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?r,f5f?-3 J ANUARY, ip vTx^v^^^l 

XTable of Contents 

Christian Frederick Post's Part in the Capture of Fort 

Duquesne and in the Conquest of the Ohio 

The Saratoga Campaign as a Type of New York History 


Monroe County Reverie 

A Rare Old Diary 

Rev. Frederick Christian Bauman — 

Centennial of Friedens Ev. Lutheran Church _____--^— n 

The Story of the Big Runaway — 

The Dialect of the Boers 

Tombstone Inscriptions, Bernville, Pa. 

Current Life and Thought 

The Penn Germania Genealogical Club 

Die Muttersproch ^" 

Our Book Table 

Historical Notes and News 

The Forum 









Zhc pcnn (3crmania 

The following lines, forming part of an An- 
nouncement issued by THE PENN GERMANIA, 
s t forth in part the aim of the magazine. 


The "purposes" of the incorporation as set forth by the 
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Germanic Culture 

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(Continued on page 3 of cover) 


^be pcnn 0ermanta 

Copyright, 1913. by The Penn Germania Publishing Company 

Vol. II. January, 1913. No. 1 


Christian Frederick Post's Part 

in the 

Capture of Fort Duquesne 

and in the 

Conquest of the Ohio 

By George P. Donehoo, D. D. 

Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Historical 
Society of Western Pennsylvania, etc. 

I STORY, as it is written, 
is divided into two 
classes, sacred and pro- 
fane. Sacred history is 
a correct narration of 
events, in their true re- 
lation to each other. 
Profane history is the narration of the 
events which the writer wishes to record, 
presented without any regard whatever 
to the events which are not recorded. 
It is called "profane" because it makes 
the critical student of history swear 
when he reads it. 

The writer of sacred history sees be- 
yond the details in the foregrbund of 
action to the causes which make those 
actions possible. The writer of profane 
history sees the ant hill, just before his 
line of vision, but cannot see the moun- 
tains which lie beyond it. He is, of a 

truth, recording the events which he 
sees, but the thing which he sees does not 
make a complete vision of things as they 
are. He is too short-sighted. This is 
one of the reasons why historians diiter 
in their records of the same events. One 
is a historian, the other is a "reporter." 

]\Iuch of the history which has been 
written of the early events in the Con- 
quest of the Ohio belongs to the profane 
class. Only the striking action which 
took place in the fore-ground was noted 
by the writer, whose perspective was dis- 
torted because of some huge figure which 
he placed in the fore-ground, to dwarf 
and almost blot from sight some of the 
chief actors in the more distant back- 
ground. To attempt to write the real 
history of the Conquest of the Ohio by 
the British, without taking into con- 
sideration the influences which were at 



work behind the action which was taking 
place in the HmeHght, throws all of the 
characters in the drama, as well as the 
action itself, out of their true relation to 
the development of the plot. 

General Edward Braddock has been 
most unmercifully dealt with for the 
fearful ending of his expedition against 
Fort Duquesne, in 1755. He was blamed 
by the writers of his time for not doing 
things, which not a single military officer 
— not even Washington — could have 
remedied had he been put in the exact 
conditions which Braddock had to meet. 
But, Braddock was dead and could make 
no reply to the criticisms which were 
fired over his grave, as a parting salute 
to one of the most maligned military 
leaders who ever led an army to a 
destined defeat. Braddock was doomed, 
from the minute he started on his ill- 
fated expedition, not from any lack of 
ability in himself, but because of con- 
ditions over which he had absolutely no 
control. General John Forbes succeeded 
where Braddock had failed, not because 
of any superior ability on his part, but 
because the conditions which Braddock 
had faced had been entirely changed. 

Braddock was criticised because he did 
not use the Indians in his expedition 
against the French Fort. Use what 
Indians? Where would he get them? 
What Indians were possible as allies to 
the British cause in 1755? Braddock 
made every effort in his power to get 
Indians to help him, but the mere hand- 
ful of Delawares who had been living 
with George Croghan since Washing- 
ton's defeat in 1754 were all that could 
be gathered at Fort Cumberland. And 
these deserted him before he started on 
his mission, just exactly as they had de- 
serted Washington before the' battle at 
Fort Necessity in 1754. Braddock was 
no more to be criticised for not having 
Indians with him in 1755, than was 
Washington for not keeping what he did 
have in 1754. The truth of the matter 
is that Indians were not to be had at any 
price. Christopher Gist had made the 
attempt to get the assistance of the 
Southern Cherokecs and had failed, for 
the simple reason that a Cherokee in 1755 

would not dare show his face in the land 
of the Delaware and Iroquois. Brad- 
dock would have had to face the same 
problem by the presence of these South- 
ern Indians that General Forbes had to 
face in 1758. 

The only allies possible for Braddock's 
expedition were the Delaware and Shaw- 
nee, and the assistance of both of these 
strong tribes was utterly impossible be- 
cause they had been entirely alienated by 
the various land sales on the Delaware 
and Susquehanna. A Delaware or 
Shawnee was just about as likely to help 
Braddock in his attempt to take Fort 
Duquesne as a troop of South Carolina 
Confederates would have been likely to 
have helped the Union Army at the 
battle of Gettysburg. The Delaware and 
Shawnee had not only become enraged 
against the English for the various land 
sales, but they had also become tired of 
wearing the Iroquois yoke and had gone 
to the Ohio to get away from both in- 
fluences. Conrad Weiser, who at this 
time was supreme in the Councils of the 
Province in all matters relating to the 
Indians, was entirely on the side of the 
Iroquois in all points of difference with 
the Delawares. whom he treated with 
contempt. The Delaware and Shawnee 
crossed the mountain ridges to the Ohio, 
where they came in direct contact with 
the French, who hated English and Iro- 
quois alike. The Iroquois, while mot 
hostile to the English, had resolved to 
remain neutral in the struggle between 
the French and the English. Hence, 
when General Braddock was slowly cut- 
ting his way across the many mountain 
ridges to defeat and death, there was not 
a single tribe of Red Men east of the 
Ohio to help him in his expedition. The 
assistance of Scaruady and his little 
handful of friendlv Delawares. amounted 
to nothing, in that great, fofesi}" en,- 
shrouded wilderness. The ooinion of 
this chief concerning General Braddock 
is often quoted, but his opinion of Wash- 
ington and his defeat at the hands of the 
French, at Fort Necessity, which is even 
hiore bitter, is left unmentioned. Brad- 
dock was resting in an unmarked grave 
on the summit of the Laurel Ridsre — and 


the figure of Washington was beginning 
to stand out large in the foreground of 
the thriUing events of the time. 

Braddock did not use Indians on his 
expedition because there were no Indians 
for Braddock, or any other British leader 
to use. So he cut his way across the 
dreary mountain ridges to defeat and 
death on the banks of the Monongahela, 
where his army was cut to pieces by the 
Indians — not by the French. 

The lesson taught the Province of 
Pennsylvania and the Colony of Virginia 
by Braddock's defeat, and the years of 
bloodshed which followed, was not with- 
out results. The abuse heaped upon 
Braddock was an excuse, a mere sub- 
terfuge to hide the real cause of the 
failure to capture the French fort. The 
men who understood the real situation 
knew that so long as the Province was at 
war with the Delaware and Shawnee no 
expedition against the French on the 
Ohio could be successful. Then com- 
menced the long and the difficult task of 
trying to win back the friendship of the 
hostile Delaware and Shawnee on the 
Susquehanna and the Ohio. Conrad 
Weiser had been the one man to whom 
the Province had turned for assistance 
when it needed some solution for its 
various mixes with the Indians, but in 
the condition of affairs which existed in 
1756-58 Weiser was not in a position to 
be of very great value. His well known 
prejudice in favor of the Iroquois put 
him in a position of great perplextiy when 
it became necessary for him to try to win 
the Delaware and Shawnee back to the 
English cause. So little did the war- 
riors of these tribes admire him that they 
had determined to sweep down the Sus- 
quehanna, including Tulpehocken, where 
Weiser lived, in their raids of destruc- 
tion, which followed Braddock's defeat. 
With the waning influence of the Iro- 
quois in the affairs of the Province, and 
the rapidly increasing power of the Dela- 
ware and Shawnee it became necessary 
for the Province to find some one other 
than Weiser to carry on the Peace 
negotiations with these hostile warriors. 

At the Council at Easton. Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1756, ledyuskung, the leading 

chief of the Delawares, appeared as the 
champion of the rights of his people. 
He told of the wrongs which had been 
done the Delaware tribes by the white 
settlers, and why they had become 
alienated from the EngUsh. A great 
feast was given to the Indians present at 
the Council, and every effort was made 
to win back their friendship. Finally, 
after much discussion, Tedyuskung was 
sent with Captain Newcastle, another 
chief, to give the "Big Peace Hallo" to 
the Indians on the Susquehanna. The 
object of this effort was to win back the 
hostile Delaware and Shawnee, against 
whom the Province had most unwisely 
declared war. 

Tedyuskung was successful in his mis- 
sion to the Indians on the upper Susque- 
hanna, who promised to go to a Council 
at Easton in 1757 to discuss the whole 
matter. When this Council took place 
all of the complaints of the Delaware 
warriors were heard and discussed. 
Chief among the complaints was that 
concerning the famous, or infamous, 
"Walking Purchase," which had so much 
to do with the alienation of the Dela- 

After all of the complaints had been 
heard, and settled in a manner satisfac- 
tory to the leading chief, Tedyuskung, it 
was decided to send messengers west- 
ward to the Ohio, to win back the hostile 
Delaware and Shawnee in the villages in 
that region. 

While these plans were being laid a new 
difficulty arose. The friendly Shawnee 
chief, Paxinos, had deserted the cause of 
the English and gone over to the French, 
and a general Indian uprising was 
threatened. When the cause of this 
sudden change was investigated, it was 
discovered that the Iroquois had become 
angered because of the presence of the 
Cherokee warriors with the army of 
General Forbes, with whom the northern 
Indians were at war. Finally this mat- 
ter was patched up by having the Chero- 
kees make peace with the Iroquois and 
Delawares. Then it was decided to send 
the messenger to the Ohio at once, in- 
forming the Indians in that region that 
a general peace had been declared with 


all of the Delaware, Shawnee and Iro- 

But, who could be found to undertake 
this most dangerous mission? The many 
miles of mountains and forests were 
filled with the bands of these hostile war- 
riors, who did not know that any efforts 
had been made for peace. Westward 
from the Susquehanna to the Ohio swept 
the unbroken forests and the lofty moun- 
tain ridges, filled with the bands of 
Indians on the War Path, and the scout- 
ing parties of French soldiers, who were 
making every effort to arouse the Indians 
to still greater fury against the English. 
The winter was approaching, and the 
mountains would soon be covered with 
great snow drifts, making travel over the 
winding Indian trails almost impossible. 

The sorely perplexed Provincial au- 
thorities decided that the one man who 
could successfully perform this most 
difficult undertaking was Christian 
Frederick Post, who had just returned 
from a similar mission to Wyoming. 
This faithful missionary to the Indians 
had the confidence and respect of the red 
warriors of the rivers and mountains of 
Pennsylvania. This he had won by his 
sincere life of self-sacrifice in their vil- 
lages. Post left Philadelphia on July 
15th, reaching Fort Allen on the 20th. 
Here he met Tedyuskung, the Delaware 
chief, who tried to persuade him not to 
undertake the mission, saying that the 
Indians were on the war path and would 
surely kill him. But, nothing would pre- 
vent this brave man from doing that 
which he felt was his duty. The entry 
in his Journal at this time reads. "I hoped 
my death would ])e attended with this 
advantage, that is, the means of saving 
many hundred lives." How well this 
object was attained, without the sacrifice 
of his life, is shown by the result of his 

He reached the extreme limits of the 
British military posts at' the site of -the 
present city of Sunbury on Tulv 20th. 
Here was situated the last of the frontier 
forts, called Fort Augusta, which over- 
looked the winding waters of the Sus- 
quehanna and faced the West Branch 
valley, through which ran many of the 

trails to the Indian settlements of the 
Iroquois country. From the time that 
Post left Fort Augusta he was getting 
deeper and deeper into the great forests 
of the mountain region which was under 
the dominion of the hostile French and 
Indians. The winding trail over which 
Post travelled ran np the West Branch 
valley and then cut across the Allegheny 
river to where Franklin now is situated. 
This was the site of Fort Venango, over 
which flew the flag of France. On 
August 7th., when Post came in sight of 
this fort he wrote in his Journal, *T 
prayed the Lord to blind them, as He did 
the enemies of Lot and Elisha, that I 
might pass imknown." And the next 
day. after he had passed, he wrote, "The 
Lord heard my prayer, and I passed un- 

He reached the large Indian village of 
Kuskuski. now New Castle, Pa., on the 
13th. Here he met "King Beaver," the 
leading chief of the Delawares, with 
whom he held many conversations con- 
cerning the Council which had been held 
at Easton. While Post remained in this 
village the French sent many delegates 
from Fort Duquesne, urging the Indians 
to remain faithful to the French cause. 
Among the Delaware chiefs in the settle- 
ment was the famous Shingas. who had 
been the leader of many bloody raids into 
the English settlements. Surrounded by 
all of these hostile Indians, urged to 
greater hostility by the French officers, 
this brave man remained for nearly two 
weeks, pleading with the Indians to re- 
turn to the English cause. From this 
village he went to the other large Indian 
village called Sawcunk. near the present 
town of Beaver, where he again told the 
assembled Indians of the peace proposals 
of the Province. After hearing him the 
chiefs decider! that he should go with 
them to Fort Duquesne. where he should 
tpll the Indians assembled of what the 
'p,-.rriij;ii wi'^bed t^^'f^m to rlo. Post went 
with the delegation of Indians to the 
Indian encampment opposite Fort Du- 
ciuesne. Here, under the very guns of 
the French fort, with an audience of 
Delaware. Shawnee. Wyandot. Iroquois 
and French officers and soldiers, this 


hero declared the message of Peace from 
the Enghsh, reahzing that a price had 
been set upon his head by the French 
authorities at the fort. Post returned 
with the Indians to Kuskuski, where he 
again urged the red warriors to remain 
away from Fort Duquesne if they could 
not help the English more actively. He 
left this village on September 8th., reach- 
ing Fort .Augusta upon the 22nd. At 
the conclusion of this long and dangerous 
mission he wrote in his Journal, "Praise 
and Glory be to the Lamb that has been 
slain and brought me through the Coun- 
try of Dreadful Jealousy & Distrust, 
where the Prince of this world has his 
Rule and Government Over the Children 
of Disobedience. The Lord has pre- 
served me through all the Danger and 
Difficulties I have ever been under." 

Post had returned from his long jour- 
ney in time for the Council at Easton, 
where all of the disputes were again gone 
over. His messages from the Indians 
upon the Ohio were heard, and it was 
decided to send him back with another 
message from the Province, in which it 
was stated that Peace had been decided 
upon. So once more this faithful mes- 
senger of Peace started on the long 
journey over the bleak, wintery moun- 
tains. He passed the army of General 
Forbes at Loyalhanning, now Ligonier, 
and went on to the Ohio, where he again 
])lead with the Indians to remain away 
from Fort Duquesne, so that the army 
of General Forbes might take possession 
of it. 

When the French commander of this 
fort discovered that the Indian allies, 
upon whose assistance he depended, had 
vanished, and knowing that the army of 
General Forbes would soon reach his 
position, he burned the fort and marched 
away w^ith his troops. On November 25th, 
the army of General Forbes marched 
into the ruins of Fort Duquesne, thus 
taking possession of the Ohio. The 
French army had departed forever from 
the shores of the "Beautiful River." To 
Ciiristian Frederick Post, Ambassador of 
Christ, more than to any military leader 
or armed force, was due the honor of 
making the capture of Fort Duquesne 

possible in 1758. The unburied skele- 
tons of the soldiers of Braddock's army, 
the disfigured bodies of Major Grant's 
Highlanders were mute witnesses of 
what the Indians had done in the pre- 
vious attempts to take the French fort. 
That the army of General Forbes would 
have shared the same fate is almost cer- 
tain — had not these Indian allies been 
kept away from the scene by the efforts 
of Post. 

And yet how few people know these 
facts in the history of the taking of Fort 
Duquesne in 1758. The capture of this 
fort and the driving away of the French 
army made possible the great Empire 
which now sweeps westward to the 
Pacific Ocean. But for the winning of 
the Indians on the Ohio to the English 
interest, the "winning of the West" 
would have been delayed for many years. 

The figures of General Forbes and of 
Washington stand out so prominently in 
the fore-ground of action in the Capture 
of Fort Duquesne, that the figure of 
Christian F. Post, pleading with the 
Indians in the shadows of the Camp fires 
on the banks of the Ohio, is scarcely 
seen. And yet, but for the quiet, heroic 
efforts of this Man of God, there would 
have been a larger force of Red Men on 
the banks of the Ohio to contest the path- 
way of the English than there was when 
Braddock, or Grant made their attempts 
to drive the French from the Beautiful 

"Peace hath her victories, 

No less renowned than war," and one 
of the most glorious triumphs on the 
American continent was the final capture 
of Fort Duquesne, through the Peace 
Mission of this little mentioned Hero of 
Pennsylvania and American History. 

The authority for all of the statements 
in this article will be found in the ac- 
counts of the various Indian Councils 
held at Easton and Philadelphia, as con- 
tained in Colonial Records. Vol. VIII, 
and in the Archives of Pennsylvania, 
\'ol. III. 

The Journals of Christian F. Post, as 
contained in Archives of Pennsylvania, 
A'ol. Ill, page 520. 

Conrad W^eiser, and the Indian Policy 


of Colonial Pennsylvania, by Joseph S. 

The letters of Conrad Weiser, Richard 
Peters, William Denny, General Forbes 
and others, as contained in the Colonial 
Records and Archives, covering the 
period from 1755 to 175Q. 

At "the Forks" of the Ohio, where 
Washington first stood in 1753 and saw 
the vision of what might be there in the 
years to come ; where Edward Ward sur- 

rendered his little force to the French 
commander ; where Fort Duquesne once 
stood ; where Fort Pitt was builded, and 
where the City of Pittsburgh now stands 
at the "Gateway of the West," facing 
the waters of "La Belle Riviere," there 
should be erected a monument to the 
memory of Christian Frederick Post, 
whose Peace Mission to the Western 
Indians made possible the bloodless cap- 
ture of Fort Duquesne in 1758. 

Why the An American manu- 

Germans facturer who had 

Lead wondered at the suc- 

cess of his German 
competitors was struck by certain big 
flaming official looking posters on the 
billboards and around public buildings in 
Berlin. He might have seen similar 
posters in every town and city in Ger- 
many. Twice a year these official post- 
ers summon the youth of the land to ob- 
ligatory attendance at the trade and 
commercial schools. Indirectly they tell 
why the American or the English man- 
ufacturers find in the German such a 
dangerous competitor. They reveal the 
secret of Germany's wonderful commer- 
cial and industrial prosperity and of her 
commanding position as a world power. 
To the philosophically inclined they sug- 
gest interesting reflections on the trans- 
fomiation of Germany from a nation of 
materialists and doers. 

There is scarcely anything in all Ger- 
many so new and so modern as the con- 
tinuation schools. This whole move- 
ment has been a matter of only a few 
years, and in its present form the con- 
tinuation school is a child of yesterdav. 

These institutions receive from the na- 
tion more care and solicitude than is be- 
stowed upon the children of the Impe- 
rial family. They are still in a rapid 
process of change and development. 
Their very success has encouraged fur- 
ther changes and more stringent legisla- 
tion in their behalf. It is only a few 
years ago that an Imperial industrial 
law was passed giving communities au- 
thority to establish and maintain obliga- 
tory continuation schools for youths, thus 
making good the failure of certain Ger- 
man state governments to provide for 
such schools by state law. One of the 
last acts of the old Reichstag last De- 
cember was to amend this law so as to 
make it apply to all girls employed in 
offices, stores and factories, as well as 
to boys. The whole subject is still so 
new and fresh that every day the Ger- 
man press has some interesting item of 
continuation-school news — the opening 
of more domestic-science schools for 
girls, the establishment of training col- 
lege for continuation school teachers, 
the publication of new laws and minis- 
terial decrees. — Hubert Evans, in Har- 
per's Weekly. 

The Saratoga Campaign as a Type of 
New York History from That 
Time until Now 

The Historical Oration at the Dedication 
of the Saratoga Battle Monument 

By Henry Mitchell McCracken 

Chancellor Emeritus of New York University 

BELIEVE in the pubhc 
monument. Our coun- 
try were poorer without 
the Washington Obe- 
Hsk. For five and thirty 
years this Saratoga 
shaft, though incomplete, 
has been forceful for good. But more 
forceful than the silent teaching by any 
stone is man's spoken thought. A monu- 
ment has more than once been the oc- 
casion of an utterance which is more 
precious than the monument itself. If 
Gettysburg field were sunk by an earth- 
quake in a chasm as deep as Lake Cham- 
plain, we could better spare its stones 
than we could spare the less than three 
hundred words which were spoken there 
by Abraham Lincoln. Until to-day, I 
had not seen this shaft of the Saratoga 
battlefield, but I had read the address 
spoken in 1877, when its corner-stone 
was laid, which address in its larger part, 
is a fine epitome of a military campaign. 
I mean the address of George William 
Curtis, of New York, who was the lead- 
ing orator at the Centennial in this place 
half a life-time ago. I wish that the 
narrative portion of his address, com- 
prising one-half of its entire length, 
might be printed again in the report of 
the proceedings of to-day. 

I am disposed to believe that this cor- 
ner-stone and the celebration of 1877 
have not been without influence in pre- 
serving and increasing the interest ai 
Americans in the War of the Revolution. 

It is noteworthy that within the two 
years past two careful histories of the 
Revolution have been put forth by 
scholarly Englishmen. The one by 
Henry Belcher, comprising two volumes, 
is entitled by him "The First American 
Civil War." The second, in four 
volumes, by Sir George Trevelyan, en- 
titled "The American Revolution", has 
been completed only in the present year. 
But we may doubt whether either of 
these scholarly English histories out- 
classes the two volumes on the Revo- 
lution written full twenty years ago by 
the American John Fiske. So carefully 
have the battlefield of the Saratoga cam- 
paign been gleaned by more than half a 
score of writers, that what is left is like 
the Jewish prophet's comparison of a 
scanty gleaning: "As the shaking of an 
olive tree — two or three berries in the 
top of the uttermost bough." 

I have no thought of adding to what 
historians have discovered and put in 
print respecting the Saratoga battles. My 
highest aim extends no further than to 
stir your recollections of the old facts and 
to renew your patriotic sentiment by 
naming some of the old names and 
characterizing some of the old episodes 
of those four months of 135 years ago. 
Yonder to the north, in July of 1777, 
was the surrender of the fortress of 
Ticonderoga to the British invading 
army ; also, in the same month, the 
tragedy, not far from Ticonderoga. of 
Jennie AfcCrea, from whose head the 


blood-stained tresses became a summons 
to Americans through all this North- 
country, even as the fatal wound of the 
Roman maiden Virginia became a com- 
mand to Romans to throw off the yoke of 
a tyrannic king. In yonder west, up the 
]\Iohawk valley, in August of '']'], was 
.the Battle of Oriskany. There the 
German-American General Herkimer, 
after his leg had been shattered by a 
cannon ball, caused himself to be, placed 
against a huge tree, and there, smoking 
his German pipe, continued, with sten- 
torian voice, to direct his brave followers. 
A little later in the same month, the task 
undertaken by Herkimer was completed 
by the bold Arnold, whose mere approach 
scattered the invaders as far as the banks 
of Ontario. Yonder to the east, near the 
line between New York and Vermont, in 
that same month of August, the victory 
of Bennington shattered the British at- 
tack upon the right wing of the American 
defense. General John Stark was more 
fortunate than Herkimer in not only 
winning his battle, but, though in the 
very midst of the fight, coming forth 
without a wound. These two conflicts, 
on the left wing and the right wing, with 
nearly a hundred miles between, both 
prepared the way and rallied the country 
for what was to follow. 

Hardly ten miles south of where we 
stand was the first battle of Saratoga, 
called, more precisely, the First Battle of 
Freeman's Fafm. In early October came 
the second battle on the same farmstead, 
w^hich is called by the same name. 
Finally, on October 17th, of '"jj, on the 
field before us, came the surrender of all 
that was left of the brave and well-equip- 
ped army of the British king. 

I have named, very briefly, these epi- 
sodes. I repeat that my highest aim is 
to stir your memory and feeling by at- 
tempting now to characterize some of 
the actors and events of those brief four 
months, and, also, by connecting the 
New York of three life-times ago with 
the New York of to-day. I will speak 
from this point of the Saratoga campaign 
as a type of New York history from that 
time till now. 


- J\Iay I begin by emphasizing the 
cosmopolitanism of the Saratoga cam- 
paign. It was cosmopolitan in that the 
American leaders there and their soldiers 
represented so many countries and so 
many races. Let us call the roll of the 
American generals, for the soldiers who 
followed them were sprung from the 
same regions and the same races which 
furnished the generals. For every gen- 
eral that is named, imagine a thousand 
privates of like lineage and like character 
following him in the ranks. Generals 
and privates were alike cosmopolitan. 
First is the name of that New Yorker of 
Dutch descent whose name honors this 
village which we are visiting to-day, 
where was his country home with its 
millb and its broad farms — I mean Philip 
Schuyler. Schuyler is well characterized 
by John Fiske, at the time when he and 
Montgomery, as representatives of New 
York, joined Washington at the siege of 
Boston in 1775. His words are 'two of 
the noblest of American heroes.' Dutch 
in name and lineage, Schuyler was a true 
representative of the best of the first 
settlers of New York, of those Hollan- 
ders who, less than a century before they 
came to Manhattan Island, had shattered 
the empire of Philip II and founded the 
Dutch Republic. Fiske writes: "No 
more upright or disinterested man could 
be found in America. For bravery and 
generosity he was like the paladin of 
some mediaeval romance." Schuvler 
stands for the best of the Dutch. Un- 
happily, there were too many of the 
worst Dutch who were then playing 
toady to King George III in the city of 
New York. Many Dutch who aimed to 
be social leaders soon proved themselves 
undesirable citizens of the-) American 
metropolis. The recent historian Tre- 
velyan says "Schuyler loved his coiuitry 
sincerely and singly, and he gave her the 
whole of his time and strength besides 
great quantities of his money, and, for 
many years together, all his peace of 
mind and his happiness." 

Next in order to the Dutch-American 


general, 1 will name the German-Ameri- 
can Nicholas Herkimer. Born in New 
York, he lived in what is now the 
County of Herkimer, where had settled 
many Germans who had been expelled 
from their country a century before by 
the persecuting armies of the French 
when they ravaged the Palatinate and 
the cities of Heidelberg antl Spiers. 
Leading his militia from his home on the 
Mohawk, he fought the army that was 
attacking Fort Stanwix in a battle which 
is called the deadliest fight of the Revo- 
lution, for the reason that a third of 
either side were struck down on the bat- 
tlefield. Herkimer, at this battle of 
Oriskany, foiled the flanking attack of 
the enemy, and a few days afterwards 
calmly ended his life, at the very last still 
smoking his pipe while he read the Scrip- 
ture where it says: 'My heart panteth, 
my strength faileth me. Thou wilt hear, 
O Lord my God.' 

The lineage of that army is shown by 
the list of officers killed and wounded on 
the American side. Of Germans, there 
were Colonels Klock and Visscher, Cap- 
tains and Lieutenants Spoor and Swart- 
out, Walter Arnent, Dillinbach, Diefen- 
dorf, and Seeper ; of Dutch, Bleecker. 
Bogardus, and Van Benshotten ; of 
Scotch, McGee and AlcClemmer; of 
English. Colonel Cox and Captains 
Stockwell. Dennison, Bailey, and Lewns. 
Thus Oriskany illustrated the cosmopoli- 
tanism of the Saratoga campaign. 

The German-Americans who fol- 
lowed Herkimer were by no means the 
only Germans who fought the battles of 
Saratoga. Over twenity-two per cent, 
of the .so-called \'irginia riflemen of 
whom we shall hear are declared by good 
authority to have been Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans who, like those of Herkimer 
County, were expelled as Protestants 
from their homes in Germany. 

Traveling again from the left wing of 
the Americans to the right wing we find 
General John Stark of Londonderry, 
New Hampshire. xAs the name of his 
townshii) suggests, he and the volunteers 
who followed from his home were mainlv 
Scotch-Irish or Scotch who had settled 
Londonderrv a half centurv before the 

Revolution. The lineage of that town- 
ship is sufficiently proven by Belknap's 
History of New Hampshire, printed a 
hundred years ago, which gives the roll 
of the parsons of that town for near 
seventy years, and these were their 
names : Alexander Thompson, Davidson, 
Morrison, Clark, James AlacGregor and 
David MacGregor — every one of them 
as Scotch as an oatmeal cake. Stark had 
led the first New Hampshire volunteers 
to the siege of Boston the year before. 
The great orator of New Hampshire, 
Daniel Webster, according to Bagenal's 
History, used to entertain friends by 
imitating with great unction the oratory 
of John Stark, who, in looks and ges- 
tures, wit and brogue, was a thorough 

John Stark's soldiers, who were in 
part lumbermen, were but the vanguard 
of tens of thousands of Scotch-Irish and 
Scotch fighters in the Revolution. 
Fronde's History of Ireland shows that 
a quarter of a million had come to 
America from Belfast and Ulster in the 
two generations before the Revolution. 
The fact that they came in large part to 
escape English oppression in North Ire- 
land made them ready volunteers. Yet, 
while Stark and part of one regiment at 
Bennington were of Scotch blood, the 
great majority were Puritan Englishmen. 
Three Vermonters in the fight are claim- 
ed as ancestors by my own wife, and are 
held up by me as excellent examples, in 
that they were contented to be com- 
manded by John Stark, the Scotch-Irish- 

Returning from the two wings of the 
army, let me name the commander of the 
vanguard at Ticonderoga, who was a 
born Scotchman, General Arthur Sin- 
clair, an ex-officer of the British army. 
Unluckily, he was not enough of a mili- 
tary engineer to anticipate the enemy's 
placing a powerful battery on a hill sum- 
mit about a mile from his fort, ^^'hen 
he clearly saw they could batter it down, 
he wisely, on that very night, began a 
retreat. It was not the last time that 
Sinclair permitted himself to be taken 
unawares. Iti the Indian War fourteen 
years later, in fighting the Indians of 


the Miami \'alley, he so let his army be 
cut to pieces as ahiiost to break Presi- 
dent Washington's heart. 

Along with Sinclair belongs Horatio 
Gates, in that both of them were ex- 
officers of the British army. Gates did 
not belong either to the Puritan English 
or the Cavalier English, but had been 
brought to America by General Braddock 
and had become a resident of this coun- 
try. He by no means stands for the best 
English blood on the American side in 
the Saratoga campaign. The verdict of 
the most impartial and thorough writers 
in regard to him is best expressed by the 
summing up of John Fiske. 'He never 
gave evidence of either skill or bravery. 
In taking part in the War, his only 
solicitude seems to have been for his own 
personal advancement. In the course of 
his campaigning with the Northern army, 
he seems never to have been under fire, 
but he would use no end of fatigue in 
getting a private talk with a member of 
Congress. His nature was very weak 
and petty, and he never shrank from 
falsehood when- it seemed to serve his 

While the valor of English-Americans 
was not represented by Gates, it was 
fairly illustrated by two other generals. 
One of these was Benjamin Lincoln, who 
before he was fortv years of age had 
been a Massachusetts farmer and a gen- 
eral of state militia. Lincoln was a 
steadv-going public servant, never very 
brilliant or very lucky. He did, how- 
ever, good service in the Saratoga con- 
flict when sent north by Washington, 
first in harassing the rear of the British 
armv, and afterwards in becoming 
second in command in the final days of 
the Battle of Saratoga. There he re- 
ceived a wound while examining the 
position of the British, which retired hijn 
from the service, but he was back in 
Uwe tfi receive, at ^^orklown. the sword 
of T^ord Cornwallis. 

/\ better warrior from New England 
than Benjamin Lincoln, but an infinitely 
worse man. was Benedict Arnold, of 
Connecticut. . The former illustrated 
lovaltv, but .Arnold illustrated how low 
a degenerate New Englander could fall. 

None fought better in the Northern cam- 
paign of the Revolution than Major- 
General Arnold. Arnold's career was 
like that of one who sails a biplane 
through the air. While under full head- 
way, he goes safe. Arnold went well in 
the year 1775, attacking Ticonderoga, 
leading the assault on Quebec until he 
was stricken down by a severe wound, 
getting together boats and fighting a 
desperate battle in the '76 on Lake Cham- 
plain and now, in 'yy, the very best 
fighter under Gates, being a warm friend 
of Schuyler. What a lofty, swift, bril- 
liant ilight was that of Arnold. But let 
the biplane lose its speed and its balance 
in the upper air, and it falls down to 
earth with a crash. So Arnold, halted 
by the wound which he got in the 
second Sai-aitoga battle, thrown off his 
balance in Philadelphia by the blandish- 
ments of Tory women on the one hand 
and on the other by stern censure and 
strokes of ill luck which came upon him 
as Governor of Philadelphia and upset 
his proud, covetous ambitions and un- 
principled heart, he was dashed down 
from his lofty cai-eer to horrible depths 
— a betrayer of his cause, in history 
second to Judas Iscariot alone. 

One more General, though not made 
a General until after the Saratoga cam- 
paign, was the Welsh American Daniel 
Morgan, who from early boyhood had 
lived in Virginia and who had gathered 
a regiment of riflemen. I have already 
said, respecting these, that twenty-two 
per cent, were Pennsylvania Germans. 
Over forty-four per cent, were Scotch- 
Irish and Scotch from the frontier of 
A^irginia. Morgan was of gigantic sta- 
ture and strength vet of a gentle and 
unselfish nature. He excelled in mili- 
tary insight, and was loval in everv fiber. 
It has been recorded concerning his rifle- 
men that everv man among them could, 
with his rifle ball, strike a squirrel nine 
hundred feet awav. and this even while 
marching at the double-quick. Without 
Mors;an. it is hard to say how the first 
battle of Freeman's Farm conld have 
been otherwise than a defeat of the 
.American armv. nor without Morgan, 
^ould the second battle of Saratoga have 



t)een so decided a victory. These Welsh- 
American, Dutch-American, German- 
American, with the Scotch and British 
<ex-army officers, made the Saratoga 
camjiaign indeed a cosmojioHtan affair. 
If the ark of old Noah was cosmopolitan 
Avith its eight inmates who represented 
the w'trld. so also was Saratoga under 
the charge of tiiese eight generals and 
their kinsmen and followers. 

The cosmopolitanism of Saratoga pre- 
figured the State of New York through- 
out its history to the present day. To 
•discuss this theme carries us at once into 
arithmetic, and the circumstances of to- 
day bar out so dry a study. A single 
■suggestion — The races and nations which 
were represented by the Americans at 
Saratoga were from Northwestern 
Europe. ' British and Irish ; Dutch and 
Germans ; French. Swiss, and Scandi- 
navians. This day we are still receiving 
the children of these races. According 
to the latest accessible figures the follow- 
ing nimibers are in this state to-day out 
of a little over 9 million people in this 
State and over 4f millions in New York 

Persons born in America, but whose 
father or mother came from the above 
named lands and are now living in New 
York State, 1} millions; of these living 
in New York City f million. 

Persons born in these lands above 
indicated, who have come to us and are 
now living in New York State, about 2 
millions ; of these living in New York 
Cit}' i\ millions. 

This is enough to prove that the cosmo- 
politanism of New York has not van- 
ished, but I offer something more signifi- 
cant. There have other races come to us 
M'ho were not represented in the battles 
of Saratoga, races of the Alediterranean. 
including Slavonians, Syrians, and 
Greeks ; races of the Baltic, including 
Jews of Russia. Poland, and Germany; 
races of distant Asia, including Japanese 
and Chinese. As to Indians and Afri- 
cans, they were in evidence on the 
American side, though in slight degree. 
T give the following as a])proximate 
figures : 

Persons horn in America, hut whose 

jjarcntage belongs to the races named, in 
New York State !J million ; in New York 
City 4 million. 

Persons born in the lands above indi- 
cated, now living in New York state i^ 
millions; in New York City 1 million. 
These have no inherited race interest in 
the battles of Saratoga. 

The oroblem is to naturalize in the best 
sense the recent American. Some think 
it needful to diminish greatly the influx 
of strangers for at least a generation. 
They advocate something analogous to a 
high tariff, to be olaced not on raw sugar 
or raw wool, but on the raw material 
imnorted for the manufacture in five 
short years of American citizens. 

Aly own life has been devoted to a 
different policy, which I still recommend. 
First, an optimistic endeavor to educate 
the immigrants of the races which 
fought at Saratoga into better Christians. 
Second, an equal endeavor to enlist these 
for the conversion into good Americans 
of the recently arrived peoples from 
southern and eastern Europe, who, un- 
fortunately, did not get here in time to 
have any part in any of the battles of 
Saratoga or of the Revolution. 

The false gods of the Saratoga cam- 
paign AND OP New York. 

The Campaign of Saratoga presents 
New York in the Revolution falling into 
a hurtful mistake. Her people were un- 
wise enough unduly to exalt foreign-born 
officers, especially ex-officers of the Brit- 
ish army. New York was not alone in 
this — the Continental Congress greatly 
over-estimated foreign training and Brit- 
ish military skill. Among the cities. New 
York City was the worst offender in the 
matter of flunkeyism towards England. 
Professor Hart's History of America 
says of our city: "This royal stronghold 
was only brought to the patriots' side by 
heroic measures." The condition of the 
government in the city greatly alarmed 
Washington. He wrote the Patriot 
Committee urging the seizure of Tory 
leaders. "Why," he said, "should per- 
sons who are preying upon the vitala of 
the country be suffered to stalk at large 


whilst we know they will do us every 
mischief in their power." 

The Colony of New York, alone among 
the thirteen, failed to vote July 2nd, 1776, 
for the independence of America, and, 
on July 4th, for adopting the Declar- 
ation of Independence. Twelve colonies 
gave each its one vote in its favor. It 
was not any superstition respecting the 
calamity threatening a company of thir- 
teen people which hindered New York 
from casting its vote. It was the delay 
of New York people to act, and the 
guilty parties were those still devoted to 
King George. Sir George Trevelyan 
declared "Loyalism all over the province 
of New York was fashionable in every 
rank ,and those who go counter to fash- 
ion when politics are at fever heat are 
apt to hnd their position quite uncom- 
fortable in good society, and quite un- 
endurable in humbler and rougher cir- 
cles. Most of the rich people in New 
York, and the rich were many, declared 
themselves more or less openly against 
the Revolution. Enough among the 
leading citizens to form a fair-sized vice- 
regal court lived with Tryon (the Brit- 
ish governor) on his ship in the harbor. 
Others remained in their town mansions, 
taking care that his behests were obeyed 
as if he were still in the Government 

General Washington wrote, respecting 
New York, the last day of January, '76: 
"The city seems to be entirely under the 
government of Tryon and the captain of 
the man-of-war." Soon after Washing- 
ton entered the city a plot was made to 
kidnap him with his principal officers. 
One of his own body-guards had been 
l)ribed. Trev'elyan says : "The Mayor 
was a partisan Tory who shrank from 
nothing. The plot was detected, the 
Mavor was thrown into jail, the guilty 
soldier was tried by court-marshal and 
executed near the Bowery." 

It was not till the patriotic people in 
nine counties of New York gathered a 
convention at White Plains that the 
Declaration of Tndc])en(lence was ap- 
])r()ve(l, enabling their delegates, Living- 
stone and Lewis Morris, with two asso- 
ciates, to take "part in the formal sub- 

scribing of that document, which took 
place August first, '76, nearly four 
months after its enactment." 

This condition of New York helps 
explain why Congress, early in '76, had 
sent as the first commander of that city 
the ex-British officer Charles Lee, no 
doubt thinking an Englishman could 
exert most influence. But Lee accom- 
plished little, and when, later, his own 
negligence caused him to be taken 
prisoner in New Jersey, he had hardly 
been locked up in the City Hall of New 
York before he gave assurance to the 
British general that he had ever opposed 
the Declaration of Independence, and 
hoped that by an interview with Con- 
gressmen he might still persuade the mis- 
guided Americans to return to their 
allegiance. His plan was adopted by 
Howe, but resulted in failure. Eighty 
years later a document was found in Eng- 
land in the former home of the secretary 
of the British commander in New York,, 
in General Lee's own handwriting, and 
endorsed as "Mr. Lee's plan", which 
established the fact that Lee had turned 
traitor when in prison and furnished a 
plan of campaign against Washington 
which was adopted, at least in part, by 
the British general. 

Once again Congress thoroughly con- 
sulted the susceptibility of the English 
party by commissioning as commander 
of New York the one and only English 
lord who was in the service of America. 
This was a certain Scotchman William 
Alexander, who claimed the British title 
of Lord Stirling, and who took charge of 
the city till Washington came with his 
Continental army. With such flunkeyism 
in Congress, it is not surprising to us to 
find that it gave to an ex-British officer, 
a Scotchman named Arthur Sinclair, 
command of the vanguard of the North- 
ern army at Fort Ticonderoga. But 
Congress must not bear the whole blame 
for Ainerican toadyism to British officers. 
Coneress was largely led in this matter- 
by Boston. Samuel Adams wrote re- 
specting the loss of Ticonderoga: "It 
was no more than I expected when 
Schuyler was appointed.. Gates is the' 
man of my choice." He with his brother 



delegates procured an act of Congress 
<lisplacing Schuyler and enjoining Wash- 
ington to name a successor. Then these 
gentlemen wrote a letter to Washington, 
signed by John Adams, Samuel Adams, 
Elbridge Gerry, and others, in which they 
said "No man will be more likely to re- 
trieve our fortune in that quarter than 
General Gates." Washington replied to 
the President of Congress: "1 should 
wish to be excused from making this ap- 
pointment." Washington did not agree 
with the Boston men who sat in judgment 
on the Dutch-American New Yorker 
General Schuyler. If Washington had 
possessed the power of Abraham Lin- 
coln, he would have replied to Congress 
as Lincoln replied to those who, in the 
Civil War, attacked General Grant, say- 
ing : "1 will try that man a little longer. 
He does things." Trevelyan, in his His- 
tory, says. "Schuyler had the supreme 
misfortune of being disliked in Boston. 
A general of the Revolution who was out 
of favor with the Bostonians had as 
small chance of making a good figure as 
a Plantagenet monarch who had offended 
the clergy." The ex-officer of the British 
army loomed large in the eyes of Boston. 
The New Yorker Schuyler, w^ith his 
Dutch name, looked very small. Tre- 
velyan adds: "From the intellectual ele- 
vation of born New Englanders, they 
looked on him as a slow-wntted Dutch- 
man." Boston self-conceit aided the 
fiunkeyism of New York City in exalting 
British army officers. Is it any wonder 
that George Washington, after his ex- 
perience with the British officers I have 
named, said in a letter to Gouverneur 
Morris regarding the application of an- 
other foreigner for advancement: "In a 
word, although I think the Baron an 
excellent officer, I do most devoutly wish 
that we harl not a single foreigner among 
ns except the Marouis de Lafavette, who 
acts upon very different principles from 
those which govern the rest." 

As a New Yorker. I hesitate to ackiiow- 
ledg!e that, beyond any other citv of 
America, the atmosphere of New York 
from the Revoluti(Mi until to-day has 
been afifectcd in greater or less degree by 
anti-.American bacilli. The explanation 

is to be found, as at the Revolution, in 
the presence here of a larger proportion 
than elsewhere of persons of foreign 
birth or foreign parentage ; also, in the 
presence here of a larger number than 
elsewhere of a certain kind of rich people 
who aim at social success abroad, both 
for its own sake and for its supposed in- 
fluence on the opinions of people at 
home; and, finally, the absence from the 
minds of these pseudo-Americans of such 
patriotic purpose as, in the Revolution, 
animated the Livingstones and Schuy- 
lers, the Morrises and the Jays. 

I have been observing conditions in 
this our city of New York at close hand 
for near thirty years, and I have seen 
few persons who, having cultivated an 
appetite for social triumphs abroad, ever 
were worth much as builders of better 
conditions at home. Yet the duty of 
Americans, and of New Yorkers above 
all others, is in the metropolis, where, 
last year. Great Britain sent to us over a 
hundred thousand of their people, Aus- 
tria and Italy each betw'een a hundred 
and fifty and two hundred thousand, and 
the autocracy of Russia an equal number. 
In four years out of the last seven years 
one million immigrants have been sent to 
America each^-ear, the average for seven 
years reaching more than nine hundred- 
eighty thousand. As a university officer 
and a teacher for a generation in New 
York, I have had to do with and do for 
thousands of students who were sons of 
immigrants, or were immigrants them- 
selves. I have to-day no better con- 
solation for mv work than that I tried 
to be a faithful doorkeeper of the house 
of America, which, to me, is the house 
of the Lord. I consider that my busi- 
ness as doorkeeper was not to keep 
peo]:)le out. Rather, it was like the duty 
of that personage to be found at the 
portal of each ver\- lofty skyscraper who 
acts as executive officer of perhaps a 
dozen elevators. My business has been 
like his business, to help those who enter 
to rise to the level for which they have a 
vocation — to help immigrants to America 
to attain a higher level of living, irre- 
spective of their race, their religion, or 



their condition of servitude in any land 
which had crowded them out. 

There is no greater enemy to the ad- 
vancement of our country than the anti- 
American spirit of many of our citizens 
of great influence and wealth, who yet, 
like lesser Charles Lees and Benedict 
Arnolds, desert the service of America 
to obtain position from foreign sources, 
as Arnold was able to exact a general's 
commission from the England which de- 
spised him. The true American spirit is 
not the spirit of Benedict Arnold or 
Charles Lee, of Horatio Gates or of the 
multi-millionaire, man or woman, now, 
who disowns his citizenship in his native 
land. It is rather the spirit of Wash- 
ington of Mount Vernon, of Philip 
Schuyler of Schuylerville, who served 
his country expecting as his highest re- 
ward a good conscience and a contented 
old age. 

in. Thi: schismaticalxess of the 
Saratoga campaign and of New York. 

The most casual reader of the history 
of the Saratoga Campaign cannot fail to 
observe that it was not marked by single- 
mindedness. Rather a marked feature 
is what I shall call the schis)iiaticalness 
of the Saratoga Campaign. There is no 
censure of necessity in the use of this 
word. Schismatize is a good Greek verb 
which the Father of History makes use 
of when he says, in describing Egypt, 
that "the River Nile schismatizes into 
three channels." In like manner, with- 
out intending any evil epithet, I assert 
that the general and soldiers schismatized 
in several directions in the Saratoga 
compaign. Schism here means simply 
separation of one party from its former 
comrades on account of differences of 
opinion. The schismaticalness of the 
Saratoga campaign came in the main 
from this or that general having an 
opinion on strategy, or on his own ability 
to carry out strategy, different from that 
of his superiors in command. Even 
General Schuyler schismatized from Con- 
gress regarding the imnortant question of 
having one instead of two commanders 
for Northern New York. In June, '75, 

when Congress made Washington Com- 
mander-in-Chief, besides two major-gen- 
erals from New England they named as 
third major-general Philip Schuyler, 
while the f ourth was the ex-British, 
officer Charles Lee. Then, next in rank 
as Adjutant General was the ex-British 
officer Horatio Gates. Most of the fol- 
lowing winter he was in charge of Ticon- 
deroga. but spent much of the winter with 
Congress in Philadelphia, until Congress 
sent him back in February with a com- 
mission to command that fortress. 
Schuyler, the major-general in command 
at Albany, schismatized at once from 
Congress on the question of having twa 
commanders in northern New York,. 
neither responsible to the other. He 
went to Philadelphia in April and got an 
act of Congress which made Albany, 
Ticonderoga. and their dependencies one 
department of the North under his com- 
mand. George Bancroft says he got it 
by "an accidental majority", but Ban- 
croft, who is. as a rule, very careful in 
liis judgment, seems to have been in- 
fected by the Bostonian virus of depre- 
ciation of Schuyler as both an executive 
and a soldier. Yet he does better by 
Schuyler as a patriot, for after saying 
"In the Northern Department, the utmost 
confusion grew out of the rivalry be- 
tween Schuyler and Gates", he goes on 
to say : "The former loved his country 
more than his own rank or fortune. The 
thoughts of tlie latter centred in himself." 
But Schuvler "was unwilling to be sup- 
planted by an intriguing subordinate. 
Gates, who was hovering around Con- 
gress, refused to serve as a subordinate 
at Ticonderoga." 

Thus Gates became not only a schis- 
matic, but a leader in intrigue. He got 
leave to appear before Congress, and the 
result was that an act was adopted 
August first directing Washington to 
order a general officer to relieve Schuyler 
of his command. This was followed by 
a letter the next dav. written by Samuel 
Adams and signed bv the Adamses, 
Elbridge Gerry, and other Boston Con- 
gressmen, asking ^^'^ashington to name 
Gates, but the commander replied: "1 
sliould wish to be excused from making 



the appointment." He went on to say 
that Congress had directly conducted the 
Department of the North, leaving to him 
only to help. He thought it not good for 
the cause that he should interfere. He 
simply was not ready to be a cat's-paw 
of the schismaticalness of General Gates 
and his Boston friends. Schuyler, if he 
had been justifiably schismatic regarding 
the bad policy of Congress in appointing 
in one department two independent gen- 
erals proved himself, when he was dis- 
placed as general the most loyal of 
officers. Fiske says of him: "At no 
time did he show more zeal and diligence 
than during his last week of command, 
and, in turning over the army to Gates, 
he cordially oflfered his aid, whether by 
counsel or action, in whatever capacity 
his successor might see fit to suggest." 
The historian adds : "But so far from 
accepting this offer, Gates treated him 
with contumely, and would not even in- 
vite him to attend his first council of 
war." Gates never ceased to be schis- 
matic from the side of true patriotism 
and decency. 

The third instance of schismaticalness 
in this campaign is Benedict Arnold. 
Arnold was a born fighter. The atmos- 
phere of the battlefield was to him the 
highest stimulus. He was quite justi- 
fiable in differing from Gates in his view 
that fighting to the very death was the 
business of a soldier and, in special cases, 
of a major-general as well. Gates, on 
the contrary, appeared to think that the 
first duty of the general was to keep him- 
self safely in the rear. Arnold was like 
General Sheridan, who once, when asked 
if he were not wrong in exposing himself 
in battle, replied : "I never entered a 
battle with the slightest desire to come 
out of it if I had to come out of it de- 

John Stark too was schismatic. He 
differed utterly from the notion of the 
Boston Adamses as to the rules for the 
war. When three of Washington's best 
generals proffered their resignations to 
Congress when that body was about to 
appoint as Chief of Artillery a vagrant 
foreign officer. John Adams said that he 
would be glad to see Congress elect an- 

nually all the general officers of the army. 
Adams characterized as a great and 
sound policy the apportioning the gen- 
eral officers among the colonies according 
to their quotas of troops. Adams was 
like some of our weak presidents who ap- 
portion high offices among the states ac- 
cording to statistics. 

Stark was schismatical against Con- 
gress when it followed John Adams. He 
manfully made his protest by simply 
laying down his commission from Con- 
gress, but he did not lay down his com- 
mission as a militia general of New 
Hampshire. When the British threaten- 
ed Vermont he gathered his neighbors of 
Londonderry, to the number of eight 
hundred, declaring that he was acting 
under the sovereignty of New Hamp- 
shire, and declining to take orders from 
any other power. Thus Stark schis- 
matized rightly for a worthy object. For 
this schismaticalness may be, like that of 
Schuyler or Stark, for the best service of 
their country, or unworthy, like that of 
Gates, and of Arnold at a later period, 
because their ultimate end was their own 
selfish gain. 

Has not New York soil ever since the 
Battle of Saratoga been infected more or 
less by schismatical bacilli? Has any 
other state ever had so many leaders who 
fulfilled my definition of political schism, 
namely, separation from others on ac- 
count of diverse notions. Study the 
thirty-two Presidential compaigns of the 
Ignited States. At first there was no 
splitting of parties over the Presidency, 
but only over the second place, which at 
that time meant the second choice for 
President, as the direct vote for Vice- 
President did not then exist. There have 
been thirty-two campaigns. In twenty- 
three out of these thirty-two, the State 
of New York has put up a candidate for 
the United States' Presidency, though it 
has never elected except three times in 
thirty-two. In no less than six of the 
thirty-two campaigns New York has put 
up two candidates for the Presidency, 
while in two of these campaigns she has 
actually furnished three men who were 
each willing to take that high office. If 
we average these figures, we will find 



that at least one New Yorker has been 
available for every campaign as a would- 
be President of the United States, and 
yet there are now no less than forty- 
seven states besides New York. Penn- 
sylvania, the next state in population, has 
never put up but five candidates, out of 
whom none was ever elected save poor 
James Buchanan. Ohio has put up 
some eight candidates, out of whom she 
has seen elected no less than five. Ohio 
contests with Virginia the title of 
"jMother of Presidents", but no state con- 
tests with New York the title of "Mother 
of Presidential Candidates". Massa- 
chusetts, however, has also shown Presi- 
dential schismaticalness. In thirty-two 
campaigns she has put up sixteen candi- 
dates, though she never got any of them 
elected save John Adams and John 

It was a good thing that the Saratoga 
campaign had some men who schis- 
matized. Except for Benedict Arnold 
difi^ering from Gates, the first battle, in- 
stead of being a draw, might have ended 
in an American defeat. Nor without the 
act of Arnold in the midst of the second 
battle, albeit he had laid down his place 
as second in command and had been re- 
placed by General Lincoln, this battle 
might have failed, but Arnold, leaping 
upon his horse while Gates sent a mes- 
senger to chase him and to bring him 
back, took the lead amid the cheers of his 
own soldiers, who were devoted to him, 
and, with General Morgan, swept the 
field in triumph. Gates's aide, ordered to 
recall him, did not reach him until the 
battle was done. 

So I approve of much of the schis- 
maticalness in politics of our State of 
New York. New York State furnished, 
in the year I was born, the first Presiden- 
tial candidate in opposition to slavery. 
His partv was known as the Liberty 
Party. If T could have voted when T 
was six weeks old. T should have voted 
for Tames Rirn-eyof New York, and have 
voted for him a second time when he ran 
in the year t<S44. 

My earliest recollection of oolitics is 
connected with the first Free 5^oil candi- 
date for the Presidencv of the United 

States. He also was from New York. 
Sixty-four years ago in November, I was 
led by my father, a parson in a pioneer 
county town, to witness a balloon which , 
was sent up carrying a transparency with ,j 
the inscription ZACHARY TAYLOR. ' 
My father said to me : "That is the name 
of the new President. He is a good 
man, but your father did not vote for 
him. He voted for the Anti-Slavery 
candidate Martin Van Buren of the State 
of New York." 

In like manner, the first candidate of 
the so-called American Party fifty-six 
years since was Millard Fillmore, of New 
York; of the first Labor Party forty 
years ago, Horace Greeley, of New 
York ; the first candidate of the Green- 
back Party thirty-six years ago, Peter 
Cooper, of New York ; of the Socialist 
Party sixteen years since, Matchett, of 
New York; and now, in this year of our 
Lord 1912, the first candidate of the 
Progressive Party is Roosevelt, of New 
York. The only political party for 
which the State of New York has never 
jmt up a Presidential candidate is the 
Temperance Partv. In this heart of a 
heated political campaign, when near half 
a dozen parties are in the field, we must 
consider what attitude we must take 
towards the man who is to us a schis- 
matic. Shall we not judge every one by 
his entire career? Remember that the 
Saratoga Campaign gave us the four 
schismatics, the feeble wire-puller 
Horatio Gates and the embryo traitor 
Benedict Arnold, the patriot Schuyler, 
whom careful historians to-day put near 
the side of Washington, and also the in- 
dispensable hero General John Stark. 


On October 17th. 1777 was unfurled 
for the first time the completed American 
flag, ordered in Congress the 14th of 
June previous, though" accnrding-to^Fiske 
on August 6th a flag h?^d be^n hastily 
extemporized from a white shirt, a blue 
jacket, and stripps of red from a petti- 
coat, and hoi<=ted tn t^^e breeze on the 
memorable day of Oriskany two months 



before, and was the first American flag 
with stars and stripes. This triumph of 
the cause was due, not to the generals, 
but rather to the marvelous outpouring 
of volunteers from New York State, 
which had then in its length and breadth 
less by one-fifth as many jieople as in 
Albany County alone, and to the outpour- 
ing in far greater numbers, from the 
states of New England. Bancroft 
writes : "Gates had no fitness for com- 
mand and lacked personal courage. 
Arnold was (|uarrelsome and insubordi- 
nate. lUit the ])artiotism of the army 
was so deep and universal that it gave no 
heed to doubts or altercations." Tre- 
velyan's recent judgment is: "The 
Americans, in number and temper and 
aptness for the sort of fighting which 
they had on hand, now constituted a force 
with which any general might proudly 
and confidently serve. The older far- 
mers, who would not be troubled by drill, 
presented an unmilitary appearance on 
the road, but they looked businesslike 
enough when loading and firing imper- 
turbablv from behind a judiciously 
sielected tree in the foremost line of 

Thus the victory was due to the gather- 
ing from the countryside, to help the fev, 
regiments of Continentals, of near ten 
thousand militia, made up of those whom 
.'Abraham Lincoln called the plain people. 
The interesting question is. Why were the 
plain people equal to the emergency? I 
find the answer not in their military train- 
ing. Few of them had ever been in 
battle. The onlv battle^ worth naming 
in the two preceding years were those 
about Boston, about New York, and in 
the neighborhood of Trenton, N. J- 
Probably less than a thousand of the 
Saratoga army had ever been in battle, 
and these were Continentals. The solu- 
tion is to be found in* their character, 
their moral and nolitical training. They 
were mostly small farmers or freeholders. 
Those from New England were sons of 
the Puritans who inherited by spirit, if 
not bv blood, from John Hamnden and 
John Alilton. or "from Cromwell, zealous 
for his country's good." 

In a notable letter from Jonathan 

Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, who 
was said to be the original of "Brother 
Jonathan", he writes to George Washing- 
ton : "It is nothing with God to help, 
whether with many or with those that 
have no i)ower." The two interesting 
volumes on the Revolution by the Eng- 
lish writer I'elcher are ultra-English- 
Tory and their spirit is such as might 
have i)erva(led the chaplain of George 
HI. lie proves, to his satisfaction, that 
the Puritan preachers of New England 
led the people — "like priest, like people." 
Then, later, he shows that the people led 
the priest, which is the Scripture version, 
because they paid his salary. But taken 
either way, he describes New England 
as impelled by a Puritan religious im- 
pulse. He criticizes the assertion of 
Bancroft "that the people (of the colony 
of Massachusetts), confident in their 
strength, scorned the thought of obedi- 
ence except on conditions satisfactory to 
themselves." Belcher calls this "the 
spirit of a fractious child." 

And who were those fractious children 
in the Saratoga Campaign? They were 
men of the Brother Jonathan type. 
They were men of New York who fol- 
lowed Schuyler. They had the same 
moral fiber and religious training as the 
New Englander. but had never per- 
secuted and were more cosmopolitan. 
One wonders why Schuyler, after he 
was removed from command, gave his 
heart and wealth as cheerfully as ever to 
the War until he learns Schuyler's phil- 
osophy of life. The General wrote in a 
letter to his daughter: "Spiritual hap]:)i- 
ness should take the lead. \\'ithout it, 
temporal happiness does not exist except 
in name. The first can be obtained only 
by the improvement of the faculties of 
the mind and a conscious discharge of 
the duties enjoined on us by God." Does 
not this sound like the voice of a William 
the Silent, the deliverer of Holland? 

If T turn to the men who followed 
Daniel Morgan, being detached by 
George Washington from his army, the 
most of these were Scotch-Irish from the 
Blue Ridge and the Allea^henies. Sir 
George Trevelyan says : "Historv knows 
them as Morgan's Virginians, but full 


two-thirds of them were from the west- 
ern frontier of Pennsylvania, and two- 
thirds of these were Scotch-Irish who 
traced back their descent to Ulster." I 
claim an interest in this, for my great- 
grandfather, whose name I bear, was 
among the Scotch-Irish who fell in bat- 
tle a year after this on the soil of Penn- 
sylvania. I discovered, only four years 
ago, the pension given his widow and 
the account that was filed by her as his 
executrix. Yet many of those riflemen 
were from Virginia or Maryland, while 
over twenty per cent., according to Tre- 
velyan, were Pennsylvania Germans 
having the same blood with the Bible 
reading Herkimer, 

The Scotch-Irish in America came in 
large part from the immense immigra- 
tion from Ulster, and had learned the 
same catechism with the Puritans. It 
taught a like creed with that of Jonathan 
Trumbull and Philip Schuyler. The 
only superior for whom they had an 
utterly enthusiastic self-forgetful hom- 
age was God. With God he communed 
in the forest. Not even the ancient 
Hebrew was more free and bold than he 
in close, familiar, loving, but reverend 
approach to the "I am." 

Trevelyan bears witness to the spirit- 
ual life lived by many a one of the rank 
and file of the Revolution. He devotes 
two entire pages to a typical example, 
the private diary of a New England 
soldier named Farnsworth, who "anx- 
iously and solemnly devoted himself to 
God's service, and when struck at Bunker 
Hill by two bullets, came back to the 
ranks even before his scars were healed." 
This soldier, in the fourth year of his 
service, records in his diary: "I went to- 
day to ofifer myself for the Communion. 
I had thoughts of turning back, but, con- 
sidering how unsoldierlike it was to turn 
my back, I went forward." Trevelyan 
thinks that though such men must have 
been the small minoritv they were yet the 
salt of the American Revolution. 

It fell to myself twelve years ago, as 
Committeeman of the Hall of Fame, to 
choose for the bronze tablet of George 
Washington some utterance of his which 
represented his loftiest thought. I made 

choice of these words from his Farewell 
Address. People say he was helped in 
this address by Madison and by Hamil- 
ton, son-in-law of Philip Schuyler, but 
none the less it is Washington's platform. 
He says, "Of all the dispositions and 
habits which lead to political prosperity, 
religion and morality are indispensable 
supports. Reason and experience both 
forbid us to expect that national moral- 
ity can prevail in exclusion of religious 

Fellow Citizens of New York: As 
Saratoga in the i8th century was saved 
by the plain people, so must be saved, in 
the 20th century, the United States of 
America. How mav we preserve our- 
selves a people trustworthy, intelligent, 
pure, and patriotic? Is there any other 
way than to revive and enforce the teach- 
ing of a Schuyler, a Trumbull, and a 
Washington ? Must we not diminish, in 
Presidential campaigns, the savage vi- 
tuperation ? Must we not enlarge honest 
discussion ? The most pleasant fact I 
have noted this year of debate is the 
practice of a few great newspapers who 
open their columns to svmpathetic re- 
ports of the speeches and rallies of the 
parties whom they refuse to endorse in 
the editorial column. Never was the 
watchword of Lincoln, "W'ith malice 
towards none, with charity for all", more 
needed than in the present Presidential 
campaign. It is needed for the sake of 
the newly created citizen from other 
lands, of whom near a million will vote 
this vear for the first time, of whom one- 
third, as I have shown, come from 
Eastern or Southern Europe and were 
utterly without representatives in the 
Saratoga campaign. For their sake and 
their children's sake, and for our own 
children as well. I plead for speeches 
characterized bv honesty and fairness as 
well as bv brains in the remaining two 
weeks of this Presidential campaign. 
No sane American can trulv denv that 
each of the candidates this vear has lofty 
ideals and has led a patriotic life, and 
would try faithfully to serve us in the 
ofifice of President to the measure of his 
own capacitv and of the capacity of the 
party for which he stands. 



T am spokesman for no party, but as a 
public teacher for a half century, I am 
grieved when public teachers on the plat- 
form or in the press utter extravagant 
language and fail to explain to the young 
voters that their words are to be under- 
stood largely in a Pickwickian sense. 
The head of a University is peculiarly 
called to serve the entire community. 
This forbids him to be a party manager 
or mouthpiece. Though, by retiring 
from (office, I am myself free from this 
restraint. I still exalt the vocation of 
teacher of an entire community above 
that of the advocate of any part3^ I am 
not yet either old enough or vain enough 

to dream that I could take the stump for 
any party and yet be accepted by any 
community as a non-partisan leader. In- 
asmuch as the State excuses the public 
teacher from jury duty, it excuses him 
also from partisan politics. There should 
be a law that when a teacher makes him- 
self a conspicuous party worker he ought 
also to be obliged to serve as a juryman. 
The message of Saratoga to-day, I 
repeat, is the message of Washington's 
farewell words: "The safety of the Re- 
public is the morality of the people. 
Aforality cannot be expected to exist with 
religion excluded." ]\fay Americans 
ever be true to God and to native land. 

A If the 23rd Street 

Dangerous Branch of the Y. ?vL 

Venture C. A. of New York 

City intends to carry 
out its program of giving the modern 
young man an intellectual theology, that 
cuts out the doctrines of original sin, of 
the need of repentance and justification, 
and that extracts all miracles and mys- 
tery from religion, it will enter upon a 
dangerous venture. If Christ and His 
apostles made one thing forever clear, it 
is that the heart is deceitful and depraved 
and in need of a new birth. This old 
teaching is now evidently to be replaced 
by something more modern and progres- 
sive. Here is what the secretary pro- 
poses to offer to young men: "The mod- 
ern idea opposes the doctrine that a man 
is born a sinner because of the sins of 
the past generations, asserting that every 
one is born free from sin, and that, while 
the third and fourth generations may suf- 
fer from impaired health or damaged 
family reputations through the sins and 
indiscretions of past generations, such 

sufferings are not a penalty or punish- 
ment imposed by God, and that the suf- 
ferers are not therefore sinners because 
of the sin with the commission of which 
they had nothing to do." This may be 
breezy and up-to-date theology ; but it 
runs as counter to the theolog}' of Christ 
and His apostles as does that of the bald- 
est rationalists of the i8th and 20th cen- 
turies. The Reformation gave Protest- 
ants a Bible. Does the Y. M. C. A. now 
propose to explain it out of existence? — 
The Lutheran. 

Mennonites At the Fall meeting 

and of the Indiana-Michi- 

Jury Service gan Mennonite Con- 

ference, Oct. 10, 12, 
1912, the following was adopted: "Re- 
solved, That we believe it to be wrong 
for our brethren to sit as jurymen and 
advise that the substance of this resolu- 
tion be presented by our brethren when 
subpoenaed to serve on the jury." 

Monroe County Reverie 

/^T'HE rumbling- noise of an old stone 
^ building- falling to pieces under 
the weight of its years, an occur- 
rence at Dottersville, in Polk township, 
the other day, was historically significant 
of the still earlier declifie and final peter- 
ing- out of a once large business, the lum- 
ber industry in Western Monroe, which 
broug'ht the now crumbling house into 
being and gave it fame," writes the Rec- 
ord's newsy man at Brodheadsville, in 
introducing an unusual story. 

More Than a Cciifiiry Old. 

"In latter days the house was a land- 
mark; in former times a noted hotel. It 
Avas built by Jacob Dotter loi years ago. 
Perhaps 20 years ago, after being in the 
hands of the Dotter family most of the 
time, its doors were closed to the public, 
the hotel business ceasing to pay. From 
then on it was used as a private house. 
The last tenant. Henry Feller, moved out 
only recently, because the owners, Levi 
and Erastus Borger, had decided to re- 
model and modernize it. The walls of 
the old structure seemed so substantial 
as to warrant such im]irovement. 

Ho7c the Hotel Pell. 

"At one corner, however, the walls 
bulged out a little. It was while these 
stones were being taken cnit to be put 
back with new mortar that the main prop 
of the old building was inadvertently re- 
moved. Instantly there was a crackling, 
a grinding, followed by the rumbling 
TJoise of falling stones. Nearly half of 
two sides of the building tumbled (\own 
slowly, affording the workmen am])le 
time to get out of hariii's way. Every 
remaining stone was then renioved, to 
build anew from foundation u]). 

Great Sfof^piiiii:; Place for Teams. 

"Because of its location near the base 

of the Pocono mountain and along one 
of the main highways leading from the 
sawmills and lumber camps on the moun- 
tain to the markets local and distant be- 
low, the Dottersville hotel, for by that 
name it was commonly known, became a 
great stoppin'g place for teams, mostly 
four-horse, hauling lumber and bark 
down the mountain and taking supplies 
back, as at that time everything needed 
on the mountain by man and beast had 
to be carted up from below. Thus from 
one end of the year to the other the hotel 
did a land ofifice business. 

Thiiii^s to Eat and Drink. 

"The best whiskey was only five centa 
a big glass, and a cigar cost a penny. In 
winter time there was sour-crout three 
times a day. Buckwheat cakes as large 
as the moon came equally often; Sun- 
days immense stacks were baked to be 
warmed up during the week as needed, 
their little dryness on the outside speedily 
disappearing when soused in fat pork 
gravy. Potato soup, mush-and-milk, and 
schnitz-un-gnep were among the other 
substantials set out for the hardy teams- 
ters, who always brought their appetites 
with them. 

Oldtinie Dances and Pii:;hts. 

"Many a dance these teanisters had 
with the neighboring girls gathered at 
the hotel evenings, not the molly-coddle 
things of to-day. but straight-fours, jigs 
and hoedowns ; and a dance without a 
fight was regarded as a tame aflfair, fight- 
ing in those days not being in so bad re- 
jnite as now. Card plaving was another 
conimcn diversion, which was a])t to lead 
to .n fight as iealous rivalry for a i)retty 
j.'irl. Those times big game was plenti- 
ful, antl hunters coming and going were 
numerous patrons oi the hotel; the car- 
casses ( f bears and deer were lugged in 
and out almost daily ; less frequently 


the pelts of wildcats and panthers. What 
hunting stories! If a week's life at this 
hotel could now be reeled off at a mov- 
ing picture show, how surprising and 
interesting would be the scenes ! 

When flic Tiiiibcr Cai'c Out. 

"Rut a .change came; and it was too 
slow to be noticed. Still from year to 
year the teams became fewer; hunters 
ceased to come in numbers. Timber and 
game alike were thinning out. Sawmills 
that never stopped became content to rest 
at night. Mills that wore out or were 
set ablaze by forest fires were not re- 
built. One by one the mills became less. 
As the mills went down the busin-^ss at 
Dottersville declined. Finally evervthing 
came to a standstill, even the hotel. Soon 
things began to go the other way. 

Ruin Makes End to All. 

"The ruins of many of these once large 
mills may yet be seen, some only four 
and five miles from the hotel ; and now 
the ruins of the hotel itself comi)lete the 
picture — a picture telling not so imuch 
what is as what was; telling of a life in 
Western Monroe sixty and a hundred 
years ago, a life of hardship and toil 
now not known ; telling happily also of 
])rogress, and of changes so great that 
the life of a century ago, when this* 
hostlery was opened, appears so remote 
almost to the boys and girls of to-day 
as do the submerged civilizations of 
Mesapotamia and the Nile they read 
about at school. The fall of the Dotters- 
ville hotel was more than the wreck it 
made ; it was a tragedy in local history." 
— Monroe County Record, October. 191 2. 

Educational The October (1912) 

Reactionaries issue ot the Normal 
at Harrisburg Vidette, published by 
the Keystone State 
Normal School, Kutztown, in "Alt Bar- 
ricks," within sight of Dr. N. C. Schaef- 
f er's birthplace, says editorially : 

"A few days ago the Department of 
Education at Harrisburg, under the di- 
rection of Dr. Schaeffer, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Dennis, just out of State 
College, published a pamphlet which 
bears much evidence of inanity. Dr. X. 
C. Schaeffer is a classicist, first, last and 
all the time, and we regret to say that 
Supt. Rapp, Hamilton, and a few others 
in this state had to assume leadership 
and do the propagandic work for agri- 
culture with little encouragement from 
Harrisburg at least until the movement 
became popular. 

"When we compare the jmblications 

of the great State of Pennsylvania with 
its large agricultural interests, with 
those Commonwealths, even the poorer 
ones, of the west, one can understand 
the real significance of the recent inter- 
view of Prof. Stewart, of State College. 
In this interview he stated that even the 
regular professors were receiving mere 
high school salaries and the better ones 
— those like Prof. Hunt — were going 
elsewhere for a living wage or else re- 
maining at a big sacrifice. The Depart- 
ment of Education at Harrisburg is prob- 
ably unwittingly lining up as educational 
reactionaries by having the rural teach- 
ers follow half-digested suggestions in 
the hope that while the Code demands 
agriculture, yet public opinion will soon 
not tolerate a medley of fads and isms." 
What does Dr. Schaeffer have to say 
to the charge of classicism, inanity and 
"lining up as educational reactionaries?" 

A Rare Old Diary 

Lincoln County, North Carolina, was large- 
ly settled by Germans from Pennsylvania, 
the pioneer settlements being made about the 
year 1750. Among the noted pioneers, and 
one who acquired large bodies of land along 
the south Fork River and its tributaries was 
Derrick Ramsour. He had four sons, Jacob. 
David, Henry and John. To his son, Jacob 
Ramsour. he gave the plantation adjoining the 
present limits of Lincolnton, known in late 
years as the "Caldwell Plantation." This is 
one of the finest farms of the county. It con- 
tained at that ' time 960 acres and extended 
from the river to both sides of Clark's Creek, 
and included the mill that became famous dur- 
ing the Revolution as the battle ground of 
Ramsour's Mill, and the camping ground of 
Lord Cornwallis and the English army 
Jacob Ram'sour owned the mill during the 
Revolution. Jacob Ramsour died in 1787 and 
is buried on the crest of the ridge to the 
west of the mill. To his son David Ram- 
sour, he gave a splendid farm of 600 acres 
lying three miles up the river, known to-day 
as the Thomas Ramsour plantation. This 
farm lies in a great bend of the river, and 
includes a broad body of level bottom. ' David 
died in 1785, and is buried in a private bury- 
ing ground in his bottom. The Ramsour 

family are descended from these brothers 
Jacob and David. 

Henry and John Ramsour died without leav- 
ing issue and their lands were inherited by 
their brothers Jacob and David. John came 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the 
ancestral home of many of the pioneers. 
Derrick Ramsour bought the Caldwell place 
from Andrew Lambert. Henry Whitener was 
a noted pioneer, who settled in the forks of 
the South Fork River, one branch of which, 
the Henry River, bears his name. Lambert 
and Whitener (Witner) are each mentioned 
by John Ramsour in "his mamberranton 
book." This memorandum book is still pre- 
served. It is yellow with age, bound in buck- 
skin, bears on its flyleaf the date August -z-], 
1752, and contains many entries of great in- 
terest. We reproduce as accurately as pos- 
sible the essential parts of the book herewith. 
For these notes as for the article itself, we are 
indebted to the owner of the memorandum, 
the Honorable A. Nixon, of Lincolnton, 
North Carolina. We would consider _ it a 
great favor if subscribers in' Virginia or 
North Carolina would help us to locate defi- 
nitely the route pursued by this pioneer which 
may have been the ordinary route of the 
times. — Editor. 

John Ramsauer. 

his mamberranton book. 
August 1752, 

to a pare of flames 2s 

to a pare of pritle pits 2S 

to a pare of Carters is 

to a lucking clase is 6d 

to a quart of wien id 

to a pocket almennock itl 

August 27 day 1752 
to his gorney went. 


From langastar to rits farcy lom. 

to Yorktown 12 

to fratricktown at Conocogik 60 

to fratricktown in Cana waka .... 60 
to Nolens or Willim luckets Farey 

at bartomat at partommack 15 

to Cose krick or Cose rone 18 

in prence Willim County 

to Charmingtown in Vargenney ... 42 

to Nortrever rappehanick 8 

to the tuch copers 9 

to the Sout rever of reppehanick ... 6 

at orresh olt cort hous or vinsh 

to new orrensh Cort house 14 

to googland cort house at James 

Rever 5° 

to lileses fort at abbamattick Rever 15 

to ameley Corte house 10 

to tockter Coot - 14 

to promswick old Cort hous 4 

to the horse fort at Roaneocke .... 25 

to Cranwell Court house 30 

to tare Rever 16 

to Flat Rever 15 

to the hawe feales or to the 

hawe Rever 38 

to teep Rever 30 

to Abbents Creek .35 

to the Satkin Rever 8 

to Gov Jorg Carty 18 




August 27 day 1752. 

Firs to my gorney 

at Willim bousman 

at Yorktown to a pint of pere 

at Xits farrey 

at Konred Cansellars 

at lis last day of te nion to me 

September ist day 1752 

to a busel of ots 

to my account 

to my account 

to a shefe of ots 

to one pot of sister 

plait with a knif corrent 

to ferrish at rapehanick 

to ferrish at James rever 

to fore quarts of ots 

to my account 

to half bushel of corn 

September 24 day 1752 
















to supper and loghing i 

to farrish at Roenock 
to a half busel of corn i 

firs in Carolina to half .bush of c i 

26 days, 
to a tram 

the first of October to my a count i 
to farrish at Abbes Crick 
to farrish at Yatkin 
to corn and my account at pranins i 
to a tiner at Yatkin 
to henry Witner 2 

tis is traveling to Carlinay 
te axspans are this i£ 6s 6d Vergency 
and Marland and panselvaney money 

John travelt from home to the Tuch 
Copers 8 days have pene traveling to 
James rever from home Eleven days 11 

Cot to my gorneys ent to Anty 1am- 
berts tis 6 day of October 1752 

Yatkin to abbits creek 7m. 

to Youwarey 15m 

to teeo rever 12m 

to Carwell 3m 

to Colcat 3m 

to alcmans i8m 

to hawe Rever 5m 

to Eno 15m 

to lettle Rever i6m 

to flat rever 

to tare rever 

to Cranwel Cort house 

to te hors fort of rounnock 

to Meherrin rever 

to olt promsek Cort house 

to notheway rever 10 to tocktar 

to tocktar Scote 

Novambar ist 1752 

1 6m 
1 8m 



to a half bushel of corn 

to haveng my hors in te feet 

to a half bushel of corn 

to furrish at Rounocke 

to 4 quarts of corn 

to my account 

to one bushel of corne 

to my account and hors 

to farrish at James rever 

to farrish at rappehanick 

callet nabmons fort 
to a half bushel of corn 
to farrish at partommack 
to corn in tis marland 
to my account 
to one bushel of ots 
to cornet Cansellar 
to farrish at Suckehannary 
to preckfast at te farrey 
to my account 
to my account 










tis is traveling from Carolina li 4s 5^d 

March i8th day 1753 

Mambo a bouth a blow the pame 4 
In tick and a most 4 or 3^ teep and 7 
food long and the handals long 5 food 
and a •} and be hind from the gib the in 
site to the insite of beem 10 In straid a 
long the untar site before 15 In the han- 
tals behind 2 f 9 In or lo-ii 

March 24th Day 1753 

Mambarrantom a bouth a wint mill the 
4 host are hy 4 foot 7 in 3 in brat the 
site peses are long in the clare long 3 f 
3 in a part 2 food 6 or 7 in the low 
peses pe low the site 5 In and the nixt 
lower pese 4 in ^ or 5 in and the whele 



15 in teep 33 coks the formest posts for 
the hantals and to the lower and ubber 
site pece and a rittle prath. 

Boards to this wint mill 60 foot or 
more besits the brtsh the is i f 6 in long 
I food 6 7 8 or 9 in brad the cuts are 4 
in abard the trunnel is 5 in thick 4 or 5 
in lonsj and the rounse are 4 in thick and 
8 of tham the axel tree is thick 5 in the 
wings are 5 of tham the holes are i food 
round hauber the shoe, the corse sive the 
wiers are abart -J in its long i f 7 in 
brad i f -J or 1 in 

Skins Solt and Paught. 

My axspanses from Carlinia to Pan- 
silvania in the year 1754 July 29th day 
with kunrat Lisringer, Paught skins in 
Carlinia 33 paid for tham io£ pans 
money solt of tham 31 for I5£ 19s pan- 
silvania money. 

Autter skins 33 2 of tham for 9 ver- 
gini money, black fox skin for 3-6 ver- 
geni money. Sold tham for i£ 18 s 6d 
pansilvania money. Bever foor skin 
pound 3 and 1-6 

Solt tham for 4^ os y^d and in part of 
pay I took 42 yarts of jack lining at l 
par yart so come to 2i 16 s and solt that 
at 2s per yart. 

Mamberrantom abouth a barral the 
stafes long 2 ft 6 in in the hats 17 or 18 
in a large washing toob the stafes long 
18 in the bottom 2 food 3 in haxat stafes 
3 to 2 in long the hats 2 foot 3 in a 9 or 
10 gal cak the stafes long i food 9 long 
the hats i food. 

The Skane Reale the cros peces are 
long 4 food 5 in ^ in the mettle prat 4 
in tick I in and at the ints i in and ^ 
square the outh site peces i in i square 
and long 5 food ^ half 


a l)outh a lome the posts and sits and 
frond and pack pese are 13 in the hind 
posts are hy to the oiX)r pece 9 food 1 1 
in ^ and upper pece upon the post 7 in 
at the forter part 4 in j or ^ long 3 foot 
ing the narrowest part in that post is 
wite 9 and i the tannent at the hind 
pece is 9 inges teeb up from the lower 

part of the post to the tannent i in ^ 
the site pece from the lower part of the 
post 8 in to the lower part of the site 
the site outh of square behind a bofe i in 
5 bare lickwise before the site long be- 
tween the posts 3 food the foremost post 
is hy to the peme 2 food i in the morters 
from the sinter a bouth 18 in from be- 
lowe the tannent 6 in tick 2 in ^ the prast 
heme hy from the coner part of the post 
2 food 3 in 4^ or :^ the frond pece long be- 
tween the hosts 4 food 10 in the cloth and 
prast preme are 3 in tick the >arne peme 
tick 5 in ^ and all these timpber is 4 in 
tick axsept the yarne peme. 

John Ramsauer. 
John Ramsauer Receivit a lattar i 
From my Fathar from Carlina January 
27th 1755 Jno Budler Recesvet at the 

15 of that Intanest. 

February 12th 1755 

Mambarrantome about a pare of ballouse 
This is the patron as neare as I can make 
it. First the bottam boart his langt and 
wath thus * * Sicond the mittel board 
thus * * '■'" the head long 12 or 13 inges 
the pibe long 21 in out of the head 15 or 

16 inges. Here it says what to do whan 
First make your borts and than make 
your had acorting as your pibe is make 
your head in three peses clue them to 
gater and than fix in your pipe and then 
joynt it on tiie mittelbord and than a 
pece unter the mittelbord 2^ or 3 in tick 
the langht of this ballous are some times 
more or lass 5 foot 4 or 9 in 6 f more or 
lass but the hits should be al most as 
long as the hallos and wan all your work 
is all to gater than take your square and 
striek the sinter of the britch as you see 
at the patron and than take the ballos 
and lay them upon one site and than sate 
your buttom board from the mittel board 
18 in or your stick that \-ou j'oint is than 
to kee]:) tham a part 15 in long and your 
ubbar board from te mittel board 2 f ^ 
or your stick sticks long 2 f 3 in and 
than take a robe or a strab and tye them 
to gater and soat your boos in thire 
proper plases at equal tistand than take 
one site of your lats and mark it at avary 
of tham marks than lav it on a hv 



board and mark it from avar mark but 
the 2 out sit marks than make i inge or 
more sharter and when that is cut than 
take your skin the tottar skin with thire 
2 insits to gatar and cut one by the other 
and than some tliam to gather. 


a bought an peair of steairs firs you see 
your 9 in step tan your turnd seps in this 
steairs you must gav every 1-4 and 3 
inges or if it will not do anny otherwice 
tan set your lower squair steeps in the 
Rome on the Hore i or 2 or '3 of tham 
and tan your turned steeps as you see 
in this traughat. 

November 14, 1756 
February, ye 18 1759 

Memorantom of Blanck for a peair of 
Jeafiferv I'ellows 1 1 feet long 
6 plank 17 in wite 11^- f long 

containe 96 feet 

120 of 2 inge 15 of 16 fee long 120 
150 of 2^ ing 15 or 16 feet long 150 

300 spicke 5 or 6 pounds of glue 4 sheets 
of teen 5 or 6 shep skings 200 caske 
ncails T sheep skin with the wool on. 
John Ranisaur. 

German According to "The 

Characteristics Lutheran Quarter- 
ly," I. C. Lulman has 
been contributing a 
series of articles to recent numbers of 
"Die Christliche Welt" on "Christentum 
und Deutschtum." He "points out 
three qualities that have always been es- 
sentially characteristic of the German 
through all the varying fortunes of his 
history." These three qualities are 
"bravery, depth and independence." 

"The courage to fight and the will to 
do have always been characteristic of 
the Germans. That fact was clearly ob- 
served and strongly emphasized by Taci- 
tus. Tt finds aixundant illustration in 
that most typical (jcrman of modern 
times. Chancellor IJismark, the very in- 
carnation of courageous deed and un- 
bending will. Now this (juality of en- 
ergetic achievement is one of the watch- 
words of Christianity. The Christian 
life is a battle between the forces of good 
and the forces of evil. It calls for he- 
roic action. 'Fight the good fight of 
faith.' Christ himself was a divine hero. 
He overcame the 'Pempter. cleansed the 
Temple, inniished the Pharisees, tri- 
umjihed over death, and was constantly 
impelled by the will to do. This element 
of manly action and heroism in Christi- 
anity api)eals to the fundamental nature 
of the German. 

"Coupled with the German desire for 
brave deed is a deep inwardness of spirit. 
This has always been recognized as the 
special heritage of the German. It re- 
ceives its expression in his conscientious- 
ness, his fidelity, his thoroughness and 
penetration. These traits also have their 
clear echo in the Christian system. 
Christianity is pre-eminently a spiritual 
religion. Tt is the spirit that maketh 
alive.' The soul is everything. Love is 
its chief activity. Faithfulness must en- 
dure even unto death. Paul's doctrine of 
justification by faith alone is admirably 
adapted to the deep inwardness of the 
Cicrman spirit. 

"The third great national character- 
istic of the Germans is their spirit of in- 
dependence. It is a well-known historical 
fact that one of the most valuable con- 
tributions thai the German barbarians 
made to the stream of classic civilization 
was the spirit of personal freedom and 
individual responsibility. This chord in 
the German nature responds quite read- 
ily to the Christian emphasis u}X)n free- 
dom. For with the principle of person- 
ality Christianity advocates also the prin- 
ciple of liberty. She warns against the 
snares of servitude, and lauds the glor- 
ious freedom of the children of God; if 
the Son shall make you free, ye shall be 
free indeed." " 

The Life and Labor 


Reverend Frederick Christian Bauman 

By Rev. Charles E. Schaeffer, D. D. 

/^T'HE life story of this pioneer preacli- 
v_/ er divides itself into three distinct 
epochs. First, his birth and early 
life in Europe; second, his preparation 
for the Gospel ministry in America ; 
third, his long- and useful career as a 
minister in the Reformed Church in the 
United States. 

I. Early Life in Europk. — In Nied- 
erhessen, Kreis Hofgeismar on the banks 
of the Diemel lies the village of Eber- 
schutz. Here in the third decade of 
the nineteenth century lived Tohann 
Heinrich Baumann and his young wife 
Alaria Chrstena Bernhart. The head of 
this home had been reared in Sielen, a 
mere cluster of houses not far from 
Eberschutz. His wife had originally 
come from Oberhessen. Into their new 
home on November 17, 1826, their iirst 
child, the subject of our sketch, was 
born. According to custom, when he 
was a week old he was baptized and re- 
ceived the name of Friedrick Christian, 
his uncle Friedrick Bernhart serving as 
sponsor. The officiating minister was 
Pastor Koradi. His church stood di- 
rectly across the street where the Bau- 
mans lived. It w^as a very old structure, 
said to have been built before the Re- 
formation. Its floor was lower than the 
street level and people entering it had 
to descend a step or two. It had no 
stove, neither was there provision for 
any. The minister officiating" at the al- 
tar wore a clerical robe. The altar 
stood below in the chancel before which 
the first part of the service was con- 
ducted after which the minister as- 
cended a flight of narrow steps into a 
round narrow jnilpit at the side of the 
wall about six feet high where he deliv- 
ered the sermon. Alongside of the 

church stood the parsonage, the largest 
and best house in the community. It 
was occupied by Pastor Koradi and his 
wife, wdio were both quite young, and 
with them as one of the family, lived 
the aged widow of the former pastor. 
There being no children in the parson- 
age young Bauman became quite a fa- 
vorite, spent much of his time there and 
ran errands for the preacher's family. 

Flard by the church stood the school 
house, the teacher whose name was 
Schlitzeberg, and his family lived under 
the same schoolhouse roof. Pie was a 
rigid disciplinarian, and governed his 
school with the rod. His presence in- 
stilled fear and the schoolhouse by most 
of the pupils was regarded a prison 
house. The greatest reverence had to 
be shown both to pastor and schoolmas- 
ter. Every child of the street and pupil 
of the school had to bow and lift his hat 
or cap in passing the preacher or the 
teacher. Failure to do so would invite 
inevitable punishment. The studies 
were of the simplest character, much 
had to be committed to memory, es- 
pecially hymns and verses of Scripture. 
This rigicl regime made a profound im- 
pression upon young B)aimian's youth- 
ful mind and traces of it can be seen 
through his whole subsequent life. 
These early scenes in Europe are pre- 
served for us in a typewritten auto- 
biography which remains in the posses- 
sion of iiis family and is greatly cher- 
ished by them. 

Ilis Parents Conic to America. 

In 1836 when Frederick was in his 
tenth year his parents were persuaded 
bv two of their friends, Benjamin Thone 




and Frederick Bohle to migrate to 
America. There were now tliree child- 
ren in the family, Friedrick and two 
little sisters. The Baumans were poor, 
but their two friends mentioned above 
oflered to loan them three hundred dol- 
lars, the amount necessary for the trip. 
In the spring of 1836 the three families 
started out from home, first by wagon to 
Karl shaven on the Weser, thence to 
Bremerhaven by boat which was carried 
down by the current or by the use of 
poles to push it where there was no cur- 
rent. On June 24, 1836, they sailed for 
America on the Isabella with Captain 
M'syer in charge, and landed in New 
YcTk August 10. Froni New York the 
party went to |]ufi:'alo by canal boat. 
Upon their arrival there their funds were 
completely exhausted and they could go 
no further. Four wrecks they were de- 
layed, and they were weeks of sore trial. 
and hardship. The meager earnings of 
the father were not sufficient, and his 
diet was so scant that he was unfit for 
hard work. JMany a time the youth says, 
he went along the line of canal boats to 
receive the fragments of food that others 
left behind. Here at Buffalo the party 
fell into the hands of sharks. German 
was the only language they could speak 
or understand. One day a stranger ap- 
proached them, and, speaking good Ger- 
man, represented himself as the agent of 
a steamboat line and oft'ered to take 
them in his boat which would sail sooner 
than the one they had intended to take. 
In this they were deceived. The boat 
did not leave until many hours later. 
They were caught in a fearful .storm at 
tiiglit and their lives were endangered. 
Instead of being taken to Cleveland as 
they had expected, they were let off at 
Huron, and next day had ti> take another 
boat back to Cleveland. With a four 
horse team they started out over the 
prairie to a settlement near Xenia, Ohio. 
three miles north of Bellbrook. Here 
they found shelter in an old log house 
on the farm of George A. Glatfclder. 
]\Ir. Glatfclder was a member of the 
Reformed church at Beaver whose pas- 
tor was the Reverend David Winters. 
Here thev soon felt themselves at home. 

but their extreme poverty necessitated 
all the members of the family to earn 
whatever they could so as to niake a liv- 
ing and pay off the $300 debt incurred 
in coming t(^ America. The wages of 
the father was fifty cent.s a day; the mo- 
ther went around to the farmers and 
did their washing at twenty-five cents a 
day, frequently walking two and three 
miles and back again the same day. The 
son earned twenty-five cents a day during 
harvest and by doing odd jobs in the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, amid such 
untoward circumstances, his parents- 
cherished high ideals and were anxious 
that their children should have a proper 
education. The children went to school 
during the winter months, first in the 
"Nave neighborhood" and afterwards in 
the "Coy neighborhood." So thinly 
populated and so primitive was this com- 
munity that at the beginning of each 
school term some one would blaze the 
trees along the way lest the children 
might miss their way to school and be 
lost in the woods. Young Bauman made 
rapid progress in his studies and in the 
course of a year he could read and speak 
English correctly. He was also gifted 
with an excellent voice for singing. When 
a .singing school was opened in the 
neighborhood only Frederick, the oldest 
in the family could attend. He became 
so proficient in this art that he soon be- 
gan to teach the others at home, and all 
of them became good singers, especially 
his second sister, Rosanna. This accom- 
plishment proved quite valuable to him in 
his subsequent life. .\t an early age he 
became the "\'orsinger" in the church 
which he attended, an honor of which he 
was justly proud. 

His mother, who lived to a ripe old 
age, preserved an interesting story from 
this period of his life which revealed the 
real bent of his nature. One day, wdiile 
his ])arents were away from the house 
helping Gladfelters, young Frederick, 
almost twelve years of age, had been left 
in charge of three younger children. .-X 
violent thunderstorm suddenly arose and 
a large tree near the house was struck 
bv lightning. His parents ran home, 
thinkinir to find them all dead. lUit 



when they arrived they found Frederick 
and the other children on their knees, 
while he had his mother's prayer-book 
and was reading the "prayers to be of- 
fered in time of trouble." This deeply 
religious bent of his nature was recog- 
nized and respected through the whole 
community. One of the farmers had 
offered him a strip of ground to clear 
and cultivate on condition that he might 
keep the first year's crop. The work was 
so well done that the tract proved to be 
the best piece of corn in the neighbor- 
hood. "O well," said the old farmer to 
his mother, "you know that with every 
step Frederick took on that ground, he 
>aid. 'God bless me, God bless me.' " 

//. Preparing for the Gospel Ministry. 

We have seen how the course of this 
sterling and unspoiled youth led through 
many difficulties and hardships, only to 
blossom in a beautiful consecration to 
his Lord and Master. We shall find in 
this second stage of his career a repeti- 
tion of similar experiences though on an 
enlarged and extended scale. It was one 
long struggle amid poverty, but issuing 
in a fuller consecration. 

In the fall of 1845 his parents moved 
from Green County to Williams County, 
Ohio, near Pulaski, on a farm owned by 
Mr. Darst. Land at that time was quite 
cheap, but money was exceedingly scarce 
and hard to get. An 80 acre lot in the 
neighborhood was for sale. The price 
was $300, with $3S as down money. The 
parents decided to purchase the same, 
although altogether they had onlv $S. 
At his own suggestion, young Frederick 
.walked to Green County, a distance of 
160 miles and back and secured from 
friends the additional $30. So severe on 
him was the .strain of this trip that he 
tells us on several occasions, he "spit 
blood." A log house, constructed in 
one day by the assistance of some neigh- 
bors, became the homestead of the 
family and around its fireside were dis- 
cussed some of the far reaching and sig- 
nificant steps in life. The advent of a 
minister of the gospel into that com- 
munity had its remarkable eft'ects. In 

the year 1846 Rev. R. R. Salter, an Eng- 
lishman by birth, who at 12 years of age 
came to America, a minister of the Re- 
formed church, began to preach there at 
different places. Services were held for 
a while in the school house at Pulaski, 
afterwards a church was built. Young- 
Bauman was a member of the first class 
to be confirmed there. He came to take 
an active interest in the church and led 
the singing for the congregation. Those 
pioneer missionaries were filled with a 
deep evangelistic spirit. It was the day 
of revivalism in this country. Services 
were held nightly for weeks in succes- 
sion and ministers from a distance came 
to assist in the services. The Reformed 
people while emphasizing educational re- 
ligion, the catechetical system and the 
training of the young for church luon- 
bership nevertheless made their com- 
munion seasons great occasions for heart 
searchings and renewed consecration. 
Generally they were preceded by a week's 
special services. At one of these occa- 
sions, Rev. J. Pence, a Reformed minis- 
ter, came to assist Rev. Mr. Salter, and 
noticing the interest and activity of 
young Rauman, laid his hand upon his 
shoulder and said. "Frederick, you ought 
to study for the ministry.'' The challenge 
made a deep impression upon his young 
soul, but the obstacles in the way were 
well nigh insurmountable. "His parents 
were poor. Their farm had just been pur- 
chased and they had but begun the long, 
hard struggle toward its payment. Fred- 
erick, the oldest son, was needed to help 
battle in their effort. But the call spoke 
on, and would not be silenced, and with a 
courage and perseverance that has con- 
tinued to characterize bis life, young 
Frederick determined to answer a recog- 
nized two-fold duty, to help his parents 
in tl^eir home-making and to prepare for 
the ministry at the same time. It was 
no small undertaking for a penniless boy, 
but it was brought to a successful issue." 

Going to College. 

The Svnod of Ohio, which then includ- 
ed the whole of the Reformed Church, 
west of Pennsylvania, had at a previous' 



session deterniinotl to establish a collei^e 
at Tarlton. Ohio. A preparatory school 
under the direction of Rev. S. Rickle had 
already been opened, and at the sugges- 
tion of Pastor Salter and others, young 
IJaunian set forth to this institution to 
prepare for the ministry. This was in 
the fall of i8_(9. Witli six dollars, a 
vigorous body and a determined purpose 
he started on foot for Tarlton. 215 miles 
away. He arrived there five days later. 
•one dollar shorter in money, penniless a 
few hours afterward, when the last dollar 
had been spent for needed clothing. The 
hardships and privations of this tri|) are 
graphically set forth in his own words. 
"Most usually I bought a slice of bread 
and butter for dinner, for which at most 
places the people would take nothing. In 
the evening I would walk late, usually 
nine o'clock, and get my supper as I did 
my dinner. I soon learned that it was 
necessary in the evening where I stopped 
over night to be allowed to go to bed at 
once, lor by sitting an hour before I went 
to bed my legs would become so stiff that 
I could scarcely move from m\- place." 
Doubt and despair also filled his soul. 
He was tem]:>ted to turn back, but his 
•courage and hope revived and he went 
forward. Coming to Tarlton tired and 
penniless, he set out to work to keep 
from starvation. Mr. Andrew Faust, 
who had just been elected to the legisla- 
ture, and who had in consequence to be 
away the greater i)art of the winter, se- 
cured the services of student t>auman to 
take care of his stock and i)erform chores 
about the house. .\t a special meeting 
of Dhio Synod during the winter of 
1850 the i^roposcd college was moved 
fr(MU Tarlton to Tiffin. ()hi(x He came 
along to Tiffin with the removal of the 
instituticn. The college then had three 
professors: I. H. (;oo(l. R. ('ood and 
Miss Thayer. The theological depart- 
ment was in charge of Rev. Dr. Iv. \ . 
Gerhart. Those were the days of small 
things, of i)lain living and high thinking. 
College life then did not consist in a 
round of .social and athletic fnnclions. 
College spirit had not yet overshadowed 
college life and college work. During 
the greater portion of his college and 

theological course he earned his expenses 
by doing odd jobs for people, by serving 
as janitor of the school, etc. His diet, 
as he says, consisted of bread, molasses 
and now and then a little butter and 
meat. There was no lire in his room. 
His oUlest sister made his clothing fur 
him. although as he acknowledges, they 
did not always fit perfectly. At the ex- 
piration of each college and seminary 
vear he would return on foot to the old 
iiome and help his parents to pay off the 
farm. These prolonged walks proved so 
strenuous that on one occasion after ab- 
sence from home for a year and travel- 
stained and tired he came home to find 
that his mother did not at first recognize 
him. For months he had received no 
word from home. When he came home 
one June he learned for the first time of 
the death of his two little sisters the pre- 
vious March. In spite of all these un- 
toward conditions he made substantial 
progress in his studies. He wrestled 
with poverty, with Greek and Hebrew 
the same time, and all served as a valu- 
able training school for his future ca- 

III. His C.xrker .\s .\ Minister. — In 
the spring of 1853, a year prior to his 
graduation. Dr. E. \'. Gerhart called him 
to a side one day and asked him to go 
to a small colony of Reformed ])eople in 
Dubuque County, Iowa, 'who had origin- 
ally migrated from Pennsylvania. The 
commission was for six months after 
which he was to resume his studies in 
the theological seminary at Tiffin. He 
accepted the challenge and on .\pril 12, 
1853. he started out for his field of later. 
Rev. H. j. Reutenick still living at Cleve- 
land. ( )hio. left on the same train for 
mission work in Toledo. lioth of 
pioneer i)reachers were eminently suc- 
cessful. Dr. Reutenik founded Calvin 
College in Cleveland which has furnished 
manv excellent preachers in the Re- 
formed church. Mr. P.auman arrived 
two days later at Dubutnie. Iowa, and 
there learned that the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man settlement to whom he was to min- 
ister was about 14 miles to the south- 
west, and so he started out to walk the 
distance. ( 'U Sunday morning, April 



1 6, he came to the house of Elder Dan- 
iel Cort who had carried on the corre- 
spondence with Dr. Gerhart. He found 
Cjuite a number of families who belonged 
to the Reformed faith. Most of them 
lived in small log houses, many of which 
consisted of only one or two rooms. He 
was given room and board with Elder 
Cort. His library consisted of a Bible, 
a concordance, a German New Testa- 
ment and Kuntz's English and German 
dictionary. He conducted his first ser- 
vice in a log school house about a mile 
and a quarter north of the present town 
of Zwingli, Iowa. After that he regu- 
larly preached in English and in German 
during the same service. At the expira- 
tion of the six months he returned to the 
Seminary to complete his studies, having 
been paid the sum of $75 for his services. 
In 1854 he graduated from the theologi- 
cal seminary and having received a call 
to return to Iowa, he immediately went 
back to the people to whom he had min- 
istered the summer before. He was or- 
dained June 25, 1854. The congregation 
of which he became the pastor is the old- 
est Protestant church west of the Mis- 
sissippi. It was organized by Rev. Dan- 
iel Kroh, December 25, 1851. The name 
given to it was Harmony. Rev. Mr. Bau- 
man was the first regular pastor and one 
of the first to labor beyond the Father of 
Waters. Rev. J. H. Buser came 1854 
from Ohio and began missionary work in 
Oskaloosa, Leighton, Columbia City, 
Coneville and Lone Tree. Flourishing- 
Reformed congregations still exist at all 
of these places. In 1858 Rev. Joshua 
Riale from Pennsylvania founded the 
churches at Brandon, Lisbon and Tipton, 
Iowa. Rev. Mr. Bauman at once identi- 
fied himself with the life and spirit of 
the community. He married Elizabeth 
J. Cort, a daughter of Daniel Cort, in 
1854.. He founded and named the town 
of Zwingli. was its first postmaster, 
teacher, preacher, pastor. He organized 
congregations at Maquoheta, Lawton, 
Imogene, Boulder, Spring Valley, Iron 
Hill. His ministry extended over all 
Eastern Iowa. Long journeys of forty 
and sixty miles, and often on foot, were 
frequent. His salary was small. For 

the first five years it was $150 per year. 
For the first ten years it averaged $155 a 
year. During the last thirty years of his 
ministry it averaged $300, but for the 
entire period of his ministerial life the 
average was $211. Yet there never was 
a note of complaint nor was there a sense 
of want. He served the same people for 
a period of 56 years. "He never changed 
nor cared to change his place." Gold- 
smith's "\'illage Preacher" is a true de- 
scription of his type. His congregation 
grew into a classis. and the classis. with 
others, into a synod with a membership 
of -1,500. 

He was regarded as a verv fine 
preacher and as an exce])tional pastor. 
"He loved to preach in his own way and 
the people came miles to hear liim in that 
early day. His sympathy and comfort- 
ing words to his flock and others, when 
they laid away their loved ones, in the 
little cemetery b}- the church will never 
be forgotten. His voice raised in song, 
prayer and blessing on those occasions 
was a healing balm unto them." 

On April 19. 1903. he celebrated the 
50th anniversary of his pastorate with 
his people and in an interesting way re- 
counted the struggles and sacrifices of 
those early days. 

Full of years and full of honors this 
aged servant of the Lord fell asleep on 
September 2^, 1909, aged 82 years 10 
months and 8 days. On the following 
Wednesday. Sept. 29, 1909, his body was 
laid to rest in the cemetery adjoining the 
church which he built and in which he 
labored for 56 years. Interior Synod 
met in annual session that same night at 
Freeport, Illinois. Suitable resolutions 
were passed, and loving tributes were 
paid to the memory of Father Bauman 
who had labored more abundantly than 
they all, and into whose lalxirs they had 

The home life of Father Bauman was 
delightful. It was the scene of song and 
cheer. Nine children came to bless the 
home, all of whom are living, as follows: 
Four sons. Dr. Samuel H., a veterinary 
surgeon and a member of the State legis- 
lature from Birmingham, Iowa ; D. 
Theodore, a leading attorney in Maquo- 


licta, Iowa : J. Nevin, a Reformed min- 
ister at Danville, Pa.; Albert B., pastor 
of the Reformed Church, Greenville, Pa. 
five dauohters. ]\Iarg-aret, widow of Rev. 
J. L. P.retz; Meta,\vife of Rev. N. B. 
jNIathes, Dayton, Ohio ; Bertha, wife of 
Mr. Doft, Zwingli, Iowa; Stella, wife of 
E. E. Alspach. Zwinoli. Iowa, and Ma- 
bel, wife of Dr. A. I. Dower, Ilaskiiis, 

Rev. J. M. Henderson, a united Pres- 
byterian minister, who at one time lived 
at Zwingli, in 1907 published the fol- 
lowing article in the Weekly Republican, 
Springfield. Mass. : "One of the rarities 
and treasures of the region is an old min- 
ister of the Reformed (German) church. 
Now nearly 81 he has been pastor of the 
same village and county parish for about 
54 years. His annual salary has grown 
from $125 to the munificence of $300, 
and no parsonage. On this, together 
with industrious scratchings from some 

bits of broken woodland, he has reared 
and educated in whole or in part a 
splendid family of nine, every one a 
power. With his true helpmeet, his has 
been the genuine simple life, with its in- 
dustries, its fine economics, its emphasis 
on home. Their modest cottage home is 
full of flowers and music, often full of 
grandchildren and always abounding in 
industry and Christian welcome. Still 
healthy and strong, he walks, with his 
companion at his side, among the homes 
of his people, always with a smile, al- 
ways welcome, a living benediction. 
And his young people cling to him as a 
green ivy clings to gray rock or ancient 
oak, a rare picture of youth and age re- 
joicing in each other. Among your 
names of honor. Republican, permit me 
to inscribe lovingly and reverently the 
names of Rev. and Mrs. Frederick 
Christian Bauman, of Zwingli, Iowa." 

Educating The University of 

the Educators Cincinnati w^.s one of 
the first in the country 
to apply continuation school methods — 
giving a pupil shop practice under actual 
commercial conditions, along with textual 
instruction. Dean Schneider, of the en- 
gineering college, has made some inter- 
esting confessions of the retlex action 
upon the university faculty of this practi- 
cal .shop training. He says: 

"We learned the first year, and have 
had it verified each year since, that the 
shop will spot a yellow streak in a man 
before the university even suspects it. 
An attempt to sneak through spoiled 
work is never a great success there. We, 
at the college end, soon found our work 
under scrutiny and criticism from a 
source that does not hesitate to scrutinize 
and criticise. We are brought face to 
face with the failure of a university de- 
partment as we never are in our four- 

year courses. A student, let us say, has 
finished successfully his work in physics. 
Some day he does a fool thing in the 
shop which indicates that he knows very 
little about the subject. \\'hen you con- 
front him with the fool thing, and with 
the fact that he should have known bet- 
ter because he had been taught the theory 
governing it, you find his grasp upon the 
theory to be very feeble." 

