward appearance they are not 
different from the rest of the population, but are separated by 
their religion. 

In the northeast part of the North City, there is still another 
group who are Chinese in appearance, but who claim to be 


descendants of a group of Russians brought to Peking after the 
capture of Albazin on the Amur in 1685. 

In general, the population of the city is probably divided 
somewhat as follows : 

Chinese 70-75% 

Manchu 20-25% 

Mohammedan 3% 

Mongol 1-2% 

Others a5% 


The figures giving the sex and age and sex distribution of 
the Peking population are the most remarkable of the census 
statistics. Those for the sex distribution (see Appendix) show 
that of the 811,556 persons in Peking, 515,535 are males and 
296,021 are females. That is, 63.5 percent of the population are 
males and there are 174 males to every 100 females in the city. 
In Tokio, which is a large, rapidly growing oriental city, there 
are only 114 males per 100 females, while in the American cities 
of 500,000 and over, the number of males per 100 females varies 
from 96 in Philadelphia to 107 in Qiicago. Peking has a great 
preponderance of males, compared with cities of about the same 
size in other countries, and probably as compared with the other 
large cities in Qiina, though unfortunately the figures for such 
a comparison are not available. 

The figures for the different police districts given in the first 
population table in the Appendix show that the males constitute 
from 49.2 to 77.2 percent of the population of each district 
and that the number of males per 100 females varies from 97 to 
339. The proportion of men is highest in the industrial districts, 
for in four of the five districts in the South City, where the 
population is over 72,000 per square mile, and where much of 
the business of the city is concentrated, the males constitute over 
y2 percent of the population. In the fifth of these crowded dis- 
tricts 63.5 percent of the people are males. In the districts that 
are largely residential, the percentage of males varies from 49.2 
to 66.5 percent. Apparently the larger the proportion of resi- 
dences in a district, the smaller its percentage of males. This is 
but natural, as industry is not open to women and most of the 
men live where they work. Even if a man's family is in Peking, 
he finds it hard to live with them if he is engaged in industrial 
work, for the hours of work are long, the distances between his 
home and his work are often great, and the ricksha, the only 
means of transportation, is too expensive for the use of the 
ordinary worker. Consequently, any man coming to the city for 


BBga Hl-1» ^a Z59 

Figure 6 

work would naturally leave his wife with his parents. He could 
support her with his wages, but as she would have to live alone 
most of the time it is better for her to be with his family where 
she can help with the work of the house, or, if in the country, 
with the work on the farm. 

The relationship between industry and the high proportion of 
ineii in the population is confirmed by two detailed studies, one 
of a group of families belonging to three of the Protestant 


churches, the other of the census figures for every house in a 
small district in the North City. In the study of the district, it 
was found that on the streets where the proportion of shops is 
high the men constitute from 80 to 100 percent of the population, 
while on those streets where the residences predominate the 
percentage of men varies from 49 to 60. In the study of the 
church families, where the selection was made entirely on the 
family basis, it was found that the males and females were almost 
equal. There were only 108 males for every 100 females, or 52 
percent of the group were males and 48 percent females. 

From these figures, it would seem that the industrial situation 
is responsible for the large preponderance of males, but, while 
it is probably the largest factor, our observations have shown 
that the political and educational life of the city also tend to 
increase tiie proportion of males. 

The number of students coming to the city is increasing every 
year. A very considerable proportion of these are married, and 
it is but natural that they should leave their families at home. 
They are unable to earn during the years they are at school, and 
so have to look to their parents for support for themselves and 
their families. The parents nearly always want the daughter-in- 
law to live with them rather than in the city with her husband, 
because of the help that she can ^ve them. 

A man seeking political position finds it almost necessary to 
come alone, as, first of all, the chances that he will secure the 
coveted office are very small. One of the officials estimated that 
there were from 100,000 to 125,000 "expectant officials" in the 
city, while the actual number of official positions was between 
5,000 and 6,000. And, secondly, the cost of bringing his family 
to Peking before he is sure of an appointment is almost pro- 
hibitive, particularly if he comes from one of the more distant 
provinces. Any money a man has must go for his own support 
and toward securing the favor of those who have the appointive 

A distinctive feature of the Chinese method of securing 
either industrial or political work is that a man never applies 
directly for a position. He must always find some friend who 
will recommend him and more or less stand as sponsor for him, 
and before he can get an industrial position he must find some 
one who will act as his guarantor. 

Another reason why a man does not bring his family with 
him may be that his wife is chosen for him by his parents, and 
he is perhaps not as anxious to have her with him as he would be 
if he had chosen her himself. 

The family situation is further complicated by the fact that 
the men away from home seldom visit their families. In a study 


of 4,000 married men, Dr. W. G. Lennox, of the Union Medical 
College of Peking, found that for those whose homes were outside 
the city the average length of time the men had been away from 
their families was i8 months. 

Single women do not come to Peking in any large numbers. 
Political life is not open to them, they find little if any place in 
industry, and their educational opportunities are much more lim- 
ited than those of the men. Chinese custom is quite strict in 
insisting that no women travel, unless accompanied by thdr 

As a result of the large excess of males in the city, Peking 
is facing the serious social problems that always arise when a 
large number of men are brought together witliout the oppor- 
tunity of associating with women, and where the home ties of 
so many are broken for so long a time. 


In the ages of its inhabitants, Peking differs from the Ameri- 
can cities of the same size, in that it has a very much smaller 
proportion of those who are under 15, and a larger proportion 
who are between 25 and 50. From the accompanying charts and 
from figures given in tables in the Appendix that show by five- 
year periods the age distribution of the population of Peking and 
four American cities, it will be seen that between the "under 5" 
group and the 10-14 year group there is a very decided decrease m 
the proportion of the population in the different age groups in the 
American cities, but that in Peking there is an increase rather 
than a decrease. From the 10-14 to the 20-24 year group, there 
is a very rapid increase in Peking and the American cities, but 
the increase is greater in Peking. In the American cities the 
20-24 year group contains the maximum number of persons, 
while in Peking the largest proportion is found in the 25-29 year 
group. After the maximum has been passed, the number in the 
different age groups decreases rapidly. The rate of decrease is 
almost identical for the American cities, but for Peking the rate 
is slower for the 30-34 and the 35-39 year groups and then more 
rapid until the 50-54 year group is reached. From then on, the 
proportion of the population in the different age groups is prac- 
tically the same in Peking, the American cities and the entire 
population of the United States. 

From the curves, it is evident that the sharp increase that 
comes in the 15-19 and 20-24 year groups in the American cities 
and from the "under 5" group to the 25-29 year group in 
Peking is the result of immigration. Such large groups of young 
people come into the cities for education and for work that the 


'9TT'I92i298439«49M696469 74T9 

ordinary decrease due to death is more than overcome. But few 
peo[4e come to live in the city after they are 25 or 30 years of 
age, and emigration and the increasing death rate bring about a 
steady decrease in the numbers of those in the older age groups. 

From the shape of the curve for the population of Peking, it 
is quite evident that a large number of young children have been 
missed in taking the census. The accompanying chart (Church 
Families) gives the age distribution of the members of 325 
Peking families. In it, there is a decrease from the 1-5 year 
group to the II-IS year group, and then a rapid increase in the 
16-20 year group. While the increase and decrease are more 
extreme than in the American cities, the shape of the curve is 
very much the same and seems to be characteristic of a ci^ 

The ^res for the 325 families are probably correct for the 
small group, as all of the families belonged to a Protestant 
church, had had some experience with foreigners and would be 
willing to give an accurate report, as they knew the information 


















— 1 — I , 

: 1 1 



J_ 1 


s - 


1 6 11 16 a 26 81 Mil Mil 56 SIM 2115 «!♦ 
6 10 16 2026308640456055 6066707680 


Figure 8: Peking Church Families. Percent in Five- Year Age Groups 

was for church use. Complete figures for Peking would prob- 
ably not raise the curve for the younger groups as high as in the 
American cities, but would probably show the characteristic 
decrease from the 1-5 group to the 11-15 year group and then a 
rapid increase. The police themselves admitted that they found 
it hard to get an accurate report of the children, particularly the 
very young ones. A questionnaire answered by Chinese in all 
parts of the country showed that a great many think that a child 
has no soul until it is some three years old, and so they would 
not think it important to list it as one of the members of the 
family. It will be noticed that, for the American cities, the ages 
are given as, under 5, 5-9, 10-14, while for Peking they are 1-5, 
6-10, ii-i^. The difference is apparent rather than real, as a 
Chinese child is said to be one year old at birth and is two years 
old on the next Chinese New Year. Rather than make any change 
in the tables, the two standards have been used. 




Figure 9: 

K li025aO»30»i04560jS660i5aa80> 
'^ 9 14 192429343944 49 64696460 74 79 


Boston Population: Age and Sex. Number in Five- Year 

Age Groups 


The charts and figures (see tables in Appendix) for the age 
groups of the sexes in Boston and Philadelphia show that the 
males and females in the different age groups are almost equal 
and increase and decrease at practically the same rate. This is 
not true of Peking. In that city the males greatly predominate — 
174 males to every 100 females — ^and the rate of increase and 
decrease is much larger for the males than for the females. 
The largest number of females is in the 35-40 year age group. 
The proportion of males increases from 59 percent in the i-S 
year group to 69 percent in the 26-30 year group, and then de- 
creases until only 54 percent of those over 80 years of age are 
males. The increase and decrease are continuous, except in the 
36-40 year group, when the very decided peak for the females 
reduces the percentage of males to 62, but in the next age group, 
41-45, the percentage returns to 68 and then continuously declines 

to 54. 

It is but natural that the men who come to the city for an 

education, for industrial work or seekinc; political position, 

should be young, and, as the influences of the city are such that 

most of the men come without their families, the rapid increase 

in the proportion of men would naturally be expected. The rapid 

decrease m the proportion of men who are in the age groups 

over 30 is likewise to be expected, as a large number of those 

who have completed their education, have secured their business 

training, or have failed in their search for political office, will 



V / 


Ihla T60.4«3 
Jitan.!* T8S.MS 
ToUl I.MB,W« 













> U I* H 5 M » « 

ngnre lo: PhiUdclphia Population : Age mnd Sex. Number in Fin- Year 
Age Groups 

retum to their homes. Studies in America have shown that the 
death rate for men living alone is higher than for those living 
with their families, and the same is undoubtedly true in China. 

It is rather striking to find in the 36-40 year group a very 
shatp peak in the graph for the age distribution of the women, 
particularly when the maximum number of males was found in 
the group ten years younger, 26-30, There are 3,875 more 
women in the 3^40 year group than in the 31-35 year group, and 
10,691 more in the 36-40 year group than in the 41-45 year 
group. Just what it is that makes this sharp peak it is impossible 
to say, but apparently a number of influences are at work. In 
the first place, the men who have made a success in the city will 
be able to have their families with them by the time they are 
about 35, and by the time a man is 35 his parents are very apt to 


6_n»2IMM86««61«M8671 7681* 

Peking Population: Age and Sex. Mnmber in Flve-Year 
Age Groups 

have died, his home will have been broken up, and instead of his 
being under the control of his father — and in China that is a 
very real control — he himself will be the head of a house. He 
will then naturally want to have his wife with him and establish 
his home in the city. In America it is a well-known fact that 
many women dislike to say they are over 40. It is hardly con- 
ceivable that there would be any such tendency on the part of 
the Chinese women, as a woman over 40 in China is known as 
"Lao T'ai T'ai," or Old Lady, and ordinarily receives the added 
veneration that the Chinese give to old age, but there seems to be 
some special influence that has kept in the younger age group a 
large number of those who are actually over 40. 

Peking is so evidently a city maintained by the immigration 
of young people, a large proportion of whom are males ; it is so 
«nuch ttie educational and political center of the country and 
there are so many people who come to the ci^ for a few years 




Htic OS 
T«Ul 1,117 





I A 








V r 





Figure i3: Peking Gturch Families: Age and Sex. Number in Five-Yetr 
Age Groups 

and then return home that it is a very strategic center for any 
social work, which, as far as the foreigners are concerned, must 
really be in the nature of a demonstration. Not only can much 
be done to help the people of the city, but much can be done 
toward solving the problems presented by the city, particularly 
those of the young men away from home, many of whom are 
meeting city life for the first time, and the other parts of the 
country can be influenced, as so many return to their homes after 
a few years' experience in Peking. Furthermore, China is now 
making her first experiments with new types of social work and 
it is possible to influence the whole future policy of the country 
by work done in Peking. The young men, particularly Uie stu- 
dents, will be the future leaders of the country, and if ther can 


be given a practical demonstration of social work at its best, 
China can be saved many of the mistakes and much of the 
expensive experience of the western countries. 


In reporting the marital condition of the population, the 
police have prepared a table that gives the total number of 
married and single persons in the entire city, the number in each 
of the 20 police districts, and the figures for the males who are 
over and under 30 years of age and for the females who are 
over and under 20. The figures in these last divisions, however, 
are manifestly incorrect, as the totals of the groups do not equal 
those given by the table showing the ages of the population. 
More males are given as under 30 by the Marital Table than by 
the Age Table, but the ntmiber is less than the number under 35. 
The number of females included by the heading "under 20" is 
but little less than the number the Age Table shows to be under 
35. Because of these errors but little information can be drawn 
from the tables. 

The table gives these figures : 

Married Single Per Cent Married 

Males 274^5 240,010 53 

Females 171*321 i^Too 58 

Total 446^ 365,310 55 

Males over 30 iSl^T^ 85f593 6$ 

Males under 30 116,127 I55i0i8 43 

ToUl 274,925 240,610 53 

Females over 20 119^645 43>5o6 73 

Females under 20 5I1676 81,194 49 

Total 171^1 124,700 58 

A detailed study of over 1,200 persons showed 49 percent of 
all the males as married and 60 percent of the females. The 
figures for the United States are : Males 42 percent, and females 
47 percent. 

If the figures of the table could be taken to show approxi- 
mately the marital condition of the males and females over and 
under 30 years of age, 35 percent of the males over 30 would be 
single and 27 percent of the females. Of those tmder 30 years 
of zee, 57 percent of the males would be single and 61 percent 
of the females. These figures, however, are tmdoubtedly far 
from correct. In our detailed study, only 28 percent of the males 
and 16 percent of the females over 16 years of age were single ; 
of those over 25 years of age, only 9 percent of me males and i 


percent of the females were still single, while of those over 30 
years of age, 7 percent of the males and 0.5 percent of the 
females were unmarried. 

In the American cities that are of the same size as Peking, 
from 38.3 to 44.9 percent of the males over 15 years of age are 
single and from 30.3 to 40 percent of the females. 

In a study of 4,000 married men, Dr. W. G. Lennox, of the 
Union Medical College of Peking, found that the average age at 
marriage was 20.5 years, and that the greatest number were 
married when they were 19. 

The marital condition of the population of Peking and the 
American cities cannot be accurately compared from the figures 
in hand, but it is very evident that those who are married con- 
stitute a much larger proportion of the population of Peking 
than in the American cities, and that the Chinese marry at a 
younger age than do the Americans. Family wishes and eco- 
nomic pressure are the two factors that cause such a large pro- 
portion of the Chinese to marry, and to marry at an earlier age 
than do the Americans. The Chinese want to see their sons 
married, as the daughter-in-law will be able to do a great deal 
of the work of the household and because grandsons are one of 
the great desires of every Chinese. They are anxious to see their 
daughters married so that the burden of their support may fall 
on some other family. 

The boys have ordinarily completed their trade or business 
apprenticeship and are eammg fair wages by the time they are 
eighteen, so it is but natural that their families should find a 
bride for them at that time, even though the bo/s earnings arc 
not enough to pav for her support. The family is willing to 
support her for the help that she can give in the work of the 
house. In many cases, necessity requires the boy to live in the 
store where he works, but even so he must be married and his 
wife live with his parents. The family system is strong in China, 
and the desires of the family are almost always put ahead of the 
wishes of the individual. 


Peking has never been definitely opened to the trade of the 
world as a treaty port, even though it is the capital of the country 
and the representatives of the foreign governments have been 
allowed to live in the city for over 60 years. The fact that 
Peking is the capital has made the Chinese unwilling to make the 
city a treaty port, and the foreigners have not found it necessary 
to force them to open it, as Tientsin is only 84 miles away. 
Consequently, foreigners who are not members of the Diplo- 


matic Corps, the Customs Service, the Missions, or teachers in a 
school or college, are allowed to live and do business outside of 
the L^;ation Quarter only because of the toleration of the 
Chinese officials and not because of any treaty rights. Even so, 
there are 1,524 persons living outside of the Legation Quarter 
and 116 foreign firms are doing business outside of that district. 

There are no figures available that give the number of for- 
eigners residing in the Legation Quarter, or the number of firms 
doing business in that district. The Diplomatic Corps controls 
the Legation Quarter and has never taken a census of those livine 
inside its walls. Each legation keeps track of its own nationab 
living in Peking, whether they live in the Legation Quarter or in 
the city proper, but it has been impossible to obtain their figures. 
It is known, however, that the strength of the American Legation 
Guard, a detachment of the U. S. Marine Corps, is ordinarily 
about 300 men, and that the number of Americans who might 
contribute to the American Liberty Loan was well over 500. It 
is also known that the Americans are the largest group of for- 
eigners in Peking, next to the Japanese. 

Of the 1,524 persons living outside of the L^^tion Quarter, 
929 are Caucasians and 595 Japanese. They are divided among 
the different nationalities as follows : 

Police Census 19 17 


American 173 108 281 62 

Austrian 6 i 7 86 

Belgian 30 8 38 79 

Dane 11 13 24 46 

Dutch 3 3 6 so 

English 142 f& 230 62 

French 99 32 131 75 

German 102 50 152 ^ 

Italian 6 2 8 75 

Japanese 428 167 595 72 

Mexican 3 2 5 60 

Norwegian 2 3 5 40 

Portuguese 3 i 4 75 

Russian 9 6 15 60 

Spanish 2 i 3 66 

Swedish 8 6 14 57 

Swiss I I 2 so 

No data 3 i 4 — 

Total 1,031 493 ii524 67^ 

It will be noticed that 68 percent of the foreign population are 
males and that there are 209 males to every 100 females. Of the 
Japanese 72 percent are males, and of the Caucasians 65 percent 


The males predominate in the foreign population even more than 
they do in the Chinese population. 

Since Peking is not a treaty port, foreigners are not free to 
own land in the city, and those who do not belong to the Diplo- 
matic Corps, Customs Service, or to one of the Missions, must 
live in rented houses. All renting contracts must be approved by 
the police, according to their rules. Such contracts are limited 
to a period of three years, but are renewable provided the police 
approve. The police rules provide that renting contracts may 
be canceled by the owner in case he mortgages or sells the prop- 
erty, provided he gives the tenant three months' notice, or by the 
tenant after one month's notice, provided he is leaving the city. 

As the police must approve all renting contracts, they are able 
to limit the districts in which the foreigners are allowed to live. 
Consequently, 1,004 (66 percent) of the 1,524 foreigners are 
living m the southeast comer of the North City in Police District 
Inside Left i, while the districts Inside Left i and 2 contain 78 
percent of the foreigners. There are 178 living on the west side 
of the North Citjr and only 71 in the South City. It is only 
recently that foreigners have been allowed in the West City, and 
even now the police practically refuse to allow any foreigners to 
live in the South City. They say that they must see that aU 
foreigners are protected in case of any trouble, and to give them 
adequate protection in the South City would take a larger body 
of men than could well be spared. 

The records of the Protestant Missionary Spcieties show that 
they had, in 1919, 348 representatives in Peking. The following 
table from the police census gives a rough classification of the 
occupations of the foreigners : 




Agriculture and Forestry 2 i 3 

Commerce 274 28 302 

Communications 42 — 42 

Gmsul 84 II 9S 

Doctor 40 22 62 

Lawyer 2 ^— 2 

Mining 13 3 16 

Mechanic 84 8 93 

Preacher 55 47 loa 

Prostitute 2 39 41 

Students 62 3 65 

Teachers 47 «3 To 

Others 142 81 223 

NoData 182 227 309 

Total 1,031 493 1,^4 


It is to be regretted that the language barrier isolates from 
the Chinese many of the foreigners who are in Peking for business 
or are connected with the l^;ations and prevents them having 
any appreciable influence on the life of the aty. To learn Chinese 
is a long and tedious task ; a great many of the foreign community 
are in Peking only temporanly ; they are occupied with business 
and the sodd life of their own group and do not come in touch 
with many of the Chinese other tlmn the limited number who speak 
their language. A few women are interested in the Yang Lao 
Yuan or Old Ladies' Home, being responsible for the raising of 
the funds for the institution: Countess Ahlefeld helped improve 
conditions in the Foundlings' Home; some are interested in the 
support of the shelters for ricksha coolies, but their share in the 
work is largelv dealing with foreigners and raising money by 
solicitation or benefit performances. 

Just as the field work of the survey was being completed tfie 
totals for the 1918 census were published as follows : 

Houses 173A12 

Males 637,685 

Females ^9ifi72 

Total 932,557 

Without havii^ the details of the census at hand, it is hard to 
explain the difference between these figures and those for 191 7. 
The comparison of the 1917 census with the 1918 census shows 
that in one year the number of occupied houses has increased 
6,690, or 4 percent, while the population has increased 121,001, 
or 15 percent. The growth in population has been entirely in the 
numb^ of males. They have increased 122,150, while the num- 
ber of females has decreased 1,149. '^be males constitute 68.2 
percent of the population in 1918, as compared with 63.5 percent 
m 1917, while the number of males per 100 females has risen 
from 174 to 217. 



To properly study the health problems of Peking would 
quire a special survey made by men trained for such work, but 
in making the social survey certain facts and figures concerning 
the health and sanitation of the city were collected and are in- 
cluded in this report because of their bearing on the social prob- 
lems, and because many of them are not available elsewhere. 

The public health work of the city is entirely in the hands of 
the police, the Board of Health being one of the departments of 
the Police Board. Other government organizations such as the 
Military Guard and the Metropolitan District have departments 
of sanitation, but as far as Peking is concerned their principal 
duty is to stamp the regulations as passed by the Police Board. 

The Board of Health consists of a director, three assistant 
directors, each of whom is in charge of one of the three depart- 
ments of the Board, two doctors who practice Chinese medicine 
and two who practice foreign medicine. The first department of 
the Board is in charge of the cleaning of the streets, the repair 
and cleaning of the sewers, the erection and supervision of all 
public toilets, and the transportation of night soil. Department 
number two is responsible for the health of the city and the pre- 
vention of disease. Its duties include the inspection of food 
offered for sale and the supervision of the houses of prostitution. 
Department number three supervises all hospitals, manages those 
that are run by the police, and licenses all doctors, midwives, and 
those making and compounding medicines. 

The regular expenses of the Board, including the salaries of 
all employees, directors and doctors, are paid from the general 
police fund. Ordinarily the Board of Health has no budget of 
its own, and even in case of an emergency the Police Board 
furnishes the money needed to meet the situation. 

A large number of health ordinances have been adopted by 
the Board of Health, but only a few of them are definitely in 
force. The head of the Board is a doctor who has been trained 
in the Chinese system of medicine and so has not had experience 
with western sanitation and hygiene. The detailed enforcement 
of all ordinances is in the hands of the regular police officers 
who usually have but little appreciation of sanitation, and the 



people themselves, because of ignorance, see no reason why they 
should go to the trouble of keeping things clean, protecting food 
offered for sale, etc. Even so, great progress has been made in 
the sanitation of the city and one has only to walk down the 
well-paved and well-cleaned streets and hear how some of them 
used to be ankle deep in filth, to realize what an improvement 
there has been. Now, the principal problem is to educate the 
people so that they will appreciate the need of better sanitation. 
Health lectures and demonstrations produce distinct improve- 
ment, and in a district where such a campaign has been carried 
on it is not at all unusual to find the stores covering and protect- 
ing from flies food that is offered for sale, a thing they are 
required to do by the police regulations but which they ordinarily 

Birth rates and death rates are the fundamental figures for 
all health work and the police have endeavored to secure the 
statistics on which these rates are based. So far they have not 
been able to secure accurate figures, although the reports are 
becoming more and more complete. The people simply will not 
report all births and deaths. When the number of reported 
births was approximately 2,000 in 1914, 4,000 in 1915, 6,000 in 
1916, and 9,000 in 1917, it is evident that the birth rate cannot 
yet be determined. The death rate is much more accurate. The 
law requires that all bodies be buried outside the city and, as no 
funeral can go through the gates unless a police permit has 
been secured, all deaths are reported except perhaps for some 

In 1 91 7,* 9f566 births were reported to the police, a birth rate 
of 1 1.8 per 1,000 persons, or 32.6 per 1,000 females and 51.1 per 
1,000 females of child bearing age (16-50). The birth rate for 
325 families that belong to the American Board Churches (see 
Chapter XV, on the Church Survey) was 26.5, the rate per 1,000 
females being 55, and 94 per 1,000 women of child bearing age. 
In a study of several villages just outside of Peking, Prof. Ditt- 
mer found a birth rate of 36.5. The Peking rate is too low, but 
even if it were accurate it would still be much lower than the 
other two because of the small proportion of females in the city 
(36.5 percent). In the two studies, 48-50 percent are females. 

The birth rates for the different police districts vary tre- 
mendously (4.9-25.2), but in some districts the population is 49 
percent male, while in others it is 75 percent male, so that the 
only fair basis of comparison is the birth rate per 1,000 females. 
Even on that basis the birth rates vary from 16.6 to 68.2. Some 
of the police districts are manifestly much more successful than 
others in securing a report of births. In all probability the Peking 

*See table in Appendix. 


birth rate is between i8 and 20 per 1,000 inhabitants, or between 
55 and 60 per 1,000 females. 

The masculinity rate (number of male births per 1,000 female 
births) of the reported births is 1,185. Dr. Lennox, in a study 
of 4AX> married men, found a masculinity rate of 1,191, while 
Dr. Gray, in a study of 1,000 mothers, found a rate of 1,131. 
The high rate for the police figures is probably due to the fact 
that the people take more pains to report the birth of a boy. Of 
the 9,566 reported births, 640 (6.7 percent) were still births, 307 
males and 333 females; 5.9 percent of all the male births and 
7.1 percent of all female births were still births. 

The number of deaths reported in 1917 was 20,987,* a death 
rate of 25.8 per 1,000, the maximum for the last five years. 
The minimum rate was 18.8. The death rate for the church fam- 
ilies was only 13, and for Prof. Dittmer's study 23, but very 
patent omissions make these too low. Of the 20,987, 11,142 were 
males and 9,845 females, only 53 percent male, while the popula- 
tion of the city is 63.5 percent male. Consequently the deatii 
rate for males is 21.6 and for females 33.2. In other countries 
the death rate for females is usually the lower. In the United 
States it is 16.8, while the rate for nmles is 19.2.* 

Figures for infant mortality are not given by the police tables, 
as all those who are from one to five years of age, Chinese 
reckoning, are included in one group. Dr. Lennox calculated 
that the maximum infant mortality rate for his study was 184.1, 
168.5 f^^ ^^€ males and 202 for the females. According to the 
police figures, the death rate is 134 for those who are from (me 
to five years of age, 122 for the males and 152 for the females. 
As the ages increase the death rate decreases until the minimum 
9.3 is found in the 31-40 year group. From then on the rate 
increases to a maximum of 147 for those who are between 81 
and 90 years of age. In every age group, the female death rate 
is higher and in some groups almost double that of the males. 
In me 21-30 year group the rate for males is 8.5 and for 
the females 15.5. The minimum death rates for males (74) 
and for females (12.8) are both found in the 31-40 year 

Deaths from accident number 117, suicide 126, epidemic dis- 
eases, cholera, cold, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, 
688, from 36 other diseases 1 7,055 » and ^rom old age 1,804. The 
rates per 100,000 of the population are: Accident 144, suicide 
15.5, epidemic diseases 85, old age 222. 

The Peking suicide rate of 15.5 * is practically the 

same as is 

* See table in Appendix. 

" 1018 MorUlttar Table. U. S. Censnt Bureau. 

* See table in Appendix, Death Rate for Age Groups. 

*See Uble in Appendix of Succeaiful and Attempted Suicidct* 


found in American cities of about the same size. Their rates 
vary from 14.9 to 17.0.* The rate for the entire United States is 
12.1. Thirty-three percent of the Peking suicides are females* 
while in the United States only 26 percent are women. The ages 
of those committing suicide are practically the same in Pekmg 
and the United States, the maximum number of males being be- 
tween 31 and 40 years of a^e, and of the females between 21 and 
30. Poverty, disease, family troubles, insanity and hating one- 
self are given as the principal causes of suicide in Peking. Other 
causes are discovery of crime, debt, jealousy, punishment by 
parents, old age. Disease is the principal cause of suicide for 
men and family troubles for women. Hanging, taking poison, 
drowning and stabbing are the most popular methods 01 suicide; 
shooting was used by only one person, although in the United 
States more people use that method than any other. One of the 
simple ways of taking poison is to eat the phosphorescent heads 
of a box or two of matches. May and December are the months 
in which the largest number of suicides occur. 

While there were 688 deaths from infectious diseases in 1917, 
there were 2,691 cases reported, a mortality rate of 25.6 percent.* 
It is striking that only 5 percent of the cholera cases resulted 
fatally, while 54 percent of the smallpox and 75 percent of the 
scarlet fever cases died. The Chinese have learned to recognize 
the seriousness of cholera and take the patients to the hospital, 
but a case of smallpox or scarlet fever goes to the hospital only 
if it is very serious. The Chinese attitude toward smallpox is 
well shown by the answer given by a woman when she was asked 
whether she had ever had smallpox or been vaccinated, 'The idea 
of your asking me, a woman of twenty-eight, whether I've had 
smallpox or not. Of course I've had it." 

From 1913 to 1917 there was a very marked decrease ^43 
percent) in the number of epidemic cases : 4,744 in 191 3 and 2,091 
in 191 7. The decrease in the number of cases resulting fatally 
is even more striking. The 191 7 deaths were just one-quarter of 
those occurring in 1913. Furthermore, in 1913 59 percent of all 
the epidemic cases resulted fatally, while in 1917 only 25 percent 
died, a remarkable improvement. 

A special hospital nas been opened by the National Govern* 
ment to care for all infectious cases and to see that all places 
where such cases are found are properly disinfected. The police 
are required to report to the hospital all infectious cases that 
come to their notice and all deaths that have resulted from an 
infectious disease. As the people are still inclined to be sus- 
indous of a hospital, the police find it difficult to get a report of 

> ICortalitsr Statittica» 1918. U. S. Centtu Bure«u. 

* Sec tebtc. Epidemic Diicaies, Cmcs mnd Deaths, Appendix. 


the more common infectious diseases, but conditions are improv- 
ing year by year. 

The police give tuberculosis as the cause of 4,108 deaths (19.7 
percent of all deaths). Epilepsy was the cause of 4,247 deaths 
(20.3 percent), and lung and bronchial troubles of 1,105 (5:3 

The hospitals in Peking numbered 38 in 191 7, and 46 in 1919. 
Six are government hospitals, four are supported by other public 
funds, 17 are under private Chinese management, and 16 are run 
by foreigners. Of the latter, nine are managed by Japanese, one 
by German, one by French, and five by American doctors. In 
1917 the hospitals treated 81,604 persons. 

The finest hospital in the city is that of the China Medical 
Board of the Rodcefeller Foundation, for the 250-bed hospital, 
the medical school for 100 students, the residences for staff and 
students and nurses and all the necessary equipment represent 
an investment of some seven million dollars gold. The archi- 
tecture of the building is Chinese, with high, curved, green-tiled 
roofs and brilliant decorations under the eaves, but the interior 
equipment is modern in every respect. The green roofs of the 
building are such a striking feature of the city that many of the 
Chinese are calling the hospital compound "The Green-Tiled 

It is the aim of the China Medical Board to make this the 
center of medical work in China, at least as far as foreigners 
arc concerned, and they plan to train the Chinese who are to 
be the future medical leaders of the country. The teaching is 
all done in English as that seemed the best way to overcome 
the many problems connected with the Chinese dialects, the 
difficulty of foreigners learning Chinese, the lack of text-books 
in Chinese. 

The Central Hospital, built and opened in 1918 under the 
direction of Dr. Wu Lien Teh, who is now the head of the 
plague prevention work of the Government, is the best of the 
government hospitals. The $250,000 needed for the building 
and equipment was secured partly from government sources and 
partly by private subscription. The Inner City Public Hospital 
and the Outer City Public Hospital are under the control of the 
health department of the Peking Police Board. According to 
the police report the budget of the two institutions amounts to 
$60,934 a year. The Hospital for Contagious Diseases is run by 
the Municipal Council. The Japanese hospitals, as far as is known, 
arc all private institutions and are operated for profit. Three of 
the American hospitals and the French Hospital are mission 

There are 1,098 physicians in Peking. Nine hundred and 

OF Peking's smells — part of the "sewer system." 

The night lolL of the ciljr is collecleil in mbeelbarruwi, taken ouliid* t 
cily wall ■nd dried for fertiliicr. 

Happy on riKhl »nt« 3 day but cin live an thrtc. Sludin o[ Tckmi fimi 
budiiela ihow ihal a family a( Sve can live an flOO  jru''- 


eighty-nine use Chinese medicine while 109 have had training 
in western medicine. The number of foreign doctors is 59, tmt 
this number will be materially increased when the staff of the 
China Medical Board is complete. 

Vaccination stations, most of which give free service, are 
opened in different parts of the city for several months of each 
year. In 191 7, there were 66 centers and 8,794 persons were 
vaccinated, 5,021 males and 3,773 females. 

One hundred and eighty- four mid wives are registered with 
the police,* 168 Chinese and 16 foreign, most of the latter being 
Japanese. Very few, however, have ever had any training in 
modem obstetrical methods, as only 7 of the 184 are under 36 
years of age and only 22 (12 percent) are under 46. Six are 
even over 80 years of age. Under these conditions, 325 women 
died in childbirth in 191 7, or one for every 29 births. And that 
does not include those who died of infection or other after 
effects. The situation will gradually improve as the National 
Board of Education has established a Training School for Mid- 
wives in Peking, but progress will be slow as at present there 
are only 56 students in the school. 

The Medical College of the National Board of Education 
and the Medical College of the Board of War are also located 
in Peking; the former having 69 and the latter 240 students. 
The Government has no medical school for women in Peking 
and the training of women doctors is entirely in the hands 01 
foreigners. The China Medical Board has opened its medical 
school to women, but so far has only a very few students. The 
North China. Union Medical College for Women, a union mission 
institution, has a student body of 35, and in 1919 graduated a 
class of 18. The China Medical Board is cooperating with the 
Mission College, giving some financial support and also training 
its students in special work. 

Nurses' training schools are maintained by the mission hos- 
pitals and by the China Medical Board. 

It has long been felt that the pupils in the higher schools in 
Peking should be given courses on public health and social serv- 
ice, but until recently this has been impossible; there was no 
one to give the courses, and there was no support for the work. 
Now there are doctors, nurses and workers in the city who can 
do the teaching, financial support can be secured, and a com- 
mittee of the Peking Branch of the China Medical Missionary 
Association has worked out a health and service program that 
was started in four schools in Peking in the fall of 1920. Over 
twenty physicians, nurses, preachers and teachers have volun- 
teered to give lectures and demonstrations covering personal 

>See Appendix, table of Number and Ages of Midwtvea. 


hygiene, individtial prophylaxis against communicable diseases, 
community sanitation and social service. The entire student 
body of each of the schools participating will be required to 
attend the lectures and to pass examinations on the work. 

It is also the plan to organize groups of medical and college 
students who will take special training, and then give lectures 
and demonstrations during the summer vacation, the experience 
of the lecture department of the Y.M.CA. and of the Com- 
munity Social Service Group in Peking (see Chapter XVII) 
haying shown that this is one of the best ways of putting infor- 
mation before the people. Improvement in public hygiene can 
come only as the people are made to realize the need of it, and 
are shown practical methods. If funds are available, the lec- 
turers will be paid a small salary and all expenses. 


Surface wells are still the principal source of water supply 
for Peking although water from the Sun Ho, a river to the 
northeast of the city, is delivered under pressure by the Peking 
Water Company, and artesian water can be found in some parts 
of the city. The reason is largely one of expense. 

The Chinese originally dug wells that were shallow and the 
water was usually brackish and impure, but with the coming 
of the foreigners better drilling methods were introduced and 
most of the wells are now deep enough to find water that is 
sweet and free from surface contamination, though some wells 
are apt to be infected because of bad location. Several cases 
are known where the public well and the public toilet are side by 
side. Recently some deep wells (300-400 feet) have been dug, 
but only part of them have found an artesian flow. 

The water from the wells is distributed by water-carriers 
who take it through the streets in wooden tanks on large wheel- 
barrows, a wheelbarrow load containing some twelve buckets- 
full, and sell it to the householder. The usual charge is one 
copper for two bucketsfuU, though in some cases the water- 
carriers contract to furnish families with all the water they need 
for a fixed monthly rate. The privilege of supplying water to 
the people of a given district ordinarily belongs to some one man 
who has acquir^ it by inheritance. If he does not wish to run 
iht business himself he leases the privilege and for the lease 
receives 10 percent of the total income of the district. The ordi- 
nary water-carriers are hired by the month and receive from 
$3 to $4 a month, besides their room, board, shoes and hair-cuts. 
Water from public wells dug by the Government costs distributors 
nothing, but for water from private wells they have to pay from 


$io to $12 a year. There are some 2,500 water-carriers in the 
city, and up to 191 o they were all united in one gild, a very 
powerful organization, but it has been so weakened by competition 
with the P«ing Water Company that now there is practically no 
gild organization, though there are some signs that it wiU be 

In 19089 a stock corporation with an authorized capital of 
$3,000,000 was organized, under German control, for the pur* 
pose of installing a water system in Peking, and the construction 
work was completed by 1910. The water is taken from the 
Sun Ho, passed through ^ree reservoirs, settled and clarified 
and then brought to the city where it is put under pressure by 
means of a 165-foot water tower. The distributing system con- 
tains approximately 100 miles of pipe and covers practically all 
of the densely populated part of the city. 

The company charges one copper for ten gallons of water, 
so only about 3400 families have direct connection with the 
water system. A great many other families, however, get their 
water from one of the 420 street hydrants, as a man is stationed 
at manv of these to distribute water and collect the water tickets 
issued by tiie company. The hydrants are also a source of water 
supply in case of fire, the capacity of the system being 300,000 gal- 
lons an hour. 

The following is the chemical examination of the water 
furnished by the Peking Water Company : 

Parts Parts 

per per 

hundred hundred 

thousand thousand 

S<^d matter in solution. . .264 Total hardness gjo 

M Volatile 8.1 (a) temporary 2.0 

(b) fixed 1&3 (b) permanent 7X> 

Chlorine 1.3 Sulphates 0.001 

Nitrogen ao8i Iron 1.5 

Saline Ammonia aooo4 Nitrates Nil 

Poison metal Nil Oxygen absorbed in one 

Phoq^te Nil hour at 37"* ojoigti 

Bacteriological Examination 

No BadUi 


The Peking sewer system, part of which dates back to the 
Ming Dynasty (1365-1644), is desired to care only for the 
drainage and waste water of the city. The night soil is all 
collected, dried, and used as fertilizer; where modem pltimbing 
is used, cesspools are required. 

Most of the sewers are made of large stone slabs, and as 


there are cracks between the stones much of the water seeps 
away into the surrounding earth. Any that remains is finally 
emptied into one of the several canals of the city and by them 
carried outside the walls. There are approximately 145 miles 
of sewers, exclusive of canals, in Peking (see map). 

When a sewer is near by, most of the houses are connected 
with it, so that their courtyards may drain rapidly after a rain. 
Openings are provided along the streets for drainage and to care 
for the waste water of the houses that are not connected. with 
the sewers. This waste is collected in large wooden buckets and 
then carried out and emptied into the sewer. The police insist 
that it must go into the sewer and not onto the street. 

The sewer openings on the streets are protected by large 
wooden boxes in the bottom of which is a metal grating to keep 
out the larger pieces of refuse. All of the boxes are supposed 
to have covers, but many of them are in bad condition and it 
is not at all unusual to see dogs hunting for something to eat 
among the scraps that have been collected by the gratings. Those 
that have been put in recently are arranged so that the top of 
the box is locked down and opened only for cleaning. There is 
a metal door in the side of the box that swings in when water 
is poured against it, and then closes by its own weight, keeping 
in any scraps of food that there may be in the water. The 
refuse collected by the sewer boxes and the ashes and refuse 
of the houses are carried out to the dumps in small hand carts, 
the expenses of which are paid by those who live on the street 

Because of the friable nature of the Peking soil, the sewers 
gradually fill up with earth, and men are constantly kept busy 
cleaning them out. Most of the men are inmates of the poor- 

The 5,000 men engaged in the collection and handling of the 
city's night soil are all members of the Fertilizer Gild, which 
was organized in 1900, by order of the police. This gild is 
responsible for the enforcement of the police rules and the 
collection of any fees the members may owe the police. One 
of the gild rules makes it impossible for a man to give up his 
position, or for his employer to discharge him except for very 
serious reasons, except at Chinese New Year — a limitation that 
is found in almost no other gild. 

House to house collections are made every morning and are 
carried in wheelbarrows outside of the city where the manure 
is dried for fertilizer. Until 1906, many of these drying yards 
were inside the city, but the police have forced them all outside 
the walls, most of them outside the south wall of the South Qty. 
Even there, the yards are controlled by the police and by them 
rented to the users* . 

• .  I  ,   . Cwilt 

tMfc U|M «d fMw ipttm m Ante, but Mft irt nm titenshn In thi Sorti Or 
Ita WMf qMM k M NMth Cttir men Ihi niM «N but hM tmr iMlM 

Figure 13 

There are 528 public toilets on the streets of the city. Some 
are inside well-built frame buildings, but others are simply 
inclosed by a low wall. Practically all of them have been estab- 
lished by the police and are rented to the collectors of night scmI. 
The total rent amounts to over $700 a month. The police require 
that the renters have their men clean the toilets and that th^ 
themselves personally inspect them every day, but, even so, it is 
difficult to get the cleaning properiy done in spile of the fact that 


the demand for fertilizer has so increased durins^ the last few 
years that the police and the Fertilizer Gild have found it neces- 
sary to impose heavy fines on any one found cleaning toilets 
that they are not renting. The odors of Peking are practically 
all concentrated around the public toilets and the wheelbarrows 
of the collectors. 


The street cleaning of the city is done by a force of i»5i8 
men, organized and controlled by the health department of the 
Police Board. These men, dressed in special blue uniforms, can 
be found on all the highways and many of the smaller streets, 
and they keep the streets not only clean but also sprinkled and 
repaired. When snow falls, a coating of ashes is spread over 
all the main highways in less than 24 hours. In case of rain, 
the worst of the mud is rapidly swept off of the macadam part 
of the highway, while throughout the dry season the dust of the 
roads is kept down by sprinkling. Some of the streets are 
watered by horse-drawn carts but the majority are sprinkled 
by hand. Two men canr a large tub of water out into the 
center of the street and then, by means of a willow basket on 
the end of a pole, give the street an even sprinkling. The woric 
is done though there is a constant stream of traffic on the roads, 
and the passers-by are seldom hit with any water. 

The cleaning and sprinkling of the main highways is done 
at public expense and the annual budget for the work amounts 
to $i44poo. When the smaller streets are cared for, particularly 
if they are sprinkled, the work is usually paid for by those who 
live on the street. Before 1912, the householders of a street 
or district elected committees to look after the care of the street 
and to collect any needed money. These organizations have now 
been taken over by the police who supervise the work and make 
the collections. They post a report once a month, showing the 
amount of money collected from each house and the expenditures 
for the work of the district. The contributions vary from a 
few coppers to one dollar a month, while the expenses as reported 
for two streets in the Teng Shih K'ou district vary from $10 
to $16. The men doing the work receive a salary of $5 a month. 


Th^ expense of lighting many of the streets is met in the 
same way. All of the main highways and some of the smaller 
streets are lighted by electricity at public expense, and are well 
illuminated. The other streets are lighted by small kerosene 
lamps that give just enough light to xnake it possible to see if 


any one is coming down the road. From a distance, the lamps 
look like little stars shining on the sides of the street. The 
lighting of the smaller streets is paid for by those who live on 
the street. The men who look after the lights are under the 
control of the police but are apparently a separate group from 
those who water the streets, as many streets are lighted but not 

The first street lights in the 13th Ward (a district in the 
East City, just south of the Y.M.CA. building) were arranged 
for by the Buddhist Reform Society in iSgSs. The Society 
carried on the work until 1914, when the police took it over. 
The head of the Society stated that he felt the police were looking 
after the work very well. 


Asylums for the insane are not ordinarily found in Chinese 
dties. Peking did not have one until the police began taking 
over the institutional work of the city in 1912, the first year 
of the Republic. In that vear they opened one in the West City 
in connection with one of the poorhouses, but the combination 
of the two institutions was far from satisfactory and in January, 
1918, the asylum was moved into separate quarters on Kao 
Kung An in the North City. Whatever may have been the con- 
ditions in the old location — ^and we heard that they had been very 
bad — the new location and buildings are very good, and as far as 
could be judged from a single visit the inmates are well cared for. 
Temple style buildings are used and separate courts are provided 
for men and women. There are accommodations for about 80, 
but at the time of our visit there were only 32 inmates, 23 men 
and 9 women. The patients are ordinarily confined in large rooms 
and, sitting on the k'ang or built-in bed which runs around three 
sides of the room, they carry on their wild motions and talking. 
Those who are violent are shackled and placed on a rug on the 
floor in the center of the room so they cannot injure the other 
patients. A few separate rooms are provided for those who are 
recovering or for those who have wealth or position. Practically 
no use is made of the courtyard for giving the patients any exer- 
cise. The regular diet consists of two meals a day of millet and 
salt vegetables. Chinese medicine is used entirely, and the manager 
reported that the treatment was meeting with considerable suc- 
cess, for during 1918 some 30 patients were discharged as cured. 

The management of the institution is entirely in the hands 
of the police, who not only appoint the manager, vice-manager, 
doctors and guards, but also pay all the bills. Inasmuch as the 
man who was manager at the time of our visit was doing work 


in another institution, he received no salary for his work in the 
asylum. The vice-manager was paid $20 a month. The total 
operating expenses of the asylum, exclusive of the salaries of 
the doctors and police ^ards, amotmt to approximately $2,400 
a year. Cases are admitted only after they have been brought 
to the notice of the local police, referred by them to the Central 
Police Board and 'approved by it. If the patient is discharged, 
he is returned to his family by the local police. 

While the asylum is now giving but little more than custodial 
care, it is offering a place where insane patients can be sent and 
making it possible for their families to be relieved of their care. 
Even so, the people are slow to make use of it and there is a 
feeling throughout the city that a family ought to do almost 
anything rather than send a person to the asylum. Cases are 
known where families have even called in ruffians to break the 
arms and legs of those who are violently insane, so that they 
cannot get about and do damage. 

An attempt was made to find out from the manager of the 
asylum what was being done for the remainder of the insane in 
the city, but the interpreter refused to translate the question. 
He said, "Why do you ask that? Here is room for 80 patients 
and there are only 32 inmates. There can't be any more insane 
in tlie city." In another report, the police gave the ntimber of 
insane as 1,366 or nearly two-tenths of one percent (0.17 per- 
cent) of the population, which is only one-half or one-third of 
the proportion of the population that is being cared for in the 
asylums of some American States. 

It is always a source of wonder that there is not more insanity 
among the Chinese. There is a very considerable amount of 
syphilitic infection, but the insanity that accompanies that disease 
in America seems to be absent in China. The Chinese have 
apparently developed through long years a high degree of immu- 
nity to the nervous effects that accompany syphilis in America 
or else have developed a strain of the disease that is less virulent 
than that found in America. The phlegmatic temperament of 
the Chinese and the lack of strain in their life, of course, save 
many who under other conditions might be insane, and then too 
the Chinese make no effort to recognize and confine those who, 
in western countries, would be classed as imbeciles or low grade 
morons. Just how many there are of these in a city like Peking 
it is impossible to estimate, though they are frequently met with 
on the street. Country villages have been found where, largely 
because^ of dose inter-marriage, as many as 75 percent of the 
population are low grade morons or worse. 

As far as can be discovered the Peking Asylum is the first 
of its kind in China. One has been established in Canton by 


missionaries, but this is the first to be opened by the Govern- 
ment. It is the beginning of a new movement. There are no 
precedents and but little experience back of it. What progress 
will it make as it develops? 

The foundations of public health work have been well laid 
in Peking. Good health regulations and ordinances have been 
adopted, a large number of hospitals have been opened and have 
connected with them many doctors who have had excellent 
training, the city is well drained and is kept comparatively clean. 
Now, the great need is education. The people must be taught 
the value of cleanliness and hygiene. The material for health 
campaigns has been worked out in part. Much of the detail work 
can be done by the students of the many schools of the city. 
Experience in the Teng Shih K'ou district and in other cities 
has shown that such work is productive of results. Peking has 
the opportunity of being a city that is healthy as well as romantic 
and fascinating. 



Aristocracy in China is not one of descent as in European 
countries, or of wealth as some say it is in America, but rather 
one of learning. For centuries, in theory at least and to a very 
large extent in practice, the successful competitors in the old 
style classical examinations have been the leaders of the nation. 
Prior to 1905, preliminary examinations leading to the Hsiu ts'ai 
degree were held in all the hsien cities (county seats) of the 
country. The degree of "Chu jen" was given to those who 
passed the next higher examination, held in the provincial capi- 
tals, while every three years examinations were held in Peking 
for those who had won the "Chu jen" degree. Those who 
passed were given the "Chin shih" d^^ee, those with a very 
high mark received the "Han lin" degree, while the man who 
passed the best examination was awarded the coveted degree of 
"Chuang yuap." The possession of any one of these higher 
degrees almost inevitably meant an offer of high official position. 

The close connection between scholastic attainment and offi- 
cial position and the fact that the highest examinations were 
given only in its examination halls made Peking the educational 
as well as the political center of old China. And it has 
maintained this position in spite of the many changes of recent 

Nearly all of the highest of the modem schools, the Govern- 
ment University, the National Teachers' College, the Customs 
College, Tsing tlua the American Indemnity College and others 
under tfie various boards of the National Government are in or 
near the city. In fact some schools, like the Army Medical 
College, have recently been moved to Peking. There are more 
hijgher grade students in Peking than in any other city in China. 
However, a study made in 1912 in the native provinces of tiie 
students in the Government University and the Higher Normal 
School showed that there were more students from the south 
than from the north, the largest number coming from Chekiang 
and Kwangtung Provinces. 

The old style classical education has been so fully described 
by many writers on China, S. W. Williams, W. A, P, Martin 



and others, that no attempt is made to treat it at any length in 
this survey, it being our aim rather to describe the present edu- 
cational situation in Peking. 

Prior to 1900, with the exception of mission schools, there 
were practically no schools in China that could be called modem. 
The nearest were the Pa Ch'i Kuan Hsueh, schools established 
for the Manchus so that they might become interested in the 
literature and learning of their subjects. These schools, to which 
the pupils came at 6 o'clock in the morning, offered a course that 
included the customary study of the classics, the composing of 
essays, the writing of Chinese characters and the study of 
Chinese history and was designed to prepare a man for the 
classical examinations. 

The real beginning of modem education came in 1903 when 
the Chin Shih Kwan or school for those holding doctors' d^^ees 
was founded at T'ai P'u Ssu Chieh, now the site of the Peking 
Law College. Most of the students were middle-aged or even 
old men, for the old style scholars realized that their training 
was not suited to the new conditions and they wanted a place 
where they could study modem subjects. The school was estab- 
lished to meet this need, but because of the rapidly changing 
conditions was maintained for only a few years. 

The Eight Banner High School (Pei Ch'eng Pa Ch'i Kao 
Tcng Hsueh T'ang), which is now the First Middle School at 
Liang Chia Hut'ung was founded in 1904 and the Five City 
•Middle School (Wu Ch'eng Chung Hsueh T'ang) was started 
about the same time. This latter school was the predecessor 
of the Fu Shu Middle School now connected with the National 
Teachers' College. 


On September 5, 1905, the Empress Dowager by an imperial 
edict abolished the old classical educational system, ordered the 
establishment of a modern system throughout the entire Empire 
and put the well-known statesman Chang Chih Tung in charge 
of the work. 

According to the original plan there was to be, first of all, 
a kindergarten with two and three year courses, followed, on 
the classical side, by lower and higher primary schools with five 
and four year courses respectively, a middle school with a five year 
course, a university preparatory school with a four year course, 
a high school with a three year course for those who were not 
entering the university and finally the university with a three 
year course. 

On the industrial side there were to be lower primary schools. 


elementary technical schools, middle technical schools and higher 
technical schools each with three year courses. 

Paralleling the classical middle schools there were to be 
elementary normal schools with a five year course followed by 
higher normal schools with a three year course. To prepare 
diplomats for foreign service there was to be a College of 
Languages with a five year course equal in grade to the high 

Naturally it took time to work out this huge system but every 
effort was made to get it started. As school buildings were 
lacking many of the temples were turned into primary schools in 
which reading and writing of Chinese characters, old style 
Chinese calculation, arithmetic and moral instruction were taught 
if the school were of lower primary grade, and geography, his- 
tory, elementary chemistry and physics, drawing and athletic 
drill, were added if it was a higher primary school.* The old 
temple gods were replaced by modem school desks and black- 
boards. Teachers had to be trained and special schools with 
"hurry up" courses were instituted. 

In spite of the many difficulties, progress was most rapid, for 
even by 1907 there were 200 schools, 1,300 teachers and 17,053 
students in Peking; 115 of the schools and 9,500 of the students 
were of lower primary grade, the middle schools had approxi- 
mately one thousand students, while there were 1,840 pupils in 
higher schools. Only 17 of the schools were for girls, only 100 
of the teachers were women and the girl students numbered 
but 771. 

The special schools for Manchus, some of which are still 
conducted in Peking, were one of the interesting features of the 
elementary school work. These were the successors of the 
Manchu schools mentioned above. In 1907 there were 45 of 
these schools in the city with an enrollment of 4,300 students. 

In the early days of modem education a great many primary 
schools were established in Peking by the provincial dubs or 
gilds (Hui Kuan). Their average enrollment in 1907 was 68 
but as the government education became more efficient and the 
national spirit developed, these schools that depended for their 
existence on the provincial spirit have gradually decreased in 

Four institutions for higher education had been established 
bv 1^07, the College of Languages, organized by the Board of 
roreign Affairs to train prospective diplomats for foreign serv- 
ice, with 500 students; the Law School with 740 pupils, still 
one of the largest schools in the city; the Higher Technical 

^See Appendix for complete curriculum. The curriculum for girli it the nme 
except that they haye two houn a week leai work than the boyi, omitting one hoar 
of handwork and one of drawing. 


School with 200 students, and the University, with preparatory 
and college departments enrolling 400 students. 

Although teachers were at first trained by "short courses," 
by 1907 a number of normal schools with four or five year 
courses had been established. The subjects taught included 
psychology and pedagogy as well as those designed to fit a man 
to teach the required work in the government schools of pri- 
mary grade, arithmetic, history, nature study, science and manual 
training. The pupils of these schools were, many of them, 
middle-aged or old men who had been teachers of the Chinese 
Qassics and it was interesting to see these products of old China, 
of pedantic walk and goggled eyes, working at a carpenter's 
bench, squinting along a piece of wood and doing it all with the 
utmost seriousness. 

There was also a movement among well-known Peking phil- 
anthropists to establish a system of industrial education and by 
1907 there were seven industrial schools in the city. One of 
these erected in 1906 by the Board of Commerce at a cost of 
taels 100,000 ($70,000 gold) had 500 pupils and taught spin- 
ning, weaving, glass blowing, well digging, dyeing, carpentry, 
leather working, lacquering, rattan work, drawing and embroid- 
ery, using Japanese teachers for the most part. For some unac- 
countable reason this flourishing movement for industrial educa- 
tion has not made much progress and the present day industrial 
institutions are much less pretentious than those originally started 
under private or government auspices. 

Athletics were introduced into the schools but the teachers 
were all army men so that even up to the present time most of 
the physical work in the Peking schools is of a formal nature 
with very few games or recreational features. 

When many of the schools were first organized, there being 
no Chinese teachers available, many Japanese were employed, 
particularly in those schools where modem science was taught. 
For the most part, however, they were kept just as short a time 
as possible. (Thinese prejudice was naturally against them, their 
teaching was many times inefficient and consequently they were 
gradually displaced as the number of Chinese returned students, 
those who had studied in a foreign country, increased. Most 
of them had gone by 1910. 

Clippings from the only newspaper published in Peking in 
1905 and 1906 concerning the opening of new private or govern- 
ment schools, petitions to the Government from private indi- 
viduals urging that various kinds of industrial institutions be 
started, news regarding the expansion of schools and other 
matters of educational interest show the tremendous public 
interest in educational development at that time as contrasted 


with present conditions. Now the seventy-odd Peking news- 
papers publish military and political news almost exclusively.^ 

The appointment, by the viceroy Yuan Shih K'ai, of Dr. C. V. 
Tenney» formerly of the American Board Mission, as educational 
adviser for Chihli Province gave a tremendous impetus to educa- 
tional work in the province and the organization of a provincial 
school system. 

As now organized the government educational system includes 
h>wer primary schools with a four year course, higher primary 
schools with a three year course, middle schools with four years, 
university preparatory with two years, university with three 
years and special schools with courses of various lengths. 


The organization of Peking's educational work is most com- 
plicated. Certain schools, mostly those of higher grade, are 
financed and controlled by the National Board of Education. 
The Local Board of Education is responsible for most of the 
primary and middle schools but there are also 13 other govern- 
ment boards including 8 departments of the Cabinet, the Board 
of Revenue, the Bureau of Mongolia and Tibet, the Metropoli- 
tan District, the Military Guard and the police that have one or 
more schools in Peking, none of which have any direct connection 
with the National or Local Boards of Education. Then, too, the 
foreign mission forces have an entire educational system from 
kindergarten to university. 

In general the schools may be divided as follows : 

1. Those under the National Board of Education 

2. Those under other government boards 

3. Those under the Lo<^ Board of Education 

4. Private schools supervised and often partially financed 

by the Local Board of Education 

5. Independent private schools 

6. Police schools 

7. Mission schools 

In 1919 government and private schools in Peking numbered 
324. Of these 28 are of university or college grade, 18 are 
middle or college preparatory schools, 5 are supplementary and 
7 special schools. Higher primary schools number 57, lower 
primaries 143, half-day schools 54, and others of lower grade 10. 
lliere are also 91 primary schools in the immediate vicinity of 
Peking that are under the Local Board of Education. Schools for 
girls number but 38, five of higher grade, 32 of primary grade, 
one kindergarten. 

> See Appendix for detailed clippingt. 


The number of students in Peking as given by the Minister 
of Education was approximately 55,000 of which some 7,000 
were women and girls. Men in the government schools of 
middle and higher grade number 13,770 and the women 638. 
The detailed figures for each of the higher schools are given 
in the key to the Map. 

The mission schools number no of which 32 are of middle 
or higher grade schools. In all of Peking's middle and higher 
in the mission schools, 3,789 men and boys and 2,118 women 
and girls. Of these 1,818 men and 653 women are in the middle 
or higher grade schools. In all of Pricing's midddle and higher 
schools there are 16,879 students, 15,588 men and 1,291 women. 

The 1917 report of the Board of Education gives the 191 5-16 
expenditure for education in Peking as $1,894,433 of which four- 
fifths was spent for higher education. The expenses per student 
amounted to only $3.93 in the lower primary schools, to $42.63 
in the higher primary and in the middle schools to $76.26. 
University and professional schools cost from $294 to $362 per 

The budget of the Local Board of Education amounted to 
$33>997 a month, $3,847 for general supervision, $19450 for 
primary schools, including $650 a month subsidy to private 
schools, $8,000 for middle schools and $1,500 for social or exten- 
sion education, lecture halls, libraries, newspaper reading rooms, 

The salaries paid by the Board of Education are: lower pri- 
mary school teachers $24 a month, principals $36 ; higher primary 
teachers $32, principals $40. When the local board gives aid 
to a private school the amount is ordinarily $4-$5 a month for 
a lower primary teacher and $8-$ 12 for a teacher in a higher 
primary school. Tuition in the schools under the Local Board of 
Education varies from 40 cents to $1 a month and in private 
schools from $1 to $2 a month. 

In 1916 $45,149,844 was spent for education in the 129,739 
schools in all of China ; the teachers numbered 200,440 of whom 
1,464 were in Peking, and the pupils 4,294,251, Although only 
one out of 29 of the children of school age are in school 
the fact that China can build in eleven years an educational 
system that will care for over four million pupils shows the 
ability of the Chinese to put through a plan when once they are 
convinced of its value. In spite of the needs and defects that 
might be pointed out, the chief of which is perhaps the lack of 
development of educational opportunities for girls, there being 
only 180,949 girl students as compared with 4,133,302 boys, China 

* Catholic schools and students are included only in totals. Segregation cannot 
be made from obtainable reports. 

' See Appendix for detailed tables. 





L The Board of Education c-^ men women 

Government University: — 

Ui a. Literary Department 599 

U2 b. Scientific Department 500 

U3 c Law Department 890 

Ml Women's Normal SchooP 293 

Ci Government Law College 840 

C2 National Teachers' College' 660 

Aid Fu Shu Middle School' 267 

C3 The Higher Technical College 240 

C4 Agriculture College 176 

C7 Government Medical School 169 

T Midwife Training School S6 

C26 Art School 79 

II. The Board of Foreign Affairs 

C5 Russian Language School 150 

Co Tsing Hua College 660 

III. Board of Interior 

C8 Police Officers School joo 

IV. Board of Communications 

C9 Railroad School 500 

Cio Postal and Telegraph School 161 

V. Board of War 

U4 Military University 80 

C17 The Military Commissariat School 77 

Cii Military Medical College 240 

C12 Veterinary School 90 

C13 Government Military School 340 

C14 Ch'in^ Ho Military Preparatory School 920 

CiS Aviation School 34 

C16 Surveying School 63 

C18 Military Guard Officers School (Supplementary) 800 

C19 Military Guard School 74 

VI. Board of Law 

C20 Supplementary School of Laws 140 

VII. Board of Finance 

C21 Supplementary School of Finance 

VIII. Board of Agriculture 

C23 Agricultural Supplementary School 30 

E I, 2, 3, 4, 5 Experiment Stations 170 

IX. Board of Revenue 

C22 Chinese Customs College 96 

X. Bureau of Mongolia and Tibet 

C24 Mongolian and Tibetan School 116 

XL The Metropolitan District 
Ai Ching Chao First Middle School 220 

^ A middle wchooU higher and lower primiries and IdndexRarten for girla are con- 
nected with thia ichool. 

'A hiafaer primary, lower primary and apprentice achool are connected with the 
Teachera CoHefe and the Fn Shn Middle School 


c-CNv -n T - MMMIiTrMvSdMl 



XII. The Military Guard 

C27 Military Official School Qosed 

XIII. Local Board of Education (Middle and special 


N Peking Normal School 267 

A2 First Middle School 300 

A3 Second Middle School 165 

A4 Third Middle School 145 

As Fourth Middle School 205 

A6 First Apprentice School 100 

M2 First Girl's Middle School 212 

XIV. Private Schools 

U5 Ch'ao Yang University 230 

A15 Hsin Hua Commercial School 94 

C25 Central School of Politics 300 

U6 China University 1300 

XV. Private Schools Partially Supported or Super- 

vised by the Local Board of Education 

A7 Shantung Middle School 92 

A8 An Huei Middle School 50 

A9 Cheng Chih Middle School 290 

An Chung Hua Middle School (with China Univ.) 150 

M3 Shang Yi Girls Normal School (Normal Dept. 40) 120 

A12 Qi'i Shih Middle School 270 

A13 Chi Fu Middle School 150 

A14 Cha Chung Agricultural School 

B Blind School 16 

Ai6Yu Ying Middle School 124 

13,729 ®i 


I. Universities men women 

U+ Men 

a. Peking University (Union) (1888) (1915)... 8S 
W + Women 

a. North China Union Women's College (Union) 

(i9t^) 74 

II. Medical Schools 
C + I Men 

a. Union Medical College (co-educational) 

(China Medical Board) 4D 3 

D + Women 

a. North China Women's Union Medical College 

(Union) (1908) 35 

III. Technical or Higher Schools 

U + Union Theological Seminary (Union) 20 

C + 3 Bible Training School for Men (Union) 

M + 7 *• " « « Women (Union) 

(1913) 4P 

C + 4 Bible Traming Sdiool for Men (M) 61 

M4-9 •' " " " Women (M) 50 

C -i- 7 Nurses' Training School for Men (M) 20 

M+io " " " " Women (Union)... 25 




A + S Peking Union Normal School (co-educational) 

(Union) (1918) 7 " 

M + 4 Kindergarten Training School (Union) (1904).. 17 

C + 2 School of Commerce and Finance Y. M. C. A j8o 

C + S Theological Seminary (M) 27 

C+6 ** " (A) 4 

A + I Huci Wen College Preparatory and Middle 

School (M) 629 

IV. Middle Schools 

A + 2 Ts'ui Wen Middle School (L) 70 

A -f 3 Truth Hall Middle School (P) 63 

A + 4 Ch'ung Te Middle School (A) 57 

A 4- 3 Industrial Training Middle School (P) 25 

A + 6 Night School (English) (Y. M. C. A.) 270 

A + 7 ^ " " 2 (M) 60 


M + I Bridgeman Academy (AB) 120 

M -f II Educational Classes (Y. W. C. A.) SO 

M+2 Tu (Hiih Girls' School (A) 25 

M + S P'ei Hua Girls* School (A) 53 

M + 3 Mary Porter Gamewell School for Girls (M).... 55 

M + 7 Ts'ui Wen Girls' School (L) lO 

M + 8 Ming Lun Women's School (AB) 22 

M + 6 Presbyterian Middle School (P) (S3 

Total 1818 653 

A = Anglican Mission 
AB = American Board Mission 
L =: London Mission 
M =■ Methodist Episcoi>al Mission 
P = PresbTterian Mission 

can well be proud of her school system and the progress that 
has been made since 1905. 


Before 1902 there was no government board directly respon- 
sible for the promotion of education. The classical examinations 
were the only contact that the Government had with the educa- 
tional system and the money needed for them was supplied by the 
Board of Finance (Hu Pu). The Board of Education (Hsueh 
Pu) was first established in 1902; in 1905 an organization similar 
to the present one was developed within the board and in 1911, 
the last year of the reign of Hsuan T'ung, the board was reor- 
ganized and given its present name, Chiao Yti Pu. 

According to the regulations of the National Board of Edu- 
cation its field is general education, technical and fine arts, and 
astronomical calculations. The present board has four depart- 



- MUcHVMPrtMfH-n 

Figure 15 

ments — General Supervision, General Educadon, Special Higher 
Education, Social Education. 

The Department of General Supervision has tinder its juris- 
diction the schools directly under the Board of Education and 
the public schools ; school hygiene ; school libraries and museuins ; 


















" . ii 

iJ 1 





- R 







^ r~\ 



y m r 


G - P«lilie Hl(lwr PrhHTt Sdmlt - • 
0-M«*teHigbNPrim«)rSchMli .} 
P - PnHc iMMT Mnuqr Sdnob -< 
S - PrMi LOPV Mwi| Sdneli • n 

Figure i6 

meetings of educational societies ; exhibits ; all regular expenses, 
estimates, final budgets and accounts of the board ; the regular 
school expenses ; the auditing of the accounts of the government 
educational institutions under the Board of Education; the care 
of property belonging to the Board of Education; composing, 
compiling, filing, receiving and sending of letters and documents ; 
the making of statistic^ tables, reports and records; keeping 


of seals; any business of the board that does not belong to the 
other department8. 

The Department of General Education controls all lower 
normal schools, middle schools, primary schools, kindergartens, 
schools for the blind and dumb, special schools for cripples and 
schools whose work is equivalent to the above. It is its duty 
to see that schools are provided for boys of school age. It is 
also responsible for the examination of teachers, the supervision 
of private schools, giving subsidies to private schools, and estab- 
lishing and improving local boards of education. 

The Department of Special Higher Education supervises uni- 
versities, special higher schools and all others with work of an 
equivalent grade. It is also in charge of industrial education, 
students abroad, astronomical calculations, the meetings of men 
holding degrees, the unification of the Chinese language, the 
appointment and supervision of committees for examining doc- 
tors of medicine and pharmacists, the supervision of societies 
for science or art, and the awarding of higher degrees. 

The Department of Social Education is responsible foi* the 
development and control of popular social educational meetings, 
education calculated to help in moral reform and social progress, 
for the regulation of popular rights and observances, the promo- 
tion of art and music, the supervision of theatrical plays and art 
galleries and exhibits, education on zoological and botanical lines, 
the training of supervisors of zoological and botanical gardens, 
the establishment and oversight of museums and libraries, popu- 
lar exhibits and reading rooms, athletic grounds and amuse- 

The Board of Education has, of course, no control over the 
schools that have been established by other government boards. 
It IS even said that there is considerable jealousy between the 
boards and that it is often impossible for the Board of Education 
to get a report from some boards concerning their educational 


The Local Board of Education is closely related to and sup- 
plements the work of the National Board inasmuch as its head 
is appointed by the National Board and it is in charge of all 
middle schools, normal schools that are not above middle school 
grade, and all schools below the middle school grade, including 
higher primary, primary, kindergarten, technical art schools, 
spools for the blind, and special agricultural demonstration 
stations in Peking and immediate vicinity. It also supervises 
the lecture halls, newspaper rooms and libraries, with the excep- 
tion of the Model Lecture Hall and the First Public Library. 


They are under the National Board of Education. The local 
board also supervises practically all of the private schools main- 
tained by the Chinese and subsidizes many of them. Naturally 
there is ordinarily no connection between the Board of Education 
and the mission schools, but even so the Yii Ying, a Catholic 
school, is listed as under the supervision of the board. 

Soon after 1902 the local board established a system of school 
inspectors (Chuan Hsueh Yuan) to see that children of school 
age attended school, that the government schools were properly 
conducted, and that private schools that received partial govern- 
ment support were up to the required standard. Under this 
system every police district in the city had its inspectors and 
inspectors' headquarters, but in 1905 the city inspection work 
was centralized with headquarters across the street from the 
Local Board of Education. The district inspection, however, was 
maintained for the schools outside of the city and there are now 
four school inspectors with special offices outside the walls, one 
on each side of the city. 

The regulations for the inspectors' office outside the South 
City wall, which are typical of all four districts, give the monthly 
budget of the inspector as $132, of which $&) is for salary. 
The inspector is instructed to give $72 a year to the one higher 
primary school in his district and $48 a year to ten of the lower 
primary schools. Two lower primary schools receive no financial 


If the educational ideals of the Government were judged by 
the statement given in the regulations of the National Board 
of Education, one would conclude that the educational system 
in China was most modern and progressive. That these ideals 
have not, as yet, been fully incorporated in the actual educational 
program is, of course, not altogether the fault of the Chinese 
Government. The whole educational system has had to be built 
up in a few years, it has been absolutely impossible to develop 
well trained modern teachers fast enoyugh to meet the needs of 
the rapidly increasing schools and furthermore in a country that 
is constantly in a state of political disturbance and where the 
national revenue has not reached the point where it is sufficient 
even to pay the bills of the national army, one would not expect 
rapid progress in education. The ideals of the board, however, 
are worthy of note, for if the objectives of education are sound 
it is to be expected that conditions will gradually improve. 

A careful study of the detailed regulations for the higher and 
lower primary schools drawn up in 1916 shows that the following 


points are especially emphasized in the educational ideals of the 

1. There is a conscious desire that education shall develop the child 
in a symmetrical manner, mentally, morally, and physically. To quote 
the regulations for the lower primary schools: "Education is of great 
importance to promote the bodily (shen) and spiritual (hsin) develop- 
ment of school children. Training of the body, training in knowledge, 
and training of the emotions and will are to be given simultaneously and 
with equal emphasis so that the children may develop symmetrically." 
This aim is amplified in the regulations of the higher primary schools 
which state that education should 

(a) Develop the children physically and morally. 

(b) Give the children knowledge that is suited to the conditions 

.of their lives. 

(c) Cultivate patriotism and public spirit. 

(d) Provide the children with sufficient knowledge and school- 

ing that they may be able to earn a livelihood. 

2. The moral aim of education is given a central place in the 
school regulations. Ethics is always mentioned first in all lists of 

3. Physical education is given a prominent place in the discussion 
of the objectives of education, although the main emphasis is on drill 
rather than recreation. Schools are urged to provide playgrounds^ and 

« regulations are given regarding the physical care of the children.' Chil- 
dren having infectious diseases are not allowed to attend school and the 
schools are to avoid conditions that are productive of disease. 

4. There is in the regulations a prominent emphasis on the cultivation 
of patriotism. After discussing the materials to be used in industrial 
education the statement is made: "When taking up this subject of the 
natural resources of China, it must be dealt with m a way that will arouse 
in the hearts of the children a spirit of intense national pride."' Ele- 
mentary civics is to be taught in the second year of the higher primary 
school from a book called "What Citizens Should Know," which de- 
scribes the organization of the government and gives an outline of the 
executive, judiciary and legislative departments. 

5. In contrast to the former attitude on education embodied in the 
system which emphasized the value of memorizing a great amount of 
material without clear understanding, these statements should be noted: 
"The main point in studving Chinese literature is so to train the children 
in general language and writing that they may attain knowledge which 
will At them to deal with general ideas and tendencies. The final ob- 
jective is that character may be developed in children." "Text-books that 
are used must be simple, that they may facilitate a clear understanding, 
and they must not be so theoretical as to make practice difficult and 
impossible. What they teach must be worthy of imitation and pursuance, 
and what they contain must be interesting and indispensable for the 
earning of a living. Of course, different sorts of text-books must be 
used for different subjects, but they must in general be composed of 
materials conforming to the above-mentioned ideals."* 

^Regulationt for Lower Primary Schools. Sec jo. 

*/m3. Sec. 38. 

'Ibid. Sec 11. 

* Regulations for Higher Primary Schools. Sec 4. 


6. Industrial education has a prominent place in the regulations. 
This is especially true in the case of education for girls. They are to be 
taught sewing, house management, and accounts. "The main objective 
of hand work is to train the children in the cutting and sewing of 
ordinary dresses, thus teaching them thrift and usefulness. The wa>r to 
use needles must be taught first and easy methods of sewing and bastinq^. 
Materials used for sewmg must be things in common use."^ There is 
practically nothing stated concerning the actual subjects to be taught to 
boys along industrial lines but there are sections on materials to be 
used in industrial education, viz., *'The main point in the teaching of 
hand work is to train children to make useful things, so that they will 
become industrious and used to manual labor. At the same time they 
will become interested in the technical arts. They are to be taught to 
make things of the following materials : paper, silk, cement, grass, bamboo 
and wood. They should make things that are already being locally pro- 
duced." "When teaching handwork, explanation should be given of the 
kinds of materials as well as the use of the manufactured articles. The 
raw materials used are to be those used in local industry, so that the 
children may be familiar with local conditions and prepared to take a 
part in the industrial life of their community."' 

7. There is in all the regulations a strong emphasis regarding the 
teaching of subjects in their practical application. For example: "The 
principles of arithmetic should concern problems which have practical use 
and should be adapted to local conditions." * 

8. The democratic control of the schools is carefully explained. 
"The number and location of national schools in a district are to be 
fixed by a joint meeting of the self-government association and a 
committee of the Board of Education subject to the approval of the 
local magistrate."* 

That these above-enumerated ideals are not all incorporated 
in the present educational system is brought out in an article 
by Mr. David Z. T. Yui" in which he summarizes the defects 
of the present educational system in China as follows : 

Defect I, No definite objective, — ^A boy or girl receiving government 
education becomes more unfit for life than before. It is no secret to say 
that most of the graduates of the higher schools secure employment in 
government offices, where their education is as far removed from prac- 
tical use as the distance from the north to the south pole. Then again 
education in China is merely ornamental and has no connection with 
practical life. 

Defect 2. Physical training sadly neglected, — ^Although the new system 
of education theoretically emphasizes athletics, many of the teachers in 
the country districts do not follow this theory, because of their traditional 
idea of the scholar as a man who pays attention only to his intellect and 
takes no interest in his physical development. 

Defect 3. Intellectual training is lop-sided, — Educational work is still 
largely a training of the memory rather than of thought processes. The 
tendency is to emphasize theory rather than practice. 

Defect 4, Moral training is very defective and in many places sadly 

^Ihid., Sec 10. 
*Ihi4„ Sec. 6. 
•Ibid., Sec. 5. 

'RecttUtions of the Lower Primmiy Schools. See. 6. 

*'*Tbe New Emphasu on Eduattion in China," The Special Annivenaiy S«ppl»' 
meat of the Ptkit^g Ltadtt (igxS)* 


neglected, — ^The Chinese educators have not yet found out how to teach 
ethics suitable for the modem age in China. 

