GOV. EDWIN S. STUART,
Who Approved the Report of the Commission, and Transferred the
Memorial to the United States.
TVn Ksy/y n i A . cj nits k>*v| ffr & mono. L Ctnirrutsi
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY,
CEREMONIES AT THE
J^ebtcation of tfje^emorial
ERECTED BY THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
IN THE NATIONAL CEMETERY AT
SALISBURY, NORTH CAROLINA
31n ^emorp of tlje Jol&terg of Pennsipltiania
in tfje Confeberate l^ri^on at
1864 anb 1865
Entered according to the Acts of Congress by the Editor and Compiler, Col.
James D. Walker, President of the Pennsylvania Salisbury Memo
C. E. AUGHINBAUGKH.
PRINTER TO THE STATE OP PENNSYLVANIA,
1912. * "
Pennsylvania Salisbury Memorial Commission.
PENNSYLVANIA SALISBURY MEMORIAL COMMISSION.
James D. Walker, Knap s Independent Battery "E" Pennsylvania Light
Harry White, Brevet Brigade General, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry.
*Ezra H. Ripple, Co. "K" 52d Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer In
* William H. Bricker, Lieutenant Co. "B" 3rd Regiment, Pennsylvania
Louis R. Fortescue, Captain IT. S. Signal Corps.
Died, NOT. 19th, 1909.
*Died April 26th, 1910.
IX the year 1898, at a meeting of the Xaitional Association Union Ex-
Prisoners of War, held at Cincinnati, Ohio, Mrs. Lisbeth Turner, of
Massachusetts and Chairman of the Andersonville Prison Board of the
Woman s Relief Corps Auxiliary of the Grand Army of the Republic, Ap
peared before the National Association and stated that she had been in
structed to notify the National Association of the Union Ex-Prisoners of
War, that the Woman s Relief Corps were the owners of all of the ground
within the original stockade of the Confederate Prison Pen at Anderson
ville, Georgia, they having purchased it from the Department of Georgia
Grand Army of the Republic, and that it was their intention to inclose it
with a suitable fence, erect ornamental gates at the Old North and South
entrances, a lodge for the use of a caretaker, improve and beautify the
grounds, erect a granite building over that Providential appearing stream of
cold water that in 1864, broke through the trampled and hard baked
ground, within the prison bounds, known as "Providence Spring," and
place therein a beautiful and marble and granite fountain, and requested
the co-operation of the National Association Union Ex-Prisoners of War.
The National Association cheerfully acquiescd, and agreed to assume the
cost and responsibility of erecting the fountain. James Atwell, National
Commander, Col. James D. Walker, Chairman, Executive Committee,
Stephen M. Long and William McKelvy, were appointed a committee by
the National Association, to secure the necessary funds and erect the
fountain. Under their supervision and direction, the work was contracted
for, erected and dedicated. After the dedication ceremonies were con
cluded, and while the Committee were strolling through the National Ceme
tery, they noticed a small monument. Upon examination it proved to
have been erected by the State of New Jersey, to the memory of her sol
diers, who died in the Confederate Prison Pen at Andersonville, and are in
terred in the National Cemetery. Then and there it was resolved by the
Pennsylvania members of the Committee, that the memory of the 1,849 sol
diers of Pennsylvania, that perished in the Andersonville Stockade and
were buried in the National Cemetery should be honored by the erection of
a monument, or memorial, by their native state.
After a consultation with the Hon. M. S. Quay, then a U. S. Senator
from Pennsylvania, it was determined that memorials should be erected
to the memory of Pennsylvania s Soldiers who perished in the Prison Pens
and Stockades at Andersonville, Georgia, Salisbury, North Carolina, and
Florence, South Carolina. In pursuance of which, the Prisoners of the
War Association had an act introduced and passed by the Pennsylvania
o PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Legislature authorizing the erection of a Memorial in the National Ceme
tery at Anderson ville, Georgia, and appropriating moneys therefore. This
memorial was dedicated with suitable ceremonies December 7, 1905, Gov
ernor Samuel W. Penny packer, State officials, survivors and others being
present, Hon. James D. Walker, President of the Commission presiding.
At the session in 1907 the Legislature passed a similar act, providing for
the erection of a memorial to the same purpose in the National Cemetery at
Salisbury, North Carolina, thus leaving but one more to be erected at
Florence, S. C., to complete and carry out the intent of the Prisoners of
War Association, and it is our earnest hope that the next Legislature will
appropriate moneys to erect a memorial at Florence, S. C.
BRIEF HISTORICAL ACCOUNT.
Eleven thousand, seven hundred Soldiers of the Union Armies who died
in this Prison are interred in the eighteen trenches lying to the Southeast
of this memorial.
As no burial record of this Prison has every been found and no marks
or Head boards to identify the individual dead, all buried there are classed
A hospital record contains the names of thirty-five hundred and four who
died in the Hospital. Of these, seven hundred and thrity-six were Penn-
sylvauians. In the same ratio, the number of Pennsylvanians interred here
would be twenty-four hundred and fifty-seven. No other Prison or Battle
field of the Civil War records so great a number of Pennsylvanians.
No epitaph have they to tell their tale
Their birth-place, age and story all are lost,
Yet rest these Heroes as within the vale,
Those sheltered bodies by triumphal arches crossed.
On February 1, 1009, Mr. John H. Rieble, a member of the House of
Representatives, read in place an act, making an appropriation for trans
porting the Pennsylvania survivors to Salisbury, North Carolina, to attend
the dedication of a memorial being erected there by the Salisbury Memorial
Commission, and for the expenses of the Commission, incident thereto, the
act passed both Houses and was approved by Governor Edwin S. Stuart,
May 13, 1909.
The Commission immediately proceeded to carry out the provisions of the
act, by securing a roster of all living Pennsylvania Soldiers that were con
fined in Salisbury Prison.
The discovery of the Pennsylvania survivors of Salisbury and the secur
ing of their names and addresses was a very onerous task and the Com
mission being extremely anxious and desirous that all who were eligible to
participate in the dedication ceremonies at Salisbury, N. C., should re
ceive at the very earliest moment, such information as would enable the
survivors to join the movement to Salisbury, and on request the Commis
sion would furnish them with blank applications for transportation. On
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 7
May 6, 1910, the newspaper article and circular following was sent to .ill
the newspapers in the State, through the Associated Frees, United Press,
County and City papers, Comraanderies of the Loyal Legion, Posts of the
Grand Army, Woman s Relief Corps, Ladies of the Grand Army Circles,
Daughters of Veterans, post offices , etc. In response, over four hundred
requests for blanks were received and applications were sent to all who
requested the same. A large number were never returned and some that
were not elegible under the act, were refused.
WORK OF COMMISSION, ERECTION OF MEMORIAL AND TRIP
TO SALISBURY , NORTH CAROLINA.
During the session of the Pennsylvania Legislature of 1907, the fol
lowing act was introduced, authorizing the erection of a memorial to the
memory of the Pennsylvania dead interred in the National Cemetery at Sal
isbury, North Carolina, who died in the Confederate Prison at that place
while confined as Prisoners of War, and appropriating the sum of $20,-
000.00 for that purpose. The bill passed both Houses unanimously and
was approved June 13, 1907 by Edwin S. Stuart, Governor and on Au
gust 21, 1907 the following Commission, each of whom had been confined in
Confederate Prisons were appointed by Gov. Edwin S. Stuart to carry out
the provisions of the Act.
Col. James D. Walker, of Pittsburgh, Pa.
Gen. Harry White, of Indiana, Pa.
Capt W. H. Bricker, of Beaver Falls, Pa.
Capt. Louis R. Fortescue, of Philadelphia, Pa.
Col. Ezra H. Ripple, of Scranton, Pa.
On the tenth day of December 1907, the full Commission met at the Sen
ate in Harrisburg, Pa., for the purpose of organization. The Commission
organized, by the election of James D. Walker, President Pro tern., and
Col. Ezra H. Ripple as Secretary and Treasurer Pro tern., and on motion
they were duly elected as permanent officers of the Commission.
At this meeting the Commission decided to visit Salisbury, North Caro
lina for the purpose of selecting a building site in the National Cemetery.
Committees were appointed on inscription, securing designs of the
Memorial to be erected, and to confer with the Quartermaster General of
the U. S. Army. The Commission after calling upon the Governor and
Auditor General resolved to visit Andersonville, Georgia, Chickamauga and
Gettysburg Battlefields for the purpose of examining designs of monuments
and memorials erected at those places and the materials of which they
The different committees started to work promptly and by January 14,
1908, the chairman (Mr. Fortescue) of the Committee to meet with the
Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army was able to report. That upon
application from the secretary of the Commission in writing a letter will be
given the Commission to the Custodian of the National Cemetery at Salis
bury, N. C., giving permission to select a site and that copies of the in-
8 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
scriptions to be placed on or in tbe memorial must be furnished the Quarter
master General and approved by him before being placed in or upon the
memorial, in order that nothing objectionable or historically inaccurate
On April IS, 1908 the Commission met in Salisbury, I\. C., and selected
a site in the plot between four trees situate on the left hand side of the main
roadway, and near the Custodian s lodge, to be designated on diagram as "A"
and located as follows with regard to land marks in vicinity line, 21 from
the center of roadway to southerly line and 30 from die hedge to northerly
side of lot, being about 40 square and one of the most beautiful locations in
the cemetery. The Commission, all of whom were present, were unani
mously in favor of the selection. Permision having been obtained from
the Quartermaster General to locate the memorial, the matter of inscrip
tions to be placed in or upon the Memorial was taken up by the Commis
sion. The committee at different times reported quite a number, some in
prose, some in poetry, all of them being excellent and full of the most
beautiful sentiment, patriotism and love for our martyred dead, so much
so that the Commission found it a very hard matter indeed to make a selec
tion. Inscriptions were presented for the consideration of the Commis
sion by Mr. J. E. Barrett, of Scranton, Pa., poem and prose, Miss Susan
E. Dickinson, General Harry White and Capt. Louis R. Fortescue ; these
and a number of others were presented to the Quartermaster General for his
approval. He, for various reasons assigned by him or his representatives
disapproved them all and for weeks by correspondence and numerous personal
visits to die Wfir Department with revisions of the original inscriptions
and tbe presentations of new ones, the Commission endeavored to comply
with the conditions demanded by him and ultimately succeeded in securing
the approval of the following.
Tablet No. 1.
This monument is erected by authority of an Act of the Pennsylvania
Legislature, approved June 13, 1007, to commemorate the patriotic devo
tion, heroism and self-sacrifice of the officers and soldiers of the Pennsylva
nia volunteers, who died while confined as prisoners of war in the Confed
erate Military Prison at Salisbury, North Carolina, during the War of the
Rebellion and were interred among the unKnown Union Soldiers and Sail
ors or in the eighteen trenches southeast of this monument. A grateful Com
monwealth renders this tribute to Iheir honor and memory.
Tablet No. 2.
Many Pennsylvania soldiers are buried here. They were citizens of a
State whose founders came across the sea and established a Commonwealth
where all men would be equal, and under just laws, free to enjoy their in
alienable rights in the pursuit of happiness, unmolested by king or noble
or prejudiced class.
They used the sword only to preserve the peace and unity of their coun
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 9
Twice on the soil of their State were crucial struggles for the Republic.
First at Valley Forge, that tested the courage and fortitude of the patriot
army, then at Gettysburg, that proved the nation could not be broken.
Respecting the example of the Romans, who never raised emblems of
triumph over a foe, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania erects this monu
ment to perpetuate the memory of the dead, and not as a commemoration of
Their memory cannot be forgot,
Forever shall men s hearts reverse
Their loyalty, and hold this spot
Sacred, because they perished here.
Tablet No. o.
A Reproduction in Bronze of Salisbury Prison and Stockade.
In the meantime, and during the long and vexatious delay caused by the
Quartermaster General failing to approve the many and varied inscriptions
that was presented to him, the committee on designs for this memorial in
vited the prominent Granite, Marble and Kronze Monumental Contractors,
Firms and Sculptors of the slates to suomit models or colored drawings of
designs of their own, of granite, marble or bronze or of any two or of all
of these materials with estimates for furnishing material, erecting and
fully completeing the same in a good workmanlike manner. These invita
tions were answered by prospective bidders from nine states, requesting in
formation that would enable them to bid intelligently. This was furnished
to all and November 10, 1009, was selected as the day and the Ebbitt
House, Washington, D. C., as the place for selecting the design and
awarding the contract by the Commission. On that date, and at the place
designated the Commission met, and the representatives of twenty-three
firms produced models or colored drawings with estimates for the construc
tion of the same.
Several days were required to determine and adopt a design suitable to the
washes and desires of the Commission. The necessary elimination reduced
the available designs to three and as only one of them could be selected, the
Lommission after mature deliberation decided unanimously that of these,
the designs offered by Mr. Carroll J. ( lark, representing Clark s Monumental
Vvorks of Americus, Ga., was nearer the ideals of the Commission than
any of the others and the contract was awarded to Clark s Monumental
Works, and articles of agreement between them and the Commission were
drawn up and signed by both parties to the contract.
A copy of the design selected and adopted by the Commission was filed
with the Quartermaster General and received his unqualified approval. The
placing of the legend, "Death before Dishonor" above the bronze tablets in
the interior met with a different fate. The Commission was notified that
it could not remain and orders were issued by him to stop all work upon
the memorial until the objectionable words were effaced. The progress of
the work stopped and the Commission considered the advisability of taking
issue with the Quartermaster General but as the memorial was nearing
completion and any contention over the matter with the Quartermaster Gen-
10 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
eral would possibly lead to a further delay, it was deemed advisable to
gracefully submit to his order and have the legend obliterated, hoping that
sometime in the future he might see his way to reconsider his present order
and permit the words to be replaced.
The erection of the memorial was under the constant supervision of the
Commission ; from the time the earth was broken until the statue was placed
on the dome, this completing the whole structure. On October 17, 1910,
for a final inspection of the work ithe Committee visited Salisbury, and the
following is an extract from the report to the Commission.
On October 17, 1910, a careful examination and inspection of the exterior and interior
of the menrnorial of the bronze statue and bronze tablets was made, and we find the
memorial complete in all its parts, and the work done in a good and workmanlike manner
according to the original and modified plans, specifications and contract.
J. D. WALKER,
Signed by and
LOUIS R. FORTESCUB.
The description of the Memorial follows:
It is an arcade in construction with circular arched entrances from the
front and both sides, springing from pillars and caps of black marble,
heavily buttressed on the four corners, and surmounted by a dome and
bronze figure of a Prisoner of War.
The exterior is constructed of rock faced white granite from the cele
brated Mounty Airy Quarries, N. C., with the word, Pennsylvania in
raised block letters appearing on the arch in front.
The interior, the floor, sub-base, wainscoting and moulding, is of Geor
gia marble. The sides are of Italian marble with three bronze tablets in
serted in the rear wall.
The foundation is 24 square, 5 below grade, and 2 6" above same, and
is constructed entirely of concrete. Rising from this, is three steps to floor
of memorial and continuing entirely around, thus forming a sub-base for
the superstructure. The heighth of the memorial is 32 and it is 18 square
at base with sod terrace 3 high, the whole being surmounted with a dome
and on top of which a bronze statute of a Prisoner of War 8 high is placed.
Opposite the front and side entrances there are three marble steps, each 7"
in height, 6 long, rising from a granolithic walk, extending to the road
way. The total heighth of the memorial is 40 . The memorial sets in the
center of a lot 40 square.
On November 15, 1910 at 5:25 P. M. a train carrying the survivors of
Salisbury, Governor Edwin S. Stuart and his staff, the Commission and
invited guests left Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, via Northern Central and
Southern Railways, arriving at Salisbury, N. C., about three hours late on
the morning of November IGth.
They were met at the depot by Governor TV. W. Kitchin, of North Carolina
and his staff, Hon. A. L. Smoot, Mayor of Salisbury and Senator Lee S.
Overman with a large committee of citizens of Salisbury, a delegation of
ladies, Mrs. Edwin C. Gregory at their head and Camp No. 319, United
Governor Stuart, his staff and -the male members of the guests and Com
mission, together with the North Carolina State Officials, Mayor of Salis-
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 11
bury and the reception committee entered automobiles and were driven around
and through the city, while the ladies of our party were taken in charge by
the ladies reception committee, entered carriages and were driven through
the city and suburbs, and royally entertained by them during the day and
evening at their homos and elsewhere.
The survivors were taken in charge by the members of Camp No. 319 U.
C. V., Captain W. B. Coughenour and Captain R. F. Price commanding,
and as their guests the survivors were made to feel that they surely were in
the hands of friends, from their arrival until their departure, nothing was
left undone by the members of the Confederate Camp, to make the stay of
the Yanks in Salisbury, one of the most enjoyable occasions of their lives,
and ever to be remembered by them.
At 2 P. M. a procession was formed on Main Street. It consisted of the
survivors, ex-Confederates, Gov. W. W. Kitchin and staff, Gov. Stuart and
staff, guests, representatives of the U. S. Army, and Commission in auto
mobiles; visiting ladies and ladies reception committee in carriages, and citi
zens of Salisbury. A company of North Carolina National Guards, the
fourth company coast artillery, led by the Salisbury brass band, headed the
parade, of which J. Frank Miller was Chief Marshall, assisted by a number
of citizens aides. The column was fully a mile long.
After marching through the streets of Salisbury the parade ended at the
Pennsylvania Memorial in the National Cemetery where an immense con
course of the citizens of Salisbury, Durham, Raleigh and the surrounding
country had assembled, and with a close and respectful attention remained
during the entire proceedings.
At 3 P. M. Hon. James D. Walker, President of the Memorial Commis
sion called the assemblage to order.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE AND CIRCULAR
STATE WILL CARRY FREE, FORMER WAR
SOLDIERS \YHO WERE CONFINED IN SALISBURY, X. C., WILL GO THERE
IN NOVEMBER. SEND IN NAMES BY JULY 1.
