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" Entered at tht Pott Office of New York, N. T., at tecond-clatt matter." 


Vol. VI.— No. 1. 

COPY-BOOKS. I la niid 121 William St.. N. Y. 


Taoght in clnM. iirivaiely ur by mail. Studied wilh 


Thoroughly taught by mail or pertoiially, 
procarea for pupils when competent. Send fi 
W. O. ChajTEK, Oanego, N. Y. 


. CRANDI.E, ValparaiiO, 

TUTE, Keokuk, lowR. 
in 1871. Life Memliereblp, |35. 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 

No. XVII. 

It K V I !■: \v. 

?w Iff tin- long lapse of time and 
the multitude of new readers of the JouR- 
HAL since the beginning of this course of 
lesions we have deemed it fitting that we 
should, to some extent, in this new year's 
number review the leading points that we 
have endeavored to make during the course. 
As we stated^ at the outset, our purpose 
has been to present, not the detailed analy- 
sis of writing, but to give such general sug- 
gestion and criticisms repocting successful 
methods for the teaching and practice of 
practical writing as we were able. This 
course was deemed most desirable from the 
fact that thfee courses of analytical les- 
sons had been given respectively by the 
editors of the JftuitNAL and Prof. J. W. 
Payson, associate author of the popular 
system of Payson, Dunton & Scribncr. 

First. An importance to the pupil in wri- 
ting is a COKKECT POSITION. As in logic 
an error in the premises must lead to false 
conclusions, so a bad position, while learn- 
ing to write, must lead to failure. It is 
only when in a correct position that the pen, 
even in the hand of Its skillful master, is 
capable of producing the smooth graceful 
lino, shade and curve so essential to good 
writing; if 8Hch IB the fact, when in a 
master's hand, how doubly so it is in the 
undisciplined and struggling hand of the 
learner ! 

It is also important that a proper posi- 
tion be maintained at the table or desk, as 
well as the relative positions of the pen, 
hand, paper, desk, and body. 

Each of three positions at the desk have 
more or less advocates, and each, in our 
opinion, is commeudable according to the 
circumstances of the writer. We give each 
position with the reasons urged in their 

— Turn the right aide 
near to the desk but not in contact with it. 

Keep the body erect, the feet level on the 
Hoor. Place the right arm parallel to the 
edge of the desk, resting on the muscles just 
forward of the elbow, and rest the hand on 
the nails of the third and fourth fingers, not 
permitting the wrist to touch the paper. 
Let the liands be at right angles to each 
Oliver, and rest on the book, keeping the 
book parallel to the side of tlie desk. 

This position is advocated as furnishing 
the best support for the hand and arm while 
writing, and we think not without justice in 
school or class-rooms, where the desk is 
often sloping and n; 

live positions maintained as in the right and 
front. This position is advocated ou the 
ground of its relieving the right ami from 
being burdened with any support of the 
body while writing, and thus giving a more 
free, rapid, and less tiresome action to the 
hand and arm ; this argument has consider- 

able force where the fore-t 
movement is practi<!ed. 

It is also the most convenie 
necessity, in the counting-rc 
and large books are 
a position at right . 

' muscular 

n whore 
iqnired to 
Qgles with 

the desli, and also in the execution of 
drawings or specimens of penmanship 
which necessarily, or most conveniently, 
occupy positions directly in front of the 

Another position at the desk, sometimes 
advocated by authors and teachers, is the 
nglit oblicjue, which is a position between 
the front and side, thus, 


opinion, which of these positions is to be 
adopted, is not of such vital importance as 
that the proper relative position of pen, 
hand, and paper should be maintained, and 
that the arm should be perfectly free from 
the weight of the body wliile writing. 

Front position. -In this the same rela- 
tive position of hand, pen, and paper should 
be maintained as described in the former 
one. In commercial colleges and writing 
academies where more spacious desks or 
tables are used than in the common school- 
room, this position is admissible and is 
frequently adopted. 

Lkft position.— Without illustrating 
this position we would say that the left side 
is presented to the desk, and the same rela- 

PosiTioN OF PEN AND ARM.— Take the 
pen between the first and second fingers 
and thumb, letting it cross the fore-finger 
just forward of the knuckle (a) and the 
second finger at the root of the nail (n) J of 
an inch from the pen's point. Bring the 
point (c) squarely to the paper and let the 
tip of the holder (d) point toward the right 

The thumb should be bent outward at the 
first joint, and (e) touch the holder opposite 
the first joint ot the fore-finger. 

The^rsi and semnd fingers should touch 
each otheo as far as the first joint of the first 
finger; the third and fourth must be slight- 
ly curved and separate from the others at 
the middle joint, and rest upon the paper 
at the tips of the uail.«. The wrist must 

always be elevated a little above the desk. 
This position of the pen is undoubtedly the 
beat for all writers using the finger move- 
ment, as it admits of the greatest freedom 
And facility of action of the fingers; but 
among writers using the muscular move- 
ment, where less depends upon the action of 
the fingers, it is common, and we think well, 
to allow the holder to fall back and below 
the knuckle joint ; it is easier held, and, from 
its forming a more acute angle with the 
paper, moves more readily and smoothly 
over its surface. 

Finger Movement is the combined action 
of the first and second fingers and thumb. 

Fore-Arm Movement is the action of the 
fore-arm sliding the hand on the nails of 
ihe third and fourth fingers. 

Combined Movement is that which is 
most used in business penmanship. It is a 
union of the^bre-arm with the finger move- 
ment, and posesses great advantage over 
the other movements in the greater rapidity 
and ease with which it is employed. 

Whole-Arm Movement is the action of 
the whole arm from the shoulder, with the 
elbow slightly raised, and the hand sliding 
on the nails of the third and fourth fingers. 
And is used with facility in striking capital 
letters and in ofl'-hand fiourishing. 

Main Alant. A straight line 
the right of the ver- 
tical, forming an angle of 52° 
with the horizontal, gives the 
main slant (M. S.) for all written letters. 

Connective Slant. Curves which connect 
straight lines in small letters, in a medium 
style of writing, are usually made on an 
angle of :10'^. This is called the connective 
slant ( C. S.). See diagram. 

Base Line. The horizontal line on which 
the writing rests is called the base line. 

Head lAne. The horizontal line to which 
the short letters extend is called the head 

Top line. The horizontal line to which 
the loop and capital letters extend is called 
the top line. 

A Space in Height is the height of small *. 

A Space in Width is the width of small u. 

The distance between the small letters is 
H spaces, measured at head line, except in 
the a, d, g, and q. The top of the pointed 
oval in these letters should be two spaces to 
the right of a preceding letter. 

Upper and Lower Turtvi. In the analy- 
sis of small letters, short curves occur as 
connecting links between the principles. 
These curves we call turns. When one 
appears at the top of a letter, it is called an 
upper turn; when at the base, it is called a 
lower turn. 

Movement exercise. All instruction 
in penmanship should be imitated with a 
liberal use of movement exercises, which 
should be arranged and practiced with the 
view of facilitating upward and downward as 
well as lateral movement of the hand, and 
each and every lesson should be preceded 
with more or less practice upon movement 

care in PRACTICE. 
In practicing upon movements and wri- 
ting, it should be constantly borne in mind 
that it is not the amount of practice so much, 
as the careful and thoughtful effort to 

^^^-.^ ^ m^^mm 

acquire i>rcci8io 3 aod rertaiaty, that det«r- 
tiiioes the 6ucce«s of the writer. 

It is ofteo said that "practice raakee 
perfect." This is true if the term practice 
implies thoughtful, patieot, and pereisteot 
effort for improvetneDt ; othenirise it n;ay 
be quite untrue. 

Thoughthh'ss scrihhliug tendi rather to 
retard thao to eohanoe the acquisition of 
good wriliog. Kach time a copy has been 
cfirelesflly repeated, incorrect, or bad habtte 
Iiiive been confirmed rather than corrected — 
a move backward instead ol forward. Tbis 
is a fact not Hulliciently appreciated by 
teachers or pupils. Better far not practice 
than to do so carelessly ; one might as well 
seek to win a race by occasionally taking a 
turn in the opposite direction. 

Gr)od or M'ell constructed writing is no 
more essential than that it should he exe- 
cuted with facility and case ; yet we would 
havd no learner fall into the mistaken idea 
that be is to give special attention to speed 
before having acquired, by deliberate study 
and practice, correct forms and proportions 
in writing ; first, mscuracy, then speed ;-' 
rapid and thouglitleas practice is worse than 
useless— the mind must be educated before 
the hand. The band and pen are only the 
servants of the mind, and as such can never 
surpass the mind's conception and power to 
guide and direct in any performance. 

If upon the tablets of the mind there is 
presented constantly to our mental vision a 
perfect copy of the letters pud their varied 
combinations into graceful writing, the hand 
will strike for the single and de&nite purpose 
of reproducing the same, and will progress 
steadily to the attainment of skill requisite 
for the reproduction of the most perfect con- 
ceptions of the mind. The hand of the 
greatest sculptor or artist hasjio cunning 
not imparted by a skillful brain. Michael 
Angelo was the chief of artists, because of 
his superior mental conception of art, and 
may we not puppose that the untouched 
canvas presented to his mental vision all the 
grandeur of beauty in design aud finish 
that delighted the eye of the beholdi-r when 
finished into tlic most exquisite work of art t 
The hand can never excel the conception 
of the mind that educates and directs its 
action. If Spencer or Flickinger excel all 
others in the perfection and beauty of their 
penmanship, is it not because of their super- 
ior concepticm of that in which superior 
penmanship consists? The student, who 
would have succes.s, must see tliat his prac- 
tice is preceded and always attended with 
thoughtful study and criticism. 

After having once written the copy, study 
and criticise your e3brt before the next trial. 
Your faults noted, and a thought as to how 
tliey may be best corrected, will enable you 
to make an intelligent aud successful effort 
fnr improvement. Uomemher that unknown 
faults can never be avoided or corrected. 
Fir^t, study to discover, and then to mend. 
Short exercises — or copies — if rightly prac- 
tiia'd, are much more favorable for improve- 
meutthan long ones, inasmuch as they are re- 
pealed at intervals so short as to keep faults 
luid criticisms freah in mind, while oft-ro- 
pciiti'd eflbrls for correcliou will be corrt-s- 
po ulingly effective. Faults observed by 
ourselves or pointed out by others, at the 
beginning of a long copy, are very likely to 
be ovit of mind before that portion of the 
nmy iu which they occur is repeated. 

must give the manual dexterity for it> e(\:^y 
and graceful execution. Many persons 
fail to become good writers from not proper- 
ly uniting study and practice. Careful study 
with loo little practice will give writing 
comparatively accurate in its form and 
manner of construction, but labored, stiff 
and awkward in its execution, while, upon 
the other hand, much practice with little 
study imparts a more easy and Howiug style, 
but with much less accuracy as regards the 
forms of the letters and general proponion 
and construction of the writing, which will 
commonly have a loose and sprawly appear- 
ance. Example of writing which has 
resulted more from study than practice. 

Example of writing in which there has 
been more practice than study. 

Writing, the result of study properly 
combined with practice. 

Writing Not a Si»e 

. GlPT. 

It is often said that good writing is a 
" special gift." This idea is not only falla- 
cious, but is exceedingly pernicious, as 
regards the at-quisiti-iu of gond writing, in- 
asmuch as it tends to discourage pupils who 
write badly, by leading thein to believe that, 
not having " the gift," they are debarred 
from becouiiug gnod writers. 

0(.^d writing is no more a gitt than Is 
good readiug, spelling, grammar, or any 
o'her attainment, and in the same way it is, 
nnd can be acquired, viz : by patient and 
studious effort. 

The cora'ct form and consiructijn of wri- 
ting im^t be Uamed by study, while practice 


Undoubtedly many of our readers will see 
forcibly illustrated in one of these examples 
their own experience ; so manifest is the 
effect of these different modes of practice 
that we have only to glance at a piece of 
writing to discern the extent in which a 
writer has combined study with practice 
while learning to write. 


It is a trite and true saying that '■ a jack 
of all trades is good at none." This U so 
from the fact that working at many things 
neither the hand or brain can attain .to a 
high order of proficiency or skill. It is the 
specialist that advances the standard of 
progress in all the directions of human dis- 
covery. Concentration of thought and 
action makes tlte great masters of the world, 
while by a diffusion of the same the greatest 
genius is dissipated and fails to attain to a 
marked degree of eminence. 

So in learning to write, the pupil who 
vacillates between many systems and multi- 
tudinous forms of letters must inevitably 
fail of becoming an expert and skillful 
writer. He has too much to learn ia learn 
it well, and, like "the jack of many trades," 
must fail. 

It is a matter of frequent observation that 
persons learning or practicing writing vacil- 
late between from two to six different f rms 
of tlie capitals, and as many as are possible 
in the small letters, apparently in the belief 
that variety is the chief element of good 
vrriting, which is a double mistake, as it de- 
tracts from the good appearance of the wri- 
ting, at the same time that it enhances the 
dilliiculty of learning and of executing it. 

For example, we have known writers 
who, iu executing a short piece of writing, 
would for many of the letters make use of 
forms as varied and numeruus as follows : 

less variety in all of the 
letters, thus requiring study and practice 
upon about one hundred different and un- 
necessarily complicated forms for the alpha- 
bet, ic pi ice of twenty-six. Thus the labor 
and uncertainly of becoming a skillful writer 
is magnified four-fold. A single and simple 
form for each letter, capital and small, 
should be adopted, and, with a few excep- 
tions which we shall explain during this 

i-i.urse (if lessons, should be invariably prac- 
ticed. Their f^eciuent and uniform repeti- 
tion will impart that accuracy of f>rm, 
grace, and facility of execution which con- 
stitutes good writing. 

The simple forms are not only more easily 
acquired and more rapidly executed, but 
they are more easily read than the in re 
ornate styles: in fact, those forms tliat cost 
the most are worth the least. It is as if a 
merchant should constantly purchase an in- 
ferior class of merchandise and pay the high 
price of the best : his chances for success 
certainly would not be very promising. 
EcoNOMV OF Form. 

Labor, whether of the clerk or mechanic, 
is rewarded according to the results it can 

The copyist or clerk who can write one 
hundred words equally as well in the same 
time that another writes fifty, will certainly, 
other things being equal, command twice 
as much pay. The rapidity with which 
writing can be executed depends largely 
upon the simplicity of the forms of letters 
used, and the size of the writing. A 
medium or small hand is written with much 
more ease and rapidity than a large hand, 
from the fact that the pen can be carried 
over short spaces in less time and with 
greater ease than over long ones, and can 
execute simple forms more easily and rapid- 

ly than complicated 

i. To illustrate. 
> habitually make 
the capital R thus : 

Which requires eleven motions 
of the hand to e.\ecute, and that 
another were to uniformly make it 
thus : 
Requiring only four motions of 
the hand. It is apparent that the 
difference of time required to make 
each cannot be less than the proportion of 
eleven to. four; that is not all. The com- 
plicated form consists of many lines, some 
of which are required tu run parallel to each 
other, and all made with reference to balanc- 
ing or harmonizing with some other lino, 
and requires to bo made with much greater 
care and skill than the more simple f>rin, 
so that the disadvantage is even greater 
than indicated by the simple proportion 
between eleven and four. 

The practice of these complex forms of 
tlie alphabet will be fatal to rapid and 
legible business wTiiing. 

These remarks are intended to apply 
more especially to business and unprofes- 
sional writing. Where uhow and beauty 
are of greater consideration than dispatch, 
variety and complexity of forms are quite 
proper, aud even necessary. 

We here give the entire alphabet of cap- 
itals such as we would reeoitimeud for all 
business purposes, as combining simplicity 
of fonn and ease of construction: 

We vrould add as not objectionable the 
following : 

Correct Proportions Essential to 
Goon Writing 
One might be able to execute faultlessly 
each single letter of the alphabet, and yet 
be a nmst miserable writer. Writing to be 
really uood must be harmonious in all Its 
parts ; letters must be proportionate to each 
other, properly connected, 6pa':ed, have a 
uniform slope and degree of pen-pressure, 
etc., as well as an easy and graceful move- 
ment. The following example will illus- 

trate the bad effect of disproporliu 



It will be seen that each letter taken by it- 
self is creditably acc.irate In form, and yet 
when associated with each other in a word, 
they present an appearancd a* ungainly as 
would an ox yoked with an elephant. We 
have often seen writing In which the letters 
were really badly formed, yet so harmonious 
in their combinations and easy in their con- 
struction as to present an attractive, not to 
say an elegant, effect ; while upon me 
other hand we have often 8'>en writing in 
which the letters we'-e well formed, aud yet 
89 awkward in their combinations and 
labored in their execution as to be really 
painful to the sight of persons having a re- 
fined and correct taste regarding writing. 

Correct and Incorrect Spacing. 

Another important factor of good writing 
is the proper spacing and connecting of 
letters and words ; upon these very much 
depends, as in many instances the connect- 
ing lines alone impart the distinctive char- 
acter to letters. 

In determining the proper spacing of 
writing, the distance between the straight 
lines of the small u may be taken as a space 
in width. The distance between the parts 
of letters having more than one downward 
stroke should bo one space : between the 
letters, one and one-fourth spaces, measured 
at the bead line, except a, rf, (/, and g, 
which should occupy tMo spaces, measuring 
from the preceding letter to the jioint of 
the ovals ; between words there should be 
two spaces. 




;g Lin 

Much care should be exercised while 
practicing to employ the proper curve for 
conneotiug letters and their parts. It is a 
very common and grievous fault in writing 
that a straight line or the wrong curve is 
employed in the construction and connection 
of letters, thus leaving them without dis- 
tinctive character, or i oparting one whicli 
is frtlso and misleading. As for instance, a 
form made thus^^^ is really no letter, but 
may be taken for an /7'^ a -^-l-^ and 
possibly for a ,^-^:^- In cases where the 
context does not determine, its identity be- 
comes a mere matter of guess, and when 
extended thus ypf4^ 'fs significance, as 
will be seen, Is still more vague and un- 
certain, as it might be intended for either of 
the following seven combinat'ons : 

With a properly trained hand no more time 
or effort is required to impart the true and 
unmistakable characteristics to each letter 
than to make forms whose identity is open 
to doubt and conjecture. 

Slant of Writing. 

The degree of slant now adojited by the 
leading authors and one which we approve, 
is at an angle of 52"* from the horizontal, as 
per diagram in another column. 

The relative effects of correct and incor- 
rect slope may be seen in the following 

The variation in the slope of different 
letters and their parts will be rendered much 
more perceptible by drawing straight ex- 
tended lines through their parts, thus : 

One of the most common faults 
icctirs on the last part of letters m, 
Dii p, which are made thas : 

Size of Writixo. 

In its practical application to the affairs 
of life, wriiiog must be greatly varied iu its 
jrdiug to the place in aud purpose 
for which it is used. 

It would be obviouHly bad taste to use 
the same size aud style of writing for the 
headings of a ledger aud other books of 
account or retwrd that would bo employed 
on the body of a page. Id the address of 
a letter and superscription upon the envelope 
mucli greater lii 

style, may be taken, llian iu the body of 
the writing. Nor is it practical at all times 
to maintain a uniform size for body writing. 
It may with propriety be written larger 
upon wide tlian narrow ruled paper. Care 
should always he taken to guago the size of 
the writing according to the space in, and 
purpose fur which it is to be written. This 
should be dune by varying the scale, rather 
llian the pmportious of the writing. When 
writing upon ruled paper we should always 
imagine the space between the lines to be 
divided into four equal spaces, three of 
which may be occupied by the writing, the 
fourth must not be touched, save by the 
downward extended letters from the line 
above. This ojien space between the Unea 
separates them, and enables the eye more 
readily to follow aud distinguish between 
the lines when readiug. A small or me- 
dium hand is the best, both as regards the 
readiness with which it is read, or ease and 
rapidity of its execution. 

Jn a large hand the writing is apt to be 
more or less intermingled and confused, the 
loops of one line ofteu cutting into and ob- 
scuring the writing upon other lines, while 
the more e."ctcnded swepps of the pen in the 
largo writing are proportionately slow and 

For legibility, ease and rapidity of exe- 
cution, small unshaded writing Is decidedly 
the best. 

As a convenience for reference and prac- 
tice, we here repeat all the copies hitherto 
given iu the course which will terminate 
with the twentieth lesson. 

Lessons I. and XI. were devoted to move- 
ment and capital 


To those who desire these copies in a still 
more desirable style and fonn for use, we 
would say that we have bad them carefully 
engraved on copper by James McLees, and 
printed upon a single sheet, together with 
twenty additional copies of half a line 
each. All of which will be mailed to any 
address for 10 cents. 

Local Differences. 

To the candidate for social position : In 
New York, the chief quesli<m is, " How 
much money have you gott" In Boston, 
"What do you know?" In Philadelphia, 
" Who was your father and grand-fatlierf" 
In Chicago, "Where are you from, aud 
what can vou do ?" 

The percentage of those who prepared for 
or entered ihc Protestant ministry has fallen 
in Harvard's graduates from 53.3 per cent, 
to 6.7 per cent. Yale, from 75.7 per cent, 
to 15 per cent. Princeton, from 50 per 
cent, to 21.12 per cent, Brown, from 35 
per cent, to 22.4 per cent. OberUn, from 
66 per cent, to 31.3 per cent. Columbia, 
18 per cent, to 5.8 per cent.— JV'o^re Dame 


Wlienever I want a feast I get down one of 
the handsomely bound volumes of the " Pen- 
man's Akt Journal." I notice, iu mv 
perusal, that the editors' opinions as to all 
questions have been freely given, and quite 
satisfactory. In view of this fact, I made a 
special Tequtst that all my questions be an- 
swered by one or many of its readers, be- 
lieving that an interchange of opinion would 
be beneficial. Not one single answer has 
appeared, after waiting and watchiug three 
months. What must be my conclusion, 
either the questions were of little or no im- 
portaoceand not worthy of attention or that 
the fraternity, oyster- shell- like, have sealed 
themselves and propose to keep answers to 
facts so valuable witliin the proper limit. 

Let us be more friendly, aud make the 
world better by giving the rising geueration 
such instiuction as will lighten their labors 
and advance the cause in which brother 
Ames is so nobly engaged. 

Question 1. What is meant by shade, and 
how secure its full development f Ans. 
By shading is meant beautifying the letters. 
1st, let some simple rules govern ; 2d, imi- 
tatiem should be exorcised; 3d, tlie cultiva- 
of taste. 

Question 2. Is it objectionable to take oft' 
the hand after making the first part of small 
p, and the introductory line to a, d, g, q, 
and one style of c f Ans. No. 

Question 3. What are the reasons for 
making the last part of some capitals below 
Une f Aitx. 1st, good taste demands 
it ; 2d, ease and grace of movement develop 
forms that are oval-shaped; 3d, the rate ot 
speed in the execution of some letters is such 
with the general re- 

Question 4. Why is the preference given 
to below the line f Ans. Because in an oval 
below the line a single motion or set of 
muscles is used, and iu making the last part 
on the Une, like K or K, a comhination mo- 
tion is used, thus requiring more skill in ex- 

Question 5. Why is the tendency to make 
8 in small letters greater than oth- 
ers f A71S. Because the downward strokes 
of some letters tend toward curves, and are 
somewhat so — while in others they are 
straight. In attempting to produce the 
proper curve a greater amount is usually 
producing large turns on base line or 
bottom of letters; while in the straight 
;s angles are very often produced. Rem' 
try to make alt downward strokes 

Question 6. What determines the artistic 
form of letters f Ans. Good taste. 

Question 7. Originally, did form precede 
analysis 1 Ans. Yes, 

Question 8. Why is the tendency to make 
loop-letters below the Hue larger than those 
above? Ans. 1st, because the letters below 
the line are easier made (well), from the 
fact that the downward stroke is made first, 
giving a guide for the upper; 2d, the loops 
above the line are made difficult because the 
proper curve nmat be made first, and the 
straight light cross at an imaginary point. 

Question 9. What is the tendency as to 
direction in producing upward strokes in 
loop-letters aud capitals t Ans. Too slant- 

Question 10. What is the tendency as to 
direction in producing downward strokes ? 
Ans. Nearly vertical. 

Question 11. Is it necessary to change 
position of «e?/ or /)a/)ffr as to direction while 
executing set of capitals that will stand the 
test of slant? Ans. Yes. 

Question 12. Is there any difference in 
position of body while executing with the 
whole-arm or toro-arm ? Ans. Yes. 

Question 13. Why was 50 t^. 52 degrees 
chosen as the proper main slant for writing ? 
Ans. For beauty, speed aud adaptahility. 

Question 14. Should all the turns at the 
lop and bottom of short and extended letters 
be about the same f Ans. Yes. 

Question 15. Are the introductory lines 

to r, p and final t on less slant than any 
other small letters? Ans. Yes. 

Question 10. Has the intri>ductory Une to 
small e greatx-r slant than any other small 
letter, or is the curve simply greater? Ans. 
The latter. 

(Question IT. In any kind of fore-arm 
work should beginners attempt to move the 
hand entirely across the paper without lift- 
ing tho peu ? .^Ina. No. About one-third 
way across is sufficient, and will answer all 

Question IS^ Should the position of the 
feet be the same in whole-arm as fore-arm. 
Am. No. 

Question 10. Why do moat systems join 
the lower part of f at half-space above base 
line f Ans. Because the authors deem it 
correct, or knowing the error, do nut care to 
go to the expense of changing all the plates 
for such a tritle. My preference is ^ven to 
closing at base line. 

Question 30. What determines the slant 
of each capital, supposing tho standard 
forms be taken ? 



absurd ! Just think of it ! I mean 
in writing letters, that every time a response 
is roe rived from certain correspondents, it 

as if the top of the paper was stereotyped, 
" 1 take my peu in hand to let you know," 
etc. One can almost read the first page 
without opening the envelope. " Variety 
is the spice of life," and in no part of life — 
tor letter-writing has grown to be a part of 
most lives— more than in letter- writing. 
Charming leiter-writers are few, and if we 
discover such a one we will do well to add 
them to the list of our correspondents, if 
possible. I have in my mind a respected 
aud much loved friend, who invariably pre- 
faces every sentence with' " Now I will say 
to you." It is a sheer waste of paper and 
time, and after wading through several 
pages, it not only grows monotonous, but 
laughable. It reminds one of the habit 
some persons have unconsciously fallen into, 
when talking, of interlarding tlieir sentences 
and phrases with *' you know," or " I said, 
says I." Some persons seem to have a nat- 
ural talent for letter- writing ; any subject 
they touch upon comes out iu glowing, al- 
most living colors. One can almost see, 
and hear, aud feel what they describe. Such 
a correspondent is indeed a bright light, 
that shineth into tho lives of others; malting 
amends, oftentimes, for the absence of 
friends; coming like a sunbeam just when 
the dearth of joys is greatest, and lighting 
and cheering the drooping spirits. It is al- 
ways a pleasure to learn that absent friends 
are "well," and "doing well," and that 
they wish for us the inestimable blessings of 
health and happiness. But how unsatisfac- 
tory if it ends here, as far as news, descrip- 
tion, or anything that makes a letter inter- 
esting, is concerned, even if it covers three 
or four pages. It is such a treat, such a 
lasting pleasure, to be the recipient of a gen- 
uinely good letter. One that tells us what 
is going on in the worid beyond our limited 
vision ; that tells ua what those dear to ns 
are doing, and aspiring to do ; what tlieir 
homes are like, how the flowers flourish, 
how the garden tlirives, how very cute the 
little ones are growing, and all the grnee- 
fiilly-told chit-chat, that goes to maJte a 
letter a letter. If we have the least shadow 
of a talent in this lino, let us cultivate it. 
Let us endeavor to write even a letter so 
well that if we meet it again, we will not bo 
ashamed that our name subscribed thereto, 
proves we wrote it. — Agents Herald. 

The Penman's Art Journai- is a thing 
of beauty, and a joy fur the present, typo- 
graphically cunsiilcred. As to matter it is 
nut wanting, being tilled with valuable 
hints, and suggestions on the subject of 
writing $1 a year pays for it. — Educa- 
. tonal Review. 

Educational Notes. 

fCfrnmiinicaiionn for tliii" Pi-partmwit mf>y 
W nil-lrr-w-l I" H- F. KFl.r.KV.'2()5 Bn-adwav. 
NVw York. Krief educ aliHiiftl ilemg BO^lcll>^^l.] 

EngUiiH has 1300 collpgw. 

Chicago has cnroUwI in her public schools 

08,orr7 piipiU. 

Th^ I-'pPi.hmBn CUs8 al Cornell coulains 
twenty one ladivs. 

Tlie income of Columl.ia College in the year 
18^ amounted to 8321.000. 


a gift of 

an increaae of 268 ovt-r last year 
Tloetou University haa jii^t re 
$10,000 for her acholarship fund 

Philadelphia appropriates for school pur- 
pose, for 1882 the sum of $1,534,085.04. 

Within Ihe last year the sum of $19,000,000 
has been given by private individual* to the 
cause of education. 

The Syrian Protestant College in Beirout, 
Syria, hua graduated 118 aiudents and given 
204 a partial course.— X Y. Chriatian AdvocaU. 
Piof. Sumner, of Yale, says that the present 
college fashion is lo " t«ach a hit of Latin, a bit 
of Greek, a bit of biology and a bit of some- 
thing else. 80 that in the result men hardly 
know anytliing." 

Preaidenl A. D. 'Whit*?, of Cornell Universi- 
ty, who lias rnlinquished the Berlin Mission, 
has entered into bonds with the trustei^a of 
that University not to arcepl any political 
office for four years.— TAe ll'esUra World. 

A son of affluent parents may 
spend, at Harvard, from $1,000 
10 $I.HOO without ncquiring a 
repulalion for extravagance, while 
nt Oxford, England, a commoner 
hiie been known to spend £2.000, 
or even £3,000 a year without 
— Volantt. 

It can no longer be Hsid that *' Greece is liv 
iog Greece no more." Her famous University 
enrolls thirteen hundred students, with 
seveiily-two professors, and a library "f 150.000 
v.duniea. She has many other inslilulions of 
hi^'h grade and a system of free schools com- 
mensurate with the wants ot the age.— -Vor/na f 

The fact should be impressed that it is an 
absolute, educational crime in a cultivated per- 
son to be a poor speller of his mother-tongue. 
I believe much of the neglect in the matter of 
spelling has come about through the inc-ssant 
talk about reformed orthography. We may 
pray and work with religious fervor for a re- 
form, but until that retorra comes we have 
nothing left but to teach according to the 
present standard. — Educational Monlfdy. 

Educational Fancies. 

Taught or untaught the dimce is still the same ; 
Yet still the wretched master beats the blame. 

The letter D is truly an old salt, having 
followed the C for yeare. 

Who introduced salt pork into the navyT 
Noah, when be took Ham into the ark. 

" Capital punialmienl," as the boy said when 
the school raistreBB seated him with the girls. 

One hoy to another : '" Tom, if you could be 
an animal what would you choose to bet" 
"Oh, I'd like to be a lion; because he's so-" 
" Oh, no, Tom. don't he a lion, be a wasp ; 
because then you could ating the schoolmaster! " 

a " Venaor weather prediction " because it con- 

'■Yercin't stuff that down this chicken," said 
a young lady in Indiana, in reply to her 
teacher's statement that the sun was larger 
than the earth. 

A Western editor, being asked by a sub- 
flcribm what was meant by the word hydrogen, 
replied : " Gin and water," and explained that 
hydro was the French for water. 

New Jersey ia trying to claim Noah, because 
he was a New-ark man. Yes. but you know 
he looked out of his Arkansaw land. Give the 
south a fair show in this ihing.—ColUgiaU. 

A young lady at an examination in grammar 
was asked " why the noun bachelor waa 
singular." SUe replied immediately, " Because 
it is very singular they don't get married." 

The proposed revision of the English Educa- 
tion Code makes sewing compulsory for all 
boys and girls in the school* under seven years 
of ige. Then youn_- men will not be obliged to 
marrv wives for button sewing. — Educational 



of . 

Teacher . 

parents t" Bright pupil: "Stealing apples." 
Tearker : "Correct. But did ii ever occur to 
you to wonder what kind of an apple it was 
that Eve gave to Adamt" liright pupil: 
"Oflen." Teaclier: "Well, have yon made 
up your mind about it T" Bright pupil : "Oh, 
havn'l I ! It was a ' fall," pippin." 

Telegraphic Codes and Ciphers. 



J DOW 25 cents 

s high as $ inn 


Since Cornell Univereity was 
founded over $1,500,000 has been 
given to it for buildings and 
equipment. The endownimt of 
the institution is over $1,700,000, 


San Francisco has now in her 
public ecliools the largest aver- 
ace attendance which she haa 
ever known. The first super- 
iTitendent's report, made in ViWi, 
gave Ihe average attendance as 
44.'>. The Inst report gives it as 
29,092. Wiiile most of the chil- 
dren go into the eighth grade, 
lees than half as many cunlinue 
-.Y. 0. 



r grai 


an original Jiourigh by H. C. Clark, Principal of the Titu. 
(Pa.) Buainea.1 College. 


nr St Yale College only five 
1- the ministry. We believe it 
colleges grow strong, wealthy 
and conspicuous, the number of ministers com- 
ing out of the successive classes diminish. 
Will some one Rive a satisfactory explanation 
of this factT— TAf PreabyUrian. 

Great interest has been aroused at Bowdoin 
Collegt) by Ihe suit brought against eight 
students for $10,000 each fur damages to a 
fellow-etudenl, whose eye-sight was nearly 
destroyed by their wanton "hazing." The 
entire «ophumore class, and probsbly the whole 
college, will be summoned as witnesses. The 
trial will be held in January by the Supreme 
Court of the county. — Notre Dame &holatlv: 

There are 145 business colleges in this 
country. They employ SSA instructors, and 
are attended by 22,0^1 students. Many of 
them have good select libraries, Ihe aggregate 
number of volumes reported on baud by man- 
agers of these schools is 55,222 volumes. 
Commissioner Katun, in his report, says : " Ger- 
many has select commercial schools in every 
chief provincial city and in a large number of 
smaller towns. The course of instruction em- 
braces German, French, English. Italian or 
Spanish, commercial Arithmetic, book-keeping, 
commercial correspondence in different lan- 
guages, botany, the study of raw materials and 
manufactured articles, history and geography, 
commercial law, weights and measures, 
tarysyaiems, physics, chemistry, and drawing." 
France, Spain, and Belgium have similar 
schools all under the supervision of the .Sti 
—Ttaehtri' Guide. 

The schoolmaster is a very inquisitive person. 
He is always asking questions. Hia is a 
questiim-ahle calling. 

If a student convince you that you are wrong 
and he is right, acknowledge it cheerfully, and 
— hug him. — Emerson, 

The schoolmaster is sometimes called a tutor, 
and occasionaly an ass. On the whole, an 
astuter man is seldom found. 

" Experience is a dear teacher," but she has 
u large school. For terms of tuition, and full 
particulars, inquire in person. 

What court was in session at the time Adam 
broke the law T Of course you all give it up. 
Well, it was the Apple-ate court. 

Fresfiman: "Action and reaction are equal and 
opposite, as, for instance, when a cannon jumps 
as far backward as the ball goes forward." 

A Nevada school teacher died the other day, 
and the local papers announced it under the 
head '"Loss of a Whaler." — Teacher^ Guide. 

In a school of young rascals the school- 
master is always the principal. 

(See heading and judge in accordance 

"6-n-y, father, T learned something new at 
school to-day." " What was it f " "I learue<l 
to say ' Yes, sir,' and'" No, sir.' " " Did you T " 
" Ya-a-a-s." 

It all came from educating his daughter at a 
seminary. She reproved her father for wiping 
his mouth on Ihe table-cloth, and he went to 
the barn and hung himself. 

The desirability of making the proper dis- 
tinction between the worda "set ''and "sit" is 
illustrated in a recent newspaper in which a 
recipe for lemon pie adds, vaguely, "Then sit 
on a Btove and stir constantly." Just as if any- 
body could sit OD a stove without stirring con- 

Freshman to whom the instructor said : " You 
seem evolving that translation from your inner 
consciousness;" nnd who responded; "Well, 
professor, I read in my devotions last evening 
that ' by faith Enoch was tranflated,' and I 
thought I would try it ou Horace." — iV. K 

Stands to reason : Post-office clerk — " Here I 
your letter is overweight." Pat : " Over 
what weight!" P. 0. C. : "It's too heavy; 
put another stamp on it." Pat; "Och, get 
ont wid yer foolin'! Sure, if I put another 
stamp on won't it be heavier still f " — Harper's 

A prifessor who says he reads & man's 
character by his signature spent three days in 
trying to figure out Longfellow's autograph. 
Somehow it would show up the venerable poet 
as a man who liked lo bet on horse races, go to 
variety shows and howl around nights. And 
of course the professor knew the poet waa not 
that sort of man, and he couln't make it come 
out any other way and went nearly wild till 
be found that the autograph was n forgery, — 
Evening Telegram. 

If ynu want card stock of any kind, ad- 
dress the New Eagland Card Co., Woon- 
socket, K. I. Sue ad/ertisement in another 

York Time 
Cable rates to England at 
a word, but tliey have been t 
for a (eu-word message. K 
the great reductions that have been made in 
the cost of ocean telegraphy since the At- 
lantic cables were first laid, rates to points 
in Asia or to South America rim up to sev- 
eral dollars a word. There are houses 
whose business requires frequent telegraph 
communicalion with such distant points, 
and methods of attaining brevity of expres- 
BioD are hence of very groat value. Tele- 
graph code makers supply such meihods. 

" Code inakin-i as a business has grown 
up within the last five or six years," said J. 
C. Hartfield, who makes it a specialty. " It 
has advantages of both economy and secrecy. 
The use of codes for ordinary business pur- 
poses dates from the beginning of ocean tel- 
egraphy, but people at first got np their 
own codes. It is an easy thing to do, appar- 
ently. All y<m have to do is to make a list 
of phrases which you have frequently to use 
io your business and represeut them by a 
corresponding Hat of single words. But 
people found that words are apt to be 
changed in telegraph transmission iuto 
I words whose telegraphic notation is siini- 

lar. The result has sometimes 

been disastrous. Code makers 
make avoidanre of such liability 
to error a special study. Then, 
too, code makers can attain a 
condensation of expression that 
make their work far cheaper 
than auy similar code such as a 
business man might get up for 
himself. Hence, large business 
houses are willing to pay well 
for having codes made for them. 
There are houses that are spend- 
ing as much as $30,000 a year 
for telegraphic advices, and a 
system which will put their 
messages into few words efi'ects 
a very great saving fur them. 
I have made a combination code 
for one house here by which the 
entire state of the Japanese tea- 
market can he put into seven 
words. Those seven words will 
Hjonvey to them the dite of 
steamers sailing, the state of 
market for nine grades of tea, 
the rates of freight by six 
routes, the amount of purchases 
for Europe and the United 
States, the grades upon which the demands 
are ruuniug, the priucipal buyers, rates of ex- 
change, the number of packages seut in the 
day's shipments, and the points to which 
they are consigned. I have made a code by 
which the anuuiut of sales of dour, butter 
and cheese, the state of the market for each, 
and the amount of money paid into bank are 
sent daily to a house in this city by its 
branch at Liverpoid, the whole message be- 
ing but two words." 

" Can cx)des he gotten up for the use of 
any house in the same line of business, or do 
houses prefer to have their own special 
codes ?" 

" Large houses prefer to have thoi* own 
codes. One largf banking'house, fur whom 
I prepared a code, had a printing establish- 
ment set up inside the bank building, so as 
to make ceriain of receiving all the C'>pieB 
of the code that were printed. Some of the 
codes used by large houses are very volumi- 
nous. Brown Brothers & Co. have a code 
of G4,000 words ; Thomas & Co., 67,000 ; 
MoskeBros., 00,000; Drexel, Morgan & 
Co., about 45,000 words. We have to ran- 
sack all languages to g3t so many words 
which shall all be telegraph icidly dissim- 

" How much do codes cost ?" 

" From $30 to $G,000, according to the 
amount of labor required." 

" Are secret ciphers used to any extent in 
telegraphing t" 


" Si>nie etock operator* make use of cryp- 
tograms, and get thfin up themselves. A 
- tnet)iu<l used a gtHxl deal is to have a si.nplc 
code, ID which the words deuotiog the 
phrases tobecouveycd are oumberetl, and 
simply the ouineruls aro sent. Such a code 
can be used so as to coocoal messages even 
from a person getting hold of the cede, fur 
nanerals may be sent wliich the only prop- 
er person will understand to differ by a cer- 
tain amount fn>in the nrmerala denoting the 
phrases really conreyed. I know oue iu 
use in which the rule was to add the date of 
the month to numerals of uicsi>iigeet from a 
brarch house. Thus, if the figure live came 
on the 20lh, they would look for the mean- 
ing of i:5 in the code book. The use of 
codes and ciphers is very large, but the use 
of the highly coudensed codes, whore not 
only words but their combinations convey 
meaniogs, is not so wide as M'ould be ex- 
pected from its great economy. It takes 
some time and trouble tn Icam to use such 
codes with facility, and this retards tlieir in- 
troduction, but they are couiing more and 
more into use every year. 

Code makers keep the details of their 
work secret, but the principle upon which 
codes are constructed is easily understood. 
The range of all staple busineds transactions 
haa limits, and, as a rule, closely coufiued 
limits. The aim of the code maker is to 
classify phrases which shall express the 
constantly recurring details of the market 
for any staple, and to denote each of itg 
phases by a word. Another objeci is to use 
one word so as to convey seven meanings. 
This is done by arranging market details 
above the tops of columns of words and 
prices, quantities or any other information 
along the side. A word iu the table ex- 
presses the phrase at the top of its column 
and also the phrase at its side. The com- 
pilation of a code is a very laborious task, 
but its value as an aid to business communi- 
cations is indisputable. 

Sometimes queer seutenccs result from 
the chance grouping of code words. Not 
long since a tea house got this : " Unboiled 
babies detested." 

Worrying over the Wear of Gold 

It is estimated tliat the average weekly 
dcpredaiion of the $7,000,000 in gold held 
by the Biislon banks is nearly $J00, or say 
$15,000 per annum, the calculation being 
made on the recognized basis that a gold 
coin iu use actually loses a five-hundredth 
of its weight iu a year. The coin is packed 
in bags of $-^,000 each. These bags are 
passed from bank to b»nk, and ihe constant 
friction which is made in handling and 
weigiiing wears away the edges and faces 
of the coin, so that, sooner or later, a bag 
falls short iu weight, and valuable time as 
well as money is lost in determining which 
bank shall make good tlie detioiency, the 
labels attached to each parcel, on wliich ap- 
pear the names of the banks through which 
the bag has passed, being the only means 
to aid in fixing upon the responsible party. 
The Treasury Department has refused to 
issue gold certificates for large amounts, on 
tLe ground that it would occasion trouble 
and expense for the Government. Other 
expedients proposed are — the appointment 
of au institution, not chartered by the 
United States, as a gold depository for the 
national banks, the iutercliange of certifi- 
cates among the banks, and the establish- 
ment of the Clearing-house as a depository. 
There are objections to each plan, and an- 
other — the division of the burden among 
five or eix. banks— is the oue which may be 
temporarily adopted until Congress shall 
supply a permanent remedy. The packing 
of the coin iu bags is a couventiomil way, 
and it does not retlect much credit on the 
inventive faculties of bank officers that they 
have not thought out a better. If the coin 
were packed in boxes fitted with grooves 
in which the pieces would lie close and so 
coufiued that they would not move in 
oour&e of transportation, and these groovea 

were made so that they could be lifted out, 
with their omteuts, the loss from friction in 
tumbling around the bags and pouring out 
the coin as though it was sugar would be 
very much reduced. — Boston Transcript. 


galvanic battery has been 
use in the lectures at the 
Royal Institute at London. It consists of 
14.400 cells of chloride of silver 
elements. Each cell is composed of a gla: 
tube about the size of a large t< 
stoppered with a paratEne wax stopper, 
through which the zinc rod and chloride of 
silver are inserted, a small hole being left to 
pour in the solution, which consists of a 
weak solution of chloride of ammonium 
(sal-ammouiitc), the hole being fitted with 
a small parafline stopper to make it air- 
tight. The tubes are mounted in trays, each 
containing 120 cells , eighteen trays are 
fitted in each cabinet. The battery, which 
is in the basement of the building, was be- 
gun in June, 1879, and finished in August, 
1880. The charging of the battery occupied 
three persons a fortnight. A lightning- flash 
a mile long conld be produced by 243 such 
batteries. — EducationalJournal. 

To Remove Ink Stains. 

The Journal de Pharmacie d ' A nvers re- 
commends pyrophosphate of soda for tVe 
removal of ink stains. This salt does not 
injure vegetable fibre, and yields colorless 
compounds with the ferric oxide of the ink. 
It IS best to first apply tallow to the ink 
spot, then WMsh in a solution of pyrophos- 
phates until both tallow and ink have dis- 
appeared. Stains of red aniline ink may he 
reuioved by moistening the spot with strong 
alcohol acidulated with nitric acid. Unless 
the stain is produced by cosine, itdisap])ears 
without ditficully. Paper is hardly atlVcted 
by the process ; siill it is always advisable 
to make a blank experiment at first. 

deed, the symbol cf an oath from its holy 
associations, and generally ttin mark. 

On this account Mr. Charle« Knight, in 
his notes on the "Pictorial Shakespeare,'' 
explains the expression of "G'hI save t!ie 
mark," as a form of ejaculation approaching 
to the character of an oath. 

This phrase ocoirs three or more times 
in the plays of Shikespeare, but for a long 
time was left by the commentors iu its 
original obscurity. — Philadelphia Saturday 

The blurring of India ink in working 
drawings of machinery, haa been the 
of much trouble and annoyance, and 
easily remedied by making use of the foll< 
iug process t<i fix India iuk on paper, first 
meniioued in the W. D. V. Ingeniurc. It is 
a fact well known to photographers tliat an- 
imal glue when treated with bichromate of 
potash and exposed to the sunlight for some 
time, is insoluble in water. It has been 
found by analysis that india iuk contained 
sucli animal glue, and consetiueutly, if a 
small quantity of bicliromate of potash be 
used witli it, the lines drawn wiih such pre- 
pared ink will not be aflected by water, 
provided that they have been exposed to the 
sunlight for about an hour. 

Q be / 

Signature of the Cross-Mark. 

The mark which persons who are unable 
to write are required to make instead of 
their signature, is in the form of a cross, 
and this practice having formerly been fol- 
lowed by kinir and nobles, is constantly re- 
ferred to .IS an instance of the deploiabln 
ignorance ot ancient times. This signature 
is uot, however, invariable proof of such 
ignorance. Anciently, the use or this mark 
was uot confined to illiierate persons; for 
among the Saxons, the mark of the cross, 
as an attestaiiim of the good faith of the 
persun signing, was required to be attached 
to the signature of those who could write, 
as well as to stand in the place of the sig- 
nature of those who could not write. 

In those times, if a man could write or 
even read, his knowledge was considered 
proof presumptive that he was in holy 
orders. Tbe word clcricus, or clerk, 
was synonymous with penman, and the 
laity, or tlie people who were not clerks, 
did uot feel any urgent necessity for the use 
of letters. 

The ancient use of the cross was, there- 
fore, universal alike by those who could and 
by those who could uot write. It was, in- 

lliam Penn's Deed from the 

This indenture witnesseth, that we, Pack- 
enath Jaraooam, Siukals, Partuegcsatt, 
Jewiss Espennock, Felkroy, Hekellapan, 
Eoonus, Mechlonat, Metchcougha, Hisa 
Powey Indian Kings, Sachuiakers, right 
owners of all lauds fioui Quings Quingas 
called Cheoter Creek all along by the west 
side of Delaware Itiver and so between tbe 
said creek backwards as far as a man can 
ride in two days on a horse, for and iu con- 
sideration of these following goods to us in 
hand paid by Win. Punn, proprietary and 
Governor of Pennsylvania and Territories 
and thereof, viz : 20 guns, 20 fathoms 
matchcoat, 20 pounds powder, 100 bars of 
lead, 40 tomahawks, 100 knives, 40 pairs of 
stockings, 1 barrel t»f beer, "-20 barrels of red 
lead, 100 fathoms ot wampum, 30 glass bot- 
tles, 80 pewter spoons, lUO awl blades, 300 
tobacco pipes, 20 tobacco tongs. 20 steels, 
tdOO films, 30 pairs of scissors, 80 combs, (jO 
looking-glasses, 200 needles, one skipple 
salt, 30 pounds of sugar, 5 gallons molasses, 
20 tobacco boxes, 100 Jews-harps, 20 hoes, 
30ginblets, 30 wooden screw boxes, 100 
striugs of beads, do hereby acknowledge, 
etc. Given under our hands, e'c, at New 
Castle, second day of eighth month, 1689. 

The above is a true copy taken from the 
original by Ephraim Morton, now living in 
Washington, Pennsylvania, fi^rmerly a clerk 
in The land office, which copy he gave to 
William Stratlon,and from which the above 
was taken in Little York, tliis 7th day o 
December, 1813. — Exchantje. a 

Truth in Pnnt. 

call good hand 
accomplishment. We cull it a 
There is value and assistance ii 
substantial good. 

To run over a page of fair hand-writing 
is like riding over a smooth, solid highway. 
To work one's 'way tliiough a page of bad 
writing is like forcing a passage through a 
swamp, thick with underbrush, netted with 
briers, and unstable with quicksands. 

There is a certain lionesty and friend- 
liness in good penmanship ; nay, it has a 
quality of justice and equity, as though it 
said, / do xmio others as I w( 
should tfi unto me. 

Bad hand-writing is an inci 
an air of selfishness about 
" What is your convenience, i 
time to me?" We received lately a note, 
covering less than tme side of halt a sheet 
of paper, which it took us fifteen minutes to 
read, and required the 
the faculties. It took 

mid that they 

vility. It has 
it. It says, 
' pleasui 

Had he spent fivi 
could have read i 
between us, thert 

)-oporation of all 
ur correspondent 

I ^vrituig It, \ 
inutes. Thti 

But suppose 

I was a loss of ten minutes 
■thing of eyes and temper. 
t takes my correspondent 
only five minutes less to write what it takes 
me five minutes more to read, because it is 
written badly, by what pretence of justice 
does he throw the loss of that five minutes 
upon mot His practical declaration is, 
" Your time is less valuable than mine." 

But have I no othor duties to perform f 
Am I, like Chainpollion, to decipher Egyp- 
tian manuscripts, without the honors of a 
discoverer f But why is it necessary, in a 
time of profound peace, and on a matter of 
common business, to write in cipher, as 
though we were conspirators, plotting a 
rebellioQ f 

Let us understand, then, that there is a 
certain openues-* and ingenuousness of char- 
acter, a love of fair dealing, as it were, in 
clear, well defined, distinctly featured pen- 
manship, and let us so teach our children. 
It is like a good physiognomy in a stranger, 
which interests us in his welfare at once. 
But in bad penmanship there is something 
unmannerly, evasive and dissembling. 

When old John Hancock sigucil the 
Declaration of Independence, ho wrote bis 
a broad, bold, energetic character, 

though he said, " If I am ever tried as a 
ibel, I'll not deny my autograph." — Pen- 
an's Gazette. 

A Back-handed Speller. 

Santa F^ has a young man with a mind 
which has a faculty that is rarely to be 
found, if, indeed, it can ever be discovered 
elsewhere. The gentleman in question is 
Hugh McKevitt, a printer, working over at 
Military Head-quarters. He is a rapid type- 
setter and a thoroughly good workman, so 
that he is not dependent on any side busi- 
ness for a good living, and, as a consequence, 
has never said anything about his spelling 
capacity, which is the subject of this item. 
MuKovitt is a left-handed speller, and de- 
fies any one to put at bim a word which he 
cannot spell backward as rapidly as the best 
and quickest speller could give it in the 
usual way. 

The other day the reporter fell in with 
him when he was in a mood more communi- 
cative than usual, and had occasion to try 
him. Incomprehensibility was not a marker 
for him. As soon as the word was pro- 
nounced, Mc said, "Nineteen letters," and 
went at it backward so fast that his hearers 
were unable to tell whether he was right or 
wrong. " You see," said a fellow -printer, 
"he can tell the number of letters in any 
word without a moment's hesitation, as well 
^ he can spell it backward, and not only 
that, but you can give him a whole sentence, 
and he will tell you at once how many 
letters there are in it, and go right on and 
spell through the whole thing backward 
faster than most people could spell it the 
other way." 

tried time and time again, 
ries of words could be hit 
uot rendered as indicated 
3, there are wordj iu tho 
English language which McKevitt has 
never heard of, just as is the case with al- 
most every other man, but he is what would 
be called a fine speller, "rijht-handed," as 
he says, and is familiar with the language, 
and any word which he has heard and can 
spell at all he can spell backward with 
astonishiug rapidity. The strangest part 
about the whole thing is that McKevitt has 
never practiced or studied spelling backward 
a day in his life. He says he does not 
know how he ever acquired the ability to 
do it, but that as soon as he bears or sees a 
word, even if he has never thought of it 
beft)re, which, of course, is the case \vith a 
large majority of words, he knows immedi- 
ately how many letters there are in it. and 
how to spell it backward or in the regular 
way. It is so, too, with sentences. He 
knows at once how many words and letters 
in any sentence that may 1 
states the numbers promptly as i 
wftnls are uttered. McKevitt ca 
tribute typo backward as fast a 
In the left-handfid spelling there ii 
of sound to aid hiui, as iu very many in- 
stances the letters spell nothing at all and 
cannot be pronounced, so that there is no 
Dg for his ability to spell in that 
ept to conclude that it is the result 
of a gift — a peculiar faculty of a remarkably 

There is no particular advantage in all 
this as far as can be discovered, but it is a 
curiosity and a rare one, and if anybody 
thinks it isn't hard to do let bim try to 
acquire it. — Santa Fi New-Mexican. 

This thing V 

upon which \ 
above. Of c 

I also diS' 
I forward. 
no theory 


o A sent. 


tn ^'.OO' »56.cio »l(W.ob llSOO 



To eveo' "■'"' ""IxMnlicr. or renpn-nl. inolMlnfC |l. w« 

"(5aril"ld Mpm..rii.V' "vjxK'^" Lonl*»" Prayer." 19xM: 
■■FlouriiiliHl Engle," S4xa^Mhe " CeWcnnfal Picture of 
Proirrw*" 22x*J8- or llio " B'tnnd Stiff Sing "34x32 For 
92 00 ull four will bo MOt with the Aret oojy of the JOUK 

For Iviehe mibaonptlonB 
of AmeseCoropendlmn 

For twpWe niimp'. d « 


Without a «i f 
noaU the JouitNA 



""'i/teun atjoiJaiT 

New York, January, li*82. 


nioii^ llif muiiiitiiiiiH. teiiip<>fit ttwt-pl, 
lie i>r«[)lie(;y of Spring U kt-pl : 
) new, Bu atrmi^ie, no far iiwiiy. 
he promise of tlif NV\v YearV Dav. 

.11 April .,,.i 

km ..1 


KiTOl ll.e„l.; 


■mcl ,,l,u,.. ■■■ 

IwUib ],M 1 

pr IH..S 

strenkt^d cult 

uUI. BO .k'ar. 

lo eliiy 

<! blvsuiiig ot tllv NV 

V VmrV Day. 


A Kkai) Goo 

Our New Year Greeting. 

lu acconlHUce witli tlio prcviiiliiig custom 
of the scasuu wu Iiprt-with present our New 
Year's Card to the readers and patrons of 
the Journal, and most heartily wish them 
all a iimpperous and happt/ New Year. 

As we turned that provorhial new leaf 
we imagined that we saw our thousands of 
readers do the same, with eyes beaming of 
joy and of hope for the new year— most 
turned pages bearing bright, honorable 
records of hopes realized, of time well 
spent in good and useful work, while others, 
alas! turned pages bearing records of dis- 
honor and shame, which they would feign 
were in oblivion. We would that such 
pages may leconl lessons that may be a 
warning and guide to a more hodfchible 
record in coming yean. 

The old year has been one of great com- 
mercial activity and general prosperity 
throughout the land — one in which willing 
hands have not been idle, harvests have 
been abundant, the mechanic's and artisan's 
skill has been in demand, while the pro- 
fessions have been liberally patronized. 

Yet the year has not been without great 
chasteuings. The nation has been called 
til mourn most sadly the fall— by the hand 
of an sssassin — of its chosen ami beloved 
Chief Magistrate, and to aid and to sym- 
pathize with many thousands of its people 
who were bereft of kindred, homes and for- 
tunes by devastating conflagrations. 

The new year is ominous of continued 
national peace and prosperiry, while there 
is abundant promise for individual success 
in every legitimate field of labor. Only 
the ill-qualifie<l. idle or vicious will want 
fiif honorable and profitable employment. 

We trust that our young readers — many 
of whom are students at school and clerks 
in stores and tiffiiies — will ever bear in 
mind that their own attainments, industry, 
and trustworlhinesi, are to be thi 
of thtir future poiilion and prosperity 

Flourished W^riting. 

Of all things in business writing that 
annoy and disgust practical men of affairs 
superfluous and flourished lines arc the 
chief. , Unskillful and bad writing may be 
excusable for mauy reasons — such as ex- 
treme haste, unfavorable circumstances, or 
physical inability; but for useless, unmean- 
ing flourishes there can bo, to a practical 
business-man, no satisfactory reason or ex- 
cuse. To him they are not only a sheer 
waste of time and energy, but are ugly 
excrescences upon the writing which he can 
neither tolerate or excuse. The Quaker 
yea and nay idea of speech is applicable to 
business writing — plain, simple, legible 
forms, easily combined — most fully meet the 
deinands of business. So-called authors of 
so-called systems of practical writing, 
abounding in multifariou* complex and 
difficult forms, for letters with superabun- 
dant flourishes, are simply plagues and hin- 
derances in the way — of learners — to good, 
practical writing. 

In ornamental or artistic penmanship, 
which is practiced only by profcisional wri 
tors, a certam amount of \ariety and flourish 

The aboif cut i« photo fnr/iated fr 
exprtMly foi the low nal 

Our New Year Card. 

In the allcgoriciil illuslratioii for our New 
year's greeting, by J. H. Biiri*.w, a lillle 
explanation may be neccssaiy. The New 
Year is appropriately symhcdiiied in the 
form of a vigorous and healthy infant. As 
lie emerges fmm the dark cavity that held 
him iu embryo, the first motion he makes 
is to Ylaut iiiif foot firmly upon the gar- 
ment of the old year, and, iis he reels iu 
expiring, throws toward the precipice, with 
a vigorous push from the other, he shoves 
him over the edge of the abyss, and the 
clouds of oblivion envelop him forever. 

At ttie left of the infant is soon the volume 
of the ages. The page most distant is that 
of the year jnst closed, and upon which the 
mists of tiuu! are already creeping. The 
one by his left hand is the one upon which 
is to be chronicled the events of the year 
upon which we are eutering. The vast 
future is still mostly enshrouded iu the fogs 
of uncertanty. 

Spencerian Script Rulers. 

The Spencerian autliors have recently 
manufactured rulers for use in schools and 
counting-rooms upon which are the capital 
and small script alphabets; also the fig- 
ures, elegantly printed, showing in easy 
form the proportions of each letter and tlie 
menauremeDt of the different classes of let- 
ters. In the class-room these rulers will be 
of great service in keeping constantly before 
the pupil correct foniis of all the letters, and 
they should be used at the rc-gular writing 
hour; and at spelling and written examina- 
tion exercises should he kept in view of the 
writer uutil the habit of good writing is at- 
tained. It will also be invaluable lo ctiUege 
students, accountants, and teachers. The 
rulers are fifteen inches in length, made 
both of wood and metal, and are sent by 
mail to any address; wood for 15 cts., and 
metal for 30 cts. Orders received at the 
office of the JoDBMAit. 

ing, when executed with taste and skill, is 
not only admissible but desirable, but the 
great mass of our school- children have not 
the requisite time or tasto to acquire such 
professional skill ; good practical writing is 
all they seek or desire, and are under the 
necessity of acquiring that iu the most cer- 
tain and expeditious manner. To place 
before such, copies of complex, flourished 
and unsystematic writing, is a wrong which 
can he accounted for only ou the ground of 
Ignorance or knavery on the part of the 
authors or teachers. 

There should be a clear and sh&rp dis- 
tinction between practical wriiing for the 
masses and professional writing for the few. 

Twelve Page Journal. 

Owing to the long amount of matter and 
cuts which we desired to present in the 
present number, we have been obliged to 
again add four extra pages. 

Subscribe Now, 
And begin with the new year and new 
volume, while subscript! 
at any time since December, 1877 
sirablo to begin with the volum^ 

period of subscription is then more readily 
remembered, and the numbers are in better 
and more complete form for binding. We 
are confident that there will be few papers 
published during the coming year that will 
give greater satisfaction to their patrons than 
will the Journal, and none that can ofl"er 
more liberal and valuable premiums to their 
subscribers. Now is the time to subscribe 
and secure clubs. 

Standard Practical Penmanship. 

We are very sory to be obliged to again 
announce that we have not yet received the 
promised suply of this work from the pub- 
lishers, and caunot set the time at which it 
will be ready, but we are confident that it 
will not be very lon^. 

Political and Literary Reminis- 
cences of P. R. Spencer. 

Fifty years ago, under the nom de plume 
of the "Western Bard," P. R. Spencer was 
a contributor from time to time to the jour- 
nals and periodicals of that early day. He 
was alflo a public speaker of well- merited 
celebrity. During the Harrison times he 
was one of the orators emiiloyed in the can- 
vass, and spoke at Erie, Pa., on the occasion 
of a mammoth political gathering, at which 
General Harrison was present, and was 
specially complimented by that great stand- 
ard bearer for his eloquence and patriotism 
in behalf of the cause. After the advent of 
Harrison's administration, General Whit- 
tlosy wrote from Washington that the 
President had requested him to advise Mr. 
Spencer that he would be appoiuteil to a 
position in Washington, probably iu con- 
nection with the post -office department. 
The death of the President, a few days after- 
ward, defeated his iotentiou to place in that 
vast transit department of literature aud 
chirography, maintained by the Government, 
the man who has gi\en to the nation a 
standard stjlc of wiiting, long knowu as 
Semi angular, but m lattr years desiguated 
the Speuci-rian 

In politics he advocated the emancipation 
of 8la\e8 nith couipensation from the 
Government to the owners 

He was knowu through the pros* of the 
couuliy as a contributor of acknowledged 
ability, and, on the rostium as a public 
spiaker, posac-scd of rate argumeniative, 
persu»si\e, and magnetic powers 

Ills ] J ulirity m the lOth Ohio Congres 

I I I in t led his many fiiejds to urge 
lit]! It the use of his name as oandi 
d iLi I 1 Liiijgre-'Siunal honors 

bla\erv, tmce common and well protected, 
even in the Slate of Ntw York, aud son e 
of the New Euulaud States, was seeking 
enlargement of domain in the Territories in 
addition to its stronghold in the Soulhein 
States It WHS upon this question, mainly, 
that Mr Spencer had become prominent m 
the politual afl'airs of his time 

There seemtd to be no doubt as to the 
certainty of his election, if he would accept 
the nomination in his •ilistrict, but he pre- 
ferred not to become identified with politics 
as a representative, and subsequently Mr. 
Giddings, then an obscure young lawyer, 
became the representative, and served iu 
thai capacity for many years. 

It is well knowu that our lamented Presi- 
dent Garfield succeeded J. R. Giddings, and 
for nineteen years represented the lllih Ohio 
District in Congress. It is proper in this 
bfief sketch, which at best can show in but 
feeble light the character and experiences 
of Mr. Spencer, to add that he was a per- 
sonal acquaintance and warm friend of 
General Garfield, aud wrote letters to his 
old political friends and associates through- 
out the district to secure the election of 
delegates from primary meetings to the dis- 
trict convention, friendly to the nomination 
of General Garfield as the people's repre- 

No pen can record a tithe of the good 
accomplished in the long and useful life of a 
man who sought the welfare and benefit of 
his fellow-men. 

The literary productions of Mr. Spencer 
would make a fair-sized volume. Many of 
them have never been published. An " Ode 
to the Art of Writing," coinp()8ed by him, 
was published in St. Loui-, set to irusic by 
Prof. Riibine, and snng by the thousands of 
children in that city at the opening of wri- 
ting exercises each day in the schools. His 
to the business and educational 
of the country, through his system 
of writing, have received world-wide rowigui- 
liou. In the language of President Garfield 
the great seal of national approval has been 
placed upon his labors. " He founded that 
system of penmanship which has become 
the pride of our country and the model of 

It may be proper lo correct the idea that 
be died poor, for such was far from being 
the case. At the time he assembled pupils 

L."?ff^P^»^^ ** VT'« Am JoUijvvi; 

We frequently i 
letters from jiersm 

from different States id his Lng Seminary Subscriptions Payable 

at Geneva, Ohio, he was owner of fii-v-ral 

valuable farms io Nortliem Ohio, also held 

a few ahares of paying railroad and bank 

stcwks, and aonually derived a liberal incoine 

from bis extenxively-used publioHtiona. The 

biographical sketches wliieh appeared in 

the great dailies and pres^ of this country, 

and in Europe, at the time of his death, gives 

currency to the fact that his reputation as 

author and leather was not only oationali 

but world-wide. 

Rhythm of Handwriting, 

)r. J. H. Wythe, of- San Fram 
aintains that every man's handw 
nfallibly distinguiahed l 
■ 'S, that may he de- 
tected by the microscope, 
while they escape the eye, 
which he calls the rhythm 
of form, dependent on habit 
or organization ; the rhythm 
of progress, or tlie invol- 
untary rhythm, seen as a 
wavy line or irregular mar- 
gin of the letters; and the 
rhythm of pressure, or alter- 
nation of light and dark 
strokes. The proper micro- 
scopic esaminatiou of those 
three rhythms, under a suf- 
ficient illumination of the 
letters, cannot fail, he be- 
lieves, to demonstrate the 
difference between a genuine 
and an imitated signature." 
The Doctor's theory we 
believe to be sound ; but we 
would prefer to more simply 
define the "three character- 
istics," as habit of form, 
movement, and shade; these, 
in connection uith other at- 
tendant peculiarities of hand- 
writing, furnish a basis suffi- 
cient to enable a skillful 
examiner of writing to de- 
monstrate the identity of any 
hand-n'ritiug with a great 
degree of certainty. 

In extreme cases, and es- 
pecially skillfully forged sig- 
natures, the rtid of the 
microscope will be necessary 
for a proper examination, 
but for the greater propor- 
tion of cases of questioned 
handwriting acommon glass 
magnifying from ten to 
twnty diameters, will serve 
much the bolter purpose, 
as it is auiile to reveal the 
characteiislirs of the wri- 
ting, while its greater con- 
venience of use and broader 
field of view are greatly in 


ivp postal cards and 
equesting the JouR- 
>e mailed one year to their address 
panied by the cash. It will save 
fluch parties time and postal cards to know 
that under no circumstances is a name 
placed upon the subscription-li-it until the 
price of the subscription has been paid. 
Others request that the paper be not stopped 
at the expiration of their subscription, as 
they intend to renew. We cannot con- 
sistently comi)ly with such requests. A 
e and complicated business — such as 
aging a widely-circulated paper- 

irdine to some established 
thod which cannot be modified to suit 

certain business colleges, we studiously 
avoided in our preparations, styles, form, 
and colors, which, in our judgment, were 
prohibited by the statute, or capable of be- 
ing the instrument of imposition or fraud, 
and we have io several instances declined to 
fill orders for a more attractive and deceptive 

It seems, however, that our judgment re- 
specting the law, and the danger of issuing 
such currency, and that of the United 
States officials differs, as the following 
communication will show : 

under which the manufacture, sale, and use, 
of college currercy are prohibited, and to 
which we are referred by the United States 
Attorney, are as follows : 

1m, or ImprUnned n 



In the writing of every 
adult are habits of form, 
movement, and shade, so 
multitudinous as in the 
main to be unnoted by the 
writer, and impossible of 
perception by any imitator. 
Hence, in cases of forged or 
imitated writing, the forger 
labors under two insuper^ 
able dilliculties, vi 
corporation of all the Itabit- 
ual characteristics of the 
writing he would simulate, 
and the avoidance of all hiso 
writing habit, to do which in any extended 
writing we believe to he utterly impossible. 

How far this inevitable failure may be 
discovered and demonstrated depends upon 
tlie skill of the forger, and the acuteness of 
the expert. 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications uot 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally opeu to him to say so and toll 

wed from copy prepared hy Lyman P. Spencer, one of the Spenserian tit 
of liimjraphy and Art."~L. P. Spencer enjoyg the reputation of being c 
:ornplished pai artists of the world. 


the desire and con 
multitude of patroni 
of such an effort! 

Illegal College Script. 

Some two years since we prepared de- 
signs for all the necessary and amvenient 
denominations for college script, including 
fractional currency, and, as we supposed of 
such a character, from its plainness of de- 
sign and execution, as to be free of any in- 
fringement of the statute and of the danger 
of imposition upon the most ignorant and 
unwary. Having formerly been ourselves 
cognizant of several impositions perpetrated 
upon ignorant persons by inducing them to 
take for genuine money the finely engraved 
and highly colored college Bcript, used by 

of each of a 1/ -S'lV— My ultentionhftviug been offlclally called to yonr^j^be 

ne the detail 1 1 " ^""^^t ^''^^" ^ """" """'"■"*' '"" """* """" '"•""■ of 

to say, Tlint I rcgiird t 
I ciiireDcy— Bo-oulled— 
e United States, to wliii 

Under the broad 
sweeping terms of the s 
ute, as above quoted, 
ly, if not all, the script 
> by business 
colleges and schools is 
clearly illegal, and parties 
making or using jt are 
liable to the criminal pen- 
alties imposed by the 
statute, and further liable, 
in a civil action, for any 
loss sustained by parties 
who may in good faith re- 
such currency as ac- 
tual money. 

In accordance with a 
demand from the United 
Slates District Attorney 
we have surrendered for 
destruction our entire stock 
of college script and frac- 
tional currency, and caused 
sfers, from which 
the same were printed, to 
be destroyed. 


In view, of the great 
importance, if not now ab- 
solute necessity, of some 
circulating medium which 
will enable the actual busi- 
ness transactions in vogue 
in all firat-class business 
schools, we have prepared 
new designs for the various 
denominations of script 
and fractional currency 
which are approved by the 
United States Attorney, 
and which will, we believe, 
be a very acceptable sub- 
stitute for the college 
money now and hitherto in 
use. It will be of a general 
form, suitable for any busi- 
ness college, and will be 
kept in stock, so that or- 
ders for any amount can 
be filled by return of mail, 
or on a special order it may 
Jit the name and location 

of the United States Statute 

hanged to s 
of any institution, and at a slight additional 

The fractional currency is now ready, 
and samples with tenns will be mailed uu 
request. The dollar denominations will 
be ready as eariy as the 15th inst., when 
specimens will be received and estimates 

A. Gentilii, of Leipsig, has taken out a 
I patent for an " automatic rapid-writing ap- 
paratus." By means of it he claims to be 
able to register the movements of the vocal 
organs so that the words appear legible on 
at the same rapid rate as they are 
without any further action on the 
the speaker. — Minneapolis Weekly. 

^ paper a 
j part of t 

Vis I JOUKN.Vi; 

A Specimen of Careless and 
Impudent Correspondence. 
Oq Nov. we R*«-ivc-(l a leltur of 
wliich the following is a vcrbjitim copy. 

Nov. the 21, -ei. 

20 oto. Ami n\<u> a tot of Amw' copy •lip* for inBtniction 

Inclosed in the letter was 30 cts., l)ut n» 
name or iiddress given. The letter was, of 
course, placed on file with many othera 
which remain unanswered for similarreasons, 
to await further information, which came to 
hand on Dec. 19lh, in the form of the -fol- 
lowing communication. 

*• D.JC. tbe 10, -ei. 

1 unougb to kwp t 

3 30 c 

To the last letter was the name and ad- 
dress of the writer, and, of course, with a 
hope to avert the dire consequences threat- 
ened, we hastened to forward merchandise 
as per order. 

The above letters are fair samples, both 
as regards carelessness and impudence, of a 
largo number of letters received in the 
course of a month's correspondence. 

A writer oinits his name or address, or 
fnun some cause Iiis letter or answer mis- 
c:irrics, he jumps to the conclusion that he 
has been swindled, and proceeds to indict 
UR ns swindlers. 

If correspondents will exercise more care 
they will often save themselves from vexa- 
tious delays, and a temptation to write let- 
ters which, if published, would aflord them 
little pride of authorship. 

The King Club 
Fur the past month come* from C. W. Rob- 
bius, teacher of writing at Musselman's 
Gum City Business College, Quincy, 111., 
aud numbers one hundred. This is by far 
the largest club ever received from a busi- 
ness college, and is highly creditable, not 
only to Mr. Robbins, but to the college 
from whence it comes, for it is only from 
among studeuts in whom skillful teaching 
has cukindied an enthusiasm iu wriliug that 
such clubs can be secured. The second 
club in size is from C. \V. Boucher, princi- 
pal of the busiboss department of the 
Ntirthem Indiana Normal School, and num- 
bers seventy-jive — making for him a grand 
total of seven hundred and sixty, within a 
period of less ihau two years. L. Asire, 
teacher of writing at Minneapolis, Minn., 
sends a club, third in size, numbering thirty- 
one. Clubs during the past month have ex- 
ceeded by mauy fold in size and number any 
other Dereiiiber number since the puhlica- 
liou of the Journal, while promises for the 
new year are quite unprecedented. 

Not So Bad. 

Our readers will remember that in tlie 
last issue of the Journal we copied from 
the Spritifi/ield Jtepublican an advertise- 
ment by G. C. Hinman and commented 
upon llie same. We have since received 
fi\)m Mr. Hinman a letter wliivh reads as 
follows : 

Springfield, Mass., Dec. 22d, 1801. 
Mr. D. T. Ames. 

Dear Sir: If you for » moment thought 
my " ad " iu tbw S. H., referred in any way 
to atandanl work of prouounc^ value, or 
xkmt I intended to injure or belittle it, or 

any one engaged in it — you failed greatly 
in taking my meaning. Believing, how- 
ever, that my blundering had "done it," 
I hastened to aHirm iu the same paper my 
true meauinn in general, and in this note to 
you, trhu I tired at. We have in this sec- 
tion, all around us, very many of the type 
of what yon and I once looked upon as, 
"Oh my! wonderful." And yet, with all 
the light and improvement of better ideas 
and better men, it "sells "to the people 
just as well as then ; to the injury, not of 
myself, but the boys and girls who buy it, 
and, in so doing, waste to a great degree, 
the one and only chance they have for edu- 
cation, of the kiud that will pay them every- 
where, real art, be it of pen, pencil, brush, 
or graver, is the demand of the times and 
valuable. To all such I wish God, speed, 
and prosperity. Truly, etc., 

G. C Hinman. 

In reference to the allusion made by us to 
Mr. Hinman's short-comings as a teacher in 
New Jersey, he explains that he was very 
suddenly called away from his classes there 
to tho deatli-bed of a son, and his classes 
and business was left in the hands, as he 
supposed, of a competent and houest repre- 
sentative, whom be had supposed, conducted 
and closed all business in a satisfactory 

He further requests us to say that any 
unpaid claims against him will be paid 
with interest on presentation. 

The Large Cities of the World. 

Aecording to Rand, McNally & Co.'s 
" Atlas ol the World," lately publisheil, the 
popuhxtion of the ten largest cities in the 
world is as follows : 

Clmngchow. WW.OOO 

While New York stands iu the above list 
as the sixth largest city in tho world, it is in 
fact the second or third. As given above, 
its population is l,2OG,.'J00. Separated fn-m 
it only by narrow passages of water, and 
closely conuected with it by steam ferries, 
are the following cities, aud their popula- 


Which clearrly gives New York the third 
dace among the large cities of the world; 
lore than this, within a radius of fifteen 

■ rt cut <r,t.-! pl,olo-r„>,n"'Cil from a pr„ slrtrh fxcnilvd bij J. G. CrossM- M., 
author of " Eclectic Short-hand," anil Dean of College of Comvierce, 
Illinois Wctleyan Vnivtrgity , litoomiiigton, III. 

Giving Credit. 

Brother Ames copies from our September 
issue an article written expressly for the 
Gazette, without gi\'ing us credit therefor. 
This, we are sure, must be unintentional. 
The Penman's Art Journal is too good a 
paper to appropriate the articles of a con- 
temporary without a courteous acknowledg- 
ment of their source. — Penmates Gazette. 

We are obliged to Brother Gaskell for 
calling our attention to any supposed failure 
on our part tt> give full aud pntpcr credit 
to any source, frotn wbeuce matter has been 
appropriated for the Journal. He is right 
in his inference that it must have been unin- 
tentional, and we will add that it was 
entirely unknown on our pari, the article 
having reached the Journal through 
another source than the Gazette. 


In our last issue was an exchange notice 
of the "Penman's Monthly Bugle," Hiram, 
Ohio. The title should have read " Bee- 
man'$ Monthly Bnglc" 

miles, and closely connected with 
lines of railways and steamboats 

(with a popiilntion of) 

These cities are little else than suburbs of 
New York, as is a large portion of Slateu 
Uland and other thickly populated suburban 
territory. These figures added to our for- 
mer ones gives a population of 2,125,644, 
which is by far a more just and proper basis 
for the estimathm of the size and commercial 
importance of New York than is the census 
of Manhittan Island, upon which the city is 
so narrowly circumscribed, and which seems 
to fairly place New York second upon the 
list of the large cities of the world. 

Chirographic Juveniles. 

Leslie and Artie Pearce, two lads, aged 
eleven and ten years respectively, it would 
.Seem from reports, have lately created quite 
a ripple of sensation at the National Capital 
and in Philadelphia where they have given 
public exhibitions of tbeir skill in industrial 

and artistic wriling. Thoy hail from the 
shades of Conilaud, Logan Co., 111. Their 
fatlicr, John B. Pearce, h:is supervised tho 
instruction and trainiug of his sous from 
Spencerian publications at their home until 
recently. He says, " The little ftdlows have 
had no more aptitude for writing than other 
boys, but have by determined perseverance 
and through the merits of Spencerian be- 
come adepts in the art. They have been 
under tho training of Lyman, and H. C. 
Spencer at tho Spencerian college in Wash- 
ington for a short time. While there they 
went into public places with blackboards, 
and with crayons exhibited to thousands of 
people their plain and artistic writing. At 
the close of each performance they sold tho 
Standard Script Rulers, which the people 
purchased almost as fast as the youths could 
hand them out. Such largo audiences 
gathered around them that streets were 
blockaded, and tho authorities prohibited 
further exhibitions. 

December 9th, 1881, Mr. Pearce and his 
sons visited Philadelpliia in colnpany with 
Mr. H. C. Speucer. At an association meet- 
ing of about six hundred experienced edu- 
cators, tlie lads were introduced by Mr. 
Spencer, and gave evidence of their skill 
with chalk in folding Hues into easy graceful 
letters, and wore warmly applauded and 
commended for their success by the teachers. 

They appeared before the students of 
Soule's B. and S. College, numbering several 
hundred, who manifested a high apprecia- 
tion of the free_, beautiful execution of the 
young chirographers. We learn that thoy 
are now spending a short time in Philadcl- 
dolphia, pitictisiug "card writing with that 
renowned pen-artist, Prof. Fliekinger. 

Cards written by the little Pearco brothers 
sliould be paid for aud treasured up as a 
souvenir, showing what the youtlis of the 
land can do, if they will, iu the way of 
mastering that great secondary Power of 
Speech, the Art of Writing. 

Our Premiums for 1882. 

In addition to the premiums offered during 
the past year, we now offer a copy of the 
" Garfield Memorial" (see reduced copy on 
another page), printed on fine plate, 19x24. 
It is among the finest gems of pea art ever 
executed, and iu view of the noble example 
aud exalted attainments of President Gar- 
field, it is a most fitting picture for the 
adorumout of any home or school-room in 
our laud. 

On yther pages of this issue will also bo 
seen copies of three others of the premiums 
offered. The remaining one, the "Centennial 
Picture of Progress," is too large to be re- 
duced to a size convenient to print in the 
Journal ; it may, however, be safely re- 
garded as equal to any here represented, in 
the quality of its execution, while in the ex- 
tent and character of its design it very far 
excels them all. 

It will therefore he seen that to every 
subscriber or renewer of a subscription, 
during the present month and 1882, there 
will be given a choice of any one of Jive pre- 

The Garfield MemoriRl. • - - - 10x24 

The Lord's Prayer, Ii>xi>4 

The Ci-nteiuiial Picture of Progieei*, ItSxafi 
The Flourished Eagle, - - - - '20x32 

The Buuudiiig Stag, liOxliU 

Any i)remium additional will bo sent for 

25 cents; all five of them, with the JOUB- 

NAL, for *2.00. 

Detroit, Mich., Dec 31st, I8pI. 
Editort Penman's Art Jot'RNAL:— Id 
rpiipwing tny aubscriptum to the Penman's 
Art Journal for I8Sa, and thus indicst- 
ing my appreciation of its merits, I desire 
to exprcM my regret that there should he 
nny real or seemiDg jealoiwy among the 


, the \ 

of what onght together ^) 
Symmetrical Business Eilnoation, etnhrac- 
ing whatever may be essential to the reali- 


I of what is expressed in the nai 
iness Educators' Association of Am 

Hy the action' of the association at its 
meeting in Chicago, in lljBO, this name was 
substituted for Basiuess College Teachers 
iinri Penmen's Asssuciation, adopted in Ne«" 
York, in 1878, thus providing for its em- 
hraring persons generally, engaged in pro- 
iijoting business education in any and 
all ways, including editors and authors, and 
shoii-haiid writers and telegraphers, as well 
as pt-uincii and teachers in business colleges. 

Pttrsoniilly, I am intcrosted in this whole 
Work, in lis widest sense, and I desire in a 
(■4itIiolic spirit of the broadest fraternity to 
ffllowsliip all others so engaged, upon the 
simple Im^i!* of their being " business edu- 
cators," whether penmen 
they are earnest workers. 

I have heretofore suggested in open con- 
vention the id^a of persons interested in 
spccutUieSf working in separate sections at 
our annual meetings, as roferr-d to by my 
Brother Spencer, of Milwaukee, in the 
Di'cemher number of tlie Journal. But 
lot us remain fellow- workers " of one spirit," 
by any and all means prouiotiug the great 
and good work indicated by the name of our 
aasocialion. Ira Mayhew. 

Bascom, Ind., Dec. 27th, 1881. 

Editors of Journal : — You will find 
cash inclosed to renew my subscription to 
the Penman's Art Journal. 

1 am but a common school teachi 
would not do without the Journal for 
twice the amount, it costs, 
cards and copies as specir 
have learned from the JoURNA 

more to the Journal 

"■"'"■' ""* 1/ T. C. Chapman, penmnn at thi 
;, provided ^Mo.) Normal Business College, v 

I send a few , I g 
ens of what I L 

my other 

N. L. Richmond. 

Mr. Richmond writes a hand which would 
do honor to a professional. Indeed, few better 
written letters than his have been received 
during the month, and we give place in the 
Journal to his letter as one of the many 
testimimials from public school teachers 
n-spociing the value and inHuence of the 
Journal in that direction. The Journal, 
iu the hands of every public school teacher, 
would very soon work a much needed re- 
formation in the manner and efficiency of 
teaching writing in our public schools, and 
it would by no means retard the work, were 
the school officers of the notion to become 
reguhir reajlers of the Journal, but, like 
leaven, it is working already, as the names of 
many otEcers as well as teachers are upon 
our subscription list, and the number is now 
rapidly increasing. 


be the most 
r published 
for a «lub (»f twi 
The ahove cut repres 

omprohensivo practical and aitistio guide to < rnaintnt 

Sent pon naid to any address on recoi| t of 44 "iO 
Ive sul fp 1 ers to tlie Journal 
nta Ml** title page of the work, which is ' i x 14 lu size. 

Jnsoph V 

C. B. Hanna, teacher of writing at Epwi 
Seminary, Epworlh, Iowa, incloses two cri 
able specimens of flourishing and writing. 

y' C. N. Crandle, teacher of writing in the pub- , 
lie nchuols of Valparaiso, Ind., sttiids a skill- } 
fully executed specimen of off-hand flouriehing.y 

Art annually, and these sliouhl be a full t 
tendance and earnest work (tone to advan 
good writing and elevate the staudurd of c 
iiamenlal pen-work."' 

Answer to Correspondents. 

A, E. J., Omega, Texas. Tu give a correct 
position tu the pen the hand should be turned 
toward you until the wrist is nearly Hat and 
the pen holder points directly over tlie right 
shoulder, keeping the front of the pen square 
to the pappr, so that the two nibs of the pen 
shall be constantly under the same degree of 

J. H. S.. Hi.bbardston, Mich., askes a ques- 
tion relative to spacing writing which he will 
find Huewered iu the fourth "olumn of the 
second page of this issue. 


C. W. Rice, of Greenwood, Colorado, writes 
handsome letter, in which he incloses super- 
specimens of practical writing and tiourisb- 

J. M. Vincent, of Los Angeles. Cal., Busi- 
sss College, incloses, in a well-written letter, 
>veral excellent apeciraens of plain and fancy 
J, M. Piersou. of Lone St 

jrt Worth, Texas, writes a handsome 
which be iuclosea several well-executed 

^J. M. 

^/Hege, F. 
'H letter iu 

F. A. Holmes, of Holmes* Commercial Col- 
lege, Fall Ktver, Mass., writes a good band. 

J. W. Titcomh, has open^-d a Writing Institu 
lion at 274 Maiu Street, Hartford, Conn. A 
specimeu of his lettering and Uouribliiiig, 
pUuto-engraved lor the tiile-pn^e of his circular, 
presents a very credifable appearance. 

Annie G. Hill, teacher of writing in the pub- 
lic fchools, also the Collegiate Institute. 
Springfield, Mass., is an accomplished writer. 
Her tetters are superior specimens of practical 

J. F. Mooar, teacher of writing iu the 
Bryant and Stratton Commercial School, 
Boatou, iucloses an elegant sp^'cimen of prac- 
tical writing by a young lady pupil of that 

MissGeorKie Underbill, of Bridgeport, Conn., 
sends an elaborate and ingenious design, entitled 
'■Welcome 1882." While it has faul.s in the 
detail of its design, in general it has much 

A letter, done up in true Spencerlaa style, 
comes from P. R. Spencer, Cleveland, Ohio. He 
also incloses a superb specimen of practical 
writing by John S. Scott, who is teaching with 
Mr. Spencer iu the Spencerian Business Col- 

C. W. Wilkins, with the New Hampshire 
Fire Insurance Co., Manchester, N. H., not 
only writes an excellent business baud, but 
possesses consideralde artistic skill, as is evin- 
cifal by a set of reeolntions lately eiigroBsed 
by bim, a photograph of which is before us. 

An imperial-size photograph of a finely 
executed specimen of lettering by Mr. J. Gold- 
smith, of Moore's Business University, Atlauta, 
Ga., has been received. The work is in form of a 
college advertisement. The lettering, for ac- 
curacy of form aud good taste, is really excel- 

The Rev. N. R. Luce, of Luce's Business 
College, Union City, Pa., is an enthusiastic 
disciple of Father Spencer, writes a good hand, 
incloses a handsome card, and says, respecting 
a Penman's Coaveniiou. " 1 tliiuk the penmen 
of this country should hold a Couveutioa of 

"fat. After writing a short 

ime my hand be- 

lt cau8.-d bv let- 

ting the ihumh rt-i ;ilmiii-i 
little below the lii-^i |.H,it >,t 

i-( liii'-.T, or by 

the second fin;.'--i |J 

holder at the corn.', -l ilj, n;, 

Snd. Will being ^j.iii^ mn 

.if. ..1, in other 

words, "raw boned," binder 

ue from being an 

expert penman f My weight! 

1:J0 lbs., height, 

5 feel, 10 inches." 

Am. lit The most probable csuae o 
difficulty is too tight a grip upon yoi 
holder, which is possibly too small, 
large-sized bolder, and hold it loosely. 

Am. 2d. We think not ; we have 
who were 

maTiy very spare persons 

A. .J. F., Worthington, Ind.— What is 
meant by tho scale of thirds as used in 
writing? Ans. — The space between the 
ruled liues upon paper is supposed to be 
divided into four equal spaces, three of which 
above and two below the base lino are to 
be occupied by the writing. The following 
cut will illustrate. 

The tlii'ue apric^s occupii^d ubuvu the Hi 
may be denominated a scale of thirds. 

The following is said to have been tto 
direction on a loiter left at the Fort Wayne 
post- office : 

Bustmaster, bleas to send him strait, 

Benxilvuny is der Staight, 

Olt Venango, dais der county. 

Vere oil l)onre 

out mit Heaven's pounty. 

Franklin, she" 

der gounty seat, 
on Libenfy Sbtreet ; 

Der Bost Otfic 

Sharley Taylo 

r, he's de man ; 

Send heryust 

18 quick as you can. 

Penn. B. C. Journal. 

Back Numbers. 

All or any of the ba<;k numbers of the 
Journal, and since inclusive of January, 
1878, can be supplied. No number priortii 
that date ejin be mailed. 

All the 48 back numbers, with any four 
of the premiums, will be mailed for $^.25, 
inclusive of 1882, mth the five pretniums, 
for $4.00. 

Whole-Arm vs. Fore-Arm. 


Free speech is America's main-spring, and 
the difference of opinion serves a purpose 
that places her in the forontbsl rank iu all 
schemes of venture. 

1 venture the assertion that the teaching 
of whole-arm should precede fore-arm. 

Programmes " H " aud " C," as given in 
the Journal, will give all its readers a 
key tu my argument. As the different points 
are gained in their order in Programme 
" B," they may be followed intelligibly and 
successfully in Programme '* C." 

For example, take any one of the 103 
Extended Movement exercise 
execution fore-arm, and nine 
fail. Produce in onler of sii 
of the extended 

and good results fo 
out of ten, with hi 
A fair trial will 

I do 

t hold that 
-artn withn 

, and attempt 
mt of ten will 
plicity a few 
, whcde-arm, 
arm will follow, nine 
little discouragement. 

1 impossibility to 


But take a class, and the best results are 
<d»taiued by executing whole-arm move- 
ments first, then follow in order of simpHoity 
with work fore-arm. 

1. That the fore-arm is the great central 
power is no reason why it should precede 
whole-arm, no more than a child should be- 
gin by reading the newspapers because it is 
what he or she will do when grown. 

2. To the average student whole-arm is 
far ea.'fier to acquire than fore-arm, hence 
should precede. 

3. There is certain work requiring the 
whole-ar.n that cannot cotti!emen(/y be sup- 
plied by fore-arm. If this be true, we are 
compelled to learn it in order to meet all re- 
quirements to the best advantage, and if 
compelled, why not at first, when facts pt>int 
to it as the easiest for beginners f 

There is no churn to any difference in 
these two movements after power over both 
lins once been gained, no more than there ia 
any difference in iutellectual power between 
2x2 and 11x11. 

To beginners there is a difference, other- 
erwise there is none. 

4. The muscles of the shoulder are more 
easily moved, producing who!e-arm, than 
the muscles of the fore-arm. 

5. The muscles of the fore arm are con. 
trolled by the larger and stronger muscles of 
the arm, hent^e, power over the larger will 
control the smaller. 

More, if necessary, at another time. 

The Largest Libraries. 

A correspondent asks which are the 
largest three libraries in tho world, and 
which the largest three in this country. By 
far the largest in the world is the National 
Library at Paris, which, in 1874, contained 
2,000,000 printed books aud 150,000 manu- 
scripts. Which the next largest is it ia 
difficult to say, for iho British Museum and 
the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg both 
had iu 1874 l,U)0,OtX) volumes- After 
them cotnes the Royal Library of Munich, 
with its 900,000 books. The Vatican Li- 
brary of Home is sometimes erroneously 
supposed to be among the largest, while in 
point of fact it is surpassed, so far as tho 
number of volumes go, by more than sixty 
European collections. It contains 105,000 
printed books aud ^5,500 manuscripts. Tho 
National Library at Paris is one of the 
very oldest iu Europe, having been founded 
in 1350, while the British Museum dates 
from 1753, or a time more than 40U years 
later. In the United States the largest is 
tho library of Congress at Washington, 
which in 1874 contained 20 1 ,000 volumes. 
The Boston Public followed very closely 
after it with 260,500 volutnes, aud the Har- 
vard University collection came next with 
200,000. The Astor and Mercantile of 
Nt'wYorkar.- next, each having 148,000. 
Among the colleges, after Harvard's li- 
brary, comes Yale's with 100,000, Dart- 
mouth's ij nert witb 50,000, aud then 




1 -'-^ 


The above cuts are photo-eograved from pen copy, and correctly represent our fractional currency, for use in schools of business, except tliat tlie currency is printed from 
photo -lithographic transfers, and is about \ smaller than the above cuts. The former currency having been pronounced illegal, from its being a promise to pay a specified 
sum of money, we have substituted other matter which entirely overcomes that objection without ^t all dimishing the convenience and attractiveness of the script. The fractional 
currency ia now reaily for sale, and duplscates of these cuts will be sold at $3.0U each. 

The regular currency of the dollar denominations will bo ready by the 1 5th inst. It will be very handsome — reflecting more the penman's than the engraver's art. One 
of the chief objections urged against our former Script was the strong resemblance between the styles of lettering and vignettes used to those custoraery with bank note engravers. 
This we have avoided, as well as the the terms Cashier, and President. Also the promise to pay, and the term Dollar have beenomitted. Samples and terms sent by return of 

oomcs in order, Cornell with 40,000; the 
University of Virginia with .'{fi.OOO; Bow- 
doin with 35,000 ; the University of South 
Carolina witli :i0,000; Ann Arbor, 30,000; 
Amherst, 29,000 ; Princeton, 28,000 ; Wes- 
leyao, 25,500, and Columbia, 25,000.— 
i^ew York Tribune. 

Great Writers at Work. 
How Dryden worked I cannot find re- 
corded ; doubtless at any time aad all times, 
wlieuever the need of money pressed him. 
Pope always required his wTiting-desk to 
be set upon hia bed before he rose. Gray, 
the author of the " Elegy," was perhaps of 
all writers tlie most curiously minute in his 
iiietimd ; it ia said that he perfected each 
line separately, amending and rewriting it 
I'ver and over again, and never commenced 
auother until the first had wholly satisfied 
his fastidious taste. Byron sat down to 
write without any premeditation ; his ideas 
flowed with his ink, and one line suggested 
the next. But after the poem was com- 
pleted, and during its passage through the 
press, he was continually altering, inter- 
liniDg, and adding. 'The first copy of "The 
Giaour" consisted of only 400 lines; to 
each new edition were added new passages, 
until it swelled to nearly 1,400 lines. Dur- 
ing the printing of " The Brido of Abydos" 
ho added 200 lines, and many of the origi- 
nal were altered again and again. Cue of 
tlie uHfflt constantly laborious writers of 
whom we have any account was Southey. 
Ill one of hia letteni be says : " Imagine 
iiie in this gr^at study of miue (at Gesta 
Hall, Keswick) from breakfaat till dinner, 
from dinner till tea, and from tea till supper, 
in my old Vtlack coat, my c^irduroys alter- 
nated with the long worsted pantaloons and 
gaiters in one, and the green shade, and 
sitting at my desk, and you have my pic- 
ture and my history. • • • My actions 
are as regular as those of Saint Dunslan's 
quarter bags. Tliree pages of history after 
breakfast ; then to tmnscribe and copy for 
press, or to make my selections and biog- 
raphies,, or what else suiu my humor, till 
diuuer-tinie; from dinner till tea I read, 
write letters, see tlie newspapers, and very 
often indulge in a siesta. After tea I go to 
poetry, and correct and re-write and copy til) 

I am tired, and then turn to anything till 
supper, and this is my life, which, if it be 
not a merry one, is yet as happy aa heart 
could wish." — The Argosy. 


A Chicago Girl at Concord. — A 
young lady on the west-side has just re- 
turned from Boston. While there her uncle, 
who is a reporter on a sporting paper, took 
her to the Summer School of Pliilosophy at 
Concord. She heard some one read an 
essay on "The Absoluteness of Absolute- 
ism," and became infatuated with the doc- 
trine taught. 

"Chawlea," said she to her lover the 
other evening {he is a clerk in a harness- 
store : " Chawles d<i you realize that you 
cannot differentiate the indissoluble abso- 
luteness of the absolute f" 

" No," he replied, " to tell you the truth, 
I don't;" and, aa it was the first time he 
had seen her since she got back, the sug- 
gestion uttered struck him with some alarm. 

" Do you ever stop to inquire," she be- 
gan again, "into the inehoation or the 
rudimentary incipience of the rhapsodical 
coagmentatioQ of your thoughts of love?" 

" Well, not to speak of," he said. 

"Then, if there is one drop of blood in 
your heart that pulsates for me, if there is 
one conceit, nooscopic or psychological, that 
in the incogitancy of your dreams, or in the 
perquisition of your waking hours, absorbs 
a thought of me, I beg that you would 
eliminate any abstruse or equivocal particles 
of distrust from the profound and all-trans- 
picioua abnormality of your love." 

" Great heavens ! Maria, have you swal- 
lowed a dictionary t" 

" No, I have not," she said, with a look 
of stem and forbidden displeasure; " I have 
been to tlie school of philoiophy at Con- 
cord." — Inter- Ocean, 

The North American Review for 
January is of more than usual interest. Its 
: leading article contains the opinion of five 
eminent physicians— Drs. Beard and Seguin 
of this city; EIwMl of Cle\ eland; Jewell 
of Chicago, and Folsom of Boston— upon 
"The Moral Responsibility of the Insane." 

The prominence just now given to this sub- 
ject by the trial of the assassiu Guiteau 
attaches to these able papers more than an 
ordinary degree of interest. The other ar- 
ticles in this number, and which are by no 
means uninteresting, are: "The New Po- 
litical Machine," by Wm. Slartin Dickson; 
"Shall Women Practice Medicine?" by 
Dr. Mary Putnam Jacubi ; "The Geneva 
Award and the Insurance Companies," by 
G. B. Cole; and " A Chapter of Confeder- 
ate History," by F. G. Kutfin. The an- 
nouncement is made that the February 
number of the Revieio, to be issued Jan- 
nary 15th, will contain Part III. of the 
" Christian Religion " series of articles, and 
that it is to be a very able defense of the 
Christian faith. 

Book Notices. 

Kev to Sadler's Counting-house 
Arithmetic— We are in receipt ofa copy of 
the above-named work. It consists of 116 
pages printed in autographic style, and pre- 
sents a good appearance, and will undoubt- 
edly be a work of great convenience and 
value to teachers and others who are using 
this arithmetic either as a text or hand book. 
Full information may be had by addressing 
W. H. Sadler, 6 North Charles St., Balti- 
more, Md. 

A New Commercial Arithmetic— 
We are in the receipt of a note from 
Prof, S. S. Packard, the well-known author 
of the Bryant and Stratton series of B usines 
College Text Books, announcing that he 
had mailed to us (but which we have not 
received) the advance pages of a new 
Practical Arithmetic, which he says " is, 
of course, to be the best Arithmetic 
ever published," which we can vouch 
for so far as large experience, ripe scholar- 
ship, and earnest faithful work can go 
tow.irds producing such a work. We may 
say more when the proofs arrive. 

Carhart's Class Book op Commer- 
cial Law is mer-ting with an unusual de- 
maud. It seeraa to supply a want long felt 
in commercial school; '■>r a concise, clear 
and practicjJ text-book , "ommercial law. 
Teachers who have not examm-d the work 

should send one dollar for a specimen copy 
to C. E. Carhart, Albany Business College, 
Albany, New York. 

Ames' Compendium. 

of Ppdciical aud Omameutal Penmanship 
is designed esj-iecially for the use of pro- 
fessional penmen aud artists. It gives an 
unusual uumber of alphabets, a well graded 
series at practical exercises, aud specimens 
ut utl-hand flourishing, and a great nMmber 
o\ specimen sheets of engrossed title-pages, 
resolutions, certificates, memorials, etc. Ii 
is the most comprehensive, practical, »i6etui, 
and popular work- to all classes cf iifofes- 
sional penman ever published. Seut, post- 
paid, to any address on receipt uf $4.50, or 
as a premium for a clbb of VZ subscribers to 
the Journal. ' 

The following are a few of the many 
Mattering notices from the press and pa- 1., u,w,t^T.~A'cw Yor 

>ugb the work.— /'u{iru/i«ri' iruJely. 
i'ROM patrons. 

Ilioll JliBlly 

I lliink it fer (upenor to any work ot llio kind yet [nib 
lishod. ll nie«ta tlia waiilii of every live iwainiiii ; uu oq- 
vnfvllo (Torker cun olTunl to \m witluiul it. — J'ruf. A. A. 

I cannot exprew my opinion. I can unly wiy It la im- 
memt. and oo prumwlve penman in Aroenca can aUTunl 
to b« wilhout It—J-riif. L. AriTt. Bed Wii»e, Minn. 

A New Pen. 

The Esterbrook Steel P.'nlCo-.'of 26 
.ImIih Street, New York, have brought out 
itiiciig their new pens a falcon pen no a 
large Bcale cdlie.1 the Mammoth, No. lUO. 
It is about three times the ordioary size, 
has a fine, free, ea^y, elastic action, anil is 
iuteniled for corresjK>ndence and general 
I.ii3irie»s purposes. They are furnished by 

-It.zen pcQs and one penholder of a size 
^|le^•iaIIy made to fit, or mi cards containing 
iMi'lve pens, with on? penholder to each 
':iril. As a useful novelty it has already 
with a largo amount of popular ap- 



The other nnmhors of the Esterbrook 
C'tunpany are as popular a.-* ever, including 
a great variety for school, business, college, 
and ornamental purjioses. 





Class Book of Commercial Law, 
By C. E. Cajihakt, 

of Biuinua, DESIGNED e 
for elatt or priuiU irutrur 


From H. E. Hibbard, Principal of Hibbard'e 

Commercial School, Boston, Mase.: 

From S. S. Packard, Packard's College, New 

irably arranged Bod aojudicunulj/ con 
ucFuru UB lu juup Clau-Imok on thU aubjeot." 

From Robert C. Spfnter. Piiiicipnl ofMilwnti 

am Rob 
kee Bm 

From A. D. Wilt, Principal of Miami Commer- 
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"It 1» ailiiiimble lor lu oomprehenilveDeu, iu ebartteu 
<tfilaUment. itnd its adnDtabilitygeuerolly to ther«quire- 
nivulB of liiitnictioD in tlika liiglily iniportaol pan of the 
curriculuiu ol a Bubidmi College. I iuoloM Hoii«y-anI«r 
(or 10 Ctijiie* Bud expect to n«ed many mora." 

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The scoPKof llie work Is wide, > 
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The mattkr. The studc 
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The work to he done by the si 

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rending from the rudiments of the science to the most intrl- 
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il! And In this work no waste matetiiU, and no liTclevant dlscns- 
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jt Is perhaps double that found in any other similar treatise, 
order to accommodate scho< 1'* of different grades, the work is issued In two editions, printed 
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The Counting House Edition 

contains %'i6 page, of which G4 pages are devoted to rrelinifuaiy Exercises and Rctnil Business: W 
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EiGnrii Edition. Copyrighted, 1881, 

Bv J. C. BRYANT, M.D., 


July, 1881 



July, 1881 


< oMI'ltlSlNO OVER 000 OCTAVO PA(iES. 

.nowl^genr Arith. 

vnliuble Refereooe Table*. D««i^«id for Bai 

McLtlon or Mirti'l.^" mpiil*.. but one of ihuie wlf.imp.we.I iMka which bos been in prepamtion for man 
)m4w forth now fu « I'KACTICAL TBTT-BOOK long ne#d#<l In the olaM-roonui of the iMtitution 
•■ iind«il|ro<nl. i"»l by him p«»iwlly eonducJeU for a ]*riod of OVER A SIXTH OF A CENTUBV 


f U>»»boT«work. beginning wilh thB subject of Peromitage, wM published in Septonitjer. 1880. Halo 
10 •irwnjwl lna..iwin«H kiuodk monj- of the londinj edu«to™ of Ihu oounlry. nud wm artopted it 
ICNDRED of lh» pwmiamt Biuinew Collegw twd Private Schoola in the Unlt<«l StaW nod Cansdai. 


:u Jiul bMn eomplolvd. nnil oOMipriw* 168 pngM. b«ginnini 


I'n.i.i II. E. ini.l.iii-a. I'liucipnl Bryant A ^ 
of nrfhwDoe in the Counting-room. The bent 1 li.i > 
IVom Charles ClaKhom, Pritii-ipal Brvur, . 
nHUI«<l lu to much better rMult* than ne have •.<• ■. • > 

rrom O. RWillianiB, Prof. Law and MaMi-rnHtl.... R..fh^ster Busint-BB UnBity, Rochester, N. Y.: 

" After crilioal ejtnmlnallan of 111 any of its Jmiiin ^ 1 jt i- ihem excellent, and liave fomid it« varied and 

oilmuitivd nuBlyaes of nommercinl lopicM not ouK |>i> i-iul; i-mi nhinrably adapted to use before large claues ol 

matured puplli. ' 

From PripfijBaor J. G. Skpeln, Principal AlhnV limv.- Ilcjli School, WiBCoiiKiii: and llioroiieh. It i» a work uo have ioog needed. Let no one look upon it us eimply a NKW HOOK. IT IK 
A NEW WORK, and worthy of all that may be said of it." 

I-Voni II. C. Spencer. PreBideiit Spencerian BuBiiiees Colle-e. Washington. U. C: 

inetio ynl publUhwl.-^ 

From S. Bogardus, PreBideiit t^pringtield Business College, Sprin^eld, III.: 

"It Iji givlnir gnat ulUfuclion lo studonta and teachers. The esplanalion and rules are olear. oonoise i.nd 
pointed. I uui glad to give your work my hearty approval." 

From G. A. Oaakell, Principal Jefsey City Buaineas College, Jersey City, N. J.: 

'■Am tiling 'Sadler'* Count ing-Hiiiise Arithmetic' in my •chools, and am highly pleased with it. My teachen 

From A. B. Clark. Principal Bryant & 

From W. A, Frusier. Principal t'onin.n 

From J. M. Martin & Bi-os.. Proprietm 
fblly any that wo have beeu able to uccomplish i 

M explanatio 

I'VoiiiC w M.ri. ir |.:,] r.ii-,iM^.i College, Battle Creek. Mich.: 

■ II .win* I.. 1. 91 «ii»i i> n.-^t.M in Uuiineu College aud Coimiingiwoms. V 

with It na a TcM Bwh. Imt tur more tvith the tupcrior tmuIIs wo are enabled to accompli 
iidnptloii in our schools." 

From C. V. Carliart. Priiicipiil Folsom'e BuaineBs College, Albany, N. Y.: 
■■■KadlersCountlDK-lIouBo Arithmetic' content ninro rvul pructioal matter than 

,>Ilfge. Newark. N. J.; 


Address W. H. SADLER, Publisher. 

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Lesson in Practical Writing. 


By D 

A member of our class says : " I am teacli- 
iog an uDgraded cuuatry school, aiid have, 
practicing writing, pupils of all ages — fruin 
light to eighteen years. Would you advise 
leavliiug tiio forearm movement to all my 
inijiils f If not, where would you make the 

Tiiis (juestion involves a difficulty which 
!i;is perplexed alike skilled and unskilled 
t.acliers of writiug, and so much depends 
u|ii.ii.the different circumstances surround- 

) that we feel i 

1 giving 

III.' jiropor answer. It baa heeu oi 

ri < to permit the finger moveinei 

c-iin- progress hud been made toward 

the correct positions and foriBatioii of the 

lelttrs, as too much upon the mind is 

liable to confuse and dishearten the young 


The proper time to introduce the fore- 
arm and combination movemeut must 
rest uliictly with the discretion of tbo 
io:icIier, depending upon his own ability to 
pruperiy instruct the ability of his pupil, 
and the amount of time and attention that 
can be bestowed upon the practice of the 
movement and writiug. It is obvious that 
a teacher who does not himself practice or 
nuderstaud the muscular movement, cannot 
teach it at any stage of his course, and this 
is the case with a very large majority of our 
public-schoolteachers, especially in the 
country, as we know from observatiou. 

Wo answer, first, that every teacher who 
assumes the responsibility of conducting the 
writiug exercise in any school should under- 
stand, and be able to practice, the forearm 

and combination movement, and should be 
informed respecting the best methods of 
imparting a knowledge of the same to others. 

Second. — By such teachers the movement 
should be tauglit early in t'le course, say as 
soon as the ]iupit has mastered the positions 
and the elementary forms of writing, and 
every sub9e<[uent writing exercise should he 
introduce with a drill upon movement ex- 
ercise. We regard a free, disciplined mus- 
cular movement in writing ef)nal in im- 
portance with form — for to be acceptable 
or practicable for business purposes, writing 
must be executed with facility as well as 

We will precede the present lesson with 
the following 

lu the practice it should be borne in mind 
that an easy and rapid gliding over the 
paper is not all that is necessary. The 
hand must be conimnndtd in every motion, 
to produce an exact and definite rcsnlt. 
Random and thoughtless lines will no more 
train the hand for graceful and accurate 
writiug, than would firing into the air train 
a riHeman for expert markmanahip. 

The following is the regular copy for 
practice : 

A few Suggestions Respecting the 
Practice of Writing. 

By L. W. Hallett. 

Editors of the Jouknal :— The Journal 
for January, just received, is both at- 
tractive and interesting. Its new head- 
ing, from the ^cilo pens of Ames and 
RoUinson, is a beautiful gem of pen art. The 
Journal certainly must now hold rank 
among the most useful, us it is the most at- 
tractive, art and educational paper published. 

As I peruse its columns I observe that its 
contributors are commercial teachers, or 
literary writers generally, and that it is sel- 
dom that an itinerant penman contributes 
to its columns. Having been myself one of 
that class for some nineteen years, with your 
permission I would bo pleased to bear wit- 
ness to the great benefit I have received 
from a careful study of tiie Journal, prov- 
ing the old adage true, " Never too old to 

The following suggestions are the result 
of my own practice and observation : 

First, 1 select a table of the proper height 
— as persons of different stature require 
tables of difl'erent height. Next, in order, 
implements and stationery adapted to my 
use. For paper, I select Southworth Mills, 
or old Berkshire — either is good. For 
penholders, the oblique, as I find it the best 
for my nse in nice shading. For pens, I 
use Gillott's No. I, fur all practice finding it 
well suited to my touch, and il enables me 
to produce finer and smoother hues. Next, 
the ink osed : Arnold's Fluid aud Waldken'a 

Japan, mixiug four parts Japan and one 
part Fluid. 

Having named the materials, I will now 
present my plan of practice in its order, 
taking the first lesson in Ames's course — the 
lateral and finger umvement combined. 
Second, practicing the direct oval in the 
hair-line exorcise, giving the hand a light 
touch. Third, direct oval in the continuous 
capital 0, shading the first downward stroke, 
aud practicing this until I had perfect con- 
trol of the fore-arm movement (No. &). 
Then, reversing the movement by prac- 
ticing the reversed oval in the hair-line ex- 
ercise, and again taking up the reversed 
oval form aud continuous reversed oval, 
shading the downward right curve. After 
this, 1 have taken the continuous capital 
stem as presented in Ames's course of lessons, 
and giving it a long aud careful practice, as 
it forms a very conspicuous part of thirteen 
of the standard capitals. These exercises, 
before any good results can be accomplished, 
must be carefully practiced. I then take up 
the small letters in their derivative form, 
atudying carefully the angles and the upper 
and lower turns in each letter as they are 
presented in their order. Then, taking the 
capitals in their derivative form, commencing 
with the four direct oval letters, 0, E, D 
and (7, as they are derived, then the reversed 
oval and stem letters in their order, prac- 
ticing also words in small letters with ditfi- 
cult combinations, and capital letters with 
difficult monograms. I have, also, in my 
criticism, found it very beneficial to use a 
magnifying glass as a means of discovering 
how well I had executed each form, as well 
as for examiuing every minute point in 
each of the copies practiced. Permit 
me to say that I owe my improvement 
very largely to the Penman's Art 
Journal, having been kindly advised to 
take this most excellent i)aper by Mr. 
G. H. Sliattuck, general agent fur the 
Spencerian works published by Messrs. 
Ivison, Blakeiiian, Taylor & Co. I com- 
mend it to all, old and young, teachers or 
pupils; in short, everybody should read and 
siudy the Journal. 

I subscribe myself, humbly, 

The Knight op the Quill. 

Explanation of Programme " B." 

By C. H. Peirce. 

5. Combinations. — The highest point 
reached in the work of this programme is 
found in the execution oi continuous and dis- 
connected camhiniMioDs. By combinations is 
meant the placing together of two or more 
capital letters, usually applied to proper 
names. Good taste demauds the applica- 
tion of either one or both kinds. 

A continuous combination is oniting two 
or more capitals without lifting the pen from 
the paper. 

A disconnected combination is uniting two 
or more capitals by lifting the pen from the 
paper at the finish of each letter. 

The kind of combination used in the writ- 
ing of any proper name depends entirely 

upon the letters employed. A judidous t^ 
lection cannot be made except by one pfl>- 
fectly familiar with all the forma of moT»> 
ment and variety of styles of capitals. 

Combinations are too frequently attempt 
ed by beginners, and, as a result, we find 
awkwardness in its most diversified forms. 
If advice be of any value, let the rising pert- 
man look well to his laurels and not mangle 
the most beautiful productions of plain work 
by joining capitals ere a true conception of 
form he developed in letters of a nogb 

I would not discourage any one mi^Mug 
an attempt to produce the highest order of 
work, but 1 certainly must offer my voioo 
against any encouragement for any one who 
has not practiced systematically the work 
that precedes. When we accept the theory 
that one part of the work is more difficult 
than another, it is then that we reoogniio 
an order of simplicity. The conclusion, then, 
is easily reached, that recognizing this order 
we should observe it with a firm resolve to 
be thorough. Under the old code, penmen 
were found as an oasis in the desert. Thii 
can he u^'cuLinted for in but one way. 