Defect 5. Meager training for citizenship. — ^Under the Manchu 
dynasty such training was feared by those in power, for they wished to 
keep the people in dense ignorance regarding their rights of citizenship. 
Since the founding of the Republic, the attention of the authorities has 
been absorbed in other things than education. What emphasis has been 
laid on patriotism is of a very intense and narrow kind. Boys and girls 
are taught to love China and nothing more. There is a need to train 
young people for citizenship in the world. 

Defect 6. Lack of a clear understanding of what the educational 
processes mean. — Because of the lack of a clear aim on the part of edu- 
cational authorities, fathers and mothers are beginning to distrust educa- 
tion. They do not see what their children are being trained for. Further- 
more many educators look at teaching as merely a stepping-stone to 
official or other positions. 

In the same year book Prof. L. R. O. Bevan, of the Peking 
Government University, gives us a much more optimistic view 
of present education in China. After reviewing the statistics 
on primary education of the last few years, he makes this state- 
ment: "From this very slight examination of the statistics 
of primary education of the last few years, the conclusion would 
seem to be that the policy laid down by the Government is in 
the right direction and that it is bearing fruit, even though the 
harvest is coming in slowljr. The rate of increase of the first 
three years of the Republic has not gone on as rapidly in the 
succeeding three years. This would naturally be expected. The 
slowing down of the rate of progress is inevitable, but taking 
into consideration the serious political unrest, the widespread 
civil war conditions, and the consequent severe financial strin- 
gency, the fact that there has been any advance at all is a real 
ground for optimistic expectation for the future. Given a real 
political settlement and a stable return to normal experiences, 
there is every reason to hope for steady educational advance. 
One sees a larger proportion of teachers viewing education as 
a profession to be followed for its own sake; one sees a wider 
view among those who are responsible for the direction of edu- 
cation and educational institutions; one sees among students a 
more easy yielding to educational discipline in all its forms, and 
among a section of them at any rate a more earnest pursuit of 
what is oflFered for those who are honestly striving; one sees a 
growing sense of corporateness in the individual institutions 
themselves, evidenced by the formation of school and college 
societies and clubs, magazines, and other corporate activities. 
Whether these are for sport or for social welfare or for educa- 
tional advancement, they are the signs of a growing self- 
consciousness that the institutions of the educational world are 
finding themselves living and growing organisms. Granted that 


statistics may be misleading, granted that these other evidences 
are intangible impressions, perhaps, rather than hard facts, there 
is nevertheless the justification for those who look forward with 


Apprentice School 

The Apprentice School established in 1907 by the Local Board 
of Education is situated in the northeast comer of the North 
City on Pien Tan Hut'ung. It offers a three year course in 
cither machine work, carpentry, electroplating or soap making. 
It accepts students who are between 14 and 20 years of age 
and can pass the entrance examination or who are graduates 
of higher primary schools. The curriculum of the school calls 
for 39 hours a week the first two years and 42 hours the last 
year. The students spend 20 and 21 hours in shop work the first 
two years and 36 the third. Other subjects include ethics, 
English, arithmetic, reading, physics and chemistrv, drawing 
and designing.^ After graduation the students either become 
apprentices or go into independent work. The assistant principal 
of the school said that up to the present the gilds had not shown 
any great willingness to accept the training of the schools as 
equivalent to their regular apprenticeship training, although it 
was sometimes done. 

This acceptance by the gilds of school trained men is one 
of the present problems of industrial education in Peking. The 
men who have served an apprenticeship are nearly always unwil- 
ling to admit that the men from the schools are able to do real 
work and the students naturally do not want to serve an appren- 
ticeship of three years after their school training. There is great 
need for closer cooperation between the schools and heads of tlie 
gilds so that the school work and the gild traming and require- 
ments may be coordinated. 

The equipment in the school's machine shop is modern, and 
adapted to making machinery of a simple nature, but the electro- 
plating equipment is meager. General wood-work is taught in 
the carpentry department but most of the work is the making 
of furniture. The soap made is of a coarse and inferior grade. 
A large exhibit room, showing products of the different shops, 
furniture, various electroplated articles, pumps and other 
machines is part of the school equipment. 

The cost of constructing the Chinese style buildings for the 
school amounted to $3,000 and the equipment to $8,000. One 

* See Appendix for complete curricula. 


foreign teacher is employed by the school. The expenses for 
three years were: 

1915 $6,679.69 

1916 7»66S.o8 

1917 7,694.38 
Total $22,042.15 

There are 93 students enrolled, 64 in the machine shop, 24 
in the electroplating department and 5 in carpentry work. Sixty- 
two of the boys are from the Peking district and 31 from other 

A study of the occupations of the boys' fathers shows that 
the largest number (20) are officials, 14 are merchants and 14 
soldiers ; only 3 are farmers and 7 scholars. 

Of the students, 5 are graduates of middle or higher schools, 
30 are grs^duates or students of higher primary schools, 43 are 
graduates of lower primary schools, while 15 have not completed 
the lower primary course of study. 

The school ha's no entrance or tuition fees, but does charge 
for text-books, instruments, uniform, and stationery, $745 for 
the first year, $6.80 for the second year and $5 for the third year. 

The First Public Blind School of Peking 

The blind in Peking number something over 1,300 or one- 
sixth of one percent of the population. In all of Qiina it is 
estimated that there are at least 1,000,000 blind or one-quarter 
of one percent. In the past blind men have been trained in 
singing and story telling but have not had any system whereby 
it was possible for them to read. E. G. Hillier, Esq., manager of 
the Peking branch of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking 
G)rporation, himself blind, has worked out a Braille system for 
the Chinese Mandarin, basing the system on the Kuan Hua Tzu 
Mu or phonetic alphabet of 50 radicals and 12 phonetics as invented 
about 1898 by a Han lin scholar. For practical purposes the 
number of signs has been reduced to 57 in the Braille. 

In 1917 Mr. Hillier and a group of his friends, Chinese and 
foreign, opened* the first Public Blind School. This school now 
has an enrollment of 14 students and teaches ethics, Chinese 
literature, arithmetic and handwork, the latter being for the most 
part the making of rattan furniture. 

The students are charged no tuition, even their school sup- 
plies being furnished. The school is supported by private con- 
tribution and a grant of $50 a month from the Load Board of 


The Actor^ Apprentice School 

The actors' apprentice school, a private institution, was 
founded by Oiang Chi Chih at the Nan Tung Park "to train 
actors and help in public education." Its teachers are famous 
actors and its course one of seven years. The boys must be 
between lo- and 12 years of age when they enter the school. 
At present the school has 60 students and as the boys are given 
their food and clothing and after the fifth year a special allow- 
ance if they have done well in their studies, there is a waiting 
list of some sixty. 

Police Poor Schools 

Realizing that between three and four-tenths of the boys of 
school age in Peking have no opportunity of attending school, the 
head of the Police Board in 1915 notified the heads of the 
twenty districts in Peking to found half-day schools for poor 
boys. There are at present 53 such schools in Peking, in which 
over 4,000 boys are being educated. The curriculum is similar 
to that of the lower primary schools, the emphasis being laid on 
ethics, reading, writing, arithmetic, and physical exercise. In 
the past the teachers m these schools were police officers who 
had done particularly well, but recently, because of their failure 
to meet the requirements of their positions, an examination was 
held for all the teachers and the teaching force was reorganized. 
In the future all teachers are to be secured by competitive 
examination. Part of the budget is met by the police and part 
bv the contributions of those who live in the districts around 
Ine schools. 


Giving new ideas to her citizens has been one of China's 
great problems, particularly since such a large proportion of 
the people are unable to read. Information has had to travel, 
very largely, by word of mouth so it is but natural that regularly 
trained lecturers should have been used to spread general infor- 
mation and the ideas the Government wanted the people to have. 
The Manchus made use of them and even now in some of the 
country districts lecturers can be found who are still using the 
imperial tablet that prior to 191 1 was the sign of their connection 
with the Government. 

Shortly after the beginning of the educational revolution in 
1902 many private lecture halls were opened in Peking to give 

* $e« map of Eactennon Educition. 


the people some idea of the new thought of the educated men of 
the country and newspaper reading roms were often opened 
in connection with the lecture halls. A clipping from the Peking 
Jih Poo of 1905 shows something of the popular interest in this 
form of social education: "A public newspaper reading room 
has been opened in the West City by a Honanese named General 
Chang. He feels that the reading of newspapers is the best way 
to do away with the ignorance of the people. General Chang 
has subscribed $50 for the expenses of the opening of this 
reading room and also $100 for its enlargement. He expects to 
found several other similar rooms." The number of private 
lecture halls grew very rapidly after IQ05 and again after loii 
when the Revolution brought to the front a great many ideas 
unfamiliar to the people, but since things have settled down the 
private lecture halls have gradually been discontinued until now 
there are none in Peking. The Government is doing all the 
lecture work in the city. 

At present there are thirteen centers in Peking where lec- 
tures are given every day, ten inside the walls and three in the 
suburbs. There is also a special team of lecturers that follow 
the temple markets or fairs and during a month give lectures in 
eight different centers. One of the lecture halls (No. 4) was 
opened in 1906, seven were started in 191 1, one in 1912, the Model 
Lecture Hall in 191 5 and the three in the suburbs in 1916. The 
regular lecture halls are under the Local Board of Education while 
the Model Lecture Hall is under the National Board of Educa- 
tion. They are all part of a national organization, the government 
regulations providing that four or more lecture halls shall be 
established in every provincial capital, two or more in every 
hsien city (county seat) and, in the villages, as many as are 
required by local conditions. Private lecture halls may be estab- 
lished but must be registered with the Minister of Education 
within one month of their opening.^ In 191 5 there were 2,139 
lecture halls in China. 

According to the regulations every public lecture hall is to 
have a director, a variable number of lecturers and one or two 
business managers.* The purpose of the lecture halls is to 
"educate the people and reform society" and the list of subjects 
to be covered are : 


Observance of Law 


Common Knowledge 

Friendly and Filial Relations 

^ Regulations Popular Education Lecture HalU, Arti. 2*3-4. 
•Ibid., Art 5. 


-UdmHUIt-n •-TMwlaltaMUt(nnii-t7 

Development of Industry 

Physical Education 

Hygiene ' 
A careful investigation of the thirteen lecture halls in Peking 
made by a member of the local Educational Association showed 
that the lecture halls are housed in Chinese style buildings that 
have an average seating capacity of 147, the actual number vary- 
ing from 66 to the 450 of the Model Lecture Hall.' 

 See Appendix far complete tiblti. 

1 Lecture HalU. Art*, i 


The average daily attendance was 1,005 or 77 ^tt each lecture 
hall but the Model Lecture Hall was the only one that had over 
one hundred people. It had an average attendance of 300. The 
study of the people coming to the lecture halls showed that mem- 
bers of the merchant class are the ones who come most often, 
eleven of the halls reporting that they are regular attendants. 
Common laborers are the next largest class and then students. 
Idlers are said to be regular attendants at two of the halls and 
ex-Manchu officials at one. Civil officials, soldiers and police 
come to some of the halls occasionally.^ 

The lectures are usually given for two hours during the 
afternoon, 5:30-7:30, 4-6, 2-4, 7-9, though in the hall outside 
the East Wall lectures are given for four hours a day (i-s). 
Long lectures are continued on consecutive days some of them 
taking only a few days, others even two months. A multitude 
of different subjects are discussed by the lecturers, all the way 
from how to raise chickens or how to raise children to the com- 
parison between William II and Napoleon the Great, the value 
of a good reputation and various aspects of the European War. 
True to ancient Chinese thought there is a preponderance of 
preachment on abstract and general virtue, morality and patriot- 
ism. There is also considerable interest in the European War 
and world events, education, industry and social reform. Popu- 
lar science is badly neglected and onlv a few lectures are given 
on historical subjects.^ Religion and national politics the lec- 
turers are forbidden to discuss. 

The material for the lectures is secured from a book of 
lectures printed by the Board of Education, one published by 
the Educational Society, the outlines of lectures given in other 
provinces and notes on the lectures delivered in the Model Lec- 
ture Hall. The individual lecturers also draw on their own 
knowledge and reading. 

The regulations require that the lecturers keep notes on their 
lectures and once a month file them with the Local Board of 
Education by whom they are bound and forwarded to the Min- 
ister of Education for inspection and reference.* 

The lecturers, except in the Model Lecture Hall, are men 
over 25 years of age who have either graduated from the Schools 
for Public Lecturers, had a year or more of practice in lecturing, 
been teachers in primary or lower normal schools, are officials 
of an Educational Society or scholars of high reputation.* Each 
lecture hall has two resident lecturers and there are several lec- 
turers who go from hall to hall spending a day or two in each. 

' See Appendix for complete tables. 

* See Appendix for complete list of topics discussed. 

' RcKulmtions Popular Education Lecture Halls, Art. 15. 

« im,, Alt 9. 


L ' H^^^^^^^^^^^Hi^H 

rBUjI Wkj ^gMHHHjj^^H 

1 «W- 1 

A r^t5^^.i»fc'^^ift^^B 



B h>]li ii ever 1.000. 

The averBge d>il]r 



The resident lecturers are paid $io a month while the more 
experienced traveling lecturers receive $2 an hour for their work. 

The budgets of the individual lecture halls exclusive of the 
Model Lecture Hall vary from $39 to $60 a month, the average 
being $54. This with the salaries of the traveling lecturers, 
newspaper subscriptions and other expenses makes up the $910 
a month appropriated by the Local Board of Education for lecture 
hall work. 

In spite of the good showing of the figures for average 
attendance, types of people reached and the list of subjects 
covered, the investigator's report concerning the spirit in which 
the lectures were given makes us doubt the real effectiveness of 
much of the lecture hall work. He said: 

"The Board of Education does not really take much interest 
in the lecture halls. They are conducted as an official business 
and something to be gotten through with. Most of the lecture 
halls are run without any real aim. The lecturers really wish 
to |;et out as large a crowd as possible as the holding of their 

Eosition depends on a good outward showing. They have not, 
owever, shown deep interest in their work." 
All but two of the lecture halls are supplied with a small 
collection of books and a few newspapers, 4-7 in classical lan- 
guage and 3-6 in the colloquial, that can be used by any one who 
comes in. Ordinarily the lecture halls are open to readers from 
9 or 10 in the morning until the lectures are given in the after- 
noon. The libraries in the halls inside the city are permanent 
collections but for those outside the walls there are five traveling 
libraries of 100 volumes each that are moved every two months. 
A study of the books in the seven lecture hall libraries inside the 
city shows a total of 1,692 volumes, or an average of 242. Two- 
fifths of these are fiction — novels, stories, magazines — while a 
little less than one-third deal with general educational subjects. 
History and geography, political science, law and economics are 
also well represented.^ Most of the halls also have educational 
pictures, charts and maps on the walls. 

The people using the libraries total on the average 446 a 
^Yf or 37 for each library. Sixty was the largest number of 
readers reported by any one of the libraries. About twice as 
maiw read the newspapers. 

special mention must be made of the Model Lecture Hall 
conducted by the Board of Education, for it is the head of all 
the lecture hall work. It is situated on one of the busiest streets 
in the South City, west Chu Shih K'ou, and is by far the largest 
and best equipped hall in the city. The seating capacity of the 
large theater-like hall is 450 and the average attendance is 30a 

* 8m Appendix for complete figurei. 


Lectures are given every evening from 7 to 9, usually preceded 
by a phonograph concert and often followed by moving pictures. 

The lecture staff consists of 6 regular and 5 special lecturers 
whose educational qualifications are much higher than those of 
the lecturers in the other halls. One is a graduate of the law 
collie and several are from the Paoting Higher Normal School. 
The budget of $700 a month is paid by the National Board of 

The Model Lecture Hall has a library of 823 volumes, maga- 
zines and newspapers for the use of the lecturers and visitors. 
The largest number of books (300) deal with educational sub- 
jects. There are also a good many novels and short stories. 
Of biology, hygiene, industry, travel, classics and lectures there 
are less than 65 volumes each. 


A special half -day school was opened in 19 17 by the Model 
Lecture Hall in a three-room building just east of the lecture 
hall. Classes are held in the morning from 8 to 11 with 37 
students in attendance. The course is for three years and 
includes moral instruction, reading from the nation^ readers, 
arithmetic, Chinese calculation .and the memorizing of proverbs. 
The boys are also given industrial work in making soap, tooth 
powder, ink, slate pencils and chalk. 


The First Public Blind School was also opened in 1917 by 
the Model Lecture Hall largely as the result of the starting, by 
E. G. Hillier, Esq., of the Peking Blind School. The students are 
taught the Braille system of reading, and are given some literary 
education. For industrial work they have been knitting gloves, 
scarfs, hats and socks. School hours are from 8 to 11 in the 
morning and the students are graduated after a two year course, 
but may continue their studies if they so desire. No tuition is 
charged and the pupils are given their food and clothes. Many 
of them live in a dormitory near the Lecture Hall. A careful 
investigation is made before any student is accepted and the 
number in the school is definitely limited to 10. All the expenses 
of the school are met by the Model Lecture Hall. 


The markets held at the different temples in Peking, some 
of them once a year, some once or twice a month, some three 


times a months always attract large crowds of people. The Board 
of Education has taken advantage of this and sends lecturers to 
the markets to talk to any who will stop and listen. The Tec- 
tures are given from i to 4 o'clock and the subjects and aims are 
the same as for the regular lecture halls. The average attendance 
is about 500 a day. The audience is naturally composed of idlers 
around the temple grounds and those who come to buy at the 
market. Because of the special nature of the work the lecturers 
are paid $20 a month. 


Besides the small libraries in the lecture halls there are five 
public libraries in Peking, the Public Library at Fang Chia Yuan, 
the Children's Library at Hsi Ssu P'ailou, Pei Ta Chieh, 
the Central Park Library, the General Public Library near the 
Tan P'ailou on Hsun Qiih Men Ta Chieh and the Branch 
Library at Hsiang Yu Lin, Ssu T'iao Hut'ung. 


The Peking Public Library (see map) founded under the 
Ch'ing Dynasty is the largest of all the Peking Libraries and is 
devoted to old and classical books, of which there are over 
100,000 volumes. The library is housed in fairly modern build- 
ings with light and spacious rooms, but none of the buildings are 
fire proof. 

The books are divided into three main groups: 

1st. Ssu Ku Chuan Shu or ancient classical books with 
some 6,144 volumes. These, however, are not originals but are 
copies of old classics and histories. 

2nd. Shan Pao Shu or rare books, a collection of 14,000 
volumes of history and classics including 8,000 volumes of the 
T'ang Dynasty Classics. Most of the books were printed in the 
Sung, Yuan and Ming Dynasties and were brought to Peking 
from Kansu Province. 

3rd. P'u T'ung Shu or ordinary books of which there are 

Most of the books, except those in the Ssu Ku Chuan Shu 
section and the classics of the T'ang Dynasty, were printed with 
old style wooden type. Many of the books are so old and valu- 
able that they cannot be used by the ordinary reader. No books 
can be taken from the library but may be copied on payment of 
50 cents per volume. 

Because of the nature of the books the average number of 
readers is very small, not over 30, and most of them are old 


men of the scholar type. There used to be a reading room for 
women, but it has been discontinued and any who come arc 
allowed to read in the waiting room. Children are not admitted. 
Library hours being from 9 to 6, no lights are supplied. A charge 
of 10 coppers is made for reading the Shan Pao books, 5 coppers 
for the Ssu Ku Qiuan Shu books, 2 coppers for the general 
books and i copper for the newspapers. Students are allowed 
to use the general library for i copper and the newspaper reading 
room free of charge. 

A tea or rest room is furnished for the readers in this and 
all the other Peking libraries. Smoking and talking are not 
allowed in the reading rooms but are permitted in the tea room 
where hot tea is supplied by the servant. 

In connection with the library there is also a small newspaper 
and magazine reading room where some ten different publications 
are on file. The average number of readers is 30. 

The expenses of the library amount to $1,500 a month, $800 
for salaries of the staff of 19, the rest for general office expenses 
and the purchase of new books. During 19 18 $1,200 was spent 
for books and $400 in the first four months of 1919. All the 
expenses of the library are met by the National Board of Educa- 


As the name indicates, this library is for children only. It is 
housed in an old style Qiinese courtyard in a residence district. 
On one side of the court are three reading rooms, two for boys 
and one for girls, while on the other side are play rooms, ping 
pong, Chinese chess and other games being provided. The chil- 
dren are also allowed to play out of doors in part of the coVn- 

The library has some thousand volumes: story books 163, 
novels 100, science 164, literature 94, magazines 159, picture 
books 263, miscellaneous 95. A considerable number of educa- 
tional pictures are hung on the walls. The children are free to 
come whenever the library is open, 1-5 on week days, 9-1 1 on 
Sundays, and the librarian helps them in their selection of books, 
which of course cannot be taken from the library. The average 
attendance is about 30, all but one or two being boys. The 
average monthly expenditure for the library is $40, librarian's 
salary $16 and for the purchase of new books $4. 


As part of the extension education, the Board of Education 
has opened near the Temple of the Five Grains in Central Park 


a library of some five thousand volumes including books of 
ancient and modern times. The old ones cover history, philos- 
ophy and literature, the modern ones philosophy and religion, 
history and geography, social science including economics, indus- 
try and political science, natural science, mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, biology, mineralogy, astronomy, medicine, industry, 
agriculture; and general literature in both Chinese and foreign 
languages, German, French, English, Russian, Japanese. In the 
reading room there are also some sixty newspapers. An entrance 
fee of two coppers is charged. A part of the reading room 
which has accommodation for over loo people is reserved for 
women and children. The library is open from lo A.M. until 

The average number of readers varies with the season ; in the 
spring it is about 30, during the winter 20, in the fall 40, and in 
summer 200. On national holidays when admission to the park 
is free and the usual charge of 10 cents is not made, those who 
come to the library sometimes number up in the thousands. The 
largest group of readers belong to the official class, while students 
and soldiers are next in number. The library is used by only 
a few merchants, women or children. 

There are some six librarians and officials connected with 
the library besides three clerks, six servants and two policemen. 
The librarians receive from $20 to $40 a month, the clerks $12 
a month, servants $5-$7, and the policemen $9. The monthly 
budget paid by the Board of Education amounts to $500. 


The Peking General Library (see map) was the first of the 
Peking libraries to put modern books on its shelves. It now 
contains some 10,000 volumes, over 2,700 of which are novels. 
The library is open from 9 to 7. It is lighted with electric lights 
and heated with foreign stoves during the winter even though 
the buildings are old style Chinese. The average number of 
readers is 100, about sixty of whom are students. 

In connection with the regular library there is a reading 
room for children decorated with many interesting pictures and 
provided with some toys and picture books. Altogether there 
are some 600 children's books. There is also a small outdoor 
playground for the children. As there is no special reading room 
for women any that come have to use the children's reading 

The estimated expenditure for the library is $1,200 a month 
but we were told that only $900 was actually used, $700 for 
salaries and general expenses and $200 for new books. The 


librarians and manager receive $28 and $40 a month, those who 
are in training $10 and $12 a month. 


This library (see map), a branch of the Peking Public 
Library, was opened in June, 1915. Unlike the other libraries 
it is housed in a two-story foreign style building^. The books 
comprise some 1,300 volumes of Chinese classics, history, philos- 
ophy, etc., 1,500 volumes of Tibetan classics and a number of 
books in foreign languages. Thirty-six student magazines are 
kept on file in the students' reading room and there are 38 different 
newspapers in the newspaper reading room. A special reading 
room is provided for women. A charge of one or two coppers is 
made depending upon whether the reader wants to use the books 
or newspapers. Certain classes, students and soldiers are given 
reduced rates and some are admitted free. The average number 
of readers is 40. The library is open from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M. 
during most of the year. In simimer it opens at 7 A.M. and 
closes at p P.M. but is closed from 12 to 3. The library is dosed 
on Mondays and all holidays but the newspaper reading room 
only on holidays. 

In 1918 the expenses of the library amounted to $5,040, sala- 
ries of librarians and secretaries $2,700, rent $820, newspapers 
and magazines $870, servants $290. Apprentices learning the 
library work are paid $10 a month. The head of the library 
is appointed by the Minister of Education and is also a member 
of the Board of Education. 

The 1917 report of the Board of Education shows an 
expenditure in 1916 of $10,000 on the two old style libraries, 
although only 3443 people used them during the year. One 
library with modem books cost $8,000 to run but had 246,300 

The popularity of the new literature is also shown by the 
figures for all of China. Twenty-five old style libraries had 
109,903 readers. Two hundred and thirty-eight with modem 
books had 2,718,910 readers.^ 



In order to arouse interest in general popular education and 
social reform, the Society for the Discussion and Investigation 
of Educational Affairs was established by the Board of Educa- 
tion. According to the regulations of the society the different 

*See Appendix for complete Ublei. 


topics to be discussed are novels, dramas, and public speeches, 
the three sections of the society each paying special attention to 
one of these subjects. The members of the novel branch inves- 
tigate old and new novels, arrange for the writing of new ones 
and attempt to improve the class of novel being written. They 
also seek to have important novels in other languages translated 
into Chinese. Those interested in the drama investigate the old 
dramas, any new ones that are published and those that are sold 
at the markets; devise means for having plays translated into 
Chinese, and act as inspectors of moving pictures and newly 
made phonograph records. Those who belong to the section 
having to do with public speaking not only make a careful study 
of the public addresses that are being given, but also devise 
means for making valuable material available for those who wish 
to make public addresses. They act as inspectors of news items 
and pictures. 

The members of this association are: Several officers of the 
Board of Education, two members of the Local Board of Educa- 
tion appointed by the board and approved by the Minister of 
Education, one representative from every school directly under the 
Ministry of Education, two officers of the Educational Encour- 
aging Committee, appointed by the Local Board of Education, two 
representatives of the Police Board, two members of the Peking 
Educational Association and two members of the general educa- 
tional committee of Peking. The association may itself appoint 
other members. 

The president of the society and the head of each of the 
three departments are all appointed by the Minister of Educa- 
tion. Each department holds a general meeting at least once 
a week. Special meetings are held occasionally when called by 
the president. All expenses of the society are met by the Board 
of Education. 


The Peking Educational Association founded by the 
National Board of Education gives in its regulations as its 
purposes the following: 

To cooperate with the National Educational Association; 
conduct investigations to find opportunities for educational work 
in social activities, home education, and in connection with the 
schools; assist the police in furthering their educational activi- 
ties; edit educational books and newspapers; organize educa- 
tional discussion groups; organize lectures for the poor; estab- 
lish public reading rooms. 

The membership of the association is composed of educators. 


scientists or those who are promoting educational work. The 
initiation fee is $i and the annual dues $2. The activities are 
divided into 5 departments; social service, correspondence, edi- 
toriali treasury and miscellaneous, each of which is under the 
leadership of an executive secretary, who must be changed every 
year. A general supervisory committee of 20 men, in addition 
to the officers, assumes responsibility for all the activities of the 

A meeting of members is held on April loth of every year 
to discuss the educational situation in Peking and to hear reports 
as to the past activities and suggestions for the future. 


The year 1919 was significant in the history of China because 
of the "student movement" and its influence on the political life 
of the country, but even more because of the start of a broad 
intellectual movement generally known in Chinese as the "Hsin 
Ssu Ch'ao" (new thought tide) and in English as the "Renais- 
sance Movement." This originally centered in an effort to popu- 
larize the use in writing of the Mandarin or spoken language but 
has since enlarged its field until it is developing a program for 
complete social reformation. 

Up to January, 1919, the ancient classical Chinese or Wen-Li 
was almost the universal mode of literary expression. This is a 
literary language no longer spoken and bears practically the 
same relation to the spoken Chinese as formerly obtained between 
Latin and Anglo-Saxon in England. It is so difficult that it is 
fully understood only by those who have had a very complete 

Even before 1919 there was a movement on foot to popular- 
ize the spoken language in written form but it had made but 
little progress even though backed by a strong group of pro- 
gressive Chinese, most of them "returned students" who had 
studied in the universities of Europe and America. Among the 
leaders of the movement were three men connected with Peking 
University, the National Government University, Dr. Ts'ai Yuan 
P'ei, the Chancellor and a former student in France ; Dr. Hu Suh, 
professor of literature, who received his doctor's degree from 
Columbia University; and Prof. T'ao Lu Kung, professor of 
sociology and a graduate of London University. 

In the spring of 1919 special attention was brought to this 
new intellectual movement when the reactionary forces of the 
old literary and official China severely attacked its whole view- 
point and method. This attack elicited Chancellor Ts'ai's famous 
reply to Mr. Lin Shu in which he defended several professors 


who were being criticized for their liberal opinions on Kteraturc 
and morals and also took a strong stand for freedom of investi- 
gation, for toleration and openness of mind. This naturally 
caused wide discussion of the new movement and brought it 
many new adherents. 

When the "student movement" began in May the political 
and intellectual movements naturally made common cause and in 
a short time spread over the entire country. Now whatever may 
be the fate of the political movement the intellectual program is 
not only rapidly bringing about a literary revolution, but is in- 
fluencing practically all fields of thought in the country largely 
because of the new ideas and ideals that are being introduce^ 
through the use of the vulgate language. 

The aim of the movement as stated in the platform drawn up 
by its principal leaders is "to re-make civilization," and it plans 
to attain the desired result by "democracy and science." The 
'^critical attitude" is the approved attitude and there is a conscious 
endeavor to properly fix all social and moral values by a process 
known as "the trans-valuation of values." * 

All customs, ideas and methods of procedure are to be tested 
purely on the grounds of their value in the development of a 
progressive China. Old and useless viewpoints and methods are 
to be rejiected, and new ideas, ideals and progressive institutions 
are to be developed to meet the needs of a new society. The 
• platform also lays great emphasis on the importance of investiga- 
tion and states that, before any attempt is made to destroy the 
old, a very careful scientific study must be made in the social, 
government, religious, literary and other fields, so that, when it 
comes time to build anew, the methods and ideas used shall be 
those that are best fitted to China. 

In order to bring about a thorough reconstruction of the 
intellectual attitude as rapidly as possible the movement aims to 
reproduce, through the printed page, the views of the leading 
progressive, democratic and radical thinkers of the west. The 
men singled out as those whose theories should be investigated 
with particular care are Karl Marx, T. F. Wilcox, John Dewey, 
Haeckel, William James, Tolstoy, Bertrand Russell, Kropotkin, 
Bakunin and Lenin. Prior to January, 1919, the only organ of 
the Renaissance Movement was La Jeunesse (Hsin Ching rfien), 
a monthly magazine which by that time had reached its thirtieth 
issue. Early in 1919, the Renaissance Magazine (Hsin Ch'ao), 
and the Weekly Review (Mei Shih P*ing Lun) were started and 
two of the Peking dailies began to print the poetry and articles 
of the Renaissance leaders. 

When the nation-wide movement started, new periodicals 

Appendix for complete platform. 


sprang up all over the country until early in 1920 there were 
over 400 of them. Though many of these monthly and weekly 
magazines were edited by undergraduates in the universities and 
colleges in China, they very largely represent the young China 
group as they are guided by the three well-known scholars men- 
tioned above and by others in Peking, Shanghai, Hangchow, 
Hankow, and other sections of the country. A study of the 
tables of contents of several volumes of The Renaissance, Eman- 
cipation and Reconstruction, and La Jeunesse, several examples 
of which are given herewith, shows that there is a special em- 
phasis on the social field, including careful studies of the Russian 
Soviet, syndicalism and socialism, of the labor problem in China 
and other countries, of the women's movement in Europe and 
America, and of the family problem in China. 


The Renaissance, Volume II, No. i : 

Emancipation of women. The problem of social reconstruction. 
Study of the new village. Record of the new style village in Japan. 
The social estimate of the new poetry. Review of "The School and 
Society" (John Dewey). 

The Renaissance, Volume II, No. 3: 

The Christ before Jesus. The foundations of anarchy, and the society 
of anarchy. Opposed to the life of individualism. The field of psychol- 
ogy (McDougall). Industry in relation to livelihood. Woman's rights 
and the law. The present day power of democracy. The building of 
public opinion. The methods of sociology. 

La Jeunesse, Volume VI, No. 4: 

Pragmatism. The foundations of Russian revolutionary philosophy. 
Work in relation to life. Discussing the foundations of electoral 
franchise. Revolution in thought Social relations between men and 
women should be free. 

Emancipation and Reconstruction, Volume I, No. 2: 

Leadership, competition and the labor movement. Labor unions. A 
criticism of socialism. Biological egoism, altruism and universal love. 
The education of commercial apprentices. The logical leadership of the 
labor movement. Lenin and Trotsky — ^the men, their ideas and real 
condition. The definition of socialism. 

Emancipation and Reconstruction, Volume I, No. 3: 

The relation of Egoism to social outlook, and the relation of selfish- 
ness to altruism. How can we get peace in the world ? The foolishness: 
of conservatism. The movement for the emancipation of women in 
Europe and America. The far-reaching plan of the builders of Russia. 
The labor ideas of Tolstoy. 

Of the manifold, widespread and far-reaching results of the 
Renaissance Movement, the literary revolution is perhaps the 
most remarkable. In the use of the written Mandarin the edu- 
cated classes of Qiina have been given a new and powerful mode 
of expression. Not only have they been active in translating 


western novelists, Ibsen, Tolstoy and others, and the writings of 
western political and social thinkers, but they have created a 
new poetry and started a new fiction of their own. Literature 
of first hand critical and scientific studies of the social life and 
institutions of China is also being written in Mandarin. 

Another very evident result of the movement has been a 
clearer understanding of and deeper interest in democracy. The 
experience of eight or nine years of a nominal republic brought 
home to the minds of young China how many fundamental social 
and intellectual transformations are needed before real democ- 
racy can be achieved. The ancient social and family systems 
seemed to be standing in the way of carrying to completion the 
democratic platform inaugurated by the Revolution of 191 1. So 
the new intellectual movement has concentrated on intellectual 
and social transformation rather than on political problems. Sub- 
jects such as the transformation of industry from the old gild 
system to the modern factory system, the emancipation of women, 
the transformation of the Chinese family system from that of 
the old clan system to the smaller modern unit, the reform of 
ancient marriage and funeral customs, have occupied its atten- 

The interest in social problems has brought with it a much 
deeper interest on the part of educated men in the problems of 
the common people than there has ever been before. Students 
for the first time have made careful studies of living conditions 
and of the wage scale of those working under the gild system 
and in modern industry. The intellectuals of new China have 
definitely thrown in their lot with the common man and are 
working on the problem of raising the standard of living and 
educating the great mass of toiling Chinese. 

A new stimulus has been given educational reform by the 
intellectual movement. Dr. John Dewey of Columbia University, 
who is spending his second year in Peking as a lecturer in Peking 
(Government) University, has been back of most of this and 
has had a profound effect on the entire Renaissance Movement 
as well. 

He has lectured not only in Peking but in Shanghai, Hang- 
chow, Nanking, Tientsin, Mukden and the provinces of Shansi 
and Shantung. His lectures have been published in the Renais- 
sance magazines and widely distributed throughout the country. 
The emphasis he has given on "experimental education," "the 
problem method" of teaching and the importance of a close 
connection between education and industry in a modem democ- 
racy has had a telling effect. Play laboratories equipped with 
various forms of simple apparatus and common-place materials, 
boxes, pieces of wood and metal, measuring utensils in boxes of 


grain or sand, where the children can come and play, make things 
and learn for the primary schools, have been opened. The text- 
books for primary schools were last year printed in Mandarin 
for the first time; there has been an increased interest in the 
higher and lower primary schools in vocational education. The 
young men and young women of the colleges have organized in 
the school buildings or in borrowed quarters free night schools 
in whose curricula there is a marked emphasis of industrial 
education. The students have cooperated with the industrial 
gilds in improving their age long methods of apprentice education 
and have even established in some places open forums where, 
under the leadership of the college students, the people can 
discuss practical social problems. A teachers' training course 
has been established in the National Teachers' College to prepare 
teachers for work in part time primary schools to be opened in 
the country districts, and in some schools the cooperative idea 
of part time at work and part time in school is being developed. 
The influence of Dr. Dewey and those working with him is also 
seen in the fact that co-education is being adopted by some of 
the highest educational institutions. In 19 19 a few women stu- 
dents entered Peking University. Women are also admitted to 
the graduate department of the National Teachers' College. A 
cooperative system, similar to the relation between Harvard 
University and RadclifFe College, has been worked out for the 
men's normal and women's normal schools. 

The change in the whole mental attitude of young thinking 
China is undoubtedly the most far-reaching of the results of the 
Renaissance Movement. The old established viewpoints arc 
being critically investigated and even the fundamental moral 
principles of Confucius have been questioned. The organization 
of every department of human life, government, education, the 
family, industry, religion, is being analyzed. The term used 
perhaps more than any other in the modem magazines and by 
the leaders of the Renaissance Movement is "She Hui Kai Tsao" 
(Social Reconstruction). Young China, considering most of the 
ancient way of life to be useless and cumbersome, is eagerly 
reaching out for new methods and tools from the west and is 
seeking to study scientifically the problems of Chinese society 
so that they may build a stronger and more progressive nation. 



Pddng, the capital of China for almost a thousand years, 
has been a political, rather than a commercial or industrial center. 
It is not located on the sea-coast or on any large river; and 
transportation, though available, has been difficult. The sur- 
rounding country does not produce crops that are useful for 
manufacture; and, even though coal is available in the western 
hills and has been used as fuel, it has not brought big business 
to the city. Peking was opened to foreign influence in 1900 
after the Boxer Uprising, but it has hardly been touched by 
modem industry. It has never been made a treaty port. For- 
eigners have not been given the right to manufacture and do 
business there, and the strong political influence and special cus- 
toms duties have kept the Chinese from developing factories 
there. The business of the city is very largely that connected 
with the every-day life of the people, the bringing in and selling 
of food, clothes and other necessities. Small shops are the rule. 
Thousands of them have a frontage of fifteen feet or less and 
only a few of the largest employ as many as one hundred men. 
The number of shops and stores in the city is 25,395,^ while 
87,721 persons are engaged in industry or conmierce. 

As a result, the business life of Peking is similar to that of 
the ordinary Chinese city that has not had any special industrial 
advantage and has not been greatly influenced by western methods 
and ideas. Its commercial organizations are as typical of those 
in other parts of the country as the organizations of any city can 
be said to be typical of a country where local conditions have 
produced so many local variations. Yet there is enough modem 
development in Peking to show the probable effect of the new 
ways on the old business methods and organizations, and to give 
some idea of the future development of the business life of the 


The outstanding features of the business life of Peking are 
the merchant and labor gilds, the Chamber of Commerce and a 
few modem factories. The gilds are a form of combination 

> Police Ccnsut, 1917. 



that China has known for over two thousand years. They are 
organizations made up of the men connected with only one kind 
of work. Every trade has had its gild, and the gilds include 
both employers and employees. The Chamber of Commerce is 
patterned after the chambers of commerce of other countries, 
but has been adapted to the business life of the Chinese. It 
includes in its membership the representatives of many different 
kinds of business. The modem factories are western in their 
processes, machinery and methods. 

Competition and the political system have been the principal 
factors in bringing about the formation and development of the 
gilds. The preamble of the published price list of one of the 
gilds gives the Chinese attitude toward competition. 

"We have gathered the workers together and found that 
prices are not uniform. No shops have standard prices, and 
without fixed prices it is hard for the workers to make a living. 
Different shops have reduced their prices from time to time when 
business has been poor, until the men who have been carrying on 
the business have lost money every day. They have been hungry 
and have lacked clothes. Seeing so many people suffering in this 
business, the gild believes that, in doing business, justice must 
prevail, so that the sellers shall not lose money and the buyers 
shall not be cheated. Therefore, in order that we may maintain 
our business forever, we have had a meeting at the Temple for 
the purpose of fixing a uniform price list. If, in the future, 
anybody changes these prices and is found out, he is to be fined. 
Let him remember this and not disregard it and then repent when 
he is found out." 

Centuries of experience have proved to the Chinese that com- 
petition is not fitted to their system of life. In a country where 
a man can enter a trade only after he has served an apprentice- 
ship of three years, labor has practically no mobility ; and, where 
so many people live so close to starvation, it is a tragedy for a 
man to lose his job. Competition, with its fight for trade, means 
lower prices, lower wages and failure for those who have not 
the resources or ability to meet the new conditions. That in 
turn means loss for practically all of those who are connected 
with the trade, and suffering for many. The Chinese feel that 
the cost of competition is too high. They combine rather than 
compete. They have developed the gild organization so that they 
may be protected from each other, and that business conditions 
may be stabilized, be the same for all and be maintained in spite 
of outside influences. 

The political situation has been a powerful factor in bringing 
together all the men in one line of business. The Emperor and 
his officials have considered it their privilege to absorb as much 


as possible of the usufruct of the country. They have done this 
by means of taxes and heavy charges for the services of the 
officials. Single individuals have not been able to stand against 
the demands of the officials; but, when all the men engaged in 
one line of business have been united, the officials have found it 
unwise, if not impossible, to enforce new or additional demands, 
if the business men are unwilling to accede to those demands. One 
of the reasons why the merchants have had the power to force 
the officials to listen to their protest has been that the first re- 
sponsibility of the official is to keep peace in his district. If he 
tries to enforce demands that are new or unusual and the mer- 
chants refuse to accept them, trouble is bound to ensue, and it 
will come to the ears of the official higher up, who will want to 
know why the peace of the district is disturbed. Rather than 
allow any sizable disturbance, the official will withdraw or at 
least compromise his demands. 

The giving of justice and the enforcement of the law by the 
officials have been such that the merchants have found that it is 
to their advantage to dispense justice for themselves and to make 
and enforce their own law. In the past there has been but little 
national business law and the business men have been governed 
almost entirely by local custom. The officials were never natives 
of the province in which they held office, and were not acquainted 
with the local customs. Furthermore, they have usually been 
more interested in the amount of the contributions they could get 
from the parties to a lawsuit, than in giving justice. Conse- 
quently, the merchants have found it wise to settle their own 
troubles, and to stay away from the officials. This they have 
done by having the gilds adopt necessary rules or laws, and also 
act as tfie agency to decide quarrels and disputes according to the 
prevailing customs and laws. 

The gild organization has been such that every one connected 
with the trade or business has belonged to the gild, and all 
members have had their vote in electing officers and their voice in 
the passing of any new rules. The control of business has been 
democratic, even though the country has been ruled by autocratic 

Although the officials have found the gilds arrayed against 
them whenever they attempted to encroach on business, they 
have, at other times, found the gilds a great help to them. When- 
ever new rules or new taxes have been under consideration, it 
has been possible, by conference with the head men of the gild, 
to determine whether or not such rules or taxes would be accept- 
able to the merchants. Then, too, the gild has often accepted tfie 
resix)nsibility for enforcing the rules and even for collecting the 


With the membership of the gild including those connected 
with only a single trade, a large number of gilds are organized 
m any one city. They vary greatly in size, strength, complete- 
ness of organization and control over members. The usual rule 
is that the greater the amount of capital involved the more com- 
plete will be the organization of the gild, and the more skilled 
the workers the more insistent will they ht that they have a 
strong organization. It is only the unskilled trades, ricksha 
coolies, etc., that are without a definite organization. Even 
among them the Chinese genius for organization is so strong that 
they are able to get together quickly in time .of need. In Hang- 
chow, Chekiang, the ricksha coolies were able to organize within 
twenty-four hours a strike that paralyzed the traffic of the city. 


Just when in China's history the gilds first began to develop, 
no one knows. The Chinese records go back for more than three 
thousand years; but they tell only of Emperors, wars and sub- 
jects of literary merit. Business and anything connected with it 
have not l)een considered of literary merit, and so have not been 
more than very casually mentioned in the records. Any monu- 
ments or tablets that told of the gilds and their organizations 
have failed to survive the many changes that have come over the 
country. Even the gilds themselves cannot trace their history 
back to the beginning, for they have not any written constitu- 
tions, and they have not thought it at all necessary to keep records 
of their routine meetings or even of any radical change in their 
organization. They have been careful to preserve copies of the 
rules that have been in force, but the copies of any old rules have 
been destroyed. 

The Korean gilds, on the other hand, have written constitu- 
tions and have kept a record of all alterations and amendments. 
Many of these constitutions are over one thousand years old. 
Reference is made in them to the Chinese gilds, as their form or 
organization was used as a model for the Korean gilds. Conse- 
quently, it is definitely known that the Chinese have used the 
gild organization for well over one thousand years. They have 
probably had it for two thousand years or even longer. 

The oldest gild in Peking is the Gild of the Blind. They 
claim that their organization is over two thousand years old and 
that they have records running back to the beginning of the Han 
Dynasty (206 B. C). They have been unwilling to let any out- 
sider examine these records, so their claim cannot be verified. 
The other Peking gilds give the date of their organization as 
some time after 1644, the date when the Manchus deposed the 


Ming Emperor and placed their ruler on the throne of China. 
With the coming of the Manchus, the business life of the capital 
was naturally completely disorganized. There was fighting inci- 
dent to the change of dynasty, and the stores were thoroughly 
looted, if not entirely destroyed. Under such circumstances the 
gilds disappeared and did not return until conditions had quieted 
down and business had begun to return to normal. The Chinese 
give the year of the reorganization of any gild as the date of its 
founding, so there are practically none that claim to have been 
founded prior to the coming of the Manchus. Even since 1644 
there have been political disturbances or hard times that have 
caused the temporary break-up of some of the gilds. As a result 
there are many that seem to have had but a short history, and 
some even claim to have been founded since the Revolution of 
191 1 ; most of these are gilds whose work was connected with 
customs that had been introduced by the Manchus. These cus- 
toms were largely discarded after the establishment of the Re- 
public, and the workers were unable to adapt themselves to the 
new styles rapidly enough to avoid bankruptcy. Their gilds had 
to be discontinued, as the members could not afford to pay their 
running expenses. The gilds have since reorganized, as their 
members have adapted themselves to the new styles, have grad- 
ually built up profitable businesses, and have found how much 
the gild organization and rules mean to them. With the gild dis- 
organized, competition returns and it is not long before the men 
are anxious to reorganize the gild, to reestablish its rules and to 
make conditions once more uniform. 

Chief among the gilds disorganized by the coming of the 
Republic are those of the barbers, the hat-makers, the old style 
tailors, and the undertakers. The installation of a water system 
in Peking in 1908 broke up the water-carriers gild and it is just 
now reorganizing. 


Membership in a gild is ordinarily limited to those who belong 
to one trade or line of work. Seldom do the workers in two or 
more lines unite in one gild, and then ordinarily only when the 
types of work are similar. The Peking Bone and Horn Gild is 
an example of this sort of organization; it includes the makers 
of tooth-brushes, hair-pins, combs, shoe-horns, spectacle-frames 
and tongue-scrapers. We have found only one gild in which 
two apparently unrelated trades are united, namely, the makers 
of incense and of toilet articles. 

The territory in which the gild operates usually includes a 
city and the country immediately surrounding it, though some of 
the gilds divide the city for administrative purposes into dis- 


tricts, and set up a complete gild organization in each district. 
The district gilds are all related, however, and belong to one 
organization that covers the entire city. The cooks and the 
tailors each have separate organizations in the North and South 
Cities, while the blind musicians and entertainers divide the city 
into five districts, north, south, east, west and center, and 
have a gild in each. The members of the district gilds come 
together for one or more meetings each year. 

In a few cases, gilds are organized along provincial lines, but 
no gilds have been found that have a national organization. It 
was reported that the gold foil beaters were organized on national 
lines and that they had a national headquarters near Peking, but 
investigation failed to discover any trace of the organization or 
its headquarters. 

All those who belong to a given trade are eligible for mem- 
bership in the gild. Store-keepers, store managers and laborers 
all belong to the same organization. The usual requirements for 
membership are that a man shall have a good character, shall 
have served the apprenticeship demanded by the gild rules and 
shall be doing business in the territory of the gild. Once in a 
while a gild limits its membership to those who are natives of a 
certain province, district or even city. The fur dealers in Peking 
are all natives of Chihli, Shansi or Shantung. The water- 
carriers all come from Shantung. The limitation of membership 
to the natives of a single town is a feature of some of the gilds 
of Central and South China, for there the men seem to be much 
more closely related to their home town than they do in North 
China. No gild was found in Peking that limited its membership 
to the natives of a single district or city. 

It is known that some of the Central and South China gilds 
limit those who can be trained as apprentices, and who will be 
the future members of the gilds, to the sons or other close rela- 
tives of the members. These gilds are usually those that demand 
some particular skill, have special trade secrets, or whose work 
is especially remunerative. Investigation failed to discover in 
Peking any gilds with these limitations. 

Very little is said in the gild rules about the gild membership 
being compulsory. The omission is largely accounted for by the 
fact that gild membership is so thoroughly accepted that it is not 
thought necessary to state that the gild requires all those con- 
nected with the trade to belong. To the Chinese it is unthinkable 
for a man to refuse to join the gild. Of course he will have to 
obey the gild rules, and he will be required to make certain con- 
tributions to the gild ; but in their minds the benefits to be derived 
from the gild far outweigh any inconvenience or expense. In 
the first place, the struggle for existence is so keen that every 


man is anxious to feel that he belongs to some group, that he has 
some backing and support, and that there is some source to 
which he can look for help in time of trouble. In case of aggres- 
sion on the part of the officials, unjust lawsuits, disputes with 
customers, the man who belongs to the gild has behind him the 
entire strength of its membership, while the merchant who does 
not belong has to depend on his own strength and, as he is seldom 
strong enough to resist outside aggression, he is ordinarily unable 
to make a success of his business. Furthermore, if a merchant 
would do business with the men engaged in the same line of work, 
he must belong to the gild ; for those organizations do not often 
allow their members to have any business relations with those 
who have not joined. 

The gilds do not want outsiders to do business in their terri- 
tory, and they apply pressure to force them to join. The first 
step is to insist that the gild members have no business relations 
with the outsider. Then a committee of the gild waits on him 
and endeavors to persuade him to join. If he will not listen to 
them, his tools or goods are probably "borrowed." If he still 
refuses to join, he himself will perhaps be taken to the Gild Hall 
and held prisoner until he sees the advantages of gild member- 
ship. For protection against such actions on the part of the gild, 
the outsider can appeal to the police in vain. They will give him 
no help ; in fact, they will encourage him to join. In its field, the 
power of the gilds is stronger than that of the police. We know 
of only one gild in Peking that definitely states in ijts rules that 
it does not require those who come to the city to do business to 
join the gild. This is the Jade Gild. It says that outside mer- 
chants are allowed to do business in the city, but that the gild will 
not help them to collect any debts due them, even if the money 
is owed them by gild members. 

A man usually joins the gild when he finishes his term of 
apprenticeship. He then has completed his training, is ready to 
work for wages, and is entitled to take his place as a member of 
the trade. In many of the gilds, the graduating apprentices are 
received as members at the annual meeting, and quite a cere- 
mony is made of their reception. In others, they simply sign 
the membership book of the gild, and pay any required initiation 
fee whenever they have completed their term of apprenticeship. 
The gilds ordinarily accept as members trained workers who 
come to the city looking for employment, provided they have 
been members of the gild in the district from which they came. 
Usually the presentation of their membership card is sufficient; 
but in some instances before they are accepted they have to find 
a member of the gild who will act as their guarantor. 

When a man opens a store he is required to register with the 


gild as a store-keeper. This will simply change his type of 
membership, as he will have already served his trade apprentice- 
ship and joined the gild. Only a very few gilds allow a man to 
open a store and jom the gild if he is a "Wai Hang," or one 
who has not served an apprenticeship. Most of those are the 
gilds that deal in goods of foreign manufacture, and so do not 
find it necessary to require their members to serve an apprentice- 
ship. The gilds usually charge a special fee when a new store 
is opened. This sometimes amounts to one hundred dollars or 
over, but is more often a few tens of dollars. They also recog- 
nize that the resources of the employers are larger than those 
of the employees, and make the annual contribution of the store- 
keeper larger than that of the worker. Some gilds even require 
the store-keepers to pay all of their running expenses. 

At present the employers and employees are able to live in 
harmony in the same organization, as the great majority of 
questions that come before the gild have to do with the interests 
of the trade as a whole, and few, if any, arise where the interests 
of the workers are opposed to those of the employers. Wages 
are the principal thing in which the workers are interested, and 
they are usually adjusted by the employers without any special 
demand from the employees. The relationship between the em- 
ployers and employees is so close that the employers are able to 
recognize when their employees need a higher wage to meet 
higher prices, and they are usually willing to grant it of their 
own accord. Seldom, if ever, is there an attempt on the part of 
the workers to raise wages unless the price of .living has gone 
up. They have a regular standard of living and do not often 
attempt to improve that standard, but they do fight against any 
attempt to reduce it. In case the employers do not raise wages 
when there has been a rise in the cost of living, the workers 
come together, organize, and as a group present their demands 
to their employers. If their demands are not met, the men ordi- 
narily attempt to enforce them by striking. After the point at 
issue has been settled, the organization of the men is discon- 
tinued, and both employers and employees work together in the 

Just how long the gild will be able to include both employers 
and employees in its membership, no one can tell, but there is 
every reason to believe that China will develop trade unions and 
employers' associations; for, as industry develops, the interests 
of the two groups will diverge and the present close relationship 
between master and man will gradually disappear. Even now there 
is some evidence of such a division in the gild organization. The 
employers and employees of the Incense and Toilet Articles Gild 
belong to the same organization, but hold separate meetings at 


different times and in different places. The employees of the 
shoe-makers have an organization that is entirely distinct from 
that of the employers. This separation will increase throughout 
the whole country, but will probably come more rapidly in South 
and Central China than in the north, for the industrial develop- 
ment of those districts has already progressed farther than that 
of North China, and the character of their resources and popula- 
tion is such that their development will be even more rapid in 
the future. 

The size of the Peking gilds varies tremendously, of course. 
For some kinds of work the demand is very small, and the gild 
will perhaps have not more than lOO members. There is a large 
demand for other kinds of work, and the number of those con- 
nected with the gild may be 10,000 or even 20,000. The Gild of 
the Gold Foil Beaters has only 115 members, 15 store-keepers and 
100 workers, while 2,500 store-keepers and 13,300 workers belong 
to the Tailors Gild. As S,Scx) apprentices are working in the 
tailor shops, the total number of those connected with the gild 
is 21,300. The carpenters say that, including contractors, work- 
ers, apprentices, wood dealers, etc., there are over 10,000 connected 
witfi their gild. 

With regard to health questions it is interesting to note that 
the water-carriers (those who furnish the water supply to most 
of the houses of the city) number 2,500, while some 5,000 men 
are engaged in removing the sewage of the dty, and preparing it 
for use as fertilizer. 

For further figures on gild membership see Appendix. 


All of the gilds hold one or two regular meetings of their 
members every year, and as many special meetings as may be 
required. The regular meetings are held on set dates, usually the 
biithday of the hero or deity worshiped as the patron saint of 
the gild, or on one of the Chinese festival days. The special 
meetings are called whenever needed. Meeting days are holidays 
and festivals for the gild members, for the masters and workers 
come together to enjoy a feast and theatrical play, to worship 
their patron saint, to elect officers for the coming year, and to 
transact any business that may require their attention. Routine 
matters are cared for by the board of directors, but important 
questions concerning the gild always come before the members. 
Changes in gild rules, severe discipline of members, unusual 
demands of the officials, are all referred to the members, and the 
gild policy is determined by their decision. 

The Gild of the Blind, who make a business of singing, story 


telling and entertaining, holds its meetings on the 2nd of the 3rd 
month and the 8th of the 9th month, celebrating the Chinese festi- 
vals of the 3rd of the 3rd moon and the 9th of the 9th moon, 
as the meeting lasts until 5 o'clock the next morning. It was our 
good fortune to be given the privilege of attending one of these 
meetings. As the gild has no gild hall, it borrows the Ching 
Chung Miao, a temple in the South City, outside of Hatamen, 
and there, all day long, a constant stream of blind men was coming 
and going. They were greeting their friends, discussing politics 
and the condition of business, and enjoying the tea and oikes that 
had been provided ; and it was a strange sight to see so many blind 
people together, each with his long bamboo cane, tapping, tapping, 
tapping, as they moved around the hall. They were constantly 
calling back and forth across the hall as the men tried to locate 
their friends ; and, when a group wanted to move from one part 
of the hall to another, they formed a line, each with his hand on 
the shoulder of the man in front of him, and were led by a man 
who still had a little vision and so could avoid chairs and tables. 
A very few women came to the meeting ; they visited among them- 
selves or listened to the business being transacted, but did not 
mingle with the men. 

In the evening the executive council of forty-eight met to 
conduct the business of the gild. They gathered around a row of 
tables arranged in the shape of a tortoise shell. The twenty-four 
men on each side of the table all had different titles and duties 
as follows : 

Manager Witness 

President Adviser 

Vice-President Inspector 

Judge Investigator 

Attorney General Reporter 

Prosecuting Attorney Chief of Police 

Grand Jury Police 

Jury of the Court Executioner 

Sheriff Warrant Carrier 

Counselor Time-keeper 

Protector Door-keeper 

Law Proctor Servant of the Court. 

The office held by the different members of the executive com- 
mittee depended either upon lot or the choice of the general 
manager, for one of the men who came to sit with the foreign 
guests complained that he had been appointed executioner and 
did not like the job. 

The worship of the gods of the gild was the first business of 
the meeting. On the raised platform at the upper end of the 


hall an altar had been arranged for the God of Heaven, the God 
of Earth, and the God of Men, from whom the gild gets its 
name of the "Three Emperors' Association." On the wall were 
hung the pictures of the three gods, the Emperor of Heaven 
being in the middle and slightly higher than the other two. In 
front of them, on a table, was spread a feast of chicken, pork, 
fish, wine, vegetables, fruit and rice. On the edge of the table 
burned two large candles and the incense offered to the gods. 
The members of the executive committee came up two by two, 
to offer to the gods their obeisance and thanks for the prosperity 
of the past year. They were directed in their worship by the 
secretary of the gild, the one officer who was not blind. First, 
they were required to straighten their clothing, then they bowed 
before the gods, and then went down on their knees and bowed 
their head to the floor in the "K'e t'ou," the Chinese sign of 
submission and reverence. The bow and "K'e t'ou" were re- 
peated three times, and then the next pair were brought up. All 
the time the worship was going on, music was furnished by six 
of the best musicians of {he gild. 

After all forty-eight of the officers had worshiped before the 
gods, the musicians gave a two-hour concert with their best 
songs and music. Any who had written new songs during the 
past year were called upon to give them at that time. Following 
the concert, the business meeting was held from 12 to 2. It con- 
sisted of reports and the discussion of methods for strengthen- 
ing the gild, and of ways and means for making the business of 
the blind entertainers more prosperous. At the end of the 
meeting, a report giving a statement of the condition of the 
gfild, a resume of the business of the past year, and the names of 
all the officers, musicians, committeemen and subscribers, was 
burned on the altar, so that the gods might have a complete report 
of the work and development of the gild. 

After the business meeting, the committee constituted itself a 
court, tried the cases of those who were accused of having broken 
the rules and regulations of the gild, and heard and attempted to 
settle cases where there had been a quarrel or dispute between 
any of the members. When the cases were brought before the 
court, testimony was taken and a verdict rendered. Each of the 
members of the executive committee carried out the duties of the 
office to which he had been assigned. 

In the olden days, the gilds used to punish their younger 
members when convicted of violating the important rules of the 
association, by sentencing them to 50, 70 or 100 strokes of the 
bamboo, according to the degree of their guilt. As the gild felt 
that no man could completely break a rule, the entire sentence 
was never carried out. If a man were sentenced to 100 blows. 


the executioner would give only 90. The older members were 
punished by a fine. Those convicted of a first degree offense 
were fined one tael. For a second degree offense, the fine was 
seven mace (7/10 of a tael), and for one of the third degree, 
three mace (3/10 of a tael). 

After the establishment of the Republic, the police denied 
the gild the right to use the bamboo and insisted that other 
punishments be used. As a result, the gild has found it hard to 
enforce its rules, and but few trials have been held during the 
last few years. The gild officers, however, are planning to sus- 
pend for a certain number of days those who break the rules of 
the gilds. Suspension will mean that the guilty one will be 
prevented from carrying on his business during those days, and 
it is hoped that in this way the members can once more be made 
to live up to the rules. 

Following the trials, a feast was served to the committee and 
visitors who were still present; and then, after the burning of 
another paper before the gods, the meeting broke up about 
5 A. M. 

The requirements of the gilds concerning attendance at the 
annual meetings vary greatly. Some require that all members 
shall attend, others require that all store-keepers either attend in 
person or send a representative, but among most of the gilds 
attendance is optional. If the members of the Confectioners 
and Barbers Gilds do not attend the meeting, they will be sus- 
pended. If a painter cannot show a receipt for the fee paid by 
those attending the annual meeting, he cannot be employed by a 
contractor. The Jade, Fur and Boot Gilds all require the store- 
keepers to send a representative if they cannot attend the meet- 
ing in person, but the Boot Gild requires that the representative 
pay an extra fee in addition to the regular fee for the meeting.^ 

In a great many gilds, where attendance is not compulsory, 
the number of workers who attend the meetings is small. If 
they attend, they not only have to pay from 20 to 50 cents for 
the meeting, but have to lose a day's wages as well. This is a 
considerable sum for them, particularly as they have but little 
influence in the management of the affairs of the gild. They 
have the right to speak and to vote for officers and are eligible 
for election; but they are seldom elected, as the officers of the 
gild serve without pay and so must be men with some leisure, 
and in the meetings the opinion of a man who is a store-keeper 
carries much more weight than that of a worker. 

^ See Appendix, report of Income and Expense of the Boot Gild. 



The gild organizations with their annual meetings, directors' 
meetings, writers and records require some sort of office or 
headquarters. The poorer gilds have theirs in the store of one 
of their members, or in rented rooms, while the more well-to-do 
gilds have collected subscriptions from their members, pur- 
chased land and built a gild hall. Some of these are beautiful 
buildings with large courtyards, attractive gardens, artificial rock- 
eries and fine furnishings; others are small, plainly built and 
meager in their furnishings. The amount of money spent on the 
gild hall depends entirely upon the prosperity of the members 
and their willingness to subscribe to the gild. 

Some of the larger gilds, with their fine gild halls, give their 
members all the privileges of a club. They can use the gild hall 
in entertaining their friends, and in the transaction of business, 
and often can make their home there, as many of the gilds have 
rooms that can be rented by the members. 

Many of the gilds that have no gild hall make use of a temple 
for the worship of their founder and for their annual meetings. 
Oftentimes they furnish one of the side rooms of the temple as 
a special shrine for their patron saint, set up his image there, 
and arrange that the priest or servant of the temple offer incense 
before it every day. Other gilds, having no gild hall and not 
connected with any temple, hold their meetings in some restau- 
rant or tea house. It is much easier and very much less expen- 
sive for them to have the customary feast served in the restau- 
rant, and they can find there all the room and service they need. 
For the worship of their patron saint they can erect a temporary 
altar, using his picture rather than his image. 


All gilds have some deity or hero that they worship as the 
special patron saint of their trade, and he is usually the man who 
is supposed to have been the founder of the craft, or who in the 
past has shown wonderful skill in the trade. If there is no one 
who is particularly connected with a trade, the gild adopts some 
deity or hero who has shown, during his lifetime, characteristics 
they respect and want their fellow-workers to adopt. 

Lu Pan, who is worshiped as the founder of the craft of 
the carpenters and all wood-workers, lived in the Province of 
Shantung about the Fifth Century B. C. Tradition has it that 
he was the cleverest man of his |^eneration; that he cultivated 
the principles of reason and religion, knew a great deal about 
medicine and made things out of wood. His skill in wood- 


working was such that he never wasted any wood, and he was 
able to do his sawing and cutting without the aid of the lines 
ordinarily used by the carpenters. Because of this, he is wor- 
shiped by all the carpenters. He is known as the founder of all 
engineering work, for he made a sky ladder for use when attack- 
ing his enemies in the air. This ladder raised and lowered itself, 
and when fully raised reached the sky. The Chinese say that 
perhaps the modern airship is the result of the sky ladder of 
Lu Pan. He invented a wooden bird, which flew to the sky and 
did not come back for three days. This was followed as a pat- 
tern by the men of the Han Dynasty, who invented the paper 
kite, and so Lu Pan is looked on as the originator of all play- 

Tai Shan was an apprentice of Lu Pan, but he was so stupid 
that he was disliked by his master. Finally he felt so disgraced 
by his inability to learn wood- working that he left Lu Pan and 
went out to the mountains. As he sat there disconsolate, he 
noticed that all around him were groves of bamboo; and think- 
ing that bamboo was very much like wood, he split it and made 
baskets, tables and chairs with it. As a result, he is the hero of 
the bamboo workers, who blame Lu Pan because he was not 
able to discover the abilities of his apparently dull apprentice. 

Chu Ko Liang, who is worshiped by the makers of musical 
instruments, the makers of machines, the bow makers and the 
soldiers, is one of the most popular of the Chinese heroes. He 
lived in the Province of Shantung during the reign of Liu Pei, 
181-234 A. D. His principal inventions were used in extend- 
ing the territory controlled by Liu Pei. He invented a wooden 
cow and a wooden horse, both of which operated mechanically, 
and were used to carry the munitions for the army. The wooden 
cow was able to go 31 li (10 miles) every time it was wound up. 
He also invented a cross-bow, with which it was possible to shoot 
several arrows at once. 

Sun Pin is worshiped by the shoemakers as the founder of 
their craft. He and Pang Ch'uan were full disciples of the 
military genius, Kui Ku Tzu. When they were on their way to 
take up their studies they heard that Kui would not teach them 
both the same thing, and so they agreed that they would teach 
each other what they had been taught by their master. Sun Pin 
lived up to his part of the bargain, but Pang Ch'uan failed to 
do so. 

The stories of their life as students show that Sun Pin was 
always ahead of Pang Ch'uan and that Pang Ch'uan was very 
jealous of him. Their teacher one day tested their ability by 
requiring them to see which would be able to entice him out of 
the room. Pang tried to get him to come out by saying that a 


friend was coming, and that he should come out to greet him, 
and again by saying that there were two dragons in the sky ; in 
both of these attempts he failed. Sun Pin succeeded in getting 
his master to come out of the room, by saying it was impossible 
for them to deceive their wise teacher, and that he should come 
out and take their place, and attempt to get them to come out of 
the room. Kui, one day, sent his two students to the hills and 
ordered them to find a smokeless fuel. Pang Ch'uan gathered 
dry sticks and straws, but they smoked when they were burned. 
Sun Pin made charcoal out of the sticks that he gathered, and 
so was able to make a fire without smoke. 

The jealousy of the two students increased when they were 
appointed military officers of the kingdoms of Ch'i and Wd. 
Pang Ch'uan succeeded in capturing Sun Pin, and had both his 
feet cut off. To revenge this outrage, the soldiers of Ch'i in- 
vaded Wei and rescued Sun Pin. Sun refused to allow them to 
kill Pang, but arranged that he should die by his own hands. He 
posted on a tree a big sign saying, "Under this tree Pang Ch'uan 
must die." As Pang walked by, he noticed the sign, and stop- 
ping to read it was greeted with a shower of arrows. Fearing 
that the arrows were meant for him and that he would be killed, 
he fell on his own sword. 

Sun Pin, in order that he might hide the loss of his feet, in- 
vented a covering for his legs, and thus made the first shoes. 

Hai Ling Shih was the inventor of silk weaving; but the 
merchants felt that it was not suitable to have a woman as tfie 
patron saint of their craft, and, for a time, worshiped her 
husband. Even that did not seem exactly right to them, and 
they finally chose to worship Kuan Sheng Ti, a man noted for 
his faithfulness and his loyalty. 

The Rice Merchants have, as their special deities, three 
brothers who are venerated because in olden times they bought 
rice when it was cheap, stored it, and then in time of famine 
and high prices sold it at a price that was very much under the 

The Emperor Huang Ti (2698 B. C.) is the hero who is 
worshiped by the Tailors, as he is supposed to have invented 
wheeled vehicles, pottery, and have taught the people how to 
use leaves and skins as clothes. 

The Barbers worship Lo Tsu as the founder of their craft, 
for he is supposed to have saved the Emperor of China from 
capture at the hands of the Mongols by his quick wit in arrang- 
ing the Emperor's hair so that he looked like a Manchu.^ 

A great deal is made of the worship of the foimder or patron 
saint of the gild, and it is always one of the important parts of 

* See Appendix, Hiitory and Organization of the Barberi Gild. 


all gUd meetings. The worship usually consists in offering a 
feast and burning incense before the image or picture of the 
god of the gild, and having all the members bow before him. 
In some cases, the bow may be perfunctory, but in others the 
men are so anxious to get near the altar when they make their 
bow that they sometimes come to blows. The common worship 
of the patron saint of the gild is a large factor in maintaining the 
gild's strength and solidarity, particularly when the craft is 
carried on by a large number of men in the more humble walks 
of life. Those who worship the same god usually find it easy to 
work together, while those who have different patron saints find 
that a stumbling block for cooperation. 


The business of the gild is carried on by a President, Vice- 
President and a Board of Directors, who are elected by a vote 
of the members. Theoretically, any member is eligible to hold 
office, but practically the men who are the heads of the stores 
and the influential men in the gild are the ones elected. The 
ordinary workers are almost never chosen ; they lack experience 
and education. Furthermore, the officers serve without pay, 
and this in itself makes it almost impossible for the workers to 
hold office. They are dependent for their livelihood upon the 
money they receive for their labor and so cannot give the time 
required of the gild officers. 

The members of the Board of Directors are ordinarily elected 
by ballot at the annual meeting of the gild, though in some cases, 
particularly in the smaller gilds, the directors are chosen without 
the formality of a ballot, after the names of possible candidates 
have been discussed. In other gilds the directors are appointed 
rather than elected. The board of the Incense and Toilet Article 
Makers Gild is elected without ballot, while new members of 
the board of directors of the Tailors Gild are appointed by the 
man whose place they take. 

Geographical representation on the board of directors is car- 
ried out by the Fur Gild. Its members are almost all natives of 
Chihli, Shansi and Shantung provinces, and it is the rule of the 
gild that natives of each of these three provinces constitute not 
less than one-quarter and not more than one-third of the board. 
The forty-eight members of the board are divided into twelve 
committees, each of which is responsible for the affairs of the 
gild for one month each year. These committees must include a 
native of each of the three provinces, so that every man may be 
able to get a sympathetic hearing by bringing his case before one 
of his fellow provincials. 


Only one gild was found where the workers are definitely 
represented on the board of directors. In the Gild of" the In- 
cense and Toilet Article Makers, twelve of the twenty-eight 
directors must be workers, the others being either store-keepers 
or store managers. 

The boards of directors of the different gilds are not all 
uniform in size. In Peking the number on the board varies all 
the way from the two of the Dyeing Gild to the fifty-one of the 
Tailors and sixty of the Fertilizer Gild. 

The directors are ordinarily elected for a term of one year. 
The Hat and Jade Gilds elect their directors for a three-year 
term, but one-third of the board retires every year. The Incense 
and Toilet Article Makers Gild elect their directors for four 
years, while the Shoemakers, Fur Dealers and Tailors elect 
theirs for life. The directors of the Tailors and Fur Gilds 
appoint their successors when they retire. 

The president and vice-president are chosen bv the board of 
directors. In most cases they are elected by ballot and hold office 
for a term of one, two or three years; but in some gilds the 
directors hold office in rotation, sometimes for a year, sometimes 
for a month, and sometimes for a day each month. 

The Hat and Jade Gilds each has a board of directors of nine 
men elected for a three-year term, one-third of the board re- 
tiring every year. During the third year of their term the 
members of the board automatically become president, vice- 
president and general manager. The Bone and Horn Gild has a 
board of eighteen members elected for an indefinite time; each 
of the directors, in rotation, taking charge of the gild affairs for 
one month. The members of the board of the Fertilizer Gild 
are required to be on duty at the gild hall one day each month, 
and when on duty are in entire charge of the affairs of the gild. 

The Paper-Hangers are unique, in that they choose their 
officers by lot. The board of directors gather in front of the 
shrine of the patron saint of the gild, and there, after worship- 
ing before the altar, each member draws a small bamboo stick 
from a large bamboo cylinder. The man who draws the one 
with the word "President" on it is president for the ensuing 
year, and so with the other officers. 

The affairs of the gild are entirely in the hands of the direc- 
tors and officers, unless something comes un that demands a 
special meeting of the members. Such a meeting is called by 
the president of the gild. 

One of the principal duties of the directors, other than hear- 
ing reports and supervising the officers, is to fix prices for the 
gilds dealing in goods that fluctuate rapidly. The directors of 
the Bankers Gild meet every morning to settle the price of 


Exchange, while the boards of the Cotton and Silk Gilds meet 
every week to determine the ruling prices. Where prices do not 
fluctuate so rapidly, the members of the gild, rather than the 
board of directors, determine what the gild members shall charge 
for their goods. These prices are always the minimum. The 
store-keepers may raise prices if a sudden change of conditions 
makes it advisable, but they cannot reduce them below the mini- 
mum, for the gilds severely punish any one who sells goods for 
less then the established price. It is the competition of price 
cutting that the gilds particularly aim to avoid. Many of these 
price lists are published and posted in the shops. With their 
preambles and statement of the gild rules that particularly con- 
cern buying and selling, the rate of exchange and the punishment 
of those who cut prices, they furnish the best printed informa- 
tion on the gilds, and give at the same time something of an 
insight into the Chinese conception of economics and business.^ 
The only gilds that fail to fix prices are those who find it im- 
possible to fix a standard value. The Jade Gild has no price 
list, as the quality of the jade and the amount of work required 
to cut it vary so greatly. 

Minor infractions of the rules are ordinarily dealt with by 
the directors, but any case of serious and continued disregard of 
the rules is brought before a special meeting of the gild mem- 
bers to determine what punishment shall be given to the of- 

The officers of the gild are responsible for enforcing the rules 
and regulations, and are required to look after the property of 
the gild, receive and disburse all money, and represent the gild 
whenever it has any dealings with the officials or any outside 
organization. In some gilds the officers attempt to mediate in 
case any members of the gild are involved in a quarrel or busi- 
ness dispute, while in others such cases are heard by a board 
specially chosen for that purpose. 

The ordinary routine work of the gild is carried on by 
writers, accountants, clerks and servants, who are employed by 
the directors and paid from the gild funds. 

In the days of the Manchu Empire, the employed secretary 
of the gild was one of its m»st important officers. He was 
usually a man with a literary degree, and so was the representa- 
tive of the gild whenever any business had to be transacted with 
the officials. With the coming of the Republic, the greater 
democracy in government and the change in the educational sys- 
tem, the office of secretary has lost much of its dignity, and most 
of the gilds no longer employ such a man. The relations with 
the officials are now cared for by the president of the gild and 

* For further detaili, tee Appendix. 


the drafting and writing of letters are left to the more humble 


The gilds derive their income from a variety of sources. 
Initiation fees, annual, monthly or even daily dues, taxes on 
sales, assessments, fines, interest on the surplus funds of the 
gild, rent for the use of gild property and contributions are all 
used by some of the Peking gilds, though never all of them by 
any one gild. The actual amount collected by the gilds depends 
entirely upon their needs and activities. Some maintain expen- 
sive gild halls and a large staff of employees, while others have 
no gild hall and employ only a writer or two. 

The Drug Gild charges a store-keeper an initiation fee of 
from 10 to 20 taels ($i3-$27). The Paper-Hangers Gild charges 
its store-keepers from $3 to $10, depending upon the amount of 
capital invested in the store, while its workers pay an initiation 
fee of only $1. The Gold Foil Beaters collect an annual fee of 
from $10 to $20 from each of the 15 stores. Its workers pay 
from $3 to $4 each. The annual dues of the members of the 
Confectioners Gild are 30 cents. The Pawnbrokers Gild charges 
its store-keepers $2 a month, but collects no dues from the work- 
ers. The Barbers Gild charges its shop-keepers 12 coppers a 
month, and the workers 6. The Paper-Hangers, when they are 
working, pay one cent a day to the gild. The Drug Gild gets its 
regular income from a 5 percent tax that is levied on the goods 
bought by wholesalers at the big market held in January of each 
year. The Shoemakers Gild collects a tax of 2 percent on the 
sales of its members. The expenses of the Coal Gild are met by 
the dealers, who pay 10 cents to the gild for every car of coal 
that they sell. 

The contributions of the members of the Sheep Butchers 
Gild are increased by an allowance from the Government. The 
tax levied on every sheep killed is collected from the slaughter 
houses by the gild, and by it paid to the Government. For this 
service the gild receives 2 percent of the amount collected. 

Assessments are levied by some of the gilds, but ordinarily 
for special objects. The dues for the gild membership in the 
Chamber of Commerce are often collected in this way. The 
amount of the assessment to be paid by each store depends upon 
the total amount required, the capital of the store, and the 
amount of business that it does. The gild officers aim to equal- 
ize the burden as much as possible. 

Any fines collected from those who break the gild rules are 
used for the general expenses, but apparently amount to only 
a small sum. Rrst offenses are usually punished by requiring 


the offender to burn a certain number of bundles of incense on 
the altar of the patron saint of the gild, and we were unable to 
learn of any cases where gild members had paid a fine. 