Practical education will teach the 
teachers. We imagine it would not be a 
bad thing in every university if pupils 
and instructors, pleasantly loafing 
through their four-year literarv courses, 
were periodically checked up by some 
hard-and-fast test drawn from actual 
life outside the campus, whereby they 
could discover exactly how efficient their 
processes were. — Saturday Ez'ciiiiig Post. 

Dean Schneider started life in Summit 
Hill. Pa.— Editor. 


Friedens Evangelical Lutheran Church, 

Myerstown, Pa. 
By Rev. J. W. Early, Reading, Pa. 

(\ T is sometimes said we have no an- 
0/ cient landmarks — that with us 
everything is of recent origin. 
But here is a congregation which was or- 
ganized out of the descendants, the 
grandchildren and greatgrandchildren of 
the first settlers of the Tulpehocken re- 
gion, and is already one hundred years 
old. The parent church celebrated its 
175th anniversary ten years ago, in their 
fourth church building. These facts, to- 
gether with the additional one that John 
Andrew Schultze, afterward governor of 
Pennsylvania, was a leading spirit in its 
organization, would seem to justify the 
giving of this sketch to the general pub- 

It is 'an accepted tradition that the town 
was originally known as "Tuljiehocken- 
Staedtel." Jt is in reality the only one 
located right on the banks of that his- 
toric stream. At present it spans it, the 
railroad station, etc., being south of it, 
aufl the churches, schools, etc., north. 

Some one has facetiously termed this 
a granddau«^hter of the original Tulpe- 
hocken congregation, now known as 
Reed's Church, and at this late day no 
])articular benefit w^ould result from a 
contradiction of the statement, or a dis- 
pute concerning the facts. But it cer- 
tainly would seem strange to some people 
that while the number of members in the 
original congregation, according to their 
own statements, may not have been over 
50-70, and certainly did not reach a hun- 
dred, the new congregation had from 
three to five times that number. For of 
the 170 names recorded by Rupp as con- 
stituting the membership of Christ's 

Church between 1743-47, only 9 or 10 
are women, indicating a membership of 
three to four hundred. 

Through friction brought on by an ef- 
fort to elect a successor to Rev. Emanuel 
Schultze, who had died in March, i8oy, 
leaving his immense field of 8, 10 or 11 
congregations without a pastor, several 
of the congregations became unwilling to 
accept the proposed nominee. After a 
period of unrest of more than, two years 
five of the congregations again voted for 
the original candidate. Four of the con- 
gregations and this western district of 
the largest one among them, both in 
numbers and extent of territory, formed 
a separate parish and secured Rev. Wm. 
Baetis as their pastor. This shows suf- 
ficiently that this was a branch or colony 
of Christ's Church, Stouchsburg. 

But it may be well to review briefly 
some facts of history connected with the 
development of this section and the 
growth of these churches. In 1723, as 
is well known, the first immigrants from 
Schoharie, N. V., came to Pennsylvania, 
via the Susquehanna, u]) the Swatara, 
then overland to the Tulpehocken and 
the Muehlbach. Statements dififer as 
to the number who came. Ru])]) says' 
there were 33 families here in 1728. 
Dr. Brownmiller tells us there were 60 
families in the first arrival. The former 
is without doubt far below the mark. 
The latter is possibly rather hi^ii. 

One authority claims that they held 
their first meeting to consult about erect- 
ing a church at the 'I'ellers homestead 
in 1723. Apparently it was the place 
wliere tliev met rejularlv to hold their 




services. Of course the present stone 
structure was erected years afterwards. 

The records at Bethlehem state dis- 
tinctly that their pastor in New York 
agfreed to come with them and settle 
among them. This would indicate that 
they considered that they came as an or- 
ganized congregation. That the prom- 
ise was not kept does not change the 
facts. And while the statement is no- 
where made in so many words, this prob- 
ably remained their place of meeting 
until the site of the church, nearly two 
miles farther north, was finally selected. 
Another group of families followed a 
few years later. It might not be amiss 
to state here, as Daniel Miller has shown, 
and as every careful student already 
knows, that there is not the slightest evi- 
dence to be found that either of the Con- 
rad Weisers, the Interpreter or his fa- 
ther, came with any of these first colonies. 

In 1727 they built the first church, en- 
couraged by their former pastor in New 
York and by the man generally known 
as Rev. Gerhard Henckel, although his 
given name seems not to have been Ger- 
hard at all, some freak of tradition hav- 
ing substituted that of his son, many 
years ago a member of the Oley Hill 
Church. In all probability Henckel is 
the man who dedicated the church. 

Up to 15 or 20 years' ago it seemed 
to be generally believed that this first 
church west of the Schuylkill was dedi- 
cated by Rev. John Casper Stoever at 
that time a youth of less than twenty 
years living in Germany, and a consul- 
tation of Rupp's 30,000 Names would 
have shown conclusively that he reached 
America a full year after the event. This 
only shows how hard it is to correct 
false traditions. But it was of a piece 
with the tradition that made Rev. F. A. 
C. Aluhlenberg the assistant of Rev. 
Schultze at Stouchsburg, although his 
diary shows that he supplied the entire 
field before Schultze came, was in fact 
his father's assistant, occupied the par- 
sonage before Schultze was called, keep- 
ing bachelor's hall, drew up the call in 
December. After occupying the house 
with his brother-in-law a short time he 
accepted a call to Schaefferstown, War- 

wick, White Oak and Manheim, and 
within four months thereafter moved to 
Schaefferstown, and remained there to 
serve his own parish until his removal to 
New York city. 

The Lutherans of Tulpehocken now 
having a church, but no pastor, allowed 
the Reformed to hold their services there. 
In fact they apparently joined with the 
Reformed in supporting their pastor. 
Rev. !)oehm seems to have l^een em- 
ployed about three years. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Peter Miller, who after 
his defection became the Prior of the 
Ephrata brotherhood. But his turning 
over to those people caused considerable 
stir and bad feeling. The excitement 
ran so high that the adherents and friends 
of the newly made disciples of Conrad 
Beissel, in their great liberality and zeal, 
burned "Starcke" and other devotional 
works on the streets of Womelsdorf. 

About 1737-38 the Reformed finally 
moved out and erected their own 
churches. According to appearances the 
Reformed left in two parties, the friends 
of Boehm organizing Trinity, for many 
years known as the Leinbach's church, 
and those of Miller going to Host. Ap- 
parently the latter carried the organiza- 
tion with them. They controlled it dur- 
ing Miller's incumbency and during the 
Leitbecker strife. The statement of Rev. 
Wm. Stoy, on a paper yellow with age, 
found among those belonging to the 
Belleman's church, that Ziehen he re- 
turned from Philadelphia, he settled 
with the original or old Tulpehocken 
church, would certainly indicate this. 
For he was pastor of Host after his re- 
turn from Philadelphia and is buried 

The Leitbecker strife continued from 
the time that man assumed the pastor- 
ate of the church until his death. But 
that did not end it. Some, no doubt, 
were inclined in advance to side with the 
Moravians. But when Zinzendorf cahie 
claiming to be a Lutheran Superintend- 
ent, some of the more influential lead- 
ers fell in with him and secured the con- 
trol of affairs to such an extent that a 
half a dozen or more Moravian pastors 
were placed over the church, the first 



ones being ordained by Zinzendorf at 
his Synod in Oley. For about five or 
six years they seem to have had entire 
control. But in 1747 when J. M. Hurtz 
had become pastor at Christ, upon the 
occasion of the untimely death of Leon- 
ard Reed, did a Lutheran pastor again 
enter and occupy its pulpit. But it was 
only in 1755 that the rightful owners 
again secured full control of their own 
property, the Moravians then being com- 
pelled by the court to return the deed to 
its rightful owners. Hermanns Wal- 
born made the trip to Bethlehem and 
brought back the document. The Rec- 
ords seem to have been forgotten by all 
parties. What there was of them, and 
they are very brief, are still there. 

Now both churches enjoyed a long 
period of peace and prosperity. Rev. 
J. N. Hurtz, D. D., served them between 
twenty-three and twenty-four years. 
Rev. Christopher Emanuel Schultze a 
little more than thirty-eight rears. Dur- 
ing a part of this time, eight to ten years, 
he was assisted by his son John Andrew 
Schultze. Having become disabled and 
having quit the ministry, he settled at 
Myerstown and appears prominent in the 
work of establishing new congregations. 

The field being large and ])romising, 
seemed a very desirable one. Whether 
this had anything to do with the diiifi- 
culty in agreeing upon a successor we 
are not able to sa}-. But the opposition 
to the candidate proposed and voted for, 
a young licentiate, became so strong that 
he dared not accept at once. And thus 
two years were passed. Then Synod 
directed another election held. At this 
election a bare majority of the congrega- 
tion, six, again elected the young man. 
Womelsdorf absolutely refused him. but 
accepted him about ten years later. 
Schaefiferstown, Warwick (Brickerville) 
and White Oak also declined to unite in 
the call. Myerstown, the western part, 
and apparently the most energetic por- 
tion of Christ church, also positively re- 
fused him and at once took steps to form 
a separate organization and build a 
church. It might perhaps be said that, 
since Myerstown was a thriving village, 

and at least three miles from the parent 
church, it might have been proper to 
build a church, to organize a new con- 
gregation, as well as to establish a new 
parish without any strife. We think it 
would have been eminently proper to do 
so. There was abundant room and work 
for two pastors. We greatly fear that 
there is still something of the selfish 
spirit which then caused the large con- 
gregations to violently override all oppo- 
sition and which really brought about 
the clash, left there. 

As Friedens congregation is about to 
publish an oiificial history in which the 
larger part of the original documents 
and papers will no doubt appear, it will 
be unnecessary to dwell upon many of 
the minor details. This detailed history 
was prepared by the pastor and was to 
have been published simultaneously with 
the celebration of the centennial of the 
congregation. It will he sufficient to say 
that in a statement read before a meeting 
of the Lutherans in and around Myers- 
town, June 23. t8tt, the grounds of com- 
plaint, and their determination not to ac- 
cept the services of the man to whom 
they are so averse, are clearly and fully 
set forth. They therefore determined to 
purchase ground for a cemeterv and for 
a church ; to erect the church : to con- 
cede to the Reformed the ri^ht of burial 
and the use of the church when not 
needed by themselves: as soon as suf- 
ficient funds are in sight to begin build- 
ing. A full church council, including 
Trustees, was elected. Nearlv $1,800.00 
were subscribed. At the two services 
of cornerstone lavin<x and dedication the 
collections amounted to more thin 
$425.00. The cornerstone was laid Anril 
2.^. 1812. Fa'^tors present: Lutheran, 
Rev. Wm. B. Baetis, past. loc. : Rev. T- 
H. Von Hoff, Jonestown, Bindnagels, 
&c. ; Reformed, Rev. Hendel. Tulne- 
hocken. and Rev. Philip Gloninsrer. The 
doctrinal statement is very explici*^ in its 
declaration of adhesion to the confessions 
of the church, and the pastor is solemnly 
lx)und to conform his teachings thereto. 
No record of the dedication seems to 
have been made. The building was of 
stone 55x36, with tower and bell. Soon 



after an organ costing $800.00 was 
placed in it. 

The Reformed, who hitherto had Iiad 
no churcli of their own in town, having 
within the past few years erected a fine, 
commodious and costly churcli on the 
opposite side of the street, this congrega- 
tion saw that it would be very desirable 
for them to have a larger and more con- 
venient church building. Jan. 17, 1857, 
a congregational meeting decided tiiat 
the work should be undertaken. The 
statement ]ilaccd into the cornerstone, 
laid Aug. 16, 1857, recited all the facts 
of their past history, and renewed the 
pledge of adhesion to the confessions in 
even more explicit language. It is signed 
by the pastor, Rev. L. G. Eggers, Rev. 
H. L. Miller. Lebanon, Rev. John Stein, 
Jonestown, the Building Committee and 
the church council. The audience cham- 
ber was dedicated in the fall of 1858, and 
the basement or lecture room Jan., 1859, 
when Dr. C. F. Schaeffer and Rev. Peter 
Anstadt. both of Gettysburg, were the 
speakers. Quite a number of improve- 
ments and changes have been made since, 
a larger organ furnished, &c., so that 
now they have a church which, with 
needed repairs, should answer their pur- 
poses for one or several centuries more. 

The congregation also had its unpleas- 
ant experiences. At the time when New 
Measurism was rampant and some of 
the sects were manifest in a pernicious 
activity some of their newly made con- 
verts proposed to hang on and claim the 
rights of membership, so that they might 
associate with the members, introduce 
their preachers at funerajs, so aa to 
alienate members of the congregation 
and finally bring them over to them- 
selves. It seems almost amazing that 
people claiming to be real Christians, 
and of specially deep piety, cannot per- 
ceive that the man who tries by trick- 
ery to get among his neighbor's sheep 
so that they may become used to his 
voice and gradually be led to pasture 
in his fielfl. so that they mav eventually 
become mixed up with his fiock. that in 
the end he may claim them as his own. 
is not, as some of those would fain per- 
suade themselves, a very charitable or 

a very liberal man, but he is a very or- 
dinary and a very mean thief. 

At a later period another Lutheran 
body, occupying the same territory, en- 
deavored to smuggle in a pastor, under 
pretence of earnest fidelity to the con- 
fessions. He was expected thus to win 
the afifections of these people and then 
lead them over into his own organization. 
The schemers were not aware that nearly- 
all our Germans understand enough 
English to know what is going on at 
Conference. It was overheard and com- 
municated to one of the correspondents 
of the church papers, who published all 
of the detailed plan. That ended the 

Although there have been some pas- 
toral changes. Friedens has had com- 
paratively few of them. The shortest 
pastorates were those of Dr. G. F. Krotel 
and Rev. T. T. Jaeger. Rev, Baetis, 
the first pastor, who afterwards held 
the office of Senior of the ]\Iinisterium, 
and w-as the last of the five men to hold 
that office, served the congregation from 
1811-24; Dr. Wm. G. Ernst. 1824-49; 
Dr. G. F. Krotel, 1849-52; Rev. T. T. 
Jaeger. 1852-^5 ; Rev. L. G. Eggers, 
1855-67; Dr. F.\l. F. Schantz, 1867-1907, 
and Rev. E. A. Youse since that time. 
Dr. Schantz had, for a number of years, 
cherished the pleasing hope of celebrat- 
ing the 50th anniversary of his entrance 
upon the ministry as well as the 40th an- 
niversary of his pastorate during 1907. 
But Providence willed otherwise and he 
was called home less than 6 months be- 
fore the anticipated event. 

A German school, controlled by the 
members of the congregation, was also 
kept up for a number of years, in fact 
it existed some time before the congre- 
gation was organized. The school house 
was erected in 1805 and was owned by 
the congregation until 1852. It was sup- 
ported by church funds. Two trustees, 
the one a Lutheran and the other a mem- 
ber of the Reformed church, were elected 
annually. From 1852 until October, 
1856. when the legislature passed an act 
authorizing its sale ; it was used as a sex- 
ton's house. The proceeds of the sale 
were used to purchase additional ground 



for burial purposes. The ground thus 
secured was for the use of members 
within a circuit of 3 miles of the town. 
As was frequently the case in schools 
of this kind, some strange regulations 
were adopted. One of these regulations 
prescribed that each subscriber entitled 
to the benefits of the school was to de- 
liver 200 pounds of hay to the teacher 
annually. This was adopted by the far- 
mer patrons of the school in 1821. The 
one who pastured the teacher's cow was 
to receive from each patron 5 shillings 
per week. There are 26 signatures to 
this. The site of the old school house, 
on the south side of Main street, near 
the middle from east to west, is now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Groh. Almost directly 
opposite, on the north side of the street, 
is the house formerly owned and occu- 
pied by John Andrew Schultze as a resi- 
dence and a store. It was here that he 
began his political career. 

This congregation has also owned a 
fine parsonage, a double house, well 
built, a short distance east of the 
Schultz house and the old school house 

since 1867. Like the church it has 
the advantage of electric lights, and it 
is equipped with all other necessary con- 
veniences. The centennial celebration 
was held in the beautiful church on the 
fourth Sunday in June, 1912. On the 
following days Rev. F. P. Mayser, D. D., 
delivered a German sermon on vSunday; 
Dr. Schmauck preached an English ser- 
mon on the same day. Addresses were 
also made by Revs. Branson Richards 
and A. T. Michler of Lebanon. During 
the weekday evening services the speak- 
ers were Rev. W. H. Myers, Reading, 
Rev. J. H. Umbenhen, Ph. D., Pottsville, 
Revs. J. J. Kline, Ph. D.. and VV. H. 
Kline, West Hazleton (brothers)— all of 
them confirmed in Frieden's church, pro- 
teges of Dr. Schantz. and Rev. E. A. 
Yehl, Bangor, Pa., also claimed as a pro- 
tege of Dr. Schantz. If the town of 
Mverstown continues to develop during 
next century as it has during the past 
fifty years Friedens should have several 
daughters to celebrate the next centennial 
with her. 

Hornbostel A notable recent 

a Noted achievement by a 

Architect German-Am erica n 

architect is the New 
York State Education Building which 
was dedicated at Albany, Oct., 15-17, 
19 1 2. The building, which is classic in 
design is 590 feet in length and the main 
buikling is 125 feet wide. A wing which 
contains the book stack and main read- 
ingroom of the State Library extends 
back an additional 150 feet. Along the 
front extends a colonnade considerably 
more tlian 500 feet in length with col- 
umns 65 feet in height, the whole form- 
ing one of the largest colonnades in the 

The building is occu])ied exclusively 
by the Education Department of the State 
which includes in addition to its jurisdic- 
tion over the public educational institu- 

tions of the state, a general supervision 
of professional licenses of all kinds and 
which also includes among its divisions 
the State Library and the State Museum. 
The architect was Mr. Henr}- Horn- 
bostel, of the firm of Palmer, Hornbostel 
& Jones, of New York city. The firm 
were also architects of the Carnegie 
Technical schools of Pittsburgh and of 
the Memorial Building of the University 
of Pittsburgh. Mr. Hornbostel is a na- 
tive of Brooklyn and in addition to his 
professional connections in New York 
city he is also dean of the Carnegie Tech- 
nical School of Pittsburgh. The design 
for tlie New York Educational Building 
was selected as the best design submitted 
in a competition open to architects 
througliout the entire country. — P. K. 

The Story of the Big Runaway 

By Caroline M. Heltman, Lock Haven, Pa. 

Winner of $25.00 Prize in Jacob K. Huff Essay Contest, Donated by Henry W, Shoemaker. 

We take pleasure in giving publicity to this 
paper — as a recognition of the work done by 
]\liss Heltman and as a pointer to teachers, 
pupils and friends of education. More such 
work should be done. 

rHE years of 1777-78 were distress- 
ing ones in the history of Central 
Pennsylvania. The bloody deeds 
that were being committed by the In- 
dians cast a gloom over the infant settle- 
ments and terrorized the inhabitants. 

Accounts of the ravages of the Indians 
were sent daily to the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council, until at last they decided 
that something must be done for the pro- 
tection of the people. Colonel Hunter, 
one of the commanders of the forts, who 
was tired of the long delay on the part 
of the Supreme Executive Council, de- 
cided at last to petition Congress, and in 
his message he stated many distressing 
incidents, of women and children run- 
ning to places of safety, while the men 
went out to meet and repel the foe. It 
was indeed distressing, for all the Jersey 
people, who had settled in this section, 
had fled back to their former homes leav- 
ing comparatively none to guard the 
forts. He urged Congress to take 
speedy action in their behalf. Soon pro- 
visions were received, but their most 
needed supplies, arms and ajmmunition, 
were found wanting. It was decided to 
put the aged and young people in com- 
mand of "the smaller forts. The people 
were not aware of the terrible massacres 
that were taking place in the up-river 
valleys, but they knew the Indians were 
seen frequently at Great Island. 

When the great massacre of the 10th 
of June, 1778. became noised about the 
excitement of the people was greatly 
increased, but they determined to hold 
on a little longer and wait for help. In 
the meantime Colonel Hunter wrote 
again to Congress telling of their ina- 

bility to defend themselves. The last 
petition had some weight with the Su- 
preme Executive Council, but they were 
very slow in taking action. With the 
enemy at the door, it was hard for the 
inhabitants to wait for assistance, and 
time seemed long to them. 

There is one particular incident con- 
nected with the Indian invasion, which 
deserves mention. Job Chilloway, a 
friendly Indian, early gave notice to the 
whites of the intended invasion, and 
warned them to be on their guard. He 
appeared on the opposite side of the river 
from Reed's Fort where Lock Haven 
now stands, and made anxious signs for 
some one to ferry him across, but the 
commander of the fort hesitated. Soon 
a woman jumped into a canoe, paddled 
over and brought the Indian across. He 
proved to be a friendly Indian, and had 
traveled a long distance to warn the set- 
tlers of the hostile band of savages who- 
were preparing for murder and pillage. 
After he had related his story he lay 
down to rest, for he was tired from his 
long journey. After he was asleep an 
intoxicated man by the name of DeWitt 
shot him. The people of the fort who 
had realized the goodness of the Indian 
considered this a great ingratitude 
toward him. DeWitt, realizing his 
danger, took to his heels and fled, and 
nothing more was ever heard of him, 
but it is supposed that he probably re- 
ceived his retribution, and fell by the re- 
morseless toinahawk. 

The blow came at last. A strong force 
of Indians, Tories, and British attacked 
the settlers at Wyoming on July 3, 1778, 
and defeated them with heavy loss. 
When Colonel Hunter heard of this great 
massacre, he immediately ordered all the 
troops from that part of the country, 
and Colonel Hepburn's troops to go im- 
mediately to Fort Augusta,, for Congress 




had not supplied men and means to pro- 
vide himself, for that was the only one 
alternative left him. 

Colonel Hepburn obeyed orders 
promptly. ■Messengers were dispatched 
to the points where the people were col- 
lected to warn them to flee. It was hard 
to secure a man who could carry the news 
to tlie upper forts at Jersey Shore and 
Lock Haven, but at last a man named 
Covenhaven and his companion volun- 
teered to undertake the risk. They knew 
the paths of the Indians, and they would 
travel on the top of the mon'^ti'ns, so 
they could see if there were any Indians 
in sight. As they neared the gap at 
Antes Fort they heard a report of a rifle, 
and upon investigation they learned that 
an Indian had shot a girl who was niilk- 
ing a cow, but he had missed her. 

When they received the warning the 
work of preparing for the exodus com- 
menced. Canoes, rafts and all manner of 
floats were hastily collected with women, 
children, household effects and pro- 
visions. In many instances where all 
household utensils and other articles 
could not be taken along they buried 
them, and when they returned years 
later, they found them in a pretty good 
state of preservation. As the fleets 
moved down the river, the men walked 
along the shore with trusty rifles, in or- 
der to protect themselves. 

Later Covenhaven returned home to 
assist his own family to get away. The 
excitement which prevailed among the 
people of this time, was indescribable. 
Many drove their stock and hurried 

them down the river by the public road. 
Fear lent wings to everyone in his flight. 
No one considered himself safe. 

Covenhaven accompanied his father's 
family to Sunbury and then hurried 
back in a keel boat for their household 
furniture. As he was rounding a point 
in the river about Lewisburg, he met 
the main fleet, which was descending 
from the forts above. "Such a sight," 
he says, *T never saw in my life." Boats, 
canoes, hog-troughs hastily made of dry 
sticks, every sort of floating article had 
been put in requisition and were crowded 
with women, children and plunder. 

Had it not been for the armed force 
which marched along the shores to pro- 
tect the women and children, who were 
in the floats, the Indians would likely 
have attacked, and caused them great 
disaster. In a day or two the valleys 
were abandoned, and homes and ripening- 
harvests left to the mercy of the foe. 
Those in the rear could see the sky red- 
dened at night by the glare of burning 
houses and barns. The scene was one 
of appalling grandeur and the impres- 
sion made on the minds of those who 
witnessed it, especially the young, was so 
vivid that it never was forgotten, but like 
some hideous spectre of evil, was always 
before them to haunt their memories. 

This remarkable and exciting event 
which stands without a parallel in the 
annals of pioneer times, is what is known 
in history as the "Big Runaway." It 
marked an epoch in the early develop- 
ment of the counties of the West Branch 

Engines "It was in Germany 

Developed that the first practical 

in Germany gas engine was 

evolved. It was a 
German who invented and developed the 
Diesel oil engine which has practically 
displaced the steam engine, not merely 
for use on land but for the propulsion of 
ships. Also, it was a German who 

recently developed the small steam 
engine to such a point that the gas engine 
and the oil engine have almost given way 
to it. As a result there has developed 
across the water an interesting three- 
corner contest for supremacy between 
these various types of prime movers," 
states. The Technical World. — From 
Business for Sept., 191 2. 

The Dialect of the Boers 

By Charles W. Super, Athens, Ohio. 

HERE has recently come 
into my hands a small 
volume entitled Die Spra- 
che der Buren, by Dr. 
Phil. Meyer. Altho print- 
ed some ten years ago, as 
it deals with a subject 
that has received very little attention at 
the hands of students of language, it 
may not be without interest to set forth 
the salient facts of its contents together 
with some other matters bearing upon 
the general question. 1 have been un- 
able to find anything in French or Eng- 
lish and very little in German besides the 
book before me devoted specifically to 
the linguistic phase of the South African 
question. It presents some interesting 
and a few apparently unique and in- 
explicable phenomena in the develop- 
ment of language. 

The history of the Dutch settlements 
in that portion of the globe is briefly as 
follows. In 1648 a Dutch ship was 
wrecked near Table Bay. The crew, 
finding themselves obliged to await the 
arrival of the next vessel which might be 
a long time, decided to raise grain and 
vegetables for their maintenance. They 
were in this way enabled to test the 
quality of the soil and the results proved 
very satisfactory. On their return to 
Holland some years later two of the sur- 
vivors placed the facts before the Am- 
sterdam chamber of commerce and ad- 
vised the planting of a colony in that 
part of the world. The body decided 
to take favorable action, and in Decem- 
ber 16.1; I dispatched three ships supplied 
with the necessary grains and agricul- 
tural implements. The fleet reached its 
destination in the following April where- 
upon the leader of the expedition. Jan 
van Riebeek, issued a proclamation tak- 
ing possession of the territory in the 
name of the mother country. The 
colony was thus neither a government 
nor a strictly private enterprise ; it was 

a company project and the immigrants 
were under obligations to carry out the 
plans of the Amsterdam company. Its 
main purpose was to establish a station 
for Dutch ships passing around the Cape 
of Good Hope on their way to India. 
After the colonists had fulfilled their 
contract and served out their time, those 
who desired were permitted to remain as 
free citizens. Riebeek soon found that 
the freemen were not sufficient in num- 
bers to properly exploit the country ; he 
therefore began to provide himself with 
slaves. In 1657 he reported the inhabi- 
tants as consisting of 80 men in the 
garrison, 15 sick or disabled, 51 free 
men, and 20 white- women and children, 
or a total of 166 white. In addition to 
these there were about two hundred 

In the next three or four decades the 
colony was increased by two elements. 
The first consisted of Germans who left 
their country on account of the wretched 
conditions due chiefly to the Thirty 
Years' War. The second was French. 
In consequence of the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in 1685. which, however, 
made the status of French Protestants 
but little worse than it had been for at 
least half a century preceding, many of 
them left their native land to make for 
themselves homes in foreign parts where 
they could exercise their religion un- 
molested by the government. During the 
years 1688 and '89 nearly a hundred 
Huguenot families migrated to the Cape. 
It was the descendants of these families 
who bore the French names so often met 
with in the annals of the recent Boer 
war. At the beginning of the eighteenth 
century Peter Kolbe was sent by the 
Prussian government to the Cape for the 
purpose of making astronomical ob- 
servations. In his report which was 
published in 1719 he gives the follow- 
ing figures for the population. Ger- 
mans. 745; Dutch. 434; French, 72. In 




addition to these there were 275 of other 
nationaHties consisting of Swedes, Danes, 
Norwegians, Swiss, Belgians and a few 
others, making a total of 1,526 inhabi- 
tants. There is evidently an error in the 
figures for the French contingent ; but 
its cause cannot be detected. Although 
the Germans had the numerical prepon- 
derance they were for the most part men 
somewhat advanced in life who had been 
tossed about on the waves of adverse 
fortune; consequently they had but little 
influence on the moral and economic life 
of the country. The Huguenots, on the 
other hand were persons of good repute, 
— industrious, efficient, enterprising and 
intelligent. They were families who had 
brought with them all their worldly 
effects with a view to making a perma- 
nent home in the new country. Al- 
though they so rapidly forgot their 
native tongue that by 1724 religious ser- 
vices in French discontinued in Paarl 
the principal Huguenot settlement, their 
wholesome influence has continued to the 
present day, as has that of their co-re- 
ligionists in every land where they made 
their homes. The number of slaves in 
the colony was relatively large from the 
first as we have seen. These were blacks. 
Besides these there were many Malays 
who were Mahommedans. At a very 
early period in the history of the colony 
marriages between blacks and whites 
were prohibited by law. It is well known 
moreover that the mixed races of South 
Africa contain very little white blood. 

When the Europeans arrived at the 
Cape they found the country occupied 
by Bushmen and Hottentots. The for- 
mer were on the lowest rung of civili- 
zation and have advanced but little in 
two hundred years. The Hottentots 
were peacefully inclined and devoted to 
the raising of cattle, both of which facts 
have remained true of them to the 
present day. Those who settled near 
the Boers gradually gave up their ver- 
nacular and acquired the speech of the 
whites. It is only in the far interior 
that the Hottentot tongues are still in 
use. About T740 some of the Bantu 
tribes, generally known as Kafirs, — un- 
believers from the Mohammedan point 

of view, — came into conflict with them, 
but not with the whites until some forty 
years later. These Kafirs have been a 
source of trouble to the Europeans ever 
since. They are good fighters, and have 
from time to time engaged in petty wars 
with the whites that were in several 
instances successful for a tune. Since 
they are no longer permitted to deci- 
mate one another by internecine warfare 
they have increased rapidly. They pos- 
sess much native ability, readily learn 
several foreign languages, are capable 
workmen, and are well adapted to a cli- 
mate that is on the whole somewhat un- 
friendly to Europeans. When the Cape 
territory passed into ' the possession of 
the English in 1795 the population was 
reckoned at 85,000, of which number 
25,000 were free white. Except for a 
brief interval, the country has not 
changed hands since this date. Although 
the colonists had frequent disputes with 
the Dutch government, that of England 
proved to be particularly obnoxious on 
account of its efforts to put into effect 
the theory of equal rights long recog- 
nized as one of its fundamental princi- 
ples. In 1828 the Hottentots were given 
the same legal status with the whites. 
Ten years later all slaves were declared 
free by an act of Parliament. This em- 
poverished many of the Boers because 
very little white labor was to be had for 
tilling the plantations. The constant in- 
terference of the English with their 
home affairs brought about the great 
"trek" of 1835. Many of the Boers 
abandoned their real estate and moved 
northward with their personal property 
in order to get beyond the English pale. 
In this they were successful for a short 
time only, their enemies always follow- 
ing them up and annexing their territory. 
It will be evident from these facts that 
their intercourse with the English "had 
no little influence in attaching the Boers 
firmly to their native dialect since the 
language of their oppressors was the 
only one that threatened to supplant it. 
In 1909 the total population included 
within the Union of South Africa was 
about five and a half millions. Of this 
number one-fifth were whites. I have 



not been able to iind any statistics giving 
the relative proportion of Dutch and 
English inhabitants. 

It seems essential to put before the 
leader this brief historical record in 
order to give him an insight into the con- 
ditions under which the speech of the 
Boers was developed. It is probable 
that nowhere else has a dialect been pro- 
duced under similar circumstances. 
There is after all a good deal of mystery 
connected with the process. 

Unfortunately there are at present no 
documents accessible of earlier date than 
1861. Yet according to the scant testi- 
mony available the dialect was virtually 
what it is now nearly two hundred years 
ago. Not only does it contain a con- 
siderable number of words not found in 
the Dutch and not of local provenience, 
but the inflectional endings of the parent 
speech have so nearly all been dropped 
that the distinction between the dif- 
ferent classes of words is exhibited 
almost entirely by their use. The 
article is always di and substantives are 
not distinguished by gender while in this 
respect the parent Dutch runs nearly 
parallel with the German, although the 
article has but two forms while the 
German has three. The process of 
simplification has been carried to the 
farthest possible extreme. It must 
furthermore be considered remarkable 
that the dialect is uniform throughout 
the entire region in which it is used 
although so small a country as Holland 
exhibits considerable diversity in its local 
peculiarities. The losses that many Boer 
words have suffered are attributed by 
some to English influence, 'j'his is very 
improbable because they had already 
taken place before the'Englisli language 
came into collision with it. Xor can it 
be charged to the French as the evident 
traces of this language are few, and the 
number of French people in the Cape 
territory was never sufiicientlv large to 
produce a marked effect. After con- 
sidering .these and other explanations 
and pronouncing them all unsatisfactory 
Dr. Meyer proposes a theory of his own 
that has much plausibility. In view of 
the fact that it more nearly approxi- 

mates to the regional peculiarities of the 
speech of Amsterdam and vicinity than 
that of any other portion of the Nether- 
lands he believes that this dialect has 
been transplanted to South Africa by 
the first colonists. He admits that the 
evidence is indirect for the reason that 
it never was a written but merely a 
spoken tongue. Only a native of this 
part of Holland would be in position to 
furnish wholly reliable testimony. What 
was written in Dutch in the Cape region 
was modeled after the printed i)age as 
nearly as the writer could do so. It was 
more or less divergent, but it was not 

It seems to me we have a somewhat 
similar case in the Pennsylvania German. 
This dialect mare closely resembles that 
of the Palatinate than any other. But 
it differs widely from the High German. 
All the Pennsylvania Germans who 
could read became somewhat familiar 
with Luther's Bible and the hymn book 
and could understand their contents ; but 
outside of these books the literary langu- 
age was virtually an unknown tongue. 
If the German immigrants into the Key- 
stone state who were moreover never 
quite out of touch with the mother coun- 
try and who always had among them a 
few men of scholarly tastes, maintained 
the patois of their forefathers for more 
than a century and a half with only such 
additions as their new surroundings 
made indispensable, it is not surprising 
that the Cape Dutch, cut off entirely as 
they were from Europe, should generate 
a peculiar tongue. Furthermore, as the 
English government systematically dis- 
couraged the native speech of the Boers, 
it was natural that they, both on account 
of their history and their dislike of the 
English whom they regarded as oppres- 
sors, should cling more and more ten- 
aciously to their native speech, and make 
them resist all efforts to compel them to 
give it up. absurd as such a feeling is. 

For nearly fifty years there has been 
a Boer party in South Africa that has 
striven to make propaganda for the 
native dialect by the publication of 
articles in newspapers and by the is- 
suance of pamphlets, endeavoring by 



these means to raise it to the dignity of a 
literary language. A considerable num- 
ber of lyrics have also appeared from 
time to time and repeated efforts were 
made to translate the Bible into the Cape 
Dutch. But this important undertaking 
seems never to have got beyond the end 
of Genesis. In the very nature of the 
case all these efforts are destined to fail- 
ure. The history of all languages is 
evidence that unless there underlies them 
a literature they cannot maintain them- 
selves permanently. The Boers who de- 
sire to keep abreast of the knowledge of 
the times, or to familiarize themselves 
witli the literature of their ancestors, are 
compelled to learn the Dutch as written 
in Holland. No information of any kind 
except what is purely local can be 
obtained through the medium of the 
Cape Dutch. It has no value for edu- 
cation or for mental development. 
Whenever a writer or speaker wishes to 
get beyond the limited range of local 
experiences with what he has to say he 
must employ either the Dutch proper or 
the English. Similar efforts have been 
made by a few enthusiasts to give a mea- 
sure of dignity to the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man. But when they wish to discuss 
anything except the every day affairs of 
rural life they have to resort to the New 
High German and to the use of words 
which persons with no education would 
not understand. A language must grow 
from within ; it can not be cultivated by 
mere conscious effort like a plant. 

It would serve no useful purpose to 
set forth some of the salient character- 
istics of the Boer patois without adding 
the means for comparison. I shall 
therefore note some of the divergences 
of the two languages. We are perhaps 
not justified in calling the differences 
divergences from the older speech ; they 
may be an independent growth extending 
back to a period anterior to written 
records. I shall say nothing about the 
pronunciation because it is difficult to 
represent graphically and would re(|uire 
a great deal of space. The definite 
article in Dutch is Norn. dc. de. het ; 
Gen. des. der, des ; Dat. den, der. den; 
Ace. den. de. het. In the Cape Dutch 

di represents all these forms in both the 
singular and the plural. The plural 
ending of nouns in Dutch is usually -en, 
but some words have — s. In the Boer 
Dutch, — s occupies the entire field, the 
few exceptions being — e. This phe- 
nomenon is of wide extent ; it seems to 
represent a general tendency. Although 
there are^ many words in Latin that do 
not form their plural in this way ; when 
they passed into French and Spanish the 
ending s of the third declension usurped 
almost the whole field. While it may be 
true that for centuries the final — s in 
French has not been pronounced, this 
omission is a comparatively late inno- 
vation. The English compared with the 
Anglo-Saxon also exhibits this marked 
tendency toward this final letter. The 
personal pronoun in Dutch is thus de- 
clined. Nom. ik; Gen. mijns; Dat. mij ; 
Ace. mij. Plural Nom. gij ; Gen. uws; 
Dat. u; Plur. Nom. wij ; Gen. onzer; 
Dat. ons ; Ace. ons. The second person 
is gij, uws, u, u for the four cases ; in the 
plural, gij, uwer, u, u. Instead of the 
Gen. and Dat. forms the Ace. with van 
and aan are much more common. The 
following are the forms of the third 
person : 

Nom. hij (he), zij (she), het (it), 
Gen. (zijns), or van hem, (barer) or 
van haar, van het, Dat. hem or aan hem, 
haar or aan haar, het or aan het. Ace. 
hem, haar, het. 

Nom. ■ zij (they), zij (they), zij 
(they), Gen. (hunner) or van hen, 
(barer) or van haar. same as Alas. 

Dat. hun or aan hen, haar or aan 
haar, hun or aan, hen Ace. hen, haar, 

The Ace. sometimes has :^e for all 
three genders. The plural of the second 
Person Sing, du, dijns, dijn, the relation 
of which to the English is evident, has 
gone entirely out of use. Its place has 
been usurped even more fully than in 
English by the plural. The Dutch forms 
enclosed in brackets above are almost 
obsolete. The divergence of the Cape 
Dutch pronouns from the wriften Dutch 
is wide and therefore remarkable. 

The Nominatives are ek or even 'k 
(T), jy or je (thou), the Accusatives are 



myn or my, jou or je, horn, haar, dit. In 
the plural, the Nominatives are ons 
(we), julle or pille (ye). 

The Accusatives are the same as the 
Nominatives, not only in the first and 
■second persons but even in the third. 
The* forms are as follows : hulle, some- 
times haarli and sullc meaning 'they' 
<ind 'them'. There is furthermore a 
marked tendency to avoid the second 
person singular, a style of address that 
may be often noticed in the speech of 
all children. Thus "Pa het fer my be 
owe, Pa sal fer my een fan Pa syn perde 
ge". i. e., Papa has promised me, papa 
shall for me of papa his horses give. The 
Infin. ending en common to both Dutch 
and German has. for the most part been 
dropped, although in a few verbs the — e 
still perdures. Some verbs are yet fur- 
ther shortened, as he for hebben (have), 
se for zeggen (say). The Dutch heb- 
ben is thus conjugated in the three per- 
sons: Sing, ik heb. gij hebt, hij heeft ; 
Plur. wij hebben. gij hebt, zij hebben. 
The Boer verb, on the other hand has 
"het' for all persons and numbers. The 
verb zijn in the Holland Dutch has the 
following forms in the three persons 
and numbers: Sing, ik ben. gij zijt, he 
is; Plur. wij zijn. gij zijt, zij zijn. The 
Boer verb has 'is' for all persons and 
numbers. Almost the only deviation 
from the root is made by the addition of 
the prefix ge — used with the Participle, 
but placed before the Infin. We thus 
get 'bring' for brengen and 'gebring' for 
gebracht (brought). Furthermore. 

■nouns are often employed as adjectives 
in such expressions as "ek is honger, 
dors", i. e. T am hungry, thirstv. etc. 
This may be due to French influence 
with the verb 'to be' substituted for 'to 
liave'. A large number of diminutives 
Tiave been formed, but their use has been 
extended far beyond their proper sphere. 
?s kopi or kopji (konje), boompi (a 
little tree), but also huisi (a house), 
froutji (wife), and many more. 

The most 7ioteworthv ch'^racteristics 
of the P)Oer (It mav be well to say in 
this connection that the Dutch word 
P>oers is the German Raueru. that is far- 
mers.) dialect have been given above. 

It is doubtful whether there is another 
on the face of the earth so simple and so 
easy to learn. The process of elimi- 
nating all that can possibly be dispensed 
with has been carried to the utmost limit. 
It is largely a monosyllabic tongue with- 
out the usual characteristics that dis- 
tinguish this class of languages fmm all 

Some historians have chronicled the 
belief that German might have become 
the official language of Pennsylvania. 
The fact is there never was the slightest 
])robability. Tlicre is something almost 
miraculous in the progress of tlie i'-ng- 
lish tongue. In Shakespeare's time, 
that is when the colonies began their 
existence in the northern portions of the 
United States, there were not six mil- 
lion persons who spoke his language ; at 
present there are not far from one hun- 
dred and fifty millions. Wherever Eng- 
lish has obtained a foothold it has dis- 
placed all other languages. It has grad- 
ually been doing so not only in South 
Africa, but in Hawaii, in Australia, in 
Canada, and elsewhere. Outside of the 
Fatherland German has not made much 
progress as we may see even in the con- 
tiguous territory of Alsace-Lorraine and 
Poland. Until recently the Chinese 
government permitted students who 
wished to learn a foreign language to 
choose either French or German : it ha? 
now put aside both in favor of English. 
In several parts of the world societies 
have been formed for the maintenance 
of German speech : and while they have 
met with some success the tide is slowly 
goinjj against them. A few months ago 
a bill was introduced in the Ohio legis- 
lature making the teaching of German 
obligatorv when fortv per cent, of the 
patrons desire it. but it was lost. In the 
Southwest similar attempts have been 
made in favor of Snanish, with little 
success. .Although English is difficult 
to learn well it is comparatively easy to 
acquire for ordinary purposes. The day 
is not far distant when everybody who 
wishes to learn a foreign language in ad- 
dition to his own will choose English. 
Xo special effort is being made by any- 
body to pusli it. it moves forward from 



conquest to conquest by a sort of innate 
force. Whether we welcome or deplore 

that fact, it is useless to close our eyes 
to the evidence. 

Martin Luther Yesterday many ser- 
Tremendous mons dealt with Lu- 

Teuton ther, and necessarily 

with the great contro- 
versies of the Reformation period. It is 
not our purpose to speak of doctrines 
whereon theologians have debated since 
before Augustine's birth, but to comment 
on Luther, the German, may one not say 
the German of Germans? 

When it is considered that a century 
ago nearly all the best lectures in law, 
medicine, divinity and science were de- 
livered in Latin, — one may feebly im- 
agine the intellectual supremacy of Latin 
in the Middle Ages. There were Ger- 
mans, scholars and thinkers, who would 
have deemed it shameful to speak in a 
college hall or a royal presence except in 
Latin. Long after Shakespeare and 
Dryden, after Swift had written and 
Burke had spoken, Samuel Johnson said 
that he would not degrade Westminster 
Abbey by an inscription in English. 
Frederick the Great's father taught his 
son French that he might converse with 
traveling nobles, he let him pick up his 
native tongue from servants. Many of 
Luther's contemporaries looked on a 
Bible in German with the contempt that 
we should feel if Lord Clarendon's mar- 
velous character portraits were re-writ- 
ten in the parlance of the Bowery. 

In an age that held German as the 
speech of the taverns and the sheepfolds, 
Luther brought forth the masterpiece of 
German literature. The noblest scholar- 
ship of England produced the King 
James' version, while the Titanic Teuton 
wrought out the messages of prophets. 

the reasoning of apostles, the law of 
Moses and the parables of Jesus into the 
language that had not wakened to its 
own possibilities. Logic and passion, 
narrative and description, the wild joy of 
Deborah after victory, the fierce protest 
of Job against unjust censure, all this 
and far more so amazes the reader that 
he half fancies the Bible a German book. 
Friend and foe saw that there had arisen 
a German who had found that his lan- 
guage could reproduce the Hebrew elo- 
quence of Isaiah, and the Greek of St. 
John's last days. 

After Luther came Schiller with his 
exquisite poems, and Goethe with his all- 
embracing budget. If to-day men on 
their brief vacations laugh over German 
comedies, or relish the novels of Auer- 
bach ; if gray-haired professors delve 
again into Kant and Lotze ; if the science 
and art of Germany are eagerly sought 
by English and French speaking critics, 
it was the giant Teuton who laid the 
'foundation for the inexhaustible Ger- 
man press of to-day. The highest schol- 
arship praises the noble rendering of 
Shakespeare into German, — would it 
have been made had not a Book grander 
than Shakespeare appeared in the Teu- 
ton's tongue? 

When Rome was sinking, St. Jerome 
translated the Scriptures into Latin, and 
the Vulgate is one of the world's treas- 
ures. Luther was verily a sponsor for 
his language. It may be that Scheres- 
chewsky's Chinese version of the Bible 
will prove to be the greatest book of mod- 
ern times? — R. Ringwalt. in Camden- 
Post-Telcgroin, Nov. it, 1912. 

Tombstone Inscriptions, Bernville, Pa. 

Inscriptions from the tombstones in 
the burial grounds at Bernville, Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, of those persons 
born prior to the year 1801 (including a 
few special cases showing persons born 
several years later), arranged alphabeti- 
cally for convenient reference, which 
arrangement includes reference to the 
maiden names of married women where 

Albright, Elizabeth — See Jacob Kauf- 
Babb, Daniel b. Jan'y 29, 1795; d. Jan'y 
T). i860; m. in 1816 Sara Gottschall. 
b. Jan'y 15, 1797; died Jan'y 11, 1874; 
4 s. & 4 dau. 
Backenstoss, Catharine, b. Feb. 3. 1799; 
d. July 24, 1822; David Haag; 2 s. & 

1 dau. 

Batteicher. Jacob, b. July 18, 1769; d. 

April 13, 1853; m. in 1794 Barbara 

]\Tauntz,"b. ]\Iarch 8, 1776; d. Aug. 21, 

1837; 4 s. & 4 dau. 
Batteiger, John, b. April 5. 1795 ; d. Aug. 

27, 1858; s. of Jacob; m. Margaret 

Haag; 8 children. 
Beck, Elizabeth, b. June i, 1767; d. May 

14. 1838; m. Michael Scheet (Shade). 
Bellman, George, b. Oct. 28, 1739; d. 

Feb. 2, 1813. 
Bertram, Frederick, b. ?klarch 25. 1789; 

d. Dec. 4, 1853. 
Bohn, Christina — See David Borky and 

Jacob Riegel. 
Borkv, David, born April 15. 1795; d. 

June iJ.. 1864; m. ( \) Catharine 

Schlanpig^. and (2) Christina Bohn. 
Boyer. Svbilla — See Henry Filbert. 
Braun, Catharine — See Michael Schedt. 
Brccht. Barbara — See Phili]") Filbert and 

John ^ficbael Geis. 
Brccht, CRtharinc — See Philip Filbert. 
Bricker. Enoch, b. Def'. t~. 1803; d. 

April 8. 1835: m. in 1830 Sara Seyler ; 

2 sons. 

Bri'ght, Peter, b. Oct. 6. 1793: d. May 
26. 1877: m. Maria Magdalena 
Stamni, b. "March 4. 1797; d. April 23, 

Brockwav. Edwin H.. b. in Exeter, 

Otsego Co., N. Y., July 2, 1801 ; d. 
Jan'y. 19, 1858. 

Brossman, Anna — See Benjamin Kersh- 

Brosman, Catharine — See Peter Fuchs. 

Brossman, John, b. Aug. 9, 1768; d. 
April 10, 1830; m. (i) Anna Barbara 
Hack, b. Feb. 26, 1772; d. May 27, 
1803; and (2) Anna M. Magdalena 
Fiegel, b. Alarch 31, 1778; d. May 20, 

Christ, Lsaac — See Margaret Mennig. 

Class, Daniel — See Catharine Plenne. 

Class. Sarah — See Philip Greim. 

Conrad, Anna Magdalena, b. Dec. 2, 
1785; d. Jan'y. 27, 1858; m. John 

Deininger, Immanuel & w. Johanna 
Helena, parents of s. Immanuel b. in 
1826, d. in 1827, & buried in old grave- 
yard, a small marble tombstone show- 
ing near top a wagon mounted with 
hay ladders, indicating cause of death 
of child. 

Derr, Maria Magdalena — See John 

Ditzler, Jacob — See Maria Mennig. 

Dundor, Margaret, b. May 14, 1788; d. 
Jan'y. 12, 1853 ; m. John Klein. 

Fiegel, Anna M. Magdalena — See John 

Fiegel, Melchior, b. July — , 1754; d. 
July 26. 1822. 

Filbert, Daniel, b. Nov. 9, 1799; d. Sept. 
27, 1868; m. (i) Margaret (or Re- 
becca) Miller, b. Nov. 12. 1798; d. 
Sept. 24, 1837; and (2) Elizabeth 
Klein, b. April 28. 1805 ; d. Aug. 16, 

Filbert, M. Elizabeth, b. April 8, 1774; 
d. Nov. 7, 179 1. 

Filbert, E. Maria, b. Oct. 2S, 1747; d. 
ATay 12, 1793. 

Filbert, Henry, b. April 9. 1775 ; d. April 
27, t8=;o; m. Svbilla Bover, b. March 
22. 1780; (1. Dec. 2. t866. 

Filbert. Peter, 1). Dec. 7. 1782: d. June 

U' 1703- 

Filbert. John Philip, b. Dec. 7. 1743 ; d. 
.\ug. 30. 18 17. 




Filbert, Philip, b. Nov. 8, 1770; d. Feb. 

23, 1829; m. (i) Catharine Brecht, 

and (2) Barbara Brecht; 2 children 

with 1st wife and 5 with 2d; "Frie- 

densrichter" from April 14, 1819, to 

Filbert — See also Philbert. 
Fisher, Catharine — See Henry Greim. 
Freyberger, Catharine, b. Dec. 5, 1781 ; 

d. March 21, 1871 ; m. Henry Haag. 
Fuchs, (Fox), Elizabeth — See John 

Fuchs, John Michael, b. in Germany 

Jan'y. 9, 1749; d. March 3, 181 5. 
Fuchs, Michael (perhaps same as John 

Michael) ; m. Anna Margaret -, 

b. Dec. 9, 1760; d. June 27, 1843. 
Fuchs, Peter, b. Feb. 6, 1791 ; d. Feb. 20, 

1863; m. Catharine Brosman, b. Oct. 

26, 1797; d. April 9, 1857. 
Gaukli, Maria Magdalena— See Albrecht 

Geiss, Christina — See Abraham Greim. 
Geiss, George Adam, b. June 4, 1725; 

d. June 29, 1784; m. Anna Barbara 

Haag, b. July 31, 1738; d. Aug. 17, 

1814; 6 s. & 5 dau. 
Geis, John, b. July 4, 1788; d. Feb. 7, 

1868; m. Magdalena Umbenhauer, b. 

Sept. 25, 1791; d. Nov. 6, 1864. 
Geiss, John George, erroneously shown 

on his wife's tombstone for George 

Adam Geiss. 
Geis, John Michael, b. Jan'y. 12, 1762; 

d. Dec. 18, 1822; m. Barbara Brecht, 

b. March 7, 1765; d. March 18. 1821. 
Geis, Sarah^ — -See Matthias Staudt. 
Gieseman, John George, b. Feb. — , 

1754; d. March 9, 1810; m. Catharine 

Wagener ; 5 s. & 5 dau. 
Goepfert, Elizabeth — See Rev. George 

Gotschall, John Nicolaus, b. April 26, 

T780; d. Aug. 27, 1850; s. of Chris- 

toph Gotshall & w. Anna Elizabeth ; 

m. Elizabeth Witman, b. Nov. 9, 1780; 

d. Feb. 7, 1843. 
Gottschall, Leonhard, b. Mav — . ^757; 

d. April 2, 1835. 
Gottschall. Sara — See Daniel Babb. 
Greim. Abraham, b. Jan'y. 21, 1760; d. 

Aug. 6, 1836; m. Christina Geiss. b. 

Jan'y. 13, 1768; d. Nov. 27, 1837. 
Greim, Anna Maria, b. May 9, 1777; d. 

Aug. 4, 1837; m. John Haas. 
Greim, Catharine— See John Williami 

Greim, Henry, b. March 15, 1808; d. 

July 31, 1862; m. Catharine Fischer, b. 

Feb. 12, 1801 ; d. Feb. 26, 1856. 
Greim, John, b. Sept. 12, 1791 ; d. May 

8, 1864; m. Sarah Wertman, b. Feb. 

9, 1798; d. May 21, 1847; i s. & i dau. 
Greim, Philip, b. April 29, 1793; d. May 

7, 1874; m. Sarah Class, b. Aug. 26, 

1798; d. May i, 1866. 
Gruber, Abraham, b. Oct. 25, 1775; d. 

May 20, 1776; s. of Christian Gruber 

of Henry. 
Gruber, Christian, b. Oct. 18, 1712; d. 

Nov. 14. 1781 ; m. in 1742 Anna 

Kunigunda (dau. of ]\lartin Stuep, 

now Stupp, & w. Anna Catharine 

Schultz), b. Dec. 21, 1721 ; d. May 30, 

Gruber, John Adam, b. April 11, 1752; 

d. Sept. 27, 1781 ; s. of Christian. 
Gruber, Maria Catharine, b. Dec. 24, 

174Q; d. Dec. 26, 1796; m. a Mr. 

Zuber ; dau. of Christian Gruber. 
Gruber, Susanna, b. Aug. 22, 1746; d. 

Feb. 26, 1803; dau. of Christian 

Gruber ; m. Matthias Schmidt, now 

Haag. Anna Barbara — See George 

Adam Geiss. 
Haag, Catharine — See John Michael 

Haag, Christina, b. May 17, 1769; d. 

June 2;^, 1843 ' '^^'if^ of John Haag. 
Haag, David — See Catharine Backen- 

Haag. George — See Susanna Haag and* 

INIaria Yeagley. 
Haag, Henry, b. Oct. 10, 1769; d. March 

28, 1822. See also Catharine Frey- 
Haag, Jacob — See Margaret Himmel- 

Haag. John, b. Oct. %, 1761 ; d. May 15^ 

1 8 19. See also Christina Haag. 
Haasf, John. b. Oct. 30, 1782 ; d. Nov. 22, 

1861 ; m. Maria ]\Tag(lalena Klein^ b. 

June S. 1788; d. April 12, 1854; i son. 
Haasr. John, b. April 3, 1791 ; d. June 2, 

Haag, John, b. March 7, 1801 ; d. March 

17, 1889; m. Maria ATagdalena Derr. 



Haag. John George, b. July 9, 1758; d. 

Jan'y. 2, 1845. 
Haag, Margaret — See John Batteiger. 
Haag, Nicolaus, b. .May 23, 1733; d. May 

15. 1797- 
Haag, John Nicolaus, b. March 2j, 

1757 fd. Aug. 30, 1826. 

Haag, Nicolaus, b. Feb. 28, 1788; d. 
Dec. 15, 1821. 

Haag, Su.sanna, b. ^lay 17, 1761 ; d. May 
8, 1788; wife of George Haag. 

Haas, Anna Maria, b. Feb. 18, 1781 ; d. 
Sept. 18, 1826; m. George Wagner. 

Haas, Benjamin — See Elizabeth Obold. 

Haas, Jacob, b. Feb. 18, 1784; d. Sept. 
15, 1844; m. Elizabeth Meyer. 

Haas, John, b. June 29, 1776; d. Sept. 
28, 1826; m. Elizabeth Fuchs, b. Oct. 
II, 1794; d. Sept. 24, 1826. 

Haas, John — See Anna Maria Greim. 

Haass, John Peter, b. March 4, 1750 ; d. 
July 12. 1816. 

Haass, Susanna — See V^alentin Reber. 

Haeck, Anna Barbara — See John Bross- 

Heck, Philip, b. Sept. q, 1800; d. Feb. 
28, 1854. 

Henne, Catharine, b. Sept. 24. 1752; d. 
April 14, 1801 ; m. Daniel Class. 

Henne, John Michael, b. Nov. 5, 1777; 
d. Sept. 25, 1861 ; m. in 1817 Catha- 
rine Haag, b. Sept. 10, 1795; d. July 
26. 1863. 

Hettinger, Henry, b. Aug. i, 1760; d. 
Feb. 25, 1829 ; m. Catharine Miller, 
b. Feb. 13, 1768; d. Aug. 5, 1820. 

Himmelberger. Margaret, b. June 20, 
1784; d. March 4, 1863; m. Jacob 
Haag. b. Oct. 11, 1784; d. Feb. 8, 
1855, and buried at the Little Tul- 
pehocken Church, about a mile and a 
half southwestvvard of Bernville. 

Kaufman, Jacob, b. Dec. i. 1792, in Bern 
township; d. May 5, 1855; m. (i) 
Elizabeth Albrecht; (2) Catharine 
Obold, b. Jan'y. 20, 1798: d. Oct. 6, 
1832; and (3) Rebecca Niess. 5 chil- 
dren with 1st wife, 2 with 2d. and 6 
with 3d. 

Kershner, Benjamin, b. Aug. 30, 1801 ; 
d. Sept. 20. 1837; m. .\nna Brossman, 
b. Dec. 25, 1806; d. Sept. 7, 1850; 4 
s. & 2 dau. 

Klein, Elizabeth — See Daniel Filbert. 

Klein, Johur— See Margaret Dundor. 

Klein, Maria Magdalena — See John 

Klein, Philip, b. April 13, 1782; d. 
March 26, 1838; m. Maria Elizabeth 
Staut, b. Aug. 10, 1782; d. Nov. 28, 

Klein, Werner, b. I^lay 30, 1760; d. 
Dec. II, 1839. 

Mauntz, Barbara — See Jacob Batteicher. 

Mennig, George (Lutheran preacher), 
b. in Lancaster Co., Pa., Aug. 12, 
1773; d. April 7, 1851; m. in 1793 
Elizabeth Goepfert, b. in Lancaster 
Co., Pa., June 10, 1774; d. Feb. 27, 
1849. He preached 1,663 times, ad- 
ministered communion to 19,680, con- 
firmed 1,773, and baptized 1,631. 
His name is found also as Minnig, 
Muenig, Muench and jNlinnich. 

Mennig, Margaret, b. April 17, 1809; d. 
Aug. 20, 1836 ; dau. of Rev. Geo. 
Mennig; m. Isaac Christ. 

Mennig, Maria, b. July 31, 1802; d. June 
3, 1850; dau. of Rev. Geo. Mennig; 
m. Jacob Ditzler. They are the 
parents of Rev. Jefferson M. Deitzler. 

Meyer, Elizabeth — See Jacob Plaas. 

Miller, Catharine — See Henry Het- 

MilleV, Elizabeth — See Philip Wagner. 

Miller, Margaret — See Daniel Filbert. 

Miller, Rebecca — Supposed to be same 
as IMargaret Miller. 

Minich, John Simon, b. July 21, 1700; 

d. Feb. 17, 1782; m. Catharine , 

b. Jan'y. — , 1700; d. Dec. 12, 1773. 

Niess. Rebecca — See Jacob Kaufman. 

Noll. Catharine — See John Potteiger. 

Obold. Catharine — See Samuel Umben- 
hauer and Jacob Kaufman. 

Obold. Elizabeth, b. Jan'y. 19, 1794; d. 
Dec. 15, 1872; m. Benjamin Haas. 

Oster, John, b. May 18. 1782; d. May 
16, 1858; m. Maria Wagner, b. Aug. 
28. 1790; d. June 9, 1867. 

Philbert, John Samuel, b. Jan'y. 8. 1710; 

d. Sept. 25. 1786; m. Susanna , 

b. March 10. 1704; d. Jan'y. 4. 1771; 
5 s. i1- 3 dau. 

Philbert.' Thomas, b. Feb., i. 1737; d. 
Nov. 8. 1784. 

Philips, Jacob, b. Dec. 26, 1780; _d. 
March 27, 1851; m. Maria Catharine 



Wummer, b. Sept. 23, 1784; d. Nov. 

I, 1848. 

Potteiger, John, b. Aug. 30, 1783; d. 

April 25, 1858; m. Catharine Noll, b. 

Oct. 27, 1789; d. Dec. 30, 1852. 
Potteiger — See also Batteiger. 
Radenbach, Susanna, b. Sept. 26, 1794; 

d. Sept. II, 1852; m. Philip Strauss; 

2 s. & 2 dau. 
Reber, Conrad, b. Oct. 12, 1778; d. Feb. 

16, 1817; s. of Valentin Reber. 
Reber, Valentin, b. Dec. — , 1742; d. 

March 12, 1818; m. Susanna Haas, b. 

Sept. 28, 1744; d. April 11, 1823; 5 s. 

& 2 dau. 
Riegel, Jacob, b. Jan'y. 18, 1794; d. Dec. 

8, 1867; m. Christina Bohn, b. June 

II, 1793; d. Aug. 2, 1854. 

Rieser, Elizabeth — See William Runkle. 

Rieser, Jacob, b. Oct. 3, 1786; d. Nov. 
24, 1859. 

Rischel, John Daniel — See Elizabeth 

Runkle, William, b. April 3, 1795; d. 
Dec. 22, 1857; m. Elizabeth Rieser, b. 
Nov. 8, 1795; d. May 13, 1885. 

Schedt (Shade), Michael, b. Nov. 5, 
1793; tl- March 28, 1854; m. Catharine 
Braun (Brown). 

Scheet (Shade), Michael — See Eliza- 
beth Beck. 

Schepler, Henry, b. Aug. i, 1737; d. Oct. 
18, 1781. 

Schlappig, Catharine — See David Borky. 

Schmidt (Smith). Matthias— See Sus- 
anna Gruber. 

Seyler, Sara — ^See Enoch Bricker. 

Stamm, Maria Magdalena — See Peter 

Staudt, Catharine, b. Oct. 30. 1780; d. 
July 23, 1851. 

Standt, Maria Catharine — See John 
Thomas Umhenhauer. 

Staiit. Alaria Elizabeth— See Philip 

Staudt, Matthias, b. May 25, 1779; d. 

June 4, 1847; m- Sarah Geis, b. July 

15. 1786; d. Jan'y. 15, 1848. 
Strauss, Albrecht, b. Jime 16, 1760; d. 

April 7, 1832; m. Maria Magdalena 

Gaukli, m. -Feb. 13. 1774; d. Dec. 7, 


Strauss, Elizabeth, b. March 14. 1738; d. 
March 15, 1795. 

Strauss, Jacob, b. Dec. 31, 1736; d. 
March 5, 1782. 

Strauss, John Jacob, b. Nov. 23, 1788; 
d. Nov. 9, 1877; m. Sarah Wagner, b. 
June 16, 1808; d. Feb. 20, 1867. 

Strauss, John William, b. Oct. 26, 1795 ; 
d. Oct. 13, 1885; m. Catharine Greim, 
b. March 23, 1790; d. Feb. 24, 1868. 

Strauss, Joseph, b. March 2, 1794; d. 
April 16, 1812 ; s. of Samuel Strauss. 

Strauss, Philip — See Susanna Raden- 

Strauss, Samuel, b. May 13, 1756; d. 
March 25, 1835 '■> ^- Catharine Eliza- 
beth Umhenhauer, (dau. of Baltzer 
Umhenhauer & w. Maria Appolonia), 
b. March 11, 1758; d. Dec. 16, 1821 ; 8 
s. & 6 dau. 

Stump, Daniel — See Hannah Wagner. 

Stupp, Anna Kunigunda — See Christian 

Umhenhauer, Baltzer (Balthaser) — See 
Samuel Strauss. 

Umhenhauer, Catharine Elizabeth — See 
Samuel Strauss. 

Umhenhauer, Elizabeth — ^See John 

Umhenhauer, Joseph, b. Jan'y. 12, 1788; 
d. June 21, 1794. 

Umhenhauer, Magdalena — See John 

Umhenhauer, Samuel, b. June 30, 1790; 
d. Nov. 7, 1826; m. Catharine Obold, 
b. Jan'y. 20, 1798; d. Oct. 6, 1832, and 
2d wife of Jacob Kaufman. 

Umhenhauer, John Thomas, b. April 12, 
1762; d. May 28, 1832; m. Maria 
Catharine Staudt, b. Sept. 5, 1762; d. 
July 20, 1854. In 1819 he set aside 
46 acres of his 220-acre farm to be 
divided into building lots, 62 in all. 
This was the beginning of what is 
now the borough of Bernville, Pa., a 
short distance northward of which the 
burial grounds are located. 

Umhenhauer, John William, b. Dec. 6, 
1799; d. April 13, 1823. 

\\'agener, Catharine — See John George 

Wagner, Elizabeth, b. Tulv it, 1793; d. 
June 20, 1844; m. John Daniel Rischel. 

Wagner, George — See Anna Maria 

Wagner, Hannah, b. Nov. 17, 1800; d. 



June 26, 1868; 2d wife of Daniel 
Stump, b. April 21, 1805; d. April 24, 

1875, and buried at St. Daniel's 

(Corner) Church. 
Wagner, Hannah, b. July 3, 1770; d. 

Sept. 10, 1807; w. of John Wagner. 
Wagner, John Jacob, b. Nov. 25, 1765; 

d. June 18, 1787; m. Catharine ; 

I son, 2 year's wedlock. 
Wagner, John, b. Nov. 20, 1764; d. July 

II, 1841 ; perhaps the husband of 

Hannah given above. 
Wagner, John, b. Feb. 14, 1786; d. Sept. 

19, 1791 ; s. of Jacob Wagner & w. 

Wagner, John — See Anna Magdalena 

Wagner, Maria — See John Oster. 
Waagner, IMaria Magdale, b. Aug. 17, 

1775; d. March 21, 1790. 
Wagner, PhiHp, b. Oct. 12, 1795; d. 

Jan'y. 25, 1870; m. Elizabeth Miller, 

b. Oct. 18. 1800; d. May 10, 1866. 
Wagner, Sarah — See John Jacob 

Weber, John, b. Oct. 25, 1789; d. Nov. 

II, 1856; m. in 1817 EHzabeth Um- 

benhauer, b. Oct. 25, 1796; d. Dec. 5, 

Wertman. Sarah — See John Greim. 
Winter, Christoph, b. Dec. 25, 1759; d. 

Aug. 2, 1808. 
Witman. Elizabeth— See John Nicolaus 

IMunimer, Maria Catharine — See Jacob 

Yeagley. ]\Iaria, b. Feb. 7, 1796; d. 

Jan'y. 29, 1865 ; m. George Haag. 
Zuber, Maria Catharine — See Maria 

Catharine Gruber. 

Inscriptions from the tombstones in 
the private (Stump) burial ground, in 
North Heidelberg township, about a half 
mile southward of Bernville, Berks 
county. Pa., and a few hundred yards 
from the junction of the Northkill 
Creek with the Tulpehocken Creek, 
along the road leading to P>ernville. 
Stump. John, b. Feb. 18, 1746; d. Aug. 

9. 1822 ; m. Barbara , b. Oct. 

9, 1746; d. Aug. 17, 1805. 

Stump, Samuel, b. Oct. 9, 1777; d. July 

27, 1850; m. Anna Maria , b. 

Nov. 30, 1786; d. Sept. 24, 1842. 

Children of John Stump & w. Barbara: 
Magdalena, b. June 8, 1772; d. Dec. 

II. 1/75- 
Barbara, b. March 11, 1774; d. Oct. 

8. 1775- 
Daniel, b. Dec. 14, 1789; d. Dec. 19, 
Son of Michael Stump & w. Caroline: 
Samuel, b. Jan'v. 13, 1842; d. Dec. 20, 

Son of Joseph Painter & w. Magdalene ; 

Joseph, b. Oct. 9, 1849; ^1- ^cpt. 22, 

There are also several graves without 
tombstones, one of them probably being 
that of John Stump who in 1743 had 
warranted to him the tract of land on 
which that burial ground is located, and 
who is very likely the father of the John 
Stump buried there. 

Associated with the before mentioned 
Stump burial ground, by reason of 
Stump and Klein intermarriage and 
similar religious belief (Brethren or 
Dunkards), there is a private (Klein) 
burial ground on the west bank of the 
Northkill Creek, about a mile northward 
of Bernville, Pa. The tombstones there 
show the following inscriptions : 
Klein, Philip, b. Tnne 17, 1742; d. May 

9, 1815. 
Klein, David, b. March 2, 1746; d. 

Jan'y. 28, 1814; m. Elizabeth Bren- 

eisen, b. Nov. 8, 1750; d. Aug. 4, 1827. 
Klein, Elizabeth, b. Dec. 5, 1775; d. 

March 2, 1812; dau. of Philip. 
Stump, Elizabeth, b. June 2. 1776; d. 

April 25, 1854; m. George Klein. 

There are also several other graves 
indicated bv limestone markers. 

Inscriptions from the tombstones in 
a private burial ground in Penn town- 
ship, Berks county, on what is locally 
known as the Dr. Deppen farm, about 3 
miles southeastward of Bernville, Pa., 
along the stage road leading from Bern- 
ville to Mt. Pleasant (Obold), Pa. The 
burial ground is a short distance south 


Tiiii: i'l:NiN geilmania 

of the road and contains the remains of 
a number of the Roman Cathohc faith. 
Alwein, Elizabeth — See PhiHpp Schmidt. 
Deppen, Catharine, b. Oct. i, 1837; d. 

June 2, 1841 ; dau. of Daniel. 
Deppen, Daniel, b. Feb. 18, 1801 ; d. May 

12, 1863; m. Catharine Smith. 
Felix, Elizabeth — See John Wummer. 
Greth, Daniel, b. Feb. 15, 1784; d. Feb. 

22, 1852; m. Elizabeth Schmidt, b. 

March 4, 1781 ; d. Dec. 18, 1840. 
Greth, Daniel, b. May 26, 1806; d. Nov. 

II, 1874. 
Grath (Greth), David, died 1849; son 

of D. & M. Grath. 
Grett (Greth), Elizabeth, b. in 1755; d. 

Aug. 17, 1838. 
Greth, Franklin Reuben, b. Aug. 19, 

1851 ; d. May 7, 1862; s. of Daniel & 

Mary Greth. 
Grett, Magdalena — See Philip Schmidt. 
Grath, Sarah, old 14 W., 1844. 
Haag, Elizabeth — See Joseph Obold. 
Hetrick, Susanna — See Philip Obold. 
Kisling, John, b. Sept. 14, 1801 ; d. Feb. 

1, 1847. 
Kisling, Sebastian, b. Jan'y. 31. 1773; d. 

March 25, 1843 -" m- "i 1795 Catharine 

Schmidt, b. April 16, 1774; d. April 9, 

1825 ; 2 s. & 6 dau. 
Kisling, Susanna, b. April 22, 1842; d. 

Oct. 2, 1843; dau. of John & Catha- 
rine Kisling. 
Kisling, William, b. March 29, 1830; d. 

Sept. 10, 1831 ; s. of Jacob & Catha- 
rine Kisling. 
Lambert, Jonathan, b. Dec. 15, 1798; d. 

April 5, 1876. 
Obold, George, b. Jan'y. i, 1802; d. Feb. 

20, 1854. 
Obold, Joseph, b. in 1762; d. Oct. — , 

1824; m. (i) Margaret (seems to be 

Rudt or P>udt or Gudt) with whom in 
wedlock 2y years, 4 s. & 4 dau.; (2) 
Elizabeth Haag, i son; and (3) Mar- 
garet Obold, d. in 1818 aged 47 years. 
See also Philipp Schmidt. 

Obold, Philip, b. Nov. 10, 1796; d. May 
27, 1843; ^^- i^ 1818 Susanna Hetrich, 
in wedlock 24 years ; 2 s. & i dau. 

Reber, Tillie, b. Nov. 3, 1864; d. June 
.18, 1873. 

Rick, George D., b. Sept. 7, 1853; d. 
Dec. 6, 1853; s. of George & Mary 
Ann Rick. 

Schmidt (Smith), Catharine — See 
Sebastian Kisling & Daniel Deppen. 

Schmidt, Elizabeth — See Daniel Greth. 

Schmidt, John, b. March 6, 1812; d. 
Aug. 15, 1822; s. of Philip & Magda- 
lena Schmidt. 

Schmidt, ^lagdalena — See Adam ]\Ium- 

Schmidt, Philipp, b. Aug. 12, 1747; d. 
March 6, 1808 ; m. Elizabeth Alewein, 
b. in 1742; d. in 1814; in wedlock ^y 
years ; 2 s. & 6 dau. His wife had 
been the widow of Joseph Obold, with 
whom in wedlock 6 years and had 2 

Schmidt, Philip, b. March 12, 1772; d. 
Oct. 21, 1813; m. Alagdalena Grett, 
in wedlock, 13 years ; 3 s. & 3 dau. 

Umbenhauer, Samuel, b. Dec. 25, 1826; 
d. Jan'y. 13, 1844. 

Wummer, Adam, b. June 7. 1779; d. 
Nov. 18, 1854; m. in 1798 Magdalena 

Wummer, John, b. ?^lay 6, 1799; d. 
Jan'y. 20, 1866; m. in 1825 Elizabeth 
Felix, b. Sept. 30, 1802; d. Feb. 7, 


One marker contains the inscription, 
"W. G. 1844." 

M. A. Gniher Wnshincjfon, D. 0. 


Illustrative of German-American Activities 
Contributions by Readers Cordially Invited 

Man Under this heading 

As a The Metropolitan for 

Mechanism. November has an in- 

teresting article by Charlotte Teller on 
the extraordinary experiments of Pro- 
fessor Jacques Loeb. After telling a 
few things about his student days the 
author dwells on his chemical work in 
the Rockefeller Institute in New York 
and concludes with a resume of his work. 
We quote : 

"Only a few years ago, in one of the 
European universities, there was a stu- 
dent of philosophy who was the hope of 
his teachers. They foretold a future for 
him full of philosophical discovery ; he 
was so eager, so intense in his search for 
that fundamental truth, with which — we 
are taught — philosophy is concerned. 

But, to the amazement of these friend- 
ly prophets, he suddenly left the old and 
dignified department of philosophy for a 
much younger branch of learning, for 
psychology, and to the inquiry of his 
teachers, he replied that he was studying 
Human Consciousness and the Will of 
Man, — that he believed it necessary to 
understand consciousness and will, in 
order to be a philosopher. 

Not long after this, his friends heard 
that he was no longer studying psychol- 
ogy, but was hard at work under a well- 
known teacher of physiology. When 
they asked him what he was doing, he 
answered that, to his way of thinking, 
Will Consciousness, and the Mind of 
Man could not be understood without a 
knowledge of the Brain. He was study- 
ing the Brain. 

"But the Brain cannot be understood 
without a knowledge of nerve centers 
and nervous systems, and the student in 
search of the Fund^i mental Truth soon 

found himself compelled to undertake 
the study of biology. Once more, his 
curious colleagues approached him. 
This time they found him in the midst of 
experimental apparatus and aquariums 
full of wriggling sea-creatures. Once 
more he patiently explained to them that 
he was at work upon the problem of 
Consciousness and Will. In the search 
he had started upon, he had been con- 
fronted by the problem of the Instinct. 
He was searching he said, for the forces 
which determine the movement called 
"instinctive." He believed that the in- 
stincts were the beginning of the Will — 
and had to do with Consciousness. 

They listened skeptically, and went 
back to their philosophy. Soon after, 
they heard that he had moved his para- 
phernalia for biological research into a 
place given over to the study of salts and 
acids, reactions and combinations — a 
place where all experiments are written 
in a new sort of fractions — as for in- 
stance ; — " — m/Al solution of NaCl — 
and m/64 solution of ZnSOx." In other 
words, he had moved into a chemical 

And to-day, over the door of his pre- 
sent place of research, there might hang 
a sign ; "The Physico-Chemical Labora- 
tory of Jacques Loeb, Devoted to the 
Studv of Will and Consciousness and 
Other Phenomena of Life as shown 
Forth in Earthworms, Sea-urchins and 

In this laboratory at the Rockefeller 
Institute of New York, the windows on 
one side look out upon a river which 
runs to the sea, while the windows on 
the other side look out upon Avenue A, 
one of the crowrled thoroughfares of the 
city. Between these two great currents 



of life, Jacques Loeb is at work; drag- 
ging the secrets from the sea to reveal 
the secrets of man. * * * * * * 

The individual, whether it be an aphid, 
an annelid, or a man, is, according to 
Loeb, a mechanism. As a biologist who 
has made experiment after experiment, 
he takes the position that we are all 
automatons. Man, even though he is a 
creature of blood, bone, brawn and brain, 
is made up of protoplasm cells. His acts 
can all be analyzed into tropisms, they 
are due to the influences or stimuli made 
possible by a complex civilization and a 
complex nervous structure. 

When we shake hands, we are obedient 
to the law behind tropisms, even though 
we cannot as yet analyze the warmth of 
the clasp into its chemical elements. Our 
likes and dislikes, our growing distrust 
of a friend ; according to this theory, are 
all due to chemical changes taking place 
in the substance of our being, that is to 
say, in our protoplasm. He believes 
that the chemistry of living matter — of 
the human body, for instance. — is not 
specifically different from that of the 

He believes that living organisms are 
chemical machines possessing the pecu- 
liarity of developing preserving and re- 
producing themselves automatically. 

He believes that we eat, drink and re- 
produce, not because mankind has reach- 
ed an agreement that this is desirable, 
but because, machine-like, we are com- 
pelled to do so. 

He believes that a mother loves and 
cares for her children not because meta- 
physicians had an idea that this was 
desirable but because the instinct of 
takuig care of the young is inherited. 

He believes that we seek and enjoy the 
fellowship of human beings because of 
inherited instincts, and that we struggle 
for justice and truth since we are com- 
pelled to see our fellow-beings happy. 

"He believes that the mechanist's con- 
ception of life leads to an understanding 
of the source of ethics and makes ethics 
more effective — for, since we know that 
when a dog is eiven certain stimulus to 
eye and ear, saliva flows in readiness for 
the expected food, so an "idea" (an old- 

fashioned philosophical word to Loeb's 
thinking) may well bring about chemical 
changes in the body, and from these 
changes might well spring the willing- 
ness to sacrifice the life for the sake of 
the "idea," to shed blood even^ in behalf 
of it. 

"In a word, he beheves that the inner 
life, the hopes, fears, efforts and disap- 
pointments should be open to a physico- 
chemical analysis, and that they will be, 
in time, in spite of the gulf which to- 
day separates the scientist from his goal. 

"As a result of his years of research, 
Loeb believes that the Will of Man is no 
freer than the moth, and that Conscious- 
ness is but the activity of a machine 
w^hich he calls 'the Mechanism of As- 
sociated Memory.' This mechanism is 
an apparatus generated by all the ex- 
perience of man, not merely from his 
own infancy and the infancy of the race, 
but from the habits of the earth-worm 
and the butterfly — we do all that we do 
under compulsion." 

While Loeb has thus been wrestling 
with the secrets of nature in New York 
City, Professor Edward A. Schafer, of 
Edinburgh Liniversity has been experi- 
menting with test tubes and a few simple 
well known chemicals. — Popular Me- 
chanics, (November, 1912), says of him: 

"Is it possible that the scientist with a 
test tube and a few simple, well known 
chemicals before him may artificially 
originate life? The question is just 
now being asked all over the world, and 
variously answered in the negative or 
affirmative, the present lively discussion 
of the subject being due to a recent ad- 
dress before the British Association for 
the Advancement of {Science by its presi- 
dent. Edward A. Schafer, professor of 
jthysiolos^^ in Edinburgh. ITniversity. who 
threw out suffe'estions which hint at this 
stprtHiig possibility. 

He rines not sav that this lia'^ been 
dorp, as ba= been rpportpd, nor does he 
sr\- tliat lie his attempted it, but he sees 
no reason to doubt that it mav be done. 
He savs the problems of life (as dis- 
tinguished from soul) are essentially 
problems of matter, and must be inves- 
tigated by the same methods ; that living 



beings are governed by laws identical 
with those which govern inanimate mat- 
ter, and that, therefore, the manifes- 
tations of life may be explained without 
the aid of any special unknown form of 

The Pennsylvania School Journal has 
an article along the same line by Dr. 
Newell Dwight Hillis from which we 
quote : 

"No president's address in recent 
times has created so much interest as 
that of Professor Schaefer, at the last 
meeting of the British society. The 
scholar's theme was the chemical origin 
of life. Given oxygen, hydrogen, nitro- 
gen, with heat and moisture, and life he 
thinks, is spontaneously developed. In- 
deed, he says this creative act iz being 
performed by the chemical forces under 
our very feet all the summer long. * * 
Instead of God. therefore, as the power 
that is in the world that makes for intel- 
ligence and beauty and order and right- 
eousness, we have the chemical forces of 
gases. Without telling us where hydro- 
gen, oxygen and nitrogen and force came 
from, the professor thinks he has laid 
theism on the table, by a large majority 
and bowled the Creator out of the uni- 
verse, as unnecessary. 'There is no God, 
and I am his prophet,' exclaims the scien- 
tist. If it is true the discovery is far- 
reaching and momentous for all Chris- 
tian theists. Instead of God, we have 
the Pull and the Push of chemical forces. 
Then instead of Providence, men are 
bufifctted about in an endless game of 
battledoor and shuttlecock between the 
winters and the summers." 

The reverend doctor advances various 
arguments in favor of the Christian 
faith, saying near the conclusion of his 
article ; — "The world in which we live is 
the monument of God ; the storms pro- 
claim His power, the harvest His good- 
ness, the liuman body His wisdom and 
skill, the landscapes and flowers and 
faces His beauty, the retributions of bad 
men His righteousness, the upward 
march of nations His providence ; mercy 
and compassion in a parent reveal his 
love. The heavens declare His glory. 

the firmament showeth His handiwork. 
And therefore our fatih." 

The Humble Peddling may be re- 

Peddler, garded as a most 

humble occupation, 
but it has been the steppingstone to for- 
tune for some of America's most famous 
men. John Jacob Astor peddled furs, 
Jay Gould peddled rat and mice traps 
and his later day partner in high finance. 
Colonel James Fisk, began business life 
as a peddler in Vermont. Many other 
successful men of to-day trudged along 
the hot and dusty country roads with 
peddler^s packs upon their backs. The 
Democrat knows of many of them, and 
they are not ashamed of their former 
callings, cither. 

Starting out as a peddler thirty-seven 
years ago, Josiah W. Klingensmith died 
at his home in Burrell township, Indiana 
county, a few days ago, counted one of 
the wealthiest citizens of all that section. 
When he commenced his trips through 
the country districts with a peddler 
wagon his success was something amaz- 
ing and he amassed wealth in a most 
astonishing manner, investing his earn- 
ings mostly in farm land. At the time 
of his death he owned thirteen good 
farms, including the one on which he 
spent his boyhood days and that of his 
wife's, father. — Democrat. 

Chemkal In an address at Ber- 

Research. lin at the opening of 

the Kaiser W^ilhelm 
Institute for promoting and organizing 
chemical research. Dr. Emil Fischer read 
a list of the contributions that chemistry 
has made to the welfare of Germany, a 
country that has probably been benefited 
more by scientific research than any 
other. The most important of these 
benefits are those that have come by ap- 
plying chemistry to the problems of 
nourishment, of agriculture and of the 
food-supply ; to engineering, metallurgy 
and cements ; to clothing, artificial silk 



and coloring dyes; to producing both 
natural and artificial india-rubber; to 
perfumery — with the result that artificial 
violet, artificial rose and other artificial 
odors can now be made; to synthetic 
cam])hor; to drugs and materia medica, 
including the recent arsenic and selenium 
organic compounds; to radio-activity, to 
therapeutics, to the destruction of harm- 
ful microbes ; to methods of disposing of 
sewage; to the preparation of efficient 
explosives, and to many other usful ob- 
jects. — Youth's Companion. 

baths, II bitter springs, 45 with iron and 
chalybeate baths, 34 sulphur and 76 peat 
baths, 7 mud baths and 4 sand baths. 
The above figures are reported for the 
Journal of the American Medical As- 
sociation, and are given from a profes- 
sional viewpoint. To us they have a 
deeper signiiiCdiicc, for while all are not 
church institutions, they are in large 
measure fruitage of the Inner Mission 
principle, which controls in the evan- 
gelical councils of all benevolent ope- 
rations in the German empire. — The 

Germany's A Berlin correspon- 

Charitable dent has given us 

Institutions. some striking figures 

concerning the charitable institutions in 
Germany. He tells us in a v.-ell-written 
article among other things that "There 
are in Germany at present, with a popu- 
lation of about sixty-one millions, 9,054 
medical and charitable institutions, with 
735,579 beds, namely: 3,258 general 
hospitals, 351 army and marine hospitals, 
62 hospitals for miners, 365 asylums for 
the insane, idiots and epileptics. 381 
tuberculosis sanatoria, 195 sanatoria for 
nervous diseases, 260 water cure sana- 
toria, 258 children's hospitals and homes, 
149 lying-in and infant homes, 141 
resale, training and correction homes, 37 
vacation colonies, 141 orphan homes, 225 
sanatoria for internal diseases, 351 hos- 
pitals for surgical diseases, 333 clinics 
for women, 261 hospitals for eye dis- 
eases, 120 hospitals for the ear, nose and 
throat diseases, 78 special hospitals for 
skin and venereal diseases, 104 institu- 
tions for orthopedic and g^-mnastic 
treatment. 58 sanatoria for alcohol and 
drug addicts, 44 homes and sanatoria for 
the crippled, 48 institutions for the blind, 
<)2 institutions for the deaf and dumb, 
269 sanatoria for convalescents, 250 in- 
firmaries, c;32 homes and hospitals for the 
aged, 86 Krankenpensions and 89 various 
health resorts. There are also 591 other 
health resorts, namely : 57 with mineral 
baths with cold and hot s])rings, simple 
or containing carbonic acid, 22 with alka- 
line springs, 95 salt springs and brine 

Life What does the Bible 

Insurance. say in regard to this 

subject? If the Bible 
favors the institutions, I will favor it; if 
the Bible denounces it, I will denounce 

Now the first Life Insurance Company 
was organized through Joseph and he 
was the president of it and had his 
agents over the whole land. In Genesis 
XLI:34 we read: "Let him appoint 
officers over the land and take up the 
fifth part of the land of Egypt in seven 
plenteous years." 

And Pharaoh took the counsel and ap- 
pointed Joseph as the president of the 
undertaking. The farmers contributed 
each one-fifth of their income. In all 
the towns and cities of the land there 
were branch houses. This great Egyp- 
tian life insurance company had millions 
of assets. After a while the dark days 
came, and the wdiole nation would have 
starved had it not been for the provision 
they had made for the future. But now 
then suflfering families had nothing to 
do but go up and collect the amount of 
their policies. The Bible put it in one 
short phrase: "In all the land there was 
bread." I say this was the First Life 
Insurance Company. 

It was divinely organized, it had all 
the advantages of the "whole life plan," 
"endowment plan" and other good plans. 
We see God himself was the author and 
organizer of it. Because it w^as He who 
sent the dreams to Pharaoh, who led 



Joseph to Egypt, who showed him the 
meaning of these dreams, so that Joseph 
could say later to his brothers: "God did 
send me before you to preserve life." 

But you may say that was in the Old 
Testament, but we are living under the 
New Covenant. 

Well let us see what St. Paul has to 
say about this subject. 

"He that provideth not for his own, 
and especially those of his own house- 
hold is worse than an infidel." 

Now some people provide for their 
families and some don't. But if we have 
the means to pay for insurance and do 
not provide for our own after we are 
gone, we do not do our duty and we can- 
not expect God to do wonders to help 
them after we are gone. Just as soon 
we may not work, and expect God to 
feed our families with bread from hea- 
ven and dress with angelical gowns. 

Every life insurance company is a 
mutual institution, managed by the offi- 
cers in a strict business way. 

After we have been called yonder, the 
agent at the Life Insurance office comes 
to our bereft widow and her little chil- 
dren and pays down the cash. He 
comes as a messenger of God, he is per- 
forming a positively religious rite, ac- 
cording to the Apostle James, who says : 
"True religion and undefiled before God 
and the Father is this : to visit the 
fatherless and the widow in their afflic- 

And surely his visit will profit them 
more than if a super-pious fanatic tells 
them, "Go in peace, be ye warmed and 
filled!" and yet give them not the things 
needful to the body. And does the 
Church, do the church members provide 
for these poor? O yes, they take the 
children from their mothers and put 
them in orphanages and they give the 
poor widows plenty of washing at 50 
cents ! 

It is a mean thing for you to go up to 
heaven and leave your dear ones in des- 
titution. You at death move into the 
heavenly mansions, and they go to the 
poorhouse ! 

Rut you say a man of small means 
can't afford to pay a premium. Now let 

us look into this matter, an ordinary life 
policy will cost from 15 to 18 dollars 
annually according to the age at the time 
it is issued. For a man of thirty it will 
be 19 dollars, or a little over 5 cents per 
day. How much men spend for lux- 
uries, for pleasure or other vain things. 
A father ought to put himself down on 
the strictest economy, until he can meet 
this Christian necessity. JJecause the 
money he pays for the ])remium is not 
spent, but simply deposited for the bene- 
fit of his family, coming back to them 
with interest after his death, and all con- 
ducted in a purely Imsiness like and 
honorable way. 

And therefore it is the holy duty of 
every honest, intelligent and Christian 
father to provide for his own and 
especially those of his household. 
Widow, children, aged parents, invalid 
brother or sister, etc. 

Now because sometimes this institu- 
tion of life insurance is abused, it does 
not follow that Christians should not use 
it right. The same is true of many other 
subjects. For instance in prohibition, 
the abuse of liquors by some does not 
justify the prohibition of them to others 
who know how to use them right and 
with thankful hear^t to the Giver of 
all good gifts. With the same reason we 
ought to prohibit meat, marriage, fire- 
arms, ropes and many other things. 
Because many ruin their health by too 
much eating, especially meat, others are 
prostitutes, adulterers, etc., some have 
committed murder or suicide with a re- 
volver, a razor or a rope. 

Prof. L. C. Kirchncr. 
Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 

Judge Wana- One of the pleasing 
maker of Ohio. victories of the last 
campaign was t h e 
election of Judge R. M. Wanamaker, of 
Ohio, to th« Supreme bench of the Buck- 
eye State. He was the only candidate 
not a Democrat elected on the State 
ticket. His election showed the keen 
discrimination of the average voter. He 
received the highest vote ever given anv 



candidate for any office in the history of 
his home county. In the State at large 
he was highest of the thirteen bupreme 
Court candidates. He made his appeal 
directly to the people. He reasoned 
that a governor who appoints a 
judicial officer rarely appoints one with 
whom he is not personally acquainted, 
and that the people of the State, who 
were about to make a similar choice, 
were entitled at least to see him and to 
learn what manner of man he was. The 
unique thing about Judge Wanamaker 
which made him the only successful 
candidate not a Democrat was this: He 
went to the people with a definite pro- 
gressive program for judicial reform as 
applicable to the Supreme Court of Ohio. 
He was the first judge to be elected to 
the highest court of any State east of the 
Mississippi who avowedly favored the 
recall of judges by popular vote. He in- 
sisted that the people of Ohio had 
recently adopted a progressive constitu- 
tion, and that the next reform was to get 
progressive laws under that constitution ; 
but that neither or both of these would 
be of any avail unless progressive- 
minded men were elected to the Supreme 
bench. A reactionary court might pull 
the teeth of progressive laws. Judge 
Wanamaker is that most radical inno- 
vation — a popular judge. — Collicr^s. 

German Popular Science for 

Activities November has among 

others the following 

references to the activities of Germans. 

P. 626. The first flight in a biplane 
from Berlin to St. Petersburg, by 
Abramowitsch, a German. 

P. 631. A German inventor proposes 
turning firemen into walking fountains. 

P. 643. German people utilize every 
scrap of wood. 

P. 658. Success of overhead monorail 
systems in Germany may be imitated in 

P. 670. German invents white gun- 

P. 672. Food inspectors of Berlin use 
motion-picture camera. 

P. 673. Horse car line running in 
the water. 

P. 674. New Transport ship for sub- 
marines designed by Germans. 

P. 674. Automatic stamp affixing and 
cancelling machine invented. 

P. 676. Germans making commercial 
use of tantalum. 

P. 683. Germans manufacturing arti- 
ficial rubber. 

P. 700. German manufacturer brings 
out a new balloon fabric. 

P. 705. German invents bellows to 
aid in playing clarionet. 

P. 709. German invents a new pro- 
jectile for use against balloons. 

P. 710. German invents compressed 
air pump for great depths. 

P. 371. Germans manufacture fabric 
resembling cloth from paper. 

This is a good showing for "slow" 

A German A German's idea of 

On Germans. his own race is very 
well illustrated in the 
current number of the Duetsche Revue, 
in which an article is published under the 
signature of the Crown Prince of Hohen- 
lohe-Langenburg, former vice-president 
of the Reichstag. A part of the article 
follows : 

"Germany hardly ever receives any 
sympathy abroad, even in Italy and 
Japan. The reason is to be found, on 
the one hand, in the increase of German 
power, and on the other in a series of 
particular faults of many Germans, such 
as an exaggerated susceptibility, a boast- 
ful pride of himself and his race and the 
tendency of so many Germans to believe 
themselves energetic when they are but 
clumsy and brutal. 

"We must re-establish by education 
the c(|uilibrium between practical energy 
and innate idealism. In this way we 
may be able to avoid many errors in both 
public and private life, and the directors 
of our foreign relations can work for 
the interests of Germany with a con- 
stancy and dignity which we have too 
often lacked. 



"Let us recall with Goethe that the 
essential virtue is respect, respect for our 
superiors, respect for our inferiors and 
respect for our peers, all of which leads 
us to respect ourselves." 

Old Chorals An examination of 

and the music offered hy 

Hymn Tunes. a number of pub- 
lishers for the Christmas season shows 
that very little will be handed down to 
future generations as classics. There 
is altogether too much flash-in-the-pan, 
too pronounced a tendency to ragtime, 
to meet a so called popular demand for 
this sort of stuff. In some neither words 
nor music are imbued with the proper 
spirit of Christmas. When compared to 
the dignified, devout hymnology of the 
Church, this kind of music pales into 
insignificance. There is neither rhythm 
nor harmony about it. A discerning 
choir leader or the well informed direc- 
tor of Sunday School singing will prefer 
no special music whatever to the inferior 
grades now on the market, and will stick 
to the good old hymns that our fathers 
and mother:^ delighted to sing, and which 
furnished them comfort and inspiration 
enough to treasure them in memory so 
that they could be set down and pre- 
served. Nowhere do we find any music 
to compare with the old chorals and 
hymn-tunes, certainly not in the labored 
efforts to-day designated as Christmas 
music. — Free Press, Ouakertown. 

Foolish Young Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Women. Krauskop said re- 

cently : "A young 
woman has as much right to pleasure as 
she has to beauty. Her youth demands 
it. and within pro])er lines and limits it 
is helpful to her development of health 
of heart, soul and mind. She shall freely 
enjoy the pleasure of the dance, of the 
theatre, of athletic games. She shall 
enjoy the companionship of young men 
for her own benefit as well as for theirs. 
But to make life spell pleasure only, to 

think of nothing and to care for nothing 
but seeking entertainment and being 
entertained, of * nothing but spending 
money and of having money spent for 
her diversion ; to give up night after 
night of her precious and fleeting young 
life to places of amusement and day 
after day to teas and parties, and Sab- 
bath after Sabbath to golf or lawn tennis 
or automobiling ; to devote whole winters 
to winter sport ; to have no time for the 
home and its duties, no time for culture 
of heart and soul and mind, no time 
for attending lectures or divine services, 
no time for aiding those engaged in the 
charities or in the moral and social up- 
lift of their fellow men — for a young 
woman so to mistake the meaning of her 
life is as great a crime to her woman- 
hood as is a young woman's base idolatry 
to dress and looks." 

Indispensable In his report as Super- 

School intendent of Public 

Function. Instruction of Penn- 

sylvania, Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, says 
among other things: "Writers who have 
never taught a school successfully, who 
have never had a child of their own to 
educate, and who could not make a dress 
or cook a palatable meal with the best 
effort, are always loudest in the cry for 
reform. Fortunately, in Pennsylvania 
the superintendents and directors have 
never allowed the schools to be swerved 
from their original purpose. Without 
doubt, teachers are in danger of being 
too conservative. Life is ever changing 
and progress is the watchword every- 
where. The schools need readjustment 
as civilization advances and the con- 
ditions of life change. The theorist and 
the reformer are needed among a free 
people, r.ut they should not be permitted 
to lay violent hands upon those features 
of the school which have stood the test 
of ages and which contribute to the joy 
of life during the hours which are not 
devoted to bread-winning. Ability to 
appreciate the best in music, art and 
literature, to think the best thoughts of 
the best men as these are enshrined in 



books, to enjoy the things of the mind 
and the higher Hfe, constitutes a func- 
tion of the school which should not bfe 
overlooked in a mercantile age, when 
money and money-getting are the gauge 
by which all human activities are ap- 
proved or condemned." 

Study of 

Reverend Adolph H. 
Poppe delivered an 
address before the 
High School of Little Rock, at the open- 
ing of the school year from which we 
quote : 

"The Germans who came to America 
do not wish to remain Germans — they 
wish to become Americanized, and a 
person studying German does not lose 
his individuality ; no, he remains an 
American. No German intends to sing 
'Hail Columbia' in two languages. In 
the East there are thousands of 'Yankees' 
studying German; why? Because they 
have recognized the high value of this 

"In St. Louis the public schools on 
Saturday are open to scholars who wish 
to learn this language. When the first 
school was opened, the instigators of 
teaching German thought a few hundred 
might respond, and great was their sur- 
prise when 6,000 children appeared, 
ready to take the course. Marion 
Dexter Learned, professor at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, a judge of Ger- 
man language and literature, said : 'Ger- 
man is to-day the language of the learned 
men of all science. No student can 
make any headwav unless he has mas- 
tered the German tongue; yes, if he has 
not studied it at its source. As formerly 
Latin was the language of science, thus 
is to-day — German — and every educated 
American knows the value of the know- 
ledge of the German tnnguc." 

"The well-known author, William C. 
Lpwton. says': 'For fifteen years several 
great American universities have dis- 
continued the two old classic languages 
and eenerallv German was substituted 
for Greek. T find that verv sensible, for 
German is to-day the language in which 

the more renowned specialists announce 
the results of their discoveries. Every 
man of science knows that. The won- 
derful organization of educational powers 
of Germany has in the nineteenth cen- 
tury won many peaceful victories which 
are as renowned as Sadowa and Sedan. 
The man who to-day has not a number 
of WELL USED German books on his 
writing desk cannot be called an edu- 
cated person. German should be the 
first foreign language in our schools. At 
ten years a child should begin its study. 
Four or five years will sufhce to master 
the language. Words and sounds are so 
nearly related to the English that they 
can easily be memorized.' 

"And John B. Peaslee, school superin- 
tendent of the Cincinnati public schools, 
said : 'According to my conviction it 
would be highly beneficial for the mental 
development of the scholars if all would 
study the German language in connec- 
tion with the English ; also in the interest 
of the business interests of our country, 
it would be more profitable If more 
weight were placed on the language of 
modern civilization in our schools. From 
years of experience I know that at least 
two languages can be learned without 
any detriment ; yes, I would say with 
great profit, and I claim that the study of 
a second language, for instance the Ger- 
man, is far more appropriate to develop 
the intellect of the scholar, than the study 
of mathematics.' 

"Taking this all in consideration, don't 
you think, my dear young friends, that 
you, having the opportunity to study this 
beautiful language, should make use of 
the chance? I will promise you, as an 
additional bargain, that I shall take great 
pleasure in delivering to the several 
classes in German one or two lectures a 
year, lectures you will be able to under- 
stand. May the German teachers of the 
high school teach large classes in the 
future, may the parents, who wish their 
children well, encourage them to take up 
this study, and may those who are grown 
up have the German language at heart 
and form a large society or class for con- 
tinued study, may they learn the beauties 
of our tongue and niav the Germans and 



Americans continue to be friends in the 
coming years as they have been in the 
past, is my corchal wish." — Miitciliingcn. 

German- The following para- 

American Aims, graph is an extract 
from an address, de- 
livered October 7, 1912, by Dr. Hans 
Schmidt Fairhope, Alabama, at the state 
convention of German-American Alliance 
of Alabama. 

"Der Deutsche hier i'l Amerika ist nie 
•ein Aemterjager gewesen. Da plotzlich 
kam ein Zeit, wo deutsche Manner auf- 
traten, diese Schwache bloszustellen. 
Es ging ein Erwachen durch ganz 
Deutschamerika. Das Resultat war die 
Griindung des Deutschamerikanischen 
Nationalbundes, n. wenn manche auch 
^uerst unglaubig lachelten, die Zeit 
belehrte sie eines besseren. Der Bund 
2ahlt heute fiber 2,000,000 Mitglieder 
liber fast alle Staaten der Union ver- 
streut. Wir sind eine Macht geworden, 
mit der der Politiker rechnen muss. 
Wir wollen stets gute amerikanische 
Biirger sein, aber zu gleicher Zeit wollen 
wir deutsche Art und deutsche Sitten 
pflegen. Wir greifen Niemand an; 
greift man aber uns an, so beissen wir, 
und auch hier in unserem kleinen Fair- 
hope, meine Herren, wollen wir gelegent- 
lich den Leuten, die glauben, die wahre 
Frommigkeit und wahres Amerik- 
anertum gepachtet zu haben zeigen, wo 
der Zinmiermann das Loch gelassen hat. 
]\Ieine Herren, seien und bleiben Sie 
gute amerikanische Burger, aber in 
Ihrem Tnnern bleiben Sie deutsch. 
Hrhalten Sie ihren Kindern die deutsche 
Sprache und lehren Sie ilinen, wie 
stolz sie sein konnen auf das Wirken der 
Deutschcn in diesem Lande. Hatten wir 
<3ie deutsche Sprache nicht und das 
deutsche Lied wo bliebe die deutsche 
Gemiitlichkeit? Als ich, meine Herren, 
vor circa sechs Jahren in dieses Land 
kam, da sagte mir einmal ein alter 
Amerikaner : 'Doctor, wenn Sie etwas 
in diesem Lande erreichen wollen, so 
verderben Sie es nicht mit zwei Pacht- 
faktoren hier: es ist die Kirchc und die 

Frau. Aleine Heri-en, aus dem Satze 
dieses Amerikaners sprach die langjah- 
rige Lebenserfahrung. — Man mag fiber 
Kirchen denken wie man will, aber eins 
muss man sagen : hatten wir unsere 
deutsche Kirche nicht gehabt, es stande 
viel schlimmer um unser Deutschtum in 
Amerika. Die deutsche Kirche aller 
Konfessionen hat unendlich viel gethan 
fiir deutsche Sprache und deutsche 
Sitten." — Mitlciliin"cn. 

The Germans In a booklet entitled 
In Buffalo. "Buffalo Past and 

Present" and pre- 
pared by the students of English and 
American History in the Buffalo High 
School for the meeting of the New York 
State Teachers' Association in Novem- 
ber, 1912, the following passages of in- 
terest to German-Americans occur: 

"In the War of the Rebellion, Buffalo 
and Erie County, (N. Y. ) played a con- 
spicuous part. Erie County's regiments, 
the 2ist, 49th, looth and ii6th fought 
bravel}', and in all of them Buft'alo was 
represented ; Wiedrick's Battery, com- 
posed entirely of Germans, was one of 
the most famous of Erie County organi- 
zations, and served with distinction 
throughout the war," (p. 19). 

"There are 66,000 German-Americans 
in our city. The first emigrants came in 
1821 from Alsace and South Germany; 
among their names are the following 
well-known in the history of Buffalo : 
Beyer, Bronner, Brunk, Goetz, Haber- 
stro. Hanenstein, Messner, Metzger, 
Schwellkopf and L"^rban. Doctor Fred- 
erick Dellanbaugh was elected Alderman 
in 1839. our first German city official. 
Their newspapers are "Die \\'^eltberger," 
first published 1837 and united 18.S3 ^^'^^^'^ 
"Der Demokrat", established 1848 ; "Die 
Freie Presse" established T85S. and 
"Der ^^olksfreund". 1868. The' Buffalo 
Turnverein for athletic culture was 
organized 1853." (P. 27.) 

"H^he Germans have been active in pro- 
moting music in Buffalo and their musi- 
cal societies still in existence are of wide 
repute. The first was the Buffalo 



Liedertafel, formed in 1848 to cultivate 
music in general and German song in 
particular. Their second singing society, 
the Saengerbund, was formed in 1853, 
and the Orpheus in 1869 through the in- 
fluence of Carl Adam. He directed his 
chorus for the last time in 1887. He 
was succeeded by John Lund, recom- 
mended to the position by William Stein- 
way. The present leader is Julius 
Lange." (P. 42.) 

This use of the opportunity to teach 
the parts played by different nationalities 
in the history of a particular locality is 
worth imitation by high school teachers 

F. K. W. 

mochten solche Szenen zu bewirken. von 
denen wir mit starren Auge lasen. * * 
So konnen wir auch mit der Bilanz 
dieses traurigen Jahres zufrieden sein. 
Es ist mit Blut befleckt ; aber es tragt 
auch Licht in sich * * * Wir wissen 
dasz die alten Gewalten noch amWerke 
sind ; aber ihre Kraft erlahmt. Sie ver- 
treten eine absterbende Zeit. Die 
Weltordnung schreitet fort. Wir miissen 
das Rad drehen helfen, damit der Gang 
der Entwicklung sich beschleunige."" 
Noble words, coming from the kingdom 
of the warlord who has been more peace- 
ful than all his neighbors for more than 
a generation. 