A lack of intelligent practice was the riile. 
Occasionally, there was to be found a maa 
who, iu the face of all difficulties, succeeded 
in reaching the goal. The neio code is en- 
tirely different. Good penmen are to be 
found everywhere, notwithstanding the 
change in standard. Yet, I do affirm that, 
white great advancement has been made, 
there are still thousands who blindly seek 
and do not find the coveted prize. Scratch- 
ing and scribbling at random will not, as a 
rule, show good results. Earnestness with- 
out intelligence is of but little avail. So my 
charge cannot he too strong, aud I repeat— 
practice intelligenily. 

G. Black-board Work. — As this comes 
directly undfv the work of this programme, 
I cannot well omit it and do myaelf justice, 
notwithstanding Prof. Hinman has ably 
handled the subject under "Black-board 
Hints" in Vol. I., No. 2, of the Journal. 

A skillful handling of crayon is a teacher's 
best passport. Let every one who asiiires 
to success not undervalue the very thing that 
will gain the confidence of any civilized com- 

To become etinal in every respect aa a 
htnck-board artist, the same care in sys- 
tematic development must he observed. 
Haphazard practice occasionally will not lead 
to encouraging results. You must stand 
firm day after day at such tiuie as may be set 
apart for it and with an eye to businesi, 
guided by a teacher or good judgment, prac- 
tice with a nerve indicative of success. 

Negative suggestions: 

1. Standing on both feet with the same 
heft; letting the hand wauder from the face 
will produce only ordinary results. 

2. Poor material — meaning hiack-board, 
crayon and eraser — should not be used. 

3. Holding the crayon without changing, 
only occasionally, will produce heavy up- 
ward lines which do not accord witli good 

4. Standing sijuare in front of the board is 
an exception, not the rule. 

Sl Writing too hi^li or too low should not 
be ■tl«mpted by b^ianen. 

€. Writing with a whole piece of orajOD 
■ not t> e bMt way. 

7. Sia'ading too far from thu Ixmrrl will 
defeat e\erj good dcjiign. 

B. The size of work jirodnml is a cou- | 
■iderat ion worthy of mrtic*. I 

McwTs. Editors.— In a future article I will ' 
defiuo at length m; view* on this point. 

Senatorial Orators. 

David Davis, porliups more tliau any 
other Senator, iudulgfs in inaaiiscript, pre- 
pariDg even a five-miuiitc speech with great 
carp. This is his inflexible rule, and has 
keen siiiee he entered public life. Afler he 
delivers his speeches or rather aficr ho reads 
thoui, he hands his manuscript to Mr. 
Murphy, the Senate stenographer, who 
■ends it t) the Government Printing-oirice. 
The compositors never have any anathemas 
for the judgc'8 writing, which is large, dis- 
tinct, and full of character. 

Edmunds never uses notes, and ooco a 
cpecch is out of his mouth, he doesn't bother 
his head about it. During all the years ho 
&ns been in the Senate, he baa not revised 
• single speech. Ho turns everything In 
bis mind beforehand, and never rises to 
addro^ the Senate without 
having weighed in the 
•calcs of his great mind 
what he intends saying. 

Ben Hill will speak for 
three hours withuutascrap 
of paper. The only pre- 
paration he makes is mak- 

Senator Conkling seldom makes a correc- 
tion of hid utterances io the Senate Chamber. 
He is perhaps the best eitemporaneoua 
speaker ia the United States, and even his 
remarks iu ruuniug debate are splendid in- 
dices of great ability. DniiDg the extra 
session of the Forty-sixth Congress lie de- 
livered a speech upon the Army Appropria- 
tion Bill without note, papers, book or 
reference of any kind. When the Vice- 
Piesideot announced " the Senator from 
New York," up rose the stiiiely form of 
Bo80(»e Conkling^ Never before or since 
had a Senator such an audience. He spoke 
for four hours, llefure the adjournment of 
the Senate 151', 'JOO copies of his speech had 
been subscribed for. Every printing estab- 
lishment in Washington sent to the Senator 
its lowest estiinule. In a very short time, 
Oyster, one of the best living typos, and 
foreman of the Congressional Globe, had 
the proof of the great speech ready. He 
took it up to Wormley's about i> o'clock in 
the morning and asked for Senator Conk- 
ling. "He ia not up yet," said the private 
secretary; " the Senator breakfasts about 
11; however, as you are iu a hurry and 
want to see after the speech, I shall call 
him." "Tell iMr. Oyster to come in— ah! 
how do you do, Mr. Oyster?" and Lord 
Chesterfield never was more polite than was 

you. See, I'm dividing copy." '* Yes, 
Senator, I see you're ahead of me; but 1 
went home only six hours ago. aed shall be . 
liere lor sixteen consecutive hours." " Well, ' 
I know ix's hard work. Oyster. I've been I 
at it, and know what night-work means." 

Voorhees prepares his speeches carefully | 
and revises moderately. He is oae of the I 
few, very few, men who use manuscript in 
such a way that not a single oratorical grace j 
is diminished thereby. Whether this is be- 
cause he commits his speech well to memory 
or not we never could toll. We rather 
think he does. But, with or without man- 
uscript, Voorhees is an orator of the first 
school. And, as a rule, the very sight of 
uiauuscript in the hands of a speaker is 
enough to nerve one for a bore. Demosthenes 
was rightwhen he said, " Oratory — delivery 
delivery — delivery " ; and delivery is killed 
by manuscript. 

Jones, of Florida, always a hard student, 
labors diligently at a set speech. He is 
passionately fond of Edmund Burke, and 
kuows his works as we never knew any 
other to know them. He has a memory 
equal to Blaine's or Ben Hill's, and time and 
agaiu have we heard him repeat page after 
page of Burke's immortal speeches. It is 
the same with the speeches of Philips, 
Grattan^ Curran, and O'Connell. Jones is a 

Record. I 
theory abn 


to attack Solomon's 
-Our Second Century. 


I have 

n this bool< 
seen him 

or that, 
inie and 

two h 
ring e 

thunder a 

ours withe 

yen for a 

He rev 

way for 
ut stop- 

gl.88 of 

isM his 

•pooches, howeve 

■f uiakca 

additions and con'octiuns 

in a clear hand, much like 

that of a college hoy, and 

gives the printers little 

trouble with his jtroof. 

Bill has an astounding 

memory, and no mau iu 

pobUe life, except Ed- 

oiunds, has such imper- 
turbability. The only man 

who eoold well worry 

Hill or excite his wrath 

in debate was the lato 

Matt Carpenter. How it 

tickled Carpenter to pu*. 

some adroit ([uestiou at the , ^ *' orii/ina 

Georgian and ;,'et him con- tnitn 

fused ! — a hard thing to do j 

«t any time, but Carpenter " ^ 

wncn succeeded. And it was more the re- 
mit of an irresistible propensity for fun than 
•uything else, for never was man who had 
\os% malice than Matt Carpenter. 

Another Senator who, like Edmunds, 
aever revised a speech, was Thurmau. Oc- 
casionally he spoke from manuscript, but 
Ihe stenographer took down every word he 
•aid, as the old gentleman forgot his manu- 
(fiript and drifted into extemporary elo- 
quence. Thurrniin, though never a grace- 
ful spealter, w;is always forcible. He was, 
keyoud all doubt, the ablest of the Demo- 
#rata, and their leader from the time he 
entered the Senate. 

Bayard workg hard at his speeches, and 
Aough he writes them out and follows his 
uanuscript closely, he revises after proof is 
taken. He makes few changes, however, 
kut holds the proof very often iinlU 2 o'clock 
iQ the morning, as he spends his evenings 
generally iu social circles. lie is a good 

whtck the abort cut loaii pliolo en fT 
rntal penmanship under the 
Delaicare Ohio 


WIS executed by D Grifhtha afUr a roune of eu/ht 
■n of J R iliehuel at hit Inttilute of Penmanthip 
)/ the or^tnal, 11x14 

Conkling in his nightshul. After rubbing 
his eyes he looked at the proof, made a few 
changes and struck out the "Hon." before 
"Roscoe Conkling." You will never find 
it prefixed to his name in any speech intend- 
ed for general distributiou. After he re- 
ceived the speech, he wrote his thanks very 
kindly to Foreman Oyster, as follows; 

U.XITKD States .Skxate Oiiaudkr, \ 

May 7 

may know you better id future. CordiaUy yoitre, 
E, W. Or&TSR, Esu, KoscoR Conkling. 

The present Secretary of State, when a 
member of the Senate, used to look carefully 
after his speeches, which, for the umst part, 
were made from "headings." Probably 
there never was in the United States Senate 
a man who needed less preparation than 
James G. Blaine. He is infallible in his- 
tory, impregnable in debate. Ilis memory 
feuinan, ^vritiag a medium-sized running I of fects aud faces is absolutely wonderful. 
^nd. I He can begin with William the Conqueror, 

Lamar is a great reviser, cuts proof into ! and give you the name of every sovereign 
wtter8,^MTites a horrible hand, and tries the i of England down to Victoria, with the dates 
primer. Occasionally he goes | of their reigns. Now and then the Senator 
iie Government Printing-office to , would give his personal attentiou to a print- 
look ^after his speeches, which, wheu pub- i ing of a speech. One morning Oyster found 
, ,^„y diff^rpu, f^y^j jjj^ jj^gy^j_ . j^.^ ^ygjjy ^^ ^^^^ "cutting up copy" for 
the printers. " Hello, Oyster, I'm ahead of 

oul of , 


grapher's report of thci 

very able man. His Democracy is 
but out of politics he is one of the best fel- 
lows the worid over. 

Davis, of West Virginia, though an old 
member of the Senate, has made but one 
speech — on agriculture. It was printed cx- 

left to the tender merciesof the stenographer. 
Beck, Davis's colleague on the Committee 
of Appropriations, is the most rapid talker 
in either House of Congress. Well for him 
that the Senate has such a stenographer as 
Denis Murphy, whose pen travels over 
paper like lightning. We doubt if his 
equal be found anywhere. Beck ia an un- 
tiring worker, has the constitution of a 
Kentucky race-horse, and no amount of 
labor ia too heavy for him. He is not much 
of a reviser — going on the principles of Pon- 
tius Pilate — quod scripsi, scripsi. He is aa 
blunt as Joey Bagstock, and as good-natured 
as Mark Tapley. As there are " no leaves 
to print" in the Senate no Senator can pub- 
lish a speech without having at least read it 
from manuscript. The first page of the 
Daily Record is quite a desideratum as the 
place to air the title of a speech, and many 
a grave Senator who would willingly sit at 
the end of McGregor's table is loath to have 
his speech hidden in the middle of the 

How to make Invisible Ink. 

Dilute a strong aqueous solution of pure 
chloride of cobalt witli water uutil, when 
written, the characters are invisible after 
drying at ordinary temperature. Heat will 
develop a dark blue or purple color. Use 
clean pen, and a slieet of blotting-paper.— 
Universal Penman. . 

Age of the Planets. 

One of Proctor's moat interesting lectures 
treats of astronomical titue and the ages of 
the planets, commencing with the earth. 
From the different geological features of the 
earth's surface, it has been computed that 
the fonnation of its crust must have alone 
occupied 100,000,000 years. Such is the 
estimate formed by Crowe and accepted by 
Sir Charles Lyell. From the investigations 
of various physicists, and experiments by 
Bischoff, it 15 found that .'150,000,000 years 
must have elapsed while the earth was 
cooling from 2,000 to 200 degrees of tem- 
perature. Prior to this again, the earth ex- 
isted for a long period in a nebulous condi- 
tion. The earth may, therefore, be fairly 
assumed to be .'lOCOOOjOOO years old— and 
_ this is considered as erriug 
10 the side of deficiency 
rather than to excess. 
Comparing this planet 
with Jupiter, cm the prin- 
ciple that the larger a 
body is the longer must 
be its time of cooling, it is 
e-alculatcd that it will be 
:J,500, 000,000 years before 
Jupiter reaches the stage 
OUT planet has now at- 
tained. Ten times as long 
a period must pass before 
the Bun arrives at a similar 
condition. The moon was 
in this relative period of 
her existence 420,000,000 
years ago. If any planet 
is of nearly the same age 
as the earth it ia Venus. 
Mars is older. Mercury 
is older still; the moon, 
the oldest of all. The fea- 
tures of Vemia moat neariy 
resemble th ose of the earth . 
Mars is about equally di- 
vided into land and water, 
and must have an atmos- 
phere. The moon pictures 
the earth's future condi- 
tion. It is a dead world. 
It has neither water, 
clouds, nor atmosphere. 
But as the earth is eighty- 
tban its satellite, while it 
■s as much surface, about 
[uired for it 
ho moou's present condit'on. 
this theory we greatly reducfl 
the number of planets on which life is pos- 
sible. In our solar system we have only 
the earth, possibly Venus, and, it may be, 
some of the aa'tellites. — Student's Journal 

Writing with Lemon-juice. 

Father John Gerard, of ilie Society of 
Jesua, who was confined and cruelly tortured 
in the Tower of London at the end of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, was in the habit of writing 
letters in orange or lemon juice to his 
friends. The manner in which ho thus baf- 
Hed the vigilance of his jailers is described 
io detail in his highly interesting autobiog- 
raphy, published a few years ago by the 
Rev. Father John Morris. Father Gerard 

" Now lemon-juice has this property, that 
what is written in it can be read in water 
quite as well as by fire, and when the paper 
is dried the writing disappears again till it is 
steeped afresh, or again held to the fire. 
But anything written with orange-juice is at 
once washed out by water and cannot be 
read at all in that way; and if hoU to the 

has thirteen 
2,500,000,000 years will be 


ii' , though the characters are thus made 
■■' ^pjtear, they will not disappear ; so that 
I i-'tter of this sort, once read, can never be 
Ulivered to any one its if it had not been 
...I. Thi> party will see at one* that it has 
l>i;t:i] read, and will certainly refuse and d'n- 
uwQ it ifit should contain anything danger- 
One result of Father Gerard's orauge- 
juicc correspondence was that, with the aid 
<if zealous friends outside, he e0ected his es- 
caiii- frotn the Tower in 1597. The lust tee 
ye«rs of his life were spent in the Eugliah 
College at Rome, where he closed a long, 
anliious, and meritorious career on July 
•-'7.1(i30, aged seventy- three.— ^A* Budget. 

Kducational Notes. 

[Cninmuiiieutions for this Department may 
be addresacd ?o B. F. Kki.lkv.205 Broadway, 
items solicited.] 

Nhw Y.>rk. lirit,f educ. 

A eompulsorj- education Inwhas been pro- 
posed for Iowa. 

Nebraska has apportioned $189,38070 
Hmong her public schools. 

Washington University, at St. Louis, bas 
1,285 students and 80 professors. 

Boston University has como into posses- 
sion of tlie Rice estate, valued at $2,000,000. 
Coluuibiii College was called King's Col- 
lege till the close of the war for independence, 
when it received the nauie of Columbia. 

Several students of Brown University 
have bceu expelled for getting uji inock 
programmes of the Junior Exhibition. — 
'Jlie Occident. 

Miss H. Carter, a teacher among the Chi- 
nese iu Boston, writes : " It is not unusual 
to tiud a man who learns the alpliabet and a 
few words iu a single lesson." 

Amherst College is to receive, from the 
estate of the late Joel Giles, a Boston law- 
yer, and a metnber of the Class of 1825, a 
bequest, of S.-iOU.OOOfiir its library. — Ifcif- 
em Educational Journal. 

The young lady-studcuts at the Presby- 
terian College in Ottawa, Can., learned a few 
ilays ago that a poor woman, who obtained 
a living for herself and children by washing, 
was laid up by sickness, and the nest morn- 
ing tlipy went to her house, did the washing 
and ironing for her, and sent the clothes 

The Penusylvauia Legislature last year 
passed this law: That the School Directors 
are required to allow the teachers who are 
iiotrially engaged in teaching school the 
time and wages whilst attending and partici- 
pating iu the exercises of the annual County 
lustitutes for the improveuient of teachers. 
—IV. Y. School Journal. 

Four students at Waconsta, Wis., stole a 
F faruier's gate. TJie college faculty cou- 
H.Muned them to expulsion or tlie alternative 
"f whatever punishment the farmer might 
nitli.!t. He sentenced them to chop four 
' 'Ilia of his own wood and deliver it to a 

I '* «idow. They did it to the music of a 

I ' in.l and the plaudits of a crowd that watched 
ti" "peration.— iVoir* iJame Scholastic. 

A conference oftho public school managers 
"t ilie German Swiss cantons, held lately, 
Niiiiiiiiuously resolved to substitute, in the 
ti;.rliing of writing, Italian for German 
' liaractcrs. This resolution is based on the 
- 1 'iind that, while the Italian characters are 
"■■•■,1 by the great majority of civilized cimn- 
tiiis, lUey are less trying to the eyes than 
r.vruMin eluiractere, tlie use of which is ac- 
'..liutable for much of the myopia which 
pKvails both iu the schools of Germany and 

The State of New York expended 
$9,()75,!I92 last year upon her public schools 
— a larger amount than any other SUite. 
Illinois follows her on the list mth 
$t),735,478 ; then comes Pennsylvania with 
$",04G,1 U>. The smallest Sum expended— 
-, M.iii — was that provided by Wyoming. 
^ York has ;i8ti,225 illiterates out of a 
;Hii;vtifti of 5,082.871 : andMassarhnsetts 

168,615 out of a populalioD of 1,78:J,085. 
Georgia is the State suffering most from 
illiteracy. It has a population of 1,542,180, 
and of this number 967,099 persons either 
cannot read or cannot write. — N. T. Tribune. 

Kducational Pakcies. 
" There's snob a thing as siuuiu*, 
In ov^r loadin' children's underpinnin." 
An indication of spring — a schoolboy 
putting a bent pin in his teacher's chair. 

It is to be presumed that the man who 
plays the cornet was educated a 

The Springfield Republican says that a 
non-resident professor is a man who takes 
up more room in the catalogue than he does 
in the college. 

What swindlers there are in the world ! 
In this State an institution, which claims to 
fit young men for the ministry, doesn't own 
a single croquet set. 

It will save a good bit of time if the Pho- 
netic Reformers will, drop the last letter in 
the word damn, and then let it stand for 
"goodness gracious." — Modern Argo. 

A young man who was presented with 
eleveu Queen Anne penwipers on Cljrist- 
mas by his lady frieuds, coulinucs t<.i wipe liig 
pen on his coat-tail. — Norristown Herald. 

An exchange speaks of "a male train." 
The sex of trains has always been a matter 
of some doubt; but a train should not be 
called a male because it smokes and 
" choos." 

Lesson in Logic. Prof. — " What would 
you say of the argument represented by a 
cat chasing her tail?" Student. — "She is 
feline her way to a cat-egorical conclusion." 
Applause. — Ex. 

ouses it is always deemed 
best to be cautious in crossing the "t's" 
and dotting the " i's," but in broken banks 
the defaulting cashier's chief thought is to 
cross the " c'a."—TJte Score. 

"Pray, Mr. Lecturer," asked a lady, 
" what is a paraphrasis f " " Madam, it is 
simply a circumlocutory and pleonastic cycle 
of oratorical sonorusity, circumscribing an 
atoip of ideality, lost in verbal profundity." 
" Tbank you, sir." 

A schoolteacher, discharged for using the 
rod too freely, applied for employment in a 
dressmaker's establishment. " Have you 
had any experience in sewing ? " asked the 
dressmaker. "No," was the reply; *'but I 
have a thorough knowledge of basting." — 
Teachers^ Guide. 

The senior class in a Western High 
school was asked by the stylish young pro- 
fessor to define "compressibility." There 
was some hesitation, but soon a young lady 
who knew whereof she spake, answered : 
" Compressibility is that property of matter 
which renders it capable of being squeezed.', 

An undergraduate under examination at 
Dublin, was missing question after question. 
At last the examiner got irritated, and said : 
' ' I declare I've a dog at home that could 
answer the questions that have been given 
to you." " Have you, really, sir f " said the 
undergraduate blandly. " May I ask if you 
would sell him * " 

About the Convention. 

O^re of the f'remlciit of the Buslntta Educators' 

Milwaukee. Jan. 13ih, isea. 

Editors Penman's Art Journal:— For 
the purpose of giving tangible form to a 
suggestion which I made through your paper 
relative to the proposed Penmen's Conven- 
tion, I now beg leave through your columns 
to extend to the penmen of America a cordial 
invitation to meet in Cincinnati, Tuesday, 
June 6, 1882, jointly with »nd as a division 
of the Business Educators' Association of 
America, which will convene at the same 
place and time. 

Richard Nelson, Cincinnati, and A. D. 
Wilt, Dayton, Ohio, Executive Committee of 

this Association, will lend their aid in fur- 
therance of this object. 

■( hereby request S. S. Packard, New York 
City, to name a committee of three repre- 
sentative penmen to act as a committee of 
arrangements for the Penmen's Convention, 
to meet as above, or as they may deem best, 
and to notify said committee of their ap- 
pointment and duties. 

I take the initiative step in this move- 
ment, iu which I am int«rested, and venture 
to direct it toward the proposed close rela- 
tionship with the Business Educators' Asso- 
ciation, because it seems Ut me that Jrom 
every point of view it will prove to be the 
best for all concerned. 

But should experience decide otherwise, 
we can govern ourselves accordingly in our 
future actions on this subject. 

So intimately are the penmen and business 
educators of the country connected, profes- 
sionally and financially, that in many cases 
they have no separate existence, and such 
will probably continue to be the fact. They 
are Siamese twins, so to speak, and, to a cer- 
tain extent, cannot be for separated without 

The pen is the power that made business 
education possible, and it is the instrument 
which upholds it. Tins creation of the pen 
honors its parentage, and will do so through 
all time. But in doing this it need not 
shrink back into the instrument which gave 
it birth, but rather expand into their grand 
proportions which the conditious of modem 
life so favor, and the currentofhumanaflairs 
seems to demand, carrying with iton its right 
hand, in the affections of its heart, and iu its 
active brain, and on the sweep of its restless 
and grand enterprises, that of which it was 
born, and without which it would perish — 
the pen. 

Witli this feeling toward the profesMon of 
which I have been a humble member, and 
for which I have a high and tender regard, 
I ofEcially invite alh penmen to meei ■with 
us in Cincinnati at the date above named, 
and, so far as I can, will use my endeavors to 
ion and its represent^- 
coguitinn on that occa- 
This I feel bound to 
do as a public duty and from that tenderness 
of heart which I experience in this matter, 
because I am the son of a father who loved 
and honored the pen and all penmen who 
used it well and nobly. Yours fraternally, 
Robert C. Spencek, 

Pm. B. E. A. of A. 

are to the profes 
;s appropriate i 
1 and at all time: 

Our opinions respecting the importance 
of holdiug a penmen's convention are well 
known to the readers of the Journal. 

We believe that the penmen of this coun- 
try should meet during the year 1882 iu a 
convention. "Whenf" "Whore?" or 
" How ? " are the questions. 

Above is an earnest appeal and invitation 
to the penmen, from Robert C. Spencer, 
Presidect of the "Business Educators' As- 
sociation," to meet with that body in con- 
vention, on June 6th, at Cincinnati, The 
acceptance of which invitation we are dis- 
posed to advocate for reasons, as follows : 

First. Its President has ever been recog- 
nized, not only as a skillful penman him- 
self, but a friend and associate of penmen. 
He is, by taste, experience, and occupation, 
chfsely allied with them, and, above all, he 
is an open-hearted, frank and honest man, 
and therefore his jiroposition may be ac- 
cepted with the fullest assurance that so 
far as it is possible with him, penmen and 
penmanship will receive all due considera- 
tion in the convention over which he will 

- Second. It is a fact which we have often 
argued that a large proportion of the pen- 
men of the country are engaged either as 
proprietors or teacliei's in business colleges, 
and would, therefore, be equally interested 
in both a penmen's and the business educa- 
tors' convention. 

Third. Many peumen who are not now 
identified with business colleges are liable, 
if not now actually seeking, to become so ; I 

to such, the acquaintance and experience lo 
be derived in a combined (invention, would 
bo of the greatest advantage. 

Fourth. It is an open question that if the 
penmen outside of and disconnected from 
the business colleges could organize and 
maintain a separate association, and should 
they assemble with the convention at Cin- 
ciunati, they will have tlie advantage of the 
experience to be there ncqiured, and, should 
it prove unsatisfactory, they will have haz- 
arded nothing of their opportunity for a 
separate organization. In fact, if found de- 
sirable, such an association might then and 
there be effected. 

Fifth. The committee of three represen- 
tative penmen (which, we understand, Prof. 
Packard will name, as per the request of 
President Spencer) to co-operate as a com- 
mittee of arrangements with the executive 
couuniitee of the Association, will secure a 
liberal representation of penmanship upon 
the programme of the convention. 

These reasons, iu our judgment, should 
be suJlicieut to induce tlie penmen of this 
country to enter at once into hearty accord, 
and to make an earnest effort to so display 
the beauty and utility (»f their art as to do 
honor to themselves and their profession. 

In this connoi-tion we would invite tho 
attention of every reader to an article, in 
another column, respecting the value of a 
convention to penmeu, by Prof. Thos. E. 
HUl, of Chicago. We also hope to an- 
nounce, in this issue, the names of the com- 
mittee of penmen selected by Prof. Packard. 

We sincerely hope that every person in 
any way interested, not alone in penman- 
ship, but in any department of education 
which will have consideration in the con- 
vention, either as authors or teachers, will 
resolve to be present and contribute to the 
best of theh: ability to render tho convention 

S. S. Packard's Report on 

Editors n/ Journal:— President Spen- 
cer of the Business Educators' Association, 
placed upon ine the difficult, and not wholly 
congenial, task of naming a committee to 
act on behalf of the Penmen's Convention, 
which he recommends to be held in Cincin- 
nati, concurrently with that of the Business 
Educators' Association. 

There is no reason why I should have been 
assigned this duty, except that Mr. Spencer 
knew that I would discharge it. He knows, 
also, that I will do anything in my power 
to make the convention at Cincinnati a suc- 
cess in the largest sense— even if it be to 
stay away myself, which I shall not do, un- 
less I am assured that it is best. 

I desire, especially, that if tho Penmen's 
Couveution is" held, it shall be a "Penmen's 
Couvcutiou,*' in all tliat the words imply; 
and tliat if, iu the opinion of the penmen 
themselves, its jiurjioses and interests can- 
not be couserved in connection with the 
other convention, it shall orgauise an entire- 
ly separate meeting. 

And I am not sure but that would be 
best under any circumstances. However, 
I have taken pains in namiug the conmiitlee 
to guard against failure from not under- 
Btandiug the ground. My first thought was 
that persons should be named who had no 
connection with business colleges, and I did 
correspond with such parties, but without 
attaining results. I concluded next to select 
persons who represent, in the best sense, 
penmanship, not only in practical and orna- 
mental work, but in methods of instruction, 
and who have the tJict and energy to bring 
penmen together. 

I have accordingly nominated for such 
committee, Mr. D. T. Ames, of New York, 
Editor of tho Penman's Ajit Journal; 
Mr. A. H. Hiuman, of Worcester, Mass., 
and Mr. N. R. Luce, ..f Union City, Pa.; 
and I am sure the claims whicli these 
gentlemeu have upou the consideration and 
confidence of the penmeu of this country 
will secure the best possible results as to 
itself. Very sincerely youra, 
S. S. Packard. 

. 3(:, 18rt2. 

Intimate Relation of Writing and | of special teachera of pcoinaiiship iu all the 
priucipitl cities of the Uuited States, and 
thns provide good piiying positions for those 
who are waiting aud worthy to fill them. 

The intercliRQgo of opiuious and the cUsh 
of ideas, inevitahlj iiriBin;; from the meet- 
ing of 80 iimuy experienced teachers, will 
certainly be of inailcatHble value to all. 
But we should bear iu tniad that, as indi- 
viduals, we cannot, to the exclusion of all 
others, saddle our wluintt or hobbies on the 
cuDvention; nor can we afford to tolerate 
the too frequent imposition of allowing one 
person, for the purpoi^e of promoting his 
personal intcrestfi, to monopolise the time 
and attentirm of Xhv members. This ob- 
servation may seem premature, but whon 
we refleel upon how adroitly some shrewd 
financiering penmuii have nmnipulated the 
wires in times paat, we may be pardoned for 
sounding that trite note of waraiug for the 
benefit of the tricksters — a "fair field and 
no favor." If I can meet a brother teacher 
iiau I — and I have 
my time —I want to 
plete fund of iaforma- 
'.w and useful that he 
J and r know of no way to do 
ffectually than by attending a 
jnveuiion. We are in need of 
il iiud fraternal advice. The 
mbers of the profession, espe- 
cially, should enter into the spirit of the 
undertaking with enthusiasm. To them, in 
particular, it will be of the moat lasting 
benefit. Such a convention, if properly 

Union City, Vn., . 
Prop. S. S. Packaki*. 

fl»r» Broadway, New York. 
Dear Sir :— Your favor of the 24th inal. 
in at hand with "proof-letter" of R. C. 
Spcnoer inclosed, and your request for me 
to serve as a member on committee of ar- 
rnogemoutsfor a joint ecssion of the penmen 
and accountants of America as a Business 
EducntoFS* Associaliou. 

It has always been a fact patent to my 
mind Ihnt penmanship and the science of ac- 
counts arc one and inseparable, and, too, 
in their highest fonns. 

Business records without the pen are as 
subjects for the sculptor without the marble 
and chisel. Penmanship without records 
arc the marble and chisel without a subject. 
TIio one dependent on the other. 

Art in its higher forms, and accounts in 
their perfection, are thus very intimately as- 
sociated. Much in pcu-art, ua also iu the 
science of accounts and mallicmatice, may 
rise above the ordinary plodding business 
man, but that pleads no oxcnso or reason 
why each of these in their perfection should 
not he the staridurd aimed at. An arrow 
projected toward tlic eiiu at the zenith will 
rise higher, although it may not reach it, 
than if let fly in any other direction. A 
mutual session, where tlio interests of each 
may ho legitimately brought out, cannot ho 
otiiorwise than of the greatest heoefit to all 
the colleges, teachers, scholars and busi 
men of the United Mutes. 
When this educational 
movement originated, it 
wiis evidently largely the 
work of leading penmen, 
in the intere.'«l of penmiin- 
ship, as the devoted dis- 
eiplcs of our honored and 
hiiiiciitcd " father of good 
p.-.iiH;n,.l.ip," mimeU, P. 
It. S)icu('cr, Sr.,aud every 
c<.nveiilion i.ught to give 
reasonable space and time 
to the art that made a 
business education possi- 
ble, or that gave it birth. 
If my hnmblo services 
may he of any practicable 
use to the interests indi- 
cated in Prof. Spencer's 
tetter, as a member of tho 
committee you name, you 
are at liberty to use it. Awaiting advice 
and such hints as may enable me to perform 
my duty intelligently and sutisfkctorily to 
hU concerned, I am, yours truly, 

N. R. Luce. 

who knows more 
met several such 
add to my own inci 
tion, all which is i 


Having been an attendant, and seen the 
workings of the two last o-ouveotions, I am 
clearly of the opinion that in a three days' 
meeting of commercial teachers, it is impos- 
sible to do justice to their work and give 
that attention to writing which penmen, as 
a class, demand. 

A convention of commercial teachers is a 
most important meeting. Sucli a gathering 
should be held annually, and the subjects 
that pertain to a successful business career 
should be thoroughly discussed. 

In the deliberatious of the convention the 
importance of a plain, business penmanship 
should he dwelt upon, and an hour might be 
profitably spent by somo practiced penman 
in demonstrating how best to teach it- But 
penmanship should no more claim special 
attention in the meeting than should mathe- 
matics, grammar, or the writing of forms. 

The business college teachers meet to 
consider the best means to be employed in 
training students to become successful busi- 
ness men. In this work penmanship plays 
a part no more essential than do several 
other branches of an education. It shoidd 
have due consideration in the programme of 
exercises, but considering the extended work 
of business educators, the simple form of con- 
structing letters is a matter of minor import- 
ance, and should in no considerable degree 
monopolize the attention of a business teach- 
ers' convention. 

Iq saying this, I do not wish to be under- 
stood as underrating the importance of 
n art. On* thejcontrary, I 


St. Louis, l-Vhruary Ist, lJi&2. 

Editors o/ Journal:— The imjiortance 
of the subject, together with the fact that its 
.Hgitaliou seems to bo neglected, rather than 
a belief in my ability to discuss it in fitting 
words, prompt me to prosi-ut my opinions 
n-spccting the proposed "Penmen's Conven- 
tion." Being a member of the pi-ofession, 
I need liai-dly say upon which side 
of tho question I stand. I am in favyr of a 
penmen's convention in the fullest seuso of 
the lerm — a convention of penmen who are 
earnest and active in the cause, and who, 
when they meet in couvention, will not, 
for its snccesa, trust solely to social fellow- 
ship. If we hold a convention, let its 
first and ruling chnracterisiir. be business— 
tho advancement of tho pnd'ossiou. 

An efi'ort can, and in my judgment 
slumld, he nuide to bring before tho educa- 
toi-s of the United Stales tho importance of, 
and the gi-eat benefit that would follow, a 
n^form in tho prevailing meth«id of instrm^ 
tion. By doing this, we will not only 
serve tho merited cause of odumtion, but 
will, indirectly, promote the welfare of 
the professit.n at large ; for, if the minds of I notice that the 
our educatiirs are fully awakened to the 

growing demands for more practical | tinesUou being as to the advisabUity of giv- 
methods of teaohmg the art, it wiU necessi- I ing a considerable portion of the time of the 
tnt.- -I,,. . ,.,.•! .<M,....t ..f„ f,r iTwator mimWp ;«., to th- cininis of penmanship. 

called and conducted, must bring together 
tho veterans of the cause, who are looking 
about them for worthy successors upon 
whoso shoelders tliey may cast their mantles. 
From their lips let the young hear the re- 
cital of wisdom and experience garnered 
during Jong yeara of labor in the vineyard 
that they may begin where their predeces- 
sors ended, and thus bo continually advauc- 

Referring to the time of holding the con- 
vention, the suggestion o! Prof. R. C. Spen- 
cer, to hold it immediately after (or before?) 
tho business teachers' convention, seems to 
me both wise and timely. By adopting 
this time, it will enable many to attend, 
who could not otherwise do so, and secure 
a more general roprcsontivtion of the best 
material in the profession. I have no fears 
of the business teachers' convention absorb- 
ing all tho interest on the occasion. If the 
penmen of the United States cannot meet 
anywhere, at any time, and upon any occa- 
sion, and hold a successful convention, it is 
high time to cease agitating tho <iuestion. 
Let us have the opinions of the profession, 
and by all means let us have a- convention. 
Respectfully, F. H. >[ai)den. 

Okficb of Hill Standard Book Co., 
Chicago,- III., Jan. 15, Idbii. 

Editors Penman's Art Journal:— I 
bjectofa business teachers' 
convention is again under consideration, the 

value it so highly as to desire a convention 
of penmen to be held especially iu its inter- 
est to the exclusion of all otlier subjects, 
from the fact that the lime of a three days* 
meeting could be fully and profitably occupied 
iu studying and discussing the subject, the 
following being a partial programme of ex- 
ercises for a penmen's convention : 

Origin and history of writing. Improve- 
ment that has been wrought in penmanship 
in modern times. What constitutes a good 
business penmanship. 

Best means of teaching writing in public 

Best means of organizing and conducting 
private classes in penmanship. 

Pen-Hourishing, its uses, and how it tnay 
be acquired. 

Inks, pens, paper, and the materials ne- 
cessary to execute plain and ornamental 

Cards, card-writing, and the etiquette of 

Capitalization, punctuation and forms of 
wordinsr,- ,,f unitiitiiins and replies, 

lope aril . - ,1 , . ,,|' uorrespondeuce, 
forms 1.1 |. , -, ,1, iMiTji,. resolutions, etc. 

Geriiiiiii iiAi umi uul English writing, 
marking-Ieiters for sluppers, ornament^vl let- 
tering and pen-drawing. 

Portrait- making, nroliitectural-di-awing, 
landscape-sketching, engraving, etc-, with a 
view to reproduction in photo-engraving. 

It will be seen by the above list of topics 
that the time of a penmen's convention could 
be profitably occupied for an entire week. 
At any rate it will be readily seen that in a 
peumen's convention, continuing in session 
three days, doing full justice to the subject 
of plain and ornamental penmanship, there 
would be no time to spend on topics outside 
of the work in hand. 

In view of the growing iinpuriance of pen- 
manship as an art, I suggest that a penmen's 
coDvontion bo called, at an early day. The 
discovery of the means of reproducing speci- 
mens of peu-work thnmgh the process of 
phoio-eneruving has opened a new field of 
operation for penmen. By means of this 
art, many penmen are now kept busily at 
work in New York and other large cities 
eugrossing rosoluiiou'«. invitations, diplomas, 
certiticates, etc., which, through this process 
may be multiplied indefinitely. A large 
number are also employed in the reproduc- 
tion of portraits and many kinds of engrav- 
ings from photography. In fact the time is 
probably not far away when nearly every 
picture will bo first sketched with apen, and 
will be copied precisely as fii-st skillfully 
sketched by the artist-penman. Many of 
the engravings iu tho loading magazines and 
pictorial papers are to d:4y reproductions from 
the work of the peu-artLst. 

I protest that this skill should not alone be 
confined to a certjua educated number. If 
various penmen can successfully ply their 
knowledge of pen-drawing in the metropo- 
litan cities, tho penmen of other regions of 
the country can make use of tho art also. 
Every city throughout the land may einploy 
its pen-artist in the manufactui'O of portraits 
of its citizens, and in the making of 
diplomas, family records, writiug of cards, 
engi-ossing of resolutions, etc. In this tho 
penmen of the country simply need educa- 
ting in order to practically and successfully 
apply their knowledge. 

Let a convention be 
called for the artist-pen- 
men of the country, the 
special purpose of which 
shall lie to determine the 
best methods of teaching, 
and the best means of 
applying the ornameutal 
to the practical purposes 
of life. Such a meeting 
will be of as much ad~ 
vantage to tlie country 
as is a convention of pho- 
tographic artists. It will 
dignify the art, it will 
ennoble the profession, 
and it will much instruct, 
benefit and profit the 
penmen. Yours, etc., 
Tuos. E. Hill. 

H. D. Stratton. 

Messrs. Editors : — It may be that the 
following incidents and recollections might 
interest some of the many readers of the 
Journal. Give it a place or not in your 
columns, as you find best. 

It. was in August, I think 1(J53, that I 
firat met H. D. Stratton. Having a stiort 
vacation I made my way to Mr. Spencer, as 
was with mo a custom for years, to see old 
friends, and to professionally " brush up." 
I found "Jericho" supplied with twenty or 
thirty students driving the pen, and, amongst 
thein, H. D. Stratton. I found no dilliculty 
in the way of soon becoming sociable with 
the future fomider of the famous "Chain." 
He was thou quite young, perhaps 2<> or 27. 
He was tall and very slender. The eccen- 
tricity and vivacity of his manners, and the 
inviting kindliness of his face soon drew 
about him a troop of now friends, myself 
being one, and not the least pleased of the 
set. On my second day at Jericho, Stratton 
went to Oberliu to attend Commencement ; 
after two days he returned, and as he and I, 
by Mr. Spencer's ordering, occupied a room 
togetiier, he soon beoime very communica- 
tive, and proceeded to lay before me what 
he was pleased to say were some of his plana 
for the future ; plans as he averred, new in 
conception but, nevertheless, no doubt iu 
the near years to be broadly planted, and to 
be persistently pushed to consummation and 

VK I »J<) 

1 eoergy, 


fully put 

ihreo nighte, after class adjoum- 
p Dearly wholly occupied with 
of these plans — chiaierical 
t I supposed, but afterwards, 
> it might seem, nearly all faitb- 
io operatioii and carried out. I 
said these plans were carried out; I should 
any perhaps not without some modification' 
and alteration very likely. He had already 
dctrnnined upon a Grand Commercial In- 
stitution in Cleveland. Folaom's College 
wj.t then in its zenith ; his intended brother- 
in-law, II. B. Bryant, was at that time 
professor in that institution. He (Bryant) 
should be drawn off from Folaom, and be 
hi» t-unfidential adviser and partner. He 
must have one more; who should it bef 
Spencer had already purchased Chamber- 
lainV College. Did I Itnow J. W. Lusk? 
JIi- must leam all about Luek; ho would 
write by me to Lusk. Spencer, by teaching 
al Cleveland, oft^n would popularize his 
Model College; but would not Lusk make 
a craud partner to hold this department 
•'i- I'lily up ! — Bryant would marry his sister, 
In would marry Bryant's sister— Bryant 
'iiiil prove a lasting pillar of strength to 
■■' Ills enterprises; still he would be the 
" >.* 7iMn of the concern. Folsom 
M,| ho absorbed, money would flow in; ^ M. B. Moi 
I. Mi, said H. D., growing excited and jubi- ' i" 
laiii, '■ I must not be siul up in Cleveland, 
-'li no. I shall surely plant another college 

,nd enthu- | -^ 

k, untiring zeal, 

id riRhlly dircclei 
He bated all narrowness in deal ; mu 
ways an apostle of peace and goodwill, 
a great friend and patron himself of merit 
wherever he found it The history of hia 
enterprises has hmg since plawd his busi- 
ness reputation in the right place. 

I havey^ to learn that in his broad deal- 
ings, and bniadly spread out uodertakiDgs 
he ever wronged any man. 

, another i 

many more. You see, Cooper, 

I ni, up for no cramped or circumscribed 
".<kiug. The fact is I'm a national 

'■■ Wo shall kill or swallow all compe- 
■n, but our sclmols after all must be 
hr us— substantial, meritorious, and last- 
Mr. Stratton now amused himself by 
■r^ :i humorous account of a little of his 
i> in tho past. Ho was pleased to say 
1 li- commenced his career as a ''Profos- 
"f Ponnianship." I think it was his 
I euterpriso in Boston. That, said, he 
a decided success. " Of course," said 
' 1 could not write, but then my plan 
tiirihodof raising and conducting a class 
■ I success." Ho then went on and ei- 
u*'d his method. Stratton had a keen 
>o n{ the ludicrous, and he seemed lo en- 
Miis view of his professional history im- 
'-■•^■ly. Kiually, said he. after ventilating 
\ I.i'gland aud Boston professional mat- 
, " Cooper, I now have in my mind an 
1 lor you. It is a Penmen's College in 
Louis to ho established this very winter 
yon and I. 1 will furnish the money, 
shrill go therewith me; I will plant, 
I shall run the institution. Will you 
Will you settle there and there re- 
That point is our key to the South, 
"' is the tiuio to begin. I shall plant 
- all over Amoriea." I was then 

I I Mr. Stratton bad but little means. 
I'lcred his notions chimerical, and his 

d enterprises impossible, but he 
■ \ me that there should be no want of 
• '■<. Jind no want of steadiness of push. 
11^ wliat followed I take it that he had 
Illy determined very neariy the business 
liod jifierwards so successful throughout. 

Maxwi>U Kei 
teaching writiri 

J. W. Phiiikett h tearliiug wriling-cbist 
at Mcinlpelier, Ind.; he wrilea a good hand. 
"* A. S. Denuifl, teacher of writing at the loi 

City Commercial CuUegej is i 

teaching, writing cards, 
peumHUHliip at Morgan, Ky. 

iplished ]ieiiui 
liting a 

A handeonitfty 
A. Brush. Philadetph 

An elegant speciniwn of epistolary writing 
comes from H. C. Spencer. Waahingtoii, D. C- 

R. M. Nettle, Oro City. Cal.. sends a skill- 
fully executed upecimen of off-hand tlounshing. 

L. A. Bates, Ellington, N. Y., incloses in a 
well-written letter several baudeomely executed 

J. E. Garner, Harrisburgh. Pa., writes a 
handuome letter, and incloses several finely 

An elegantly written letter comes from A. H. 
HiuTiian. principal of the Worcester (Mass.) 
BuHiiiesH College, 

A very fine specimen of common sense prac- 
tical writing, in letter form, comes from W. A. 
Frasiff, Mansfield, Ohio. 

A photograph of a finely executed pen-draw- 
ing of fruit and foliage comeo fi-nnj Eugene E. 
Sehener, Gnlvestou, Texas. 

W. I). Speck, teacher of writing, at Pleasant 
J Hall, Pft., writes a handsome letter in which 
inclottes severa' hnndsomelv written cards. 

G. W. Rathlmn, of the Great Weslei 

Buffalo, and heaven ^ess College, On'mlia, Neb. 


that his 

Eciiool i 


elaud, and in two day» I called on him 

IV way to visit Lusk. I handed Lusk 

u's propositions. Lusk replied ; and 

lo moD very soon settled, that is, by 

iih the council aud co-operation of 

III, upon tho course afterwards pursued. 

iH'iiiber that afterwards when Stratton 

■ d on opening a college immediately 

liifjigo, his ability was not only dis- 

1, and in his jndginout no faith ex- 

cd, but his selection of his points of 

Ti which to establish new enterprises 

;. lubted. Mr. Bryant, however, al- 

' M-ked his partner, letting his peculiar 

- caprices have unrestrained play. I 

■ in the end he not only made money 

1 <iug, but did the schools and the 

Am a lasting sen-ico. Stratton was 

y way a hi>e man. He often desired 

I'ueh," more energy in the colleges; 

ru'said to the writer, "AH success is 

.l!y prosper 

W. B. Osgood in teaching writing in the 
Public Sl-IiooIb of Hartford, Conn. He is an 
accomplitthed writer aud populai- teacher. 

The Daily liTtiminer, Wasco, Texas, makes 
favorable mention of R. H. Hill, who has late- 
ly opened a Business School In that place. 
r Mesars. I. S. Preetou and Beers, are teach- 
ing large writirig-claBeea in Holyoke, Mass.. 
aud vicinity. They are both superioi- wi-iters. 

H. Ruh6h)1, of Joliet, III.. liaN lately reumvod 
hic^ College to more 'commodious rooms; he re- 
ports the attendance as larger than everbHtor 

R. A. Lambert, who is conducting a Con 
mercial School at Winona, Mian., ie favorablyL 
mentioned by tho Daily Republican of that) i lettering and flom-islung in for 

D. C. 

James McBride, of the Greenville (Ohio) 
Business College, seuds several skillfull? ex- 
ecuted Fpecimens of flourishing and practical 

A. K. Degler, penmen at the North Western 
<Oh!o Normal School, Ada, Ohio, sends a skill- 
fidly executed specimen uf flourishing and 
drawing. ^ 

^\. E. Dewhurst, New Hartford, N. Y, 
j an artistic and skillfully executed specimen of 

The Island City (GHlveston, Texas) Busi- 
m-se Ccdlege, was lately burned, but has been 
promptly reopened by its enterpriuug proprie- 
tors, Mesers. Joss and Benlsh. 

T. M. Osboni, the enterprising manager of 
the N. E. Card Co., Woousocket, R. I., is 
interested hi a new eight-pflge monthly publi- 
cation, entitled '-Siftings" which is mailed one 
year for 50 cents. 

F. A. Holuies has lately opened a Commer- 
cial School at Fall River, Mass., which seems 
highly promising for success. Mr. Holmes 
writes a good hand and has had considerablf 
experience in teaching commercial branches. 

C. G. Sweensberg, principal of the Grand 
Rapids (Mich.) Biisiues-s Cullege. informs us 
that he is enjoying an unusual degree of success. 
The (iraiid Haptth Daily Demorrat pays Mr. 
Sweenberg, pei-sonaUy and his scliool, a high 
nndovell -deserved compliment. 

DaytoTi, Ohio, is U) \w congratulated on its 
new ]io9tmasti'r. A. D. Wilt, who has con- 
»r some years past, a very popular 
College al Dayton. He is a geutle- 
u-e ability and attainments, and can- 
o do honor to his new, as he has to 

has become the ^iroprJetor of 

) Mercantile Ci 
Miller, lately deceased. Prof 
eirce is well known to our readers through 
umerouR aud interesting commun 
a skillful writer, popular teacher, and 
annly commended by the press of Keokuk, 

•C. H. Peirce. has 
/the Keokuk (Iowa) 
successor of Mr. Mil 

inposilor in the office of 

W. B. Snyder 
the New Era, L; 
ganl hand. It would do honor 

J. D. Briftut, Rushland, La. 
in a credilablv style, in which he incloses an 
attractive spi^cimen of lettering and flourishing. 

Another elegant specimen of practical vmt- 
ing comes in form of a letter from J. W. Swank, 
tlie penman of the U. S. Treasury, Washington, 

a wei-kly publication, having a wide ciri'ulalion 
aud rapidly growing popularity. 

Among the really tdegnnt Bpecimens of cor- 
respondence received during the past month, is 
n letter fi-om I,. L. Williams, President of the 
Rochester. (N. Y.) Business University. Ii is 
a valued addition to our scrap-book. 

A skillfully executed specimen of flonriahiifK 
and lettering has been received from A. W. 
Dudley, principal of the commercial deparN 
ment of the Northern Indiana Nomisl School, 
It may be seen ii any time in our scrap-book. 

C. W. Payne, Kewanee, III., writes that he 
has never bad any other teacher t'ljRn the 
.lOt'RNAL. yet few more elegant letters than 
his have been received during the past month. 
The card specimens he forwards are highly 

L. W. Hallelt. West Danley, N. Y., favors 
us with an article for publication, and sends 
several excellent specimens of his present 
writing, together with those formerly executed, 
showing creditable improvement, and for 
which be credits the JouiLVAl.. 

H. A. Stodard, Principal of the Rockford 
(111.) Cnmmercin! Cllege. iuclosfs in a well 
written letter, photographs of three specimens, 
embracing lettering, tlonrishing, drawing, and 
practical writing, wliich will r^nk among the 
best specimens of our scrap-book. 

We have received from Fred. D. Ailing, of 
Rochester. N. Y., a roll of specimens of tlour- 
isliiug and writiug executed with several kinds 
of inks nuuiu factored by him, which pieaents a 
splendid appearance. They are jet-black, gold, 
silver, aud white. Alling's inks ai-efasl growing 
in popularity with good judges of ink. Pen- 
men and olhei-8 wishing anything in the ink 
line, should rend Iuh " ad." in another column, 
and be guided accoraiugly. 


W. A. Beer, teacher of writing at Monroe, 
Pa., sends a specimen of flouriehing executed 
by W. B. Lorah, one of bin pupils, which is 

A letter executed in the highest style of prac- 
tical wi-iting, comes from J. E. SouM, of the 
Bryant & Stratton Business College, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

A. L. Gilbert, teacher of writing at the Spen- 
cerian Business College, Milwaukee, Wis., 
a good practical hand, as indicated by 


D. D. Bryant. Susquehanna, Pa., writes an 
elegant letter in which he incloses several fine 
specimens of card-writing, aud his portrait for 
the scrap-book. 

During the month of .Tunuarr, two letters 
have been received from H. W. FHckinKer, of 
Philadelphia, which surpass all others iu their 
ease and unaffected art. 

Geo. W. Davis, teacher of writing at Bryant's 
(Buffalo, N. Y.) Business College, writes an 
elegant letter. For real ease, grace and ac- 
iiracy of form it is rarely excelled. 
A handsomely written letter, aud an inlerest- 
iig communication to the columns of the 
loimNAL, comes from F. H. Madden, of John- 
on's Commercial Collegi', St. Louie, Mo. 
S. S. Lnndrum, Idaho, Ala., writes an easy 
luuid, and incloses several specimens of well- 
executed flourishing ; fewer flouriehes and 
loops would improve the appearance of 


met, who is now eighty 
years of age, perfected his fam(ais autograph 
when he was a young man, working at har- 
ness-making in Herkimer. Ho practiced 
writing it hour after hour, and bis old part- 
ner said a year or two ago that he liad seen 
as much as two hundred sheets of foolscap 
covered with the attempts. 

A handsomely written letter and a skillfully 
executed specimen of flourishing, comes from 
F. L. Stoddard. Elvaston HI, Mr. Stoddard 
was lately graduated from Peirce's Writing In- 
stitute, Keokuk, Iowa. 

An elegantly written letter comes from D. L. 
Musselman, Quincy, III., in which he says that 
his college is more largely attended than ever 
before. Benldt-s condm-llng one of the moHi 
popular Business Collffics in the West. Prof. 
MuBselman is acquiring well-merited literary 
I fame, as one of the editors of the i(odem Argo, 

Left-hand Writing. 

The readers of the Joi;rnal have seen 
occasional notices of the success of Mr.E.S. 
Shockey in writing with his left hand, hav- 
ing lost bis right hand while a soldier. Mr. 
Slocum, formerly a clerk aud pupil in this 
ofiice, went, shortly after completing his 
studies here, to Buffalo, where he secured an 
extensive reporting business. But too much 
labor induced nervous troubles for a time, 
the result of which was that his right bund 
became almost unmatiageable. But by per- 
severance he succeeded in training the left 
hand to do the work ; and he now writes, as 
I know by iusjjection of his notes, very legi- 
bly with his left hand. And the firm of Slo- 
cum & Thorutoii having been dissolved, 
Mr. Slocuui continues tho business, retain- 
ing, as Official Stenographer, the position in 
the courts he has held many ye*r8, general- 
ly using his left hand, and only occasionally 
relieving it with the right, which has im- 
proved in control since it has been used less. 
— Student's Journal. 

R. M. N. Oro City, Col., complains that 
several numbers of tho Journal }iave failed 
to reach him, and aska if we nmke up miss- 
ing numbers without charge ? Where papers 
fail to roach the subscriber, on receiving no- 
tice thereof, wo at once remail copies free, 
and also where copies have beou worn or 
soiled IroiD exhibition to procure subscrip- 
tions, wo, with pleasure, mail «jther copies, 
but where papers have been simply lost or 
destroyed, remittance should be made at the 
rate of ten cents per copy. 

It is our desire aud earnest endeavor to 
have every subscriber get their paper suiely 
and promptly, and any one not so receiving 
it should give immodiato notice Eiicfi 
issue is mailed not later than the liith uf 
the month. Bajik numbers may he bad 
ft-otn and inclusive of Jauuary 1878. 

im, by A B C, aud X Y Z, for 
teachers. Both the advertisers 

are parties well known lo us, aud are capable 

of tilling reaponhible poaitioni*. 

Back Numbers. 


any of the back numbers of tho 
Journal, and sine* inclusive of January, 
1878, can bo supplied. No number prior to 
that date can he niailed. 

AH the 4H back numbers, with any four 
of the premiums, wiU be mailed for $3.25, 
inclusive of 1882, with the five premioma, 
for $4.00, *^ 

AK I ■ini u\\V73 


8>Dgl« inx-rtir.0, S5 rwntj per Vne oonpar^l- 

l moolb. 3 mm. 6 mo*. I y**' 
lomD •BS.OO 155.00 tlOO.OO |I50.0( 

■dnww ; lot nix nwiniU *iid one yfoi. ptij-nblu l*^*^ 


W» hop* to rendor tlw Jol'ILXai, iufflclMitly interMt- 
tor ftwl BlItnctlTe lo htuiv. not wily the piitroniiffe of 
allthuHB vho an tD(«r»lc(l in ■kilinil nrSlioff or tcaclitoff, 
but tti«1r eftRiMt nod ttollr* ctH^penitloD as oormpooa- 

of hU hifo. wo offtr tho fnUowing 

To every new »nb«criber, or renewal, inolrwlnft 11. w" 
will mall lie JOUUXAI. one year and smd a oofjj' of the 

" PloiirinhMl Eagle," iM«33 ; " The Ceniennliil Ilctiire of 

PrryrreM." ffiES; or " Tho Bounding Stag." JlxJJ. Fi.r 

12.00, all fonrwlllbawnt with (he flrel oopyof JounxAU 

To any penon Mndlog their own and nnotbcr nnmo u 

JOL'liKAL and premiiun one yt«r, and furwnrd, by r«liira 
of mail to thp tender, « copy ol either of the following 

men* of penmun^p ever published, v\i. t 

The Marriage Certiflcal« 16x23 in. 

TlieFaoiilf Reoon! 1^x33 Id. 

3 gpMlmen Sheet* of Engnwing, eooh 11x14 in. 

CoDgdoD'* Nonnsl S^Btem of Leilering 
Or " ■■ " Flourishing. 

Fur HPi-cii namea and t1 we will forwaid a copy ol 
■■WUIium(i&Paohanl-«auid6": ratails for»3. 
For twelvo Biilwxriptioni and |tS wo will send a oopv 

""F^r twelve namm and Jiawowill « «.py of 
'■WiUuims&, Pacfcunl's Gems nf "; rvtiiili 


e JOL' 

r. M foil 

February, 1882. 

Twelve Pages for the Journal. 

Five limes duriug the past year we have 
found it noccssHry t<i add extra pages to the 
Journal, that it might contain the matter 
and illustrations which we desired to pre- 
sent, and, at the same time, accommudate 
patrous who have sought advertising space 
in its ciihiMius, Indeed, it is now manifest 
that eight pages will no longer suffice to 
contain the frieat amount of matter which, 
each month, seems desirable to present. We 
have, therefore, determined henceforth to 
make the Journal a twelve instead of 
an eight-page paper, and, uutmthstanding 
this mil largely increase the cost nf the 
publication, there will he no change in the 
prif^ of subsiriplion. We simply ask its 
pivsent patrous aud fi-iends to reciprocate 
by calUng the attention of others who 
should ho interested iu ita work, to the fact 
of its publication, and commend it accord- 

The King Club 

for the past month numbers seventy-one, and 
comes from Messrs. Carhart and Folsom, 
proprietore of the Albany (N- Y.) Business 
College. Wo lately had the pleasure of a 
visit to the spacious rooms of this college, 
and found them day and evening filled to well 
nigh their utmost capacity, while the facilities 
for, and the modes of, iuslnictioa were all 
that could be desired for a school of busi- 
ness. Prof. Folsom is one of the pioneers in 
ibe business college system, and has for 
more than twenty-five years been conspicu- 

ous for his ability anil 
author and teacher of 
white Mr. Carhart has won an enviable re- 
pntation as an energetic and accomplished 
commercial teacher, and lately as author of 
Carhart's Class-book of Commercial Law, 
which ha» met with an unusual demand as 
a class-book in business colleges. Messrs. 
Folsom and Carhart happily combine a ripe 
experience and youthful vigor which are be- 
stowing ujfbn the linn well merited success. 

The second club, in size, numbers sixty- 
one, and comes from Geo. W. Davis, teacher 
of penmanship, at Bryant's { Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Business College. So large a dub, certain- 
ly, speaks well for Prof. Davis, and his 
efficiency as a teacher of writing, and one 
who secures the confidence and esteem of 
his pupils. 

The third club, in size, numbers ^/(y-/oMr, 
aud comes from the Rochester {N. Y.) Busi- 
ness University, and is an evidence that the 
teachers of that institution also know how 
to interest their students in the art of good 
writing. Many other clubs of uearly equal 
magnitude have been received, and to all the 
senders wo return our moat hearty thanks 
and good wishes, and can only say that we 
shall endeavor to see that they, and the 
members of their clubs, find, through the 
of the Journal, an ample return 

Aud it is the same lack of good sense and 
taste that leads one to robe their persou with 
uncouth dress, or decorate it with* showy 
gewgaws, and to add useless tails, flourishes 
and outlandish personal eocentricitie* to 
their writing. 

Bad Writing Expensive. 

A verdict of $.tOII damages was lately 
rendered against a gas company in this city. 
The claim for damages, and verdict rendered, 
was founded upon whether or not a certain 
word written in a receipt was intended for 

It was Mirabeau, the celebrated French 
statesman and philosopher, who said, "The 
two greatest inventions of human ingenuity 
are writing and money ^ the common 
language of intelligence and the common 
language of self-interest." 

Maskwell's Compendium. 

We had supposed that there could be 
nothing sufficiently new in the way of a com- 
pendium of writing to be astonishing, either 
in style, or in the magnitude of its claims, as 
au open sesame to chirographic mystery and 
display, but it would seem that we have been 
reckoning without our host, for in the Feb- 
ruary number of the Century Magazine is a 

Tlie above cut is a correct view of the 
renowned Log Seminary, opened by P. R. 
Spencer, author of " Spencerian," in 1854. 
Hon. V. M. Rice, W. P. Cooper, H. D. 
Stratton, also James W. Lusk, and repre- 
sentatives from almost every State, twenty- 
five years ago made pilgrimages to visit 
tlie author at this rude chirographic temple, 
which he kept open as a summer haven. 
Its geographical location is at Geneva, Ohio, 
on one of the Spencer farms, three miles 
from Lake Erie, and about the same dis- 
tance from the beautiful village of Geneva. 
Tlie cabin is now gone; some of the timbers 
were carried away, and manufactured into 
canes. A small stock of sound sticks have 
been preserved to be made into peuhtdders 
by Mr. Spencer's sons. In this cabin the 
founders of the Bryant and Stratton chain 
met aud an-anged to open the Cleveland, 
now Spenceriau, Business College, and sub- 
soquemly the college at Buffalo, N. Y., 
under the style of Bryant, Spencer (R. C), 
Lusk, and Stratton. Thus originated the 
great Chain of B. and S. colleges. 

Good Sense in Writing. 

Horace says, " Good sense is the source 
and foundation of good ^vTiting." Notwith- 
standing, we often hear it affirmed that good 
writmg is a gift. We hold that it is no 
more so than any other accomplishment. 
All human faculties and attaiimients may be 
said to he gifts in the same sense lliat good 
writing is. The same good sense that makes 
a well-poised man of affairs can make a 
good writer. The same good taste and 
judgment tliat selects tasty and appropriate 
articles of dress can make a good writer. 

prospectus of Professor Maskwell's Com- 
pendium accompanied with testimonials and 
specimens of marvellous and, according to 
their, wull nigh instantaneous chiro- 
graphic trausfonnations that have been 
wroijyht tlimu^h its instrumentality, which 
triinsiinin.nii.u5, though perhaps, not altu- 
grtlii-r trie fioiri plagiarism, upon the whole 
ati'.-r.l ample cause for authors of previous 
compeudiums to look anxiously to their 

One enthusiastic patron affirms that he 
has "acquired a rapid and elegant stylo 
merely while getting on aud off the trains 
of the Elevated Railway," which he thinks 
is the quickest time on record, but he would 
seem to be fairly outdone (not in point of 
time, however ) by a Western laborer 
who claims to have " learned to write a 
flourishing style with his loft hand while 
sawing wood with his right." 

" A special edition of the Compendium 
has been issued for use iu railway restau- 
rants, and Maskwell's coupons are now at- 
tached to through tickets, so as to enable 
the tourist to take three leswons a day en 
route. The only objection ever made to this 
system is that it is too eaey." 

Several specimens are given of the aban- 
doned and acquired styles of writing, through 
the use of the Compendium, and the one that 
is regarded as the most remarkable for the 
month is from the well-known hieroglyphiat, 
F. £. Spinner, whieh is accompanied by his 
portrait, specimens of old and new auto- 
graphs, and the follovring testimonial: 

Herkimer Co., Fla., Sept. 7, 188L 
! Dear Sir :— Your compendium arrived 
^ this morning asd I have been praoUoing a 

little — with what result yon will see. The 
ink was hardly dry on the old style before I 
had acquired the nvw. In my opinion, the 
present flourishing condition of the c^mntry 
is largely due to the introduction of Mask- 
well's Compendium. 

Very truly yours, F. E. Spinner. 

" Maskwell's 


Exhibiting Specimens at the 

Prof. Richard Nelson, of Cincinnati, 
chairman of tlie Executive Committee of the 
B. E. A. of A., asks: Would it not be 
expedient to have a fine display of penman- 
ship at the coming convention ? Why not t 
There is, beyond a question, artistic skill 
sufficient in the profession to produce work 
in amount and degree of artistic excellence 
to constitute an interesting and instructive 
feature of the convention. Let the exhibi- 
tion consist of work iu any and every de- 
partment of the penman's art, as well as il- 
lustrative of the methods and results attained 

As brother Packard has i 
us, but wo favor not the ca 

I'v placing our 


the committee. 

.^ .■ shall use 

iir iu 


in behalf of a 

-land display iu 



m, in ocmnection 

^vith the conven 


We have not yet had 

opportunity or 

to c 

mfer with other 

members of the 


upon this or any 

other matter rel 


to thi 

object of its ap- 

iMi„tinent. Of this 


will be said in 

tulure ii'snes 


in th 

e mean time, we 

.iKi' the libciiy 

ot i 



Books and Magazines. 

The Universal Penman, published by 
Sawyer &. Brother, Ottawa, Ciiuadii, is an 
interesting magazine devoted to pentnan- 
ship, phonography, and drawing. See pros- 
pectus in another column. 

Portfolio A>'n Writing- 
Tablet is a very convenient and useful ctm- 
trivance for receiving and for holding, in 
place, paper, and will be of great utility to 
lawyers, physicians, clergymen, steno- 
graphers, teachers, authors, professional 
penmen, book-keepers, students, copyist, 
business men — to all who use the pen or 
pencil. Mailed for 75 cents, by D. Wetit- 
worth, 553 Congress Street, Porthind, Me. 

M AYHBw's University Book-keeping, 
advertised in another column, is a practical 
and popular treatise upon the science of 
book-keeping, and is extensively used aud 
highly commended by teachers in business 
colleges and other schools who have used it 
as a class-book. Its author is president of 
the Mayhew Business College of Detroit, in 
which book-keeping, telegraphy, shorthand 
and typewriting are taught. Pamphlets are 
sent on application. 

Gems op Poetry and Song on 
America's illustrious son, James A. Garlicld, 
(J. C. McClanuahan & Co., Columbus, 
Ohio), is a neatly gotten up volume of 144 
pages. It is a compilation of poems and 
letters, written by various authors, relative 
to the life and services of Garfield, together 
with hymns sung at his funeral obsequies. 
It is an attractive and interesting work, aud 
will be highly prized by all admirers of the 
man. Price, by mail, $1.00. 

The Book-keeper's CoMPAxioNisthetitle 
of a work or chart lately prepared by T. A. 
Lyle, and sold by J. G. Beidlemau, 202« 
Fairmont Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. It 
shows at a glance, by means of a diagram, 
how to close all the various accounts of a 
ledger, aod to obtain a correct 8tat«meat 



of the buriness as regpects reroarces and 
liabilities, and gaiti.t and luttses; to book- 
keejiere who are not clear upon these points 
iu book-keeping it will bo a convenient and 
%-aluablf; aid and guide. Mailed for 75 cents. 

Mu8sia.MAN*s Practical Book- 
just issued, contains 20.') handsomely printed 
pages, and treats in a clear, concise, and 
practical manner, on the science of accounta 
by singleand double-entry book-keeping. So 
far as we are able to judge from an exami- 
nation of the work, it is one of merit, D. 
L. Musselman, the author, is a commmercial 
teacher, and of large and varied experience, 
and is principal of the Gem City Business 
College, Qiiincy, HI. The book will be 
mailed for $2.50. 

Packard's CoMMBRCiAt. Arit.imktic. 
This work is advertised in another column. 
The 204 Advance Pages, which we have 
received and examined, seem tu be all 
that can be desired as far as thoy go for a 
commercial arithmetic — clear, concise, and 
5" practiual, sums it up. The Advance Pages 
,ire substantially bound in board covers, and 
It.' .-omplete through equation of payments, 
vvhich covers all of arithmetic that is usual- 
ly taught during a commercial course. 
T)in work as it is, therefore, answers a good 
pill pose as a class-book iu business schools, 
I I ii being extonaively ordered fur that 

The North American Review for 
I . l.niary is, as usu;il, full of interest. An ar- 
I I li- by Andrew D. White, president of 
rnrQell University, on "Do the Spoils be- 
li-tii; to the Victor?" is an able and interest- 
iii;;: appeal for Civil Service Reform, and 
-luiuld he read by every voter of this Repub- 
lic'. President White traces the present 
-v-sioiii from its origin, under the administra- 
lii.n of Jackson, to the present time, depict- 
iiiL' clearly and forcibly its evil results and 
rmiiiu ■ damages to the public welfare. 
I'lulerthe title of ''The Tjancet and the 
i-nv," Henry Bergh makes a savage as- 
^•inlt upon the propriety and efficiency of 
v.icfiualion, as a safeguard against smnll- 
f'.-i and other contagious diseases. He 
[ii'iiks of vaccination as a "hideous mon- 
>^ity," loathsome, dangerous, and utterly 
It'ss as a protection against disease. 
■ 'icture do disagree. Other articles in the 
i^\ic\v, are "A Remedy for Riiilway 
Al.iiMOS," by Isaac L. Rice; "Repudiation 
iLi Virginia," by Senator John W.Johnston, 
:uia "The Christian Religion," by Prof. 
I. .-.I. P. Fisher, of Yale Divinity School, 
\\ liich is an able defense of the supernatural 
.>rii,'in of the Christian Religion. To be- 
liovers, his arguments will undoubtedly be 
mni-lusive; whether they will be so to such 
■h!<iiiic unbelievers as Bob Ingersoll is not 

I the 


Our report of the Pearce Brothers, 

its reference to card-writing, as the follow- 
^Lii,' coinniunication from Prof. Plickinger 

Phii-adblphia, Pa., 
Jan. 23, 1882. 
FitiEND Ames: 

Vou have been misinformed with re- 
t,',iiii til the Pearco boys. Allow me to ;i rnriix'tion. I have not been giving 
till III I, --,.u? iu card-writing, but iu practi- 
tir' uiiiin:,'. I ueitbor write cards nor .-Hnl-wriling. 

Whi^ii iliey came here from Washington, 
th.-y could write beautifully on the blauk- 
bouvd. They could also draw lettei-s with 
tin- lien, but could not WTite with freedom. 
Ill I'll- iliiir tlicy have been with nie, 
,i. , ' i I N likable progress, hav- 

ing I .... I -■■ ;■ I Lt bio ease and grace in 
Ti.r ii-<.' ..; 11. r |i. ri Fraternally, 

H.W. Flickinqer. 

Writing in Public Schools. 
Baknosd, Mo., Feb. -Ith, le82. 
Editors of Journal: — Inclosed find Si 
fur the Journal for one year. I cjiunotdo 
without it. Evorv schoolteacher in the 
liind sh.mid take it. Writing is not proper- 
ly cired for out here. I am a farmer by 
pctiupaiiou, but teach writing tbo best I oao. 

In this county there arc 167 schoolhouses, 
and only about six of the teachers are try- 
ing to teach writing. What shall we do ? 
I would gladly write an article upon the 
subject for the Journal, but do feel that I 
am incapable of doing it justice ; but, as time 
rolls on, 1 shall endeavor to do my part to 
develop tins useful art. J. W. HarMAS. 

What this correspondent describes as be- 
ing the condition of writing in the public 
schools of his vicinity, is too true of a large 
proportion of all the public schools of the 
land. Writing, if taught at all, is done so 
with luck of int«rest and skill, upon the part 
of the teacher, which can only beget indif- 
ference, and lead to failure on the part of 
the pupil. Writing is loft to mn of itself, 
and each pupil, if be goes it at all, must 
"go it alone." It is a conceded, as it is an 
obvious, fact that reading and writing are 
the two most necessary and useful branches 
of education, and how it is that persons can 
presume to become teachers, or that bchool 
ofiicers, whose duty it is to examine and 
pass upon the qualifications of professed 
teachers, can permit those who cannot write 
a creditable hand, and are utterly ignorant of 
the proper modes of instructing in writing, 
to take charge of schools, is surprising. 

Our correspondent asks, What shall we 
do? We know of nothing better than to 
induce the 167 teachers, as well as the 
school officers of his county, to become sub- 
scribers to the JouiiNAL. If he will send us 
their names. We will mail them a specimen 
copy, and do our best to perform efficient 
missionary work, for we believe that the 
Journal is now the ranking missionary iu 
this particular field of reformation. 

$6oo as Prizes for Skillful 
In another coluum, under the heading of 
"A Liberal Ofler," will be found a communi- 
cation from Prof. Thomas E. Hill, author 
of " Hill's Manual " and "Hill's Album of 
Biography and Art," in which he offers three 
specific prizes, respectively, of three, two and 
one hundred dollars, for three specimens of 
penmanship; and to purchase, at a fair remu- 
neration from the authors, ton other speci- 
mens; which is an aggregate of not less than 
$1,000, to be paid for thirteen specimens of 
penmanship. The subjects named are suffi- 
ciently numerous and varied in their char- 
acter to cover the entire range of the pen- 
man's art, and thus enable all who possess 
valuable skill to become competitors, not 
alone for a valuable prize, but for laudable 
fame in their profession. We believe that 
this is the first opportunity ever presented 
to the penmen of America for a gi and na- 
tional contest, which, through a series of 
prizes, while directly remunerative, will in- 
directly go far toward establishing the rela- 
tive merits of the leaders of the profession. 
There will doubtless be a very general com- 
petition fur these prizes, and, in ibedience to 
the request of Prof. Hill that we should, 
through the Journal, otter such suggestions 
as we were able, to aid penmen tu enter into 
a successful competition by bringing thclr 
productiuns within the requirements for 
photo-eugraviug, we utier the foUowina 


First — Respecting size of the original work 
which will give the best effect when roprn- 
duced. The size named by Mr. Hill is Oxi; 
inches, ». e., the pages are nine inches lout: 
by six inches wide. In engraving, the work 
should he redu<^ed at least one-half, i.e., the 
original should be 18x12 inches, aud if it is 
executed in .strong and open lines, it may be 

Second— Materials. Use a fine quality of 
Bristol-hoard, and a fine quality of hlach 
India-ink, freshly ground from a stick, in a 
tray having rain-water, and remove all pen- 
cil linos with sponge-rubber. Hard rubber 
^vill not only remove much of the ink, but 
%rill tear up the fibre of the paper, and thus 
break or make ragged the delionte hair-lines, 
ffbiob will, therefore, faU of « ^oo4 rwUt 

when photo- eugraved. All lines, when 
work is finished, must be entirely black. 

Pens. — For script writing, use Gilluti's 
";Wa," or Spencerian Artistic No. 14. For 
fine drawing or tinting, use the "30:i," ur 
Crow Quill. For flourishing, use Spencerian 
N'o. 1, or Ames's Penman's Favorite. 

To those who may be unable to procure 
these articles, or are uncertain respecting 
their quality, we will for^vard them by mai^ 
from this office, a* follows : 
Extra fine three-ply Bristol-board — 

22x28, per board 50 

Per ] -2 dozen, by express . . .2-00 

India Ink, per stick 1.00 

Crow Quill pens, per doz . . . .75 
Gillott's "303," per gross . . . 1.25 
Spencerian Artistic, per gross . . 1.25 
" No. I, " " . . 1.25 
Ames's Penman's Favorite . . . 1.00 
Sponge-rubber, per piece ... .60 
Since it is the desire of the editors of the 
Journal to hold an entirely uuprejudicod 
position in this matter, and one which shall 
at all times enable them to do impartial jus- 
tice to individual members, and to render 
the greatest service to the entire profession, 
they hereby announce that they will refrain 
from entering into competition fur any of the 
ahuve-named prizes. 

An Appropriate and Interesting 
Picture for Home, Schoolroom, 
or Office. 

We iiHV,. on Iiau.l a few copies of the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress," large size, 
28 X 40 inches, of which thousands have 
been sold at $2 per copy. No more attract- 
ive, interesting, and appropriate picture, for 
adorning the walls of a home, office, or 
schoolroom, has ever been published. 

This picture, with a descriptive key, will 
be mailed as a premium with the Journal 
one year for $1.25, or free to any one send- 
ing $2, and the names of two subscribere. 

To any one sending their own, and the 
TiHUies of two other suhaeribera with $U, the 
pieture will be mailed as an extra and 
additional premium. 

The following are a few among the many 
hundred flattering commondntions of the 
work from the prr.-v :nMi iiuiuiiir incu : 

205 Brondwuy, Nci 

the |in\-ilege of seeing it. 

V"ii liave iliHpluyed nmn-eloua Mkill and iDgeniiity In 

tiiiion (if the liistoiy of our couotry Vuring tlie part 

One, ou looking upon it, wvi oX n glaDc« the vrondcrflil 

period of its gnnrlh. 
Th« whole cmf^ption IS grand, itad the exeogtion i» 

" y-".\vill please acr^ept the thanks of the Depnrtmenl 

II is a aiirnriEinfr exhibition of skill, and should iidorti 
every home Id our land. — Ntui York School Journal. 

work is fiB wondernil na the grtox proiFTessivv work it 
represents.— JV. Y. Sunday Ciliitti. 

It is a masterpiece of penmaoship, and a pictiira of 
grejit hiBlorii! interest — Manufacturer and Duitdtrr. 

It is an elubonit« and remnrkitble pen -plot ure.—frootlyn 

\\ is a moslerpiei-s of pntienoe and skill, by far the inoit 
l>,n Daily Uuion. " veeversMU— r 

It is the most romurkiiblo prodii«llon of tha pen v/m have 
ev«r eeea.— Syracuse (N. Y.) Daiti/ Standard. 

Its exc«llenoie0 vriU oertaluly attmot nlleutlon and 

ne in our ]imi\.—Eli*abtth (If. J.j Daily 

e. Sptakn- of Houtt of Riprui n 

b deoUn 

toriA paptn wblcb deoUn Uw (vlacijilM wUut taff 

> ipwiti 
Uob to 

Witliawt Cwrfw. W. A'cw BrighbU. SfaUn MaiU. x!V. 

The CMtmnlitl Pictoi* of Pm^rMa in lh* United 

Slntn, It ODfUinly a work uf rnnt interNL—ftr Bdieant 

Stom during the ^ivat Centennial. — }fie/totai Skishkin. 
Ruuian MinuUr, WtuhingtoH. D. C. 

It Is a marvel of penmanship, and an extrooidinafy 
Piolnre of Pro^frees. — If. Y. Dot Ig Bxprtu. 

ibly in^nioof and bcoiitlful pieliir*.— 

n up in splendid stylo, and «hould raM 
otm.~Saugertitt (X. Y.j TtUffmiA. 
( the most boaiitirnl spocimens of pen 

'. H. Russell, of the . 

e Centennial Fietiira of Progress," draTrn 

lehome. eto-Jollrt f/j^j 

A Growing and very Encouraging 

Since the first day of the new year, there 
has been added to the subscription- lists of 
the Journal 1,175 names, while corre- 
spondents would seem to have vied with each 
other in the bestowal of compliments and 
praise upon the Journal. Below is given 
a mere fragment of the correspondence for 
the month of January ; complete, the col- 
umns of the entire Journal would not 
contain it. 

It will be observed that during a single 
month club-lists were received from no less 
than eighteen business colleges and five 
normal schools, aggregating alone upward 
of four hundred subscriptions. 

This is, by no means, an e-vceptional re- 
cord; it was surpassed in December, and 
equalled during several other months, and 
the future is ominous of a still better re- 
cord for February. There are now few 
business colleges or normal schoids in this 
<:ountry or Canada, from which clubs of 
subscribers have not been received. 

RocHESTKH, N. y., Jan. 14, 'd2. 
Prof. D. T. A.mes : 

Dear Sir, — After calling the attention of our 
Htudenta to a copy of the Penman's Art 
Journal, and its uniform excellence, we 
invited BubflcriptioHB, and the inclosed fifty- 
four nam«8 i» (h^ result of our first eftori. 
We are cutivinrccl that rhe number of your 
patrons wuulil I..- iii<i,wvi| im-fold if our com- 

niercSalBi'liuiil,- :-- jimi. i .Jly upprecialtdhovv 

iin^ortaui a t.irr,,, IN ili. iiu-,'- of practical edu- 
cation, tliH .)(n IN \i, iKi> bccmue. Hoping 
your Buccesw may cuitiniie, we remain, 


I Bus 


Old D«.mi.\i()n Collkok. 

Richmond, Va., Jan. I'J. 1882. 
Inclosed 1 hand you a money-order fur ten 
BubBcrihers to the JouitNAL. 

Gko. M. NlcoL. 

Iowa City Commercial Collegk. 
Iowa City, Jan. 13, liki2. 
You will find inclosed a post-office ordur to 
pay for the iuclosed list of twenty-eighi mib- 
Bcribera to thi> JOURNAL, A. S. DENNIS. 

Umveksity of De8 MOINKS, 
Des Moines, Iowa. Jan. ^5, !««;. 
Incloeed you will find th« names of nine 
^.ll^)ecril)era to the Journal, with nioney-nrder 
III pay for eame. J. M. I'lLc'uER. 

Spencerllv lii-sixf^-^ rnrt.rf^t:, 
MlJ\\ ^^ 
Incloeed find list uf (.uIimi-iI.i-i - i..i ili, 
N.\L, numbering fit^y-eif^iii, wiiii iliaii ■ 
York to pay forsamt;. 1 bIjuII, uu lioul 

in, 1882, 

Pierce's Union Bu8INi:9S College, 

Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 17, lH8-i. 
Incloacd I send vou aeven dollars and thu 
numea of seven euDBcribers to the .loUKNAL, 
with beat winhes. H. W. (YlCKlNGl^K. 

Schi;hrer'8 BrstXEss College. 

CVLVESTOX, TKX.. Jan. 19, 1882. 
I Bend you a club of thirty numes for lbs 
JOURKAI., with the money. 

BvrrAJjn BrsixEss Coujcgk, 

BuvFAho. N. Y., Jan. 19. '82. 

Yon will find incIoBH, monsy-ordep to pay 

for wixly-onf- nubBcriplionB to the JocbsaL. 

We priue the paper vt-ry highly. »nd I expwt 

Mitchell. Lnd., Jui. W, lees. 
Inc1oM>d finil iulmtantisl »Tid»DC« of my 
hiph appreciation «f the .IoubSaI., in a roonty- 
order lo pay the subBcriprion for the exx. pwr- 
m,m namfd fiL-rein. A. W. DUDLKY. 

HfXiiAs'8 Business College, 
Worcester. Mass., Jan. 2, 1882. 
IncUiacd find the names of oix fliibocrib^rM to 
l\f JuVllSAI^ A. H. HIN.MAN. 

Jan. 21, 1882. 
IiidoBed I iend you six uanaes, with money- 
H. W. Hebron. 

order for the JOURNAL o 


Hartford, Conn., Jan. 10, 1882. 
Inc'Iofwd I Rcnd check to pay for the JouB- 

NAI,. tol)«» ' ■ 


KocKFORD, III., Commercial College, 
Jan. 31, 1882. 
I inko pl<>ajinrc in nending (lie enclosed list of 
foiirtven ttiibscribere to your miicli prized JOUR- 
NAL. May it continne to be what it is — the 
bmt publication of its kind extant. 

H. A. Stodard. 
Foi.som'8 BuaiNKss College, 
Albany. N. Y. 
Iiii-h»ii-d find check to pay for the acconi- 
piinyinK liet of nixty-threc BtibBcriberB 


I & Carhaut. 

I-'^. Worth, Tex., Business College, 
Jan. 28, 1882. 
I inclose money-order to pay for twenty-five 
luhscrihers to the Journal — all students of 
Mir college. This list v/hb made up 

I expect to send another list 


Fall Rn-ER. Mass.. .Jan. 18, '82. 
I Rend enclosed names and in»ney order for 
e» more subscribers for your excellent paper. 
More soon. V. A. Holmf.8. 

N. W. Ohio Normal School, 

Ada. Ohio. .Jan. IH, 1882. 
Inclosed find draft to pay for thirty sub- 

M-iNSFIELD. Tfjc., Jan. .1. 1882. 
Tind inclosed (1 for the Journal. It is 
houoehold uecessity and should be in every 

I thee 

Gem Citv Busi.\f-s8 College, 

QuiNcr, III.. Jan. 7. 1882. 

I have the JOURNAL for three years bound 

and lying in my penmanship department for 

examination by the studente and use of the 

teachers. ' D. L. MussF-LMaN. 

From Prof. Musselman's college there came 
last month a club of one hundred Bubscribers.'Pf«\ A«t Hall. 
Delawaiik. O., Jan. 31. 1682. 
Inclosed find money-order and twenty-five 
namee, subscribers to the JOURNAL. 


Lowell. Mass., Jan. 14, 1882. 
Inclosed I send names of sixteen subscribers 
lo the JODRNAL. with money-order. 1 expect 
to send another club in February. 

L. E. KiMUALL, Card Writer. 
North Liukrty, I.nd., Jan. 23, 1882. 
The JOUKNAI, for January has been received, 
read and re-read. It is alone worth the price 
of the eubecrtptioii. D. H. Snoke. 

Spring Ahuor, Jan. 27, 1889. 
Evry number of your JouRNAI. is worth 
ite^veight in gold. Kev. R. Bridgman. 

Charlkstown, Mass., Jan. 21, 1882. 
I renew my subscriptiou lo your Journal 
%vith pleasuiv. I should be sorry to be without 
the reading of it. 

Albert S. .Southworth. 

BA^I^.Is CoM.MERciAL College, 
DrBrquE. Iowa, Jan. 18. 1882. 
UmeA find my order and the names of 

British North Am BusinessColieoe 
Toronto, Canada Jau 24 1882 
Inclosed find $15.00 lo pay for the fiflee e 

South Bend, Ind., Jan. 20. 1882. 
For the incloBed 81.75 send the Journal to 
F. P. Pruitt. I ^^^ *'"' "*™*"' inrlosed. 1 would not do with- 
* " it for $10. I would never have thought 

t could do BO much for 

ook a lesson in penmanship lu my life. 

J. Howard Kerler. 
Mr Keeler v es a ha 1 that vould do 
onor to Bon e of our profess o als 


Pa Jan 2i 1882 
renew my subscnp 

K. M. Leon A 

Sac Citv. Iowa, Jan. 17. 1H82. 

Inclosed find $1.00 to renew my subs-ri] 

tion. The JOURNAL is a bad paper 

for. When you get started you can t ntop. ii is 

BO interesting. A. W, Hniiiis. 

SUcomb, Ij.l., Jan. 2. 1882. 
I am intruduotiigthe Journal to the teachers 
of (his place. Inclosed you will find the names 
of four with money-onler. 

Ma-xwell Kenxki>y. 

Harrisburo. Pa., Jan. 12. 1882. 
Inclosed you will find $1.00 for which mail 
the JoURNAX. One year. Any one who 

valuable a paper. 

C. E. Garne 

United States Treasury, 
Washington, D. C, Jan., 2. 1882. 
Inclosed is $1.00 to renew my subscription 
to your valuable and unrivaled penman's 
paper. J. W. Swank. 

KeWanee, III, Jan. 13, 1882. 

Within find $1.00. for which eend the Pkn- 
man's Art Journal. I have made very 
great improvement u»der its teachings. 

C. W. Pay.vr. 
Media, Pa., January 4, 1882, 

Inclosed please find one dollar to renew my 
subscription. I congratulate you on the bril- 
liant success you are accomplishing. You de- 
serve a heavy subscription for so admirable a 
paper. W. P. HAMMOND. 

Mr Ildiiiiiii'iid will be remembered by many 
(,f ooi ,,1.1. r i-ii. iH jiH one of the amlinm of 
tbcwll kii..*vii r..ri.-['and Hammond system 

Pleasant Hall, Pa., Jan. 31, 1882. 
I eend you a club of fifteen names out of 
my present class. Ii will be a welcome visitor 
in every family represented in the clasB. I 
will be able to send you another club soon. 

W. D. Speck. 

Springfield Mas'* Jan 19 1882 
Inclosed find one lolla o rene v y sub 
flcrpton to le Journal I p ize er 
h gf ly It e a g eat 1 elp o me mv teacl' 
ng AnvaE Hih. 

Miss H II s nu accompl si ed wr ler a d 
the spec a eacher of w t ug n the p b 
o f =!| ngfi I 

Lowell. Mass., Jan. 7, 1882. 
Inclosed find one dollar to renew my sub 
scriptton to the Art Journ'al. t prize it 
highly and preserve them all. .1. C. COHi'RN. 

The Penman's J. r< Journal ftir Deccmb- r 
is H roiimrkable uuinbcr, consisting of six- 
teen pages of matter iDteresttng to hII lovers 
of the pen-art. Its notHble features «ro 
some finely executed photo-engraved ci>i»ie8 
I of poii-Mork. A specimen of a dipl'tniu f(tr 
the Napa Collegiate Institute, a Garlield 
memorial, the Lord's Prayer, the Bounding 
Stag, and other equally fiuo flourished and 
I engrossed pieces aj pear. The Journal is 
I one of the finest class papers published, and 
I one need not be a professional pentnau to 
I appreciate its merits. It is supplied at ih(» 
noininal sum of $1 per yoar. Published at 
205 Broiulway, New York. Subscriptions 
j may be left at this office. — The Library 
' Journal, Alameda, Cal. 

Prizes for Penmanship. 
Chicago, III., Jan. 1.% 1882. 

Kditor Penman's Art Journal:— As 
a means of fencouragoment to penmen and 
pen-artists of the coimtiy, to perfect them- 
•selvps in a knowledge of pen-drawing and 
nourishing, with a view to reproduction 
through the process of photo -engraving, I 
make this proposition : 

For the most artistic spooimen of pen- 
drawing and fiouiishing, to be owned by 
myself afterward, executed on a sheet such 
as to piiotograph clearly down to a sizR of 
■'Hill's Manual" page, six by nine inches, 
I will give three hundred dollars ; for second 
best, I will give two hundred dollars; and for 
the third best, I will give the owner one 
hundred dollars. For the nest ten best, I will 
pay a fair price, such as may be agreed upon 
between the owners and a coimnittee ap- 
pointed to negotiate for their purchase. 

These premium -specimens, together with 
the thers 1 oh ay be selected, I will 
ha e reprod ed each n the highest style of 
tl e art v th the na e of the artist attached, 
fully n tl e b 1 ef that the work when com- 
pleted V 11 do bono to the artistic genius 
et St g a u g tl e p n nen of our country. 

1 "' 

rA« or,j,„a( /„„ „AjfA rtr a4o„ », „a. jUu^^nd ,™, ^ud ij, J. C. ililUr, fc^n at A!U«', Bu. 

Cdlltyt. MainltM, Va 


Duplicate ^1.50. 

The subjects selected fur tbU exhibition 
c-f ilie pen ftrtists may consist of portraits 
of Washington, surrouuded by a suitable 
wuidiny;, Abraham Lincoln, U. S. Grant, or 
James A. Garfield. The Declaration of 
Independence, the Emancipation Procla- 
iiuition, the Lord's Prayer, Family Record, 
"F a set of coniplinientary resolutions. 

Or they may consist of the Capitol build- 
iiie: at Washington, sun-ouuded by suitable 
uxinliufj;, sotne national monument, some 
well-known edifice, or some great parlt, ac- 
r.iinpanied by description. 

Or it may represent a beautiful home with 
Kci-uosin home life, and suitable inscriptions. 

Or it may include a beautiful in sentiment 
Iinotry, samples of which will be furnished 
till' Journal as* copies in the next number. 

These specimens to be ready for examina- 
tiun at the oflSco of the Penman's Art 
•lutiRNAL, or some hall chosen for the 
jHirpose, on October 1st of this year. The 
si>Leimens may be examined, and the pre- 
iniiiins awarded by a committee of five 
superior penmen chosen by the exhibitors. 

lu furtherance of this object, I desire, Mr. 
IMitor, if this proposition secures your aji- 
piuval, to have you lend such suggestions 
Ik tlie penmen of the country as will secure 
their co-operation and competition fur these 
I'lizes, as in so doing they will become 
1 niversant with the means by which copy is 
i>,Mt prepared for photo-engraving and thus 
tlicy may establish themselves in pennanent 
trnployment. Thos. E. Hill. 

A, H. n., Halifax, N. S.- Will pcn- 
uoiU. executed with David's or Arnold's 
.liipan ink, answer for photo-engraving f 
Ans. — No. Nothing but jet-black India 
iiiU will do for execuliug worit to be repro- 
litiocd either by photo-lithography or photo- 
^- 11 graving. 

J. A. W., Mobile, Ala.— We give 
u" instruction in writing, except through 
llie .louRNAL, u< r do we, under any circum- 
stances, send specimens of our peumanship. 
Should we uudertake to do so to all appli- 
■ Muts, we should be obliged to "suspend 
l>u.-iiiiess, and discontinue the publication of 
The Journal, for want of time. 

J. E. H,, New Haven, Conn.— Can ladies 
•-'V'?r attain to as great skill and freedom, in 
iu the use of the forearm movement, aa 
t'.iiilemen t .4m.— We know of no reason 

why they may not, 
and we think tlie 
why they do 
not so frequently do 
so, is that they do 
not so often engage 
iu occupations that 
demand long-con- 
tinued and rapid 
writing, wherein the 
muscular movement 
i-i so very essential. 

A. J. A., Seattle, W. T.— Please answer 
the following in your Correspondence col- 
umn : Ist, Which is the best tor nourish- 
ing; — Japan or India ink f Atis. — Japan, 
if it is not to bo reproduced by a photo- 
graphic process. 2d., Are there any other 
penman's papers published in the United 
States, besides yours and Gaskell's ? Ans. — 
No. 3d., What is the best pen forllourish- 
ingf Ans. — Spencerian, No. 1, and Ames's 
Penman's Favorite. 

D. H. S., West Liberty, Ind.— What is 
the proper distance between the ruled lines 
on paper, and how is this which I usef 
Ans. — Your paper 's rather wide ruled; 
about three-eighths of an inch between the 
ruled Hues of paper is best adapted for most 
practical purposes. Wide-ruled paper, like 
yours, is used for writing sermons and lec- 
tures, as it admits of large, bold writing 
wliich may be read at a distance, and also 
of interlineations where corrections or 
changes are necessary in the original com- 
position. There should be no change of the 
position of person, or paper, in executing 
capital stems or ovals. 

'iaUed for ^l.oO. 

TIte above cats are •plioto-engraved from our 
oum pen-and-inkcopy, and are given at epecimens 
of ptn-work practically applied to commercial 

In this connection 
I would also say to 
professionals and 
others interested, let 
us have a penmen's 

Yours, very truly, 
C. E. Cady. 

New York, Jan. 2d, 
Editors of the Journal; — Ci 
tell how many professioual penmen tlie 

In reply to Bro- 
ther Cady's question 
we can only approximate the number of 
penmen; but, accordmg to the best of our 
information, there are engaged as profes- 
sional teachers, authors and pen-artists iu 
the United States, between five and six hun- 
dred persons — certainly enough to make a 
lively convention. 

instead of a 

Methods of Teaching Penmanship 


Many excellent teachers entertain widely 
different, views in regard to the proper 
method of teaching writing. Some adhere 
very closely to the analytical method, and 
strongly insist on the necessity of the rigid 
analysis of letters in order to " reveal their 
constituent parts." With glass and dividers 
in hand, they proceed to the minute exam- 
ination of the various parts of letters, and, 
we fear, too often over-estimate the impor- 
tance of forming letters that will "analyze," 
and, by their instructions, make their pupils 
captious critics rather than easy legible 

Others equally positive in their views — 
and this class is rapidly increasing at the 
present time— deny the value of analysis in 
teaching penmanship, and assert that the 
synthetical method is the only true method. 
They claim that the human eye can as clear- 
in tlie United States? By professional pen- ; ly perceive the formation and characteristics 
men I mean those who have been teaching | of a letter when presented as a single form, 
two or three years, or who have established ; as when the letter is broken up into its re- 
a reputation as teachers. The publicatiou spective parts. This specious argument has 
of any facts relative to so prominent a branch I caused many to turn away from the misused, 
of education as penmanship lias a tendency I and in some cases overworked, analytical 
t^» give unity and strength to the profes- j meth*td, and led them to declare in favor 
to dignify the teacher's calling, and in- of the synthetical as more productive of good 

directly to benefit pupils. 

I am led to ask yon this question from the ; 
St you have taken in the subject, 

well as that from your/ position as editor and ' sary 

results. This we cannot admit, for as 
as pupils are scrawlers before they are 
graphists, as long as scientists find it i 

publisher, yon know something about i 

I long I 

I analyze and classify, iu short, t 
I a part is less or simpler than 

whole, we firmly believe that a proper u 
of the analytical and synthetical methods, 
supplemented by the intelligent work of an 
earnest teacher, will be productive of the 
best results. An astute philosopher has 
well said that analysis and synthesis, though 
commonly treated as two methods, are, if 
properly understood, only the necessary 
parts of the same method. Each is the re- 
lative and correlative of the other. 

Before deciding what particular method 
of teaching it is best to employ, in a given 
case it will first be necessary to inquire, 
What is the object in view t 

If the pupil is to become an adept in pen 
art, a teacher of penmanship, careful in- 
struction in the analysis of letters will be of 
vital importance to him, for unless he is 
thorouglily familiar with the elements and 
laws of his art, he can never attain to high 
rank in his profession. When analysis in 
writing is properly employed, there can be 
no legitimate objection to its use ; but when 
hobby" and becomes an end 
^ans to an end, then it be- 
U a rule, the more at- 
tention the penman devotes to analysis, the 
slower he will write ; and ibis we heUeve is 
one of the prime reasons for the outcry 
against the analytical method. However, 
the charge is not wholly valid. Legibility 
is, we believe, always placed first in the list 
of chirographic virtues. No writer who 
gives careful heed to " the principles " ever 
writes illegibly. This is an important point 
which the reformers will do well to heed. 

If the pupil desires to learn to write a 
plain, rapid business hand, without special 
reference to its conformity to conventional 
standards, then we do not deem analysis of 
paramount importance, tliough if might still 
be profitably employed. For private learners 
and for home practice, perhaps the synthe- 
tical method is the best; for practical school 
work it should always be used in connection 
with its opposite. 

It is true that the synthetical method, 
which is not critically scientific, tends to de- 
velop individuality of style, but it will never 
produce an ideal standard, for it encourages 
the violation of fundamental rules, and, 
pushed to its logical scquenc^e, it would 
prove that the lawless verse of the eccentric 
Whituiau and the strikingly original paint- 
ings of Tintoretto, which violate all known 
laws of art, are respectively the finest speci- 
mens of poetry and painting extant. Ex- 
tremes are seldom or never right. Find the 
golden mean and adhere to it. — Teacher's 
Guide. ^_ 

The Standard Practical Penmanship is 
not yet ready, but iB promised by the pub- 
Ushers soon. 


-^ -V' ^^^TJ^AU'j^tfSljVfe^^ 




Writing, Copying, Marking, Indelible, Stamping, Japan, 

Stylographic, Sympathetic, Gold, Silver. White 

and Transfer 


ALLING'S JAPAN INK afford* n finer 1ln>. n blncl..-. 
hue. a. richer lustre, aud greoler continuity tliiui iDclini 

Tbo moat nipld iind elabomto flouijihM run Ih> Pif 
jutwl therewirti. witlioiit breaWpe ih« perfect ll-.w of ii>k 
[t IS nnnriillp.l OroBineotal I'ennmiiiliiii. CnrrUi. Mu 
lie, Cunrnul undDUplav Writing. 

freely, n'u.l.-nii(f the Uirlitcsl Btrtiken rtrfwHy I'ffiW. 

t Uluok. Ttiese 

it wfitet black, flows 

77(6 above euta are photo-enffraved from our own pen-and-ink ropy by the Moss Evgravmrj Co., 5S5 Pearl Street, and are given at 
gpedmem of ptn-draving and Uttering photo-engraved, and also at tpecimens of the ncxo College Currennj, which we are now prepared 
to fumith by return of mail or expreta at very reatonalile ratei. CIIiCVLAR, giving full information, with specimens of both large 
and tmall cnrrf-nnj. trnt on reqottt. 

Dupliratet of cithrr of tit nhove cuts, aUo of the denomiTiationt of Ttoo'e and Ten'x, triU he acnt for pf.GO. They will he found an 
attractive iUuffmlion for catalogues and r^irculara o/ institutions teaching actual husxnesa. 

1, per grow (packed In J-gro. wood 

PeiunanH Ink Cabinot, No. S. 

PliR-E, Srt.OO. 


By S. S. PACKARD. I'iiksidest of Packahd's Business Colixgr, and 


And BYRON HORTON. A. M., PniNcirAL of Matitematical Department or 
Packard's Business College. 

lis ad<n)nco-iheet« of tbia projeolad work, t 
of 300 po^M. havo been neatly bound and . 
u))ectiun and luo. In &c(. at thoy aland. I 
I a treallie wliioli, in man/ respects, la In ai 
1 complole worhs on tbe aubjoot. This ii 

e fmdy , colleges uf the country. , . . 
'*' *'*"' ariiok (O.) busikkbs Coll; 

d hewiiue Ihey lire ptuduoed in adtanet \ 
work, which will oonlain 300 pages of I 
latorial, auch as elpOT^hondod teoohers 
!« tlioraugb arithmeticians uid ooconnt- 
D rpac^ throwa away Id long-winded ex- | 

d lypogTupliy are ir 

1; and neither are tl 


K NoiuiAi. School, 

IP pulillpatlon office. This, of couree. does 
>«T. but it afrords the publisher an oppor- 

g oxtmoi*. from a few of the many letters 


ElJLllltA, Jan. 17. 1882. J 
oil may send mn oii» doz. copies of tbe 
I of ycmr new urithmetlo. 1 am pleased 
by expms immediately. 

A.J. WAttXBit, Principal. 


DAHAtMacoTTA, Mx., Jan. IB, 1889. j 

iniid, I like 11. Uui I get eaoiigh copies 
MS niouvet I have a class Just flnisbtng 

CUAa. A. BUIOK, Priooipal. 

y puaaes thorough exaii 

I will bo, , why would it 

lies; and I edlllona. one 

peitwlU I "heet8.andlb 

ine. does I BuYAKT a 


. . I have i: 
a copy ol ilic I 

Edwin p. Catbr, Principal. 


II. E. UlIlUAlID. 



I . . . . Your Btlvatice sUeeta received lut Saiur- 

I day. I brought fhe aileiilion of the board of educatiou 

ELKIIAIIT, LxD., Jan. 17, 1882. I? "'^,^'''" S^SL"^*" *^''"'''^- "^^"Y "' ""** oniered 

Am rxcectllnaly well pl«nM,<d with M. Put roe down* for '? pMaent shape. When It is complete, eiicc«edinff 

Uif i-ouiplcle work. H. A. Mumaw. , ^'"V*? '»'" P^whase Uat yourrolail nooe, »1.50. . . .. 

OttfRswini AOAi-KUT 1 j "^'"IJf*'!"™ •« "art with. 1 also wanl^rce^prw for 

Eaht O.Li 1 N,N 1. II, R I,. j;.„. XA. 1883. J hiSSaohorff ""* '''*^" *""* ""'-VV; P^Cr-AWOTX^ *"' "" 

Commereiiil Anii.M ' i I'ww"'^"'™ Principal Tompkins School. 

bnntly gbidtliiK ; . i. uf that Wnd 

Literary and Commercial. 

Ag*-n(l«-.nan of experience here 
b.v solicits t'orrespondence witli 
'iioine first-cld«6 Institution. Busi. 
news Oolleae preferred. le a grad^ 
iiate of both a Literar.v and Com 
Ti^^roial College. Has been aprac- j Offlce of Jamko Tick, 

samples. o os a can reque 

ral Book-Ueeper and Accountant, 
«d for manv vears a Teach. Branches, inclu 

Address. ABC, 
a 31 Care of D. T. Ame 


Rochester, K.Y., Jun. i 


executed in tbe higliest onler of 
ipt ol 25 cents. C. H. PEIRCE. 

■tn cAi 


I violet, purple, yellow, bnjwn, gold." siK^-Vf' 
WELLS SWIFT. Mario'oville. Ouonilaga Co.',° 


BUSINESS "colleges. 

The fact is apparent that the Commercial Colleges 
and Impmctical Ideas of n few yeara puat; and It in oooi 
style of writing heretofore tuiight is not acceptable to tlio i 

In response to this demand, and for the puriiu«c of bringing about beller n^iilii 
anged and bod engraved a series of copies, based on ihc requirements of buslnwa as a 

We 1 

nd literary men 
laoged the seal 

t. and capital letlera twirled and twlst«d. and shaded, unt 
Til«n plain, praellcal luind, wlUioutspendlngulilu-timeln H 
lirod of so muoli flourish. We have tried to omit from oui 

so unlrenally made, t 

No claim ia mai 

iutrimdea and beautlc 

o destmctlv 

luls and looped letters are shorier in proportion t»» tho cootraotud 
Bg to do Bwoy with the large, uugaioly capitals and long loops, 
at iKidy- writing. 

ia the simplest that oan be mode, 
and coiuprex that are published, nor tli 
m who deaire to advance slill fiirther 

ineortw. ■i ■ ■ ^. .,- ,. I appeared, 

,A imd musi say ilwt If j-on ooutinue and wm. ' 
I you huTB begun, j-ou will produe* a work that i 
1 unly rrllKt grmt onedlt on the authors, bot a I 
I 3B>o«nto In poategv stiunps. Addrei 

Daviwpoht, Iowa, Bui 
COLLXctB. Jan. 18. Itj 

d by the avenge makers of i 

D. R. LiLLmaiDGB, I 

vruh it underslond that our copies were made for tbe avtragt tludmt~-aol for professional peni 
I ihey are plnSner, simpler, beller graded, morn praclloal, and in every way helteradaptcd ford 

' your interest to purchase these 
im you at your oonvenieDoe, we 


Yourt very truly, 


79 Madison. Street, Chioaeo, 111, 



Commercial Law in t his coun try. 

';U''sih„lr';7ih^."''c"S,'„";rt"' ! Arranged for use in Business Colleges, High Schools, 

and Academies. 


Is Biuliieu College 

!>ftp Univorelly 
BowColl*ST ■ 


(TnioD Biuine 

. . Pittahurgh, Pft. 
e of tile leading 


> any address 
All orders 

«h..uld be addreaeed to the author, 


Prinoipal ol the Albtiny BiubeM Colli^gp, 
<>-t.f. Alranv, N. Y. 

•"i^srisk SAWYER "-^;» 

Universal Penman. 


Instfucl In Rapid Penmanship, Legible Shorthand, and 
LlKXAitv Dii.vwiKO. OivM ourrei 

Coaductedby Damki. SAWyxit, 

r tlie acquisition of n mmnd 
11(1 Indfletiy. The stiiacntu" 
il the mind has been cuiefnily 

e nidiments ot tlie 
ntary to be within t 
.dciit for any depav 

^nce to the n.oat Intri 

npHcIlyof beglnnei'sin 

nt of nccounlantalilp. 

, no irrelevant dlscHs. 

ight and valnc. and only such, 

any other almtlur treatise. 

( iRstied In two odltlons. p;1nted 

This work embodies the late^^t mid most nppi 
Helng tiikcn fi-om the nctual books of bu!>liif¥H l-< 
ly i>ilict!cal, and commends Itgdf «t once nliko i< 

The Metuod of ixiOHcntJiiR the various subji" 
*nou'i<*W(?/ of Book-keeping easy for the student 
I'oui-se Is a gnidunl but certuln advance, no sulijei 
niid thoroughly pi-eparcd for the mastery of its di 

THE SCOPE of the work Is wide, extending fr< 
ciitoiind complicated records. It la auffiiiently c 
the study, and sufflcleiitly extended to prepare ll 

The MATFEli. The student will llndin this it 
!iions ; and tenohei-s will find that cvei? page 
The work to bo done by the student l*' perhaps doiible that it 

In order to acooinmodate 8cho< l^ of different gi-ade^. the 
In coloi-9, on line heavy paper, and lioiiud in best of cloth. 

The Counting House Edition 

"'" Hge, of which M pages arc devoted to Piellminniy l-.xercises and Retail IIu 
pagesto Wholesale Merchandising: 12 pages to Farm Accounts; 20 pages to Lumber 
pages to Manufacturing; ISpngesloSSeiimboating; 13 pages to Riiili-oadhig; 30 jiages to Commission 
55 pages to Boiiklng; the remaining part of the work to miscellaneous subjects. 

Retail price ^3.50 Order of Two Dozen, or more $2.10 

Introduction price 2 10 Sample Book, forcxamination, byexpiess 1.00 

Per dozen (thereafter), percopy 2,31 Sample Book, for examination, by mail... 1.25 

A complete set of Dlank Books, ruled and indexed expressly for this work, will he furnished at 
^2.75 por set net, retail, »4.50, 

The High School Edition 

cont4ilna 16* pages devoted to the rudiments of th 
This edition is precisely what Is requirc/1 in High 
tended course Is not attempted, but where a dea 
founts Is the aim. 

Kotall price tl.M Perftozen (thereafter), percopy $i 

Introduction price 00 Ordei-sofTwo Doz«n. or more 

Sample Book, 

Dlank Books, complete for this edition. $1.75 i 

tO" Orders will receive prompt attention. 




A.iapt^l for 118P will, or wiihoiit T-xt-Hook, 
aud the unly set .vcwmiueudt.d u, 

aec.mpunv ) 


Bryant & Stratton 



V^^I'^:}1 .'.!!'!!"""'*' I »e«^"p'i«Tllt no^^^ 


t'hools, Academies 
understanding of 

Wholesale Merohandlsing. 
les, where an ex 
methods of Ac- 


nliDg i 



linponen aod PuWiJihert, 

Bryant's New Series. 

i.MiTH Edition. Copyrighted, 1881, 
By J. C. BRYANT, M.D., 



vo/y gnde of fchuol, 


cHMt. horoe •poolinens aud ci 
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■. KIBBE, Utica, N. ' 



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and While, 2.00 per thousand. 
Postage on one thouiand cards, 25 cents. 
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Keference : D. T. Ames, and all the leading 

keeping and 




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:— Chcflpfor Cash- 
1. Bi„i,.«, Coll»g 
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fcSto S 


n ?4i," ra 


e Pein «.! 



fonl, N. Y. 



n flourished 





»; "Voiir 

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ouriBhfMl Bird, and bIx 
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elMwbBre. Coll«w» I '""""" 
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Manual of Business Practice, 

in BiisineJ Edilwf.w, and 'iai\!^ l(oiUb«il^vu^» UMy 
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July, i88i. JUST PUBLISHED. July, 1881. 




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■m usdenlfiiail, and by bira pvraonally ooDtlucted for a ]«riod of OVER A SIXTH OF A CENTURV. 


UUNDI^ of the prominent »i»b^^ColleffW lind VnvMt^bZi^ia !hu Unill^StaJM a^ Ca^L». " °'"' 


Hujiul licnn oomplot«d, nrid comprisM 168 pagM. bcginnlni 
VM, pfBOUoAl nod •denllfla. Manj- lnt«restinff ttnd novel tea 


Fn>m_H. E. Hibbard. Ti incipal Bryaiil & Slrnttoii School. Boston, Mass.: 

From Charlee Clagliom, Principal Bryant & Stratloii School. Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

•^ I know of no Aritliroetio so well suited (o the peculiar work of Business College. It» use lu my school ha* 

Prom S. S. Packard, President Packard's BiisinwsB College, New York : 

l«adit)g commeroul topioa." ^^ °° 

FromO. F.Williama, Prof. Law and MathetnalicB, Roclipster Bueiiiees Un'tfily, Rocheeter, N. Y.: 




m Serfes oiF 

phiilogrnph ( 


Prom Prufea 

A NEWWORK, iin.i »„r,hy..i „ii ii,,,i 
From H. C. Spencer, rresidt-nl Sp 

I l>, I'MM.ipal Allen '8 Grove High School. Wiaconsin ; 
'a^.\"a \' n"'"'* '" "■*'""'■ ■* *■"'! e^Plfi'""'""! "■ ffiven of buBiuess tonus, and uniler 
V. "■I"'" l'>"« needed, m no one look upon it iis simply a NEW BOOK. IT IS 

8 College, Washington, I). C.: 

Promts. Bo^nrdiis. President Springfield BuaineBS College, Springfield, 111.: 

polDtML 1 lull glad to give your \im\ iny h««riy approval." ' ip ana on an ea arw o ear. concise Lnd 

From 0. A. Gaekell. Prinripal JeT-sey City Businesa College. Jeraey City, N J • 

Prom_A. B. Clark, Principal Bryant & Strattoti Busineas College. Newark, N. J.: 


On receipt of the prices annexed, we will for- 
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By orderSngr frcrm us, patrona can re 
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C. N. CRANDLE, ValparBiac. 


INSTITUTE, Keokuk, Iowa. 

..Ml'ihM Id 1871. Life Membereblp. 905. 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 

No. XIX. 

ving iucluded 

D our copies all the 

. capital and s 

iiiall. we will in this 

cuusider an 

important feature in 

u cmnposition, 

VIZ. : 

Without a correct iinderataudiug of its 
tiM-s a wntcr's meaning is often ubsciircd, if 
not wholly perverted. " Punctuation is the 
art of dividing written language hy points, 
iu Older thiit the relations of words and 
clinises nmy bi- plainly seen, and their 
incauiug he readily understood." Aucii-ut 
writing was without marks or divisions. 
Thu modern system of punctuation has 
been in use only about 300 years ; it was 
fMiuierly regarded and taught merely as an 
aiii to reading, and pupils were instructed 

j.'inictdou, tlirce at a colon, &c. ; "but," 
-,iy> (Juackeubos, '"punctuation should be 
i.i,Mrded as being entirely independent of 
(l-.r-ition. Primarily it is to bring out the 
wriu-r's meaning, and so far only ia it an 
aid 111 thi- reader." 

The Comma 
uiail^s the smallest grammatical division, 
aiiii commonly represents the shortest pause 
u lull reading, aud is used to separate words, 
}>lirascs, clauses, and short members, closely 
tuuuected with the rest of a sentence, and 
to mark parenthetical words and clauses, as 

wit, kn 

The Semicolon 
s used to separate such parts of a seutence 
as are less closely connected than those 
separated by a comma, as, " Her simple 
ilress could not disguise her grace ; a sun- 
ilown half concealed her purple- black hair, 
iiud shaded the pure opal of her face, gleam- 
ing with the white radiance of a star at 
twilight." "Some men are born great; 
some acquire greatness ; others have great- 
iies? thrust upon them." 

The Colon 
is used where a sentence consists of two or 
more parts which although complete as to 
sense are not entirely independent, as "Thfe 
value of a maxim depends upon four things : 
the correctness of the principles it embodies; 
the subject to which it relates ; the extent o*" 
its application ; and the ease with which it 
may be carried out." 