The memorial erected by the State of Pennsylvania in the National ceme
tery at Salisbury, N. C., to the memory of the Pennsylvania soldiers who
died in the Confederate prison and are buried in the National cemetery, is
Hearing completion, and will be dedicated some time in November, on a day
to be designated by the Governor. For the purpose of determining how
many survivors of Pennsylvania s commands that now reside in Pennsyl
vania, who were confined in the Confederate prison at Salisbury, and are
desirous of taking advantage of the act providing for the transportation of
the survivors from the railroad station nearest to their homes to Salisbury
and return the commission must have their names and addresses.
On their receipt, blank applications will be mailed to each separate ad
dress, to be filled out and returned to the Commission, and after verification,
orders for transportation will be mailed to their addresses. These orders
will be presented to the ticket agent at the railroad station nearest their
homes. Transportation alone will be furnished. Survivors will provide their
The Commission wishes that no survivor of Salisbury, who is entitled to
transportation may be overlooked. These addresses must be in the hands
of the Commission not later than July 1. Any arriving after that date will
not be considered. All names and addresses should be sent to J. D. Walker,
President Pennsylvania s Salisbury Memorial Commission, 0022 Center Ave
Copies of forms, circulars, etc., etc., used by the Commission follow:
SALISBURY SURVIVORS, ATTENTION!
The memorial erected by the State of Pennsylvania in the National Cemetery at
Salisbury, North Carolina, to the memory of the Pennsylvania soldiers who died in the
Confederate Prison at that place will be dedicated some time in November, 1910, on a day
to be designated by the Governor in the near future.
For the purpose of determining how many survivors of Pennsylvania Commands, that
now reside in Pennsylvania, who were confined in the Confederate Prison at Salisbury,
N. C., and are desirous of taking advantage of the act providing for the transportation
of the survivors from the railroad station nearest to their homes to Salisbury and return,
the commission must have their names and addresses if living in a city, give number and
street; if living in the country give proper Rural Delivery Route. On receipt of the same,
blank applications will be mailed to each separate address, to be filled out and returned
to the Commission, and after verification, orders for transporation will be mailed to
their address. These orders will be presented to the ticket agent at the railroad station
nearest their homes. Transporation alone will be furnished. Survivors will provide their
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Won t you kindly have this read at your Post or Commandery meeting, and published in
all of your local papers, giving it the widest possible publicity in your immediate neighbor
hood. The Commission wishes that no Survivor of Salisbury who is entitled to transpor
tation may be overlooked.
These addresses must be in the hands of the Commission not later than July 1, 1910;
any arriving after that date will not be considered.
Send all names and addresses to
J. D. WALKER,
President Pennsylvania Salisbury Memorial Commission,
6022 Center Avenue, East Eud,
Tickets for survivors, the Governor and his staff, members of the Penn
sylvania Salisbury Memorial Commission and invited guests to be issued
without charge on presentation of transportation orders signed by J.
D. Walker, President, Pennsylvania Salisbury Memorial Commission, and
tickets for the general public to be sold on application therefor to ticket
agents. Tickets to be sold November 12th to 15th, 1910, and returning to
reach original starting point not later than November 30, 1910. The trans
portation orders to be settled for by the Pennsylvania Salisbury Memorial
Survivors and guests will assemble at Union Station, Harrisburg, Penn a,
not later than 5 P. M. of Tuesday, November 15th, 1910.
Special train for use of Governor and Staff, guests, commission and sur
vivors, to start at Harrisburg, Pa., November 15th, 1910, will be operated
in both directions on following approximate schedule:
Lv. Harrisburg, P. R. R. , 5:25 P.M.
Ar. Washington, ___ 8:44 P.M.
R. F. & P. R. R.
Lv. Washington, __ 9:15 P.M.
Ar. Richmond, _. _.12:15 A.M.
Train to be switched to the Southern
Nov 16th So. Rwy.
Lv. Richmond, _ .__ 12:45 A.M.
Ar. Danville, _ __ ___ 5:45 A.M.
Lv. Danville, 5:47 A.M.
Ar. Greensboro, __ __ 7:20 A.M.
Stop for breakfast for suvrivors and
Lv. Greensboro, 8:00 A.M.
Ar. Salisbury _ 9:30 A.M.
Nov. 16th So. Rwy.
Lv. Salisbury, 9:00 P.M.
Ar. Danville, 11:30 P.M.
Lv. Danville, _11:35 P.M.
Ar. Richmond, _ _ 4:35 A.M.
Train to be switched.
R. P. & P. R. R.
Lv. Richmond, __ _ 5:15 A.M.
Ar. Washington, __ 8:15 A.M.
45 minutes for breakfast.
Lv. Washington, P. R. R.. __ 9:00 A.M.
Ar. Harrisburg, _ _12:30 P.M.
Stop-overs will be allowed at any intermediate point enroute on notice to
conductor on November 12, 13, 14 and 15, on thee going trip, and not later
than November 30 on the return trip, by which date passengers must reach
original starting point.
Tickets will also be available for the general public (not for survivors)
traveling individually beginning November 12, 13, 14 and 15, 1910, over the
Pennsylvania Railroad, via Washington, thence over the Southern Railway
through Lynchburg, Danville, Va., and Greensboro, N. C., to Salisbury,
N. C., returning same way, in the event they prefer this direct route rather
than the route through Richmond, Va.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 15
Four Southern Railway Limited trains each way daily via Lynchburg,
Danville, Va. , and Greensboro, N. C., available for use of the general pub
lic on November 12, 13, 14 and 15, 1910, leaving Washington, 9:30 A. M.,
11:00 A. M., 4:15 P. M. and 10:45 P. M.
The site of the prison is covered with a fine class of residences and is a
very respectable neigborhood, 5 minutes walk from the Union Depot and
the same from the Empire Hotel. Prominent places in the old prison will be
designated by sign boards placed on the houses and fences.
The distance to the cemetery is only a 5-minute march and every person
connected with the movement is expected to assemble at the Empire Hotel,
Salisbury, N. C., Wednesday, November 1C, at 12:45 P. M. Column will
leave the Hotel promptly at 1 P. M.
Should time of departure of Special Train be changed to a later hour
ample notice will be given by placards posted in the Empire Hotel and Union
Special train will stop returning at Danville, Va., Richmond, Va., and
Washington, D. C., to discharge passengers who wish to stop off. Parties
desiring to remain over at Salisbury can take any regular train on Southern
Railway, via Danville, Va., and upon notice to conductor stop off at any
point between Salisbury and original starting point.
Bronze Tablets on Rear Wall of Interior of Memorial.
PENNSYLVANIA UNVEILS MEMORIAL TO HER SONS
WHO DIED IN SALISBURY PRISON.
LARGEST DELEGATION THAT EVER CAME SOUTH ON SUCH A MISSION
ATTENDS CEREMONY Two GOVERNORS PRESENT MANY DIS
TINGUISHED STATESMEN IN THE PARTY RECEPTION
AT SENATOR OVERMAN S HOME CROWNING
EVENT OF DAY REPLETE WITH
Special by Staff Correspondent:
Salisbury, Nov. 16. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has done nobly her part by
her heroic sons who battled for the preservation of the Union, and who the strife over
and the victory won bivouac in Salisbury s city of the dead. That they fell before the
ruthless onslaught of disease and found eternal rest in prison trenches, instead of having
met a more glorious end at the mouth of an enemy s cannon, has not dimmed the luster
of their valor in the eyes of a people in whose hearts they are deified with their long
Hundreds of Pennsylvanians the most distinguished and the largest assemblage that
ever went beyond the border of the state on such a mission journeyed here today to unveil
a memorial to the self-sacrificing patriotism of their countrymen who died in Salisbury
prison during the dark days of civil warfare.
Received with the open-handed hospitality that is characteristic of Salisbury, taken
into the hearts and homes of its gracious people, welcomed by the brilliant Governor of
the State and its distinguished Senator in words that left only the impress of one country,
one flag and one people with no discordant note to jar the love-feast the visitors re
turned to their homes tonight, surprised, perhaps, but pleased and satisfied with their
A hearty welcome at the station; a drive around the city; a splendid dinner; a quality
of oratory they hardly expected to find in the South and, as a crowning feature, the
magnificent reception at the home of Senator Lee S. Overman made up the program
prepared for them, and one that will stand for years in local history as notable.
THE PARTY DELAYED.
The special, consisting of ten cars, bearing the Pennsylvania delegation, was delayed
three hours by a break-down of the locomotive and much of the program was necessarily
omitted. It was considerable after 9 o clock when the train rolled into the depot. The
visitors were met by a committee consisting of Madames Edwin C. Gregory, W. B.
Duttera, A. L. Smoot, W. B. Strauchan, Louis H. Clement, Walter H. Woodson,
R. V. Brawley, E. B. Neave, E. R. Overman and Miss Jane Boyden, and after a ride
over the city in automobiles and carriages were escorted to the Empire Hotel, where
dinner awaited them.
At 2:30 o clock the procession was formed in front of the hotel and the march to the
Federal cemetery began. Heading it was the Salisbury band; then, with halting step,
the survivors from Pennsylvania of the Salisbury prison, and following them the Charles"
F. Fisher camp of United Confederate Veterans, led by Commander W. C. Coughenour;
the respective governors and their staffs and the visiting ladies in automobiles and
carriages. The Fourth Company, Coast Artillery, which mounted guard around the
monument at the cemetery, brought up the rear, and Mr. Frank J. Miller was chief
marshall of the procession, easily a mile long.
18 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
AN AFFECTING FEATURE.
While the parade was forming the local Confederate veterans ordered the Union
veterans to form in double file, and when the line was completed the John Rebs marched
through the Yankee lines, shaking hands heartily right and left. It was an impromptu
feature of the program and one that drew tears to the eyes of the gathered multitude.
It was after 3 o clock, hours after the time announced for the ceremony, when Hon.
James D. Walker, president of the monument commission, called the assemblage to
order. On a stand facing the magnificent memorial were seated the Governors of North
Carolina and Pennsylvania, their staffs and the distinguished guests. Rev. J. W. Sayers,
chaplain of the department of the Pennsylvania of the G. A. R. , made the invocation
and Governor Kitchiu was called upon for the first address of welcome. The Governor
was never in better trim for an occasion. He looked well and spoke better. His ad
dress, while brief, was a masterpiece, and before he was half through he had won
completely the hearts of the Peuusylvanians, and always had their undivided attention.
Throughout, his talk was one unity, peace and concord, avoiding all reference to the
"late unpleasantness" except as served his purpose to sink deeper the welcome he held
out to the strangers. No brief synopsis can do justice to his ornate oratory.
GOVERNOR KITCHIN S ADDRESS.
fl PTTiODAY," he said, "you made the march from Pennsylvania into North
Carolina in peace, comfonL and safety and we extend our hearts in
* welcome to this peaceful invasion ; some years ago you Peunsyh a-
niaus marched into North Carolina and we met you with muskets. But you
made it, and none but our fellow Americans could have done it."
And again: "You thought you couldn t get along without us and fought us
to prevent the separation; we thought we could get along without you, and
tried to get away from you, but now we know we can t get along without
"The pangs of hate or passion are no longer cherished by men of patriot
"That monument stands in no enemy s country."
"What matters it under what flag they fought if they were brave men?"
"As we are worthy of each others steel in war, we are worthy of each
others friendship in peace, and this friendship, rny countrymen, we give to
you today unstintedly."
These and similar epigrams brought rounds of applause, and when the
Governor took his seat the master of ceremonies broke into the program by
calling for three cheers for the Governor of North Carolina, which were
given with a will.
Lieutenant Governor Murphy of Pennsylvania responded to Governor
Kitchin. He is a son of the noted temperance orator, Francis J. Murphy,
and as a speaker does his father s memory no injustice. He made splendid
references to North Carolina s record in War and Peace, and touching glow
ingly upon the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.
OVERMAN BRINGS TEARS.
Probably the masterpiece of the afternoon was the impromptu response of
Senator Overman to the unexpected call of General Walker, which fol
lowed Mayor A. L. Smoot s fitting address of welcome on behalf of the city
of Salisbury, and in which he surpassed himself.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 19
Senator Overman was not on the program, but he made the hit of his
life with words that brought the tears freely from the old soldiers, and was
halted often by outbursts of applause. His expressions were beautiful, and
there was hardly a dry eye in the concourse of something like three thousand
people when he concluded. Advancing to the front of the platform he
pointed dramatically to the Stars and Stripes and said:
"Countrymen the men of North Carolina, love that flag and when our
glorious country needs defense they will follow it to glory or to the grave.
But you must not be unsympathetic with us for hallowing that other flag
that once waved over the Southern Confederacy. Gentlemen, our brave
men followed it for four long years and saw it go down in an ocean of
"When the calls for volunteers to the Spanish-American War came, the
responses from North Carolina were so liberal that the Government could
not make use of all of them. But, gentlemen, Lieut. W. E. Shipp a North
Carolinian fell on San Juan hill in defense of the flag, and the first American
sacrifice in that struggle was Ensign Worth Bagley, who went to glory on
the deck of the Winslow. And friends they brought his bloody body home
to the widow of a Confederate General. But we are all at home now one
great, grand, undivided, indissoluble country, and we ll die fighting for it."
The Senator was cheered to the echo it was the speech of his career, and
he has made good speeches before, but this one touched the keynote.
TENDER OF MEMORIAL.
Adjutant General Thomas J. Stewart of Pennsylvania wound up the
responses to the addresses of welcome in a happy manner, and then Capt.
Louis R. Fortescue, signal corps volunteers, tendered the handsome memo
rial to Governor Stuart. In the midst of his address Miss Helen H. Walker,
daughter of the monument commission s president, pulled aside the flags, re
vealing to the multitude the beautiful memorial. Governor Stuart briefly
accepted the memorial on behalf of the State of Pennsylvania, and tendered
it to the United States, and Brigadier General A. L. Mills, representing
the United States Army, accepted it as briefly.
The conclusion of the program was really its feature the oration of
Brigadier General Harry White. For twenty years on the bench, four
teen years in Congress, and eight years in the Pennsylvania Senate, and one
of the principal framers of the State s present constitution, he is a notable
figure. Though seventy-seven years old his voice is clear and strong and he
held attention throughout his delivery. As Major White he was a prisoner,
in solitary confinement, at Salisbury prison in 1803. Justice Nathaniel
Boyden, father of Col. A. H. Boyden, came to his assistance and made his
prison term more comfortable. His address was dramatic and replete with
interest from start to finish. General White is now president of the Na
tional Association of Ex-Prisoners, and one of Pennsylvania s most promi
nent public men.
20 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
SINGING OF "COMRADE BOB."
Another feature of the days proceedings that is noteworthy was the sing
ing of Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald, widow of a Union veteran, the guardian
angel of the Pennsylvania Department of the G. A. R., and known Co the
veterans as "Comrade Bob." Mrs. McDonald is the only female member of
the G. A. R., and though possibly on the shady side of fifty, her hair as
white as snow, her voice is as clear as a bell and her tones true and full.
This sweet-faced woman s rendering of "Lorena," "Columbia" and the
"Star Spangled Banner" was one of the most enjoyable events of a day filled
to the brim with things worth while. Miss Sylvia Rosensteel accompanied
Mrs. McDonald on the piano, and these two furnished the musical part of
the program. Mrs. McDonald is as proud of her sobriquet as the old sol
diers are of her.
Probably no more distinguished gathering ever graced any occasion in
North Carolina. The beautiful gowning of the ladies and the glittering
uniforms of the soldiery presented a picture never to be forgotten. The
splendid appearance of Governor Stuart and his staff all of them well-pro
portioned, handsome men, from the Governor down to the Sergeant, was
the occasion of many compliments, and when it came to handsome men,
Governor Kitchin and his courtly staff were not far in the rear. So far
as the woman is concerned, comparisons are both invidious and dangerous,
but no town in the country can make a better showing than Salisbury in
this respect, and pretty nearly the whole world knows it.
Salisbury came to the front handsomely, as it always does when hospi
tality is the watchword, and the city made as great a hit with the visitors
as did the Governor and Senator Overman with their addresses.
THE memorial which cost $15,000.00 is the most splendid thing of its
kind in the State. It is built of Mount Airy granite and is finished in
Georgia marble. It stands to the left of the driveway and near the
superintedents lodge. It is 24 feet square and stands 38 feet high ; is of
canopy design, with arches to the front and on two sides, the rear being
a solid wall on which is placed three bronze tablets containing the in
scriptions. The floor is of marble and the overhead of polished Italian
marble. The monument stands elevated two and a half feet above the
ground level and is reached by a tier of solid granite steps leading up
the terrace which surrounds the monument. The top of the monument
caps off into a dome upon which stands the hercic figure of a soldier in
bronze, representing a prisoner of war, forlorn and ragged. The monu
ment was designed and constructed by Mr. C. J. Clark, proprietor of
Clark s Monumental Works, at Americus, Ga. Mr. Clark is a native of
Tennessee. He personally supervised the erection of the memorial. A
cement walk leads from the driveway to the steps of the monument. The
work was completed last January, with the exception of the placing of the
bronze tablets, which were affixed recently.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 21
On the walls of the interior is a bronze tablet, showing the old prison
and grounds in has relief. This is an especially fine piece of work and
shows a strikingly realistic picture of the old buildings and surroundings
On another tablet is inscribed:
"This monument was erected June 13, 1907, to commemorate the patriotic devotion,
heroism and self-sacrifice of the officers and soldiers of the Pennsylvania volunteers who
died while confined as prisoners of war in the Confederate military prison at Salisbury,
North Carolina, during the war of the rebellion, and were interred among the unknown
Union soldiers and sailors in the eighteen trenches at the southeast side of this monu
ment. A grateful Commonwealth renders tribute to their honor and memory."
A third tablet bears the inscription:
"Many Pennsylvania soldiers are buried here. They were citizens of a State whose
founders came across the sea and established a Commonwealth where all men would be
equal and, under just laws, free to enjoy their inalienable rights in the pursuit of
happiness, unmolested by kings or nobles or prejudiced class. They used the sword only
to preserve the peace and unity of their country. Twice on the soil of their native
State were crucial struggles for the republic. First, Valley Forge, that tested the
courage and fortitude of the patriot army. Then at Gettysburg, that proved the nation
could no be broken. Respecting the example of the Roman, who never raised emblems
of triumph over a foe, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania erects this monument to
perpetuate the memory of the dead and not as a commemoration of victory."