Der Wag zum As in previous years, 
Weltfrieden Mr. Alfred H. Fried, 

im Jahre 1912. Editor of "Friedens- 
W'arte" has issued as a New Year's 
Greeting a 32 page brochure entitled, 
"Der Weg zum Weltfrieden im Jahre 
1912; Pazifistische Chronik." We 

quote : 

Und sie bewegt sich doch ! — Zwar unter 
schweren Krisen und Kampfen, inmitten 
,eines Meeres von Blut, eines Ocean der 
Dummheit, geht es vorwarts. Aber vor- 
warts geht es. — Hart, ganz hart an der 
Schwelle von Europe platzte der aus- 
gekliigelte Mord. Ein Zucken ging 
durch den iibrigen Erdtheil bei An- 
horung der Abschlachts-Berichte von den 
Balkanfeldern. Man bedauerte nicht 
nur, sondern wunderte sich auch. Wun- 
derte sich. dasz derartiges in unserer Zeit 
noch moglich sei. Man lachte vor Ver- 
wunderung; und es hatte nicht viel gefelt 
— ein klein wenig Druck noch — ^und man 
hatte zu schreien angefangcn. Wahn- 
sinnig zu schreien. geben jene Besessene. 
die 1600 oder 1700 zu spielen wagten mit 
Maschinengewehren und Schrapnells 
von 19 1 2. Man hatte manchmal das 
Gefuhl. als ob die Tnsassen der Irren 
Anstaltcn ihre Maucrn gesprengt und 
nun die Leitung der Weltgcschichte in die 
ITanrl gcnommcn batten. Nur Wahn- 
sinn uufl die Ohnmacht der von Wahn- 
sinnigon iiberwaltigten Gesunden ver- 

Safety of The difference be- 

German tween accidents in 

Railroads this country on rail- 

roads and similar ac- 
cidents in the Gemian Empire are as fol- 
lows : In this country one passenger out 
of i.'95744i carried' is killed, while in 
Germany one passenger out of everv 11,- 
701,354 carried is killed. A passenger 
on an American road runs six times as 
great a risk of being killed as a passen- 
ger on a German road. One passenger 
out of every 84,424 carried in the United 
States is injured, while in Germany one 
passenger out of every 2,113,471 carried 
is injured. This means that the chances 
of being injured on an American rail- 
road is twenty-five times as great as 
upon a German road. The great dift'er- 
ence in safety is not due to any difference 
in speed. German trains run as fast, if 
not faster, than American trains. BUT 
roads, while not run absolutely for the 
best interests of the people, are yet owned 
and run by the government, just as our 
government owns tlie postoffice and runs 
it. Thus the (Terman roads are not run 
l)riniarily for profit altogether, but also 
to provide the people with an excellent 
and safe service. — Exchange. 



^Registration at Statistics on the for- 
German cign registration in 

Universities. American and Ger- 

jiian universities have been prepared at 
Cokmibia by Prof. Rudolf Tombo, Jr., 
Avhich show that the United States is 
fast becoming a centre for foreign stii- 
•dents. A comparison between the two 
is made, taking twenty-one representa- 
tive institutions of learning here as a 
basis to compare with the twenty-one 
universities in Germany. 

It is found that despite a smaller 
registration among those German uni- 
versities, there is a great deal larger 
foreign registration there. The German 
luiiversities count a total enrollment of 
54.823 students as opposed to 74,325 in 
the twenty-one larger local institutions, 
yet they have altogether no less than 
4,672 students enrolled from foreign 
countries against a foreign enrollment 
here of 1,576. The German universities 
depend upon foreigners to the extent of 
8^ per cent, of their total enrollment, 
while the foreign enrollment here con- 
stitutes only 2 per cent. 

This foreign student representation in 
German universities comprises 4.065 stu- 
dents from other European countries, 
398 from North and South America, 203 
from Asia, 20 from Africa and 5 from 
Australia. The first item is divided be- 
tween Russians, who comprise nearly 
lipjf of the European enrollment outside 
of Germany proper. .Austria-Hungary, 
Switzerland, Bulgaria, Great Britain and 
Ireland, Greece. Servia, Luxemburg and 
Turkey, which are represented in the 
■order named. 

An American on Price Collier's second 
Germany. prticle on "Germany 

and the Germans 
from an .\mcricnn Point of \^iew" deals 
with political ])nrtic? and the press. .Ap- 
parentlv iournalism in Germany presents 
no opportunities for making a national 
reputation or for becoming a great politi- 
cal power. There are no great leaders 
of the German press, and the position 
and influence of the best papers are com- 

paratively insignificant. Of the political 
parties the Socialists occupy the domi- 
nant place. As to German society, there 
doesn't seem to be any. There is no 
Cierman four hundred or less and no 
very prominent social leaders. There is 
evidenced the same spirit of frank crit- 
icism, pungent wit, and fairness that 
marked the author's articles on the Em- 
peror. — The Book Buyer. 

A Shining Deed The .following item 
of Kindness recently appeared in 

the county papers : 
"Blandon, Oct. 16. — During the 
serious illness of Mr. and Mrs. 
Samuel Becker, who were confined 
to their home with typhoid fever, 
neighbors cared for their stock and 
did all the farm work. Sixty men 
and women are now husking the 
corn crop of 27 acres and will haul 
the corn to the corn crib." 
There you have a shining and moving 
instance of Christian, brotherly, neigh- 
borly kindness and pure goodness of 
heart that makes the world look brighter 
and better. Disease laid its hand upon 
a neisrhbor ; he was stricken and help- 
less, and while suflfering the pangs of 
illness, was likely to lose a large part of 
the fruits of his labor during the year. But 
this plight touched the hearts and sym- 
pathies of his neighbors, and freely and 
generously, at the sacrifice of their own 
affairs, they came forward and not only 
did the work he was unable to do, but 
lifted from his mind the worry and 
anxiety that would otherwise have added 
itself to the burden of his bodily illness. 
We make reference to this occurrence, 
not because it is an uncommon one, for 
farmers are constantly doing similar 
good turns for their sick or unfortunate 
neighbt)rs, l)ut liecause there is so little 
praise of good deeds and so much ex- 
ploiting of wickedness and selfishness 
that we are ajit to forget that, after all, 
there is a great deal of goodness, kind- 
ness and Christian spirit in the world 
which showed itself in practical helpful- 
ness. — Kutztown Patriot. 

Zbc Ipenn (3ermania (Senealogical Club 

EDITOR — Cora C. Curry, 1020 Monroe St. N. W.. Washington. D. C. 

MEMBERSHIP — Subscribers to The Penn Germania who pay an annual due of twenty- 
five cents. 

OBJECT — To secure preserve and publish what interests members as. accounts of 
noted family incidents, traditions. Bible records, etc.. as well as historical and 
genealogical data of Swiss German and Palatine American immigrants, with date 
and place of birth, marriage, settlement, migration and death of descendants. 
Puzzling genealogical questions and answers thereto inserted free. 

OFFICERS — Elected at annual meeting. (Suggestions as to time and place are invited.") 

BENEFITS — Team work, personal communications, mutual helpfulness, exchange of 
information suggestions as to what should be printed, contributions for publica- 
tion, including the asking and answering of questions. 

A Genealogical Library 

Life and growth must mean the aban- 
doning, the sloughing off of past and the 
adoption of new ideals, the breaking 
away from time-worn, hampering ruts. 
Graves and stagnant pools are change- 
less. Incorporation of THE PENN 
PANY has taken place as a fruit and 
result of life and growth. In this de- 
velopment the genealogist has not been 
forgotten or overlooked as is shown by 
the following extract from an announce- 
ment of plans and ambitions of the com- 
pany prepared by the managing editor. 
We want to hear from our Club mem- 
bers on this subject. Is the Managing 
Editor over- reaching himself and trying 
to do the impossible? What will our 
members do to make possible the found- 
ing of such a library? A library like this 
will not be a profit-producing enterprise 
— neither are monuments, churches, 
public schools, painting and statuary in 
private houses or public institutions, our 
lawns, and parks, our numberless public 
and private functions, the countless 
amenities that sweeten life — and yet they 
are worth while and indispensable. 
P)rothers and Sisters, shall we have a 
German-American Historical Reference 
Library with its fully-equipped Genea- 

logical Department? If not, why not? 

We adopt with altered verbiage in be- 
half of German settlers and their de- 
scendants as part of the program of the 
Company the very laudable policy of the 
"New England Historic Genealogical 
Society" as expressed by themselves in 
these words ; — " The policy of the 
Society from its very earliest days has 
been to gather a library of New England 
local history and genealogy and to pub- 
lish genealogical, historical, and bio- 
graphical data. Throughout its later 
years it has pursued its dual policy with 
vigor ; on the one hand concentrating its 
energies upon a genealogical library, a 
library especially complete in all that per- 
tains to New England families, their 
origins, their annals, while residents here 
and their emigrations to other sections 
of the country with their later history in 
their homes ; on the other hand utilizing 
its forces and influences, both directly 
and indirectly for the increase of publi- 
cations of permanent value to the de- 
scendants of the settlers of New Eng- 
land." CN. E. H. G. Register April, 
1908, Supplement). Such a collection is 
invaluable in the study of a Nation's his- 
tory. What has been accomplished for 
the Pilgrim fathers should be accom- 
plished for the German citizenship of 
our countrv. 




A P. G Genealogical Programme 

One of the warmest friends THE 
PENN GKRAJANIA enjoys is the Hon. 
T. C. Ruppenthal, of Rnssel, Kansas. 
His communications show that he has a 
warm interest in the work the magazine 
aims to accompHsh and is ready to offer 
suggestions and lend a helping hand. In 
the following lines he outlines a most 
ambitious ])rogramme that would in it- 
self be sufficient i^round and reason for 
the incorporation of a company to look 
after its interests. 

"In answer to your recent letter, I con- 
tinue to ruminate on the subject of 
eugenics and euthenics, as well as to read 
as much as I can find and have time for 
thereon. In the course of time I hope to 
have thought out something sufficient for 
a short article on the subject for P. G., 
drawing attention to the relation of 
family history and genealogy to these 
sciences of new name, rather than new 
nature. Every department of P. G. un- 
doubtedly has its friends and supporters, 
though I like them all. But I believe 
the field specially looked after by ]\Iiss 
Curry should not be despised by any, — 
and will not be. if understood. In 
America we greatly need a general head- 
quarters for genealogical literature, in 
some librarv making a specialty of that 
subject. Then we need in the same 
quarters a thorough card-index system 
of genealogv such as the new Genea- 
logical Society of London is making with 
gratifying success. We need also a Re- 
view of Reviews of the genealogical field 
to cover the whole range of literature re- 
lating to genealogy, family history, pedi- 
grees, etc., as it issues from day to day 
in newspapers, magazines, books or 
otherwise. Such a review would be a 
most admirable advertisement for every 
publication that has a page for genealog}^ 
It should not stop with EngHsh but 
cover the globe. This latter ambition 
would be reached but slowly as an editor 
who could read in one language would 
be a great starter and if he knew two it 
would be a great good fortune." 

Notes by the Wayside 

More About the UK.KUNDEN QUELLE 

of Berlin 

Club members will with great regret 
read the following information that 
}udge J. C. Ruppenthal writes from 
Kansas: "I am sorry to say that the 
Urkunden Quelle of Berlin seems to 
have suspended publication after a. glo- 
rious existence of one year, I wrote them 
asking particulars with regard to taking 
American subscriptions, and mentioning 
your interest in the matter ; the letter has 
just been returned to me from Berlin, 
with the notation that they are out of 
business, and apparently left no address. 

The Library of Congress at Washington 

The Library of Congress has recently 
issued a volume of several hundred 
pages, showing what the Library con- 
tains in English, in the genealogical line, 
no mention is made therein as to what it 
has in other languages, but a large quan- 
tity of valuable material in various other 
languages, can be found there especially 
useful to students trained in historical 
research having time to pursue such in- 

Family Bibles. Records Prior to 1800 

Club members owning or knowing of 
the location of Family Bibles containing 
records and data prior to the year 1800 
will please notify the Editor at Wash- 
ington regarding these matters. Penn- 
sylvania data specially desired. 



Leonard Everly, b. Feb. 7, 1760, 
(Tombstone record) settled in Wash- 
ington, Pa., from Maryland about 1783. 

Reformed Church record of Frederick 
County, Md., gives data as follows: 

Aug. I. 1 75 1, Michael Eberle and wife 
Catiicrin Sim, witnessed the baptism of 



^.Iichael, son of Wendall and ]\Iagda- 
Jtna Storm. 

Oct. 8, 1752. Leonahard Eberli and 
Eva Maria Beckelbaugh, witnessed the 
baptism of Eva ^laria, daughter of Jon. 
Ad. Eberle and wife Anna Catherine. 

Dec. 2, 1752. Leonh^rd Eberle and 
wife Anna Catherine had a daughter, 
Anna Barbara, baptized, witnesses : Geo. 
;Mich. Brumier and wife, Anna Barbara. 

Xo further record has been found of 
above Michael Eberle and wife. Family 
names in the Storm, Brunner and Beckel- 
baugh Families are identical with those 
in the Eberly Family. 

Maryland Land records show that 
Leonard Everly paid in 1755 quit claim 
Tent to Lord Baltimore for Leonard's of 155 acres and for part of 
Tasker's Chance, 163 acres, and for the 
years 1763 to 1773, for a part of Tasker's 

Tasker's Chance was a tract of 7,000 
acres granted in 1725 to Benj. Tasker. 
A part of the present town of Frederick 
is said to be built on part of this tract. 

Chevy Chase, a tract ".f 560 acres was 
granted to Jos. Belt in 1722. among its 
transfers is one of 100 acres from Jacob 
Brunner to Adam Everly in 1761. 

Jacob Brunner was one of the first 
trustees of the German Reformed 
Church in Frederick. 

Arabia was a tract of 208 acres, 
granted in 1750 to Nicholas Fink, among 
its transfers was one from Jacob Brun- 
ner to Adam Everly in 1762. 

Adam Everly paid quit rent on 50 
acres each of Chevy Chase and Arabia, 
1763 to 1773. He also received a land 
grant oi a small tract of land called The 
Old Story Over Again in 1794; this land 
adjoined Chevy Chase and Arabia. 

London was a tract of 50 acres (sur- 
veyed from a part of the Meadow 
Branch >, granted to John Everly in 1758. 

In Revolutionary War records of 
Maryland, T-eonard Everly was a mem- 
ber of the German Reg. 1776 to 1783, 
(Md. Arch. V. 18, Fol. 261). Adam 
Everly his son was a corporal in the 
Maryland Light Infantry. This Adam 
was b. 1750. (Family records.) 

Wanted. — A list of the children of this 

Leonard and of his son Adam Everly. 
This Leonard is believed to have been 
the father of the first named Leonard 
Everly, b. Feb. 7, 1760. 

The detailed description of the land 
occupied by them is given in order to 
attract the attention of 'dlied families 
and to encourage the interchange of in- 
format'on between the families therein 
mentioned, as the Club member asking 
this information has been making a 
somewhat extensive search and is ready 
to give all the help he can in this Depart- 

O. W. E. 

The Brumbaugh Family 

After many years of patient tracing, 
research and collating Dr. Gains Marcus 
Brumbaugh, M. S., M. D., has completed 
his splendid genealogy of the Brumbaugh 
Family, including all the various spel- 
lings of the original name. Brumbaugh, 
Brumbach, Brumback, Brombaugh, 
Brownback and many other connected 
families. The price is $8.00, expressage 

This handsome octavo volume of over 
800 pages is illustrated by over 200 fine 
half tones beginning with The Hoofd 
P'oort Rotterdam, a ship of the i8tli 
century of the sort which brought our 
emigrant ancestors to America, and a 
map showing a part of the German Em- 
pire of 1778; also Brombach Ini Wiesen- 
thal, 1905, the Von Brumbach Coats of 
Arms, various Brumbach Reunions from 
1903 to igio; Agreement for purchase 
of horses in 1780, Surveyor's warrant of 
1736, original residence of Gerhard 
Brumbach in 1723, surveys of lands, pe- 
titions. Colonial and Revolutionary 
homes and churches, ^larriage certifi- 
cates, portraits, immigrant lists, Bible 
records, etc. etc. 

Much authentic historical information 
has been brought together in this work 
from public and ])rivate records and 
from unpublished original manuscript 
hitherto inaccessible, regarding the 
various emigrants, with all attainable 
data as to their lives, dates of settlement 
and removals as well as births, intermar- 



riages, deaths ; full transcripts being 
made from manuscript history, official 
reports, etc. 

A most comprehensive and unusually 
convenient system of indexing has been 
adopted. The General Contents em- 
bracing the to})ics, while a peep at the 
forty-four pages of index, reveals a 
treasure trove of interesting matter 
among the families therein treated. 
Among these many appear Acker, 
Adams. Adkinson, Adney, Aerlenbaugh, 
.Mbaugh, Albright, Anderson, Angle, 
Applebaugh, Baer. Bair, Bar, Bare, 
Baker, Ball, Barker, Barnett ; Barnhart, 
•Ballinger, Beach, Barrick, Beal, Beale, 
Bechtel, Bechtle, Beightel, (Peightal), 
Benncr. Bierbower, Bixler, Biddell, 
Bloom, Bolender, Bolinger, Bollinger, 
Bombach, Bombaugh, Book waiter, 
Bower, Bowers, Bouer, Bowman, Bow- 
ser, Boyer, Brombach, Brown, Brown- 
back, Brumbach, Brumback, Brum- 
baugh, Burger, Burget, Burket, Cam,arer, 
Campbell, Campble, Canaan, Casper, 
Chamberlain, Christian, Christmas, Clap- 
per, Clark, Clauser, Cleaver, Clopper, 
Cokenour, Coughenour (Kochhenour, 
Kochenauer), Cripe, Custer, Custard, 
(Kishter), Davis, Deahl, Deal, Deeter, 
(Teeter), Detwiler, (Tetwiler), Diefen- 
deifer, Diehl, Dietrich. Dietrick, Diffen- 
dafer, Difi'endarfer, Dilling, Dougherty, 
Karly. (Oehrle). Ebersole, Emmert, 
Kmrich. Emrick, Endsley. Engel, Engle, 
Ensminger. Enyeart, Erbaugh, Erman- 
trant, Eshbach, Eshelman, E s t e r 1 y , 
Evans. Eaulkender. Fausnacht, Felmlee. 
Fink, Finkbinder, Flory, Fouse. Foust, 
Foutz, Fox. Frank, Frederick. Furry, 
Gabel. Gable, Galloway, Garner. Garver. 
Gates. Geib, Geiger, Gemberling, Gilbert, 
Ginter. Ginther. Guagey, Gochanour, 
Gochenour. Gochnuir. Good, Grabill, 
Graybill. Greybill. Greaser, Green. 
Grove. Graaf, Grubb, (Krob). Gruber. 
Guyer, Harley, Harris, Hart, Hartle, 
Hartman, Heaston. Heckman. Heim- 

baugh. Heron, Herren, Herron, Herroon, 
Hershberger, Hess, Hiestand, Hill, Hite, 
Hoch, Hofifman, Holsinger, Home, 
Hoover, Horner, Huffman, Imbody, 
Imler, Johnson, Johnston, Jones, Kauf- 
man, Keller, Kensinger, Kimes, Kinsey, 
Koch, Kochendafer, Kochenderfer, 
Kochendarfer, Kuntz, Lans, Ledger, 
Leinbach, Levan, Likens, Long, Long- 
anccker, Loose, Lynn, McGee, McGraw, 
Aladdocks, Madlem, Markle. Marcle, 
IMarkley, Martin, Meek, Metzger, Metz- 
gar, Metzler, Meyer, Miller, Meek, 
Montgomery, Moore, Morgan, Morrison, 
ATesteller, Meyer, Mumma, Myer, 
Myers, Neal, Neher, Nicodemus, Nich- 
odemus, Norris, Ober, Parks, Paul, 
Peightel, (Beightal), Pennypacker, 
Pontius, Pote, Pott, Potter, Price, Pries, 
Priser, Prizer, Puderbaugh, Puterbaugh, 
Rarick, Ream, Reed, Reid, Riede, Rench, 
Rentch, Replogle, Replogel, Rhoads, 
Rhoades, Rhodes, Richards, Rinehart, 
Ritche}-, Ritchie, Rogers, Reger, Rover, 
Russell, Sailor, Saylor, Schaeffer, Shafcr, 
Shafifer, Schncbly, Schneider, Snider, 
Snyder, Schollanberger, Shellenberger, 
Shellanberger. Shanafelt, Shinafelt, 
Sharp. Shaver, Sheaver, Shideler, Shir- 
ley, Shoemaker, Shoenberger, Shoenfelt, 
Shoutz, Showalter, Shultz, Simpson, 
Smith, Snoenberger, Snowberger, Sch- 
naeberger, Sollenberger. Stahl, Stall, 
Stable, Stoll, Staufer, StautTer, Stayer, 
Steele, Steel, Stoufifer. Steffy, Stephen, 
Stevens, Stevans, Steward, Stewart, 
Stiffler. Stine, Stoner, Stookey, Stulkey, 
Stondenour. Stoudnour, Stover, Stoever, 
Strickler, Studebaker, Stutsman, Stutz- 
man. Summers, Teator, Teeter, Teeters, 
Thomas, Thompson, Treese, Trent. 
Uhlery, Uhlrey. Ulery, Ulerick. Ullery,' 
Ulrich, Van Dyke, Von Brumbach, 
Wagner, Warner, Weaver, Wineland, 
Wolf, Woolf, Woodcock. Wright. Yoder, 
Young. Younce. Youndt. Yount, Zim- 
merman, Zook, Zuck. Zug, Zumbrum. 



** O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb. " — A. S. 


Note — The writer of the following 
lines has given a description of the dif- 
ferent products, vegetables and plants 
raised in his mother's garden, which is 
in general a description of most gardens 
of thrifty Pennsylvania-German farmers, 
the planting and care of such gardens be- 
ing generally superintended by the farm- 
er's wife. Shame on those who disdain 
the honest, humble, useful, intelligent toil 
and labors of thrifty Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man wives, mothers and daughters. How 

many of our gaudily dressed city belles 
could successfully direct or perform the 
work of such a garden? 

The picture shows the 'house and gar- 
den referred to in the description. Ihe 
camera pointed a little west of north and 
about a mile westward of that place is 
what at one time was known as the 
Charming Forge on the Tulpehocken 
Creek, in North Heidelberg, Berks County, 
Pa. — ^Editor. 

In die Heidelberger Hivla 

Is en Haus, mohl gepebbledash'd; 
Gega Morga und Owet die Givla; 

En Bortsch an der Nord Seit gelash'd; 
Im Keller is en Brunna, 

Der Anfang fun'ra Grick, 
Die findt sich endlich drunna 

An die Tulpehock Forge-Brick. 

Am Hang fum Wissahivvel, 
Paar Schritt fun sellem Haus, 

Ganz wedder en Backoffa Givvel, 
Am Wassergrawa naus, ? 

Dort leit en achtel Acker, 

Gebauert mit Schipp und Recha; 
Und Fruehyahrs halt's em wacker 

Der gut Grund rum zu stecha. 

Sell war mei Mutter ihr Garta, 

Fon Ungraut immer frei, 
Un all die Laenner warta 

Uf ihra Planzerei 
Sin etlich glehna Graewa 

Mit Zwivla Suma g'seht, 
Des Frueh-Salaat Schtick nehwa 

Wu owwa der Buchsschtock schteht; 




Dann kumma die g'schteckta Zwivla 

Und artlioh Frueh-Graut Schteck; 
Derno die Gummra Hivla, 

Und Buhna net weit aweok; 
Am Paethel zweh Raaia Erbsa, 

Urns Land rum Reddich g'schteckt, 
Und an der Fenss paar Kerbsa 

Mit die Reliwa outside g'schtreckt. 

No sin nocli ann'ra Laenner: — - 

F'r Sclipoht — Graut 'sgross und brehd, 
Mit Rothruevva um die Enner 

Und Reddich druf rum g'seht; 
Uf ehns sin Frueh-Grnmbiera, 

Tomattas und so weiter; 
En anners is in Schiera 

F'r diff'rent Art Gekraeuter. 

Dann wu mer am Dierchia nei kumma 

Zwischig zweh Bushsschteck ferbei. 
Dort schtenna die alta Blumma, 

Doch alia Yahr ganz neu; 
Und ehns fon sellie Sarta — 

Do wett ich don en Benss — 
Is nimmie in fiel Garta; 

Des is die "Schtruvlich Nenss." 

Awwer in mei Kindheits Yahra, 

Zu mir en schoe Gelock, 
Die schoenschta Blumma warra 

Am Johnnie-jump-ups Schtock. 
Sis noch en Land zu nenna, 

En schmaales an der Wiss, 
Die Planza dort druf zu kenna 

F'r Niemand dummes is. 

Eh Schtick hot Gummra, schpohta, 

Parr Schtrehma hen Salaat, 
Und Cantalopes gerota 

So gross wie en Nabb im Raad. 
Zweh Seita um der Garta 

Hen schoena Kornstrauwa Schteck, 
Und Grusselbiera, parr Sarta, 

Hen hie und do 'en Eck. 

En Erbiera Schtick, und Gwendel, 

Blohberger und Salwei Thee, 
Und Saffrich mit gehlroda Bendel 

Duhna au, im Garta schteh. 
'S gebt au' Andiffta, Ruewa, 

Und Yudakerscha f'r Pei, 
Und hie und dorta schiewa 

Paar fremma Planza sich nei. 

Dort findt mer Rhubarb, Peterlie; 

Liebschtoeckel, Schpargelgraut, 
Alantwurzel, Meterlie, 

Kopcha-Blettcha, Muttergraut, 
Garta Gnovlich, Rosmarie, 

Schpeck-und-Oyer, Hertzschpergraut, 
Alter-Mann, und Altie-Frah, 

Hahnakaem, und Fuechsaschwaenz. 

Dickschta Erbiera newha drah, 

Schwerdelcher schier wie en Senss 
(Die mit Blumma, grossa bloha), 

Suessa Schropps, und weisa Lillia, 
Ritterschpaara, Hinkelgloha, 

Corianner, und Camilla — 
Dehl f'r Krarkheit hinnergeh, 

Dehl f'r Gschmack, und dehl f'r schoe. 


The following self-explanatory state- 
ment reprinted from the Easton Argus of 
October 18, 1912 will interest our dialect 
readers and writers and becomes a strong 
argument why we should gather all the 
dialect writing we can for the sake of the 
history of the German element, the Ger- 
man language and its dialects. We give 
also a Dory Delp selection, contributed 
to the same paper. 

Reprinted in Switzerland. 

Maximillian Lindenmeyer of Basle, 
Switzerland, who has been a visitor to 
this country during his travels around 
the world, was a recent guest at the home 
of Charles L. Hemingway, in this city. 
While here he got hold of a copy of The 
Argus containing the weekly letter of 
Dory Delp, written in Pennsylvania Ger- 
man dialect. He read the letter with 
ease and was so struck by the similarity 

of the language spoken by the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans with that of his own peo- 
ple, that he sent the paper to his home 
newspaper, the "Nachrichten," at Basle, 
Switzerland. The Editor of that paper 
must also have been impressed with the 
similarity, for the "Dory Delp' 'article waa 
published in English letters in its en- 
tirety with German translations of the 
E]nglish captions. 

In it is given the letter of Mr. Linden- 
meyer who wrote: 

.American Ancient German" 

"My travels through Pennsylvania prin- 
cipally through the districts of Bethlehem 
and Allentown, impressed me with the 
great relation of their spoken dialect with 
our ancient German. In these territories 
are mostly settlers from South Germany, 
who on account of religious intolerance 
left their homes. In yards aside from the 



great traffic lines the language, almost 
purely, ancient German, is retained. The 
following specimens will show how the 
German changed and how little the 
English influenced the language, although 
English is the conversational language, 
There are found families, who have been 
for generations in the country, who can- 
not speak English fluently. The younger 
generations however, appear to prefer 
American English, which will more and 
more develop itself into a national langu- 

"This letter, with the added newspaper 
clipping, is from English newspapers, as 
the title shows, and reads as follows: 

"The Dory Delp letter of May 29 is 
printed, headed, 'Dory Delp's Neighbors 
Meet Again as of Old, and Discuss Cur- 
rent Local Events.' " 

Ich will dir heut bissel ebbes foon en 
secret sawge, Mister Drucker, — en secret 
wega de weibsleit. Now s'is ovver nix 

Now, (gook bissel de onnera weg), des 
is der secret: Die weibsleit hen ufhehra 
unnerreck weara, anyhow so fiel wie sie 
ols hen. Of course, des is ow f'eleicht ken 
secret tzu euch olta gedrowta karl, ovver 
tzu uns yunge chaps doh haus in Porricks 
is es ebbes gons neues. Mir warren noch 
oil uf de mehning de maid daiten noch 
unnerreck weara; un die Mommy erlaubt 
es wair ow tzu unserm gradit os mir net 
besser gewist hen; sie secht es wair olsa- 
mohl ken gooty sign won yunge karl tzoo 
fiel wista. 

Ovver's is now haus — der secret wega 
de unnerreck. Un es is raus kumma in'ra 
court in New York. Die Jackson Mack 
Manufacturing Company is in bankruptcy 
gonge. Die Jackson leit hen en grossy 
factory, un sie hen seidna unnerreck drin 
gemacht. Der judge hut gewoonnert wos 
letz wair mit denna unnerreck os die kum-' 
pany in so grooser droovel giebrocht het. 
Es wair nix letz, but der president foom 
de kumpapy g'sawt, yusht die weibsleit 
hetta ufhehra seidna unnerreck weara, un 
sel het die factory tzue g'shtelt. 

"Well, well, wos bedeit don aes, os uie 
weibsleit ken seidna unnerreck meh 
weara?" hut der judge g'frogt. 

Yah, un sie weara ow nimmy fiel on- 
nera," hut der manufacturer g'sawt. 

"Tut, tut!" secht der judge, un hut der 
kup g'shiddled, "was hut don so ebbes fer- 

Der manufacturer hut f em judge noh 
explained. Ollaweil daiten die weibsleit 
orrick enga frocka-shteck weara. Die 
shteck wairen so eng os die weibsleit sheer 
net laufe kenta; so eng os die weibsleit 
net ivver'n dreckloch shritta kenta uf'm 
weg noh der karrich, un sheer net en 
trolley car uf un op kenta. Now unnich 
so'n enger frock kenta die weibsleit net 
unna ufhava fer'n shanner unnerruck tzu 
weisa. Drumm, mit ken blots fer un- 
nerreck un ken chance meh fer'n shaner 
tzu weisa, hetta die weibsleit fermootlich 
welters ken use fer unnerreck — anyhow 
net fer die deura seidna. So daiten sie 
ken so unnerreck meh kaufe; un sel wair 
wos sei factory aus business g'shmissa het. 

®ur Booh ^able 

By rof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

By H. Addington Bruce, Author of 
"Scientific Mental Healing," etc. Cloth, 
illustrated, 257 pp. Price, $1.50 net. 
Little, Brown & Company, Boston, 1912. 
Is it accldiental that so many books 
about woman are appearing at the present 
time or does it show an unusual amount 
of interest in her cause fostered by the 
suffrage movement? One is verily induced 
to name a list of books that have appear- 
ed on woman and her activities and in- 

terests during the last six months. "Why 
Women are So"; "Woman Adrift"; "The 
Advance of Woman"; "The Woman Move- 
ment"; "The Woman of It"; "Making a 
Business Woman"; "The Business of Mak- 
ing a Woman"; "Woman and Social Prog- 
ress"; "Woman in the Making of Ameri- 
ca"; "The Women of Shakespeare"; 
"Woman's Share in Social Culture," "The 
Woman"; etc. If these puDilcations are a 
sane indication of the spirit of the times. 



then woman must surely soon come to her 

Of the many books, however, that have 
been published to show woman in her his- 
torical, educational, business, social and 
economical position we believe that from 
an historical, rpadable, and literary point 
of view that this particular book is as in- 
teresting and important as any of them, if 
not even more so. It is an historical sur- 
vey of woman's part in the making of this 
republic from the day the first white child 
was born in America to the present day. 
The work must have been one of apprecia- 
tion and love in the part of the author. 
While making extensive researches for a 
history on the national evolution and ex- 
pansion of the American people, he found 
many interesting facts that revealed the 
part played by woman in the building up 
of the nation. The biographic'al facts 
which he collected give a ready support to 
the high tribute he pays to these coura- 
geous women. 

Space forbids the enumeration of all the 
deeds, noble and heroic, which these 
women have done in order that this coun- 
try might live. Whether in the decision 
of the moral issues of the Revolution, or 
of the Rebellion; whether in the pioneer 
movempnt west of the Alleghanies and the 
Mississippi, or on the frontier of the far 
West, woman has always exerted a power- 
ful influence; and this noble procession of 
women sweeps through the decades and 
generations to the present day. It is well 
that some of the names are called to mind; 
others may be more familiar. 

The book is written in an easy, light, 
and fearless style that is adorned with any 
amount of illustrative material. It affords 
enjoyable reading. It is a veritable con- 
tribution to American history. It should 
be on the reading list of every woman's 
club, which organization the author so au- 
mirably defends from its diminishing num- 
ber of critics. 

r ■•■••.-:;- r>^ 
fred Sidgwick. Cloth, with sixteen il- 
lustrations. 327 pp. Price $1.50 net. 
The Macmillan Company, New York, 

The many recent books on Germany 
might be a wholesome sign that the world 
is becoming better acquainted with itself, 
at least it ought to know a good deal about 
Germany. Although many books on Ger- 
many have appeared of late, this one is 
still not superfluous. There is room for 
just as many books on Germany as that 
country has corners, and it has a great 

many. There are a great many Germanys. 
This country is probably more diversified 
than any other. When you write of one 
corner it is very likely that you write of 
customs and manners that in no wise ob- 
tain in an other corner. In this way there 
may be room for a great many books on 

This is the third edition of one of the 
most readible and informative books about 
Germany. It is written by an English 
woman of German parentage; she has 
spent considerable time in Germany. It is 
no hasty account while you wait; it is vir- 
tually a study, and a comprehensive one 
at that in spite of the diversity of the 
theme which deals with subjects like Ger- 
many's children, schools, students, house- 
wives, servants, shops, customs, etc. The 
information is detailed, reliable and com- 
prehensive. The writer shows an intimate 
knowledge of the customs and habits of a 
ratuer misunderstood people; sue nas also 
succeeded admirably in maliitainiug a fair 
balance between sympathy and criticism 
where either may bo deserved. 

It is an interesting book for the traveler, 
for the student, and the teacher of German 
and even for the Germans themselves who 
have here an opportunity to see themselves 
"at home" as others see them. 

THE FINANCIER. By Theodore Dreis- 
er, Author of "Jennie Gerhardt," and 
"Sister Carrie." Cloth; 780 pp. Price 
$1.40 net. Harper and Brothers, New 
York. 1912. 

The scene of this novel is Philadelphia; 
and the time is the administration of 
President Jackson, when the city had but 
two hundred and fifty thousand, or more. 
inhabitants. The chief character is 
Prank Cowperwood, whose father is suc- 
cessively bank clerk, teller and cashier. 
Young Cowperwood decides to be a bank- 
er also, a financier — and a financier he 

The novel has been termed a drama of 
the lust for wealth. Cowperwood is seem- 
ingly meant to be a typical American 
money king; in general, he passes very 
well as such. But he is not after the 
dollar for the dollar's sake with the pur- 
pose of hoarding it. He is rather after 
the power and pleasure which money can 
procure. From youth up he liked to 
make "big money;" and he likes to spend 
it for things that cares and charm the 
eye: nice furniture, fine horses, fine 
costly pictures, and a pretty woman. 

If he is possessed of a keen aesthetical 
sense, he is entirely devoid of an ethical 



one. He is hardened in his hedonism. He 
has little sense of what is right and what 
is wrong. In his financial maneuvers, if 
lie has a chance to make a large sum of 
money, he does so without showing any 
mercy to the "smaller fry;" this is what 
he saw the lobster do with the squid in 
the aqnariiim. 

The book is written in a strange style, 
in fact all of the author's are; it does not 
seem as though he thought it worth 
while to make even an effort to write as 
other novelists do. There are pages and 
pages of seemingly ordinary detail nnem- 
bellished by a single pretty phi-ase or a 
clever and apt remark; and yet, strange 
to say, you are constrained by some charm 
to read verily every line of it. The style 
is uniform, there is no haste, commotion 
or confusion to get over unpleasant places; 
there is no surprise or suspense, there is 
not even a good strong, crisp adjective to 
liven up the scene. The style though 
crude, is vigorous, and that is what saves 
the book. Out of all apparent chaos and 
world of words there finally emerge com- 
plete human beings who are as much 
alive as any of the author's and probably 
more so than some who actually walk the 
streets today. 

The story is big not only in size, but 
also in its conception of the evolution of 
American life, and in its depiction of the 
lust for power and wealth, and love for 
women. It is as deep as it is broad. It 
is the most powerful and vivid panorama 
of the materialistic side of American life 
bound in fiction today. It is very likely 
that there will be a sequel to this story, 
in which we may be allowed to meet Cow- 
perwood in Chicago. 

And some of its Problems. In the 
Teachers' Professional Library Series. 
By Julius Sachs, Ph. D., Professor of 
Secondary Education in Teachers' Col- 
lege, Columbia University. Cloth, 295 
pp. Price $1.10 net. 'rne Macmillan 
■Company, New York, 1912. 
Of the many books on education and 
the profession of teaching that have ap- 
peared this is probably the sanest, the 
most wholesome and the most suggestive. 
The author devotes his attention and dis- 
cussion to the preparation of the teacher, 
the present status of the public high school, 
the private school, and the educational 
policy of the secondary school. The book 
is probably one of the first, if not the first, 
which advocates the very principles which 
underlie what was for a long time known 

as the "Batavia System," the very effec- 
tive and creditable Preceptorial system at 
Princeton University, and the new course 
of work inaugurated in the Trenton, N. 
J. High School last fall. The writer 
makes no mention of any of these "sys- 
tems," though they were all being work- 
ed out before the book was pu'olished; 
they have thus received the stamp of 
pedagogical approval. 

The writer's discussions and these 
"systems" run parallel; they are all based 
on the idea that pupils do not know how 
to study, that studying is one of the lost 
school-arts, that teachers are too often 
enslaved to the text book, and that too 
much home work is required of the school 
children, etc. Most of this home work is 
aimless and invariably shows a lot of mis- 
directed energy. More work must hence- 
forth be done under the direction of the 
teacher right in the class room. Pupils 
need more direction and suggestion. 

The book is entirely sane, suggestive 
and wholesome. It is an admirable book, 
and should be in the library of every 
teacher regardless of what he teaches. 

Discussion of the Biologic, Domestic, 
Industrial, and Social Possibilities of 
American Women — -By Scott Nearing, 
Ph. D. Wharton School, University of 
Pennsylvania, Author of "Social Ad- 
justment," etc.; and Nellie M. S. Near- 
ing B. A. Bryn Mawr, M. A. University 
of Pennsylvania. Cloth, gilt top; 285 
pp. Price $1.50 net. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 1912. 
Of the countless books that have been 
published about women during the last 
year "Woman and Social Progress" is in 
all probability the most scholarly and the 
most scientific. It shows a most extensive 
breadth of view, the widest reading, and 
an untold wealth of information. The 
data which the writer has brought to- 
gether has been condensed and systema- 
tized, and inferences and conclusions have 
been drawn with logical precision, i^et 
no one imagine, however, that because the 
book is a scholarly and scientific piece of 
work it is therefore an uninteresting com- 
pilation of data and statistics; the result 
of research work. Though not written in 
the popular style, the writer has never- 
theless invested his work with a literary 
charm and has given his bare facts a 
literary interpretation that makes the 
book most pleasant and interesting read- 

The writer starts out with the in- 



dividuality of the modern woman. She 
possesses powers and attributes of her 
own; freeing herself from a male attach- 
ment she stands forth as an individual 
with free choice, whose life is her own 
concern, who is entity in herself, and is 
no longer only the "female of man." Her 
capability as a creator and producer, her 
environment as the result of an industrial 
and domestic revolution, her opportunities 
of education, equality, and freedom, are 
all topics which are admirably discussed, 
and they plainly indicate that the future 
advancement of society depends upon the 
mutual co-operation of its men and 

Tlie author's arguments are convinc- 
ing; they are not marred by any super- 
ficiality. His research concerning the 
position of the female in all animal life 
with regard to racial progress is a mas- 
terly piece of work. 

Peace Prize. By Alfred H. Fried. 
With Preface by Norman Angell, 
Author of "The Great Illusion," 
Cloth, 214 pp. Price $2.00. George 
H. Doran Company, New^ York, 1912. 
Emerson once said: "To be great is 
to be misunderstood." No great ruler 
of today is more misunderstood than 
the German Emperor who together with 
his Empire is supposed to be the veri- 
table personification of war. Germany 
Is looked upon as the stumbling-block to 
the peace of Europe, and yet she alone 
among all the great nations of the world 
has not engaged in war for nearly a half 
a century. The Anglo-Saxon world, es- 
pecially, is under the most dutiful obli- 
gation to the Emperor for having main- 
tained the peace of Europe during many 

trying years. The time is at hand, in 
fact it has been ever so long, to cease 
lampooning the Emperor and of heaping 
opprobrious terms upon his people and 
their government. "He has been ridi- 
culed in season and out of season, with 
reason and without reason." 

It is the author's definite purpose to 
explain the Emperor's attitude regarding 
the peace of Europe and indirectly that 
of the world, and of his idea of a federa- 
tion of the states of Europe. He tries to 
prove, first of all, by comparing the Em- 
peror's deeds with his words that he is 
heartily in favor of a European federa- 
tion; second, to define the means by 
which a universal peace alliance might 
be brought about; ind lastly, to interpret 
the spirit of the age and how it has af- 
fected the Emperor "so that he stands 
forth today not as a War Lord, but as a 
Peace Lord of the World. 

The book is an enthusiastic panegyric 
of the Emperor; but in no sense what- 
ever is the writer carried aw^ay by any 
sentimentality. He simply interprets 
facts as they are. To prove his state- 
ments he quotes copiously from the ut- 
terances of the Emperor who is beyond 
doubt the most popular and most re- 
markable personality in Europe today. 
The book is also no less an urgent ap- 
peal to the Emperor to crown his efforts 
by bringing about a federated Europe. 

It is a remarkable book, and may do 
much to clarify a condition of things long 
misunderstood. It is written in an un- 
adorned philosophical style; it states 
facts; it is scholarly, though it is marred 
in a few places by errors in proper names 
(Gorlitz, President Mackinley). This 
hook and Lea's "The Day of the Saxon" 
form a remarkable contrast. 

Ibistorical Botes anb IRews 

Reports of Society Meetings are Solicited 


But quite apart from class-work in the 
common schools, there is needed some 
other agency for the instruction of all 
the people in the history of the town and 
region. There is no instrument quite so 
well adapted or equipped for carrying on 

this form of popular education as the 
historical society — city, regional, or 
state. Such an organization can inspire 
archaeological explorations, accumulate 
archives, collect reminiscences from pion- 
eers, amass data relative to social and 
economic history and present conditions, 
conduct a well-selected historical and 


ethnological museum that shall be repre- 
sentative of the locality, arrange for pop- 
ular lectures on these subjects, conduct 
historical pilgrimages and commemora- 
tive celebrations, influence school and 
library boards, interest and instruct 
teachers and librarians, furnish the 
newspapers with accurate historical data, 
publish pamphlets and books containing 
reports of their discoveries, and in gen- 
eral awaken within the locality which it 
seeks to represent an active and enduring 
historic consciousness. — Ohio Archaeo- 
logical and Historical Quarterly. 


At the November monthly meeting of 
this society, papers were read on the ar- 
tists, Isaac L. Williams, Benjamin Wert 
Heniy, Leon von Ossko, Jasper Green, W. 
Sanford Mason and William Porter Steele. 


Merging of two of the most important 
magazines of Catholic history in America 
was reported at the twenty-eighth annual 
meeting of the American Catholic His- 
torical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

These magazines are the Records of the 
local society and the American Catholic 
Historical Researches, formerly edited 
and published by Martin I. J. Griffin. The 
merger follows the death of Mr. Griffin. 

It was reported by Miss Jane Campbell 
recording secretary of the organization, 
that the proposed endowment fund now 
amounts to $3632.86, and she expressed 
the hope that this fund would be increas- 
ed to $100,000 to carry on the work of 
compiling data of the Ci»inolic Church. 


Hon. S. W. Pennypacker has erected 
three granite markers on his farm at 
Schwenksville to mark the graves of Rev- 
olutionary soldiers. One is to Major Ed- 
ward Sherburne, of New Hampshire, who 
was an aide to Gen. John Sullivan, was 
wounded at Germantown, October 4th, 
1777, and died the next day; and two 
others to "Soldiers of the Revolution 
wounded at Germantown October 4th, 


This New Jersey Historical Magazine 
will begin in its April, 1913, issue, articles 
on "Early German Churches in Somerset 
County, N. J." Address Alexander G. 
Anderson, Treasurer, Somerville, New Jer- 


The assistant Librarian of this society 
enthuses people by supplying chatty 
items for the local papers of which the 
following is a sample, worth imitating. 

At this season of the year, when calen- 
dars are to be seen everywhere, many of 
them beautiful, and necessary to have in 
our homes and offices, it is an appropriate 
time for the Historical Society to exhibit 
its store of the old time "Almanac" of 
our fathers, our grandfathers and even 
our great-grandfathers. Have you seen 
this exhibit? Beginning with the year 
1777 — ^(think how long ago that is.) 
You will see Father Abraham's Almanac" 
and you will see just why it is so called. 
From 1777 to 1910 we have an almanac 
for nearly every year, over 200 altogether, 
but we only have room to show you 85. 
When you see them you will be glad that 
they were given to the Historical Society 
to preserve for you and others, and you 
will realize that to our ancestors, the Al- 
manac was a calendar, a newspaper, a 
book of jokes, a farmer's and a gardners' 
guide, a household help, and certainly a 

Made of strong hand made paper, you 
may examine them, if careful. The pic- 
tures are most entertaining, and their 
names are odd. Instead of the "Dickens," 
"Longfellow," "Season's Greetings," etc., 
we have "Poor Richard," "Poor Robin," 
"Poor Will," "The Farmer," "House- 
keeping," "Peratical and Tragical," 
"Great Western," "Brother Jonathan," 
"New St. Tamany," and of course some 
"Hoch Deutsche," "Der Neue Reading," 
"Alte Germantown" and this long one, 
"Neuer Gemeinnitziger Pennsylvanischer." 
This exhibit will continue until after the 
New Year, and is free. F. M. Fox, Ast. 


In commemoration of the 88th anniver- 



sary the officers of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania held their annual dinner 
in the hall of the society on Monday eve- 
ning, December 2. 

These dinners, which are held annual- 
ly, are attended only by officers, and on 
these occasions the president of the so- 
ciety wears the ring containing a strand 
of hair from the head of William Penn, 
which was given to the society by Gran- 
ville John Penn, the last of the male line 
of the founder of Pennsylvania, about 
sixty years ago. This year the ring was 
worn at table by ex-Governor Pennypack- 
er, the present president. 

Others present at the dinner were 
Francis Howard Williams, Thomas Will- 
ing Balch, Charlemagne Tower, Richard 
McCall Cadwalader, William Drayton, 
William Potter, Edward S. Sayres, John 
T. Morris, Colonel William Brooke Rawle, 
Dr. John Bach McMaster, Dr. John W. 
Jordan, Dr. Gregory B. Keen and Ernest 


The fall meeting af the Bucks Coun- 
ty Historical Society was held in St. 
James' Lutheran Church, Chalfont, Tues- 
day afternoon, October 22nd, the session 
beginning at 2 o'clock. Interesting 
papers were read as follows: "The Last 
of the Wild Pigeon in Bucks County," by 
Colonel Henry D. Paxson of Philadelphia. 
"Historic Associations of the Upper Nes- 
haminy Valley," by Warren S. Ely of 
Doylestown. "Quaker Poets Among Sole- 
bury Friends," by Mrs. Emma L. K. Rice 
of Solebury. "Notes on the common 
Tinder Box in Colonial Bucks County," 
by Henry C. Mercer of Doylestown. 


This body of Lutherans, organized to 
gather and preserve historical material 
that might otherwise be lost, held its an- 
nual meeting, December 4, 1912, in 
Springfield, Ohio. The General Synod, 
the General Council, the Joint Synod of 

Ohio, the United Synod of the South and 
the German Iowa Synod were represent- 

Papers were read by Rev. Dr. J. A. 
Singmaster, "St. Paul's Lutheran Church, 
Allentown, Pa." 

Prof. B. F. Prince, Ph. D., "The Begin- 
ning of Lutheranism in Ohio;. 

Prof. L. D. Reed, "Paul Herple's Mis- 
sionary Journey to Ohio." 

Dr. T. L. Gotwald for Rev. Dr. Gonga- 
ware, "Pioneer Lutheranism in Western 

Dr. G. H. Gerberding, "The Relation 
of Lutheranism to the United States." 

Prof. A. R. Wentz, "Parallels between 
Political and Church History in the 
United States." 


The issue for January 1913, Vol XXII, 
No. 1, of this valuable historical journal, 
contains a report of the fifth annual meet- 
ing of "The Ohio Valley Historical As- 
sociation, (125 pages) and the "Auto- 
biography of Thomas Ewing," (75 pages). 


This illustrious society held its four- 
teenth Annual Dinner in the Grand Ball- 
room of the Waldorf-Astoria in the city of 
New York on Saturday evening, Decem- 
ber 14, 1912, at seven o'clock, to com- 
memorate the one hundred and twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the framing of the 
Constitution of the UNITED STATES 
which was signed September 17, 1787 in 
the Federal Convention held in the city 
of Philadelphia, and which was ratified 
December 12, 1787 by the PENNSYL- 
VANIA Convention." 

THE PFJNN GERMANIA acknowledges 
receipt of a copy of the programme for 
the occasion, the table list and a copy of 
the Constitution of the United States pub- 
lished by the society. The gathering was 
a notable one. 

XLhc fonxm 

The Penn Gei mania Open Parliament, Question-Box and 
Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 

This is a subscribers' exchange for comparing views, a what- 
not for preserving bits of historic information, an after dinner loung- 
ing place for swapping jokes, a general question box — free and open 
to every subscriber. 


By Leonard Felix Fuld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

(Editorial Note. — Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and the meaning of the sur- 
name of any reader who sends twenty- 
iive cents to the Editor for that purpose.) 


The surname Wuest is an uncomple- 
mentary nickname. It is derived from 
wust, the primary meaning of which is 
•chaos or a confused mass and the second- 
ary meaning, filth or any disgusting ob- 
ject. The adjective Wuest from which 
the surname is derived means an unculti- 
vated area. The surname originally was 
given to a man who did not cultivate his 
land. Derivatively it came to be ap- 
plied to a disorderly, dissolute, filthy, ugly 
or bad individual or to anyone who was 
disliked by the person applying the nick- 


Adolph is derived from Adel, which 
means noble. It is a surname which was 
originally a personal name. At first it 
was given only to those who were directly 
or indirectly of noble birth. Subsequent- 
ly it was applied as a complimentary ap- 
pellation to any honorable man. 



(;eiiman society 



We recently received a dialect com- 
munication from a widely known minister 
in a large city which we reproduce. The 
letter has its distinctive marks from the 
dialect viewpoint and brings good news 

bearing on the organization for a Penna. 
German society. We hope the organiza- 
tion may be effected. 

Heit Owet waren zuvaelliger Weis vier 
Maenner Zusammen, die uf emol aus- 
gfunne hawwe das sie alle Pennsylvaenisch 
Deitsche ware. Des hot uns all Gefreit. 
Awwer ich hab bald ausgfunne dass sie 
net viel von ihrer Geschichte wissten. Do 
haw ich sie gfrogt ob sie net den "Penn- 
sylvania-German" lese daete, und es hot 
kenner ebbes davon gewusst. Do haw 
ich 'ne versproche ich daet an den Mann 
schreiwe der das Blatt rausgewwe dut. 
Vielleight daet er jadem eine Nummer 
schicken. Vielleicht koenntscht du eh 
Paar Unterschreiber kriege. Mer hen au 
davon gesproche en Aufruf zu machen und 
enne Penna. Deutsche Gesellschaft hier zu 
gruende. Ich glaab es sin viel von unsere 
Landsleut do in xxxxxxxxx. Ich bin fro 
dass ihr en soldi gutes Blatt rausgewwe 
dut. Ich will sehne ob ich net in meiner 
xxxxxxxxxxxx ein gutes Wort dafuer ein- 
lege kann. 


Relative to the statement in the Con- 
rad Weiser Diary, "My Mother departed 
from time to eternity on the tenth day of 
,Iune, 1781. (See PENN GERMANIA, 
1912, page 7 8 8,) A reader writes as fol- 

"I was greatly interested in the Con- 
rad Weiser Diary. The tombstone of 
Conrad Weiser's wife, erected by the side 
of his own tombstone shows as follows: 
Eva Anna Ehegattin von Konrad Weiser, 
1st get 25 Jan 1730. Starb 27 Dec. 1778. 
Alt 4 8 Jahre. I have been Informed that 
this tombstone was recut by some one 
whose Identity I have not learned. Surely 
the person recutting that stone made a 
bad job of it. It appears that the year 
1730 should be 1700 and the age 48 




should "be 78. Might the stone before re- 
cutting have shown a different date of 
death, or perhaps the person who made 
the entry that his mother died June 10, 
1781, might have entered the wrong date, 
■confounding it with that of his step- 


The Managing Editor recently spent a 
few minutes in a village store waiting for 
a trolley car. During this time a num- 
"ber of factory girls working in a building 
•close by entered to make purchases. They 
were Hungarians and spoke their native 
Hungarian-German dialect Time did not 
permit the making of investigations just 
then, but the opportunity impressed itself 
"most forcibly on the M. E. and awakened 
the strong desire of studying the Hun- 
garian-German as used by these workers. 
Some of our readers reside in the im* 
mediate vicinity. To them and all who 
are similarly situated we would say, study 
foreign German dialects and give our 
readers the benefit of your study. Such 
■study w^ould prove interesting and would 
illustrate one source of dialect variations. 


The following letter written by the pub- 
lisher of two German papers and the re- 
ply thereto are self-explanatory. 

Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

Lititz, Pa. 
~My dear Mr. Kriebel: 

Enclosed find my 
check for $2.00 to renew my subscription 
to the Penn Germania. Your magazine is 
-very admirable in many respects, but I 
cannot conceive how anyone who stands 
on the foundation of freedom of con- 
science and individual responsibility can 
endorse such a reactionary measure as 
prohibition. The advocacy of total absti- 
nence is thoroughly consistent with pro- 
testantism and republicanism, but not pro- 

P. S. 1 fear you will estrange many 
sincere friends from you by your support 
of prohibition and you will lose much 
needed support for your enterprise. 

My dear Sir: — 

Thanks for your remittance. 
$2.00, in renewal of your subscription to 
THE PENN GERMANIA, for your words 
of commendation and for your frank ex- 
pression of opinion respecting the attitude 

of THE PENN GERMANIA on the "Pro- 
hibition" question. 

THE PENN GERMANIA is not the or- 
gan of any organization or association. It 
will be maintained as distinctly and speci- 
fically a popular journal of German history 
and ideals in the United States. It will not 
be published as the exponent of a clan, or 
a cult, or as a commercial venture, or as 
a local business enterprise, or as a parti- 
san propagandist organ — but pro bono 
publico, as a Vadeiiiecuni for the pre.serva- 
tion of historic data; as a popular Forum 
for the discussion of subjects naturally 
falling within its field; as a Collaborator 
— but not competitor — of existing societies 
and periodicals that are devoting them- 
selves wholly or in part to certain phases 
of the same general field; as an Int^riiie- 
(liary between the learned classes and the 
common people for the dissemination and 
popularization of what master minds are 

In harmony with this general statement 
THE PENN GERMANIA has published ar- 
ticles favoring Prohibition and will not 
hesitate to print articles against Prohibi- 
tion. Discussions pro and con of current 
questions are welcomed and will receive 
consideration and space in the magazine 
providing their publication is regarded 
"pro bono publico." There is room and 
need for a periodical open for discussion 
of questions that have a bearing on Ger- 
man History and ideals. THE PENN GER- 
MANIA aids to fill such need. If friends 
of the magazine will bear this in mind 
they need feel no alarm if occasionally a 
statement appears that does not meet 
with universal approval. By calmly view- 
ing various aspects of questions can we 
best arrive at the truth of matters under 
consideration. The German citizenship 
has played such an important part in the 
history of our country and has been so 
versatile that one must take a wide reach- 
ing view to get an adequate and just con- 
ception of the whole. It will involve con- 
siderable educational effort to lead some 
readers to grasp the situation but it will 
be worth while. If THE PENN GER- 
.MANIA can become a medium to such end 
its publication will not have been in vain. 

Looking at matters from this broad 
viewpoint I hope the course of THE PENN 
GERMANIA will commend itself to you as 
the proper one to pursue. Your remarks 
are appreciated and, it is to be hoped, may 
induce other fellov.'-editors to express 
themselves. Neither THE PENN GER- 
.MANIA nor the writer of these lines is 
walking about with the "chip on the 



looking for a fight — nor are we so thin 
skinned or sensitive of heart that a friend- 
ly word of counsel will upset us. 

Thanking you again for your communi- 
cation, I remain, 

Yours very truly, 


Godfrey Holtenhoff, vice president of 
the Santa Fe Railroad has a daughter who 
has been blind since she was a child. She 
has studied music in Germany and has 
made her debut on the concert stage. Her 
voice is regarded by critics as a beautiful 
one. A reception given in her honor in 
Berlin, Germany, was attended by more 
than 300 guests at the reception, including 
Ambassador Leishman and Consul General 
Thackara, leading musical celebrities, 
members of the American colony and 
prominent Germans. 

Psychologists are very much interested 
in Miss Holtenhoff's marvelous perception. 
She selects and designs her own gowns 
and knows the difference in colors. 


A well-known clergyman, when the re- 
port reached him that his alma mater had 
conferred on him the divinity degree, was 
so chagrined that he came out in the pub- 
lic press in protest. He confessed that for 
some days he would not appear on the 
street for fear of being congratulated. It 
was said that one of the worthiest acts of 
President Cleveland was his refusal of an 
honorary degree. When Oxford Univer- 
sity would confer on Handel the degree of 
doctor of music he loudly protested, "Vat 
frow my money away for dat — de block- 
heads vish! I no vant to be von doctor." 
A certain Frenchman visiting in this coun- 
try, stopped in a college town. The in- 
stitution, wishing to recognize the honor, 
conferred on him a degree. Baron Stuben, 
nearing of it and having occasion to pass 
ihrough the same town, addressed his men 
thus before entering: "You shall spur de 
horse veil and ride troo de town like de 
mischief, for if dey cotch you dey make 
von doctor of you." 


One of the Allentown, Pa., papers speaks 
editorially as follows about one of her 

Harvey G. Ruhe, who died in West 
Newton, a suburb of Boston, on 
Thursday and was buried in Fairview 

Cemetery, this city, yesterday, was a 
typical Allentown boy of courage and grit. 
Mr. Ruhe is well remembered by our citi- 
zens. As a boy he was noted for his in- 
dustry and vaulting ambition. Endowed 
by nature with splendid business qualifica- 
tions Mr. Ruhe set out to make a place for 
himself in the world. How well he suc- 
ceeded is shown by the fact that he was 
among Boston's most successful business 
men. He rose entirely on his merits. He 
advanced step by step because he was 
faithful to his employers and met every re- 

As a young man in Allentown Harvey 
Ruhe was extremely popular. He was 
urbanity personified and no one ever knew 
him to do a mean thing. Allentown has 
sent many young men into the world who 
have achieved success, but none who was 
more deserving of good fortune than was 
Harvey G. Ruhe, who is stricken down at 
a time when he would have been able to 
best enjoy the fruits of his industry. 


A kind of steel that cannot be drilled, 
exploded or cut by the oxy-hydrogen flame 
has been discovered by German chemists. 

A new method of administering ether by 
hypodermic injection which requires but 
one-third of the time of the usual or 
"hood" method. A German discovery was 
recently used at the Hahnemann Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

A radical cure for tuberculosis discover- 
ed by Dr. Frederick Friedman of Berlin, 
Germany, is thus explained by the dis^ 

"It is amazingly simple, I was greatly 
interested in the discoveries of Dr. Koch, 
but after the failure of his tuberculin I 
followed Koch's theory that tuberculosis 
could only be fought successfully with 
serum baccilli. I searched everywhere for 
that baccilus and finally found it in turtles. 

"Now I cultivate the germ in turtles, 
then obtain serum which I simply inject 
into the patient. This serum kills all 
tuberculosis germs in the patients' body 
and therefore has proved as successful for 
consumption of the lungs as any other con- 
sumption. I have prepared enough serum 
to last two years or to cure a million pa- 
tients and all who will come to see me will 
be treated free." 


The population of Comal County, one of 
the most prosperous in Texas, is about 
ninety-nine per cent German and the re- 



maindor Teutonic. The sagacious student 
of racial characteristics, therefore, will 
not be surprised to learn that in the re- 
cent election to determine whether by 
■Constitutional amendment Texas should go 
"dry," the Prohibitionists of Comal County 
were able to muster only five votes for 

When the polls had closed in New 
Braunfels, the county seat of Comal, Uncle 
August, with beard reaching to his belt, 
and Heinie, with spectacles a quarter of an 
inch thick, made ready to canvass the re- 
turns. 'After murh business of sharpening 
pencils and arranging pads, Uncle August 
i^aid, "Veil, Heinie, ve begin," 

. Heinie took a b?llot from the box and, 
aft^er adjusting his glasses, read slowly and 
■nap^lly. "A-gainst — the — a-mend-ment." 

"Vait a minute, vait a minute!" inter- 
rupted Uncle August. "Do you t'ink ve 
got all night to sit here v'ile you say 'A- 
gainst — the — a-mend-ment'? Cut it 

short! You yoost say, 'Vet — vet'! Dot's 

"Vet — vet," counted the obedient 
Heinie. After about two hours of this, 
Heinie exclaimed, "Look here! Here is 
Ton dot say, 'For — the — a-mend-ment.' " 

"Vel, dot's all right — ^dry — dry von!" 
returned Uncle August. 

When for three weary hours more 
Heinie had droned, "Vet," he said, "Vait, 
dis von too, it say, 'For — -the — a-mend- 

"Veil, you t'row dot ticket oudt!" 
shouted Uncle August. "Dot scoundrel 
has voted already vonce!" — John E. Ros- 
sen, Lippincott's. 


'F.'itlier of Dr. C. J. Hexanier, President of 
X. G. A. Alliance. 

Ernst Emil Julius Ferdinand Hexamer, 
one of the best known Germans in this 
country and originator of the system of 
fire insurance maps which are now used 
by Pre insurance companies in all parts 
of the world, died early in December in 

Mr. Hexamer was the father of Dr. C. 
J. Hexamer, president of the National 
German-American Alliance and head of 
the German Society of Pennsylvania. He 
was senior member of the engineering 
firm of Ernst Hexamer & Son, and was a 
noted authority on fire insurance engin- 
eering matters. His maps, dividing the 
city into districts and pointing out the 
liablities of each building, from an in- 

surance standpoint, have become recog- 
nized throughout the world. 

Mr. Hexamer was born in Coblenz-on- 
Rhine May 29, 1827. He traced his an- 
cestry as far back as the ninth century, 
through the royal German families of 
Hexamer and Von Rittich. He came here 
with Carl Schurz in 1848, and had since 
been prominently identified with German- 
American activities in this country. 

As a youth he lived with his mother at 
Die Palatinata, near Heidleberg, where 
he saw much of the court life, and later 
he attended the Polytechnic School, at 
Carlsruhe, where he was a favorite stu- 
dent of Reddenbacher, the world's first 
professor of mechanical engineering at 
that time. After the revolution, in which 
he sought, with Schurz, to set up a repub- 
lic in Germany, he fled to America. 

When the antislavery movement began 
to assert itself he became identified with 
William Lloyd Garrison as an abolitionist. 
He made speeches throughout the north, 
and in Hoboken was set upon by a crowd 
and seriously injured. His father, who 
was attorney general in the district of 
Prussia, was taken as a hostage by Napo- 
leon into Russia when he made his famous 
march on Moscow. — Exchange. 



Thiel College has a young man in the 
student body who has made it possible to 
go through college through the profits of 
a half acre of ground loaned to him for 
gardening purposes by his father. Be- 
ginning when he was twelve years old, he 
used this half acre garden, selling his 
products and banking the money he made. 
This fall he entered Thiel having $875 in 
bank. With this money and the income 
from his garden, which he will continue 
during vacation periods, he expects easily 
to put himself through the schools and 
prepare for the ministry in our Lutheran 
Church. Albert Trumpeter shows that 
where there is a will there is a way. 


On November 15th, the prize for litera- 
ture was awarded to Gerhart Hauptmann, 
the German poet and drara^atist. Herr 
Hauptmann, who is 50 years old, has been 
one of the most distinguished figures in 
German literature for nearly 20 years. 
He has used either prose or verse in his 
plays, and has been a realist or an idealist, 
as the subject seemed to justify. His ad- 



As an amusement, these toys have 
a secondary place. Their prime purpose 
is educational. The German schools in 
some places have adopted them for use 
in instruction in natural history. They 
should prove of immense value. — Popular 


Germany is the country best prepared 
for aerial warfare, according to the latest 
official figures from abroad. That coun- 
try now leads in dirigibles, for with its 
private and government owned vessels 
it could enlist the services of twenty air- 
ships in wartime. 

A few months ago Prance possessed 
fourteen dirigibles, with eleven building; 
England, seven, with two building; Rus- 
sia, three and four building; Italy, seven 
and one building. Two months before 
war was declared between Turkey and 
Italy the former country had ordered 
several dirigibles from Count Zeppelin, of 
Germany. — Cleveland Plain Dealer. 

A Chance Observation That Gave God- 
frey a Great Idea 

The element of chance plays an im- 
portant role in invention and in no case 
is this more strikingly illustrated than in 
that of Thomas Godfrey, the American 
who improved upon the quadrant, or 
rather, devised the sextant, the basic 
notion for which he got by noting the 
reflection of the sun from a pail of water. 

Godfrey was a glazier by trade, but he 
had a taste for mathematics and was a 
man of some culture. 

John Hadley had also invented a sex- 
tant, apparently a development of a sug- 
gestion of Newton's, found among his 
papers at his death. Godfrey anticipat- 
ed Hadley by about one year, but for a 
long time his claims were not recognized, 
Hadley receiving the entire credit. 

The glazier thus received his inspira- 
tion for the instrument that was to prove 
of such value to mariners. One day, 
while replacing a pane of glass in a win- 
dow of a house in Philadelphia opposite 
a pump, he saw a girl, after filling her 
pail, put it upon the sidewalk. The ob- 
servant glazier saw the sun reflected 
from the window on which he had been 
at work into the bucket of water. His 
mind quickly perceived the significance 

of the situation, and he was thus led to 
the design of an instrument "for drawing 
the sun down to the horizon," a device 
incomparably superior to any that had 
hitherto been used for the ascertainment 
of angular measurements. — Harper's 


The Imperial family of Germany ob- 
serves a very sweet custom on the birth- 
days of its children which dates back ta 
the days of Old Kaiser Wilhelm. 

On the birthday of one of the royal 
children the Empress looks over the 
stock of toys which has been accumulat- 
ing since the last birthday and sends all 
excepting perhaps a few special favorites 
to the sick children in the hospitals. The 
present Kaiserin, who is the most mother- 
ly of women, has paid special attention ta 
this custom, and on the occasion of 
Princess Victoria Louise's birthday, 
which occurred some time ago, her 
majesty packed with her own hands a 
large case of dollies, picture books and 
little dishes, all in a fair state of preser- 
vation, and had them sent to the little 
sufferers. The sick children are always 
told who sends the presents, and in past 
years this has resulted in the saving of 
some curious and interesting relics. In 
this way the battered tin soldiers, which 
amused the children of Old Kaiser Wil- 
liam, have been saved from the wreck of 


Representative Rothermel, of good old 
Pennsylvania Dutch stock and hailing 
from Reading, tells this one about a con- 
stituent of his, now living at Chambers- 

On June 30, 1863, when the rebels 
were approaching the city of Chambers- 
burg on their way to begin their attack 
on the Federal troops at Gettysburg, the 
natives, men, women and children, with 
the exception of one Dutch farmer, were 
running from their homes in every direc- 
tion, having heard that the 'Johnnies*^ 
were about to attack the city. But old 
John Metzgar calmly sat out in front of 
his house and refused to budge. 

"What's the matter with you?" asked 
one of his neighbors, almost out of breath 
from excitement. 'Don't you know the 
rebels are going to attack us?' 

" 'I don't believe it,' calmly replied 
-Metzgar. 'Don't you know it's agin' law 



mirers have called him the German 


An eccentric monarch was Frederick 
the Great, whom his subjects called "Old 
Fritz." One day, in passing along the 
streets of Berlin, he noticed that a man 
left the sidewalk as he approached and 
crossed over to the other side of the street. 
The king called him back, and asked why 
he had done so. 

The poor fellow began to tremble, and 
stammered, "Because — you are — the king, 
and I — am afraid of you." 

"Afraid of me!" shouted the monarch. 
"I don't want my subjects to be afraid of 
me, but to love me. I will teach you a 
lesson!" and he began to beat the man 
with his cane, crying out: 

"Next time when you meet me, don't 
cross the street, but greet me with eyes 
that betoken love! Do you understand 

And the unlucky culprit, cringing be- 
neath the vigorous blows of the royal 
walking-stick, promised that he would not 
fear but love the kind. — Youth's Compan- 


The Incident That Led to Bismarck's Re- 
tirement a.s Chancellor 

The emperor's quarrel with Bismarck 
is a matter of history, and it started ow- 
ing to the chancellor having a private in- 
interview with a certain political personage 
unknown to his majesty. The kaiser, 
hearing of this, wrote to Bismarck telling 
him that he expected to be informed of all 
such interviews before they took place. 
The prince's reply to the letter was a ver- 
bal one and was spoken to the emperor's 
private secretary. "Tell his majesty," it 
ran, "that I cannot allow any one to de- 
cide who is to cross my own threshold." 
When the message was delivered to the 
emperor he drove round to the chancel- 
lor's palace and asked him what the dis- 
cussion in question was about. In excited 
tones the prince declared that he could 
not subject his intercourse with political 
personages to any restraint, nor would he 
allow any one to control the passage to 
his private apartments. 

"Not even when I as your sovereign 
command you to do so?" shouted the em- 
peror, enraged. 

"The commands of my sovereign," 

coldly replied the chancellor, "end at the- 
drawing room of my wife." 

At the same time he offered to retire 
from office. This was on Saturday, and 
on the following Monday the Emperor 
politely asked Bismarck to send in his 
resignation. On the 18th of March, 1890^ 
the Tuesday after the quarrel, the abdica- 
tion was written and Germany lost her 
pilot. — National Magazine. 


William II, emperor of Germany is an 
early riser and likes to have everybody 
about him follow his good example. He is 
up every day at 6 o'clock, ready to go ta 
work or to take an outing on horseback. 
His high officials complain that they ar& 
torn too early from the soft delights of 
isleep. Herr vonn Bethmann-Hollweg, 
who is a famous sleeper, accommodates 
himself with difficulty to this strenuous 
regime. He only awakens after many 
calls from his valet de chambre, and when 
drawn from his bed makes his toilet 
slowly and always arrives late at the 
palace, to find the emperor awaiting him. 
with impatience. Some days ago, remarks 
the Cri de Paris, the emperor, after hav- 
ing waited for him until half past 6 o'clock 
decided to go and surprise his chancellor 
in Frederick street. He found him in the 
bath. "I wish to remind you, my dear 
chancellor," said the emperor, "that the 
day begins for you and for me at 6 o'clock. 
It is now going on 7 and you are not even 
shaved. An hour lost each day will make 
fifteen days in a year and in fifteen days 
my grandfather won three victories." 


In Munich, Germany, a woman has 
started a new business^ — that of scientifi- 
cally constructing toys for children, and it 
has proved itself a very profitable enter- 
prise. Hitherto, playthings in imitation of 
birds, fishes and so forth, were constructed 
with little regard to their resemblance to 
the original in the flesh. They were 
merely for purposes of amusement, with- 
out a thought on the part of either maker 
or buyer as to their educational value. 

The models of this clever woman's 
fishes, for instance, not only are true ta 
life with reference to size, color, shape 
and form, but to motions of fin as well. 
Of course for this sort of work, the or- 
dinary toy-maker will hardly suffice. 
Only such persons as have a real scientific- 
knowledge of a very exact kind can hop& 
to lay out the original models. 



to shoot within the limits of this corpora- 
tion?' " — Washington Correspondence in 
New York World. 


Liszt, whose centenary we have been 
celebrating, was a sweet-souled char- 
acter. One day two of his friends, 
musicians, resolved to put the maestro 
into a passion, "which one of his habits," 
they inquired, would most seriously 
trouble him were he deprived of it?" 

"Perhaps," was the answer, "he would 
suffer most if deprived of a well-made 

The two confederates, with a louis, 
brought over a servant to their designs. 
She was not, it was agreed, to make his 
bed for that night. 

Liszt slept badly, and the next morning 
simply said: "Have you forgotten to 
make my bed." 

For two days following she neglected 
making the bed, and on the third day the 
maestro simply said: 

"I see that you have decided not to 
make my bed. Well, let it alone. I have 
come to accustom myself to it." — Le Cri 
de Paris. 


In old Bavarian districts many of the 
smaller towns are merely walled farm 
villages. These settlements of agricul- 
turists reproduce the ancient laager for 
all. Each is built in the form of a paral- 
lelogram, the shorter sides having each a 
gateway, with double gates, over which 
rise central square watchtowers capped 
with conical red roofs. A narrow road 
or street runs from gate to gate, with old 
half timber houses set back close to the 
inclosing wall. The ground floor of these 
houses affords stabling for cattle, and 
from these stables the cows are driven 
out through the town gates in the morn- 
ing and brought in at night. Townships 
like this are merely clusters of houses 

intimately connected with the farm lands 
that lie beyond their gates. The peasant- 
ry, whether peasant proprietors or allot- 
ment leaseholders, go in and out to their 

In eastern Bavaria, toward the Dan- 
ube, where the better class farms are 
to be seen, one finds farmhouses of wood, 
a great shingled roof covering — as in 
Holland — not only the large living apart- 
ment, with many bedrooms, but also the 
stables for the horses and cattle. On such 
farms much of the farm work is done by 
girls, who usually wear short petticoats, 
tight bodices and kerchiefs on their heads. 
Most of the men are either in the army 
or working at trades. 


One of our new subscribers wrote as 
follows: "I am a Penna. German on 
father's and mother's side xxxxx was 
talking with another lady one day when 
an elderly lady stepped up to me and ask- 
ed me if I came from Saxony. I said, no, 
I am a Penna. German. She said, 'You 
talk just like the Saxony people.' She is 
a German lady born in Russia. This is 
a remarkable testimony to the fixity of 
the elements of German dialects. 


A recent issue of "Old Penn Weekly 
Review," published by the University of 
Pennsylvania, on one page had these 
items: Abel L. Stoudt, dead, Dr. Hueb- 
ner to address Club, German Students 
gather. Professor Slagle Instructor in En- 
gineering, Deutscher Verein Reorganized, 
Foreign Students at American Universi- 
ties (referring to Germany). This is but 
one of very many illustrations showing 
that Germany and Germany's sons are 
being recognized at the University. Those 
that are so ready to disown their German 
ancestry and "Fatherland" should pon- 
der data like these. 

(Continued from page 2 of cover) 
latlon devolves logically and appropriately each generation 
•on the immigrants themselves, their sons and daughters and 
can best be met by intelligent, united, and continuous effort 
to such end. Such duty being personal can not be delegated 
to others or performed by proxy. The scholar, the essayist, 
the orator may tell about them, even as signboards point out 
the way to trave'ers; discussion indeed is indispensable to a 
proi)er appreciation of the good and the elimination of the 
bad, but cultural possessions, to serve society efficiently must 
become incarnate in men, taice on human form and be ener- 
gized by the altruistic motives of those holding them. His- 
toric lore hidden in musty volumes on dusty shelves is but 
inert potentialitv, a mass of paper and ink, a vallev of dry 
P.'VNV was called into being to become a medium or instru- 
ment (or promoting such assimilation and incarnation by 
helping men to learn pnd teach what Germany through the 
men and women it gave has been and done for the United 
States. Through it the i)est that German culture and history 
affords may be transfused into ournati^^nal life and transmitted 
to posterity. 

The Penn Germania 

THE PENN GERMANE! will be maintained as distinct- 
ly and specifically a "popular journal of German History and 
Ideals in the United States." It will not be published as 
the exponent of a c'an, or a cult, or as a commercial venture, 
or as a local business enterprise, or as a partisan propagan- 
dist organ — but "Pro bono publico," a-, a V<i:1emecum for the 
preservation of historic data; as a popular Forum, for the 
■discussion of subjects naturally falling within its field.; as a 
<J )Uaborator — but not competitor— of existing societies and 
periodicals that are devoting themselves wholly or in part to 
certaiu phases of the same general field-; as an Intermediary^ 
between the learned classes and the common people for the 
<lissem'nation and popularization of what master minds are 
•creating. It must naturally give a prominent place to the 
'Gern^an immigrants of the eighteenth century whose descen- 
■dants constitute today fully one third of the Nation's Ger- 
man element. The niagazine thus has a field as wide and deep 
as human endeavor ard extending over two centuries of time. 
While it is gatherirg here and there rare nuggets of historic 
lore, inexhaustible riches await uncovering and refining by 
expert workers. Dearth of material need, therefore, not be 
feared nor should difficulties in the way whether real or im- 
aginary deter us from entering and possessing the land. 

While the publication of THE PENN GERMANIA is the 
primary aim in the organi .nation of this company it would 
manifestly be a shortsighted policy not to conserve the by- 
products or utilize the opportunities that naturally attend the 
publication of this periodical. The occasions for encouraging 
historic research that either may arise •of their own accord or 
that may be cultivated will be utilized. The gradual building 
up of the select reference library for students and historians 
of the German element in the United States will greatly in- 
crease the 'Usefulness of the undertaking. 




A. F. BERLIN, President 
A. O. RAU. Vice President 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Managing I 




prof. f. s. gerhard. trenton, n. j. 
Miss Cora c. curry. Washington, d. c. 

REV. A. E. GOBBLE. Myerslown 
DR. D. H. BERGEY. Philadelphia 
PROF. A. G RAU. Bethlehem 
DR. R. K. BUEHRLE. Lancaster 
R W. lOBST Esa. Emaus 



»/. J. HELLER. Easlon 

C. W. UNGER. Pottsville 

F A. STICKLER. Nornslown 

W O. MILLER. Esq.. Reading 



H. W. KRIEBEL. Utitz 

J L. SCHAADT. Esq.. Allentown 

REV. N. B. GRUBB. Philadelphia 

AIM OF THE COMPAXY — (E.vtiact from (haitei.) 

The purpose for which the said corporation is formed are as follows: The sup- 
porting and carrying on of a literary and historical undertaking; the composition, 
printing, publishing and distribution of a periodical magazine or publication, de- 
voted to the history and ideals of the German element in the United States, the 
encouragement of historic research connected therewith, and the collection and 
preservation of books, manuscripts and data illustrative of the said history and 


PUBLICATION DATE — Fifteenth of 
each month. 

TERMS — Two Dollars ($2.00) per 
year; One Dollar for six months; 
fifty cents for three months; 
twenty cents per copy. Foreign 
Postage extra. Special rates to 
clubs and solicitors. 

BACK NUMBERS — Back numbers of 
are carried in stock. Particulars 
on application. 

C O M M U N I C A T IONS — "Our Book 
Table" is in charge of Prof. K. S. 
Gerhard, Trenton, N. J., to whom 
all communications touching the 
department should be addressed. 
The Penn Germania Genealogical 
Club is in charge of Miss Cora C. 
Curry, 1020 Monroe Street, Wash- 
ington, D. v., to whom "genea- 
logical" communications should be 
addressed. All other communica- 
tions should be addressed to Lititz, 


CONTRIBUTIONS — ^Contributions are 
invited on subjects falling within 
the scope of tlie magazine, the his- 
tory and ideals of the German 
element in the United States^ No 
articles are paid for except 'upon 
definite contract. Articles should 
reach Editorial Office four weeks 
before date of issue to insure pub- 
lication in a specially designated 

RENEWALS — Money for renewals 
should be sent by subscriber:! 
directly to "The Penn Germania," 
Lititz, Pa., by Post-OfTice, or Ex- 
press, Money Order or in Register- 
ed Letter. 

RECEIPTS — The figures in the address 
on the magazine mailing envelope 
show when the subscription ex- 
pires. For example "12-13" signi- 
fies that subscription is paid to 
December 1913. Receipts are 
only ?ent on request. 

ICntered at the Post Office at Cleona, Pa,, as Second-Class Mail :\latter. 

Vol. II, No. 2 


Vol. XIV, No. 2 


^able of Contents 

Jacob Eichholtz 81 

Murder of Ten Indians by Frederick Stump 97 

The Copus Battle Centennial 101 

Religion in Education 109 

A Plea for Toleration 111 

Errors and Omissions 114 

Doctor Johann Andreas Eisenbart 119 

The Study of Local History 123 

Prizes for Map-Drawing 126 

Pennsylvania Caves 128 

Cornwallis and the Moravians 135 

Current Life and Thought 137 

The Penn Germania Genealogical Club 144 

Die Muttersproch 150 

Our Book Table 151 

Historical Notes and News 153 

The Forum 155 





Zhc pcnn (3crmania 

The following lines, forming part of an An- 
nouncement issued by THE PENN GERMANIA, 
set forth in part the aim of the magazine. 


The "purposes" of the incorporation as set forth by the 
Charter are construed by the Company to sanction the taking 
in hand; — 

1. The publishing of THE PENN GERMANIA, essen- 
tially along the lines hitherto followed, the various depart- 
ments being so elaborated ns to cover the fields of "Art, 
Science, Literature, State, Church, Industry and Genealogy" 
and make the magazine a specific periodical of history and 
current literature respecting citizens of German ancestry in 
the United States. 

2. The encouraging of historic research by historians, 
genealogists, pupils ia public and private schools, colleges, 
and universities. 

3. The founding of a select reference library containing 
with regard to its special field, leading reference ' books, 
genealogical apparaHis, transcripts of original records, books 
and ]ximphlets, clippings trom current newspapers and 
periodicals, etc., etc. 

The field as thus laid out covers; — migrations, early and 
recent, with attendant causes and conditions; settlt-ment and 
pioneer life including subsequent migratory movements ; de- 
velopment, life in all its re ations and activities down to and 
including the present: the family including literature, folk- 
lore and genealogy ; noteworthy events in the Fatherland; 
discussion of current questions in the light of German history 
and ideals. The matter selected for publication must as far 
as poss'ble meet the following conditions in the oider given; — 
It must be "pro bono publico" and what subscribers want; it 
must be true to fact, entertaining, instructive, timely and 
tvpical. l'"or ihe reference library whatever illustrates the 
life and thought of tiie German immigrant and his descendants 
is ap|)r()[)riale or "grist for the mill." 

Germanic Culture 

Germany's cultural possessions, |)ast and present, whether 
brought by emigrants, books, students, or other medium are 
invalnal)le to our nation and should not be eliminatetl or ig- 
nored, or blindly woi shi]:)ped, but preserved, studied -'uul 
assimilated. Abuiifestly the duty of ijromoting such assimi- 
(Continued on page 3 of cover) 

"Supplement to THE PENN GERMANIA.TebruaTy, 1913 

An Open, Unofficial Business Chat 

; Dear Reader: — • 

This is a simple,: frank, • unvarnished, unollicial chat about THETENN GER- 
MANIA by H. W. Kriebel. It in no way binds H. W. Kriebel as Managing Editor, 
or the.Executive Committee, Board of Directory, • or Stockholders of THE PENN 
GERMANIA.RUKLISHING COMPANY— merely an i.nformal, plain, face to face 

This number of THE PENN GERM'ANTA has been delayed unusually long. 
Why? .Pecause — in a nutshell — money has been lacking to make things move lively 
and on time — the machinery drags when it ought to hum. "Money makes the 
mare go" — and makes magazines move. To publish without adequate working cap- 
ital is like flying with one wing, farming without tools, di^^ing Panama Canals 
with. .antiquated picks and shovels, rowing against the tide with one oar, running 
-steam locomotives. without coal and > water. 

"Good friends indeed say flattering things about my work, urge me' to put on la 
stiff upper lip and go lahead, give all kinds of wise and well intentioned advice — all 
of which is appreciated ,but> these things do not pay printer's bills, or salt in the 
■soup even. The Magazine must have more money to get along. A charter is ma- 
chinery, but money is indispensable to m.ake this machinery work. .It, in itself, 
will not holve the fina.nctal problem. 

T have been tugging away at a heavy load ;' shoulders have been sore at times, 

hands and feet tired, skies overcast, things have looked blue, but these are only 

spurs urging me ' to harder work and firmer determination. I have indeed changed 

'tactics, pushed out hampering confines, adopted and dropped plans, but this should 

not condemn me or the plans or the "Dutch" if you please.' Change isasign of 

life. The dead, poisonous pools of stagnant wdter and stubborn mules change not. 

Men that earn money by the thousand,' that have assets by the hundred thou- 

-sand, pat me on the shoulder, wish s.uccess^and let me paddle the canoe alone. 

■^No, brother,' this is not a case of sour grapes, or a yielding to despair, or an 
•outburst of impatience, or a Mrs. Caudle curtain lecture. .It is merely affording 
you a chance to take a look behind the curtains. 

The question is sometimes asked: Does publishing THE'PENN GERMA'NIA 

Do Churches, Colleges, Carpets, Lawns, Shoepolish, Monuments, Artgalleries, 
"Cigars, Automobile joy rides, Jewelry on fniger, ear, arm, watchchain, garter 
pay? Does money making pay? What does, pay? "What-shall it profit a man if 
he. gain the whole world ?" 

THE PENN GERMANPA shoiild not be a treadmill, or a philosopher'-s 
touchstone, or a magic wand, to yield dollars and dimes. 

The best things i.n life are non-profit producing and are fostered, notwith- 
standing this. 

P.ut it must be possible to develop THE PENN GERMANPA into a perma- 
nently-established, self-sustaining publication proposition— an honor to the peopl'e 
in whose name it is being issued, a-source of inspiration, instruction and enjoyment 
to publishers and readers, ai, imperishable nion.uinent admired by posterity. .Thiiii: 

of what the Cicrman Element has meant to our country, — 300 years of history, 
20,000,000 people, epoch-making activity in all lines of human endeavor by brain 
and brawn, the equal of the best. 

I can not here dwell on the need of a journal for the German-American field — 
the services a good working reference library could render, the reasons why 
historic research in this field should be encouraged. IMy own conviction, based on 
general principles, study, the opinions of good judges, is being continuallv 
strengthened that THE PENN GERMANIAas at present organized and conducted 
has a most promising opportunity of service providing adequate support is given. 

John Wanamaker, the American Merchant Prince, a man of whom all German- 
Americans feel proud, himself of early German stock, said in one of his advertise- 
ments this week : 

The Panama Canal Has Come Slowly. 

No human being can create a great thing suddenly. 

If it is only an orange, a little thing one wants, it takes time. It must have 
its first blossom, then the fruit, and time to ripen. 

Thinkers must think a long time, and like Edison keep on thinking, and in due 
time their accumulated brain-work comes along to benefit mankind. 

This is comforting. Neither the German nor THE PENN GERMANIA is a 
mushroom. They are live oaks and illustrate the maxims: 

Eile mit Weile: Willenskraft Wegen schafft. 

But enough of this. These lines are being written to induce you to put your 
shoulders to the wheel to help the work along. As to how to do this let me 
suggest : — 

1. You surely have friends. Send names and addresses of those who you think 
might perhaps take an interest in the magazine. 

2. THE PENN GERMANI.\ should be introduced into many new families by 
direct personal solicitation. Will you not in person NOW try to get persons to 
subscribe. You can. Will you? Liberal commissions to hustlers. 

3. The following rates for THE PENN GERMANIA are in force. 

Single Subscription 3 months $ .50 

" ] year 2.00 

3 years 5.50 

" 10 years 1500 

" Life 25.00 

[ Club Subscriptions — 3 annual 4.00 

(Onlv one of these can be a renewal) 
PUBLISHING COMPANY per share $20.00 
(Each Share entitles holder to one 
Seiri-annual magazine subscription) 

N. B. If your sul)Scription is now due, please pay at once. See address label. 

In conclusion, dear reader, do we — you and 1 — not owe a duty to the past, 
present and future — a duty of gratitude, patriotism and social service — an individ- 
ual, neighborhood, state. National duty to add to the sum total of American life, 
the best and choicest which the present and past of Germanic activity in the 
Fatherland and in America teaches, a duty trat can not be delegated and can be 
most conventiFntly met bv helping to promote the purposes of THE PENN 
GERMANLV PUBLLSHIN'g COMPANY— the publication of a magazine, the 
establishment of a library, the encouragement of historic research. 

^'ours verv trulv, 

H. W. Kriebel. 
Mar. 15, 1 91 3. 

XLbc pcnn (3crmania 

Copyright, 1913, by The Penn Germania Publishing Company 

Vol. II. February, 1913. No. 2 








The Lancaster County Historical Society 


The Iris Club 

NOVEMBER 22, 1912, 



Lancaster county, Pa., the banner agricultural county, of State a«d nation, has 
drawn deserved attention to itself by the "Loan Exhibition of Historical and Con- 
temporary Portraits, illustrating the Evolution of Portraiture in Lancaster County, 
Pa.", held in Lancaster , Pa., under the auspices of the Iris Club and the Historical 
Society of Lancaster County, November 2'.i to December .3, 1012. Oil Portraits, 
Water Color Portraits, Miniatures, Silhouettes, Busts and Medals were shown. 
The following lines and catalog are quoted from their 139 page catalogue, listing 


under both subjects and author over 500 exhibits. The exhibition reflects glory on' 
the county, on the societies directing it and on the committees and mdividuals 
responsible for carrying out the details of the exhibition. Were each Pa.-German 
community to hold similar exhibitions the way would be at least partly prepared fof 
the history of art among Penna.-Germans. It is to be hoped other societies will 
follow this good example. — Editor. 


This exposition of local portraiture, the first of its kind ever under- 
taken in this community, is intended to illustrate by story and picture, the 
evolution of portraiture in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Its object 
is both historical and artistic. The works exhibited comprise those_ of 
native artists, who worked here and elsewhere ; and such works of artists- 
not of our own community who found their subjects among our citizen- 
ship during the last century and a half. 

Necessarily, with such purposes and limitations, the collection may in- 
clude some persons of less conspicuous note, but portrayed with excel- 
lence or by some Lancaster artist whose history is of special interest. On 
the other hand, there are subjects included who have not been treated by 
the painter or sculptor with the eminence of their own position, but whose 
part in our county's history has been so leading that to exclude them 
from an historical collection would have been a serious omission. 

Fortunately for the double significance of the event a large proportion 
of the exhibits are Lancaster subjects by Lancaster artists. Jacob Eich- 
holtz was easily the first of these in rank and the most prolific in output, 
and as he was one of the earliest exemplars of the art of portrait painting 
who came out of that Pennsylvania-German element which entered so 
largely into our citizenship of his day, the large collection of his works, 
for the first time assembled, is most gratifying. The story of his life and 
the cataloguing of his works, contemporaneously published, fitly supple- 
ment this catalogue and enrich our local annals. They will serve to 
stimulate the increasing appreciation of his merit in centers of art and 
taste other than his home city. 

It is also believed that this exposition will have a far-reaching in- 
fluence in reviving the interest of artists and patrons in this phase of 
culture. From even a practical or economic point of view these exhibits 
will present a powerful inducement to a largely increased number of 
persons in this country to consider portraiture as a "household necessity." 
Laborious as the work involved has been, those who have done it will be 
well repaid if the outcome justifies their confidence that no "good thing,"^ 
is so likely to come out of any place as from Lancaster. 

Tut Eehtors^- 




ARMSTRONG. ARTHUR, 1798-1851. '"•"?■ 

Portrait, landscape and historic painter. 

Born in Manor Township, Lancaster County. In 1820 he opened 
a studio in Marietta, Lancaster County, and there began his career 
as artist and teacher. 

In 1849 he opened a studio and gallery for exhibition of paintings 
in Mechanics' Institute, Lancaster, and later had a large studio 


on Orange street, Lancaster, built by himself and with the second 
story fitted up as a gallery to exhibit paintings. He painted there 
some very large canvasses, "Hamlet and Ophelia" and the 
"Assassination of Caesar." He had a large collection of engrav- 
ings which he took great pleasure in showing to friends and pupils, 
of whom he had a large number. At some time in his career he 
resorted to "pot-boilers," painting signs and banners, and made 
gilded frames. One silk banner which was painted for the 
Washington Fire Company of Louisville, Kentucky, represented 
the Washington family under the portico of their mansion at 
Mount Vernon, with the Potomac dotted with sails seen in the 
background. He was a prolific painter, and while many of his 
works are in the vicinity of Lancaster, others are widely scattered. 







Born in Lancaster, Pa., son of J. Augustus Beck. First studied in 
his father's studio, and later in Diisseldorf, Munich, and the 
Academic Julian in Paris. In Munich, had the personal instruc- 
tion of Paul Weber. Has exhibited at National Academy, Water 
Color Society and New York Etching Club. Received prizes for 
emblematic designs used by the Pan-American, Louisiana Pur- 
chase and Lewis and Clark Expositions, and was awarded a 
diploma at latter exposition. Line ; portraits, landscape and mural 
painting. Studio. 78 Delaware Avenue, Bufifalo, N. Y. Exhibits ; 
Thunder Cloud Blackfoot Chief (from life). A man of exciting 
and varied career iia. Atlee, Dr. John L. 

BECK, CAROL H.. 1858-1908. 

Studied at Woman's School of Design and student of Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts and member of fellowship of the 
same ; afterwards worked in Dresden and completed studies in 
Julian Stndio, Paris. She painted portraits of many prominent 
people and executed numerous commissions for public institutions, 
and for the State of Pennsylvania painted Governor Pattison. 
She did able work in cataloguing the Wilstach Gallery in Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia. 


Born in Lititz. Pa., 1831. 

Studied sculpture under Hiram Powers in Florence, Italy, and 

Thomas Crawford in Rome; also at the English Life Academy,. 


Represented in the White House by two elaborate carved marble 

mantels and in the Washington Monument by a group of figures 

representing "Hippocrates Refusing the Bribe." presented by the 

American Medical Association. 

Settled in Harrisburg. Pa., (1861'), and took un painting portraits 

in oil and water colors. Painted many distinguished subjects, 

among them ten of the living and dead governors. Senator !^imon 

Cameron. M. S. Ouay. Judge \\'iIHam Pearson and Judge John W. 

v^imonton of the Dauphin Countv Courts, and others. 

Representefl in the Penns\'lvania Historical Society galleries by 

over fifty portraits of prominent people of the State. Many of his 


oil and water color landscapes, made during his leisure hours, hang 
in the best private collections of the country. 

A man of steady hand and clear eye, although over eighty-one 
years of age. 



Born in Lancaster, Pa., graduated from New York School of 
Industrial Art for Women, winning Maddock Scholarship two suc- 
cessive years. Taught drawing and design in Mrs. Blackwood's 
School, Lancaster College, and private classes. 
Attended School of Industrial Art of Pennsylvania Museum; 
studied in Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under William 
M. Chase. Exhibited in Annual Fellowship exhibitions. ]\Iem- 
ber of the Fellowship of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 













Portrait painter and restorer of oil portraits. 

Born in Lancaster, 1847. In 1870 went to Philadelphia and began 

study of art under Professor Carl Linderman. In 1873 restored 

the original portrait of Hans Herr, and painted several family 


In 1874 returned to Philadelphia, continued portrait painting and 

banners and silk flags for Centeimial Exhibition and the Masonic 




Born in Lancaster, November 8, 1883. Studied at the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia ; Darby Summer School 
of Painting. Fort Washington, Pa., and in Paris, France. Ex- 
hibited at Fellowship exhibitions and Annual Water Color Ex- 
hibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. 
Members of the Fellowship of the Academy of Fine Arts, Phila- 

DEMUTH, JOHN, i77o?-i82o. 

Born about 1770 in Lancaster, where he spent his life. Brother 
of Jacob Demuth and grand-uncle of H. C. Demuth. Painted 
family portraits and carved in wood. One of his wooden figures 
being in jwssession of his familv. Died at Lancaster in 1820. 



EATON. TOSFPH ORIEL, A. R. A.. 1820-187^. 

EICHHOLTZ. JACOB. 1776-1842. 

Jacob Eichholtz, Lancaster's most notable painter, whose works 
are by far the most numerous in this exhibition, was born of an 


old family, of German origin, in Lancaster, November 2, 1776, 
He was an expert coppersmith, but early developed a talent for 
portrait drawing. Early in the century he was aided by visiting 
artists ; and when Ihos. Sully visited Lancaster, on the eve of his 
departure for Europe (1809), he left Eichholtz his "halfworn 
brushes" and directed him to the instruction of Gilbert Stuart, at 
Boston. As a specimen of his work, he took with him his best 
known portrait, that of Nicholas Biddle, with the U. S. Bank in 
the background. On his return, he settled in Philadelphia as a 
professional portrait painter, remaining there for ten years. Fol- 
lowing the style of Sully and Stuart, he ])ainted more than 250 
portraits and some landscapes and historical groups, between 1810 
and the time of his death, May 11, 1842. Twice married, he left 
many descendants. Among his subjects and sitters were Chief 
Justices Marshall and Gibson, Governors Shulze, Porter and 
Ritner, Attorneys General Elder, Franklin and Champneys ; 
Nicholas Biddle and many of the foremost people of his day in 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Harrisburg and Lancaster. (For ex- 
tended notice see W. U. Hensel's monograph and catalogue of 
Eichholtz's works.) 


Born in 1827. Early life was spent in Lancaster. His father 
w^as proprietor of "The Fountain Inn", and he later was pro- 
prietor of "The Cross Keys Inn", Lancaster, Pa. These facts 
and three remaining canvasses, one landscape and two portraits, 
are all the authentic material know^n concerning him. 

Daughter of Hon. Amos Slaymaker. 

While the workmanship of her painting is somewhat crude, her 
likenesses were considered true, which was remarkable, as she 
never received any instruction in the, art of painting. Her second 
husband was the late Colonel Samuel Shoch, of Columbia. 


FLATMAN. THOMAS, 1633-1688. 



Born at Lancaster. Daughter of Dr. John Brainard Kieffer and 
Mrs. Lyalla M. B. Troupe Kieffer. Graduate of Bryn Mawr ; in- 
herited artistic talent from her mother, from whom she received 
some earlv instruction, but is principallv self-taught. 




FULTON, ROBERT, 1765-1815. 

Artist, inventor, steam navigator. 

Born in Little Britain, now Fulton Township. Lancaster County. 
Early education was in Lancaster, and showed so decided a talent 
for painting and drawing, that by these means he was supporting 
himself at seventeen. In 1786 visited London, where he studied 
portrait painting under Benjamin West, with whom he lived. 
Invented a machine for spinning flax and one for making ropes. 
Went to Paris and became interested in navigation. Invented a 

•; submarine or plunging boat. Returned to New York in 1806. In 

1807 perfected bis great discovery of steam navigation. Launched 


the "Clermont" at New York in 1807. In 1806 married Harriet, 
daughter of \\'alter Livingston. Died at New York. 





GROSH, PETER LEHN, 1798-1859. 

Peter Lehn Grosh, born near Mechanicsville, Lancaster County, 
1798. Lived at same village, where he was a general utility artist 
and painter as well as fruit and flower grower, until 1857.. 
Painted a number of portraits, most of which were produced be- 
tween 1820 and 1835. A versatile man; practically self-taught, 
though with much native ability in striking a likeness of his sub- 
ject. Died at Petersburg, 1859. 

GUE, D. J. 



Daughter of Judge Alexander Hayes, LL. D., was educated at 
Lancaster and Young Ladies' Seminary at Lititz. Studied paint- 
ing in Baltimore and Philadelphia. Attained considerable skill in 
"ivory types", a process taught by a French woman in Philadelphia 
about i860. 


Born in Lancaster, Pa. Attended New York Art School under 
William M. Chase, and was afterwards at Academy of Fine Arts, 
Philadelphia. Studied in London and Art Centers of Europe. 
Exhibited at Annual Water Color Exhibition at Academy of Fine 
Arts, Philadelphia, also at New York Art Club exhibitions ; illus- 
trated for Ladies' Home Journal, Woman's Home Companion, St. 
Nicholas, Good Housekeeping and other periodicals ; also books 
for The Macmillan Co., The T. Y. Crowell Co. and others. 



Born in Kissel Hill, Lancaster County, Pa. In 1854 moved to 
East Petersburg. In 1870 went to Philadelphia to continue her art 
studies and later opened a studio on Chestnut Street. Painted 
portraits, landscapes and miniatures. 



Came to America from Mayence, Germany, in 1729. He is the 
first artist in Lancaster of whom there is any record. An oil 
portrait and a "Crucifixion" from his brush are in existence. He 
removed to Baltimore, Md., where his descendants now reside. 



Born in Washington County, INTd. Studied and graduated at 
Baltimore. Showed early artistic talent and strong natural love 
of beauty in nature, but received little artistic training, being 
mostly self-taught. Lived at Mercersburg, Franklin County, Pa., 
where she had pupils ; later taught drawing and painting at Wilson 
College. Chambersburg. Pa. With an extensive knowledge and 
appreciation of poetry and an intense love of beauty in nature and 
art, her vivid personality kindled strong enthusiasm in her students, 
and she ever strongly stamped her individuality on the community 


in which she dwelt. Painted portraits and landscapes in oil and 
water colors and excelled in flower studies and crayon sketches. 
Married Professor John ]j. Kieffer and lived in Lancaster. She 
kept up a keen and ardent interest in art to the end of her life. 



LEUTZE, EMANUEL, 1816-1868. 


The youngest son of Henry Libhart, he displayed most versatile 
talents in portraits and landscapes in oil, engravings on metal and 
wood, especially in objects of natural history; a draughtsman of 
skill and originality. He modelled in clay and was a fine 
mechanician ; constructed guns and invented reels to remove the 
threads from cocoons of the silkworm. Was a musician and an 
ornithologist of note, and had a very fine collection of the local 
birds of the State. Was postmaster and in 1867 Associate Judge 
of the Common Pleas Court. 


Direct descendant of Mary Ferree, who as widow emigrated with 
her six children to America in 1709, fleeing from France, owing to 
the persecutions of the Huguenots. Her descendants settled about 
Pequea, owning over 1,000 acres, some of the original land being 
still retained in the family, an old homestead built in 1795 still 
being ow-ned and occupied bv one of the family. 





Son of J. Houston Mifflin, was born at Columbia. Pa., September 
5, 1846. Studied art under his father and with Thomas Moran in 
1869-1870. Is an occasional exhibitor of paintings — specialty, 
landscapes. Has published over a dozen volumes of poetry and 
written over 600 sonnets, being regarded as the first living 
American writer of sonnets. Lectured on "Conversation as a Fine 
Art." Has received the degree of D. Litt. from Franklin and 
Marshall College, and also the University of Pennsylvania. Re- 
sides at Norwood, near Columbia, Pa. 

MIFFLIN, T. HOUSTON, 1807-1888. 


Grandson of Jacob Eichholtz. Studied under Schiiselle and 
Fakins at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He has been 
thirty years connected with private schools of Philadelphia as 
teacher of technical and freehand drawing and painting, and at 
present is in charge of art instruction at the DeLancy School, 
Broad and Pine Streets. 

He exhibited portraits and landscapes in the following exhi- 
bitions of the Academy; Fifty-fifth, sixty-third, sixty-fourth, 
sixty-fifth, sixty-eighth and seventy-second. He has also shown 
work at the Art School and Art Institute of Chicago. He painted 
portraits of manv prominent Philadelphians. 


Born in Lancaster County. Attended Spring Garden Institute; 
graduated from School of Design for Women, Philadelphia: 
studied at Pennsylvania .\cademy of Fine Arts under Thomas W. 


Anshutz; was a member of the faculty of the School of Design. 
Exhibited at Philadelphia Water Color Club exhibitions. For 
several years has been on the Art Staff of the Ladies' Home 
Journal and the Woman's Home Companion. 


Daughter of John Willamson Nevin and sister of Robert Jenkins 
of Rome. Of Pennsylvania stock; studied at various places, 
chiefly at Rome and the Royal Academy of Venice under Ferrari, 
and in her own studio at Carrara, Florence. Has travelled ex- 
tensively in her own country, and very widely abroad. Works 
spasmodically and interruptedly. Has produced statues and bust, 
among them the statue of Miihlenberg at the Capitol in Washing- 
ton, D. C. Has erected memorial fountains at Lancaster, Pa. ; 
paints portraits, sketches and studies, and a writer of verses. 
Last works — portrait bust of Woodrow Wilson done from life at 
Sea Girt in the summer of 1910; small model of Sphinx and a 
restoration of the Naples Torso of Victory. Member of the 
Royal Arts of England; a fellow of the Geographical Society of 
New York ; Acorn Club of Philadelphia, and Historical Society of 
Lancaster, Pa. 


OTIS, BASS, 1784-1861. 

PEALE, TAMES, 1749-1831. 

PEALE, REMBRANDT, N. A., 1778-1860. 





REINGRUBER, LOUIS, 1836-1883. 





STUART, GILBERT, 1755-1828. 


Born at Harmony Hall, Lancaster Co. Eldest son of Captain 
John, Jr., and Jane Porter Steele. Graduate of Rutgers College; 
studied law in Lancaster. A painter of portraits and animal life; 
an interpreter of Shakespeare's plays. 



Born in Lancaster, Pa. Attended School of Industrial Art of the 
Pennsylvania Museum ; studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, at which institution she twice won the Cresson 
Traveling Scholarship. Consequently enjoyed study in Paris 
and other art centers of Europe. Recently Aliss Thurlow won 
honorable mention in the Toppen Prize contest of the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of the Fine Arts. 




Son of John Frederic Voigt, who lived on South Queen Street, 
Lancaster. His brother was Charles F. Voigt, familiarly known 
as Squire Voigt, forty or fifty years ago. 


VON OSSKO, LEON, 1859-1906. 

WAHN, — . 


Artist, the son of John and Maria Warfel, born July 21, 1826. 
His artistic inclinations manifested themselves at an early age. 
Several specimens of his brush when but thirteen years old are 
still in existence, full of promise for the years to come. Unfor- 
tunately that expectation was not destined to be fully realized. 
At the early age of twenty-nine years he fell a victim to that dread 
destroyer consumption, when his artistic powers were developmg 
with ever-increasing promise. If we may judge from the 
examples of his brush that remain, there are abundant reasons for 
believing that he would have filled a bright page in the catalogue 
of our local artists. He died June 2, 1855. 


Daughter and student under Wm. H. ?kliller, of Philadelphia and 
great-granddaughter of Jacob Eichholtz. 


WEST, BENJA:\1IN p., R. a., 1738-1820. 






An Address delivered by W. U- Hensel, November 22, 1912, Lancaster, Pa., at 
the opening of an exposition of "The Evolution of Portraiture in Lancaster County, 
Pa.." The address has been issued in pamphlet form and contains in addition to 
what is here given illustrations and a catalog of Eichholtz's works. — Editor. 

In the "good old days," when taverns were known by good old names, 
and were kept by people of the best social rank, Lancaster Borough, as 
early as 1765. had fifty-three hcensed inn-keepers; quite a number of 
others had judicial permission "to sell rum by the small." In the former 
class was Catharine Eichholtz, widow of Jacob, lately deceased, who, in 
that year opened the "Bull's Head", where the later "Exchange" long 
stood, at the southeast corner of East King and Christian Streets. Her 
husband, Jacob, was one of the earliest settlers in Lancaster and was 
assistant burgess 1750-52. He purchased this site for the hotel; and for 
seventy years the "Bull's Head" tavern was never out of that excellent 
family, proud enough of their German origin and name not to transform 
it into the English "Oakwood" — as the Schwartzholtzes became Black- 
woods, children of the Zimmermans were translated to Carpenter, the 
Schneiders to Taylor, the rural Metzgers became city Butchers, and some 
of the more elegant Haensels are now known as Littlejohns. 