A Period 
is placed at the end of every complete sen- 
tence, before decimals, between dollars and 
cents, after abbreviations, aud initial letters, 
as " Honesty is the best policy." Dr. Geo. 
P. Johnson, F.K.S- 

The Note of Exclamation 
denotes surprise, astonishment, rapture, or 
other sudden emotions of the mind, as, Ah ! 
alas ! oh ! hold ! What cold-blooded cruelty 
did Nero manifest! How extebsive is the 
laudscape ! how varied ! how beautiful ! how 

The Note of Interrogation 
is used to denote that a ijuestion is asked, 
as, " How shall a man obtain the kingdom 
of Godt by impietyt by murder? by false- 
hood i by theft t Wlisn will you go f 
The Bracket and the I'akbnthesis 
are used to inclose interpolated words or 
sentences which serve to strengthen the 
argument though the main sentence would 
read correctly were the inclosed matter 
taken away. Parentheses are now less 
used than formerly, commas taking their 
place. Example : 

" The poets (tender hearted swains) have 
portrayed love as no prose writer has ever 
been able to paint >t." I have met (and 
who has not f ) with many disappointnreuts. 

The DA.SH 
is used to denote an abrupt change of sub- 
ject, and to show the omission of words, 
letters, or figures, as, "In the year J8 — , 
the village o\ was thrown into excite- 
ment by the arrival of E from Loudon." 

" I would — but ah ! I fear it is impossible." 
The pulse tluttered^stojipcd — went on — 
anil stopped again — moved — stopped." 

The Hyphen 
is used to connect compound words, and at 
the end of a line when a word is divided, 
as, " hand-writing, f«mr-fold, go-aa-you- 


( ],[ l.orf • • 'LareMedto 

show tliat letters are omitted from a word, 
words from a seutence, sentences from a 

paragrajdi, or entire paragraphs or chapters 

from a work, as, " The k g (k . . g) 

or (k • ' g) promenades the city at night 
in disguise. 

The Brace 
is used to connect several terms or expres- 
sions with one to which all have a common 
relation, as, James Jones, ^ 

Henry White, \ Committee. 

Charies True, ) 

Tub Apostrophe 
is used to denote the omission of a letter or 
letters, and the possessive case, as, 'tis, VU, 
o''er, tho'. Ideas' treasures ; — king's daugh- 
ters. " Dot your i's, cross your t's, make 
your c's better, and insert two -t-'s." 

The Caret 
is used to denote omission, and to show 
where matter iuterlined is to be insertetl, 

handmaid of 
as, " Temperance is the virtue," 

" Comunioa.te." 

(Quotation Marks 

are used to denote words or composition 
taken from another author, as: 
" Three things bear mighty sway with men, 
The sword, the sceptre, and the pen." 




are used to connect a word or word: 
text with notes ot explanation at the 
or bottom of the page on which they 
they are given below in the order in 
they are used : 

]. The Asterisk. * 

-2. The Obelisk, or Dagger, f 

3. The Double Dagger. % 

4. The Section. ^ 
.-.. The Parallel. || 
U. The Paragraph. H 

Words or lines which the writer desires to 
emphasize or have displayed in print, are 
designated by drawing lines underneath 
them, thus one line indicates italics, two 
lines small capitals, three lines largo 

Tho words : 

"To anns! to arms ! ! to arms ! ! ! they 

cry," undei'scored would appear in print, 

Thus : 

" 'lo urm.-i .' TO arms ! ! TO AHMS ! ! ! 
they cry." 

Other marks are used to denote the 
proper pronunciation, &c., which will bo 
considered at another time. 

We here present as a copy for practice 
the more common of the punctuation points, 
together with the character &, the com- 
bination & Co., and the index, which are of 
such frequent use as to very properiy receive 
special study and practice. 


Our next and the last lesson of this com-se 
will relate to the figures. 

In the May number will begin a course 
of practical lessons by Prof. Henry C. 

Spencer, of Wa-hington, D. C. Prof 
Spencer is one of the famed Spencer 
authors, aud has no superior as a teacher of 
practical writing. The lessons will be 
liberally illustrated, and cannot fail of being 
highly interesting and instructive. The 
couree of lessons alone will be worth to all 
who are seeking the acquirement of a good 
handwriting many times the subscripiioo 
price of the Journal. 

The Importance of Good Writing. 

By Mauoe Maple. 

The subject of the importance of good 
writing is very broad. It includes within 
itself the importance of good writing in vari- 
ous spheres and under various circumstances, 
and embraces its applicability to many 
grades of individuals, many ranks of society, 
and many aspirations, ambitions and struggle* 
in the scjvle of advancement. 

From the lowest to the highest grade of 
aspirants, both individual and collective — all 
along the line of progress and upward striv- 
ing—good writing forms the passport to ad- 
vancement aud final triumph more than auy 
other known or pi-acticed science. 

From being an aid in earning one's daily 
bread, onward through the art-grades of 
elegant foruiation which indicate the pa- 
tience, perseverance and long-struggling 
etfort of the high-bom spirit in search of 
perfectness ; onward still yet till ihf science 
of form covers aud includes the grace of ex- 
pression and the life-breath of high soul- 
thoughts whicli find through it a voice. 

Froui tho simplest copyist, upward 
through all professions of any importance 
tlieinselves, the importance of good writing 
becomes easily seen. 

The teacher, journalist, doctor, lawyer, 
scientist and explorer all need a good sub- 
stantial knowledge of this art, and a good 
available skill with which to apply it easily, 
swiftly and accurately. , 

Botch-work, or bungling, is out of place 
in all positions wliich call for tho preserva- 
tion of a thouglit, in- tho record of any es- 
sential item on whatever topic, for whatever 
purpose, or in whatever sphere. 

Accuracy, reliability, and the metlmd 
suited to the circumstance is what is wanted 
iu every instance requiring the touch of a 

From a knowledge of formation, taste and 
skill develop in other directions and crystal- 
lize in good writing. This becomes an 
avenue by which the progressioulst of what- 
soever grade, may make himself heard and 
be known for what he is, and judged by hie 
true worth. In tlio sphere of tlie practical 
there is not an art ro essential, while in the 
empyrean of mind it becomes a supremacy 
which is linked with divinity. The poet'j 
songs would die nnspoken without it. The 
tints of the iinaginiiliou would never glow for 
kindred mind when oi^-ans roll between. 
Heart might si)eak to heart through the 
contact ul hearts, but not when severed by 
continents us now their truth may speak. 
Tlie thoughts of love, and will of afi'ection 
would die when wo die, and not live and 
breathe in after years as now wv may 
make them through the written page if 

BkilM iu noble writiop 
wrjtinp," f'om iho peoinan's pfiiut of view, 
appliwi mainly lo the jierfcctioii of form, 
lusto in applying our Hkill anil good judg- 
meut MS to tl)« needs of anToccnsion. lo 
thf geneml fense"goo<I writing" includes 
all this, together uilli skill in the use of 
words, lasto in their combiualion, and all 
thftt goe« to make up the grace of apt ex- 
prftnaion tus doited to vnrions occasions. It 
i" an immortal speech if shaped with ao 
immortal touch, and itt invested with au 
imp.(TlHnre which none but immortal words 
an- worthy Ut describe. All practical honors 
nrf a part of its endowmeol, aod all lofty 
itoiil-liights renter beneath its spell. 

plislnnent, and as a finishing grace. We 
base the structure of all solid advancement 
npon it, and we climb and grow through 
the help of it. We food and live upon it, 
both literally and «piri(ually. The great 
bulk of knowledge doseendu to ns through 
it, and frmn us through tlie saiiio method 
must be transmitted to others. 

The voice of the ages sounds onward ' 
through it and canuot die. Forever od- 
ward through it will reverberate the thouglits 
it treasures already, and the riches of unborn 
thoughts which shall find through it ex- 

To seek the measurement of its iinport- 
aoco is to clutch at the illimitable. Wo 
grasp at its infinitude, but it cannot be por- 
trayed. We have each our necessities, in 
connection with which we each may compass 
«tep by step. Wo grow llirough it as 
wc master it, and according to our 
mastery the progress is unceasing, the 
opportunity for growth immeasurable. 
By tlie immeasurable standards wo 
measure the importance of good 

Bad Copy and Good Printers. 
— At tlie conclusion of the harvest- 
honoeat Slaugham, Sussex (Eng.), the 
Chairman asked permission of Dean 
Hook to print "the magnificent ser- 
mon " which the divine had delivered 
■on the occasion, offering to copy it 
legibly for the printers. " Tliat will 
never do," answered the Dean- " I 
will copy it in a slovenly hand myself," 
remarking, with a twinkle of the eye, 
that if the copy were legible it would 
be given to the worst compositors, 
whereas if it were written indilferently 
it would bo put into tie best hands, 
and the work would be well done. — 
Notef> and Queries. 

eolo. Napoleon, Bismarck, Krummacher, 
Tholuck, Washington, Luther, Bacon, St. 
; Paul, in the world, and, as there cannot 
possibly be a counterpart of them, so there 
cannot bo an imiu-ition of their chirogniphy. 
Every stroke of their pen indicates the char- 
acter of such men. The bolder the type «f 
the man, the more strikingly M-ill it be 
j shown in his letters. This is so self-evident 
I that it is scarcely necessary to adduce ex- 
I amples. A few wiil suHice. 
j The Apostle Paul's handwriting was, if 
, Galatiaus vi : ii., is n description of it, cer- 
' tainly indicative of his character : " Yo see 
ID what hirge letters I have written unio 
you with mine own hand." St. Paul, evi- 
dently, here refers to the capital — uncial 
letters, in which the best and most ancient 
manuscript of the Greek Septungint and 
New Testament are written, as distinguished 
from the small or cursive letters, in which 
the slaves wrote. The writing of Paul, in 
these large, heavy, Greek capital letters, in- 
dicated the solemn and dignified manner of 
the great Apostle of the Gentiles. He 
oould not possibly have written in any other 

" I had once," said Archbishop Whately, 
"a remarkable proof that handwriting is ' 
sometimes, at least, an index to character, i 
I had a pupil at Oxford whom I liked in 
most respects greatly. There was but one 
thing about him wliich seriously dissatisfied i 
me, and that I often told him was his hand- I 
writing. It was not bad, as writing, but it 
had a mean, shuffling character in it, which i 

hreakfiist-tabl?, the lady nl 

hiid unconsciouely been examining, made 

smue observation which particularly struck 

»". as seemiog to betoken a very 

iiidtlc and truthful character. lie expressed 
his admirition of her sentiments very 
warmly, adding at the same time to the 
la«iy of the house, ' Not so ; by-thc-way, 
your friend,' and he put into her hand the 
slip of writing of ter guest which she had 
given him tiie evening before, over which 
he had written the words, ' Fascinating, 
false, and hollow^iearted." The lady of the 

house kept the secret, and Mr. never 

knew that the writing on which lie pro- 
nounced BO severe a judgment was that of 
the friend he so greatly admired ! *' 

*' Individual writing." says La\ater, "is 
inimitable. The more I compare the dif- 
ferent baDdwrllings which fall in my way, 
the more I am confirmed in the idea that 
they are so many expressions, so many 
emanations of character of the writer. 
Every country, nvery nation, every city has 
its peculiar handwriting." 

There is no question about the fact that 
there have been porsous who attained the 
same ability of discovering, in a single speci- 
men of handwriting, the character, the oc- 
cupation, the habit, the temperament, the 
health, the age, the sex, the size, the na- 
tionality, the benevolence or the penurious- 
ness, the boldness or the timidity, the mo- 
rality or the immorality, the affectation or 
the hypoeriBy, and often the intention, ef the 
writer. The skill of deciphering character 



^'^StJAi'^W^ "^-"^ 

The above cut U photo-engraved from a pen-and-ink copy executed by //. W. Shaylor, Portland. Me 

Handwriting, an Index to 
Hv Key. A. B. IIohnr. 
Many people Imigh at what is called 
*' graplouiiincy," or the art of judging char- 
acters by hundwrifug, and yot all acknowl- 
edge that handwriting does indicate somo- 
thiug. Every one allows a difference be- 
tween a man's and a woman's hand. Wo 
hear people speak of a vulgar hand, a gen- 
tlemanly imnd, a clerkly hand, etc. 

Let anyone collect a number of signatures 
of Frenohmen, Englishmen, Germans and 
Americans, or, what is still better, of Jews 
of nil nations, and, at least in the latter 
iuetance, with ordinary perceptive faculties, 
there will bo no difficulty in detenniuing the 
<luestion of nationality. A person with half 
nn eye need never mistake the handwriting 
•of a Jew. Many people can detect pride 
and afffctation, and most pereons the sex, 
I handwriting, how ever much it may bo 

■" The bridegroom's letters etnud ia lows above, 
Tapering, yt-l slraigbt. like pine-rrwa in big 

grwve ; 
W'hiW free and firu. the bride* appear below, 
Ab light and slender ao her jessamines grow." 
Men with strong character, or strange 
pcculiariiies, can always be told by their 
fcandwritiog. As there is but one Henry 
Ward Boechcr,HoracoGreeley, Grant, Lin- 

always inspired me with a feeliog of sus- 
picioa. While he remained at Oxford I saw 
nothing to justify this suspicion, but a trans- 
action iu which he afterwards engaged, and 
in which I saw more of his character than I 
had done before, convinced me that the 
writing had spoken truly. But I know of 
a much more curious case, in which a cele- 
brated 'graptomancer' was able to judge of 
character more correctly by handwriting 
than he had been able to do by personal ob- 
servation. He was on a visit to a friend's 
house, where, among other guests, he met 
a lady whose conversation and manners 
greatly struck him, and for whom he con- 
ceived a strong friendship, based on the 
esteem he felt for her as a singularly truth- 
ful, pure-minded, and siugle-henrted woman. 
The lady of the house, who knew her char- 
acter to be the very reverse of what she 
seemed, was curious to know whether Mr. 

would be able to discover this by 

her handwriting. Accordingly, she pro- 
cured a slip of this lady's writing (having 
ascertained he had never seen it) acd gave 
it to him one cvcuing as the handwriting of 
a friend of hers whose character she wished 
him t« decipher. His usual hnbit, when be 
undertook to exercise this power, was to 
take a slip of a letter, cut down lengthwise 
so as not to show any sentences, to his room 
at night, and to bring it down, with his judg- 
ment in writing, the next nioniing. On this 
occasion, when iho party were seated at the 

from handwriting has been, in certain lare 
cases, cultivated to the extent that forgeries 
could be detected at a ghnce, and persons 
passing under assumed names exposed 
from the manner in which they wr'ite their 
assumed names. A skilfulanalyzerofhand- 
writing can point out where a writer is firm 
in his purpose, and his nerve.s were well- 
braced, or where his fears overcome resolu- 
tion — whore he pauses to reeoverhis courage, 
where he changes his pen, and the various 
other contingencies incident to forgery. 

Persons have attained such proficiency in 
reading character, from handwriting, that it 
is recorded of one who made this subject a 
study, that at a meeting of the directors of 
a bank, none of whom knew the gentleman, 
nor were known by him, it was arranged 
that he should meet them and exhibit his 
skill. The first experiment was this : each 
director wrote on a piece of paper the names 
of all the board. Eleven lists were handed 
him, and he specified the writer of each by 
the manner iu which he wrote his own 
name, lie then asked them to write their 
own or any other name, with as nmch d's- 
guiso as they pleased, and as many as 
pleased writing on the same paper, and in 
every instance he named the writer. 

Another experiment : The superscription 
of a letter was shown him. He began : "A 
clergyman who reads his sermons, and is a 
little short-sighted. Age til, six feet high, 
weighs 170, lean, bony, obstinate, irrita- 

ble " "Come, come," said one of 

them, "you are disclosing altogether too 
much of my father-in-law." 

A forged note which had been discounted 
by the ca>hicr was presented. He (the 
gentleman) anjilyzed the fmged signaturf 
so vividly and truthfully, pointing out one 
of the members of the board of directors as 
the executor of the note, and he (the forger) 
fell to the Hoor as if dead. What seemed 
at the time an impossibility to the other 
members of the board, namely, that one who 
had stood so hijb in their estimation, and 
whose character had been nnimpoached, 
should bo guilty of such a crime. The 
"graptomancer's "assertion was pronounced 
impossible by all, and yci. subserjuent in- 
vestigation, and the confession of thy forger, 
proved him to have been correct. 

Such are a few of the facta, corroborating 
the position, that handwriting is an index of 
character. Wheu the subject is fully inves- 
tigated, it will, undoubtedly, appear that 
writing is not a mere mechanical art, but 
that it is an outbui-st of the heart, an expo- 
nent of life and character, more reliable than 
the delineations of the countenance to the 
physiognomist.— Booi keeper and Penimiti. 

A French Detective. 

We walked out together, and in the 
course of conversation we touched upon the 
way in which some persona can so disguise 
themselves as to hide their individunlity 
from tlieir most intimate friends. 1 ex- 

^ pressed myself as being doubtful 

whether this cmild be really done, 
provided the parties to be deceived 
were on the lookout for such decep- 
tion. My companion differed from 
me, and offered to disguise himself so 
effectually that he would, in the 
course of the next 24 hours, speak 
to mo for ai least 10 minutes without 
arousing my suspicions. I accepted 
the challenge, and staked the price 
of a dejeunir at any cafe ho would 
like to name. He agreed, and the 
very same day won the bet in the 
following manner. Shortly after leav- 
ing the detective, I met an old friend, 
who usked me to dine with hiin at 
Versailles thut evening. I agreed 
to do so, but could not leave Paris as 
eariy as my friend intended to do, 
and tiiercfore told him I should go 
down by the 5: 30 train from the 
Garo St. Lazare. I did so, and as 
I got into a first-class can-iage I re- 
marked a short, gentlemanly-Jooking 
man, with white hair, who followed 
Oio into the same compartment. 
Frenchman-like, he began to talk about 
things in general, and we chatted, more or 
less, nearly all the way to Versailles. 
When within 10 minutes or so of our desti- 
nation, my new friend quietly took off his 
hat, pulled off a wig, got rid of a mustache, 
and to my utter amazement sat revealed be- 
fore me as my friend the detective ! How 
he had managed to find out that I was 
going to Versailles— which I had no idoi 
of myself wheu I left him— or how he had 
so effectually concealed bis appearance that 
I, sitting within three feet of him, had no 
idea he w,is the mau T had left some four 
hours previously, are problems which I can- 
notsolvo. Thedetoclivehimselfonly laughed 
when I asked him how he had contrived it. 
Ho was evidently gioally Mattered at the 
amazement I displayed, but beyond show- 
ing me with some pride his wig and mus- 
tache, he was very retii-eut, and would enter 
into no details. That he had fairiy won tiio 
breakfast there could be no doubt, but he 
said he would rather put off the event until 
he could sfo his way as to whether or not 
he should be able to recover a part or the 
whole of the property which my friend had 
lost. We then parted, ho taking the train 
back to Paris, I going to the house where I 
was going to dine. — Macmillan's Muijazine. 

A letter righter— the proof-reader. 

Educational Notes. 

' What sculptui 

u> » block of mnrble, 
■■<iiiratioD IB Ui H human *niil." — Addifon. 
Ainherat College i« talking of a $.i(),(KH) 

A New museum is lo be built the 
Cuivoreity of Michigaa, at a cost r.f 

( 'ambridge, England, Univereity has the 
;'ri,'(-9t freshman class it has over known. 
1 1 numbers 833.— ZAe Occident. 

Edinburgh University has 3,237 students, 
ilii! School of Medicine taking the largest 
|ir.i|iiirtion— 1638— 27ic Occident. 

Ko Kun Hua, professsor ol the Chinese 
luiL-uage and literature in Harvard Uni- 
v.rsity, died on the 14th ult., of ]iuei.- 

The new catalogue of Oberlin College, 
0\n», shows that 1,325 students are in at- 
II ndiiuce this year, of whom Ii41 are gentle- 
iFK-n and 684 ladies. 

'If the fifty-Bix Professors of Harvard 
I "llcgo, forty-three are graduates of Har- 
v:iiil, and nine of the fifteen assistant pro- 
fi >,i.r3 are also Harvard graduates Modern 

Fully forty millions of Webster's spelling 

' l'* liiive been olTored up on the altar of 

l.iiHwIedge in this country, and still we turn 

out some of the worst spellers iu creation 


The University of Sydney, Australia, has 
recently opened its classes and degrees to 
women. It has also recently received a gift 
of $2.»,000 to endow scholarships which may 
be held by either men or women. 

The number of students at the Vienna 
University is now 3,4.57, exclusive of 594 
unattached sludentSj or. considerably more 
than at the German Universities of Berlin 
and Leipzig. Thirty"-five are Americans. 

London now instructs at the board schools 
and at [he voluntary schools over 500,000 
impils; last year the cost per capita was 
83.18. (Is not that cheap f in New York 
It costs about Vi5 per capita.)— Sc/iooi 

An American school for the study of 
Greek literature, archaeology and art will 
be established at .\thens uext November. 
The necessary funds have been secured, and 
Dr. Goodwin, of Harvard, will take charge 
of the school. 

liy the will of the late Joseph E. Sheffield, 
I'lu.ler of the Sheffield Scientific School of 
Vilr College, that institution will come into 
|'"~><»3ion of near half a million dollars, 
making it the best endowed technical school 
in the United States.— 4m. Machinist. 

The trustees of the University of Boston 
reieully received a legacy of $800,000, from 
a Mr. Kich. Sixty-four free scholarships immediately established for the benefit 
"f diserving students, the sum set aside for 

i)'i- I'urposo being about $1311,000 The 

< I. . nh-nt. 

Mr. Stephen Whitney Phteuiit has left 
u.-.rly .$1,000,000 to Columbia C.dlego. 

I 'n' yift coiwists of a valuable library, 
" 111. Ii will become the property of the col 

-' at once, and about $<iOO,000. Mr. 

II 'iii.t requests in his will that the library 
-li.ill He kept together and be known as the 

I'linuix Library of Columbia College 

( '^'itcordicnsis. 

-t Catharine's College, .Alexandria, 
- 111. conducted by the Brothers of the 
iiiiu Schools, is attended by over .500 
Ills. It is open to all, without diptinc- 
"t race, nationality, or belief The 
'" of instruction is ordinarily the 
- 'i tongue, but English, German, Greek 
Arabic are also taught as living lan- 
■ The French Consul presided at a 
ildio distribution of prizes; near him 
"Ml- seated Mabmoud Bey, brother of the 

Khedive, with his aid-decamp, Mochlin 
Bey; also the young princes. Said and 
Omar, and a number of pashas and beys, 
who are the prinrip,il government officials 
of Alexandria.— .A''ofre Dame Scholastic. 

Peck's Sun of .Milwaukee says: " CoUege 
students will, a dozen of them, pitch on to 
an unarmed, weak freshman, pummel him 
till he c*n'l walk, and then leave him naked 
out in the woods lo freeze, while Sullivan 
whips his man in a fair standing-up fight, 
and then shakes hjinds with him. And yet 
Sullivan is a brute, and the college students 
are worthy members of the first society, 
sous of bankers, and preachers and cap- 

Educational Fancies. 
Vassar's cuss word is " Buy Gum." 
Which of the reptiles is a mathemati- 
cian f The Adder. 

The man who was "spell-bound" ob- 
tained relief by consulting the dictionary. 

Carlyle frequently made mistakes in 
spelling. It is the same way with Josh 
Billings. -N. 0. Ficuyune. 

A Sunday-school teacher asked the class 
the question, "What did Simon sayt" 
" Thi-mbs up ! " said a little girl. 

President Arthur was once a school- 
master. Some of the office-holdirs are 
anxious to know whether they are to be 

Force of habit: Tutor in mechanics : "If 
a body meet a body—" Sophomore (in an 
undertone, mechanic-ally) "Coming through 
the rye." 

" I declare 1 " exclaimed a slovenly writer, 
" I %vish I could find a pen that would just 
suit me." And instantly came the chorus, 
"Try a pig pen." 

"J. Grey; Pack my box with five dozen 
quills." Wonderful as it may seem, tBe 
twenty-fi^x letters of the alphabet may be 
found in the above sentence. 

Professor of Anatomy (placidly produc- 
ing the brains of a couple of sheep) : " I 
have been fortimale enough to secure some 
brains for the class." Class ? f ! i—Ex. 

Latin class : Prof, to student (slightly 
absent-minded):' "Please translate In- 
struxit tripliccm aciem." Student: "He 
drew three aces." Slight sensation in class. 

Junior class in zoology : Examiner : My 
good child, what are t|uadrupeds! Scholar: 
Animals with four legs. Examiner: Very 
good. Now name some. Scholar : A dog, 
a horse, two hens. 

Boy (to a lady visitor): "Teacher, 
there's a gal over there a winkin' at me." 
Teacher: "Well, theu, don't look at her." 
Boy: "But if I don't look at her she'll 
wink at somebody else." 

Burdette is writing a life of William 
Peim. We shall wait to see if he can re- 
sist the temptation to begin the biography 
in the good old way : " I take my Peun in 
hand."— Oi7 City Derrick. 

Scone— Young ladies' hoarding-school.— 
Prof: "What cm you say of Pluto t" 
Miss D.-"He was the son of Satan, and 
when his father died, he gave him Hell." 
Horror of class — The Occident. 

Inferential :—" Yes," exclaimed Brown, 
"yen. always find me with a pen in iny 
hand. I'm a regular penholder, my boy." 
■' Let's see," said Fogg, musingly, " a pen- 
holder IS usually a stick, isn't itf "— JSosfon 

Dr. Bisloy, of Philadelphia, speaking of 
the condition of the eyes of school chil- 
dren, says, " Hypermetropic eyes are more 
numerous than both myopic and emmetro- 
pic; that ne.xt to myopic astigmatism, dis- 
tinct lesions are most prevalent in eyes 
with hypermetropic astigmatUm." From 
this it appears that "the eyes have it"— 
but what it is they have is a conundrum to 

. us, and we regret that they have it No- 

ristoum Herald. 

Some Princeton College boys offervd to 
saw wood for a poor widow, but she replied 
that if they would relay the four rods of 
sidewalk lorn up by their crowd, she would 

ask Heaven to see to the wood pile 

Detroit Free Press. 

At a young Indies' semiuary, recently, 
during an examination in history, one of 
the pupils was interrogated thus :— " Mary, 
did Martin Luther dio a natural death?" 
" No," was the reply ; " hi 
cated by a bull." — Harvard Lampoon. 

A distinguished lawyer of Chicago can 
write three hands- one that his copyist can 
read, another that he only can rend, and 
another that no one can ri^nd. John B. 
Gough mentions another gentleman with 
three hands— a right hand, a left hand, and 
a little behindhand. 

" When I grow up I'll bo a man, won't 
I (" asked a little Austin boy of his mother. 
" Yes, my son, but if you want to be a man 
you must be industrious at school, and learn 
how to behave yourself." " Why, 
do tbe lazy boys turn <nit to be w 
when they grow up f " 

Professor of Chemistry : "Suppose you 
were called to a patient who had swallowed 
a heavy dose of oxalic acid ; what would 
you administer K" K. (who is preparing 
for the ministry, and who only lakes chem- 
istry because it is obligatory): "I would 
administer the saornniont." 

Pupil: "I thought of writing that in, 
but I feared it wouldn't be Dentch to the 
subject." Professor: "Feared it wouldn't 
bewhatf" Pupil: " Dentch to thn sub- 
ject, sir." Professor: " You mean german 
to the subject t" Pupil: " Yes, sir, that's 
what I meant, but I thought you'd prefer 
the synonym." 

The Sand-blast. 
Among the wonderful and useful inven- 
tions of the times is the common sand-blasl. 
Suppose you should desire to letter a piece 
of marble for a gravestone ; you cover the 
stone with a sheet of wax nn, thicker than 
a wafer, then cut— in wax— the name, date, 
etc., leaving the marble exposed. Now 
pass it under the blast, and the wax will 
not be injured at all, but the sand will cut 
letters deep into the stone. Or, if you de- 
sire raised letters, a (lower or other emblem, 
cut the letters, llowers, etc., in wax and 
stick them upon the stone ; then pass the 
stone under the blast, aud the sand will out 
it away. . Remove the wax and you have 
the raised letters. Take a piece of French 
plate-glass, say two feet by six, and cover 
it with fine lace, pass it under the blast, and 
not a thread of lace will be injured, but the 
sand will cut deep into the gla-<s wherever 
it is not covered by the lace. Now remove 
the lace, and yuu have every delicate and 
beautiful figure raised upon the glass. In 
this way beautiful figures of all kinds arc 
cut in glass, and at small expense. The 
workmen can hold their hands under the 
blast n-ithont harm, even when it is rapidly 
cutting away the hardest glass, iron or stone 
but they must look out for finger nails, for 
they will be whittled oft' right hastily. If 
they put on steel thimbles to protect the 
nails, it will do little good, for the sand will 
soon whittle them away ; but if tliey rap a 
piece of soft cotton around them they arc 
safe. You will at once see the philosophy 
of it. The sand whittles away and destroy 
any hard substance, even glass, but iloc 
not aflect substances that are soft and yield 
ing— like wax, cotton, or fine laces, or evei 
the humai hand. 

have your mistress • ' To which the young 
lady very naturally and cleverly responded : 
"Say yes, pussy." Bash'ulness on the 
part of lovers, and want of courage in con- 
nection with popping the momentous ques- 
tion, have formed the subject of many a 
story. Here is one: X gentleman had 
long been paying attention to a young lady 
whom ho was very anxious to maniy, but to 
whom he had never ventured to declare his 
passion. When opportunity offered, his 
courage descried him, and when he was re- 
solved to speak, the fair one never could be 
found abmo or disengaged. Driven to des- 
peration, ho one day succeeded in accom- 
plishing his purpose in a somewhat remark- 
able manner at a dinner-party. To most 
people a dinner-jiarty would seem the most 
suitable occasion for overtures of this de- 
scription, especially when, as in this instance, 
the lady is seated at the opposite side of the 
table from her admirer. The latter, how- 
ever, was equal to the occasion. Tearing a 
leaf from his pocket-hook, he wrote on it 
under cover of the tiiblc : " Will you be my 
wife t Write Y'es <.r No at the foot of Ihi?." 
Calling a seivanl, he asked him in a whis- 
per to take the slip— which, of course, was 
carefully folded and directed— to "the lady 
in blue opposite." The servant did as re- 
quested ; and the gentleman, iu an agony of 
siTspense, watched him give it to the lady, 
and fixed liis eyes, with badly disguised 
eagerness, to try and judge from her ex- 
pression how the quaintly made offer was 

reci-ivcd. Ho had forgotten one thing 

namely, that ladies sildom carry pencils 
abirut thein at a dinner-party. I'lie beloved 
one was, however, not to bo balllcd by sa 
trifling an obstacle. After reading the note 
calmly, she turned to the servant aud said : 
" Tell the gentlemnn, Yes." They were 
married iu due cumsc.—Chamlicrs' Journal. 

They Took Their Pens in Hand. 

(fiwi the Lawrence {i[,m.) Ammcan.) 

Specimens of what the postal-clerks have 

been called upon to decipher are given be- 

^opied from envelcqics sent from or to 

the Lawrence Post-office, the capitals being 

given as found iu the directions: 

Popping the Question. 

Constitutionally timid men might, if 
necessary, resort to some such expedient as 
that of the youth whose baohfulness would 
not admit of his proposing directly to ihe 
object of his affections, but who at length 
summoned up sulBcieut courage to lift the 
young kdy's cat and say : " Pussy, may I 

The letters directed .is above are known 
to have reached tlteir proper destination 
simply through the efficiency of the postal- 

The Hare and the Fish having borrowed 
tobacco of each other for several months, 
and agreed perfectly well on politics, set 
ont to make a journey together and sec the 
sights of the World. They had not pro- 
ceeded many miles when a wolf was dis- 
covered iu pursuit. The Hare at once 
started oft' at the top of his speed, but the 
Fish called imt : 

" Do not leave me thus ; I cannot run ! " 

"A Fish who cannot run has no business 

to make a journey," replied the Hare, and 

The Fi>li hurried after as fast as possible, 
and both foim.l themselves on the bank of a 
river, while the Wolf was yet a furlong 
away. The Fish at once rolled into the 
water and darted away, but the Hare 
shouted after him : 

" Do not leave me — I cannot sivim." 

" A Hare who cannot swim has no busi- 
ness to make a journiiy," and he sailed away 
and left the Hare to be eaten on the half- 


An Owl who had overheard the affair 
from his pcfch in a persimmon tree drew 
down his left eye and softly said : 

" Yon don't know a Man until yon have 
travelled with him." — Detroit Eree Press. 

'riiink ihe frooil, 


That grow fure^ 

B4-ariiig riche»t Iruil ii 

Such alont' cno mi 

T>i« tliiiikvr 

Strong to conquer in ll 

Lore thegnod, 

Anil not ihp clwver, 
Nolile tni-n ! 
The world cau never 
Ctwt«- lo praine ih»f good they've done. 
They alone, the true 
Who gather 
]Iarve«i« which their deeds have won. 

Do the good. 

And nnt ihe clever, 
Fill ihv life 

Willi true endeavor; 
Strive to he the nnhleiir iniiii. 
Not what otherw do, 
But r&llier 
])n the veiT heet you can. 

—EUrfr ic Sparh. 

Bonaparte's Handwriting. 

Francis I. of Austria said uf Iiis sou-in- 
liiw, after the battle of Waterlou: "I 
always thought that man would end badly, 
he wrote such a villainoua hand." And in- 
deed, it became so bad as to be almost 
wholly illegible. If read at all, it is by 
gness, or that second sight which the " blind 
clerks" of the Dead Letter Office are popu- 
larly supposed to possess. Much of it is 
represented by blaulcs in the transsriptions, 
and there are many words at the translation 
of which by an expert the well-tried reader 
of manuscript can only shake a doubting 
head. But this was not always so. While 
he was a subaltom of artillery his hand, al- 
though never good, was at least human and 
clear and legible. There was a sort of cor- 
respondence between It and his simple, di- 
rect bearing of those days, when he dis- 
dained personal appearance, and the long, 
flat, straight black hair partly hid and 
lengthened the sallow face, and everything 
about him was grave, rude, austere. He 
was not born to a bad hand, although, like 
Lamartiue, Byron and many other great 
men, ho could never learn to spell ; and 
after the ISth Brumaire the laws of orthog- 
raphy incommoded him fjiiite as little as any 
olhers. But no matter 'low bad his writing 
was, " La plume entic fifi«»mni«,"a8Lamar- 
lino wrote, " nous vahtt une epee." 

lu a recent publication, "L'Histoire de 
Napoleon I. d'aj^es son Ecriture," the Abbe 
Ji-an-Utppolyto, a graphiologist, as he culls 
■ hiiiieelf, makes an analysis of the Emperor's 
writing and character; and a clever and in- 
teresting book it h, due allowance being 
made for the eccentricities and occasional 
wildueps of the specialist and expert, which 
in themselves are often amusing. The 
Abbe maintains that it was the passionate 
vehemence of his nature and his impene- 
trable (limniulation that broke out in the 
furious illegibility of his writing and con- 
•piered the earlier hab'.ts of his pen, which 
still sometimes reappeared in the Englisih 
oxercisos he wrote at St. Helena with Las 
Cases. Oue of the most remarkable facts is 
that the ehango fur the bad took place 
when the Corsicnn Captain Bonaparte of 
1792, " who distinguished himself so much 
nt the siege of Toulon," became the French 
General Bonaparte. Carlylo brought his 
"French Revo'ution" to a chise with the 
"whirl of grappshot" on the steps of St. 
Roch on the I3lh Veudeinaire(4th October, 
171*5,); and it is, curiously euoueh, from 
General Bouaparlt-'s skillfully garbk-d draft 
report of that d.iy, when he really entered 
<m the scene, that ^L Michon first has oc- 
casion to demuustrate the complete graphic 
change. Thenceforward his writing altered 
but little. Frankness has vanished ; letters 
become confused, lopped, strangely scamped, 
often replaced by formless scratches which 
are utterly illegible. The pen, says the 
Abbe, seems to swallow tho words, which 
have to be divined. It is a hidden hand. 
This was n natural result, says this biogra- 
p'^er, in an arch-couspirjilor against every- 
thing, who had above all to rely upon pro- 
found diwimylalioQ andabsidute iiiipor.etra- 
bility. Men who can hold their tongues 

show this peculiarity in their writing ; for 
the writer is the slave of the thinker. M. 
Michon has seen many mysterious hands ; 
but the true sphinx appears in Napoleon's 
alone, from the day when his comprehensive 
glance showed him the mastery of Europe, 
and he began to eoiiibine those plans which 
astonished the world. Fine "gladiolate" 
strokes, which sometimes termi.iate almost 
every word, indicate that marked finesse 
which, allied to his powers of concealment, 
made the complete diplomatist who shows 
himself in the tortuous, horribly serjientine, 
almost spiral lines of his writing, which 
Talleyrand, the king of negotiators, never 

Napoleon's passionate nature, to which his 
microscopic historian attributes many of his 
gigantic mistakes, always acted on first im- 
pressions when it broke through the habitual 
firm calm to which he ever tried to school 
himself. This mighty struggle of the head 
with the heart shaped the whole of his fate- 
ful history, and is shown to this studont of 
his writing by the constant mixture of up- 
right with sloping letters. In intimate con- 
nection with this sign is the extreme varia- 
bility of the height of the letters, which 
indicates great mobility of impressions. 
" The soul of fire was volatile as a tiame." 
The faculty of thought was in continual fer- 
'mentations. The imagination soars \vith 
the long stroke of a d. 

But the volcanic portion of his charactei 
would have been controlled had it not been 
for a partial organic lesion of the brain, 
which is the true key to the great dissonance 
of his acts. He himself said (but it was at 
St. Helena), "He goes mad wlio sleeps in 
the bed of kings"; and it was this cerebral 
aberration which, combining with liis head- 
strong passion, led him constantly to declare 
war within twenty-four hours against the 
first comer; to divorce a wife he loved; to 
propose a kingdom of Hayti to Louis 
XVIII., or to take a million of men into the 
steppes of Russia. Chateaubriand said of 
the Napoleonic ideas, '^Si/st€ine d'unfou ou 
d'un enfant " ; but tlie mental derangement 
was made plainer to tlie Abbe by the ap- 
parent unconscious leaps and bounds of the 
imperial pen, and especially by the strange 
abnormal form and excessive development 
of the letter p in Napoleon's writing. The 
historian maintains that the writing of 
nil the partially deranged whicli lie has ex- 
amined exhibits some similar terrible sign, 
which he cjills " la petite bete." This "sign " 
generally consists of a nervous, disordered, 
unusual stroke, which falls fatally and spon- 
taneously from the pen. Pascal, whose 
imagination was so out of gear that he 
always saw an abyss yawning at his side, 
and whose writing in his later years Na- 
poleon's most resembles, used an extrava- 
gant and accusing g. 

The clear-headedness and precision of 
the general whose whole art of war enlmi- 
uated in being the strongest at a particular 
point is shown by his often using a fresh 
paragraph for a fresh idea, and in the profu- 
sion of space and light between the lines, 
the words, and often between the letters of 
eailier handwriting. But the intuition, the 
eagle eye which enabled him always to 
seize this point of concentratirm is mani- 
fested by the frecpient separation of the let- 
ters in his words. Like Mazarin, too, he 
runs several words together: a mark of the 
deductive logician, of the positive, practical 
man who tends rapidly and directly toward 
the realization of his aims. His strong will, 
his masterful and despotic nature, are de- 
noted by the forcible manner in which he 
crosses his ( high up. Wonderful tenacity 
is shown by the " hariioons," or horizontal 
pot-hooks which terminate the last stroke 
of many words ; they are, as it were, the 
claws of an eagle. A profusion of club-like 
strokes show indomitable resolution and ob- 
stinacy, which may be seen to have been 
intractable by the implacable hardness and 
angular rigidity of the whole wTiting. The 
da«h of meanness which was always present 
in the man who gave a name to " caporal " 
tobacco is shown in vhc little crooks which 

sometimes citmmence or terminate the letter 
m, and in his signature, which was not 
royal like that of Louis XIV. Until he 
became Emperor he always wrote his 
name Buona- or Bona Parte, or abbre- 
viated it BP. Afterward he wrote NaPo- 
kon or NP.—St. James's Gazette. 

Engineering Science in the 
Hoosac Tunnel. 

Working simultaneously .from opposite 
sides of the mountain, it is no longer Pat- 
rick burrowing through by whatever zigzag 
course he may chance lo take, but these tun- 
nelings from opposite sides must be so di- 
rected that they shall finally meet, and fall 

shall this be done ? As any one can see 
who gives. the matter a moment's thought a 
slight deviation from the mathematical lino 
required would cause the two arms of the 
tunnel to miss each other. The width of 
the tunnel is 24 feet. It is only necessary, 
therefore, for the approaching excavations 
to swerve from their true place at the point 
of expected junction by anything more than 
half that measure, or 12 feet, in order to 
slip by each other, and go further and fur- 
ther asunder, instead of coming together. 
Who will measure and set the angle which 
shall determine the momentous difference 
in such a case between success and failure ? 
The tunnel is to be nearly five miles long. 
Eacli channel from the opposite sides of the 
mountain will therefore be nearly two miles 
and a half in length. The problem, then, 
is to run two lines of excavation through a 
mountain, with no visible point in front to. 
aim at, as the engineer has in the open field, 
and yet to have them so nearly coincident 
in direction, for a distance of 12,000 feet 
each, that tliey wilt not miss each other, 
but form one continuous whole. No Creed- 
moor ritle needs to be aimed so nicely in 
order to hit the bull's eye. No allowances 
for wind to swerve, or tlie power of gravita- 
tion to draw down, the ball from its proper 
rourse, render the marksman's problem so 
difficult of solution as is the engineer's in this 
case. An error in the sighting of his in- 
strument, amounting literally to a hair's 
breadth, would send the anna of his excava- 
tion wide asunder Into the bowels of the dark 
rock, leaving his tunnel no tunnel at all, 
but only a worm's track in the mountain. 
But the problem in this instance was still 
further complicated. To hasten the com- 
pletion of the tunnel by p"oviding additional 
faces on which the workmen could operate, 
as well as for tlie purpose of ventilation, it 
was determined to sink a shaft from the top 
of the mountain to the level of the innnel, 
midway between the two ends. Two fac- 
tors were thus at once added to the prob- 
lem : First, to fix so accurately the point on 
the mountain at which to begin the down- 
ward excavation, that when, after working 
by faith for four years — the estimated time 
necessary — the miners should have reached 
the requisite depth, they would he in the 
exact line of the projected and partly com- 
pleted tunnel ; and, secondly, from that pit 
in the depths of the mountain, so as to be 
able to aim their course in either direction 
so correctly as to be sure of meeting the 
company of miners approaching them from 
both extremes of the tunnel. In short, here 
were four tunnels to be made at the base of 
the mountain at one and the same time, 
and another from the summit perpendicular 
to them, and all to be exactly in the same 
plane, on penalty of the failure of the entire 
enterprise! It was a difficult problem. 
But it was solved most triutnphantly. When 
the headings from the central shaft and 
from the eastern portal came together, as 
come together they did, their alignments 
swerved from each other by the almost in- 
fioitesimat space of tive-cixteenths of an 
inch! It was an unparalleled feat of en- 
gineering. With the best engineering talent 
of Europe the opposite arms of the Mont 
Cenis Tunnel had a divergence of more than 
half a yard. The office and worth of sci- 
ence were admirably illustrated in the case 

of the Hrtosac. It was science, applied 
science, which built this great thoroughfare 
of traffic and travel. Its liue.s and propor- 
tions were all ast^ertained and laid down by 
scientific calculation. Patrick could pound 
the drill and light the fuse that would ex- 
plode the charges of pciwder; but witlumt 
scientific engineering to lay his path for him 
and mark every drill-hole, Patrick would 
have wandered in the deptiis of the moun- 
tain till doomsday, with his powder and 
drills, and no practicable tunnel would have 
been the result. — Atlantic Monthly for 

The Stinging-wasp the Pioneer 
The common wasp, the terror of the 
small boy in the country, was undoubtedly 
the pioneer in the paper business, and to 
this despised and abused insect tho Herald 
is disposed to award ample credit. The 
wasp made his paper, too, very nmch tho 
same way that his human imitators do to- 
day, using often the very same material and 
producing, in his rude way, a species of 
paper nearly as delicate as the finest tissue 
grades. Who will say, therefore, that 
natuie is not a great teacher ? Spiders 
were spinners of intricate webs before cloth 
was invented ; the silkworm disclosed to 
the world a mine of industry and wealth 
which it is impossible to estimate, and the 
beaver gave to man his earliest and moat 
valuable lessons in dam-building. It is 
recorded in history that, in G701 b. C, 
Numa, who lived 300 years before Alex- 
ander, left several works upon papyrus, and 
that this is probably the earliest authenticated 
use of this material. As far hack as 1800 
years ago the Chinese are thought to have 
discovered how to make paper from fibrous 
matter reduced to pulp in water. About 
the year 706 A.D., an Arabian manufactory 
of paper from cotton was established. In 
i 151 the Spaniards manufactured from 
cotton various kinds of paper scarcely 
inferior in iiuality to those made from linen 
rags. Linen paper seems'to have been first 
used in England about the year 1342, and 
it gradually supplanted that made of cotton. " 
The French erected their first paper-mills 
in J 314, and the Germans began manufac- 
ture at a not much later date. John Tate 
built the first paper-mills of England at 
Hartford in 1498. But France supplied 
England with most of her paper until Louis 
XIV. drove out the the Huguenot manu- 
facturers, many of whom, after emigrating 
to England, began making a fine, white 
quality of paper, not produced before in that 
country, where from that time the paper in- 
dustry enlarged and prospered, until soon 
more than enough of the material was 
manufactured to cover home consumption. 
The ancient hangings of tapestry were 
superseded about tlie year 1640 by wall- 
paper of beautiful designs. 

Blue £ 

id Black Indellible Ink. 

solution of iodine of potas- 
sium as much more iodine as it contains, 
and pour this solution into one of yellow 
prusaiate of potash, containing as much of 
the solid prussiate as the whole auiouut of 
iodine. Soluble Prussian blue precipitates, 
and iodine of potassium remains in solution. 
After filtering, the pre(-ipi!;it'.- is dissolved in 
water, and form; i Mir ink, i uijiiiiiiing no 
free acid, and, thnlurr, ;iil,i[.ii'il lo steel- 
pens. If thp suluM.:- bine I.l- i.d.l.-d to com- 
mon black ink, from galls, tho result is 
black ink, which cannot be removed from 
paper without destroying it. 

This is the way a Yasaar girl tells a 
joke: "Oh girls! I heard just tho best 
thing to-day. It was too funny — I can't 
remember how it came about — but one of 

the girls said to Professor Mitchell Oh, 

dear, I can't remember just what she said ; 
hut Prof. Mitchell's answer was just too 
funny for any use. I forgot just exactly 
what he said, but it was too good for any- 
thing ! " — Educational Journal of Ya. 

Tie al e t oas pfolo en// a ed from an oruf nal <iengn by G W Mirhael of Delawme Of o 

The Peirce Method of In- 
struction—Its Application in 

Public Schools. 
First, or I'rhnnnj Grude : It is evident 
thiit iu teachiog little folks, or anyone, n 
alftndanl innst be taken that will reduce the 
iDstruction to such a point that conception 
rnay begin. Hence the nei-essiry of personal 
iustructinn — the ability and standard of 
each boinc peculiarly different, from all the 
ri\i. < II siMJuld not be told too much 
ii' 1 iKiH. lir.;iiisf the niiud is not capable 
III II tjiiiniti; il ; ;lii(1 what IS attempted should 
he accoiiiplislicil so as to form a irtie basis 
for the building of years, while at the same 
time train the mind so systematically that 
the more suggestion of a new idea will be 
grasped at once. The best instrnction for 
little folks is not first, second and third 
principles, or straight line, right and left 
curve, &c., nor anything akin to it. I do 
not assume this position, but talte it from 
c/wic« and an innate desire to serve the best 
interests of the profession. My reasoning 
is based upon years of experience in district, 
normal, private, public schools and commer- 
cial colleges. Should it be incorrect I will 
stand over ready to admit it on proof. 'My 
best wishes go with the fraternity, and so 
I hope that the profession will accord the 
same to me. I can account for the indis- 
position on the part of the pupils in no bet- 
ter way than to say that they are almost 
continually led beyond their depth, not 
forming a just pride of their own powers, 
and made weak from a lack of thoroughness. 
No one will question that the beginning 
should he on slates, and a most excellent 
way to introduce the work is by using Ro- 
man characters to ton, of the stnyjfcsf de- 
sign. For instruction as to pen-holding, 
position, etc., see articles in July and Au- 
gust numbers, 1681. 

Extract from Copy-book, Peircerian Sys- 
tem: '* If the paper be ruled, then the slates 
should be ruled. If the pens be sharp, then 
the pencils should be kept the same." 

How to rule slates : Take a " Spencerian " 
No. 1 pen, or any make similar. Break 
out the points and place in holder. In rul- 
ing, place the hollow of the pen upwards. 
This will give ruling for medium-sized work. 
If larger spacing is required, turn the hollow 
of the pen downward. In drawing second 
set of lines, place the rule so as to make 
large space a little over twice the width 
of small, so that in forming the extended 
letters they can be made their proper height 
without interfering with lines above. 
The figures should be made the next 

There are some, perhaps, who may beg 
to differ from me, and demand proof. I can 
only say this result, among othei-s, was 
found entirely satisfactory after experiment- 
ing with more than 4,000 pupils per week, 
through a period of nine years. This is 
strengthened also by the experience of 

For the first improssifms of the figures, 
general inatruction is the rule, and special 
fhe exception. Too much at first must not 
be expected, and blackboard explanations 
should bo made often. After the main part 
of class accomplishes any work let the whole 
class he shown the next until the figures 
are all passed the first time. Now you are 
ready to begin work over again upon the 
basis of special instruction being the rule, 
and general the exception. 

Remark: If there is any one feature par- 
ticularly prominent, it is the one just m( 
tioned. Let each pupil be instructed to 
his best in ])reparing a line of each figure. 
When done, call for first division according 
to Rule 5, and criticize according to Rule 
6. See article in Journal for October, 
" Rules Governing Class-work." In ex- 
amining results, one pupil will be found to 
fail where another has succeeded. Tlits re- 
sult is general in all grades. 

Caution : Under no conditions whatever 
must a pupil be advanced without having 
earned liis promotion. 

In one case, the pupil is given advanced 
work, tiie other is siiown how to do better, 
and, according to Rule 4, must make ten 
lines before another criticism. With all 
grades of pupils there is abundance of proof 
pointing to the fact that special instruction 
is the lever by which entire control is 

Hefore a teacher is capable of just criti- 
cism the rules as found in October Journal 
should be made familiar. 

After passing each division and attending 
to the wants of each pupil found ready for 

N. U. Tbut »i>u>v [.up>U wurk much fB£t<'r than otbers. 

Return to first division and call for those 
ready agaiu. 


By this plan it is evident that pupds are 
offered every inducement to work faithfully. 
The advantages are enumerated in October 
number under "Points of Superiority, etc." 

When the time for class has expired, 
charge each to remember his present work 
sii that it can be begun the same at next 
lesson. Continue the work from lesson to 
lesson by special criticism with general 
ernirs explained in full at board, and offer as 
inducement to each pupil of class the privi- 
lege of usmg a copy-book and lead-peucil 
as soon as good figures are produced well, 
singly and from 1 to 100 on slates. 

The work to be done in book begins with 
programme " A," and is governed strictly 
by the " Rules for Class-work." 

Criticism is a little closer in every direc- 
tion, yet in no way to offer the least dis- 
couragement. The nature of each pupil 
must be considered in order that by fair and 
impartial criticism the best results may be 
obtained. It will readily be seen that no 
certain standard of excellence can form the 
guide for promotion. 

The fact that each pupil is doing his best, 
and approaches a fair result is evidence of 
progress, and this alone is the object aimed 
(Tq he continued.) 


What is Money? 

What is money f How did it come into 
the world? Obviously — incontestably — it is 
a tool, au instrument, nothing else. It is 
not an object sought for its own sake, to be 
kept and used. It is acquired solely for the 
sake of the work it does — a mere machine. 
The sovereigns wliich a man carries about 
in his purse are distinctly intended to be sot 
to work, and that work is solely to be given 
away in exchange for something else. 
Money is the tool of exchange, the instru- 
ment of obtaining for its present possessor 
some commodity or service which is desired. 
But how did the necessity arise for invent- 
ing such a tool f Many economists answer 
that a measure of value was needed, a con- 
trivance which should enable men to com- 
pare with each other the several values or 
worths of the commodities they handle. 
The farmer required to know how many 
sheep he ought to give for a carl. Thus 
money was devised to meet his want. But 
this is an entire mistake. A measure which 
should tell accurately the worth of one com- 
modity compared with that of another was a 
want created by civilization as it developed 
itself. A -far more urgent need made its 
appearance at an earlier period. Money 

got over the gieatcst difficulty which the 
social life of men encountered. Human be- 
ings, unlike almost all animals, were formed 
to make different commodities for each 
other; how were they to be exchanged I 
How could the men who mutually wanted 
each other's goods be brought together for 
exchanging? A farmer was in want of a 
coat, but the tailor had no desire to obtain 
a calf; he was in want of shoes. Here 
were two sellers and two buyers, yet neither 
could procure what ho needed. Money 
came to the rescue. The farmer sold his 
calf to a butcher for mcmey, and with that 
money he procured tlie wished-for coat from 
the tailor. The tailor repeated the process 
with the shoe-maker. Thus monoy solved 
the difficulties. Four exchangers were 
brought together instead of two, and two 
articles were sold and two bought with 
money ; and by this employment of a 
common tool for exchuiiging, the greatest 
principle of associated human life was estab- 
lished — division of employments. It ia 
plain that the money first bought the calf 
and then travelled on to buy the coat. It 
circulated — it remained permanently in no 
hands. It fulfilled its oue service — to ex- 
change, to place two different articles in 
different hands. Each man who obtained 
the money, intended to pass it away in tum. 
Thus the conception, tool, cornea out trans- 
parently. It performs its function by sub- 
stituting double barter for single : the 
farmer first bartera his calf for money, and 
then barters away the same money for a 
coat. This conception of money dives into 
its essence : that monoy is a tool, must 
never be left out of mind ; it governs every 
thought, every word, about money. If 
money was never thought of but as a tool, 
the world would be saved a vast amount of 
idle sjieaking and writing. — lionamy Price, 
in Contemporary Beview. 

Next to being able to write and read his 
notes with rapidity, a stenographer's aim 
should be to ucquire a clear and rapid long- 
hand. To all interested in this subject, we 
would call attention to the PBNMAN'8 Art 
Journal, published by D. T. Ames, New 
York. It is the organ in this country of the 
chirographic art, and abounds with nnmerous 
illustrated examples of writing and orna- 
mental pen-work, and contains many practi- 
cal suggestions for the attainment of the 
most desirable style. Its moderate price — 
one dollar a year — places it within the ineaou 
of all. — ^shorthand Review. 

i^^'- Ijisy.^^m^^ .^^^ 

Pul.IiMl.^a Monthly nl SI p«r Y* 
D. T. AMKR. Ei'lTOii Afty rNOrNtlTTOIl, 




ipir« : l->r «ix mnnttu nnd imo ycAT. iwynlite qiiurtBrly 
lva»i<c. No <lpvuilion (rain tW nbove tnlM. Rcud- 


(R. I.) HusiDp.^ Culloge, sirtfot. Addh 
Cornell, of the Collegiate aod Normal In- 
stitute, Pnxon, III., seoHs fourteen. Other 
and siDfillor chths hiive been tno Dnmerous 
to inootioii, nnd quite sufficient to call for 
the hearty thanks of ye editors. 

The Convention. 

If is now seitlPd Hint there is to be a con- 
vention of pcnmeu, itt conjunction with the 
Educators', who nre jnostjy pen- 

at C 



mtiil IliK Jn 
promtiim*. i 


• (tlren liy pntlAl-pnnl i 


New Yokk, Mabcu, 1883. 

The King Club, 

■ thii 


1 from C. W. 
nTi.c.riiil Dp- 
Ibuiji Konnal 

ii-liir, iiiiin-i|.iil cif tl 

'meat of the Noi-ll.o 

0..1 at Valparaiso, 

Immlmi. Tliis niakis an nggipgalo of 
rs sent liy Mr.,.jip|. nillliu 
pprioil of aljotit 
:0|.<<|9 tho iniiiib 

soil. Wo arc 
Mr. \i,m-hn 

it pcrsti 

r., wliMi Iiy f, 
lit l.j- 111,), otlier i.c! 
ihlly aci) 

tcaclH-v, luit 

r tliat lie is tlio " riitht i 

tho right (ihioe," aiid is Dot only aWo to ap- 
prociato » good tliins liimsclf, hut is ilcsiioiis 
that hie pupils sliouhl profit l,y the iii'st 
to thoir atlvauceiuout,, so far as iipu- 
niniiship is oonwrae.! (iipit to a livo, akillej 
Iwichor), is the PsNMAS's Art Joubnai.. 

11 I'vory traohcr in tho land wiiuld «p- 
prociato this nnd oxoiiiplify their faith in 
Works as Mr. Boucher lia.< done, tlioro 
wonhl oerlaiuly lie a getiiiiue revival of in- 
teitwt in tho sliillfiil teaching and practice 
of writinu;. 

The M'cond longest cliib comes from F. 
H. Hall, teacher of irriiing in the Troy, 
N. Y., Diisinesa College, and numbers 
hrm/,,-.,,-™. Mr. Hall is „ splendid writer, 
and heliivis in the Journal as an aid in 
bis «cliool-worl(. 

The third club iu sine numbers tiijlilem, 
and comes fnon O. A. Grninan, Siipt. of 
Theory Department, St. I'aul (Mi„n ) 
Busines, C.dle»,. H. C. Clark, of the 
Titiisville (I>a.) Business College, sonds a I 
dub of »u:/«.i. L. L. Tucker, Providence i 

another column is a coinmuuication from 
the committee of penmen named by Prof. 
Packard to tho fraternity, rcijuftsling each 
to signify as early as possible if they will 
attend and ihe part, if any, that they will 
; take in the proceedings. We can but urge 
upon all to move in earnest and at once in this 
matter. Let the profession honor itself, 
that it may be honored. 

The Reporter at Work. 

If tlie preparation of rules, illustrations 
and in&truction to special classes, clubs and 
college-students is carried on in some locality 
remote from the collegc-lialls or presence of 
learners, the result is often so crude and 
wide of the mark as to he of little practical 

A reporter has attended a cxjurse of wri- 
ting lessons under Mr. H. C. Spencer, one 
of the Spencer authors, and made report of 
each lesson as it was given by him 
at the blackboard. Tliis course will be 
published in Ihe JounNAL, with illustrations, 
commcuciiig in tho May nnuiber. 

As a leading business educator and chiro- 
graphic author, Mr. Spencer is of highest 
rank and authorily, whether in his popular 
business college at Washinglira, or on the 
rostrum, as a lecturer, as ho has often been, 
in Philadelphia, New Yilrk, Boston and 
other of our large cities. 

This course of lessons will be of the most 
practical character, and of inestimiible. value 
to every teacher and pupil of writing, and 
the JoiiBXAl, conlainiug them should be 
read and studied by every youth in tho 

Standard Practical Penmanship. 

The latest chirographic |uiblicatioii is the 
"Standard Praclical Penmanship" by the 
Spencer Brolhers prepared for the Journal, 

It is a porlfolio of del writing of the 

most practical chaiacter, giving iu simple 
beautiful style, by easy methods, the entire 
structure of practical penmansliip from foun- 
dalion to dome. 

■Jo attempts at pen caricatures of reptiles, 
beasts, or birds of prey have entered into the 
work, and only the good, the true and the 
useful are presented. The course in this 
new publication embraces twelve and six- 
teen plain, comprehensive lessons; also pre- 
sents a full library of business forms and 
correspoiirtence; liills of purchase, receipts, 
notes, drafts and contract, also leaves from 
cash-book, day-book, journal and ledger, 
both single nud double entry forms. 

A most valuable feature of the "Stand- 
ard (alone worth the mailing-price) are the 
copies of "Spencer Brothers' New Abbre- 
viated Style of Writiug." 

The dilleront sizes of writing reipiired iu 
business tecords and correspondence are 
here given and defined for the firet time. 
Tho course was thoroughly tested by hun- 
dreds of learners and teachers before publi- 
cation end found to bo an e«sy, common- 
sense guide by which the masses may im- 
prove their penmanship or coinpletoly change 
fMui a bad to a good luindwritiog. We send 
by mail, on receipt of Sl.UO, tho "Stan- 
danl," as alinve described, to any part of 
the United Stales. Order, " Standard " for 

[This work, which was announced and 
cipected to be ready some months .since, 
has been unexpectedly delayed, owing to 
the addhion of several plates more than 
iplatcd, but tho work 

jiroinptly filled. It is a work which we can 
confidently lecommcnd as presenting the 
best aid to solf-Iearaers of writing ever 

Canadian Penmen's Convention. 

Our enterprising contemporary the Vni- 
ver.^al Prnmiiyi, published by Sawyer Bro- 
thers, Ottawa, Canada, is agitating for a 
" Canadian Penmen's Convention." We 
hope it will continue, and, that its efforts 
will be crowned with success. The Jour- 
nal will most heartily contribute to for- 
ward the movement, and in the meantime, 
as it is not probable that the eti'ort nill cul- 
minate in a convention this season, we ven- 
ture on behalf of the Penmen's Committer 
and managers of the convention to be held 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in June next, to invite 
our Canadian brethren to join therein. 
They can thus gain valuable experience, 
and promote a mutual acquaintance among 
the fraternity on both sides of the imaginary 
line which divides them iu no other respect 
than nationally. Those who will be present, 
either as spectators or participants, by com- 
municating ivith the office of the Journal 
will receive atteution. 

The Blackboard in Teaching 

C. B. Nettleton, Superintendent of Writing 
and Drawing in the Dayton, 0., schools, in 
his report for 1879-80, pays this tribute to 
the biackboard : 

" I desire to call special attention to a 
very important feature of my work, namely, 
the use of tlie blackboard. By this means 
every pupil in the schoil receives the di- 
rect benefit of my instruction. Various ex- 
ercises are given to meet the wants of every 
individual pupil, and to inculcate a free mo- 
tion of the hand and arm as the only sure 
method of acquiring case, legibility, and 
rapidity of execution. The enlhusiasin that 
can be awakened by a skillful use of the 
blackboard is inconceivable to those who 
have not wilnessed the experiment. 

" I would urge, as a direct means to the 
accomplishment of tho best results, a more 
careful attention to the writing in all slate 
and manuscript work. 

" The pen emjmves far every art, and 
indites for every press. It is the preserva- 
tion oflrniffuoye, the bmimss man's security, 
the poor hoy's patron, undtlie ready servant 
of the world of mind." 

He has relbrance to tlie use of the black- 
board by the teacher. Our own experience 
has shown it a most efficient instrument, 
when used by the pupil, for the arousing of 
enthusiasm and the correction of ciTors. 
Faults that have defied the best eftbrts of 
both teacher and pupil in the ordinary copy- 
book-wo k have been effectively cured by 
allowing the pupil to try on the black- 
board.— ifducafiOTMi Journal of Va. 

Our Associate, 
Whose enviable fame as a " Kellcy- 
graphcr" long since went abroad, is not 
without honor, from his attainments and 
research in other fields of labor and thought 
as will appear from the following report, 
of a lecture copied from a lato issue of the 
Pro Bono Publico, and entitled, 

-uiplotod, and ,ai orde. ^ be I feasor' -"a' v.; rnlldlXt' 

After a break of over one week, the first in 
a course of over forty lectures, tlio free 
weekly lectures under the auspices of tlie 
Young Meu'sHobrew Association of Hariem, 
was resumed on Monday evening last with 
a lecture under the ahovPtitle. Prof. Kelley 
opened his lecture by modestly disclaiming 
the announcement of Pro Bono PuUico, 
that he is ex-Consul to Jerusalem, and add- 
ing that if he be an ei-consul for Bono Pub- 
lico only, he is willing to remain an ex- 
consul for the public good. 

Beginning his narrative with an account 
of his arrival ami stay at Joppa, the Pro- 

that place, its surroundings, its streets, its 
hotels, its three convents and ita lionse- 
tops. An interesting feature of the lecture 
was the copious allusions to myth<doeicat 
and legendary lore, illustrated by ifferences 
to tlic particular localities known in that 
connection. While speaking of Joppa, be 
introduced the myth of Andromeda ami 
Perseus, the legend of Tabitha and story of 
Jonah ; for it was from here that Jonah took 
passage for Tarshish. A description of the 
houso where Simon, tho tanner, enter- 
tained St. Peter, was also given in this ron- 

The cedars for building Solomon's Temple 
were taken from Lebanon and floated to 
Joppa, as were also those of the second temple 
And the natives assert that Noah's Ark was 
built and launched there. At all events, 

globe, and it is extensively believed to have 
existed before tho Flood. Pliny speaks of it 
as an antediluvian city. Many believe it to 
have been originally built by Japheth, the 
eldest of Noah's three sons, and to have re- 
ceived bis name. 

This city has been five times sacked and 
pillaged by the Assyrians and Egyptians ; 
tlirce times taken by tho Romans ; twice 
plundered by the Saracens, in one of which 
conquests 8,000 of its inhabitants were in- 
humanly butchered. In March, 1799, Na- 
peleon Bonaparte took possc8.sion of it, and 
in direct violation of terms of capitulation 
ordered 4,000 soldiers, nenrlj all Albanians, 
to be marched out with hands tied behind 
them, and to be deliberately shot. 

And here, the same commander when 
forced to retreat to Egypt, finding four 
or five hundred of his omti men who could 
not be removed from his hospitals, adminis- 
tered poison to them and marched on. 

In the year 1102, a storm drove thirty 
large ships upon the rocks near here, and 
more than 1,000 lives were lost. These are 
some of the more striking events, mytholo- 
gical and historical, of which Joppa was tho 

From Joppa the lecturer and his party 
proceeded to Jerusalem, passing the foun- 
tain of Abraham, over the plain of Sharon 
to lUmleh (supposed to be the Arimathea 
of Soripturo,) the Valley of Ajalon, the vil- 
lage of Kirjath Jearim, in view of the 
Mount of Olives, when Jerusalem burst 
upon them. 

In this connection the Professor gave a 
description and history of the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, with its varied scenes of 
interest, its altars and its tombs, and a very 
interesting account of Mount Moriali, illus- 
trated by maps, diagrams and pliolographic 

Not a single spot in all the environs 
of Jerusalem possessing ought of historic 
traditional, religious or mythic interest 
that was not forcibly, clearly and intelligibly 
presented to the delighted audience. Pour 
thousand years of history, legend and tradi- 
tion were presented to it, ami much of that 
in a newer, brigliter and clearer light than 
ever before. 

" We have now completed the circuit of 
.Jerusalem, and have but to add that not 
only is Jerusalem interesting within its 
walls, and its surroundings, but interesting 
in its immense quai-rics underneath it. 
They were discovered by Dr. J. T. Barclay 
in 1855, and are entered a little east of the 
Damascus Gate. It is believed that all the 
huge stones found in the walls of the city 
and temple were quarried here. JSii( between 
this f/uarry and the present surface of Jeru- 
salem are ruins that had they but tongues 
could speak volumes; hut they are silent 
and I must be." 

Every subscriber should have a C'oiumon- 
, Sense Binder for their Journal, it will 
thereby be better preserved and more con- 
venient for reference. One binder will con- 
l<iin the Journal for four or five years, 
which will constitnle a volume of rare 
value to any teacher or professional penman. 

Mailcil to any address for $1.50. Witli 
all the Journals since Dec. 1877—52 
numbers — $4.50. 


To Professional and Amateur 

W"e tho iindersigoe'i committee toarmnge 
for ;* ronvealioD to be held la Ciocinnati, in 
June, agree that a meeting of all persoDS 
ioti^reirted in self-improTement and the ad- 
vanoemeDt of" the good, the tnie, and beau- 
tifol," in penmanship, will prove of great 
^■.^]u*' and interejtt. We therefore invite the 
. ijijrc- profeRsioD to unite with us in our de- 
• niiined effort to bring together the largest 
' I-er of penmen possiWe and to make the 
nng in every way a complete success. 
li n,L' comrnitled to no system or authors, 
itiitl iMitertaining a liberal spirit towards all 
that is good in practical and ornamental pen- 
manahip we ^hall favor the freest discussion 
of all that is embraced in penmanship; and 
in order that erery topic of merit may 
be presented and all questions of doubt 
fully weighed, we invite each and every 
member of our profession to inform ua of 
their dotormiiiation to be present, and to ac 
company this information with such advice 
pertaining to topics for discussion as will 
prove of general interest. We shall also be 
glad to receive the names of those who will 
consent to load tlie discussion in any par- 
tirulnr branch or branches of penmanship. 
We earnestly invite all to bring with tbem | the 
specimens of skill, for the dis- 
play of whidi we will provide 
ample space. An invitation 
having been extended to our 
profession by Mr. R. C. Spencer, 
President of the Business Edu- 
cators' Association, we are as- 
sured that every facility will be 
acwmled us to make our meet- 
ing all that can be desired. 
Having no personal interests 
to serve in bringing about the 
convention, we pledge ourselves 
to act in all fairness towards 
each aud every visitor and to 
work solely to accomplish the 
greatest good to the greatest 
number. Inviting an earnest 
co-operation of penmen aud a 
liberal correspondence and as- 

water colon. The directions are minute, 
practical and intelligible. The mode of 
using the colors, the materials themselves, 
and all the needful suggestions will be found 
in this volume. With it are twelve cards 
on which wild-flowers are dra^vn in outline. 
These are to be colored, and by doing them 
the learner gets valuable practice. Volumes 
like this, by a practicJil teacher, cannot fail 
to find purchasers, because in all parts of the 
country there is a great desire to study art ; 

trly sold 
' one will be issued 
handsome stiff paper 
boards, (JO cents, post- 

the flrst edition 
already, and a n 
shortly. Price, 

covers, 40 cents ; ; 

The Univer.<!al Penman pablished by 
Sawyer & Brother, Ottawa, Canada, is de- 
voted to penmanship, phonography and 
dra\ving. The January number is spicy 
aud entertaining. Mailed wiih premium 
oneyear for $1.00. 

Messrs. Eaton aud Burnett, proprietors 
of Eaton & Burnett's (Baltimore, Md.) 
Business College, have issued an attract- 
ive book of 358 pages upon "Theoretical 
and Practical Book-keeping," by single and 
double entry. So far as an examination of 
work can enable us to judge, it is meri- 

are now being adverli.sed, and 

that Prof. Sbaylor, as \vil\ be f 

advertisement in another colum 

mail it for $1.00, it is a good 

for any one seeking to improve their 


C E. Baker, of the Evergreen City Busi- 
ness College, Bloomington, 111., has just is- 
sued a revised edition of his " Business 
Arithmetic." which is a small compact 
volume of J23 pages. Tho author invites 
special attention toa new and extended mul- 
tiplication table. The work appears to be 

The Book-keeper, published fortnightly 
at 7G Chambers Street, New York, grows 
more and more interesting with each suc- 
ceeding number. Neither teacher nor account 
ant can afford to be without it. Its editors 
know whereof they affirm wheu they speak 
or write upon any topic connected with the 
science of accounts. Mailed one year for 

The Youih^s Companion of Boston, is a 
sprightly, entertaining paper, deservedly 
popular, and is, wilhout exception, the best 
of its kind published in America. It is filled 
to overflowing with the choicest original 
matter, of so diversified a character that it 
never fails to interest, instruct and 

J of a 


sincerely yours 

D. T. AMES, 
N. R. LUCE, 


N. li. — All 
ehoiiM I,(- a 


The students of Packard's 
Business College gave a liter- 
ary and musical entertainment, '"/«■ 
at tho rooms of the college, on | 
tho evening of the JOth inst, ~ 
which was highly entertaining, and reflected 
credit upon all who took part therein. 
The institution is enjoying a well-merited 
tide of pn.s};eiity. 

relations of the red man. Prof. A. B. Pal- 
mer writes on the " Fallacies of Homoeo- 
pathy." Finally, the Hon. Neal Oow con- 
tributes an article on the " Results of Pro- 
hibitory Legislation," demonstrating the 
success of the efforts to suppress the liquor 
traffic in Maine, and Mr. John Fislse makes 
an able and ingenious analysis of that great 
intellectual movement, the Reformation, 
educing therefrom tho "True Lcwon of 
Protestantism," which is graduiilly becnmiug 
integrated and lost in independent iu.Iividuiil 
thought," and holds "that reliyi.. us b.licf in 
something which in no way concerns smiety, 
but which concerns only the individual. In all 
other relations the individual is more or lees 
responsible to society ; but as for his religi- 
ous life, these are matters which lie solely 
between himself and his God. On such 
subjects no man may rightfully chide his 
neighbor or call him foolish ; for in presence 
of the transcendent reality the foolishness of 
one man differs not much from the wisdom 
of another. When this lesson shiill have 
been, duly comprehended aud taken lo 
heart, I make no doubt that religious specu- 
lation will go on, but- such words as ' infi- 
delity,' and ' heresy,' the present currency, 
which serves only to show how the rem- 
nants of barbaric thought still cling to us 

. and hamper our purposes — 

such will have become obso- 

The series of articles on the 
"Christian Religion," by Col. 
Robert G. Ingersoll, Judge 
Jeremiah S. Black aud Prof. 
George P. Fisher, which ap- 
peared recently in the Noith 
American Jiev'ew, is now pub- 
lished in pamphlet form, in re- 
sponse to a very generally ex- 
pressed demand. Readers of 
the JR«!t'tf(« will be pleased to 
see these remarkable papers 
collected into ono handy vol- 
ume ; and the general public, 
who have learned of the ar- 
ticles through the comments 
of press and pulpit, will be 
gratified to learn that a reprint 
has been issued. Tlic price of 
the volume is 50 cents, and it 


. all : 


Pn»f.. R. 11. Montgomery, who was for 
miiiiy years ii tejicher of peuinanship in 
■' Sniilo's Commercial College aud Literary 
liL-tinnc," New Orleans, La., died of heart 
.li-.asL- on January 28. He was one of the 
nicisi accomplished penmen and teachers in 
the South, and was highly esteemed by bis 

Books and Maga 

! by Rowell 
I'i pages of 

Sliorl-hnfid Writer, pub- 
& Hickor, Boston, ron- 
reading matter interesting 
d not dry for anybody. 

.1 one year for $1.00. 

I ' HutifuU little book entitled "How to 
i ...ill m Water Colors," has just been issued 
by E. L. Ki-llogg & Co., of New York. 
It was prepared liy a most successful artist 
and teacher and will prove of great assistance 

torious, being clear, concise aud practical. 
Its typography and binding are in good taste. 
These gentlemen are also revising their 
work upon commercial law. The revised 
work will soon be ready and promises to be 
a great improvement upon the former edi- 
tion. Sec advertisement in another column. 

The Scientific American, the office of 
which wjis lately entirely destroyed by the 
great fire on Park Row, has uew quarters 
at 2t)I Broadway. The last number 
was one of unusual interest. The illustra- 
tions wore numerous and superb. 

Bengough's Cosmopolitan Short-hand 
Writer, published at Toronto, Canada, is 
well edited, and fnll of valuable matter for 
all who drive the quill either by long or 
short hand. Its editor should, however, 
spry up. A December issue in February 
may be "short" but it is also indicative of 
a somewhat "slow hand.'' 

Wo i 

receipt of a copy of W. H, 
Shaylor's " Compendium of Practical Writ- 
ing," which consists of practical copies for I Indians," the Rev. Willi 
practice and a pamphlet of instructions, endeavors to demonstrat 
together with several ornamental designs tional and effectual cui 
for flourishing and drawing. This work is troubles i 

-V. ]'. 

and is welcomed in the household by old 
and young alike. Serial stories will bo con- 
tributed to the Youth's Companion during 
tho coming year, by W. D. Ilowells, Wil- 
liam Black, Harriet Beecher Stowe and J. 
T. Trowbridge. No other publication for 
the family furnishes so much entertainment 
and instruction, of a superior order, for so low 
a price. 

Tfie Nor/h Ameriean Bemew for March 
presents a striking array of articles, every 
one of which possesses tho characteristic of 
contemporaneous interest. First, we have a 
contribution from Senator George F. Ed- 
munds, on "The Conduct of the Guiteau 
Trial." Ex-Minister Edward P. Noyes 
communicates the results of bis observations 
of political affairs in France under the title, 
"The Progress of the French Republic." 
In "Trial by Jury," Judge Edward A. 
Thomas describes the social conditions 
under which our jury System had its origin, 

lew of the altered 
In " Law for the 

m Justin Harsha 
that the one ra- 

! for our Indiau I 

and book-stores. 

Thaddeus Stevens was once 
trying a case in the Cariisle. 
Court. The presiding judge 
ruled against him several 
times. Hardly able to restrain 
his indignation he somewhat 
excitedly began collecting his 
uinuK papers as if to leave the room. 

! The judge feeling indignant at 
' this proceeding asked, " Do I 
understand, Mr. Stevens, do I understand 
that you wish to show your contempt of 
Court?" "No, sir! no, sir!" replied Mr. 
Stevens J "I don't want to show my con- 
tempt, sir ; I am trying to conceal it ! " 

Work of the Convention. 
Union City, Pa., March ad, 1882. 

Editors o/ Journal:— Tho appointment 
of a committee by Prof Packard, in the in- 
terest of a Penmen's Convention, noticed in 
the columns of the last Journal, is before 
me. Finding my name iwsociatcd with your's 
and Prof. Hinman's, I am very anxious that 
our action, relative to the meeting, should 
be timely and pertinent. 

Whether concurrent with the B. E. A. as 
such or not, I know we are fully able to 
hold a convention, and one full of interest. 
I suggest, however, one jointly, which shall 
occupy one-half of each day, and the 
evenings alternately. To me this would be . 
the more preferable, but will cheerfully har- 
mooize if otherwise is thought best, but a 
good thorough enthusiastic meeting should 
be held. Systems should be criticised, 
materials examined, theories aired, methods 

of the of teacuing compared, work exhibited, i 

> acquire Ao «t of „.u,g | superior to many of ihe oompendiucs which | oivU and criminal court, over aU tho eodal I ou. kind, and .tyle., &o„ the plainest hand-" 





//^./<^>/^^j?iliri:is»MT5.simi5i:ffis.i^i>»sr /^ y.//f/X/«-<vz^/^ 

.fHC^t/JUfJJff//C{J/7)?Zf''iZj/,i7i?t/'rn''rc/i//ri//r-?t/rf/// ^'/'' r, fr//fr// ////)/) rf .i//crc/71,ZC1t/. 


writing to the fiucst in art, including flour- 
ishing, lettoriug stipple-work, pieces pre- 
pared for engraving, cliroino-litliographing, 
hlack-bonnl work, etc., etc., and then to 
know and get acquainted with each other. 
By these and still other means the pen- 
men of the country would elevate the stjin- 
dard of good work to a properly appreciated 

Cheerfully eliall I endeavor to do my part, 
and with iny more aWe associates on the coui- 
rnittee shall hope for arrangements, etc., 
satisfactory to all and crowned with the best 
results. Yours truly, N. K, Luce. 

Penmanship as a Branch of 

By Vi 


If 1 

e may represent to ourselves history 
as Time, its eras as Periods, and the pro- 
itn-ess of events, witli their changes, as Years, 
the present century should be represented, 
it seems lo me, as the Springtime of a new 
cycle. For uow wi- see so many old pre- 
judices, like the overgrown ieicles of long 
winter, melting away beneath the genial 
enlightenment of knowledge and freshly re- 
vealed truth ! 

Among these old prejudices, ime of the 
most persistent U that of classicism in edu- 
cation, lu spite of the quicltoning rays of 
science and commort souse, this lioary ap- 
pendage ..f the eaves of the temple of learn- 
ing melt slowly enough! Indeed it has 
scarce yet commenced to drip, although, of 
late, the mys of a scorching criticism have 
been focusscd npon it. Ever since the ap- 
pearance of Youman's •* Culture Demanded 
by Modern Life," the attention of.educa- 
tional reformers has been drawn irresistibly 
lo this .[uestion. There has been a universal 
demand for the practical in education ; and 
to some extent, indeed, tliis demand has 

not been in vain. While the greai cimsLi- 
vative institutions of learning have not yet 
mat«rially modified their courses of study, 
still there have arisen all over the country 
schools and colleges devoted to a more 
liberal education, and their good results are 
already becoming manifest. Young men 
are now trained directly for the business 
of life. Instead of groping for some four or 
five precious years of their lives through the 
dusky catacombs of a dead civilization, they 
are equipped for the journey of life in the 
broad sunliglit of modern culture. Now, 
more than ever before, it is true, as tlie poet 

s long, and t 

B fleeting." 

Each man has but about three score 
years, at the best, to put himself in the 
front rank of these "giddy-paced times," 
and if he dallies at the outset, or makes a 
long metaphysical digression before hestans, 
there is little chance of his ever cat«hing up 
with those who are already straining every 
nerve on the road of progress. 

Business colleges more fairly represent 
the American youth of to-day than the 
older institutions of classical learning— es- 
pecially in the great West, which is the 
"future of America"; and so penmanship 
and bot.k-keeping, which are the leading 
studies in business colleges, are coming to 
take a more prominent place as branches of 
study than even Latin and Greek. For my 
part, at least, I liad rather be able to make 
an excellent double-entry on fair commercial 
calendered than string out all the double 
columns of verbs in the ancient languages 
on the musty margins of my text-books! 
And, indeed, the demand of the age is 
greater for excellent young penmen than 
for excellent young pedagogues. Modern 
oulturc — expressed by modern demand- 
pronounces uuc|ualifiedly in favor of j.en- 
manship when compared with tho dead 

liiugaages, and hook-keeping when 
pared with the abstractions of the higher 

And there is also an intrinsic educating 
quality in penmanship, besides its great 
practical utility. In the first place it de- 
mands great patience and fidelity in its ac- 
quisition. One of the very best kinds of 
discipline, close application, is thus assured 
to the young penman. It also acquires, and 
at the same time develops, a certain degree 
of executive ability. An incapable man can 
no more he a good penman than can a lazy 
man. There may be some studies which 
can flourish in a " college of fools," but not 
such is penmanship. By the requirements 
attaching to its own inherent value it ex- 
cludes all unworthy aspirants. Again, pen- 
manship is an art. " Art," iis the poet has 
just said, " is long "—that is, difficult. He 
who would excell as an artist, must submit 
to great and beneficent toils, efforts, hopes 
against hope; and even such and so great, 
if he is faithful, shall be his reward. By 
faithful endeavor be is educating himself for 
usefulness and honor in the great school of 

It is not possible to conceive of such pro- 
ficiency as is displayed by some of the great 
penmen of to-day as the result of any trivial 
or difficult culture. It repiesents, on the 
contrary, a great outlay ot energy and de- 
termination, a long and faithful pupilage, 
and a final success which can be estimated 
as nothing less than a great educational 
triumph. Education is not an arbitrary 
thing, confined to certain kinds of discipline 
and study — it is the culture and improve- 
ment of the whole vian; and as such, pen- 
manship cannot fail to be one of its noblest 
branches, since it fits the practical part of a 
man for practical work, and at the sfime 
time cultivates the best qualities of his 


W. B. H., New Castle, Del.— " Will you 
be so kind as to let me know whether in 
any issue of your JoUBNAL you have 
treated upon the subject of ' pen paralysis,' 
or if there is any remedy for it ? " Arv. — 
Our views, upon that subject, are briefly 
given in the issue of May, 1879. 

C. S. C. M., Kansas City. — In executing 
medium small letters, what movement is 
preferable t A us. The forearm. 

Is it necessary that one should have a 
teaeher in order to learn to write f Ans. 
While it is possible by cjireful study and 
practice from good standard copies to become 
good writers,we believe time and labor will be 
saved by taking a few lessons from a skilled 
teaclier and master of writing. Tim student 
will then be able to practice to a much better 

Judging from ray writing, can I hecome 
a fine writer f Ans. Yes ; you need to 
practice carefully after good copies to acquire 
greater precision of form. 

" What do you mean by the ' lateral 
movement ' f " Ann. The movement of the 
hand along and across the page as you write. 

F. M, B., Quincy, III.— Will you please 
answer througli the columns of the Jouit- 
NAL the following questions : 

Is it possible for a person, Imviug natu- 
rally a nervous temperament, to ever become 
a fine penman, and if not, what is the best 
style to cultivate for business and other pur- 
poses f Second. Is it best to make the let- 
ters a, d, g, t, witliout taking the pen off? 
Tkird. WUl the use of dumb-bells, for en- 
larging the muscles, help a person in striving 

An I .JOI KN.Vl, 

^T^(» ^-IbSB^S^ 

to lifrnme a good peoinaD t Fourth. Is 

r' lillijtie holder a good one tc 

—First. A person of nerToue tem- 
1 nr may U-arii to write a good hand 
_....^ the f.irearm inoreineDt. Second. 
We think the letters named should he 
written without lifting the pen. Third. 
'A >tr<.ng, fully developed muscle tends to 
' >troDgiT and freer iiiovcm 
in Otherwise, hence a proper degree 
I -iso with duinb-bella would probably 
I ' t'icial. Fourth. The oblique holder 
- I vantage only to those who find diffi- 
iti Uncwi'fi. the hand over toward the 
ii>«.i\ litr enough to bring the niba of the 
pen K<|ii;ircly to fare the paper, and to cause 
both til bo under the same degree of 
pressure, which is necessary for the produc- 
tion of AD easy movement, and dear-cut 
shadf. Where such difficulty exists, an 
oWi'i'K- holder is of advantjige. 

C A. S.,We«tf()rd, C«»uu. — " Is the heavy 
shading in Old English and Gentian Text 
alphabets made with a single stroke of the 
pen, or \» it firxt outlined with a pencil and 
afterward lilted-in with a pen ? Please 
ftusu.-r through 'Answers to Correspond- 
111 Penman's Art Journal." 
,,cr. — Old Knglish and German Text 
I ' nil:.' should be made with a single 
stroll' of a broiid-pointed pen. It may be 
tnmriicd and the spui-s added subsequently 
with n fine pm. Many persons use broad- 
pointed i['iill ]ntis for suuh lettering. We 
nae a crt ui itrrl-peus nicely graded to suit 
the widtli <.i lilies required for the various 
Sizes of leUenijg. The set of pens will be 
mailed for 50 cents. 

W. C. W., Portsmouth, N. H.— " Is an 
oblitiue penholder good for oti-hand flourish- 

Not if the llourishing is done in the re- 
verse movement, iis it should be. 

J. \i., Naticlv, Mass. — "Does the size you 
meniiiiti, in your Feb. issue, for prize pen- 
manship, (C X J),) include margin, or does it 
refer tn the size of the reduced drawing?" 

Ans. — That is the size the plate is to be 
when engraved, without any allowance for 
margin. Spacing and work which looks pro- 
porlinnate and well on a large sheet, will 
continue to look so after being reduced. 

C. II. v., Lowell, Mass.— In answer 
Mr. C. H. Pierce's question 20, " What 
termini's the slant of each capital f " I should 
aay that the downward slrokns do. Tliis 
ia my lii-st attempt at answering questions, 
and I hiipe it is right. 

J. L. W., Glenn's Valley, Ind., says: 
"Will you plejisG tell me, through the 
Joi'itNAL, what ia The matter with my writ- 
ing. I find great difficulty in getting along. 
My hand cramps; I write slow and h.ivo to 
raise my pen frequently." 

We answer this bccanse the experience 
of this writer is tlmtof a very largo class. 
It i- iippurout from his writing that he writes 

" slowly and with difficulty," using the 
finger movement. 

Relief will be found only in the acquisi- 
tion of the muscular or forearm movement, to 
acquire which a few lessons should be taken 
from some skillful teacher cf writing, which 
should be followed with careful and extended 
practice of movement exercises, such as have 
been given in the Journal. 

D. Clinton Taylor, Oakland, Cal., sends a 
ituperb specimen of epistolary writing. 

A handaomely-wvitten letter couips from C. 
N. Crandle, pen-artist at Vulparaiso, Ind. 

Geo. 0. Shoop, Shemokin, Pa., sends two 
WE>ll-executed specimens of flourished birds and 

J. M. Willey, teacher of writing, at Bryant's 
(Chicago) BusinesB College, writes a baud- 
Bome letter. 

William H. Cook, Higgauuoi, Conn., sends 
skillfully- executed specimens of writing and 

An elegantly -written letter comes from Con- 
nor O'Dea, of the British American Business 
College, Toronto, Canhda. 

A liaiidsomely -written and a highly compli- 
mentary letter, to the Journal comes from 
C. A. Bush, Philadelphia, Pa. 

An elegantly-written letter comes from C. L. 
Ricketts, teacher of writing in the public 
schools of East Saginaw, Mich. 

E. A. Hall, principal of the Logansport (Ind.) 
Business College, writes an elegant hand and 
incloses a superbly -written card. 

A very gracefully-wi-ilten letter conies from 
H. J. Williamson, teacher of writing, at Wake 
Forest College, Chapel Hill, N, C. 

A set of off-hand capitals comes from J. M. 
Vincent, Los Angles, Cal., which for ease, 
grace, aud oonciseneas of form are rarely ex- 
celled. - 

An elegantly-written letter and specimen of 
practical writing comes from A. ^^ Palmer, 
policy writer for the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) In- 

A. W. Woods, of Elwin, 111., writes a hand- 
lome letter, in which he incloses a photographic 
:opy of a skillfully-executed specimen of letter- 
ing and drawing. 

An elegantly- written letter comes from F. H. 
Hall, penman at the Troy (N. Y.) Business 
College; also a club of twenty-seven sub- 
scribers to the Journal. 

A good specimen of unpreteuding practical 
writing, with a club of subscribers, comes from 
E. A. Whitney, of the Centenary Collegiate In- 
stitute. Haokettstown N. J. 

exhibiiing the improvement he has made since 
he became a subscriber to the Journal. His 
specimens nut only show marked improvement 
but the are highly meritorious. 

A well-written letter, several superior speci- 
mens uf practical writing, and a club of snb- 
suribers. cnmes from F. P. Preuilt, principal 
of Fort Worth (Texas) Business College. 

L. Detwiler, Hillsboro, Ohio, sends a photo- 
graph uf a specimen of bis "Rapid Record- 
hand " which is eminently practical and in good 
style, all letters being of the simplest possible 

A handsuuiely-writteii letter, comes from 
Emily Vaughn, West New Brighton, N. Y. 
Less shade would add to its eaue of execution, 
if not to its appearance, but Miss Emily can 
certainly claim rank among our most skillful 

Several specimens of practical and artistic 
writing have been received from D. L. Mussel- 
man, Quincv III which for grace of mu\e 
ment and accuracv of form are rarelv excelled 
Tiiey fully sustain the enMable reputation of 
Prof. Musseimsn, as a plumed kmght o' the 

W. P. Raynolde is leaching writing-classes 
at Paris, Texas, aild vicinity. 

D. T. Morron, is teaching writing-classes, at 
AVaterbury, Conn., and vicinity. 

J. R. Goodier is teaching writing at Pontiac, 
Mich. He says, "book me for a Penmen's 

C. L. Martin, A. M., has accepted the ap- 
pointment of president of Chnddock College 
School of Law and Commerce, Quincy, 111. 

P. Rituer, who has lately established a Com- 
mercial College, at St. Joseph, Mo., writes 
that he is having an unexpectedly large 

E. M. Currier is teaehlhg writing at the 
North Western University, Evanslon, 111. He 
writes a good hand and sends a club of 

A splendidly attired prospectus and cata- 
logue has been received from the Rochester 
(N. Y.) Business University. Over 300 stu- 
dents are in daily attendance. 

W. V. Chambers, teacher of writing at the 
Northern Illinois Normal School and Dixon 
Business College, writes a good hand. He 
also has our thanks for a club of subscribers to 
the Journal. 

J. H. McBride has been appointed special 
teacher of ^vriiiiig in the public schools of 
Greenville, Ohio. He is a skillful writer and 
teacher, and will undoubtedly show good re- 
sults for his work. 

W. E. Ernst, Mendon, Mich., writes , 
thusiastic letter, in which he incloses specimens Bui 

The gradimting 

of the New Jersey 

College, Newark, N. J., took pla( 

on February 15lh, Sixteen graduates received 
diplomas. The exercises were highly inlereev 
ing, consisting of music, orations, recitations, 
and an addre«i to the graduate* by William N. 
Barringer. Esq.. Superintendent of Public 
School". Wt> are glad to learn that the college 
is highly prosperous. 

Skrved Him Rkhit.— We clip the follow- 
ing from a late iosue of the Utica (N. Y.) 

College 1 
of Tyler's American Literature. ''The 
was his forty-first birthday. The gift 
was worthily bestowed." 

Back Numbers. 

All or any of the back numbers of the 
Journal, and since inclusive of January, 
1878, can be supplied. No number prior to 
that date cau he mailed. 

All the 48 back numbers, with any four 
of the premiums, will be mailed fur $3.25, 
inclusive of 1882, with the five premiums, 
for $4.nn. ^_ 

Careful statistics of New York city show 
the following items: 

Coat per day, in rouml utniiluMfi, i.f 

Religion $ l'.;.l)n() 

Theatres 15,()0U 

Tobaa;o :>5,000 

Bread 60,(100 

Rum 1()0,000 

Let each person read, consider, and come 
to his own conclusion. — Hughy Monthly. 

Paith in Handwriting. — A well- 
kuowu publisher, who also conducts an 
educational bureau, says "he does not be- 
lieve in having personal interviews with ap- 
plicants, as he thinks that a mi 
writing ia a much better indicat 
character than his appearance oi 
address." Business men will accept or 
ject an applica-nt for a situation solely 
the style u( his written application. 

of his 

The Penman's Aht Journal.— The 
January nutnber of this exquisitely fiuo peri- 
odical is replete with much that is interest- 
ing to penmen, accountants, copyists and 
others. ltd new title-heading is notliing less 
than a gem of artistic pen-work, and may 
justly bo taken as a reflection of what can bo 
douo at the oflSce of the publisher. The 
journal is doing much good in spreading the 
influence of a desire for clear and neat busi- 
ness writing. Its suggestions are always 
made forcible and attractive by being clearly 
and beautifully illustrated, and they are of 
lasting practical value. It is not only just 
such a paper as the more experienced find 
useful aud attractive, but is precisely what 
parents should place in the hands of thetr 
children as a stimulus to improvement in an 
important branch of their educatiou and ac- 
complishment. — The Book-keeper, New 

Not Responsible 

It eboald he distiU'tl) understood tha 
the editora of the JoOB^AI are not to hi 
held lu indoreing aoything outside of iti 
editorial columna, nil comuiUDicatious not | 
objectionable tn their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub 
lisbed, if aoy person differs, the columng 
are equally open ht hiin to say so and tell 

Tht oldest nt««papi.r in the worl 
published ID PckiD It IS printed ( 
hirgt tlieet of silk and, it is said litis made 
a weekly appearance for upwardA of a tho 
sand years 




Writing Copying Making Indelble Stamping Japan 

Stylographic Sympalhet c Gold S ve Wh te 

and Transfe 

mvs^.wm ff:""-^' "•'' 


Fmbmc ng Flu 





Sr'A'.tl''''"'' " "™ """"'"■ •■•"■' '""' '-'••'> '"« 

JlP?"lnl<. per pint boltle. bycxprcM #1.00 

^J'"'" '"•<■ I-'"- IwHIc. bv #j(preM ^ 

(iold ur Sllvijr Ink, J'Ui, IniI1Ii>, by vxvnu 5() 


^■gaii. ken, oooli net ~ 

^,^«.^^ <;o^-^^ 

\l A^tjiAailJ guSIHESS DBpiFttTlJ^lfljfr. 



'^«- "<*'"• '>"'"«'. per groaa (packed in ^8^. wood 

Poninnn'a Ink Cabinet, No. 1. 

PniCE, J2.00. 
loolm"!' ""',{""''"■'"« I"'"':.' (». boltlo e«eh of J 
nnjio. M.^^L .'i^'^W !^^ Kreon, Cuntrasl-Cannln 
oulet. Murconlile, Dcep-Uliicl:. 
1 hrefrqunrttT oud<'« boUio While Ink cind *.ouni 
Jlllo of bolh (lotd anil Silver Inks. 

PonnianV I„k Cabinot. No. i3. 

■L'oriiilne, Scarln 


Omce of Jaurs Vick, 


PiUiu. D. Ai.i.i.V( 

DtatSin Dui 

of my Ofllo* nn( 
»ln)n([1y r 


- - - ^ '"" * '"'')'■ jAUsa VicK. 

vv-ih!::'! r,i?ilS^''^''^4^-!«^^" •''veTf^urt;.'^: 

..L,. .in ir 1, Miuionvilk, Onondnga Co., N. Y 

. 8-ia 

V¥ .-i,,i.i,-i„^,| niijlnc**«. Ki>ow«lp?of 
■' '"■'"'•' !'■ >*''''f™»l'-0, 80x533.1. Boston. 

*,,,r,wL"!r "".^ "'■<=. i'*«"'-"'y««'' /'■«'" ««r o«./, ;«H-r.,.ri-,;,A ™pj/ fij^ (Ac Mo,» Engvavin,, Co., 555 i'eaW Street, and are nivtn a, 
rZZffjTr^'ZT/ I ' ^^^-^^ravcd, and also as speci.^.. of tke «.. ColUoe Currency, .Kick ,« ' ar. «.» prepared 

ItuplicaUs of either of the above cut». oho of tht denominatio,is of One', and Twentv'$ mil be sent for ^A no Th... ,.m 1 / ^ 
anat^n^^trationj^,,,^^,,^^^^ eircuU.. of institutions teLing actual b^ndL ^ ^^■^'' ""''' "'" " ^'""''' 

Thf Penman's Art Journal, publisheii 
by D. T. Ames, 805 Broadway, New York, 
monthly, at $1 per year, is a neat substan- 
tial periotliejil, adaptetl to meet the retiuire- 
ments of all classes who desire to either im- 
prove their haudwriling or instruct others in 
■the art. It is more especially devoted to 
practical writing, and it does not advocate 
spread eagle, etc., nourishes, but it ofl'ers 
much sound and sensible advice to writers, 
and points out many features wherein busi- 
ness writing may be improved without en- 
deavoring to acciuire the skill of a profes- 
sional penman. 

lis editor and publisher. Professor D. T. 
Ames, is a gentleman of rare talent and 
great skill in penmansliip, and in courts of 
law, as an expert of handwriting, has won a 
repu;ation which places him quite at the 
head of that important class of witnesses in 
cases where forged, disguised or anonymous 
handwriting forms an element of inquiry. 

Parents who wish their childrrm to become 
interested in good penmanship could not 
do better than subscribe for this valuable and 
very interesting paper ; sample copy free.— 
ne iPasmk) Hem. 

Family RKr*,™,.. » ueBim;ui «ujfnvviiir "OxaS 

We have just received the January num- 
ber of the Penman's Art Journal, which 
contains a review of a 'series of lessons in 
practical writing which has been going on 
for more than a year in ihe Journal, and 
which, if tho inslnictious be implicitly fol- 
lowed, will surely lead tlie worst writer to 
acquire a good legible business hand. The 
review is worth more than a year's sub- 
scription to the Journal. Every issue of 
iliis paper is inviUuable to the amateur 
writer especially. 

As a means of increasing his already large 
siibscriptiou-lisi, the editor offers, as a pre- 
niiiim, a choice of one out of five fac-siiniles 
of elegantly executed pen-drawings, Ihe 
sight of which would encourage a student to 
improve his handwriting.— ITIe WetkluJIem 
Jan. 2J, 1882. 



tyle of writing berelofore tuughl in not acc«plable to tho average banker or merchant 

The demand in btuiness hottsea. banks, and telegrapUoffloe*, U for book-kcepef«, c 

vdof aomuohlioiiriab. We h 


at tlie cupitalB and looped led 

' objBQl being to do away with 

made, botb pliun. but one ael li 
are tho most liiglily arllallo ai 

loythiug iif Ihe kind lieretofore publii 
e printed on beavy paper, put op in 
; lo your iuioreat to purcbaio these i 

Hoping to hoar from yo 
Sample ut unt upon reotipt o 

d bear nobody's adver 
id wUl be glud lo corr 


79 Madison Street, qiiioafto. lU. 

pLEASK READ.— For lOcuI will send you by return 
and'""'' r '."^/".''V' P'lo'o-engmving of my HoiinBhiog, 

Literary and Commercial. 

soiiio Institution. Busi- 
neHHCoUeseppefeir-ed. Is a grad- 
uate of botli a r.iterai-v and Com- 
merc-ial College. Has been a prac- 
tical Book-keeper and A 
and for many years a 1 
Coimnercial Bi-anches 

Address, A B C, 


HarioHvilte, Ouoiidufja County, N*-w York, 

Proprioior of Swift'*. NRWei-Ai'Kii Club AfiExcv, 

I Sympalhelic^ 8 li 
Iliads; Green. 2 Uiids: Velloiv. Bi'owa. Violet,ll"'kl?dr^ 

«.. U.S." stamp 
tr Club-tut (iws n 

"The bcAt textimonial a book can have in f/ir 
name* of those who use ii." 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

For the Scluml and Cnimtiiig-ruom, \i iiuw in 

use in many nf (lie leading Colttfues, Acn- 

J«n.:„. ..».! U..I — 1. :„ •!.:. . 


mies nnd Si'hooln in tliis country 

I'm nuiiDM* Coll(«i 



N. Y. 

ilwlelplila, Pa. 

Illinoli Wealei-nn Unirprally* ItimincM CoHego 

'. Pattenon, N. 


.' Lima. I 

. ColliKovitiD, 



Arranged for use in Business Colleges, High Schools, 
and Academies. 

This work embodies Ilie Inicst antl most ; 
Being taken fram the nctunl hookR of bnsitir' 
ly pi-actlcal. nnd commends itself 

THF, !ii.\TTKi{. The student wil! IItkI in this work i 
on3; and tnachcre wiW And that every page contains 
lie work to be done by the etudent is pcrhaio double ■ 

In oi'dei' to nccommodate schooU o 

n flue heavy j 

ovcd forms nnd methods in the Hclence of 

nscs. nnd not tlie result of thcovfglng, It l£ _... 

ICO alike to business men and t«flchei« of practical ideas. 

ioua snbjects is aucb Its to render the BCfjnisltlon of n imind 

le slndtnt of Hvoi-nge ability and indnstr>-. The students' 

. n ;ti! tr, - r. Ill- )>i evented until the mind has been carefully 

' "Kllments of the science to the most intrl- 

" ' '".V to be within the capaclly of beginners In 

|jil:j>4i ■: ih>.j ■n.dtiit for any department of accountantship. 

ftsto matei-ial, and no Irrelevant disens- 
ter of weight onU value, nnd only such, 
found in any other similar treatise, 
grad^js, the work Is issued In two edltfons. printed 

stof eld 

Tlie aliove ar* some of tlie )pading inBtitu- 
tiona now using ilie Class-Book of Commercial 
Law, and who speak in tlie highest lerms of 

Tlilf work ii a phin. praelteal ejolanation of the Laws 
of Biisin«M. DESIGNED sii<t ARUANOED eiiHwIally 

Single copies sent postpaid ( 
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. Afftncy, In- 


To Whom it may Concern 


Manual ,-l l;,"lm.,. l'i-,„ii,, 


^■'^ Detroit, Mich. 

Bryant's New Series. 

EloilTii Editio.v. CorYR7GHTEn, 1881 
By .7. '.BRYANT, M.D., 

The Counting House Edition 

..J.WpaS».otii-hlol.«imge.nioduvol<-cl lo Pvcll,nln:.,.v l.scio<.» ,„„1 nam\ Bnslncss: )i 

pagegtoWliolesnloMercbandialng: 12pngc9toFarm Ac( :n ] ,;, . i,, Lumber AecoimtB' J{ 

pagMMMannracturlng; 13pa8estoStcamhoa«iiB:12pu^-.. ! ,: -" MigiMto Cominlsalm 

.^3 liagestoDanking; tlicremainirigpai'tof thewoi'kto nil- 

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The High School Edition 

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and llie only .el recon.niended lo 



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Counting-House-Book keeping." 






119 AND 121 \Vl,.,.,A.M STRKET, NKW YOI.K. 

Shading T Square. 




Woonsocket, R. I. 

Gold E%. (fnur Btj'l.s of corner). 1.25 and 
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t'iffi-l run;.: IJevel (four Btyleti), 3.70 per 

Envelope Bfvpl, 4.50 per thousand; with 

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Flower Emli., Turned Corner, new, 5.75 per 

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Gold Border Card, Bristol, Red, Black, Blue, 

and White, 2.00 per thousand. 
Postage on one thousand cards, 25 cents. 
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Reference: D. T. Ames, and all the leading 


■ercml appropriate and at! 

nflTOve.1 esp-H-lally for rtinpli 

CHlaI.if;u«j. iMiieJ bv IW 


We hare the yny bc«t TacilitiM for exMiitiDir. to 

I* addreaal io J. c, DRY, 

linen t educalon 1 
^^"1^ All ORl 


Uoore'K Btuloeu UDivuvlly. 

July, 1881. 





Of «np<nrlor ENOI.ISH 
luaaufflu^lure; In '20 Num- 
bers, Suifnbli' to every 
style ot writlnir. 


Boiretl M«eb^ti'"fi»Mro«rMm° A'«^ninDU. Ffflrmen MecUaniM. TcsPhcm nnd SiudeoM. and tpwially nr 
Urd iSl,.^^ A I-b" CTICA). T>,XT.BOOK (or Bu...«. Uull<«», Illg). ScLmoU Ae«l,m« ..J l.n,.,r. 

Ih- undenlgnol. und by him penonnllj- i-"i..i • i : ■ r\ i;it A SIXTH OP A CENTUBY. 



<M ih« nbor« wort, Iwginnlng with llic «ul.jwt of Poroenlogo, k« imblithed in ^"P'^J^^^^j ''p^' j'^"^';.|;' 



Jli-Jmi b™. ooioplel.1. nnd eo,npri.M iffl png... boginnin, xtiih 11., inliodnclion "' A«"«»*«""f .tjSfi" 
...l.)"! of PTOontmt.. Tbe of ll.e vunoiu iiibloM. onn. nl cr«m».. 1 l.o method, are .idopio 1 
iiw. pniniotti nnd nciontillc. Mony lntcro»1in|i nud novel lenture* nne prcwntcd wdh llie wnio cbaractensno 111 

B i« boUered thi« ArithmMio. n« now pnbllehed. preeenls iucb fenlure* of ImproTement and pregreM na 
tbe olotm tbat it !■ more llioroiiKli. oomplele nnd pmctioal tbon ony eimditfworl; now before^the public.^ 



SAMPK^KN of the Iciul- 
iiiiniberM, 10 Pcnx. 
un receipt of 10 




pi Series oif 

^^^opc/iAfisr£Si PSA'S M use *• ' 


Eaion and Burneff's Book-keeping. 


KiN.m H. K, IlihI.nnl. I'lni-MK.! Miviini A Si.-mU...! S,!,.,.,!. Hi.Bt Mass.: 

IVom ChiirlpK CI. 

Fi-om 8. S. Pnckarcl. PieeiiWnt Piickm-d' 
#'«- C<.unling.Ho.»(- Arilhmeli. 

PKif. Linv mid MallieniaticB, Rocliff 
ri ml loimn uot only pleadng. but ad 

hIioo], Brooklyn. N. Y.: 
s Cullegp, N(?w York : 

r Buainese Un'uitj, Roclieeter, N. Y.i 

1.. I'l-incipal Allen's Grove Hiyli School, Wisconsin: 

. r .1 .i.^d in ecbotil. A full explanalion b ffiven of busine 

■'. ..Il'iiis. covering ever>- poealblv cliange of form, bnt no p 

Buaiiiess Collvgu, Washinglon, D. C; 
■field, 111.; 

rrOmH. C. Sp.;.iu.'i. l'ii.-i.lru[ > 

Jrom S. BogarduB, President Springfield BiiBiness College, Springl 
"It la giving great iiati»lhi-lioii to (liirtont* nnd teochore. Tho paplanaff.. 
I<o(ntod. I oiii glad to give jour \Nork my hearty npprovBl." 

I'S^m O. A. Gaskell, Principiil Jwrsey City Biisinees College, Jersey City, N. J.: 

and puplli a» d.rtng iniicb bettor work llian formerl>' with other books.' It is certainly &r iu adv 

JVim A. B. Clark, Principal Bryant & Sti 

Its I 
Fiiini W. A. Fraeier, Principal Conn 

I'roni J. M. Martin &, Bros.. Propni 

■■ In our opinion it ii the 1k«1 Text-Iloi 

fully iayJhBt no liavo bMii aWo t.i uofoiiiplii 

Fron. 11 M M.I. .nil]:,,, rinnVJ r 

BneiiiesH ('ollege, Newark, N. J.: 

■rcial Institiite, Oberlin, Ohio : 
de<nde<t to lue it in onr HhooU." 

9 College, Galesburg, III.: 

> C. F. Carhart. Priticipnl Folsom"* BneiiieeB College, Alliany, N. Y.: 


Address W. II. SADLER, Publisher, 

Xos. G and 8 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 



HX Ame5 . 205 BHcanwA-Y. 


t application iii miiiii*niu» foniis, and *iilj- 
[lil, for einmlDation. tl 15. 

Eaton and Burnett's Commercial Law. 


f Questions and answer 

ipi. Corporations. Bailment 




Eaton .)■• Jiumclt's liutineit CalUge, 

ObND 10 tents in st 




I.KGB, Keokuk. 


11. W. Fl.lC 

)-— N. 


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C. N. CRANOLE, AHJil P«ni 

The Book-keeper 

the only paper of its 

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Published Fortnightly. 

Selden R. Hopkins ( c-jn,,-, E.Spraguei'^'''"'"- 




Kmbraelnj sisgi-b and houulb entry, ain 
Htlapttd to indlvldnul and class inalructlon li 




' ii..| ..| ,pi, .| I ",,-.- ,.t hiiHiness, 

1 III I 1 . 1 : 1 .vNT of CHlcago. 

If and^wiU liu 
1 businesa col- 
kan liny other 



-IS 1st ana UO Orund SUoet, New York ^tf 

Devoted to all matters of special interest 
to Accountants. Bankers, Merchants, 
Manufacturers. Counting-room 
Attaches, Instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 
having to do with 


Ancient and modern systems of Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 
sed and elucidated. 
Subscription. 82.00 per annum. Single 

copies, 8 cents. 
Specimen copies sent free to prospective 
An Agent wanted in every city in the 
United States and Canada.' Full com- 
pensation guaranteed. 

The Bookkeeper, 
76 Chambers St., New York. 
Post-Otfice Address, P. O. Box 2126. 

Slinitril.XSD-writiny Ihomugbly taugLl by 
■r,ni,»t..n-; uiUfuonou Buura.iteed. Send iiai 
s,,«.imoi, and circular. W. W. Hll.TOK, Pittsburgb. 

•' Entered at the I'ott Office of A'ew Fort. N. T.. at second-class matter." 


Vol. VL— No. 4. 


Taught in cIom, jtrivutely or by i 
M. Q. KIMftEiiL, Vfiii.rtn.i«o. Incl. 


U. T. AMKS, 


Bxamluer ut Questioned Bsndwi-lting, 


40 Court Streel. Brookl)-!). N. Y. 

C. N. CRANDLB, Valporauo, 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 
No. XX. 

Uy D. T. Ames. 

, „ , , ///^n <) ■ /■ 

' // f/ ' I / '/ ^/ 

■ / y 

/- -^ w y \y 1. ^ 

In bonk-keepiug and all business writing 
where figures constitute n considerable pro- 
portion of tlie worit, it is very essential that 
they be uiado not only well^but with celerity. 
We therefore present as the closing lesson 

)ur course a <!opy of the figures. Too 
much caro cannot ho taken in study aud 
practice of this copy. Most writers make 
their figures much too large, they should be 
. made about twice the size of the contracted 
letters, i. e., they should occupy two spaces, 

ho the height of the i and d. Good 
figures add very tnaterially to the appearance 
of writing. To present a pleasing appearance 
they should be made with great uniformity 

•cgnrds form, size and shade, and in all 
book-keeing and mathematical operations 
great care should also be taken to give every 

ro its proper place. Many years obser- 
vation as a teacher of accounts and arithme- 
tical brnuchcs has shown to ua that more 
tniBtakes iu book-keeiug and all matliemat- 
ical operations result from want of proper 

I in locating tiigures correctly in their 
respective columns than .iny other single 
ftuse; and second, na a source of error are 
nperfect aud doubtful forma for instance : 
the 3 is so made as to ho mistaken for a 5, a 
4 for a !>, or t'lcc versa. The following are the 
forms wliich we would recommend for the 

figures. They should ho practiced upon the 
■arm movement, first separately and then 
Id their proper order. 

As we announced last month, Prof. H. 
C. Spencer, of Washington, D. C, will, 
in th«t next issue, begin a course of 
twelve lessons in pmbtical writing. The 
instruction will he carefully prepared by H. 
C. while the illustrations will be by Lyman 
P. Spencer. Thus the lessons will present 
the combined skill and experience of the best 
teaching and artistic talent of this country, 
and we might say of the world, for we be- 
lieve that no system of writing in the world 
has equal merit ov is as universally popular 
as Spencerian. Henry and Lymmn Spencer 
are its great masters. Were the cost of 
this course of lessons ten dollars instead of 
one dollar, it would still he cheap, and should 
give th.e Journal one hundred thousand pat- 
rons, but when obtainable for the small sum 
of one dollar or less, every toache mpil and 
person seeking to write a hotter ' id should 
become a subscriber. Thf lillioua of 

persons who would fi- ar thus 

invested to pay good d" 

Force of t-u. 


In the poetry of Cliaucer we find this 
beautiful crmception. The poet is trans- 
ported in a dream to the House of Fame. 
It is thia ; Suddenly a golden eagle, which 
soars near the sun, and glitters like a car- 
buncle, descends with the swiftness of light- 
ning and carries him off in his talons above 
the stars, dropping him finally before the 
House of Fame, splendidly built of beryl, 
with shining windows and lofty turrets, and 
situated on a high rock of almost inaccesible 
ice. All the southern side was graven with 
the names of famous men, but the sun was 
continuously melting them. 