The fines, provided the rules are broken, range all the way 
from $100, collected from the Gold Foil Beaters, who do not pay 
the wages fixed by the gild, to 8 cents, collected from the con- 
tracting painter who allows his workers to sell their rest periods 
when Sierc is a tea house near their work. The painters have 
three rest periods a day, and the gild rules require that they go to 
a tea house if there is one near by. If there is no tea house near, 
the men work during their rest periods and receive extra pay, 
but the contractor who allows his men to work when they should 
go to the tea house is fined 8 cents for each man. 

It has been impossible to secure from the gild officers any 
details concerning the amount of interest received or rent col- 
lected bv the various gilds, but a published annual report of the 
Shoemakers stated that the gila received 259.72 tads, 400 
cash, as rent, and 51.52 taels as interest. The rent is usually 
received from members of the gild who are living in the gild 
hall, while the interest is paid by those who use the surplus funds 
of the gild. These funds are sometimes deposited in banks, but 
more often with some store or restaurant. The Chinese have 
not developed, until recently, an extensive banking system, and 
so those with money to loan have dealt direct with those who 
want to borrow. As the stores have been reliable and in need 
of capital, they have been the natural depositories of the excess 
funds of the gilds. Just how much these funds amount to we 
have been unable to learn, but, as they have been built up over 
a long period of years, those of the wealthier gilds undoubtedly 
amount to large sums. The Craft Gilds have saved little, if any, 
as most of their members are workers and so have but little to 
contribute to the gild. 

Special contributions are collected only in times of special 
need. The principal objects for which they are solicited are the 
building and repairing of the gild hall. The investment in the 
land and buildings of the hall runs into large amounts; and, as 
the ordinary income of the gild is insufficient to build up a 
surplus that will cover it, and the expense is so unusual, it is 
met by contributions rather than by assessments. 

A large number of the gilds obtain their entire income from 
the fees that are collected at the time of the annual or semi- 
annual meetings. The outlay for those meetings, with their 
feasts, theatricals and worship,^ constitutes the larger part of 
the expenses of many of the gilds and so is ordinarily met by 

*For detaQt of tiiete expenses see reports of Precious Stone Dealers Gild and 
Boot Gild in Appendijc 


those who attend. In some gilds this really amounts to the pay- 
ment of the annual dues, because all of the members are required 
to attend. In others, a member pays the fee only if he comes to 
the meeting and enjoys the feast and the play. The store- 
keepers always pay more than the workers, ordinarily twice as 

In the Fur Gild, a store-keeper pays $i and a worker 50 
cents. The shop-keepers of the Paper-Haneers Gild are charaed 
86 coppers and the workers 56 coppers. In the Fertilizer Gild 
the employers pay $1, while the workers who come to the meeting 
pay 50 cents apiece. The Tailors Gild collects 80 cents from the 
store-keepers, 40 cents from the store managers and 20 cents 
from the workers. It is a special rule of the Tailors Gild that, 
if the amount received is not sufficient to cover the expenses of 
the meeting, the deficit is met by the members of the board of 

The report of the Boot Gild* shows the receipts for the 
annual meeting to be about $190, and the expenses $170. 


The gilds not only fix the prices that the merchants shall 
charge for their goods, but also say how much their employees 
shall be paid. Just as the gild maintains prices by severely pun- 
ishing any one found cutting them, so the^ maintain the wage 
scale by fining any employer who pays his men less than the 
established rate and the employee who works for less than gild 
wages. This system makes it hard for the employees to increase 
the amount they receive, but it also makes it impossible for the 
employers to decrease wages whenever times are dull or there is 
an excess supply of labor. 

The ordinary worker in Peking receives his room and bojard 
and, on the average, from $4.50 to $6.50 a month, the actual 
amounts varying from $2.50 a month paid by the Incense and 
Cosmetic Gild to the $36 paid the Grold Foil Beaters. The 
store managers receive from $10 to $15 a month.' 

While wages are ordinarily fixed on the monthly basis, some 
gilds pay by the day and others by the piece. The painters re- 
ceive 65 cents a day, board themselves and have to pay 5 cents 
to the contractor who furnishes them the work. The paper- 
hangers receive board and 57 cents a day in spring and fall, and 
77 cents a day in summer and winter. The shoe-makers and 
dyers are paid by the piece, while a minimum amount of work 
is requirea of the carpet-makers if they are to receive the gild 
wages of $4.50 a month. 

* See Ai>penduc, report of this gild. 

• See Appendix, tchedule of Gild Wage& 


Some of the gilds have special customs concerning the wages 
of the men. These ordinarily require that the employers furnish 
the men certain things in addition to their board, or that they 
sell them supplies at reduced rates. The water-carriers are 
given their shoes and their hair cuts by their employers; while 
the employees of the Dyeing Gild, although they are not given 
their board, are allowed to purchase rice from their employers 
for $2.40 a picul (100 catties — 133 pounds), even though the 
market price of rice may be $10 or $12 a hundred catties. 

In the gilds where the hours of work are definitely fixed, the 
men are paid extra for overtime. The employees of the Drug 
Gild receive 10 cents extra, whenever they work overtime ; but the 
customary rule of the gilds is that those who do night work as 
well as the regular day work receive double pay. 

Apprentices do not ordinarily receive the full gild wage as 
soon as they have completed their apprenticeship, but start in at 
from 50 cents to $1 a month, and then are gradually paid more 
and more until they receive the regular gild wages. 

Some gilds provide that their workers shall receive double 
pay for the twelfth or the fifth, eighth and twelfth months. The 
fifth and eighth moons are the festival months of the old Chinese 
calendar, while double pay for the twelfth month gives the men 
extra money for the New Year season, when everybody must 
pay up his debts, when all the gilds gfve their men a vacation, 
and when all the Chinese families celebrate. 

Profit-sharing is practiced by some gilds, but it is ordinarily 
the store managers rather than the employees who receive the 
benefit of any distribution. In the Shoemakers and Pawn- 
brokers Gilds, the managers receive, at the end of the year, 5 
percent of the net profits of the store. In the Dyeing Gild they 
are given from 7 percent to 8 percent, while in the Fertilizer 
Gild they receive 20 percent of the profits. In the Incense and 
Cosmetic Gild the managers and men divide 2 percent or 3 
percent of the net profits, provided business has been good; 
while in the Hat and Undertakers Gilds the men alone sh^e in 
the profits. The former divides among the employees 2 percent 
to 3 percent of the profits, while the latter gives them 5 percent. 

China has been affected by the general rise in the cost of 
living, but the increase has been very much slower than in other 
cotmtries. Consequently, wages have increased only slightly in 
recent years. Even in the last twenty-five or thirty years the 
increase is only from 60 to 150 percent.* The employers have 
apparently granted the increases quite willingly without much 
pressure from the employees. With the small shop and appren- 
tice systems used by the Chinese, the employers are in very close 

*See Appendix, schedule of Gild Wages. 


touch with their employees, and so are willing to give their men 
an increase whenever living conditions demand it. In Peking, 
only two cases were found where the men had gone on strike to 
enforce a demand for higher wages. Both of these were in 1885, 
and in both cases the men lost. Now, the usual procedure is for 
the men to get together and draw up a demand or request for 
higher wages and then present it to their employers. The matter 
then comes before the gild, or a committee of the gild, who hears 
both sides of the case and decides what shall be done. Usually 
the decision of the committee is a compromise. 

With such a situation, the workers are ordinarily able to main- 
tain their standard of living, but they are not able to better it. 
Only one gild was found in Peking that had recently decreased 
its wages, namely, the Carpet-makers Gild, where wages have 
gone down almost 50 percent. This decrease has come about 
because a large number of the stores have become bankrupt, 
owing to the money situation in Peking, where the notes of the 
Bank of China and Bank of Communication are accepted only at 
a large discount, and to the loss of markets when most countries 
put an embargo on rugs during the war. In the spring of 1016 
there were 220 carpet manufacturers belonging to uie gild, while 
in 1918 there were only 68. This, and a chaiige in the method 
of manufacture whereby a much larger proportion of apprentices 
are employed, made it possible to lower wages and introduce sweat- 
shop conditions. 


Work all day and seven days a week is the usual rule through- 
out China. The working day established by the Peking gilds 
averages 10 hours for those who are manufacturing goods, and 
from 12 to 14 hours for those who are selling them. Most of 
the shops stop work at 5 or 6 o'clock, but the stores keep open 
until 10 or 10 130. One case was found where an apprentice was 
working 19 hours a day. It was his duty to carry meals from a 
restaurant to the homes in the neighborhood, besides doing a 
multitude of tasks around the shop. He started work at 5 in the 
morning, and did not get to bed until 12 at night. Such a case is 
undoubtedly exceptional, but 14 and 15 hours a day for salesmen 
are not at all unusual. It must always be remembered, however, 
that life goes along much more leisurely in China than it does in 
the western countries, and although a man may be on duty for long 
hours, he is not actively engaged during all of the time. 

The long hours are the hardest on the apprentices, as most of 
them are boys from 14 to 18 years of age. A great deal of work 
is required of them, and they fail to have any educational oppor- 
tunities, except along the line of their trade. The men suffer 


from the long hours, as any home life is practically impossible 
for most of them. Consequently, they leave their families behind 
them when they come to the city for work, and we find that two 
out of every three persons in Peking are males. 

While most of the manufacturing gilds establish a lo or II 
hour day as their standard, many of them have night work during 
the busy season. The members of the Peking Bone Gild ordinarily 
work from 7 to 6, but have extra night work from August 15th 
to March 2nd. 

Vacations are few and far between. Chinese New Year's 
Day is the only universal holiday, though many observe the 5th 
of the Sth moon and the isth of the 8th moon, the Dragon Festi- 
val and the Feast of the Departed Spirits. For some gilds, the 
New Year's vacation amounts to only one day; others give their 
men six days and some even stop work for fifteen days. For the 
festival days the vacation is a day or two at the most. Some of 
the gilds are beginning to give their men two rest days a month, 
ususdly the ist and 15th, but these are very few. 

The situation in Hangchow, Chekiang, seems to show the 
reason for the lack of vacations. In that city, some of the stores 
allow any of their men who can show a certificate of membership 
in one of the Christian Churches to have Sunday off without 
reducing their wages. The store-keepers admit that the man who 
has one day off a week, and uses it properly, gives as much, if not 
more, service in six days than do those who work seven days a 
week. Experience has shown that the church members use their 
Stmdays well, and that the other men do not. It is almost uni- 
versal that if the men are given time off, they use it for gambling 
and other forms of dissipation. 

China greatly needs to shorten the hours of work of her men, 
and to make it possible for her boys to get an education before 
they go into industry ; but such a change can only come gradually 
as the educational system develops and as the men learn to use 
wisely the added leisure time. If they are to do this, they must 
be helped in the development of good forms of recreation and other 
interests that can be enjoyed without too much expense. 


"You can't work on this job. You have never served an ap- 
prenticeship, and it is only after you have been a servant for 
three^ years that you can begin to learn something," is the way- 
men in a machine shop in Peking greeted some students from one 
of the Government Schools who were trying to get some practical 
training by working in a shop. It is practically true that a man 
cannot get work in the city unless he has served an apprenticeship. 


The gilds all insist that their members shall have served their 
time, and the boys who are being given mechanical and industrial 
training in the schools are finding it difficult to get positions, as, 
no matter what they have studied, they are not supposed to know 
anything until they have been through the regular gild routine. 

The boy who plans to enter manufacturing or selling ordi- 
narily starts his training when he is 14 or 15 years of age. At 
that time he is bound to a master by a contract, drawn according 
to the rules of the gild. This contract is usually for a three-year 
term, though it may be for only a one-year term as in the Confec- 
tionery and the Incense and Cosmetic Gilds, or it may be for even 
II years as it is for the most expert workers in the Jade Gild. 
The apprentice is required to serve out his full time, or his master 
will expect to be reimbursed for the money that he has spent for 
his board and lodging, and in some gilds will collect damages for 
the breaking of the contract. The apprentices of the Cooks Gild 
who do not complete their term must pay for their board and 
also pay a fine of a feast of 10 tables and 300 catties of rice. 
Such payments are always made, as two men must act as guar- 
antors for the apprentice when his contract is signed. 

During the time of his apprenticeship, the boy is entirely under 
the control of his master. He lives in his store, eats his rice, is 
subject to his discipline, does any work that is given him, and 
has a chance to go home only on vacation days or when there is a 
wedding or funeral in the family. All of the reports telling of 
the duties of the apprentice state that he is to sweep out the store, 
make his master's bed, do the cooking and other menial tasks, and 
then work at his trade. 

In return for the services of the apprentice, the master is re- 
quired by all the gilds to give him his food and lodging, and teach 
him the trade. Some gilds also require the master to furnish 
clothes for the apprentices, and still others that, besides clothes, 
he supply medicine or doctor's services when needed. In Peking 
there seems to be no limit to the number of apprentices that may 
enter any gild. An employer is apparently allowed to have all the 
apprentices for whom he can find work. It has been impossible 
to find in Peking any trace of regulations, known to exist m other 
cities, that limit apprenticeship to the sons or relatives of the 
men already engaged in the trade. 

Although there is no limit to the number of apprentices, and 
the proportion of apprentices and graduate workers varies from 
gild to gild, most of the gilds have one apprentice to every three 
or four workers. The extremes are found in the Fur Gild 
where the apprentices outnumber the workers, three to two, and 
in the Cotton Dyeing Gild * where there are nine workers to every 

^See Appendix, table of Gild Members and Apprentices. 


apprentice. The detailed study of all the stores in a district of 
Peking showed that there the proportion was one apprentice to 
every 5.8 workers.^ 

Many of the rules for apprentices and some of the philosc^y 
of the Chinese, concerning the man who is beginning his business 
life, have been written down and are taught apprentices by con- 
stant drill. The Chinese idea of the proper way for a young man 
to start his business training is given in this maxim, 

"If you want to learn to be a merchant, you should not be an appren- 
tice in a large shop. In the large stores, everything is very luxurious 
because the store has a large capital. The food is excellent and the 
clothes of the employees are made of satin. If you work there you will 
become used to luxurious ways and will fail in your future profession, 
even though you may be an able merchant. The best way is to start in 
a small economical place, for there is no wealth in the world that will 
last forever. If you have worked in a large shop and are obliged to 
leave it because of trouble, you will not be willing to enter a small store 
even though you may be able to find an opening in one. Young men 
should go first to a small shop with smaU capital. In this shop, what you 
do does not involve a great deal of money. The clothes you wear will 
be made of coarse cloth, and the food you eat will be common food. 
You will waste no money. You must learn to be economical and must 
avoid the luxurious and extravagant. Your daily life will be that of the 
master's family. You will have experience with hard work, and, after 
you have opened and closed the gate, you will learn that the making 
of money is not easy. After you have learned how to manage the 
business of a family, you will have learned how to deal with others. 
If you go to a large shop after you have really learned what trade is, 
you will not do things in a wrong way, but will become a prominent man. 
The old Proverb says, 'If you cannot endure the sting of the cold wind, 
how can you enjoy the perfume of the rose it will bring to you?' *No 
pain is no gain.' If you keep near the vermillion, vou will become red; 
if near the ink, you will become black.' In general, it is easy to ask a 
man to give up a lowly position and take a higher one, but it is not 
eas^ for any one to give up a higher position and take a lower one. 
This is true at all times and in all places." ' 

The work of the apprentice is listed thus, 

"The speed with which an apprentice learns and the way he learns 
depend upon the skill of the apprentice, but all should first learn to do 
the general things around the store, cleaning, cooking, etc., and have real 
practice in doing them. Then thev can learn how to look and listen and 
move, then how to judge money, now to do arithmetic and how to write 
letters, then the rules of courtesy, etc. 

"You apprentices should not sit down during the day except at the table, 
because the men in the shop are all your elders or teachers. 

"You apprentices must not speak when other men are talking. You 
should hear but not speak. You should always keep your eyes open but 
seldom open your mouth." 

* See Appendix, Statistics of Teng Shih K'on District 

'Additional Maxims and Rules for Apprentices are given in the Appendix. 


The Chinese idea of teaching and knowledge is well given 
in the maxim that says/ 

"You apprentices should not be afraid to ask questions. If there is 
sotnething diat you do not fully understand, about judging money, doing 
arithmetic, writmg letters, talking business or acting courteously, you 
should ask some older man to tell you about it. You should not keep 
your mouth shut like a wooden image. If you ask an older man 
politely, he will be glad to teach you, for when he teaches you he loses 
nothing. He just uses his tongue. But you gain knowledge that vou 
can keep and that soldiers, robbers and fire cannot steal or destroy."^ 

Concerning extra education, the maxims say, 

"After a meal, if you have no work to do, you can sit at the counter 
and learn to write. Every character must be neat and tidy so they win 
show care and attention. But you must remember that you are only 
occupying your leisure time. If some duties come up that should be 
attended to at once, you must not write any more. The sages say, 'After 
work, if you still have time and strength, you ought to use them for 

"At night, when you have nothing to do, you should learn to calculate. 
You can ask somebody to show you how to do it, but at the same time 
you must think and try to find out how to do it yourself. In other 
words, do not rely on others and waste your brain. The abacus is in 
general use in commercial circles, and you must learn how to use it 
Calculating with the pen is a modern method and must be learned as well.'' 

There seems to be only one case in which the customs of the 

S'ld put the apprentice ahead of the worker. In the Paper- 
angers Gild It is always the rule that an apprentice who is 
making paste in a tea house shall be the first one served with tea, 
no matter how many regular workers are waiting. 

When he has finished his term of service, an apprentice is 
graduated and received as a regular member of the gild. Some 
gilds require a man to work in his master's shop for a year after 
his graduation, but ordinarily he is free to work wherever he can 
find employment. If the apprentice has any real ability, his 
former master is usually willing to employ him, and so most of 
the men stay right on in the shop where they have received their 
training. It is this close relationship between the employers and 
the employees that makes it possible for both to belong to the 
same organization without a clash of interests, and this explains 
how it is that the employers are willing to raise wages even when 
the workers do not force the increase. 

At the time of graduation, the apprentices usually give some 
public recognition and thanks to the master who has trained 
them. In some cases they simply bow to him before the shrine 
of the patron saint of the gild ; but in others the rules of the gild 
require that they give a feast to their master and some of the 

^See Appendix, Maxims and Ruka for Apprenticea. 


gild members. The rules of the Cooks Gild require an apprentice 
to give his master a pair of shoes, a hat» a belt and a long coat. 

Whatever we may think of the apprenticeship system, as com- 
pared with our western methods of training, it has undoubtedly 
fitted well with the Chinese life. In the past there has been but 
little chance for a boy to get an education unless he studied the 
classics, a long and laborious process. It led to official position if 
a man kept at it long enough and had the necessary ability, but 
it was too expensive a process for most. The apprenticeship 
training gave the boy the education he needed for his trade, made 
him thoroughly acquainted with hard menial work, and then 
taught him his trade by constant daily contact. It also made it 
possible for him to get his training without expense to his family, 
a very considerable item when so many families have just enough 
to live on. 

For the master, it supplied cheap labor for the menial work 
around the store and house, while for the gild it secured the 
strength and solidarity of the organization. With a three years' 
apprenticeship required, there could not be a rapid influx of men 
in times of prosperity, and the men could not leave in times of 
depression. Gild traditions and customs were easily maintained, 
as a boy in constant contact with them for three years would be 
ready to accept them without question, particularly when he had 
learned them from his master and teacher. In China the relation 
between the teacher and pupil is such that what the teacher says 
is accepted without question, and a pupil is always unwilling to 
do anything that will go against his teacher. 

The development of the national educational system, and the 
increase of new manufacturing methods, will end the apprentice- 
ship system in time, particularly as the schools develop methods 
whereby the boys can get more and better training in industrial 
lines in a shorter time ; but, during the transition period, many of 
those with the school training are going to End it hard to make 
use of their skill because of the conservatism of the gilds. 


The gild rules, besides fixing prices, wages, hours of work 
and the length of apprenticeship, touch a multitude of things 
connected with the life of its members. It has been the gilds, 
rather than the Government, that have established and maintained 
trade standards of weight, measure and quality, though the ones 
adopted by the different gilds have not necessarily been the same. 
Even now, there are 12, 15 and 16 ounce "catties" in use as 
standards of weight, the tailor's rule and the carpenter's rule 


are not the same length, and there are numerous "tads'' used in 
accounting and the making of payments. These taels all have a 
different exchange rate when converted into dollars. Trouble 
over the question of which tael should be used was one of the 
chief reasons for the establishment of the Peking Fur Gild. 

The details of the relations between the merchants and the 
public, between different merchants, and between employers and 
employees, are also covered by the gild rules. The Barbers Gild * 
will not allow its members to try to get business away from each 
other. When a regular customer leaves one shop and goes to 
another, the second barber cannot do the work at the old rate, but 
must charge lo percent more than the first shop. Nor will the 
gild allow all of the workers in a shop to leave at the same time, 
unless they have given three days' notice. The Fertilizer Gild 
does not allow its workers to change employers except at New 
Year's time. 

The barbers are not allowed to wear their hair long, and must 
not drink wine during the day. The eating of onions and garlic 
is absolutely forbidden. The gild rules even state that the barbers 
must clean their combs as soon as they have finished their work. 
They also insist that the members must bring any quarrels or 
lawsuits they may have before a gild committee and allow it to 
attempt to settle the case before they take it to an official. 

In the past, any monopoly like a patent or copyright was 
secured from the gild ; but most gilds were unwilling to let any 
of their members have that sort of an advantage. Even the Silk 
Weaving Gild refused to give its members the right to the exclu- 
sive use of any pattern that they worked out and found success- 
ful. One of the metal trades, although not giving a distinct 
monopoly on a new design, gave the inventor a price advantage 
that practically amounted to a monopoly. The gild established the 
price at which the new article might be sold, and then allowed 
the originator to sell those that he made for lo percent less than 
the established price. 

Since the establishment of the Republic, regulations have been 
adopted Ify the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, whereby 
the Government gives inventors a five-year monopoly in the manu- 
facture of patented articles. Many of the gilds are now encour- 
aging their members to secure patents, and some are offering to 
help them make the proper applications. 

As far as the investigation showed, none of the gilds puts any 
limitation on the output of their members. Every manufacturer 
is allowed to make and sell as much as he can, provided he does 
not sell below the established gild prices. Nor does there appear 
to be any limitation on the output of the individual worker. The 

^ For complete regulations of the Barbers Gild, see Appendix. 


only rule is that any man who is employed must be paid the 
TtgulaLr gild wages. 



* With the rules touching so many sides of the life of their 
members, the gilds find it necessary to have some system whereby 
they may be sure that all the members obey the rules. Most of 
the limitations are put on the individual for the benefit of the 
eroup; and, if any one were able to disr^ard the rules, he would 
be able to make a large profit for himself. 

In all of the gilds the members watch each other. Every one 
who lives up to the rules is on the lookout to see that all of his 
(^fellow-members obey th em.\ Where the type of business permits, 
the shops of many of lh6 ^ds are located in a small district, or 
even on a single street, so that the merchants can watch each 
other. Peking has its Lantern Street, Embroidery Street, Silver 
Street, Pig Market Street. Some gilds even offer rewards to any 
of the members who report any infraction of the rules. 

Many gilds employ inspectors, who go from shop to shop, 
checking up all matters covered by the gild rules. In some gilds, 
particularly those who get their income from a tax on the amount 
of business done by its members, the books of the stores are 
gone over either by these inspectors or by a committee of repre- 
sentatives from other stores. Whatever system is used, it is 
hard for the men to keep any of their business transactions secret. 

Many gilds also employ spies to assist the members and in- 
spectors in hunting out any carefully hidden infractions of the 

Any one found breaking the rules is reported to the gild, and, 
if proved guilty, is punished according to the rules of the rild ; 
or, if there are no rules, his punishment is determined by those 
who hear the case. Minor cases ordinarily come before either 
the board of directors or a committee appointed to hear sudi 
cases, while the more serious ones are usually passed on by the 
gild members in a special meeting called for that purpose. No 
matter who hears the case, the accused is given an opportunity to 
clear himself if he can; but, unless one member is trying to perse- 
cute another, cases are not ordinarily reported unless the evidence 
is very clear. 

For minor infractions of the rules, the gilds ordinarily exact 
' a fine from the offending member, jit may he only a few bundles 
of incense to be burned on the*altar of the god of the gild, it 
may be a theatrical performance to be given for the enjoyment 
of the gild members, or it may be a small or large monetary fine. 
The Jade Gild states that any one of its members who does not 


properly behave at the time of the worship of the patron saint 
of the gild shall be fined loo bundles of incense, if a director 
misbehaves, he receives a double fine. If a member of^ the Gold 
Foil Beaters Gild is found to be paying less than the gild wages, 
he will be required to entertain the gild members with a theatrical 
performance costing some hundred dollars. The Painters Gild 
requires that a contractor who allows his men to work during the 
daily rest periods, decreed by the gild, shall pay a fine of 8 cents 
for each man, while if he employs a man who cannot show a 
receipt for his contribution to the annual meeting of the ^Id he 
will be fined $i. The members of the Carpet Makers Gild are 
fined $50 if they employ any one who has not a gild certificate of 
graduation from apprenticeship, if they cut wages, or if they 
employ any one who has been suspended by the gild for breaking 
the rules. The fines are used by the gilds for the benefit of the 

e ntire membership. ''^^ 

Vlii case of serious or continued infraction of the rules, the / 
gilds suspend or expel a member. This practically means com- 
mercial death to himjif he is a worker, no gild member will 
employ him ; while tT ne is a store-keeper, none of the members 
will have any business dealings with him for fear that they will 
share his punishment. Some gilds will even boycott any out- 
siders who deal with a suspended member. The Jade Gild sus- 
pends its members for non-payment of any fee for which they 
may be assessed by the board of directors. The members of the 
Fur Gild are suspended if they do not settle any credit accounts 
within one month from the time the goods are purchased. The 
Fertilizer Gild states that it will expel any member who steals 
from another, or any one using the gild funds for his own per- 
sonal benefit. Other gilds merely state that a special meeting of 
the members will be called to try any one reported for breaking 
the rules, and that the meeting will determine the punishment of 
those who are found guilty. 

Although punishments are provided for the oflFending mem- 
bers, the rules of the gilds are so well established and so univer- 
sally accepted that there is little if any infraction of them. The 
individual merchant knows only too well what will happen to 
him if he goes against the decrees of the gild. It is practically 
impossible for him to change his trade or business ; and his fellow- 
merchants control so completely his chance for making a living, 
that he lives up to the gild rules, even though they work a hard- 
ship on him or even make him the victim of the will of the 

/ an 



The securing of justice in China in the past has been diflScult 
U ^ and precarious. There has been but little national law» local cus- 
toms have prevailed, and these have varied tremendously from 
place to place. The Manchu officials were never natives of the 
province in which they held office, and so were usually ignorant 
of the customs of their district, and unable to give a decision 
based on those customs. Then, too, the officials have been located 
only in the larger cities and the ordinary merchant found it hard 
to approach them. Even when a case was brought before them, 
the officials paid more attention to the amount of money they 
could secure from the interested parties than to giving a just 
decision. As a result, the merchants learned to decide and settle 
for themselves any business questions or quarrels that might 

In order that there might be some regular body to hear these 
cases, and that they might be decided according to the recognized 
"rules of the game," most of the gilds have appointed committees 
of influential members who are well versed in the customs and 
usages of the locality. These committees hear and give their 
decision on all cases that involve the members of their gild; 
but, when the members of more than one gild are concerned, the 
question is usually laid before the committee of some neutral 

No. set procedure is followed by the committees, and they are 
informal boards of arbitration rather than formal courts. They 
cannot compel any one to give testimony, and have no way of 
enforcing their decision except by the power of public opinion. 
The decision of the gild committee is never binding, unless it is 
voluntarily accepted by the interested parties, and a case can 
always be appealed to the official. The gilds have never tried to 
prevent such an appeal. Those that mention disputes in their 
regulations merely insist that all cases be heard by the gild com- 
mittee before being taken to the official. Appeals from the deci- 
sion of the gild are rare, however, for experience has shown that 
more often than not the decision of the official is the same as 
that of the gild committee. The gild often gives its help to the 
party in whose favor it has decided, in case there is an appeal; 
and its decision is part of the evidence laid before the official, 
and always carries g^eat weight as it represents the judgment 
of the business community. Because of this and the expense of 
the appeal, the gild decisions are ordinarily accepted, and tfie 
(^cials hear but few business cases. 

It was our good fortune to see one of the Gild Courts in 
session. The committee, the interested parties and their witnesses 


met in a temple. There the goods, concerning which the case had 
arisen, were set in front of the committee, and each side briefly 
gave its testimony. The witnesses were heard, and after a short 
conference the committee gave its decision. This was accepted 
as final, both parties arose, bowed to the committee and to each 
other, and the matter was closed. A half-hour sufliced to settle 
satisfactorily a case which, if taken before the oflicial, would have 
meant at least a day's travel for all of the parties concerned, 
besides possible delays and inconveniences. 


The Chinese have had so many years of experience that they 
know the exact strength of the different groups in the community, 
and what would be the outcome of any struggle between them. 
As a result, they very seldom resort to action ; problems or dis- 
putes are talked out and demands are compromised. When, 
however, as sometimes happens, questions cannot be settled in 
that way, the strike and the boycott are the weapons used, and 
the genius of the Chinese for organization and the |>ower of the 
group are such that the strike is loo percent effective, and the 
boycott nearly so. 

Any industrial trouble is usually short and quickly settled. 
If the workers go on strike and are unable to carry their point 
in a few days, they usually fail; for they have no funds with 
which to carry on a long light. The employers are not able to 
carry on a long lock-out; for, in case of trouble, the officials 
usually take a hand ; and that is sure to mean that the merchants 
whose property can be reached will have to pay heavy assess- 
ments. Then, too, both employers and employees recognize the 
fact that the public has certain interests in their work not to be 
disregarded. At present, these public interests are looked after 
by the Chamber of Commerce, which steps in and acts as mediator 
in case the employers and employees cannot reach an agreement 
in a short time. When the rice beaters of Ningpo, Qiekiang, 
went on strike for higher wages in 1917, the Chamber of Com- 
merce forced a compromise. The President of the Chamber 
said, "A strike for one, two or three days was all right, but 
by the end of the third day the stocks of rice were exhausted, 
and the people were unable to buy hulled rice. The case simply 
had to be settled." 

Any trouble between employers and employees almost always 
arises because of disputes over wages ; but these are rare, as the 
relationship between the two groups is so close that each is willing 
to reco|;nize just claims of the other. Investigation showed only 
two strikes of this sort in Peking, and both of these were in 1885, 


when the Shoemakers and the Jade Workers both struck for 
higher wages, and both failed to enforce their demands. 

The Jade Workers asked that they be paid 6 cash instead 
of 4 for making a hole in the mouth-piece of a pipe. Their 
demand was refused by the employers and the case was taken 
before the gild. Most of the judges who heard the case were 
store owners, and they decided against the workers. The men 
went on strike, but were unable to successfully maintain it, as 
they had no money with which to support their families. Even 
though there has been no strike since then, the wages of the Jade 
Workers have risen a full lOO percent in the last 15 years. 

When the Shoemakers went on strike, their case was taken 
before the officials. They claimed that the men had no just cause 
for striking, and ordered them to return to work. In giving their 
decision, the officials advised the employers to hire new men if 
their regular workers would not return at the old rate. 

The strike is also sometimes used as a means of protest 
against the action of the officials. It may be that only one g^ld 
is involved or it may be that the entire business community feels 
that the official is encroaching upon its rights. Whichever it is, 
the employers and employees unite to make the protest unani- 
mous. Tools are laid aside, the shutters are put up on the shops 
and no business is done until the official recalls the unacceptable 
order or alters his actions. 

The Peking Pig Butchers went on strike on the 15th and i6th 
of March, 1910. They were protesting because the Government 
was trying to force them to pay higher taxes. During the Ch'ing 
Dynasty, the butcher shops had to pay a tax of 12 cents for every 
pig slaughtered. This was increased to 40 cents a pig after the 
establishment of the Republic, but could be paid in the notes of 
the Peking branch of the Bank of China or the Bank of Com- 
munication, which in 191 9 were worth about 65 cents on the 
dollar. Early in March, the Government demanded that the 
tax be paid in silver instead of depreciated bank notes. The 
butchers refused to comply with this demand, and all of the 
slaughter houses closed down. The police and the Chamber of 
Commerce helped to settle the question, but the strike was called 
off only after the Government had agreed to accept the bank 

It is not often that all the trades unite in a general strike, 
as public opinion can be united by only a very large issue. The 
Shantung question and the award of the German rights in that 
province to Japan by the Versailles Peace Conference made feel- 
ing run high all over the country. The Chinese felt that they 
had been betrayed by the other nations, but they also felt that 
there were traitors in the Chinese Government who were selling 


the country. The students and the merchants united in a demand 
that these traitors be dismissed from the Government ; and early 
in June of 1919 the business of many cities came to an absolute 
stand-still. In fact, the strike was so complete that even the 
thieves and beggars refused to work ; and in Shanghai there was 
not a single robbery for five days. Peking escaped the general 
strike only because the Government gave in and met the demands 
of the merchants and students, and dismissed the three men who 
were looked on as the chief traitors. 

The boycott, like the strike, is used in both industrial and 
political questions as one of the chief weapons for enforcing the 
decisions of the gild. It is thorough-going, powerful, and, though 
less spectacular than the strike, fully as successful in its results. 
As an industrial weapon, it is used against the members or 
customers of the gild who have not lived up to the gild rules, or 
who have incurred its displeasure. The gild simply decrees that 
none of its members are allowed to have any dealings with the 
offender under penalty of being themselves boycotted. The gild 
also insists that its members refrain from dealing with those who 
continue any business relations with the boycotted member, even 
though they belong to another line of business. The boycott 
means commercial death for the man against whom it is directed, 
so it has to be used but rarely. 

In political questions, the boycott is one of the best weapons 
that China possesses. She is unable to make the other nations 
respect her point of view by force of arms, but she is able to do it 
by means of economic pressure. Both America and Japan have 
felt the effects of the boycott when China has been aroused over 
an international question. American goods were boycotted in 
1905, when the discrimination against the Chinese in California 
was being pushed, and Japanese goods in 1919, when China 
expressed her displeasure over the aggression in Shantung. A 
complete and long continued boycott is almost impossible to 
maintain, as so many merchants find their entire livelihood in 
dealing in foreign goods, and because of the large demand fo" 
some lines. However, the Chinese have felt so strongly over tlie 
Shantung question that the boycott has been long continued, 
and Japan.has lost between June, 1919, and June, 1920, well over 
half of the trade she would otherwise have had. 


The Chinese ordinarily look to their families for help in time of 
trouble and misfortune, and expect those with work or extra 
funds to take care of those without. So many of the workers have 
so little reserve that any sickness, lack of employment, death or 


other misfortune, means suffering for them and their immediate 
family unless they are given some help. Many times, however, 
the men are away from home or their families are unable to 
give them hdp, and then it is but natural that any who belong to a 
gild should look to it for help. In order that diese men may be 
taken care of, many of the gilds have appointed special commit- 
tees and some have even set aside special relief funds, but these 
are to be used only in case a man's family cannot take care of 
him. The organization is ordinarily much more complete in the 
poorer gilds, for they are the ones whose members are most likely 
to nc«d help. Their men have less reserve than those in the more 
well-to-do gilds, and the families of their members are usually 

To give a coffin to those who would otherwise lack proper 
burial has long been a worthy charity throughout China; so 
practically all of the gilds see to it that their poor members are 

E'ven one when they die, and that there is some place where their 
xlies may be buried. 

Many of the gilds also contribute toward the expense of send- 
ing the bodies of their members back to their homes ; as it is the 
wish of every Chinese to be buried with his ancestors near his 

Some gilds provide that members who are seriously sick shall 
be brought to the gild hall,* while in minor cases they pay for 
any needed medicine. Others maintain a home where their sick 
and aged can be cared for, and still others help their members 
who are old, or so ill that they will apparently never be able to 
continue their work, to return to their homes so that they may 
spend their last days with their families and then be buried in 
their native soil. 

The Fertilizer Gild allows 15 cents for medicine in case of 
need, and contributes 25 cents per 100 li (35 miles) for the 
traveling expenses of those who are being sent to their homes. 
It is interesting to note that the Barbers Gild will give no help 
to its members, if they are suffering from venereal disease." 

The Peking Gild of the Blind has established a school for 
the children of its members, and also stands ready to give to 
all of the blind of the city a training that will fit them to earn 
their living even though their families are unable to meet the 
necessary expenses. 

The money for the charitable expenses of the gilds usually 
comes from the general gild treasuries, as only a few collect defi- 
nite contributions for that work. The Peking Barbers all make 
a regular weekly contribution to the charitable funds of the gild,' 

' Rcgnlatiofis Barbers Gild, Appendix. 

'Rtue Si Rerised Regulations of the Barbers Gild, Appendijc. 

* Charitable Rules of the Barbers Gild, Appendix. 


while the Fertilizer Gild sets aside for relief work a large part of 
the amount that it collects. 


China's Gild System, with its close relationship between 
employers and employees, its multitude of business regulations, 
its fixing of prices and wages, its monopolistic control, iSis devel- 
oped and grown because it has fitted the conditions of Chinese 
life. In a country where the clan family has been the social unit, 
it is but natural that the same system should develop in industry ; 
and the control of the individual industry has been democratic 
in a country where the real government nas been carried on by 
the people themselves, in spite of the fact that there have been 
imperial officials holding power in some of the larger centers. 

Although there is a democracy within the gilds, they tend to 
be monopolistic when they come to deal with other groups. They 
allow no one to engage in their business unless he has served his 
apprenticeship and belongs to the gild, prices are fixed by agree- 
ment rather than by competition and at a point where tney will 
give a fair profit. As one writer puts it, "One of the motives 
behind the Chinese gild has been the desire to obtain advantages 
for themselves and to retain them, and at the same time exclude 
others from their enjoyment." ^ This has perhaps tended to 
stabilize conditions, and limit the development of Chinese industry 
as a whole; but it has protected the individual merchant and 
artisan. In a country where there is an excess population, those 
who have an advantage must fight to hold it, or it will be absorbed 
by the crowd, and all will be reduced to a common level. This 
in China is but little above that of mere subsistence. Any change 
or development means that those who are unable to adapt them- 
selves will be displaced ; and for many in China this means actual 
starvation. Consequently, the Chinese have been willing to see 
the various groups maintain any advantage they might have, but 
they have not been willing to let a caste system develop. Mem- 
bership in the gilds has but seldom been limited to those whose 
relatives already belong to the craft, and those with ability have 
always had an opportunity to advance. 

On the whole, the gild form of industrial control has been 
well adapted to the industrial and social conditions of old China; 
but now those conditions are changing and the gilds will have to 
change with them. The machine process and modem industry 
are beginning to appear in the country, while the governments 
agencies are attempting to exercise more and more control over 
business. Just how far these forces will influence the gilds, and 

>Morte: GUds of Chma, ^ $. 


what reactions they will produce, the coming years alone can 
tell; but apparently China is facing an industrial revolution, 
and the end of her gild form of organization. 

The governmental agencies, both local and national, are issuing 
more and more rules and regulations concerning business pro- 
cedure; and, by requiring the registration of all stores and all 
officers of the gilds and chambers of commerce, are apparently 
securing a much closer control over business. The Gild of the 
Wholesale Soap Dealers has been greatly weakened since the es- 
tablishment of the Republic, because the Government has refused 
to protect them in the monopoly they enjoyed under the Empire. 
By paying the Imperial Government seven or eight thousand taels 
apiece for the registry of their names, the wholesale dealers were 
permitted to limit the number of stores doing a wholesale busi- 
ness in Peking to fourteen. The Government of the Republic will 
not so limit the stores, and although the number of wholesale 
stores has not increased, much of the wholesale business is now 
being done by the retail stores. The police authorities have even 
gone so far as to dissolve the Yarn and Piece Goods Gild in 
Tientsin, because it was the leader in the boycott of Japanese 
goods in that city. 

This governmental control will increase as the business laws 
developed by the western nations become more adapted to China, 
the Central Government becomes stronger and more democratic, 
and business men are appointed or elected to office. Many of the 
present functions of the gilds will be taken over by the Govern- 
ment, particularly those concerned with the rules and regulations, 
or rather the legal side of business. For the present, however, 
it is constantly a question as to how much the apparent increase 
in the control of business on the part of the officials is more 
evident than real. The gilds' past experience with the Govern- 
ment has been such that, while they may be willing to turn over 
to it certain lines of work which they have looked after in the 
past, simply because there was no other trustworthy agency 
available, they will not relinquish any real powers without a 
struggle; and, so far, there has been no serious clash. There 
have been many indications that the Government is growing 
stronger and the gilds weaker, but few if any of the gild officials 
will admit that this is the case. They feel that the activity is in 
lines not vital to the gild. Sooner or later, however, the Govern- 
ment is going to touch one of these, and then there will be a test 
of strength. If it should come now, the gilds would undoubtedly 
win ; but a few years from now they will probably lose. 

Modem industry and the machine process will be the forces 
that will break down the gild organization. When companies 
using large capital and employing large numbers of men are 


organized, the personal relationship between master and man 
disappears, the interests of the employer and employees begin 
to work against each other and, sooner or later, the two groups 
will have separate organizations. The gild organization may 
be continued for a time ; but, if so, the men with large amounts 
of invested capital will probably attempt to use the influence of 
the gild for their own advantage. For a time they may even 
be able to force the workers to live up to rules that work a hard- 
ship on them. Gradually, the groups will separate, first as they 
have in the Incense and Cosmetic Gild where the employers and 
employees belong to the same gild but hold separate meetings and 
have very little to do with each other, and finally as the^ have 
among the Shoemakers, where the employees have their own 
separate organization. 

The use of machinery, in which it is possible for a man to 
acquire in a short time the skill of a first class worker, will put 
an end to the three year apprenticeship, and allow a man to 
qualify for gild membership in a much shorter time. Skill with 
machinery will also make it possible for the workers to find 
employment in several trades rather than in just one, shifting 
from one line of work to another as there is a greater or less 
demand for labor. Under such conditions, it will be hard for the 
gilds to maintain their membership and enforce their rules. 

Already, the Cotton Weaving Gild in South Chihli, with some 
six hundred thousand members, is beginning this fight for life. 
It is meeting the competition of the large factories and the power 
loom by refusing to allow its members to work in the factories ; 
but the question is how long it will be able to continue this pro- 
hibition and still enable them to earn a living by hand work. 
The indications are that it will be one of the first of the big 
Chinese gilds to break up. Already, large spinning and weaving 
mills are in operation in the port cities, large quantities of cloth 
are being imported from Japan, and the Chinese market is show- 
ing its preference for the finer grade machine-made cloth. Even 
so, the hand workers can make a living for the time being, since 
China's millions are clothed in cotton, and the demand is so large 
that it cannot be met by machine-made goods alone. As the 
factories grow, however, the hand workers and their gild organ- 
ization will survive only if they adapt themselves to the machine 

Those who are in close touch with the industrial situation 
believe that the transition from hand work in the small shops 
to machine work in the large factories can be made most easily 
by means of small factory units that can be operated with small 
capital. The Chinese have had practically no experience in 
handling large corporations and the large amounts of capital 


involved; and what experience they have had has been, for the 
most part, unfortunate. Corporate funds seem to have a habit 
of disappearing in the same way that public funds often vanish. 
Chinese life has taught honesty in individual, partnership and 
gild business; but it has not developed a sense of responsibility 
toward the business of a large group. Because of this, the small 
factory unit is particularly adapted to the present situation in 
China. It will make it possible for the business man of moderate 
means to maintain his position in the business world while he is 
gaining experience in the management of corporations and adjust- 
ing himself to the new business conditions. For the workers, it 
should prevent many of the evils that come from the sudden 
development of large factories. 

Foreign business methods and the importation of foreign 
goods are also helping to break down the close organization of 
the gilds. The merchants dealing in foreign goods are forming 

S'lds, it is true; but their work is merely that of sellinc^, and they 
id it necessary to admit to gild membership "Wai Hang, 
i. c., men who have not served the gild apprenticeship. The only 
qualification for membership such gilds can insist on is that a 
man shall have had some business and selling experience. Con- 
sequently, men are coming to them from other lines, and it is 
beginning to be possible for a man to shift from one organization 
to another. As the change from one line of business to another 
becomes easier, the gilds are going to find it harder to enforce 
their rules or even to insist that all the men engaged in that line 
of business belong .to the gild. 

The gilds will not go without a struggle, particularly if the 
rapid change of industry throws out of employment a large 
number of people who have learned the old methods but are 
tmable to learn the new. Open industrial warfare may result in 
many cases, and will certainly do so unless those who are inter- 
ested in the industrial development of China exert themselves to 
make it possible for both employers and employees to learn 
gradually the new methods, and so help China to escape the disas- 
trous consequences of an industrial revolution. 


Although the gilds have been able to build a complete and 
efHcient organization for a single trade or line of business, they 
have not learned to unite; nor have conditions been such that 
they have been forced to combine. Each gild has dealt with its 
own problems, but the different gilds have not, until recently, 
come together to deal with questions involving the interests of 
a part or all of the business community except as they have had 


to meet the aggression of scnne official or to face some unusual 

An experiment in combination has been started in Peking by 
the establishment, in 1913, of the Lu Pan Industrial Union.* 
This organization aims to include in its membership all of those 
who worship Lu Pan as the founder of their craft, especially the 
carpenters, masons and painters. The Union aims to be a super- 
gild. Its rules state that it will fix wages for the Lu Pan trades, 
protect the workers from any attempt on the part of the employers 
to reduce wages, protect the employers from any unjust demands 
on the part of the workers, establish schools for the children of 
the Lu Pan workers, organize workshops where those who are 
out of work may obtain employment, and carry on the relief 
work ordinarily done by the gilds, such as feeding the poor, caring 
for the sick, providing homes for the old and needy, and furnish- 
ing coffins and graves for members whose families are unable 
to bury them properly. In fact, it will do everything that an 
ordinary gild does, and in addition will help its members to 
secure contracts for the construction of buildings. This is the 
main object of the Union. Those who are promoting it feel very 
keenly the fact that foreigners have secured the contracts for 
so many of the big government buildings. By forming a big 
Union and pooling the knowledge and skill of the members, they 
hope to be able to meet the foreign competition and secure the 
government contracts. 

If the Union secures a contract, the work is distributed by 
ballot to the various members. If any of them need capital to 
finance their part of the contract, the Union will lend them any 
surplus funds it may have on hand, and charge only 5 percent 
for the use of the money. If a contractor loses money on work 
that has been figured and approved by the Union, it will reimburse 
him, provided ne can show that the loss was not caused by his 
wastefulness. If any individual member has difficulty in collect- 
ing money due on a completed contract, the Union will be respon- 
sible for the collection of the debt. 

While the Union figures only on government contracts, it 
is ready to give assistance to a contractor who wants to bid on 
any private work, by helping him to make estimates and plans. 
For such services, it charges a given percent of the value of the 
contract, but it collects its fee only in case the contract is secured. 

The Union puts only one limitation on its members; but it 
is one to which the Chinese are accustomed. No matter how 
many men want to figure on a given piece of work, all must enter 
the same bid. 

1 Sec Appendix for By-Laws of Lu Pan Industrial Union and Lecture Concemiag 
Aims of the Union. 


Those who are successful in securing any contract must pay 
to the gild 2/10 of i percent of its value. This is the only 
income of the gild, as it does not collect any membership fees. 
The workers are included in the memberships of the Union ; but, 
as they receive no direct benefit from it — the Chinese artisans 
doing the work whether a contractor is foreign or Chinese — ^they 
are not required to pay anything to the Union. 

The preliminary expenses of the Union are advanced by the 
promoters, and are considered as a loan to be repaid when the 
Union has accumulated sufficient funds. 

The plans of the Union are very ambitious, but so far not 
a great deal of progress has been made with them. Such a 
combination for such a purpose is a new idea, and the Chinese 
are slow to accept it, especially as it attempts to unite groups 
that have in the past been entirely separate. The success of the 
Union will depend entirely upon its ability to meet the competition 
of the foreign contractors and secure for its members work that 
they are unable to secure for themselves. 


It was not until 1900, the year of the Boxer Uprising, that 
any successful attempt was made by the business men to create 
an organization that would bring together the merchants of the 
various gilds and make it possible for them to express their united 
opinion on questions affecting the entire business community. 
In that year Yuan Shih K'ai, who was later the first President 
of China, but then the Grovernor of Shantung Province, suggested 
the organization of a chamber of commerce for the entire prov- 
ince. The idea spread gradually until by the end of the Ch'ing 
Djmasty (1912) chambers of commerce, organized along city 
rather than provincial lines, had been established in most of the 
large cities of the country. In 191 5 there were 869 chambers 
representing 230,431 shops.^ 

Under the Manchus there was no law governing the chambers 
of commerce, their organization, powers or responsibilities, and 
each one adopted rules and regulations that seemed fitted to its 
local conditions. After the Revolution of 191 1, however, the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce was given supervision 
over all commercial bodies, and on September 12, 1914, promul- 

?ited a series of regulations for the chambers of commerce, 
hese together with a set of Supplemental Regulations promul- 
gated on February i, 1916, constitute the laws now governing 
all of the chambers of commerce of the country.* 

^Ckima Year Book, 1919- 

* Sec Appendix for complete National Regulations for Chambers of Commerce. 


A chamber of commerce, according to these regulations, is a 
group of business men who are either officers of corporations, 
representatives of gilds, or men who are independently inter- 
ested in industrial or commercial enterprises, who have not been 
deprived of their rights of citizenship, who have not outstanding 
any uncanceled decree of bankruptcy, and who are not afflicted 
with nervous diseases. 

The members of a chamber of commerce elect by signed ballot 
a board of directors that numbers from 15 to 40, depending upon 
the size and character of the chamber. The directors elect by 
ballot the president and vice-president. The officers and directors 
are all elected for a two-year term, and are eligible for re-election 
but are not allowed to serve for more than two consecutive terms. 
All officers and directors serve in an honorary capacity, and 
receive no remuneration from the chamber. 

The board of directors is allowed to co-opt as members of 
the board any members of the chamber who hiave special ability 
or exceptional industrial training and experience, but the number 
of such directors must not be more than one-fifth of those who 
are elected. 

The duties of the chambers of commerce as set forth in the 
regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce 

1. To consult about industrial and commercial reforms. 

2. To suggest to the officials amendments to the laws govern- 

ing business. 

3. To furnish information to the officials in response to their 

inquiries concerning commercial and industrial ques- 

4. To investigate industrial and commercial conditions. 

5. To secure information for its members concerning indus- 

trial or commercial matters, and to determine where 
merchandise has been produced and its value. 

6. To collect exhibits for expositions. 

7. To settle industrial and commercial disputes at the request 

of the interested parties. 

8. To be responsible for maintaining order when there is a 

money panic. 

9. To erect buildings for exhibitions, to establish industrial 

and commercial schools and other public organizations 
that have to do with industrial and commercial inter- 
ests, when properly approved by the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Commerce. 

The Peking Chamber of Commerce sets forth its purposes as 
follows : 


1. To bring about friendly relations between merchants and 


2. To conduct researches on industrial and commercial ques- 


3. To develop industrial and conmiercial enterprises. 

4. To strengthen all commercial enterprises. 

5. To settle disputes between workmen and merchants. 

6. To look after the condition of the markets. 

These purposes of the chamber of commerce are carried out 
by the president and board of directors except for the settljnf 
of disputes between merchants and between merchants and work- 
men. For this the chamber of commerce organizes a court siiiii- 
lar to those established by the various gilds. The gilds still maiii- 
tain their courts to decide cases that arise between their own 
members ; but when the members of different gilds are invdved, 
the case is now ordinarily taken before the chamber of com- 
merce court rather than before some neutral gild, and when m 
question concerns two gilds it is but natural that the chandber of 
conmierce, representing as it does the entire business community, 
should act as the arbitrator. 

Under the Empire the chamber of commerce courts were 
entirely independent of the officials, and there was no law that 
controlled them in any way. Each one was organized and oper- 
ated as best suited the local conditions. After the establishmait 
of the Republic, however, the Ministries of Justice and Agri- 
culture and Commerce, together, promulgated generaP and 
detailed rules ^ for the control of the chamber of commeiw 
courts. Although these regulations outline the organization of 
the courts, specify what cases they are allowed to accept, give 
in detail the procedure to be followed, and provide that a periodic 
report must be made to the Ministry of Justice outlining tnc 
heard by the courts, they leave the courts free to decide all 
according to the prevailing local customs, provided they do not 
contravene any national law. This happens but seldom as die 
national law, of necessity, establishes only general principles. 
The customs and habits of the various parts of the country are 
so different that any law to be acceptable to all must deal onl^ 
with broad fundamentals. 

According to the regulations of the Ministries of Justice and 
Agriculture and Commerce, a chamber of commerce court con- 
sists of a chairman, nine to twenty members of conference who 
hear the cases, two to six investigators, and the necessary clerks 
and writers. All of these, except the writers and clerks, are 
elected for a two year term by ballot by the members of the 

* National Regulations for Chamber of Commerce Courta. Appendix. 

* Detailed Rules for Chamber of Commerce Courta. Appendix. 


One of the few modern faclotin in Pck 


chamber of commerce^ and serve in practically an honorary 
capacity, dieir salaries being limited to $30 a month. At the 
same time that the members of the court are elected, alternates 
are chosen who shall take the place of any of the members who 
resign during their term of office. The number of alternates 
elected is one-third that of the investigators and members of 

The chamber of commerce courts hear all cases having to 
do with commerce and industry, but they are not allowed to 
hear cases unimportant to commerce, that have to do with dvil 
or criminal questions, or that are brought before them by only one 
of the interested parties.' This last restriction was included in 
the regulations because many of the chamber of commerce courts 
were accustomed to give a decision on cases that onl^ one of 
the interested parties desired to have heard. Such decisions, of 
course, were never binding; but they did have a very consider- 
able moral effect, and tended to influence any court that might 
subsequently hear the case. 

Cases may be brought before a chamber of commerce court in 
two ways. The interested parties may request it to hear their 
case if they have not taken this before a court of justice, or a 
court of justice may refer a case to it for decision.' A great 
many of the business cases brought before the courts of justice 
are so referred; for experience has shown that the chamber 
of commerce courts are able to decide cases satisfactorily, and 
that they have a much better knowledge of business customs than 
has the judge or official. 

The ordinary procedure followed in bringing a case before 
a chamber of commerce court is to file with it a written state- 
ment giving an outline of the point at issue, the names, a^, 
birth-places, addresses and occupations of the interested parties, 
a list of witnesses and of all documents and other evidence sub- 
mitted in the case. If a case is very urgent or of minor impor- 
tance it may be brought before the court by word of mouth, 
but the same information must be given. If, from the statement 
of the case, the chairman of the court decides that is is one 
that the court is permitted to hear, he formally accepts it and 
sets a date for its hearing. Cases brought before the court in 
writing are arranged on the calendar in the order in which they 
are received, though if necessary a case may be advanced or 
at the request of the interested parties may be postponed. It 
cannot be postponed more than three times, however, and each 
postponement must not be for more than two weeks. Cases 
brought before the court by word of mouth must be decided 

> General Regulations for Chamber of Commerce Courts, Arta, $, 6, 7, 8, g, is. 

* Detailed Regulations, Art. 16. 

* General Regulations, Art. 14. 


within three days of their acceptance, unless some difficulty arises 
in connection with the securing of the necessary evidence.^ 

The chairman of the court, some time before the date set 
for a case, chooses by lot three or five members of conference 
who shall hear the case. If the interested parties have any valid 
objection to having their case heard by the chosen members of 
conference, the chairman of the court will appoint other members. 

When a case is to be heard, all of the interested parties must 
be present with their witnesses and any other evidence that they 
wish to oflFer. The witnesses are heard and the evidence is laid 
before the court in much the same manner as in a court of 
justice, except that the chamber of commerce courts are not 
allowed to require that testimony be given under oath and wit- 
nesses cannot be compelled to testify.* As a result these courts 
act more informally than the regular courts, are able to expedite 
cases, and even secure better results. 

If there is any point that is not made clear by the evidence 
offered, the court will appoint one or more of its investigators to 
examine the matter and report his findings; while if there are 
witnesses who have information that may have a bearing upon 
the case in hand, the court can request them to testify even 
though they may not have been called by the interested par- 

All cases are decided according to the majority vote of the 
members of conference hearing them. The decisions are based 
upon the local business customs, provided they do not conflict 
with the national law.^ 

The decision of the court is never binding unless it is accepted 
by the interested parties, if they have been the ones to bring the 
case before the court, or until it has been reviewed by the court 
of justice, if the case has been referred to the chamber of com- 
merce court. If the interested parties refuse to accept the deci- 
sion, they can always appeal to the court of justice, if they have 
not appeared before it; while, if the decision of the chamber 
of commerce court has been approved by the court of justice, the 
case can be appealed to a higher court.*^ 

If the decision of the chamber of commerce court is accepted 
by the interested parties they are required to furnish responsible 
and trustworthy guarantors who shall see that the decision of 
the court is carried out, that any payments required by the deci- 
sion are made, and that the expenses of the trial are paid. If 
such guarantors cannot be furnished, the chamber of commerce 

* Detailed Regulations, Arti. 32*47. Appendix. 

* General Regulations, Art. aa. Detailed Regulations, Art 46. 

* General Regulations, Art. aj. Detailed Regulations, Arts, as and 45. 

* Detailed Regulations, ArL 5. 

"General Regulations, Arts. 17 and 34. Detailed Regulations, Art. 48. 


court may petition the local court of justice to enforce the 

The chambers of commerce are required, by the regulations, 
to pay all the expenses incident to the organization and operation 
of the chamber of commerce courts, but they are allowed to 
collect fees from those who bring cases before the court. Such 
fees are to be paid by the party at fault, but cannot be over 
2 percent of the value of the goods involved. If, according to 
the decision of the court, both parties are at fault, they divide 
the expense. If a party to a case is a member of the chamber 
of commerce, he cannot be charged more than i percent of the 
value of the goods involved; for as a member of the chamber 
he is already contributing to the expense of the court.* 

The chamber of commerce courts make it possible for the 
business men to secure quick and inexpensive justice based on 
the customs of the district; for the cases are heard by business 
men who are interested in commercial justice rather than by 
officials and judges who are apt to be interested in fine legal 
points. They keep a large number of cases out of the local 
courts, and save the judges or officials the embarrassment of 
having to give a decision based on customs with which they are 
probably unacquainted. In fact, they function so well that the 
officials are usually more than willing to refer all business cases 
to them. In Peking this is especially true of bankruptcy cases. 
According to law such cases have to go before a court of justice, 
but they are then referred to the chamber of conunerce court; 
for experience has shown that the most satisfactory settlement 
for both merchant and creditor is reached when the case is 
handled by that court. The decision is reviewed by the court 
of justice but is seldom if ever altered. 

The chamber of commerce courts not only give justice to 
the business men, but they also see to it that the rights of the 
public are protected in case of industrial disputes. They will 
step in and force a settlement of a strike or lock-out, if it is 
being carried on so that the public suffers, even though by so 
doing they may prevent the employers or the employees from 
making the most of any advantage already gained. It is one 
more evidence of the Qiinese desire to have life go on without 
any violent displacement and all changes come gradually. Indus- 
trial relationships are so carefully adjusted, and so many people 
live so close to the edge of starvation, that any change in the 
existing order is sure to bring suffering to some. The Chinese 
may seem callous to the want and suffering that exists under 
ordinary conditions ; but they are not willing to see added suffer- 

* Detailed Regulations, Art. $o. 

'General Regulations, Arts. 4 and 20. Detailed Regulations, Arts. 4 and M» 


ing because a single group desires to enforce its demands. Thejr 
will rather step in to protect the rights of the public, and force 
the contesting groups to compromise and get back to work, so 
that the life of the community may go on ; and the chamber of 
commerce is the natural organization to do this, representing 
as it does the entire business community. 

In order that it may keep track of the work that is being done 
by the chamber of commerce courts, the Ministry of Justice 
requires them to make a quarterly report. This must give an 
outline of all the cases heard, the names, ages, birth-places, 
addresses and businesses of the interested parties, the method 
by which the case was brought before the court, the decision, 
the cause of dispute, the basis of the decision and its effect, and 
state whether or not force had to be used to carry out the decision, 
and finally give the names of the members of conference who 
heard the case. The report is first filed with the high court of the 

Jrovince, and then is forwarded by it to the Ministry of Justice in 
^eking, where it is recorded and filed.^ 
Apparently the Government is exercising a close supervision 
over the courts of the chambers of commerce, but just how 
effective it is we cannot state. The Ministries of Justice and 
Agriculture and Commerce require all the courts to be organized 
in the same way and to report to them the cases they have heard; 
but the form of organization adopted by the ministries is prac- 
tically the same as that developed by the chambers of commerce 
prior to 1912, and simply standardizes conditions for the entire 
country. Since the courts are allowed to decide cases according 
to local custom, they have practically entire control of the con- 
ditions under which business shall be conducted; and the mere 
making of a quarterly report does not greatly strengthen the 
power of the Government over them. Even so, it is the first 
step that the Government can take; and it may, and probably 
will, lead to stronger and stronger governmental control. This 
will come first through the creation of a larger and larger body 
of national law, then the provinces will extend the scope of their 
laws, and finally the courts themselves will probably be taken over 
by the Government. Even then, however, they will undoubtedly 
maintain their distinctive character, and still be a group of 
business men deciding business cases according to the accepted 
"rules of the game." 

One of the present important functions of the chambers of 
commerce is that of go-between for the merchants and the Govern- 
ment. Whenever the officials are planning to adopt any new 
laws or taxes, they ordinarily discuss them with the chamber of 
commerce, as that body is able to judge accurately of the feelings 

* Detailed ReguUtiofit, Art. S7> Ai»peiidix. 


of the business community, and can advise the Government as 
to the probable effect of the proposed measures. Usually the 
officials do not push matters, if they find that the proposed laws 
will not be acceptable to the merchants. Although the chamber 
of commerce acts as a check on the officials, it also makes their 
relations with the merchants much easier. By dealing with the 
chamber of commerce the officials can affect the entire business 
comnaunity, and will be saved the necessity of dealing with each 
individual gild. Furthermore, the chamber of commerce will 
help enforce regulations of which it approves, and may even help 
in the collection of taxes. Even when a question involves a 
single gild, the officials are comin|^ to deal with the chamber 
of conmierce rather than with the gild ; for although the position 
of the chamber will probably be determined by that of the repre- 
sentative of the gild, the officials find it easier to discuss the 
matter with the chamber of commerce. 

In times of trouble or disturbance the chamber of commerce 
finds itself in a most unpleasant position. The military officials 
and the bandit chiefs look upon it as a source of revenue and, 
with the threat of looting, practically force the contribution of 
large sums of money. The chamber then has to assess its mem- 
bers, in order tlikt it may secure the required amount. In the 
summer of 1920, when the Anfu and Chihli factions were fighting 
around Peking, the military officials attempted to secure a con- 
tribution of $3,000,000 from the Peking Chamber of Commerce. 
It responded with $100,000, but refused to increase the amount. 
In districts where brigandage has been rife, the chamber of com- 
merce has sometimes been called on to contribute some three and 
four different times in a very few months. Perhaps a small band 
of brigands captures the town. It levies an assessment upon the 
business men. Then a larger band of bandits drives out the 
smaller band, and must be paid for "saving the city." When the 
soldiers come to dispossess the larger band, they, too, must receive 
their reward. 

On the other hand, the chamber of commerce is the organiza- 
tion that naturally leads and makes unanimous any protest the 
merchants may make against the actions of the officials. The 
general strike in 1919, in Shanghai, Nanking and Tientsin, was 
quidcly organized and successful because the policy of the gilds 
of the city could be decided by the chamber of commerce. The 
boycott of 1919-20 was long continued because the chamber of 
commerce was able to push its enforcement after it had once 
been decreed. Th^ members of some of the gilds found it hard 
to get along without Japanese goods, and were inclined to relax 
the boycott. The chamber ot commerce, representing public 
opinion, was able to hold them to it, and enable the Chinese to 


disprove the statement that they were ''greatly excited over some 
matter for five minutes and then forgot all about it." 

The Peking Chamber of Commerce is organized in accordance 
with the national regulations for chambers of commerce. Its 
important and influential members are the representatives of 
58 groups that include the telegraph and telephone companies, 
the manufacturing companies, the Salt Gabelle and the merchant 
gilds of Peking, but not any of the artisan or craft gilds of 
the city. Two gilds, the Ts'ai Yu and Fang Shan Hsien Gilds, 
represent the business of two neighboring cities, and are in- 
cluded in the Peking Chamber by special arrangement. 

The 58 groups include in their membership 4,630 stores, or 
approximately % of the number in the city. They are repre- 
sented in the chamber by some 275 members, each group ordi- 
narily having from one to eight members. The bankers, however, 
have 30. These gild representatives or "Influential Members" 
are the ones who control the chamber. There are between six 
and seven thousand "Ordinary Members," but they are not allowed 
to hold office. All officers and directors must represent some gild. 

The business of the chamber is conducted by a president, 
vice-president and a board of 33 elected or co-opted directors. 
They are required by the regulations of the chamber to meet once 
a week so that all business may be attended to promptly. The 
members of the chamber hold but one regular meeting a year, 
but can be called together at any time. 

The annual budget of the chamber is worked out and adopted 
at the end of the preceding year. It now amounts to some 
$30,000. The money is furnished by the different gilds, the 
amount to be contributed by each gild being decided by the board 
of directors of the chamber. The gilds in turn apportion the 
assessment among their members. For the two years, 1911-1912, 
the Jade Gild was assessed $415.10. 

The Peking Chamber of Commerce is doing all that it can 
to develop the business of the city, but the officers say that they 
find it almost impossible to encourage any manufacturing plants 
to locate there because of the octroi charges levied by the 
Native Customs Service on all goods entering and leaving the 
city. This tax is in addition to all import duties levied on foreign 
goods when they come into the country, or "likin" charged on na- 
tive goods as they move from place to place. It means a special 
burden for those who are doing business in Peking. The amount 
of the tax is ordinarily from two to three percent of the value 
of the goods, but apparently varies considerably with the shipper 
and the size of the shipment. According to the best available 
figures the receipts of the Octroi Bureau amounted to $959,066 
in 1915, and in 1916 to $1,213,813, though for 1917 they are 


reported as only $109,480. In the days of the Empire the pro- 
ceeds of this tax were used for the upkeep of the boudoir of the 
Empress Dowager, but since the establishment of the Republic 
they have been turned over to the President's office. As long 
as this tax is maintained, Peking will probably not have any 
great industrial development, unless the factories can be estab- 
lished just outside the city and so escape the payment of the tax. 


Peking's 75 markets are a big factor in the commercial 
life of the city. There are the regular food markets, big 
buildings filled with all sorts of meats and vegetables. The 
morning markets, one of which is called the thieves' market, 
are held very early. In them all sorts of old second-hand things, 
many of them salvaged from the dumps, are offered for sale. 
In the evening markets goods are spread on the edge of the 
side-walk of the main street outside of Ch'ien Men. There by 
the light of flaring torches one can pick out and bargain over 
any of the multitude of things displayed. The general markets, 
the Tung An Shih Ch'ang particularly, are more like big covered 
streets than buildings. Shops selling almost every imaginable 
article, toys, jewelry, furs, clothing, books, pictures, candies, 
cakes, are on each side of the big passageways, while in the 
center are tables or stalls on which are spread out brassware, 
notions, tongue scrapers, combs, chopsticks, fruit, candies. All 
of the tables are cleared every night, the unsold goods being 
packed up and carried away in big baskets. We were told that 
the merchants in the center of the passageway were not required 
to pay the monthly license tax collected from the regular stores. 
Then there are the special markets where only one article is sold, 
rice, fruit, meat, flowers, birds — which Chinese gentlemen carry 
around in their cages — ^pigeons with little whisties under their 
wings that sound when the birds are flying, clothing, curios, 
exchange. The ten temple markets are practically one moving 
market, open at each temple on special days of the month, usually 
every ten or fifteen days and for not more than two days at a 
time except when the temple has some special festival. As the 
temples do not ordinarily have their markets on the same day 
the dealers go from one market to another and are busy practi- 
cally every day of the month.^ Connected with these temple 
markets there are always entertainers, story-tellers, boxers, 
magicians, singers and sometimes lecturers of the Board of Edu- 
cation. The crowds, the excitement and the entertainers are a 
great source of recreation for many people. 

' See Appendix for List of Temple Markets. 


lhnl«IMHb'2 |-M|MIImMi-3 

tati lbiUi-4 t  Mmoon lblMl-4 

SpkM HMMI-S7 • - Impli IM 

NatA-lS * - Buk>-tt 



I Exchtuige I 

3 Rice 4 

3 VegeUble 5 

4 Meat 3 

5 Fruit a 

6 Sugar 3 

7T0J1 3 

Key to Special Marketi 


8 Rowers 1 

g Birds a 

10 Pigeons 3 

11 Qothing a 

12 Curios 8 

Total 3f 



Altfiough Peking is not a commercial city it is one of tfie 
big banking centers of the country, largely because of the fiscal 
needs of the Government. In 1918 tiiere were 32 banks 
doing business along more or less modem lines. Ten foreign 
banks, the Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation, The Inter- 
national Banking Corporation, Banque Industrielle de Chine, Asia 
Banking Corporation and others are located in the Legation 
Quarter. Most of these are exchange banks, their principal 
business being the buying and selling of foreign exchange. The 
head offices of the Bank of China and the Bank of Communica- 
tions, government banks with branches all over China, are in the 
North City just west of Ch'ien Men. There are numerous banks 
of a semi-official nature that are more or less closely connected 
with the work of various government boards. 

Several international banks, such as the Sino- Japanese Bank, 
the Chinese-American Bank, have recently been established. In 
these the capital is subscribed part by Chinese and part by 
Japanese, Americans, or other nationalities. There are numerous 
banks controlled entirely by Chinese but doing business along 
modem lines, and a great many so-called native banks that are 
using old Chinese banking methods. 

Several kinds of silver dollars are in circulation in Peking and 
it is not unusual in looking through a package of dollars to 
find four, five, six or even seven different kinds. The Pei Yang 
and the Yuan Shih K'ai dollars are the most common. The Mex- 
ican dollars current in Shanghai are discounted some two percent 
in Peking and so are seldom seen. 

There are two kinds of change, "big money" and "small 
money." "Big money" is coppers and 10, 20 and 50 cent 
silver coins that pass as i/ioo, i/io, 1/5 and 1/2 of a dollar. 
"Small money" is coppers, 10 and 20 cent silver pieces whose 
value, in terms of a dollar, is not fixed but fluctuates with the 
condition of exchange. One may get 1 1 dimes and 8 coppers for 
a dollar to-day and 12 dimes to-morrow. The exchange shops 
ordinarily give from 136 to 140 coppers for a dollar. The old 
style Chinese cash are seldom used 

Money changers can be found on almost every comer, for 
small change is heavy and bulky but one must always be sup- 
plied. The ordinary ricksha man or small merchant is unable 
to change any but small coins and it usually saves trouble to 
give them the exact change. 

Paper money is issued by several of the foreign and Chinese 
banks and is ordinarily accepted at its face value, though in times 
of excitement it is apt to be discounted or even refused. In 


June, 1919, after the Shantung award it was practically impos- 
sible to get any Chinese store or money changer to accept any 
Japanese bank notes. Notes issued by the Shanghai branches of 
Peking banks are usually discounted in Peking, but Tientsin notes 
are ordinarily accepted at their face value. The notes of the 
Tientsin branch of the Bank of China usually pass at par in 
Peking while those issued by the Peking headquarters have been 
discounted anywhere from 35 to 50 percent owing to the fact 
that in Peking the banks' silver reserves have been depleted and 
in the past the banks have been required to issue notes to meet 
the needs of the Government. Periodic attempts have been made 
to raise the value of the notes by issuing government bonds to 
be purchased with bank notes which are then to be destroyed. 
So far, however, they have not been very successful. Copper 
notes are issued by some Chinese banks and are ordinarily 
accepted by every one. Checks on other cities are sometimes 
at a premium, but usually can be cashed only at a discount. 

TTie money changer is well called '*the curse of China." One 
of the greatest needs of the country is a uniform system of 
currency, but under present conditions and with so many people 
interested in maintaining the present system it will probably be 
a long time in coming. 


While the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce has been 
increasing its supervision of the commercial life of the country, 
and has been establishing rules and regulations for the conduct 
of business, the police, especially since the Revolution of 191 1, 
have been increasing the extent of their control over the mer- 
chants doing business in the cities, particularly along the lines 
of taxes and sanitation. 

The Peking police require that before a store can be opened * 
a report must be filed with them, giving the name and address 
of the store, the store owner, and all employees, the kind of 
business to be carried on, and the capital subscribed. If it is a 
partnership, the amount subscribed by each partner must be 
stated. The new store must also find a store of about the same 
size and capital that will act as its guarantor. If on investiga- 
tion the police find that the above information is correctly stated, 
they will issue a permit for the opening of the store, provided 
the owner can show a receipt from the tax bureau of the Munici- 
pal Council for the payment of the store tax. For the opening 
of a store this tax amounts to 30 cents for every $100 invested 
in the store, if the amount is less than $100,000. If the capital 

^Police Regulation*— Opening of New Stores. Appendix. 


is over $ioo,cxx), the tax is $300 regardless of the amount 

If a store is moved from one location to another without any 
change of capital or owner the tax is one-third of the amount 
charged a new store. 

Monthly taxes are collected from all the stores of the dty 
unless they can show that they are not making any money. In 
that case a store is declared to be tax exempt though it is charged 
$1 a year for the issuing of the necessary certificate.* 

Those who are making a profit are divided into fourteen 
classes according to the amount of business they do. The income 
of the lowest or Ching Class is less than $30 a month, while 
stores doing a business of over $3,000 a month are listed in the 
Special Class. The taxes of the various classes are all different 
and range from 40 cents a quarter for the Ching Class to $20 
or more a month for the Special Class. The total amount col- 
lected from the 25,395 stores is $31,210 a month. In order that 
they may be sure the stores are properly classified, the police 
require that they be allowed to examine the books ; and they fine 
those who refuse to allow the examination, or who make false 
entries. If the taxes are not paid promptly, a penalty is exacted 
equal to the amount of the tax. 

The police keep track of the personnel of the store by requir- 
ing that they be notified whenever a new employee is engaged 
or an old one leaves.* This makes it possible for them to keep 
a close watch on any suspicious persons, and helps greatly in 
apprehending any criminals. Because of the gild requirements 
of membership and apprenticeship, it is almost impossible for 
a man to change his trade ; and because so many of the stores 
require a man to be guaranteed before they wUl employ him, 
it is hard for any one to go from one city to another in search 
of work. Consequently, by searching a small field the police 
are nearly always able to locate any man they may want. 

In order that they may check up on any infraction of their 
regulations the police make a general inspection of all the stores 
once every ten days. This inspection covers particularly the 
observance of the regulations concerning sanitation and health. 
The police have adopted and published a series of regulations 
that are largely based upon those used in western countries ; but 
they are finding it difficult to enforce them as they are so far 
ahead of the standards to which the Chinese are accustomed. 

New rules, new taxes and periodical inspections are bringing 
the police and the merchants into closer relationship, but the 
powers of the police seem to be increasing only as the business 

* Police Tax Regulations. Appendix. 

' Police Regulations for Store-Keepers. Appendix. 


men are willing to let them. The power of the Govemment to 
cdlect taxes has never been questioned, but the business men 
do have something to say about the amount of the taxes. Gm- 
sequently, .the officials do not often attempt to levy new taxes 
or increase old ones, unless they are sure that the merchants are 
willing to accept the change. So it is with new regulations con- 
cerning business. When the police are planning to adopt any 
new rule, they usually discuss it with either the chamber of 
commerce or the heads of the gilds that will be affected, and do 
not often try to enforce it if it does not meet with approval. 
The police know only too well the strength of the business com- 
munity and the result of attempting to enforce regulations that 
the merchants refuse to accept. 


The industrial side of education in Peking is cared for by 
three schools (see map 14) : the Higher Technical College, the 
Industrial Department of the National Teachers' College, and 
a school for apprentices. The first of these trains men to be 
technical engineers, the second prepares men to teach architec- 
ture, carpentry, metal working, machine work, manual training, 
while the third gives boys training in carpentry, machine woric 
and electroplating. In all three, the students are learning to use 
modem machinery and modem industrial processes, and they 
should be the ones who will help China adapt western methods 
to her developing industrial life. 

In the past the students have been given practical experience 
by work done under school rather than factory conditions. 
Now, it is proposed that the school shops be tumed into real 
factories that shall manufacture articles for the market, so that 
the students may have experience with the conditions they will 
meet when they leave school. An organization has recently been 

?5rfected whereby the three industrial schools shall work together, 
he shops of each are to specialize on certain types of work, 
and then the schools are to exchange pupils. 