Jacob Eichholtz was descended from that German immigrant wdiose 
nativity, marriage and decease are thus recorded in the records of Old 
Trinity (translated from the German) : 

"Here lies buried John Jacob Eichholtz. He was born in Europe at 
Bischofifshcim the 22d of March. 1712. Pie lived in marriage 22 years 
with Anna Catharine, born Reichert. and departed the 26th of July 1760. 
His age, 48 years and 4 months." 


June 24, 1/95, twenty-four years after Leonard, first son of Cath- 
. arine, became landlord of the "Bull's Head", our old Masonic Lodge 43 
held the festival of St. John at this tavern, and here its lodge room was 
located for some years. Leonard, second, succeeded his father, dying in 
1817; and after the younger himself died, in 1828, his widow Charlotte 
and, in turn, his son Henry, in 1834. perpetuated the Eichholtz proprietor- 
ship. The original building was torn down in 1850. When this property 
was partitioned, Dec. 27, 1817, it was taken by Jacob Lehman, inter- 
,married with Catharine, the eldest daughter, at a valuation of $13,000. 

Leonard Eichholtz, Jr., who had been a highly esteemed and uni- 
versally respected citizen of Lancaster, to the time of his death, at sixty- 
seven yea-rs of age, was a conspicuous member and elder of Trinity 
Lutheran Church; and was assistant burgess of the town, 1799-1802, and 
.again 1807-12. 

Contemporary with the Eichholtz tavern were "Stophel" (Chris- 
.topher), Reigart's "Fountain Inn," Lancaster's early theatre and play 
house; Adam Reigart's "Grape"; Slough's Center Square "Swan," into 
-whose stable yard the Paxton rangers turned their horses before they 
■massacred the remnant of the Conestogas; Bausman's "Lancaster County 
House," the present Jefferies house with its beautiful date plate of 1762 
still standing on East King Street; John Barnitz's "Cat" on North Prince 
Street, whence the Barnet family of the "Cadwell House" ; Freddy 
Cooper's "Red Lion," on West King; John Michael's "Conestoga 
Waggon," later superseded in name and sign by the "Grapes," and hang- 
ing the old wood carving bunch of grapes on its North Queen Street 
front; Graeff's large hostelry at the Shober corner, now the Y. M. C. A.; 
Dififenderfer's "Leopard," which has lately changed its spots ; Weaver's 
"Black Horse," on North Queen Street; Messenkop's "Unicorn," and 
Moore's "Sorrel Horse." "The Indian Queen" and Hamilton's tavern, 
out East King Street first caught the Philadelphia traffic ; and the ancient 
"Plow" on West King, which offered entertainment for man or beast, 
greeted those wearied with the journey from the far West. Friend Isaac 
Whitelock's Quaker brewery was near the site of the Stevens House. 
John Hatz must have had an historical turn; for he called one of his 
Lancaster taverns the' "Pennsylvania State Arms," and another and later 
one "Doctor Franklin." The latter's bewigged and bespectacled figure 
looked down for a century on those who passed up and down the west side 
of the second square on North Queen Street. There were, besides, 
"Lions," "Lambs" and "Bears," "White" and "Golden Horses." the 
"Hat," the "Rainbow," the "Buck" and the "Turtle." the "Globe" and 
"Olympic Garden," the "Prince Ferdinand" and "King of Prussia," the 
"Harp" and the "Flying Angel," "Pitt," "Washington" and "Wavne," 
Such well-seasoned Lancaster names as Nauman and Heger, Boyd and 
Hambright, Hull, Rohrer and Lightner were also w^orn by the bonifaces 
of a century ago. This variety of signs which then made our streets "an 
outdoor picture gallery" was well calculated to stir in a boy a latent im- 
pulse toward painting arid portraiture — since Paiil Potter. Benjamin 
West and manv of the much older and much greater masters had kept the 
pot l)oilino- bv like resort; arid the ATatsys. Celliiiis and DaA'incis had 
often wrought in no less sordid cause. 

The original "Earl of Chatham." with which Henry Diffenbaugh 

adorned and advertised his "William Pitt" hotel, so splendidly preserved 

"by the Dcmuths. is a fine specimen of ' his amateur worlc. for it was 


4)aintecl by Eichholtz while lie was \ct known generally only as a copper- 

Early Art Efforts 

Hichholtz's patriotic self-gratulations that he was born soon after the 
Declaration of 177O, and therefore never was a liritish snbject, no doubt 
-were heightened by the fact that his father and two brothers fought on 
ihe side of the Colonies in the war for Independence. One of his uncles 
was a coppersmith by trade ; but long before his father committed him to 
that apprenticeship, young Jacob Eichholtz had delineated figures in red 
chalk on the household garret and was picking up the art of lettering and 
shading from a local sign paiiiLt-r. His tirst color master's suicide, be- 
«cause of an unrequited love passion, discouraged his early ardor. Though 
the walls of his uncle's shop were decorated by him with charcoal sketches 
-of his fellow^ apprentices, he ventured nothing beyond these crude at- 
tempts. He kept at his completed trade of coppersmith for some years 
after he married Mrs. Catharine Michael Hartz, a widow with two chil- 
dren, and started raising a family of his own. He none the less steadily 
•cherished his artistic purpose and nursed his aspirations to be a portrait 
painter. When at last chance brought to Lancaster an artist who gave 
linn friendly recognition, his future was determined. Henceforth let his 
brief autobiography tell its own story : 

"Previous to the arrival of this painter, I had made some rude efforts 
-with tolerable success, having nothing more than a boot-jack for a palette, 
and nothing in the shape of a brush, for at that time brushes were not to 
"be had, not even in Philadelphia. At length, I was fortunate enough to 
'get a few half worn brushes from Mr. Sully, being on the eve of his 
departure for England [1809]. This was a feast to me, and enabled me 
to go on until others were to be had. About this time I had a family with 
three or four children, and yet had not the courage to relinquish the 
coppersmith and become a painter. To support my family as a painter 
was out of the question. T divided my attention between l>oth. Part of 
the day I wrought as coppersmith, the other as painter. It was not un- 
usual for me to be called out of the shop and see a fair lady who wanted 
"her picture painted. The encouragement I received finally induced me to 
relinquish the copper business entirely. About this time a Mr. Barton, 
whose memory I will ever gratefullv cherish, strongly urged me to visit 
the celebrated Stuart of P)Oston. I went, and was fortunate enough to 
meet with a handsome reception from that gentleman, through the co- 
operation of the late .Alex. T. Dallas and his son. George, wdio were at 
P)Oston at that time, and he felt a livel}' interest in mv success. Previous 
to mv visit to P)0<;ton T had painted a portrait of Mr. Nicholas Biddle, 
President of the V. S. Pank. and ps it rcnuired. in visiting Stuart, that I 
■should have a specimen of skill with me, in order to know whether I was 
an imposter or no*. Mr. P.iddle verv i:)olitely offered me the picture T had 
painted for him. and which was well received bv the great artist. Here I 
liad a fiery trial to undergo. !\Ty picture was placed along side of the 
laest of his hand, and that lesson T considered the host T had ever received : 
the compari<;on was I llionglit. enough, and if T had vanity before T went, 
it left me all before mv return. I must do Stuart justice to say that he 
■gave me sound lectures and hope. T did not fail to profit by them. 

"^Ty native place being too small for giving scope to a painter, I re- 
moved to Philndelphia, where, hy an incessant practice of ten years and" 



constant employment, I have been enabled again to remove to my native 
place, with a decent competence, and mind still urging on for further 
improvement. Having but now, at this period of my life, just conceptions 
of the great difficulty of reaching the summit of the fine arts, 1 look 
forward with more zeal than ever. It is a fire that will never quench, and 
I hazard nothing in saying that 1 fully believe that the freedom and happi- 
ness of the citizens of this free country will one day produce painters as 
great, if not greater, than any that have embellished the palaces of 

Some side lights are thrown on these passages by a letter of Sully 
himself. He writes: "When Gov. Snyder was elected [i8o8] I was 
employed by Mr. Binns to go on to Lancaster and paint a portrait of the 
new chief magistrate of the state. Eichholtz was then employing all his 
leisure hours, stolen from the manufacture of tea kettles and coffee pans,, 
in painting. His attempts were hideous. He kindly offered me the use 
of his painting room, which I gladly accepted, and gave him during my 
stay in Lancaster, all the information I could impart. When I saw his 
portraits a few years afterwards, (in the interim he had visited and 
copied Stuart) I w^as much surprised and gratified. I have no doubt that 
Eichholtz would have made a first-rate painter had be begun early in life, 
with the usual advantages." 

Albeit Sully's reputation has not dimmed with time, there is an 
ungracious and patronizing air about his comment on Eichholtz which a 
later comparison of their relative work, after a century scarcely justifies. 

It will be remembered that when this letter was written Lancaster 
was the State Capital — Snyder was born here and Binns was a noisy Irish 
politician and alderman in Philadelphia. 

So many of the early pictures of Eichholtz and those of his con- 
temporaries are undated that it becomes important in tracing his art de- 
velopment to locate this Nicholas Biddle portrait which is the first he 
records as having painted. There are many Nicholas Biddies and some 
of them marked unknown. One of these, viz., the original of a familiar 
engraving with the United States bank in the background, Eichholtz did 
not paint until 1838. It is certainly not the one referred to in his auto- 
biography, as Biddle was not associated with the bank at the time referred 
to in the letter, nor was he the mature man that engraving represents. 
There is however in possession of Mrs. James S. Biddle, 171 5 Locust 
Street, Philadelphia, a daughter of Nicholas Biddle and widow of his 
nephew, now aged 87, a rather crude and early portrait of her father, of 
which she has always been especially proud. It is immature enough to 
have been an early Eichholtz and has been ascertained to have been his 
work in 181 1 and the one he carried to Boston. Another picture that 
Eichholtz certainly did paint about that time is a beautiful portrait of 
Jane Margaret Craig, wife of Nicholas Biddle. Shortly before Sully 
had painted her. It helps to fix the date of Eichholtz's earliest creditable 
and surviving work in Philadelphia, at approximately 1816. If he had 
executed Mrs. Biddle's portrait before he went to Boston he would un- 
doubtedly have taken it as a commendation of himself to Stuart rather 
than her husband's. The difference between them illustrates how quickly 
he profited from contact with a generous master. 

Local Patrons 

Dunlap, who was Vice President of the National Academy of Design, 


in his "History of the Arts of Design in America," published in 1834, 
says: "In my intercourse with EichhoUz i have admired in him a man of 
frank, simple and unpretending manners, whose conversation marked his 
good sense, and whose conduct evinced that propriety which has led to 
his success and ultimate independence. >Ir. T. L5. Freeman informs me 
that, in 1821, he saw at Ilarrisburg a portrait, by Eichholtz, which excited 
his curiosity ; and going to Lancaster, called upon him and invited him to 
Philadelphia, where the first portrait he ]jainted was Freeman's and soon 
afterwards Commodore Gales." [Xote i.J 

It would seem from all this that whatever Kichholtz's faults or fail- 
ures, or Sully's actual or affected superiority, our Lancaster amateur was 
at least no charlatan nor pretender ; he sought no meretricious advantage 
of his art ; and until nearly ten years after Sully had retouched his 
aesthetic spark it does appear from Jacob Eichholtz's account book that 
his patrons at home or abroad never were imposed upon in the way of 
excessive charges for his work. 

Cash payments were not so much the rule in Lancaster a hundred 
A'ears ago as now. Luxuries, such as j)ortraits, then as now, generally 
awaited on necessities ; and grocers, tailors and publicans usually were 
paid before artists. But since the earliest of the charges made in Eich- 
lioltz's ledger are about 1817, it is to be presumed he did little work before 
that for which he received any considerable pay. From the time that 
Sully, on the eve of his departure for Europe, gave him his "half-worn 
brvishes," until he painted Henry Shippen's portrait, and charged him for 
the same, on May 31, 1817, the sum of $10 for the picture and .$7 for the 
frame, he may be considered an amateur. His next recorded patron, 
Grace Huble}'. paid him, soon afterwards. S20 ; and had he persisted in 
that geometrical ratio when he reached the acme of his reputation J. 
Pierpont Morgan could not have afforded to give him more than one 
commission ; and Andrew Carnegie would have been bankrupted by giving 
him an order to cover the walls of one small room ! 

I^ortrait painters, however, like you lawyers and us poets, must take 
their streaks of fat with the lean ; and so later we find him sign painting 
for Henry F. Slaymaker's tavern at $10 per day and lettering a $6 board 
for Conrad Swartz — who was surely a butcher, a baker or a candle-stick 
maker. Pie also traded in frames ; for then as now a good frame costs 
more than a cheap picture — and often is worth more. By the time he 
came to paint John Hoff's portrait in 181 7 he got $30 for it. This early 
portrait and that of Mrs. Ploff are now the property of their grandson, Mr. 
John H. Baumgardner. Thenceforward his prices varied — as they say 
in sordid railroad circles — "according- to what the traffic will bear." 
October i. 181 8. for the portraits of George Graeff' and wife (Walter C. 
Hager's maternal great-grandparents), he was to get S30 each — deducting 
Sio for the family double order. Their tlaughter ]\Iaria was painted 
later ; and the work had far more value to him, for the well authenticated 
story is that he did it gratuitously because she used her kindly oiffces to 
introduce him to and favor his suit with his second wife, Catherine 
Trissler. The dates of his first wife's death and his second marriage fix 
the time of IVIiss Graeff 's portrait at about 1822. In the case of two 
parental portraits shipped by Mrs. Susan Mayer to her daughter Susan in 
Pialtimore there was a discount; and George Louis Mayer "settled" for a 
portrait of Mrs. Maver on the same terms. Mrs. Dorothv Bricn — that 
second daughter of General Edward ?Iand. who married Edward Brien, 
of Manic Forge, in 1802. and herself lived until 1862 — ordered a portrait 


from Eichholtz and paid him, April i, 1819, $30 for the picture and $15, 
for the frame. 

Thenceforth follow numerous ledger records of portraits painted by 
him, though much of his work was not thus charged and recorded and 
traces of it are to be followed through many channels — sometimes utterly 
lost. There was a portrait for George B. Porter, Esq., (Territorial. 
Governor of Michigan, brother of Governor David R. Porter, of Penn- 
sylvania, and builder of the Iris Club House), of his father-in-law* and 
mother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Plumes; of John Burg and George- 
Eichholtz; of Mrs. Sarah Hamilton Porter, now owned by Miss Sarah S. 
Long; two for Joseph Cloud; small pictures for George Mayer and larger 
and lesser for the widow, Susanna Mayer. 

Decorative designs were, however, not below his artistic standards,. 
and the design for the City Guards, which he executed in 1820, must have 
been quite ambitious, as he got $35 for the painting and $1 extra for the 
millinery. To his more ambitious ventures in this line I shall recur at a 
later stage of the present paper. 

Jacob Eichholtz's patronage among the people of consequence in 
Lancaster thence steadily strengthened. William Jenkins, for whom he- 
painted a portrait in 1820, was the eminent lawyer, founder and builder 
of Wheatland, and ancestor of the Fordney-Reynolds families ; Robert 
Coleman, to whom Eichholtz boxed "Sarah's picture," the same year was 
the father of the fiance of Rev. Dr. W. A. Muhlenberg, who only de- 
spaired of living "alway" after his young love's disappointment and of 
her sister Anne, whose untimely death doomed James Buchanan ta- 
celibacy. Three notable works of Eichholtz are the property of Mrs. W. 
S. Amwake, living at Paradise, and a lineal descendant of Judge Jasper- 
Yeates. One of these is of Yeates himself. As he died March 13, 1817,. 
before Eichholtz had attained the merit this picture indicates, the portrait 
was likely painted after his death. Another of the group is his wife, who- 
was Sarah Burd, and the other her brother, Edward Burd. 

His Work in Baltimore 

The fame of Eichholtz reached Baltimore. He spent weeks at a. 
time in that city and painted numerous families, in groups and singly.. 
Many of these are dispersed through the South and cannot be located.. 
The Schaeffers and Kurtzs — whose names indicate Lancaster origin and; 
Trinity Lutheran associations — became his patrons. The Slaymakers,. 
Reigarts, Frazers, Seners, Bethels, Mayers and other Lancaster families- 
continued and increased their substantial encouragement. The portrait 
of his wife, charged to George H. Bomberger in 182 1, is that of the 
mother of the late Rev. Dr. J. H. Bomberger, and noted Reformed divine,, 
and is in possession of the granddaughter of its subject. Mrs. Jessie- 
Schaeffer. at Lime and East Chestnut. John B. Roth has the John Bom- 
berger portraits of about the same period. Adam Reigart paid $42, April 
24, 1821, for the portrait of his wife, Maria, and the frame. Mrs. Cas- 
sandra vStump, of Maryland, for whom he painted a portrait, was of the 
famous Stump and Forward families conspicuous in Maryland for a 

About this time (1821) the entries in the Eichholtz ledger indicate- 
that he had again begun work in Philadelphia. His autobiography speaks 
of a residence tlicre for ten vears. His visit to Gilbert Stuart, in Boston. 
Vvas after he had painted Xicholas I'lrldle. tlie former president of the 


famous United States Bank and the man to whom x^merican architecture- 
is indebted for the suggestion of the noble colonnade which makes the 
Girard College building one of our finest edifices. That he made a dis- 
tinct impression on Stuart is evidenced by the fact that this noted artist 
himself painted and no doubt presented it, a portrait of Eichholtz, which 
hangs on the walls of the South Lime Street homestead. Eichholtz was 
already on terms with the Dallases — Alexander J. and his son, George. 
In his ledger there is no record of the Nicholas Biddle portrait; but on 
September 30, 1822, George M. Dallas, later Vice President in Polk's 
administration, paid him $20 for the portrait of "his son George" — and 
the Stockers, Montgomerys, Craigs, Tatnalls, Morgans and Periees 
(Pierie) were apparently Philadelphia patrons, or from its environs. 

The Steeles. long a leading family of Lancaster County — of whom 
one member. William P. Steele, himself was no mean artist, especially of 
Shakesperean subjects — were among his most lavish patrons. After 
Archibald Steele had ordered a single portrait, General John Steele, 
grandfather of the late Mrs. Reah Frazer and of Mrs. Henry E. Slay- 
Tiaker, ordered fourteen — that is, seven sets of himself and wife, one for 
;ach of their seven children. Judge and Mrs. Wm. Clark Frazer were 
his patrons. To their descendants this heritage has a price that the origi- 
nal cost, with compound interest, does not reach in any instance. His- 
increase of metropolitan patronage did not — to use an expressive modern 
vernacular — swell Eichholtz's head. He kept on painting originals and" 
replicas for the Duvals and Tevises, Keims and Rookers, the Reaves and 
Meades, the Hunters and Wetherills, at from $30 to $50 each ; and in that 
day of modest incomes he was manifestly satisfied with the returns, which, 
if not large, measured by the charges of to-day, were a better support for' 
his wife and increasing family than the earnings of a Lancaster copper- 
smith in the thirties. 

Lancaster people who move to Philadelphia are apt to find each other' 
out. In no department of Philadelphia life has Lancaster County so im- 
pressed itself as in medicine. Witness names like Atlee, Girvin, Agnew.. 
Deaver, Musser and Slaymaker. Long before any of these went down- 
there to the practice of the healing art, John Eberle — born in Manor' 
Tow'nship. started at Hess's tavern, on the Columbia turnpike, thence re- 
moved to Manheim and later to Lancaster. His writings, republished in' 
Germany and world wide, gave him a reputation that called him to Phila- 
delphia and to the professorships of Practice and Materia in Jefferson.. 
Dr. Gross was one of his students and his fame called him westward tO' 
Cincinnati, and then to the Great Transylvania Kentucky Medical School' 
of the southwest. He found Eichholtz and had him paint his own and" 
his wife's portraits. For these he was paid the highest price he had' 
received up to that time — $60 for a full length of Dr. Eberle, and, two' 
years later, a like amount for his wife. Where these efforts of Eichholtz's; 
power at his meridian are it would be valuable to discover and interesting 
even to conjecture. In the absence of such information it may not be 
without interest to reproduce Dr. S. D. Gross's pen portrait of this 
eminent and too seldom recalled son of our local soil. He said of him: 
"He was a man of short stature, with a light olive complexion, a keen 
black eye, and a good forehead. He was a model of a student, reticent, 
patient, laborious, and brimful of his subject. Whatever he knew he 
knew well. As a practitioner he never ranked high and as a lecturer he 
was not pleasing, although always instructive. Having no powers as a 
speaker, he always availed himself largel}- of the use of his ms. Poverty 


seems to have been his lot ; it seized upon him early and clung to him all 
his life. * * * Of social qualities Eberle was wholly devoid. I 
never heard him laugh heartily in all my intercourse with him, which, 
during my residence at Cincinnati, was for a time frequent and familiar. 
* * '•' He was a copious as well as a learned writer, and long before 
his death he enjoyed a national and European reputation. * * * He 
was a most zealous student, and, above all, he was the architect of his 
own fame and fortune. As one of his weaknesses, I may say that he was 
a firm believer in the powers of the divining rod." 

Eichholtz's Harvest Tide 

About this time Eichholtz came into what was to him, pecuniarily, his 
harvest tide. He had evidently attracted some attention from Episco- 
pahan dignitaries, as to be seen from his portraits of Rev. WilUam C. 
Meade, Bishops Onderdonk, Bowman, Ravenscroft, and DeLancy, numer- 
ous originals and frequent copying for Rev. Dr. W. A. JMuhlenberg, and 
<:ommissions from many prominent laymen. He began to grade his rates 
according to the extent of his canvasses. Full length portraits com- 
manded higher prices, and the "kit kat" size appear on the ledger in 
smaller figures. It may be of some interest to non-professionals to be told 
that "kit kat" signifies a reduced size of portraits. The term originated 
"with a club formed in England about 1740, which held its first meetings 
at a house in London too small to contain full size pictures. Originally 
consisting of thirty-nine noblemen and gentlemen, distinguished for the 
warmth of their attachment to the House of Hanover, the Duke of Marl- 
borough, Sir Robert Walpole, Addison, Garth, and many famous men of 
-tTie period, were members. The club derived its name from Christopher 
Katt, a pastry-cook, at whose house, in Shire Lane, the members dined. 
It was dissolved in 1820. In painting the name or term is applied to 
portraits painted on canvas three-quarters of the ordinary size and 
adopted by Sir G. Kneller, for painting forty-eight portraits of the cele- 
"brated members of the "Kit Kat Club.'" 

Of this size Eichholtz painted a portrait of Rev. W. DeLancy in 1829. 
Later his patrons wanted a larger portrait of DeLancy. He painted it 
and his first DeLancy portrait is still at the Lime Street home. Another 
noted in his ledger is of "daughter Serena" (Mrs. Thomas E. Franklin) 
for her father, George ]\Iayer, in 1833. Mr. Mayer also ordered a por- 
trait of himself and "three elegant frames." Later Eichholtz painted a 
Washington for Mr. Mayer ; and he received $5 about this time, his book 
;shows, for "altering or rather removing a hat from Serena's picture." 

( To be continued ) 

Murder of Ten Indians by Frederick Stump 

T appears from the records 
of that early period, that 
a man named Frederick 
Stump, a German of 
Penn's township, in the 
county of Cumberland, 
(now Snyder j, not far 
from where Selinsgrove stands, and near 
the mouth of .Middle Creek, did in vio- 
lation of the public faith, and in defiance 
of all law, inhumanly and wickedly kill, 
without any provocation, four Indian 
men, and two Indian women, in his own 
house, on Sunday, the loth day of Janu- 
ary, 1/68. Not content with this in- 
human murder, he went the next day to 
an Indian cabin fourteen miles up the 
creek, and there barbarously put to death, 
and burnt, an Indian woman, two girls, 
and a young child. 

As soon as this cool, deliberate, and 
bloody murder became known, the most 
intense excitement prevailed throughout 
the country. The people were astounded 
at the magnitude and relentless barbarity 
of the act. The Indians, who were 
friendly and had come from the Great 
Island, and pitched their rude wigwams 
on the creek in order to be near and claim 
the protection of the whites, had given 
him cause for thus barbarously murder- 
ing tliem. The whites were alarmed, too, 
for fear that when the sad intelligence 
reached the friends of these Indians, that 
they would rise up and commence to 
burn, murder and scalp all that they could 
find, in order to be revenged. 

Stump had an accomplice in this 
bloody tragedy, named John Ironcutter, 
who acted in the capacity of a servant to 
him. He was a German also. 

A few Indians being in the neighbor- 
hood, on repairing to the spot, found the 
remains of their friends, and being ap- 
prised that Stump was the murderer, 
forthwith proceeded to look for him. He 
fled to Fort Augusta, and entering a 
house in the occupancy of the mother and 
aunts of the late J\frs. Grant, claimed 

their protection; alleging that he was 
pursued by Indians. The ladies, notic- 
ing from his countenance that all was not 
right, at first refused to have anything to 
do with him, fearing that the Indians 
might come and murder them, too, on 
finding him secreted in the house. He 
begged so piteously, however, for pro- 
tection, that they relented, and snugly 
stowed him away between two beds. 
But a few minutes elapsed before the 
arrival of the infuriated Indians, who 
had tracked him to the house. They in- 
quired if he had been seen there, and 
blustered and threatened considerably, 
but the ladies insisted that they knew 
nothing about him, w^hen they were 
reluctantly compelled to depart without 
finding him. Before leaving, however, 
they picked up a cat, pulled out all her 
hair, and tore her to pieces before the 
family, by way of illustrating how they 
would have treated Stump if they had 
caught him. 

The only excuse Stump had to ofTer 
for the murder, was, that the Indians 
came to his house on Sunday evening in 
a state of intoxication, and were some- 
what disorderly. He endeavored to per- 
suade them to leave, but they refused to 
do it, and being apprehensive that they 
intended to do him some harm, killed 
them all ; and in order to conceal their 
bodies, dragged them down to the creek, 
made a hole in the ice, and threw them 
in. F'caring that the killing of them 
might come to the ears of some of their 
friends near by, he went the next day 
fourteen miles up the creek, to two 
cabins, where he found one squaw, two 
, girls, and a small child, whom he killed, 
and setting fire to the cabins, consumed 
their bodies." 

The intelligence of this inhuman but- 
chery coming to the ears of John Penn, 
Governor of the Province, accompanied 
bv numerous depositions, so shocked him, 
that he felt himself in duty bound to have 
the murderers speedily brought to justice. 




The matter was laid before the Council, 
then in session in Philadelphia, and res- 
olutions were passed instructing the Gov- 
ernor to write to the magistrates of Cum- 
berland County, requiring them to exert 
themselves, and have him arrested im- 
mediately. Also, to acquaint the sheriffs 
of the adjoining counties of Lancaster 
and Berks, to be on the lookout, and ar- 
rest him, should he come into their dis- 

The Council further advised the Gov- 
ernor to write to General Gage and Sir 
William Johnson, acquainting them with 
the unhappy event, and request them to 
communicate the same as soon as possible 
to the Six Nations, in the most favorable 
manner in their power, to prevent their 
taking immediate revenge for this great 
injury committed on their people; and to 
assure them of the firm and sincere de- 
sign of the government to give them full 
satisfaction at all times, for all wrongs 
done to them, and that they would leave 
nothing undone to bring the murderer to 
condign punishment. 

On the 19th of January, 1768, Gover- 
nor John Penn addressed himself in a 
long letter to the magistrates of Cumber- 
land county, giving them the necessary 
instructions how to act. Amongst other 
things, he says : 

"I am persuaded Gentlemen, that the 
Love of Justice, a sense of Duty, and a 
regard for the Public Safety, will be 
sufficient inducement with you to exert 
yourselves in such a manner as to leave 
no measures untried which may be likely 
to apprehend and bring to punishment 
the Perpetrator of so horrible a Crime, 
which, in its consequence will certainly 
involve us again in all the Calamities of 
an Indian War, and be attended with the 
Effusion of much innocent Blood, unless 
by a proper Exertion of the Powers of 
Governments, and a due Execution of the 
Laws we can satisfy our Indian Allies 
that the Government does not counten- 
ance those who wantonly Spill their 
Blood, and convince them that ourselves 
bound by the Solemn Treaties made with 
them. I have this matter so much at 
heart, that I have determined to give a 
JReward of Two Hundred Pounds to any 

Person or Persons who, shall apprehend 
the said Frederick Stump, and bring him 
to justice," &c. 

A similar letter was also forwarded to 
the magistrates of Berks and Lancaster 
counties, enjoining upon them the neces- 
sity of acting with promptitude, should 
the murderer escape into their territory. 

Accompanying this letter was a public 
proclamation, issued in a formal manner, 
bearing the broad seal of the Province, in 
which it was commanded, "that all 
Judges, Justices, Sheriffs, Constables, 
Officers Civil and Military, and all other, 
his Majesty's faithful and Leige Subjects 
within this Province to make diligent 
search and inquiry after the said Fred- 
erick Stump, and that they use all pos- 
sible means to apprehend and secure him 
in one of the Public Gaols of this 
Province, to be proceeded against accord- 
ing to Law." 

Governor Penn also sent a message by 
an Indian named Billy Champion, to 
Newaleeka, the chief of the Delawares, 
and other Indians, residing at the Great 
Island, acquainting them with the cruel 
murder of their friends ; and assuring 
them that the most speedy measures 
would be taken, to have the ends of 
justice accomplish. For carrying this 
message, the Council allowed Billy for 
his services, a "blanket, a shirt, a hat, a 
pair of shoes, a pair of Indian stockings, 
a breech cloth, and four pounds two 
shillings and six pence, in cash." 

Stump was finally arrested and lodged 
in the jail at Carlisle. The account of 
his capture is given as follows : 

"Captain William Patterson, lately in 
the Provincial service, now living on 
Juniata, about twenty miles from Fred- 
erick Stumps, hearing of the murder 
committed by him and his servant, on the 
bodies of a number of Indians, engaged 
nineteen men, at two shillings and six 
pence per diem wages, to go with him to 
take them. On their approach. Stump fled 
to the woods ; but Patterson pretended to 
the people in the house, that he came 
there to get Stump to go with them and 
kill the Indians at the Great Island ; this 
decoy had the desired effect. Some one 
went out, found and brought Stump to 



the house. On his coming- in, Patterson 
arrested, bound and brought him with his 
servant, John Ironcutter, without delay, 
to CarHsle jail where he was lodged on 
Saturday evening, the 23d of Klarch, 

Thus it seemed that the ends of justice 
were about to be accomplished, and the 
murderers receive the punishment which 
they so lustly deserved. A difficulty how- 
ever, arose among the magnates of the 
law at Carlisle, about where he should be 

It was intended to take him to Phila- 
delphia for trial, and a discussion arose 
upon this point. The account is con- 
tinued as follows : 

"The Court just then concluding, all 
the justices were in town. The Monday 
morning following, the sheriff was pre- 
paring to carry him to Philadelphia, 
agreeable to the express mandate of the 
chief justices warrant; but a doubt arose 
amongst the justices and towns-people, 
as is pretended, whether the sheriff had a 
right to remove him, he being committed 
to their jail l^y two justices, Armstrong 
and Miller. But the truth was, they ap- 
prehended a design to try him at Phila- 
delphia though the chief justice's warrant 
expressly commanded that he be brought 
down for examination — and thereupon 
the sheriff' was directed to proceed in his 

"Wednesday, several justices again 
met, to consult about sending him down ; 
while they were consulting, about forty 
of the country people assembled and 
marched near the town, declaring they 
would take him out of jail, as they 
understood he was to be taken to Phila- 
delphia. A gentleman advised them to 
go into town, but send in two of their 
party, to know the sentiments of the 
magistrates on that head. The two mes- 
sengers came into town, and received as- 
surances that Stump should not be sent 
to Phila(lel]:)hia. but receive his trial at 
Carlisle, upon which the messengers re- 
turned, and the company dispersed, and 
went to their respective dwellings. 

"Tluis matters quictlv rested until 
Friday, when a compan\- from Sherman's 

\'alley, about fifteen miles from Carlisle, 
and Stump's neighborhood, assembled 
and came near the town, about eight of 
whom came in by couples ; the first two> 
that entered the prison, asked the jailor 
for a dram, or some liquor ; which he 
went to get for them, and when he 
brought it, the others entered. They 
directly drew a cutlass, and presented a 
pihtol, swearing they would kill him, if he 
resisted, or made the least noise ; the 
same care was taken as to the jailer's 
wife. Immediately came up the general 
company, of about sixty armed men, and 
surrounded the jail; the rioters within 
had a sledge, crowbar, axe, with which 
(as some say) they broke the inner jail 
door ; while others assert, that they pro- 
cured the keys of the dungeon from a girl 
in the jail. They proceeded down to the 
dungeon, where Stump lay handcuffed',, 
the chain which fastened him to the floor 
having been taken off two days before. 
They then brought him up. In the mean- 
time came the sheriff'. Col. John Arm- 
strong, Robert Miller, Esq., and Parson- 
Steel, who were admitted within the 
circle of armed men round the jail, but 
not knowing of others being within, went 
on the steps of the jail, and declared 
they would defend it with their Jives. 
By this time those within came with 
Stump to the door — the sheriff seizing- 
him, when one of the men made a thrust 
with a cutlass, which passed close by his- 
throat, and immediately the whole body 
sm^rounded the sheriff and justices, and 
carried them to the middle of the street, 
but happily did not touch a hair of their 
heads, and went off with Stump greatly 
shouting; but first took him to a smith, 
whom thev obliged to cut off his irons. 
The sheriff and justices immediately 
went after them, and overtook one-half 
of the company : but the rest, with 
Stump, were gone over the hills to Sher- 
man's ^'alley. 

"Some of them declared thev would' 
give Mr. Patterson the interest of his 
£200 reward, which should not be of any 
service to him, and great danger was ap- 
prehended to his person and property, 
for liis upright and spirited behavior iit' 

the cause of virtue and his countrv." 

lM.'l\'i I;' 


Ironcutter was also rescued at the 
same time, and carried off with Stump. 

This violent demonstration on the part 
of the people, against the enforcement of 
the civil law, as may be expected, caused 
a tremendous excitement throughout the 
Province. The Governor was astounded, 
and scarcely knew how to act. Not 
daunted by the violence of the people, a 
party, composed of the sheriff, clergy, 
magistrates, and several other reputable 
inhabitants, speedily assembled and pro- 
ceeded to Sherman's Valley, to remon- 
strate with those that rescued Stump, 
against such lawless, proceedings. They 
represented to them the dangerous con- 
sequences of such conduct, and the bad 
example they were setting. They mani- 
fested some contrition, and partially 
promised to return him in three days. 
They did not do it, however. 

The people of the frontier were very 
much alarmed at this lawless demon- 
stration and many of them left their 
homes. Captain Patterson being threa- 
tened by the rescuers of Stump, was 
obliged to keep a guard in his house night 
and day. 

The reason given by the mob for their 
conduct, was, that the government always 
manifested a greater concern at the kill- 
ing of an Indian than a white man. That 
numbers of whites had been barbarously 
murdered and no lamentations were 
made, nor exertions of the government 
to bring their murderers to justice. 
That their wives and children must be 
insulted by Indians, and a number of 
them receive the fatal blow, before they 
dare say it is war. In view of this they 
were determined no longer to submit. 

Governor Penn ordered proceedings to 
be instituted against those who had thus 
violated the law, and forcibly rescued 
Stump. Testimony was speedily ob- 
tained against twenty-one of them, in- 
cluding the ringleaders, and warrants 
issued for their arrest. Whether thev 
were arrested does not appear. 

The most positive instructions were 
issued by the Governor for the re-arrest 
of Stump and Ironcutter, and a warrant 
from the chief justice forwarded to the 
authorities, to conve)^ them to Philadel- 
phia, accompanied by a second procla- 
mation offering an additional reward of 
two hundred pounds for Stump, and one 
hundred for Ironcutter. He also caused 
a description of their persons to be pub- 
lished, to assist in their apprehension. 

The description of the culprits is as 
follows, and is copied from the official 
records of the State : 

"Frederick Stump, born in Heidleburg 
township, Lancaster county, in Pennsyl- 
vania, of German parents. He is about 
33 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high, a 
stout fellow, and well proportioned; of a 
brown complexion, thin visaged, has 
small black eyes, with a downcast look, 
and wears short black hair ; he speaks the 
German language well, and the English 
but indift'erently. He had on, when 
rescued, a light brown cloth coat, a blue 
great coat, an old hat, leather breeches, 
blue leggins and mocasins. 

"John Ironcutter, born in Germany, is 
about 19 years of age, 5 feet 6 inches 
high, a thick, clumsy fellow, round 
shoulders, of a dark brown complexion, 
has a smooth, full face, grey eyes, wears 
short brown hair, and speaks very little 
English. He had on, when rescued, a 
l)lanket coat, an old felt hat, buckskin 
breeches, a pair of long trousers, coarse 
white yarn stockings, and shoes with 
brass buckles." 

After their rescue they came back to 
the neighborhood in which the murder 
was committed. From thence Stump 
went to his father's in Tulpehocken. 
Ironcutter was carried off, and secreted 
by some Germans. Afterwards they 
escaped to Virginia, and never were ar- 
rested again. P. 1 1 1 History of the 
West Branch Valley. 

The Copus Battle Centennial 

The following account of the Copus Battle, taken from the "Ohio Archaeological and Histori- 
cal Quarterly" of October, 1912, prepared in Connection with the Centennial exercises of the 
Copus Battle held near the Copus monument ten miles east of Mensfield, Ohio, gives us a picture 
of frontier life in North Central Ohio a century ago. 

N May, 1782, the ill-fated 
expedition under com- 
mand of Col. Wm. Craw- 
ford, the friend of 
George Washington, 
passed thru Wayne, 
Holmes, Ashland, Rich- 
mond and Crawford counties on its way 
to the Indian settlements on the San- 
dusky River. On the banks of the 
Clcarfork, in what is now Ashland 
County, he stopped at an Indian village 
called "Helltown." a German name 
meaning village by the clear stream. 
"This village was the home of Thomas 
Lyon. P.illy Montour, Thomas Jelloway, 
Billy Dowdy, Thomas Armstrong, and 
other leading Delawares ; and the oc- 
casional residence of the noted Captain 
Pipe, who aided in the execution of the 
unfortunate Col. Wm. Crawford." The 
next year the village was abandoned, 
most of the inhabitants going to the north 
bank of the Blackfork where they found- 
ed the village of Graentown. This vil- 
lage was named for Thomas Green a 
Connecticut Tory and renegade. It was 
composed of Delaware, Mingo, and 
Mohawk Indians, with Captain Thomas 
Armstrong as chief, and was situated 
three miles north of Perrysville on a 
farm now owned by Pierce Royer or 
Martin Wcirick. It consisted of about 
four acres, and was nearly surrounded 
by alder marshes, making it almost im- 
pregnable from an attack by the enemy. 
The huts numbered about 150, with a 
council-house and a cemetery ; the ceme- 
tery is supposed to contain the remains of 
Thomas Green, the founder. "From 
1783 to 1795 this village was a point on 
the route from Upper Sandusky to Fort 
Pitt, and mauA' trembling captives passed 
thru it on their way to Detroit or other 
points in the Indian country." Th" 

cabins comprising the village stouil prin- 
cipally upon the rolling plateau-like sum- 
mit of the hill, each Indian selecting a site 
to suit himself, with but little regard for 
streets or regularity. A sycamore tree, 
which in the olden time cast its shade 
over the council-house of the tribe, still 
stands like a monument from the past, 
grim and white, stretching its branches 
like skeleton ?rms, in the attitude of a 
benediction. A wild-cherry tree stands 
several rods north-east, around whicli 
was formerly a circular mound." It was 
the burning of this Indian village in 
August, 181 2, that caused the Indian up- 
rising which led to the death of Martin 
Ruffner, the Seymour family, and the 
Copus battle. 

The Copus Monument. In memory 
of the Copus Family massacred by the 
Indians, September 15, 1812. Situated 
near Mifflin, ten miles east of Mansfield. 

It was in the first decade of the nine- 
teenth century that the first white settle- 
ments were made in what are now Rich- 
land and Ashland Counties. The first 
permanent settler in Richland County was 
Jacob Newman, who settled on the banks 
of the Rocky ford in the spring of 1807. 
He built his cabin near a spring. Not 
long after the erection of his cabin be 
began the erection of a gristmill on the 
Rockyford, which was purchased and 
completed by Jacob Beam, and became 
widely known as Beam's Mill. In 18 12, 
Mr. Beam built a block-house near his 
mill, and it was here that soldiers under 
Captain Abraham Martin and Captain 
Simon Beymer of the 3rd (Bay's) Regi- 
ment, were stationed. 

In March, 1809, Rev. James Copus. a 
hatter by trade, moved with his family 
of nine children near the banks of the 
Blackford where 'le elected a temporary 
cabin. This cabin was located about 




three-fourths of a mile northeast of what 
is now called Charles's mill, on what is 
called Zimmer's Run. "The cabin was 
constructed by planting two forks in the 
.ground about twenty feet apart, and plac- 
ing a ridge pole on them, and then lean- 
ing split timber against the pole, making 
a sort of shed roof, the base being about 
twelve feet wide, leaving a small opening 
at the top for the escape of smoke. The 
-ends were closed by setting poles in the 
ground, leaving a door at one end. The 
cracks were carefully closed with mo?'^ 
gathered from old logs. The floor con- 
sisted of the smooth, well packed earth. 
In this rude structure James Coput and 
family resided for a period of about 
-eighteen months." In the spring of 1810 
he erected a cabin about three-fourths of 
a mile from the Blackford, where he was 
Hiving at the time of the battle in which 
he lost his life. It was located at, or 
near, where the Copus monument now 
otands. Mr. Copus was born in Greene 
'Co., Pa., in 1775 and married in 1796. 
He was of German descent, a man of 
iinn convictions and upright character. 
He was a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and frequently preached to 
the Indians, by whom he was respected 
as a man of integrity. His permanent 
cabin was built near an excellent spring 
■which gushed out of the ground, at the 
foot of the hill, furnishing water for the 
■family stock. A ridge of ground about 
■75 feet high was on one side of the cabin, 
-and on the other side was a valley of 
-rich and beautiful land. Mr. Copus had 
■cleared about twenty acres of land and 
■enclosed it with a rail fence. It was here 
that he resided when the War of 1812 

Dr. G. W. Hull, in his History of Ash- 
land County, gives the following account 
of an Indian feast that Mr. Copus at- 
tended. "In the fall of 1809 he attended 
an Indian feast at Greentown, where he 
met James Cunningham and other new 
settlers * * * * fhe refreshments 
( ?) consisted of boiled venison and bear 
meat, somewhat tainted, and not very 
palatable to the white guests. The cere- 
monies took place in the council house, a 
"building composed of clap-boards and 

poles, some thirty feet wide, and perhaps 
iifty feet long. When the Indians entered 
the council house, the squaws seated 
themselves on one side and the men on 
the other. There was a small elevation 
of earth in the center, eight or ten feet 
in diameter, which seemed to be a sort of 
sacrifice mound. The ceremonies were 
opened by a rude sort of music, made by 
beating upon a small copper kettle, and 
pots, over the mouths of which dried 
skins had been stretched. This was ac- 
companied by a sort of song, which as 
near as could be understood, ran; 'Tiny, 
tiny, tiny, ho, ha, ha, ha, ha !' — accenting 
the last syllables. Then a tall chief arose 
and addressed them. During the de- 
livery of his speech, a profound silence 
prevailed. The whole audience observed 
the speaker, and seemed to be deeply 
moved by the oration. The speaker 
seemed to be about seventy years of age. 
He was tall and graceful. His eyes had 
the fire of youth, and blazed with emotion 
wdiile he was speaking. The audience 
frequently sobbed, and seemed deeply 
affected. Mr. Copus could not under- 
stand the language of the address but 
presumed the speaker was giving a sum- 
mary history of the Delawares, two 
tribes of which, the 'Wolf and the 
'Turtle', were represented at the feast. 
Mr. Copus learned that the distinguished 
chief who had addressed the meeting was 
'Old Captain Pipe' of Mohican Johns- 
town, the executioi^er of the lamented 
Col. Crawford. At the close of the ad- 
dress dancing commenced. The Indians 
were neatly clothed in deer skin and Eng- 
lish blankets. Deer hoofs and bear 
claws were strung along the seams of 
their leggins, and when the dance com- 
menced, the jingling of the hoofs and 
claws gave a rude sort of harmony to the 
wild music made upon the pots and ket- 
tles. The men danced in files or lines, 
by themselves around the central mound, 
and the squaws followed in a company 
by themselves. In the dance there seem- 
ed to be a proper sense of modesty be- 
tween the sexes. In fact, the Green- 
town Indians were always noted for 
being extremely scrupulous and modest 
in the presence of others. , After the 



dance, the refreshments were handed 
around. Not reUshing the appearance 
of the food, Mr. Copus and the other 
whites present, carefully concealed the 
portions handed them until they left the 
wigwam, and then threw them away. 
No greater insult could be offered an 
Indian, than to refuse to accept the food 
proffered by him. So those present had 
to use a little deception to evade the cen- 
sure of the Indians." 

Among other settlers at the begiilning 
of the War of 1812 were the following: 
David Hill who, in 1809, made the first 
settlement in what is now Lucas, on the 
lot now owned by Silas Rummell ; Cap- 
tain James Cunningham, James Smith, 
John and David Davis, Abraham Baugh- 
man, Peter Kinney, Martin Rufifner, 
Frederick Zimmer (Zeimer or Seymour), 
Samuel Lewis, Henry McCart, Archibald 
Gardner, Andrew Craig, John Lam- 
bright, John and Thomas Coutler, Allen 
Oliver, Calvin and Joseph Hill, Ebenezer 
Rice, Joseph Jones, Charles and Melzer 
Tannyhill, Jermiah Conine, George 
Crawford, Edward Haley, Lewis and 
Solomon Hill, Moses Adzit, Sylvester 
Fisher, Otho Simmons, Simon Rowland, 
Richard Hughes, and Henry Smith. 
These settlers were mostly on the banks 
of the Blackfork, Rockyfork or Clear- 
fork rivers. 

When war between England and the 
United States was declared, June 18, 
1812, Ohio became at once the theater of 
some of the most important incidents of 
the war. At almost the beginning, 
August 16, Gen. Wm. Hull ingloriously 
surrendered Detroit to General Brock. 
This act of cowardice rendered the Ohio 
country almost defenseless against the 
Indians. The first engagement with the 
Indians is said to have been on Marble- 
head peninsula in Ottawa County. From 
this time many battles and skirmishes 
between the whites and Indians caused 
the ground to be red with blood. 

At the outbreak of hostilities Col. 
Samuel Kratzer. of Knox County, ar- 
rived at Mansfield and took command of 
the soldiers stationed at the various 
blockhouses. One blockhouse at Mans- 
field was under Captain Shaffer of Fair- 

field County, and the other under Cap- 
tain Williams of Coshocton County. The 
soldiers at Beam's blockhouse were 
under the command of Captain Abraham 
Martin and Captain Simon Beymer. 
iiarly in September, Col. Kratzer sent 
Captain Douglass to Greentown to bring 
the Indians to Mansfield for the purpose 
of sending them to Pigua, or Urbana, 
fearing that Tecumseh would influence 
them to join him in hostilities against the 
white settlers. Greentown was beauti- 
fully and strategically located and they 
hesitated to leave the place that had been 
their home for thirty years, and where 
many of their relatives were buried. 
When Captain Douglas requested the 
Indians to vacate their homes and re- 
move to a distant place he did not meet 
with a hearty response. It was a delicate 
and dangerous mission he had to per- 
form. To insist was to meet with re- 
sistance; to fail in the enterprise was to 
be reprimanded by his commanding 
officer. In his dilemma he found his way 
to the cabin of the friend and adviser of 
the Indians — James Copus — and solicited 
his aid in the undertaking. In this he 
acted wisely, for Captain Armstrong, the 
chief, had about eighty warriors and 
could maintain his position with great 
loss to the whites. So Captain Douglass 
went to the man who, he thought could 
render him assistance and thus avert 
bloodshed. But James Copus was not a 
man to do a thing he thought to be 
wrong. He had lived neighbor to these 
Indians for three years and had found 
them peaceable. He had preached to 
them the principles of Christianity and 
did not want to do anything that would 
belie his teaching. He, therefore, refused 
to do as Captain Douglas desired. He 
endeavored to show that the Indians had 
certain rights, which must be respected ; 
that it was wrong to take them from their 
homes; and that if they should be re- 
moved he would be blamed as being re- 
sponsible for it. But all of this was of 
no avail. The Captain not only urged, 
but commanded him to do as requested. 
Mr. Copus. fearing that Douglas would 
expel the Indians by force, finally con- 
sented to accompany him on condition 



that the property of the Indians should 
not be rholested. He was given this as- 
surance by Captain Douglass, who, 
doubtless, intended to keep his word. 
Air. Copus took with him his three sons, 
Henry, James and Wesley, and accom- 
panied Douglass to Greentown, about 
three miles distant. Upon arriving at 
the village they found the Indians greatly 
excited at the prospect of being driven 
from their homes. Captain Thomas 
Armstrong, the chief, was a small, digni- 
fied man about sixty-five years old. His 
Indian name was Pamoxet. He was not 
a full-blooded Indian, but had lived so 
long with them, that he had become one 
of them. He and Mr. Copus were very 
good friends. He had often visited the 
Copus cabin, and one season had made 
sugar there. They had often enjoyed 
the backwoods sports together. No 
wonder, therefore, that Mr. Copus did 
not want to ask the Indians to leave. 
When Douglass approached the chief the 
second time he found him trembling with 
emotion and excitement. He asked Mr. 
Copus if the property of the Indians 
would be protected, and upon being told 
that Captain Douglass had promised that 
not only the Indians themselves should 
be protected, but that their property also 
should remain intact, the chief reluctantly 
consented to accompany the soldiers to 
the blockhouse at Mansfield. With feel- 
ings of regret and sorrow the Indians 
prepared to leave their homes. It was a 
sad sight to see them start on the journey. 
Many of them kept looking back to get 
the last glimpse of the place that had 
been their camping-ground for thirty 
years. Finally some one detected what 
looked like some smoke arising from 
their late homes, and before they had 
proceeded much further their fears were 
confirmed. A few straggling soldiers 
had tarried behind and had wantonly ap- 
plied the torch to the Indian village and 
Greentown was disappearing in smoke. 
This was done, they claimed, in revenge 
for their relatives who had been slain 
by Indians. Some of the Indians swore 
vengeance, and subsequent events proved 
that they found it. Mr. Copus was 
chagrined at finding that the pledges 

given to the Indians had not been kept, 
and feared that he might be in danger 
from their desire for revenge, since -he 
had advised them to leave their homes 
under promise of protection. But he 
soon found composure and went on his 
usual rounds of backwoods duties. Be- 
fore leaving the village an inventory of 
their property was taken by Captain 
James Cunningham and Peter Kinney. 
The Indians were taken across the Black- 
fork to the new State road, on thru Lucas 
and finally encamped in the ravine south- 
west of what is now the public square in 
Mansfield. After being joined by Indians 
from Jeromeville, they were taken by Col. 
Kratzer to Piqua. 

In the spring of 1812, Alartin Ruffner, 
a native of Shenandoah County, Va., set- 
tled on Staman's Run, half a mile north- 
west of what is now Mifflin, in Ashland 
County, Ohio. Here he built a cabin on 
the brow of a hill not far from the Black- 
fork. He and a boy named Levi Berkin- 
hizer (Bargahiser), lived at the cabin 
and proceeded to clear some land pre- 
paratory to the arrival of his family. 
Near his cabin was the cabin of his 
brother-in-law , Richard Plughes, with 
whom Mr. Ruffner's mother and nine- 
teen year old brother, Michael, lived. 
Air. Ruffner's wife and child arrived later 
in the summer, but upon hearing of the 
surrender of Hull at Detroit he had sent 
them to Licking County. Several of his 
relatives had been killed by the Indians 
and he had consequently become the un- 
conquerable foe of the Red-man. 

About two and one-half miles south- 
west of the Rufifner cabin Frederick 
Zimmer (Zimmer or Seymour), a native 
of Germany, but who had resided in 
Pickway Coimty, erected a cabin for his 
family consisting of his wife, daughter 
Catherine, and son Philip aged nineteen. 
Mr. Zimmer was a man of some means 
and had purchased land in Pickaway 
County, where he had left some of his 
married sons. He at once began to im- 
prove his recently acquired home in Rich- 
land (now Ashland) County. Being an 
old man and unable to work but little, he 
hired Michael Rufifner to assist in pre- 
paring about fifteen acres for corn. 



On the afternoon of September 10th, 
1812, this young man, Michael Ruffncr, 
was on his way along the trail leading to 
the cabin of his brother, when he met two 
(perhaps more) Indians carrying guns, 
knives and tomahawks, and who seemed 
very friendly. They inquired if the 
Zimmers were at home, and upon being 
informed that they were the Indians 
passed on into the forest and disappeared. 
Michael hastened to tell his brother 
Martin what he had seen and heard. 
Martin at once became suspicious and 
mounting a fleet horse hastened down the 
trail to warn the Zimmers of the sus- 
pected danger. Arriving before the 
Indians had put in an appearance, the 
pioneers soon decided to send Philip 
Zimmer to warn the other settlers of the 
impending danger. He first v/cnt to the 
cabin of James Copus, who lived about 
two miles further down the trail. From 
there he went to John Lambright's who 
had erected a cabin two miles further 
south on the Blackfork. Lambright, 
Copus and Philip Zimmer hastened to 
the Zimmer cabin arriving there early in 
the evening. Everything was as silent 
as midnight and finding no light in the 
cabin grave fears were entertained that 
the occupants had met a terrible fate. 
]\Tr. Copus went cautiously to the window 
and listened, but no sound greeted his 
ears. He then went to the door, which 
he found ajar, but upon pressing against 
it he found that it did not move. He 
then felt on the floor, when, to his horror, 
his hand was wet with blood. There was 
no longer any uncertainty as to the fate 
of the inmates of the cabin. Hastening 
to where Philip and Lambright were 
stationed he told them what he had 
found. Young Zimmer became frantic 
at the thought of the death of his aged 
parents and sister. He rushed to the ca- 
bin to see for himself, but was restrained 
from entering for fear that the Indians 
were secreted there awaiting his arrival, 
and that he would share the same fate. 
Fearing to remain longer at the Zimmer 
cabin, Copus and Lambright persuaded 
Philip Zimmer to accompany them to the 
home of Mr. Copus who took his family 

to the home of Mr. Lambright where 
tliey were joined by the Lambright 
family. From there they went to the 
liome of Frederick Zimmer, Jr., whose 
family also joined the frightened pioneers 
in their flight. They all hastened along 
the trail to the cabin of David Hill, where 
Lucas now stands, and there were lodged 
over night. When morning arrived they, 
together with the Hill family, went to the 
blockhouse at Beans Mill where they re- 
mained a few days. 

The same day of their arrival at the 
blockhouse Philip and Frederick Zimmer, 
with Copus, Hill and Lambright, accom- 
l)anied by an escort of soldiers, went to 
the cabin of Martin Ruft'ner and Richard 
Hughes, but found nothing molested. 
Here they were joined by the lad, Levi 
Berkinhizer (Bargahiser), also Michael 
Ruffner and Richard Hughes. They all 
proceeded to the Zimmer cabin where a 
liorrible sight awaited them. There upon 
the floor they found the dead and 
mangled bodies of Mr. and Mrs. Zimmer, 
and their daughter Catherine. Mr. 
Zinmier had been scalped. Tradition 
says that an Indian, Philip Kanotchy, 
afterward gave the details of the murder, 
stating that the beautiful Catherine was 
the last to be killed. At the time of her 
death she was engaged to be married to 
Jedediah Smith. He afterwards married 
and reared a family, the descendants of 
which still reside in Washington town- 
ship, Richland County. Thus ended the 
career of beautiful, beloved Kate 
Zimmer. In the yard the reconnoitering 
party found the body of heroic Martin 
Rufl'ner. From every evidence he had 
made a desperate struggle for his life. 
Several of his fingers had been severed 
by blows from a tomahawk, and his gun 
was bent nearly double, showing that he 
had used it in clubbing the savages. He 
was also shot twice thru the body and 
then scalped. From the appearance of 
the table in the cabin refreshments had 
been prepared, but not eaten. The bodies 
of the dead were carefully placed in a 
single grave, on the knoll a short dis- 
tance from the cabin, where a monument 
now marks the spot. The farm was sold 
by Philip Zimmer to Michael Culler and 



.is now owned by the heirs of the late 
Boston Culler. 

After burying the bodies of ]\Iartin 
RufYner and the Zimmer family, the 
rparty retraced their steps to the block- 
^house at Beam's JMill. But Mr. Copus 
was not accustomed to sit around and 
idle aw-ay his time. Besides that he had 
confidence in the friendship which had 
previously existed between himself and 
the neighboring Indians. He, therefore, 
•decided to return to his cabin near the 
Blackfork. To this desire Captain 
A'lartin objected. He urged that the un- 
settled condition of the Indians made it 
dangerous to be away from the block- 
house. But Mr. CoDus was determined 
to go and could not be dissuaded. On 
the afternoon of September 24, 1812, he 
set out with his family of nine children 
■for his cabin, accompanied by nine 
soldiers as a protection. Upon arriving 
at the cabin he found it and the stock as 
they had left it. 

When the evening shades began to 

.gather Mr. Copus invited the soldiers to 
share the hospitality of his cabin, but 
since the night was warm, and the 
soldiers desired to indulge in sports, they 
declined his invitation and decided to 
sleep in the barn, about four rods north 

•of the cabin. Mr. Copus cautioned the 
soldiers to be on their guard against sur- 
prise by the Indians who might be lurk- 
ing about. During the afternoon Sarah 
Copus, aged twelve, saw some Indians in 
the cornfield south of the cabin, but had 
said nothing to her father about it. 
During the night the dogs kept up an 
almost incessant barking, and Mr. Copus 
slept but little. A short time before day- 
break he invited the soldiers into the 
cabin and informed them of his fears. 
He then lay down to rest and the soldiers 
went to the spring near the cabin, to 

wash. He again warned them to take 
their guns with them, since he was cer- 
tain that Indians were lurking near the 
cabin because of the constant barking of 
his dogs, and the peculiar premonitions 

"he had received during the night. The 
soldiers started with their guns, but in- 
stead of keeping them by their side, 

'leaned them against the side' of the cabin. 

The Indians had been watching for just 
such an opportunity as the carelessness 
of the soldiers ofifered. While the soldiers 
had been showing such indifiference to 
the warnings they had received, the Red- 
man of the forest had stealthily, yet 
swiftly, stolen upon them, as a tiger 
springs upon its prey. The soldiers had 
scarcely reached the spring and begun 
their ablutions when the terrible war- 
hoop of the savages was heard. Instantly 
the distance between the spring and 
wdiere their guns had been left leaning 
against the cabin was filled with yelling 
Indians, shooting and tomahawking the 
soldiers. Of the soldiers at the spring 
three fell from the blows of the savages 
and W'Cre instantly scalped. Three more 
fled into the woods ; these were George 
Shipley, John Tedrick, and Mr. War- 
nock. Shipley and Tedrick were soon 
overtaken by the Indians tomahawked 
and scalped. But Warnock was swifter 
of foot and outran the savages, who 
finally shot him in the bowels ; he stuffed 
his handkerchief into the wound and ran 
behind a tree, where his dead bod}' was 
found some time after. A soldier named 
George Dye, of Captain Simon Beymer's 
company, finding that his approach to 
the cabin was cut ofl:' decided upon a 
heroic and strategic method. He rushed 
to the door of the cabin and paused long 
enough for the savages to take aim, and 
then by a mighty leap sprang for the 
door, entering it with a broken hip caused 
by a bullet from the gun of a warrior. 
It is stated that several pints of bullets 
struck the spot where he stopped just 
before springing into the cabin. This 
now made three soldiers in the cabin, for 
two of them had not gone to the spring 
witli the other seven. One by the name 
of George Launtz proved himself worthy 
of his profession. While the soldiers on 
the outside of the cabin were meeting 
their death, those on the inside were 
having an interesting experience. Launtz 
had c]im1)ed up to the loft and while re- 
moving the clay and chinking had his arm 
'lirdken by a ball from a rifle of an 
enemy. But he was undaunted. He 
soon saw the head of an Indian protrud- 
ing from l^eliind a scrub oak standing on 



the hill ovciiooking the cabin ; he took 
^ini, tired, and the Ked-skin bounded into 
the air and tumbled down the hill into 
the trail that wended its way past the 
cabin. The most important person en- 
gaged in the conflict was the owner of 
the premises, James Copus, the friend of 
the Indian. Upon hearing the war- 
whoop of the Indian "Sir. Copus sprang 
from his bed, seized his trusty gun and 
rushed to the door just as Dye was about 
to enter. He at once saw an Indian 
pointing his gun at him ready to fire 
■when Air. Copus leveled his rifle and fired 
simultaneous with the Indian; both were 
mortally wounded. ]\Ir. Copus was car- 
ried to a bed, where he expired in about 
an hour ; he died encouraging the soldiers 
to protect his family. The ball that 
caused his death passed thru the leather 
strap which supported his powder horn. 
On the hill just opposite the cabin was a 
growth of dwarfed timber which afforded 
protection for the Indians, who poured 
an almost incessant storm of bullets 
against the cabin. The dqor of the cabin 
was soon riddled with bullets, but the 
puncheon floor was torn up and stood 
against it to afl^ord protection against the 
enemy. The logs of the cabin were 
literally filled with the missies from the 
savage denizens of the forest. The 
Indians climbed upon the hill and fired 
upon the roof of the cabin, but all to no 
avail. The onlv inmate of the cabin, 
except Mr. Launtz, to be wounded was 
ten-year-old Nancy Copus, who was 
wounded in the knee. During the en- 
gagement a wounded savage was seen 
crawling upon the ground endeavoring to 
reach the trail. At times he would look 
toward the cabin and attempt to raise his 
gun and shoot, but his efforts were soon 
stopped by a ball from the rifle of one of 
the soldiers, who shot him thru the head. 
The engagement lasted until about ten 
o'clock, when the Indians finding that 
they could neither kill nor dislodge the 
occupants of the cabin, retreated, taking 
most of their wounded and killed with 
them. But before leaving they sent a 
farewell volley of bullets into the flock 
of sheep which had been the silent and 
sad spectators of the events of the morn- 

ing. The sheep tumbled down the hill 
into a heap in the trail. These were the 
same sheep that were seen early in the 
morning looking down upon some inter- 
esting object in the corn field below. 
With a savage yell the Indians were gone, 
to the great delight of the almost ex- 
hausted defenders of the cabin. How 
many Indians w^cre killed is uncertain. 
The number engaged in the battle is sup- 
])osed to have been forty-five, because 
there were found forty-five holes in the 
ground, where forty-five ears of corn 
had been roasted. No sooner had the 
enemy disappeared -than a soldier lifted 
some of the clapboards ofif the roof mak- 
ing a hole thru which he escaped, and 
ran in haste to the blockhouse at Beam's 
Mill notifying the soldier^ of what had 
taken place, and asking assistance. But 
Captain Martin was not at the block- 
house. The day before, when the Copus 
family and the nine soldiers left the 
blockhouse, the Captain promised that he 
would be at the cabin that evening and 
see if there was any danger that would 
require their presence. But having 
scouted all day without finding any signs 
of Indians decided to camp for the night. 
In the morning they started leisurely for 
the cabin. In the morning they heard 
the shooting, but thought it w^as the 
soldiers at target practice. On ap- 
proaching the cabin they skulked along 
as if they were Indians, but soon dis- 
covered that there was something wrong 
and a practical joke was out of place. 
Captain IMartin and his soldiers were 
horrified to find their comrades at the 
spring and the dead body of Mr. Copus 
in the cabin. It was especially horrify- 
ing to Captain Martin, since he might 
have averted the battle had he kept his 
agreement and arrived the day before. 
The trail of the Indians was at once fol- 
lowed, but they had disappeared around 
the southern blufif of the hill and were 
lost among the weeds in the ravine, and 
were soon out of reach. The dead 
soldiers and Mr. Copus were buried to- 
gether in a large grave at the foot of an 
ajiple tree, near the south side of the 
cabin. Captain James Cunningham as- 
sisted in burying the dead. The dead in- 



eluded Air. James Copus, George Ship- 
ley, John Tedrick, and the three unnamed 
soldiers who fell at the spring. Captain 
Martin and his soldiers then took the 
Copus family and the wounded soldiers 
and proceeded up the valley about half a 
mile where they encamped for the night, 
after placing guards around the camp to 
prevent surprise by the Indians who 
might still be lurking in the vicinity. 
There were about one hundred in the 
camp that night. It is quite likely that 
there was very little sleep. The next 
morning the little band continued on the 
trail passing near the deserted cabin of 
Martin Ruffner, reaching the blockhouse 
at Beam's Mill that evening. 

About six weeks after the battle Henry 
Copus and a half dozen soldiers returned 
to the Copus cabin. They found the 
dead body of Mr. Warnock leaning 
against the tree. A grave was dug near 
by and his body buried. They also found 
the bodies of the two Indians which had 
been left when their comrades had re- 
treated from the field of conflict. One 
Indian was in the front yard ; this doubt- 
less was the one who was shot by Mr. 
Copus. The other was in the trail near 
the foot of the oak tree, where he had 
been shot by Mr. Launtz. The bodies of 
the Indians were left where they fell, and 

were, no doubt, devoured by wolves, 
which were numerous at that time. 

For about two months Mrs. Copus and 
her children remained at the blockhouse 
at Beam's Mill. They were taken by 
Joseph Archer and George Carroll to 
near Slaysville, Guernsey County. The 
journey required many days over a rough 
road thru the unbroken wilderness. Part 
of the way they had to walk, and at best 
the trip was one of great hardship. 
Almost any moment they might expect 
to see an Indian spring from behind a 
tree and send his tomahawk into the 
brain of some of the company. 

Mrs. Copus and her children remained 
in Guernsey County until spring of 1815 
when they returned to their neighborhood 
near the banks of the Blackfork. Mrs. 
Copus aftcr.vard married John Vail, by 
whom she had one daughter who became 
the wife of Peter S. Van Gilder. 

Mrs. (Copus) Vail lived fifty years 
after the battle in which her first hus- 
band was killed. She saw a great trans- 
formation take place in the wilderness 
along the banks of the Blackfork. near 
which they had built their first cabin in 
1809. She died December 8, 1862, aged 
eighty-seven years, three months, and 
seven days. Her body now rests in a 
cemeter}- near the place where the battle 

German Professor Erich 

Lectures Marcks the distin- 

at Cornell guished Bismarck bi- 

ographer of Ham- 
burg, Germany, will give a six weeks' 
course of lecturer at Cornell University, 
beginning next February and lasting 
until April. The subject will be, "The 
Origin and Growth of the German Em- 
pire". The lectures are the first on the 
Jacob H. Schifif Foundation, which will 
enable Cornell to invite a German 
scholar from abroad annually to lecture 
on subjects pertaining to German his- 
tory, literature and culture. 

"Diese Vorlesungen beabsichtigen die 
nationale Entwicklung Deutschlands im 
iQten Jahrhundert darzustellen, iibrigens 
anch mit vergleichenden Blicken auf die 
Entstehung der Amerikanischen Union. 
Sie werden nach einer Einleitung iiber 
friiheren Epochen in Kiirze die Jahre 
1815-1848, etwas brciter 1848-1860, 
eingehend 1860-1871, behandeln, und in 
die Griindung des Deutschen Rciches 
gipfeln ; sie werden in einigen Schluss- 
stunden die Entwicklung seit 1871 
I'iberschauen. alles imter dem Gesichts- 
punkte der Einheit und der Nation." 

A. B. F. 


n Education 

Note. The following- article appeared in 
the Reformed Church Record. Why should 
we go to New England to show that "in the 
early days the church and the school stood 
side by side?" The same can be affirmed of 

the German churches of Pennsylvania. The 
writer calls attention to an important subject. 
Readers who do not agree with him are in- 
viterl to send counter-arguments. — Kditor. 

/^ HE tendency to ]Kit the Bible out 
v^ of oitr public schools is growing. 
At least one state has made it un- 
lawful even to read it in the schools. At 
the same time the heathen religions of 
the past and present are sttidied in the 
text books. Of 'course the plea is that 
our schools must be non-sectarian. That 
is true enough; but it is also true that 
they must be religious. Let there be the 
largest freedom consistent with national 
safety ; but this does not carry with it' 
the freedom to be irreligious or anti- 
religious. A halt must be called some- 
where. There is a place beyond which 
liberty may not go, or liberty herself will 
perish. Where has there ever been real 
liberty without religion ? When the op- 
ponents of the Bible can show that an 
irreligious nation has been a great nation 
then it will be time to relegate religion 
to the scrap heap of exploded supersti- 
tions. There are some things that are 
known ; and one of these things is that 
nations have risen to greatness and have 
maintained their greatness just in so far 
as they have been loyal to the highest 
ideals taught by their religions. 

This is true of all countries and in all 
ages, in pagan, Jewish and Christian 
lands. History affords midoubted evi- 
dence to prove that when men forsake 
high religious ideals, the nations degen- 
erate and eventually lose their independ- 

The Greeks knew^ the importance of 
religion in national life ; hence the youth 
Avere taught to honor the gods. When 
an Athenian boy became a man he took 
this solemn oath: "I will not dishonor 
my sacred arms. I will not desert my 
fellow-soldier, bv whose side I mav be 

set. I will leave my country greater and 
not less than when she is committed to 
mc. 1 will reverently obey the laws 
which have been established by the 
judges. T will not forsake the temples 
where my fathers worshiped. Of these 
things the gods are mv witnesses." Here 
wc have the evidence of the emphasis 
laid upon religion. To forsake the 
temples, to neglect religion, was to be 
recreant to the highest claim upon the 
man ; and to strike the severest blow 
against the common w'elfare. 

Those who laid the foundations of our 
government also knew well how ele- 
mental and fundamental religion is to 
the founding, building up and the main- 
taining of a nation. Religion they 
brought with them. Religion sent most 
of them to these unhospitable shores ; 
and one of the very first things they did 
was to build places of worship. In "New 
England's First Fruits" w^e read, "After 
Go(l had carried us safe to New Eng- 
land, and we had builded our houses, 
provided necessaries for our livelihood, 
reared convenient places for God's wor- 
ship, and settled the civil government, 
one of the next things we longed for and 
looked after was to advance learning and 
perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to 
leave an illiterate ministry to the churches 
when our present ministers shall lie in 
dust." In the "Records of the First 
Baptist Church in Providence 1774" 
there is this passage, "Resolved, That 
we will all heartily unite as one man 
* * ■■'• in the affair of building a meet- 
ing hotiso for ]niblic worship of almighty 
God, and also for holding commencement 

Here it is seen how in the early days 

J 09 



the church and the school stood side by 
side. They knew well that the sacred 
interests at stake could only be won and 
maintained by a posterity thoroughly 
trained in mind and soul. The needful 
thing to do was to cultivate the intel- 
lectual and the spiritual jointly. They 
knew that a highly cultivated intellect 
connected with an immoral heart makes 
a devil. A well cultivated mind joined 
to a well trained heart makes the man. 
All steps upward to better things have 
been taken by men with deep religious 
convictions. How, then, can we at the 
present time view with indifference the 
tendency to laxity in spiritual things in 
our public schools ? 

It may be said that the home and the 
school are ainply able to take care of the 
religious training of the children. It may 
be so ; but it is also true that the years 
spent in school ma}' either help or hinder 
this necessary part of a child's education. 
The home and the church have a right 
to demand co-operation, but not indif- 
ference, nor opposition from the schools. 
The school age is a most impressionable 
period in the life of a child. It is more- 
over a fact that the mind of the child is 
peculiarly susceptible to impressions re- 
ceived from the teacher. The child looks 
upon the teacher as one whose word is 
to be accepted as truth. This makes the 
matter all the more serious ; and the least 
that the home and the church should de- 
mand of the teacher is that he shall be a 

man with deep religious convictions. The 
fundamental religious ideas taught in the 
home, the church and the school should 

Is it not a fact that the matter that re- 
ceives the least consideration in the 
choice of a teacher is his religious be- 
lief? Yet, this is the matter of the great- 
est importance. To be sure, teachers are 
expected to be moral. But morality is- 
one thing and religion is another. That 
many teachers in public schools and the 
higher schools are indifferent to religion 
is undeniable. That many of mir child- 
ren as they pass the High School and 
the College suffer shipwreck of faith is 
also undeniable. In some of these schools 
teachers are found who are irreligious. 
Those in charge of the selection of the 
teachers of the young are under solemn 
obligations to select such men only as 
are imbued with a deep religious feeling. 
It is this contact with such a teacher 
that is far more important than the 
teachings of the facts of science. 

The Church and the Christian home 
should co-operate in demanding greater 
caution in the selection of those who are 
to teach the young. They should not 
tolerate any men in the school room who' 
do not recognize that religion is the su- 
preme aim of all education. The only 
thing of permanent value is spirituality. 
Why, then, permit unspiritual men and 
women behind the desk of the teacher? 

E. F. WiEST. 

Diversity Current numbers of 

of the Shiloh are running a 

General series of excellent ar- 

Council tides on the Found- 

ing, Foundations, and 
History of the General Council. Speak- 
ing of its name, which though suf- 
ficiently broad, it believes the Council 
justified in assuming, "it embraces the 
most diverse synods from the • oldest, 
founded in 174H, to the youngest, 
founded in 190Q. The most diverse na- 
tionalities are represented in these syn- 
ods. The Gospel is preaclicd in the 

German, English, v^wedish, Lettish, 
Polish, Magyar, Slovak, Slovenian, 
Wendish, Spanish, Italian, Yiddish, 
Telugu, Chinese, and Japanese langu- 
ages. The territory of the General' 
Council extends in North America from; 
Xova Scotia in the east to Washington 
in the west, from Alaska in the far north 
to Texas and Florida in the south, that is 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In ad- 
dition the mission territory extends to- 
Porto Rico, China, Japan, and the mis- 
sionary church in the East Indies." — 
The Lutheran. 

A Plea for Toleration 

The following German text is a careful County, Pa., family. The translation follows 
transcript of a paper preserved by a L,ancaster the idiom and style of the original. — Editor. 

A Document of the Old Times. Ein Dokument aus aeten Zeiten. 

A copy of tlie following remarkable 
doctnncnt is in the possession of the 
©unkers or Baptist Brethren and Men- 
nonites in Lancaster County, (Pa. 
dated) November 7, 1775. It is remark- 
able both on account of it-S outward ap- 
pearance and its contents which we ^'ive 
as follows because it shows the mind of 
the much maligned conscientious relig- 
ious sects in the times of trial which were 
inseparable from the founding of the 
republic and are the same to-da3^ 

2. To our w^ell intentioned Assembly 
and all others in our government high or 
low and to all friends and citizens of this 

We in the first place confess ourselves 
debtors to the most high God, who cre- 
ated heaven and earth and is the only 
good Being to thank Him for all his 
goodness, manifold manifestations of 
Grace and His love through our Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, who came to keep the souls 
of men and has all power in heaven and 

3. W'e also owe thanks to oin- former 
worthy assembly for the good counsellor 
it has been in these sorrowful times to 
all citizens of Pennsylvania, particularly 
in this, that they allowed all those to en- 
joy liberty of couscience who through 
the teaching of our Saviour Jesus Christ 
are convinced in their C(^nscience to love 

I. ein Exampler des folgenden merk- 
wiirdigen Dokuments ist in dem besitz 
von den Tunker oder Tafer Briider und 
mennoniten in Lancaster County den 7ten 
tag November 1775 es ist merkwiirdig 
so w^ohl seiner aiisere erscheinung als 
w^egen seinem, inhalt welchen wir geben 
wie folgt da derselbige die gesinnung 
unter den viel geschmahten gewissen- 
haften Religion pertheien zeigt in der 
priifungs zeiten welches von der griiund- 
ung unserer Republik unzertrinlich 
waren und die heute noch die namlicheist. 

2 an unsern wohlmeinente Assembly 
und all andern hohn und nidrigen in der 
regirung und an alle freunde und ein- 
wohner dieses Landes. 

Auf erste bekenen wir uns schuldner 
des hochsten gottes der himmel und erde 
gaschaffen, und das alein gute wesen 
ist ihm zo danken vor all seiner giite 
manifaltige gnade bezeugungen und 
liebe durch usern seligmacher Jesum 
Christum welchergekommen ist, die 
seelen der menschen zu erhalten und alle 
gewalt hat im himmel und auf erden. 

3 ferner finden wir uns schuldig un- 
serer ' vorigen warden assembly zu 
danken, das sie einen so guten rath geber 
hat in dieser betriiben zeiten, an alle 
menschen in Pennsylvania sonderlich in 
dem, das sie denen ienigen die durch die 
lehren unsers Heilands Jesu Christi in 
ihren gewissen tiberzeugt sind ihre feinde 
zu liben und dem iibel nicht zu wieder- 
stehen gestattet die freyheit ihrcs ge- 
wissen zu gcnisen vor solche und alles 
tiberich gute so wir unter ihrer sorgfalt 
genosen, danken wir sclbiger werden ge- 
selschaft der .Assembly hertzlich wie- 
audi alien libcriolien liohn und nider- 

i 1 1 


their enemies and not to resist evil for 
this and all other good besides which we 
enjoyed through their beneficence we 
heartily thank said worthy assembly and 
all others in office high or low who helped 
to promote such peaceful measures, hop- 
ing and trusting that they and all others 
holding office in this hitherto blessed (?) 
province may further be inspired by the 
same spirit of grace which moved the 
founder of this province our former pro- 
prietor William Penn to give all its cit- 
izens liberty of conscience. In order 
that at the great remarkable day of judg- 
ment they may be placed at the right side 
of the just judge who judges without re- 
spect to person and hear the blessed 
(words), come ye blessed of my father 
inherit the kingdom, prepared for you, 
what ye have done to one of the least of 
these my brethren ye have done unto me, 
among which number namely the least 
brothers of Christ we through God's 
grace hope to be counted, and all leniency 
and granting of favor which may be 
shown to all tender consciences' although 
weak followers of our Savior will not 
be forootten at that great dav. 

5. The advice to those who have no 
liberty in conscience to use arms that 
they are to aid those in need and want we 
will gladly accept with regard to all per- 
sons regardless of what position they 
are it is our teaching to feed the hungry 
and give water to the thirsty. We have 
dedicated ourselves to serve all men in 
all things that contribute to the support 
of human life but we find no liberty to 
give help or support aught that contrib- 
utes to the ruin or harming of life. We 
ask for patience in this matter we are at 
all times ready according to Christ's 

■command to pay to Peter the tribute 
groshen that we may offend no one 
and thus we are also willing to pay taxes 
and give to Caesar what is Caesar's and 
God what is God's although we find our- 
selves very weak to give God the honor 
due Him as he is a spirit and life and we 
are but dust and ashes. 

6. We are also willing to be subject 

icheen beamten die zu solcher fridlicher 
masregel niit beforderlich gewesen sind, 
ho'fende und vertauente das sie und alle 
iibrichen in beamten stehenden in dieser 
bisher gesagte Provins ferner durch den- 
selbigen geist der gnaden mogen ange- 
triben werden der den ersten grundleger 
dieser Provinz unserer ehemals gewes- 
encn Proprietor William Penn bewegt 
hat, alle derer einwohner gewissens frei- 
heit zu geben. Damit sie an dem grosen 
merkwiirdigen gerichts Tag auf die 
rechte seite des gerechten richters, der 
ohne ansehen der persohn richtet und ge- 
stellt werden und die holdselige werden 
horen kommt her ihr gesegnete meines 
vaters ererbet das reich das euch bcreitet 
ist. was ihr gethan haht an einem der 
geringsten dieser meinen P)ri:der, da^ 
habt ihr mir gethan under deren zahl 
nemlich der geringsten briider Christi 
wir durch gottes gnade auch mit hoffen 
gezalt zu werden imd alle gelindigkeit 
und gunst bezeugung welches solcher 
zart gewissenhaften, obwohl schwachen 
nachfolger unserer gesegten heilandes 
geschiehet, wird nicht vergessen werden 
an jenem grosen Tage. 

5 Der rath an die welche keine frey- 
heit im gewissen haben das gewilhr zu 
brauchen, das sie denen nothleidenden 
mid bedurftigen sollen behiilflicli sein 
wir willig an, gegen alle menschen was 
standes sie auch sein mogen est ist un- 
sere lehre die hunger ichen zu speisen 
und die durstigen zu tranken, wir haben 
uns dazu gewitmet' all menschen zu 
(lienen in alien stucken die zur erhalt- 
ung des menschlichen lebens gereigen 
abcr wir finden keine freyheit etwas zu 
geben helfeu oder understiitzen das ver- 
derbung oder verletzung des lebens ge- 
reicht wir bitten um gedult in dieser 
sache wir sind allzeit bereit nach Christi 
l)efehl an Petrum den .Tribut groschen 
zu iKv.ahlen damit wir niemand argern 
und so sintl wir auch willig Taxen zu 
bezahlen, und dem Keyser zu geben was 
des Keysers ist und gotte was gottes ist 
ob wir uns wohl sehr schwach finden 
gott scinen gebiihrende ehre zu geben in 
dem cr ein geist und leben ist und wir 
nur staul) und asche. 

() wir sind auch will|g untertaan 



to the government that has power over 
us and in this way to give what Paul 
teaches us since it does not bear the 
sword in vain for it is God's servant an 
avenger to punishment over him who 
does evil. 

". This testimony was given our 
w. >rlliy Assembly and all other govern- 
mental persons and let them know that 
wc are thankful as stated above and in 
conscience have no liberty to take up 
arms to war against our enemies but 
much more to pray to God who has all 
power in heaven and on earth for us and 
for them. 

8. We also ask all residents of this 
country to have patience with us. If 
they think they understand the teaching 
of our blessed Savior Jesus Christ more 
clearly that we will leave to them and 
God we find ourselves very poor for 
faith is to come from the word of God 
which is spirit and life and like God's 
power, and our conscience is to be taught 
thereby wherefore we plead for patience. 

9. Our small gift that we gave we 
gave to the government that has power 
over us in order that we may not ofifend 
as Christ taught us with the tribute 

10. We pray heartily that God may 
prepare the hearts of all our rulers high 
and low to be mindful of what may con- 
duce to their and our blessedness. 

The above declaration which was 
signed by a number of ministers of the 
German Baptist and the Mennonite con- 
gregations and was delivered November 
7, 1775, as their simple testimony to the 
honored house of the General Assembly 
and graciously received was renewed by 
copying December 20. 1862. 

zu sein der obrigkeit die gewalt 
iiber uns hat und diese weise zu geben 
was uns paulus lehret weil sie das 
schwert nicht umsonst fiihre den sie ist 
gottes dicnerin ein racherin zur strafe 
iiber den der boses thut. 

7 solches zeugnis legten wir al) an un- 
sern werthe Assembly und allc andern 
obrichkeitlichen persohnen und tliun 
ihnen zu wissen das wir dankbar sind 
wie oben gemeldet, und in unscrn ge- 
wissen keine freyheit finden. eimge 
waften zu ergreifen unsern feinde zu 
bekriegen, sonder vilmehr zu gott zu 
beten der all gewalt hat im Himmel und 
uf erder fiir uns und fiir sie. 

8 wir ersuchen auch all einwohner 
dieses landes gedult mit uns zu haben 
wo sie vermeinen die lohre unserers ge- 
segneten heilandes Jesu Christi deut- 
licher ein zu sehen das wollen wir ihnen 
und gott iiberlassen wir finden uns sehr 
arm den der glaube soil uns aus dem 
word gottes kommen, welches geist und 
leben ist und wie gottes macht, und un- 
ser gewissen soil durch dasselbe unter- 
wissen werden daher bitten wir um ge- 

9 unsere kleine gabe die wir gegeben, 
haben wir der Obrigkeit gegeben die de- 
walt iiber uns hat, damit wir sie nicht 
argern wie uns Christus beym zins- 
groschen lehret. 

10 wir bitten hertzlich das gott die 
hertzen aller unsern Regenten hohe imd 
nidriche zu richten wolte auf das be- 
dacht zu sein was zu unserer und ihrer 
eignen gliickseligkeit gereigen mag. 

Obige erklarung welches von einer 
anzahl Lehrer von der Deutchen Taufer 
und den mennonitische gemeinte unter- 
schriben und als ihr einfaltiges zeugnis 
am 7 November 1775 bey der geehrten 
Hause der general Assembly eingeben 
worden ist und gnadigst empfangen 

Wieder erneuer mit abschrieben den 
20ten December 1862. 

Errors and Omissions 

Note.— Hereafter THE PENN GER- 
]\1AN1A will accept articles for publication 
under the general heading, "Errors and Omis- 
sions." correcting mis-statements or supple- 
joenting statements, appearing either in books 

or current periodical literature. Mere quil>- 
bling or "straining of a gnat"' will not be con- 
sidered. Readers of the magazine are in- 
vited to send communications for publication 
under this head. — Editor. 

Marriage by Lot Among Moravians 

•'The Pictorial Sketch Book of Penn- 
sylvania", by Eli Bowen, Eighth edition, 
1854 contains this paragraph. 

"The Moravians entertain some peculiar 
notions, not the least of which is that in re- 
lation to marriages. They believe that all 
matches are made in Heaven. This may, in- 
deed be true; but it cannot be disguised. We 
think, that many are effected through the kind 
offices of aunts and mothers, not to mention 
the more weighty influence of a well-filled 
purse. Believing, as they do, they do away 
with all the preliminaries of courting; — with 
them, there are no glowing promises or devout 
pledges; no swearing by; 'no yonder moon;' 
no explanations or reconciliations — no, none 
of these. The whole thing is done in a plain' 
business way. A register is kept by the society 
of all marriageable persons of both sexes; 
and whenever a candidate for matrimony^ pre- 
sents himself, a number of ballots ; containing 
the names of all unmarried females, is placed 
in a box, from which the trembling man is 
allowed to draw. If he happens to draw the 
name desired, and she accepts, it is all right ; 
but if either refuse to 'solemnize,' the ob- 
jecting party is thrown off the register for a 
term of years, when the experiment may again 
be tried. This is a curious business, and 
from it probably arose the remark, 'marriage 
is nothing but a lottery.' To suppose that 
Heaven approves what our laws expressly pro- 
hibit is, we think, paying our legislators a poor 
compliment. It is to be supposed, however, 
that this delicate business is managed In the 
most agreeable manner to the contracting 
parties — that there is, at least, fair play in 
drawing forth the ballots." 

This is such an unjustifiable a'nd ma- 
licious misrepresentation that we deem it 
in place to present some facts bearing on 
the subject. We give extrac]t«^ from 
Hamilton's History of the Moravians as 
follows : 

P. 44-1727-1732. 

"Yet another marked feature of the inner 
Hfe of Herrnhut was the frequent recourse to 
the guidance of the lot when in perplexity. 
It was employed in the selection of the iirst 
elders in 1727, but whether it was used 
officially in other cases prior to 1728 does not 
appear. Then it was introduced as a custo- 
mary mode of deciding questions in churc'h 
councils and conferences. In July, 1732, it 
was employed in regard to the proposed mar- 
riage of John Toltschig and Julia Haberland, 
and after 1733 its voluntary use in connection 
with marriages became frequent." 

P. 1 16-1742. 

''Whereas the motto of the Moravians in 
Herrnhut had been Streiterschaft fiir den 
Herrn, and warriorship and the 'witness spirit' 
the governing traits, now the ideal was to be 
an imitator of the God-man in the pure man- 
hood of His soul and body, and to be receptive 
of the mysterious efficacy of His chaste purity; 
in the 'choirs' of young men and women much 
was made of an absence of personal will as to 
one's future condition of life whether as a 
celibate or as a head of a family, leaving that 
to the leading of the Lord ; and thus it was 
that use of the lot in connection with mar- 
riages became general." 

P. 217-1769. 

"After business of importance in connection 
with the missions had been dispatched and 
provision made for sending re-enforcements 
to Egypt and to the Guinea Coast, earnest and 
prolonged attention was given to the formu- 
lation of rules to regulate the use of the lot. 
Its origin was traced to Zinzcndorf's custom 
already in his youth, and to its employment at 
Herrnhut in order to fill various offices in 
the congregation during the formative years 
172^ and 1728, with the purpose of ascertain- 




ing and following the Saviour's will rather 
than relying upon the wise counsel of any man. 
Its Scriptural warrant was declared to be 
found in Acts i :26. Its special utility lay in 
a recognition of human iuefiicicncy and in the 
unanimity of conviction arrived at through at- 
taining certainty as to providential leading. 
That the Lord must rule His church by this 
means was not claimed, but only that He does 
thus manifest Hi:> .ill. When resorted to, 
the manner of employing the lot, i. e. with two 
ballots, a positive and a negative, or with three, 
a positive, a negative, and n blank, had differed 
from time to time. Definite rules were now 
adopted. Spangenherg, indeed at a later ses- 
sion, when the revision of the minutes was in 
hand, declared that for his part he questioned 
whether recourse to the lot were not better 
abrogated, since it seemed to remain an apple 
of contention, because they were not yet all 
clear upon what its certainty rested. 'This, he 
said,' did not depend upon the method em- 
ployed, but upon the faithful heart of Jesus." 

P. 232-1782. 

"A number of communications were pre- 
sented with regard to the curtailment of the 
use of the lot. desired in various quarters- 
Its employment in reference to questions of 
property was, therefore, abrogated, but in 
reference to the marriage of members no 
change was made.'" General Synod. 

P. 300- T 789. 

"With all the leaning to conservatism, it was 
admitted that the plumb-line of tlie exclusive 
settlements could not be longer applied to all 
the congregations and that even in the settle- 
ments the determination of the membership 
of the church council by lot must give place to 
an election. Various congregations in Eng- 
land and Ireland asked that freedom be 
granted in respect to the use of the lot in con- 
nection with marriages. The discussion be- 
came espcciallv lively when Riegelmann read 
his promemoria in favor of liberty. Hengner, 
the successor of Cranz as church historian, 
supported him. John Christian Geissler op- 
posed. John Frederick Reichel advanced ob- 
jections to any change. Cunow recommended 
adherence to the most definite rules for the 
settlement congregations — 'our entire consti- 
tution necessitates that in them no marriage 
shall be contracted without the approval of the 
lot.' This opinion prevailed. It was a victory 
dearlv bought, as the sequel of declining num- 
bers shows. .\ usage which Iiad come into 
-existence graduallv and without legislation, by 
the voluntary nssent of those concerned, the 
incorooration of which in the regulations since 
1764 was justifiable only on the ground of the 
previous voluntary practice, was now insisted, 
upon as a sine aua ii^n of membership in the 
congre.gations proper." Synod. 

P. 318 circa 1800. 

"The hampering- regulations which obtained 
and especially nhich the excessive ri^course 
to tlie lot re])elled rather than sttracted new 
members. " 

P. 319-1817 Amendments sought, 

"the a])r()gation of the use of the lot in con- 
nectiod with marriage and in connection 
with the appointment of American delegates 
to the general synod. 

P. 335-1818. 

"Debate developed sharp differences of 
opinion concerning the use of the lot. It was 
fully understood, however, that the govern- 
ment of the Lord Jesus did not stand or fall 
with the employment of the lot, the latter 
being a subordinate affair of the external as- 
sociated life of the Unity. Synod decided that 
when recourse to the lot was had in de- 
termining appointments to office the blank, 
third, lot should not henceforth be employed 
but that the alternative should ever be stated 
after the fashion of the apostolic lot — 'Which 
of the two.' Nor should it be obligatory, 
when clearness and certainty of decision could 
be reached without its guidance as to the de- 
cision of the lot in connection with proposed 
marriages, it was plain that the old order 
could not be maintained contrary to the wishes 
of the people. Yet there seemed to be no 
sufficient reason why the usage should be 
abolished where objections had not been raised. 
Therefore for the European settlement-con- 
gregations it should still be the rule ; for the 
town and country congregations in Europe and 
for the American congregations liberty to dis- 
pense with it was granted. But when the news 
of this legislation reached the European set- 
tlements (and the synod had made this pos- 
sible through the circulation of a weekly re- 
port of its proceedings) great dissatisfaction 
arose, notably in Herrnhut. Petitions came 
in, often contradictory in their purport. After 
a reconsideration synod empowered the Unity's 
Elders' Conference to give a new decision for 
the European settlements; and in 1&19 this 
body extended the rule of freedom to all 
except ministers and missionaries of the 
church." General Synod. 

P. 344-1825. 

"Marriage by lot should be obligatory only 
in the case of missionaries. " General Synod. 

P. 352-1824. 

'"The contmuance of the lot in general was 
apijnived, but a diversity of opinion existed 



as to the marriage of ministers by lot, and a 
representation on this subject was made to 
the forthcoming general synod." — Provincial 

P. 395-1847- 

■"Reception was still to be made subject to 
the decision of the lot." — Provincial Confer- 

P. 436-1857. 

"The lot was retained, but uniformity in the 
method of its use no longer essential." — Gen- 
eral Synod. 

P. 472-1869. 

"Obligations to have' recourse to the official 
lot was now narrowed down to the appoint- 
ment cf bishops after nomination by the re- 
spective nominating bodies and the acceptance 
of candidates for missionary service." — Gen- 
eral Svnod. 

P. S15-I 

"Synod also requested that henceforth the 
iise of the lot be not obligatory in the German 
Province in connection with appointments to 
■office and in the nomination of bishops." — Pre- 
paratory to meeting of the General Synod in 

P. 632-1889. 

"At a general synod in Herrnhut the use of 
the lot as a part of the required methods of 
church activity and Hfe was abrogated." 

These extracts show that ol)Hgatory 
"official" marriages by lot could not have 
been in vogue in 1854 since action to the 
contrary had been taken thirty years 
prior. The lot was resorted to, however, 
voluntarily even later than 1854 in the 
settlement of marriage and other ques- 
tions. As to the use of the lot the 
following has been submitted by Pro- 
fessor A. G. Rau, Ph. D., of Bethlehem, 

"The lot has been used officially by the 
Moravian Church since 1854 only for 
the purpose of choosing bishops from a 
group of nominees; and that method of 
election was abandoned before the close 
of the 19th century. In a few isolated 
cases where request has been made by 
the parties concerned marriages have 
been arranged, or rather a previous 
choice has been submitted to lot. Tn no 
sense, however, has there been a regular 
tise of the lot for such purposes in the 
usually accepted sense of the term." 
Another Moravian authoritv calls Mr. 
Eowen's article. "Bosh." 

Assimilation Professor David F. 

vs. Swenson, of the State 

Elimination University, Minneapo- 

lis, Minn., was a can- 
didate for re-election as school director 
on a platform which we quote herewith. 
We are pleased with his doctrine of 
Americanization by assimilation and not 
by elimination. Why not assimilate the 
"best each country offers us through its 
citizens? Is there a better way to ful- 
fill our mission as a nation ? 

I. The widest use of the ])eople"s 
£cliool-houses to serve educational ends. 

2. TJic Ameyicanization of the forcigii- 
boni and their children throuo^li the pres- 
ermitioii and assiuiilation of their cul- 
tured possessions, rattier than tlieir elim- 

3. A larger co-operation of the teach- 
ing force in shaping educational policies. 

4. Raising the standard 'and bettering 
the economic status of the teacher as fast 
as public sentiment and resources per- 
mit. The city ought to be the model 

5. Special attention to the elementary 
schools, to reduce over-crowding and re- 
tardation where it hurts the most. 



Liberty Bell Controversy 

The Lcascr-^ricklcy controversy respecting 
the Liberty Bell was revived by a communica- 
tion which appeared in "The Morning Call," of 
Allentovvn, Pa., September 26, 1912. Believing 
in fair play and desirous of giving the "other 

side" a chance to be heard, we reproduce the 
communication and the inscription on the 
boulder to which exception is taken. The 
magazine is open for replies to the communi- 






Conmiissary of issues, and member of the 

Gciif^ral Committee from VViiitehall 

township, Northampton County, 

J'ennsylvania, who, under cover of 

darkness, and with his farm team, hauled 

the Liberty Bell from Independence Hall, 

Philadelphia, through the British lines to 

Bethlehem, where the wagon broke down 

September 2t^, 1777. The bell was then 

transferred to Frederick Leaser's wagon 
and brought to Allentown, Sept. 24, 1777. 
It was placed beneath the floor of Zion's 
Reformed church, where it remained 
secreted for nearly a year. 

This tablet placed by the order of the As- 
sembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
June 2, 1907, under auspices of the Pennsyl- 
vania Daughters of the American Revolution, 
erected October 15, 1908. 

Mrs. Alfred G. Saeger, 

Miss Minnie F. Mickley, 


of the John Jacob Mickley Memorial Committee 
Approved by Mrs. Allen P. Perley, 

State Regent of Pennsylvania, 

N. S. D. A. R. 

ditor Morning Call: The 

E contemplated "bufit'eting 

about" again of the old and 
historic Liberty Bell has 
brought to mind the Ger- 
man farmer, Frederick 
Leaser, who lived along the 
Blue ]Mountains, in Lynn township, 
Pennsylvania, in the county of Lehigh 
which was taken from old Northamp- 
ton county in 18 12. The latter county 
was one of the early settled counties 
of the old Keystone State and was or- 
ganized in 1752. Lehigh county is cele- 
brating its one hundredth anniversary 
this year. 

It was Frederick Lea.ser, who in 1777 
hauled the famous bell from Philadel- 
phia to Allentown. where it was hidden 
under the floor of the old Zion's Re- 
formed church. Pioneer Leaser was a 
farmer and distiller. His grain and 

apple-jack he hauled to Philadelphia,, 
where it was utilized. 

His descendants who are quite num- 
erous love to relate the following interest- 
ing stor}' : 

"That on a certain Monday morning 
he started away from home on his ac- 
customed monthly trip to PhHadelphia 
with a number of barrels of apple-jack 
on his large and strong conestoga wagon, 
to which were hitched four well kept 
black horses. The distance from his 
home was some sixty miles. The trip 
usually consumed five days and occa- 
sionally a day or two longer, depending" 
upon the condition of the roads. Upon 
this particular occasion when the seventh 
and finally the 8th day had passed and 
the head of the Leaser household had not 
vet returned, the family became alarmed 
and their anxiety became more intense 
as the hours of subsequent days passed 



by and the husband and father failed to 
return. It was feared that Frederick 
Leaser had met with an accident, or had 
been killed by roving bands of Indians, 
or perchance had fallen into the hands 
of the British. He was strong for the 
freedom of the colonics. The gloom 
that had fallen upon his family was hap- 
pily dispelled on the Saturday morning 
of the second week when Leaser returned 
home safe and sound, announcing to his 
family and neighbors that he had hauled 
llie Liberty Bell from Philadelphia to 
Allentown, where they hid it under the 
floor of Zion's Reformed Church." 

The story of how the team of Fred- 
erick Leaser was drafted into service is 
related alike by his many descendants. 
It reads as follows : 

"A committee had been visiting the 
hotels where farmers stopped with their 
teams in Philadelphia. That the com- 
mittee selected Leaser's wagon because 
it was new and strong; and when the 
committee passed through the stables to 
select good horses, they came to a place 
where four heavy black horses were feed- 
ing. They selected them. They next 
inquired for the owner of the wagon and 
also the horses and incidentally they be- 
longed to the same man." 

After the loading of the bell, the trip 
was begun. Soldiers accompanied the 
team. One John Jacob Mickley from 
Northampton County, Pennsylvania, 
held a minor office under the colonies 
in the Revolutionary war. Well found- 
ed tradition tells us that he led the 
procession and had charge of the sol- 
diers and the guarding of the bell on 

its journey and assi-sted in hiding it 
under the church floor where it remained 
until after the close of the war. 

For more than one hundred years, no 
one ever questioned that Frederick Lea- 
ser, the Pennsylvania German farmer, 
hauled the Liberty Bell. It was a con- 
ceded fact. It was history. But, a wom- 
an arose on the horizon in 1893, who 
craved historical fame. She loved his- 
tory. She doubtless knew that the rec- 
ords were vague and reasoned that it was 
very nice if the credit for hauling the 
Liberty Bell away from Philadelphia 
could be claimed for her ancestor, John 
Jacob Mickley. A weak' effort was 
made to wrest the merited honor from 
Frederick Leaser and bestow it upon 
Mickley, who, during his lifetime him- 
self, gave the credit to the Blue Moun- 
tain farmer. This woman, through the 
D. A. R. had a boulder erected in front 
of Zion's Reformed Church which is 
located on the leading thoroughfare of 
that thriving eastern city — Allentown, to 
the honor of John Jacob Mickley, who 
hauled (not) the Liberty Bell. The boul- 
der has become an eyesore to many. 
Effort is now being made to correct what 
is believed to be a grave wrong. 

Mrs. Mary E. Neiman, Chillicothe, 
Mo., and Mrs. William F. Ziegler, Al- 
lentown, Pa., descendants of Frederick 
Leaser and all the others of the descend- 
ants request of Miss Minnie E. Mickley 
who claims the honor for her ancestor, 
to produce her proof, or forever keep her 
peace and to cause the reading of the in- 
scription upon the boulder to read in 
accordance with facts. 

Doctor Johann Andreas Eisenbart 

By Prof. H. H. Reichard, Galesburg, 111. 

N the summer of 1902, 
when 1 was on my first 
jaunt to the Fatherland, 
1 stopped one afternoon 
at a charming Httle city, 
in the extreme southern 
part of the Prussian 
province of Hannover, by the name of 
Miinden. I had not stopped here how- 
ever, because I had known or even been 
told of the delightful situation of the city 
on a low tongue of land between the 
rivers Fulda and Werra and surrounded 
on all sides by hills covered with lovely 
forests of "Tannen" and beech. The 
reason for my coming here was rather 
because I intended to take a steamer trip 
on the river here formed, the Wesser, a 
river of which the German^ are proud 
as being the only river of importance 
which has its source in German territory 
and is German through all its course 
imtil it empties into the German Ocean 
as they fondly call the North Sea. 

Poets have hailed this stream as the 
"German River" and, having a few 
hours at my disposal I wandered to the 
l^lace where the Weser is formed and 
\vas surprised to find these facts inscribed 
on a stone erected at the very point 
where the river takes its beginning. 

Wo Fulda sich und Werra kiissen 
v^ie ihren Namen bussen miissen. 
l"nd hier entsteht durch diesen Kuss 
Deutsch bis zum l\Teer der Weserfluss. 

A climb to one of the neighboring 
heights to the "Tilly Intrenchments" and 
the "Tilly Museum ' in the tower brought 
to mv mind the recollection of the fact 

that this little town too had been one of 
the centers of operations in that mighty 
religious struggle, the Thirty Years War 
which was one of the causes that led our 
own ancestors to migrate, shortly after, 
from the Rhine Valley to Pennsylvania, 
(cf. Kuhns German and Swiss Settlers.) 
Other sights of the town I visited as 
they were pointed out to me by the guide- 
book usually in the hands of American 
travellers, but it remained for an am- 
bitious innkeeper to strike a chord that 
connected more immediately with my 
home and the associations of my boy- 
hood. It did not come about either be- 
cause I could claim acquaintance with his 
brother who had settled in Lincoln 
County, for when I informed him that 
there was more than one Lincoln County, 
he did know that it was in South — 
but whether in South Dakota (as I sug- 
gested) or in South Carolina or even 
South America ( ! !) 
No, it was when in 
have missed any of 
town, he asked me whether I had visited 
the grave of Doktor Eisenbart. "Doktor 
Eisenbart" T repeated in astonishment. 
And then T learned that the Doktor 
Eisenbart with the story of whose won- 
derful cures, set in rhyme, we had been 
entertained in childhood was a historical 
character and not only that but a famous 
historical character if we may believe the 
epitaph on his tombstone in the "St. 

CAs the only illustration I can furnish 
you is somewiiat blurred T make here a 
transcript of the original and its modern 
German equivalent.) 

he did not know, 
his anxiety lest I 
the sights of the 





in Gott 

Dr. Weiland 


Hocherfahrae Weltberiim ; 

Herr Herr 

John Andreas Eisenbart 

Kongl, Groosbritanischr 


churfiirstl-Braunschw. Luneb 

Brivilegirte Landartzt 





Gebohren Anno 1661 

Gestorben 1727 D. ii Novemb. 

Aetatis 66 Jahr. 



in Gott 

Der W'eiland 


Hockerfahrene, Wehberuhmte 

Herr Herr 

Johann Andreas Eisenbart 

Koniglicher Grosbritannischer 


churfiirstHcher Braunschweig- 


Privilegierter Landartzt 





Geboren Anno 1661 

Gestorben 1727 den 2ten November 

Aetatis 66 Tahre. 

It is needless to say that I would not 
be writing this Phantasy if the verses 
recounting the good Doctor's wonder- 
ful achievements in medicine and sur- 
gery had not been adapted to our Penn- 
sylvania German Dialect and were prob- 
ably not known in High German form 
by those old folks who recited them to 
us as children. I can not now recall how 
many stanzas there used to be. How 
many stanzas there were originally des- 
cribing the Doctor's feats of skill and 
how many have been added since, how 
many improvised and perhaps never writ- 
ten down are questions still more difficult 
to answer. I give below in High Ger- 
man all the stanzas I can at present se- 
cure. It would be interesting to know 
how many of these our readers have ever 
heard in Pennsylvania German dialect 
or approaching the dialect, also to know 
what ones, if any that may not be inclu- 
ded in these have ever been heard or are 
known by any Pennsylvania Germans. I 
would also be glad for any information 
as to the time when the verses were first 
composed ; if they existed during the life- 
time of the Doctor (1661-1727), or came 
into existence shortly after, did German 
settlers bring them to this country be- 
fore the Revolutionarv War? Or re- 

membering that the place of his death 
is less than twenty miles from Cassel, 
the capital city of the Landgrave Fred- 
erick H, who sold Hessian soldiers to the 
British to fight in our Revolutionary 
War, did these Hessian soldiers perhaps 
bring the verses with them and leave 
them amongst our people? or were they 
not composed and did not come over un- 
til later emigration? 

The stanzas I have at present follow : 

Ich bin der Doktor Eisenbart, 
Kurier' die Lent nach meiner Art, 
Kann machen dass die Blinden gehen, 
Und dass die Lahmen wieder sehen. 

Zu W^impfen accouchierte ich 
Ein Kind zur Welt gar meisterlich : 
Dem Kind zerbrach ich sanft das G'nick, 
Die Mutter starb zum grossen Gliick. 

Zu Potsdam trepanierte ich 

Den Koch des grossen Friederich : 

Teh schlug ihn mit dem Beil vor'n Kopf, 

Gestorben ist der arme Tropf. 

Zu Ulm kuriert' ich einen Mann, 
Dass ihm das Blut vom Beine rann 
Er wollte gern gekuhpockt sein, 
Ich impft's ihm mit dem Bratspiess ein. 

DOCTOR eisp:nbakt 

Des Kiisters Sohn in Dudeklum, 
Deni gab ich zchn Pfuncl Opium, 
Draiif schlief er Jahre, Tag unci Nacht, 
Unci ist bis jelzt noch nicht erwacht. 

Der Schulmeister zu Itzeho 
iyitt drcissig Jahr' an Diarrho : 
Ich gab ihm Cremor Tart'ri ein, 
Er gmg zu seinen Viitern ein. 

So clann clem Hauptmann von der Lust 
Nahm ich drci Bombcn aus der Brust, 
Die Schmerzen waren ihm zu gross, 
Wohl ihm, er ist die Juden los ! 

Es halt' ein ]\Iann in Langensalz 
'nen zentnerschweren Kropf am Hals: 
Den schniirt ich mit dem Hemmseil zu, 
Probatum est, er hat jetzt Ruh'. 