On each end of the arch is inscribed simply, "Pennsylvania, 1909." On
the side facing the driveway is cut the coat of arms of Pennsylvania, with
the motto, "Virtue, Liberty and Independence."
THE PENNSYLVANIA DELEGATION.
Representing officially the State of Pennsylvania were:
Gov. Edwin S. Stuart.
Lieut. Gov. Robert S. Murphy.
Adjutant General Thomas J. Si ewart.
Brigadier General William C. Price.
Col. Joseph K. Weaver.
Col. Horace Holdeman.
Col. Frank S. Patterson.
Col. William J. Elliott.
Col. L. E. Beitler.
Col. J. S. Wiggins.
Col. J. Warner Hutchins.
Col. Walter Bradley.
Col. F. T. Pusey.
Col. E. C. Dewey.
Col. J. M. Reid.
Major L. V. Rausch.
The foregoing gentlemen comprise the Governor s staff. Other prominent
members of the party were:
A. B. Millar, secretary to Governor Stuart, and ^.Irs. Millar.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Mr. \V. H. Stewart of Scotland, Pa., Superintendent of the home for
Senator W. S. Blewitt of fecranton, Pa.
Senator David Wilbert of Pittsburgh, Pa.
Senator R. J. Cunningham of Pittsburgh, Pa.
General L. W. Moore, commander of the department of Pennsylvania,
Grand Army of the Republic.
Hon. Gabriel Moyer of Palmyra, Pa.
Hon. J. D. O Neil of Pittsburgh, Pa.
Hon. I. K. Campbell.
Hon. Stephen Toole.
Mr. Benjamin Strouse of Harrisburg, Pa.
Mr. John C. Delaney and Mrs. Delaney of Harrisburg, Pa.
(jen. Harry White, president of the National Association of Ex-Prisoners,
and daughter, Mrs. J. N. Speel.
Rev. John W. Sayers, chaplain of the Department of Pennsylvania,
G. A. R.
Col. Charles A. Suydam, Adjutant General, G. A. R., Department of
Hon. John H. Reible.
Col. Robert B. Beaith, ex-commander-in-chief , G. A. R.
Hon. J. H. Holcomb, Assistant Quartermaster General, G. A. R.
Capt. Louis R. Fortescue, Signal Corps, United States Volunteers.
Hon. James D. Walker, president of the Monument Commission, Mrs.
Walker, Miss Walker and Miss Helen Walker.
Foremost in the delegation of ladies accompanying the Pennsylvania
party was Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald, the patron saint of Pennsylvania s vet
erans, and the only woman who is a member of the Grand Army of the
Republic. Others were: Mrs. Robert S. Murphy, wife of the Lieutenant
Governor; Mrs. Thomas J. Stewart, wife of the Adjutant General, and
Miss Sylvia Rosensteel.
The newspaper men with the party were:
Thomas M. Jones, representing The Philadelphia Record and Pittsburg
John M. Bonbright, Harrisburg Star-Independent.
Charles G. Miller, Harrisburg Patriot.
W. G. Newbold, Philadelphia North American.
With the party on the special train were nearly three hundred survivors
of the Salisbury prison all members of the Pennsylvania Department, G.
A. R. , and of the National Ex-Prisoners Association.
NORTH CAROLINA PARTY.
As official representatives of the State of North Carolina were present:
Gov. William W. Kitchin.
Adjutant General R. L. Leinster.
Col. S. Westray Battle.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 23
Col. II. A. Grady.
Col. II. Montague.
Capt. S. Glenn Brown.
Representatives of the government attending the ceremonies were:
Brigadier Gen. A. L. Mills, U. S. A.
Lieut. Allen, U. S. A., aide to General Mills.
Brigadier General Carle A. Woodruff, U. S. A., retired.
THE CROWNING EVENT.
The home of Senator Overman, typically Southern in appointments and
comforts, was royally elegant this evening with the added touches from the
deft hand of the decorator. The reception which was from 5 to 7 o clock,
was attended by all the prominent members of the Pennsylvania delegation
and the elect of Salisbury society invited to meet them. No detail that
might servo to render the occasion a delight to the fortunate guests was
missing flowers, music, dainty refreshments and charming women were
features that will linger long in the memory of the visitors from the North.
Those in the receiving line were:
Governor Stuart, Lieutenant Governor and Mrs. Murphy, General White,
Walter Murphy, Mayor and Mrs. A. L. Smoot, Senator and Mrs. Lee S.
Overman and their beautiful daughter, Mrs. Edwin C. Gregory.
The special train bearing the Pennsylvania delegation left home tonight
at 9:30 o clock, with every one singing the praises of Salisbury and North
L XVEILS MEMORIAL TO UNION PRISONERS AT SALISBURY.
Monument Presented to State by Memorial Commission Accepted by Governor Stuart
Turned Over to U. S. Government.
Salisbury, N. C., Nov. 16. Pennsylvania s handsome $20,000 granite and bronze
memorial to her soldiers who died in the Confederate prison here from 1861 to 1865 was
dedicated this afternoon.
Governor Edwin S. Stuart was the central figure, and he was greeted with the
popular outburst of enthusiasm which always accompanies his appearance. This is the
last of numerous dedications of civil war memorials which occurred during the Stuart
The monument which was erected at a cost of .$20,000 was presented to Pennsylvania
by Major Louis R. Fortescue, of Philadelphia, and was accepted in a fitting speech by
Governor Stuart. Governor Stuart also presented the shaft to the National government,
and it was accepted by General A. L. Mills as a special representative of the United
The program was elaborate, and included addresses by the following:
Col. J. D. Walker, the Rev. J. W. Sayers. chaplain, of the department of Pennsyl
vania G. A. R.; Governor W. W. Kitchin of North Carolina; United States Senator Lee
S. Overman of North Carolina; Lieutenant Governor Robert S. Murphy, Mayor A. L.
Smoot, of Salisbury, Adjutant General Thomas T. Stewart, Captain Louis R. Fortescue,
of Philadelphia; Brigadier General A. S. Mills, of the regular army; Brigadier General
Harry White of Indiana county.
In the course of his speech before the unveiling Lieutenant Governor Murphy said:
"Today we commemorate in appropriate stone those who cheerfully surrendered life
upon the altar of their country. Around and about us lie men of Pennsylvania and of
other states soldiers, loyal and true. The memory of their sufferings and sorrows will
never be forgotten by those who love manhood and revere courage. To those who died
here was given the supreme privilege of contributing in the highest degree to the preser-
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
vation of the republic. This memorial typifies the feelings that animate the great Com
monwealth of Pennsylvania, and it also testifies to the appreciation which all feel for
those who gave the last full measure of devotion to their country."
Miss Helen II. Walker, daughter of Col. James D. Walker, of Pittsburgh, unveiled
the monument. Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald, of Pittsburgh, "Comrade Bob " sang several
The memorial stands fortytwo feet high. It is near the entrance of the National
cemetery here, overlooking the site of the old Confederate prison. It is quadrilateral
arch of a design similar to the Gettysburg memorial dedicated last September, but
much smaller, on top a bronze figure of an emacinated, ragged Union prisoner.
The dedication was witnessed by many survivors of the old prison, brought here at the
expense of the State. After the ceremonies, Senator Overman entertained the visitors at
a reception at his home here.
The receiving line included Senator and Mrs. Overman, Governor Stuart Governor
Kltchln, Lieutenant Governor Murphy, Walter Murpby, of Salisbury; Brigadier General
Carl E. A. Woodruff, United States army, retired, of Baloigh.
SHAFT UNVEILED WITH CEREMONIES.
MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN SALISBURY PRISON is DEDICA
TED GOVERNOR STUART PRESENT LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR
ROBERT S. MURPHY MAKES MASTERLY ADDRESS.
Salisbury, N. C., Nov. 1C. The state memorial erected in the Salisbury Federal
Cemetery in honor of the 2,500 soldiers of Pennsylvania who died in the Confederate
prison at Salisbury during the years of 18G1-1865, was dedicated with imposing cere
monies this afternoon. Governor Edwin S. Stuart of Pennsylvania, his staff, a company
of Federal soldiers and many survivors of the Civil war were welcomed to North Carolina
by Governor W. W. Kitchiu, assisted by state officials and residents of this city.
The monument which was erected at a cost of $20,000 was presented to Pennsylvania
by Major Louis R. Fortescue of Philadelphia and was accepted by Governor Stuart.
Governor Stuart also presented the shaft to the national government, and it was ac
cepted by Gtueral W. S. Mills as a special representative of the United States. The
monument was unveiled by Miss Helen H. Walker, a daughter of Col. James D. Walker of
DISTINGUISHED VISITORS PRESENT.
The distinguished visitors arrived several hours late in a special train of ten cars.
They were escorted to the Empire Hotel by a committee of citizens in automobiles and
carriages, and Governors Stuart and Kitchen exchanged most cordial greetings. They
were introduced by Senator Lee S. Overman of Salisbury.
The monument commission left the hotel for the cemetery at 2.15. The procession
was a large one, led by the Salisbury Baud, a company of artillery, Pennsylvania
survivors and Salisbury Confederate veterans, the governors with their parties and ladies,
city officials, committees of citizens and prominent citizens in automobiles. Senator Over
man and Governors Stuart and Kitchen rode together. Oo nearly two hundred survivors
present the majority had been prisoners at Salisbury during the war.
WELCOME BY GOVERNOR KITCHIN.
Governor Kitchin s address of welcome in behalf of North Carolina was a magnificent
one. The speech of Lieutenant Governor Robert S. Murphy, who responded, was a
beautiful tribute. Mayor A. L. Smoot of Salisbury made an admirable address in be
half of the city, and Senator Overman followed with a thrilling address which won the
hearts of the Pennsylvanians who were present.
Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald sang several charming soprano solos, which was beautifully
rendered. She was accompanied by Miss Sylvia Rosensteel. Major Fortescue tendered a
tribute to Governor Stuart in his presentation speech. Miss Walker then unveiled the monu
ment and "The Star Spangled Banner" and "God Be With You" were sung. Fully two
thousand persons witnessed the unveiling. Senator and Mrs. Overman tendered a re
ception at their home following the ceremonies.
BLUE AND GRAY UNITED.
The day was an eventful one, and fully typified the fact that the North and South
and the Blue and Gray are becoming more closely knit together. Salisbury was the site
of the old Confederate prison and arsenal, and after forty-six years some places are still
to be recognized. A souvenir cotton ball was given each visitor and the Pennsylvania
party left in their special shortly after nine o clock last night. Pittsburgh Gazette
20 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL ERECTED BY THE STATE OF
PENNNSYLVANIA IN THE NATIONAL CEMETERY,
SALISBURY, NORTH CAROLINA.
To the Memory of Her Old Soldiers Who Died In the Confederate Prison at Salisbury.
North Carolina, During the Years 1861 to 1863.
Invocation, Rev. j. w. Sayers.
Chaplain Department of Penna. G. A. R.
Address of Welcome, Hon. W. W. Kitchen,
Governor State of North Carolina.
Response, Hon. Robert S. Murphy,
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania.
Song Lorona, Soprano, Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald ("Comrade Bob,")
Accompanist Miss Sylvia Rosensteel.
Address , Hon. A. L. Snioot ,
Mayor of the City of Salisbury, N. C.
Response, General Thomas J. Stewart,
Adjutant General State of Pennsylvania.
Song Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean "Comrade Bob,"
Address , Hon. Lee S. Overman ,
U. S. Senator, North Carolina.
Introductory Hon. James D. Walker,
President of Commission.
Tender of Memorial to Hon. Edwin S. Stuart, Gov. of Pennsylvania,
Captain Louis R. Fortescue,
Signal Corps U. S. Volunteers.
Unveiling of Memorial Miss Helen II. Walker.
Response and Tender of Memorial to the United States Hon. Edwin S. Stuart,
Governor of Pennsylvania.
Song Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Eoys are Marching, "Comrade Bob."
Acceptance of Memorial, Brigadier General A. L. Mills,
U. S. Army.
Song Star Spangled Banner "Comrade Bob."
Oration Brevet Brigadier General Harry White,
U. S. Volunteers.
Song God be with You till we Meet Again "Comrade Bob."
Benediction Rev. W. B. Duttera,
Salisbury, N. C.
(Wednesday, November Sixteenth, Nineteen Ten.)
EXERCISES incident to the Dedication of the Memorial erected in the
National Cemetery at Salisbury, North Carolina, Wednesday, Nov.
10, 1010, by the State of Pennsylvania to the memory of her Sol
diers who died while confined in the Confederate Prison at that place, 1801-
1805, Hon. James D. Walker presiding.
PRES. J. D. WALKER: Comrades, gentlemen, ladies and friends, the
exercises upon this occasion will be opened with an invocation to our God by
the Rev. J. W. Sayers, Chaplain of the Department of Pennsylvania, Grand
Army of the Republic.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 27
Chaplain J. W. Sayers, D. D., Department of Pennsylvania, G. A. R.
Our heavenly Father, we thank Thee that Thou hast permitted us to see
this hour. We pray Thee that Thou wilt grant Thy blessing to rest upon all
that have gathered here.
We thank Thee for Thy sovereign care and protection in that, in the days
that were shadowed with trouble Thou didst lead us, and gavest Thy strength
when the burden was heavy upon us, and gavest us courage and guidance,
so that, after the conflict, we have come to these days of peace.
We thank Thee that the wrath of war has been stilled that brother no
longer strives against brother: that, once again, we have one country and
May Thy blessing be upon us as a people that we may be Thy people, true
and righteous in all our ways; tender and patient in our charity, though
resolute for the right ; careful more for the down-trodden than for ourselves :
eager to forward the interests of every citizen throughout the land ; so that
our country may be indeed one country from the rivers to the sea, from
the mountains to the plains.
W T e pray Thee to make our memories steadfast that we may never
forget the generous sacrifices made for our country. May our dead be en
shrined in our hearts! May their graves be the alters of our grateful and
reverential patriotism !
And now, O God, bless Thou, this memorial: Pless it, O God, in honor
of mothers who bade their sons to brave deeds. In honor of wives who
wept for husbands who should never come back again ; In honor of children
whose heritage is their fallen fathers heroic names; In honor of men and
women who ministered to the hurt and dying. But, chiefly, O God, in
honor of men who counted not their lives dear when it heir country needed
them: of those alike who sleep beside the dust of their kindred, or under
the salt sea, or in nameless graves, where only thine angels stand senti
nel till the reveille of the resurrection morning. Protect it, and let it en
dure, and unto the latest generation, may its influence be for the education
of the citizen for the honor of civil life, for the advancement of -the nation,
for the blessing of humanity, and for the furtherance of the Holy Kingdom.
Hear us, O our God. We ask in the name of Him who made proof of
the dignity and who consecrated the power of sacrifice in His blessed life
and death, even in the name of Jesus Christ, the great Captain of our sal
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: To us who have traveled so many miles
from our grand old State, it surely is a pleasure to be met and welcomed
by the Governor of the old North State. Comrades, permit me to present
to you the Hon. W. W. Kitchin, Governor of the State of North Carolina.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
ADDRESS OF HON. W. W. K1TCH1N.
YOUR excellency, Governor Stuart, other officials and citizens of Penn
sylvania, and representatives of the United States:
In the name of the people of North Carolina, I gladly welcome you to
this State. Your journey has been pleasant. May your visit be happy.
You come to honor the soldiers of 61. In honoring the dead, you honor
yourselves and the Republic for which they fought. They and their brave
comrades by sacrifice and cournge, made your pilgrimage hither easy and
pleasant, while their pilgrimage to the South was difficult and bitter. In
the 60 s their army required four years and four thousand miles of travel be
set by danger and death to go from Washington to Richmond, but, my
fellow countrymen, they made the trip, where none but our fellow Ameri
cans could have succeeded. Then we extended our arms to resist your hos
tile march , and now we extend our hearts to encourage your peaceful invasion
Then, realizing that you could not be prosperous and happy without us you
fought to prevent our separation, while we thought we could be prosperous
and happy without you. We all now realize that both sections are prosperous
and happy with each other, and with the united energies resources, courage,
and patriotism of the North and South our Republic is the mightiest,
wealthiest, and most triumphant country the sons of men ever served.
The State that furnished more slain in battle and a greater proportion of
her white population as soldiers than any other state of the Confederacy,
this day rejoices to have in her borders the distinguished representatives of
the Union State on whose soil was fought the greatest conflict of that ever
memorable struggle the conflict that decided the destiny of the continent.
No great people ever built monuments to unworthy causes or unworthy
men, and from Maine to Texas marble and granite and bronze point sky
ward in memory and in honor of American valor, patriotism, and sacrifice.
What matters it whether they commemorate Northern or Southern heroism,
whether Lee or Grant, whether blue or gray? They all typify noble, sin
cere, brave American impluse, spirit, endurance, devotion to duty, love of
country, and fidelity to faith the highest qualities of a great people.
These have the sanction of history and the reverence of mankind. What
matters it now that we fought our brothers in the days of childhood? What
matters it now that a half century ago our states fought with the passion
of mortal combat, if they but fought like men, if they but won immortal re
nown, if they but had the admiration of the world in the manner, energy
and spirit of the contest? The Red Rose and the White Rose are no longer
antagonistic. Our republic is more harmonious and more united in the
bonds of commerce, interest, mutual esteem and confidence than in the
days of Washington, Jefferson and Adams, than when Webster, Clay and
Calhoun were its master spirits. In the progressive, developing currents of
fifty years the issues of bitterness and the things of passion and hate, have
disappeared benearh the ever advancing wave of public thought and are
cherished no longer by the patriotic and the brave, while the deeds of glory,
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 29
the acts that elevate and bless, the things that merit admiration, survive
and increase the ties that hind the hearts of men to our common country.