The Student Strike of 19 19 and the campaign for the develop- 
ment of native industries showed ver^ clearly the advantage of 
the students doing the work themselves. In the Higher Tech- 
nical College the students received their practical training by 
watching workmen go through a process, rather than by doing 
it themselves. They found, however, that they were unable to 
go to the small shops of the city and show their mechanics by 
a practical demonstration how to manufacture some new articles; 
while the boys who had done the actual work themselves were 
able to teach the shop-keepers how to produce things that, in the 


pasty had been manufactured only in Japan. Because of this 
demonstration, the students have demanded that all of them be 
given practical experience in industrial work, and this has made 
possible the combination of the technical schools and the organ- 
ization in Peking of a single system of industrial training. 


Other cities in China point with pride to the modem facto- 
ries which they have established, but Peking has little industry 
that is efficient and on a modem basis. The city has long been 
a political rather than an industrial center, and the load octroi 
charges have tended to discourage the establishment of modem 
factories inside the walls. The principal examples of modem 
industry are the telephone company, the electric light company, 
water company, match factory, glass factory and government 
uniform factory. The telephone company, electric light com- 
psmy and water company have covered practically the entire city 
¥ath their lines, and all give fairly efficient service. 

The match factory is reported to be doing work on thoroughly 
efficient modem lines, but employing a g^eat number of children. 
A more detailed report cannot be given, as this was the one place 
in Peking to which we were denied admission. 

The glass factory stands as a warning to those who would 
introduce modem methods and modem machinery in China with- 
out first training men to operate and care for the machines. The 
machinery was imported and the factory built at an expense of 
nearly one million dollars; but, as no trained men were avail- 
able, the machinery was broken and the factory had to be closed 

While the big glass factory with its complicated machinery 
has been a failure, one of the Buddhist Temples in the South 
City is running a small factory turning out lamp chimneys and 
vnndow glass, which require but little machinery. Two furnaces 
are kept in constant operation, and the work is done by some 
thirty workers and seventy apprentices. The workers are paid 
from $30 to $50 a month, while the apprentices receive from 50 
cents to $3 a month. The hours of work are from 3 A.M. to 
5 P.M. 

The living conditions in this factory were the worst that 
we saw. Dirt and disorder were everywnere. Broken glass was 
scattered all over the grounds around the buildings, and there 
seemed to be no attempt at sanitation. The 70 apprentices 
slept in one large room. This gave the boys barely enough space 
to lie down, even when they were crowded on to two platforms, 
one six feet above the other. There was practically no light 


in the room, and the door afforded the only ventilatiQn. The boys 
themselves looked tired and worn, and many wefe in need of 
medical attention. 

The Government in its uniform factory, established by the 
Board of War in 1912, is making equipment for the army under 
modern factory conditions, and is using modem machinery and 
quantity production method in some lines, while in others the 
old system of hand work prevails, though on a larger scale than 
is ordinarily found in any of the Chinese shops. 

The factory employs from five to seven hundred men and 
three to five thousand women, and trains about three hundred 
apprentices. The boys come to the factory in response to pub- 
lished advertisements, and are given a three years' course. Only 
one class is taken in at a time. It is carried through the three 
years of training and then a new class is started. After they 
have graduated, about two-thirds of the apprentices stay on as 
regular workmen. The apprentices are paid from 50 cents to 
$3 a month during their training, and are given their room, 
board and clothes. The workers are graded into four classes. 
The best men are employed on piece work, and are able to make 
as mudi as $20 a monm. The others are paid by the months 
and receive $9.50, $10 and $10.50 a month. The workers 
do not live in the factory, and have to feed themselves. This puts 
them on about the same basis as the men who live in the stores, 
are given their food, and paid from $5.50 to $6.50 a month. 

Women are used only for sewing the uniforms. They all 
work by hand, and are paid by the piece, 4 coppers for sewing 
a pair of trousers, 7 coppers for a pair of wadded trousers, and 
Sy2 coppers for a coat. A fast worker is able to make three suits 
a day. This gives her approximately $6.50 a month. A slow 
worker earns about half this amount. The supervisors, in charge 
of 500 women, receive $10 a month. 

Girls as young as 12 years are allowed to work in the factoiy, 
but most of the workers are over 20 years old. 

The hours of work for the women in the busy seasons arc 
from 5 to 5 with two stops for meals. In the slack seasons thqr 
work until noon. The men ordinarily work from 6 to 1 1 130 and 
from 2 to 6:30, but they stop at 3 o'clock when work is slack. 

The working conditions in the factory are very good. The 
buildings are long one-story stone structures and are well ven- 
tilated. They are so wide, however, that it is hard to get proper 
light to those who are working in the center of the room. Addi- 
tional light through the roof would be a great improvement. 
More artificial light is also needed for the times when daylight is 
not available. 

The workers all appeared to be well cared for and contented. 


Certainly their working conditions are very much better than 
those found in a great many of the smaller shops. The employees 
are all fairly permanent, as it requires only from three to^ve 
hundred new workers a year to maintain a full working force. 

The out-put of the factory amounted to some 650,000 complete 
uniforms a year and 330,000 single garments, half of which are 
padded with cotton, and half lined with sheep's wool. Besides 
this, the factory makes shoes, mess-kits, entrenching tools, metal 
buckets, tents, saddles, etc. 

In spite of the fact that the factory is unable to operate at 
full capacity it is stated that Marshal Tuan Chi Jui is planning 
to establish a branch factory outside the east wall of the city, 
and that teachers will be sent from the present factory to train 
the new workers. 

At present the government uniform factory is the only place 
in Peking where women are employed in any considerable num- 
bers, for under the Chinese system of industry women ordinarily 
do their work in the home. Only a few are employed in the shops 
and stores. As the factories increase, women are going to be 
employed more and more, and even the children will be put to 
work. Wages will be low, the hours long, and working condi- 
tions probably bad, unless the chamber of commerce and other 
commercial organizations learn from the experience of the other 
cities of China and, by their control over the employers, insist 
that Peking be spared some of the many problems that come with 
the development of modern industry in a country where standards 
of living are low and where the large numbers make the economic 
pressure severe. 

Although there is but little modern industry in Peking at the 
present, it ought to develop more rapidly in the near future. 
Transportation and raw materials are easily available; and if 
government barriers can be removed Peking should be one of 
the industrial centers of the country. There are deposits of coal 
and lime in the western hills only twenty miles from the city; 
and the railroads radiating in four directions put Peking in close 
touch with the grain and cattle country of Mongolia, the timber 
of Manchuria, tfie iron mines of Shansi and the cotton fields of 
South Chihli. The real barriers to the industrial development 
of the city are lack of water transportation, the likin and octroi 
charges (local customs duties), and the lack of protection from 
aggression on the part of the ojicials. 

Likin stations or customs barriers for native goods have been 
established at short intervals throughout the country and make 
the shipping of materials difficult and expensive; for although 
the charges are nominally fixed, the actual amount paid is usually 
determined by agreement. The octroi collected on goods going 


through die |;ates of Pddog is an added burden on any tmaness 
being done m the dty. Then too even in spitt of the gilds 
and chamber of commerce the officials often levy firi^^ ^ assess- 
ments or special taxes, on particularly prosperous industries, and 
so have driven most of the present day development of Chinese 
enterprise into the Treaty Ports where foreign control has estab- 
Ushed security and uniformity of taxes. As these barriers gradu- 
ally disappear, Peking can easily become a large industrial center, 
even though it is the capital of the country. Because of the octnn 
charges on all goods entering and leaving the dty, and because 
of the location of the coal and railroad fadlities, the devdopment 
will probably be outside rather than mside the walls of ttie citT. 
and the result will be a Greater Pddng. 



Many writers in the past have pointed out the lack of whole- 
some recreation among the Chinese. Organized recreation was 
highly commercialized and was often near if not connected with 
the prostitute quarter. Unorganized amusement frequently 
involved gambling. And back of it all was the fact that there 
was little if any social relationship between the sexes. 

These same conditions, prevail even now. Athletics, which arc 
confined almost exclusively to the students, are about the only 
non-commercialized organized recreation. Most of the recreation 
life is centered in the South City near the segregated districts 
(see map) ; there is a close connection between the restaurants 
and the houses of prostitution, the girls often being called in to 
act as entertainers at a dinner party or banquet; actresses are 
appearing on many of the theater stages and, in spite of police 
regulations, many of them are prostitutes making use of the 
theater for advertising. Gambling is part of most of the table 
and card games. It is only very recently that there has been any 
play or recreation that includes both men and women, and it has 
undoubtedly been the lack of any opportunity of association with 
other women that has led so many men to seek the society of 
the courtesan for social entertainment if nothing more. 

Recreation in Peking clearly reflects the transitional stage of 
the life of the people. The old style, conservative forms, in 
vogue for centuries, theater going, feasting, listening to story 
tellers, Chinese horse racing, the singsong girl or public enter- 
tainer, still have a prominent place, but even they are being 
modified. "New style" plays are being given and the story tellers 
are using new "educational" stories as well as the old historical 
tales. Totally new forms of amusement are also being introduced, 
pool and billiards, moving pictures, public parks and the New 
World, the Coney Island of Peking. The next few years will 
determine what of the old forms will remain, what of the new 
will have real recreational value and appeal for the Chinese and 
to what extent they will be commercialized and will contribute 
only to the coffers of enterprising exploiters. 

The g^eat need in the Chinese cities is for some recreation 
that will appeal without the excitement of gambling, that will 



not require any large expenditure of money and so will be avail- 
able for the masses, that will make it possible for the new and 
gradually growing freedom between the sexes to have a whole- 
some outlet. Neither in old nor new China has there been any- 
thing that in any way corresponds to the playground movement 
in America. 

In this chapter we have attempted to describe some of the 
features of the recreational life of the city that are not ordi- 
narily touched on by writers on Chinese life, the numbers of 
Ae different kinds of amusements, price of admission, the average 
attendance, etc. As practically all our studies had to be made 
by Chinese it has not been possible to make a critical study of 
the Chinese amusements. 


The theater is probably the most popular sort of organized 
recreation in Peking, making, as it does, a great appeal to the 
Chinese with its brilliant and gorgeous costumes, loud crashing 
music and plays that are connected with China's past. There arc 
in the city 22 regular theaters, 8 mat shed theaters — ^buildings 
made of a wooden framework covered with matting — and some 
nine restaurants, provincial halls and temples where theatrical 
performances are regularly given. Practically all of the gild 
halls, provincial and business, have a theater stage, but perform- 
ances are given on these only when the gild has one of its meet- 
ings. Nearly all of the theaters are in the South City (see map) ; 
six of the mat shed theaters are at the T'ien Ch'iao, a bridge 
halfway between the Ch'ien Men and the Temple of Heaven, 
and one is near Ch'ien Men itself. 

The Chinese theaters are differently organized from those 
of the west. The owners or proprietors, known as hou t'ai or 
"those behind the stage," arrange with an actors' club, known 
as ch'ien t'ai or "those in front of the stage," to spend a certain 
number of days or weeks in the theater. The income is then 
divided, 30 percent to the owner and 70 percent to the club 
manager, the salaries of all the actors being paid by the club 
manager rather than the theater owner. 

Prior to 1912 no actresses were allowed on the stage in 
Peking. The acting of the female roles was naturally a problem 
for the actors but those who were successful were tremendously 
popular. Women are now appearing in at least eleven of the 
theaters but in no case do men and women appear on the stage 
at the same time. The clubs are either all men or all women. 

Ordinarily a theater gives twelve or thirteen plays every 
day, the best being saved till the last, though Uie number may 


I - Bdrfiit-S 

4- FWt 

 - SnrtliavM 

Figure I 9 

be reduced to six or seven if the dramas are especially loop. 
Naturally the theaters run long hours, usually from eleven m 
the morning until midnight or later with only one stop of half 
an hour at 6 o'clock. Most of the plays are old classical (mes 
written in "wen li" or the high literary style that is fully under- 
stood by only a limited number who have had a good education. 


In some of the theaters modem plays are being given in the 
colloquial Mandarin that can be understood by any one. Some 
also give plays in dialects other than Pekingese, Shanghai in 
particular, so that those who come from the provinces south of 
the Yangtze may be able to understand them. As far as we can 
find, but few of the plays are immoral or suggestive, though there 
is something of that tendency in the more modem ones. 

The average seating capacity of the larger theaters is about 
1,000 and the average attendance for the better dramas is from 
700 to 800. The mat shed theaters se^t on the average 700 or 
800 but, as their entertainments are less formal than those in 
the larger theaters, being usually a Chinese equivalent for vaude- 
ville, they draw large crowds that, coming and going, will some- 
times number over 1,000 during the day. 

The charges in the theaters vary but little. The average for 
a first class box is 400 coppers ($2.90), 200 coppers ($145) for 
a private table, first class seat 40 coppers, second class 30, and 
third class 20. In several of the more famous theaters, the Wen 
Ming Yuan and others, the charges are somewhat higher, while 
in the Ti I Wu T'ai, the largest theater in Peking, a box costs $8, 
first class ticket 80 cents, second class 50 cents, and third class 
30 cents. On special occasions when plays are given for chari- 
table purposes or when famous actors, Mei Lang Fang, Lao 
Hsiang Chin and others, appear the charges may be somewhat 
higher. The mat shed theaters usually charge 5 or 6 coppers a 
person, though one charges 10 coppers for a man and 12 coppers 
for a woman. 

In the past, women used to sit on one side of the theater and 
men on the other and are still required to do so according to 
the police regulations, but the division is gradually disappearing. 

First class actors are paid from $5 to $10 a day, diose of 
second rate ability from $2 to $5, while third and fourth rate 
men earn an)rwhere from 30 coppers to $2. A few famous 
actors receive $100 a day, while those who are very popular, 
Lao Hsiang Chin and others, receive from $100 to $300 for 
every drama in which they act. 

The actors are trained by the apprentice system with seven 
years as their full term of service. After they have studied for 
five years they are allowed to join the actors' clubs and receive 
wages. Actresses are trained by special private teachers, have no 
fixed course and may take up work on the stage after three or 
four years of study. The police have very strict regulations to 
prevent the actresses from becoming prostitutes, but in some 
theaters women from the licensed quarter appear, while in others 
there is considerable clandestine practice. 

All theaters have to be licensed by the police and pay a monthly 


tax of $60 and $30 extra for police service. The mat shed the- 
aters pay $30 a month. The police also act as censors of all plays. 
Any new plays must be submitted, together with any new songs, 
to the police for their approval, and the day's program of plays 
must be reported before the performance begins. 

The police theater regulations state that in olden times the- 
aters outside the walls and giving plays at night were required to 
contribute 50 percent of their receipts to the workshops for poor 
people. Now this custom is discontinued and the theaters are 
required to make a flat rate contribution of $10 a night, forward- 
ing the money to the police.* 


Listening to stories is another very ancient form of amuse- 
ment which is still popular in Peking. This seems to be entered 
into with zest by all classes of people — ricksha coolies in little 
street tea houses, children in the back lanes, large crowds at the 
temple or street markets and private gatherings. 

The story-tellers are men who make a business of the work, 
having gone through an apprenticeship and learned by heart a 
great many stories that are taken, for the most part, from the 
ancient Chinese books, East Chou, West Han, Ta Sung Pa I, 
Biography of Chi Kung, and others.* 

When they are working in a park or on the street, the story- 
tellers stop their stories at a most exciting place and then refuse 
to go on until they have taken up a collection. In many of the 
tea houses, some of which have halls seating well over one hun- 
dred people, a definite charge, usually two coppers, is made for 
the story-telling. In this case from 20 percent to 40 percent of 
the profits goes to thfc proprietor of the tea house. Shuang Han 
Ping, one of the most famous story-tellers in Peking, reports that 
he receives about 1,000 coppers ($7.25) a day. Several who arc 
not so well known make from 300 to 600 coppers ($2.i5-$4.35) 
a day. The smallest amount reported by any story-teller was 
100 coppers {y2 cents) a day. 

The social education department (T'ung Su K'e) of the Board 
of Education has realized the importance of story-telling as a 
means of influencing the people and has appointed certain mem- 
bers of the board to keep in touch with the story-tellers and help 
them improve their stories. 

The social education department has also helped the story- 
tellers to organize a gild with the object of "improving the old 
stories that have been told for years and to add new and modem 

' Police Theater Regulations, Art. 21. 

* Sec Appendix for more complete list of stonr sources. 


material, thereby helping the morality and education of the peo- 
ple." Any story-teller who is properly introduced may join the 
gild, provided he agrees to live up to its regulations — ^the chief 
of which forbids the telling of any stories injurious to the moral- 
ity of the people — is guaranteed by two gild members and pays 
an initiation fee of 30 cents. Gild headquarters have been estab- 
lished in the First Special School, north of the Hsi Ssu P'ailou. 
The management of the gild is in the hands of a president, eight 
councilors and a committee of 10. Four investigators, five in- 
spectors and five secretaries are employed by the gild. The period 
of apprenticeship is fixed by the gild at four years. The boys 
are assigned to some one teacher and are trained by him until 
they can go through the stories fluently and vividly without for- 
getting any important point. During the time of their apprentice- 
ship any money earned by the boys is turned over to their teachers, 
who in turn supply them with 30 to 40 coppers a day for food 
and clothing. 

In order that the gild may keep track of the work of the story- 
tellers, investigators and inspectors are sent to listen to the stories 
and make a written report, giving the name of the story-teller, 
the name and location of the tea house, the time of beginning and 
ending the story, the name of the story, the general conditicHi of 
the meeting, and general conditions and remarks. 


Although theater-going and feasting have long been the most 
popular forms of recreation for the middle and upper classes, the 
temple *ttiarket festivals have long been great social meeting places 
for the common people and even for many of the well-to-do. At 
these festivals, one of which is held somewhere in Peking nearly 
every day, there is religious worship, and at the street booths 
barter is carried on with all sorts of merchandise on sale — ^birds, 
dogs, goldfish, baskets, brass, hair ornaments and curios. And 
there are various kinds of entertainment — ^boxing, wrestling, 
story-telling, acrobatics, and sleight-of-hand performances. Even 
though there was nothing more than the crowd, the market would 
appeal to the Chinese, for they are fond of being in a large crowd. 
It is interesting to them to jostle around and see what is going on, 
or, as they put it, K'an je nao (see a hot noise). Perhaps the 
best known of the fairs is that held at Lung Fo Ssu, an old lama 
temple near the Tung Ssu P'ailou (East Four P'ailou), three 
times a month on the 9th and loth, 19th and 20th, 29th and 30th 
of the Chinese month. The principal fair in the west city is held 
at Hu Kuo Ssu on the 7th and 8th, 17th and i8th, 27th and 28th 
of the Chinese month. The dealers and entertainers follow the 


fairs from one part of the city to another, day after day.* Besides 
the regular temple markets, many other temples have special 
festivals once or twice a year, particularly during the first month 
of the Chinese calendar, and these always draw their crowds of 
spectators and entertainers. 


Horse races are sometimes held in connection with these 
temple fairs, though the Chinese style of racing seems very tame 
indeed to one used to the competitive system of the west. Out- 
side of the west wall of Peking at the Po Yun Kuan, races are 
held at the yearly festival of the temple. The race course is a 
level piece of ground some 300 yards long and 25 yards wide, 
lined on both sides with mat sheds where the spectators can sit 
and sip tea or nibble melon seeds while they watch the horses 
perform. The "racing" consists of riding the horses up and 
down the course for the enjoyment of the spectators, though 
many of the riders dressed in silks and furs are there themselves 
for the joy of the sport as well. The horses do not start to- 

Sher, nor do they compete. When any one rides particularly 
t or well the crowd applauds vigorously, while any horse that 
breaks into a gallop is sure to be greeted with a cry of Pu Hao ! 
Pu Hao! (Poor! Poor!). Horse racing is also held occasionally 
at a recreation center in the South City, just outside the wall of 
the grounds of the Temple of Agriculture. 

Horse racing, western style, is held at P'ao Ma Ch'ang, several 
miles west of Peking, in the spring and fall. These meets are 
principally for foreigners ; it is their horses that are entered and 
they themselves often do the riding, but there are, however, 
always large numbers of Chinese among the crowd. Large 
groups of Chinese also get enjoyment from watching the foreign- 
ers play polo on the glacis ot the Legation Quarter. 


An amusement of many of the old style middle and lower 
class Chinese is the flying of birds. In the open spaces of the 
city groups of middle-aged or old men often gather, each with 
his bird cage, and spend long hours simply watching their birds 
fly around, the well trained ones unrestricted, the others with a 
string attached to their legs. 

Falconry is practiced by some, and occasionally men can be 
seen walking through the streets with the hooded birds perched 
on their arms. 

* See appendix for complete list of Temple Markets. 



The Chinese have a long list of card and table games, chess» 
dominoes, etc., the most popular of which is "sparrow" or "ma 
Chiang/' a famous gambling game played with elaborate sets of 
ivory, metal, or wooden pieces. It is one of the unfortunate fea- 
tures of the entire Chinese recreational system that so much of 
their play involves gambling, often for huge stakes. Those who 
have sought to introduce new games devoid of gambling have 
met with success for a time, only to find that, before long, the 
old games with the thrill and excitement of a money stake are 
taken up again. 

The children have a large number of street games, many of 
which are similar to those of the west, hide-and-seek, baby-in- 
the-hat, crap shooting, throwing stones or cards at a line, etc. 
The Chinese version of battle-dore and shuttle-cock is played 
with a weighted feather kicked with the side of the heel, the 
object of the game being to see how many times or in how many 
fancy ways the shuttle can be kicked without being missed. Prac- 
tically none of the games are played by more than a few children 
in a group. The larger organized and group games are missing. 
Even among the children many of the games involve gambling. 


The restaurants, of which there are hundreds, are among tiie 
chief social and recreation centers of almost every Chinese city. 
Custom practically forbids a man to entertain in his home, so 
social, business and political friends must be taken to a restau- 
rant. In Peking most of those of the better class are in the 
South City near the amusement quarter (see map) and some 
streets are practically given over to them. In order to meet the 
keen competition, many of the restaurants specialize on certain 
types of food and kinds of cooking, Canton, Shanghai, Foochow, 
Pekin|^, Mohammedan food. The number serving foreign food 
is rapidly increasing. A few years ago none could be found in 
Peking, but now an excellent dinner is served by the Oriental 
Hotel, while some of the restaurants in the New World, the 
Tung An and other markets and in the South City offer more or 
less complete menus of foreign dishes. Ice cream parlors arc 
also being established. The T'ungchou dairy has opened one on 
Ta Cha Lan, one of the most crowded streets of the South City, 
and there is one each on Hatamen and Morrison Streets in the 
North City. 

On entering a restaurant one usually passes through the busy 
smoking kitchen, goes up a steep flight of steps and comes out 


n^K Am imbv >l MA. Ik. k MdiloaBf 
Figure 30 

onto a large court surrounded on four sides by a two, three or 
even four-story building. Balconies run around the four sides 
of the court and the dining rooms open off them. The servants 
are coming and going, shouting their orders, and one can usually 
hear some of the guests busy at gambling, or hilarious after too 
much Chinese wine. If other entertainment is desired most of 
the restaurants are only too glad to call in entertainers, women 
from the first-class houses of prostitution. 



The bathhouses are part of the Peking's recreational life, as 
they are real social centers used for resting and visiting as well 
as bathing. A great many men, when they have an important 
matter to talk over, go to a bathhouse and discuss their business 
after their bath. 

Just as the other recreational life centers in the South City 
most of the better class bathhouses are outside Ch'ien Men, 
though the bathhouse sign, a lighted lantern on a high pole, can 
be seen on many of the streets. There are, of course, all grades 
from the one where for eight coppers or less, depending upon 
how many men have been ahead of him, a man gets a bath in a 
big public tank and a chance to rest for a while on one of the 
board couches around the room, to the very finest equipped with 
porcelain tubs and modern plumbing, where for $i or $2 a man 
is given a two-roomed, steam-heated, linoleum-floored suite of 
bathroom and rest room, with comfortable couch, electric light 
and private telephone. In some of the bathhouses, when the 
weather is warm, the courtyard will be filled with loungers re- 
clining in their bathrobes, smoking and conversing or reading. 
The finest of all the bathhouses is a three-story building with a 
beautiful green and yellow tile front, and a courtyard wiSi gravel 
walks, trees and flowers. The heating plant alone is said to have 
cost $4,000. For women there is only one bathhouse. 

As far as we could ascertain the bathhouses are all run in a 
most respectable manner and there seems to be no connection 
between them and the licensed quarter. 


The Provincial Gild Halls are among the social gatiiering 
places in Peking. These halls, and there are 413 of them, all but 
six of which are in the South City, were built during the Manchu 
Dynasty so that the natives of the different provinces and dis- 
tricts who came to Peking for the literary examinations might 
have some place to live or at least meet their fellow provincials. 
Now that the examinations are no longer given, the gild halls 
are used as clubhouses for those who come from the provinces. 
Peking has so many officials, expectant officials, students and 
other non-permanent residents, and the people from different 
sections of the country differ so widely in customs, tastes and 
even language, that it is but natural that these provincial halls 
should hold a very important place in the social life of the city, 
even though they have no special recreation facilities. ITie gud 
halls, some of which are very fine buildings, also serve as inns 


or hotels for their provincials and are housing some 25,000 
people. The following list gives the number of gild halls built 
by the cities and districts of the various provinces. 

Anhuei 39 Kwangsi 7 

Gieldang 58 Kwangtung 56 

Chihli 12 Kweichow 7 

Fukien 24 Shansi 34 

Honan 14 Shantung 7 

Hunan 23 Shensi and Kansu 26 

Hupeh 26 Szechuan 15 

Kiangsi 69 Yunnan 9 

Kiangstt 27 

Total 413 


Because of the large transient population of Peking, there 
arc a great many hotels in the city, and several large new ones, 
some with over 100 rooms, are being built. The principal hotel 
street of the city is just south of the moat between the North 
and South Cities, running west from Ch'ien Men. The best class 
Qiinese hotels charge $6 a day (European plan) for their rooms, 
the middle class hotels anywhere from 40 cents to $1.20 and the 
inns even less. The rooms are ordinarily small and very simply 
furnished with a bed, table and chair. In the better hotels the 
beds are iron with wire springs covered with matting, while in 
the cheaper rooms the beds are wooden frames woven across 
with fiber cords. Few if any of the hotels supply any bedding 
for their guests, as in China practically everybody carries his 
own bedding with him. In many of the rooms the ventilation is 
far from good. 

The Peking hotels do not ordinarily have public dining rooms ; 
meals, if desired, are served in the guests' rooms, and the other 
social features common in western hotels, reading rooms, writ- 
ing rooms, dance halls, parlors and large porches, are usually 
lacking. There seems to be a minimum of social features con- 
nected with the Peking hotel life. 

The police keep a very careful check on all the hotels and 
have issued very strict and comprehensive regulations for them.^ 
No one is allowed to open a hotel unless he is guaranteed and 
the police find that he has a good moral character. All hotel 
buildings must be inspected for general construction, the location 
of chimneys and fireplaces and fire escapes. Guests are not 
allowed to bring prostitutes into the hotel, to gamble or sing and 
make unnecessary noise. The proprietors are required to report 
to the police any violation of the police rules for guests, any 

* Police Hotel Regulations. 


change in employees, any persons carrying firearms, the pres- 
ence of those suspected of kidnaping women or children, any 
women suspected of eloping, any foreigners who stay in the 
hotel and any guests suffering from contagious diseases. First 
class hotels must close by i A.M., second class hotels by ii P.M., 
and rooming houses by 9 P.M. Violation of the police rules may 
mean a fine of anywhere from 10 cents to $50, imprisonment of 
from 3 to 35 days or even suspension of the hotel license. 

In spite of the regulations we are told that many of the hotels 
are frequented by clandestine and even registered prostitutes. 


Since about 1905 there has been a gradual increase in the 
opportunities for recreation and amusement of a western nature. 
Among those which should be particularly noted are billiard and 
pool rooms, moving picture halls, public parks, recreation centers 
and modem athletics. 


Before 1908 there were few if any billiard halls in Peking. 
Now there are 17 with 79 tables. Most of them are located in 
the South City. Ordinarily the halls are open from 10 o'clock 
in the morning until midnight, though some do not close until 
2 A. M., most of their patrons arriving about midnight. The 
charges for billiards are uniform, 20 cents small money a game. 
One of the largest halls reported that it took in $20 a day from 
each of its tables, others receive $10 a day, while one with three 
or four tables receives $3 to $4 from each. The most popular 
billiard halls are the Hui Hsien at the Tung An Market and 
Chung Hsing in the South City. 

Our investigators report that many of the players stay two 
or three hours, and some four hours at a time, in the billiard 
halls. As a rule the number of idlers looking on is very small. 
There seems to be very little drinking or gambling in the billiard 
halls, and though there is nothing to prohibit prostitutes from 
visiting them, very few do so. 

Because the business is so new, no gild was organized until 
1918. The preamble of the gild rules says, ''Because of com- 
petition some of the billiard rooms adopted a policy that 3rielded 
them big returns, but they did not pay any attention to the inter- 
ests of others in the same business." Prices varied considerably 
and special prizes and reductions were offered. Since the estab- 
lishment of the gild the prices have been standardized and no 
prizes, presents, cigarettes or wine can be offered to the players. 


Any one breaking the rules will be fined $io and will be dealt 
with by the gild if the fine is not paid. Each billiard hall pays 
$1 to the gild for general expenses. Meetings are held on the 
festival days, New Year's, the 5th of the 5th moon and the 15th 
of the 8th moon, at which time a new manager is elected to take 
charge of the affairs of the gild. 

Three of the billiard halls also have bowling alleys, which 
seem to attract a large number of spectators as well as players. 
The regulation charge is 10 cents a game. 


Moving picture theaters have also come but recently to 
Peking, the first being opened in 1909. However, they have 
become very popular with the Chinese, tiie average attendance at 
all the theaters being approximately 3,000, and that in spite of 
the fact that all the pictures are made in western countries, de- 
pict occidental life, and few if any of the captions are in Chinese. 
The number of first class films obtainable is very small. 

There are now six theaters in which moving pictures are 
shown. The most expensive of these is the Peking Pavilion 
(P'ing An Tien Ying) on East Ch'ang An Chieh. This theater 
is run by a British subject, principally for foreigners, but a large 
number of Chinese attend. Performances are given every eve- 
ning from 9:15 to 12, and on Wednesday and Saturday after- 
noons. Admission fees range from 60 cents to $1.50. The 
average attendance is about 200. Ordinarily good pictures are 
shown, but the cheaper varieties of comedy are often included. 

The Ta Kuan Lou is on Ta Cha Lan, one of the busiest 
streets in the South City. Pictures are shown from 8 130 to 12, 
and the charges for tickets are 12, 24, 50 and 80 coppers. The 
daily receipts average from $50 to $70, the average attendance 
being 250. 

The Hua An Moving Picture Hall is on Kuan Hsing Yuan, 
outside of Ha Ta Men. It charges only 6 and 8 coppers a person, 
and with an average attendance of about 300 people takes in only 
some $20 a day. 

The South City Amusement Park in the grounds of the Tem- 
ple of Agriculture and the New World show moving pictures, 
the former from 8 to 12 and the latter at 3 in the afternoon and 
from 9 on in the evening. During the summer the pictures are 
shown out doors in the Amusement Park and on the roof of the 
New World. No special charge is made for the pictures, as the 
general admission ticket covers practically all the entertainments 
m both places. 

Moving pictures are also shown at the Young Men's Christian 


Association building every Thursday evening and occasionally at 
the Hua An Theater on Ta Cha Lan and the Ch'i Hsiang Yuan 
in the Tung An or East Market. 

All moving picture theaters must be licensed by the police and 
pay a monthly tax of $60 and an extra payment of $30 a month 
for police service. 

Throughout all of China there is a tremendous need for a 
better class of moving pictures. Many of the producers send only 
their poorer or very old films to the Orient, and the picture they 
give of American and European life is far from flattering as 
well as far from true. Practically no educational pictures are 
shown. A start is being made on the problem as the American 
Community Motion Picture Service, working in cooperation with 
the Young Men's Christian Association, plans to institute a cam- 
paign throughout North China for the dissemination of educa- 
tional pictures. Work has already begun on some films that are 
being made with the special problems of China in mind and with 
captions in the Chinese language. 

Pressure will also have to be brought on the dealers so that 
they will send better pictures to China, particularly those that 
are more suited to the Chinese than are many of those now 


In the past there has been nothing in Peking corresponding to 
the public parks and recreation centers of western cities. Palace 
gardens and hunting parks have aflForded amusement for the 
nobility, the wealthy have had large courtyards in their homes, 
but there have been none for the common people. Peking now 
has two large parks inside the walls and one just outside. Central 
Park, the grounds of the Temple of Agriculture and the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 


Central Park, which lies just to the left of the central gate of 
the Forbidden City and covers an area of nearly half a square 
mile, was opened in 1913 in what used to be part of the Imperial 
gardens. The promotion of the park was originally in the hands 
of a stock company, prominent among the directors of which 
were Chu Tzu Tien, the Minister of the Interior, and Frank 
Yung T'ao, a well-known philanthropist. To the old cypress 
trees, flower beds, stone bridges and altar to the Gods of the 
Five Grains, it was planned to add a large music hall, a theater, 
an art school and a dancing academy. Those that have been 
completed include a recreation club with billiard tables and tennis 


court, several large restaurants, a large number of tea houses, a 
library, several photograph galleries, a bookstore, a smiall 
menagerie and a flower store. 

In spite of the admission fee of lo cents, from 4,000 to 5,000 
people a day go to the park during the summer. In the winter 
the number falls to 100 or 200. When there are festivals or 
special meetings admission to the park is usually free, and on 
those days 10,000 will often attend. In 191 5 when a meeting was 
held to protest against the Twenty One Demands of the Japanese, 
over 300,000 people were in the park on one day. 

The original regulations 'forbade the selling of liquor in the 
park, but the rule is no 'longer enforced, and in recent years 
courtesans have been using the park 'more and more to further 
their business. 

Although Central Park has not had the educational influence 
that its founders hoped for, it has had a wholesome influence on 
the lives of many of the people, and in spite of the admission fee 
furnishes a breathing space during the hot summer months. It 
oflFers a wonderful field for a trained recreational expert when 
the Government sees the advantage of such a man. 


The grounds of the Temple of Agriculture containing some 
two square miles are now open to the public, but only on payment 
of an admission fee of 10 cents. Aside from the fact that it is 
an open space with some trees and contains an old temple and a 
museum with old bronzes and curios, there is little to attract 
the people. It is quite a long way from the crowded centers and 
all that has been done to fix it up is to build a few restaurants 
and tea rooms and put in some benches. 


The Agricultural Experiment Station, located about two- 
thirds of a mile outside of Hsi Chih Men, should also be included 
among the public parks, for its gardens are open to the public 
from 9 in the morning to 10 at night upon payment of an admis- 
sion fee of 16 coppers for adults and 8 coppers for children. 
They are visited by an average of 200 people on week days and 
400 on Sundays. 

The Experiment Station was started in 1907 on an area of 
about one-half square mile. Gardens with many kinds of flowers, 
trees and plants have been developed, one section is devoted to 
the raising of silkworms, another to various kinds of grains. 
Grapes, dates, apples and other fruits are also grown. A museum 


with an exhibition of agricultural implements and products, vari- 
ous injurious insects and different kinds of wild animals has been 
opened and there is a small zoological garden with a collection of 
birds, reptiles and animals. This latter was particularly well 
stocked during the last days of the Empire, as many animals 
were presented to the Empress Dowager, but many of the animals 
have since died. The grounds of the park have been beautified 
by numerous small pagodas, fountains and monuments. Tea 
houses can be rented for dinner parties or picnics, $i.20-$i.50 for 
a day, 80 cents-$i for a half-day. 

There is a small stream near the gardens and on it are numer- 
ous boats that are rented by pleasure seekers. The charge for a 
large boat is $8 a day and tor a smaller boat $2-$4. Some small 
boats can be rented for 100 coppers (75 cents) a day, while 20 
cents is charged for a short ride. 

Peking has a great many open places, many of them govern- 
ment property, that might be used for public recreation centers if 
only the Government will see the need before it is too late and 
will work out some plan that will make them available for those 
who cannot afford to pay even the present admission fee of 10 


The New World 

The New World, a big four-story concrete building, a sort of 
miniature "Coney Island" or "White City," was built just north 
of the Temple of Agriculture in 1916. This center offers, for a 
single admission fee of 30 coppers (15 coppers for children), a 
number of amusements. There are two large theaters, in which 
old and new style plays are given, two or three smaller theaters 
where the crowd is entertained by singing girls or story-tellers; 
in the large open courtyard acrobats and boxers give dieir per- 
formances, moving pictures are shown during the afternoon and 
again in the evening. Besides these there are restaurants serving 
Chinese and foreign food, tea rooms, billiard and pool halls, a 
laughing gallery with convex and concave mirrors and penny 
slot-machines showing pictures of various sorts. A number of 
these pictures were of a rather coarse nature, but none of them 
could be called immoral. 

Besides the regular 30-cent admission tickets, foreign meal 
tickets admitting the holder to all the entertainments and entitling 
him to a foreign meal are sold for $1. Chinese meal tickets cost 
50 cents and monthly admission tickets $5. 

The New World is open from 11 in the morning to 12 at 
The average number of visitors is said to be 2,000, on 


Saturdays and Sundays, 4,000. Recently, however, after the open- 
ing of the South City Amusement Park the number has been 
reduced to about 1,000 a day. 

We are told by those capable of judging that the effect of this 
amusement center is undoubtedly evil. Many of the plays and 
entertainments are of a coarse and sometimes immoral nature 
and the women of the near-by segregated district use it as a place 
of advertisement, mingling with the crowd or appearing on the 

The South City Amusement Park 

The South City Amusement Park, a large group of single^ 
story concrete buildings in the northeast corner of the Temple of 
Agriculture, is practically a duplicate of the New World in its 
amusements with moving pictures, theaters — one of them giving 
plays in the Shanghai dialect — restaurants, etc. It was opened 
in 1918 largely because of the success of the New World and it 
is very evident that the newer, more open resort is drawing the 
crowd. Its average attendance is 4,000, with 6,000 on Saturdays 
and Sundays. Its hours are from 11 to 11. The admission fee 
is 30 cents. 

Most of those who visit these parks belong to the student, 
merchant and official classes. Very few laborers come, largely 
because of the size of the admission fee. Women are coming to 
the parks more and more, in groups or with men, and it is not at 
all unusual to see an entire Chinese family out to enjoy an 


Modem athletics, with track, baseball, volley ball, basketball, 
association football, tennis, are perhaps the most wholesome of 
the modem amusements that have come to Peking. Strange as 
it may seem it has been the students, the successors of the class 
who were by tradition and training opposed to any unseemly or 
undignified relaxation in hearty physical exercise or sport, who 
have taken up athletics. 

The introduction of modem athletics into North China is 
described by Mr. L. C. Porter, a member of the American Board 
Mission, and for many years in charge of athletics at the North 
China Union College, as follows : 

Interscholastic athletic contests probably began in North China in 
connection with the two Christian institutions for higher education, the 
North China Union College at T'ung Hsien, and Pdcing University in 
Peking. At Tung Hsien there are records not only of contests betwecc 
these two institutions, but between one of them and the Anglo-Chinese 
College, of Tientsin, as early as 1904 or 1905. Meanwhile, in Tientsin, 


with the beginning of the Young Men's Christian Association work there 
was much encouragement given to athletic activities. WiUi the establish- 
ment of the P*u T*ung Middle School for boys by the Association, a 
group of students was secured with whom the Association secretaries 
interested in physical training could work. Under the auspices of the 
Tientsin Young Men's Christian Association contests for the schools in 
and around Tientsin were inaugurated. In the autumn of 1909, for the 
first time, institutions from outside of Tientsin were admitted to the 
Tientsin Interscholastic Meet, North China Union College sending a team 
that secured second place. The next year Peking University, as well as 
North China Union College, was represented in the Tientsin meet, and a 
team was also sent from the T'angshan Engineering College. In this 
meet the team of the North China Union College won the first place, 
somewhat to the surprise of the Tientsin schools, which had hitherto re- 
garded themselves as superior in athletic lines to anything in North China. 

With the establishment of the American Indemnity College (1910)9 
another group of advanced students came to Peking, and steps were 
taken to organize an athletic association, to include the American In- 
demnity College, North China Union College, and Peking University, 
with contests on the track and field, in football and tennis, and occasional 
contests in baseball. The Peking Young Men's Christian Association had 
its physical director but it seemed wise, however, for the different schools 
and athletic clubs in and around Peking, including the Young Men's 
Christian Association, to organize an athletic association with officers and 
central committee to manage and conduct interscholastic athletic contests. 
General L. Chang, well known for his activity in the anti-opium move- 
ment, was one of the most faithful supporters of the Peking Athletic 
Association movement Preliminary discussions took place at a meeting 
in Peking University of the representatives of the American Indemnity 
College, North China Union College, Peking University, and some Chinese 
athletic clubs.^ At later meetings a constitution was prepared and the 
Peking Athletic Association established. These meetings took place prob- 
ably in the winter of 1913-14. At any rate, the Peking Athletic Associa- 
tion was a vigorous institution in the spring of 1914 with Mr. A. N. 
Hoagland, of the Young Men's Christian Association, acting as one of the 
general secretaries of the association. 

Mr. Hoagland and his committee arranged the first North China 
championship games in 1914. With their establishment, interscholastic 
games became once more a purely local affair. In Tientsin, Nan K'ai 
College, the Government Middle School, and Tientsin Anglo-Chinese 
College were the chief competitors, Peking having its own association 
and its own local contests. This made it possible for other teams than 
the ones in the old triangular meet to compete. In the spring of 1914 
the Peking association invited to its contest representatives from all the 
institutions in Chihii Province and North China that were interested in 
athletics, so that the association's contest became a truly sectional contest 
Following these games, the North China Athletic Association was organ- 
ized, and since that year has managed the North China meets, these 
contests being held in the various cities, Tientsin, Peking, Paotingfu, and 
even T'ai Yuan Fu. The same year, 1914, and only a few days after the 
North China sectional contest, the first all-China athletic contest was held. 
These games, in which representative teams from East and Central China 
competed with the winners of the North China games, were held on the 
track in the Temple of Heaven grounds, built by the Peking association 
for its own games. It was possible to have a national contest because 
of the interest that had been aroused in other parts of the country by 
the plans for an international Far-Eastern Championship Contest, an 


invitation having come from the management of the 191 3 Manila carnival 
to Japanese and Chinese athletes to compete with the Filipinos. The 
second Far-Eastern Championship games were planned for 191 5, and the 
national games of 1914 were held in anticipation of that contest in order 
to pick the all-China team by competition rather than on the basis of 
competitive records. 

After the organization of the North China Athletic Association, the 
Peking Athletic Association languished somewhat as it could only con- 
duct an autumn contest for novices, the schools and athletic clubs finding 
it too heavy a strain to enter a Peking contest and the annual sectional 
spring games. However, during the last few years the Peking Athletic 
Association has come to life again, this time under the leadership of the 
Chinese, especially those connected with government and private schools. 
This year the Association has conducted a football and basket ball 
league, with both a senior and a junior section^ so that colleges, univer- 
sities and middle schools have been provided with opportunities for con- 
test. In spite of the interruption due to the student excitement and 
demonstrations over the political situation, the league contests have been 
carried out and the winner will be announced ere long. While the for- 
eigners who are interested in athletics, particularly those connected with 
the Christian institutions and the Young Men's Christian Association, give 
loyal support to the North China sectional games and help effectively 
in the conduct of the same, the management of the games and the 
decisions relating to them may fairly be said to be entirely in Chinese 


As a result of the introduction of modern athletics the Ath- 
letic Club is beginning to find a place in Peking. 

The International Recreation Club, founded in 1909 and in- 
cluding in its membership seven nationalities, has proved with 
its tennis court and skating rink a social as well as an athletic 
center for both Chinese and foreigners. At present (1920), the 
membership of the club is only fifty, having fallen off very de- 
cidedly because the club has had to give up its headquarters oa 
the grounds of the old examination halls. 

The Peking Athletic Club, a non-religious, non-political or- 
ganization with headquarters at the Public Continuation School 
in the West City, has been organized to promote athletics in 
Peking. Any Chinese over 16 years of age who has had a good 
education and is willing to pay the annual dues of $2 is eligible 
for membership if recommended by two members. 

The establishment of a school of physical education has been 
the principal work of the club. The general course requires one 
year's study three hours a day three times a week in physiology, 
games, athletic drill, the use of apparatus and the science of 
physical education. The school was opened in March, 191 7, and 
the first class of 30 was graduated in July, 1918. The 1919 
class numbers 20. The expenses of the school, $100 a month, are 
provided by the Board of Education. The graduates find em- 
ployment as physical instructors in primary or middle schools. 



The social evil in China cannot be fairly judged from west- 
em standards. The terms used in discussing this life in America 
and Europe — red light district, prostitute, brothel— do not exactly 
describe tfie licens^ amusement district in Peking, the Chinese 
singsong girl and the Chinese house of prostitution. 

It has been necessary to use western terminology in describing 
the social evil in Peking, for there is no better mode of ex- 
pression available, but the attempt has been made to paint the 
background of Chinese social life which has brought about a 
social situation different in many respects from the west. The 
singsong girls of the Chinese amusement section are persons 
who might be classified all the way from the lowest t3rpe of 
western prostitute to certain types of high class entertainers. 
The Chinese estimate of women, the Chinese family system, the 
amusement of the Chinese and many other considerations give 
the professional woman entertainer in China a place for which 
there is no exact equivalent in western society. 

Considerable material has been collected regarding the general 
system prevailing in the Chinese licensed quarter. This has been 
based on information gathered from interviews with doctors, 
missionaries, Chinese business men, officials, etc., through per- 
sonal observation of conditions in the segregated districts and 
from police regulations and statistics. It has been impossible 
for us, however, to make any first hand study of the lives of any 
of the individual girls. 


I. The low estimate of women is in our opinion the most 
fundamental of all conditions that foster prostitution. Little in 
the sacred writings of China, so rich in other moral teaching, 
encourages a high estimate of young women. Older women are 
to be respected, because of their agtf and because they have been 
the mothers of sons. Even in the newest twentieth century 
Confucian Society this low estimate prevails, as women are given 
no place in the public religious meetings of the Society. The 
rapidly spreading Renaissance, or New Intdlectual Movement, 



among the younger modern Chinese is, however, doing much to 
change this old estimate by promoting the open discussion of 
"the single standard," equality of the sexes and the rights of 
woman as a person. 

2. The lack of wholesome recreation is another contributing 
cause of prostitution. This point is discussed more in detail in 
the Chapter on Recreation. 

3. Closely connected with the lack of recreation is the ab- 
sence of any normal social relationships between young men and 
women or for that matter between older men and women. Be- 
fore a young man is married, he has practically no opportunity 
of associating with women other than those of his own family; 
he has few chances, as in western lands, to talk normally with 
them, and when he is married his bride is usually a young woman 
with whom he has had no previous acquaintance. 

4. Home conditions are not usually such as will hold the 
loyalty and interest of the husband. The wife, no doubt, is re- 
garded in many cases with respect, but principally because she 
will give birth to sons. A home founded on such principles has 
a minimum of wholesome social life. The unattractiveness of 
the average home, the confusion and discord of the large patriar- 
chal family, the wife's lack of education, the sombemess and 
filth found in many homes — ^these all contribute to drive the hus- 
band to other places for his amusement. 

5. The pressure of custom and the environment of official 
life lead many men to indulge in habits which they would not 
choose normally. A prominent Chinese doctor in Peking, in dis- 
cussing the subject, made this statement : "In many other coun- 
tries gentlemen are compelled to behave like gentlemen. In China 
they are compelled by custom to behave in what seems to be an 
ungentlemanly way." Important gatherings are often held in 
houses of prostitution and under these circumstances it is easier 
to give way to impulse than to lead a clean life. 

6. The new spirit of freedom which swept the country after 
the Republic was fotmded in 1912, and which has showed itself so 
plainly in freer social relations between men and women, has 
doubtless been responsible for the increase in vice among young 
men and for the general letting down of standards. When one 
sees so many of the old standards and customs being shattered, 
it is easy to include personal morals in the list of those that are 
to be abolished. 

7. The fact that 63.5 percent of the population of Peking is 
male and that so many men are away from home and livmg 
under abnormal conditions is one of the principal causes for the 
social evil. Many of the students, expectant officials, business 
men, and even many of the officials, both civil and military, are 


unable to bring their families to Peking because of economic 
reasons. Without home influence, many of them living in poor 
surroundings, working long hours and lacking wholesome recrea- 
tion, these men are very apt to give way to the temptations 
surrounding them. 

8. Fatigue is certainly a cause for the coolies and unskilled 
laborers frequenting the houses of ill fame. The light, social 
atmosphere, warmth, and general excitement of the brothel dis- 
trict is most appealing to them after long and exhausting work 
only too often accompanied with ill treatment and a lack of 
sufficient food. 

9. The lack of public opinion against vice and the prevailing 
accepted standards mean that those who indulge do not meet with 
any social censure. A prominent Chinese official estimated that 
"50 percent of the people in Peking would feel that relations with 
a prostitute were wrong, 40 percent would consider them to be 
part of the ordinary course of events, 10 percent would actively 
oppose them." He added, however, that "in good families, not 
one young man in one hundred is implicated." 

Opinions from leading Chinese regarding the state of public 
opinion and the moral standard relative to the social evil vary 
somewhat. One prominent returned student in educational worK 
said : "There are almost no moral standards regarding the prac- 
tice." A doctor, also a returned student, in high official position, 
said : "The moral standards of the Chinese regarding sex ques- 
tions have been very high. Conditions in the distant country 
districts to-day are very much the same as they were 5,000 years 
ago. Where western civilization has not reached, moral stand- 
ards are high." In referring to customs in the city, however, 
another Chinese official affirms: "First-class public women are 
not considered as under social condemnation, but are given the 
honorable name of chiao shih, or 'teacher.' Very few wives 
are against the practice to the point of strenuous objection. 
Some wives even entertain these better class prostitutes." An- 
other Chinese who has been prominent in social work for many 
years has made the statement that the Chinese at present have 
very high moral standards for women and very loose standards 
for men. 

10. The fact that high officials have had many concubines 
and have indulged in the social evil has paved the way for imita- 
tion by the masses. At present one of the most serious aspects 
of the whole situation is the fact that it is apparently given 
official sanction by many of the highest officials in China. To 
patronize a high class public house or to be able to purchase a 
famous girl for a concubine is a mark of distinction in Peking. 

11. On the woman's side, economic pressure is probably the 


principal cause for prostitution. Last winter, on one of the 
principal streets of Peking, a man from a famine district was 
found offering his 5 or 6-year-old daughter for sale. This, of 
course, seldom occurs openly, for it is forbidden by law to sell 
children in this manner. However, there is little doubt but that 
a large number of the prostitutes in Peking are women who, in 
their youth, were turned over to the houses of prostitution be- 
cause of their family's lack of funds. 

12. In this connection the low value of women should again 
be noted. Girl babies are often not welcomed, and disposing of 
the girls in order to better support the boys is perhaps not as great 
a sacrifice to many persons in China as it would be in the west. 

13. Whether or not women are driven into prostitution by 
the monotony, drudgery, and seclusion of ordinary home life we 
do not know. Certainly, while it lasts, the life of the higher class 
prostitute is exciting and full of interest. Then, too, the pros- 
titute of the higher grade always has the hope that she may 
capture the affections of some high official or wealthy merchant, 
become his secondary wife and consequently have a social posi- 
tion considerably above that of her family. 


Prostitution has existed in court circles in Peking for cen- 
turies. Even in the time of Marco Polo there were large numbers 
of women of ill fame connected with the court. Among the 
people generally, however, vice had to be carried on under cover, 
and was limited and unorganized. The population, as a whole, 
was remarkably free from the evil. Public opinion looked down 
upon it and women were severely punished for adultery, often 
with the death penalty. 

Opinions differ as to the general prevalence of prostitution 
just previous to the Revolution of 1911. The army certainly had 
its camp followers and we were told by an old resident of Peking 
that, as far back as he can remember, women were rented out to 
the teamsters who came in from the country for a few days* 
stay. There is no doubt but that the dual standard of morality 
has existed from days of old. Men have had a d^ree of free- 
dom from social condemnation, while the death penalty might be 
inflicted upon wives and unmarried women guilty of improper 

It is admitted by every one that prostitution has greatly in- 
creased in Peking since 191 1. There is disagreement as to the 
causes of this increase. We are inclined to doubt the opinion of 
a prominent official in Peking that it is entirely the direct result 


of western influence. Referring to the great increase of venereal 
diseases, he called the extension of the social evil the process of 
the "syphiUzation" of China. It certainly is true, however, that 
the increase of prostitution in the foreign concessions of the port 
cities as witnessed by the tremendous increase in the number of 
immoral foreign women in these concessions, most of whom are 
Japanese, has had a real effect upon the Chinese during the past 
twenty years. 

The adoption by Japan of the licensed system of the west has 
also probably helped to influence Chinese oflicials to adopt the 
same system in China, but we cannot say that the west is wholly 
responsible for age-long conditions or entirely responsible for the 
recent increase of vice. The break-up of the old, fixed systems 
of government, education, and social custom has brought with it 
inevitably, as did the American and French Revolutions, con- 
ditions of general moral laxity and a mistaken freedom. 

The present system of licensed prostitution was inaugurated 
by Yuan Shih K'ai in 191 1. Certain definite districts were set 
aside for the trade, and taxes were collected from the brothels 
and prostitutes from March, 191 1. 

The police figures show that in 1912 there were 353 brothels 
and 2,99(5 registered prostitutes in Peking, and that by 1917 the 
numbers had risen to 406 and 3,887, respectively. 

Legalized houses of sodomy used principally by the decadent 
Manchu nobility were conducted in Peking prior to the Revolution 
in 191 1, but since then have been abolished. 


At present there are three large segregated districts in the 
city — one in the southeastern part of the South City, a place of 
third and fourth class houses ; one not far south of Ch'ien Men, 
to tiie east of the main street; and the famous Eight Lanes, 
farther to the south and west. The last two contain, for the 
most part, first and second class houses. 

According to the latest police figures (1919) there are 377 
brothels and 3,130 licensed prostitutes in these three sections, or 
8 percent more brothels and 5 percent more prostitutes than there 
were in 1912. Both brothels and prostitutes are divided into four 
classes, as follows: 

Number of Number of 

prostitutes houses 

First class 642 

Second class 743 

Third class 1465 

Fourth class 280 J 

3.130 \^ [xr? 



Total number of brothels and prostitutes in Peking. 

Number of Number of 

Year prostitutes houses 

1912 2,996 353 

1913 3.184 3S6 

1914 3f33Q 3S7 

1915 3.490 388 

1916 3^500 391 

1917 3,887 4fl6 

February 1919 3,135 37J 

It is reported that the number of unlicensed houses known 
as Pan Kuan Men (half-closed doors) is rapidly increasing. It 
is known that numbers of such houses have been established in 
certain lanes in the East City and that the inmates for the most 
part are Manchu women. The actual ntunber of clandestine 
prostitutes naturally is not known, but on a conservative estimate 
there are some seven thousand in the dty, making the total 
number of prostitutes in Peking 10,000— one for every 81 persons, 
or one woman out of 21. Tms compares witfi other figures for 
other cities, as follows: 

Number of prostitutes in Peking and other large cities 

City Number of inhabitants 

per recognized prostitute 

London 906 

Berlin 582 

Paris 481 

Chicago 437 

Japan 392 

Nagoya 314 

Tokio 277 

Peking 258 

Shanghai 137 

A careful investigation of the foreign houses of ill fame has 
not been made, but it is known that there are several in the neigh- 
borhood of the Tung Tan P'ailou in the southeast part of the 
North City and that most of the women are Japanese. West of 
Ch'uan Pan Hut'ung there are a number of houses in which there 
are Russian, French, Austrian and other European women, most 
of whom are Jews. These places and some with Chinese women 
that cater particularly to foreigners are largely patronized by the 
soldiers from the foreign legation guards. The existence of 
these houses is entirely against Chinese law and it is only because 
of the fact that the police are afraid to interfere with them 
because they are connected with foreigners that they are allowed 
to exist at all. 

In 1918 a large number of buildings especially designed for 


houses of prostitution were erected by the Board of PoUce direct- 
ly east of the New World, their purpose being to move many of 
the women from the present licensed districts to this section of 
the city. However, tiie proprietors of the houses objected to 
moving, being very well satisfied with their present location 
close to the business and hotel district, and their influence was so 
strong, many of the officials having a financial interest in the 
houses, that the police had to abandon their scheme and rent their 
houses for commercial purposes. 

The police keep a careful check on everything connected with 
the business of prostitution, having a special department for the 
registration of all brothels and prostitutes. Before any brothel 
can be opened a permit must be secured from the police and no 
permits in excess of the number allowed by the police regulation^ 
will be issued,^ no one who has been in jail is allowed to act as 
manager of a house of prostitution, no brothels are allowed to 
have windows or porches facing on the street nor can they be 
decorated too highly, a list of all prostitutes and maid servants 
must be filed with the police, and all changes must be promptly 
reported ; furthermore the house manager must immediately no- 
tify the police in case any of the customers are known to be 
fugitives from justice, ta be carrying firearms, to be drunk, or 
whenever there is any fight or disturbance. No house manager 
is allowed to beat any prostitute cruelly, to force her to receive 
customers, borrow her clothes, take from her any money given 
her, prevent her going from one house to another or even leaving 
the business if she so desires. All prostitutes suffering from 
venereal disease must be sent to the hospital. 

Violations of the rules are punished by fines or imprisonment, 
five to ten dollars or five to ten days. In case of serious continued 
infraction of the rules the house will be closed. 

As far as most of the rules are concerned, to a casual ob- 
server they appear to be lived up to. Certainly the buildings 
conform to the rules and the managers make their daily reports 
to the police. Whether or not those concerning the medical care 
of the women or those requiring that a prostitute's freedom shall 
not be limited are enforced it is impossible to say, though the 
general feeling is that the lack of competent doctors and general 
public opinion make it possible for even diseased prostitutes to 
carry on their trade, while as Miss Maud Miner points out in her 
book. The SUwery of Prostitution, the weakening of the will, 
social pressure and economic dependence make virtual slaves of 
many of the women, particularly those of the lower classes, even 
though no physical force be used and in spite of all regulations 
that may be adopted by the police. 

> For Police Regulatioof ^or Prostitutes and Brothels, see Appendix. 


All brothels must pay, when they open, the tax required of 
all new stores — ^30 cents per $100 01 capital invested and also a 
monthly tax of from $3 to $24, depending upon the class to which 
they belong. The prostitutes pay a monthly tax of from 50 
cents to $4, while young girls living in the brothels pay from 50 
cents to $2.^ The taxes collected from the brothels and prosti- 
tutes amount to some $10,967 a month. When the prostitutes 
register with the police they must not only give the information 
ordinarily required but they must also file photographs, writing 
on them their names, ages and native places. In case a prostitute 
marries, her picture is returned to her. 

The police rules state that any one who buys women or girls 
and forces or induces them to enter a life of prostitution will be 
punished by the court, but it is very doubtful if it is enforced 
except in a few cases. There are certainly large numbers of girls 
sold into the trade presumably against their wills, while in the 
Door of Hope (the police rescue home) there are yoimg children 
who were destined to become prostitutes, but who nave been 
rescued from their abductors. It is practically certain that, because 
of the economic conditions and lack of public opinion on the 
matter, the elaborate devices used in the west to induce yotmg 
girls to enter a life of prostitution are not necessary. Usually 
any girl entering the life does so with the knowledge and consent 
of her family or else because she has been forcibly carried oflF. 

The police not only regulate the traffic but are the ones to see 
that the taxes levied on the business by the Municipal Council 
are paid. 


To one at all familiar with conditions of vice in the large 
cities of America, a visit to the red light district in Peking brings 
a distinct surprise. Instead of finding a place where the rougher 
elements of the community meet — a center of carousing, disorder, 
and drunkenness— one finds order, quietness and discipline. 

The buildings are not allowed to have any windows or porches 
facing the street, so there is no open display. The entrances, 
however, are marked with electrically lighted lanterns and with 
the name and class of the house. Ehiring the evening the girls' 
names, written on brass or\ wood tablets or embroidered on silk, 
are hung outside the doors of the first and second class houses. 

Usually in entering the first or second class houses, some of 
which are semi-modem two-story buildings while others are old 
style Chinese, one goes through the kitchen and servants' quar- 
ters before entering the court where the girls live. A visitor is 

*■ For Tax Regulationi for Brothels and Proatttntct, aee Appendix. 


always announced by one of the servants and is usually met by 
the proprietor or mistress of the house. He is then invited into 
one of the rooms and asked whether he knows any one in the 
house whom he would like to call in. If not, he is asked whether 
he would like to see the girls and all the inmates of the house 
are called. They come to the door, one by one, bow, stand for 
a second, and then pass on. In the second class houses the girls 
are called by number ; in the first class houses, by name. 

Entering the most eastern of the three districts in the South 
City, in which most of the third and fourth class houses are 
located, one goes tfirough a number of very small, poorly lighted 
lanes, some of them not more than four feet wide, leading off 
from the crowded market at Ts'ai Shih K'ou. 

The houses are simply old Chinese courts surrounded by the 
usual one-story Chinese houses. Each girl has her own room, 
which opens directly onto the court, and she is generally sitting 
or standing by the door when not entertaining guests. In these 
places, unlike the first and second class houses, visitors are not 
announced, the women are not introduced and one is free to talk 
to any of the girls. In practically all of the ten or fifteen third 
and fourth class houses visited there were groups of ten or fifteen 
men. The greater number were merely observers, a few were 
talking to the girls, and a few were visiting with them in their 
rooms. In the latter case, one girl was usually entertaining three 
or four men. There was very little rowdyism or vulgar remarks. 

In the two districts to the west the brothels are on the ordi- 
nary Chinese hut'ungs (lanes) and are often near small the- 
aters, restaurants or even private houses, the segregation not 
being complete. 

The character, age and appearance of the women naturally 
vary with the class of the brothel in which they are living. In 
the third and fourth class houses the women for the most part 
are between 20 and 30 years old, are rather ignorant and g^ss 
in appearance and are dressed in ordinary Chinese clothes made 
from cheap Chinese blue cotton cloth. On the other hand the 
wcHnen in the first and second class houses, particularly those in 
the first class, are attractive and even striking in appearance, are 
dressed in beautiful silks, many of them are well versed in, the 
arts of entertaining, having been given a careful course of prep- 
aration for many years, while some have even had a good educa- 
tion. Most of the girls in the first class houses are between 16 
and 18 years old and it is said that none of them are over 20. 

Although extremely modest in behavior, the girls do not seem 
at all shamefaced but are dignified and self-controlled in manner. 
Many of their faces, however, are marked by the nervous strain 
and tension of their extremdy strenuous life of social enter- 


tainment. The conduct of the girls seems to be governed very 
closely by those in charge of the houses. They come quickly 
when called to see a new guest and file by the doorway, each bow- 
ing as she passes. This whole performance is gone through in 
an impersonal way, with the absence of anything approaching 

A report from an investigator describes a conversation with a 
girl of one of the best-known houses as follows : 

"We had an opportunity to spend over an hour in conversa- 
tion with one of these girls. She was about i6 years old, beauti- 
fully dressed in Chinese silks, most modest in behavior and very 
intelligent in conversation. She told us very frankly that she 
had been in the house for about six months, and with some 
hesitation that her family lived in the West City in Peking. She 
described something of the life in the amusement section of the 
city and told how she went out for banquets and entertaining. 
During the hour she was called out at least six times to see other 
visitors who had come in. She was also entertaining another 
gioup of men in another room and was dividing her time about 
equally between us. She was a good singer, but not educated in 
literary lines, as are many of the girls in the first class houses." 

The inmates of the various brothels are often natives of one 
province or sometimes even of one city, Soochow, from which it 
is said come the most beautiful girls, Shanghai, etc. This is 
because of the different dialects spoken in the different parts of 
the country, the houses naturally catering to the men who come 
from the same provinces or cities as the girls. 

Many of the best houses have very few girls in them. The 
average for the first class houses is a little over eight, the higher 
grade houses often have only five or six inmates, while it is said 
that one of the most famous places is supported by the visitors 
of one girl, she of course being a very noted beauty. 

The life of an inmate of a first class brothel is one full of 
excitement. Besides meeting the groups of men that come to the 
house she is frequently called upon to go to near-by restaurants 
or even to the home of some high official, to entertain groups of 
officials or business men. Many of the girls also sing at the small 
theaters in the district, in some of which all the entertaining is 
done by women from the licensed quarter. After a woman has 
finished her part, any one who wishes may meet her at the side 
of the stage and arrange for a future meeting. While the life^is 
most exciting and full of change, it is very evident that for each 
girl the season of popularity is necessarily short. The demand in 
the better houses seems to be almost entirely for very young girls, 
so unless a girl becomes the wife or concubine of some wealthy 
merchant or official she very soon starts on a downward course 


through the second, third and fourth class houses, and eventually, 
if she lives, may become in her old age an attendant to one of the 
prostitutes in the better class houses. 

The following price list gives the official amounts charged by 
the different class nouses for various sorts of entertainment. 

Price list for the different classes of houses of prostitution. 


First Second Third Fourth 

Dollars Dollars Coppers Dollars Coppers 

Sitting and talking i 50 50 No fixed 


Spending the night 8 2 i lo-ao 


Dinner parties iz^ Several 

tens of 

Playing dominoes a-f-* 60 

Serving melon seeds 10 3 

First class prostitutes, attending a dinner party or playing 
dominoes in another house, are paid $3, in pairs $5. For them 
to visit anywhere in the Manchu City costs $10. 

Second class prostitutes, attending dinner parties, are not paid 
a fixed amount, but the fee must be at least four times that paid 
for sitting and talking in their houses. 

Fees for sitting and talking or spending the night with clan- 
destine prostitutes are the same as those paid the first class 
registered prostitutes. 

There is no charge for merely visiting a house and looking at 
the inmates. 

It will be seen that many of the charges are for general social 
entertainment, and as far as we could learn from observation and 
from inquiry those who go to the brothels for social entertain- 
ment and conversation with the prostitutes far exceed those who 
go for other purposes. 

Besides the regular system of fees above mentioned, it is nec- 
essary for a high official or wealthy patron to pay large sums of 
money to secure the good favor of some of the more prominent 
women in the first dass houses. It is not uncommon for an 
official to spend as much as $700 or $800 in gifts, banquets, and 
forms of entertainment before he can go further than ordinary 
social relations with one of these famous girls. It is also re- 
ported that in some cases an official may spend years in merely 
social relations with one of the girls. 

Practically no drunkenness can be observed in the segregated 


districts and liquor is apparently not used to any extent in enter- 
taining visitors, but we are told, on good authority, that the use 
of foreign liquors at banquets is greatly increasing. 

With the exception of the worst of the third and fourth class 
houses the brothels are apparently kept very clean. The girls and 
women seem to be in good health, but many of them are undoubt- 
edly infected with venereal disease. 

The police regulations require a periodic medical inspection of 
the women, but as far as we could learn this was not being con- 
sistently enforced. An effort was made to establish a hospital 
for venereal cases, particularly for licensed prostitutes, but it was 
impossible to secure the necessary funds. Many of the women 
needing treatment are cared for by the various hospitals through- 
out the city. Even so, the licensed district must be, as it is in 
other countries, the source of a tremendous amotmt of venereal 


There is evidently some organization among the owners of 
the houses of prostitution, as they recently made a united request 
to the police board that all fees should be paidjn big money, but 
there does not seem to be anything that corresponds to a gild. 
We have not been able to discover whether or not these men are 
organized in their work of procuring girls. 


It has been impossible to secure any adequate information 
regarding the recruiting of girls for this traffic, but it is generally 
known that many of the women have been sold into this life 
from the flood and famine districts. The usual price of a young 
girl of 6 or 7 years is $200, though in cases of dire poverty 
young girls are often sold for much less, sometimes for just a 
few dollars, provided there is a promise of food and clothing for 
them. It is also known that some persons make a practice of 
kidnaping children for this sort of life and it is said that children 
abandoned on the street are used for this practice. Parents have 
also been known to enter into partnership with the owner of a 
house to divide the daughter's earnings. The house manager 
trains and educates her and then in case she is sold for a con- 
cubine divides the profits of the sale with her parents. The 
cadet system, so frequent in western countries, has probably not 
been developed in China, but there are certain classes of men 
such as fake medical practitioners, drug clerks, keepers of pawn- 
shops, and theater attendants, who really act in this capacity. It 


is also said that there are some families that make a business of 
procuring girls. 


Apparently there is in Peking no organized educational sysr 
tem for training public women as in Japan. The training is done 
rather on the apprentice system by the individual houses. The 
girls are taken when quite young, some who are only eight or ten 
years old being seen around the brothels, and are given a lone 
course of training in singing, music, conversation, all the arts oi 
entertaining and many times a very good classical education. 


Unlike Shanghai where solicitation is openly and grossly prac* 
ticed and it is considered "great fun" for the visitor to go 
through the streets of the segregated district and to be solicited 
by these "wild fowl" who "only fool the country people and old 
people," very little is apparent in Peking. There are reported 
instances of solicitation in the Central Park, at the East Market, 
and also in the New World, but the police regulations are most 
strict, and any one found soliciting is arrested and fined. A re- 
liable citizen of Peking, however, made the statement that solici- 
tation affects at least 50 percent of the older students. We have 
no proof to disprove or to confirm this statement, but certainly 
whatever solicitation there may be is carried on in a less obtrusive 
manner than in the west and is kept almost concealed. Licensed 
houses are so open, accessible and numerous that there seems 
little need for such practice. 

Practically all the newspapers give extensive publicity to the 
houses of prostituticMi and derive therefrom large financial benefit. 
Beauty contests are conducted among the prostitutes for the sake 
of the publicity the press can give to the winners, and special 
"write-ups" of such events are published, together with pic- 
tures of the women. In some of the Peking newspapers attrac- 
tive pictures of the women are pasted beside the advertisement 
for the houses, while in others an entire page will be given up to 
prostitutes' cards. These will give the girl's picture or her name 
in large type, her address and telephone number and then a bit 
of description as : "Her face is like a flower, and her body like a 
jewel." "She is lovable and as beautiful as the moon." "She is 
an actress of Peking, She was born at Chichou. Her original 
name was Li Hui Fan. She is 17 years old. Although she is 
not very beautiful, she is able to act dramas. Mr. Chu An loves 
her very much and sends this picture to us." "She is beautiful 
even when she does not laugh." "She has a beautiful face and 

 ouUide the Door of Hope. 


eyebrows/' "She comes from Shanghai and sings very beauti- 

Newspaper men are either paid in money or in trade, and in 
special cases may even be allowed the privilege of giving a feast 
in the house to which they may invite their friends. Under such 
conditions it is obvious that it would be most difficult to inau- 
gurate a press propaganda against the traffic. 

Pawnshops are also places of advertisement, the pictures and 
addresses of the women frequently being displayed on their 
walls. The restaurants and tea shops often have lists of prosti- 
tutes on their tables and are always ready to call them by tele- 
phone to come and entertain guests. 

The ricksha men are quite well posted on the addresses of 
most of the houses and usually receive a commission when they 
bring visitors. Some act as agents for certain houses and will 
often take new arrivals in the city directly to one of these houses 
rather than to the desired hotel. 

The prostitutes themselves frequently appear in public places, 
and even if they do not openly solicit men they will be approached 
by those who can tell by their dress the class of society to which 
they belong. 

In one medium-sized theater outside Ch'ien Men it is cus- 
tomary for second class women to appear and sing. Following 
their appearance, engagements may be made by any one present. 

The trade is also promoted through the cooperation of quack 
doctors and the wide advertisement of preventive medicines. 
Frequently these doctors will advise their patients to go to one 
of these houses as a cure for seminal emissions, described by 
these doctors as harmful. The legitimate cure "606" is also sold 
as a preventive of venereal disease. Public lavatories are supplied 
with advertisements of quack doctors and quack medicines. 

Personal friendship is perhaps the method of advertisement 
that really takes most people to the district. Among the students 
attending the clinic at the Union Medical College and infected 
with venereal disease, the usual reply to the question, "How did 
you first go to the district ?" was, **A friend took me there." The 
students also reported that they were greatly influenced by news- 
paper advertisements. 


Vice in Peking is not so closely related to places of amuse- 
ment as in some western cities. Up to 1912 there were no 
actresses on the stage, men only being allowed to appear. In the 
past few years women have been acting in a limited number of 
theaters, but in no case do men and women belong to the same 


troupe. Prostitutes are found among the actresses and in- some 
theaters that make a specialty of singing, etc., the actresses all 
come from the licensed quarter and use the theater as a means of 

Lists of the prostitutes are kept in many of the restaurants 
and the girls are sent for by telephone, the guests frequently 
returning with them after dinner to the houses of prostitution. 
In the tea houses, when business men or officials give parties, 
women are often called in to act in the capacity of hostesses. 
The hotels are said to be used as assignation houses to some 
extent and a prominent official reported to us that several large 
hotels had been recently opened expressly for this purpose. Con- 
cubines and young people from private homes can go to such 
places undetected. The public bathhouses have little or no con- 
nection apparently with prostitution. 

The two great amusement centers in the South City, the New 
World and the park in the Temple of Agriculture, are said to 
be placfs where patrons are found for the brothels. The women 
from the houses sing in the small theaters in these places of 
entertainment, make engagements after giving their acts and 
do some other soliciting. In Central Park a considerable num- 
ber of public women can usually be seen among the crowd. 


The first and second class houses are used principally by well- 
to-do business men and officials, there being a growing practice 
among many merchants and government officials of spending 
their leisure hours in drinking tea or holding feasts or even 
conducting important conferences in these houses. Many men, 
who themselves have no interest in visiting the prostitutes, are 
compelled to go to these houses if they are to maintain valuable 
relations with business associates or political friends. 

Officials often send their automobiles and have women 
brought to their houses. A trustworthy gentleman states that 
often an official will give a feast for a famous courtesan in his 
own home excluding his wife and children who together with 
the neighbors and others have the privilege of peering in at 
the windows to see the excitement. 

Many of the older college students are making a practice of 
visiting these houses. In gomg through houses of all four classes 
we saw many students usually in groups of two or three in the 
rooms of the prostitutes. The practice is so general that it is 
a distinct problem and certain colleges have had to adopt very 
strict rules of discipline concerning it. The Army Medical 


College, for example, deducts lo percent from final marks of 

any student who is seen in the segregated district. 

The soldiers are probably the most immoral of any class of 
men in China. They are certainly very much in evidence 
throughout the segregated district. It is said that many of them 
refuse to pay for the privileges that they enjoy and that the 
women and house managers have no way of getting satisfaction, 
for at present the military man has pretty much his own way 
in China. 

Conditions are particularly bad in the districts around the 
military camps: the soldiers at T'ung Hsien and in the camp 
northwest of Peking frequently visit married women in the 
near-by villages. In some villages it was found that practically 
every woman was receiving visitors. The customary price for 
such illicit relations was $i. 

Contrary to the common opinion reg^arding immoral living 
among the soldiers, a major at Nan Yuan maintained that 
only 3 percent of his men were infected with venereal disease. 
He claimed that the worst offenders in military camps are 
grooms, kitchen workers, or coolies, who, though weanng an 
incomplete uniform, are nevertheless sometimes mistaken for 
soldiers and thus bring an undeserved blame on the real soldiers. 

Vice is increasing not only among the rich, but also among 
house servants and other paid workers. What is taken up by 
the officials is readily copied by those in the lower ranks of 

Very immoral conditions are said to exist among the beggars. 
Lacking the money needed to patronize the licensed houses they 
cohabit with women of their own class and it is also said that 
many of them are sodomists. 

A prominent Chinese physician in Peking made this state- 
ment : "There is no chance for my friends to entertain or enjoy 
a relaxing social atmosphere at home. Very few of my friends 
use their homes for social or business purposes, and they see 
no reason why they should not go to houses of prostitution 
instead. A friend of mine in Tientsin, a compradore in a bank, 
a man of very high character, is compelled to go to these places 
to do business. He takes it as a matter of fact and has no 
objection to it. Eighty percent of my friends go to such first 
class houses for purely social and business dealings/' 


The obvious result of the increasing immoral life, especially 
among the officials, is that many of the nation's present leaders 
are being robbed of their courage and integrity. It is extremely 


difficult for a man to hold high official rank without spending a 
very large part of his time in the licensed quarter attending din- 
ners and wasting his energy in late hours. Furthermore, the 
example of the officials encourages vice throughout the nation* 
Gambling is also many times connected with the banquets and 
among high officials the stakes often run from $io,ocx> to 
$100,000. Last year one high official is reported to have lost 
$500,000 in one evening's gambling at a summer resort near 

The spreading of venereal infection is another by-product of 
the habit of visiting prostitutes. It is impossible to accurately 
estimate the amount of disease as the opinions and figures of 
different doctors vary tremendously. A well-informed Chinese 
doctor says that among the lower classes in the city the general 
health of 90 percent is affected, while almost one-third of the 
students and better classes have or haye had venereal disease. 
Ten percent of the out-patient cases of the Union Medical College 
Hospital are due to venereal disease. In the charitable hospitals 
of Peking and Tientsin more than 35 percent of the patients have 
diseases of syphilitic origin. A prominent foreign doctor of 
long experience in China said that fully one-half of the blindness 
in China is due to gonorrheal infection and that the people in 
China do not appreciate the seriousness of venereal disease. In 
one hospital in Peking nine-tenths of the adults who come for 
treatment have been infected by venereal disease. In another 
Peking hospital where the average daily clinic is 600 patients, 
200 of whom are women, one-third of the patients have venereal 
infection. In one of the hospitals for women where 6,000 
patients were treated last year, 250 were venereal cases. Of these 
all but 12 had been infected by their husbands or by the unsani- 
tary practices of midwives. 