Zu Frag da nahm ich einem Weib 
Zehn Fudcr Steine aus dem Leib ; 
Der letzte war ihr Leichenstein ; 
Sie wird wohl jetzt kurieret sein. 

Jiingst kam ein reicher Handelsmann 
Auf einem mageren Klepper an; 
Es wa rein Schachcrjud aus Metz: 
Ich gab ihm Schinken fiir Kratz. 

Vor Hunger war ein alter Filz, 
Geplagt mit Schmerzen an der Milz: 
Ich hab ihn extrapost geschickt, 
Wo teure Zeit ihn nicht mehr driickt. 

Heut' friih nahm ich ihn in die Kur, 
Just drei ]\Iinuten vor zwolf Uhr ; 
Und als die Glocke Mittag schlug, 
Er nicht mehr nach der Suppe frug. 

Ein alter Bau'r mich zu sich rief. 
Der seit zwolf Jahren nicht mehr schlief 
Ich hab ihn gleich zur Ruh gebracht, 
Er ist bis heute nicht erwacht. 

V'ertraut sich mir ein Patient, 
So mach' er erst sein Testament ; 
Ich schicke niemand aus der Welt, 
r.evor cr nicht sein Haus bestellt. 

Das ist die Art wic ich kurier', 

Zwiweliwick bumlnim ; 
Sie ist probat, ich biirg dafiir, 

Zwiweliwick bumbum ; 
Das jedes Alittel wirken tut, 

Zwiweliwick juheirassa, 
Schwor ich bei meinem Doktorhut, 

Zwiweliwick bum bum. 

Note. — This last stanza shows how 
each stanza was sung. 

The stanzas are still familiarly known 
in Germany as is shown by the fact that 
they recently appeared in the Miinchener 
Biiderbogen published by Braun and 
Schneider in Munich with Comic illus- 
trations. They also appear in some of 
the Kommersbiicher (Student's Song- 
books ) . 

Finally, hi these times when the Tariff 
and the high cost of living come to the 
fore amongst the economic problems of 
the day, it ought to be interesting to our 
Pennsylvania German people to know 
that our own Pennsylvania German poet, 
Charles Calvin Ziegler of St. Louis, has 
written a dialect poem which may be 
sung to the tune of Doktor Eisenbart in 
which he lays bare the causes of a num- 
ber of economic ills. With his poem, I 

Harte Zeite! 

Die Zeite sin so greislich hart 
Dass e'm schier gaarli dottlich ward ; 
Ken Geld, ken Arwet, schier ken Brod — • 
Es sicht bal aus wie Hungersnoth. 

Zu Wein kuriert ich einen Mann, 
Der hatte einen hohlen Zahn : 
Ich schoss ihn 'raus mit der Pistol'. 
Ach Gott! wie ist dem Mann so wohl! 

Mein allergrosstes Meisterstiick. 
Das macht ich einst zu Osnabriick : 
Podagrisch war ein alter Knab' : 
Ich schnitt ihm beide Beine ab. 

Was is die grindlich Ursach dann — 
Weescht du's. gedreier Handwerksmann? 
Dass unser Land so voll is heit. 
Vun Millionaires un Bettelleit?- 

Dheel meene des, dhecl meene sel 
Waer Schuld an daere dulle Shpell ; 
Mir is es dcitlich wie die Sunn — 
Dar Tarifi[* is die Schuld devun. 


Dar Tariff schafft verclammt ungleich — 
Ar macht die Reiche noch meh reich ; 
Die Aarme awwer — Gott arbarm ! — 
Die Aarme mocht ar noch meh aarm. 

Dar ■ Tariff schtifft die "Trusts" iin 

Xaaft votes vun "legislative tools", 
Ar macht, far jeder Millionaire, 
Iin hunnert dausend Alaage leer. 

'Hei. Economy, Economy! 

Schpaare misse mar, saagt die 
Fraa ; 

Economy, econom}- — 

Bis mar atis 'm Haisli kummt ! 

Jan. 1894. 

Ziegler's song is intended to follow 
another method of singing Doktor Eisen- 
bart, according to which the following 
refrain was sung at the end of each 
stanza ; 

Juheirassa, juheirassa, 
Zwie, li, di, li, wick — bum, bum, 
Juheirassa, juheirassa, 
Zwie, li, di, li, wick, bum, bum. 

^'Movies" in The use of moving 

German pictures in education 

■Education has had a real impetus 

in German official cir- 
cles, according to information recently 
received at the United States bureau of 
education. The Prussian ministry of 
education is now considering the feasi- 
bility of employing cinematograph films 
in certain courses in higher educational 
institutions, and a number of film manu- 
facturers are being given an opportunity 
to show the authorities what films they 
have that are adapted to educational pur- 

A well-known philanthropist has re- 
cently donated two fully equipped mov- 
ing-picture machines to the schools of 
Berlin. One is to be used in the con- 
tinuation institute for higher teachers 
and the other in the high schools of 
greater Berlin. 

Moving picture films are now available 
in Germany for anatomical, biological, 
and bacteriological courses, and the 
manufacturers are confident that an 
enormous field for their products will be 
-opened up when educators ^ully realize 
the value of moving pictures in educa- 
tion. — Democrat. AU cut own. 

Fakirs in Lancas-The innocent people 
ter County, Pa. of Lancaster county 
have bought gold 
mines in almost every state in the Union, 
including North Carolina, Alabama and 
Georgia, and they have invested in them 
in Alaska, too. They have bought cop- 
per mines in Nova Scotia and Montana, 
silver mines in Nevada, Montana and 
Colorado, lead mines in Missouri, oil 
wells in California and gold bricks from 
every faker oft'ering them. They have 
been ta,ken in on the ground floor of real 
estate investments, and they are the 
owners of town lots that are submerged 
in the everglades of Florida, but which 
when dried will no longer resemble 
\'enice. They have been made suckers 
by promoters, and ^ome of them are to 
be fooled all the time. There are men in 
this county who ten years ago owned as 
many as five farms, :ind, having been 
"made rich" by AA'allingfords, their very 
whiskers have a lien on them. Surely, 
if the county were to be invaded by 
philanthropists bearing such promises, 
they might travel from Falmouth to 
Churchtown and from Texas to Adams- 
town before they would be able to find 
a man so stupidly green as to be even 
interested. — North A iiicrican. 

The Study of Local History 

By Winfield S. Nevins 

S there was a revival of 

A learning in the Middle 

Ages, so there is a re- 
vival of interest in local 
history in these latter 
years of the nineteenth 
century. Not only do 
state histories multiply, but we have 
county histories and town histories for 
very many of our towns, while the cities 
are treated in from one to a half dozen 
works. Guide books are written for 
almost every section of country. The 
railroads alone have rendered a great 
service in this field ; some of them have 
brought into their employ historical 
writers of high repute, and much of the 
work is excellently done. But who 
reads these books carefully? Not always 
surely the man living in the community 
about which they tell. The Boston man 
studies the guide book to the White 
^Mountain or Bar Harbor ; the Salem 
citizen turns the pages of a Plymouth 
guide book ; while the descendant of the 
Pilgrims, who. perhaps, could not tell 
where any of his ancestors are buried 
"on the hill." may be lost in the story of 
the Puritans at Salem. Nothing holds 
the attention of a country boy in Maine 
or New Hampshire like the stories of 
early Boston, unless it be some book 
about the Greeks or Romans of two thou- 
sand years ago. Of the history of his 
own town he knows little or nothing ; in 
truth, he never realized that it had a his- 
tory until he saw the railroad guide book. 
Why should he not be interested in his 
own home history? \Miy should it not 
have for him as much interest as for the 
stranger? Why should it not have at- 
traction for him as the historv of Boston 
has? Is it because in his school historv 
he read of Boston, but not of Ossipee or 
Bridijton? Whv sliould we not teach 
children hi the schools of their local 

country as well as the greater world 
around them? 

Itxtraordinary etiforts are being made 
at the present time to instruct the chil- 
dren of our schools in the lesson of patri- 
(;ti.^m, to instil into their minds if possi- 
ble a greater love of the country and its 
Hag. The flag '"idea" has had a most 
remarkal)le "run," until nearly every 
schoolhouse in the land, like a govern- 
ment post, is surmounted by the stars 
and stripes during school hours. At the 
same time boards of trade and kindred 
organizations are being formed in cities 
and towns all over New England and even 
beyond its borders, whose declared object 
is to build up the towns by inducing man- 
ufacturers to locate in their midst. These 
boards of trade issue circulars and books 
and publish articles in the newspapers 
and magazines setting forth the superior 
advantages of their respective communi- 
ties, reciting their histories, and telling 
how admirabl}- each particular place is 
located for the purposes of manufacture 
or other business enterprises. All this is 
done for the stranger, the man who is to 
be induced to establish some new indus- 
try in town. In the meantime, what is 
done for the people at home? While 
the flag of the country and the country's 
history are receiving so much attention, 
what is being done to educate the people 
to a knowledge of their own immediate 
surroundings? What instruction is the 
rising generation receiving in the deeds 
of valor, the acts of statesmanship, or 
the honors in the field of letters achieved 
bv the men who once walked the streets 
they now walk and lived where they now 
live? What information are the young 
receiving as regards the advantages of 
their own citv or town as a place in which 
to live and labor? Yet how better teach 
the lesson of patriotism, how better incul- 
cate a love of coimtrv. than bv educating 



our children in the histories of their own 
towns? We teach our children of the glo- 
rious deeds of the Greeks at Thermo- 
pylae, of Napoleon at Austerlitz, of Ney 
at Waterloo, of Sheridan at Winchester. 
Why not teach them as well of the brave 
deeds of their ancestors here at home? 
Our school histories tell of Bunker HiU 
and Concord and Lexington, and other 
home events, in the same general way 
that they tell of Saratoga and Yorktown; 
enough,' perhaps, for a general study. 
But the children of Charlestown should 
know the story of Bunker Hill in detail ; 
the children of Concord and Lexmgton 
should be taught the details of that April 
day in 1775. What more honorable 
pages in all our history than those that 
tell us of the deeds of the men of 
Marblehead, on land and sea, in 1775, in 
1812, and again in 1S61 — the pages that 
tell of iNiugiord and Gerry and Story, of 
Phillips and :\Iartin? Yet how little of 
this the children of that town find in the 
school histories! We might go on with 
the story of the first armed resistance to 
British aggression at the North Bridge in 
Salem, the resistance of the Worcester 
yeoman to the Mandamus councillors, 
"the struggles at Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, and other historic episodes all over 
New England. 

There is hardly a town in New Eng- 
land that is not the birthplace, or has not 
been the home, of some man or woman 
whose memory the whole country or per- 
haps all the world delights to honor, but 
who is that "prophet not without honor 
save in his own country." We have 
Cambridge and Portland associated with 
Longfellow; Haverhill, Amesbury, Dan- 
vers and the Bearcamp Valley associated 
with Whittier; Boston and Beverly with 
Holmes ; Cambridge with Lowell ; Con- 
cord with Hawthorne and Emerson. Let 
these things be remembered and made 
high use of in these places. 

Everv city and town should have its 
history written with some detail for use 
in the schools of that town, and with this 
should be included a j)roper treatment of 
the geography of the region. Such a 
work has been done for Dover, Massa- 
chusetts, and the book is in use in that 

town to-day very successfully. This locaU 
text-book may be put in the form of a 
catechism, with questions and answers, or 
in the narrative form. It should begin 
with a clear statement of the location of 
the place, to be followed with something 
on the topography, the geology and the 
botany ; then the history of the settle- 
ment of the town; the establishment o£ 
the first church; the growth and muni- 
cipal history ; notices of the important 
public buildings; military history; to be 
followed by accounts of the industries^ 
railroads, principal highways, commerce; 
a brief sketch of the schools and other 
educational institutions ; something about 
the noted men and women who were born 
or have lived in the town, or have visited 
it. These topics need not be arranged 
in the order here given, but according tO' 
the plan best adapted to the locality. 

This study, I believe, will be found 
very helpful. It is one to awaken instant 
interest in pupil and teacher. The child 
loves to read and talk about places and 
things with which he is familiar, as we 
older people are more interested in any- 
thing about countries we have visited 
than about those we have never seen. 
The local history and geography are the 
easiest for the child to grasp, and he will 
learn other history and the geography of 
remote countries much more readily as a 
result of this study. Teach him concern- 
ing the natural products of the soil and 
climate of his home, and he will easily 
understand the products and general 
characteristics of other lands from a 
knowledge of their soil and climate. 
Teach him the latitude and longitude of 
his own home, and he will know from a 
glance at the map the approximate lati- 
tude and longitude of some other place in 
which he is interested. Most of our pri- 
mary geographies begin with the earth as 
a whole, weave in a little astronomy, and 
then, deal with the hemispheres, the con- 
tinents, with one's own state last of all. 
This is the reversal of the natural order 
of things. 

It may be all very well if a boy has a 
life-time before him for study, to drill 
him in the history of Egypt, Carthage 
and Rome, or the geography of Central 



Africa and the Arctic Sea; but is it not 
vastly more important to the Boston boy 
to be thoroughly familiar with the his- 
tory of Boston and the geography of 
jNIassachusetts; or for the Portland boy 
to be familiar with the history of Port- 
land and the geography of Elaine? In 
one of the latest and most popular geo- 
graphies may be found question after 
question like these : "Compare the mean 
annual temperature of the southern part 
•of the Empire [Germany] with that of 
the northern." "What Arm of the North 
>Sea enters the Netherlands?" "Who are 
the Cossacks, and wdiere do they branch 
from?" This last question is impressive 
for more reasons than one. Turning to 
New England, , I find less rather than 
more of this detail. \\'hat proportion of 
the people that one meets from day to 
■day can tell the latitude and longitude 
-of their respective homes, or even of 
the principal city of their state? How 
many pupils in our Primary or Grammar 
Schools can do it? My owai experience 
tells me. very few, yet nearly every boy or 
■girl in the Grammar School has been 
asked during school days to "give the 
latitude and longitude" of all the coun- 
tries and principal cities of the globe. 
Undoubtedly they were able to tell for 
the time being; but the subject had no 
•especial interest for them and most of 
them soon forgot all about it. Had the 
same amount of time been devoted to the 
study of places in their immediate vicin- 
ity, the lesson would have been much 
longer remembered. 

In the school histor}- most largely used 
in New England are such questions as 
■-these: "\\'hat general rushed into battle 

without orders, and won it?" "How did 
a half-witted boy once save a fort from 
capture?" "When did a fog save our 
army? — a rain?" Would it not be in- 
finitely better for our children, if the time 
rec|uired to learn answers to such ques- 
tions as these were devoted to the intel- 
ligent study of things nearer home? For 
the average man, when he enters upon 
the work of life, a good knowledge of 
local history and geography is more es- 
sential than the details of general history 
and geography. 1 do not mean to dis-' 
courage the study of the history and 
geography of the world. They are among 
the most useful and the most interesting 
of studies. But we should begin with 
them where the Bible teaches us to begin 
with charity — at home. And we should 
not waste time over absurd and useless 
questions about some far country when 
we cannot answer more essential ques- 
tions about our own country and our 
own home. 

Let us here in New England, then, 
while not neglecting the important things 
in the rest of the world, and especially 
our country, devote more time to the 
study of what pertains to our own com- 
munities. No land is richer in all that 
makes history and geography interesting 
and useful than our New England, from 
the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth 
and the Puritans at Salem to the day that 
\Vhittier died on Hampton Beach. To 
know all that pertains to this little corner 
of creation in which we live is to know 
much of the reality and romance of life. 
Such knowledge will do more to increase 
intelligent patriotism than the daily dis- 
l)lay of the flag on schoolhouses. — Xew 
Ibiqland Maqaziiic. 

Prizes for Map-Drawing 

Hon. J. C. Ruppenthal, of Russell, Kansas, 
Judge, 23d Kansas Judicial District has been 
using the following letter to stimulate study 
of local history and encourage preservation 
of data , a very commendable practice, worthy 
f)f wide imitation. Respecting the letter the 
Judge says : "For several years I have been 
offering prizes over this district to pupils for 
historical maps of townships. I enclose a 
copy of the original letter which has five times 
since been repeated by me. Perhaps a con- 
sideration of this may suggest a way to 
extend the work of and for the P.-G. by ask- 

ing pupils of the schools all over the U. S.. 
and especially in high schools and colleges, to- 
write sketches of the beginning of Germaii 
settlement, immigration, influence, etc., ia 
tlieir several communities. The best of these 
could be published. All of any value could 
be placed in some historical repository. Some 
readers, or others might gladly offer smalt 
rewards as prizes, or larger ones if worth 
while. I would be glad to promote such in- 
quiry in some degree. In every state the 
historical societies would encourage suclu 

Russell, Kansas, October 15, 1907. 
To Pupils, Teachers and Others : 

To stimulate investigation of local his- 
tory, and to encourage the collection and 
preservation of data, I offer 30 small 
prizes for township historical maps in 
the several counties of the 23d judicial 
district, to be made by pupils of common 
and high schools. 

In each of the counties of Russell, 
Ellis, Trego, Gove, Logan and Wallace, 
there are offered five prizes of $3.00, 
$2.00 and $1.00, and consolation prizes 
of 50 and 25 cents, respectively, for the 
best historical maps of any congressional 
township in such county. 

Every map must be made by the stu- 
dent, who submits it, but no restriction 
is placed on contestants as to receiving 
aid in the matter of collection of data to 
be shown on the map or in explanation 

The maps will be graded by a com- 
mittee to be appointed by the Kansas 
State Normal School. Western Branch, 
at Hays, Kansas. The first requisite of 
each map will be historical fulness, 
thoroness and accuracy, including geo- 
graphical and topographical details. 
Xcxt comes skill in map drawing, and 

All maps must be submitted to the 
examining committee on or before May 
r. iqo8, and thereupon shall become the 
property of the Kansas State Historical 
Societv, to be permanently kept at 

It is hoped that other prizes may be 
offered by those interested locally or 
otherwise, but in such case the prizes, 
herein offered will be so conferred that 
two prizes ma}^ not be given for any one- 

If two or more maps are practically 
alike, the committee may refuse to give 
more than one prize. 

Any contestant may submit maps of 
more than one township, if he desire, or 
may submit several of the same town- 
ship, but the same person shall not re- 
ceive more than one prize for maps of 
the same township. H in any county 
less than six maps are entered in con- 
test, no prize will be given. 

All maps shall be drawn on paper, or 
cardboard, about fourteen inches square, 
on which the congressional township* 
shall be marked one foot square, and' 
sub-divided into sections and quarter- 
sections, (and preferably into forties- 
also). Printed township plats may be 
used, such as are made by Crane, Hall, 
Dodsworth and other houses, and such 
as are furnished by the State Historical 
Society, or as are kept in many public 
county offices. 

Work may be done with ink or pencil,, 
in black or colors, but other things being' 
equal, that map will be best which is. 
most permanent in its markings and least 
liable to blurring in handling. 

All points of historical interest shall' 
be marked on the maps by means of lines,. 
crosses, circles or other characters, each 



of which shall be numbered or lettered. 
On a separate paper, explanation of the 
numbered (or lettered) points shall be 
j^iven as fully as may be, historically, 
with dates and names of persons con- 

contestants may choose a townsite 
(including all of its additions) or any in- 
corjjo rated city, as the subject for map 
drawing instead of a township, but all 
such maps shall be at least one foot 

square exclusive of margin and must be 
drawn on a correspondingly large scale. 

'J'he facts may be secured from books,, 
maps, plats, etc., but best of all from the 
oldest settlers. 

Ho])ing that there will be many con- 
testants, and assuring each of profit in. 
the contest, whether or not he wins a. 
prize, I am, 

Very Respectfully Yours. 


Flays the 
Turkey Trot. 

Rev. Ernest Pfatt- 
eicher, pastor of the 
Church of the Holy 
Communion, the most fashionable Luth- 
eran congregation in Philadelphia, flayed 
the Stotesburys and others of equal so- 
cial prominence who have been holding 
c'ances at which the turkey trot and other 
popular terpsichorean stunts were the 

The noted clergyman likened society 
in Philadelphia to the days of Salome, 
and said there was more need of a John 
the Baptist now than at any other time. 
He called the dances and functions which 
had recently been held as highly im- 
moral, and in the course of his sermon 
said : 

"Can you imagine John the Baptist 
doing any different to-day than he did 
centuries ago? It is not difficult to con- 
jecture the import of his message to the 
social leaders of to-day, who, in an en- 
vironment of artificial, costly luxury and 
profligate splendor, permit the repetition 
of an immoral dance besides which the 
dance of the daughter of Ilerodias does 
not seem bad at all. 

"She performed for a group of wan- 
ton drunkards. Those who witness these 
affairs to-day are little better. The 
\oung people of to-day are invited to do 
conjointly what Salome did singly, and 
men and women of to-day are invited to 
spectacular and disgraceful orgies, while 
their brothers and sisters are languishing 
in jail or are starving." 

The Town and The present high cost 
Farm. of living is w e 1 1 

known to be partially 
due to the fact that the farms are not re- 
taining a sufficient number of the young, 
people that grow up on them. To find 
out why this is so the Secretary of the- 
Board of Agriculture of Ohio sent a 
series of questions to a large number of 
prominent persons in all parts of the 
country, asking their opinion as to the 
causes of the decline of farm life. The 
answers generally agree that the old-time 
life on the farm — the corn-husking, the 
quilting parties, the barn raisings, and 
the spelling schools — which made farm, 
life joyous thirty years ago have gradu- 
ally disappeared. Even the old country 
school is not what it once was. Young- 
people find it lonesome on the farm, and 
they seek the town, with its fancied 
greater social advantages. 

The condition is an unfortunate one,, 
viewed from a social and economic stand- 
point. From these same persons from: 
whom these answers were obtained, sug- 
gestions were asked for making farm- 
life more attractive. A few of the- 
answers were : Better roads, better- 
schools, lower rates of interest on farm, 
loans, more agricultural education, bet- 
ter teachers, consolidation of schools,, 
federation of churches, smaller farms,, 
less farm renting, parcels post, and the 
use of schools as social centers. 

H. W. E. 

Pennsylvania Caves 

With Special Reference to Rev. E. L. Walz's 
Description of Them in His Work on As- 
tronomy and Physical Cjeography. 

By Rev. J. W. Early. 

Note — The author of this article calls at- 
'tention to the work done by Rev. E. L. VValz 
in his book "A General Description of the 
World" in these words : "It is the only work 
of the kind in which we have ever found so 
complete and satisfactory a description of the 

few of the caves in Berks 
county have been so fully 
described elsewhere that it 
would almost seem a work 
of stipererogation to repeat 
further details concerning 
them. A fuller history of 
these will therefore not be attempted 
ihere. It is however, possible that the 
great majority of people may not be 
• aware, that there are dozens and possibly 
■ even scores of these natural wonders in 
Pennsylvania, although many of them 
may be surpassed in size and grandeur 
by those of Virginia and Kentticky. 

The fact is, that caves, some of them 
'Of great size and remarkable formation, 
.are found the world over. Eneas and 
Dido took refuge from the storm in a 
•cave, although it might perhaps be very 
difficult to decide tipon its exact location. 
Certainly Virgil's description, like those 
ci poets and novelists generally, is very 
indefinite as to details. David when try- 
ing to escape the wrath and vengeance of 
King Saul found refuge in the cave of 
Adullam and others in that rocky and 
hilly country. In the first centuries the 
persecuted Christians frequently found 
refuge in the caves and catacombs at 
Rome. During the persecutions of the 
Waldenses and the Huguenots, they also 
frequently fled to caves of the Alps and 
the Pyrenees, hiding therein to escape the 

physical conformation of our state." The high 
praise thus bestowed on the work of the 
Berks County minister, published 17 years 
ago. is our reason for reprinting the article 
which appeared originally in the Reading, Pa., 
1 imes. — Editor. 

fury of their enemies But they did not 
always afford protection and safety. Fre- 
quently they also became their tomb. 
By hiding in them they did indeed escape 
the swords of their enemies, but they 
could not always avoid the slow lingering 
death by suft'ocation and starvation to 
which they were doomed. Besides this 
the coal mines and many of the ore mines 
of our own and other coimtries are simply 
artificial caves, in which various indus- 
tries for the welfare and benefit of man- 
kind are carried on. 

It is somewhat remarkable that "these 
natural excavations, both in the old and 
in the new world," are generally found in 
the limestone regions. Some are found 
near "Kirkdale, England, 25 miles n. n. 
e. of York," and also "near Torquay;" 
"some in the Valley of Dordogne, 
France ; in Belgium, near Liege ; in Sic- 
ily ; at Gibraltar ; in Mexico ; in Brazil ; 
besides those found in the United States." 
"These caves may consist of several 
chambers at dift'erent levels, and show on 
their walls the erosive action of water, 
and at the bottom and top various de- 
posits of stalagmite and stalactite froin 
the infiltration of lime-bearing waters." 
What further is said of the finding of the 
bones qf animals, of extinct races of past 
ages, need not be repeated here. Suffice 
it to say that many of those statements 
are without any satisfactory proof. 



Caves and Sink Hole. 

Perhaps those who are well acquainted 
Avith the nature of our limestone regions 
ma)- know that the number of minor 
caves, some being permanent and others 
transient, occurring only at intervals, is 
almost without limit. There are sections 
in which streams 4-6 feet in width and 
fn in ^1-8 inches in depth disappear in the 
midst of small caves, or sink holes, as 
ihe\- are called. The main difference be- 
tween the sink holes and the caves we 
visit and admire is. that the former gen- 
erally are open at the top and form a 
large kettle in the earth, or else an in- 
verted funnel, so that no animal or man 
falling in can escape. But we have known 
some from 20-40 feet in depth, with solid 
walls of perpendicular limestone on each 
side. The caA^es, on the other hand, gen- 
■erally open at the side of a hill or 
eminence, having several large and wide 
chamber^. Frequently, although not in- 
variably, there is an opening as a means 
of egress at the far end of the cave. Some 
have been only partially explored, and 
some not at all. In the case of some it 
would be apparently impossible. One in 
North Heidelberg township, of this coun- 
ty, has its entrance amid a small clump of 
trees. A spring empties into it. Its 
course has been traced by throwing in 
chaft. which again came out at the spring 
house about one-eighth of a mile away, 
.^bout one-half of this distance a man 
can easily walk upright. Then the tun- 
nel becomes so narrow that further prog- 
ress is impossible. 

Large Underground Streams. 

As already intimated, the number of 
these excavations is much larger than 
is generally supposed. But there is still 
another remarkable feature of the lime- 
stone formations. It is the existence of 
large imderground streams, where the 
flow of water on the surface is very limit- 
ed. Some 25;-.^o years ago, when sink- 
ing an iron casing or well, to prevent the 
too great discoloring of the water during 
freshets, the authorities of the town of 
Panville, who have located their pump on 

the banks of the Susquehanna, discov- 
ered a Acry large spring of water, which 
supplies a town of 10,000 people. 

The existence of a spring at this point 
w^as not even suspected, but when the 
iron box, 70 feet in length. 10 feet in 
width and 7 feet in depth, open at the 
bottom, was sunk, it was immediately fill- 
ed with the clearest, the purest s[)ring 
water. The citizens are no longer an- 
noyed with muddy water. ( )nl\ in case 
of fire is water pumped from the river. 

Although the wonderful caves of Lvi- 
ray, Virginia and the Mammoth cave, of 
Kentucky, have been advertised few many 
years and have attracted visitors from all 
sections, yet we think our own state of 
Pennsylvania far exceeds all others in 
the variety, number and grandeur of 
natural wonders of this Wnd. 

Some Early History. 

It may perhaps not be known to many 
that in the year 1835 Rev. E. L. Walz, 
at that time pastor of the Evangelical 
Lutheran congregation at Hamburg, 
Berks county, prepared "A General De- 
scription of the World, or a Brief Deline- 
ation of the Things Most Worthy of Note 
in Astronomy. Natural History and Phy- 
sical Geography." It was published by 
Henry Diezel & Co., Lebanon county. 
Pa., and printed by J. G. Wesselhoeft, 
Philadelphia. It is the only w^ork of the 
kind in which we have ever found so 
complete and satisfactory a description 
of the physical conformation of our state. 

He also gives a succinct, and at the 
same time a very comprehensive sum- 
mary of its history, and its form of gov- 
ernment. Some of the information con- 
cerning the physical peculiarities, espec- 
iallv the caves to be found in various sec- 
tions, we propose to repeat in this brief 

Penii's Meeting With the Indians. 

He describes Penn's first meeting with 
the Indians rather graphically, showing 
that although Penn was a zealous Qua- 
ker, he was above all things verv human 
and rather a shrewd politician. In speak- 



iiig of this first meeting in 1082, after 
stating that his kijid, cordial conduct 
towards the Indians at once secured 
their affection and regard, he adds rather 
naively: "When they saw that he (Pennj 
treated them with such friendly con- 
fidence and even ate of everything they 
])laced before him with apparent relish, 
they showed their pleasure by leaping 
and dancing. And Penn did not hesitate 
to lea]) and dance with them."" He calls 
Pennsylvania the granary of the United 
States, which it undoubtedly was at that 
time. A somewhat remarkable state- 
ment is the author's declaration that 
"there are still (1835) 300-400 negro 
slaves in Pennsylvania." 

In his discussion of the history and 
physical fornption of the state he be- 
gins at the extreme southeast corner, 
first describing the city and county of 
Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester and Dela- 
ware. He then takes up Lancaster, 
which at that time had a population of 
78,000, as over against the 55,000 of 

Leader Hid in Cazr. 

It is somewhat strange that he does 
Hot even mention Conrad Beissel, the 
organizer and leader of the peculiar so- 
ciety of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephra- 
ta. Nor does he make any mention of 
the cave at the Aluehlbach ( Millcreek) 
to which he had retreated and in 
which he seems to have developed his 
singular system, that strange mixture of 
the teachings of the Anabaj^tists of Ger- 
many, medieval monasticism and other 
fantastic vagaries. Yet it is almost ab- 
.s«lutely certain that he had his cave in 
that section. The banks of the Ahiehl- 
bach (Millcreek) of Lebanon and Berks 
could not furnish it. But the Lancaster 
streaiu from a short distance south of 
t'he Philadelphia turnpike until it empties 
into the Conestoga beyond the Willow^ 
street pike, tumbles along in the midst of 
steep banks and rocky gorges. 

Althonsh he informs us that there is 
an abundant supply of limestone and nu- 
merous marble quarries in the town- 
ships of Plymouth and Whitemarsh, of 

Montgomery county, he does not seem 
to know of the existence of any caves in 
that section. 

Berks County Wonders 

He also omits all mention of caves in 
Berks county, although it is one of the 
oldest settlements. But if the statement 
in the account presented to the Histori- 
cal Society be correct. Crystal Cave was 
only discovered accidentally about 36 
years after Rev. Air. Walz had written 
his history. According to the account 
there given, it could not well have been 
discovered before that fortunate blast 
which produced an entrance to it. It 
seems to have had no visible opening be- 
fore that time. But for a full description 
we simply refer to the Proceedings of 
the Historical Society for the year 1906. 
A simple reference to the fact that an- 
other, the Dragon's Cave, is about two 
miles southwest, which has been known 
for half a century or more, to Alerkel's 
cave, to the one on the farm of Joel Drei- 
belbis, and to another on the property of 
David G. Mengel. will be sulificient. This 
will show us that no less than five of these 
wonders of nature have been discovered 
in that section within the last 50 years. 
Besides these almost every one knows 
that there is a large cave apparently not 
yet fully explored, on the banks of the 
Schuylkill, near Tuckertown. These, with 
the one already referred to in North Hei- 
delberg, would give us seven considerable 
caves in Berks county. All' of them are 
found near the point where the gravel or 
slate from the north overlaps the lime- 
stone formation. And while we have- 
heard of but one cave on the south side 
of the limestone belt, that on the banks 
of the Swatara, southwest of Hummels- 
town. we can see no reason why an equal' 
number of those curiosities should not be 
found on that side, also whv there should 
not l)c a number in the very centre of the- 
limestone formation Certainly the two 
prominent ones in Centre county are so- 
located. We have often wondered why 
no caves have ever been found at or near 
the "Muehlbach Kopf." south of New- 
manstown and Richland. It certainly 



Avould be the only spot that could have 
furnished IJeissel a retreat. If it ever 
existed, why was it lost or fors^otten ? 
And why should not a res])ectai)le number 
be found in the depressions and ravine^ 
alono- the Ridi^'C. 

.lloiiij; flic Szvatara 

After a brief reference to the almost 
limitless mineral wealth of Lebanon, our 
author makes the somewhat astounding- 
assertion that "at least one-fourths of the 
surface of I)aui)liin county is untillable 
waste. Although he credits it with large 
deposits of coal, which, however, are con- 
fined mainly to the eastern border, he 
seems not to remember that this is a 
source of great wealth. TUit he does not 
appear to be aware of the grand cave 
about two miles beyond Hummelstown 
on the banks of the Swatara. Accord- 
ing to the descriptions given, it must be 
somewdiat like that on the banks of the 
Schuylkill, near Tuckertown. only much 
larger and on a grander scale. This cave 
was known 50 or even 60 years ago. But 
it seems to have been partly forgotten. 
At that time it was talked of far and 
wide. It was a matter of the greatest 
regret to the writer, that when a party 
of friends explored it about 55 years ago, 
circiuiistances prevented him from ac- 
companying them. It certainly would 
not be a matter of surprise if a number 
of similar caves should be found along 
the entire course of the Swatara up to 
the point of the junction of the two 
branches at Jonestown. 

Schuvlkill county receives no credit on 
this score, but its wonderful network of 
artificial excavations among the seams of 
coal, with a l)urning mine here and there, 
supi)ly their place. 

At Allentown. where the fine stone 
bridge crosses the Jordan creek, a little 
above the point where it enters the Le- 
high, another of these natural excava- 
tions in the limestone is found. This 
contains a fine spring of water 

It is somewhat disappointing to find 
none of these natural wonders in Xorth- 
ami^ton county, wdiere we meet walls of 
perpendicular rocks i .0(J0 or even 1.200 

feet high along one of its ])rincii)al 
streams, the Lehigh. 'J'his historian tells 
us that these massive walls of stone along 
tile right bank of the stream are called 
the l'ul])it Rocks, "upon which, however^ 
no one. exce])t occasionally ]jerhaps an 
eagle. ])reachers." W'he have not tim to 
repeat his descri])tion of the Turn Hole 
in the Lehigh, a whirl])ool in midstream, 
tlankeil by rocks 150 feet high. lUit if 
these wonilerful formations are fmmd in 
mid-stream, might we not also expect 
some among the cliffs and on shore ? 

Sonic Strange Xatnci 

It certainly is most strange that in Lu- 
zerne, at that time including Lacka- 
wanna, wdiere there is suc4i great variety 
of landscape and soil, none of na- 
tural wonders have been found. Rut we 
can not the temptation to repeat a 
few of the strange names applied to vari- 
ous localities in that section. Besides the 
appropriate names, Wyoming and Lacka- 
wanna, applied to mountain ranges and 
streams, we find Hell's Kitchen. vSugar 
Loaf. etc. In Fall township we also" find 
Buttermilk Falls. 

Although there arc two limestone 
ranges in Northumberland county, the 
one a short distance south of Sunbury 
and the other running east from Milton, 
we have never heard of any caves there. 

In the southern centre of the state, 
embracing York. Adams. Cumberland 
and Franklin, we find a number of these 
freaks of nature. The remarkable feat- 
ure here is that in York the largest of 
these counties, with the greatest variety 
of surface and geological formations, 
although sul])hur S|)rings are found in it, 
no caves have so far been discovered. 
In .Adams, the Devil's Den. with its pe- 
culiar arrangement of large stones piled 
u]) with passages between, would hardly 
be classed among regular caves. 

In the other two counties some re- 
markable ones have been discovered. 
( )ne of these is in the vicinitv of Car- 
li-le. W'nlz's description of it is very 
vivid. "In the centre of a lar<>e field is 
the Hogshead s])rintr. located in a coni- 
cal hollow, contains sweet, C(J)1, «)leasant 



tasted water-" Another remarkable na- 
tural feature in the vicinity of Carhsle is 
the Hniestone cave along the beautiful 
Conedequinet creek. It contains a num- 
ber of apartments, one of which is desig- 
nated the Devil's Dining Room. Appar- 
ently this cave at one time was a refuge 
of the Indians, where they concealed 
tl:eir plunder and buried their dead, at 
least, human bones have been found in it. 
Another and apparently even a larger 
cave is found in the vicinity of Chambers- 
burg. This township, the one within 
wtiose bounds Chambersburg is located, 
formeHy had been the burying place of 
the Indipns. When first settled by the 
whites many Indian relics were found 
there. Another matter of historical in- 
terest is the fact, that at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century Franklin coun- 
ty was the home of a band of horse 
thieves, who carried on their nefarious 
trade very extensively, destroying the 
property of those who interfered with 

Found in Savie Valley 

"Not far from the foot of the South 
Mountain one of the most remarkable 
limestone caves in the United States is 
found. Its full size is .still unknown. 
No one has yet been able to penetrate it 
for more than 800 feet. In one of the 
ducts, but it seems to be dotted with 
caves. Rev. Mr. Walz says: "Here we 
find some remarkable caves, containing 
petref actions, or organic remains. The 
.most remarkable is in Sinking \'alley, in 
which a number of streams, after flowing 
canals or channels leading to it, there sre 
small waterfalls. In descending into the 
cave, the eye is enchanted by a most re- 
markable display of variegated colors, 
and the great variety of figures, formed 
by stalactites, trees, buslies, figures of 
men. birds, animals, appear as if by ma- 
gic. At one point, a flag upon a 
pedestal, half imfnrlcd. which nature 
seems to have imitated, is to be .seen." 
It will be noticed that these two great 
natural wonders arc found in th.e same 
valley in which our caves are found, viz: 
the extension of the Lebanon ^^allev. 

Those of Luray, Va., and unless greatly 
mistaken, the Mammoth Cave of Ken- 
tucky, are likewise foimd there. 

Bedford, further west, noted for its 
baths and mineral springs, as well as 
Somerset and Cambria, seems to have 
no caves. Rut mountainous Flunting- 
don,, wliich might be designated a part 
of the backbone of the Appalachian 
chain, is not only rich in mineral pro- 
three-four miles sink out of sight into the 
earth. The Arch or Bowspring, forms a 
deep cup or bowl in a limestone rock, 
with a sitone arch above it, over which 
the water falls and gradually forms a 
considerable stream, soon loses itself 
again in the earth, and then re-appears. 
After flowing along the surface only a 
few^ rods, it again drops into a cavern, 
the entrance to w^hich is large enough to 
permit a boat with sails to pass through. 
The cave within is 20 feet high. Four 
hundred yards from this point it widens 
out into a great chamber, in which w^e 
find a foaming whirlpool, swallowing up 
everything thrown into it. It is thought 
that this stream continues its course un- 
derground for some miles, and then 
comes forth as two different streams in 
Canoe \'alle}'. 

Mifflin county, also among the AUe- 
ghenies. Rev. Air. Walz tells us, contains 
an almost countless number of caves. 
But he describes only one, V\t.-: Heni- 
wals, which he informs us is 100 rods 
"about one-third of a mile." deep and 
contains a great quantity of saltpetre. 

Remarkable Features 

One remarkable feature of Rev. Mr. 
Walz's work is, that while he refers to 
the peculiar character of Spring Creek, 
at the head of which Bellefonte, the 
countv seat of Centre is located, he does 
net mention anv of its caves. Of this 
creek he says : "It is a broad limestone 
stream, is always of uniform depth, and 
never freezes." Whether the caves of 
Centre were not yet discovered, or whe- 
ther he siin])lv overlooked them, we do 
not know. But certainly the so-called 
Benn's cave, right in the midst of the 
level portion of Penn's valley, between 



one and two miles east of Centre Hall, is 
one of the most remarkable of which we 
have ever heard. Passing along the pub- 
lic road, with level lields on each side, 
right over the top of it, from Centre 
Hall t() Madisonburg, no one woidd sus- 
pect that he is passing over a deep lake, 
probably half a mile in length. Even 
when you approach the hotel from one to 
two hundred yards distant front the en- 
trance, there is nothing to attract atten- 
tion. When you do approach the mouth, 
it almost seems as if you were coming 
to a farmer's vegetable cellar. Then you 
descend to the opening by six or eight 
>tcp>. At the foot you simpky peer into 
the darkness and finally see the boat 
within. After the boatman has lit his 
torch, you step into the boat and the voy- 
age begins. After going about half a 
mile, the rocks close in upon you and you 
are compelled to turn back. You can not 
even see distinctly where the water, which 
forms the head of Penn's Creek, passes 
out. As \ou return, you notice still more 
distinctly, the sharp rock, rising above 
the surface of the water like small islands, 
among which the boat passes. You see 
also the overhanging, dark masses of 
bats, each covering several yards of space, 
numbering thousands and possibly hun- 
dreds of thousands, or even millions, 
which have made the limestone arch 
above, their winter quarters. This is 
]<nown as the large Centre county cave. 
There is a much smaller one, in the same 
limestone formation, about one-half mile 
south of Millheim. Its real extent is not 
known. It. too, discharges a large quan- 
tity of very cold spring water. About 40 
years ago the farmer occupying the land 
used the wider and loftier chamber just 
inside of its entrance, as a spring house. 
Milk crocks stood all along in the water 
which was bridged by planks and boards. 
'J'he stream issuing from its mouth, is 
from fourteen to sixteen feet wide and 
from two to four inches deep. Its open 
length is probably 30 to 40 feet. It is not 
known that anyone ever explored the rear 
part of it. It is also said that there are 
several smaller caves be)'ond Penn Hall, 
near Spring Creek. 

Streams Lose Themselves 

The existence of a number of streams 
which lose themselves in the earth U) pass 
along >ubterranean channels throughout 
some of the limestone sections of Lycom- 
ing county would indicate the possible 
existence of caves there. This is especi- 
ally true of the Nippenose valley, vv^hich 
veryTiiuch resembles the half shell of an 
egg divided longitudinal. 

In Fayette county, upon the summit of 
the Laurel Range, there is a cave which 
belongs to the remarkable natural feat- 
ures of l^ennsylvania. It is from 3,000 
to 4,000 feet deep. Counting all the 
crooks and bends one must pass over in 
all directions to go through it, a journey 
of several miles is necessary. There are 
a number of apartments. Both floor and 
roof consists of solid rock. Kvitlently 
the wearing of the waters causes it to be 
enlarged each year. "It is also the re- 
fuge of millions of bats, which threaten 
to descend en masse upon the visitor." 

Mercer county also contains a number 
of caves. One of these three-four miles 
from the town of Mercer, has its en- 
trance on top of a considerable hill, pass- 
ing on among rocks piled together. It 
runs along the entire hill. The tli.or is 
damp and uneven, while the surface 
above is quite smooth. Strong currents 
of air come from within, and even in the 
midst of summer, ice may be found in it. 

It will be seen from these accounts that 
the number of these natural curiosities is 
much larger than is generally supposed. 
Here we have a description of about two 
dozen of these, the greater number hav- 
ing been pretty thoroughly explored. 

If anyone should take the trouble to 
examine carefully those into which Bruin 
retreats during the winter to take his 
beauty sleep before emerging again in the 
spring to prowl among the farmers, the 
number might possibly be considerably in- 
creased. The exploration of some of 
them might not only prove pleasant and 
I)rofitable in the study of the wond«rs 
of nature, but it would almost certainVy 
add greatly to our knowledge of the 
structure of the earth. 

It may, perhaps, not have escaped no- 



tice that we have said nothing about the 
northeastern corner of our state. In 
that, no caves have yet been found. In 
fact, its conformation seems to dilTer 
widely from the rest. Our friend Rev. 

Mr. W'alz points out the fact that in- 
stead it is dotted with a number of in- 
land lakes, and that salt wells, as well as 
glass factories, are to be found in large 
numbers in that section. 

Soil Survey of The held work of the 

Southwestern reconnoissance soil 

Pennsylvania. survey of Southeast- 

e r n Pennsylvania, 
made by experts from the Bureau of 
Soils, has been completed and the report 
will be issued during tlie latter part of the 
coming summer. 

The work was done f(^r the purpose of 
showing the agricultural value of the soils 
of the area and what crops they are best 
adapted to. The adaptability of the soils 
to. fruit production will be especialh' 
touched upon in the report. 

The territory covered by the survey 
amounts to 10,250 scjuare miles and em- 
braces the counties of Northumberland. 
Montour, Columbia, Luzerne, Monroe, 
Cat-bon, Northumberland, Schuylkill, 
Lehigh, Bucks, Berks, Lebanon, Dau- 
phin, Lancaster, York, Chester, Dela- 
ware. Philadelphia and jMontgomery. 

The report when printed will treat 
exhaustively on the soils and their char- 
acteristics, what crops they are particu- 
larly adapted to. and how they should be 
treated and managed in order to obtain 
the best possible agricultural results. 

A soil and topograi:)hic map will ac- 
company the report, showing in colors 
the location and extent of various types 
of soils encountered during the survey, 
as well as the location of all farms. 

schoolhouses, churches, ]niblic roads, 
streams and railr(jads in the counties. 

Editorial Note. Space is given to the 

above to call attention 
to the fact that Penn- 
sylvania "Dutchmen" 
have been living and thriving on these 
self-same faniis for 100, 150, 200 years 
and have in the meantime increased the 
soil fertility. Strangers almost shed tears 
that such a lovely section of God's coun-. 
try should have fallen into the hands of 
"(luml) Dutch," forgetting that these had 
brains and brawn eiwugh to fell the 
tiees, drain the morasses, clear the land, 
till the soil, gain dominion over their en- 
vironments and thus co-operate with God- 
in transforming the waste and wildwood 
into garden spots and miniature mints. 
That after following such conquering 
ti^il our National Government with its 
lioundless resources should follow in the 
wake of the "'dumb Dutchmen" and set 
forth the data noted speaks volumes' for 
the farmers. The "survey" is an imj^er- 
ishable movement to the farmer — and 
yet. people who ought to know better 
say the Pennsylvania Dutchman of the 
soil is as "uninteresting as a log of 

Cornwallis and the Moravians 

ITie following lines arc an extract from an 
article entitled "Cornwallis in Xortli Caro- 
lina," written I)y Ida Clifton liinsliavv, which 
appeared in "The Journal oi" American His- 
tory." Second Quarter, igij. 

Jiis "liisturv of the i)k\ 
Xortli v'^latf in 1778-1781,'" 
Rev. K. W. Cariithers states 
that in 1S54 lie wrote to 
the Clerk of the Moravian 
Society in vSalein "for atiy 
facts relative to the Lh-itish 
Ann}-, contained in their (the Mora- 
vians' ) records, and with nnich prompt- 
ness and cotirtesy he sent me the fol- 
lowing commimications. for which he has 
my sincere ack'nowledgments." 

"1781, Febrnary 5, 6 and 7, miliiia men 
in small parties and in whole companies, 
passed through Salem. 

"February 8th. news was l)rought to 
Salem that Lord Cornwallis with his 
army had crossed the Yadkiti at the Shal- 
low ford. 

"Febrnary (jth. Lord Cornwallis ar- 
rived at P)ethany ( llausertown ) with the 
whole British officers and their servants. 
Three hundred pounds of bread, one hun- 
dred gallons of whiskey, and all the flour 
to be found, were taken by the eneiu}'. 
Sixty head of cattle, not to ntimber sheeji 
and poultry, were likewise seized ti]ion. 
Twenty horses were deiuanded. Imt could 
not be found in the village. \'iolent 
threats of manv of the officers greatl}" 
alarmed the inhabitants, and universal 
consternation pervaded the village. 

"February 10th, about 7 a. m. the en- 
emv commenced to leave Bethany. The 
Colonel of Artillery toolc seventeen 
horses instead of the twent\' deiuanded. 
The British passed through Bethabara 
(Old Town), and about 10 a. m.. their 
dragoons entered Saleiu. followed by the 
main body of the army, which continued 
to pass through the town till 4.00 p. m. 
Lord Cornwallis and staff remained about 
one hour in the town. After the main 
body of the troops had left Salem, strag- 

glers committed many acts of theft and 
robbing in various parts of the town. The 
brethr<Mi"s house lost nine oxen ; and from 
Bethaliara eighteen of their largest oxen 
had to be- delivered to the British. The 
wagon Ijelonging to the British house 
had to convey two loads of flour from 
the mill to the British camp at Frederick 
Miller's, about four miles from Salem/' 

And a story is told also how, passing 
through the ])eaceful Moravian settle- 
ment on February 9th, one of the officers, 
seeing a curious looking pot in an open 
field, snatched it up as he tuarched by. 
A little later, however, when several of 
the men, in company with Cornwallis, 
were in the little bakery of the quaint 
old Salem of those days, seeking what 
they might devour, this same officer, in 
his eagerness for food, laid his sword 
tipon the coitnter. A boy, who had seen 
the theft of the old Dutch pot seized the 
sword and hid it. The officer, who was 
evidently gree<l}' and hungry, walked 
away without it. This sword, discolored 
and rusty with age, is now among the 
treasures of the old Saleiu Archive 
House as a relic of a crafty boy and a 
greedy officer. 

"The Aforavians look no i)art in the 
Revolution, soldiers, fighting, and bois- 
terous conduct being foreign to their 
creed, which was in every sense accord- 
ing to Isaiah. — 'Go gently all thy days.' 
The kindness of these people to all who 
came their wa\- in those troublous times 
caused the community of the Brethren 
to be spoken of as the 'Dutchmen's' home 
where there is luuch bread.'' 

"So manv came to them for shelter 
that it was finally necessary to build a 
'Strangers' ,Home." so that the Brethren 
need not be tm-ned out of their beds to 
gi\'e refuge to these wanderers." 

This old tavern, built about 1766. is 
still standing today, (|uaint and fascinat- 
ing as in the May of that year of 1781. 
when General George Washington. Pre'^- 




ident of the United States, was guest 
while on his way to visit Alexander Mar- 
tin, Governor of North Carolina. He 
spent a night and day there, visiting the 
officers and houses of the Brethren. In 

a letter to the latter he thanked thein for 
his entertainment. This letter, together 
with a song written and sung on the 
General's visit, may be seen today in the 
Archive House. 

Dr. Schaeffer and There are today at 
Higher Education. least 40 vocations 
which require a high 
school education by 
way of preliminary training, said Dr. 
Schaeffer, "and the boy who quits school 
before finishing the four years' high 
school course shuts against himself the 
door of opportunity and makes it im- 
possible for himself to enter the vocations 
which aspire to be ranked with the pro- 
fessions, and which have within their 
ranks the leader of .Vmerican civiliza- 

The European school condemns the 
children of the peasants and middle clas- 
ses to ordinary trades. The American 
school means equal opportunity for every 
boy and girl regardless of w-ealth or so- 
cial position. 

At the rate at which foreigners are 
coming to our shores, that their children 
may have the benefit of the free schools 
of our country, there is but one possible 

If the American high school boy will 
continue to waste his time upon frater- 
nity, functions, social pleasure and 
student activities which merely aim at 
gratification of self, while foreign boys 
study w^ith unprecedented zeal at school 
and in the evenings at home, the out- 
come will be that fen or twenty years 
hence the foreign born boy or boy born 
of foreign parentage will fill the places 
that might be occupied by boys of Ameri- 
can descent. 

Farmers' Lit- We note that the 

erary Societies. Maxatawny Literary 

Society is flourishing 
and that it has a great- 
er membership than ever before. We 
are very glad to see this and we hope not 
only that all the present organizations of 
that kind may continue to flourish, but 
that many more may be organized, to 
furnish entertainment and to promote 
sociability throughout the county, during 
the winter. 

As we have frequently remarked be- 
fore, one disadvantage of country life has 
been that the people do not get together 
enough. We do not* care whether the 
association is called a literary society or 
by any other name. If it brings people 
together, promotes sociability, enables 
them to know each other better and to 
consult with each other more frequently, 
it is bound to result in improvement. 

There ought to be clubs and associa- 
tions of all kinds in every school district 
in the county that would meet in the 
schoolhouses or private residences and 
that would be constantly bringing the 
people of the township together for dis- 
cussion or for sociability's sake, to make 
them better acquainted and to cause tliem 
to stand t(3gcther better for their com- 
mon interests. 

More power to the literary societies 
and siiuilar organizations. We would 
like to see hundreds of them in operation. 
Kitf.::fozcii Journal. 



Illustrative of German- American Activities 

Contribiitions by Readers Cordially Invited 

Reuniting Lutheran All all day meeting 
Churches. was held in January, 

1913, in Philadelphia, 
to discuss the subjects 
of a union of the General Council and 
General Synod of the Lutheran Church. 
Respecting this union Rev. Dr. J. A. 
Singniaster, President of the Theological 
Seauinary at Gettysburg, said : — 

"The General Council churches and the 
General Synod churches are so closely 
united in history, heritage, ancestry and 
labor that it is a folly and a shame for 
them to keep up their contentions and 
iHssensions. The situation in America 
today demands that Lutherans stand to- 
gether. The Lutheran church has ever 
stood most stanchly against negative crit- 
icism and attacks on the Bible, and, if it 
hopes to wage a successful battle against 
the newfangled doctrines and atheistic 
socialism that is creeping into the Prot- 
estant religion, it must present a solid 

"AVe have reached a point in our his- 
tory, as this conference indicates, wiien 
the feelings of brotherhood, engendered 
by the knowledge of a common blood, 
common heritage and a common ances- 
try, are beginning to hold a stronger 
sway. With a common catechism and 
a common confession, we can forget 
minor differences of opinion and come to- 
gether once more." 

The Heidelberg The minds of the 

Catechism. church f<-)lks are be- 

ing refreshed by the 
denomination leaders 
upon the history of this catechism. Sum- 
marized, it runs thus : 


The Heidelberg Catechism was pub- 
lished in the year 1563 by the order of 
Elector Frederick II L of the Palatinate, 
a district in western Germany, of which 
Heidelberg is the capital. It was writ- 
ten by Zacharias L^rsinus and Caspar 
C )lcvianus, and was published in the cit}' 
of Heidcibcrg, from which city it gets its 
name. It became the creed of the Re- 
fornu,'d Church, which was founded at 
Zurich, Switzerland, (1519-25), by Ul- 
rich Zwingle, one of the reformers. Af- 
ter his death ( 1531) his work was con- 
tinued by John Calvin at Geneva (1536- 
h^). From Switzerland, the Reformed 
Church spread into France, Holland, Po- 
land, Hungary, Bohemia, (^icrmany and 

The Heidelberg Catechism, which was 
the most prominent of its creeds, was 
carried by these churches to the ends of 
the earth. It was brought to America in 
the eighteenth century, together with 
their Bibles and hymn books. It has 
been in use in the church in America 
since the year 1725, when the church was 
organized by John Philip Boehm. 

While it is the German Reformed de- 
nomination that is creating most com- 
motion over this 350th anniversary of the 
catechism, the truth is. the doctunent was 
first brought to America by the Dutch 
Reformed Clnu'ch when the Dutch en- 
tered New ^'ork. The Heidelberg Cate- 
chism is the catechism of the State 
Church in Holland, and it is also the of- 
ficial i^taudard of the Dutch Reformed 
dcnominatidu everywhere. In Hungary 
and Bohemia Protestants adhere to the 
Heidelberg" Catcchistu. and wherever the 
German Reformed Church has been car- 
ried bv its missions this catechism i? 
taught. — The Religious Rambler. 




Germany and All Germany rang last 

rthe Vatican. month with echoes of 

the conflict involving 
the Imperial Chancel- 
lor with the \'atican. Provocation to 
this war was given by the government's 
drastic action against the Jesuits. IJe- 
.hind the Chancellor, now that the crisis 
has come, stands the Emperor himself. 
.His Majesty is represented in the latest 
.despatches as furious <i\ the rebuff to 
his policy of conciliation in dealing with 
the church. The Chancellor has taken 
the sensational ^tep of inviting the So- 
cialists to become one fraction of a new 
'"block" in the Reichstag. His object, 
apparently, is to halt the clericals of the 
Center party in their preparations to 
make war upon the government. Such 
have been the results of an action of the 
federal council wh^'^h recently suppressed 
a plan to permit Jesuits, as a religious 
order, to resume their activity. The sit- 
uation thus suddenly precipitated is stud- 
ied in the inspired organs like the Krcuz- 
Zcititns; from a wider standpoint. The 
world is invited by the Berlin non-clerical 
])ress generally to infer that Emperor 
William dreads the growing interference 
of the \'atican in the politics of his realm. 
Clerical dailies like the Crniumia. the 
great organ of the Roman Catholic Cen- 
ter party, complain that the faithful are 
op])ressed because they wish their clerg}- 
pkiced u]ion an equality before the law 
with the ministers of other denomina- 
tions. The upheaval hinges for the mo- 
ment upon a possibility — it may be re- 
mote but it exists — that the Chancellor 
may base his sovereign's Reichstag policy 
upon an tinprecedented political combina- 
tion. .Acceptance bv Herr Bebel and 
Herr Bernstein of the invitation issued 
to the Socialists by Herr von Bethmann- 
Hollweg to co-operate with him would 
effect a revolution in the Germany of 
\\'illiam TT. — Current Ophiimi. 

The University q^lie annual rej^ort of 

of Pennsylvania. the treasurer of the 

I'niversitv of Penn- 

svlvania is \\v\\ worth reading-. It is full 

of encouragement for the new adminis- 
tration of Provost Edgar F. Smith. He 
represents rather the scholar and the in- 
vestigator (for as an authorit}' on elec- 
tro-chemistry he is recognized at home 
and abroad ) than the man of aft"airs. such 
as Provost Plarrison, or the successful 
organizer of new cn.teriirises, such as 
Provost Pepper. Both were active in 
their dealing with men of wealth, and 
besides doing much to elevate the stan- 
dard of scholarshi]) in the L'niversity, 
have left as memorials of their adminis- 
trations many of the fine and useful Uni- 
versity buildings and en(k)wments for 
such work that have quickened the stu- 
dents and the teachers in the work of edu- 

The ITiiversity now has an endowment 
in money, buiUlings, books, collections, 
etc., of nearly $18,000,000. Large as this 
may appear, it is small as compared to 
Harvaril, Columbia, Chicago and the 
great and growing State universities of 
the West. Many of the Western States 
provide a percentage fn~)m revenue for 
their State universities, so that they are 
independent of Legislature or the need of 
seeking personal benefactions, ^'et here 
is Pennsylvania, and in spite of a consti- 
tutional pledge to aid (Mu- University, 
after nearly one himdred and seventv- 
five years of successful growth the I"ni- 
versity has to go, hat in hand, to the 
State Legislature at each biennial ses- 
sion and ask for that part of the State's 
large surplus income that is absolutely 
needed. Fortunately. Legislature and 
executive have resi:)onded to this ai'tpeal, 
largely due to the insistence of Gover- 
nor Pennypacker. both when in office and 
later, that the State owed it to its con- 
stitutional pledges to provide liberally 
for its I'niversity. More than two-thirds 
of the endowment of the P^niversity are 
lf)cked up in grounds and buildings and 
library and collections and apparatus, all 
needed for the work of the L'niversity, 
but sources of expense, and not of in- 
come. Outside of the endowment inr 
the I^niversitv Hospital and the ArchcCo-- 
logical Museiun the Universitv receives 
about ,$6oo,ono from students' fees and 
spends f(^r salaries of instructors nearly 


S800.000, and only throui^li State a])])ni- 
priation and ])rivatc C(intril)ulii)ns can il 
make Ixith end> meet in it> annual \n\i\- 

The library, for example, with i)\er 
300,000 books, received from the State 
alv)nt ^(\o<y.y, ?.^y(\ from indi^-idnals ■\ 
little 'Over $4,000 and from income from 
endowment a little over $2,000. What 
it needs is a ^i^enerons endowment of at 
Jeast a million dollars, and even then it 
cannc t ec|ual the liberal expenditures of 
JIarvard. Princeton. Columbia and Cor- 
nell on. their libraries. Mr. Carneiiiie 
i^ave a million and a half for branch 
l)uildin,L;s for the free libraries of Phila- 
delphia, and Mr. Widener has ^iven 
much more for a new library buildins^" for 
Harvard to house its large Hbrarw of 
Avhich the choice collection of his s^rand- 
•son. the late lamented Plarry Widener. 
is to make an im])ortant part. vSurely the 
library of the I'niversitv of Pennsylvania 
ought to be so endowed that it will not 
lie dependent on and a l)urden ujion the 
limited income of the I'niversity. — Pub- 
lic Lcds^^cr. 

■English 'Potent \\'e sometimes hear 

in Potting." the statement made 

that the German. 

wedded to his beer- 
"bottle. brought it along to this 
country, which before his arrival did not 
Ix'now anything of strong drink, but was 
entirely satisfied with .spring water. If 
only those Dutchmen had stayed away I 
Wc are far from saving anything in 
favor of German drinking habits, but we 
see no good reason for pointing out the 
German as the chief among sinners 
against iem])crance. We are even liold 
enough to sav that kmg before the hrst 
German set his foot t^n the shore of this 
countrv, drinking habits were verv much 
in evidence among the '"first foreigners." 
who had preceded him. Let us nrove 
this asserti(Mi. .\. M. Earle. a Xew I^ng- 
land writer of note, devotes twentv ])ages 
of a historical work on Did Xew Kneland 
to ■■( )ld Colonial Drinks and Drinkers!" 
riea-e read the following: 

"The English settlers who peopled our 
Colonies were a beer-drinking and ale- 
drinking race — a> Shakespeare said, thev 
were 'i)otent in potting." Xone of the 
hardshi|)s they had to endure in the 
bitter years of their new life caused them 
more annoyance than their deprivation of 
their beloved malt liquors. Ihis dej)ri- 
vation began even at their very landing. 
Bradford, the Pilgrim governor, com- 
])Iaine(l loudly and fre(|uently of his dis- 
tress. '■' '•' * "As late as 1788 beer ami 
cider were jirized a> "temi)erance 
drinks." according to the Hosfaii Ilvcuini' 
Post. .\t an ordination in Peverly, 
]^Iass., 33 bowls of ])unch and \(\ bottles 
of wine were consumed before the solemn 
meeting, and 44 bowls of punch and 18 
bottles of wine were emptied at the din- 
ner table. Some drank brandw cherry 
rum. etc.; only six ])i'ople drank tea. 
Dancing was encouraged as the fitting- 
closing of the ordination day ! .At a fu- 
neral at Hartford in 1678 the mourners 
and their neighlxirs and friends — no 
Dutchmen among them, did awa\- with 
nine gallons of wine. ( )n the bill of 
funeral expenses we notice these items: 
One barrel of cider. 16 shillings: i cof- 
fin. 12 shillings. .\ 'funeral punch" was 
served to the mourners and their com- 
forters after the burial ; the paupers of 
the i^arish quenched their thirst with rum 
or "cyder." Hawthorne speaks of such a 
funeral where the people — all X'ew Hng- 
landers — 'indulged in an outbreak- of 
grisly jollit}-.' F.nough of it. ".--in The 
I ji til era 11. 

Dr. Carl L. was a])i)f)iine(l chief 

Alsberg. of the P.ureau of 

Chemistry in the l^e- 
partment of Agricul- 
ture on December i^th. to succeed Dr. 
Harvey W. Wiley. Fie is a chemist of 
wide reputation, and for the past four 
vears has been chemical biokigist in the 
r>ureau of Plant lndu>tr\. He was horn 
in Xew ^'ork in 1877. was graduated 
from Colinnbia l'niversit>- in iScjf). and 
studied in Ciermany for several years. 
He was on the faculty of the Harxard 
Medical Scliool when lu^ wa-^ called to 



Washington in 1908. — Youth's Compan- 

Germany of the One. The emperor 

Germans. is supreme in Ger- 

many and the army 
controls the nation. 

2. Parliament is elected every five 
years, but can be dissolved at will by the 

3. Compulsory state insurance against 
sickness, accident, infirmity and old age. 

4. Protects agriculture and industry 
from foreign rivalry. 

5. State forbids unfair competition in 
internal trade. 

6. Looks after welfare of workers in 
many ways. 

7. Controls work of women and chil- 
dren, arranges hours of labor, sees that 
workers have sufficient time for meals, 
enforces thrift and hygiene. 

8. State owns its own coal and potash 
mines, railways, post, telegraph and tele- 
phone service. 

9. Municipalities supply gas, electricity 
and w^ater. care fo^ the poor and insane, 
look after the sick ; run tramways, public 
baths and libraries ; undertake making of 
roads, control markets and a host of other 
works of public utility. 

10. Compulsory continuation schools 
for workers up to 17 years. Children 
taught to become specialists in some par- 
ticular line. 

IT. Poorhouses unknown in Germany. 
Work colonies established for those who 
cannot find employment. Those who can 
work and won't are imprisoned as vaga- 
bonds and compelled to work. Weak 
are given very light work. 

T2. Orphans and foundlings are pro- 
vided with homes and watched over to 
see they receive proper treatment. Boys 
are taught trades, and girls housework, 
or other employment suitable for them. 

13. Po])ular eating kitchens are estab- 
lishcfl for the poor, where they are fur- 
nished food free if unable to pay. or at 
very low cost if they can. 

14. Poor are furnished doctors T^nd 
medicines free. Hospitals are controlled 

by municipalities, free for those unable to 

15. Employers compelled to pay part 
of compulsory insurance cost for work- 
ers. Pensions for old and infirm. Mo- 
therhood insurance for women that de- 
sire to pay for same. 

16. Employers pay entire cost for 
workers' accidents, through trade associa- 
tions formed for the purpose . of meet- 
ing this cost. Insurance against unem- 
ployment will soon be provided for by 
the government. Some municipalities 
already have this. 

17. Public labor exchanges to secure 
work for unemployed. State pays fares 
of workers from one point to another, 
to help them secure work. Workers get 
a just share of all profits. 

iS. Factory inspectors employed by the 
government to see that same are kepi in 
proper condition and the laws of the 
country complied with. 

ic;. Bank depositors guaranteed by 
municipalities, making depositors feel se- 
cure and removing danger of frequent 
panics'. Land credit and mortgage banks 
have destroyed usury. 

20. Farming is encouraged in various 
ways, but the position of the fa^m work- 
ers is least satisfactory of all classes and 
needs improvement. 

21. The co-operative movement in all 
lines has made enormous strides in the 
last few years. 

22. Planting of forests encouraged 
and carefully supervised. 

23. Germany has a protective tariff 
now. but the demand for free trade is 

24. Wages have risen and working 
hours decreased in the last twenty years. 
The workers are much better ofif in this 
respect now. 

"RESl'UT. — Germany is unquestion-i 
ably advancing the most rapidly of all 
the European nations. While the work- 
ers do not earn nearly so much as in the 
I'nited States, they are provided for 
when out of work, in case of accident, 
sickness or when old age comes. All are 
ver\- economical and nothing is wasted. 

The following comparisons show the 
difference between Germany and the 



United States: Per capita circulation, 
Germany, $11.10; United States. $34-59- 
Average deposit per inhal)itant. Germany, 
$58.17; United States, ^M.S--^- 1'lii^ 
shows, while the former ha-^ a .great deal 
less money per capita, the money is more 
evenly distributed than in our country, 
(lermany is one of the nations that has 
|)roved many reform laws are entirely 

OBJECTIOXS— Thi> central sy.stem 
creates a governing class which is in- 
clined to regard itself as a select people 
apart from the workers, and the njlers 
try to give them to understand that they 
must not think for themselves. This 
<loes not work very successfully though, 
and the progressive spirit is extending 
very rapidly in favor of giving the peo- 
ple more power through the adoption of 
laws that have been in force in Switzer- 
land for many years with the best results. 
It is probably only a matter of a short 
time until Gcrmanv becomes a republic. 
—]VUUam H. B. Haxzvavd. 
In "North American." 

Teaching Fruit Instruction by itiner- 

Growers In ant teachers i.^ a fea- 

-Germany. ture of German agri- 

cultural education 
es]^ecially in fruit growing, according to 
information received at the I'nited States 
Inireau of education through consular ad- 
vices. The work is siiuilar to the agri- 
cultural extension work carried on in 
5ome sections of the United States, but 
shows several interesting local ditfer- 

The sch.ool for wine and fruit gnaw- 
ing at Kreuznach sends its instructors 
over the entire district of 200 villages. 
The plan is found to be excellent not only 
for the farmers who receive the direct 
I)enefit but for the teachers themselves, 
who are enabled to keep in close touch 
with the practical side of their work. 
This instruction is furnished entirely 
Avithout charge. 

The horticultural school at Oppcn- 
heim. besides giving instruction by lec- 
tures and furnishing practical aid to the 

iarmer>, has introduced "model vine- 
vards." The school and the vineyard 
j)roprietors enter into a five-year con- 
tract by the terms of which the school 
exercises supervision over the vineyards 
and the vineyard owner agrees to follow 
the directions of the school in every 
jiarticular. The school makes no charge 
for this service. There are about a^ doz- 
en such "model vineyards" in the Grand 
Duchv of Hesse. 

Catholics Archhishi)]) .Messmer, 

Condemned. of Milwaukee. Wis- 

consin, is getting af- 
ter the Catholics who 
send their children to the public schools. 
He has recently written a letter- to the 
clergv concerning the subject, and has 
prescribed that those parents who thus 
defy the law of the church shall be de- 
nied the sacrament. In part he wrote: 

"It is a deplorable fact that a large 
numlier of Catholic parents take their 
children from the Catholic school and 
send them to the public school as ^ooii 
as these children have made their first 

"It is almost impossible to understand 
the sinful levity of such parents and 
their open defiance of the laws of the 
church. Their action appears still more 
criminal when earnest Christian believers 
out-ide the Catholic church all over the 
I'nited States begin to call loudly for 
religious and moral instruction in the 
public schools as the only means of coun- 
teracting the growing loss of positive re- 
ligion, and with it as a necessary con- 
sequence the loss of moral principles and 
habits among the youth of the country. 

"The crazy notion of some parents 
that their American citizenship demands 
to have their children attend the public 
school, as if our Catholic schools were 
not American, or the positively anti- 
Christian idea that the minds and hearts 
of their children will profit ever .so much 
more bv going to the public school, al- 
though with the loss of fuller and deeper 
religious training, are most assuredly no 



"Catholic parents disobeying these puljiit. and speaks louder and makes more 

rules, when not properly excused l\v the lastin-^- impressions than the voice from 

bishop, commit a i^rievous sin. and can llie puliiii. — Luthcian Lhitrch Work. 
not receive the sacraments of the church." 

— Selected. 

"The Empty [t is a prolilk and 

"P^^" vexatious subject. It 

has provoked much 
thoug"ht, a n d h a s 
found expression in much discussion. It 
has cast many a preacher into the very 
depth of despair, and has almost broken 
liis heart. Tt has cli]it the wing's of manv 
a sermon prepared with labor and earnest 
thought and devout ]lra^•er. 

It has probably been unduly magnified. 
There are really not as many vacant pews 
as one would imagine from what one 
hears and reads about it. Taking a gen- 
eral view there were never more people 
attending church, relatively to the popu- 
lation, than now. Hut the emptv pew is 
in evi<lence sufficient to be disturbing. 

\Vq do not have the inclination to enter 
into a discussion of the reasons for it. 
Many have been given. The blame has 
been cast on the preacher, on church 
officials, on the choir, and on everv other 
imaginable party in any way concerned 
in church management. (Inr own con 
viction is that it is due in largest measure 
to sheer carelessness. 1'eople like to sleep 
a little longer on Sunday morning. The 
least thing will keep them from church. 
They make no special effort to get there. 
-At anv rate it is not a matter of great 
concern to them whether they get there 
or not. This about analyzes the situation 
as wc know it. 

What does seriouslv concern us is the 
effect of that empty pew. It is a witness 
against the power of the truth as it is in 
Jesus. It is a grieving of the Spirit of 
the living God by the neglect of God's 
own ap])ointed means of grace. It is a 
withholding of the honor ilue Mis holv 
Name. It is an influence against the 
clnu-ch and tlu- nreached word. It places 
an ar-:^ument in the hands o| the verv 
enemies of Christ uui] ]]\^ church. The 
empty pew (>flen looms larger than tlie 

John Fritz "XMietford's Log 

Honored. [Jook for Anchored 

Thoughts" is a most 
uni(|ue publication and 
one that has i)r(n'en its worth for many 
\ears. For each da\- of the year there is 
a ])age entirely blank excepting the space 
occupied by the date and the exjiression 
of a thought valuable for the suggestion 
that it oiTers or ainusing because of its 
humor. This year's "Logbook" contains 
a loose leaf of cejio paper on which is 
printed a splendid lilceness of Bethle- 
hem's Grand ( Md Man. lohn Fritz, on 
the op])ositc ]-^age appearing ihis tribute 
to the venerable retired ironmaster: 

"Beloved by the lal)orer, the mechanic, 
the engineer and the cai)italist. he is 
spending the evening of a perfect day. 
His has been a life of fruitful activity 
and general impulse. He ennobled 
knowledge and skill bv i>lacing it at the 
ser^■ice of unselhsh purj^-osc. No man 
was ever more capable of grappling" to- 
himself the affection and deep admira- 
tion of all with whom he comes in touch. 
Xo man has been so intimately connected 
with the world's greatest industry, or 
rendered it so much lasting service. He 
has o-one far bevc^Kl the Scriptural span- 
of life, and it is to be noted that to-day 
his name is an ins]5iration to the young" 
men of the entire world. The eyes of 
memorv will not sleep, and his strong" 
character, his indomitable eneriiv and his 
forceful exam])le will be the guiding star- 
to thousands in years to come." — E.v- 

Local Option In 'pli,' tide of tem^f^r- 

Germany. -mrc <<'ntinient i^ not 

ff'lt J>lone in the L'^'t- 
ed. States, and the lo- 
cal-oi^tion is'-^nc^ has becon-ie a living nues- 
tvv (■■'•'-■' 'n t1-',> Fatherland. .A local- 
o])tion ]R'tition was handed to the Reich- 



stag" last March, which tilled umelccn vol- 
umes with 500,000 signatures, ilouble the 
number nf the organized abstainers in 
Ciermanw The petition asks for local 
option in the emi)ire an.d in ail colonies, 
by which not only town and city option 
is meant, but tlistrict option in cities, and 
even city-block option ( though for no 
complex of houses in which less than 
1,000 voters live). The right o' voting- 
is sought for women as well as for men in 
these referendums. Illegal sale, it is 
suggested, should l)e punished with tines 
up to 10,000 marks, and in case of re- 
])eated offenses with imprisonment up 
to two ^'ears. It is not expected that 
the Reichstag- will grant the legislation — 
not yet. at any rate, but after a few years 
the belief is that the rise of public opi- 
nion will force it to take action, and per- 
ha])s sooner than some dare ti) imagine. 
-—Lutheran Observer. 

sibilities in "the once despised and re- 
jected mass of refuse that has proved so 

rich a mine."— )'(^/;///'.^" Companion. 

Translucent German marble-work- 

Marble. ers have found a way 

to make marble slabs 
translucent. A f t e r 
polishing the slabs on both sides, they 
saturate them with oil, paraffin, or shel- 
lac. These liquids arc applied hot or 
cold, and with or without pressure, ac- 
cording to the effect that is desired. 
Plates of white and of light-colored n-iar- 
ble transmit the most light ; those of vein- 
ed and variegated marjjles give beautiful 
color effects. If the plates are thin, 
four-fifth.s of the light passes through 
them. It is said that the effect is more 
lieautiful even than the .soft, diffused 
glow that come< from stained glass. — 
Youth's Companion. 

Taking Care of Xo other country 

Waste Products. takes g'reater care 

than Germany to 
make use of waste products. In igii, 
for example, the (icrnians recovered 
more than 1,000,000 tons of coal-tar as a 
l)y-product of the g-as and coke industry ; 
the selling- value of the products of this 
1,000,000 tons an-iounted to $10,000,000. 
Xine-tenths of the gas and coke estab- 
lishments of Gern-iany contributed to 
this vast quantity, whereas in the L nited 
States onlv one-fifth of such establish- 
ments trv to recover coal-tar. Yet the 
coal-tar products ])lay an im])ortant part 
in modern industrial and domestic life. 
Foremost among these products are ben- 
zol, toluol, xylol, solveiit naphtha, an-i- 
monia and the cyanides ; next come jiitch, 
anthracene, pyridin. nai)htlialene, light, 
heavy and medium oils ; further develop- 
ment iinnluces etiieric oils, perfumes, 
d.rugs and ydes. The coal-tar industry 
employ's thousands of chemists and 
hig-hly trained scientific experts, as well 
as an army of workmen of every grade. 
Doubtless there are still unsuspected pos- 

German Honors Sidnev Whitman, an 

For Teachers. English writer, edu- 

cated in (jermany, 
unlike most of his 
countr)-men. shows no symptoms of 
Teutona])hobia. Among the things that 
meet his approval is the extraordinary 
respect which Germany pays to intelli- 
gence and culture. He notes that 
the profession of teacher is there es])ec- 
ially honored. 

( )n a recent visit to Berhn he saw 
and described an endless cortege of car- 
riages tilling the street. It was not a 
tribute to royalty, nor even to rank. It 
was the funeral of a university professor, 
and he adds that German Socialists are 
conspicuous at such testimonies to learn- 

At IJonn he saw a large torchlight pro- 
cession in the streets. It was in honor of 
a siiui:)le woman teacher who had con- 
cludeil twentv-five \ears of service in 
the elementary schools of Honn. — Indian- 
apolis Xcics. 

Xtbe Ipenn Germania (5eneaIogicaI Club 

ZmrrOK — Cora C. Curry, 1020 Monroe St. N. W.. Washington. D. C. 

11£MBX:ksHIF — Subscribers to The Penn Germania who pay an annual due of twenty- 
five cents. 

OBJUCT — To secure preserve and publish what interests members as, accounts of 
noted family incidents, traditions, Bible records, etc., as well as historical and 
senealog'ical data of Swiss German and Palatine American immigrants, with date 
and place of birth, marriage, settlement, migration and deatih of descendants. 
Puzzling: genealogical questions and answer.? thereto inserted free. 

OmCEES — Elected at' annual meetinsr. (Sugg'estions as to time and place are invited. 1 

BENSPITS — Team work, personal communications, mutual helpfulness, exchanse of 
information superestions as to what should be printed, contributions for publica- 
tion, includinfr the askins: and answering of questions. 



All matter intended for this Depart- 
ment or relating to the P. G. G. C, 
should be sent to the Editor, at 1020 
Monroe Street, N. W., Washington, D. 

C. Members of the various patriotic or- 
ganizations should avail themselves of 
the opportunity to secure data though 
queries herein. 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion are specially invited to membership 
in the P. G. G. C. for the pursuit of re- 
searches as to Colonial Ancestry, and re- 
minded that the publication of genealogi- 
cal queries in the .\merican 5lagaz!ne, 

D. .\. R., is restricted to the Revolution- 
ary i^eriod. 


\\'-\xTED — $2.00 will be paid for A'ol. 
I, No. I of the PEx\svr,\'.\xi.\ Germ.\n 
Magazine, published in Lebanon, Pa., 
January, 1900. if sent to Cora C. Curry. 
Genealogical Editor of Pknn Gerai.xnia 
Magazine, 1020 }\lonroe v^t. N. W'.. 
Washington. D. C. Curry also wants to buy Nos. i 
and 2 of A"()l. 6 of the same Afagazine, 
published in Tanuary and April. 1005. 
Also Vol. 2. Third Series of the PcvDisyl- 
■s'ania Archives. 

Scholl Baptismal Record. 
An old German baptismal certificate 
has been discovered of George Scholl, 
born in 1781, son of George Scholl "und 
seiner ehelichen HausFrau, x\nna Alaria, 
eine gebohrne Dederin." 

Mrs. C. L. R., Sellersv'ille. Pa. 


Query 45. HumaiEL, John Jacob, was 
born in Windsor Township, Berks Coun- 
tv. Pa., Feb. 21, 1756; married Elizabeth 
Heiftner (born Feb. 2, 1762). about 1778- 
7Q, and served in the Revolutionary War. 
One of his children. John Jacob, born 
1780. went from Penns or Monroe Town- 
>h\\). Snyder County, to serve as a Cap- 
tain in the War of 1812. Wanted the 
militarv record of John Jacob Hummel, 
Sr. " Mrs. A. C. Sunbui-v, Pa. 

An Unpublished Company Roll 
of War of 1812 

Muster Roll of a Company of Infantry 
of the requisition of Virginia, luider the 
command of Captain Jesse Henlde. from 
the .46th Regiment in the Comity of 




In service at Fort Nelson, at Norfolk, 
attached to the Fifth Regiment, com- 
manded by Lt. Col. John Hopkins ; then 
by Lt. Col. W. Street, and later by Lt. 
Col. Isaac Boothe. 

This Roster of Capt. Jesse Henkle's 
Company was copied by X'irgil A. Lewis, 
State Historian and Archivist, of West 
A'ir':;inia, in the Wry Department at 
Wa^liint^ton, D. C, June 19, 1912.J 

( L'nless otherwise noted the date of 
oili^tmcnt was July 21. 1814., and the 
time enlisted for was in every case ''to 
Jan. 21, 1815." "Remarks" on the roll 
are bracketed after the proper name C. 
C. C.) 

Captain, Jesse Henkle ; ist. Lt. John 
Flesher; 2nd Lt. John Henkle, (Dec. 30, 
1814. sick.) Ensign, Edward Janes; 
Ensig'n. Adam Snider. (Dec. 30. 1814. 
sick, in private quarters). 

Seven Serg^eants, viz: i, Milton Tay- 
lor; 2, Andrew Gardner, (Discharged 
Dec. 12, 1814) ; 3, Hiram Taylor, (sick, 
Aug. 30 and Dec. 30, 1814) ; 4. John 
Doan. (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814, in private 
quarters.) 5, William Thompson, (sick. 
Dec. 30, 1814) ; 6, Nicholas Cook, (Ap- 
pointed Corporal, July 31, promoted to 
Sergeant. Dec. 10. 1814.) 7, John, ( Promoted from Corporal to Ser- 
geant. Oct. 14, discharg'ed Dec. 10. 1814). 

Nine Corporals, viz: i, William 
Henkle, (sick. Aug-. 30, discharged Oct. 
14, 1814). 2. Robert Griffith, (sick, 
Aug;. 30, appointed Corporal Oct. 14, 
1814). 3, William Seybert, (appointed 
Corporal, Oct. 19, died Dec. 30. 1814) ; 
4, James Armstrong, (sick, Aug. 30, ap- 
pointed Corporal Oct. 19, i9T4'>- 5- 
Abraham Burner, (appointed Corporal. 
Dec. 10. 1814, died Jan. 25. 1815). 6, 
Adam Bousa (Bouse), (appointed Cor- 
poral Dec. 10. 1814). 7, William Cook, 
(sick. Aug. 30, appointed Corporal Dec. 
31. 1814). 8. Jacob Snider, Jr., (ap- 
pointed Corporal Oct. 19. 1814;) 9, 
James Dean, (enlisted Jan. 26, 1815, ap- 
pointed Corporal, Jan. 26, 1815.) 

Eightv-five Privates, viz: ^numbered 
I to' 85, as follows, C. C. C.) Henry 
Amick, (Discharged Nov. 12. 1814) : 
Daniel .Xrbogast, (sick, Aug. 30, 1814) ; 
Michael Arbogast, (Discharged Nov. 12, 

181 4) : William Arbogast, (Discharged 
Jan. _'5, 1815); Peter Arbogast, (Sick, 
Aug. 30, Discharged Nov. 12, 1814) ; 
Benj. Atkins, (Enlisted Jan. 25, 1815) ; 
Thomas Bland, (Sick, Aug. 30, Dis- 
charged Oct. 19, 1814) ; Martin Cobcrly. 
William Calhoun, (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814; ; 
John Champ, (Sick, Aug. 30, Discharged 
Nov. 12, 18 14) ; Thomas Champ. George 
Crummit, William Dean, (Sick, Aug. 30, 
1814) ; George Dean, (Discharged Dec. 
14, 1814) ; Joseph Davis, (Discharged 
Dec. 10, 1814) ; James Dizard, (Died 
Dec. II, 1814) ; John Eagle, (Enlistec-1 
Sept. 12, 1814) ; Henry Eckarcl, (Sick, 
Aug. 30, 1814) ; x\braham Eckard, Ed- 
ward Ervin, (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814) ; Ja- 
cob Faint, (Sick, Aug. 30, 1814) ; Benja- 
min Gragg, (Died Dec. 19, 1814) ; John 
Gardner, (Sick Dec. 30. 1814; Peter Hal- 
terman, (Discharged Dec. 10, 1814) ; 
George Halterman, George Harmon, 
(Sick in hospital, Aug. 30, Discharged 
Oct. 19. 1814) ; George Harpold, Samuel 
Hazelrod, John Hedrick, (Sick, Aug, 3©, 
Discharged Nov. 12, 1814) ; Jacob Hel- 
mick, Samuel Helmick, (Sick Aug. 30, 
1814) ; Solomon Helmick, (Discharged 
Sept. 14, 1814); Uriah Helmick, Philip 
Helmick. (Sick, Aug. 30, 18 14) ; John 
Hevner. John Higgins, (Sick, Aug. 30, 
Discharged Oct. 19, 1814) ; Adam Hizer, 
(Discharged, Nov. 12. 1814; James Hog- 
wood. (Died Jan. 4. 1815) ; Joseph Hol- 
land. (Discharged Nov. 12, 1814) ; Lewis 
Holloway, John Hoover, (Discharged 
Sept. 14, 18 14) ; John H. Hoover, (Sick. 
Aug. 30, Discharged Nov. 12, 1814) ; 
Daniel Huffman. (Sick. Aug. 30. and 
sent to Richmond, Discharged Aug. 30, 
1814) ; Jonas Huffman. (Sick, Aug. 30- 
1814) : James Johnson, (Deserted Dec. 
21. 1814) ; Jo.seph Jones, (Sick, Aug. 30, 
1814) ; Justice Ketterman, Michael 
Lamb, Thomas Leisure, (Confined) ; 
Henrv McKan. (Di.^charged Nov. 2, 
i8tji) ; John Miller, (Sick. Dec. 30, 1814, 
Discharged, Jan. 16, 1815: John Moatz, 
(Sick, Aug. 30. Discharged Dec. 10, 
18.14) : John ATowry, Tacob Mnllinox, 
Joseph Mnllinox. Wiliam Mnllinox, 
George Nicholas. (Died, Dec. 5. 1814) ; 
Benham Nelson. (Discharged Nov. t2, 
1814) ; George Philips. (Sick Dec. 30, 



1814) : Christian Propts ; John Rexroad, 
(Discharged Xov. 12, 1814) ; Jacob Rex- 
road, Thomas Roby, (Discharged Nov. 
12, 1814) ; James Seybert, Enlisted Oct. 
4, 1 814. Sick and left at Rich- 
mend, Still sick Oct. ig, Discharged Nov. 
12, 1814); James Simmons, (Sick, Dec. 
30, 1814) ; Frederick Snider; Jacob Sni- 
-der, jr., (Sick, Aug. 30, 1814; James 
Taylor, (EnHsted Oct. 30, 1814, was 
a substitute for William Henkle) ; 
Ainiiss Tharp, (Enlisted Sept. 12, 
1814, a recruit) ; John Trimble (Con- 
fined) ; John Vint, Michael Waggoner. 
(Discharged Nov. 12, 1814) ; Joseph 
Waggcner, (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814) : Geo. 
Waggoner, Sr., (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814) ; 
George Waggoner, Jr., (Died Nov. 13. 
1814) ; Jacob Waggoner. (Sick, Dec. 10. 
1814) ; John Warmsly; George White, 
(Sick, Aug. 30, sent to Richmond and 
discharged on that date) ; James White- 
cotton, (Discharged Sept. 17, 1814) : 
Isaac Weese, (Sick, Dec. 30. 1814) ; John 
Wiat, James Wilfong, James Wilson, 
(Discharged Dec. 30, 1814) ; Jacob 
Wimer, (Sick, Dec. 30. 1814) ; Henry 
Wimer, (Sick, Dec. 30, 1814). 

The Chalkley Records records of Augusta County, Va., 
include names, dates, references, inci- 
dents copied from wills, deeds, court rec- 
ords, affidavits, depositions, reports of 
commissions, tax lists, delinquent lists, 
decrees, marriages, marriage bonds. In- 
dian War and Revolutionary soldiers, 
pensions, declarations, land entries and 
inscriptions on tombstones. 

These abstracts comprise every legal 
entry of any historical value ever entered 
in the County to be found from 1745 
to 1820. inclusive. At this date the 
County of Augusta covered the area of 
West Virginia, a part of old Virginia, the 
western part of Pennsylvania, the south- 
ern part of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and all 
of Kentucky, and a part of Tennessee- 
The abstracts were made by Jtidge 
Chalkley when he was on the bench of 
Augusta County, and the result shows 
patient work, with exact rendition. This 
valuable material, which has never been 

accessible to the public, is a mine of 
wealth to genealogists, historians, la\\^- 
yers, conveyancers, etc. 

The Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution undertook the publication of these 
records, and issued the iirsi volume sev- 
eral months ago, under the following: 
title, (containing 622 pages of data, fully 

Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish. Settle- 
ment in Virginia, extracted from the or- 
iginal Court Records of Augusta County, 
] 745-1800, by Lyman Chalkley, Dean of 
the College of Law of Kentucky Univer- 
sity, late Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Augusta County, Virginia,, published by 
Mrs. Mary S. Lockwood, Honorary Vice 
President General, National Society, 
Daughters of the American Revolution. 
Complete in three volumes, $16.50 and 
$20.00 per set. 

Aluch as was expected of this publica- 
tion, this handsome book is proving a 
mine of unexpected stores of informa- 

Augusta County was settled originally 
by Scotch Irish, but a very large part 
of its population is from German and 
Swiss stock that sojourned for a time in 
Pennsylvania before going to A'irginia, 
hence this work is of special interest to 
the P. G. G. C. 

The book consists of briefs ; names, 
dates, locations and Subjects. Like the 
dictionary or city directory, it is invalu- 
able. It clearly states. "These notes are- 
from the Order Book of the County 
Court, which contains the entries of the- 
proceedings of the Court at its daily sit- 
tings during the terms. The terms were 
held monthly. The reference is in each 
case to the book in which the order noted 
is contained, and the date of th.e order 
and the page of the bools- wliere i^ will be 

A few quotations are given showing 
the sort of item found therein and the 
wide range of territory involved. 

Account 1 78 1. McNair vs. r^fatthews. 
—Order of A. M. McClanachan, A. C. A. 
to John Spears to go with liis wagon to, 
Rockfish Gap on Saturday, 25th August,. 
1 781, to take a load of public hemp to* 



Philadelphia and return with Alililarv 
stores, dated Auij;-. 18, 1781. Affidavil 
of John that he perfoniied the service 
and received no compensation. 2()th 
Aug., 1789, Georj^e Spears with his bro- 
ther, performed the service with him. 
Discharge of George Spears from serv- 
ice dated Alherniarle 1 'arracks. Oct. 2^. 
1781. signed William Allen. W. V. Ac- 
count of transactions of Richard Matth- 
ews with the Commonwealth. William 
Allen was conductor to the first brigade 
<<i wagons, eight in number, to and from 
lMiiladeli:)hia. Thomas Lewis was con- 
ductor to second l)rigade, ten in number, 
Walentine \\Miite with the third brigade. 

August. 1764. Stringer vs. Morrow. 
■ — In 1748-4Q Daniel Stringer of Fallow- 
field Township. Chester Co., Pa., pur- 
chased an improvement near Buckley's 
Mills, in said County, of one James Or- 
ion, which Orton had bought of one Wil- 
liam Morrow. This land Stringer, in- 
lending to come to Virginia, sold to Rob- 
ert Turner. John Taylor was surveyor 
Mt Chester County. 

Kerr vs. r)ell and Hamilton — James 
Kerr, of Cumberland County. Pa.. P)Ond 
1760. conditioned to sell land on Chris- 
tian Creek by Bell and Hamilton to Kerr. 
^Nfarch, 1764. Seely vs. Carpenter.— 
jeraniah Seelv married the dau^jhter of 
• Joseph Carpenter, lately of the Province 
of New York. Joseph in 1746. and after 
the above marriage, moved to Jackson's 
river, where he and most of his children 
tlien unmarried, settled. Jeremiah came 
in 17-18. 

]\ larch 1764. Bowman vs. Bird. — 
I Cornelius F'.owman, father of George and 
Peter Bowman. Peter Bowman's widow 
married \"an Pelt. 
! Leister's Administrator vs. Charles 
Lewis and wife. — Charles Lewis and 
Sarah his wife (was Miss Sall\- Minray ). 
Circuit Court Cases Knded. Xo. 22. 
I Jones vs. Tomlinson. In 1772 l)a\'id 
. Jones made a settlement on Grave Creek 
in ( )hio County. James Tomlinson ob- 
tained a settlement certificate for him- 
self and Charles McT,ean. Tn. 1770 Da- 
. vid O wings made a settlement near 
Jones, which was confirmed by the law 
of 170V)- Settlement made in 1771 '>u 

land of Joseph Coving, land claimed by 
Jones, by Nathaniel Tomlinson, whO' 
transferred to Joseph. In 1772 Nathan- 
iel sold to Campbell and Talin. Benja- 
min I'igg-was a Justice of ( )hio County, 
;md Silas Hedges was Sheriff in 1785. 
The Commissioners to settle unjiatcnted 
land in 1781 were: James Neal, Charles 
Martin and William Ilaymond (Hay- 
ward) ; William McClung was Chairman. 
Charles McClung deposes, in Fayette 
County, Pa., 1804; he first went to 
Graves Creek Flats in 1772, where he 
saw George R. Clarke, who surveyed the 
Flats into various tracts. Plaintifif acted 
under the Indiana Company. Charles 
-\IcClean moved with his family to (}rave 
Creek Flats in Dec. 17, 1773, and settled 
at McClain's Spring. He left in May 1774 
in consequence of the breaking out of 
Dinimore's war. Morgan Jones deposes in 
Juemi County, Pa. He first visited the 
Flats in 1772. Plaintiff had employed 
George Rogers Clarke to survey the Flats 
into tracts. The first tract was laid ofif for 
Morgan Jones. Second for Joseph Tom- 
linson. third for David Jones, plaintifif. 
The line passed over one of the little 
graves. Charles McDonald was also one 
of the first settlers. 

No. 13. Noble vs. Taylor — In 1785 
Mahlon Taylor of New Jersey sold land 
in Frederick County to Noble. Mahlon 
afterward married and moved to Albany. 
On May 15. t8oo. ^iahlon Taylor. Aflr 
ministrator of Mahlon Taylor, late of 
New York, answers ; Deed dated 24th 
January. 1791. by Mahlon Taylor and 
wife. ^Tary. of Hunterdon Coin>ty. New 

Notes on the Hummel Family 

Bv Lkvi Hummel, Gordon. Pa. 

M\- grandfather was Frederick Hum- 
mel, son of Isaac Htmimel. born in Ger- 
manv. in 1723. In 1725 liis parents left 
the Palatinate- Rhine Province. Germany, 
and came to America, where thev -settled 
in Hanover Township. Daupliin Countv. 
Tn 1754 he and his son. Capt. Frederick 
Hmnmel. Jr.. (his grandfather") served 
under Col. George W^ashington. in the 



French and Indian wars. They were in 
the army of General Braddock, at Brad- 
dock's Field, and helped to rescue the 
British troops from total destruction by 
the Indians. In 1761, he, i. e. Frederick 
Hummel, Sr., founded Hummelstown, 
then called Frederickstown, twenty years 
before John Harris founded Harrisburg- 
(1785), then called Johnstown. 

John Harris, Frederick Hummel and 
Conrad Weiser were the pioneers that 
opened up that part of Pennsylvania, 
fouglit and drove back the Indians. My 
great-grandfather donated the land on 
which are built the Reformed and Luth- 
eran churches in Hummelstown, also the 
land for a free public school building — 
one of the first of its kind in Pennsylva- 
nia, and one of the first in America. On 
Friday. June loth, 1774, the Scotch-Irish 
of Londonderry Township. Ivancaster 
county, Pa., met in coiivention, drafted 
and issued a Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. The next day (Saturday. June 
nth,) the Pennsylvania Germans, of 
East and We.'>t Hanover Townships, 
Dauphin County, met in convention and 
issued the Hanover Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. My great-grandfather was 
president of the convention. There Amer- 
ican independence had its birth. There 
is -'where the War of the Revolution 
started. The Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Charlotte, N. C. was issued in 177=;. 
The one drafted by Thomas Jefferson, in 
1776. The people of Lancaster. Dauphin 
and Lebanon counties. Pa., were more 
than two years ahead of all the rest of 
the colonies. 

Frederick Hummel, Sr.. A'alentine 
Hummel, his brother and Capt. Frederick 
Hummel, (and others of the Hummel 
family), were gunsmiths, manufacturers 
■of powder and other ammunition. In 
1775, within twenty-four hours after the 
news of the battle of Lexington reached 
them, they had a company of troops en- 
listed, equipped and started for the front. 
These were the first troops that went 
from Pennsylvania. Frederick Hinnmel. 
Sr., died in 1775. His son. Captain, af- 
terward Major, Frederick Hummel, my 
■grandfather, served under Washington. 

from Boston till the surrender of York- 
town. He was part of the time one of 
Washington's staff officers. Two-thirds 
of Washington's army were composed of 
Scotch-Irish, the remaining one-third was 
composed almost entirely of Pennsylva- 
nia Germans and Welsh. The Welsh 
took an illustrious part ' in the achieve- 
ment of American Independence. Rob- 
ert Morris, the financier of the Revolu- 
tion, and Thomas Jefferson, the writer of 
the Declaration of 1776, were of that 
race. Every boy and girl born and bred 
in 'Pennsylvania, ought to read and study 
Dr. Eagle's great history. They would 
learn that everything great did not begin 
or come from New England. They would 
learn that the French and Indian war and 
the Paxtang Rebellion, led on to the War 
of the Revolution. They would learn 
that the pioneer settlers of Central Penn- 
sylvania w^ere among the finest people 
that ever came to America. They would 
learn that the Pennsylvania Germans 
Avere a far more brainy and far-sighted 
people than the New England Puritans. 
The Pennsylvania Germans are the best 
farmers that ever came to America. They 
first taught the importance of rotation in 
crops. There are no abandoned and 
worn out farms where the people of the 
Palatinate settled. The rising generation 
too, ought to learn that at the critical mo- 
ment, when the retreat across New Jersey 
was in full swing — when the cause 
seemed hopeless — the New England 
troops got luke warm — got "cold feet" 
and went home. It was then that the 
Germans. (Dutch,) Scotch Irish and 
Welsh of Pennsylvania went and saved 
Washington's few remaining troops from 
capture and put new life and hope into 
the struggle for freedom. The rising 
generation ought to learn that American 
Histor\- ought to be re-written. New 
England has been kept at the front too 
nnich and flattered by the historians of 
that section at the expense of all the other 
colonies. My father, David Hummel, 
son of Maior Frederick Hummel, was 
born in Hummelstown. Pa., May 6th, 
t8oo. Moved to Juniata County in 1835. 
Bought a farm in Susquehanna Town- 
ship. Donated the land on which new 



Stands what is known as Strauser's 
Church and helped build it. He taught 
school from 1821 till 1867. Was one of 
the pioneer teachers in Juniata, Snyder 

and Perry Counties. Two of wiy uncles, 
Jesse and Michael Humnxel were among: 
the pioneer teachers of Dauphin and Leb- 
anon Counties. 

Prominent Mr. J. W. Schultz, 

Germans evidently of German 

stock, whose "With 
the Indians in the Rockies", has been ap- 
pearing serially with much success in 
The Youth's Companion, has been de- 
clared by critics to b« the literary dis- 
covery of the year. 

Dr. Milton J. Rosenau, professor of 
Preventive Medicine and Hygiene in 
Harvard Aledical school, is considered 
the greatest living authority on "The 
Milk Question", a work which is just 
published. His is another good 
name to attain fame. — /. H. A. Lacher. 

Facts About 



I. Founded in 1832, 
it is the oldest 
Lutheran college on 
the \\"estern Hemis- 

2. It 

is the mother of all the other 
in the General Svnod of the 

in other Lutheran general bodies. 
3. Gettysburg was the cradle of 


Lutheran Church and of several colleges 

Lutheran Church in America, and it is 
still the main center of influence of this 
Church in the United States. 

4. Pennsylvania College has a larger 
number of graduates than any other 
Lutheran college in America. 

5. No other c®llege has as large a 
number of Lutheran clerg}'men among 
its alumni as Pennsylvania College. At 
present ninety students have the Luth- 
eran ministry in view. 

6. Money may naake a college rich,, 
ideal grounds and buildings may make it 
imposing and beautiful, large numbers 
may make it well known, a learned 
faculty may make it famous for scholar- 
ship, but it is truly a great educational 
institution only when its alumni are 
great in character, service, and achieve- 
ment. And according to this standard 
Pennsylvania College is not surpassed in 
greatness by any college in our land. — 
Pennsylvania College Bulletin. 





'* O, Mutlersproch, du bist uns lieb. " — A. S. 


We acknowledge receipt of sheet music, 
"Der Weida Baiim, words and music by 
L. R. Darone. Published by Composer, 
York, Pa." The words are reproduced 
herewith. — Editor. 

Guck yust emol zum Fenshter naus, 

. Shier graud om unere eck vum Haus, 
Do schteht der alta Weida noch, 
So gros, so schtatlich und so Hoch. 

Met Graendaed hot ver fufsich Yohr 
Ihn schun geblanst und sell is wohr, 

Doch branch mer gohr net vunnera don. 
Das er hot schun en holer schtam. 

Er ovvur bal gefuehrlich is, 

•Im schtamm hot er engrosser ris, 

~En schtarrige Kett ihn tzomma halt, 
Das er net uf der butta fait. 

Und im seim Schotta es viech is uft, 
Sich duth versomla was ein stufft, 

Hud aines schtaht doh, uns anner dort. 
Das ich recht froh bin wans geht fort. 

De glehna Buva rubba ob, 

De greena Weida mit seim Laub, 

Und mit de Wdppe speila sie, 
Und driva uft au mid de Keah. 

Es hut au als feel Faegel druff, 
Bis in der top sie gehne nuff, 

Und bauha ihre Neschter doh 
Und laga ihre Oyer noh. 

Es is noch so en glaner drupp, 

Mid so ma grose dicke Kupp, 
Der doh uf English screech owl heist, 

Der midda drin hot aw sei Nescht. 

Net fiel gepts so, sel is gaviss, 

We kenner so zufinna iz, 
Er is so shea und is so olt, 

Das er bol uf der Butta fait. 


Im Summer ourer is sei zeit, 

Verwunnert vert er vun de Leit, 

De weida schwava hee und heer, 
Mit Traurigkeit belauda schver. 


Die Rever in dem alte Land 
Die Sinn gar fiel besunge, 

Un unsere have net den Shtand 
Un Ruf so weit errunge. 

Der Hudson hot en klarer bio 
Als je der Rhein kann weise, 

Dann all die i-eut die saga so 
Die drivve rum dun reise. 

Es hoi fiel Schloesser an 'em Rhein, 

(Sinn intressant zu sehe) 
Un wege selle un 'em Wein 

Dun die Deutsche immer grahe. 

Dass mir nix henn fun dere Sort 
Des braucht uns net ferdriese. 

Sie sinn ju.^ht Monuments fun Mort, 
Fun Kriej;; un Blutfergiese. 

Es hot fiel Schloesser an 'em Rhein, 
Dass ja hot dick gerflosse 

IMit rothtm Blut das Bruderhand 
Hot moerderisch fergosse. 

All Deutschlanas Rever kenne net 

A Kever ferti;? bringe 
Dass unser Mississippi dat 

Ne' dreimol ivvershpringe. 

Es laft en Rever durch a Schlucht 
Fiel Fuss diet unne drunne. 

Der Colorado werd gesucht 
So dief ass wie a Brunne. 

Un uf der Felswand Ihiks un rechis 
Dun schoene Blume wachse. 

Gebt's so en Wunner, so wass echts, 
Im Alpland oder Sachse? 

Ob sie durch Waelder Meila weit 

Oder in Faelle hrause, 
Dir finnt ka schoenere Rever heut 

Fum Volge biss Schaffhause. 

Uu schoenere Name, sag ich euch, 
Ka Mensch hot ja erfunne. 

Die AVildniskinner, Dichterreich, 
Die henn sie eisht ersunne. 




Die Welt iss ;;lemlich gross un weit 

Un die drin rum dun reise 
Die kenne (sinn ah sclimarte Leut) 

Was ich euch sag beweise. 


Lititz, Pa. 



Rev. 1. S. Stahr, 

Oley, Fa. 

Ich bin gereest schun hie un her, 
Uf Railroad-train un Trolley car, 

Hab manches g'sehne do ua dort, 
Berge, Daehler von alo sort. 

Hab g'sehne Berge grosz un glee, 

Bedeclct mit Grueh un ah mit Schnee; 

Ihr Ablick war voll Herrlickkeit, 
Ifh sehn sie nuch zu dure zeit. 

Hab aver noch an gar ken Ort, 
En Berg g'sehne von kenre sort, 

Der mich so vie! geintressirt, 

Als wie der Haycock, schoeh geziert. 

Ill alt Bucks County im evre Dehl, 
Dort kann mer'n sehne ohne Fehl, 

Bedeckt mit Behni uf alle seit, 

Gekleedt in Pracht un Herrlishkeit. 

Vou weitem kann mer'n sehne schun, 
Beleuchtet von dem Licht der Sun, 

Ganz von der Evning steigt er uf, 

Wie 'n Kerchedorn zum Himmel nuf. 

Voll Steh un Pelse iverall, 

Un Belim un Hecke ohne zahl; 

Der Dop-rocks uf der unre Seit, 

Gewaert en Blick uf Weit un Breit. 

Was macht's dasz ich en sehn so gern, 
Oft an en denk un bin doch fern; 

Die Ursach die is glei gilernt, 

Mei Heemet war net weit entfernt. 

In Kindheits Johr an selm Ort, 
In spaetre Zeite fort un fort, 

Hav ich en g'sehne alle Dag, 
Er is bekannt zu meineni Aug. 

Wann ich zu dere Zeit en sehn, 

Dann guckt er immer noch es same, 

Als wie er hot fer fufzig Johr, 
Un ah schun lange Zeit devor. 

En Bild von uhverenerlichkeit, 
Er bleibt es ah dorch ale zeit; 

Mensche kumme un Mensche gehn, 
Der Berg aver is als es same. 

Zu Gott den SchoepCer weist es hie, 
Der dhut sich ah verenre nie, 

Der is es same wie gester, heut, 
Un ah in ale Evigkeit. 

Er lelirt uns ah von Fried un Rub, 
Ganz leis un mild ruft er uns zu. 

Die storm kenne mer schade nie, 

Ohn Eidruck gehn sie iver much hie. 

Mer have unser Aug empor, 

Zu Berge wo uns Hilf kumt her; 

Die Hilf die steht in Nam des Herm, 
Der uns gemacht un halt so gern. 

Dann halt dei Wacht in Fried un Ruh, 
Die G'schlechter gucke dir all zu; 

Lehr sie von Gott der iver all wait, 
Un wacht ah iver Jung un Alt. 

©ur IBook ITable 

By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Gerhart Hauptmanu who has just cele- 
brated his fiftieth birthday is acclaimed 
throughout the world a.", the greatest Ger- 
man playwright since Goethe. The 
Swedish Academy at Stockholm has 
awarded him the Noliel prize of $37,000 
for encouraging idealism in literature. 