Pennsylvanians, your monument stands in no enemy s country. It stands
in one of Carolina s best cities among your friends, who rejoice that you are
displaying the highest sentiment and performing a sacred duty in perpetuat
ing the memory of your heroes, and in proclaiming in sympathetic eloquence
their virtuous consecration to the Union. We know that you approve the
monument standing in yonder street erected by the love of our great people
in honor of our noble dead in a cause we lost as we approve this monu
ment erected by the love of a great people to noble dead in a cause you won,
both emblematic of civilized man s unconquerable affection and immeasurable
regard for those who risk their all for principle and for it yield up their lives,
the supremest test of loyalty. Monuments furnish feeble appreciation of the
past but vast inspiration for the future, therefore, let them multiply in the
land North and South and thereby improve the citizenship of our wonderful
Your Excellency, as we were worthy of each other s steel in war, we
are worthy of each other s friendship in peace, and this friendship we give
unstintedly and without reserve. Again I extend the glad hand to Pennsyl
vania s Governor and his companions, again I wish for you and yours pleas
ure and success on this patriotic occasion, for Tarheels, generous and true,
rejoice with you in this day s exercises. I assure you that the stranger
never touched a friendlier hand, and Columbia never knew a truer love than
"Stoop hither angels from the skies.
There is no holier spot of ground
Than where" undaunted "valor lies
By mourning" country "crowned."
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: To you Pennsylvaniaus Hon. Robert S.
Murphy is too well known to require an introduction, but I wish to in
form our friends who do not know him that he is the Lieutenant Governor of
Pennsylvania, and he will reply to the beautiful and touching words of wel
come of Governor Kitchin.
ADDRESS OF HON. ROBERT S. MURPHY.
LANGUAGE fails upon this occasion to express properly the deep ap
preciation we all feel for the brilliant and eloquent welcome extended
to us by your distinguished Governor. His words of splendid tribute
to those who died here and to the bravery of the men in blue, who with
their blood maintained the integrity of the Union, is only matched by our
high esteem for the unflinching devotion of those soldiers who gave to the
army of Northern Virginia the laurel of imperishable renown. To say that
there was anything but sincere belief upon the part of those contending on
both sides in the great Civil War in the righteousness of their cause is an
insult to the honesty of the intelligent and the brave, who risked and lost
30 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
their all in support of their conviction of right. And mindful of that spirit,
with the memories of the great strife rapidly losing substance and form
under the passing of the years, everyone, I think, realizes that the problems
confronting us as a nation cannot be solved through the discussion of issues
long ago determined upon t he battlefield, but only by the exercise of the high
est qualities of American manhood and statesmanship.
The great future stands before us, beckoning with generous hand. In the
spirit that is found in the dying words of the great Jackson, who was
stricken at Chancellorsville "Let us cross the river and rest in ihe shade of
In the great heart of the North there is no malice, no hatred; nothing
but generous fraternal regard and regret for what seemed to be imperative
necessity. Her eyes turn with appreciation to the Carolinas. To this
land noted for its hospitality and as the home of a courageous and an
energetic people. To this land with a climate inferior to none ; with a soil
fertile in the highest degree, where cotton blooms and fragrant tobacco
grows, in answer to the persuasive power of sunshine warm and tender. We
appreciate the beauties of nature and the material benefits to be found in
this fruitful portion of the Republic, and we come here, not as strangers,
for in the veins of Pennsylvania and the Carolinas courses the same rich red
blood. We come then to those who have been associated with us in all that
is high and noble in a notable and heroic past, and who, with us, are
traveling to a destiny that is common to all.
I have said that we come here, not as strangers, and I repeat it in all
sincerity. We are standing to-day in a region of country whose historic
past is the common heritage of all. Here was first heard the notes of the
Marseillaise of the Revolution of 1776 through the medium of the Mecklen
burg resolutions. Here upon the Alamance was heard the opening gun that
shouted defiance to kingly power. In yonder Carolina the conqueror of
Burgoj^ne at Saratoga went down to overwhelming defeat at Camden. Hope
and courage was again restored by the brilliant victory of Daniel Morgan at
the famous Cowpens.
The very existence of American authority and control in the Carolinas
was determined by that remarkable soldier, Nathaniel Greene, at Guilford
Courthouse. His drawn battle was a victory of the highest importance to
the Patriot cause. Had he suffered defeat the contest would have been over
in the Southland. His wisdom and military genius foiled the efforts of
Cornwallis to subjugate the Carolinas in the interest of King George. Sus
tained and supported by the patriots of both colonies, he forced Cornwallis
to surrender place after place and to finally retreat. In place of the King s
authority he substituted that of the Continental Congress in the interest of
liberty and independence, and to that great work we are largely indebted
today for the liberty which we now enjoy and for all those treasures which
enrich our National life. The names of Marion, of Sumter, and of Pickens
are as dear to us of the North as any that decorate the pages of history
splendid patriots, brilliant soldiers, accomplished leaders of the Light Cav
alry of the Carolinas, their deeds and triumphs contributed much to our
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 31
final success, and their fame and patriotism will ever be revered by a grate
ful countrj .
We cannot forget that in connection with these mighty events that pre
liminary contest which in many respects was the most unique and ex
traordinary conflict ever fought upon American soil. When we speak of it
we think of the "over-mountain men," and rising before our eyes appear the
names of Shelby, of Seiver, of Campbell, of MacDowell, and of Cleveland,
who with their followers, inspired by patriotism and excited to the highest
point by the many atrocities committed by the Loyalists upon the Patriots,
finally joined together and pursuing Ferguson, the favorite officer of Corn-
wallis, finally found him resting with his command upon the crest of King s
Mountain. The fight was fierce, bloody and brilliant, but never in doubt.
American loyalty and American patriotism never won a greater victory than
in the defeat of the British upon that famous mountain, and in the death of
Ferguson, the accomplished officer of the King. That triumph rescued the
Patriots from the depth of absolute despair. It introduced the spirit of con
fidence, it brought about a unity of feeling and a combination of patriotic
forces that preserved the Carolinas to the control of patriotic hands until
the great conflict between Cornwallis and Greene had finally terminated in
Independence came after the prolonged struggle and peace prevailed until
the thunders of the guns of 1812 were heard again. From that point in our
history stretches a long period to our triumphant conflict with Mexico. And
from that time when our arms were crowned with success, we enjoyed an
era of uninterrupted peace until we became embroiled in civil strife North
against South, South against North.
One of the incidents growing out of that frightful conflict summons us here
today. We come bore, in a spirit of tenderness and love, to pay the just
tribute of a great Commonwealth to her sons who perished on this soil and
who perished under circumstances that will ever excite the tenderest emo
tions of the human heart. For them it was not given to die upon the bat
tlefield in the presence of a brave and courageous enemy and beneath the
waving folds of the flag they loved; to them it was not given to surrender
life in the full possession of their strength and under circumstances that ex
cite in behalf of the country one loves, the noblest impulses of the human
heart; to them it was not given in their dying moments to be surrounded
by companions and friends, or encouraged by the stirring music of the
bugle and the shouts of triumph ; to them it was not given to be stimulated
by the belief that their sacrifices would be appreciated by their countrymen,
and that long afterward their bravery and noble conduct would be the sub
ject of admiration. But it was their misfortune to come, in the course of a
great conflict, prisoners of war, and to my mind no greater misfortune can
come to any soldier who follows the flag than that which came to these men.
It was their misfortune to be confined within the limits of the military prison
which formerly stood upon this ground. A place which all authorities agree,
where men even under favorable circumstances, find it extremely difficult to
retain the qualities of manhood and maintain the courage of one s soul
82 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
a captivity which practically meant death and where exchange or liberty
seemed almost out of the question. Yet, those men bore up unflinchingly
against insidious disease, against privation of the most painful character,
and unfalteringly bore the burden imposed upon them as soldiers of the
great republic. Devoid of regret, and free of fear, they gave up their lives
and sank into unknown graves in order that we might live.
Today we commemorate in appropriate stone those who cheerfully sur
rendered life upon the altar of their country. Around about us lie men of
Pennsylvania and of other states soldiers, loyal and true. The memory of
their sufferings and sorrows will never be forgotten by those who love man
hood and revere courage. To those who died here was given the supreme
privilege of contributing in the highest degree to the preservation of the
Republic. This memorial typifies the feelings that animate the great Com
monwealth of Pennsylvania, and it also testifies to the appreciation which all
feel for those who gave their last full measure of devotion to their country.
May it remain for all time as a living sample to generations yet to come of
the constancy and devotion that has made us a nation among the nations of
From the sacrifices of those who lie here and upon the numberless battle
fields of the Republic this great Union of indivisible states has been made
possible. The thought of country, I believe, is uppermost in the mind of
every patriotic citizen to-daj 7 . Among the memories of the past there is
nothing more grateful to the mind of the true patriot than the recollection
of the contest that gave to us that great body of soldiers from the North and
the South who stood by the side of the great LaFayette and the mighty
Washington. Let it ever be remembered that in the hour of severest trial
the Colonies stood together as one man ; the soldiers of Virginia, of Georgia,
and of the Carolinas were united with those of Massachusetts, of New York
and of Pennsylvania at Valley Forge and at Yorktown names dear to
every American ; occasions that excite the noblest impulses and bid us walk
forward arm in arm together to the destiny which will be unfolded in the
future. An unavoidable conflict turned us one from the other. All that
need be remembered of that chaotic event are the bravery and courage of
the men on both sides who, confident in their cause and executing the right
as they believed God had given them to see the right, furnished to the
world an example of heroism and devotion which has placed the fame of the
American soldier on the topmost round of fame.
Step by step we have advanced to a place in the front rank among the
nations. The greatest triumphs in science and trade are open to view. We
are witnesses to an increase of population and Co a commercial progress un-
equaled by the records of time. We are living in an age of intelligence and
of happiness that passeth the understanding of all statesmen. Nowhere can
be seen in the known world a nation of so many millions enjoying so many
advantages and so much of the comforts of life than by our own people. But
with this wonderful condition comes increased responsibilities. The situa
tion demands the wisest statesmanship and the most resolute good faith.
In the great work before us all should participate. Our people must remain
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. M
contented and loyal and our government must ever retain its integrity
among the nations of the earth. Today the flag we love and which floats
over our reunited country is honored on every sea and respected in every
port. Peace and happiness and good will prevail within our walls.
Let us in this presence renew our devotion to our common country. Let
us gather increased inspiration from the memory of those whose privations
and sacrifices we to-day recall. Let us consecreate ourselves anew T to the
spirit of liberty, to the spirit of justice, to the spirit of nationalism upon
which the glory and greatness of this splendid country must ever and always
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: Mrs. J. Sharp McDonald of Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania a talented and accomplished lady, well and favorably known
by all the soldiers of Pennsylvania, accompanied by Miss Slyvia Rosensteel
of Pittsburgh, Pa., will favor us with a song, one that was a great favorite
with both armies during the war. The title is "Lorena."
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: The Hon. A. L. Smoot, Mayor of Salis
bury, N. C. , will deliver an address of welcome on behalf of the city of
ADDRESS OF WELCOME BY HON. A. L. SMOOT, MAYOR OF SAL
ISBURY, N. C.
MR. CHAIRMAN, His Excellency the Governor of Pennsylvania, Mem
bers of the Commission, Old Survivors, Ladies and Gentlemen:
You have come today from the home of your birth to dedicate a
memorial of marble and bronze to the memory of those who years ago left the
same beloved land, to wander into what was then an enemy s country, and
lay them down to die. They left at duty s call, and marching neath the
stars and stripes, for weary miles they trod their rough and rugged way.
where er superiors bade them go.
Their only cheer in those dread days the martial strains or bugle call;
their only aim to serve their country well; their fondest 1 hopes to soon re
turn, and tell to loved ones left behind of glorious conquest, and of fame
well earned through toil and strife and much of sacrifice.
Their warrior s dream was rudely shattered within yon prison walls, when
after sufferings untold, hunger undescribed , sickness beyond endurance,
their wasted forms were laid to rest beneath this green sward.
Tis well you come at this late day, to pay respect to those who merit
more than the living can give to them, who yielded up their lives, that a
nation riven through fratricidal strife might be united once again, to stay
united until time shall be no more.
But Esteemed Sirs, and old survivors, the glory of this historic event
shall not be yours alone. There comes to join with you in this good hour a
remnant of another army the army of Northern Virginia a remnant of
an amy that has made history equal to that of Waterloo or Ancient Thermo-
34 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
pylae a remnant of an army that left more comrades sleeping upon the
heights of Gettysburg, in your own Commonwealth, in unmarked graves,
than sleep today in this silent city of the dead a remnant, thank Heaven,
that has long since buried the bitterness of that strife and come today 10 ex
tend to you a welcome that knows no bounds.
And with them comes another army, descendants of immortal sires and
now enlisted under stars and stripes, where once streamed stars and bars,
They too have made hislory and were among the first to carry our nation s
flag to victory up the slopes of San Juan Hill. And others still in this vast
throng, the best of citizenship, the fairest and lovliest of women in all this
South Land, yea, and the children from our city schools have come to bid
you royal welcome, and join with you in dedicating this memorial, and at
the same time to erect another, which shall surpass in grandeur and be
more lasting than your bronze and stone. For we believe tis true, if
erected of marble, it will perish; if we build it of brass, time will efface it;
but if we construct it upon the fundamental principles of justice and virtue,
friendship and hospitality, in the fear of God and with love towards men,
Ave shall erect a memorial in the minds of all who come under its benign in
fluence, that will live forever and brighten all eternity.
And of these we would build it today, as we clasp glad hands across a
chasm of half a century and give you a cordial welcome.
The noble sentiments you utter in the words inscribed on bronze:
"The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania erects this monument to perpetuate
the memory of the dead, and not as a commemoration of victory/ strikes a
responsive chord within our hearts and we throw open wide our doors with
hospitality unbounded, with friendship unexcelled, with cordiality unre
strained and Iberality limited only by cirncurnstances and the time you have
allotted to remain in our midst.
Tis with genuine pleasure, in behalf of this citizenship, as a City Official,
I extend to you the keys of the city of Salisbury and bid you take full con
trol, as may suit your will and pleasure. These keys will admit you to
the best of all that is within our power to give. Our fondest aim shall be
to make you feel that the old Salisbury prison has become indeed a myth ,
that this cemetery is now but a trysting place, where lovers plight their
troth, and this memorial prepared as a tribute to valor, having now served
its purpose as such, hence forward shall remind us of a happy union of
those who were once enstranged, but are now forever reconciled.
Thrice welcome t o our city.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: The response to the cheering words of
welcome uttered by his Honor, the Mayor of Salisbury, will be made by a
Comrade known from ocean to ocean as an orator of no mean power and
loved and respected by all of his comrades. Allow me to present Gen.
Thomas J. Stewart, Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania, and
past National Commander, Grand Army of the Republic.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 35
ADDRESS OF GEN. THOMAS J. STEWART.
PEOPLE of North Carolina, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is a great honor
and one which 1 deeply appreciate, to be designated to represent my
comrades of the war, and the people of Pennsylvania assembled here,
in voicing their appreciation of your gracious welcome so eloquently ex
pressed by your distinguished Governor, and also by the Mayor of your
beautiful city. Your welcome is indeed most gracious and cordial. We
come joyously and gladly within the gates of the historic State of North Car
olina ; come to pay tribute , and to commemorate the valor and devotion to
duty of the sons of Pennsylvania in days now long gone, days when war,
cruel and relentless kept us far apart, days in which men in blue and men
in gray wrote with swords and bayonets dipped in blood the heroic chapters
of the nation s martial history.
Pennsylvania was not always welcome in North Carolina nor was North
Carolina always welcome in Pennsylvania. We were on opposite sides in
that mighty contest, the greatest war waged by men in all the tide of time.
We and you had hopes that were shattered, altars that were shivered, hearts
that were broken, enemies from 18(>1 to IStio, now friends.
Since the days our visit commemorates we and you have been marching
aw r ay from war, away from its fields of blood, its hospitals of pain, its
prisons of cruelty.
The seasons in their unceasing round have covered soldiers graves, North
and South, with sweet flo\vers, and moistened them with dewy tears, and
as we look out over this silent camping ground of our heroic dead, in this
far away southland, we recall the words of the poet so beautiful in tribute,
"Oh little mounds that mean so much,
We compass what you teach,
And our worst grossnoss feels the touch
Of your uplifting speech.
Yon thrill us with the thoughts that flow
Like eucharaistic wine,
And by our holy dead we know
That life is still divine."
This is a pilgrimage of peace. We have waited long perhaps, but its late
ness makes it all the more significant.
Today there is little of the bitterness of the strife, but there is much of
thankfulness for the blessings w r e enjoy. The gray are here with the blue.
conqueror and conquered, all full of gratitude for the safety in our homes,
the glory in our flag, the hope in the future so full of promise, and for the
glorious institutions and the mighty Republic that was saved by the soldiers
and sailors of the Union from the consuming flame of war.
As citizens of Pennsylvania we appreciate the warmth and cordiality of
your welcome, but amid the exceeding pleasure of this occasion there is a
feeling of sadness in the fact that all who wished to attend on this occasion
are not here. Many of the veteran soldiers are detained at home by the in
firmities of age, others by varied misfortunes of life, but I am sure, that
today in Pennsylvania, those who in the days of war were round about this
3G PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
place, and felt its pain and privation and trials, will in imagination fol
low this goodly assemblage throughout the ceremonies of the day, and I bring
you their kindly greeting for the cordial welcome and generous hospitality
you this day extend.
Many of the men in whose honor we are here to-day, have for these many
years been sleeping with those "whose bones are dust and whose swords are
rust," but who always attend in spirit form the re-unions and pilgrimages
of their comrades of the brave days of old, and they too will be glad to know
that today we are welcome within your gates.
This day, this CfM-euiony, this pilgrimage, will fall far short of its pur
pose, unless it shall strengthen the bond of unity between the people of
North Carolina and Pennsylvania, unless the tribute we pay to the valor
and devotion of the American soldier whether he wore the blue, or whether
he wore the gray, shall make and keep the children of the future as brave as
their fathers were in the past, serve to keep the men of the future free
from national error and make them in their day and time defenders of the
flag and of the unity of the Republic, thus keeping us one people with one
destiny, one hope, one country and all under one flag, and that our own Star
Honored Governor, Mr. Mayor, for all here, soldier and civilian, men and
women of Pennsylvania, and for the great Commonwealth whose sons and
daughters we are proud to be, I thank you for your generous hearty welcome
and for them all I express the wish and voice the prayer that this State and
its people may be prosperous, her homes happy, her people loving, her
fields be gardens of plenty, within her gates peace, and in this spirit and
this wish we salute the people of North Carolina.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: Comrade "Bob" will kindly favor us with
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: Comrades, indeed I am proud of the per
mission allowed me, to present to you a gentleman, of whom I can say, that
no owe outside of the State of Pennsylvania has contributed more towards
the successful arranging of our movement and reception in North Carolina
than him, and it is with feelings of the profundest gratitude that I present
to you, lion. Lee S. Overman, U. S. Senator from North Carolina.