In discussing the question of venereal diseases in China, a 
prominent Chinese doctor said that they are not so virulent 
there as in the west, probably because of the racial immunity 
of the Chinese and the absence of any heavy drinking of intoxi- 
cating liquors. In connection with the social evil and the robust 
Chinese constitution, he also claimed that in China venereal dis- 
ease does not result in blindness or insanity as frequently as in the 
west nor are they contracted indirectly as often as in other 

An interesting study of 4,000 married men made by Dr. W. G. 
Lennox of the Union Medical College throws some light on the 
question of venereal disease in Peking,* even though the group 
represented only pprtions of the middle and lower classes being 
divided into the following groups : Students, 14 percent ; servants, 

>Some Vital Statistic*— ^Jbiiia Medical Journal — ^Jolr, 1919^ 


15 percent; industrial workers, 11 percent; shopkeepers, 10 per- 
cent; fanners, 8 percent; coolies and hard workers, 7 percent. 
Twenty-two percent of the men examined admitted that they had 
had gonorrhea ; syphilis 7.9 percent ; both 3.9 percent. Deducting 
the 158 men who had had both at some time tfiere were 1,004 out 
of the 4,000 or a little more than 25 percent who admitted 
venereal infection, the statistics being (Stained from questioning 
the men rather than by examination. Even so, the men seemed 
willing to answer the questions and apparently did not try to 
hide the fact that they had been infected. 

Those who say they have had gonorrhea contracted it on the 
average 6.7 years ago and those who have had syphilis 4.2 years 
ago ; this means that most of these men have been infected since 
their marriage as they have been married on the average 14 

Of no male servants examined for syphilis in 1919 by 
Dr. J. H. Koms, of the Union Medical College, Peking, 10, or 
approximately 10 percent, showed a decidedly positive reaction, 
while only one (2 percent) of the 52 women servants whose 
blood was similarly examined reacted. The test for gonorrhea 
was positive for only two out of 119 males while in the case of 
60 females none showed a positive reaction. Dr. J. A. Snell of 
Soochow, who has been doing routine blood tests for syphilis 
on all his in-patients, found a positive reaction in 40 percent of 
the cases, but of course hospital percentages cannot be taken as 
typical of the entire population. No similar study has been 
made of the patients in any Peking hospital. 

The dispensary of the Union Medical College is giving treat- 
ment for syphilis to civilians for $18 and to soldiers for $10. 
Most of those taking the treatment are about 30 years of age. 

Another effect of the social evil in China is the breakdown 
of marital bonds. The old patriarchal family is now in the 
process of dissolution and the single family unit will have diffi- 
culty in replacing it satisfactorily if there is a continued increase 
in the practice of visiting houses of prostitution and of taking 
secondary wives. 


The practice of taking secondary wives or concubines was 
common even before the founding of the Republic but has 
apparently become more prevalent since that time. It is even 
estimated that at least 80 percent of the officials have secondary 
wives and the taking of concubines has become a fad in Peking. 
One official is reported to buy a new concubine every month 
while many have harems of from 5 to 10 girls. Many of the 
officials boast of the number of wives they have very much as 


in other countries gentlemen describe the spirited horses in thdr 
stables. If the concubines come from the first class houses of 
prostitution the men often pay from $5,000 to $10,000 for them. 
The custom of taking secondary wives is also spreading among 
the lower classes. A foreigner's cook was even found to be 
supporting three wives at the same time. Apparently the eco- 
nomic burden is the only bar to the taking of extra wives. 

In spite of the extent of the practice the secondary wife has 
no standing under the law and no right in her husband's property. 
If he dies she must leave his home unless his family are willing 
to support her. Her social standing is somewhat anomalous. 
The first or legal wife will never recognize her socially and so 
she must find her society among other secondary wives. Even 
so the prestige of being associated with a wealthy and powerful 
family gives her a position much above anything sne has probably 
known in the past. On the other hand, no stigma is attached 
to her children who are all accepted as legitimate children and 
heirs of their father. 


The Door of Hope^ 

In order to help modify the worst features of the licensed 
system of prostitution, the police department has established a 
rescue home for prostitutes known as the Door of Hope (Chi 
Liang So). Formerly it was in the South City at Wu Tao Miao, 
but has recently been moved to the northwestern part of the 
Manchu City, and combined with the Women's Industrial Home 
(Nu Hsi I So) and the Women's Reformatory (Kan Hua So). 
There are four classes of people in these institutions ; the inmates 
of the Industrial Home— dependent women who have been 
brought there by the police; small children who have been res- 
cued from kidnapers, from homes of opium smokers or from 
poor families; the inmates of the Door of Hope — women from 
16 to 25 or 30 years of age, who either have been rescued from 
houses of ill fame or who have voluntarily left their former 
occupation and entered the Door of Hope; women prisoners 
who have been sentenced by the police for misconduct, and who 
are serving definite sentences under practically prison conditions. 
The number in the different institutions in August, 1919, was: 

Industrial Home, women 127 

children 48 

The Door of Hope 65 

Women's Reformatory 36 

*See Appendix, Regulations of the Peking Door of Hope. 


The buildings of the Women's Reformatory and the Door 
of Hope are spacious and obviously designed to be developed 
into a large industrial school, the women of the Door of Hope 
and of the Industrial Home working together in a large semi- 
modem, one-room building about 200 feet square. At present 
only about one-third of the building is used and apparently the 
only industry taught is sewing. Twenty or more Singer sewing 
machines are used by the women. The other buildings are of 
the usual Chinese style, rows of one-story rooms, surrounding 
large courtyards. Besides the living rooms, there are a few 
classrooms, where the younger inmates of these institutions 
receive common school education. A separate court is set aside 
for the children of the Women's Industrial Home, the youngest 
of whom is about 6 years old. All the buildings and courts of 
the Door of Hope and the Women's Industrial Home are kept 
clean and in good order. 

Behind a row of the dormitory buildings of the Industrial 
Home and around a large inclosed court are those of the 
Women's Reformatory. The women in this institution are 
closely guarded, and visitors are only allowed to look through 
the lattice doorway of the open court. The condition of the 
women in this institution is much worse than of those in the 
Door of Hope and the Women's Industrial Home. The court 
is not so clean and the clothing of the women is ragged and 
dirty. In one important respect, however, the inmates of the 
Women's Reformatory have the advantage of those of the other 
institutions. Their sentence is for a definite period, while appar- 
ently the women in the Door of Hope and the Industrial Home 
cannot leave unless they are married. 

According to the police regulations any woman may be sent 
to the Door of Hope who has been forced into prostitution, who 
is badly treated by the manager of a house of prostitution or is 
not allowed her freedom, who desires to give up the practice 
of prostitution or who has no place to go or relatives who can 
support her, but she is admitted only after her case has been 
examined by the police or by a court.* Any prostitute who 
wants to enter the Door of Hope may bring her case to the 
attentjon of the police by a personal or written appeal to the 
head of any police district, by an appeal to any officer on duty 
or by going directly to the Door of Hope. Apparently applicants 
can be admitted only if there are vacancies in the home, as some 
time ago one police official stated that they had twice as many 
applicants as could be cared for 

In the institution the inmates are entirely under the super- 
vision of women though the head of the home is a man. Both 

* Regulationi of the Peking Door of Hope, Art. 3 — See Appendix. 


educational and industrial work is given, the regulations calliQg 
for six hours of school work a day and stating that Chinese; 
moral teachings, arithmetic, art, cooking, drawing, calesthenics 
and music are to be taught, though it is doubtful that all the sub- 
jects are taught. Anything made by the inmates is to be sold and 
any amount received over and above the actual cost of material, 
etc., is to be given to the woman who made it. 

Apparently once she is admitted to the Door of Hope a 
woman is not allowed to leave until either her relatives are 
willing to assume her support or she is married, generally the 
latter. All of the women must be photographed and not only 
are the pictures hung in the photograph room where any one 
can inspect them but many of them are also put on a board 
outside the gate of the institution where passers-by can see them. 
Any one seeing a face that attracts him may ask the manager 
of the Door of Hope to allow him to see the girl and talk over 
with her the question of marriage. li both parties are satisfied 
the man must file an application blank with the police on which 
he must give his name, age, address, business and state whether 
he wants the woman as his wife or concubine. He must also 
be guaranteed by three shops in the city. If the police investiga- 
tion of the matter proves the statements in the application to 
be correct, the wedding agreement is signed in duplicate, the 
original going to the woman and the copy being kept by the 
police. At the time of his marriage the man must make a con- 
tribution to the Door of Hope, the amount of which depends 
upon his ability to pay and the desirability of the girl he is 
marrying, and he is given an official receipt for this contribution. 
Ordinarily the official contribution amounts to anywhere from 
$io to $200. In the case of some specially desirable girl the 
unofficial contributions are also apt to be large. In case some 
official finds he is unable to come to terms with the keeper of a 
brothel for the purchase of one of the inmates of the house 
he will often report to the police that the girl has been mis- 
treated by her manager. They will investigate the case and 
have the girl sent to the Door of Hope. Then after a time 
the official is allowed to marry her, of course for a financial con- 

According to the police report the budget of the Door of 
Hope amounted to $12,223 in 1917.^ 

It is impossible to give a fair criticism of the work of this 
institution without much more familiarity with it than is possible 
at present. However, the shamefaced appearance of a large 
number of the older girls, the large number of police guards 
connected with the institution, and the general character of the 

- See Appendix for detailed statement. 


superintendents, would lead us to believe that much could prob- 
ably be done to humanize this so-called "Home." 

But in spite of any criticisms that may be made, such a home 
by affording a means of escape tends to modify at least to a slight 
degree the life of many women of the red light district. And 
it is of special help in taking care of the children rescued from 
kidnapers and from the homes of opium smokers. 


The failure of the Social Reform Association to accomplish 
lasting results in moral reform shows the great difficulty of 
checking the social evil in Peking. This society was organized 
four years ago by Mr. Frank Yung T'ao to fight the three evils 
of concubinage, prostitution and gambling; its membership 
quickly rose to 17,000; public meetings were held at the Temple 
of Heaven, Central Park, and other places and they were well 
attended; the paper that was printed had promise of wide 
circulation, but the society has not functioned to any extent since 
the arrest and subsequent removal to Tientsin of its leader, 
Mr. Yung T'ao. However, even in its short life it showed the 
large number of people who are interested in social reform and 
who might be counted upon to rally to the support of a strong 



China has had to face the problems of poverty, suffering and 
need for thousands of years. Her population has been constantly 
pressing upon the means of subsistence, and even in ordinary 
times many individuals have been unable to support themselves 
and their families. Since the country has been organized almost 
entirely on an agriculturd basis, and, as communication from one 
part of the country to another has been difficult, whole districts 
have often faced starvation and death because of famine, flood 
or drought. In order that help might be given to the needy 
and their suffering relieved to some extent, two systems of charity 
have developed, one private and the other public. Private charity 
has cared for the poor that are ordinarily found in every dis- 
trict, while the Government has been the agency to give relief 
when whole districts were affected and the private agencies were 
powerless to give the needed help. 

The giving of relief by the Government was the logical result 
of the old Chinese idea of the Emperor and his relation to the 
people. He was the "Son of Heaven" and he alone was respon- 
sible for the welfare of the people intrusted to his care. All 
power belonged to him and any that the officials possessed was 
delegated to them by him. He and his associates, of necessity, 
had to act when the people were in need, but the organization of 
the paternalistic Government was such that it responded only 
when a great number of people were suffering. 

Originally China used little or no money. Her population 
was almost entirely agricultural, and each district had to be for 
the most part self-supporting as there was but little opportunity 
for trade. Grain for the support of the army and the officials 
was the great need of the Government, so the taxes were col- 
lected in kind. For transporting the large quantities of grain 
received, canals, or grain rivers (Yun Ho) as they were called 
by the Chinese, were constructed bjr the Government; and for 
storing it huge granaries were built throughout the country. 
In times of poor harvest and need, the Government used to 
forego all or part of the grain that it usually received as taxes. 
If the conditions were especially bad, the taxes might be remitted 
for a number of years ; while in times of great and wide-spreaa 



distress the Government would open its granaries and distribute 
grain to the suffering people. 

At the present time, China is on a money basis, and taxes 
are paid in dollars rather than in kind. Consequently govern- 
mental relief is given in money, but even so arrangements are 
made whereby grain can be shipped into the districts that are 
in need. Reductions in freight rates are usually given and grain 
is often sold at a reduced price. 

The earliest known regulations concerning state relief are 
found in the "Chou-Li," a document supposed to have been 
written about 1115 BB.C. by the Duke of Chou when he was 
regent. The regulations, although never carried out, say: 

The almoner is in charge of the com stored in the country to do 
relief work — the corn in the country being used to relieve the hardships 
of the people, the corn at the frontiers and gates to relieve the aged 
and the fatherless, the com in the suburban places to entertain the guests, 
the com of the country places to relieve strangers and travelers, the 
com of the districts to relieve the bad ^ear. The corn-controller holds 
nine-tenths part of the com for distribution throughout the country, 
periodically and in small portions. He makes the estimate of the crop 
of the year and sees to the wants of the state; thus he is able to find out 
if the demand is well met or not, and to determine the ways of using 
the grain, and to manage the good and bad years. If a person consumes 
four 'Tu" (an ancient measure equal perhaps to one bushel) a month, 
that would be a year of good harvest; if he consumes three "Fu," that 
would be a year of medium harvest ; if he consumes two "Fu," that would 
be a year of bad harvest. In case a person gets less than two *Tu," the 
people must be sent to where the com is abundant, and the king is 
requested to economize the use of the com. 

An Imperial Decree of 75 B.C. says : 

Whereas the people are made to suffer by the flood and are in need 
of food, I have ordered the granaries opened and have appointed com- 
missioners to relieve them. Let it be known that no rice need be trans- 
ported for four years, and that relief and loans made by the government 
to the people before this year become gratuitous and call for no repay- 

In 45 B.C. the Government loaned money, seeds and food 
to the poor whose property amounted to less than 1,000 cash, 
and two years later, 43 B.C., similar privileges were granted to 
the farmers who had no land. In 194 A.D., a part of the country 
now known as Southern Shansi suffered from drought and the 
price of corn rose tremendously. The people were even driven 
to gnaw human bones and to cannibalism. The Emperor ordered 
that the granaries be opened and the grain be given to the people 
as gruel. The number of deaths did not decrease on the day 
following the first distribution of this relief, and the Emperor, 
fearing that the official in charge was not distributing the amount 


of grain stated in his report, went in person to superintend the 
feeding of the people. He found the measures inaccurate and 
the official getting rich while the people died around his door. 
In 1094, the Government was in need of grain as the granaries 
were empty and there was famine in the land. Much food 
remained in the hands of the well-to-do merchants, and in order 
to secure control of this the Government announced that it would 
confer a title upon the donor of a certain amount of grain, while 
others would be given certificates granting them exemption from 
taxes for some four years. 

In 191 7, Chihli and northern Shantung were visited by a 
flood that left some three million people homeless. Private 
charity did much to relieve the destitute but it was soon seen that 
the help of the Government would be needed if any adequate 
relief was to be given. A loan of $3,000,000 was arranged with 
the foreign bankers ; the money was distributed in money grants, 
supplies of grain, and by giving men employment on improvement 
work so that they could earn enough to keep themselves and their 
families alive and at the same time replace washed-out dikes, build 
new roads, etc. 

Sometimes the grain stored in the Imperial granaries, 
together with the amount that could be coaxed from the store- 
houses of the wealthy, was insufficient to relieve the distress in 
some districts and the Government was then forced to resort 
to colonization. In 205 B.C. the poor were sent from the north 
central part of the country to southern Shensi and northeastern 
Szechuan. In 137 B.C. Shantung suffered from flood, and 
because of the lack of grain the people were sent to the north 
and western marches. The imperial decree required that the 
emigrants should be furnished food and clothes by the local 
authorities of the districts through which they passed, and that, 
in the districts where they settled, the officials should allow them 
to lease land and property and also furnish them food and 
clothing until such time as they might become self-supporting. 
Over 100,000 persons were sent out under this colonization 

Only small private colonization schemes were attempted after 
the floods of 191 7, and the officials were far from enthusiastic in 
their support of these. The Government felt that it had done 
all that was needed when it had furnished temporary relief to 
the people in their home districts, even though there were parts 
of the country in which the land was so deeply flooded that it 
would not be available for cultivation again for over ten years. 
The land was below the river bed and there was no outlet for 
the flood water. 

When relief was not required for entire districts the Govern- 


ment was sometimes moved to give relief to special classes, the 
aged, the widow, the orphan, the childless, the disabled and the 
destitute. Oiinese history tells of help being given to these 
groups in 30 A.p., while in 75 A.D. the same classes received 
mree hu (approximately two bushels) of grain apiece. 

Indoor relief as a rule has not been carried on by the Govern- 
ment. In some instances, institutions have been under the direc- 
tion of the local official, but this has been because he personally 
supplied the funds and not because of any established govern- 
mental policy. 

The largest single agency for private philanthropy has been 
the Qiinese family system. A common treasury and a family 
kitchen have made it possible for many families to care for their 
disabled, aged or diseased and even ne'er-do-well members, 
though it has also encouraged the lazy. Those who have had 
no family to support them have been given help by the gentry 
and well-to-do families of the district. Clothes, flour, medicine, 
and coffins have been given to those who could establish their 
status as paupers, while institutional relief has been given in 
orphanages, widows' homes, soup kitchens and life saving insti- 
tutions established by the gentry. 

The care of the dead and their proper burial are considered 
very important by the Chinese. Some people even seem to feel 
that it is a greater service to a man to give him a decent burial 
than to keep him alive with a gift of food and clothing. Conse- 
quently, among China's philanthropic organizations are groups 
of men who are banded together to provide coffins, funerals and 
burial places for the destitute and the stranger. 

Those who have made a study of this private relief feel that 
in motives and relation to the religious life of the people 
it resembles the relief that was given in western countries in 
the Middle Ages. The chief aim of the giver was to gain 
for himself a good reputation or to purchase the rewards 
of the future life, the idea of helping the unfortunate being 
entirely secondary. With the coming of the Revolution and the 
establishment of the Republic the conception of the purpose and 
function of charity and relief is rapidly changing. The Govern- 
ment is beginning to recognize its new relation to the citizen, 
and is undertaking more and more local and institutional relief, 
while private philanthropy is beginning to see that the relation 
of those who give to those who receive is one of helpfulness and 

Under the Empire, the poor relief of Peking was carried cm 

1 Based on a lecture given by Prof. L. K. T'ao of the Peking University before 
a Seminar on "Social Institutions in Peking** conducted by J. S. Burgess and S. D. 
Gunble for students of the North China union Language School, and later pub- 
lished in the 19 19 Supplement of the Peking Ltader, and elsewhere. 


almost entirely by individuals or private associations, but since 
the establishment of the Republic practically all of the institu- 
tional relief of the city has been taken over by the Government, 
and most of it is under the control of the police, that being the 
agency in closest touch with the people and so best able to recog- 
nize those in need of relief and worthy of it. Even so, a large 
amount of private philanthropy is still carried on by gilds, asso- 
ciations or individuals, working in connection with the police 
or entirely independent of them. In two instances, an orphanage 
and an old ladies' home, private charity is carrying on with great 
success experiments in institutional management which are in 
time bound to have their effect on the more stabilized and stand- 
ardized police institutions. 

In the past various writers have attempted to make an esti- 
mate of the number of destitute persons to be found in Peking, 
one man even going so far as to say that, besides the professional 
beggars, three-quarters of the population were living upon the 
charity of the other quarter,^ but figures that even approach 
accuracy have been available only since 1914, when the police 
commenced taking the census. As the officers have listed the 
various families they have specially marked those that in their 
judgment are "Poor" or "Very Poor." The men in charge of 
the census work admit that this classification has been made 
according to the judgment of the individual officers who have 
determined those who are in special need by comparing them 
with other families in the district, but they also say that while 
no absolute standards have been adopted none of the poor fami- 
lies have an income of 25 coppers a day ($66 a year silver, 
$35' gold) if there are two in the family, or 35 coppers a 
day ($93 a year) if there are four in the family, as these 
amounts are considered sufficient for self-support. When the 
Chinese call a family "poor" it can be depended upon that they 
are in need. Where the standard of living is so low, a family 
must be absolutely destitute before the others will call them 

The study of the budgets of 195 Chinese and Manchu fami- 
lies living in one of the Military Guard districts, some seven miles 
northwest of Peking, gives further detailed information on the 
standard of living in that part of the country.* The family 
incomes range from $30 to $269 a year, the median being in the 
group receiving between $90 and $109 a year. The Chinese 
families all live within their incomes even though they receive no 
more than $50 a year, while if they earn $70 a year, they are able 

* Rochechouard — Peking. 

'Unlets otherwise noted, mil amounts are given in silver. 

*C. G. Dittmer: An Estimate of the Chinese Standard of Living, Qumrteriy 
JaumeU of Economics, Vol. 33, November, 19x8. 


to save money. The Manchu families, on the other hand, all 
show a deficit until their income is over $90 a year. 

With such low incomes it is but natural that the expenditure 
for food should constitute the largest item in the family budget. 
In some cases it is as high as 90 percent. Eighty-five percent 
is not unusual and the averages for the different income groups 
range from 83 to 68 percent. The average amounts vary from 
$34.20 for the group in which the average size of the family is 
2.5 persons to $13240 for the group where the average number 
of persons is 4.5. It is small wonder that some of the people 
are willing to walk three miles to save half a copper on the 
price of a meal. The regulation diet consists of two meals a 
day of combread and salt turnips. The American dietitians 
may say that people cannot possibly live on such a diet but thou- 
sands and even millions do it in China. 

Rents average from $5 to $12 a year or from 5 to 15 percent 
of the family income. Even the best house costs only $15 a year. 

Fuel enough to keep the family from freezing costs $6 a 
year if it is purchased instead of being gathered from the sur- 
rounding country. Light and fuel take on the average from 6 
to 7 percent of the family income. 

Clothing costs these families anywhere from 30 cents up, the 
maximum average for the different income groups being $11.50 
a year for an average family of 5.1 persons. The proportion 
spent for clothes by the different income groups varies from 
34 to 8.5 percent. For the Manchu families the maximum is 
8.5 percent while for the Chinese it is 9.8 percent. 

The real measure of a family's standard of living is the pro- 
portion of its income that it spends on books, education, recrea- 
tion, insurance, savings, that multitude of things included under 
the heading "Miscellaneous." For the Chinese families this 
varies from 1.3 to 6.6 percent of the family income. For fami- 
lies with the largest incomes the average amount is only $8.90. 
The lowest proportion spent for "Miscellaneous" by American 
families is almost twice the maximum of the Chinese, while in 
America a family is thought to be very poor if it does not spend 
20 percent of its income on "Miscellaneous," or more than three 
times the proportion spent by the most fortunate of these Chinese 

In summing up, Prof. Dittmer says, "From the study of a 
large number of cases it appears that a family of five can live 
in conq>arative comfort according to the local standard on 
$100 per year (35 to 40 coppers a day). This means that they 
can have enough food, though simple and poor, live in a house 
that will at least shelter them from the elements, have at least 
two suits of clothes, have enough fuel so they do not have to go 


out and gather it and have $5 left over for miacellaiieoa 
expenses, which will give them meat on feast days and tea qnite 
of ten, almost every week, while if there is sickness they can even 
make a trip to the Temple Fair back in the mountains." 

If allowance is made for numbers and for the fact ttat 
prices are somewhat higher in the city than they are in the 
country, the police estimate of the amount required for inde- 
pendence, $65 a year for a family of two and $93 for a fannij 
of four, corresponds almost exactly with Prof. Dittmer's $100 
a year for a family of five. 

Ninety-six thousand eight hundred and fifty persons or 1 1.9$ 
percent of the population of the city are listed by the polKe 
as "poor" or "very poor." Of these, 31 416 are classed as '^poof' 
and 65,434 as "very poor/' or approximately one-third "poo^ 
and two-thirds "very poor." 

It may be that these figures are somewhat smaller than the 
proportion that is below the poverty line in cities of similar 
size in other countries, but even in western countries the expres- 
sion "the submerged one-tenth" is used. It must also be remem- 
bered that the Chinese standards of living are much lower than 
those of other countries. They tend to approach very closely 
the subsistence minimum, and the proportion of the population 
that is poor should consequently be less. The fact that the police 
have forced many beggars to leave the city and are careful about 
allowing any destitute families to move into the city, tends to 
make the poverty of Peking less than might be expected. The 
most superficial study of the suburbs outside the gates shows 
that there the destitute constitute a much larger proportion of 
the population than inside the city and that if those living just 
outside the walls were included with those living inside, the pro- 
portion of destitute would be much higher than the present 
11.95 percent. 

Of the 96,850 "poor" and "very poor," 53,921, or 55.6 percenfcp 
are males and 42,929, or 44.4 percent, are females. This is a 
much higher proportion of females than is found in the city as 
a whole, where they constitute but 36.5 percent of the population. 
It means that the problem of poverty in Peking is largely a family 
problem. But few single men will be listed as destitute. If they 
are unable to make a success in Peking they will go elsewhere 
to try again rather than remain in the city, particularly if they 
have any family to which they can return. The proportion of 
55 percent male and 45 percent female is that which is found 
in the districts where residences predominate and the peo^e 
are living on a family basis rather than as groups of men in 
the stores.^ 

>See Chapter IV, Population. 

IL Ihc Family posaesALOni nould hardly m 


The "very poor" of the city are living in 15,689 houses or 
an average of 4.17 persons per house. This is somewhat smaller 
than the average for the entire city, 4.9 ; but would be expected. 
The conditions under which the poor have to live make for a 
small family, both because of the higher death rate and because 
of the looser family ties that exist where want and need are ever 
present. Prof. Dittmer found that as the family income 
mcreased the average size of the family also increased.^ 

Then, too, the size of a man's income has a direct bearing 
on the size of his family. Prof. Dittmer's study of a group of 
Chinese and Manchu families and our study of the church 
families show that, in any given group, as the income increases 
the average size of the ^mily increases. This does not neces- 
sarily mean that there are more children, but simply that the 
total number in the family is larger. Under the Chinese family 
system, a man who has an income is required to support not only 
his wife and children, but his relatives as well, and the number 
who look to him for support apparently depends upon the size 
of his income. 

The figures giving the number of "very poor" in the different 
police districts reflect the general character of the districts. In 
those where business is congregated there are but few poor 
families. They are crowded out into the less desirable districts 
and there tend to make up a large proportion of the population. 
In each of the police districts, Outside Left i, 2 and 5, and Out- 
side Right I and 2, the five districts in the Chinese City in which 
a large part of the business, hotel and amusement life of the city 
is centered, the "very poor" constitute less than 4.5 percent 
of the population, and in one of these districts. Outside Right 2, 
only 0.2 percent are "very poor." In the other police districts 
of the South City from 8 to 37.8 percent of the population are 
"very poor." These are the districts in which there is little or 
no business and in which the population tends to be sparse and 

The smallest population density and the largest proportion of 
"very poor" are found in the same police district, Outside Left 
4. In that district there are only 6,209 persons per square mile 
and 37.8 percent of these are "very poor." The average popu- 
lation density for the entire city is 33,626 per square mile while 
for the different police districts the maximum is 83,823 per 
square mile. It so nappens that this maximum is found in Police 
Eftstrict Outside Left 5 adjoining Outside Left 4. 

In the North City, there are only three police districts in 
which more than 10 percent of the population are "very poor." 

^ An Estimate of the Chinefle Standard of Living^ Quwrtfriy Joumat of Economiet, 
Vol. 33» Noyember, 19x8. 



Per Cent "Vvy Poof" 

t — I Olb-l* ^a 8»-II» 

Figure 2t 

Two of these, Central i and Central 2, are inside the Imperial 
City and, as this part of Peking used to be specially reserved 
for members of the Imperial household and their families, most 
of those who are living in these districts are Manchus, many 
of whom were deprived of their means of support when their 
government pensions were discontinued or greatly reduced after 
the establishment of the Republic in 1912. The Manchus also 


make tip a large proportion of the population of the districts 
Inside Right 3, where 15.8 percent of the population afe "very 
poor," and Inside Left 3 and Inside Right 4 where the "very 
poor" are just less than 10 percent of the population.^ 

As far as can be discovered, the causes underlying the pov- 
erty of Peking and all of China are much the same as those found 
in other cities and countries. Ignorance, sickness, personal unfit- 
ness all play their part, but probably in China the causes of desti- 
tution are more social than they are in other countries. Where 
the standard of living is so low, where industry is not highly 
developed and where Siere seems to be not enough work to keep 
everybody busy the forces entirely outside the control of the 
individual that tend to force him below the subsistence level are 
more numerous and the margin of safety is less than in other 

The social custom that requires that a man must be recom- 
mended by some friend for any available work and prevents 
him from applying for the job in person contributes its share 
to the total amount of poverty. Because of the difficulty of 
finding a new position it is many times a real tragedy for a man 
to lose his job even though it pays him only $5 a month. 
Foreigners who discharge their servants may find them on the 
streets a few months later starving and in rags, unable to find 
work; consequently, rather than dismiss a man and so bring 
suffering on him and his family, minor irregularities are often 

Inherent racial qualities are not responsible for poverty in 
Peking even though a large proportion of the Manchus are 
destitute. Their past experience and the change in the Govern- 
ment are responsible for their dependency. Under the Empire 
they were the special servants of the throne. They gave military 
service to the Emperor and were not allowed to do other work. 
They were required to live within 30 li (10 miles) of Peking, 
they could not own land and had to depend upon a government 
pension for their support. This pension was stopped after the 
establishment of the Republic in 1912; and now anything they 
receive must come from the annual grant of $4,000,000 made 
by the Republican Government to the family of the deposed 
Emperor, and by them distributed to their relatives and retain- 
ers. Long years of living on government bounty have unfitted 
most of the Manchus for earning a living, and now many of 
them would rather starve than go to work. Cases are known 
where they have been willing to sell even the bricks from their 
floors before they would do an)rthing to earn money. A com- 
parison of the Manchu and Chinese budgets also shows that the 

*See Appendix for tabulated figures. 


Manchus spend a larger proportion of their incomes on luxuries 
than do the Chinese ; and, although the Chinese families all live 
within their income even if it is only $50 a year and begin to save 
money when they receive more than $70 a year, the Manchu 
families all show a deficit until their income is over $90 a year.* 

Manchus willing to work can find employment only in the 
unskilled lines and that means competition, low wages, a lower 
standard of living and destitution for those who have known 
comfort in the past. The problem, of course, is a temporary 
one that will be remedied with the coming of a new generation* 
but just now, during the time of adjustment, it is particularly 

Just how large a proportion of the Manchus are destitute, or 
what proportion of the poor of the city belong to that race, it 
is impossible to say. Race lines are not carefully drawn in 
the city and not at all in the statistics, but in the police districts 
in the Imperial City and in the north part of the Tartar City, 
where there is a particularly large proportion of Manchus, a large 
percentage of the population is "very poor." 

The destitute of Peking have naturally turned to begging in 
order to eke out an existence, but any who were unexpectedly 
in need have had to ask help of their friends and neighbors. 
They could not go out on the highways and ask for alms* as 
that territory was controlled by the Beggars Gild, an organiza- 
tion that included in its membership all the professional beggars 
in the city. These were careful to see to it that no newcomers 
encroached upon any of their territory and that those who would 
beg, should join the gild and abide by the decrees of its "king." 
This "king" established the rules of the gild, assigned begging 
territory in the city to the various gild members, saw to it that 
they did not encroach upon each other's territory, made sure of 
his contribution from each one, and determined the assessments 
that were to be levied on the merchants, store-keepers and 
wealthy families. If this assessment were paid all would be well, 
but woe to the man who refused to pay — ^his house would be 
surrounded by a crowd of the "finest" specimens the gild could 
produce and the street would be so filled that customers or 
guests could not get in. In 1906, a fee of 10 taels was demanded 
by the Beggars Gild when a store of an ordinary size opened 
for business, while if the store were a large one the amount of 
the assessment was correspondingly increased.* Well-to-do 
families were specially assessed at the time of weddings and 
funerals and few if any of them ever tried more than once to 
refuse to pay the amount demanded. 

1 Prof. C. G. Dittmer: An Estimate of the Chinete Standard of Living, Qu^rttriy 
Journal of Economics^ VoL 33, NoTomber, 19x8. 
*Ptkmg DaUy Pop§f, I0o6. 


The beggars not only levied toll on special occasions but also 
collected daily contributions from the stores. Rather than have 
them stand around outside the doors and constantly beseech alms^ 
the store-keepers decided that it was better to give them alms 
whenever they came and so save annoyance and "loss of face.*' 
Consequently, the custom was established that every beggar who 
came was given two cash ; and long lines of these men used to 
wind down the streets going from store to store, each man col- 
lecting his two cash from every store. That was the day's 
contribution, and the beggars were not allowed to call again 
until the next day. Even now, although the police have greatly 
reduced the amount of begging, a line of beggars can sometimes 
be seen going past the entrance of the Tung An Shih Ch'ang or 
East Market, each man receiving one copper from the money 
changer at the door, who in turn is reimbursed by the stores in 
the bazaar. 

The b^gars also used to have one day during the auttunn 
of every year when they would go into the stores and take 
whatever they wanted. The store-keepers could get absolutely 
no protection from the police, and could not even protect them- 
selves by refusing to put out their goods. The beggars, if 
angered by the stinginess of a merchant, were not slow to loot, 
wreck, or even fire his shop.* 

One of the principal gathering places of the beggars was the 
bridge in front of the Ch'ien Men, the main gate between the 
North and South Cities; and before 1900 the crowd on the 
center of the three roadways of the bridge was one of the sights 
of the city. Since the Boxer year and the foreign occupation 
the beggars have been kept away from this bridge. 

In 1878, it was estimated that Peking had over 20,000 naked 
beg^rs.* About the only official help given them was the main- 
tainmg of a Beggars Retreat where some 1,000 of them could 
get in out of the cold for the night and secure a little food. This 
Retreat was originally established about 1700 A.D. by the 
Emperor K'ang Hsi.' 

Officially, no begging is now allowed in Peking. The police 
have broken up the Beggars Gild, have driven many of its 
members outside the city, and threaten with fine or imprisonment 
any one found begging, but in spite of the law one can hear 
the b^gar's call of "Lao T'ai T ai" (old lady) in almost any 
hut'ung (small street) in the city. Even on the main thorough- 
fares, beggars ply their trade and, running along beside the 
rickshas, beseech alms. Certain ones apparently have definite 
districts in which they work unmolested by others. But although 

' Morache, Peking et ses Habitants, 

' Rochechouard, Peking. 

* Morache, Peking et ses Habitemts, 


they work openly on the streets, they are very careful to stop 
their importuning whenever they come near a policeman. The 
officers realize that begging is going on, but wink at it unless 
it is too open; and they will always drive a beggar away if 
appealed to for relief. One of the head police officials said that 
there were so many poor people in the city that the police could 
not take care of them all in the poor houses, and so had to let 
them beg for a living. One of the Christian organizations of 
the city suggested to the police that they would be willing to 
establish a Kung Ch'ang (workshop) that would care for 5,000 
people if the police would stop the begging. Even this did not 
meet with the approval of the police who said that it would 
not begin to take care of those who needed the help now gained 
by begging. 

Begging still goes on, though it is done much more quietly 
than it used to be and the beggars are not allowed to become 
troublesome. The contrast between conditions just inside and 
just outside the city gates shows the control exerted by the police. 
Just outside the city can be found a great collection of beggars 
with unsightly sores and deformities, or braving the winter wmds 
with only a bit of sacking for clothing. There will be practi- 
cally none of these inside the city. And outside the gates the 
beggars are much more insistent in their demands, for there are 
no policemen to whom an appeal can be made. 

In T'ung Hsien, 15 miles east of Peking, the Beggars Gild, 
with its "king," is still operating as did the gild in Peking before 
it was broken up by the police. 

CHOU ch'ang (soup kitchens) 

On any morning during the cold weather, groups of people 
may be seen gathering in some twelve centers in and around 
Peking. Most of them show by their dress and appearance that 
they are poor and feel the pinch of hunger and the bite of the 
cold. Many are dressed in only the thinnest cotton clothes even 
though the temperature is near zero. Here and there is a 
beggar with a padded quilt around his shoulders but with trousers 
that are tattered rags. Some beggar boys are wearing only a thin 
cotton shirt and no trousers ; others among the crowd have warm 
padded clothes and padded or even fur caps. Many of the 
women bring babies and children with them. One and all are 
carrying bowls, buckets, tin cans, baskets, anything that will hold 
a dipperful of hot porridge; for they are going to the chou 
ch'ang or soup kitchens where they will be given a free meal 
of hot porridge. 

As they crowd through the gate, each one is handed a small 


piece of bamboo which takes the place of an admission ticket 
and later must be presented to the man who is dishing out the 
food. Those who are early, stand around in the shelter of the 
mud wall protecting themselves, as best they can, from the north 
wind, and making the most of the brilliant sunshine. The beg- 
gars crouch down and wrap themselves up in their quilts, and 
for added warmth put two or three small pieces of glowing char- 
coal in a dish between their feet. Because of the cold even those 
who are wearing warm clothes are careful to keep their hands 
up their sleeves. 

When the time comes for distribution, the outer gate is closed 
so that there may be no chance for any repeating and those who 
are in the courtyard, numbering anywhere from seven hundred 
to three thousand, are lined up in single file. First come the 
children, then the women, and finalljr the men. The long line goes 
slowly by the large tubs of steaming porridge where each per- 
son, after his little bamboo stick has been collected, is given a 
big dipperful of the hot food. No one is allowed to eat his 
porridge in the courtyard ; so those in charge see to it that every 
one leaves as soon as he is served. Once outside the gate it 
does not take long for the porridge to disappear, and few if 
any of the bowls are taken home full. 

In the olden days this feeding of the poor was done by private 
charity or by the temples and mosques, and in the other parts of 
China these agencies are still doing it. In Peking, however, this 
work, together with many of the other organized charities, has 
been almost completely taken over by the Government acting 
through the police, the Military Guard and the Ching Chao Ying 
or Metropolitan District. These boards have established, in and 
around the city, twelve centers from which free food is dis- 
tributed to all who come during the cold months of the year. 
No questions are asked of those who receive the food, the fact 
that they apply being taken as sufficient evidence of their need. 
Seven of the twelve centers are run by the police, three by the 
Military Guard and two by the Ching Chao Ying. 

Free food is also distributed from a few centers that are still 
privately managed, but they are very small and at the most care 
for a few hundred persons. It has been impossible even to make 
a complete list of them and no attempt has been made to gather 
any detailed information concerning them. 

The distribution of free food begins as soon as the weather 
has turned really cold, and continues, if sufficient funds are 
provided, until spring. The minimum length of time is lOO days 
and the maximum atout 120. In 1918, the chou ch'ang were run 
from December ist to April ist, while in 1915 they did not open 
until January 2nd, and Uien ran until April 20th, 


The food furnished consists of a hot porridge of millet and 
rice, seven parts millet and three parts rice. The allowance per 
person averages from 3J4 to 4 ounces of grain. This of course 
is hardly sufficient to allow the people to make the chou ch'ang 
their only source of food, and most of them use it simply to 
supplement what other food they can secure. There are families, 
however, who have lived through the winter and whose only food 
was these few ounces of hot grain given them once a day. 
Some families had not only no money with which to buy food 
but not even clothes enough to go around. Some had only enough 
to make a suit for one person; that one went to die chou 
ch'ang every day and got food for the others, who could not 
even go out and attempt to add to the family income by 
ging. A boy belonging to one of these families was found earl 
in ^arch searching the dumps for cigarette stumps. He was 
entirely without clothes, though the frost was barely out of the 
ground, and was so cold and hungry that he was stupid and 
sluggish in his movements; but he knew what money was and 
ravenously clutched at a silver coin put into his hand. All the 
food that he and his mother and father had had during the winter 
came from the chou ch'ang and they had lived mrough the 
winter without fuel and clothing. 

The cost of the food given away averages 1.2 cents per per- 
son, the actual cost varying in the different centers from 0.9 to 
Ij4 cents. Millet, which makes up the larger part of the food, 
cost in 191 5 from $4.45 to $5.20 a Peking tan of 150 catties 
(200 pounds). 

In dealing with Chinese weights it is always a problem to 
discover exactly what standard is used, for they vary from place 
to place and even in the same city are not always uniform. 
Thus, 187 Peking tan are equivalent to 168.82 T'ung Hsien tan, 
and on the west side of Peking one sheng equals one cattie 
(1.33 pounds), while in the East City one sheng weighs 1.5 catties. 

By means of the bamboo counters, a daily record is kept of 
the total number of meals served, and also of the number of 
men, women and children who come to the chou ch'ang. The 
police in their seven centers give away from 350,000 to 400,000 
meals a month while the three centers of the Military Guard 
average from 120,000 to 150,000 and the two of the Ching Chao 
Ying serve between 80,000 and 90,000 meals a month. The 
largest month reported by the police in the last three years was 
January, 1918, when 727,815 meals were given away. 

The monthly reports show that the proportion of men, women 
and children served at the different centers remains fairly con- 
stant. The police report 40-45 percent children, 43-46 percent 
women and 11-18 percent men. The Military Guard has approxi* 


mately 2^ percent children, 27 percent men and 46 percent 
women, while of those served by the Ching Chao Ying, 65-72 
percent are women, 12-22 percent children and 12-14 percent 
men. Detailed figures concerning the work of the chou ch'ang 
are given on page 487 of the Appendix. 

The actual expense of running the chou ch'ang depends 
almost entirely upon the number of persons fed; for the cost 
of the tools, fuel, work, etc., for the different centers is fairly 
constant and ranges from $200 to $380 a year, which in 19 15 
was 18-26 percent of the total operating expense. The total 
spent by the police for the operation of their seven centers 
amounts to from $12,000 to $15,000 a year. In 1915, it was 
$11,260.61, when 963,201 meals were given away at uie seven 
centers. The grain used amounted to 1,723.17 tan (one tan equals 
150 catties) and cost $5.10 a tan. 

The operating expenses were : 

Tools $447-00 

Fuel 537.56 

Wages 412.58 

Miscellaneous 455>50 

Police Supervision 620.00 


The Military Guard spends from $4,000 to 5,000 a year on 
its three centers near Peking, while the Ching Chao Ying spends 
approximately $2,500 for its two centers. 

The funds for the chou ch'ang are derived from both offi- 
cial and private sources. The police secure theirs from the 
President, the Ministry of the Interior, the Municipal Council, 
the Bank of Communications and from individual and private 

In 191 5 they received from these sources the following 

President $5,000 

Ministry of the Interior 2,000 

Municipal Council 5,000 

Bank of Communications 2,000 

Private Sources 50 

Total $12,050 

The Military Guard reported that in 191 5 they received $2,000 
from the Ministry of the Interior, $1,000 from the Ching Chao 
Ying, $438 from subscriptions collected by the police and $800 
from individual subscriptions.^ 

* Report for 4th ytar of the Ropulilic (ipis)> Janvaiy j&d to Ayril j«tlk MwmU^ 
#•1 C^umeO Maganmt, 



In 1919, the amount furnished the police b)r the r^;ular 
official and private subscriptions was not sufficient to meet 
the expenses because a larger number of people than usual 
applied. Upon the special petition of the chief of police, the 
Ministry of Finance made up the deficit of that year but 
distinctly stated that it would not thereby establish a precedent 
for the future. 

Some of the chou ch'ang still maintain a semi-private 
character, in that the operating expenses for tools, fuel, labor, 
etc., are met by the gentry of the district where the chou ch'ang 
is located, while the grain is supplied by the government boards. 
One outside the Ch'i Hua Men (one of the east gates of the city) 
used to be run by a Mohammedan mosque but the funds for die 
purchase of the grain have given out, and although the food is 
still cooked in the mosque kitchen the work has been taken over 
by the Military Guard. However, it supplies only the grain and 
one or two men for the general supervision of the work, the 
money for the rest of the expenses being contributed by two 
or three wealthy men living nearby. 

Some $300 IS annually raised for the chou ch'ang by a three- 
day benefit given on the grounds of the Peking Water Company, 
outside of the Tung Chm Men. This consists of an entertain- 
ment of singing, acting and acrobatics given by some nine groups 
of men who not only come and give their services but often pay 
their own expenses as well. These men usually belong to some 
club or secret society and come year after year to make their 
contribution to the poor of Peking. One of these clubs, the 
Qoud Wagon Society, sent 40 members for the three days and 
subscribed $35 for their expenses. This group sang cdd 
Chinese folk songs. The Old Large Drum Society, founded in 
1747, sent a group of 60 dancers and musicians. The Centipede 
Sacred Hell Society, with some thirty-five members, gave demon- 
strations in the use of the double-edged sword, chains, pikes a^ 
other implements of combat. The Sacred Jug Society was a 
group of 15 men from the village of Tuen Van, who amused 
the crowd by juggling jugs. A group of actors rave their plays 
walking and dancing on four-foot stilts. The Old and Young 
Lions Sacred Society made sport for the people with five lions 
of the two man variety, and whenever the lions moved the drum 
and cymbal players were sure to call attention to the fact by 
beating on their instruments. 


With fuel scarce and the thermometer going to zero 
Fahrenheit, the people of North China have to depend upon 


warm clothes for their protection from the cold. One authority ^ 
says that it costs at least $6 to buy enough fuel to keep a 
family from freezing and personal experience has shown that 
even the homes of the well-to-do are seldom more than warm. 
The people keep warm by putting on layer after layer of clothing 
if they have it. Wool is not available, so they use cotton wad- 
ding to pad their clothes if they cannot afford fur-lined garments. 
The poor seem to be able to get along if they have one cotton 
padded suit. The usual supply of clothes for an ordinary person 
is one suit of plain cotton cloth for summer wear, and a padded 
one for winter. Those who are not so well off have to content 
themselves with a single suit, putting in the wadding in the fall 
and taking it out in the spring. Many times the winter suit or 
the cotton wadding is put into the pawn shop over the summer 
for safe keeping, and to give the owner a little extra capital. 
But it is often impossible to repay the loan with the 2 percent 
interest a month, and so the owner is without his warm clothes 
when winter comes around again. In other cases, lack of 
employment or sudden misfortune forces families to sell their 
winter clothes in order to get food to eat, and some have been 
found that were so poor that they had to sell even their summer 
clothes. This of course means terrible suffering; and the giving 
of clothes has long been one of the established methods of relief. 
Many people have been willing to help in this way because it so 
quickly relieves suffering and also because those who are bene- 
fited do not come with recurring demands for help. 

As most of the clothes are given away through private 
channels it is impossible to make any estimate of the number of 
people who are helped during the winter, but the extent of the 
need is shown first by the number of the poor in Peking, 96,850 
or 11.95 percent of the population of the city (table, pg. 486), 
and second, by the experience of the captain of one of the police 
districts in the northeast part of the city. Having some 20 suits 
of clothes to distribute, he set out to find the families that were 
the most needy. Before he had gone very far he had found 
over 100 families where one or more members were entirely 
without clothes. Faced with such a need, he decided that the 
best he could do would be to give one suit of clothes to a family 
as far as he could. He had had enough experience with the poor 
to know that it might be well to check up a little bit later, and 
make sure that the clothes had not been pawned or sold. In one 
of the first families that he visited, he found the clothes missing. 
The man frankly admitted that he had sold them, but said "It 
is all right to see your family without food for one, two, or even 

> Prof. C. G. Dittmer: An Estimate of the Chinese Standard of Living, Quaritrly 
Ituruai of Eeotutmies, November, 191 8. 



three days, but by the time they have had nothing to eat for four 
or five days, you don't care where the clothes come from, yott 
sell them and use the money to buy food." 

Inasmuch as the police are thoroughly conversant with the 
problems of the poor of the city, quite a number of those who 
want to do something to help are giving clothes to the police 
and asking thai they distribute them to the needy and worthy 
families. Besides this, the police and Military Guard are using 
part of their funds to give clothes to the poor as well as to feed 
them. During the winter of 1916-17, they gave clothes to 5,740 
persons besides using the cast-oflF uniforms of the police officers 
and soldiers for the inmates of the charitable institutions. 

To give an adult a suit of padded clothes costs approximate 



Going into the theater one winter evening a foreigner toM 
his ricksha man to wait for him. When he came out a few hours 
later, he found the man faithfully waiting but frozen to death. 
His padded coat had not been enough to protect him from the 
cold and there was no place where he could go for shelter. 
Moved by this experience, a group of Chinese and foreigners, 
early in 1916, organized a relief association and by means of a 
benefit theatrical performance raised the money needed to build 
and maintain a series of shelters where the ricksha men couM 
go to get warm, where they could find hot water to drink and 
have a chance to dry their perspiration soaked garments. 

These shelters, built on government property on the edge 
of the highways, are plain, one-story frame buildings with a 
concrete floor and a lime roof. Benches are built along the walls, 
and there are windows on all four sjdes so that the men may 
be able to watch their rickshas while they are getting warm. 
An unprotected ricksha is a great temptation to many men and 
the loss of one is a tragedy for the man who is renting it, as it 
means the loss of his livelihood. It costs about $250 to build «' 
one of the shelters and about $100 to run it for a year. Old 
ricksha men, or those who are crippled, look after the shelters^ 
take care of the fire and keep up the supply of hot water. 

When the work was first started, the funds were sufficient 
to establish only three centers, but the first experiments have 
been so successful and the funds secured by the annual benefit 
performance have increased, so additional shelters have been 
opened until now there are nine scattered throughout the city. 
Even these are pitifully few considering the fact that there, arc 
some 30,000 ricksha coolies in the city. 

Those who are used to the comfort of warm homes often 


wonder how the ricksha men survive the cold of the Peking 
winters. Even though the thermometer is below freezing for 
at least two months of the year and often goes down to zero, 
the men have but little clothing to keep them warm, at best a 
single padded coat, and they are first overheated by their running 
and then have to stop and wait in the cold. 

With its hard working conditions, low income, comparatively 
short working life, averaging less than five years, and the large 
number of men engaged in it, the trade of the ricksha man is 
one of the big problems of the Chinese cities. It takes one 
coolie to pull one passenger, making an expensive form of trans- 
portation. The constant running is hard on the men, uses up 
their best strength in a few years and leaves them untrained, 
without any industrial opportunities, a burden on their families 
or on the community. 

In spite of their hard life the Peking ricksha coolies are noted 
for the fact that they take things with a smile. They are good- 
natured in their competition for business and are always ready 
to get a laugh out of the life around them. Even though an 
older man is unable to keep up with a younger one and is dis- 
missed because of his lack of speed, he takes it with a smile 
even though it may be a wistful one. 

SHAN t'ang 

The Shan T'ang are private charitable associations that are 
supported by the contributions of their members. Most of their 
work is outdoor relief, though some indoor relief is given to a 
few people who are allowed to live in the buildings belonging 
to the association. 

It was impossible to secure any detailed report of the work 
of these associations, but from appearances they were not very 
active and the work of one or two of them seemed to have been 
taken over by the police. 


Indoor relief is given to a certain extent to practically all 
of the needy classes in Peking. There are institutions (see map 
of philanthropic institutions) that care for the foundlings and 
orphans, give industrial training to boys and girls, provide work 
for those who are unable to find employment, give the poor a 
place where they can find food and lodgmg, and provide shelter 
for the aged destitute. The need, however, is so much p^eater 
than the relief given that these institutions stand as experiments, 
or perhaps rather as examples of the different kinds of relief 


* - W Peoples Home - 5 

 ~ FoundRngs Home - 1 

c - Shin rang - G 

D - Door ol Hope - 1 

I - Sonl Senice OiA - 1 


- Owu Ch'M^ 12 ^  

- Hospital - 46 " ' 

- tnsaM Asylum - I '  

Figure 2 

that have been developed by the Chinese. The older ones show 
the type of relief given under purely Chinese conditions, while 
some of the more recently established ones, particularly those 
connected with mission and foreign influences, show what can 
be done when western experience is applied in China. As the 
institutions are all so different, they have been described in 


considerable detail with the hope of giving a picture of Chinese 
institutional life and indicating the possibilities of its develop- 

THE foundlings' HOME 

One of the busiest places in Peking is the Foundlings' Home 
at meal time, for there 96 babies all want to be fed at once. 
And the noise is concentrated, for the babies are all kept in one 
big courtyard during the warm summer days. On one si3e 
under the shadow of a high straw mat p'eng are rows of cribs 
for the youngest, while on the other side of the court the older 
children play about or sit in a long row waiting for their food. 
Moving around among the cribs are a large number of amahs 
or nurses, all busy trying to keep the flies away from the babies. 
The buildings of the Home are carefully screened; but when 
the children are out in the courtyard the only protection they 
have from the flies is the long horse-hair brushes that the amahs 
keep waving over the cribs. With a lot of the babies crying at 
the same time, with the smaller children running around, and 
with the constant waving of the brushes, the courtyard is full of 
movement and life. 

The Foundlings' Home was established, or rather taken over 
from private management, by the police and the Municipal 
Council in 1917 so that they might have some place to care for 
children whose parents wanted to get rid of them and who would 
probably be done away with if there were no institution to take 
them. Consequently, any child brought to the Home is received, 
though the regulations provide that they should not be over 
three years of age. 

The Home was first located outside of the Hatamen but later 
was moved to the Hou Men Ta Chieh, just outside of the north 
wall of the Imperial City. 

During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1918, 130 babies wete 
given to the Home. Of these iii were girls and only 19 were 
boys. This great preponderance of girls is not to be wondered 
at as the Chinese will keep their boys if there is any possible 
way to do so. Of the 130, 25 were one year old, 71 two years old, 
23 three years old, and 1 1 were received who were four years old. 

In 1 918 it was reported that there was a tremendous death 
rate among the infants cared for by the Home. One story even 
stated that 195 out of 196 had died during the year. The police 
appealed for help to Countess Ahlefeld, the wife of the Danish 
Minister to China, and agreed to give her a free hand in running 
the institution. She and a number of the foreign ladies living in 
Peking took up the work and, with the cooperation of the Chinese 
board of directors, gradually changed things until the buildings 


are kept dean, the windows and doors are all screened, and 
the flies kept out; Chinese doctors trained in foreign medidne 
look after the children, and five specially trained nurses super- 
vise the care of the babies, and the work of the 39 amahs. In 
spite of good care and the improved physical environment over 
100 babies died last year. 

The rules for the feeding of the children state that those 
who are one year old are fed entirely with milk, those who are 
over one and less than two years of age are given milk and 
cake, those between two and three years of age have congee^ 
(rice-gruel), miik and cake, while those over three have no milk 
and cake but eat the regular food at the ordinary times. Wd 
nurses are provided for the infants but each is required to feed 
three children. 

All of the foundlings are vaccinated three times. If they are 
given to the Home when they are very young, it is done when 
they are six months old, again when they are a year and a half 
old, and a third time when they are three years old. In 
of death the police must be notified so that they may 
the body before burial. 

Although none of the children are now old enough to go 
to school it is planned that a school and an industrial depart- 
. ment shall be established for them later on, as they must remain 
in the Home until they are eighteen years of age. Parents are 
allowed to take a child out of the institution only if they can 
furnish a satisfactory guarantee that they are able to care 
for it. 

The expenses of the institution amount to between $10,000 
and $12,000 silver a year. This is met by contributions from the 
police, the Municipal Council, the Ministry of the Interior and 
private sources. The report for the year ending April 30, 1918^ 
showed a total income of $39,006.48, counting at par the depre- 
ciated bank notes. Of this amount $10,106 was contributed by 
individuals, $18,093 was given by the Police Board and $4,000 
came from the Municipal Council. Special theater contributions 
for extra food for the babies amounted to 1,038 tiao ($^4 
silver). A total of $25,138.33 of depreciated bank notes was 
spent during the year, leaving on hand a balance of $13,866^ of 
which $1,000 was invested in a weaving factory and $500 in 
shares of the Peking Water Company. The police and the 
'Municipal Council keep track of the income and expenditures 
of the institution by requiring that monthly reports be filed with 
them for their approval. 

Up to the present the results secured hardly seem to justify 
the expenditure of the amount of money that has been used. 

A second visit to the Home three months after writing the 

plied by ihc ulc ol iwocc/ppci benefit ticket! at one of the bii thutiei. 
working u thci' Dull below ground ind ia  hot, dimp itmaiphcre uid 
■leepini vitbout bcddint U is little wonder Ibe bori bkve bad nfn and bMdi. 



above report showed that the organization and system of care 
that had been developed under the supervision of the foreign 
ladies was rapidly breaking up. The ladies had never had any 
direct control over the finances of the institution. The Countess 
Ahlefeld had gone home, and, while the others interested in the 
work were away for the summer, those in charge of the finances 
had made changes in the staff by the very convenient method of 
paying salaries in Bank of China or Bank of Communications 
notes, instead of silver. As the notes are worth only about 50 
cents in silver, the trained nurses have been unwilling to accept 
them and have left, careful supervision has ceased, and the old 
conditions with the attendant flies and dirt are rapidly returning. 
It is just one more experience that shows the difficulty of 
Chinese and foreign cooperation in charitable enterprises when 
the control of the finances is left entirely in the Chinese hands. 


Although the care of orphans has always been considered 
by the Chinese a worthy form of charity, Peking has only two 
such institutions, one in the North City and one in the South 
City. Both are private institutions but are receiving contribu- 
tions from various official boards. 

The P'in Er Yuan or Peking Orphanage, located almost in 
the shadow of the north wall of the North City, is on Chien Fu 
Ssu Hut'ung next door to the North City poorhouse. There on 
about five "mow" of land (% of an acre) it is caring for 
some 92 children, 50 boys and 42 girls. 

The Orphanage was first opened in 1912 by Mr. Ts'ang Yu 
Chen of Tientsin, who wanted to provide a home for some of 
the children who lost their parents in the fighting incident to 
the Revolution. After a few years, Mr. Ts'ang found that he 
was unable to support the home alone, and so appealed to his 
friends for help and transferred the management to a board 
of directors, to be elected from those who contribute to the 
institution. At the present time, this board has among its mem- 
bers several American returned students (Chinese who have 
studied in America) and one or two foreigners. Representa- 
tives of practically all the religious faiths in Peking are found 
on the board, Confucianists, Buddhists, Mohammedans, Roman 
Catholics and Protestants. A woman's auxiliary board assists 
the directors in the management of the home. 

Any child whose family is unable to care for it will be 
admitted by the orphanage, provided it is accepted by the board 
of directors after they have investigated the case. Children are 
usuglly brought to the notice of the board by some private indi- 


vidualy but the police also refer to it any cases they feel are 
particularly worthy. At the present time only a few children 
are being admitted, as the maximum capacity of the orphanage 
is 100. Large numbers have been taken in by the orphanage 
at three different times, first when it was opened in 1912, seccmd 
after the street fighting in Peking in 1913, and third after tbe 
Tientsin flood of 1917. 

The detailed management of the orphanage is in the hands 
of a superintendent and two assistants who are appointed by 
the board of directors. The superintendent's salary is $50 a 
month, while the assistants receive $25 a month each. One of the 
assistants is always the woman who is in charge of the giris' 

The buildings are of the usual Chinese style and at present, 
because of the lack of finances, are in need of considerable repair. 
Even so, the sanitary condition of the buildings is excellent, 
everything being clean and well cared for. 

The orphanage gives all of the children at least two hoors 
of school work besides five hours of industrial work every day 
except Sunday. The boys are taught carpentering and carpet 
makmg; the girls, tailoring, lace making and cooking. The 
teachers in charge of the school and industrial work recenre 
$12 and $15 a month, except in the lace making where the teadi- 
ing is done by one of the girls. 

In order that the children may have experience in the routine 
household duties, most of the work of the orphanage is done bf 
the inmates. They work in groups and in rotation each group 
is responsible for some particular task. The children have 
to keep things clean, help with the cooking, wash the dishes, 
and even wash their own clothes if they are old enough. They 
are given baths once a week during the winter and every day 
in summer, and the sick are sent to the nearby mission hospital 
where they receive foreign medical treatment. 

Special attention is given to the recreation of the children. 
They are free from 10 130 to 12 every day, and also from 7 to 8 
in the evening. There is a large playground in daily use, and 
volunteer workers from some of the schools of the city have 
assisted in directing the children's play. Every sununer the 
children are given a trip to Wo Fo Ssu, one of the temples 
in the Western Hills about ten miles from Peking, where thcjr 
have an opportunity to climb hills and learn something of Kfc 
in the country. 

Christian services are held every Sunday under the leader- 
ship of a student volunteer from Tsing Hua, the American 
Indemnity College, and a Y.W.C.A. has been organized among 
the girls. 


Raising the funds for the institution has been a considerable 
task as the annual budget amounts to about $7,500 a year. 
On several occasions the board of directors has been tempted 
to turn the institution over to the police, but each time has been 
successful in raising the needed money. During 1919 a special 
campaign was carried on and over $12,000 was raised from 
Qiinese sources. At the present time the orphanage is given 
some help from official sources. The Peking-Mukden, Peking- 
Suiyuan, Peking-Hankow and Tientsin-Pukow Railroads are 
purchasing advertising space in a small paper published by the 
institution, to the extent of $400 a month. 

Only a few children have reached the age limit of 18 and 
have left the orphanage, but these few have demonstrated that 
the training that has been given them has fitted them for self- 
supp<)rt. One of the girls is now teaching lace making and 
earning $20 a month, a Targe salary for a woman. 

The home is a good demonstration of what can be done in 
the care of orphan children by means of cleanliness, education 
and industrial training, even with a small budget and simple 
material equipment. 

The orphanage in the South City is next to the Lung Ch'uan 
Ssu, a Buddhist Temple, and is run by the temple priests. It is 
caring for some 250 boys who are full orphans or have only a 
mother living, and whose relatives are unable to care for them. 
It admits only boys who are under 12 years of age and their 
good behavior must be guaranteed by some shop or friend of 
the family. Once admitted, the boys can stay apparently as 
long as they want to, as some 37 of the inmates are over 19 
years of age. These, however, are simply given a home and 
must earn their living either by working in the orphanage or 
finding work outside. 

All of the boys are given school work, industrial training 
and a daily lecture of an hour on religious subjects. Twelve 
boys are in the Higher Primary, five are in the Middle School 
and one is even attending the University. Printing, tailoring, 
carpentering, dyeing, shoemaking, weaving and mat making are the 
industries taught. 

The boys live in dormitories, 18 in a three "chien" room 
12x30 feet. They all sleep on one long k'ang or built-in bed 
that runs the full length of the room. They arc given three meals 
a day rather than the two customary in most of the government 

The budget of the institution amounts to practically $10,000 
a year. It is met principally by individual contributions made 
to the temple, but some official funds are supplied. The Munici- 
pal Council contributes $1 a month, the Local Board of Educa- 


tion $5 a month, while the police furnish $60 worth of rice 
month. The Five Saints >Iunnery gives $20 a month. 

As far as could be seen, the institution is well managed, the 
boys are well cared for and are given good school and industrial 
training. They certainly are turning out a very creditable type 
of work. 

A big combination orphanage and industrial school is being 
built near the old Imperial Hunting Park in the Western Hills 
by Mr. Hsiung Hsi Ling, as part of the relief work for the 
flood sufferers of 191 7. Fine, modem, brick buildings are being 
erected for the workshops and dormitories, and are so planned 
that both boys and girls can be cared for. When finished, the 
institution will be able to accommodate some fifteen hundred 
inmates, and will make it possible to care for many of the needy 
cases that cannot be helped at present, because of the lack of 
available room. 

THE boys' industrial SCHOOL 

The Hsi I So or Boys' Industrial School was established by 
the Judiciary Department of the Empire in order that care and 
training might be given to some of the poor boys of the dty. 
Under the Republic the school was first taken over by the 
Ministry of the Interior, but in April, 1917, it was intrusted to 
the police as it was closely connected with their work. 

The school provides a home, teaching and work for between 
six hundred and fifty and seven hundred boys. At present there 
are 660 inmates. Any boy in the city between eight and sixteen 
years of age is eligible for admission, provided his case is brought 
to the notice of the police and approved by them after they have 
made an investigation of his record, his home and his family. 
Homeless boys can be sent to the school only when they arc 
willing to go. Once admitted to the school a boy must remain 
there until he is eighteen years of age, unless his family are 
able to care for him and desire to take him out of the institution, 
or unless the boy himself desires to be returned to the police. 
On reaching the age of eighteen the boys are discharged, but, 
instead of being turned adrift, are sent to the head of the police 
district that sent them to the school. The police find work for 
them and so enable them to start life outside the institution with 
a job. This part of the school work is particularly important in 
China, for without the police backing it would be very difficult 
fot the boys to find employment as they would not be able to 
get any one to act as their guarantor. 

School work equivalent to the higher and lower primary 
grades is provided for the younger boys. At present, 170 of the 


660 inmates are attending school. They are given five hours of 
instruction a day. The teaching is done by four men, all Middle 
School graduates, two of whom receive $20 a month and two $25. 

Work is provided for those who do not attend school. Nine 
different trades are taught: carpentry, printing, paper-making, 
soap-making, rug-weaving, tailoring, thread-spinning, cloth- 
weaving and the weaving of tai-tzu, or the bands with which 
the Chinese bind the bottoms of their trousers. The boys are 
required to work from 7 to 11 and from i to 5, seven days in 
the week. In some of the departments, particularly the printing 
and weaving departments, night work from 7 to 11 is required 
if the school has received sufficient orders for work. The bovs 
are paid somewhat according to the amount and quality of tne 
work that they do, The smallest wage is 20 coppers a month, 
and the highest possible is 60 coppers a month. Part of this 
money is sent to the boys' homes, and they themselves are allowed 
to spend part. 

Some thirty of the boys are given training in Chinese music, 
and, together with 64 who are trained in dancing, take part in 
the semi-annual worship of Confucius at the Confucian temple. 

A large playground, equipped with swings, horizontal bars, 
horses and football goals, is provided but, so far as could be 
seen on two visits, practically no use is made of it, at least during 
the winter months. The manager of the school said that drill 
under the direction of the police officers was required of all 
the boys in warm weather, but was not required during the 
winter. The boys are supposed to use their leisure time in the 
evenings and during vacation days in talking or walking around 
the grounds. On visiting the school during the New Year vaca- 
tion, a group of between sixty and eighty boys were seen sitting 
around a table in the dining room, waiting for an hour and a 
half to go by before their supper. In the meantime, the play- 
ground just outside showed not a single footprint. 

Punishments for breaking the rules of the school are admin- 
istered by the teachers. For minor offenses, a boy is made to 
stand in a corner or to kneel down for one or two hours. More 
serious infractions are punished by whipping on the hand or 
by confinement in a dark room. The boys that show signs of 
incorrigibility are dismissed from the institution, but may return, 
provided they can furnish guarantees for future good conduct. 
On the whole, the discipline is not a serious problem, as the boys, 
because of their experience with Hfe outside the school, seem 
tractable and not liable to make trouble. One of the officers 
remarked that none of the boys ever had to be sent away from 
the school, because poor boys are always very easy to man- 


The buildings of the school are of Qiinese and semi-foreign 
architecture. The dormitories and workshops are large, wdl- 
lighted and, for the most part, well ventilated. The workshops, 
a series of five parallel buildings, have been built within the last 
three years and make a valuable addition because of the better 
working conditions and the extra amount of room that is pro- 
vided. Two large dormitories with four 42 x 45 foot rooms 
each, with a k'ang or brick bed built in on two sides of each 
room, make it possible to care for over 600 boys and give them 
sufficient sleeping space. The boys are under night supervision, 
as police officers are constantly on watch. 

The food given the boys is of the most simple kind. Two 
meals a day are served, and millet, vegetable soup and salt 
vegetables are the principal dishes. The cost per person averages 
$2 a month, but all appear to be well fed. 

Electric lights are used in the dormitories and workrooms, 
but the light in the shops is not sufficient to give proper light for 
night work or for work on winter evenings. 

Small foreign stoves are used in each of the dormitories but 
are not large enough to do more than give the boys a chance to 
warm their hands. Small stoves are also provided in the work- 
rooms but no attempt is made really to heat the rooms. The 
boys seemed to feel the cold very much, both in the dormitories 
and in the shops, and complained a bit that their clothing was 

Both foreign and Chinese medicine are said to be given the 
boys who are sick, and a doctor is in daily attendance. A "side 
room" has been fitted up so that those who are ill may be 
segregated, but we were told at the time of our visit that the 
room was empty as none of the 660 boys were sick. The healdi 
of the boys and the medical care might well be improved, for 
trachoma was found to be running riot and proper precautions 
were not taken to prevent the spread of the disease. 

The boys are given a bath once a week and their heads arc 
shaved every ten days. Hot water is supplied at meal times, 
but not in generous quantities. 

The manager of the school is appointed by the city police 
and is responsible to them for the conduct of the institution. He 
is in entire charge and engages and dismisses all officers and 
teachers. His salary is $200 a month, while 20 teachers and 
officers working with him are paid from $20 to $160 a month. 
Forty police officers are furnished by the Police Board to look 
after the general conduct of the boys. 

The total expenses of the school amount to $3,000 a month,, 
salaries $1,000 and food, clothing and supplies, $2,000. Any 
money needed over and above that derived from the sale of the 


products of the workshops of the school is supplied by the 

On the whole, the Industrial School is doing very good work. 
The t>oys are given better living quarters and conditions than 
they would have if they were living at home and trying to get 
a precarious living by begging and doing odd jobs, and they 
are pwen an industrial training that fits them for taking up 
regular work when they leave the school. With better care in 
the matter of health, and with better recreation, the school would 
be fulfilling its function well, and could be said to be a model 

THE girls' industrial HOME 

This is the only school that makes a specialty of industrial 
work for girls. It was founded ten years ago as a private charity 
by a Mrs. Sung, and she has carried it, for the most part, with 
her own resources. The failure in 191 3 of a bank, in which the 
funds devoted to the school were deposited, has made it hard 
to carry on the work in recent years, and now Mrs. Sung is 
anxious to find some one who will take over the school, and let 
her retire. At present there are 40 pupils of various ages attend- 
ing the school. The older ones pay $1 a month for tuition 
and the younger ones 50 cents. One-half of each day is spent 
in study and the other half on embroidery. The work done by 
the students belongs to the school and its sale makes a smaU 
addition to the school income. The length of the course depends 
almost entirely upon the age of the students, but two years is 
the minimum. After the students have graduated, Mrs. Sung 
is glad to have them come back to the school and continue their 
embroidery work. The graduates are charged no tuition. 

The present expenditure of the school amounts to $180 a 
month, which includes the salaries of six teachers and the rent 
for the school buildings. 

An embroidered picture of President Wilson was sent to 
the Panama Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco 
and there took first prize for such work. The picture was the 
result of six months' work and is so fine in its detail that Mrs. 
Sung refuses to have it framed as she is compelled to demon- 
strate that all the work has been done with needle and thread. 
A companion picture of President Yuan Shih K'ai was sent to 
him and in return he presented two dresses to the girl who had 
made it and also gave $1,000 to the school. 



The Christian Home for Crippled Children is an experiment 
in private philanthropy. A graduate of the Mission College at 
T'ung Hsien has opened the home and is depending upon personal 
and church subscriptions for its support. It is at present caring 
for eight boys and nine girls, and, besides giving them religions 
and educational training, is teaching them to make shoes. As 
the Home was only opened in 1918, we cannot tell how much of 
a success it will be, but as it is the only institution that is making 
any attempt to care for those who are crippled, it should find a 
place in the philanthropic work of the city. 

RUNG ch'ang 

In order that some of those who are in need may begiven 
relief and not be pauperized at the same time, Kung Ch'ang 
or workshops are often opened where the needy may be given 
employment. The wages paid are based not on the economic 
value of the work done but on the amount that is needed to 
support a family. When women are employed in the Kung 
Ch'ang, the work is usually the making of clothes that can later 
be given away to others who are in need. When men are being 
helped, the work is ordinarily planned so that the products of 
the Kung Ch'ang can be sold. Some spin thread while others 
make straw braid, matchboxes, etc. 

Usually the Kung Ch'ang are privately run and care for 
only a few tens of persons, as it is only when large numbers 
are in need that the Government organizes relief work and 
employs men on public improvements, the building of new roads, 
railroads, dykes, etc. In 1917-18, several thousand men were 
employed in building a macadam road from Peking to T'ung 
Hsien, fifteen miles to the east, and on a road west of the Summer 
Palace. The funds for this work were supplied by the Chinese 
Red Cross, the American Red Cross and the National Govern- 

There is one government Kung Ch'ang in Peking. This is 
located on Morrison Street or Wang Fu Ching Ta Chieh and is 
a combination cloth factory and relief agency for needy Manchus. 
It was established some thirty years ago. The men are paid 
re^lar wages after they have served a three years' apprentice- 
ship. At present, this amounts to $4 a month besides room 
and board. If a man does good work he is also given a small 
bonus at the end of each month, while if he spoils any cloth he 
is fined for the damage. A posted record showed that the 


bonuses of the men varied from 15 to 65 cents a months while 
the apprentices received from 10 to 25 cents. 

The boys who are to be trained as apprentices are secured 
by advertising, but they are accepted only after their cases have 
been carefully investigated. The apprenticeship training con- 
sists of the customary three years, and during that time the boys 
are all required to live on the premises. The regular workmen 
are permitted to live in the factory buildings if they so desire, 
and quite a number avail themselves of this privilege as they 
are required to be at work by 6 o'clock in the morning, and do 
not finish until 5 or 6 o'clodc in die evening, according to the 
season of the year. 

At the time of our visit, the Kung Ch'ang was employing 
some 160 men and boys and was operating 60 looms. The 
majority of the looms were weaving patterned cloth and conse- 
quently were operated only by skilled workers. The apprentices 
are trained on foot power looms with which they weave plain 
cloth. The winding of the spindles is all done by the appren- 

The cloth produced by the Kung Ch'ang is sold, and the pro- 
ceeds are used to defray the expenses of the institution. 
Whether or not the income derived from the sale of the cloth 
was sufficient to meet the running expenses of the factory could 
not be learned as we were unable to get in touch with those who 
are responsible for the financial operation of the institution, but 
there was every evidence that the factory could be operated at 
a profit. 

We were not able to discover just how many private Kung 
Ch'ang there were in the city, as there was no available list 
of them, and it was impossible to hunt them out. The number, 
however, is small, probably not over ten, and varies from year 
to year depending upon the amount of destitution in the city. 
At most only a few hundred men and women will be cared for. 


The Chao Yang Chu, or Reformatorv, is a combination 
industrial school for 100 misdemeanants and a Kung Ch'ang for 
300 poor men and boys. All those who are sent to the institu- 
tion by court order are guilty of only minor crimes, as none of 
them have a sentence of more than one year. The poor men are 
admitted only if they have been recommended by the police and 
their cases investigated and approved. When they are at work 
the poor men and the misdemeanants mingle together; but they 
are separated during their free time and they sleep in separate 
quarters. The prisoners all wear shackles on their feet 


The men are taught rope making, tailoring, carpentry, blade- 
smithing and weaving, some 50 looms being used for the latter 
work. The poor men are paid for their work, but the mis- 
demenants are given only their food and clothes. The boys wind- 
ing the spindles, the men weaving cloth and those working in the 
tailor shop are all paid on a piece work basis ; the others are paid 
by the month. The wages vary from $3 to $6 a month, besides 
room, board and clothes. 

Although the institution was opened some twenty years ago, 
it is only in the last few years that the inmates have been given 
any work. The police took over the control when Yuan 
Shih K'ai was President, and since then have installed the man- 
ual work and built a fine, large, well-lighted, well-ventilated 
workshop for the weaving and tailoring departments. Much of 
the work of the other departments is done out of doors in the 

Until recently the living quarters have left much to be desired, 
as the men have been housed in ordinary Chinese buildings and 
have been badly crowded. Now, however, a new dormitory that 
will accommodate 200 men has been completed, and a second one 
is being erected. These buildings are 125 feet long, 30 feet 
wide and 12 to 15 feet high at the eaves. A long k'ang, or 
built-in bed, runs down each side of the building, while in the 
center there is a wooden platform raised about six feet above the 
floor. The men who are in the school as prisoners sleep on the 
platform, while the poor men occupy the k'ang. Beading is 
supplied for all the inmates. The building is kept very clean, 
and gives the best dormitory facilities that we saw in any in- 
stitution. Even though there are a large number of men avail- 
able in the school, the dormitory buildings have been erected by 
outside labor. For recreation the poor men are allowed to go out 
into the city every Sunday. 