On the northern side, the names better 
protected atill remained. Within the temple 
all is magnificence. He enters, and iu a 
high hall, wainscotted with gold, euibossed 
with pearls, on a throne of carbuncle, sits 
the Queen of the Temple. Stretching from 
her are the pillars on which stand the great 
— they who climbed over the ice-rock and 
left their names there. 

Perhaps the grandest proof of man's inhe- 
rent divinity is his'potcer to do. His cura- 
tive power and strength of will make him 
capable of the grandest possibilities. But 
there is also such a thing as failure. Hu- 
man life is strewn with wretched failures. 
Mure men fail than succeed. What is the 
seci-et of success? Minerva, it is said, 
sprang full-armed from the brain of Jupiter. 
Success is of slower birth. This goddess 
never springs forth in full glory from any 
combination of circumstances, any fortuitous 
act-ident or blind chance. It sometimes ap- 
pears so, but it is only in appearance. We 
sometimes see men shoot up from compara- 
tive insignificance with the brilliancy of 
stars of the first magnitude. We wonder 
and cry " a genius ! " — but how long have 
those fires been burning unseen? A few years 
ago Motley shot up to the first position as 
an historian. Many wondered, but it was 
no wonder. The secret lay in the years of 
patient toil in the libraries of the old and 

' worlds, when lie had ^ 

ught un 

of I 

There is such a thing as genius. But 
what is genius ? What but the light of the 
fire of an earnest soul t -what but tcorkf 
" Genius ia a faculty for hard work," says 
one genius. " I can plod," said Dr. Gary, 
when asked the secret of his wonderful suc- 
cess. Button said of genius; "It is pa- 
tience." Aud this accords with the facts. 
Men of the most distinguished genius have 
invariably been the most indefatigable 
workers. We make all allowance for acci- 
dental advantages. Doubtless the advan- 
tages possessed by some at the very start 
are great and valuable — as a thorough 
training and culture, such na Sumner ac- 
quired I y the aid of means and social posi- 
tions. But it is true, also, in such instances, 
that their real power and greatness are 
owing mainly, not to those accidental advan- 
tages, but'to their own personal diligence. 

uld have becoi 

J the I 

ter mind he was but for his untiring energy, 
intending purpose and noble consecration 
to hi.'; life-work. No man ever became 
truly great by accideut. '* Ho happened to 
succeed" is a foolish, uumeaning phrase. 
No man happens to succeed. Success is 
not a heritage. The birthright of the soul 
is to do. Indolence never sent a man to the 
front. The deep things of thia world are 
not engineered by sluggards. 

The poet's fancy conveys a truth. To 
secure good there must he efl'ort and the 
higher the good the greater the effort. The 
House (if Fame can he reached only by 
climbing over the ice-rock, aud that the 
name may endure il must be cut iu the solid 
ice of the cold northern side. The truly 
great man is never shaped in the mould of 
circumstances by accident or chance. He ia 
rather like the monumental statue, cut by 
the hand of labor from the ahapeless and un- 
seemly rock. Succe-'B is the reward of 
effort. We must win it. This goddess 
crowns only the victor. This angel will 
not bless until we, like Jacob, have wrestled 
and conquered. •' The flighty purpose never 
is o'erlaken unless the deed go with it.'' 

But it is also evident that all workers 
are not successful. There are many who 
work — and who work hard — who yet fail. 
What then is the secret spring of successful 
efibrt? It is purimse, by which term I 
mean the aim steadily kept in view, the 
stimulus and the director of every eHort. 
There is a significance in this word purpose 
which expresses the thought exactly. It 
means more than intention, the fulfillment of 
which depends on circumstances. It is the 
fixed, steady, di^tenoined resolution of the 
soul, the temper of the man, which is not 
diverted by circumstances, but by the mas- 
tery of circumstances executes its will. 
When I speak of the force of purpose, 
therefore, I speak of a high, noble power; 
a force which characterizes the hero and the 
conqueror. I mean the power of will which 
refuses to be hound by circumstances, but 
which refuses to float like a straw upon the 
water to make the direction of the current, 
but which strikes out for itself, like a strong 
d buffela with the w.ives, di- 
ng its own independent course. It is 

the grandest element of manhood. Nothing 
ennobles a man so much as a high ideal. 

The holiest wedlock is that which unitei 
the soul to a pure and lofty purpose. And 
this is the secret of successful enterprise. 
Not merely the power to achieve, but the 
will to labor energetically and perseveringly. 
Not eminent talent so much as strong pur- 
pose. This is the secret spring of the soul's 
power. This ia the thought which we seek 
to amplify and illustrate in this lecture. 


There is such a thing as inspiration. The 
man who wrote "Paradise Lost "was in- 
spired. It was the inspiration of an idea. 
The man who led his forces across the Alps, 
cutting his way through rooks and snows, 
was inspired by a purpose. Let me illus- 
trate what I mean by inspiration. In an 
obscure street in the city of Florence, the 
eye of Michael Angelo discovers a block of 
marble, half buried in dirt and rubbish. 
Ho at once falls to work, clearing away its 
filth, and striving to lift it from the slime 
and mire in which it lies. His astonished 
companions a§k 'him what he wants with 
that worthless piece of rock. " Oh, there 
is an angel in the stone," is the answer; 
"and I must get it out." He has it re- 
moved it to his studio, and, with patient toil, 
with mallet and chisel, he lets the angel 
out. That is inspiration. You may call 
it enthusiasm, but I call it inspiration: 
But inspiration implies its source. The 
source of a man's inspiration is his ideal. 
The law of the soul is growth, but the 
condition of growth is aspiration. A man 
must work after an ideal. If he is to 
advance, lie must liave somethieg ahead 
of him to attract him forward. The ideal 
inspires enthusiasm aud purpose paints the 


Many of you have read the story of Hanni- 
bal's consecration. At the close of the first 
Punic war he was but nine years of age. 
His father, about to cross his array into 
Spain, stood upon the shores of Carthage, 
reflecting bitterly upon the triumph of the 
Romans, and his great spirit was stirred 
within him. Thus occupied, he was ap- 
proached by his child, who entreated the 
father to lead him with the troops into Spain. 
The great parent breathed upon the martial 
spirit of his son, and, leading him to the 
altar, bade him touch the sacrifices, and then 
swear that when he became a man he would 
be the enemy of Kome. In that hour the 
purpose of Hannibal's life was formed. 
There was born the power that made Italy 
tremble at its tread, and shook haughty 
Rome to her foundations. That purpose 
inspired the life of Hannibal. It gave 
cemrage in battle and strength in deft at. 
The man with a high purpose will dare. 
He will master circumstances. He will 
force his way through. Defeat will but fire 
anew his brave heart. His high purpose 
gives impulse to every action and soul to 
every effort. 


The rays of tlie sun when concentrated, 
will burn a hole through an inch-board. 
Scatter a baiTel of gunpowder over a wide 


space and applj^ the inatvli and ita power is 
trifling; but plac« it iolo the drilled rocks 
and it will lift Had rend tbem. Separate 
the atoms which make the baininer, and 
each would fall oa the stoo<^ aa a snowHake ; 
but welded into one, »iid wielded b; the finn 
arm of the quarryinan it will break the mas- 
sive rocke asnoder. Divide ihc waters of 
Niagara into distioct and individual drops 
aud they would h<> no more than Ihe falliDg 
rain ; but in their united b()dy they would 
quench the firea of Vesuvius. So of etfort. 
There must be a central point. Power 
must be concentrated to a purpose. No 
great work is done with one hand. The 
gdoeral cause of failure on the part of 
workers is the expenditure of their energies 
without the dire<!tion of a controlling pur- 

This thought is illustrated in the babita 
of scholars. Every student knows that the 
first condition of successful study ia that of 
fixed uttentioD or concentratioD of thought. 
The mighty intellecta 
of every age have been 
distinguished for this 
power. " It ia said of 

.Mau was held in God's thought from 
eternity, and at length lie walked forth the 
product of eternal purpose- Nor has God's 
patient toil yet ceased, for still " through the 
ages one increasing purpose runs.'' God's 
lesson is this — there is no well-doing, no 

Jonson was a mason, and worked with a I said: "Great men of science, literature 
trowel in hLi hand and a book iu his pocket; I and art — apostles of great thoughts and 
Bunyan was a tinker. The only school of lords of the great heart — have belonged to 

God-like doing, that is not patient doing, i sacred 

Drew, the essayist, was a cobbler's stall ; 
aud that of Hugh Miter, the great geologist, 
was a stone quarry ; Doints, the great 

his boyhood, a slave, 

there is no great achievement that 
result of working and waiting. Great re- 
sults cannot he achieved at once. That 
which is to endure must be reared securely. 
Sure foundations must he laid, and upon 
tbem strong timbers symmetrically joined 
before the building is ready for roofing. 
Who are the masters? They are the pa- 
tient toilers. Titian spout eight years on 
one painting. Kepler spent seventeen years' 
toil over a single law of the heavenly bodies. 
Cyrus W. Field toiled incessantly for thir- 
teen years before the Atlantic cable was 
successfully laid. So of all great movements 
which bless mankind. " The thoughts that 
the age '' are of slow growth. They 

and stole his first lessons at night 
master's studio ; while Paul Kubeos, the 
beginuer and head of a great epoch in art, 
in early life was a servant. Our own coun- 
try atforda many grand examples. West, 
America's pride in the proud school of art, 
was a country boy from Chester County, ol 
our own State ; Jefferson, Clay and Web- 
ster came from farms. Horace GreeleyJ the ! step fr 
greatest journalist of his age, came to New ! stumbled 

exclusive rank or class in life. They 
have come alike from colleges, work-shops 
and farm-houses ; from huta of poor men 
and mansions of rich. Some of God's great- 
est apostles have come from tlio ranks." 
What men want is purpose, an expansive 
faith, and elastic hope. In nine cases out 
of ten failure is born of unfaith and faint 
heart. The man who would succeed dare 
not cry over spilt water. He dare not be 
disheartened by mistakes. He must organ- 
ize victory out of mistakes. The men who 
. to peak like gods, have first 
the very rudiments of climb- 

York City, when a boy, seeking employ- 
ment, with all his wardrobe tied up in a 
pocket-handkerchief, and all his fortune of 
a few shillings in his pocket. Henry Ward 
Beecher commenced his brilliant career at 
the very foot of the ladder, being both pastor 



midst of the bustle of 
an encampment, he 
fell into a profound 
meditation and stood 
with thf immobility 
of a statue from one 
morning until the sun 
rose on the next. The 
celebrated matlx 
tician of Syracuse, 
Archimedes, was so 
absorbed by his ma- 
thematical researches 
as not to he disturbed 
by the invasion and 
capture (»f the city by 
a hostile army.'' It is 
said of Dr. Robert 
Hamilt«m, one of the 
most profound and 
clear-headed thinkers, 
and om< of the 
amiable men, that he 
became so completely 
absorbed in his reflec- 
tions, as to lose the 
perception of external 
things, and almost 
that of his own iden- 
tity and 
The foUov 
what amusing por- 
traiture was drawn 
by the hand of one 
who knew him: " In 
public the man was a 
shadow ; pulled ofl' his 
but to his own wife in 

■mg 1 

ing. Men must have the spirit of "self- 
help," for fortune favors the brave. 
" Heaven helps him who helps himself." It 
is true, success may be long in coming j the 
brave man may close his eyes ore it cnmee, 
but he assured whatever has life in it will 
tell. A noble purpose 
i-tal, and com- 
ing ages will crown it. 
When Milton wrote 
his " Paradise Lost," 
he had to wait ten 
years before he could 
find a publisher, and 
the whole amount re- 
ceived by him and his 
family from the copy- 
right of it was only 
£28. Here is a criti- 
that, to us, is 
and amusing ; 
it is from the pen of 
Waller, a popular 
poet of that day. 
"The old blindsehool- 
master, John Milton, 
hath published a tedi- 
ous poem, on the fall 
; if its length 
be considered a merit, 
it hath no other." To- 
day Waller holds a 
only by sufferance, 
while English history 
presents no grander 
figure than John Mil- 
ton. He is one of the 
four great peaks of 
English literature — 

the siree 


The above cult were photo-engraved from copy executed by O. A. Gruman, teacher of writing at Faddis'a St. Paul {Mi 
Businets CotUge, and are given at apeciment of off-hand jlourithing and practical muscular writing. 

J^yd'yU^^ .^p.'^r^^ 

ud apolo- 

t having the plei 

iiuaiutaui-e; went to his classes in the col- 
lege on ihe dark mornings, with one of her 
white stockiogs on one leg, and one of his 
black ones on the other ; often spent the 
whole time of the meeting in moving fiora 
tlie table the hats of the students, which 
I hey as constantly replaced ; sometimes in- 
vited them to call upon him, and then fine 
them for coming to insult him. He would 
run against a cow in the road, turn round, 
bi-g her pardon, madam, and hope she was 
not burl. At other times he would run 
against posts and chide tbem for not getting 
out of his way; aud yet his conversation, 
at the same time, if anybody happened to 
be with him, was perfect logic and perfect 
music." It is true, such a state of mind is 
hardly to he coveted, hut it illustrates the 
thought on which we have been dwelling. 
• It is the oontrulliug puqiose which coucen- 
tniles power to the aciiievement of its end. 

begin deep down and slowly win the: 
ward way, until the mind grasps them 
prehensively, and the living thought 


" The world was not made in i 
saj-s the old adage. God was in 
to make it. Who ran reckon 
during which God wrought to i 
B dwelling-plaoe ' 

The true masters — the Wellingtons and 
Bismarcks, Lincolns and Lutliers— are men 
of purpose, men who were educated in the 
sidiool of self-discipline, who intelligently 
form and manfully pursue a purpose. 

I am not a worshiper of laws, hut I do 
honor true human greatness. I have faith 
in the great possibiUties of a true manlmod. 
I believe with Shelley, that the Almighty 
has given men and women arms long enough original 
to reach the stars, if they will only put them i was raised to hard 
out. I am a strong beUever in the force of poverty until, in 1 
purpose. Biography abounds in grand illus- I completed his 
trations of its power. It is the magic " Se- 1 a n\Q%\ royal incou 
same " to the secret dour of success. Jeremy '. aro hut a few of thi 
Taylor, the " Spencer of the English affords of 
pulpit,'' came from a barber's shop; Shake- 

and sexton of his first church. James Gor- 
don Bennett landed in this country with a 
purse of less than twenty-five dollars, no 
friends, and no trade but that of book- 
keeper. Cyrus W. Field was a clerk in 
New York City. Abraham Lincoln rose 
from the position of a raftsman into the 
highest position in the gift of the nation. 
General Grant washed the tanner's stain 
from his hands, and marched victoriously to 
Richmond, aud then stepped into the White 
House. Eminent men in business circles 
afford like examples. Stephen Girard was 
once a sailor. John Jacob Astor knew 
poverty in his eariy life. George Peabody 
was an apprentice in a country store. Daniel 
a farmer's boy. Elias Howe, the 
of the sewing-machine, 

ho ; 

earth fit for i 

minute,** 1 pulpit,'' came from a barber's sbo] 
no hurry speare's father was a butcher aud grazier, 
the ages and he himself in early life was a wool- 
lake this comber; Cook, the navigator, and Bums, 
t the poet, were common day laborers ; Ben 

greatness by their 
herent power. They are the witnesses to 
the truth that there ia success for patient 
toil, inspired aud directed by a controlling 
purpose. Well and grandly has Smiles 

Shakespeare, Milton 
— while his conceited 
critic has long since 
been most lost in the 
mists of oblivion. A 
few years ago the 
poor,hunted , harrassed 
body of John Brown 
— - -— ^^.^ stretched on the 
Charlestown gallows. Was that defeat? 
No ; no ; for the soul of John Brown still 
goes marching on. Remember, always, 
the applause of men does not always honor 
success. How many beautiful lives there 
are which never come to the surface; some 
people's lives are like stones thrown into the 
still river at a time when crowds stand on 
the bank and applaud ; the circles are ob- 
served by all, and the admiration of the 
multitude grows greater as the circles widen. 
Others are like stones thrown into the river, 
when it flows through the shady forest, and 
no eye but the rewarding eye of God watches 
the circles until they touch either bank. 
But their lives are none the less profitable, 
none the less successful, none the less work- 
ing out of great purposes, because they are 
rk, and battled with j spent amid the vast silences of humanity, 
attic work-shop, he I The lesson for each one of us is this : We 
and finally reaped j need a patient will to toil, not for the bauble 
his reward. These I of praise, but for the merit of true success, 
imples which history j No such purpose can fail. Those were gooc 
se from comparative ' lines which the good Santo Teresa, of Spain, 
""■■ "' centuries ago: 

— Perm, Business ColUgt Journal. 


The oldest edticatioual institution in the 

rantryiathe Boston Latin School.— CWftc. 

A Bcliool of luechanical handiwork is to 
be organized in connection with Girard Col- 

Ex-Gov. Morgan, of New Yorlt, has given 
Williams CoUogo $80,U()0 to build a now 

The scIiodI population of Ontario is 
489,924, and the total expense of instruntinn 
is $2,W22,0r)2. 

The late William Wlieelright haa left 
$128,000 to found, in Nowhiiryi ort, Mass., 
a aehonl for instruction iu practical knowl- 

More than a thousand women are now 
teaching iu Switzerland. Girls are admit- 
ted to the high schools only in Zurich and 

Hci-ejiftsr any teaohor who accepts a pres- 
ent from pupils in the public achoola of 
Hamilton, Ontario, will he immediately dis- 

Agriculturo is taught in 27,000 of the 
34,000 schonls ef Prance, which have gar- 
dens attached in which practical instruction 
can be given. 

Koumauia Jias a population of 5,370,000, 
iiud but 118,015 children at school. Tlie 
total expouditurefor education ia SI,2.'JO,0(IO 
H year, and for ita military establislimcut 

Columbia College has 275 students in the 
Si^liool of Arts, 275 in the School of Minos, 
-J/l in the School of Law, CA? in the School 
of Medicine, and 22 in the Scho<d of PoUti- 
cal Scieucc. In all departments the college 
has 1572 students. 


The Greek Testament in the ancient 
tongue is now, by order of the Greek Gov- 
eruuiont, read in its 1,200 schools, which 
have 80,000 pupils. 

The first senior class of Colorado Uni- 
versity will ho graduated tliis year. It Iiaa 
six members. The wh<de number of students 
now in attendance is 118. 

Tho Unitm Theological Seminary at New 
"iork is in lu.k. Ex-Gov. Morgan's gift of 
-■*-*i»0,000 hits already been supplemented by 
uitts of SIOI',0(H) from D. Willis James, 
i..r an.'w dormitory; $50,000 from Morris 
K. Jessup, for library building; *riO,000 
from an anonymous friend for a Bibliwil 
theology, and several contributious of 

$5,000 and .$10,000.— AT. Q. Christian 

In St. Petersburg, this year, 980 women 
are pursuing the higher courses of educa- 
ti<ra; 010 of these students are of noble 
origin. Physics and matheimitics are studied 
by .52!, and 417 take literature.— iV. 0. 
Christian Advocate. 

Tho total value of school property in 
West Virginia is $l,74d,92i>. The scho<d 
pojuilatioD is 213,441, the attendance !»1, 
298. There are 4,327 public school teachers 
in the State, 117 of whom are colored. The 
average salary given to teachers is $2i).fil. 

The white population of the Northern 
States in 1860 was about 19,000,000; of 
the Southern States about H,000,000. The 
North had 205 colleges, 1,507 teachers, 
20,044 students, at a coat of $1,514,298; 
the South had 262 colleges, 1,488 teaehera, 
27,055 students, at a cost of $J,{i(»2,419. 
In the matter of public schools, sustained 
by taxation and free to all who chose to at- 
tend, the South, at thedate given, exhibits a 
painful contrast. The South waa far behind 
the North in the provision made for univer- 
sal education. In some towns free public 
schools were sustained, but no plans ade- 
quate for nuiversal education existed.— X*;-. 
J. L. BlcCulhj, in '■ Education." 

Educational Fancies. 
As the pen is beut, the paper is ink lined. 
Which waa the most formidable stand 
made for liberty? The ink-stand. 

Tommy asked his mother if the school 
teacher's ferule waa the board of education. 

"Why is the Latin a dea<i language?" 
wjis asked a hoy. " Because it is so much 
used oil gravestones," was tho reply. 

Teacher to a small boy : " What does the 
jiroverb say about those who live in glass 
houses f " Small hoy : " PhU doton the 

Hazing at Smith College, tho Massachu- 
setts institute for girls, is quite sweet and 
gentle. The new comers are seized, led into 
the main hall, presented with boucpieta, kissed j 
affectionately, and then shown the pictures 
and statuary in the art gallery. i 

being asked, " What is mist? J' vaguely r 
plied, "An umbrella." "And the 
to my question," said the teacher. 

"Where are yoi 

going, my little man ? 

To school." " Yo 

u learn to read? ' " No. 

To count?'' "No 

." "What do you do? 

I wait for school 

let out." 

A Vassar giil found that she must either 
give up her lover or her gum, and, after one 
day spent in reflection, she pressed his hand 
good-by, and said she would always be a 

Prof. ( lo(dting at his watch ) : As we 
have a few n)inutes left I should like to have 
anyone ask a question, if so disposed." 
Student: " What time is it, please? "■ 

— The Polytechnic. 

Class iu histoiy. Teacher: "Who waa 
the first man f " Fir/it hoy : " George 
Washington." Teaclier : " Next." Second 
hov: "Adam." Teacher: "Right." Firxt 
hay (indignantly): "I didu't know you 
meant foreigners." 

Atmospherical knowledge is ui 
ugbly distributed in our schools. 

t thor- 
A boy 

A teacher was trying to make Johnny 
understand the science of simple division. 
" Now, J(»hnny," said she, " if you had an 
orange which you wished to divide with your 
little sister, how much would you give her ? " 
Johnny thought it over a moment, and 
replied : " A suck." 

This is an Examination. See how sad 
those Boys look. Look at that Boy in the 
Coruer. He will Pass. He has Studied 
hard. He has all the Knowledge at his 
tinger-euds. See he puts his knowledge 
in his Pocket, because the Tutor is Look- 
ing. Come away Children l—Recoi-d. 

Pliiiy tells that Homer's Iliad, which is 
fifteen thousand verses, was written iu so 
small a spaee as to be c^mtained in a nut- 
shell; while Elia mentions an artist who 
wrote a distich in letters of gcdd, and en- 
closed it in the rind of a kernel of corn. 
But the Harren MS- mentions a greater 
curiosity than either of the above : it being 
nolhiug more or less tbau the Bible, written 
by one Peier Itales, a chancery clerk, iu so 
small a book that it could be euchised in the 
shell itf an ii^nglish walnut. Disraeli gives 
an account of many other similar exploits t<( 
that of Bates. — Common Sense. 

question about it," 
Crandall, the inveutor, as he sat in his me- 
chanical study in Brooklyn, at work upon 
something now, " a flying- machine can be 
constructed, and, as sotm as I get to my 
mark in money-making, I am going to con- 
struct one. r 

the bird is the model, just as the fish is the 
model for a boat. My notion is to make a 
body, egg-shaped, out of raw hide, drawn 
a model and formed when wet, and in 
> large wings of 
papier ma(!he. Those wings, of c 
he made like a bird's. It has often puzzled 
me to know how'a bird, after making its 
first leap from the ground, mounted higher 
and higher. I have, I am sure, discovered 
the mechanical method, and I provide for it 
by filling the wings with holes, and cover- 
ing the holes on the under-side with thin 
abutters made of light paper and opening 
downward, so that when the wings are 
raised against the air they will be sieves, 
and the resistance of the air will be lessened, 
and when they are lowered they will beat 
solidly against the air. These wings I 
should have made upon a frame, M'orking 
in a socket with a ball joint where they 
touch the boat. Now, a bird's body hangs 
below its wings when it flies. So should 
the boat of a tlying-machino. A bird can 
turn its wings almost at any angle. The 
man iu my Hying- machine can do the same 
thing by pressing upon pedals iu the bottom 
of his boat. He can thus have perfect con- 
trol of his course, and can shape it to any 
point of the compass." 

"What Mould be your motive power?" 
" Electricity. I would run the wings by 
an electric engine, operating a crank in the 
middle of the boat. I calculate that the raw 
hide boat would nut weigh over ten pounds, 
and that the elecirin engine would be of 
the same weight. The wings would he 
about the same weight. The wings would 
be about fifteen feet long, and the speed of 
the machine would depend upon the velocity 
with which these wings may bo worked. 
Sec what a weight in body the gossamer 
tlireads of a humming-bird carry, or tho 
wings a bumble-bee. Vet they tly at great 
8i)eed because ilicy move their wings with 
great rapidity. I think that with batteries 
of bottled elec^tricity and the tiny electric 
engines of great p(»wer the Hying-machino 
is taken out of tho category of dreams, and 
appeals to the inventive faculties of practical' 

** I believe that before another century is 
gone by, men may have llyiug-machines on 
their housetops in Brooklyn, that they can 
take a seat in them, turn a liny switch, and 
put their feet upon their pedals, unfold a 
moruiug paper, and cross over to New York 
with as litlle conreru as they can feel in a 
ferryboat, or as ihey uiay some time, snoner 
or later, feel on the bridge. The plan ia 
simple, and, as I am not n-ady yet to begin 
it, I hope some other inveutor will take it 
up."— 77ie Sun 

The Paean of the Pen. 

»ing. g«ii1« Mu«. U 


0( 111- P* 


A fWttt nMT •ong 

h«l ih* 






Attd dMd* of and 


KDd nnrli 


BiBg Id lb» wftcT ncmat* of 


And the pixMilc UttDDK *h 



EDtoTWd fbKll b* thj 


lb nil .b. 


And »:t, nnd mtd 

m. oft 

U latter ti 



Oit pot- 

ul thought, imptat 






e. WKllO 


The be«l. the wi»wi, n 



Tlw kings nod princ« o 

Had perishod in the filFuoo of dwire, 
Exwpt the potent speptro. tippM with fire, 

A kioRiIom out of nothlngDMshnd bTOUght, 
What won Ibo Poet nod hit whicp'ring lyre, 

* dyiB 


Y«l every deed is quarried in II 
And Writ indelibly beforo the 

Tns Pm — how viul its record a 
With ■tmodi of golden ivoion an 

What shall I do to become a Good 


By Pitoi-. H. Russell. 

I am just in recei])t of a letter from the 
BOD of an old and Yiilued acquaiotaiice who 
had lately graduated at Yale with distinction, 
and who is a splendid mathematician, a fine 
orator (and a most maguificeut scholar, but 
whose penmanship would discount Chonte's, 
Greeley's or Gerret Smith's for illegibility. 
Id the phraseoloyy of my frieud Packard, 
" he can't write for oold potatoes," and his 
signature, like the celebrated big injuD in 
Mark Twain's book, looked aa if it had 
been nn a dnmk for a year. 

Well, what is to be done, and what advice 
shall be given t To reply to the inquiry is 
my purpose. The young man tells me that 
from professional penmen lie is in receipt 
of a mimber of letters containing so many 
•iTora in apelUng and composition and «ith 
Buch abominable "Jim Crow" grammar, 
that he is loath to take the advice of such 
persons as authority u]»>n so important a 
Bubject. My advice to the young man was 
given vpry brieliy : Jst. Put yourself under 
a master of the art, and if you use ooe-lialf 
the effort to acquire a good hand\Triting as 
you have to acquire a knowledge of Greek, 
my word for it, you will succeed, and you 
will be sure to find good handwriting a 
thousand times more profitable thau any of 
the dead languages. 2d. Take all of the 
back numbers of tlie Penman's Art 
JouiiNAL, for they contain what will be of 
infiuitf service to yoii, viz., many valuable 
facts from several of the best known teachers 
and antliora in the United States. :id. Main 
tiiu diligent and fajtliful practice, remem- 
bering that the right kind uf practice makes 
perfect. And, finally, learn to love a good 
hand-writing for the and im- 
measurable beuffit it will confer upon you. 

"Man and wife are all one, are theyt" 
said she. "Yes; what of itf" said he, sus- 
piciously. " Why, io that case," said his 
wife, "1 cauic home awfully tipsy last 
night, and feel terribly ashamed of myself 
this morning." He never saJd a word. 

The cut below is photo -engraved as a spec- 
imen-page of a work, entitled, the Universal 
rniman, engraved and published by George 
Bickhan, in London, in the year IT.'JS. The 
w<»rk which is a rare one, both as respects 
its quality and extent, consists of 212, 14^ 
X 10 inch, plates finely engraved on cop- 
per, acd in its " day and generation " most 
have been a genuine treasure, not alone to 
professional knight?- of- the -quill but to all 
admirers of the " beautiful art." These 
were the days of which Byron sang : 

It gift— my grny-nooso-fnull '. 

The work covers the entire range of the 
penman's art, as represented in the design and 
work of twenty-nine of the leading contem- 
porary English writing mastere and pen 
artists. We believe that no other work 
upon the art of penmanship of equal mag- 
nitude has ever been published. Copies in 
this country are very rare, and when sold, 
command a price ranging from $15 to $30. 

General Remarks, Preceding 
Programme " C." 
Hv C. H. Pf.iiu K. 

The daily programme as given in the 
September number of the JouUNAL will, 
with slight modifications, serve the purpose 
of anyone striving to improve — either by 
his own efforts, or with that of a teacher, or 
both. The average student will tire with 
any class of work in one hour, and an op- 
portunity .should be given whereby a differ- 
ent set of muscles can be brought into re- 
quisition. The progmmme method dis- 
tinctly points out each class-work, and their 
remains but a wise application of the same 
to render the most effective results. 

The whole field of penmanship should be 
canvassed, that the student may the more 
readily understand the object aimed at, and 
thereby practice with the greatest intelli- 
gence. We have frequently said that intel- 
ligent practice is the only sure guide; there- 
fore, let everything conduce to this end, with 
the hope of creating a love for the work — 
a love that must be established ere we may 
look for anything beyond ordinary. 

The outlining of auy topic is essential to 
a thorough understnndiug and presentation 
of the same. That this is met in the pro- 
gramme plan, no one can deny. Let all 

amateurs justly consider Ihc same and profit 
by those who have wjiated half a life-time 
in scribbling and scrawling, vainly en- 
deavoring to acquire that which, with fair 
intelligence and far less practice, could be 
gained in one-fourth the time. 

How to practice : — After faithful practice 
for one hour, sny at whole-arm tracing exer- 
cises, rest about five minutes by sitting back 
in your seat and changing position generally. 
Lock the fingers ttJgether and bend the hands 
from you (palm out). Next press each hand 
with the otler, and if necessary leave the 
desk and practice calisthenics. Tlie second 
hour, practice upon figures in prograniine 
" A,'' under special directions from teacher. 

Ninety-nine out of every hundred of the 
human race must, if they would consult 
their best interests, Itave competent teacJiers. 

Some one will Hy off on a tangent and say, 
" I can make figures well enough, aud 1 
wish to learn to write." Not so fast, yoimg 
man. Let me whisper in your ear, that the 
poor results in writing of to-day are mainly 
owing to an imperfect conception of figures. 
Upon the other hand, good writing always 
follows good figures. Stay by them and the 
day will soon dawn with victory. 

The third hour, practice tracing- exercises 
— programme " C." — For beginners, repeat 
this course from Jay to day, advancing in 

each programme, as the ability of the student 
will allow. From one to three weeks will be 
consumed in learning the detailed plan and in 
getting thoroughly started to earnest work. 
There is more in having the beginners know 
how lo work, to become interested to practice 
intelligently, thau in anythine else. To leani 
how to write shonld be a foreign question to 

A free, firm, fearless movement must be 
established in order to insure a good busi- 
ness handwriting or produce a professional 
penman. . 

The cause of so much weak, flimpsy, in- 
sipid, characterless writing is because the 
attempts to learu arc direct rather than in- 
direct. Experiments have shown that to 
learn to write by ignoring certain move- 
meuts will always prove fruitless. To be- 
gin tbo study of music by attempting to 
play or sing " Home, Sweet Home," is a fair 
example of the beginnings of all the fail- 
ures in writing. But, if all the experienced 
teachers of penmanship in the united world 
should sign a death-warrant to this effect, 
and have it published in the Art Journal 
until 1900, the busy world would still, in 
part, keep the old groove, and death would 
be the only thing that would break the spell. 
In view of this fact, the people at large will 
ever stand in need of live, energetic and 
competent instructors in all lines of busi- 
ness, and it remains for the teachers of this 
chosen profession to instruct as this age de- 
mands, and not expect, to be in the front 
rank orhope to succeed without taking every 
advantage of the living present. 
{To be continued.) 

The Teacher's Aim. 

By E. M. HuNTSiNGiilt. 

The teacher of writing cannot set bis 
mark too high in regard to the teaching of 
the principles and established facts which 
underlie good ■writing j and which will from 
the start render the pupil's writing more 
easy, and continue to improve it after he is 
deprived of the teacher's help. Is not this 
the paramount object of every writing reci- 
tation under the direction of a successful 
teacher t 

Are not all worthy institutions striving 
earnestly to imbue the fundamental princi- 
ples which underlie all thorough training of 
the mind, and to awaken the pupil to a con- 
sciousness of to how small a degree his 
abilities have been developed, and how much 
there is yet for him to learn. 

Such disciplining, for the mere purpose of 
displaying on state occasions, would only 
tend to blunt the intellect of the pupil, aud be 
productive of a result entirely difierent from 
that desired by every thoughtful person. 

When a pupil has been trained philoso- 
phically, he becomes fully conscious that he 
has not constructed a grand and noble build- 
ing, which will bear the stern realities of 
time, but that he has only laid a firm found- 
ation, upon which, if he will, he can rear a 
magnificent edifice, imperishable both to 
circumstances and time. Such a structure 
would do tho builder and humanity in com- 
mou, great good; but if this foundation be 
left at the stage where it was when the pu- 
pil left school, it will soon become valueless 
and may crumble to pieces. Hence the train- 
ing should be systematic, making him the 
best possible citizen, morally, intfllectually 
and practically; tlien he will be better for 
himself n iw, and become a blessing and 
benefit to humanity. The honorable posi- 
tion the teacher of writing occupies forces 
him to draw a stimulating lesson (nun these 
facts. Is not the conscientious teacher will- 
ing to instil into tlie minds of his pupils these 
truths which, as a secret motive power, fit 
the pupil more thoroughly for a successful 
business career ? 

What a satisfaction to know that we have 
ourselves uuder such absolute control that 
the muscles of the arm dare not disobey 
the will, but, however reluctant, must pro- 
duce with the pen the picture the mind has 
■ Is not this exeeiitive ability one of the 





photo-tn!/ravcd, ONE-HALF tize, from, a Diptoma, got up for ifa^a Collegiate Imtttute, Napa, Cal., and is f/iveii as a specivien of Diplom 
■)as executed with a pen, at the office of the "Jomnial." The pfn-$hadvnrj 'ardttmd the UtUrlng of the head line and the tintmy in the panel t 
the word Diploma wan done with our patent T square. Orders for similar work pro\ap(ly filled. 

yliief poiuts in which thousands of our eager 
(lublif-school children sadly lack trainiDg ? 
Tliey are entirely devoid of the essentials to 
gtmd writing. In nearly all casestUe pupils 
ill'' made mere imitators, the teacher wiud- 
u\- ihem up with certain routine exercises, 
Stirling off at hap-hazard, at all degi-ees of 
-I'l ri], all kinds of positions of body, arm 
Mill] |ien, and whoever gets his page filled 
lii^t jirides himself that he has earned fresh 
Luncls. As a natural consequence of time 
so spent by thopupilsall kinds of awkward, 
'luuyling, imperfect work is the result. 

The teacher's ability shines through the 
pupil's Wfirk ; and ninety- nine percent, of 
what people generally call genius, is a talent 
for hard work j and the drudgery which some 
irailiors go through with, in making their 
I'ltjiils good writers, almost staggers belief. 

fhe piipiVs work must testify of the sMIl 
iir It) competency of the teacJier. 

Obligations to the Pen. 
Bv Paul Pastxok. 

ir there is any one instrument whose use 

1^ ;i!>sidutely uuivei-sal, it is the pen. The 

) 'wer of employing it has become almost 

:iii iuuiition. A child who cannot write its 

HIM-, appending some appropriate senti- 

'ii from the copy-book, is looked upon, 

u.i'iays, as a candidate for heathenism. 
i ' I ybody — of any consequence — is sup- 
I '-nl to be more or less of a penman. All 
■ l.i>s.s, all occupations, all degrees of ia- 
ii IliLTcuce, are dependent upon it. As a 
1 I't . we are under greater obligations to the 
}H u aud itsinventor, than to any other beiie- 
iit ir benefactor the world has ever known. 

L't us enumerate some of the advantages 
v\ r ,'QJoy from the use of this most perfect 
.n,i! yet most simple instrument. 

First. It is the most effective medium of 
|irr,^r.nal intercourse. People — and phiHso- 
]'l"'s too, if they will — may talk aboot the 
l-h'ssed direotnesg of speech, and the subtle 

:iiV;i.tliy which unites speaker and listener, 

but we — all of us — know in our hearts that 
we can unburden ourselves more frankly, 
more effectively, and witli less embarrass- 
ment and blunder with a good smooth pen 
on fair white paper, than we possibly could 
with our stammering and deceptive tongues 
face to face ! I would be willing to submit 
this question to a promiscuous jury of my 
fellow creatures, aud rest the case with them 
in perfect confidence, without the advancing 
of a single argument. 

Second. It is an instrument absolutely in- 
dispensable in all kinds of business. There 
is no enlightened form of human activity 
that does not, to a greater or less extent, 
employ writing. Some kinds of mercantile 
business are based entirely upon it ; these de- 
pend for their very existence and order upon 
their records. If these were lost, they lose 
with them the very clue to success. The 
whole structure, built for years with wisest 
and most assiduous care, must collapse, and 
a new business be built up upon its ruins. 
The first element of a business education is 
penmansliip. That well learned, a founda- 
tion is laid for all that is to follow. There 
is a certain orderliness and facility gained by 
the acquirement of a good business hand, 
which goes far towards making a young man 
skillful in his vocation. Indeed, it may be 
said to require a certain degree of culture to 
bo a good penman. No illiterate or coarse- 
grained man can write a fair aud graceful 
hand. So good penmanship is well chosen 
fts the test of business tact and proficiency. 
Employers desire to have those in search of 
a situation, apply in their own handwriting. 
(So far, at least, by practical men, is pen- 
manship regarded as an expression of charac- 
ter.) Learn to write welt, and yon will find 
that you have attained in so doing a far bet- 
ter equipment for business than if you had 
abstract study of the science of 
or trade. You have been gaining 
a larger culture than you know; you are 
solid at the foundation, and can go on to 
build fl8 higU fla you please, Vou little re- 

alize how much you owe to the little bit of 
cloven steel which has been so familiar to 
your touch for so long; but by-and-by you 
will begin to appreciate its value, and that 
appreciation wUl increase with added years 
and experience. 

TJiird. The pen is a source of great per- 
sonal enjoyment and profit to him who truly 
loves it. One great spur — perhaps the 
greatest — to the genius of an artist or a 
poet is the delight and exaltation of spirit 
which he enjoys in ctmtemplation of what 
be has created. This same spirit is present 
to every true penman j for lie also is an 
artist, and deals with relations of beauty and 
order fit to enchant the faithful toiler, and 
reward him at last with the full contempla- 
tion of his ideal. And unt enjoyment mere- 
ly does he gain from his utve of the pen. It 
brings him rich aud full returns of practical 
benefit. The artist is rich not imly in the 
joy of having created a beautiful picture ; its 
value can be expressedalso in terms of dollars 
and cents. Ho oivns — because he hnshought 
by faithful labor — he owns skill, and that is- 
the most saleable commodity in the world. 
So with the penman. He may delight in the 
product of his skill as a personal achieve- 
ment, but ho is also permitted to enjoy the 
reflectkin that it is of value to his fellow 
creatures ; that ho has made a place for him- 
self in the world of activity and usefulness, 
and that henceforth his company is better 
than his room. In fact, there is no talent 
to-day which pays better to cultivate than a 
taste for penmanship. The age is distinct- 
ively a business age, and penmanship lies at 
the very doors of commercial success. The 
great majority of young men begin their 
career without capital ; they work their way 
up. To such let me say, good penmanship 
is the 7iext best thing to abundant capital — 
iu fact, I do not know but what, in the 
long run, it is a better thing. At all events, 
it must be your passport to success. It is 
an '* Open sesaniel" to almost any count- 
ing-room, and afterward^ & goldeo ladder 

that leads you back to airy leisure again, 
with your pockets and your hands full of 

I have been much interested in reading 
an autograph pamphlet, lately issued by a 
well known Commercial College, in which 
graduate -pupils of the same write hack to 
theii- -<iZ7tta Matei; from the various places 
of responsibility and trust which she has 
enabled them to obtain. How readily they 
gain employment, and in what pleasant 
places their lines are cast ! From well known 
business houses, from banks, and schools, 
and public offices, they write, and even the 
stereotyped page seems to glow with the 
gratitude and enthusiasm of youth. It is 
but a year — or, perhaps, even less — since 
they graduated, and yet already they are far 
along on the highway of success ! What 
other educational enterprise can send out 
such a Salutatory as that to its alumni and 
patrons? While the graduates of classical 
institutions are disentangling themselves 
from the webs of antiquity, these free-limbed 
youth are bounding forward toward the 
goal of their hopes. Ah ! give me to choose 
between a pile of musty obsoletes as high as 
Caucasus, and a nib of steel with teu drops 
of ink, aud Iwoulde'enburrowmy way down 
through the former, if there wore no other 
way to reach the latter ! At all events, I 
would become possessed of the pen and ink, 
and rid of the classics ! The world owes 
more, 1 fancy, to Joseph Gillott and Ester- 
brook than she ever did, or will, to Socrates 
and the Seven Wise Men of Greece. 

But let us remember — there is no success, 
under the m()st favorable auspices, without 
work. Much as we owe to the pen, we must 
owe something to owselves, or we shall 
never succeed. 

loried, '■ WhfttaglarioiulLiojtitmuBt lie 

Au<l Ibe hand.sliaktDg going sboul, 

'' Befbro you oan bo In a ablp oomlog tn, 

Yuu maittn lo ft lUp goUif outl '■ 

Piil>li~h«d Monlhly 111 »1 I.<-f Ynai-. 


8;njilK iOMniim, 25 c«nt. j-tr U..» ii.iMi«f.-il 
I Mlumn »sV' iiVm 11110.110 fl^flO 

i ;; m.i 30.00 m.oo w.m 


Wo hiii»«' III randPf lli« JOUilHAI. •ufllrienlly interert- 
ti>ir And ntrmollTe tn MPitn, nul only the (mtruniur" ot 
nil H111M who nm InlcrMliol in nklliriil nrrilinir <>r tmiflliiiiir, 


" PloiirinliM r.aft\K."' 24x32: '"■ThflCenlenninl i'loture of 
ProirreM," *J2rJfl; or ■■ Tlir Timinding Sing," 34*32. For 

mil rt y,*. will f»n 
lUIn,; WHil«f,.r( 
. noil r we will 
ud'a Oulrla" ; roti 
milworiptiona and 112 n 

" WUltuqii 

ot " Amni'a CompeDdliim of Oni 
For Iwolre iiniDM ni 


mull the JnuK 

inrd'H Gems of Penmaosbiji "; 


lAL premium to the wnder. 
one year, tvilh n clioloe fnim I 




New York, April, 1882. 

Practical Wnting-Iessons. 

Bv I'ltMi-, 1Iim;v c Sfi:N.i:K 

to the readers of the Jouknal llie 
jiRM.ut nf Pruf. H. C. Spouyer, uf WhsIi- 
iitHtuu, D. C, tu favui- tlio readers uf 
ttio JoiiKNAL, with 11 course of iuslruc- 
tidii iu jjrnclicHl writing through it« 
t'ulmiius. The iinpurlauoo and value to the 
imblic of suiih a course iis Prof. Spencer will 
give, emhuilyiiig as it will, his ripe ejcpor- 
ioui*, both H8 an author aud praetital in- 
Btnit'tor, iu the presentaiion, of the best style 
ot standard copies and the most approved 
methods of imparting iuBtruction through so 
wide aud far n>aching a medium as the 
Journal, can he Pwircely appreciated and 
onuuot be over-estimated. To the teacher 
these lessons will be at once a guide and ex- 
ample to tho best forms iu writing and tliq 
nuwt sncccssful method of toacliiug. To tlie 
learner, whether striving at home or under 
the guidance of a teauhcr, they will bo iin 
iuspimtiou and aid seareoly to be found else- 
where. Probably uo author or iustrtietor of 
writing in America has, during several years 
past, held a more oon^picunus or enviable 
position than has Pn.f. H. C. Spencer. 
Under his supervisim, the Spencerian Buei- 
noss College at Wttshingion ha* become 

juflUy feiued, whUe his fwqueoi appearauce 

lief.ire the leading educational asscinblir-s of 
the Iitnil,asa tcm-herandlcctiirerupou writ- 
ing aud other educational subjects, has 
brought him int^i nalional repute. Closely 
iu«(^>ciatcd with him lu hit work of author 
ship have been his four brothers, all of whom 
are known as skilled penmen and experienced 

The value of riu-Ii a course of lessons can- 

t be I. 

ured in ilollurs aud c 

id if 

attempted, the paltry sum of $ I .liO, the cost 
to tho readers of the Jouknal, would bo as 
a grain of wheat to the bushel, and we are 
certain that, were the advantages known and 
properly appreciated by all the bad- writers 
and uuskillful teachers uf tho an, a million 
«<ipie8 of the Joiiknal would uot suffice to 
meet tiic demand ; Hud we also believe that 
our luosout subscribers cannot engage in a 
more laudable missionary work, than to call 
the alteiilion of their neighbors and friends 
to the J(h;knal and invite their subscription. 
While the lessons by Prof. Spencer will 
be of the highest order aud value to practi- 
cal writers, no pains or expense will be 
spared to render the Journal ef|ually val- 
uable and attractive, as an exponent of or- 
namental and artistic penmanship. Each 
number will couttiin meritcrions spec- 
imens of artist^* pen-work, ciirofully pre- 
pared editorials aud articles from experienced 
writers upon the various departments of the 
penman's work and art; also a choice mis- 
cellany pcriaining to education, art, science, 
literature, humor, and other matters of gen- 
eral interest. Judging by its patrons, the 
Journal can no longer be styled a class 
paper, for upon its subscription list are the 
names of persons in almost every profession 
and occupation. It will be of general in- 
terest to everybody who can read the Eng- 
lish language, and of special interest to every 
one who can write. Now is the time to 
subscribe, and begin with the year or with 
the now course of lessons in the May 

The King Club 
For this mouth comes from Mr. W. H. 
Patrick, teaclier of penmanship at Sadler's 
It. and S. Business Cdlege, Baltimore, Md., 
und numbers otte hundred and eleven, and 
is the largcat single club ever received from 
any Business C-dlege. Wo have long re- 
garded Mr. Patrick as among the finest 
writers iu the country ; we must now cou- 
^i<ler him as a teacher whose skill and suc- 
cess is commensurate with h's rare acctim- 
plishment as an artistic writer; for, as we 
have repeatedly urged through these 
coluiiia, it is only good tewchiug that iu- 
s|)ires the pupil with an euthusiasm in his 
work, aud leads him to seek every available 
aid for advancement. The teacher of writ- 
ing who tells us that his pupils lake no in- 
terest in a penmiiu's paper, confesses to 
his own inability aud unfitness as an in- 
structor in the art. 

A good esprit dtt corps is necessary to 
good class work, and must be secured byin- 
leresliui; and efficient iuslruciiou, and then 
wliatever is of value, or is an aid t.j progress, 
will not tmly be readily received, but eagerly 
sought. Under such circumstances, a large 
nnijority of a writing clats will desire to be- 
come subscribers to the Journal, when its 
cimrafaeris made known to them. In many 
iusiuucis entire classes have subscribed. 

" A tree is known by its fruit." 

Tho second largest club numbers tuscnty- 
s€\>m, andcomtw from N. A. Clay, Telegraph 
Operator, Shanes Crossing, Ohio. Mr. Clay 
writes air unccuiimonly good band, and evi- 
dently apprpciates good writing, and the 
JouitNAL, ns a means Uir its encouragement. 
Mr. Chiy has our thanks for bis successful 
eflV.rts iu bflialf of the Journal. 

The third largest dub comes from A. L. 
Wyman, «f Kaihbnu's Great Western 
Btieiness College, Oiimba, Neb., aud num- 
bers tiventt/ four. 

At a recent school 
a coal iltaler wiui asked hnw many pounds 
ihert5 were iu « \w. He iiilssed.— ^At'to- 
dclphia H^ms, 

Rapid Increase of Subscriptions. 

Since the first of January, about three 
months, wlmost three thousatid new subscrip- 
tions have been received for the JouUNAL, 
and during the next month we anticipate a 
larger number than lias boon received during 

any i 

onth £ 


Standard Practical Penmanship. 

This Work, prepared for the Journal 
by the Spencer brothers, is meeting with 
an unprecedented demand, and is giving 
entire satisfaction. It certainly meets more 
fully the requirements for Bolf-instructiou 
than any work now before the public, 
besides a systematically arranged eoureo of 
sixteen lensons, with a guide of fifteen pages. 
There are twenty-five supplementary shoots, 
of which the following is an index : 
Page 13 — Article of Agreement. 
•■ 14— BilUfPurchaBes. 
" 15 — Business Letter. 
■' 1(J— Cash-book. 
" 17 — Single-entry Day-book. 
ItJ- -Double-entry Ledger. 
11) — Journal Diiy-bnok. 
•' aO— Receipt and Promissory Note. 
'■ yi—BuBineBfl Capitalu. 

'■li — Spencer Brothers' Abbreviated 

'23 — Variety of Capitals. 
" 24— Superscription fur Letters. 
. " !i5 — IJnnk-check. 
" 2(i— l-Vee Whole-arm Capitals. 
■' 27— " 

■* 'irf — Pac-siniile and other Signatures 
" ay- Keceipt in Full. 
" 30— Demaii.l Note. 
" 31— ProniisBory Merchan.Mse Nute. 
'■ ;12— Negotiable Notes. 
" :);) — Ledger Headiugs. 
" 34— Poetic Style. 

35 — Marking Siyle. 

3U — Kuman, Old English and German 

37— Let 


Mailed to an; Hddress for one d< 
Special rates in quantities to teachers- 

Were we "Unaccommodating"? 

As our readers are aware, we publish in 
these columns a list of articles commonly 
used by peiunen and artists, which articles we 
promise to forward by mail on receipt of the 
price named ; and we also distinctly state 
that orders unaccompanied with the cash 
will not be filled. But we are daily in re- 
ceipt of orders from straugors aud others, 
stating that rennttanoe will be made on re- 
ceipt of goods ordered. It is very unpleasant 
for us to decline to fill such orders, yet ex- 
perience has taught us that to do otherwise 
is hazardous, aud we positively prefer not to 
sell on any other terms. Now what we wish to 
here determine, is, whether or not it is rea- 
sonable and right that we should demand 
cash with the order. We are led to thus con- 
sider this matter from several instances in 
which bad feeliug has been expressed by 
parties because of our having declined to 
fill unpaid ordera. An example of which, 
WHS an order lately received for nieichundiso 
to be sent by mail, amounting to $1..'50, by 
an unknown firm in Miss., who insteml of 
sending the stated amount of cash with tho 
order, gave references to publishers in this 
city. Upon our writing that go<tds would 
bo sent on receipt of cash, we received a 
reply declining to remit, but upbraiding us 
for our *•' exwedingly nnaccoinunodating na- 
ture," and giving notice that in the future 
their orders wouhl be sent to parties who 
will better ajipreciate their trade, which of 
course is their privilege. But do the terms 
we impose justify the charge of our being 
" unaccommodating " or even unbusiucsa- 
Uke — that is the question. 

FiM(— It is the unquestionable right of 
every seller to name his terms ; the buyer 
may accept or decline. The seller having 
named his terms, the buyer has not the right 
to presume upon anything difierent. 

Second— Is it unaccommodatiug on the 
part of a seller to dwUny u> du that wbicb 

be has expressly stated, in advance, he will 
not do 7 Bat, suppose parties name good 
references, and request credit for tho 
'sum of $1.50, have they tho right 
or is it proper for thorn to ask the 
seller to consume time and postage to look 
up references, and open an account 
with them for *1..V), upon which there 
may be a profit, if paid, of 25 cents. We 
claim that a purchaser who presumes imder 
such ciroimistances to ask inerchaudiso to 
bo forwarded by mail, is fairly open 
to euspieiou of being verdant or knavish. 
"But," says one, "is it not aa fair 
for you to trust mo with your merchan- 
dise, as it is for me to trust you with 
my cash t How do I know that you will 
send tlie merchandise when you got the 
money?" This Ui many, no doubt, is plaus- 
ible- To this we answer. Ist. You are 
under no sort of obligation to send us your 
money, and so long as you have the slight- 
est doubt respecting our integrity, don't do 
it. 2d. It is easier for each of our patrons 
to ascertain respecting our st;iuding, than it 
is for us to learn respecting that of the mul- 
titude of strangers who, from all parts of 
America, daily order merchaudise from us; 
besides, it is practicable for all to learn re- 
specting us — while iu many instances our- 
patrons are so little known in business circles 
as to render it iinpracticalbe for us to gain 
satisfactory informr.tion respecting them, es- 
pecially concerning very young persons, who 
constitute a considerable portion of our pat- 
rons, aud who have not yet made a business 
reputation by which they can be known or 
entitled t<i the confidence of strangers. 

Experience 1ms taught us as it has others, 
that to mail merchandise to all applicants 
on a promise to remit on its receipt, sub- 
jects the seller to a loss whii'h is utterly 
ruinous, and has shown tho neces.«ity of the 
rule of the seller, that cash must accompany 
the order. This, for the foregoing reasons, 
we believe to be right, it is, certainly, the 
most convenient aud economical, as it saves 
correspondence and postage, to say nothing 
of buok-keeping- 

Wo trust that iu future all persons ordering, 
fnmi us, merchandise to bo sent by mail or 
express, except C. 0. D., will save us from 
the disagreeable duty of declining to fill 
their orders, unless said ordeis are accom- 
panied with the cash. 

Subscribe now fbr tho Journal, aud be- 
gin with the course of lessons iu practical 
writing by Prof. H. C. Spencer. 

Every teacher and pupil of writing iu tho 
country should subscribe; remember that 
Prof. H. C. Spencer who will prepare the 
instruction, and Lyman P. who will assist iu 
the illustrations, are teachers of teachers in 
practical as well as artistic writing, and that 
such a course of lessons as they will give, 
would be cheap at twenty fold tho cost of a 
subscription to say nothing of our premiums 
and other valuable matter pertaining to tho 
art and profession of penmanship. 

Educational Clubs. 

The special class organized by tho tran- 
sient teacher, conducted for a few weeks, 
and then disbanded at his bidding or by rea- 
son of his departure, is of time honored 

That a tetter order of organization is 
destined to supersede tho old seems immi- 
nent and proper. 

College clubs or societies do not disband, 
although founded generations ago. The or- 
ganization and perpetuation of educational 
clubs by the masses outside of colleges 
should he accomplished. 

Educational, literary, business and chiro- 
graphic clubs, organized with liberal mem- 
bership, can, at small cost to individual 
members, engage the very best practical in- 
structors. A good moral cliaracter, and the 
desire to acquire knowledge, should be the 
only rocpiisile for eligibility to monibership 
iu the club. Fourteen should not be con- 
sidered too young, aof Ijfly years Uioold, fgr 
active membership. 

lu organiziot; a chirographic educational 
-lull, a Prerident, Vi«e-PresiJeul, aud Sec- 
rrtary should he elected ; proper committees 
iTi-atcd, and the deliberations of the club 
iMEidncted under parliamentary rules- 

Hi-ports of the organi;;atioo aud pn)gre8S 
'hirographic clubs will be welcomed by 
mk- douBKAL and its readers at all times. 

We trust that our readers will bear iu 
mind that in the next number of the Jour- 
nal will appear the first of a series of 
twelve k'saous on practical penmanship by 
Prof. Heury C. Spencer, of Washiogton, 
D. C. 

Yuu may tell all your friends, and ask 
them to tell their frieods that if they will 
accept fifty dollars worth of instruction in 
writing aud a few dollars worth ttf hand- 
Bome premiums in consideration of one 
dollar for a year's subscription to this paper, 
they sliall have their names put upon our 
lists at once. 

The Convention. 

In another column of the Journal is a 
conirnuuicatiou from the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Penmen's Educator's Associa- 
tion, urging the necessity of energetic efiforts 
for a M'ide-awako and 


We learn through E. J. I 
charge of the Columbus, 0., Bu 
lege, of the death of X, I. June 
won an enviable reputation as s 
commercial branches. Mr. Dut 
dat« of March 1 1 , says : 

I, who had 
teacher of 

> havi 

you the Bad news i.f Prof. N. I. Jones's death, 
which occurred this week. We min^ tiim sadly, 
as he was a young man of 8l«-r1iug qualities, 
both as a gentleman and a. teacher. 

"I send you the resoliuioue drawn up by his 
pupils for publication. You will please pub- 
lish them iu the PENMAN'S JOURNAL, for I 
know such u worthy peumau and gentleman 
will he missed by all who knew him. 

Whereas. It has pleased Almighty God 
to remove from our midst, Professor N. I. 
Jones, our beloved and esteemed teacher and 
one of our principals, in the bloom of his man- 
hood ; aud, 

WherkaS, We, the sludents of Columbus 
Businesa College, deem it our duly and saci-ed 
privilege lo express our sorrow tor his lose and 
our due appreciation of his worth; therefore, 

liesotvcd. That his death has deprived the 
College of a worthy and valuable instructor, 
wliose career as a penman could not be eur- 
"n ihe West ; 

in legislation. The author proposes a drastic, 
yet entirely practicable, remedy for these and 
all other cvib prevalent iu Utah. Au article 
enljtled "Why they come," by Edward Self, 
is devotftd to the consideration of the many 
important questions connected with Euro- 
pean immigration to this country. Dr. 
Henry A. Martin, replying to a recent article 
by Henry Bergh, defends the practice" of 
vaccination, citing olticial statistics to prove 
the effiea<-y of bovine virus as a prophylactic 
against the scourge of small-pox. E. L. 
Godkin has an article on " The Civil Service 
Reform Controversy ; " Senator Kiddleberger 
on *' Bourbonism in Virgiuia"; and General 
Albert Ordway on "A National Militia." 
Finally, there is a paper <d' extraordinary 
interest ou the "Exploration of the Ruined 
Cities of Central America." The author, Mr. 
Charnoy, has discovered certain monuments 
which conclusively prove the comparative 
receutness of those vast remains of a lost 
civilization. The Review is published at 30 
Lafayette-place, New York, and is sold by 
booksellers aud newsdealers generally. 

Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly.— The 
April number especially commends itself, for 
it abounds with literature of a more than 
usual varied, iuteresting and instructive char- 

of business teachers 
and penmen at the ( m 
vontion in June aud 
also statmg that ample 
provisions are bting 
made for their accom 
modation while in at 
tendance, and what is 
of interest to penmen, 
and a feature which 
they should utilise to 
the fullest exteut is 
the promised piovisi m 
of ample accoinmo 
dations for displaying 
the practical results 
of the penman's art, 
by exhibitiug artistic 
specimens of pen- 
work, on methods for, 
and tlie results of 
school-work. Penmen 
ahouhl move promptly 
aud earnestly iu this 
work. The Committee 
are working vigorous- 
ly, arranging the pro- 
jjramme for proceed- 
ings, and tberefoi, so- 
licit- an immediate 
statement from all, either 

most attractive and useful numbers yet 
issued. It is replete with valuable designs 
for household art. Its designs for screen 
panel, Easter decoration, and fans are unifjuo, 
and will be highly prized by all admirers 
and patrons of household art. It is pub- 
lished monthly by Montague Marhs, 2S 
Union Square, New York, for $4.(K) per 
year ; siugle copies, 35 cents. 

LippincotVs Magazine for April is among 
the most interesting and valuable of our ex- 
changes. Published by J. B. Lippinoott & 
Co.. 715 aud 717 Market St., Philadelphia, 
for $3.00 per year ; siuLiIe numbers, 35 centa. 

The Century and St. Nicfwlas. It has 
now become a fact that, The Centunj Mag- 

than ever before, and wjth the Pobruary 
number, ■.rhich had the iirst of the series of 
new cover-designs by Elihu Vedder, Scrib- 
nefs Monthly was dropped as a sub-title. 
Its issues since the change wjis made have 
been commended by the press everywhere, 
as of rare beauty and interest, both in a liter- 
ary aud artistic sense. 

With this growing excellence has come 
au iucreased sate. The average edition of the 
numbere of the last two volumes of Scrib- 


■i^i<P,^'ad^i^A£-c£^ - 



exhibitors, which shimld be addressed 
Richard Nelsou, Chairman of Executive 
Committee, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Thoroughly Endorsed. 

Tlie Kev. Th.uuas J. Eastorliug, of 
uresville, Wilson County, Texas, has 
eu endorsed by his brethren of the West 
xaji Conference, as being a good christian 
.1 a successful chirograhic instructor. 
The action of the members of the Con- 
cnce is reported as follows: " We. the un- 
dersigned, citizens of Texas, iiud ministers 
of the West Texas Coufereuce M. E. 
Ihurch South, tuko pleasure in reoommend- 
ing the Rev. Thomas J. Easterling, as a 
ohristiau gentleman of honor, integrity and 
social standing ; and as au instructor «f 
[lencerian penmanship, be has established 
reputation in West Texas that requires 
no eulogy from us. Suffice it to say, both 
teacher aud system are worthy of public 
patronage." Signed us follo\vs : 

Bis. Y. Seal,., 

Jolm W. De Vilbis 

H'Jno. K. Wnior, 

A. F. C..S, 

■ a. a. KilUnii;!!, 

J. W. Vest, 

^KH. a (^r-iv^d 

H. 0. Hiirt.,11, 

^■n. A iH^ul.ur 

N. W. Keith, 

^kv. li. Joyce, 
B. J C. Ulack, 

J. F. Ciji.k, 

^■R. .1 Uiivol 

W. T. ThoruberrT, 

^Hl. (\ M,.l.>„ 

K. JI. Lemon, ' 

^Hnhn S. (;il] 

H. W. Soiitli, 

^Kbn. W Tnib^..- 

J. J. Hc.uevciitl, 

■b. K. Shappari, 

J. W. Walkor. 

■a'. U. WooOa au(t oltiers, 

able character won for him the highest honor 
and reaped of his students, and are well worthy 

Kemlvtd, That we tender our most sipcoru 
condolence to hia bereaved young wife 

"'" iliis memorial bt 
■ •i the deceased, aud 
ditily papei-s of the 

COLUMUUS, 0., March 6, 1882. 

Books and Magazines. 

Every family that desires to provide for ils 
young people wholesome and instructive 
reading matter should send for specimen 
copies of the Youth's Companio7i. Its col- 
umns give more than two hundred stories 
yearly, by the most noted authors, besides 
one thousand articles on topics of interest: 
anecdotes, sketches of travel, poems, puzzles; 
incidents, humorous and pathetic. It comes 
every week, is handsomely illustrated, and is 
emphatically a paper lor the family. 

In the North American Review for April, 
Gov. Eli H. Murray, of Utah, treats of the 
existing crisis in the political fortunes of that 
Territory. Aci'ordiui^ I,, the present niptluxl 

of local linM'rUiLiriit thi'f, iIk' [lIlHniitV i.f 
the pupuhiI,<.„-.,lH, G.-Utiir._ll„, ,"|.,^y 

possess the grt-ali-r part of the weallh „f tli^ 
Territory {exclusive of farm property), and 
igh they constitute by lar the most 
enlightened aud enterprising portion of tbe 
community, we praotically withgm a voicp 

acter, and is remarkable in the artistic de- 
partment. There are over one hundred fine 
illustrations, a handsome colored-plate fron- 
tispiece: " Othello Relating his Adventures 
before Dtsdemoua." The articles are pecu- 
liarly interesting, and are replete vrith infor- 
mation, "The Life-saving Service ou the 
Great Lakes," by A. B. Bibb, with its third 
teen illustrations, will not fail to comman- 
general attention. " The Palaces of tbe Peo- 
ple," with illustrations and details of the 
Capitol at Albany, by M. E. Sherwood; 
"A Bit of Loot," descri'tive of scenes in 
ludia; " Count de Chambord '' {Henry V. 
ttf France), by Frederick Daniel; "The 
Land of the Kabyles ; Or, Mountain Life in 
Algeria ; " " Locusts aud Grasshoppers,'' by 
F. Buchanan White, M.D., possess great 
merit, and are profusely illustrated. In 
the department o\ fiction, " Leouie, Em- 
press of tbe Air," by Gerald Carieton, is 
continued; and there are short stories and 
sketches by P. B. Marstou, Kev. W. H. 
Cleveland, R. B. Kimball, Elizabeth Big- 
elow, T. B. Thorpe, etc., etc. The poems 
are, generally, beautifully illustrated, aud 
there is an abundance of short articles, jiar- 
agraphs, anecdotes, etc., etc. The 128 
l::tigr i|tiarto pages are filled with pleasant 
UMiiiii-, The price of a single number is 
2.'» L-fQts; the subscription for a year, $3; 
six months, SL50; four months, $1 ; sent 
postpaid. Address, Frank Leslie, 53, 55 
and 57 Park-place, New York. 

The AH Amateur for April is one of the 

120,000; the average 
edition of the first 
four numbers of The 
Century was 133,000. 
In Englaud, neariy 
2I,U00 copies of No- 
vember were sold, 
against an average ot 
J 6,230 for the twelve 
months preceding. In 
a recent issue of the 
Dumfries {Scotland) 
Advertiser, the rapid 
progress made by Tlte 
Century among the 
reading public of the 
United Kingdom was 
ascribed to "the 
Anglo Saxon spirit, 
as distinguished from 
the purely British or 
the purely American, 
that pervades its 
pages; it is much 
more American tiian 
it is British, but it is 
more Anglo - Saxon 
than either, and more 
representative of the 
race than of any of 
the various nationali- 
ties into which it has 
St. Nicholas has grown in England, from 
a circulation nf 3000 copies a year ago, to a 
regular cb-culation now of 8000 to 10,000 
monthly. It is not often that the London 
Times goes out of its way to compliment 
children's magazines, aud American ones at 
that, but its issue of December 20. 1881, 
contained the following good words about 
tlie last bound volumes of St. Nicholas: 

'* There is an old song which sings liow 
a certain venerable man delighted to pass 
the evening of his days initiating his grand- 
child in the exhilarating game of draughts, 
and how, so well did the lad profit by hi.s in- 
struction, that at last 'the old man was 
beaten by the boy. In looking over the two 
parts of St. Nicholas, this old song has come 
back to us. Certaiuly the producers of such 
literature for our own boys and girls must 
look to their laurels. Both in the letterpress 
and the engravings these two volumes seem 
to us (though the admission touch our 
vanity or our patriotism, call it by which 
name we will, something elosely) above any- 
thing we prduce in the same line. The let- 
terpress, while containing ([uito as large a 
power of attraction for young fancies, is so 
much more idea'd, so much less common- 
place, altogether of a higher literary style 
than the average production of our annuals 
of the same class. And the pictures are oft- 
en works of art, not only as engraviugs, 
but as compositions of original design." 

The Univerfial Penmen, published by 
Sawyer Brothers, Ottawa, CttOftdu, g:row« 

AK 1 -lOl KNAI. 

rnurc aut] inoreiDterestinc with encli sucr^ed- 
iug nninbrr, aod is well worthy of the 
piitrnnagc of Canadiao or Aincricaii penmpD. 

Tho Penmen's Gatette. imblished by G. 
A. Ga«koII, has bepo puhli«IiiDg a aeried 
of iuiorcntiDg articles from tho pen of 
Prof S. S. Packard, under the caption 
of " The SchoolinaKUrr Abroad." Prof. P. 
relates, id his vivid and fasuinatiog style, 
many of the intere«ting rctninieceDces of his 
last Summer's European tonr. 

The Student's Journal, published by A. 
J. Graham, at 744 Broadway, is tho organ 
of the Graham syslom of short-baud. It is 
ably edited and must he of interest to all 
Khort-hand writers. In the April number we 
noiide an editorial ijojiied from thia Jour- 
nal, upon " Flourished Writing," for which 
no credit is given, whirh <if c^iurae was an 

Browne's Phonographic Monthly, pub- 
lished by D. L. Scott-Browue, 23 Clinton 
Place, New York, is filled with matter of 
interest to all interested in short-hand. 

Goodman's Business Messenger, published 
monthly by Frank Goodman, Principal of 
the Knoxvillo and Nashville (Tenn.) 
Business Colleges, is one of tho most lively, 
wide-awake college papers, that has reached 
our sanctum. "Frank" evidently believes 
in agitation. 

Upon ihe Huhscriptioii lint nf the Picxman's 
Art .louRNAL are Hubficrib(>r8 frnm Kngland. 
Ireland, France, Sandwich Iwlands, and South 

Not Responsible. 
It should he distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Jodhnal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
1 ished ; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 
why. ^^.^_ 

The Convention of the Business 

Educators' Association 

of America 

Will be heUl in Cincinnati, Ohio, June Gth 
to 0th, inclusive. Preparations have been 
completed to accommodate, if necessary, 
.MK) people, and several gentlemen favorably 
known to tho Association have expressed 
their intention to he present and participate 
in tho proceedings — including Messrs. D. T. 
Ames, S. S. Packard, Seldcu R. Hopkins 
and IIoD. Ira Mayhew. 

Provisions will be made to display speci- 
mcUB of pen-art, should the Penmen's Com- 
mittee so desire. We hope to make it the 
interest of every Business College teacher — 
be he book-keeper, jieuman or professor of 
any gnulo— to be present at this, tho most 
liromiaing convention of the kind ever held 

R. Nelson, \ Executive Committee 
A. D. Wilt, S B. E. A., of Avi. 

Communications addressed to the undor- 
pigned, at Cincinnati, will meet with prompt 
"^ CHARD Xelson, Chairmofi. 

The National Penman's Con- 

Tho C.n.inillee are pleased lore-port that 
indications are favorable ft.r a large and en- 
thusiastic uifetiug of penmen at Cincinnati 
June (>. Already nearly thiily have signi- 
tied their intention to be present, and from 
the spirit of letters received, there seems to 
he a ilesire to have very many practical 
topics thoroughly discussed. There seems 
to be a di8pi»8iiiou on the part of many of 
the most successful and enthusiastic teachers, 
to invent some style of writing which shall 
he nmre legible and rapidly written than 
what has been in voguu, It h eenaiuly an 
pDoouraging slgi) for tlte advanpeipeoi of 

penmanship to see so many who are study- 
ing to brine out that which is most practic-al 
in penmanship. As the chief benefits to be 
gained at Cincinnati, must be the thorough 
discussion of all that is practical, every cRort 
wilt he made to favor the fnllest expression 
of ideas. Some are anxious that a full dis- 
cussion be had upon the best method of 
teaching in Public Schools, Business Colleges 
and in privatn classes. Considerable at- 
tention will be given to discussing that 
which is artistic and profitable in oruamentJtl 
penmanship, and we are pleased to assure 
the profession that several of tho best pen- 
artists in the country ini**ud to bo present. 
Although tlie meeting is two months ahead, 
its success is already assured. That the 
gathering may be as large as possible, it is 
hereby urged thht every penman who is 
anxious for the advancement of his art, will 
do his best to he present, and lend his art 
and experience towards making the meeting 
the most interesting and beneficial possible. 
We shall he glad to have all who intend to 
he pre.sent, send in their names as early as 
possible, and offer such suggestions as may 
seem for the general good. 

A. H. HiSMAN, ) Commiliee 

D. T. Ames, [ of 

N. K. Luce, 5 Arrnnge.ments. 

The Penman's Convention. 

Editors of Journal :— There seems to 
be no doubt that the Penman's Convention, 
in connection with the Bnsincss Educators* 
Convention, will prove a success. At least 
it so seems to me from the letters I have 
received from persons who will be present. 
It is possible that on some accounts, the 
time of the meeting is unfortionately chosen, 
as a good many penman who are engaged 
in the public schools will find it diffieult to 
get away so early as tho (>th of June, hut I 
understand that the date was selected after 
a great deal of investigation, and halaucing 
of ctmflicliug interests. In our meeting 
heretofore, and notably the one helh in Cin- 
cinnati in I87y, the weather has been so in- 
sufferably hot, that warm discussions have 
bad to be discouraged, altho in fact, we could 
have ur>ne other. I learn from President 
Spencer, and from the Executive Commitee, 
the attendance will be remarkably good from 
the West and South, and I sincerly trust 
that Youi-solf, Hinmau and Lee, will see 
that the Penman do not stay away from lack 
of interest or from lack of jirodding. 

S. S. Packard. 

Office or the President op the 
BusiNEs.s Educators' Association op 
Milwaukee, Wis., March 30th, 1882. 

The time fixed for the meeting of this 
Association in Cincinnati {Tuesday, June 
6, I8B2,) is approaching, and it behooves all 
who are interested in its object to be in 
readiness to contribute toward the success of 
tho oecasion. 

There has never been a time so auspicious 
for such a gathering. The public is more 
than ever favorable to the claims of our de- 
partment of education, which can be greatly 
irnproveil and strengthened by a full and 
free interchange of views among the mem- 
bers of the profession, lending to give fresh 
impetus, broader scope and higher character 
to our work. It will help to improve our 
methods, and make us more useful and re- 
spected iu the communities where we labor. 

It is, therefore, a duty which we each and 
all owe to ourselves, to one another, to the 
department of education which we represent, 
and to the public, to aid iu making the 
meeting ol this Association a success by our 
presence and by contributing to it our best 
thought and experience. 

The intelligent, enterprising, progressive, 
liberal - minded business educator should 
never be indifferent tn the claims of this or- 
ganization, opouing wide its doorB and 
cordially welcoming all who desire to pro- 
mote its interests. 

The Executivo Committo of thi* A«sooi- 
atloQ, couBiatiDg of Riohurd Nolwp, Chm- \ 

man, Cincinnati, Ohio, A. D. Wilt. Day- 
ton, Ohio, and A. P. Root, Cleveland. 
Ohio, are making necessary arrangements 
which will be duly announ'*ed. 

On behalf of the Penmen's Convention 
which is to be held in connection with the 
meeting of this Association, A. H. Hinman, 
Chairman, Worcester, Mass., D. T. Amos, 
New York city, and Rev. N. R. Luce, 
Uniou City, Pa., form the Committee of 

All business educators, penmen, authors 
and publishers of works on germane sub- 
jects are urgently and cordially invited to 
attend the meeting. Those expecting to bo 
present are requested to immediately notify 
the chairman of the above-named com- 
mittees, staling what part they may he 
willing to take in the proceedings, together 
with such suggestions as thoy may havo to 

The meeting promises to he by far the 
largest, and we hope the best, of the kind 
ever hold, and is expected to make an era 
in the important hranclies of education 
which it is designed to advance, and in the 
prosperity of the various institutions, schools 
and interests represented. 

It is hoped, then, that we shall assemble 
in Cincinnati, Tuesday, June (i. 1882^ with 
a detei-mination to do everything iu our 
power to make this sphere of education as 
far as possible a fit exponent of the vast and 
comjilex business interests which comprise 
so large a j)art of the growth and greatness 
of this continent and of the world. 

It is not too much to say that no other 
body of men havo in their care and keeping 
a grander work than ours, or one fraught 
with more practical good or more beneficent 
in its influence. Conscious somewhat of 
the greatness of our mission and the dignity 
which it gives our Profession I hope to 
meet you, one and all, in Cincinnati at 

Your obedient servant, 

Robert C. Spencer, 

Prest. B.E. A. of A. 

Keokuk, Iowa, April 4th, 1882. 

Editors of JoiruNAL:— Prof. Hinmau 
says : " Say something in behalf of the Con- 
vention.'' Every day some one writes me, 
"Will you be there?" Most assuredly I 
will. The largest attendance in the history 
of Commercial Colleges is assured, and 
what can the Convention he if the pledge of 
earnest, honest support is but given f 

The opinion of sages in tho profe.ision, as 
leaders in discussion, will form a plan bene- 
ficial to all. 

I am disposed to be liberal iu every sense 
of the word, and my knowledge of promi- 
nent brethren is to th£i same eflect. 

The Convention is an jissured success, 
and I anticipate many pleasant meetings. 

1 shall take with me a live Indian and 
buffalo for exhibition. No extra charges. 

CH . Peirce. 

A Serious Question. 

Do not pniprietore of Business Colleges 
make a grave mistake in not giving their 
teachers a summer vacation? The duties 
of Business College teachers are exacting 
and laborious, requiring vigor of both body 
and mind. 

Vitality, industry and hardihood are 
indespensible requiaits of a firat-class 
teacher, and if he lacks in any of these he 
is deficient in qualifications essential and 
important. If he lacks in any of these ho 
is not equal to tho great task imposed upon 

" VaoAtion " is a conmiondablo feature of 
any school. Give your teachers a sufficient 
rest once or twic© a year, and we will guar- 
rantee that bodily infirmities will not inter- 
vene to prevent the discharge of their al- 
lotted trusts. C. S. Martin, 

Prioplpal of Chwlclock Collego. Lnw 

and CAuimerciulSchon]. Qiiiucy. Ul, 

la the loxloaa of youlb, trblob fftlA fV4eiTt« 
Vox n tirltfht muihoiMl, tb«n I1 do inoti m n onl u lut. 

Allen's Dushiess College hna removed trom 
Mmiefield. Pennsylvania, to Elmira, N, Y. 

John W. Rfttcliffe is teaching writing at 
Maimssea and vicinity, Va. He has our thank* 
for a club uf subscribers to the Journal. 

A. P. Armstrong, of Portland. Oregon, 
BnHiness College, ia an accoin pi ished writMr. 
He has our thanks for a club of ten subucribera. 

A. J. Scarborough is engaged teaching 
wriliuK an ! commercial branches at Protis'e 
Business College, at Union, Miss. ; he is a 
skillfid writer. 

Geo, W, Sluseer, teacher of writing at Ingle- 
woud, Va., writes a handsome letter, and says 
he is glad that there is to be a convention and 
promi^fs to attend. 

Prof. J. D. Odell, who has been teaching for 
some months past at Packard's Business Col- 
lege, has accepted a pftsition in the olEce of 
the East Tenu., Va. and Ga. R. E. Co., in this 

J. K. Goodier has lately opened a Business 
College at Pontiao, Michigan. Mr. Goodier 
18 an nccomplished penman, and has liad an 
extensive experience as a Business College 

James W. Westervelt. the accomplished 
Prof, of Penmanship at the Canada Literary 
Institute, Woodstock, Canada, has our thanks 
for a club of thirteen suhscribers to the 


'^ L. Madarasz, late of Sterling, 111., is now i 
permanently located in this city, as will be seen I 
by hie advertisement in another column. Sev- I 
eral card specimens, inclosed by him, ai:e I 
shnply elegant. ._ __ ' 

Mr. E. \J. Holland, of Birmingham, England, 
writes that he is very much pleased with the 
JoiTR.VAL, and forwards money order for all 
of the back numbers. Mr. Holland is a good 
practfcal penman. 

E. A. Wilson, Halifax, N. S.. U a good 
practical writer. He says, " I owe whatever 
attainment I have made in writing to the Joi'K- 
NAL, and I look forward with much interest to 
the new course of lessons hy Prof. Spencer." 

G. ('. Rogers, has been teiiching writing at 
Boston and vicinity during the past month with 
good success. He suys, '• The JOURNAL, for 
months past, has been a literary treat. I am 
surprised that so good a paper can be furnished 
for so little iiioney." The number of its snb- 

Mi'. T. M. Rodriquez y Cos., from the City of 
Mexico, is on a visit to New York, to ex- 
amine tlie educational advantsges of the public 
and private schools of this city. Mr. R. is 
connected with the free s-hool system of 
Mexico, which within the past ten years has 
become very popular and efficient. 

Mr. P. G. McDonald has been teaching 
writing classes at Springhill, Ga., and vicinity, 
with a largu degree of success. This, we 
judge, from the complimentary notices 
which we find in tho " Southern Watchman." 
The editor of this paper says, " We visited hia 
class here one evening this week, and beard 
one of his sublime lectures. We pronounce 
him an adept, endowed with a gi-nius faculty." 

The Wf»tn'n Trade Journal of recent dato 
pays Prof. H. Riieaell of the Joliet, 111.. 
BusinesH College, a flattering compliment. 
Among olher things it says; " Pi-of. Homer 
Russell, the manager of the college, is a penile- 
man uf great literary culture as well as ex- 
perience US a teacher of business rules, and 
trains his pupils, not merely to be accountants, 
but to be thorough and accomplished business 

Prof A. R. Duiiton, of Camden. Me,, has 
lately publiabed a book of 300 pages iu n>view 
of the celebruled Hart-Meservey murder case, 
wberehi he claims that the wrong man was con- 
victed by the substitution of the writing of 
an innocent mau for that of the murderer; for 
comparisun with the writing of cerlahi anony. 
mouB li«tters which wwre believed to hftvw been 
written by the murderer, Mr. Dunlon bm 


made strong, bold 8tatenieiit«, nud evideiilly 
8 whatfaeaffirmA, wbicli, if true, preseiiUi 
i^hing case of tbe miBCAmiige of 

We copy the following from tbe Creston, 
Iowa, Vai/i/ AdvertUtr, which explains iteelf: 
rr<>fr--r.v ,T M ^r..)l,^Jl left, to-daj, 

n li"- '■]■ ■}-,- \..'\v York Life Insii; 

C I'll lie WRB formerly pon- 

11^' like three years be has 

(Signed.) W. Beymek, 
H. Stephens, 
Fi-oUA Patf. 
Bertha Hobbs. 



Hift in the spirit it wiM 
ildiiors tbe followiug noi 

71' the Tfnrhers and Pupils of the CreaCon Pub- 
lir Schools : 

Nut hciiif' able to meet with you to tbank 
viin in ppiTton for your kind remembrance and 
betiiirirtil present. I taketbie method of relurn- 
iuj: my heartfelt thanks for tbe same. Hoping 
|mi (he continued prosperity of both teacliera 
:iii<i pupiU, I am as ever, Your friend, 

J. M. ISlEH^N. 

I'rofeanor Mehan leavea the city with the 
i:<i"(l wiehea of hundreds of friendw made in an 
I Minplary caieer as teacher a 

A handBomeiy written letter c 
N. R. Luce, of Union City, Pa. 

Several fme specimeoB of card-writing come 
tV.'iii M. B. Moore, Morgan, Ky. 

A line specimen of ufF-hand fioiirishiug comes 
tVnin F. H. Madden, of St. Louis, Mo. 

T. E. Yeomans, of Savannah, Ga., inoloeee 
several line speiiimens of cnrd-wriling. 

Geo. P. O. Slioop, Shamokiu, Pa., incloses 
a skillfully executed specimen of fiourishing. 

GiiB. Hulsizer. Toulou, 111., sends u very 
Ijiiiidsomely executed specimen of Hourisbiitg. 

I'. K. Isaacs, of tbe Lakeside Business CoM 
-'< , Chicago, III., sends several haudsomel 
l'< limens of card- wilting. I 

A superior specimen of epistolary wriling\ 

"'» fi'om D. H. Farley, teacher of writing all 

I' State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. / 

Sf veral beautiful specimens of written cards 
l.:.v,. been received from W. E. Dennis, whose 
aiivertisemeut appears iu uuother column. 

An elegant specimen of letter- writing comes 
rV.iiu T. J. Prickett, penman ai Soule's Bryant 
A Stratton BuBiaeas College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

An elegantly written letter and a club of 
-iibncribers comes from G. A. Gramau, teitcher 
lit" writing nl the St. Paul (Minn.) Business 

-Mr.W. H.Wieseliabn, of the Wiesehahn Insti- 
iNiv „f Pen Art, Si. Louie, Mo., writes a letter 
w hkh for i-eal ease, grace and masterly power 
'■( [>mi is unexcelled. 

i:. W. Baldwin, of Bartlett'a Commereial 
(-'■■liege. Cinvinnati, Ohio, sends n skillfully 
cxfcnted j»vc« of Hourisbing and drawing in 
lurni of a bird and quill. 

Master A. W. Sanmun, Jr., of Noire Dame 
1 1. id.) Univei-sily. wrilt-t. a good hand for a lad 



23 1'ark K<m-, 


e given at'apecimen Letttr-headimjg — photo-entfraved from pen-and 
jutfd «( fA« opre of the "Journal." Orders for all aimilar cuU 
promptly Jilled. at reasonable rates. 

of thirteen years. The card-speciraens which 
he inclosed are very- creditable. 

A handsome specimen of letter-writing and a 
skillfully executed specimen of flouriKbing 
Come from E. L. Stoddard, Peivce's Com- 
mercial College, Keokuk, Iowa. 

A splendidly illustrated catalogue has been 
issued by Messrs. Howe and Powers, of the 
Melropolilnn Business College, Chicago, 111. 
They report their college highly prosperous. 

We are Jb receipt of a copy of ji " Family 
Record," desigBed and published by H. W. 
Shaylor, of Portland, MaiBe, which is highly 
artistic iu its deaigB, ami is mailed to any 
address by Prof. Shaylor for $1.00. 

Bad Handwriting. 

There are, here and there, liuinau beings 
who are, by nature, incapable of writiag a 
good hand, just as there arc others who can- 
not draw a straight line or a true circle, or 
even recogBize one. But the ugly BiaBu- 
scrlpt of the cluinsy-iisted struggler after 
form is usually very clear. Haate, uneasi- 
ness, excessive work, nervous preoccupa- 
tion — these are the chief causes of obscure 
handwritiBg with most of ua. But when a 
man's inaBuaeript baa made for itself a fixed 
character of its owb, neither printers nor 
expert copyists would like it to como rouBd 
to tame aiuiplicity and correctness. It 
would be, in another way, Iho caae of the 
lover with a aquiBt, who ruined bis suit by 
going to the occuUat and getting his eyes 
put straight The lady could bo longer 
meet his eye in tbe old, affectionate way, 
and abe dismissed liirn. Still, there are 
faults of haudwritiBg, which are inexcusa- 
ble iu theinselvea, and which neither copyist 
or compositor can wish to see. Obc of the 
worst of these is las practice in putting the 
stroke to such letters as in and n. There is 
no harm iu cutting certain ayliablea, such as 
nien( aud i»i^, to mere lines or twirls; but 
where an attempt is made to express the 
characters, the strokes ought to be uniform. 
Another practical observation is that flurried 

handwriting gains no time for the writer. 
A dowurigbt lazy scrawl ia another matter, 
aBd so ia that kind of bad writing in which 
we can see in the badness egotistic self- 
assertion or disregard of the eyes and wits 
of others. It may be laid down that there 
is much egotiain (associated, it may be, with 
much kindness) in the man who writes a 
bad hand, which never strives to pick itself 
up. But, of course, the rule must be applied 
with greater or less stringency, according to 
the aiii'iuiit .if work that presses on the pro- 
ducer of till' Tii;iiinsiTi|'i, his health, his 
preocciip^iiioii and tin' activity of his aelf- 

Talent and Tact.— "Talent," says a 
writer, " knows what to do ; tact knows 
h^w to do it. Talent makes a mau respect- 
able ; tiujt will make him respected. Tal- 
ent is wealth ; tact is ready mcmey. For 
all the practical pui-poses of life, tact carries 
it against talent — ten to one. Talent has 
many a complimeBt from the bench, but 
tact touches fees from attorneys or clients. 
Talent speaks learnedly and logically ; tact 
triumphantly. Talent makes the world won- 
der that it gets on no faster j tact excites ae- 
toniahment that it gets on so faat. And the 
secret ia, that it has no weight to carry ; it 
makes no false steps; it loses no time; it 
takes all hints; and, by keeping its eye on 
the weathercock, ia able to uiUe advantage 
of every wind that blows." — Packard's Com- 
mon Sense in Education. 



J. H. S., Hubbardtowu, Mich.— Will you 
please inform me respecting the correct way 
for holding the oblitiue penholder f Should 
the first finger rest upon the joint of the 
holder, Ans. — The position is precisely 
the same as for tbe straight holder. The 
finger should not rest upon the joint of the 

C. E. P., Jericho, Vt— Plcaae explain 
what ie meant by tho combined movement 
iu wTitiugt Am.~T\ie combined move- 
ment is produced by the joint-action of the 
tingera and mueclea of the fore-arm ; the 
principal motion of the pen is given by tbe 
muscles of the arm, tho fingers being 
used only in tbe loug-extended looped and 
capital letters. 

A. R. F., Troy Grove, 111.— Can any one 
learn to use the Bay Shading T Square ? 
Is the Penmen's Convention to be open to 
all who are interested in penmanship T 
Ans. — Yes, answers both questions. 

N. M., Woodstock, Out. —What ia the 
correct position for a person to assume iu 
writing with tho left-hand i I have to do 
my writing with the left-hand, as my right 
is partially disabled. When I first learned 
to write I was instructed tositwitli my right 
side to the desk with the paper at about 
an angle of 45° with tho edge of the desk, 
so you will see that if the baud follows, the 
pen must be lifted at every stroke. Ans. — 
We think that either tho left aide or front 
to the table will be the best for left-hand 

C. F. H., Biddeford, Me.— What are tho 
advantiigea of chalk - writing f Am. — 
Chiefly as au aid iu teaching, as a means of 
giAnng correct forms, illustrations, etc., and 
of making erasions, on the black-board. 

A professor who says he reads 
character by bis signature spent th 
iu trying to figure out Longfellow's auto- 
graph. Somehow it would show up the 
venerable poet as a man who liked to bet 
on horse races, go to variety shows, and 
bowl aroimd nights. Aud of course the 
professor knew the poet was not that sort 
of man, and he couldn't uiake it come out 
aBy other way aBd weBt nen 
found that the autograph wj 
Sugby Monthhj. 

irly wild till he 
*s a forgery. — 

R. S. B.— St. Louis, Mo. Please inform 
me through the Journal, what work on 
business correspondence is the bestt 

Ans. — " Towusend's Analyaia of Letter- 
writing" ia a standard work, and is the 
best on correapoudence that we know of. 
Mailed from this office at the publisher's 
price, $1.25. 

G. L. N., Elyria, Ohio.— What are the 
chances for one possessed of a thorough 
knowledge of writing aud drawing? Ans. — 
Good teachers of drawing and writing are 
in good demand, such teachers are coming 
to he employed in most of our large cities 
as special teacliera in jjublic schools, and at 
good salaries. 

A. C. M., Pittsburgh, Pa.— Ia the " Or- 
tbodactylic peuholder" useful in teaching 
children to \VTite, and is it an American 
Spenceriau inventionf Ans. — The Or- 
thodactylic is a Transatlantic invention, 
hence not Spenccrian. After giving it 
it a personal trial, we find it cannot be 
used successsfully in writing. Diligent 
inquiry discovers no one who can write 
vnth it, and we cannot bear of a pupil 
wbo has learned correct peuholding by tbe 
aid of the Arthodactylic. It is evidently a 
puerile invention, more unique than useful 
or ornamental. 

Back Numbers. 
I All or any of the back numbers of the 
I Journal, and since inclusive of January, 
IS78, can be sui>plied. No number prior to 
that date can be mailed. 

All the 52 back numbers, with any four 
of the premiums, will be mailed for $3-25, 
inclusive of 1882, with the five premimna, 
for $4.fHJ. ^ 

If you want good pens of medium fiae- 
ness, smooth pointb, durable and superior 
for practical writing aud flourishing, send 
30 cents for one-quarter or $l,OOU for a full 
gross box of " Ames Penman's Favorite 

Railroad Sociability. 
" Speaking about the sociability of rail- 
r..aH Iravflers," said the man with the 
cnitchen and a watch-pocket over his eye, 
" I never ^ot HO well lu^iiaintetl with the 
paBsenuere on a tniin m I did the other day 
nn the Milwaukee and St. Paul Kailroad. 
We were going at the rate of aboat thirty 
miles an hour, and another train from 
Ktlier direction telescoped us. We wcr 
thrown int<p each other's society, 
ediato social contact i 

r and sat in the lap of a cor- 
n Manitoba, and a girl from 

brought into i 

pulent lady fn 
Chicago jumped over nine seats and sat 
down on the plug hat of a preacher from 
LaCrofwe witli so much timid, girlish cntliu- 
Hia«m that it shoved his hat clean down over 
his shoulders. 

" Kvorybody seemed to lay aaido the usual 
cool reserve of strangers, and we made our- 
selves entirely at home. 

"A shy young man, with an emaciated 
oilcloth valise, left his own seat and wont 
over and aat down in a lunch-basket where 
a bridal couple seemed to bo wrestling with 
their first picnic. Do you suppose that 
reticent young man would have done such a 
thing on ordinary occasious f Do you 
think if he had been at a celebration at 
homo ho would have risou impetuously and 
gone where those people were eating by 
themselves and sat dowu in the cranberry 
jelly of a total stranger ! " 

" I should rather tliiiik not. 

"Why one idd man, who probably, at 
home, led the clastt-mcnting, aud who was 
as dignified as IJrother Jones' father, was 
ejiiiug a piece of custard-pie when wo uiot 
tlie other train, and he left his own seat and 
wont over to the front end of tho car aud 
shot that piece of custard pie into the car of 
a beautiful widow from Iowa. 

" People traveling stunehow forget the 
austerity of tlieir homes and furm arf|uaint- 
Huri-n that Romotiiiies last tlirnugh life."— 

Public Schools and Politicians. 

(I'^om the Itichmnnd Co. Gazette. ) 

At au examination of a public school on 
Slateu Island, the teacher, justly prond of 
his schohirs, addressing the audience, said : 
" Ladies aud gentlemen, to prove that the 
boys aro not crammed for the occasion, I 
will direct one of thi-m to opeu the arith- 
luetie at random, and road out the first 
problem. Then I shall invite a gentleman 
of the audience to work out tho sum on the 
board, and to commit intentional errora 
which, you will observe, the boys will in- 
stantly detect. John Smitli, open the book 
an»i read the first question I " 

The scholar obeyed and read out^" Add 
fifteen -sixteenths aud nine elevenths." 

The toaehor turned to tho audience aud 

said: "Now, Supervisor , will you 

Bti'p to the blackboard and work it out?" 

Tho snperviacu- hesitated, thou said, 
" Certainly," and advanced a step, but 
paused and asked the teacher, " Is it fair to 
put tho children to so difficult a problem f" 
' Oh, never fear," replied tho teacher, "they 
will be e<iual to it." " Very well," said the 
supervisor, "go on." The boy began the 
question : "Add fifteen-sixteenths " 

"No, no!" said tho supervisor, "I will 
nut be a party to overtaxiug tho chihlrou's 
brains! I liavo conscientious scruples 
against it ! This forcing system is ruining 
the rising generation!" and he gave back 
ttie chalk aud lofl the room. 

" Well, Judge CastleU.n, will y.m favor 
ua t " aakisl the teacher, tendering the chalk. 
" I would iXo so with pleasure," replied the 
judge, " but I have a case coming on in my 
court in a mimito or two," and ho left. 

" Assessor Middletown, we iimat fall back 
ou you," said the teacher, smiling. " Oh," 
sjiid the assessor, " I pass— I mean, I de- 
cline in favor of Collector X." " Well, that 
will do." replied the teacher, "Mr. Col- 
lector, will you favor uaf 

"I would ocrtaiuly— that ia— of couree," 

replied the collector, "but — ahem I — I think 
it should be referred to a commit — Why, 
bless me! I'll never catch it! Good-bye! 
Some other time ! " and be left. 

" I know Justice Soutbtield wilt not ro- 
fusel" said the teacher, and the justice 
stepped promptly up to the blackboard 
amidst a round of applause from tho audi- 
ence. Tho scholar again began to read the 
sum. " Add fifteen-sixteenths and — " 

A dozen hands went up as the judge 
made the first figures. 

" Well, what is it f " asked the teacher. 

" He's got the denominator on top of the 
line ! " cried the boys in chonis. 

" Very good, boys, very good ; I see you 
are attentive ! " said the judge, as he rubbed 
out the figures, turned red, and began again, 
but was interrupted by tho class calling out : 

"Now he's got the numerator and de- 
nominator both under tho line! " 

" Aha ! you young rogues ! You're sharp, 
I see!" said the judge, jocosely, and again 

"That aint a fraction at all! It's one 
thousand five hundred and sixteen ! " was 
tho cry that hailed the judge's new cotnbi- 
natiou of figures. 

"Really, Mr. Teacher," ejaculated the 
judge, " I must compliment you ou tiie 
wonderful proficioucy of your scholars in 
algebra! I won't tire their patience any 

"Oh, go on, go on!" said the teacher, 
aud agaiu the judge wrote some figures in 
au ort'-liaud manner. 

"That aint a fraction ! It's six thousand 
one hundred aud fifty-one!" yelled the boys. 

" Mr. Teacher," said the judge, " it 
would bo ungenerous on my part, and im- 
ply au unworthy suspiciou as to your effi- 
cieocy, to put these extraordinarily bright 
children to additional testa; I would not — I 
could not— Oh ! excuse me ! There's Brown ! 
I have important business with him. 
Sheriff! I want to se^ you! "and he left. 

Some days afterward, a boy was brought 
before Justice Southfield for throwing stones 
in tho street. "John," said tho judge, 
sternly, " were you the boy that laughed in 
school on Monday, while I wiia working 
that problem i " " Yes, sir ! " was the reply. 
John got thirty days. 

Trophy-Snatchers Sold. 

A Raid on the Penk at the Ameri- 
can ExciiAN(JE After the Discov- 
ery OP Berniiardt's Skinature. 
Tho Loudon corresptmilent of the Detroit 
Free Press, " Charing Cross," writes as fol- 
lows: "Sarah Bernhardt is iu London, 
and the firet place she visited was the 
American Exchange. She dropped infor- 
mally iu at five one afternoon, and, although 
the reading-rooms were full, those present en- 
tertained an angel unawares as far as know- 
ing that the slim actress was among them. 
She told Mr. Gillig that slie was delighted 
with America and everything American. 
She signed lier name on the register and 
made quite a long stay in the elegant 
ladies' parlor of the Exchange. A rather 
funny incident in connection with Sarah's 
visit took pbice. Tho main reading-room 
is supplied with numerous writing-desks 
and pens. When Sarah had signed the 
register and had disappeared up-stairs, a 
gentleman sauntered from one of the desks, 
pen in hand, to see who the elegantly- 
dressed lady was, who had just written in 
tho book. He gave a gasp of surprise, and 
with a furtive look around, quickly ex- 
changed tiie pen he had for the one she had 
used, and slipped the latter iu his pocket. 
So<m another ttaw the signature and speedily 
captured the pen, put it iu his pocket, 
and placed a pen from one of the desks on 
the regUter. As the news spread that ' the * 
Bornliardt had been there, nearly all the 
pens in the eslablishmeut were captured, 
under the impression that they were the 
pens used by the actress. It may please ail 
these Amoricaus to know that the sjime pen 
was taken by Mr. Gillig from the fair hands 
of Sarah herself,'' 

July, 188.. JUST PUBLISHED. July, 1881. 





Tbo nhnvdimitiieeNibm.. - i : ' xian uf Uio knonlodfra of Arllh- 

u>.iiini rortli IWW lis a I'UACTICAI. TK--'l-liUUK I.ji^k Mwtleil ii> thy chi*,' n.i-mii at ihi> Iintitutl'jn fcuudwl by 
Ux'imilciw^ix), niidby liim])orH.nuUyDuiidiiclt<irurni.urioduroVliK A SIXTH OK A CENTURV. 


Of the nboT« work. liegiDnin; with llie iubjccl of reKwntngo, wm jmblislied in Soplfliiiber, 18S0. It nt oiipn rooclvml 
ilio Btmn^st liidiinement nmon; iiiitTiy o( Ihu lending mluoatora tit thi» rouutry, nod wns ndopint in over ONE 


HnsJiiM h, . 1 iM|.:. t.'.i. I - ..III,.,.-,.- M.- |,.|^.. - \,..-„,,y.uL- u ill. iim' u,ir...iii.'ii..ri < 'f Arithinetio BDil CXloiliUng In tho 

Miiijfin 1 1 r I . I! 1 . riit.' nuiihodannindiipled lodiuly 

li I- i.i .■ - .' ' ■ i- . ,....,-', .1 ,. . ■ . ■- M.i :, '. ,i..i, - , 1 .ii.iir..vemont nml progrpu tuJniHIj' 



From U. K. Ilil' I' I.. A - i!',.„Sil 1. HmM..ii. M;.^s.: 

JVom Charles Clagliom, Principal Bryant & Stratton School. Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

" I knun- of uo Aritliiuelio so well auitcd to the p«oulinr work of Biuineu Colleges. Im uko iii my aoLool haa 
assisted u» to much betttr restills Iban wo havo over before oblnlniKl." 

Fi'oni S. S. Packard, President Packard's Busiiiess College, New York : 

louiling coiumoroial topica." 

I'Voiii O. R WilliftmR. Prof. Law and Mntliematica, Rochester Buainess Un'uity, Rochester, N. Y.; 

rVoinl'i.i J ^ > . .U, Principal AUen'8 Grove High School, WiBconsiu : 

■If M, . I. . _ -MT yei used id sthoi.l. A full exptanulioii i» oiv*n of biwloees tem 

«i.h bw.1l 1. . Ill I. I. LI L ,u . 1 Ml ;{ pn.Wpms, .-ovringr r'veiy powiltle olmnge of fonn, bill no piiaales, 

From n. C. Spei 

simply uNCW BOOK. 
I Itiisiness College. Washington, D. C: 

From S. BogarduB. Pi-esidcnt SpinngfieUl BusinesB College, Springfield, 111.: 

"It is giving great aalisfhclion lo stiiderta and teachoM. The explaoaUon and rulex are 
jviinled. I cim glacJ to give your wnrk my lienrly api.mvnl" 

From O. A. Gnsk-fll Tnmlp-il jM-.vfltv Tln^in-^^ f\,n.g.>, .lersey City. N. J.: 

and ii''it8!^dX"An!''' "■"."■" ' ' " ■ V', ■;■ .,.",',':;,■. ■■;'!:!;.''''' 'u\s'i!^&l''K'i''adv 

From A. B. Claik. )■, 

CIlMge, Newark. N. J.: 
ill... Ohio: 

From J. M. Martin & Bros.. Proprietor- <'.,. n \\ ,.,,,,, IlusiiieBS College, Galesburg. Ill 

I' ]) M, M<Lachl.iu. Principal Cnnnda Ru^iripss CollPf^t.. Clinthrtm. Ont.: 

From (■ W -:. ■ . I'l . , 1; -..-.(. . !■,■.(.. M . :, 

" " • - ''■ ' -■■■>' ■' ■■ 1 ■' i;.i- i.i -~ I L-' ■ iii.i I ...u.i.iiL- r....iiis. Wo ore vory highly iili 

with it iijia li At-i;.i..k, uu ut ...i.i. .i.t.. u.. ^ii|-.-i,oi ic^uiic m- 1.1.- .-i.iii.i.-.i 1., ,i<'i-<mipli«h flir our pnpUa aim 

7 '"'! 

From C. F. Carhart, Principal PoUora's Biisinwus College, Albany, N. Y.: 


AddresB W. H. SADLER, Publisher, 

Nos. 6 and 8 N. Charles Street, Ualtimoro, Md. 

A Relic of the Centennial. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., havo 
recently set up in their New York office, 2fi 
John Street, their display of Stfcel Pens at 
the Philadelphia Exhibition, in 1876. The 
frame enclosing the principal design, occu- 
pies a space of about four and one-half feet 
by fourteen. Nearly seven thousand pous 
are used in the Exhibit, and are arranged 
in a great varity of attractive shapes. The 
pens are of various colors, bronze, blue, 
black, white, gold and nickel plated, and 
looks neariy aa fresh and new as when tirst 

A newspaper tells this story of a new boy 
in one of tho country schools: The precious 
youth was asked who uuide the beautiful 
hills about them, and replied that he did not 
know, as his parents bad only moved into 
the neighborhood the day before. 

** John ■' said his teacher, " I am very 
sorry to have to punish you." "Don't 
then, " said Jolinny, " cause it always makes 
mo feel bad, too. Then we'd both be sorry 
you did it." 

invaluable to all who kra suking to Imprurt 
r. AddreM, PfOtMA^t's Akt JounifAT.. 

905 BiMdwiiy, New York. 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

if the leadii 
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g Collegee. Aca- 
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College . 
ncrcjal College 

' New York! N." 
. . Philadelphia. I 
. . . Uuilimora. M 
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■■ :. .1.1-- College Lfinii,N.Y. 

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iriiuln Biuinou Collego BamilloD, OnL 

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The above are some of the leading inatitu- 
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Law, and who speak in the highest tei-ms of 

..f II. . -I,,.-. T'l s|i;m-ii rtnd ARRANOBD eapeolally 

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M A Y H E W S 


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packanes, Printing Ink. Si 
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NEW YORK, MAY. 1882. 

Vol. VI.— No. 5. 


Valparaiso. Ind. 


Now is the time to subacribe for the 
loiiitNAL and begin with tlie first leason in 
1 writing by Prof. H. C. Spencer, 
lessons will alone be worth many 
le cost of a year's subscription. 


Personal Characteristics in 

Says D'Israeli, "To every individual 
alure has given a distinct sort of writing, 
I she has given them a peculiar counte- 

The writing of the world is as marked 
And varied in its idiosyncraciea as are the 
physiognomies and other peculiar character- 
istics of its writers. Not only is this true as 
regards individuals, but of race and nation- 
alities. The extensive and close observer 
distinguishes between nalionalities by their 
writing as readily as he does by speech, 
physiognomy or any other race peculiarity. 
Even where one has learned to write another 
than his native language, the race-distin 
tion, to a perceptible degree, remains. The' 
writing of a German, Frenchman or other 
foreigner who has learned to speak and 
write the English language, will retain an 
ididcratie style as perceptible to the expert 
as will be the brogue in the foreigner's 
speech ; and the one can no more be over- 
come or avoided than the other. 

Again : Writing, to a marked degree, is 
an index to race peculiarities. The impul- 
sive aud gesticulating Frenchman repro- 
duces himself iu bis florid and fantastic wri- 
ting, as does the cool phlegmatic Briton in 
his more deliberate and less ornate style. 
There is, too, sometimes, as strong a re- 
eemblancc iu the writing as there is iu the 
person aud characteristics of different mem- 
bers of the same family, which resemblance 
very naturally results from coincident in- 
struction, example and family traits. Those 
fcmily resemblanc«8 are occasionally so great 
U to render liable a mistake in the identity, I 

of both person and writing, by persons of 
limited aciiuaintance ; but not of either, by 
, intimate relatives or associates. In neither 
case can we conceive a complete and per- 
fect identity to be possible ; nor are the dis- 
tinctive characteristics by which different 
writings are recognized less marked or 
more uncertain than are those which dis- 
tinguish persons. 

The skilled and obser\'ing accountant or 
correspondent will recognize the various 
handwriting of all associates in his house, 
as well as of its frequent correspondents, as 
readily and unerringly as he does their 
persons; nor can the identity of their hand- 
writing be more effectively concealed by 
diBguiso thau can the persons of the writers. 
It is also an observable fact that original 
and highly eccentric persons usually de- 
velopc an equally original and eccentric 
handwriting. By eccentric writintr we do 
not refer to the well nigh unintelligible 
hieroglyphics of such newspaper writers as 
Greeley and others, whoso essentially bad 
writing has generally resulted more from 
the attempt to force an unskilled pen tp 
perform tlie utterly impossible task of keep- 
ing pace with their rushing torrent of 
thoughts thau from any real eccentricity o' 
character, but to those whimsical, nonde- 
script forms, in which the writers utterly 
ignore all system or example, and seem to 
defy, alike, all rules of art and nature by 
deliberately introducing forma aud combina- ! 
tions which may be anything or nothing, | 
according to their position and the context. I 
and which constitute as a whole, a " hand " 
as grotesque and inimitable jis is the char- | 
acter of its author, and one which seems to 
say to the beholder, " This is my style," 
aud very properiy, for certainly it will enter 
into the heart of no other man to conceive 
of anything like it. 

lielow we present a few specimens of 
such writing, together with a iew facsimile 
autographs — those of persons publicly 
known — which will serve a 


These autographs are certainly mi generis, 
and in their entire originality aad defiance 
of prescribe 1 rules of chirography are typi- 
t'al of their respective authors, wlio, in their 
careers, have been equally original and ir- 
respective of the beaten ways of their 
K rand fat hers. 

As another example of the eccentric au- 
tograph—certainly its writer has departed 
widely from the ways of her grandmother — 
we present the following : 

"It is," in the words of another writer, 
" a fine combination of masculine vigor and 
feminine caprice." Authors of such vi'riting 
and autographs as above need have no fear 
of a mistaken identity or of any consider- 
able number of accidental coincidences be- 
tween their and any other "sign manual." 

Below are specimens of writing aud au- 
tographs constructed more in accordance 
with the prevailing standards of form, and 
which specimens are not distinguished by 
any conspicuous personalities. 





Such writing will occur in cases wlieie 
persons of nearly equal skill have learned to 
write by practicing from the same copies 
and who have not subsequently changed 
their hands by practice under widely difl'er- 
ent circumstances. In such writing there 
will be many accidental coincidences of fonn 
and combination between that of different 
writers, and mistaken identity is liable ex- 
cept by those to whom the handwriting is 
thoroughly familiar. 

It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit in 
writing, as it is in the figure, dress, etc., in 
persons, which readUy and certainly deter- 
mine their identity. 

Persons of the same color, of medium 

stature, regular features, clothed iu the pre- 
vailing fashion, present much the same ap- 
pearance to the eye of a stranger, and on a 
slight acquaintance may easily be mistaken 
one for another ; but persons highly excep- 
tional in any of these respects will he rec- 
ognized at sight : there can be no mistaking 
a black for a white man, a giaut for a 
dwarf, or a cripple on crutches for a man on 
sound legs. Persons are never so identical 
in form, features, dress, habit, etc., as to bo 
mistaken by intimate acquaintances, and 
usually where a strong personal resemblance 
is apparent to strangers, it ceases to be so 
upon a more intimate acquaintance. So, 
however close the resemblance between the 
writing of different persons may appear to 
the unfamiliar observer, the identity of each 
will not only he apparent, at once, to ita 
author and others to whom it is familiar, 
but they will usually fail even to note a 

The handwriting of every adult must in- 
evitably have multitudinous distinctive and 
habitual peculiarities— of many of which the 
writer is himself unconscious : such as 
initial ;iuO terminal liucc, forms and meihoda 
of constructing letters, combinations, re- 
lative proportions, turns, angles, spacing, 
slope, shading (in place and degree), crosses, 
dots, orthography, punctuation, &c., &c. 
These peculiarities are the outgrowth of 
long habit, and come at length to be pro- 
duced^and reproduced by the sheer force of 
habit— as it wero, automatically by the hand, 
its movements being independent of any di- 
I rect thought or mental guidance. Being 
[ thus unconsciously produced, and, in the 
i main, unnoted by the writer, they cannot 
I be successfully avoided or simulated through 
j any extended price of writing. To do so, a 
j writer would be required to avoid that of 
which he was not conscious, aud to copy 
the undiscovered habits of another writer. 
I Though writing be changed in its 
I general appearance, as it easily may be by 
' altering its slope or size, or by using a mdely 
, different pen, yet the unconscious habit of 
I the writer will remain and be perceptible in 
all the details of the writing; and such an 
effort to disguise one's writing, could be 
scarcely more successful than would be an 
effort to disguise the person by a change of 
dress. In either case a close inspection re- 
veals the true identity. 

Although it be a fact that writing ulti- 
mately becomes the automatic production of 
the hand, it is equally a fact that it does m 
as the ]jupil and agent of the mind ; and 
in the moulding process the peculiar quali- 
ties of its tutor and master enter uncon- 
sciously into its composition, aud it becomes, 
as it were, a mirror of its creator — the 

The truth of this assertion we will en- 
deavor to illustrate by presenting /acsi>ni7« 
autographs of a few persons whose mental 
characteristics are a matter of historical 
record, and will or may be known to all 
our readers. It is probable that ^ the 
writing of no two 
frequently been the subjec 
then that of Rufus Choate i 
cock, whose portraits and j 
here present. 

nd John Han 
lutographs w< 

Alt I JonSNAI. 

of tl)( 

M between the personal dharacter- 
ietic*, pliysiognoroics or chirogmphy of 
tbes(.< geutleinoD. Mr. Clioato oujityed tbc 
reputation of beiug the very worst, aud 
Hancock aa being among the best, writers 
of tlieir times. 

The hard, wiry, nervous and intensely 
marked features of Choate, bespeak the 
brilliant though eccentric orator, jurist and 
■tatesmHi), nxid are in fnll accord with his 

The portrait of Hancock, in its bold, 
open and frank expression, ia typical of 
wliat the biographer describes as "a man 
of strong common sense and great derision 
of character, polished maoners, easy address, 
affable, liberal and charitable." Could por- 
trait, character and autograph he in better 

As a companion-autograph of Hancock's 
we piesent that of 

wbo was also a compatriot in the stirring 
limes of the Revolution, and a colleague 
in tht' Colonial Congress. Both were 
*!noDg the moat earnest, bold and feariess 
advocates of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. John Adams, in one of his tiery 
speeches iu its favor, closed by fairiy shout- 
ing " Independence forever " ; and Hancock, 
when be placed his autograph npon the 
Declaration, which act might have become 
his death-warrant, remarked " The British 
Ministry will not need their specks to see 
that." The bold,8trong,determined character 
of these men stands out in their autographs. 
Iu marked contrast to these, are the auto- 
graphs of two of our great merchants and 

e we have men of affiairs who have a 
care for details which enter as minutely 
and fnlly into their autographs as into their 
business. Between these autographs and 
the followiug, are contrasts as striking as 


These, aa a class, are what might be 
termed Parliamentary autographs. Their 
aulhoFB indulge in mmv of the redundances 
or fantastic (piirks and ereentriciltes eo 
c<Mnirinn to most classes of writers, the 
autographs seeming to possess a conFcinuB 
dignity, which, like th'' greatness of ihdr 
aulh<iri>,i.H most complete without dec^nitiun. 



almost microscopical proportions, is indi- 
cated that rare quality of mind which 
crystallized thought into felicitous phrases, 
and stamped him as tbe ablest statesman 
and diplomatist of his time. His " irrepressi- 
ble conflict " and "higher law" w re ex- 
pres9iou(« which largely shaped the evt nts 
of his time. 