ADDRESS BY HON. LEE S. OVERMAN.
IT is with the most profound regret that the Commission find themselves
unable to reproduce in full the loyal, patriotic and masterful address of
TJ. S. Senator Lee S. Overman of North Carolina, who, in response to
an unexpected call upon him by President Walker, stepped to the front, and
pointing to the stars and strips floating over his head, in part said, "Coun
trymen The men of North Carolina love that flag, and when our glorious
country needs defense, they will follow it to glory or to the grave, but you
must not be unsympathetic with us for hallowing that other flag that once
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 37
waved over this Southland. Gentlemen, our brave men followed it for four
long years, and saw it go down in an ocean of tears Forever. When the
calls for volunteers to the Spa ish- American War came, the responses from
North Carolina were so liberal that the Government could not make use of
all of them, but Gentlemen, Lieut. W. E. Shipp a North Carolinian, Ml on
San Juan Hill in defense of the flag, and the first American sacrifice in
that struggle was Ensign Worth Bagley, who wont to glory on the deck of
the Winslow, and friends they brought his body home to the widow of a
Confederate General. But we are all at home now ono great, grand, un
divided, indissoluble country, and we ll die fighting for it."
The Senator" appeared to have touched the keynote of the occasion, and
was cheered to tuV^cho.
The Commission is indebted to the Charlotte, North Carolina Observer for
the above extract. Editor.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER S CLOSING OF WELCOMES AND RE
ON behalf of the Salisbury Memorial Commission, and as President of
the same, to you Governor Kitchin, Mayor Srnoot and Senator
Overman, for your many kind, loving and cheering words of greeting
and welcome, to the "Old Johnnies" present, for their open-handed, cordial
and warm reception to the "Yanks," and to the ladies and citizens of Salis
bury for their constant attention, and unbounded hospitality extended to
our ladies, our guests, and ourselves, you have our thanks, and deep down
in the hearts of every Pennsylvanian here, there will be a remembrance for
years of the many courtesies received by them on this momentous, and his
torical occasion. Hoping that at some time in the near future we may have
an opportunity to repay you in kind, we now extend an invitation to you to
Come in the evening;
Come in the morning;
Come at all times;
Come without warning,
You are welcome.
ADDRESS OF JAMES D. WALKER, PRESIDENT OF THE COMMIS
SOLDIERS of Pennsylvania and friends of our Grand Old Common
wealth: It is a pleasure indeed to be with you here, on a place made
sacred by your sufferings, and on the scene of your trials, tribulations
and temptations, and of your Comrades who sacrificed their lives that thpse
United States, as a Nation, should forever exist.
Of the long months of agonizing anxiety, suffering and torture, endured
here by you men and your dead Comrades, much can be said, but little need
be. It will be enough to refer you to the Reports of the Surgeons of this
38 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Prison and to the reports forwarded to the Confederate Government by
officers of the Confederate Army, who, at different times, were ordered to
proceed to Salisbury and investigate conditions existing in the Prison at that
place, in response to repeated appeals made by citizens of North Carolina to
Governor Z. B. Vance, who were incensed and outraged at the inhuman
treatment of the Yankee Prisoners confined in this Prison.
Of these reports I have in my hand two or three and my only reason for
reading them to you is that the name of Zebulon P>. Vance is mentioned in
them in a manner that should ever endear his memory to the hearts of all
who were confined in this prison.
OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE UNION AND CONFED
SERIES II, Voi,. VIII. SERIAL No. 121.
State of North Carolina, Executive Department.
Raleigh, February 1, 1865.
Hon. J. A. Seddon. Secretary of War.
Dear Sir: I beg leave to call attention to the condition of the Federal prisoners of
war at Salisbury, N. C. Accounts reach me of the most distressing character in regard
to their suffering and destitution. I earnest y request you to have the matter inquired
into, and if in our power to relieve them that it be done. If they are willfully left to
suffer when we can avoid it, it would not only be a blot upon our humanity, but would
lay us open to a severe retaliation. I know how straitened our means are, however, and
will cast no blame upon any om- without further information.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Z. B. VANCE.
State of North Carolina. Executive Department.
Raleigh, February 1, 1865.
General Bradley T. Johnson, Salisbury, N. C.
Most distressing accounts reach me of the suffering and destitution of the Yankee
prisoners Minder your charge. If the half be true, it is disgraceful to our humanity and
will provoke severe retaliation. I hope, however, it is not so bad as represented; but
lest it be so, I hereby tender you any aid in my power to afford to make their con
dition more tolerable. I know the great scarcity of food which prevails, but shelter and
warmth can certainly be provided, and I can spare you some clothing if the Yankees
will deliver as much to North Carolina troops in Northern prisons. Tlease let me hear
Z. B. VANCE.
Salisbury, N. C. , February 17, 1865.
General S. Cooper,
Adjutant and Inspector General C. S. Army:
General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt at Charlotte on the 14th inst
of letter of instructions of February 10, from Col. R. H. Chilton, inclosing a com
munication from His Excellency the Governor of North Carolina to the Honorable Sec
retary of War, in regard to the suffering condition of the Federal prisoners at this
post, and directing me to make an immediate inspection of the prison and full report of
the subject. That they have not received the full amount of fuel due them during a
season of more than ordinarily inclemency I think is chargeable more probably to want
of energy on the part of the post quartermaster, Capt. J. M. Goodman, than to any
other cause. Both Major Gee and Major Morfit profess to consider the actual supply
sufficient, but in this I think they are mistaken.
A better plan would have been, failing to obtain a sufficient supply of tents, to have
constructed cabins of pine logs and shingles, for which the material was at hand in
abundance, and labor could have been furnished by the troops, or. if necessary, by de
tails of the prisoners themselves, working under guard. In this way the garrison who
guard the prisoners have been made comfortable; so misrht have been the prisoners. I
cannot consider it therefore, a matter of choice on their part, that at the time of my
inspection I found one-third of the latter burrowing like animals in holes under ground or
under buildings in the inclosure.
One of the most prinful features connected with the prison is the absence of adequate
provision or accommodation for the sick. For a period of nearly one month in December
40 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
and January the hospitals, I was told, were without straw. For this there is no
excuse. I am satisfied that straw could have been obtained in abundance at any time
the county (Rowan) being one of the largest wheat growing counties in the State and I
am assured by Capt. Crockford, inspector of field transportations at this point has been
in excess heretofore of the requirements of the post in January, when no straw was
furnished, he found thirty animals standing idle in Captain Goodman s stable, and
consequently ordered them to be turned over. All sorts of filth are allowed to be de
posited and remain anywhere and everywhere around the quarters, unsightly to the eye
and generating offesive odors, and in time doubtless, disease.
Major Gee, the prison commandant, as an officer, is deficient in administrative ability
but in point of vigilance, fidelity, and in everything that concerns the security of the
prison and safekeeping of the prisoners, leaves nothing to be desired.
I have the honor to be, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. \V. HALL,
Assistant Adjutant and Inspector General.
Adjutant and Inspector General s Office,
February 23, ISdt.
Respectfully submitted to Honorable Secretary of War.
This is a "report of inspection of prison at Salisbury, N. C." made in compliance
with instructions from this office and based on complaints made by Governor Vance, of
North Carolina. His excellency, the Governor only mentions in general terms that com
plaints of a distressing character had reached him of the destitute and suffering con
dition of the prisoners.
R. H. CIIILTON,
Assistant Adjutant and Inspector General.
All of the investigating officers report the conditions of this prison as in
tolerable ; the sufferings of the prisoners as indescribable, a disgrace to hu
manity, and suggest that measures for alleviating the same be taken and im
mediate relief furnished.
In spite of these appeals and official reports no relief was granted. On
the contrary, existing conditions continued, viz., the over-crowding of the
prisons, the insufficiency of and the kind of rations, fuel, shelter, medical
attention, clothing, hospital accommodation, water for drinking, culinary
and sanitary purposes and the total and absolute absence of any provision for
sanitary purposes. To such an extent was this matter neglected that In
spector General G. S. A. directs special attention to it in his report as un
sightly, offensive and disease breeding and the stench intolerable. Thus it
remained until the prison was destroyed.
Comrades, where I gifted with the language of that Master of French Lit
erature, Victor Hugo, my words would fail to adequately portray the agony
and suffering of the helpless prisoners of war confined within the wooden
walls of Salisbury prison.
And yet you and the heroic martyrs to principle who are interred here, in
the face of temptations stronger than the temptations of St. Anthony, re
mained steadfast and unswerving by the duty demanded of you by your coun
try. Daily facing death in a more fearful and horrible form than that of
any field of battle, firmly you stood in your oath of Allegiance to the United
States and Old Glory. With a devotion sublime, an unselfish patriotism, an
unflinching courage and a loyalty to duty, unsurpassed, you made a mo.st
brilliant page in the history of your country that will forever rebound to the
credit and glory of Pennsylvania.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 41
Pennsylvania has always been true to her soldiers, were they hungry she
fed them, were they naked she clothed them. In sickness and distress or
in prison she succored them, and when they returned to her bosom from
battle triumphantly, she generously provided for them and nobly protected
their off-spring. To her soldier dead, she paid magnificient tribute. From
Gettysburg in our own fair state, to Vicksburg on the banks of the Mis-
sissipi, from Chickamauga to Atlanta, from Shiloh to Anderson ville,
within and without her borders wherever her soldier dead lie, Pennsylvania
has honored their memory by stones, tablets, monuments and memorials of
everlasting marble, granite and bronze, and to honor the memory of her
dead who lie here she has brought you the remnant of her thousands who
were imprisoned here to participate in the dedicatory services of this, her
most chaste and beautiful tribute to the memory of any of her Sons, and
afford you a last opportunity to wreathe with laurel the resting places of
your departed comrades. Pennsylvania will ever honor their memory and
you survivors of Salisbury and soldiers of Pennsylvania she will ever pro
tect and care. All honor to that noble Mother of ours, the Grand Old Com
monwealth of Pennsylvania. To the patriotic sons of Pennsylvania, who
made it possible for you and me by our presence here today to contribute to
the honoring of the memory of our dead comrades, our thanks are clue.
As the presiding officer of these ceremonies, it becomes my pleasant
privilege to present to you one of your comrades, Capt. Louis R. Fortescue,
a brave and gallant officer of the Union Army, and who was confined for a
great many months as a prisoner of war in various Confederate Prisons and
a member of the Pennsylvania Salisbury Couimisison, will tender the mem
orial to the Governor of Pennsylvania.
TENDER OF MEMORIAL TO THE STATE OF PENN
SYLVANIA BY CAPT. LOUIS R. FORTESCUE,
A MEMBER OF THE COMMISSION.
YOUR Excellency, Governor Edwin S. Stuart and Staff, Comrades,
Ladies and Gentlemen: In pursuance of the Act of the Legislature of
Pennsylvania, approved the 13th day of June 1007, which provided
for the erection of a suitable monument in the National Cemetery at Salis
bury, N. C., to commemorate the heroism, sacrifices and patriotism of the
Pennsylvania Soldiers of the Union Armies of the War of the Rebellion,
who died in the Salisbury Military Prison while confined there as prisoners
of war, I have the honor of presenting to you, governor of our much loved
Commonwealth, on behalf of the Commission you were pleased to designate
for this duty, and of which I am a member, this beautiful memorial which
has been constructed under the immediate supervision of your commission.
Of your Commission of five, all had been prisoners of war, two at An-
dersonville, Ga., the others at various places. During my twenty months
imprisonment, dating from the battle of Gettysburg. I had been in various
military prisons in five of the Southern States, but never at Salisbury ex
cept to pass through here under guard while being conveyed farther South,
Gen. Harry White being the only member of our Commission who was con
Our Commission has indeed been unfortunate in the loss of some of its
members. There are events occurring all around us, day by day. which are
so eloquent in themselves that no words that fall from human lips ca.-i add
to the power with which they touch our hearts and move our sympathies.
Death is one of these. Humanity never felt an eloquence like that which his
silent presence inspires. lie hns come to us with noisless tread and unseen
hand and removed to his kingdom, two loved and honored companions of this
Commission when almost on the eve of the completion of their work.
Col. Ezra II. Ripple of Scranton and Capt. William IT. Bricker of Car
lisle. Having lived in an age stirring in events, life s fitful fever, with
them, is over. They sleep the sleep of the blessed. Colonel Hippie near
his loved homestead. Captain Bricker in sight of his Nation s Capital
where he had witnessed many exciting occasions so momentous in our coun
try s history. Their labors are ended, their work is finished, their records
on earth made up, but never can their memory fade from our minds while
the recollections of past association shall continue to be an attribute of affec
( 43 )
44 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Brave soldiers, dear comrades farewell. Wherever thy immortal spirit
rest in the great universe of God, may his light and love shine upon you.
The work you see before you was executed by Mr. Carroll J. Clark of
Americus, Ga., and was fully completed in compliance with the terms of the
contract on November 1st last. Perfect in detail and of marked solidity
may it ever be an incentive to patriotism to the youth of our laud and an
encouragement and an inspiration to pure and noble deeds.
It represents a large following. So large indeed as to seem almost in
Eleven thousand, seven hundred soldiers of the Union Armies who died
in this prison, lie buried in eighteen trenches near this monument.
There was no burial record ever found of this prison, and there was noth
ing to mark the individual resting place of any soldier. A hospital record
was kept of those who died in the hospital and the name of 3,504 are re
If the came ratio prevailed throughout the prison as in the hospital, then
2,457 Pennsylvanians gave up their lives in this prison. No other prison or
battlefield of the Civil War records so great a number from our State.
It had pleased the God of bidden heroes to lay them in unmarked ground
that a whole nation might claim their burial place and of each of whom it
may indeed be said, as is written of the chosen Prophet of God, "That no
man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day."
Little may it signify to them, but much to us that their memory should be
sanctified by some enduring record. Therefore, in their honor, and in
memory of their devotion to their Country a grateful Commonwealth renders
Here in the camp of death.
No sound their slumber breaks,
There is no fevered breath
Nor wound that bleeds and aches.
All is repose and peace
Untrampled lies the sod
The shouts of battle have ceased,
It is the truce of God.
At an appropriate period of the address of Capt. Louis R. Fortescue, the
memorial was unveiled by Miss Helen H. Walker, the daughter of Colonel
James I). Walker, President of the Commision.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: North Carolinians are a proud people,
proud of their state, proud of their people and proud of their record, but
not more so than Pennsylvanians are of their State, their people and their
record, and there is no one person or thing that the people of Pennsylvania
are more proud of than their handsome, scholarly Governor Edwin S.
Stuart, who will for the State of Pennsylvania, accept the memorial and
place it in the care of the United States.
Miss Helen H. Walker, who Unveiled the Memorial.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 45
ADDRESS BY GOV. EDWIN S. STUART.
THE absence of a stenographer at the dedication ceremonies was very
much regretted, it preventing us from inserting the masterly, patriotic
and scholarly impromptu address of Governor Edwin S. Stuart in ac
cepting the memorial for the State of Pennsylvania and transferring it to
the custody of the United States.
It was a field day of oratory and of all the speakers that addressed the
assembly, no one was more happily and enthusiastically received than the
handsome, stalwart Governor of Pennsylvania. The reputation of Pennsyl
vania s sons, suffered none at his hands, and in no wise was it dimmed or
lessened by him; only additional lustre added laurels to the fame of Pennsyl
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: Comrade "Bob" will kindly favor us with
"Tramp, tramp, tramp, the boys are Marching."
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: To accept this memorial for the U. S.
Government , an assignment more satisfactory to the Commission could not be
made, and we feel that we are specially honored by the presence here today
of General A. L. Mills, Commander of the Department of the Gulf, U. S.
ALDRESS BY GEN. A. L. MILLS.
GOVERNOR Stuart, Governor Kitchin, Mr. Chairman and Meinuers of
the Pennsylvania-Salisbury Memorial Commission, Veterans of the
Blue and the Gray, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Honorable Secretary
of War, who is the executive officer charged under the law with the supervi
sion and control of our national cemeteries, having designated me to repre
sent him at these ceremonies, I have the honor and great pleasure of accept
ing for the Honorable Secretary of War this enduring memorial of granite
and bronze to the memory of these brave soldiers of Pennsylvania whose lives
were given here for their country. Governor Stuart, with this acceptance
goes the assurance of the Secretary of War that the War Department will
suitably and tenderly care for this monument so long as it is charged with
this duty, preserving it not only as a memorial but as an enduring lesson to
foster in coming generations sentiments of patriotism and the obligations of
our citizens to our country.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: Comrade "Bob" will favor us with the
Star Spangled Banner, everybody rising and joining in the chorus.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: To the Pennsylvanians present no intro
duction of the orator of the day is necessary, for over fifty years, as student,
soldier, statesman and jurist, from the banks of the Delaware to the banks
of the Ohio, his name is a household word, as an officer of the Union Army
he spent many months in this and other Confederate prisons, proud I am in
deed, soldiers of the South and citizens of North Carolina to present to you
Gen. Harry White, a Pennsylvanian born and bred and a member of this
4<> PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
ORATION OF GEN. IIAIIRY WHITE.
COMRADES, Ladies, Fellow-citizens: Though late in the afternoon, this
cool season of the year, your reception has been so hearty and cordial
that I must recall a little occurrence which the soldiers w r ill appre
ciate, of one night on the picket line in front of Petersburg, February,
1865, the lines then not far apart. I was Division Grand Officer of the
day and making the grand rounds. I heard a voice across the lines,
"Hello Yank," then a quick response, "llelio Johnny, what do you want?"