The Nu Hsi I So and the Kan Hiia So, two departments of 
the Door of Hope, are doing a similar work for women, the 
Nu Hsi I So supplying industrial work for some 127 dependent 
women, and the Kan Hua So caring for some 36 delinquent 
women, sent to it by court order. A further description of these 
institutions will be found in Chapter X. 


The Five Nations Poorhouse, named for the five races or 

Soups of people living in China, the Chinese, the Manchus, the 
ongols, the Tibetans, and the Mohammedans, is an institution 
primarily for poor boys, though a number of poor men are cared 
for that they may help with the work of the school. The 70 


boys and 20 men are living in an old temple, where the 
buildings are in very bad repair and much might be done in the 
matter of cleanliness. The inmates are badly crowded in their 
sleeping quarters; but under the circumstances this may be a 
blessing in winter time, for although a good supply of straw is 
put under the mat on top of the k ang, no comforters or quilts 
are provided, and the boys have to depend on their padded 
clothes or on each other for warmth. 

The boys are given no school work, but are given eight to 
nine hours' work a day weaving suitcases, baskets and water 
dippers from coarse reeds or willows. The reeds have to be 
kept damp while they are being worked, and, in order that the 
proper degree of moisture may be maintained, a special five 
"chien" room has been built, partly below the surface of the 
earth. The ceiling is just high enough above the ground to 
admit a row of windows that light the building. What ventila- 
tion there is comes through a small open door. The 70 boys 
all work in this damp, close room. A single glance showed that 
the eyes and heads of many of them were in need of medical 
attention. The men who put the binding and finishing touches on 
the baskets work in some of the temple buildings and so do not 
lack for ventilation. 

The funds that are needed for the school, over and above the 
amount secured from the sale of the baskets, etc., are furnished 
by one of the big theaters of the city through the sale of special 
benefit tickets for two coppers apiece. 

What with the poor living and working conditions, the poor- 
house seems to be a scheme whereby the boys can be made to 
work for their room and board. They are not given any educa- 
tion; and their industrial education fits them only for basket 
weaving, a type of work that is at best poorly paid. Even 
so, the boys are undoubtedly better off than they would be 
if they were struggling along outside of any institution. It would 
be so easy to make improvements, however, that one wishes the 
living and working conditions might be bettered, and the boys 
be given some education. 


If one can imagine 40 men living in a two "chien** room 
which measures 10x20 feet, and still being required by rule to 
leave half of the floor unoccupied, he can get some idea of the 
conditions under which the men in the Peking poorhouses have 
to live during the winter when the homes are crowded. 

Looking through the doorway into one of these rooms, one 


sees two men sitting at a Chinese table, and nearby a Chinese 
stove with the usual steaming kettle on top. A second glance 
shows that half of the room is occupied by a wooden, mat cov- 
ered platform that is built on a level with the window sill. Sev- 
eral men will be seen sitting on the platform, but it is only, as 
the eye becomes accustomed to the light that it will be possible 
to see that men are also sitting on the floor under the platform. 
Twenty men sleep on the loxio platform and another 20 
sleep under it. With these crowded conditions there is really not 
room enough for all the men to lie down and sleep at the same 
time, but even so the rules seem to require that half of the floor 
space be unoccupied. Even under ordinary conditions there are 
usually 15 men living in each "chien," a space 10 x 10 or 10 x 12 

Peking has two of these poorhouses for men, one in the North 
City and one in the South City. They care for some of the poor 
of the city, give them a place to live and something to eat, but with- 
the one in the North City caring for from 600 to 1,000 men and 
the one in the South City for from 400 to 600, the two institu- 
tions can hardly begin to care for those who are really in 

Men are admitted to the homes only by the police, who took 
over the management of the institutions soon after the establish- 
ment of the Republic in 191 2. They investigate the cases that 
come to their notice and admit those whom they deem worthy 
and for whom there is room. 

Once in, a man can apparently stay as long as he wants to, 
but he is permitted to leave at any time, provided he desires to 
make an attempt at self-support. In that case, he must sign an 
application for release in which he states that he will not fa^g on 
the streets of the city. If he lives up to the terms of his release, 
and finds that he is unable to support himself, the police will 
allow him to return to the poorhouse, but he cannot go back if 
he is found begging. Hard as the life in the poorhouse may be, 
it is so much better than that of a beggar that once a man has 
been admitted he usually stays, or if he goes out he is very care- 
ful not to forfeit his right to return. 

Those who are living in the homes are supplied with both 
food and clothes. The clothes are, for the most part, discarded 
police uniforms. To one visiting the home on a cold winter day, 
it seems as though these were not sufficient to keep the inmates, 
many of whom are barely nourished and in poor health, as warm 
as they ought to be. The food consists of two meals a day of 
millet and salt vegetables. One cattie (ij/^ pounds) of millet 
and some two ounces of salt vegetable is the daily allowance for 
each man. The inmates are permitted to vary the mcxiotony of 


this diet by purchasing fresh vegetables with the daily allowance 
that is given them if tfiey are working. 

All those who are physically able are expected to go out and 
work every day. The gangs leave the poorhouse about 8 o'clock 
in the morning and return about 4 in the evening. The men are 
employed on various kinds of unskilled work, breaking stone, 
moving dirt, repairing roads and cleaning sewers. The woiic is 
absolutely unskilled and gives the men no training. The principal 
thing they learn is to do as little work as possible and they cer- 
tainly cannot complain of overwork. For his work a man re- 
ceives 5 coppers a day, unless he happens to be a foreman in 
charge of a gang of 15 men; in that case he receives 8 coppers 
a day. Of the 600 inmates of the North City Poorhouse some 400 
were out working at the time of our visit ; the other 200 were either 
too old or too sick to work, and spent the days sitting around the 

With the men living in such crowded conditions, the man- 
agers find it hard to keep the institutions clean and sanitary. 
The lack of ventilation is most noticeable during the winter time, 
but, with the only heat in the room furnished by a small stove 
which is only large enough to supply a little hot water and give 
the men a chance to warm their hands, the inmates naturally look 
with disfavor on the admission of any cold fresh air. Conse- 
quently, even though there are ventilators in the paper windows, 
they are usually kept tightly closed. 

Chinese doctors using Chinese medicine look after any of the 
inmates that are sick, and a separate room is provided for those 
who are seriously ill. As might be expected with such a group 
living such a life, the death rate is high. For some of the winter 
months the average is over one a day. 

The managers of the poorhouses are appointed by the head 
of the Police Board and are responsible to him. They are paid 
$20 a mcmth, while their assistants receive $8 and $10 a month. 
For the care of the two homes the police furnish 10 officers and 

It was impossible to find out from the men in charge the 
amount being spent for the running expenses of the homes; all 
needed supplies were sent them from police headquarters, and 
they had nothing to do with the finances of the institution. The 
police, in their annual report, state that they are spending $3,473 
a year for the two poorhouses. This is certainly not the entire 
budget of the two institutions as it costs in the neighborhood of 
$1,000 a month to feed the inmates, and the wages of those who 
are working amount to about $700 a month. In all probability it 
represents salaries alone or salaries and miscellaneous expendi- 
tures; or dse other government boards are paying the Police 


Board for the work of the poorhouse inmates, and this is the 
balance that has to be added. 

These homes are undoubtedly giving relief to a great many 
needy cases, but at the same time they are not making any effort 
to fit the inmates to be self-supporting, even though quite a 
number of them are young men. A little training and help ought 
to make most of these capable of self-support, and at the same 
time leave their places available for those who are more really in 
need of the type of relief that these homes can give. Apparently 
it is not always the most needy cases that are admitted, and so far 
it has been impossible to determine on just what basis the police 
make their selection of cases. 

To those who are accustomed to western standards of institu- 
tional care, the conditions in the poorhouses seem greatly in 
need of improvement. On the other hand, it must be remem- 
bered that these people are paupers ; that care must be taken that 
their lot is, at least, no better than that of the self-supporting 
workman, and that living conditions are very hard for many of 
the Chinese who are self-supporting. Even so, an improvement 
could well be made in the matter of cleanliness, ventilation and 
medical care. 


"The happiest group of people living on the least amount of 
money," is the way one man described the inmates of the Old 
Ladies' Home, or "Yang Lao Yuan," on Kan Yu Hut'ung. 
This is a group of 50 old women who know that they will be 
taken care of for the rest of their days, and that from now on 
they do not have to worry about having a roof over their heads 
and enough to eat. Although the amount spent for their food 
and clothes is only $2.10 a month apiece, they can have plenty. 
The food is, of necessity, very plain, and no gre?it variety is 
possible, but the women are able to add some little extras to their 
diet and feel that they have some choice in the things they eat, 
as each one is given a copper a day to spend in any way she 
desires. It certainly is an interesting sight to see the old ladies 
examining the stock of the street peddlers and deciding just what 
they can buy with their one copper. 

This Home was started in 1895, when some of the ladies of 
the foreign community opened a "Winter Refuge" for some of 
the needy old women who had been brought to their notice. At 
first, no attempt was made to care for the women permanently. 
They were simply given a place where they could keep warm and 
have something to eat during the cold weather. No clothes were 
provided except what the women could make for themselves out 


of the discarded nightshirts of one of the foreign Ministers. 
Following the Boxer Uprising in 1900, Mrs. Conger, the wife of 
the American Minister, became interested in the Home, and 
through her help funds were secured from America that made 
it possible to enlarge the Home and establish it on a permanent 
basis. Since that time it has gradually g^own both in the num- 
bers cared for and in the things supplied for them. Now the 
women are given everything, shelter, food, clothes, and even a 
little money with which to buy some few extras. The old ladies 
do all of their own work, the only employed help being one of 
the inmates who acts as cook and a matron who looks after the 
general running of the institution. 

Without a doubt the Home was the cleanest of any of the 
institutions that we visited in Peking. Everything seemed to 
have been brushed and scrubbed until it shone; even the court- 
yard was carefully swept. The inmates themselves were spot- 
lessly clean, and their clothes testified to their long experience in 
the art of the laundry. 

The board of directors responsible for the management of 
the Home is made up entirely of foreign women. It includes in 
its membership representatives from each of the foreign mis- 
sionary societies in the city and ladies of the business and l^[ation 
communities. The support of the institution, amotmting to some 
$1,300 or $1400 a year, is secured from private contributions. 
No women are admitted to the Home until they have been accepted 
by the board of directors. The women must be at least 60 years 
old, and investigation must show that their families are unable to 
support them. Under no circumstances does the Home accept 
any bed-ridden cases, but some outside relief is often given to 
those who cannot be taken into the Home. 

The following is the report of expenditures of the Yang Lao 
Yuan for the year ending April 30th, 1919: 

I. Food, clothing and burials: 

Flour, rice, cornflour $5li*I4 

Weekly allowance for vegetables and oil ... . 141.45 

Cotton, cottonwool, thread, etc 70.61 

Funerals : 

Coffins, cart hire, digging graves 64.96 I78&18 

II. Expenses for the upkeep of the institution: 

Coal and firing 186.38 

Repair of premises 47*52 

Wages : Matrons, cook, porter 21740 

Utensils, water, scavenger 75.Q3 $526.33 

III. Outdoor pensioners i7g.oi 179.01 

Total »i.403.SX 


Inspired by the success of the Home run by the foreign 
women, a group of the influential Chinese ladies have established 
a similar Home for old ladies on Twelfth Street in the northeist 
comer of the North City. By means of a benefit theatrical per- 
formance and private subscription, they have collected the neces- 
sary funds and have erected two buildings costing some $3,Soa 
In these they are caring for some 66 women. While the man- 
agement of the Home is entirely in the hands of the Chinese 
women, they are advising with some of the foreign women and 
are making every endeavor to have their Home equal or sutpus 
the high standard of the older institution. 

OLD people's homes 

Any one going from the Yang Lao Yuan to the home for old 
women that is run by the police and the gentry, or to one of tfie 
government homes for old men, is immediately struck by the 
contrast between the institutions. The Chinese buildings are 
very much the same and the amount of money spent per inmate 
is almost the same, but there is a tremendous difference in the 
atmosphere. The inmates of the Yang Lao Yuan are happy and 
contented, even though they are living in a very plain way. They 
take a great interest in the life that goes on around them, and 
are ^rticular to keep themselves and their homes very dean. 
The mmates of the other homes seem to be dragging out a dreary 
existence with but little interest or hope, and they do not make 
any special effort to keep things clean, even though a little effort 
in that direction would make a great improvement in their sur- 
roundings. The difference between the institutions is largely one 
of mental attitude on the part of the inmates and vision on die 
part of those who are in charge of the homes, but it is just that 
different attitude and vision that is the great need of the Chinese 

The three homes in Peking for old men and one for old 
woYnen, other than the Yang Lao Yuan and the new Old Ladies* 
Home, have been opened by private individuals, but in recent 
years have either been entirely taken over by the police and arc 
being run as government institutions, or else the police are supply- 
ing the food while private individuals are contributing the other 

The regime followed in these homes is very similar to that 
of other government institutions. The inmates are admitted only 
after they have been recommended by the police, but, once ac- 
cepted, they are there for life. The living quarters are not as 
crowded as those of the poorhouses, the average being from six 

I <;r a frw of Pcliinx's 25.000 ricksha ttiri. Ordi- 
.1 hai ii» CTulcctian frum Ihc wralhrr, but nine of 
I'd by a ernup o[ Cbincie and foreigner* and lup- 
iHrni-nt thratrkal performance are maintained lo give 

:p en Ihc platfein. Deiiiiute men on Ibe K'ani. 

•y the poike provide food and shrMtt for Mme l.«()i 
It begin Ui louch Ihe nrcdi of Peking'i ^fi.XSD dnlituu 


to ten persons to each "chien." The regulation diet is two meals 
a day of millet and salt vegetables with sometimes a little rice 
added to the millet. 

Work is found outside of the home for a few of the men 
who are able to do a little something. They are paid two or 
three coppers a day for their work, or just enough to give them 
a chance to add a little variety to the monotonous diet. For the 
most part, however, the men are not given anything to do and 
they either sit around the courtyard or else are allowed to go 
out and walk around the streets and get what enjoyment they 
can from watching the sights. But while they are out they are 
not allowed to beg under penalty of not being allowed to return. 

At present the four homes are caring for l^tween 400 and 500 
old people^ 100 women and from 300 to 400 men. 


Other institutions — the hospitals, the blind schools, the insane 
asylum, the prisons — all have a part in the charitable work of 
the city ; but, as they are more intimately connected with another 
part of the life of the city, they are described elsewhere in the 


With 96,850 persons (11.9 percent) of the population, classed 
by the police as "poor" or "very poor^" Peking is facing a tre- 
mendous problem if any attempt is to be made to provide ade- 
quate relief for these unfortunates. If the work is to be thor- 
oughly done, it will require a great many institutions and a very 
large sum of money, but probably no more than is now being 
given to the poor through public and private channels. The 
problem does not seem to be one of securing the money, for there 
is a great willingness on the part of the Qiinese to give to those 
who are less fortunate. Many a case has been found where a 
group of families with barely enough for themselves, have been 
supporting some old man or woman, while well-to-do families 
are usually caring for a considerable number of persons. In 
times of flood or famine, the students have been willing to go 
without one meal a day so that they might have something to send 
to those who are in need. Large amounts are given every day to 
the beggars along the street, for one continually sees coppers 
being thrown to them from rickshas or carriages. Appeals for 
funds to carry on the work of the private institutions meet with 
a ready response. The great problem seems to be to get those 
who are in need in touch with those who are willin^r to give, and 


also to develop a type of relief work that will be constructive 
rather than palliative. 

In the past the several charitable institutions have engaged 
much of the private philanthropy of the city. Under the Empire, 
practically all of the institutions were privately managed, and 
the Government did but little relief. Since the establishment of 
the Republic, however, the various government boards have taken 
over practically all of the established charitable institutions in 
Peking and have even opened new ones. Although the system 
followed in most of these is that which the Chinese have devdoped 
through long years, very decided changes are being made in some, 
particularly in the Model Prison and the Chao Yang Chu or Re- 
form School. Some of the government boards are taking up new 
ideas and working them out in their institutions, while others 
seem to be perfectly content with the old system and methods. 

Much as some of the government institutions need to be 
improved, the development of the private philanthropy of the 
city is a much larger problem. With practically all of the institu- 
tions in the hands of the Government, there is but little institu- 
tional outlet for private charity unless those who give are willing 
to turn their money over to the officials. For a time this plan 
may work, but before long some individuals are going to be dis- 
satisfied with the way the Government is doing things and will 
want to establish new institutions. The question is, "Along what 
lines will these institutions develop? Will they follow the old 
Chinese methods, or will those in charge be able to learn frocn 
the experience of other countries and so develop the new institu- 
tions along new lines?" The experiments worked out in the 
Peking Orphanage and the Yang Lao Yuan have shown that the 
Peking institutions do not need more money, but that those in 
charge do need a new vision of the possibilities of cleanliness, 
sanitation, medical care and the development of the mental life 
of the inmates. And they also need a spirit of fidelity in attain- 
ing these ends. 

Before much real progress can be made in the institutional 
life of the city, one very fundamental problem must be solved, 
namely, that of handling the charitable funds. With the Emperor 
belonging to a conquering race, the governmental system of the 
Empire was one in which the officials were paid very low sal- 
aries, and were expected to make up their income out of the 
perquisites of their office. Public funds were only too often 
looked on as a legitimate source of private income by those who 
handled them and the same was often true of money contributed 
for charitable purposes. Funds that were supposed to be used 
for the poor many times went for "administration expenses," 
This same system and attitude of mind have not been greatly 


changed, even though the Emperor has gone, a Republic has been 
established, and the rulers no longer look on themselves as con- 
querors. The experience with the Foundlings' Home shows only 
too plainly how the one who has the financial control of an 
institution can wreck it, if he is more interested in having his 
friends employed than he is in the welfare of the inmates of the 
institution. As long as there is a possibility of funds being 
misused, people will hesitate to contribute ; and rather than have 
a large part of their contributions used for the personal benefit 
of those in charge of some institution, they will allow the poor 
to suflFer. 

One of the chief institutional needs of Peking is some organ- 
ization or bureau that can impartially investigate those who are 
supposed to be poor, recommend those who are deserving, and 
outline the best possible program for their relief. At present the 
police are the only ones who are able to make any attempt to say 
whether or not a family is worthy of help, but they are not in a 
position to go into all the details, and they have not had the 
training that would make it possible for them to discover the real 
cause of dependency or outline the best possible means of relief. 
Lacking definite information, those who might help either do not 
give or else give promiscuously, hoping that they will perhaps 
help some one who is worthy. With all the poverty and need, 
it is surprising how little it sometimes takes to put a family on 
its feet and make it self-supporting. The poor relief work con- 
ducted by the Community Service Group in the Teng Shih K'ou 
District (see Chapter XVI) showed that many of the poor were 
able to "make good" if only they had an opportunity and a little 
capital. In some cases, a loan of not more than ten dollars would 
rehabilitate a man, make him self-supporting and make it possible 
for him to repay the loan, but it requires investigation and 
experience to discover those who are worthy of such help. 

If China is ever really to solve her problems of poverty she 
must first work out others that are even more fundamental, those 
of ignorance, a low standard of living, and an industrial system 
in which labor has little if any mobility : these are problems for 
the future; but a great deal can be done now toward the uplift 
of the poor if only a new vision of the possibilities of relief work 
can be given to those who are already interested, so that their 
aim will be reconstruction rather than temporary relief. Ap- 
parently this can best be done by demonstrations in which the 
best of western methods and experience are adapted to Chinese 
life, and Peking seems to be the best place to make such demon- 
strations. It is the capital, and so anything done there will 
influence the entire country. Then, too, the Government has 
taken over the established institutions, and private philanthropy 


is free to experiment and develop new institutional methods. 
The problem is to make the most of this situation and help the 
new private institutions, which are sure to be established, de- 
velop along the broadest and most modern lines. It will not be 
long before China will have gone through her period of transi- 
tion, and methods and institutions will once more become 
standardized. The question is, "How much progress can she 
make? How near can she come to the best methods before 
things crystallize?" Alone, China cannot go far; but helped by 
those who know western methods and are able to adapt them to 
Chinese life she can make tremendous progress ; and it will mean 
much if a demonstration can be made in Peking that will give the 
Chinese the benefit of the years of western experience and show 
them what can be accomplished in dealing with the problems of 


Prison reform in China is one of the most encouraging of all 
the modem movements, not excepting even the great progress 
that has been made in education, for it shows so clearly what 
can be accomplished by a few trained men with a big vision. 

The old style prisons have been called "hells" by the Chinese 
themselves, and the conditions in them can be better imagined 
than described. They were dark, crowded, unsanitary, and the 
treatment given the prisoners was barbarous and extremely de- 
grading. Confinement and not reform was their object, so there 
was no incentive to make conditions anything but terrible. It 
is stated by Chinese prison workers that formerly the number of 
those who suffered by the executioner's sword — and they were 
many — was not even half of those who died from the effects of 
torture and privation in the prisons. 

The new penology aims to reform the prisoners. Instead of 
being terrible, the new model prisons are clean and airy. The 
men are given good physical care and are taught useftU work. 
Some American investigators have even said that if they had 
to go to prison, they would rather be confined in one of the 
Peking model prisons than in many of the American pen- 
itentiaries, for the Peking prisons compare very favorably with 
the best in America. 

Although the prison reform movement was first developed 
in Peking and there are four model prisons in the city, some 
of the otiher nine prisons are still old style prisons even though 
they are called "Reformed Prisons" and are much improved over 
what they used to be. It is one of the familiar contrasts of 
Peking to find the old and the new side by side and apparently 
exerting but little influence on each other. 

The principal examples in Peking of the reformed old style 
prisons are those maintained by the magistrates of Ta Hsmg 
Hsien and Wan P'ing Hsien, the two counties whose boundary 
line runs north and south through the center of the city (P lo, 
P II, see Map No. 22). These prisons consist of several small 
courtyards surrounded by walls about ten feet high, with the 
corners and other places where men might climb over protected 
by piles of thorn branches. Most of the prisoners are confined 



in wooden cages erected in the buildings around the courtyards. 
These cages are about 15 by 20 feet and have a floor some two 
feet above the ground. As there are ordinarily 20 men 
in each cage, there is just room enough for them all to lie down 
at one time. In some cases, the prisoners are permitted to 
come out of the cages during the daytime, walk around the court- 
yard, do some work and pass the time as best they may. Others, 
usually those accused of the more serious crimes, are kept locked 
in, the latticed door being opened for only a few minutes three 
times a day, and they have no choice but to sit cross-legged all 
day long. Ankle shackles are worn by all the men, and some 
have a heavy iron collar and chain placed around their necks, the 
chain being passed around their waists and connected with the 
ankle shackles. This is one method of attempting to make a 
man confess to murder. 

The buildings of the Wan P'ing Hsien prison have been com- 
pleted fairly recently, so are more suitable for housing the men. 
They are arranged so that in summer the paper windows in 
front of the wooden cages can be raised, and the men be given a 
free circulation of air. In winter, ventilation is provided by 
special openings in the roof. 

The sanitary conditions in these prisons leave much to be 
desired, even though in some of the courtyards we found every- 
thing carefully swept and whitewashed. In one, the prisoners 
were even kept in their cells so that the ground might be swept 
until not a footprint showed. It is practically impossible for 
the men to keep themselves, their clothing or their bedding clean, 
and no proper preparation is made for washing, even though a 
small tub is provided in which the prisoners may bathe if they 
so desire. The toilets, which are simply holes in the ground, 
are not well cleaned and in summer must give off an almost un- 
bearable odor. 

The only work provided for the men is the weaving of tai 
tzu, the ribbons that the Chinese use to bind the bottom of their 
trousers. In the Ta Hsing prison, the necessary material is 
supplied by the magistrate, but in the Wan P'ing prison the men 
must furnish their own thread. The men work only if they 
want to occupy their time and make a little extra money — ^five 
or six coppers a day if they work all day. About 15 were taking 
advantage of the work offered in the Ta Hsing prison. 

At the time of our visit, there were 122 men in the Ta Hsing 
prison. Only 39 were convicted prisoners. The other 83 were 
awaiting trial, and although some of them had been in jail for 
over a year and half their cases had not yet been heard. In 
the Wan Ping prison were 130 prisoners, 78 who had been con- 
victed and 52 who were awaiting trial. Most of the men were 


accused or had been convicted of robbery, securing money under 
false pretenses, murder, though several in the Wan P'ing prison 
were guilty of smuggling opitun. Only three of the prisoners 
were women. They had a separate courtyard in the Wan P'ing 
prison and were cared for by a matron. They were guilty of 
murder and kidnapinjg;. 

The sentences given the prisoners ranged from one year 
to life, the average being seven or eight years. Some allowance 
is ordinarily made for good conduct, but only at the will of the 
jailer and the magistrate. Corporal punishment is given those 
who greatly displease the jailer. 

No definite amount of money is set aside for the expenses 
of the prisons and no regular salaries are paid the jailers and 
their assistants. They, with the other men employed by the 
yamen, share in the money that is paid in as fines and fees dur- 
ing the year. The only regular allowance is eight coppers per 
man per day for the purchase of food. This means that the 
prisoners' diet consists of millet, Indian com and salt vegetable 
(vegetables that have been pickled in brine and that are used 
much as crystallized salt is used in America). The men ordinarily 
receive one-half catty (2/3 lbs.) of millet for each meal, and are 
given two meals a day. 

In the Wan Ping Hsien prison, the men are taken out three 
times a week and marched around a drill ground for exercise, 
but in the Ta Hsing Hsien prison, walking around the courtyard 
is the prisoner's only exercise. 

The prison reform movement began in China in the 29th 
year of the reign of Kuang Hsu (1903), the time when so many 
reforms were started. In Aat year Chao Er Hsun, the Viceroy of 
Shensi, memorialized the throne and emphasized the importance 
of replacing Hogging, banishment and transportation by a labor 
penalty. As a result of this memorial, the organization of in- 
dustrial institutions for criminals was authorized. These spread 
rapidly throughout the country and were the forerunners of the 
present model prisons. 

In 1906, Tai Hung Sze, who had been sent to Europe to 
investigate constitutional forms of government, returnea and 
organized a prison department in the Board of Justice, thus 
starting the prison administration of the Central Government. 
The next year, special courses on prisons and prison administra- 
tion were given in the Peking Law School by Dr. O-Kai Owi of 
Japan. In the first year of Hsuan T'ung (1909), Tai Hung Sze, 
then Minister of the Board of Justice, requested, in a petition to 
the Emperor, that a model prison be established in Peking and 
that an edict be issued ordering the various provinces to do the 
same. The building of the Peking prison was begun that same 


year^ and the next year a special edict was issued requiring all 
the provinces to establish schools devoted to the exclusive study 
of prison problems and the training of specialists in prison wofk. 
In the 2nd year of the Republic (191 3) Hsu Sh3i Yn^g, 
Minister of the Board of Justice, arranged for conferences of 
the judicial authorities to be held in the capital, and outlined 
as a ten-year building program the construction of 240 jails, one 
for every 6 or 7 of the 1700 hsien of China, and the esqxsndi- 
ture of $25,000,000. This program has not been con^iletod, 
but progress is gradually being made, the following table show- 
ing that at present there are 39 model priscHis in China wiA 
accommodations for 14,185 prisoners. Four of these, with a ca- 
pacity of 2,127 men are in Peking. 





Peking •••<•••••« 4 2,127 

Chihli I ^i 

Fengtien •••• 9 2,184 

Kirin I 690 

Shantung • • 2 627 

Shansi 2 695 

Kiangsu 2 613 

Shanghai '. 2 607 

Soochow ••••• 2 703 

Anhui I 344 

Kiangsi 2 753 

Fukicn i 241 

Chekiang i 675 

Hupeh 3 ifOO* 

Shcnsi 6 899 

Kansu i i57 

Szechuan i 3^ 

Kuangsi i 586 

Yunnan i 4S6 

Total 39 I4,i95 

In 1915 the prison statutes were codified and promulgated 
by the Central Government, thus putting the prison work of the 
country on a uniform basis. 


The First Peking Prison, or the Peking Model Prison, as 
it is usually known, is located on an old drill field of 120 mou 
(approximately 20 acres) just north of the south wall of the 

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South Gty (P 4, Map No. 22). G)nstn2ction work was be- 
gun in November, 1909, but was interrupted by the Revolution 
of 191 1, and the first prisoners were not received until Novem- 
ber ID, 1912. The prison has been built on the double cruci- 
form plan, the cell blocks radiating from the two central points, 
from each of which the wardens can see five different rows of 
cells. The workshops are built across the ends of the cell build- 
ings and the plan of the prison is such that every cell gets sun- 
light at some time during the day. 

The present capacity of the prison is 556 men, but it is 
planned to enlarge it in the near future by the erection of a 
second unit that will care for some 400 men. There are now 
156 individual cells, 38 for 8 prisoners each and 8 for 12. These 
are all well lighted and well ventilated, the prison rules requir- 
ing that the windows of every cell must be open for at least 
part of the day. In summertime, at least one of the windows 
must be open at night. In winter, when the men insist on having 
the windows closed, ventilators in the ceiling allow for a small 
current of air. At night, the cells are lighted by electricity — 
one bulb to each two cells. Each man is provided with a wooden 
bed, a cotton wadded quilt, a hay wadded mattress and a white 
pillow. The present building has cost approximately $200,000. 

Work is provided for practically all of the prisoners and 
an effort is made to give the men the work for which they are 
best fitted. Carpentry, weaving, typte-setting, printing and book- 
binding, shoemaking, tailoring, masonry, metal, leather and bam- 
boo work are the trades taught, from 25 to 40 men being en- 
gaged in each. Only a few have an opportunity to do agricultural 
work as the land inside the prison walls is all that is available 
for cultivation. An attempt has been made to have some of the 
men do farm work outside the prison walls, but it has been im- 
possible to secure the necessary land. According to the prison 
report only some 40 men (7 percent) are required to do the wash- 
ing, cooking and cleaning, which seems a very small number. In 
the Second Prison 38 percent of the prisoners are engaged in that 
work. The shops are well cared for, well cleaned, well ventilated, 
and the working conditions are all tfiat could be desired. Hours 
are fairly long — 12 hours in summer and 10 in winter, but 
even so the work is not very strenuous. All of the men are 
paid for their work, provided they have been diligent and have 
obeyed the rules. The amount given them varies from one to 
six coppers a day, depending upon the trade in which they are 
engaged and the amount and quality of their work. The prisoners 
are allowed to spend part of what they earn, the remamder be- 
ing deposited with the Ministry of Justice, and paid to them 
upon tfieir release. According to the 1916 report, the prison 


shops produced work valued at $48,380, making a profit of $9,610, 
the expenses amounting to $38,770. The wages paid the men 
amounted to $953.19. The printing of the Board of Justice and 
much of that of the Board of Education is done by the prison 
print shop. 

Prisoners who are under 18 years of age are given an hour 
or two a day in school, the work being equivalent to that of the 
ordinary primary school. Religious and moral lectures are given 
to all the prisoners, sometimes in the shops during the noon rest 
period or else in the prison lecture room. In the latter, the 
prisoners are seated in little wooden stalls built so that the 
prisoners cannot see each other and the lecturer can see only 
their heads. On the wall, back of the lecturer's platform, a 
Chinese artist has painted portraits of the five great teachers, 
Confucius, Lao Tze, Mohammed, Christ and John Howard. The 
wardens welcome any influence that will help reform the men 
under their care, and the prison is open to those who want to 
preach or give moral and religious lectures. Both the Buddhists 
and the Christians are working in the prison. 

All prisoners, within certain limits, have the privilege of re- 
ceiving visitors once a month and writing a letter twice a month, 
though except in special cases their visitors and those to whom 
they write must be members of their family. Visitors are re- 
ceived only during working hours and are allowed a visit of 
only half an hour. All conversation must be carried on in the 
presence of a warden. The prisoner is on the inside of one 
grating, the visitors are on the outside of another and the war- 
den sits between the two. The chief parts of the conversation are 
recorded and kept as part of the prisoner's record. All letters 
are censored by the superintendent or one of the chief wardens. 

Those who give evidence of having changed their criminal 
habits are given special privileges — ^permission to use their own 
writing materials, wear their own underclothes, read their own 
books; are given a special reward of from one to six cents a 
day in addition to their wages; are given two or three addi- 
tional dishes once every ten days and may have their sentences 
reduced. Two prisoners have been successfully released on 

Those who break the prison rules are punished by reproach, 
loss of pay for work, deprivation of the jwivileges of receiving 
visitors, writing letters, reading, using personal belongin|^ and 
taking exercise. For the more serious offenses, the pnsoners 
are put on one-half or one-third rations, their food being dimin- 
ished only on alternate days, however; are given solitary con- 
finement for not more than seven days or confinement in a dark 
rocmi for not more than seventy-two hours. 


Punishment is given a prisoner only on the order of the chief 
warden who is responsible for the deportment and discipline of 
the prisoners. All misconduct is reported to him and he de- 
termines the punishment therefor, though the rules require that 
the final decision lie with the superintendent. In case of a 
serious infraction of the rules, the punishment that shall be 
given is determined by a conference of the superintendent and 
the chief wardens. The limited experience in the prison has 
shown that it is very desirable to centralize the administration of 
punishment and take it out of the hands of the under 

Baths are provided for all the men twice a week in stmunefy 
once a week in the spring and fall and once every ten days dur- 
ing the winter. Underclothes must be changed every ten days 
in winter and twice a week in summer. Pillowcases are washed 
twice a week, the bed-ticks (Hice a week and the bed covers once 
every three weeks. 

The health of the prisoners is looked after by a Chinese doc- 
tor trained in foreign medicine, who is provided with a well 
equipped dispensary and a small hospital with two prisoner 
ntu'ses. A special physical examination is given all prisoners 
when they enter and leave the prison. 

Two meals a day are served, consisting usually of bread, 
made from Indian meal and small rice meal, and fresh and salt 
vegetables. On national holidays, the prisoners are given an 
extra meal of bread and meat. The amount of food given the 
men depends upon their work. Those doing heavy manual work 
receive 14 ounces of bread a day; those on lighter work, 10 to 
12 ounces, while those who are sick are given 6 to 8 ounces 
of bread, besides beef and eggs. The average cost of food is 
9J4 cents per person per day. 

Outdoor exercise, consisting of setting-up exercises and 
marching around the prison courtyard for half an hour, is 
given all the prisoners ev«ry day. Those who have not been 
assigned to work are required to drill for an hour a da^. 

In May, 191 5, 40 women were sent to the prison, in spite 
of the fact that no quarters had been provided for them. Smce 
then, a separate department has been built for them by prison 
labor, and at the present time there are 100 women in the prison. 
Conditions in their department are the same as in the men's 
prison, except that the work for the women consists of sewing 
and the making of paste and match-boxes. 

The prison staff consists of a superintendent, three chief and 
three assistant chief wardens, 12 warden leaders, one of whom is a 
woman, 61 wardens, six of whom are women, 22 reserve war- 
dens, one instructor and one physician, a total of 104. For pur- 


poses of administration, the affairs of the prison are divided into 
fiiree departments, the heads of the departments being the chief 
wardens. The first department is responsible for all official corre- 
spondence and dispatches, for the promotion of all officers, for the 
issuing of reports, for all financial matters and for the release of 
the prisoners. The second department looks after the deportment 
and discipline of the prisoners, the instruction of the wardens and 
the correspondence and interviews of the prisoners. The third 
department is in charge of the work and payment of the prisoners, 
all prison property and any building and repair work. 

By the end of 191 5, the prison had received 642 men, and up 
to that time very few had been released, it being the policy of 
the prison to accept only those who have a term of at least 
three years. Men with shorter sentences are sent to the Extension 
Prison (P 2, Map No. 22). The following table shows that 
S3 percent (341) of the 642 prisoners were guilty of robbery or 
burglary, while 30 percent (193) were guilty of crimes against 
persons — ^murder, rape or kidnaping. Only one was in prison for 
opium eating and one for gambling, these crimes being ordinarily 
punished by a sentence shorter than three years. 

Twenty-two of the prisoners were under 16 years of age at 
the time of their commitment and 117 (18 percent) were under 
21. Forty-seven percent were under 26 years of age and 78 
percent under 31. Only 16 (2 percent) were more than 50 years 


cum Num 

Robbery 207 

Burglary 134 

Kidnaping no 

Murder 74 

Swindling 2S> 

"Money" ao 

False Accusation 15 

Accomplice in Theft 11 

Adultery 9 

Rebellion 4 

G>unterfeiting Dispatches and Signatures 3 

Opening Graves 2 

C^ium Eating i 

Gambling i 

Disorderly Conduct i 

Others 27 

Total 648 

*Fn>m tbe Report of the Pdang Firtt Prim 



Under i6 21 3 

16-20 96 IS 

21-25 151 24 

26-30 229 36 

31-40 loi 16 

41-50 28 4 

51-60 i6 2 

Total 642 100 


The Number Two Reform Prison erected a short distance out- 
side the Te Sheng Men (P 6, Map No. 22) is a monument to 
the work of the superintendent, Mr. Liang P'ing Fu, and is an 
example of what can be done in building a prison with prison 
labor and in organizing shops to train men and still operate at 
a profit. Starting some six or seven years ago with a small group 
of men in an old style temple, Mr. Liang has built an institu- 
tion capable of caring for 1,000 men; and, except for the timber 
and glass, practically everything needed in the construction of 
the buildings has been made by the prisoners. The total ex- 

Cense has amounted to approximately $100,000 in depreciated 
ank notes or $60,000 in silver. If the prison had been built by 
regular labor, it would have cost between $300,000 and $400,000 
silver. Work on the buildings was still going on in 1919 and 
gave employment to 164 men. 

The prison shops were started with a capital of $500 borrowed 
from the Law Department, but they have developed until now, 
as the result of the prisoners' work, their capital is $15,000 and 
$3,000 has been returned in payment of the original loan. The 
men are assigned to work as follows, less than i percent of the 
prisoners being imemployed : 

Building 164 Tailoring 21 

Breadmaking 126 Printing 13 

Cleaning 51 Animal Raising 6 

Raising Flowers 43 Farm work outside the prison 

Shoemaking 36 walls 17 

Cooking 33 Making Mattresses 16 

Carpentering 30 Barber Shop 14 

Bamboo and Cane Work 17 Blacksmithing 8 

Laundry 24 Making Willow Boxes 5 

Weaving 2$ — 

Total 647 

As in the First Peking Prison, the men are taken out of 
their cells in summertime at 5 o'clock and locked up at 6. Dur- 
ing the winter, they come out at 8 o'clock and go in at 4. There 


is no work on holidays and the men spend the entire day in 
their cells. They are given an hour's rest at noon every day and 
half an hour's exercise in the open air. As soon as the prison 
buildings and walls are completed, the men will discard the 
ankle shackles now worn. The single cells are 5 x 7 x lo feet 
while those for five men are 12 x 12 x 10. 

The management of the prison is in the hands of a superin- 
tendent and eleven assistants, while the teaching and guarding of 
the prisoners are done by 150 men. The salaries of the wardens 
amount to $1,100 a month, while the guards and teachers receive 
$1,600 a month. Food for the prisoners costs $2,100 a month 
and general expenses amount to $1,100, making the total approxi- 
mately $6,000 a month. 

The fine sanitary condition of the prison is reflected by the 
number of deaths among the prisoners. Under the old conditions, 
before any improvements were made, 100 out of 400 men dial 
in a year's time. Now, although the prison has an average popu- 
lation of less than 800, it is handling about 1,000 men a year. 
Even so, the largest number of deaths in a year has been 70 and 
the lowest 11. 

Although the prison walls are still unfinished and many of 
the men are working outside the walls, there have been only two 
escapes in five years. 


As the model prisons accept only long term men, those who 
have a short sentence to serve are sent to the Extension Prison 
(P 2, Map No. 22), adjoining the buildings of the Department 
of Justice. This prison was built before the model prison plan 
was developed, but except for the fact that the buildings are of a 
different type it is fully up to the standard of the other prisons. 
Everything is kept scrupulously clean, and the sanitary rules 
and regulations are fully enforced. As the men are there for 
only a short time, no attempt is made to give them work in the 
trades that require a long period of training. Many are given 
work in agriculture and floriculture on the grounds of the gov- 
ernment buildings. Those who work outside the prison go out 
in squads of ten, accompanied by a warden, the men being 
chained together in pairs by a light chain around their waists 
that is long enough not to interfere with their work but that 
would hamper them in case of any attempt to escape. 

Work inside the walls, besides the necessary cooking, clean- 
ing, etc., consists of tailoring, making match-boxes and grind- 
ing grain. Stone mills turned by four men are used for the lat- 
ter, but as it is fairly heavy work, the men are allowed to rest 


an hour and a half after a half hour on the mill and sit around 
the walls of the workroom in complete silence. 

Executions by hanging are carried out in this prison, but 
executions by shooting take place outside the city wall. 


The Ching Chao First Reformed Prison, located just outside 
the west wall of the South City (P, Map No. 22), is the princi- 
pal prison of the Metropolitan District, and is also one of the 
model prisons of Peking, although its prisoners all come from 
the outside hsien. Its buildings, part Chinese and part foreign 
style, are of recent construction, the prison being opened in the 
4th year of the Republic (1915), and are built in rows rather 
than on the radiating plan of the First Peking Prison. Aside 
from this difference, the prison is very similar to the other model 
prisons. The living conditions are clean and healthful, six 
or seven different trades are being taught, young prisoners who 
are illiterate are given two hours of school work a day, the men 
are paid a small amount for their work and are allowed to re* 
ceive one visitor and write one letter a month. 

In 1917 the prison was caring for 250 men sent from 12 of 
the 20 hsien of the Metropolitan District. From the accom- 
panying tables, it will be seen that the prisoners in the Ching 
Chao prison are an older group than those in the First Peking 
Prison— only 13 percent being under 26 years of age and 30 per- 
cent under 31, as compared with 42 percent under 20 and 78 
percent less than 31 years of age ; that a larger proportion of the 
men are guilty of robbery and theft, 61 percent as compared with 
53 percent, and that 35 percent are guiltv of crimes against persons 
— assault, rape, kidnapmg. In 1917, the annual expenses of the 
prison amounted to $20,^1.20. 


Crimes and Ages of Prisoners — 191Z 
aam Kvum 

Robbery 147 

Assault with knife & 

Theft 6 

Rape S 

Blocking the road 3 

Securing money under false pretenses , a 



False accusation 

Jailers allowing escape 


Total fltSO 



16-JO 2 I 

31-25 30 12 

26-30 42 17 

31-40 100 40 

41-50 55 22 

51-60 16 6 

60 and over 5 2 

Total 250 100 

The other prisons of the dty are those of the Army, the Mili- 
tary Guard and the police. Jails are also maintained by the 
Metropolitan District and the police. 

The Christian forces of the dty have taken advantage of the 
fact that the prisons are open to them and are working with the 
prisoners. The pioneer work was done by one of the men in the 
employ of the Young Men's Christian Association, but the fidd 
was found to be so large that the Anglican, Methodist, American 
Board (Congregational) and Presbyterian Churches joined in 
the work. In order that it might be efficiently done, the work 
has been put under a union organization, with one of the secre- 
taries of the Young Men's Christian Assodation acting as execu- 
tive officer. Groups of church members go to the prisons regu- 
larly, ordinarily once a week, talk and preach to the prisoners 
during their noon rest period, and are also given an opportunity 
of doing personal work with the men. Ordinarily the church mem- 
bers working in the prisons go to the one nearest their churchy 
so there is no overlapping of effort. 

So far as we can see, the only thin^ about the work of the 
model prisons that might be criticized is the rule that requires 
silence on the part of the prisoners, not only at their work but 
even when they are in their cells. They are sdlowed to talk about 
the necessary details of their work, but. are not supposed to com- 
municate about an3^hing else, and in visiting a prison one is struck 
with the silence. Prison experience the world over has proved 
that a rule requiring silence does not prevent the men from com- 
municating with each other, and if care were taken in assigning the 
men to thdr cells, any evil influence that might come from allowing 
the men to talk freely would be more than offset by the fact that 
the men were leading a more normal life. Furthermore, the time 
that the men are in their cdls might wdl be used for one of the 
better educated men to teach or read to his cdl-mates. 

Scmie people have criticized the fact that the living conditions 
in the model prison are apt to be better than those to which the 
men are accustomed outside, but we could find no evidence that 
any of the men are making a "home" of the prison. There is 
enough prison routine and supervision to make the men want 


to lead an independent life, although for many their prison ex- 
perience may be a blessing in disguise, giving them industrial 
training as well as an experience with sanitation and cleanliness, 
that the ordinary worker seldom gets. One is distinctly struck by 
the difference in appearance of the faces of the prisoners in 
the hsien prisons and in the model prisons. In the former, 
one finds many of the hard, bitter faces that are often known as 
the criminal type, and even during a short visit one feels the gen- 
eral atmosphere of resentment and bitterness. In the model 
prison, on the other hand, the hard and bitter faces are con- 
spicuous by their absence and the whole atmosphere of the 
prison is very different. One feels that the men are not anxious 
to be in prison, but that the living and working conditions are 
such that they are not made bitter by their confinement. 

The wardens of the model prisons, having realized frcxn 
experience the difficulty with which a prisoner returns to normal 
life, organized in 1919 the Prisoners' Relief Association, so that 
there might be some organization that would care for the prisoner 
on his release, give him a place where he might live, provide 
him with temporary work, and help him secure regular employ- 
ment. By a dty-wide campaign, the Association was able to 
raise some $10,000 and has opened a Kung Ch'ang (workshop) 
to which the prisoners can go upon their release. Judging by 
the ordinary American conditions, it is unusual to find prison 
wardens taking such an interest in the prisoners. 

Apparently the rapid progress of the model prison movement 
has been made possible by the fact that the prison work has, so 
far, been kept out of politics, and, once appointed, the prison 
wardens have been able to develop their plans and instituticHis. 
Fortunately for China, the wardens of the Peking prisons, at 
least, have been men of vision who have not been afraid to dis- 
regard precedent and develop a type of prison work different 
from an3^hing that China has known in the past. It will be a 
sorry day for China's prison work if the heads of the prisons 
are appointed because of political service rather than fitness for 
their positions. The wonder of it is that, in spite of the many 
political changes that have occurred in Peking during the past 
few years, the prison work has gone on practically undisturbed. 
Since the completion of our field work, however, we have heard 
that one of the chief wardens has been confined in his own 
prison, on a technical charge but principally because of his 
political affiliation. 

The remarkable progress that has been made by the prison 
movement is the result of the efforts of a few men of broad 
vision, who have influenced not only Peking but the entire coun- 
try as well. Even Yunnan, the furthermost province in the 


southwest, has its model prison. This fact should be a source 
of inspiration to those who would develop other reform move- 
ments. A few men can influence the entire country if they are 
working along lines in which there is evident need for reform 
and improvement, especially if their work is done in one of the 
influential centers of the country. 


Going up and down the streets of Peking, looking in at the 
numerous shops along the roads, seeing the families more or less 
on the streets, and speculating on what might be going on behind 
the gates of the residences, one cannot help wondering just what 
a Chinese community would show if it were studied in detail. 
Of course it is easy to find the high spots, where there is par* 
ticular wealth or particular poverty, where the people are espe- 
cially crowded in some store or where there is a group of appren- 
tices that are suffering from overwork, but the question keeps 
recurring again and again. What are the average figures for such 
a community and what are the facts that cannot be discovered 
from superficial observation? We hesitated to attempt the study 
of even a small district as there would be a great many individuals 
to deal with and it would be difficult to persuade them that the 
information was for the benefit of the community and that the 
people gathering the data were actuated by disinterested motives. 
Consequently it would be hard to get correct answers to any 
questions. It was the police census that furnished us the needed 
information and made it possible to study a section of the 
city in detail, at least as far as figures and percentages can tell 
the story of a community. Mr. Shen, the head of the Police 
District Inside Left 2, not only permitted us to study the census 
returns but very kindly had a copy made that summarized the 
information for each house in the district chosen for study. 
This gave the name of the head of the house, his age, birth-[]^e, 
business and religion, the number of men, women, boys and girls 
Uving in the house and also the number of workers and appren- 
tices employed. The police also marked the families that they 
considered to be destitute. 

The district selected for study was that adjacent to the Ameri- 
can Board Teng Shih K'ou Church, so that the investigation 
would not only give the picture of a section of Peking, but also 
of the district that would be the natural field in which the church's 
efforts toward social betterment would be exerted, for it was 
hoped that the story of the needs of the district would stimulate 

* The Appendix gives several interesting lists and tables: number of houses, stores 
and residences on all the streets of this district; division of the population, kf 
•ge, iei; industry, religion, and classification of industries and occupe a o n i> 



the church to the development of a community program. The dis- 
trict was approximately square (see map) and had an area of 
one square li (^ of a square mile). It was naturally set off 
from the rest of the city by four loo-foot highways and it seemed 
best to follow this natural division, even though the church was 
in the southern part of the district and its field would, therefore, 
cover more than the area studied. The district included resi- 
dences, stores and shops, rich and poor, and so served to give a 
good composite picture of the city. Business, for the most part, 
was located on the highways bounding the four sides of the dis- 
trict, and on the two main roads running through its center. 
Residences predominated on most of the smaller and less fre- 
quented hutungs (small streets). The shops on the highways 
naturally deal in goods that appeal to the traffic that is constantly 
going by, especially on Hatamen Street, which is the chief north 
and south artery of travel on the east side of the North City. 
The stores on Pao Fang Hut'ung, the main east and west street 
of the district, deal more in the everyday necessities of life, food, 
fud, clothes, while Ta Tou Fu Hsiang, the main north and south 
street, is given over almost entirely to slaughter houses. 

In the northeast comer of the district was a group of streets, 
Kung Chien Ta Yuan (Bow and Arrow Street), that was as 
interesting as any we found in the city. There, away from the 
bustle and traffic of the highway, were grouped the shops of 
the bow and arrow makers, some making long bows and 
feather-tipped arrows, others making cross bows to shoot clay 
marbles. And many a boy can be seen bringing home a 
string of small birds that he has shot with one of these cross 
bows. Then there are gold and silver shops where men, sitting 
on benches like saw horses and working with a few simple tools, 
make dishes of elaborate pattern. In one comer is a shop where 
the men are busy cutting out saddle trees and material for boxes, 
while just next door they are making copper kettles, dishes and 
pans, starting with the sheet copper and gradually beating it out 
with hammer and anvil into the desired shape and thickness. 
There are stores occupied by the curio dealers with their assort- 
ment of porcelain, bronze and other things, wonderfully inter- 
esting places to spend an hour and keen men with whom to make 
a bargain. Besides these there are cloth and tea shops, pipe 
stores, shops where they make reed mats, another for paper 
clothes, silk thread stores, a sword shop and one that deak in 
pig bristles. Mixed in with all these are a nimiber of residences, 
usually one or two rooms for each family, and, as there is no 
traffic on the roads except now and then some one bringing in 
supplies for the shops, much of the life is out where it can be 


Figure 23: Teng Shih K'ou Watrirt 

Similar but even more varied are the shops along Hatamen 
Street, where there are some fifty-five different kinds of stores. 
Some merely sell things made elsewhere, while others have men 
busy making the articles in which they deal. There are china 
stores with dishes up to the ceiling, stove stores with the men 
walking round and round shaping the clay stoves without even 
the help of a potter's wheel, tea shops with the people sitting 


around drm&ing tea and gossiping, cooked food shops with the 
cooks busy over the Are and the steam rising from the bread 
steamers, clothes simps with salesmen out in front of them 
handling over big pilts of garments one by one, telling in song 
the good points of each, a coffin shop with large finished coffins 
in the front of the stcire and men making others in the back court- 
yard, foreign drug stores and stores selling electric goods, etc., 
bicycle stores, carriage companies, ricksha repair shops, fortuae- 
telfers, barbers, carpenters, carpet makers, exchange shops, laun- 
dries and so on. 

Chu Shih Ta Chieh, or Pig Market Street, which bounds the 
district on the north, is one of the main cast and west thorou^ 
fares of the city, leading as it does from the Ch'i Hua Men, one 
of the gates in the east wall. It is given over for the most part 
to second-hand stores and to the buying and selling of pigs. It 
is the big pig market of the East City and nearly every momii^ 
droves of pigs are brought in for sale. They are laid along the 
unpaved road with their feet tied together until the slaughter 
house managers come to make their purchases. Then, as soon 
as a sale is made, they are carried off on a pole, feet up, head 
down and violently protesting, to the slaughter houses on Ta Ton 
Fu Hsiang, or other nearby streets. 

The outstanding buildings on Teng Shih K'ou are those oc- 
cupied by the American Board Mission and the work connected 
with it. A school, a chapel, the headquarters of the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, face directly on the street, while 
inside a large gateway is the Mission Compound with its church 
and parish house, girls' school, building for women's work and 
six residences for the foreign workers. The Compound is now 
one of the beauty spots of Peking, although it was entirely de- 
stroyed by the Boxers in igoo. To those who come from other 
lands it is particularly pleasing, as it is one of the few places in 
the city where green grass can be seen. 

Besides its regular church work, the American Board Mission 
has in the Teng Shih K'ou District a kindergarten for 90 chil- 
dren, primary schools for 400 boys and girls, a middle school for 
girls with 120 students and a Women's Bible Training School 
with 22 in attendance. A Union Kindergarten Training School 
and a coeducational Union Normal School are also located in the 
mission buildings. 

Other buildings that would be noticed by one going along 
Teng Shih K'ou are the big residence of a Mongolian Prince wim 
its big gate and long wall, the headquarters of the police and 
Military Guard, two hotels and several bookstores. 

Wang Fu Ching Ta Chieh, or, as it is known in English, 
Morrison Street, in honor of the late Dr. Morrison, who was 


for many years the legal adviser of the President is the quietest 
of the four streets bounding the district. The gateways opening 
on it are few in number, only 26, as compared with the 115 on 
Hatamen Street, and almost two-thirds of the buildings are resi- 
dences. The big majority of the stores are engaged in wood 
working. The outstanding buildings on the street are a large 
Yamen for the Manchu Bannermen, a large factory for the manu- 
facture of cloth, and the headquarters of the International Re- 
form Bureau, a society that is particularly interested in the sup- 
pression of the opium, morphine and cocaine evils. 

Yen Ching College, the Women's Department of the Peking 
University, is located in the T'ung Fu, a former residence of one 
of the Manchurian princesses. Up to this year this Union Mis- 
sion Institution was the only school in North China that was 
giving collegiate training to Chinese women. Now the Govern- 
ment University is trying an experiment in coeducation and has 
admitted a few girls. At present, some 125 girls are attending 
the Yen Ching College. 

Just across the street from the Women's Collie, Ts'ao Ju 
Lin, a former Minister of Communications and of Finance, has 
built a large three-story foreign style house as a home for some 
of the members of his large family. 

The other streets of the district are for the most part small 
hut'ungs where residences predominate. Going along them, 
one sees practically nothing except long walls broken here and 
there by a gateway. There are but few people coming and going 
and only by an occasional glimpse through an open gateway can 
one get any idea of the life that is going on in the courtyards 
inside the high walls. Only on Kuan Fang Ta Yuan do the 
homes open onto the street, and those houses are of course the 
least desirable of any in the district. 

The water supply of the district comes either from some ten 
wells or from the mains of the Peking Water Company. The 
company's pipes are found on all four of the streets bounding the 
district, on the main streets running through the center of the 
district and also on To Fu Hsiang. Not many houses are sup- 
plied with running water. Plumbing is expensive and one copper 
buys only ten gallons of water. Consequently, most of the water 
has to b^ carried in buckets or wheelbarrows from the wells or 
street hydrants and the people buy their water by the bucketful. 

A system of sewers along the highways around the district, 
on the main streets through the center of the district, on Chien 
Ch'ang and Yu Shao Hut'ungs and on Ta Po Ko Shih take care 
of the drainage. On the streets where there are sewers, most of 
the houses are connected with them, but on the other streets 
the waste water is collected in large buckets and then carried out 


and emptied into the sewer, through large openings, the wooden 
covers of which are usually open. 

The smells of the district are concentrated around the public 
toilets, of which there are ten. Some of these are inside small 
buildings, but most of them are open or at best surrounded by a 
low dirt wall. These toilets are dipped out every day by wheel- 
barrow men who lease the privilege from the police. 

In the entire district there are 1,509 different houses. Of 
these, 493 are shops or stores, 925 are residences, while 69 tem- 
ples, schools, yamens and other official buildings, hotels and lodg- 
mg houses, bathhouses and mission buildings are included under 
the heading "other buildings." Of the total number, 61.3 percent 
are residences and 32.7 percent are places of business. 

The shops and stores represent 93 different kinds of business. 
One hundred and six stores have to do with the sale and slaugh- 
tering of pigs and the preparation and sale of their bristles, wlule 
80 are dealing in various kinds of food. 

Those who have their residences in the district are engaged 
in 1 14 different kinds of business. The largest number, 103, are 
those doing what the police call "small business." These are men 
who have a small stock of goods that they sell from a little stand 
at the side of the road or that they peddle from house to house, 
carrying their goods in boxes or baskets slung from the two ends 
of a shoulder pole. One hundred soldiers and 69 government 
officials have their homes in the district. There are also 72 
laborers, 34 ricksha coolies, 30 cooks, 28 carpenters, 27 servants, 
2 students in the flying school, monks, preachers, fortune-tellers, 
secretaries, type cutters, temple owners, agricultural students. 
Combining the shops and residences, 163 different kinds of occu- 
pations are represented in the district.^ 

As the list of the stores was being translated from Chinese to 
English it was noticed that there were a large number of "feather 
stores" in the district Several trips through all of the streets 
had left no impression of stores that were dealing in feathers, 
and investigation showed that the "feathers" were "pig feathers/* 
only the English language insists on calling them "bristles." 

The police records show that there are 7,946 persons living in 
the district, or an average of 63,000 per square mile. This is 
almost twice the average of the entire city, 33,626 per square 
mile, but it is only a little more than the 56,000 per square mile 
which is the average for the police district in which the smaller 
district is located. That the people are more crowded in the 
small district is not to be wondered at since so much of the busi- 
ness of the police district is done along Hatamen Street and Chu 
Shih Ta Chieh. When 63 percent of the buildings facing on 

* See Appendix for complete list. 


Hatamen Street have a frontage of 12 feet or less, and only 6 
percent have over 24 feet, it is easy to see how the people are 
crowded in, particularly as there are 1,045 people living in these 
houses, while there are only 291 living in those on Wang Fu 
Ching Ta Chieh, the corresponding street on the west side of the 
district. The congestion due to business is also shown by the 
fact that 38 percent of the people live on the streets where busi- 
ness predominates, while those same streets have only 34 percent 
of the houses. 

Of the 7,946 persons living in the district, 5,214 are men and 
772 boys, a total of 5,986 males, or 75.4 percent of the population. 
The women number 1,388 and the girls 572, a total of 1,660 
females. While this proportion of males is much higher than 
that for the entire city (63.5 percent), it is not surprising as so 
much of the district is given over to business. It corresponds 
almost exactly with the figures of the police districts in the South 
City, where much of the business of Peking is concentrated (72,2" 
77.2 percent for Police Districts Outside I^ft i, 2, 5, and Outside 
Right i). The figures for each street in the district show even 
more strikingly the high proportion of men that is found where- 
ever the shops and stores predominate. On those streets where 
the proportion of residences is low (less than 30 percent), the 
percentage of males is always high. On all the eight business 
streets the population is over 82 percent male, on seven it is over 
90 percent, and on two it is a complete 100 percent. Since so 
manv of the Chinese live where they work and but few stores 
employ any women, the large preponderance of males in the 
business district is easily explained. Only 51 (10 percent) of 
the stores in the district employ any women, so practically all 
the females found on the business streets are either in the few 
residences or else are living in the store buildings as part of the 
family of the store owner or manager. 

On those streets where the proportion of residences is high 
(over 50 percent), the proportion of females is much larger. On 
two streets they predominate (53.5 and 50.5 percent), and on ten 
others they constitute from 40 to 50 percent of the population. 
On Morrison Streel and Lang Chia Ta Yuan, two streets where 
residences predominate, over 81 percent of the population is 
male. Five lodging houses for laborers and a large cloth factory 
emplo}ring over 100 men will account for this high proportion of 
men on Morrison Street, while on Lang Chia Ta Yuan, where 
there are only a few houses, there are several large bristle and 
soap stores. 

There are 44 homes in the district (5 percent) in which there 
are no men, and a woman is consequently the head of the house, 
while in 132 residences (14 percent) there are no women. 


Just as the population density of the small district is higher 
than that of the police district and the figures for both of &ese 
are higher than for the entire city, so the average number of 

Eople living in each house is highest in the small district, 5.26. 
Uie Police District Left Inside 2, the average is 5.1, while for 
all of Peking it is 4.9. On the different streets in the small district 
the average number of persons per house varies from 3.2 to 17^ 
though on only four of the twenty-eight streets is it 8 or more. 
All four of these are streets where business predominates. On 
all of them over 94 percent of the population is male and on three 
of them over 97 percent. The two streets with the largest average 
number of persons per house (12.4 and 17.8) are both small 
streets. On one of them are only five houses, while there are but 
seven on the other. There are no residences on either street, and 
the population on both is 100 percent male. On one the number 
of persons per house is high (12.4) because all of the buildings 
are slaughter houses, while on the other the average is brought 
up to 17.8 because two of the seven houses are lodging houses 
for laborers where the men are crowded in as closely as possible. 

The division between adults and minors is made by the police 
at 16 years of age, Chinese reckoning, or 15 years, foreign reckon- 
ing. It so happens that the proportion of the population in the 
district under 16 years of age corresponds aln^ost exactly with 
that of the entire city. The figures are 17 percent for the district 
and 17.3 percent for all of Peking. The correspondence for the 
males and females is not quite so close. In the city 16.1 percent 
of the male population is under 16 years of age, but in the district 
13 percent are minors. For the females the figures are 19.5 
percent for the city and 29.2 percent for the district. 

According to the police figures, there are only 339 apprentices 
working in the stores of the district, although there are 2,008 
employees and 493 store managers, or about one apprentice to 
every six workers. According to the figures found in the study 
of the membership of the various gilds in the city, the number 
of apprentices was approximately one-third that of the workers. 
From the figures for the individual streets, this difference seems 
to arise because most of the slaughter houses are using but few 
apprentices. On Ta Tou Fu Hsiang, the chief slaughter house 
street in the district, there is only one apprentice for every 37 

Confucianism is the religion of 916 (62.5 percent) of those 
who are the heads of the various stores and residences of the 
district. Of the remainder some 365 (25 percent) say that they 
are Buddhists, while 89 are Christian. Of these, 8 are Cath- 
olics, members of the nearbv Cathedral, while practically all of 
the 81 Protestants attend the Teng Shih K'ou Church. 


There are 82 men who say they are Mohammedans, but when 62 
of these are found on Ta Tou Fu Hsiang, the chief slaughter 
house street of the district, it is rather apparent that some one 
has been having some fun at the expense of the police record and 
that the police have made no special effort to check the correct- 
ness of that information even though they have been very careful 
to get accurate replies to their other questions. The great pre- 
ponderance of Confucianists is not to be wondered at. Studies 
made elsewhere in China have shown that it is perfectly possible 
for a man to be a Buddhist, a Taoist and a Confucianist all at 
the same time, and that because of the standing of Confucianism 
a man will usually claim that as his religion, even though he 
believes in the others as well. 

In the Teng Shih K*ou District there are 46 families, with 
233 members (3 percent of the population) that the police con- 
sider to be "poor," or "very poor," that is, their income is less 
than $65 a year if there are only two in a family, or $95 a year 
for a family of four. As would be expected, most of these 
families are living on the least desirable streets of the district. 
Thirty-three of the 46 families are living on the three streets, 
Hsiao Yang Shih, Hsiao Po Ko Shih and Kuan Fang Ta Yuan, 
but some poor families can be found on 9 of the 28 streets. 

The average number of persons in the poor families is 5.1, 
or almost the same as the average number of persons per house 
for the entire district (5.26). There is not the difference between 
these figures that there is between those for the entire city. For 
all of Peking, the average number of persons per house is 4.9, 
while the average size of the poor families is 4.2. That the 
figures for the small district do not differ more is somewhat 
explained by the fact that the average size of the poor families 
in the Police District Left Inside 2 is larger (4.5) than in any 
other police district in the city. 

Sixty and five-tenths percent of the poor people are males. 
This is a much lower percentage than the 75.4 percent for the 
entire population of the district, and simply shows that the prob- 
lem of poverty is a family one and does not ordinarily involve 
many men who are living alone. The same thing is shown by 
the fact that 35 percent of the poor people are under 16 years of 
age, although only 17 percent of the population of the district 
are listed as minors. 

Most of the poor families derive what income they have from 
small business, from the army, or from the pulling of rickshas, 
although there are also those who are servants, masons, police- 
men and ex-Manchu officials. It is particularly striking to note 
that three-quarters of the poor families say that they arc 
Buddhists, and while almost 10 percent of the Buddhist families 


of the district are classed as "poor," only a little over i percent 
of the Confucian families are destitute. It simply shows that 
Confucianism with its classics and intellectual training is not 
ordinarily the religion of those who lack education and financial 

We are indebted to Mrs. Fannie S. Wickes of the American 
Board Mission for the report of a personal study of some of the 
families in the district. Living for a year on one of the small 
hut'ungs, she was able to get in toudi with her neighbors in 
a way that would be impossible in a more general survey.* While 
her report covers a particularly poor district and one that is by 
no means representative of the entire section, it does show some 
of the pressing social needs of a Chinese community. 

> See My NtMttt NHgkbpri in Ptkimg, Chapter XIV. 


By Mrs. Fannie S. Wickes 

We moved in last September. Our house— ours for the year 
— ^is the parsonage of the nearby Chinese (Mission) Church and 
stands behind a high wall and a big red gate at the end of a little 
blind alley. This arm of the main alley, or narrow street, is less 
than 50 yards long, and the gray walls are each broken on both 
sides by three gates. When we first came I hoped to get ac- 
quainted with the people living behind those six gates and to 
establish a neighborly relation with them. Circumstances have 
prevented that in a large measure, but from observation and 
hearsay I can tell you something of them. The houses are in 
very poor condition, which means low rents, which in turn means 
a poor class of families for the most part ; and that helps explain 
some things. 

Behind the nearest gate on the west is a rough, ill-drained 
yard some 25 feet square, on whose north and west sides are five 
rooms in an L shaped line, the homes of four families, if you 

At No. I, as we might style it, live a father and son; the 
father has some illness, abscesses I think he said, and rarely 
leaves the room ; the son pulls rickshas. 

At No. 2 live a shoemaker, his wife and six children; the 
oldest boy, in the late teens, helps his father make shoes — quilted 
satin shoes with fur edges, for gentlemen; the youngest is a 
girl of eighteen months. However late I may be going to bed, 
there the light still shows through the small papered window that 
looks into our yard, and often when I waken in the night I hear 
the father coughing. 

No. 3 is more palatial, having two rooms ; one appears, how- 
ever, to be used only as an entry, parlor and shrine for the gods 
of the household. Here lives a capitalist, in a small way — owner 
of 50 rickshas that are rented by the day to those who pull them. 
He is a tall, gaunt old man who feels his dark way about the 
streets with a bamboo staff. His wife, a plump, white-haired 
woman, helps her grandson's wife drudge for the family and 
wash the ricksha seat covers. The rest of the household con- 

^ Tk€ Survey 42:671 Aug. 2, 19 19. 



sists of the wife of a son now dead, and her five children; the 
oldest is 1 6, married, but attending school with his next younger 
brother ; the youngest has barely learned to walk. The old f oUcs' 
daughter-in-law is the real head of the family. She manages the 
ricksha business, brow-beats her daughter-in-law — ^a sweet-faced 
girl of 13, and quarrels with her blind father-in-law. 

At No. 4 live a man who pulls rickshas, his untidy wife who 
is never seen without a cigarette, and their boy of three. By 
giving a separate paragraph to each family, I may give the im- 
pression of too much space to move around in. Two of the five 
rooms are loxio and three 6x10. 

The next gate on the same side is the entrance to the yard 
where the rickshas live in a big shed ; larger or smaller groups of 
pullers may be found about the gate when they come to take or 
return the rickshas. 

If we cross diagonally to the nearest gate on the east, we find 
the really elite of the alley — ^a soldier's family. The man and 
boy (son or brother, I know not) both live at barracks, but may 
occasionally be seen emptying the brass hand-basin outside the 
gate, or ushering in satin-and-fur-lined friends. The resident 
family consists of the old mother, the young wife and a purchased 
slave girl. They have four rooms, dress in silk and satin and 
take turns smoking the water-pipe, unless they happen to prefer 
cigarettes. The slave wears print cotton and smiles through her 
pock marks. 

The next gate to the south stands open, though the red and 
green screen within prevents the passer-by from seeing what lies 
beyond. I lived here four and one-half months without seeing 
anyone whom I connected mentally with that yard. On Chinese 
New Year's^hight I learned that, the night before, the father of 
the family, while burning incense and kneeling to knock his head 
in reverence before the gods, had died, leaving three unmarried 
daughters and a little boy. In China an unmarried daughter, 
unless she is attending soiool, is rarely over 16 years of age. 
Picturing to myself three young girls, possibly without relatives 
in Peking, I hastened over to see if there was anything I could 
do to help. I found the two rooms at the south of the yard dark, 
and the two at the north in possession of three or four well- 
dressed, middle-aged men — dimly visible through dingy windows. 
But I made bold to knock and was cordially received by two of 
them and urged to come in and sit down in the room where the 
father, dressed in his best, lay on three chairs, a handkerchief 
covering his face. I did not accept this invitation, but I learned 
that the older man was a brother of the dead father and that tiie 
girls were temporarily at their aunt's house. I said that if I 
could help them in anything I should be glad to do sa 


The next morning a youngish woman, in the unbleached, un- 
dyed garments of mourning, came to call, accompanied by a man 
with a bold, hard face. She knelt before me and bowed her head 
to the ground. Then as she got up and told me that since I had 
been so good as to offer, etc., she would like me to buy their 
house or take a mortgage on it. (Needless to say, I couldn't.) 
She told me she was 32, her sisters 28 and 16, and the little 
(purchased) brother 3, and that their father's death left them 
without means of livelihood, and other things calculated to excite 
pity. But my pity was kept calm by various questionings revolv- 
ing in my mind. How did it happen that two girls in tiie family 
had reached such mature years unmarried? And why did she 
wear her hair like a married woman? And who was the man 
who came with her and with whom she seemed so intimate? 
The last question was answered first — he was a barber and an 
intimate friend of her father's. That did not allay my growing 
suspicions, for barbers in China have not had good reputations 
since the early days of the Manchu rule when they served their 
customers either as barber or executioner, according to their readi- 
ness to adopt the Manchu style of shaven head and cue ; so self- 
respecting people do not enter that profession. Further inquiry 
brought to light the information that all three girls were pros- 
tituted by their father, the older two long since and the younger 
for two years or more. Their gate is opposite that of the ricksha 
shed or yard and the oldest sister may often be seen standing in 
the group of men, stitching at a shoe-sole. The second sister has 
recently gone to a public house of prostitution in a city nearby. 

It sometimes happens that knowledge brings kindred knowl- 
edge. I soon discovered that the good looking young woman 
with the wide and spreading collar, who lived at the third gate 
on the east, was the purchased concubine of the soldier we had 
often seen smoking and smiling in the alley. I also learned that 
her style of collar marked her as an immoral woman. She and 
her cross-eyed girl of five have since moved around the comer 
next to the 6x8 police station, where lives a shorter, plumper 
woman with the same style of collar. 

At the opposite gate, the third on the west, one may some- 
times see a "daughter-in-law" of about 18 combing her hair. 
This is an even plainer sign than a flaring collar; ricksha men 
come and go freely through this gate and I suppose her husband's 
family shares the profits. 

There are apparently several families living in this )rard, to 
judge from the number of dirty, impudent youngsters that boil 
over into the alley. In one of the families there is a man who is 
a Christian, and a Christian family lives across the street ; from 
here three attractive children go to mission schools. 


Frequently, one sees a woman sitting on the ground near here 
or wandering about. She is dirty and disheveled and, though she 
comments to the neighbors on what attracts her interest, her dull 
eyes and stolid look mark her as of rather low grade intelligence. 
She has an ill-cared-for child of two and is soon to have another. 
They tell me she is the wife of a soldier who has found some one 
he likes better to live with, so he has moved her over here. He 
pays her 15 coppers a day and 20 when he comes to visit her. 
Not being a "good manager," she spends this in buying from the 
street venders their most attractive but less economical foods, and 
so has nothing left to pay for washing water. 

As I see these people I long for the facilities that America 
has built up for helping such. Here in this less than 50 yards is 
work for every agency for social betterment in the catalogue of an 
up-to-date American city. When will China begin to take up 
these problems in a systematic way ? When her people have been 
educated up to a sense of social responsibility and have a founda- 
tion of morality — Christian morality — to build upon. Some of 
her younger generation have reached that place already, but as 
yet they are but a small minority, though every year increasing. 



Two questions are often asked in connection with the work 
of the Foreign Missionary Societies, first, Who are the people 
that the church is reaching? and second. What can be expected 
of these people in service and financial support? It was these 
two questions that we attempted to answer when, in response 
to the invitation of the Board of Deacons of the Teng Shih K'ou 
Church of the American Board Mission (Congregational), we 
undertook a survey of the families of the members of that 
church, and then later made a study of the families touched by 
the Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men Chapels of the same mission. 
It seemed best to study the families that were related to the 
church rather than the individual members, probationers or in- 
quirers : it would be almost as easy to get the desired information 
for a number of families as for a number of individuals, the 
families would include the church members, and such a study 
would show how well the church was covering its most inunc- 
diate field, the families of its members, and would in all prob- 
ability give information that would make it easier to approach 
those who had not yet been reached by the church. 

As this was the first study of its kind to be made in Peking 
there was no way of knowing what information mi^ht be se- 
cured by the survey, and consequently the questionnaire blanks 
were made very inclusive. Some questions were even put on 
with the hope that the answers might give some unexpected in- 
formation. The card was so arranged that a report was secured 
concerning the name, age, sex, marital condition, education, oc- 
cupation and church relationship of every member of the family, 
and then, for the family as a whole, information concerning race, 
native province, time in Peking, the number of births and deaths 
during the last five years, the number of servants employed, 
whether the home was owned or rented, and if rented the amount 
of rent paid, the size of the house, and finally the amount of the 
family income. 

Several of the older missionaries were quite skeptical as to 
the possibility of securing information from the Chinese with 

* Appendix XI gires the figures, in tabular form, for tbe TAriotit phases of 
the Charch Surrey, as described in this chapter. 



such a questionnaire, as, in the olden days, they had seen schools 
closed when a teacher had endeavored to write in a book the 
name of one of the pupils. There was a popular superstition that 
a person would have bad luck if anything pressed on his name, 
and the students left school rather than allow their names to be 
put in a book which, when closed, would press on them. Fortu- 
nately these doubts were not expressed to us until after a pre- 
liminary report had shown that the church members were now 
willine to answer the many questions concerning their family 
life when they knew that the information was to 1^ used for the 
benefit of the church. 

In order that the study might be made entirely by church 
members, it seemed best to have the information gathered by the 
missionaries, the Chinese workers and a group of volunteer 
hel{>ers, even though the returns might be somewhat incomplete 
or inaccurate, because most of the mvestigators had never had 
any experience in collecting such data. It meant a good deal that 
no outsider was connected with the work except in making the 
statistics, and we wanted the church members to have the benefit 
of the experience of helping in the study and giving some service 
to the church. 

The workers were given demonstrations and written instruc- 
tions concerning the gathering of the information and the writing 
of the card. When the cards were turned in, they were care- 
fully checked over for any apparent discrepancies and an effort 
was made to fill in any omissions, but even so, there were quite a 
number of questions on some cards, particularly those concerning 
education, size of the house and number of beds belonging to the 
family, where the report had to be "No Data." While this was 
true of the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang studies, the cards of 
the Ch'i Hua Men survey had practically no omissions. The 
Chinese pastor of that church gathered all the information and 
he saw to it that the questions were all answered. Even when 
some of his answers appeared to be inaccurate, as when he re- 
ported one family to be spending 91 percent of its money income 
on rent, further investigation showed that the information was 

The Teng Shih K'ou members were interested in the study by 
means of a sermon telling of the results of a survey of one of 
the churches of New York, the sermon being given by one of the 
missionaries who had assisted in making the study, while the 
interest of the Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men members was aroused 
by the results secured by the Teng Shih K'ou survey. As a 
result, in only one instance were the investigators met with a flat 
refusal to answer any of the questions, though in some cases it 
was impossible to secure satisfactory answers to all of them. 

ttl*JEBlS«t™) »aiD»iiic« «e(St»M) MRfBut-ios) niKNo.) 