^ ^. ^'jr^,^J^ 


/f F A 

The autograph of Clay, in its concise, 
frank, open and almost laconic style, most 
faithfully reflects the character of tbe great 

Probably n<. two America 
more resembled each other in their style of 
thought and expression than Seward and 

99t^ y^^ 

The autograph of General Grant is 
plain and simple in its construction, not an 
unnecessary movement or mark iu it — a 
signature as bare of superfluity and ostenta- 
tion as was the silent soldier and hero of 

In the autograph of R. E. Lee 
we have the Fame terse, brief man- 
ner of constructiou as in Grant's. 
It is more antiquated and formal 
in its style ; more stiff, and what' 
miglit be called aristocratic. It* 
firm upright strokes with angular 
horizontal terminal lines indicate a. 
dfctermined, positive character. 

with the two last-mentioned auto- 
graphs, is that of G. T. Beauregard,^ 
in that he indulges in a rather ela- 
borate flourish, which is a national' 
characteristic, and also typical of the 
blustering and flourish with which 
he entered the field of our late 
" onpleasantness." In dignity and 
unpretentious directness bia auto- 
graph compares as unfavorable 
with those of Grant and Lee, as 
did his military record with theirs. 

to-engraved fdc-fimile of a Utter written by General Oarfield to the eldtgt 
the midst of the harastintj and txcUiny campaign, which 7'egulted in his 

The above cut i 
son of Henry C. Spi 
flection a» President. 

It teas, of course, most hurriedly written, yet not a letter or toord is m it which ia not as clear and 
legible as type. 

It is remar/iable not only from the excellence of its chirography, but in the circumstance of a great 
man littrally ovenvhtlmed with the tabor and correspondence incident to a great presidential campaign, 
of which he himself teas the chosen standard-leartr, turning aside to anstctr a congratulatory Utter 
received from a lad. The youth of our country held a wann place in the heart of the late President. 

ing whose opinic 
countrymen were ni 

whose life was without e<pil 
reproach, and conc( 

I Alexander Hamilton, the latter the acftom- 
plished aide-de-camp of Gen. Washington, 

I and subsequently Secretary of the Treasury 
under Washington's administration. As pre- 
sented, in many respects the autographs of j ^"^^ Reporter. 
Seward and Hamilton also resemble each 

A Few Law Points. 

A jury iu North Carolina, after 
being charged in tbe usual way by 
the judge, retired to their room, 
when a white juror ventured to ask 
a colored associate if he understood 
tbechargeof the judge. " What! " 
exclaimed the astonished juror, "he 
don't charge nuf£n'furdat,doeahet 
Why, I thought we was gwine to- 
get pay ! " 

A Texas judge who had two 
tramps before him said to them : 
"Now, one of you make tracks for 
the border, and the other try to 
catch him." They caught at the 
idea and put in their best licks. 

A lawyer arguing a case was 
reprimanded by the presiding judge 
for ceitain remarks and references 
made. The lawyer, iu making &u 
apology, said : " Your Honor is 
right and I am wrong, as your 
Honor usually is.'' 

An attorney called to see an 
eminent judge, and sent his card 
up. The answer came: " The judge 
cannot be seen, he is in his chamber with 
sciatica." The visitor exclaimed : " Just 
my d — d luck ; there is always some cussed 
Italian just in ahead of me." — Wasliington 

The autograph of his great cotemporary, 
Webster, too, in its simplicity and dignity of 
style, is appropriate to the terse, vigorous 
and unaffected style of America's greatest 

The autograph of Lincoln is clear, bold 
and uttf rly without affectation j while its 

The autograph <tf Garfield is easy, flow- 
ing and graceful, without redundancy or 
pretention. Nothing could he more in keep- 
ing will) the scholarly attainments, graceful 
oratory, and unpietentioua merit of its au- 
further specimen of Garfield's 

quaint, honest dignity renders it thoroughly from his pen. The writing 

chirography we present a fac-simile letter beautifully figured 

Saved :— " Isn't it delightful, Horace, to 
think of the awakening of nature, after her 
long sleep ! A few weelis ago and all was 
buried beneath the cold, white blanket of 
winter, and the frost king held the life-giv- 
ing sap of the trees and Howers in his 
mighty grip. Now all is changed. The 
sun, with its penetrating raya, revivifies the 
long-dormant principles of growth, and id 
a abort time — a few days at most — the earth 
will be clad in her spring suit of green. 

appropriate as the "sign manual" of " hi 
Abe." In a contrast as marked, as were 
the peculiar characteristics and attainments 
of the two men, stands the delicately 
molded autograph i>f the great " war 
premier" Seward. In its delicate construc- 


'jal eccentricity, though bearing a marked 
personality. It is brief, clear, strong, and 
symmetrical, and iu its general excellence, 
as compared with tbe average writing of our 
public men, it stands as consjticuous as did 
the character and attainments of its author 

tion of fine hair-lines, clear-cut shades, and \ among bis cotemporaries. 

dandelions and 
daises." "Oh, Almira Ann,' said he, as 
he looked into her eyes a look of WTapt ad- 
miration, "if I thought you would always 
aling English like that, I'd — I'd — but then 
you might turn your language batteries oo 
me." A moment more he would have been 
lost, but his guardian angel did not forsake 
him. — New Haven Register. 


carry a pncknge 
thrnnnh the Street, 

of F<ix collnrs nntl 

usual, ordered them 
ti) he delivered at 
lence. S^od 


vragou 1 


-fls harked 
; door aad 
the pacltJi^e lahor- 
ioualy pliicfd OD 
tiio steps hy the 


Writing, like 
spelliug, read- 
iDg, aud calcu- 
lalicms, ia a re- 
quirement of 
overy-day life. 
All suuh things 
should he Bpo- 
cially well d.>uo. 
The pen is the 
mouthpiece of 
the corrcspciud- 
eut, the foreruL- 
ner of the press, 
the recorder of 
the myriad 
traneactiong of 
the husiuoss 
world. lis use, 

iuiportaot, rea- 
ders it« proper 
aoqii ire meat 

necessity — a duly 
whi.-h uo oue can 
afford tu negject. 

We may prop- 
erly appeal to \-a- 

motives for 




Lessons in Practical Writing. 

No. I. 
By Henry C. Spencer. 

Who Can Learn To WniTE. 

sible people who cling to the notion 
which has descended through many uenwrations, that pen- 
men, like poets, " are horn, not made." But it is not likely 
that many readers of this journal hold lo a notion so ab- 
surd, and probably there is not one who does, among those 
wi.o will seek to profit by these lessons. We do not, of 
iMurse, deny that individuals dilTer ia natural aptitude for 
IciirtiiiiiE writing, as they do in iheir capacities f"r learning 
uilier praclieal arts; but we do know that there ia nothing 
cniMioctcd M'ith tlie successful acquirement of the twenty- 
M>; aianchiid script oipilals, and the tweuty-six small letters 
with their proper coiuhiualioiis, that is necessarily beyond 
the cjiparity of seusible persons. ( 
point, based upon long experience and exteudcd ob 
is foriuiilaled llius: Ant/ person tcho hasgood 
one or Uco eyes, and five fingers on either hand, can, under 
proper instruct-on, learn to write kcU. 
We believe there is a st'-ady 

Increase of Good Writers. 

We nioct tcu good writers now, where but one could be 
found twenty years ago. The more general introduction 
in (Mir Ciiuntry of a recognized standard of penmnuship, and 
methods of instnii-tioii and training by which le 
enabled to approximate to that slandanl, has largely m- 
creased iho number of good writers in jiroportiuu to the 
whole population. There are other agencies which should 
bo mentioned. Teachers in our public and private schools, 
with the aid of systematized copy-hooka and charts, are 
doing better leaching than formerly. 

The business colleges of the United States, with their 
skilled, alilo and euorgetic teachers of penmanship, are an- 
nually traiuing up thousands of elegant writers; also teaching 
them how to apply their skill in correspond en'-e, book- 
keeping, and the practical aOairs of life. This Penman's 
AuT Journal, with its wide circulation, its artistically il- 
lustrated pages and columns of iustniction. presenting pen- 
mauehip, as it does, in aliuost every known phase of utility 
aud beauty, is doing a great work iu popularizhig the art 
aud apreading a knowledge of it over the whole 
The great increase in the number of good 
and parcel of the general progress of our times. The good 
work mnet be carried forward. 

Good Writing Should BECOirc Universal. 


[ CashBook 

them by appro- 
priate considera- 
tions. There is a 
real pleasure to be 
derived from tho 
study ^^l symme- 
trical hiudwrit- 
iug: It briuga 
into delightful ac- 
tivity aud conse- 
quent development, faculties of form, size, order, color, 
<-onatructivencss, and cumparsion. Then there is a satis- 
kill of hand. Hand-work is brain-work brought 
iaible forms thruugli nerve and 
■ nuscle. The complimentary approval of one's skill by 
relatives, friends aud acquaintances is no slight incentive 
to the mastery of the pen. Again, there are the 

Pecuniary Advantages 

which good handwriting secures, especially to those who 

are just entering busy life, upon their own responsibility. 

competition in every department 

ity becomes sharper and closer. For every 

posiiiuu now ofl'ered there are crowds of eager 

i-ompeting applicants, each striving t? secure the preference. 

Competitors for placest, usually tirst become known to eiff- 

ployers through their letters, which are read and compared. 

Other qualifications hi ing8uti^factory, the advantages \i Inch 

ii superior handwriting secures to an applicant are clearly 

evident. Tho possessor of such a hHiidwriiiLg wins and 

others, deficieut, fail aud fall. 

Practical chirography, as all know, not only secures 

paying positious, bnt helps to 

Promotion and Advancement. 
The reason is, because a man's measure, in dollars and cents, 
IS hie abi'ity to do — to perform useful service to others. In 
this view, the possessor i f a legible, rapid, elegant hand- 
rtTiiing may be justly estimated as having hum thirty to 
forty per cent, advantage over his competitt>r3. 

The ready peumau, other points cous'ulered equal, is, 
therefore, nut only the successful candidate fur business 
positions and promotions, but he commands a higher salary 
because of Mm more valuablu s 

The Course of Lessoxs 

,ch we are entering upou will be iu accordance with those 

icinles which are fundameutal in the system originated 

Piatt II. Spencer — those principles which took hold 

iuds of such men as Victor M. Rice, James W. 

isk, E. G. Folsom, Wm P. Cooper, John Gundry, Geo. 

ight uame, distln- 

ished among his followers with the peu. Those principles 

he present American school of 

Ucd penmen, of which our country may be justly proud. 

The Instructions, 
to our pupils who are to tnke tins' course of lessons, must 
bo carefully studied, cheei fully and persevcringly practiced. 
Each lesson should be thoroughly mastered. " Nu excel- 
lence without labor," r 

First, you will please write a sample, showing the pres- 
ent condition of your handwriting. Please do this without 
looking at any copy. We suggest the following matter as 
:)uitable: Specimen of my plain penmanship; Alphabet of 

6,c, etc. Alpha- 
bet of capital 
letters: A, B, 
C,etc., The fig- 
ures: 0, 1, 2, 
up to nine. The 
(ullowiug verse : 

'^^t^t^^^Ji^t^e^^^^-d^ yt:^yL^^ 











<ext, yonr 
lame and the 
late of writing. 


md as yoo go 

An r Joi Kvvi. 

coarse, try it over, again and 
iLgaia, aiming to impiove each 
and every lelter, word and 

When you are through with 
tlio courtte of lesaona, a com- 
parison of first and last speci- 
mens will show your progroBs; 
but we trtiet that ere the fiDal 
test is made, yuur friends and 
acqiiaiDtauces will have occa- 
Bion t" uoto your progress as 
hIiowd in yuiir correfipnudeDco 
Hud other chirographic work. 

Material for Writinq 
nhould couKist of Foolscap 
I'aper, of good quality, ruled 
medium width, (three-eighths of au mch 
hetwc-en linos ) j Steel Pens that will make 
cleau strokes and that have sufficient 
lluxibility to shade small t's and p's ; Ink 
that is oloan, flows freely, and has a distinct 
black or blue shade as it flows from the pen. 
Keep the ink corked when not in use. A 
piece of Moiling -pa])er and a pen -wiper 
may be added to ttio outfit. These articles 
ahouhl at all times be in order for use. 

I'be page- written in practice upon each 
of the lessons ought to be dated, properly 
uiimhered, and preserved throughout the 
fourae. Ouo is more likely to do well that 
which he iuteuda to preserve. Aimless scrib- 
bling, which oLc hastens to throw into the 
waste-basket, U a positive injury : it engen- 
ders bad habits of mind and hand, and is "a 
waate of precious time and valuable material. 

Tub Pen-Picture 

is here introdufcil as a frontispiece to our 
course of iustructions. It is photo- on gravpd 
from a pi-n-drawiog from the hand of Lyman 
P. Speueer, the youngest of the five Spencer 
Brothers. It illustrates correctly what is 
sometimes designated the " Accountant's 
Position at Desk" — a position adapted to 
writing upon large books which cannot well 
be placed obliquely upon the desk or table 
aa we would, ordinarily, place paper for 
writing. (Position and pen-holding, will 
form a part of our next lesson.) The view 
from the window iu the picture suggests the 
relation which the pen hears to commerce 
and civilization. 

Tub Script Alphabets 

are presented aa mudfls for practice. Each 
learuei has, iu greater or less degree, the 
faculy <.f imitat.oo, and hy the exercise of 
this faculty, with some study, an important 
advance-,^t('p may be immcdiutely gained, 
and the student enabled to iueoriiorate into 
his handwriting the standard forms of let- 
ters, iu their general features, fn.m the be- 
ginuing of his course, and not be left for a 
considerable period of time, with a mixed 
hand, composed of old and new in con- 
Btautly varying proportions. 

How to Practice. 
Assume your own usual position for writiog 
(wedonot leach position at this stage); bring 
the alphabet before you for a copy; hold your 
B-sixteenth of an inch above 

» pkoto engraxed froi 


I and Packa da On 

Tie otttftjal was Hounal td hy I D Wtlliamt 


pen about 

the first letter, a, and form it in the air, 
counting the strokes couaecutively — one,two 
three, four, five; then close your eyes and 
make the letter in the air from the model 
seen with your " mind's eye"; this fixes the 
form upon the mental tablet. We designate 
the process: mental photography. Now 
transfer from mind to paper; and as you 
write,count your strokes, to secure reguhirity 
of movement — also to make ."ure that no 
strokes are omitted. Write the a as many 
times as it contains strokes; then take the b 
in the same manner; and persevere with thin 
method of practice until you have done all 
the small and capital letters. 

Aids to Practice. 

If you do not succeed iu making your let- 
ters the same size as the copy, with ruler and 
pencil rule Hues to regulate heights and 
lengths as shown by the copy of alpha- 
bets. Such ruling is called a " writing 
scale" — it has six lines and five equal 
spaces — each space being oue-ninih of an 
inch in , height. A correctly ruled scale 
will be found an excellent aid to the am- 
bitious learner, who will ho guided by the 
lines and spaces as ho proceeds with his 
practice upon tho standard letters.* 

If you find that you do not get your let- 
ters upon the same slant as the copy, guide- 
lines may be ruled upon yuur page to regu- 
late slant. This can be done by placing 
your paper sj that its upper or top edge 
will be even with the lower line of the scale 
of small letters iu your copy; then, placiug 
one end of your ruler, with its edge adjusted 
to the slant of the 6, d or /, and projecting 
down upon your writing-page, you can rule 
a long line on correct slant hy tho left edge 
of the ruler ; then auother by tlie right edge ; 
and moving the ruler to the right, once its 
width, for each slant-line, continue ruling 
until the page is prepared. These " Slant- 
guides" will regulate the slant of the body 
strokes of the letters. With the aid of the 
" Writing-scale," the " Slant-guides," and 
"Mental Photography," together with count- 
ing strokes, and if the learner will go all 
over the alphabets again and again until the | ing her v 
forma of the letters are familiar to eye and j State— thi 
hand, he will surely make great progress in $35.45 paid 
practical writing. 

We give the Cash-book form herewith to 
show the adaptability of this style of writ- 
ing to business use. 

In our next will be presented new and 
complete illustrations, and instructions in 
position at desk, pen-holding, movements 
and principles. 

Kducational Notes. 

:iicatioiis foc this Departnieut may 
d to B. F. KELLEV,a05 Broadway, 
Brief educutiunal itemH oulicitttd.] 



New Hampshire has a c 

Four of the county-schonl superintciidpntaof 
Kansas are women. 

Full drfss aud ^'owns is the order for Com- 
mencement speakers at Harvard. 

Washington UniPeraity, nt St. Louis, has 
1,285 Btudeuts aud eighty prot«8noi-8. 

Schools in China open at snurise aud close at 
5 P, M. There is a short recess at midday. 

Mr. John F. Slater, of Norwich, Couu., has 
given 81.000,000 for the education of the colored 
people of tilt! South. 

There are OHO young women pursuing higher 
couraes of study iu St. Petersburg, of whom, 
610 are of noble birth. 

Prof. Greene, the firal colored gi'aduBte of 
Harvard, ie talked of for President of Howard 
College, Washington, D. C. 

By a vote of VS to 12 the Board ..f Harvard 
College declarea its Huwillingneda to train 
female doctors in its medical school. 

Amhersl College has lost Walker Hall by 
fire. The building conrained a valuable col- 
lection of minerals, and the loss is about 

By the sale of the Willislon mills, Amherst 
College receives Sl(JO,OuO, and the Williaton 
Seminary $200,000, according to the will of 
Samuel Willisloa. 

Miss Calista C. Kinne, now living in Oswego, 
N. Y,, in her eightieth year is claimed to be the 
oldest lady school-teacher in the State. She 
commenced lier vocation in Worcester, Olsego 
County, at the age of sixteen. 

Maine carries the uuenvidble record of pay- 
teachers less than any other 
1 average of $17.04, against 
male-tracbers, which is little 
enough for anybody that has a soul fit for a 

As regards illiteracy, the Sandwich Islands 
outrank European ootmtriea and the United 

States. On the Island not ten 
inhabitants, over twenty years 
of age, are to be found ignorant 
of read ng, writing aud spelling. 
Engl sh is not taught in the pub- 
lic schools, but in private 
schools of higher grades. 

President McCosh, of Prince- 
ton lately remarked that there 
" a de rease in the number iif 
college gmdoates who go into 
tl e m n etry, and the Rev. I.ynian 
Abbott adds: "There in a de- 
ciease in the quality. Some of 
the best men go into the miuis- 
tiy but the average, whether 
measured by the popular stand- 
ards of college classes or by 
recitat tn, is not high." 
Among the tangiingen of civilized nations 
English is the most widely spread. It is the 
nioilier-tongue cf about 80,000,000 people; 
German, ot between 50,000,000 and 50,000,000 ; 
Fmich, of between 40,000,000 and 50,000,000 ; 
Spanish, of 40,000,000 ; Italian, of 28,000,000, 
and Russian, of between 55,000,000 and (30,- 

At the school of the nobles in Tokio, Japan, 
is a physical map— 300 or 400 feet long, of the 
country, in the court behind the achool build- 
ing. This map, or model, is reade of turf dmi 
rock, aud is bordered with pebbles, which louk, 
at a little distance, eo much like water. Every 
'eproduced in this 
:1 longitude are iiidicnted 
tid tablets show the posi- 

model. Latitudi 
liy telegraph wir 

I of c 


ng of the MassachusettK 
Society for the Promotion of the University 
Education of Women, was held in Boston re- 
cently. The formal report declares that the 
success of the Society's work is gratifying. 
Stale Universities and many prnfeneional 
schools and colleges offer openly their ad- 
vantages to women, and the more coilBe^vuIive 
institutions are lieginniug to realize tliat the 
world does not stand still. The MassachuaeltH 
Institute of Technology last summer gave tii 
two young w.imen the degree of Bachelor of 

that I 

nlliiig t 

Educational Fancies. 

Education is a good thing enough; but the 
ignorant man makes his mark first in the world. 
— .V. O. I'icaynne, 

" Do you know who built the ark V asked a 
Sunday-school teacher of a little street arab; 
aud the little fellow replied, " Naw \ " 

" What is the femiume of tailor t" asked a 
teacher of a class in grammar. " Drecsiuaker," 
was the prompt reply of a bright-eyed little 

Sunday-pcbool teacher, to Jimroie: ■' What 
did your sponsors then do for you f " Jimmie, 
with readiness : " Nolhin', either llien or 

A little girl defining " bearing false witness 
against thy neigbborV said: "It was when 
nobody did nothing, and somebody went and 
told of it." 

" What is the highest order of animal crea- 
tion f " asked a New York teacher of one of 
her pupils. " Jumbo," was the confident and 

New college joke :— Professor says : " Time 
is money ; how do you prove it t " Student 


■.y?» : " Wfll. if you give twenty-five cents to 
I I otip1« of tramps, that is a quarter to two." 

' Will tbe buy wlio ltir«\v tbat pepper ou thv 
-tove come up here and get a present of a Dice 
lien- bookt" eaid a flcliool euperinlendent in 
Iowa; but the boy never moved. He was a 
far-aeeing boy. 
Arithmt-iic : If it tabea a boy, twelve years 

n, ll.i„kK„rv I, i. difilance of seventeen 

1.1 lM■,^ inML' -Mil ir rake Iitu. to travel a mile 
.iiLiI 11 liair i-i ffi' 11 cirriia procesBiou f 

'■ Wliut kind of little boyit go to heaven ?" A 
lively 4-year-old boy, wiib kicking bootH, 
flourished bis tiet. " Well, you may answer," 
"iiiil the teacher. "Dead ones," shouted the 
hnle fellow to the full extent of Itie lungs. 

An AiiHlin Sunday-school boy wur asked 
what was the meaning of the passage in the 
hilile about " Aduni earning bis bread by tbe 
hui-ftt of bis brow." " I reckon it means a fel- 
liiw must eat until thesweat just runs off him." 

A peasant who had half a cord of wood at 
III- (Irjor, desired bis five sons to saw it up in 
"IkIi ratio that the eldest should saw three- 
-rvcnths and the youngest oue-sixtb. How 
ili'i they divide the wood t (Key fur the 
I. etcher only. They let tbe old man saw it.) 

* I'm uol going to school any more," said a 
I v ear-old boy In bis mamma, on bis return 
ti DNi bis first day at the kindergarten. "Why, 
iriy ilear, don't you like to see the little boys 
imigirlsV" " Yes, but I don't want to go," 
|ii ihiel^d the boy, '"cause my teacher says that 
ii'iLiorrow she's going to try to put an idea 
mill my head." 

A wayward youth in an inland college per- 
i>i[i'iiled a bad grind on liis dignified Greek 
l>]Mfes8or the other day. Called upon for a 
Matidlation from Homer, where be speaks of 
ilu'Tiiijan women washing their clothing by 
tliffiea. he very demurely i.sked his teacher, 
■ if in his opinion this was the origin of the 
Tioy laundry." 

I'iiton was in great foree. I got biiu to re- 
iHsl. my memoiy with his story of a Dublin 
|ii LitV-«8'ir, who said to bia class: "Gentlemen, 
I III' Hon. Mr. Boyle was a great man j he was 
■ li.- r.iilier <il- flK'NiiMiy, and uncle to the Earl 
"I' < "ilv " , tiinii vvliM h. eays I'iiton, bin pupils 
^^"il'iil '•"! ilii' '■ -iii^li'D tbat chemistry and 

! ie was told to remain af^er school, when the 
tiaciier, trying to impress upon the youthful 
iiiiinl the einfulnesa of not cpeaking the irulb, bini if they did not tell him in Sunday- 
Hfliool where bad boys went who told false- 
hoods. Choaking with sobs, he said: " Yes, 
ma'am; it's a place where there is a fire, but 
r il.Hi't just remember the name of the town." 

The father of a family, afler reading from the 
nii.rning paper that the cold the night before 
waK intense, the thermometer registering many 
iL't-'reee below freeziug-point, said: "Now, 
I liil'Iren, I suppose you are taught all about 
iliai ai school. 'Which of yuu can tell me what 
till iVeezing- point ist" "Tbe point of my 
IM1S--, papa," was the prompt reply from one of 

riie boys were being examined in aetronoray. 
\\ lifu it came the visitors' turn to put ques- 
iiinii-, somebody aeked ^^hat the conetellaiiim 
ii; which tbe pointers are located 18 eallwl. 
I lif iiifaut phenomenon of the class promptly 
,ui"wered: "The great dipper." " Why is it 
'■al led the great dipper t " auked another visitor. 
■■ Because the goda used it to take a drink out 
of the milky way," responded tbepbt 

The "Peircehan" Method of In- 
lis Application in Public Scuools. 
I realize tbat it is, indeed, a difficult mat- 
ii-r ti) present ihruiigb the columns of the 
.IniTRNAL any directions that will be intel- 
li^i^ut enough to he of general use. 

It liiis been uij object to pave the way to 
my present artiule by giving, from tnontli 
I" iJiuuth, views ou several points, and I 
■^iiall have occasion to refer to them at 
nm.'s to make clear my position. For 
"i-i.Mjre, the article " Pen-holding," in July. 
N ■ ?*I, defines my position for children from 
10 years, and, I may truthfully add, 


ff 1 

accused of repetition, l»Jt it be re- 
ibereil tJiat I consider it one of the es- 

sentials to a teacher's success. Upon sup- 
position that all my directions thus far have 
been followed, such as position, pen-hold- 
ing, elate-ruling, etc., I now come to pen- 
cils, both slate and lead. There should, Jind 
must be a set kept especially for this pur- 
pose, and their condition is consistent with 
the very best results. 

The carelessness displayed in this one 
direction alone by too many teachers is 
enough to insure failure. 

Second Lesson. Recapitulation. Now 
we are ready j slates ruled ; pencils sharp ; 
pupils sitting with right side to desk ; pen- 
cils held the best the little fingers will allow ; 
the left-hand holding the book in position, 
square with the desk; both feet together 
and ou the floor, at edge of aisle ; the work 
to consist of figures, and each pupil to be- 
grin with the last unfinished work of prex-ious 

Now the class goes to work, all knowing 
just what to do except a few. A hand goes 
up and the child says : " I wasn't here last 
time." The teacher steps to the board and 
says : " Now are there any others who 
were not here or who do not know what to 
do ? " And otber hands are raised. " Very 
well ; you may make naughts like these, and 
when I come to you, if I find the work cor- 
rect, I will give you this figure" (making it 
on the board). " What is itf " Tbe class 
answers, "A 6." Now, all are busy again, and 
the teacher goes to first division and asks all 
to stand up who have .=> lines of work. Per- 
haps only one or two are ready. It will not 
be long, however, before many are ready, 
and, if the work crowds upon the teacher, 
more lines must be made to keep all busy. 

N. B. All should be kept busy by a 
stated number of lines for each criticism — the 
number of lines depending entirely upon the 
size of class. Say the number is ten ; what- 
ever it is, it must be general, so as not to 
show partiality. 

In making a personal critieism, do it 
([uickly, and, if you think there is anything 
to be gained, show the same upon the board 
and without dealing in personalities. Use 
the board freely, and do not hesitate to give 
the same explanation two or three times 
during a single recitation. 

All criticisms and explanations should be 
exceedingly short, and do not commit the 
fatal error of ielUng it all, but rather ask 
the class questions, so that the most inlel- 
ligeut can answer. Then if no one can meet 
it, go to the rescue. 

Now,tl!e point will arise, some will work 
faster than others, and of course receive 
more criticism. Admitted. Is it objection- 
able ¥ Certainly not. Again someone says : 
"If they work so fast, they will not do the 
work well." Just so, and this is a strong 
poiut. In the October number of the Jour- 
nal, under " Kiilea Govprning Class-work," 
you will find No. G, which is, in sul stance, 
that if the work done by any pupil one or 
more times is incorrect, it must be done 

Note. Let it be thoroughly understood 
tbat all my work has been tested and is 
worthy the name, "Order of Simplicity." 
Pupils will soon learn to be careful, because 
advanced work cnnuot be gained without 
the best effort. 

This is another strong point, viz., the 
wriggling is done by the pupils instead of 
the teacher, which surely should be ap- 
preciated, because the anxiety and worry 
for a few careless pupils ^vill work injury to 
the teacher. 

Many pupils will not do their best unless 
compelled to, and this method effectually 
secures one of the secrets of improvement 
without a single harsh word, an unkind 
look or an undue threat. In other words, 
the child becomes responsible and soon un- 
derstands that good toork is the only pass- 
port to advancement. 

Some one says : " That 
emergency." But hold. A 
cured after a period of fuui 

upon a figure 4. The boy, ^.^ __ 

did nothing out of the way, but took 
espeoial pains to do good work. I said but 

little, and at each lesson gave a helping 
hand aud awaited developments. The 
grand result was magical j the boy caught 
up with bis class, and thus tbe cure was 

The criticisms made through this lesson 
are similar to the first, and, as the smartest 
advance, new points are developed and given 
to the class tbat undergo a series of repe- 
titions which establish the grand object 
arrived at, viz., a true conception of form 
with the power to execute. 

{To be continued.) 

Some New Geography. 

" Of what is the surface of the earth com- 
posed ? " 

" Of comer lots, mighty poor roads, rail- 
road tracks, base-ball grounds, cricket fields 
and skating rinks." 

" What portion of the globe is water ?" 

"About three -fourths. Sometimes they 
add a little gin and nutmeg to it." 

"What is a town?" 

"A town IS a considerable collection of 
houses and inhabitants, with four or five 
men who 'run the party' and lend money 
at fifteen per cent, interest." 

"What is a city?" 

"A city is an incorporated town, with a 
mayor who believes that the whole world 
shakes when he happens to fall flat on a 

"What is commerce?" 

" Borrowing $2 for a day or two, and 
dodging the lender for a year or two." 

" Name the different races." 

" Horse-race, boat-race, bicycle-race, and 
racing around to find a man to endorse your 

"Into how many classes is mankind di- 
vided ? " 

" Six : being enlightened, civilized, half- 
civilized, savage, too utter, not worth a cent, 
and Indian agents." 

" What nations are called enlightened T" 

" Those which have had the most wars 
and the worst laws, and produce the worst 

" How many motions has the earth ?" 

" That's according to how you mix your 
drinks and which way you go home." 

" What is the earth's axis ?" 

"The lines passing between New York 
and Chicago." 

" What causes day and night? " 

"Day is caused by night getting tired 
out. Night is caused by everybody taking 
the street car and going home to supper.'' 

"What is a mapf " 

" A map is a drawing to show the jury 
where Smith stood when Jones gave him a 
lift under the eye." 

" What is a mariner's compass ? " 

"A jug holding four gallous." — Detroit 
Free Press. 

Under Cross-Examination. 

How Witnesses Are Perplexed By 
Lawyers — ^A Sample Case. 

Lawyer: "You say you know Mr. 
Smith ? " 

Witness: " Yes, sir." 

Lawyer : " You swear you know him 1 " 

Witness : " Yes, sir.'' 

Latcyer: "You mean that you are ac- 
quainted with himf " 

Witness: "Yea, sir, acquainted with 

Witness: "Of course " 

Lawyer: "Stop there. Are you, or are 
you not ."' " 

Witness: "No." 

Laipyer: "That is to say, yon are not 
so well acquainted with him as you thought 

Witness : " Possibly not." 

Lawyer: "Just so. Now we begin to 
understand each other. If you don't know 
anything about Mr. Smith's acts vthen you 
are not with him, vou can't swear that you 

in't meet every 

lontlis practice 
ingly smart. 

Lawyer: "Oh, you don't know him; 
you are merely acquainted with him? Re- 
member that you are on oath, sir. Now be 
careful. You don't mean to tell the Court 
that you know all about Mr. Smith, every- 
thing that he ever did ? " 

Witness : " No, I suppose " 

Lawye)-: "Never mind what you sup- 
pose. Please answer my question. Do 
you, or do you not, know everything that 
Mr. Smith ever did t 


Lawyer: "That'll do, sir. 
not. Very good. So you 
qnaioted with all his acts ?" 

No, you do 

Witness : " If you put it that way " 

Lawyer : " Come, sir, don't seek to evade 
my question. I'll put it to you again. 
When you say you know Mr. Smith, you 
don't mean to say you know everything he 
does ? " 

Witness: "No, sir; of course not." 

Lawyer: "Just so; of course not. 
Then you were not quite correct when you 
said you knew Mr. Smith ? " 

Witness : "No, sir." 

Laivyer: "In point of fact you don't 
know Mr. Smith ? " 

Witness : "No, sir." 

Lawyer: "Ah, I thought so. That'll 
do, sir. You can stand down." 

Boston Transcript. 

A Singular Fact. 

A recent traveler in Mexico, who visited 
the mines there during his journey, says 
that he was much astonished at seeing the 
men who carry the ore come out of the 
mine each with one eye sliut. The fore- 
man, seeing his surprise, explained the 
matter. He said the candles belonging to 
the tarateros (who drill and blast) do not 
give sufficient light in the drifts, where it 
is consequently quite dark, but where, 
nevertheless, the tarateros see well enough 
not to run their heads agaiust the rocka. 
But, on emerging into daylight, they would 
be blinded did they not take precautionary 
measures. For this reason, as they ap- 
proach the mouth of the shaft, at the point 
where they catch the firet glimpse of light, 
they drop the eyelid of one eye, and keep 
this down while they are discharging their 
ore and until they have re-descended the 
shaft. When they are again in the dark, 
they open the eye kept hitherto iu reserve, 
and at once see everything distinctly ; 
while the other eye, previously open and 
somewhat blinded by daylight, perceives 
nothing at all. 

When the End will Be. 
Prof. R. A. Prortor, tbe astronomer, says : 
" The age of the earth is placed by some 
at five hundred millions of years ; and still 
others, of later time — among them the Duke 
of Argyle — placed it at ten million years, 
knowing what proees-^es have been gone 
through. Other planets gotlirougliihe same 
process. The reason that other planets 
differ so much from the earth, is that they 
are in a much earlier or lutcr stage of ex- 
istence. The earth must become old. 
Newton surmised, although he could give no 
reason for it, that the earth would at one 
time lose all its water and become dry. 
Since then it has been found that Newton 
was correct. As the earth keeps cooling, it 
will become porous, and great cavities will 
be formed in the interior, which will take in 
the water. It is estimated that this process 
is now in progress, so far that the water 
diminishes at about the rate of the thickness 
of a sheet of writing-paper each year. At 
this rate, in six million years the water will 
have sunk a mile, and in fifteen million 
years every trace of water will have disap- 
peared from the face of the globe. The 
nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere are 
also diminishing all the time. It is in an 
inappreciable degree ; but the time will 
come when the air will be so tiiin that n<i 
creatures we know c^n breath it and Hve ; 
the time will come when the world cannot 
support life. That will be the period of old 
age, aud then will come death." 

e\T>g\* t^-r*** ot lb. JOIIWAL «nl 01 


HlngU towrlioo. 25 c«nia r« ""• i»<"ip*"U- 
Ipolomo .'teTno' tM.nO llSlOO llSOn. 

1 ■■ in75 »tno woo «"« 

] .. 7M ISOO 3500 650. 

^ A?l"'rtl«C^N'tor on»" ■«<! I'br** month*, payah'e '' 





,.„„„,„ „,^ .,„. _ _. "^IflxM: 

" Fl"iirt^b«l EmkIp." S^xIW : " The CeniPoii\»l Plrtuiw of 
ProBTTM '■ ax-."?: Of " Tim n'mndlng SliiR." «»:I2. Ftir 
12.00. nil roiir » til l>« M>i>l nllli (lie flnl oopy of JOUKYAL. 

«nt.^rihJii* •ncl.* K. w« will mull M jarli llie 
JninxAi. rni-l iwmliim on» y«r. ■n'l forward, by win m 

men> of peninivli»!ii|' etw pnblbhed. vix. : 

Th» Miirrinarc Cflmrimto ift*^'"' 

3 Stwcltiirn AIii-Hb nf EnfrmMtod, twh ILxM In. 

Con^un'i NoiTuial 8,v»lom of Leiterlflff 

F'T Ibrro nnrnM nnd IH irf trill fiiririLrd tbe large Ceo- 
tannliil uHiirv. 2f>x40 in. ; rHolU for n 

Kor .pvrn iiorri.-. «ml r tvp «il1 fonrit«1 « oopy ol 
-Wllllnm>& l>»"hnn('.0>iulr"; rPO.lIo r..r«.1. 

«ignwl for itiKrtiuD 
e Order or l»y nefns- 


iVMl G 

r<. by lb« 

■ — Louilon, Cuglaod. 

rlTMi by ]>niitnl4nnl to BiitiarribeTs at 
WHH, b« iiujiiiviil uutil (ho tuUauniniou 

K, Ma 


To Penmen. 

The Convestion and Penmanship. 

Wbilo a very largo number of penmen 
hnve ospre&.<('(l their dHtcnniuatioo tu be 
prrsent, inniiy have uut been heard from. 
To iImiw who are not purposing to attend, 
wo wish to prcseul a few points fur ibejr 

First. Do they not believe that a well at- 
tondcil ami properly coutliicted Convetiiion, 
would i-edoiiud much to the general wel- 
fttre of the profest^inn, nnd individually to 
every uue «ho ntteudst There will, or 
should be, prcBfuted, the be»t thonglils and 
experiences of the strongest represeniatives 
in all the dopitrtmcnts of penmanship ; tho 
most experienced authors, best teacher?, 
and most skilled pen-arlists will be there; 
and though <>ach may be abouuding with 
knowledge and enthusiaam concerning their 
specially, they will find much that will be 
now and ioteresting in other brauches, so 
that all may b" the ample reeipicots of the 
overflowing abundance. Tims new strength 
and in^piratioD will be gained from tbe com- 
parison of ihouglits and w«irU, and esjiccially 
will this be true of the younger and less 
oxpcrienci'd members of the profeesiou. 

Second. Such an assembling will establish 
a mutual acipiaiutanco \f nich will be Dot 
nlono mutually agreeabtu and profitable, 
but will result in a more jciied and har- 
monious effort for the general good and up- 
building of the profession. Let every pen- 
man be present, resolved and prepared to 

offer some new thought npon 60(ne topji- 
which shall bo there discus-ed, aud there 
will be, if not a "love feast," one of gnoil 
and valuable thiugs for peumen. G", and 
go " bcariog (rood gift*," that you may re- 
ceive accorniogly.^ 

Answering Correspondence. 

It would afford us satisfiiction to comply 
with every request for personal auswera to 
letters, ppecimena of penmanship, informa- 
tion which we cannot give, etc., that comea 
from our thousands of correspondents ; but 
it would, indeed, be a hopeh-ss ta*k, even 
had we no other duties to pevforiii. It, do 
doubt, seems to the person who asks for a 
ppeeimen of penmanship "from your own 
pen," a simplequestion, rc-ipcciiog the " hop 
market," or some other penmanship matter, 
iliat a favor so slight should certainly be 
grunted; but let them he confronted with 
from fifty to one hundred such trifles, daily, 
and they wi.l at once pereeive that their 
aggrfgato is no Infie, cither as regards the 
time and labor, or expense for postage and 
stationery, necessary fur such 

The Stadard Practical Penman- 

To persons who are endeavoring to im- 
prove their writing at homeor in scliool, with 
or without the aid of a teacher, will fiud the 
new *' Standard Practical Penmanship " the 
most efficient and satisfactory aid that they 
can possibly procure. So far as our knowl- 
edge and judgment of publications upon 
penmanship goes, it is the best ever pub- 
lished, and also the cheapest, considering 
what it contains of copies and instructions. 
It is of a practical character, both as respects 
the stylo of the copies and instruction which 
accompanies tbem in a guide of fifteen 
pages. So sure are we that the work will 
give entire satisfaction, that we hereby 
agree to refund the price paid for it to any 
one, who, upon its receipt and inspection, 
w ill return the same, registered, to us. It \& 
mailed to any address for $I.(IU, or, as 
an extra premium, free to any one sending 
three subscribers &nd $3.0U to the Journal. 

The Journal as an Advertising 

Of tho present number more than twenty 
thon*aud will be mailed. For months no ad- 
vertisements have been solicited, more space 
having been vidiintarily sought than we de- 
sire to S|>nre for that purpose, while a largo 
number of ap|ilicatiou8 for space from ad- 
vertising agents, and miscellaneous adver- 
tisers of paiout medicines, etc., have been 
declined. Those who have once advertised 
in tbo Journal, unless for temporary pur- 
poses, have continued, and have exprei-sed 
themselves more than satisfied with the re- 

M. B.Moore, card- writer, of Morgan, Ky., 
writes, under date of May 1 st : "1 am greatly 
pleased with the Journal as a medium 
for advertising; applications for circulars 
and orders have been pouring in by every 
mail, all <.f whivh arc due to my adverlise- 
inent in the Journal, for I have no adver- 
tisement elsewhere." 

J. E. Sonic, of the Bryant and Stratton 
Business College, Philadelphia, inserted an 
advertisement in the April issue, to he con- 
tinued until ordered stopped. To-day he 
writes: " Stv-p my advertisement, I have 
got a bushol of letters." We might till a 
column with similarly favorable 

The King Club 
For this month comes again from C. W. 
Boucher, Principal of the Business Depart- 
ment of Nonhern Indiana Normal Scbocd, 
Valpaniiso, Ind., and numbers one hundred. 
This makes an aggregate of ten hundred and 
seventy -five subscribers sent by Mr. Boucher 
within about two years. He says; " Every- 
body here wants the Journal." Valparaiso 
is the banner town on our subscription 
books, and Mr. Boucher is the banner 

agent. His success shows what may be 
done by an euihusiastic and live teacher. 
Had tbe JouRN.\L an equally 6urc«*ful 
agent in t^vcry town in the United States 
during the last two years, it would now 
have about 4,000.000 subscribers; but as 
the differenco between those figures and its 
present subscription list is slight, it may yet 
be made op, and then we hope to be able to 
compare figures with Bro. Gaskell. 

The second largest club numbers thirttj- 
nine, and is sent by \V. N. Yerex, Principal 
of Londtm, (Out.), Business College. 

Tho third cbib in size comes from L. 
Asire, of Minneap'difl, Miun., and numbers 
ticcnttj-nine. To the many otirers who have 
favored us with clubs, we return our thanks. 

A good hand-writing needs no references, 
it speaks for itself, and will open more op- 
portunities for profitable employment than 
any other one attiunment. 

Wrongly Credited. 

In the April issue of the Universal Pen- 
man is an article entitled "Flourished 
writing," credited to Graham's StudenCs 
Journal, which ap])eared as an editorial in 
the January issue of this Journal. Bro's 
Sawyer should be more alert than to copy 
an oversight of brother Gralmin. 

Liberal Prizes for Skilled Pen- 

Prof. Thos. E. Hill, of the Hill Publish- 
ing Company, Chicago, inserts in another 
column an adveriisement, in which he offers 
several hundred dollars in prizes, for artistic 
specimens of pen- work. Such an offer should 
call forth a liberal response for the skilled 
penmen of the country. 

Practical Writing Lessons. 

On another page appears tbe introductory 
lesson of the course to be given through 
these columns by Prof. H. C. Spencer. In 
this lesson the Pro'essfU' has very properly 
devoted considerable space to the setting 
fourth of bis plan and ideas generally, re- 
specting the teaching and practice of writing, 
fnim which we believe that every reader 
willseetliat the Professor intends solid practi- 
cal work, and that the Course, coming from 
one of so great skill and experience, will he 
of incalculable benefit to every writer and 

No Cause for Discouragement. 

Our enterprising cotemporary, the Pen- 
man's Gazette, evidently is not a stmng 
believer in Pcnmen'sConventions— certainly, 
as the saying is, it is not taking much stock 
in the ccuniug one. In its June issue, which 
appeared some days since, no mention of the 
Convention is made. There is no cause for 
alarm by its friends and managers. In view 
of the fact that the Convention is not to 
transpire until June, there is ample time 
for a glowing aiid/zes/t announcement in the 
July issue of ouraiiacluonistic neighbor, who 
makes nothing of seizing Time's "fore-lock " 
a mouth or so in advance. 

Subscribe now for the Journal, and be- 
gin with the course of lessons in practical 
writing by Prof. H. C. Spencer. 

Every teacher and pupil of writing in the 
country should subscribe; remember that 
Prof. H. C. Spencer, who will prepare the 
instruction— and Lyman P., who will assist 
in the illustrations, are teachersof teachers in 
practical as well as artistic writing, and that 
such a course of lessons as they will give 
would be cheap at twenty fold the cost of a 
subscription to say nothing of our premiums 
and other valuable matter pertaiuiug to tbe 
art and profession of penmanship. 

Reader, if you have a friend or a coires- 
pondent whose bad writing is an annoyance 
to you, do yourself and them a favor, by 
suggesting that they subscribe for the 

A New Atlas. 
Aitentiou is invited to an advenisement 
in another column, of a new ualinnal Adas, 
by John W. Lyon & Co. No library, 
schoot-rooin or business office should be 
without a copy of this great and valuable 
work. We spejik from observation {having 
had copies both in our business office and 
f-rivate study for some time time past), 
when we say that it is tbe most complete and 
valuable Atlas published. For full par- 
ticulars address John W. Lyon & Co., 205 
Broadway, N. Y. 

C. B. Burdett, teacher of writing iu Bos- 
ton, Muss., says : " I see the usefulness of 
your Journal more and more each day, 
not (miy in my own labors, but as a pro- 
moter of enthusiasm amone pupils. I think 
that tbe generous columns of your paper are 
doing more for good penmanship than all 
other forces coiiibined." 

Clarence L. Smith, of Loveland, Colorado, 
sends, with the renewal of bis subscription, 
that of a friend, and says : " I assure you, 
I atn happy to renew my subscription to so 
valuable a paper as is the Journal. As a 
public school-teacher, I take aud read a 
number of the best school journals, but I 
am confident that I receive more practical 
benefit from the Art Journal than any 
other; it should be read and studied by 
every teacher in our public schools, and I 
hope that tho day is not far distant when 
such will be the case." 

It is frequettly the case that businessmen 
and firms desiring clerks will not grant an 
applicant a personal interview, preferring a 
written application, which affords, to an ex- 
perienced observer, the best lest of the ap- 
plicant's real fitness for a position, the 
style of his writing, composition, taste, and 
judgment manifest in the stationery u^ed — 
all, even to the super'criptinu and affixing 
tho stamp upon the envelope, tell for or 
against the v. ritcr. 

The Sprites in the Ink, 


By Paul Pastnor. 

It was a wild, windy night in March. 
Tlio easements shook with the assault of 
the storm, aud the twelve corners of the old 
gabled house shrieked in unison as, by 
thoin, the phantom gusis went whirling. I 
sat at my desk in an upper room, idly dip- 
ping my pen iu the ink, and waiting, with 
cheek in palm, for some inspiration to give 
my thronging fancies form, and condense the 
vapors of romance which floated so airily 
before me. Thrice, or four timef, the ink 
had diied on my pen, aud I was about to 
pi iUge it into the glassy font cuce more, 
when methought J hoard tiny voices iu the 
crystal cup. Could it have been tho tinkle 
of the rain-drops on tho pane? No; for it 
had stopped raining. I put my ear down 
close to tho inkstand, and presto ! such a 
piquant little chorus as arose, in all the 
variations of the treble key. Audience was 
iuipussible in such a hubbub, and it was not 
until one shrill little fellow triumph»'d by 
mere force of lungs over his companions, 
and put them to silence, that I could dis- 
tinguish what the eprilcs in tbe ink were 

First, then, let us hear what the impish 
follow with the penetrating voice had to say 
to me. I was vastly amused, and not a 
little astonished, at this chorus from my ink- 
bottle ; but soon as ever I could distinguish 
a particle of sense, I became all attention ; 
for I had iu mind to report this strange con- 
gress iu a bottle to my good fi'iends of the 

First Sprite.— llaWOf mortal! Put yonr 
ear down close — I waul to tell you aome- 
tbing. I'm Pt-pperini, the inspiring genius 
of the newspaper editor. I'm the most im- 

•3nt iK'ine ia the world. The editor 
■ vf-B tlie worM, and I move tho editor. 
WilPiicvor he dips his pen f->r an idea, I 
Tasten inT.ietr to it, and whish ! np I come 
niit of the iak-hottle, aad splatter, epiatter, 
"ji'.ishi I go over the white paper, leaving 
iiianntr of etraogo and ehaqi eayings in 

V track; aurl the editor goes od piisliiug 
]i:s peo, and scratching his ear, and Inoking, 
oh ! eo wife, and thiuka that he is saying 
all thc9e fiinDy, and brisiht, and hiiing things, 
when it ia /alt the time, dragging hi.-) dull 
pen after ine, like a plow, and turning 
op treasures of argument and wit and leani- 
iiip, as a fanner turns up etonrs. Oho! 
wliat prujd and foolish creatures you 
ni..rtals arc 1 Jnst as if you could do nil the 
\« ISO and witty things that you lay claim to, 
1 V yourselves. Why, look a-Iiere— cuwy 
-'I'liff iliat you do ts inspired, didn't yon 

ii'>\v it f And what is inspirMtion, but 
, iiiic one else dtjing it lor you f Yr>u only 
]<neh the pen —we sprites in the Ink guide 
it, Yon only desire aud reach after the 
thought — wc furnish and elaborate it. Men 
iirn but pup) eta, moved by hidden wires. 
'J'licy dance, to be sure — but who dances 
'.^iTi ? They talk io little Punch uod Judy 
voices — but who is behind the curtains talk- 
iugfcir'ein? Nr», sir ! you mortals think 
iiliDgcthor too much of yourselves. You 
must learn to bo a little more humble. 
\..w, if you will notice, the editor (the mun 
1 iiKinage] is a little more subdued thau the 
ic!^! of yuu. Ho never says '' 1 "; it'salways 
" we." But he has got to come down lower 
siill. One of th-se (lays I wUl have it, 
" Ppppt-rini says," or, " the Sprite in the 

Second Sprite. — Hold on, brother Pep- 
peii„i_y„u"ve talked long enough. We 
nuly juotiiised to keep slill for a couplo of 
liiiuutes, and here you've run on for more 
ilinu three. It's my turn now. Mortal, I 
run Ponip'idosn, the fi'^nius of tho scholar. I 
iiin wonderfully learned! I have written 
licaps and heaps of great buuks. I am 
jiliogether the biggest sprite down here in 
t]i« ink-bottlo, and the father of tliem all. I 
am fond of a very shabby manuscript. I 
think it looks wise and learned. When I 
catch hold of tho scholar's pen, I contrive to 
Itiiiig up whole buckets of iuk in my cloak, 
auil I spill it about lib rally from broad uibs, 
.lud even, u-.w and then, collect a lot of it 
iLto a puddle called a blot. That is my 
way. 1 know overythine, aud I want other 
pp.iple to know that I do. The hc&t way is 
to spill a great deal of ink. Now you would 
1)0 surprised, mortal, if I should (cU you 
wIkiI grcjit fools your wise men really are. 
Thty thiiik they are perfect pnidigics of 
Kitiuiiig, whereas they only know what is 
in the books they haven't wriileu themselves 
(which they will allow is little enough), aud 
what is iu the books they have, or think they 
have, wriiteu themselves, wh'ch is still less, 
as I can avouch, for I am their real author, 
and I haven't hegun to tell half what I know 
yd. Why, there are my theologisis, who 
iioiually believe that by writing a block of 
hiioks a mile long, aud a iriilu wide aud a 
mile high, they have got at the meaning of 
the Uiblc. P;:haw! the; don't know the 
A U C of apologetics yet. And th^ there 
are my professors. 

Third Sprite. — Time's up, brother Pom- 
podoso! Mortal, lam Ariel, the spirit of 
SoQw. I lurk in poets' pens, aod sing the 
K<iugs that enchant the world. I am au 
lUiereai sprite— not very big in body, but 
wiih a soul that strikes the stars. I love 
the dt licate pens of gold, diamond-pointed, 
that run bo lightly over rough liuon paper. 
I love to make the poets' lingers dance at- 
tendance OD m? steps, when I tlasb up from 
the bowl, iu the mood for a whirl of fancy. 
J am the singer, he is tho instrument. 
Within him he I'cels a. spirit stirring, moving 
a cadence running through 
a faucy, that 
will nut be laid. Tliat is I, waking him 
that he may listen to and interpret me. If 
he refuses, then the song goes unsung, and 
the poet is no poet, for he baa oegleoted the 

Mortal, would you be 
wise, aud carry in your soul a secret unknown 
to the maw of men t Then give heed to 
me. Nothing is knoicn. Everything must 
be revealed. I, and my brothers, are re- 
vealers. We whisper in men's ears, aud 
they think they hear us notj but they do, 
for they write down juet what we say. Be 
not, therefore, doubtful of the written, for 
the written is the inspired. Every man has 
heard a voice as from heaven in his soul, 
and has ftrueglcd to give it utterance. The 
great poets and seers have succeeded, and 
what they have written is not the baseless 
fabrication of their own minds, but the pure 
impelling Truth of God. It was given them, 
and they have given it to their fellow men. 

The voices ceased, and I awoke from my 
revery. I had been almost asleep, with my 
head reeling on my arm, aud my ear close 
to the inks'and. I wondered if I had 
dreamed it all ! Bnt I shall never know. 
Then I t<iok up my pen, and looked at it 
with a revcreuco I had never before felt for 
the begrimed little necromancer. If these 
things be true— I thought — what a noble, 
yea, even sacred, instrument is the Pen ! 
It is tho interpreter unto us of the things 
that are, that have been, and that are to be. 
It is tho singer of sweet songs, the teacher 
of hidden things, the guide unto eternal 
truth. Well may we acknowledge our in- 
dobtcdness to the presumptuous little sprites 
in the ink ; but there is a higher acknowEdg- 
ment to pay. Let us dare hope that there 
is a direct communication between our souls 
aud God, and that He does sometimes in- 
spire the wielders of the Pen with thoughts 
and aspirations, pure and eternal as the 
source fntm which they spring, 

flourishes. N<i;hiDg more aunoye and dis- 
gnsts a practical man of BfTairs than such 
flourishing; besides being a sheer waste of 
time, they mix and confuse tho writing even 
when skillfully exeriited; but wheu made, as 
they usually are, in the loose sprawling style 
of ao imdisciplincd baud, they are an intol- 
erable nuisance, which every young writer 
aspiring to a rdlly good handwriting should 
studiously avoid. 

The above specimen, aooompaoiod with 
a portrait of its author, would do honor as 
an advertisement for Professor "Maskwell's" 

The Penmen's Convention. 

SuccivSS AssimicD — A Lakoe Attrnd- 


TAix— Thk Gkand Objuct— An Exchange 
OF Ideas Upon Topics of Intkbkst and 
Value to Earnest Piinmen— Good Fjsl- 
LowBiup MUST Prevail. 

To arrange topics which shall embrace 
all that ought to be considered and discussed, 
the Committee feel that it cannot be done 
without possibly (uuitting much that will be 
suggested by others when in council, they 
therefore defer action on this matter until 
the assemblage is in sceeion. One-third of 
tho time devoted by the Business Educators' 
Association is Io be at tho disposal of pen- 
men. Besides this, at other hours oppor- 
tunities will be afforded whereby penmen 
may enter into discussions which are of in- 
terest only to themselves. The sole deeire 
and design of the Committee is to encourage, 
from every source, everything that will tend 
towards the improvement and advancement 
c)f penmen and peumiuiiihip, and they will 

Flourished Writing. 

The above cut is photo-engraved from, 
and is, therefore, a fac-siiiiile copy of, a 
letter lately received at the oflice of the 
Journal, though wo are happy to say not 
from one of its subscribers. It is, certainly, 
a fine specimen of a pernicious fault which 
afflicts many young writers, viz., that of a 
too free use of flourished and superfluous 
lines. Here Is a writer evidently possessed 
of a free movement aud considerable skill 
fls a penman, sufficient, with proper care and 
discipline, io enable him to becomo an ac- 
complished chirographer; but who utterly 
buries every merit of his writing <(ut of 
sight with au Intolerable load of scrawls and 

Among the multitude of matters which 
seem worthy of consideration, are a few 
which are herewith presented. The practi- 
cal tendency of the uge is towards the most 
useful, even to the exclusion of the beautiful. 
It seems, too, to he a gcnerHlly recognized 
fact that the styles of writing prepared for 
public schools are not what is, or can be, 
practiced in business. It therefore seems fit- 
ting that penmen should unite in devising 
some style which will not only harmonize 
with the uiitunil movements of the fore-arm 
and fingers, but which may be very legibly 
as well aa rapidly whtteo. 

Every experienced teacher of writing has 
found it difficult to determiup what itistrnc- 
tion to give to a class of pupils composed of 
ages between ten and forty, each of whom 
writes a peculiar style difffring from all 
the rest. Ace irding to published systems, 
all that is afforded for every ill that pen- 
manship seems heir to, is a few principles, 
a few movements, and but ouo w-iy to hold 
the pen. As many of tho most successful 
teachers have found it necessary to invent & 
variety of methods entirely foreign to those 
published, in order to give to each peculiar 
cajse advice best suited to the pupil's advance- 
ment, the Convention ^ill afford a grand op- 
portunity to exchange such origiual practical 
ideas, aud thereby greatly increase one's 
ahiliiy to supply to each and every pupil 
with a line of «cll tested practice exactly 
suited to his individual peculiarity. 

Perhaps the most important aud valuable 
benefit which may be gaiued can result in 
an exhibit at the blackboard of each pen- 
man's method of pointing out beforehand the 
errors which pupils should guard again^t in 
making a letter; also exhibit his original 
method of analyzing and presentiog a letter 
clearly to the conception of pupils. By 
such an exercise, embracing all the letters of 
the alphabet, and participated in by each 
teacher present, and the dift'erent illustrations 
noted in pencil by those at their seats, a 
.wealth of new practical methods of illustra- 
tion may be gaiu'd, which will be worth to 
every teacher more than ten times the ex- 
pense of his attendance. 

The diflerenl methods of penholding, 
position aud movements which experienced 
teachers practice or approve, may be pre- 
sented. The best inks, pens, holders and 
materials may be discuesed. The advantage 
or injury resulting from the use of display- 
specimens of penuianship, will afl'ord a topic 
for discussion, which will bring out ideas of 
value to every penman who wishes to ad- 
vertise in the best way to win respect and 

The question, What is Standard wilting T 
should be settled by this Committee. The 
origin of writing hei^g a modification of 
Roman letters of uniform proportion in width 
and length , seems to be lost sight of ia much 
that is published us models iu penmanship. 
That written letters have definite propor- 
tions of width and length, which shtmld be 
recogciizcd as standard, is a thing which 
should be considered by teachers, and there- 
by stop the tendency towards distorted 
sprawling, caricaturing of letters which 
degrades penmanship, and justly subjects it 
to ridicule as well as those who leach or 
practice it. 

The necessity of the Business College 
penman's contndling the entire work of a 
student, not only during the wriiiug hour 
but in Ills books and business papers, will 
form a subject well worthy of dijCUf-sioQ. 

Flasliy penmanship, which is efl'eciive 
through coutrast of light lines aud short 
shades, should be illustrated in coutrast with 
that which is eflective in consequence of its 
legibility, modesty and strength. 

As every good page of penmanship is a 
picture exhibiting good taste in its details 
throughout, there is much that may be 
said concerning the points tu he considered 
iu conslruoting an efl'octive page. As but 
few write perfectly, or ever can, but as 
all may, even with imperfect letters, be 
trained to produce uniform, legible and tasty 
pages of writing, it seems, then, a tit question 
for consideration, as to whether a penman's 
success iu treating the mass of poor writers 
which come to him will not be greater by 
toning up and systematizing their page- 
wfiting, instead of attempting to entirely 
revolutionize their habits of penholding, 
position and movements, and endeavor to 
lead them into exact writing through the 
analysis of letters aud methods practiced 
by children. 

The subject of flourishing, especially that 
which relates to recognizing nature in the 
designs of birds, swans, deer, and those 
objects commonly chosen, also the rules 
governing what is most etfeotive and taaty 


in the tint* of lines, obades, and tonche« 
which add U. «-ffect, will bfl an iDlereet'iDg 
nubject for illuptratioQ aod disfussion. 

The work of engrosaing resolutions and 
ji.b peovrork generally will afford an excellent 
titpic for preseotation, and a goodly num- 
ber of the most exporieocd pen-artistB are 
sure to be pretient. The design and choice 
of letters, and the genera! display to he at- 
tempted, proportionate to the price paid, 
also the rules to ho observed in arraogiug 
an effective page — will ho of interest to 
many. Hes'ides this, the fieM which U open 
to penmen to compete with the engraver in 
producing trade and artistic desigos for 
plioio-engraving may be diecnsscd by those 
who are realizing profit from such work. 

The work of teachers in public nchools in 
arranging for slate -practice, trueiug the 
grnijing of work to secure a handwriting of 
some sort to every pupil who leaves school, 
whether the skill of the teacher should be 
shown to pupils, or his efforts solely directed 
to making the regular teachers do good 
work, are a few of many things worthy of 
consideration regarding the best 8ervi< 
speoial instructors in penmanship in public 

For many years there has lieeo through- 
out the country a frequently expressed design 
amoug penmen to conie together in con- 
vention, and relate experiences and discuss 
the almost innumerahle variety of thoughts 
which oeem of importance to penmen and 
penmanship. We believe the coming Con- 
vention will afford this long desired oppor- 
tunity ; and we feel that, even from a selfish 
standpoint, every penman present will find 
himself abundantly repaid, and enjoy uu in- 
terchange of ideas which will add greatly to 
bis ability and future success. In addition 
to this, the pride of every penman should 
inspire him to be present and assist in the 

UetiideH this, there should bo manifested, by 
those iu attendance, such a brotherly regard 
and good feilowship as will iaure to the 
advancement, the world over, of the pen- 

A- II. HiNMAN, ) Special Com- 
I). T. Amks, \ mittee on 
N. R. Luce, ) Penmanship. 

direct tho! 

pL'ct to be BO thoroughly posted 
and rates as t« be able to 
rho BO desire, to good accom- 
s at from $1.25 upward per day. 
e interested in penmanship is in- 
be present, and that all may be 
rested after their j<iuruey and be ready for 
busiuesH (Tuesday), it is hoped that friends 
will arrive as early as possible (Mf)ndBy). 
and meet at Nelsou's College, to arrange 
topics and programmes for the work of the 

If I can bo of ser\'ico to any intending 
visitor, I shall be pleased to receive a liue 
addressed to me, care of Nelson's College, 
Cincinnati, during the week previoutt lo 
June 6th. A. II. Hinmas, 

Chavtnan Com. on Penmanship. 

Editors 0/ Journal: — Among the many 
I opios for discussion at the Peumen's Cou- 
let not the figures be forgotten. 


ve jK, 

The Sixth of June Convention at 


Tlie Executive Committee in charge of 
the Convention desire to announce that the 
prospecls are flattering for a large and most 
successful Convention. Muuy of the oldest 
and ablest members of tlie profession have 
promised to be present, and the most enter- 
prising Managers of Colleges from all parts 
of tho country, and many leading pennieu 
are expected. The headquarters in Cincinnati 
will he at the Gibson House, one of the best 
hotels iu the West, and the commodious 
Melofleon Hall has been secured for the 

Tho Mayor of the city, Ex-Gov. Noyes, 
late U. S. Minister to Frauoe, and other 
distinguished citizens will he present as rep- 
resentatives of the city. 

In short, every arrangement has been 
made to insure, uot only a very plca&ant, but 
a very profitable meeting, and all interested 
in Business Colleges, and all penmen should 
consider it a duty, as well as a pleasure, to 
unite in these efforts to place the profession 
on a higher plan. A wide aud most im- 
portaut field is open to us, and we can best 
meet the demands of the titnes by suoh a 
r<t-oporatiou as this Convention affords. 


To All Interested in the Penmen's 
Tliat everything passible may be arranged 
to iusuro oouipleto success at the coming 
Penmen's Couveutiou, at Ciucinnati, June 
flth, I propose to be iu that cily neariy a 
«eek ahead of time, to engage rooms fur 
the penmen's meetings; also, to provide 
tor the recepliou and aceuniUKHlation of such 
IU «T«h Btnppiug.places pamded. While iu 

1. When they should be taught. 

2. How they should Le taught. 

3. The objects aimed at, viz.; 

(a) Porrn ( taken singly ) in order 

of eimplioity. 
(6) Arrangement, 
(c) Speed (taken singly), 
(rf) Mixed Bgures. 
(tf) Speed of mixed figures. 
(/) Habit established. 
Belie^ng this of paramount importance 
I pledge my support in discussion. 

C. H. Peirce. 

Books and Magazines. 

We are in receipt of a book of 3!)J> pages, 
lately published by Prof. A. R. Dunton, of 
Camden, Maine, reviewing the celebrated 
Hart Murder Trial, which, as he alleges, 
resulted iu condemning an innocent man to 
Slate prison for life. 

On the night of Dceeinber 22d, 1877, a 
Mrs. Sarah Meservey was found murdered 
in her house at Tenants Harbor, Me. The 
only clue to the murder was a short note, 
left in the room where the crime was com- 
mitted, wbi(!h was evidently written hy the 
murderer, and shortly after the eommission 
of the crime other anonyirums letters wore 
received, which, from their tenor, evidently 
also came from the murderer. Finally, 
suspicion rested upon a sailor by the name 
of Nathan F. Hart. Specimens of his wri- 
ting were sought, and, as was supposed, 
found in a log-hook of the vessel in which 
he had sailed, and in which book he had 
made entries. On the assertion of the captain 
of the vessel, this was at first believed to he 
Hart's writing. Prof. Dunton having been 
called, as an expert, to examine the writing 
in the log-book, and compare the same with 
the writing upon the anonymous letters, 
pronounced it to be written by the same 
hand, and so made an affidavit wliich led 
to Hart's arrest aud indictment as the 
murderer. _Subscquenily, Pruf. Dunton dis- 
covered—as he believed— that the log-book 
which the captain said was written by Han 
was not written by him, but by the captain 
himself, which, of course, would substitute 
the captain in place of Hart as the murderer. 
This belief, and the fixcts upon which it 
was based, were submitted by Prof. Dunton 
to the prosecuting attorney, but he, as 
Dunton alleges, from corrupt motives, pro- 
ceeded to try Hart, aud hy the use of per- 
jured and corrupt witnesses, and the suppres- 
i of important facts, procured the couvic- 
1 of Hart, who is now in the Stale prison 
■ing out a life sentence. Dunton felt 
that a great wrong had been committed 
and at once went vigorously to work to pro- 
cure a new trial for Hart, at which he pro-* 
posed to aid in proving Hart|s entire 
iuii(.cence of the crime, and establishing the 
guilt of the captain ; aud it is in the aid of 
this effort that he has writteu and publislicd 
this book. If the statements made by the 
Professor are all true, not only a great 
wrong ba* been done Hart, but the prose- 
cuUng attorney and several other* connected | 

with the prosecution should be sent to 
Slate prison, in company with the captain 
who gave, as Hart's, his owu writing for 
comparison with the anonyiiuius letters. 
Prof. Dunton now expects to be able, not 
only to secure a new trial for Hart, but to 
produce evidence to convict the captain of 
the crime. The book is decidedly interest- 
ing, and is mailed to auy address by the 
Professor from Cauiden, Maine, for *1.00. 

"The Packard C'ommercial Arithmetic," 
by S. S. Packard and Byron Horton, A. M., 
is a practical, common-sense work of 308 
pages, designed specially for use in business 
colleges, and as a hand-book for the count- 
ing-room. We cannot describe it better 
than to say that it is admirably adapted to 
the purpose for which it is designed, of 
which any teacher can have a practical and 
experimental knowledge by sending 75 cts. 
to S. S. Packard, 805 Broadway, New York. 
Regular price of the work, Sl-50. 

" Eaton aud Burnett's Commercial Liiw." 
Revised and enlarged. This work consists 
of 18;t pages of concise and practical matter, 
treating upon the subjeets of contracts, sales, 
negotiable paper, ageuey partnerships, cor- 
porations, bailments, etc., with commercial 
forms. It is well arranged and adapted for 
use in commercial colleges, academies, and 
the higher grades of public schools. Price 
by mail, $1.J5, by Eaton and Buruett, 
Baltimore, Md. 

The PenmmCs and Printer's Gazette is a 
large eight-page forty-eight column month- 
ly, devoted in particular to the interests of 
penmen and printers. One of the special fea- 
tures of this paper is the latest description of, 
and lowest price-utark for, all goods used by 
penmen— like cards, pens, etc. It is one of 
the sprightliest and entertaining of oar ex- 
changes, and in view of the fact that it is 
mailed for only 50 cents per year, it is 
among the cheapest, aud bids fair for soon 
taking rank among the uiost widely circu- 
lated periodicals of tho day. Send 5 cents 
for specimon copy ; or 50 cents for one year, 
with a valuable premium desired by every 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to bim to say so and tell 

It is ann<mnced that there will bo com- 
menced, in the May issue of the Penman's 
Art Journal, a series of lessons in practi- 
chI penmanship from the peu of Prof. 
Henry C. Mfjoncer, of Washington, D. C, 
oue of tlie well known auihora of Speu- 
corian Writing. 

It is the intention of the author to make 
these Instructive articles superior to any 
which have heretofore appeared in a similar 
form. Mr. Spencer possesses the requisite 
skill and knowledge of the subject, and has 
been generously endowed with a fund of 
originality which will enable him to lay be- 
fore the readers of the Journal, many 
ideas in connection with the acquirement of 
a neat and legible handwriting which no 
other person has yet giveu to the public. 
Every teacher, whether iu tho public school, 
the college or the university, who has under 
his or her charge students to whom they are 
giving instructions in the art of writing, 
should spare no effort ju securing all the 
means which practice and experience has 
brought to light for imparting knowledge 
in this important branch of educati<m. The 
young man or woman who has chosen a 
calling which requires the free use of the peu 
should acquire proficiency in performing 
their work with the greatest possible ease, 
accuracy and neatness- and in this, hand- 
some writing will he found oue of the es- 
sential acccunplishments. The series of 
articles alluded to will, we have no doubt, 
bo found, by both teachers aud learners, 
worth many times ihe price of a year's siib- 
scription to the paper, and such as will 
prove of great value to all who avail them- 
selves of the opportunity the lessons will 
aHord.— rftf Book-keeper. 

A Comparison. 

Editors 0/ Journal: — In the January 
Number of the Journal, under article 
headed Opinions, Question Number 2, the 
statement is made, that the band should be 
taken off after making the introductory line 
to a, d, g, and one style of c. 

In the Mareh Number of Journal, a seem- 
ingly conflicting opinion is given by the 
most worthy editor. 

Let us make a comparison and prove 
that the opinions do not clash, thus sotting 
at rest any doubtful minds. 

The question of F. M. B. is uot a perfect 
one; it does not rover the entire ground. 
It should read " Is it best to make letters a, 
**' S (g)» ^r without taking the pen off." 

In tho first instance, the ({uestion refers 
directly to the introductory Hue of the 
letters. In the second iustance, the question 
refers directly to tho first part of the letters. 

In my opinion, both answers are correct. 

C. H. Peirce. 

W. E. E., Menden, Mich.— Who was the 
author of the round topped J t Ans. — We 
believe it to have been tiret used by James 

G. H. C., Davenport, Iowa.— Can yon 
tell me where I can get a good glossy ink ? 
Ans. — Buy any good blaek ink aud put into 
it a little white sugar or powdered gum- 

A. K., Baltimore, Md. — Is it desirable to 
use a gold pen iu writing? Ans. — Not for 
any one learning to wriie; but for business 
writing there is no (.hjection to its use ; it 
writes umre easily and is more durable. 

R. S. C, King's Mountain, N. C— Can 
you tell me why some penmen place two 
dots instead of one after the initials of a 
name I Ans. — Probably from the suppo- 
sition that two dots giv6 a greater artistic 
effect than one. This is uot correct. 

C. H. M., Kansas City, Mo.— Your first 
question, respecting shade in your writing, 
we cannot answer. Eirst, because yon have 
writteu with a pencil. Secotid. Is there any 
danger of turning the hand too far over to 
the left? .4»is.— We think not, as it is only 
turned farenoughwitlidilfiei'ltyby most per- 
sons. It should be so turned that the holder 
will point directly over the shoulder, with 
the pen facing square to the paper — the 
holder slanting about 40 degrees from the 
horizontal. Third. What is the proper 
angle of the paper when the dtisk is in a 
front position f Ans.—^o degrees. Fourth. 
la there any difference hetweeu positions "f 
paper, etc., at a sloping desk and a fiat tableT 
-4«R.— No. 

K. A. Moi'gau, of Valparaiso, Ind., eendB a 
very gracefully wi-itteu letter. 

A handsomely exeouted bird and acroll de- 
iiigu has been received from V. N. Crandle, 
peuniau at Valparaiso, Ind. 

H. W. Patrick, penman at Sadler's Balti- 
inyre(Md.) BuflinesB College, favora uk with 
several superbly written cards. 

A very haudsymely written letter, ft skillfully 
executed flourish, and several finely wrttion 
cards, have been rHceived ffom M. B. Moore. 
Morgan, Ky. 

The m(j»t elegant Bpecinien of pruelical writ- 
ing received during the month conivi* in form of 
u letter from Prof. Henry C. Speiictr. of Wanh 
ing(on> D. C. 

C. F. Piatt, a student ut Peirctr's UusinefB 
College, Kt'okuk, seDd» several specimens of 

ting, i 

uied Willi bis lefi baiid, which a 


Geo. C. Clarlc, n etudeut at Currpr's Bufij- 
i.o<)<. Cullege, HarnRhiirgh, Pa., fvud» a ekill- 
fullv designed and well executed spt'CiDiea of 
liiuriiihing aLd ](ftt«ring. 

Vii p]vgant]y gott«n up poflt^r, liihographpd, 
loin a p«n'aiid-tnk dmign by G. A. Gniman, 
I the St. Paul Bu«iiiees College, htts been re- 
ived. It is iMly and well executed. 
Among the young wrilere of prominence, 
h>-n.- are few more deaerritig of mention than 
' W. Rice, now permaaenilr lorate '. at Den- 
i*T. Colorado. The epecimenH of written cards 
ivliicb he iuclori'8, uIho a specimen of off-hand 
li'iirinliing, are among the tineel received 

ng <h. 


Jfcuulifullj written letters have been received 
from A. B. Capp, Heald'n Bueiuees College, 
Sun Francieco, Cal. ; J. M. Martin, GnlesbLirg, 
Ml.; S. C. WilliamB, Lockport. N. Y. ; h. 
A-ire. Minneapolie, Minn.; F. H. Madden, 
.li.liiiBon'a BuflineaB College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Creditably executed specimens of pen-work 
liiive been received from Stephen V. ClemeniB, 
.Si.iithville, N. y.; A. G. Ward, Blair, Neb. ; 
KImer M. Smith, Cummiugton, Maes.; H. C. 
Ohiik, Titnsville, Pa.; S. H. Bolinger, Ft. 
s.oit, Kansas; W. E. Ernst, Mendon, Mich. ; 
K. .s. Collins, King's Mountain. N. C. ; J. D. 
It] inn t, Rftoeland, La. 

(;. B. Jones, who has just closed a course of 
VI jiiiig-IeeaonB at Bergen, N. Y., is favorably 
iientioned by the press of lliat place. 

S. H. Bolinger, teaclier of writing in tlie 
.iihlic schools of Ft. Scott, Kansas, is highly 
iimplimeiited by the press of llmt city for the 
iriiiericr 5Ti(I success of his teaching. 

A 1 1 Mii:i... penman at the Gieat \Ve«t-nO 
:i.^e, Omaha. Neb., sends thirty 

■ .1 -..l.ii:'an(iget8"'Williani8'BandPaik 

■i !- tiet..^ iiiid Guide." and " Ames'a Com 
iniiium of Ornamental Penmanship," and our^ 
lifinks '' thrown in." 

The Art of Letter-writing. 

rcmi the neccKsitics of our Aryan forc- 
ers arose the inventiou of fixed chariic- 
iilyzed sound, just as the 
ive man had represented 

tirs to represent 
uorcssitice of prii 
iil<-;is by words. 
Owiug to thp 

luperstitioDB prevalent at 
ilic lime, and to the gratified vanity of indi- 
viiliiala, the first applications of these eoin- 
biued invetiiions resulted in a curious iniog- 
lint- and inaugliug of faet and myth. 

Xeverihclow, it was tliiis that history 
vLjHTseded tradition, and that the gradual 
ti> velopuienl of the various branches of lii- 
irnture began. 

Letter-writing, one of these later devel- 
opmenta, has been ehosun as the Buhjeet for 
present cousid'Tation. 

Our object is not to consider the lengthy 
^■l;issical epistles, nor to point to the many 
wumeu and nieu, of ni<ire recent times, who 
have excelled m the art; we merely call 
Hiiriition to ilie growing neglect with which 
the subject is now regarded. 

The beginning of the present century 
ii.und the art waning from its zenith. As 
il)<- years have passed, the necessities of the 
HL'c have hecoiiio more and more tersely 
|ii.i.tical. The hardly legible note has, by 
ilic power of the postage-stamp, nearly 
jibolislied a distinct and orthodox branch ol 
litrritture, the natural pen of poetry and 

I lu. The letters of the young men and 
u( n of the day an- seldom fitted for the 

' ^ of the critics who are to receive them. 
I'Ik' hackneyed, meaniuglcss invocation, and 
tin- equally meaningless declaration that 
precedes the signature ore redolent of what 

In ordinary conversation wo form impi-es- 
Muiis, perhaps just, of what onr associates 
'My are, but in no way can we so easily 
•I lutialc the truth or falsehood of such 
[' ^sions as by iuteihgent letter- writing. 
! ■ letters we receive are sure t** influence I 

our opinions of their authors. But how few 
of us think of this when we ourselves are 
the writers. 

In conclusion, the letter is a species of 
literature in which all educated people must 
indulge, and which should, consequently, 
receive more liberal attention. Let every 
one initiate the campaign. — Bughy Monthly. 

Penmen and Sheep-pens. 

The Kansas City Times gives an account 
of the sheep-raising at Baxter Springs, 
Kansas, as follows : 

" The sheep interest is becoming more 
important each year. Last year Professors 
Wiswell and Spencer, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
established a sheep-ranch on the border, 
and although it is not yet as large nor as 
complete as they intend making it, is 
already one of the finest and most thorough 
sheep-ranches in the United States. They 
make a specialty of breeding fine-wool 
sheep, and have already in their herds over 
100 pedigreed merino and cotswold rams and 
ewes. Their flocks now number over 
2,000, and it is their intention to add to 
what they already have sufficient to make a 
herd of 5,000, one year from the present 
time. Mr. P. R. Spencer of the above firm, 
is one of the Spencer authors of the cele- 
brated Spencerian system of penmanship. 
The sheep-houses and barns upon this 
ranche are said to be the largest and most 
convenient in the United States, snd they 
have in their flocks a number of sheep 
brought from Vennont at a cost of over 
8100 each. 

Dr. Boyutou, the family physician of 
President Garfield, has also purchased a 
location near Wiswell and Spencer, and is 
getting everything in readiness for sheep 
M'hich he will soon bring. 

The delightful climate, pleasant sur- 
roundings, and the healthj^iviug mineral 
springs at this place, all combine to make 
it a very desirable place for residence. 

A Spelling Reform Inevitable. 
Mr. George H. Paul, a priiminent politi- 
cian, educationalist and man of aHairs in the 
West, has juat read a paper before the 
Fortnightly Club, of Milwaukee, demon, 
strating the necessity and the nearness of a 
radical reform in the orthography of the 
English language. His argument includes 
an ingenious calculation of the money value 
of tlie efforts wasted In teaching American 
youth the needless features of the present 

system of spelling. Whai 
destined at no distant day to have, accord- 
ing to this authority, is a new alphabet, 
comprising a distinct letter for each of the 
forty sounds employed in speaking English, 
instead of the twenty-six misused and in- 
competent characters that now pretend to 
perform that service. The coming system 
is to be based anew on purely scientific 
principles instead of on the vices and abomi. 
nations inherited from ancestral races. If 
wheat is a better crop than Canada thistles, 
there must be no compromise with Canada 
thistles. Half the work toward this end, 
Mr. Paul thinks, has been already accom- 
plished in the persuasion of scholars and 
others of its desirability, and the remainder 
can be readily effected by means of a joint 
or concurrent commission for the United 
States and England to fix upon one of the 
many approximately perfect orthographical 
systems that have lately been devised. All 
dilficulties in the way of propagating the 
reform, he thinks, can be surmounted by 
the introduction of alternative methods of 
spelling in all authorized dictionaries. Our 
Western verbal iconoclast evidently does 
not think so ill of the late Artemus Ward 
for saying that " Chaucer \njz a grate man, 
but he kudent spel." 

It is stated that there are now over 200.- 
000 telephones in use in this country. At 
the beginning of 1879 there we only 1:2,000 ; 
a year later 50,000. 


About Spelling. 

Mark Twain has his little fling at those 
peculiarities of English spelling which re- 
tard the proficiency of dull scholars. He 
says there are one hundred and fourteen 
thousand words in the unabridged dictionary. 
I know a lady who can spell only one hun- 
dred and eighty of them right. She steers 
clear of the rest. She can't learn any more. 

So her letters always consists of those 
words constantly recurring in one hundred 
and eiglity words. Xow and then when she 
finds herself obliged to write upon a subject 
which necessitates the use of some other 
words, she — well, she don't write upon that 

I have a relative in Now York who is 
almost sublimely gifted. She can't spell 
any word right. There is a game called 
Verbariura. A dozen people are each pro- 
vided with a sheet of paper, across the top 
of which ia written a long word like 
kaleidoscopical, or something like that, and 
the game is to see who can make up the 
most words out of that in three minutes, 
always beginning with the initial letter of 
the word. 

Upon one occasion the word chosen was 
cofterdam. When lime was called every- 
body had built from five to twenty words, 
except this y(mng lady. She had only one 
word — calf. We all studied a moment, and 
then said, '• Why, there is no I in cofferdam.*' 
Then we examined her paper. 

To the eternal honor of that uninspired, 
unconscious, sublimely-independent soul, be 
it said, she had spelled that word — caff I If 
anybody here can spell calf more sensibly 
than that, let him step to the front." — Ex- 

Stray Thoughts on the Subject 
of Money. 

The only medium {or mediums) of ex- 
change that merits to be called money is 
tbatwhich is issued by the supreme national 
authority, and accepted by the same at its 
legitimately decreed exchangeable value. 

In despotism, emperors, kings and some- 
times oligarchs are the supreme power ; in a 
republic, the sovereign people. 

.\s money is the measure of the value of 
all labor or wealth, every man ia equally en- 
titled to a voice in selecting the jiroper 
medium (or mediums) to represent his labor 


aluo of 1 

all < 

are exactly 
rcantile aud 

ssued them 

money ; 

ferred. No gold or silver coin 
eijual with regard to their m 
exchangeable values. If they v 
the monarchs or people that 
would not long retain thera. 

In some countries gold i; 
others, silver. In the British Isles gold 
the standard ; in British India, silver. Says 
Baron Wabnitz : "Mr. Thomas Baring, 
oue of the heads of the banking honse of 
Baring Brothere & Co., bore evidence that 
in London, during the financial crisis of 
1847, it was not possible to borrow a guinea 
on £00,000 in silver. Ou the other hand, it 
is an authentic fact that, in Calcutta, the 
possessor of £20,000 in gold coin, during 
the commercial crises of 1864, was obliged 
to declare himself insolvent, because he 
found it impossible, on that amount of gold, 
to raise a single silver rupee." 

Gold and silver coins are the only moneys ' 
^o^r known to the civilized world j they are 
armed by national laws to represent wealth 
in the countries where they are issued. All 
paper issues, national or individual, are cur- 
rencies but not moneys, as their functions 
are in all cases limited to merely represent 
gold or silver coins. This is not the case 
with the latter, which alone are made 
representative of wealth in all its forms. 

What has been the eflect of tliis limita- 
tion of the real moneys of the civilized 
fforid to gold and silver coins t 

That is easy to be preceived. Whoever 
can monopolize those metals in any country 
can reduce the exchangeable value of alt 
other forms aud representatives of value, 
and can prevent their production 

by witholding the stimnlu.s from labor, as 
was done here during the last decade. 

Here is one point in which the present 
pernicious financial system greatly affects 
the interests of all who perform manual toil. 
It is the function of money to measure the 
relative value of the different kinds of 
wealth, but when, as under the present 
financial system, it assumes to dictate what 
that value shall be, it usurps a power that 
merits, and should receive, tlie stern rebuke 
of the people. — J.»ienca»i Sentry. 

W. W. Waddell. 

Old Mr. Jones, senior partner of Jones 
& Son, considered it a good stroke of busi- 
ness when be had a telephone put in his 
grocery. It took the old gentleman several 
days to get the hang of the thing; but it 
paid to have customers order goods by 
telephone of him from a distance, when, 
before he had a telephone, they would run 
to the nearest shop. Mr. Jones was con- 
gratulating himself upon this the other 
morning, when the telephone bell rang. 
After the usual number of helloes, be dis- 
tinctly caught an order for ten pounds of 
sugar, two pounds of coft'ee, a pound of 
crackers, half a bushel of potatoes, a peck 
of apples and a codfisli, to bo delivered, 
but he didn't quite catch the name. After 
several vain trials, he asked the other party 
to spell it, and with his pencil he prepared 
to write it down ou a sheet of wrapping 
" Double u," said the voice. 
Jones wrote it down and said, 
" Yes." 
" Double u." 
"I've got that." 
" Well, put it down again.'' 
" Y-^s ; go ahead." 
" Double u." 
" Why, I've got that." 
" Put it down a^ain." 
" But I have it d<jwu twice." 
" Well, put it down three times." Jone.s 
sighed and wrote it again. 
" A double d." 

" A double d— that's add," soliloquized 
Jones; then he shouted back, "Add what V 
" Add nothing. Just write a double d." 
"This is infernal nonsense!" muttered 
Jones, but he cheerfully called back " Yes, 
go ahead." 
"E double 1." 
"E double I." 

Mr. Jones stamped on the floor and 
pulled his whiskers savagely ; but he put it 
down and sweetly answered, 
" Yes." 
"That's all." 
"All what?" 
" All the name." 

" Then Mr. Jones studied his papers care 
fully a moment, when he had written thus : 
" U u u u u u a d d e 1 1 ," and remarked to 
himself. " Why that's^.l n.msense." 
He then halloed tbrongii llie telephone 
and rung up tlie central office and in- 
t|uired in vain wlio had been talking with 
him. Then he studied the writing again. 
Pretty soon in came his son, the junior 
partner. Mr. Jones showed him the 
letters and told how ho got them. The 
junior partner studied them, read them 
both ways, looked on the back of the paper, 
and finally said it was the infernalest bosh 
he ever saw. They showed the paper to 
the book-keeper, ami he said it was sheer 
foolishness. The big clerk said it was ab- 
surd. The little clerk thought somebody 
was crazy. Finally the errand boy looked 
at it, and was told it was meaut for some 
customer's name; thereupon he asked Mr. 
Jones to call oft' the letters, as near as he 
could remember, the same as lie had re- 
ceived them by teleplione. Mr. Jones did 
so, wlien the errand boy, nearly choked with 
laughter, said, 

"Why, that's perfectly plain ; its W. W 

Mr. Jones never felt such an immenst 
relief since he went into business. 

Origin of Names in the Week. 
In ll.o niusenm, at Berlin, in Ihpball de- 
volfd t.i llic Ncnhtrn intiqnilics, they have 
tlie ropre«onlalinns fruin the iaols from 
which the names of the ilaya of the wecli 
Me derived. From the idol of the Sun comes 
Siftodn;. This iJol is represented with his 
fsce lilie the son, holding a hurniog wheel, 
with both hands on bis breast, sinnifjing 
his course round the world. The idol of 
the Moon, from which comes Monday, is 
habited in a abort coat, like a man, but is 
holding the moon in his hands. Tuisco, 
from which comes Tuesday, was one of the 
most ancient and popular gods of the Ger- 
mans, and is represented in hii gannenU of ^ 
skin, acccirding to their peculiar manner of 
clothing ; Iho third day of the week was 
dcJicalud to his worship. Woden, from 
which comes Wednesday, was a valiant 
prince among the Saxons; bis image was 
prayed to for victory. Thor, from whence 
comes Thursday, is sealed in a bed, hold- 
ing a sicplre in his hand, with twelve stars 
over liis head. Friga, frcnn whence wo have 
I'Viilny, is represented with a drawn sword 
in his right hand and a bow in his left. 
Sealer, from which is Saturday, has the ap- 
pfarauro of perfect wretchedness. He is 
Ihin-viMgfd, long-haired, with a long beard. 
He carries a pail of water in his right hand, 
wherein are fruils and flowers. — Philadd- 
phia Saturday Night. 

Little Johnny's Conundrum — 
" Mom," said lilllo Johnny Periwinkle the 
other day, addressing bis malenial parent, 
" what does ' reslbelio ' mean t I heard Mrs. 
Mobby say yes'day that you was a desiiplo 
of Iheir leslholic school." 

" Zislbellc, my son," said Mrs. Periwin- 
kle," »B she fished Mr. Periwinkle's red 
Haunel hhirl out of Iho wash-hl^iler, " ia an 
exiremo love of the beautiful; the too, loo 
utterly intense all-bulnesa of everything that 
is lovely. Ohl" she exclaimed, clasping 
her hands rapturously, "how supremely 
divine is llie Mudy of this noble science 1 " 

" Well, mom," said Johnny, " I've got a 
(esthetic conundrum fer yer. What's the 
difference between tliis nut I'm holdiu' in my 
hand and an A No. I salute from a William 
goal f (iivc 'er up f Why one is a butter- 
nut and tlio other an utter butt. See I" 

Johnny studied " the science of the beau- 
tiful " in the woodshed.— Free Prtss. 

"Too Too."— Will not the modern aes- 
thetes bo somewhat surprised to learn that 
this, ibeir pet sbibboletb, is, after all, only 
au ohl i>r..vioci.iliam revived? In Ray's 
" Complete Collccli.m of English Provcrb.«," 
lifib rdiiiou, Loudon. 1813, I tind this 
proverb, " Too too will in two," (Cheshire,) 
with the explanatory note, " Strain a thing 
too mui'h and it will not ho'd." A still 
earlier use of too too is to he met in — 
■' Siiue which, tlione woods, and all that good- 

A learned man is a tank ; a wise man is a 
spring. — ir. i?. Alger. 

That which God writes on thy forehead 
thou wUt come to. — ^oran. 

Fifty thousand slate - pencils are made 
daily at Caslletoo, Vermont. 
Herr Krupp, thegreat German gun-maker, 
is so pressed with orders that he has en- 
gaged 8,000 more workmen, making the 
total force of workmen 1:1,000. 


ilii^ day with wolves and thieves 
l:o true tliat land in-dwcllers since 

" Legend of Contlanfie," catito vi.,55. 
— Notts and Queries. 

A Qu 

. Manufactijrer. — Theodore 
Ilook.adJressed the following lines " To Mr. 
Hlaiik, who put over his door ' Pen and 
Quill Manufacturer"'; 

"You pill ulwrn jour door and In your bllli, 
Yuii re uianuthoiUTcr of )<ons uid quilld 
And fur th« fint, j-ou noil mny tV«1 a prldei 

« quillB. your n 

■ uiuat be a goMO." 

ItiBAiericui?opiilarDictiDiiarj, SlJ^lj^i 

The Penmen of the Country 

Artist Penmen 

Are infoniwUhat 7 
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IbOOtn preminmi It 

MT JouiWAL, randy lor examinuliun ud 


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.o«il, th« -ub]«ul to be CI...S.0 l.y ibe .utfbl 

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New goods deaoribed for penmen, %Yith cuts 
and pi iff B for tlie same, not to be found iu any 
oilitr medium. See the following magnificent 
premium. Sent frev for one year's Bubsciipliou 
to the tenman't and Printer a OazeUt, 

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j-oiir paper nt rwnil. W* linve 
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ilryaiii and Sirallun Cuminuii 


It's a poor nile, &c. :— " How is it, Mr. 
Bn)Wti," said a miller to a funncr, "that 
when I c»i»e to incasuro those ten barrels 
of Apples I houKht from you, I found them 
uenrly two barrels short t" "Singular, 
very lingular, for I sent thein to you id teu 
of your own Hour barrels." "Ahem ! Did, 
eht" said the miller. "Well, perhaps I 
made a uiistako. Let's imbibe." — San 
FranciiCO Fo»t. 

"The Penman's Art Journal'* 

J klodly rnnsonlod, tot ilio benelll of the |)n>rnulon. to 
■prepurBllun i-f tliPir tpedmutu, iThereby the ■ume 

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mulon, penmen Inteodlnf 
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le Oeofcnipbical atid SlallMloid tn/ominll'in er-n 

surpe of Compllen, Sui 

I"* -VH I JtJl'KN.VI. 



A<l:.| l(.i UK Willi ur witli.iiil Telt-Book, 
and Uie uiilv »el recouiiufiided lo 


Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House-Bcok keeping." 




.•«o 121 WiLUAM Sthbkt, New Vt 


Eaton and Burnett's Book-keeping. 

Commercial Arithmetic. 

« of Bludy la oararullv traded, ffmdunlly 

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ibject HA a pnictical Kieocv, capable of nppUculiou iu ounieio 
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any man's moner- It coinpriBeB 328 pages of 
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4. Muhiplication ; 5. Division. 
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1. Reduction; 3. Addition; 3. Subtraction; 
4. Multiplication; 5. Division. 
Review Examples-- 

z Numbers— 
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:t. Square Measures; 4. Cubic Measures; 
r.. Liquid Measures; 0. Dry Measure; 
7. Measures uf Weight; «. Circular 
Measure ; 'J. United Slates Money; 
II). English Money ; 11, Foreign 
Moneys of Account ; 12. Reduction of 
Denominate Integers ; 13. Reduction of 
Denominate Fractions; 14. Addition, 
Subtraction ; \>t. Multiplication ; 10. 
Divisioa ; 17. Longitude and Time. 

b; 2. 





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written on the Logic of Accounts. 

DAVID A. CURTIS, Publisher, 

/ty ™.I, flMptr »/..«. 210 FULTON ST., N. Y. 


Harloavllle, Onondag» County, New Tork, 

Proprietor of Swift's NawsFAPBK Club Agkxct, 
and PublUber of Swift's Hakd-uookb of Ins Rbcifbb. 

"Collection No. 1 " (50 Recipes) Contents: Blnok, IS 
kinds; Blue, 3 kinds; Red, 4 kinds ; Green, 3 kindi; 
Yellow; Bronii; Violot; White; Gold; Silver; Indell- 
Mn, O l:m,l=, SynipMhrtic, 6 kinds ; Aniline Inki, eKi., 

I ;i"Utecipee)Conlen«: Bla«k, as 

1.III.I- I V. How. Brown. Violet, .T kind*; 

packa^. I'rinling Ink, .■^1•I1lll ink- ShtmiunK and 

Canoelinff Inks, for both nutm unil riitii>rr pIliihiw. P»py. 

rograph Ink, Aniline Inks, fir., I'li- Muik'il lor 5U nents. 

Special Offer.— Everyone etnding: me |1 for the 

yearly wlhioriplion for any leading pfriodical. at pub- 
lisber'A nill prim, will receive Ilic nbove SO cent*' Hand- 
t)ook ft-ee. V- S. tlninp* taken for any ainounl. Club- 
Reference. D. T. Amea. S-fll. 

"Ike best lestitnonial a book can have is tJte 
names of those who use it." 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

For the School and Counting-room, is now in 
use in many of the leading Colleges, Aca- 
demies and Schools in this country. 
HibtHtrd'sCunimercinl School .... Boston. Mou. 
Packard'! BiiKineas College . . . New ?ork, N. V. 
Soule'B ■' " .... Philndelphia, Pa. 

Sadler's " " Bultlmore, Md. 

Williaintiporl Cunimen'ial Colte^o . . WillEanuport, Pa. 
LnncaBler " "... Lancaster. Pa. 

Titusville *■ "... TitimvUIo, Pa. 

Peiiw'B BiwinPM " . . PhilQdolphta, Pii. 

Heald's - ■; . S<in Trancisco, Cal. 

ManlUee'&win^*' '• ,' .' Fori \^ayne, Ind! 

Ohaddock ■' .' .' .' ." Quinny! III! 

Hflonora's '_' " ..'..'. Harilord.'Conn! 

HiDmnn's Business College . . . .Worcester, Mbhs. 
Jennings Seminary Anniii, III. 

Public Schools ..'.'.'.'.'... .NeTark.'N.'j! 
Oakland, Cal, 

Sl""juhns L-'ollego . . '! ^'. '. '. Colle^ville, Min^n! 

St Ji)SP|ili"a " 8l. Joseph, Mo. 

Caonilu BusineM College HumillOD, Ont. 

Union Biuiiiee^ College J Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The above are some of the leading institu- 
tions now using the Class-Book of Commercial 
Law, and who speak in tlie highest terms of 

of Busioeu, DESIONBD and ARItANQBD especially 

bills of lading, reoeipu and vndoreements. 

It abo treats of CmUraeU. Parlnerthip. Agavy. Ttt- 
Uraland Umry, Salt of P^rional Froptrty. BaihTunt, 

ert. Rtal KsfaU. Form* of Butiwtt Paper, ete. 

Siugle copies eent postpaid lu any address 
un receipt of One Dollar, 

Special rates for int, oduction . All orden. 
sliould l>e adilressed (o the author, 


6-t.f. Albany, N. Y. 

OHOUTHAND-writinp thoroughly taught by maU. 

M A Y H E W S 

Manual of Business Practice, 

with C'urreocy and BiiMness Pape» for use. ut in ffoll- 
conducted aelual biaimti, are used In leading Colleges 
nod BunneM Colleges of Anierim timl Mvk the but atdt 

tnei. Even good aiiihorB i«o ihein lu preference lo Ihefr 

would not for |I,000 pari with the instnictioQ 1 tiave 

2-lU. Detroit, Mich. 

. KELLEV. Attoci 

NEW YORK, JUNE. 1882. 

\i.— Na 6. 


tlie eye, 

igUy Itiiiglii hy nil 



I or peMoiially. 



ne issue of the .Iouknal, for this 

.ith, lias been delayed nearly two weeks 

'he nuinerouB cuts for illustrating I*rof. 

— ricer's Writiug-iesson, and, at last fiud- 

- it quite impossible to ^ei them without 

her delay, we hni-f rtewiieil Tn dofoi' 

■^s<m No. 2 till our next issue, whieh will 

Milcd, proii.plly, on July loth. 

Individuality in Writing. 
Uy Paul I'am-sok. 

caDDOt be at the same time an olegaut 
. a ciiaracteristic writer, f^loveuly [lOU- 
-u delight to laiigh at what tbey call the 

'jtperplate style of handwriting," and tu 
,1 the Horace G reeley style of chirography 
tlieonly true expression of thepcrj-oQiility 
:ho writer, llumiligable nonscnsel As 
!l call Tiiruer and bis school the only true 
■:^t«, bot-ause they deal in iesthotic daubs! 
(1 man's handwriting shows anything, or 
lilies anything, outside of itself, it is the 
■ I's elianieter. and not his inenlJil attain- 
iitg. If, thou, the gentlemen who delight 
.-liivculy peiuiiauship wish us to jud^e of 
' > "personality" from their handwriting, 

tre perfectly willing to prunouuec them 
<iic, careless, incompreheueible, or what- 
' their manuscript reveals of character : 

we protest against this ridiculous depits- 
T,..u, on their pwrt, of really excellent 
>iiiauship. It is like the empty merriment 
■iie fox, who, having lost bis own tail in a 
4', langhed all bis ouinpanious into the 
olish act of ridding themselves of theirs in 
' way. 

As to the charge brought agaiust good 
p^-uinen, that there is no individuality in their 
writing, we deny it allogetbcr. There was 
not H more ek'gaut penman in Ami-rioa tbau 
tbc poet I...ugfellow, albeit he wrote back- 
hand — which, by the way, I wish were move 
generally cultivated by literary penmen, for 
it makes a most beautiful, compact and 
legible manuscript, the joy of the compositor, 
and grateful relief to the editor's weary eye. 
It' there was ever anybody who was not in- 
si}'id, it was Longfellow, tlie poet laureate of 
America. And yet if ohirographleal cavillers 
weie to carry out their theory to its. legiti- 
uuttv conclusion] what a namby-pamby man 
thi-y would make of biml Our theory, on 
:h*- contrary, would eatiroatc the man fnim 

and a delight to the heart. 

There never was a man with more prac- 
liftil chcracter in Inin than the author of 
" Tiintly Topic* " in Stribnor's Magazine. 
And yet" Dr. Holland had one of the uiost 
delicate, regular and iiighly cultivated styles 
of peumauship in the world. In his younger 
days be taught the art, and, doubtless, 
also taught it throughout bis life, for one of 
the missions of good penmen is to inspire 
in all their correspoudeots a desire to go 
and do likewise. 

My theory is that a clear, symmetrical, 
well-formed baud, such as our best writing- 
masters teach, when attained, is the evidence 
ofa well-formed, symmetrical character; and 
that while it is bein^ attained it inspires 
these g(>od qualities in the pupil. A mau 
does not like to be worse than his own 
handwriting. If he gets to write well he 
begins to think that he is somethiuij of a 
mau after all, aud to live accordingly. Good 
writing actually forms character, and gives 
individuality to a m;(U, instead of robbing 
him of it. Let us not, then, be annoyed by 
the foolish talk of shabby penmen. You 
never fiud a mau who takes auy pride at all 
iu the looks of his inannscript joining in 
ilieir dog-in-the-manger growl. A good, 
round, writing-master hand is au ac(|uisitiou 
that any one may well be proud of; aud it 
no more evidences lack of individuality than 
a nicely-fitting suit bides, or detracts from, 
a handsome form. 

Writing in Public Schools. 

(Fiom Iteporl of J. Ormond Wltaoo, Superinleiideiil of 

This subject has always hceu ranked as 
oue of the three studies indispensable in 
elementary education. Formerly, it was 
learned almost entirely by imitation of copies 
at first written by the teacher, and after- 
wards engraved. Still later, systems of wri- 
ting were presented in engraved uopy-bOoks, 
\Wth definite and symmetrical foruis of let- 
ters, capital and small, which could be an- 
alyzed into a few simple elements. These 
books were arranged iu a rational order of 
progression, aud accompanied by charts 
illustratiug, on an enlarged scale, the forms 
of the letters, proper positions to he taken in 
writing, aud the mtnle of holding the peu, 
and by a manual of useful instructions and 
suggestions. With these later aids, aud in- 
telligent and skillful teaching, "^od writing 
in any school becomes a mathematical cer- 
tainty. The advice sometimes given rela- 
tive to the importance of encouraging aud 
preserving the individuuliiy of the liaud- 
writing of pupils is entirely unnecessary. 
If the term in this application means ab- 
sence of symmetry, grace, uutl legibility, as 
it generally does, then let individuality dis- 
appear from the handwriting of. pupils as 
soon as possible. Teachers will always find 
that iu no other study will good work be 
more highly appreciated by parents aud 
others most interested in the education of 
ihe pupils. 

The course begins in the First Grade on 
slates, and is continued iu theSecond i*rade 

in copy-books with lead pencils, aud sub- 
sequently with pen and ink. From the start, 
correct position, holding of the pen and 
movements must receive attention, and in- 
flexibly be insisted on ibronghout the course. 
Left-handed pupilt* should be required to 
hold the }ien in the right hand. The analysis 
of letters should he thoroughly taught, so 
that pupils may he able to state it without 
hesitation, not in the set fonn of words used 
in the Manual, hut in their own language. 
Pupils M-ill he able to represent on the black- 
board or paper only those forms that are im- 
pressed on their minds, and if the impression 
is imperfect or obscure, so will the repfe- 
sentation be. Answers to frequent well- 
directed questions, touching single points of 
analysis, will be much more effectual than 
recitals of the forms of a complete analysis. 
In the lower grades, a traciug-book and a 
copy-book are required for each pupil, and 
thes^re to be taken together — one, for pre- 
liminary practice ; and the other, for the 
best work after practice. There is great ad- 
vantage iu this mode of using two books. 
The'iDterest and ambition of pupils T>eed 
not be dampened by bad work, which is 
quite frequently incident to the earlier stages 
of practice. A suitable blank-book is also 
to he used by each pupil — in all the grades, 
fi'om the third up — and is to contain speci- 
mens of a variety of school-work. It will 
thus become much more than a specimeu- 
hook of penmanship. Pupils should be in- 
structed aud encouraged to fill up this book, 
so that it will be well worthy of exhibition 
and preservatiou as a souvenir of school 

A Successful Autograph-Hunter. 

There is something terrible in the energy 
with which Mr. Edward W. Bok, of Brook- 
lyn, pursues the occupation of a hunter of 
autographs. Mr. Bok, as he admits, is only 
in his eighteenth year, and has already ob- 
tained no fewer than 300 autographs of liv- 
ing celebrities. A passion like this must 
have been of slow growth, aud it was not 
till the autumn of last year — at which time 
Mr. Bok could have been little over seven- 
teen yeai-sof age— tbatit overmastered him. 
He then deliberately entered upon the course 
nf procedure which, according to liis own 
account, has carried trouble and dismay int(» 
mauy households. He filially commenced 
with obtaining his father's signature, which 
is entered in his hook under the date, August 
27, I8t<0. Hie father added to the collection 
other signatures even more valuable than 
his o^vn. Ho was at one lime Vice-Cunsul 
for the German government in Holland, and 
his patent of appointment is signed " Wil- 
hehn " in waving lines, which we are told 
contrast with the crabbed, stiff "Von Bis- 
marck " of the great Chancellor. It b in- 
toresting to learn, as we do incidentally, that 
Bismarck's signature appears exactly six 
inches below that of the sovereign he made 
an Kmperor, the 'etiquette of the German 
court not permitting nearer conjunction of 
the signature of sovereign aud subject. Mr. 
Bok, sen., wiu; ciuitc a mine of weidth to bis 
enterprising sod. In his time he has played 
many ntficial parts. As Dutch Consul in (if iii<- (iciniurfs Ml li.llnuit he poJweM^a 
the !«ignatiir4 of Wllliatn III., King of th*i 
Netherlands; whilst Frederick, Prmceof th-* 
I Netherlands, attests Mr. Bok's .-tppoiutmeat 
as Grand Master of Freeiuasdury. Being in- 
I dehtcd to parental prosperity for those signa- 
I tuiTs of royal persouages, the younger Mr. 
I Bok seized on his own account the oppor- 
; tuuity of the visit to New York of King 
Kalakaua, and lay iu wait at the hotel 
where bis Majesty was lodged till be had 
added his signature to the treasures of his 
book. An effort to obtain the autograph of 
our own Queen and Prince of Wales did not 
prove equally successful. Mr. Bok, who is 
nothing if not orderly, addressed himself 
directly to the Duke of Argyll, who wa3 
then the holder of the Privy Seal. Mr. 
Hok, exercising the privilege of a free-bora 
American citizen, called upon the Duke 
to procure for bim the signatures of Qneeu 
Victoria and the Heir- Apparent. To thi.t 
the Duke of Argyll courteously replied with 
a non jiossumtis. Hut there are attend- 
ant consolations iu most attlictions. Id 
making this answer the Duke natuioUy 
signed his name, and the autograph waa 
straightway transferred to the preuioud 

Probably most prominent meuibera of Eh« 
House of ComiiioDs have at one lime or 
other heard from tlic euterprising Bok. Mr. 
Gladstone certainly has, for Mr. Bokisabid 
to display a note from his secretary, in 
which that gentleman explains that the rua 
upon the Prime Minister for his autograph 
is too great to be met by concession in in- 
dividual cases. Nevertheless, the envelope 
bore the right honorable gentleman's auto- 
gniph, lithograj hed as a frank, and with 
this Mr. Bok must needs be satisfied. With 
respect to Mr. Bright, the youthful collector 
has been more fortunate, owning an admis- 
sion order to the House of Commons signed 
"John Bright." Mr. Bradlaugh was not 
wanting ia modesty wbeu the inevitable re- 
quest reached him. He took no notice of 
the application from Bok, jun., and it waa 
only when addressed by the ex-Germau 
Consul in Holland, ex-Dutch Consul iu 
tiermauy, and ex-Grand Master in Free- 
masonry, tliat ^fr. Bradlaugh responded. 
He then wrote, "At your father's wish; 
Cbfls. Bradlaugh.'" .Still Mr. Bok, jun., is 
not happy. Tlie extreme brevity of this 
communication led to the omission of the 
date. Without the date, it seems, your true 
autograph-hunter scoi-ns a signature, and tlie 
docnmont is to be rctumed to the member 
for Northampton with the request that he 
will date it. The publicity given in the 
United States to the arrivals at hotels of 
distinguished visitura has proved of great 
assistance to Mr. Bok. Thus he pounced 
down on the Duke of Sulheriand on the 
very night when he arrived, travel-staioed, 
at the Windsor Hotel. "I don't see the 
sense of collecting autographs," the Duke 
said testily as Mr. llok stood before him 
book in baud, a remark so precious id its 
application that Mr. Bok immediately uoted 
it down, and has appended it to the autu- 
graph. All iif grist that c<>me8 to hie mill. 
He gratefully accepts an autograph and tt 
accompanied by any remark, whether c-oiu* 

pliTDrQlary or oihorwwe, it is an aHded favor. 
If h« had sat in lh,ghPTTf» |»lac(' he would 
Lot only have jnsidlpd that he should be 
nritteo down an m^ boi woald not hare 
let Conrado go till he had appended liis 
autograph -signature to the remark. No re- 
koffia effectual against hie purpose. The 
iDorr perbialently » miiD refuses his signature 
the higher ie its value in the autograph 
niarket. Thus when three letters had failed 
to produce the autograph of Mr. ThoinpBim, 
a Cabinet Minister under the PresideDcy of 
Mr. HayeB, Mr. Rok called upon him, and 
Mme away triuiuphaot. Among others he 
wrote to tJeueral Ilurnside, who «-ithdrew 
behind hi* entrenchment, and not oDiy de- 
clioed to reply, but refused to see the terrible 
Bok when he called with his book. Failing 
in this direction, Mr. Mok engaged the ser- 
Tices of a friend of thv^GeDeral's, and the 
warrior, yielding to tTiis'flAnlt attack, sur- 
rendered his autograpli. With General 
McClellan there was soinethiog of the same 
difficulty, but he also capitulated after a 
siege of some severity. Mr. Hok'a greatest 
triumph WHS over Mr. Tennyson. He divides 
hi* book into various sections, such as 
" Soldiers," " Statesmen," " \ovelists,'' 
" Focls," and so on. He had reserved tlie 
6f»l place in the list of poets for Mr. Tenuy- 
i>oD, Bud wrote informing the poet of the 
distinction that awaited him. No aoswfir 
«ime, nor did any brighter success follow 
lb© dispatch of a secoud, third, or fourth 
letl4T. Still the indomitable Bok wrote 
every other mail ttU, in response to the ninth 
letter, Mr. Tennyson tjamin. This is ii feat 
of which Mr. Hok is pardonably proud. 
The siege did not last rjuite so loug as that 
of Troy, but it wjis conducted \riih j 
efjual vigor, and crowoed with quite 

imitated my own 

iDV other things it 

I hope your sou 

now of late yeara 

The autograph-hunter is more at lioiiie in 
his own country. Mr. Lowell yielded under 
the pressure of a second letter. Mr. Bryant 
made no demur. Whittioruot only sent his 
signature, l«it a verse uf poetry ; ami Oliver 
Weodoll Holmes signed a veree from " Tlie 
Chambered Nautilus." Of English poets, 
Mr, Swinburne acknowledged the renuest 
in a brief note, and Mr. Kobert Browning 
•eut a (juotatloD which spiteful people who 
object to Mr. Bok's metliod (tf procedure 
will hope came from one of the darkest 
passages in his own poeinn. Paternal in- 
fluence was brought to bear on Mr. Ituskin, 
who in re»pousi' seut the follovviug kind and 
charHCtflristic note: "It is a great joy to 
bear of a good son in these days of disobedi- 
ence. 1 wish I could write my name better 
for him. Had I betl< 
father in writing and 
had been better for n 
will read what I writ 
with at lea^t as much 
popular works." Mr. Wilkie Collins mod- j 
^elly ropies from " The Woman iu White" 
11 profound remark on w-uiieii iu general; \ 
wliilst Mr. Charles Keade remits a sheet of [ 
IHijK-r with the following legfiid : "Edward j 
W. Hok, iraligrapher, from Charies Iteade, 
kakographer." Aloxandn- Dumas fon- 

foimd than that for which Mr. Wilkie Collins 
lias secured a fresh i-irculation. " I weary 
myself,'" the great French novelist writes; 
"this is how it begins. He wearies me; 
this is how it ends. Such is iu two words 
the story ol the firet fault of woman." It will 
bf seen fiimi these >iitalions of names that 
»t a couiparatively early a(;e Mr. Bok has 
< iniipleted a wide range of pcrs-mal pei-secu- 
tiou. Should he pursue the avocation in 
which at eighteen he has reached such enii- 
neui-e, it is terrible to ihiuk whai he will 
have achieved at eighty, if he have not died 
« violent deatli before he reaches that age. 
In the ineautiiiie. persous liviug ia obscurity 
will find some comfort iu the thought that 
there ia no chance of their being hunted up 
l<y thif implttcflble youth from Brooklyn.— 
tht Daily Xetcs, London. 