We are in receipt of a copy of the pro- 
gramme of the Fourteenth Annual Dinner 

of the Pennsylvania Society hel'd in the 
Grand Ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria, 
New York, Saturday evening, Dec. 14, 
1912, in commemoration of the one- 
hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary ©f 
the framing of the Constitution of the 

United States, wliich constitution was rati- 
fied by the Pennsylvania Convention, Dec. 
12, 178 7. The programme is a beaurtifu'l 

artistic production; it is illustrated wit^ 



fine photogi>aphic reproductions of th^ 
Hon. James Bryce, the guest of honor, 
and of the exterior and interior of Inde- 
pendence Hall. 

In the Modern Langnage Series: Bj' 
Charles Maltador Purin, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of German, ITniversitj' of Wiscon- 
sin; and Edwin Carl Roedder, Assistant 
Professor of German Philology, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. Cloth; 154pp. D. C. 
Heath & Co., New York, 1912. 
This book as its title indicates, is a 
selection of poems and songs selected and 
graded for first, second, and third year 
High School work. The book has several 
well defined characteristics; the editors 
tried to have it represent the very best 
that German poetry can offer; the ma- 
terial h9s been arranged very carefully so 
that it can be taker, up in order and ac- 
cording to the taste and discretion of the 
instruetor; and in addition to these fea- 
tures the volume contains enough ma- 
terial for a three year course in German. 
It is therefore neither bewildering nor 
unwieldy. Nothing seems to be notice- 
ably wanting, though a book of selections 
is not likely to please everyone's taste; 
and as with taste, there must be no dis- 
puting with selections. 

Another feature of the book and one 
that is fast becoming more prominent in 
books of this kind and that is highly com- 
mendable, is the insertion of illustrations 
and so-ngs. A feature like this is a source 
of pleasure to the student; it may also 
tend to arouse in him a greater interest in 
the study of the language and the litera- 

His Imperial Royal Highness, The 
Crown Prince of the German Empire 
and of Prussia. Cloth; illustrated with 
twenty-seven photographic reproduc- 
tions and one colored plate; 131pp. 
• Price $2 net. George H. Doran, New 
. York, for Hodder & Stoughton, London. 

This book is a record of the adventures 
of the German Crown Prince as a sports- 
man in far off Ceylon, India, and also in 
the lofty Alps. It affords one the oppor- 
tunity to see royalty at play. The narra- 
tive follows the diary of a man who loves 
out-door sport and who finds an endless 
amount of pleasure in Nature. 

The narrative though taking its inci- 
dents from a diary is embellished with 
some literary skill; it describes the 
dangers attendant upon ibex hunting in 
the inhospitable Alps, or of feiger hunting 

in the tangle of Ceylon. Probably the 
finest feature in the book are the illu'stra- 
tions. It is profusely illustrated with 
photographic reproductions of scenes and 
incidents that actually happened on the 
hunting field. These photographic repro- 
ductions are mounted on card board just 
like other photographs and are secured by 
special binding; on the whole, it is a fine 
specimen of artistic book-making. It will 
appeal to all lovers of sport, adventure, 
and of Nature. 

OR — By Herbert Perris, Author of "A 
Short History of War and Peace;" "Rus- 
sia in Revolution;" etc. Cloth; 8vo; 
.520 pp. Price $3 net. Henry Holt & 
Co., New York, for Andrew Melrose, 
London, 1912. 

The Kaiser will not be downed; neither 
will the German question. That both the 
Emperor ai.d Germany are diverting a 
good deal of the world's attention upon 
themselves may be inferred from the num- 
ber of suggestive books relative to them 
that have come from the press the past 
year and still are coming; "The German 
Emperor and the Peace of the World;" 
"Modern Germany;" "German Memoirs;" 
"Home Life in Germany;" "Germany in 
the 19th Century;" "The Germans;" "A 
History of German Civilization;" "Ger- 
many and the German Emperor;" "Ger- 
many and the Germans' etc. 

Probably the most original and individ- 
ual as well as the most analytical and 
philosophical of .them all is the book in 
hand: "Germany and the German Emper- 
or." The author explains the Emperor 
and the makeup of his empire in a frank, 
interesting, and philosophical manner. 
The book is a study of the modern German 
character as a resultant of the evolution 
of the political history of Germany. It is 
the story of the rise of the new German 

The book is a bold and worthy attempt 
to explain what Germany means for the 
rest of the world, for Germany wil, and 
must, be reckoned with; to interpret the 
strength and weakness of the Germans, 
and to reconcile their puzzling and at 
times apparent contradictory characteris- 
tics. The contrast the author brings out 
between their advancement in philosophy, 
music, literature, and industry and their 
backwardness in political activity is most 
marked. It is not often that one reads a 
more outspoken expression of opinion 
than that found in the chapter entitled 
"Literature, from Lessing to Hauptmann." 
What the writer says is undoubtedly true 
historically and otherwise; and Weimar 



"With its coterie of "literati" and "aristo- 
crats" of the eighteenth century has never 
been described more vividly and by an 
abler pen, but some of the reading almost 
sounds a little iconoclastic. Whoever 
should like to read something interesting 
of the present Emperor must needs read 
the chapter entitled, "Frederick, a Trag- 
edy in Three Acts." Varied as German 
life may be, no phase of it is left un- 
touched, and yet a fair proportion is main- 
tained throughout the bosk. Men like 

Goethe, the present Kaiser, and Bismark 
stand out in bold relief. 

The work shows boundless information 
in regard to the subject; in fact some 
things are disclosed in the first chapters of 
the book that are not found elsewhere in 
English. It is written in an interesting 
and authoritative style. The writer has 
attacked a great problem and has given it 
a great and philosophical solution. Other 
writers may of late have given us the 
spirit, or spell, of Germany, but this time 
we have the philosophy of Germany. 

Ibistorical Botes anb Bews 

Reports of Society Meetings are Solicited 

The Lutheran Quarterly, January, 1913, 
contains among other interesting articles, 
valuable papers on 

"T^e 150th Anniversary of St. Paul's 
Evangelical Lutheran church, Allentown, 
. Pa." 

"Historical Sketch of the Beginnings of 
Franklin and Marshall College." 

"Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg" 

"Beginnings of Lutheranism in Ohio." 

The Septembei" — December issue of Ger- 
man American Annals contains "Friedricl) 
Armad Strubberg." The German Drama in 
English on the Philadelphia Stage," Pro- 
fessor Learned's Brooklyn address of Oc- 
tober 1912 and "Reviews." The Reviews 
are particularly interesting and valuable. 


This live young society celebrated the 
150th anniversary of the founding of the 
city, Allentown; the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the founding of the county and 
the anniversary of the society itself, by a 
banquet in Allentown, Pa., at which Dr. 
Ettinger presided and Judge Trexler, C. R. 
Roberts and James B. Laux spoke. Sorry 
we could not attend. 


This society has issued a paper bound 
book of 142 pages, embracing the papers 
contributed to the society during the 
years 1910 and 1911. These touch var- 
ious interesting phases of early Berks 
County history. 


The issue of this periodical for July, 
1912, has valuable papers on early Iowa 



The "Journal" of this society for De- 
cember 1912, contains the first of a series 
of papers by Prof. Hinke, on "The Writ- 
ings of the Rev. John Philip Brehm, 
Founder of the Reformed Church in 


Tlie Lutheran of Jan. 2, contains a re- 
port of the meeting of this body, Decem- 
ber 1912 at Springfield, Ohio, from which 
we clip the following: 

Dr. Singmaster reported for the com- 
mittee appointed to submit a revised con- 
stitution, which was adopted after an in- 
teresting discussion. This defines the 
object of the academy as "the cultiva- 
tion of studies in the history of the 
LutheraH Church in America." Any 
Lutheran is eligible to membership; the 
membership fee is one dollar and the an- 
nual dues fifty cents. Any person con- 
tributing five dollars or more may become 
a patron. 

There is a most important field to be 
cultivated by the academy. The early in- 
fluence of the Lutheran people and work 
in our country is not fully appreciated 
nor recognized, larg&ly because records 



were not carefully kept, historical docu- 
ments not preserved and because little at- 
tention was given in general to these mat- 
ters in all our Lutheran congregations 
and communities. The memory of our 
fathers and the right understanding of 
our children alike call upon all intelligent 
Lutherans everywhere to give earnest at- 
tention to the preservation and publica- 
tion of American Lutheran historical 
material, and to encourage by member- 
ship or otherwise the work of the Aca- 
demy. Names and membership fees may 
be sent to any of the following officers, 
who were reelected at the meeting: 

President, Rev. Prof. Frank P. Manhart, 
D.D., Selinsgrove, Pa.; vice-presidents. 
Rev. T. E. Schmauk, D.D., LL.D., Leba- 
non, Pa.; Rev. J. B. Remensnyder, D.D., 
LL.D... New York City; Rev. W. H. Greev- 
er, D.D., Columbia, S. C; Rev. Prof. E. 
A. M. Krauss, St. Louis, Mo.; secretary, 
Rev. Prof. Luther D. Reed, D.D., Mt. Airy, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; treasurer, Rev. S. W. 
'Herman, Harrisburg, Pa. 


The Moravian, an official organ of the 
Moravian Church began the year 1913 
with a new editor, new list of editorial 
writers, new program and a "confession" 
which we quote: 

I believe in the Fatherhood of God and 
the Brotherhood of man as exemplified 
in the life of Jesus, the Christ, and as 
proclaimed in His Gospel. 

I believe in the Bible as the inspired word 
of God. 

I believe in the ('hurch as the means of 
Grace and the instrument for the Sal- 
vation of men. 

I believe in the Moravian Church, its past 
glory, its present opportunity and its 
future progress. 

I believe in its Missions and its Schools. 

I believe in its government and its gover- 

1 believe in my brothers and sisters, mem- 
bers of my church, laymen and minis- 

1 believe in its Sunday-schools and in its 

I believe in the use of its "Text Book" as 
the best means of family worship, and 
in its periodicals as the best means for 
keeping myself acquainted with its 
various activities, and for keeping me 
interested, enthusiastic and active as a 


This valuable magazine began Vol. XXI 
January, 1913, with the following letter 
of contents: — The Randolph Manuscript, 
Revolutionary Pension Declarations, Re- 
volutionary Army Orders, Virginia in 
1666-67, Minutes of the Council and Gen- 
eral Court, 1622-24, Council Papers, 1698, 
Historical and Genealogical Notes and 
Queries, Genealogy. Book Reviews. 


We desire to acknowledge receipt of 
Professor Wayland's History of Rocking- 
ham County, Virginia, an 8vo of 480 
pages, illustrated, selling at $2.50. We 
are highly pleased with it and will call 
attention to it at length later. 


Rev. Dr. Clewell in reporting the 
Harrisburg meeting of the Pennsylvania 
State Educational Association, Dec, 1912, 
makes the following note: 

In addition to the interest connected 
with the educational meeting there were 
other matters of interest to Moravian 
readers which were a part of the trip to 
Harrisburg. Some of these developed 
while we were strolling through the capi- 
tol building. Immedia*-ely upon entering 
this magnificent statehouse we were at- 
tracted by the dark tile floors and were in- 
formed by the guide that they were made 
of Moravian tiles. He stated that this 
form of floor covering was to commemo- 
rate the hand-made tiles used by the 
Moravians in early days. The mural 
paintings are very fine, and in passing 
along the main corridor with the beautiful 
marble all around, we found in one niche 
a striking picture entitled "A Moravian 
sister teaching the Indians." Another 
picture has a view of the steeple of the 
Bethlehem Central Moravian church, with 
the trombone choir announcing a festal 
day with church chorals. After passing 
back and forth and admiring the splen- 
dors all about us we came to the hall of 
the Legislature, and over the speaker's 
chair is the world famous painting by Ab- 
bey, "The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania." 
Many men connected with important parts 
of the history of the state apear in this 
picture, and high up in this great group 
stand forth two or three Moravian mission- 
aries, they representing the splendid work 
done by them in the early days of the 
commonwealth. As the guide drew our 


atteutiou to these things we felt happy to 
know that the work of our fore-fathers 
was recognized in the preacher, the teach- 
er, the musician and the artisan, but this 
leading position of our forefathers seemed 

to carry with it an admonition to the 
children of these great ancestors to strive 
to also do great things for the Master, in 
our day and time in whatever field we are 

TLbc jForum 

The Penn Gcr mania Open Parliament, Question-Box and 
Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 

This is a subscribers' exchange for comparing views, a what- 
not for preserving bits of historic information, an after dinner loung- 
ing place for swapping jokes, a general question box — free and open 
to every subscriber. 


By Leonard Felix Fuld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

(Editorial Note. — Dr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and the meaning of the sur- 
name of any reader who sends twenty-five 
cents to the Editor for that purpose.) 


The surname Eichelberger consists of 
the three elements: Eichel-Berg-er, 
which means Acorn-Hill-Resident. The 
surname is a place name which was origi- 
nally given to a man who resided in a hill 
having many oak trees and acorns. 



The wedding poem published on page 
918 of the December "PENN GERMANIA" 
recalls to mind an amusing incident which 
occurred some sixty years ago in the town 
of Lebanon, Pa. In 1851, Mr. John 
Young became the editor of the principal 
German paper there. He frequently com- 
posed and published short poems in con- 
nection with weddings. Once he had oc- 
casion to regret it. A Mr. Capp, who 
subsequently became a prominent citizen, 
was married to a lady whose father con- 
ducted a tannery, Mr. Young's poem ran 

Als ich hiu kam zur Gerberi, 

Da wollt mein Herz nicht mehr varbei, 
Es sprach; Ich wett en fib. 

Die Betz, die gebt mei Rib." 

Unfortunately the little poem gave great 
offence to the bride groom, who never for- 
gave the editor. 

Mr. Young was a native of Bucks coun- 
ty and had learned the art of composing 
such poetry from Mr. Moritz Loeb the 
editor of the somewhat famous "Morgen- 
stern." Many of Mr. Loeb's productions 
were of a kind which would be out-lawed 
in our time. 

D. M. 


It is remarkable how difficult it is to 
eradicate erroneous history, when once 
they have become firmly rooted in the 
minds of the people. Here is an example. 

Until recently it has been generally be- 
lieved that Conrad Weiser led the Pala- 
tines from Schoharie to Tulpehocken, but 
this is an error. The story had been re- 
peated so often that it has been generally 
accepted as a historical fact. In the June 
number of PENN GER^.IANIA, page 438, 
Rev. J. J. Reitz states that "Conrad 
Weiser, the celebrated leader of the Pala- 
tines who had settled at Schoharie in 1712, 
later came with sixty families in 1729 to 
their future home at Tulpehocken." (The 
actual number of families were 33.) 

Another popular error consists in re- 
garding the two Conrad Weisers, father 
and son as one person. Thus we are often 
told that Conrad Weiser was the leader of 
the Palatines at Schoharie, and afterward 
served as Indian Interpreter in Pennsyl- 

The writer gave a correct statement of 
the facts in "PENN GERMANIA," August 



number, 1912, page 62 5. These are in 
brief as follows: The first party of Pala- 
tines came to TulpehockeM in 1723, and 
the second party in 1728. The elder 
Conrad Weiser, who is often said to have 
led the people here, never saw Pennsyl- 
vania until 1746, when he came to Tulpe- 
hocken as a man of over 80 years. He 
was very ill and died soon after. 

The younger Cnnrad Weiser came to 
Tulpehocken in 1729 with his family, as 
he states plainly in his diary. Neither of 
the Weisers was a leader of the people to 

These are the simple facts. Sometimes 
facts are unpleasant as well as stubborn 
things, especially whea they ap©il cberrish- 
ed stories, but it cannot be helped. 

D. M. 


This magazine is represented in the 
Senate and House of the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania, by subscribers, one of whom 
sent the following: Will not some one or 
several of these legislators go on a still 
hunt and find out for our readers how 
many of -the members of the Legislature 
are of German ancestry? Skall we hear 
from you, brothers? 

On the seventh of this month the Pa.- 
Germans or persons of German extraction 
were in evidence at Harrisburg. Dr. Daniel 
P. Gerberich of Lebanon was elected Pres. 
pro tem of the Senate. 

The Gerberich's are an ©Id Pa. German 
family in Lebanon County, settling in the 
northwestern part of this county. 

Geo. A. Alter, I think is of German de- 
scent. He represents a portion of Alle- 
gheny County, largely settled by Germans. 



Editor "The Penn.-Germania Magazine" 

Dear Sir: 

In your Sept. -Oct. 1912, number appears 
the very interesting contribution of the 
Rev. Geo. Gebert, of Tamaqua, giving, in 
German, the diary of Conrad Weiser, with 
its English translation in a parallel col- 

At the close of the diary, though not a 
part of it, appear two sentences in a differ- 
ent hand writing, which say in German: 

"My father died on the 13th of July, 

"My mother departed from time to eter- 
nity on the 10th of June, 1781. 
. As the first date corresponds to the time 

of death of Conrad Weiser, it has beea 
naturally presumed that "my mother" re- 
fers to his wife, and that, as a sequence, 
the date given is that of her death. 

Very properly reference is then made 
to the fact that I have specified the date 
of death of Anna Eve, wife of Conrad 
Weiser, to have been Dec. 27, 1778, and 
the query is as to my authority on the sub- 

In reply I can only say that my datum is 
the result of no little investigation. 

Careful search has been made in the 
records at the Berks County Court House. 
Conrad Weiser left some property to his- 
wife, the same to be sold upon her death,, 
but, with the widow's consent, it was dis- 
posed of prior to 1769, therefore prior to^ 
her death, even if that had occurred in 
1778. She left no will, nor were there 
any letters testamentary granted upon her 

Every effort has been made to ascertain 
of church records would throw any light 
upon the subject, but without avail. Her 
husband was buried by the Rev. John 
Nich. Kurtz, pastor of both the old, original 
Tulpehocken church (Zion or Reed's), and 
of the Christ Tulpehocken church which 
split off from the parent congregation. I 
have not been able to secure any data from 
those sources. 

The evidence which I have taken, which 
should be conclusive and which seems to 
be unanswerable, is that of her tom"bstone, 
still standing alongside that of her husband 
in the orchard burial ground on the Mar- 
shall property (the original homestead), 
near Womelsdorf, Pa. The inscription 
now on it reads, in German, "This is Eva 
Anna, wife of Conrad Weiser, born Jan. 25, 
1730, died Dec. 27, 1778, 48 years old." 
The date of birth on the stone, as well as 
the age, are wrong. They should read 
"born Jan. 25, 1700," and "78 years old." 
The error is owing to the fact that, some 
years ago, when parts of the lettering had 
become indistinct, they were recut, but in- 
correctly so, whence the discrepany in 
question. As regards the specified date of 
death, however, with which, alone, we are 
now interested, there has never been any 
question, and it would be out of reason to 
suppose that such a gross error had been 
made as to change it from June 10, 1781 
to Dec. 27, 1778. 

That this is the tombstone of Conrad 
Weiser's wife can hardly be questioned. It 
stands beside his stone which is at the head 
of his grave; it plainly says "wife of Con- 
rad Weiser," and, after a careful search 
through the quite full mass of Weiser 
genealogical data in my possession, I feel 



justified in asserting that nowhere else, in 
either his own family or in that of his 
brother who lived near him, was there any- 
OHe by the name of Anna Eve, or Eve 
Anna, "Weiser, born either in 1700 or 
17 30,' who was the wife ©f any other 
■Conrad Weiser. 

My records show that 17 81 was the 
year in whieh occurred the death of Con- 
rad Weiser's step-mother. I regret to say 
that, at this time, I am unable to say 
whence was derived this information, but 
1 would hardly have made the entry un- 
less I had felt assured that it was worthy 
•of credence. 

In view of what has been said I must 
still believe that I am warranted in nam- 
ing Dec. 27, 1778 as the time of decease 
of \nna Eve, wife of Conrad Weiser. 



It would be interesting to contemplate 
•as to just what would become of us mor- 
tals should all the dreadful meteorological 
•conditions tcke place that were prophe- 
sied by the "weather prophets of Berks 
County" at their annual meeting at Lo- 
bachsville, to which impositions on public 
credulitv you lend aid by giving up nearly 
all of pages 919 and 9 20 of the Nov.-Dec. 
1912 issue. These seers who claim that 
their meteorological vision is more extend- 
ed and acute than is that of the ordinary 
mortal foresaw a coal consuming period of 
Tinusual severity. They evidently slipped 
a cog somewhere, for up to this time we 
have had the mildest winter for half a 
<>entury. Navigation on the Connecticut 
River "remains open; passenger and freight 
steamers making daily trips to and from 
New York; there is not a bit of floating 
ice in the river: and so far as navigation 
is concerned, it is in just as good condition 
pt it was in the middle of last summer. 
Most of these "long rangers" base their 
predictions on the condition of some favor- 
ite animal, while others upon the relation- 
ship of the planets, and have every confi- 
dence in the accuracy of the diagnosis. 
Editor Kriebel might just as well close his 
eyes, stick a pin into a calendar, and 
prophesy it will be cold on that date. The 
goose bone, its size, shape, or color, hasn't 
a thing to do with the weather. Animals 
have no prescience of the sort, thick fur 
on the skunks or squirrels does not indi- 
cate cold weather coming. It simply in- 
dicates that conditions for a few weeks 
past were such as to make the fur thick. 
Theu the planet prophets can predict. 

"cold and stormy" for this week, and 
come pretty near hitting the mark, be- 
caus.e .Tanuary is usually a month of 
storms and low temperature. In fact 
two storms in any one week of that month 
is not unusual. The modern weather 
scientist takes no stock in the action of 
the planets; for the good reason that it 
has beea frequently demonstrated by the 
leading meteorologists of the world that 
planets are not responsible for cause and 
effect in our earth's weather. The planets 
are regular instead of irregular in their 
movements, consequently if they deter- 
mined weather we would always know 
what fe« expect in the form of atmospheric 
disturbances on any particular day, de- 
cades in advance. It would be the same, 
year in and year out. This is cold logic. 
Again it takes heat to produce weather. 
The moon being dead cannot therefore be 
a factor. The best scientists are employ- 
ed by our Uncle Sam in his weather ser- 
vice and there they have the finest equip- 
ment that money and experience can pro- 
cure. Why therefore are they not more 
reliable than the happy-go-lucky peddler 
of climatic conditions, who in most in- 
stances has no equipment whatsoever, 
and about the same amount of scientific 
training? We all like to read "weather 
forecasts" because the w^eather so vitally 
effects all the activities of human life, but 
we should take with a grain of salt most 
of what is handed out, except through the 
sources best equipped to insure accuracy. 
In our judgment there is no weather ser- 
vice in the world that measures up to 
that maintained by our government. It 
is not infallible, and does not claim such 
virtue, but on the whole it delivers its 
wares with amazing a('curacy. 

Hartford, Conn., January 17, 1913. 

Mr. Neifeit's superior is thus referred 
to by Youth's Companion: 

Prof. Willis L. Moore, the head of the 
Weather Bureau in Washington, laughs at 
certain ancient superstitions. Of fore- 
casting winter weather by studying the 
goose bone, he says, "You might as well 
shut your eyes, stick a pin in the calendar, 
and prophesy that it will be cold on that 
date." He declares further thah especial- 
ly thick fur on squirrels and other ani- 
mals, instead of being a sign of cold 
weather ahead, merely shows that the 
weather for the past few weeks has been 
such as to make thick fur. He says noth- 
ing about our old friend, the ground-hog, 
but probably he regards wot even him 
with unshaken cmfidence. It will come 



about in time that, we shall have to con- 
sult the government bulletins if we really 
want to know whai'-. the weather is to be. 
The P-G ^nvites further discussion of 
this subject, why should one depend on 
Hicks or Hershels on geese and ground- 
hogs in forecasting weather? Why? — 


IModern Languages in the graded and 
rural schools in the Northwest is making 
progress. In Stearns County, Minn. Ger- 
man is taught in 113 of its 208 schools, 
Norwegian in C, Polish in 2. It seems 
Pennsylvania is behind New England and 
all parts of the United States and your 
magazine showed agitate German in the 
grade and country schools. The greatest 
mistake of Pennsylvania Germans was 
their neglect in teaching German in the 
elementary schools. 


Dr. Lenker makes a ,ser?ous charge in 
the foregoing language — Pennsylvania at 
the foot of the class, after two centuries 
of German citizenship. Is the charge 
true? Is it worth considering? Shall 
school curriculum be burdened with this 
added load? Are not school programs of 
our State overloaded already? — Editor. 


Bernard Uhle a master in portraiture as 
well as other forms of art, a generation 
ago married a sister cf a fellow artist, 
Albert Rosenthal from whom he was 
separated on account of their unhappy 
married life. He has for twenty years on 
account of illness lived the life of a re- 
cluse in Philadelphia, Pa., "unhonored 
and unsung" surrounded by his art treas- 
ures, the first halt absolutely done, the 
latter half with cats as companions. He 
was recently "discovered" and brought to 
public notice though the finding of a Jor- 
dan portrait by a visitor and the subse- 
quent request to have it sent to the rooms 
of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
His house is snid to be a storehouse of 
great art treasures, reproductions of the 
masters original work, including portraits 
of prominent pei ?onages. Of the latter 
some were ordered a generation ago and 
are still unfinished. A striking contrast 
between the humble greatness of the ar- 
tist and the endless stream of humanity 
speeding by on the trains of railways, a 

city block away, might be drawn. What 
is greatness? 

Several years ago Rev. L. L. Lohr, of 
Lincolnton, N. C, contributed a series of 
papers to the home newspaper "The Lin- 
coln County News" from which the fol- 
lowing stories are taken. 

A German or a "Dutchman," as he is 
generally called, has as a rule fine con- 
versational ability. He never lacks for 
something to say. In his efforts to speak 
English, he sometimes gets things mixed 
up; but he apologizi^s and goes on, even 
if the apology gets an badly tangled as the 
mistake which he tries to correct. This 
of course makes the conversation all the 
more interesting. It is said of an old 
gentleman, who lived near Reading, that 
he was quite a fancier of dogs. He had 
in his possession all sorts and sizes. But 
he could never understand why a rat ter- 
rier ten years old was so very small while 
a three months old pup of another breed 
was almost as large as a mastiff. He and 
one of his friends, on one occasion, were 
looking at these supposed freaks of na- 
ture. "Vel," said he, "dere vas some- 
dings wronj? mit dem dogs already. Dat 
youngest dog vas de oldest." His wife 
heard the mistake, and she at once came 
to his rescue with an apology which only 
complicated the situation. "Ach! you 
must excuse my husband. He speaks dat 
English not good. Vat he means is dat 
littlest dog vas the piggest." 

Some years ago an old gentleman in- 
Pennsylvania held a family reunion which 
was quite an elaborate affair as he was 
blessed with a large offspring of children, 
grandchildren, and great-grand children. 

His name was Klein, and among those- 
present were, Peter Klein, Jacob Kline, 
John Cline. John Small, George Little, 
and Wm. Short, all great grand-children. 
We know a very prominent clergyman 
who 2 5 years ago was known as Burk- 
halter. Thinking that his name was too- 
cumbersome, he applied to the legislature 
of his state for permission to take the 
halter off. He is of German descent as 
his former name implies, although his 
present name would associate him with 
the Irish. Judging from his facial ex- 
pression, the change seems to be quite 
appropriate. The Germans sometimes al- 
low very trivial circumstances to modify 
names, or change them altogether. It is 
si-id that the name Sachs or Sox was first 
given to a lost child which was found by 
a sympathetic gentleman and carried to 
his home in a sack. The writer once bap- 
tized a child which was born during a 



siiowstoru^. The father, wli.ose name was 
Baum-gartner, somewhat against the 
mother's protest, called ir. Rohort Blizzard. 
Although the boy is no\v^ about 14 years 
of age, he is still called by that name both 
in the home and among his a^isociates. 
And the probabilities are that that com- 
munity will some day h&ve a new family 
by the name of Blizzaidn. 


One of the neatesit products of the 
printers' art is a bi'ochure named The 
Conestofta River, owii\K "its existence to 
an almost life-long friendship with an as- 
sociate and to a personal appreciation of 
deserving local literature (Andrew H. 
Hershey) issued on the 80th birthday of 
genial and generous Frank Ried Diffen- 
derfer, Lift. D., of Lancaster, Pa., the 
booklet is neatly printed and illustrated 
and contains beside other matter a sonnet 
on the Conestoga River by Lloyd Mifflin, 
one of Lancaster's illustrious painters and 
poets who has earned and reaped a repu- 
tation reaching beyond the seas. 

Within the shadow which the foliage 
The drowsing cattle by the waters 
The white arms of the trees above thee 

And on thy slopes the ripening harvest 

From meadows of the hay the fragrance 

Sweater than aM Arabia What a 

For revery thou att O pastoral stream. 

Idyllic in thy beauty and repose. 
Nine arches hath thy Bridge of classic 
mould — 
One for each Muse — clear mirrowed on 
thy breast; 
Amid this quiet of the evening hours 
Tranquil thou flowest toward yon 
waste of gold. 
Where, shadowed 'gainst the fulgence of 
the West, 
The stately College lifts her clustered 


That not all persons are "slow," even 
if they have German names is shown by 
the following item of news: 

CINCINNATL O., Jan. 22. 

Probably the most notable event of the- 
twenty-third biennial session of the coun- 
cil of American Hebrew Congregations 
took place today when the new buildings 
of the Hebrew Union College in this city 
were dedicated and more than $150,000, 
to go for the college's maintenance during 
its first year, was subscribed within twenty 
minutes from the various delegates pres- 

Among those who contributed to the 
fund were: Jacob Schiff, New York, 
.$.30,000; Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, $25, 
000; W. L. Soloman, New York, $10,000 
Adolph S. Ochs, New York, $5000; A. G. 
Becker, Chicago, $3500; Maurice Berk- 
witz, Kansas City, $2800; J. Walter Frei- 
berg, Cincinnati; E. Y. Heinsheimer, Cin- 
cinnati; Solomon Sulzberger, New York; 
Mrs. Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, and H. 
M. Benjamin, Milwaukee, $2500 each; A. 
A. Kramer, Cincinnati; Maurice J. Freil- 
berg, Cincinnati; B. Baumgardner, Chica- 
go; W. B. Woolner, Peoria, HI.; Rabbi 
Emil Hirsch, Chicago; Rabbi J. Leonard 
Levy, Pittsburg; Mrs. Jacob Schiff, New 
York; Jacob Schnadig, Chicago; Maurice 
Naurice, New Orleans, and Louis Schles- 
singer, Newark, N. J., $2000 each. Smaller 
contributions ranged from $50 to $1000. 


Sidney Whitman's new book, "German 
:\Iemories," is full of interesting stories 
about Prussian statesmen, soldiers, ar- 
tists, and writers. Here is one of Field 
Marshal von Moltke: "Moltke paid re- 
peated visits to his nephew's villa, and it 
was there that a droll incident occurred, 
under the chestnut trees of the picture- 
esqiie garden. One day a stranger, look- 
ing over the garden railings, saw an old 
man, whose well-worn straw hat seemed! 
to betoken the gardner: 'They say that 
Moltke is on a visit here. Could you tell' 
me, sir, whether it might be possible to 
catch sight of him?" The old man re- 
plied that if the gentleman would come- 
again in the course of the afternoon he 
might perhaps see IMoltke in the garden. 
In his joy the stranger tendered a mark 
to the communicative gardner, wha 
promptly pocketed it. The stranger's- 
consternation may well be imagined when 
on his return in the afternoon be beheld 
the identical old 'gardner' walking arm in 
arm with Major von Burt! Moltke waved 
a greeting, and, with a smile, called out to 
him, "I have still got your mark." 





Man J- years ago Meyer Guggeukeim 
came to the United States from Germany 
aad, self-made, built up a lar-reacking 
copper and mining business. Ameng other 
ventures he created the great Americam 
Smelter and Refining Company. He had 
seven sous. One day he called them all 
into his private office. On the table be- 
fore him were a number of sticks of wood. 
Taking one of the sticks he brake it say- 

"You see how easy it is to break one 
stick." Then he took two sticks and 
broke them, saying that it was a little 
harder. He continued this performance, 
adding a stick to the bundle eaeh time and 
showing that with each additional stick it 
became more difficult to break the bundle. 
When he finally held seven in his hand he 

"Now, my sons, you see that it is im- 
possible for me to break this bundle, be- 
cause the sticks are held together. That 
is what I want you to do when I am gone, 
for it is only by sticking together that you 
will succ(ied in business." 

Old Meyer Guggenheim is dead, but his 
seven sons — Daniel, Isaac, Robert, Simon, 
Morris, Murray and Solomon — have kept 
the faith of the seven sticks and remained 
together. They have maintained and de- 
■veloped the great business they inherited, 
which involves copper, lead, zimc and gold 
interests from Alaska to Mexico. They 
have also found leisure to devote time and 
money to many charities of their own 
race and others. 



The passing of the court fool as an in- 
stitution did not mean that kings had 
ceased to take pleasure in the sort of 
nonsense that the jesters had been 
licensed to perpetrate. King Frederick 
William I of Prussia was an incorrigible 
joker, and grently enjoyed testing the 
cleverness of his ministers and advisers 
by planning embarrassing situations, from 
which they could extricate themselves only 
by the exercise of the quickest wit. How- 
ever, Das Buch fer Alle declares that the 

king was almost as ready to enjoy his own 
discomfiture as that of his intended vic- 

One day, at a small dinner, the king 
happening to be in the mood to play a 
prank, chose as his victim one of his 
ministers, seated at his left. After a 
moment's thought, his majesty leaned to- 
ward the courtier on hie right, and giving 
-him a gentle slap on the cheek, said, "Pass 

As the tap was passed from guept to 
guest round the table, the king's inten- 
tions became apparent. The minister at 
Frederick William's left would either hare 
to commit lese-majeste by slapping his 
sovereign, or admit himself beaten, and be 
the laughing-stock of the table. 

Although the company was already in a 
gale of merriment at his expense, the min- 
ister was not at all ready to acknowledge 
defeat. Just as the blow was passed to 
him, he let a knife fall clattering to the 
floor between the king and himself. Im- 
mediately a servant sprang forward, pick- 
mediately a servant sprang forward, pick- 
ister; but what was the lackey's astonish- 
ment to receive, instead of a word of 
thanks, a tap on the cheek. The minister, 
by his wit, had saved the situation without 
violating the rules of the game. The king 
was the first to join in the laughter and 
applause that greeted the minister's clever- 


An instance of th?t valuable quality, 
presence of mind, comes from South 
Africa by way of the Belfast News. 

A German shoemaker left the gas turn- 
ed on in his shop one night, and upon ar- 
riving in the morning struck a match to 
light it. There was a terrific explosion, 
and the shoemaker was blown out through 
the door, almost to the middle of the 

A passer-by rushed to his assistance, 
and after helping him to rise, inquired it 
he was injured. The little German gazed 
in at his place of business, which was now 
burning quite briskly, and said, "No, 1 
ain't hurt. But I got out shust in time, 
eh?" — Youth's Companion. 

(Continued from page 2 of cover) 
latioii devolves logic^iUy and appropriately each generation 
on the immigrants themselves, their sons and daughters and 
can best be met by intelligent, united, and continuous effort 
to such end. Such duty being personal can not be delegated 
to others or performed by proxy. The scholar, the essayist, 
the orator may tell about them, even as signboards point out 
the way to trave'ers; discussion indeed is indispensable to a 
proper appreciation of the good and the elimination of the 
bad, but cultural possessions, to serve society efficiently must 
become incarnate in men, take on human form and be ener- 
gized by the altruistic motives of those holding them. His- 
toric lore hidden in musty volumes on dusty shelvts is but 
inert potentiality, a mass of paper and ink, a valley of dry 
PANY was called into being to become a medium or instru- 
ment for promoting such assimilation and incarnation bv 
helping men to learn pnd teach what Germany through the 
men and women it gave has been and done for the United 
States. Through it the best that German culture and history 
affords may be transfused into our national life and transmitted 
to posterity. 

The Penn Germania 

THE PENN GERMANIA will be maintained as distinct- 
ly and specifically a "popular journal of German History and 
Ideals in the United States." It will not be published as 
the exponent of a c'an, or a cult, or as a commercial venture, 
or as a local business enterprise, or as a partisan propagan- 
dist organ — but "Pro bono publico," a^j a Vahmeann for the 
preservation of historic data; as a popular Forv)i}, for the 
discussion of subjects naturally falling within its field; as a 
C dlaborator — but not competitor — of existing societies and 
periodicals that are devoting themselves wholly or in part to 
certain phases of the same general field; as an Inieniu'diaiy, 
between the learned classes and the common people for the 
dissem'nation and popularization of what master minds are 
creating. It must naturally give a prominent place to the 
German immigrants of the eighteenth century whose descen- 
dants constitute today fully one third of the Nation's Ger- 
man element. I'he magazine thus has a field as wide and deep 
as human endeavor ard extending over two centuries of time. 
\\'hile it is gatherirg here and there rare nuggets of historic 
lore, inexhaustible riches await uncovering and refining by 
ex[)ert workers. Dearth of material need, therefore, not be 
feared nor should difficulties in the way whether real or im- 
aginary deter us from entering and possessing the laml. , 

While the publication of THE PENN GERMANIA is the 
primary aim in the organi/^ation of this company it would 
manifestly be a sht)rtsighted policy not to conserve the by- 
products or utilize the opportunities that naturally attend the 
publication of this periodical. The occasions for encouraging 
liistoric research that either may arise of their own accord or 
that may be cultivated will be utilized. The gradual building 
up of ihe select reference library for students and historians 
of the German element in the United States will greatly in- 
crease the usefulness of the undertaking. 





A. C. Rau. Vice President 



A POPULAR Journal of German history 

AND ideals in the UNITED STATES 


REV. A. E. GOBBLE. Myerstown 
DR. D. H. BERGEY. Philadelphia 
PROF. A. G- RAU, Bethlehem 
DR. R. K. BUEHRLE. Lapcasler 
R W lOBST Esq. Emaus 



W. J, HELLER. Easlon 

C. W. UNGER. Poltsville 

F A. STICKLER. Nornstown 

W O- MILLER. Esq.. Reading 



H. W. KRIEBEL. Lititz 

J L. SCHAADT. Esq.. Allentown 

REV. N. B. GRUBB. Philadelphia 

Ai:\I OF THE COMPANY — (Evtiact from Charter.) 

The purpose for which the said corporation is formed are as follows: The sup- 
porting and carrying on of a literary and historical undertaking; the composition, 
printing, publishing and distribution of a periodical magazine or publication, de- 
voted to the history and ideals of the German element in the United States, the 
encouragement of historic research connected therewith, and the collection and 
preservation of books, manuscripts and data illustrative of the said history and 


PUBLICATION DATE — Fifteenth of 
each month. 

TERMS — Two Dollars ($2.00) per 
year; One Dollar for six months; 
fifty cents for three months; 
itwenty cents per copy. Foreign 
Postage extra. Special rates to 
clubs and solicitors. 

BACK NUMBERS — Back numbers of 
are carried in stock. Particulars 
on application. 

Table" is in charge of Prof. E. S. 
Gerhard, Trenton, N. J., to whom 
all communications touching the 
department should be addressed. 
The Penn Germania Genealogical 
Club is in charge of Miss Cora C. 
Curry, 102 Monroe Street, Wash- 
ington, D. C, to whom "genea- 
logical" communications should be 
addressed. All other communica- 
tions should be addressed to Lititz, 


CONTRIBUTIONS — ^Contributions are 
invited on subjects falling within 
the scope of tlie magazine, the his- 
tory and ideals of the German 
element in the United States. No 
articles are paid for except upon 
definite contract. Articles should 
reach Editorial Office four weeks 
before date of issue to insure pub- 
lication in a specially designated 

RENEWALS — Money for renewals 
should be sent by subscribersi 
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RECEIPTS — The figures in the address 
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show when the subscription ex- 
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fies that subscription is paid to 
December 1913. Receipts are 
only sent on request. 

j:iitcnMl at the OITiee at Cloona, Pa., as Second-Class Mail Matter. 


Vol. II, No. 3 

MARCH, 1913 


Vol. XIV, No. 3 

^able of dontents 

Jacob Eichholtz (continued) 161 

German- American Folklore 176 

Early Lutheran Annals in the "Far West" 181 

Extracts from Diary of Bethlehem Congregation, 1756 __ 187 

An Appreciotion of Dr. Basil R. Gildersleeve 194 

Our Worthy Ancestry 196 

John Fritz, Iron-Master 202 

The Call to Books 213 

The Centennial of Lubec, Maine 215 

Current Life and Thought 217 

The Penn Germania Genealogical Club 225 

Die Muttersproch 230 

Our Book Table 232 

Historical Notes andNews 234 

The Forum 237 




Zhc pcnn 0ermania 

The following lines, forming part of an An- 
nouncement issued by THE PENN GERMANIA, 
set forth in part the aim of the magazine. 


The "purposes" of the incorporation as set forth by the 
Charter are construed by the Company to sanction the taking 
in hand; — 

1. The publishing of THE PENN GERMANIA, essen- 
tially along the lines hitherto followed, the various depart- 
ments being so elaborated ns to cover the fields of "Art, 
Science, Literature, State, Church, Industrv and Genealogy" 
and make the magazine a specific periodical of history and 
current literature respecting citizens of German ancestry in 
the United States. 

2. The encouraging of historic research by historians, 
genealogists, pupils in public and private schools, colleges, 
and universities. 

3. The founding of a select reference library containing 
with regard to its special field, leading reference books, 
genealogical apparatus, transcripts of original records, books 
and pamphlets, clippings trom current newspapers and 
periodicals, etc., etc. 

The field as thus laid out covers; — migrations, early and 
recent, with attendant causes and conCitions; settlt-ment and 
pioneer life including subsequent migratory movements; de- 
velopment, life in all its relations and activities down to and 
including the present: the family including literature, folk 
lore and genealogy ; noteworthy events in the Fatherland; 
discussion of current questions in the light of German history 
and ideals. The matter selected for publication naist as far 
as possible meet the following conditions in the 01 der given ; — 
It must be "pro bono publico" and what subscribers want; it 
must be true to fact, entertaiiung, instructive, timely and 
typical. For the reference library whatever illustrates ttie 
life and thought of the German immigrant and his descendants 
is appropriate or "grist for the mill." 

Germanic Culture 

Germany's cultural possessions, past and present, whether 
brought by emigrants, books, stutlents, or other medium are 
invaluable to our nation and should not be eliminated or ig- 
nored, or blindly worshipped, but preservetl, studied and 
assimilated. Manifestly the duty of promoting such assimi- 
(Continued on page 3 of cover) 

ZLbe pcnn (3ermanta 

Copyright, 1913, by The Penn Germania Publishing Company 

Vol. II. March, 1913. No. 3 








The Lancaster County Historical Society 


The Iris Ckib 

NOVEMBER 22, 1912. 



( Continued from Februarj- issue. ) 

The Bohemian hfe of artists and Hterary men was even more the 
vogue in Philadelpliia eighty years ago than it is now. Hence it hap- 
pened that among Eichholtz's familiar friends at that time of his sojourn 
in the Citv of Brotherlv Love, was George H. Munday, an erratic street 


preacher, known as the "hatless prophet"— father of the gifted Eugene 
JMunday, poet and htterateur, who became the second husband of the late 
George Brubaker's daughter and Judge H. C. Brubaker's sister, Mrs. 
Stuart A. Wyhe. Munday was a patron of Sully and had some of his 
pictures. So in 1833 he pledged to Eichholtz, for a debt, pictures of 
Byron, Lafayette and Napoleon. From Sully's "Byron" our Lancaster 
artist made several copies, one of which he sold to George W. McCallister, 
of South Carolina, for $20. The Sully "Byron" is still at the Lime Street 
house, and has been there for seventy-five years. Eichholtz made a 
variation of Inman's Chief Justice John Marshall, which is still in the 
Lime Street house and has much merit and value. Another portrait of 
Marshall by Eichholtz is in the Pennsylvania Historical Society. His 
largest single charge for a picture occurs April 17, 1830, when Rev. 
Edward Rutledge paid him $300 for a portrait of John Stark Ravenscroft, 
Bishop of North Carolina and twentieth in the line of bishops of the 
Episcopal Church in the United States. He was consecrated May 22, 
1823, and died March 5, 1830. As this portrait is charged April 17, 1830, 
it must have been painted shortly before — or more likely very soon after 
— the death of its subject. [Note 11.] 

For one Victor Value Eichholtz painted "a family picture," for 
which he was paid $135 ; although at the same time he was painting small 
portraits for $10 and making copies of famous men of the day, like the 
actor Edwin Forest, for from $20 to $30 per order. 

Among the Philadelphia patrons was the eminent mariner and mer- 
chant Charles Macalester (1765-1832), for whom he painted a portrait 
25x29, which has been lithographed. Macalester was an eminent ship- 
ping merchant of Philadelphia, born at Campbelltown in Argyleshire, 
Scotland; naturalized in this country, 1786; sailed his own ship from 
1786 to 1804, armed with twenty guns and manned by one hundred sea- 
men, as a protection against privateers ; had built for him the fastest 
merchant ship of the day, the "Fanny." In 1825 he was made president 
of the Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania, which had been 
much crippled by heavy losses ; he brought it into good condition, and 
remained president until his death, which occurred at Willow Grove, near 

The Eichholtz portrait of Mrs. William Sergeant is of the same size. 
She was Elizabeth Morgan, daughter of General Jacob Morgan, and the 
picture is owned by A. Douglas Hall. His portrait of Mordecai Lewis 
Dawson (1779-1872) is the property of Mrs. Frederick Collins; and the 
oval picture of Susan, daughter of Clayton Earl, made in 1825, has been 
frequently exhibited at the Philadelphia exhibitions. Mr. Alexander 
Biddle, of Philadelphia, has in his possession the Eichholtz portrait of 
Mrs. Lyndford Lardner, who, when it was painted, was Miss Elizabeth 
A. Wilmer, daughter of James Wilmer. An anonymous miniature of 
her father, also owned by Mr. Biddle, is very likely also an Eichholtz. 
Mr. Birch, of Pottsville, accompanied a commission for his own portrait 
with one of his deceased wife. The Kieths, Divers. Lennings, Edgars, 
Backuses, Nices and other notable Philadelphia families were his patrons, 
and their portraits are widely dispersed among their descendants and 
richly cherished. 

Part of the second time he painted in Philadelphia the Eichholtz 
family lived near the corner of Ninth and Sansom Streets, next door to 
John Sartain, the famous engraver; who was the artist's warm personal 
friend and engraved many of his portraits. [Note ILl 


The records here show that Eichhohz acquired title to the South 
Lime Street home where he hved the remainder of his life in 1831. It 
was bought from Phillip Wager Reigart ; and no doubt then became the 
home of the Eichholtz family. 

The ten-year sojourn of Eichholtz and his experience in Philadelphia 
seem to have terminated about the beginning of 1832; for at that time 
Lancaster commissions again became frequent, and recur in entries on 
his account book. Christian Bachman, who was a business man of note 
hereabouts at that time, brother-in-law of Benjamin Champneys — grand- 
uncle of Dr. and Counsellor Atlee of this generation — had two portraits 
painted and elegantly framed early in 1833. Fortunately for us all and 
our common object in this passing show, these are admirably preserved 
by a descendant on another line, Mr. David Longenecker, who has kindly 
put them at our service and who maintains the traditional interest of his 
family in all that makes for Lancaster County history. "Dave" Aliller 
was one of the foremost citizens of Lancaster County for a long time 
about that period of our local history. He was sheriff, transporter and 
hotel proprietor. He married Eichholtz's daughter and perpetuated the 
artistic line. His son, William li. Miller, of Ardmore, artist and art 
teacher, is one of the most generous patrons of our exposition, and Mr. 
Miller's daughter. Mrs. Wellens, is an artist — figure, landscape and 
portrait — of excellent rank and much promise. There was not much 
going on here that Captain David ]\Iiller did not take a hand in ; and it 
must have been quite an artistic flag for his company which he had Eich- 
holtz paint in 1833. The silk, bought at Hager's, for $3.37, was sewed 
by Miss E. Tissler for a dollar, and the artist's work commanded $20. 
Where is that standard now? Not a few of its kind must have been pro- 
duced in those days when the spirit of military and political display ran 
high. A collection of the old silk and painted military and political 
banners would make a notable historical show. [Note VL] 

A Hose Carriage Painter 

In his decorative work especially Eichholtz displayed a taste for and 
knowledge of the allegorical and mythical ; and he illustrated wide read- 
ing and classic study. He made a notable painting for the Union Fire 
Company, of this city, as a decoration for a hose carriage. It was painted 
in oil. on metal, size 32^ inches by 24^ inches. The interesting feature of 
this work is that instead of representing an ordinary fire scene with 
engines and hose playing upon a fire, which would have been picturesque 
enough, Eichholtz demonstrated that he was a man of broad culture by 
j.^ainting an allegorical representation of water, portraying Venus seated 
on the back of a dolphin and attended by Neptune with his triton, two 
water nymphs and a merman. The scene is at sunset, the coloring pleas- 
ing and altogether the theme of the composition is one which an Italian 
of the Rennaissance might have conceived. Another instance which 
brings out this same characteristic of the artist is the introduction on 
canvas of the portrait of himself, by himself, in a picture which resembles 
in style the work of Correggio. or Italians of the same period. 

Under the title of "Taste and Liberality" the local press of that day 
at some length described this I'nion hose trarriage painting and the 
occasion of its presentation to the company. It said: "The front of the 
new and handsome Hose and Engine house erected by the Union Fire 
Co.. of this city, received yesterday a beautiful addition to its adornments. 


An elegant painting executed and presented by our estimable fellow- 
citizen, J. Eichholtz, now occupies the centre of the tympanum. The 
design is a fire by night. In the background, stand up, dark and naked, 
the walls of the burning house — the red glare of the fire reflected from 
their tops, and lighting up with a lurid glare are smoky volumes that 
obscure a moonlit sky. The moon is, apparently, struggling against the 
clouds of smoke that intervene between her and the scene of conflagration, 
and is now seen emerging from behind a long and black curtain of the 
former, and throwing a bright path of silvery light across the bosom of 
the stream in the distance. Conspicuous in the foreground, is seen a 
young mother, beautiful and sad as Niobe — her dishevelled hair, loose 
attire and bare feet indicating the haste with which she had fled from 
her dwelling. On her bosom rests an unconscious babe, and at her side 
walk her little boy and girl — the former affectionately caressing and con- 
soling his more youthful sister. 

"The painting is well worthy of the reputation of its distinguished 
artist ; and at a supper partaken of by the Company, on Saturday evening 
last, at which Mr. Eichholtz as an old and valued member, was an invited 
guest, the following sentiment was presented by the President of the 
table, Henr}^ Rogers, Esq., and drank standing by the Company : — 

" 'Our fellow member. Jacob Eichholtz, Esq., the firm and efficient 
friend of the Union. The skill of the artist is only equalled by the moral 
excellence of the man.' " 

Washington and His Generals 

There are other and more ambitious works attempted and executed 
which attest Eichholtz's proficiency in drawing and figure painting, as 
well as in portraiture. Members of his family in Pittsburgh have a large 
painting by him containing some sixty figures, representing ]\Iark Antony 
delivering his (Shakespearean) oration over the dead Caesar. 

Most notable, perhaps, of his work of this class is a "Crucifixion" 
{33x47) in possession of his grandson, William H. Miller, at Ardmore. 
It is a beautiful and refined single figure of Christ on the cross. The 
background is a dark almost black, sky, with the blood red sun barely dis- 
cernible through the clouds. A flash of lightning parts the clouds in the 
distance, and its glare reveals a temple and some city wall. A scroll at 
top of the cross contains some blurred lettering and "Rex Judaeorum." 
The picture is not signed. 

A large group picture, lately come to light, surely painted by Eich- 
holtz, is owned and highly valued by a Mr. Mullen, of Upsal, near Phila- 
delphia. Its subject is "Washington and His Generals," and it illustrates 
an incident in the life of General Lee, of the Revolutionary Army. 
Washington had invited a number of his generals to a supper at a road- 
house kept by a rather buxom landlady. Lee arrived early at the place 
selected, and asked a maid to give him something to eat, as he had had no 
dinner. He was ragged and unkempt. The maid told him that they 
"were all too busy to attend to him, as they were preparing "a supper for 
General ^^'ashington and his friends." "And who are his friends?" said 
Lee. The maid gave him the names, his own among them. "And who 
is Lee?" he asked. "He is the ugliest and the craziest man in the army" 
she replied, all unconscious of the identity of her questioner, and simply 
repeated what she had heard. "Well," he said, "I am really very hungry 
and I must have something to eat." She retreated into the house, but 


re-appeared in a moment with a bucket and pitcher. "If you will pump 
the water for us, I will give you a cold bite in the kitchen," she said. Lee 
took the bucket, and, while he was busily pumping, Washington and 
the others rode up. Washington of course recognized Lee and called him 
by name, to the great consternation of the maid, who dropped her pitcher 
and turned to flee. 

The picture is about six feet long and five feet high. On each side 
of the canvas is a house with autumn trees. In the centre is Lee at the 
pump with Washington and his generals grouped about, on horseback. 
On the ground lies the broken pitcher and the maid, a very pretty one, is 
poised for flight. There arc people in the windows of the house, and an 
old woman stands on the porch (right). The background is a beautiful 
evening sky, turquois blue with grey-brown clouds. 'J'he men figures are 
about eighteen inches high. The picture is signed "]. Eichholtz, 183 1." 

Mr. Mullen is having it photographed and will send a print to the 
exhibition. This is the most that he will do. 

James Hopkins, the preceptor of James Buchanan and son-in-law cJf 
George Ross, 3rd, was the leader of the Lancaster bar in his day; and no 
member of it has held higher relative rank. He died three days after 
having been stricken suddenly in the trial of a case in 1834. His son, 
Washington, was one of that brilliant trio — Hopkins, the younger, Mont- 
gomery and Barton — who gave lustre to the legal profession here, in the 
early thirties. His death, which preceded his father's more than a year, 
was attributed to his extraordinary and eloquent exertions in the success- 
ful defense of Theophilus Hughes, tried for murder in 1832. It was the 
estate of James Hopkins which paid Eichholtz for his portraits of them 
both, painted soon after their deaths. Theophilus Fenn, who ordered 
three Eichholtz portraits in 1836, was the well-known journalist, first of 
Harrisburg and later of Lancaster. The elder Jacob Gable, father of the 
later Jacob Gable and of Mrs. Gideon Arnold, paid $25 for an Eichholtz 
portrait of his wife and their mother, in 1836. A few years ago this 
portrait and one of her husband, possibly by Eichholtz, more likely by 
WilHams, were sold for over $600 at a family sale. 

Muhlenbergs, Brenners, Leamans, Montgomerys, Reigarts, Over- 
holtzers, Ellmakers, Hagers, Seners, Albrights, Fahnestocks, Michaels, 
Steinmans, Porters, Shenbergers, Clarkes, Shearers, Jefferies, Strines and 
Humes, the Fordneys and Lightners, of Lancaster; the Jacobs of Church- 
town; Elders of Harrisburg, and Keims of Reading, continued to patron- 
ize our Lancaster artist. It was only when his fellow townsman, the late 
Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, became conspicuous in State politics and the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth under Governor Ritner, that Eichholtz 
g-ot his right place as painter at "the Republican Court" in Harrisburg. 
Shortly preceding Christmas, 1836, Mr. Burrowes appears as giving him 
a large commission, including a portrait of his Executive Chief, Joseph 
Ritner, separate portraits of Mr. Burrowes' father, mother and uncle — 
which are still in possession of the Burrowes family. Prior to this he 
had painted Governor John Andrew Shultz, who, it will be remembered, 
died in Lancaster. He was born in that part of the county which later 
became Lebanon. He entered the ministry of the Lutheran Church in 
1796, but was forced to retire in 1802, in consequence of failing health; 
served in the House of Representatives, 1806-8, and again in 1821 ; in the 
Senate, 1822; Governor of Pennsylvania, 1823-g, two terms. This Eich- 
holtz portrait is owned by the Flistorical Society of Pennsylvania and is 
in its building at Thirteenth and Locust Streets, Philadelphia. 


There is in possession of Albert Rosenthal, the well-known Phila- 
delphia artist, an Eichholtz portrait of Admiral David R. Porter, nephew 
of onr Governor Geo. B. Porter, who lived where the Iris Club now is. 
. He was the brother of Horace Porter, and of Wm. A. Porter, the famous 
Philadelphia lawyer, succeeded in professional eminence by his son, Hon. 
■Wm. W. Porter. 

Eichholtz also painted a notable portrait of the illustrious Chief 
Justice John Banister Gibson, which has become a standard model of that 
great jurist's best portraiture. It is the property of the Law Association 
of Philadelphia, by whose members, as well as by the profession generally, 
it is highly cherished ; and it has been engraved for prints as well as 
illustration purposes. The portrait faces to the right and is 24x29. It 
has been ascribed to the date 181 1, but this is manifestly an error, that 
being too early a date for the maturity of the artist or his subject. 
Gibson, be it also remembered, had close family associations with Lan- 
caster. Not only had he been admitted to our bar, but he was a grandson 
'of the famous and gigantic proprietor of the first tavern in old "Hickory- 
town." The judge was a son of Lieut. Col. Gibson, born in Shireman's 
Creek, Perry County, Mn the same house where both Governors John 
Bigler, of California, and William Bigler, of Pennsylvania, first saw the 
light. He matriculated in, but was not graduated from, Dickinson Col- 
lege; was admitted to the bar in 1803; Judge of the Eleventh Judicial 
District of Pennsylvania. 1813; Justice of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, 1816-1827; Chief Justice of Pennsvlvania, 1827-1853, successor 
of Chief Justice Tilghman ; died in Philadelphia. 

Both these portraits, together with a half dozen others of Eichholtz's 
brush, were exhibited in Philadelphia at the Portrait Loan Exposition of 
1887-8. They elicited most favorable commendation — as well as con- 
siderable surprise — from a lot of modern artists, who of course could not 
appreciate that so much merit existed in the work of a Nazarene born and 
working in a little country town nearly a hundred years ago. 

A Picturesque Character 

A notice appears on the Eichholtz ledger of two portraits and frames 
furnished to David Miller about the beginning of the year 1834. This 
was undoubtedly the famous "Dave Miller," who enjoyed a romantic 
popularity in Lancaster County that no man of his own times had, and 
probably has attached to none before or since his day. Twenty years 
later than the date of this portrait, January 3, 1854, and within less than 
five years of the time of his death, August 31, 1858, he married Eich- 
holtz's daughter, Anna Mary, who survived until December 12, 1882; but 
long before that he was wedded to his first wife and had been a resident 
of Philadeli^hia — ever mindful of his Lancaster County associations. His 
career well deserves and will get some early dav extended and elaborate 
treatment from a competent coiUributor to the work of our local His- 
torical Society. 

By reason of his relationship to our immediate subject , no less than 
because of the exceeding merit of his own Eichholtz portrait still in the 
])Ossession of his descendants, I must note in passing that he was born in 
the village of Paradise on the last day of the year 1795, and died at the 
residence of his brother, Henry IVliller. the veteran hotel keeper of 
Lampeter Square, on August 31, 1858. Within this comparatively short 
life of less than sixty-three years he experienced a marvelotis and pictur- 


esque career. His first wife was Catharine Carpenter, a daughter of 
Jacob Carpenter, who was Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania in 1801. lie was of the Pennsylvania German Zimmerman- 
Carpenters, who located in the region of the London lands and Feree 
settlements, south of Paradise, and intermarried with the Frazer, Steele, 
Burrowcs and other notable families. Dave Miller came to Lancaster 
in 1827 and became at once conspicuous as proprietor of a leading hotel, 
on East King Street, near the Farmers' Bank, and as organizer of the 
militia, horseman, politician and social leader. lie was an ardent member 
of the Anti-Masonic party, when it was led by men like Seward and 
Thurlow Weed in the nation, and by Thaddeus Stevens, Richard Rush, 
Thomas H. Burrowes and William Elder in the State ; he carried Lan- 
caster County for sheriff, beating the Democratic and another Whig Anti- 
Masonic candidate. As sheriff and bailiff his tenderness of heart (often 
himself paying rather than executing the debtor's obligation), made the 
office unprofitable to him ; rather than have hanged a man he would have 
resigned. In those days when horse racing was the rule of the hour and 
the spirit of that sport ran to almost demoralizing heights in this county, 
until checked by Judge Orestes Collins, Miller's feats in the saddle and 
sulky, on the turf and in the box, were the marvel of his day and the ad- 
miration of enthusiastic admirers. When he removed from Lancaster 
to Philadelphia, in 1836, he opened successively three great hotels, the 
''Western" on Market Street, the "Indian Queen" on Fourth Street, and 
the other on Chestnut Street, on the present site of the Fidelity Trust 
Company building, in which he was later succeeded by his brother, 
Samuel. The same was known as the "Dollar a Day House" of the 
Millers, enjoying enormous patronage from York and Lancaster counties; 
to it his famous "Phoenix Line" cars on the old Pennsylvania Railroad 
imder State control, a leading factor in transportation, "booked through" 
from the Eastern Pennsylvania counties to a metropolitan hotel — forecast- 
ing modern forms of enterprise. 

As a Whig he maintained fierce battle with the Democratic Canal 
[Public Works] Commissioners, who controlled the road. Like all 
political administrations at that time, they ran it for "all that was in it" 
for their own party. His "Phoenix" line, despite partisan political dis- 
favor, beat all rivals ; at one time he carried passengers from Lancaster 
to Philadelphia for $1.40, less than the toll charged by the state, and 
about the present prevailing "two cent fare." 

One of his contemporaries, who wielded a fluent pen, declares that 
"he was the most famous wit of his day, whether he drove or rode he was 
the meteor of the turnpike, the toast of the dinner table, the star of the 
ballroom, and the prime favorite in social life.'' He left behind him a 
name for public spirit and private benevolence, which was never tarnished 
by any act of dishonesty, injustice or selfishness. 

His first wife was a woman of great beauty, and when married she 
was inclined to gay colors and fashionable attire, but soon after became 
a member of the Mennonite persuasion, donned the simple dress of that 
faith ; and her sweet and tranquil face under a plain bonnet and above a 
plainer gown made a striking contrast with the ruflled and diamond- 
ornamented raiment of her glittering husband in his halcyon days. By 
this marriage he had several children, one of whom was the mother of 
Dr. R. ]\r. Bolenius. Another was a son. Carpenter Miller, whose 
daughter, Mrs. Catharine Gunn, now resident in Richmond, Virginia, has 
the original Eichholtz portrait of her grandfather. It represents a 


singularly handsome man of benevolent and humane countenance, and 
no subject who ever sat to the brush of our local master had a sweeter and 
more manly countenance. 

"After life's fitful fever he sleeps well"' within an iron railing that 
surrounds his tomb in the quiet New Alennonite churchyard at Lam- 
peter Square. It was long before his day that town got the name "Hell 
Street," and old Schoolmaster Lamborn's "Legend" had no local foun- 
dation in fact. 

About this time it seems the second Nicholas Biddle portrait had 
been either lithographed or engraved, as Jacob Hensel and Dr. J. L. Atlee 
are noted on Eichholtz's book as having received prints of it from him at 
$1.75 each. 

Numerous Lancaster Patrons 

In 1837-8 a second generation of Lancasterians appear as his patrons. 
About the holidays intervening those years Thomas E. Franklin obtained 
two portraits and two landscapes from him. Thomas Elder, of Harris- 
burg, who was the grandfather of Nath. Thos. and L. Ellmaker; Amos 
Ellmaker himself, his wife and brother Nathaniel, the family of the late 
Charles Hall, the Potters and Shearers, and the elder Dr. John L. Atlee, 
were among his patrons. That even art work in those days occasionally 
was "taken out in trade" is shown by the fact that Benjamin Shearer's 
"one portrait and frame, $40" were "paid in coal." 

The date of the numerous Long pictures, many of which are to-day 
in the Henry G. Long "Asylum," is fixed by this book at about October i, 
1838, when he painted portraits of Jacob, Catharine and Peter Long. He 
went to Flushing, Long Island, to do painting for Dr. William A. Muhlen- 
berg, and again to Philadelphia to paint the portrait of Dr. Wiltbank's 
wife and of his father. Mr. William Forepaugh, Mr. Russell, Rev. 
William A. Muhlenberg with three more portraits, E. F. Shenberger, of 
"Sarah" Furnace, all appear between 1840 and July 30, 1841. Judge 
Henry G. Long, Catharine Long, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Long, Jr., were 
subjects of his art at that time; and Dr. Herrington, for portraits of his 
daughter and her son, paid him in 1841. Almost the last entry in his 
book comprises four portraits of himself and of his brother. Prof. William 
M. Nevin, which were painted at Mercersburg for the late Rev. John W. 
Nevin, D. D. One of these engravings of which have been widely sold 
and are highly cherished is in the home of Miss Alice Nevin. 

The wife of Robert Jenkins — master of Windsor Forges and our 
Congressman 1808-12 — who hangs in the Eichholtz portrait gallery was 
that wonderful woman, Catharine Carmichael, whose life story is one of 
the great unwritten romances of Lancaster County. Their daughter was 
the late Martha Jenkins Nevin, wife of Rev. Dr. John W. Nevin and 
mother of the brilliant and gracious men and women who have added 
lustre to the fame of two great local families. 

Benjamin Champney's lawyer, Attorney General, Judge and Senator, 
and his wife and his father, Dr. B. Champney's are perpetuated in 
Eichholtz portraiture; likewise Ann Witmer; daughter-in-law of the pro- 
jector and builder of Witmer's bridge and founder of the Ann Witmer 
Home. The portraits of Judge Alexander L. Hayes and his wife are a 
distinct contribution to the historical and art side of Lancaster life; while 
the Bomberger, Graeff, Leaman, Hager, Sener, Muhlenberg, Long, Al- 
.hright, Michael, Steinman and other sets and single pictures attest his 


local vogue and popularity; the careful preservation of so many of them 
to this day emphasizes the significance of his copious illustrations of our 
local history; the values placed upon these works admirably points the 
ultimate economy of discriminating but generous art patronage. 

The Stevens Portrait 

Sometime between the Shultz and the Ritner administrations, it must 
have been, Eichholtz painted the familiar portrait of Thaddeus Stevens, 
which was given great vogue by the Sartain engraving of it. Stevens 
was thirty-eight years of age at the period of this picture, in 1830, and 
was then a busy lawyer in Gettysburg. Our Lancaster artist was possibly 
on the western frontier of the art of portraiture. At any rate he had 
Anti-Masonic associations that readily commended him to Stevens. His 
style, like that of Stuart, has been criticised as "confectionery." Cer- 
tainly the Stevens picture made a handsome man of him; and as he had 
the personal vanity that often attaches to some bodily infirmity, it is not 
to be wondered that he was pleased with it. The representation of Penn- 
sylvania College building in the background and the capitol pillar just 
behind- the half length figure, the manuscript conspicuously held in the 
foreground, the ruftied shirt, high collar and stock and the very graceful 
pose of the hands are accessories that bespeak an artistic knowledge and 
appreciation of arrangement; they make this portrait scarcely second in 
interest and attractiveness to that of "Dave" Miller. This picture is in 
the possession of the Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg. The Eich- 
holtz portrait of Mr. Buchanan as a Congressman passed under the will 
of Plarriet Lane Johnson to the nucleus of the National Portrait Gallery 
in the Smithsonian Institute. [Note IIL] 

Redmond Conyngham, Esq., is the owner of a recently discovered 
portrait of Lydia Smith, the colored w^oman who was Stevens' famous 
housekeeper during a large part of his life and who shared the bounty of 
his will. The identity of the picture is undoubted and its execution 
meritorious. It represents its subject as a comely quadroon of about 
twenty-five, with a pink flushed countenance. It has been supposed to be 
an Eichholtz. Its subject is well remembered by our older citizens as the 
housekeeper, nurse and business manag'er of Mr. Stevens from at least as 
early as January i, 1845, ""til he died in 1868. At that time she was not 
without the vigor to prosecute a claim against his estate. The dates can 
be easily reconciled with the theory that Eichholtz painted this portrait 
for her or for Mr. Stevens. I incline to think he did, in view of the style 
of the picture and the period at which it seems to have been painted, and 
from the fact that :\Ir. Stevens was his patron. Her son, little "Ike" 
Smith, will be remembered as a well known barber and banjoist. 

Another of the most notable of the Eichholtz portraits is that of 
Eliza Jacobs, one of the daughters of the famous Churchtown family, and 
of a generation earlier than her niece of the same name, who became the 
first of Ilishop Henry C. Potter's several wives. "She was a beauty in 
her day." She married Molton C. Rogers in 1821 when she was only 19 
years of age and died the next year. Her husband, citizen of Lancaster, 
lawyer. Secretary of the Commonwealth and Tustice of the Supreme 
Court, long survived her and died in Philadelphia in 1863. 

A ripe sheaf of the Eichholtz harvest remains at the quaint South 
Lime Street home of the artist and of his children after him. His studio, 
mto which only his ghost has entered for three score and ten years, long 



the workshop of his expert sons, stands back from the building hne and 
constitutes the north wing of the main building. It is built of fine old 
English brick and within hang several masterpieces. The Sully "Byron" 
is still there, and Stuart's portrait of Eichholtz himself; there is the 
completed Marshall, materially different in style, but not much inferior in 
quality, to the Inman. There are incomplete sketches like the "Peri out- 
side the Gates of Paradise," and the combat of the Christian and Saracen. 
There is a landscape in Wales, an Italian sunset, and a copy of an Italian 
Magdalen. But the most charming pictures there are of the children. 
The portraiture of real children like childlike literature is characteristic 
of modern art. To the fine family instinct of his race we are indebted 
for Eichholtz's tribute to his father in a small portrait of him ; a most 
attractive boy, his brother Rubens, "with shining face" shaded by a straw 
hat. There is a replica of this in Boston. The three boy heads in a 
single picture, now owned by George Ziegler the son of Robert Eich- 
holtz's second wife, \'ice President of the Reading Railway Company, is 
an attractive composition of the artist's three sons, Henry C, Lavallyn 
and Robert, aged about five, seven and nine. A portrait of the late 
Robert Eichholtz as a lad of about seven, presented by his father to a 
family friend, came back to him from her before his death, and it is one 
of the treasures of his household. In the house of ]\Irs. C. W. Walker, 
a great-granddaughter, near King of Prussia, there is a beautiful portrait 
of her mother, a Lindsay, later Mrs. Coppuck, as a girl with a dog. 

The largest single holding of Eichholtz portraits is that of Miss 
Adelia Leaman, daughter of the late Henry E. Leaman, rifle maker and 
citizen of social and business eminence. His mother was an Eichholtz, 
and to that fact doubtless the present exposition owes in part this con- 
tribution of a dozen or more portraits, which not only illustrates the 
Eichholtz family — in the personages of Leonard Eichholtz and his wife 
and the Leamans — but the history of their town and their times. 

His Auto Portraits 

There are outstanding several authenticated portraits of Jacob Eich- 
holtz himself. One of these is the Stuart already referred to. Another 
is an auto portrait regarded as* the best, owned by his daughter, Mrs. 
Angelica Smith, of Intercourse. Another, in the possession of his son, 
Henry C, in Baltimore, has been faithfully copied by his grandson, Mr. 
William H. Miller, for the Free Library gallery, and will be a distinct 
•contribution to that literary and historical group. Other portraits by 
himself are in Pittsburgh in the family of his daughter Rebecca, inter- 
married with Jacob Hubley, of the Lancaster family of his name. Mrs. 
Walker, of Montgomery County, has portraits of Jacob Eichholtz and his 
wife, but she values them too highly to entrust them to our exposition. 

Among all his family portraits none is more exquisite than that of 
his daughter, Mrs. Maria Catharine Lindsay, about the time of her mar- 
riage. His treatment of his favorite red in this ])icture is especially 
felicitous and the poise of the head is very attractive. It is owned by 
her daughter, Mrs. Ireland, of 3903 W'^alnut Street, Philadelphia — who 
has a later Eichholtz portrait of her mother; also of her father, a juvenile 
and an unusually good landscape of an Italian lake view. Other of his 
pictures are dispersed among the Hubley, Demuth and dift'erent branches 
•of this numerous family. 

I\Irs. Gunn, of Richmond, Va., besides the Eichholtz portrait of her 


grandfather, Gen. David .Miller (1833), has an Eichholtz of his first wife, 
Catharine Carpenter; and one of i\irs. Gunn's great-grandmother, who 
was Catharine Martin— the last he ever painted; he died before finishmg 

the shawl. . . r -r- 1 

Illustrating the wide dispersion and enlarged appreciation of Ji^icli- 
hoUz portraiture is an entry of his ledger in 1838, in which he charges 
Dr. Wiltbank with three portraits. 

After long search I discovered that these portraits were of Rev. Dr. 
lames Wiltbank, of riiiladclphia— grandfather of the present Judge 
William White Wiltbank, judge of Common Pleas Court No. 2, and 
Avhose first wife, by the way, was a daughter of Hon. Feree Bnnton, lay 
judge. 1856-61, of our County Court. In the division of household 
trea^sures the first of these, that of Rev. Dr. James Wiltbank, who was an 
Episcopal divine of note — one of the predecessors of Rev. Edw. Y. 
Buchanan, at Oxford P. E. Church, Philadelphia— fell to his grandson, 
Rev. Dr. James Robbins, in whose home, at No. 2115 Pine Street, Phila- 
delphia, it holds a well merited high place of honor, albeit Sullys' Rem- 
brandt Peales and portrait of :\Ir. T. Buchanan Read enrich the same 
walls. The portrait of Mrs. Wiltbank (nee White), is the property of a 
granddaughter, Mrs. Henry V. Allien, of Montclair, N. J. That of 
^Aunt Sarah" is in possession of another granddaughter, Mrs. R. S. 
Hunter, 235 South 13th Street. It is a rarely beautiful and graceful 
.picture quite up to manv of Sully's. The rich brown dress, pink scarf, 
the hands lightlv holding a bunch of roses and the general tone of the 
work are in an unusually decorative style and combined make it one of 
Eichholtz's masterpieces. 

Jacob Eichholtz was born November 2, 1776. and died May 11, 1842. 
The "children of him and his first wife, Catharine Hatz, were: Caroline, 
who died an infant; Catharine Maria, who married Robert Lindsay; 
Rubens Mayer, who died at thirty, and Margaret Amelia, who married 
Emanuel Demuth. The children of his second marriage to Catharine 
Trissler were: Edward, who died young; Anna Maria, who married 
David Miller; Elizabeth Susanna, who died a spinster; Benjamin West, 
who married and died without issue; Angelica Kaufifman. who is the 
widow of Dr. H. A. Smith and lives at Intercourse ; Rebecca, who mar- 
ried Jacob Hubley, and left issue living in Pittsburgh ; Henry C, who was 
longtime in business in this citv and is now living in Baltimore: Robert 
Lindsay, the second, (who married Mrs. Ziegler. Their only child Edith 
died Mav 20, i8qo, and both died leaving no children except the two of 
lier first husband) ; Lavallyn Barry, who died at fourteen years ot age. 

The Eichholtz Style and Method 

A modern and local art critic, whose modesty is only matched by his 
-merit, gives me this view of Eichholtz: "When the complete story of 
American art of the early eighteenth century is written, Eichholtz doubt- 
less will be assigned a definite and important place. Although he as- 
similated much from Sully and Stuart, and is more distinctly of that 
English school which include Raeburn. Romney and Lawrence, yet there 
is an individualitv about his work — especiallv in his broad or middle 
period — which is quickly recognizable. Here Eichholtz is Eichholtz, and 
-none other. There is a breadth of treatment and a forceful directness 
which we are pleased to account for by his Germanic origin. The works 
•of this period, their style or manner, are the production of the brain and 



brush of this Pennsylvania German, Eichholtz, with the quahties of the 
sturdy oak, which name he bore. Examples of this class are the por- 
traits of Dr. Wiltbank, Miss Jacobs, Mr. Macalester and of himself. 

"In this style of his work there is little resemblance to Stuart or 
Sully; and our own Williams and Armstrong do not have the qualities 
peculiar to it. It is the Eichholtz who is Eichholtz, and none other. 

"It would seem, however, that he had three styles or manners in the 
course of his artistic career. First, the primitive style, in which there is 
an uncertainty, a lack of confidence which gives these earlier portraits a 
quaint, even if at times, a crude, aspect, and a similarity to the works of 
other men of less note. Then came the second style, of which we have 
spoken, the true Eichholtz style, broad, strong, convincing, especially in. 
his portrait of men and older women, good characterizations of the sitters. 
Finally he came to his third style, in which the portraiture is more 
elaborately presented, more detailed and careful, more dignified and 
aristocratic. Of this class is the admirable, virile portrait of Adam 
Reigart which was painted later in the life of both artist and sitter. It 
is most interesting to compare this portrait with the one of the same 
sitter in the primitive style, which was of Eichholtz's very early efforts. 
Likewise, as to his early and later portraits of Nicholas Biddle. In the 
beautiful and highly finished portrait of his daughter, Mrs. Lindsay, 
owned by her daughter, Mrs. Ireland, the red scarf ; and the pink scarf 
and bunch of roses in the Sarah Wiltbank portrait are fine specimens of 
this artistic period. So, also, are the backgrounds in the later Stevens 
and Biddle portraits. 

"While there is more elegance, more dignity, more finish and charm 
to the last period, there is not the directness of the handling which we 
recognize in the middle period, as distinctly the style of Eichholtz and for 
which and by which he will be classed in the history of American art. 
This qualitv is due to composite influences of race and circumstances, 
combining German ancestry with English environment and tradition, 
withal truly American ; and it is especially noticeable in the dignity and 
sincerity with which he treated the clergymen whom he painted, whether 
Lutheran. Reformed or Episcopal. It was undoubtedly this quality that 
Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg recognized, which made him such 
a liberal patron of Eichholtz, and led him to rejoice that when his brother. 
Dr. Muhlenberg, became ill and haggard, he had secured an Eichholtz 
portrait of him. 

A more technical description of Eichholtz' methods is that it was 
similar to that of Sully and other painters of his time, viz., a careful 
approach to the final painting by certain definite steps. First, the sketch 
(on bare canvas, with no suggestion of background) defining the features 
and getting a likeness, painted very thinly in colors which would furnish a 
fortunate underground for the subsequent paintings. Then, the second 
painting in somewhat brighter hues, with the outline merged into a rudi- 
mentarv background. Finallv, a third stage of painting in which he 
"glazed" or "hatched" at will, until he secured the result he wanted. 
While these were evidently his general practice, much of his work shows 
great spontaneity and freedom of handling in spite of this routine method. 
It was always conscientious, dainty and refined, and usually makes a 
beautiful spot on the walls on which it hangs, 

I have no purpose — and it is entirelv beyond my knowledge of that 
phase of the subject — to attempt a criticism of Eichholtz's ability as an 
artist. It is enough for me to know that he was oiir most distinguished, 


meritorious and prolific. ^Moreover I have learned that nothing is more 
capricious than art criticism, and no class so capricious as artists them- 
selves. There are some lawyers who are charged — falsely of course — 
with holding that a lie well stuck to is as good as the truth. However 
this may be, the history of art has shown that erroneous judgment per- 
<^istently expressed and tenaciously clung to often becomes respectable 
authority. Popular conviction is that the jealousy of actors and poets 
is mild-mannered, at least, compared with that which rages in the celestial 
mind of the artist aglow with the divine spark. The price paid for pic- 
tures, varying so widelv at different times, is largely a matter of vogue 
and passing popularity' rather than of merit ; and not infrec|uently be- 
cause of the scarcity "of the particular artist's specimens. Among the 
masters as well as the lowly, uncvenness of genius and talent, is often 
noticeable: and it is not seldom that more conscientiousness, originality 
and skill arc shown in the earlier works of the struggling but ardent young 
artist, with few commissions, than in the more mature and successful 
master whom established fame has made careless and rich rewards tempt 
to hastv work. 

All these considerations make it easier for me at least, to chronicle 
the events of Eichholtz's career and to catalogue his works than to criti- 
cise or compare them. 

There is enough justification for this treatment and for his large 
part in the coming exposition, in the fact that his subjects comprised so 
many of the people of most consequence in our town for a quarter cen- 
tury' of its most interesting history. That his self-made brush did its 
work so well, and his self-made colors have so lasted are less to be won- 
dered at than that his self-taught hand and eve wrought so enduringly. 
As no one man ever so illustrated the evolution of portraiture in Lan- 
caster County, none deserves recognition from its Historical Society 
more fully than Jacob Eichholtz — citizen and painter. 


I (p 7) T B Freeman was one of the most liberal i)atrons of art and 
publisher'of engravers in Philadelpliia. al):nit this period, and for quite a time there- 
in (p n) John Sartain. the famous engraver, first came to Philadelphia from 
Fneland in. 1810 He records that Eichhoh/. was in the artistic group who welcomed 
liini • others were SuUv. Neagle. Doughty. Sliaw and Child. Eichlioltz first proposed 
that Sartain engrave ""a picture he liad lately painted. ' the portrait of a bishop-^ 
doubtless "Ravenscroft." This he afterwards dropped and substituted for it his 
portrait of Nicholas Biddle. President of the United States Bank. 

III (p 2^)- Among President Buchanan's manuscripts is a letter from hich- 
holt7. written from Philadelphia. April 7. i84(^Buchanan was then U. S. Senator- 
asking permission for a '-highlv respectable" young gentleman from Lancaster to 
liave a steel plate mezzotint engraving made from the Eichholtz portrait of Buchanan 
—the original was then "somewhere in Western Pennsylvania —likely Mcrcersburg. 
Who was the "young gentleman"? The mezzotint was made by Sartain. 

IV It is notable" tliat P.enjaniin West's first ventures in portrait painting were 
made in Lancaster; due, it is said, to the encouragement of the Shippen family. _ 

Robert Fulton not onlv made the designs for the illustrations of Joel Barlows 
ponderous "Columbiad" ; but when that poet and patriot was the Lnited States 
?^Iinister to France, a young ladv named Charlotte Villette was an intimate of the 
Barlow familv. Fulton painted her portrait about the time he was vainly trying to 
interest Napoleon I in his steam marine invention. 



Early in the last century Lancaster was a favorite field for foreign artists and 
teachers of elegance and etiquette. Witness this advertisement from the "Journal" 
of January 9, 1802 : 

Miniature, Painting, Music and French Tuition. 

P. A. Peticola 

Respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen of Lancaster, that he and his son^ 
August, intend to teach music on the Piano-forte or Harpsichord, according to the 
best and most approved manner. 

P. A. P. will tune those instruments above mentioned; his price for tuning a. 
common Piano-Forte, one dollar — and for a grand-Forte, two dollars. 

p. A. P. will take likenesses at his usual price of from twenty-five to forty 

No likeness — no pay. 

He will also undertake, if he meets with sufficient encouragement to teach the 
French Language every evening (Sundays excepted) from 7 till 9 o'clock. 

The price for teaching music is half a dollar a lesson when out — and two shil- 
lings and six pence at his house, in East King Street, nearly opposite to Mr. George- 

Jan. 2. 30-tf. 


■ Although Eichholtz was evidently on friendly terms with James Buchanan — 
who wrote him, September 5, 1841, that he could not, under the tariff compromise of 
1833, advocate a duty of over 20 per cent, on paintings and pictures — the artist 
evidently took business commissions from all parties. Hence in the famous Whig, 
"log cabin and hard cider'' campaign of 1840, the most spectacular Lancaster county 
ever saw, he executed and filled an order for the West Lampeter township dele- 
gation, which on one side declared that district "the Gibralter of Lancaster county, 
good for 450 majority for Harrison and Tyler;" and, on the obverse, had a painting, 
after these directions : 

"Lampeter Township Delegation." 

On the one side — James Buchanan, saying "ten cents a day for laborers," and' 
holding in his hands that coin, which he is offering to a man who is approaching' 
him with a sickle hanging over his shoulder, whose appearance must be that of 
poverty and fatigue — and a view of the setting sun. The Other Side — Full view of 
a Ball on which in plain letters shall be "Harrison and Reform — not Gold for office 
holders and Rags for the people." Behind the Ball on ground a little elevated a 
Group of the People huzzaing — in front of tlie ball a short distance, ]\Lartin Van 
Buren running on foot with rapid strides, looking back at the ball much alarmed' 
crying "Amos ! Amos ! ! stop that Ball." Before Martin shall be an index board' 
pointing in the direction of Kinderhook and saying "10 miles to Kindcrhook." 

The local allusions will be relished by those who recall the politics of that day. 


A resolution of thanks from the local Swcdenborgian congregation, January 8, 
1842,^ certified to Eichholtz shortlv before his death, indicates that after the death- 
of his friend and their brother. Henry Keffer, he painted an "elegant portrait" of 
him and presented it "to be put up in the New Jerusalem temple." This was prob- 
ably a replica of one painted for and now in the Kcffcr family. 


Most significant of the Eichholtz correspondence is a letter from Thomas Sully 
to him, after his return from Philadelphia to permanent residence in Lancaster 


November 4, 1832. I present a facsimile of it, from which it appears that the pot- 
tinker of 1808, of wliom Sully then spoke so scornfully, had already become an 
artist whose work Sully preferred to Lawrence's and himself felt privileged to copy. 
The original of this correspondence was Andrew Bayard, first president of the 
Philadelphia Saving Fund (1819-32). Sully's copy, of the Eichholtz portrait, made 
after Bayard's death, is one of the treasured pictures on the walls of this historic 
financial institution at 7th and Walnut streets. The original Eichholtz ought to be 


The following letter has a triple interest, because it not only is addressed and 
relates to our Lancaster artist, but it indicates that Judge Hayes, who removed from 
Delaware to Lancaster, was one of Eichholtz's earlv patrons and stimulated an 
interest in him in his native State. The subject of this letter, Colonel John Gibson, 
was also one of Lancaster's soldiers of notes, and the uncle of Chief Justice John 
B. Gibson, whose portrait Eichholtz later painted: 

"Dover, Delaware, Sept. 7th, 1829. 
"Mr. J. Eichholtz. 

"Sir — at the last session of the Legislature of the State of Delaware, we were 
appointed by a resolution of that body a committee to procure a copy of a portrait 
of the late Colonel Gibson. Wc desire to engage your services to execute this 
work, and have accepted the proposal for painting a H length portrait, made by you 
in writing and forwarded to us by Judge Hayes. We wish the painting to represent 
Col- Gibson bearing a sword in the attitude of command, with a distant view of Fort 
Erie and the British forces or such other incidents as in your judgment may be 
deemed most appropriate. The price agreed upon — $120 — will be paid when Judg^e 
Hayes shall certify that the work is executed, and for that sum werely on your 
contract to deliver the painting, etc., as stated in your proposals, at this place on or 
before the first Tuesday in January next. We have this day addressed a letter to 
Mrs. Matilda Hubley, Lancaster, formerly the wife of Col. Gibson requesting her to 
furnish you. as our agent, with the miniature portrait which we have learned she has 
and which is said to be a correct likeness of him. You will please, therefore, after 
the receipt of this, to wait on Mrs. Hubley, and should she comply with our requei*- 
you will carefully return it to her as soon as your work shall be completed. 

Should you require any further directions touching this business we must refe» 
you to Judge Hayes, who understands our views and will represent our wishes. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Yr. obt. hble Servts., 




Mr. J. Eichholtz, 



German- American Folklore 

A Symposium 

ne of the most interesting 
lines of study in the field of 
history is folklore. This 
term is variously defined ; 

Fluegcl — Volkskunde. 

Americanised Brittaitica 
— All that has been observed or recorded 
of the traditions current among the "com- 
mon people." 

Standard Dictionary — The traditions, 
beliefs and customs of the common peo- 

Nezv International Dictionary — Tradi- 
tional customs, beliefs, tales or sayings, 
especially of a superstitious or legendarv 
nature preserved among a people. 

The wide scope of the subjects can 
be inferred from the subjoined list of 
topics (translated) issued by "Die Ges- 
ellschaft fiir Geschichte und Alterum 
kunde der Ostsee Provinzen Ruszlands" 
as given in Deutsche Brde 1912, No. 425, 
The value of the study is shown by the 
Americanized Brittanica in these words — 
"The Germans first made folklore a 
scientific study and one of the first fruits 
of their labors was the discovery of the 
•original unity of all the Aryan races and 
the demonstration of the fact that the 
Teutons themselves were but one branch 
of a greater family." =^- * * * "An ex- 
haustive account of the folklores of the 
world would be equivalent to a complete 
history of the thoughts of mankind." 

With reference to German-American 
folklore, the following may be taken for 
granted : 

1. The collection of such folklore is 

2. Tlie Penn Gcrmania can be made 
the medium for making such collection. 

3. Each subscriber can contribute to 
such collection. 

4. Co-operation by all would make the 
efifort easy, entertaining, exhaustive. 

5. To attempt singlehanded what 
might be done collectively would be tedi- 
ous, expensive and impracticable. 

TJic Penn Germania therefore invites 
its subscribers and readers to co-operate 
with it in taking up a systematic study of 
the folklore among people of German 
ancestry in the United States. Each 
subscriber in particular is cordially in- 
vited to become a contributor. A few 
general suggestions may be in place. 

1. Write about what you know, have 
seen or heard, what interests you. 

2. Write in a plain, simple style. Do 
not ornament. 

3. Do not excuse yourself by saying 
others know and will write what you 

4. Be faithful in what you record. 

5. Give name, place, time, occupation 
of authority for your information. 

6. Write as well as you can, but do 
not worry about spelling, punctuation, 
grammar or handwriting. Give facts, 
but do not let looks bother you. 

7. All material contributed will be as- 
sorted, preserved to be deposited in the 
proposed Penn Germania Reference Li- 
brary. Selections will be printed in The 
Penn Germania. 

8. Whatever illustrates, customs, be- 
liefs, traditions is "grist for our mill," 
nothing is too insignificant to be neg- 

9. Invite your neighbors to contribute. 
They may have an abundance of valuable 
data no one else has. 

10. Do not be selfish. You will not 
become poorer by giving what you have. 

Ti. W'rite on one side of paper only 
(size 8x10, leaving margin of one inch 
on each side) indicate by letter and fig- 
ure at top of page on what section and 



subdivision of topics matter submitted 
has bearing. 

12. On request names of contributors 
will be withheld. 

r>y way of illustration a few promiscu- 
ous illustrations are given, showing the 
wide scope of the subject. 

Words for dying — Sterve, dodgeh, 
vcrrcci<e, drufschnappe, an der Bungert 
Fens nans geh, ufgcve zu schnaufe, 
Senseman hut en grickt. 

Words for eating — Esse, fresse, 

Words for crying. — Heule, flenne, 
briille, weine, schnipse (?) 

IVords for barking of dogs. — Blaffe, 
briille, gauze. 

Proverbs. — War awholt givint, Aga 
lob stinkt. De hunger is der besht Kuch, 
Klader mache Lent, Sei oy hut zwee 

Conundrums — Was geht uf 'm kup de 
Steg nuf ? Wos is elder, os sei Muder? 
Rhyines. — O du liever August. 
Eens, zwee, drey oder vier, 
Honsel von Bach. 
Ich bin der Doctor Eisebart, 
• Reide. Reide. Gaule, 
Yokel will net Beere schiittle. 

Streusel kuche at marriages. 
Black Betty at marriages. 
Husking matches. 
Feasting at funerals. 
Der Bautts grickt dich. 
Fishing on Ascension Day. 
Grammar — 

In English "butter" is neuter; in High 
German, feminine; in Penna. German, 

In Berks County, Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans say for ''Mrs. Bucher," Die Buc- 
hern or Die Bucherin ; in Lancaster 
County. Die Buchere. In Berks County 
"They do it." is expressed by "Sie dun 's ; 
in Lancaster Countv bv "Sie deen 's." 

In Albert's History of Westmoreland 
County ( 1882) we read: 

The o])position to innovation which 
was noticed by Tacitus in their ancestors 
in the woods of old Germany may yet be 

seen in their offspring. In that age — we 
mean the early Westmoreland age — many 
houses had horseshoes nailed to the lin- 
tels of the doors to protect the inmates 
from the power of witches. Brimstone 
was burnt to keep them from the hen- 
coop, and the breastbone of a chicken put 
in a little bag and hung 'round the necks 
of the children to ward of the whooping- 
cough. Horse-nails were carried for 
good luck, and beaux hunted for four- 
leaved clovers to get their sweethearts 
to look upon them favorably. A broth 
made from dried fox lungs was given to 
patients suffering with consumptionj_ and 
carrying the rattles of a rattlesnake which 
had been killed without biting itself 
would cure the headache and protect 
from sunstroke. ( )ld women were even 
blamed for riding the unbroken colts at 
night, and more than one jierson incurred 
displeasure because his neighbor's rye 
was worse blasted than his own. — Al- 
bert's History of JW^stmorcland County, 
p. 48. 

Rev. H. A. Weller says: 

Every green hill or bubbling spring 
near which the ruin of a first settler's 
cabin is shown makes in these legendary 
tales, a dark and bloody ground. Warn- 
ed by this, I must refrain from recording 
the thrilling incidents, many of them true, 
no doubt, which are related of these fore- 
fathers. We are not unaware, however, 
how they carried with them, across the 
mountains, their superstitions as well as 
their courage, and it would be more en- 
tertaining than profitable to relate the 
stories of witch-craft, necromancy and 
sorcery which have cast a halo of mem- 
ories over the whole field of the terri- 
tory of Boone's L'ppcrs. in Schuylkill 

The writer of legends would have to 
tell vou of the ancient myths and of the 
spirits haunting the Blue I^Iountains ; the 
story of Spooky Hollow and the Devil's 
Corner ; the account of the mysterious 
Indian Maid ; the places of the Council 
fires : the hiding place of the 6th and 7th 
Books of Moses; the les^cnd of the be- 
witched horseman and Hilda : and though 
he would recount even more than these 
that pass current upon the lips of the 



people, you would soon recognize in them 
a simple Americanization of the stories 
of ancient literature, which charmed our 
childhood and gave us' many hours of the 
night when we dreamed with open eyes 
of the legends of the fatherland. 

servants are fond of telling how the bees 
pine away when no one thinks to give 
them the sad message. — Ave Maria. 

A Reading, Pa., correspondent reports 
the following: 

A baby four months old was suffering 
from marasmus. A "Hex" doctor in- 
voked charms They proved unsuccess- 
ful, and the "god of incarnation" was 
called up as the final attempt to save the 
baby's life. 

The mother went to a private country 
graveyard. There at sunset she stopped 
at the grave, took three pinches of dirt 
and, with eyes heavenward, placed it in a 
skin bag. This was tied around the suf- 
fering child's neck for nine days. At 
the end of that period it was removed and 
at midnight carried to the river and, with 
a stone tied to it, was sunk under the 
water with the mother's parting kiss upon 

The mother walked happily home in 
anticipation of finding a healthy baby, 
smiling to her as she entered the room. 
The disease, she was sure, was imprison- 
ed at the bottom of the river. At least, 
such was the belief impressed upon her 
by the "Hex" doctor. 

As the mother neared her house she 
quickened her steps and was about to 
open the door and embrace her child, 
but there was a solemn stillness. In the 
cradle the child was dead. 

The custom of "telling the bees" is 
often referred to by those interested in 
curious happenings. In some parts of 
England it has always been the habit to 
inform the bees whenever there is a death 
in the family, particularly when it is that 
of the master or mistress. 

Some one raps upon the board support- 
ing the hives and says : "Mourn with us, 
master (or mistress) of the house is 

It is thought that if this duty is' 
neglected, the bees will die, and many old 

Lehigh Valley "Veritas" in The Lu- 
theran of Nov. 7, 1912, says: 

From our own home we have watched 
hundreds of men, women and children, of 
all sorts and conditions, visit a healer a 
few doors away. Some have come and 
inquired at our home where to find him. 
Dozens of women carrying infants af- 
flicted with marasmus and other diseases 
pass down our street to another healer, 
who by applying a salve to the back of 
the child claims to draw worms to the 
surface of the skin at the base of the 
spine and to cut off their heads with a 
razor. It has happened that some have 
stopped on the way at the pastor's home 
to have the child baptized, thereby making 
doubly sure of a cure It has be- 
come our unpleasant duty to reconcile 
families between whom a feud had arisen 
through the diabolical work of a "witch 
doctor." A child in one family was 
sickly. The "witch doctor" after trying 
to break the spell, told them not to be 
surprised if something happened in the 
neighborhood. The next day a woman 
across the street fell down stairs and was 
openly accused of being the witch. In 
another case the same "doctor" told the 
family the first one entering the premises 
uninvited was the witch. The parental 
grandmother entered and was accused of 
being the cause of the trouble. We know 
of a mother who put knives under the 
pillow of her child to keep away evil 
spirits. In another case the "doctor" laid 
a Bible on the table and told the mother 
of a sick child to think of three women. 
When she thought of the third woman, 
the Bible began to spin and fell to the 
floor. That proved the witch — it was 
her most intimate friend. Some of our 
people seem to live and move and have 
their being in an atmosphere of super- 
stition — veritable Athenians- Certain 
days of the week are unlucky for begin- 
ning a journey, or for moving or to begin 
work or to come down stairs after a pro- 
longed sickness. It is considered fatal 



to be taken sick on certain days. The 
phases of the moon and the signs of the 
zodiac are carefully observed in sowing 
and planting, in cutting hair and remov- 
ing corns. The unusual neighing of 
horses in a neighborhood means death. 
The newly-born child must be carried up- 
stairs first, that it may arise in the world 
in after life. Rain in an open grave 
augurs, according to some, the blessed- 
ness of the departed ; according to others 
it means another death in the family in 
the near future. 

The following, except I, is a free trans- 
lation of the list referred to in the fore- 
part of this article. 

A Language. 

Rare words, proverbs and idioms of 
every kind. Special names' for — 

I Birth, youth, age, engagement, mar- 
riage, family, children. 

2. Eating, names of food, names of 
pastry, drinking, names of drinks, drunk- 
enness, clothing, names of articles of 

3. Special names for appearance, gait, 
figure, bearing, parts of body, move- 

4. Laughing, crying, sneezing, etc., 
sleeping, dreaming, shivering, etc., names 
of color, seeing, hearing, etc. 

5. Money, poverty, riches, squander- 
ing, saving, buying and selling, advantage 
and disadvantage, measures, weights, 

6. Names of churches, names of Crod, 
Satan, the Angels. 

7. Xames for farmer, citizens, noble- 
man, mob, trade. 

8. Student expressions. 

9. Utensils in house and a farm, grain, 
field, meadow, animals, chase and fishing. 

10. Joking at work. 

11. Names of card playing, jokes at 
games of cards. 

12. Music and dancing. 

13. Names of di.seases, death, sickness 
and convalescense. 

14. Expression for wise, ignorant, 
crazy, thinking, speaking, stealing, de- 
ceiving, asking, scolding, etc. 

15. Names of different traits of char- 
acter, humor, bragging, selfishness. 

16. Names of passions, wrath, fear, 
joy, etc. 

17. Greetings, curses, imprecations, in- 

18. Baptismal names. 

19. Intensive words. 

20. Names for time and space. 

21. Grammatical, exceptional use of 
case, pronouns, prepositions, verbal 
forms, gender. 

22. Other provincialisms. 

23. Observed dialect variations. 

24. Germanisms in English. 

B Popular Rhymes. 

1. Old and new popular rhymes of all 
kinds, hymns of love, drink rhymes, 
dance rhymes. 

2. Cumulative rhymes. 

3. Rhymes for marriages. Shrove 
Tuesday, New Year, doggerel rhymes. 

4. Mock rhymes about relations. 

5. Rhymes and jokes about places. 

6. Parodies of church hymns. 

7. Popular hymns and conundrums of 
all kinds — begging hymns, also spiritual 

C Children's Rhymes. 

1. Cradlesongs, rhymes on knee and 

2. Nursery jokes of all kinds ; all kinds 
of teasing with children. 

3. Children's hobgobblins. 

4 Teasing about given name and per- 
sonal appearance. 

5. Rhymes of school life. 

6. Play rhymes and counting out 

D Talcs, Stones and Fables. 

1. Tales and jokes of all kinds, kept 
alive by tradition. 

2. Savings, wild chase, riders of white 
horse, giants, dwarfs, sayings about the 


devil, witches, werewolf, nightmare, hob- 
gobblins, treasures, snakes. 

3. Fables. 

4. Sayings about the dead, spirits, 
ghosts, mischief. 

5. Sayings about water and sailors. 

6. Sayings about bells. 

7. Sayings about castles, knights, forts. 
rnills, seas, churches, chapels, trees and 

E Life of Animals and Nature. 

^. Animal speech, meaning of animal, 

2. Calls to animals. 

3. Animal rhymes. 

4. Superstitions about animals. 

5. Names of animals. 

6. Proverbs and expressions of every 
kind in which animals are mentioned. 

7. Sayings about sun, moon and stars. 

8. Weather rules. 

9. Expressions for weather, cloud, 
frost, heat, thunder, rainbow, storm, etc. 

10. Special names for trees, plants, 
mushrooms, frnit. etc. 

11. Superstition about planting. 

12. F^roverbs about berry picking. 

Sii^nifieance of Sound. 

13. What the locomotive, mill. bell, 
the woodman's ax are saying? 

14. Significance of tolling of bells and 
other signals. 

F Superstition. 

1. Demons of Nature and house. 

2. Superstitions about weather, ani- 
mals, olants, stones, hours and days. 

3. Omens, dreams. 

4. Witches. 

5. Devils. 

6. Ghosts, wandering dead. 

7. Popular medicine, exorcising dis- 
•eases of man and animal through prayers, 
burying of clothing, medicinal plants, 
trees, herbs and roots, protecting annilets. 
exorcisms and formulas against disease 
theft, fire and water. 

8. Superstitions at birth, baptism and 
childhood, shams ; superstitions about 

betrothal, marriage, sickness, death and 

9. Superstitions in building of houses, 
in home and yard, in field and garders 
about animals, sowing and reaping and 

G Customs and Habits. 

1. Special customs at birth, baptism, 
betrothal, marriage, death and burial. 

2. Customs of Sylvester night. New 
Year's Day, Three Kings. Candleness, 
Whitsuntide. ^^lartininday, Christmas' 
and other days. 

3. Birthday customs. 

4 Food and drink customs. 

5. Work customs, harvest customs. 

6. Domestic emplo3-ment. 

7. Popular art, decoration, carving on 
beams and furniture. 

8. Customs of mechanics and guilds. 

9. Old legal customs, still in use, for- 
mulas in buying, selling and trading ; old 
regulations about forest, field, water and 
meadow ; old boundar}^ stones and cross 

10. Old house and cemetery inscrip- 
tions, inscriptions on utensils. 

11. Festivities of local nature having 
their origin in historic events. 

12. Plays and dances. 

13. Trickery. April Fools" day. 

H Food and Clothiuo;. 

1. Characteristic food and drink in 
certain sections at particular times. 

2. Preparation of bread. 

3. Baking in special forms and for cer- 
tain days, as at marriages, baptism, etc. 

4. Description of old and new forms' 
of dress. 

5. Special garb for Sunday and work 

6. Ornaments. 

7. Special clothing at marriage and 
other occasions (covering for head, orna- 
ments, boquets.) 

I Biblioi^raphy. 

To the foregoing list of toi)ics should 
be added a list of books and papers on 
tlie subject or special phases of it. 

Early Lutheran Annals in the 'Tar West" 

By Rev. P. C. Croll, D. D., Beardstown, 111. 

Note. — This article, published in "Tlic 
Lutheran Observer," of December 13 and 27, 
1912 and January 3, 1913, is used by permis- 
sion of the author, Rev. Dr. Croll, founder 
and editor and publisher of "The Penn- 
sylvania-German." — EuiTOR. 

the recent meeting of the 

A Central Illinois S.ynod the 
writer was appointed his- 
torian and archivarius. He 
was' also instructed to have 
"a file of the Minutes bound 
for the use of synod." 
This involved a greater task than was 
at first su])])osed, for it was found neces- 
sary first to find a complete file before it 
could be handed to a bookbinder. And 
then, the Central Illinois Synod, as such, 
only began in 1867. Its synodic sources, 
however, ran in a connected, organized, 
if broken, stream back through the par- 
ent "Synod of Illinois," and its parent or- 
ganization, the old ''Synod of the West" 
— usually spoken of as the "Far West" 
— to its fountain-head in 1834. To reach 
this spring and sail my canoe of his- 
torical research down the not always 
placid stream of the parent river of syno- 
dic church activity, I was obliged to turn 
to the archives of Carthage College. 
Here I found smooth sailing, through the 
kind assistance of its courteous librarian, 
Prof. J. L. Van Gundy. 

By means of the "files" here preserved, 
there were opened to me mines of rich 
and interesting historical treasure. Be- 
ing so recent a comer into the Prairie 
State, the state's civic, industrial, politi- 
cal, educational and religious develop- 
ment has been a study of intense in- 
terest to me. This search has led me 
far and w'ide throughout the state's ex- 
tensive borders to witness the arena of 
historic conflicts and vi.sit the shrines of 
illustrious pioneers and noted figures of 
this state's history. My recent task has 
put me on the trail of the Lutlieran pio- 
neer and church-ljuildcr. The discover- 
ies here made have furnished these 

data — some historically valuable, some 
quaintly curious, all intensely interest- 
ing : 

It may be said that the year the first 
convention of "the Synod of the West" 
was held (1834) was but sixteen years 
after this great territory of Illinois be- 
came a state, and that all beyond the 
Mississippi was then largely new and un- 
explored territory, in process of settle- 
ment and development. The field occu- 
pied by this new synod was, therefore, 
pioneer country, with the first genera- 
tion of settlers yet on hand in the stir 
and excitement of building-up their new 
homes and communities. None of the 
modern means of travel had come, nor 
were passable roads yet opened up in 
many portions of the land occupied by 
this extensive Lutheran synod. Their 
evening sessions for preaching were held 
by "candle light." 

This first convention met in the village 
of Jeffersontown, Ky., October 11. 1834, 
and but three pastors attended it — Rev. 
Jacob Crigler, of Florence, Ky. : Rev. 
Wm. Jenkins, of Thompson's Creek,. 
Tenn., and Rev. Geo. Yeager, of Jeffer- 
sontown, Ky. There were, however, 
four other settled pastors in the territory, 
covering Tennessee, Kentucky, parts of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, the northern ter- 
ritory, and all the vast stretches beyond 
the ]\Iississippi. These were : Rev. L. H. 
Mever, of Cincinnati, O. ; Rev. D. Sher- 
ert.'' of Hillsboro, 111. ; Rev. C. Aloritz, of 
Green county, Ind., and Rev. Geo. Ger- 
hart, of Corydon, Ind. Destitute organ- 
izations were known to exist in various 
parts of this vast territory, and some 
very promising fields were pointed out 
by a report submitted at this first con- 
vention. Among these promising fields 
Louisville, Ky., is pointed out. Tn suc- 
ceeding conventions was shown the im- 
portance of opening up Lutheran mis- 
sion work in Indianapolis, Ind. ; Spring- 
field, 111.; St. Louis, Mo.; Peoria, 111.; 
Chicago. III.; Burlington, Iowa; Fort 



Wayne, Ind., and Cincinnati, O. — even 
in Wisconsin and Michigan, besides 
scores of growing towns and communi- 
ties lying in this field. Now that these 
cities have become such centers of Lu- 
theranism these annals read almost like 
fairy tales. This synod was the pioneer 
in planting Lutheranism of the American 
type first in many of these great states 
and cities, which have since seen such 
influxes of foreign life and the estab- 
lishment of a Lutheranism of a European 
type. This territory has, north of the 
Ohio river, largely been absorbed by the 
German, Swedish, Norwegian and Dan- 
ish types of Lutheranism and has become 
the stronghold of these various types, 
with the American type still a powerful 
leaven and a good leveler. The terri- 
tory, which in 1834 knew but of about a 
dozen organized Lutheran congregations, 
has since witnessed more than twice so 
many hundred Lutheran folds formed 
and shepherded. 