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:*«n£)(Hci»(nnii4 («flRa«T)(R>t|«id) («IMSt)(B>«HM 

* » a ■(Pit.) » fl B (a«A««) 

Figure 24: Church Survey Card. 
Under the beadii^s Education, As»ociation Member, Sick, DefectiTe, Pro- 
fesiion. Business, Unemployment, etc., individuals are referred to bf 
the numbers opposite their names on the face of tbe card. 


The membership roll of the Teng Shih K'ou Church included 
some three hundred families. Satisfactory cards were secured 
from 147 of these, while some 50 others could not be located. 
They had moved or left the city, and were not actively in touch 
with the church. Consequently, the survey covered approximately 
two-thirds of the families that really belonged to the churdi. 
No great effort was made to make the study more complete, be- 
cause die Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men Chapels were asking diat 
their membership be surveyed, and also because a complete pre- 
liminary report had been made on 1 10 families of the Teng Shih 
K'ou Church, and there had been practically no change in the 
various percentages when 37 more were added. As the time 
available for the church study was limited, it seemed best to secure 
studies of three churches even though they had to be somewhat 
incomplete, rather than spend time on securing a complete report 
from any one church, particularly as the three churches studied 
represented very different groups. 

The Teng Shih K'ou, the oldest of the American Board 
churches in Peking, is located in the main Mission Compound 
and is housed in a modern, foreign style, brick and stone build- 
ing. Its pastor has had a fine educational training and its mem- 
bership includes a large proportion of people that are well-to-do, 
who have had a good education and who are leaders in their 
community and in the city. The Pei T'ang Chapel whose field 
adjoins that of the Teng Shih K'ou Church on the north, is 
smaller, is located in a district where there is a large proportion 
of merchants doing a small business and that is noticeably poorer 
than that of the Teng Shih K'ou Church. The Ch'i Hua Men 
Chapel, located about one-half mile outside of the east wall of 
Pekmg, on the main road from Peking to T'ung Hsien, reaches 
those who are living in the suburbs. The district around it is a 
poor one and includes a very large proportion of Manchus. On 
the whole, the conditions in this church seem to be fairly repre- 
sentative of those that would be found by a study of the member- 
ship of churches in various small cities or towns in China. One 
hundred and ten Pei T'ang families were studied, or about two- 
thirds of the active membership of that church, while the 68 
Ch'i Hua Men families were all that could be found and so repre- 
sented the entire church membership. 

It is impossible to say how representative the church member- 
ship is of the population of the district around the church build- 
ing, as figures could not be secured for the general population 
that would correspond with those obtained for the church mem- 
bership. The study of the population of the district around tihe 
Teng Shih K'ou Church (Chapter XIH) gave only a general idea 
of uie people of the district, and told little, if anything, of the 






NO SHIH ICOU - A^/•ra%» romilu 4.1 PtrtonT 
 CI T'ANO - Averoae romilii 2.7Pertoii«' 

CH'I HUA MCN 'AvBraA9 famtLu 4.5 P«r*OM 



" Av€raite rgmi^ 3. TPTtorif 

Figure 25: Number of Families and Individuals 

financial^ educational or other abilities of the families. However, 
the general impression secured from these studies, and from per- 
sonal acquaintance with the church members and others who are 
living in the districts around the churches, is that, on the whole, 
the diurch is able to reach those who are representative of the 
community and by its influence is able to raise them above the 
general average. 

Three hundred and twenty-five families filled out cards with 
sufficient detail to be included in the statistics for the different 
churches. One hundred and forty-seven belonged to the Teng 
Shih K'ou Church, no to the Pei T'ang Chapel and 68 to the 
Ch'i Hua Men Chapel. The families included a total of 1,217 
persons, or an average of 3.7 persons per family. The Ch'i Hua 
Men had the largest average, 4.5, the Teng Shih K'ou families 
averaged 4.1, while those belonging to the Pei T'ang averaged 
but 2.y. The poorest group had the largest average family, prin- 
cipally because it included only one student, while the Pei T'ang 
study included 18 and the Teng Shih K'ou 14. As the students 
were almost always living away from home, they were counted as 
families with but one member, and so reduced the size of the 
average family. The average of the Teng Shih K'ou Church 
was further reduced by the fact that it also included in its mem- 
bership 17 inmates of the Old Ladies' Home who were listed as 
families with one member. These Peking families are considerably 
smaller on the average than the families living in American cities 
that are about the size of Peking. In those cities the average 
number of persons per family varies from 44 in St. Louis to 4.8 
in Pittsburg and Boston.^ 

*U. S. Cenni% 1910. 











(10 6r Ov«r) 

Figure 26: Size of Families 


While the average size of all the families is 3.7, the individual 
families have anywhere from one to twenty members, though 
there is only one with 20 and the next largest has 12 members. 
One-third ^33 percent) of the families have only one niember, 
are people living alone or else they are in schools or other institu- 
tions and are consequently classed as families with but one mem- 
ber. Forty-two percent of all the families have from two to five 
members and are classed as small families, 21 percent are medium- 
sized families with from six to nine members, while 4 percent are 
"large" families with ten or more members. Considering the great 
care with which the Chinese look after their women, it is radier 
striking to find that almost half (46 percent) of the single member 
families are women. However, almost two-thirds (61 percent) 
are over fifty years of age, while of the entire group of 49, 18 
are in the Old Ladies' Home, ten are students in school, two are 
mission workers, two are servants, one is a teacher and one is in 
tiie Women's Poorhouse. The Ch'i Hua Men has a particularly 
large proportion, nine out of 13.. of single member families 
that are women. In the Teng Shih K'ou, a little over one-half 
of the single member families are women, while in the Pei T'ang 
the proportion is only one-third. It is rather striking that the 
families with two, three, four, five and six members should each 
represent 10 or 11 percent of the entire number of families. 
That is, 10 percent of all the families have two members, 11 
percent have three, and so on. As would be expected from the 
average size of the families in the different churches, the Ch'i 
Hua Men has the highest proportion of large families. Nine 
percent of its families have ten or more members, while only five 
percent of the Teng Shih K'ou families have more than nine 






Figure ^\ Distribution by Race 

members. None of the Pei T'ang families have over eight mem- 
bers. Even in the medium-sized families, those with from six to 
nine members, the Ch'i Hua Men has almost as many propor- 
tionately as the Teng Shih K'ou and more than twice as many as 
the Pei T'ang. Almost half (42 percent) of the Pei T'ang fam- 
ilies are single member families, while only 19 percent of the 
Ch'i Hua Men families have only one member. 


Of the families studied, 62 percent were Chinese, 35 percent 
Manchus, and 3 percent Mongols. The average size of the 
Qiinese and Manchu families was the same, 3.7, but the Mongol 
families had on the average 6 members. This last, however, can 
hardly be called a true average, as there were but ten Mongol 
families included in the study. The race division by persons is 
practically the same as that by families, 61 percent Chinese, 34 
percent Manchus and 5 percent Mongol. This race division can- 
not be said to be typical of Peking as a whole. Both the Pei 
T'ang and the Ch'i Hua Men districts have a relatively high pro- 
portion of Manchus, compared with the city as a whole, for there 
are many districts in the South City, particularly those in which 
business predominates, in which only a very small proportion of 
the population are Manchus. 


Of all the families, 83 percent come from Chihli Province, 
while 94 percent come from Chihli, Manchuria and Shantung. 
All of the Ch'i Hua Men families claim Chihli as their native 
province, and 93 percent of them say they are natives of Ta 


Figure 38: Distribution by Sex 

Hsing Hsien, the county in which the Chapel is located. Ninety- 
four percent of the Pei T'ang families and 65 percent of the 
Teng Shih K'ou families are natives of Chihli, so all but six of 
the families coming from the more distant provinces belong to 
the Teng Shih K'ou Church. Besides Chihli, nine of the 21 
provinces of China and Mongolia are represented by one or more 
families, five families even coming from provinces as distatK as 
Kwaogtung and Szechuan. 


From the figures showing the time that the families have 
been in Peking, it is apparent that the churches are dealing with 
a group that, for the most part, is made up of permanent resi- 
dents. Only 14 percent of the families have been in Peking less 
than five years, while 78 percent have been in the city over fifteen 
years. The Teng Shih K'ou is the only one of the churches that 
is facing to any extent the problems presented by families who 
have been in Peking but a short time. Ninety-seven percent of 
the Ch'i Hua Men families and 86 percent of the Pei T'ang 
families have been in Peking over fifteen years, while 25 percent 
o£ the Teng Shih K'ou families have been in the city less than 
six years. 


When it is remembered that Peking as a whole has a popula- 
tion that is 63.5 percent male and that the population of the 
police districts around the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang 
churches are 64.6 percent and 58.2 percent male, respectively, it 
is significant to note that in the Teng Shih K'ou families the 
number of males and females is almost equal, 309 males and 399 
females, and that the Pei T'ang families are divided, 55.5 percent 





. / 




H 7 


^ 6 




















— 1 — 1 


: \ 1 

I I 

' ' 


i 6 n, 16 21 26 31 86 ili5il 66 61 65 71 76 81* 
5 10 15 2025303540455055 6065 70 75 80 


Figure 29: Peking Church Families: Percent in Five- Year Age Groups 

male and 44.5 percent female. Of the Ch'i Hua Men families 
51.5 percent are males and 48.5 percent females. For all of the 
325 families, the percentages are 52 percent male and 48 percent 
female. These figures simply prove that Chinese families like 
those of other countries are divided almost evenly between the 
sexes with a slight preponderance of males, and that the excess 
number of males found in Peking are men away from home. 
Some are there for education, some for business, some are seek- 
ing political preferment, but the problem they present is that of a 
group of men away from home and the large number only makes 
the problem all the more serious. 


The chart showing the percentages of the members of the 
church families in the different five year age groups has the same 

* All ages are given according to the Chinese method of reckoning to are, on 
the average, one year greater than if figured according to the American meUiod. 
According to the Chinese, * baby is one year old when born and two years old on 
the next New Year's Day. 


general shape as those that show the ages of the population of 
diflFerent American cities, but is very different from that for the 
total population of Peking. In the first place, in the church fam- 
ilies the number of males and females are nearly equal, and then, 
too, there is a much larger proportion of children than there is in 
the city population. Instead of starting low, increasing rapidly 
to a peak in the 26-30 year age group and then decreasing almost 
as rapidly, the graph for the church families starts even higher 
than those for the American cities, with 10.6 percent in the 1-5 
year age group, decreases through the 11 -15 year age group, then 
increases rapidly and reaches its maximum in the 16-20 yiear age 
group, five years earlier than is true for the American cities. 
As the higher age groups are reached, the graph descends with 
some irregularities but with much the same slope as those of the 
American cities, except that there is a slightly smaller proportion 
in the groups from 30 to 50 years of age, and a slightly larger 
proportion in the groups over 50, due largely to the number of 
members who are inmates of the Old Ladies' Home. If a larger 
number of families were studied, the graph would undoubtedly 
have practically the same shape as those for the entire population 
of the American cities, Cleveland, Pittsburg, Boston, etc., the 
immigration of the young people into the cities being equaled by 
the number of young people away from home who are reached 
by the church. 


The grafts showing the ages of the males and females have 
much the same shape except that there is a larger proportion of 
males in the younger age groups. Sixty percent of the males are 
under 31 years of age and 55 percent of the females. The 
graph for the females shows three distinct peaks, one the maxi- 
mum (10.7 percent) in the 16-20 year age group, another 
almost as high (10 percent) in the 26-30 year age group and 
one in the 46-50 year age group. There is also a much larger 
proportion of females in the higher age groups than is true for 
the males. Eight percent of the females are over 60 years of age, 
but only 5.7 percent of the males. 


It is difficult to make any comparison between the different 
churches as far as ages are concerned, particularly the percent- 
z^s found in the different age groups, as the numbers in the 
different groups are small and apt to vary. The most that can be 
said is that, on the whole, the Teng Shih K'ou families are 




nils '636 

ToUl 1.S1T 





















M 41 




Figure 30: Age and Sex 

younger than those of the other churches, 64 percent being under 
30 years of age, while those of the Ch'i Hua Men are the oldest. 


Of the entire group studied, 47 percent are single, 45 percent 
married and 8 percent are definitely reported as widowed. The 
latter figure should in all probability be somewhat higher, as 
after the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang surveys were made it 
was found that the Chinese characters on the questionnaire were 
such that only widowed females would be reported. The 
widowed males were found only by inspection when the statistics 
were being made. This proportion of single persons is much 


DMABBltD-44%HN0 DMrA-3% 

Figure 31 : Marital Condition 

stnaller than is found in the United States where 55 percent* of 
the entire population is single. The difference is even greater 
when a comparison is made between those who are 15 years of 
age or over, American count, and 16 years of age or over, Chinese 
count. In those groups only 26 percent of the Chinese are still 
single, wt^ile in America 34 percent * have never been married. 
In the American cities about the same size as Peking,* from 35 
to 42 percent ' of the population are single. It is a well-known 
fact that the Chinese marry earlier than do the Americans, but 
even so the figures are significant in that they show the amount 
of the difference between the two countries. 

As would be expected, the difference between the figures for 
Peking and for the American cities is much greater for the 
females than for the males. In Peking 33 percent of the men 
over 15 are uiunarried, while in the American cities the propoi^ 
tion varies from 39.3 percent in Philadelphia, to 44 percent in 
Boston.^ Only 18 percent of the Peking females over 15 years 
of age are unmarried, while from 30 to 40 percent ' of those fivii^ 
m American cities are still single. 

The ages of those over 16 years of age who are still unmarried 
show very strikingly that almost all of the Chinese marry at some 
time; Of those who are unmarried, 83 percent are still under 

>ll. S. CeniDi, i»io. 

"The American dtiei with wbicfa Pekiai u compared are BaRoa, PkHsdalphi^ 

aai St Loiii». 


26 years of age, while 92 percent are still under 31 years of age. 
As would be expected, the unmarried females are younger than 
are the single males; 95 percent of the single women are less 
than 25 years of age, while all but one are under 31. That one is 
a Manchu old maid, who by law is not allowed to own property 
and so must depend upon her relatives for support. She lives 
with one family for a while and then when they tell her that it is 
time to move on, she goes to another family and lives with them 
for a time. Of the unmarried men, 78 percent are less than 26 
years old, while 88 percent are under 31. There are only 17 
single men who are over 30, but their ages range all the way 
from 31 to 80. 


No attempt was made to find out how old the people included 
in this study were when they were married. The only definite 
information that the figures give on this point is that none of 
those who are under 17 years of age are married. Of course it 
is perfectly possible that those who are now older may have been 
married at that age or even younger. Dr. Lennox ^ in his study 
of 4,000 married men found that, although the average age at 
marriage was 20, the largest number were married when they 
were 19 years of age. Almost 10 percent were less than 16 years 
of age (Chinese count) when they were married and a few kad 
even been married when they were 10 years of age. 


As vital statistics are so scarce in China and one hears all 
sorts of estimates as to birth rates and infant mortality, a very 
definite effort was made in this study to secure statistics concern- 
ing the births and deaths in the families belonging to the churches. 
Realizing that the study would include a relatively small number 
of persons and that therefore it would be impossible to get a 
true average from the figures for any one year, the families 
were asked to report the number of births and deaths during the 
last five years. The study of the cards showed that some of the 
investigators had failed to answer the questions concerning births 
and deaths, so that there were undoubtedly omissions, and the 
figures, particularly those for the death rate, are too low. It was 
possible to check very closely the number of births in the last five 
years by the number of children who were under six years of 
age, but no check was possible for the number of deaths and they 
have to be given as reported. There were 161 births reported, an 
average of 32.2 a year, or a birth rate of 26.5 per 1,000 persons. 

^Some Vtttl Statistics, China Medical Journal, July, 1919. 


The Tcng Shih K'ou Church had the largest birth rate, 284 
and the Pei T'ang the smallest, 22.8 ; for the Ch'i Hua Men {ami- 
lies the birth rate was 24.6. In all probability, the birth rate 
would not be over 28 per 1,000 even if all the births had bea 
reported. The police statistics for the city as a whole give tbe 
birth rate as only 11.8 per 1,000, but they admit that this is iu 
too low as they find it impossible to get an accurate r^xnt of 

According to the figures for tlie church families, the Inith 
rate per 1,000 women of child-bearing age (15-50) averages 9^ 
while the birth rate per 1,000 married women of child-beariiig age 
averages 128. 

The results of the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T*ang sontp 
showed that the question concerning the number of children bon 
but not living at the time of the survey needed revision. For the 
Ch'i Hua Men survey the form of the question was changed aal 
the results secured were much more complete. The reports 
showed that 305 children had been bom to the 87 married 
women included in the study and that 107 (35 percent) of 
these had died. The average number of births per ** family^ is 
4.5, but omitting the four single men living alone and tfaote 
families that had had no children the average is 5.3 births per 
"family." The average per married woman is 3.5, wUdi il 
somewhat lower than the average number of children bom tD t 
Chinese woman during her lifetime, as the study includes woaei 
who are 17 and 70 years of age. 

While the average number of births per married womaa ii 
3.5, the average number of living children is 2.3. An average d 
1.2 children per married woman have died. Dr. Lennox to hb 
study of 4,000 married men found that an average of 2,y duldgtM 
had been bom to the men who had had any chOdren. Of thex; 
an average of 0.9 had died, leaving an average of 1.8 living diildrci 
per family.* 

Prof. Dittmer in his study found the average number of cU- 
dren per family to be 1.8. The figures for the church study tic 
therefore much higher than those of either of the other t«Q 
studies. Dr. \Vu Ljen Teh, of the Government Medical Service; 
said he felt that the proportion of those who had died (JS 
percent) was about right, as he estimated that about half of Ac 
children bom in North China died before reaching maturity. 

Eight of the families report 10 or more births, one reportim 
as hi^ as 18. Thb of course includes all of the cfailditi 
bom to all the married women included by the family. The hi^ 
est number of deaths reported by one family was nine. Twcnlf- 
five families reported that they had lost no children, even tfaonfh 

*Dr. W. a LeBBOBC. Sone Vital St^drtici, Ckmm MeOcmi Jamwmai, Jolj. 1919^ 


some reported six, seven and eight births. The largest number 
of deaths (9) occurred in the family with the largest number of 
births (18). The families reporting 12, 13 and 15 children had 
lost five, eight and seven children, respectively. None of the 
families had lost all of their children. 


Based on the number of deaths (79) reported as having oc- 
curred during the last five years, the death rate for the church 
families is 13 per 1,000. Unfortunately this figure cannot be 
taken as a correct average. There are very apparent omissions 
in the report, and the death rate is furtiier reduced by our 
definition of "a family." In all probability the death rate for 
these church families should be about 20. According to the police, 
the death rate for the entire city is 25.8. 


Next to the figures showing "church relationship'* those con- 
cerning income are the most vital of all those found by the sur- 
vey. If the size of the family income is known it is possible to 
determine with a fair degree of accuracy the family status as 
regards education, possibilities for leadership and, particularly, 
ability to support the work of the church. Twenty-two (6.8 per- 
cent) of the 325 families reported that their income was more 
than $1,000 a year. Eighteen of these were Teng Shih K*ou 
families and four belonged to the Pei T'ang. None of the Ch*i 
Hua Men families were in the $1,000 group and only one was 
receiving between $500 and $999 a year. One out of eight of the 
Teng Shih K'ou families had an annual income of over $1,000. 
The group receiving $500 to $999 a year included 27 (8.3 percent) 
families. One family out of every six had an income of any- 
where from $250 to $499 a year, and a little more than one out 
of five (21.8 percent) received between $100 and $249 a year; 
28.6 percent received less than $100 a year, while 58 families 
(17.9 percent) are included in the "no income" group. Practi- 
^lly all of these "no income" families are either students or 
inmates of some institution. Of the three belonging to the 
Ch'i Hua Men Chapel, one is a Manchu old maid, one is a 
sixteen-year-old student and one is living in the Women's Poor- 
house. The fact that one out of five of the Teng Shih K'ou 
families has an income of over $500 a year, while nine out of ten 
of the Ch'i Hua Men families receive less than $249 a year and 
almost two out of three (62 percent) receive less than $100 a 
year, indicates something of the difference between the member- 
ship of the two churches. Almost half (47.3 percent) of the Pei 


lOQg 100 r. 

Figure sax 

T'ang families have no income or receive less than $ioo a year. 
When the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang studies were made^ 
the families were asked to tell to which of the six income groups 
they belonged, but the Ch'i Hua Men families were asked to give 
the exact amount of their monthly income. The reports show 
that the money incomes of these families varied from 72 cents to 
$42 a month, the average being $8.90 per family per month, or 
$9.30 if the three families with no income are omitted. The 
mean family income was $7 a month. The average income per 
person was $1.96 per month. 

As far a$ the money income of these families is concerned, 
it is felt that this is a very accurate report. The fact that several 
families not only stated the amount they received as wages but 
also the amount of commission or "squeeze" they received on 
purchases made for the families for which they worked, showed 
that the investigator was able to get the facts. Unfortunately, 
the report does not ^ve the total income of the families. Sevenl 


of them receive free food and free clothes and the value of these 
perquisites has not been reported. One family of twelve mem- 
bers reported that they received only $5.50 a month and that $5 of 
tfiis was spent for rent. The family was really supported by the 
IFood and clothes given them. If the value of the perquisites was 
included, the average income per person for all the Ch'i Hua 
Men families would probably be about $2.25 a month, or an 
average of $140 a year for a family of five. Prof. Dittmer found 
that it was possible for a family of five to be self-supporting on 
an income of $100 a year.^ 

When the statistics were made for the Teng Shih K'ou and 
Pel T'ang Churches, the families were divided into six groups, 
according to the size of their income, and each group was studied 

The annual incomes of the groups were: 

1. $1,000 and over. 

2. $500 to $999. 

3. $250 to $499. 

4. $100 to $249. 

5. Less than $100. 

6. No reported income. 

In almost every case the study of the figures of the various 
income groups did not show any striking diflferences or tell a 
story that was unexpected. Of course the families with larger 
incomes have larger houses, pay more rent, have better educa- 
tions, and employ more servants, but otherwise the groups are 
practically the same. So little difference was shown that no 
special study was made of the different income groups for the 
Ch'i Hua Men families. The most interesting fact shown by 
the figures for the different income groups was that in both the 
Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang churches, the smaller the family 
income the smaller was the average size of the family, except in 
one group. The average size of the Teng Shih K'ou families 
whose income is between $250 and $499 a year was 5.9, or larger 
than 5.2, the average for those whose income is between $500 
and $999 a year. Otherwise, the average size of the family 
decreases as the income decreases. In the Teng Shih K'ou 
Church the families with an income of over $1,000 a year aver- 
aged 6.9 members. The thirty-two families whose income was 
between $100 and $249 a year averaged 4 to a family, while 
those whose income was less than $100 a year had 3.5 members. 
The families that report no income have on the average but 1.5 
members. The average for this group is small because so many 

> An Estifflate of tbe Chineae Standard of Living; Quarterty Journal of Beonotmes, 
NoTcmber, 19x8. 


are single member families, are students away from home, 
inmates of the Old Ladies' Home, etc, and so are classed as 
families with but one member. In the Pei T'ang Church the 
families with an income of $i,ooo and over a year averaged 5 
members. The families in the $500-$999 and the $25C?$499 
groups averaged 3.7 and 3.5, respectively, while those receiviii; 
from $100 to $249 a year had on the average 3 members. Where 
the income was less than $100 a year the families averaged Xi 
members, while those who report no income averaged but 1.1. 
This same decrease in the average size of the family as the 
income decreased was found by Prof. Dittmer in his study of 
the Chinese and Manchu families in one of the suburbs of 
Peking, even though the maximum income was only $270 a yeu 
and the families were divided into groups representing a differ- 
ence in income of only $20 a year ($30-49, ^50-69, etc,). The 
maximum average was 5.0, the minimum 2.5.* 

Although these figures show that in groups that are more or 
less homogeneous there is a tendency for the average size of the 
family to decrease as the family income decreases, there docs 
not seem to be any absolute relation between the size of the fam- 
ily and the size of the income. In the different studies, the same 
income groups have different averages. Apparently it is the 
family income as related to the standard of living of the gfroup 
that influences the size of the family. If an income according to 
the prevailing standard of living is more than sufficient for the 
family needs, there are always relatives who will attach them- 
selves to the family, and absorb the surplus. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that in these studies a "family" includes those 
who are living together, and that no attempt is made to segr^;ate 
those who belong to the "natural families," nor is any account 
taken of the children living away from home or of the number of 
children who may have died. 

For a time it was thought that the study of the families in 
the different income groups would show some connection between 
the size of the family income and the number of unmarried mem- 
bers, the thought being that economic pressure had something to 
do with marriage and the age at marriage. The figures, however, 
did not show the expected differences. The different income 
groups have practically the same proportion of immarried males 
over 16 years of age, one-quarter and one-third for the Teng 
Shih K'ou groups and one-quarter and one-sixth for the Pei 
T'ang groups. Of the females over 16 years of age, one-sixth 
and one-seventh were unmarried except in the Pei T'ang $1,000 
group, where one-half were unmarried, and in the groups in both 

> An Efdmate of the Chineae Standard of Living. Qu^tHrly Joumat of Economies, 
NoTcmber, 1918. 


churches where the family income was less than $ioo a year. 
There were no unmarried females in the Teng Shih K'ou fam- 
ilies belonging to that group, and although there were twenty-two 
females in that group in the Pei T'ang, only one was single. The 
tables giving the ages of those who were unmarried showed that 
for the Teng Shih K'ou Church five of the eight unmarried fe- 
males over 20 years of age belonged to families whose income 
was over $1,000 a year, but in the Pei T*ang families only three 
of the eleven unmarried females were in the $1,000 group. The 
size of the family income seems to have no influence on the age 
of the unmarried males except that all of those who were over 
thirty years of age and still single belonged to families receiving 
less than $250 a year. 

The figures for the different income groups showed that a 
much larger proportion of Chinese families received large in- 
comes than was true of the Manchus. Ten percent of the Chinese 
families belonging to the two churches received $1,000 or more 
a year, while only four percent of the Manchu families received 
that amount. Eleven percent of the Chinese families received 
from $500 to $999 a year, while but seven percent of the Manchu 
families received that amount. This lower average income of 
the Manchu families is undoubtedly due in large part to the fact 
that, prior to 1912, they were closely connected with the Govern- 
ment, but few of them had any regular business and they have 
not, as yet, had time to adjust themselves to the new conditions 
resulting from the Revolution of 191 1. 


In the earning of their incomes the members of the church 
families are engaged in some sixty different occupations. The 
largest number (35) are teaching, 34 Manchus depend upon their 
government pension for support, 33 are students, while 23 are 
preachers or mission workers. The police and soldier groups are 
well represented with 18 policemen, 10 soldiers and 3 army 
officers. Besides these, there are representatives of trades and 
professions that require all degrees of ability and training. The 
church that appeals to the family of the physician, business man 
and capitalist also reaches the family of the peddler, the store- 
keeper, the barber and the coolie. 


It is most significant that at most there are only 57 families 
in which there is more than one wage earner, and that only five 
of the families receiving a government pension report any mem- 


ber of the family as engaged in any occupation. That there arc 
not more wage earners is probably due to the fact that, in a 
great many Chinese families, when the income is sufficient to 
support the family according to the standard to which it is 
accustomed, there seems to be no attempt to increase the family 
income, even though the several members of the family may be 
unemployed. Those who are not working seem to be perfectly 
willing to let the one who is employed support them, and public 
opinion does not force them to find some occupation. A man 
sometimes has to support not only his own family and his mother 
and father, but even his brothers and their families. One case 
was found where a young man with a family was earning $75 a 
month, but he had to give more than half this amount to his 
father so that he would not have to work and could spend his 
time giving parties and going on excursions, even though he was 
only fifty years of age and perfectly able to find employment if 
he were to make the effort. Other cases are known where older 
brothers have given up paying positions to come and live with a 
younger brother who was receiving a good income. There seems 
to be no relief for the man with an income. Public opinion de- 
mands that he support his relatives and he dare not object too 
strenuously for he may some time lose his position and then he 
can demand that the other members of his family support him 
and his dependents. The Chinese family system has much to 
recommend it, but it does seem to make it possible for a 
great many able-bodied men to live in idleness and force the 
other members of their family to support them. 


In making the survey, an attempt was made to find out how 
many hours a day the members of the church families were 
working, how much night and Sunday work they had, how many 
of them were unemployed and what they considered to be the 
cause of their unemployment, but the question concerning the 
hours of work was the only one that was answered at all, and 
the answers to it were relatively few. Of the 129 men who 
answered the question, two-thirds said they were working eight 
hours or less a day, 8 percent were working ten or twelve hours, 
while 20 percent stated that they were working "all day." There 
seemed to be no trace of the long hours known to be prevalent in 
some industries. 


Only 22 percent of the church families own their own homes, 
which is a somewhat smaller proportion than is found in the 




Figure 33: Rent Per Room Per Month 

American cities. There, from 26 to 31 percent of the families own 
their homes,* In the three churches the proportion of families 
owning their homes varies from 17 percent in the Teng Shih 
K'ou to 27 percent in the Pei T'ang. 

Twenty-six percent of the families that do not own their own 
homes pay no rent. They are given their room by their em- 
ployer, an institution or a friend. Of the 89 in this group, 20 
are living in the Old Ladies' Home or the Poorhouse, 21 are 
in school, 15 are living in rooms that belong to the church or 
mission, and 10 are given their room by a friend or relative. 


The families that rent their homes pay anywhere from 30 cents 
to $40 a month; 20 percent pay less than $t.oo a month, 54 
percent pay less than $2.00 a month, and only 10 percent pay 
more than $10 a month. The rents paid by the Ch'i Hua Men 
families are naturally the smallest. Their average rent is 
$1 .20 a family per month, and the median rent is 85 
cents a month. Only one family pays over $5.00 a month for its 
house. The Pei T'ang families pay from 50 cents to $7 a month. 

•U. S. Cenni, 1910, lor Chiu«i>, PhUaddpbte, Piltdiurg, ud St. I.«nlK 


For them the average rent is $2.90 a month and the median rent 
between $3.00 and $4.00 a month. All of the families that pay 
more than $7.00 a month belong to the Teng Shih K'ou Church. 
Thirty-one percent of its members pay more than that amount, 
so that, although the median rent is between $3.00 and $4.00 a 
month, the average rent per family is $6.50 a month. 


While the amount of rent paid depends more or less upon 
the amount of the familv income, the rent per room shows the 
housing facilities that the families are receiving. The actual 
amounts paid for a room vary from less than 25 cents to $20.00 
a month, while the average rent per room for all the families is 
$1.25 a month and the median rent $1.00. The average for the 
Ch'i Hua Men families is 55 cents a room, while for the Teng 
Shih K'ou it is between $1.50 and $1.60 a month. 


Owing to the fact that the Teng Shih K'ou and the Pd T'ang 
families are divided into fairly large income groups, $250 to $499» 
$500 to $999 a year, etc., it is impossible to determine what 
proportion of the family income was spent for rent, but the more 
detailed income reports of the Ch'i Hua Men survey make it 
possible to get the figures for the families included in that study. 
They spent on the average 15 percent of their money income on 
rent, although the median is only 10 percent. The average is 
raised by three families who spend 43 percent, 44 percent and 91 
percent of their money income for rent. It seemed mipossible tHat 
any family could spend 91 percent of its income for rent and still 
live, but investigation showed that it was 91 percent of its money 
income. The family was really supported by gifts of food and 
clothes and the value of these was not included by the investi- 
gator. If the value of all such perquisites were included, the 
Ch'i Hua Men families would spend on the average about 13 
percent of their income for rent, or very nearly the same propor- 
tion as is spent by families in Great Britain and Saxony, Ger- 
many. In those countries the average is 13.48 percent and 12 
percent, respectively, while for Illinois and Massachusetts the 
figures are 17.2 percent and 19.74 percent.^ 


Just half of the families are living in one or two rooms. The 
largest house has 40 rooms and the average has 3.6 rooms. The 

^Ely and Wicker: Elementary Principles of Economies, 



100 TAMILICS 100 1 














































Figure 34: Persons Per Room 

Teng Shih K'ou families have, on the average, 4.6 rooms for 
each family, while the Ch'i Hua Men families have but 2.4. By 
a "room" is meant a Chinese "chien," which is the space between 
two roof trusses. Since a "room" defined according to western 
standards may contain one, two, three, or even more "chicn," the 
Qiinese standard has been used, particularly as the *'chien" is 
fairly uniform in size, ordinarily measuring 10x12 feet 


The number of rooms per family tells but little about living 
conditions unless it is related to the size of the family. Just half 
of the church families have one room or more for each of its 
members. Two families are living with six in a room and one 
with seven. These are families whose income is less than $100 a 
year. The average for all the families is 1.9 persons per room. 
In each of the six income groups in the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei 
T'ang churches, as the size of the income decreases the average 
number of persons per room increases. For the Teng Shih K'ou 
families the average is 1.8 and for the Ch'i Hua Men families 2.5. 
Considering the size of the Chinese "chien," a family cannot be 
said to be really crowded unless they average three or four per- 
sons to a room. On this basis 2y percent of the families are 



An attempt was made to secure more detailed informatioo 
concerning the crowding of the families by asking how mainr 
k'angs or beds each family had, but unfortunately on the cards 
for the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T ang surveys, the question was 
translated into Chinese in such a way that many of the families 
failed to answer it. The Chinese use two kinds of beds, one, a 
k'ang, or built-in brick bed, that occupies one side of a room, 
ordinarily six feet wide and from eight to ten feet long, the 
other a movable bed that at most accommodates two peopk. 
Many of those who had only the latter type of bed felt that the 
question as asked did not apply to them and so (Knitted it. The 
question as revised for the Ch'i Hua Men study gave better 
results. The families that did answer the question have, on the 
average, 1.9 beds or k'angs, while the number of persons per 
bed averages 2.8. This would be a very high average for Ameri- 
can living conditions, but the size of the Chinese k'ang makes 
it possible for several people to sleep on it without crowding. 
Even so, such a high average means that some families are very 
crowded. Eleven nad five persons for each bed or k'ang, five 
had six and three had seven. 


Before the survey was made, it was realized that quite a num- 
ber of families would include servants, and at first an attempt 
was made to have them included in the study, but this was found 
to be impossible. In some cases, as in a school or the Y.M.C.A., 
the servants could not be called members of the family, and in 
many others it was practically impossible to get any information 
about the servants, except perhaps their name and sex. Conse- 
quently, no servants are included in the statistics. 

Forty families had one or more servants. Thirty of these 
were Teng Shih K'ou families and ten belonged to the Pei T'ang 
families. Five was the largest number of servants in any one 
family. The Ch'i Hua Men families had no servants. 

To one accustomed to American standards of living, it seems 
strange to think of a family with an income of not more than $20 
a month employing a servant, but in Peking servants can be 
secured for $3 a month and their board. Furthermore, some 
servants are really slaves. They were sold by their parents when 
they were children, and have been brought up to serve their 
masters; they are subject to their orders and are given only 
food and clothes. A school-teacher tells of a wealthy girl who 
brought two slave girls with her when she came to Peking to 


100% MP 

Mr T TTTT 100% 




^Maic f- Female 

SCAN read 


Figure 35: Education 

school. They attended classes and were really members of the 
school, and it was hard to understand why they had come until 
it was found that their mistress was using them at night as foot 
warmers, one for each foot. 


Next to the figures for income, those for education give the 
best idea of the potential power of the church group. Only l6 
percent of those who are lO years of age or over are known to 
be unable to read, 67 percent can read, 8 percent have had a good 
Chinese education, 15 percent have had middle school training, 
and 6 percent have attended some higher school. This latter 
group mcludes 10 returned students (those who have studied 
abroad), 17 who have studied theology, law, medicine, electrical 
engineering, flying in a school in China, 22 who have attended a 
Chmese university or college and 6 who have had commercial 


or Bible school training, a total of 55, 45 men and lO womeiL 
Thirty-four of this group belong to the Teng Shih K'ou and 21 
to the Pei T'ang families, none of the members of the Ch'i Hua 
Men families having had any higher school education, though 
seven have studied in a middle school. All of the returned stu- 
dents are members of the Teng Shih K'ou families. 

The heading "Good Chinese" was put in the educational 
classification to care for those who, because of the comparatively 
recent change from the old classical education to the modem 
system, could not be included in either the middle or higher school 
groups, but who nevertheless had had a good education. 

As would be expected, many more men than women have had 
a good education. Thirty-two percent of the men have had a 
"Good Chinese," middle or higher school education, but only 12 
percent of the women are included in these groups. Three times 
as many women as men are unable to read, 123 women and 39 

Unfortunately no report was made on the education of 170 
persons, 17 percent of those over nine years of age. These 
consequently had to be put under the heading "No Data." They 
probably belong to the "Can Read" and "Cannot Read" groups, 
as it is fairly certain that a report has been made for all of those 
who can be included in the higher groups. Even if all the "No 
Data" group should be unable to read, only one person out of 
three would be illiterate. The actual amount of illiteracy is prob- 
ably about 25 percent, 15 to 17 percent for the men and about 40 
percent for the women. 

A very large proportion (59 percent) of the women of the 
Ch'i Hua Men families cannot read, but this is not surprising 
considering the district in which they live, the available oppor- 
tunities for education, the attitude of most of the Chinese toward 
the education of women and particularly the size of the family 
incomes. The 41 percent who can read is a much larger propor- 
tion than will be found in the ordinary Chinese community. Even 
now in Peking, only one in twenty of the girls of school age is in 
school, and in all of China only one in three hundred. 

The efforts of the missionaries to educate those with whom 
they come in contact have certainly produced results and these 
results are shown by the high degree of literacy of the Chinese 
families. All of the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang families have 
at least one member who can read, and while there are 12 of the 
Ch'i Hua Men families in which no one can read, the condition 
is not as bad as it seems. Ten of the 12 are families with one 
member, while the other two have two and three members. 

Even for most of those who cannot read, the situation is far 
from hopeless as only a small proportion of them are too old to 


learn. Twenty-eight percent of the men and 19 percent of the 
women who cannot read are less than 26 years old, while 60 
percent of the men and 41 percent of the women are still under 
36 years of age. With a special effort on the part of the church 
and the church families, most of those who are illiterate can be 
taught to read, particularly if some night schools are opened 
for them, and they can be taught the new system of phonetic 
script that make3 it possible for a person to learn to read in a 
month or two. 


One^uarter (26 percent) of the families subscribe to one or 
more newspapers. One out of three (36 percent) of the Teng 
Shih K'ou families are subscribers, but only one out of 25 (4 
percent) of the Ch'i Hua Men families receives a newspaper 
regularly. The list of newspapers taken includes 23 of the 72 
papers published in Peking. The Chung Ching Pao was the 
most popular with 23 subscriptions and the Yi Shih Pao or 
Social Welfare next, with 11. It is interesting to note how, 
in the different income groups in the Teng Shih K'ou and Pd 
T'ang studies, the proportion of families subscribing for a paper 
decreases regularly as the income decreases. Ninety-four per- 
cent of the Teng Shih K'ou families whose income is over $1,000 
a year take a paper, but only 3 percent of the Pd T'ang families 
that receive less than $100 a year subscribe. 


The favorite amusements of the people are interesting, in that 
they are a sidelight on their life. Music, reading and singing are 
by far the most popular amusements, though the more strenuous 
sports of tennis, basketball, exercising and gardening appeal to 
quite a number. Four said that their favorite amusement was 
talking. To one accustomed to western life, the recreational 
side of Chinese life seems very limited and greatly in need of 
development, particularly as so much of it is commercialized and 
consequently out of reach of those whose income is small. 


Thirty-three of the men and 31 of the women were members 
of the Young Men's or Young Women^s Christian Assodation. 




Figure 36: Cburcb Rdsttionships 


The fundamental figures in any church survey are, of course, 
those for church relationship They show how welt the church is 
taking advantage of the opportunities it has of reaching the non- 
Christians in the families of its members, how regularly its 
members are attending the church services and contributing to 
the church work and how many are willing to give part of their 
time in voluntary service for the church. The three churches 
included in this survey can well be proud of the fact that 60 
percent of the members of the families studied have been bap- 
tized or are related to the church as inquirers or probationers. 
This is a very high proportion, especially as the churches have but 
recently come in touch with many of the families, perhaps through 
some of their younger members, and so have not yet had time to 
reach the older and more conservative people. In one family of 
20 members, only two were related to the diurch and they had not 
yet been baptized. 

The records show that 651 persons have been baptized, 50 are 
on probation and 22 are listed as inquirers, a total of 723 persons 
definitely related to the church; 3^ (54 percent) are men and 


330 are women, which is 62 percent of all the males and 57 
percent of all the females. The general conditions of Chinese 
life and the fact that women the world over tend to be more 
conservative than men, particularly in regard to religion, and find 
it hard to give up their old beliefs, will probably account for a 
larger proportion of men being related to the church. Sixty- 
seven percent of the members of the Pei T'ang families and 65 
percent of those belonging to the Ch'i Hua Men families are re- 
lated to the church, but of the Teng Shih K'ou families only 53 
percent. This lower percentage in the Teng Shih K'ou families 
is probably accounted for by the fact that a very considerable 
proportion (25 percent) of its families have been in Peking less 
than six years, and the church has not had time to reach the 
entire family. Furthermore, quite a number of those who are 
students come from well-to-do families, and are living at home. 
Consequently, all the members of their families are included in 
the survey, which tends to reduce the proportion related to the 
church. In the other churches, most of the students are living 
away from home, and so are classed by the survey as families 
whose entire membership is related to the church. 


Since the children are baptized only when the parents are 
Christians it was felt diat in making the statistics a distinction 
should be made between those who were old enough to join the 
church of their own volition and those who would be baptized 
because of the desires of their parents. Fifteen years of 
age (Chinese) was made the dividing line, and it was found 
that 70 percent of all those over 14 were related to the church. 
For the Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men churches the proportion is 
still higher, 78 and 80 percent of those over 14. Only 30 percent 
of the children under 15 have been baptized. 


Although the churches have succeeded in baptizing or enroll- 
ing as probationers or inquirers a very large proportion of the 
members of the families with which they are in touch, they have 
not been so successful in getting the members to come to church. 
Only 61 percent of those who are related to the church say that 
they are attending the church services regularly, that is, at least 
once a month. It is interesting to note that although the Teng 
Shih K'ou Church has not been able to reach as large a propor- 
tion of the members of its families as have the other churdies, 
it is successful in getting a very much larger proportion of its 


members to attend regularly, 74 percent as compared with 50 
and 51 percent for the Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men chapels. 


Although 61 percent of those who are related to the church 
are attending services at least once a month, only 50 percent say 
that they are regularly contributing to the support of the church, 
"regularly" here again meaning once a month. The Teng Shih 
K'ou figures again bring up the average. Fifty-nine percent of its 
members are regularly contributing, while only 43 and 45 percent 
of those who are related to the Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men 
churches give anything regularly. This would be expected be- 
cause of the smaller incomes of the Pei T ang and Ch'i Hua Men 
families, but even so it does not seem as though one coi^r a 
month is too much to expect of any one who belongs to the 
church, and that more of an effort ought to be made to have every 
member give something. 

Although 59 percent of the Teng Shih K'ou members arc 
contributing regularly, the amount of the contributions is not 
large even though the survey shows that many of the families 
have large incomes. In spite of the fact that one out of eight of 
its families has an income of over $1,000 a year, and one out of 
five receives over $500 a year, the church finds it hard to collect 
$1,000 a year from its members. It even has to depend upon the 
missionaries and other foreign friends to raise the $200 spent to 
heat the building. On the other hand it must be remembered that 
while many of these family incomes are large, those who are 
related to the church are many times unable to give any, even 
when they want to. A woman belongs to the church, but her 
husband is still an ardent Confucianist or a Buddhist. He has 
absolute control of the family income and is not at all anxious to 
see any of it go for Christian work. In other cases the younger 
members of the family are related to the church, and although 
the income of their family is fairly large, they themselves have 
little if any money that they can give to the church. Even tmder 
these conditions, however, it does seem as though the church 
ought to be able to increase both the number who are giving and 
the amount of their gifts. Complete self-support and contribu- 
tions for mission work ought to be perfectly possible for a church 
whose families have the financial standing of those belonging to 
the Teng Shih K'ou, but where the families have an average 
income of but $1.96 per person per month, as in the Ch'i Hua 
Men, it is hard to see how they can be asked to spare enough to 
ever make the church self-supporting. This type of church 
should be the home mission field for the more well-to-do churches* 



Only one out of three (34 percent) of all those who are re- 
lated to the Teng Shih K'ou and Pei T'ang churches attend Sun- 
day School regularly, which is a fairly large proportion consider- 
ing that only 61 percent of the same group attend church regu- 
larly. The Ch'i Hua Men Chapel has not yet organized a Sunday 


The greatest lack in the church life in China seems to be in 
the field of service. The figures show that on the evangelistic 
side the church is able to reach and convert a very large propor- 
tion (60 percent) of the members of the families with which it is 
in touch. It succeeds fairly well in getting its members to attend 
the church services and contribute to the support of the church, 
but it has not succeeded in getting its members to give of their 
time. Only 76 persons, 10 percent of all those who belong to the 
church, or 12 percent of the church members who are over 14 
years of age, are doing any voluntary work for the church. 

That more are not giving of their time seems to be due to the 
fact that the church does not offer, as yet, many diflFerent oppor- 
tunities for service. Those who say they are doing voluntary 
work for the church are preaching, teachmg a class, doing per- 
sonal work, acting as church officers or keeping church records. 
None of the answers to the question. What volimtary work are 
you doing for the church ? give any evidence that the Chinese think 
of any social service work as connected with their church life, 
even though it is known that quite a number are working in 
connection with some of the charitable institutions of the city. 
Consequently, the church has but little to oflFer in the line of 
service, and the church life of most of the members consists in 
attending services more or less regularly, and contributing some 
money. For the great majority of them there is no outlet in 
church service for the emotions that come with their Christian 

The question has often arisen in our minds, After you have 
a person baptized, what are you going to do with him? and, 
Hasn't the time come for the church to develop lines of service 
that will appeal to these people and give them a chance to express 
their desire for service in lines that are definitely connected with 
the church ? It is realized that the church in China has been and 
is facing many problems, and that the first aim and object of the 
church must always be evangelism. However, as the number of 
church members has increased and there has feeen need for it, 
the mission forces have developed an educational system to care 


for the children of the church members and to educate those who 
are to be the leaders in Christian work. Now that many of the 
problems of evangelism have been worked out and the educational 
system has been fairly well developed, it seems as though the 
time had come for the development of the service side of the 
church life. 


The survey figures have shown that the education and inonne 
of the church families make it possible for them to stand well 
in the community and contribute their full share of leadership to 
the life of the city, their Christian ideals have undoubtedly pro- 
duced a desire for service, but although the desire and ability to 
serve are present, experience is lacking. The old methods of 
work are not satisfactory and must be changed, and outside help 
is needed in developing new plans and adapting the experience 
of other countries to Chinese life. The mission forces ought to 
give this assistance, both because of the contribution they can 
make to the Chinese life and because of the development that it 
will bring to the life of the church. It is true that considerable 
experimenting will have to be done, that it will require both men 
and money to carry out any program that may be adopted and 
that some will feel that it is not right to take either the men or 
the money from the evangelistic side of the church work. It is 
our belief, however, that such service will mean great progress 
for the church. It will give the church members something 
definite to do, it will give them a chance to give some service and 
make their church life mean more than reading the Bible and 
coming to church, it will undoubtedly increase the amount of 
money that the Chinese are willing to contribute to the church and 
will make it possible for tihe church to reach many who are now 
unwilling to take an interest in Christianity because of its 
apparent lack of a practical program. 

The change in the social life is bound to come. The Chinese 
are already asking for advice as they develop new social pro- 
grams. How much improvement there will be depends largely 
upon the amount of help that is given. If the Chinese have to 
work out their problems alone they will probably not make a 
great deal of progress, while if they can profit by the experience 
of other countries they will go far before the present state of 
change becomes stabilized and fixed. 

It is vital that the Christian forces decide whether or not they 
are going to help in the development of the new social life. If 
they decide to help, the church will be able to establish itself as 
an institution that is interested in the life and needs of the people. 
If they do not help, the church will lose one of the biggest oppor- 


tunities it has had and will develop into an institution that is 
detached from the life of the people and will consequently fail 
to have either the growth or the influence that it should. 

The social movement needs men who are actuated by Chris- 
tian motives, for experience has shown that they are the ones who 
are willing to carry a proposition through, even though it means 
hard work and sacrifice. The church needs the social work to 
help develop the spiritual life of its members. Will the mission 
forces be wise enough to bring the two together ? 


Peking, dotted as it is with ancient temples and shrines, 
modem churches and chapels, has long been an important re- 
ligious center as well as the political and educational center of 
Qmia. The ancient faiths received Imperial patronage, so it was 
but natural that their important shrines should be in or near*the 
city ; and since Peking is one of the most influential cities in the 
coimtry it has become the home of large mission forces repre- 
senting Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic and Protestant Chris- 
tianity. The Altar and Temple of Heaven was the center of tfie 
old Chinese Worship of Heaven and the center of the altar was 
considered by the ancient Chinese scholars to be the actual math- 
ematical center of the universe. The Temple of Confucius, next 
to the one at Chufu, Shantung, his home and burisd place, is the 
central shrine of Confucianism. Tibetan Buddhism has estab- 
lished important headquarters in Peking for its priests helped the 
Emperor control Mongolia and Tibet and were rewarded by 
Imperial patronage. Peking has also been a theological training 
center for the Mohammedans, is the principal center of the 
Roman Catholic activity in China, is almost the sole center of the 
Russian Orthodox Mission, and is one of the most important 
educational and evangelistic centers for the Protestant churches. 

It would be superfluous in this survey to give a minute de- 
scription of the great temples and shrines of the capi^ or 
attempt to discuss the ancient religions and their influence. This 
has been done by Martin, Williams, £dkins and many other 
writers. Even of the Christian missions we have not made any 
critical study, but have attempted to give by means of statistics and 
the description of some of the more outstanding institutions an 
idea of the work that is being done in the city. 


The police report that there are 936 Confucian, Buddhist and 
I'aoist places of worship in Peking, divided as follows : 

Ssu Monastery 296 

Miao Temple 358 

An Nunnery 169 



Kuan Taoist Temple 29 

Tang Family Ancestral Hall 8 

Tzu Public Ancestral Hall 68 

Ch'an Lin Secluded Buddhist Monastery ;... 8 


The most famous of these are the Temple of Heaven, the Temple 
of Agriculture, the Confucian Temple, the Lama Temple. 

The Temple of Heaven is now no longer used for worship, 
as the idea back of its ceremonies has been changed by the 
coming of the Republic. The Emperor was the Son of Heaven 
and the only one to approach the Spirit of Heaven. Since he has 
gone, worship at the temple has been discontinued except for an 
unsuccessful attempt to revive it made by Yuan Shih K'ai. 

The Temple of Agriculture was dedicated to the cult of Shen 
Nung, one of China's prehistoric emperors. The Emperor wor- 
shiped there on the first day of spring and plowed the first furrow 
of the year. Its altars have also been fleserted since the establish- 
ment of the Republic. The temple grounds are now a public 
park, and an amusement center has been established in the north 
end of the temple inclosure. 

The worship of Confucius, the great sage of China, is still 
carried on in the spring and fall at the Confucian Temple. There 
being no priests in the temple, those who take part in the worship 
are principally government officials. The worship is fostered by 
the Confucian Society, an influential organization of the older and 
more conservative men of the capital who made a decided but 
unsuccessful efiFort to make Confucianism the state re}jgion of 
China. The prime mover in this society has been Dr. Ch*en 
Ruan Chang, an American returned student and a graduate of 
Columbia University. 

Yung Ho Kung, or, as it is better known, the Lama Temple, 
though it is only the chief of some twenty Lama temples in 
Pdcing, with its hundreds of priests and acolytes, prayer wheels 
and strange images, always makes a great impression on a foreign 
visitor. It is usually the only contact they have with the 
Buddhism that has come through Tibet and taken on a great many 
of the anamistic superstitions of the high hills and some of the 
grosser beliefs of India. Services are held daily in the temple 
and are full of interest with their chanting, libation of wine, 
scattering of rice and repetition of prayers. The Devil Dance or 
Devil Driving, held on the 30th of the ist Moon, is, however, the 
strangest and most spectacular. Lama dignitaries come to Peking 
especially for it, gorgeous old style costumes are brought out, 
men wearing weird and grotesque masks go through strange 
dances, while others with snapping whips keep back the crowds 


of spectators and drive out any evil spirits that may have invaded 
the temple compound during the year. 

Outside of Peking the hills are dotted with temples and mem- 
asteries, most of them without worshipers except on special fes- 
tival days, and supported, for the most part, by family endow- 
ment funds and land rentals. 

The old faiths have lost, almost completely, their hold on the 
intellectuals of China and are fast losing all other classes as well, 
though ancient beliefs and superstitions go slowly and one sees 
many a man walking down the street on festival days canying 
with him candles, incense and paper money to be used in home 
worship. The ancient Jemples are going to ruin, and no new 
ones are being built. Many of the shrines are being rented out 
to roomers or merchants and some of the temples are being used 
for modern primary schools. 


The Buddhist Reform Society (Li Shang Hui), an organiza- 
tion with branches in all the provinces of China, has ^en in 
Peking since early in the Ch'ing Dynasty (1644-1911) and is still 
one of the active Buddhist societies. It is a temperance or rather 
a prohibition society, its members pledging themselves to abstain 
from the use of opium and tobacco and to use wine only when 
sick and snuff only to strengthen their eyes and help them avoid 
disease. They do not kill anything, do not eat the meat of cows, 
horses, dogs or doves, nor do they get excited or angry. The 
society accepts as members all those who want to join regardless 
of age or sex, provided they are introduced by three members in 
good standing. The membership in the thirty-four centers in and 
around Peking (see map) is said to be 10,000. 

The Peking branches hold two big meetings a year, one in 
the spring and the other in the fall. Those who attend take part 
in the worship of Nan Hai Ta Shih and enjoy a feast for which 
they subscribe anywhere from 30 cents to $10. This pajrs 
for the feast, for the salaries of the men in charge of the 
various headquarters and for some relief given to deserving 
members. During the service, the head men of the districts act 
as priests and, practically motionless, spend from three to four 
hours in prayer and meditation before tiie altar. Although they 
have a position as disciples of the deity during the service, the 
head men are brothers to all the members at other times, and 
even though they are priests for the worship of the society, the 
rules of the order permit them to marry. 

One of the priests stated that the society made no special 
effort to increase its membership or open new branches, nor did 


n Stdrt) HndqMrten •> dKMn, hit vlT ita 
Figure 37 

it attempt to do any evangelistic work for Buddhism. The activi- 
ties of the society, however, are given newspaper publicity. 

About twenty years ago, the branch of the society in the 
thirteenth ward of the North City (west of Hatamen Street and 
south of the Y. M. C. A. building) installed some 30 street lamps 
and arranged to have carts make regular collections of ashes and 
waste. The cost of this work was met by contributions from the 


people living in the district, the money being collected and dis- 
bursed by the Reform Society. About five years ago, this work 
was taken over by the police who now collect the money. The 
district head of the Reform Society stated that he felt that the 
police were doing the work very efficiently. 


The Mohammedans have long been in Peking, their oldest 
mosque, that on Niu Chieh, having been built some time during 
the Sung Dynasty (960-1278 A.D.) when the Mohammed^is 
first entered reking as residents. During the time of Ch'ien Lung 
they had special influence at court, for one of their faith was 
taken as a concubine by the Emperor. A mosque was built for 
her adjoining the Imperial palace and she was allowed to have a 
bodyguard of those of her own faith. 

The late Mr. C. L. Ogilvie of the Presbyterian Mission in 
Peking |^ves the approximate number of Moslems in and near 
Peking m 1914 as 30,000, there being some 5,949 families con- 
nected with the 32 mosques in or near the city. Twenty-two of 
the mosques with 5,069 families were inside the walls, and 10 
with 880 families were within 2 miles of the city.* 

According to the estimate of one of the mullahs there were 
25,000 Moslems in Peking in 1919, while the police census of 
1917 gives the number inside the walls as 23,524. The Peking 
Guide Book, published in 1919, gives the number of mosques as 
30, ten outside the city, and it is known that a new one has just 
been built on Wang Fu Ching Ta Chieh. The interiors of all of 
the mosques are in good repair and outwardly most of them are in 
fair condition. 

Worship is still carried on in all the mosques, the principal 
service being held at 2 o'clock on Friday afternoon. At fliat time 
all the worshipers must take the "Ta Ching" (large bath) and 
chanp^e their clothes. Women take no part whatsoever in the 
religious services. The average attendance at the Friday service 
in all the mosques is about 843. Preaching is ordinarily done in 
Arabic, though occasional sermons are given in Chinese. The 
addresses usually consist of exhortations to lead a good life, 
explanations of the Koran and general advice. 

All but one of the mosques has an "ahong" or mullah who, 
at least, can read the Koran in Arabic. The two best known of 
the Peking ahongs are Wang Hao Ten at Niu Chidi and Chang 
Ch'ing Yu at Chiao Tzu Hut'ung. Both of these men have made 
the pilgrimage to Mecca, the latter having been twice. He has 

^The fireseiit statui of Mohimmedanism in Peking. The Moslem World, 1914. 
No. 4, page i6s. 


also visited Constantinople, Jerusalem, Moscow, Petrograd and 
other important centers. 

Practically all of the mosques have schools for their members' 
children, but we have not been able to secure any figures concern- 
ing the number enrolled. For their more advanced pupils, the 
Mohammedans have an academy with over twenty-five students 
and a college with more than ten students. JUst how many 
mosques are engaged in charitable work is not known, but the one 
outside of Ch'i Hua Men used to run a chou ch'ang (soup 
kitchen) during the winter months, but the funds gave out and 
the work has been turned over to the Military Guard, though the 
food is still cooked in the mosque kitchen. 

From outward appearance it is practically impossible to tell 
who are Moslems in Peking. They differ from tiieir neighbors 
principally in that they are apt to be cleaner and are somewhat 
restricted in their social intercourse. The fact that they do not 
eat pork cuts them off from a good many social contacts, par- 
ticularly since eating is connected with so much of the Chinese 
life. There are some Mohammedans in government employ, some 
have money shops and large stores, some run dairies, but by far 
the majority are dealers in mutton, or camel, donkey and cart 
drivers, the caravan trade to the city being almost entirely in 
their hands. 


Just when Christianity came to Peking is not known. Nes- 
torian monks were at work in China in the Seventh Century, but 
it is doubtful that they visited Peking, then onljr the residence of 
a military governor. Giovanni Di Monte Corvino, was the first 
known Qiristian missionary to come to Peking. He arrived in 
1293, bringing with him letters of introduction from the Pope 
Nicholas IV. The first missionary of the Russian Orthodox 
Church was brought to Peking a prisoner in 1685 after the cap- 
ture of Albazin. Protestant mission work was begun when the 
representatives of the London Mission arrived in 1861, the year 
after Peking was opened to the residence of foreign diplomats and 


The Roman Catholics are the largest and oldest body of 
Christians in Peking. Their work is conducted in five large cen- 
ters, each with its cathedral, which are by far the most imposing 
of the church buildings in Peking. The largest and finest is the 

* See detailed information in Appendix XII relati/e to the amount of Chrittiaa 
work being done in Peking, by the Chinese themselves as well as by foreigners. 


Pei T'ang (North Cathedral), just inside the west wall of tHc 
Imperial City, where in 1900 a little band of Catholic fathers and 
sisters with less than fifty French and Italian soldiers success- 
fully defended themselves and some 3,000 native Christians from 
the attacks of the Boxers. 

The Jesuit fathers, of whom there are some 57, are carrying 
on evangelistic, educational, publishing and other work. With 
the exception of two, one Irish and one Australian, all the foreign 
priests are French. According to the 191 8 report, the Peking 
churches had 9,744 members, or nearly twice as many as the 
Protestant and Anglican adherents combined. The 1917 police 
census gives the number of Catholics as 8,166. Adult baptisms 
during 1918 numbered 301. 

The Sisters of Charity are doing hospital, philanthropic and 
educational work. The hospital of Saint Michel on Legation 
Street and the Hospital of Saint Vincent in the Pei T'ang Com- 
pound are caring for some 1,473 patients a year. In 1917, 21,940 
patients were cared for in their homes, while 469,394 patients 
were treated in the eleven dispensaries of the Order.^ Some of 
the sisters are nursing in the Chung Yang Government Hospital 
in the West City. 

The Jenzeutang Orphanage, one of the best conducted philan- 
thropic institutions in China, is also run by this order. It is caring 
for some 392 children and is giving them an industrial as well as 
a classical training. Among the trades taught are sewing and 
embroidery, carpentry, metal working, printing and engravinc^. 
The Hospice of Saint Joseph, with its old people's home, wonc 
rooms and schools, is also under their management. 

The eight Franciscan Missionaries of Mary have a large home 
on San Tiao Hut'ung, where they have classes in French, English 
and Chinese, and are teaching industrial work, embroidery and 
lace making to the girls under their care. 

The Sisters of St. Joseph, with seventy representatives, have 
their headquarters at the Pei T'ang, but are apparently doing 
most of their work outside of Peking, as they have 22 stations in 
the North Chihli District. 

The report for the schools in Peking and immediate vicinity 
shows a total of 1,737 students, but it is impossible to determine 
how many of these are in higher schools and how many are girls.* 
In the North Chihli District there is one seminary, with 128 
students ; the colleges have 1,389 students. There are also 6,64$ 
boys in 302 schools and 4,466 g^rls in 185 schools, a total of 
12,628 students. 

^It was impossible to tell whether the report included Peking or Pddnf and 

*See Appendix for detailed report. 



Peking, until i860, was the only important mission center o£ 
the Greek Catholic Church in China, and until 1900 very little 
work was done outside of the capital. 

The beg^innings of the Russian Orthodox Mission in China 
are described by Bishop Innocent as follows : * 

"The beginning of the Russian Orthodox Mission in China dates 
far back as the end of the seventeenth century. During the reign of the 
Emperor, K'ang-hsi, the Chinese conquered Albazin, a fortress on the 
Amur river, taking forty-five Russian prisoners. Among this number 
was a priest. Father Maximus Leontieff. He reached Peking near the 
end of the year, 1685, • bringing with him the thaumaturgpcaf image of 
St Nicholas, Bishop of Mirlikysk. Thus the first missionary of the 
Russian Orthodoxy, contrary to his own will, settled himself at the north- 
eastern comer of the Manchu City where he lived for twenty years, 
serving the spiritual needs of his little flock. The services were con- 
ducted in a small chapel, transformed from a Chinese temple. After 
the expiration of ten years a holy communion doth and a letter of 
credence were received from the Metropolitan of Tobolsli^ and the little 
chapel was consecrated as the Church of St. Sofia — the wisdom of God. 
In his letters, the Metropolitan ordered that prayer be made for the 
Chinese emperor and that preaching to the Chinese be begun. In 1712^ 
twenty-seven years after his arrival in Peking, Father Maximus <fied 
The place of his burial remains unknown. He was a good pastor, who 
willingly shared the fate of his flock, and at the request of the Chinese 
government accompanied the Chinese soldiers to war/' 

In this first period the finances of the Peking Mission were 
supplied by the Russian Government, as the object of the mission 
was the promotion of the political interests of Russia through the 
missionaries. Frequently oflScial orders were issued and received 
advising caution with reference to the preaching of Christianity, 
and at times strictly forbidding any evangelism among the 

The principal effect of the early missionary work was the 
introduction into Europe of "a knowledge of the Chinese lan- 
guage and literature, Chinese customs and manners of living, 
Chinese flora and fauna, Chinese ethnography and medicine/' 
for many of the early missionaries were great students of 

At the close of this first period (i860), "Peking was the only 
important missionary center, and here the mission numbered less 
than two hundred Christians, including the descendants of the 
Albazin prisoners." 

The second period (i860- 1902) was marked, principally, by 

' The Chinese Recorder, October, 1916. 


the translation of a large number of sacred books, many of the 
mission workers devoting themselves almost exclusively to study 
and the production of literature. The most famous of the many 
sinologues are : 

Archimandrite Gury Karpoff (1858-1864), Archimandrite 
Pallady Kaffaroff (1849-1859, 1864-1878), Father Flavian (i8;«- 
1884), and Archimandrite Amfilohy Loutovinoff (1883-1896). 

The difficulties of this second period of the development of 
the Russian Church in China are summarized by Bishop Innocent 
as follows: 

"The reasons for the slight progn*ess of these years are: (i) sufficient 
money was not provided to enable the head of the mission and his 
assistants to preach in places outside of Peking and thus extend the vrork 
of the mission; (2) the missionaries sent to China came without any 
knowledge of Chinese and were, therefore, obliged to devote much of the 
time to acquiring the language, and had little left for educational amd 
evangelistic work^ At the close of the second period in the history of 
the Russian Orthodox Mission the number of the baptized was not more 
than five hundred. Two new churches had been opened, one in Hankow 
and the other in Kalgan, but neither of these was of any great misskmaiy 

The recent development of the Greek Church in Peking b 
described by Bishop Innocent (then Archimandrite Innocent) as 
follows : 

"In March, 1897, Archimandrite Innocent arrived in Peking. Seeing 
everything badly crippled, he immediately initiated a work of reform. 
These reforms were (a) the introduction of a monastery together with 
social regulations for the missionaries; (b) daily services (Liturgies) in 
Chinese; (c) the establishment of a business in order to support some of 
!he poor Albazins with business ability; (d) the sending of preachers 
out from Peking to spread the Gospel; (e) the organization of Parish 
activities; and (f) the establishment of local works of charity. 

"The year 1900 brought its troubles to the Russian Orthodox Mission 
as well as to all missions in China. The buildings in Peking, Dung-ding- 
ang and Kalgan were destroyed by the Boxers. The valuable library, 
established by the Archimandrite Peter and filled with the rarest articles 
on Buddhism, written by Father Pallady, was burned. More than two 
hundred communicants were killed by the Boxers. And when there 
seemed to be no hope of restoration, a blessing was sent from Heaven 
in the form of a newly-established mission. In 1900 a church in Russian 
style and a school were built in Shanghai. The following year Archi- 
mandrite Innocent was called to Petrograd. While there he made a 
report to the holy Synod on the mission in China, and received the 
support of the Metropolitan Anthony. As a result the mission and its 
right were restored and Archimandrite Innocent (Figourovsl^) returned 
as Bishop of Peking. Thus the mission received the rights of canon and 
from this time on we have the third period in its history. 

"Bishop Innocent returned to Peking in August 1902 accompanied br 
an assembly of ecclesiastical persons. His jurisdiction extended over all 
the churches built along the Chinese- Eastern railway (a distance of 
about 3,000 miles). In reality all Chinese territory was under his control, 


for at that time the Russians were not only in Manchuria but in Mongolia 
also. The territory to be covered was large, the work great, and in 
Peking, where the mission was all in ruins, the work was urgent. How- 
ever, with money paid over by the Chinese government for damages 
caused during the Boxer Uprising, the work of restoring the mission 
in Peking was soon well under way. 

"Since 1900 it has seemed that the special blessing of God is upon 
the work of the mission. Places for preaching have been opened through 
nearly all China. . . . The Russo-Japanese war hindered missionary work 
in the interior of China, but it stimulated the work of the mission in 

"At the present time the Russian Orthodox Mission in China is 
composed of the following establishments: Monastery of the Assump- 
tion in Peking; Hermitage of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross on the 
Western Hills near Peking; Nunnery in Peking; five conventual churches 
in Petrograd, Moscow, Harbin, £>alny and in Manchuria which support 
the mission in China; nineteen churches, four of them in Peking, one in 
the suburbs of Petrograd and the rest in the conventual and missionary 
districts. The total number of mission churches is thirty-two. Of these, 
fourteen are in the province of Chihli, twelve in Hupeh, four in Honan, 
one in Tsian-fu, Shensi, and one in Mongolia. The mission supports three 
chapels and five church-yards. It is in possession of forty-six j)ieces of 
property. There are seventeen schools for boys and three for gfrls under 
the control of the mission, also one Theological Seminary in Peking. 
Other establishments maintained by the mission are: meteorological sta- 
tion, library (recently built), printing office (with more than a hundred 
volumes of Chinese publications), lithographic works, galvanoplastical 
establishment, type foundry, book binding shop, paint shop, carpenter 
shop, casting foundry, steam flour mill, candle factory, soap factory, 
weaver^s workshop, bee-farm, dairy house and brick-kiln. 

'The mission has thirty-three male teachers in its schools, four of 
whom are Russian, and five lady teachers, one of whom is Russian. The 
total enrollment of boys and girls exceeds 680. During 1915, 583 Chinese 
were baptized. The total number of baptized Chinese is 5>^-" 

The present activities of the Russian Orthodox Mission of 
the Greek Church are summarized as follows : 

Chutrches: 7, 3 of these are outside the Mission Compound, two in 
Western Hills and one in the Russian Cemetery. 

Schools: 7, 3 boarding schools for boys, one boarding school for girls 
and one seminary. These are partly closed through lack of 
funds and the pupils are employed in industrial work. 

Industrial Department Persons Employed 

Printing 30 Library (a foreigner) 1 

Type foundry 6 Gardening 5 

ttereotyping 2 Flour mill 10 
ookbinding 30 Blacksmith shop 3 

Soap factory 3 Locksmith shop la 

Candle factory 3 Smelting house 3 

Dairy farm 10 — - 

(i foreign superintendent) Total Ho 



Protestant mission work began in Peking in 1861, the ycai? 
after the Peking Convention gave foreigners permission to live 
in the city, the London Missionary Society being the first to 
enter the field. Representatives of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 
(Presbyterian North) and the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts (Church of England Mission) ar- 
rived two years later (1863). The first missionaries of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions came 
to the city in 1864, and those of the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church (North) in 1869. The 
Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church entered the field in 1871. These six are the largest and 
most influential missions in Peking. The United Methodist 
Church (English) began work in Peking in 1878, but at present 
has only one representative 4n the city, a man teaching in the 
Theological Semmary. The Mission for the Chinese Blind started 
its work in 1879. 

As the new and larger possibilities of mission work have 
developed, particularly since 1900, other missionary societies have 
entered Peking; representatives of the General Councils of the 
Assemblies of God began work in 1914, and the Seventh Day 
Adventist Mission was opened in 1918. The Salvation Army 
(English) started in 1916, but is already well established and has 
been very successful in reaching a class of people not ordinarily 
touched by the other missions. The Peking Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1906, the International Reform 
Bureau in 1910, and the Young Women's Christian Association in 
1916. The American Bible Society, the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, the Baptist Missionary Society (English Baptist 
Mission) also have their representatives in the city, and there 
are two missionaries who are not connected with any mission 
board. Altogether, there are 188' foreign missionaries in Peking, 
64 men and 124 women, and working with them are 346 Chinese, 
249 men and 97 women. 

Evangelism is, of course, the fundamental work of the mis- 
sions. Churches and chapels have been established in various 
centers, until now there are 22 places of worship in the city 
and there are also three chapels that really belong to the Peking 
work, though they are outside the city walls. The program of 
these churches and chapels includes the regular Sunday and 
wedc day services, Christian Endeavor and Epworth League 
meetings, Sunday School work and special evangelistic cam- 
paigns. Many of the chapels are also used for lectures and 


f - MnKIhi 
V T-tLCk. 
O - T.IIL c.;i 

EnElBh Bjpliil 

Figure 38 

V- Sidiiit I.H.CJL 


activities connected with the welfare of the surrounding com- 
munity. The membership of the mission churches and chapels 
is approximately 4,000. Some 700 new members were added 
during 1918, while about 1,000 were taken in on probation.* The 
figures cannot be exact as the membership report of one mission 
is lacking, while two have given figures for the Peking district 
rather than for the city. 

Three independent Chinese churches were established in 1915. 
These have no direct connection with any of the missions, but are 
all the result of mission eflFort. The congregations have become 
self-supporting and have developed their own organization. Al- 
though organically independent, the three churches are connected 
by a loose federation. The largest one — ^that on Hatamen Street 
in the East City — ^has just recently completed a fine large church 
building. The three churches report a membership of 783 witii 
120 on probation. During 1918, 51 new members were added. 

According to the church and mission figures, the total num- 
ber of Christians in Peking is approximately 5,000, while the 
police census gives the number as 5,440. It would not be fair to 
call this the result of 60 years of mission work, as Christianity 
was given a severe setback in 1900, when the Boxers hunted out 
and killed those who had had any connection with the "Foreign 
Devil" and his ways. Hundreds of native Christians, including 
several Chinese pastors, were killed, buildings were destroyed and 
practically a new start had to be made. 

Because of its location near the Legation Quarter, the Metho- 
dist Church was able to save most of its adherents. They first 
gathered in the mission compound, but, before the attack of the 
Boxers, moved to the Legation Quarter and there rendered large 
service during the siege. This group and a large staff of mission- 
aries (more than twice as many as any other mission if the men's 
and women's boards are counted together) working with an 
aggressive well-organized evangelistic policy, has given the 
Methodists by far the largest enrollment of any of the Peking 

Since the Revolution of 191 1, the evangelistic program of 
the churches has been able to reach many classes that previously 
were inaccessible, particularly the students, literati and officials. 
This naturally has brought about a distinct change in the mission 
work and program; a change that the newcomer finds hard to 
realize until he talks with the older missionaries, some of whom. 
Dr. Chauncey Goodrich, Dr. H. H. Lowry, Mrs. Eleanore 
Sheffield, Miss M. E. Andrews, have been in Peking for more 
than 50 years. No attempt has been made in this study to trace 
the history of those changes or to go into detail concerning 

* See Appendix, for detailed figures for each ini«ioD. 


present missionary methods. They are well set forth in the vari- 
ous mission reports. We have endeavored to give only a general 
outline of the work, and to show by means of statistics its extent. 


In order to educate their membership and develop a strong 
well-trained native leadership for the church and for the coun- 
try, the missions have found it necessary to start and develop a 
complete system of schools. Peking is a center of mission as 
well as i^vernment education and there are 95 mission schools 
in the atv including a university for men and women, with 
theological and arts departments, a medical school for women, 
nurses and Bible trainmg schools for men and women, a co- 
educational normal school, a kindergarten training school, a 
School of Commerce and Finance, boys^ and girls' middle schools, 
primary schools, many of which are co-educational, and kinder- 
gartens. The 32 middle and higher grade schools have an 
enrollment of 2,471, of which 1,818 (73 percent) are men and 653 
women, while in all the 95 schools there are 5,648 pupils, 3,610 
(64 percent) boys and 2,038 girls. The Chinese independent 
churdies have 7 schools with 259 pupils, making the total number 
in Protestant schools 5,827.^ Seventy-six (40 percent) of the 188 
missionaries and some 200 (58 percent) of the Chinese workers 
are engaged primarily in educational work. 


The present Peking University, as devel(^)ed since 1915, rep- 
resents the union of the four Christian institutions of higher 
learning in and near Peking: the old Peking University, a Metho- 
dist school founded in 1888, as the climax of work started in 
1870; the North China Union College, originally established by 
the American Board (Congregational) Mission in 1889, the out- 
growth of a boarding school opened in 1867, '^ut a union institu- 
tion since 1900 — ^the American Presbyterian and London Missions 
joining in the rebuilding of the plant destroyed during the Boxer 
disturbances; the Nortfi China Union Theological School con- 
nected with the North China Union Collie, and the North China 
Union Women's College, the first college for women in China, 
opened in 1905, and granting in 1909 the first full college diploma 
ever given to a Chinese woman in her own land. The women's 
department of the University is now known as Yen Ching Col- 
lege, Yen Ching being the ancient name of Peking. 

^ For detailed figures of higher Khoola» aee key to map No. 14, pige 1 34, For 
lower pchoolt, see Appendix, page S'S* 


Prior to the time of the union, each of the four schools had 
an honored history and many of their graduates are fillii^ posi- 
tions of prominence and usefulness in China and in the Qiinese 
Church. The following table indicates the breadth of infltietioe 
and service of their alumni: 


Teachers 133 Interpreters a 

Pastors and Evangelists 71 Secretaries of Institutioiis J 

Physicians Z7 Engineers i 

Y. M. C. A. Secretaries 36 Farmers i 

Government Service 19 Mining i 

Railroads 5 Miscellaneous ja 

Customs 4 Studying 41 

Salt Gabelle 3 Abroad sts 

Dept of Communications 2 In China: 

Post Office 2 Theology 15 

Private Secretaries 2 Medicine t 

Navy Department I Other professions .... a 

Business Men 18 Deceased 44 

Editors 2 Unknown 9 

Total 449 

The present departments of the University and the enroll- 
ment in each are given in the following table, the student bodj 
containing representatives from every province in China: 


Administrative Officers •• 8 

Professors and Instructors: 

Men's College 31 

Women's College 19 

School of Theology 6 

College of Arts and Sciences for Men : 

Senior College, Regular Course iix 

Business Course 34 

College of Arts and Sciences for Women: 

Senior College, Regular Course 14 

Junior College xii 

School of Theology 21 

Total Attendance 1920-1921 agi 

In the fall of 1921, it is planned to open a Men's Junior Col- 
lege with 50 students and departments of Animal Husbandry and 
Industrial Arts with 25 students each, the enrollment being 
limited because of the size of the buildings now occupied by the 
University. It is hoped that the limitation may soon be removed, 
for a beautiful new site of 100 acres has been secured 

silL !..Us "f III.' n,i,'sis nn.l t)ir IriKliI r..ti.ri u( Ihr 
.,t lii.' ,L,m.'[^ ,.f ih..' 1.-111.:, Tcmpli'i: annual D<:vU 

c amanc Ihe buuiy (poll of Chini 


on the road leading from Hsi Chih Men (the northwest gate of 
the dty) to the Summer Palace, and plans have been completed 
for the erection of a well coordinated group of university build- 
ings. Construction will probably be started in the spring of 1922. 
The fact that the University is a mission institution seems to 
make but little difference in its relationships with the many 
government schools and colleges in the city, for they recognize 
that the Christian University is working for the uplift and prog- 
ress of China, its constant aim being to furnish the highest pos- 
sible quality of intellectual and religious leadership for China. 