Programme "C." 
By C. H. Peibce. 
This Programme consists of the move- 
ment known as the Fore-arm. (Definition : 
The ase of the arm by resting below the 

The woild's work, in this art, is done 
with this movement, and most assuredly 
should be cultivated and developed a» soon 
as possible, in order to produce the most ef- 
fective results and with the least strain upon 
the system. 

Statement I. The earliest average age 
of development in Programme '* C " iB 
twelve years. 

It may justly be styled the bread-and- but- 
ter-movement, since it is the central power 
of the business world, and all speed is due 
to its influence. 

Statement 2. The greater the rapidity 
of execution, the less the assistance from 

1 shall have reason to .speak of this move- 
ment in connection with Programme " D," 
and will endeavor uow to confine myself 
strictly to its direct results. 

It might be a question with many, if it 
is possible to execute good work entirely 
with this movement. I would reply that, if 
shade is not a consideration, it is. But as 
soon as you wish to get expicssion or shade 
the fingers must move, thus giving- what is 
termed the '* combination movement." 

Believing that the detailed plan of work 
in this Progratimic should follow Programme 
" B," I have purposely omitted it until now. 
It may uot be conceded by all the fraternity, 
but facts go to prove conclusively to my 
mind that the reasoning is correct. 

Statement 3. I do atiirin that fore- 
arm should follow whole-arm, i. e., &|1 new 
work should be well established, whole-arm 
before attempting fore- arm. 

I do not mean by this, the entire work of 
Programme " B '' should be accouiptished 
before begiuuiug Programme "C"; but, on 
the contrary, I do mean that as fi\st as work 
is developed whole-arm it may consistently 
be followed or executed fore-arm. 

(Hemark.) I uow repeat the 
made iu the October No. of the Jou: 
All work executed whole- arm can t 
ecuted fore-arm. 

Three proofs, positive of Statement '3 

First. Your own results 
with rif/ht hand. 

Second. Youi 
with le,fl hand. 

Third. The 
thorough courst 

1. The tracing -e.rercises consist 
wards of seventy-tive different forn 
cipatly capital letters of largo size, < 
on (muuilla) paper, say 4x4 inches, with 
colored pencil, so that they may be retraced 
with eud of holder or lead pencil in order 
to get the general form ol i-apitals, and par- 
ticiilurly to estublii'li freedom of movement. 
It is uot necessary that all these should be 
practiced iu order to heeouic a good business 
penmau ; but the gi-eater the power showu 
here, the less obstacles can posijibly arise iu 
the work which follows. Hence, according 
to the object arrived at, is it necessary to 
perfect the work. 

Caution. Don't leave iho work too soou, 
with the delusive liope that you can do your- 
self more good by practicing upon aome- 
ihiug yiore advanced. 

Freedom is the word, and uutil honest 
ctmvietiou seizes yt>u as to advancement, 
stand firm, and regret will not mark you 
another victim. 

Thf position uecessary to a full develop- 
ment of thi fore-arm is of such vast imjiort- 
ance that I charge the uninitiated to not 
underrate it. 

Statement 4. The positions for the ex- 
ecution of the highest otder of work— whole- 
arm and fore-arm — are not necessarily the 
same — the latter demnuding a rather erect 
position ; while the former may be— and yet 
to a decided advantage to beginners--a some- 
what inclined position of the body may be 
taken. Whale\fr may be the changes, rest 

A-n results i 

J in teaching. 

t development 

, priu- 

assured that the spine should be kept straight. 
Proof of this will furnish substance for an- 
other article. 

■2. E.\TF.NDED MoVEUENTs. They ron- 
sist of capital letters joined in all conceiva- 
ble shapes, and are what the name implies. 
They are the outgrowth of tracing-exer- 
cises, and in many instances may take the 
nature of the same to a decided advantage. 
At pi-esent there are upwards of 120 ex- 
tended move me lit- exercises that follow the 
tracing-exercises in the order of simplicity, 
and if partially or fully understood, will, in 
proportion, give results that can be gained 
iu no other way. This work, like the pre- 
ceding, is not supposed to be entirely com- 
passed by amateurs with a few, petty efforts, 
but is the reshlt of earnest, honest labor, for 
years, to establish in its purity. 

It should be borne in mind that the high- 
est order of development in any of the five 
Programmes, is, to approximate the work 
first, and then make frequent reviews to es- 
tablish new points, (that unfold themselves 
as do the petals of a Hower), and to form a 
higher standard of excellence that forever 
accompanies the student who would win. 

I cannot caution too much, and so I make 
the charge doubly strong by statiug : do not 
expect to become thorough without a full 
sweep of this wonderful power, which, 
coupled with the philosophij of motion, gives 
the grandest results obtainable in the execu- 
tion of all styles of capitals. 
{T,> he CMuiinued.) 

Col. Robert IngersoU 

On Intemi'ERanck, in a Si-keoh m-.vum. 
a Jurv. 
" I do not wonder that every thoughtful 
man is prejudiced against this damned stutl' 
called alcohol. Intemperance cuts down 
youth in its vigor, manhood in ita strength, 
and age in its weakness. It breaks the 
father's heart, bereaves the doting motlier, 
extinguishes natural afl'eclious, erases con- 
jugal love, blots out filial attatchmeut, 
blights parental Iiope, and brings down 
mourning age in sorrow to the grave. It 
produces weakness, not strength ; sickness, 
not health ; death, uot life. It makes wives, 
widows; children, orphans; fathers, fiends; 
and all of them paupers and beggars. It 
feeds rheumatism, nurses gout, welcomes 
epidemics, invites cholera, imports pesti- 
lence, and embirtces couduniptioQ. It covers 
the laud with idleness, misery and crime. It 
fills your jails, supplies your alms-houses 
aitd demands your asyhuns. Lt engenders 
controversies, fosters quarrels and cherishes 
riots. It crowds your penitentiaries, and 
furnishes victims to your scaffolds. It is 
the life-blood of the gambler, the etenieut 
of the burglar, the prop of the highway- 
mau. and the support of the midnight iu- 
cendiary. It couuteuauces the liar, respects 
the thief, i-steeuis the blasplieiner. It vio- 
lates obligations, reverences fraud, and hon- 
ors infamy. It defames benevolence, hates 
love, scorns virtue, and ^lauders innocence. 
It incites the father to butcher his helpless 
otfspriug, helps the husband to matisHcre 
his wife, and the child to grind the parieidat 

It bui 

I up 

detests life, curses God, and despises heaveu. 
It suborns witnesses, nurses perjury, defiles 
the jury-box, and stains the judicial ermine. 
It degrades the citizen, ilebases the letfislii- 
lor, dishonors the statesman and disarms the 
nation. It brings shame, not honor ; ter* 
ror, not safety : despair, not hope ; uiiscry, 
not happiness ; and with the malevtdence of 
a ficud it T'almly surveys its frightful descda- 
tiou, and ut)sati>fied with its havoc, it 
poidoDs felicity, kills peace, ruins morals, 
blights coufidence, slays reputation, and 
wipes out national honors, then curses the 
world and laughs at the ruin. It does all 
that and nmre— it munlers the soul. It is 
the sum of all villainies, and the father of 
all crimes, the mother of abou 
devil's best friend, and God': 

Get to'the.Bottom^of Things. 

As the boy begins so will the man end. 
The lad who speaks with affectation, and 
minces foreign tongues that he does not un- 
derstand at school, will be a weak chromn 
in ch.iraoter all his life ; the boy who cheats 
his teachers into thinking him devout at 
chapel will be the man who will make re- 
ligion a trade and bring Christianity into 
contempt; and the boy who wins the high- 
est average by stealing his examination pa- 
pers will figure some day as a tricky poli- 
tician. The lad who, whether rich "r puor,. 
dull or clever, looks you siraight iu the eyes 
and keeps lib answer inside the truth, al- 
ready counts his friends who will last his 
life, and holds a capital which will bring 
him in a surer interest than money. 

Then get to the bottom ui thing^f. You 
see how it is already as to that. It was the 
student who was grounded in the grammar 
who took-the Latin prize ; it was that slow, 
steady drudge who practiced firing every 
day last winter that bagged the most game 
in the mountain ; it is the clerk who studies 
the specialty of the house in off hours, who 
is to be promoted. Your brilliant, happy- 
go-lucky, hit-or-miss-fellow usually turns 
out the dead weight of the family by forty- 
five. Don't take anything for granted; get 
to the bottom of things- Neither be a shaui 
yourself or be fooled by shams.— -IcrfMiwn 
Co. Senli}iel. 

Artbmos Ward. — Wardstartcd iu Cali- 
fornia with an announcement that he would 
lecture on " The Babes in the Wood." H- 
said he preferred this title to that of " My 
Seven Graudiuotliers." Why, nobody knows, 
for there was, of course, to be as little in the 
lecture about babes, in or out of the wood, 
as aboutseven or any other nnmbcr of grand- 
mothers. " The babes in the Wood " was 
uever written down ; a few sentences only 
have sur«ivajl of a performance which wa» 
destined to revolutionize the comic lecturing 
of the age. The "Babes'" seem only if> 
have beeu alluded to twice — first, at the be- 
giuning, when the lecturer gravely an- 
nounced " The Babes " as his subject ; and 
then, after a rambling string of irrelevant 
witticisms, which lasted from an hour to an 
hour and a half, he concluded with, " I now 
come to my subject — ' The Babes in the 
Wood.'" Then taking out his watch, his 
(•[lunteuance woulii suddenly change — sur- 
prise followed by great perplexity ! At last, 
recovering his former composure, and facing 
the difficulty as best he could, he ct.ntinued : 
" But I find I have exceeded my time, and 
will therefore merely remark that, so far as 
I know, they were very good babes; they 
wore' as good as ordinary babes." Then, 
almost ^breaking down, and much more 
nervously, " I really have not time to go 
into their history, y<iu will find it all in the 
story books." Then, getting quite dreary, 
"They died in the woods, listening to the 
woodpecker tapping the hollow beach tree." 
With some suppressed emotion, " It was » 
sad fate for them, and 1 pity them; so I 
hope do you. Good-night !" The success 
of this lecturer throughout California whs 
instantaneous and decisive. The reporters 
complained that they could not write for 
laughiug, and liplit their pencils desperately 
in attempta to take down the jokes. Every 
hall and theatre was crowded to hear about 
the " Babes " and the "Lyceum" lecuirer 
of th*- period, "what crammed bisself full 
of high-soundiu' phrases, and got trusted 
for a soot of black clothes," had nothing to 
do but go home and destroy hiiiiHclf — 
OooU Words. 

Ink tOK WitiTiNii on Gi.a.s.s.— Mr. F. 
L. Shicum has examined the ink for writ- 
ing on glass, and, accordiug to the Am. 
Jour. Phar., reports tliat it is made by mix- 
ing barium sulphate, three parts ; ammoniam 
Hutiride, one part; and sulphuric acid q. s. 
to decompose the ammonium fluoride and 
make themixture of a semi-fluid consistency. 
It should be prepared iu a leaden dish, and 
ki-pt ill a gutta-percha or leaden bottle. 

The Connection of Pen-drawing 
with the Photo-process. 

Editorg of the Journal : — Having Iipeu 
^litli you at ihe inceptioD uf your beautiful duced 
nut valuable Art Joibnal over five years was ii 
i'L'" I need Dot assure you, and you will not 
in-iider, that I have watched its career with 
incrcaeiiijL; interest, and viewed with un- 
iilloyed delitrhi ilie creation (through yuur 
III. tiring efiorts and palient labor) of a per- 
■'"utpupfrforpenraeD. I cauuot miss the 
I iiunity of coDgrntuIatiog you on the 
M .stahliBhnieotof what was regarded by 
ilif skepliciil aa an unlinown and perilous 
veutiire, and assure you that if you only 
'■"niinue the truly practical features which 
'live illumined its pages for the past two 
>'ii^, The Penman's Art Journal is 
■ ' ri.iii to give instructirm and amusement to 
" L'Tit-rattonn yet unborn." 

Ill this connection, and from my own long 
I I'M-.Dce and practice jis an expert in pen- 
-'lipi pen-drawing, ele., in their re- 
in mjiship to photo-ongraving, photo-Htho- 
r [iiiy and the various processes now 

'" ' "^"j ^ presume I maybe permitted to your monthly illustrated efforts in , 
llii.s 'lirection, by a few 
liiLits and suggestions. 
■l ••>! cannot too fre- 
'l'"ii'ly and seriously 

ol .IH- pn.rm.n.f fl 
and t)„- n^inu t-HMicr 
tion, i],r uhl.' fit-id .,r 
u ij the iutrodnction 

• 'f tin- different meth- 

• •■\s ;iud processes for 

cc-ss does not give the sharpest and most 
satisfactory work of all. 

It should evei be borne in mind, that tbe 
artist should uw good solid black ink, on 
clean Jlat white paper; that every line, 
whether hair or shade, should be drawn dis- 
tinct and unbrukeu; and llien a perfect /ac- 
simile of the artist's own work can be pro- 
lall cost. Had time served, it 
lave submitted a cut or 
' illustration ua a se 

' what may be accomplished by these pi-o 
cesses ; but, really, some of your illustrations 
have been so good, varied and fine, that it 
scarcely needs it. 

Should these few remarks have been suc- 
cessful in arousing and directing the atten- 
tion of our national army of penmen and 
pen-draughtsmen to this comparatively new 
and economic tield of lab()r hy which their 
chirographic efforts and liuear pen-drawing 
can be made commercially available, from a 
newspaper title or column heading to a book 
illustration, I shall be pleaded in a future 
issue to descant more fully upon it; whilst 
to those whose notice is called to it for the 
first time, and who desire to essay a trial, I 
would refer them for the present to your 
ccdumn of " penmen's and artists' supplies" 
for a selection of the materials to 

of tbe windows and laid up i 
the lord was absent. 

another luxury 

I safety when | change bis 

that for I 
remained i 
poor, and 

The material of which the cloth 

» expensive 

both plenty and easily obtained, 
with glass, hut the cost of manu- 
yonr readers, of facturing made it very dear. If a Grecian 
lady could aivake from her sleep of two 
thousand years, her astonishment would he 
unbounded to see a simple country girl 
clothed with a calico dress, a muslin ker- 
chief, and a colored shawl ! Within thepa*t 
one hundred years, machinery has been in- 
vented which has made printed cottons so 
perfect, so plenty and so cheap, that the 
humble servant-girl can wear a better calico 
gown than Cleopatra ever saw '. 

AVhen the whole stock of a carpenter's 
tools was valued at one shilling, and con- 
sisted altogether of two broadaxes, an adze, 
a square and a spoUe-shave, we must ex- 
pect to find rough work and none hut rough 
dwelling-houses; when there were no 
chimneys, and the fire was laid against the 
wall, with the to issue out at the 
roof, the door or the window, and the peo- 
ple slept on straw pallets, with a log of 
I wood for a pillow, we naturally e.xpect rough 

of life and living for 
theirs, so far aa the conveniences of life are 
concerned. Thus it is that art is ever at 

:.. ,....^ .* J work, breaking down the barriers which 

ipletely above the reach of the | stand between the rich and the poor, and 
Id in- bringing both classes more and more toward 
L'lolh ! ' •* common level— not by degrading the 
madu wealthy, but by exalting both classes t 

I but the wealthy < 

higher standard of morality, refi_ 

education.— i'Atfat/W^ftia Saturday Night 

RouERT Wood. 

How to Prepare India-Ink. 

Take a sloping tray of slate or porcelain, 
and gt-ind tbe ink gradually in distilled or 
common rain-water until the ink becomes of 
the required degree of blackness. The ink 
must he ground freshly each time it is used. 
It will not do to dissolve it in water, aa it 
does not become sufficiently ]iulvc'rized to 
flow freely, and does not ailliere to the paper 
with sufficient tenacity to r('^i^t the erosion 
of rubber. 

Preachers on Darwin. 

The great naturalist who has ju3t I)een 
buried in Westminster Abbey, and who 
originated the oft-quoted theory of " the 
survival of the fittest," was a man of most 
:emplary character and conduct, yot he has 

been the subiect of 

icing relief i 

afl'ords til 
sav different method 
berausfl, whilst in yoi 
and my early days, 
we wished an enlarge- 
ment, reduction or du- 
plicates of our cbH- 
graphic work , our only 



pensive photo-lithog- 
raphy, involving — 
first, a glass negative; 
then H transfei print, 
which had afterwards 
to he transferred to 
the atone, from which 
only one imprc^siuu at each pull of the 
press could he ublained. Now, by the 
aid of photo - engraving, photo - electro- 
type and various other chemical and me- 
chanical processes — whose names are bo- 
coming legiun— all, by the way, more or less 
ByncMiymous in their initial method and dif- 
fering only ill their d.'lails, wo are enabled 
ti' ulitain a relief m.Mal plate, type-high, 

C'r which duplicates can be made at a 

triliii]!,' .-ost) whii'li can be printed on any 
oominnn printing-press, and all for a few 
cents per square inch, no matter how fine, 
intricate or elaborate the pen-Mork may be. 
Probably, the method which has last been 
discovered, as 6o..n as it has been still 
further perfecle.i, will be the one that will 
be most generally adopted, from its sim- 
plicity and I refer to the mode 
of obtaining an electrutype plat© directhotn 
the pen-dra« ii.i-. hy a meth.>d of deposit, 
without the initial proceeding of a glass 
negative, as is the ca^e in all other photo- 
processes; but it has this defect or draw- 
back— the subject cannot be enlarged or .... 

reduoed. To those experts who, like my- tiquity,''but'''it"Trio"nyd 
8elf, are enabled tumakea small letter, figure ' nuity to develop the 
'^'ornament equally as fine, sharp, and care- tion, and to apply to 

Old Times. 

Paper-hangings were originally just what 
their name indicates— viz., strips of paper 
suspended from the ceiling in such a man- 
ner as to cover the imperfections of the 
walls. They were used exclusively in the 
houses of the rich ; the poor man in his hut 
iiad u(i such device, hvit umst needs patch a 
hole to keep the winds away. The carpets 
of our forefathers once consisted of rushes, 
among which tiie dogs hunted for the bones 
that liad been thrown upon the Hoor. 

In England, one end of ttie hall was the 
kennel for the hounds, and above it the 
perch for hawks. In the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, the host at table used to hold the 
.joint of boef with one hand and the carving- 
knife with the other, transferring the meat 
to the plates of his guests with his fingers, 
as forks were not yet in use. Those who 
first adopted furks were much ridiculed. 
Some said tlie Hihlc was opposed to it, and 
it was an insult to the Almighty to use a 
fork when He had given them fingers. 
The art of making gla>,s is of high an- 
lodern inge- 
•alue of the inveu- 

fully as a large 
Dot prove a i 
those who hi 
large work fo 
type, at & very 


I multitude of import- 

- — — ■??*, indispensable uses. 

erums trouble ; whilst U) Xot many centuries ago, window-glass was 
;'customed themselves to found only in hou«es of the very rioh ; its 
ction, the photo-electro- use began in palaces. For a long time it 
DP cost, issliU open; and was so scarce that at Alnnick Castle, in 

u unsettled question whether this pro- 1567, the gla^ 

a ordered to be taken « 

iwbolesome food, and a great 
lack of tidiness. Tliis was the condition of 
theEnglish people in the reign of Kdwardllf. 
Even the nobility went without chairs and 
tables, and sat upon the chests that con- 
tained their clothes and linen. The skill of 
other trades was on a level with that of the 
carpenter, and agriculture was as low in the 
scale as any of the arts. 

The first saw-mill built in England was 
by a Dutchman; but the opposition of the 
men who worked by hand was so great that 
he had to pull it down. In 17t)7 another 
was erected ; but a mob tore it down. So 
progress has everywhere had to overcome 

In imt, some friars in Switzeriand wished 
to build a windmill, to save tbe labor of 
grinding corn hy hand ; but a neighboring 
landlord, who had bought the country 
around, forbade them, becauoe, he said, he 
owned the winds. The bishop was ap- 
pealed to, who said the winds belonged to 
the Church and could not be used. 

A writer, of good authority, speaking of 
the times of Henry VIII., says there is no 
doubt that the average duration of human 
life was, at that period, not one-half us long 
aa at the present day. The kings and no- I 
bility of a few centuries ago possessed their 
crowns and high-eoundiug titles, but there is 
not, in the United Slates, a prosperous me- 
chanic, possessing a fair degree of refined 
1 taste and education, who would desire to ex- ' 

pulpit at'acks i 
the past twenty years 
than Satan himself. 
It seems rather odd, 
therefore, to read that 

English divines, who 
are held in high honor 
by the religious 
world, have said some 
appreciative worda 
aboutDarvrin. Canon 
Liddon, of St. Paul's, 
the author of " The 
Divinity ..f Our Lord 
and Savi.iiir Jesus 
Darwin's tlM'.iries are 
notnece.«sarily hostile 
to the fundamental 
truths of ndigion. 
Canon Uarry, author 
of orthodox commen- 
taries on portions of 
the Bible, said that 
the doctrine of evo- 
lution lent itself as 
readily to promises 
of God as less com' 
plete explanations of 
the ■ 


Prolhero paid a graceful tribute to Dar- 
win's charity as the true essence of the 
spirit of Christianity. Some men outside 
the Church have never imagined that 
there was an irrepressible conflict between 
science and religion, but the 
quoted above sliould teach m 
of churches that it is the fashi^ 
true leaders of religious thought 1 
that God hafl revealed Himself in 
well as words, and that the real 
the faith are they who deny all heavenly 
records that were not made with the pen. — 
i\r. Z. Merald. ^_ 

A wit being asked, on tbe failure of a 
bank, "Were you not upset?" replied: 
" No, I only lost my balance." 

Precedence and age: There is a story of 
Solomon not contained in tlie "Book of 
Kings." Two of bis court damsels bad 
a row as to precedence. Solomon looked 
kindly and said, " Let the eldest go first,'* 
and the damsels embraced and went in to- 
gether with entwined arms. — Quig. 

Dr. Holland, who translated "Pliny's 
Natural History*' in the sixteenth century, 

" With one sole jieu 1 wrote this book, 
Made of a gray-goose quill; 
A pen it was when it I took, 
A pen I leave it still." 

— Stationer. 

.Vl{ 1 -iOl'KV.VI. 

Why I Take More Pains With 
My Penmanship. 

Tu whore t 

For -bta 




Wu CTer a 



oking v 





be bj— 





ubvUmmtdl "it t^oW. 


yu bt danntd" 

"TAou art tht u 

me"la rendered "Id >TU 

It really U t 


And bera been 

aw on ••*■•!. out. 



They drove he 

r blind by poking tn 

Ad '■."■-» 

ADd now they 

ve gouged it out again, 

And male h 

f oraiy. too. 


Miuufitd that thou 

SfiouUl'it Kv 


Thiii ran roy \ 

"Shouliftt (tv 

to Jong unhung." 


nan't U>vt U Chint." 

[let'i itop and recapitulate ; 

I «H*h I b 
I'd banc I 

Educational Notes. 

[C«miniinicalinn« for ihiR Dniai-I merit nmv 
he a.Mrf Med to B. F. Kkt lev. 2nr> Br.,.i.Uvny. 
tivvr York. Brief eHiicational iiema aolicited.] 

Edinburgh Univorsily has 3,237 students 
this y«ar. 

President White Bays he will stop Imziug 
If he is obliged to expel every Clasa in 

Taxation fnr ednoAtion prm-idps less than 
$\ for each pupil of the public schools of 

The C'lrnpll University reginter shows 
total of n84 fftndfnts. The Senior Class 
numbers 5-1. — Golden Tittle. 

The avent^e daily attendanre in the public 
schools of New OrieftTiR is 16,142, the num- 
ber of pupils regisiored beiug lO.JMH. 

There is a schnol population of 744.381 
in Miwonri, and school funds to the amount 
of t54y,(i7 1.8:1 have just been distributed. 

The daughter of the late C-nninodorc 
Maury, who awisted hiui in the conijiilalion 
of his well known ecojfraphicAl series, is a 
school-teacher in Richmond, Va. 

The new educational bill to \n; reported 
to the Senate appropriates $10,000,000 to 
be distributed among the States aad Ter- 
tUoriac where Ulitdrac; most abooula ■ 

By a largo vole the Legislature of Mas- 
sarhuselts has abolished the school district 
system, and the government of the schools 
now becomes vested iu the towus of the 
Common wealth. 

Calcutta University is a remarkably pros- 
perous aoi) useful iustituiioo. Last year, 
out of 2,793 candidates fur RdmissioD, l.fitiS 
pasced. Six women took the 
aintnation, and four v 

The literary and industrial school which 
Mr. E. S. M"rrii«, of Philadelphia, estab- 
lished at Arthiiigton, Liberia, Africa, for the 
education t-f the sons of chiefe, is now in 
Buccessful and most promising operation. 

After Daniel Webster left Dartmouth 
college he tiiught school at Fryeburg, 
Maine, for S-'JSO a year, out of whieh he one 
year paid his brother Ezekiel $100 to help 
him through Dartmouth.— jdmei'ican Jour. 
of Ed. 

Among the nineteen gi-aduates at the 
Women's Medical College in Philadelphia, 
three of the ladies were from Massachusetts, 
two from Maine, and oue each from Den- 
mark, the Hawaiian Islands and Burmah. — 
Am. Jour, of Ed. 

The number of students at the Univer- 
sity of Vienna during the past term was 
4,823. This is the largest attendance known 
there for two centuries, and places Vienna 
at the head of all the universities of Austria- 
Germany. — Sunday Advertisei: 

In the twenty German Universities, says 
ihe Independctit, there were 22,792 students 
registered for the wiuter season of 1881- 
1882, of whom 1,241 were foreign. The 
medical students numbered 5,002, and 310 
of them were aliens.— ffoWwi Rule. 

Take the three great States of Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Illinois, and we find that 
of the persons who cannot read and write, 
one in ten is a pauper ; while of the persons 
who can read and write, only one in three 
hundred is a pauper. — Am. Jour, of Ed. 

There is a college at the University of 
Oxford, England, in which all the professors 
are pronounced Agnostics. This is a big 
change from the days of old, when that in- 
stitution was Catholic in its students, its 
teachers, and its course of studies. — Catholic 

London University has resolved to admit 
its female graduates to Convocation. Thus 
young women may not only take degrees 
there, but may take part in the government 
of the University. This is the furthest step 
towards " etiual rights " that has yet been 
made by any institution of learning. — West- 
ern Ed. Journal. 

ChiesKo has enrolled 59,562 children in 
her publie enhnol?. She pays, per annum, 
her school officers, $n.;i(i4 H4 ; and her teach- 
ers, $583,037. Cinoiunati has 35,750 child- 
ren enrolled ; she paysherofficprs, $11,503.- 
(17; and her tpachera, $015,000. Next to 
Boston, Cincinnati pays more per capita for 
the edueatiou of her youth than any city of 
tho United States. 

The Ladies* College at Cambridge, Eng- 
land, is in K moiit flourishing and healthy 
condition. Young ladies of uny rank, and 
ladies of any age f/om eighteen to forty, 
tioi-k there, and to obtain entrance is he- 
eomiug quite a matter of favor. Miss Glad- 
stone, daughter of the Premier, i* one of 
those who takes the deepest interest in the 
college, and it is expected will ere long be 
elected and appointed as principal. — School 

The public schools of the State of New 
York were last year attended by 1,021,282 
children, a smaller number by 10,000 than 
was recorded in 1880. Of the 30,820 teach- 
ers euiployed, 23,177 were women. The 
average annual salary of each teacher was 
$375.0t>, the whole amount exjieuded in 
salaries beiug $7,775,505.22. The State 
has 11,248 school-houses. The total amount 
expended upon _the schools last year was 
$10,808,802.40.— CArufMM Advocate. 

Educational Fancies. 

No matter how fast your pen may fly, 
your paper is stationery. 

A boy says in his composition that "onions 
are the vegetable that makes you sick if you 
don't eat them yourself." 

Young Brown called a certain seminary 
where hi-* sweetheart went to school " Ex- 
perience." because he said experience was a 
dear school. 

A contemporary mentions a case beyond 
the ordinary oculist. It is that of a young 
lady who, instead of a pupil, has a college 
student, iu her eye. 

The Yale College Faculty have declared 
that hereafter, when the seniors or sopho- 
mores injure a freshman, the guilty party 
shall be punished just as if they had injured 
a human beiug. 

" Where is ihe Island of Java situated f " 
asked a school-teacher of a small, rather 
forlorn lookiug boy. " I dunuo, sir." " Don't 
you know where coffee comes from t" " Yes, 

Puck gives the following: — 

Before the whole whool 'twM uu oi. d; 

"No," he said, "I don't enjoy howling 
around at night, tearing down signs, mak- 
ing love to burlestiue actresses, and making 
everybody wlio sees me tired. But I am a 
Harvard student, and don't want to appear 

Did you ever notice that tho chap who is 
always carving his initials upon the fence, 
trees, and his desk at school, seldom, if 
ever, writes his name upon the age in which 
he lives? He commences carving too early 
and gets tired. 

"Why did God forbid Adam and Eve to 
eat of the forbidden fruit? " asked an Austin 
Sunday-school teacher of his class. " For 
fear thej' might fall out of the tree and hurt 
themselves,'' replied Jimmie Fizzleton, who 
had his arm in a sling.— lexas Siftings. 

Nine American colleges have adopted the 
Oxford cap. This is well. Heretofore about 
the only thing that distinguished a college 
student from other people has been the bad 
spelling in his letters home, asking for 
money to " buy books." — Detroit l''ree Press. 
A very severe case : " Tommy : " Oh ! 
oh! oh! mamma, I've rund a great big 
splinter iu my hcnd, and it hurls so offul I 
can't go to school." Mauiuui : " Hut, my 
dear, mamma dosen't see anything the mat- 
ter." Tommy : " Oh ! oh I Zen I guess it 
must be ze uzzer hand." 

Sic transit drove a tu pone tandem temo 
tier fnuu the north. He is visiting his ante, 
Mrs. Dido Etdux, and intends stopping here 
till ortum. He et suj)er vrirh us last even- 
ing, and is a terrible /ei?o. He lambda man 
almost to death the other evening, but he cot 
hie match, — the other man cutis nos off and 
noclem flat urna flounder. — Educational 

" Now don't fret, Freddie," said a fond 
sist'^r; "Harry will soon be well again, 
and then he can go to school with you." 
" I don't care so much about his getting 
well," replied the heartless Fred; " but I 
wish he'd hurry back to school. When he 
was there I was the lowest boy in the class, 
except one, and now I'm the lowest. And 
I just hate to be clean at the very foot of all 
the other fellows." 

Ho was a graduate of Harvard, and he 
got a position on oue of the Philadelphia 
dailies last week. " Cut that stuff of yours 
down," said the city editor as the new roan 
came in with a column where a stick was 
desired. " Do you desire a judicious elimina- 
tion of the superfluous phraseology T " mildly 
returned the Harvard man. " No Boil it 
do^Ti ! " thundered the city ed. The new 
man Is gone now — gone back to Boston. 
He says there ain't "culchah" enough in 
Philadelphia.— .Forney's Press. 

Country-woman, to Parson, who had 
called to ask why Johnny, the eldest, had 
not been lately to school, " Why, he was 
thirteen year old last week, sir! I'm sure 
he've had school enough. He must know 
a'most everything now- 1" Parson : " Thir- 
tf-en, Mrs. Xap[ier! why, that's nothing. 
I didn't fluifh iny education till I was three 
and twenty ! " Country - woman : " Lor', 
sir ! You don't mean to say you were such 
a thick-head as that !" — School Journal. 

Here is a picture of a school Mom. She 
is Net pretty — The younger scholars say 
she isn't Sweet. They say she comes to 
school some momiugs very late. Then she 
is very Fierce. It isn't nice to be very 
fierce— She'd be good if she was younger- 
and her pupils older — sometimes she loves 
one of her pupils — but not often — when she 
loves one of her pupils she is gentle and 
Winning — so winning that Ho loves her 
Better'n gooseberry tarts — when she don't 
love one of her pupils She makes it Lively 
for All of thein— Be good and she may Love 
you — if she loves you you may be happy — 
if you are virtuous — Is it not better to be 
virtuous and loved than for the schoolmam 
to make it lively for you T — Ex. 

The youth that parts his hair at the equa- 
tor, sucUs the head of a rattan cano, squints 
with dreamy - lookiug eyes through hairy 
glasses, wears No. 5 boots on No. 6 feet, 
sports a double-breasted watch-chain to 
which is anchored a $4 watch, wears a 
horse's hoof scarf-pin and sporting-dog studs, 
and says, "deuced," "aw, yes, demmo," 
and " Don't you fail to remember it," has a 
soft thing iu this world. He wears it in his 
hat, just beneath an unusually thick skull. — 
Notre Dame Scholastic. 

[The reader will please pardon the plac- 
ing of this Educational fact among tho Ed- 
ucational Fancies. — Ed.] 

Great Things of the World. 
The greatest thing in the world is the 
Falls of Niagara ; the largest cavern, the 
Mammoth Cave of Kentucky j the largest 
river, the Mississippi — four thousand miles 
in extent ; the largest valley, that of the 
Mississippi — its area five million square 
miles ; the greatest city park, that of Phila- 
delphia, containing two thousand seven hun- 
dred acres ; tlie greatest grain port, Chicago ; 
the biggest lake, Lake Superior ; the long- 
est railroad, the Pacific Railroad — over three 
thousand miles in extent. The most huge 
mass of solid iron is Pilot Knob of Missouri 
— height, two hundred and fifty feet ; cir- 
cumference, two miles. The best specimen 
of architecture, Girard College, Philadel- 
phia ; tho largest a«[ueduct, the Croton, of 
New York — length, forty and one-half 
miles; cost, twelve million five hundred 
thousand dollars ; tlie longest bridge, the 
Elevated Railroad in Third avenue. New 
York — it extends from the Battery to the 
Harlem River, the whole length of the east- 
ern side of the Manhattan Island, seven 
miles long, or nearly forty thousand yards. 
The longest bridge over water, however, 
will be that now beiug coustructed in Russia 
over the Volga at a point where the river 
is nearly four miles wide. The most ex- 
tensive depoeiis of anthracite coal mines 
are in Pennsylvania. 

Flujh KHluy. 
Kote* to ^7. 




SlogU iDMrtiuD, ii cciiU p«T linn nonpareil. 
Inmn ^w' tU.UO tlW.OO |l.- 

I. 13 U 



> hop«> lo render rhe JoUliHAt ■alUolfnlly intei 

\y I{.N„r,l .._ lexaail 

« oooiM and |3 we will fomitnt Ihe large Cet 

• and tlSve^i 
iird'a QeuiB or I 




Iwund 01 n«arly n* p. 
^JLiiler dMigned for 


U'liw. Money e 



SKIS Bruudiviiy, Ne 




Molico w 11 be fflven by po.tttl-cu 
Ihe «ii|>lmibn »( itieir ■iibw^npiloiii 
paper wlU, in all raw*, be stopped i 

New York, Ju 



An wn linTo said before, we dislike apolo- 
gies, »ii.i M-.k ns far as ia possible to avoid 
occ4i»i 1) '..1- iiiHliingtIiein, butcirciniiataDccs 
have 8 ui.' .! lo conspire to delay tlie issue 
of thu present number of the Journal. 

yirst. We liad to attend the Convention, 
and bciug so far West we could but tarry a 
little with t.ld fri.-nd3, for you know " Old 
frieDds should not be forgotten." And then 
of course, Prof. H. C. Spencer had to go to 
the Convention. Thinlc of a Penmen's Con- 
vention without Spencer ; and he, beiog in 
the land of his own early, as well as an- 
oesiral, fame, lingered among old friends, all 
unmindful tliat the readers of the Journal 
were auxioiidy waitiug for "Lesson in 
Practiwil Writing No. :>" ; and we are sorry 
to anuounoe that, owing to the lateness of 
the arrival of the ** copy " for the Lesson and 
the drawing for the illustrations, that it is 
quite impossible to delay our issue for the 
engraving, hence the Lesson designed for 
the June will appear in the July number, 
which will be mailed on the fifteenth of that 
month, and wo think we can safely assure 
onr wadere that ihp Journal will hereafter 
be regularly maiUd not later than the 35th 
of each ui.iLtli. 

The Lt-ssou in the July number will be 
the most interesting and elaborately iUus- 
trated Lesson ever printed in a penman's 

Look Out For Him. 

R. S. Ellis, dealer in stationery, etc., at 
Nevada, Ma., makes inquiry of ns respect- 
ing one E. B. Crandle, who makes use of a 
strong testimonial from us, upon a cirrular 
annoanciug himself an a specially skilled, 
plain and ornamental card-writer; and wlm, 
Mr. Ellis adds, '* bought on short time cpiite 
a bill of merchandise of me, and then left 
for parts unknown." On a circular inclosed 
by Mr. Ellis, we find the following testi- 
monial : 

Dkar Sir:— Your 
peiimanxhip and card 
nr* models of perft-cti 
in lh« sample of busii 
much liked hy busin 
i-npiility with bcauly. 

specimens of rummercini 
■writing received. They 
on. What I admire niuat 
less band. This style is 
esB men. as it combiiiea 
Dasi,. T. Asies. 

[•« AKT JOUKXAK N. V. dty. 

All of which is simon-pure fraud, having 
never before, to our knowledge, heard of 
E. B. Crandle, and certainly we are in no 
way the author of the above testimonial. 

Mr. Crandle evidently fills the hill as a 
fir«t-elnss fraud. 

The Detection of Forgeries. 

Of all the millions .if adults who write, 
no two wrile in all respects alike. Between 
the writing of different persons, differences 
exist as marked and as inevitable as are the 
difference of features, voice, habit and dress. 
It is an admitted fact that in every hand- 
writing there are well nigh innumeralde 
personal and habitual characteristics, the 
ujajor part of which are unnoted by the 
writer himself, and can only be discovered 
byanother person, except by long and acute 
observation : hence it is that a forger rarely 
possesses the power to avoid wholly his own 
habit of writing, and lo copy perfectly that 
(»f iinother person. It is due to this fact that 
skilled experts are able to detect almost all 
forgeries through the discovery of the 
forger's habit, and the absence of the genu- 
ine habit nf writing which he seeks to im- 

It is an easy matter for a skilled imitator 
of writing to copy a signature or a short 
piece of i 

that the art of writing weU can go hand in 
hand with broad and thorough culture in 
the sciences and classics. 

Miss C. M. Duty, a niece of Prof. Spen- 
cer, of Spencerian celebrity, has conducted 
the writing- classes during the past year, 
and led them to the attainment of the best 
results in prantii-al chirography. 

The Spencer Brothers' latest publication, 
known as "The Standard," was placed in 
the bauds of the pupils during the past 
month of the school work. Quite a num- 
ber of the patrons of the Institute are 
among the thousands of valued snbscribers 
and. readers of the Penman'k Art Journal. 

The King Club 

For the present month numbers thirty-eight, 
and comes from H. T. Loomis. teacher of 
writing at the Spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Prof. Loomis is one of 
the most skillful writers and teachers of the 
West, and evidently appreciates the Journal 
as an aid to good teaching. The second 
largest club numbers thirteen, and comes 
from J. F. Whitleather, teacher of writing 
at Fort Wayne (Ind.) Business College. 
The third largest club comes from A. G. 
Street, Lead City, D. T., and numbers hrehe. 

The Hill Prizes for Penmanship. 

In another column will be foun.l an ad- 
vertisement from Prof. Tiios. E. Hill, offering 
several liberal prizes for superior designs of 
penmanship. In response to numerous in- 
quiries for information respecting the proper 
method for their execution we here re-insert 
an article which appeared in mir February 



e, of th. 

best effei-t when 
led by Mr. Hill is 

resemblance whei 
When such, even 

l.y at 

as to get a very close 
looked at as a whole, 
the fact, a detailed ex- 
expert will suffice to 

show that 1 here is very little; if any, charac- 
teristic resemblance. It is also a fact, that 

although the different autographs written by 

the same person may present a widely difl'er- 

ent appeanmce, as respect^' size, -Inpe, and 

freedom, yr t, when examined in detail, the 

closeness of the habitual characteristics vrill 

be astonishing to those who have never 

made a study of handwriting. The ap- 

pa'ent resemblance that exists between the 

genuine and forged writing, is as that of a 

kernel of corn and a pea, which chance to 

have a similar form, while the variations 

between the different writings of the same 

persons are aa the varying sizes and forms 

of different kernels of corn, which, however 

widely they may differ in their size and 

outline, cannot be mistaken in their identity 

by persons who are familiar with corn and 


Good Results and their Causes. 

Among the institutions of learning in the 
City of New York, Dr. J. Sach's Collegiate 
Institute is one of the most noteworthy. 

Some of the most prominent men in liter- 
ary, business, and political circles in this 
country place their sons there to be educated, 
lustruftors known to he experts and special- 
isU are employed in the different depart- 
ments of the school, and receive the most 
liberal compensation for active, effective 
teaching. Physical as well M^ mental traiu- 
ing is duly provided for. A well equipped 
gymnasium forms one of the many excellent 
features of the institution. 

We recently examined the chirographic The Rev. R. H. Howard, of Sax 
specimens ofthe junior and advanced classes, Mass., says: "The specimens of Pen -Art 
and found them of the beat we have ever contained in your Journal are simply . 
seen. The practical good taste exhibited in derful, while the sentiments expressed 
the specimens gives indubiuble evi.dence I characterized by sterling 

First. — Hej pectiug 
work, which will givi 
reproduced. The siz( 

9x() inches, i. e., the pages are nine inches 
long by six inches wide. In engraving, the 
work should be reduced at least one-half, 
I. e., the original should he 18x12 inches, 
and if it is executed in strong and open 
lines, it may be 22^x15. 

iScronrf.— Materials. Use a fine quality of 
Bristol-board, and a fine quality of hlack 
India-ink, freshly ground from a stick, in a 
tray having rain- water, and remove all pen- 
cil lines with sponge- rubber. Hard rubber 
will not only remove much of the ink, but 
will tear up the fibre of the paper, and thus 
break or make ragged the delicate hair lines, 
which will, therefore, fail of a good result 
when photo-engraved. All lines, when work 
is finished, must be entirely black. 

Pens.— For script writing, use Gillott's 
":J03," or Spencerian Artistic No. H. For 
fine drawing or tinting, use the "a03,"or 
Crow Quill. For flourishing, use Spencerian 
No. 1, or Ames's Penman's Favorite. 

To those who may be unable to procure 
thfse articles, or are uncertain respecting 
their quality, we will forward them by mail 
from this oHice, as follows: 
Extra tine three-ply Bristol-board — 

22x28, per board 50 

Per i dozen, by express .... 2.00 

India Ink, per stick 1. 00 

Crow Qtiill pens, per doz ."j? 

Gillott's "3()H," per gross . . . l,'2!i 
Spencerian Artistic, per gross . . J.S.'i 


Tickets of invitation were received by us 
to participate in an excursion of the students 
of the Eastman Business College down the 
Hudson on May 20tb. 

Alsotickets of invitation from the students 
of Nehson's Business Colleges of Cincinnati 
and Springfield, Ohio, to their annual pic- 
nic on the 3d inst. We hereby return our 
thanks for the very courteous invitations, 
and express our regret at not being able to 
avail ourselves of the proffered hospitality. 

Report of the Fourth Annual 

Convention of the Business 

Educators and Penmen. 

The Couvenlion ,-..mnieii.ed on Junelith, 

)U''e, in Cincinnati, and 

Q Juneyth. The foUow- 

present : 

litwaukei*. President. 
York, Secretary. 


1 .00 

Sponge-rubber, per piece . . . .CO 

Since it is the desire of the editors of the 

Journal to hold an entirely unprejudiced 

position in this matter, and one which shall 

at all times enable them to do impartial 


at the Gibson ; 
closed its session 
ing members wei 

R. C. Sl-RNCKIt 

C. E. Cady. H, 
R. M. Bartlet 
S. S. Packard. New York. 
Hon. Ira Mayhicw, Detroit. 
liicHAHD Nelson, Cincinnati. 
H. H. Nklson, ColumbuH. Ohio. 

D. T. A Mica, New York. 
Trios. E. Hill, Chicngo. 

W. H. Sl-HAGUF., Clyde. Ohio. 
T. J.RisiNGER, Sharou,Pft. 
Hon. E. WuiTE, Puugbkeephie, N. 
G. W. Brown, Jncksonvillti, III. 
A. L., Omaha, Neb. 
L. L. Williams, Rochester, N. Y. 
W. H. Sadler, Baltimore, Md. 
G. W. MtciiAEL, Delaware, O. 
H. W. Herron. ViTiuont, 111. 
H. C. Miller, Terre Haute, Ind. 
W. N. Yerex, London. Out. 
H. C. Spencer, WaBbiugton, D. C, 
H. A. Spencer, New York. 
Hon. A. J. Ryder. Trenton, N. J. 

E. BuRKETT, Baltimore. Md. 
E. W. Smith, Lexington, Ky. 
W. I. Faddis, St. Paul. Minn. 
C. H. PKIRCK, Ker.kuk, Iowa 

W. T. Watson. Knoxville, Teiui. 
C. Baylies, Dubuque, lows. 
.1. M. Frasher, Wheeling, W. Vs. 
W. M. Cari'entkr, St. LouiM. 
A. E. Nelson. Ciiiciunali. 
H. A. Stoddard, Rockford, III. 
Hon. A. D. Wilt, Dayton, O. 
N. R. Luck, Union City, Pa. 

A. H. HiNMA 

Bkhtiia a. Baron, Lowell, Mass. 

Ella Nku«<un, Cincinnati. 

Mrs. A. II. HiNMAN. Worcester, Majto. 

Mrs. A. D. Wilt, Dayloii, Ohio. 

Mrs. .1. M. Frasiikr. Wlietling, W. Va. 

Mrs. INO. RiGGS, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

W. S. Caiivkr. Toulon, III. 

G. W. Michael, Delaware. O. 

Frank Goodm^vn, Nasliville, Tenn. 

F. M. CilOUUlLL, Zaneaville, O. 

E. K. Bryan, Columbus, O. 

E. J. Heer, Kokomo, Ind. 

S. P. Glunt, Union Oily, Ind. 

Dr. J. C. Bryant, Buffalo, N. Y. 

E. R. Fklton. Cleveland, Ohio. 

W. C. IsnKLL, Tene Haute. Ind. 

A. W. Dudley, Min^hell. Ind. 

C. T. Smith, Jacksonville, HI. 

S. R. Hopkins. New York. 

E. W. Smith, Lexington, Ky. 

Inasmuch as a complete report of the 
proceedings Js to be puMished in pamphlet 
form, and can be had by all who dre spe- 
cially interested, we shall, at this time, 
present a brief general report, giving only 
such parts of the proceedinj;8 as are deemed 
of interest to the patrons of the Journal. 
The attendance was large, and the proceed- 
ings interesting, barmonious and enthusiastic. 

On the evening of the .'ith instant a large 
number of the members having gathered at 
the Gibson House, they were invited by 
lual members, and to^render | members of the Reception Committee-cou- 
""" *"""' ' ' ' sisting of Miss Ella Nelson, Mrs. A. H., Miw Ina Rigt:s. and Met^Ms. R. J. 
and II. H. Nelson— into the Hotel's spaeiou 
Parlors, set apart for the members and 
guests of the Convention, where all wero 
made acquainted with each otlier, and the 
evening passed in pleasant social intercourse. 
The elegant piano in the parlor was re- 
sonant with melody under the skillful touch 
of Miss EUa NelsoUj while Qumerous Toic«i 

the greatest sorvic*' to the entire proft 
they hereby announce that th.-y will ri'fraio 
from entering into competition for any of the 
above-named prizes. 

uined in (wveral popular songs, among which 
raa the familiar 


BT P. R. 8rB!« Kiu Tunr— "AuM I.«ng Sjd*." 


Vlilcb ■Inmp'd our Ibougbu uf yon, 
ronffb 111 bold undDga oft ngain 
)ur Iboiifrbta itill fivtbly poor. 

And glow Ibru' every line. 

The regular soasiou of the Conveutloa 
«-a.s openeij on Tuesday mo'Diug by a short, 
though intereatinK ao'l appropriate, address 
t'y the I're.tident. Kobcrt C. .Spencer, which 
vvait followed hy an able address of welcome 
to the Association at Cincinnati on behalf of 
the Mayor, who was absent from the city, 
by Bcnjainin F. Hopkins, Est]., which was 
responded to by rrcsident Spencer iu his 
uBiially felicitous style. After ivliich there 
»as an adjonrnuient to 2:30 p. m., ivhen 
I'resident Spencer opened the afternoon 
proceedings with an address, in which ho 
.■•ct forth the growth of bu.siuess colleges 
from an experiment to an absolute necessity. 
Uy them, young men of slender means, nn- 
.ihle to indulge in a course at Harvard, 
Yiile or Princeton, were given a sound and 
practical business knowledge, enabling them 
successfully to battle in commercial life. 
Next was read a paper on the "Mission of 
Business Colleges," by S. F. Covington. It 
was received with applause, and a vote of 
thanks order, d. 

Mr. Covington contrasted, sharply, the 
mo.les of fifty years since and now, both as 
r.-yards the securing of qualification, and 
. litidiicting business. He said : 

"There are many persons yet in active life 
wlio well remember when, aa a rule, the 
course of study for the profession of medi- 
cine or of the law, was tne reading of ele- 
mentary hooks in the office of, and under 
the instruction of, s..ine practitioner, and 
where the opponuniiv of acquiring a knowl- 
edge of the profession was bouniled by the,- ami pva.iii.e of the preceptor. 

1' :ij.:.' I. I l"i' the law or medicine 

-''■• '•' :iii;iuee with the duties 

""*' "-,' ■ i. 1. 1 cither profession — 
wa- a, MM,. .1 ,.ulj afier years of study, ob- 
scrvaiii.u an. I practice. Therefore, schools 

"f I 'i' i"'' and of law were established 

that llic slii.lcut might have the benefit of 
the long ami carefiil study and varied ex- 
periences of many others. The necessity 
lor schools of this kind is now recognized 

Fifty years ago the commercial transac- 
tions of Ihe ctiimlry were as nothing com- 
pared witii llie presi'iil. The duties were 
light, Ihercwas al.uii.laiit Ici.Mire, and ample 
time for ct)Usideration and ritlection. It was 
before steam bad wrought such wouderfiil 
changes in transportatiim. It was the time 
of the tardy team upon the corduroy roads, 
the slow moving barge upon the rivers and 
the sailing vessel upon the ocean. It was 
before electricity had been hitched to the car 
of commerce and made to do its mighty 
work. It was before the days of telegraph. 
It was the days of the slow horseback and 
stage-coach mails. It was before the tele- 
phone placed every merchant of the same 
city in the same counting-room. It was the 
lime when it was not necessary to respond 
t" a business inquiry or a business propo- 
sition upon the instant. 

Ill those ,lavs iiaioral ,.|,.,.,., made the 

^'"■" '"'• ;> l"" "•■ ' '■ -■ - l<s forthe 

"'-■""' ■' ;■-''-'" "• '"■■■; •it'iii* with wide 

'It iriargiiis M-as a natural sequence. 
. i ythmg moved slow and no great degree 
"'"1 or physical Mtivity was necessary 

It is not so now. The whole system of 
transportation has changed. The rapidity 
of transmission brooks no delay in shipping 
or receiving, and the magnitude of the biisi- 
ii',ss requires the enforceiiienl of rigid rules 
Willi all its customers. Merchandise is now 
■ r.lcred by telegraph, received by rail, and 
snipped with draft attached to the bill of 
lading, in less time than it formerly took 
a mercbaut to write hia memoranda and 
pack his saddle-bags preparatory to the 
louniey to his source of supplies, 

The entire address was full of interesting 
and valuable information pertaining to its 

A. H. Hinmao, of Worcester, Mass., pre- 
sented the subject of " Business Penman- 
ship." For his illustrations he made a free 
and very skillful use of the black-board, and 
handled his subject with great skill. He 
would dispense with all flourished and super- 
fluous lines, shorten the loops and capitals, 
use a coarse-pointed pen giving a strong up 
or connecting line, and use very little shade 
in down strokes, at the same time using 
very simple types for letters. He urged 
strongly the importance of a thorough 
knowledge of, and drill in, movement — there 
could be no good rapid business-writing 
without a free movement. Legibility, sim- 
plicity and rapid execution were the essen- 
tials of good business-writitig. 

Discussions followed by G. W. Michael, 
of Delaware, Ohio, and C. H. Peirce, of 
Keokuk, Iowa. Mr. P. held that speed in 
writing may be attained by making figures 
—the ten digits. He states that it is a com- 
paratively easy matter to make 120 figures 
a minute. He urged the practice of figures 
as the basis of speed as well as form, be- 
cause pupils necessarily devote much of their 
time while iu school to arithmetical studies, 
requiring the rapid execution of figures, and 
if allowed to make these in an awkward, 
slovenly manner, they would, in three or 
four hours' practice undo, all that could be 
learned in half an hour of careful practice 
at writing. He held that movement should 
precede form in learning penmanship. 

Mr. Michael objected to the modern copy- 
book, as not being the best road through 
which to acqoire a good style of penman- 
ship. He advocated and claimed to be able 
to teach, from the outset, the most rapid 
movement. He contended for individually 
in w ritiug. " Let every student write his 
own style, with proper limitation to size, 
proportion, etc." 

D. T. Ames, editor of the Penman'.? 
Art Journal, argued that copy-books and 
the systematic methods they inculcate are of 
great benefit to students in the public schools, 
for the reason that the average public 
school teacher is not sufficiently well in- 
formed or skilled in the treatment of the 

Mr. Goodman, of Nashville, condemned 
the plan of placing in the hands of young 
writers several of the lower numbers of copy- 
books which contain only single lines and 
principles, before giving them copies con- 
taining words and sentences, say Spencerian 
Copy-book No. 4. 

In reply to a question from Mr. Goodman. 
Mr. Ames said that he believed the element- 
ary practice in smne of the public schools is 
too long spun out. 

Mr. liider, of Trenton, animadverted se- 
verely on the methods which have so much 
prevailed iu business colleges, of unnecessary 
and useless flourishing. He spoke in the 
highest terms of the writing and figures of 
the sales-girls in a large Philadelphia estab- 
lishment, attributing this desirable result to 
their constant practice and great care in 
making figures. Ho contended for a 
great deal of practice in the making of fig- 
ures, not only for their own sake but for the 
resulting speed in penmanship in general. 

Mr. Carver, of Illinois, held that move- 
ment comes in natural order before form. 

W. P. Bed:ord, of Danville, Ky., held 
that the teaching of single lines, straight 
and curved, should precede the writing of 
the letters ; letters go in advance of words. 
Ponn and movement should be taught to- 
gether ; success in learning penmanship will 
not so readily follow the teaching of either 
one separately. Write good copies, keep 
up the interest of the Class by good models 
and by personal ettorO Ho held tliat shade 
aa usually taught is hetu-r than no shading. 
In reply to a question of Jlr. Bedford, 
Mr. Hiomau said that he is evoluling, going 
through his second childhood in writing. 
This accounts for the apparent or real change 
in his method of teaching business writing. 
The success of this change of front baa re- | 

suited most gratiiyingly, and warrants a 
continuance of it. 

At the evening session, the Rev. Frank 
S. Fitch, of Cincinnati, delivered a most 
admirable lecture upon "Business Morality." 
This lecture as well as many other very in- 
teresting addresses, we shall give in full in 
future issues of the Journal. Remarks 
were made by Messrs. Packard, Baylies, 
Bartlett, and Richard Nelson. 

On Wednesday morning at 7.30, the pen- 
men and those specially interested in teach- 
ing writing, assembled to listen to a lesson 
from C. H. Peirce, upon " Movement." The 
subject was skillfully handled j the numer- 
ous blackboard-illuatrations were made with 
great facility and exquisite skill. Mr. Peirce 
believed in utilizing, as a discipline for wri- 
ting, all the necessary practice of tlie pupil 
upon figures and school-exercises, by requir- 
ing constant care and good work. Pupils 
who had been taught to make good figures 
rapidly, would find no difficulty iu introduc- 
ing the same facility and excellence into 
their writing. This plan he presented with 
great plausibility, and affirmed tliat he had 
successfully practiced this method as special 
teacher in the public schools of Keokuk, 
Iowa, lie also believed, and we think cor- 
rectly, that a professor of writing should 
work more through the regular teacher 
than iliiectty with the pupil. Discussion 
followed, participated in by Messrs. Michael, 
Ames, lioodman. Rider, R. C. and H. C 
Spencer, Peirce, Packard, and llinman. 
All agreed respecting the necessity of a free 
movement in writing, but diflered respecting 
when and how it was to be required. But 
the preponderance of argument appeared to 
be on the side that attention should first be 
given to the acquisition of correct forms and 
positions, and then to movement and ra- 
pidity of execution. During this debate, 
the subject of pen-paralysis was discussed 
to some extent, the result of which we shall 
embody iu a separate article under that 
head iu a future issue of the Journal. 

At S..'!0, S. S. Packard read an interest- 
ing paper upon " What is, and what may 
be done in Commercial Schools." Mr. 
Packard drew largely for his paper from his 
observation of commercial schools while in 
Europe last year. The Business College 
was essentially an American Institution, 
much less attention being given to book- 
keeping and business education in Europe 
than here. The paper waa able, and was 
listened to with marked attention, and elicited 

I). T. Ames then addressed the Conven- 
tion upon "Tlie Art of Penmanship— Its 
Applicati-in to Commercial and Artistic 
Purposes." He stated that formerly orna- 
mental penmanship consisted, mainly, in 
the flourishing of birds, fishes, animals, 
dragons, etc., chiefly for the purpose of at- 
tracting attention to the less conspicuous, 
but more useful subject of plain writing. It 
was, however,without commercial value, and 
was regarded by practical persons as a useless 
accomplishment; but within a few years 
photograpliic processes have been dis- 
cove ed, by which all manner of well- 
executed pen-drawings may be quickly and 
cheaply transferred to stone or metal plates 
and be used in all the forms of printing, 
the same as engraving. The skilled penman 
may thus enter into direct competition with 
the engraver in the production of all the 
multitudinous commercial and artistic forms 
now in demand. Thus, there is open to every 
really skillful pen-artist a most lucrative 
and honorable field of labor. Mr. Ames 
described the several methods of reproduc- 
ing by photograph, and the kind of draw- 
ings necessary for good results, etc. He 
also gave some practical information repect- I 
lug designing in order to secure tlie highest I 
and best artistic ert'ect. I 

G. W. Brown then read a paper upon I 
" Stethod of Book-keeping for Retail 
Trade." His presentation of the subject was 
clear, concise, and methodical, and his 
" Method " apparently had the merit of be- 
ing practical, notwithstanding it elicited a 
warm discussion. 

Frank Goodman then presented a care- 
fully prepared paper upon "A Practical 
Method of Commission Book-keeping." 

Thos. E. Hill then read an ably written 
and very interesting paper upon " Esthetics 
in Business." He showed how, by a proper 
display of esthetics, places of business become 
more attractive. Business-cards, circulars, 
etc., being made more beautiful, were not 
only more effective in influencing patronage, 
but were from their beauty sufficiently 
prized to be preserved, and thus become a 
perpetual and telling agent for successful 
business. We shall give his paper a more 
extended notice at another time. 

C. E. Cady then gave his views of the 
" Best Method for Developing a good Hand- 
writing." He advocated a thorough drill in 
the muscular movement, simplicity of con- 
struction, and the requirement of good writ- 
ing in all the school-exercises, and especially 
in book-keeping and making figures. Dis- 
cussions by Messrs. Yerex, Peirce, H. A. 
.Spencer, Mayhew, Michael and Hinmao. 

A communication from E. G. Folsom, of 
Albany, N. Y., was then read by the Secre- 

At the evening session an interesting and 
valuable paper was read by Benj. E. Hop- 
kins, upon " Functions of Banking." 

Thursday, at 7:30 a. m., the penmen as- 
sembled to listen to H. A. Spencer, upon 
" The best Jlethod of Teaching Practical 
Writing iu the Public and Private Schools." 
Mr. Spencer having had large experience in 
public schools, his explanation of advanced 
methods was listened to with more than 
ordinary interest. 

Mr. Spencer advocated careful attention 
to position, movement and a progressive 
course of instruction. Discussions followed 
by Messrs. Michael, Goodman, R. C. 
Spencer, Snaveriy, Peirce and Sprague. 

At 9:30, Hon. Ira Mayhew read a paper 
upon " Initiatory Treatment of the Student 
iu Book-keeping," which was discussed by 
Messrs. H. C. Spencer, Rider and others. 

A very valuable paper was then read by 
R. Nelson, on " Defects and Excellencies 
of Modern Education." He said ; 

Tlie scientific teacher will do nothing for 
the student that he can do himself, and upon 
that principle we have been carrying on 
business for twenty-five years. Perception 
of a matter is not enough. There must be 
an assimilation of the knowledge already 
obtained. Let every lesson have a point. 
Develope the idea, then let the pupil pro- 
ceed. Teachers are still spending their en- 
ergies in teaching subjects which have been 
condemned by popular educators for the past 
two hundred years. 

A great defect in the educational system 

the learning by rule. Learning by rules 
means verbatim recitations. The American 
boy seems to want to know something about 
everything instead of wanting to know every- 
thing about something. He may go through 
a complete course after the method of learn- 
ing by rule or verbatim recitation, and at 
the end of the period may not he able to 
tell what he knows, on accountof his pover- 
ty stricken vocabulary. 

The people in general were responsible 
for another evil, and that waa their careless- 
ness in selecting School Trustees and mem- 
bers of the Board of Education. Quoting 
from Dr. Noah Porter, of Yale, Mr. Nelson 
said : "The system of instruction of the 
best colleges is, indeed, a very defective one." 

He mentioned, briefly, other defects, and 
dwelt somewhat on the excellencies of 
modern education. 

A spirited discussion followed, parti'ipated 
in hy Messrs. Felton, Baylies, Williams, 
Rider, Chogiiill, Wliile, Yerex, Hill, 
Wyinan, Burnett, and Bryant. 

G. W. Michael then led a discussion on 
" Movement in Penmanship." He advo- 
cated teaching rapid movements with the 
first lessons, and presented with consider- 
able skill the method by which he had been 
successful in making many good writers. 
His plan was sharply attacked in the dis- 
cussion which followed, hy Messrs. Peirce, 
Wyman, Vcrei, H. A. and H. C. Spencer, 
Felton, Goodman, Hinman, Burnett and 

After this, some time was devoted to the 
discussion of the most appropriate and ef- 
'ective modes of ftdvertiaing. 


A. D. Wilt then read a paper upon the 
" Poftsibilitiea of Commercial Education." 

H. C. Spencer then illustrated methods of 
teaching; writing in business colleges. His 
treatment of the question was clear and con- 
cise, covering the ground-work of instruc* 
tion in elementary, abbreviated and com- 
plete practical writing. The order of hie 
presentation of the subject was as follows: 
PoBitions, Movement*, Exercises, Princi- 
ples, Letters, Words, Sentences, and Manu- 

At 4 p. m. it was announced that car- 
i ages were in readiness to convey the meui- 
bors who desired to see the leading points 
of interest in and around the city. Al'out 
fifty of the members joined in what proved 
a most delightful ride through tlie parks 
and among the beautiful suburban resi- 
dences with which the city is surrounded. 
For this most enjoyable occasion the Asso- 
ciation is indebted to the generous hospi- 
tality of Messrs. Kichard Nelson and A. 1). 

At 8 "JO, in the evening, the Association 
asseiiiblpd to listen to an address, by Capt. 
Barry, Kditor of the Trade List, upon the 
Bubject of " Superficial Education," which 
was followed by a spirited discussion, in 
which the relative merits of public schools 
was discussed. 

On Friday morning, at 7.30, the ponmen 
assembled, when A. H. Hioman illustrated, 
at the blackboani, bis method of analyzing 
letters, which was discussed by Messrs. 
Peirce, R. C. Spencer, Kisinger, Ames, and 

W. S. Faddis then read a well-prepared 
paper on "Theory of Book-keeping best 
Taught through the Medium of Business 

The time appointed for the election of 
ofBcfirs for the ensuing year having arrived, 
ballots were taken, which resulted in the 
unanimous election of the following : 

President: A. D. Wilt, of Dayton, 0. 

First Vice-President : S. S. Packard, of 
Now York. 

•Second Vtce-President : Frank Goodman, 
of Nashville. 

Secretary and Treasurer: C- E. Cady, of 
New York. 

Executive Committee: II. C. Spencer. 
Washington, Chairman ; Me-ssrs. Ames, of 
New York, and Sadler, of Baltimore. 

Mr. Spencer, of Washington, in a short and 
humorous speech invited the members to 
meet in that city the next session, showing 
the many advantages the place offered. 
Tken being no other oit; suggested, Waah- 


selected as the meeting-place of 
the next annual Convention. 

On motion it was decided to authorize the 
Executive Committee to select a time for 
the next meeting, but by request of the 
members of that body suggestions were 
made by several members. 

One wanted the month of June, another, 
the first week ju May ; another, in February j 
and Mr. Packard, of New York, thought 
that the week intervening between Christ- 
mas and New Year's would, for many rea- 
sons, be the moat desirable. 

This time seemed to suit a great many of 
tlie members until an objection was raised 
that, owing to the adjournment of Congress 
during that week, wlucli would deprive the 
members of enjoying one of the greatest at- 
tractions of Washington City, another time 
should be selected. 

The month of June was again suggested, 
anil the selection of a week in that month 
SL-emed to be the voice of the meeting. The 
discussion here ended, and the meeting will 
in all probability be dt'cided upon for June, 
1883, by the Executive Committee. 

Dr. John Hancocit, of Dayiou, O., read 
an interesting uud lengthy paper on the sub- 
ject, " Relation of a General to a Specific 
Education," followed by Prof. W. L. White, 
of Franklin, 0.. who spoke on " The Ad- 
vantages of a Business Education Con- 
trasted with the Promotion Method of 
Learning by Experience." 

A vote of thanks was then unanimously 
tendered to the Executive Committee and 
Officers of the Association for their etficiont 
and successful efl'orts on behalf of the Con- 

Also a vot« of thanks was unanimously 
tendered to the Penman's Akt Journal 
for its earnest and efficient aid in making 
the Convention eo grand a success. 

A motion waa then made, by H. A. 
Spencer, that the Auxiliary Penmen's Com- 
mittee, which had done such good service 
before and during the Convention, be con- 
tinued, and that the gentlemen now com- 
posing the same be re-elected, with D. T. 
Ames as Chairman ; which motion was 
unanimously carried, the Committee being 
— D. T. Amos, A. H. Hinman, N. R. Luce. 

An unanimous vote of thanks was then 
tendered to Mr. aud Mrs. A. H. Hinmau, 
for their very etficient and untiring efforts 
on behalf of the Convention. 

The following resolution wa« then unani- 
mously adopted : 

" Kffiolved by the P«'iimeu of this Aaeocia- 
tii.n. thai the Pen-man's Art Jouk-val beaua- 
laiued as tb» recoguiz«d organ of the penmen of 
th« oountry." 

Adjourned to 2.30 p. m., at which time the 
Convention reassembled, and as the roll of 
members was read, each responded, occupy- 
ing five minutes, in giving a history of him- 
self and business. This proved to be a very 
interesting and amusing occasion ; with 
many, however, there waa more of anecdote 
than history. 

After all bad responded to their names, 
the Convention adjourned to meet in Wash- 
ington, D. C., at such time as may he fixed 
by the Executive Committee, which probably 
will be the latter part of June next. 

Its Fame Extending. 
During the past month, subscriptions to the 
Journal have been received from Australia 
and the Society, Sandwich and New Zea- 
land Islands, and notwithstanding summer 
is not the season for subscribers, nearly 
one thousand names have been added to the 
list during the past month. 

Books and Magazines. 

'* ijora " is the title of a grat^eful poem in 
pentameter verse by Paul Pastnor, one of 
our young American poets. The incidents 
suggesting the poem are very simple and 
commonplace, and it is only the grace and 
ease of description and the clear-cut sent- 
ences and musical rhythm that mark the 
merit of the writing us far above ordinary. 
In its dainty binding and beautilul type this 
book possesses a peculiar charm. Its tran- 
quil grace soothes the reader while it lures 
him on. " Lora" is a good example of the 
a'lvantages gained by young poets when re- 
maining on familiar ground and extracting 
poetry from that. The author shows a 
keenness of observation and a felicity of 
epithet which give signs of promise for 
the futiire. John E. Potter & Co., Philadel- 
phia. Price 75 cents. 

" Eclectic Short-Hand '' is the title of 
a 228 paged book, lately published by 
S. C. Griggs &. Co., Chicago, and is edited 
by J. Geo. Cross, M. A. The work is got 
up in good style, and so far as the relative 
merits of the system of short-hand — of 
wbioh it is the exponent — are concerned, 
we do not feel competent to speak. It is 
claimed to be suptrii»r t.i other systems, 
and in the following respects: 

Ist. The simplest and most facUe written 

2d. No vertical strokes used; only ob- 
liques and horizontals. 

3d. The vowels are expressed by lines in- 
I stead of 8eparat« doLi and daabei, or mioute 

semi-ciiclea and angles, and are written con- 

4th. A practical position alphabet, by 
which one or more letters of every word is 
legibly expressed without writing. 

5th. It is a system of writing by prin- 
ciples instead of word-signs, and its rules 
have no exceptions. 

6th. It is easier to write, easier to read, and 
can be learned in a fraction of the time re- 
quired by other systems. 

7th. It is 10 to 15 per cent, briefer than 
the shortest of other systems, and 30 per 
cent, briefer than the average of twenty-four 
of the best systems in use. 

8th. It can be written with any style of 
pen or pencil, and combines all the requisites 
of written speech, viz. : simplicity, fluency 
and legibility. 

9th. It can bo learned and written by 

" Groesbcek's Book-keeping." — We are 
in receipt of the school and college 
editions of this work. The College Edition 
has '25!i pages and is a complete and ex- 
haustive treatise of the science of single 
and double entry book-keeping. The work 
is got up in the finest style of the book- 
maker's art, and is most highly commended 
by prominent teacbersand educators through- 
out the country. The School Edition con- 
sists of 197 pages, and treats in a concise 
and practical manner of both single and 
double entry book-keeping, and is designed 
more especially for use in high-schools and 
academies. Published by Eldredge & 
Brother, 17 North 7th St., Philadelphia, 
Pa., by whom the works are mailed. The 
College Edition for $1.80; the school for 


The Normal Journal, published by J. T. 
Norton, Carmel, HI., is & HJ-pape monthly, 
devoted to educational matters. It is spright- 
ly and interesting. Mailed one year for 

The Teacher's Ouide has removed its of- 
fice of publication from Mallet Creek to 
Cleveland, Ohio. The Guide is ably edited 
by J. D. Holcomb, and isoneof the spright- 
liest and most intereaUng of our exchanges, 
At its low price of subscription, 5U centa 
per year, it should be taken by every 

"American Correspondence," published in 
the English, French and Spanish languages, 
at 4 and ti Warren St., New York, contains 
20 pages {same size as the Journal) of in- 
teresiing matter, pertaining to the current 
topics of the da/. Mailed at $2.00 per 

The Art Amateur for June, as usual is 
saperbty illustrated with a large Dumber of 
real gems of artistic skill in the way of 
decorative art. Pabiisbed by Montague 
Marks, at i!3 Union Square, New York, 
for $4.00 pur year ; single copies, 33 cents. 

Frank Leslies Popular 3/on/ftty— The 
Jutie number is, as usual, noticeable for the 
iimount, variety and excellence of the read- 
iui; mutter aod illustrations. The opening 
article, by Archibald Forbes, the famous 
war correspondent, " Ttie Melo-draraatic 
A.^pects of the Franco-German War." with 
]ig fourteen illuslmtious, is a very able paper, 
iiKil (ilmiiuils Willi interesting facts. "Coffee" 
iv;l(^9 iho berry frum the plantation to the 
r>j|i, nud is finely illustrated. " Heniinis- 
ri-iiees of Service Among the Coraanohes," 
by an Old Army Otlicer; "The Delusions 
of Alchemy"; " Longfellow"; " Peasant 
Lift- in India"; "A Piece of Amber," etc., 
i-tc, arc proininent features of the number, 
rontributed by popular writers. The aerial, 
"The Letter 'S'; Or. The Jocelyu Siu,'' is 
.•imtiiiued; and there are charming short 
htories, sketclies, adventures, etc., etc., to- 
^;rther with some exquisite poems, and a 
miscellany abouuding with interest, enter- 
lalnmeut and information. There are 128 
(|ijarlo pages, over 100 illustrations, and for 
the frontispiece a beautiful picture in oil 
mlors, " Kitty, Your'e a Tease." The price 
is 2.5 cents a copy only ; $3 a year, postpaid. 
Inclose 25 cents for a specimen copy, ad- 
dn'ss Fraiik Leslie, Publisher, 53, 5r> and 
.-.7 Park Place, New York. 

The Pentnan'ft and Printer'a Gazette of- 
fi^rs, in tbia issue, the most attractive pre- 
iiuiims to subscribers. The oblique pen- 
iiulder is in great demand by all penmen. 
St'c their advertisement. 

In the North American Peview for June, 
Senator W. B. Allison has a paper on '-The 
Currency of the Future," in which he indi- 
cates the measures that will have to be taken 
by Congress for insuring a stable currency 
after the national debt has been extinguished. 
"A Memorandum at a Venture," by Walt 
Whitman, is an explanation of his purpose 
aud point of view in trenchiug upon topics 
not usually regarded as amenable to literary 
irtatiuent. " Andover and Creed Subscrip- 
tion," by Rev. Dr. Leonard Woolsey Macon, 
is ti philosophical review of the present 
state of dogmatic belief in tho churches. 
Hon. George F. Seward, late minister to 
China, in an article entitled "Mongolian 
Immigration," makes an argument against 
the proposed anti-Chinese legislation. Dr. 
.luhn W. Dowliug, Dean of the Now York 
lliimeopathic Medical College, comes to the 
rii'fence of the Hahnemannic School of 
uKdicinp, aguiust the recent attack upon 
its priucipli-aaiui methods. 0. B. Frothing- 
ham liiis a sympathetic article on" Sweden- 
borg. Not the least important paper is one 
entitled " Has Land a Value i" by Isaac L. 
Rice, it being a criticism of one of the funda' 

mental postulates of Henry George's political Mountain (N. C.) High School, 
economy. Finally, Charles F. Lydecker 
essays to prove that a " National Militia " is 
a constitutional impossibility. 

The Collegian, of St. Louis College, edited 
by R. Covin and J. B. Brophy, besides con- 
taining much of general interest, is peculiar- 
ly rich in local items of special interest to 
the patrons and friends of that excellent 

J. 8. Haines is teaching writing at Maniet«A, 
Mich. The press of (hat place speak of him in 
flattering terme. 

J. F. Corcoran, a student at the Dvuver 
(Col.) Bufliu^sH College, writes a good hand for 
a lad of fifteen vears. 

CoNSTANTiNE, Mich., May 22, 1862. 

Editors of Journal: — In the April 
number of the Journal I notice the follow- 
ing: "llereafter any teacher who accepts 
a present from the pupils in the public 
schools of Hamilton, Ontario, will be im< 
mediately discharged." 

Will you be kind enough to inform me, 
with the rest of your patrous, the reason of 
such a law f Warben C. Hull. 

We are not informed of the special rea- 
sons assigned for this prohibition by the 
school authorities of Hamilton, Ont., but 
believe that, in general, a preseut from an 
individual pupil acts as a bribe, and is often 
intended as such — tho pupil feeling that lie 
is entitled to extra attention, or that his im- 
perfect recitations will be excused, or cer- 
tain improprieties in deportment " winked 
at," and the teacher, feeling that he must 
render an equivalent, blindly acceding to the 
wishes or the demands of the pupil who, by 
the gift, enslaves him. 

The effect upou the teacher is not so dis- 
astrous when a gift is made by contributions 
from every member of his class or school. 
But this often inconveniences certain ones 
who can ill afford to give, yet feel compelled 
to do so in order to escape the fi'owns and 
taunts of their associates. And — and — 
but we can't discuss this side of the question 
in our characteristically able manner, for we 
have recently aud repeatedly been the happy 
recipient of several valuable gifts from 
generous pupils who read the JOURNAL. 

A. W.Wood?, of Elwin, III., is an artist- 
penman of considernblv skill. 

W. H, Houston has been teaching writing- 
claesea at fiewleyville, Kj. 

MesBra. Rosa Si. Wiliama have opened a 

H, W. Bearce !■ teaching large classM in writ- 
ing at Bridgeport, Conn. He ia a akiltful writer, 
and has th<t reputation of being a eucceasl'ul 

J. Howard Keeler has been teaching writing- 
clsBees iu Berti-an.l. Mich. The Niles IFeelly 
Mir}-or pays a flattering conapliment to his skill 
as a penman and success as a teacher, 

Mrs. S. E. Cowan is teaching wriling-clasnes 
atPalmerston, Ontario. The press of that place 
speak very highly of her work and instruction. 
Specimens which Hhe incloaes are very credit- 

The Graduating Exercises of the Spenceriati 
BuHiuesB College, Washington, D. C, were 
held ou May 30ib. We return our thanks for 
ticket- iuvitalion, and i-egret that wa were 
unable to be present. 

Fielding Scbofield, for some years past with 
the Bryant & Strattcii Business College, New- 
ark, N. J., has hi-uuin*- ;."Oii;Upil \\\\\\ J. H. 
Clark, in coiubuimt^ Hk- 1 uiiM-M<,wn, Ohio. 

Business (.'ollfi.^. Mr S.l, 1,1 i- among our 

most skillful wiitt^is and iea.:li..-ie, uiid will un- 
doubtedly make himself popular in bis new 
field of labor. 

n. W. Beaice writes us that he is teaching 
writing to four himdred and fifteen pupils, at 
Bridgeport, Conn. He incloses superior speci- 
mens of practical writing. He recently ad- 
dressed the Fairfield County Teachers' As- 
sociation, upon the subject of Writing. In tlie 
report of which, the press pays bim (he follow- 
ing compliment : " Mr. Bearce was lisiened 
to throughout with the closest attention, and at 
the end was requested to give an example of 
bis skill iu pen-work, which he did. He then 
replied to a number of very pevlinenl questions, 
by teachers and others, in a manner which 
showed he was thoroughly acquainted with hie 

A handsomely executed sperimen of a 
flourished bird and scrolling, has been received 
from W. G. Huesey, teacher of writing at Dirigo 
Busiuee* College, Aiiguatn, M». 

An imperial- sized photograph of a finely ex 
ecuted spvcimen of peii-drawiug -has bsen re- 
ceived fromT. .1. Pricketl. penman at Soule's 
Bryant A: Straltou Business College, Philadel- 
phia. Pa. 

. We are in receipt of a photo, 11x14 inches 
ill size, of an elaborately engrossed copy of res- 
olutions, by W. W. McClellaad, at the Union 
Business College. Pittsburgh. Pa. The design 
is in good taste, and the execution skillful. 

Two photographs (6x8) of large and highly 
artistic .Jesigus from pen-work executed by Jos. 
Foeller, Jr., of Sheuundoah, Pa., have been re- 
ceived. The skill <lisplayed in these works is 
of more than an or<iiiiary degree. Mr. Foeller 
is a skillful and enterprising teacher. 

F.legantiy written letters have been received 
from W. Chambers, teacher of writing at Stir- 
ling HI. ; T. D. Click, Mt, Carmel, III. ; F. H. 
Madden. Johnson's Business College, St. Louis, 
Mo. : H. F. Loomis of the Spencerian Bueinees 
College, Cleveland, Ohio ; J. F. Whitleather, 
Fort Wayne (Ind.) Business College. 

Moilesty: — " Do you pretend to have aa 
good a judgment as I have ? " exclaimed an 
enraged wife to her husband. " Well, no," 
he replied, slowly, "our choice of partners 
for life shows that my judgment is not to be 
compared with yours." — Boston Transcript. 

What Others Say of Us. 

C J. Gleason, Esq., Montpelier, Ver- 
mont, iu a letter of the 22d ult., says : " I 
congratulate* you on your success. Your 
Art Journal is decidedly meritorious — 
the beat publication of its kind I ever saw. 
Situated in the metropolis of the Western 
hemisphere, you have ample room lo spread 
its circulation and cultivate tho tastes of 
its numerous readers in your chosen art and 

Raceland, La., May 30, '82. 
Editors of the Journal : Without the 
monthly visits of Thb Pbnman's Art 
Journal I would feel, as Moore eaya. 


A. H. Steadman, of Freeport, Ohio, forwards 
killfuUy executed specimen of off-hand . ' 
rishiug, in form of a bird and scroll. 
A handsomely written letter and several fine 
card-specimens come from F. S. Stoddard, 
penman at Peiroe'fl Business College, Keokuk, 

A beautifully written letter and skillfully ex- 
ecuted specimen of flourishing comes from A. 
J. Taylor, of Taylor's Business College. Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 

A gracefully executed tlouriah, iu form of a 
bird and scroll, has been received from A. S. 
Dennis, of the Spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Therefore, you will find inclueed cash for 
another year's subscription. 

D. J. Briant. 

In the May number of The PENstAN's 
Akt Journal, Prof. Henry C. Spencer, the 
acknowledged master of the art of penman- 
ship, begins a course of " Practical Writing- 
Lessons." We cannot too favorably com- 
mend the JotritNAL to the notice of the 
teachers. It should he found in every school- 
theland.— rAff Teacher. 

B that the work will |^ 
efuod the price paid for it to any one 
urn the same, registered, 
% premium, free lo any one sending three subacribera and Three Dollars t 
Oopyrt'jlUed.'hy Spencer Brothert, October 7tk, 1881, 

'■'» AKI ./<>l Kwn. 

Office of the Postmaster, 
Post-Officb, New York Cit 
5Iay 26th, I8fc3. 
I^. T. Ames, Esq. 

Dear Sir : — I have read with much pleas- 
ore your very ahle and ioteresting article on 
"Pfrsonal Characterimim 4if HaadnxitiDg" 
io Ihe correal nouiber nf Penuan's Art 
Journal. While it is free from ihoeo 
absurdly exaggerated statcmcDts which have 
occamonally been put forth 
with this subject, aud io which the claii 
well-nigh euponiatural powers of di 
through the study of individual handwriting, 
has been adv;tnced, your article — based, as i1 
evidently ia, upon long experience and 
ful observation — will bo recogoizod by all 
who are interested ia that study as present- 
ing in brief, a clenn, 

Bible statement with regard to tho matter of 
which it treats, even though it fails to indi- 
cate the means of nscortaintng, by the ox- 
AminatioD of one's handwriting, the maiden 
name of his mother-in-law, or on which of 
his feet his " pet com " ia located. 
Very truly yours, 

J. Gavlor, 


The Penman's Art Journal for iMay 
in full of good and instructive 
both professioual aud amateur peni 
eapecially those who wish to acfi'iirc « good 
buainoas handwriting. There jin- several 
excellent articles in this issue, among which 
is one worth notice, viz.: " Lessons in Prac- 
tical Writing," by Prof. H C. Spencer, one 
of the authors of the celebrated Spencerian 
System of Pei-maiiBhip aud noted as beiug 
the best ti-acher of penmanship iu the world. 
The illustrations used io these V 
made hy Prof. L. P. Spencer, the most 
skillful writer in the country. There will 
be Hixt«ou lessons beginning with this 
and they will bo 

Bubsoription price of the paper.— Passaic, 
(N. J.), Ite m. 

The Penman's Art Journal for May, 
is, if ])us8iblo, an exceptiunably good num- 
ber. We say " if possible,'' furevery _ 
bor of The Penman's Art JouitNAL 
clearly cut and polished gem, and it would, 
therefore, be difficult to make an exception 
in favor of any issue. We can readily agree 
with Mr. C. B. Burdelt, a teacher of writing 
ia Boston, Mass., wheu ho says : " I se« 
tho usefulness of your Journal 
more each day, uol only in my own labors, 
hut as a promoter of etithusiasm among 
pupils. I think that the geuerous columns 
of your paper are doing more good for good 
penmanship than all other forces combined." 
Wo sny he must be a lazy, good -for- nothing 
student who reads Tub Penman's Art 
Journal ami is not excited to enthusiasm 
by its practical lessons, i*3 beautiful pen- 
sketches, aud tlio untold advautages it gives 
the student for the format 
habits and the acquirement of a 
and legible style of hnudwritiDg. Prof. 
Henry C. Spencer begins in this number a 
series of " Lessons in Practical Writing " 
which we advise all students to secure by 
au early subscription. When such an au- 
thority says that "any person who has 
good common sense, one or two eyes, aud 
five fingers oneitherhand, can, under proper 
instruction, learn to write well," there is, 
manifestly, no excuse for poor penmanship 
from a student.— .Vo(rc Dame Scholastic. 

The Penman's Art Journal, published 
by Prof. D. T. Ames, 205 Broadway, Xew 
York, 18 one of the finest, and most at- 
tractive and valuable of our exchanges.— 
^wo England Sifiirtgs. 


:. W. ElBOE. UlioB, N. ' 


H-X Ameh . 205 'Bbdsjjwpx: 


College Edltlon,/ur OitUffu, Commtrnat SehooU tig 

School Edition, /or &)..«& „„d Aad,m{,i . | ° 

bH'i.!"''"' ^"'i"'"' ,"'' e""l>ock-. P„Mc 

L. MADAlut^z, Kox UliG, 

AN «xp9riuiioMt book-leper aud nni 



tm lonoou. 

eiiM y 








f CBpitnln, 
n. PkIBCB 

a oeoU. II 
Kmkuk. Ion 




120 a 



.'..». So".! 



L^lirT^'u,** "pw^'ttHy for diiiplaying HojidbiuSi 
U. CollegM, elc 'fly miag thee^ euu.' HundliilU 

photo-lithographv and engraving. I 

We Imve tbe very beat fftcimiBfc,/or enw-utiug. io a ! 
prompt. eoonomicAl and •uperiur«lBDner, orden W Hll ' 

lor (hi* ■nm*. For IHploma* and Spteitnen Work. Ol/lt i 

[N iiii ( viM,i-N HBAnr SaiTBuuun, Ifi82. 

A N,u, l!iivii.ed aiid Enlarged EdilioQ ol 
'/'/a- Ctilhndcn Commercial Arilhmetic. 
l'ri,.i,.d from si.tiroly new ..l^olwrypo plut«. 

'^" _ ^___^ _PHILADELPH1A, PA . 


Phonographic Monthly and Repoptera' 

TRACIKQ EservlH*. on Usuilla papcj 

C U. PsiBCX, KMkuk, low*. 

MADAJUszdoea q 

A**PenmaMbip'u''ot^n of^Comroercial BmncJiM uid 
Highe,! TwIlinouittU furotth^ 'ffi^f "VSer ""' 


1 III. NF.W 


■THK NliW 

Bryant & Stratton 

Counting- House-Book keeping." 



n Series of 


I Vi^ WUIJi n .Movements, a> pimliiL-M Uy me, » il. receive my 

Shading T Square. 


7;:^;"S^3 The National Indexed Atlas. 

: .. i','-,''nn""ii,! yrom Goveilmifiil .f,,/ ,s,„,,-,,/ purveys. 

UiiiledSluiea. l«(^tJi,'i„iii |-,i „,,,i,| 

'«i';'rj'i;.'™n?iol!iyiKHT?i??o'HsF«l" I'LliLlSIII,IJ liV 

|^S|.;'i£n"v(n£S Jno. W. LYON & CO., 

fo, CO d,T. only ...>.„, ..,»■ .,„r •.-I, ^^^ Bi'oadway, N, Y. 




bad uu eatcuovu ta\e, and puMrd tbrougtt luuuj dUtioM. 


Compendium of Penmanship. 

it tving iHUiil 111 Parts— tivui flgbt to tnii lu ouuiboT-^ 

iiini of (bla pu\( lo preMiit paamaDtblp 
■LU»»i range, niuat vuilsd ndnptuliuii. iind blgbttl 

1 flixl doliglil, iiiKpinitiuD, 

' ) 

" ^B^J^^^5^%^ 

Artist Penmen 

A Prize of $300 

. veyor., D 



Bri)i raven. 



■ M^'-^" 



'■ r";!"' -■:;' 

" "':S"S 


>' qtmlilEea 
^•^ Die \mt. 




"'l ,„l i;iiy. 



■fhorenslily i.iigl.i l,y „,.,i[. y„ panlvule™, „<I. 

Ol'BClMP.N.S, ),-ui liv,'ilir,', I .',. I ,vil1 

|y|v ►■■"•■»""'»..■" J"- ,!i,-j:^^^^,,„,„„„; i •". 

I'art I. 

tou.pi->u-.tbccLu.t« luid 


S lili»pe,., 

iwu plaie* 

uf utrikiug. bold ii'iipl, |>n 


live iKoutl- 

till style* 

f TOCU of Ibe oapiiRl,. wi 

1 nppropriate word! i-rope 

iiiiini'*: six vlniw of bnn 

d«om« wript, io Ui« 

forms of 

iflU uf piin'biuv, HOcuiin 

> eum 

nl. reeeiplt. 

Mot« - nod 

u Mter^r credit wonh 


to any on* 

""" ™" 

xocuf it in «, «dmlr«l.l. 

. .lyle 

l'»rl a 


Uoe pint.. 

u likoiieM 

utP.B Speu...r, Jr., .in 


. deeK. pen 

ill liund. 

bibil»p«rfwtly iliei)r..i«T 


uiid niiinner 

..r holiliuK 

the pen for fluMrUliiDK i 

wo pla 

!•■ emlHMly, 

■ be ;k!ra>'* 

il exvnUw by which .-o 

II maud 

of nnn nnd 


nlion.. und 

•bndings 1 

re d^^velol^ed ; »lx plalea 

liow the 


uf elciiii-D 

-Milliempid. ..ff-baml.Mr 

king m 

romenli, oj 

Ji V ninety 

of binU, IITUIIB, 'p'HIlt >•>! 


eol.-.iU of 



• ,i,,t/w*i(in.wriUr4. Il>« Sprti- 

- "■■ ,■.".',!'.„ ',.,■!',■.,!...!!'",'. "''?r' l^^^vi.^L't, imn.l,. v,-ii.,>, W.„vi.. y..:d!_8«ver. wWli^In- .n^ ,'„ ni^V 'Tbri"^ ^^ "".M 


"The Penman's Art Journal " *'' 

Htt. kindly w«»«.t«d. f»r .he bcn.elit .,f ibi- prolw-i...!. to ""^, ( "'"'7 u- ,,„„ m ,. . ■ I '""*" """ ""'""""' "i»wnai ni u.i. n.u« iniei«.Iiii(; d 

lliupr*puniiioii .if their iipo«itiien«, wbifwUy ih« Mine 0!>r('lMrv< ..^,.,1 iri..„.i>i .,-' . ' „ 

limy be pbot.1 eupiivnl. ^* "-A lM»,.^^^Jf^lllI.|l«l»I HoiiiUhlnif, ^...*nt=.. by , Hie nuiiirr ..t ibe <u*e. iniid«iiiuie— (lie plutea ui.wt t 

S;:r;n«,"°- ' "^?^r»^-^ situations. ^ i::i':^:':r::r:,J,r.:::'":".::':™':°'"' 

,>r,- deligbled'witl. ii,e p-.I,'ri.,.i, .,( tUe work dune 
U,v ftwiniy ntib nliicb 11 .-III. U' .-i.H-.K^I. 


The General Competition 


imtf, TUie A SET of tile hno.t-.„„. 

Mailed at 60 Cents per Part from the 

Office of the 

■■.;<) U KN A I,,' 

..Ifcnn.loMbe'iSu" j|||i»l"'»"prtlplX«, I "^^ The Adv,n,.er <,l,l„, to MKIUASK fo, CASH, « Lv „ ,., , ,, ^, , T^. 

'i.Hguree. tliiu l>e<ipiiig ^Hoent nod ..mvenl. , tor the Hill Priie. .m ce.|de.led to nddio. tb. l'( IM \ I I'D I- 1 I I ^•/■I!/„.i 1 "Sn '!'»««•""' ""'"l;'' ■■ »''■«'"" '-«'™'l«'l >■»»•- 

.■,^i!iocU'ntoXorS'"oJi"ndmeili sri'or'^.i^'^irT'h *" .""^*'° "™!i"'" ().M.Mi--Rc i.\i, s( ii()()L. tivijtVT Tr;,.K«z?Jxr4rrrof"".^ 

Il Ivy ineil to any u£lToaa, Wood for iaotf,; metal, ' " lJm'o"Mii.ioai, "ihi"' "'"^ "' "'"' '^"""" "'"' **"*' ho iu a healthy iooality, Fiefere the W«.t. Give ! P"«ee, In tuAtk form, .\ddt««i> 

II... — J I r» '"" P*.'''^''''"' "■ '" tecelple and ..xpen.lltun* of the | C, H, Piijh k, KeoV uli, Iowa. 

:.x;""rddL.V".^KX:T'35i,'S5ri!""*. HiII standard Book Co., •"■>«"' r-n ■-.„„_. .., the right man ..a b.«x„ne pm„e,^,.od 

■AU BruMlwar. New York, ,„<, ^,„,, .,, ,,.- ,,, voureee. do» *SJ. | Ba. in.*, l^llmfe on verv r«iwjnubh^ leniu 

' »a Mole J.I., tAttajo. /K. .-i, MEDIA, DELAWARE CO,, PA, .^:« ,l7dl.T w 'l,^'."^ 'm.lwa, In. 

I II I lM:\Mv\ 

The Book-keeper the champion 



)*l'I!LISIItl) FoRTNKiirTLV. 

Seli>en K. Hoi-kins- f. EHilors. 


Devoted lo all matters of !*(>ecial interest , 
10 Atcountanis, Bank<;rs, Merchants, | 
Manufacturers, Counting-room ! 

Attaches, Instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 

havine to do witli I 

the keeping of 

Ancient and modern systems of Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 
sed and elucidated. 
Subscription. $2,00 per annum. Single 

copies, !i cents. 
Specimen copies sent free to prospective 
An Agcn 
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pen?ation guaranteed. 

The Bookkkei'er, 
29 Warren Street, New York. 
Posl-Officc Address. P. O. Box 2126. 

S«.i port-ioiid on fwpirt of »1.75. 

••»^ 205 BitmUwBj', New York. 






, i 





p«t-|wi<l. . 

.CM pci-pijd aoou. 


hy EatproM. 

. '. (.50 

<:«nd for CIr 

utar. 8 




BrowtlwBj". New York. 

Rend fvr I>rfc«.11»i null CiKiilxi 


Canl-trritrr of thr rotoifrv Ajm hok on A««'/ //.*■ 
JhirMt Usl 0/ rintiuffeard* in AVir Fort *'i'/y, 


of llii- JofitXAl, c«u. far ill- n*ict :i"i <lav-. 
secure llivir canU written with i)i*^ir tinni-x fur 
llip following pHcve: 

M<h). rkin Wbilv. ll«tU>'>tily ■ - - pw^SJ • 1.1 
" 2. PlHiu White. Weddiiiff HrwiwI - - " ' A1 

i n (TWELVi;i dirttrent.lflrns of Mnb— •!» c-.efMl— 

I £. -.■.-> CVOl* WMtt. C. 11. t-tnixf. K'ftkok, loltft. 

l'K\^KN'>,in.l AKII>TS* Sl'PHI.IKK. 


II &!«.■. 


itiv intni taBliloAubli' la Nc» | 

York City), (lie lutnl atyla «l- | 

wsfs on bund " - .(11 

" 8. I'enFloiirtabod— genuine poniud- 
laY tvorh. To Bludrnln lh«y Mru 
very umiAiI in wriliiig .... ■■ . .\fj 

ly- .Vo( fcM man ;; at tAut rater. 


On i«cei[it of$1.0U ami a oia- com siaiuji. 1 will 

send you tlie foIUiwiiig ojmciiuoiie, etc., preimid. 

I uHU give you my very best tcork. 

DRILLIANT BL.\CK INK eeal by exprMs for «l.:i 

per quart. lU'M-ipt fw II* ni 

Jlrlsiul n-> ri 

French n. ii,.y..x .< *i 

black Cii Id itOHi-d -'J -^ 

BInck Cui-ds per lw> J 

BlUckCunUpvi'tlio ~ .- II 

WltKt'sdr'illK-pilllCr, llOl■|Hl■^^, I.'iVJii.f I'l (1 - 

17x23. 20 i 

l»aSl. -JO 1! -J 

2ii30. a& 3 7 

" a6x40. Cfl 7 

" •' " SlxS-J, 1 73 50 

Blitiik Bristol liuunl Coi'db, per IDO i 

1000 2 

» '• 1000. by i-x. 1 .'i 

Wlnsor&Scwtoii'ssiijjrsiip. Iiifi. ink. -ttlt-k 1 1 
Oroameoial Garde, 12 d«''.-Tr- -,-••.,■ ,fi..-...,K 


Four i^aoks, 100 cords 

(grots box 

Crowqulll Pen. very " 7 

RoJ Bluokbi>UTd«, by expii«r, 

No.l«Ke.'JX3 ftet 17 

NO.-J '• L'i3(3i '• 17 

Stone Clutli, uue >unj nidcv nuy length per yard, 

46 iDoheiB wide, per yunl. alut«d both ddes 3 2 

Liquid Slating, the best in use, for walls or tvooden 

boards, porgulluu 6 

^^ No goodii sent by mail uolil uaah ha* bceu n 

CompHDied bj- C«*li to OTjC-!j:t"'..f t- .- ;"ii.-,-. ,l ...'I N 

rLEQANTl.V written 


DAVID A. CURTIS, Publisher, 

u..„t. i' -i-r-rv. 310 fULTON ST., N. 

: BiMh. 1 
^ kladi 
i iDdali- 

; Oreen, 2 klada. 

nil liivipea) ConleoU; Black, 'K 
I 1 li<<\r. Broun, Vtolot, 3 kladtf. 
: .M,l». C«nm..Ci ao!d,2 kind*. 
.11' . l.<u<b: Imtelible, S kinds; Stk- 
(■tusay (nil colon) Drntriog. Carbon, 
uka. Ink -Powder. Inks for morkioK 
•Ink, Stpooil Ink«, SlaropiDg and 


Has been v.'-taltlislied hveiitv-fi'i: 

IlltlMNT A srilATT'lVS 

COIN 1 iM.-noi .m: lumk-ki I riN( 

I ly for nsp, and wilt 

..111,1.1 U|»>lt thf 

■ n.l will Iw 
.1, any other 

1;L.\.1;lMAN, TAYl.UU A CO., 

i» Mild 1*0 Onmd Street, Xtaw York 

Speiicerian Steel iPen-s 

Are ueeil l<y all (lie l>e»t i»i;liiiifii in lliv foiiiilry. Tliey roml-iiit a dvyr^e ..f h1«. 
Hiiioiilliiu'fti of point UOI t'ouiul ill any oilier l»elih. 

Speiicei'lsui AVi-itiua; Iiik.s. 

'I'lip original leevipl floin nl.itl. Ilo- !'.!.>< I. Ish i.. miiile Inia been in ii>e in Knglanil 
■ one /,ii»</er-/ .m,r.. One aim i. lo ..n|.|.ly li.e eonslaiil cleioan.l for » .superior Ink. 


la Ihe moat ilnralile Ink [|.«l ean I.e maile. Speeiallv a>laple,l lio an.l lloeii. 
It, of iinporlaln,.. 


I'lowa from llie pell all inleiiae ami lirilliaul gloaay l.laek. of ^-real .luraliilily ; unrivaled 
aignatiireB and ornAUielital wriliug. 

Sample Jtolthf will be Bent, liy express, seenrely paekeil iu wood, on reeeipl of §1 per 
,11 ; T.-. eent. ,«.r pint; .011 per one lialf pint. 

Sx:)encei'ian Oblique [Pen-laoldei-. 

Hr llie nae of lliie Holder tlie pell aeta upon llie poiiila ou tbe up and down alrokei 
For trial, ne »ill > I one d.oteii on receipt «<!:, eeiiU. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway. New York. 

t^'l/i/f' order pleate mtnlion rAi'j /«;.•> ( 

"'Jhe best lestttnouial « hook can ha>-e U (he 
)innie8 of those who use U." 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

For lUf $ulio»l Kiiil CuuiKiiig-i-uuin, ie now in 

me ill mHii,v of the leading CoUvg*^^. Acu- 

(tf>mies and tJellooU in llii:* country. 

- . '■ . . . . PhilBdclpb'ia. P.., 

,1 " Bidtim-tre, M.I, 

'■:■■'' Ill rt.inmwial follpg". . Wlllionwport, Pu. 

I "... Ijanoaater, Pu. 

I ■•■< . I ■ ■■ "... Titim'tllp, Pii. 
I' I I - ■' . . PliilndelpWa, Pa. 

II .11 ■■ . Sai. Franciaw*. Cul. 
.M.iuui L itLiviiil _■; , . . Duj-Ion, Ohio. 

Joliot ■■ " JoUrt. t}\. 

ChmUloik " .... (juiiicy, HI- 

lllinoiH WwU.)ai. I' . . . -Bloomingloa, Il(. 

Mmiomt) .Vi-iLilutiiv Bfacvinb, III. 

I'lirifit'i Hi,-i..f«;C(.ll.«g.> Peoria, III, 

I'lilleiM.!! I' Pattowon, N. J. 

(.'kAiIUc'iu*-' - .' .' .' .' Lo»_AngeKW, Cal.' 

Fon<l liistiiiilo! '...'. .Fori Edivaij! K.' Y. 
Hiiimiin !> Busiiicjui ColloifC . . . .Worcester, Miu^. 

I'libtiL' Si'li'iols Newark, N. J. 

c'anudiuu J.itewy hMlitutf. . . '. . Woo<1.4loci(, Ont. 

St. John's Cullcgi^ CoiIeg«ville, MIdii. 

.SI, " Hofltly. Pj. 

.SI,» " St. Joseph, Mo, 

CiiniidK Hiisiiiea* Collegv Hamilton, Ooi. 

uXn Bu»in"M ^ollPge } Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Till* abovi* iii-K Koiiie uf the leadiug institu- 
tioiiei now neiiig tliu ClH«i)i-I)ook of Cumnifivial 
Law, and who .p.siU in llit- liiRhe-l l.Tm? of 

receipt of One Dullar. 


All 01. 1 -I 

iikl W :.ddr> 


«-t.f. Albany. N. Y. 

thoroughly t 

*"""^ %h,' Pa. 

SIIORTHANU-writiuff thoroughly tuiighl by nuu 
Terms low: suti»footion gUHroniood. Svnd stump fi 
«i*clinen and dn-iilar. W. W. HUI.TOX, Htlshurgh, Pi 

M A Y H E W S 


Manual o[ Business IVactice, 

lending UoUe^ej 

dieting 111 


I for tl.i 


Detroit, Micb. 


" Entfrtd at the Post Ojffre of Ncio York, N. Y., as second-cieus matter." 

NEW YORK, JULY, 1882. 

Vol. VI.— No. 7. 

'. AMKS, 

KkBiniDer of Queittloned Handn-rlting^, 

205 BnifulwB}-, New York. 

he True Way to Teach an Art. 

By Paul Pastnoji. 
An art is nut to lie taught in the same 



iii;n]ils at ilir ainiic time more method and 

iriMir kIuII ou Uh' part of llie instructor. 

S. ■.<-\\v.ty is, to a large extent, attainahle by 

■' ■ iiiiHided perflonnl effort of the^atudent; 

'i tnands the interpretation of a teacher, 

!.■< himself capable of furnishing and 

I luiiog models of that which he wishes 

rnuvey. There is no mere text-honk 

"il^ in teaching an art; the instructor 
iiiii-t jK.sseas his resources from within. Fur 
iiii> i-*';i3oD, no one who is not thoroughly a 
jirnticient should attempt to make others so. 
Ji Its possible to teach Latin and Greek, and 
even the practical branches of an English 
education — after a fashion — by merely hold- 
ing one's attention fixed upon the text-book, 
and making a sort of responsive recitation 
therefrom, in answer to the questions of the 
clofis ; but to leach an art without thorough 
knowledge ol it is utterly impossible. 

Penmansliip is an art. It is, in many re- 
spects, one of the most ditheult arts to teach. 
There is very little cover for hiding one's 
ignorance, when standing ai the blackboard 
before a class in writing. The very first 
principles, instead of beine supplied by a 
priutoil alphabet or tabl , must come, ele- 
iiK'ui by element, from the mind and hand 
tif tlie instructor. To a certain extent, he 

nd certainly his 
All the great 
1 alt branches of 
nparted originality 

;iuii successful instruc 

knowledge have thu! 

and cliaracter to their methods. The teacher 

of peumanship is obliged to do ao. He must 

have nothing to depend upon, in the way 

nf .hart or copy, without which, should 

ucrcsaity arise, he would be unable to pro- 

viJf a. substitute from ois own personal re- 

the first requisite 

irt of penmanship 

must he an artist 

well as an iustructor. The teacher of 

\'ik need not be a Grecian, or the teacher 

L'.Mgrapliy a traveler; but the teacher of 

uniHuship mttst he a thorough penman. 

is worse than useless for a man who does 

I possess practical skill to try to impart a 

-n «tical knowledge of the subject. Theory 

\ety well in some things, but it forms 

> .-^inall part of the successful writing- 

' 1 s equipment. Skill is the first re- 

i-iu- ; the second is— patience. 

which a teacher of thi 
must possess — skill. ] 

It may seem strange that we should exalt 
a merely moral and general quality, like 
patience, above some of the more brilliant 
qualities of a successful artist. But let us 
remember that we are now studying the 
artist as an ins'ructor, and not merely as a 
creator of beautiful forms. Moral and gen- 
eral qualities enter, to a far greater extent 
than is commonly supposed, into the make- 
up of a good instructor. Hundreds of young 
men, brilliant in attainments hut morally 
unbalanced, fail to succeed in the profession 
of teaching ; while others, not at all dis- 
tinguished for splendid mental abilities, still 
rise to the very first rank and accomplish ex- 
cellent work. It i.- simply because they 
possess the constitutional and natural qvuili- 
ties of a teacher ; and one of the very first 
of these qualities is patience. The forms of 
art are dilBeult, at first, to comprehend and 
imitate. They are more complex than those 
of science. The pupil is not only required 
to recognize a letter A in its general form 
jiod outline, hut to construct it himself, 
from its elements, and finally in its perfec- 
tion — in that grace and elahoratinn wKah 
makes it artistic. To do this requires per- 
severance on the part of the pupil and pa- 
tience on the part of the instructor. There 
is a sort of winning kindness and helpful- 
ness, possessed by some instructors, which 
makes the task which they impose upon 
their scholars light. They are patient witji 
a loving patience which, instead of inspir- 
ing irksomencss and impatience, wakes the 
student to cheerful and hopeful exertion. 
It is worth a great deal to the teacher of 
penmanship to possess this sympathetic 
forbearance. He has a personal hold, then, 
upon the pupils which no mere excellence of 
execution o-^ profound theoretical knowledge 
of the subject can gain for him. 

Pinal!y,in order to teach an art with suc- 
cess, the instructor must be careful. Noth- 
ing is so liable to occur, as that an error or a 
false idea siiould come into the mind of the 
pupil through negligence of the instructor. 
When we remember how much liberty there 
really is in art, how much room for per- 
sonal eccentricity, we should he exceedingly 
careful in watching the effec t of our instruc- 
tions upon each individual under our charge. 
Unless we do this, some vicious mannerism or 
personal fault is very likely to creep in. One 
pupil will tind, lor iustance, that first he suc- 
ceeds belter in free- hand writing with the 
wript movement than with the elbow move- 
ment. Of course; a child creeps easier, at 
first, than it walks; a boy paddles easier 
than be swims. But how is it by and by ? 
If a child should always creep he would 
turn out a misshapen cripple. If a boy 
should always paddle in the water, he may 
sometime lose his life through inability to 
swim for a few rods. So with the young 
penman. He will never excel iu the art of 
free- baud writing till he learns to make use 

of a free 


, be 

exercised that he does not, while bcgiuuiug, 
fall into the cramped wrist movement. And 
there are many other little things in which 
he will be almost sure to go astray unless he 
is closely watched. The true instructor will 
look to the individual progress of his popUs. 
He will be careful for them. He may not 

get on so rapidly with his course of lessons 
as a less responsible rival, but his success in 
the end will be incomparably greater, and 
he will have the satisfaction of knowing 
that he has done his duty faithfully. 

In order, then, to teach an art well, these 
lliroe things are especiHlly necessary in an 
instructor: Skill, Patience, Care. Let him 
possess and cultivate these qualities, and he 
can scarcely fail of the highest and most en- 

The " Peircerian " Method of 


Its Application in Public Schools. 

Continued. — Article III. 

Lesson after lessou having been given on 
slates to eatahlish good form and execution 
of the ten digits, taken singly, it now be- 
comes necessary to establish ease and ^rac« 
of motion, {which is the result of speed in 
different degrees), by doing concert work 
about {5) five minutes of each recitation. 

The teacher should take position at the 
board, and wiih crayon make the 6gure 
proposed, while at the same time count one, 
or one, two, or i-2-3, as the figure de- 
mands, all the time watching the general 
result <if the class and increasing the speed. 
Try different rates, so as to meet the wants 
of all, and it will uot be long until the stiff, 
cramped work so common will have very 
much diminished. One or two figures will 
be sufficient for the concert work each time, 
as a review, and I guarantee that this course 
will stimulate any class of pupils to such a 
degree that much practice will be given at 
home, and thus new interest and new life 
will follow each lesson in the school. 

The majority of human beings, be they 
old or young, like to be considered smart. 
Here is one chance at development. If it 
is deemed advisable, the teacher can offer 
a prize for the pupil who can make the 
greatest number of any one pioube, well, 
at tlie time of completing the figures. This, 
however, is not necessary, as the plan itself 
will accomplish all necessary. The whole 
secret of my sucscess has been to present 
work the child could comprehend, and then 
by the proper presentation manage to have 
the tcork done well, both general and spe- 
cial. I mean by this, that the special work 
done during writing-hour, must ho impreg- 
nated in the general work of classes, else 
all will be a dead letter. No good results 
worth mentioning will ever come to any 
teacher who does not create in this art a 
love for the beautiful. As long as a child 
in the general work does not care how a (4) 
is made, and executes it carelessly in alt 
manner of shapes, it is a fair indication 
that the special work is doing no good. A 
feeling of pride must take hold of every 
one ere the desire to improve will dawn. 
A careless pupil will uot improve. He 
must be taught to be careful, at all 
times, and this he will the most likely 
be, if you do not impose too much 
work. For this reason, the attempt to 
teach children how to write must be aban- 
doned uniil a thorough knowledge of the 
forms of figures is established, together 
with the power to execute. I assert, with- 

out the least fear of contradiction, that 
children ((!) six and (7) seven years old can 
be taught to make the figures far better in 
(3) three months, than they are usually 
made by niue-tenths of adults. 

The reason so much poor writing is prev- 
alent, is not because the writing could not 
be better, but because pure, downright care- 
lessness overbalances the spasmodic efforts, 
and you have the result. 

If business-men demanded from their em- 
ployees better work ; if Boards of Educa- 
tion demanded more of the teachers ; if 
each individual demanded more of himself, 
then the general looseness would not breed 
the present result. 

This subject, like all others of interest Ur 
the people, is broad and deep, and no one 
cares to step in and array himself against 
the present tide that has been sweeping ita 
millions for many generations. No great 
sin has been committed, yet if improxjcment 
is our watchword we must do our part to- 
wards it. 

You cannot drive these little onea to do 
your bidding, with the best results, no mora 
than you cau drive adults to good results. 
Careful and persistent training, with a sys- 
tem that will develop the individual needs, 
is sure to be eminently popular. Children 
are indeed smart, and no slip-shod plan will 
develop their better natures. Ant/thing 
will not do, and it is high time that adults 
should know that the fineness of their na- 
ture cannot be developed by a coarse aud 
rough treatment, in the shape of oenerali- 
TIES suited perhaps only to a very few. 

Let us now suppose that Form-Speed— 
(figures taken singly), speed (figures mixed, 
i. €., changing from one to the other), 


each been established in a fair degree by 
two-thirds of the class. In March number 
of the Journal, I offered the inducement 
to pupils of this graile, that as soon as a amount of work wis accomplished 
on slates, they would he allowed the use oi 
copy-books. The time haw come to carry 
out this promise. Let there bo a formal 
examination to determine tlie matter, and 
as a result I pass, say, two-thirds of the 
class. Those who do uot pass, must con- 
tinue review-work until satisfactory. Lead 
pencils must be furnished the pupils and 
kept by the teacher in perfect working or- 
der. The copy-books have been promptly 
brought by each pupil, and the work goes 
on PRECISELY the same as upon slates, 
except, perhaps, that criticisms are made a 
little closer, and the dispos^ition generally to 
have the pupils do their very beat work, 
must now be leading principles. 

C. H. Peircb. 
{To be continued). 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all comuiunicatiocs not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

.^:'^i^__yM^^i^^ 3 ^jissammms^^^ 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

No. II. 

Hv Heshy C. Spexceb. 

In Wiooiing a [maiiioti lor «riliDg, three 
ailvanUgoR shuultl, if )M>86ible, be secart^J, 
viz; guoJ ligJil, healllifuIoMS, convi'nienre. 

Light frmii a)i<>v«, aver tlio left shoulder, 
IB conslrtered the most Hefirable. A frost 
light, if not too low or too bright, is good. 
CroM lighu tend to iujure tho eyes. Light 
from the right prodoces troubleaonte sha- 


there Bhfill 1 
DBtural nctioi 
ive organs, 
outward, thr 
hollowing the chest 
abdoniCQ, should not 

iss of positioD requl 
e uo disturbance of the full 
of tho lungs, heart and digest- 
Thereforo, bending the back 
wing the Etlioulders forward, 
compressing the 

that tho 

page be in front of the face, th 
incline forward (bending only at the hips) 
just enough (o foous the sight, that letters 
and wordM may be distinctly seen without 
straining the eyes. Ccuvenienco also re- 
quires thiit the right arm and hand be kept 
free for movoinont. Hence, throwing the 
weight of the body upon tho iirms, pressing 
them duwQ upon the desk, and holding the 
peu with a Iiard grasp, must be avoided. 