Then the inquiring reply, "Have you any oil . " To which the Yank replied,
"None here but plenty in camp." Then the Johnny, who by a coincidence
was of a North Carolina Regiment, cried out, "Anoint yourself and slide
over." Well, we, some of the same Yanks, have come over at last and
your smooth, oily words have anointed us with the oil of gladness. This,
perhaps, because you think we follow St. Paul, and love righteousness and
But no ceremony is vain or time misspent which gives right instruction
for human thought and correct direction for social duty. The time was
when the utterance, I am a Roman citzien was a motto to a devotion little
less sacred than Faith in the Cross. This time, this place, this occasion,
suggests that we all here are American citizens and the government that
makes us such gives greater opportunities, has a prouder history and im
poses more serious duties than any other ever organized by man. It is well
on occasions like this only to make utterances to which all can agree. We
are citizens of a Republic.
"Where Soverign law, the states collected will,
O er throngs and globes elate,
Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill."
From Aristides we learn, "Neither wars, theaters, porches nor sense
less equipage make states, but men, who are able to rely on themselves,"
The Tyro in political science reads in gestic lore of the Republics along the
Mediterranean and Adriatic and dwells on the story of the mother of
the Gracchii or of Leonidas at Thermopylae and his three hundred, and
gathers from them and kindred legends patriotic resolve. Such Republics,
however, were but cities, cantons, and their dependencies.
But those forty-one pilgrims who, Nov. lUliO, on William Brewster s
chest lid signed the agreement that, Having undertaken for the Glory of
God and advancement of the Christian Faith and honor of our King and
Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Vir
ginia, do solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God and one another,
covenant and combine ourselves into a civil body politic for our better or
dering and preservation and furtherance of the end aforesaid ; and by vir
tue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal laws, ordi
nances, acts, constitution and officers from time to time, as shall by
thought most convenient for the general good of the colonies, brought to the
new world the principles of civil and religious liberty which made the
foundation, in the wilderness of America of that Republic in which the
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 47
sun lengthens the day as it passes from -sea to sea and the birds of the air
find two climates in her north and her south, having, also, a great inland
sea running 2,000 miles through fifteen states, whose citizens speak one
language and are governed by homogenous laws.
When Paul Revere in April, 1775, took his midnight ride to give warn
ing at Lexington and Concord, the thirteen colonies, since states, had a
population of less than 3,000,000 of people, now, by the thirteenth census,
the United States proper has a population of 90,500,000 and a wealth of
revenues and resources practically, beyond computation. A power in the
world s affairs of conceded greatness, influence and example. To no sec
tion of the country does the name and fame of Washington belong, lie
knew no North and no South, but only the welfare of his whole Country,
and he was happiest in the noble simplicity of his life when his great work
"Such graves as bis are pilgrim shrines,
Shrines to no code or creed confined,"
and around them men from the Northland and men from the Southland,
touching elbows, can stand in brotherly love with patriotic devotion and
rejoice at the greatness, the peace and progress of their common country.
When the Revolution had ended in victory and established an independent
government, all the states united in adopting a constitution for stronger
and better government, which in its preamble clearly declares its great pur
pose. This constitution, Prof. Henry Sumner Maine, in his lectures at
Oxford University, recently, formally declared to be, "The most im
portant political document of modern times." This constitution, my coun
trymen, belongs, as well as the glorious achievements of the revolution, to
all sections of the Country ; to the South as well as to the North.
Pennsylvania with her Governor, as Chief Executive of the Common
wealth, with cabinet and staff, representing the dignity, patriotism and in
telligence of more than 7,000,000 of people, is here to honor the memory
of Pennsylvania soldiers buried in yonder graves and also to return greet
ings to the Commonwealth of North Carolina. On the invitation of Penn
sylvania there are here, also, many comrades who imprisoned with the dead
here survive the severities and harshness of prison life. The commission, all
of whom wore the blue, created by law to erect that monument to the mem
ory of the Pennsylvania soldiers buried here have also come, except two
of the original number, Col. K. II. Ripple and Captain W. H. Bricker, both
brave, faithful soldiers, who have died within the past year. Honor to
Pennsylvania, apart from special occasion or duty, always comes to North
Carolina with no hesitating step. These two states have much patriotic his
tory in common. While the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of
May 20, 1775 is not recognized officially and historically as the original
adopted by the American Congress, yet, the resolution "That we hereby de
clare ourselves a free and independent people and of right ought to be a sov
ereign and self-governing association under the control of no power other
48 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
than that of our God and the general government of Congress," adopted
there, is so in harmony with the Declaration of Independence Hall, that
Pennsylvania and North Carolina have so often stood together in patriotic
The name of John Penn, indeed, appears as one of the signers from
North Carolina to the Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776, and
he was appointed by Robert Morris to aid in collecting revenue for the new
Republic. It was in 1766 that two Philadelphia merchant vessels, the Lobbs
and Patience when seized by British authority because their clearance papers
had not the obnoxious stamps, were delivered at Washington by an uprising
of brave, determined, North Carolinians. It is a frank admission, indeed,
that Pennsylvania in 1722, when it put in practice the "Paper Money Loan
System," was instructed by the example of the Bills of Credit issued by
North Carolina in 1713, which was about the earliest issue of paper money
by any of the colonies. And, it is believed, when in 1749, James Davis
issued at Newbern the "North Carolina Gazette" he followed the example
of our Franklin, who had issued some years before "The Pennsylvania Gaz
William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight and Hugh Williamson, as the
North Carolina delegates in Philadelphia, promptly there signed the Con
stitution of the United States and soon after the State, by decisive vote,
following the example of Pennsylvania, adopted it. The man from North
Carolina visits Philadelphia and with uncovered heads stands in Inde
pendence Hall as at the Altar of American Liberty; the man from Pennsyl
vania stands before the Battle Monument at Kings Mountain and feels he
is on hallowed ground.
The visit and sojourn here of the authorities and citizens of Pennsylvania
is not to a foreign land or in an enemy s country, but Americans visiting
Americans in their own land and country. For a while, some years ago,
such a visit would not have received welcome hospitality here.
While early in 1861 the then Governor of North Carolina favored the
states seceding and joining the confederacy, yet the mass of people were
opposed to it, and January 28, 1861, voted against any convention for the
purpose. The advocates of secession predicted no war would follow and
ridiculed any thought of it. And it is narrated that one of its advocates,
if not in this very City of Salisbury, yet in this part of the State, de-
pricated the fear or apprehension of war and at one point in his address
sneeringly said of war, "Listen to me; spell the word, WAR, war, a
very small word of only three letters." A voice in the audience instantly
replied, "Hell has only four."
The great mass of this people hearkened to the pleadings of a distinguished
statesman of the South in his efforts to turn the people from the maelstrom
of secession and rebellion, as in public address he said in answer to the
sneer that the Northern people would not fight, "I plant myself on the in
flexible laws of human nature and the unvarying teaching of human ex
perience and warn you this day that no government half as great as this
Union can be dismembered, and in passion, except through blood. You
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 49
had as well expect the fierce lightning to rend the air and make no thunder
in its track as to expect peace to follow the throes of dissolving government.
I pass by the purile taunts at my devotion to the best interests of the peo
ple among whom I was born and reared * * * * and again tell you,
dissolve the Union and war will come. I cannot tell when, but it will
come and be to you a most unequal, fierce, vindictive and desolating war."
North Carolina was led unwillingly into such war. I am not an entire
stranger here nor to the evidences of that mad excitement that dragged this
State into the confederacy and coerced her into rebellion. With no resent
ment or unpleasant purpose to recall the bitter past, I may narrate,
briefly, some history of those crucial times to illustrate the truth of my
utterances. Let me however, assure you, my countrymen, that as a soldier
following the dear flag for nearly four years, I would not open or irritate
any of the healed or healing wounds of that war for the dissolution of this
Union. In common with all surviving soldiers of that time, I want peace
and contentment in my country in all its parts. In the angriest time of the
war, at the battle of Winchester, Va. , June 15, 1SG3, on the advance of
Lee s Army to Gettysburg, I fell into the hands of the enemy, the 9th
Louisiana Regiment, commonly called the "Tigers." All exchanges had
I said Lee s Army. It was, indeed, then a great army of Veterans, well
equipped and supplied, confident of victory, for after capture I was taken
through it, and heard all around, "We re going on to Washington." Less
than 5,000 of us Union soldiers were in the Shenandoah Valley to confront
Swell s Corps, the left of Lee s great Army. For three days we did the
best we could. That was June, 18G3. If in two weeks thereafter the suc
cess at Gettysburg and the surrender at Vicksburg had not come to re-
sanctify the 4th of July, Appomatox might never have occurred and the
fate of our now great Republic been uncertain.
After months in the Libby with varied experience, omitting details, on
Christmas Day, 1863, I was called from the other prisoners and under
guard, with peculiar experience sent to Salisbury, North Carolina, arriving
here at two o clock the morning of the 27th of December, 1S63. I was
soon put under special guard and to a cell in solitary confinement with a
constant sentinel at the door of that dark, contracted apartment, I paced
so often. I was later privately informed, by an officer of the prison, that I
was sent here with an order from Gen. Winder, which I repeat from mem
ory. "I send you Major White of the 07th Penn a Rcgt, an important
prisoner. You will deprive him of all valuables and put him in close and
solitary confinement and allow no one to speak to him but the officer of the
At this brief recital, the scenes, conditions, and thoughts, on arrival
here that midnight hour, December 27, 1863, unbidden, panorama-like
pass in review. I may be pardoned to pause here to improvise a reminis
cent utterance. Separated, indeed, exiled from all soldier or friendly com
rades clad in blue, fading and soiled from service, infested with annoying
50 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
inhabitants, known to all old soldiers, not now to be named to people in
clean and tidy attire, uncertain of the sentence accompanying or the fate
that awaited, consigned to and surrounded by war enemies who, naturally
thought me some bad man, some guilty malefactor and then the tramp of
the sentinel on his beat at the door of my solitary confinement continually
heard, the fortitude and discipline of the soldier life could hardly prevent
feelings of desolation and despair. 1 would draw the veil of oblivion over
But what a contrast here and now. The receding sun of this hour adds
beauty to the scene and reveals the cheerful, friendly faces cf this vast
audience which has given us so cordial, indeed, a royal North Carolina re
Leaving that bitter past behind I feel as if I had awakened from night
mare dreams. It is glorious to have awakened from those dark, depressing
dreams, indeed, real scenes of the past. Its gloom is gone as present events
arouse to the consciousness of a new and bright career, buoyant in hope,
rich in promise for the future of our restored country.
It is a bold leap by which our minds clear the depths between misery and
happiness. But to conclude the narration began to show conditions ; the
prison officials, through the intervention of a female, later discovered I
was not sent here as a criminal malefactor, but because of presumed promi
nence in Pennsylvania affairs, all of which appears in a quasi official state
ment of Judge On Id, Commissioner of Exchange at Richmond, my place of
solitary confinement was changed for the balance of the winter, 18(53-64, to
a small building near the headquarters, at the entrance of which a sentinel
was placed at every two hours relief. Of course, this was to keep me
from all hostilities in obedience to the Richmond Orders.
One day a precious episode occurred in the irksome weariness of my prison
life. Of this I here gladly speak. A most distinguished citizen of this com
munity, indeed, of this whole state, if not of the United States, was al
lowed to visit me in January or February, 18(54. The Hon. Nauthaniel
Boyden, an eminent lawyer and citizen of Salisbury. You, doubtless, all
knew him well, (here IT. S. Senator Overman, ou the platform, spoke up,
saying, "Yes, a distinguished lawyer and judge on our Supreme Bench.")
Thank you for the statement. He had been in Congress with Abraham Lin
coln, in 1847. Both Whigs of the time, they knew each other well and
were intimate friends. I may not detail in this formal address all the ex
tended interview. But he had canvassed the state against the seccession
movement. I could cite his narrations in confirmation of my belief and
statement that the masses of North Carolina were devoted to the Union
and not, at heart, in favor of secession. Mr. Boyden, as many hearing
me may know, was a most important factor in leading the people at that
election, January 28, 1861, to vote against joining the Confederacy. He
knew Mr. Lincoln well, his ability, integrity, sincerity and kindness of
heart, he assured the people of his faith in the utterances of the inaugural
address of the new President, in which he said, that his great and solemn
purpose was to preserve the Union and not interfere with the institutions
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 51
of the Southern States and that in their hands, the people of the threatening
states, was the momentous issue of Civil War. Having been born in the
North he told the people of this state, they were mistaken if they thought
the men of the North, in case of war, would not fight. But, continuing
he said, when Suinpter was tired on and 75,000 men called for at Washing
ton, the people went wild with excitement and alarm. lie knew then the
most terrible war of modern times had begun and believing, from blockading
and other war movements, families and people of his state would be deprived
of many conveniences and comforts he took the precaution, early, to gather
a supply of tea, coffee with other necessary home conveniences and clothing
for his household. And taking from his head a silk hat, said he, also, had
bought several hats, though they might not be of the latest style, yet, he
had them. Proceeding with his narration, he said that now, the people
around him had seen the truth of his prediction about a terrible war and
that the voters of his senatorial district, Itowan with other counties of the
district, had just elected him to the Senate of North Carolina to fill a
vacancy and wanted him to go up to Raleigh and help, if possible, to make
peace and smilliugly added, he was powerless to do that. Of course he was.
Mr. Boyden was, indeed, a wise man.
When in the late fall of 1804 I escaped, regained my liberty, and later
going through Washington to rejoin my command, below Petersburg, I saw
Mr. Lincoln, and told him of Mr. Boyden, when he immediately said, "Ah!
Nathaniel Boyden ! I knew him well and esteemed him highly. Tell me
what he says."
Of course, I related the prison interviews and the great President listened
Further reference to this visit to the President might be omitted, but as
an item of history, possibly, of some influence for some military movements,
it may interest. A Cabinet officer and General B. F. Butler we re present.
This in November 1864. Appomatox less than five months off. The un
rest in Western North Carolina was discussed with such information as I
could give, and Genera Stoneman, with whom after his unsucessful raid in
Georgia, in August 1804, I was in prison in Macon, and Charleston, S. C. ,
later in the winter of 1865 with a force from East Tennessee, invaded North
Carolina to give opportunity as I understood, to the Union sentiment to
rally for practical results. With Sherman, then, in the east, and Stoneman
in the West, North Carolina certainly felt the severities of that war the
majority of her people at first opposed.
It is, then, no exaggerated statement that in the early period of secession
agitation there was much similarity of attachment to the Union in this State
that existed in East Tennessee, and if North Carolina had co-operated with
East Tennessee I have always thought that the Civil War would have been
of short duration. But when May 20, 1801, North Carolina joined Virginia
and both went into the Confederacy and made Richmond its Capital, the
bloodiest bitterest war of modern times was inevitable. It had to be fought
to victory or defeat. Many still living here know, fdt and recall that sad,
52 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Many Southern people think or imagine the North did not feel the burdens
and distress of that war time. Let such thought be dismissed. Out of the
white population of, then, 27,000,000 in the North, 2,494,592 of the
average age of 2G years, were in the field; at least, two-fifths of those
subject to military duty in the whole North. Of these, 359,528 were killed
in battle or died of disease during the war. To this vast army Pennsylvania
sent 388,000 men, more than 40,000 of whom were killed in battle or died of
disease before the war ended, and many of them lie in unmarked and un
known graves. In yonder cemetery there lie 12,132 men who wore the blue
and left the comfort and plenty of their homes to fight for the Union. The
names of but 97 of them are marked on their graves, all others are marked
More than a million of men enlisted in the South to fight for secession.
Reliable records do not tell how many of them were killed or died in the
While North Carolina was late to join the Confederacy her soldiers made
a brave and formidable foe. We met some of them at Winchester. We may
not invidiously discriminate among them, but there was a great mortality
ac the Battle of Gettysburg among her soldiers. It is reliably reported the
26th North Carolina Regiment lost not less than 95 men killed out-right in
battle, while Pettigrew s and Daniel s North Carolina Brigades lost 800 men
killed and wounded there. In the history of the Count of Paris, it is
claimed these two brigades, in that battle lost more killed and wounded than
Picket s entire Division.
Standing here as on a pedestal of observation it is hard to realize the
magnitude of the conflict. Time has mellowed, indeed, dispelled the asper
ities of that fighting time. That fight had to come. I may not detail the
causes. On some things there was, indeed, an irrepressible conflict.
Through the crucible of war it has disappeared and it is instructive patriot
ism to stand about the graves of those who have died in the great battle to
settle the disputed questions that disturbed and ever would have disturbed
the peace of the Republic. The slogan cry, now everywhere, is the equality
of all men before the law. That is, that every man can be heard in de
fense of his rights, personal and property. It is the very rock of our po
litical truth. "Whosoever shall fall upon it shall be broken and upon who
soever it shall fall it will grind him to powder." There will never again
be such a war in this country.
Pennsylvania is here today with no hostile thought,
"The evil that men do, live after them,
The good is oft interred with their bones."
She has erected this monument to perpetuate the good deeds of her sons,
many of whom lie in yonder graves. How many the record does not say but
there are many. Pennsylvania has never been unmindful of her citizen
soldiers. They have been followed to the battle-fields and places of suffering
with the benedictions of the good and benevolent of the Commonwealth and
it is her crowning glory that during and after the war, she gathered the
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
helpless and destitute orphans of her dead soldiers, adopted, maintained
and educated them as her children, starting them panoplied and equipped for
the battle of life.
When the Pennsylvanians buried yonder died this was called the enemy s
country. You have patiently listened to me speaking much of North Caro
lina, also, some utterances about personal experiences; this, indeed, not to
excite your sympathies and interest, but because I had the experiences to
give to illustrate the conviction that Pennsylvania and North Carolina never
should have been and are not today enemies about the elementary principles
of our republic. We leave here our dead, buried, yonder, with no thought
that they lie in an enemy s country or in a foreign land.
When Aratus, that hero, soldier, statesman, after having sought to unite
the Greek states in a great independent nation, died in Aegium, the Achaens
wanted him buried there, by the Sicyons, for whom he had done so much,
declared burial anywhere but in their city was a calamity. The Delphian
Oracle was consulted to settle the dispute and answered,
"Sicyon, whom oft be rescued, Where you say,
Shall we the relics of Aratus lay
The soil that would not lightly o er him rest,
Or to be under him would feel opprest,
Were in the sight of Earth and seas and skies unblest."
There comes, then, the echo of this oracular and beautiful sentiment along
the corridors of centuries, let these American soldiers lie in North Carolina,
where they died.