The North China Union Language School, founded in 1910 
by Dr. W. H. Rees of the London Mission, is a vital part of the 
educational program of the mission boards, although all of its 
students are foreigners, for it is teaching missionaries, diplomats 
and business men the Chinese language, and so fitting them for 
their work in China. In nine years, the enrollment has grown to 
226 and includes representatives of 26 missionary societies, 12 
business houses and 5 legations. 

As the students spend only half their time in classroom work 
and the other half with individual teachers, the size of the faculty 
depends on the enrollment. At present there are 60 Chinese 
teachers, five of whom are women, and, in addition, some 20 of 
the senior Peking missionaries are giving a few hours a week 
to lecturing and teaching in the school, so that the newcomers 
may have the benefit of their long study and experience in China. 
While the students are learning the Chinese language, they are 
also getting a knowledge of Chinese life, thought and customs 
that will be an invaluable background for their future work. 

Students taking the full time course ordinarily spend one year 
in residence and then continue their study in their mission station 
or place of business. The complete course is equivalent to three 
years of full time work though it usually covers five years, the 
amount of time spent on study being decreased as other demands 
increase. It is planned to give those who complete the course the 
degree of Master of Arts, as most of the students are college 
graduates. Short time courses, in which the students usually 
spend one hour a day with a personal teacher and have two class 
meetings a week, are arranged for those who are unable to give 
their entire time to language study. 

The management of the school is in the hands of a board of 
directors: representing the following twelve organizations : 

American Board Mission. 
American Methodist Mission. 


American Presbyterian Mission. 
Church of England Mission. 
London Missionary Society. 
Young Men's Christian Association. 
Young Women's Christian Association. 
American Legation. 
American Association of North China. 
British Chamber of Commerce. 
British Legation. 
China Medical Board. 

The detailed administration is carried by Mr. W. B. Pettus, 
a secretary of the International Committee of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, assisted by a representative of the Stewart 
Evangelistic Fund. 


The medical part of the missionary program in Peking in- 
cludes three hospitals: one for men and two for women. One 
of these, the Douw Memorial Hospital for Women, is part of the 
Presbyterian work, while the other two are under the Methodist 
Boards. Of the Sleeper Davis Memorial Hospital (the Methodist 
Women's Hospital) the report of the China Medical Board says, 
"At the present time, this is undoubtedly one of the best con- 
ducted hospitals in China." The staff of the men's hospital 
includes a dentist and optometrist, besides three doctors. The 
three hospitals have a total of 165 beds and are caring for over 
2,000 in-patients a year. Dispensary work is carried on by the 
three hospitals and also by the London and Anglican Missions. 
The eight mission dispensaries are treating 365 patients a day, 
on the average, 200 men and 165 women.^ Twenty-five (13 
percent) of tiie missionaries and 32 (9 percent) of the Chinese 
mission workers are giving their time to medical work. 

Training schools for nurses are conducted in connection with 
both of the Methodist hospitals, the one for men with 20 students 
being under the Methodist Board, while the one for women with 
25 students is a union school. The North China Women's Union 
Medical College is connected with the Methodist Women's Hos- 
pital, but as its name implies is a union school. It has some 35 
students and in 1919 graduated 18 doctors. 


Medical education for men is given by the Union Medical 
College. This school was founded in 190(5, and up imtil 1915 

' See Appendix, page 516, for complete figures. 


was maintained through the cooperation of the Medical Mission- 
ary Association of London, the American Board, Presbyterian, 
London, Methodist and Anglican Missions. In July of that year 
it was taken over by the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, the Board being composed of seven representatives 
of the Foundation and one from each of the six mission boards. 
Since 1915, the Board has built and equipped a new medical 
school, a 250-bed hospital, nurses' homes^ student dormitories, 
faculty residences, the total representing an investment o£ some 
$7,000,000 gold. The buildings of the medical school .and hos- 
pital are a combination of Chinese and American architecture 
and with their high, curving, green-tiled roofs are one of the land- 
niarks of Peking. The Chinese call the hospital compound "The 
Green Tiled City." 

The new medical school was opened in the fall of 1919, with 
seven undergraduate and 19 graduate students. By the end 
of December, there were 36 on the faculty including 11 
Chinese, it being the policy of the Board to put foreigners and 
Chinese on the same basis as far as their ability is equal. In the 
hospital, the general surgical service has been entirely in the 
hands of the Chinese doctors and they have won the confidence 
of their associates and of the foreigners who come to the hospital. 
Instruction in the school is carried on entirely in English except 
for special Chinese courses. The school is open to women, though 
so far none have applied for admission. 

A pre-medical school is also maintained by the Board. By 
the end of 1919, there were 10 persons on the faculty, three of 
whom were Chinese. The enrollment of the school was 34, two 
of the students being women. 

It is the hope of the Board to train women for all the nursing 
work in the hospital, though this is a distinct departure from the 
usual Chinese custom. Until it proves practical to have women 
nurses in the men's hospital, the training of male nurses will, of 
necessity, be continued. The training school for women is soon 
to be opened. Already a superintendent of nurses and 17 
instructors and departmental supervisors are in Peking. 

The China Medical Board has done much for medical work 
and education in China, through the help it has given the existing 
schools and hospitals. With the opening; of its Peking hospital 
and the further development of the Union Medical College, the 
Board will give the Chinese the opportunity of securing a medical 
education comparable with the best provided by schools in the 
United States, will make possible research work on the prob- 
lems peculiar to the Far East and will be a tremendous factor 
in the spread of the knowledge of modem medicine and public 



The development of union work and union institutions has 
been one of the outstanding features of the mission program in 
Peking. The districts shown on the map are those that have 
been informally adopted b^ the larger mission boards so that 
each church may have its own district and there may be no over- 
lapping or duplicating of effort. 

In the educational field, the tendency toward union is most 
marked. The mission schools must meet the competition of the 
government schools, and only by a pooling of resources, both men 
and money, is it possible for the mission boards to develop insti- 
tutions, particularly those of higher grade, that are efficient and 
up to the standard. The Peking University is the outstanding 
example of union, for it is formed by the amalgamation of four 
previously existing schools. The North China Women's Union 
Medical College, the Nurses Training School for Women, the 
Bible Training Schools for Men and Women, the Normal School, 
the Kindergarten Training School and the North China Union 
Language School are all union institutions, with from two to 
seven missions uniting in their staffing, support and management 


The first permanent union in evangelistic work in Peking was 
e£Fected in 1918 by the formation of the Peking Student Work 
Union. In 1907 work of a social and religious nature for the 
students of Peking was started by the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Student Christian Associations were organized in 
some six or seven mission colleges and middle schools and a 
student movement was launched with summer conferences and 
training conferences for leaders. At the 1910 conference, the 
Student Volunteer Movement for the Christian Ministry in China 
was organized. When the work began, there were only some 
6,000 students of higher grade in Peking, and the approach to 
those in the government schools was difficult, for they were the 
descendants of the literati, the most conservative class in China. 
The rapid increase in the number of students in Peking, the 
growing interest in intercollegiate athletics, the changing political 
conditions, the campaigns of Dr. Mott in 1913 and Dr. 
Eddy in 1914 and 1918, and the steady work of the missionaries 
and of the secretaries of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
have gradually changed the situation, until now the entire student 
field is open. The problem is much too large for any one agency 
to meet, so in September, 1918, through the initiative of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, the six large churches. 


Anglican, American Board, London Mission, Methodist, Presby- 
terian and Oiinese Independent and the Young Men's Christian 
Association, organized the Peking Student Work Union and 
pooled their men and resources for the development of a city- 
wide student program. During 1918-1919, the work was directed 
by a board of nine men, Chinese and foreign, representing the 
churches, and was carried on by a staff of 13 church and Young 
Men's Qiristian Association men. During 1919-1920, the board 
of directors was enlarged and now includes representatives of the 
churches, The Youn^ Men's and the Young Women's Christian 
Associations, the Christian students of the city and several repre- 
sentatives at large. The staff has been enlarged to 17, five for- 
eigners and 12 Chinese, and work is being carried on in 12 
centers. By means of lectures and socials, healthful recreation is 
provided to offset the temptations of the life of the capital. Only 
23 of the 54 higher schools have dormitories. The majority of 
the students are living in small hotels or wherever they can find 
rooms, and only too often they are surrounded by evil influences. 
In some centers, athletics and other games are provided on Satur- 
day afternoons. Religious lectures, discussion groups and Bible 
classes are carried on in various centers with an average weekly 
attendance of over 800. The Christian work for women as well 
as men students is under the direction of the Union Board. 

The salaries of the workers, with the exception of one office 
secretary, are paid by the various bodies belonging to the Union, 
but the expenses connected with the carrying out of the city-wide 
program are paid from a common treasury, the funds being con- 
tributed by the different missions or raised by a united financial 
campaign. In 1919, over $1,200 was raised by a city-wide cam- 


The most recent development of cooperative effort is the for- 
mation of the Peking Branch of the China-for-Christ Movement. 
The six larger Protestant communions have organized a central 
committee of 100, on which are representatives of all the organ- 
ized Protestant churches, the Young Men's Christian Association, 
the Young Women's Christian Association, and certain coopted 
members. This large committee has elected an executive com- 
mittee of 15, has appointed sub-committees on 

Evangelism Devotional Life 

Home Missions Literature 

Social Service Systematic Giving, 
Training of Leaders 


has secured a permanent full time Chinese secretary, and is 
assisted by several foreign and Chinese secretaries giving part 


Pekii^ is one of the principal distributing centers of the 
American Bible Society, as it is headquarters for the provinces 
of Chihli, Shansi and Shantung. Formerly, the Bibles were sold 
by paid colporteurs, but they are now being distributed by some 
140 volunteers, 23 of whom are working in and arotmd Peking. 
The paid staff consists of one foreigner and three Chinese. The 
sales of Bibles, Gospels, Testaments and portions of Scripture 
in Chihli Province alone totaled 602,201 in 1918, while over 
1,000,000 portions were sold in the North China District In 
all of China the annual sales of the Society are approximately 
2,225,000 portions. 


The British and Foreign Bible Society conducts a small sta- 
tion in connection with the Peking work of the London Mission, 
one of the representatives of that mission giving part of his 
time to the work, but the sales in Peking and vicinity are re- 
ported as being very small 


Deeply impressed by the terrible condition of the blind in 
China, Rev. W. H. Murray, who reached Peking in 1871, opened 
a school for them a few years later. In 1879, the Hill-Murray 
Mission to the Chinese Blind was founded, and since then has 
been responsible for the support of the school. Mr. Murray 
worked out a Braille system for the Chinese language and 
through his school has not only taught a great many blind to 
read but has also trained a large number of Christian workers. 

In 1916, the school had three foreign teachers and 38 pupils, 
but in 1919 Mrs. Murray, who had carried on the work for 
several years after the death of her husband, had to give it up 
and the school was closed, until a new director can be secured. 


The Peking Women's Christian Temperance Union was 
founded in 1912 by Mrs. Chauncey Goodrich of the American 
Board Mission (Congregational). Branches have been estab- 


lished in the Teng Shih K'ou, Pei T'ang and Ch'i Hua Men Con- 
gregational Churches, the Ku Lou Hsi and Er Tiao Hut'ung* 
Presb)rterian Churches, the London Mission Chapel and the In- 
dependent Chinese Church in the South City. Young people's 
societies have been organized in the North China Union Women's 
College (now Yen Ching College) and in the Bridgeman 
Academy. Three Loyal Temperance Leagues are also holding 
regular monthly meetings. 

Besides the usual meetings and the distribution of literature 
directed especially against the use of narcotics and the growing 
use of foreign wines and liquors, the Union has trained a group 
of women, most of whom are students in the Bible Training 
School, to talk at the temple fairs every spring, lecturing on 
home-making and sanitation as well as temperance. 


In 1906, at the invitation of the principal missions of the 
city, two representatives of the students and alumni of Prince- 
ton University, Mr. R. R. Gailey and Mr. D. W. Edwards, came 
to Peking to organize the Chinese Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation. Their first headquarters were in an old pawn shop, 
and the first association work was to establish an English night 
school. From that beginning, the work has grown until now, 
housed in a large four-story building — ^the gift of John Wana- 
maker'of Philadelphia — it includes the following: 

1. Social and Educational Activities in the building— con- 
certs, moving pictures, lectures, pool, billiards, bowling, a restau- 
rant, reading room, library and dormitory. 

2. Physical Education. Gymnasium classes and the stimula- 
tion of athletics in government and private schools in the city. 
The late Mr. A. N. Hoagland of the Princeton Staff was largely 
instrumental in organizing in 1912-13 the first inter-collegiate 
football, baseball and track contests in Peking. He was also 
the organizing secretary of the first National Track Meet held in 
1913 on the grounds of the Temple of Heaven. 

3. Education, The Peking School of Commerce and 
Finance with over 400 students and an English night school for 
200 men and boys. 

4. Evangelism and Religious Education. In cooperation 
with the churches, the Association has been the pioneer in evan- 
gelistic work for the student and official classes. The cam- 
paigns of Dr. Mott, Dr. Eddy and Mr. Buchman have induced 
many thousands of students and officials to study Christianity and 
many have become church members. 

5. Cooperation in the Union work for college and middle 


school students, including the supervision of the work of ii 
organized Student Christian Associations. 

6. Cooperation in the Community Service Movement (see 
Chapter XVII). 

7. YM.CA, Work in the Chinese Army. The pioneer work 
in this line was done in 1918 by Mr. Gailey, who started Associ- 
ation activities among the Chinese troops in Siberia. 

The Young Men's Christian Association has been especiallj 
successful in reaching men of education and official position. 
Last year, the President of China and all but one of the Cabinet 
officers contributed to its work, while the President of the Associ- 
ation was a man high up in the Board of Foreign Affairs. The 
Association has altogether some 2,500 members, about 250 of 
whom are members of a Protestant church. As is customary in 
Association work, the activities are under the control of a 
Chinese board of directors who are responsible for the raising 
of the budget, the expenses of the local work being met by money 
raised in Peking. In 1919, there were some 24 Chinese secre- 
taries on the Association staff, and the budget called for an ex- 
penditure of over $80,000. The only money that comes from 
America is for the salaries of the seven permanent foreign sec- 
retaries, and the expenses of the three to five short term men 
who are with the Peking Association. Most of these funds are 
contributed by the students and alumni of Princeton University. 


The Young Women's Christian Association of Peking was 
organized October 21, 1916, pre-organization work having been 
carried on by Miss Theresa Severin since 1913. Its special field 
is work with the modem students and the wives and families 
of the officials. At present, its program includes: 

1. Social Activities for Members — Lectures, concerts, social 

2. Educational Work. Fifty students were enrolled in the 
various classes in 1919. 

3. Community Service Work. A night school for 54 chil- 
dren, with a faculty of four, three of whom give their services, 
public health exhibits, better-baby shows, cooperation in the Teng 
Shih K'ou Community Service Group (see Chapter XVII). 

4. Student Work. Student Associations have been organ- 
ized in the mission schools and in two non-mission schools. Club 
work has been started for the younger girls. 

In 1919, the Association had 421 members, 119 of whom be- 
longed to Protestant churches. The board of directors, responsi- 


ble for the entire Association program, included many women 
who were prominent in church work and several whose husbands 
held high official position. Four foreign and three Chinese 
secretaries were in charge of the work. The budget raised from 
Chinese sources for the local work amounted to $4,650 silver, 
the foreign secretaries all being supported from America. 


The Princeton University Center in China is a group of six 
permanent men and from three to six short term men, who are 
in Peking as the representatives of the alumni and students of 
Princeton University. Most of them are working through the 
Peking Young Men's Christian Association, the short term men 
teaching in the Association School of Commerce and Finance, 
the permanent men assisting the Chinese Board of Directors in 
developing the Association program, but they do not limit them- 
selves to Y. M. C. A. work. Some are cooperating in the devel- 
opment of the social service movement in the city, and some are 
teaching in the Department of Sociology of the Peking (Union) 

Other American colleges also have their representatives in 
Peking. Wellesley is interested in the work of the Young 
Women's Christian Association and Yen Ching College. One of 
the foreign secretaries of the Young Men's Christian Association 
is supported by the students and alumni of the University of 
Wisconsin, while a representative of the University of Southern 
California is teaching in the Peking (Union) University. 


To make any accurate estimate of the effect of Christianity 
on the life of Peking is manifestly impossible. There are too 
many complex forces at work in the city. No one will deny, 
however, that it has had a tremendous influence on the city, es- 
pecially in the development of the ideals of the new China. One 
has only to look at the faces of a group of Christian women — 
and many observers say they can almost always tell who are 
Christians by their happy expressions — to realize how much 
Christianity has meant to them personally. This change in the 
quality of the inner life of individuals — ^a real yet intangible 
transformation — has, up to the present, been Christianity's great- 
est contribution to China. 

Christianity's larger social and national outreach Is, however, 
becoming apparent. Christians are in the Cabinet, in Parliament, 
on the Peace Commission to Versailles, are admirals in the Chinese 
Navy, are high in the Board of Foreign Affairs, and on the execu- 


tive committee of the Peking Student Union. Through these men 
the influence of the idealism and altruism of the Christian outlook 
and purpose is beginning to count in the national life. 

The effect of Christianity in introducing new social and moral 
ideals is also apparent. The present eagerness for a better govern- 
ment, for a higher place for women, for a more adequate moral 
code is partially the result of the Christian movement in China, 
while the present intellectual awakening of China is certainly 
indirectly the outcome of the many years of persistent teaching of 
new ideas by the missionary body. 

Perhaps even more significant than the effect of Christianity 
on China are the great possibilities of constructive service now 
open to the Christian movement. The eagerness of young China 
to avail herself of the tools from the west which will reconstruct 
the nation offers a unique opportunity to the Christian movement 
China is changing rapidly from the ancient fixed social system 
of Confucianism to a new social order. It is the opportunity of 
the Christian movement to supply the moral basis, the social out- 
look and the religious dynamic for this new social order and to 
assist materially by demonstrating the practical application of sudi 
ideals and motives in concrete terms. 

Religion in action especially will arrest the attention and gain 
the acceptance of vigorous young China. Christianity can be 
demonstrated through the home, the school, the factory, the hospi- 
tal permeated with the Christian spirit. The planning and organ- 
izing of a definite and constructive social program for the local 
community around each Christian church will also truly express 
the inner spirit of the Christian gospel which seeks to develop not 
only the individual and the church but primarily and essentially 
to transform the structure of society itself into a new social 
order — ^the Kingdom of God. 

Peking is the natural place for especially intensive missionary 
effort and the development of the best ideas in the Christian 
program. It is the political and educational center of China, and 
what is done there has its influence not only on the city, but on the 
entire country. Much of the population is transient and men com- 
ing from every province take with them the ideas of the capitaL 
The mission work will have to be of the highest order and will 
require the investment of many men and large sums of money. 
The program will have to be intensive rather than extensive, for, 
although the missionaries will have to do some demonstration work, 
their largest task is the training of Chinese leaders. Foreigners 
cannot evangelize China any more than they can educate her or 
cure her diseases. This work must be done by the Chinese 
themselves, and the most and the best that the foreigner can do 
is to develop Chinese who will carry on the work. 


(an outgrowth of the survey) 

It is not often that it is possible to tell, in a survey report, of 
any concrete results of the survey, but in Peking the preliminary 
reports of the Teng Shih K'ou church and district surveys aroused 
such interest and showed such a need for a social program that 
a Community Service Group was organized even before the field 
work of the survey itself was completed. In November, 1919, a 
group of 40 Chinese and foreign men and women met at the 
Young Men's Christian Association to consider the problem of 
a community service program for the Teng Shih K'ou District. 
A majority of these lived either in or very near the surveyed dis- 
trict and most of them were members of the American Board 
(Congregational) Church located in the southern part of the dis- 
trict. Among the Chinese were a teacher in the Women's Col- 
lege, a local physician, a carpenter and contractor, the owner 
of a large bookstore, the wife of the head of the aviation depart- 
ment of the Board of War, the wife of a returned student in the 
employ of the Siems-Cary Company, the wife of a Chinese pastor, 
the local police official, a doctor in the public health department of 
the Union Medical College and a graduate of Harvard, a number 
of secretaries of the Young Men's and Young Women's Chris- 
tian Associations and a g^oup of college students, both men and 
women. The foreigners were Rev. George D. Wilder, Rev. R. 
M. Cross and Mrs. Chauncey Goodrich of the American Board 
Mission, Miss Alice Holmes of the Young Women's Christian 
Association, and Mr. J. S. Burgess of the Young Men's Christian 

The needs of the district, as discovered by the survey, were 
vividly presented by Dr. Wilder, and without much discussion 
the group decided to organize what has since been known as the 
Fu Wu Tuan, or Community Service Group. Seven commissions 
were appointed to deal with the following problems : Social Re- 
lationships, Playgrounds and Recreation, Charity and Industrial 
Work, Moral Reform, Night Schools, Lectures and General Ex- 
tension Education, Public Health. Later on a Commission 
on Social Investigation was added. The original budget of the 



group amounted to $600, contributed by the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Christian Associations and the American Board 
Church, but $700 was soon added to this amount by the people of 
the community, even though most of the contributors were not 
members of any Christian church. Headquarters were first 
opened in an old tea house located on Hatamen Street, the main 
east street of the district, and borrowed from the former Minister 
of Finance, Ts'ao Ju Lin, but later were moved to a two-room 
building on Teng Shih K'ou Street. 

The first event was a Sunday evening meeting of the local 
gentry. Some sixty came out and showed deep interest in the 
plans of the organization as explained to them by Mr. Liu Hsi 
Lien, the energetic Chinese secretary of the group. This meeting 
was followed by a series of Sunday afternoon and evening lec- 
tures, the afternoon meetings being for women and the evening 
meetings for men. For the women, talks were given on Household 
Sanitation, the Necessity of Education, How to Bring Up the 
Baby, while the Sunday evening lectures for men covered a large 
range of subjects : the general fields of Citizenship, Public Health 
and Hygiene, Moral Reform, and Business Morality. It was 
planned to work up interest among special groups, unskilled labor- 
ers, skilled laborers, apprentices, teachers, gentry, wives of officials^ 
etc., but just as a start was being made the headquarters in the 
tea house had to be given up and during the rest of the year it 
was impossible to find as satisfactory a place for public lectures. 
Typical of what can be done, however, was an evening meeting 
to which the head of a large shop brought all his apprentices to 
see the pictures on public health. It is evident that by discovering 
the natural groupings of the people, the merchants through the 
gilds, and the gentry through the district organizations, it is quite 
possible to approach and appeal to all the different classes. 

In order further to let the people of the district understand 
the objects of this new enterprise which we wished them to 
consider as their own, a large 12x30 inch calendar was 
printed. In the center was a photograph of the local gentry who 
attended the opening meeting in the tea house. Above this was 
the calendar and a brief description of the proposed work of the 
seven commissions, while at the bottom of the page was a list of 
the 40 charter members of the group. When the calendars 
were printed the members were called together, each two or 
three were given a street or part of a street to cover, and within a 
few days the calendars were distributed by these neighborly 
visitors to the homes and stores of the more than nine thousand 
people living in the district. These personal calls — ^the men for 
the most part covering the stores and the women the homes — 
were not only the means of giving out the information printed 


on the calendars, but were a demonstration of the friendly 
spirit of this neighborhood group. In the minds of the Qiinese 
the carrying of letters is work that is done only by coolies, and 
for students, well-to-do women and local merchants to do it must 
have made a deep impression. 

Poor relief was the next enterprise to be taken up by the 
Community Service Group. The people who were in need were 
easily found as the police had listed the families that they con- 
sidered "poor" and "very poor," and a copy of this list was given 
the group by the head of the police district. A study of the 46 
poor families showed that the "poor" were destitute, while the 
"very poor" were practically on the verge of starvation. Many 
of the latter families did not have any padded winter clothes, 
while some did not even have enough thin clothes to give every 
member of the family a suit. One family with five members 
had only one suit and their "home" was, of course, without furni- 
ture or heat. 

In December a poorhouse for men and an industrial work- 
shop for women were organized. A rich broker, much more 
familiar with ancient Chinese philanthropic methods than with 
modem scientific relief (as we found to our sorrow^, offered to 
give us $350 to start a poorhouse. Now, the old Chinese idea of 
a poorhouse is a place where those who are obviously the most 
destitute are herded together for the winter months, kept fairly 
warm and given enough millet gruel to keep them from starving ; 
but it was our aim to fit the inmates for self-support, if possible, 
as well as give them a place to live and something to eat. We first 
hired a superintendent, the former pastor of one of the London 
Mission Churches whose large heart and sympathetic knowledge 
of human nature were greater than his knowledge of how to con- 
structively help the poor, but there are, of course, no trained 
Chinese social workers in China for such positions. Some forty 
destitute men and boys were admitted, most of them selected by the 
local police, though some were chosen, by our rich philanthropic 
friend, from among the most dilapidated of the beggars on tihe 
street. These latter gave us the most trouble, for most of them 
were almost hopelessly dependent and it was difHcult to awaken in 
them a spark of independence and self-support. Every man who 
was admitted had to be guaranteed by some member of the com- 
munity, but, as many of the most needy persons knew no one, 
the secretary of the g^oup had to personally act as guarantor for 
several. Each man as he came in was supplied with a clean 
wooden board bed and a new suit of cotton padded clothing, the 
latter being presented to him only after he had been given a bath 
in the nearby public bath house. 

Soon after the organization of the poorhouse the inmates 



were divided into three groups. The older and more decrqiit 
were to take care of the house and to help with the ^^^^ning^ 
another group was to be engaged in industrial work — spiimiiig 
cotton yam on two newly purchiased machines, while a third was 
to peddle goods on the street. Unfortunately, the spinning ma- 
chines were not up to specifications. A merchant in Shanton; 
had what was considered to be a g^eat improvement, of a semi- 
modem nature, of the old hand spinning machine, but too late it 
was discovered to have none of the virtues of either the ancient 
or modern model. By woiicing hard all day, two men cookt 
make about lo coppers apiece, scarcely enough to pay for 
their food. However, the men were kept at the machines during 
the winter months, each one thus making almost enough to pay 
for his food and also learning a new trade. As Japanese goods 
were being boycotted and there was a demand for cotton yam, 
had the machines been good ones there is no doubt but that tUs 
form of work would have proved most profitable. During the 
last few months, Mr. S. M. Dean, an Ainerican teacher in the 
National Teachers' College and head of its industrial department; 
has, together with a group of friends, tested out and perfected 
the model of a new, thoroughly modem hand spinning *in^f>tiifi#>^ 
which it is hoped will soon be available for this class of work. 

The third group, who were to sell goods on the street, were 
engaged in a form of work which, from the economic point of 
view, cannot be said to have been much of a contribution to 
China. There are already in Peking more peddlers of peanuts, 
fire-crackers, native candies and nuts, soap, etc., than the market 
demands, but to ourselves we justified our setting up these 
in this line of work by calling the products "sanitary/' for 
they were compared to much of the food sold on the street. After 
securing the necessary permission irom the police, street booths 
were established in two different parts of the district, each of 
which was in charge of two men, dressed in a neat gray cos- 
tume, while back of each booth was hung a prominent sign tell- 
ing of the organization that was sponsor for the new enterprise. 
From these booths other men, clothed in gray and carrying white 
glass-covered boxes in which were displayed their various wares, 
went out in pairs day by day. A few of these peddlers were 
successful in their work. One is still peddling and has more than 
paid off the small capital loaned him. Most of the men, how- 
ever, were unable to meet the severe competition of the other 
street peddlers and to make enough to make the enterprise 
worth while. We found it practically impossible to buy thiiigi 
for them at a price low enough to enable them to compete 
with the other peddlers. Some few knew where and how to buy, 
and we finally had to let them buy their own supplies whether 


they were sanitary or not. In some cases the men came back 
with a depleted stock of merchandise and no adequate financial 
returns. In one case (unfortunate for us) one of the peddlers 
"got away" with $50 worth of clothing, leaving his companion tc 
wait for him at the entrance of what appeared to be a blind alley 
but which later turned out to be an open street. 

Our friend, the Chinese philanthropist, when he heard that 
we were giving the inmates of the poorhouse industrial work 
and treating them better than he had desired, refused to pay op 
the money that he had promised, leaving us $250 short on our 

The entire experience with the men in the poorhouse proved 
that a more thorough knowledge of the capacity of the poor peo- 
ple than is now possessed is needed and that trained technical 
supervision is required if any efforts to help the poor are to 
produce real constructive accomplishment. 

The result of the Women's Industrial Shop was quite differ- 
ent, owing to the long experience of Mrs. Chauncey Goodrich 
of the American Board Mission. The regulations and' plans of 
that enterprise were better adapted to the capacities of the people 
than those of the Men's Poorhouse. The 25 women admitted 
were carefully chosen, worked only by the day and were paid 
for their work by the piece rather than by the day. The shop 
secured a large order for clothing for the "boys" at the Peking 
Hotel, and with an experienced Chinese woman to supervise the 
work the shop was able to keep the women and their families 
from destitution at only a small cost. 

With the coming of the warm weather in the spring, the 
poorhouse was closed and the women's workshop was dmnged 
into a sewing class for girls, taught by the wife of a prominent 
official, formerly the Chinese Consul General in Java. 

Two well-run night schools were conducted throughout the 
year in the primary school buildings of the American Board Mis- 
sion with an enrollment of some fifty girls and seventy boys. 
With the exception of two head teachers, who were paid for p%rt 
time work, all the teaching was done by college men and women 
who gave their services. The curriculum was largely that of the 
ordinary primary school. Though the schools were free, it was 
difficult to get in touch with those who were most in need of 
education. The Chinese have such a high estimation of the 
value of study, or rather of the value of having a teacher pour 
knowledge into the students' heads, that they are quite willing 
to send their boys and girls to a government school during the 
day and to a free night school in the evening. It was practically 
impossible to reach the apprentices who are not allowed out of 
the shops in the evenings even if they are not required to work. 


which is seldom the case. While the schools were most successfnl 
and the students in the day schools were for the most part ktpt 
out, it is clear that a greater confidence must be established be- 
tween the Community Service Group, the gild leaders and the 
shop owners, before it will be possible to reach those who ait 
most in need of school work, tlie apprentices and the workiflC 

As the warm weather came on, it was decided to attempt to 
educate the people regarding the dangers of the fly and the i 
sity of cleanliness in the home. A nomud dass of 8o 
and women, most of them students in the Government Univenity 
and the Union Women's College, though ten or more were older 
residents of the district, was formed for training in these subject^ 
and among other work was given a series of lantern lectures llj 
Dr. E. T. Hsieh of the Union Medical College. Sets of pictnres 
were prepared, ten to a set, vividly painted by Chinese artists on 
large pieces of cloth, illustrating "the danger of the fly" and die 
need for "household cleanliness.'' The district was divided into 
i6 sections, the 80 voluntary lecturers were then organized into 
16 teams, and to each team was assigned a section, the women 
for the most part taking the residence sections in the center of tfie 
block and the men the stores on the main streets that surround the 
district. Each team was required to do three things : first, arrange 
the time and place of the lectures in their particular section; 
second, deliver the two lectures as many times as possible; and 
third, follow up the lectures by the distribution of literaturet 
some excellent pamphlets having been prepared on these subjects 
by the China Medical Missionary Association. The campslgn 
lasted two weeks. Over sixty lectures were held in home oourt- 
yards, in stores, in a big tent erected in the middle of the district, 
or even right on the street, the lecturers in the latter case standing 
on tables and talking to those who stopped to listen. Over tifjbt 
thousand people attended the lectures, so that allowing for dupli* 
cations and people from other sections of the city it is safe to say 
that at least five thousand different people living in our district, 
or half the population, gathered new information on these impor- 
tant subjects. 

Free vaccination clinics were held in the two-room dubhouse 
on Teng Shih K'ou Street on five Saturday afternoons duriiw 
the spring and over two hundred children were vacdiuvted. 
The doctors and nurses gave their time, but the cost of die 
vaccine was more than paid by the voluntary contributions of 
those vaccinated. In order properly to follow up this work, six 
newly arrived American nurses, connected with the Union Med- 
ical College, volunteered to visit the homes of all the vaccinated 
children and give advice in case of infection or failure of the 

Hea4qiurtcn of tbc PrineMon UalTtnit)> Center in CtaiM. 


vaccination to ''take/' Each of these young women took with 
her a young Chinese student who acted as interpreter. They were 
always welcomed with courtesy and frequently with cordiality. 
Many of the homes thus visited had never before been favored 
by a call from a foreign guest. 

Little has been done in the district along the line of moral 
reform. A paper printed in the vernacular is issued every ten 
days and reaches over one thousand homes, but the editor, an 
elderly man who was formerly a school principal, has as yet 
failed to see the possibility of influencing public opinion along 
the most needed lines. The recent organization of an Editorial 
Board gives promise of better results. The Moral Reform 
Commission, in rescuing a little slave girl, has succeeded in doing 
one piece of concrete service. Hated by her master, the girl was 
forced to live on the ground in the chicken house, and to exist on 
food thrown to her by members of the household. She was 
kicked about and terribly maltreated. The matter was reported 
to the police by the Commimity Service Group, the girl was 
released, and a fine was levied on her master. 

The district in which we were working is surrounded on four 
sides by large lOO-foot road-ways, but the streets in the middle 
of the block are, for the most part, small winding lanes, running 
between the high walls of the Chinese courtyards. Frequently 
these lanes are blind alleys and at the end of many of them 
there is an open space or Ts'ao Ch'ang (grass court, as it is called 
in Chinese). The Playground Commission saw in these Ts'ao 
Ch'ang the natural places for public playgrounds. During the 
winter months the prospective leaders of the playgrounds, 15 
young men and 15 young women, were selected from among 
the young women attending the Yen Ching College and 
the students of the Young Men's Christian Association day 
school, and were given training in outdoor games by the physical 
directors of the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian 
Associations. Only one small group of boys was organized dur- 
ing the cold weather, as an old tea house was the only available 
place for their play. They, however, served as a practice group 
for the teachers and as a nucleus for the larger groups organized 
when the spring weather made it possible to move the work to the 
Ts'ao Ch'ang. When the outdoor work was started, a campaign 
was organized to secure members for the boys' groups. Team 
captains were appointed and prizes were offered. A parade of 
boys led by the playground leaders, a boy beating a drum and 
another blowing a horn, advertised the campaign throughout the 
alleys of the district. The average attendance the three after- 
noons a week on which the boys' playground was held was about 
thirty, over one hundred different boys attending irregularly. 


The girls on their three afternoons had an average attendance of 
20. Before their play hour, the boys were given a talk on educa- 
tional and moral themes. 

Up to the present the Commission on Social Relationships has 
not been able to organize an extensive program. There is a 
wonderful spirit of accord and comradeship among the workers, 
both paid and voluntary, especially among the 40 original charter 
members ; over 225 church members have given voluntary service 
during the first eight months of this organization's existence ; the 
work of most of the departments has been made possible by the 
social contacts between the group members and the community, 
but the larger task of welding the district into a community, street 
by street and class by class, is still to be undertaken. 

During the summer time a special program with two free day 
schools for girls and boys in which bamboo and rope work were 
taught as well as the regular primary school studies, open air 
stereopticon lectures that attracted three or four hundred people, 
a free reading room and game room for children open to the 
public outside of school hours, was started in a large mat shed 
erected in one of the most congested parts of the district, but 
was badly interrupted by the political turmoil into which China 
was thrown in July, 1920. This same interruption, however, 
gave the Community Service Group an opportunity to experiment 
in a wider sphere of usefulness. 

Early in July it became apparent that the armies of General 
Ts'ao K'un, advancing from Tientsin, and General Wu P'ei Fu, 
coming from Pao Ting Fu District to attack the hated pro- Jap- 
anese Anfu party in control of the Government, would converge 
south of Peking. The railroad communication with Tientsin and 
Hankow was cut off, the city gates were closed, and it became 
increasingly difficult to secure permission to get in or out of the 
city, g^ain became scarce and the price of food rose rapidly, 
many of the people were in a state of panic and apprehension 
lest the city be raided and looted by the defeated troops. Seeing 
their opportunity, the Community Service Group called together 
representatives of the following organizations : 

In the East City: The three centers of the Peking Govern- 
ment University, the Chen Yi Girls' School, the East Cathedral 
of the Roman Catholic Church, the Chinese Independent Church. 

In the South City: The Hua Shih Chapel of the Methodist 
Church, the National Teachers' Collie, the Fu Shu Middle 
School, the Government Medical College, two of the Ching Chen 

In the West City: The Shantung Middle School, the P'ei 
Ken Girls' School, the Government Law School, the Ts'ui Wen 
London Mission Boys' School, the Fourth Government Middle 


School, the Ching Chao Agricultural Society, the French Lan- 
guage Institute, the Higher Technical College, the Government 
Official Weight and Balance Measuring Station, the Yu Ying 
Roman Catholic School, the Kuang Hua Buddhist Temple, the 
Ku Lou Hsi Presbyterian Mission. 

After much deliberation, the Women's and Children's Relief 
Association was organized with the object of preparing refuges 
to which women and children might go in case of riots within 
the city. Twenty-three centers capable of furnishing accommoda- 
tions for over eleven thousand people were secured. These in- 
cluded Buddhist temples, Mohammedan mosques, Roman Cath- 
olic and Protestant mission buildings, government schools. A 
responsible head was appointed for each refuge and the women 
and children of the near-by districts were registered and prom- 
ised admittance in case of danger. Warning of imminent danger 
was to be given by the raising of a large Red Cross flag over the 
refuge. All of the 23 centers were supplied by the central organ- 
ization with enough grain to last three or four days, while in 
several instances large cases of grain for emergency use were 
given by interested people living in the locality. The Anfu ^rty 
collapsed suddenly and unexpectedly and their forces were de- 
feated, but although 30,000 troops retreated toward the city they 
were not able to get inside the walls. The gates were kept dosed 
and the soldiers were so hard pressed by the victors that they 
did not have time to force their way in. The women and children 
did not have to use the refuges, but they were saved many anxious 
hours by the feeling of assurance that they would be protected 
in case of danger. 

Although the Women's and Children's Relief Association did 
not actually accomplish what it set out to do, it did reveal the 
large number of persons and organizations of all creeds and of 
no creed who are willing to work together in a common task of 
unselfish service provided the vision and the leadership are forth- 

The concrete results of the eight months' work in the district 
are not easy to show but perhaps are best described by a young 
woman who for ten years has gone in and out among the homes 
of the district and so is thoroughly familiar with the people there. 
She said: "There are two concrete results that I see. For- 
merly children did not play on the streets. Now, as I walk 
around the Teng Shih K'ou District, I often see groups of boys 
and girls, probably led by boys who have been members of our 
playgrounds, playing modern games. Previously, down the main 
market street of the district, fly screens over the meat and v^;e- 
tables were never seen. Now, as a result of our health lectures, 
many of the stores take these sanitary precautions." 


The various experiments made by the G)mmunity Service 
Group have by no means been a complete success, but they have 
demonstrated that a large number of people, both Christian an4 
non-Christian, are eager to work together in tasks of community 
service. The challenge of a real task has aroused several lethargic 
church members, a woman particularly interested in Buddhism 
has been one of the most enthusiastic of the entire group, the 
local police official has cooperated well, the students have shown 
ability to carry out the concrete tasks planned for them. Further- 
more, they have shown some of the problems that will have to be 
met in any social program, particularly the need for a more 
complete understanding of Chinese life and the need of trained 

In order to solve some of these problems of what is becoming 
a city-wide social movement — three new districts have asked that 
they be surveyed and organized for work — the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Christian Association and the Union University 
are uniting their three social service departments. Each of these 
three organizations is to supply a certain number of foreign and 
Chinese workers, who, as a team, will conduct social investiga- 
tions, plan new enterprises, give advice and counsel to the 
churches and other organizations along the lines of technical 
social service. In the public health part of the social program 
they will cooperate closely with the doctors and nurses of the 
Union Medical College. 

Realizing that trained native leadership is the most pressing 
need of all, if a successful social movement is to be launched in 
China, the Peking Union University is utilizing part of the time 
of the members of this staff to develop vocational courses in 
social service with practice work in actual community service. 
It is hoped that this is but the beginning of what will eventually 
become a school of social economics through which it will be 
possible to apply modern scientific principles to the developing 
social work in China. 

Even this small experiment, the outgrowth of the survey, has 
made it all the more plain that the field for social service is wide 
open, but that a successful social program can be achieved only 
through a careful study of the facts, by numerous experiments in 
practical methods and by the union of the Christian forces with 
the other progressive elements in New China. 





1918 Inches 

June 29.57 

July 29.54 

Aug 29.71 

Sept 29.77 

Oct 29.98 

Nov 30.14 

Dec 30.21 


Jan 30^3 

Feb 30.09 

March 29.98 

April 29.77 

May 29.69 

Total or average 


1918 ^ n 

June 62.7 

July 75.7 

Aug 80.9 

Sept 57.5 

Oct 5ao 

Nov S9^ 

Dec 66.5 


Jan 78.0 

Feb 57^ 

March 63.0 

April 32.8 

May 48^2 

Total or average 61.0 

*Trmntlmted from VoL No. 
tronomical Society of China. 


in o 


SE9'* E 
N 34** NW 

NW 20^ W 
N 42* NW 

N 38* NW 

NW 9^ W 

NW 43^ W 

NW29' W 

SW 2o' S 



























1 1.8 





4, Astronamkal mmd MHtarohgieat M0gmrim0, A^ 



Fwe-Year Report 


1913 7.774 1916 

1914 8^761 1917 

191$ 8^185 

I^TC-year increase, 102%. 


Otkir Than Head Men 




Orders and correspondence 5 2 

Transmission of orders 12 34 

Guarding Police Board i 3 

Punishment 3 12 

Jails J 2 II 

Total 23 62 


Central i 

Central 2 

Liside Left i... 
Inside Left 2... 
Inside Left 3... 
Inside Left 4. . . 
Inside Right i . . 
Inside Right 2.. 
Inside Right 3.. 
Inside Right 4. . 
Outside Left i. 
Outside Left 2. 
Outside Left 3. 
Outside Left 4. 
Outside Left 5. 
Outside Right i 
Outside Right 2 
Outside Right 3 
Outside Right 4 
Outside Right 5 


















































POUCE iCotUiimed) 


CAFTAnrs cmcxU 

Special i 7 25 

Special 2 7 25 

Special 3 6 22 

Special 4 6 23 

Cavalry 2 17 

Hospital, Inside — i 

Hospital, Outside »-« i 

Police Officers School i — 

Police School 5 i 

Recruits School 2 6 

Poorhouse, Inside i — - 

Poorhouse, Outside — x 

Industrial Home i 4 

Prostitute Registration — I 

Tung An Market i j 

Kwan An Market — — 

Reform School i 3 

Women's Industrial Home i 3 

Total 41 135 


Firemen 7 60 

Watchmen i a 

In Charge of Engines — 14 

Engine Caretakers *— a 

Band i 5 

Detectives 6 6 

Total 15 8s) 

Grand Total 260 846 

Exclusive of Fire Department and Detectives, S,S9^ 

By Police Districts 


Central I 3 — 3 

Central 2 i i — 

Inside Left i 14 x 13 

InsideLeft2 i -« i 

Inside Left 3 314 

Inside Left 4 2 ^^ 2 

Inside Right 1 8x3 

Inside Right 2 ,«n,nj I — i 

InsideRight3 ^ ^ i m^z 

Inside Right 4 wi. .7 ^ 8 80 

Outside Left i i — I 

Outside Left 2 i — I 

Outside Left 3 » — » 

Outside Left 4 # — — 



















































^f  " " 


FIRES (Continued) 
By Police Districts 


Outside Right i lo 

Outside Right 2 i6 

Outside Right 3 4 

Outside Right 4 10 

Outside Right 5 3 




















Total 93 85 69 154 

Houses pulled down to stop fires : Totally, i ; partially, 14. 
Men wounded extinguishing fires, 3. 
Incendiary fires, none. 

By Months 


January 24 — 18 18 

February 9 — 5 5 

March 12 — 10 10 

April 9 I 7 8 

May 7257 

June 6 — 2 2 

July 5 81 4 % 

August 2 — 2 2 

September 4 — 4 4 

October 3 i 3 4 

November 7 — 5 5 

December 5 — 4 4 

Totol 93 85 69 154 



1913 $1,777,813 $230 $2.4^ 

1914 1,968,321 224 2.56 

1915 1,881,149 230 2.39 

1916 1,991,575 236 2u|8 

1917 2,235,934 260 2.75 

Five-year increase, 25.7%. 


Regular Expenses Special Expenses 

Salaries $373,867 Building $i6p7S9 

Rations 930,025 Purchases 3,521 

Office expense I97»342 Detectives 1,654 

Wages 5,914 Rewards 6^043 

Horse food 22,608 Charity 3^086 

Depredation 4,880 Police school ^194 

Miscellaneous 77,799 Coal 10^042 

Celebrations 521 

Total $1,612,435 Traveling 564 





Special Expenses — Continued 

Fire tools $^99S 

Uniforms 300,000 

Cultivating trees 1736 

Fengs 4,086 

House numbers and cen- 
sus supplies 4,569 

Total %277»7^ 

Other Expenses 

Government Hospital, N. 

City $30,974 

Government Hospital, S. 

City 29,960 

Street cleaning 136,579 

Prostitution r^istration. 1,323 

Poorhouses (2) 3,473 

Poor Men's Schools (2) . lo^oo 

Time Gun 1,596 

Drum Tower 672 

Door of Hope 1,200 

Women's Poorhouse ... 1,116 

Kung Ch'ang (2) 3,936 

Spent for Other Organigations and 
Repaid by Them 

Markets $1,440 

Mail protection 2^68 

Care of flowers 360 

Well rent 36 

Rewards to outsiders. . . . 2,356 

Trees 231 

Food for those in jail... 3,435 

General purchases 212 

Food for Police Board 

Officers 8^910 

Cart hire 480 

Expenses for sick men.. 145 

Building 2,027 

Food for inspectors 181 

Detectives 670 

Miscellaneous 758 

Total $24,110 


Regular expenses $1,612,435 

Special expenses 337,76o 

Other expenses 221,629 

Spent for other organiza- 
tions 24,110 

Total $221,629 




1913 2,549 

1914 3,247 

1915 3417 

1916 3^73 

1917 3,886 

Total increase 1913-1917* 46.7%. 




1,000 PERSONS 












1913 20,554 — 

1914 21,050 2.5 

1915 21,130 O^ 

1916 22,373 S.O 

1917 22370 2.8 

Total increase 1913-1917, 11.3^. 


1,000 PERSONS 







CRIME (ConHnu€d) 
Total Crimis and Misdemeanors 


1913 23,103 

1914 24^3 

1915 24,547 

I9IO 25,646 

I917 26^756 

Total increase 1913-1917, 15.5%. 




1,000 Fnsoirt 




General regulations 7,403 

Customs 4,60s 

Communications 2,306 

Health 2,076 

Breaking the peace 400 

Public disturbance 65 

False suit 2a 

Others 3,666 

Total ift94S 























i-io as 

11-20 13 J 

21-30 334 

31-40 274 

41-50 12.6 

51-60 3.9 

61 and over 1.0 

Total loao 

















January .... i,557 102 1,659 

February .... 1,648 151 i,799 

March 1,908 265 2,173 

April 1332 319 2,151 

May 1.937 370 2,307 

June •••••... 1,814 368 2,182 


August . . 
October . . 





306 1,480 






Total 19945 2,9?S 22,870 



By Police Districts 


Central i ii6 

Central 2 ia 

Inside Left i 270 

Inside Left 2 146 

Inside Left 3 47 

Inside Left 4 256 

InsideRight i 88 

Inside Right 2 112 

Inside Right 3 179 

Inside Right 4 85 


Outside Left i 131 

Outside Left 2 153 

Outside Left 3 40 

Outside Left 4 39 

Outside Left 5 193 

Outside Right i 229 

Outside Right 2 1^9 

Outside Right 3 24 

Outside Right 4 186 

Outside Right 5 194 




1917 Police Census 



Central i 6,796 I7>966 14126 32,112 127 56 47 

Central 2 2,255 6»i59 4,S65 10,724 i J5 57^ 4-8 

Inside Left i 9,986 37,087 18,709 55.796 I99 66.5 5^ 

Inside Left 2 13.397 43,87^ 23,884 67,762 188 64J6 S' 

Inside Left 3 11419 32,924 21,798 54,722 151 60.1 4^ 

Inside Left 4 I3,757 38,217 27,346 65,563 139 s&a 4^ 

Inside Right I .... 8,738 27,971 I5«3 43,8i4 176 63B 5.0 

Inside Right 2. . . . 1 1J862 22,373 23,075 45»448 97 49^ 3.8 

Inside Right 3 9^089 25,646 15,981 41,627 161 61.7 4^ 

Inside Right 4 13>595 39>26i 26,032 65,293 151 60.1 4J8 

Outside Left i... 6,816 27,298 7,986 35^274 339 77a 5^ 

Outside Left 2. . . 6,160 26,556 8,123 34,^ 326 76.5 s6 

Outside Left 3... 6460 20,057 ",775 31^32 170 62.9 4.9 

Outside Left 4... 2,589 74^4 4>796 12,200 156 60.6 4.7 

Outside Left 5. .. 9.366 30,187 ",517 41.704 259 72.2 4^ 

Outside Right i.. 6,770 26,356 8>6io 34.966 302 75.2 5^ 

Outside Right 2. . 7,392 29462 IS366 44^28 174 63.5 6.1 

Outside Right 3. . 6,278 18.748 9.977 28,727 188 65^ 4.6 

Outside Right 4- • 7.546 20,748 15,33s 36,083 135 574 4-8 

Outside Right 5. . 6,251 17.217 ii,i$5 2^402 156 60.0 4.5 

Total 166,522 515,535 296.021 811,556 174 feS 4^9 

Central Diitrictt are in the Imperial Ci^. 

Iniide Districts are those of the North City. 

Outside Districts are those of the South or Chinese City. 

Left Districts are on east side of the City. 

Right Districts are on west side of the Ci^. 

Change From 1915 to 1917 Census 



Central i — 49i —7 —2,673 — 3 

Central 2 —193 —8 — 588 — 5 

Inside Left i — 952 — 8 — 1,784 — 3 

Inside Left 2 2,353 ^i 11432 ao 

Inside Left 3 1*172 10 2445 5 

Inside Left 4 2,380 21 7,638 13 

Inside Right I ... . 533 6 1,678 6 

Inside Right 2.... 479 4 — 10,788 — 19 

Inside Ri^t 3 — 21 — — 1436 — 3 

Inside Right 4 515 4 34^4 5 

Outside Left I ... . —18 — — 996 — 3 

Outside Left 2. .. . —19 — 2 — 172 — i 

Outside Left 3. . . . 90 i — 250 — i 

Outside Left 4. . . . 332 15 1,147 11 

Outside Left 5. . . . 1,002 12 3,593 9 




Change from 191 5 to 19 17 Census (Continued) 



Outside Right i . . . 
Outside Right 2. . . 
Outside Right 3 . . . 
Outside Right 4. . . 
Outside Right 5... 

Total 8450 5 20,311 

- Denotes a decrease in 1917 as compared with 1915. 

Growth in Four Years 



— 142 

— 2 














— 268 

— I 









I915 508,335 

I916 515.568 

I917 515.535 





Total increase 


Peking and American Cities 


1 1.5 



Peking 24.74 

Pittsburg 40.67 

Philadelphia 132.00 

Boston 4300 

Chicago 19140 

Cincinnati 44>oo 

St Louis 61.37 

Peking, Police Census, 1917. 
American Cities, U. S. Census, 1910. 





























Central i 2,816 

Central 2 2,898 



Left I.... 

.. 3.770 

Left 2.... 

.. 7,132 

Left 3 

.. 5418 

Left 4 

.. 5.162 

Right I... 

.. 4,922 

Right 2... 

.. 3,606 

Right 3-.. 

.. 4.041 

Right 4- • • 

.. S.141 











de Left i 10,078 

de Left 2 9^633 

de Left 3 6.241 

de Left 4 79a 

de Left 5 10,693 

de Right i.... 9^1 
de Right 2. ...10^673 

de Right 3 3,882 

de Right 4 2.327 

de Right 5 1,464 



Average 4;i6!9 33/Sa6 



Peking and Other Cities 


Peking 5i5»53S 296»c»i 

Toldo 1,261,571 1,098,064 

Boston 329,703 340,882 

Chicago 1,125,764 1,059,519 

New York 2,582,4812 2,584,401 

Philadelphia 760,465 788,545 

PitUburg 275,589 260,316 

St Louis 34Sfi6S 540,961 

Entire United States 

Peking, Police Census, 1917* 

Tokio, Census, 1919. 

American Cities, U. S. Census, 1910. 

















Peking and American Cities 







10. 1 



0.7 75-79 0.7 a6 

and oyer a5 80 and over a6 as 

No Data 0.8 No Data o^ 0.1 

Peking, Police Census, 1917. 
American Cities, U. S. Census, 191a 

Non.— There it apparcntlT a difference of one year between the 
American age groupe. The difference, however, it more apparent than 
Chineie baby ia one year old as soon as it is bom, and is two years old 
New Year's day is passed. The ap^rent difference is allowed to remain 
chaaffe the classifications of the Chmese Census. 






















































Ages and Sex 



Under 5 76,g^ 75,978 

S-9 67,559 67,396 

10-14 65,334 65,750 

15-19 67,600 73,940 

20-24 75,639 82,543 

25-29 74,274 75,923 

30-34 67,021 66,517 

35-39 62,821 63,699 

40-44 53,224 53,177 

45-49 44.128 43323 

50-54 36,156 36,824 

55-59 23,606 24,915 

60-64 18,154 20398 

65-69 12,312 14,696 

70-74 7,728 10,489 

75-79 4,109 6,099 

80-84 1356 3.117 

85 and over 759 1,524 

Unknown 1,240 1,237 

Total 760463 788^545 

U. S. Census, 191 0. 







Ages and Sex 



Under 5 32,265 31,460 

5-9 28^568 28,211 

10-14 27,593 27,7^Z 

IS-19 27,074 28,792 

20-24 32,610 34,540 

25-29 33,489 34,214 

30-34 29347 30,788 

35-39 29,231 29491 

40-44 24,209 23,998 

45-49 19,812 Ift6i9 

50-54 15.350 15,559 

55-59 10,265 11,012 

60^ 7,7ZZ 9^89 

65-69 5,330 6,617 

70-74 Z,ii7 4570 

75-79 1,701 2,632 

80-84 778 1,320 

85-89 258 508 

90 and over 70 167 

Unknown 403 272 

Total 329,703 340,882 

U. S. Census, 191a 



















Ages and Sex 

Number in Five-Year Age Groups 


i-s 26,033 18,139 44,172 

6-10 26,250 18,980 45,230 

II-I5 30,302 20,736 51,038 

16-20 45,177 24,404 69,581 

21-25 57,362 27,622 84,984 

26-30 62,173 27,695 89,868 

31-35 60417 28,309 88,726 

36-40 51.773 32,186 83,959 

41-45 46,639 2M95 68,134 

46-50 34,425 20,658 55.083 

51-55 24,172 15,264 39,436 

56-60 18,892 11354 30,746 

61-65 11,84s 9,168 21.013 

66-70 8»I5§ 6,380 14,535 

71-75 4,908 3,913 8321 

76-80 3,507 2441 5,948 

81-85 1,315 M63 2,478 

86-90 532 450 962 

91-95 310 259 569 

No Data 1,348 4,905 6,253 

Total 515,535 296,021 811,556 


Ages and Sex 

Percent in Five-Year Age Groups 


I-S 5-1 6.1 

6-10 5.1 64 

II-I5 5.9 7.0 

i6-2o 8.7 8.2 

21-25 ii-i 9-3 

26-30 I2.I 9.3 

31-35 "7 9.6 

36-40 lai 10.8 

41-45 9^ 7-3 

46-50 6.7 7.0 

51-55 4.7 5-3 

56^ 37 4.0 

61-65 2.3 3.1 

66-70 1.6 2a 

71-75 0-9 1.3 

76-80 0,7 0.8 

81 and over 04 a6 

No Data oj 1.7 


FES 100 











































63.S 174 



I I.I 






BIRTHS, 1917 
(Including Still Births.) 



Central i 256 2a8 484 34J} 

Central 2 109 109 218 47.0 

Inside Left 1 430 351 781 41^ 

Inside Left 2 370 265 635 26,6 

Inside Left 3 295 247 542 24.9 

Inside Left 4 515 416 931 34.1 

Inside Right 1 407 3^7 744 46.9 

Inside Right 2 202 i& 384 16.6 

Inside Right 3 168 157 3^5 20a 

Inside Right 4 284 234 518 19.9 

Outside Left 1 146 128 174 21^ 

Outside Left 2 141 97 238 2912 

Outside Left 3 414 394 8d4 68.2 

Outside Left 4 135 123 258 54.0 

Outside Left S 253 244 497 43-0 

Outside Right 1 177 ^33 3io 36X) 

Outside Right 2 288 2^1 5^9 33^ 

Outside Right 3 100 83 183 184 

Outside Right 4 297 262 559 3^4 

Outside Right 5 181 I47 338 29^ 

Total S,i88 4,378 9^566 32.6 

Stillborn: Males 307, 5.9 percent; females 333, 7.1 percent; total 640, 
6.7 percent. 

Masculinity rate, 118. 

Birth Rate: 11^ per thousand; 32.6 per thousand females; 51.1 per 
thousand women of child-bearing age. 



I913 I4IO7 194 

1914 144^ I&8 

1915 10,29a aa6 

1916 19,964 24.9 

1917 ao.981 25.8 

i9i7^Males Ii»i42 21.6 

1917— Females 9^45 33^ 






J'S 3,170 122 2,753 152 5,923 134 

^10 937 35^ 896 47^ i333 4^3 

11-15 666 21.8 597 2&8 1^3 24B 

16-20 567 12.6 550 22.5 1,117 i6ui 

21-30 i,Q20 8.5 911 16.5 1,921 IIjO 

31-40 829 74 775 12.8 1,604 913 

41-SO 976 12.0 741 17.6 1,717 13.9 

51-^ 1,040 24.1 790 29.2 1,830 26,1 

61-70 i,pS7 52.8 868 55.7 1,925 54^ 

71-80 617 73.5 658 108 1,27s 86-4 

81-90 241 131 267 166 508 147 

91-X00 12 38.6 28 108 40 706 

iNojdata lo ii 21 — 

Total 11,142 21.6 9^45 33.i 20.987 25^ 

Weak from birth includes 5 in 6-10 year group; 7 in 11-15 year grotqi. 
Deaths from old age start in the 41-50 year group. 




Poverty 16 7 21 8 53 

Family troubles 3 9 6 17 35 

Disease 20 — 3 i 24 

Hating oneself 4 3 8 7 2a 

Insane 7 i 3 i 12 

Discovery of crime 41 — 27 

Debt 3 I I I S 

Jealousy i 3 — i 5 

Punished by parents i — 3 — 4 

Old age I I — — 2 

No daU 33 7 i — 41 

Total 93 33 46 38 210 

Total male, 139; total female, 71. Successful attempts, 60 per- 
cent; male, 67 percent; female, 46.5 percent. Number per 100,000 
inhabitants: Total attempts, 25.9; successful attempts, 15.5. 

Ages of Successful and Attempted Suicides 


15 and under 2 3 5 

10-20 2 7 9 

21-30 19 29 48 

31-40 52 19 71 

41-50 20 6 26 

51-60 12 4 16 

61 and over 12 3 15 

No data 10 — 10 

Total 139 71 210 

Of those under sixteen only one attempt was successful. Poverty was 
the cause of two attempts. Punishment by parents, two attempts. Fam- 
ily trouble, one attempt 



Methods of Suicidi 


Hanging 58 

Poison 22 

Drowning 24 

Stabbing 23 

Opium 2 

Fire I 

Shooting z 

Others 8 

Total 139 


January 10 

February 8 

March 12 

April lA 

May 16 

June 9 

July 10 

August 13 

September 11 

October 7 

November 12 

December 17 

Total 139 





























1913 4,744 

I914 2,100 

I915 2^ 

1916 2,739 

I9I7 2,691 

PER 1,000 



Decrease, 1913-1917, 43 percent 
Increase, 1914-1917, 28 percent 





. 2,788 
. 1,317 

. 1.345 
. i,SS9 
. 668 





Death rate, 1917, a^ 




31-35. . . 

41-45. . . 



. 4 
. 3 

. 5 

. 10 

. 29 

. 29 

. 19 

66-70. . . 


8i-?5. . . 







Exclusive of Mission Schools 



Public higher primaries 27 5 3a 

Private higher primaries 9 — g 

Public lower primaries 46 23 69 

Private lower primaries 63 6a 125 

Bannermen higher primaries 8 — 8 

Bannermen lower primaries 13 -« 13 

Police half-day schools 53 — ^ 

Half-day school i — i 

Kindergarten i — i 

Industrial schools (i public, i private).. 2 — - 3 

Continuation schools 3 ■— 3 

Continuation commercial schools 2 — a 

Blind schools i — i 

Girls' public higher primaries 6 — 6 

Girls' private higher primaries 516 

Girls' public lower pnmaries 6 — 6 

Girls' private lower primaries 13 — 13 

Total 259 91 350 

Protestant mission and Chinese Independent Church schools, 68w 





Chinese ethics 2 2 2 

Classics 3 3 3 

Literature 10 8 8 

Arithmetic 444 

Chinese history i 2 a 

Geography i 2 a 

Physics and geography 2 2 a 

Handwork 22 a 

Drawing 2 2 a 

Music 2 2 a 

Athletic drill 3 3 3 

Agriculture — 2 a 

Family affairs 2 4 4 

Foreign languages — 2 a 

Total 34 40 40 

Non. — ^The curriculum for girla it the same except that they have two hoora t 
lew work than the boyf» omitting one hour of handwork and one of dxmwtng. 







Chinese ethics i i i i i i i i 

National reader 7 7 7 6 5. 5 5 5 

Foreign languages ...7 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 

History 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Geofirraphy 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Arithmetic 54 54 53 43 

Nature study 3 3 3 3 2 2 — — 

Physics and chemistry — — — — 44 44 

Political economy .... — — — — — — 2 2 

Drawing i i i i i i 2 x 

Manual training i x i i i i i i 

Family affairs, garden- 
ing — — — 2 — 2 *— 2 

Sewmg — 2 — 2 — 2 — 2 

Music II II II II 

Athletic drill 3 ^ 3 2 3 2 3 2 

Total 33 32 34 33 35 34 35 34 



1. General Cheng, Consul to Peru, suggests that family temples, gild 
halls, and also the residences of rich citizens should be thrown open for 
half -day schools. Those who do not have money should get their relatives 
to start schools. Provision should be made for the students to work the 
other half day. The Board of Commerce accepts the suggestion. 

2. The Board of Education orders a careful investigation of all 
schools in Chihli Province. At present there are 130 schools for men and 
25 for girls. (There are now far more than this number in Peking alone.) 

3. In former times the education of China held out to the people only 
the hope that they should learn to read and write, but now that has been 
changed. Not only do we wish people to write good composition, but we 
want them to be capable men. Therefore even the Chuang Yuan and 
Hanlin want to study this real knowledge from foreign countries. 

4. The Government proposes the increase of primary schools in Pe- 
king, so as to educate all children over 12 years. 

5. A returned student from Japan is to establish an art school at Liu 
Li Ch'ang to teach children to draw maps and pictures. 

6. The Soldiers' Training Bureau proposes to establish schools for 
the elementary instruction of soldiers. Petty officers are to be used as 

7. A proposal from a man named Chang that medical colleges with 
Chinese and foreign teachers be established throughout China. 

8. The Board of Education orders that all students who are too old 
to study the lessons be dismissed from schools. In the future no student 
over 30 years of age shall be admitted. (This throws light on the eager- 
ness of the old scholars to absorb western learning.) 

9. The heads of the Chamber of Commerce sent a petition to the 
Emperor stating that merchants of China, because of their lack of knowl- 



edge of commercial law, are losing much trade. A commercial law sdiool 
should be opened in Peking. This suggestion was accepted. 

la General Sun and a certain duchess petition the Government for 
the establishment of girls' schools in Peking. 

11. A school for the training of police officers is to be opened. 

12. Private primary schools are increasing in Peking. This is of 
great advantage to the country, but they should not use the name of 
middle schools for such low-grade work. 

13. The Pei Yang Military School b only of middle grade. A uni- 
versity for training soldiers should be established. 

14. A suggestion that half-day schools shotdd be opened for the old 
and poor who cannot otherwise learn. 




Translated from 191/ Report of the Minister of Education 

Primary and Middle Schools 



Lower primary 216 

Higher primary 61 

Middle 12 






Institutions of Higher Learning 

College of Finance .. i 

Medical College i 

Agricultural College., i 

Industrial schools .... 3 

Higher Normal College i 

Government University i 

China University i 

Chung Hua University i 
























31,343 $1,894,433 $6045 

Students in Peking 

Under the Government: 
Boys of middle grade.... 
Boys of higher grade 


Girls of middle grade 

Total boys and girls 

Under the local board: 
Middle school grade.. 

Higher primary 

Other primary 

Lower primary 

Total boys and girls 

. . . . 

. • . • 









Graduates of Schools in Peking 

Under the National Board 

of Education 

Normal 81 

Higher normal 67 

Law 362 

Agriculture 60 

Technical 194 

University preparatory 189 

University : 

Chinese department 17 

Science department 17 

Technical department 32 

Other departments 17 

Total 1,036 

Of the 1,036 graduates only 60 
were women. 



Graduates of Schools in Peking 

Under the Local Board of 


Lower primary 2,520 

Higher primary 560 

Agricultural and industrial 

primaries 31 

Middle 114 

Normal middle 24 

Other middle 29 

Monthly Expendihtre for 
Schools, etc. 

A. Inspectors $1^200 

B. Middle schools: 

Boys 5,800 

Girls 2,200 



jgi8 Budget of the Peking Locai 
Board of Education 

General supervision: 

Salaries $35»5^ 

Servants 1,008 


C. Primary schools: 
Boys' lower pri- 
mary ^$700 

Boys' higher and 
lower primary 
( combined ) . . . 9^500 
Girls' higher and 
lower primary 
(combined in 
one building) . . 1,900 
Appren. school. . 650 

Kindergarten 50 

Help to private 
soiools 650 


General expenses: 

Stationery i,j68 

Postage 96 

Equipment 600 

Miscellaneous . . 804 


D. Social education: 

Lecture halls . . . 910 
Public libraries. 270 
Half-day schools 290 
Newspaper read- 
ing rooms.... 30 




Total $30,150 

Students in China 


Lower primary 3»55i,099 

Higher primary ^fia^ 

Other primary 49*850 

Middle schools 1 16,994 

Higher schools 27,730 

Total 4,113,302 










Mechanical Department 


Ethics I 

National reader. 2 

English 2 

Arithmetic 3 

Physics and 

chemistry 3 

Drawing 6 

Principles of 

mechanics.... — 










Study of materi- 
als used I 

Mechanical draw- 
ing — 

Physical exercise i 

Shop practice. . .20 



— Total 









Carpentry Department Electroplating Department 





Ethics I 

National reader. 2 

English 2 

Arithmetic 3 

Physics and 
chemistry .... 

Drawing and de- 

Study of materi- 
als used 

Physical exercise 

Shop practice . . .20 





















Ethics I 




National reader. 2 




English 2 




Arithmetic 3 

Physics and 




chemistry 3 

Applied chem- 




istry — 

Drawmg and de- 




signing 6 




Physical exercise i 




Shop practice... 2 1 


















Total 39 




Model lecture hall 450 

Outside North City wall 104 

Outside East City wall 100 

Outside South City wall 66 

Total 1,913 

Average 147 

Number and Character of Average Daily Attendance 
















Model 300 

North City 45 

East City 55 

South City 30 

Total 1,005 

Average 77 

a Generally preaent. 
b Occarionaliy pratent 












LECTURE HALLS (Conitnuid) 

Subjects Discussed 

Political subjects (National and International) : 

The European War, its purpose, aim, demonstration of the power 

of right over might 15 

The real meaning of freedom and equality 4 

Importance of knowing world affairs 3 

The duties of citizenship 3 

What constitutes a country 2 

Democracy, its true meaning 2 

The political organization of Germany and its results 

The relation between the European War and our livelihood 

The European War and industry 

How shall we protect ourselves from the enemy ? 

Become a soldier 

The Glory of China 

The relation of the people to the country 

The people should know the condition of their own country 


Education : 

Education including explanation of the school system, the need of 
public education, purpose of lecture hall, etc 24 

Morality, friendship, right relations: 

Public morality 18 

The relation of obeying laws to morality 11 

Truth, personal honesty, the relation of truth to right action 6 

Independence of spirit, self-support 5 

Public spirit 4 

Courtesy and kindness 4 

Patriotism ^ 3 

Personal virtue 3 

Save your money 2 

The obligation to pay taxes 2 

The value of a good reputation 2 

Love between brothers, pride, diligence — each 2 

Honesty, self-reliance, endurance, cooperation, duty— each 

Courage, filial piety, friendship — each 

How to obtain peace in the heart 

Virtue versus covetousness 

Do not covet money 

The duty of the people 

Westerners have public spirit, but Chinese have only private mor- 

The lethargy of our people 

The importance of early rising 

The evil, hard hearts of students 

Science : 

Popular science. Biology and the greatest and smallest animals . . 3 
Snow I 



Economics, industrial and commercial: 

Buy national goods 6 

Development of industry 3 

How to make a living 2 

Biography of great merchants 2 

The relation of the standard of living to present condidons 2 

Cotton planting 1 

The development of agriculture and commerce i 

How to raise chickens i 

Relation of the weather to agricultural production i 

The ricksha man i 

Confidence, the secret of becoming wealthy i 


Physical health and hygiene: 
Hygiene, public and private . . . . 
Physical training ana education 


The plague 

The human brain 

Household education, the home: 

Household education, the relation of cleanliness to good house- 
keeping 4 

Right relations within the family a 

Education for mothers a 

Virtuous mothers 1 

The raising of children i 

Household education i 



General and historical: 

Chinese history 6 

Comparisons between William II and Napoleon the Great i 

The plague i 


Social reform : 

The power of evil habits 6 

Reform of social customs 5 

Abolish smoking, the evil of cigarettes 4 

The dangers of luxury 4 

Against opium 2 

Against gambling 

Abolish foot binding 

Beware of the kidnaper 

Against the counterfeiter 

Don't steal 

Devils (Kuei) 

The abolition of superstition 


Monthly BudgOt 


I ig 

a 60 

3 SO 

4 59 

5 SO 

6 69 

8 SIS 

9 71 

10 60 

Outside East City 41 

Outside South City 39 

Outside North City 41 

The average expenses per month $54 

Number <md Character of Books in Lecture Hail Reading Roomi 






I... 123 17 16 12 l69 

2... 69 49 21 10 X49 

3... (SS 92 25 ID 190 

4... 60 130 50 40 18 m 

5... 267 igs 45 74 12 014 
6.. .No report 
8. . . No report 

9... n^ 8 16 8 147 

10... 18 29 9 28 17 18 7 126 

Total.. 666 515 204 195 Q7 18 7 1.693 

Average Daily Attendance In Lecture Hall Libraries and Reading Rooms 


1 S5 100 

2 60 100 

3 10 no data 

4 S5 no data 

5 30 no data 

6 30 

8 30 

9 60 

10 55 

Outside East Citv 6 75 

Outside South City 30 45 

Outside North Gty 25 55 

ToUl 446 

The average daily attendance in each library is 37. 


LECTURE HALLS iConiinued) 
Library of Model Lecture Hall 


Popular education 200 

Novels 141 

Educational 100 

Biography 62 

Classics 36 

Hygiene 20 

Lectures 20 

Short novels 16 

Travel 15 

Industrial books 12 

Economics 5 

Magazines 130 

Newspapers 66 

Total 823 

jgj6 Statistics for Metropoliatn District^ 



Old Style libraries 2 25 

Books — 95,089 (16 libraries 


Annual expenditures $10,000 $23^16 

Readers, yearly 3,443 109,903 

New style libraries i 238 

Books 1400 7i»8oo 

Annual expenditures $8,000 $56,756 

Readers 246,300 2718^910 

Museums i 8 

Newspaper rooms 19 ifii7 

Newspapers 22 10 

Average attendance 40 35 

Lecture halls 17 2,139 

Average attendance 113 34 

Social education societies 3 i^ 

^Translated from 191 7 report of Board of Education. 



L Aim: To re-make civilization: 

Because of our desire to re-make civilization we therefore should 
emphasize : 

1. Democracy. 

2. Science. 

By means of democracy and science China can be saved and properly 
controlled. Moreover, because government, morality, learning, and intel- 
lectual life are in a very decadent condition, democracy must oppose 
Confucianism, ceremonialism, the old conservative viewpoint on mor^ity, 
and old forms of Government 


In order to preserve modern science we must stand opposed to former 
technical arts and ancient religions. 

In order to preserve morality, democracy and science we must oppose 
fixed national traditions and the old literary style of composition. 

II. Attitude : The critical attitude. 

This attitude is a new one. Such an attitude considers and fixes 
properly all values. It aims at the "transvaluation of values." 
The things especially emphasized in this critical attitude are : 

1. In regard to the attitude towards customs, the question to be 

answered is, "Does the maintenance of this custom have 
value for society?" (Valueless customs should be discarded 
or transformed.) 

2. In regard to the teachings of G>nfucius the important question 

is, "Is any particular teaching of value for this present age, 
or not?" 

3. Regarding foolish and generally accepted methods of pro- 

cedure and beliefs, we wish to ask, "Because certain customs 
are approved are they therefore good?" "Because men act 
in a certain way am I to act in that certain way?" "Does it 
not seem possible that there are ways of activity other than 
these that are even more beneficial?" 

4. Regarding old Chinese learning and thought, our attitude 

should also be the critical attitude. 

(a) Opposition to blindness. 

(b) Opposition to intrigue and indirection. 

(c) The reconstruction of old national customs. 
There are three steps in reconstructing national affairs: 

(i) Careful arrangement and systematization of these former 

(2) Careful investigation of each theory and ideas as to what 

influence it would have if promoted. 

(3) Use of the scientific method of exact and careful investiga- 


III. The problems of investigation. 

1. Social. 

Social reconstruction, emancipation of women, emancipation of 
men, purity, Confucianism, educational reform, marriage, the rela- 
tion of father and son, economic problems, labor problems. 

2. Governmental. 

The rule by the people, anarchy, internationalism. 

3. Religious. 

Confucianism, faith and belief, morality. 

4. Literary. 

The literary revolution, the problem of the national spoken 
language, novels, the language of other nations, the abolition of the 
use of ancient Chinese literature, the theater. 

IV. Methods of introducing these new theories. 

The following list of names are given as those from whose writings 
valuable thoughts could be translated to guide this New Thought Move- 

Karl Marx Tolstoy 

T. F. Wilcox Bertrand Russell 

John Dewey Kropotldn 

Haeckel Bakunin 

James Lenin 




NAMlorGZLO gg 8 

Barbers 580 


Bone and horn 

Colored bone 20 

Toothbrush 40 

Comb workers — * 

Shoe horn * 

Spectacle frame * 

Tongue scrapers * 

Butchers — 

Pig 150 

Sheep 170 

Carpet 68 


Wholesale 60 

Retail 3,100 

Confectioners 50 


Drugs 180 


Cotton 10 

Silk 30 

Fertilizer 900 

Fur 300 

Gold foil beaters 15 

Hat no 

Incense and cosmetics 403 

Jade 430 

Paper-hangers 1,018 

Painters 40 

Pawnbrokers 70 

Shoemakers i»300 

Smelters 10 


Wholesale 14 

Retail 50 

Tailors 2,500 

Undertakers 240 

Water-carriers 300 

* Store-keeper* and laborers included together. 
'Workers and apprentiees included together.