It is noteworthy with what pains these 
early pioneers strove to enlighten their 
members and the communities as to Lu- 
theran activities and doctrine. At their 
first meeting the following devotional 
and periodical reading was recommend- 
ed, viz. : the Lutheran Observer, ''The 
Lutheran Preacher," "The Evangelische 
Zeitung," "The Lutheran Tract Distribu- 
ter" (published by Lutheran Tract So- 
ciety, of Troy, N. Y.), English and Ger- 
man hymn-books, the "Catechumens' 
and Coinmunicants' Companion," the 
"Catechisms of the General Synod," 
Arndt's "True Christianity," translated 
from the German by Rev. J. D. Hoffman, 
of Chambersburg, Pa. ; "Popular Theo- 
logy," by the Rev. S. S. Schumaker, D. 
D., of the Theological Seminary, Gettys- 
burg, Pa., and the "Compendious His- 
tory of the Christian Church," in Ger- 
man, by the same ; "Luther's Sermons," 
with a biography of Luther. All these 
to be had in Gettysburg, Pa., of Samuel 
H. Buehler. 

Lutheran Doctrines. 

It is evident that these early pastors 
w^erc well indoctrinated in the rudiments 

of their Christian faith as held by the 
Lutheran Church, for the chair appointed 
the other two clergyman present at this 
first convention, together with two lay- 
men, to draw up a synopsis of the doc- 
trines of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, to be presented next morning in 
a report, with a view of having the same 
published in connection with the pro- 
ceedings of said convention. We find 
that two-thirds of the published minutes 
are occupied by this doctrinal statement, 
by two back-woods pastors, in such an 
accurate compendious form, with nu- 
merous proof paragraphs, as would do 
ciedit to any of our professors of theo- 
logy to-day. Here are classified our 
Church's views: I. On the Atonement. 
II. On the Influence and Operation of 
the Holy Ghost in Regeneration. III. 
On Baptism (discussing at length the 
form and proper subjects; combating the 
Baptist view). IV. On the Lord's Sup- 
per V. On Free Communion. VI. On 
Practical Piety. VII. On Religious 
Feelings. VIII. On Woman's Place in 

It is evident that the last points were 
suggested by the practices of surround- 
ing denominations at that time. The 
declaration on the last point, "Woman's 
Place in Church," is given in one sen- 
tence, viz : "They ought never to lead in 
the public exercises of a mixed assembly. , 
(See I Cor. xiv. 34.)" _ 1 

This was before the day of the organi- 
zation of the Lutheran Woman's Home 
and Foreign Missionary Society and be- 
fore its rendition of its synodic programs 
in the conventons of our present-day sy- 
nods, in the presence of most crowded, 
mixed congregations. It was before the 
day of the young people's societies, 
where the proportion of leadership is 
largely in our sisters' hands. It was be- 
fore the day of the suft'ragette, whose 
agitation has already swept the idea of 
woman's civic rights, with a ballot, in 
triumph in ten of our states, on this very 
vast territory — "the Far West" — over 
which three lone Lutheran pastors, in 
convention assembled, were then legis- 
lating about the affairs of the future Lu- 



theran Church on this territor}-. Surely 
the World ami the Church do move! 

The Macedonian Call 

It was resolved at the first convention 
of the Synod of the West that each pas- 
tor on the territory be commissioned, by 
voice and pen, to raise the Macedonian 
cry for help and direct it to their Eastern 
brethren. Besides this, the secretary of 
synod was appointed to visit the next con- 
vention of the West Pennsylvania Synod, 
and address them on this subject, en- 
couraged as they were by the fraternal 
and encouraging letters from its presi- 
dent, Rev, F, Heyer, and one of its 
venerable members, Rev, John George 
Schmucker, D. D., of York, Pa. That 
their efforts bore immediate fruit is seen 
in the fact that, at the next year's con- 
vention of this frontier synod, at Hope- 
ful church, Boone county, Ky., the Rev. 
Ezra Keller, described as the "mission- 
ary of the East Pennsylvania Synod," 
was present among them, preached sev- 
eral sermons during the session, and 
visited certain destitute portions of the 
field. He became, under God's provi- 
dence and the agitation of this body, 
some years la^er the efficient founder of 
our institutions at Springfield, Ohio. It 
also resulted in the formation of a Cen- 
tral Missionary Society in the East, and 
Rev. F. Heyer, former president of West 
Pennsylvania Synod, was commissioned 
as "exploring missionary of the Far 
West," He accordingly covered large 
sections of this vast western field with 
much success during this and succeeding 
years'. It was, doubtless, this experience 
which led this brother, in God's provi- 
dence, to dedicate himself to foreign mis- 
sions and lay the foundations of our mod- 
ern Lutheran foreign missionary activi- 
ties in India. 

The Macedonian call was not abated 
after this help came, but, as one reviews 
this recorded account of Lutheranism in 
the West, he realizes that for these breth- 
ren on the frontier it has been the ever- 
burning question to gain more laborers 
for their important field. In every an- 
nual convention voice and attention were 

given, in large measure, to this crying 
need. And the synods have kept it up to 
the present day. It was heard at the last 
convention of that body, which now occu- 
pies but a small fraction of their original 
field — embracing only the central half of 
the great state of Illinois. The early cry 
went out to the East and across the wa- 
ters and up to God. It was always heard 
and answered, simply to be again repeat- 
ed, as the work unfolded and the needs 
increased. One by one, brilliant stars 
of the East arose to shine into this then 
dark West. U led to this destitute ter- 
ritory Revs. Sherer, father and son, both 
of whom gave their entire lives to this 
home mission work, and whose ashes 
have mingled with our prairie soil. It 
brought hither early Dr. Francis Spring- 
er, founder of our Illinois State Univer- 
sity, and promoter of all our Middle 
Western educational interests. It 
brought the famous Harkey brothers — 
Simeon W. and Sidney L. — all of whom 
gave their best years to their Church in 
these parts. It attracted and held for 
years the learned Dr. W. M. Reynolds. 
It charmed the Rev. Morris Officer, who 
here served his apprenticeship in missions 
before founding our foreign mission on 
the west coast of Africa. Later it chal- 
lenged and drew to the field Profs. Tress- 
ler, Richard and Bartholomew, educa- 
tional lights whose fame will never die. 
It induced a long list of the ablest pastors 
of the East to devote their best service to 
this territory, among whom we might 
mention Revs. Severinghaus, C. Kuhl, 
Benj. C. Suesserott, Heilman, Ephraim 
Miller, Dr. Rhodes, and others. 

Think of what hardships some of these 
pioneers endured for the establishment of 
our beloved Church in these parts ! In a 
foot-note to the published minutes of the 
second convention is related that the 
secretary was asked to explain the non- 
attendance upon synod by the Rev. D. 
vScherer. of Hillsboro, 111. He explained 
by saying that said brother and his dele- 
gate "had sent out to come, but that after 
traveling v.pwards of one hundred miles 
they were compelled to desist and to re- 
turn home, in consequence of the great 
rains and the rivers becoming impass- 



able." It reads like the annals of patri- 
archs ^luhlenberg and other pioneers in 
Pennsylvania a hundred years before. 
Already at the fifth convention of this 
pioneer synod of the Far West, which 
met in Hillsboro, 111., the clerical roll had 
grown to nineteen members, representing 
six states of the Union. 

Church Paper and Theological Seminary 

Besides the missionary enterprise,- the 
educational work of the Synod of the 
West suffered not for want of agitation 
in those pioneer days. Very early this 
synod put itself upon record as to its 
appreciation of the proper church litera- 
ture. It may be refreshing in these days 
of a new stimulus on this subject to read 
what these pioneer brethren resolved to 
do with reference to that old friend and 
fosterer of church activities, the Lutheran 
Observer. In their session of 1841, page 
21 of minutes, we read: "Resolved, as 
the Lutheran Observer has been the 
means in extending useful knowledge in 
our beloved Zion in these United States, 
and has been the means of doing much 
good ; therefore, we recommend this 
valuable paper to all classes of men in 
these United States, and especially to 
the members of the Lutheran Church." 
This came as a result of investigating the 
"Kirchenzeitung," a paper reported as 
hostile to the Observer, revivals and 
benevolent institutions, having pro- 
nounced the Lutheran Observer as "anti- 

While this support was pledged to the 
Observer, the synod had, in previous 
years, resolved its need of an English 
church paper in the West, and appointed 
its committee to establish it which how- 
ever never got any farther than the ap- 
pointing of an editor in the person of the 
Rev. Geo. Yeager who by the year 1843, 
issued a prospectus under the title of 
"The Western Lutheran Observer." 
Although he claims the number of sub- 
scribers reported as "much larger than 
that with which any paper, known to us, 
ever started in our Church in this coun- 
try," yet he cautions that "the speedy 
embarrassment that soon overtook other 

enterprises of this nature should admon- 
ish us that the course of prudence which 
has hitherto characterized the action of 
this body on this subject should be per- 
severed in." 

We know not that anything ever came 
of the enterprise of a Western English 
church paper, until ten years later Dr. F. 
W. Conrad, then a professor at Witten- 
berg, launched "The Evangelical Luther- 
an," with an Illinois department to it, in 
care of an editorial committee of this 
Synod of the West. An explanatory 
clause reads : "But we do not wish it to 
be inferred from this synodical action 
that we are displeased with, or opposed 
to, the Lutheran Observer." (See Min- 
utes, 1853, p. 14.) We wonder, was this 
the origin and forerunner of the recently 
deceased "Lutheran Evangelist?" 

As the matter of a church paper was 
long agitated by this synod, so was the 
matter of establishing a theological 
seminary and Western literary institute 
an annual topic of synodic agitation from 
1839 on to 1846, when the first begin- 
ning was made in such a school being 
founded at Hillsboro, 111. After four 
years this was transferred to Springfield, 
III, under the title of the Illinois State 
University. This institution did good 
work for twenty years, amid constant 
financial embarrassments, till the split of 
the Church came in 1867, and the begin- 
ning of the General Council. In 1869 
our interests were transferred to the 
founding of Carthage College. The 
Springfield school is now in the hands 
of the Missouri Synod as one of their 
theological seminaries. Such are the vi- 
cissitudes of church papers and church 
schools. Carthage has had her ups and 
downs, but in these latter days she is 
being firmly established and has en- 
graven upon her all present-day activi- 
ties : "CartJiago nan delenda est!" 


The proceedings of synod abound, in 
the first two or three decades, with re- 
ports of refreshing revivals occurring 
during the meetings of synod. Frequent- 
ly the preaching and exhorting of large 



congreg"ati()ns of penitent sinners to turn 
to Christ, and the ai(Hni^, by the custo- 
mary exercises of prayer and song, of 
these "seekers" into the experience of a 
res:^cnerate life, interrupted and delayed 
the business of synod. Thus, at the meet- 
ing in Hillsboro, 111., in 183CJ, a remark- 
able awakening" occurred from a sermon 
jireached by Rev. A. Reck, from i Peter 
i. 3-4, which was followed with a power- 
ful exhortation by Rev. Wm. Jenkins. It 
is reported that "silence reigned through 
the house, save the voice of the speaker 
only, and here and there a half-sup- 
pressed sigh or groan, which burst in- 
voluntarily forth from the heaving 
breasts of deeply convicted sinners. The 
whole congregation became more or less 
moved. The place became truly awful 
and glorious ; and it seemed that the time 
had come when a decided effort must be 
made upon the kingdom of darkness, and 
that under such circumstances to shrink 
from the task and through fear of pro- 
ducing a little temporary disorder to re- 
fuse to go heartily into the work, would 
have been nothing short of downright 
spiritual murder. This surely was not 
the stopping point. Accordingly, those 
who especially felt desirous of an inter- 
est in the prayers of God's people were 
directed to kneel at their seats, when 
probably between fifty and one hundred 
persons were seen prostrating themselves 
on their knees before God, and thus be- 
fore heaven and earth testifying to the 
lost condition in which they felt them- 
selves. After this the scene became still 
more interesting. For the sake of con- 
venience, the mourners were invited to 
convenient seats, for the purpose of af- 
fording the brethren an opportunity of 
conversing freely with them upon their 
condition and imparting instruction. Thus 
the meeting continued in singing, ex- 
hortation and prayer until a very late 
hour, when it was thought best to close, 
but the people, though invited to return 
at an early hour in the morning, were still 
loathe to leave the house — so holy and 
blessed had the place become to many. 
About eighteen or twenty professions 
of religion were tWc fruits of this even- 
ing's meeting." 

Xext morning the meeting opened with 
an early prayer-meeting, largely attend- 
ed. This meeting is further apologeti- 
cally described as follows : "That it was 
altogether orderly, which some who are 
]:)articularly conscientious and scrupulous 
about getting even a little 'iukeivarm,' 
and much more so about being 'hot' 
might doubt. But be their views as they 
may, if there was a flood of burning tears 
shed — of sorrow and repentance by con- 
victed sinners, and of joy and gladness 
by converted believers ; some audible 
weeping, sighing and groaning ; some 
moving about and shaking of hands ; or 
a number instructing, exhorting or pray- 
ing at once ; or even some clapping of 
hands and shouts of glory, it is likely 
yet that the meeting had an order, pe- 
culiar in its nature and very much simi- 
lar, to that observed at Jerusalem by the 
apostles on the day of Pentecost. This' 
meeting continued until it was necessary 
to give place for the transaction of sy- 
nodical business. But the tardy move- 
ments of the people, and especially of the 
distressed, and their lingering looks as 
they withdrew, clearly indicated that they 
felt themselves still unwilling to leave the 
house of the Lord.'' 

Similar graphic descriptions of the old- 
time revivals occurring during the con- 
ventions of those early meetings of synod 
are repeatedly given, whole pages often 
being occupied in a detailed account of 
results of these efforts. Whatever may 
be said, pro or con, of these services, it is 
evident that their character was' adapted 
to the pioneer work of the Church in 
these parts ; that the early laborers were 
in earnest, as they frequently met for 
preaching several days before synod, 
holding public prayer-meetings at sun- 
rise ; and that these special efforts were 
blessed by the conversion and reception 
into church membership of scores of 
souls during a single convention of synod. 

Quaint Exfressio)is 

In scanning the file of the minutes we 
came across a number of expressions that 
seem either antiquated or a quaint em- 
/>loy of phrases. Some of them the older 



men of the day may remember, but to 
the younger generation they must sound 
strange, or quite obsolete. We quote a 

In the report of the first convention, 
held in 1834, the Sabbath preaching and 
communion services are said to have last- 
ed nearly five hours, with a prevailing 
deep solemnity. Then comes this sen- 
tence : 'On this occasion, the stately step- 
pings of Prince Emanuel were evidently 
seen and felt by many." It records an- 
other service which occurred "in the 
evening at candle light." No electric 
lights then in all the world. 

At a later session it was decided that 
"either Bishop or Reverend was a proper 
title" to designate the ministry by. After 
that it frequently happened that more 
than a dozen "bishops" of the Lutheran 
Church attended this little synod of the 
^'Far West." 

In connection with a published state- 
ment of the doctrinal position of our 
Church, defense is made of the Lutheran 
mode of baptism against the Immersion- 
ists. Yet love for all true disciples of 
Jesus is affirmed, by whatever mode one 

may have received Christian baptism. 
"All that is absolutely essential is, that 
they stand upon the rock and only foun- 
dation. * * * We are fully sensible that 

Were love, in the world's last doting years, 

As frequent as the want of it appears, 

The churches warmed, they would no longer 

Such frozen fingers, stiff as they are cold; 
Relenting forms would lose their power, or 

And e'en the DIPT and SPRINKLED live in 

peace ; 
Each heart would quit its prison in the breast, 
And flow in free communion with the rest.' " 

— Coivper. 

Prayer is frequently alluded to in the 
earlier minutes as "an address to the 
Throne of Grace" — an expression sel- 
dom heard in these modern days. 

Whilst we might continue these quo- 
tations, we feel that we have already 
prolonged these articles beyond proper 
limitations. We hope they may prove 
as interesting a sidelight of church life 
to our readers as the research has been 
to the writer. — The Lutheran Observer. 

(NOTE 1) — Rev. Daniel Sherer was the first Lutheran 
•clerical pioneer to settle in the present State of 
Illinois. In 1S32 he made a visiting and missionary 
exploration tour on horse-back from his home in North 
Carolina to the newly opened settlements of the then 
"far West." He travelled over 1700 miles on horse- 
back, visiting some old friends of his own State who 
had settled in the new State of Illinois. It was the 
persuasive desire of these Lutheran brethren, lost and 
scattered on civilization's frontier, and thirsting for 
the Gospel stream, that led him to sell his home and 
resign his charge in North Carolina and spend him- 
self and his meager means on this pioneer territory 
in the establishment of the Lutheran Church. He 
moved hither the same year, settling at Hillsboro, 
Montgomery County, 111. It took him and his fam- 
ily si.x weeks to make the journey by horse and wagon 
conveyance. Some years later his eldest son, Jacob, 
was sent to our Institution at Gettysburg to take his 
college and Seminary training for the ministry, com- 
pelled by lack of means and facility of travel to remain 
away from home during all this period of seven years. 
When he finally graduated with highest honors and 
took as wife Rev. Daniel (iotwald's dausliter. of 
Aarousburg, Pa. They settled in this I'raire State, hav- 

ing naught but a hut for shelter and extemporized fur- 
niture, bed and table made of rails and rough planks. 
Father and son died the same year, 1S52, and are 
buried in prairie soil. 

(NOTE 2) — The Synod of the West might be 
termed the "Mother Synod" of the West, for of her 
have been born about twenty local Synods, occupying 
the original territory and the vast bounds beyond its ] 
then Western boundaries, which was limited by settle- 
ment. These General Synod district Synods are not | 
the only Lutheran Synods occupying this vast territory; I 
but besides these have sprung up the Synodic Confer- 
ence with its many branches, now enrolling over half 
a million members, most of German birth, and a num- 
ber of flourishing Synods of the General Council, chiefly 
Scandinavian, and several independent Synods swelling 
the Lutheran host on this territory to upwards of one 
million communicant members. Surely the past has 
been a developing century, for the Mississippi Valley 
and the German and Scandinavian elements have been 
as important factors as tlie native .American. — P. C. C. 

Extracts from the Diary of the 
Bethlehem Congregation, 1756 

Note. — These "extracts" arc reproduced 
from "The Moravian," of July 6 and July 
13. 1910. — Editor. 

January i. News came to Bethlehem, 
that the Indians had laid waste with fire 
and tomahawk, on the plains 6 miles 
from Christian's Spring". Bro. She- 
bosch^ also returned, who, along wdth 
others, had accompanied the provision 
wagons bound to Gnadenhuetten, but 
when within two miles, learned that it 
had been attacked in the afternoon by the 

January 2. Some brethren, who were 
sent to meet the returning wagons, came 
back safely. If the wagons had been sent 
out yesterday one hour earlier, 12 breth- 
ren, 12 horses and three wagons would 
have fallen into the hands of the Indians. 
They brought news that Gnadenhuetten 
was in ruins and the enemy held their 
ground.- They also brought back a num- 
ber of wounded from the garrison there. 
An express was sent to the Commission- 
ers at Reading, and early in the morning 
Bro. Spangenberg went to Easton to con- 
sult with Major (William) Parsons, 
how a message might be sent to the In- 
dians on the Susquehanna, who were 
friendly to the Government, and who un- 
doubtedly were in terror. 

Towards evening upwards of icxd poor 
fugitives were received at Bethlehem and 
in the Crown Tavern ; we scarcely know 
how or where to accommodate them. 
Our meetings were conducted as usual. 

January 3. In a meeting in which let- 
ters were' read from friends in Philadel- 
phia and New York, Bro. Spangenberg 
remarked, that no stronger fort could be 
built than the one w-e had, for we had 
our Saviour with us, among us, and on 
our side. 

After dinner the remains of Anna 
Charitv, our first fruits of the Shawnese, 

were buried by Bro. (John J.) Schmick. 
Anna Charity, alias Nenny, was born in 
North Carolina, not far from the Wach- 
ovia Tract. Her father and mother were 
both Shawnese. The mother having been 
captured by the Mohawks, her daughter 
was born ; the mother died shortly after 
and Nenny was raised by her sister on 
the milk and meat of the calabash. Later 
she was sent to Wyoming, and thence 
lived among the whites. In 1747 she 
visited Bethlehem, decided to remain 
.there, and helped in the Sister's wash- 
house. The following year she was sent 
to Fredericktow^n and helped there faith- 
fully, and was baptized by de Watteville. 

More fugitives arrived, so that we are 
really becoming the frontier people. Their 
condition is miserable in the extreme — 
half naked — children — women and men 
— amid the excessive cold — some wound- 
ed, wailing and weeping — having lost all 
they possessed. 

January 4. The express returned from 
Reading w^ith a letter from the Governor, 
that he w^ould again hold Gnadenhuetten, 
and cover the upper places. Bro. (Dan- 
iel) Sydrich went to New York, as ex- 
press on his Majesty's service. 

January 5. To-day we received reliable 
information that the enemy on New 
Year's Day had irrupted three different 
localities in our neighborhood, viz., Gna- 
denhuetten, the Irish Settlement and the 
Plains behind Christian's Spring. Since 
that time the people fled to us in num- 
bers, and it is a comfort to us, that com- 
passionate people send them provisions. 
The poor country people are sadly off. 

Januarx 6. Heathen Festival. Bro. 
(B. A.) Grube baptized a blind old In- 
dian conjurer, who had come from Gna- 
denhuetten with the others; given the 
name of Simon. 

January 7. Benjamin Franklin, one of 




the Commissioners, arrived from Read- 
ing, as Captain General of our county. 
Bro. Spangenberg, in the name of the 
congregation, waited on him. 

January 8. At present we have up- 
wards of 400 people in Bethlehem more 
than usual, including 70 Indians. Two 
of our wagons went to Nazareth, under 
escort, with provisions, and thence the 
Nazareth teams will transprt them to the 
soldiers beyond the Blue Mountains. 

January 9. Word was sent to the Alle- 
mangel brethren, that Bethlehem was 
open for them. 

January 10. During dinner, at which 
Franklin was present, some musical se- 
lections were played for him. 

January 11. Franklin very attentive 
at preaching; Bro. Reinke's text was 
I John 3 : 8. Capt. Volk with a company 
from Allemangel arrived. 

January 12. Although we up to this 
time took all care to keep our children 
ignorant of the dangerous condition of 
affairs, yet as they will learn some things 
from the strangers in the place, we 
thought it necessary to tell them all, and 
this Bro. Spangenberg did. It was re- 
marked that the Indians had said that 
it was their intention to have extermin- 
ated all the Indians in the Forks, before 
their great day, i. e., Christmas. 

To-day our brethren began the work 
of building a new saw-mill, as the one 
on the Mahoning was burned, and we 
can't do well without saw-mills. 

January 14. A quiet day, except the 
shouting of the soldiers over at the 

January 15. At noon Franklin broke 
up his quarters here, and accompanied by 
Bro. Edmunds, set out for Gnadenhuet- 

January 16. Bro. Senseman sent as 
express to the Governor on the Susque- 
hanna, with letters from Franklin. Th» 
soldiers and many of the fugitives have 

Ja)iuary 17. Another c(jmpany of sol- 
diers arrived, who are to join Franklin. 

January H). To-day we experienced 
another instance of the providential care 
of our Saviour. Only two of our people, 
Servas^ and Peter Hoffman, who are 

among the fugitives at Nazareth, in com- 
pany with a party on the way to Hoeth's 
to look after their cattle, were so shocked 
at the swearing of the soldiers who went 
as an escort, that they turned back, and 
thus escaped the fate of the others at the 
hands of the Indians. Among those kill- 
ed was Christian l^oemper, whose father 
warned him not to go. 

January 20. A poor wounded servant 
of Christian Boemper has been brought 
here for treatment ; some of the wounded^ 
who had been under the care of Dr. 
Otto, were so far recovered as to make 
room for others here. 

January 22. To-day the soldiers who 
arrived on the 17th, and had been quar- 
tered at the Crown, left to join Franklin. 
Bro. Shebosch accompanied them at the 
request of Bro. Edmunds, who says the 
troops are busy fortifying themselves. 

January 26. We heard that Franklin 
was encouraged in his plan of defending 
the country, and was in earnest to build 
forts on the frontier, every 15 miles, and 
the more so, as it had been ascertained 
from whites, who had escaped froim the 
Indians, that the French designed to make 
Pennsylvania the theatre of the war. 

Solomon Davis' wife, who came here a 
fugitive, and whose child was born last 
week, died, and was buried across the Le- 

January 27. News was received that 
some Indians had taken up a position 6 
miles north of Nazareth, in a deserted 
house, whence they make sallies, as far 
down as Nazareth. 

January 29. A petition was sent to the 
Commissioners in the name of the Breth- 
ren, in behalf of the fugitives here and at 
Nazareth, concerning their future main- 

Dr. [J. M.] Otto amputated the arm of 
Christian Boemper's boy. A spy seen 
this evening with a burning torch, but 
he was frightened away. 

January 30. Our watchmen, 80 in 
numl)er, had their lovefeast, in which S])angenberg made some remarks. 
In the present crisis watchfulness was 
necessary; and it was found that noth- 
ing so harassed and baffled the enemy 
as watching. Up to this time, silent 



watching- seemed only to allure the In- 
dians, therefore it had been agreed to 
cliallenge the passerby, and also to in- 
dicate ihc hours by striking the bell, as 
also tlie changes of the watch. Our 
wagon that had taken provisions to Fort 
Allen, returned. 

January 31. IJros. [C. F. ] Post and 
[Francis] liluin went as express to Fort 
Allen, with a letter from the Governor 
to ])ro. Edmunds. 

February 3. As Ih'o. [J. F. | Oerter 
in future is to be our bookkeeper and 
Bro. [John J Okel}- our treasurer, Bro. 
Eberhard closed the books. We found 
that in the last few months, we must 
have taken up some £700 capital. 
We are thankful it was not more, 
as we had made a great loss at 
IVIahoning. not less than £2000 ; further- 
more, during the late troubles nearly all 
our trades were stopped, and on ac- 
count of a failure in crops we had to 
bu}- u]^ much grain. 

fcbruary 4. l5ros. I'ost and I'.lum re- 
turned from Fort Allen, and soon after 
Franklin and Bro. Edmunds, under escort 
of 30 soldiers, en route for the Assembly 
at I'liiladeljihia. 

February 5. To-day 11 wagon loads 
of provisions came from Philadelphia 
for the soldiers posted in our counties. 

February 9. Many watches changed 
into silent patrols — consisting of 8 
brethren, the half of whom, excepting 
the ordinary night watchman, will al- 
ternately for an hour patrol in and about 
Bethlehem during the nights. 

Carl Volck was appointed captain, b}- 
his promise to protect xA.llemangel. 

I'ebruary 12. Bro. Shebosch returned 
from Fort Xorris. who. at the request of 
Franklin, guided the soldiers who garri- 
son it. .\bout twenty-tive came down 
for provisions, who report that they can 
not find any Indians up there, neither by 
night or day. 

February 13. The 190 fugitives, whc^ 
since Xevv Year have been with us, have, 
excepting 60, ventured to return to their 
farms or to look elsewhere for others. 

February 18. Xews came of a second 
unexpected attack of Indians at Alleman- 

February 22. P,ro. Edmunds returned 
from the Assembly. [He went back on 
the 29th.] 

March 2. In the night the deepest 
snow of the Winter fell. 

Mareli 3. Henry Fry and .\nton 
Schmidt returned home and brought 
news that our house in Shamokin was 
burned, and that the Mohegans, who 
had migrated from Gnadenhuetten to 
Wyoming, had gone up to Tioga; that 
Paxnous and the other Shawnese still 
lived there, and appeared friendly to the 

March 5. Nicholas Garrison went as 
express to New York, on government 

March 8. News of new Indian mur- 
ders above Nazareth, and fugitives 
again seek refuge at Friedensthal. 

Marcli 26. Rumors of Indian atroci- 
ties at Allamangel. 

Af>ril 14. To-day four little children, 
whose parents had been murdered last 
Sunday, 6 miles from Gnadenhuetten, 
were brought to Justice [Timothy] 

Af>ril 24. Capt. [John] Arndt, a fine, 
modest man. marched through with his 
company. He was present at the chil- 
dren's lovefeast and was much pleased. 
Our wagon returned .safely from Gnad- 
enhuetten, with a load of old iron col- 
lected by the soldiers. 

April 2/. Caught 600 shad in the Le- 

April 28. Bro. Spangenberg returned 
from Philadel])hia. and soon after David 
Zeisberger and [Jacob] Lischer, with 
three Indians, who are being sent by 
the Government with propositions of 
peace to the Delawares at Wyoming and 
the Susf|uehanna. Our Indian. Bro. 
Augustus, is to accomi)any them at the 
request of the Government. 

.Ipril 29. The four Indians and the 
two gentlemen who accompanied them 
from Philadelphia, dined with Bro. 

Towards evening Stephen Blum re- 
turned from Fort Allen, who had taken 
up an order for Capt. \"olk from the 
Ccwernor. He reported that the pre- 
vious week the soldiers there had found 



a corpse in a thicket at the sand spring, 
which, according to all accounts, was 
that of Bro. [Martin] Presser. He was 
dressed, lying on his back, not scalped, 
but shot in the right side. The corpse 
had been buried by Captain Volk, while 
a Moravian hymn was recited. 

May I. Augustus, with the three In- 
dians, set out for the Susquehanna. 

May II. lost Vollert, whose farm we 
purchased, left for Easton with his fam- 

May 14. A brother went as "land- 
bote," with a notification to all the La- 
borers, that the Governor had appointed 
the 2 1 St inst. as a Fast and Prayer Day. 
We live, continues the diarist, in wonder- 
ful times; we hear of earthquakes, war 
and bloodshed ; small-pox and sickness 
and hail storms. On the 12th inst., the 
hail broke windows and tiles on roofs, 
and destroyed trees and grain. The dis- 
trict back of Nazareth, Friedensthal and 
Christian's Spring is quite desolated by 

May 18. As the days are growing 
longer, the rising bell is rung at 4.15; 
morning blessing, 4.30; at 8 p. m., sing- 
ing meeting. 

May 19. Augustus and three Indians 
returned today from their embassy to the 
Delawares on the Susquehanna. They 
came down the Lehigh under, escort of 
Capt. Volk's company, and being tired, 
according to Indian custom, they de- 
layed the announcement of good news 
until to-morrow. 

May 20. Bro. Stauber was sent as 
express to the Governor at Harris Ferry 
[now Harrisburg], with intelligence of 
the arrival of the embassy from Dia- 

Among the news we learned, we are 
glad that Augustus had seen and spoken 
to Paxnous, Abraham, and their fami- 
lies, and other of our Indian acquaint- 
ance, who are all well and sent us hearty 
greetings. The Indians that had been 
in connection with us, had taken no part 
in the late atrocities, but had warned the 
French Indians and had led many to de- 
sert. We learned for certain that the 
hostile Indians three times attempted to 
fire Bethlehem and our upper settlements 

at one and the same time. It now ap- 
pears as if the Indians are willing to 
make peace on certain conditions. 

May 21. We kept Prayer Day. Bro. 
Edmunds and others accompanied the 
Indians to Philadelphia. 

June 2. The Nursery removed to 
Nazareth, amid the sound of trombones 
from the Single Brethren's House and 
songs of the children, who were posted 
along the lane through which they iiad 
to pass. 

June 4. The ]\Iarried Brethren mov- 
ed to-day out of the Clergy House into 
their own house, which since December, 
1755, had been given up for the Nursery. 
June 10. Commenced building a 
Summer hut for our Indians (who up 
to this time have been lodged very 
crowdedly), 60x15 feet, of logs, and to 
contain dwelling and chapel. 

June 20. The Indian Captain New 
Castle and retinue, and Capt. Jacobsen, 
of our Irene, visited here to-day. 

June 21. Bro. [Daniel] Sydrich was 
sent as express to the Governer with the 
following intelligence : In the night there 
came, to our great surprise, the Indian 
Nicodemus* and his son Christian from 
Diahoga, to seek safety and a place of 
refuge here, with intelligence that fif- 
teen Indians were on the road thither 
with some object in view, and were wait- 
ing one and a half days' journey from^ 
here. Capt. New Castle and party and 
the brethren Edmunds and [George] 
Klein prepared to bring them here, as 
New Castle thought that the Indians 
would be nowhere as safe as in Bethle- 

June 24. Towards evening came the 
Indians from Diahoga, viz., Joe Pepy* 
and family and Nicodemus' family, fif- 
teen in number, under escort from Fort 
Allen, and were quartered on the south 
side of the Lehigh, awaiting orders from' 
the Governor. Two brethren were put 
in charge of them. 

June 27. New Castle and his party 
left for Diahoga. 

June 28. Bro. T. Frederick Otto and 
wife went to Philadelphia to visit old 
Mrs. Benezet, at her request. 



July I. In the night a spy was again 
seen, but chased away. 

July 2. A German lieutenant, with 
several sub-officers, came here to recruit 
in this neighborhood. 

July 4. Bro. Stauber a few days ago 
was sent to Philadelphia to inform the 
Governor, that the hostile Indians were 
again marching towards the frontiers. 

July 5. Late in the evening came 
Paxnous' youngest son and son-in-law, 
besides three Shawnese Indians, from 
Diahoga, under escort from Fort Allen, 
with a letter of recommendation from 
Capt. Newcastle, and intelligence that 
old Paxnous had gone to Col. Johnson, 
to hold a council. 

July 6. The reapers went out into the 
fields amid music of French horns, and 
several Indian brethren as a guard while 
they work, and to patrol the woods. 

Jidy 7. Nathaniel Seidel and Benzien 
went to the Governor, on behalf of the 
Brethren, to insist that he remove the 
strange Indians'. 

July TO. In the prayer-meeting were 
present four of the Indians (in the little 
gallery), some of whom for a certainty, 
are known to be of the murderers at the 

July II. The above mentioned In- 
dians left, well pleased, for Diahoga. We 
provided them with provisions. 

July 12. Bros. Seidel and Benzien re- 
turned with assurances from the Gover- 
nor, that the strange "Indians here, as 
well as those expected, should be cared 
for at Easton. 

July 14. Began to gather currants, to 
make wine. 

July 15. Bros. Edmonds. Klein and 
Werner, Jr., went to Fort Allen, to meet 
Captain Newcastle, who had sent word, 
that he was on the way from Diahoga 
with some Indians. 

July 17. Towards evening came Capt. 
Newcastle from Fort Allen, as Commis- 
sioner of the Government in the pros- 
pective treaty, and some .^o Indians, men, 
women and children. They were enter- 
tained over night. There is a so-called 
Delaware King among them. [Tedyus- 

Jul\ 18. William Parsons came from 

Easton, under orders of the Governor, 
to escort the strange Indians thither. 
Capt. Newcastle, with his interpreter and 
some Indians, went with Bro. Edmonds 
to the Governor in Philadelphia. 

July 19. On all of our plantations, 
200 persons are at present bringing in 
the harvest. Bro. Schmick went up yes- 
terday with some of our Indians to Naz- 
areth, to guard the harvesters. 

In the evening Bro. Spangenberg 
spoke to the congregation about In- 
dian affairs. Now there remain here 
still Joe Pepy and family, and Nico- 
demus and family, who, when they 
heard that they were to go to Eas- 
ton, were sad, and said that they would 
not have come with their women and 
children. We agreed to keep their fami- 
lies to the close of the treaty. By 
Joachim, who arrived on the 17th, we 
were confirmed in the report we had 
heard before of our Sr. Susanna Nitsch- 
mann. We at first thought she had been 
burned to death with the others at Gnad- 
enhuetten, now we knew for certain that 
she was carried a prisoner to Wyoming. 
There she saw Abraham's wife, Sarah, 
who clasped her hands over her head and 
exclaimed, "There is a sister!" Abigail, 
Benjamin's wife, had taken her into their 
hut and waited on her, as much as she 
could, before she was taken to Diahoga. 
There she fell a martyr to such a mar- 
tyrdom, the like of which since the exis- 
tence of our Church has not occurred, a 
suffering above all suffering. She had 
done nothing day or night but weep, 
and while other white women, after the 
first fright and terror was over, became 
bold and gay, the eyes of our sister never 
became dry, and her grief terminated in 
a malady, which ended in her death on 
May 6th. 

Julx 20. Thirty single sisters went to 
Nazareth to pull flax, under escort of 
four Indians and Pro. Matthew Otto. 

J}ily 24. Some Quakers visited here, 
among them Anthony Benezet, who left 
for Easton. 

July 25. To-day Brn. Seidel, David 
Zeisberger, Shebosch and Horsfield left 
to attend the treaty. 



July 26. Conrad Weisser marched 
through with his troops to Easton. 

July 30. The four brethren returned 
-from Easton; there are hopes that we 
will have peace again. 

July 31. From Easton returned Bro. 
Edmonds, the Assemblyman of our 
county, with the Indians and their escort, 
on their return to Diahoga. 

August 3. Capt. Newcastle, who had 
risked his life to have peace restored, and 
who looks upon the Brethren as a people 
of God, left for home and took with 
him all the strange Indians. 

Aui^ust 4. Bro. Okely is engaged in 
bringing into order the deeds of our con- 
gregation houses and churches in the 

August 5. Day and night watches 
still continued. 

Augu>st 10. David and Anna Bishop, 
with five others, set out for Wachovia. 

August 17. We had an unpleasant 
visit from Tedyuscung. the Delaware 
king, and some other Indians. Their er- 
rand was evidently to frighten away our 
Indians, and especially Theodora. 

August 19. News from Allemangel, 
that Indians threatened an attack. Some 
of our neighbors passed through here to 
])laces of safety. 

August 21. This evening came Tedy- 
uscung's wife and children ; he had gone 
up to the Minnisinks to stop murders. 

August 22. Bro. Spangenberg an- 
nounced in meeting the arrival at Phila- 
delphia of .Gov. Denny, and observed 
that, as it is the custom of all denomina- 
tions to show respect, he communicated 
their address to the new Governor. 

Xoveviher i. Examinations of Chil- 
dren's Schools. After dinner all the 
boys came into the "Gemeinsaal" and 
were examined by their preceptors, in 
the presence of the clergy, in spelling, 
orthography, German and English read- 
ing and arithmetic. Later the same was 
done by the sisters with the Madgen An- 
stalt — each Anstalt (school) had at close 
of the examination a lovefeast. Spin- 
ning, knitting and needlework were ex- 
liibited. Bro. Albreclit with his music 

scholars performed in the gallery. Of 
199 children, not one was absent on ac- 
count of sickness. 

Xoz'ciuber 2. Bro. Schlegel, from 
Lebanon, brought news that the hostile 
Indians still lurked about the Swatara, 
and within five days recently 17 persons 
were wounded or killed, and that all of 
the brethren were collected in the school- 

A^ovciubcr 5. Council resolved to 
strengthen the watch, as there was new 
danger from Indians. Bro. Zeisberger 
was sent in inform the Governor, and 
Bro. Horsfield went to Easton to notify 
Col. Weisser. 

Xoi'oiibcr 7. In congregation coun- 
cil the topic was the threatened attack on 
Bethlehem, of which our friends inform- 
ed us. Resolved to keep good watch and 
make all preparations to keep off harm. 
In case of an attack, the sisters were told 
to retire to their rooms and keep quiet. 

A'ovember 8. To-day we began to 
keep our "friihstunde" between 4 and 5 
o'clock, all through Winter, on account 
of the critical times. Many other prep- 
arations were made in view of an at- 
tack, viz., the back doors and windows 
were walled up, the watches strength- 
ened, watch hansel (huts) built, etc. 

N'oT'cuibcr 9. To-day the first fugi- 
tives came here for refuge, viz.. Chris- 
tian Boemper's widow and children. 

November 12. Forty-two men, wom- 
en and children, of the Brethren at Alle- 
mangel. came here as refugees. 

November 17. Towards evening Gov. 
Denny and suite came to Bethlehem, 
looked about and visited our Indians. 
"You must indeed," said he, "live very 
happy here." At 9 p. m.. while at sup- 
per, music was performed. 

November 18. The Governor and 
suite left for the capital. As he passed 
b\' he was saluted by all the brethren and 
children, and the "Posaunen" (trom- 
bones) blew until he crossed the Lehigh. 
Col. Weisser with his company, escorting 
the Indians from Easton, encamped here 
over night. 

November 19. In a council, the topic 
was the result of the agreement between 



the Governor and the Inchans. He had 
invited them and others to come here 
next Spring, to meet Sir Wilham John- 
son, the agent of Indian Affairs, to fully 
agree upon terms of peace. Resolved to 
continue to keep watch, as hostile In- 
dians are not to be trusted. 

Xovcmhcr 26. The children from Al- 
Icn^angel were sent up to Nazareth. 
Many wild Indians passed through from 
Port Allen on the way to Philadelphia. 

November 30. Bro. John Bechtel 
went U) Philadel])hia on affairs of our 
county — he was cited by the Assembly. 
He took with him, at the express request 
of the Governor, a list of the inhabitants 
of Bethlehem and Nazareth. 

December 4. A letter from the Gov- 
ernor requests us to entertain the Indians 
from the Susquehanna, as they desired 
to stay here, and would go nowhere else, 
and it was for the good of the country. 

December 15. A Provincial tax has 
been levied — at the rate of 6d per £ — 
ours amounts to £93., viz., £30. on our 
estates, and £6t^. for 126 single brethren 
at 10 shillings per capita. 

December 16. At noon arrived Brn. 
Boehler, Ecksparre, William Boehler, 
Pohle and Renter from Europe. 

December 24. Bro. Boehler remarked 
that it was sixteen years since he kept 
the vigils of Christmas here in the Forks 
of the Delaware, in what is now the 
widows' house at Nazareth ; and fifteen 
years since the Count [Zinzendorf] held 
them in tlie stable ; and fourteen years 
since they were held in the present little 

December 31. Population of Bethle- 
hem, including Indian fugitives, 741. 
During the year, 2 Indian children were 
born; 3 Indians died, among them Sim- 
eon, a Delaware, aged 70 years. In 
March a Synod was held at Salisbury. 
September was the quietest month of the 
year "from without." In October, news 
was received of the death of Countess 
Zinzendorf. During the year 500 acres 
of land were added to the Moravian 
domain, and the Indians and white fugi- 
tives helped us to clear land. — The Mor- 

Noie 1.— Shebosch, i.e. Iinnninij Water, the name 
Riven him by the Indians. John .Joseph Bull of 
Quaker ancestry, united with the Brethren, entered 
tbe Indian Mission, and served in Pennsylvania and 
the West. He married Christina, a iVIohegan convert. 

Note 2 — Gnadenhuetten East was totally des- 
troyed, the company of Provincials stationed there 
havmg been surprised and and cut to pieces. 

Note 3.— Formerly a member of the Philadelphia 

Note 4.— Halt brother of Teedyuscung, and had 
been baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff. 

Note 5.— Joe Pepy, ahas WeholohihuiuJ. was ori- 
ginally from Cranberry, N. J. and one of Brainerds 
Indians. Before the Indian war he had resided in the 
Craig Settlement near Lehigh Gap. 

An Appreciation of Dr. Basil L. Gildersleeve, 
of Johns Hopkins University. 

Delivered by Dr. E. F. Smith, Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania at the Commers of the Goettinger Verein at the 
University Club, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 10, 1913. 

It has often been said that our under- 
graduate collegiate system of education 
bears' the stamp of Cambridge or Oxford, 
notwithstanding a more careful search of 
archives has revealed that to the Scotch 
universities are we indebted for what we 
called the American plan. It is a noble 
plan, regardless of its origin, and today 
there are those who pray that it may be 
restored to us in its pristine vigor. We 
sadly need it. Perhaps, it did not en- 
kindle in us the desire for research, now 
so highly prized, for upon asking whence 
came the incentive to investigate, there 
promptly comes answer — from the Great 
Fatherland, which so imbued and dom- 
inated the thoughts of those of our coun- 
try-men who frequented its Universities, 
that all concede to this part of our in- 
tellectual development a decidedly Ger- 
man imprint. 

Out from the Halls of Old Nassau in 
1849, went a young Bachelor of Arts, 
born and reared in our beautiful South- 
land. With eager, expectant enthusiasm 
he now looked out upon the great world 
of promise, hoping to find somewhere his 
own peculiar niche. Shortly thereafter 
he might have been seen sitting at the 
feet of his Gamaliel — the renowned 
Franz of Berlin, who out of the joy of 
his heart proclaimed this 3^outh of prom- 
ise — Chrysobrachion. Under Schneide- 
win, sixty years ago. Georgis Augusta 
placed her approving hand upon his head 
and bestowed upon him first Doctorate. 
All interested in education in this coun- 
try know the power Basil Gildersleeve 
has been in the land. They jrladlv tes- 

tify that his studies have been most 
potent in giving America a permanent 
and honorable position in the great world 
of scholarship. Greek has been the idol 
of this master all these years. Although 
a grammarian of undisputed rank, it 
is the life, the philosophy, the spirit of 
the Greeks which he has so vividly in- 
terpreted for US', thus demonstrating that 
"the kingdom of Hellenism is within the 
man.'' Read his edition of The Apolo- 
gies of Justin Martyr, "which," he says, 
"I used unblushingly as a repository for 
my syntactical formulae," and then his 
brilliant introduction to The Odes of Pin- 
dar — the great lyric poet of Ancient 
Greece, whose writings abound every- 
thing with the greatest imaginative bold- 
ness, and you will immediately compre- 
hend why, as Professor of Greek at the 
University of Virginia from 1856 to 
1876, and in the same capacity at Johns 
Hopkins University since 1876, and even 
in the secondary schools, where his edi- 
tions of the Classics have been read, 
there came "a. quickening of Greek stud- 
ies." Then too, will you grasp the mean- 
ing of the sentence "the function of the 
teacher is mainly the introduction to the 
love or the loves of one's life." Further 
in the American Journal of Philology, 
founded by him in t88o, and manv times 
elsewhere, he emphasizes his conviction 
that the true aim of scholarship "is that 
which is" and in his Heleas and Hes- 
peria, a charming volume, there is laid 
bare the aspiration of a great soul to- 
wards the highest ideals. 

And, to-night, this eminent scholar. 




this enthusiastic, untiring" investij^ator, 
this superb teacher — upon the sixtieth 
anniversary of his admission to the Doc- 
torate of our Ahna Mater, sits with us. 
We are truly proud of hini, of his at- 
tainments and of his manly virtues. The 
world knows him. Learned societies and 
universities on both continents have 
freely and gladly awarded him their 
hig-hest honors. We have asked him here 
just to tell him how happy we are on 
his account, how rejoiced we are that 
he has accomplished such wonderful 
things, not only for himself but for his 
people. His name is destined to go 
down to posterity and it will be one with 
whicli the historian must conjure when 

he shall write of America's place in the 
world of scholarly thought and endeavor. 
One and all of us extend him hearty con- 
gratulations, and I know that I voice the 
sentiment of everyone in his presence 
when I add, — 

Sir Doctor, it is good of you, 

That thus you condescend, to-day, 

Among this crowd of merry folk, 

A highly-learned man, to stray. 

Then also take the finest can, 

We fill with fresh wine, for your sake: 

I offer it, and humbly wish 

That not alone your thirst it slake — 

That, as the drops below its brink. 

So manv davs of life vou drink ! 

Plain Living. That simple living 

permitted her to live 
many years was the 
firm belief of Mrs. 
Mary Lisek, who is dead here, aged 103 
years. She was probably the oldest per- 
son in northern Indiana. Mrs. Lisek was 
born in Germany in March, 1809, where 
she lived until about twent3^-five years 
ago, when she came to South Bend. Two 
children, eighteen grandchildren and 
twenty-eight great-grandchildren survive 
her. She had enjoyed good health until 
two years ago, when she became paralyz- 
ed. Mrs. Lisek attributed her long life 
to plain living and moderation in eating. 
Indianapolis Nezvs. 

Some Claims of Allentown, Pa., thru 

Aiientown, Pa. its Chamber of Com- 

merce, claims the fol- 
lowing among many 
other attractions: population, 65,000; 
number of buildings. 15,387; city real 
estate, $50,000,000 ; 59 churches ; 5 col- 
leges, 4 railroads with 73 daily trains ; 
7,500 pupils in public schools; 1.250 mer- 
cantile establishments; 18 cement com- 
panies with 34 mills in Lehigh flistrict; 

nearly 600 diversified industries ; value of 
manufactured products, $18,000,000; cen- 
ter of three great trolley systems ; the big- 
gest concrete bridge in the United States 
in construction ; 75 per cent, of the work- 
men own their homes ; labor disturbances 
unknown. "There is a reason." 

Germany's Slot Penny in the slot 

Literature. literature is the latest 

thing in Germany. A 
firm of publishers at 
Leipzig has patented an automatic ma- 
chine which gives a choice of a dozen 
small paper covered volumes which are 
displayed behind glass. On a strip of 
paper across each volume is printed a 
brief description of the book, and a coin 
in the slot does the rest. These auto- 
matic machines are to be placed in hotel 
lobbies, waiting rooms, theatre foyers 
and other public places. The hope is ex- 
pressed that as the books offered are 
carefully selected and by first-class au- 
thors the venture may have a beneficial 
educative effect upon the masses and thus 
counteract the intiuence of the cheap and 
trashy literature with which the country 
is flooded. — Exchanzc. 

Our Worthy Ancestry 

An Address Delivered by the Rev. Robert M. Hunsicker, 
Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Mansfield, Pa., At the Second 
Annual Reunion of the Hunsicker Family, held at Collegeville, 
Pa., August 10, 1911. 

t was my good fortune some 
}'ears ago to make a brief 
visit to the city of St. Lou- 
is. There remains with me 
one clear impression of that 
visit. T!ie magnificent 
bridge which spans the 
Mississippi at this point had just been 
opened for traffic. It drew out its 
length, including approaches, to a full 
mile and a quarter. It was the pride of 
the city, and equally its talk. Its pon- 
derous mass was lifted to such a height 
as not to interfere with traffic upon the 
river. It was broad enough and strong 
eonugh to accommodate the traffic .of the 
Metropolis of the middle West and its 
eastern environs. But, it is not as an 
achievement of engineering or of archi- 
tecture, nor as an exhibition of artistic 
beauty and symmetry that it made upon 
me .so distinct an impression, but. rather, 
its cost. And this cost is not reckoned 
, in paltry dollars, stupendous as the sum 
might be ; but, in life blood, in human de- 
votion. In order that this superb struc- 
ture might rear itself aloft, and render 
the service for which it was planned and 
built, its foundations must be laid far 
below the bed of the river whose waters 
it spanned. Such was the hazard and 
the peril of this work, that we are told 
that during the building of this bridge its 
cost was at the rate of a human life for 
each day. 

Thus has it been in developing the 
advanced and complex conditions of the 
civilization of to-day. It has been at the 
cost of human devotion and of life-blood. 
Like this great bridge, once but an archi- 
tect's dream, and in the minds of many. 

an impossibility, to-day stands a solid 
reality. So is it that many of the priv- 
ileges and opportunities and prerogatives 
of present day life were once but the 
dream of so-called visionaries, impossi- 
bilities in the minds of the multitude, but 
to-day, the commonplaces in our complex 
conditions of life. 

Recall that great act of the noblest of 
our great presidents, the Proclamation of 
Emancipation for four million slaves, is-- 
sued almost half a century ago. By the 
stroke of a pen these millions of our fel- 
low beings ceased to be mere human chat- 
tel and were taught technically, at least, 
the liberty which is the birth-right of ev- 
er}- human soul. Thus, was brought to 
an end the darkest blot upon the early 
history of our nation, when the brother 
in white, who had come to shores 
for the liberties which he might enjo}', 
reduced to cruel bondage his brother in 
black. But this emancipation, alas! did 
not occur until slavery had disrupted the 
Republic and precipitated a war, whose 
horror and desolation have never nor 
ever can be, fully depicted. 

But even apart from this war, the 
doom of slavery was inevitable. A pub- 
lic sentiment as irresistible as the torrent 
of Niagara, or the destructive avalanche 
of waters that overwhelmed Johnstown, 
was gathering. Every river has its rise 
in the little fountains that break forth 
from the hillsides and run in sparkling 
rills through the meadows. As we seek 
for the origin of this mighty sentiment 
which swept away almost two and a half 
centuries of slavery, it is discovered in a 
little colony of "strangers in a strange 
land" ; voluntary exiles from their Fa- 




iheiiaiul ; ineu tliaii wlioni none ever had 
a deeper love for the land of their birth. 
These men, seeking liberty for them- 
selves, bravini^ the perils of an ocean voy- 
age, and hewing' ont_ for themselves and 
their families a habitation in the wilder- 
ness, of what is now Germantown, is- 
sued the first formal protest against the 
institution of slavery in America. This, 
too, was in the year 1688, only five years 
from the date of the first settlement. 

.And this is the more remarkable when 
we recall that other denominations of 
Christians hatl l)cen in existence on 
American soil for many years. For ex- 
ample, the First Baptist Church organ- 
ized in America at Providence, R. I., by 
that apostle of liberty, Roger Williams, 
had been in existence half a century, and 
many others of the same name hatl 
sprung up. The same may be said of the 
Congregationalists, the Episcopalians, the 
l^resbyterians and, very probably, the Lu- 
therans and German Reformed. And, 
it is even more noteworthy in light of the 
fact that within eighteen years of the is- 
suing of the Emancipation Proclamation, 
i. e. in 1845, ^l^r<?e great Christian de- 
nominations, the Baptists, the Presbyter- 
ians and the Methodists were disrupted 
over this question, North and South. In- 
credible as it may seem, there were at 
that time ministers of the Gospel, intel- 
lectual giants, who were defending the 
institution of slavery by the citation of 

These devout strangers in a strange 
land laid the foundation ; others builded 
thereon. They were seers, that is, they 
were see-ers. They were visionaries' in 
very truth, beholding visions which long 
awaited fulfillment. 

^Vhat, it may be asked, is to-day con- 
sidered the very acme of achievement 
in the realm of. statesmanship? The 
ready answer is : the adoption of the in- 
ternational treaties for the settlement of 
all international difficulties by arbitration. 
But such ideas were held centuries ago 
by our worthy ancestors, who always be- 
lieved that, "swords should be beaten into 
plow shares, and spears into pruning 
hooks." Our ^klcnnotnte ancestry were 
simple-hearted enough to believe that war 

was never justifiable. They believed that 
"the meek would inherit the earth," and 
no less ihat "they who take the sword 
shall perish by the sword." So imi)racti- 
cable were these ideas regarded, that their 
fellow beings might have stigmatized 
them as did Sydney Smith. " William 
Carey, the pioneer of the moderate mis- 
sionary era, — "a dreamer who dreams 
that he has been dreaming." Hut these 
principles are being aj^propriated b\- even 
the hardheadcd business men of this gen- 
eration, and by journalists. A noted 
journalist has recently issued a book un- 
der the title "The Great Illusion"— re- 
ferring to war. And, a noted philan- 
thropist has appropriated $100,000 for its 
distribution. The leaders in the financial 
and industrial world are opposed to war, 
because it is unprofitable; it is destruc- 
tive; it interferes with business. And 
so. at least, the dreams of peace of our 
worthy ancestors, dreams resulting from 
deep thinking upon the Word of God 
are coming to realization. As the torch 
bearers of liberty for all, and as the 
harbingers of the reign of universal 
peace, we may rightly think of them as 
"Our Worthy Ancestrv." 

Who are these Mennonites, whom we 
claim as our ancestors? There are those 
who would answer that they are the peo- 
ple described in that very readable book, 
"Tillie, the ^lennonite Maid." But ev- 
ery person with a drop of Pennsylvania 
German blood in his veins should protest 
against such atrocious misrepresentation. 
In any community, as is done in this 
book, a few shabby characters mav be 
selected and delineated as representa- 
tives, but the characters in this book are 
far from representative either of Penn- 
sylvania German character or of Alenno- 
nite life and principles and character. 
Xor are the Mennonites to be regarded 
as the successors of the mad Munsterites 
of the Sixteenth century. A fraction of 
the Anabaj)tists — the lineal antecedents 
of the Mennonites — were concerned in 
this uprising, but the responsibility of 
the whole affair was thrown upon the 
Anal)aptist.s. A process of persecution 
nd extermination was, in consequence, 
inaugurated; and in fifty years persecu- 


tion had done its work, and the Anabap- 
tists disappear from the history of Ger- 
many. "A sect must be judged by its 
principles, not by its slanderers."' 

That we may clearly understand who 
and what the early Mennonites were, let 
us call to mind the testimony of a com- 
mission appointed by the King- of Holland 
early in the last century. The testimony 
of this commission, one of whom was a 
university professor, another the king's 
chaplain, cannot be otherwise than im- 
partial since their investigation was pur- 
sued under the auspices of the Reformed 
church. They say: "The Baptists, who 
in former times, w^ere called Anabaptists 
and at a later period Mennonites, were 
originally the Waldenses, who in the 
history of the church, even from remote 
times, have received such well deserved 
homage, being the only religious com- 
munity which has continued from the 
time of the apostles." Another authority 
says : "The Mennonites are the only body 
of the Anti-paedo-baptists that has pre- 
served a historic continuity to this day." 
Another church historian speaks of them 
as "the remnant surviving the persecu- 
tions by which Anabaptists were exter- 
minated from Germany, but. who. with a 
better fortune in Holland, flourished and 
grew strong under Menno Simons, whose 
name they preserved." We certainly 
must heartily agree with the historian 
Bancroft when he says of these people: 
"Neither they nor their descendants have 
laid claim to all that is their due." 

The testimony of another historian is 
well w^orth recounting, that of Dr. Lud- 
wig Karl Keller, a layman in the German 
Reformed church, and at the present time 
State Archivist of Germany at Berlin. 
"The Anabaptists," he tells us, "who 
were later known as Mennonites, were 
the real Reformation movement. They 
were the successors to Wickliffc, the 
Morning Star of the Reformation, and 
Huss, and who carried forward the work 
they had begun, but which crystallized 
and was led forward to definite end un- 
der the leadership of Luther." In this 
connection another historian remarks : 
"The Sixteenth century o])ened with a 
general awakening throughout Europe to 

the need of religious reform; and was 
especially marked in Switzerland before 
the time of Luther." Nor does this in 
any way detract from the honor which 
is due to Luther, any more than it de- 
tracts from the honor due to Washington 
to say that he was not the cause of the 
Revolution nor the results that followed, 
though he was its brilliant leader. 

Consider one great principle for which 
these people stood, namely, the separa- 
tion of Church and State. This in two 
ways exposed them to hardship and suf- 
fering. In the church it branded them 
as heretics ; in relation to the State, as 
traitors. The great movement of the 
last centiu-y for disestablishment as in 
Italy, Spain, Portugal. France, England 
is but carrying into effect a great prin- 
ciple advocated by our ancestors four 
centuries ago, their great thought being, 
as expressed in the struggle in Italy, "A 
free church in a free state." But this 
idea found its first and fullest expression 
in Rhode Island as established under 
Roger Williams in the year 1636, two 
hundred and seventy-five years ago. In 
the words of Armitage "The honor was 
reserved for Roger Williams of making 
liberty of conscience the foundation stone 
on which human government should 
stand." And Bancroft adds, "He was 
the first person in modern Christendom 
to assert in its plentitude the doctrine of 
liberty of conscience, the equality of opi- 
nion before the law." And Robert 
Southey desfcribes Roger Williamp as 
"the man that began the first civil govern- 
ment that gives equal liberty of con- 
science." It is not, therefore, a matter 
of surprise that on May 4th, 1776, Rhode 
Island should have repudiated allegiance 
to George III, two months before the 
formal Dclaration of Independence by the 

But docs someone remind me that 
Roger Williams was not a Mennonite, 
but a Baptist, the founder of the first 
Baptist Church in America, formed in 
1638; a church still strong and prosper- 
ous, the First Baptist Church of Provi- 
dence, R. I. ? In this connection it is 
exceedingly significant to be informed by 
the best authority in America upon Bap- 



tist history that ''WilHanis was famiUar 
with the ideas of the jMennoiiites." 

But who, it may be well to ask, at this 
point, are the Baptists? They are but 
the English and American successors of 
the Mcnnonites of Holland. The first 
organization of English speaking people 
into what we understand as a Baptist 
church was constituted from refugees in 
Holland who had fled thither to escape 
persecution in England. And when thus 
organized, so identical were they in prin- 
ciples and form of organization, that the 
complete merging with the Mennonites 
of Holland was' given, on both sides, ser- 
ious consideration. Accordingly, it may 
be said, that while the Mennonites of to- 
day as a whole, are not of one mind on 
all points among themselves, yet those 
points upon which they are in complete 
agreement — at least the early Menno- 
nites — are the distinguishing principles 
of the Baptists. And these principles are 
very simple. They are three : First — 
The Word of God as the only rule of 
faith and practice: this as opposed to 
popes, counsels, traditions and ecclesias- 
tical, law-making bodies ; second — the con- 
stitution of the church, namely, as being 
pure, rather than mixed ; that is, baptism 
only as an expression of faith, thus' ex- 
cluding the baptism of infants: third — 
the separation of church and State, no 
outward constraint being brought upon 
the individual conscience. But, does 
someone object that there are aside from 
this very marked divergencies. On care- 
ful scrutiny it will be found that these 
divergencies are incidental, rather than 
fundamental ; that they relate only to de- 
tails, to the application of principles, rath- 
er than the principles themselves. 

Thus it becomes manifest that our 
worthy ancestors, the Mennonites of cen- 
turies ago, were a fountain head from 
which issued a stream that divided into 
two parts. The stream which flowed 
through England and thus to America, 
the Baptists of to-day, are simply Anglo- 
Saxonized Mennonites. And the Men- 
nonites are Baptists who have retained 
the German, or Teutonic characteristics. 
Quite similarly, it may be said that the 
Presbyterian church is the Reformed 

church, as modified by Scotch and Eng- 
lish traits from contact with these races ; 
just as the Reformed church is simply the 
Presbyterian church manifesting Teu- 
tonic peculiarities, the two having a com- 
mon origin. 

We would rob Roger Williams of no 
honor that is his due. The ideas and 
principles which he promulgated may 
have been entirely original with him, re- 
sulting from independent thought and in- 
vestigation, yet, when he established a 
commonwealth in which there was a sep- 
aration of Church and State, he was only 
bringing into practical and effective re- 
alization ideas long, long held and ad- 
vocated by his predecessors, the Men- 
nonites, and their predecessors, the Ana- 
baptists. There is accordingly deep sig- 
nificance in the statement of Dr. A. H. 
Newman as already cited that Roger Wil- 
liams was familiar with the ideas of the 
Mennonites. With those who preceded 
him he insisted upon liberty, not only for 
himself, but for every man; liberty being 
every man's birthright. 

It is the glory of Virginia Baptists to 
have led in the struggle securing the first 
amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States, namely "Congress shall 
make no law respecting an establishment 
of religion, or prohibiting the free exer- 
cise thereof, or the abridging of the free- 
dom of speech or of the press." 

Let us in no measure detract from the 
honor due to Virginia Baptists for the 
noble achievement in which they led ; and 
yet, while doubtless by their own think- 
ing they came upon this principle, it must 
not be forgotten that it was a principle 
for which the Mennonites in the cen- 
turies preceding had shed martyr blood. 
Do we not well, therefore, as we speak, 
to think of those who have thus laid the 
wav, as pioneers — to think of them as our 
worthy ancestry. The challenge of the 
prophet of old to the chosen people is 
one to which we do well to give heed: 
"Look unto the rock from whence ye are 
hewn ; to the hole of the pit from which 
ye are dug." (Isaiah 51:1) And we 
certainlv will be in hearty agreement with 
Bancroft when he asserts that "neither 
thcv nor their descendants have laid claim 



to all that is their due." They have sent 
forth streams of blessing. They have 
caused fountains of refreshing water to 
break forth in the desert. They have 
turned the wilderness and the solitary 
place into a veritable Garden of the Lord. 
The Friends or Quakers have through- 
out the centuries shed forth a gracious 
influence, but George Fox, their founder, 
obtained his ideas from the Mennonites 
of Holland. Fundamentally jNlennonites 
and Quakers are one. The Congrega- 
tionalists have been a mighty force for 
aggressive righteousness, sending forth 
uplifting influences to earth's remotest 
bounds. Let it not be forgotten, how- 
ever, that their ideas of the independence 
of the local church were derived from the 
Mennonites of Holland. 

Thus, have the Mennonites been torch 
bearers, leading the way into the posses- 
sion of present day liberties and privi- 
leges. They have been pioneers, "a voice 
crying in the wilderness," far in advance 
of their fellows and contemporaries. 
And, in common with all those who have 
lived far in advance of their age, they 
have been obliged to suffer for their loy- 
alty to truth, their faithfulness to con- 
science, their devotion to God. 

Unstinted but not excessive homage 
has been paid to those who have imparted 
fame to Plymouth Rock — the passengers 
of the Mayflower. But, the passengers 
of the Concord, the founders of German- 
town, need not suffer by comparison. In- 
deed, there are striking contrasts that 
should be noted. The Pilgrims, in the 
words of an American humorist, " 
to America that they might worship God 
according to the dictates of their con- 
sciences ; and prevent other people from 
worshipping according to theirs." An 
appropriate motto for our ancestors 
might have been, as inscribed on Liberty 
bell, "Proclaim liberty throughout the 
land to all the inhabitants thereof." The 
Pilgrims were exclusive ; our ancestors 
were fraternal. The Pilgrims were re- 
straining, our ancestors, liberty-giving. 
The Pilgrims regarded religion as co- 
ercive force ; our ancestors as a vitalizing 
power. The Pilgrims, deriving tlieir 
principles from the Old Testament would 

have Christianity find expression in the 
fonn of a theocracy ; our ancestors re- 
garded Christianity as a spiritual force. 
In religious, as well as civil life, far from 
being conservative, they were radical; 
and instead of being "stand-patters" they 
were the insurgents. And they paid the 
penalty of their rashness. 

True it is that the martyrs of yesterday 
are the heroes of today. Others put 
them to death, be it is ours to build and 
embellish their sepulchers and to rear 
worthy memorials to their honor. 

What gave to these worthies their il- 
lustrious character. In a word, it was 
their religion. "Bob" Burdette, in com- 
menting upon the great service rendered 
by Christopher Columbus facetiously sug- 
gests that "but that for the service that 
Columbus rendered, we would still be 
sitting around waiting for some one to 
discover us." But for the religion of our 
ancestors neither they nor we would have 
been heard of. And certainly we would 
not be to-day gathered in honor of their 
memory. They were men of the Book. 
They did not hold opinions but they were 
held gripped, dominated, swayed by con- 
victions. In their simple-heartedness 
they took the Bible to mean just what it 
said ; nor did they lack verification of 
its truth in their inner life and experience. 
A certain man with great enthusiasm 
dwelt upon the wonders of his garden. 
Influenced by this enthusiasm, one of 
his friends wished to see this famous gar- 
den. He was not a little surprised to 
find it to consist only of a city back 
yard, a narrow bit of land between high 
brick walls. In expressing his astonish- 
ment at its narrowness its owner re- 
plied, "It may be narrow, but it is very 
high." We may regard the religion of 
our ancestors as narrow, and sometimes 
fanatical ; but it was very high. It was 
very high because first of all it was very 
deep. It rooted itself deep in the sub- 
soil of the Word of God and was nourish- 
ed by its hidden springs. Consequently 
it was high, reaching to Heaven itself. 
Their lives were aglow with a glory 
beaming from the very throne of God 
itself. Their faces shone with a light, 
"not seen on sea or land" ; a light shin- 


ing- from God's own face. Their feet 
were planted upon the Rock of Ajj^es ; 
their heads were aniong the stars. Their 
lives were characterized by the four di- 
mensions emphasized by Bishop Brooks, 
and by the apostle Paul in Ephcsians, 
third chapter. They had breadth. They 
embraced all men in their interest, af- 
fections and endeavor. They had lens^th, 
their lives having projected themselves 
down through the centuries and will so 
continue till time shall be no more. They 
had depth, being rooted in the Word of 
God. And, thus it is they had height 
reaching to the very Heaven. 

There is in the New Testament a Book 
whose author is unnamed, in which there 
is a chapter Unfinished — the eleventh 
chapter of Hebrews. It is the enroll- 
ment of the worthies and the martyrs for 
the cause of truth and righteousness; 
and it will not have been finished until it 
shall contain the name of every martyr 
of Jesus Christ and every one who has 
sufifered in the cause of truth and right- 
eousness. Nor can we better close this 
address than by quoting from this chap- 
ter with certain adaptations, substitu- 
tions and insertions. Let it be remem- 
bered that Menno Simons went about his 
work with a price on his head, often in 
the disguise of a common woodman. 
Indeed it was by an appeal to the heroic 
in his nature, by the martyr death of 
Sicke Snider, that he was led to lay aside 
his priestly robes, repudiate the Church 

of Rome, and cast in his lot with the 
hated, harried and persecuted Anabap- 
tists. And thus in revised form would 
we read this chapter: "And what shall 
I say more ? For the time would fail me 
to speak of Samuel and all the prophets, 
of Menno Simon, Sicke Snider of Blau- 
rock. of Sattler, of Huebmaier and of 
the thousand others who were imprison- 
ed, were stoned, were drowned, beheaded, 
burned, exiled, sold into cruel slavery; 
who through their far-visioned faith have 
been subduing kingdoms, working right- 
eousness, out of weakness having been 
made strong. They were tortured, not 
accepting deliverance ; they had trials of 
cruel mocking, and of scourging, yea, 
moreover, of bonds and imprisonment. 
They were stoned ; they were slain with 
the sword. They wandered about in 
sheepskins and goatskins, being destitute, 
afflicted, tormented. They wandered in 
deserts and mountains and caves of the 
earth. Of whom the world was not 

Such were our worthy ancestr}-, faith- 
ful to God, true to man, serving their 
own, and, therefore, all generations. A 
worthy posterity may we be only in the 
measure in which we follow in their foot- 
steps, without reckoning the cost, being 
true to God and faithful to man, serving 
our own and thus all generations. Be 
this our worthy ambition. — The Tran- 

John Fritz, Iron-Master 

By Thomas Commerford Martin 

(Reprinted from Century Magazine, by permission.) 

HE steel industry has done 
more to develop modern 
democracy than any other 
force or influence of our 
times. Steel inventors 
and engineers, their rails 
and ])lates, and the locomotives and 
steamships transporting the products of 
Western prairies, are the true explana- 
tion of the political upheavals and social 
changes now witnessed in Europe. Such 
were the theses propounded often with 
much incisiveness and emphasis by Abram 
S. Hewitt, formerly mayor of the city of 
New York, who asserted also, not less 
boldly, that the saving on traffic due to 
the substitution in America of steel for 
iron would be equivalent to paying off 
the whole national debt in a few years. 
It was Hewitt who spoke of John Fritz, 
father of the modern steel industry in 
the United States, as one whose career 
was unique among that of men of his day 
and generation ; adding, "by common 
consent he occupies the first place in the 
domain of practical industry with which 
he has been connected." 

Yet, in all the spectacular piling up of 
huge wealth from steel, the creation of 
colossal corporations, the fierce outbursts 
of sensationalism, the tremendous inter- 
]:»lotting of politics and finance, the tire- 
some focusing of the lime-light of pub- 
licity on one millionaire after another, 
and the ceaseless eft'orts of the muck- 
raker to drag another ancient or new 
•scandal from the slag-heaps, nobody has 
ever seen mentioned, of any kind or de- 
gree, of John Fritz, in whose honor the 
four great national engineering societies 
liave founded a gold medal in recognition 
of his worth and work, — the only Ameri- 
can for whom such a thing has ever been 
done. The humor and the irony of it — 
likewise the compliment ! On a green 
hill far from lh( madding crowd, he has 

lived in dignity and quiet, attaining now 
his ninetieth year after a career begun 
long before the American steel industry 
was successfully established, as it was, 
largely, through his courage, energy, and 

In 1822, John Fritz was born into a 
world that knew not railroads, but had 
gone crazy over canals. "Clinton's big 
ditch" from Buffalo to Albany, reducing 
the cost of moving merchandise between 
the two cities from $100 a ton to one- 
tenth that tax, soon had copies in other 
States, between other cities fearful of 
losing their trade unless they enjoyed the 
same facilities. But Fritz was still a 
boy on the farm of his father in London- 
derry, Pennsylvania, when the railroad 
era began, and now, nearly a century 
later, he has lived to see the canal craze 
revive. New York is spending a hun- 
dred million dollars in revamping the 
Erie, thereby intimating that as freight- 
regulators the Interstate Commerce and 
other commissions are a dismal failure ; 
and the nation is spending three hundred 
millions at Panama, although half a 
dozen railroads now span the continent. 
Despite all the undoubted advantages of 
waterways, the fact remains that the 
"hard, smooth road," as Professor 
Jevons described the railway, affords, on 
the whole, far quicker, safer, and more 
economical transportation than its liquid 
rivals, which thus far seem able to sur- 
vive only when lavishly endowed by the 
state. This significant revolution in 
means of transportation is largely due to 
tlie work of Fritz himself in perfecting 
and substituting the steel rail for the iron 

WHiat the iron industry itself suffered 
under the old regime was curiously 
l)rought out in a casual comment made 
on the presidential address of Mr. Fritz 
before the .\nierican Institute of Mining 



Engineers at Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 
1894. A Cleveland member recalled an 
interview with Hughes (Jliphant, who 
had a small charcoal iron furnace and 
mill at Fairchance, Pennsylvania, near 
the foot of the Allegheny Mountains. 
"He told me that early in the century he 
ran for eighteen months, and in that time 
saw only ten dollars in money. 1 said to 
iiim, 'How on earth did you manage?' 
He rei)lied : 'We made our iron into nails, 
rods, and kettles, hauled them twelve 
miles over to Brownsville on the AIo- 
nongahela River, loaded them into tiat- 
boats, and floated them down the Ohio, 
swapping our wares for whiske}' and 
rum. At New Orleans we exchanged 
these for sugar and molasses, which we 
sent by sea to Baltimore, and there we 
swapped again for groceries and dry- 
goods, which we hauled in Conestoga 
wagons over the mountains, three hun- 
dred miles to our furnaces." The career 
of Mr. Fritz covers and affects the whole 
development from that primitive period 
to a time when one steel corporation do- 
ing less than half the business of the in- 
dustry has larger gross revenues than the 
National Government. 

The action of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania in cutting canals alarmed Balti- 
more, and in July, 1828, work was be- 
gun on a track to some point on the Ohio 
River. From this grew the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad. John Fritz was then just 
six years old, and, as a boy, must often 
have heard his father, on the farm in 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, discuss 
these matters, for George Fritz was a 
skilful mechanic and a keen observer of 
events. The naive autobiography that 
John Fritz has just set down as he en- 
ters on his tenth decade reveals a van- 
ished social and rural life of barest sim- 
plicity. Quite possibly because there 
were Hessian military relatives "left 
over"' from the Revolutionary War, the 
Fritzius family emigrated from Hesse- 
Casscl in 1S02, to settle in Pennsylvania 
and till the soil. An amiable si)irit of re- 
ligious toleration notable in John Fritz is 
surelv traceable to such facts as that his 
father George married ^lary Meliarg, of 
stanch Scotch- Irish Presbyterian stock. 

in a J'.aptist Church, and that John him- 
self was educated by the Ouakers, being 
(jnce told in early youth that he had had 
the privilege of hearing Elias Hicks 
whose doctrinal views on the divinity of 
Christ split the society asunder. "The 
Friends were a most excellent people, 
good neighbors, charitable, peace-loving, 
and peace-making; in early life 1 was 
much amongst them, and I have no doubt 
that 1 profited by association with them." 
Not even his pioncership in the manufac- 
ture of American armor-plate has pre- 
vented many people from assuming him 
to be a typical follower of George Fox. 

The America of that time was virtu- 
ally without public schools, and such edu- 
cation as the children in rural districts 
got was chiefly that afforded by private 
scliools, usually of uncertain quality, and 
limited to three months in each of the 
seasons of winter and summer. Up to 
the age of fifteen John Fritz received his 
book-learning in this intermittent fash- 
ion in a log-house from one teacher who 
might have some forty pupils to look af- 
ter at a time. The real education in ac- 
tualities was that on the farm itself- 
John Fritz asserts that the exacting care 
insisted upon by his father in picking 
up potatoes and harvesting them without 
bruise or abrasion explains the meticu- 
lous zeal of his after-life in turning out 
tons of rail or plate as though they were 
watch-springs. But besides gathering 
potatoes there was corn to hoe, and from 
personal experience Edison has testified 
that hoeing corn has been one of the 
principal elements in creating our mod- 
ern overcrowded American cities. 

Conscientiously as the boy may have 
attended to his work with plow and har- 
row, scythe and pitchfork, it was a happy 
release when he could carry his father's 
chest of tools to some mill or factorv in 
the vicinity, where an odd job of repair- 
ing had to be done. If farming could be 
made an altogether mechanical pursuit, 
it would be much more popular than it 
is. In New England the "abandoned" 
farm districts are full of farmer-artisans 
who rise like trout to fly at the chance of 
getting an odd job in brick-laying, plumb- 
ing, painting, or patching-up an auto- 



mobile; and John Fritz, like his father, 
had the same incurable passion for tools 
and tinkering. In 1838 he became an 
apprentice in a village smithy at Parkes- 
burg, Pennsylvania, where country ma- 
chine work w^as taken in, and where the 
six-horse-power engine and boiler had 
been built by the master blacksmith. The 
specialization of our day forbids such 
feats, and it was the all-around knowl- 
edge acquired here that John Fritz found 
of such invaluable service to him when 
organizing great iron and steel works and 
directing the energies of an army of ma- 
chinists and artisans. An instance of 
ready versatility occurred in 1839, when 
he first saw a shotgun with percussion- 
cap-lock, changed his own old flint-lock, 
and soon had a monopoly throughout the 
region as a gunsmith. "Saturday night 
was my harvest-time, as I could work all 
night. I would make the forgings in the 
early morning and the noon hour during 
the week. All the fitting- and putting 
together was done at night. The light 
was a tallow dip or an oil lamp, both of 
them bad for this class of work. A good 
and smooth finish was essential to make 
the change look well. The owner in turn 
was proud of the change, and took pleas- 
ure in showing his gun to his friends. It 
impressed on my mind the importance of 
making a job pleasing to the eye." 

In the early forties came business de- 
pression. "Back to the farm" was a sen- 
timent as popular then as now, and John 
Fritz filled in a year or two between the 
furrows and the hayricks, until, in the 
autumn of 1844, ^ ^^^^ ^or rolling bar- 
iron was built at Coatesville, Pennsyl- 
vania. There he tried at once to sftcure 
work ; but the proprietors were not 
ready, and so, once started, never to turn 
back, he drifted to the iron works at 
Phoenixville, then regarded as the larg- 
est and best in America. There, too, he 
met with a rebufl:', but at distant Trenton 
were alluring works of the kind ; and a 
new mill was goinp^ up at Xorristown. 
Pennsylvania. He never got as far as 
Trenton, for at Norristown they took 
kindly to the tall, gaunt, gfrowing youth 
with keen, blue eyes and diffident, earnest 
manner, and thus he assisted in building 

what was then the best mill for making; 
bar-iron in the country- Entering as a 
"cub," in a few weeks he attained the 
grade of a regular mechanic, and within 
two or three months he was in full 
charge of all the machinery in the plant. 
A month or two later he was responsible 
for production, and had become an iron- 
master, operating the mill both day and 

His genius was felt in every direction. 
"Efficiency management," and the lessen- 
ing of "lost- motion" are supposed to be 
modern shibboleths of industry, but John 
Fritz has ever sought and won the highest 
economy of material, time, and effort — a 
true conservator. So expert was he in 
inserting teeth in the broken gear-wheels, 
that the fame of it went abroad, and when 
two-score years later his seventieth birth- 
day was celebrated in the opera house at 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, a mock trial 
took place, when he was arrested at the 
banquet and indicted for practising den- 
tistry without a license or diploma. This 
was a detail, for he attacked also the 
problems of puddling, heating, and roll- 
ing, and introduced improvement in 
ever}^ direction. The art was, moreover, 
in a transitional period from smelting 
with charcoal to smelting with mineral 
fuel, wih happy results for the preser- 
vation of the forests, but bringing many 
new problems to be solved by the iron- 
master. One mill after another enjoyed 
the benefit of the ever-ready ingenuity 
and shrewd common sense of young 

Going thus from plant to plant with 
vivifying touch, John Fritz in 1854 was 
called upon to assist in creating the 
famous Cambria Works at Johnstown, 
Pennsylvania, where many engineering 
innovations were introduced and where 
important changes in the manufacture of 
iron rails were worked out under dra- 
matic conditions of struggle. Almost 
the first occupation of the new engineer- 
in-chief was to raise ca]:)ital in Philadel- 
\h\-> ti) keep the plant going, and his next 
task was that of informing the stock 
holders that the old mill was useless and 
must be entirely remodeled. But with 
the dogged obstinancy that has always 



characterized him, he held to his new 
phins. At that time rails were rolled in 
two "high" mills, and it was ])roposed to 
adhere to this method in using the new 
ca])ital. P^ritz, in rank insnhordinatinn, 
refused to have anything to do with it. 
He proposed to save the time and heat 
lost in passing the bar back in idleness 
over the top roll, by adding another, third 
roll, thus making what has been the to]) 
roll a middle one. The bar passed first 
between the lower pair in one direction, 
and Fritz used the upjx'r pair for forcing 
it in the other direction, ready for an- 
other pass. ] le also used solid parts in 
place of those which had previously been 
made so weak as to break wdien any extra 
strain came upon them. One piece was a 
breaking-box on top of the rolls made 
hollow so as to crush easily if under an 
overload. The head roller objected, but 
Fritz said he would rather have one 
grand smash-up occasionally than be an- 
noyed constantly by the loss of spindles, 
couplings., and breaking-boxes. "Well," 
said the head roller grimlv. "you'll get 

r)Ut the new plant worked admirabl}-. 
and when some of the disgruntled Welsh 
workmen came to gloat over his failure, 
they were shown "handsomer rails than 
had ever been made in their country." 
That night the mill went up in smoke, 
and the story was started that, as the new 
machinery was a total failure, Fritz had 
burned the mill down to hide his mistake- 
It was a disaster enough to appal the 
stoutest heart, but in four weeks the mill 
was running again, and before any 
further trouble occurred it had produced 
30.000 tons of rail without a hitch or a 
break, and had become a great financial 
success. Meantime the Fritz mill was 
ra])i(fly adopted by the other rail works 
in the country, and left its mark in in- 
creased production, more perfect work, 
and all the improvements that follow in 
the wake of a new idea. Rail with rough 
edges or ragged flanges gave place to that 
which competed favorably with any from 
Wales, hitherto a leading source of suj)- 
])ly. and .America became equal to her 
own necessities in this direction. 

'i'he remoteness of the period, mea- 
sured in the growth of the industry, is 
shown in the fact that when Fritz went to 
Johnstown in 1854, there was not a blast- 
furnace in Pittsburg. So little was the 
establishment of the mills appreciated in 
the valley of the Conemaugh itself, that 
when Governor Porter crossed the moun- 
tains to Johnstown in a stage, the driver, 
pointed tnit the cluster of buildings, said, 
"It was a darned shame to s])oil such a 
nice piece of ground to build such a town 
on it." From the ]joint of view of 
scenery, this is in'obably a fair criticism 
of every iron or steel establishment ever 
built, and was certainly pertinent to the 
plant which John Fritz next brought into 
being in the Lehigh Valley. Amid the 
excitement of the coming Civil War, lie 
made beautiful liethlehem the scene of 
his energies. The ciuiet retreat of the 
peaceful Moravians was invaded and 
spoiled by the -smoke and grime and 
tumult of a plant in which he was to 
achieve many new triumphs. As was 
said of him jocularly, he destroved the 
romantic lovers' walk by occupying the 
ground with pigs ; but at Bethlehem an 
enormous advance was made in securing 
for the United States her supremacy in 
steel. Meanwhile war broke out, and it 
was not imtil September, 1863. that the 
new plant was able to overcome all delays 
and difificulties and begin rolling rails. So 
much of the work fifty years ago was of 
the cut-and-try plan that it is easy to 
picture Fritz indulging, as he often did. 
in the following conversation with hi-^ 
assistants before trying to start a new 
mill engine : 

"Were the drawings all correct?" 


"Did the ]iattern shop do its work all 


"Were the castings sound and i)roperly 
finished ?" 


"Did \ou assemlile the parts and find 
everything complete and well-fitted?" 


".\re \ou sure the foundation is giod. 



and the shafting true, and every bolt and 
connection in place?" 


"Is she all ready to start?" 


"Well, turn on the steam, and let's see 
why she won't work!" 

But the genius of the chief engineer 
was not to be refused its reward, and 
"the plant was for some years a Mecca 
for iron-men to visit. There was noth- 
ing in the world in the way of an iron 
plant that could be compared with the 
Bethlehem works." Incidentally it may 
be noted that coke began to be used in the 
blast-furnaces of western Pennsylvania 
and eastern Ohio, so that nearly double 
the amount of iron was made in the same 
sized furnaces as compared with that 
when anthracite coal was used. Fritz 
believed, however, that by building larger 
and higher furnaces and more powerful 
blowing engines for the blast, he could 
restore anthracite economically to a 
parity with coke. He did so successfully, 
employing horizontal blowing engines 
that were the subject of much adverse 
comment ; but they ran constantly day 
and night for thirty years, giving a pres- 
sure of ten or twelve pounds or more of 
forced air, and quite likely are running 
at this moment. As far as known, Fritz 
was the first to use this high pressure 
blast ; but he had no sooner attained it 
than, as usual, he designed a new furnace 
with a blowing engine that gave a pres- 
sure of from twenty to thirty pounds. 
He had the foundations of the stack put 
in — but then his patient, long sufifering 
directors objected, eager for an oc- 
casional dividend, and caring very little 
for the technic or progress of the art. 
The advantages of the changes were soon 
api)arent, however, and higher pressures 
were generally adopted in blast furnace 

In tlic Civil War a favorite diversion 
of both armies, and particularly of the 
Confederate, was the tearing up of rail- 
roads and the twisting of the rails. Early 
in T864 the authorities at Washington 
found it necessary to have somewhere in 
the South a mill for re-rolling these dis- 

jecta membra, and in March, without his 
knowledge, entirely as a surprise, Fritz 
was given power by the United States 
Government to buy all the required ma- 
terial and start a rail-rolling mill at Chat- 
tanooga- He needed a driving engine 
quickly, and went to George H. Corliss, 
the famous builder, who happened to 
have one on his hands at Providence,. 
Rhode Island, built by contract for a 
manufacturer whose business had been 
injured by the unsettled conditions. Ma- 
chinery was selling at double the j^rice 
ruling when the contract was made, and 
the Government was in a great hurry. 
Mr. Fritz said to Mr. Corliss : 

"I should like to make as good a bar- 
gain as possible for the Government, but 
I want to be fair with you in this matter. "^ 

WHiereupon Corliss replied : 

"You can have the engine at the origi- 
nal contract price, although it is worth 
more to-day. No good citizen can afford 
to take advantage of the Government in 
its hour of peril." 

Now came the epoch-making Bessemer 
process for the production of steel, intro- 
duced into the United States in 1864. Of 
course John Fritz was one of the first to 
appreciate its real value, his own work 
having done so much to make possible the 
enormous output of steel rails with which 
the public is familiar to-day. Alexander 
L. Holley, the distinguished engineer, 
was leader in this revolution of methods 
in America, and between him and the 
brothers John and George Fritz the 
closest friendship existed. Each in his 
own wa}' sought to work out the endless 
l)roblems that now arose, while the ever- 
memorable Captain "Bill" Jones shared 
their counsels and conferences. A pro- 
cess kindred to the Bessemer had 
alrcadv been tried at Fddyville, Ken- 
tucky, by an .American, \A'illiam Kelly, 
who had obtained a patent, and whose 
experiments had been partly made at 
Johnstown while John Fritz was man- 
aging the Cambria plant; where George 
Fritz, as superintendent, marked a new 
era in Bessemer manufacture by rolling 
the steel ingots into blooms instead of 
drawing them under steam hammers. 

No attem]it can be made here to indi- 



cate the innumerable stages of experi- 
ment and improvement throughout the 
new art. In a graphic address before the 
FrankHn Institute in 1899, John Fritz 
described various adventures and dan- 
gers with the converter and other ap- 
pliances, and summed it up tersely as fol- 
lows : "Although the difficulties we en- 
countered were enough to appal the 
bravest hearts. ]\ly brother George once 
said that he did not believe there was a 
man who ever went into the Bessemer 
business and was responsible for the 
result who did not at times wish he had 
never gone into it ; and so far as my 
experience goes, I can fully corroborate 
him." Among his innumerable and well- 
deserved honors. Mr. Fritz has the 
Bessemer gold medal of England. 

With the close of the war, Air. Andrew 
Carnegie came into the steel industry, 
and his titanic energies were at once 
directed to the development of it around 
Pittsburg and the absorption of a large 
part of the business already built up else- 
where. Under changed commercial con- 
ditions, the manufacture of Bessemer 
rails at Bethlehem became unprofitable, 
and basic open-hearth methods had not 
yet been taken up in this country. John 
Fritz sought, therefore, to put his plant 
in condition to make structural material 
of the kind now familiar in bridge and 
"skyscraper" construction, but being per- 
emptorily denied the means, he thereupon 
threw himself into the manufacture of 
large shafting and armor-plate. Once 
more he was opposed. "For a time," he 
says, "the situation seemed hopeless, and 
had it been manly I would have given up 
the whole matter. But the condition of 
the country was such, it was apparent to 
my mind that a good forge and armor- 
plate plant was indispensable. I had 
armor-plate in my mind from the begin- 
ning. Practically speaking, we were in a 
most defenseless con(lition. having 
neither a navy nor modern guns for land 
or coast defense. W'e were at the mercy 
of the world, a disgraceful condition for 
a great nation to be in. I'Jut after every 
suggestion that I had made had been 
turned down, it seemed like a forlorn 
hope to attempt resurrection." 

Fritz considered that the experiments 
of the iCnglish navy in adopting com- 
pound armor-plate with a soft back of 
wrought iron or low carbon steel, and 
high carbon steel on the face, were wrong 
both in theory and in practice, and that 
the essential was a hammered, close- 
grained solid plate. He oflfered to risk 
his own little savings in the enterprise,, 
and was at last instrumental in having 
adoi)ted in America the Whitworth pro- 
cesses from England, and the Schneider- 
Creusot processes from France- The 
licthlehem plant was the first in the 
United States to be erected for the pur- 
pose of making armor-plate, and forth- 
with began immediately the creation of a 
fleet now the second in the world in fight- 
ing power and protective ability, all clad 
in home-made steel and bristling with 
home-made guns. That the Delaware 
was the most formidable battle-ship 
afloat at the Coronation review of King 
George, was because a quarter century 
before John Fritz started the work that 
placed her unequaled in the line at Spit- 
head. In a sense, the forging of armor- 
plate closed fitly the active career of one 
who began with hand-forging the parts 
to replace flint-locks in the first percus- 
sion cap shotguns fifty years earlier. 

The memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini 
hold their own in light literature, with a 
fine charm of personal flavor; but 
through all the obliquity and indecency 
one feels the tense passion of a master 
for his art. It is really all that matters ; 
and it is that which Fritz, this grim, 
serious worker in iron, has in common 
with the worker in silver and gold. 
Cellini never had a conscientious scruple, 
and Fritz has never been without one ; 
but both aimed at an ideally perfect pro- 
duct in their respective arts. It is hard 
to stamp personality on a million tons of 
pig iron or steel rails or armor-plate, but 
Fritz has done this as successfullv as the 
individualistic genius Cellini in modeling 
the Perseus. In reality the mere artificer 
cared far less for lucrative return than 
the erratic genius ; but to both the art 
was everything. Doubtless it was this 
superb spirit of devotion of Fritz to his 
art that appealed to professional col- 



leagues, and, almost in a mood of sub- 
conscious protest against materializing 
tendencies, led the four great national 
engineering societies of America in 1902 
to found a gold medal in his honor. 
Here, they said, is the embodiment of 
our ethics and ideals, ever clean and pure. 

A man of ninety has few contempo- 
raries, and John Fritz, tougher than his 
"best steel, has outlived every one else of 
whom this appreciation has anything to 
say except his friend Mr. Carnegie. It 
is -in his attitude toward the living that 
one finds another key to the secret of 
longevitv. Seated on his green hill at 
Bethlehem, with the roaring, flaming 
steel plant ever attracting his loving gaze 
at the left, he turns with equally plea- 
surable contemplation to Lehigh Uni- 
versity on the slopes to his right. Though 
a self-educated engineer, Air. Fritz has 
no prejudices against a technical edu- 
cation, but all his life has regarded him- 
self as handicapped by lack of it. The 
students at the college founded bv Asa 
Packer know him as a friend, and voung 
graduates receive from him fraternal 
recognition and encouragement. He is 
at the furthest remove from one who 
accuses the presidents of technical 
schools of sharp practice and dishonest" 
in attracting |mpils. A trustee of Lehigh 
from its earliest davs, two vears ago 

John Fritz gave it a splendid engineering 
laboratory, and, best of all, in its un- 
usual simplicity and efficiency, it is built 
and equipped entirely from his own 
designs, the only university laboratory in 
the world of which the donor was his 
own architect. 

When in 1902, a great banquet was 
given in Mr. Fritz's honor in New York 
to celebrate his eightieth birthday, a 
woman guest exclaimed that it was a 
shame to keep so old a man so late out of 
his bed ; but no one was more alert that 
night than the recipient of renewed 
honors from the engineering societies of 
the world- No one, it may be hoped, will 
be more alert when his ninetieth birthday 
is celebrated this year. Simple living 
may explain it ; but what does simple 
living mean? Rallied by a friend upon 
his ostentatious luxury in staying at one 
of the palatial hotels of New York, John 
Fritz hastened to explain that he went 
there because it had the most perfect 
mush in the country. At home his de- 
voted wife gave him the best of food; 
but one could not keep servants up all 
night, whereas in a big hotel there were 
cooks in the kitchen for twenty-four 
hours of the day ; and the mush, as was 
necessary for its perfection, could be 
stirred all the time ! Sybaritic simplicity 
of diet could no further 2:0. 

John Fritz, the Farmer's Boy 
By James M. Swank, Philadelphia, Pa. 

We have received from John Wiley & 
^'ons, publishers, of New York City, the 
above named handsomely printed and 
hound volume of 327 pages. The book 
is not only a fine specimen of "the art 
preservative of all arts" but it also con- 
tains numerous half-tone illustrations, 
including a good portrait of the author 
and a photograph of the house in which 
he was born, all of which add greatly to 
its interest and value. 

]\lr. Fritz's autobiography has been 
conceived and written throughout in ex- 
cellent taste. From first to last its dis- 
tinguished author takes all his friends 
into his confidence and in well written 
chapters he describes the important in- 
cidents in an exceptionally long and ex- 
ceptionally busy life. The story begins 
with brief notices of his father's and 
mother's families and with the exact 
date and ])lace of his own birth in Lon- 



donderry township, Chester county, 
Pennsylvania, on August 21, 1822, the 
oldest of seven children. His father, 
George Fritz, was born in Germany in 
1792 and emigrated to this country with 
his jiarents and other children in 1802, 
when he was ten years old. Mr. Fritz's 
greTiid father spelled his name Johannes 
hVitzius- Mr. Fritz's mother was Mary 
.Mcharg. who was born in Londonderry 
township in 1799. Her parents had emi- 
grated from Londonderry county, Ire- 
land, about 1787, and were Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians. Mr. Fritz's father's re- 
ligious affiliations are not mentioned. 
Air. Fritz combines in his own person the 
blood of the two leading nationalities 
which have contributed most to the early 
settlement and subsequent development 
of Pennsylvania. Mr. Fritz's venera- 
tion for his father's and mother's mem- 
ory is shown in many references to them 
in his autobiography and in the erection 
by him in 1892 in their memory of the 
Fritz Memorial Methodist Episcopal 
Church and Parsonage at South Bethle- 

Mr. Fritz was a farmer's boy, his fa- 
ther owning a small farm while at the 
same time responding to calls for ser- 
vices as millwright. The boy John early 
learned to make himself useful in help- 
ing to till the farm, beginning, as he tells 
us, by dropping seed corn in hills and 
afterwards hoeing the corn and pulling 
up the weeds. One of his duties when 
a boy was to keep the harvest hands sup- 
plied with "fine old rye whiskey and fine 
water fresh from the spring near by." 
As he grew in years he learned to do all 
the work that is required on a farm. In 
those days there was little labor-saving 
machinery on any farm. Mr. Fritz's ac- 
count of his life on the farm is a charm- 
ing bit of descriptive writing. Lack of 
space only prevents us from yielding to 
the temptation to quote a few lines at 
the close of the second chapter which 
contains a fine tribute to his mother. 

Mr. Fritz's educational advantages 
were meagre. They were confined chiefly 
to the winter schools of that day, which 
were open only three months. Mr. Fritz 
tells us that he was a good speller, usually 

being at the head of his class. He was 
fond of arithmetic, and when his school 
days ended he was ready for mensu- 
ration, the first step toward a knowledge 
of surveying, an aristocratic profession 
at that day. History, geography, gram- 
mar, and English composition were not 
taught in the schools he attended. Never 
in after life did he have an opportunity 
to add to the scant education which he re- 
ceived when attending the winter school, 
lie is essentially a self-educated man. 

When 16 years old John Fritz left 
home with regret to become an appren- 
tice at the neighboring town of Parkes- 
burg, "to learn the trades of blacksmith- 
ing and country machine work. This was 
in October. 1838. We may be sure that 
he had inherited mechanical tastes from 
his millwright father, possibly also from 
his good mother. The shop which he 
entered was well equipped for that day 
with the necessary tools for doing repair 
work on farm machinery and for the 
neighboring cotton, woolen, grist, and 
saw mills, blast furnaces, and forges. 
Here Mr. Fritz remained for three years 
or more, in the meantime becoming an 
expert blacksmith and a fairly good ma- 
chinist. For a time afterwards he con- 
ducted a little smith shop of his own at 
Parkesburg. Learning all about a loco- 
motive at the shops of the Philadelphia 
and Columbia Railroad at Parkesburg he 
was inclined to make railroading his life 
work, but this thought was abandoned 
and he finally decided "to take up the 
iron business as a calling," the rolling of 
iron possessing for him special attrac- 
tions. But in the early forties the iron 
industry was greatly depressed, and after 
experimenting with his little smith shop 
he returned to his father's farm and 
again took up its work. Once more he 
"was one of a happy family." 

Late in 1844. when Mr. Fritz was 22 
years old, he resolved to seek employ- 
ment in an iron rolling mill. This he 
flid, applying first at the Phoenix 
Iron Works, at Phoenixville. which 
had no room for him. and next at 
the office of Moore & Plooven, at 
Norristown, who were then building a 
rolling mill at that place, to be known 


as the Xorristown Iron Works. At first 
he again met with a chilhng response to 
his appHcation for employment, but in 
a day or two the general manager, John 
Griffin, found work for him in the mill 
that was then only partly built. Air- 
Fritz's industry, skill, and devotion to 
his duties soon gained for him special 
recognition, and after the completion of 
the mill he was placed in charge of all 
its machinery. He made himself familiar 
with all the details of rolling-mill prac- 
tice, including puddling, heating, and 
rolling. He learned much by spending 
the evenings in the mill in friendly asso- 
ciation with the men, gaining their con- 
fidence, and listening to the details of 
their experience, often taking the tools 
from their hands and himself doing their 
work. It was not very long until he was 
in full charge of the mill as its superin- 

Mr. Fritz remained at the Norris- 
town Iron Works for several years, until 
1849. His subsequent experience as an 
ironworker we cannot follow in our brief 
space. Nor is it necessary that we should 
follow it, except to say that in 1855 he 

went to Johnstown as the superintendent 
of the Cambria Iron \A'orks, which en- 
terprise he lifted out of the slough of 
despond, and that in i860 he left Johns- 
town to build the blast furnaces and roll- 
ing mills of the Bethlehem Iron Works, 
with which works he continued as their 
general superintendent and chief en- 
gineer until about the time when he 
reached his 80th year. We have chosen 
to dwell only on the early part of Air. 
Fritz's career. 

Nor can we find room for even brief 
mention of the honors that have been 
heaped upon John Fritz. Long before 
his retirement from active service about 
ten years ago he had become known 
throughout the metallurgical world as 
one of its great engineers as well as the 
foremost of all the practical men who 
have developed the wonderful iron and 
steel industries of our own country. We 
congratulate our old friend that he has 
lived to a good old age, honored and be- 
loved by all who personally knew him or 
who are familiar with his great achieve- 

John Fritz 

His Support of Higher Education 

An Appreciation 

In the death of John Fritz on Feb- 
ruary 13th last Pennsylvania lost one of 
her most distinguished citizens, — a man 
honored at home and abroad as a pioneer 
and leader in the iron and steel industry, 
respected by a wide circle of friends, 
and beloved by all who had the privilege 
of intimate acquaintanceship with him. 

Born in 1832 he witnessed the mar- 
velous progress of this Nation along all 
lines during the nineteenth century. 
To this progress Mr. Fritz contributed 
conspicuously in his service in develop- 
ing the manufacture of iron and steel, — 

a business in its infancy when he first 
attached himself to it, which has now 
become, next to agriculture and trans- 
portation, the most important branch of 
industry m this country. 

The outline of Mr. Fritz's life is 
too well known to require repetition; it 
is told with characteristic simplicity and 
vigor in his Autobiography, published 
ahcHit a year before his death. It is 
not the purpose of this paper to com- 
ment on his great services to the pro- 
fession of engineering or of the honors 
bestowed on him at home and abroad 


or to expand on his genial, lovable dis- 
position and spotless character, but to 
refer more particularly to his apprecia- 
tion of the opportunities offered the 
ambitious youth of today as compared 
with the meagre educational facilities he 
enjoyed, and to his contribution to the 
cause of higher education. 

Mr. Fritz himself was a truly edu- 
cated man although his formal schooling 
was slight. In the story of his life he 
tells us how for a few months each win- 
ter during his early boyhood he attended 
an ungraded school in the neighborhood 
of his father's farm at which the instruc- 
tion each year was largely a repetition 
of the previous year's lessons in which 
mensuration was the most advanced 
subject taught. At the age of sixteen 
Mr. Fritz began his real schooling — that 
of the foundry and shop, and from that 
time on he was largely self-taught. His 
ojien-mindedness, eager curiosity and 
willingness to grapple a new problem 
and work on it until it was solved, soon 
made him a recognized leader and au- 
thority in the line of work which he 
selected. His success, however, did not 
make him arrogant or his self-training 
narrow-minded. Throughout his career 
he had a full appreciation of the advan- 
tages of formal scholastic training. 

At the establishment of Lehigh 
University in 1866 Mr. Fritz was chosen 
as one of the original trustees by the 
Founder of the University, the Hon. 
Asa Packer. Judge Packer fully appre- 
ciated that his practical experience and 
wonderful mechanical ability would be 
of great value in directing the policy of 
the new college, in which engineering 
and mechanic arts were prominent fea- 
tures, and Mr. Fritz from 1866 to his 
death ably fulfilled Judge Packer's trust 
for he was ever actively interested in all 
things pertaining to the welfare and de- 
vclo|iment of the University and con- 
tributed generously to its support. In 
this connection we should ncle an im i- 
dcnt in the spring of 1909 when in con- 
ferring on University matters, he said 
to the President, — 

"I want to tell you something. In 
my will I have left Lehigh University 

a certain sum of money, to be expended 
in your discretion. I now intend to re- 
voke that bequest. Yes, I'm going to 
revoke that bequest, and instead of 
leaving money to you to spend after I'm 
gorie, I'm going to have the fun of 
spending it with you and Charley Tay- 
lor." (Mr. Taylor was a colleague of 
Mr. Fritz on the Board of Trustees of 
the University.) "I have long watched 
the careers of a number of Lehigh grad- 
uates, and I h.-'ve been impressed by the 
value of the training they have received 
at Lehigh. But you need an up-to-date 
engineering laboratory and I intend to 
build one for you. " 

Mr. Fritz set to work on plans for 
the new laboratory with the typical vigor 
and enthusiasm which marked his entire 
life. In spite of his eighty-seven years 
he personally designed the building, 
whenever possible was on the University 
campus to superintent its erection, and 
selected the greater part of its equi[)- 
ment. It was a serious undertaking for 
a man of his age, but not only did he 
carry out his plans with the tenacity and 
versatility which characterized him when 
a new task w^as undertaken, but the work 
actually seemed to rejuvenate him. The 
laboratory was a noteworthy accession 
to engineering education, not only as a 
material addition to educational facili- 
ties, but especially as a manifestation of 
the importance placed by this self- 
trained man on the value of higher 
technical training. The generous and 
ample endowment for the maintenance 
and development of the laboratory pro- 
vided for in Mr. Fritz's will v.-as 
mark of his wise fore<5ight. 

In 1902, on the occasion of the cel- 
ebration of Mr. Fritz's eightieth birthday, 
when engineers of this country and a- 
broad gathered to do honor to a man 
who was preeminent in the developnicat 
of the engineering profession, thee was 
established in his honor The John Fritz 
Medal, which is annually awardetl to 
men of marked distinction as a mark of 
appreciation nf their work. To be the 
recipient of this medal is considered by 
engineers to be one of the highest pos- 
sible honors within the power of their 


colleagues to confer, and the annual a- 
ward will keep fresh the memory of The 
Father of the Iron and Steel Industry- 
long after all of his associates have 
passed away. In educational circles he 
will continue to be remembered as a 
broad-minded, self-trained man, who 
contributed largely to secure for post- 

erity educational facilities which he had 
lacked, — a much more fitting monument 
than a costly shaft or imposing mauso- 

John Fritz was a Grand Old man, 
whose life and achievements should , be 
an example and inspiration to the youth 
of the land. — Anon 

The Minister But to put ministers 

and Politics. of the state at the 

head of a socio-politi- 
cal movement, and to 
have them in their sermons on Sunday in- 
struct their church members how to vote, 
especially under the tutelage of a politi- 
cal party, even though it be so good a 
party as the Progressive, is certainly one 
of the mistakes of the age. Such minis- 
terial activity not only drawls the minister 
from that spiritual supremacy, as a care- 
taker of souls, into the vortex of or- 
ganized public life, and leads the congre- 
gation to feel that practical Christianity 
is to be brought about through the 
Church by legal enactments, rather than 
by the regenerative power of the Spirit ; 
but it also adopts the Roman method of 
having the clerg}^ influence the vote of 
the laity at the polls. 