PRESIDENT J. D. WALKER: The exercises of the day will close by
singing the hymn, God be with you till we meet again, led by comrade "Bob,"
and all join with her. Following the singing of the hymn, the benediction
will be offered by the Reverend W. B. Duttera of Salisbury, N. C.
BY CAPTAIN LOUIS R. FORTESCUE.
TO die in battle, falling at the front in a conflict worthy of one s life
strug.de, seems a fitting end to a soldier s earthly career, and there
are few but can anticipate that with a measure of restful satisfaction.
But to be disarmed and held a captive, and to lanquish on in inactivity with
an absolute knowledge that those in whose charge they have been placed,
aimed at their extermination, by a most malicious and infamous torture, is
a fate from which the mind recoils and which the bravest cannot contemplate
without a shudder.
The sufferings and endurance of prisoners of war, form a dark chapter in
the record of great military operations all along the latter centuries, and
commanders and governments are often more severly criticized for the
treatment of soldier prisoners than for murderous conduct in the field in the
most reletless warfare.
54 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
The treatment of Union prisoners by the so-called Confederate authorities
must in the light of history be considered the most cruel and inhuman known
among civilized people in modern times. In support of this there is abundant
testimony, not only among the officers and men who suffered long incarcera
tion, but the evidence of those of the medical fraternity who were designated
by their own goverment to examine the various conditions of the various
military prisons, but whose reports, amply confirming the barbarous treat
ment of the prisoners there, received little or no consideration at the hands
of those in authority.
Those captured in the earlier engagements of the war of the Rebellion
were in many instances paroled and released on the battle field at the close
of the engagement to be exchanged when a cartel should be agreed upon for
such exchanges, but the frequent interruptions or violations of the agreements
by the so-called Confederate authorities, from the flimsiest of prextexts, re
sulted in the retention by them of thousands of our soldiers who ultimately
died from the horrible conditions imposed upon them, and were buried within
sight of their places of imprisonment.
The prison at Salisbury, N. C., ranked well up with the deadly pen at
Anderson ville, of which much has been written, in the variety and excess
of its borrows, as well as in the number of its victims, the number of deaths
there being twelve thousand, one hundred and twelve.
A brick factory, four stories, 40 by 100 feet, with five buildings, formerly
used as boarding houses for the operatives, constituted the prisons at Salis
A board fence surrounding them, inclosed about five acres of ground. Prior
to 1864 comparatively few prisoners had been received here. In October of
that year ten thousand Union soldiers were sent to this point, crowding the
inclosure to its utmost capacity. The buildings were soon filled with the sick
and dying. Those who failed to obtain admission in these remained without
shelter other than one much worn sibley tent for each hundred men, and
were exposed to the rigors of the following winter. Nearly one-half of them
In November, 1804, the prisoners, driven to desperation by starvation
and torture, attemped to escape by forcing the guard, but a regiment, hap
pening at that moment to arrive by a train, the unarmed and emaciated
men were soon overpowered, the artillery and guards opening on them and
continuing the fire for some time after the wretched inmates had surrendered,
many of whom having been too weak to take an active part were begging for
The infamous John II. Gee commanded this prison. His beastly and
hellish nature reveled in the misery and suffering which surrounded him.
The customary dead line was established at a distance of ten feet from the
stockade, and here, as elsewhere, it was the trap which lured the un
suspecting victim to sudden death. The surface of the ground, on which this
prison was located was a red clay, which the heavy rains converted into
another "Slough of Despond." Water for the prisoners was brought from a
distance of half a mile in barrels.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 55
One of the few who survived the martyrdom of this prison, reached there,
with some others, on December (>, 1804. They found that no shelter was
provided, and for the first few nights, they slept on the ground. After a
little while they started to digging holes, using a case knife and half a
canteen. Holes were dug about two feet square and five feet deep and then
tunneled under about five feet. In these they slept at night and staid in
most of the day.
The rations were issued at odd times during the day. The divisions were
in charge of a Sergeant-Major, and the squads in charge of a Sergeant.
The regular ration was bread, rice and soup the bread being sometimes
made of corn meal, sometimes of corn meal and ground cobs, sometimes
from wheat and shoots, and often from a mixture of these. The rations
were cooked in houses inside of the stockade. They got occasionally about
three spoonfuls of molasses two or three times in three months, and oc-
cassionally a few small potatoes.
The quantity of wood issued to each squad, of about one hundred men,
was what one to seven men could carry once a day about fifteen rods. It
was broken up with railroad spikes. The first floor of the main building was
used as a hospital, but was totally inadequate for the wants of the prisoners
and badly furnished. Many of the prisoners were partly demented and all
were dirty, filthy and ragged.
The dead were carried out and deposited in what was termed the dead-
house. From thence they were taken in a cart about half a mile and buried
in trenches. From twenty to sixty bodies would be lying in the dead-house
in the morning. There was no day in the week, or hour in the day, from
S A. M. to 4 P. M. but that this dead-cart could be seen carrying the lifeless
forms of Union prisoners to their long resting place, with their bodies piled
one on the other, as market men pile hogs.
There is an expression on the face of the man who dies of starvation that
is heart rending to look upon. Never have 1 witnessed on any battle-field
anything that so horrified the senses, shocked the imagination or led the
mind to such diabolical thoughts towards the enemies of my country and
humanity, as the sight of these, my brother soldiers, thrown into that dead-
cart as nude as when born, and so covered with dirt that is was almost
impossible to tell a white from a black man.
The importance of a bountiful and constant supply of pure water to the
comfort and health of men assembled in large numbers cannot be over
estimated. Its absence is at all times, even under ordinary circumstances,
a fearful and certain source of disease and suffering. No stronger instance
of the appalling efr ects of such deprivation exists in the annals of human
affairs than is found in the history of the Southern Military prisons, notably
that at Salisbury.
The fearful accounts which all have read of the terrible effects of thirst in
siege and ship-wreck have their counterpart in the experience of the Union
prisoners, and on a scale seldom equaled in the magnitude of its horrors.
If there is a country in the world where facilities for the attainments of this
5G PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
great sanitary feature, the bountiful supply of pure water for camp, prison,
and hospital, exist beyond all others, it is between the Potomac and the Rio
Grande. It is a land of sparkling brooks, bubbling springs, and noble
rivers. No shadow of excuse can exist on the part of the southern authori
ties for a deprivation which even the instinct of man and brute seeks to avoid.
Yet among the sufferings and agonies of the rebel military prisons, there is
hardly one that cannot be traced to the want of the necessary supply of pure
water. The location of the Salisbury prison appears to have been made for
the purpose of avoiding a full supply of this most precious anxilliary to the
comfort and convenience of man by denying its use to the prisoners. Even
where wells, properly dug, would have increased the supply, it was pre
vented by the want of tools, which the authorities had the power, but re
fused to furnish, showing that this deprivation was intentional and willful.
The custom which prevails among the rebel captors and officers of robbing
the prisoners of their clothing at the time of capture rendered their destitution
in this respect truly deplorable during imprisonment. In the last two years
of the war it was an uncommon occurrence for any prisoner to be found with
an entire suit of clothing. In nearly every individual case the Union soldier
was robbed of some article of clothing, while in many instances he was
stripped to shirt and drawers, these constituting his only rainment.
At times, prisoners who had remained long in captivity were found ex
posed to all vicissitudes of climate and weather, entirely naked, while their
parched skin, first blistered by the scorching rays of the sun, had at last
assumed the hue and semblance of leather. To supply their pressing need
of clothing they were compelled to strip their bodies of their dead comrades,
frequently becoming infected with the disease of which they had died. This
destitution of clothing, where the prisoner was without shelter, was on one
of the most frightful causes of disease and death.
The entire absence of excuse for this destitution is found in the fact that
the rebel guards were well and comfortably clad. No record has been found
to show that the rebel authorities ever issued to a prisoner clothing from their
own stores, even during the winter months. Nor is this all. There is
abundant evidence to show that they not only took the clothing from the
person of the prisoner, but when blankets and clothing were sent by the
sanitary and Christian Commissions of the North, they were withheld from
the prisoners, wholly or in part, as the disposition of the Commandant
There can be no doubt that the prisoners would have been spared much
excruciating suffering, and the lives of many heroic men saved, had the dis-
distribution of clothing and blankets been faithfully carried out. At several
of th e prisons the arrival of such supplies was made known to the prisoners
by the rebel guards, who would appear upon their posts with the uniforms
and blankets fresh and new, bearing the stamp of the United States or of
the Sanitary Commission.
The diseases most prevalent at Salisbury were diarrhoea, typhoid fever
and scurvy, and to these may be added insanity and total blindness.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. 57
The long continued filthy and crowded condition here, with foul and in
sufficient water, the constant exposure to the burning sun and chilling dews,
with scant and insufficient clothing, and without shelter, the great scarcity
of fuel for warming and cooking purposes, the inferior quality and limited
quantity of food, the almost total absence of vegetable diet, together with
harsh personal treatment, causing great bodily suffering and mental anxiety,
all combined to induce and aggregate these diseases. It has been fully shown
that thousands of prisoners of war who were originally able-bodied men,
whose habits were good, whose minds were cultivated, and whose patriotism
was pure, were by a pre-arranged and zealous executed plan, deliberately
sacrificed by the introduction and carrying out of a system of privations,
hardships and cruelties without parallel in the history of civilized nations.
At this prison from September 1864 to February 1S65 (five months), the
condition was as follows:
Number of prisoners confined, 10,000
Deaths during that time, 5,000
Per cent, of mortality , .50
Here during its occupancy, 12,11- prisoners died. "My Squad," said a
soldier after his release, numbered one hundred men on the 6th of December
1864, and when we cnme out from there on the 22nd day of February, 1865,
we drew rations for thirty-nine men, sixty-one of the number having died.
The following inspection report of General John II. Winder, made to the
Confederate Secretary of War, December 13, 1864, gives an insight into
the condition of the Salisbury Military prison as known to the heads of
their so-called government at that time.
December 13, 1864.
Headquarters Prison East of the Mississippi,
Salisbury, N. C.
I have the honor to report that, having inspected at Florence, S. C., from whence my
last communication was dated I proceed where I uo\v am.
I am sorry to say I fear I shall be detained some days as I find an unpleasant state
of things among the officers. Indeed I fear I shall be obliged to assume command of the
post for a short time, but this I shall not do unless forced to do it.
In my communication from Florence I spoke of the unfitness of both place and this as
sites for prisoners.
I will uow state at some length the reason why I hold that opinion. The site at this
place is very objectionable for six reasons, either of which I think conclusive.
1. There is a scarcity of water, as the wells fail and cannot afford a sufficient supply
for the number of prisoners even now here.
2. There is not nor can there be a place for sinks, as there is no stream, and the
sinks have to be dug inside, or if outside could only be removed a few feet. The stench
is insupportable both to the prisoners and the people in the vicinity.
3. The soil is entirely unfit for a prison, being stiff, sticky clay, and after a slight
rain is over shoe-tops in mud, without a dry spot within the enclosure.
4. The prison is immediately within the town, and defences could not be erected
without destroying much property, and could not be defended, when erected on account
of the proximity to the buildings, which if tried would drive out the garrison. In the
last outbreak one of the three shots fired struck the principal hotel in the town.
5. Experience has proved that proximity to a town is extremely objectionable and in
6. Wood is so distant that it is next to impossible to keep up a sufficient supply and
the expense is enormous. Thirty-nine wagons and teams are required, and then only a
58 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
scant supply furnished to prison and guard. One hundred cords per day are required for
troops and prison, which at $20.00 per cord is $60,000.00 per month or $720,000.00 per
In a month the saving would probably cover the expense of purchase. On the land
proposed to be purchased the tups of the trees used for a stockade and the wood already
on the ground would serve the post for more than a year.
Two raids have been reported, by the enemy, whicn would indicate a disposition on
the part of the enemy to operate against the prisons.
Having said this much by way of objection to the present site, I would make this
further suggestion, that the property here at Salisbury, on which the prison is erected,
be sold for $150,000.00. It cost originally $15,000.00 in bonds. This would pay for
another tract and all the workshops to employ usefully, for our benefit, the labor of
The ratio of mortality at Salisbury and Florence exceeds, I think, that at Anderson-
I feel satisfied that, if authorized to carry out the above suggestions, I could by that
means relieve the confederacy of all expense connected therewith even perhaps to feeding
JOHN H. WINDER,
General S. Cooper, Adjutant General,
The following extracts are from the report of Major T. W. Hall, Inspector General.
"A memorandum statement of Major Morfit, Prison Quartermaster accompanying this
report shows the amount of fuel received and due the prisoners from January 1, to
February 15, 18G5. That they have not received the full amount due them during
a season of more than ordinary inclemency."
"I think it chargeable more probably to want of energy on the part of the post
Quartermaster, Capt. J. M. Goodman than to any other cause. Both Major Gee and
Major Morfit profess to consider the actual supply sufficient, but in this they are
mistaken. The proximity of the prison to railroads affords every facility for obtaining
a supply of fuel, which can be deposited in any quantity needed within less than one
hundred yards of the prison and unloaded and transported by the labor of the prisoners
"One of the most painful features connected with the prison is the absence of ade
quate provision or accomodatiou for the sick. There is no separate hospital enclosure,
but with a few exceptions, as will be seen from my report, all the buildings in the
prison yard are used as hospitals."
The number of sick in the hospital, February 15th was five hundred forty-six. There
was entire absence of hospital comforts, bedding, necessary utensils, etc. The reason as
signed on the occasion of my first visit (Feb. 1st), was that it was useless to supply
these articles, as no guard was kept inside the prison yard, and they would inevitably
be stolen. Surgeon John Wilson, Jr., the medical officer at present in charge, is en
deavoring to supply these deficiencies, and has made several improvements, but much
remains to be done. There are bunks for not more than one-half of the sick; the rest
lie upon the floor or ground, with nothing over them but a little straw, which on Feb
ruary 16th had not been changed for four weeks. For a period of nearly one month in
December and January, the hospitals, were without straw. There is no excuse for this
as straw could be obtained in abundance at any time from the fact that I found thirty
animals standing idle in Capt. Goodman s stable which 1 ordered turned over for this
"The cxesesive rate of mortality, as shown by the prison returns, merits attention."
"Out of 10,321 prisoners of war received October 5, 1864, according to the Surgeon s
report 2,918 have died, a less period by sixteen days 3,479 have been buried. The dis
crepancy is explained by the fact that in addition to the deaths in the hospital, a num
ber die daily in their quarters, without the knowledge of the surgeons and without re
ceiving attention from them." This discrepancy, which in December amounted to 223,
and in January to 192 had diminished in February. The actual number of deaths, out
side of the hospital, during that period would show little falling off from the number
in previous months. Although diseases of the bowels are most prevalent, the prisoners
appear to die, more from exposure and exhaustion than from actual disease."
"Inside of the prison there appears to be no proper system of dicipline or police."
The excuse given by Major Gee, was the want of tools, and through danger of
trusting picks etc., in the hands of the prisoners.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
"The excuse I did not do-m sufficient. Wooden scrapers and brooms with wheelbarrows
can be readily furnished by the prison quartermaster, and would easily answer every
PU TTubsequently brought the matter to the attention of General Bradley T. Johnson
who promised to see that the necessary orders were enforced."
"As respects the question of the condition of the prisoners, I am of the opinion that,
so far as their sufferings have resulted from causes within the control of the government
or its officers they are chargeable."
1. To the unfortunate location of the prison, which is wholly unsuitable for the pur
^ TO the want of administrative capacity, proper energy and effort of the quarter
master s department, charged with the duty of supplying the prison. To attempt an exact
apportionment of the blame between Major Gee, Major Morfit, and Capt. J. SI. Goodman,
would probably be irrelevant to the purpose of this report. Having had occasion ir
inspection of the post of Salisbury to examine the affairs of these officers. I cannot i
that I consider either sufficient in their present positions.
Yours very respectfully,
T. W. HALL,
A. A. & I. G.
General S. Cooper,
A. & I General C. S. A.
H 4 Salisbury, N. C., February 17, 18G3, Captain T. W. Hall, Assistant Adjutant
and Inspector General. Report of inspection of the Confederate States Military Prison,
Salisbury, N. C. instituted under special instructions from Adjutant General s office,
including letter of Governor Vance.
This report reflects upon the prison and post quartermaster at Salisbury, . C. In
such manner as to call for further action.
If the report be correct, they should at least be removed to positions of less re
By command of Secretary of War,
SAMUEL W. MELTON,
A. A. G.
REPORT OF SURGEON IN CHARGE.
"A number of deaths among federal prisoners in January 1S65."
In hospital _
Number of deaths in quarters January 1S65,
Number of deaths in hospital from Feb. 1, to 13, 1865 195
Number of deaths in quarters from Feb. 1, to 13, 18C5, 80
On the ISth of February 1SG5 General Bradley T. Johnson in command at Salisbury re
ports among other things, as follows:
On the 1st of February Dr. Wilson, prison Surgeon made a requisition for 10,000 pounds
of straw ; also one hundred bunks. Up to the 12th of February he hud received 800 pounds
of stray and no bunks; the sick prisoners therefore lie on the bare ground,
and from the 1st to the 31st of January seven hundred and thirty-two (732) of them
died. From February 1st to 13th two hundred and seventy-five (275) died out of 5,500,
the number on hand.
It is proper to state that Captain Goodman, the post quartermaster s excuse
furnishing fuel is that transportation on the railroad has been interrupted. For t
same reason he alleges he could not get lumber to make bunks; and the straw, he says, he
could not get. This country abounds in the latter article. For a country as full of
wood as this, energy and industry would have formed a depot to provide for such con
His main employment is to furnish these troops and the prisoners, and the rest
of the country are abundant in labor and material to furnish everything requisite.
I have waited for two months in hopes that I could remedy these evils, but my
authority over staff officers, being only as inspector under General orders No. 48, I am
powerless. I. therefore, urgently and respectfully ask that he be relieved at once, the
evils are pressing and need instant remedy.