Cut I !«trikiugly contiasts the right and 
wrong writing- position. Study the picture 

Cut II illustrates the mauner of adjust- 
ing the arms, hands, pen and paper in the 
Front Position at desk, the one we propose 
to teach in thi 

ipy at table for 
partaking of 

,al purposes and whei 

See Cut IX. Extend first and second 
fingers and thumb of right-hand, holding 
them together, as shown in cut. Now slide 

the ( 

the hand right and left on tips o** nailB of 
third and fourth lingers, moving it by power 
of fore-arm acting on its muscular center for- 
ward of the elbiiw. This is the fore-arm 


Attention. Place your pen uj)i»u tlte desk 
about a foot and a-half from the edge, op- 
posite your left shoulder. Place your paper 
obliquely upi»n the des-k, the top of the page 
in front of your face. We wish you to 
loam the I 


After learning this yt-u can easily 
either of the others at any time, if for any 
reason you should desire to do so Now 
see that you are direc'Iy facing the desk, 
near but nut leaning against it ; place feet 
level on the Hoor, drawn slightly back to 
bring insteps vertically under the knees. 

r>.t pomiuu Hii-I •ail ket^i* it. YuU will 
ilum be ready for 

Copv I (Cut XI). It c.usists of eight 
hoiizuiitiil straight hues, in length eqiul to 
half then idth <>( your fnolscup page. Make 
the lines from left to right counting regularly, 
one, two, three, four, live, six, seven, eiglit, 
and repeat. Each gn up of eight strokes, 
properly spiced, will fill the space between 
two rult-d lines. What mt<vcineDt should 
yuu employ in making these? Fore-arm as 
the governing movement. Do not permit 
your hand to roll to tiie right, nor the wrist 
to touch the paper. Continue the exercise 
until you can make the strokes easily and 
well, all the while holding the pen correctly. 
Re alert, critical, resolute, persevering. 

Copy 2 (Cut XII). It comprises eight 
tal strokes connected at ends by 
ihort turns. Use mainly the fore-arm move- 
iient, rightand left. Count strokes regularly, 
off promptly. Gradually increase your 
Make strokes smoothly and uni- 
formly. Seek Ui 
make the correct 
position comforta- 
ble and easy. This 
pendular exercise 
will be found be- 
neticial at any 
Its frequent 

Cl'T IV preseuts ihe Pariial Uight-side 
Position, one very much rsed. 

Cur V gives a view of the Full Ilighi- 
side PtK-itioii, which itt a favorite in public 
Msbools bern'itte il eau 1»e more uuifonnly 
lAugbt that) any of the others. 

Our pupils are requested to try each of 
these positions, and then return to the front 
position — the pusitiuo we are accustomed to 

See Cut VIII. Hands half closed, tht 
right resting upon the tips of tbc fingei 

slanting straight 
its sen-ant, th© left-hand. Now lift your line, the body-stroke, so called, of the small 
peu from desk I y the top of the holder, with I letters. It will appear, as wo proceed, iu 
first and second fii-gers and thumb of left twenty-two out of the twenty-six small 
liand ; convey it to the right-hand, placing letters of the alphabet. Trace this copy 
it across the corner of the second finger and I first with tip of penholder with the fore-arm 
nail, and pixssiug it under the first finger movement, restraining all separate action of 
crossing just forward of the knuckle joint ; ! the fingers. Dictate to your hand thus : 
close tho thumb in ou the left, pressing Glide, one; glide, two; glide, three, Re- 
lightly on the holder tipposite the lower peat. This Copy, :j, has four sections. 
Joint of the fore-linger. In this )io8ition, The first contains three down strokes ; the 

slide the hand, dictating either mentally c. 
audibly, "right," "left," right,'" "left,"' 
etc., carefully ubserving the correct position 
and the action of the fure-arin and hand. 
With the left-hand bold the paper in plai 

aeeond, six ; and so on. Trace and write 
each section, keeping to proper position. 
Criticise your work iu respect to regularity 
of bight and spacing. Alter thorough 
practice with fore-arm movement, you may 

its sides parallel to the right fore-arm. Keep introduce subordinate finger movements ou 
the wrist of right-hand above the paper. I the down strokes in alternation with the 
CoDtinae this gliding motion of hand, right ; fore-arm 

-^i.U. ■'Tm:ii^Mm- 

Movements Deffned. 

7?i« Fore-arm Movement ctmeists in the 
.li-lion of ihp fi>re-ann, centered upon the 
irmecular Bwell forward of the elbow, parry- 
\xn^ the hanil on the paper ou the tips of 
the nails of the tliinl and fourth fingers. 

The Finger Movement consists in the 
'-•iTiihincd action of the finit and seiwod tin- 
iii-T» and thumb in using the pen. 

Although these two inovemeote are de- 
tiiied separately, yet they are usually ein- 
ployed ctmjniully, foruiing what is called 
tlic Combined, or Compound, Movemetit, the 
uje best adapted to practical writing. 

The pupil cannot dwell too thoroughly 
upon these exercises in position and move- 
uieut. Tliey cannot be too well learned. 
TboMe M-bo really ina.ster first lessons, have 
very lirtle difficulty iu mastering the lessons 
which follow in regular order. 

Copv 4 (Cut XIV). This Is given more 
for study tlian for practice. Practice, how- 
ever, must not he omitted. The straight 
line, riijhi curve, and left curve are the ele- 
ments of letters. They are the inolerial to 
be used in forming letters. 

Observe the dotted s.piare, 
and width divided into three 
('art'fully make such a B(|u;i 
iog 2i simces on upper sides 
left verlical, make a point; from this di 
il'uvn a slanting straight line to base of the 
vortical. This liae will form au angle of 
•i'Z"^ with base Hue, and is on what is called 
the main slant of wnling. 

Practice the slanting straight lines, firs', 
with fore-arm movement, not permitting 
any separate action of the fingers. Tbe 
strokes sliould be made regularly from top 
downward. Motion may be regulated by 
counting. After the forearm drill, allow 
first and second tiiigers and thumb, and 
the action of the hand at the wrist, to co- 
operate with fore-arm, producing combined 

Study the curves. See how, by the aid 
of the dotted equares, the connective slant 
of 30° (one-third of a right angle) is se- 
cured. Practice thp curved strokes, making 
them from base upward. Try them wiih 
fore-arm movement, then with combined 
movement. Maintain correct position, 
study, practice, criticise your efforts, and 
you will beconte master of the pen. 
{To be continued.) 

with its bight 

I 0(iuh1 spaces. 

Lre, then pass- 

.right of the 

The Packard Pic-Nic. 


Packard's College to..k place on Friday, 
June ."iOtli, that being the closing day of the 
year's work. Over two-hundred students 
and their friends took the Glen Island boat, 
at half-past eight in the morning, ami spent 
the day in such amusements as make up tbe 
programme of a modern excursion. The 
young men ran races and jumped for fun 
and gold medals; the young ladies played 
ball and enxjuet, and flirted in a most inno- 
cent and wholesome fashion, and everybody 
took a Rhode Island Clam-bake, an.l de- 
clared it was good to be there. The day 
was, for the most part, jiropitioue, but ended 
in a slight shower which jiromised, for a 
time, to cut ofl" the last two items iu the 
programme — the swimming-race and the 
tub-race. These feats, however, were ex- 
ecuted with much gallantry and skill, aud 
the big family went back to town on the 
half-past five boat, nmkiug a lively time of 
it for all on board. The medals we 
sented to the victors by Mr. Packard, 
return trip, aud the afiair ^^as voted 
most delightful episode in tlie year' 


School Slates 

Are now being made of white card-board, 
covered with a film forui> d by the action of 
sulphuric acid on tissue paper. This ctjv- 
eriiig is jirobably a modification of cellu- 
loid. Tue slates can be used with a lead 
pencil, or with ink, and, to remove the 
marks, the slate is washed with cold water. 
A special ink u also prepared for use with 

the white slates. It is composed nf harm- 
less mineral coloring matter mixed with 
dextrine, and is aptly cnlled "children's 
ink." It can be removed from the slate 
with a wet sponge. Another form of slate 
is made by coating the white card-board 
with water-glass. It may be used with 
lead pencil or Colored crayons. AVhen the 
surface becomes soiled the water-glass may 
be rubbed oft' with sand-paper, aud a new 
film may be put on with a sponge or bnish 
dipped in water-glass. The ordinary black 
slate and white pencil Is weW enough for 
mere writing and outlines, but for pictures 
requiring shading, it mislends the child by 
presenting the picture with the lights re- 
versed, or in a negative position. A white 
slate and black pencil, is therefore better, 
as following nature in the matter ol shading 
and giving pictures that are positive. The 
new slates have not yet been introduced in 
this country, but it would seem that they 
might prove of value in our schools. Per- 
haps a celluloid state, if properly made, 
would be equally good, and might be sold 
at a low price. — Ida Co. Pioneer. 

Another Great Engineering 

Some of our leading engineers suggest a 
plan for utilizing the vast water supply of 
the extreme northern part of the continent. 
By closing the northerly outlet of the valley 
of the Mackenzie River at the line of Gti de- 
grees, and thus storing up the water of 
J.'^GO.OOO square miles, to which could be 
added the water of other large areas, a lake 
would be formed, of about 2,0U0 miles iu 
length by 200 of average width, which 
would cover with one continuous surface the 
labyrinth of streams nud valleys which now 
<iecupy the Mackenzie Valley. It would 
prove a never-failing feeder for the Missis- 
sippi, and would connect with Hudson Bay 
and the great Lakes, and also with the in- 
terior of Alaska through the Yakon and its 
affluents. The connection of the Upper 
Mississippi with Lake Mackenzie would be 
a comparatively easy matter, and a vast 
amount of navigable water-way would be 
added to this river. The formation of Lake 
Mackenzie would also contribute to the pro- 
posed ship canal from Cairo (Illinois) to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence by the almost straight 
line which cuts the Wabash Valley, the 
Lakes Erie and Ontario, and the Lower St. 
Lawrence. — Boston Journal of Chemistry. 

The Pagan and the* Lawyer. — In 
Police Court No. 2, yesterday afternoon, a 
highbinder was undergoing examination ior 
assault to murdfr, and being warmly de- 
ftnded by ex-judge M. S. Horau, one of the 
stanchest supporters of tbe Democracy to be 
found in the state. Among the witnesses 
was a remarkably well-educated Mongolian 
named Joe Sing, who was made a citizen in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, some years ago. Ex- 
Judge Koran commenced the examination 
of the witness with tlie stereotyped "What 
i-* your name?" Witness: "Joo Sing." Kx- 
Judge Horan: "What is your business?"' 
Witness: " I am a seam .u." Ex- Judge 
Horau : " I believe you are a naturalized 
citizen and vote regularly?" Witness: 
"Oh, yes; I am a citizen. I <;an vote as 
well as you can." Here Mr. Horau could 
not resist the temptation to make a point 
for the "grand old parly," aud awked : "I 
suppose you vote the Republican ticket 
alwaysf" Witness: "No, sir; I always 
Vote the Democratic ticket." The court- 
room lobby roared, unmindful of Bailift' 
Smith's shouts for order, and the paralyzed 
Horan dropped back in his chair us though 
he had been shot. After order had been 
restored, the examination was proceeded 
without any great amount of latitude being 
taken by the blushing and disgusted at- 
torney. — San Francisco Chronicle. 

There are a number of coincidences in the 
life of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. 
This year, 1S82, is the nineteenth year of 

the 2i)7th cycle of nineteen years. Queeu 
Victoria was bom in IBJ9, aud adding the 
digits of that year the total is nineteen. 
In her lyth year she ascended the throne ; 
Ihedigitsof that year, 18^7, added together, 
make nineteen. This year, l^^2, the total 
sum of ttie figures is also nineteen. This 
will do for nineteen. There is another 
series of nines, however. The Queen bad 
nine children. This year she "will have 
reigned 45 years, and tbe sum of 4 and 5 is 
nine. This year she will be 63 years old, 
and again 6 and 3 make nine. This year 
the Queen will haveliveed2I years a virgin, 
21 years a wife and 21 years a widow, aud 
the sum of these digits is nine. — Sural Netc 

A Mistake was Made. — A young lady 
gave " her yi)uug man " a beautifully- worked 
pair of slippers, and he acknowledged the 
present by sending her his picture, encased 
in a handsome frame. He wrote a note to 
send with it, and, at the same time, replied 
angrily to an oft-repeated dun for an 
unpaid-for suit of clothes. He gave a boy 
ten cents to deliver the package and notes, 
giving explicit directions as to the destina- 
tion of each. 

It was a hoy with a freckled face, and he 
disfdiarged his en-and in a manner that 
should give him a niche in tbe temple of 

The young lady received a note in her 
adored one's handwriting, and flew to her 
room to devour its contents. She opened 
the missive with eager fingers, and read : 

" I'm getting tired of your everlasting 
attentions. The suit is about worn out 
already. It never amounted to much, any- 
way. Please go to thunder." 

Aud the taibir was struck utterly dumb, 
when he opened a parcel, and discovered 
the picture of his delinquent customer, with 
a note that said : 

"When you gaze upon the features, 
think how much I owe you." 

When the unfortunate young man called 
around that evening to receive the happy 
acknowledgment of his sweetheart, ho was 
very ostentatiously ahovrd off the stops by 
tlie youug lady's father. — San FraneL<ico 

Ancient Farms.— We talk a great deal 
about the large farms of this century aud 
country, but some of the people of ancient 
days had pretty good-sized estates. For 
instance, a contemporary mentions tbe case 
of Ninus, who inherited from his father, 
Nimrod, a farm as big as a good-sized west- 
ern estate, with 120,000 cattle, 14,000 
slaves, and about $000,000,000 as working 
capital, all of which he doubled before his 
death. Cyrus, the King of Persia, had at 
one time 30,000 horses, 40,000 cattle, 200,- 
UOO sheep, 15,000 asses, and 25,000 slaves, 
and three thousand million dollars spare 
cash besides. 


Victor Hugo believes in salvation by 
works. " Death," he says, " is the recom- 
pense for the good done on earth." 
. A lady-traveler says that she never finds 
a newspaper or a clock in the ladies' parlor 
of a hotel but that ^he always finds a mirri>r. 

A literary woman:— "Is Mrs. Brown a 
literary woman I" " Decidedly. She makes 
most beautiful pen-wipers."— Boston Tran- 

The truest test of civilization is not the 
census, nor the sizo of cities, nor the crops 
— no, but the kind of men the country turns 
out. — Emerson. 

An Astronomical Congress is about to be 
held at Strasburg, which will he visited by 
many eminent astronomers from all parts of 
the civilized world. 

A little giri of three explains the Gulden 
Rule to her older sister : " It means that 
you must do everything I want you to, and 
you musu't do anything that I don't want 
you to." 

The speaker had failed to awaken a very 
deep interest in his hearers, but when the 
small boy had stolen quietly out after leav- 
ing red pepper on tho stovo there wasn't a 
dry eye in the house. — Modern Argo. 

"Is lying wicked t" asked a teacher of 
his class. " Very," replied a little urchin 
" if it is habitually practiced." " Good boy," 
replied the teacher ; " aud is suicide very 
wicked T " " Yes," shouted tbe whole class, 
"if habitually practiced." 

A man can always write better than he 
can speak. This is a rule of universal ap- 
plication. Even when a gentleman stands 
on the bank of a stream, he gets no fish 
by speaking, though ho be ever so eloquent ; 
but on the other hand, if he just " drops a 
line" to tlu! finny tribe, they respond with, 
great alacrity. 

The latest joke about King Kalakaua, of 
the Sandwich Islands, is that ho cuuuot help 
being a good man. The reaium assigned is 
that his ancestors ate so much missionary in 
their time that it worked into their system 
and was transmitted to their descendants. 
Missionaries who are eaten are, after all, not 
wasted, it would appear. 

The death of Darwin lia.s brought out iti 
a striking manner the silent revolution that 
has occuned iu tho world of thoueht during 
the past twenty-one years. Who would have 
iniagined, nearly a quarter of a century ago, 
that the author of the "Origin of.Species 
by Natural Selection " would be buried la 
Westminster Abbey, aud that eulogies 
would be pronounced, regarding his charac- 
ter and career, by dignitaries of the Church 
of England f 

In Norway woodpeckers' damage tele- 
graph poles by boring througii them, sup- 
posing that the humming sound produced 
by the wires is caused by insects upon 
which they feed. Bears also remove tho 
supports of the poles, instinct leading them 
to suspect that the humming is produced by 
wild bees and tlmt the poles contain honey. 
Instinct, like reason, is not infallible. 

We are accustomed to consider a signa- 
ture in the form of a cross-mark as a token 
of ignorance, and as kings aud nobles iu 
the past nsed it freely, set it down to tho 
illiteracy of the lime. Among the Saxous, 
however, this mark of the cross was re- 
quired after the signature as an attestation 
of good faith — in fact, tbe symbol of an oath. 
The phrase " God save the mark " occurs 

plained by Mr. Charles Knight as a refer- 
ence to this custom. — Our Continent. 

With the death of Dean Stanley ceased 
the production of about the worst hand- 
writing tho world has ever known, hut 
printers will bo continued to be baflled, at 
least as hmg as a certain member uf the 
present House of Commons lives. That 
gentleman recently gave notice of his in- 
tention to put a question to the Premier with 
respect to tlie duties chargeable upou each 
county and borough iu England aud Wales. 
After some timo spent in tlie endeavor, the 
clerks and the primers were fdiliged to 
abandon the attempt to decipher the oaiiie. 
The nrdic-e accurdiugly appeartd on tho 
Orders with a blank where the name should 
have been. 

Astronomy is a beautiful science. Wo 
arc told that if a railway was rnn from tho 
earth to the nearest fixed star, and (lie faro 
was only one penny for every utw. hundred 
miles, and if you took to the ticket-otiice a ol gold equal (o the uutioual debt— 
$3,ti00,000,000— it wouldn't be sufficient 
to pay for a ticket to ihe nearest fi.\td star 
aforesaid. If this he the case, it matters 
very little to us whether such a railroad is 
ever constructed. U would be inighty di»- 
couriiging to go into the lickot-olficc with 
a mass of gold itpiai tu *3,t*( 10,000,000 and 
be informed that the fare was $o,07d,032,- 
000. If the ticket-agent wouldn't trust un 
til we got back we'd be compelled to forego 
tbe trip. 


In School Days. 

And blMkbrrrr Tlirn mn rtmnin^ 

W*Dl •tomlog out lo J>lB 
It U)iicl)«d tba tanffM gotd 

Wb«n prld« 
PuablCfT tritb n 

Educational Notes. 

[CommutiicatimiB for tliia Dt-purlmeiil miiy 
be BddrvaBttd tu B. R KkLLKY, :JU& Brundway, 
)J«w York. Briut* educatiuiial ilemn euticitHd.] 

A medical college for womrn has jtist 
keen iDcurporated in Baltimore. 

The Appletons have er.hl 4(i,000,UUO 
Wehater spellers wiihiii the last forty years. 

It was not until after the ninth century 
that copyists began to leave spaces between 
words in writing. 

Connnercial departnieola in connection 
with literary and clusaical instltutiuns are 
rapidly iuerca&iug. 

Edinburgh University has 3,237 students, 
the School of Medicine taking the larger 
proportion — 1,6:^8. 

More hours are spent in ihe study of his- 
tory at Hariford than in that of any other 
branch of learning. 

The University of Derlin has now more 
than 4,U0U students— the largest number 
ever yet reached by tlie German university 

St. Louis now has thirty-six kindergar- 
tens, eacli containing from 75 to 125 pupils. 
They are aU emiueuily successful.—JV. Y. 

Phila.— Grace Bubb, n Maine girl, re- 
cently stood first aud ])HS9i'd ihe best cxam- 
inatioQ iu a class of 195 at the College of 
I*liarma*iy. — School Journal. 

Tlie WorUing-meu's College, in Loudon, 
of which 'I'buB. Hugiies, the well-known 
author, is Presiduut, has over 8(10 students 
iu aiieadance. — Teacher's Guide. 

The city of Charleston, S. C, is said to 
have done more for itstdf in behalf of its 
school- children, without aid from abroad, 
than any other city in the South. 

Michigan University has 1,307 students — 
the largest number of any Amcricau col- 
lege. Columbia pays its professois the lar- 
gest salariea.— JV. O. Christian Advocate. 

Mr. Cyrus W. Fielil has presented to 
Williams CoHege a wiud-.w iu memory of 
Prtsideul Garfield. It « as executed by Mr. 
John Lafarge at a cost of over $4,000. 

Two hundred and ninety-seven students 
are named in the annual catalogue of the 
school. — I'eachrr'i Guide. 

The University at Cambridge, England, 
by an immense majority of its Senate — '396 
to 32 — has opened its regular examination 
to women students, graoling them the same 
honors and degrees as young men. — N. 0. 
Christian Advocate. 

The Agricultural College, in Michigan, 
is the oldest, aud is said to be the most sue' 
cessful, in the country. It was established 
in 1854, and has graduated 212 students, of 
whom 8G are general farmers and 8 are 
fruit-cuUurists. — N. 0. Christian Advocate. 

One of the colored pupiU at Hampton 
(Va.) lustilute illustrated the opposite 
meanings of '"pro" and "con" by giving 
as examples progress and CoHgress. He 
had evidently been reading the proceedings 
of the present session. — Detroit Free Press. 

Of the 5t»4 new convicts who were re- 
ceived into the Ohio Peniteuliary last year, 
seventeen had a college education and four*- 
teen had taken high school courses. Murat 
Halstead thinks the inference is that gerunds 
and supines have more of a tendency to 
drive men to the dickens than the mild 
analysis of early English literature. — N. Y. 

There are only 113 works in the English 
language which the blind can read. Pro- 
ducing books in raised letters is very expen- 
sive, and of course the sales are small, so 
that their publication is a matter of charily. 
The Perkins Institute, of Boston, has 
almost raised a fund of $100,000, with 
which they will issue twelve books a year 
indefinitely. — Mendocino Beacon. 

Educational Fancies. 

There are fifty race-cuurses in Kentucky, 

and (juite a number of small colleges. — 

The faculty of Vassar Colleg 
twenty-five ladle* aud seven geatleuieD 

School-houscB should have lightning-rods 
on them, for )f you spare the rod the cbil- 
dreu may be spoiled. 

Pastor : " When father and mother both 
abandon you, wbr. then will take you inf" 
Scholar: "The police.'' 

"The numb'r of bones in man," we are 
told, " is 240." Just after partaking of a 
sliad breakfast the number may be increased 
to 250. 

A boy when rebuked for spelling needle 
n-e-i-d-1-e said that every good nerdle 
should have au eye in it. " Sew it should," 
responded the teacher. — Teacher's Guiile. 

"Pa," asked little Johnny, "what does 
the teacher mean by saying that I must 
have inherited my bad temper!" "She 
meau't, Johnny, that you are your mother's 

A has an overcoat for which he paid $J8, 
and his wife trades it ofl' tor two red clay 
busts of Andrew Jackson, worth thirty cents 
each. How much money will the get from 
her husband to buy a fall bonnet t — Detroit 
Free Press. 

A man trades a S70 watch for a $45 
shot-gun, pays $3 for repairs, ^nd then ex- 
chanj^es it for a $30 horse, which kicks a 
$28 cow to death, and then dies of a broken 
heart. How much did the man lose?— De- 
troit free Press. 

When you caunnt spell a word, and have 
no dicti<.nary handy, the best way is to 
write the ticklish part in a vague sort of 
way, so that the reader will imagine that 
you are either a genius, an editor or a pro- 
fessor of foreign languages. — JV. ¥. Com- 
meicial Advertiser. 

The Gothic style ot haudwriti.ig now so 
popular amoLig ladies may have its liaid- 
vantMges. It is said that a young man who 
rerenily received a specimen of it could unt 
tell, fur the life ofhim, whether it was "Yes, 
with pleasure," "No, thauk jou," or a 
picket fence. — Cin. Trade List. 

A tnmp bus 300 feet to go to reach a 

gate, while tlie fanner's dog has 300 feet to 
go to bite the tramp. The tramp travels at 
the rale of twelve miles an hour, and the 
dog at the rale of twenty. How near the 
gate will the poor, disconraaed sufferer be 
when the cai-ioe cau hes out — Detroit Free 

Teacher : " Johnnie, you may write a sen 
tence on the board. Be sure you have a 
word that represeut-i an object, and nnethat 
you CHD spell. \ow, Johnnie, what )mve 

"Johnnie, you may go and 

play now." 

" Nature abhors a vacuum," remarked 
Ihe phiUisophic student, as be quietly stuffed 
his iuner man from the professor's back 
fruit orchard. " Force is an agent that 
ciiuees motion," munnured the professor, as 
he rose up out of the weeds and gently 
caressed the youth over the ten-foot fence 
on his pedal tips. 

The ipstlietical teacher was endeavoring 
to impress upon the mindH of the young 
pupils the beauties of .he springtime. 
" What," said the teacher, " what comes in 
the S|-ring to please the children f (mean- 
ing birds and Howers). After a little pause, 
tw.>-ecore hands were raised. "Forepaiigh's 
circus," was the loud response. — Teacher's 

A country schoolmaster thus delivered 
himself: " II a carpenter wants to cover a 
roof fifteen fee' wide by thirty broad, with 
boards five feet broad, by twelve long, how 
many boards will be needed?" The new 
boy took U]i his bat aud made for the door. 
" Where aie you goiny ? " asked the master. 
" To find a carpe'iter,'' repli-.d the boy. 
" He ought to know that better than avy of 

If thiough spels thru, why don't trough 
spel tru, and blough, btu, aud crongh, rru, 
aud Dough, nu, aud tough, tu F If it takes 
phthisis to spel titis and sigh to spel si, why 
don't phthipsigh spel tipsy, and phthiah- 
shough, tissu, and if a Chinaman car pro- 
noil^ce the buuchea of siTawls on a tea- 
chest, why is not the same kind of writing 
goiighd eenoughphfie phffoir us? — Rescue. 

[ In every instance where tlie source of any 


!Uiirti^ay fro 

Bad Penmanship. 

This subject would seem to be worn thread- 
bare by the frequency of its mention as well 
as the deprecations daily heard against it iu 
business transactions. It will not be neces- 
f^ary to particularly rehearse the annoyances 
aud inconveniences of it, or to recall a sin- 
gular ease of it; but we will refer io a gen- 
eral and wholesale way to it as the greatest 
source of irouble, pain, and annoyance, and 
(shall I say it), sin wliich afflicts this Ameri- 
can nation, li is the source of sin in caus- 
ing open profanity and toss of patience and 
temper, besides inward and unexpressed 
profanity. In private life its occurrence 
may be annoying, but it is less frequent 
there than elsewhere, because there is gen- 
erally more care and tiuie taken to make it 
readable and to have the earued renutation 
of being a "gond penman." This is the re- 
sult, in part, of the many schools of oma- 
niental penmanship, which have thus raised 
the social standard of writing; but that is 
about as far as it has gone — it has not yet 
reached the business community so as to 
have any visible effect upon correspondents 
and disinterested aud hurried busluess mat- 
ters. The great centers of this modern af- 
fiiction can be found iu railroad aud express 
companies, in newspaper offices, mercantile 
houses, law courts and departments of gov- 
ernment, but nowhere can it he found so 
fonnidable, extensive and dangerous as in 
telegraph offices. Each telegraph message 
sent has to run the hazard oi this gauntlet 
four tiuies, and the chauces arc iucreaeed by 
hurry and brevity each lime. The number 
of times can bo proved somewhat easier than 
Dr. Johnson proved that a cat had three 
tails. His plan was in asserting that no cat 

had two tails and a cat had one tail more 
than no cat, hence a cat has three tails. 
Now, a telegraph message has to go through 
five onleals. The first is that iu the mind 
of the sender which he hurriedly scrawls in 
the fewest words possible, and it may or 
may not express what he desires to convey. 
The secowf is the receiving itperalor, who 
takes this and is m-t guided by the sense of 
the words and cauuut aud to or detract from 
them; he makes them out the best he can 
in a hurry, and trnu^'mits them to another 
operator, who, in the (Aird place, is guided 
by what he takes to be expressions of the 
sender; he reads it aud then hurriedly 
scratches it off, partly from memory, it may 
be, and this the fourth movement is de- 
livered to the receiver, who isthe/»/fA party 
who must decipher this ;Atd understand ii if 
he can. The telegraiih ctiuipauy must see 
that at least three of these are pn-perly well 
done. The operator n.usl accurately read 
the message received, and send it iu such 
manuer as to enable the receiving operator 
to write it down in such a manner as to 
make it readable to the receiver. The 
great burden, after all, is upon the two 
operators, and good penmanship on the part 
of the sender of the nussage and also on 
the part of the receiver of the message 
would wonderfully lessen the troubles and 
burdens and hazards of many business com- 

The question of what is good penman- 
ship is one that, strange to pay, is not capa- 
ble of being definilely answered to the sat- 
isfaction of everybody, and we might say 
anybody. The definition, based upon the 
business experience of modern times, is not 
that ornamental species of graceful and 
shaded curves which writing-teachers would 
have us believe and fain teach our sons in 
schools and busiut-ss-colleges. Neither is 
it that "round hand" and " hair lines," which 
were the aim and delight of our fathers half 
a century ago, and are still the delight of our 
English cousins. That is all very well for 
engrossing and fur rccoids and social correa- 
pondence ; but, young men, it is uot what 
you will need for use in active business life I 

What is needed and where can I learn it, 
you ask. What ia needed is to make the 
letters, in writing, of the shortest length 
practicable, and without curves where it is 
possible to retain the contour of letters with- 
out it, hold the peu as close to the paper as 
possible, and maku aa little motion as possi- 
ble, and never try to shade letters or to 
make graceful and oruauiental curves. 
Write all capital letters very plain, aud all 
numerical figures diMiuctly, and write all 
proper names and abbreviations distinctly 
and carefully. This is because there ia 
generally no means of ascertaining them by 
the sense. You are insured of rapidity, and 
it may be said geueral gracefulness, when 
you make letters in the shortest and easiest 
way possible, asabuve suggested ; this, with 
the proper names and figures distinct, will 
render such writiut; ea>ily read. The usual 
indistiuctuess of numerical figures in writ- 
ing has led telegraph compauies to require 
all nimihers to be fjif lied uut both in receiv- 
ing and eeudiug mes.siiges, to avoid frequent 
errors in them. Punctuation ia also import- 
ant as well as the use of capital letters, to 
aid in ascertainiug the sense of words. 
(JrnauienlAl penmanship is as much out of 
place iu a telegiaph mtseage as it would 
be in waltz to your jdace of business instead 
of directly stepping iJiere. Business pen- 
manship is not as much taught iu schools and 
colleges as it ought to he, and hence a per- 
son must be his own teacher in a great 
measure and learn by experience and obser- 
vation the manner and style which is the 
easiest and best tor himself to insure the 
most rapid and readable hand, and not be 
guided by mere imitation, as is characteris- 
tically the case in ornamental penmanship. 
Nearly all telegraph operators are required 
to be able to write from twenty to thirty 
words a minute, aud a few have even been 
able to write fifty short words a minute so 
that the message could be read without 
being copied over by the receiving operator. 


Am .JOl, 

I u large bneioess cCDtres the MpyiilK over 
of a (elfgraph inessdgo is oot expected ur 
fjenerally allowed. 

While we are firm believers that land- | 
" riling shows the characteristics of the ' 
^^riler, particularly iu autographs, it is uot 
f"> marked iu husioe^s corninuDications, sa 
it is left more to the habit and practice of 
the writer, and is circumscribed much by > 
time audoppoitunily afforded for the display 
'.f tasie, which dn not atteud the mere sign- 
ing of one's name according to his own 
fancy. Persons who do not write much 

show their individual character more when 
they do write than those who write much 
and in haste. 

Our closing advire w, let your letters be 
made plain, well de6ned and brief, withoot 
curves and Hourishes, and it will be a hless- 
ioK aud not a curse to all who have to do l 
anything with it. — Journal of the Telegraph. , 

Many writing- masters do a Jlourishing 
iisiness, yet practically they are not a sui- 

Gum Arabic. 

The most familiar objecta about ns are 
often least understood, and probably few 
can pause to ask the question : What is 
gum arable, and from whence it comes f In 
Morocco, about the middle of November 
(that is, a'ler the rainy season), a gummy 
juice e.'iudes spontaneously from the trunk 
and branches of the acacia. It gradually 
thickens in the furrow down which it runs, 
and assumes the form of oval aud round 
drops, about the size of a pigeon's egg, of 

different colors, as & comes from the red or 
white gum tree. About the middle of 
December the Moors encamp on the borden 
of the forest, and the harvests last a full 
month. The gum is packed in large 
leather sacks, and transported on the backs 
of camels and bulluclis to seaports for ship. 
meut to ditlerent countries. The harvest 
occasion is made one of great rejoicing, and 
the people, for the time being almost live 
on gum, which is nutritious and fattening. 
Sucli is the comiuercial story of this simpla 
but useful article. 


Ihe ahore cut is photo- engraved from an original pen-avd-inK- design (22xSS in.), ea.-ecv1ed at the offtce of the '^Journal" Copies have been finely printed (18x32 in.) 
on a good quality of Bristol hoard, which are being rapidly sold by agents, to whom ihe most liberal terms are given. Single copies mailed to any address for $1.00. In our 
A ugust isstte ice shall presettt a cut of our new Marriage Certificate, which is designed to he a companion work to the Record. The original is now nearly completed, and oopiet 
V II be ready for agents before the 1st of August. It will be printed m two s,ze^,vtz: IS x 2:^. for framtny, and 11 x li on bond paper, so a^ to admit of folding. SingUj 
(■JHS, J^ X 32, at ^I.OO, an4 U 5 U, 50 cents. Sample copies, either Record or Certificate, tcill be sent to persons desiring to act as agents at on^-half thf above frioca. 
Ur Br-^i^eiihtr <if these works will, here^tr, be given (w a premium with tht ' '</oifrtnrf," 

J ■•: 

:■ cf^f of the Joi;iL<(AL m>dI od nwtpt of 1 


. earn" liiod iioo.ob iiso.oo 

)3 7: 


mAwmnrr ; for ill iiionlh* and on* year, payabl* qni 


In* "'"' ■ '■"'''"" 

Mill— •' '■ ' ■" "•-' " ,-'".l-"rl"l> 


ProKnw." iSliWi o 


w (utiM-ribcT, or rem 


irIod'i NonDalfiy^K 
* nomM iinil |3 wn wl 

d'.Pntw." 19x24; 
l^enlennlnl Ploriire of 
BiiuiidiDfffitii9,":Mx3S. For 

py o» ellhiw of the fotluwing 
fiy*i«m of I^iieriflfT 


" Willi" 1 


lAL nremlnni to Uio a 
DDK vrar. wlihaobolc 
J IblliMTi: 


!i05 Broodwny, New Yoi 

llilDl to Iho PKXMAS'8 AHT JOUHSAl 


Natlo« will 1m) fflvnn by )Ki«lnt-ciL 
Iho pxplnillon of iboir lulxoriptloiii 
nipor will, la till vum, bo ttoi'ped u 

New York, July, 1882. 

Lessons in Box and Package 


lu \u'\v <.r tlio frrcal utility and the fre- 
qufut R'tiucBts fur InBtnictiou iu package 
lind l)ux iiiHrking liy the patrons of the 
JonitNAi,, we shall, in the August iiuinher, 
give tlio first of a series of practiojil lessons, 
emhraciiig the )irnper aljiliabet for all mark- 
irg-puriioses. To be able to hauilsoinely 
and («xpeditioue1y mark a package is an ac- 
conipliBliment whioh is highly approuiated 
in their employes by large mercantile houses, 
ea well as managers of express and traus- 
liortalioo companies, and is one which 
will alone often secure to its possessor a 
deviratdti position. 

"Wo shall spare no pains or expense to 
render this course of inslriiotion, to the 
liighoet degree, iustructivo to all who have 
au iuieresi in this line of art. 

And as we progress with the course, we 
ebnll appreciate any suggestions relating 
tbercio, and shall lake pleasure iu answer- 
ing, to the boat of our ability, any questions 
of geuenU iulcrost that readers may see fit 

Considering the practical and geuvral 
uliliiy of this course of instnictiou, to 
gether with the very practical writing les- 
sons wbicii Prof. U. C. Spencer is now giv- 
ing through the ooluuios of the Journal, we 
believe, nearly every yuung lady and gentle- 
man iu the laud would become a subscriber, 
were they properly informed reepecting its 
nature aud vbIuo. 

We therefore earnestly invito its patrons 
wd ftidUiU to ilo tlie (lulliflien, u well u 

their own friends, a favor, by calling tbeir 
attention to the Journal and soliciting 
subscriptions. Where specimen-copies ate 
desired to be distributed for thai purpose, 
we shall take pleasuie in forwarding them 
free ; and to those who desire to make a 
business of securing subscriptions we will 
forward a circular, giving our special cash 
commission to ageutA. 

Many agents are making a profitable 
business of securing subscribers and selling 
our putilications upon penmanship. Many 

Pen-Paralysis, or Writer's Cramp. 

During the late Convention of Business- 
Educators and Penmen at Ciuciuuali, the 
subject of "Pen-paralysis; Its Cause and 
Remedy," was somewhat extensively dis-, 
puased. Somn regarded it as an electrical 
effect, resulting from the use of a steel or 
metal holder; others, as the result of ner- 
vous exhaustion, from too long and severe 
exercise of the fingers, while writing, upon 
the fingor-movcinent; hut the more gener- 
ally-accepted theory was that paralysis was 
occasioned by the use of a small penholder 
tightly gripped, and a long and exhaustive 
exercise of the muscles of the fingers, in the 
effort to execute rapid writing wilh a 
cramped finger-movemont, and that the 
preventive, as well as remedy, was in the 
use of a large or medium-sized holder, held 
lightly, and writing with the fore-arm or 
combined movement. 

This, we believe, to be a correct view of 
the matter. We have had a somewhat ex- 
tensive observation respectiug writers af- 
flicted with paralysis or ciamp, and gener- 
ally found, upon inquiry, that they were in 
the habit of holding their pens tightly, and 
writing exclusively with the fingcr-move- 

We have never known anyone to be thns 
afflicted who held their pen lightly and 
made use of either a fore-arm movement, 
or even a wrist- movement. 

One of the remedies proposed was, that 
writers subject to this dilficulty become am- 
bidextrous, by learning to write with both 
hands, and when one became tired, give it 
a rest by using the other. 

Several instances were related by Prof. 
H. C. Spencer (who proposed this plan), of 
penmen who had come under his observa- 
tion and tuition, who, in a short time, had 
learned to write with the left-hand with a 
facility nearly equal to that of the right- 
hand. This, however, would seem tu be 
more valuable as a remedy than as a i)re- 
vontive. We believe that, with a large 
or medium-sized holder, lightly held, and a 
free muscular movement, either paralysis or 
cramp is impossible to a hand free from 
disease or malformation. 

Spencer's Lesson, No. II. 

We have no dimbt that the readers of the 
Journal will agree that we made no rash 
statement when we promised, in the June 
issue, the finest illustrated Leasou for July 
that had ever appeared in any penman's 
paper, or, for that matter, ever before pub- 
lished anywhere. It is only a fair speciiiieu 
of what may be expected throughout the 
Course. No one who desires the best in- 
struction, either as a guide to the successful 
teaching or practice of writing, should miss 
one of these lessons. 

The August issue will be interesting and 
attractive, not alone from Prof. Spencer's 
Lesson, but from other highly artistic spe- 
cimens, which are now being engraved for 

Business-College Papers and the 

To the many publishers of college papers 
who have so kindly noticed and commended 
to their patrons the Pknman's Art 
Journal, we return our thanks, and trust 
that the warm interest the Journal 
has ever taken in business education may, 
iu some measure, re]»«y their highljr apprf' 

The King Club 

Comes again fr«m C. W. Boucher, Principal 
of the Business Institute connected with the 
Northern Indiana Niirmal School, Val- 
paraiso, lud., and numbers seventy -Jitfe. 
This gives an aggregate of eleven hundred 
subscribers sent by Mr. Boucher within a 
period of about two years. This has been 
done incidentally, in connection M-ith his 
other regular employment. Had Mr. Boucher 
made a business of securing subscribers, 
there is no doubt but he would have secured 
many times more than he has done, suf- 
ficient to give him a liandsome remunera- 
tion for his tiuie. What he has done is 
sufficient to show what may be done for the 
Journal by live, capable agents. Hun- 
dreds of subscribers may be secured in every 
well populated town in the country, and 
what wo want is agents who can do it, and 
to such most liberal inducements will be 

The second cbib in size comes from S. C. 
Williams, special teacher of writing and 
book-keeping in the public schools of Lock- 
port, N. Y., and numbers twenty-Jive. 

The third in size numbers thirteen, and 
comes from V. B. C<irbin, a student at G. 
W. Michael's Pen-Art School, Delaware, 
Ohio. Considering the season of the year, 
clubs have been unusually numerous and 
large during the past mtmth — to all of the 
senders of which we return our thanks. 

Advertise in the "Journal." 
No special solicitaiiou for advertisements 
in the Journal is made. Those wlio have 
availed themselves of its coluums for adver- 
tipiug have continued to do so, whic^h is the 
best evidence that we can have that they are 
paid. Wells W. Swift remits, in advance, 
to renew his " ad." one year, and says : '' I 
Imve now advertised in the Journal five 
years, and for my purpose there is no better 
advertising medium in the world. W 11. 
Sadler renews his "ad.,"' for two columns 
for a year, and says " that the Jouiinal is 
his best medium." 


Ill our "suggestions," relative to the 
" Hill Prizes for Penmanship," in the June 
issue, wp stated that the size of a page of 
" Hill's Manual " was i>xti inches ; it should 
have been 8x6 inches; the size of the work 
for competitioti, should therefore be l(ixI2, 
or, if composed of open work, may be 24x18. 

The "Journal" for August 
Will be one of unusual interest aud artistic 
display. We are now having engraved a 
large number of cut^, from superior speci- 
uiens of practical aud artistic penmanship ; 
several from pen-artists of repute, and others 
which have been prepared with great care 
at the office of the Journal. 

Frauds ! 
sympathize with Mr. 


ith E. B. Crandall. I have an 
est hi. II for a large amount of 
pen-work. He assuuied the "die" in his 
name after corresponding with me; accord- 
ing to the first four letters I received from 
him, his name should end with "dall." 
About the firEt of June, Crandall was in 
Tene Haute, Ind. 

Auother genuine fraud, who signs his 
name A. Tigoiere, Jr., Artist Penman, 
should bo watched by the public. He 
claims to "drive (piill" in Kansas. Tignier 
also uses the name of D. T. Ames quite 
freely in soliciting favors in securing peu- 

Hopiiig the above will be of value to 
other penmen, I am. 

Very respectfully, 

C. N. Crandlb, 

Valparaiso, lud. 
Wo have been informed by several par- 
ties, that they had paid A- Tigniere, Jr. for 
\h9 JoufttiAlij liut tm4 pever reoeiretj it. 

Mr. T. faas never made a remittance to this 
office, and we have never heard of either of 
the parties named by Mr. Crandle except 
through persons whom they have vie 

Books and Exchanges. 
Messrs. Clark &. Maynard, of 7;U Broad- 
way, have lately published, for use in com 
mercial colleges, high schools, and acade- 
mies, a Text-book on Commercial Law, by 
Slater S. Clark, Counsellor- al-Iaw. It con- 
sists of ;100 compact pmres. It is well 
written, and adapted to ihe purpose for 
which it is designed. Price, for introduc- 

" Carhart*s Commeiuial Law," is meet- 
ing M'ith a large sate, and is very popular 
with buciness- colleges. For terms, etc., 
see c^ in advertisitig columns. 

" Sadler's Counting-house Arithmetic'' ia 
not only a practical aud popular text-book 
in business- colleges, but is equally valuable 
as a hand-book of reference iu the counting- 
room and business-offi'-o. Few books have 
received more numerous or ftattering com- 
mendations from their patrons than has this 
work, as will be seen by advertisement in 
another column. 

The Penman^s Gasette, for August, is one 
of the most interesting numbers yet pub- 
lished. " Breaking a Path," by Paul Past- 
nor, is a well-written and decidedly inter- 
esting story. "Schoolmaster Abroad," 
by S. S. Packard, like everything from his 
pen, is of a high order of merit. 

The Shorthand Wnter, by D. P. Linds- 
ley, 252 Broadway, is a four-page quarto 
weekly, devoted to short-hand writing, for 
$d.00 per year. 


T. W. T., Greenfield, N. H.— Is there 
any gymnastic-drill-exercise to secure move- 
ment i How should a new pen be cleaned ? 
Ans. — With most systems of penmanship 
are given a seriesof drill-exercises for intive- 
meut in writing. Part IV. of the new Spen- 
oerian Compendium gives a great variety of 
such exercises, and they are also given in 
the " Standard Practical Course" of copies. 
A new pen is usually slightly oily, which 
prevents its retaining or shedding ink when 
first used ; if it is dipped into spirits of 
ammonia it will at once take ink ; careful 
wiping, also, will usually answer the purpose. 

W. W. G., Marion, 111.— Question by 
Peirce, Keokuk, Iowa: " What determines 
the slant of each ca))ital, supposing the 
standard forms be taken?" Ans. — I think 
the slant ol the capitals is determined by 
the slant of the principles used in their 
formation. Mr. G. asks: What movement 
should be employed iu making the capital 
letters T Ans. — For superscriptions, head- 
ings, etc., where considerable license ns to 
size may be taken, the whole or fore arm 
movement may be used ; but for ordinary 
capitals, or body of writing the combination- 
should be used. 

L. L. I., Red Bluff", S. C— In executing 
large capitals, etc., should the fingers be 
allowed to rest on paper! How high should 
r and s extend above other small letters 
which are not so bight Ans. — First. Yes, 
the hand should rest upon the nails of the 
third aud fourth fingers. Second. The small 
r and s should extend one-fourth of a space 
above the other short letters. 

Without the art of Writing the discovery 
of each generation would have perished 
with it, aud human progress, from genera- 
tion to generation^ would liave scarcely beeq 

llll ri NMA 


In-inRE. Dftl», leBchernf writing in French's 
BtittinMS'CoIli'gc, ItuBtoii, Mrm., writes a guort 
pMiiitioal tiund. 

K. M. MrLeau, of Honolulu. S. t.. ni^nilx tli.' 
iiain«8 of two subBcriliitra to tlie JocitN'AL, Hud 
[iromiiM a dull of twelve shortly. 

Hon. Thn«. E. Hi)I, nnlhor of "Hill's Man- 
iihI" (iinl ■■Allium ol BiuftPBpIi.T and Art," i* 
iN^ikitig uii extended tour of iho New Wcet. 

Jiu^hucll, III. Mr 
niiduiibledty do liti 

J. F. Slubliltfield, Mun-fty, Ky.psend* i 
(•legaiilijr-writleu cards. 

crt-dltnWe upeclmeii of niBijc le 
I from J. D. Uriant, Racvlaod, La. 

A flix 


I of I 


several good specimpns of card 
II letter written in a anperidr hand, were re- 
leived from D. \V. Slalil, Nc>illi Industry, O. 

C. H. Simpson, Honolulu, Sandwich Tfilftudfl, 
writes a handsome letter, in which he incloaet- 
several vtry ciedilalile epeciinfim of writing. 

0. A. Collard, Chicngo. III., is « very grace- 
ful writer, nf i« evinced by affwle^^i^ly-Wrhltn 
li'ii(?r and Reveral Kpvoimeiia of practioal writ- 
ig enclosed. 

H. W. Kihbe, of I'lica. N. Y.. favors us witli 
le of the very bent Bpt^ciniens of practical 
rititiK received during the month; also ii 


iig gran 

AlvinT. Seniifff. Fair Haven, 111., sends a 
F-pi-cimen of his present wrifing, and one wi'il- 
\v\\ some six nionths before subscribing to the 
.louHNAl., which shows fommendabI« iin- 

R. .C. Williams, special teacher of writing 
mid book-keeping in the public schools of Lock- 
l>i>rt, N. Y., sends several specimena of excel- 
l.-tii card-writing; also, a superior specimen of 
^piatolary writing. 

A very superior specimen of practical pen- 
maii=hip, with lettering, liao been received from 
.T. C. Miller, penman at Allen's Business-Col- 
lege. Etmira, N. Y. A copy i,f it will probably 
appear in the JouitN'Al. for August. 

M. W Morgan, Ky.. writes a letter which it. 
a most ronmiendable apBcimeii of practical wni 
ing. He says, of the " Sllill<hird Practical 
IVunianship" : " I think it \* worth double its 
price to any one iulervsted in penmanship. 

Several very skillfidly-execuled Kpecimene of 
lluurishing and practical writing, executed by 
J. A. Wesco, of the Poitluud (Oiegon) Busi- 
nex»-CoIlege, have been received, and will be 
photo-engraved, so as lo apjiear in the August 
iftsiie of JoUItXAI.. 

E. L. Burnett, of Elmirn, N. Y., forwards 
iiu imperial photo of a large specimen of a 
Hourinlied eagle and lettering, which exhibite 
more than iin ordinary degree of command of 
tlie pen. The tlourishee, however, iu the eagle 
are not arranged to give the proper effect of 
light and shade. 

Several skillfully designed and executed 
!i|iecimenB of flourisliing, and good practical 
^M'iling come from K. K. Isaacs, teacher of 
"riling at tbe Northern IndinnaNormal School 
un.l Uimineas ImXitute. Valparaiso, Ind. The 
^)i'cimen« are executed with a very black and 
.!• ^sy ink. Mr. I. asks if il will do for pliuto- 
eiiyniving. This i|ue8lion is eo fi-equenily 
ll^ked, that we answer il through the JoUHXAI,. 
No glossy ink, howover block, will do for 

i)bow-i*n((ravinj, or tffy reason* : fini, on 

account of the reflection of light from the 
glossy surface; stmnd, with thick, glossy ink 
it is only th? shaded or those lines that are 
made with open nibs of the pen that are really 
black, all up. and lines made with closed nibs 
are light or gray. 

A Short General Outline of the 
Programme Plan. 

Jiv C. II. I'KIRCK. 

Frotn anil (1 t<i JU and 12 years of ago, 
childrou should be taught Form— KIR8T, nf 
Jigures, small and capital letiers, iho exe- 
cuiioD of which to be with the fingers. 

From 10 uud 12, and even later with 
inaoy, mm^ement is uF prime importuiiutf, 
and should conatitute such part of the work 
of each leasuu, as to render it in an early 
stage plcasaut and attractivf. 

A fair amount of work iu Programme 
" U" should be done, as to Tracing Exer- 
cises and Extended Movements, before the 
work of Programme "C" is brguo. 

I.;et it be strictly understood that, at this 
age, Form and Movement go hand- in-hand. 

At the proper time, let the work of Pro- 
gramme " C " he properly devolopod as j er 
full iustruclions iu the Journal, taking 
great care to present all new work first in 
Programme " B." 

After a good motion has been acipiireJ in 

Programme " C," or at least a fair niuoiint 

if freedom, the work of Programme " 1)" 

he gradually introduced, aud will soon 

li>plaee, with perfect satisfaction, Pro- 



This leads us to conoliide that Programme 
>i8 to an end, and, as a sepa- 
rate movement, ceases to exist with the prac- 
tical writer of the day, 

A great deal of care must he excreised, 
and special pains taken, to look after indi- 
vidual wants, especially if, here, practice 
is given hut one-half hour each dtiy, as 
ill our public suliuots. 


PrograniiuG " A " to bo gone o 
c-rly before attempting any other 
pupils from 5 to 12 years of age ( 
to the rule, of course). Programmes 
and "C" iuiroduoed as per direelit 
connection with Programme "A,' 
gradually displace "A" with Progr 
" D." 

Proportion. — As " D " is to "A," 
the newspaper to the iirimer. 

Pen-Art Study. 


The American mind, in regard to art- 
study and art-appreciatiou is in a transiiiou 
state. It is not much beyond embryo. We 
arc a great way from the real art-passion 
yet. Wo might, under (lualiticatiou, per- 
haps, except the East or a class iu the East. 
Kually, what do the people know about 
statuary, in the rural districts especially. 
They know something more, very likely, 
of paiuting, and, it may be, more about 
music. This, of course, is no fault of theirs. 
Our towns are full of tnuslclans, well versed 
in simple melody. But are these jieoplc 
familiar with dramatic music; the elocution, 
aud the expression, of music f This, then, 
is yet to learn ; still, the people know much 
more about music than about painting, stat- 
uary, or about pen-art. We mention these 
deficiencies because the first matter is akin 
to the last. Why this iuappreciativeness? 
beotuse the people have been otherwise 
employed. lo Europe there is an art-pas- 
sion, because Europe lives iu an atmosphere 
of art. Thtijieople live in, andare surrounded 
by, art always. The Roman inherits a pas- 
sion for statuary aud painting. The Ger- 
man is a musician by birth — he, therefore, is 
a true musician iu hia youth; he then will 
learn easily and remember long, and he will 
love to learn. He not only learns melody, but, 
also, expression, dratnaiic rendition — and 
the last, first. I say, then, we do not Inherit 
the art-passion. We then have all of the 
dillicutlies of laborious acquisition, as a peo- 
ple, We bftve navurally no art-oye, oo 

know something of 
had the works of 
*s, and others. We 

apprecialiveness. Wt 
art by the hardest. 

In 1850, we began 
pCQinauship. We soi 
Spencer, Williams, Ai 
are jet unfamiliar with the mysteries of 
composition. Wo have yet to learn what 
style is. Beyond Spencer, Williams aud 
Ames there is little of the original in style 
here yet. Our artists are mostly off-hand 
workers, or imitattrs. 

In the art-business, we may study art to 
merely understaud it, or study it to produce 
it. In either case, wo must first see art. 
Great artists are invariably long aud careful 
lookers. Thoy look al! art over, time and 
again, methodically, and with absolute at- 
tention. Then comes eye and hand prac- 
tice. But don't forget the models— and the 
very best y« u can get. We must be taught 
by somebody, how to judge of composition, 
and how to fashion, or, rather, the scientific 
structure of detail. We are to digest shade 
and lino, and so thoroughly impress forms 
that the mind will readily call them up itself 
— that if", we are to engraft art so mentally 
that it is a part of ourselves. This labor is 
facilitated by having pen-art around us — 
not to pass, but to siudy up. 

Then comes practice. Yes, says one, it 
is all in practice. Not at all. It is, how- 
ever, a part in right practice, carefully con- 
ducted and often repeated, but always with 
method aud judgineut. The American peo- 
ple don't like this drudgery of endless pupil- 
age. Cotnmcrcial schools hate it, aud so 
progress is blocked up. (It is very unft»r- 
tunate tor pupils that not one teacher in a 
hundred will compel the drill.) Men will 
drill for proficiency in anytliiug else; still, 
great pmgress turns upon this. I never yet 
had a cla^s of teachers that would bear the 
drill, or believed iu it. You may deny the 
utility of tlio drill— that makes no difi'ereuce 
aboui'it« ueeeesity. 

The drill must, however, be rightly con- 
ducted ; the comparative value of all received 
methods is dobalahle. With right drill, 
power accumulates every hour. The eye's 
piTceptiiius quicken and mature, and there 
accrues more certainly aud freedom of hand. 
For, let it not be forgotten, that all certainty, 
all po\vur, all freedom, is acquired always. 
Among other obsiruetious, new theories and 
methods will he continually intruded to do- 
feat your progress. Sound ideas, at first 
tenaciously adhered to, are the best. We 
just now hoar this doctrine: penmanship 
must be reumdolodto business needs. Beauty 
must be sacrificed to legibility and speed. 
Neither of these things is secured by a 
change of system. Practical penmanship, 
to-day, is perfect — hold it as it is. What 
you most need is greater perfection of drill. 

Right drill will double speed. Writing 
to-day is legible enough, beautiful enough, 
and plain enough. All of the way in this 
labor of learning and getting skill, you will 
find diHiculties, perplexities and defeats; 
but in the end yon will be where you be- 
gun if you are victimized by any difficulties 
whatever. Your practice, to hold skill, 
inuft always be careful and correct. 

You will find in Mr. Spencer's present 
Lessons abundance of direct, sound precept 
and illustration. If you will convert these 
lessons, and push right practice and drill, 
your success is sure; still, you will find, 
not put down in the hooks, other dilllculties 
that will confound you. I have thought, 
however, that an old teacher might, by an- 
ticipating these, aud showing how to meet 
them, do you good service as an outside 
pilot, if we may thus speak. When we 
come to the matter of shoals and hidden 
rocks, aud under-cnrreuts, the knowledge 
of such a man may be worth everything — 
to some at least, if not to all. 

We may, then, in un article or two (of 
which this is a sort of leader, consider many 
of these difficulties, suggesting remedies. 

Writing is the telephone through wliioh 
tbe ages put speftk to the present. 

The House of Rothschild. 

More than a hundred years since, a poor 
Jew, called Mayer Anselm, made bis appear- 
ance at the city of Hanover, bare-footed, 
with a pack on his sboi^lders and a bundle 
of rags on his back. Successful in trade, 
he rctarned to Frankfort at the end of a few 
"years, and set up a small shop in the Jew 
laud, over which he hung the sign-board of 
a red shield, called in German Aroth-sphild. 

As a dealer iu old and race coins, he made 
the acquaintance of the Serene Elector of 
Hesse Casael, who, happening to be iu want 
of a confideutial agent for various open and 
secret purposes, appointed the shrewd-look- 
iug Mayor Anselm to the post. 

The Serene Elector being compelled soon 
after to Hy his country, Mayer Anselm took 
charge of his cjish, amounting to several 
millions of florins. With the iusliuot of his 
race, Anselm did not forgot to put the 
money out on good interest, so that before 
Napoleon had gime to Elba, and the illus- 
trious Elector had returned to Cassel, the 
capital had more than doubled. 

The ruler of Hesae Cassel thought it al- 
most a marvel to get his money safely re- 
turned, aud at the Congress of Vienna was 
never tired of singing the praise of liis 
agent to all the princes of Europe. 

The dwellers under the sign of the Red 
Shield laughed iu their sleeves, keeping 
carefully to themselves the great fact that 
ihe electoral two millions of fiorins had 
brought them four millions of their own. 
Never was honesty a better policy. 

Mayer Anselm died in 1812, without hav- 
ing the supreme satisfaction of having his 
honesty extolled by kings aud princes. He 
left five sons, who succeeded him in the 
banking and mouey-lendiug business, and 
M'ho, conscious ot tlicir social value, drop- 
ped the name of Anselm, and adopted the 
higher -sounding one of Rothschild, taken 
from the sign-hoard over the parental house. 

On his death-bed, their father had taken 
a solemn oath from all of them to hold his 
four millions well together, and they have 
faithfully kept the injunction. 

But the old city of Frankfort was clearly 
too narrow a realm for the fruitful sowing 
of four millions; and, in oonsequence, the 
five sous were determined, after awhile, to 
extend their spheie of operations by estab- 
lishing branch banks at the chief cities of 

The eldest son, Anselm, bom in 1773, re- 
mained at Frankf<trt; the second, Solomon, 
boiu in 1774, settled at Vienna; the third, 
Nathan, born in 1774, went to London ; the 
fourth, Charles, established himself in the 
soft climate of Naples ; and the fifth and 
youngest, James, born in 1792, took up his 
residence in Paris. 

Strictly united, the wealth and power of 
the five Rothschilds were vested in the eld- 
est born ; nevertheless, the shrewdest of 
the sous of Mayer Anselm. and the heir of 
his genius, Nathan, the third eon, took the 
reins of the government into hie own hands. 

By his faith in Wellington and the flesh 
and muscle of British soldiers, he nearly 
doubted the fortune of the family, gaiuing 
more than a million sterling by the sole 
battle of AVaterloo, the news of which he 
carried to England two days earlier than the 

The weight of the solid millions gradually 
transferred the ascendancy in the family 
from Gerjnauy to England, making Lon- 
don the metropolis of the reigning dynasty 
of Rothschild. — Philadelphia Saturday 

In speaking of the children of i 
and deacons, of whom the Greeks said, 
"The son ef a minister is the devil's grand- 
sou," Mr. Beecher said that careful statistics 
disproved this. There was Emerson, the 
son of eight generations of ministers. It 
took eight-minister power to make a man 
like him. His teachings were a practical 
gospel, and while he preached in a pulpi 
only <ine year, he preached all his life the 
iurt uf truths that beluDg lo the wolflire tif 

AH 1 -lOlKNAI. 

Growing Old. 

D ■p|M«i«<l more Intly «i«i 
hM Ih* lirtMnth rannd !*> 
«fat non* oW till lw»ol>-o 

Tli«i. oddly. 1 
I fa*ia that th 
Bal mhm my 

tmma me ibrlfty, 
at fifty. 

Huy "GnuullHi!" TfbMi lli«y upmik l<i id»i 
But, b)M j-.,iir •oal. I'm yming u. when 
I thouRliI kII p(i>i>IO uld 01 lull ! 

Fireproof Paper and Ink. 
AccorJiuK tu u Gtruiiiu iHijit-r, a very 
prniniiiiDg mrcess Iims been Hitaiiied re- 
L-ODtly in tliu iiiaiHifiivlure of tin-proof \<n\iPT 
Hud ink. Ill making the pajior, uiucty-fivo 
pHfla ol a«Ii(i!8to3 Was used, with five paMa 
uf wood; tlifeo, by ttid uf gliie-wator 
B.nd borax were iiihiIu iutu a |»j|{>, wbinli 
yioldfd n fine, smooth pnpor \\hicli cvuKl bo 
used for writiog purpn^e^. It had the uuu- 
buhI quality of ^utitHiuiug the iiiHiituce of a 
white heat « ilhout injury. Fireproof priat- 
ing and writing iutii^ were niiide by com- 
bining platiuuin ehloride, oil <if lavender, 
and lauipblack and varnish. Thpse ingrd- 
ilioDtd prodiif^cd a jiriuting-ink, and whf-n a 
irriting- fluid was wanted, Chinese or India 
ink and gum arable were added to the mix- 
Lure. Tcu parts of the dry plalinniu chlo- 
ride, 25 parts of the oil of lavender, and aO 
nf varnish are reported by a local writer to 
j'itdd H good printiug-iuk of this valuable 
kind, when mixed with a small ijuantity of 
lampblack and varnish. When a paper 
pTiotcd with the compound is ignited, the 
platinum salt is reduced tu u metallic 
4tato and becomes n coating of a brownish 
blaclt color. A free flowing ink, for writing 
:m the tin-proof paper with an ordinary me- 
lallio pen, may be obtained, says the same 
authority, by using 5 parts of the dry chlo- 
ride of plaliuum with 15 parts of the oil of 
la%'euder, 15 parts of Chinese ink, and ] 
part of gum arable, adding thereto (i4 parts 
of water. When the jiaper is ignited, after 
lieing written upon by this ink, tlie plMtiuum 
ingredient causes the writing to appear 
transparent, and, as a couseqiieuce, it is 
nlaiincd that such writing as has becomo 
bhuik or illegible will become readily legible 
again during the process of beating the 
paper. Colon for painting may also be 

' made firepnmf by mis 
: tallic cub>r8 with the ehloride of platinum 
I and painter's varnish, adding an ordinary 
I a(|<iarelle pigment to streoglheQ the " cov- 
oriag power" of the color. These 6reproof 
, paiuis or colors can bo easily used 

i the 


and it 1 

med tbey will resist the destruc- 
3 of great heat quite as success- 
fully as the fireproof printing and writing 
inks just referred to. 

The Ink-bag of the 'Cuttlefish. 

Connected on the one hand with the di- 
gestive system, and on the other with the purely glandular structure of the body, 
i the organ known familiarly as the " ink- 
I. The cuttlefishes 

j bag" c»f thesi 

I the 

tluH sac as a means of defense, sand for en- 
abling them to escape fn>m their enemies. 
Di[ichart.'ing tlie iuky fiuid through the 
"funnel,'' into whii-b the duct of the iuk- 
sac <ipou», it rapidly diS'uses itself through 
the water, and enables the animal to escape 
underaliteral clo<k of darkness. The force 
of the ^imile under which an over-pro- 
ductive writer is likened to a cuttlefish may 
be understood and appreciated when the 
physi'dot<y of the iuk-sac is invest d. If is 
this feature of cuttlefish orgauizalion which 
Oppian describes when he informs us that — 

The exact nature and relationship of tins 
ink-sac to the other organs of the cuttlefish 
have long been disputed. According to one 
authority, the ink-bag rejiresented the gall- 
bladder, because, in the octopus, it is cm- 
bedded in the liver. From another point of 
view it was declared to represent an in- 
testinal gland ; while a third opinion main- 
tained its entirely special nature. The ink- 
sac is now koowu to be developed as au ofi- 
shoot from the digestive tube, and, taking 
development as the one infallible criterion 
and tost of the nature of living structures, 
wo may conclude that it represents at once 
a highly specialized part of tlie digestive 
tract, and an organ which, nurepresented 
entirely in the oldest cuttlefishes, has been 
developed in obedience to the demands and 
exigencies of the later growths of the race. 
It is this ink-sac whicir is fretjueotly found 
fossilized in certain extinct cuulefish shells. 
Its secretion forms the original sepia color, 
a term derived from the name of a cuttlefish 
genus. The fossilized sepia has been used 
with good eifeel when ground down. The 
late Dean Buckland gave some of this fossil 
ink to Sir Francis Cbantrey, who made 
with it a drawing of the specimen from 
which it bad been taken ; and Cuvier is eaid 
to have used this' fossilized ink io the 
preparation of the plates wherewith he 

UBtrated his " MoKusca." At the present 
oe recent cuttlefish ink is ^aid to be 
ilized iu the manufacture of ordinary 
lists "sepia." — BtJgravia. 

Don't Use Big Words. 

In promulgatingyour esoteric cogitations, I 

articulating superficial sentimentalities 
d philosophical or psych<dogical obsorva- - 
>ns, bewMre of platitudinous ponderosity, 
sess a clarified 
ipleted comprehensibleness, 
coalescent consi8ten>:y, and a coucateuated 
cogency. Eschew alt conglomerations of 
flatulent garrulity, jeiune babblement, and 
asinlue aflectHtious. Let your extempora- 
neous descautiugs and unpremeditated ex- 
pHtiatious have iutelligibilily and veracious 
vivacity, without rhodomontade or thrasoni- 
cal bombast. Sedulously avoid all p<dy- 
syllaltic profundity, poinpns pndixlty, 
p>ittaceou8. vacuity, ventriluquial verbosity, 
and VHuiloqui'nt vapidity. Shim double 
eiitendres, prurient jocosity, and pestiferous 
profanity, obscurant or apparent. In other 
words lalk plainly, naturally, seitsil-Iy, truth- 
fully and purely. And don't use big words. 

Motives. — Motives are the " power be- 
hind the throne" which uoverus our words 
and deeds, and were these inntives laid bare 
to the eyes of the world, as they are to the 
eyes of God, what a difl'ereut judgment wo 
should pass upon the actions of others ; and, 
alas, I fear a much severer one. Many a 
hero would be stripped of his laurels, many 
a good deed would l<ise its sanctity. 

Often, when priding ourselves ou doing an 
unselfish action, wore we to look deep down 
into the ioneimobt depths of our hearts, we 
wouli find a motive hidden there that wo 
but li alt-suspected, and which would humble 
us as lui unjust chart^e made auaiust us by 
another could possibly do; thus proving 
that we value the esteem in which we hold 
ourselves, higher than we do the esteem in 
which others hold us, and we believe the 
former is usually as nearly correct as tlie 
latter; fur if we saw "ourselves as others 
seo us," we are nowise certain that we 
would get a more correct view of ourselves 
ttinn we do looking through our own men- 
tal horoscope; while, if we saw ourselves as 
God and the angels see us, we would bow 
our heads in the dust, and humility would 
take thejdace of pride, which hitherto had 
held almost unbouuded sway. 

It has been said that "to do a good action 
by stealth, and have it fouud out by acci- 
dent," is one of the plensantesl things in 
life ; perhaps it is', but we think to do a 
good action by stealth, witli no desire that it 
should ever come to light, is one of the 
noblest things in life, and — we much fear — 
one of the rarest. — Modern Argo. 


J is money, money is hours. Happy 


After the burning of Rome, says a writer 
in the London Quarterly, Xero gratified his 
taste, in entire disregard of the umprieties, 
in rebuilding it. He at once appropriated 
a number of the sites and a large porlioo of 
the public grounds for his new palace. 
The porticos, with their ratjksof o<dumn8, 
were a mile long. The vestibule was large 
enough to contain that colossal statue of 
him, in silver and gold, one hundred and 
twenty feet high, from whifh the colosseum 
got ii« name. The ineri)r was gilded 
throughout and adoiuid with ivory and 
mother-of-pearl. The ceilings of the din- 
ing-rooms were fonned with movable tab- 
lets of ivory which shed flowers and per- 
fumes on the company ; the priui-ijuil salon 
had a dome which, turiiing day and night, 
imitated the moveinfUts of the rolcstial 
bodies. When this palace was finished, he 
exclaimed, "At last I am lodged like a 
man." His diadem was valued at half a 
milliou. His dresses, which he never wore 

Rith embroulei 


He fished Hith purple lines aud hooks of 
eohl. He never travellKl uitli less tlian a 
thousaid carriages. The mules were shod 
with silver, tho muloifers clothed with the 
finest wool, and the attendants wore brace- 
lets and necklaces of gold. Five hundred 
she-asses followed liis wife Poppjea in her 
prctgresses, to supply milk her bath. 
He was fond of figuring io the circus as a 
charioteer, and in the theatre as a singor and 
actor. He prided hiuiself on being an art- 
ist; and when his possible depo!>itioQ was 
hinted to him, he said that urtists could 



which lie was not given, nor a crime which 
he did not commit. Yet the world, ex- 
claims Suetonius, endured this monster for 
fourteen years, and he was popular with tlie 
umltitude, who were dazzled by bis maguifi- 
cence aud mistook his senseless profusion 
for liberality. On the aOniversary of his 
death, during many years, the people 
crowded to cover his tomb with flowers. 

A manual of morals for the public schools 
is demanded by The Toronto World. " It 
should lay broad and deep," says this jour- 
nal, " the foundation of moral duty ; it 
should show, clearly and simply, the inevi- 
table consequences of moral evil ; it should 
form a regular part of every-day school ex- 
ercises. Such a manual would teach a 
morality utterly apart from tlie sanction of 
sect or dogma, yet which could not fail to 
advauce tliat which surely ought to be the 
highest aiuj of every sect, church and de- 
nomination, training the young to lead lives 
of charity, temperauce aud justice." - JV". i". 

As an accomplisliiuent, good writing is a 
jewel. As a business qualificaiiou, it makes 
opportunity and i 

for Cue UuUttr, or, m 

a premiuui. free to any'^one.endii.K three subaoribers and three DoiUn\» l\i*> Jui;i«»AL. 

Copyrighted, tty S^tncn- BrotJien, October Jth, mu 

.^o^ - ji^lj JH 


^^J^S^ki^^sr^'"^ .L 





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r r 

'^^lUPV^u^a^my o^"'^^/^ h^i^mifif 

Tht ahmt ™u are j.'i^ a, tptcimrnt <•/ fl,«lo-mjmv:v,j fnm pcn-md-ml Jrtisni, mnlrj allhe of re of Ihi "Journal," dupHralt, of vhich are for lale, ovd, alio, a great rarttly of olhtr 
c^li. .tiiloMt/or dupUniag ,chool-fap,r,, calaloga.1 and cin-ulan. CuU .V„«. / or S. p.ZO; S. 4, 5, C, 7, S, S Mid 10, flM eacli^ Hot. 11 or 12, flM each; toUeje irripl of luilakle denomiaatim,, 
of »/..cA ikt above CM, are sample; in elock and for lale at (on ratee. AUa, blank diploma, for aU etaue, of intlUaliom, and cerlificala laUaiU la i< axwrded, b) UacKer, at miling, a, pram or 
fiplona,. Sample, untfar S5 cent,. Special deign, for diploma,, certi/icatUf etc., mad* andprinttd ta vrdtr. 


«*iMW ^ 

He Did Not Become a Broker.— 
ThwHlore WM a poor larf- One day when 
he waa very hangry ho espied a five-«*nt 
piece on the R-mt of the broker's offi.-*', 
which he wm nwceping oot. He had re- 
membered stories whereio littte boys had 
pirked up a small piece of money, handed 
il to the great merchant or rich banker and 
been immediately taken into partnership. 
So Theodore stepped np to the door of tbe 
broker's private room and said : — 

" PIcaae, sir, here's a five-ceot piece I 
fonnd on the floor." 

The broker looked at Theodore a moment 
end then mid : 

" You found that on my floor, did you ? 
And you are hungry, aren't jouf " 

" Yes, sir," replied Theo lure. 

" Well, give it to me and get out. I was 
looking around for a partn. r, but a boy who 
who doesn't know enough to buy bread 
when he is starving t'l death would make a 
sorry broker. No, hoy, I can't take you 
into the firm." 

And Theodore never became a great 
broker. Ilunesly is the best policy, children, 
ht)t it is not indispensable to success io the 
brokerage business. — Boston Transcript. 

The post of " Devil's Advocate " has just 
been brilliantly tilled by a boy who was 
graduated frotii a liigh Bcho(d in Kentucky. 
]Iis speech hwl the tide, " The Proud Old 
Commonwealth." While acknowledging 
that the State wns at the head in cock- 
fighting, horse - racing and whisky-drink- 
ing, he yet declared that it was behind 
other Stales in intelljgeiKM>, in agriculture, 
in manufactures, and in the construction of 
railways. Ho then luid tlie hardihood to 
compare Kentucky with the neighboring 
Slates: "With lialf the population of 
Illinois, you have twice aa many white citi- 
xens who can neither read nor write. With 
half the population of Ohio, you have also 
twice as many wliite citizens who caM 
neither read nor write. With a smaller 
population than ludiaua, the land of Hi>(>- 
aiers, you have also twice as many white 
citizens who can neither read nor write. 
And take your population through and 
througli, while and black, you, boastful uf 
your descent, fl-ittered by May-Day orators, 
members of a proud old commonwealth, 
have a percentage of persons who can 
neither read nor write greater than Japait." 

The "Journal" Appreciated. 
Department of thr Interior, 
BuREAti OF Edui;ation, 
Washington, July 7, Jb82. 
Eililors of Journal;— I am greatly 
obliged fur your kindness in supplying this 
office with the current volume of your 
Journal. I find it of so much value that I 
would like, if possible, to be furnished with 
the cumpletc vulume for Itidl, for use in the 
preparatiuu uf that part of my annual re- 
port which refers to the business- coUegca in 
existence during that year. 

Very truly yours, 

JuiiN Eaton, 


Profosaor H. C. Spencer, of Washington. 
1). C, is now giving in the Penman's Aii 
Journal a Course of twelve les&ous ia prac- 
tical writing. The instruction is carefully 
prepared by H. C, while the illustratiuus 
are by Lyman P., Speucer. Thus the les- 
sons present the combined skill and experi- 
ence of the best teaching and artistic talent 
ol this country, and we might say of the 
world, for we believe that no system of 
writing in the world lias equal merit, or is 
as universally popular, as Speucerian. 
Hvury and Lyman Spencer are ita great 
masters. The c(.st uf the Journal is one 
dollar: this Course of lessons is one didlar, 
BO that the cost of it will still be cheap, if 
it were ten dollars, and should give the 
Journal one hundred ihuusand patrons, for 
there are that number of peraoua who would 
find a dollar thus invested a sure ^d to ad- 
Taaoement.— X X. School Journal. 

There U a rral pU-sure t.. be d^rivf-d 
from the study of symmetrical handwriting. 
It bring.<i into delightful activity, and conse- 
quent development, the faculties of form, 
size, Older, color, const ructiveoeM and aun- 
parison. There is a satisfaction io skill of 
hand ; and the complimentary appmval of 
one's writing by one's relatives and friends 
is in itself do slight incentive to mastery of 
the pen. Again, there are the pecuniary 
advantages which good haodwriliog se- 
cures, especially to those who are just enter- 
ing busy life. Persona who arc endeavoring 
to improve their writing will find efficient 
and satisfactory aid in the Peniimn's Art 
Journal, in the May number of which be- 
gan a series of practical writing- lessons, by 
H. C. Spencer. — Frank Leslie's Boyif and 
GirW Wee kly. 

The Penman's Art Journal. — Too 
much praise cannot be given to Mr. Ames 
for the tact and energy he displays in bis 
efforts to give the penmen of this country a 
respectable and efficient organ. If any 
doubt has at any time existed as to the per- 
manent cliaracter of the Journal, it must, 
by the present, have vanished into thin air. 
Tlie May number — better late than never — 
ia as nearly being an ideal clacs-paper as 
one cau hope to find in an imperfect world. 
The appearance is tine, the matter excellent, 
and the ring unmistakable. Mr. Ames is a 
good editor. He is fair and courteous, and 
yet outspoken. If lie has anything to say, 
he aays it, and I. is readers generally know 
on which side of a question he stands. And 
besides, he lets other people say what tiiey 
please, so long as they use good grammar 

The May number coDtaiustbe first of Mr. 
II. C. Spencer's lessons on practical pen- 
manship, the best ihiug that has yet been 
done in a penman's paper. Mr. Spencer 
stands at the head of Speureriau penmen 
in this country, and there is no uncertain 
sound or mark in anything he may say or 
do. Now is the time to subscribe for the 
Penman's Art Journal; D.T.Ames. 205 
BroadwHy. — Common Snine in Education. 





A New and Improved Work on Business Calculations, 

Specially Prepared as a Practical Text-book for Business Colleges, 

High Schools, Academies and Universities. 

\V'h*>n tirst published, it at once received the Ptrougest indorsement of miuij of the 
leadiiig bueiiivsti educators in thin country, and wa.t adopted by over ont hundred prouiiueiit 
Busiuvss Colleges and Private &choi>Is in the United States nnd the Canad»ii. 

Since that lime it has been able not onli/ t-> rftatn EVERY ONK of ito patrons, but also to 
secure others, in such numbers that four large editions have been consumed in supplying the 

tsjE FiFTir Fi)iTio:isr, 

jupl published (512 royal octavo iingea). has been revised, and inipnived by the addition ot 
many new and valuablu plates, together wilb tlie correction of all typngrupiiical errors incident 
to the publication of new bookt<. 

Jn addition to the publication of the work ia a complete edilicm, for the convenipuce itt 
patrons it is also publisbed in two Farts. 


Comprises 192 royal octavo pages, beginning with the introduclic 
the Bultjeci of Percentage. The methods are adapted tu da 

vel features. 

Begins with the subject of P^t 
practical treafnieiit of the vari 
This portion of the woi: 
lis Bticcees was quick a 
live as Haltering. It ia hmiec 
features of impruvemeut and p 
practical than any similar wot 

ftw of the many testimuiiinls \ 


I ' .'-s a tliorougb. 

atic and natural order. 

I published in September, ISSO. 

new edition became as impeta- 

ulleges and Schooli", 



: E. Hibhnrd. Doattm.- 

Pnif. Charles C'lHglmni. Bruoklyn. — "Would DOt use 1 

Prof, H. C. Spencer. Wailiinglon—*' I'lrnuefllionably : 
hebe4i. ItlaaBtiocesa." 
Pror R. C. Spencer. MIlwaHkea.— " A superior work 

Prof. S. Bogiinliw, Si-ringllolO. IIU- 
jlve your woric iny lienrry u|ipwval." 

Prof. C. W. LaFptra, Loa Anirelos, Cut.—" I 
tUel>t»t. We lime il very 

Prof. Bt. Kennedv. Mar 

nb. Ill 
kind yetjuilillslied." 


.- L. L. 

, Admirably lulHpied i< 
nnskell, Jeraey Clly. — "I ooniider i 
M. Carpenter. J^l. Louia. — "It is un<l 

Contains n 

"We I 

r, I>cs Moines, Io 
■r. Slanslleld. 0- 

AaOrcas, i'l.N w \ 

. ' ..'■>&. 

viiun)( {leoinnn nl Keutuvky, 


A SET of Iba bandnKniMl I 

iiHuu Cii,.il«U. fr~l. Item 

CfBCIMENS oroir-hand Ht.i 
O L. MauaKahz, III 

J 1 wrii.» curdB iu ■> »tyle 

• Inmon, yitimg wrlUr," 

AN V Penmaw sending n>e lu many designs of Extended 
Mo<roui(iiii4, u prv>duc«d liy me, wLK rccet\e m\ 
but elturts tre«. C. U. Puii'.B, Keukuk, lun^ 

I- ' I I- Hi .1 I xl'iiH, Albany.— "Afleralboruugli 
Prof C. L. Cruswellvr, Piokedng College, Oot. — " By 

Prof. P. H. 

, Clinlnr 

"It 1 


Complete Edition, Expi 


For the use of Teachers and Private Pupils, 

a work ctmtniiiiiig answers to all lb« 

piubleiiiB in lliu Co.MFLiiTii Eui- 

TK..N, «ill be mailed oi. receipt 

emlaenlly pnieiicut. 

Pnif. C- A. Twilling. Union City, Pa.—" It cnnnot be 
lui) atruDgly jiiddned. ' ■ 

lied to any address on receipt of Stamp. 

ur PoBi-paid, on receix^t of 09. 9^ 


Bryani, Siraiion & Sadler Business-College, 

^'u6. uud 6 Noittii Cu-utLEs Street, BAXTXMOJtE, JId, 

IHl-: NF.W 


\ i >i>M fur iiMf with or wiihoiit TfxiBook, 

iirlH.I 1 

'■'II IF, NKW 

Bryant & Stratton 
Oounting-House-Book keeping." 



K;ivambl» ■mingrmrolM nind« nltti BiuiiieMColler- 

1 1 '•rriptiT« I.Ut now KAily. CorTM|H»i<leDrc iDvilril 


Thii Pen, knowp by the above lllle. it i.mnumriMr.- i ■ 
h. iH-al Dteer, Mid i<iire(1iny M>IerM, Tb>-y im- |uinu . 
.riy ndspled fur Public nml Priviilu Sphixtia Ami Br^.i, 



Shading T Square. 

¥ 1 

This work is unnti-^ \j uncedel ly the pic^s professional pei ii au an I iit •*! 
uerierally, to be the most comprehensive i met cal and artistic guide tc rimment il pei 
manship ever pubb-^hed Sent post i aid to any address m receij t ot $4 50 r is a 
premium for a elub of 12 subaonbers to the Journal 

The abo\e cut rtpicsents tl o litle page of the w rk which is 1 1 t 14 in size 

Priolere. Tlie olijwit of tliis pupor is lo adv^^rtise t 
ua ill list ratio DM of ihu latest style* of cards an'l n 
I It year, including three proiDiu»i« : one Oblique 
jniatic Shading-pen ; or we will send 200 Gilt-edge ( 

« piist. been a patron ofllic Editor, Mr. J. SI OtborD 


<!t.ntUmtn .-—We ai>k(ioivledgo with ffiatitude the a 
;ommercial Soboola have subscribed for your merilo 
fiviiig good satisfacliiin here, Riid your pricus aro Ic 

the surface of your canis very siipeniir lor writlii 
IS black and dries amoothly on ihom. We hope yoi 

II to all penmen), and niny health and prosperity oro 

iety of new styla 
e always found h 

erest of Penmen. Canl-writer 
s persons. Bech number wil 
D. Subscription -price, only Si 
triangular Penholder, and on< 

^era. Wo 
The Ink 

Bryant's New Series. 
B O O K - K K E P I N a . 

ElOIITH ElHTH>N. CorVRiaiiTKD, 18 

Bv J. C. BRYANT, M.D.. 


1»» . 

e P try BnslneM Ponna oomplet«. PUin 

menoH 313 pogM Reta I ta 


IN i:\ I i:> M\v \ i\ AMKRICA. 



en-eiffhls of an i 
ssired length or 

oh and 



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and descnptloti 



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red direotly fro 
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1 niling 



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signed. Rsspertfiilly. 

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mid 1 havo found ll onlromely lut-ful in 
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Designer aud DraAsman, with D. Appl 


^'<iicnl forms for the capital aod small script alphabets, 
> the flgiuve, thus kesping ever present and conveni- 
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loQt toy mail lo any address. Wood for IS ols.; metal, 

iT wriuog. Addnes. Pri»UA»'9 Akt Joi'RNau 

905 Browlvar. Nsw Tork. 



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d for our Spfolol Rates to Agents. 

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m\ Series of 


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t CAPITALS. idifftTA 


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INKl 50 different reoip 

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the only paper of its 

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Published Fortmghtlv. 

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Devoled to all matters of special interest 
to Accountanis, Hankers, Merchants, 
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Ancient and modem systems of Book- 
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Practical problems and questions discus- 
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£mbraolnK sinole and docblr kktby, and 
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found to do Uio roquirud work In business col- 
leges and high schools better ihaa any other 
work now befoi-o the public. 



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Bend you the following Bpecimens, etc., prepiud, I G"!"'*'''^'^ ^'^' ^*''"' P* 

/ will give you my very best work. 

per quart. Receipt 

Bopittg to rteetvt your order, I 


MarloBvllle, Onondaga County. New York, 

Proprielor of Swirr'8 NswePArsB Agbhct, 
sod PublUbei of Swift's Hasu-uoors or IXK Rbofm. 
■'Collectton No. 1 " (50 Recipes) Contents: Black,] 
Violet; W'hit. 

: Sj-mpolhetic, ; 
n No. 2" (100 F 

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oipee) Cont«nt 

! kindi: 

[nka, . 

"llie best testiynonial a hook can have is tJte 
names of those icho use it." 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

ool and Com 
demies and Schools 







The name Spmcenan has been identified with a leading eystem of 
for over forty years. Our Copy-books have borne that designation since 18r>4, and our Steel 
Pens since 1860. More recently it has also been used by us as a special trade mark for all our 
penmanship publications and statiooers' specialties. 

It is recognized everywhere a? a guaranty of the Buperiority of aiiylhing which bears 
Ihat well-known and standard designation. 

Spencerian Steel Pens 

Are used by all the best penmen in the country. Tliey combine a degree of elasticity and a 
smoothness of point not found in any other pens. 

Samples of the FIME-PODsT pens seut on application. 

Spencerian "Writing - Inks. 

The original receipt from which the Black Ink is made has been in use in England 
over ont hundred yeari. Our aim is to supply the constant demand for a superior Ink. 


Is the most durable Ink that can be mode. Specially adapted for Records and Docu- 
ments of importance. 


Flows from the pen an inteuse and brilliant glossy black, of great durability : unrivaled 
for signatures and oruamental writing. 


Combiuea three iiupurmnl qualilies : fuidity. color and diirabUUy, and is absolutely reliable for 
all busiuesB papers. 


Combines the advantages of a perfect Copying-Ink and a free-flowing Wriliug-Pluid. 

obtained from your stationer, sample bottles ot any of the 
press, at the expense of the purchaser, securely packed in 
T.'> cents per pint : dU tents jker half-piut. 

. Haniutd, Cono. 

;olIeg» Collegevi 

The above are some of the leading iustitu- 
ions now using the Class-Book of Commercial, and who speak in the highest terms of 

1 ARKANaED eepeolally 

' PtTional Property. Bailment, 
tight and PiuttngrTM. Jnnkeep- 

> any address 


lipal ol the Albany Btuineu Col 


SnORTHAND-writin(f Ihoinogbly taujtht by mal 
Tenna low, auturaotiun guaranteed. Send stamp ft 
apeoimen and olniular. W. W. HlfLTON, Pittsburgh, Pi 

^ If this Ink c 
different kinds will be a 
wood, on receipt of §1 pi 

/vison. B la kern an, Taylor & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. 

Gtl/ youionUr pUa*t mention thi* pajjrr. , 


Manual of Business Practice, 



Detroit, Mich. 


"Enttrti at Ike Pott Offia of Nrw York. X. T., aa ttamd-cUai matUr." 


Vol. VI.— No. 8. 




)TE A CO.. 



TaugLl in clfuu 


a> TirpK-^vKiTjmo 




ur pereouallv. SiluatioM 
ni»eienl. SeaiX for circular. 







oDcd Handwrltlog, 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

No. III. 

By Henry C. Spencer. 

Ciipjiiffliied August. 1682, by Spencer Brothers. 

A pupil says, " I caa write better in my 
t-M position than I can iu the correct posi- 
imii," Is it reasonable to expect that an 
"111 liitbit, uf years, will at oucc give place 
I" a new onef Certainly not. Tu break up 
the old cramped position requires pluck. 
The pnpil must stick to his aim. Let liiui 
Bay, "I can and I wiU"j let hiin practice 
in such a spirit and he will win. 

Those wiu) have studied and practiced 
Lesson II., are well prepared for Lesson III., 
which again iDtroduces drill in position and 

The soldier is drilled in the manual of 
anus, to fit him for destroying life; the 
writer should be drilled in The Manual 
(IF THE Pen, that he may be qualified to 
-io those thinga which sustain, enrich and 
prolong life. 

Attention— Writers. Face desk. (Sit 
near the desk, but do not press afjainst itj 
feet level on the floor.) 

Place— Paper. (Obliquely on the desk, 
lower left corner on a lino with right-side of 
body; upper left corner opposite middle of 

Arms and Hands— Front. {Elevated 
about six inches above the paper; tips of 
fore-fingers touching, at right angles; elbows 
on a line with front of body. 

Arms and Hands— Down. (Muscles of 
nrins resting on edge of the desk; palms 

Ij.inds down; and balls of fingers and 
rnl.9 resting on paper.) 

Hands— Half-closed. (Tips of finger 
nails touching the paper; wrists slightly ele- 
vated; arms resting on the full part of the 
musctrs midway between elbow and wrist. 

RiOHT-iiAND— Slide right, left, right, 
left, right, left, right, left. (Slide on tips of 
finger nails, the whole hand moved by the 

1?! Ccyr-y. Movr.:: Repeat strokes liobtty. counting. 


2^ Coyj-. LettBi3foimBd£t3inBlnalplB8L2'ena5. 



First and Second Fingers and 
Thumb— Extend. (As in holding a pen or 
pencil ; the hand resting only upon the nails 
of third and fourth fingers.) Again, Slide — 
right, left, right, left, right, left, right, left. 
(Hold hand level, the back facing ceiling 

Left-hand— Cakry Pen — To Right- 
hand. (Keep right-hand iu position to re- 
ceive pen ; convey pen by tip of holder, 
placing it across corner of second finger-nail, 
and passing it under first finger, let it cross 
just forward of knuckle joint; close thumb 
in on the left, pressing the holder, lightly, 
opposite the lower joint of first finger.) 
A^ain, Slide right, left, right, left, right 
left, right, left. (Hold paper to place with 
left-band; correct position during 
the exercise.) 

Tracing the copy, is an exercise that will 
be required, more or less, as we proceed ; and 
for that purpose we prefer to use a penhold- 
er that has been sharpened to a point, like 
a pencil. The pointed wooden-holder is 
better fur tracing than the point of a pen, 
because it is not as liable to deface the copy. 

If you have the upper end of your pen- 
holder sharpened, you are ready for 

Copy 1. 
Examine the first form in this copy ; ob- 
serve the arrow indicating the first course of 
the pen. Take correct position to trace 
this form, lightly, with the tips of pen- 
holder; the whole hand is to move —no 
separate action of fingers in this exercise. 
Dictate your strokes, as you trace: " Right 
curve, connective slant"; "straight line, 
main slant"; "back." Repeat several times. 
Trace, in a similar manner, each of the 
movement-exercises in tiie copy. Countingl, 
2, 3, etc., may be resorted to for the pur- 
pose of securing regularity of motion. After 
tracing, write the forms on paper with pen 
and ink. Observe that they are the hight 
of the space between the ruled lines — a 
ritUd space. May profitably dwell on a 
form, repeating the strokes until they be- 
gin to blot. 

Copy 2. 
What letters are introduced in this copy f 
Make thsm in the air. Trace the copy with 
pointed penholder, naming the strokes in 
order, thus : for small i, *' right curve, con- 
nective slant"; "straight line, main slanl"; 
"right curve, connective slanl"; dot, one 
sp.ioe above. For small h, " right curve, 
connective slant"; "straight line, main slant"; 
"right our^-e, connective slant " ; "straight , 

line, main slant"; "right 
slant." For small w, name four strokes as- 
iu u, and add, "right curve, one-half space 
to right " ; " dot " ; " horizontal right curve." 
In tracing, make the whole hand slide to 
the right on each connecting curve. 

Before writing the letters with ink, let us 
determine the size we are to write. 

At the right end of Copy 2, the ruling of 
your paper, (three-eighths of an inch be- 
tween liues), is indicated by short horizontal 

A dot appears just below the upper stroke, 
one-third the hight of ( from it. The 
whole space between this upper dot and the 
lower horizontal stroke or base line, we 
will designate the writinfi- space : this is 
divided into three equal spaces, by two dots, 
and the lower of these we will call the 
i-space. It is one-ninth of an inch. Our 
short letters in the medium hand, which is 
the size of the copy, are written an i-space 
in hight. The i-space is the unit for tlie 
measurement of letters, in hight and length. 

Dot your spaces carefully, as shown in 

Take correct position and write the letters 
with ink. Make the strokes with the reg- 
ularity of ordinary counting. Do not allow 
yoiir hand to rest heavily, and stick in one 


the paper while fonning a letter 

slightly sidew 
making the connective cun 
may co-operate with fore- 
the strokes. Such moveme 
bined movement. 

Criticize Your Let 
making right curves? None other proper 
to these letters. Are your letters just one- 
third of the writing-space t Are the an- 
gular joinings made at topt If below top, 
correct them. Have you made right-side 
parts of t, M, w, shorter than left-side f If 
so, bring them up. Are the turns at base 
too broad ? Maki 
without stopping, 
width-spaces iu t, 
equal f They should be 

Practice, criticize, cor 
frequently, slide hand 
the right. 

Again, you are earnestly cautioned against 
turning your hand over to the right, resting 
its side on the paper, and thus obstructing 
its progress across the page. Perhaps you 
roll your hand because you forget the cor- 
rect position while attending to the forms of 
the letters. If such is the case, you may 
put something on the back of your hand as 
an indicator, to rewind you when your 
hand is not level. 

Pen fingprs 
1 in shaping 
s called, coin- 
Are you 

n siiort as possible 
ive you made the 
nd first half of w, 

rect your position 

making curves to 

The picture of hand-aud-pen, above, 
shows a pasteboard button placed on the 
kuuckle between first and second fingers. 

A bit of paper about three-fourths of an 
inch square, or, if circular, about three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, may be used 
for an indicator. When you roll your hand, 
the indicator will slide off, and thus remind 
you to hold it level. Do not use any metal 
or other material, for this purpose, that will 
make a noise when it falls. 

Copy 3. 

This is our first exercise in joining letters. 
It is the equivalent of writing words. 

The u-space, or the distance between the 
straight lines of u, is the one referred to in 
the statement over the copy — that the dis- 
tance between letters is one and one-fourth 

The u-space is the unit of measure for the 
widths i>f the letters and spaces between. 

Trace Copy 3 with top of penholder, 
counting regularly 1 , 2, 3, 4 ; ] , 2, 3, 4 ; eto. 
After tracing, write the same with ink, 
until yuu can form and join u^s and w's reg- 
ularly in hight, width, and spacing. Re- 
member — milBt join letters by a sliding 
movement ot the hand, carried forward by 
the power of the lore-arm, and without lift- 
ing the pen. 

While passing through thesomewhat try- 
ing ordeal of maintaining Ihecorrect writing- 
position, make the left-hand, in addition to 
its usual duty of paper-holder, act as ser- 
vant of the right-hand, by taking the pen- 
and dipping it into the ink and returning it 
to place into the riaht-hand. The advant- 
age of this is obvious, until correct peii- 
holding becomes a fixed habit. 

Referring again to the picture of the liand- 
and-pen, on first column of this page, you 
may observe a ball represented iu the palm 
of the hand. It is The Zephyr Ball, 
about one and three-fourths inches iu dia 
meter, light, soft and flexible. 

1 he hall is a very good reminder of the 
proper position of the third and fourth 
fingers. It does not iuterferc with the ac- 
tion of the hand. It may be profitably used 
by any one who is endeavoring to secure the 
correct position, in any and all writing, 
until that object has been accnuiplished. 

Lesson I. in Box and Package 


By D. T. Ames. 

We are not aware that there has liitherto 
been made any efl'ort to give, either instruc- 
tion in, or examples for. box and package 
marking. Certainly there has beec no such 
instruction in any of our penmen's papers 
or published works on penmanship; there' 
fore, being a pioneer in this particular field 
of "letters," we may lay ourselves open ta 
just criticism, which we shall meekly receive, 
hoping only that critic-S will, in no case, 
fail to offer valuable suggestions for the cor- 
rection of any fault or shortcoming they 
may be pleased to note. 

To the end that these lessons should be 
as thoroughly practical as possible, and bear 
the impress of authority, we have visited 
several of tlie leading commercial and pub* 
lishiug houses of this city, examined the 

Btjlce of lettering, jm- 
plemcDUi, etc., em- 
ployed in markioff, 
and <\a\z7.eA t)ie pre- 
fiiding geniuM* of the 
"ink-pot and bni»h." 
To eDuinerale the 
varied styles of *' High 
Art" employed in 
marking, would be as 
impossible m it would 
■be uselew. It will bo 
our purpose and 



ooDS, to coinbiuo the 
beet resulta of the«c 
obflerrationa with our 
ideaa of the proper I 
•tylei and methods for j 
marking. The eaaon- J 

lials of good marking ' 

— like writiug — are 
legibility and facility of execution. To secure 
fbew resulia, forms of letters appropriate and 
adapted to being made with a brush or 
broad-pointed pen must be adopted. In 
marking wood or metallic surfaces, and all 
large packages, a brush is the proper im- 
plement to use ; for smaller parcels, and 
eipecially those wrapped in paper, a broad 
pointed pen may be used to great advautage. 

The brushes used are of three or four 
different sizes— flat, and varying from two to 
five-eighths of an inch in width. A flat 
brush is the best, as, when carried edgewise, 
it gives a thin lino ; while, flatwise, the broad 
•hades are readily made ; regular marking- 
Ink should be used. The customary form 
of marking'pot and brush, as well as au ex- 
aTDple of brushes for marking, is given in 
the illustration on this page. 

The stencil-plate is now extensively used 
for iiiarking-purijosee; especially is this the 
ease in affixing brands and classification of 
goods; and also the names and addresses of 
firms, places, etc., which are in frequent use, 
■are cut in stencils, which greatly improves 
iknd facilitates extensive marking operations. 

In these lessons we shall present two 
Myles of marking alphabets moat commonly 
iised for markiug-purposes. 

The Jirst, and that given herrwith, is 
what ia known as the Italic ; and while it 
may be made with facility with a brush, it 
is best adapted for use with a broad pen and 
f(ir marking small jiarcels. 

The «eco«rf will be the Roman direct slant, 
and especially adopted to brush-work. The 
two styles, and the manner of their use, are 
I>re8eiited in accompanying cut. 

The following exercises maybe practiced, 
with either ii bnmd pen or brush. After 

which the al|diabets may be practiced in the 
(To he continued ) 

A Fine Penman's Will. 

Uv Marv E. Martin. 
Bushrod Carr stood looking over his broad 
acres. As far as eye could reach, and far 
beyond, the woodlands were all his; and 
these broad acres brought him vast wealth. 
People called Buehrod Carr a miser, but he 
was not. People said he bad no heart, but 
be bad a heart as tender and true as a wo- 
man's. He bad set out to be a rich man, 
and he liad accomplished it. He had always 
wanted what waa his, but no more. Honest 
)s, and all these years 
1 gotiiug rich, that wli 

thirst in his throat, 
and as he left his bed 
to go out into the hall 
for water, a vertigo 
seized him. He groped 
in vain for his door U> 
reach his bed. Groped 
here, groped there, 
thinking he had found 
the door, only to feel 
liis hands against the 
blank wall. His steps 
led him further and 
furtlier from his door, 

1 low 

Mary, my little n 
just once before 
as he stood on hi 
that his days m 

It shall all be yours, 
ece. Oh, if I could see you 
die ; " for Buehrod Carr, 
s porch that morning, felt 
ere numbered. He was 

strong— stronger 

than men many years 

had he been i 

light and life to ulher homes be had i 
missed. No wife, no children had ever 
come into bis house. This momiug he 
missed them. A strong yearning for human 
cympathy and human love crept over him. 
Not that every one he met was not obse- 
quious enough — loo much so. He knew that 
il was for his money that they smiled so 
sweetly; that it was for bis money that his 
ficheniing bntther had tome to live with him 
ft year before. " But they shall never have 

busy ' but 
gives here 

younger; but he turned with a sigh to busi- 
ness when he saw the county collector of 
taxes fasten his horse at the gate and come 
into the yard, fanning himself, as he came, 
with his broad Palmetto hat. 

"Warm morning, Mr. Carr; but there 
isn't a man in the county that I would rather 
ride to see." 

"Walk in, walk in, Mr. Giddings; I am 
glad to see you. I waa just wishing for 
some one to talk with, and you are just the 

Tbey went in through the broad hall, and 
into a large, cool parlor, and sat down near 
a window. Bushrod Carr opened his desk, 
and went over his papers with the collector, 
paying over and receiving receipts. 

" Y(»u write a beautiful hand, Mr. Cnrr- 
just like a copy-plate; as much as I go 
around the county, I do not know another 
man that writes as well." 

" No, Seth, I fancy not, and I have not 
always written as well. It has just been 
sixteen years ago that I had a grand-niece, 
who came to keep house for me a year — the 
first year of her marriage. Her husband 
was the Methodist minister on this circuit, 
and she was with me nearly all the time. 
It was the first time since mother died that 
I had any one to brighten up the house. I 
wish I had never let her go from nie; but 
what could I do ; the man was her husband — 
a brute of a one he was — yet she had to go 
with him. She persuaded me to improve 

y handwriting. I wrote a cramped hand; 
the long Winter evenings, as we eat 
gether, she coaxed me into trying. I 
laughed at her; I said, what do people care, 
Mary, if my writing is bad, so as 1 can sign 
my name to so many thousands. 'Oh, but 
dear uncle,' she chirped, 'you don't know 
the pleasure there is in the c<»mmand one 
learns to have over the hand,' and she ran 
up to her room, and brought down to me 
some penmanship from famous penmen. To 
please her I tried to improve, often asking 
her about finger-movement, muscular-move- 
ment and forearm -movement, just to hear 

her explain them. Seth, she was the purest 
type of womanhood I ever knew.'' 

" Yes, I remember her," said Seth. "She 
seemed almost a child to be married." 

"Yes, Seth, she was then only sixteen, 
and married to that brute ; but I will show 
you some of my old writing ; and Bushrod 
Carr opened a secret drawer in his desk 
and drew out a will. I would like you to 
see the difference in my writing." 

Seth leaned over and looked at the will. 
He could hardly think the same person 
could have written that. Seth bsd too 
much native delicacy to appear to wish to 
read the will ; but Mr. Carr at once said: 

" I would like to read it over to you, 
Seth ; it does not satisfy me, and I intend to 
make a change." 

Seth leaned back in his chair — tilted 
against the window, and the cool breeze 
blowing in rustled the papers in the old 
man's hand while he read : 

" ' I, Bushrod Carr, do bequeath legacies 
to a few of my friends [naming them]. To 
my brother John, one thousand dollars, and 
a plantation during bis life. The remainder 
to go to the heirs of Kichard Carr.' This 
is not signed, Seth. I am going to make 

And Mr. Carr folded the paper and put it 
hack in the desk. Seth brought his chair 
down hard, looked at his watch, shook 
hands with Mr. Carr, and the two men 
parted. Why could it not have been differ- 
ent? Why could he not have written out 
the will and let Seth see him sign it t 
So much that waa painful might have been 

Bushrod Carr turned slowly hack from 
the door, went to the desk and wrote out a 
new will. With the same legacies, the same 
to hie brother, hut the remainder to his 
grand-niece, Mary Hamilton. Just as he 
had finished, but not yet signed it, Ephraim 
Clay, the overseer, stood in the doorway, 

" I am sorry to disturb you, Mr. Carr, 
but the threshing-machine is broken, and 
one of the hands says that you can tell ua 
how to fix it." 

He quickly locked the desk and went out 
with him. Being too long in the sun that 
day had given Bushrod Carr a high fever, 
and in the night he awoke with a burning 

the stairs with i 
railing. One blind 
grasp, and headlong he 
fell — down, down the 
stairs, and lay a heap 
; ou the floor. The noise 
brought Ephraim Clay 
the hall from one of the 
rooms below. They could plainly see his 
form on the floor. 

" Bring a light, Ephraim," said his wife, 
" I know he must be dead." 

"No, I am not dead," Mr. Carr called 
out, "hut brine a light, and help me up."' 

With that great strength of uerve that 
had carried the man through so many years, 
he walked up the stairs and laid down on 
his bed — but never to get up again. A few 
days of intense suffering and be was dying. 
Dr. Lathrop said to him : " Mr. Carr, if 
you have any business to settle, you had 
better do it; you can have but a few 
hours to live." 

Mr. Carr answered, quietly : " I have none 
but my will to sign." 

John Carr was standing at the foot nf the 
bed. What a gleam of triumph shot from his 
eyes, and under his breath he fairly hissed 
to himself, "You will never sign it." All 
these years of waiting and watching, to lose 
all now. Stepping to the side of the bed, as 
the doctor left, John Carr said: "You 
spoke of your will, Bushrod, what have 
you left me f " 

"Enough to keep you," the dying man 
answered. " I have helped you all your 
life, John." 

" What have you left my son ? " 

"Not one cent, John; be has hurt me 
enough in the past." 

John Carr tuned, deliberately lifted the 
pillow under the dyitig man's head, and 
took his keys from beneath. 

"John, brother," he begged, "give me 
back my keys. Don't rob me before 1 die." 

In vain ho asked. John Carr did not 
allow anyone to see Bushrod alone after 
that, and if lie asked for his keys, John Carr 
bemoaned the fact that his brother was 
delirious. In a few hours Bushrod Carr 

At the same hour, in ; 
city, a lady awoke from : 
Something unusual to her, 
turbed her. She thought, in going down a 
broad road she mot ayoung man in uniform, 
yet not a soldier ; a message he gave her 
caused her to take refuge in a house on the 
road-side. Opening the door, the family 
graciously came forward to meet tier. Two 
men, first; and in front, two little girla. Be- 
fore she had closed the door, one opposite 
opened, and an old man entered ; his steps 
were quick and hasty. Years had passed 
since she had seen him 
cbauges ; but she knew hi 
" What are you doing herel " 

In the old, quick, business way that was 
her, he said, pointine to one 
' I want my money from that 

ot far distant 
oubled sleep. 

, and there were 
n, and exclaimed : 

of th. 

Taking her by the hand, he then led her 
from the room. She went with him across the 
road and into his house. Yes, she knew it 
well — the cool parlor, the open desk. They 
sat down by the window. After that, all waa 
misty ; she could not remember. But the 
dream troubled her ; so, smoothing her hair 
down, and bathing her face, she went down 
to join h-r family. Some days after, her 
father handed to her the daily paper, saying : 


" I B«e ibat Busbrod Cair h dead." Then 
she koevr what the dream meant. She wrote 
at once to thp county where Bushrod Carr 
had dir-d, to know what will he had left. 
Th(> executor wrote back that an old will 
had been faund. and if a later will could 
be proveu, tbia wtmld be set aside, and 
John Carr would inherit everything. Mrs. 
Hamilton, the grand-niece of Mr. Carr, then 
induced some of her relatives to go up and 
aee if her mother would not slmre equally 
with Mr. John Carr. They quickly tele- 
graphed back that a deed would be drawn 
up, and an equal division made if all relatives 
wt.uld sign. An Mrs. Hamilton read the 
diepiitch, and was about to sign the boy's 
book, there was something strangely famil- 
iar about the young man. The dispatch- 
boy — yes; it wa« he that she had met in her 

All were gathered in the parlor — executor, 
lawyers, notary and relatives — to the signing 
of the deed. As the executor read over the 
deed, an item of which waa, that if a later 
will was ever found it would not be used. Just 
there he stopped, and told them the circum- 
sUnce as Seth Giddiugs had told it— of his 
seeing and hearing the present will read, 
and urged this as a reason that there could 
not be another. The notary called out the 
names, and each signed : but when he called 
out "Mary Hamilton," she replied, very 
firmly, " I will not sign." What a quick 
look of surprise and eager wonder chased 
itself over the face of John Carr's lawyer, 
and as quickly it closed over everything that 
oould be read in it, but not too quickly tor 
Mrs. Hamilton to know that there was 
another will, and in her own favor, and that 
he knew both facts. At onre she deter- 
mined to go to her uncle's old home, and 
never rest till the other will waa found. 
Ephraim Clay's wife gladly welcomed 
her, and almost the first words she said, 
were : " Mary, I kuuw that there is an- 
other will, and everything is left to 
you." "Well, Betsy, my old friend, if 
it is not destroyed I shall find it, for I 
believe the same." After dinner, she went 
into the old parior alone. She sat down by 
the open window, just as she had sat in 
her dream. All was not misty now, for 
sliehiid not sat many minutes, with her eyes 
piercing eagerly around, before she saw 
peeping plainly enough beneath the edge of 
the carpet, a tiny scrap of paper. It was 
the work of a moment to draw it from its 
hiding-place— the last place any one would 
have thought to look, and yet easily found 
if the deed had been signed. Mrs. Hamilton 
opened it. Her uncle's familiar writing, 
and it was a will leaving all to lier. 

She had Ephraim Clay summou the ex- 
ecutor and lawyers again. John Carr raved 
that It was a bogus will, and his lawyer de- told her that she must prove it to 
be a later will. The executor said: "Mrs. 
Hamilton, I wish to do justice ; and if you 
can prove this to be a later will— which for 
a moment I don't think you can — then it is 

She stood there in the center of that par- 
lor, holding the new found will in her hand; 
and grouped about the window were the 
men of law and shr- wdness. What could she 
do to cope with them I Only Setli Giddings, 
standing with his elbow on the mantel, gave 
her a pitying glance. Suddenly, so close to 
her ear that it seemed almost human, a voice 
■aid : " The old writing aud the new." 

Why had she not thought of that before T 
She turned, and said to the executor, " Will 
you let me see the will that waa tiret found; 
I have only heard it read." 

When she went forward to take it on« 
glance was enough. " My uncle, sir, has 
not written a hand like that for sixteen 
years. You know that, Mr. Giddings. 
Have you no receipts sigoed by my uncle t" 
Setli drew them out, signed in the same 
b'^autiful band as the will. She had won— 
but only what was hers. 


1 belongs to achievement, and 
not to aipiration ; to the maturity of a noble 
•areer, and not to its ju' 

Kducational Notes. 

for thia Department may 

" .LEY.'20.T Kruadway, 

ional items BoliciterL] 

The average sum appnipriated for the 
education of each child in Massachusetts has 
increased from $4.71 a year in 1850 to 
$13.55 in 1880. 

The total number of students in attend- 
ance at the Business Colleges in the United 
States during the past year is estimated at 
upwards of 30,000. 

A Belgian statistician has ccmiputed that, 
for every thirty-three cents which the gov- 
ernments of Europe spend upon the educa- 
tion of the people, they devote $103.80 to 
military expenses. 

At a recent examination in Peking, a 
Chinese boy performed the almost incredible 
feat of repeating the whole New Testament 
without missing a single word. — JV. 0. 
ChrisUan Advocate. 

The Western States, taken together, have 
been expending for their public schools an 
annual sum of $3(i,2!)2,402. They have a 
total school-population of 5,.')90,075.— iV. , 
0. Christian AdvocaU. 

At the prize-speaking at Amherst College 
the honors for the freshman class were fairly 
carried off by Brooks, a colored young man 
who spoke with feeling and good taste, and 
reflected credit on his race. 

Miss Louisa Howard, of Burlington, Ver- 
mont, evidently despairing of ever being 
married or having descendants of her own, 
has given $5,000 to the University of Ver- 
ment, for the establishment of five scholar- 
ships to be known by her name. — Washing- 
ton Capital. 

Mayor Wilson, of New Bedford, gave 
some homely advice to the graduating class 
of the high school, telling the boys that a 
trade was a desirable acquirement, aud the 
girls that housework ought to he included in 
their accomplishments. Some of the boys 
and the girls listened with manifest scorn. 
Modern Argo. 

Girls are being taught how to make 
bread, roast coffee, boil meats, etc., along 
with their regular studies, in the Iowa Agri- 
cultural College. This is common sense. 
Every girl should know such things, whether 
in rich or in poor circumstances. The laws 
of health should likewise be taught them. — 
I'atron^s Guide. 

The Czar of Russia has given his consent 
to convert seventeen imperial palaces into 
institutions of learning. These palaces \vi\\, 
of course, be used for higher schools, while 
nothing is done for the improvement of 
popular education. Russia has a school 
population of 15,000,000, and the number 
of children in primary schools is a little over 

It is announced that Mr. Paul Tulaue, of 
Princeton, N. J., has given to New Orleans 
$2,000,000 worth of property in the latter 
city, for the erection and endowment of a 
college. Mr. Tulane is by no meaus im- 
poverished by this handsome gift. He is a 
•bachelor, over eighty years of age, and has 
not been actively engaged in business for a 
quarter of a century.— jifodem Argo. 

The population of the principal cities of 
Italy is, according to the returns of the last 
census, as follows: Naples, 4i)3,115; Ui- 
lan, S^l.e;^; Rome, 300,467 ; Turin, 252,- 
832; Palermo, 244.971; Genoa, 179,515; 
Florence, 169,001; Venice, 132,826; Mes- 
sina, 126,497 ; Bologna, 123,274 ; Catania, 
100,417; Leghorn, 97,615; Ferrara, 75,- 
553; Padua, 72,174; Verona, 68,741; 
Lucca, 68,063; and Alessandria, 62,464. — 
School Journal. 

At the recently held examinations for ad- 
mission to th« free college of this city the 
girls came out ahead. Seventy-five was the 
lowest average grade of merit allowed. Six 
hundred and sixty girls out of the total nine 
hundred reached the minimum (71 percent.), 
whereas only 48 per cent, of the boya were 
able to pass the examination. One girl I 

reachc-d an average of i't. i'-n;;, .v i..^ 
same questions were given to both sexes. 
This may be intellectual inferiority, but it 
docs not look like ix.— Fashion Cmtrier. 