When this method becomes ingrained 
as a habit in Protestantism, so that in- 
dividual freedom of conscience on social 
problems is lost in Church solidarity, and 
the minister becomes the political leader 
of his flock, the Church will come to be 
regarded as a political power in politics, 
and both its supernatural authority and 

its eternal vocation will disappear. — The 

New Poison by The most powerful 

German Chemist. poison is reported to 
have been extracted 
by a German chemist from the seeds of 
the ricinus, the familiar castor oil plant, 
and has been attracting much attention 
on account of its remarkable properties. 
Its power is estimated to be so great that 
a gram — about one-thirtieth of an ounce 
— would kill a million and a half guinea 
pigs. If administered so as to cause se- 
vere illness without death, it gives im- 
munity against a larger quantity, and the 
dose can be gradually increased mitil 
more than a thousand times as much can 
be endured as would kill an untreated 
animal. Though arsenic, morphine and 
other poisons can be taken in larger and 
larger quantity, nothing approaching this' 
marvelous increase in dose can be borne. 
The ricinus poison has effects much like 
those of living germs, and in immunized 
aniifials an antitoxin is formed, so that 
injections of their blood serum may cure 
animals that are already in danger or 
have become ill from ricinus poisoning. 
— Los Angeles Times. 

The Call to Books 

George Leslie Omwake, President of Ur- gotten up booklet, entitled The Call to Books, 
sinus College, Collegeville, Pa., sent out New the text of which we reproduce herewith. — 
Year's Greetings in the form of a neatly Managing Editor. 

n a quiet spot, sheltered by 
a wooded hill on one side 
and skirted by a country 
road on the other, stood the 
old stone school-house, in 
which I began the "pursuit 
of learning." The school 
ground consisting of a level space im- 
mediately surrounding the building, had 
no limits as far as the pupils were con- 
cerned, but stretched off indefinitely in 
three directions over public roads and 
extended into the woodland and over the 
hill in the other direction. During the 
noon hour and at recess we wandered up 
and down the roads and through the 
woods without restraint, and when the 
time, which passed all too quickly, had 
expired, groups of pupils were some- 
times far from the school; 

It was the custom of the teacher to 
call the school to session by pounding on 
the window, which "jingled in its 
crumbled frame" with loud reverbera- 
tion. • One of the distinct impressions of 
my first year at school was this calling 
of the school at the end of an inter- 
mission. The teacher pounded vigor- 
ously on the rattling sash, and there, im- 
mediateh' rose from a chorus of youthful 
voices nearby the call, "Bo-o-o-o-ks ! 
Bo-o-o-o-ks !" whereupon their fellows 
came running from far and near, and 
threescore young disciples of learning, 
with spent breath and heated bodies, 
promptly shuffled into their seats and 
bent over their lessons. 

What impressed me of course was the 
excitement of the whole thing rather 
than the vigorous invitation of the mas- 
ter to take up my primer and sit at 
"Pierian springs." But that tuneful 
shout by which the lads seconded the 
teacher's call rings in my ears to this 
dav. Primarilv it was merely a solici- 

tous call of the nearby boys to those of 
their fellows who had wandered off in 
their play to regions beyond the sound of 
the teacher's summons. But in a larger 
way it was young America shouting wel- 
come to the call of education and warn- 
ing to those who might miss the call. It 
was an instance of the universal outburst 
of enthusiastic interest in knowledge 
which has been the glory of pioneer 

It has been to the everlasting benefit 
of our nation that the avenues of culture 
have not been closed to the common peo- 
ple ; that the son of the tradesman or 
the artisan has hailed the call to books 
in the same chorus and with the same 
lusty cheer as the son of the professional 
man or the literateur ; that the distinction 
which made one generation part learned 
and part ignorant should not appear in 
the next. The call to books has been a 
great Icveler, the most absolutely demo- 
cratic thing in our boasted democratic 
America, and, best of all it has leveled 
upward and not downward. 

The onward sweep of this schoolboy 
impulse is seen in the unparalleled effort 
which is being put forth to-day on the 
part of all classes of youth to secure some 
form of liigher education. Best of all, 
contrary to any system of caste, we see 
numbers of boys from the artisan class 
devoting themselves to liberal instead of 
technical or vocational studies. 

From many unqualified critics pro- 
tests have come up frequently against 
so-called "book-learning." I have no 
quarrel with those who would make edu- 
cation practical, and freely recognize the 
fact, too long delayed in its diso(^very. 
that there is abundant educative material 
that is not to be found in books. But it 
must be admitted that books are the gen- 
eral conservators of the thought of the 



world, both past and present. We must 
not permit the pursuit of knowledge 
throug-h other means to obscure the fact 
the best expression of man's experience is 
cast in literary form, and that the most 
direct approach to the lore of the ages is 
through books. 

\Miile the reverberations of that school 
boy shout come down to me only as a 
pleasant memory, the call to books has 
lost none of its charm, and I need not 

apologize for passing it on to my school- 
boy friends of today. Let the good old 
shout "Bo-o-o-o-ks !" continue to ring ii\ 
glad response to the school-master's call. 
Let "book-learning" continue to dignify 
and give worth to the work of our 
schools. Let all the children of all the 
l^eople, wdiatever may be their vocation, 
become lovers of books, and merit all 
their days the honorable stigma of being 

Blasting With Herr Carl Meissner, a 

Water. German mining of- 

ficial, lias devised a 
method of blasting 
coal by means of water instead of powder 
that may greatly diminish the frequency 
of mining disasters. According to the 
"Journal of the American Medical As- 
sociation,'' the apparatus consists of a 
long nozzle that fits exactly into the hole 
bored by the miners for the in.sertion of 
powder. The injection of a few quarts 
of water drives out the gas in the coal, 
and then the injection of a little more 
water cracks and breaks the coal, so that 
a blow of the pick brings it down. The 
new method is extensively used in Ger- 
many, and several mine-owners in this 
country and in Canada are said to have 
adopted it with success. — Youth's Com- 

A People with In the principality of 

no Taxes. Liechtenstein, which 

is celebrating its bi- 
centenary, taxes are unknown to its 
people. Its handful of square miles is 
squeezed in between Austria, Germany 
and Switzerland, and usually crowded 
out of all except big scale maps of 

Ecclesiastically it is attached to Swit- 
zerland and for customs and postal pur- 
,poses to Austria, while its ruler, Prince 
John, lives in Vienna and compromises 
for his absence from his kingdom by pay- 
ing the whole of the expenses of its ad- 
ministration out of his annual income of 
$2,000,000. The little state has a parlia- 
ment, with salaried legislators who are 
also paid by Prince John. — Pall Mall 

The Centennial of Lubec, Maine 

By Prof. R. R. Drummond, Ph. D., Orono, Me. 

Ill the State of Maine forei<>n names 
are tjuite rare, although in certain sec- 
tions French names are common owing 
to the immigration of French Canadians ; 
and in a certain section, of which Xcw 
Sweden is the center, there are prosper- 
ous Swe(Hsh settlements inaugurated by 
a native of Maine, Minister Thomas, 
former representative of the I'nited 
States to Sweden and Xorwa}-. Al- 
though as early as 1740 there was a Ger- 
man settlement in Alaine, German names 
arc, nevertheless, extremely rare, and so 
any name smacking of German soil is 
a])t to attract the notice of the casual ob- 
iserver in Maine much more than in 

During the year 191 1 one ]\laine town 
especially appeared before the public, so 
that the people not only of Maine but 
even of the far-off country of Germany 
took cognizance of the fact that the State 
of Maine has a town with a German 
name — Lubec, or as it was formerly 
written. Lubeck. 

How this town came to be thus named 
it is difificult to ascertain. It has been 
said that a number of German families 
settled there, having come from Canada, 
and that they named the town. It has 
also been asserted that a lawyer, Jona- 
than D. Weston, one of the original in- 
corporators of the town, gave it its 
name — why we do not know. Be that 
as it may, Lubec, the most eastern point 
of the Cnited States, is to-day a town 
not without importance to all who are 
interested in historical research. 

The history of this section can be 
traced back at least four centuries. 
Karl}- in the seventeenth century the 
French explored this coast, and from 
that time on until England obtained full 
])Ossession of this region, the land was 
bandied back and forth, now being in 
possession of the French, now of the 
Knglish. .Again, after the Revolution- 
ary War, the cjuestion arose as to the 

boundar}- line between Maine and Can- 
ada, and both countries claimed East- 
port, which was then known as Quoddy 
or Passamaciuoddy, and included what is 
now Lubec. 

The settlement of Lubec itself was be- 
gun sometime after 1790 by farmers 
from Lynn, Goudsborough, and from 
the neighiborhood of Castine, and from 
Cumberland on the Bay of Fundy. From 
this time on this section, which was 
called Soward's Neck, seems to have 
prospered, so that by 1810 the popula- 
tion numbering 1,511 petitioned to be 
separated from Eastport and to be incor- 
porated as a town. The following year, 
June 21, 181 1, this separation took place 
and Soward's Neck was henceforth 
known as Lubeck. In 18 18 the spelling 
was changed to Lubec. and so remains at 
the present day. 

Lul)ec has not only been prominent in 
State aff'airs, but also in National af- 
fairs. In the early da\s it felt the force 
of the embargo act and smuggling was 
carried on quite openly. In the \\'ar of 
the Revolution as well as in the Civil 
War, Lubec sent its quota of men to 
battle for the fatherland. It was in Lu- 
bec that Albert Gallatin, patriot, states- 
man, one of the early secretaries of the 
United States Treasury, resided for 
some time. 

The town of Lubec at the present time 
has a population of over 3,000, and is 
one of the most progressive towns in the 
State of Maine- At various stages of its 
growth, the plaster business and ship- 
building were the chief industries, but 
for many years now. the curing and can- 
ning of sardines has been the i)rincipal 
industry — in fact the first canning of 
sardines in America occurred here, and 
there arc about fifteen factories in opera- 
tion. One concern alone takes care of 
about one-sixth of all the sardines caught 
on the Maine coast. Tt is interesting to 
note that lulius Wolfe, a German from 




New York, came to Lubec in 1881 and, 
although he did not settle here, was one 
of the pioneers in the sardine business. 
Besides the canning of sardines, there is 
considerable farming carried on as the 
soil is extremely fertile, and easy to 

With such industries going on, there 
must be means of transporting wares to 
other places, and such is the case. Lu- 
bec, although at the extreme boundary 
of the United States, is not shut off from 
the outer world. There are good steam- 
boat connections with Boston, Portland 
and St. John, as well as railroad facili- 
ties. These lines of transportation have 
aided in developing the town and civic 
improvements are continually increas- 
ing. The town owns a very fine system 
of water- works, has electric lights, life 
saving station, concrete walks, savings 
banks, &c., and the citizens are for the 
most part well to do, and take an interest 
in anything pertaining to town affairs. 
Thus in such a town it was not difficult 
to enlist citizens eager to make the cen- 
tennial celebration the biggest and best 
that had ever been held in that section 
of the country. 

In connection with the celebration of 
the centennial, communications were ex- 
changed between the town and the Sen- 
ate of the town of Lubeck of the Han- 
seatic League, Germany, which resulted 
in a letter which we quote herewith: 

Liibeck, Germany, May 30, 191 1. 

The Senate of the Town of Lubeck of the 
Hanseatic League has received with great in- 
terest the information that the common- 
wealth in the new continent across the ocean, 
which through the similarity of name is so 
closely bound to our republic, can at this time 
look back upon an existence of a hundred 

\yhil_e the Senate sends to this celebration, 
which is so full of significance, its congratula- 
tions and expresses the wish that the town 

may enjoy also for a long time a prosperous 
growth, it hereby takes the liberty to send, 
together with an engraving in wood which 
shows our town in the i6th century, two 
photographs of Liibeck at the present time ; 
one of which shows a view of St. Peter's 
Church from St. Mary's, the other a view of 
the harbor of Lubeck. 

With tJie request that you be willing to 
give these pictures a place in your town hall, 
we add the expression of our regret that we 
are not able to send a representative to the 

The Senate of the Free Town of Lubeck 
of the Hanseatic League. 

Von Hernn Echenburg, 

President of the Senate. 
C. Plessing, Secretary. 

The pictures mentioned in this corre- 
spondence are beautiful reproductions of 
wood engravings. One, twelve feet long 
and three feet six inches wide, has a solid 
ebony frame weighing about two hun- 
dred pounds ; the other two, four feet by 
three feet, are framed in ebony and ma- 
hogany. These pictures are hung in a 
prominent place in the bank building. 
Besides this display there was on exhi- 
bition a collection of historical articles, 
which is worthy of mention, such as a 
copy of the "New York Gazette" con- 
taining Washington's "Farewell Ad- 
dress" to the army, a copy of the "Bos- 
ton Gazette" containing an account of 
the Boston massacre, several bills of va- 
rious denominations of the old Passama- 
quoddy Bank. 

The town during the celebration was 
neatly and elaborately decorated in red, 
white and blue electric lights and great 
numbers of Japanese lanterns. The cele- 
bration lasted three days at which 
speeches were made by Prof. Calvin 
Clark of the Bangor Theological Semin- 
ary, Judge Maher of Augusta and Prof. 
Marquard of Colby College, and games, 
races, sports, parades and fireworks 
were engaged in. 


Illustrative of German-American Activities 
Contributions by Readers Cordially Invited 

A Request it is OUT purpose to develop 
this department into a Re- 
sume or Epitome of German- 
American Activities month by month. 
Readers will help the work along by 
sending us clippings from noteworthy 
editorials, articles, &c., showing what 
citizens of German ancestry are thinking 
or doing or what is being said about 
them. Keep a sharp l<X)kout for such 
items and let the readers of The Penn- 
Germania enjoy them with you. — The 
Managing Editor. 

Germany, Holland The German Em- 

and the Rhine peror is trying to 

persuade the Neth- 
erlands to consent that tolls shall be levied 
on shipping on the Rhine. 

Although the mouth of the Rhine is in 
the Netherlands, Germany is vitally inter- 
ested in it. for more than half of all the 
goods carried by vessels in Germany tra- 
vel on the great river. More than three- 
quarters of a century ago, the importance 
to Germany of controlling the mouth of 
the Rhine impressed itself on Friedrich 
List, who said that Germany without 
Holland was like a house the front door 
of which belonged to a stranger. List 
was an exile in the United States from 
1825 to 1833 ; and during that time he 
became so imbued with Alexander Ham- 
ilton's theory of a protective tariff that 
when he went back to Europe he urged 
the German states to form a customs 
union, or Zollvcrein. They adopted his 
suggestion. Out of the customs union 
grew the confederation of states now 
known as the German Empire ; and out 

of the German Empire has grown Ger- 
many's economic need to control this 
water outlet to the sea. 

C^iermany cannot expect soon to per- 
suade the Netherlands to enter the feder- 
ation ; but if it can secure the repeal of 
the treaty under which the Rhine is made 
free to the ships of all nations, it will 
have a powerful weapon with which to 
coerce the little kingdom. There is al- 
ready a German canal connecting the 
Rhine with the North Sea port of Emden. 
at the mouth of the river Ems. Over 
this route, it is proposed to build a larger 
canal, big enough to accommodate all the 
Rhine shipping that finds at Rotterdam 
its outlet to the sea, and all that enters 
Germany by way of Rotterdam. If 
Germany should obtain the right to levy 
tolls on river shipping, it could divert to 
Emden such of its traffic as now goes to 
Rotterdam ; all it would have to do 
would be to give preferential rates to 
shipping within the German Empire, and 
to levy tolls on all ships that pass down 
the Rhine into Holland. 

Holland, however, has not shown itself 
hospitable to the German overtures. In- 
stead, it is turning its back on the Kaiser 
and seeking friendly relations with 
France and England. Not long ago the 
Queen of Holland paid an ofificial visit 
to Paris : and her government has recent- 
Iv awarded to English shipbuilders the 
contracts for building three new seven- 
teen-thousand-ton warships. These great 
modern battleships, each one of which is 
nearly three times as large as any war- 
ship now in Wilhelmina's small navv. are, 
it is said, for the defense of the Dutch 
East Indies. But if there should be any 
conflict in the North Sea, they would be 




of great value to Holland, or to any na- 
tion or nations that happened to be in 
alliance with her. 

Talk of tolls and plans for a canal are 
the moves in the game the Kaiser is play- 
ing. Wilhelmina, backed by her parlia- 
ment, is meeting them with big warships 
and friendly negotiations with the Kai- 
ser's' rivals. The situation grows more 
interesting every year. 

And it has all come about because a 
liberty-loving German, when he was liv- 
ing in Pennsylvania in the early part of 
the last century, was impressed with the 
views of Alexander Hamilton. — Youth's 
Coiiipaiiioii. 1/30/ 1 3. 

After carefully weighing in the balance 
the fancied desires of this "hurry up" 
age and seeing how little real happiness 
they create for others, look within and 
iind for yourself contentment with that 
which may be earned on six days of the 
week and rest on the seventh. 

Devote it to the enjoyment of nature 
and the arts. Fill it with the music of 
gladness, the sunshine of love, the white 
light of truth, the brightness of hope, the 
tenderness of charity, and the strength 
of faith, and marvel at the result of the 
discovery, for lo! it is the kingdom of 
heaven within you. — Philadelphia Bul- 

Oerman The foUowng lines, 

Gemuethlichkeit taken from the Phila- 
delphia Bulletin, pic- 
ture without naming — because unname- 
able in English — German Gemiithlich- 
keit, exemplified in the mottos : "Ohne 
Hast, ohne Rast," "Eile mit Weile."" 

In this latter day struggle for wealth, 
power and greatness of all degrees, the 
jjeautiful repose and simplicity that 
characterized our distinguished fore- 
parents have been trampled under foot. 

However this may be, contentment 
seems to have been lost in the evolution 
of the passing years, and no reward has 
been offered worthy a consistent search 
for it, more's the pity. 

Rut the men, women, or children who 
have caught a glimmering shadow of it 
are a continual feast to their friends, who 
wonder why that home is so delightful 
to visit ; why the beauty of faces of the 
inmates is so elusive ; why the atmos- 
phere is so reposeful and uplifting that 
all their cares and woes betake themselves 
to the background of forgetfulness while 
they are enjoying their hosi)itality. Cer- 
tainly it is not wealth or i)alatial sur- 
roundings, for the home is guiltless of 
either, perhaps, but the hidden secret is 
contentment and repose, and this no man 
can buv. It is something that comes 
fiom within and requires the most vigor- 
ous cultivation that enlightened mentality 
can give it. 

Scholars Owen W'ister drew the fol- 

on Guard lowing picture of scholarli- 

ness in a recent address : 
Blessed is the man who is never found 
out ! Blessed is the scholar who finds 
some other scholar out ! The mere act 
makes him happy. From the beginnings 
of erudition to this present moment, 
d^own the whole ladder of time, scholars 
perch on every rung, each prying into 
some scholar on the rung behind him, 
finding him out. Thus is knowledge 
whittled and whittled and polished, until 
its final shape. One day I exclaimed to 
Dr. Furness at his work: "And that 
single word has cost you four months?" 
"Almost five — with other things, of 
course, too. I have to be mighty care- 
ful ;" here he threw into his face a de- 
lightful, comic expression of slyness; 
"Mightv careful. The other fellows are 
all crouching for a spring. lUit they've 
never fairly caught me yet!" Then he 
sat back and flourished his ear trumpet, 
and we had a good time laughing. 

Germany Ever 

The following is 
f I u o t ed from The 
Gaelic A m erica n : 
Germany, in its past and present govern- 
ment, has always been, and is now, an 
open-handed friend of the Union. When 
hjigland was conspiring to induce other 


2 19 

nations to join it in a move to sustain the 
Confederacy, it was Rnssia and Ger- 
many wlio entered their joint protest and 
thereb}' rendered most \ahial)le service 
to the I'nited States at a critical time in 
onr existence. Was it not President 
Clevehmd who gave Enj^iand the last 
lesson by ])lain talk, that reminded it of 
1776 — 1812. and some snhse(|uent de- 
velopment ? 

The millions of Germans and descend- 
ants who have become citizens of the 
United States, their love for tolerance 
and liberty, combine to cwercome the 
dilYerence of languaije between ns and 
Ciermany. Its recently develo])ed power 
on the ocean is giving the cold chills to 
"old England," but the United States has 
no fear because of it. A clash of arms 
will come, but it will not be between 
America and Germany. At a time w hen 
Japan had an eye on the Philippine Is- 
lands, England and Japan formed an of- 
fensive and defensive alliance. Was it 
England's desire to demonstrate its 
friendship for the United States? If so, 
it adopted very peculiar means for it. 

I favor the appropriation of money for 
more modern men-of-war ; I believe it 
is in the interest of peace, and incidentally 
to demonstrate to England (not Ger- 
many ) that the Panania Canal is an 
American institution and will be con- 
trolled by Americans in the interest of 
Americans. England and all other na- 
tions will receive fair treatment at the 
hands of Uncle Sam. But the "old boy"' 
will not allow England to cajole him into 
surrendering his rights nor break friend- 
ship with other nations. — Louis Bciicckc. 

Social Richlandtown is fortunate 

Centres in having the social centre 

idea explained and inaug- 
urated. And it bids fair to be eminently 
successful, because those wdio are ex- 
l)laining and putting- into ])ractice their 
exi)lanations are not only un-to-datc in 
their ideas, but have the whole welfare 
of their community at heart. The social 
centre should prevail everywhere. True, 
it mav mean hard work and some expense 

but when l)oth are devoted to the wel- 
fare of the peoi)le, those who are at the 
liead of atTairs will sooner or later come 
to recognize that whatever is done will be 
fruitful of good results. School-houses 
are the property of the jjeople, who pay 
for them and everything connected with 
them. Nt)w if the i)eople can meet at 
stated intervals on their own propertv 
and be instructed, edified, amused or en- 
tertained, no one can hel]) but recognize 
that they will be bettered in many re- 
spects. A large jjercentage of the ])eople 
of every comnuuiity. especially those of 
small towns .are hungering and thirsting 
for knowledge of flie proj^er sort, ancl 
thus far they have been neglected in this 
regard, so they go to hotel parties or other 
meagre diversion that may be offered, 
very often to their detriment. A social 
centre may not meet all the recjuire- 
ments, l)ut it provides something that 
will go a great way toward filling a long- 
felt want. This idea will become more 
universal — it is bound to do so. Aus])i- 
cious the day when every town and ham- 
let can enjoy the benefits of the social 
centre. We congratulate the citizens of 
Richlandtown on having made the start 
in this community, and we bespeak for 
them the best possible results the men 
to whom they have entrusted the con- 
duct of educational affairs can obtain for 
them.— Oiicil'cr town Free Press. 

Berks County Berks has been rumiing 
Democracy along as a Democratic 

county ever since the 
beginning of the Republic. Sometimes 
she was hooted at and jeered and urged 
to go with the crowd when things were 
going the other way. But old Berks 
stood still and 'steadfastly stuck to 
Democracy. Instead of going with the 
crowd she said: "I'll just wait and in 
good time the crowd will go with me." 

This is what has happened. The 
whole country has concluded that lierks 
was right and Berks has her reward for 
her |)atience and for the steadfastness 
of her faith. Through many of the dark- 
est hours of Democracy, during the past 


few generations, Berks was the one 
brig-ht spot in the nation, the one reliable 
community that never failed to respond 
with a majority, or to send representa- 
tives to Washington and Harrisburg to 
uphold the cause of Democracy. In the 
State of Pennsylvania she was a par- 
ticularly bright spot and the only county 
that could really be counted upon. At 
one time she was the only county in 
Pennsylvania represented by a Democrat 
in Congress. 

It is true that Berks has received little 
or no recognition either in State or na- 
tional politics, and that when rewards 
were to be distributed they were gener- 
ally parcelled elsewhere. But we are 
not complaining about this; we are sim- 
jDly drawing attention to the fact that as 
a landmark of continuing, faithful, pa- 
tient, unyielding Democracy, there is 
none more conspicuous than old Berks. 
— Kutztown Patriot. 

Shaking up A correspondent from 

Kutztown Reading writes a letter 

to the Patriot giving us 
advice on various subjects and among 
other things he says : 

"Why don't you shake up Kutztown 
and compel her to get a move on? She 
is nearly lOO years old, and yet there are 
towns not half as' old that are ten times 
as big." 

The Patriot is very thankful to the 
writer for his interest and advice and 
will duly proceed to properly rebuke 
Kutztown, in accordance with his sug- 
gestion and in accordance with his plan. 

We ought to have improved the navi- 
gation of the Saucony long ago and made 
it navigable for ships drawing 30 feet of 
water, all the way from here to Philadel- 
phia, turning a great portion of Maxa- 
tawny township into a commodious har- 

We should have an automoljile fac- 
tory, turning out T,ooo automobiles a 
(lav. an aeroplane sho]). producing a Hyer 
cveiy minute. 

We should have the largest dog collar 
factorv in the world, for the scientists of 

the Normal School have ascertained that 
Kutztown has a climate better adapted to 
the manufacture of dog collars than any 
other town in the United States. In con- 
nection with the canal before mentioned, 
we should have lines of steamers running 
to Liverpool, Hong Kong, Sydney, Bom- 
bay, Hamburg, Cairo, Cape of Good 
Hope, Buenos Aires, Rio Janeiro, Klein- 
feltersville, Frush Valley, Hinkletown 
and Blue Ball, and all of them running 
after 9.30 at night. 

We should have fully equipped and 
well appointed factories for the manu- 
facture of mare's nests, gyroscopes, 
grammars and green umbrellas, indus- 
tries which have Leen much neglected in 
this part of the country. 

We trust that our friend from Reading 
is satisfied with this rebuke to Kutz- 
town's lack of enterprise and with this 
castigation of her slowness. We would 
suggest, however, that she has been do- 
ing quite well in a modest way and that 
she has been very successful in turning" 
out a rare product, good men, such as 
eminent doctors, judges, lawyers, doc- 
tors of divinity, and men of affairs 
whose achievements have made the name 
of Kutztown famous as a centre of in- 
telligence, culture and intellectual effort. 
— Kut2town Patriot. 

Military The Gospel Herald, a Alen- 

Service nonite paper, recently an- 

Pensions swered a question about 

pensions as follows : 

Is it right from a Bible standpoint, for 
a brother to draw a pension ? A. B. E. 

We take it for granted that the ques- 
tioner meant by "brother" a member of 
a church holding to the Bible doctrine 
of nonresistance, and that it is a pension 
for militar}' service that he has in mind. 

A young man goes out, actuated from 
either selfish or patriotic impulses, and 
enlists in the army. He stands up brave- 
ly upon the field of battle, and if he is an 
efficient soldier he takes the lives of many 
on the other side. The war is over and 
he goes home. He reflects upon what he 
has done. He thinks of the many that 



he helped to send to eternity unprepared 
without a chance for repentance. He 
reads the words of God: "Thou shalt 
not kill," "Love your enemies," "Do 
good to them that hate you," "Pray for 
them that despitefuUy use you," "Avenge 
not yourselves, but rather give place un- 
to wrath."' "Put up thy sword into its 
sheath, for all they that take the sword 
shall perish with the sword," "The wea- 
pons of our warfare are not carnal," etc., 
etc., etc., and a feeling of deep remorse 
comes upon him. He thinks of the fact 
that what he did, though barbarous, is 
-called glorious by most people, and that 
he was actually paid wages for the awful 
"business of killing other people ! Hav- 
ing repented of his sin, does he feel like 
accepting further pay, in the form of a 
pension, for his awful deeds? But some 
say that this is not pay for service, just 
a gift from a grateful nation for the ex- 
posure, loss of health, etc. The fact re- 
mains, nevertheless, that the nation pays 
the soldiers their pension on the ground 
that they have done something glorious, 
and it is with that understanding that 
pensions are generally accepted. The 
best that can be said of receiving pensions 
under such circumstances is that it gives 
out the wrong impression. Every ex- 
soldier who believes that he did wrong in 
grasping carnal weapons and taking the 
life of fellow men on the held of battle, 
and who has really repented of the deed, 
will feel more like returning the wages 
that he has already received for some- 
thing unscriptural than accepting further 
emolument in the form of a pension. 

Farquhar Percival Farquhar. son of 

in Brazil Hon. A. B. Farquhar, of 

York, Pa., is fast becom- 
ing a power in South America. Of 
him the Detroit Press has the following 
to say : 

Brazil is a nation of twenty-one mil- 
hons of people, mistress of half the South 
American continent, occupying the most 
fertile regions for the production of 
coffee, cocoa, rubber, sugar, tobacco, cot- 
ton, with unknown wealth in forests and 

minerals, widi immense possibilities in 
water power, with a vast sea coast, fac- 
ing Europe and Africa. This great coun- 
try, with its undeveloped resources, is 
now being exploited much as the Argen- 
tine was a few years ago. The Bresil 
llconomique, of Kio de Janeiro, sounds 
a note of alarm. The goblins of finance 
have been getting all kinds of conces- 
sions and Brazil will be bound hand and 
foot by these companies', which will enjoy 
even greater privileges than our trusts. 
A financial genius who bears the name of 
Farcjuhar is an organizer of the J. Pier- 
])ont Morgan type, and controls twenty- 
eight different companies and enterprises, 
among which are eight great railway 
lines, all the tramways of Rio de Janeiro, 
.several navigation companies, refrigera- 
tor companies, gas and electric com- 
panies, hotel, water power, and timber 
C()mi)anie>. "We do not desire absolute- 
Iv to fight this group," modestly remarks 
the Bresil Eeonomique; "on the con- 
trary,- our desire is to reconcile its very 
respectable interests with the interests of 
the nation." 

Union of Real unity must, therefore, 

Lutheran be the watchword of Lu- 

Churches therans. But that involves 

more than subscription to 
the Lutheran confessions. There is not 
a single large body of Christians in the 
country that is more truly united con- 
fessionally than the eighteen Lutheran 
Ixxlies and synods of America. Here is 
the basis of a great future hope. But a 
profession of doctrine carries with it the 
presumption that the practice be consis- 
tent with it. And here is where the real 
(lifiiculty lies. There is among us a prac- 
tice that .stands up so straight as to lean 
backward : and there is a practice that 
leans so far forward as virtually to be a 
denial of much that is distinctive of the 
Lutheran faith. The real question among 
us is: How may we become united in 
tlie fundamentals of a consistent Luther- 
an iiractice? This does not mean that 
we must have the same form of wor- 
shi]). or government — as many seem to 


suppose — though that is a matter of con- 
siderable importance. Xor does it mean 
that we must assume the same attitude 
toward temperance, Sunday observance, 
l)opular amusements and the Hke, how- 
ever important these may be. It means 
simply, that we. must get together more 
closely in our conception of what con- 
sistency demands of us Lutherans if we 
would safeguard those Reformation doc- 
trines and principles which sectarian in- 
difference to creed has placed in jeo- 
pardy. If we let down the bars in our 
l)ractice, we inevitably let down the bars 
in our doctrine. If we have a distinc- 
tive faith, we must have a distinctive 
])ractice. How far may we go in public- 
Iv associating ourselves with religious 
movements without implying a denial of 
some things which we as a Lutheran 
Church are supposed to stand for ? Here 
is where we differ, and here is where we 
should be far more nearly one than we 
are — even in the same general body, and 
in the same synod. This is what is really 
keeping us apart, though we are far 
from saying that doctrinal unity is at- 
tained as it should and could be. Down 
underneath the practice lie the roots of 
doctrine out of which they grow; and 
if practices diff'er, there is a very great 
likelihood that there is variance in doc- 
trine, or different degrees of loyalty to it. 
— 77u' Lutheran. 

Reading The Reading Herald of 

Beer February 7, had an edi- 

Clubs torial on "The Tired Man's 

Treat and Retreat" from 
wliich we quote: 

There are in Reading 150 of them, they 
sa\- ; of clubs large and small which sell 
liquor to their members on a Sunday 
and at other times. Their membershi]) 
is over 7,000. They have nearly $300.- 
000 invested. And "they pay out $25,000 
in relief annually. 

Yet these social clul)s ])ay not a dcjllar 
of license and are amenable to no law 
whatsoever. They sell abundantly to 
members ; and every one is a member. 
And now when an effort is made to 

regulate them and confine them to legal 
processes, there is a sweeping movement 
of protest, with one ex-statesmen vowing 
he will not leave a stone unturned to de- 
feat the bill, and another ex-statesman 
imploring a merciful heaven and a some- 
times merciless legislature to have ])ity 
on the sorrows of the tired man's re- 

The spectacle is a highlv interesting 
one. Reading has long been famed for 
the number and iniquity of its Sunday 
beer clubs. To find these clubs — of the 
best ty])e and of the worst — thus Ijanding 
themselves together in solid phalanx, led 
by military and legal experts and men of 
large affairs, and assaulting the legis- 
lature's citadel in defense and defiance, 
is enough to set churches wailing, good 
citizens' leagues protesting, law and or- 
der societies inveighing, parsons exhort- 
ing and this Herald editorializing. 

A New Xdt long ago there was a 

Danger time when parents could 

leave any American periodical 
upon the sitting-room table without mis- 
giving. That time has passed. The 
periodicals that you do not need to ex- 
amine with some care before you put 
them where your girls mav see them are 
now few. Under one specious pretext or 
another, those who control them are 
printing stories and articles that are far 
from paying that deference to modesty 
and decency upon which our literature 
used justly to pride itself. 

This is a matter for very great regret. 
Periodicals intended for general reading 
seek to enter the home — on the plea al- 
wavs that they bring wholesome recrea- 
tion if not more solicl benefits. Thus they 
rest under a peculiar obligation to be 
careful what thev print. That obligation 
they are now disregarding, to the injury 
of our youth. 

Now it is the right and the duty, and 
it should be the peculiar care of i)arents 
wiselv to pick the counselors of their 
daughters in all that relates to love and 
marriage. This right and duty The 
Coin/'anion does not believe they wish to 



delegate to any editor, — especially of the 
coniniercial type, — or to any story-writer, 
— especially the story-teller of meagre 
talent who must spice his wares if he 
would sell them. In respect of these mat- 
ters, there is a right time and a wrong 
in which to impart the new knowledge ; 
there is a right mood and a wrong in 
which to receive it. Only they who are 
intimately acquainted w'ith the individual 
girls to be guided can hope to escape 
making tragic blunders. Our daughters 
should not be left to the mercy of the 
casual magazine. 

If the new standards of the periodicals 
are to persist, the difficulty of the prob- 
lem of bringing up our young people in 
sweetness and wholesomeness of mind is 
greatly increased. Their reading must 
■be much more strictly supervised ; their 
taste for what is good and pure and 
wholesome in literature must be more 
sedulously cultivated ; and their charac- 
ters must be molded to new^ strength to 
resist in a world no longer tender of 

E)Ut must the new standards persist? 
Cannot the periodicals of general cir- 
culation be forced by public opinion to 
abandon their new license ? Certainly we 
do not need to buy and read them and 
bring them to our homes ; and if we do 
not buy them, they will not long ofifend. 

The above, quoted from Youth's Com- 
panion, lead us to remark, "Is not the 
article a strong plea for the support of a 
magazine like The Pkxn-Gkkm.\xia?" 

Germans in A new book entitled "The 

the West Diffeient West" by A. E. 

Bostwick, librarian of the 
St. Louis Public Library, contains the 
following passages of interest to German- 
Americans : 

"A love for good music is one of the 
things for which the West has to thank its 
German citizens. Why the Germans 
should be the leading musical people in 
the world is a hard problem to solve; 
they do not look it. whereas the Latin 
peoples decidedly do. But why. if music 
is a Teutonic gift, did not our own Teu- 

tonic forefathers transmit it to us? The 
I^nglish are probably the most unmusical 
nation on earth ; what hoi)e there is for 
us Americans we have largely from the 
leaven of other peoples that has been and 
is working on us. 

"Music is like language: the only way 
to miderstand it is to listen to it. There 
is no use trying to teach a babe to talk 
by giving him lessons in grammar and 
rhetoric. When he knows one language 
these will help him to acquire another, 
and likewise a listener that understands 
the musical language of Beethoven but 
not that of Debussy may be helped by 
verbal explanation. But just as the way 
to resume specie payments was to re- 
sume, so "the way to listen to music" is 
to listen and to listen much and atten- 
tively. The presence of other listeners 
who evidently like what they hear is a po- 
tent factor in the increase of musical ap- 
preciation in a community, and here is 
where the Germans have done such good 
service. The West still suffers, it is true, 
from the prevailing American contempt 
of things done on a small scale. Unless 
a town is big enough to support a Boston 
symiihony orchestra or a metropolitan 
opera, it may as well throw up the sponge, 
.according to this view. Salvation from 
this belief is to be found in the multipli- 
cation of performers, as opposed to mere 
listeners. If there are in a town a large 
number of persons who sing or who play 
on some musical instrument, the exist- 
ence of musical organizations will come 
as a matter of course. This is the way 
it works in Germany, and when the Ger- 
man leaven has worked so far that it is 
also the case in small western cities, the 
West's musical life wdll have been jnit 
on a new foundation * * * 

"There is an old newspaper joke aliout 
a traveler who looks out of the window 
of his Pullman berth and seeing buildings 
covered with such names as Rauschen- 
pfeffer, Steinenflasch, etc., says: "Oh, I 
see we have arrived at \iilwaukee !" 
When the Kaiser politely asked the visit- 
ing American. "Is this your first visit to 
Germany?" and he replied. "Xo. your 
Majestv. I have been in St. Louis, Cin- 
cinnati and Milwaukee." he made the 



same jest in a different form — in fact it 
is quite Protean. The size of the Ger- 
man immigration to the United States, its 
coherence, and the solid contributions it 
has made to our prosperity, are more or 
less familiar to all. The Germans have 
probably kept together a little better in 
the West than elsewhere. Great Ger- 
man quarters like south St. Louis or the 
"Over the Rhine" district in Cincinnati 
are more frequent there — in fact, there is 
hardly one of these in the East at all ex- 
cept the Second Avenue district in New 
York, which is now rapidly breaking up. 
Foreign immigrants, when they enter a 
strange city in any numbers, are apt to 
"flock together" at first, but as the 
strangeness wears off they usually dis- 
perse. In the West there seem to have 
been special reasons for keeping the Ger- 
mans together. In St. Louis, for in- 
stance, the fact that they adhered to the 
Union in 1861, while the rest of the citi- 
zens largely favored secession, must have 
inclined them to solidarity." 

F. K. W. 

est left behind, grievous and irretrievable 
as they are, though in a holy cause, for 
the supreme good of a great nation, are 
yet easier to bear than the human heta- 
kombs, holocausts sustained from a soul- 
less, pitiless grinding monopolism of spe- 
cial interests, in which the units are con- 
sumed by the Moloch "greed of a certain 
predatory wealth without honor." 

Louis Viereck answers the question, 
"Shall We Have Peace in iqi3?" thus: 

If we scan the political situation of the 
Old World — leaving Africa out of the 
question, although great international up- 
heavals would certainly include Egypt — 
we can hardly conclude that the year 191 3 
will end the era of great wars. I fear, on 
the contrary that our century will be pro- 
ductive of such mighty crises in the lives 
of the nations that — despite the obvious 
necessity for peace on the part of all 
civilized peoples — such a thing as peace 
everlasting may not be thought of except 
in dreams. 

The Peace The International for Feb- 
Problem ruary, 1913, contains two 

articles touching the peace 
problem. Herman Schoenfeld closes an 
article on "Is Universal Peace Possible?" 
in these words: 

As long as there will be human pas- 
sions and human greeds, as long as there 
will be blood affinities and racial anti- 
pathies, the desire to gain, to have and to 
hold — so long there will be wars, unholy 
wars or holy wars, as the case may be. 
When Prussia and Austria lav under the 
heel of Napoleon, Ernst Moritz Arndt, 
the immortal poet and patriot, called his 
nation to arms with the words : "It is no 
war of which the crowns know, it is a 
crusade, it is a holy war. Right, free- 
dom, honor and conscience the tyrant has 
torn from our hearts." Indeed the idea 
of eternal peace is a dream, and not even 
a beautiful dream. The shedding of the 
precious blood, the terrible loss of the 
noblest and best men with the concom- 
itant sufferings of the nearest and dear- 

Stand up for State Superintendent of 

Your State. Public Instruction 

Schaeft'er is a loyal 
Pennsylvanian and he believes that the 
citizens of the commonwealth ought to 
defend the fair name of the state when 
its reputation is attacked by outsiders 
instead of applauding the slanderous 
statements made. In addressing the 
State Educational Association Dr. 
Schaeffer said : 

"Some people in Pennsylvania see only 
carrion and corruption, like vultures, and 
this association ought to have a compre- 
hensive plan to show that this is a false 
view. The day ought to be passed when 
an outsider can coine into Pennsylvania 
and from an institute platform or from 
any teachers' meeting platform attack 
the things in Pennsylvania and win ap- 
plause. Be proud of your state and show 
why New Englanders, for instance, come 
to Pennsylvania to live. How many 
Pennsylvanians go to New England to 
live? Let us all try to instill into the 
hearts of our boys and girls a love for 

Zbc Ipenn Gcrmania (5enealogical Club 

EDITOR — Cora C. Curry. 1020 Monroe St. N. W.. Washington. D. C. 

MSMBZIKSHIF — Subscribers to The Penn Germania who pay an annual due of twenly- 
five cents. 

OBJECT — To secure preserve and publish what interests members as. accounts of 
noted family Incidents, traditions. Bible records, etc.. as well as historical and 
senealo^ioal data of Swiss German and Palatine American immigrants, wiili date 
and place of birth, marriage, settlement, migration and deatJh of descendants. 
Puzzling sonealogical questions and answers thereto inserted free. 

OTTICEHS — Elected at annual meeting. (Suggestions as to time and place are Invited. 1 

BUmQPITS — Team work, personal communications, mutual helpfulness, exchange of 
information suggestions as to what should bo printed, contributiona for publica- 
tion, including the asking and ajiswering of ques.tions. 


The special purpose of this Depart- 
ment is to locate as many branches of 
each family as possible, and to bring to- 
gether data from all ; putting them in 
personal correspondence when desired 
and adding to each query matters of in- 
terest to all. 

To this end readers of The Penn- 
Germania are urged to send to Wash- 
ington, any item they can add or sug- 
gestion regarding the various families. 
Such data is carefully carded and in- 
dexed, together with an address of the 


The genealogical programme sug- 
gested in the January number by Hon. 
J. C. Ruppenthal, is practically the same 
as that of the Old National Genealogi- 
cal Society, organized in 1903 at Wash- 
ington, D. C, which may briefly be 
stated thus: 

Objects : To collect and preserve gene- 
alogical data. 
]\Iethods : Secures family records and 
traditions, seeks to develop and verify 
the same. Is installing valuable card 
catalogues, specializing in pre-revolu- 

tionary emigrants, and unpublished 
marriage records. 
Collects : Names, places of removals, 
settlements. migrations, ancestors, 
descendants, births, marriages, deaths, 
blazonry and coats-of-arms. Allied 
families requested. 
Aims: Library (already well begun) 
headquarters, — to be a study and 
work-room for its members, to whom 
all its archives are free. Minimum 
charges to cover costs of copy to non- 
resident members. 

Custodian of records and genealogical 
work received by loan, gift or bequest, 
and publisher of the same as funds per- 
mit. Unfinished work accepted. 

Quarterly magazine, is issued for the 
sole purpose of publishing the compila- 
tions of members and donated data. This 
is sent to each member and all have 
equal privileges of publication therein. 

To organize auxiliary societies else- 
w'here for the interchange and exchange 
of information and helpfulness. In short, 
to promote and foster the study of Gene- 
alogy as a science, and as a family ne- 
cessity, for every human being should 
know as much of his own ancestors as' 
is required for the test of farm animals, 
as well as the latent ability probably in- 
herited and mav develop for success in 


As the Librarian of the N. G. S., the 
Editor of the Department cordially in- 
vites co-operation and service in this gen- 
eral work, but the specific work of the 
P. G. G. C. should be the first thought. 
Will each one do some part to promote 
its growth, and increase usefulness in its 
own peculiar and special field of labor. 
If you approve of this Department, send 
some data, or tell what you want. Each 
member can at least secure one new sub- 
scription for the Penn Germania Maga- 
zine, and do it now. 


Not one but many are wanted. 

County Historical Societies have usu- 
ally confined their collections to history, 
eliminating names and personal data, not 
realizing that history is made by indi- 

Historical Society Libraries should be 
repositories where one can find data of 
each locality. State Libraries should, 
and now generally are, making special 
collections of the State as well as collect- 
ing such general genealogical data as 
their funds permit ; while the libraries 
at Washington contain the finest genealo- 
gical collections in the country. The Li- 
brary of Congress and the Library of 
The Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion are claimed to be among the best in 
the world. 

It is "up to" Pennsylvania Germans' to 
see to it that in the great State of Penn- 
sylvania a splendid collection is made of 
the historical and genealogical data speci- 
ally pertaining to their ancestors, and 
the P. G. G. C. must do its part. Sug- 
gestions wanted as to what can best be 


A Clubfellow has put $6,500.00 into 
the research, collaboration and publica- 
tion of the history of his family. This 
great sacrifice will probably not be fully 
appreciated even by those immediately 
interested, nor adequately recompensed 
in dollars and cents, but genealogical work 

is becoming more and more generally 
recognized as a valuable contribution to 
the world's literature, as people realize 
that national history is made up of the 
history of the individual men and women 
who lived it. No matter how humble 
their part may have been, each one helped 
in some way. 


Twice within a week requests have 
come for tombstone inscriptions of Lan- 
caster County, Pa. A York County club 
member asks for Muddy Creek and 
White Oak specifically, while a Lancas- 
ter member wants Lancaster County 

If members cannot aid personally, why 
cannot individuals or Societies be induced 
to take up this matter, make a business of 
copying and publishing or otherwise mak- 
ing accessible these valuable records. The 
Penn-Germania will gladly publish all 
such records promptly. 

Pastors of old churches should be made 
to realize the value to their parishes of 
arousing interest among descendants of 
the founders of those churches in the 
present welfare of the old church, even 
the first cost of having records copied 
will be returned to them an hundred fold, 
if members cannot make the lists, which 
should be exact copies, spelling as in the 
originals, and every word and date. 

Cripe, Gripe. Wanted, information 
as to ancestry of several families, now 
in Indiana. Some spell it as Cripe, others' 
write it Gripe. 

There seem to be at least three differ- 
ent "tribes." One in northern part of the 
state, one in the southern part and one 
in the central part. 

All were from Germany late in the 
17th or early in the i8th century. The 
name sometimes appears also as Gribe 
and Greib. 

Many were and still are German Bap- 

One branch, John Cripe, Sr., was one 
of the pioneers to Madison Twp., Mont- 
gomery Co., Ohio, from Huntingdon Co., 
Pa. His wife was Catherine Ullery. 



Their six children were Stephen, David, 
John, (all born in Huntingdon, now 
Blair Co., Pa.), Susan, Esther and Eliza- 

This John Cripe, Jr. (b. about 1804; 
d. 1876, Peru, Indiana), married Cather- 
ine Shively. 

Who will be the tirst to send Cripe- 
Gripe data? Any of these names bom 
prior to 1830 in any locality wanted. 

Did the Catherine Shively, (wife of 
John Cripe, Jr., b. 1804-1876), belong to 
the following family ? 

Shively, Christian Shively, Sr., b. 
"near Hagerstown," moved to Jefferson 
Twp., Montgomery Co., Ohio, about 

His six children were : Jacob, Chris- 
tian. Daniel, David, Susannah and Eliza- 

Christian Shively, Jr., b. "near Hagers- 
town," moved to Huntingdon Co., Pa., 
there married Susannah Gripe, (b. in 
Huntingdon Co.), (daughter of John and 
Susannah (Rench) Gripe, her father was 
a German Baptist (Tunker) minister.) 

Their children were: Owen G., Chris- 
tian. John. David, Samuel and William 

(J wen G. Shively b. Nov. 3, 18 15, Jei- 
ferson Twp., Montgomery Co., O., m. 
Jan. I, 1845 Hannah Ullery, daughter of 
Joseph and Catherine (Gripe) Ullery. 
(This Joseph Ullery, b. Huntingdon Co., 
Pa., was one of the pioneers to Wolf's 
Creek, JNFontgomery Co.) 

Christian and John Shively died young, 

The children of Owen G. and Hannah 
(Ullery) Shively were Christian R., 
Joseph U., Noah H., Francis M., Aaron 
v., John D., Susannah, Elizabeth, and 

Wanted, infonnation regarding the 
ancestry of all of the above. 


Ehcrly — Hai^nc — McCoiikey. Eberly, 
(Evcrly), Leonard, (i) left Md. between 
1773 and 1780, settled in southwestern 
Pa., his wife d. prior to 1790; in 1797 
he deeded his land grant right to "Dun- 
kard's Neck" to his son Adam, whose 
descendants still own it, now Dunkard 

Twp., Green Co., Pa. Tradition says 
this family came from Klingenthal, 

Leonard, (2) migrated from Md. to 
Pa., about 1783; was b. 7 Feb., 1760; d. 
7 July, 1830; m. in 1783, Elizabeth Plat- 
ter, b. 18 June, 1766; d. 12 Nov., 1833. 
Their 12 children were: (i) Catherine, 
b. 1784, d. 1866; m. 1st, Thos. Rowland, 
d. 1804; 2nd, Jacobus Kirkendall, Wash- 
ington Co., Pa. 

(2) Peter, b. 1786, d. 1866; m. Per- 
meha Smith, Wayne Co., O. 

(3) Mary, b. 1787; d. 1823; m. An- 
drew Redd, Washington Co., Pa. 

(4) xA.dam, b. 1789; d. 1853, Wavne 
Co., O. 

(5) Joseph, b. 1790, d. 1829; m. Ra- 
chel (Redd) Stimson, Wayne Co., O. 

(6) Jacob, b. 1792, d. 1842; m. Lvdia 
Miller, Carrol Co., O. 

(7) Barbara, b. 1794, d. 1882; m. Hen- 
ry Smith, Washington Co., Pa. 

(8) Leonard, b. 1796; d. 1853; m. 
Catherine Chesroun, Holmes Co.. O. 

(9) Elizabeth, b. 1798, d. 1889: m. 
Jacob Ihrig, Wayne Co., O. 

(10) Ann, b. 1899, d. 1878; m. James 
Parsons, Holmes Co.. O. 

(11) Sarah, b. 1805; d. 1871 ; m. 
Stephen Luse, Washington Co., Pa. 

(12) Rebecca, b. 1806, d. in child- 

Peter Everley, 1786- 1866, migrated to 
Ohio from Pa., in 1814, had a son Adam, 
b. 1816, m. Naomi, dau. of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Hague) McConkey. Eliza- 
beth Hague was the daughter of William 
and Ruth (Mendenhall) Hague, who 
soon after 1790 emigrated from Penns- 
bury Twp.. Chester Co., Pa. to Fayette 
Co., Pa. (children: John, Hannah, Eliza- 
beth, Patty, William, Isaac and Aaron 

Wanted ancestry and data of the ab<ive 
Leonard Everly, or Eberly, his wife's 
name and ancestry. 

Wanted, data as to ancestry of Thomas 
McConkey (b. Washington Co.. Pa., 
Sept. 18. 1783, son of Wm. McConkey), 
and of Ruth Mendenhall and Williann 
Hague. O. W. E. 

Was Wm. McConkey of the Berks Co. 



Hberly, Hiiber or Hoover, Bricker, 
Kauffman, Jacob Eberly, emigrant 
about 1725 settled in Lancaster Co., Pa., 
at Durlach ; there he Hved and died. 
Llarried Fannie Huber or Hoover, near 
■Columbia, same County. 

Their son John Nov. 24, 1776, m. 
Elizabeth Bricker, (b. June i, 1759; d. 
Dec. 4. 1813J. 

Benjamin, son of this John and Eliza- 
beth (Bricker) Eberly, m. Barbara, dau. 
-of Christopher Kauffman, of Cumber- 
land Co.. Pa., (settled there prior to 1778 
founded a large family there ; probably 
migrated from Lancaster Co.). 

Wanted, the ancestry and data of all 
of these people. K. E. B. 

Hiiyctt, Hezi'Ctt, Potter. Franz Carl 
Huyett, emigrant ; oath Philadelphia, 
Sept. 9, 1738. Married March 7, 1746, 
at St. Michael's and Zion Church, Frantz 
Carl Huynt and Gertrude Quattlebaum. 

Dr. A. Stapleton includes Frantz Carl 
Huyett, 1747 among the parents recorded 
in St. Michael's Lutheran Church, who 
probably were of Huguenot ancestry. 

Berks Co. History, says Michael Huyett 
lived in Exeter Twp. (then Philadelphia 
Co.) until he was killed in 1755, enroute 
to Pittsburgh with Gen. Braddock. Also 
states that on account of Indian troubles 
Frantz and Peter Huyett migrated to 
Maryland (Brothers.) Frantz remained 
in Washington Co. Peter returned to 
Exeter Twp. (now Berks Co.) Pa. 

Ships record gives age of Frantz Carl 
as 20 years. Berks County History says 
30 years old and married ; mentions his 
children as Ludwig and some daughters. 

This son Ludwig (Lodowick), b. Jan. 
17' 1730: d. Apr. 17, 1828. Land Com- 
missiorers records at Annapolis, Md., 
shows natent to him of a tract of land 
called "Altogether, dated June 28, 1785, 
in Washington Co., Md., where founded 
a large family. Alaout 1770 he married 
Maria ]\Targaretta Potter, (h. Feb. i, 
17.S2; d. Feb. 21, 1833.) 

Wanted. — Data as to Frantz Carl 
Huyett. and of his first wife, and of the 
parentage of ]\Taria ?vlargaretta Potter. 

Peter Huyett, b. 1702, emigrant, oath 
Philadelphia, Aug. 30, 1737. 

Michael Huyett, b. 1719, emigrant 
from Mannheim, Zweibrucken, to Eng- 
land in 1739, to America in 1749, settled 
in Exeter Twp. 

Wanted. — Information as to the an- 
cestry of these three men. Was Michael 
a brother of Frantz Carl and Peter Huy- 
ett? Also want data as to the first wife 
and the daughters of Frantz Carl. W^as 
Ludwig the only son? 

Miller, Yost, Jo\st, Yeast. Yeost, Yeoost 
Youst Miller was born in Germany. En- 
listed in the Patriot Army in 1777 at 
Ephrata. Was in Lancaster County Reg- 
iments during 1780-1782. In 1782 took 
up a large tract of land, then Bedford 
County- — now Somerset Co. Probably 
lemoved from "near Reading." Had a 
brother Jeremiah and a son Joseph, (my 
grand father) were Lutherans. 

W^anted. — Information prior to 1777, 
antl data of descendants. Will gladly 
exchange information. Was this Yost 
Miller any connection of the Jacob Mul- 
ler ( Miller) who took up 400 acres of 
land near Harlem, Berks County, Pa. 

W. H. M. 

Zeller, Jacob, emigrant from Switzer- 
land about 1750, probably landed at Phil- 
adelphia. Settled near Cearfoss, Mary- 
land. Are the Zellers of Pennsylania de- 
scendants of John Zeller, a brother of 
the above? As a great-grandson of Ja- 
cob, 1 want to swap Zeller information. 
Please tell me anv Zeller addresses that 
you can. ' H. McK. Z. 

1 1' erf.':. Johann George (or George as 
he was known) of Milligigan's Cove, 
Bedford County, born 1753, died 1873; 
emigrant to America with his mother 
when a boy. He married Nancy Christy, 
they had nine children, as follows: John 
AA'ertz married Elizabeth Fulkman; 

George married Betsy ; Thomas 

married Eve Dibert, (my grandparents) 
their children were : Josiah, married 
Nawgee ; Charles married Lions ; Elijah 
married Earnest, and lanes married 

Daniel ^^''ertz married IMary Moyer ; 
William married Maria Hoover ; Mary 


2 2^ 

married John Taylor; Elizabeth married 

Kinton ; Rosina married Peter 

Moury, and Remintia, unmarried. 

Wanted. — The names and dates as to 
birth, marriage and death of the father 
and mother of said George Wertz, and 
the names and information as to his 
brothers and sisters. Mrs. J. R. M. 

Saucrhier, Sourbeer. I have just re- 
ceived sample copy of Penn Germania. 
It is just what I need in my genealogical 
work, I enclose year's subscription and 
(lues. Will the Forum, please state the 
probable crigin and meaning of this 

Johann Georg Sauerbier. Ship Samuel, 
Philadelphia, Aug. 30, 1737. (Soon 
changed to English form Sourbeer). 
Tradition says from Frankfort-on-the- 
j\Iain. Germany. 

The gap in my line is between this 
emigrant and my great grandfather, John 
Sourbeer, who married a Kline, lived and 

died in Manor Twp., Lancaster Co., Pa. 
The only date known at present is the 
birth of their oldest child, Dec. 8, 1798. 
Has any list ever been published of the 
old Trinity Lutheran Church of Cones- 
toga Center, Lancaster Co.? Wanted, 
any information prior to 1800. 

Schiercr. Walter Schierer, Nazareth, 
Pa., desires to exchange letters with the 
descendants of Joseph Sheirey, a saddler, 
who died in Reading, Pa., alxjut the year 
1843. ^ny subscriber who can give in- 
formation will confer a great favor by 
writing to the inquirer. 

Behler. Dr. J. H. Behler, Xesque- 
honing. Pa., wants infomiation concern- 
ing the early Pennsylvania history of the 
family of John Michael Behler. migrated 
Oct. 2, 1741 ; Michael Behler. August 30, 
1749; Valentine Behler, Oct. 7. 1749; Ja- 
cob Behler, Sept. 29, 1753 ; Francis Beler, 
Sept. 23, 1766. In 1790 Marx and Bren- 
hard Behler lived in Brecknock Town- 
ship, Berks County, Pa. 

Germany "^My son will be the last of 

Last of tile emperors," Kaiser Wil- 

Empires helm is said to have told 

the historian, Karl von 
Kroon, recently. "All the world will be 
republican within 50 years. Germany 
will be the last of the empires. It is 

The Kaiser is credited with being a far- 
sighted politician as well as an able up- 
holder of his prerogative as a sovereign. 
He sees the drift of the times as other 
crowned heads see it. Monarchy is pass- 
ing, even in England. It has passed in 
France and Portugal ; it has become 
merely nominal in other European coun- 
tries. Even China has become a repub- 
lic. Germany is conservative on the sub- 
ject, no doubt because it' has had excel- 

lent rulers. From an American point of 
view it seems likely that the last nation 
to change, as the Kaiser prophesies — • 
to be even later than Russia. 

Monarchism, like feudalism, has had 
a proper place in the evolution of civili- 
zation, but, like feudalism, it must go. 
There have been a few real kings and 
queens whose work for the world has 
been great, and the ideal of kingship, as 
Carlyle paints it, inspires high sentiments 
and noble deeds. But this is an age in 
which kings and queens have little to dO' 
and in which education is so widely dif- 
fused as to make the real leaders recog- 
nizable as the need of them arises. The 
world progresses politically as it pro- 
gresses materially, intellectually and mor- 


" O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb. "—A. S. 


The "Schwimlichdel" was a piece of 
paper floating in a cup or saucer filled 
with fat and lit. This afforded light 
enough for the people who sat up with 
the corpse. This was the custom in this 
section (north of Reading, Pa., in Berks 
County) before tallow candles were in- 
vented. It also served to keep rats from 
gnawing the corpse before burial. Houses 
were then built of logs, and many of them 
were infected with rats, which was one 
of the reasons and ne'cessities for the old- 
time wake. — (Author). 

Alendich shwimlichdel, shwach is del lichd, 
Du shwimshd do un dard un sheinshd 

mar ins gsicht; 
Dei shei is badeirlich we de sach du ba- 

Shauderlich, niauderlich, es grawl du ba- 

Dei lawa is long for'n tsimberlich ding, 
Du leichd in der shdul en gons glaner 

Duch bishd awganaim in dem do tsu- 

Won du aw jiishd weishd en shodda om 

Im dungia beim doad en schreckliche sach, 
Lieb shwimlichdel bren shein nuf bis ans 

Dar morya kumd bei wos bin ich so froh, 
Shwimlichdel, good-by, niehr kuninia bol 

Shwimlichdel, odya, bei dawg is farl)e:, 
Shmutzamshel un inshlich ehr "sin aw dar- 

Es droadlichdel now, hibsh, handich, un 

Uns gas noch dabei mar brauch yo ned 

We monichmohl hen mer en grawb ga- 

We monichmohl hen mer en nachd ga- 

Beim shwimlichdel deaf ins fed nei 

Don un won gshlofa uii ufgawekd. 
De kammer is shdil, dar doad is dard 


Grawbmecher sin bshdeld es is mar im 

sin — 
Dar Dan on dar Benj, dar Yoel un Cheg. 
AVard fleisich, ehr maid, un budsen dar 

Es gaid gaga nochdo, de arwed war 

De buwa sin mead, ehr maega sin lair; 
Duhds beshd uf der dish, es beshd waidsa 

Se shaffa far nix, se duhns far dar dead. 
Yetzt sin se om dish un bol widder drous, 
Denka ned draw on dreebsawl im hous, 
Ehr hartzer sin leichd un annera sin 

Denka on gshi)os avo ini woclia ware. 


Mister Drucker: 

Well, now hen amole widder de Dum- 
ma grutta — ich maen de Demakrata-^ihr 
aegner President, un ich will en benz 
wetta sie sin froh, for es is. now sechtsae 
yohr sidder sie aen g'hat hen. Do am 
letshta Dinshdag hen sie der Woodrow 
(Woodrow maend "Holz roy") Willson 
in amt fun President gadu uu se hen 
en grosie tseit g'hat in Washington. Es 
wahra fiel dousend leit do un sie hen 
gagrisha un gehurrahed so as mer shier- 
gar nix haera hut kenna, ovver wie de 
tseid kumma is for der Mister Wilson sei 
aed nemma war alles so shtill dos mer en 
baum het kenna haera folia. Der Chief 
Justice White hut es aed gevva, un der 
President Wilson hut g'shworaos er die 
Constitution fun der United Shtates er- 
holda daet un daet sei pflichta du as 
President so gut os er kent un so weit 
OS er wist. Der President Taft un der 
President-elect Wilson sin mitnonner 
g'fahra fum Weisa House bis tsum Capi- 
tol, un sde hen alia beita gagucked os 
wan sie gut tsufritta waera — aener dos 
er des ampt hut un der anner dos er frei 
is un brauch sich nimmy bottera mit da 
Congressmenner, Mexico, die trusts un so 

So kshwint os der Wilson eikshwora 
war, un hut g'sawt "I will," don war er 



President fun da United Shtates, d'no hut. 
er gleich sei Inaugural Address obglaesa, 
un dnu is ehr un der "ex"-Bresident Taft 
widder tsrick ans Weis House g'tohra mit- 
nonner, un die band hut g'shpieled un 
die leit hen gagrisha wie wietich. Now 
wella mer mohl saena wie aer v.'lison sich 
behaefed, un eb er de trusts un de cor- 
porations sich behaefa macht. Ovver ich 
denk er hut mae obgabissa os er kowa 
kan; ovver mer wella hoffa os er sie 
ivver sei knie biegt un gebt iena iehra 
hussa foil, so OS sie brilla un fershprecha 
sich tsu behaefa. Won er des duht don 
is er en gutter kaerl. Ich un de mam 
hen oft g'wunuert wie es haer gaet an 
aens fun denna inaugurations, un wos sie 
duna, so hen mer g'saht mer wella aw in 
Washington gae, un mer hen grosa tseida 
g'hat uns ready macha. Die Mam hut sich 
en neier bonnet g'macht, un iehra weiser 
shartz g'wesha un gabiggled, un sie hut 
niier en nei hem g'macht un ich hob my 
Sundag shoe g'shmeared un mer wara 
yusht about ready for ap tsu shtaerta, 
wie mer in der tseiding glaesa hen dos 
about a million, mae oder wennicher, 
weibsleit os sich Suffragists haesa uf em 
waeg waera, un daeta laufa der gons 
Avaeg noch Washington. D'no hut de 
Mam g'saht, "Yetz bleiva mer dahaem; 
Ich hab ganunk Woman's Sufferings do, 
iin branch net in Washington gae, for 
yusht so shure os ich do haer gae don 
saga sie ich bin aw aens fun denna Suf- 
fragists, un net for em President sei 
ampt daet ich so g'haesa werra." D'no 
sin mer derhaem gabliva un hen unser 
grant un tomato blanza g'saet. 



Dehl Leut wu en wenig hart dumm sin 
heese die Penrisylvanisch Deutsche Leut 
just die Dum Dutch. Es is wohr, Dehl 
vun unsere Leut sin net so schmaert wie 
sie sei sette, awer Jedermann, wu sie 
kennt, muss zugewe, dass sie about so viel 
commoner Verstand hen wie ehnig Epper 
sunst. Do is en Fall, der sell deutlich be- 

En Pennsylvanisch Deutscher is be- 
kannt gemacht worre mit eme Infidel. En 
Infidel is en Unglaubiger, un noch der Bie- 
wel is en Unglaubiger en Narr. Der In- 
fidel hot geprahlt, dass er nix glaawe daet, 
exsept was er versteh daet, awer desmohl 
hot er meh wie sei Match katt. Der Penn- 
sylvanier sagt: "Ich glaab die Biewel; was 
glaabst du?" 

Der Infidel antwortet: "Ich glaab just 
was ich versteh kann." 'S Gespraech war 
.nau so: 

Pennsylvanier: "So! Loss uns emol 
sehne. Der anner Dag hab ich en Hund 
uf der Stross ahgedroffe. dera sei ehnt 
Ohr hot ufgestanne un's anner hot nun- 
ner g'kanke. Wie kummt sell?" 

Infidal: "Ich kann's net sage." 

Pennsylvanier: "All recht. Ich denk, 
du bist net ganz so schmaert wie du ge- 
meent host. Noch Eppes. Letz Sum- 
mer bin ich am John Schmitt seim Klee- 
feld vorbei geritte. An ehm Platz war en 
Trupp Sen im Klee, un uf ihre Bueckel 
sin Berste gewachse. An ehm annere 
Platz war en Heerd Schoof, un uf ihre 
Bueckel is Woll gewachse. Kannst du 
mer sage, wie es kummt, dass der Klee 
Berste uf de Sen un Woll uf de Schoof 
gebrocht hot?" 

Infidel: "Nee, sell kan ich net versteh." 

Pennsylvanier: "Du sagst, du kannst 
net versteh, un doher glaabst du's ah net. 
Ich kann's ah net versteh, awer ich glaab's 
doch, Weil's so is. Nau noch eh Frog. 
Glaabst du, dass en Gott is?" 

Infidel: "Nee, ich glaab ken so Non- 

Pennsylvanier: "Ich denk wohl net. 
Die Fakt is, du bist net halwer so 
shmaert wie du gemehnt host. Ich bin 
froh, dass ich dich gesehna hab. Ich kenn 
dich net, awer ich hab vun deine Brueder 
in der Biewel gelese." 

Infidel: "Wu host du vun meine 
Brueder in der Biewel gelese? Sell glaab 
ich ah net." 

Pennsylvanier: "Ei, im 14te Psalm 
heest es: "Die Narre sage in ihrem Herz, 
es gebt ken Gott.' Sie sin en wenig 
schmaerter wie du. Sie behalte es im 
Herze, awer du plapperst es grad raus. 
Good Bye." 

Do is nooch en kleene Story vun der 
sehme Art. En Quaeker hot en Infidel 
ahgedroffe. Der Infidel hot behaapt, er 
daet nix glaawe exsept was er sehnt. Der 
Quaeker hot ihn gefrogt: "Host du schu 
del Hern un dei Seel g'sehne?" Die Ant- 
wort war ufkohrs "Nee." Der Quaeker 
hot nau gesaht: "Du sagst du glaabst 
just was du sehnst, un doher glaabst du 
net, dass du en Hern host, un ich denk 
viel anner Leut glaawe's Naemlich in dere 
Sach." D. M. 


Bflegt die Deutsche Sprache, 

Hegt das deutsche Wort; 
Denn der Geist der Vater 

Lebt darinnen fort; "^ 

Der so viel des Groszen -i 

Schon der Welt geschenkt, • 

Der so viel des Schoenen 

Ihr in's Herz gesenkt. 



Was einst Lessing dachte, 

Was einst Goethe sang, 
Ewig wird's behalten 

Seinen guten Klang, 
Un gedenk ich Schillers, 

Wird das Herz mir warm: 
Schiller zu ersetzen, 

1st die Welt zu arm! 

Theuer, meine Kinder, 

Sei uns dieses Land. 
Doch an Deutschland "kneupfet 

Uns der Sprache Band 
Wahrtder Heimath Erbe 

Wahrt es Euch zum Heil: 
Noch den Enkelkindern 

Werd es ganz zu Theil! 

Wenn dereinst entfallen 

Mir der Wanderstab; 
Wenn ich 'laengst schon ruhe 

In dem kuehlen Grab; 
Was die Gunst der Muse 

Freundlich mir beschied, 
Ehrt es, meine Kinder, 

Ehrt das deutsche Lied! 

Pflegt die deutsche Sprache, 

Hegt das deutsche Wort; 
Denn der Geist der Vater 

Lebt darinnen fort. 
Der so viel des Groszen 

Schon der Welt geschenkt, 
Der so viel des Schoenen 

Ihr in's Herz gesenkt. 


©ur 'Booh ^able 

By Prof, E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 

Klemm, Ph.D., Author of "European 
Schools," "Chips from A Teacher's 
Workshop," etc. Cloth, 350pp. i-nce 
$1.50 net. Richard G. Badger, The 
Gorham Press, Boston, 1912. 

Whatever Dr. Klemm writes is original 
and interesting. He is a United States 
Government specialist in foreign educa- 
tion, as such he has made notable com- 
parisons and, has submitted valuable con- 
tributions. Not since writing "European 
Schools" has he contributed anything to 
pedagogical literature as interesting as 
the present book. 

This particular book is an effort to 
bring about some sort of understanding 
between the two countries which from an 
educational viewpoint stand out the most 
prominently in the way of education and 
civilization. Its scope is very wide, as 
may be seen from the table of contents; 
but the book is not for that reason dis- 
cursive. The style is pointed and 
thoroughly readable. A pleasant, as well 
as an admirable, feature of the book is 
the large number of practical schoolroom 
exercises with their numerous apt illus- 
trations. Different chapters may be of 
special interest to different teachers, it 
may depend on what they teach; but 
chapters like the first and the twenty-fifth 
should be of interest to everyone. The 

book is an original, wholesome and sug- 
gestive piece of work. It is in no sense a 
rehashed or stale work on methods. Pe- 
dagogical literature should be the richer 
because of it. 

Drama in Four Acts — By Theophil 
Stanger. Paper: 62pp. Price 35c per 
copy. Cornish Printing Company, Ann 
Arbor, Mich. 1913. 

This comedy is based on Revolutionary 
times and incidents of the years 1777 to 
1783, and with the scene laid mainly in 
Bethlehem. There is material here, we 
believe, for a good, interesting play. In 
its present form, however, we are afraid it 
is rather unwieldy because of its length. 
It is longer than Sheridan's "The Rivals," 
the time of action of which is five hours. 
There are plays for the closet, i. e. for 
reading only, and plays for the stage; in 
the form in which we have it we are in- 
clined to believe that PENN OR THli; 
SWORD belongs to the former rather than 
to the latter class. 

Some condensation would improve it 
immensely; the speeches are rather long; 
they could be made more effective and 
they would move along with more snap if 
they were condensed. Some of them re- 
mind one of what Bassanio says about 
Gratiano in "The Merchant of Venice," 
they speak "an infinite deal of nothing." 
It may be a little difficult at times to tell 
what they say or why they say it. 



The play might also be shortened by 
omitting some of the situations which tend 
to have merely a melodramatic effect 
Opening the book somewhat at random 
we find an instance of this kind on page 
33. It might be difficult to tell why these 
many characters appear unless it is to 
haA'e them come in at the psychological 
moment to produce an effect. There is 
seemingly a little too much of this run- 
ning back and forth, and in and out; 
there seems to be no excuse for it, and it 
is also distracting and confusing. 

There might be more explicitness in the 
beginning of the play; there is not a word 
of preface, introduction, or anything in 
the way of telling where the scene is laid. 
The reader does not know where he is, 
whether in Bethlehem or in Philadelphia 
or somewhere else. These may be minor 
points, but they all add strength and ef- 

We are glad to note, however, that in 
our mind the author has produced a de- 
cidedly new type of comedy. It is ex- 
tremely interesting in the variety of its 
characters and the types they represent. 
There are severaf Quakers, a "lipperty- 
loving" Hession, several Pennsylvania- 
German citizens, several Mroavians, a 
spy, officers of the two armies, etc. We 
are gratified to recognize in the author 
the ability to create these interesting 
types of character and to use some clever 
bits of dialogue. There ought to be a 
demand for such a new type of comedy; 
we trust what has been said w-ill not de- 
ter the writer from fulfilling it, for he has 
the material here for a mighty good 

A Romance of the South — By Will Al- 
len Dromgoole, Author of "The Farrier's 
Dog and His Fellow," "The Fortunes of 
The Fellow^" "Down in Dixie," etc. 
Illustrated in color from paintings by 
Edmund H. Garrett. Cloth: 12mo.; 
302pp. Price $1.25 net. L. C. Page 
& Company, Boston, 1912. 
This is a beautiful story beautifully 
told. It is a most charming romance of 
the South, developed with all human sym- 
pathy. The Boy and the Man in the fore- 
part of the story are pictured with a big- 
ness of heart that makes one's own ex- 
tend and swell. It leaves one more hu- 
man and more hopeful of humanity, more 
tender and more innocent. The world 
grows bigger by the time one finishes the 
story; and one almost regrets that the 
end comes so soon. 

There is a charm, a grace, and ease 
about it that is entirely characteristic of 

the Southland whose attractive life is here 
so charmingly portrayed. There is some- 
thing enchanting and poetic in the very 
title of the'story. It is written in a fresh, 
crisp, style, original and sincere; the sym- 
pathy of it will cause the story to linger 
long in one's memory. 

THE RAPHAEL BOOK: An Account of 
the Life of Raphael Santi of Urbino and 
his place in the development of Art, to- 
gether with a description of his paint- 
ings and Frescos—By Frank Rov Fras- 
rie, S.M., F. R. P. S., Author of "Among 
Bavarian Inns," "Castles and Keeps of 
Scotland," "The Art of the Munich Gal- 
leries," etc. With fifty-four reproduc- 
tions in color and in duogravure of 
Raphael's most characteristic works. 
Cloth; octavo; decorative cover; 352pp.; 
Price $2.50 net. L. C. Page and Com- 
pany, Boston, 1912. 

Raphael Santi of Urbino, the subject 
of this critical narrative and the world's 
greatest artist, was born in 1483 in an 
humble home of a small town beautifully 
situated near the crest of the Apennines, 
w^here a wonderful view is to be had over 
mountain, sea and plain. It was here 
that the youthful artist had before his 
eyes that beautiful in the landscape which 
was later reflected in the lovely scenes 
that characterize the background of many 
of his works of art. He died In 1520, at 
the early age of thirty-seven, but he had 
made friends and acquaintances with the 
greatest men of his day and had influenc- 
ed Art as no artist ever has. 

There is probably no greater milestone 
in the development of European Art, nor 
is there a more lovable character in the 
history of Art than Raphael. The ten- 
derness, grace, and beauty of nrs personal 
character are all reflected in his art, as is 
also his noble sense of morality; and this 
is the more remarkable because the morals 
of his day viewed in the light of modern 
times seem very questionable. 

The author of the present work has fol- 
lowed old Vasaria, to whom every writer 
on Raphael is indebted; but he has steer- 
ed clear of his inaccurate spots and has 
filled his own work with the "vital quality 
of essential truth." The author is not 
mistaken when he claims that there is 
room for a handy volume on the life and 
works of the great artist, concerning 
whom there are many books in as many 
tongues. Many of these books are inac- 
cessible and none is of recent publication. 
The book is in no sense controversial 
nor unduly critical, but it is highly appre- 
ciative. The writer is not in the least in- 
fluenced by the "little painters of today. 



the worshippers of cults, and the glori- 
fiers of technique," who "deny the value 
of beauty, deny enthusiasm and inspira- 
tion, and trample on the reputation of 

Nor is it technical in style; it is hence 
easily read by the "uninitiated." The 
reader will receive from it not only a clear 
conception of Raphael's famous M'orks of 
Art, but he will also receive an idea of 
the whole period of Mediaeval Art, for 
within the short period of Raphael's life 
was "compassed" the whole transition 
from Middle Ages to Rennaissance." 

The artist's greatest works are repro- 

duced and aranged chronologically; it ii 
verily a "handy volume" for all lovers ot 
art. Appended to it is a select biblio- 
graphy of works on Raphael and a list ot 
his pictures with a short narrative and 
descriptive sketch of each picture. 

One must not forget to note the at- 
tractiveness displayed in the make-up of 
the book; the neat blue and gold binding 
with a medalHon portrait in colors of 
Raphael painted by himself, adds greatly 
to the beauty of the volume. It is another 
one of the many artistic books published 
bv this firm. 

Ibistorical Botes anb flews 

Reports of Society Meetings are Solicited 


The President's Report of this Associa- 
tion for the years 1911 and 1912 has been 
received. It discusses meetings and 
papers, the library, the historical collec- 
tion, the biography of Cumberland 
County, finances, record photographs and 
building. Their building is too small, is 
exposed to fire risk by surrounding buld- 
ings, and lacks a fire proof section. The 
logical thing to do is to erect a more 
commodious building, so located as to re- 
duce the fire risk from other buildings. 
The Penn-Germania is being received, 
filed and bound by the association. 



The annual meeting of the Historical 
Society of Montgomery County, Pa., was 
held in the Society's rooms, Norristown, 
Pa., Saturday, February 22, 1913, at 2 P. 

Reports of officers and committees were 
followed by the election of officers for the 
ensuing year. 

The following papers were read: 

"The Early History of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Congregation of St. Paul's 
Church, Ardmore," by Mr. Luther C. Par- 

"Current Local History," Mr. Edward 
I^. Hocker. 

Since July 1, 1912, the rooms of the 

Society have been open to the public daily, 
except Sunday, from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. 
A reading and reference room has been 
fitted upon the first floor, and the museum 
and library on the second floor are at- 
tractively arranged. Miss Prances M. i" ox 
is in daily attendance upon these rooms. 
Members are asked to make this known 
to their friends and to the public that the 
library may come into its fullest useful- 


This Society at its annual meeting, Feb. 
17, elected the following officers: 

President, Dr. E. T. Jeffers; V. Pres., 
J. A. Dempwolf; Secretary, Robert C. 
Bair; Treasurer, Atreus Wanner; Cor. Sec, 
Rinehart Dempwolf; Curator, George R. 
Powell; Trustees, H. B. Niles, Esq., Sam- 
uel Small, Jr., George W. Williams, S. 
Pahs Smith, Dr. I. H. Betz. 

The Report of the Curator for the year 
was Janus-faced, looking at the treasures 
and possibilities on the one hand and at 
the neglect and wants on the other hand. 
He says in substance exhitrition is not ar- 
ranged properly and numerous portraits 
are not framed, for lack of space. Pamph- 
lets are not bound, papers are not publish- 
ed, newspaper files cannot be rebound for 
lack of funds. The city of York has lost 
millions of dollars in a decade through un- 
fortunate investments — some probably of 
the wild-cat, gold-mine type. Would not 
an investment in the Historical Society 



saved some of this money to the com- 
munity? The command "Honor thy 
father and mother" carries a blessing. Can 
we expect blessings when we fail to honor 
those that went before us, whether father 
or great grandfather. York can and no 
doubt will do better by its Historical So- 
ciety! It surely merits it. 


The Portraiture Exhibition which illus- 
trated the "Historical Study of the Evo- 
lution of Portraiture in Lancaster County" 
brought to a close a year of unusual ac- 
tivity. This activity has followed the 
Society into the present year as shown by 
the two excellent papers read at the Janu- 
ary and February meetings and contribut- 
ed by F. R. Diffenderfer on "The First 
Wihite Man in Pennsylvania and in Lan- 
caster County" and by A. K. Hostetter or 
"Major-General Samuel P. Heintzelman." 
These papers are deeply exhaustive requir- 
ing lengthy and tedious research. The 
paper on Major-General Heintzelman con- 
tains much genealogical data on the Hein- 
tzelman and Wagner families, the latter 
will not be put into print at this time but 
will be placed in the archives of the So- 
ciety for use by the library's patrons. The 
Wagner family referred to is that of Rev. 
Tobias Wagner, the Lutheran clergyman 
active in church a^airs prior to the Revo- 


The eighth Annual meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania Federation of Historical Societies 
was held in the Rooms of the Historical 
Society of Dauphin County, Harrisburg, 
Thursday, Jan. 16, 1913, with a large at- 
tendance and characterized with proceed- 
ings making it, in the unamrnous opinion 
of those present, the best meeting yet held 
by the Federation. The address of the 
President, Dr. Ames, and the reports of 
the Standing Committees were all of a high 
order and in the direction of advancement 
and progress of the Federation purpose. 

In the first part of the President's ex- 
cellent address a masterly presentation was 
given of the work done by the Federation 
since its organization. This was followed 
by many practical suggestions towards 
widening the scope of the association, and 
effecting larger results, with special refer- 
ence to numerous neglected phases of 
Pennsylvania history which still remain to 
be investigated amongst these the constitu- 
tional history of the State, its political his- 

tory, the domain of social history, the field 
of economies and finance, and its religious 

The Secretary's report included a valu- 
able statistical showing of the thirty-two 
historical Societies comprising the Federa- 
tion and their various historical activi- 
ties and productions during the year 1912, 
giving a more complete record along that 
line than in any preceding year. 

The Treasurer's report made a good 
showing as to the Federation's financial 

The reports of the standing Committees 
were especially attractive for their prac- 
tical intent. That of the Committee in 
Bibliography upated bibliographies of 
numerous counties in the State as in 
preparation, and referred especially to the 
extensive bibliography of Pennsylvania 
German Dialect Society. The Committee 
in exchanging duplicates reported lists of 
duplicates received during the year from 
the Societies in the Federation, and a 
recommendation for the establishment of 
a central agency for the sale or exchange 
of duplicate matter supporting the State 
Library at Harrisburg as a desirable place 
for such an agency. 

The Committee in the Preservation of 
transcript Records received the work it 
has attempted during the past ten years 
in the way of inciting greater " care 
amongst County officials in the handling 
and preservation of County records. The 
leading feature of this Committee's report 
was to the effect that the State's Advisory 
Commission of the Division of Public Rec- 
ords had drawn up and would present to 
this year's Legislature two bills for its 
enactliient, one of them for the appoint- 
ment of a Supervisor of Public Records as 
an assistant to the State Division of Pub- 
lic Records, the duty of which Supervis- 
or shall be to examine into the condition 
of the records, manuscripts and other 
papers which are kept filed or recorded 
in the several public offices of the coun- 
ties, cities and boroughs of the State, 
recommend required action as to such 
records to County officials and others hav- 
ing such records in custody, and submit 
an annual report to the State Librarian as 
to the number, kind and condition of the 
various public records in the custody and 
under the control of the several counties, 
cities and boroughs of the State, which re- 
port shall be included by the State Librar- 
ian in his annual report. 

The other Bill makes provision for the 
establishment of a standard quality for 
the ink and paper that shall be made use 
of in all the offices of record in the State 
as well alyo of a standard for the type- 


writer ribtons and stamping pads which 
are to be used in the making of current 
records, in order to secure the greatest 
degree of permanency and durability for 
said records. 

It was shown that such legislative ac- 
tion would be in accord with similar ac- 
tion already in price in some other states, 
where it has already proven most satisfac- 
tory. Both propositions were given em- 
phatic endorsement by the Federation. 

The Federation also approved action to 
be proposed to the U. S. Congress for the 
erection in the District of Columbia of a 
National Archives Building in which to 
store and preserve public archives of a 
national character. The chairmen of the 
Committees' on Public Grounds and Build- 
ings of the House and Senate respectively 
were directed to be advised of this ac- 
tion of the Federation. That part of the 
Committee's report relating to the fore- 
going named two Bills and the Federation • 
thereon, was ordered to be put into print 
at once, and copies put into the hands of 
the members of the Legislature at Harris- 

Equally valuable was the report of the 
Committee on Publication of Lists, the 
province of which Committee is the an- 
nual publication of a list of historical 
productions of Pennsylvanians. The re- 
port, as a matter of fact, was solely the 
work of the chairman of the Committee, 
Capt. Richards. A lengthy list of Penn- 
sylvania 1912 issues was given together 
with noteworthy historical productions 
during the year by Pennsylvanians, the 
first known attempt of an annual specific 
listing of matter of this kind. The re- 
port was received with a very great degree 
of satisfaction by the meeting. 

The amendment to the Constitution of 
the Federation changing the day of the 
annual meeting from the first to the third 

Thursday in January, submitted at last 
year's meeting, was reputed as having 
been approved in the interim by the neces- 
sary two-thirds Societies in the Federation 
and was, therefore, declared as having 
been duly satisfied. 

An invitation to the dedication of its 
new building, Pittsburg, to be held in the 
month of June of the year, was extended 
to the Federation by B. I. Patterson, 
Esq., Secretary of the Historical Society 
of Western Pennsylvania, and was grate- 
fully accepted, with power to the Presi- 
dent to name delegates to said affair. 

The following named were elected of- 
ficers of the Federation for the current 
year: President, Hon. Geo. Noscrip, of 
Towanda; First vice-President, Geo. Hein- 
man, of Lancaster; Second vice President, 
Rev. M. D. Lichtifer, of Pittsburg; Third 
Vice-President, Hon. Charles Tubbs, of 
Osceola; (now deceased, since the meet- 
ing), Secretary, S. P. Heilman, M.D., of 
Lebanon; Treasurer, Hon. Thos. L. Mont- 
gomery; State i-,ibrarian, Harrisburg; Ex- 
ecutive Committee, Capt. H. M. M. Rich- 
ards, Litt.D., of Lebanon, and Prof. Albert 
E. McKinley, Ph.D., of Philadelphia. The 
holding over members of this Committee 
are Chas. R. Roberts, of Allentown, 
Luther K. Kelker, of Harrisburg, Benj. F. 
Owen, of Reading; and H. Frank Eshle- 
man, Esq., of Lancaster. 

Near the close of the meeting J. Andrew- 
Wilt, Esq., of the Bradford County His- 
torical Society, r.rose and declared it to 
have been the best meeting yet held by the 
Federation, and that was saying a whole 
lot, especially from Mr. Wilt's point of 
view. His verdict received the heartiest 
assent of all of the attendants at the 
meeting, and, therefore, stands as the of- 
ficial estimate of the day's proceedings. 


^be jfotum 

The Penn Ger mania Open Parliament, Question-Box and 
Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 

This is a subscribers' exchange for comparing views, a what- 
not for preserving bits of historic information, an after dinner loung- 
ing place for swapping jokes, a general question box — free and open 
to every subscriber. 


By Leonard Felix Puld, LL.M., Ph.D. 

Editorial Note. Dr. Fuld has kindly 
■consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and the or tne sur- 
name of any reader who sends twenty-five 
cents to the Editor for that purpose. 


Two derivations of this surname uuve 
been suggested. It may have been de- 
rived from MARZ and mean one born in 
the month of March or it may be a cor- 
ruption of MARKTHELFER and mean a 
market workman. 



Many people have the impression that 
Dutch and German are the same. I'his 
notion is not an evidence of great intelli- 
gence. A few years ago the writer, when 
in Brussels, accosted a gentleman thus: 
"Do you speak English?" The reply was 
"Niet." I then asked: "Sprechen sie 
Deutsch?" The answer was: "Oooch 
niet." He was a Dutchman. He could 
not speak German. 

In Amsterdam 1 inquired the way to 
the post office. A gentleman like the man 
above he could speak neither English or 
German. I asked him the location of the 
"Postnant," but he understood me not. 1 
then showed him an addressed and stamp- 
ed letter. Now he understood and show- 
ed me the way to the "Postnantoor." 

Let anyone who achieves that iJutch 
and German are the same undertake to 
speak German to a Dutchman, and he will 
learn something. ^- ^^• 


Some persons are in the habit of refer- 
ring to the Pennsylvania Germans as "the 

Dumb Dutch." Some of the latter look 
upon the former as being ignorant. Some 
years ago the writer had a youth as an 
apprentice in his printing office who could 
not speak German. One day a farmer ad- 
dressed him in German, but received no 
reply. When informed that the boy could 
not speak German the farmer was utterly 
amazed and said: "Kann's moglich sei, 
dabs der Buh so dumm is, dohs er net 
Deutsch schwatze 'kann." To speak Ger- 
man was the easiest and most natural 
thing in the world for our farmer friend. 
He had a poor opinion of the "Dumb Eng- 




This is the title of a 16 page brochure, 
edited by Otto Lohr, published by Stech- 
ert (1912) which concludes as follows: 

"The conclusions to be drawn from the 
treatise suggest a rearrangement of the 
first century of German-American history. 

1. Sporadic appearance of Germans in 
the North American colonies, beginning 
with 1608. 

2. Continuity in German immigration, 
regular arrivals in New Netherland and 
distribution among the neighboring colo- 
nies, intercolonial relations, first attempt 
at organization, 1637-1664. 

3. Beginning of sectarian immigration 
and founding of a distinct German setiie- 
ment in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1683. 

4. The great tide of German immigra- 
tion, setting in with the exodus of the 
"Palatines" in 1709." 

It looks almost as if the writer was 
ready to do some idol smashing. Would 
he take the laurels from Germantown? 


The following newspaper clipping con- 
tains an affirmation that I doubt. I r^fpr 



to the statement that the old theory 
"holds out nine times out of ten." Is this 
true? Who can give us the facts as 
gleaned from weather records. — A Reader. 
There is a superstition among the 
Pennsylvania Germans regarding the 
weather conditions on the last Friday of 
the month being an indication of the gen- 
eral state of the weather for the succeed- 
ing month. Those who adhere to this 
belief are saying "I told you so" when the 
matter of the vast amount of rain we have 
had during January is discussed, for the 
last Friday in December was rainy. How- 
ever, much we may try to get away from 
superstition, there are some things that 
can not be explained, and one of these 
things is that the old theory referred to 
holds out nine times out of ten. Let the 
readers study it for themselves. 


An authoress expresses nerself thus 
respecting Mrs. Helen Riemensnyder Mar- 
tin's sweeping statements about the Penn- 
sylvania Germans in "The Fighting Doc- 

"I will say right here that while I have 
met the counterpart of every mean char- 
acter she portrays I recognized them only 
as an unusual, not the general type of a 
P G Dutchman and I can not account for 
her summing up in the following; — The 
Pennsylvania Dutchman of the soil is 
neither subtle, nor sprightly, picturesque 
nor amusing. He is stolid, immovable, 
without humor as uninteresting as a log 
of wood." 

Mrs. Martin seems to be nosing around 
in back alleys, the kitchen, and rubbish 
piles. You can find all kinds of unusual, 
odd, unsightly things in such places but 
to describe these and pretend to tell by 
them what a town or city is like is non- 
sense, a lie, and the bearing of false tes- 
timony. A sentence like the one quoted 
is an inexcusable misrepresentation. — 


A Maryland correspondent under date 
of January 30, writes as follows: 

"I think the National Executive of 
German American Alliance had better 
read the Constitution of the United States 
before making themselves ridiculous by 
claiming that it guaranteed "personal 
liberty." It does not do any such thing; 
they can't find anywhere in the Consti- 
tution where it grants "personal liberty." 
The declaration of Independence speaks 

of life, liberty and the Pursuit of Happi- 
ness" which means civil liberty or equal 
rights befare the law, but personal 
liberty is nothing but anarchy, pure and 
simple. If a man had a right to do as he 
pleases he would infringe on the rights 
of others and we would have no govern- 

What do our readers have to say to 
the charge, "Personal Liberty is nothing 
but anarchy." 


John R. Laubach, Nazareth, Pa., re- 
ports finding a Himmelsbrief 11 1-2x13 1-2 
inches on heavy paper, printed about 100 
years ago. It contains four stanzas of 
poetry, cut of angel with trumpet, etc., 
and the St. Germania letter. He invites 
correspondence from any one able to de- 
termine time, place of printing, with name 
of printer. The letter itself has been is- 
sued by Schlechter of Allentown and 
Christ of Kutztown. 


After the battle of Gettysburg a mem- 
ber of the Sanitary Commission ran across, 
in the country some miles from the town» 
a Dutch farmer who said he had never 
seen soldiers. "And why haven't you seen 
them?" the question was put. "Why 
didn't you get your gun, go into town and 
help drive them out?" "Why," said the 
farmer, "a fellar might a' got hit." 

A woman who lived in a little house 
close to the battlefield viewed the danger 
in a different spirit. 

She was a red-cheeked, wholesome 
young body, who looked well after the 
ways of her household. She was asked if 
she felt afraid when the shells flew. 

"Well, no," she replied. "You see I 
was busy baking bread lor the soldiers,. 
and I had my dough raising. The neigh- 
bors ran into their cellars, but of course 
I couldn't leave my bread. When the first 
shell burst into the window and tore into 
the room, an officer came in and said to 
me, 'You better get out of this,' but i told 
him I couldn't leave my bread. I kneaded 
my dough until the third shell crashed 
into the room; then I went down cellar. 
But first I put my bread safe into the 


To the Editor of The North American. 

Some days ago there appeared several 
articles in The North American on "the 
youngest soldier of the civil war," the dis- 
tinction being claimed for S. B. Gray, of 


2 39' 

York. Ph., who died lately at the age of 
65. Then came "Comrade Smith," of 
Unionville, Pa., who enlisted 1864 at the 
age of 17. 

Now, there were thousands of "boys" 
enlisted at the age of those given; I my- 
self enlisted at the age of 14, in July, 
1864, in Company F, 195th Pennsylvania 
Volunteers; re-enlisted February, 18 65. 
and served almost one year. On the 15th 
of this month (January) I was 6;i years 
of age. At the age of 15 I served as cor- 

I know of some who were still younger 
than myself, but they enlisted as "musi- 
cians," drummer boys. In the Shenan- 
doah valley campaign, 1864, I once met a 
little Zouave drummer boy, who was just 
my age (14), but much smaller. He was 
a member of a New York regiment. 

Charles P. Harder, ex-postmaster of 
Danville, Pa., is doubtless the youngest 
soldier of the civil war. He enlisted in 
1863 at the age of 10 years as a drummer 
in the 187th Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

All boys of tender age gave their age 
as "18" simply to meet the legal require- 
ments. There was no thought of wrong- 
doing, as the recruiting officers knew per- 
fectly well that the ages were fictitious. 1 
wanted to enlist first in Company F, 51st 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel (after- 
ward governor) Hartranft's famous regi- 
ment; that company being from my home 
(Lewisburg). This was in February, 
1864. The recruiting officer, however, 
drew the line at me, as I had just passed 
14; my chums, who said, "they "tN^ent to 
school" with me and hence knew I was 
18, failed to land me. The officer said, 
"Sonny, you look to soft." My "buddy," 
who was 17, went througn all right, ne 
fell, mortally wounded in the chest, and 
died praying. He was buried on the field 
where he fell — Spottsylvania. 

A. oxAPLETON, D. D. 

Jersey Shore, Pa., Jan. IS. 

We believe the above will interest many 
of our readers. Rev. Dr. Stapleton is 
known far and wide as a successful pastor 
and an enthusiastic historian. 


We make room for this clipping for 
several reasons, one of which is the claim 
of Mr. Stover that he is the only "Penna. 
Dutchman" holding office in New York. 
What do our New York readers have to 
say to this claim? 

Declaring that he is a "Pennsylvania 
Dutchman," and proud of it, Charles B. 
Stover, Commissioner of Parks, yesterday 
said he didn't believe that was another 

holding public office in the city of New 
York. The so-called "Pennsylvania 
Dutch are of German descent. 

"Lots of persons say they are Penn- 
sylvania Dutch," said Mr. Stover, "who 
have no right to that distinction. They 
may be from Pennsylvania without being 
Dutch, but my title is clear. There never 
was a Dutchier Pennsylvania Dutchman 
than I am." 

Mr. Stover recently took an old dis- 
carded police telephone booth our or v an- 
tral Park, moved it down to Union Square 
and rented it to a newspaper seller for 
$60 a month. If he hadn't done that the 
old building would have been sent to the 
junk pile. He says it was his Pennsylva- 
nia German thrift that led him to give 
the city an income of $720 a year from 
something of no value. 

"To prove to you just how much of a 
Pennsylvania Dutchman I am," continued 
Mr. Stover, "I will say that about the 
most Dutch county in Pennsylvania is 
Bucks county. The only other county 
that compares with it in that respect is 
Berks county. My father s people arrrved 
in Bucks county in 1726 and my mother's 
family reached Berks county the same 
year, both directly from the old country. 
That is nearly two hundred years ago, and 
not one member of the family ever left 
those two counties until I left to come to 
New York in 1891. For more than a 
century and a half my forefathers lived in 
that one community, so I challenge any 
Pennsylvania iJutchman to show a clearer 
right to the title than mine. 

"In all that time a Stover never inter- 
married with any other nationality. They 
were a thrifty people, those Pennsylvania 
Dutch, and never overlooked an oppor- 
tunity to make an honest penny. And 
when they made it they knew how to hang 
tight to it. That is why I try to show the 
spirit of thrift in my conduct of Park 
Commission business. When I ride or 
stroll through the parks I am always on 
the lookout for a chance to turn some un- 
used furniture or building to profitable 
use. I think I can dig up a few more 
abandoned structures and rent them out 
to news vendors. Eventually I expect to 
have uniform kiosks for the sale of news- 
papers in all the park properties of the 
city, but in the meantime I will employ 
abandoned telephone booths as rapidly as 
I can find them. I already have several 
prospective tenants for such buildings." 


That the German is not the only lang- 
uage that can produce heavy sentences is 



shown by the following quotation from an 

In promulgating your esoteric cogita- 
tions and in articulating your superficial 
•sentimentalities and amicable philosophi- 
cal or psychological observations, beware 
of platitudinous ponderosity. Let your 
conversational cummunications possess a 
■clarified conciseness, a compacted com- 
prehensibleness, coalescent consistency 
and a concatenated cogency. Eschew all 
•conglomerations of flatulent garrulity, je- 
june babblement and asinine affectations. 
Let your extemporaneous decantings and 
unpremeditated expatiations have intelli- 
.gibility and veracious vivacity with rho- 
domostade or thasonical bombast. 

Sedulously avoid all polysyllabic pro- 
fundity, pompous prolixity, psittaceous 
vacuity, ventriloquial verbosity and van- 
iloquent vapidity. Shun double ententes, 
prurient jocosity and pestiferous profanity, 
obscurant or apparent. 


The New York Tribune publishes a very 
appreciative account of the work of Rev. 
Dr. Wenner, "Pastor of East Side" in that 
city. The Tribune said: 

"If you should happen to go sight-see- 
ing in the vicinity of First avenue and 
Nineteenth street, where Christ Evangel- 
ical Lutheran church stands, and ask the 
first man, woman or child you meet who 
is the most popular man in that section, if 
not in New York, the answer unquestion- 
ably will be Pastor George Unangst Wen- 
ner. They are not accustomed to call him 
the Rev. or Dr. Wenner, but he is known 
as the "Pastor of the East Side," and no 
minister of the gospel anywhere could 
wish for a higher title nor does any cleric 
deserve this distinction more than he. 

"For forty-three years the Rev. Dr. 
Wenner's name has been as a household 
word in the populous district in which he 
lias lived. Because of his popularity 
among the residents, with whom he comes 
in daily contact, and the devotion with 
which he has pursued his ministrations in 
their behalf Dr. Wenner's work has been 
remarkably successful." 


At a convention of Reformed church 
jiiembers and Sunday school scholars at 
Freeburg, Snyder county, Pa., the special 
.guest of honor was Prof. William Moyer, 
■ex-county superintendent of schools, who 

celebrated his 58th consecutive year as 
superintendent of the Reformed Sunday 
school. Prof. IMoyer has been connected 
with this Sunday school as scholar, teach- 
er and superintendent for 73 years and at- 
tended the first and the golden jubilee 
conventions of the State Sunday School 
Convention at Philadelphia. At the latter 
a medal of honor was awarded him. 


Berrysburg, Pa. 

The other day I had a conversation with 
an old man who all his life lived in this 
valley. He was very reminiscent and 
among other stories that he recounted in 
his experience was the following: 

Der Olt John Henninger is mol a dag 
derch's stettle gefaera mit ma olta Asel 
in en spring waga gespanned, un is so 
wennig der trot gefara. Der Major Miller 
hut \\i em rigel ghuckt am wertshaus un 
hut zum olta John gerufa, "Sheid dei Asel 
wan er trat?" Denno hot der olt John ge- 
antwort, "Er dut net except er sehnt en 
jackass am wertshaus hucka." 

Here is another one which he called the 
"Berks County Telephone Story." 

Es war en olter Berks County deutscher 
der hot net ans telephona geglaubt. Don 
is er mol a morgya in der stohr kumma wo 
sie am phone nei du wahra. Er war wun- 
nerfitzig un hot gefrogt was fer en dumme 
machine dut ihr do nei. "Never mind, 
olter, mir sin now shier fertig, denno 
kannst noch Harrisburg, Lebanon un 
Reading schwetza," segt der telephone 
kerl. "Des glaub ich beim Wetter net," 
segt der deutsch. "Yuscht wahrt mir rufa 
dei frau uf — die alt Sal, denno kannst mit 
ihra schwetza." Des glaub ich beim Wetter 
net," secht er widder. Wie dann der phone 
fertig drin wahr, hen sie ihm gerufa, now 
kum an. Sie hen dann die alt Sail uf ge- 
rufa. Wie er nei kumma is, frogt er, was 
mus ich dannn du. "Ei," secht der stor^ 
kipper, "nem seller tube dert neba un heb 
ihn ans ohr, denno ruf in seller anner 
tube, Hello!" Ya ich kann hello ruff, 
aver sie haerts beim Wetter net. Er hot 
aver doch nei gerufa, Hello! und die ant- 
wort is so fine kumma, "Hello!" Denno hot 
der alt gesagt, "Is sel dich, Sal? — e ya. 
Iver dem hots gedunnert un hot in der 
drot geslaga das es der alt kerl so hart 
geschocked hot das er uf der rick hie ge- 
falla is. Er is aver uf gestanna un hot in 
die feist geslaga un gesagt, "Ich glaub 
beim Wetter das sel die Olt Sal wahr, sie 
hot sel shun fer dera gedu." 

(Continued from page 2 of cover) 
lation devolves logically and appropriately each generation 
on the immigrants themselves, their sons and daughters and 
can best be met by intelligent, united, and continuous effort 
to such end. Such duty being personal can not be delegated 
to others or performed by proxy. The scholar, the essayist, 
the orator may tell about them, even as signboards point out 
the way to travelers; discussion indeed is indispensable to a 
proper appreciation of the good and the elimination of the 
bad, but cultural possessions, to serve society efficiently must 
become incarnate in men, take on human form and be ener- 
gized by the altruistic motives of those holding them. His- 
toric lore hidden in musty volumes on dusty shelves is but 
inert potentiality, a mass of paper and ink, a valley of dry 
PANY was called into being to become a medium or instru- 
ment (or promoting such assimilation and incarnation by 
helping men to learn pnd teach what Germany through the 
men and women it gave has been and done for the United 
States. Through it the best that German culture and history 
affords may be transfused into our national life and transmitted 
to posterity. 

The Penn Germania 

THE PENN GERxMANIAwill be maintained as distinct- 
ly and specifically a "popular journal of German History and 
Ideals in the United States." It will not be published as 
the exponent of a c'an, or a cult, or as a commercial venture, 
or as a local business enterprise, or as a partisan propagan- 
dist organ — but "Pro bono publico," a-^ a Vademecnrn for the 
preservation of historic data; as a popular Forum, for the 
discussion of subjects naturally falling within its field; as a 
Collaborator — but not competitor — of existing societies and 
periodicals that are devoting themselves wholly or in part to 
certain phases of the same general field; as an Inter tiiediaty, 
between the learned classes and the common people for the 
dissemination and popularization of what master minds are 
creating. It must naturally give a prominent place to the 
German immigrants of the eighteenth century whose descen- 
dants constitute today fully one third of the Nation's G^'r- 
man element. The magazine thus has a field as wide and deep 
as human endeavor ard extending over two centuries of time. 
While it is gatherirg here and there rare nuggets of historic 
lore, inexhaustible riches await uncovering and refining by 
expert workers. Dearth of materia! need, therefore, not be 
feared nor should difficulties in the way whether real or im- 
aginary deter us from entering and possessing the land. 

While the publication of THE PENN GERMANIA is the 
primary aim in the organiz,ation of this company it would 
manifestly be a shortsighted policy not to conserve the by- 
products or utilize the opportunities that naturally attend the 
publication of this jieriodical. The occasions for encouraging 
historic research that either may arise of their own accord or 
that may be cultivated will be utilized. The gradual building 
up of the select reference library for students and historians 
of the German element in the United States will greatly in- 
crease the usefulness of the undertaking. 





A. F. BERLIN. PrcsiocmT 

A. O. Rau. Vice President 

H. W. KRIEBEL, Mahacinc Editor 



PROF. F. S. OERHARD. Trenton, N. J. 

REV. A. E. GOBBLE. Myerslown 
DR. D. H. BERGEY. Philadelphia 
PROF. A. G. RAU. Bethlehem 
DR. R. K. BUEHRLE. Lancaster 
R W. IOBST Esq. Emaus 



W. J. HELLER. Easton 

C. W. UNGER. Pottsville 

F A. STICKLER. Nornstown 

W O. MILLER. Esq.. Reading 



H. W KRIEBEL. Lilitz 

J L. SCHAADT. Esq.. Allentown 

REV. N. B. GRUBB. Philadelphia 

A F. BERLIN. Allentown 

J. G. ZERN. M.D.. LehiEbton 

AIM OF THE COMPANY — (Evtiact from Charter.) 

The purpose for which the said corporation is formed are as follows: The sup- 
porting and carrying on of a literary and historical undertaking; the composition, 
printing, publishing and distribution of a periodical magazine or publication, de- 
voted to the history and ideals of the German element in the United States, the 
encouragement of historic research connected therewith, and the collection and 
preservation of books, manuscripts and data illustrative of the said history and 
ideals. V 


PUBLICATION DATE — Fifteenth of 
each month. 

TERMS — Two Dollars ($2.00) per 
year; One Dollar for six months; 
fifty cents for three months; 
itwenty cents per copy. Foreign 
Postage extra. Special rates to 
clubs and solicitors. 

BACK NUMBERS — Back numbers of 
are carried in stock. Particulars 
on application. 

C O M M U N I C A T IONS — "Our Book 
Table" is in charge of Prof. E. S. 
Gerhard, Trenton, N. J., to whom 
all communications touching the 
department should be addressed. 
The Penn Germania Genealogical 
Club is in charge of Miss Cora C. 
Curry, 1020 Monroe Street, Wash- 
ington, D. C, to whom "genea- 
logical" communications should be 
addressed. All other communica- 
tions should be addressed to Lititz, 


CONTRIBUTIONS — ^Contributions are 
invited on subjects falling within 
the scope of the magazine, the his- 
tory and ideals of the German 
element in the United States. No 
articles are paid for except upon 
definite contract. Articles should 
reach Editorial Office four weeks 
before date of issue to insure pub- 
lication in a specially designated 

RENEWALS — Money for renewals 
should be sent by subscribers! 
directly to "The Penn Germania," 
Lititz, Pa., by Post-Office, or Ex- 
press, Money Order or in Register- 
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RECEIPTS — The figures in the address 
on the magazine mailing envelope 
show when the subscription ex- 
pires. For example "12-13" signi- 
fies that subscription is paid to 
December 1913. Receipts are 
only sent on request. 

I'^ntered at the Post Office at Cleona, Pa., as Second-Class Mail Matter. 

3 1198 05100 1621 



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