00 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
This force is more than ample to tlo everything necessary to be done if properly
managed. I cannot be responsible for the troops committed to my charge and the lives
and safe keeping of prisoners, without a change is made in this office and this officer re
BRADLEY T. JOHNSON,
Brigadier General, W. M. Gardner,
Governor Vance of North Carolina, afterwards United States Senator,
wrote the Confederate Secretary of War, as follows:
State of North Carolina,
Raleigh, February 1, 1865.
Dear Sir: I beg leave to call your attention to the condition of the Federal prisoners of
war at Salisbury, N. C.
Accounts reach me of the most distressing character in regard to their suffering and
destitution. I earnestly request you 10 have the matter inquired into, and, if in our
power to relieve them that it be done.
If hey are willfully left to suffer when you can avoid it, it would be not only a blot on
our humanity, but woud lay us open to a severe retaliation. I know how staighteued our
means are, however, and will cast no Maine upon any one without further information.
Z. B. VANCE,
Hon. .7. A. Seddon,
Secretary of War.
It will thus be seen that the so-called confederacy was well supplied with
inspection oflicers, who together with other staff officers made frequent reports
of the condition and treatment of prisoners of war to the various departments
of their War Department where they were referred from one office to another,
until finally lost sight of in some pigeon-hole, and that was the last heard of
them, until resurrected among the captured rebel archives.
History furnishes no nobler example of heroism than is shown in the
readiness with which the Union prisoners met death in its most dreaded foims,
and spurned the guilty bribes of liberty and life offered by their jailors.
When death was reaping a ghastly harvest and more than a hundred a day
were borne out of these death pens, there was a standing offer of liberty
to those who would renounce their allegiance to their country. Among the
Union prisoners were skilled workmen of every trade, whose services as
mechanics were eagerly desired by the Confederate authorities, and were
sought on assurances of freedom, good pay, shelter, food and all bodily
A beggarly corporal s guard only were induced, in all those fearful months
to yield to the tempters, out of the thousands of capiives held. Amid all
this suffering and despair there was no faltering in their love for the
Union, or a whisper of diminished faith in the ultimate triumph of our
cause. Unconquerable love and faith amid these scenes of horror and suf
fering was the crowning glory of the Union prisoners.
Dr. Valentine Mott, of New York, the formost surgeon of his time,
who expired on hearing the tidings of the assassination of President Lincoln,
whose f-riend he was, declared before a Committee of Congress, that in the
active practice of his profession as a physician and surgeon, covering a
period of over fifty years, and accustomed as he was to witnessing human
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY. <J1
suffering in all its most painful phases, none of the scenes witnessed iu his
personal or professional life could begin to compare with the condition in
which he found the released prisoners of Salisbury, N. C., Andersonville,
Ga., and Florence, S. C.
GUESTS PRESENT AT THE DEDICATION CEREMONIES.
Governor W. W. Kitchin and staff, lion. Lee S. Overman, Salisbury, N.
C., Hon. Edwin C. Gregory, Salisbury, N. C., Hon. E. R. Overman, Salis
bury, N. C., General Julian S. Carr, Durham, N. C., Dr. John Whitehead,
Salisbury, N. C., Hon. L. II. Clement, Salisbury, N. C., Hon. Theo. F.
Kluttz, Salisbury, N. C., Hon. T. C. Linn, Salisbury, N. C., Hon. A. L.
Smoot, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. W. B. Stachan, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. O. W.
Spencer, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. T. W. Brown, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. T. J.
Jeorme, Salisbury, N. C., Dr. W. B. TrantUau, Salisbury, N. C., Mr.
E. B. Neave, Salisbury, N. C., Dr. W. L. Crump, Salisbury, N. C., Cap
tain W. C. Coughenour, Salisbury, N. C., Hon. Walter Murphy, Salisbury,
N. C., Mr. C. R. Barker, Salisbury, N. C,, Mr. P. B. Beard, Salisbury,
N. C., Mr. W. F. Snider, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. W. S. Blackuier, Salisbury,
N. C., Mr. J. D. Norwood, Salisbury, N. C., Dr. R. V. Brawley, Salisbury,
N. C., Mr. Theo. Buerbaum, Salisbury, N. C,, Rev. Byron Clark, Salisbury
N. C., lion. Burton Craige, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. O. D. Davis, Salisbury,
N. C., Rev. M. M. Kinard, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. J. M McKenzie, Salis
bury, N. C., Rev. S. B. Turrentine, Salisbury, N. C., Mr. T. H. Vander-
ford, Sr., Salisbury, N. C., Mr. Walter H. Woodson, Salisbury, N. C.,
Rev. W. B. Dutters, Salisbury, N. C., C. C. Adams, Salisbury, N. C., Mr.
John D. Brown, Raleigh, N. C.
GUESTS PRESENT FROM PENNSYLVANIA.
Gov. Edwin S. Stuart, Ilarrisburg, Pa., Lieut. Gov. Robert S. Murphyy,
Johnstown, Pa., Mrs. Robert S. Murphy, Johnstown, Pa., General Thomas
J. Stewart, Ilarrisburg, Pa., Mrs. Thomas J. Stewart, Ilarrisburg, Pa.,
Col. Horace L. Ilaldeman, Chickies, Pa., Col. Frank Patterson, Pittsburgh,
Pa., Col. Lewis L. Brown, Atlantic City, N. J., Lieut. Col. James M. Reid,
Connellsville, Pa., Lieut. Col. Walter L. Bradley, Philadelphia, Pa.,
Lieut. Col. Lewis E. Beitler, Philadelphia, Pa., Lieut. Col. Fred Taylor
Pusey, Lansdowne, Pa., Lieut. Col. Chas. A. Rook, Pittsburgh, Pa., Lieut.
Col. J. Warner Hutching, Philadelphia, Pa., Lieut. Col. John R. Wiggins,
Philadelphia, Pa., William Stewart, Scotland, Pa., John F. Cox, Home
stead, Pa., Edward F. Blewitt, Scranton, Pa., Rev. J. W. Sayers, Phila-
62 PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
delphia, Pa., L. W. Moore, Commander Dept. of Penn a G. A. R., Phila
delphia, Pa., Chas. A. Suydam, Philadelphia, Pa., Bennie Strause, Har
risburg, Pa., John H. Reibel, Philadelphia, Pa., Hon. Jas. F. Woodward,
McKeesport, Pa., E. C. Dewey, Harrisburg, Pa., Hon. David Wilbert!
Pittsburgh, Pa., Archibald C. Millar, Ilarrisburg, Pa., Mrs. Archibald G
Millar, Harrisburg, Pa., Thomas M. Jones, Ilarrisburg, Pa!, A. Boyd
Hamilton, Harrisburg, Pa., Willis G. Newbold, Ilarrisburg, Pa., Chas C.
Miller, Harrisburg. Pa., John M. Bonbright, Harrisburg, Pa., William
Simpson, Oliphant, Pa., Mrs. William Simpson, Oliphant, Pa., Stephen
Toole, Pittsburgh, Pa., J. Denny O Neil, Pittsburgh, Pa., John A. Fair-
man, Pittsburgh, Pa., I. K. Campbell", Pittsburgh, Pa., R. J. Cunningham,
Pittsburgh, Pa., Captain John C. Delaney, Harrisburg, Pa., Mrs. John O.
Delaney, Harrisburg, Pa., Dr. M. L. Jones, Pittsburgh, Pa., Mrs. J. Sharp
McDonald, Sewickley, Pa., Miss Sylvia Rosensteel, Sewickley, Pa.
Mrs. William H. Bricker, Carlisle, Pa., Miss Caroline Fishburne, Car
lisle, Pa., Captain William Ziegler, Gettysburg, Pa., Mrs. William Ziegler,
Gettysburg, Pa., Mrs. John N. Speel, Washington, D. C., Mrs James D.
Walker, Pittsburgh, Pa., Miss Helen H. Walker, Pittsburgh, Pa., Miss
Dorothy D. Walker, Pittsburgh, Pa., Col. Joseph K. Weaver, Norristown,
Pa., Major John H. Duvall, Wayne, Pa., Austin Curtin, Curtin Centre,
Pa., Miss Marie H. Fairman, Pittsburgh, Pa., J. Harry Halcomb, Phila
delphia, Pa., Col. Robert S. Beath, Philadelphia, Pa., Lieut. Col. Wm.
J. Elliot, Philadelphia, Pa., General Wm. G. Price, Philadelphia, Pa., Hon.
Gabriel H. Moyer, Lebanon, Pa., Sergt. William L. Hicks, Harrisburg,
Pa., Sergt. Leo. Luttringer, Harrisburg, Pa., D. H. Ellinger, Harrisburg,
Souvenir Badge Presented to Survivors and Guests by the
ROSTER OF APPLICATION FOR
^Trangportatton to ^afelmrp, ^orti) Carolina,
UNDER PROVISIONS OF ACT OF ASSEMBLY,
APPROVED MAY 13, 1909
ROSTER OF APPLICATIONS FOR
Transportation to Salisbury, North Carolina.
Annhurst, Henry B.,
Barnes, Hugh G.,
Box 415, Greausburg,
R. F. D. No. 4, Delta,
Darlington Beaver Co
Bash, Michael, _.
Bateman, Joseph P., _
4th Cav ly...
Box 565, Apollo, Arm
Park Ave & 6th St Ty
Beck, Emanuel H.,
rone, Blair Co.
1527 N 13th St Philadel
*Bidwell, John W.,
phia, Philadelphia Co.
Arlington Wayne Co
*Billet, William H.,
2425 N. 18th St., Phila
*Black, Robert P.,
delphia, Philadelphia Co.
R. F. D. No. 77, Chicora,
R. F. D. No 1, Reading,
Bookman, John N
838 Blunston St Colum
Bowen, John C., ...
bia, Lancaster Co.
2144 Van Pelt St Phila
Bowen, Levi A.,
delphia, Philadelphia Co.
New Cumberland, Cum
Bricker, David, __ _.
528 Curtin St., Harris-
Bricker, Peter D
Br inker, Amos A.,
Sergt . ,
13th Cav ly,..
burg, Dauphin Co.
Jersey Shore, Lycoming
Box 154, Greensburg
Brown, Jacob H.,
Burkholder, Samuel C.,_
New Cumberland, Cum
132 Water St., Butler,
Campbell, George A.,
227 Erie Ave Richland
Campbell, Irwin K.,
Center, Bucks Co.
204 Lytton Ave., Pitts
Campbell Patrick H
burgh, Allegheny Co.
Welles Bldg Wilkes-
Carpenter. David B., ...
Barre, Luzerne Co.
Park Avenue, Roaring
Spring, Blair Co.
2202 7th Ave., Altoona,
Warriors Mark, Hunting
Clark, Thomas E.,
Coleman, Thomas L., ..
Opera House Bldg. , Clear-
field, Clearfleld Co.
R. F. D. No. 1, Tyrone,,
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
Corbin, B. F., _
*Cornman, B. F., _
Cook, Washington I., __
R. F. D. No. 3, Hunting
don, Huntingdon Co.
52 E. Penn St., Carlisle,
Box 22, Wesley ville, Eric
*Chambers, George H.,_
*Davis, Orlando L. t
Harrisburg, Dauphin Co.
Hooper, Broome Co., New
*Dempsey, Richard A.,__
27 Petorlia St., Bradford,
Dennis, James I.,
Wigton, Clearfleld Co.
408 N. 5th St., Reading,
*Dickey, Aaron F.,
61 N. Main St., Somerset,
Parkers Landing, Arm
Dietrick, Jacob R.,
Millerstown, Perry Co.
Monroeton Bradford Co
Eakin, William R.,
R. F D No 2 Box 30
Eberhart, James W., ._
Tyrone, Blair Co.
14 E. Stockton Ave.,
Erwin, John P.,
1512 Penn A.ve Pitts
burgh, Allegheny Co.
Wiuburn Clearfleld Co
Fenlin Thomas F.,
2037 N. 18th St., Philadel
Filler, W. B., __ _
phia, Philadelphia Co.
Rainsburg, Bedford Co.
Berlin, Somerset Co
Forrey Joseph F
4918 Cedar Ave Philadel-
Frazier, George W.,
phia, Philadelphia Co.
Gill, Samuel W., _
Grafton, Huntingdon Co.
Ginter Henry C.,
654 W. King St., York,
Glenn, John W.,
66th & 73rd
Spring City, Chester Co.
Goodyear, Jacob M.,
301 S. Hanover St , Car
lisle, Ci mberJand Co.
5437 Chestnut St., "Fhila-
Harris, John H.
delph a, Philadephia Co.
Uniontown, Fayette Co.
*Harrison. Newell S., _~
R. F. D. No. 3, Box 50,
Heffley, Cyrus P.,
2nd T ieut
14 9 nd
New Milford, Susque-
5637 Northumberand Ave.,
R F D No 3 Pine
Grove, Schuylkill Co.
SchaefTerstown I ebanon
Houseman, James T., ..
Huffman, William H., _.
717 N. 18th St., Harris-
burg, Dauphin Co.
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
West Baltimore St.,
B. F. D. No. 1, Ring-
town, Schuylkill Co.
4753 liberty Ave. , Pitts
burgh, Allegheny Co.
Market St., Mt. Union,
144 E. Charles Ave.,
323 Grand St., Lewistown,
559 Highland Ave., Johns
town, Cambria Co.
Logantown, Clinton Co.
R. F. D. No. 1, Spring
City, Chester Co.
Ickesburg, Perry Co.
Railroad St., Catawissa,
252 N. Main St., Cham-
bersburg, Franklin Co.
R. F. D. No. 2, Red Lion,
4823 Walton Ave., Phila
delphia, Philadelphia Co.
St. Petersburg, Clarion
R. F. D. No. 1, Susque-
Jones, William B.,
107th, .- ..
Keeley John W.,
*Kell, James, _
12th Cav ly,.
*Kibler Charles T.,
2nd Battl n
109th U. S.
C. Inf t.
Kimes, Jesse B., _
; 1st Lieut., .
hanna, Susquehanna Co.
Saginaw, York Co.
Hustontown, Fulton Co.
10 Plum Place, Scranton,
Apollo, Armstrong Co.
Kylertown, Clearfleld Co.
507 W. Venango St.,
Ringtown, Schuylkill Co.
Muir, Schuylkill Co.
413 Quincy Ave., Scran-
ton, Lackawanna Co.
McVeytown, Mifflin Co.
Carlisle, Cumberland Co.
1669 Unity St., Philadel
phia, Philadelphia Co.
R. F. D. No. 4, Union-
town, Fayette Co.
New Stanton, Westmore
West Decatur, Clearfleld,
119 Front St., Marietta,
602 9th St., Irwin, West
I aulTer John
22nd Cav ly,.
Lewis, Marshall H., ....
*Mercereau, Charles, __.
Mertz, William H.,
Moore, Isaac A.,
Myers, Joseph W.,
McGuir, Robert B.,
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
R. F. D. No. 3, Darling
Nunamaker. James Q.. _
Parsons, O. A., _
ton, Beaver Co.
49 Wilson Ave., Pitts
burgh, N. S., Allegheny
221 N. Main St., Wilkes-
*Penfleld Elijah S.,
2nd Cav ly
Barre, Luzerne Co.
R. F. D. No. 35, Con-
Pentz, Henry C., __
neautville, Crawford Co.
650 W. Philadelphia St.,
Pierce, Edwin W.,
York, York Co.
1429 Berryhill St., Harris-
burg, Dauphin Co.
Pine Grove, Schuylklll Co.
Reed, William L
129 Bausman St., Pitts
Reynolds, Tilton C.,
burgh, Allegheny Co.
713 N. Second St.. Har-
risburg, Dauphin Co.
2415 Ninth Ave., Beaver
*RIngrose, Ellis, _
24th H Ar
Falls, Beaver Co.
Espy, Columbia Co.
Roberts, Daniel, _._
Johnsonburg Elk Co
405 Reily St Harrlsburg
Rupert, Samuel, _
Mun St., West Freedom,
"Ruth, Samuel F.,
113 Church St South
Schall, John B. f
205 S. Main St.. Lewis-
"Sheriff, Charles F
town, Mifflin Co.
306 W. North Ave Pitts
Shilling, Samuel, .
burgh, N. S., Allegheny
Ringgold, Jefferson Co.
Shindler, Henry C.,
321 Walnut St York
Shimer, Isaac, . .
llth Cav lv
15 Main St Bangor
12th Cav ly
Race St Highspire Dau
606 Third St., Juniata,
Snyder, Daniel, .
Selinsgrove, Snyder Co.
Snyder, G. W., .. ..
"Snyder, James P., _
3 N East St Carlisle
1409 Shady Ave Pitts
*Stabl. WUllam N.,
Stair, George O.,
2nd H. Artil
2nd H. Artil
burgh, Allegheny Co.
336 Hummel St.. Harris-
burg, Dauphin Co.
Light St., East Blooms-
burg, Columbia Co.
281 E King St York
PENNSYLVANIA AT SALISBURY.
New Stanton, Westmore
131 W. Heigh St., Gettys
burg, Adams Co.
1837 N. 6th St., Harris-
Stover, Philip D.,
burg, Dauphin Co.
835 E. Philadelphia St.,
York, York Co.
286 Ridge Ave., Kingston,
Villa Nova, Delaware Co.
Sweigard, Joseph B.,
915 Mellon St., Philadel
phia, Philadelphia Co.
6 Hale St., Lewistown,
1029 Fernen St., Philadel
phia, Philadelphia Co.
Selinsgrove, Snyder Co.
*Vantine, Abraham H.,_
2nd Art ly, ..
535 E. Ninth Ave., Taren-
tum, Allegheny Co.
Lock Box No. 96, Hop-
wood, Fayette Co.
Fayette City, Fayette Co.
Walter Charles F.,
Halifax, Dauphin Co.
430 Sixth Ave., Altoona,
Wannop Alfred B
3320 N. llth St., Philadel
Watson Samuel B
phia, Philadelphia Co.
. 29 Ashley St., Ashley,
338 N. Court Ave., York,
R. F. D. No. 1, Berwick,
13th Cav ly, _
1406 E. Allegheny St., Hol-
lidaysburg, Blair Co.
Gibson, Susquehanna Co.
P. O. Box 446, New Cum
Ziegler, Edwin E.,
berland, Cumberland Co.
1404 Main St., Sharpsburg,
*Not present at dedicatory ceremonies.
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