Public schools are increasing fast in num- 
ber in Bengal. For the past year there, was 
a total gain of 8,131 schools, with 107,457 
pupUs. It appears from the census returns 
that out of 5,100,000 boys of school age, 
more thau I in 6 was in school ; the pro- 
portion for girls was about 1 in 150. Of 
the total number of schools, 303 were Gov- 
ernment institutions, teaching 20,775 pupils ; 
40,490 were aided schools, teaching 777,- 
173; and 6,714 uuaideti schools, having a 
total of 121,541 pupils. Of the 107,457 new 
pupils, 51,000 were Mohammedans. 

The question whether education lessens 
the chances of obtaining husbands, or makes 
young ladies too fastidious in their choice, 
has been seriously raised by the record kept 
of the marriages and deaths of the Hartford 
high school graduates. Of 134 maidens 
graduated at the average age of eighteen in 
1877, 1878, 1879, and 1880, only two have 
married. Of the total number of 447 female 
graduates of this school since 1856, a period 
of twenty-five years, only 147 have got mar- 
ried and twenty-five have died, leaving 275 
old maids. — School Journal. 

This satirical paragraph Is from TJie 
liuchcster Union: "It may be added for 
the information of the taxpayers who are 
called upon for $200,000 this year to sup- 
port tlie public schools of Rochester, that 
not one cent of this money is squandered 
upon the teaching of writing. The levy 
covers a handsome sum for the teaching of 
natural sciences, and drawing, and German, 
and so forth, but nothing is wasted on wri- 
ting. This study, or practice, which used 
to be considered an essential with reading 
and arithmetic, has become obsolete in the 
public schools. Why its two ancient ac- 
companiments have uot gone with it is one 
(if those mysteries of progress not easy to 

Educational Fancies. 

A geucalogist is like a grammarian in one 
respect ; he ia always looking up the ante- 
cedents of his relatives. 

Teacher : " For what is Missouri noted ? " 
Student: " For its Mo. lasses." Teacher; 
"Duu'tgive us taffy!" 

It is noted by a philologist that "pos- 
sesses" possesses morti sa than any other 
common word possesses. 

Why is a hickory sprout in the hands of 
an angry teacher like a verbt Because it 
denotes action. — I'eacker's Guide. 

In one lot there are four calves, and in an- 
other two young men with their hair parted 
in the center. How many calves in all f 

Why was the pupil of the pretty school 
ma'am « ho proposed that he give thii de- 
clension of the proiiouus an uugallaut youth f 
Because ho declined her. 

Very Nrarly. — Aunty: "You go to 
school, Charley?" Charley :" Yes." Auntie; 
" You don't play the truant?" Charley: No; 
but I'm learuin' the piauuer." 

Professor: "Can you tell me the mean- 
ing of the slang expres8i<m 'Cheese it,' 
which you just now used?" Student: 
"Yes, it is a oorniption of 'Don't give it 

" What do you understand the national 
fishery question to be f " asked a teacher of 
a class, well np in governmental affairs. "It 
is have you got a bite," auswered a squeak- 

ing i 

I the c 

Tlie Rev. Dr. Crosby, of New York city, 
has put in a plea for co-education of the 
sexes in the university of this city. The 
doctor was evidently a university student 
himself once. — Peck's Sun. 

If six men who talk politics and dispute 
on biblical questions can build a wall in five 
days, how long will it take two men who 

iiiatie aud tlirt with the widow c 
jr to do the same work ? 

I the c 

A little boy, whose parents are always 
moving from one house to another, waa 
asked by the Sunday-school teacher, " Why 
did the Israelites move out of Egypt t " Be- 
cause they couldn't pay their rent," was the 

A freshman who expected to be hazed 
hired a prize-tighter to sleep in his room, 
aud two professors who called to talk re- 
ligion to him got such a walloping that they 
were obliged to stay in bed for a week. — 
Minneapolis Weekly. 

A good joke is told on a Boston editor, 
who wrote a letter discharging a corres- 
pondent because he " wrote so wretchedly." 
His letter had to be returned to the Boston 
office, because nobody could be fiuind able 
to read the contents. — Minneapolis Weekly. 

Instructor iu Latin : " Miss B., of what 
was Ceres goddess t " Miss B. : " She was 
the goddess of marriage." Instructor: ''Oh, 
no; of agriculture." Miss B. {looking per- 
plexed); "Why, I'm sure my book says 
she was the goddess of husbandry." — Our 

A little girl of seven exhibited much dis- 
quiet at hearing of a new exploring ex- 
pedition. When asked why she should care 
about it, she said: "If they discover any 
more countries, that will add to the geogra- 
phy I have to study. There are countries 

"How many tenses are there?" asked 
the teacher of a boy. " Seven," answered 
the boy; " the present, the perfec, the im- 
perfect, the pluperfect, the first future, the 
second future and the OseaiWilde." "Why," 
asked she, " what tense is he?" "Oh," re- 
plied the boy, " he's iuteuse." 

Parson : " I wish to complain, Mrs. Dig- 
gins, of the conduct of your daughter at the 
Sunday-school to-day; it was rude in the 
extreme." Mrs. D. : " Ah, ir's what taches 
her at that theer board school as dun it; 
yesterday she come home, aud she says, 
' Mother, they are a-taching of me vulgar 
fraxshuns.' What can you expex after that, 

A boy paid his first visit to the country 
school as a scholar, the other day, and as 
he came home sit night his motlier inquired : 
"Well, "Henry, how do you like going to 
school?" "Bully! "he replied, in an ex- 
cited voice. " I saw four boys licked, and 
one girl get her ear pulled, and I don't want 
to miss a day for anything." — St. Louis 

A new sub-ordor of odd-toed ungulatea, 
or hoofed quadrupeds, named Coudylarlhra, 
has been proposed and extended by Prof. 
Cope to include early tertiary mamn.al8 
constituting two families, the Phenacondon- 
tide and Mcnisc.i therudFe.— The Critic. 
This news greatly relieves us. We have 
long suspected that this would have to be 
done, and are much pleased to have our 
suspicions confirmed in the above man- 
ner. — Harvard Lampoon. 

i In everpr inntance where the source of any 
ilpm UH«d m iliis dvjmrMiient is known, thv 
priiper credit is giveu. A like couriesy from 
orhurs will be appreciated.] 

Some Querr Superscriptions. — " E. 
R., a cook as lived tempery with a Mrs. L., 
or some such name, a shoe-maker in Castle 
Street, about No. — Hoberu, in 1851. Try 
to make this out. She is a Welch person 
about 5 feet 1 aioutish. Lives in service 
some ware in London." " This is for her 
that makes dresses for ladies, that Hva at 
tother side of rode to James Brocklip^Eden- 
sover, Chesterfield." "This is for the young 
girl that wears spectacles, who minds two 
babies. 3tt Sherif Street, off Prince Edward 
Street, Liverpool." The wag who sent an 
epistle to " The biggest fool in the world, 
Tunbridge," had little thought, we may be 
sure, that it would thus be indorsed : " The 
Post-master of Tunbridge cannot decide to 
whom he should deliver this, as he does 
not know the writer." — Chambers's Joumai, 


Shattered Romance. 
Bv Paul Pastnob. 

uMd to holloo hia f 

ock-.'oal aiTiM ft i>««:«nil b«» 

«r» lhr»* inoolh* hi 

wl |«tw«l uwajr cWn-d»ep In 


lb }rut lb* prvtllMl 

f glfl^hrr iuui>0 11 WM Man 

^b rb«fmlD( liiil« 1* 


»«y (Tlaow «f hrr i> 

wMl»y« and dimple of her fi 

u couldn't poMlblyi 

KMIM imharmwd from >ucb « ■ 



nohoir. hrr oopy um. 

d to n««d n light of wfttching'. 

J I«««r bad A Iwkward llll. IMt (bade would d 



Hlirnya cHmo without AmUif, and itAytd lUl some 

d him that tliera WM fnioibervd tna taaong the girli 
luid boyi. 


. d«y U »bAh««l .l,»l M»,1.-. p. wf Oh hi. ™y to 


d aoo how tblDjfi were galUog oo. 'ooalh Invin 


r, Imin. on hie cureful rouadi. hnd oome to Marie's 


d « ha bon, to «.n bcr work, .he looked .o nic n„d 


iioirny— he couldn't iiiille t«ll bow— their lips Ju»l 


» lightning i„ li thunderatorp, or cloud. 1.. pleasant 

against a truth (that maDy QQCODScioasly 
do) anJ w.intnit the fatal error of unintel- 
ligent practice that growfi oniioary results, 
and ultimately" will^defeat the sanguine. 

To succeed in any undertakiujt;, every pos- 
sible advantage muf<t he secured. If a watch 
keeps perfect time it must he true in all its 
parts. One imperfection will, in time, work 

If you would reach the highest ideal in 
the production of capitaOettera, you must 
submit each part of the law to a technical 
test ere its full force can he reached. 

Analogous reasoning will prove to the 
most skeptical that there is a " philosophy 
<if motion " or "sleight-of-hand" in the 
highest order of execution in capital letters. 

That a capital letter can be produced with- 
out any "philosophy of motion'' is no 
argument disqualify iog my statement, any 
more than jumping without moving the 

ment lal» 

mid liM itiak, irltb rouuy a luity 

bcattug u 

ut tliu itmtevl dujt from IrtHa 1 




»M the pasture fonoe, anioeu by 


hnplPM lo 

vera <lro]it tbeir teara, and kUiad 

a but Uia 

t (buy ahiiuld ported be) love't 

riviu hadu 

t nfty .^ and dared not duo ih 

Programme "C." 

Philosoi'Iiv or Motion — Article 7. 

Hy C. H. Peirce. 

For a full exposition of the " Philosophy 
of Motion," see Dec Joornal, 1881, Pro- 
gramme " B." What was said of it in that 
cnunectiou is, witiiout the shadow of an 
exception, perfectly applicable lu this pro- 
gramme. However, I cannot pass it with- 
out insisting upon Ita importance aa a cou- 
npctiug link botwcfln the motive power in 
Extended Movements and the result, as seen 
in Capital Letters. 

I do afllnn, ami let no one mUunderstand 
me, that the highest order of execution, em- 
bodied iu any capital letter, of a purely or forearm nature, depends on 
the " IMiilosopliy uf Motion." 

Some one may ask : " la the philosophy of 
motion the same in all capitals f" Most 
certainly not. 

Eiamph.~lQ the execution of the stand- 
ard capitals— say, A and J, or any others 
that lire opp«8ite.«i in coustructiou— the 4ih 
principle of the Motion undergoes a change. 
The fact that tho stem of A has much less 
curve than the first part of J is prot.f positive 
that the motion which leads to each is dis- 

Phoop of the Philosophy op Motion. 

Attempt a standing jump, with the hest 
results, without moving the arms, and any 
school-boy will predict failure. 

The anus must move with perfect free- 
dom, or, in other words, the Philosophy of 
Motion must ho enacted that the \ery best 
results may he gained. 

D^mtion—TU Philosophy of Motion 
ii an applioation of mechanioal force, which 
operates in conforu.ity with certain laws. 

To ignore these laws, and expect or hope 
luJis, is to shut our eyes 

The point is, simply: Can the highest 
order of execution he reached without the 
"philosophy of motion"? or in other 
words J Can a (standing) jump be made 
as far and with equal grace and ease 
without aa with moving the arms f Most 
emphatically, No. 

The intuitive nature that our hest pen- 
men possess brings them to the attainment 
of resulta without knowing the reasons 
why ; and the want of it leaves the world at 
large to cry " We are doomed I'' because we 
have no natural talent. 

True-teaching power must supply every 
link in the chain, if the mass he led to a 
successful termination. 

A little natural reasoning, ur, better still, 
a development of brain-power into a sensi- 
ble diagnosis of the case, will produce — 
other things considered — hosts of natural 

Is it not true that every science and art 
have acknowledged leaders t And is it 
deemed presumptuous if they attempt an 
explanation of new theories that come with 
every age and are indicative of progress? 

Let the proper construction be placed 
upon it, and rather say : It is a duty they 
owe to their day and generation, in order 
that success may come to all. 

(To be continued.) 

for the best 

Intensely Utter. 

The daughter of a Rockland man, who 
has grown comfortably well-oti' in the small 
grocery line, was sent away to a " female col- 
lege," and arrived home for vacation. Thf) 
old man was in attendance at the depot when 
the train arrived, with the old horse and the 
delivery wagon, to convey his daughter and 
her trunk to the house. When the train 
had stopped, a bewitching array of dry-goods 
and a wide-brimmed hat dashed from the 
car and flung itself into the elderly party's 

"Why, you superlative pa!" she ex- 
claimed, " I'm 80 utterly glad to see you ! " 

The old man was somewhat unnerved hy 
the greeting, hut he recognized the sealskin 
cloak as the identical piece of property he 
had paid for with the hay mare, and he sort 
of Btjuat it up in his arms, and planted a 
kiss where it would do the most good, with 
a report that sounded above the roar of 
the noise of the depot. In a brief space of 
time the trunk with its attendant baggage 
were loaded into the wagon, which was soon 
bumping along over the hubbies toward 

" Pa, dear," said the young miss, survey- 
ing the team with a critical eye, " do you 
consider this quite excessively beyond?" 

" Hey f returned the old man, with a 
puzzled air, " quite excessively what i 
Beyond Warren ! I consider it some what 
about ten miles beyond Warren, countin' 
from the Bath way, if that's what you 

"Oh no, pa, you don't understand me," 
the daughter explained ; " I mean this horse 
and wagon. Do you think they are sonl- 
lult— do you think they could be studied 
apart in the light of a symphony, or even a 

simple poem, anil appear so intensely utter 
to one on returning home as one could ex- 

The old man twisted uneasily in his seat 
and muttered something like that he be- 
lieved it uspd to be used for an expresa- 
waeon before he boucht it to deliver pork 
in ; but the conversation appeared to b« 
traveling in snch a lonesome direction, that 
he fetched the horse a resounding crack on 
the rotunda, and the severe iolting over the 
frozen ground prevented further remarks- 

" Oh, there is that lovely and consummate 
ma ! " screamed the returned coUegiaiess, as 
they drove up to the door. Presently she 
was lost in the embrace of a motherly wo- 
man in spectacles. 

" Well, Maria," said the old man at the 
supper-table, as he nipped a piece of butter 
ofl" the lump with his own knife, "and how 
do you like your school ?" 

" Well, there, pa, now you shou — I mean 
I consider it lar too beyond," replied the 
daughter. " It is unquenchahly ineffable. 
The girls are so sumptuously stunning — I 
mean grand— rso exquisite — so intense. And 
then the parties, the balls, the rides — oh, the 
past weeks have been one sublime har- 

"I s'pose so — I s'pose so" nervously as- 
sented the old man as he reached for bis 
third cup, "half full," — "hut how about 
hooks — readiu', writiu', grammar, rule o' 
three — how about themf " 

" Prt, don't ! " exclaimed the daughter, re- 
proachfully; "the rule of three! grammar! 
It is French, and music, and painting and the 
divine art that has made my school-life the 
bos— I mean they have rendered it one un- 
broken flow of rhythmic bliss — incom- 
parably and exquisitely all but ! " 

The grocery-man and bis wife looked 
helplessly at each other across the table. 
After a lonesome pause the old lady said : 
" How do you like these biscuits, Mary f " 
" They are too utter for anything," gnshed 
the accomplished young lady, " and this 
plum preserve is simply a poem in itself." 
The old man abruptly rose from the table 
and went out of the room, rubbing his head 
in a dazed, benumbed manner, and the mass 
convention was dissolved. That night he 
and his wife sat alone by the stove until a 
late hour, and at breakfast-table the next 
morning he rapped smartly on his plate 
with the handle of his knife and remarked ; 
" Maria ; me and your mother have been 
talkin' the thing over, and we've come to 
the conclusion this boarding-house business 
is too utterly all but too much nonsense. 
Me and her consider that we haven't lived 
sixty odd consummate years for the purpose 
of niisin' a curiosity, and there's goin' to bo 
a stop put to this unquenchable foolishness. 
Now, after you've finished that poem of fried 
sausage and that symphony of twisted 
doughnut, you take and dust up stairs in 
less'n two seconds, and peel ofl" that fancy 
gown and put on a caliker, and then come 
down and help your ma wash dishes. I 
want it distinctly understood that there ain't 
goin' to be no more rhythmic foolishness in 
this house so long's your superlative pa and 
your lovely an' consummate ma's runnin' 
the ranch. You h^ar me, Maria ? " 

Maria was listening.— iiocA'/and Courier. 

relating to his art will find himself rapidly 
gaining in skill ; but the moment he imag- 
ines he knows all about any department of 
his art, his progress stops, for he knows 
only what he has allowed himself to learn 

The practice of scribbling ruins the wri- 
ting of many. He who desires to attain to 
the highest skill of which he is capabh', can 
always afford to go slowly enough to abide 
by the rule that " what's worth doing at all 
is worth doing -well." The wonderful accu- 
racy of the best penmen come« from their 
always aiming at perfection till their musoles 
never fail them. — Penman's Gazettr 

The Letter "E." — It is well known 
that the letter e is used more than any other 
letter in the English alphabet. It is seldom 
that we meet with a sentence in which it 
does not appear. Each of the following 
verses contain every letter of the alphabet 
except the letter e: 

y buxom fiui 


which ( 

situations in 
, etc., of the 
ir first letter to a per- 
'spectful, and by i 

How TO Succeed in Penmanship. — 
It is often said thatit is necessary to live one 
life to learn how to avoid mistakes were we 
to live over again. Every person has made 
more or less mistakes, and it may be a 
blessing to some to study how to govern 
their practice and talent to make the beat of 

With a desire lor good, we venture the 
following opinions: 

He who depends upon practice alone to 
make his skill perfect will never succeed. 
Ideas lie at the bottom ef good teaching 
and good execution. The writer who stu- 
dies the most and writes the least, will, at the 
end of a year's practice, eitecute far better 
than he who practices eontinually. The 
penman who is eager to graap every idea 

Letter- Writing. — Various are 
casions on which we are called upoi 
ercise our skill in the art of letter-i 
A correspondence between two persons is 
simply a conversation reduced to writing, in 
party says all that he hastocom- 
replies to preceding inquiries, and 
in turn proposes questions, without inter- 
ruption by the other. We should write to 
an absent person as we would speak to the 
same party if present. To a superior, we 
ought to be respectful ; to a parent, dutiful 
and affectionate ; to a friend, fiank and easy ; 
and clear and definite in our expressions to 
all. Display is a great fault among young 
writers ; ease is the grace of letter-writing. 
A passage which is at once brilliant and 
brief, enriches a letter; hut it must be art- 
less, and appear to flow without effort from 
the writer's pen. In all of our correspond- 
ence, the choice of language, subject, mat- 
ter and manner, should, as 
be governed hy the rehtl: 
life, aa to age, rank, chaia 
party addressed. In c 
son, we should he i 

means familiar. We aliould never forget 
what wo are, and what the person is whom 
we address. We should write, in fact, with 
the same restrictions as we should speak. 
We must suppose the party present whom 
we address, and bear iu mind that our let- 
ters are in every respect representatives of 
our own person. An estimate of our char- 
acter and manners is often formed from the 
style of our letters.— iVew Hampshire Sen- 

Machinery has effected few revolutions 
like those of watches. Not many years ago 
they were all hand-made, aud Switzeriand 
was almost devoted to that trade. English 
watches were excellent but expensive. 
Ameriea led the way in adopting watch- 
machinery which is the wonder of the world. 
Now, no watch is better than an American. 
The perfection of watch-making machinery 
may be judged from this fact: The watch- 
screws are cut with nearly nx hundred 
threads to an inch, though the finest used 
has tw<. hundred and fifty. These threads 
are invisible to the naked eye, and it takes 
one hundred and forty-four thousand of the 
screws to weigh a pt>und— their value being 
six pounds of pure gold. 

Luther's writing (1519) is said to be fine 
and pointed, resembling the German of the 
present day; that of Melancthon is coarse, 
disconnected, and dashing. Calvin and 
Erasmus used round Greek-like characters, 
not nnited in forming words. 

■ /i g g a^ - 



Probably the best abused word m the 
English language to-day is the one written 
at the bead of thi« article. Not withfitau ding 
this verdict of the popular judgment it 
would wunld we think be exceedingly diffi- 
cult to find many words that carry so much 
in them for the good of the race as this. To 
dotibt is the only road ever traveled by 
<)rogr^s. It is true that in these latter days 
the word has oome to be applied largely 
and almost exnlueively to thoee who dis- 
believe in God or things held sacred by 
many good people. But the skeptic is a 
doabter, a man who says " I don't under- 
stand it, let UB investigate this matter a 
little." Tliere is nothing enjoyed by the 
people to-day that can be called an im- 
provement upon what our forefathers used, 
bat owes its existence to the skeptic. The 
fanner uses to-day a plough, the model of 
perfection as compared with the sharp stick 
hia ancestors used. How was the change 
brought about t Why some skeptic in the 
past said, I doubt if this is the best that can 
be made. Investigation, experiment, more 
doubting, more theoriziug, more experi- 

menting, and we see 
Nothing but error 
need fear the skeptic. 
Truth is not harmed 
by skepticism, but 

upon its foundations. 
Everythiug about us 
to-day is changed 
from what it was in 
the days of our fore- 
fathers. This is not 
only applied to instru- 
ments used in labor, 
but extends to the 
very " thoughts of the 
heart " as well. Skcp- 
^cism of our accepted 
theories has brought 
about all this change. 
The Anoieuts said the 
world was flat, that 
the earth m'hs stii1ii)n- 
that the sun. 

the result to-day. 

and Iiopp. It is fatal to progress to stop 
the doubter. Our happiness in this world 
and the next depends upon our knowledge 
of truth. We know more to-day thau we 
did yesterday — all thauks to the doubter 
for the advance. When the last doubter 
dies, the world of thought comes to a staod- 
stiH and human knowledge has begun its 
retrograde march. May we be delivered 
alike from idle cavilling and from dogruatic 
assertion. The great future lies before us, 
aud almost all of it is as yet " undiscovered 
country." — Oswego Morning Sxpresg. 

An amusing illustration of how myths are 
bom and grown is furnished by a French 
traveler who, during a recent sojourn in the 
East, repeatedly heard of the fabulous ex- 
ploits of a personage whom the Arabs 
called " Kaliviilli." He soon found that 
this traditional hero was a living European 
and not a loug- departed native; and by in- 
quiry he established, beyond all question, 
his identity with Garibaldi. But the man- 
ner in which the great Italian's deeds have 
been transmuted by popular imagination 

The High School: 

Its Rklatios to Business with tiik 
Tkvk Course of Studies, 
Lb a subject which was discussed in the lat« 
National Council of Education at Saratoga, 
apropos of a paper read by Prof. Murry. 
In it he took the ground that we have fre- 
quently contended for, viz. : that education 
is a means, not an end, and tliat the busi- 
ness interests of the country require a large 
advance in the quantity and quality of work. 
Prof. Huxley takes much the same ground 
and contends that to do rather than to 
know is the objective point in education. 
It is not those who have the most knowledge 
that are the best and most active citizens. 
A taleut in a napkin does not count ; it is 
the practical knowledge that can perform. 
It is the education of the eye, the ear and 
the baud rather than lives of indigested 
learning that makes the useful citizen, and 
that is the object of State education. The 
State may indeed furnish "a ladder from the 
gutter to the university," but it should only 
be for those whose grasp enables them to 
climb. It is the worst policy in the world 
to force mediocrities up such a ladder, and, 
fortunately or unfortunately, the great ma- 

Definitions of Terms Used in'the 
Peircerian System of 
I am constantly in receipt of letters mak- 
ing inquiry as to the meaning of terms nsed 
in connection with my method of iustruo- 
tion, and it is doubtless due to the readers 
of the JoDSNAL that I comply in a general 

Tracing-exercises consist mainly of forms 
of tapital letters, large in size, produced 
with a colored pencil, by the teacher, so 
tbjit the student can trace the design with 
lead-pencil or end of holder until a free and 
easy movement has been secured. It is 
possible, also, to get a fair idea as to the 
form of letter. 

To an inquisitive pupil, who is anztoui 
to kuowjust how many times he is to go 
over the exercise, I would say less than 
238,000 times. Number of designs, seventy- 

Extended- movements consist of single 
capital letter*, joined in groups, aud num- 
ber 275 diflerent designs. This power can- 
not be dispensed with. These two classes 
of work are denominated Capital-exercises, 
in No. 4 of the new Speucerian Com- 

The itbovi 

volved around it. The 
skeptic said No, and 
by his skepticism, 
then, we are to-day 
permitted to see and 
know the wonders of 
nature as we do. Men 
are yet living who can 
remember when to 
hear a man say that 
the earth was not cre- 
ated in six days of 
twenty-four hours 
each, as a carpenter builds a house, or 
a mechanic a machine, would raise the 
cry against him of heretic, from the 
very same men that to-day would call 
him a fool for making a similar asser- 
tion. Error is not transformed into truth 
by liaviug the musty smell of ages upon 
it. Truth may still be wrapped in swadd- 
ling clothes while hoary headed error 
passes it by in disdain. Skepticism has 
gone doubting through all the long past, aud 
will continue to do so for all time to come. 
The result will be to see many things to-day 
" despised and rejected of men " grow 
brighter and stronger, while many cherished 
theories and beliefs will melt away and dis- 
appear forever. Of course skepticism can 
be abused. So can faith. When skepticism 
is turned into cavilling, it takes its place by 
the side of blind and ignorant faith, and 
disgusts the honest seeker for truth. There 
is nothing the world tu-day needs so much 
as knowledge of truth. Tins is true in every 
department. The tlieoUigian and the scien- 
tist aie suffering for the same food. Matters 
are so arranged in this world that we are 
seeking but never attain the full knowledge. 
The moment we arrive at the stage in our 
existence where we know all, that moment 
we become miserable. It is the trying to 
rea«h lometbiiig beyood that gives us energy 

Philosophy of Mo- 
tion, is an application 
of mechanical force 
which operates in 
conformity with cer- 
tain Uws. 

Combinations o f 
capitals are of two 
kinds — connected and 
disconnected. By con- 
nected Combinations 
are meant, that the 
capitals composing 
the initials of a proper 
name are made with- 
out lifting the pen 
from the paper. In 
a disconnected Com- 
bination the capitals 
loop iufo each other ; 
but, in every case, 
the pen must, at the 
finish of each capital, 
be lifted from the 

Good taste, in 
many cases, will de- 
mand, in the forma- 
tion of three or more 
initials of the same 
name, both styles of 

C. H. Pbirce. 

surpassed the legends of Greece and Rome. 
The Arabs said he lived upon an island 
which he had mastered with his own hand 
aloue, although its defenders had hedged the 
island with cannon. In the uiiilst of a per- 
fect hail of bullets, "Kalivalli" had seized 
these formidable batteries and put the 
enemy to flight. The sight of him was so 
terrible that his foes Hed as soon as they saw 
him among them. He was not a man, but 
a demon in human form, sent to the earth to 
accomplish some mysterious task. One of 
the Arab fortune-tellers had met a ship's 
captain who had seen the redoubtable one. 
His statement was that the being of whom 
the others spoke was, in truth, a man — but 
of such repulsive visage that no one could 
bear to look upon him. His mouth was 
provided with tusks, like a boar. His 
height was so great that nobody could touch 
his head with the point of a sword extended 
at arm's length. He wore a shirt which was 
dipped every day in blood. His eyes were 
consuming fire, his eyebrows like a boar's 
bristles, and his open mouth was the very 
gate of hell. His food consisted of little 
children, and there were no cruelties that he 
had not committed. All this was told with 
perfect seriousness, and with the manner of 
men who considered that they were narrat- 
ing historical events. — Tribune. 

jority are such mediocrities. They develop 
no special aptitudes in any direction, and 
their liighest ambition is to do what their 
hands find to do as easily and comfortably 
as possible. And the position is none the 
less honorable, because the spliere is limited. 
Common school education should be directed 
towards getting out of the average men and 
women the best results, and not be founded 
on the "delusive idea that the masses are 
prodigies and only require half a chance to 
show their genius." 

It is related of George Clarke, the cele- 
brated negro minstrel, that, being examined 
as a witness, he was severely interrogated 
by the counsel, who wished to break down 
his evidence. " You are in the negro mins- 
trel business, I believe?'' inquired the law- 
yer. "Yes, sir," was the prompt reply. 
" Isn't that rather a low calling f" demanded 
the lawyer. "I don't know but what it is, 
sir," replied the minstrel; "but it is ao 
much better than my father's that I am 
proud of it." "What was your father's 
calling f" "He wa» a lawyer," replied 
Clarke, in a tone of regret that put the 
audience in a roar. After that, the lawyer 
left Clarke alone.— §ttw. 

Envelope* were firet used in 1839. 

"Some men," says 
an eminent anatomist, "have three hands 
— right-hand, left-hand, and a little-behind- 
hand." Among our correspondents are 
persons who can add to these a flourishing- 
hand, a running-hand, a round-liand, and 
some who have a well-we-will-not-undor- 

One of the most successful counterfeit- 
ing schemes is to issue a small quantity 
of notes on a certain bank, with the name of 
a place, president or casliier misspelled. 
Upon discovery, the bank sends a warning 
through the country, pointing out the error. 
Then the counterfeiter makes a second issue, 
with the name spelled correctly, and circu- 
lates them boldly, knowing the merchants 
and storekeepers will only look for the indi- 
cated " catch." 

On the subject of penmanship, M. Ernest 
Legouve tells his grand-daughter: "The 
people who praise you in your face and laugh 
at you behind your hack, say, 'Ah I all clever 
people write badly.' Answer by showing 
them, as I have you a hundred times, letters 
of Guizot, Mignet, and Alexandre Dumas 
the older, which are models of caligrapby. 
Write well, my child, write well ! Pretty 
writing in a woman ii like tasteful dresaiog, 
a pleasing physiognomy, or a sweet voice." 

'IITJJ ' " " ^»™ 

^jy: ^ '" 

Slajrta eoplv of 
SpMtmea ooptet ftiml»b«1 to Ag«iit< fr«w. 


aiogl* tucHloD. 25 mdU per line oonpwreU. 

iMlama Ksloo' •sS'oO Il0o!ob ti: 

t " 13.75 30,00 56.00 I 

i ■' 7.30 15.00 JSjOO i 

Am ; lilt tix mcrath* and one rrar. pmyabl« inn 


<n lu roiT«apiiiiil' 

To flTiffy tintr mbscrHMT, or renewal, lne]oi.\iig 11, w« 

Pro(n>«," 2ir3i or " Th« Bounding Stag," ■2<«:t!. Fit 
•2,00,1111 Ave will bcMnt with Ihn fliil oopy of Joi' iinal. 

or mull to ILe Minder, a copy ut olthur-of tho lollowlug 

■1 8p««!tmen Sh^ti of Bn^rouloff , eonh 11x14 In. 

Gongdon'B Normal Sy«tem of I^tcrinff 
Or " ■' " Klonriahlng. 

«iitwcripliOD> nod tVi 

nam«< and IIS w« w: 



*ifllw Order or by Regii 


a by iMiatul-card I 
, be ilopped UDIU 

New York, August, 1882. 

Mystery of Writing. 

T.. those who are entirely without kuovvl- 
i'llf^f of wriliug, it is wonderfully iiiyster- 
loiiB. Of this fact we have a well illiistrateil 
example in the experience of a South 
American slave, who, being sent to deliver 
;i haskot of choice fruits, when alone, eat n 
|iortiou of the fruit ; but he was also tho vm- 
to.liau of a letter, to be delivered with the 
haskot, which gave, among other things, an 
inventory of contenu of the basket, by 
which the theft was discovered, and he was 
neveroly Hogged. Therefore, upon another 
iiecusion, being entrusted with a similar 
charge, he took the precaution to carefully 
«o»e*al lh«» letter under a atone while he ate 
the fruit, thinking that since it was entirely 
out of sight it could have no knowledge of 
his acts, and could not, therefore, be a Mit- 
noas against him; but to his utter astonish- 
ment it told all the same, and he waa pun- 
ished with increased severity. 

Death of Ernest Duty Spencer. 

Mr. Kobert C. Spencer, associale-aulhor 
of Spencerian, and a leading busiuess-edu- 
cator, has, with Im family, met a end be- 
reavement in the loss of his young sou, 
Ernest Duty Spencer, a handsome lad of six 

Mt. Spencer's elegant residence i« in Mil- 
waukee, Wis. The grouoda are spacious, 
reaching from Pn>spect Avenue to the shore 
of Lake Michigan. July Ifi, at 5.m p. m., 
in company with his brother Ned., aged Hi' 

and several children, Ernest went to the 
pier, which extends into the lake opposite 
his home. In a little time he returned to 
the beach and bnttooed hisshoesand walked 
away. None of the children saw Iiim again. 
At 6.;W, Annie Dr«xler, a sen-ant in the 
family, saw him on the lawn near the house. 
Near 7 o'clock, the daughter of J. M. Crom- 
bie saw him on Prospect Avenue, goiug 
North from home. She spoke to him ; as 
did also, soon after, the daughter of Mr. J. 
G. J. Campbell. This was the last seen of 
little Ernest, alive. 

Alarmed at his prolonged absence, the 
services of the police were eulisted. The 
banks, pier, breakwater, sands, streets and 
roads were searched, without discovering 
the lost one. Days passed, alternate with 
the still nights whose shadows rested upou 
a home filled with deep sorrow and anxiety 
over the fate of the young son. Many 
shared the belief that the child had been 

The Associated Press flashed tidings 
throughout the land of the mysterious dis- 
appearance of little Ernest. Seven days 
elapsed, and on Sunday, the 23id of July, 
his body was found in the lake near the 
pier, by some lads engaged in fishing. 

His relations in his home were notably of 
the most kindly nature, reciprocal to his joy- 
ous disposition. No cross words had oc- 
cured to mar his happiness; kiudness and 
affection suiTounded his daily life. 

Six bright boys and a most amiable 
daughter remain of the family, to bless 
the father and mother, but none would be 
ore missed than baby Ernest. 
To Mr. Spencer and his family, the 
Journal entends its profound sympathy in 
their deep allliction. 

The following is an extract from the 2f. 
1'. Sun of July 2i, with the heading: 


The mystery surrounding the disappearance 
of a young son of R. C. Spencer, waa solved 
by finding the body in the lake. 

A week ago while playing iu the front yard 
the lad disappeared, and, as he was seen later 
mth a strange boy, it was supposed he had 
been abduclt<d. 

Enr a week the distracted parents and tbous- 
unds of sympathizing iiieuds searched the 
country ; a large reward was offered, and the 
hike dragged for inHes. No-bimi'ar case ever 
excited 8o much general interest, . . 

' course modesty dictated the use of a postal, 
and of course it went into the waste-basket. 
Soon after a letter came from the same 
name, inclosing a stamped envelope. "Would 
very much like to get some specimena 
from your pen, if only your signature on 
the inclosed envelope." I put his name — 
not mine — on the envelope, and sent him 
some specimens very nicely done by brother 
Magee, thus rewarding my correspondent's 

A few days since a well known business- 
college man asked me if I knew one so-and- 
so. I replied, "No, but I received a re- 
quest from him recently," etc; when he of 
the aforesaid business- college opened his 
eyes very loidt. "Well, this tellow wrote 
me an ' Identical Note,' and I sent him 
photos and a small piece of fine pen- work, 
which latter he returned at my request. He 
wrote ine that a local penman bad put in 
claims for his patronage, which could not be 

This is the last dodge, and altogether 
the best one 1 have heard of. To how many 
more has he written for " full particulars 
and specimens " of engrossing ? 
Truly yours, 

C. E. Cady. 
[Similar letters from the same party re- 
ferred to by .Mr. Cady Imve been forwarded 
to lis from til fee ditiereut parties, otlier than 

The King Club 

During the past month was sent by N. R. 
Swan, of Delaware, Ohio, and numbers 
ttotnty-twOt which is very creditable for the 
dullest month of the year for subscribers. 

The "Murphy." 
Editors of the Jodrna.l : — I have found 
that an Irish potato is the best remedy for 
new steel-pens to take ink. It is really 
wonderful — stick any new pen into the 
" Murphy," and everything works well. 
C. H. Beth.inn. 

' Mr. C. In 

9 of 1 

letters the writer made use of the emblems 
and titles of an Odd Fellow's Lodge, pro- 
fessing to wish samples' and terms for en- 
grossing resolutiouB, with the view of giv- 
ing an order. The inventor of this new 
scheme calls himself Ivan Pqwers, Power's 
Block, Rochester N.Y. We should be pleased 
to know how many others have been called 
upon to contribute to this apparently new 
genius of dead-beat-ism.] 

Shorthand- Writers' Convention. 

The shorthand- writers of the UnHed States 
and Canada, are to hold their first Inter- 
national Congress, at the Gibson House, 
Ciuoianati, Ohio, on August Ul. 


A Convention of Stenographers. 

The New York State Stenographers' 
Association held its Seventh Annual Ses- 
sion, at the St. Denis Hotel, in this city, on 
August let, 2nd and ^rd. There were present 
upwards of twenty members and delegates 
fiom other Associations. The purposes of 
the Association are— the estabUshing and 
maintAining a proper standard of proficiency 
in the profession, and uniting in fellowsliip 
the sieuographers of the Static. The Papers 
read and Addresses delivered, were of much 
interest to tlie fraternity. 

The following officers weie elected: 
President, Ueoige R. Uialiop; Vice-presi- 
dent, A. P. Little ; Secretary, T. R. Griffith ; 
Executive Committee, James M. Ruse, P. 
M. Adams, W. O. Wyckoff, F. J. Morgan 
and Emory P. Close. 

The next session of the Association will 
be held at Watkins Glen, in August, 1883. 

We take this occasion to express our high 
appreciation of the honor conferred upon us 
in being made an honorary member of the 

A New Dodge for Specimens. 

Xeh- York, July J7th, 1862. 

Editors 0/ Journal : Here's the latest, 
aud the author of this new "method" of 
getting specimens deserves the thanks of 
his species for the invention. 

Ho writes to know " how much you will 
charge l..r job-work— ornamental penman- 
ship, a large engrossed piece. Send samples 
of work and full particulars. I don't like 
Ames's script: his work is loo heavy.*' Of 


iveial months since we received, from 
H. C. Dean, Chicago, an electrotyped ad- 
vertisement of a dictionary, asking to have 
the same inserted in the Journal, which 
was done, and bill sent as directed, some 
months since, to which there has been not 
only no response, but no ansv.'er to several 
other comiimnications sent. From this and 
answers to inquiries made, wo believe the 
said Dean to be an advorttsing-deadbeat, 
of whom publishers and purchasers should 
be aware. 


T. M. Davis, Principal of Goodman's, 
Knoxville{Tenn.) Business-college, entered 
into a very congenial partnersliip with Miss 
Olive Collins, on the 2;Jd inst., at the resi- 
dence of the bride, in Alfred Centre, N. Y. 
The partnership has our best wishes for a 
long and happy continuance, with numerous 
attendant blessings. 

On the 16th inst., at Auborndale, Mass., 
Fred. F. Judd to Miss Eva N. Brandon. 
Mr. Judd is an accomplished penman and 
instructor, and has charge of the Commercial 
Department of Jenning's Seminary, Aurora, 
III. May his matrimonial voyage be long 
and prosperous. 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to he 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

F. P. H., Utica, Ohio— What is an ele- 
ment in writing, and how many are there 
in the first principle! How many in the 
second principle f .4ns.— 1st. An element, 
as defined hy Webster, " is one of the sim- 
plest or essential parts or principles of 
which anything consists." As applied to 
writing, and in all art-delineations, an ele- 
ment consists of a straight line or curve. 
2d. The first and second principles being a 
straight line and curve, are of themselves 
elements as well as principles of writing. 

T. J., Dayton, Ohio.— When a number 
of students, under a penman, give proper 
attention to penmanship for a reasoi 
length of time, what per cent, of that i 
ber obtain a good business-hand? Ans.— 
We have no means of ascertaining the exact 
percentage called for in the above tiuestion; 
but, from our own observation, we believe - 
that any attentive pupil of average intellect, 
under skillful instruction, one or two hours 
per day, for three to six months, would 
write a good, legible hand. Of course, 
the style and facility of execution would 
vary according to circumstAuces of writer. 

Inquirer.— 1st. How is the slant of the 
three Capital - Letter Principles, namely, 
the Direct Oval, Reversed Oval, and Capi- 
tal Stem, determined? The Spencerian 
Theory describing the letter 0, "begin 
threespaces above base line,and descend with 
full left curve, on main slant, to base-line." 
Does that meau that a line drawn from be- 
ginning point, to where oval touches base- 
line, would be on main slantf In D, it 
says, "after forming the oval turn on base- 
line, to ascend, with riglit curve on main 
slant, three spaces," Does that mean that 
a line drawn from the point where the oval 
touches top line to where it touches base- 
line is on aslant of 52 degrees? If so, how 
is the slant of the final left curve measured ? 
2d. In defining a loop, the Spencerian 
Theory saya, " A loop is formed of two op- 
posite curves, united by a short turn at one 
end, and afterwards crossing." And then, 
long the examples, it gives the loop found 
in capital C. But, in analyzing C, it says, 
" the first left curve is united to the opposite 
right curve in oval turn "; would that make 
a loop according to the definition t If not a 
loop, what is itf Also, in describing the 
capitals I and J, it says, " that the first left 
curve and the opposite right curve are joined 
at top by a sfmt turn." The upper part of 
I and J being one space wide, and the loop 
in C only three-fourths space, it seems to 
me an inconsistency to call the latter an 
oval turn, and the former a short turn. How 
are we to distinguish between short and 
oval turns ? ^na,— The slant of an oval, 
whether direct or reversed, is determined by 
drawing a line from the middle of one end to 
the middle of the opposite end. The direct 
and reversed ovals used as principles, so 
tested, should be on the main slant, an angle 
of fifty-two degrees. The oval of the capital 
stem should be on an angle of fifteen de- 
grees, or one-sixth of a right angle, whUe 
the slant of the inital curve above the stem 
oval, must vary from main slant, slightly 


'.u-ciit/rancd from an original design executed at Ote o^ce of ihe ■'Joarnal," and w (/iven as a tpeciinen of pen-drawing and Uttering. The <. 

in fine atylt on Bristol-board, writing and hand paper, size, 11 x 14 The Bristol-board is.for framing, and the paper for rolling or folding. 

printed upon a fine quality of Bristol-hoard for framing, 17 x 22. This design is believed to be the most artistic and tasty form yet published for 

Marriage Certificate. Single copies of size 11 x U mailed for BO cents ; 18 x 22, $1. Elegantly filled vrith names, in Old English 

lettering : small size, 50 cents, large, ^1, additional. Liberal terms to clergymen, and agenta. 

more or leea, according to requirements of 
the different capital -letters of which the 
etem forms a part. In the Spetcerian sys- 
tem are diagraniB of such stem-letters, show- 
iufr variation of initial stem-curve iti its 
relation to a vertical line drawn to the left 
end of the stem oval. It is evident that a 
loop turn must vary in width, according to 
the size and proportion of the loop. The 
loop turns in C, I, J, to whicli you refer, 
may projicrly be called nan-ow, oval turns. 

B teaching writing-cl asses at 

I ruaticaling at 

. Corbin, late graduate of G. W. 
s'8 Business-College, Delaware, Ohio, 
aged to teach peuuianship iu Duncan's 
s-CoIlege, Columbus. Ohio. 


writing in 
«8- College, 


ishtp and 


E. M. Huntii 
the Bryaul ami 
Providence, R. I.. Ufljiei 
friends in Philfidelphia a 

D. W. Hoff, profeesc 
drawing ut Muakingha 
spending his vacation at Wint^rwet, Iowa. He 
contributes an interesting article for the 
JofRNAL, which will appear in the September 

A. N, Palmer, who has, for some lime past, 
been accountant for ihe Cedar Rapids (idE»i.) 
Inaurancfl Company, lakes a position in the 

BueinesB-College of that city, as teacher of 
writing and book-keeping, on September 1st. 
Mr. Palmer is a superior penman and popular 

J. W. Harkiiie, who has been with A. H. 
Hinnmii, Worcester, Mass., accepts a position 
as teacher of writing and commercial branches 
at Faddi's St. Paul (Minn.) BusinessColIege. 
Mr. Harkins is a practical and ornamental pen- 
man, and a popular teacher, and will undoubt- 
edly win favor in his new position. 

C. 0. CurtisB, A.M., of the St. Paul (Mi 
usiness-College, is oa a visit to New York 
id the East, in relation to the publicat 
his system of copy-books and writing-charts 
for schools. His books are being cjuile t 
sivety used in Minnesota. Mr. Curtisa is also 
proprietor of the Minneapolis Busiuese-College. 

A. L. Wyman baa purchased Rathbun's 
BuBiiiess College, Omaha, Neb., which he con- 
sulidutes with one opened by himself about a 
year since. Mr. Wymau is a graduate of the 
Spencerian Bupiness-College, Cleveland, Ohio, 
a good penman, and an accomplished gentle- 
man, and will, no doubt, conduct a popular and 
successful institution at Omaha. The Daily 
Bee, of a late date, gives a columnar review 
which is very flattering to Mr. Wymau and 
his work as a teacher in that city. 

A package of well-written cards ha 
received from T. E. Youmans, card-writer. 
Savannah, Ga. 

L. J. Grace, penman and stationer, Cleve- 

land, Ohio, sends a superior specimen of epis- 
tolary writing. 

8. B. Lawson, Grass Valley, Cal., incloses 
several very skillfully-executed speoimeus of 
practical writing. 

R. J. Ctable, a late graduate of Museelman'a 
(Gem City) Business-College, Quincy, HI., 
writes a handsome letter. 

An imperial sized photograph of finely-ex- 
ecuted floral design has been received from E. 
L. Burnett, of Elmira, N. Y. 

A handsome specimen of practical writing 
comes from T. T. Loomis, of the Spencerian 
Business College, Clevelaud, Ohio. 

One of the finest specimens of epistolary 
writing received during the month is from A. 
H. Madden, Johnson's Business-College, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

A good specimen of practical writing comes 
from George G. Huncken, a recent graduate of 
Sadler'a Bryant and Stratton Business-College, 
Baltimore, Md. 

J. H. Weathers, Raleigh, N. C. for a lad of 
seventeen years, writes a handsome hand. Less 
flourishing would add to its appearance as 
practical writing. 

R, S. Bonsall, of Carpenter's Bryant &^ 
Stratton Business-College, St. Louis, Mo., in- 
closes, in an elegantly wrilten-letler, a very 
graceful flourish, in form of a Swan and scroll, i 

D. W. Cope, Church Hill, Miss, iucloses, in 
a well-written tetter, several good specimens of 
practical writing, which he attributes mainly to 
the instruction and examples given in the 

A photograpb, 4x8 inches, from a flourished 
eagle, by J. C. Miller, penman at Allen's Busi- 
ness-College, Elmira, N. Y., is before us, m 
whiob the arrangement of the flouriahing and 

nasterly. The original was 
5x10 feet. 

Several apecimend of penmanship, embracing 
practical writing, lettering, drawing and 
flourishing have been lecelved from A. H. 
Steadman, Freeport, Ohio, which evince more 
than an ordinary degree of skill and versatility 

1 the 


F the 


my questions, " What de- 
termines the slant of capitals, supposing tho 
standard forms he taken t " given in the 
June number of the Journal, have been 

The last, firom W. W, G., of Marion, III., 
in the July number, ia easily proven incor- 
rect, although his answer is not of a positive 

He states that the slant of a capital is de- 
termined by the principle used in its foniia- 

Suppose you take capital A. The stem 
does not determine the slant, because the 
second part coincides, or ia parallel, with the 
main slant, 52 degrees. So, also, is it par- 
allel to any small letters which may follow. 

Hence we deduce the fact that the stem 
has greater slant than the latter, which 
would place it at about 45 degrees. 


1. Can the capital W ho executed as well 
by lifting the pen from the paper, after mak- 
ing first part, as otherwise f 

2. What is the weight of the fore-arm 
while executing work, generally? 


J^^n^ fir. 



An^ the Pen.* 

Whew Ibj thin Ilpa b»T« Umm) Ihe Tlr»in pa^ ! 
To $[t»A lh« CBolwborjr pllgrimii on ; 

Of thfw Tb* ib«lEMp«iire, io hU koul mblimv, 
Wllh ihM bold MlltAD gmpwl, bU rym tbick Msled, 

I^uUoumI Into ft bft^pipe iiTMt adJ slrvng ; 
TbM. ThumM Moore, fain mxiI to mtutc Ht, 
Mods to an Iri*b baip that «abo«« yrt ; 
WItb IbM, Lon^ellow, firnok s boro«-inftd« lyr*. 

b protnuUDf to 
I old ecpy on tl 

n WUdoro 


Of msoiuoript, to troublo prlolen' dreamj, 

What If tbj ohenp Kod euy w)eld»d prong* 

Indilo onOh 7aur a hiiadrDd tboiiinnd songi 

In lok of T&rioiu oopiomDeii nod abad^~ 

On avory Bubjecl £af1b and Heaven bave made; 

Wb«t If tboD iboTMt 'ncatb the prloter't noK 

Cord* ofiiili-fpellod nnd unpunotuuted pnwe t 

What If, tbODgh ploked from wing of wnwleas gotie, 

Tboa'rt yet by tbat load biped oil In tuel 

Tboa'ri often plgeked (him Wi>dom> glitt«riDg iring ; 


*An eztiMt from 

Magazines, and Exchange Items. 

The August, uumbcr of LipjnncoWs Mag- 
azine Ib full of interestiug luatter, and is 
fiufly illuulmted. Publinlied by LippiDcott 
& Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Art Amatcttr, for July, like all its 
predoceseors, is filled with pictures inter- 
sporaed with interesting reading- matter. It 
ooutaiua Bevoral original and artistic designs 
for embroidery, and various styles of art 
(lei'oration. It ia among the inoat valuable 
art- publications of this country. 

In the North American Review for August 
is an article on " Progress of Thought in 
the Church," by Henry Ward Beecher, 
which should be widely read. It is a most 
eeniiblo and rational review of the whcde 
structure of dogmatic belief and teaching. 
Other articles are interesting, upon "Or- 
ganization of Labor," " The U. S. Army," 
" Ethics of Gambling," and " Artesian Wells 
upon the Great Plains." The lieview is 
pold by all booksellers. 

Fraiik Leslie's Popular Monthly for 
August is profuaely and haudsomely illus- 

trated, and abounds with interesting and 
valuable reading. The opening article ia 
by N. Robinson, who graphically depicts 
" The Comforts and Discomforts of Travel"; 
there are fifteen illustrations. " Plymouth 
and its Religious Memories." "Gypsies and 
their Friends" and " Aaron Burr" are ad- 
mirable articles, and finely illustrated. The 
frontispiece ia a charming picture in oil 
colors, entitled " The Spanish' Flower- Girl." 
The number contains 128 quarto pages and 
over 100 embellishments, and the price of 
it is only 25 cents, or $3 per annum, sent 
postpaid. Address Frank Leslie, Publisher, 
53, 55 and 57 Park Place, New York. 

Preserve your "Journals." 
By W. p. Cooper. 
It has ever been a source of wonderment 
to me that the American people generally 
have so little disposition to file, for future 
reference and use, their periodicals and pa- 
pers. Many of these are literally filled with 
valuable matter, much of it of great practi- 

cal value to almost all classes. We read and 
tear up volume after volume ; amasing a 
moment with a number of some excellent 
publication, then destroying it, as if wholly 
worthless, and, through forgetfulness, are as 


I it. Mis 

ble policy 

Articles upon agriculture, hygiene, every de- 
partment of learning, and aU other subjects 
of the firat-clasa are thus lost. The reader 
will remember that Prof. Ames has pub- 
lished, in his journal, two courses of lessons 
in penmanship, both most excellent, nothing 
wanting in precept, example or illustration, 
or skill in teaching or enforcing. How 
many readers — pupils of pen-art — get the 
benefit, at present, by a frequent review of 
these meritorious instructions! 

Who has begun to preserve the Spencer 
Series? But abundance of other matter, 
almost equally valuable, will be found in 
each number. If you have thom, overhaul 
the back numbers and you will find that "A 
thing of beauty is a joy forever," and more, 

too, that its re-perusal, conversion to use, is 
a great benefit forever. 

This JoORNAL shows upon its face that 
it is made to keep, and made to use. If you 
are short of a finished scholar in pen-art, 
overhaul your Journals. Numbers half 
worn-out are worth more, if used, than new 
ones cost. Get out your file of Journals 
and see if we are not right. 

Soiiles's Commercial College and Literary 
Institute, New Orleans, La., one of the old- 
est and most popular schools in the South, 
had its twenty-sixth Anniversary and Com- 
mencement on June SOtli. at which 28 
graduates received diplomas. 289 stu- 
dents had been in attendance during the 
past year. 

" A fellow must BOW his wild 
know," exclaimed the adolescent John. 
" Yes," replied Annie, "but one shouldn' 
begin ao«ing so soon after cradling." 

' satisfactiii 
, . , , . "d inapec- 

, regietered, to hb. It ib mailed to any address 
i premium, free lo any one sending three subecribeA and Three DuDai 
CofifrigiUtd, hy Sp9n€*r Brotfurt, October 7tk, 1881. , 



Kr Circle Xd^s, A."s7?An.5: /tjj ,;^l«>(T^){rUJ»lX^2>'" 

Z^ ahmt ojis are alt pAofc) «ijni««J frrnn fm-and-mk copy, executed at the office of the "Journal." Orders for rimitar work received and promptly filled. Photo- 
engraving and pkoto-lithographing done in their highest perfection. 
W^U copy designed for reproduction by either of the proeutu mutt be executed twice the dimeneiona of the desired print, and with black India ink. 

An I .JOl UVAl. 


Eaton and Burnett's Booli- keeping. 


Fhivate 8ri ools; i or Self - Instruction, asd as a Rruabu 


fully (T""''^. gTiiduiilly IwUdk Ibp atndeot onward from Ihn umple to the L-ompl 


»[)pUc*tion in o 

ninfttiou, #1.1 

Eaton and Burnett's Commercial Law. 


I by eXBinpl' 
K«nry, Partnonttliw, tlorpumlioi 

..hyniail, fgrejtwninutbn, $1. 


Ealou ,1 fiin^ftt'g Btisinttg College, 


L&ititicss travels so slow that poverty soon 
iivertHltes it. 

All tlmt if) liiiinau must retrograde if it do 
not lulvHDce. 

Gel gold if you can, young man; but be- 
w»r<. , f g.,ill. 

It is possible for a man to be so very 
uhren'd that in the long run he cheats him- 

Five threes are fifteen : — A servant with 
rt turn for (igiirea had five eggs to boil ; and 
being told to give them tiiree minutes each, 
boiled them a quarter of an huiir together. 

The latest improvement in telegraphy is 
a mechanical device whereby a type-writer 
at one point, connected by a wire with a 
similar instrnment atanotlur noiot, writes 
out any messages sent ov. it without the 
intervention of the usual telegraph operator. 
A person who can use a type-writer can 
send bis own message. 

Some time ago two London thieves put 
in practice a plan of robbing a jeweler 
wtii(!li had been described in a story in a 
piipiiltir iieriodical — a piece of pure inven- 
tion. The Jeweler wius furious, {he lost 
forty thousand dollars, so it was excusable), 
and wrote to the editor of the magazine, 
asking him if it was his mission to instruct 
thieves in new ways of plundering the pub- 
lic. "My dear sir,"' replied tlio editor 
blandly, "if you had taken my periodical, 
(which I hope in future you will do), you 
would have been put upon your guard. 
This comes of neglecting the claims of lit- 

In a lecture recently delivered before the 
Glasgow Scientific Association describing 
this as the electric ago, as early periods 
were distinguished aa the stone age, the iron 
ace and the bronze ago. Mr. Preece re- 
ferred to the applicatinu, in this country, of 
the electric force iu relation U> fire. In 
Chicago be had learned that at the comer 
of nearly every street there were tire-alarm 
boxes which sent a current, indicating the 
locality of tlie fire, to the central station. 
The same current released the harness of 
the horses, and every horse was so beauti- 
fully trained that it ran iuto position. The 
same ruriont whipped the clothes off every 
,tireiiiaii iu li,-,l, ,irow a trap-door, down 
whirh the niau ^li.1 into his place on the en- 
gine, thus dispatchiug the brigade in som> 
thing less than six seconds. 

QTEEL PENS for canl-wHtiiiff; 

UAVB you feen Ymii 
n It uol. .end t.'>c. for 
lo F. E. YOUMANS, P. 


I. MOORE, Box 27, 


Practical Book-keeping 



College Edition,/'"' OilUgtt, C<imtiureiat & 

School Edition, /<"■ SehuoU and Acadeniiu 

The School Edition of Groeebech' 

""'• $1.80 
. . 1.00 

I mil already 



ATiOM. Rbadv Seitrmuhr, 1883, 


New. RevUed aod Enlarged of 



tiendm Commercial Arithmetic. 


ed from eolirely new electrotype platea. 

E (dredge & Bro., 




[NESS CAPITALS. J difftrtnt tOt. 35 ontt. bv 

L. MADARA8Z, Box 2126, Nevf Vurk City. 




e the name* of leveml well-quallBed teaoben 

of wn 


aud commercial brauobes, wbo deeire sltua- 


-«oiie wiBhing tbe aervicet of lucb are requested 

Pbkma.1'8 AbT Jouhnai,. 



205 Broadway, New York. 






A New and Improved Work on Business Calculations, 

Specially Prepared as a Practical Text-book for Business Colleges, 

Hig-h Schools, Academies and Universities. 

When first published, it at once received the utrongest indorseoient of many of the 
leading biisiitesx educators in tbiH country, and wan adopted by over one hundred promiaent 
Busineaa Colleges and Private Schools in the Uuitec! States and the Canadas. 

Since that time it iias been able not only lo retain EVERY ONE of its patrons, but also to 
secure others, in Huch numbers that four large editions have beeu consumed in supplying; the 


just published (512 royal octavo paffes), has been revised, and improved by the addition ol 
many new and valuable plates, together with the correction of all typographical errors incident 
to the publication of new books. 

In addition to the publication of the work in a complete edition, for the convenience ot 
patrons it is also published in two Paris. 


Comprises 199 royal octavo pages, begiuuiue with the introduction of Arithmetic, and extending 
to tbe subject of Percentage. The methods are adapted to daily use, very practical, and em 
brace many novel features. 


Begins with the subject of Percentage, and embraces a thorough, exhaustive, aud pre-emitiently 
practical treatment of the various arithmetical topics, in a systematic and natural order. 

This portion of the work (358 royal octavo pages) was first published in September, 1880. 

Its success was quick and complete, and the demand for a new edition became as impel a- 
tive as Hattering. It is honestly believed that this Arithmetic, as now publislied, presents such 
features of improvement and progress as justify the claim that it is more thorough, complete and 
practical than any similar work now before the public. 

As to its merits as a text-book for Business-Colleges and Schools, attention is invited to a 
few of the many testimonials which have been received from -pairona only, who have tested the 
work in tlieir respective class-rooms. 


'. Charles Cla^horn, Brooklyn.—" Would not use 

.eyCity.-"! o 

I. Boffardus, SfriDgfleld, III 
work my hearty approval." 

efjuulled by 
k of auperior 

leJicb Ixxik-keeping ii 
euergetli:, iuduitrioiu 

•alary, experieuc* and refereai 

pleufllng addreacr a perma- 
» giveu. Send speoimena of plain and 
iDBbip, and photograph, slating ag«. 
begin by Sept. 

.. MaCaiuu, Bux -il3g, 

V\lymQn Commercial College, 


gunrant^i J. E. OCKERMAN, 

Valpuraiau, Ind. 

TMTiMOSlAi— ■' Prof Ockerman is a tnio ffemlein 

and a flne penman. Anyone In need at pen-w.irk wiU 

well to give him ihelr patroaage. 1 liiecrfally oomme 

him to pubUe fcvor." o. N. Cbakdia 






6 giving perfect 
ittsburgU, — "Th 


Brooklyn.— '■ II Is 


Qgstou, Pa,—" 

lest we are highly pleased wit 

Prof. P. H. Eager. Clintoi 
IlaYC nevur had cauw to rojr* 

Prof W, II. Chambers, Hai 
much pleased Uiat I adopt yoi 

SPECIMEN-PAGES will be mail 

Complete Edition, Express o 


For the use of Teachers and Private PupUe, 

Prof. R. B 
Iu every sohc 

Prazier. Mansfield, O.— "Yoor arithmetio 
Aumeat, Sterling, HI. — "It Is eminently a 
Burden, Boston.—" It is invaluable in a 

Capin, AvigURia, Me,—" It deserves a plare 
.Smith, MeadvJlle, Pa.— " It is decidedly 
Atwood, Onarga, 111. — " Afler thoroagbly 

, Manohester, N. H— * ' Most practical 
I. It gives great satlsfaotiun. ' 

man, llorlford, Ct. — "It is superior to 

.11, Fraucestown. N. H— "It is eml- 
Its tj-pography is one of iU special 

gelt, Stipt. Schools, O— "It Is pre- 
inff. Union City, Pa.— " It oaunol be 

s the wl 

hole flel. 

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Post-paid, on receipt of ^ 

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in tbe COMPLETE Edi- 
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No., e ud 8 Noaia Chaiim Stemt, BitTMoai, Md. 

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AdaptMl for ufl* with or without Text-Book. 

.i.drJ I 


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The above cut represent-- tlio htle pige of the work «hich i*! 1 1 x 14 in size. 

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■qaauM hu been in oonilant use by me for eome time 

DnoohM of draning to itdimi I have applied it Vcrj- 
tnily yours. Eowaud E. Jonbu, 

Designer and Draftsman, with D, Applehin tt Co 


T. M. O S B O R N , W00N.SOCKET, R. \. 

^^fey^>^ 'b')\fp-iA/Y°^V <§'^>^'^>'^i^^ 


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and usistlDg at other branobea taugbt in a Builness 

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niliums' and Pack ord's Gems 5 00 

Guide 300 

ongdon's Nonnat Lettering and Flourishing, eaah 

landard PiacticAl Penmansb p, by the Speaoer 

ounding Stag. 24x32 ---!'""!"!!"!!!'.". '.;!!! 50 

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eutenoial Picture ot Progress, 23x25 90 

'^ S8«« 1 00 

mamental and Flourished Cards, 12 deelgni.naw, 

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"Collection No. 1 " (50 Recipe*) ( 

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and Japan inks, ink-powder. Inks for marking packages:, 
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for boiB msial and rubber stamps. Ruling Ink, Aailioa 

'"Hei^nc^D. T° Ame*'""' S-Mi 

The Book-keeper THE champion 

the only papek of its 

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Published Foktniohtly. 

Selden R. Hopkins, ( r- ..v^,, 
Charles E. Si-kague. \ •^''''"- 

Thc Lfadinc Accountants of America 

Devoted to all matters of special 
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Subscription, S^.oo per annum. Single 

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rard-KTitfr 0/ iht rotintrt/ ha» note on hand tht 
Jinett iist of Vititintf cardt in Sett Tori- City. 

of tb« Jot-RNAI. can. fur llie uvxt liO <lHri>. 
secure tbeir cards writlrii wirli tlit-ir nanicn for 
Ilif folIuwiufF prices : 

the moat fMliiuiuibli.- 
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^ ^'ot lut (han « at a,ue rai 


On receij.! of $1.00 and h one cent stt 

send yoa llie luItiMving i>|ieciiiienH, etc 

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fly ordering from us, natrons can rely not only 
upon i-ec«lv Ing u superior articlu, but upon doing 
BO promptly. 
Ames' Compendium ot Orn'l Pcmnnnsliip, %A M 

Bristol Boai-d.-T^j-lu'ct tliick.*J\iSin..pislit M 

2SxS8,pci'a))eet,byexprc9a.. SO 

Pronoh B. B.,24xM, " " 75 

Block Curd noiu-d. iSxSS, for whlt« Ink..." 60 

Black Curd!) pet- 100 20 

Bliick Curds per tbuiiaaiid, by express 3 00 

Whufs dr'ing-papur. ijot-pi-ess, 15x20 < l.i $1 » 
17x22. 20 9 0(, 

21x30,' ai 5 :> 

Blank Ilrlslol Uonid Cards, per IQO 25 

1000 2 00 

1000, by ex. 1 50 

Wliisor ANowton'SBuiirtinD.lnd. Ink, stick 1 cm 
Ornnmentnl CntdB. 13 ilrtii^R. per pack of 25 canli, 

TheNe« ^l.. i,. .t i ...,-,.,■, ..I, inn, Part'j,' 2.*3."f 

CrI.w.t|Uin lv„ ^.■,', (,,„■ i.V !in,wii.'B-."doV.!I!*!! 75 

WillmmssandPmi; u.i , , 5 00 

" _ 300 

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Pajw.i. Dunton * SrHh-ier s MaimuL 1 S5 

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3 .\4 ■■ 250 

one yard wide, any length per yanJ, 

4fi inches wiile. peryanl. aluted both lidM 2 25 

Liquid Slating, the beat in me. for we 
b.«.Td«, per gallon 



Thoroii(;li wiiinw fo Penmnniihiii, 10 weeks. tlO; 12 

leMotis in lliui>ii(iH.vrri:lng aud Klouridhlng, by luail, 

i* '■■' ''""""" 'a Canl-wrilinff, Pen-dran-iug, Loitering 

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(nl« and Cnlnbll>aHoI>^ SO . ■ < < iiuin 

ivUte. weddliig Briilol). 3J < . < i 

All kindt o? Pen-work t.> , ,v„i,.i„, ,.„„„„. 

teed. Con flimUb all kiiiil. ..i v\ ni.,.K muti^riui cheao 
Send tot Prioe.llgt and ClrouUir. ■j-l'H 



typogmplilcul di-usa and greatly Impi-ovod In 




*^"'''[ I' : 'I'l Pnictltjoof Accounts; 

l(y S 

.. Va 



•bo b.H.k I 

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la now ready for iiS' 

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gpitit lmpr«venicnl 
lost all i-uEipecU, ai 

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mU bvti 
Uif itubllu, 


C l» and UO Qmnd Slroet. N^ 

Mtiooia^ bvttvr thaa any other 





■ The name Spencerimn lias been identified with a leading system of iuBtruclion in w 

p forty years. Our Copybooka have borne that (iesignation since 1854, and our Steel 

a special trade mark for all < 

_ 1860. More 

pennianehip publicalioue. _ ^ 

recognized everywhere as a guaranty ol the superiorit/ of anything which bears 

'cently il has also been used by i 
a and standard deeigna 

"2he best tesUmoniat a hook can have is tlie 
names of those tcho use if." 


Class-Book of 

Commercial Law 

For the Suhuolaiid Cuunling-rnoin. is now iu 

use il) luaiiy «d' the leading Colleges. Aca- 

demiefl and Schools in^this country. 


Hlbbard'k Commervinl Srhool .... Boirtun, Hbm. 
PankBrd'8 BniiiioH Collnge ... New York. N. Y. 
Soulc'i ■■ ■■ .... Philndelphia, Pa. 

W'ill'amsport Commereial College . . WillianMiport, Pa. 
Lancaater " "... Lancaaler, Pa. 

Titu«villa • . . . TitoiTllle, Pa. 

Pein-e*. ButlntM " . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

HeaW'i " " . San PmnoiKo, CaL 

Miami Commercial " ... Dayton. Ohio. BuuneM ■* . . Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Joliet ■■ ■■ Joliet. m. 

Chtidilock ■■ .... Quincy, HI. 

Illiiiiiie Wmleynn University . . . .Bloominglon. Dl. 

Macoiiib Academy Mncomb. HI. 

Parish 's Buslnew College Peoria, Bl. 

Pattereon " *' Pailerson. N. J. 

Har n* " " Hartford, Conn. 

Lo9 Aiigelos " " .... hot Angeloi. CaL 

EIniwood Seminary Qlen's FnlU, N. Y. 

Fort Edward InBlltute Fort Edward. N. Y. 

llinmnn's BarinMS College . . . .Worcrjiter. Mau. 
Jennings Semin«r>- Aumm. 111. 

Public Schools ..'.'.'.'.'.. . '.Newark.' N.'j! 

Oakland, Cal. 

Lima Butineea College Limn, N. Y. 

Canndiati Literary Institute Woodstock. Oat. 

St. John's Collego Collegeville. AUoa. 

SI. Vincent " llently. Pa. 

St. Joseiih'a " Si. Joseph, Mo. 

Canada BasineM College Hamilton, OoU 

Uni^nKneM "college! Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The above are some of the leading iiistitu- 
lions now using the Class-Book of Commercial 
Law. aud who speak iii the highest terms of 

This work is a plain, pracheal explanation of the Laws 
of Business, DESIGNED and ARRANGED especially 

explanation ol business i>«per, such as notes, drafts, cheoks, 

UTt4t and Ulury, Sale of Ptrtimal Proptrty. Bailmtra, 
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Special ratei for inttoduction. All orders 
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SHORTHAND-wnHng lbon.ugUly taught by maU. 
Term, low; witisfuution guomnleed. Send stamp for 
Bjiecimea and circular. W. W. Hulton. Pittsburgh, Pts. 

M A Y H E W S 


Manual of Business Practice, 

Detroit, Mich 

Spencerian Steel Pens 

ibine a degree of elasticity and i 

sed by all the best penmen in the country. They 
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Samples of the FiNE-POINT pens se 

Spencerian "Writing - Inks. 

8 original receipt from wliicli the Black Ink is tuade has been in use in 

> of i 

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durable Ink that can bo made. Specially adapted lor Records and Do. 


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Coinbines three imporwnt qualities : /uirfily, color and daraiUUi/, and is abeoluloly reliable for 
all buBinees papers. ^ 


Combines the advantages of a perfect Copying-Ink aud a free-flowing Writing-Fluid. 
,._ "^ ."',''"".„■'''' <••«""« be obtained from your stationer, sample bottles ol any of the 
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wood, ou receipt of »1 per c|uarl; 73 cent, per pint ; 50 cents per half-pint. 

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^?°// you ordtr pUate mention tkit paper. 6-12t. 



My Cowipl^ie System of PenraanVhip^ "in two Km.', 
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Ctevtiand, O. 
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piij^r isHi n MON J HI Y, Ai ao*^ I 1 

/v7»crcd ai mc Iro^i ujice oj Acid i 

D. T. AMES. Edit 


Vol. VI.— No. 9. 

Practical Writing. 

No. IV. 

Si'ENCER Brothers. 

CiimnGRAi'iijo Edi:cation. 

One of the liij^lipst purposes of true edu- 
cat'uio is, to qiiHlify tlie people for aelf-inain- 
teuHQce and for iisefuluess tu each olhpr. A 
knowbdRe of practicjil writing being imlis- 
penealile iu the iift'nirs of men, it should be 
placed upon a roiniiiaiidiDg eminence in the 
field of educational end avor. This being 
true, ubder the inaudalo of necessity its ac- 
quirement is a matter of dct^p iutcrCh^ aod 
uioineut to nil. 

Iu this series of lessons, through the col- 
niiiija of the Journal, guidance to the 
direct mastery of chirographic art is in- 
tended by methods fully tested and found to 
load to good writing. 

Ambidrxi-uous Writing 
baa advantages, nhitih learners may pro6t- 
aldy avtiil themselves of, not only practically, 
but as an educational need. 

Wo see with both eyes, hear with both 
ears, walk on both fed, and there are many 
\ why both hands should be 


trained for 

One need of such training arises from the 
liMl.ilily of either hand becoming maimed— 
or, from <)ver-u8e, losing iie power to wield 
the pen. The latter wpuJition is commonly 
knon-u as the peuniHu's paralysis, and ujore 
frequenily afflicts those who nso the pencil 

li is taught Viy physiologists that the left 
half uf the brain controls the movements 
of the right hand, and the right half governs 
tlie u.uvemenis of the left-hand. The duality 
of the braiii f-rees and the nervous system 
is nut a qii^sliuu of d..ubt, and it is fair to 
conclude that ambidextrous writing calls 
luto aelion, alttruHt ly, both lobes of the 
brain, ecpializing the power of the miud in 
the direeliou aud goverumeut of both bands. 
Evi'ii the iuiriatory effort to write with the 
U ft-hand increases (ho power of ilie uill in 
its pnpiemaeyovertho muscles, as may read- 
ily be )>Pieeiv(-»l by the greater ease aud free- 
dom wii h which the right-ltand is made to ex- 
ecute « hen it resumes the use of the pen. 

Ax Easy Way 
to train the left hand to equal skill with ils 
colleague, is Xo produce correctly, with pen- 
cil iu the right-hand, the alphabets, fig- 
ures aud a sentence; aud then, using tlie 
Un-hahd Hud i-eu, cover the Hups of the 
ptii.ileii.w„rk with ink, aib)ptiog the same 
maimer of holding the ^en aud the same 
moveiueuta as are conunuu to the right hand 
aud arui. 

Zn^Co-py. Formation of Letters — 

~ o!'^Copy Lectora joined HI ^vxids. Kct:: size & ipar es unifoim . 


The Pen-Sketch cut of the Hand and 
Pen, exhibited with this Icssim, should be 
carefully studied by the student, as teaching 
correct penholding for either baud, also posi- 
tion of the forearm. The analysis of the 
illustration is as follows : 

A — Pen crosses the forefinger, just for- 
ward of the knuckle joint. 

B— Pen crosses the second finger, ob- 
liquely, on the corner of the nail. 

C — Point of pen square on the paper; 
thus pi-<iducing smooth strokes. 

D — Tip of penholder pointing over right 
shoulder, indicating level position of hand. 

E — End of thumb, opposite first joiut of 

F— Movable rest of tho hand, on tbo 
nails of tho third and fourth tiugers. 

G— The wrist, level, above the table. 

Tho forearm rests upon the full uiusele, i 
between elbow and wrist. ! 

The pen may bo transferred from 
hand to the other, in correct position fur 
until both are trained in holding it corre 
and easily. The paper should be ph 
under the left-hand and arm iu the s; 
relative position as under the right, to sei 
correct slant of the letters. 

The parao slant should olitain, in \i 
ing, with either hand, as a result of cor 
ponding positions and movements. 


of the copies, ht^rcwith eiveu, to illustrate 
umvements, siuylo letters, short words aud 
extended combinations, wil! p-uvo benetivial 
to learners. 

Copy I. presents an exercise of horizontal 
ovals, bisected with left e 
lines, waved and straight-lin 
The recurring action of the f.-rearm, band, 
and finger movementi can be distinctly ju'e- 
eeived in writing this copy. I be mauuer 
of uniting the left curve with a short turn 
at the top to the (.lauting straight line, 
should be carefully ohservetl, aud the point 
or acute angle at tho rule-ltue must he 
formed without retracing thfi down with tbo 
up stroke. * 

In the second oval, tho straight lines are 
united by both left and right curves with 


I tho t 

jd ha 

peating the strokes of the ovals, as 
greater forms pass to the lesser funus of the 

exercise, going over them but onue. As in 
preceding lessons, the writer shotdd lightly 
trace copie.", first with a wooden poiut or 
stylus, adiiplii g position aud movements to 
the forms in the copy. 

Copy II. gives the short letters n, ni, v, x, 
dependent upon the straight line, riirht and 
left curves, known as the 1st, 2d and 'M 
principles or principal parts of letters. In 
connection with tho quantifying of forms, 
the learner should note that small m has 
seven parts, while « has but five, et<!. Tho 
hight of these letters is one-n'nth of an 
inch spare; the n is one spare in width; 
the m two spaces, moasuritig between the 
straight hues; v measures one-half space 
botwccu the second aud third strokes at the 
top. The turns and acute angles, in the 
three letters first named, are the same as 
taught in the Exercise-copy I. The sryle of 
X given is formed without the use of the 
straight line. Four curves enter iuto its 
formation, the first of whirli is a left-curve 
joined with short turn to a slight right curve 
forming the lelt half of the letter ; tho right 
side is composed of a gentle left- curve joined 
iu a short turn at the base to a right-curve, 
which passes up»ardsoue space at an angle 
ot thirty degrees. The main slant of fifty- 
two di'grees should he tjiveu, not (m!y to 
the It-tlers iu ibis lesson, but to all tetters 
corro.s|iondiiig to the plain, busiue-s-styles 

None uf these short letters are shaded. 
Copy III. unites the letters of Copy 


liue or dimhle-curvu must bo obsei^ved in 
wriling the last two letters iu n'<n, vim, and 
nux. The di-tanee betwi-cn letters iu words 
is one and one-fourth spaces. 

Numerical comparisons should not only 
he made as to number of parts in li-tter^^, 

iary works. Nun w formed with thirteen 
ftrokes uf the pen; the ninth stroke or Hue 
is a waved line. Each stroke is esscutial to 
the formation of tho word, as may readily 
be seen by removing the eighth stroke, or 
Iw attempting the word without using that 

Copy IV. represents the letters m, i, n, «, 
combined iu extended groups. Join the 
letters with sli.Lng movement, aud carry the 
hand ihruogh from the beginning tu the end 

of each combination with easy, ficxible ac- 
tion without lifiitig the pen. 

Observe cirefully the proper use nf waved 
lines, between in, u»i,and similar examples; 
remembering that tho correct use of this line 
is a feature of legibility essential to good 

Different Scales 
of \vriting should be studied. The pen- 
man unacquainted with only one scale of 
writing would be as poorly equipped us a 
printer who would attempt a geheral pub- 
lishing business with only one size uf type 
at his command. 

A''ter becoming familiar with the scale of 
one-niuth of an inch, the writer shr)uld learn 
how to vary the scale in such a manner as 
to determine the size of writing required for 
the different uses into which practical writ- 
ing must enter. 

The CHtnoGRAPHic Ruler 
advertised and sold by the Journal is the 
best aid to bo bad for this purpose. It 
furnishes all of the measurements for the 
different scales of writing used in business. 
The students should rule the various scales, 
and adapt alphabets and sentences t() them, 
repeatedly, until familiar Tilth all sizes o^ 
business- writing. It is a method which is 
not only pleasing, but proves successful in 
tbo hands of those who give it a fair trial. 

Several Sizes of Writing 

1 Xet^^-f -y-*!c /^/iys: 



Printing tetters with the pen ante-dates, 
many centuries, the invention of typos. 
The pen is the parent of both ancient and 
modern letters, aud tho types are the castA 
and recasts of the forms which it has ))ro- 
duced. They are varied iu size, frutn the 

'Xkt Joukn vjc: 

tJDjr cbuntcriTB usi'il iu uuiiiiig 
Tolom© tlie old aud new vers 

a ove litile 
oQS uf Ihe 

BiMp, up til th« groMt M.icka e 

m ployed id 

priuliuK inmuinuth pnstora. 

Ci.irinrrapliy— in iis iimlliform UBei«, from 
the lly-lHArtnu.nir«ndii I'l llie pngr.issiog of 
trefitica liiitwueo Dittioaa — miixt admit of be- 
ing inadtf UrgH and proininenl, ot sinnll and 
condensed. i*r«cliRnl cljifs rjf writing are 
fonned cm fcttlf-s'izps varying frcra one- 
aixteputh lo oun-fifth of au inch ; the tme- 
fiftli pari of an inch for eliort letters is the 
maxiiiitim eizein ledger- headings and in eu- 

The cHpilals ami loops, as eoinmonly 
taiiglit, HHf fomii-d three limes the liight uf 
lie short IcHers. Proportions may, by iu- 
creasing ihe regular pcale of forms both 
above and beloiv the line, be readily varied 
in tlie diftV-rciit rlu-sfs of !• Iters as fompari-d 


eh other 

le .].ace a.- . 
may reipi' 

Wiitiug can bu reduced 
below the standnrd »Wa', 
by either half or wliule 

BpHCCi>, thus Hdilptillg it 

to very narrow -niled 

change tlic scale of th< ir 
work by for.,>ing Ihe 
ehort letter" <.n one- 
tenth itieh si'hI'' ; CHi'ital 
and looped lellers.threc- 
fifits, ihree-eighilis or 
Ihref-iiiuihs of an lueli 

I'^-liand niHy be 
1 on a Rculo of 


•r.-;. i-ix ^ixteenths fni- 
'mic.i and capital 
■rs, Biid iI.ree-Mj[- 

Markin^ Alphabet MJ. 

bis handivriiing as swiftly and certainly as 
the thoughts leap into words, sentences, 
paragraphs and artieles, complete in their 
expression of the views of the writer. 

We act differently in different places. We 
write diflereutly. each one of us acconling 
to onr moods. The method should suit the 
occasion, compass the uecepsiiies of theoAse, 
and meet the rerpiirements of the occasion, 
whatever iheoccas'ion may be. 

The laboreil and elegant engrossing be- 
longs to one place, the swiftness of simplicity 
to auother, while the or'ginality which en- 
nobles all labor should develops new grace 
ami new types of loveliness fr.mi the writer's 
ioMiost being, whether the style be simple 
or elaboral''. 

Wo are not parrots to do the same thing 
over and over in monotonous ri-petition, one 
after auother, in |irecisely the same way. 

Whatever we do 
should bear the im- 
press of the shaping 

j^B CnEFGffl^KLMjV 

orQBSTi/vwxrz & 

a 6 cdefgh ij/cimn op grs I 
urwxi/z. /234S6/'890 

'ill nf that ininj 
or,t the will of 
icr. In the use 

iir the [tPD this jirin- 

ciple will apply. 

j All types of ppr- 

\ fectoess are worthy 

of Pttidy ; but not l>y 

■ility to any one 

particular, will 




expression, and ev- 
erything of culture 
or (levelopinent pos- 
sessed by us, will 
live in what wo do. 

led lette 

tcenlhs a> tlio bight of sp 
from the ruliil line. The maxiinuni 
for is one-fifth inch, 
)-eiglitb inch, spaces. 

Lesson II. 
Box and Package Marking, 
liv D. T. Ames. 

Italic alplu.h,t as the one best adapted f. 
email iiackaEes to be muihpcl with a flue 
brush or bioail-poiulpd pen; it is also iiiucli 
nsp.l for loailiing, on n laree sralo. upon 
boxes, biilh-iiiif, etc. The fame style of 
letters may bo used on an upright or direct 

It is probable that some form of the Ro- 
man letters is much more generally used for 
marhing-purpospB than any other stylo of 
lettering. This too, may bo made upon 
either >l.nt or pptppudicular. 

The. cut, henuilh, prespnls the form iu 
which the Uoiiuiii is ouist Iriqnpully used. 
A semi script style of htteiing is quile fie- 
qneutly lised ; but this we bflieve to rcMilt 
more Irom the fact that irincli marking is done 
by persiuis « lio have given neither Muily nor 
attoulion to nniiking, as an art; and hence, 
having u.i S]iprinl kuewledgo <.f the proper 

marking styles mbine. to suit their skill 

and faucy, their kicwliilgo of writing aud 
lettering, iu such a luatiticr as to pio- 
duco a cross between script aud Komau 

The alphabet piv-n herewith as a copy, 
has bcc-u prepared and engraved specially 
for this lesson, and is a fac-simile of oiiginal 
brush lettering. It is, we believe, the most 
feasible, ap))ropriate, aud generally adopted 
style by skilled markers. The size which 
letters should be made will depend upon Iho 
magnitude of package, ortlic extent of space 
which may be occupied with the marking. 
It should be practiced by learners, both 
with » brush and a broad nibbed pen. With 
a brush, letters shoiihl bo made upon a scale 
of from ouo I., thrio iucbes iu bight, ob- 
serving llio proportions between cajntals, 
•mall letters, and Cgures, as given iu the 
copy. With a broad pen Ibey should bo 

made upon a scale varying 
eighth to three-fourths of i 

(To It covlimitd.) 

Form should Suit the Occasion. 

By judge Maple. 

Form, as apjdied to the science of writing, 

shotild suit the circumstance and the oc- 

The ornate lettering and finished decora- 
tion belong togethor and have a proper 

The large roiiud-liand and the rapid rrn- 
uing hand liave separate .spheres aud tepar- 
ato and diftiuct purposes. 

The mascnliue-hand and Ibe femiuice- 
hand an* both jroitcr, each in its place. 

The btisinesf-hauil, iu its couil.imition of 
rapidity, timplifily, di^liiiclucps, and unpre- 
tenliousiiess, has likewito iisj owu parii :ular 

To mistake the proper style belonging to 
any sphere, is to luck .)f taste and 
business ability | which ability really tjieaiis 
adaplaldlity tothe <.ecasb.n. Fr(Uu adapt- 
ability to the occasion all good writing 
makes its progress. 

Fr.un the sense o' business which adapts 
itself to various, the style of the 
best peumeu is seen lo v»ry. Abo, from tho 
same sense of fitness cuius in iividuality 
ill wriiiiiE. This is developed tlirough the 
taste, buliils and idio.sjucrucics of dlilerenl 

Basing all growth upon simplicity of 
form, method and siyle, the difl'erence 
iu tho difl'ereut mental qualities of va- 
rious persons will find exjuession iu their 
uuale of writing. If imitatiim bo the paru- 
inount tjiiality, the writing will bear its like- 
ne.«s to tho thing copied. But takiug the 
work of various imitators, ne shall sion 
discern the work of each from the work 
of all others. If character aud origiuatily 
mark the individual, the basis of simplicity 
will stand to him as a rock whereon to 
build the expression of ubatevr mental 
qualities or bablu may be part of his daily 

The simplest forms take on new mean- 
ings under the creative touch of varying 
hands. And all knowledge of form which 
a writer may possess, will siunehow creep 
into his style to emphasize a feel'ng here or 
there, just as culture, iu any direction, will 
Bound in the vidce, beam in the glance, 
speak in the tread, aud fiud expression iu 
every gesture. 

Form, in being adapted to tho occasion, 
but gives expression lo what the writer is, 
has been, or may be. 

All standard forms take soul and life and 
meaning, accnnliiig to their cinuhiuations 

ami 1 lo of development under tho sway 

of the intellect that bids thom serve its pur- 
1 ose. 

Starting from the same foundation, no two 
can pur.sue precisely the same line ofgrovvth. 
Hverytliiug takes Us peculiarity (rom its 
source of origin. 

The lialit, fine feminine-hand belongs to 
the light, iiue f-mininc touch— and the men- 
tal dilic«ey, which is the spirit of guidance 
iu its cri-alion. 

Leaving ornament ont of business entirely, 
tho wriiiiig of some will nevertheless be 
oruHuieiital Iu all the cliaracterislica of 
beauty. Show <.r vain, parade will have no 
pari iu it, but the beautiful symmetry in all 
its parts, the grttce exprewed in f-irm, slnpe, 
size and inoveiiunt, together with the tasto 
iiiiide iriaiiifust iu all particulars, make beau- 
tiful the vtry simiiliiity under which the 
unprclentioua sought to obtain shelter. 

Aecordiug to this i>rinciple now ftirma 
are begotten, and spring into existence to 
fit the writer's varying moods, just as, in the 
Divine plan, individuals are create 1 for par- 
ticular spheres, aud developed for particular 

Tlie jdain penman, if a thinker, jumps at 
the expression in form which best fits his 
feelings for the litne being, lie has his 
standards, but he dors not stt»p to ponder 
upon them when a weightier matter possesses 
hi.-* farulties. His thougbu leap, and he 
takes the inelhod of serving them which 
suits him aud them, without parleying or deliberation. In this way the form 
is made to suit the occasion, and in this way 
the iudividualily of every ihiuker leaps into 

the form: 

; the f 

id the 

Educational Notes. 

New Voi-k. Uriel edauaiional ilfras aolicited'.j 

Texas will have an available school-fund 
of$!)UO,UOU this year. 

Education may not prevent crime, Lut it 
is crime to prevent education. 

The Phila.lelphia Medical College gradu- 
ated 70!» studcuts iu 18dl. The number for 

Women are admitted to Cornell Univer- 
sity ou tho same conditions as tnen, except 
they must be seveuteeu years of age. 

Friends of Yale College are endeavoring 
to raij^e $25,000 for the creciion of a buUd- 
ing in whiuh to hold religious meetings. 

The Uuiversity of KaiJFas. which was 
founded at Lawrence in J85y, now has 
eighteen professors aud 45U studeuts, — N.Y. 

A distinguished Geiman geographer is of 
opiui(m that tho diamond district of AfricA 
is tho 0|diir from which King S>dom«m drew 
such liberal supplies uf gold and precious 

Over 10,000,000 pupils are enrolled in tho 
public schools in this country, aud tho ex- 
penditure is about $80,00',OUI) annually. 
Thirty States have a permanent scbocd-fuud* 

The Agricultural College at Ilaoover, 
N. H., will, at its next lerin, admit wotiieo 
pupils, who will be given a special course of 
study, including butter and cheese making, 
and dairying in all its brauches. 

The illustrated papers jirint pictures of 
college base-ball nines and boat crews, but 
it has passed out of memory when they pub- 
lished a group of the " lionor uien " of a 
graduating class. — School Journal. 

Alexander II. Stephens has, since re- 
entering Congress, kept at school from ten 
to 6fieeu pupils struggling for au education^ 
paying tuition for those needing but that 



usisUnce, and the entire expCDse for those 
more needy. 

At Amherst College Commencement 
Pregident Seelye announced that the sum of 
$270,000 had been contributed during the 
put year — more money than in any former 
year of the college's existence. — N. 0. 
Christian Advocate. 

Boston ULiversity has taken a step which 
the proEressivenill heartily approve. Sixty- 
four acholarships have been established in 
the College of Liberal Arts, to be awarded 
to nieritoriouB stiidenlB, and to be divided 
equally between young women and young 

The following words were given by Prof. 
J. W. Rusk for pronunciation, at a receut 
meeting of the Ashtabula County (O.) 
Teachers' Association : 

Allies, aged, aggrandize, bade, blackguard, 
bombast, brunb, calliope, oarbiue, comba- 
tant, combativeness, clangor, construe, de- 
cade, disarm, disaster, recitative, pianoforte, 
falcon, finance, finale, forge, homage, per- 
emptory, lyceum, orthoepy, papa, acoustics, 
plebeian, irrefragable. 

The children can work out the following. 
It will keep them quiet this hot weather: 
Sleepers. — A sleeper is one who sleeps. A 
sleeper is that in which the sleeper sleeps. 
A sleeper is that on which the sleeper which 
carries the sleeper while he sleeps runs. 
Therefore while the sleeper sleeps in tbe 
sleeper the sleepi-r carries tlic sleeper over 
the sleeper under the sleeper until the 
sleeper which carries the sleeper jumps ofl' 
the sleeper and wakes the sleeper in the 
sleeper by striking the sleeper under the 
sleeper, and there is no sleeper in tbe sleeper 
on the sleeper. 

Educational Fancies. 

You may talk all day to the other letters, 
but a word to the Y'» is sufficient. 

Why is the letter D like a fallen angel t 
Because by its association with evil it be- 
comes a devil. 

"What is meant by muscular Christiani- 
ty ? " "I do not know, my child, unless it 
is pewgilism." 

A boy whose teacher 
the rod says they have 
days" at his school. 

" John," said a teacher, " I'm very sorry 
to have to punish you." " Then don't. 
I'll let yon otl' this time," responded John. 

The time necessary to acquire an excellent 
handwriting was always long, but writing- 
teachers (in olden times) were frequently 

Pupil to teacher: You say that the stars 
we see are planets and fixed stars, I wonder 
if the fixed stars planet so as to be all well 

When we read of the modern miracles 
wrought by laying-on of hands, we regret 
that refractory pupils cannot be cured by 
the same method. 

When yoQ hear a young lady very care- 
fully say, "I haven't saw," you may bo 
quite confident that she is a recent graduate 
of one of the most tliorough of our nuraer- 

1 rather free with 
>o many " hoUer- 

A pupil with large understanding was re- 
ducing a given number of inches to its 
equivalent in higher denominations, and 
after finishing the first division, turned to 
the class and made this pleasing announce- 
ment: " I will now rcdui^e my feet." 

Teacher, to infant class in Sunday-school : 
"What is promised to the righteous t" 
"Eternal bliss, marm." Teacher: "And 
to the wicked r" 77iin voice from tht bott^tn 
of the class : " Eternal blister." There was 
one penny less on the plate that day. 

In a certain room there are eleven women 
sitting down. A lady, with a new S(iring 
bonnet on, passes the house. Find the number 
who got up and rushed to the window. 
(That's where you are fooled. One of 'em 
was too lame to get out of her chair.) 

"You exasperating little simpleton, you 
have not pot a particle of capacity," said 
an Austin schoolteacher to little Johnny 
Fizzletop, adding. "What will become of 
you when you grow up? How will you 
earn your saltf "I dunno— teach school, 
I reckon." Whack! Whack! Whack! — 
Texas Siftings. 

"When did George Wasbini-ton die?" 
asked a Texas teacher of a large boy. " Js 
he deadf" was the astonished reply. 
" Why, it is not more than six months ngo 
that they were celebrating his birthday, and 
now he is dead. It's a bad year ou children. 
I reckon his folks let hiuu eat something 
thatdidn't agree with him." — Texas Siftings. 

[In every iustauce where the source of any 
item used in thiH department is known, the 
proper credit is given. A like coui-leay from 
fjlhtji-B will be appreciated.] 

with (52) fifly-two letters, is a clinchhig 
argument that the teaching of figures should 
precede that of letters. 

And this is doubly true from the fact that 
the number-work in our first grade, as well 
as others, is demanded at the outset. 

The special work done during writing- 
hour must be impregnated into the general 
work of classes, else all will be a dead-let- 
ter. Agaiu, without the proper applicAtion 
of the special to the general work, there can 
be no gratifying results. 

We are now ready to begin the formation 
of short letters, as given in 3rd Copy: be- 
ginuiug with small i. I know that this class 
of work will be produced far easier, and 
with much more satisfaction to both teacher 
and pupils, by the preliminary work done, 
than by any other method. " Well begun 
is half done." 

The judgment of the child thus far has 
been so impro\ed that the first attempts at 
producing letters are so encouraging that 
both teacher and pupils arc enthusiastic, and 
now the victory is half won. One by one 
the short letters are passed, like the figures, 
until the thirteen have been executed. 

For the first time in the curse of lessons, 
the children realize that all their powers 
are to be centered on the combination of 
short letters — forming the words, as given 
in copy — and passing same as all other 
work, each word simply. Other words may 
be given if desired. 

ifote. — It may be advisable to write short 
worda from the eaeier letters— i, u, w, e, n, ui, 
o— before fiiiifliing x, v, s, c, a, r. I would 
vecunimend it as a good plan, and one to be 
pui'»ited with pupils somewhat slow. 

the same copy, whether right or wrong, 
until the page is finished. 

If the copy is too difficult, and beyond the 
ability of part of the class, you cannot 
help- them to help themselves, with this 
course of treatment, any more than you can 
make a child lift one hundred pounds when 
its capacity is only seventy-five. 

Agaiu, if the copy be too easy, then the 
best efi'orts of the chfld are not called forth, 
and carelessness will do as much damage in 
this CAse as iliscouragement in the other. 

Conclusion. — The work piwcribed must 
always be within the ability of the pupil, 
if encouragement would come to all. 

C. 11. Peircb. 
{To he continwd.) 

At Alton, III., a irei'lier asked all 
Sunday-school children who intended to 
visit the wicked, soul-destroying circus to 
stand up. All but a lame girl stood up. — 
" Independent." — Ex. 

General Spinner is fishing in Florida, 
with great success. He baits with his sig- 
nature, and the fish that can distinguish it 
from the writhingest kind of a worm has to 
be an expert of many years' standing. — 
ThompsoiCs Reporter. 

Suuday-school teacher to very knowing 
pupil who had asserted that Eve would not 
have eaten the apple, had she lived «t the 
present day : " Why do you make such as- 
sertion t "Because," said V. K. P., "she 
would liave said to the serpent, ' Not this 
Eve, some other Eve.'" 

The "Peircerian" Method of 

Its Application in Public Schools. 

Continued. — Article IV. 
Day after day the children continue to 
make the figures upon their copy-books, 
advancing as their several abilities will allow. 
As the work on slates, by the stragglers, is 
brought to the proper standard, a change is 
made to the copy-book, and the work pre- 
scribed the same as usual. By this time the 
leaders of the class will have finished the 
figures satisfactorily, both single and from 1 
to 100, as per No. 2 'if Programme " A." 

Points Established. — In addition to the 
general object aimed at, and attained, viz., 
the true conception of figures, with power to 
execute, (see argument on figures in July 
number of JOURNAL, 1881,) you have es- 
tablished : 

1st, Position ctf copy-book ; 

2nd, Position of body, feet and arms; 

3rd, The holding of the pencil— the best 
the littlofnger will allow; 

4th, Position of wrist — the best that at 
preseut can be secured ; 

Jth, A general knowledge of form; 

ath, A general knowledge of slant ; 

"(/(, A general knowledge of spacing; 

Sth, A general knowledge of higlit ; 

!>th, A general knowledge of arrange- 

10th, Uniformity in size ; 

11th, Position of each figure; 

12th, Smoothness of stroke; 

13th, Intelligent criticism; 

14th, Intelligent practice, etc., etc.; 
and, indirectly, the pupils will have learned 
to avoid making the figures too heavy; too 
large ; too small ; or varying in size. There 
is so much to be learned, preparatory to the 
usual object aimed at, viz., the form of let- 
ters, that, in late years, it has been amusing 
to me to see the old, old process repeated 
without cessation in the vain endeavor to 
accomplish the wonderful feat — that of teach- 
ing pupils liuw to write. 

The question has hmg been settled in my 
mind as to what should be doue, and how, 
with any one, old or young, who has a 
smattering 6r no knowledge of how to write, 
as well as the more advanced. A com- 
parison of the figures (the nine difldt&l. 

or the first time, doubtless, those who 
attempting to follow me will offer the 
ask the question, "Will not 
this plan of work scatter the class, and in a 
few lessons, or in the course of time, have 
part of the pupils discouraged t" I would 
reply, No. While, at first, the tendency 
will be to scatter, it will not be long until 
every one will settle down to honest work, 
and the very best results will follow. Upon 
the principle of an army marching, the men 
will scatter all along the way ; but at the 
end of the day the greater portion will 
reach ramp. You could not keep them to- 
gether with all possible efl'ort. Therealways 
have been stragglers, and there always will 
be. Docs discouragnient come to the sold- 
ier in the war because he is not in the front 
rankf Should discouragemeut come tothe 
child simply because he is not up with every- 
body elset 

No teacher has to be told that children 
are difi'erently constituted, and that their 
powers at first are wide apart. This great 
difference in ability — the result of home 
training and home surroundings, etc., etc., 
coupled with absence, caused from tardiness, 
sickness, "playing hookey," etc., transfers, 
change of teachers, all are against the class 
system of instruction, and favorable to in- 
dividual instruction. 

■ Upon the class basis, some children are 
taken beyond their depth and discouraged, 
while others are encouraged in carelessness 
because of havii.;< work too easy. 

fustruction murit bo given suited to in- 
dividual needs, if the greatest good be done 
to the greatest number. 

With individual instruction under any ad- 
verse circumstances, the pupil always begins 
where he left off, and day by day gains 
strength that gives encouragement with 
every step. He soon becomes strong, and 
with every effort becomes more and more 
determined, until he wins his prize, viz., 
catches up. Upon this plan, a pupil ia en- 
couraged to work out of school-hours — 
something unknown with any other course 
of instruction — becau&e he gets credit for 
all progress made. This is appreciated by 
every pupil who has a particle of ambition. 
Children, like grown persons, expect tbe 
proper recognition for their work as well as 
pay lor the same. 

The teacher cannot give credit i'l class 
iDNtrnotion, becunse each pupil must write 

How the Pen has Painted Satan. 
By Mart E. Martin. 
My very first introduction to an etching 
of His Majesty was when as a little child 
too young to read. I had climbed upon a 
chair to look at the pictures in the Good 
Book lying open on the table. It was a 
very old Bible, so old that its leaves were 
yellow with age. The Book was open to a 
picture of him — there he stood, with hornB 
and hoof; his body all covered over with 
scales; his long tail f<iritod, aud on his 
shoulder a pitchfork. How my heart-beats 
burned. How my hair seemed to stand up 
at the sight. I called out to my dear, good ' 
father: "Tell me,wliat isthatf" In correct 
theology he told me. 

In the years that have slipped between 
the then, and the now, I have seen him 
many a lime ; not in an etching, but his 
horns nicely covered up under the hat of the 
man of leSijiing, his hoofs I have seen 
pinched iu the boots of the young man in 
society, and his forked tail I have seen 
coiled away under the cassock and surplice 
at God's altar. I have seen him in the 
sweet smile of a woman, in the glitter of 
herdiamouds.inthetossofberhead. Wheth- 
er the Pen has done well to etch him, it is 
not my intention to show; but in poetry, in 
fiction, iu all ages, and in all forms, the Pen 
has never been idle on his portrait. Long 
before the Sorbonne at Paris had accused 
Dr. Faust with being linked with His Ma- 
jesty, the Pen had given the Mosaic account 
of Eden; aud in Job, the Pen shows him 
presenting himself boldly before God. There 
is no age in which the Pen has not drawn 
him. Il the old Indian mythology Shiva 
stands side by side with Brahma aud Vishnu. 
Africa still paints him in the blackest hue. 
Homer's pen led Ulysses into the realms of 
Pluto. Sophocles painted him with three 
heads, and Prometheus, iu his endless hatred 
of the Creator, is a picture of liim. In ihe 
theological drama called " Mysteries," the 
pen of the Dark Ages gave loose rein to the 
imagination in regard to him. Even up to 
the time of the Reformation, although the 
plays had taken a higher form, the Devil was 
the favorite actor; and as lato as the time 
of Luther, what a reality he must have been 
for that Reformer to have hurled his inkstand 
at him in the Wartburg. Who has not fol- 
lowed the traciug of Dante's pen, down into 
the Inferno— and Milton's, where he far out- 
stretched him in the grandeur of the visions. 
Goethe's peuhas given his Mephistopheles 
in such a modern diplomatic form— so suave, 
so true to himself — that we are lost in admir- 
ation ; and I fear that, unlike Margaret, that 
we do not shrink from the very presence of 
evil. Shakespeare and Dickens sketched 
him in a comic role; aud even Coleridge 
gives a laughing view when he sends him 
" To visit his snug little farm, tbe earth." 
Byron gives him to iis with the sphere. 
So the Pen will continue to sketch him, 
whether in a "Daniel Derouda," or in " A 
Romance ot the Nineteenth Century." Al- 
ways we will have him, so long as he con- 
tinues to "walk up and down the earth 
amongst the children of men." 

Our deeds determine us, as much i 
dfltermin'- our deeds. — George Eliot. 

'Aki Jouknai. 


Writing— Yesterday and To-Day. 

What Grandfatiieb Said. 

Bv B. F. Kri.i.HY. 

Grandfather said (sud my iotiinato ac- 
(jnaiDtaaco with his deeiM^ndanta Ifnds ine to 
accept his etatcniPDt ntlhcml rjnalificalinti) 
that Bcvrral (hijs previous 1o liis rlcration 
to the dignity of a pupil in writing he hnd 
hecn, througii his earnest and uft repealed 
BolicitatiuD, suppHed with a writiug-bouk, 
consistiDg of two shcels uf paper, fohled, 
hisecled, inclosfd in sluiit hrown paper, and 
Btitvhed hy his mother, uodcr his own per- 
Bonal supervision. 

She hiid previously stewed a Iteltio full of 
maple hark, addiuL' vinegar and a few rusty 
nallii, and slrainiug fur hia use a portion of 
the decoction iuto a pewter ink>tand, which, 
for HUghl I know, could boast of a long dc- 
icent from one of tlio Pilgrim Fiilhcrs wlio 
landed at Plymouth Hock ; and, perhaps, 
judging from the iudeutatious in its »idcs, a 
shorter and more rapid descent upou iho 
rock itself, occasioned mayhap by the pil- 
grim's haMo to cateh the first truin ; or pos- 
sibly it might have been n ), tlinthypo- 

thesis is untenable — it rould not Imrt been 
thus hIcmiBhcd by being throwu at the 
tPHohcr, iu any of iliopc i>riinitivo dnys. 

For a iiou, grandfather selected a goosc- 
quillcomiiienBuratewith Insowu prospective 
importance, which was of eourso immense, 
but hia father suggested that airiediumrsized 
9 quill would probably bo as largo as he 


irk.'d I 


iudignaut UjuU of ilio son at this remark de- 
tcrmineil tbe result and won a victory in 
favor of my grandfather. 

A plummet was needed to rule the writ- 
ing-book, so grandfather's father, with Ids 
trusty jat'UUnife, formed from two pieces of 
piuo (an upper and a uollier, ur hu obverec 
and reverse — grandfather has forgotten 
which) a mold iuto which, hy a small orifice, 
melted lead was poured, and soon, as if hy 
inagic, the brilliant implement whs cshibiied, 
ready, when shnrpeued, to form linos — with 

tho aid of a ruler— as straight as well, 

almost as straiglit as tho prospective pupil 
believed ho would make, free-hand, with 

Tlio eamo hand that formed the mold 
and cast the shining plummet, ])roduced the 
ruler, a work not aUogcther faultless, or 
entirely rectilinear in its outlines; hut we 
should remember, perfection is not of man, 
neither can a straight line bo formed upou 
tho surface of tho occau in a dead calm. 
Tho versatility of tlio artist creating these 
wriiiue irnpltMneut3M"oidd,of itsolf, precdudo 
till' piis?iliilily of absolute perfection iu any 
BjK'cial direction. 

Tbe iukstand having been half filled with 
cotton, for stune undiscovered reason, and a 
stout string having been attaclicd to the 
plummet, presumably that tho owner might 
amuse himself with its gyratious about his 
own head and cougrHtuhito himself upon 
his many hair breadth escapes from its de- 
structive power, more especially that his two 
eyes still remained intact, and tho Imur hav- 
ing arrived for his march to the scene of his 
groat triumph, ho hastily, though carefully, 
places tho writing-book under Ins jacket, 
tho quill as a plume in his hatband, tbe 
inkstand in his pocket, the ruler, and a 
caudle inserted in a potato in one baud and 
tho plummet iu readiness to twirl in tlie 
other. Ho leaves the parental roof— which in 
a little more than two hours he«ill bomu- 
by ro- entering— in company willi a play- 
mato considerably his senior, just as tho sun 
is disappearing below tho horizon. 

Grandfather says, that at that mninent ho 
felt that ho towered au intellectual and 
physicjil giant, and tliat from that hour to 
ti<o ((resent ho hr.s been constantly shrink- 
ing, and that it dou'l uow seem ihitl lio can 
last nmch longer at tbe rato he is diuiiuish- 

Arriving at the schoolhouao ho bands tho 
writing-master his copy-book aud goosc- 

The aecompanjing cut portrnys grand- 
fatJi«r*« writiuji-ULutor, uxi it will uuwer 

for the typical one of that period. The 
drawing was made during a recess, when 
only the girls were lefl to write, and con- 
sequently everything was quiet, and it is 
considered an oxcellt^nt likeness of him as 
he appeared when engaged in tho pastime 
of making and mending pens, in tho inter- 
vals between writing copies and snuffing 
the candles, the last operation like the pre- 
vious one performed by tho linger move- 
ment, and attended, with almost absolute 
certainty, by a smirch and a scorch. 

Grandfather reached the school long he- 
fore tho hour for writing, and, on his own 
responsibility, seh-cted a desk corresponding 
to his opinion of Ins stature and ability, 
but, when observed hy the teacher, a por- 
tion of a desk much lower was Mssigned 
him. Then began ho to shrink] lint he 
did not lose confidence in his power to ex- 
ecute, with ease, grace and rapidity, any 
copy that might he set by the teacher; and 
when his copy-book was handed him, and 
ou the first page ho beheld but straight tines 

father's experiences in writing, we can give 
but a brief summary. SutKoe it, then, to say 
that as it began to dawn upon him that there 
were many things bo didn't know, he simul- 
taneously began to acipiire a knowledge of 
some of those things. And he progressed 
in penmanship, and year after year did he 
practice under the guidance aud instniclion 
of that good, old, faithful soul, tho writing- 
master who had, also, advanced in wisdom 
to that degreo that he had found, what he 
had all along desired, time to give instruc- 
tion in penmanship, and this simply hy pur- 
chasing a pair of snuffers and securing the 
inexpensive, though faithful, services of a 
youth to operate tliem. 

During this time grandfather had learned 
to make a straight line, not ia a manner to 
rival Apelles, but yet creditably, aud that of 
a length from one-eighth of an inch to two 
inches. He could make several of them, 
lircserving a good degree of uniformity in 
spacing ; he could make them in a verti- 
cal position, or at any angle; could make 


instead of capital letters with lots of flour- 
ishes, he could with difficulty restrain him- 
self from an outburst of indignation at the 
teacher for his lack of appreciation. *But 
ns he saw others wiih the same copy, he be- 
came sufficiently reconciled to his fate to 
carelessly submit a portion of his genius to 
tho work of imitAtiug the prescribed form. 
Tho result of Ins first attempt having been 
so far below his cxpectiitious, he immediately 
determines upon an ouiirc surrender of his 
powers to the one object of forming a stiort 
straiglit line. A comparison of his second 
lino with tho first was decidedly favorable 
to tho second, aud yet, although starling 
with great steadiness and precision, the in- 
tense excilomeut under which ho labored 
caused him to waver, adi/zincss seized Iiim, 
and the promise of the first half of tho line 
failed of realization iu tho last, aud he did 
not, fts ho ha'l hopeil, nudge his neighbor 
aud triuuiphautly ejaculate, "See there!" 
But however nmch wo might bo plciiaed 
to prvsent a detailed aooount of all grand- 

them with fine lines, with quite uniform 
shading, with steady increasing or dimin- 
ishing shade; had learned to rule his hook 
very neatly and uniformly ; had practiced 
pot-hooks and trammels; had practiced com- 
biuiug Ihose, and forming tho letter ni, first; 
then the other short letters ; then the (, d, 
p, q ; afterward, tho extended letters ; and 
gave much time to capital letters and to 
wold and sentence writing. In all these, a 
disinterested observer would aflirm that he 
equaled, in point of excellence of form or 
o«60 of cxeculiou, tho best the teacher conld 
do. Not so, thought my grandfather, for love 
foi tho teacher made the work of the latter 
more beautiful. But it did not blind grand- 
father to the fact that even the teacher, who 
had faithfully labored to produce such good 
result, had frequently, though unwittingly, 
led him astray, and retarded his progress by 
tho unavoidable variableuoss of his teacher's 

A copy would be set v 
■re and imitated with equal care ; defeots 

s the fact 
S8, ho waa 
a penman- 

in the original being considered excellencies, 
aud the proportion of parts being scrupu- 
lously uuiiutaincd. Another copy would be 
given in which the size, shape, slant, space, 
or shade of a letter or letters would differ 
from the size, shape, slant, space, or shade 
of the same named letter, or letters previously 
given. He has to unlearn a portion of that 
ho had learned, aud learn another way only 
to discover iu the next copy that neither of 
the two ways are like tho third. And so he 
goes on until finally he realizes he can have 
no nbs<dute model iu a written copy. 

But everything in time must have an end, 
and so it was with grandfather's school-days, 
which wero brought to a sudden close in 
consequence of the death of liis beloved 
father, whose biisiuess ho inherited; and, 
upon reaching hie majority, he assumed en- 
tire control and conducted the business suc- 
(ossfully, married happily, was blessed with 
sons to whom, while yet in possession of all 
his faculties, he transferred the busioesB be- 
queathed him, largely augmented hy his own 
faithful em-rts. 

But what interests us most i 
that, amid all tlie cares of husinc 
ever awake to any improvement i: 
ship, whether in materials used o 
ods of instruction; aud, although ho could 
spare but liltlo lime for forming au improved 
system of penmanship, he hailed, with pleas- 
ure and alacrity, any advance by others. 

He discovered that the old round-hand, 
for tho acquirement of which he had de- 
voted a large share of his buyhood-days, was 
ill-adapted to the wants of a huaiucss-man, 
and ho devised a method of writing which 
served him much better; yet there was an 
individuality about it that he believed 
rendered it unserviceable to others. 

He hailed tho steel-pen aud the gold-pen, 
the lead-pencil, the improved writing-paper 
aud inks — not iu tho manner of a fossil, as 
graudfatners are oltcn supposed to do, roll- 
ing himself against the n heel of tho ear of 
progress aud cryiug " AVlioa! " — but with 
gladness — with great joy. He saw the first 
crude, engraved copy-slips, aud welcomed 
them as tho harbiugors of a better day for 
penmanship. Ho lived to see writing-buoka 
with fairly- accurate engraved copies at tbe 
head of each page. He still lived to see 
copy-hooks and copy-slips containing copies 
prepared with the utmost care of the skilled 
artist aud engraver, combining, in a high 
degree, brevity, accuracy, grate aud legi- 
bility, accompanied with clear analyses aud 
explanations. Aud he feels that his fondest 
hopes, born in the days of the unsatisfying 
round-hand, have been more tlmn realized. 

But he hears that even this ia not con- 
sidered " business-writing," because a young 
man, after practicing until he can easily pro- 
duce with a free, combined movement a very 
creditable imitation of the boat - engraved 
script, finds, when business demands of him 
that he write iu an exceedingly hurried 
manner, that his writing lacks much of the 
grace aud beauty which hia manuscript dis- 
played wheu written lesa rapidly. But 
grandfather says tliat tbe young man, even 
when he writes in the greatest haste, writes 
better than ho would had he never disci- 
plined hia eye and hand by tho careful study 
and praciico of the graceful and absolute 
forms of the copy-book — forms so unvary- 
ing that their image is indelibly impressed 
upon the young man's mind — ever iuspiring 
him and drawing him toward perfection. 
And he also says that for a young man to 
attempt to learn good business-writing, by 
iuiitaliug tho rapidly-executed writing of 
the best husiuess- penman iu the world, when 
he can have accurate, engraved models, 
would not bo evidence of that young man's 
good sense, and, really, I think grandfather 
is light. 

J. S. Conover, Galcshurg, 111., remits for 
back numbers of the Juuu